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Full text of "The eggs of European birds"

TEE EGOS 
of 

BIR7)S 



MJRDAllS 



June 21, 1957 



Not to "be l)OTmd Tjecause the following- 
plates were found missing -by the Library: 



26 54-67 

29 70-71 

34 73-86 
41-52 



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■ III J llll i II I 1 II II 




SUBSCRIPTIONS FOR THE COMPLETE WORK ONLY RECEIVED. PART I. 

675 

f^i THE EGGS 

OF 

EUROPEAN BIRDS< 

/ 

BY THE 

REV. FRANCIS V. R. JOURDAIN, 

M. A., M. B. 0. U. 



TO BE COMPLETED IN ABOUT 10 PARTS, 

CONTAINING ABOUT 140 COLOURED PLATES 

BY A. REICHERT AND THE AUTHOR. 



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GERA-ITNTERMHAIJS. 

FR. EUGEN KOHLER. 
1906. 



\ 



Notice to Subscribers. 

Tn the present work the author, after much consideration, has decided to 
follow the recommendations of the Fifth International Zoological Congress 
with regard to nomenclature. While fully aware of the inconvenience 
caused to those who have become accustomed to the names most commonly 
in use among English naturalists, he is convinced that this drawback is 
outweighed by the advantage of adopting the same system of nomenclature 
which is in use among almost all other civilized nations. After all, the 
main use of scientific nomenclature is to provide a common language for 
scientists of all nations, and this can only be done by all agreeing to 
accept one code of rules. For this reason the Tenth Edition of Linnaeus has 
been adopted as the original standpoint instead of the Twelfth, although the 
writer's personal preference would be for the latter work, as embodying 
the matured judgment of the great Swedish naturalist. 

With regard to the recognition of geographical races, now that the 
various forms of all the Pala?arctic species are being worked out by 
Dr. Hartert in his work on the Birds of the Palsearctic Fauna, it becomes 
for the first time possible to extend this study to the Oology of the Birds 
of Europe. Hither to the usual practice among British naturalists has 
been to elevate our local races to the rank of species (as in the case the 
Motacilke and Pari), while at the same time entirely ignoring many equally 
well marked continental races. For the nomenclature of these forms the 
trinomial system has been adopted, as clearer and less open to confusion 
than the binomial systems of Dr. Sharpe and Mr. Dresser. Possibly some 
of the forms mentioned in this work may be thought scarcely sufficiently 
well defined to require subdivision, and this may eventually prove to be 
the case; but great care has been taken to avoid the lumping together of 
statistics which apply to distinct races. 

For purposes of measurement the millimetre has been adopted as the Measure- 
unit, in order to facilitate comparison with the statistics in continental ^^^ 
works, and as being now in general use for scientific purposes. It should weights 
be noted that the breadth of an egg is usually subject to much less 
variation than the length, and is therefore a more reliable test. Where 
sufficient material has been accessible a series of not fewer than 100 eggs 



IV 

of each form has been measured by the writer, or statistics compiled from 
thoroughly reliable sources. The weight, though a very variable factor, is 
useful in combination with statistics of size, and its value has been under- 
rated by English naturalists. In this connection Gobel's tables in the 
Zeitschr. f. Ool. are important, though unfortunately misprints are not 
unknown. At present the statistics on the weight of the full egg are too 
scanty for us to estimate their value. 

It is with much pleasure that the author is able to announce that 
arrangements have been made to figure thoroughly identified specimens of 
many rare eggs. Among these we may mention Whitehead s Nuthatch, 
Riippell's Warbler, La Marmora's Warbler, the Knot, etc. 

Addenda et Corrigenda to Part I. 

p. 5. C. corax laurencei Hume has been shown by 0. Reiser {Ornis Bal- 
canica, III, p. 255) to occur in the eastern part of the Greek archipelogo. 

p. 20. P. pica mauritanica Malh. The breeding season extends from 
March to May. 

p. 23. Nucifraga caryocatactes (L.). Reiser has recorded a single 
clutch of 5 eggs from Bosnia, Mar. 22, 1904 {Zeitschr. f. Ool. 1904, p. 13). 
For notes on the nesting of this bird in Hungary see Aquila 1894, p. 48. 

p. 31, 1. 11 from below. For 'Sicily' read 'Brittany'. In Sicily the 
Chough only breeds on the mountains inland. 



CORYIDAE. 

1. Rayen, Corvus corax L. 

Plate 1, fig. 1 (Kiev, Russia, 13 Mar. 77), 2 (Pomerania, 5 Apr. 92), 3 (Kiev), 
4, 5 (Peltrouomi, 16 Apr. 91), 7 (Karlo, 13 Apr. 89), 8 (Kiev). Plate 26, 

fig. 1 (N. Cornwall, Mar.). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXIX, fig. 1, a — e. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. LXIX; II. Ed. I, pi. XLVIII; III. Ed. I, pi. LVII. Baedeker, 
Tab. 34, fig. 3, 4. Taczanowski, Tab. XXXVII, fig. 1. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, 
pi. 16; id. Col. Fig., pi. 55. Frohawk, Brit. Birds, II, pi. VII, fig. 229—232. 

British Local Names: Corbie Crow, Great Corbie Croiv. Welsh: 
Cigfran. Manx : Feeagh. Erse : Feacli dhuv, Bran. Scotland : Corbie. 
Gaelic: Fitlieach, Biadhtach. Orkneys: Corbie, Kroot. 

Foreign Names: Bosnia: Gavran. Bohemia: Krkavec. Denmark: 
Bavn. Finland: Korppi, Kaarne. France: Corbeau, Grand Corbeau, Cro, 
Croc. Germany : Kolkrabe, Steinrabe, Babe. Greece : Kbrax, Kbrkorax. 
Helgoland: Groot Boab. Holland: Baaf. Hungary: Hollo. Italy: Corvo 
imperiale, Corvo maggiore, Corbatt. Lapland : Pultokas, Karanas, Bolffan. 
Luxemburg: Bamm, Bof, Bemmkuob, Schaak. Norway: Bavn, Korp. Poland: 
Kri(k wlasciivy. Russia: Woron, Kernesh. Sweden: Korp, Bavn, Bam. 

Corvus corax L, Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 567 ; Newton, ed. 
Yarrell, II, p. 259 ; Saunders, Manual, p. 241 ; Dresser, Man. Pal, Birds, 
p. 423. C. corax corax L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 2. 

Breeding Range: North and Middle Europe: Norway, Sweden, 
Denmark, Russia, the British Isles, France, Holland, Germany, Switzerland, 
Austro-Hungary, Italy and the Balkan peninsula. (Hartert regards the Ravens 
of the Faroes, the Iberian peninsula. North-west Africa, the Canaries and 
Sardinia as subspecifically distinct, while the Greek forms have not yet 
been thoroughly investigated and the Iceland birds belong to the form 
C. corax principalis Ridgw.) 

In England the Raven is now almost exterminated, although fairly British 
numerous 50 or 60 years ago, except on those parts of the coast where ^^'^^' 
high cliffs are to be found, such as the Cornwall and Devon coast, and in 
mountainous districts, such as the Cumbrian HiUs and some spots in the 

1 



Pennine range. In Wales perhaps some sixty pairs still breed; and in the 
Isle of Man, Scotland, the Hebrides, Orkneys, Shetlands and St. Kilda it is 
not uncommon and in some districts plentiful. In Ireland it has now become 
scarce, except on the west coast. Formerly it was generally distributed 
over the British Isles, breeding not only in rocks and cliffs where available, 
but also in lofty trees. At the present time nearly all our resident birds 
nest in rocks, but interesting details of tree-breeding birds in Suffolk and 
Essex will be found in Ootheca Wolleyana, p. 518 and the Zoologist, 
1867, p. 599. 
Con- Qq \\-^q Continent a few pairs still breed in Holland where large 

Europe, timber exists. In Germany the Raven has become rare, and is now chiefly 
found in the forests of the North German plain, especially in Schleswig- 
Holstein, Hannover, Oldenburg, Rhein-Hessen, Nassau, Westphalia, Pome- 
rania and East Prussia. It nests in the forests of Jutland and is not 
uncommon in Austro-Hungary. In Scandinavia it is found breeding both 
on rocks and in trees, and is numerous in some parts, flocks of 20 to 
50 and even 70 being occasionally met with on the northern coasts: 
in Russia it is also widely distributed, but commonest near the sea-shore. 
In the Balkan peninsula it is numerous, even haunting the towns, and is 
generally distributed in the Alps, breeding in lofty pines as well as rocks: 
as also in the Apennines. 
Neat. Where the nest is placed among crags, a site is usually chosen 

which is well overhung by rock and in consequence is generally difficult 
of access. In many cases alternative sites are used, but sometimes the same 
spot is occupied year after year. On sea cliffs or rocks inland the nest is 
a very bulky structure, built of good sized sticks, heather or furze stems 
etc., well lined with wool, cow or deer hair and grass [Scirpus]^ while 
old rags and bits of paper are sometimes used. The cup is about 10 inches 
across and 5 or 6 inches deep. After the young have been some time in 
the nest, it becomes very conspicuous from the whitewash which covers 
it. In flat countries high trees are usually chosen and the nest is decidedly 
smaller and more compact. In rare instances ruinous buildings have been 
utilized (See Ussher, Birds of Ireland, p. 93; Ootheca Wolleyana, p. 514; 
Clarke and Roebuck, Feri. Fauna of Yorks., p. 36; Hancock, Birds of 
Northumbenand and Durham, p. 32). In Russia it is said to nest frequently 
in church towers and even on houses. 

The eggs, which are laid on consecutive days, are usually 4 to 6 
Eggs, or 7 in number. Complete clutches consisting of 3 eggs only are probably 
the produce of old hens whose reproductive powers are failing. If the 
first clutch is taken, another is deposited after an interval of 10 days and 
this has been known to take place three or four times: but the Raven is 
naturally single-brooded. The usual types of colouring are illustrated in 



the Plate: but eggs with a clear blue ground (as in C. corone and C. comix) 
are not infrequently found, sometimes almost without markings, at other 
times boldly blotched with very dark brown, almost black. Professor 
Newton has a very remarkable clutch of 4 eggs, received from Unst (Shet- 
lands) in 1854, which have "a cream-coloured or pale flesh-coloured ground, 
blotched with reddish brown or pale lavender". 

The time of laying is remarkably early: in the south of England from Breeding 
the last week in February to about March 15 is the usual time. In Wales Season, 
the shore breeding birds nest decidedly earlier than those in the hills — 
full clutches from mid-February to early March on the coast, while in the 
hills about the middle of March is the best time. On the Irish coast 
Ussher has found young as early as March 16 and in the Shetlands most 
eggs are laid in mid-April (Saxby). The eggs are hatched 18 or 19 days 
from laying of last egg (Evans). 

On the Continent the breeding season varies with the latitude and 
elevation. In Germany eggs may be obtained from mid-March to early 
April (exceptionally as early as March 4): in northern Scandinavia from 
mid- April to early May. In the Balkan peninsula from mid-March to the 
end of April. 

British and Scandinavian eggs are larger than those from the plains Measure- 
of mid-Europe. Average of 79 British eggs 49.8 x 33.5 mm., of 44 Scan- "'ents. 
dinavian eggs 48.8 X 34.3 mm., 31 eggs from Germany and mid Russia 
average 48.16 X 33.48 mm. Mean average of 154 eggs, 49.19 X 33.73 mm.. 
Max. 63 X 34.5 (Sutherland) and 44 X 40 mm. (Sweden, C. A. Westerlund), 
Min. 42.5 X 29 mm. (Russia, Gobel). A dwarf egg from Norway measures 
39 X 29 mm. (Newton coll.). 

Average weight of 13 British eggs 1.893 g. (Jourdain); of 17 Nor- 
wegian 2.171 g., varying from 1.75 to 2.48 g. (Lilliestierna). Mean average 
(30 eggs) 2.051 g. Gobel gives as average of 6 full eggs 27.08 g. 

Geographical Races. 

a. N. European Raven, C. eorax corax L. (See above), 
b. Faeroe Raven, C. eorax varius Briinn. 

Local Names: the Fseroes: Ravmir, Korpur, Avujtravnur. Partial 
albino : Qviijtravnur. 

C. corax varius Briinn. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 4. 

Breeding Range: the Faeroes, where it is resident, breeding in the 
sea cliffs. The eggs appear to vary considerably in size: average of 
5 eggs 50.12 X 34.64 mm., Max. 54 x 35.5 and 48 x 36 mm., Min. 
46x33 mm. 

1* 



e. Iceland Raven, C. corax principalis Ridgir. 

Plate 1, Fig. 6 (Greenland). 

Local Names: Hrafn, Krummi. 

Breeding Range: Iceland. [Also Greenland and Labrador to Alaska.] 

In Iceland the eggs, usually 4 — 5 in number, sometimes 3 only in 
second layings, are deposited late in March or more frequently in April 
(Hantzsch). The nest is usually built on the sea cliffs. 

Average of 18 Icelandic eggs 51.75 X 34.8 mm., Max. 57 X 32.3 and 
54.2 X 36.3 mm., Min. 47.5 X 35 and 57 x 32.3 mm. Bendire gives 
49.53 X 34.54 mm. as the average of 39 eggs. Average weight (of 4 eggs) 
1.96 g. (Hantzsch). 

d. Spanish Raven, C. corax hispanns Hart. & Kleinseh. 

Local Names: Portugal: Corvo. Spain: Cuervo, Grajo. 

C. corax hispanus H. & Kl. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 5. 

Breeding Range: the Iberian peninsula, where it is a generally 
distributed resident. It breeds indiscriminately in rocks or trees according 
to the district. Eggs 3 — 7. The time of laying appears to vary con- 
siderably. Saunders saw large young on March 18 at Baza (Granada) and 
describes it as nesting near Malaga in mid-February while Irby says that 
laying begins about mid-March; but in the pine woods of Andalucia, where 
it is common, the great majority of eggs are laid in the last week of April 
or the first week in May. Average (32 eggs) 47.64 x 33.14 mm.. Max. 
54.2 X 35.2 mm., Min. 44 X 33 and 46.3 X 32.2 mm. Average weight 
(12 eggs) 1.935 g.. Max. 2.39 g. 

e. Sardinian Raven, C. corax sardos Kleinseh. 

Local Name: Corvo. 

C. corvus sardus Kl, Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 6. 

Breeding Range: Sardinia, where it is very common, Corsica and 
probably elsewhere in the Mediterranean. Nests chiefly in cliffs, but also in 
the forests and lays 4 — 6 eggs, which are deposited about the end of March 
and early in April (Whitehead). 

Average of 16 eggs from S. Corsica in Tring Museum 46,55 X 32,78 
mm., Max. 59.3X36.5 mm., Min. 44X30.5 mm. 

f. Tangfier or Irby's Raven, C. corax ting'itanus Irhj. 

Local Names: Algeria: VHbrdhh. Marocco: Grdh. Spain: Cuervo. 

Corvus tingitanus Irby. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 563. Corvus 
leptonyx Peale. Id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 425. C. corax tingitanus Irby. Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 6. 



Breeding Range: Possibly a pair or two nest on the coast of 
southern Spain. (Cf. Irby, Ornith. of the Straits of Gibraltar, 2nd Ed., p. 85.) 
[In Africa: Marocco, Algeria, Tunis.] 

Breeds amongst rocks, also on trees and bushes; near Mazagan usually 
on date palms. The nests, sometimes built close to one another, are con- 
structed of sticks, neatly lined with grass and small roots. Eggs 3 — 7: 
usually laid iu the first half of April near Mazagan (Hartert); April 20 near 
Tangier (Irby), but Erlanger andSpatz obtained clutches in Tunis on March 19 
and April 8 — 9. The eggs are smaller than those of typical C. corax, more 
elongated in form, and the ground colour is rather brighter. Average of 
76 eggs from Marocco, Algeria and Tunis (Erlanger 21, Konig 7 and 48 
measured by the author) 47.34 x 32.36 mm.. Max. 54x35.6 and 49X36 mm., 
Min. 42.5x33.1 and 44x30 mm. Average weight of 11 eggs (Konig 7 
and 4 by author) 1.707 g. 

[Notes. In the Sahara, Egypt, southern Palestine, Persia, etc., is found 
the Brown necked Raven, C. corax iimbrinus Sund. Eggs from Egypt are 
decidedly paler and bluer than typical eggs of C. corax. Average of 12 eggs 
44.05X31.26 mm. (Feb. 2 — Mar. 26). The Canarian Raven, C. corax 
canariensis H. & K. is closely allied to C. c. tingitanus. (See Journ. f. 
Ornith. 1890, Tab. VIII, fig. 10.) Average (19 eggs) 48.05x32.17 mm. 

The Fantail Raven, Corvus affinis Riipp. occurs in Palestine, south 
Arabia, Middle and Upper Egypt etc. Eggs as yet undescribed.] 

3. Hooded Crow, Coi'tus cornix L. 

Plate 2, fig. 1 — 7 (Pomerania). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XL, fig. 1, a~g (C. cornix and 
G. corme). Hewitson, 1st Ed. I, pi. XCVII; 2nd Ed. I, pi. XLIX, fig. 2; 
3rd Ed. I, pi. LVm, fig. 2. Baedeker, Tab. 34, fig. 2. Taczanowski, 
Tab. XXVn, fig. 2. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 16; Col. Fig., pi. 55. Frohawk, 
Br. Birds, pi. VE, fig. 237—240. 

Nest: Oswin Lee, III, p. 66. 

British Local Names: England: Royston Crow, Dun-, Norway-, 
Kentish-, Bunting-., Scare- or Orey Croiv. Isle of Man: Qreyhuck. Manx: 
Fannag. Welsh: Bran Hedlyd. Ireland: Grey-hacked Crotv, Scald Grow. 
Erse: Finnoge, Fanoge (phonetic). Scotland: Hoodie Craw, Hoodie, Huddie, 
Grey Craw, Saddleback Craw or Croiv. GaeUc: Frannag. Shetlands and 
Orkneys: Craa, Hoodie Graa. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Vrana. Bosnia and Herzegovina: Gavran. 
Denmark: Krage, Graa Krage. Faeroes: Krdaka {(j^), Krdka ($). Fin- 
land: Varis. France: Corheau mantele, Gorneille mantelee or grise. Fries- 
land: Schiere-krie. Germany: Nehelkrdhe, Mantel- or Graue Krdhe. Greece: 



Korone. Helgoland: Kreih. Holland: Bonte Kraai, Orijze- or Liimmel- 
Kraai. Hungary: Dolmanyos Varju, Varju. Iceland: Krdka. Italy: Cor- 
nacchia higia, Cornaccliia, Taccola, Corronca, Midacchia. Lapland: Vuorox:ds, 
Vuoras. Luxemburg: Grove knoh. Norway: Kraake. Poland: Kruk ivrona. 
Russia: Seraja worona, Woroka. Sweden: Krdka, Ord Krdka, Kajsa. 

Corvus comix L. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 543; Newton, 
ed. Yarrell, II, p. 275; Saunders, Man., p. 245; Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, 
p. 42 L C. comix comix L., Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 9. 

Breeding Range: Common in Norway, Sweden, the whole of European 
Russia, but least numerous in the south-east, the Fgeroes, Scotland, Ireland, 
Denmark, eastern Germany, Austro-Hungary, Majorca and Minorca, Sicily, 
Italy, the Balkan peninsula and the Cyclades (Naxos). 

[West Siberia as far as the Lena, Crete, Cyprus and the countries 
bordering on the eastern Mediterranean are also inhabited by this species, 
and the Sardinian and Persian races are mentioned below.] 
British Ii England a few instances of the breeding of this bird are on 

Isles, record, mostly from the east coast counties (Northumberland, Yorkshire, 
Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Suffolk and perhaps Essex), but occasionally inland, 
as in Warwickshire in 1887. It is a well known resident in the Isle of 
Man, and is generally distributed throughout Ireland and the adjacent 
islands, being especially common in the south-west. In Scotland is fre- 
quently interbreeds with C. corone, but tends to replace it in the north 
and is found in the Hebrides, Orkneys, Shetlands and St. Kilda. Along 
the coast the nest is frequently built on the cliffs, and is as a rule easy 
of access and not overhung by rock like that of C. corax. In treeless 
districts such as North Uist, the nest is often placed on the ground, among 
heather: while low bushes are also utilized where trees are not available, 
and instances are on record where it has been placed on a building (Zool. 
1899, p. 78) or on a crofter's hut (Gray). 
The Con- I^ Scandinavia and the greater part of Russia as far as the forest 

tineiit. limit, it is plentiful, breeding in the pine or birch woods, and is also 
common in Jutland and the Danish Islands, often nesting close to the 
farms. It has once or twice bred in Holland and I have seen a pair on 
Texel at the end of May. In Germany the distribution of this species has 
been carefully worked ont and is well shown on the map which illustrates 
Matschie's paper in the Journal filr Ornithologie for 1887, p. 617 — '648 
(Tab. III). Roughly the western limit of C. comix may be defined by a 
line drawn from the mouth of the Eider, by Neumiinster, Liineburg, Helm- 
stadt, Naumburg and Chemnitz to Pima. A second line from Rostock by 
Wusterhausen, Brandenburg, Luckenwalde and Gorlitz to Zittau defines the 
eastern limit of C. corone, while the space between the two lines in occu- 
pied by both species in varying proportions. In Switzerland this species 



is reported to have bred occassionally, but confirmation is needed. In 
Austro-Hungary it breeds in Bohemia, Austria and Hungary, is common 
in Transylvania and very plentiful and tame in Slavonia. Over the greater 
part of the Balkan peninsula it is generally distributed, chiefly breeding 
in the hills up to 5400 feet, and becoming scarce in Greece, while it has 
been found nesting on Naxos and the neighbouring islets. In Italy, Sicily 
and the Balearic Isles it is a common resident. 

Very similar in construction to that of C. corax, but of course smaller. Nest. 
Nests among rocks are as a rule more bulky and contain more material 
than those in trees. Besides the usual sticks, twigs, furze or heather stems, 
large seaweed stalks are often utilized on the coast, and Saxby mentions 
cases where the foundation of the nest consisted of bones of ponies and 
sheep. Turf is frequently used to fill up interstices, and wool, feathers, paper, 
moss and hair are used as lining material; while the whole is compactly 
built, with the usual warm and deep cup. Over the greater part of its 
range this species is a tree-breeding bird, but along rocky coasts the nest 
is usually placed on a ledge or crevice of the cliff. At Thorshavn (Faeroes) 
it is said to breed on the houses, and where neither trees nor rocks are 
available it nests on the ground among heather, generally close to a stone. 
Pearson found a nest off the Norwegian coast, in a circular iron cage, used 
as a beacon, 1 ^j^ miles from the land ! and Naumann records nests on a 
beam under a bridge, on a dunghill and on the high chimney of an 
old house. 

Usually 4 to 5 or 6 in number, rarely 7, except in Central Hungary Eggs. 
(F. C. Selous), and resembling those of C. corone in character, though the 
ground colour is often of a more decided green and in a large series the 
average size is seen to be rather less. As in the case of C. corax and 
C. corone, the type with a distinct blue ground occurs, often when the rest 
of the clutch are normal in colour. In a series from the Fseroes the pro- 
portion of blue eggs is larger than usual. Occasionally blue eggs are found 
without any markings, but this variety is scarce. A clutch of red eggs of 
this species was taken near Gothenburg, SAveden, on May 12, 1889, and 
is now in Mr, Ramberg's collection. 

In Ireland the eggs are usually laid in April, but in west Cork they Breeding 
have been taken as early as March 15 (Ussher); in Scotland from about season. 
April 20 onwards, but in the Shetlands seldom before mid-May (Saxby). 
In Germany and Denmark eggs may be found from early April, and this 
appears to be the case also in Italy, Greece, Asia Minor etc.; in Montenegro 
from April 14 to 24; but individual birds vary a good deal in this respect 
and though the Hooded Crow is single-brooded it is not uncommon to find 
fresh eggs and well grown young on the same day, even where undisturbed. 
In northern Scandinavia the eggs are frequently not laid till the middle 



8 

or end of May, and on the lower Petschora Seebohm received the first 
eggs on May 30. Period of incubation about 18 or 19 days. 
Measure- Average size of 100 typical examples 41.2x29 mm. (Key). Ab- 

ments. normally long eggs measure 52.7 X 30.2 mm. (Lapland, Newton coll.) and 
52 X 32 mm. (N. Uist, A. W. Johnson coll.); Max. breadth 42.2 x 33 mm. 
Dwarf eggs measure 34x26.5 (Tring Museum) and 35 X 24.3 mm. (J. Sand- 
man) but the Minima of 100 eggs are 38.2 x 28.7 and 40.5 X 27.5 mm. 
(Rey). Average weight 1.224 g. (Rey). 

Geographical Races. 

a. European Hooded Crow, C. cornix comix L. (See above). 

b. Sardinian Hooded Crow, C. cornix sardonius Kleiusch. 

Local Names: Sardinia: Corroga hraxia or harza, Corronca. 

C. cornix sardonius Kleinsch. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 10. 

Breeding Range: Sardinia and Corsica. 

Wharton found this race very common in Corsica, nesting in low 
trees near swamps. First eggs taken on April 12. Whitehead found many 
nests after April 26. Eggs 4 — 6 in number, rather dark in colour, some 
markings being almost black. Average (12 eggs) 44.34x29.58 mm.. 
Max. 48.5 X 30.7 mm., Min. 40.9 x 28.2 mm. 

[In west Siberia C. c. sharpii Gates replaces the typical race, and in 
Persia and Mesopotamia C. c. capellaniis Scl. 9 eggs of the latter sub- 
species average 43.68X29.17 mm. (Fao, Feb. and Mar.)] 

3. Carrion Crow, Corvus coroue L. 

Plate 3, fig. 1—10 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XL, fig. 1 a — g {C. cornix and 
a corme). Hewitson, L Ed. I, pi. XCI; IL Ed. I, pL XLIX, fig. 1; III. Ed. 
I, pi. LVIII, fig. 1. Baedeker, Tab. 34, fig. 1. Taczanowski, Tab. XXVII. 
Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 16; Col. Fig., pi. 55. Frohawk, Br. Birds, pi. VII, 
fig. 233—236. 

British Local Names: England: Crow, Black-, Corbie-, Gor- or 
Midden- Crotu. Welsh: Bran. Scotland: Black Huddie or Hoodie, Blackneh. 
Gaelic: Frannag. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Vrdna cernd. Denmark: Sort, Holsteensk 
or Bavne Krage. Fseroes: Hjaltlands Kraoaka. France: Corneille noire, 
Corheau. Friesland: Krie. Germany: Bahen- or Scliwarze Krdhe, Babe, 
Krdge, Kroe. Helgoland: Swart Kreih. Holland: Kraai. Hungary: Fekete 
Yarju. Italy: Corneilla nera, Corbatt, Cornacchia nera. Iceland: Krdka. 
Luxemburg: Knob. Poland: Kruk ivroniec. Portugal: Oralha, Corvo. Russia: 



Tscliernaja Worona. Spain: Corneja negra, Oraja, Corhatilla. Sweden: 
Svart Kraka. 

Corvus corone L. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 531; Newton, ed. 
Yarrell, 11, p. 274; Saunders, Man. p. 243; Dresser, Man. of Pal. Birds, 
p. 421. C. corone corone L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 11, 

Breeding Range: England, southern Scotland, France, Portugal, 
Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Holland, western Germany, Bohemia, 
parts of Austria and European Russia. 

Except where kept down in numbers by strict game preservation, this British 
bird is still tolerably plentiful in England, and even more so in the wilder ^s^^^- 
parts of Wales. Its distribution in Scotland is peculiar and has not been 
thoroughly worked out. Though commoner in the south, it occurs locally 
over the greater part of the country, a few pairs nesting even in West Ross. 
In the Isle of Man, the Hebrides, Orkneys and Shetlands it is however 
replaced by C. cornix. On the mainland interbreeding between the two 
species frequently takes place. In Ireland this species only occurs very rarely. 
The nest is generally built high up in trees, but among the Welsh hills it is 
not uncommonly found in mere bushes on the hill sides. On the Yorkshire, 
Somerset, and Devon coasts it is occasionally met with on the cliffs, and 
on the rocky and treeless coasts of north Anglesea and Cornwall this appears 
to be the usual site {Zool. 1904, p. 11). A pair nested on the ground in 
the Fames in 1832 according to Hewitson. 

In southern Spain it is decidedly rare, but even here a few pairs ^^^' 

„ . . . tinental 

breed in the sierras, while in Portugal and northern Spam it is more numerous. Europe. 
Throughout France and the Low Countries it is generally distributed, and 
in some parts of Friesland is extraordinarily common. Von Homeyer 
records a nest from Majorca {Journ. f, Ornith. 1862, p. 252) and Wharton 
from Corsica {Ibis 1876, p, 24). For the distribution of this species in 
Germany see article on C. cornice, p. 6. (Cf. also Diederich, Jahresher. d. 
Gesellsch. von Freund. d. Naturwissenscli. in Gera, 1884 — 1888). J. Thiene- 
niann states however that C. corone is the prevalent species in west Schleswig, 
the north Frisian islands and the greater part of Holstein, excepting the 
Oldenburg district and Fehmern. It is a common resident in Switzerland and 
is found in north Italy, breeding in the highlands of Piedmont, Liguria, 
Lombardy and Venetia, but rarely south of the Apennines. The accounts of 
its distribution in Austro-Hungary and the Balkan peninsula are conflicting 
and there appears to have been some confusion between this species and 
C, frugilegus. It probably occurs in Bohemia, Moravia, Lower Austria and 
abundantly in the Tyrol, but was not recorded with certainty from Hungary 
till 1896, and Reiser regards it as absent from the Balkan peninsula, 
though found in certain districts of European Russia (Orel, Kazan, Kiev 
and the Caucasus.) 



10 

Nest. Over the greater part of its range the Carrion Crow is a tree-breeding 

bird, but Fatio describes it as nesting in fissures of rock and holes in old 
walls in the Alps. On the other hand it certainly nests occasionally on 
the ground in the sand dunes of Holland, and Albarda mentions a nest in 
a ruinous chimney. The nest is well and strongly built of sticks and 
twigs or heather stems, compacted with earth or turf and moss, and warmly 
and neatly lined with wool, roots, rags or hair. Occasionally dead leaves 
or feathers are found in the lining of the cup, which is rather deep and 
about 8 inches across. Frequently the nest is placed high up among the 
thinner boughs of some isolated deciduous tree and is then very conspicuous, 
but where much persecuted, many nests are to to be found built close to the 
main stem at the junction of one of the larger branches and often well 
concealed with ivy. 
Eggs. These are usually 4 — 5 in number, but 6 are sometimes found and 

occasionally birds are found incubating 3, 2 or even a single egg. One 
hen (probably a very old bird) which only laid two eggs in 1898, hatched 
off a single young one in the following year. In England the Crow is 
single brooded (although Naumann says that they sometimes breed twice 
in the year). When the first laying has been taken another is deposited 
about a fortnight afterwards, and even a third if necessary, but usually with 
fewer eggs. They are generally laid about 3 pra. and the period of 
incubation is about 18 or 19 days. In colouring they resemble the eggs 
of the other Corvi, but have as a rule a rather less decided green tint than 
eggs of C. comix. It is not unusual to find one egg in a clutch much 
more lightly marked than the rest, often with a blue ground; while entirely 
blue eggs, without any markings, have been taken in Great Britain and on 
the Continent. Some eggs on the other hand are very heavily marked 
with bold blotches of olive brown, but never with black, as in the case 
of C. corax. 
Breeding In England eggs may be found from April 6 onwards: in the Mid- 

Season. lands April 17 — 27 is about the best time (about a fortnight later than 
C. frugilegus). In Germany, according to Rey, full clutches may be found 
from the beginning of April. Chapman found 5 eggs on March 23 in 
the Sierra de las Cabras, which seems to indicate rather earlier breeding 
in Spain. 
Measure- Average of 100 typical eggs 43.5 X 30.1 mm. (Rey), Max. 49 X 32.5 

mm. (coll. Blagg), but an abnormally long egg measures 50.5 X 29 mm. 
(coll. A. W. Johnson); Min. 38.2 X 26.3 mm. (Rey). Average weight 1.279 g. 
A dwarf egg measures 30 X 25.5 mm. and weighs 720 mg. (Rey), and 
R. H. Read has one 27.3 X 22.1 mm. 



ments. 



11 

4. Hook, Corvus frugilegus L. 

Plate 4, fig. 1 — 7 (Germany); Plate 41, fig. 3 (Red var., Gliicksburg 
April 1896, von Wangelin). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Portpfl., Tab. XL, fig. 2, a — e. Hewitson, I. Ed. I, 
pi. LXXI; n. Ed. I, pi. L, fig. 1; III. Ed. I, pi. LIX. Baedeker, Tab. 28, 
fig. 5. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 16; id. Col. Fig., pi. 55. Frohawk, Br. 
Birds, pi. VII, fig. 241—244. 

Nest: 0. Lee, IE. p. 90,92. 

British Local Names: England: Croiv, Bare- or Bald-faced Croiv. 
Welsh: Tdfran or Ydfrim. Gaelic: Greumhacli-Rocus. Shetlands: Scotch 
Craa. Erse: Pray-ach-aafi (phonetic). 

Foreign l^ames: Bohemia.: Havranpohii. Bosnia: (ra wan. Denmark: 
Kmmh'age, Blaaraage. Faeroes: Hjaltlandshraalm (q^), Hjaltlandskraka ( $ ). 
Finland: Pieni korppi, Peltovaris. France: Corheau Freux, Freux, Oraille. 
Germany: Saat-, Feld- or Steinkriilie, Nacktschndbel, Pock. Greece: Chaharoni. 
Helgoland: Groot swart Kauk. Holland: Poek, Korenkraai, Zaadkraai. 
Hungary: Vetesi varju. Italy: Corvo reale or nero, Corhatt. Luxemburg: 
Hierschtkuoh. Malta: Corvu. Norway: Blaakraake. Poland: Krukgawron. 
Portugal: Oralha calva. Russia: Gratsch. Sardinia: Coroga niedda, Corhn. 
Spain: Corneja calva, Graula, Grajo. Sweden: Pdka, Svartkrdka, Paiik. 

Corvus frugilegiis L. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 551; Newton, 
ed. Yarrell, II, p. 289; Saunders, Manual, p. 247; Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, 
p. 426. C. frugilegus frugilegiis L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 13. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles, Orkney, South Sweden, Denmark, 
South Finland and Russia generally from Archangel to the Caucasus, 
Germany, Holland, Belgium, France, Austo-Hungary, North Italy and the 
Danube valley, pn North Persia, Turkestan and southwest Siberia it is 
replaced by C. f. tschusii.'] 

Rookeries are to be found in plenty in all wooded districts of Eng- British 
land, Wales, the Isle of Man, Ireland, and Scotland: but those in Sutherland, ^^'^^• 
West Ross and Cromarty have only been formed within the last forty 
years. In the Orkneys colonies have been established since 1848, but a 
lodgment has not yet been effected on the Shetlands. On the west coast, 
Islay has been inhabited since 1820, while Eigg (1886), Skye (circa 1870) 
and the Outer Hebrides (1895) have been colonized of late years. 

Where tall trees are available, even in large towns, they are generally 
used for nesting places. No particular preference appears to be shown 
for any one species of tree, but the majority of English rookeries are 
naturally built in deciduous trees, although evergreens, such as the Scotch 
fir and spruce, are also occasionally utilized. In treeless districts, such as 
the West of Ireland, many rookeries are built on low bushes on islets in 



12 

the loughs; and where all the timber is small, nests may be found only 
a few feet from the ground. Exceptional cases of rookeries in pollarded 
willows, hoUy bushes, hedges, and even in lauristinus bushes, Portugal laurels 
and an apple tree, are on record, while in 1865 a nest was built on the 
ground in a meadow near Longnor, Staffordshire {Zool. 1865, p. 9626). 

The nests are generally placed close together and sometimes large 
numbers are to be found in the same tree. Single nests, built apart from 
the main colony, are usually destroyed by the other rooks. Numerous cases 
of twenty nests and upwards in one tree have been recorded, while an 
entire rookery, consisting of about 100 nests is said to have been built 
in a single ash tree at Barton-on-Humber {YmTell, II, p. 296). It is no 
uncommon occurrence to find a flourishing rookery in the midst of a large 
town. (For notes on London rookeries see Zool. 1878, p. 193 and 441.) 
Instances where nests have been built on houses, church-towers, spires, 
chimneys, vanes, etc., are too numerous to specify. Besides the well-known 
cases usually quoted, the same habit has been observed in the Isle of Man 
{Zool. 1892, p. 96), Ireland (Ussher, Birds of Ireland, p. 98) and the Orkneys 
{Buckley and Harvie-Brown, p. 127). 
Con- Jq France the rook, though rather local, is more numerous in the north 

Europe, than in the south, where it is scarce, but a colony exists as far south as 
Biarritz, although it is not known to breed south of the Pyrenees. 

It is also plentiful in the Low Countries, but the great majority of 
continental birds are summer migrants and not residents, like their British 
relatives. There are a few large rookeries in Denmark, near Aalborg, Veile 
and other places. For particulars of the principal German rookeries, some 
of which are of enormous size, containing over 20,000 nests, see Matschie's 
article in the Journ. f. Ornitli. 1887, p. 617. In Wiirtemburg and Bavaria 
rooks are decidedly less numerous and remain through the winter, but 
in Switzerland they are only known as winter visitors or met with on 
passage. Colonies exist in Lombardy, Venetia and near Modena, but not 
in south Italy. Though local it is on the whole widely distributed in 
Austro - Hungary, but absent from some districts. It has however been 
recorded as breeding in Bohemia, the "Auwalder" of Vienna (Lower Austria), 
Carinthia, Slavonia, Hungary (see map and article in Aqiiila for 1904), 
Galicia and one or two localities in Transylvania, where it is said to have 
been introduced. In the Balkan peninsula there are large rookeries in the 
Danube valley and in the Dobriidscha, and colonies may possibly exist in 
Macedonia. In Russia it is found in the Caucasus and is plentiful in 
the Crimea, while its northern range extends to Finland south of lat. 
63° N., the Kola peninsula, where it was observed in 1903, and the lower 
Petschora. It breeds plentifully near Gothenburg, but is chiefly found in 
the southern part of Sweden south of lat. 60° N., though occurring as 



13 

far north as Angermanland, and is common on Bornholm, Oland and 
Gottland. To Norway it is principally a visitor on migration, but a few 
remain to breed. 

Both in the British Isles and on the Continent many rookeries are 
built in the immediate neighbourhood of heronries, and though sometimes 
both species remain on good terms with one another, this is by no means 
always the case, and one large heronry in east Suffolk has been decimated 
by persistent egg stealing on the part of the rooks. 

These vary considerably in size, those built by young birds being Nests. 
more slight in construction than those of older birds, which are frequently 
built on the foundation of the old nest of the previous year, repaired at 
intervals in winter and early spring. They are about 2 feet across and 
are built of sticks and twigs, mixed with clay in order to give stability, 
and bits of turf. The lining material varies a good deal; roots, dead grass, 
straw, hair, wool, dead leaves and occasionally feathers, are to be met with, 
while in the Orkneys fish bones and dry tangle are used (Saunders). The 
cup is not so deep as in the nest of the Hooded and Carrion Crows. 

The clutch varies from 3 to 6, but the latter number is rarely met E^rgs. 
with and the usual number is 3 to 5. In type they are distinctly corvine 
and much resemble some varieties of Carrion and Hooded Crows' eggs, 
but they are never found entirely without markings, as is sometimes the 
case in the species previously treated of. The single egg with an decided 
blue ground in a normally coloured set, so often found in the crows, does 
not occur, or at any rate very rarely. On comparing a large series, a decided 
tendency to olive brown markings and a less decided blue ground is seen 
to be characteristic of the Rook's eggs. Mr. R. H. Read has almost spotless 
eggs from Yorkshire. Baron Konig-Warthausen obtained 3 clutches of 
the red variety of this egg in 1893 and 1894, probably the produce of 
a single hen, and in 1896 von Wangelin obtained two eggs from the Ober- 
forsterei Gliicksburg, one of which is illustrated on PI. 41, fig. 3. It is 
interesting to notice that the normal eggs of the South African Corvufi 
capensis Licht. are of a similar type of colouring. As the rook sits at 
night after the first egg has been laid, there is often a considerable difference 
in the state of incubation of a clutch of 5 or 6 eggs. Eggs placed in 
an incubator were hatched on the 17th and 18th days (Evans), which 
corresponds with results obtained by watching. 

As an interval of over a month often elapses between the laying of Breedins 
the first and last eggs in a rookery, it is difficult to give exact data, but season. 
in the south of England full clutches may be taken from mid-March and 
occasionally in February, while in the Midlands the last week in March 
and the first few days in April is the best time, and further north the 
first half of April. In mild autumns the rook occasionally mades premature 



14 

attempts to breed, and eggs have been laid and even j^oung hatched in 
October and November in Northants, Warwick, Oxford, Suffolk, Hants, 
Sussex, Cornwall and Devon {Zool. 1904, p. 422 etc.). In Germany Dr. Rey 
found full clutches usually between April 10 — 15, and Almasy observed 
fledged young at the month of the Pruth on May 24, while in Denmark 
Kjserbolling gives the second half of April as the usual time.* 
Measure- Average of 100 eggs (Germany) 40.7 X 27 mm. (Rey), Max. 48X30.2 

ments. jtuq. (coU. Blagg) , Min, 35X28 and 35.3X24.2 mm. An abnormally 
long egg measures 48.3X25.2 mm. and weighs 1.12 g. (Rey). Average 
weight 1.034 g. (Rey). Dwarf eggs are also occasionally met with, 23 X 18.7 
mm., etc. Average weight of 8 full eggs 15.97 g. (N. H. Foster). 

5. Jackdaw, Coloeus moiiediila spermologiis (Vieill.). 

Plate 5, fig. 7 — 14 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XL, fig. 4, a — d. Hewitson, I. Ed. 
I, pL XLIV; II. Ed, I, pi. L, fig. 2; III. Ed. I, pi. LX, fig. 2. Baedeker, 
Tab. 24, fig. 4. Taczanowski, Tab. XXX. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 16; 
id. Col. Fig., pi. 55. Frohawk, Br. Birds, II, pi. VI, fig. 222—228. 

Nest: 0. Lee, I, p. 160. 

British Local Names: England: Daiv, Kae, Jack. Welsh: Coeg 
fran. Scotland: Kae, Ka-watUe. Orkneys: Kae. Gaelic: Cathag, Corrachan. 
Erse: Caivg, Cawdhoge (phonetic). 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Kavka. Denmark: Allike, Kaa. Faeroes: 
Hetlands kraaka. France: Choucas, (Jorbeau clioucas, Choncas grise, Petite 
corneille. Germany: Dolile, Duhle, Tliule. Helgoland: Kauk. Holland: 
Kerk-kaiiw, Toren-kraai or Ka, Kauw. Hungary: Csbka. Italy: Taccola, 
Corhatell, Monachia. Luxemburg: Klenge Metzerkuoh. Malta: Ciaida, Cola. 
Poland: Kruk kawka. Portugal: Caneta, Clioia. Sardinia: Corroga, Taccida. 
Spain: Ordja, Orajo, Cornelia blanca. 

Corvus monedida L. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 523; Newton, 
ed. Yarrell II, p. 305; Saunders, Man, p. 239; Dresser, Man. of Pal. 
Birds, p. 419. Coloeus monedida spermologus (Vieill.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 16. 

Breeding Range: The west-European race of the Jackdaw inhabits 
the British Isles and the whole of the European Continent, with the 
exception of Scandinavia, where it is replaced by the typical race, and 
Russia and the Balkan peninsula, where C. m. collaris Drumm. is the 
prevalent form. The exact limits of each race are however as yet imperfectly 
known. [Occurs locally also in N. W, Africa.] 

* But Ottosson says that in Scandinavia the eggs are laid in March, three 
weeks earlier than those of C. comix, unless the weather is very severe. 



15 

Although the Jackdaw is generally distributed over the British Isles British 
with the exception of the barren moorlands, yet there are certain districts '^^^*- 
in Scotland and Ireland where it is absent without any apparent cause. 
It is only a visitor to the Shetlands, but there are several colonies in the 
Orkneys and a few have bred in Skye since 1897, although as yet it is absent 
from the Outer Hebrides and St. Kilda. In West Ross it is rare, but is reported 
as increasing in numbers in the Inner Hebrides. In many of the islands 
off the Irish coast and on some parts of the mainland, it is replaced by 
the Chough. It is abundant in the Isle of Man. The nesting sites adopted 
by this species are of the most varied character. Where high cliffs are 
found, whether on the coast or inland, it usually breeds in holes and crevices 
of the rock. Hollows in the roofs of natural caves, such as the Peak 
Cavern in Derbyshire, are also tenanted by many pairs, as are also the 
sides of 'water -swallows' and quarries. The Jackdaw nests readily in 
buildings: old castles, church towers, chimneys of houses and dovecotes 
being frequently occupied. In the wooded plains the nest is frequently 
placed in a hollow tree, but where timber is absent or small, it is not 
uncommon to find Jackdaws breeding in rabbit holes, especially in Ireland. 
More exceptional sites are among ivy on walls, in old Magpie-nests, among 
the foundations of Herons' nests, or old and bulky masses of nests in a 
Rookery. Occasionally the Jackdaw builds a nest for itself at the junction 
of a bough with the trunk of a tree. Instances have been reported from 
Northampton, Staffordshire, Salop, Worcestershire, Lanark and Fifeshire. 
A nest in the rigging of a training ship at Gareloch was noticed in the 
Annals of Scott. Nat. Hist. 1892, p. 43. 

No Jackdaws breed in the Fseroes or Iceland, but in France, Belgium, p*"^" 
Holland and Germany it is commonly found in suitable localities. In the Europe. 
Iberian peninsula it is very local, but Tait found a colony breeding under 
rocks in islands in Vigo Bay, Galicia, and it is locally common in some 
of the Cotos of the Guadalquivir, etc. In Switzerland it is distributed 
through the low-lying plain, but is not found in the Alps. In Austro- 
Hungary it is common in the 'Auen' near Vienna, and though absent from 
some districts is found locally throughout the greater part of the country; 
while it has been observed breeding in Italy, Sardinia, Sicily and Malta. 
The eastern limit of this race has not been exactly determined. 

[In Marocco it is common at Tetuan and Dixon described it as numerous 
in the province of Constantine, but Konig failed to meet with it there and 
von Erlanger omits it from his list of Tunisian birds.] 

The Jackdaw is a sociable bird, and where nesting sites are available. Nest. 
breeds gregariously; but it is not uncommon to find single pairs breeding 
by themselves. Where the nest is built in a hole, the amount of material 
used depends upon the size of the hole. In small holes of trees I have 



16 

seen eggs laid upon a mere handful of sheep's wool, but instances are on 
record where sticks have been piled up to the height of 10 or 12 feet 
in order to provide a foundation for the nest (See Yarrell, II, p. 308). 

The lining consists chiefly of wool; but other materials are also used 
at times, such as dead leaves, straw, paper, shavings, rags, dung, fur, feathers 
and cow-hair. Sometimes a little clay is also found. 

Nests built in the open vary in type. Some which I examined in 
Shropshire in 1901 were very bulky structures, built in spruce firs. The 
older nests were placed on the foundation of a previous year's nest and 
were not domed, but had a high circular wall of sticks built up round 
them a foot or more high. Other nests have been described (North Staff. 
Field Club Report, 1901) as 27 in. deep and 24 in. in diameter, domed 
with twigs (not thorns), with only one entrance. Newly built nests are 
much shallower and more flimsy in construction than those which have 
been used for two or three years. 
Eggs. The usual clutch is 4 to 6 in number, but in some districts 7 eggs 

are not uncommon, and in dry seasons 3 are said to constitute a full clutch. 
They differ from those of the genus Corvus in their very pale greenish 
blue ground colour and more sparse markings. Some eggs are so finely 
freckled that they might almost pass for those of Nucifraga, while others 
are very boldly blotched with dark olive brown with underlying patches 
of ash-grey. In a few cases they have been found almost without markings. 
The eggs of this species (and also of C. frugilegus) are sometimes found 
smeared with clay, possibly intentionally, and occasionally the eggs are 
covered up with the nest lining. 
Breeding I^ England the eggs are laid from about April 20 to May 5, but 

Season, from April 25 to May 1 is the best time, and when the first laying is 
taken a second is deposited ten days later. In Ireland the latter half of April 
is the usual time (Ussher). Rey gives April 16 — 29 as the usual date for 
the Halle a Saale district, and curiously enough in south Spain the laying 
season is if anything rather later, full clutches being found about April 26. 
Measure- British eggs appear to be slightly larger than continental. 50 Con- 

sents, tinental eggs average 33.7 x 25.2 mm. (Rey), 50 British eggs, 35.47 X 25.32 
mm. Mean average (100 eggs) 34.58 X 25.27 mm.. Max. 40.6 X 25.5 and 
33 X 29.7 mm., Min. 30 X 22.3 mm. An abnormally long egg measures 
45.7 X 21 mm. (Carlisle, R. H. Read). Average weight (50 eggs), 763 mg. 
(Rey). 4 full eggs average 12.26 g. (Foster). 

Geographical Races, 
a. Swedish Jackdaw, Coloeiis monediila moiiedula (L.). 

Local Names: Norway: Kaje, Kaa, Bavrikate. Sweden: Kdja, Kyrk- 
Mja, Allika, Tornkraka, Svartfagel. 



17 

C. monedula monedula {L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 15. 

Breeding Range: Norway and Sweden south of Trondhjem Fjord. 
Common in the towns and villages of south Sweden. The eastern limits 
of this race are not yet clearly defined. 

In breeding habits and eggs it does not appear to differ from the 
west European form, and the few eggs examined show no departure from 
the western type. Number of eggs usually 5 — 6, less commonly 4 or 7. 

Average measurements (7 eggs), 35.44 X 24.8 mm. 

I). West European Jackdaw, C. monedula spermologus (Vieill.). See antea p. 13. 
c. East European Jackdaw, C. monedula collaris (Drumm.). 

Local Names: Bohemia: Kavka. Bulgaria: Cavka. Finland: Naakha, 
Hdkkinen. Greece: Kaliakoilnda, Koloios, Karya. Russia: Oalka. 

C. monedula collaris (Drumm.). Hartert, Vog, Pal. Fauna, p. 17. 

Breeding Range: European Russia (except in the extreme north), 
locally in Transylvania, the Balkan Peninsula. [Also the Caucasus, Armenia, 
Mesopotamia, N. W. Persia, Turkestan, Afghanistan and Kashmir.] 

13 eggs of this race from Transylvania in Mr. F. C. Selous' collection 
and 8 from Turkey average 35.26 X 25.67 mm., Max. 39.2 X 26 and 
36.4 X 27 mm., Min. 31.5 X 26 and 36 X 24.2 mm., and do not appear to 
differ from those of the western race. Kriiper describes these birds as 
nesting in holes of rocks and trees, as well as under the roofs and in the 
scaffold holes of houses in Macedonia. Eggs 5 — 7 in number, laid in April; 
in the hills till late in May (Kriiper); in Montenegro Fiihrer took 84 sets 
between April 23 and May 15. 

6. Magpie, Pica pica (L.). 

Plate 3, fig. 1 — 10 (Germany); PI. 41, fig. 11 (Gliicksburg, von Wangelin). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XL, fig. 3, a — e. Hewitson, I. Ed. I, 
pi. LXV; XL Ed. I, pi. LI, fig. 1—2; IIL Ed. I, pi. LX, fig. 3. Baedeker, 
Tab. 28, fig. 1. Taczanowski, Tab. XXX, fig. 1. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, pi. 16; 
id. Col. Fig., pi. 55. Frohawk, Br. Birds, II, pi. VI, fig. 218—221. 

Nest: 0. Lee, III, p. 136. 

British Local Names: England: Pie, Chatterpie, Pyet, Pyanet, Ninut, 
Nanpie, Madge. Welsh: Pioden. Scotland: Pyot. Gaehc: Pioghaid. Ire- 
land: Mag. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Sir oka. Bosnia: Oavran. Denmark: 
Almindelig Skade, Heister. Finland: Harakka. France: Pie ordinaire, 
Mar got, Agasse. Germany: Elsier, Alster, Agerst, Schalaster, Langstiel. 
Greece: Karakdza. Holland: Ekster, Bonte Ekster, Atzel. Hungary: 
Szarka. Italy: Gazza, Cecca, Gazzera. Lapland: Beios' a-karanas. Luxem- 



18 

burg: Kre, Krek, Jelster. Malta: Ciaida haida. Norway: Skjcere, Shjor, 
Skjur, Tunfugl. Poland: Knik sroka, Sroka zwyczajna. Russia: Soroka. 
Sweden: Skata, Skjiira, Skdra, Skamsfugel. Sicily: Carcarazza. 

Pica rustica (Scop.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 509; Newton, 
ed. Yarrell, 11, p. 312; Saunders, Man. p. 237; Dresser, Man. of Pal. Birds, 
p. 417, P. pica pica (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 19. 

Breeding Range: The whole of Europe with the exception of the 
Iberian peninsula, where it is replaced by a form intermediate between the 
typical and the Moorish race. [Also Asia Minor, Persia and Transcaspia.] 
British Common in all the wooded districts of England and Wales, except 

Isles, -where it has been exterminated by game preserving, as in Norfolk and 
Suffolk, and nesting not only in tall trees but also in thick thorny hedges, 
sometimes only a few feet from the ground. In Ireland it is now common 
and increasing, breeding in every county, though less numerous in the ex- 
treme west (Ussher). It breeds on the Aran Islands and Rathlin, nesting 
in the ivy on rocks where trees are absent, and also in low bushes, some- 
times only two feet from the ground, on islets in the loughs. It is common 
in the Isle of Man, and also locally in parts of the south of Scotland, 
where however it appears to be decreasing or stationary in numbers. It 
does not breed in the Shetlands, Orkneys, Outer Hebrides or S. Kilda; is 
rare in Skye and north Scotland, and unknown in Iceland and the Faeroes. 
p^^' In the plains of central Europe the Magpie is everywhere conspicuous, 

Europe. ^^^ there are few parts of the continent, except in the alpine regions of the 
principal mountain ranges, where it is not represented. In Scandinavia it 
is found commonly as far as the North Cape, enjoying a certain amount 
of protection and in consequence becoming very tame and familiar. Here, 
as in the treeless parts of Jutland, the nests are frequently built under the 
eaves of the houses and several have been seen in a single tree; while in 
the far North instances have occurred of nests being built on the ground. In 
European Russia Witherby records it from the Kola peninsula and Pearson 
from Kanin. Towards the south Kriiper describes it as common in Acarnania 
and the plain of Parnassus, and it is generally distributed throughout Italy. 
In Sicily Lilford found nests in the papyrus swamps near Syracuse, but 
curiously enough it is not met with in Sardinia, Elba or Corsica, and Lilford 
did not observe it in the islands of the western Mediterranean. 
Nest. This is an elaborate piece of architecture, consisting of a strongly 

built foundation of sticks, with earth or turf intermingled, carefully plastered 
internally with a neat cup of clay or mud: while a large dome of black- 
thorns is built over the top of the whole, and when the cup is thoroughly 
dry, a lining of fibrous roots is added.* Where the usual materials are not 
available, as in the islands off the west coast of Ireland, the Magpie will 

* On rare occasions replaced by dry grass. 



19 

make use of briar stems and hay (Ussher). In at least two instances which 
have come under my notice the parent birds have been dispossessed after 
the completion of their nest, in one case by a pair of Squin'els, and in 
the other by Long eared Owls. In warm springs the work of building is 
often commenced in February or early March, and the construction is 
entirely the work of the hen, the cock providing material. 

The usual number is 6 — 7, but occasionally sets of 5 are found in- Egg-s. 
cubated, while clutches of 8 are not uncommon and 9 eggs are occasionally 
met with.* As a rule they do not show any great variation in colour. 
The ground colour varies from pale blue with a greenish tinge to greenish 
yellow and buff, generally finely spotted with olive brown, especially towards 
the blunt end, and showing underlying spots of pale inky violet. Some 
eggs show a very distinct cap or zone of brown spots, while others have been 
found quite devoid of markings and almost white or light bluish green in 
ground colour. Kricheldorff {Zeitschr. f. Ool. 1903, p. 10) describes ery- 
thristic varieties of the eggs both of this race and of P. p. mauritanica Malh. 

In England eggs are generally laid from mid April to early May, Breeding 
April 24 — May 1 being the best time in the midlands. In Ireland most Season, 
birds breed in April, while in Germany eggs may be found from the second 
week in April, but most eggs are laid late in April or early in May, and 
from the latter date to June in N. Russia. Kriiper took full clutches in 
Acarnania on April 18, and Flihrer in Montenegro from April 16 to May 8. 
The period of incubation is 18 days and the hens sit as soon as laying 
has begun. 

100 normal eggs average 32.9X23 mm., Max. 37X25 mm., Min. Measure- 
28 X 22,5 mm. (Rey). R. H. Read has a clutch of very large eggs, almost ments. 
without markings: Max. 39.4X27.6 and 37.5X28 mm. (Somerset). An 
abnormal egg in Tring Museum measures 44.9 x 26.5 mm. (Hartert). Average 
weight 565 mg. A dwarf egg measures 23.9 X 18.7 mm. and weighs 
250 mg. (Rey); another from N. Brabant is 22.4 x 16.2 mm. Average weight 
of 13 unblown eggs 10.517 g. (Foster). 

As is frequently the case in species of wide distribution, eggs from 
the northern limit of the breeding range are distinctly larger than those 
from the middle and south. Thus 10 eggs from W. Bothnia (coU. Newton) 
average 40 X 24.25 mm. 

Geographical Races. 

a. European Magpie, P. pica pica (L.}. See above > 
b. Spanish Magpie, P. pica melanotos Brehni. 

Local Names: Portugal: Pega. Spain: Urrdca, Marica. 
P. p. melanotos Brehm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 21. 

* Hager {II. Omith. Jahresber. f. -S., p. 80) mentions an instance where 
10 were laid. 



20 

Breeding Range: Probably the whole of the Iberian peninsula, but 
possibly the birds which are found north of the Sierra Guadarrama belong 
to the typical race. Hartert has examined specimens from Madrid, Toledo 
and Portugal as well as from southern Spain. 

This race (intermediate between the European and Moorish birds) is 
very plentiful in some districts in Spain and Portugal, but entirely absent 
from others. Near Aranjuez it is very common, and this is also the case 
in some parts of Andalucia. It frequently acts as foster parent to the 
Great Spotted Cuckoo. 
Nest. The nests are sometimes placed at a considerable height, but are also 

frequently only a few feet from the ground; and have been found in thick 
bramble bushes. Noble says that nests in brambles are often not roofed in, 
and I have found several of this type in big poplars by the Tajo. One, 
found on May 2, 1905, was actually built in a patch of thick reeds, about 6 
feet above the water! 
Eggs. The clutch varies in number from 5 to 8, and the eggs are similar 

in appearance to those of the typical race. An abnormally coloured egg in 
the British Museum is pale blue with a cap of very dark sepia at the 
small end. 
Measure- Average of 50 eggs 33.7 X 23.8 mm.. Max. 38.5 X 26 mm., Min. 

ments. 29.8X23.3 and 32.5X23 mm. Average weight of 19 eggs 575 mg. 

[The Moorish Magpie, P. pica mauritamca Malh. is the resident species 
in Marocco, Algeria and Tunis. Breeding Season early in May. Average 
of 50 eggs (Konig 27, Erlanger 4 and 19 in Brit. Mus. etc.) 32.8 X 23.27 mm., 
Max. 38X23.7 and 31.2 X 25 mm., Min. 30 X 23 and 31 X 22 mm. Average 
weight of 26 eggs 560 mg. (Konig). In appearance the eggs do not differ 
from those of the other race. 

The eggs of the North Asiatic race, P. pica hactriana Bp. are con- 
siderably larger than those of the European form. According to Tacza- 
nowski they range in size from 33 X 23 to 38 X 25 and 37 X 25.4 mm.] 

7. Azure winged Magpie, Cyanopica cyana cooki Bp. 

Plate 41, fig. 12—15 (near Madrid). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XLI, fig. 8. Baedeker, Tab. 50, 
fig. 15. Ibis 1866, pi. X, fig. 3—8.* 

Foreign Names: Portugal: Mahilongo, Charneco. Spain: Moliino, 
JRahilargo, Oarrula; in Leon, Buipego. 

Cyanopica cooki Bp. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 503; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 416. C. cyaniis coold Bp. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 24. 

* The egg of the E. Siberian form, C. cyana cyana (Pall.) is figured in the 
J. f. O. 1873, Tab. II, fig. 19. 



21 

Breeding Range: South and mid-Spain, but absent from the eastern 
provinces; Portugal south of Lisbon. 

A very local species, breeding in colonies, many nests being found 
at a short distance from one another. In Spain it is plentiful in wooded 
districts in New Castile, such as the Casa del Campo near Madrid, Aran- 
juez, Talavera, etc., also in Estremadura and in parts of Andalucia (Coria 
del Rio, the Goto del Rey and locally between Sevilla and Cordova). In 
Portugal Dr. Rey found it plentiful near Barreiro in Estremadura and Tait 
describes it as abundant in Algarve and also met with it in spring in Alemtejo. 

Colonies frequently consist of 5 or 6 to 20 pairs, and the nests are Nest. 
built at varying heights, sometimes only 5 ft. from the ground, but more 
often about 15 ft. up, and occasionally as high as 30 ft. In construction 
they have been compared to those of the Jay and Great Grey Shrike. The 
foundation is made of smaU twigs, lichens and green moss, compacted with 
mud, upon which a superstructure of stalks, roots, moss and flowering 
plants is built, and the flattened cup is lined with goats' hair and sheep's wool. 

Usually 5 — 6 in number, but 7 are occasionally found, and clutches Eggs. 
of 8 and even 9 are said to have occurred in Spain. The ground colour 
is usually pale brownish yellow, sometimes shading into a bluish, greenish 
or warm reddish tone. They are sparsely marked with brownish spots 
with underlying flecks of violet grey. 

Rey found fresh eggs in Portugal throughout the month of May; in Breeding 
Andalucia Noble took a full clutch on April 24, but general laying did season, 
not begin till May 4. 

400 eggs measured by Rey give the following results: average Measure- 
26.7 X 19.5 mm.. Max. 30.2 X 22 mm., Min. 24 X 19.7 and 24.5 X 18 mm. ""^nts. 
Average weight 407 mg., varying from 260 to 500 mg. 

8. Nutcracker, Nucifraga caryocatactes (L.). 

Plate 5, fig. 1—2 (Sarajevo, 3. IV. 94), 3 {Rafus Planina, 6. IV. 98), 
4—5 (Bosnia, 3. IV. 96), 6 (Pale, Bosnia, 28. III. 98). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XLI, fig. 4, a — c (unrecognizable). 
Baedeker, Tab. 50, fig. 14; Tab. 76, tig. 4. Journ. f. Ornith. 1856, Tab. I, 
fig. 1. Taczanowski, Tab. XXXII, fig. 1. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1867, 
pi. XV (Aves), fig. 2. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 16; id. Col. Fig. pi. 55. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Sojha tureckd, Ofesnik. Denmark: 
Noddekrige, Pletfugl. Finland: Pdhkinahakkinen. France: Casse-noix, 
Alognier. Germany: Tannenhdher, Nusshdher. Holland: Notenkrakei: 
Hungary: Magtar'6. Italy: Nocciolaja, Oai d' montagna, Eompa-nbs. Norway: 
Noddekraake, Blaakraake. Poland: Orzechbivka stryszek. Russia: Kedrofka. 
Sweden: Notrdka, Notgubbe. Transylvania: Havasi Mdtyds. 



22 

Nucifraga caryocatactes (L.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 451; 
Newton, ed. Yarrell, 11, p. 330; Saunders, Manual, p. 233; Dresser, Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 409. N. caryocatactes caryocatactes (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 25. 

Breeding Range: Norway, Sweden, Gothland, Bornholm, S.W.Finland, 
the Russian Baltic Provinces, Poland, Germany (East Prussia, Harz, Schwarz 
and Bohmer Wald, probably also Thiiringer Wald), Jura and the whole 
Alpine district, including the French, Swiss, Austrian and Italian Alps, 
Austro-Hungary (Lilienfeld district, Tatra, Carpathian Mts., Transylvania, 
Styria, Bosnia, etc.). 

In Norway the Nutcracker inhabits the forests up to about lat. 64^/2° N. 
but is nowhere numerous, while it has been found breeding in Sweden 
in Gotarike and Svearike. In Bornholm nests were found in 1862 — 3, and 
in March 1864 three nests with fresh eggs were taken {Proc. Zool. 80c. 
1867, p. 163). It occurs in S. W. Finland, and has probably bred near 
Abo, while nests have also been taken at Raumo (61°) and Forssa, as well 
as on Aland (Wasenius). In East Prussia Hartert found nests in 1882 and 
1884, and one is said to have been found in Pomerania in 1860. Schiitt 
obtained three nests on the Kandel Berg in the Schwarz Wald and others 
have been taken there subsequently; while in 1868 eggs were obtained in 
Anhalt (Harz), where it still breeds. In Austro-Hungary a nest with young 
is said to have been found on the Hollgebirge in 1858, and on the Hochanger 
Alp eggs have been taken from 1867 onwards. Five nests were obtained 
in the Tyrol by Franz in 1864 and Pfanni took eggs in the highlands of 
Lilienfeld in 1887. Perhaps the first nest seen by any naturalist was an 
empty one found by Thienemann on the Riesen-Gebirge, but the bird has 
not been found there since. In Transylvania it is common on the higher 
mountain ranges, descending in autumn. Of late years large numbers of 
eggs have been taken in Bosnia, in the neighbourhood of Sarajevo, and 
according to Reiser {Orn. Bale. II, p. 86) it is common in the pine-forests 
of the Rilo planina and has been observed in the Rhodope Mountains, on 
the borders of Bulgaria and Rumelia. In the Alpine valleys it is generally 
distributed and fairly common up to the forest limit, as a rule from about 
3000 to 6000 ft. in summer, but sometimes as low as 2100 ft. in some 
parts of Valais, and on the other hand up to 7500 ft. in the Haute Engadine 
(Fatio). It is also found more or less commonly in the Jura and in the 
Departements on the Italian and Swiss borders of France, whence the Abbe 
Caire obtained the first authenticated eggs in 1846. It has been observed 
in spring in the subalpine valleys of Piedmont, Venetia and North Lombardy 
and no doubt breeds there. It was formerly supposed to occur in the 
Pyrenees, but has not been observed by Messrs. Saunders, Backhouse, Clarke 
or Wallis, and proof of its breeding there is still wanting. 



23 

This is, as far as we know, almost invariably built in coniferous woods, Nest. 
usually at a considerable elevation but not necessarily so, as is shown by the 
fact that it has been found in East Prussia, Bornholm and parts of Sweden 
where there are no hills of any magnitude. It is commonly placed close 
to the trunk of a pine, fir, or larch tree at a height of about 15 to 18 ft. 
but sometimes as much as 30 ft. and is about 1 ft. in diameter externally, 
5^/2 in. in depth, with a depression of about 4 in. in diameter and 1^/^ 
to 2^/2 in. in depth. The foundation is formed of sticks and twigs from 
various trees (larch, birch, spruce, bird-cherry etc.) recently plucked, mixed 
with moss, leaves and lichens, and occasionally earth or rotten wood is 
found underneath the lining, which consists of a thick layer of dry grass 
stalks, and hair-like lichens ( Usnea barbata) with one or two feathers from 
the sitting bird. 

These are usually 3 or 4 in number, and in many districts 3 is the Eggs. 
normal clutch; but instances are on record of 2 eggs having been found 
much incubated, and several sets of 5 are said to have been taken in the 
Jura. In colour they are a very pale bluish green, sometimes almost 
white, finely but generally speckled with olive brown and grey spots. In 
some eggs the markings are chiefly confined to the blunt end, but do 
not show any tendency to form a zone or cap, while occasionally they are 
almost absent. The only eggs with which they can be confused are pale, 
finely spotted Jackdaw's eggs, but in these the colour of the spots is 
always darker than in those of the Nutcracker, and the ground colour is 
more bluish in tint. The shell is fine grained with but little gloss. 

This is remarkably early, and in conjunction with the retiring habits Breeding 
of the bird at the nesting season, accounts in great measure for the un- Season, 
certainty which so long prevailed as to the eggs and breeding habits of 
this bird. In Bornholm young birds were found on April 9, 1863 and 
fresh eggs on March 23, 1864, but not till April 10 (incubated) in the 
following year; while in E. Prussia Hartert found half -fledged young on 
April 19, and nearly fresh eggs on Mar. 21. A clutch from Finland is 
dated April 27. Eggs from the Schwarzwald were taken Mar. 12 — 29. 
In Switzerland the time varies from Mar. 10 to Apr. 15, but generally 
about Mar. 20, while clutches from Austro- Hungary have been taken 
between Mar. 20 (5 days incubated) and April 18, and in Bosnia from 
Mar. 21 to April 30. 

The period of incubation is stated to be 18 days, and the sitting 
hen frequently does not leave the nest until the tree is struck. The eggs 
are laid at intervals, according to Schiitt, of three days. 

Average measurements of 100 eggs (23 by Bau, 16 Johnson, 11 Rey, Measure- 
and 50 by the author) 33.95x25.03 mm.. Max. 37.5x24.7 and 33x26 mm., °^«°t8. 
Min. 30.3x24.6 and 34x21.5 mm. Average weight 590 mg. (Rey), 



24 

varying from 530 to 700 mg. Unblown eggs according to Vogel weigh 
from 8.5 to 11.5 g., while Schiitt gives 10.27 to 11.15 g. as the weight. 

Geographical Races. 

a. Thick-billed Nutcracker, IS. caryocatactes earyocatactes (L.) See an tea, p. 31. 
b. Thin-billed Nutcracker, N. caryocatactes macrorhyuchos Brehm. 

N. caryocatactes macrorhynchos Brehm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 26. 

Breeding Range: Siberia, except Kamtschatka, where it is replaced 
by N. c. kamchatkensis Barrett-Ham. This form, which is resident in the 
forest country east of the Urals, is the bird which periodically occurs on 
autumn and winter on migration, both on the continent and in the British 
Isles. In breeding habits it probably does not differ from the western 
race, but nothing is definitely known on the subject. Seebohm's statement 
that it retires into the forests in June for breeding purposes has been 
shown to be erroneous, as some of the birds that he secured were birds 
of the year. 

91). British Jay, Oarrulus glaiidarius rufitergnm Hart. 

Eggs: Hewitson, I. Ed. I, pi. CXII, fig. 2; E. Ed. I, pi. LI, fig. 3; 
in. Ed. I, pi. LX, fig. 1. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, pi. 16; id. Col. Fig., pi. 55. 
Frohawk, Br. Birds, pi. VI, fig. 216 — 217. [The eggs figured are most 
probably those of this race, which are however indistinguishable from eggs 
of typical Q. glandarius L.] 

Nest: 0. Lee, IV, p. 78. 

British Local Names: England: Jay-pie, Jay-pyot, Jay bird. Welsh: 
Screch-y-coed. 

Oarrulus glandarius (L.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 481; 
Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 323; Saunders, Manual, p. 235; Dresser, Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 411 [partim]. O. glandarius rufltergum Hart. Hartert, Vog. 
Pal. Fauna, p. 30. 

Breeding Range: Grreat Britain and Ireland. 

This handsome bird is generally distributed throughout all the 
wooded districts of England and Wales: its silent and skulking habits 
during the breeding season enabling it to hold its own even in those 
counties where game preservation is extensively carried on. From treeless 
districts, such as west Cornwall, and moorlands it is naturally absent, and 
is not found on the Isle of Man. In Ireland Ussher records it as breeding 
in Leinster and the adjoining part of Munster (i. e. the basins of the Rivers 
Suir, Nore and Barrow), while in other parts of Ireland it is either an 
irregular visitor or altogether unknown. In Scotland it is found in wooded 



25 

districts on the southern slopes of the Grampians from Dumbarton to Forfar, 
and occurs in suitable localities south of this line, but to the north and west 
it is decidedly rare and has only been recorded from a few localities as a 
resident, such as Glengarry, Inverness, Benderloch, west Kintyre, etc. Unlike 
the Rook and the Starling, it does not appear to be extending its range, but 
rather to be stationary or even decreasing in numbers in the north. In 
the Hebrides and northern islands it is unknown. 

The sites used for this purpose vary considerably. Perhaps the most Nest. 
usual situation is among the thick foKage of undergrowth in woods, such 
as hazel, blackthorn, hoUy or evergreens, as a rule not more than 20 ft. 
from the ground and frequently half that height, or even less. Another 
favourite site is among the outgrowth which sprouts where a bough has 
been sawn off. The leafy lower boughs of oak trees are also sometimes 
chosen, as are also plantations of thick young spruce, and in Derbyshire 
I have seen two or three nests in tall larches or Scotch firs, within a yard 
or two of the top, and not less than 60 ft. from the ground. An even 
more remarkable site is recorded in the Zoologist for 1863, p. 8720, where 
a nest was found within a foot of the ground in tall ling, on Witley 
Common, Surrey. The foundation of the nest consists of sticks and twigs, 
with sometimes a little earth, while the cup is neatly and thickly lined 
with fine roots and occasionally dry grasses. Horsehair is also said to be 
occasionally found in the lining. The nest distinctly recalls that of the 
Bullfinch, but of course is built on a much larger scale. 

Usually 5 or 6 in number, but 4 are not uncommon, and 3 young Eg-g». 
have been found in a nest, while clutches of 7 are occasionally found. 
The ground colour is generally pale sage green or olive buff, finely mottled 
with rather darker markings of olive or liver brown, which sometimes 
tend to form a zone at the big end; while a hair line or streak of very 
dark brown (almost black) is often present at the same end. Some eggs 
show a strong tendency to the rufous type of colouring found in other 
species of Corvidae, and others are almost devoid of markings and show only 
the bluish green ground. 

Rather variable, but usually in the south of England between April 25 Breedinr 
and May 20, and about a week later in the north-midland counties. Season. 

The period of incubation is said to be 16 days, and the sitting bird 
often does not leave the nest until almost touched. 

Average of 100 eggs from England 31.73 x 22.85 mm., Max. Measure- 
34.3 X 24 and 34 X 24.6 mm., Min. 28.2 X 22 and 32.1 X 21.1 mm. "^ents. 
Average weight of 6 eggs 562 mg. English eggs appear to be slightly 
longer and not so rounded in form as continental specimens, but the eggs 
of all the races of G. glandarius are practically indistinguishable. 



26 
Geographical Races. 

a. Continental Jay, €r. glaudarius glandarius (L.). 

Plate 7, fig. 1 and 3 — 6 (Germany), 2 (Switzerland). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XLI, fig. 6, a— f. Baedeker, Tab. 50, 
fig. 17. Taczanowski, Tab. XXXI, fig. 2. 

Foreign Names: Bobemia: Sojka. Denmark: Skovskade. Finland: 
Ndrhi. France: Geai ordinaire, Ze. Germany: Hdher, Eichelhaher, Nuss- 
halier, Hdgert, Markolf. Helgoland: Hddger. Holland: Vlaamsche Gaai, 
Meerkolf. Huiagaij: Szajko. Italy: Ohiandaja, Berta, Oagia. Norway: /5A;oi;- 
skrika. Poland: Sbjka pospoUta. Russia; Soika. Sweden: Notskrika, Allon- 
skrika, Kornskrika, Skogskata. 

O. glandarius (L.). Dresser, 1. c. [partim]. O. glandariiis glandarius (L.). 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 29. 

Breeding Range: Tlie whole of Europe with the exception of the 
British Isles, the Iberian peninsula (where it is replaced by G. g. fasciatus 
A. E. Brehm), south-eastern Russia {G. g. caspius Seeb.) and the eastern 
part of the Balkan peninsula {G. g. krynicki Kal.), while other forms 
inhabit Sardinia and Cyprus. 

Wherever woods and plantations occur the Jay is usually found 
throughout the great European plain. It appears to be absent from Bomholm, 
and has not been recorded from the Scandinavian forests north of the 
Arctic circle, but in Russia Gobel mentions it in his list from north-west 
Russian Lapland, and Wolley obtained one at Muonioniska in autumn, 
while it is found throughout Finland. In the higher Alpine forests it is 
replaced by the Nutcracker, though plentiful in the lower valleys of Switzer- 
land. The exact range of the typical race and of G. g. krynicki in the 
Balkan peninsula is as yet undetermined, but Kriiper records glandarius 
as resident throughout Greece and common on Olympus, and it is the 
resident form in Montenegro, the greater part of Bulgaria and is the only 
form found in the Dobriidscha. 
Nest In nesting habits this race closely resembles that alveady described, 

but Kleinschmidt mentions an instance of a nest having been found built 
on the ground in the side of a hollow way, and von Wangelin records 
another on a heap of brushwood, scarcely a yard from the ground. A 
nest is also said to have been found in a hole of a tree [Journ. f. Ornith. 
1861, p. 470). 
Eggs. Usually the number of eggs in the same as that of G. g. rufitergum. 

(According to Kleinschmidt exceptional cases have occurred of 8, 9 and even 
10 eggs being found.) 
Bleeding In Greccc the end of April or the beginning of May (Kriiper); in 

Season. Switzerland in April or May, while Rey found clutches in Germany from 



27 

the end of April to the end of May, and second layings of 4 eggs to the 
end of June. 

Average of 100 eggs 31.6x23 mm., Max. 36x24.5 and 32.3x25 mm., Measure- 
Min. 29X21 mm. Average weight 566 mg. A dwarf egg measures meuts. 
21.8 X 17.2 mm and weighs 350 mg. (Rey). 

b. British Jay, G. glaiidarius rufltergum Hart. See p. 34. 

c. Spanish Jay, G. glandarius fasciatus A. E. Brehm. 

Local Names: Portugal: Oaio. Spain: Arrenddjo. 

O. glandarius kleinschmidti Hart. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 30. 

Breeding Range: The Iberian peninsula. 

Irby describes this form as very plentiful in the cork wood of Al- 
moraima and in the valleys and hill sides, up to a considerable height, 
though rather local. It also breeds freely near Granada (Saunders). Jays 
are also found in small numbers in S. Portugal, and are abundant in 
wooded parts of northern Spain and Portugal. Near Gibraltar the eggs 
are laid early in May (Irby). 

d. Sardinian Jay, G. glandarius ichnusae Kleinschm. 

G. glandarius ichnusae Kleinschm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 30. 

Breeding Range: Sardinia, also Corsica and probably other islands. 

Brooke found this race very numerous in the forests on the mountains 
of Sardinia, and Whitehead describes Jays as fairly common in Corsica. 
6 Eggs taken there average 30.2 X 22.6 mm. and are light in colour. 

e. Cyprian Jay, G. glandarius glaszneri Mad. 

G. glandarius glaszneri Mad. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 31. 

Breeding Range: Cyprus. 

Guillemard met with this bird in pine woods near Kikko (in the ex- 
treme west of the island), and also on Troodos (6600 ft.), where Glaszner 
also found it very common. 

f. Caspian Jay, G. glandarius caspius Seeh. 

G. glandarius casyius Seeb. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 31. 
Breeding Range: The steppes of south-east Russia from Lenkoran 
to the Caspian Sea. 

An egg from Lenkoran, taken on May 6 measures 32 x 22.6 mm. 

g. Black headed Jay, G. glandarius krynicki Ealen. 

G. krynicki Kal. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 495; Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 414. G. glandarius krynicki Kal. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 32. 



28 

Breeding Range: East European Turkey. [Also Asia Minor and 
the Caucasus.] 

Robson found nests in the forest of Belgrade, near Constantinople, 
and in Asia Minor it is not uncommon locally, both in the plains and in 
the hills, nesting in the olive and pomegranate woods (Kriiper). The 
breeding season begins early in May, and full clutches have been taken near 
Smyrna from May 8 to early in June. The number of eggs varies from 
4 to 7. They are rather dark coloured, and 42 eggs average 30X23.07 mm., 
Max. 33 X 24 and 30.2 x 24.5 mm., Min. 26 X 22 mm. 

[In north Africa three forms of Jay are found: G. glandariiis minor 
Verr. {G. oenops Whit.) from parts of the Maroccan Atlas and south Algeria; 
G. glandarius whitakeri Hart, from north Marocco, Tangier, etc., and 
G. glandarius cervicalis Bp. from the cork -oak woods of north Algeria. 
Eggs of the last named race are figured in the J. /'. 0. 1896, Taf. VI, fig. 5. 
Average of 12 eggs (Konig 3 and 9 by the author) 31.8 X 22.9 mm., 
Max. 33.5 x 23.5 and 32.5 x 24 mm., Min. 30 x 22 mm. Two eggs weighed 
480 and 550 mg. (Konig). Breeding season, early May. 

In western Asia besides G. g. krynicki, another race, G. g. atricapillus 
Geoff, is found in Palestine and Syria. Tristram describes it as common 
in olive groves from Lebanon to Hebron and in the forests of Gilead and 
Bashan. It is an early breeder, and young were found hatched in April, 
An egg from Tyre measures 32 x 22.6 mm. East of the Urals, G. g. brandtii 
Eversm. is the resident form. An egg taken on May 11 measures 
30.5x22.4 mm. 

10. Silberian Jay, Perisoreus infaustus (L.). 
Plate 7, fig. 7, 8, 10, 12 (Muonio, 15. IV. 89), 9, 11 (Lapland), 13 (Lap- 
land, 19. VI. 89). 

Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 77, fig. 5. Bree, Birds of Europe, Ed. I, I, pi. 
Ootheca WoUeyana, Tab. XIII, fig. 1—16. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Sojka zlovestna. Denmark: Lavskrige. 
Finland: Kuusanka, Kuukkeli, Kukkainen, HepJiorakka, Kuuskilainen. Ger- 
many: VnglUckshdher, BotschwanzhdJier, sibirischer Hciher. Hungary: Eszaki 
szajkb. Lapland: Kuossak, Kuoska. Norway: Gjertrudsfugl, Ulykkesfugl, 
Lavskrike, Rofiihre. Poland: Sbjka zlounroga. Russia: Mousta. Sweden: 
Lafskrika, Telltpixa, Rodtjuxa. 

Perisoreus infaustus (L.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 471; Man. 
of Pal. Birds, p. 410. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 34. 

Breeding Range: Scandinavia, the Baltic provinces and north of 
Russia. 

In Norway this birds breeds commonly in East Finmark up to the 
limit of the pine region, and more sparingly in the Tromso and Trondhjem 



29 

Amter, while according to Collett it has also been found as far south as 
Kristiania and south Telemark {59^1^° N. lat.). In Sweden Hennicke has 
recorded it in August from Stollet in Wennland (south of 60^/2° N. lat.), 
but it is absent from Gotarike, though distributed over the country N. of 
Lat. 60° — 61". In Lapland it is found wherever conifers exist, and in 
Finland is most numerous on the eastern border (Sandman). In the forests 
of eastern Esthonia and Livonia it is also a resident, and is common in 
the Kola peninsula. [East of the Urals it is replaced by P. infaustiis 
sihericus (Bodd.).] 

Like those of the Nutcracker, the eggs of this species were unknown Nest. 
to science half a century ago, and for the same reasons. Many interesting 
details as to its nidification may be found in Ootheca woUeyana, part II, 
p. 478. Most of Wolley's nests were found in Scotch firs and spruce, 
and were as a rule placed about 12 ft. from the ground, though some- 
times as low as 7 ft., or as high as 20 ft. The nest is constucted of 
bleached sticks, sometimes covered with black lichens, but mostly without 
bark, then lighter coloured lichens and a thick layer of feathers,* lichens 
( Usnea harhata, Everina sarmentosa, Parmelia saxatilis, etc.) reindeer hair, 
hare's down, spider's nests, leaves and portions of wasps' nests, as weU as 
the down of Eriophorum, grass stalks, moss and bits of bark. Dimensions: 
diameter 5.5 to 8 in., depth 2.75 to 4.75 in., diameter of cup 2.35 to 
3.4 in., depth of cup 1.6 to 2 in. (Collett and Benzon). 

The nest is sometimes very conspicuous, but is often placed in a 
thick, bushy tree, and is easily overlooked on account of the vast extent 
of the forests and the silent and retiring habits of the bird durins; the 
nesting season. It is usually built close to the stem and often on the 
outskirts of a wood or close to a track. 

Three or four in number, but occasionally five have been found. Eggs. 

These are somewhat variable both in ground colour and in distribu- 
tion of markings. The ground colour varies from dirty white to pale 
greenish, but some eggs have a decidedly warmer tint. The surface spots 
are of dark or light yellowish brown, sometimes evenly distributed, but 
more often congregated ot the big end, sometimes forming a zone or cap. 
Occasionally they are found chiefly at the small end. The underlying blotches 
are violet grey in colour. 

The nest is built early in the year, when snow is deep on the ground Breeding 
and the cold very severe, and most eggs appear to be laid in Lapland season, 
towards the end of April, but full clutches may be obtained from April 6 
onward to about May 10. Perhaps April 24 may be taken as the average 
date. In mid-Sweden fledged young have been met mth on May 20, and 



* Chiefly from the Willow Grouse, Capercaillie and Lapp Owl. 



30 

Middeiidorff found naked young of the Siberian forai, P. infaustiis sibericus 
(Bodd.), on April 16, so that the eggs must have been laid at the end of 
March. Incubation begins as soon as the first egg is laid, and the bird 
sits so closely that she is frequently Ufted from the eggs by the Lapps, 
The young leave the nest at the end of May or early in June. There is 
some evidence that a second brood is occasionally reared, and Printz found 
small young on July 15. 
Measure- Average size of 100 eggs (42 Rey, 34 Jourdain and 24 Sandman) 

«ents. 30.04 X 21.84 mm., Max. 34 X 21.6 and 30.6 X 23.6 mm., Min. 27 X 26 mm. 
Average weight (42 eggs) 400 mg. (Rey): of 16 eggs, 381.5 mg.. varying 
from 350 to 440 mg. (Westerlund). 

11. Chough, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (L.). 

Plate 2, fig. 8—11 (Granada, 1. V. 1894); Plate 26, fig. 2 (Galway, 
21. V. 92), fig. 3 (Waterford, 21. V. 83). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XLI, fig. 3. Hewitson, I. Ed. I, 
pi. CXH; II. Ed. I, pi. XL VII. fig. 2; III. Ed. I, pi. LVL Baedeker, Tab. 28, 
fig. 2. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 16; id. Col. Fig., pi. 55. Frohawk, Br. 
Birds, pL VI, fig. 214—215. 

British Local Names: England: Cornish Chough or Daw, Red- 
legged Crow or Chough, Cornwall Kae, Market-jew Crow, Chauk Daiv. 
Cornish: Palores. Welsh: Bran big coch. Manx: Caaig. Ireland: Bed 
legged Jackdaw (North), Cliff Daw (South). Erse: Cawg, Cawdhoge. Scot- 
land: St Columba's Bird (lona). Gaelic: Caag. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Kavce svatlave. France; Crave ordinaire, 
Choucas rouge, Corneille royale or imperiale. Germany: Steinkrahe, Alpenkrdhe. 
Hungary: Havasi Hollo. Italy: Gracchio corallino, Coracia di montagna, 
Gracco, Taccola del bech ross. Poland: Wrbnczyk czerwmiodzibby, Tyz. 
Portugal: Gralha di bico vermelho. Russia: Kluschitza, Bortevschik. Spain: 
Graja, CJiova, Jucala, Gralla de bech vermeil. Tyrol: Cornagia del piz cotocteu. 

P. graculus L. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 437; Newton, ed. 
Yarrell, II, p. 252; Saunders, Man., p. 231; Dresser, Man. PaL Birds, p. 405. 
P. pyrrhocorax (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 35. 

Breeding Range; On the islands in the Mediterranean, and parts 
of Spain, Portugal, Brittany, the Channel Isles, S. W. England, Wales, 
W. Scotland, Ireland, the principal mountain ranges of Europe (Alps, 
Pyrenees, Apennines, Caucasus, etc.), Italy and the Balkan peninsula. [Also 
N. Africa, and Asia from Asia Minor to E. Siberia.] 
British In England and Wales there has been a marked diminution in the 

Isles, numbers of this species of late years, and many weU-known breeding haunts 
are now deserted. The only part of England where it stiU breeds is the 



31 

rocky coast of Devon and Cornwall, while perhaps a few pairs still exist 
in Dorset. On Lundy it is now scarce, though formerly plentiful, but is 
not found on the Scillies. Along the Welsh coast scattered pairs nest in 
the sea cliffs, or occasionally in a quarry close to the sea. It still survives 
in the Isle of Man, but in nothing like the numbers of former years. At 
the present time the chief strongholds of this species are the west coast 
of Ireland and some of the Scottish Islands. Ussher describes it as breeding 
in Antrim, Donegal, Down (rare), Leitrim (?), Sligo (rare). Mayo, Galway, 
Clare, Kerry, Cork and Waterford, usually on the coast and adjacent islands, 
but sometimes also on mountain ranges inland. In Scotland it is local, 
but in certain localities common, on Islay, Jura, Gigha and other islands, 
of the Inner Hebrides as far as Skye. Possibly a few pairs may still nest 
on the western mainland, but on the Outer Hebrides it is unknown. 

In France the Chough l)reeds locally on the coast of Brittany, and The Con- 
is not uncommon on Sark. Rey found a colony of 40 to 50 pairs nesting tinent 
in the face of a precipice in Portugal, and it is plentiful locally in the 
Pyrenees, though less numerous than P. graadiis (L.), and is also found 
in Navarre, in the Cantabrian Mountains and in considerable numbers in 
the Sierras of the south (Sierra Nevada, S. de Ubrique, etc.). In Corsica 
and Sardinia its haunts are the mountain ranges, but in Sicily it breeds in 
the sea cliffs: it is found also in the Basses- Alpes, and in pairs or small 
colonies in the Alps of Ticino, Valais, Vaud, Berne, Uri, Glarus, Appenzell, 
Grisons and the Engadine (Fatio), and on the Italian side in Piedmont and 
Lombardy as well as in the Apennines. Further north it has occured 
rarely in the Vosges, and in the mountain ranges of Bavaria, as well as 
in Styria, Carinthia, and the Tyrol. Records from the Bukowina require 
confirmation. In the Balkan peninsula it appears to be confined to the 
southern part (Pindus range, Parnassus, etc.), but is a resident on Crete 
(Mt. Ida) though absent from Cyprus. EastAvard it has been recorded from 
the Caucasus in large colonies, and the southern Urals. [In the Canaries 
it is confined to Palma, and has not been recorded from Palestine.] 

In some parts of its range, such as the British Isles, Portugal, Sicily, Ne&L 
etc., the nest is usually placed in a cave or crevice of cliff along the sea 
coast, or else in a quarry Avithin sight of the sea. In other districts, such 
as Sardinia, Greece and the great mountain ranges of Europe, it is found 
in gorges and lofty ranges of cliff, often at a considerable altitude and far 
inland. Fatio says that in Switzerland church towers and Avails of old 
castles are also utilized for nesting purposes. On the Avest coast of Ire- 
land a favourite spot is a crevice in the roof of a sea cave, often quite 
inaccessible. The nest is usually large and somewhat like that of the 
Jackdaw in construction. The foundation consists of sticks, furze stems and 
heather stalks, sometimes only Avithered plants, roots and a little grass or 



32 

moss, warmly and neatly lined with wool, or cow and goat hair. Approximate 
diameter of nest 10 in., the height depending on the size of the crevice 
or shelf. The same site is occupied year after year, and a second clutch 
is sometimes deposited in the same nest after the first has been taken. 
Ussher mentions an instance of a breeding place occupied for over 40 years 
consecutively. 

Eggs. Usually 4 — 5, but 3 are not uncommon, and Ussher records instances 

of 2 only, while 6 have been known to occur. The Chough is single 
brooded, but second and third layings are deposited when the first clutches 
are taken. Incubation appears to begin after the laying of the first egg, 
and as the eggs in a clutch are often in different stages of development, 
it is probable that they are not always laid on consecutive days. The yolk 
is of an extraordinarily deep, rich, red colour. 

The ground colour varies from creamy white (rare) to very pale 
yellowish green and pale brownish yellow, while some eggs have a bluish 
cast. The underlying blotches and spots are pale lilac, while the surface 
markings vary from sepia to reddish brown, but are most frequently yellowish 
brown, and vary much in depth of colour. The character of the markings 
is very variable: sometimes a few bold blotches and spots, sometimes 
numerous fine speckles, at one time evenly distributed over the surface, 
at another forming a distinct zone or cap, generally at the big end. About 
10 per cent, show traces of a black streak at the blunt end. The shell 
is somewhat glossy with numerous minute projections and occasionally 
small lumps of calcareous matter are found on the surface. 

Breeding The earliest Irish date for a full clutch is April 10, but most eggs 

Season, ^re laid there in the last week of April and May 1 — 8. On the Cornish 
and Welsh coasts the breeding time is perhaps rather later — earliest date 
April 19 — and most eggs in the first fortnight of May. In the Alps eggs 
are found from the end of April onward, but in south Spain clutches may 
be obtained at the beginning of April, and on Palma in the last week of 
March, and probably about the same time in Greece. 

Measure- Average of 100 eggs from Cornwall and Ireland 39.46x27.94 mm., 

ments. Max. 42.6 X 29 and 41 x 29.5 mm., Min. 34 x 26 and 36.9 x 24.6 mm. 
Spanish eggs appear to be larger and perhaps warmer in colour. Average 
of 19 eggs (9 by E. Rey and 10 by author) 41.05x28.26 mm.. Max. 
44.1X28.5 and 42.1X29.5 mm., Min. 36.5X27.8 and 40X21.1 mm. 
Average weight of 45 Irish eggs 994 mg., but 9 Spanish eggs average 
1.020 g., varying from 0.910 to 1.150 g. (Rey). 



33 

12. Alpine Chough, Pyrrhocorax graculus (L.). 

Plate 4, fig. 8 (Pyrenees), 9 — 11 (Parnassus). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XLI, fig. 2, a— d. Baedeker, Tab. 28, 
fig. 3. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, pi. 16; id. Col. Fig., pi. 55. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Kavce podhorni. Croatia: Colica, Capka. 
France: Choquard, CJioiicas des Alpes. Germany: Alpendohle. Hungary: 
Havasi csoka. Italy: Gracchio. Poland: Wronczyk zbltodzioby, Tyz. Russia: 
KluscJiiza. Spain: Qralla de hech grocli, Oraja, Orajilla. 

Pyrrhocorax alpinns Vieill. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 445; 
id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 406. P. gramlus (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 36, 

Breeding Range: Mountain ranges in Spain and Portugal, Pyrenees, 
Alps, Apennines, Balkan peninsula and Caucasus. [In Asia, Palestine and 
Asia Minor to the Himalayas.] 

In the Iberian peninsula the Alpine Chough is not uncommon locally 
in the higher mountain ranges, such as the Sierra Nevada, S. de Credos, 
etc., and has been recorded from Portugal (Rey), breeding as a rule at a 
D-reater elevation than its congener. Colonies are also to be met with at 
various points in the Pyrenees, sometimes together with P. pyrrhocorax (L.) 
as in the gorges of Corsavi, but usually higher. It is met with on l)oth 
the French and Spanish sides and is much the commoner species of the two, 
A colony exists on the Breche de Roland at a height of 9500 ft. (Wallis), 
In the Alpine region it is generally distributed throughout the Alps proper, 
between the forest limit and the snow line, but is absent from the Jura, and 
occurs in small numbers in the adjacent mountain districts of France, S. Ger- 
many, Austria and Italy. In the last named country its range extends south- 
ward to the Apuan Alps and the northern Apennines. Whitehead saw large 
flocks in Corsica, but it appears to be absent from Sicily* and Sardinia. In 
Austro-Hungary it is found in the Tatra Mts. (Wodzicki and Scherfel), on 
the Rax-Alpe (Lower Austria) and locally in the Tyrol, southward to the 
Dinaric Alps. Along the mountain ranges of Bosnia, Montenegro, Servia 
and western Bulgaria (Rilo and Stara-Planina) it is generally distributed 
and in many districts plentiful, and probably further research will prove 
that it is present on all the principal ranges of the peninsula. In Greece 
it is resident in all the mountains and is very numerous on Parnassus, the 
Taygetos Mts., etc., and it has been observed in Albania. Bogdanow records 
it from the Caucasus and Sabanaeff from the Urals. 

Usually built in some natural hole or fissure in the vast precipices Nest. 
or gorges, which abound in the great mountain systems, and therefore 
difficult of access even Avhere the birds are plentiful. Unlike the Red-billed 
Chough, this species is not littoral in its habits during the breeding season 

* But see Whitaker, Birds of Tunisia, II, p. 8. 



34 



Eggs. 



Breeding 

Season. 



Measure- 
ments. 



at any part of its range. The foundation of the nest consists of dead 
sticks, upon Avhich is a superstructure of fir twigs, heather, dry roots, 
grass, etc., the interior Hning consisting in some cases of dry grass, in 
others of hair and wool, with a few feathers of the bird. Diameter of nest 
about 11 in., of cup 6 in. 

In Spain, the Alps and the Balkan peninsula the number of eggs is 
4 or 5, but Neweklowsky and Reiser found 3 the maximum on the Otscher- 
hohlen, while broods of 2 only were common. The ground colour varies 
as in the case of P. pyrrhocorax (L.), and the markings are also similar 
in character and equally variable. The broAvn markings however are never 
quite so rufous as in some varieties of Chough's eggs, and there appears 
to be less tendency to form a zone at the big end, while some eggs are 
almost devoid of surface markings, and only show a few violet-grey under- 
lying blotches on a whitish ground. A black streak is also sometimes 
but rarely present. 

Reliable data as to the breeding season are rather scanty. In Spain eggs 
have been taken in May; in Switzerland from the end of April to mid- 
June (Fatio), while the young leave the nest by the end of June. On the 
Otscherhohler Reiser gives May 1 1 as the average date, but some (probably 
older) birds have eggs by the end of April, while a nest on the Balkans 
contained young a few days old on June 5. In Greece the breeding season 
is perhaps earlier. Kriiper surmised that the laying time was the beginning 
of April or even the end of March, but fresh clutches have been taken 
on Parnassus as late as May 20. 

Average of 45 eggs (28 by the author, 8 by Rey, 5 by Reiser and 4 by 
"Konig-Warthausen) 38.29 x 26,44 mm.. Max, 41.8 X 26.4 and 38 x 28.5 mm., 
Min. 34.3 x 25.3 and 39.5 x 21.5 mm. Average weight of 8 eggs 847 mg., 
varying from 650 to 960 mg. (Rey). 



STURNIDAE. 



13. Common Starling, Sturnns Tulgaris L. 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab, XXXVIII, fig, 1, a— b. Hewitson, 
I. Ed, I, pi. IX; II, Ed. I, pi. XLVH, fig. 1; III. Ed, I, pi. LV, fig. 1. Baedeker, 
Tab. 50, fig. 12. Taczanowski, Tab. XXXIII, fig. 2, Seebohm, Brit. Birds, 
pi. 11; id. Col. Fig., pi. 54. Frohawk, Br. Birds, II, pi. VI, fig. 210—213. 

British Local Names: England: Stare, Shepster or Sheepstare, 
Starnel, Gyp; Brotvn Starling (juv.). Welsh: Drudwy. Scotland: Stirlin\ 
Shetland: Sta^'n. Erse: Dridh or Drid-yogne. 



35 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Spacek. Demnark: 8taer, Star. Finland: 
MustakoUarainen. France: Etourneau. Germany: Oemeiner Star or Sprehe. 
Holland: Spreeuiv. Helgoland: Sprien. Hungary: Seregely. Italy: Storno. 
Norway: Staer, Star. F oland: Szpak skorsec. Fortngal: Estorninho. Russia: 
Skvoretz. Sweden: Star, Starr, Staer. Spain: Estornino. 

Sturnus vulgaris L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, H, p. 228; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, IV, p. 405; Saunders, Manual, p. 227; Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, 
p. 399. S. vulgaris vulgaris L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 41. 

Breeding Range: Europe from the North Cape, but absent from 
Lapland, northern Sweden, E. Finland and the Archangel Government; and 
replaced by other forms in the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas and S. Russia. 

Here the Starling is a resident, and not a bird of passage as on the British 
greater part of the Continent. It is now generally distributed throughout ^^^^s* 
England and Wales, except on the bare moorlands and mountain tops, and 
in some parts is extraordinarily plentiful. In Northumberland, Cumberland, 
Wales and Cornwall it was formerly only a winter visitor, but within the 
last 40 years has become established as a breeding species. The history 
of its distribution in Scotland is remarkable. It appears to have been a 
resident in the Shetlands and Orkneys for a century or more; in the Outer 
Hebrides it was abundant in 1841, and in St. Kilda in 1830. The main- 
land appears to have been gradually colonized by migratory waves from 
two distinct sources; firstly from the northern isles in a S. W. direction, 
and secondly from the south (See Annals of Scott. Nat. Hist. 1895, p. 2 
and 92). In the Isle of Man it is common, and in Ireland it now breeds 
in every county, though still scarce in summer in Donegal, Kerry, W. Cork, 
Waterford and Wexford (Ussher). 

In Norway this species has increased its ranffe northward of late ^°^' 

. " . tinental 

years and was observed at Vardo by Pearson in 1903, but as yet is only Europe. 
thinly distributed in the extreme north, and is still absent from northern 
Sweden, Gobel also records it from N. W. Russian Lapland, but it is not 
known in N. E. Finland, though v. Wright says it occurs near Ule&borg. 
In the Archangel Government it was not observed at Archangel by Harvie- 
Brown or on the Petschora by Seebohm, and is stiU rare north of lat. 
60° to 64°. Over the rest of Europe it is generally distributed except in 
certain districts, such as Montenegro, while in S. Russia and the Balkan 
peninsula it is replaced by S. v. purpiirascens Gould, S. v. caucasicus Lor., 
S. V. tauricus But., etc. On the other hand it is found throughout Italy,- 
with the exception of Calabria; but in Sicily and Sardinia its place is taken 
by S. unicolor Temm., and it is only known as a winter visitor to Corsica 
and the Iberian peninsula. 

The nesting sites of this species are very varied. Where there is Nest. 
plenty of old timber, a hole in a tree is perhaps the most favoured spot, 

3* 



36 

but great numbers of nests are built in holes of walls or buildings, under 
eaves and in chimneys, while on rocky coasts or where cliffs are met with, 
a natural crevice or hole in the rock is often utilized. Thus in the 
Hebrides the Starling nests in the sea-caves in common with the Shag 
and the Rock Dove, quite independently of man. On the other hand in 
cultivated districts the nests are generally either in, or close to, dwelling 
houses; and should a slate come off the roof or the spouting be left un- 
covered, a starling is sure to take advantage of the vacancy. Nesting- 
boxes are readily adopted, and in Jutland I have seen wooden cases affixed 
to the walls, divided into compartments capable of accomodating 100 pairs, 
which appeared to be well patronized. An unfortunate feature in the 
character of this species is the readiness with which it ejects other interesting 
birds, such as the Green and Great Spotted Woodpeckers, and the Swift, 
from their nesting holes and takes possession of them. Among the more 
unusual sites used for breeding purposes may be mentioned: old Sand- 
martins' holes, in thick ivy against walls or trees, against the side of a 
haystack, in holes in the ground (St. Kilda) and among stone heaps or 
boulders on the beach (Shetlands), in old Magpies' and Wood Pigeons' 
nests, occasionally in open nests among the branches of thick trees, both 
in England (see Yarrell, II, p. 232; Zool 1837, p. 347, 1899, p. 370) and 
Denmark, in rabbit warrens (Anglesea), etc. The nest itself is a carelessly 
built structure, varying in size according to the situation and composed 
chiefly of straw, with occasionally a few dead leaves, dry grass and moss, 
and a scanty lining of feathers, or wool and hair. Some birds have l)een 
observed to decorate their nests with blossoms of flowers, green leaves, etc. 

The clutch varies from 4 to 7, but on several occasions I have met 
with 8 eggs in a nest, which there is every reason to believe were the 
produce of one hen. The somewhat glossy pale blue, sometimes white or 
almost white, eggs are familiar to all. Occasionally an egg shows traces 
of reddish brown spots. 

In the British Isles the vast majority of birds rear only a single 
brood, but occasionally a second is hatched off. It has however been 
asserted that this is not really the case, and that what appear to be second 
broods are in reality only the late hatches of those birds which have hitherto 
failed to find nesting holes. (See the Naturalist 1889, p. 112, 366, etc., 
Zool. 1903, p. 390, etc.) It seems more natural to suppose that, as in the 
case of the Spotted Flycatcher, some birds breed twice. Saxby speaks of 
this as the rule in Unst, and in the western part of the Continent and 
southern Germany it usually takes place, whereas in Scandinavia, Denmark 
and N. E. Germany the reverse is the case. Time of incubation 14 days. 
Breeding In the British Isles the usual breeding season is from mid-April to 

Season, early May, but occasionally nests have been found in December, January and 



37 

February. Where two broods are reared the eggs of the second hatch may- 
be met with in the first week of June, usually 3 or 4 days only elapsing 
between the flight of the young and the cleaning out of the nest for the 
second brood. A few instances are on record of three broods having been 
reared {Nat. 1891, p. 49, etc.). Rey gives the second half of April as the usual 
time for full clutches in Germany, while in Finland the eggs are laid early in May. 

Enghsh eggs appear to be larger than Continental. 51 from Gennany Measure- 
only average 28.83 X 20.84 mm. (Rey), while 50 English eggs average ments. 
30.33X21.4 mm. Mean average of 100 eggs 29.57X21.11 mm., Max. 
34.1 X 22.4 and 31.2 X 22.8 mm., Min. 27 X 20.4 and 28.6 X 20 mm. 
A dwarf e^g measures 25.2 X 19.5 mm. (R. H. Read coll.). Irregular 
longitudinal grooves are frequently found on eggs of this species. Average 
weight of 51 German eggs 431 mg. (Rey). 

Geographical Races, 
a. Common Starling^, S. vulg'aris vulg^aris L. See above, 
b. Faeroe Starling', S. vulgaris faroensis Felld. 
Local Name: Fseroes: Steari. 

S. vulgaris faroensis Feild. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 44. 
Breeding Range: the Faeroes. 

This easily recognized race is a common resident in the Faeroes, 
breeding in colonies in the rocks and also in the walls of stone outhouses. 
Feilden found well-feathered young on Sando on May 22, but also obtained 
clutches of 5 — 6 fresh eggs on May 23 and from June 2 to 23. The eggs 
are similar to those of other races, but as might be expected, average 
somewhat larger. 

Average of 27 eggs 30.9 X 21.56 mm.. Max. 33.5 X 22.6 and 
32.3 X 23 mm., Min. 29 X 21.1 and 32.1 X 20 mm. 

c. Caucasian Starling, S. vulgaris caucasicus Lorenz. 

Local Name: Russia: Blestyastclie-sTcvoretz. 

S. caucasicus Lor. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IX, p. 234; Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 400. S. v. caucasicus Lor. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 46. 

Breeding Range: The Caucasus. [Also in N. Persia and in the 
highlands of the S. W.] 

Rey gives measurements of 5 eggs, which average 28.1 X 21.16 mm., 
Max. 29.6 X 22.6 mm., Min. 27.1 X 20 and 29.1 X 19.3 mm. Average 
weight 365 mg. 

d. Purple winged Starling, S. vulgaris purpurascens Gould. 

S. purpurascens Gould. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 419; Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 400. S. v. purpurascens Gould. Harteii, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 46. 



38 

Breeding Range: The Balkan peninsula, delta of the Danube. (Also 
Asia Minor, Cyprus, Persia, etc.) 

In the Danube valley and the Dobrudscha this race is plentiful. 
Tschusi and Reiser have recently described the birds from Greece (Thessaly, 
perhaps also S. Macedonia) under the name of 8. vulgaris graecus Tsch. & Reis. 
(Om. Jahrh. 1905, p. 141). 

Eggs taken in Turkey are not distinguishable from those of the 
typical race. Reiser gives the usual measurements as 28.8 X 21.2 mm. 
(Bulgaria). Weight 440 mg. 

e. Crimean Starling, Stiu'nus vulgaris taiu-ieus Bnturl. 

Breeding Range: The Crimea. 

Recently described by Buturlin as a distinct species, but more probably 
only a local race of S. vulgaris. Irby and Blakiston describe it as common 
in the Crimea, arriving in mid March, and breeding in holes of cliffs and 
nesting boxes about the middle of April. 

(Buturlin also describes the race inhabiting the district between 
the Ural and the middle Wolga under the name of S. vulgaris jitkowi, 
and considers the N. Caucasus birds to be a new race of S. poltorat^kyi 
{S. p. satunini But.), but Hartert (in litt.) doubts the distinctness of the 
latter form.) 

\^8. V. poUaratskyi Finsch inhabits Siberia as far as the Baikal Lake 
and also occurs in Cyprus, while S. v. granti Hart, is the resident Starling 
of the Azores.] 

14. Sardinian or Spotless Starling, Sturnus unicolor Tenmi. 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXVIII, fig. 2, a— b. Baedeker, 
Tab. 50, fig. 13. 

Foreign Names: Italy: Storno nero. Marocco: Zarzor kdlial. Por- 
tugal: Estorninho preto. Sardinia: Sturru nieddu, Sturru nern. Spain: 
Tordo, Tordo serrano. Tunis: Sarsour. 

Sturnus unicolor Temm. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 415; Man. 
of Pal. Birds, p. 401. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 46. 

Breeding Range: The Iberian peninsula, Sardinia, Sicily and the 
Balearic Isles. [Also in N. Africa from Marocco to Tunis.] 

In many towns of southern Spain this species is as familiar as 8. vulgaris 
at home, but it is somewhat local in its distribution and is not common 
near Gibraltar. North of the Straits of Gibraltar it is as a rule only a 
summer visitor, but Tait records it as resident in Portugal and very common 
inland, but not numerous near Oporto. In Sardinia it is very plentiful, and 
breeds in the mountains of Sicily. It is omitted from the lists of Wharton, 



39 

Giglioli and Whitehead for Corsica, and is only an occasional visitor to 
the south of France, Italy and Malta. [On the mainland of Africa it is 
resident, breeding in the cliffs of Cape Blanco (N.) and other localities on 
the Maroccan coast. In Algeria it is curiously scarce, but breeds in Tunis 
in numbers.] 

Like S. vulgaris this species is sometimes met with nesting singly Nest. 
and sometimes in small or large colonies. All the nests met with by Rey 
in Portugal were built in crevices of rocks, but in Spain many pairs breed 
in holes of trees. Pigeon houses and old Moorish towers are also freely 
used and sometimes 100 — 150 pairs may be found nesting together. In 
the to\vns any hollow in the roofs or hole in the walls of old buildings 
is occupied. In north west Africa many nests are found in holes of the 
sea cHffs, and also in the mosc[ues inland, but in Tunis von Erlanger found 
this species in possession of forsaken nests of Bee-Eaters and Rollers, as 
weU as breeding in crevices of the precipitous sandy cliffs at Oued Kasserine. 
In SarcUnia it breeds chiefly in holes of old buildings. 

The clutch varies from 4 to 6 in number, and the eggs do not differ Eggs. 
from those of S. vulgaris. In south Spain the usual breeding time is about 
the last week in April, and in Sicily from the second week in April on- 
ward, but eggs have been taken in Marocco at the end of March, and 
according to Konig the young are hatched in Tunis about mid-April and 
leave the nest at the beginning of May, but Erlanger took an incubated 
clutch and a fresh egg there early in June. 

60 eggs (50 measured by the writer, 5 by Erlanger and 5 by Rey), Measure- 
average 30.82X21.44 mm., Max. 34.2X22.2 and 33X22.6 mm., ]\Iin. "^eots. 
28.1 X 22 and 29 X 20.2 mm. Average Aveight of 5 eggs 396 mg. (Rey). 

15. Rose coloured Starling, Pastor roseus L. 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXVIII, fig. 3, a— c. Hewitson, 
III. Ed., pi. LY, fig. 2. Baedeker, Tab. 50, fig. 11. Taczanowski, Tab. 
XXXIV. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, pi. 11; id. Col. Fig., pi. 54. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Spaceic riizovy. Denmark: Drossel-stae?', 
JRosenstar. Finland: Punakottarainen. France: Martin roselin. Gei-many: 
Rosenstar, rosenfarhene Drossel, Staramsel. Greece: Hagion Puli. Helgo- 
land: Stuur-Amsel. Holland: Rose Spreemv. Hungary: Fdsztor maddr, 
Rbzsds Rigo. Italy: Storno roseo, Storno marino. Poland: Oniarek rozowy. 
Russia: Rosoivy Skiuorez, Skivornik. Sweden: Rosenstare. 

Breeding Range: Breeds at irregular intervals in colonies in S. Russia, 
E. Hungary, Dobrudscha, Bulgaria, etc. In 1875 in Italy. [Also in Asia 
from Asia Minor to Turkestan.] 

The breeding of this interesting bird appears to be regulated to some 
extent by the abundance or absence of the Ortlioptera which form its 



40 • 

staple food. Thus in Italy it is of uncertain and irregular occurrence, but 
is said to liave bred there in some numbers in 1740 (Savi). In 1875, 
when Verona was infested by Acridium italicum, flocks of these birds, ten 
or twelve thousand in number, arrived on June 3 — 4 and took possession 
of the castle of Villafranca, nesting in every hole and cavity (see Zool. 
1878, p. 16), but on July 14 all migrated southward. In Slavonia, Croatia 
and Dalmatia it breeds occasionally (Brusina). In Montenegro it has been 
observed by Fiihrer, and has probably bred in Albania. In Bulgaria and 
Rumania it is an irregular visitor, sometimes breeding in large numbers, 
especially in the Dobrudscha, where Elwes and Buckley found a large 
colony near Milchova (1869) and the brothers Sintenis observed it nesting' 
at Medzidje, Zurilovka, etc., in 1875, while other visits are recorded in 
1867, 1871, 1876 and 1889. These breeding places are however rarely 
occupied for two consecutive years. In Hungary Petenyi recorded it as 
nesting in several places in 1837, and it is said also to have bred in 
Switzerland, but the evidence is somewhat untrustworthy. According to 
Erhardt is has bred in the Cyclades. To south Russia (Bessarabia, 
Kherson, Crimea and the Caucasus district) it is a common visitor and 
frequently breeds. Von Nordmann describes its nesting habits as observed 
near Odessa in 1844. [In Asia Minor the discovery of a large colony in 
the hills above Bumabat by the Marchese 0. Antinori and von Gonzenbach 
was described in Naiimannia for 1856, and a translation appeared in the 
Zool. 1857, p. 5668, while in 1871 Kriiper found colonies in another part 
of the range.] 
Nest. Invariably found in colonies, the nests much resemble those of the 

Starling, and are placed in almost any kind of hole, but usually in crevices 
of rocks, among loose stones, in holes of walls, or less commonly in holes, 
in banks and in the ground. The nesting materials consist of t^A^gs, straw, 
hay, dry grasses and plants; with a lining of roots, leaves, moss and feathers, 
but frequently eggs are laid upon the bare earth with hardly a vestige 
of a nest. 
Eggs. The usual number appears to be 5 or 6, but near Odessa von Nord- 

mann found 6 — 7 common, and in some cases met with 8 and 9; and 
Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria says the number varies from 3 to 8. In 
appearance they resemble those of the Starlings, but are decidedly paler 
in colour, many eggs being almost white with a faint bluish tinge. They 
have also much more gloss than Starlings' eggs. Herr 0. Ottosson has a 
clutch from Asia Minor ^vith rusty brown spots. 
Breeding At ViUafranca the first eggs were laid on June 17, about a fortnight 

Season, after the first arrival of the birds, and the young were fledged by July 10, 
so that they were able to migrate on the 14th. (The time of incubation 
must therefore be short and the development of the young very rapid.) 



41 

Eggs from the Dobrudscha were taken about mid-June (Hodek). Near 
Odessa in 1844 nesting began early in May, and in 1856 near Bumabat 
the young had in many instances left the nest by June 30, but on the 
other hand Kriiper did not meet mth fledged young till July 11 in 1871. 
It is evident that the time of laying varies considerably in different years. 

Average of 80 eggs (54 measured by the writer, 23 by Rey and Measure- 
3 by Reiser) 28.68X21.03 mm.. Max. 32x20.8 and 29.8x22 mm., ""ents. 
Min. 26 X 21.3 and 26.5 X 19.5 mm. Average weight (23 eggs) 408 mg., 
varying from 350 to 450 mg. (Rey). 



ORIOLIDAE. 

16. Grolden Oriole, Oriolus oriolus (L.). 

Plate 8, fig. 1 — 4 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Portpfl., Tab. XXVII, fig. 11, a — c. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. XIII; n. Ed. I, pi. XX; EI. Ed. I, pi. XXVI, fig. 1. Baedeker, 
Tab. 50, fig. 10. Taczanowski, Tab. XXXII, fig. 1. Seebohm, Br. Birds, 
pi. 11; id. Col. Fig., pi. 54. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Zluva obecna, MatJies. Denmark: Guld- 
pirol, Gulddrossel. Finland: Kuhankaittdja. France: Loriot jaune. Germany: 
Pirol, Kirschpirol, Goldamsel. Greece: Sykophdgos, Kitronpouli. Helgoland: 
Biiloiv. Holland: Wiele-ivaal, Oele goiav, Goud-merel. Hungary: Sdrga 
Bigo. Italy: Rigogolo, Bependol. Poland: WUga zblta. Portugal: Papafigo, 
Marellante. Russia: Ivolga. Spain: Oropendola. Sweden: Sommargylling, 
Gultrast. 

Oriolus galhida L. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 365; Newton, 
ed. Yarrell, I, p. 233; Saunders, Manual, p. 145; Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, 
p. 226. 0. oriolus oriolus (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 51. 

Breeding Range: Continental Europe generally; excepting Norway, 
Sweden (except possibly in the south), north and west Finland, and Russia 
north of about 60° N. lat. In the British Isles it has bred occasionally 
in the south of England. [Also in Asia; Persia, Turkestan, and S. Siberia 
to the Altai range ; as well as in Tunis, Algeria (?) and Marocco.] 

The Oriole is a tolerably frequent migrant to the south of England, British 
and has nested, or attempted to do so, in Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Northants, ^*^^^- 
Herts, Devon, Surrey, and several times in Kent. For particulars of two 
instances in which a brood was successfully reared see Zool. 1874, p. 4232; 
1875, p. 4624. It may possibly have nested at Tresco, in the Scillies, 
where it occurs frequently in spring. 



42 

Con- In Sweden it occurs in the south, and occasionally as far north as 

Europe. Dalame and Westerbotten; it is also said to have bred in Kalmar Ian 
50 years ago. On the other hand it is not uncommon over a great part 
of south eastern Finland, from Lojo in the south-west to Idensalmi (about 
63f° N. lat.) and eastward to Onega, but does not appear to be found 
north of lat. 60° in east Russia. A few pairs nest in the Danish islands 
and Schleswig Holstein, and it is common in the wooded districts of France, 
the Low Countries, N. Germany, Austro-Hungary and Russia. In the 
mountainous parts of Middle Europe it is less numerous, and in Switzer- 
land does not as a rule breed above 3000 ft. In the Iberian peninsula it 
becomes scarce in the south; and though plentiful in north Italy, is only 
found nesting in wooded mountains in the southern provinces, and it is 
doubtful whether it breeds at all in Sardinia. In the Balkan peninsula 
it is generally distributed except in the south, but some breed on Corfu. 
In the Caucasus it nests, according to Radde, up to 6000 ft. 
Nest. The very remarkable nest is to be found in many kinds of trees, 

preferably oaks or planes, but occasionally elm, white poplar, alder, apple, 
birch or pine, not only on the outskirts of woods and in small plantations, 
but also in wooded gardens, parks etc., even in large towns. It is usually 
built far out on a horizontal bough at a considerable distance from the 
main stem, often at a height of 10 to 30 or even 60 ft. from the ground, 
but sometimes, though less commonly, within 6 ft. of it.* The nest is 
always placed at the fork of a bough, and is slung like a cradle between 
the two branches, to each of which it is firmly attached, close to the angle. 
The materials consist of grass stems, leaves of sedges and grass, roots, 
strips of bark and wool, intermixed with a little moss and sometimes strips 
of paper, or feathers, and is smoothly lined with flowering heads of grasses. 
Approximate size: diameter 4| — 5| in., depth 3f — 51- in. When placed 
high the nest is often difficult to see, and even harder to get at, without 
sawing off the bough. 
Eggs. Usually 4 in number, sometimes 5. The ground colour varies from 

pure white to a warm creamy tone, rather sparsely marked with spots and 
a few fine specks of very deep purplish brown, almost black. Round the 
larger spots are generally faint traces of paler purple red, forming a slight 
penumbra. As a rule most spots are congregated towards the large end. 
Occasionally eggs are met with almost without markings, while others 
have one or two big blotches. The shell is tolerably glossy, but when 
closely examined shows numerous fine irregular ridges running transversely 
and a few longritudinal grooves. 



* A iiest was found in Silesia by Prof. Augustin only 3 ft. from the 
ffround. 



43 

The Oriole is a late breeder, and only rears one brood in the season.* Breedinc 
Harting took a nest between Paris and Orleans on June 3 with young Reason. 
birds, but this appears to be an unusually early date. In Holland many 
clutches are taken in the last week of May and the beginning of June. 
Rey gives the first half of June as the usual time in north Germany, but 
on one occasion found a nest with 3 eggs on May 17. In the south of 
Europe the breeding season is earlier. Chapman gives May 20 as the 
usual date date for Andalucia; in Italy it is said to breed from the end 
of April to the beginning of June (Arrigoni), and a nest found in Bulgaria 
on May 30 contained hard-set eggs (Reiser). 

Average of 100 eggs (20 measured by Rey, 11 by Blasius and 69 Measure- 
by the writer) 30.87 X 21.3 mm.. Max. 36 X 22.2 (Newton" coll.) and ^ents. 
32X23.5 mm,, Min. 28X20.3 and 31X20 mm. Average weight (20 eggs) 
386 mg. (Rey). A dwarf egg in the Rey collection measures 19.7 X 15 mm. 
and weighs 165 mg. 



[ICTERIDAE.] 

Note. Although several species of this American family have occurred in 
Europe, it is probable that all were either escaped birds or 'assisted passengers'. 

Boboliiik, Dolichoujx oryzivorns (L.). 

Plate 25, fig. 23, 24 (United States). 

Eggs; Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXIII, fig. 2, a, b. Bendire, II, PI. 
VI, fig. 1, 2. 

Breeding Range: Canada from S. British Columbia to lat. 47" on the east 
coast, the northern United States to about 115° w. Ion., but rarely south of 
lat. 39" — 40". (Recorded twice from Helgoland.) Eggs 5—7 in number, verj^ variable, 
almost every set being differently marked (see Bendire, II, p. 433). Average of 
77 eggs in the U. S. Nat. Mus., 21.08X15.71 mm.. Max. 22.35X16.26 mm., Min. 
17.53 X 15.24 mm. (Bendire). Weight 150—170 mg. (Rey). 

Cassiu's Cowbird, Molotlinis cabanisii Cass. 

Plate 15, fig. 10—18 (Venezuela, H. Rolle). 
Breeding Range: W. Venezuela and the adjacent parts of Columbia. 
(Recorded from Helgoland, 1. X. 99). Parasitic upon other birds (see Rey, p. 353). 
14 examples average 22.56 X 17.79 mm., Max. 23.2 X 19.2 mm. (fig. 18), Min. 
21.2X17 mm. (fig. 10). Average weight 300 mg. (Rey). 

Eed iringed Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus (L.). 

Eggs: Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 11; id. Col. Fig., pi. 54. Bendire, pi. VI 
fig. 13—15. 



Saxby {Zool. 1861, p. 7540) reports unfledged young in August in Belgium. 



44 

Breeding Range: Canada from Great Slave Lake to 49° N. lat., and the 
United States. (Recorded from the British Isles and Italy.) Eggs 3—5, rarely 6. 
(See Bendire, II, p. 452.) Average 24.8X17.55 mm., Max. 27.94 X 19.05 mm., 
Min. 20.57 X 15.75 mm. (Bendire). 

Other American species which are said to have occurred are the Meadowlark, 
Sturnella magna (L.),* the Baltimore Oriole, Icterus galbula (L.),t and the Rusty 
Grackle, Scolecophagus carolinns (Miill.)**] 



FRINGILLIDAE. 

17. Hawfinch, Coccothraustes coccothraiistes (L.). 

Plate 9, fig. 18—22 (Saxony). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXVI, fig. 2, a — c. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. XLIH; II. Ed. I, pi. XLIII, fig. 2; III. Ed. I, pi. LII, fig. 2, 3. 
Baedeker, Tab. 12, fig. 1. Taczanowski, Tab. LXIX, fig. 1. Seebohm, Br. 
Birds, pi. 13; id. Col. Fig., pi. 56. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. IV, fig. 126—128. 

British Local Names: England: Grosbeak, French or Haw Grosbeak, 
Berry-Breaker. Isle of Wight: Cow-bird. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Dlask. Denmark: Kirsebaerfugl, Kjaerne- 
bider. Finland: Nokkavarpunen. France: Gros-bec. Germany: Kirschkern- 
beisser. Holland: Dikbek, Appelvink, Kersebitter. Hungary: MeggyvdgOj 
Maddr. Italy: Frosone. Norway: Kirsebaerfugl. Poland: Luszczak 
grubodziob. Portugal: Bico grossudo. Russia: Dubonos. Spain: Pinonero, 
Cascanueces. Sweden: Stenkndck. 

Coccothraustes vulgaris Pall. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 575; 
Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 98; Saunders, Man. p. 171; Dresser, Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 287. C. coccothraustes coccothraustes (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 55. 

Breeding Range: Europe generally, excepting Ireland, the greater 
part of Scotland, northern Scandinavia and Russia north of lat. 60°. [Also 
Asia Minor, N. Persia etc.; replaced in N. W. Africa by C. c. buvryi Cab.] 
British Although formerly supposed to be only a winter visitor, the Hawfinch 

Isles, is now known to have bred in suitable localities in every county of Eng- 
land except Cornwall; but it is still decidedly rare as a breeding species 
in Northumberland, the Lake district and North Devon, and is perhaps 
most plentiful in the midland and south-eastern counties. In Wales it 
is extending its range westward, but is still absent from the coast of 
Cardigan Bay, Anglesea and Carnarvon, and only knowTi as a casual 



* Eggs: Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 11; id. Col. Fig., pi. 54. Bendire, II, pi. VI, fig. 20, 21. 
t See Zool. 1890, p. 487. Eggs: Bendire, II, pi. VII, fig. 6-9. 
** Eggs: Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 11. Bendire, II, pi. VII, fig. 14—16. 



45 

visitor in many districts, though not uncommon in the valleys of Brecon. 
In Scotland it appears to be slowly colonizing the south-eastern district, 
and has been definitely recorded as breeding in Fife {Ann. Scott. Nat. Hist. 
1904, p. 11), while there is reason to believe that it has nested in Perth 
and Midlothian. 

In Norway the Hawfinch has not been proved to breed, but in Sweden ^°^- 
it nests occasionally in Sk&ne, Blekinge, Halland and Sm^land, and has Europe, 
occurred as far north as 64 i" N. lat. In Denmark it is chiefly found on 
the islands, especially Zealand, and in Finland the nest has been found at 
Helsingfors. From S. Petersburg southward it is generally distributed over 
the wooded parts of the European plain and in the lower valleys of the 
hilly districts, becoming more numerous in the south of Europe. In Portugal 
it is found from Evora to Beira and the Alto Douro, but is not common 
and chiefly met with on higher ground. In Spain it is common in the 
wooded sierras, and a few nest in the cork wood near Gibraltar. It is fairly 
numerous in Corsica, but local, and rare on the west coast; while in Sardinia 
it breeds plentifully in the orchards, and is not uncommon in Sicily. It 
is chiefly known in Italy on passage, but some are sedentary both in the 
north and in the south. In the Balkan peninsula it appears to be generally 
distributed, though not very numerous, and breeds in suitable localities 
from iEtolia and the Taygetos Mts. northward. [East of the Urals the 
limits of this race and C. c. japonicus Temm. & Schl. are not exactly 
known.] 

The Hawfinch often breeds in gardens and orchards, generally nesting Nest. 
on a horizontal bough of some lichen grown fruit tree, or else in a free 
standing hawthorn. In such situations the nest is seldom built at any 
great height, sometimes only 6 or 8 ft. from the ground. At other times 
it prefers the outskirts of the woodlands, or isolated trees in hedgerows; 
breeding indifferently in elms, sycamores, beeches, limes or other trees, on 
lateral boughs, sometimes as much as 40 ft. or more from the ground, 
and at other times among the outcrop from the trunk, only a few feet 
high. Occasionally nests are found in hollies or on pollarded stumps in 
hedges. The hen is a very close sitter, and as the parents are shy and 
unobtrusive birds, the ravages of the whole family among the peas, or the 
fringe of clipped shoots under the yew trees, are often the first intimation 
that a brood has been hatched off in the vicinity. When built high up 
in forest trees the nest is not easy to detect, as it is rather small for the 
size of the bird, and somewhat shallow, but the fringe of small tAvigs 
projecting from either side of a horizontal bough when seen from below 
is very characteristic. In parks, orchards and old gardens several pairs 
may be found nesting near one another. The foundation of the nest is 
a layer of small twigs, with a shallow superstructure of bents, bark fibre 



46 

and coarse roots Avith sometimes a few lichens; lined with fine roots, hair, 
fibre, or in some cases entirely with pigs' bristles. Approximate size: 
diameter 5-| — 6 in., depth 2 — 2-\ in., diameter of cup 34, depth 1 in. 
Eggs. From 4 to 6 in number, but generally 5. They are very characteristic 

and often exceedingly handsome. The ordinary ground colour is a pale 
bluish or greyish green, varying to pale slate colour and rarely to pale 
creamy brown or warm buff. The markings consist of a few bold spots 
and streaks of lighter or darker olive brown, sometimes almost black, with 
faint underlying hair lines, blotches and streaks of purplish grey. Occasionally 
the dark markings are wanting, and sometimes only small spots on a blue 
ground are met vidth. 
Breeding The Hawfinch is single brooded, and in the south of England eggs 

Season, jjjay \,q obtained from the end of April onward, and in the north 
Midlands usually about the third week in May. Near Leipzig Rey found 
fresh eggs from April 25 to June 20, but probably the last found nests 
were second layings. In E. Prussia it nests at the end of May (Hartert). 
Apparently there is not much difference between the time of breeding in 
middle and southern Europe, for in Corsica Whitehead found fresh eggs 
on May 16, and in Andalucia they breed in May, Avhile fresh clutches have 
been taken in the sierras at the end of the month. In Italy however the 
breeding season begins towards the end of April. The period of incubation 
is about 14 days. 
Measure- There is very great variation in size and shape, some eggs being round 

ments. oval, others elongated ovate or even subpyriform in shape. Average size of 
100 eggs (52 measured by Rey and 48 by the author) 23.86 X 17.24 mm., 
Max. 27.1 X 16.7 (Germany, Rey) and 22 X 19.5 mm. (Dorpat, Br. Mus.), 
Min. 19.8 X 15.7 mm. (Epping, Br. Mus.). Average weight (52 eggs) 
236 mg. (Rey). 

18. Crreeiifiiich, Chloris chloris (L.). 

Plate 10, fig. 17—21 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXVI, fig. 4, a— c. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. XVI; II. Ed. I, pi. XLIII, fig. 1; III. Ed. I, pi. LII, fig. 1. 
Baedeker, Tab. 20, fig. 1. Taczanowski, Tab. LXIX, fig. 2. Seebohm, 
Br. Birds, pi. 12; id. Col. Fig., pi. 56. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. IV, 
fig. 120—125. 

Nest: 0. Lee, III, p. 48. 

British Local Names: Green Linnet, Greenie, Green 01 f. Welsh: 
Aderyn Melyn. Scotland: Green Lintie. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Zvonek. Denmark: Gronirisk, Svensker. 
Finland: Vihredpeipponen. France: Verdier, Verdun. Germany: Grilnling, 



47 

Griinfink, grilner Hdnfling. Greece: Fliiori. Helgoland: Kort Oilhl- 
Kliltjer. Holland: Groenling. Hungary: Z'oldike. Italy: Verdone, Verdello. 
Norway: Svenske, Gronfink, svensk Irisk. Poland: Dzivoniec. Russia: Zele- 
nusclika. Sweden: Gronhdmpling, Gronfink, Svenska, Groning. 

Coccothraustes chloris (L.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, H, p. 105. Ligurinus 
chloris (L.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 567; Saunders, Man., p. 169; 
Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, p. 283. Chloris chloris chloris (L.). Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 61. 

Breeding Range: The cultivated and wooded districts of Europe, 
except the Iberian peninsula (replaced by C. c. aurantiiventris], and the 
north of Scandinavia and Russia. [Also Asia Minor, N. Persia and N. W. 
Turkestan.] 

Generally distributed over the whole of Great Britain and Ireland, British 
excepting the bare moorlands and mountain ranges; but does not appear ^^^^^• 
to breed on the north west coast district of Ireland, the Outer Hebrides, 
the north west coast of the Scottish mainland or the Shetlands, though 
it now breeds freely in the Orkneys. In the Inner Hebrides it nests on 
the larger wooded islands, such as Mull, Jura, etc. 

In Norway this species ranges up to about 65" N. lat., and has been p°°" 
found breeding at Trondhjem's Fjord; but in Sweden its northern limit Europe, 
appears to be 62° N., and in the Urals about 60°. Over the northern 
part of its range it is a summer visitor, but in the British Isles and 
southern Europe it is sedentary as a rule. Southward its range extends to 
the islands of the Mediterranean and it is common throughout Italy and 
the Balkan peninsula, breeding not only in the plains but also in the 
mountains of Greece. 

Highly cultivated and well timbered districts, parks, gardens, etc., are Nest. 
the favoured resorts of the Greenfinch during the breeding season, and here 
it nests at times in such numbers that it almost appears to be sociable 
in its breeding habits. I have known 15 to 20 nests in one high, straggling 
hedgerow, not more than 150 yards in length; and frequently a clump of 
evergreens in a garden will hold 5 or 6 nests. They are generally to be 
found in shrubs and tall hedges, but also on the lower boughs of forest trees, 
and among the outcrop from the trunk, and rarely among ivy or even 
tall furze. The foundation consists of a few twigs, moss, bents, roots, etc., 
closely interwoven, sometimes with wool; lined generally with finer roots 
and hair, but occasionally with a profusion of feathers; and there is much 
variation in size, as well as in the materials employed. 

Generally 4 — 6 in number, but occasionally 7 are found. The ground Eggs. 
colour varies from dirty white to pale greenish blue, with rather sparingly 
distributed small spots of lighter or darker reddish brown, occasionally a 
streak or scrawl, and with underlying markings of paler violet or reddish 



48 

brown. Most of the spots are to be found at the large end, sometimes 
forming an irregular zone; and occasionally eggs are met with both with 
bluish and white ground, but entirely without markings. A scarce variety 
is very thickly freckled with reddish spots. In shape and size they are 
extremely variable, some being much elongated. 
Breeding Few eggs are laid in England before the beginning of May, and in 

Season. f}^Q Midlands most are laid between May 20 and the beginning of June. 
A second brood is frequently found in July, and fresh eggs may occasionally 
be found late in August. Rey says that in Germany the eggs (5 — 7) are 
laid in April, and a second brood (5 — 6 eggs) in May or June. In the 
south of Europe the breeding season is rather earlier, beginning in mid- 
April in Greece. The eggs are hatched early on the 14th day (Evans). 
The hen sits very close and frequently does not leave the nest till 
almost touched. 
Measure- Average of 101 eggs (77 continental eggs by Rey and 24 British 

ments. }yj tbe writer) 20.25 X 14.52 mm.. Max. 24.1 X 14.2 and 21 X 16 mm., 
Min. 17.2X13.5 and 21.5X12.2 mm. Average weight 123 mg. (Rey). 
3 fuU eggs average 2.122 g. (Poster). 

Dwarf eggs measure 15.5 X 12 (Rey) and 12.5 X 9.5 mm. (R. H. Read). 

Geographical Races. 

a. Common Greenfluch, C. chloris chloris (L.). See above, 
b. Spanish Greenfinch, C chloris aurantiiventris (Cab.). 

Foreign Names: Portugal: Verdilhdo. Spain: Verdon, Verderon. 

C. chloris aurantiiventris (Cab.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 63. 

Breeding Range: Southern France, Spain und Portugal. [Also 
Marocco, Algeria and Tunis.] 

Very abundant in Portugal, and common in gardens and wooded 
districts in Spain. Fresh eggs may be found in Andalucia from the middle 
of April. [In Marocco, Algeria and Tunis north of the Atlas range it is 
a common resident; Hartert describes it as very plentiful in the orange 
groves on the Oum R-biah in middle Marocco, and obtained eggs on 
April 10.] 

In nesting habits and eggs this race closely resembles the common 
Greenfinch. Average of 22 eggs from S. Spain, Algeria, etc., 20.64 X 14.56 
mm., Max. 21.7X14 and 21.6X15 mm., Min. 19.2X15 and 20Xl4mm. 

[In Syria and Palestine the resident birds belong to the form C. chloris 
chlorotica (Bp.). In China and Japan various forms of C. sinica L. are 
found. An egg of the Japanese race, C. sinica minor (Temm. & Schl.) 
from Japan is represented on PI. 15, fig. 4; and one of the Manchurian 
race, C. sinica ussuriensis Hart., from the Amur on PL 15, fig. 5. A 
young bird of C. sinica Avas captured near Copenhagen on Nov. 6, 1892.] 



49 

• 19. British Groldliiieli, Carduelis cartluelis l)rit.aniiica (Hart.). 

Eggs: Hewitson, I. Ed. I, pi. CXXXVII; II. Ed. I, pi. XLIV, fig. 1; 
III. Ed. I, pi. L, fig. 1. Seebolim, Br. Birds, pi. 12; id. Col. Fig., pi. 56. 
Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. IV, fig. 129—130. 

British Local Names: England: Thistle Finch, Proud Tailor, 
Flinch, Seven-coloured Linnet, King Harry, Redcap, Goldie; Grey Pate (juv.). 
Welsh: Nicol, Jacknico. Scotland: Goldflinch. Erse: Kinyeen ore (phonetic). 

Carduelis elegans Steph. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 527 
(partim); Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 117; Saunders, Man., p. 173; Dresser, 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 274 (partim). Acanthis carduelis hritannicus Hart. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 68. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles, but almost extinct in Scotland 
except in a few southern localities. 

Formerly this species appears to have been very generally distributed British 
throughout the whole of England and Scotland, except on the mountain i^^*^^- 
ranges. Its numbers have however been very greatly reduced by bird- 
catchers, especially in the neighbourhood of large toAvns and in thickly 
populated districts;* but the partial protection afforded by the Wild Birds 
Protection Act has resulted in a decided increase of late years. At the 
present time it is perhaps most numerous in the valleys of Wales, and 
is not uncommon locally in many parts of England (see Zool. 1903, p. 23, 
70, 104 etc., for fuller details). In Scotland it is now rare, though reported 
as increasing in the Solway district and other localities in the south, and 
formerly common locally; but a few isolated instances of breeding have 
been reported from many districts, even from Skye and Caithness. To the 
Hebrides and northern islands it is only a rare straggler. In Ireland it is' 
very generally distributed and in some districts common, but has been 
greatly thinned down in numbers near the towns. 

Very frequently the nest is built in a fruit tree (apple, pear, plum etc.) Nest. 
and in north Staffordshire usually in a damson orchard; but in the south 
of England a great many nests are placed far out on the spreading branches 
of the chesnut, sycamore, elm, beech, or other leafy tree. It is met with 
less commonly in high hedgerows, conifers and evergreens. Where trees 
are scarce, as in the west of Ireland, it Avill breed in gooseberry bushes, 
furze, ivy on walls etc. (Ussher). The nest is very artistically constructed 
of roots, bents, lichens and a little moss, interwoven with wool; sometimes 
lined with willow down, at other times with hair and wool, and it is said, 
feathers. Dimensions: diameter 3 in., depth 2| — 3 in., diameter of cup 
2 in., depth of cup IJ in. 



* See Zool 1860, p, 7143. 



50 

Eggs. Usually 4 — 5 in number, but occasionally 6 are found. The sbell 

is thin and partly transparent, showing the yolk plainly and looking almost 

white when unblown, but afterwards acquiring a bluish tinge. The markings 

generally consist of a few distinct spots or streaks of reddish brown, 

sometimes almost purplish black, with faint underlying spots or blotches 

of reddish grey. Some eggs are boldly marked, while others have only 

a few fine speckles. As a rule they have a character of their own, but 

some varieties are indistinguishable from those of the Linnet. 

Breeding The eggs of the first brood are generally laid between May 9 and 

Season. June 9, but most eggs are found about May 14 — 26. When a second 

brood is reared (as is frequently the case), eggs are laid towards the end 

of June or later. Fledged young have been found in the nest as late as 

Oct. 2 in the Dove valley. In Ireland Goldfinches have been known to 

breed in April; but May and June are the regular breeding months, and 

July nests are probably second broods. Incubation lasts 14 days. 

Measure- Average of 100 eggs (64 Irish and 36 English) 17.03 X 12.87 mm., 

ments. Max. 18.7 X 13 and 16.3 X 13.6 mm., Min. 15.5 X 12.2 mm. Average 

weight (14 eggs) 79 mg. 8 full eggs average 1.429 g. (Foster). 

Geographical Races. 

a. Continental Goldfinch, C. carduelis carduelis (L.). 

Plate 11, fig. 16—20 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXV, fig. 9, a — c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 20, fig. 3. Taczanowski, Tab. LXXIII. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Stelilik. Denmark: Stillids. Finland: 
Tikli. France: Chardonneret, Chardonnet Germany: Stieglitz, Distelzeisig, 
Distelfiiik. Greece: Karderina. Helgoland: Ziehelitsch. Holland: Putter, 
Bloemputter, Distelvink. Hungary: Tengelicz. Italy: Cardellino, Cardello. 
'Norway: Stillids. F oland: Szczygiel. Russisn Schtsscheglok. Sweden: Steglits. 

Carduelis elegans Steph. (partim). Dresser, Newton and Saunders, 1. c. 
(see p. 49). A. carduelis carduelis (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 67. 

Breeding Range: Europe, excepting N. Scandinavia and N. Russia. 
Replaced by other forms in the British Isles, S. Spain, Sardinia, Corsica etc. 
[Also Palestine and Asia Minor.] 
Con- 'pjjg northern limit of this race in Norway is 64 i^" N. Lat., and in 

tinental ci i txt i t t " 

Europe, bwcdeu to Wermland and Dalarne (61° — 62°). In Finland it occurs in 
Tavastehus, Kuopio and Messuby, but in the Urals not above 60°, Over 
the rest of Europe it is generally distributed in suitable country, but is 
not as a rule very common anywhere, except in the countries bordering 
on the Mediterranean. In the Balkan peninsula it is common, and breeds 



51 

in the Cyclades, Crete, Cyprus, etc., while in Italy it is plentiful, and is 
found also in Sicily. 

In breeding habits it is resembles C. c. hritannica, and its nest and Nest. 
eggs are also similar. Hartert has known two broods reared from the 
same nest at Wesel. 

In Scandinavia the eggs of the first brood are usually 4 in number; Eggs. 
the second brood generally consists of 5 — 6 (Ottosson), but in Germany 
the first laying consists of 5, rarely 6, and the second of 5 eggs (Rey). 

First broods in Gennany in April or the beginning of May, second Breeding 
in June (Rey); in Greece from mid April onwards, earlier in the plains Season, 
than in the hills (Kriiper); while in Scandinavia the first eggs are laid in 
May or early June. 

Average of 22 German eggs (12 by Rey and 10 by the writer). Measure 
17.3X12.65 mm.. Max. 18x13.2 and 17X13.5 mm., Min. 15.6x12.7 "^^nts. 
and 17.3 X 12.3 mm. Average weight (12 eggs) 85 mg. (Rey). Eggs from 
Greece are decidedly smaller: 23 from Parnassus average 15.9 X 12.4 mm.. 
Max. 17 X 12.3 and 16.6 X 13.5 mm., Min. 15.1 X 12 and 15.5 X 11.7 mm. 

b. British Goldfiiich, C. carduelis britannica (Hart.). See p. 49. • 

c. Sardinian Goldfinch, C. carduelis tschusii Arrig-. 

Local Names: Sardinia: Cardanera, Cardellina. 

A. carduelis tschusii (Arrig.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 68. 

Breeding Range: Sardinia and Corsica. 

Common and resident in Corsica, where Whitehead found many nests, 
some of which contained young, in the beginning of April, and obtained 
eggs up to June 10. In Sardinia it is the commonest Finch on the island 
and begins to pair in the first week of April (Brooke). The eggs are 
rather small: 5 in the Tring Museum average 16.3 X 12.36 mm.. Max. 
16.8X12.3 and 16.6X13 mm., Min. 15.8x12 mm. 

d. Barbary Goldfincli, C. carduelis africana (Hart.). 

Local Names: Portugal: Pintasilgo. Spain: Oilguero. 

A. carduelis africanus Hart. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 69. 

Breeding Range: Southern Spain. [Also Marocco, Algeria and Tunis.] 

Goldfinches are among the commonest birds of southern Spain, and 
appear to rear at least two broods; for fresh eggs are to be found from 
the middle of April to the end of May, while the young of the first brood 
are on the wing by mid-May. Many pairs breed in the orange groves, 
building most beautiful little nests, smaller than those of C c. britannica 
(diameter of cup If in.), composed almost entirely of white plant down 
and a little moss, woven together with fine roots and hair. [In the Barbary 

states it is also very common, breeding in the orange groves and olive 

4* 



52 

gardens in April and May.] Eggs generally 4 — 5 in number; slightly 
smaller and lighter than the average of mid European eggs, but other 
wise resembling them. 26 African eggs measured by Erlanger, Konig and 
Hartert, and 29 Andalucian eggs by the writer, average 16.22 X 12.68 mm., 
Max. 18X13 and 16x14 mm., Min. 15X12 mm. 7 Algerian eggs 
weigh 63 nig. (Konig), and 5 Spanish eggs average 73 mg. 

[In Madeira and the Canaries a small dark race is found, C. carduelis 
parva Tsch., and east of the Urals a larger form, C. c. major Tacz.] 

30. Siskin, Carduelis spiims (L.). 
Plate 11, fig. 21—25. 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fort^pfl., Tab. XXXV, fig. 14, a — c. Hewitson, 
II. Ed. I, pi. XLIV, fig. 2; IE. Ed. I, pi. L, fig. 2. Baedeker, Tab. 20, 
fig. 2. Taczanowski, Tab. LXXII, fig. 2. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 12; id. 
Col. Fig., pi. 56. Frohawk, Br. Birds, pi. IV, fig. 131. 

Nest: 0. Lee, II, p. 146; Kearton, Rarer Br. Birds, p. 105. (See 
also Booth, Rough Notes, part XII.) 

British Local Names: Barley Bird. Aberdevine. Welsh : Dreiniawg. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Cicek. Denmark: Orbnsidsken. Finland: 
Kroonsiska. France: Tarin. Germany: Erlenzeisig, Zeisig. Helgoland: 
Ziesk. Holland: Sijsje. Hungary: Cziz. Italy: Lucarino, Lugaro. Norway: 
Sisik. Poland: Luszczak Czyz. Portugal: Lugre. Russia: Oiz, Cizik. 
Spain: Lugano. Sweden: Orbnsiska, Siska. 

Carduelis spinus (L.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 126. Chrysomitris 
spinus (L.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 541; Saunders, Man., p. 175; 
Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, p. 276. Acanthis spinus (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 71. 

Breeding Range: Europe, locally, where coniferous woods exist, 
except in N. Scandinavia and Russia, the Iberian peninsula, the greater 
part of Italy and the southern part of the Balkan peninsula. [In Asia 
from Asia Minor to Japan.] 
British Although the Siskin is reported to have bred in some fourteen counties 

Isles. Qf England, most of the accounts of its nesting are quite at variance with 
what we know of its breeding habits in the north, and it is probable that 
in several cases the birds have been wrongly identified. It was however 
found nesting in Durham in 1848 and also in 1874, and a few pairs bred 
in the woods of Longtown, Cumberland between 1879 and 1885. In Scot- 
land it. has been recorded as breeding in the Solway district, and north 
of Perthshire its distribution is regulated by the presence or absence of 
coniferous woods, but it is locally common as far north as Dunrobin (E. 
Sutherland), though scarce on the western side of the country except per- 



Con- 



53 

haps locally in W. Ross, and absent from tlie Hebrides, Orkneys, etc. It 
has however occurred on the Shetlands, Mingalay and in Barra (1897), 
but does not breed there. It was first found nesting in Ireland by Ussher 
in 1857, and since then has been found breeding locally in all four provinces. 

In Norway, though by no means common, it is known to breed ^.^^^^^^^ 
chiefly in the forests of the south and east, as far as Trondhjem's Fjord, Europe. 
and in Sweden appears to be chiefly confined to the middle of the country, 
but nests in several localities in Sk^ne, Blekinge and Kronoberg in the 
south. In Finland its range extends to Ule&borg (Pudasjarvi, Karlo, etc.). 
A few pairs breed in the large coniferous forests of E. Jutland, and it has 
also been known to nest on Falster and Bornholm. Throughout middle 
Europe it is found locally in the larger coniferous woods of France, the 
low Countries, Germany, Switzerland, Austro-Hungary, N. Italy, Bulgaria 
(Baba-Flanina, Rhodope Mts., etc.), probably Montenegro, and Russia from 
58° — 60° N. lat. to the Caucasus. 

Appears to be almost always placed in a conifer, Douglas, spruce, Nest. 
silver or Scotch fir, larch and even deodara (Ussher). It has been asserted 
that the nest is occasionally found in the birch forest, but further con- 
firmation of the statement is desirable. The birds spend most of their 
time about the tops of the tallest trees and generally build far out on 
one of the branches, sometimes as much as 12 ft. from the stem. As the 
usual height from the ground is about 40 — 50 and even 60 or 70 ft., it may 
well be imagined that the nest is by no means easy to see.* Ussher 
{Birds of Ireland, p. 57—58) gives many interesting details of the breeding 
habits of this species in Ireland, and describes the nest as 1 f to 2 in. 
wide across the cup and 1 ^ in. deep, less compact than that of the Gold- 
finch, the light being sometimes visible through it. A number of small 
dead twigs of fir or heather, often with grey lichens attached, are usually 
built into the foundation of the nest, which consists chiefly of green moss, 
with a few dry bents, bound round with wool or horsehair. The lining 
consists of fine roots and sometimes also a few feathers, rabbit down, 
cowhair, or thistle down. 

4 — 5 in number, but 6 are said to occur. They show great variation Eggs. 
in size and also in colouring. The finest eggs I have seen were from Ire- 
land, and were not only larger than any Scotch eggs which have come 
under my notice, but also more brightly coloured. The ground colour 
varies from a decided clear pale blue to a fainter tint. It is always clearer 
and paler than the tint of the eggs of the Lesser Redpoll and the shell 
is more glossy. The markings consist of pale red or reddish grey spots 
and streaks, with a few spots of very dark red brown. 

* Exceptionally the nest has been found only 12 ft. from the ground (A. 
Ellison). 



54 

Breeding It is an early breeder, nesting in Scotland from early in April to 

Season. ^}jg beginning of May, and generally rearing a second brood in June. 
St. John found well fledged young near Nairn on April 26, and Hancock 
found young nearly fledged in Elgin on May 2, but it is not unusual to 
find fresh eggs in the first week of May in Ross. In Ireland Ussher found 
the first clutches in Waterford and Wicklow early in April, and second 
broods in June. Young birds have been seen on the wing on April 29. 
On the Continent eggs are found in April or early May, and again in June. 
Measure- Average of 72 eggs laid in a wild state, 16.27 X 12.02 mm., Max. 

ments. 18.5x12.4 and 18.1X13 mm. (co. Wicklow), Min. 14.7X12 and 
16.6 X 11.1 mm. (Scotland). Of the above 72 eggs, 4 were taken in Ire- 
land, 49 in Scotland and 19 from the Continent (Thuringia, Styria, etc.). 
[Carduelis trhtris (L.) is said to have occuri-ed once on Achill Island {Zool. 
1894, p. 396).] 

31. Linnet, Carduelis cannabina (L.). 

Plate 11, Fig. 1 — 5 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXV, fig. 10, a — c. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. XCVI, fig. 1, 2; II. Ed. I, pi. XLV, fig. 1; III. Ed. I, pi. LI, fig. 1. 
Baedeker, Tab. 20, fig. 13. Taczanowski, Tab. LXXI, fig. 2. Seebohm, Brit. 
Birds, pi. 13; id. Col. Fig., pi. 57. Frohawk, Br. Birds, II, pi. V, fig. 158 — 167. 

Nest: 0. Lee, IV, p. 40. 

British Local Names: Qrey, Red, Brown, Rose, Blood, Furze or 
Whin-Linnet; Grey, Whin-grey, Hemplin. Welsh: Llinos. Scotland: Lintie, 
Wliin, Orey or Rose Lintie. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Jifice ohecna. Denmark: Tornirisk, 
Oraa- or Rodirisk. Finland: Hempponen, Hamppuvarpiinen. France: Linotte. 
Germany: Bluthanfling, roter or grauer Hdnfling. Helgoland: Lrdisk. Holland: 
Kneutje, Ylamsijs. ^xmgoxj: Kenderike. Italy: Fanello, Montanello. Norway: 
Tornirisk. Poland: Makolajwa. Portugal: Pintarroxo. Russia: Bepolow. 
Spain: Camacho, Jamas. Sweden: Hdmpling, Sommarhdmpling. 

Linaria cannahina (L.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 31. Linota 
rannahina (L.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 153; Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, 
p. 312. Acanthis cannahina (L.). Saunders, Man., p. 187. A. c. canna- 
hina (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 73. 

Breeding Range: Europe, excepting the northern half of Scandinavia 
and north Russia, but replaced in S. Spain, S. Italy, Dalmatia, etc. by 
C. c. mediterranea (Tsch.). 
British Generally distributed throughout the British Isles, but is especially 

Isles, partial to furze covered commons and waste lands, and less numerous in 
the highly cultivated districts. On the higher mountain ranges it is 
replaced by the Twite, as also in the Outer Hebrides and Shetlands. In 



55 

the Inner Hebrides it is local, but nests in a few localities, and is common 
in the Orkneys, On the Scottish mainland north of the Great Glen it is 
scarce and local, and entirely absent from a great part of Ross, Sutherland 
and Caithness, but is common locally in the Moray Basin. In Ireland it 
is very common, breeding in all the open districts and many of the islands. 

In Norway it is common in the south and breeds sparingly in the ^°^- 

•^ . tinental 

Bergen and Trondhjem dioceses up to lat. 63° N., and generally m southern Europe, 
and middle Sweden to about 61° — 62°. Wheelwright met with the birds 
at Quickjock, but failed to find nests, and in E. Russia it is absent from 
the greater part of the country north of lat. 60°. Over the rest of Europe 
it is locally common in suitable localities, but the exact limits of the 
typical and the Mediterranean races are not yet clearly defined. 

Wherever the ground is overgrown with furze bushes, brambles, black- Nest. 
thorn or low scrub, the Linnet is pretfcy certain to be found breeding. 
Plantations of young trees where there is plenty of undergrowth and 
hedgerows are also favourite sites. Sometimes the nests are found in 
considerable numbers within a short distance of one another, so that, like 
the Greenfinch, it may almost be said to breed at times in colonies. As 
Dr. Rey has pointed out, the Linnet breeds indifferently on the hills and 
in the plains, in sand dunes or in swamps. 

The nest is neatly and solidly built of grass stalks, roots, moss, etc., 
and sometimes a few fine twigs or bits of heath, warmly lined with hair, 
wool, plant-down or feathers: while Rey mentions cases where strips of 
cloth, string and even coloured silks have been found interwoven. Dimensions 
in inches: diameter about 3^ height 2; breadth of cup 2}, depth If. 
It is usually found a yard or two from the ground, less commonly 3 — 4 
yards high, but has been met with in tussocks on sand-dunes, in heather, 
on the bare earth in Scandinavia (Ottosson), among grass in Germany (Rey), 
among moss on rocks in the Alps (Bailly) and even in a potato or broccoli 
plant! In Germany the nest is also frequently found in the 'hedges' of dead 
branches by which the sand dunes are kept from drifting, as well as in 
turf stacks and heaps of cut wood (Hartert). 

Usually 4 — 5, sometimes 6, while 7 have occasionally been found. Eggs. 
Two (possibly sometimes three) broods are raised in the season. The eggs 
show considerable variation in size, shape and colouring. Sometimes the 
ground colour is a clear light blue with a slight tinge of green, at other 
times it is bluish or French white; while the markings consist generally of 
spots of purplish red, congregated round the large end, and underlying 
spots or blotches of paler red or violet. Eggs entirely without markings 
are found both with white and blue ground; and one variety is profusely 
speckled with reddish, like the egg of the Spotted Flycatcher. Large 
specimens exceed the minimum size of Greenfinch eggs. 



56 

Breeding I^i England the eggs of the first brood are generally laid from mid- 

Season. April to early May, and the second in June or even July; while in Ireland 

Ussher has found eggs from May to July, and in Germany Rey has taken 

them between April 25 and August 15. In Greece Kriiper says they lay 

from mid- April onwards, but in the south some birds evidently breed very 

early, as Fuhrer saw fledged young on April 21 in Montenegro. In Finland 

not before Mid-May. Incubation is chiefly, but not solely, performed by 

the hen, and the eggs are hatched on the 14th day from the laying of the 

last egg (Evans). 

Measure- Average of 100 eggs from England and the Continent (80 by Rey 

ments. and 20 by the Avriter) 18.12 X 13.10 mm.. Max. 20.3 X 14 mm., Min. 

14.7 X 13.4 and 16 X 12 mm. Average weight (80 eggs) 98 mg. (Rey). 

9 full eggs average 1.631 g. (Foster). Fatio has a dwarf egg 9 X 6.5 mm. 

Geographical Races. 

a. Common Linnet, C. cannaMna cannabina (L.). See above. 

b. Mediterranean Linnet, C. cannabina mediterranea (Tsch.). 

Acanthis cannabina mediterranea Tsch. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 75. 

Breeding Range: The northern shores of the Mediterranean, Dal- 
matia, S. Italy, S. Spain, etc. The exact limits of this and the typical 
race are not clearly defined. In S. Spain great numbers nest in April. 

[In the Canaries, Madeira and N. W. Africa the resident form is 
C. c. nana (Tsch.). 11 eggs from Tenerife average 16.62 X 12.89 mm., 
and are decidedly smaller as a rule than eggs of the typical form. From 
the Caucasus and Asia Minor eastward C. c. fringillirostris (Bp. & Schl.) 
is found. Average of 4 eggs from near Smyrna, 1 9.5 X 14.1 mm. (Coll. Selous).] 

22. Twite, Carduelis flavirostris (L.). 

Plate 11, fig. 6—10 (Broadstone, Yorks, 16—20, VI, 80). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXV, fig. 11, a— c. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. XCVI, fig. 3; n. Ed. I, pi. XLV, fig. 3; III. Ed. I, pi. LI, 
fig. 3. Baedeker, Tab. 20, fig. 14. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, pi. 13; id. Col. 
Fig., pi. 57. Frohawk, Br. Birds, II, pi. V, fig. 172 — 173. 

Nest: Kearton, Brit. Birds' Nests, p. 315. 

British Local Names: Mountain, Orey or Moor Linnet. Scotland: 
Heather, Hill or Yellow neb Lintie. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Jirice liorni. Denmark: Bjergirisk^ 
Moirisk, Bjergfinke. Finland: Keltanokka hemjjpo. France: Linotte de mon- 
tagne or a bee jaune. Germany: Berglidnfling. Helgoland: Road-ejedhssed. 
Holland: Fratertje. Hungary: Teli kenderike. Italy: Funello nordico. Nor- 



57 

way: Gulnaehet Irish, Knotter. Poland: Gbrnkzek. Spain: Pajarel. Sweden: 
Gulndhhad Hdmpling, VinterMmpling. 

Linota flavirostris (L.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 59; Newton, 
ed. Yarrell, 11, p. 160; Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, p. 313. Acanthis flavi- 
rostris (L,). Saunders, Man., p. 193. A. f. flavirostris (L.). Hartert, Vog. 
Pal. Fauna, p. 76. 

Breeding Range: Locally in the north of England, Ireland, Scot- 
land and the adjacent isles (but not on the Faeroes), Norway, Lapland and 
perhaps also Finland. 

In England the Twite is chiefly confined to the mountains and moor- British 
lands north of lat. 53° 20', although a few instances of its breeding farther ^^'^s- 
south are on record. W. H. Hine found a small colony nesting in N. Devon 
in 1904, but though it is said to occur locally in N. Wales, definite proofs of 
its breeding there are still lacking. A few pairs are found on the moorlands 
of N. Staffordshire, but it is only on the extensive grouse moors of Long- 
dendale (Cheshire), the High Peak (Derbyshire) and W. Yorkshire that is 
begins to be at all common. In some parts of Yorkshire it is tolerably 
plentiful; and is found in small colonies locally in many suitable localities 
in our northern counties, nesting not only on the hills, but in the Lancashire 
mosses only a few feet above the sea level. In Cumberland and the Lake 
district it is local and far from common, and though recorded from the 
Isle of Man 40 years ago, has not been observed there recently. In Scot- 
land it is much more numerous, breeding among the heather, not only on 
the mainland, but also on the Inner and Outer Hebrides, the Orkneys, 
Shetlands and also on S. Kilda. On some of the islands on the west coast 
where the heather is high it is exceedingly common, and on the Orkneys, 
Fair Isle and Shetlands it is eveiywhere abundant. In Ireland it is locally 
common, especially near the coast, but does not breed in the low lying bogs 
of the midland counties, and not often on the mountain ranges inland. 

In Norway it is found sporadically in colonies in different localities, ^°°- 
such as the Dovrefjeld and the Filefjord, in the subalpine region, as well Europe, 
as here and there along the west coast and islands as far as Tromso 
(lat. 69° 39' N.); while in Lapland it breeds plentifully near Karesuando 
(Lillejeborg), and is said to have nested in Finland near Ule^borg. In 
Sweden it is only known to occur in smaU numbers in the extreme north, 
and its presence in N. Russia in the breeding season is very doubtful. 

On English moors, where the heather is usually short, the nest is Nest. 
generally close to, or even on the ground, often close to a sheep track. In 
some parts of Scotland on the other hand (such as the islets in the Firth 
of Lome) it is not uncommon to find nests 3 or 4 ft. above the ground 
in long, rank heather. In more open and wind swept districts, such as the 
Outer Hebrides, where there is less cover, the Twite usually breeds on the 



58 

ground, often under shelter of on upturned sod or in rough pasture, and 
sometimes among ivy or creepers on walls and rocks. 

On the mainland it nests occasionally in trees in preference to the 

open moors, and in the Orkneys and Shetlands many nests are now built 

in gooseberry and elder bushes. Almost every kind of site is utilized 

occasionally in these islands, e. g. in walls, peat stacks, stone heaps, under 

boulders, in rabbit holes, haystacks, on ledges of cliffs, among young com 

or roots, even on cabbage stocks and inside a hollow turnip growing in a 

field! In Ireland Ussher has found nests in furze, and one has been 

recorded from under a tuft of rushes (Elhson). The nest is generally 

neatly built of dry grass, fibrous roots and stalks, with fine twigs of heather 

sometimes as a foundation and a little moss, and the lining consists generally 

of hair and wool, mth an occasional feather or two. Saxby found rabbit 

down Avoven into the lining in Shetland nests, and on one occasion large 

quill feathers (one 8 in. long) attached to the edge; while Macpherson records 

one lined with peat fibre. Inside diameter about 2 — 2^ in., depth 1^ in. 

Eggs. 5 — 6 in number as a rule, but Ussher has twice found clutches of 

7 in Ireland, and 4 eggs are sometimes found. They resemble those of 

the Linnet, but as a rule the underlying markings are few and there is 

a decided tendency to streaks instead of spots. Ground colour generally 

clear pale blue; the rather scanty spots or streaks are of very dark red 

brown, and generally towards the large end. Saxby found a set of pure 

white eggs in Unst. 

Breeding The Twitc is rather a late breeder, and in the north of England usually 

Season, jg^yg from the middle to the end of May, or early in June. In Scotland the 

breeding season is very similar, and in the Shetlands fresh eggs may be found 

from mid-May onwards. In Ireland it is rather earlier, and Ussher has taken 

fuU clutches in the first week of May. As fresh eggs have been found 

both in Ireland and the Shetlands in July and August, it is probable that 

a second brood is occasionally reared. The hen sits closely, and when 

flushed flits restlessly about the heather. 

Measure- Average size of 100 eggs from the British Isles (40 measured by 

ments. ^qj and 60 by the writer) 16.89 X 12.6 mm.. Max. 18.5 X 12.5 and 

17.2 X 13.7 mm., Min. 15.3 X 12.3 and 16.8 X 11.8 mm. Average weight 

(40 eggs) 73 nig. (Rey). 4 full eggs average 1.474 g. (Foster). A dwarf 

egg (Yorkshire, R. H. Read) measures 14.2 X 11-3 mm. 

[From Asia Minor and the Caucasus eastward a paler form is found, 
C. flavirostris brevirostris (Moore). Clutches of 5 — 6 eggs from the Kuko- 
. Noor measure 17 X 12.4 and 17.1 X 12.6 mm,, and resemble those of the 
typical race (Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 77).] 



59 



23. Mealy Redpoll, Cardiielis flammea (L.). 
Plate 11, fig. 11—15 (Lapland). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXV, fig. 13, a — c. Hewitson, 
III. Ed., pi. LI,* fig. 1, 2. Baedeker, Tab. 20, fig. 15. Taczanowski, Tab. LXXII, 
fig. 1. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 12; id. Col. Fig., pi. 57. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Cecatka obecna. Finland: Varpunen, 
PimapacL Holland: Barmsijsje, Paapje. Hungary: Nyirizsezse. Italy: 
Sizerino. Norway: Orasisikk, Moirisk. Poland: Luszczah czeczotka. Russia: 
Tschetschoska. Sweden: Kortndbbad Ordsiska. 

Linota linaria (L.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 37; Newton, 
ed. Yarrell, II, p. 133; Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, p. 315. Acantliis linaria (L.). 
Saunders, Man., p. 189. A. flammea flammea (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 77. 

Breeding Range: The typical race inhabits the birch and alder 
region of northern Scandinavia and Russia, but in N. Lapland a long billed 
race, C. f. liolboelli (Brehm), is the prevalent form. [Also in Siberia and 
arctic America.] (The study of the breeding habits of these birds is attended 
with peculiar difficulty, owing partly to the diversity of opinion with regard 
to the validity of the various species and subspecies of Redpolls, and 
partly to the overlapping of the range of two closely allied species, C. 
flammea and C. hornemanni. Moreover not only do intermediate forms 
between the typical race and HolboU's Redpoll occur, but it is said that 
in some districts both races are found breeding. See the Ibis 1904, p. 445.) 

In Norway the Mealy Redpoll is abundant in the Tromso diocese *^°'^' 

1 Till -1 11 1 • tinental 

up to about lat. 69°, and though less numerous m the south, small colonies Europe. 
may be found in the birch woods not infrequently as far as the Dovre- 
and Langefjeld, and occasionally even in the Kristiansand diocese. In 
Sweden its range is more limited, and though common in Jemtland it is 
scarce south of lat. 62°, but a few pairs have been found nesting in Wenn- 
land, Gefle, Kolmorden (1876), and Upsala (1902). In Finland and N. 
Russia the distribution of the various races and sj)ecies is very imperfectly 
known and probably varies from time to time. At Lutni on the Murman 
coast C. hornemanni exilipes was the only species found breeding by Pearson 
in 1895, but was not met with subsequently. On the other hand C. flammea 
(? holb'olli) was recorded from Lutni and other localities on the same coast 
in 1899, 1901 and 1903, and also from Habarova (opposite Waigatch) 
in 1897*. Seebohm secured a few specimens of C. flammea as well as 
C. h. exilipes on the lower Petschora. In South Finland Westerlund 
says it has bred near Helsingfors; Deichler describes it as nesting in the 



* See also Pearson, Three Summers, etc., p. 166. 



60 

Russian Baltic Provinces, and von Homeyer on Hiddensoe, near Riigen in 
the Baltic; while according to Hartert it breeds in northernmost E. Prussia, 
near the Baltic. 
Nest. Like the Twite, the Mealy Redpoll is a sociable bird; and it is not 

uncommoji to find several nests within a short distance of one another in 
open glades of birch forest and on the outskirts of thickets of willow. As 
a rule they are placed in the fork of a bough from one to ten feet high, 
but nests have been met with on the ground in tufts of grass, and Newton 
(11, p. 138) mentions one on the hollow top of a birch stump. They are 
generally very neatly built of bents and roots, with sometimes a few lichens 
and shreds of bark, on a foundation of a few heather twigs; while the 
lining consists of willow down or floAver-seeds, feathers (usually of gulls, 
willow grouse or snowy owl), and reindeer hair. Diameter about 3 — 3 1 in., 
height 2 — 2 |- in.; diameter of cup 1 J — 2, depth 1 — If- in. 
Eggs. Generally 5 — 6 in number, occasionally 4 only. For purposes of accurate 

comparison most of the eggs in collections are of little use, owing to the 
uncertainty as to the distribution of the various forms of Redpoll and 
absence of authentication. As a mle Redpolls' eggs are distinguishable 
from those of other allied Fringillidae by the deeper blue of their ground 
colour, duller surface of shell, more profuse and lighter markings and a 
decided tendency to spots rather than streaks. The ground colour is however 
very fugitive and individual eggs vary a good deal. 
Breeding Somcwhat irregular, nests with fresh eggs and young being often 

Season, found in close proximity. In mid-Norway full clutches may be taken from 
the last week in May till about the middle of July, but usually in June. 
On Karlo from the first week in June onwards (Sandman). 
Measure- 100 eggs from Scandinavia and north Russia measured by the writer 

inents. average 16.98 X 12.65 mm.. Max. 20 X 12.2 and 17.6 X 13.6 mm., Min. 
14.4X12.2 and 15.5X11.5 mm. Some of these may belong to the next 
species, but 22 which certainly belong to the typical race average 
16.85 X 12.8 mm. Newton has a dwarf egg measuring about 11x9 mm. 
Rey gives the average weight of Redpolls' eggs as 71 mg. 

Geographical Races. 

a. Mealy Redpoll, C. flamniea flammea (L.). See above, 
lb. Holboirs Redpoll, C. flammea holboelli (Brehm). 

Acanthis flammea holboelli (Brehm). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 79. 

(Whether Holboll's Redpoll can be regarded as a strict geographical 
race can hardly be stated with certainty as yet. Wolley observed considerable 
wearing down of the mandibles of resident birds in Lapland during the 
winter months, so that it is unsafe to attach too much importance to this 



61 

character, especially as some birds regularly migrate southward in winter. 
Witherby, who has shot both forms in the same little company, is disposed 
to consider the variation individual. Intermediate forms also occur; and 
without further investigation no distinctive characters can be given with 
regard to breeding habits or eggs, but so far the larger biUed and longer 
winged birds have only been found within the most northerly limits of 
the range of this species in both the Old and New Worlds.) 

c. Greater Redpoll, C. flammea rostrata (Coues). 

A. flammea rosfratus (Coues). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 80. 

Breeding Range: Southern Greenland. (Has occurred at Barra, W. Scot- 
land {Ann. Scott. Nat. Hist. 1901, p. 131) and Ireland {Birds of Ireland, p. 64). 
Eggs said to be larger than those of the typical race. 

d. Lesser Redpoll, C. flammea cabaret (P. L. S. MiilL). 

Plate 38, fig. 11 (Scotland); 26, fig. 4, 5 (Derbyshire, VI. 04). 

Eggs: Hewitson, I. Ed. I, pi. XCVI, fig. 4; H. Ed. I, pi. XLV, fig. 2; 
III. Ed. I, pi. LI, fig. 2. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, pi. 12; id. Col. Fig., pi. 57. 
Frohawk, Br. Birds, pi. V, fig. 168—171. 

British Local Names: Chevy, Chacldy, Orey Boh, French Orey, 
Banty Hemplin, Red Linnet. Welsh: Llinos hengoch. Scotland: Divarf Lintie. 

Foreign Names: France: Sizerin cabaret. Holland: Klein Barmsijsje. 
Italy: Organetto. Switzerland (German): Sudlicher Leinfink. Spain: Volicelo. 

Linota rufescens (Vieill.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 47: 
Newton, ed. Yarrell, 11, p. 146; Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds^ p. 316. Acanthis 
rufescens (Vieill.). Saunders, Man., p. 191. A. flammea cabaret (P.L. S. Miill.). 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 80. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles and the whole Alpine district, 
probably also in the Carpathians. Redpolls (? C. f. cabaret) are also resident 
in the Balkans and Caucasus. 

In England this bird is commonest in the counties north of about British 
52° 30', though everywhere rather local. In the south midland and south i^^^^- 
eastern counties it breeds sporadically in small numbers, but is decidedly 
scarce along the south coast and practically absent from the Devonian peninsula, 
though recorded as breeding in Somerset and Dorset. In Wales it is fairly 
common in the valleys, especially in some parts of the north (e. g. S. Denbigh), 
but is found also locally in the south, in Pembroke, Cardigan, Brecon, etc. 
In Scotland it is a local resident or summer visitor in many of the wooded 
straths of the mainland, and is known to nest in the Orkneys and some 
of the Inner Hebrides as well as on Barra. In Ireland it is common and 
widely distributed, nesting in every county except Kerry and on Aranmore 
Island (Co. Donegal). 



62 

Con- j]2 the valleys of the French, Swiss, Italian and Austrian Alps it is 

Europe, tolerably common in the breeding season. S. B. Wilson obtained a nest 
on the Engstlen Alp in 1886 at a height of over 6000 ft., and according 
to Fatio it is chiefly found in the Alpine cantons up to about 5700 ft., 
and more rarely in the Jura. Although the nest has not actually been 
found in the Carpathians, the birds are seen in Hungary in V7inter and 
spring. Reiser describes a form of Redpoll as breeding in the Balkans, and 
Radde mentions it as nesting in the Caucasus, but up to the present no 
specimens are available for examination. On Helgoland a pair bred in 1872. 
Nest. The sites adopted by these birds vary considerably. In the south 

of England nests may be found in alders, osier beds, on small fruit trees, 
on the outskirts of small plantations or shrubberies, and in high straggling 
hedges. Another not uncommon site is among young conifers, especially 
larches; and though most nests are built at no great height from the ground 
there are a few exceptions to the rule on record. In Yorkshire it has 
been recorded as nesting on the ground among bracken {Zool. 1902, p. 194); 
in Scotland in tall heather, 2 ft. from the ground; among ivy on a tree 
trunk in Somerset {Zool. 1903, p. 457), while on the other hand nests have 
been found 40 ft. or more from the ground in ashes, elms, chesnuts, 
larches, etc., and in Ireland it has bred in furze and currant bushes, honey- 
suckle or briars (Ussher). It is not uncommon to find several nests in 
tolerably close proximity, and some preference in shown for the neigh- 
bourhood of rivers or marshes. The nest is very characteristic, being 
composed chiefly of coarse stalks and roots, the ends of which project and 
give it a rough, unfinished look: sometimes on a foundation of a few twigs. 
At other times moss, wool and lichens are used. Internally the nest is 
beautifully lined with white vegetable down as a rule, but sometimes with 
hair or feathers, or even both. Diameter about 2 J- in., height 2 in., diameter 
of cup 1^ in., depth 1 in. 
Eggs. 4 — 6 in number, but usually 5. The blue is of a greener shade, 

and when fresh is decidedly deeper in tint than that of the other 
Finches of this genus. The shell is also less glossy, and the markings, 
which consist of a few spots or small streaks chiefly, at the large end, 
are dark purplish brown, with underlying paler reddish brown spots or 
blotches. 
Breeding ^^ ^^^ south of England according to Newton, eggs are known to 

Season. Jiave been laid by the end of April, but the more usual time seems to 
be from mid-May to the end of June. In Derbyshire I have found most 
nests between May 25 and June 15. Ussher gives the latter part of May 
or the month of June as the usual time for eggs in Ireland. 

In the Alps, according to Fatio it nests from the end of April to 
late in May, and Wilson found fresh eggs on June 8. 



63 

100 eggs from Great Britain average 15.97 X 12.2 mm., Max. Measure- 
17.5X12.3 and 16x13.2 mm., Min. 14.3X10.5 and 15.3x10 mm. ^ents. 
A dwarf egg measures 13.5 X 10.3 mm. (R. H. Read). Average weight of 
16 eggs 73 mg. 5 full eggs average 1.315 g. (Foster). 

e. Iceland Redpoll, C. flammea islaiidica (Hantzseh). 

(Recently described by Hantzseh as a separate race in his Beitr. z. 
Kenntn. d. Vogelwelt Islands, p. 300. Resident in Iceland, where they nest 
in the scrub, 2 to 6 ft. from the ground, during the first half of June, and 
lay 5 — 6 eggs. Average size of 9 eggs, 17.73X12.59 mm.. Max. 18.4x13 mm., 
Min. 17 X 12.6 and 17.1 X 12.4 mm. Average weight 65 mg. Full eggs 
vary from 1.5 to 1.6 g. (Hantzseh). Possibly C. hornemanni also breeds 
on the island. Cf. Zool 1901, p. 407.) 

34. Cones' or Hoary Redi)oll, Carduelis hornemanni exilipes (Cones). 

Linota exilipes (Coues). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 51; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 317. Acanthis hornemanni exilipes (Coues). Hai-tert, Vog. 
Pal. Fauna, p. 81. 

Breeding Range: Lapland and northern Russia. [Also Arctic Siberia 
and America.] 

Apparently this species is somewhat irregular in its breeding range 
in northern Europe. H. J, Pearson met with no other form in Russian 
Lapland in 1905, and found it abundant near Lutni; on subsequent journeys 
however only Mealy Redpolls were met with, except in 1903 near the 
Tuloma, when two were shot. Witherby's examples from this district 
were C. flammea. Seebohm obtained specimens of both species from the 
Lower Petschora up to lat. 714". Pearson describes the nests and eggs 
as indistinguishable from those of the Mealy Redpoll. 

Eggs 4 — 6 in number, and much incubated on June 20. 9 authentic 
eggs in H. J. Pearson's collection average 17.35 X 12.91 mm., Max. 
18X12.7 and 17.3X13.2 mm., Min. 16.5X13.1 and 18x12.4 mm. 

Geographical Races. 

a. Greenland Redpoll, C. hornemanni hornemanni (Holb.). 

Eggs: Seebohm, Brit. Birds, pi. 12; id. Col. Fig., pi. 57. 

Linota hornemanni Holb. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 55; id. 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 317. Acanthis hornemanni hornemanni (Holb.). Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 81. 

Breeding Range: Spitzbergen, Jan Mayen; perhaps also in Iceland. 
[In Greenland to lat. 73°, etc.] 



64 

Owing to the fact that C. flammea rostrata also breeds in Greenland, 
there is great uncertainly as to the authenticity of many Greenland eggs 
in collections. Cobum reports having found this species breeding in Ice- 
land [Zool. 1901, p. 407). 7 eggs taken by P. Nielsen at Akureyri certainly 
appear too large for C. flammea islandica, averaging 18.08 X 13.4 mm. in 
size (coll. H. J. Pearson). 27 eggs ascribed to this species from Greenland, 
taken during the latter part of June, average 17.64x13.04 mm.. Max. 
19X13 and 17.5X14 mm., Min. 15x12 mm. 

b. Coues' Redpoll, C. hornemaniii exilipes (Cones). See p. 63. 

35. Citril Fiucli, Carduelis citriiiella (L.). 
Plate 10, fig. 22—26 (Switzerland). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXV, fig. 16, a— b. Baedeker, 
Tab. 20, fig. 4. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Perikava citronovd. France: Venturon 
alpin, Serin de montagne. Germany: Zitronenzeisig, Zitronenfink. Italy: 
Venturone, Lcgoi'in de montugna. Spain: Verdoncillo. 

Chrysomitris citrinella (L.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 535; 
id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 278. Acanthis citrinella citrinella (L.). Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 81. 

Breeding Range: The chief mountain systems of central and south 

Europe. 

Con- jjj Spain this bird breeds on the spurs of the S. Nevada, and Saunders 

Europe, records a nest from Granada (2200 ft.). It is also found in the Pyrenees 

up to about 6000 ft., and in the Vosges Mts., while in the upper valleys 

of the Alps and Jura it is widely distributed and not uncommon from 

2700 to 5400 and even 6000 ft. (Fatio). In Germany it breeds in the Schwarz- 

wald, and its range also extends to the Tyrol and Salzburg. According to 

Arrigoni the resident Italian birds probably belong to the next subspecies, 

and Reiser does not include include it in the Ornis balcanica (Vols. II, 

III, IV). [The older records of this species from Greece and Corfu probably 

refer to the Serin.] 

Nest The Citril Finch is a mountain haunting bird, and the nest is almost 

invariably built in a pine or other conifer, sometimes at a considerable 

height. It is neatly constructed of grass stalks, lichens and moss, with 

spiders' webs, fine roots or hair interwoven, and lined smoothly with hair, 

thistle down or feathers. Being usually placed at the extremity of a branch 

and partly concealed by the pine needles, it is not always easy to find. 

Eggs. 4 — 5 in number, and practically indistinguishable from those of several 

other species of this genus. The ground colour is perhaps more bluish 



65 

than in eggs of the Serin and Goldfinch as a rule, but the markings are 
very similar. 

In Switzerland according to Fatio, the eggs are laid towards the end Breeding 
of April or at the beginning of May; but S. B. Wilson took 3 nests with Season, 
eggs on May 28 in the Jura, and they may also be obtained till late in 
June. The nest found by Saunders at the Alhambra contained 3 eggs 
on April 4. 

41 eggs (11 measured by Rey and 30 by the writer), chiefly from Measure- 
Switzerland, average 16.5 X 12.59 mm., Max. 18.5 X 12.5 and 16.2 X U.l mm., ^^ents. 
Min. 15.3X13.4 and 16.1 X 11.7 mm. Rey gives the average weight of 
11 eggs as 74.4 mg. 

Geographical Races. 

a. Citril Finch, C. citriueUa citrineUa (L.). See above, 
b. Corsica!! Citril Finch, C. citrinella corsicana (Kou.). 

Chrysomitris corsicana (Kon.), Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, p. 279. 
Acanthis citrinella corsicana (Kon.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 82. 

Breedincr Rano-e: Corsica and Sardinia, where it is an abundant 
resident, breeding even in the coast districts as well as in the mountains. 
According to Arrigoni it is probably also this form which breeds in the 
mountains of N. Italy. In Corsica Whitehead describes it as usually nesting 
in arbutus trees. The nest is built of grass stems, lined with feathers 
and is rather rudely constructed. The breeding season appears to vary 
with the altitude, for Whitehead found young on April 29 on the coast, 
while in the hills many nests were still empty at the end of May. Average 
of 4 eggs in Tring Museum: 16.72X12.75 mm.. Max. 17.7X13 mm., 
Min. 16X12.5 mm. (Hartert, in litt). 

36. Serin, Seriiiiis canariiis seriniis (L.). 

Plate 11, fig. 26, 28, 30 (Moravia); fig. 27, 29 (Switzerland). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXV, fig. 15, a — c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 20, fig. 5. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, pi. 12; id. Col. Fig., pi. 56. 

Foreign Names: Austria: Hirngrill. Bohemia: Zvonolilik. Denmark: 
Guulirisk. France: Cini, Serin. Germany: Girlitz. Greece: Sjmrgitis. 
Hungary: Girlie, CsicsorJie. Italy: Yerzellino. Poland: Kidczy'k. Portugal: 
Serzino. Spain: Chamaris, Verdecillo. Sweden: Gulhdmpling. 

Serinus hortulanus Koch. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 549; 
Newton, ed. Yarrell, H, p. Ill; Saunders, Man., p. 177; Dresser, Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 280. Serinus canaria serinus (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 83. 

Breeding Range: The greater part of South and Central Europe; 
is gradually extending its northern range. [Also the Barbary States and 
Asia Minor.] 

5 



66 

Con- Ji^ the Iberian peninsula the Serin is abundant in most wooded districts 

Europe, of Spain and Portugal, nesting in olive and cork -oak trees, in the pine 
forest, and also on the slopes of the Pyrenees. In France it occurs chiefly 
in the central and southern provinces, and is abundant in Corsica, nesting 
in the olive, ilex, and cork trees. It breeds in the hilly parts of northern 
and central Italy, occasionally in Calabria and Apulia, and is scarce in the 
south of Sardinia. In Switzerland it is tolerably common in the plain, but 
occurs in the mountains up to about 3600 ft., and of late years has 
considerably increased its northern range in Germany (see Orn. Monatsber. 
1893, p. 1), breeding not uncommonly in Brandenburg, while it has nested 
in Pomerania and West Prussia and in the Rhine valley at least as far 
as Kohl, as well as in Silesia. In Austro-Hungary it is now found in 
every province, and is especially common in W. Hungary and Bohemia. 
In Poland it was first recorded as breeding in 1877. In does not appear 
to be a common breeding species in the pine forests of the Balkan penin- 
sula, but is found on the wooded mountains of Grreece. 
Nest. This nest is as a rule a difficult one to find, though the peculiar 

sibilant notes of the cock occasionally indicate its neighbourhood. In 
middle Europe it is built in almost any kind of fruit or forest tree, 
generally 9 or 10 ft. from the ground, but sometimes as low as 5 ft., in 
gardens, parks, orchards, vineyards or avenues; sometimes among the small 
twigs, and at other times at the angle of a stout branch. It is neatly. built 
of grass stalks and roots, often -with a few lichens attached, interwoven 
with spiders' w^ebs, or thread, and is generally smoothly lined with hair, 
feathers, or down. Approximate measurements: diameter 3f in., depth of 
cup 1:^ — 1^^- in., diameter If — 2 in. In N. Africa nests have been found 
in bushes only 3 ft. high, as well as in olives and cork oaks up to 20 ft. 
Eggs. 3 — 4 in the south, but generally 5 in the north; closely resembling 

those of the Citril Finch and Goldfinch in colour and markings. They are 
however generally smaller than those of the latter, and according to Rey, 
frequently show a bluish tinge, which however soon fades. Occasionally 
a clutch is marked with big blotches of purple brown. 
Breeding In Middle Europe generally in May; in Corsica about the second 

Season, ^yeek of April, but much earlier in the south. Thus Rey found fledged 
young on one occasion in Portugal on March 12, and eggs may be found 
in Spain from the end of March to mid June. In Tunis Whitaker has 
seen well grown young in the nest on March 24, but Meade- Waldo found 
eggs in the Maroccan Atlas in July. In Marocco Hartert found eggs at 
Mazagan early in April. 
Measure- Average of 100 eggs (82 by the writer and 18 by Rey) 16.17X1 1-86 mm., 

ments. ]\iax. 17.6x12.5 and 16.3X12.7 mm., Min. 14.4X11 mm. Average 
weight (18 eggs) 70 mg. (Rey). 



67 
Geographical Races. 

a. Canary, S. eanarius canarius (L.). 

Plate 26, fig. 7 (Tenerife, 16. IV. 91). 

Foreign Names: Azores, Canaries, etc.: Canario, Pajaro canario. 

Serinus canarius (L.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 557; id. Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 281. S. canaria canaria (L ). Hai'tert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 84. 

Breeding Range: The Canaries, Azores and Madeira. (Has occurred in 
the British Isles, Italy, etc.). 

This large race of the Serin is abundant in most of the islands in the above 
named groups. The nest is built not only on orange and cypress trees, 10 to 
20 ft. from the ground, but also in the heaths and cistus scrub on the hillsides, 
sometimes within a few inches of the ground. It is composed of stalks or moss, 
lined with white hair, down or feathers. The number of eggs is variable: 3 is 
the usual clutch on the Azores, but 4 are sometimes found; while in the Canaries 
5 eggs are not unusual and 6 have been recorded. In the Azores eggs may be 
found throughout April and Maj", but in Tenerife along the coast nesting begins 
in January and at least two broods are reared, although in the high mountains 
breeding takes place in June and July (Meade-Waldo). In colour the eggs are 
variable ; some are white without markings, but most have spots or streaks of dark 
purplish red, sometimes only the paler underlying markings, on a pale bluish 
or even reddish white ground. 

62 eggs from the Azores, Tenerife, Palma, etc., average 17.17 X 13 mm., 
Max. 19.1 X 13.3 and 18 X 14 mm., Min. 15.5 X 13.1 and 16.6 X 12 mm. Schmitz 
has taken eggs 20X13.5 and 17.8X14.5 mm. in Madeira. 

b. Serin, S. canarius serinus (L.). See p. 65. 

[Another species of this genus, S. syriacus Bp., occurs locally in the mountain 
districts of Palestine, nesting in the forks of tali shrubs. Two eggs taken by 
Tristram on June 16, 1864, measure 16.7 X 12.4 and 17.1 X 13 mm. (coll. Newton). 
It has been recorded from Dalmatia. S. icterus (Bonnat.-Vieill.) is said to have 
occurred in England and Italy, and S. canicollis Swains, has been twice taken in 
the south of England.] 

37. Red-fronted Fineli, Serinus i)usillus (Pall.). 

Plate 38, fig. 10 (Caucasus). 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: ZvonohUk rushy. France: Serin nain. 
Germany: Botkopfiger Girlitz. Russia: Korolkoivyi Wjurok; near Tiflis: 
Malinowka. 

Serinus piisillus (Pall.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 561; id. 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 282; Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 85. 

Breeding Range: The Caucasus. [Also Taurus Mts., N. Persia, 
Afghanistan, Turkestan, Kashmir, etc.]. 

Little is known of the breeding habits of this bird, which nests in 
the juniper forests of the mountain ranges of western Asia. 

The nest is described as rather larger and better built than that of Nest. 
the Serin, constructed of fine grasses with sometimes a few fine twigs in 

5* 



68 

the foundation, interwoven with lichens, chips of rotten wood, and strips 

of bark, and warmly and softly lined with feathers, wool, and goats' hair. It 

is often found low down, but sometimes as much as 20 ft. from the ground 

in juniper bushes, from 3000 to 3500 ft. or according to Dresser, 5000 ft. 

above the sea level. 

Eggs. 3 — 5 in number, and have been compared to those of the Serin and 

Canary. They are thin-shelled, and the markings tend to form a zone of 

dark rusty brown spots and streaks round the big end on a bluish white 

ground. 

Breeding Danford found fresh eggs in the Taurus Mts. on April 21, but in 

Season. Afghanistan the breeding season falls early in June (Wardlaw Ramsay), 

and Biddulph took a nest near Gilgit on July 28. 
Measure- The illustrated egg^ obtained tlirough Nehrkorn, measures 17.2 X 13.2 

ments. mm., and weighs 88 mg. (Rey). An egg, taken by Danford (coll. H. E. Dresser), 
measures 17 X 13.5 mm. Other eggs ascribed to this bird from Kuldja 
and the Caucasus average much less (8 sj)ecimens) 15.6 X 12 mm. 

38. Desert or Trumpeter Bullfiiicli, Erythrospiza gitliaginca (Liclit). 

Plate 26, fig. 6 (Algeria). 

Foreign Name: Italy: Tromhettiere. 

Erythrospiza githaginea (Licht.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 85; 
id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 329. K g. githaginea (Licht.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 88. 

Breeding Range: North Africa from Algeria to Egypt. It has 
occurred at various places along the southern shores of Europe. 
Nest. Resident in the hilly and stony country south of the Atlas, nesting 

under tussocks of grass or other plants on the hill sides. The nest is 
neatly built of fine bents, lined with fine roots and a little hair, wool, or 
a few feathers. 
Eggs. Usually 4 — 5, occasionally 6 (Whitaker), are elongated in shape and 

'of a delicate sea green colour slightly spotted and streaked at the large 
end with dark lake and reddish brown' [Birds of Tunisia, p. 221). These 
markings tend to form a zone. 
Breeding From the end of February onward through March; latter in the north 

Season. Qf ^]^g breeding range than in the south. Probably two broods are some- 
times reared. 
Measure- Whitaker gives the average size of two clutches as 20 X 14 mm., 

ments. Hartert as 18 — 19 X 14 mm. Average of 10 eggs (Erlanger 4 and 6 by 
the writer) 20.2 X 14.74 mm. 

[The N. African race is replaced in the Canaries by E. githaginea 
amantum Hart. 32 eggs of this subspecies average 18.6 X 14.1 mm.. Max. 



69 

20.1X13.8 and 18X15.2 mm., Miu. 17.5X13.7 and 19X13.3 mm. 
In colour they resemble eggs from N. Africa. In Palestine another form 
is found, E. githaginea crassirostris Blyth, which ranges through Persia 
and Afghanistan to the Punjab.] 

39. Common Bullfiiicli, PyiTliula pyrrliula europaea Ticill. 

Plate 9, fig. 5 — 8 (Altenkirchen, Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab, XXXVI, fig. 3, a — c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 20, fig. 7. HeAvitson, 1. Ed. I, pi. XLIII, fig. 3; II. Ed. I, pi. XL VI, fig. 1 ; 
III. Ed. I, pLLIV, fig. 1. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, pi. 12; id. Col. Fig., pi. 56. 
Frohawk, Br. Birds, II, pi. V, fig. 174—179. 

Nest: 0. Lee, IV, p. 130. 

British Local Names: Olph, Bloodolph, Bud-picker, Hoop, Bullie. 
Welsh: Aderyn-y-BerUcm, Chivifanydd. Scotland: BullfUnch, Bidlie. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Hyl ohecny. France: Bouvreuil commun. 
Germany: Kleiner or gemeiner Gimpel or Dompfaff. Helgoland: Doompoap. 
Holland: Ooudvink. Hungary: Suvdlto maddr. Italy: Ciuffolotto. Portugal: 
Cardeal. 

Pyrrlmla europaea Vieill. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 101; 
Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 166; Saunders, Man., p. 195; Dresser, Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 333. P. pyrrlmla europaea Vieill. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 94. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles and Avestem and middle Europe 
from the noiih of the Iberian and Italian peninsulas to West Prussia. 

As a rule the Bullfinch is much more familiar and generally distributed British 
in the British Isles than on the continent. Though scarce in some districts, ^8^^^- 
it is not uncommon in most parts of England and Wales. In Scotland 
it is an increasing species, and is found in the valleys up to the limits 
of the birch on most parts of the mainland. It occurs in S. E. Skye 
(Sleat) and has been seen in spring in N. Uist, while it breeds regularly 
in several of the Inner Hebrides (Eigg, Mull, Islay, Jura, etc.), although 
not as yet established in the Orkneys or Shetlands. In Ireland it has bred 
in every county and is not uncommon in the wooded districts. 

Although is must be fairly common in N. Portugal, it appears to ^°°" 

.® . . -^ . ^ . tinental 

be only thinly distributed along the Cantabrian range, but Lilford met Europe, 
with it sparingly in Santander, and Saunders describes it as not uncommon 
in the Basque provinces and Navarre. Here, as on most parts of the Con- 
tinent, it haunts the mountain forests, and is found in the wooded parts 
of the Pyrenees up to 4600 ft. In France it is local, and scarce in the 
south, but in Switzerland is generally distributed in the Alpine valleys, 
especially on the northern side. It also breeds in smaller numbers in the 
beech and pine forests of northern and middle Italy from about 1800 to 



70 

3000 ft. In the pine woods of S. Holland a few pairs also nest; and in 
Germany it is local, and entirely absent from some districts, while in 
Pomerania and E. Prussia it is replaced by the larger race. Among other 
districts where it occurs more or less commonly may be mentioned the 
Thiiringer Wald, the Harz, Silesia, etc., and it is on the whole more 
numerous in the mountainous districts of S. Germany than in the northern 
plains. In Austro-Hungary a good deal of confusion exists between the 
two races, and at present their limits are not definitely known, but pro- 
bably the smaller form is only found in the west, if indeed it is found 
there at all. 

The Bullfinch which Reiser describes as breeding in the mountain 
ranges of Bulgaria and Montenegro, is probably the large form, P. pyrrhula 
pyrrhula. 
Nest. In the British Isles the nest is often found in gardens, fir plantations, 

clumps of evergreens, thickets and thick hedges; very frequently in a box 
tree {Buxus sempervirens) and also commonly in yew trees. On the Con- 
tinent it is usually built in firs or other trees, in dense forest. Nests in 
hedges are sometimes only 4 ft. from the ground, but the more usual 
site is about 5 to 7 ft. high in thick evergreens, while in the forests of 
the Continent the nest has been found at a height of 15 ft. The nest is 
very characteristic, consisting of fine twigs and moss, with sometimes 
a few lichens, neatly lined with very fine roots and hair, and rarely with 
a few feathers or a little avooI. There is considerable variation in the 
size of nests, some (probably those of young birds) being much smaller 
and slighter than others. As the Bullfinch is a life-paired bird, the same 
locality, though not the same spot, is often resorted to for several years 
in succession. The hen sits very closely when incubating. 
Eggs Usually 4 — 5, occasionally 6. In colour they are a clear blue with 

a tinge of green, marked chiefly at the large end with spots and an 
occasional streak of dark purplish brown, sometimes black or almost black. 
These markings tend to form a zone. The underlying markings consist 
of spots and sometimes large blotches of violet grey. A rare variety has 
red spots on a white ground, and sometimes pure white eggs are found 
(R. H. Read) or white eggs with faint reddish brown frecklings. 
Breeding In the south of England the first eggs are laid during the last week 

Season. Qf ^p^il or early in May, and a second brood in June. In the N. of Eng- 
land the time is decidedly later, and most eggs are laid in the latter half 
of May or the beginning of June, while second broods may occasionally 
be found in July. Irish birds breed about the same time. Rey gives 
May and July as the breeding season in Germany, and in the Alps it nests 
in May or June according to the season, sometimes breeding a second time 
in July and early August (Fatio). 



71 



100 eggs (13 from the Continent measured by Rey and 87 British Measure- 
eggs by the writer) average 19.50x14.46 mm., Max. 22.1x13.6 and ^^^nts. 
20.4X15.4 mm., Min. 17X14.2 and 17.2X13 mm. Average weight 
(13 eggs) 110 mg. (Rey). 6 full eggs average 2.095 g. (Foster). 

Geographical Races. 

a. IS^ortliern or Russian Bullflucli, P. pjrrliula pyrrluila (L.). 

Plate 9, fig. 1—4 (Sweden). 

Eggs: Taczanowski, Tab. LXVIII, fig. 1. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Ryl velky. Denmark: Dompap. Finland: 
Tuunherra, Pimatulkku. Germany: Grosser or nordischer Dompfaff or 
Oimpel. Holland: Oroote or noordsche Ooudvink. Hungarj: Eszaki siivdltd. 
Italy: Cinffolotto maggiore. Norway: Dompap. Poland: Gil wldschoy. 
Russia: Snegir. Sweden: Domherre, Klump. Transylvania: Ptrbk, Havasi pinty. 

Pyrrliula major Brehm. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 97; id. 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 334. P. pyrrliula pyrrliula (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 93. 

Breeding Range: Scandinavia, Russia, N. E. Germany, Hungary, etc. 
[Also in W. Siberia, etc.] 

This larcje race inhabits the forests of middle and southern Sweden, ^°°" 

. --. . . tinental 

from Sm&land and Goteborg in the south to about Lat. 67° N., and is Europe, 
also found on Gotland. In Norway it breeds in the south eastern districts 
and along the west coast, and has occurred even in East Finmark. It is 
generally distributed over the greater part of Russia, excepting in the high 
north. In Finland it occurs sparingly, but is not uncommon in the Baltic 
Provinces and Poland, though scarce near Archangel and only met with 
sparingly by Seebohm on the lower Petschora. From the Kola peninsula 
it has only once been recorded. In East Prussia a few pairs breed, and 
it is said to occur also in Pomerania, but the exact limits of the two 
races are imperfectly known at present. It is however almost certainly 
this form which breeds in Galicia, Hungary and Transylvania, and probably 
also (as recorded by Reiser) sparingly in Montenegro and Bulgaria. 

Similar in construction to that of the western race, but in the north Nest. 
of Europe Usnea barhata is often used as lining material, and probably 
the nest is as a rule rather larger. Average measurements: 2} in. high, 
Sir in. broad; depth of cup 1 1, diameter 2 in. 

Usually 5 — 6 in number, sometimes 4, and very similar in appearance Eggs, 
to those of P. pyrrlmla eiiropaea. The ground colour varies from bluish 
white to a decided clear greenish blue. 

As eggs are found in Scandinavia in May and again in July two Breeding 
broods are probably reared. In Finland most eggs are laid in June: Season. 
averasre date about the second or third week in the month. 



72 

Measure- Average of 65 eggs (25 in coll. Wasenius, 16 by the author, 11 by 

ments. Rgy^ gtc.) from Finland, Scandinavia, etc., 20.42 X 14.69 mm., Max. 
23.2 X 14.8 and 21 X 16 mm., Min. 18 X 14.4 and 19.2 X 14 mm. Average 
weight (11 eggs) 137 mg. (Rey). 

b. P. pyrrlmla rossikowi Derjugiu. 

Breeding Range: Transcaucasia and probably in the whole of the 
Caucasus. 

[A very distinct form, Pyrrhida murina Godm. inhabits San Miguel 
in the Azores, but is now on the verge of extinction. Eggs unknown.] 

30. Caucasian Rose-Finch, Carpoclacws rul)icilla (Griild.). 

Carpodaciis riibicilla (Giild.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 69; 
id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 319. C. ruhicilla riibicilla (Giild.). Hartert, Vog. 
Pal. Fauna, p. 99. 

Breeding Range: The Caucasus range, where it is chiefly met with 
in the higher valleys, frequenting the banks of the mountain streams. 
Nesting habits not known, but the eggs probably resemble those of C. 
ruhicilla severtzovi Sharpe, described and figured by Dresser in the Ibis 
1904, p. 107, pi. Ill, fig. 1 and 3. They are of a beautiful blue colour, 
sparingly spotted at the large end with black, and average (3 eggs) 
23.86X17.1 mm. (coll. H. E. Dresser). 

[Rose Fiuch, Carpodacus roseus (Pall.). 

Carpodacus roseus (Pall.). Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, p. 324. C. rosea (Pall.). 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 105. 

Breeding Range: Siberia, from the Yenesei to Sakhalien. (Has once 
been recorded from Hungary.) 

Czekanowski, who found this species nesting in the valleys of the R. Angara, 
near Paduna, has given no details of its breeding habits. A clutch of 5 eggs in 
Dresser s collection from the Upper Yenesei averages in size 20.62 X 15.1 mm., 
Max. 21.2X15 and 20.3X15.4 mm., Min. 20X15 mm. These eggs are clear 
pale blue, without spots.] 

81. Scarlet Rosefincli or Grrosbeak, Carpodacus erytliriniis (Pall.). 

Plate 9, fig. 9—12 (Moscow, 30. V. 83). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. IC, fig. 16, a. Baedeker, Tab. 20, 
fig. 12. Taczanowski, Tab. LXVII, fig. 2. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, pL 12; 
id. Col. Fig., pi. 56. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Hyl nidy. France: Boselin cramoisi. 
Germany: Karmingimpel. Hungary: Karmazsin pirok. Italy: Verdone 
bastardo. Poland: Oil dziivoni. Russia: Tschetscheiviza. Sweden: Rosen- 
fink, Rddhdmpling. 



73 

Pyrrhula erytlirina (Pall.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 172; Saunders, 
Man., p. 197. Carpodacus erytlirinus (Pall.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, 
IV, p. 75; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 321. C. erytlirina erytlirina (Pall.). 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 106. 

Breeding Range: The greater part of European Russia and a few 
localities in E. Prussia, Hungary, etc. [Also in Siberia as far as the Lena, 
replaced by other subspecies in central Asia and Kamtschatka.] 

It is said to have bred in E. Fimnark in 1867 — 8, and nests regularly *-'°'^' 

. ... '" tinental 

in southern Finland, especially ni Nyland, and has been met with m summer Europe, 
in the Kuopio district. In Livonia, Esthonia and Kurland it is found, but 
not in large numbers, and is recorded as breeding near Archangel. Seebohm 
met with two males at Ust Tzilma on the Petschora on June 7. In Great 
Russia it is not uncommon and breeds not uncommonly in the Moscow 
Government and also in Volhynia. Further south it is found as far as 
the lower waters of the Volga and Don, but the Caucasian birds appear 
to approach the Himalayan form, C. erytlirinus roseatus (Hodgs.). In 
Poland it is generally distributed but nowhere common, while in Germany 
its only breeding place at the present time is the north eastern district of 
E. Prussia, although it is said to have formerly bred in Silesia. In Austro- 
Hungary, besides Galicia, it has occasionally bred in N. Hungary (Gomor, 
Szepes and Saros counties). 

Hartert describes this bird as breeding commonly in several localities Nest. 
near Pillau, between Konigsberg and Memel, and on the Kurische Nehrung. 
Its favourite haunts are swampy woods of Alnus glutinosa with dense 
undergrowth, always in the neighbourhood of rivers, and here the nest 
is usually built low down in thick bushes. It is a very flimsy construction 
of dead stalks, and dry grass lined with fine roots and horsehair. Diameter 
of cup 2f in., depth l-} — 14- in., diameter of nest about 5 — 6 1- in., 
depth 2 1 in. The loud, flute like note of the cock when once heard is 
quite unmistakable. 

Usually 5 in number, though clutches of 6 are said to have been Eggs, 
found, and second layings often consist of only 4 eggs. They are of a 
beautiful deep cerulean blue, which is however somewhat fugitive, sparsely 
marked towards the blunt end with fine spots and streaks of deep chococate, 
almost blackish, brown and occasionally a few violet grey underlying markings. 

In E. Prussia full clutches are generally to be found in the second Breediug 
week of June (earliest date June 7), but fresh eggs may be taken till season. 
July (Hartert), while in S. Finland the breeding season appears to be very 
similar, eggs having been taken from June 9 to 18, and even in the first 
week of July. In mid-Russia full clutches have been taken from May 23 
omvards, but most eggs are laid early in June. Probably only one brood 
is reared as a rule. The hen sits very closely when incubating. 



74 



Measure- Average size of 86 eggs (48 by writer, 28 by Wasenius and 10 by 

merits. Rey) from Russia 20.05 X 14.29 mm., Max. 22.2 X 1412 and 22 X 15.5 mm., 
Min. 18 X 13.3 mm. Average weight (10 eggs) 123 mg. (Rey). 



33. Pine Grrosbeak, Piiiieola enueleator (L.). 

Plate 9, fig. 14 (Kittila, 4. VI. 88), fig. 13 and 15—17 (Kittila, 10—15. VI. 89). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXVI, fig. 1. Hewitson, III. Ed. 
I, pi. LIIL* Baedeker, Tab. 20, fig. 11. Seebobm, Brit. Birds, pi. 12; id. 
Col. Fig., pi. 56. Ootbeca WoUeyana, Tab. XII, fig. 1 — 20. 

Foreign Names: Bobemia: Hyl ofesnik. Denmark: Krognaeb, Svensk 
or Norsk Papeg(')ie. Finland: Kapilintu. France: Bouvreuil dur hec. Ger- 
many: Hakengimpel, FicJitengimpel. Holland: Haakhek. Hungary: Nagg 
pirok. Italy: Ciuffolotto delle pinete., Cardinale. Lapland: Pacajas-loddi. 
Norway: Konglebit. Poland: Oil klesk. Russia: Sliur. Sweden: Tallhit, 
Nattvoka, Svensk papgoja. 

Pyrrhida enueleator (L). Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 177; Saunders, 
Man., p. 199. Pinicola enueleator (L.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, 
p. Ill; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 338. P. e. enncleator (L.). Hartert, Vog. 
Pal. Fauna, p. 114. 

Breeding Range: N. Scandinavia and N. Russia. [Also in N. Siberia, 
but replaced in the east by P. enueleator kamtschatkensis (Dyb.).] 

In Norway this species is found in Saltdalen (67° 20') according to 
Europe. Westerlund, and is tolerably numerous in the birch forests of B. Finmark 
(Sydvaranger, etc.). In Sweden it only breeds in the northern and eastern 
part of Swedish Lapland, and is usually found nesting in the fir region 
here and in the adjoining parts of Finnish Lapland. Wolley obtained a 
large series of nests and eggs in 1855 — 58 from this neighbourhood. It 
does not nest in S. Finland, but occurs locally in the Kola peninsula, and 
in the Archangel Government, where Harvie-Brown records it from near 
Archangel and Seebohm from the Lower Petschora, while Pleske found it 
in the pine forests west of the White sea. 
Neit. The nest is usually placed 4 to 12 ft. from the ground, most frequently 

about 5 or 6 ft., and over the greater part of its range this bird appears 
to inhabit the region of conifers, nesting very often in small spruces and 
also pines close to the stem. In the Kola peninsula and E. Finmark it 
appears to breed in the birch forest. The foundation of the nest consists 
of a flattish and rather loosely built structure of interlaced trailing twigs 
and roots, which are sometimes of considerable length. Within this, and 
looking almost like another nest, is a compact lining of fine roots or wiry 
grass with sometimes hair lichens [Usnca) or a little hair. 



Con 
tinental 



75 

The usual number is from 3 to 4, but on one occasion Sandman Eggs. 
found 5 eggs in a nest. They are handsome and characteristic: blue green 
in ground colour as a rule, varying somewhat in depth of tone, some eggs 
being very pale in tint and others varying from yellowish to greyish green. 
The markings consist generally of a few bold purplish brown blotches, 
sometimes almost black, and occasionally a dark streak or irregular line, 
with underlying paler violet grey blotches and spots. Occasionally an egg 
is closely freckled all over with small spots, and a good many show a 
tendency towards a zone of markings at the big end, while eggs are some- 
times found with one or two very large blotches only. The shell is 
tolerably smooth and shows but little gloss. 

From the last days of May to the first week of July, Meinertzhagen Breeding 
took a nest with much incubated eggs at Muonioniska on May 30, but Season, 
this is an unusually early date, and most eggs are laid from the lOt.l^ to 
the 20t.h of June. The hen is a close sitter, and both sexes are remarkably 
unsuspicious in their habits. 

Average of 100 eggs (59 by the writer, 24 by Sandman and 17 by Measure- 
Rey) 26.03 X 17.72 mm.. Max. 30 X 18.5 and 28 X 19.1 mm., Min. 23 X 17 "^ents. 
and 23.8 X 16.9 mm. A dwarf egg in Newton's collection measures about 
19X15.7 mm. Average weight of 17 eggs 221 mg. (Rey). 



38. Scotch Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra scotica Hart. 

Plate 26, fig. 8 (Ross, 19. III. 99). 

Eggs: He^vitson, III. Ed. I, pi. LIV, fig. 3. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, 
pi. 13; id. Col. Fig., pi. 56. Frohawk, Br. Birds, II, pi. V, fig. 180. 

Nest: 0. Lee, II, p. 48. 

Loxia curvirostra L. (partim). Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 187; Dresser, 
Birds of Europe, IV, p. 127; Saunders, Man., p. 201; Dresser, Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 339. L. curvirostra scotica Hart. Hartert, Yog. Pal. Fauna, p. 120. 

Breeding Range: Very common locally in the forests of mid- and 
north Scotland. 

This strong billed race (frequently mistaken for L. pi/ti/ojjsittacus) British 
has increased enormously in numbers of late years in Scotland, owing to ^®'®^- 
the amount of re-foresting that has taken place there. It is now found 
in abundance from the wooded parts of S. E. Sutherland southward through 
the counties which form the Moray Basin. Fuller details as to its present 
distribution in this area will be found in the work of Harvie-Brown and 
Buckley on the Vert. Fauna of tlie Moray Basin, I, p. 298, etc. On 
several estates they are now shot down owing to supposed damage done to 
the forests by destruction of seed- cones. In mid-Scotland it has been 



76 

recorded as breeding not uncommonly in many localities, more especially 
in the older forests, and many instances are on record of its nesting in 
the southern counties down to the Solway district and the Cheviots. The 
breeding limits of this race and the weak billed English form are however 
imperfectly known, L. c. scotica is a winter visitor to England and L. c. 
atiglica occurs in Scotland. 
Nest. Generally built in a Scotch fir or spruce, occasionally in a larch. It 

is often placed among the topmost twigs of a high tree, at other times 
near the end of a horizontal bough, but generally toberably high up. Few 
nests are less than 25 ft. from the ground and many are much higher 
but it is stated that they have occasionally been found as low as 5 ft. In 
larches the nest are easily seen early in the year, but in evergreen conifers 
they are often very hard to find, and can only be detected by hearing the 
low chirruping of the sitting hen while being fed on the nest by the cock. 
The foundation of the nest consists of a loosely built platform of dead 
twigs of the larch or fir, while the interior is composed of dry grasses, 
lichens, etc., lined with wool, moss, finer grasses, and a few of the green 
spikes of the Scotch fir. Other materials occasionally used are deer hair 
and a few feathers. External diameter of upper nest 5 in., of cup 24- to 
2 1 in., depth of cup 1^ in. Although the Crossbill can hardly be said to 
breed in colonies, it is usual to find several nests within a short distance 
of one another. 
Eggs. The usual number varies from 3 to 4, but 5 are occasionally found, 

and Harvie-Brown has seen a nest containing the extraordinary number of 
7 eggs! {V. F. of Moray Basin, I, p. 296). In appearance they somewhat 
resemble those of the Greenfinch, but the markings are often much darker 
in colour, and as a rule fewer. The ground colour is generally greenish 
white, occasionally warmer in tone, and the markings consist of a few 
bold spots, streaks or scrawls of dark purple red, sometimes almost black, 
chiefly at the large end. In a few cases they are altogether wanting, while 
in others only the faint underlying blotches, smears and spots of pale 
reddish brown are met with. 

Breeding lu Scotland fresh eggs may be obtained from February to April, 

Season. -wJ^ile a second brood is sometimes reared in June, but perhaps the first 
week or so in March is about the best time. The hen sits very closely, 
and has been known to allow herself to be taken on the nest. 

Measure- Average of 100 Scotch eggs (71 by the writer and 29 by F. Nor- 

ments. g^tc) 21.24 X 15.91 mm., Max. 24 X 15.5 and 21.6 X 17.3 mm., Min. 

18.6 X 15.6 and 20.6 X 14.6 mm. As well be noticed there is considerable 

variation in size among the above eggs, of which 96 were taken in 

Ross-shire. 



n 
Geographical Races. 

a. English Crossbill, L. cur\-irostra anglica Hart. 

Eggs: Hewitson, I. Ed. I, pi. CXXXV; 11. Ed. I, pi. XL VI, fig. 2. 

L. curvirostra L. (partim). Newton, Dresser, and Saunders 1. c. (p. 75). 
L. curvirostra anglica. Hartert, Yog. Pal. Fauna, p. 119. 

Breeding Range: Erratically in England; probably it is tbis race 
wbicb breeds in tbe wooded parts of Ireland. [L. c. anglica is a weak 
billed form, barely distinguishable from the ordinary continental bird.) 

Li England the Crossbill is chiefly know^i as an erratic migrant, British 
sometimes remaining to nest for one season, and at other times for two i^^^^- 
or three years in succession, after which it generally disappears. A few 
pairs seem however to be permanently resident in the pine woods of N. 
Hampshire and Surrey, and possibly in other parts also. Isolated instances 
of breeding have been reported from many counties, and in the bleak "breck" 
district of Norfolk Mr. F. Norgate found considerable numbers breeding in 
the scattered pine belts in 1889. In Ireland Crossbills have apparently 
increased in numbers since 1888, and are now known to breed in fair 
numbers, but very locally, in most of the large coniferous woods of the 
country. Probably nesting has also taken place in the Isle of Man. 

Norgate {Birds of Norfolk, III, p. 391) describes Norfolk nests as Nest, 
composed of Scotch and other fir twigs and dry grass roots, lined with 
dry grass, rabbit's felt, and occasionally a feather or two. Greenfinches 
nests from the same locality were composed of similar materials, but the 
extraordinary tameness of the sitting birds rendered identification easy. 
All the nests found were built in Scotch firs, with the exception of one, 
which was placed in an oak. In one case the tree was so small that the nest 
could be looked into by a man standing on the ground. Many nests were 
quite inaccessible and practically invisible from below. In Ireland Ussher 
mentions a nest only 15 ft. from the ground on a steep slope, but describes the 
usual height as 25 to 40 ft. The favourite nesting site is a group of old 
Scotch firs on a hill, but larch and spruce trees are occasionally utilized. 

The usual number of eggs appears to be 4 in England, but Norgate Eggs. 
took a clutch of 5 on April 1. In L'eland Ussher has never found more 
than 4. The darkest spots on a series of Norfolk eggs are less black 
than in many Scotch specimens. 

Most clutches from Norfolk were taken during the month of March Breeding 
and the first week of April, but there is little doubt that occasionally eggs season. 
are to be found in February; and second broods have been recorded from 
various parts of England in June and July. In Ireland eggs are laid in 
February or March, sometimes April, and in 1899 the young had left their 
nests before the end of March (Ussher). 



78 

Measure- 25 eggs taken in Norfolk by Norgate average 22.32 X 16.06 mm., 

meuts. i^iax. 25X17 mm., Min. 20X16 and 22X15.25 mm. It is noticeable 
that the average size is equal to that of eggs of L. pytyopsitacus. 

b. Contiueutal CrosslbiU, Loxia ciu-virostra ciirvii'ostra L. 

Plate 12, fig. 26—29 (Viborg, Denmark, 19. 11. 89). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXVI, fig. 18, a-b (c?). Baedeker, 
Tab. 20, fig. 8. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Kfivka ohecnci. Denmark: Mindre or 
almindelig Korsnaeh. Finland: Kcipylintu, Bistinokka. France: Bec-croise. 
Germany: Gemeiner or Ficlitenkreuzsclinabel. Helgoland: Borrfink. Holland: 
Kruishek. Hungary: Kis keresztorru, Maddr. Italy: Crociere. Norv^ay: 
Orankorsnaeb. Poland: Krzyzodzibb. Russia: Klest-yelovik. Sweden: Mindre 
Korsndhh, Krumsnahel. 

Loxia curvirostra L. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 127; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 339 (part.). L. c. curvirostra L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 117. 

Breeding Range: The larger coniferous woods of the whole of 

Europe, except the British Isles, the Iberian peninsula, the Balearic Isles 

and Cyprus, where it is replaced by other races. It has not been found 

breeding in Sardinia, Sicily or southern Italy. 

*^°"" In Scandinavia and Russia the Crossbill is found as far as the pine 

tinental . .. T-nv ^ • ^ ^ 

Europe, belt extends, sometimes appeanng m great numbers. In Denmark it breeds 

only rarely; but is found locally in all the large pine forests of middle 

Europe, nesting in the Alps from about 2700 ft. to 5400 ft. In the 

Balkan peninsula it is found not only in the Balkans, but also in the 

mountains of Greece, and is resident in northern Italy in the Etruscan 

Apennines and on the southern slopes of the Alps. In Corsica it is fairly 

common in the pine forests. 

Nest. Similar to that of the British race already described. Wheelwright 

says that Swedish nests are usually built in small pines, very rarely in 

firs, never in the depths of the forest, but always on a stony rise where 

the trees are small and stand wide apart. During the nesting season the 

cock sings from the top of a pine in the vicinity of the nest, and by 

watching them he found over 35 nests in one season. They do not breed 

in colonies, but two or more pairs are always to be found in the same 

district and the same locality is often resorted to year aften year. 

Eggs. 3 — 5 in number; similar in appearance to those of the British races. 

Breeding Apparently there is not much variation in the breeding time over 

Season. ]^q greater part of Europe. In Scandinavia it extends from February to 

the end of April. In Denmark full clutches have been found from the 

end of January onward: in Styria Hanf found two nests with 4 eggs each 



79 

on January 20; and a second brood is apparently sometimes reared, as the 
young from two nests in Upper Bavaria did not leave the nest till Sept. 5. 
The period of incubation is 14 days, and the hen begins to sit as soon 
as the first egg is laid, 

100 Scandinavian and Danish eggs (24 measured by Rey, 17 by Meves Measure- 
and 59 by the writer) average 21.72 X 15.64 mm., Max. 25.5 X 16 and ments. 
23X17 mm., Min. 19.4x15.4 and 20.7X14.1 mm. Average weight 
of 24 Danish eggs 137 mg., varying from 128 to 153 mg. (Rey). 

c. Spanish Crossbill, L. ciirvirostra Iiispaua Hart. 

Foreign Names: Portugal: Verdilhdo. Spain: Verclon. 

L. curvirostra hispana Hart. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 119. 

Breeding Range: The Iberian peninsula. 

Saunders describes this form as chiefly confined to the forests of 
Segura, and Lilford met with is commonly in the pine forests of the 
Guadarrama range in June. Chapman mentions having seen small parties 
in the Andalucian pinales in spring. 

d. Scotch Crossbill, L. ciu-vii-ostra scotica Hart. See p. 75. 

e. Balearic Crossbill, L. curvirostra balearica (Hoiii.). 

L. curvirostra halearica (Horn.). Hartert, Yog. Pal. Fauna, p. 120. 
Breeding Range: Majorca (Mallorca). 
Tolerably abundant in this island. 

f. Cyprian Crossbill, L. cui-virostra gulUemardi Mad. 

L. curvirostra guillemardi Mad. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 121. 

Breeding Range: Cyijrus. Guillemard found this bird in tolerable 
abundance on Troodos, and obtained young birds, April 20 — 23. 

[In addition to the above mentioned races the Algerian and Tunisian 
bird has been separated under the name of L. curvirostra poliogyna Whit. 
Nothing is known of its nesting habits, except that Konig found the young 
on the wing near Batna on May 11. An egg of the N. American form 
L. curvirostra americana Wils. is figured on PI. 12, fig. 30.] 

oJr. Parrot Crossbill, Loxia pytyopsittaciis Borkli. 

Plate 12, fig. 25 (Wermland, Sweden, 1. IV. 75). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXVI, fig. 17, a— b. Baedeker, 
Tab. 76, fig. 12. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, pi. 13. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Kfivka lavorsM. Denmark: Star Korsnaeb. 
Finland: Iso-kapylintu. France: Bec-croise perroquet. Germany: Grosser 
or Kiefernkreuzsclmahel. Helgoland: Or oat Borrfink. Holland: Groote 
Kruisbek. Hungaij : Nagy keresztcsorii. Itaij: Crociere clelle pinete. Noi-way: 



80 

Furukorsnaeb. Poland: Krzyzodziob papuzka. Russia: Klest sosnowik. 
Sweden: Storre Korsnabh, Kruvas. 

Loxia pityopsittacus Beclist. Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 207; Dresser, 
Birds of Europe, IV, p. 121; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 340. Loxia pytyopsittaciis 
Borkh. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 122. 

Breeding Range: Scandinavia and N. Russia as far as Poland. 
Occasionally also in E. Germany. 
c°"- In Scandinavia the Parrot Crossbill occurs irregularly as a breeding 

Europe, species in pine forests throughout the whole country from northern Sk&ne 
to Lappmark, but is everywhere less numerous than the Common Crossbill; 
and according to Wheelwright, the two species are never found breeding 
together in one district in the same season. This is probably accounted 
for by the different food of the two species, the Parrot Crossbill feeding 
chiefly on pine cones and the Common Crossbill on those of the fir. In 
Finland the large-billed bird nests at irregular intervals in various parts 
of the country and is also resident in Esthonia, Livonia and Poland. It 
also breeds irregularly in E. Prussia, in the forests of Silesia and in 
Thuringia, between the rivers Roda and Orla, where C. L. Brehm first 
described its breeding habits, while it is said also to have nested occasionally 
in Upper Bavaria and Switzerland, and a pair on one occasion remained 
to breed near Darmstadt. 
Nest. Similar in construction to that of the Common Crossbill, but perhaps 

rather better built and more warmly lined with strips of bark, lichens, a 
few feathers, etc., and constructed of grass stalks, pine needles, mosses 
[Sphagnum, Hypnum, etc.) and lichens upon a foundation of twigs. It 
has been found at varying heights, but seldom less than 15 ft. from the 
ground, and from 4 to 7 ft. from the main stem. External diameter 
5 I — 6 in., height 2f — 3-|^ in., diameter 24 — 3 in., depth 1-| — 1| in. 
Eggs. 3 or 4 as a rule, but 5 sometimes, though rarely, occur. Not only 

are the eggs larger than those of the Common Crossbill, but the markings 
are frequently bolder and often almost black in colour. Occasionally the 
ground is suffused with a beautiful pinkish blush. 

Breeding Variable, eggs having been found from December to June. In 

^Season. Scandinavia the usual breeding time is from the beginning of March till 
late in April, but eggs have occasionally been taken in February. In 
Silesia Brehm found most birds nesting in February and March, but also 
in mid-December and January, as well as in May and June in some 
seasons. 

Measure- Average of 100 eggs (23 by Konig-Warthausen, 13 by Rey, 12 by 

ments. Meves and 52 by the writer) 22.31 X 16.5 mm.. Max. 26.32 X 16.36 and 
22.29 X 18.05 mm., Min. 20 X 15 mm (Wheelwright, Sweden). Rey gives 
the average weight as 169 mg., varying from 160 to 180 mg. 











' > 



s>|, "Rncj;^rh, j:,(iiv,. 




1—5 and 7- 



Raven, Corvus corax L. 
-8 C. corax corax L. 6 C. c. principalis Ridgw. 









^ 







.f*^ 



'V ^ C-'^^^'^- 




t^:--* " * •- * 










^. 



*« 







J^■\o.•0;c^^■,v,;u/ 



1 — 7 Hooded Crow, Corvus cornix L. 
-11 Chough, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (L.). 




I-; 


















10 ^. "f^OC^^rt-, j,,'v,y . 



1 — 10 Carrion Crow, Corvus corone L. 








•iv* 









V. 









,* "^^ 







4 .H*' 




w:^ 

"^^; 



s'««'P 



»-,'t"^'st * 





A' "R c i cj; (?. r h, 1,111 >^. 



1 — 7 Rook, Corvus frugilegus L. 
8—11 Alpine Chough, Pyrrhocorax graculus (L.). 



*'. h '.:. 










\- i. .^ 



.»; :\ 






'^■J> ' 




r 









^.I^vI-^ST^- ^. 




1 — 6 Nutcracker, Nucifraga caryocatactes (L.). 
7 — 14 Jackdaw, Coloeus monedula (L.). 







'4 ■» -f fe -' 

V"' 









•^S^' 










J\ AS^'^^ i^i- y%^i^v\j 






1 — 10 Magpie, Pica pica (L.). 







''■^^^^ 



cs*^ 



i^^?^ 







#\- 







^-,\-:tv 



12 ^,T^c.cl;^rt; |,,i.^. 13 



1 — 6 Jay, Garrulus glandarius (L.). 
7 — 13 Siberian Jay, Perisoreus infaustus (L.). 









t ' 



^ / 



••* 



/*»!.'* 



3 



Z' 




> 'fro". 



,. V- 









1 r^ t 






^ <- 







# 



;-.:^?!!b. 






ji\ ,1?«ivi>Ue^i-l7^^'Wj 



1—4 Golden Oriole, Oriolus oriohis (L.). 

5—9 Waxwing, Ampelis garruhis (L.). 

10—17 Lesser Grey Shrike, Lanius minor Gm. 




.•"• 'jyi. 






^riA 











^■- r 




* iv 



19 





1-4 Northern Bullfinch, Pyrrhula pyrrhula L. 

5—8 Bullfinch, P. pyrrhula eiiropaea Vieill. 9—12 Scarlet Grosbeak, Carpodacus ery- 

thrlnus (Pall.)- 13—17 Pine Grosbeak, Pinicola enucleator (L.). 

18—22 Hawfinch, Coccothraustes coccothraustes (L.). 



10 






.v.^'*^. 















fcA; 




18 



»-r; 



c 



15 




'>!5^ 




16 






>(l^c.c^cr^,.;»,)^ 



1—8 Chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs L. 

9—16 Brambling, F. montifringilla L. 17—21 Greenfinch, Chloris chloris (L ). 

22—26 Citril Finch, Carduelis citrinella (L.). 



11 












% 






0^ 

J 



^.JS 



/ 



jT 






N^^:^ 



v^V.' 








27 






25 



,,.V. 



29 







1 — 5 Linnet, Carduelis cannabina (L). 6—10 Twite, C flavirostris (L.). 

11-15 Mealy Redpoll, €. flammea (L.). 16—20 Goldfinch, C. carduelis (L.). 

51—25 Siskin, C. spinns (L.). 26-30 Serin, Serinus canarius serinus (L.). 



12 












i.':l.V:--^>, 



'rW 







25 



19 



A^il 



30 



t 







27 



29 



1 — 10 House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (L.). 11 — 20 Tree Sparrow, P. montanus (L.). 

21 — 24 Rock Sparrow, Petronia petronia (L.). 

25 Parrot Crossbill, Loxia pytyopsittacus Borkh. 26—29 Crossbill, L. curvirostra L. 

30 American Crossbill, L. curvirostra americana Wils. 



13 




m% ^^m:^: ^i 







^* 



^'-•,. 

•^i^^^ 




1^ 



\ 



--i' 











9 



t^' 



jI. 









y .'-- 












19 







i"^ 



« ? 



>v 



20 






A.«''>-bs'"'"i i"^/- 



1—5 Corn Bunting, Emberiza caiandra L. 6—11 Yellow Bunting, E. citrinella L. 

12—15 Cirl Bunting, E. cirlus L. 16—20 Ortolan, E. hortulana L. 

21—22 Cretzschmar s Bunting, E. caosia Cretz. 23—26 Rock or Meadow Bunting, E. cia L. 



14 






'■^m. ^A. 



'^% 



12 



j-i- 




^f 









■f*'.: 








►>-:V!. 







-w "'•'' .*i 

17 



■^^ 



u\ 



■20 











.. . .,^ 

15 



^-u. 



^^^ 




1 Pine Bunting, Emberiza leucocepliala S. G Gmel. 2-6 Reed Bunting, E. schoeniclus (L). 

7 Rustic Bunting, E. rustica Pall. 8-9 Yellow breasted Bunting, E. aureola Pall. 
10-11 Red headed Bunting, E. luteola Sparrm. 12-16 Black headed Bunting, E. melano- 
cephala Scop. 17-21 Snow Bunting, Passerina nivalis (L.). 22-26 Lapland Bunting, 

Calcarius lapponicus (L). 



15 








f • 



'^>. 



♦. ■<, •/ 






\ ' 







"*s^^ 







j^.l^f^e^y^, pifi-t 



1, 2 Intermediate Reed Bunting, Emberiza schoeniclns canneti (Brehm) 

3 Thick-billed Bunting, E. pyrrhuloides Tall. 4 Japanese Greenfinch, Chloris sinica minor (T. ScS.). 

5 Manchurian Greenfinch, C. s. ussuriensis Hart. 

6 Little Bunting, Emb. pusilla Pall. 7—9 Melodious Warbler, Hippolais polyglotta (Vieill.). 

10 — 18 Passin's Cowbird, Molothrus cabanisii Cass. 



16 




1-5 Skylark, Alauda arvensis L. 6-9 White winged Lark, Melanocorypha sibirica (Gm.). 

10-11 Brehm's Crested Lark, Galerida tlieklae Brehm. 12 Black Lark, M. yeltonensis 

Forst. 13-17 Woodlark, Lullula arborea (L.). 18—22 Crested Lark, G. cristata (L.). 

23—27 Calandra Lark, M. calandra (L.)- 



17 




1—4 Short toed Lark, Calandrella brachydactyla (Leisl.). 5—8 Pallas's Short toed Lark, 
C. minor heinei (Horn.). 9—12 Shore Lark, Eremophila alpestris flava (Gm.). 13—16 Alpine 
Pipit, Anthus spinoletta Sav. 17—18 Kock Pipit, A. spinoletta obscurus (Lath.). 
19—21 American Pipit. A. spinoletta pensilvanicus (Lath.). 22—27 Meadow Pipit, 

A. pratensis (L.). 



1 




f 



18 













6 



•J'^ 



^!v.^' 









m 












.■ « i.'v- 









22 




1—4 Red throated Pipit, Anthiis cervinus (Pall.). 5—8 Tawny Pipit, A. campestris (L). 

9—18 Tree Pipit, A. trivialis (L.). 19-23 White Wagtail, Motacilla alba L. 24 Richard's 

Pipit, A. richardi Vieill. 25—29 Pied Wagtail, M. alba lugubris Temm. 



19 



J 









i 



10 



*>il 



'••■/-• 





J J 



20 



f f 

15 16 



f 

25 







^ 



1—5 Grey Wagtail, Motacilla boarula L. 6—10 Blue headed Wagtail, M. flava L. 
11_14 Northern Yellow Wagtail, M. flava borealis (Sund.). 15-18 Yellow Wagtail, 
M. flava rayi (Bp.). 19—22 Grey headed Wagtail, M. flava cinereocapilla Savi. 23 Yellow 
headed Wagtail, M. citreola Pall. 24—27 Black headed Wagtail, M. flava melano- 

cephala Licht. 



20 



4i*«»'> 



*"..^ 



25 



■> ■. i: 



• '«v. 









16 




18 



^. 



v:s;'-;a| 



22 




1-4 Great Tit, Parus major L. 5-8 Blue Tit, P. coerixleus L. 9-12 Coal Tit, 

P. ater L. 13-16 Azure Tit, P. cyanus Pall. 17-20 Northern WilIo^y Tit, P. atri- 

capillus borealis Selys. 21-24 Tree Creeper, Certhia familiaris L. 25 Wall Creeper, 

Tichodroma muraria (L.). 26-30 Long tailed Tit, Aegithalos caudatus (L.). 



...^ 



SUBSCBIPTIONS FOB tttE COMPLETE WORK OXLT RECEITED. PART II. 




tinental 
Europe. 



81 

35. Two-l)arre(l Crossbill, Loxia leucoptera Ibifaseiata (Brehm). 

Plate 34, fig. 18 (Archangel, 4. V. 92). 

Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 20, fig. 10. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Krivka hilokridld. Denmark: Hoidvinget 
Korsnaeb. Finland: Kirjasiipi kdpylintu. Germany: Zweihindiger Kreiiz- 
schnabel. Helgoland: Witt-jilkhed Borrfink. Hungary: Szalagos keresztczorii. 
Italy: Crociere fasciato. Norway: Hoidvinget Korsnaeb. Poland: Krzyzodziob 
divupregoivy. Sweden: Bdndel or Norsk Korsnab, Pipkrums. 

Loxia bifasciata (C. L. Brehm). Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 211; 
Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 141; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 343; Saunders, 
Man., p. 203. L. leucoptera bifasciata (Brehm). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 
p. 123. 

Breeding Range: Northern European Russia. [Also Siberia; but 
perhaps the eastern birds may form a separate race, L. leucoptera elegans 
Horn. See Vog. Pal Fauna, p. 124.] 

Although well known as an erratic visitor to Scandinavia and Finland Con 
in varying numbers, this bird has not been definitely recorded as breeding 
there, but a nest ascribed to it was taken near Upsala in March 1890. 
Its home appears to be the great forests of the Archangel Government, 
but it is not found in the Kola peninsula, and its range northward naturally 
does not extend beyond the limits of the coniferous forest. Reliable notes 
on the breeding of this species are much to be desired. 

Dresser describes a nest from the Archangel district as smaller and Nest, 
slighter than that of the Common Crossbill. The dimensions given by 
0. Bamberg [Zeitschr. f. Ool. 1904, p. 52) of two nests ascribed to this 
species from the Lena valley are approximately as follows: external dia- 
meter b\ — 1-\ in., height 24^ — 2| in., diameter of cup 2{ — 2 f in., depth 
1 — 1\ in. The foundation of these nests consisted of fir twigs, stalks, 
lichens and moss, with dead leaves interwoven, lined with lichens, roots, 
down and small feathers. 

3 — 4 in number, and 5 are said sometimes to occur. Four eggs Eggs. 
from Archangel in the British Museum average 20.8 X 14.7 mm., and are 
thus decidedly smaller than those of the Common Crossbill, besides being 
more boldly marked. On the other hand Ottosson describes an egg from 
Siberia as 22.6 X 15.9 mm., weight 135 mg., and an egg in Rey's col- 
lection measures 22.4 X 16 mm. and weighs 160 mg. Bamberg describes 
the eggs as averaging (17 specimens) 23.52 X 16.6 mm.. Max. 24.6 X 16.4 
and 23.2 X 17.4 mm., Min. 22.5 X 16.1 and 24.1 X 16 mm., average weight 
154 mg., varying from 138 to 168 mg. If these measurements are correct 
the eggs exceed the normal size of eggs of L. pytyopsittacus, but it is 
worthy of note that the eggs of the American White winged Crossbill, 

6 



82 

L. leucoptera leucoptera Grm. are decidedly small. Six eggs from N. America 
in tlie British Museum average only 20.65 X 14.7 mm. [This form appears 
to have occurred in the British Isles. For illustrations of the egg see 
Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 19; id. Col. Fig., pi. 56.] 

30. Chaffincli, Friiigilla coelebs L. 

Plate 10, fig. 1—8 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXVI, fig. 6, a — e. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. XVI, fig. 3, 4; II. Ed. I, pi. XLI, fig. 1; III. Ed. I, pi. XLIX, fig. 1. 
Baedeker, Tab. 12, fig. 3. Taczanowski, Tab. LXXI, fig. 1. Seebohm, Brit. 
Birds, pi. 13; id. Col. Fig., pi. 56. Frohawk, Br. Birds, pi. IV, fig. 148—155. 

Nest: 0. Lee, II, p. 10. 

British Local Names: Spink, ChinJc, Pink, Tivink, Scoppie, Shellie, 
Shel-apple, Shilfa; Buck-, Horse-, Copper- and Beech-finch, Apple bird. 
Manx: TJshag-y-choan. Welsh: Y Bink, Wine, Givinc, Asgell fraith. Gaelic: 
Breacan-heithe. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Penkava ohecnd. Denmark: Bogfinke. 
Finland: Finkki, Peipponen. France: Pinson, Quinson. Germany: Biich- 
fink, Edelfink, Fink. Helgoland: Bochfink. Holland: Vink, Kwinker, Schild- 
vink. Hungary: Erdei Pinty. Italy: Fringuello. Norway: Bog fink. Poland: 
Zieba. Portugal: Tentilhdo. Russia: Sjablik. Sweden: Bofink. Spain: 
Pinzon real. 

Fringilla coelehs L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 68; Dresser, Birds of 
Europe, IV, p. 3; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 306; Saunders, Man., p. 183. 
F. coelehs coelehs L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 125. 

Breeding Range: Europe generally, but scarce within the Arctic 
Circle. [Also in W. Siberia, Asia Minor, Palestine, etc. Replaced by other 
forms in N. Africa, the Azores, Canaries, etc., and does not breed in the 
Faeroes or Iceland.] 
British Generally distributed and plentiful throughout the cultivated and 

wooded parts of the British Isles, but naturally absent from the bare moor- 
lands. In the north of Scotland it is found commonly in the straths as 
far as the limits of tree and brushwood growth, and nests in small numbers 
in the Orkneys. It has also been known to breed in the Shetlands, but 
is absent from the open and treeless islands of the Outer Hebrides, although 
nesting in the wooded islands off the west coast, such as Mull, Eigg, etc. 
In Ireland it is a common resident everywhere, except in those districts 
which are altogether destitute of trees. 
Con- Here the Chaffinch is not only a familiar inhabitant of gardens, 

Europe Orchards, and in fact all localities where trees grow, but is also met with 
in the deep forests, and on the mountain ranges as well as in the plains. 



S3 

In the Alps according to Fatio it is found breeding in the Haute Engadine 
up to about 5400 ft. In the Iberian peninsula it is commonest in winter, 
but many remain to breed locally where there are trees, even in the ex- 
treme south of the country. It is plentiful also in Corsica, Sardinia and 
Sicily, but in the latter island and in southern Italy is chiefly met with 
in the mountains. This is also the case in the southern part of the Balkan 
peninsula. In the north of Europe the Chaffinch becomes scarce in the 
north of Scandinavia and Russia, but a few pairs breed as far north as 
Enare Lappmark and up to the limits of the birch region, while Collett 
observed a pair in June on an islet near the North Cape. In Russia 
it is recorded from the Kola peninsula, near Archangel, and the Urals 
to lat. 62°. 

In the British Isles is as often in the fork of a bough in a hedgerow Nest. 
as in a tree, usually from 4 to 15 ft. high.* In the north of Scotland 
it is occasionally built in low bushes almost on the ground. In the great 
European plain it is generally from 9 to 30 ft. high, but Rey has found 
nests in young conifers at a height of 3 ft., and Fatio and Irby mention 
isolated examples of nests built within a few inches of the ground in 
Switzerland and Andalucia. There is a good deal of variation in the 
materials used and also in size, but as a rule it is most artistically con- 
structed of wool, moss, dry grasses, roots, etc., studded externally with 
lichens, fragments of bark, or even paper, affixed with spiders' webs; and 
lined chiefly with hair and a few feathers. The nest, which is built by 
the hen, is well felted together, and generally shaped to fit the supporting 
bough. The cup is deep, with somewhat concave sides, diameter nearly 
2 in., depth 1| — 1-J; external diameter about 3 |- — 4, height If — 3 in. 

Usually 5 in the first brood, but 6, and on the continent even 7, have Eggs. 
been found; while the second brood often consists of only 4. There is 
considerable variation in colouring: the normal ground colour being pale 
greenish stone colour, with spots and streaks of dark purple brown, often 
suffused with cloudy patches of pale sienna brown, as though the colour 
from the spots had 'run'. Sometimes the darker markings are wanting, 
and only pale brown cloudings and speckles are met with; and occasionally 
a clutch is found entirely without markings. Many eggs show a tendency 
to a bluish ground, and a very remarkable variety with dark purplish 
brown, almost black, markings on a clear blue ground has occurred not 
only in Great Britain, but also in Germany, where it is not uncommon in 
some districts, e. g. near Glatz in Silesia (Hartert), Greece and Scandinavia. 
The shell is dull and almost devoid of gloss. 



* Instances of nests on wall fruit tree?, or against walls, have occasionally 
been recorded; also among ivy on tree trunks. 

6* 



ments. 



84 

Breeding In the British Isles first clutches are found from about April 15 

Season. Qn-^aj_'(Js^ and the eggs of the second brood in the latter half of May and 
early June. In Germany first broods from April 20 to May; second broods 
in June (Rey). In the north the breeding season is later: on Karlo the 
earliest date given by Sandman is May 28, and most nests were taken in 
early June. In the Parnassus eggs have been taken from April 18 to 
June 23 (Kmper). 
Measure- The average size varies somewhat according to locality. Rey gives 

the average of 100 mid-European eggs as 19,3X14.6 mm., Max. 22.8X15.5 
and 22.5 X 15.8 mm., Min. 17 X 13.7 and 17.7 X 13.2 mm. 32 eggs 
from Karlo and Enare are rather larger, averaging 20.13 X 14.72 mm (Sand- 
man and Nordling), and on the other hand Reiser gives measurements of 
eggs from Parnassus as 19.1 to 17.5 X 15.3 to 14.1 mm. An unusually 
broad egg in my collection measures 20 X 16.5 mm., and dwarf eggs are 
sometimes met with, 13X10, 14.5X11.5, 16 X 12.5 mm, etc. Average 
weight 125 mg. (Rey). 15 full eggs average 2.024 g. (Foster). 

Geographical Races. 

a. European Chaffinch, F. coelehs coelehs L. See ahove. 
1>. Moorish Chaffinch, F. coelehs spodiogenys Bp. 

Fringilla spodiogenys Bp. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 13; id. 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 309. F. coelehs spodiogenys Bp. Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 127. 

Breeding Range: Tunis, but replaced in Algeria and probably also 
in S. Marocco by the closely allied F. coelehs africana Lev. and in N. 
Marocco by F. coelehs koenigi Roths. & Hart., according to Hartert. Has 
occurred in Italy. For notes on the breeding habits of this bird see 
Whitaker, Birds of Tunisia, p. 214, Konig, Journ. f. Ornitli. 1893, p. 57, etc. 
Eggs usually 3 or 4, rarely 5 in number; larger as a rule than those of 
the European race. 17 eggs (14 by Erlanger and 3 by the writer) average 
21 X 15.29 mm., Max. 23 X 16 mm., Min. 19 X 15 and 21 X 14 mm. 
A dwarf egg measures 17 X 13 mm. (Erlanger). Ground colour dull pale 
greenish blue, 'sparsely clouded and spotted with vinous and russet markings' 
(Whitaker). Breeding season from mid-March to April and May. 

[In Madeira the resident race is F. coelehs madeirensis Sharpe. 7 eggs 
average 21.57 X 16.3 mm. (Konig and Schmitz*); average weight of 3 eggs, 
160 mg. (Konig). The Azorean birds are known by the name of F. coelehs 
moreletti Puch. Average of 7 eggs, 21.27 X 15.36 mm. In the Canary 
group F. c. canariensis Vieill. is found on Tenerife, Gran Canaria and 
Gomera, F. c. palmae Trist. on Palma and Hierro, while a distinct species, 



Eggs figured in Journ. f. Ornith. 1890, Tab. VIII, fig. 2. 



85 

the Teydean Chaffinch, F. teydea Webb & Berth, inhabits the pine woods 
of the Peak of Tenerife. 14 eggs of F. c. canariensis average 21.8 X 15.4 
mm. and are sparingly marked at the big end with fine red brown spots 
or streaks on a pale bluish green ground.* The Teydean Chaffinch only 
lays 2 eggs, blue green in ground colour with blackish brown spots and 
underlying vinous blotches.f Average size of 6 eggs 23.45 X 16.45 mm. 
As will be seen from the above, the eggs of the N. African and Atlantean 
Chaffinches are as a rule larger and more sparingly marked than those of 
the Continental form.] 

37. Bramlbling, Friiigilla moiitifriiigilla L. 

Plate 10, fig. 9—16 (Muonio, 8— 19. VI. 92). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXVI, fig. 6, a — e. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. Suppl. pi. CLXIX; II. Ed. I, pi. XLI, fig. 2; III. Ed. I, pi. XLIX, fig. 2, 3. 
Baedeker, Tab. 12, fig. 2. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, pi. 13; id. Col. Fig., pi. 57. 
Frohawk, Br. Birds, II, pi. V, fig. 156, 157. 

British Local Names: Mountain or Bramble Finch, Cock-d-tlie North. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Jihavec. Denmark: Kvaeker, Norsk 
Bogfinke. Finland: Peippo. France: Pinson des Ardennes. Germany: 
Berg fink. lielgo\a.nA: Quaker. HoWsind: Keep, Berg- ov Boschvink. Hungary: 
Feny'6 rinty. Italy: Peppola. Lapland: Vintan. Norway: Bjergfink, Kvaeker. 
Poland: Jer. Portugal: Tintihdo montez. Russia: Wjurok. Sweden: Berg- 
fink, Norrqvint. Spain: Montanes, Millero. 

Fringilla montifringilla L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 75; Dresser, 
Birds of Europe, IV, p. 15; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 311; Saunders, Man. p. 185; 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 130. 

Breeding Range: Scandinavia and N. Russia. [Also in Siberia up 
to about 50° N. Lat.] (In the British Isles the Brambling is said to have 
bred once or twice, but the evidence is not conclusive.) 

In many parts of Norway it is decidedly numerous, haunting the Con- 
subalpine coniferous woods and also the birch forest, up to about 70° N. Lat., ^°^°**^ 
while southward its range extends to about 59° N., where a few pairs 
breed on the high fjeld. In Sweden is does not as a rule breed south of 
lat. 62° or 63°, though occasional instances of nests in Upland and West- 
manland (about lat. 60°) are on record. In Lapland it is numerous and 
breeds on the Kola peninsula and throughout northern Russia, while 
Bianchi has recently recorded it as breeding in the S. Petersburg Govern- 
ment, but in the Urals its range does not extend beyond lat. 62°, 



* Egg-s figured in Journ. f. Ornith. 1890, Tab. VIII, fig. 3. 
t Eggs figured ibid. Tab. VIII, fig. 1. 



Season. 



86 

Nest. Very similar in construction to that of the Chaffinch, but as a rule 

less neatly finished and rather larger. The materials used also vary 
according to locality, some nests being almost entirely composed of bents 
and dry grasses, while other are covered externally with fragments of 
birch bark, lichens, etc. and lined with feathers, hair, and willow down. 
It is usually built at the junction of a bough with the stem of a birch or 
small fir, at a height of from 6 to 10 ft., but occasionally much higher. 
External diameter about 4-|- in., diameter of cup 2^ — 2^ in., depth 
about li in. 
Eggs. Generally 5 to 7 in number, and somewhat similar in character to 

those of the Chaffinch, from which they differ as a rule in their darker 
and more greenish ground colour and more cloudy and less distinct 
markings. The variety with a pale blue ground occurs only rarely, but 
has been taken in Lapland by Meves. 

Breeding In the valleys of southern and middle Scandinavia the laying season 

begins about mid-May, and on the mountains at least a week later, but 
in the north of the country eggs are usually found in June and even July 
and in Lapland the first clutches are taken early in June. On Karlo 
Sandman found eggs from May 20 to June. Probably one brood only 
is reared in the season. 

Measure- Average of 100 eggs (83 measured by Rey and 26 by the writer) 

from Lapland and Norway, 19.5 X 14.6 mm., Max. 22.2 X 15.6 mm., Min. 
18.1 X 13.5 mm. Average weight of 83 eggs, 126 mg. (Rey). 

38. Siiowfinch, Moiitifriiigilla iiiyalis (L.). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXVI, fig. 7. Baedeker, Tab. XII, 
fig. 4. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Penkava podhorni. France: Pinson de 
neige, Niverolle. Germany: Schneefink. Greece: Chiondda. Hungary: Havasi 
Pinty. Italy: Fringuello alpino. Poland: Losczak zniczek. 

Montifringilla nivalis (L.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 617; id. 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 297. if. nivalis nivalis (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 132. 

Breeding Range: Sierra Nevada, Pyrenees, Alps, the mountain 
ranges of the Balkan peninsula and perhaps also the Apennines. [Also 
Palestine (?).] 
Con- In Spain Dr. A. C. Stark found these birds very common in the Sierra 

Nevada at 3000 to 6000 ft. in small flocks, and probably it also occurs 
in the Sierra Guadarrama. In the central P}Tenees it is generally distributed 
along the snow line, among the outcrops of rock, and is not uncommon. 
Along the whole Alpine range it is locally common in summer above 



ments. 



tinental 
Europe 



87 

6500 ft. even up to nearly 9000 ft., but has not been known to breed on 
the Jura. In Italy it is tolerably numerous on the Alpine chain from 
Liguria to Venetia, and has been observed at various points on the 
Apennines, as far south as Gran Sasso. In the Balkan peninsula it is 
found in Montenegro and probably in other mountainous districts, while in 
Greece Reiser identified this species on the Korax and Kiona at about 
6000 ft. in 1894. [In Palestine a few pairs of this race, or perhaps the 
Caucasian form, are found on Hermon and the Lebanon.] One specimen 
has been recorded from Sussex {Bull. B. 0. C, XV, p. 58). 

In uninhabited districts the nest is built in crevices of rocks and Nest. 
cliffs which are free from snow, but where buildings and stone walls exist, 
many nests are to be found underneath the eaves or in holes in walls. 
The nest is rather bulky, built chiefly of dry grass; together with tufts 
of hair, wool, leaves, wood-shavings and a few feathers; lined with feathers 
of Ptarmigan, woven together with horsehair, etc. External diameter 8^ in., 
diameter of cup SI in. (S. B. Wilson). The Hospices on the S. Bernard, 
Simplon, Grimsel, and S. Gothard are all inhabited by several pairs of 
these birds. 

Vary in number usually from 4 to 5, but 6 are occasionally found. Eggs. 
They are pure white, regular oval in shape, somewhat thin shelled and 
with little gloss. 

According to Fatio the first clutches are to be found at the end of Breeding 
April or the beginning of May, and a second brood is often reared towards 
the end of June or in August. On the S. Gothard S. B. Wilson found 
nearly hatched young on June 16, and of 5 nests examined none contained 
eggs on May 27, so that here the eggs are apparently laid about the 
beginning of June, which corresponds with nesting dates from various 
localities. In the Pyrenees H. M. Wallis was of opinion that nesting had 
not begun on June 21. These observations tend to show that in some 
localities at any rate, only one brood is reared as a rule. 

Average of 62 eggs (25 measured by Rey and 37 by the writer) Measure- 
from the Alps, 23.42 X 16.96 mm., Max. 25.5X18.1 and 25X18.2 mm., '°*°*'- 
Min. 21 X 16 and 21.5 X 15.3 mm. Average weight (25 eggs) 225 mg., 
varying from 210 to 230 mg. (Rey). 

Geographical Races. 

a. Alpiue Snowfinch, M. nivalis nivalis (L.). See above, 
b. Caucasian Snowfinch, M. nivalis alpicola (Pall.). 

Montifringilla alpicola (Pall.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IX, p. 187; 
id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 298. M. nivalis alpicola (Pall.). Hartert, Vog. 
Pal. Fauna, p. 133. 



Breeding Range: The alpine regions of the Caucasus. [Also in 
Persia and Afghanistan to E. Turkestan.] 

In the summer it inhabits the mountains at a height of from ten 
to fourteen thousand feet, and apparently resembles the European race in 
its breeding habits. 

39. Rock Sparrow, Petroiiia petronia (L.). 

Plate 12, fig. 21, 22 (Spain); 23, 24 (Greece). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXIV, fig. 18, a— c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 12, fig. 10. Reiser, Om. Bale. Ill, Taf. Ill, fig. 20, 21. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Vrahec Eutokrky. France: Moineau 
soulcie. Germany: Steinsperling. Holland: Notmusch. Italy: Passer a lagia. 
Poland: Loszczak lesny. Portugal: Pardal frangez. Russia: Kamenij worohej. 
Spain: Oorribn monies, Chilla. 

Petronia stulta (Gm.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, HI, p. 607; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 295. Petronia petronia petronia (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 141. 

Breeding Range: Southern Europe: Spain, S. France, locally in the 
Alps and Austria, Italy and Greece. [Also near Smyrna.] 
Con- Although not uncommon on rocky ground and in the Sierras of the 

men a jj^g^jg^j^ peninsula, this species is nevertheless extremely local. It occurs also 
in the south of France, and is found in small numbers in the mountainous 
part of Switzerland. In Germany according to Hartert it is confined to 
the 'Mussel-chalk' districts of Thuringia, the valley of the Saale and its 
tributaries, the Unstrut, Ilm and Gera. It is said also to have been 
found formerly in the Wetterau and the Rhine valley. In Austria it is 
of very rare occurrence but has been observed in the Tyrol. 

In Italy it is found in suitable localities over the greater part of the 
country and also in Sicily, but does not breed in Lombardy and is rare 
in the Trent and Po valleys. 

In the Balkan peninsula LiKord observed this species near Cetinje, 
Montenegro, in 1857, but it has not been observed there since, and is not 
found in Bulgaria. In Greece however it is common, building among 
the ruins of the Acropolis and in the roofs of the houses. Reiser records 
it from Thessaly, Parnassus, Acamania, etc., and Lilford from Albania. In 
the islands of the Greek archipelago it is however rare. [Also in Asia 
Minor (Smyrna).] 
Nest. Over the greater part of southern Europe the nest is generally found 

in crevices of rocks, and occasionally in old walls, ruined towers, holes 
in trees, etc. In Greece is not only breeds commonly in ruins, but also 
nests underneath the tiling of inhabited houses (Orw. Bale. Ill, p. 236). 



89 

It is said to have formerly nested occasionally in fruit trees, and Reiser 
mentions one instance of its breeding in a pine tree. The nest is much 
like those of the other Sparrows, composed of straw, grass, etc., and lined 
with feathers. 

4 to 7 in number, of the usual Sparrow type of markings, but varying Eggs, 
considerably, some showing much of the whitish ground colour, and others 
being handsomely marbled and spotted. Reiser figures an egg in which 
the usual minute brown spots have run together into a large coffee coloured 
blotch. The only constant difference between the eggs of this species and 
those of other Sparrows in their decidedly stronger gloss. 

In Greece Krliper says that two broods are reared in the plains, but Breeding 
only one in the mountains. First eggs are found from mid-April onwards, ^®*^°°- 
but mostly towards the end of the month, and second broods in June; in 
the mountains towards the end of May. 

Average size of 86 eggs from S. Spain and Greece (44 by Reiser, Measure- 
24 by Rey and 18 by the writer) 21.85 X 15.67 mm.. Max. 23.5 X 16.5 °'^°*'- 
and 21.7X16.9 mm., Min. 19.3X14.8 and 20.3X14.7 mm. Average 
weight (44 eggs) 199 mg. (Reiser); 24 eggs 216 mg. (Rey). As will be 
seen from the above they are generally rather smaller than those of 
P. domesticus (L.). 

Geographical Races. 

a. Continental Rock Sparrow, P. petronia petronia (L.). See above, 
b. Sardinian Rock Sparrow, P. petronia hellmayri Arrig. 

P. petrmiia hellmayri Arrig. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 143. 

Breeding Range: Sardinia and Corsica. 

Barely distinguishable from the Continental form. In Sardinia it is 
an abundant resident, but is scarce in Corsica, where a few pairs breed in 
the mountains in May. 

c. Russian Rock Sparrow, P. petronia exigua (Hellm.). 

P. petronia exigims (Hellm.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 143. 

Breeding Range: The mouth of the Don and the Caucasus to 
Erzerum. 

Sarudny says the eggs vary in size from 22.4X16.1 to 20X1 4. 5 mm. 

[In Madeira and the Canaries a small dark form is found commonly, 
P. petronia madeirensis Erl., which nests under the eaves of buildings, and 
lays small, light coloured eggs. Average size of 10 eggs, 21.24 X 15 mm. 
In the Barbary states the resident form is P. petronia harbara Erl. 3 eggs 
taken by Erlanger average 21 X 15.8 mm. In Palestine the large and 
very distinct P. petronia puteicola Festa is found in summer, breeding in 
old wells. 9 eggs average 21.33 X 15.9 mm. in size. Breeding season, 
mid-April.] 



90 



40. House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (L.). 

Plate 12, fig. 1—10 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXIV, fig. 15, a— e. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. XLI, fig. 1, 2; 11. Ed. I, pi. XLII, fig. 3, 4; III. Ed. I, pi. LIII, 
fig. 3, 4. Baedeker, Tab. 12, fig. 7. Taczanowski, Tab. LXX, fig. 1. 
Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 13; id. Col. Fig., pi. 56. Frobawk, Br. Birds, I, 
pi. IV, fig. 132—143. 

British Local Names: Spadger, Spuckie, Sprug, Craff (Cumber- 
land). Manx: Jallyn. Welsh: Golfan Aderyn y to. Scotland: Spuig, Spurd. 
Gaelic: GealhJioun. Erse: Oalun, OealbJian. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Vrahec domdci. Denmark: Spurv, Qraa- 
or Huss-spurv. Finland: Varpunen. France: Moineau commun. Ger- 
many: Haussperling, Hausspatz. Greece: Spurgitis. Helgoland: Karhfink. 
Holland: Huismitsch. Hungary: Hdzi vereh. Italy: Passera oUremontana. 
Norway: Graa- or Hiis-spurv. Poland: Luszczak wrobel. Portugal: Pardal. 
Russia: Domaschni ivoroboj. Spain: Oorribn, Pardal. Sweden: Grd- 
spink, Sparf. 

Passer domesticus (L.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 89; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, III, p. 184; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 289; Saunders, Man., p. 179. 
P. domestica domestica (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 147. 

Breeding Range: Europe, with the exception of Italy, and the 
adjacent islands. [Also Siberia and at Tangier.] 
British Generally distributed over the whole of the inhabited parts of Great 

Isles. Britain and Ireland, but scarce in some of the high -lying villages, and 
never found at any distance from dwelling-places. It is found also in the 
Isle of Man, on nearly all the inhabited islands on the west of Scotland 
(though replaced by the Tree Sparrow on S. Kilda and scarce in the Outer 
Hebrides), and in the Orkneys, Fair Isle and Shetlands. 
Con- Although as yet unknown in Iceland and the Feeroes, this obtrusive 

species has established itself in almost every inhabited part of the Continent 
with but few exceptions. In the Iberian peninsula it is plentiful and not 
infrequently breeds in the foundations of the nests of the larger raptorial 
birds, as well as in roofs of houses, etc. To Italy however it is only a 
rare straggler in the north, but is said to be resident in TJdine; as well 
as in Istria. In the Balkan peninsula its range extends to Euboea, and 
it is also found in the Cyclades and Cyprus. Von Homeyer has recorded 
it from the Balearic Isles, but it is absent from Corsica, Sardinia and 
Sicily. In northern Europe its range extends in Russia to Archangel and 
the lower Petschora; in Lapland it is found up to nearly lat. 671" N., and 
on the northern coast is noted by Pearson from the Pechenga, while in 



tinental 
Europe 



91 

Norway it has reached Oxfjord, south of Hainmerfest. It is however still 
unknown in the Faeroes and Iceland. 

The characteristically untidy nest is generally placed in some crevice Nest. 
or recess of a building, very often underneath eaves, or behind spouting. 
Ivy-covered walls are also much used, and in large towns any convenient 
nook, even in a statue, is soon occupied. Many nests are also built in 
trees, sometimes high up among the smaller branches, and at other times 
close to the stem, but always at a fair height. The House Martin is often 
ejected from its home in order to provide a nesting site for this species, 
which has also been found breeding in the foundations of nests of rooks, 
storks, and the larger birds of prey, eagles, kites, etc., as well as in sand 
martins' holes, and occasionally in crevices of cliffs. 

When built in the open the nest is a large domed structure, composed 
of straw, dead grass and any available material, while the lining generally 
consists chiefly of feathers, though hair, wool and other substances are also 
used. When placed in a hole the outer covering is sometimes dispensed 
with either partly or altogether. If undisturbed several broods may be 
reared from one nest, and if the first clutch of eggs is removed another 
will be found about ten days later. Dr. Rey mentions two instances in 
which no fewer than ten clutches were removed from one nest in a 
single season. 

Usually 4 or 5 in number, but instances of 6 and even 7 eggs in one Eggs. 
nest have occurred and sometimes the full clutch consists of 3 only. They 
vary considerably, but it is usual to find one egg in each nest much more 
lightly marked than the others. Some eggs are quite white, while others 
have the markings confined to a cap or zone at the big end, but the majority 
are more or less finely spotted alio ver with varying shades of ashy grey 
and brown. The varieties are too numerous for description, but it should 
be noted that some eggs show a decided tendency to erythrism. This has 
also been observed in Sweden. According to Mr. J. P. Nunn from 60 to 
70 per cent of the lightly marked eggs are unfertile {Zool. 1888, p. 30). 

As a rule the Sparrow is not a particularly early breeder, and eggs Breeding 
are seldom found in the country districts before May, while in the midlands Season. 
the second week is about the usual time. In towns and where artificial 
heat is maintained breeding takes place almost all the year round, and the 
same thing has been observed in places with a mild climate. Saxby found 
eggs in the Shetlands as early as April 11 and newly hatched young in 
December. In the northern limits of its range the eggs are not laid till 
the end of May or early June, while in Greece they have been found by 
mid-March. 

Average size of 100 German eggs, 22 X 15.6 mm., Max. 25.2 X 15.6 neasure- 
and 23 X 17 mm. Average weight 207 mg. (Rey). The same author ments. 



92 

mentions dwarf eggs 12.5 X 10.8 and 12.7 X 10.2 mm., as well an as 
abnormally large egg 25.9 X 16.9 mm. Eggs from northern Europe are 
slightly larger: thus 20 eggs from Finland average 23.2 X 16.3 mm. 
(Sandman). As will be seen from the above measurements there is con- 
siderable variation in size and shape in the eggs of this species. The 
average weight of 33 full eggs is 2.568 g. (Foster). 

[Several Geographical Races of this species are found south of the 
Mediterranean: P. domesticus tingitamis Loche inhabits Marocco, Algeria 
and Tunis, P. d. ahasver Kleinschm. the country south of the Atlas, P. d. 
hihlicus Hart, part of Syria and Palestine, etc.] 

41. Italian Sparrow, Passer italiae (Vieill.). 

Plate 26, fig. 9 (Ticino). 

Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 12, fig. 8. 
Foreign Names: Italy: Passera. 

Passer italiae (Vieill.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 585; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 290; Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 152. 

Breeding Range: Italy, Corsica, southern France and the Balearic Isles. 

Con- This species replaces the Common Sparrow, south of the Alps, on 

the mainland of Italy, where it is an abundant resident in the towns and 

villages. It is however absent from Sardinia, Malta and Sicily (except at 

Messina), but occurs in the Balearic Isles, and locally in the Tyrol and 

Istria in company with P. domesticus (Arrigoni) as well as in Elba and 

Corsica, In the Riviera it is found at Nice, and occurs also as far as Lyon. 

Nest, In nesting habits it closely resembles the House Sparrow, and the 

etc. eggs are quite undistinguishable, though perhaps slightly smaller than 

typical eggs of P. domesticus from middle Europe. Breeding season from 

April to July. 

Measure- Average size of 38 eggs measured by the writer, 21.76 X 15.37 mm.. 

Max. 23.6 X 16.4 mm., Min. 20 X 16 and 20.5 X 14.1 mm. 

43. Spanish Sparrow, Passer liispaniolensis (Tenim.). 

Plate 26, fig. 10 (Sokia, Asia Minor, 16. V. 99). 

Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 12, fig. 9. 

Foreign Names: France: Moineau espagnol. Italy: Passera sarda. 
Portugal: Pardal. Spain: Gorrion molinero. 

Passer liispaniolensis (Temm.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 593; 
id. Man. of Pal. Birds, p. 291. P. liispaniolensis liispaniolensis (Temm.). 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 156. 



tinental 
Europe. 



ments. 



93 

Breeding Range: Locally in Spain and the Balkan peninsula. [Also 
in the Cape Verde Isles, the Canaries, N. Africa, and from Asia Minor to 
Central Asia; while local races are found in S. Italy and the main islands 
of the Mediterranean.] 

In the Iberian peninsula this species is exceedingly local, but is p°^- 
abundant in some places. It is also found on some of the Canary Islands, Europe 
and in the Barbary States large colonies are frequently met with. In 
Greece it appears to be local in the breeding season, but Kriiper records 
it from Acarnania and near Vrachori, and Reiser from Velestino in Thessaly. 
The latter naturaKst also discovered a colony near Philippopolis in E. Rumelia 
in 1893. In Asia Minor it is locally abundant, breeding in huge colonies. 

As a rule this bird prefers to nest in the open country, avoiding Nest. 
towns and villages, but usually near cultivated ground. In southern Spain 
and Marocco the nest is often placed under that of one of the larger birds 
of prey, but this habit is also often shared by P. domesticiis. Occasionally 
however it builds an independent nest among the branches, spherical in 
shape but more neatly constructed than that of its congener. In Algeria 
and Tunis hundreds of these birds nest in colonies in the tamarisk thickets, 
and also in the date palms and poplars, while at Sousa in E. Tunis 
Whitaker found nests under the eaves of a crowded cafe, not more than 
9 or 10 ft. from the ground. In the Balkan peninsula colonies breed in the 
nests of the White Stork and Imperial Eagle, and in Rumelia Reiser found 
nests among the branches of willows. In Asia Minor the nests are sometimes 
placed so closely together that the trees are completely covered by them. 

Usually 5 — 7 in number. In colour they are subject to little variation; Eggs. 
nearly all having a pale bluish ground, rather sparsely marked with dark 
leaden or olive-grey spots and streaks, with finer underlying paler bluish 
grey spots. The markings frequently tend to form a cap. One egg in a 
clutch is sometimes lighter than the rest, but this tendency is not nearly 
so common as in the House and Tree Sparrow. 

In N. Africa from April onwards, while in the Balkan peninsula and Breeding 
Asia Minor most eggs are laid about the middle of May. season. 

Average size of 104 eggs (chiefly from Asia Minor) 21.98x14.19 mm., Measure- 
Max. 24 X 16 and 23.5 X 16.2 mm., Min. 20 X 14.5 and 21,1 X 14 mm. ""'°*'- 
Reiser gives the average weight of 13 eggs from Thessaly as nearly 
164 mg, varying from 120 to 200 mg. 

Geographical Races. 

Spanish Sparrow, P. hispaniolensis hispaniolensis (Temm.). See above. 
Sardinian Sparrow, P. Iiispaniolensis arrigonii Tsch. 

P. hispaniolensis arrigonii Tsch. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 157. 
Breeding Range: Sardinia and probably also Corsica. 



94 

In Sardinia small colonies nest in the groups of wild olive trees; 
some also build about houses and towns. Nests of dry grass, lined with 
feathers, like the Common Sparrow's (A. B. Brooke). 

Maltese Sparrow, P. hispauiolensis maltae Hart. 

P. hispaniolensis maltae Hart. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 157. 
Breeding Range: Malta and Sicily. 

Common in Sicily, breeding in small parties or isolated pairs, but 
congregating in large flocks in winter and early spring. 

Calabrian Sparrow, P. Iiispaniolensis brutius Fiore. 

P. hispaniolensis hrutius Fiore. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 158. 

Breeding Range: S. Italy (Taranto, Catanzaro, etc.). 

[From Transcaucasia and Palestine eastward to Kashmir is found P. li. 
transcaspicus Tsch., while in S. Algeria another race, P. h. fliicMgeri Kleinschm. 
is the resident form.] 

43. Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus (L.). 

Plate 12, fig. 11—20 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXIV, fig. 13, a — d. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. XLI, fig. 3, 4; H. Ed. I, pi. XLU, fig. 1, 2; III. Ed. I, pi. LIII, 
fig. 1, 2. Baedeker, Tab. 12, fig. 6. Taczanowski, Tab. LXX, fig. 2. See- 
bohm, Br. Birds, pi. 13; id. Col. Fig., pi. 56. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. IV, 
fig. 144—147. 

British Local Names: Mountain Sparrotv, Copper Head. Welsh: 
Aderyn y to geir mewn hargod. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Vrabec point. Denmark: Skovspurv. 
Finland: Metsdvarpunen. France: Friqiiet. Germany: Feldsperling, Baum- 
sperling. Helgoland: IngelsJc Karkfink. Holland: Bingmusch, Boommusch. 
Hungary: Mezei Vereb. Italy: Passer a mattugia. Norway: Pilfink. Poland: 
Luszczak Mazurek. Russia: Poleivoj worehej. Sweden: Fdltsparf, Pilsparf. 
Spain: Oorrion serrano. 

Passer montanus (L.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 82; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, III, p. 597; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 293; Saunders, Man., p. 181. 
P. montana montana (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 160. 

Breeding Range: Locally throughout Europe, scarce in the extreme 
north, and absent from Portugal and most of the Mediterranean islands. 
[Also in Siberia eastward to China: apparently only accidental in N. Africa.] 
British In England it is not nearly so common as the House Sparrow and 

is as a rule very local, being generally found in colonies, often at some 
distance from houses. It has however been found breeding in every county 



Isles. 



95 

with the exception of Cornwall and Devon, although very scarce in Cumber- 
land and Westmorland. In Wales it is very sparingly distributed over 
the northern counties and has been met with in the breeding season in 
Anglesea, Carnarvon, Denbigh, Flint, Montgomery and Brecon, but is still 
unknown in the western and southern parts of the country, except at 
Llandaff. It nests in the Isle of Man, but in Ireland is only known to 
have permanently established itself in the County Dublin. In Scotland it 
occurs sporadically in colonies, chiefly on the eastern side of the mainland 
from Sutherland southward, but has also been recorded from W. Suther- 
land and Argyll, and is said to have formerly bred in Ayr. It is found 
in Bute and many of the Inner Hebrides (Eigg, Coll, Tiree, lona, Oronsay, 
Jura etc.), and also in Skye, while it is common on Barra and S. Kilda, 
and has been recorded as nesting on Unst, Shetlands (1903). 

In the Iberian peninsula it is unknown in Portugal and only occurs p°^' 
locally in eastern Spain. It is absent from Corsica and Sardinia, but Europe 
appears to be found in Sicily. Though wanting in Greece it is common 
in Bulgaria and Macedonia, and appears to be very generally distributed 
thoughout the contries of central Europe, in some places being even more 
abundant than the House Sparrow, as in parts of Austro-Hungary. North- 
ward it was formerly plentiful in the Faeroes, but has apparently disappeared 
of late, and is unknovni in Iceland, while in Scandinavia CoUett found it 
established at Vardo (about 70° 30' N.) in 1885, and in Russia it is found 
as far as Archangel and the Petschora valley. 

In England the favourite breeding places are holes in pollarded willows Nest. 
or other trees, hollows in ivy covered trees, and in old nests of Herons, 
Rooks, Crows or Magpies. In treeless districts it is sometimes placed in 
holes of cliffs or loosely built walls, while exceptionally it has been 
recorded from haystacks, holes of Green Woodpecker and Sand Martin, 
thick hollies, thatch or tiling of cottages, etc., and nesting boxes are often 
appropriated. In some parts of the Continent it regularly haunts the 
villages and towns, and in eastern Europe frequently builds among the 
foundations of Storks' nests and the eyries of the larger birds of prey. 
Reiser has found as many as 30 pairs breeding in one Eagle's nest. In 
construction the nest resembles that of the House Sparrow, being as a rule 
carelessly constructed of straw, dead grass, etc., warmly lined with feathers, 
wool, or hair. Kleinschmidt has found fresh blooms of hyacinth at the 
entrance of a nesting box occupied by this species. Some nests are 
domed and substantially built, but where the hole is small but little 
material is used. 

4 — 6 in number and similar in character to those of the House Eggs. 
Sparrow; but on comparing a series of both species it will be seen that the 
eggs of the Tree Sparrow have as a rule finer and more numerous markings. 



96 

sometimes almost concealing the ground colour, and producing a marbled 

appearance. There is also a greater tendency to brown, some eggs having 

rich chocolate markings, and the gloss is decidedly higher. One egg is 

as a rule much hghter in colour than the rest; more rarely two light eggs 

are found in a clutch. 

Breeding I^ ^^^ south of England the first eggs are generally laid about 

Season. mid-May, but in the Midlands most are laid towards the end of the month, 

and in northern localities, such as S. Kilda and the Shetlands, they are 

not laid till the third week in June. Two broods are usually reared, and 

fresh eggs may be met with as late as August. In Germany Rey found 

most eggs in May, and is of opinion that in some districts only one brood 

is reared. In N. Russia Seebohm took eggs early in June. 

Measure- Average size of 103 eggs (65 from Germany by Rey and 38 from England 

ments. by the writer) 19.55 X 14.05 mm., Max. 22.2 X 14.1 and 20.2 X 14.8 mm., 

Min. 17.5 X 13 mm. An abnormally large egg in the Rey collection 

measures 22.6X15.4 mm; weight 175 mg, 4 eggs from the Petschora 

average 22 X 14.5 mm. The average weight is 159 mg. (Rey). 

[The Desert Sparrow, P. simplex saharae Erl., inhabits the sandy 
wastes of Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli. Eggs 3 in number: size about 
19 X 13.5 mm.] 

44. Corn Bimtiiig, Emberiza calaiidra L. 

Plate 13, fig. 1 (Greece), 2 — 4 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXII, fig. 8, a — d. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. Ill, fig. 1, 2; II. Ed. I, pi. XXXIX, fig. 1; HI. Ed. I, pi. XL VII, 
fig. 3. Baedeker, Tab. 3, fig. 3. Taczanowski, Tab. LXV, fig. 1, LXVI, fig. 1. 
Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 13; id. Col. Fig., pi. 57. Frohawk, II, pi. V, 
fig. 181—187. 

British Local Names: Bunting Lark, Grass Bunting, Horse or 
Clod Lark. Welsh: Bras-yr-yd. Isle of Man: Thistle Cock, Barley Bird. 
Manx: Pompee-ny-lioarn. Gaelic: Oealag Bhuachair. Shetlands: Cornhill. 
Erse: Gealbhan an guih ramhair. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Propdska, Pistek. Denmark: Kornlaerke, 
Bomlaerke. France: Proyer, Preyer. Germany: Gerstenammer, Grauammer. 
Greece: Tsiphtes. Helgoland: Dicke Diert. Holland: Graatave Gors, Gierst- 
vogel. Hungary: Sordely. Italy: Strillozzo. Norway: Kornspiirv. Poland: 
Pbstvierka prosowa. Portugal: Trigueirao. Russia: Obsjanka prosjanka. 
Spain: Triguero, Ave tbnta. Sweden: Kornsparf, Kornliirka. 

Emberiza miliaria L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 38; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, IV, p. 163; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 343; Saunders, Man., p. 207. 
E. calandra calandra L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 165. 



97 

Breeding Range: The British Isles, S. Sweden, and all central and 
southern Europe, but absent from northern Russia. [Also N. Africa, 
Palestine and Asia Minor to Turkestan.] 

In Great Britain the Corn Bunting is a local resident, being perhaps British 
most numerous in the maritime counties and in the flat corn lands, but is ^^^^' 
not uncommon locally in the little walled in crofts up to 1000 ft. It is 
not found in mountainous, moorland, or thickly wooded districts, and is 
also rare or absent from many cultivated and open districts inland. In 
N. Wales it is practically confined to a belt one mile wide along the 
coast, but breeds inland near Llangollen and Montgomery (Forrest). It 
breeds in the Isle of Man, and is generally common in Ireland near the 
coast and on the islands, but less numerous and local in the interior. It 
inhabits most of the islands off the W. coast of Scotland and is also common 
on the Orkneys and Shetlands. 

In Norway it is only known to breed in the extreme south (Lister con- 
and Jaederen), but in Sweden it is distributed over the southern and Avestern ^"*^"'^^^ 

'^ .. ^ Europe. 

provinces as well as Oland. South of the Baltic and the Gulf of Riga it 
is generally distributed in suitable localities, being very plentiful on the 
plains of Jutland, but is said to be local in the south of Russia. In the 
countries bordering the Mediterranean it is very common, and also in the 
islands, especially Sardinia. 

In the British Isles the nest is usually placed in long mowing grass, Nest. 
clover, or corn fields, but occasionally it is found in furze, low scrub, 
or briars, and is then raised some little distance from the ground. It 
is built of roots, bents, grasses, etc., lined with finer grasses and some- 
times a few hairs. There is very often some large and conspicuous plant 
in the neighbourhood of the nest. On the arid plains of southern Spain 
it is frequently found under the shelter of one of the thistles or large 
liliaceous plants which are common there, while near Gibraltar Irby found 
many nests on the edge of marshes. The hen is a close sitter, and the 
cock generally keeps on droning ont his monotonous song at intervals 
from some point of vantage such as a wall, telegraph wire, or bush, in 
the neighbourhood of the nest. 

3 — 5 in number, occasionally 6, in the British Isles; on the Continent Eggs. 
Rey gives 5 as the usual clutch, but 7 have been found in southern Spain. 
They are subject to much variation, some being almost white, or pale blue 
with faint brown markings, but in most cases the ground colour varies 
from greyish or yellowish white to warm rufous brown, while the markings 
are of the most varied character, and consist generally of pale lavender 
or greyish brown underlying blotches, spots and streaks, with very bold 
'worm-lines', streaks and spots of deep blackish brown, sometimes tending 
to form a cap or zone at the big end. An unusual variety has only a few 

7 



98 

fine spots, while the most strongly erythristic type has a few blackish 
streaks on a red-brown ground. 
Breeding In England the first eggs are laid at the end of May, but most birds 

Season, j^j-gg^ during the month of June, although on the South Downs many 
birds do not lay till early July, and fresh eggs can be obtained till late 
in July or even August; while in Ireland eggs are rarely taken in May, 
but are sometimes found as late as August. In Germany according to Rey 
two broods are reared: the first clutches being occasionally deposited in 
April, but generally in May, and the second about mid-June or July. In 
southern Spain and Greece the eggs are laid from about mid-April to mid- 
May, while in N. Africa young birds have been met with on the wing at 
the end of April, but most eggs are laid early in May. 
Measure- 100 eggs measured by Rey average 24,3X17.6 mm., Max. 28X19 

°'^"*^- mm., Min. 21X17 and 22X16 mm. An egg from the New Forest 
measures 28.6 X 18 mm. (E. W. Blagg), and some English eggs are almost 
round in shape, 19 X 17.8 mm. (H. G. Tomlinson). Average weight 135 mg. 
(Rey); 213 mg. (Bau). 4 full eggs average 3.086 g. (N. H. Foster). 

[The race inhabiting the Canaries has been separated under the name 
of E. calandra thanneri Tsch. It is an abundant resident on all the islands.] 

45. Yellow Bunting, Emberiza citrinella L. 

Plate 13, fig. 6—11 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXII, fig. 4, a — d. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. Ill, fig. 3, 4; 11. Ed. I, pi. XXXIX, fig. 3, 4; III. Ed. I, 
pi. XL VII, fig. 2. Baedeker, Tab. 3, fig. 8. Taczanowski, Tab. LXVII, 
fig. 1. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 13; id. Col. Pig., pi. 58. Frohawk, Br. 
Birds, II, pi. V, fig. 188—195. 

Nest: 0. Lee, IV, pp. 100, 102. 

British Local Names: Yelloiv Hammer, Yellow Yeorling, Scribbling 
Lark, Goldfinch, Yite. Cornwall: Gladdie. Welsh: Llinos Felen, Melyn 
yr eithin. Manx: Ushag wee. Scotland: Yite or Yitey, Spink, Yeldroch. 
Gaelic: BuidUeag. Erse: Buidlieog. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Strnad obecny. Denmark: Gulspurv, 
Gulverling. Finland: Keltasirkku. France: Bruant jaune, Verdiere. Ger- 
many: Goldamnier. Helgoland: Gjuhl Kliltjer. Holland: Geelgors, Schrijver. 
Unngaxj : Czitrom sdrmdny. Italj: Zigolo giallo. Norway: Gulspurv. Poland: 
Poswierka Trznadel. Russia: Obiknovenoi oivsjanka. Spain: CenZZo. Sweden: 
Groning, Gulsparf. 

Emberiza citrinella L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 43; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, IV, p. 171; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 353; Saunders, Man., p. 209. 
E. citrinella citrinella L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 167. 



99 

Breeding Range: The British Isles and Continental Europe, except 
the north of Scandinavia and Russia, and in the south, Portugal, the greater 
part of Spain, southern Italy, Greece and the Mediterranean Islands. [Also 
inhabits western Asia.] 

In the British Isles it is a common resident in most parts of the British 
mainland and islands, but has not yet been found breeding in the Shetlands. ^^^^^: 

In the Iberian peninsula it is found north of the Cantabrian Mts. and con- 
in Navarre, but further south is only a winter straggler. In Italy it is ^"^'^'^^^ 
common in the northern provinces, but becomes scarcer towards the middle 
of the peninsula and is absent from the south. It is also unknown in 
Greece, but is very plentiful in Bulgaria, and occurs on the Montenegrin 
mountains, although absent from the coast. In Russia some birds appear 
to belong to an imperfectly known geographical race, E. citrinella erythro- 
genys Brehm, which probably also inhabits W. Siberia, Turkestan, Persia 
and Asia Minor. North of lat. 67° 40' in Finland and 65 J ° in E. Russia 
it is not found, and in Scandinavia its range does not extend beyond lat. 
70° N., but over the rest of Europe it is fairly common and general. 

Frequently built on the ground at the foot of a hedge, bush, or steep Nest. 
bank, and generally partly hidden by growing grass. Sometimes however 
it is placed in a bush at some little height, and an instance is on record 
of a nest 7 ft. from the ground in a broom-plant, while others have been 
found 10 — 12 ft. high in the side of a haystack [Zool. 1903, p. 465) and 
twice on fruit trees trained against a wall 5 and 7 ft. high, in one case 
on an old Blackbird's nest. Another extraordinary site is within a hollow 
turnip! {Field, 7. VI. 02); while in Germany a nest has been found under 
a turntable at a station. Occasionally also a hen has been found incubating 
eggs on the bare ground, probably when the nest has been destroyed while 
she was laying. 

Nests vary in size according to position, those built in bushes being 
naturally more bulky than those placed in a hollow on a bank side. The 
materials consist chiefly of stalks, grasses, etc., with a little moss and a 
smooth lining of horsehair, while occasionally a few leaves are used in the 
foundation. 

3 — 5 in number, but clutches of 6 have been occasionally recorded Eggs. 
from the Continent. In some districts the set almost invariably consists 
of 3, and in Ireland Ellison has sometimes found 2 only, while 5 are scarce. 
In Germany Rey states that the first clutch consists generally of 5 eggs, 
the second of 4, and the third of 3 or 4. In colour and markings they 
show great variety. Some eggs are almost pure white, without any markings; 
but the most usual ground colour is a pale purplish white, with fine under- 
lying spots or streaks of pale violet, and pencilled with interlacing hair 
lines or streaks of dark purplish brown, and a few spots of the same 

7* 



ments. 



100 

colour. Occasionally the ground colour has a decided rufous tint, and some 
eggs are a warm brownish red, with a few blackish hair lines. 
Breeding As three broods are frequently reared, the breeding season is of long 

Season, (jm-^j^ioji^ In England the first eggs are laid late in April, but in the hills 
and the north the more usual time is in May, sometimes not till the second 
or third week. From this time onward eggs may be found till August 
and even September. In Ireland most eggs are laid in May and June, but 
late clutches are occasionally found. In Germany Rey has taken eggs from 
April 25 to July 31. In the northern part of its range only one brood 
is reared and the eggs are laid in June. Incubation lasts 14 days, and 
the hen is a close sitter, while the cock reiterates his simple song from 
a hedge or tree close at hand. 
Measure- Extraordinary variations in shape and size are occasionally met with. 

Rey gives the average size of 100 eggs as 21.2x15.9 mm., Max. 24.2x17.1 
and 23.5 X 17.7 mm., Min. 18.5X14.3 mm. Abnormally elongated eggs 
measure 30.2 X 15 mm. (R. Smith), 28.3 X 14.3 mm. (E. W. H. Blagg) and 
28 X 10.4 mm. (E. Rey). Some eggs are jjyriform in shape, while others 
are almost spherical, measuring 18.3X17, 18X16.8 mm., etc. (C. A. Wester- 
lund), and 3 dwarf eggs measure 14.3 X 10.5, 14.2 X 12 and 13.3 X U mm. 
(R. H. Read). Average weight of normal eggs 160 mg. (Rey), 178 mg. 
(Bau); 15 full eggs average 2.702 mg. (Foster). 

Geographical Races. 

a. Common Yellow Bunting', E. citrinella citrinella L. and 
b. Eastern Yellow Bunting', E. citrinella erythrogenys Brelim. See above. 

46. Pine Bunting, Emberiza leucocepliala S. €r. Grmel. 

Plate 14, fig. 1 (Amur, 5. V.). 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Skrivan sibirsky. France: Bruant a 
coiironne ladee. Germany: FicJdenammer. Italy: Zigolo gola rossa. Poland: 
Posivierka hialolbista. Ruseia: Strenatka-heloshapotchnaya. 

Mnheriza leucocepliala Gmel. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 217; 
id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 359. E. leucocephalos S. G. Gmel. Hartert, Vog. 
Pal. Fauna, p. 169. 

Breeding Range: Siberia, from the Urals to the mouth of the Amur. 
Has occurred on Helgoland and in Austria, Dalmatia, Italy, etc. 

According to Dybowski {Journ. f. Ornitli. 1873, p. 86) the nest is 
always in the open, on the edge of the forest or thickets, and is placed 
on the ground in a slight depression at the foot of a tree, bush, or fallen 
bough. It is built of grass stalks and bents, smoothly lined with finer 
grasses and horsehair. External diameter about 5 J- in., depth 2 in., dia- 



101 

meter of cup 2f in., depth ly^g in. The eggs are 4—6 in number, 
"varying in ground colour from pale pinkish to violet or greenish, with 
numerous fine brown streaks and hair lines or spots, and pale underlying 
violet grey spots. On the whole they bear a great likeness to the eggs 
of the preceding species, and like them are sometimes found very lightly 
marked. Incubation is performed by the hen, the cock singing from some 
dead branch in the neighbourhood, and the eggs are laid at the end of 
May, a second brood being reared in July. Average measurements of 54 eggs 
(22 by Taczanowski, 7 by Rey and the rest by the writer) 21.48 X 16.1 mm., 
Max. 23.3 X 16.7 and 23 X 17.3 mm., Min. 19X16.3 and 19.6X14.2 mm. 
One egg weighs 170 mg. (Rey); average of 22 eggs, 173 mg. (Bau). 

47. Black headed Bunting, Emheriza nielanocei)liala Scop. 

Plate 14, fig. 12—15 (Attica); 16 (Smyrna). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXIl, fig. 3, a — c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 3, fig. 9. Taczanowski, Tab. LXV, fig. 3. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, 
pi. 15; id. Col. Fig., pi. 58. Reiser, Orn. Bale. Ill, Taf. Ill, fig. 22—24. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Propaska cernohlavy. France: Bruant 
crocote. Germany: Kappenammer. Greece: Ampelouros, Krasopouli. Hungary: 
Kucsmds sdrmdny. Italy: Zigolo capinero. Montenegro: Zutar, Zutka. 
Russia: TscJiernoloivaja otvsjanka. 

Emheriza melanocephala Scop. Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 64; Dresser, 
Birds of Europe, IV, p. 151; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 346; Saunders, Man. 
p. 205; Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 170. 

Breeding Range: S. E. Europe, [Also Palestine and Asia Minor 
to the Caucasus, Persia and Beluchistan.] Has occurred in the British Isles. 

In Greece and many of the islands of the Archipelago, Crete, and con- 
Cyprus, this bird is a well known and numerous summer visitor, arrivinsc ^i^^°*^' 

•'^ ' _ _ ... ' o Europe. 

at the end of April and breeding plentifully in the vineyards and gardens 
of the plain, and in smaller numbers on the hillsides. It is also common 
in the low lying parts of Macedonia, Rumelia, etc., but becomes scarcer north 
of the Balkans. On the west side of the peninsula it is very common in 
the plains of Dalmatia and Montenegro, but is rare above 1500 ft. In 
south Russia it is found as far as the lower part of the Volga valley, 
and in Italy occurs frequently on the east coast, where it occasionally 
breeds, especially in Venetia. In Asia Minor it is found in vast numbers, 

Seebohm describes nests from Greece as neatly finished inside, but Nest. 
rather loose and ragged in appearance outside; the foundation consisting 
of dry grass, thistle leaves, etc., and the main part constructed of the yeUow 
dry stalks of small flowering plants, covered with seed capsules, lined with 
brown roots and finer grasses and sometimes hair. Diameter of cup 2| in.. 



102 



Eggs. 



Breeding 
Season. 



Measure- 
ments. 



depth 2 in. In Greece the nest is usually built on a vine stock, but in 
Turkey it is often placed among the standing peas, and in Montenegro 
von Ftihrer found nests 5 — 6 ft. from the ground in wild pomegranate 
or other bushes. At other times it is found almost touching the ground 
in low scrub, and also in brambles and creepers. 

Usually 4 or 5 in number, but 6 are sometimes met with, and Fiihrer 
took one clutch of 7 eggs. In type they differ widely from most Bunting 
eggs, except those of E. luteola. The ground colour is pale greenish blue, 
rarely without markings, but generally with pale violet underlying spots, 
and brown blotches or spots, but not streaks. Some eggs have very bold 
blotches of warm brown; others have distinct zones or caps of confluent 
spots at the big end, and a third type has the fine spots evenly distributed 
or almost obsolete. 

Kriiper states that in Greece the breeding season begins in mid-May 
(about a fortnight after the arrival of the birds) and lasts through June; 
most eggs being laid about May 20—30. In Montenegro Fiihrer took 
40 nests between May 27 and July 5. Only one brood is reared; in- 
cubation lasts 14 days, and the hen is relieved by the cock about mid-day 
and towards evening. 

Average of 100 eggs (50 by Rey and 50 by the writer) 22.42x16.06 
mm.. Max. 26 X 15.1 and (according to Reiser) 23.8 X 18.2 mm., Min. 
19 X 14.5 and 19.25 X 14 mm. As will be seen, these eggs vary much in 
shape and size, some being much elongated, while others are almost spherical 
(19.5 X 16.4 mm.). Rey gives the average weight as 172 mg., and in a 
series of 35 eggs weighed by Reiser the weight varies from 135 to 200 mg. 



[Red headed Bunting, Emberiza luteola Sparrm. 

Plate 14, fig. 10, 11 (Kuldscha). 
Eggs: Ibis 1904, pi. Ill, fig. 7-9. 
Emberiza luteola Sparrm. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IX, p. 211; id. Man. 



Nest. 



Eggs. 



Breeding Range: Transcaspia, Afghanistan, Turkestan and S. W. Siberia 
as far as the Altai Range. (Has occurred twice on Helgoland.) 

This bird is said to frequent lowlands and cultivated ground, building a 
flattish nest about 4j to 5| in. in diameter, with a rim 1 — 14- in. thick. It is 
usually placed either on, or at a short distance from the ground in a small bush, 
and is composed of dry grasses, stalks, leaves and twigs loosely put together, lined 
with finer grasses and frequently also with horsehair. 

The eggs are 3 to 4 in number, similar in character to those of the 
preceding species, but usually paler in ground colour. Some specimens are not 
unlike light eggs of the White Wagtail. They are sparsely marked with fine 
ochreous brown spots, and still finer underlying ashy specks, on a pale greenish 
or bluish white ground. The markings tend to form a cap at the big end. In 
one clutch from Transcaspia the spots are purplish red in colour, but this is 
unusual. The breeding season lasts throughout May. 



103 

Average of 22 eggs (2 by Rev and 18 by the writer) 20.04X15.38 mm., Measure- 
Max. 22X16 and 21.2X16.5 mm., Min. 19X15.6 and 20.2X14.5 mm. Two ments. 
eggs weigh 138 and 150 mg. (Rey).] 



48. Yellow l)reaste(l Bunting, Emberiza aureola Pall. 

Plate 14, fig. 8, 9 (Siberia). 

Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 12, fig. 11. Journ. f. Ornith. 1856, Tab. II, 
fig. 15. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Strnad rusky. Finland: Kiilta sirJcku. 
Germany: Wddenammer. Russia: Strenatka tscliernolitsaya. Sweden: Rysk 
Videsjparf. 

Eynheriza aureola Pall. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 223; id. 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 349; Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 173. 

Breeding Range: Russia, east of Lake Onega and north of lat. 
50° N. [Also Siberia to Kamtschatka, etc.] Has occurred once in Eng- 
land (Cley, Norfolk, 21. IX. 05), and also on Helgoland, as well as in 
Austro -Hungary, Italy, Holland and S. France. 

Near Archangel this species is exceedingly common, but in the country con- 
between the Dwina valley and the great Lakes is only thinly distributed, ^y^"*^ 
It is said also to be common in the governments of Moscow, Tula, and 
Kazan, although unknown near Moscow till 40 or 50 years ago. In the 
valleys on the western slopes of the Urals it is scarce. Its usual haunts 
are the low meadows interspersed with small alder and birch bushes, and 
overgrown with patches of Veratrum album; but in S. E. Siberia Radde 
met with it among the brush covered river banks up to 6000 ft. 

Usually built either on the ground or close to it, sometimes in low Nest. 
bushes or on stumps, and often under the shelter of a plant of Ve^'atrum 
album. Many of the nests found by Dybowski in E. Siberia were however 
3 ft. from the ground. The nests are not easy to find, as the sitting birds 
frequently run some distance before taking wing. They are composed of 
dry grasses, with a lining of a few horsehairs. Both sexes incubate. 

Usually 4 or 5 in number, rarely 6. Some eggs bear a considerable Eggs. 
resemblance to those of the Reed Bunting, but as a rule the ground colour 
is distinctly greenish, sometimes decidedly so, and at other times varying 
to stone colour, pale bluish or olive. The markings consist of spots and 
streaks, occasionally also hair lines, of dark brown, with underlying 
cloudings of purplish grey or brown, which sometimes almost obscure the 
ground colour. 

In Russia fresh eggs may be found from June 9 to early in July, while on Breeding 
tlie Upper Lena, Hall took nests between June 18 and 25. Near Archangel 
most nests contained newly hatched young on July 13 — 14 (Harvie-Brown). 



104 

Measure- Average of 52 eggs (11 by Rey, 3 by Meves and 38 by the writer) 

™^"*'- 20.53X15.05 mm., Max. 22.2x15.3 and 21.5x16 mm., Min. 18X15.3 
and 20X14 mm. A dwarf egg in Dresser's collection measures 15.2 X 11.5 
mm. Average weight of 11 eggs 120 mg. (Rey). 

49. Cirl Bunting, Emberiza cirlus L. 

Plate 13, fig. 12—15 (Greece). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXII, fig. 5, a — c. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. XI, fig. 1; II. Ed. I, pi. XL, fig. 1; III. Ed. I, pi. XLVIII, 
fig. 2. Baedeker, Tab. 3, fig. 7. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, pi. 13; id. Col. Fig., 
pi. 58. Frohawk, Br. Birds, II, pi. V, fig. 196—197. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Strnad evrcivy. France: Bruant zizi. 
Germany: Zaimammer, Zirlammer. Holland: Cirlgors. Hungary: Soveny 
sarmdny. Italy: Zigolo nero. Portugal: Sia, Sioclio. Russia: Ogorodnaya 
ovsyanka. Spain: Linacero. 

Emberiza cirlus L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 50. Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, IV, p. 177; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 354. Saunders, Man, p. 211. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 175. 

Breeding Range: Southern England, Wales, the countries bordering 
on the Mediterranean and Black Seas from Spain to the Caucasus. [Also 
Asia Minor and N. W. Africa.] 
British It is rather remarkable that this bird, which on the Continent has 

its head quarters in the Mediterranean region, should be found breeding 
in so many English and Welsh counties. Full details as to its distribution 
will be found in the Zoologist 1892, pp. 121 and 174. Briefly the Cirl 
Bunting breeds commonly but locally along the counties bordering our 
southern coasts, in the Isle of Wight, and also in smaller numbers in Somerset, 
Wilts, Gloucester, the Thames valley, Hertford, Bedford, Northampton, 
Warwick, Worcester, Hereford and Salop. It is also said to have occasionally 
nested in Stafford, Yorkshire, and Lancashire, but in view of its absence 
from the north of England and the eastern counties, further evidence is 
desirable. In Wales a few pairs are now known to breed locally in 
Glamorgan, Cardigan, Brecon, Montgomery, Carnarvon and Flint, and it 
is not uncommon locally in Denbigh. 
Con- In the Iberian peninsula it is plentiful in the north of Portugal and 

Europe tolerably common in southern Spain. It is found also throughout France, 
Italy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, etc., but is local in Switzerland, and in 
Germany only occurs in small numbers in the south west (valleys of the 
Rhine, Mosel and Saar). In Austro-Hungary it is only recorded from the 
coast districts, but is widely distributed and common in the Balkan 
peninsula, breeding principally in the hilly districts. In Russia it is found 



105 

in the Crimea, but is scarce in the Caucasus; while it is common on the 
hills of Asia Minor and Crete, and is abundant in the mountain ranges of 
N. W. Africa. 

In the British Isles the nest is usually found in gorse, often some xest. 
little distance above the ground, less frequently in hedge bottoms or 
bramble thickets, and occasionally on the ground on a bankside. In the 
south of Europe and N. Africa it haunts the brush grown hill sides, and 
is also found in open glades of cork forest near Gibraltar. The nest is 
built chiefly of bents and roots, with occasionally moss, leaves, etc., lined 
with finer grasses and usually, but not always, with horsehair. External 
diameter about 4 in., diameter of cup 2?, — 3 in.; depth of cup li in. The 
cock is not at all shy, but pours forth his vigorous, but monotonous song 
with head thrown back and widely opened bill from some bush or tree 
in the vicinity of the nest. 

4 — 5 (rarely 6 in number in southern Europe), while late broods often E?g3. 
consist of only 3. As a rule the eggs are characterized by their pale 
bluish or greenish white ground and bold, almost black streaks. Occasionally 
however a nest is found in which the ground colour of the eggs has a 
pinkish tinge, and such exceptional clutches are not to be distinguished 
from eggs of the Yellow Bunting. I have seen eggs of this kind from 
the Parnassus, where E. citriyiella does not occur, as well as from the 
south of England. In a clutch from Asia Minor the markings are of 
a distinctly reddish brown, instead of the usual very dark sepia. 

In England the usual time for first clutches is from about May 10 Breeding 
to the end of the month, while second broods may be looked for from 
mid-July to August. In warm, sheltered spots, eggs may occasionally be 
found at the beginning of May. In southern Spain the eggs are laid early 
in April, and in Greece from the middle to the end of the month, second 
broods being found up to the middle of July. 

Average size of 100 eggs (53 by Rey and 47 by the writer) Measure- 
21.18X16.11 mm., Max. 23x17 and 21X18 mm., ]\Iin. 19.2x15 mm. 
An abnormally large egg from Greece measures 26.4X22.4 mm. (Reiser). 
Average weight of 53 eggs, 166 mg. (Rey); of 22 eggs, 171 mg. (Bau). It 
will be noticed that as a rule the eggs are broader than those of E. citrinella, 
and are occasionally very rounded in shape. 

[Strickland's Bunting, Emberiza cinerea Strickl. 

Egg: Ibis 1904, PI. Ill, fig. 11. 

Emberiza cinerea Strickl. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 159; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 352; Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 178. 

This species, which is supposed to have been seen once on Helgoland, is 
not uncommon in Asia Minor, but the nesting habits and eggs are almost 
unknown. Two eggs from a nest taken on May 10, 1889 by one of Kriipers 



mentfr. 



106 

collectors average 20.5 X 15.4 mm. in size, and are bluish white, sparingly marked 
with black spots and small blotches and a few pale underlying spots. (Coll. 
Dresser and Newton). Mr. F. C. Selous has a clutch of eggs taken in Asia Minor 
at a height of 3000 ft. from a nest on the ground, which may belong to this bird. 
Three eggs average 20.53X16.23 mm., and are dull French white with a few 
very dark spots, scrawls and hair lines of sepia brown, and pale underlying violet 
grey blotches. They are less glossy than eggs of E. cirlus or caesia.] 



50. Ortolan, Einberiza liortulana L. 

Plate 13, fig. 16 (Switzerland), 17—20 (S. Sweden). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXII, fig. 7, a — d. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. CXXVI; II. Ed. I, pi. XL, fig. 2; III. Ed. I, pi. XL VIII, fig. 1. 
Baedeker, Tab. 3, fig. 5. Taczanowsld, Tab. LXV, fig. 2; LXVI, fig. 2. 
Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 15; id. Col. Fig., pi. 57. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Strnad zahradu. Denmark: Hortulan- 
verling. Finland: Metsdsirlilm, Peltopeippo. France: Briiant ortolan. 
Germany: Gartenammer, Ortolan. Helgoland: Orteloan. Holland: Ortolaan, 
Vremdeling. Hungary: Kerti sdrmdny. Italy: Ortolano. Norway: Hortulan. 
Poland: Poswierka ogrodniczek. Russia: Sadovaja oivsjanka. Sweden: 
Ortolansparf, Ortolan. Spain: Hortoldno. 

Emheriza liortulana L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 57; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, IV, p. 185; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 356; Saunders, Man., p. 213; 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 180. 

Breeding Range: Europe, locally, from 68° 40' N. lat. in Sweden 
and 57° N. in the Urals southward, but not the British Isles. [Also in 
Asia from Smyrna and Syria to Afghanistan and W. Mongolia; N. W. Africa.] 
Con- In view of its wide distribution on the continent it is remarkable 

that the Ortolan is only a rare straggler to the British Isles. In Spain 
and Portugal it is not uncommon in the mountainous districts, and in 
Andalucia Chapman found it breeding in the islets of the marisma. In 
France it is commonest in the south, but is absent from the islands of 
the western Mediterranean, or only winters there; and is equally scarce 
in the south of Italy, though not uncommon further north. It breeds 
here and there in Switzerland, especially in the south west, and is not 
uncommon in some parts of Holland (Gelderland and N. Brabant). In the 
great plain of N. Germany it is not uncommon, but local (though formerly 
almost unknown), but becomes scarcer in the south. It is local and 
not plentiful in Austro-Hungary, but is common and widely distributed in 
Turkey, and is met with on the higher mountains of Greece to a height 
of over 7000 ft., and also in Crete. In S. Russia and the Crimea it is 
common, and occurs also in the Caucasus; while northward its limits extend 
from 68° N. lat. in Finland to only 57° N. in the Urals; and in Scandinavia 



tinental 
Europe. 



107 

it is common iu the S. Norwegian valleys and in the S. W. provinces of 
Sweden, but comparatively rarely found N. of Stockholm, except along the coast. 

The situation varies according to locality. Thus in Sweden it is Nest. 
generally found in the green rye fields, and in the great plain of central 
Europe among the corn; but in Norway it haunts the bush grown hillsides, 
and nests in similar places as a rule in the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas. 
It is placed either on, or close to the ground, in a slight hollow, under 
shelter of growing crops or bushes, and is built of dead grasses and roots, 
lined with finer roots and sometimes hair, somewhat carelessly constructed. 
Approximate diameter 3f in., height 2 in. In northern Europe the mono- 
tonous, 'Tink, tink, tink-tjohrr' of the cock ma}^ be heard till late in the 
summer nights (Wheelwright), 

Usuall}^ 5 or 6 in number, but sometimes only 4 are found. The Eggs. 
ground colour varies from bluish white to creamy and warm pinkish or 
reddish grey, rather sparsely spotted with very dark purple brown markings 
and occasionally a few streaks or scrawls of the same colour. There are 
generally a few underlying streaks and spots of pale violet grey. Now 
and then an egg is met with almost devoid of markings, and one set has 
the spots in the form of a zone. 

In Spain eggs may be found from May 5 (Chapman), while in Greece Breeding 
and Asia Minor the usual time is from May 13 onwards, and in central 
Europe the latter half of May. In Scandinavia most eggs are laid in the 
second half of May and early in June, and in Finland towards the beginning 
of June. As will be seen the breeding season varies very little, for even 
in Norwa}^ and Sweden full clutches are occasionally found at the beginning 
of May. Apparently only one brood is reared. 

Average of 100 eggs (29 by Key and 71 by the writer) 19.73 X 15.29 Measure- 
mm.. Max. 22 X 16.25 and 20 X 17 mm., Min. 18.2 X 16 and 18.8 X 14.3 "''"*'• 
mm. These measurements are sometimes slightly exceeded: 22.5 X 16.5 
(Reiser, Greece), 19 X 14.1 (Westerlund, Sweden) and 18 X 14.5 (Bau). 
Average weight of 36 eggs, 142 mg. (Bau); Rey gives as average, 158 mg. 

51. Orey necked Bunting, Emlberiza buchanani Blyth. 

Emheriza Jmttoni Blyth. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IX, p. 215; id. 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 357. E. hichanani Blyth. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 
p. 182. 

Breeding Range: Has occurred in the Caucasus (Derbent) and 
Crimea. [Transcaspia, Turkestan, Persia and Afghanistan.] 

The only definite information as to the breeding of this bird is that 
given by Blanford {Zoology and Geology of E. Persia, p. 259). He found 
a nest with 3 well-incubated eggs on May 22, at an elevation of 8000 ft. Nest. 



tinental 
Europe. 



108 

It was built in a thick bush, about a foot from the ground, and was neatly 
and compactly built of moss. 
Eggs. The eggs were very pale green, 'with small distinct rounded surface 

spots and minute dots of purplish black and fainter purplish grey markings, 
the latter being chiefly confined to the larger end'. 
Measure- Average size 24 X 16.5 mm. 

ments. 

53. Cretzschmar's Buiitiiii?, Emberiza caesia Cretz- 

Plate 13, fig. 21 (Parnassus, 4. VI. 76); 22 (Attica, 4. V. 80). 

Eggs: Reiser, Orn. Bale. Ill, Taf. Ill, fig. 1, 2. 

Foreign Names: France: Bruant cendrillard. Germany: Bostammer, 
Grauer Ortolan. Greece: Bldchos. Italy: Ortolano grigio. 

Emheriza caesia Cretz. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 213; id. 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 358; Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 182. 

Breeding Range: The Balkan peninsula. [Also Asia Minor to the 
Caucasus.] 
Con- In Greece this Bunting is one of the most conspicuous birds, haunting 

the bare rocky hillsides in company with Chats and Larks, and only 
occasionally perching for an instant on the scattered clumps of thyme and 
low scrub which grow here and there. It also nests on the mountains of 
Corfu and in the Cyclades, and is ubiquitous on Cyprus, where Guillemard 
met Avith it even on the summit of Troodos. In Macedonia it is much 
scarcer, but is not uncommon on the hillsides in Asia Minor and Syria 
while a few pairs are said to breed in Lower Egypt. 
Nest. Generally built on the ground, sometimes among rocks, and at other 

times under cover of a tuft of grass, or in a low bush. It is neatly and 
compactly made of dead grasses, lined with fibres and horsehair (Tristram). 
Eggs. 4 or 5 as a rule, but clutches of 6 are occasionally found in Greece. 

They somewhat resemble those of the previous species, but the ground 
colour is darker and the markings often more numerous. The ground varies 
from greyish or yellowdsh white to russet or reddish grey, with almost 
black spots and streaks (sometimes showing a purple penumbra) and violet 
grey underlying spots and 'worm lines'. The shell is somewhat glossy. 
Breeding Kriiper found eggs in Greece from the end of April or the beginning 

of May onward, most eggs being taken between May 4 — 16; but as fresh 
eggs as well as fledged young were found on June 16, it is probable that 
two broods are reared. In Syria according to Tristram these birds were 
beginning to sit by April 19, but two nests with eggs were taken by 
F. C. Selous near Smyrna on May 20 and 24. 
Measure- Average of 60 eggs (28 by Rey, 17 by Reiser and 15 by the writer) 

19.55X15.17 mm.. Max. 21.6x16.2 and 19.2X16.7 mm., Min. 17.8X14.3 



Season. 



ments 



109 

and 18.5 X 13.5 mm. Hartert mentions an egg 22.5 X 17 (Greece, Kriiper). 
Average weight of 28 eggs, 138 mg. (Rey); of 17 eggs, 136 mg. (Reiser). 



53. Rock Bunting, Emberiza cia L. 

Plate 13, fig. 23 — 26 (Basses Alpes, France). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXII, fig. 6, a— b. Baedeker, 
Tab. 3, fig. 6. 

Foreign Names: France: Bniant foil or des pres. Germany: Zip- 
ammer. Greece: Tsichldni ton Boimou. Hungary: Bajszos sdrmany. Italy: 
Zigolo muciatto. Portugal: Trigueirdo. Russia: Oornaya ovsjmika. Spain: 
Escribdno, dp -dp. 

Emberiza cia L. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 205; id. Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 368. E. cia cia L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 183. 

Breeding Range: The countries bordering on the Mediterranean, 
penetrating northward to Switzerland, S. W. Germany and part of Austro- 
Hungary. [Also Asia Minor, Syria, and the Atlas range.] Has occurred 
once in Sussex, Bidl B. 0. C. XIII, p. 28 (1903). 

In Spain and Portugal this species is not uncommon on the slopes Con- 
of the sierras, breeding near the patches of cultivated ground and vineyards 
on the hillsides. It is also found in the Pyrenees commonly to about 
3600 ft. and exceptionally up to 5100 ft. in Andorra, and also in many 
of the more hilly parts of southern and eastern France, and is generally 
distributed tlu'oughout the mountainous districts of Switzerland up to about 
4000 ft. In Italy it breeds in the Alps and Apennines, as well as in the 
mountains of Sicily; but in Germany it appears to be chiefly confined to 
the valleys of the Neckar and the Rhine to the Drachenfels, the Eifel, and 
near Neuenburg. In Austro -Hungary a few pairs breed sporadically in 
Moravia, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Styria, and on the N. slopes of the 
Transylvanian Alps. In the Balkan peninsula it occurs not uncommonly 
in the mountains of Bosnia, Herzegovina and Montenegro up to 4200 ft., 
and has also been met with in the Balkans; it is also a tolerably common 
resident in the higher mountains of the south of the peninsula, where its 
simple song is to be heard in the still fir woods (Kriiper). In the hiU 
districts of the Crimea and Caucasus, as well as Asia Minor, it is not 
rare, and a few are found in the Lebanon, while some remain to breed in 
the Atlas range. 

Usually placed on rocky ground among stones and rough grass, Nest. 
sometimes, as in the Rhine valley, among the tangled growth on the 
stone walls which separate the vineyards, and occasionally low down in 
some small bush. It is composed of moss, edelweiss leaves, grasses, roots. 



tinental 
Europe. 



Eggs. 



Breeding 
Season. 



Measure- 
ments. 



110 

and sometimes strips of vine bark, lined with fine roots, horsehair, etc. 
External diameter about 4^ in., diameter of cup 21^ in., depth 14 in. 

4 — 5 in number, and very characteristic. Upon a greyish white or 
pale buff ground, many irregular dark brown or blackish hair lines are 
interwoven, and tend sometimes to form a zone. There are also a few 
spots, and underlying pale grey hair lines and spots are visible. 

In Germany eggs have been taken early in April, but the usual time 
appears to be the beginning of May. Chapman and Irby state that in 
Spain the eggs are laid in April, but fresh eggs may be found till the end 
of June; while in Greece Kriiper rarely found full clutches before mid 
May, and obtained most eggs in the last days of May and in June (earliest 
date, May 11; latest July 7), Tristram also found eggs in Lebanon towards 
the end of June. Probably only one brood is reared as a rule in the 
northern parts of its range. 

Average size of 86 eggs (25 by Bau, 14 by Rey, 4 by Reiser and 
43 by the writer) 20.63X16.01 mm.. Max. 23.3 X 16.5 and 20.75 X 17.5 
mm., Min. 19.5 X 15.5 and 20.2 X 15 mm. Average weight of 25 eggs, 
152 mg. (Bau); of 14 eggs, 158 mg. (Rey). 

Geographical Races. 

a. European Rock Bunting, E. cia cia L. See above, 
l). Eastern Rock Bunting, E. cia par Hart. 

E. cia par Hart. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 184. 
Breeding Range: N. Caucasus, E. Persia, Transcaspia, Turkestan, 
Afghanistan and Beluchistan. 

Four eggs from Issik Kul are rather small, averaging 19.27 X 15.42 mm. 



Nest. 



Eggs. 



[East Siberian Meadow Bunting, Eniberiza cioides castaneiceps Moore. 

Emberiza cioides Brandt (part.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IX, p. 223; id. 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 364; Saunders, Man., p. 215. E. cioides castaneiceps Moore. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 186. 

Breeding Range: E. Siberia (lower Amur and Ussuri valleys), Askold, 
Manchuria, Corea, and China as far south as Foochow. Has been once obtained 
in England. 

The nest, composed of twigs, leaves, grass and fern fronds, lined with fine 
grass, fibres and hair, is usually placed in a small pine, not far from the ground 
{Ibis 1905, p. 45). Some are compactly built, while others are carelessly constructed. 

4—5 in number, and fully described in the Ibis, 1900, p. 36. They have 
a wreath of interlacing vandyke brown hair lines round the big end, with a few 
pale grey underlying streaks and occasionally a yellowish cloud, upon a greyish 
white ground. Two broods are reared in China, as fledged young have been 
shot on May 24, while eggs have been taken as late as June 26 and young found 
in July. Average size of 6 eggs in Brit. Mus., 19.63 x 15.23 mm. 



Ill 

The eggs of the western form, E. cidides cioides Brandt, are very similar, 
but occasionally the ground colour is of a warmer tint. Average size of 28 eggs 
(9 by Hartert, 6 by Taczanowski, and 13 by the writer) 20.26 x 15.6 mm., Max. 
22X16.1 and 19X16.5 mm., Min. 19X15.2 and 20x14.7 mm. Eggs figured in 
Journ. f. Ornith. 1873, Tab. II, fig. 25, 26.] 

54. Rustic Bunting, Eml)eriza rustica Pall. 

Plate 14, fig. 7 (Sotkamo, Finland, 19. VI. 87). 

Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 12, fig. 13 (nee 12), 76, fig. 10. Seebohm, 
Br. Birds, pi. 68 (nee 15); id. Col. Fig., pi. 58. Newton, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1897, pi. LI, fig. 8, 9. 

Foreign Names: Denmark: Bondeverling. Finland: PohjansirhJcu. 
Germany: Waldammer. Helgoland: Boad-striiked Nieper. Holland: Boscli- 
gors. Italy: Zigolo hoschereccio. Norway: Vidjespurv. Poland: Posivierka 
tzypregoiva. Sweden: Videsparf. 

Emberiza rustica PaU. Newton, ed. YarreU, 11, p. 29; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, IV, p. 229; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 362; Saunders, Man., p. 217; 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 188. 

Breeding Range: Norrland in Sweden, E. Finland and N. Russia. 
[Also Siberia to Kamtschatka. (?)] 

Apparently this species is extending its range westward, but as it is Con- 
partial to swampy forest it is possible that its presence has been frequently ^^ j" g 
overlooked. It is found nesting, though sparingly, in the forests of N. 
Russia as far as lat 62° N. in the Urals, and occurs near Archangel, but 
is much less common than E. pusilla. It is also said to have bred in 
N. W. Russian Lapland, and in 1867 was found nesting in E. Finland. 
Since that time a good many nests have been taken there, chiefly in the 
neighbourhood of Sotkamo (S. Ule^borg). In Sweden a pair were shot 
by B. Fries on May 20, 1821 at Haparanda, and a young bird near LuleA, 
on September 6, 1885; but definite proof of its breeding there was not 
forthcoming till July 1899, when unfledged young were found in Norrland. 
In 1902 a nest with 4 young was found in the Degenfors district in 
Westerbotten, and since then it has also been ascertained to breed in 
Norbotten. [East of the Urals it appears to be scarce in the Yenesei 
valley, though Seebohm shot one in lat. 62" N., but common in Trans- 
baikalia and Amurland; it was met with by Middendorff in the Stanowoi 
Mts., and is also found in Kamtschatka.] 

Built of grasses and bents, and placed on the ground or low down Nest, 
in bushes, in openings of swampy coniferous forests. 

Usually 4 or 5 in number, occasionally 6. In character they resemble Eggs, 
somewhat the eggs of the Reed Warbler, and are entirely devoid of the 
usual hair lines and streaks so frequently found in Buntings' eggs, appro- 



ments 



112 

aching in this respect those of the Yellow breasted and Black headed 
Buntings. The ground colour varies from pale sea green to greenish blue 
or greenish grey, with numerous greyish olive or yellowish brown irregular 
blotches and spots, which are generally thickest at the big end, and under- 
lying blotches of pale violet. Some eggs are said to show a reddish 
shade of ground. 
Breeding In the Archangel district eggs have been taken from June 3 to July 10, 

Season. ^^^ ^^ Finland from May 28 to June 25. Only one brood is reared. 
Measure- Average of 43 eggs (21 from Finland in coll. E. Wasenius, 5 by 

Sandman and 17 by the writer), 20.36 X 15.12 mm.. Max. 21.8 X 15.2 
and 20.5 X 15.5 mm., Min. 19 X 14 mm. According by Ramberg some 
eggs do not exceed 18.5 mm. in length. Rey gives the weight as 117 mg. 

55. Little Bunting, Emberiza pusilla Pall. 

Plate 15, fig. 6 (ex Nehrkorn coll.). 

Eggs: Middendorff, Reis. Sibir., Zool. pi. XIII, fig. 4. Naumannia 
1854, Taf. 3, fig. 5. Baedeker, Tab. 76, fig. 5. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 15; 
id. Col. Fig., pi. 57. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Strnad malinky. Denmark: Dvaerg- 
verling. Finland: VdJidsirJcJui. France: Bruant nain. Germany: Zwerg- 
ammer, Helgoland: Franzbs Nieper. Holland: Diver ggors. Italy: Zigolo 
minor e. Sweden: Dvergsjparf. 

Emberiza pusilla Pall. Newton, ed. Yarrell, H, p. 34; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, IV, p. 235; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 363; Saunders, Man., p. 219. 

Breeding Range: N. Russia, from Onega Bay to the Urals, chiefly 
between lat. 64" N. and the forest limit. [Also Siberia to the lower Amur.] 
Con- In the Dwina delta and the forests around Archangel it is very 

common, though local, haunting not only the old pine forests, but also the 
mixed woods of young pines, firs, alders, and birches. Seebohm also found 
it very numerous on the Lower Petschora from north of about lat. 66" to 
the tundra beyond the limit of forest growth. [The first eggs were taken 
on the Boganida by von Middendorff, who also met with this species on 
the Stanowoi Mts. Seebohm and Popham found many pairs breeding in 
the Yenesei valley, especially between the Arctic circle and lat. 71° on the 
tundra, and the latter observed young birds even on the Brekhowski Islands. 
Pallas recorded it from the willow swamps of Lake Baikal, and Schrenk 
discovered a nest on the lower Amur.] 
Nest. Usually a hollow among dead leaves, moss and grass, well lined with 

fine grasses, while occasionally a few reindeer hairs are also found in the 
lining, but this appears to be exceptional. Most nests are found in openings 
of the forest, but a few pairs breed on the tundra, where a few dwarf 



tinental 
Europe 



Season. 



ments. 



113 

willows are the only tree growth, Schrenk's nest was placed among the 
tussocks of a swamp in an opening of the forest. 

Generally 4 to 5, occasionally 6 in number, and exceedingly variable Eggs. 
in colouring and markings. They have been compared to those of the Corn, 
Reed, Rustic and Black faced Buntings. The ground colour in some cases 
is greenish, at other times pink, grey, stone colour or brown; while the 
markings usually consist of blotches or spots and scrawls of dark brown, 
sometimes purplish and sometimes greyish, with underlying blotches of 
pale violet or reddish grey. 

In the Dwina valley the best time appears to be June 20 — 24, while Breeding 
on the Yenesei Seebohm took fresh eggs from June 23 to the end of the 
month, and hard sat eggs on July 6. Popham however found fresh eggs 
by the middle of the month, and on the Brekhowski Isles young were 
still being fed by their parents on July 25. 

Average of 33 eggs (32 by the writer and 1 by Rey) 18.28 X 13.94 Measure- 
mm.. Max. 20.2X14.3 (Rey) and 19x14.8 mm., Min. 16.4X13.3 and 
18 X 13.2 mm. Rey gives the weight of one egg as 130 mg. 

[YeUow-browed Bunting, Emlberiza chrysophrys Pall. 

Emberiza chrysophrys Pall. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 193; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 356; Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 189. 

Breeding Range: E. Siberia (Daiiria, Tarei-Nor, Rivei-s Argun and 
Willni, Askold I.) 

Supposed to have occurred at Lille and in Luxemburg. Breeding habits 
and eggs as yet unknown.] 

[In N. W. Africa is found the House Bunting, E. striolata sahari Lev. It 
is extraordinarily tame, and breeds generally under the eaves or in holes of the 
walls of native houses, depositing 3 — 4 greenish white eggs, freckled with brown 
spots and also underlying grey specks, in March and April.* Average size of 
26 eggs (13 by Erlanger, 9 by Konig and 3 by Hartert) 19X13.84 mm., Max. 
20 X 14.4 and 19.1 X 14.6 mm., Min. 18 X 13 mm. Average weight of 9 eggs, 
96 mg. (Konig). In Palestine and Arabia it is replaced by the Striped Bunting, 
E. striolata striolata (Licht.), which is also found in Nubia, Kordofan and eastward 
to India, and has occurred in Turkey. In Rajputana it breeds in November 
(perhaps also in July), depositing 3 eggs about 18.5 to 19 X 12.2 to 13.2 mm. in 
size and resembling those of E. s. sahari in appearance.] 



56. Reed Bunting, Emberiza sehoeniclus (L.). 

Plate 14, fig. 2 — 6 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXII, fig. 9, a— c. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. Ill, fig. 5, 6; II. Ed. I, pi. XXXIX, fig. 2; III. Ed. I, pi. XLVII, 



Eggs figured in Jmirn. f. Ornith. 1896, Tab. VII, fig. 9, a, b. 



114 

fig. 1. Baedeker, Tab. 3, fig. 4. Taczanowski, Tab. LXVII, fig. 2. Seebolim, 
Brit. Birds, pi. 15; id. Col. Fig., pi. 57. Frohawk, Br. Birds, II, pi. VI, 
fig. 198—206. 

Nest: 0. Lee, I, p. 140. 

British Local Names: Beed or Water Sparrotu, Blackcap, Black 
headed Bunting. Welsh: Golf an y govs. Scotland: Moss Sparrow, Black 
Bonnet, Coalyliead. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Strnad rdkosni. Denmark: Rorspurv, 
Morverling. Finland: Pajusirkku. France: Bruant des roseaux. Germany: 
Bolirammer. Helgoland: Nieper. Holland: Bietgors. Hungary: Nadi 
vereh. Italy: Migliarino di padule. Norway: Sivspurv, Eorspurv. Poland: 
Posivierka potrzos. Russia: Bolotnaja ovsjanka. Sweden: Self spar f. Spain: 
Molinero. 

Emherim schoeniclus L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 23; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, IV, p. 241; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 370; Saunders, Man., p. 221. 
E. sclioeniclus schoeniclus L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 194. 

Breeding Range: Europe generally, but rejolaced by other forms 
in the greater part of Hungary, the Balkan peninsula, and S. Russia, in 
the breeding season. [Also in W. Siberia, but not in Iceland on the 
Faeroes.] 
British In Great Britain and Ireland it is a generally distributed resident in 

^ '^^' all suitable localities, and in some places very common. It is also found 
on most of the islands, and is not uncommon even in the Outer Hebrides, 
and breeds, though sparingly, in the Orkneys. Hitherto it has not been 
found nesting in the Shetlands, and on the mainland of Scotland north of 
the Great Glen it is somewhat local. 
Con- In Spain only a few pairs breed on the islets of the marismas in the 

^nenta gQ^j^jj^ ]^^^ [^ jg ^q^ uncommou locally further north, at the Albufera of 
Valencia, etc. In Portugal it is only known as a winter visitor, but is 
resident in central and southern Rfily, as well as in the Italian islands, 
according to Arrigoni, although not noticed in Sardinia or Corsica in the 
breeding season by Brooke, Wharton or Whitehead. Over the great plain 
of central Europe it is a generally distributed summer visitor in districts 
suited to its habits, and is also found in Scandinavia and N. Russia almost 
up to the shores of the Arctic Ocean. To south eastern Europe it is only 
a winter visitor. 
Nest. Almost invariably found in the neighbourhood of water, or in damp 

and marshy neighbourhoods. As a rule the nest is either on, or close to 
the ground, often in grass or coarse vegetation or in a thick tuft of rushes, 
and generally well concealed. Another common site is among flood drift 
on an osier stump, a foot or so from the ground; while in the north it 
is said to nest not uncommonly on the branches of sapling firs. Hewitson 



115 

records nests on bunches of flattened reeds, and an abnormal site is mentioned 
in the Zoologist for 1897, p. 336, where a nest was found suspended from 
the boughs of a willow and overhanging the water, over 5 ft. above its 
surface. In 1886 I came across a nest in Oxfordshire in a heap of dead 
sticks by the water side: Ussher mentions nests between boulders on Lough 
Mask, and two or three feet high in heather in Connemara, and Witherby 
found one several feet up in a tree. On the Petschora Seebohni found 
another built within an old Fieldfare's nest, 9 ft. above the water. The 
principal materials used are dead grasses, bents, and reeds or rushes, with 
occasionally a little moss or withered leaves of sedge or reed, lined with 
finer grasses, a little hair, and in some districts the flowering tops of reeds. 
Diameter of cup 2\- in., depth 1 — If in. The hen sits very closely, and 
often flutters away from the nest as if injured. 

Generally 4 or 5, sometimes 6 in number. In Ireland a full set Eggs. 
occasionally consists of 3 only, while on the other hand R. H. Read has 
taken a clutch of 7 eggs in Norway. Two hens have been known to lay 
in a single nest; nine eggs, consisting of two distinct sets of 6 and 3 eggs 
respectively, were found in a nest on the Elbe in 1878. They are rather 
variable in colouring, but are often of stone colour, varying from pale 
greyish olive to warm buft". Some eggs however have a pale greenish 
ground, others are decidedly rufous, and occasionally a set of white eggs 
devoid of markings is met with. As a rule however they are boldly spotted 
and streaked with very dark brown, almost black, and underlying worm 
lines and spots of violet grey. The dark brown markings generally show 
a penumbra of sepia or purple brown. Ussher describes a set with slender 
streaks on a smoke grey ground. They are opaque looking in appearance 
and have little or no gloss. 

In England eggs may be taken from about mid- April onward throughout Breeding 
May, June and early July, and two or sometimes three broods are reared, ®^son. 
but in Ireland the usual time is from May 20 through June and sometimes 
July. Lilford has recorded a full clutch as early as March 23, but this 
is quite exceptional. The breeding season does not appear to differ much 
on the continent; but in Scandinavia few eggs are laid before mid May 
and in Lapland not till mid June, while at the mouth of the Petschora 
Seebohm received fresh eggs June 19 — 23. Period of incubation about 
13—14 days. 

There appears to be little difference in size between eggs from the Measure- 
north of Europe and those from further south. Average size of 172 eggs ™^°^^- 
(72 by A. Bau, 37 by Rey and 73 by the writer), 19.39 X 14.43 mm., 
Max. 22X15.4 and 19.5X15.5 mm., Min. 17.4X13.4 mm. Average 
weight of 72 eggs, 130 mg. (Bau); of 37 eggs, 135 mg. (Rey). 5 full 
eggs average 2.138 g. (Foster). 



tinental 
Europe, 



116 
Geographical Races. 

a. Common Reed Bunting', E. sehoeniclus schoeniclus (L.). See aboTe. 
b. E. sehoeniclus canneti (Brehm). 

Plate 15, fig. 1, 2 (Herzegovina, 19. V. 90). 

E. schoe7iiclus canneti (Brehm). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 197. 

Breeding Range: Hungary, Dalmatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Servia, 
Albania, Bulgaria and Thessaly. 
Con- In Hungary (except in the N. W., w^here the common Reed Bunting 

is found) this intermediate form is not uncommon; von Fiihrer observed 
it in the reed beds of the Scutari Lake, and Reiser describes it as common 
in marshes in Bulgaria. It is also known to breed in Servia, Bosnia, 
Albania and probably also Thessaly. 

In breeding habits it is not known to differ from the ordinary form, 
and the eggs are similar in appearance, but appear to be rather larger. 

Average size of 18 eggs (16 from Hungar^^ by the writer and 2 from 
Herzegovina by Rey) 21.1 X 14.93 mm., Max. 22.2 X 14.7 and 21 X 15.5 
mm., Min. 19.6 X 14.5 and 20.1 X 14 mm. 

c. E. schoeniclus tschusii Reis. & Almdsy. 

E. scJioeniclus tschusii Reis. & Almasy. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 198. 
Breeding Range: From the north of the Dobrudscha to S. Russia 
and Lenkoran. 

d. E. schoeniclus othmari Hart. 

E. schoeniclus othmari Hart. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 198. 
Breeding Range: Apparently replaces the preceding form in E. 
Bulgaria. 

57. Thick-lbilled Reed Bunting, Eml)eriza pyrrhuloides Pall. 

Plate 15, fig. 3 (S. Russia). 

Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 12, fig. 12. 

Foreign Names: Russia: Kamichowaya ovsjanka. Turkestan: Kara- 
hash Jcuchhach. 

Emheriza pyrrhuloides Pall. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 249; 
id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 372. E. pyrrhuloides pyrrhuloides Pall. Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 198. 

Breeding Range: The shores of the Caspian Sea from the foot 
of the N. Caucasus and the lower Volga to Transcaspia and Turkestan, 
as far E. as Issik Kul, etc. 

Little is known of the breeding habits of this bird, but probably 
they resemble those of E. schoeniclus. In appearance the eggs are also 



117 

very similar, but are perhaps slightly larger. Two clutches of 5 eggs from 
Transcaspia were taken on May 15 and 20. Average size of 11 eggs 
(1 by Rey and 10 by the witer) 20.16 X 14.3 mm., Max. 21 X 15.5 and 
20 X 16.1 mm., Min. 19.5 X 15 and 20 X 14.8 mm. 

Geographical Races. 

a. E. pyrrhuloides pyrrhiiloides Pall. See above, 
b. E. pyrrhuloides reiseri Hart. 

E. pyrrhuloides reiseri Hart. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 199. 

Breeding Range: Thessaly (Lamia, Volo) where it is apparently 

resident, 

c. E. pyrrhiiloides palustris Sari. 

E. pyrrhuloides palustris Savi. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 199. 

Breeding Range: Italy, only during the breeding season in the 
north, but resident in Tuscany, S. Italy and Sicily; also in the south of 
France and in E. Spain. 

Arrigoni describes the eggs as rather larger than those of E. schoeniclus, 
paler and more blue in tint. 

[Other forms inhabit E. Turkestan, the Saissan Nor, etc.] 

58. Lapland Bunting, Calcarius lapponicus (L.). 

Plate 14, fig. 22—26 (Lapland). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXII, fig. 12, a— e. Hewitson, 
m. Ed. I, pi. XLVI, fig. 1, 2. Baedeker, Tab. 3, fig. 2. Seebohm, Br. Birds, 
pi. 15; id. Col. Fig., pi. 57. Newton, Ootheca WoUeyana, Tab. XI, fig. 19—24. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Strnad laponski. Denmark: Laplands 
Verling. Finland: Lapinsirkku. France: Plectrophane lapon. Germany: 
Lerchen-Spornmnmer. Helgoland: Berg-SeiUing. Holland: Ijsgors. Iceland: 
Solskrikia. Italy: Ziyolo di Lapponia. Lapland: Vdrri-cicds. Norway: 
Laplands Spurv. Poland: Posivierka sponiasta. Russia: Panocka. Sweden: 
Lappsparf. 

Plectrophanes lappo7iiciis (L.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 15; Dresser, 
Birds of Europe, IV, p. 253. Calcarius lapponicus (L.). Dresser, Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 373; Saunders, Man., p. 223. Calcarius lapponica lapponica (L,). 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 200. 

Breeding Range: N. Scandinavia, Lapland, Kolguev, Wa'igatz, Novaya 
Zemlya and the Arctic coast of Russia. [Also Arctic Siberia and N. America, 
Greenland.] 

In Norway this species is found breeding not only on the islands and Con- 
cloudberry covered moorlands of Finmark, but also in the upland swamps 
of the Dovrefjeld as far south as lat. 62°. In Sweden it is however only 



tinental 
Europe. 



118 

met with in Lapland, wliere it breeds in some numbers locally on both 
sides of the Russian border, generally in marshy ground overgrown with 
dwarf willow. It is also numerous in Russian Lapland, north of the 
coniferous belt, on the tundra. On Kolguev it is one of the commonest 
birds, but is local on Wa'igatz, and only found in the south of Novaya 
Zemlya. On the tundra near the mouth of the Petschora it is the com- 
monest bird. To Iceland it is only a rare straggler, but specimens have 
been shot in May on Jan Mayen and Franz Josef Land. 
Nest. It is not uncommon to find several pairs breeding within a short 

distance of one another Avhere suitable nesting ground is limited in extent. 
The nest is built on the ground, often in the side of a tussock, or under cover 
of some dwarf shrub, like that of a Red throated Pipit; and is composed 
chiefly of dead grasses and a little moss, with a lining of finer grasses, 
sometimes reindeer or lemming hair, and apparently always a few feathers. 
This last characteristic is generally sufficient to distinguish the nest from 
that of the Red throated Pipit, which it otherwise much resembles. Height 
of nest about 2 in., breadth about 3 i[- — 4 in., diameter of cup 2i in., 
depth 1 1- in. The hen sits closely, but the presence and song of the cock, 
which is generally to be seen on some adjoining hillock, discloses the where- 
abouts of the nest. 
Eggs. Generally 6, occasionally 5 in number, while 7 have been found. They 

are rather variable in colour, the ground colour ranging from greenish 
grey to pale olive brown, with blotches and cloudings of darker reddish 
brown (which in some cases almost obscure the ground colour) and worm 
lines, streaks and spots of almost blackish brown. Occasionally eggs are 
found which are undistinguishable from some varieties of eggs of A. cervinus, 
while others approach those of E. schoeniclus, or even A. pratensis. 

Breeding In mid Norway full clutches may be taken in the first week of June, 

eason. |^^^ ^^ ^-^^ north of the country not till the middle of the month. In 
Lapland about June 12 — 15 is the best time, and in Kolguev Pearson 
found young on the wing early in July. 

Measure- Average of 100 eggs (36 by Rey and 64 by the writer) 20.67 X 14.96 

mm., Max. 23X16 mm., Min. 18x14.3 and 19.3X14 mm. An ex- 
ceptionally large egg from N. America measures 23.5 X 17.1 mm., and 
a dwarf 14 X 12.3 mm. (Rae). Average weight of 36 eggs, 149 mg. (Rey); 
of 28 eggs, 142 mg. (Bau). 

59. Snow Bunting, Passerina nivalis (L.). 

Plate 14, fig. 17—21 (Greenland). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXII, fig. 11, a — e. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. XI, fig. 2; II. Ed. I, pi. XXXVIII, fig. 1, 2; III. Ed. I, pi. XLVI, 



ments. 



119 

fig. 3. Baedeker, Tab. 3, fig. 1. Taczanowski, Tab. LXVI, fig. 3. See- 
bohm, Br. Birds, pi. 15; id. Col. Fig., pi. 57. Frohawk, Br. Birds, II, pi. VI, 
fig. 207—209. 

British Local Names: Snowflake, Snowbird, White LarJc. Scot- 
land: Cock d tJie North, Gualach. Shetlands: Snaa Fool. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Strnad snemi. Denmark: Sneverling, 
Snefugl. Finland: Lumi Pirrku. France: Ortolan de neige. Germany: 
Schneeammer. Helgoland: Seiising, Ijskletter. Holland: Sneeuwgors. Hungary: 
Hbsdrmdny. Iceland: Snjbtitlingiir. Italy: Zigolo delta neve. Lapland: 
Allap. Norway: Snefugl, Snespurv. Poland: Posivierka sniegida. Russia: 
Podoroznik. Sweden: Snosparf. 

Pledrophanes nivalis (L.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, II, p. 1 ; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, IV, p. 261; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 374. Plectrophenax nivalis (L.). 
Saunders, Man., p. 225. Passerina nivalis nivalis (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 202. 

Breeding Range: Arctic and subarctic Europe, extending to the 
Fseroes, Shetlands, and the higher mountains of Scotland. [Also Greenland, 
Arctic N. America and Asia, except Alaska and Kamtschatka, where P. 
nivalis toivnsendi Ridg. replaces it.] 

The first definite record of the breeding of this species in our islands British 
is that of Saxby, who obtained a nest with 3 eggs on July 2, 1861 in 
Unst. Since that date there is evidence of its having bred several times 
in the Shetlands. For a century past it has been supposed to nest on the 
higher mountain ranges of Scotland, and in July 1886 a nest with young 
was found in Assynt by Messrs. Peach and Hinxman, and two years later 
Mr. J. Young found one with 5 eggs in the same district, while on June 5, 
1893, another nest with 5 eggs was taken in Banff, at a height of about 
3700 ft. Since then young have been met with and old birds seen in 
summer in various localities, such as the Torridon Hills (W. Ross), Ben 
Nevis, Ben Cruachan, etc. The head quarters of this species appears to 
be the Cairngorm range, but scattered pairs are to be met with on many 
of the peaks over 3000 ft. high, nesting among the loose stones of the 
screes, usually not far from the top. 

In the south of Norway it breeds on the high fjeld, below the snow Con- 
line, as far as about lat. 60° N., but in the north it is found not only on the ^"rope. 
shore, but even on the isolated stacks out at sea, nesting generally under 
boulders. In Lapland it is found both on the barren uplands, strewn with 
erratic boulders, and also on the rocky parts of the coast, and Sandman 
records an instance of its breeding on Karlo. On Kolguev it is common, 
nesting in fissures of the bluffs, and on Novaya Zemlya and Waigatz it 
is more plentiful than any land bird (Pearson), while a few pairs appear 
to breed at the mouth of the Petschora and near Habarova, and probably 



120 



Nest. 



Eggs. 



Breeding 
Season. 



nest among the heaps of driftwood in default of rocks. Further north it 
is common in Franz Josef Land and generally distributed in Spitzbergen. 
In the Faeroes a few pairs formerly bred on the tops of the mountains, 
and also in the northern islands of the group, but of late years their numbers 
appear to have diminished. In Iceland it is common and generally distributed, 
from the sea coast up to the snow line (2000 ft.), avoiding only the low- 
lying grassy or marshy districts, and breeding in crevices of the lava, 
sometimes at a considerable depth, as well as under boulders and in stone 
heaps or in walls. [In Arctic N. America it is known to breed as far 
north as Grinnell Land (lat. 82° 33' N.).] 

Although as a general rule the nest is placed out of sight in some 
crevice of the rock, it is occasionally found in quite an exposed site. 
Chapman has seen nests built quite openly among boulders on the high 
fjeld in Norway; on Franz Josef Land one was found on a small open 
ledge 5 ft. from the ground; on Waigatz Feilden and Pearson noticed old 
nests on flat boulders in the dry bed of a stream, and found young in a 
nest on the top of a little pinnacle 3 ft. high and 6 in. wide. Captain 
Lyons found a nest on the bosom of the corpse of an Eskimo child on 
Southampton Island. The materials consist chiefly of dead grasses and 
stalks, with occasionally a little moss or a few twigs, lined with finer grasses, 
a little hair or wool and feathers of Ptarmigan, Snowy Owl, Raven, Gull, 
etc. The nests vary in size according to their position; approximate 
diameter of cup, 2f — 3} in. 

Usually 5 or 6 in number, occasionally 4 or 7, while 8 are occasionally 
found in Greenland. They are very variable in colouring, and in some 
cases extremely handsome. The ground colour is usually pale bluish or 
greenish, but occasionally white, sometimes with a yellowish or reddish 
tinge; while the markings generally tend to form a zone or cap at the 
big end, and consist of spots, blotches, and streaks of deep red brown, and 
sometimes a few spots or lines of almost black, generally with underlying 
spots or blotches of violet grey. 

In Scotland and mid Norway the first eggs are laid at the end of 
May and the first days of June. In Lapland they are rather later, and 
most eggs are found in the latter half of June. In Iceland the breeding 
time seems to vary considerably. A few older birds have eggs about 
May 20, but most nests are found in June, and may even be met with 
up to the second week of July with fresh eggs. In Franz Josef Land 
the first fledged young were seen July 10 — 26, and on the Taimyr full 
clutches were found by June 10. The period of incubation is 14 days. 
When flushed from the nest the hen is usually joined at once by the cock, 
and soon begins to work her way back to the eggs as inconspicuously 
as possible. 



121 

Average of 100 eggs (27 by Rey and 73 by tlie writer) 22.04 X 16.14 Measure- 
mm., Max. 24.1X16 and 21.5X17.5 mm., Min. 19.5X16.1 and 21.2X14.9 ™'"^'- 
mm. These measurements are sometimes exceeded: Max. 24.8 X 1 5.9 mm. 
(Hantzsch), Min. 19.2 X 15.2 (Hantzsch) and 22.9 X 14.4 mm. (Nordling). 
H. J. Pearson has a dwarf egg from Iceland, 13.7 X 11 mm. Average 
weight of 27 eggs, 168 mg. (Rey); of 32 eggs, 173 mg. (Bau). Full eggs 
average 4 g. (Hantzsch). 

[The White throated Bunting, Zonotricha albicollis Bp., has occurred three 
times in Great Britain ; all probably escaped birds.] 



ALAUDIDAE. 

60. Calandra Lark, Melanocorypha calaiidra (L.). 

Plate 16, fig. 23—25 (Greece), 26, 27 (S. Russia). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXVI, fig. 5, a — d. Baedeker, 
Tab. 66, fig. 6. Taczanowski, Tab. LXIII, fig. 1. Seebohm, Col. Fig., 
pi. 58. Reiser, Om. Bale. Ill, Taf. Ill, fig. 17, 18 (var.). 

ForeignNames: France : Calandre. Germany : KalanderlercJie. Greece : 
Kalandra, Gialiandra. Italy: Calandra. Portugal: Cocliicho. Russia: 
Stepnoi Javronok. Spain: Albndra, Calandria. 

Melanocovyplia calandra (L.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 365; 
id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 382. M. calandra calandra (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 208. 

Breeding Range: Portugal and the countries bordering on the 
Mediterranean and Black Seas, but not known to breed in Egypt. 

In Portugal this species, although very local, is found in Trazos Con- 
Montes, as well as in the south. In Spain it is an abundant and con- 
spicuous resident in the great plains of the south and east, haunting both 
corn and grass lands as well as arid plains. It has only been noticed in 
southern France, and was not observed by Wharton or Whitehead in 
Corsica, but is extremely common in Sardinia. In Italy it is a common 
resident in the central and southern provinces, and a few pairs appear to 
breed in Venetia, while it is also found commonly in Sicily. In the Balkan 
peninsula it is common on suitable ground, in Dalmatia (near Zara), in 
Montenegro (only near Podgorica), in Bulgaria (common on the plains and in 
the Dobrudsha), in Turkey (especially numerous near Saloniki), and in Greece 
(Thessaly, Acarnania, Attica, and the Cyclades). It is plentiful on the 
steppes of S. Russia and the Crimea, but local on the Kirghis Steppes, 



tinental 
Europe. 



122 

and though met with north of the Caucasus, is not found in the Baku 
district. [Also in Armenia, Asia Minor, Cyprus, Palestine, and N. W. Africa, 
from Marocco to Tunis, but replaced in Turkestan, Persia, Afghanistan, etc. 
by M. calandra psammocJiroa Hart.] 
Nest. Placed in a depression of the ground, sometimes as much as 3 or 

4 in. deep, and sheltered by coarse herbage or corn. It is composed of 
the usual dead grasses, bents, etc., lined with rather finer materials; 
diameter of cup about 2| in. It is generally well concealed, and is usually 
found only by flushing the hen from the nest. 
Eggs. 4 — 5 in number as a rule in the south of Europe. In Montenegro 

von Fiihrer found normally 5, and occasionally 4 or 6, Kriiper once found 
a clutch of 7 eggs in Acarnania, and F. C. Selous took clutches of 6 and 
7 near the Maeander River in Asia Minor. They are small for the size 
of the bird and are generally boldly spotted and blotched with ochreous 
brown and underlying grey spots, thickly distributed over a yellowish white 
ground, sometimes in a zone. Some eggs have been compared to those 
of the Great Grey Shrike. Reiser describes and figures some remarkable 
Greek specimens with only a few bold spots of dark brown and lilac (I. c). 
Most eggs show a fairly decided gloss. 

Breeding In S. Spain the first eggs are found in the first or second week in 

April, and thence onward through May and early June; while in N. Africa 
they may be taken as early as the end of March and throughout April 
and May, so that probably two broods are reared. In Greece the breeding 
season lasts from the end of April to June, and in Montenegro from May 4 
to the end of the month. 

Measure- Average of 100 eggs (68 by Rey and 32 by the writer) 24.23 X 17.87 

mm., Max. 27.1 X 18.9 and 26.8 X 19.2 mm., Min. 21.5 X 16.5 and 
22.5 X 16 mm. Average weight of 68 eggs, 239 mg. (Rey), of 38 eggs, 
237 mg. (Bau). 

[In Transcaspia, Asia Minor, Persia, etc., is found an allied species, 
M. bimaculata (Menetr.). Eggs like those of M. calandra. Average of 
3 in Dresser's collection, taken by Sarudny in Transcaspia on June 10, 
23.3X17.2 mm.] 

61. White Twinged Lark, Melanocoryplia sibirica (Grm.). 

Plate 16, fig. 6—9 (S. Russia). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. IC, fig. 14, a, b. Baedeker, Tab, 66, 
fig. 7. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, pi. 15; id. Col. Fig., pi. 58. 

ForeignNames: Germany : Sibirische Lerche. Hungary : Feherszdrnyu 
pacsirta. Poland: Skoivronek hialokrzydly. Russia: Belokriloi Javronok. 

Melanocoryplia sibirica (Gm.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 642; Dresser, 



Season. 



ments. 



123 

Birds of Europe, IV, p. 373; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 385; Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 211. Alauda sihirica Gm. Saunders, Man., p. 257. 

Breeding Range: Steppes of S. E. Russia. [Also from Transcaspia 
to the Yenesei valley.] 

In Russia the range of this species extends from the steppe land con- 
north of the Caucasus (Stawropol government), throughout the Astrakhan ^uroje 
steppes and northward to Saratow and Orenburg, In this district it is 
plentiful, but only occurs rarely in the south Russian steppes. It has 
strayed to England as well as various parts of the continent. 

Placed on the ground on the grassy steppes in any slight depression. Nest. 
and composed of dead grasses, etc., often sheltered by a grass tuft. 

Usually 4, although 3 and 5 are said to occur occasionally. In size Eggs. 
they differ only slightly from those of the Skylark and Crested Lark, and 
as a rule are thickly spotted or blotched with olive brown upon a greyish 
or yellowish white ground, like the eggs of M. calandra. Many eggs show a 
tendency towards a zone of markings round the big end, and as a rule 
they are a trifle greener in colouring than most Larks' eo^gs. 

. ... Breeding 

The end of April and throughout May, varying according to locality, season. 

Average size of 100 eggs (72 by Rey and 28 by the writer), Measure- 
22.61 X 16.38 mm.. Max. 24.5 X 17 and 23.5 X 17.2 mm., Min. 20.5 X 15.2 '"'"*' 
mm. Average weight, 213 mg. (Rey), 

63. Black Lark, Melanocoryplia yeltonensis (Forst.). 

Plate 16, fig. 12 (Kirghis Steppes). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl,, Tab. XXVI, fig. 8, a— c, 

ForeignNames: Germany : Mohrenlerche. Russia : Javronok Tscherndi. 

Melanocoryplia yeltonensis (Forst.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, 
p. 377; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 386; Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 213. 

Breeding Range: S. E. Russia: the salt steppes E. of the Volga. 
[Also from the Caspian Sea to W. Siberia and Turkestan.] 

In the Kirghis steppes this bird is a common resident, breeding in Con- 
the neighbourhood of the salt marshes, but not on the dry steppes. Little ^m." ^ 
is known of its breeding habits, which however probably resemble those 
of the other Larks. The nest is placed on the ground, and is well hidden. 

The eggs are generally 4 in number, though 5 are said to occur Eggs. 
occasionally, and resemble those of the Calandra Lark, but show a more 
decidedly white ground. 

Average size of 23 eggs (4 by Rey and 19 by the writer) 25.1 X 18.12 Measure- 
mm.. Max. 28 X 18.2 and 25.5 X 19 mm., Min. 22.5 X 18 and 24.2 X 17.2 '"'"^'• 
mm. Average weight of 4 eggs, 319 mg. (Rey). The breeding season 
appears to full in the first half of May. 



tinental 
Europe. 



124 

63. Short toed Lark, Calandrella hracliydactyla (Leisl.). 

Plate 17, fig. 1 (Odessa), 2—4 (Greece). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXVI, fig, 7, a — d. Hewitson, 
II. Ed. I, pi. XXXVIP; III. Ed. I, pi. XLV, fig. 4. Baedeker, Tab. 66, 
fig. 2. Taczanowski, Tab. LXIII, fig. 2. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 15; id. 
Col. Fig., pi. 58. 

Foreign Names: France: Alouette calandrelle. Germany: Kurzzeliige 
Lerclie. Greece: TsaretJira halohairine, Molochthros. Italy: Calandrella^ 
Calandrino. Portugal: Carreirbla. Russia: Maloui Javronok. Spain: 
Terr era, Terrerilla. 

Calandrella hrachydactyla (Leisl.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 637; 
Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 341; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 393; Saunders, 
Man., p. 255. C. hrachydactyla hrachydactyla (Leisl.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 214. 

Breeding Range: S. Europe, from the Iberian peninsula to S. Russia. 
[Also N. Africa from Marocco to Egypt, and Asia Minor to Beluchistan.] 
Con- In the Iberian peninsula it is a common summer visitor in the plains, 

arriving about mid March, and frequently found in company with the 
Calandra Lark. In Spain it is commonest in the cultivated districts and 
the dry marisma, while in Portugal its favourite haunts are sandy plains 
near the sea, not only in the south, but also near Oporto. In France it 
is found in diminishing numbers northward as far as the plain of Troyes, 
and though scarce in the northern provinces of Italy, is plentiful in the 
central and southern parts. It is also found in the Balearic Isles, Sardinia, 
Sicily, and Malta, but not in Corsica; and has been recorded from almost 
every province in the Balkan peninsula, being especially numerous in the 
heaths of Montenegro, where it breeds up to 1500 ft. It breeds in the 
Cyclades, but is local and not common in Cyprus, while its range in Russia 
extends to the steppes of Astrakhan and the Caucasus, where it is common. 
Nest. Generally in some slight depression, such as a hoof print or a natural 

hollow, and often under the shelter of a tuft of grass or clump of thistles; 
built of dried grasses, roots, etc., and neatly lined with hairs, plant down 
or a few feathers, in some cases, but not always. 
Eggs. Usually 4 or 5 in number, and extraordinarily variable in appearance. 

Some eggs are almost white, while others vary in ground colour from 
yellowish or brownish, to occasionally pinkish or pale bluish, and are almost 
covered with innumerable fine spots of jjale brown, greyish yellow or pale 
greenish brown. The markings often tend to form a zone at the big end; 
and sometimes a dark hair line is found, emphasizing the likeness to the 
eggs of the Yellow Wagtails. In N. Africa the number of eggs seldom 
exceeds three. 



125 

In Greece generally from the end of April onward, but exceptionally Breeding 
much earlier, for Reiser records nearly fledged young on Hymettus on ^^^^on. 
April 27. In Spain the breeding season is slightly earlier, beginning about 
mid-April in the extreme south. According to Arrigoni two broods are 
reared in Italy, in April and July, while in N. Africa the eggs of the first 
brood are laid in April or May and those of the second early in June. 
Period of incubation, 13 days. 

Rey gives the average of 104 eggs from Greece and Portugal as Measure- 
19.6 X 14.6 mm.. Max. 23.8 X 14.2 and 20.7 X 15 mm., Min. 16.1 X 13.8 '°"'"^'- 
and 20.5 X 13.5 mm. Reiser however records an egg 21.6 X 15.8 mm. 
N. African eggs are very similar; average of 22 (Erlanger and Konig), 
20.1 X 14.3 mm. Average weight (Rey) 129 mg. 



64. Pallas's Lark, Calaiidrella minor heinei (Horn.). 

Plate 17, fig. 5—8 (S. Russia). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. IC, fig. 15. Baedeker, Tab. 66, 
fig. 3. 

Foreign Names: Germany: StummellercJie. Russia: Maloui Ja- 
vronok. 

Calandrella pispoletta (Pall.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 355; 
id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 395. C. minor heinei (Hom.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 219. 

Breeding Range: Steppes of S. E. Russia. [Also Transcaspia.] 

Eversmann says that the true home of this species is on the steppes con- 
of the Caspian, northward to Indersk and eastward to Lake Aral, where Europe 
it is found in countless numbers. Henke found it less common than C. 
brachydactyla on the salt marshes between the Volga and the Ural, but 
easily distinguishable by its note. 

Placed on the ground in the most barren parts of the steppes, where Nest. 
there is little vegetation except a few Artemisia plants, and composed of 
grasses and bents, with sometimes down in the lining. 

4 — 5 in number, tolerably glossy, and greyish or greenish white in Eggs. 
colour, with medium sized spots of hair brown, and ashy grey underlying 
markings. The ground colour, according to Rey, is as a rule more greenish 
in tint than in the eggs of C. minor polatzeki. In some cases the spots 
are thickest at the big end. 

T-, . . c A •! T Breeding 

From the beginnmg of April to June. season. 

Average of 58 eggs (54 by Rey and 4 by the writer) 18.7 X 14.56 Measure- 

mm., Max. 20.1 X 15.2 mm., Min. 17 X 13.8 mm. Average weight "'^°*'- 
136 mg. (Rey). 



126 
Geographical Races. 

a. Aiidaluciau Lark, C. minor baetica Dress. 

Foreign Names: Spain: Marismena, Cujailla. 
C. haetica Dress. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p, 351; id. Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 395. C. minor haetica Dress. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 218. 
Breeding Range: S. Spain. 

In Andalucia, where it was first discovered by Lord Lilford, this bird 
is found commonly in the valley of the Guadalquivir, and also in the Vega 
de la Janda. In Granada it is resident near Malaga, and according to 
Hartert also in Murcia and Valencia. 
Nest. Placed in a slight hollow, sometimes on the bare ground, at other 

times under shelter of a grass tuft, a clump of thistles, or a small bush, 
in the islets in the marisma or in the marshes by the river. It is also 
found in the corn lands, especially below Seville. The nest is composed 
of dry grasses, with sometimes a few feathers in the Kning and is said 
to be rather more neatly built than that of C. brachydactyla. 
Eggs. Usually 3 — 4, but 5 are occasionally found. They differ considerably 

in appearance from those of the Short toed Lark, which also breeds in the 
same district, having an almost white ground, sparingly spotted or blotched 
with ochreous or reddish brown and underlying violet grey. In some cases 
the markings tend to form a zone. 
Breeding The first eggs may be found at the beginning of April, but most 

Season. ^^^ Yq^[^ i^ the latter half of the month, and also in May. 
Measure- Average of 32 eggs 19.8X14.37 mm.. Max. 21.5x14.1 and 19.1X15.2 

""^°*'- mm., Min. 18.2x13.7 and 19.2X13.6 mm. 

b. Pallas's Lark, C. minor lieinei (Horn.). See above. 

[In addition to the above races, Tenerife is inhabited by C. minor 
rufescens (Vieill.), while in Lanzarote and Fuertaventura another form, 
C. minor polatzeki Hart, is met with. The eggs are very similar to those 
of the Andalucian form. Average of 70 eggs (54 by Rey and 16 by the 
writer) 19.78 X 14.29 mm.. Max. 23.5 X 14.7 and 21.7 X 15.4 mm., Min. 
17.6 X 14 and 20 X 13 mm. Average weight 136 mg. (Rey). In N. Africa, 
from Marocco to Egypt, C. minor minor (Cab.) is abundant locally. The 
clutch usually consists of 3 eggs, which are laid from the beginning of 
April onward to June. Average of 15 eggs by Erlanger, 19.8 X 14 mm., 
Max. 21x16 mm., Min. 18X14 and 20X11 mm. Average weight 132 mg.] 

[Desert Lark, Ammonianes desert! algeriensis Sharpe. 

Eggs: Konig, Journ. f. Ornith. 1896, Tab. VII, fig. 6. 
Ammomanes deserti (Licht.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 329; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 397. A. deserti algeriensis Sharpe. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 221. 



127 

Breeding Kange: S. Algeria and Tunis. 

Said to have occurred in Spain, Portugal, etc., probably in error. The eggs, 
3 — 4 in numbei", are cream coloured, finely speckled all over with rusty brown 
and violet grey. Breeding season, April and May. Average size of 22 eggs 
(10 by Konig, 7 by Erlanger, 3 by Whitaker, etc.) 21.5X15.7 mm.. Max. 23.2x16.6 
and 22X17.2 mm., Min. 20X15 mm. Average weight (17 eggs) 155 mg. (Konig 
and Erlanger). In Lower Egypt and Sinai another form, A. deserti isabellina (Temm,), 
occurs; from Palestine to the Persian Gulf, A. deserti fraterculus Tristr. of which 
4 eggs average 22 x 15.2 mm. in size; and in Transcaspia A. deserti parvirostris Hart. 

Banded Desert Lark, Ammomaiies phoenicui-a arenicolor (Sund.). 

Eggs: Konig, Journ. f. Ornith. 1896, Tab. VII, fig. 7. 

Ammomanes cinctura (Gould.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 335; id. 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 398. A. pJioenicura arenicolor (Sund.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 224. 

Breeding Range: S. Algeria to the Sinaitic peninsula. 

Has occurred once at Malta. The clutch appears to consist usually of 2 
to 3 eggs, laid in April and May, and resembling those of the preceding species, 
but with a rosy or apricot coloured flush. The markings also tend to form a 
zone at the big end. Average of 15 eggs (7 by Konig, 3 by Ei'Ianger, etc.) 
20.36x14.85 mm., Max. 22X16 mm., Min. 19X14 mm. 8 eggs average 130 mg. 
in weight.] 

65. Crested Lark, Gfalerida cristata (L.). 
Plate 16, % 20—22 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXVI, fig. 2, a— d. Hewitson, 
III. Ed. I, pi. XLV, fig. 5. Baedeker, Tab. 66, fig. 8. Taczanowski, Tab. LXII, 
fig. 3. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, pi. 15; id. Col. Fig., pi. 58. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Chocolous. Denmark: Toplaerka. France: 
Coclievis, Alouette huppee. Germany: HauhenlercJie. HoUand: Kuifleeuiverik. 
Hungarj: Biohos pacsirta. ItaXj: Cappellaccia. V olsind: Smieciucha. Sweden: 
Tofsldrka. 

Alauda cristata L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 632; Saunders, Man., 
p. 253. Galerita cristata (L.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 285. Co- 
rydus cristatus (L.). Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, p. 390. Galerida cristata 
cristata (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 228. 

Breeding Range: Europe generally, except Norway, N. Sweden and 
Russia, the British Isles, Corsica, and Sardinia, where it is absent. Replaced 
by other forms in the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas and S. Russia. 

In Sweden this species has increased its range of late years, and is Con 
now known to breed as far N. as Upsala, while it is common in Sk^ne 
and Halland. In Russia it is found in small numbers in the Baltic pro- 
vinces, but does not nest in Finland or N. Russia. In Jutland however 
it is not uncommon, and is locally plentiful in France, the low countries, 
Germany and Austro-Hungary, while in Switzerland, where it was formerly 



tinental 
Europe. 



128 

rare, it is now established in many localities. In Italy it is common, as 
is also the case in Sicily. 
Nest. Almost invariably found in the immediate neighbourhood of roads 

and dwelling places, where small parties of two or three birds may fre- 
quently be met with, and are as a rule extraordinarily tame and familiar. 
They show decided preference for low lying sandy and barren districts and 
avoid mountain ranges, breeding frequently by the roadsides, and also on 
the fallows and among com, potato fields, or in gardens. The nest has 
also been found on low turf walls and on the roofs of sheds in the fields. 
It is composed of the usual materials, dead grasses, bents, etc., with a 
lining of finer grasses and occasionally a few horsehairs. Diameter of cup 
about 2{- in., depth 1 in. 
Eggs. According to Rey, about 66 per cent of German nests contain 4 eggs, 

and the remainder 5. (Clutches of 6 are rarely, if ever found in Europe, 
but occur in the case of some of the Asiatic races, while some of the N. 
African forms often lay 3 eggs only). In appearance they run through 
most of the variations of the Calandra and Skylark's eggs, but are more 
glossy than the eggs of the latter bird. Dr. Rey possesses a erythristic 
variety with a distinctly red ground. 

Breeding In Germany Rey found the earliest full clutches at the end of April, 

eason. ^^^ ^^^ j^g^. £j.gg]^ Qggs at the beginning of June. Period of incubation 
13 days; the young remain in the nest for 10 days and are able to fly 
in 18 days. 

Measure- Rey gives the average of 100 eggs as 22.7x16.8 mm., Max. 24.7X17 

and 22X18.3 mm., Min. 19X15 mm. This agrees closely with the average 
of 38 eggs as given by Bau, 22.6X16.6 mm. Average weight 192 mg. 
(Rey), 189 mg. (Bau). Abnormal eggs in the Rey collection measure 
27.5X18.9 and 18x13.2 mm., and Ottosson records an egg^ 21.5X14.7 mm. 



Geographical Races. 

a. Mid-European Crested Lark, G. cristata cristata (L.). See above. 
1). S. Russian Crested Lark, G. cristata tenuirostris Brehm. 

Foreign Names: Russia: Javronok choclilatyi, Posmetuslika. 

G. cristata tenuirostris Brehm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 230. 

Breeding Range: S. Russia to Rumania (Sarepta, Poltava, Czema- 
voda, and Baragana). 

Found in the valleys of the Lower Volga and Dnieper, and resident 
in small numbers near houses on the Astrakhan steppes, as well as in the 
Crimea. Also in the lower Danube valley. 



ments. 



129 

c. Caucasian Crested Lark, Gr. cristata caucasica Tacz. 

G. cristata caucasica Tacz. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 230. 

Breeding Range: The Caucasus and W. shores of the Caspian, 
from Petrowsk to Lenkoran. 

Although breeding almost exclusively on the steppes, a few pairs 
nest in the Caucasus up to about 4000 ft. according to Bogdanow. 

<1. Balkan Crested Lark, G. cristata meridionalis Brelini. 

Plate 16, fig. 18, 19 (Attica). 

Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 66, fig. 9. 

Foreign Names: Greece: Korudalbs, Katzouliera. 

G. cristata meridionalis Brehm. Hartert, Vog. Pal, Fauna, p. 230. 

Breeding Range: Dalmatia, Herzegovina, Montenegro, Turkey and 
Greece. 

In Montenegro Reiser met with a pair breeding at a height of 1500 ft., 
but this is exceptional, and most birds are found in the vineyards, gardens, 
and roadsides of the peninsula. In Greece this form is common and general 
as well as in the Cyclades, and probably also in Crete. Eggs 4 — 5 in 
number.* The breeding season in the south begins in April, in the north 
usually in early May. Average of 10 eggs from Greece (6 by Reiser and 
4 by Rey in litt.) 23 X 16.52 mm., Max. 24.9 X 17.1 mm., Min. 20.9 X 15.9 
and 24.7 X 15.8 mm. Average weight of 6 eggs 186 mg. (Reiser). 

e. Spanish Crested Lark, d. cristata pallida Brehm. 

Foreign Names: Portugal: Cotovia de poupa. Spain: Carretera, 
Cujada. 

G. cristata pallida Brehm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 231. 

Breeding Range: S. Spain and Portugal. 

In the Iberian peninsula besides the present race, Brehm's Crested 
Lark, G. tlieklae Brehm, is also found. Hartert has identified this form 
from Valencia, Murcia, Granada and Seville, and in Portugal from Beira 
and Estremadura. It haunts the plains in preference to the sierras, where 
G. tlieklae is met with. Nest made of dead grasses with horsehair in 
lining; diameter of cup 2\ in. Eggs usually 4, rarely 5 in number, and 
variable in colour and markings. The breeding season begins about mid 
April. 28 eggs from the Guadalquivir valley average 22.64 X 16.59 mm.. 
Max. 24 X 17 and 23 X 17.5 mm., Min. 21 X 16.3 and 22 X 16 mm. 

[In N. Africa several other races are found; G. c. riggeribachi Hart, in- 
habits the corn fields and plains of middle and S. W. Marocco, G. c. macro- 



* In Asia Minor the usual clutch consists of 5 eggs, and occasionally 6 are 
found (F. C. Selous). 

9 



130 

rhyncha Tristr. is found in N. and mid Algeria, and N. Tunis; while further S. 
G. c. arenicola Tristr. replaces it; and G. c. nigricans Brehm, inhabits 
the Nile delta. In N. Palestine is found G. c, cinnamomina Hart., but in 
the Jordan valley G. c. hracliyura Tristr. The eggs of G. c. macrwliyncha 
differ but little from typical eggs of G. cristata. Average of 32 eggs by 
Konig and Erlanger 22.37 X 16.62 mm., weight 189 mg. Those of G. c. 
arenicola are rather larger. Average of 14 by Erlanger 23.5 X 16.8 mm., 
Max. 26x17 mm. Average weight 195 mg. The eggs of G. c. riggen- 
bachi are also according to Hartert rather above the average, 4 eggs 
measuring 24.4X17.3 mm.] 

6G. Brehin's Crested Lark, Gralerida theklae Brehin. 

Plate 16, fig. 10, 11 (S. Spain). 

Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 66, fig. 10. 

Galerida theldae theldae Brehm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 237. 

Breeding Range: Southern Spain and Portugal. 

This short and thick billed species has been very generally confounded 
with the Spanish form of the Crested Lark, G. cristata pallida^ so that 
but little reliable information is obtainable with regard to its nesting 
habits. It occurs apparently not only in Murcia and Valencia, but also in 
Granada, haunting the sierras in preference to the plains; and also in the 
hills of Algarve in Portugal. Either this or a closely allied form is also 
found in the Balearic Isles. 
Nest. Probably as a rule 3, occasionally 4 in number, as is known to be 

the case in several of the N. African races of this bird. They appear 
also to have a greater tendency to approach the type of Woodlarks' eggs, 
but weU authenticated specimens of the Spanish form are still desiderata. 

[The breeding habits of the N. African forms of this species have 
received some attention from Konig, Erlanger, and Whitaker. Hartert 
separates them as follows: G. t. erlangeri Hart, from N. Marocco (Tangier 
district), G. t. riificolor Whit., from middle and southern Marocco, G. t. 
superflua Hart, south of the Atlas in Algeria and Tunis, G. t. harterti Erl. 
north of the Atlas in the same countries, G. t carolinae Erl. the stony 
deserts of S. Tunis and Tripoli and G. t. cyrenaicae Whit. Barca. Erlanger 
and Whitaker distinguish another form, G. t deichleri Erl. from the sandy 
deserts of S. Algeria and Tunis. There appears to be little difference 
between the eggs of these races. The normal clutch consists of 3, rarely 4. 
Average size of 4 eggs of G. t. ruficolor 22.7 X 17.07 mm. (Hartert); of 
6 eggs of G. t. harterti 22.66X16.83 mm. (Erlanger); while 18 eggs of 
G. t superflua average 22.55 X 16.55 mm., average Aveight 181 mg. (Er- 
langer), and were found from the end of March onward.j 



131 

67. Woodlark, LiilluLi arl)orea (L.). 

Plate 16, fig. 13 — 15 (Germany), 16, 17 (S. France). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXVI, fig. 4, a — d. Hemtson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. CXXXIX, fig. 4, 5; II. Ed. I, pi. XXXVI, fig. 3; HI. Ed. I, 
pi. XLV, fig. 3. Baedeker, Tab. 66, fig. 5. Taczanowski, Tab. LXII, fig. 2. 
Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 15; id. Col. Fig., pi. 58. Frohawk, Br. Birds, II, 
pi. VIII, fig. 255. 

British Local Name: Welsh: Uchedydd y coed. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Skfivan lesni. Denmark: Hedelaerke. 
Finland: Mehtaleivo. France: Cujelier, Alouette hdu. Germany: Heide- 
lerclie. Greece: Molochdbs tourlaki. Holland: Boomleeuwerik. Hungary: 
Erdei pacsirta. Italy: ToUavilla. Poland: Skoiuronek horowy. Russia: 
Sula, Liesnoi Javronok. Sweden: Trddlarka. Spain: Alondra de Monte. 

Alauda arhorea L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 625; Dresser, Birds of 
Europe, IV, p. 321; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 389; Saunders, Man., p. 251. 
Lidlida arhorea (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 241. 

Breeding Range: Europe, locally, except in N. Scandinavia and 
N. Russia. [Also N. W. Africa and E. to Persia.] 

This bird has apparently decreased in numbers of late years, and is British 
not now found in many localities where it is described as common by the ^ *'®' 
earlier British writers on Ornithology. It is however still found locally 
in the south of England, and in some parts of Wales and Ireland. In 
England it is commonest, though always local, in the counties bordering 
the S. coast, and in the Isle of Wight; but also occurs in suitable ground 
in the Lower Severn and Thames valleys. A few pairs breed on the slopes 
of the Chilterns, and a colony exists on the heaths near Thetford, on the 
borders of Suffolk and Norfolk. In the N. Midlands few reliable records 
of breeding of late years are known, but nests have been found in Northants, 
and probably a few stiU breed in Leicestershire and possibly also in Shrop- 
shire and Cheshire, though it is apparently now extinct in S. Derbyshire, 
where it was once common. In the northern counties it is recorded from 
a few localities in Yorkshire (chiefly on the E. coast), Lancashire, and 
Cumberland, where Macpherson found it breeding on the W. coast. It is 
a scarce resident in S. Wales; formerly much commoner in Pembroke, scarce 
in Cardigan, but locally not uncommon on the borders of Brecon and Radnor, 
In N. Wales, although there is little doubt that a few pairs nest, definite 
records are still wanting. In Scotland no reliable information as to the 
breeding of this bird has been received of late years, although Harvie- 
Brown took a nest in Stirlingshire in 1863. In Ireland it still breeds in 
Co. Wicklow, and possibly in other districts, but is now one of the rarest 
residents, though formerly found in Munster, Leinster, and Ulster (Ussher). 

9* 



132 

Con- In the Iberian peninsula it is local, but not uncommon in certain 

tinenta ^jg{^j,jg|;g ^f ^}^q southern provinces, and also on the tableland of central 

Europe. _ J^ ' _ 

Spain, 2000 ft. above the sea; breeding generally where the undergrowth 
is not too thick. It is also found in small numbers in Portugal, but in 
France is fairly numerous in wooded districts, being sedendary in the S. 
and S. W. and migratory in the N. In some parts of Brabant it is not 
uncommon, but in Denmark and N. Germany is scarce and local, though rather 
more numerous in the S. of the country, and is generally distributed and 
common in Switzerland. Colonies exist in Livonia and Esthonia, and it is 
said to breed in one locality in Finland (Abo Lan), as well as in various 
districts of central and southern Russia, from Kiew and Kharkow in Little 
Russia eastward to Saratow and Kazan, and is a scarce resident in the 
Caucasus. In Scandinavia it is confined to the southern part of the peninsula: 
not uncommon in S. and S. E. Norway, but scarce as a breeding species in 
Sweden. In Italy it is resident in the hilly districts, especially in the S., 
and is also found in Sicily, while in Sardinia and Corsica it is common. The 
geographical races of this species have not yet been thoroughly investigated, 
but probably the birds inhabiting the Balkan peninsula Avill have to be 
separated as L. arhorea flavescens Ehmcke, and possibly also the Corsican- 
Sardinian birds also. In Greece it appears to inhabit the higher mountain 
ranges only, but further N. it is found commonly on hillsides and high-lying 
plains near the edge of forest in Albania, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Bosnia, etc., 
and is said to be plentiful on Crete and near Constantinople. [It is also 
resident in the mountain ranges of the Barbary states, and a pale coloured 
race, L. arho7'ea pallida Sar. occurs in Transcaspia, E. Persia, etc.] 

Nest. Generally sheltered by some low bush, dead bracken, heath, or grass 

tussock, and placed on the ground on a warm, sunny hillside in mountainous 
districts, choosing especially those which are partly covered with dead 
bracken and heath. In open, flat country it seems to prefer the neigh- 
bourhood of pine woods, and in Spain often nests in open glades of cork 
oak and ilex forest. It is rather neatly built of coarse bents and moss, 
lined with finer grasses, and sometimes a few horsehairs. M. A. MatheAv 
records a nest built in a strawberry bed in N. Devon, and N. Wood found 
one on the stump of an old oak overgrown with grass in Derbyshire. 

Eggs. Almost invariably 4 or 5 in number, although according to Fatio, 

6 are known to occur, but rarely. No instance of a clutch of 6 eggs has 
occurred within my own experience. The eggs are somewhat glossy, pale 
greenish white or dirty white in ground colour, generally somewhat thickly 
speckled with spots, and sometimes a few blotches, of hair brown and 
underlying violet grey markings. Not infrequently the markings tend to 
form a distinct zone at the big end, and occasionally they are decidedly 
reddish in tint, almost approaching the finely spotted eggs of H. rustica 



ments. 



133 

in type. In some cases the brown spots are wanting and only a, few 
underlying grey blotches are visible. Eggs closely resembling those of 
Alcmcla arvensis and Antlms pratensis have been ascribed to this species, 
perhaps through errors in authentication. 

In Great Britain the Woodlark is a very early breeder, and the eggs Breeding 
of the first brood are generally found in the last week of March and the 
first fortnight of April, but occasionally as early as mid March, both in the 
south of England and in Wales; while eggs of later broods may be found 
till late in June. In Germany most eggs are found between the beginning 
of May and the end of June, but exceptionally earlier. A nest with 1 egg 
is said to have been found in Oldenburg on Feb. 21, 1884, {Journ. f. Orn. 
1886, p. 313), but this is scarcely credible. In central Spain Lilford found 
fresh eggs about the beginning of May at 2000 ft., and in Corsica Whitehead 
found many nests after May 13, but in Sardinia eggs may be found early 
in April, and Kriiper took eggs of the Balkan race from April 25 to 
June 14, but found most nests in the latter half of May, The hen sits 
closely, and incubation lasts 14 — 15 days. 

Average of 100 eggs (46 by Rey and 54 by the writer) from Eng- Measure- 
land, France, Holland and Germany, 21.12X15.59 mm., Max. 24X16.3 
and 22 X 17.2 mm., Min. 18x15.2 and 20X14.5 mm. Corsican eggs 
are generally large and light coloured. Average of 14 eggs, 21.45 X 16.01 
mm.. Max. 24.2 X 16.3 mm., Min. 19.5 X 16 and 20.7 X 15.2 mm. Eggs 
from the Balkan peninsula resemble those from Corsica. Average of 23 
from Greece, 21.21 X 16.05 mm.. Max. 22.5 X 16.5 and 21.3 X 17.2 mm., 
Min. 20.5 X 16.6 and 21.5 X 15.1 mm. Average weight according to Bau 
(39 eggs), 153 mg., while Rey gives 156 mg. as the average of 46 German eggs. 

68. Skylark, Alauda arvensis L. 

Plate 16, fig. 1 — 5 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXVI, fig. 1, a — e. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. CXXXIX, fig. 1—3; II. Ed. I, pi. XXXVI, fig. 1, 2; III. Ed. I, 
pi. XLV, fig. 1. Baedeker, Tab. 66, fig. 4. Taczanowski, Tab. LXII, fig. 1. 
Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 15; id. Col. Fig., pi. 58. Frohawk, Br, Birds, II, 
pl.^VIII, fig. 245—254. 

Nest: 0. Lee, IV, p. 22, 24. 

British Local Names^ Field Lark. Welsh: TJchedydd. Scotland: 
Laverock. Gaelic: TJiseag. Manx: TJsliag y tappee. Erse: Fuiseog. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Skfivan point. Denmark: Sang- or Gra."- 
laerke. Finland: Leivonen. France: Alouette des champs. Germany: Feld- 
lerclie. Holland: Leeuiverik. Hungary: Mezei pacsirta. Portugal: Laverca. 
Sweden: Sdngldrka. Spain: Alondra. 



tinental 
Europe. 



134 

Alauda arvensis L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 614; Dresser, Birds of 
Europe, IV, p. 307; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 387; Saunders, Man., p. 249. 
A. Lwvemis arvensis L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 244. 

Breeding Range: Europe generally, except in the extreme north 
and south; replaced in the south east by A. arvensis caiitarella Bp. 
British Common and generally distributed throughout Great Britain and Ire- 

^^^^^ land, but less numerous in the N. of Scotland and scarce in some of 
the wilder districts, such as the N. W. coast. It is however found in almost 
all the islands, including the Shetlands, Orkneys, Hebrides, etc. being only 
absent from a few outlying rocky islets and holms. It is a lover of the 
open country and avoids woodlands, narrow valleys and the high mountains, 
but may be met with up to 2000 ft. in England. It is unknown in Ice- 
land, but a few pairs are known to have bred in the Fasroes. Scottish 
birds have been separated under the name of A. arvensis scotica by Tschusi 
on account of their darker colouring. 

Con- In Scandinavia it breeds commonly in south and middle Sweden, and 

is also found in Norway almost up to the N. Cape, but is not numerous 
beyond the Arctic circle, and does not penetrate beyond Lat. 68 V N. in 
Lapland. It is the only bird which regularly nests on Helgoland, and is 
generally distributed over the whole of the great European plain, and is 
especially numerous in the plains of Jutland. (In the Iberian peninsula it 
is only a winter visitor, but a small dark race appears to breed on the 
Portuguese serras, in the mountains of Castile, and according to Saunders, 
also in Aragon, which requires further investigation.) Over the northern 
parts of its range it is a summer migrant, but towards the south it is to 
a great extent sedentary. 

Nest. Always placed on the ground, often in growing crops in cultivated 

districts, among grass by road sides, among rough pasture or on moorlands, 
and near the coast, even out on the open beach among the shingle and 
sand, and among the dunes. It is placed in a hoofprint or any natural 
depression, and is composed of dead grasses and bents, lined with finer 
grasses, and sometimes, but not always, with horsehair. The old birds 
are said to have been known to remove their young from the nest in 
their claws. As the hen is a close sitter, the nest is frequently only found 
by accident. 
Eggs. In the British Isles the clutch usually consists of 3 or 4 eggs, but 

in some districts 5 are not uncommon. Rey gives 5 as the normal number 
in Germany, and adds that 6 have been occasionally found; a statement 
which also occurs in the works of Fatio and Westerlund. In Denmark 
the first brood is said usually to consist of 4 and the second of 5. Eight 
eggs, belonging to two clutches, have been found in one nest in Kent. 
They are very variable in size and shape, and also differ considerably in 



135 

colouring. White, or almost white eggs are not uncommon; but the usual 
type varies in ground colour from dull white to greyish, greenish, or 
brownish white, thickly spotted with olive or hair brown and grey. Some- 
times these markings are evenly distributed over the whole surface, but at 
other times they tend to form a bold zone or cap at the big end. Some 
eggs are decidedly ferruginous in tone, while a less rare variety has a 
greenish cast. 

As two if not three broods are often reared, the breeding season is Breeding 
of long duration. A few pairs may breed in March, but few eggs are 6^^°°- 
found as a rule before the latter part of April in England, and frequently 
not till early in May. From this time onward eggs may be taken till the 
end of July. In Germany Rey took all his eggs between the middle of 
April and July 25. Incubation lasts 14 days, and the hen sits closely, 
returning to the nest very cautiously on foot, while apparently busied only 
in feeding. 

Although the breadth of these eggs is fairly constant, the length is Measure- 
very variable, so that averages of small series show great discrepancies. ™®"*^- 
Average of 190 eggs (100 by Rey, 58 by Bau and 32 by the writer) from 
Germany and England, 23.21 X 16.83 mm., but abnormally large eggs 
measure as much as 28 X 17.1, 27 X 16.8 (Newton coll.) and 24.3X18.5, 
26.1 X 18.3 mm. (Rey coll.), while the smallest egg is 18.8 X 15.8 mm. 
(Bau). Rey gives the average weight as 182 mg., and Bau (58 eggs) as 
193 mg. 

Geographical Races. 

ComiKon Skylark, A. arrensis arvensis L. See above. 
Mediterranean Skylark, A. arvensis cantarella Bp. 

Foreign Names: Greece: Tsarethra. Italy: Lodola. 

A. arvejisis cantarella Bp. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 246. 

Breeding Range: Sardinia, Sicily, S. Italy, the Balkan peninsula 
from S. Hungary to N. Greece, and S. Russia. 

Few, if any, of these birds are resident in Corsica, but in Sardinia Con- 
it is very numerous on the plains and is also common in Sicily and S. 
Italy, especially Apulia. In the Balkan peninsula it is found in Dalmatia, 
and is common on the mountain plateaux of Montenegro up to about 
5700 ft. on the Cma Planina, but is absent from the coast district. In 
Bulgaria not only is it found in great numbers on the plains, but also on 
the mountains, in company with the Balkan Shore Lark. In Macedonia it 
is fairly common, but to Greece it is chiefly a winter visitor, though 
possibly a few pairs may breed on the highest mountains, as Kriiper 
observed one near the summit of the Veluchi range in summer. 

In breeding habits is does not appear to differ from the common form. 



tiuental 
Europe. 



136 

[The Asiatic form, A. arvensis cinerea Ehmcke, which breeds in W. 
Siberia, Turkestan, Persia, etc. (and winters as far W. as Algeria and 
Tunis) has occurred in Scotland in winter [Ann. Scott. Nat. Hist. 1906, 
p. 139). In Algeria, N. Tunis and perhaps part of Marocco the resident 
birds belong to the race A. arvensis liarterti Whit. Eggs 4 in number; 
average of 8 (Erlanger and Whitaker), 22.25 X 16.44 mm.] 

[Curve billed Lark, Alaemon alaudipes (Desf.). 

Eggs: Konig, Joiirn. f. Orn. 1895, Tab. VII, fig. 5, a, b. 

Certhilauda desertorum (Stanl.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 273. C. 
alaudipes (Desf.). Id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 375. Alaemon alaudipes alaxtdipes (Desf.). 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 250. 

Breeding Range: N.Africa, south of the Atlas Range. (Stated to have 
occurred in S. Europe, but probably erroneoush^) 

A true desert haunting bird, breeding on, or under shelter of low scrub, 
and laying 8—4 eggs, creamy white, with violet shell marks, and brown surface 
spots, which sometimes form a zone. They may be found from March to May. 
Average size of 16' eggs (Konig 5, Erlanger 4, and 7 by the writer), 21.78X16.55 
mm.. Max. 23x18 mm., Min. 20X15 mm. Average weight of 9 eggs, 173 mg.] 

69. Dupoiifs Lark, Chersopliiliis diipoiiti (VieilL). 

Certhilauda duponti (VieilL). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 279; 
id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 376. Chersophilus duponti duponti (VieilL). Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 252. 

Breeding Range: N. Algeria and Tunis. Also recorded from Por- 
tugal and said to occur on the Balearic Isles, (One accidental occurrence 
in Italy in Nov. 1900.) 

The status of this bird in Europe is by no means satisfactorily known. 
Barboza du Bocage records the 'var. lusitanica' from the S. of the Tagus, 
opposite Lisbon, but whether it is resident in Portugal or not is doubtful. 
Irby states that several have been obtained in the Malaga district, and of 
late years many skins are said to have been received from the Balearic Isles, but 
von Homeyer saw no Larks there except the Short-toed and a form of 
Crested Lark. In Italy one specimen has been recorded (20. XI. 1900). 
In Tunis Whitaker has found it throughout the greater part of the high 
plateaux of central Tunis to over 3000 ft, as well as in the plains, and 
is of opinion that its apparent scarcity is due to the extraordinary capacity 
possessed by the bird for concealing itself. Its haunts are covered with 
patches of vsdld thyme and other plants, which afford it ample cover. 
Nest. The nest is placed at the foot of some plant, and is loosely built of 

bents and soft particles of Anthemis mixta. 
Eggs. The eggs are 3 — 4 in number, and may be found in Tunis from 

the beginning of April to late in June. They vary considerably, even in 



meiits. 



137 

the same clutch, and are not always to be distincjuished from some esss 
of the Crested Larks. The ground colour is glossy greyish or creamy Avhite, 
generally thickly covered with small spots of yellowish or hair brown and 
underlying grey shell markings. 

Average of 30 eggs (7 by Erlanger, 6 by Whitaker and 17 by the Measure- 
writer), 23.5 X 17.46 mm., Max. 25.2 X 17.3 and 23.2 X 18.2 mm., Min. 
21.6 X 17 and 23 X 16.5 mm. Average weight of 7 eggs (Erlanger) 214 mg. 

[Further south a rufous form, C. duponti margaritae (Kon.) is found. 
Average of 14 eggs taken by Erlanger (Mar. 28 to April 9), 22.28 X 16.82 
mm. Average weight 192 mg.] 

70. Shore Lark, Eremopliila alpcstris L.* 
Geographical Races. 

a. X. European Shore Lark, E. alpestris flara (Gmel.). 

Plate 17, fig. 9—12 (Norway). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXVI, fig. 3, a— d. Hewitson, 
III. Ed. I, pi. XLV.* Baedeker, Tab. 66, fig. 1. Seebohm, Brit. Birds, 
pi. 15; id. Col. Fig., pi. 58. Newton, Ootheca Wolleyana, Tab. XI, fig. 13—18. 

Nests: Pearson, Beyond Petsora, pi. 23; Three Summers, pi. 32, a, b. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: ShHvcm podliorni. Finland: Tunturileivo. 
France: Aloiiette de la Siberie. Germany: Alpenlerche, Ohrenlerclie. Holland: 
Bergleeuiverik. Italy: Lodola gola gialla. Lapland: Ruossa Alap. Norway: 
Fjeldlaerke. Russia: JavronoJc snejny. Sweden: Bergllirka. 

Otocorys alpestris (L.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 604; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, IV, p. 387; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 378; Saunders, Man., p. 259. 
Eremopliila alpestris flava (Gm.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 255. 

Breeding Range: N. Europe within the Arctic Circle. [Also N. 
Siberia.] 

This species is common during the breeding season in the N. of Con 
Scandinavia, especially throughout Finmark, but a few pairs also nest above 
the limits of tree growth as far south in Norway as the Dovrefjeld and 
Ror&s. In Sweden it breeds on the fells in Lapland, and according to 
Kolthoff has even nested in Jemtland on the Orviksfjellen. In Russian 
Lapland nests have been found in the alpine region of the north of Fin- 
land, as well as in the low lying country along the Murman coast. On 
Kolguev it is plentiful, and breeds also on Dolgoi, and in some numbers 
on Waigatz. It is also found on Nova^'a Zemlya, but in smaller numbers, 
and in the Archangel Government on the mainland of N. Russia. Formerly" 

* Linnes Alauda alpestris is based on specimens described from Carolina, and 
the name E. alpestris alpestris (L.) is therefore restricted to the N. American form. 



tiiiental 
Europe. 



138 

it was supposed also to breed in the Urals (Perm Government), but definite 
proof is still wanting. In the Balkan peninsula and the Caucasus it is 
replaced by other forms. 
Nest. Usually placed on the ground in the side of a tussock of dead grass, 

the upper edge of the nest being level with the ground (Pearson). The 
same writer supposes that the nest hollow in the soft peaty soil is some- 
times made by the bird itself. WoUey noticed that in E. Finmark the 
nest was built near to a stone. In the most northerly part of its range 
this bird breeds on the tundra, often close to the sea coast, but in the 
south it haunts the mountains and is found only above the tree limit. 
The nest is loosely built of dry sheep grass, lined with the down of Salix 
lanata, the cotton rush, and other plants, sometimes with reindeer hair. 
Eggs. Usually 4 — 5 in Scandinavia, but on Kolguev Pearson never found 

more than 4, and on both Kolguev and Waigatz some clutches of 3 only 
were incubated. An examination of a large series shows that these eggs 
vary considerably; the ground colour being generally greenish white, thickly 
mottled with olive brown or light yellowish spots. In some cases the 
ground colour is scarcely visible, while in others a few bold spots of dark 
brown, or a decided zone, are found at the big end. Many eggs are like 
those of the Skylark, but are as a rule paler in colouring, and occasionally 
a dark hair line is found at the big end. 

Breeding One of the earliest of the northern passerine birds, nesting almost 

before the snow is melted. Probably two broods are reared in many cases, 
for fresh eggs may be found in Finmark from May 12 till July; but most 
eggs of the first brood are laid towards the end of May or early in June. 
Pearson's eggs from Russian Lapland, Kolguev, etc. were taken between 
June 7 and July 24; the nest found on the latter date containing 1 fresh 
eggl The female sits very closely at times, and has been known to run 
on to the eggs within a few feet of the watcher. Wolley found that when 
the first clutch Avas taken, a second, and even a third if necessary, was 
deposited within a short distance of the original site. 

Measure- Average of 100 eggs (17 by Rey and 83 by the writer) 22.76X16.24 

mm., Max. 26 X 16.8 and 24.9 X 18 mm., Min. 20.5 X 15 and 21 x 14.7 
mm. Average weight according to Rey 191 mg. 

b. Saharan Shore Lark, E. alpestris bilopha (Teinm.). 

Eggs: Konig, Journ. f. Om. 1896, Tab. VII, fig. 8, a, b. 

Otocorys Uloplia (Temm.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 399; id. 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 380. E. alpestris Uloplia (Temm.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 257. 

Breeding Range: The Sahara, from Rio del Oro to Egypt. (Has 
occurred at Malaga.) 



Season. 



ments. 



139 

Breeds on stony plains, nesting generally at the foot of a plant of 
HeliantJiemum, during the second half of April. The nest is neatly built 
of stems and grasses, lined with plant down and even bits of linen, and 
is frequently surrounded by small stones. Eggs 2 — 3 in number, averaging 
according to Konig (16), 21.3X15.1 mm., and weighing 160 mg. The 
ground colour varies from creamy to bluish white, Avith fine speckles and 
a few spots of brick colour, and underlying grey markings. 

[In the Maroccan Atlas another race, E. alpestris atlas (Whit.) is 
found, Avhich has not occurred in Europe.] 

c. Brandt's Shore Lark, E. alpestris braudti (Dress.). 

Otocorys hrandti Dress. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 402; id. 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 380. E. alpestris hrandti (Dress.). Hartert, Yog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 257. 

Breeding Range: Kirghis Steppes to Dauria. 

A clutch of 3 eggs in the British Museum, taken by Mr. St. G. Little- 
dale on the Altai range, averages in size, 21.8x15.6 mm. Breeds on the 
steppe as well as in the mountains, laying in May. 

d. Caucasian Slidre Lark, E. alpestris penicillata (Gould). 

Otocorys penicillata (Gould). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 395 
and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 381 (part.). E. alpestris penicillata (Gould). Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 261. 

Breeding Range: Caucasus and Taurus ranges up to 14000 ft. 

Radde describes the nest as flatfish, and built of grasses, lined with 
sheep's wool. Eggs 4 — 5; thickly spotted with reddish brown on a greenish 
yellow ground. They are slightly larger than those of the arctic race, 
5 eggs in the British Museum averaging 23.26 x 17.04 mm. 

e. Balkan Shore Lark, E. alpestris balcaiiiea (Relinw.). 

Eggs: Reiser, Orn. Bale. U, Taf. Ill, fig. b, c. 

Otocorys penicillata (Gould). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IV, p. 395 
and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 381 (part.). E. alpestiis halcanica (Rchnw.). Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 262. 

Breeding Range: The higher mountains of the Balkan peninsula. 

In all probability breeds on all the higher mountains of the peninsula. 
Reiser met with nesting pairs on the Vran planina in Bosnia, the Crna 
and Sinjavina planinas in Montenegro, and found nests on the Strigel and 
Baba planinas in the Etropol Balkan, where it was not uncommon. It 
has also been observed at various points in the Trojan Balkan, the Rhodope 
Dagh, and on the Stara planina (Servian border). In Greece it has only 
been recorded from the Korax and Kiona. The nests were larger and 



140 

more strongly built than those of the Skylark. Eggs 3 — 4, tolerably glossy, 
ground colour yellowish white, more or less thickly spotted with grey and 
brown, and occasionally with black hair lines or spots. Average of 7 eggs 
(Reiser), 23.04X17.03 mm., average weight 194 mg. They were taken 
May 25—28. 

[Another race E. alpestris hico^mis (Brehm) breeds on the edge of 
the snow line on Hermon and Lebanon, in Palestine, building a compact 
and deep nest in a tuft of Astragalus or Draba. (Tristram.)]* 



MOTACILLIDAE. 

71. Ricliartrs Pipit, xiiitlms ricliardi Yieill. 

Plate 18, fig. 24 (Siberia). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXV, fig. 14, a, b (?). HeAvitson, 
II. Ed. I, pi. XXXVI, fig. 3; III. Ed. I, pi. XLIV, fig. 4. Baedeker, Tab. 35, 
fig. 1. Journ. f. Orn. 1873, Tab. II, fig. 21. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 14; 
id. Col. Fig., pi. 58. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Lindiiska velka. Germany: Sjjornpieper. 
Helgoland: Brililf. Hungary: Sarkantyiis Fipis. Italy: Titro. Norway: 
Stor Piplaerke. Sweden: 8tor Piplarka. 

Anthiis ricliardi Yieill. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 598; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, IH, p. 325; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 219; Saunders, Man., p. 139. 
A. ricliardi ricliardi Vieill. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 265. 

Breeding Range: Siberia, Turkestan, Tibet and Mongolia. Has 
strayed to most European countries. Although formerly supposed to have 
bred in Europe, this species is now known to have its nesting grounds in 
the plains of Siberia and China. Its western limit appears to be the steppes 
of Turkestan, where Sewertzow found eggs, and Scully noticed it near 
Yarkand in the breeding season, frec|uenting swampy ground. In the Yenesei 
valley Seebohm found old and young plentiful in the low meadows by the 
river in August, up to lat. 58° N. and Popham observed pairs near Yeniseisk 
early in June. In the Baikal district Dybowski found it nesting plentifully 
in 1868, and Hall describes it as found commonly on the Upper Lena, 
while Przewalski and David also observed it breeding in marshy districts 
in Mongolia. Hartert also records it from the Tian Shan, Charai, Nan Shan, 
Kuku Nor, to the upper Chuan-che and Kan-su. A smaller race {A. in- 

* Bhamphocorys clot-bey Bp. which is found on the N. edge of the Sahara 
in Algeria and Tunis, has not been recorded from Europe. Sitting bird and eggs 
figured by Konig, Journ. f. Orn. 1895, Tab. XIV. 



141 

fuscatus Blyth) has been found nesting on the low hills near Fu-chau by 
Rickett and La Touche. 

Placed on the ground, often in a hoof print, and difficult to find, Nest. 
as the hen runs from the nest when warned by the cock, which is always 
on the watch. La Touche and Rickett describe the nest of A. ricliardi 
infiiscatus as a loose cup of dry grass with sometimes a few twigs or a 
little moss, placed in a hollow under a thick grass tuft {This 1905, p. 47). 

4 — 6 in number, varying in ground colour from pale olive or greenish Eggs. 
grey to dirty pink, and as a rule thickly marked with fine olive or reddish 
brown spots and obscure underlying grey markings. Like so many Pipits' 
eggs, they tend to fall into two types, a greenish and a reddish one. Some 
varieties have been compared to eggs of the Shore Lark and White Wagtail. 
Those of A. r. infiiscatus from Foh-kien are boldly spotted. 

Apparently in the first half of June in Siberia, while Dybowski is Breeding 
of opinion that a second brood is reared in July. The southern race breeds ^*^*^°"- 
in Foh-kien in April and May. 

Average of 24 eggs (10 by DyboAvski, 12 by the writer, etc.), Measure- 
21.38 X 16.4 mm., Max. 23 X 17.2 mm., Min. 20 X 16.5 and 20.8 X 15.4 '"^°*'- 
mm. Weight of 1 eg^^ 167 mg. (Rey). Four eggs of A. r. infiiscatus 
are smaller, averaging 20.05 X 14.95 mm. 

73. Tawny Pipit, Aiitliiis eampestris (L.). 

Plate 18, fig. 5—8 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXV, fig. 13, a — c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 35, fig. 2. Taczanowski, Tab. LX, fig. 2. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 14; 
id. Col. Fig., pi. 58 a. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Linduska rolni. Denmark: Markpiher. 
France: Pipi rousseline. Germany: Brachjneper. Holland: Duinpiepe?'. 
Hungary: Parlagi pipis. Italy: Calandro. Poland: Siviergotek rudaivy. 
Portugal: Curintuni, B^nssia: Stscheivritza polewaya. Sardinia: Fanfarrone. 
Sweden: Fjcill Pipldrka. 

Anthus eampestris L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 592; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, HI, p. 317; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 218; Saunders, Man., p. 137. 
A. eampestris eampestris L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 267. 

Breeding Range: From mid Sweden and the Gulf of Finland south- 
ward locally over the whole of Europe, but absent from Norway, the 
British Isles, Iceland, etc. [Also found in N. Africa, Palestine and Asia 
Minor to Afghanistan, and S. W. Siberia.] 

In Sweden it is found in Blekinge, Halland, and is common along con- 
the sandy coast of Sk^ne as far as Kullaberff, and has been recorded from ^'°®°'^'^ 

"' o' Europe. 

Oland and S. Gotland. Apparently scarce in Denmark, it is however found 



142 

in Livonia and Esthonia, although but few records of its presence in central 
Russia exist. It is on the other hand locally common in Poland, and also 
on the! Kirghis steppes as well as in the Crimea and Caucasus districts. 
Westward it has been found breeding in suitable spots in most parts of 
the Balkan peninsula, avoiding the higher mountains and wooded districts, 
but is not common, except in a few districts, in Greece. In Austro-Hungary 
and Germany it is rather local, but is generally to be found in dry, sandy, 
barren heaths, and on the outskirts of pine forests, but is less common 
than one might expect in E. Prussia. Few pairs breed in Switzerland, and 
in Italy it is for the most part a bird of double passage, although some 
stay to nest in suitable localities throughout the country and also in Sicily. 
In Holland scattered pairs haunt the dunes along the coast and on the 
islands, as well as the inland heaths of Brabant and Gelderland; and is 
also breeds in Luxemburg (Belgium). In France it is not uncommon in 
the S., and in Spain breeds in some numbers on the dreary and forbidding- 
looking high tablelands of La Mancha and Murcia, and in scattered pairs in 
Valencia and Catalonia, while further S. in Andalucia and Granada it is a 
bird of the sierra. This appears to be the case also in Portugal, where it haunts 
high ground in the breeding season. In the Balearic Isles it is common and 
generally distributed, and is plentiful in Corsica after April (Whitehead). 
Nest. Rather a bulky structure, built of roots, stalks, etc., lined with finer 

grasses and sometimes with horsehair. Von Fiihrer noticed thistle down 
and seeds of Ranunculaceae in nests from Montenegro, and also that the 
site on rocky ground generally faced east. On the plains the nest is 
generally sheltered by a grass tussock or a dwarf bush, and in sand dunes 
is often concealed by a clump of marram grass, while in N. Africa it is 
sometimes found among growing crops, but as a rule it prefers open and 
barren country. The hen sits close and the nest is difficult to find, although 
the metallic notes of the cock, delivered in true Pipit fashion during a 
short flight, are characteristic. It is moreover a difficult bird to watch 
on broken ground owing to the extraordinary speed with which it runs. 
Diameter of cup 3 Jr in. 
Eggs. Usually 4 or 5 in number, but 6 are occasionally found. They are 

tliin shelled and have rather more gloss than most Pipits' eggs, while in 
colour they bear a remarkable resemblance to those of the Rufous and 
Grey-backed Warblers, and vary considerably. The ground colour varies 
from yellowish or even reddish white to greenish or bluish white, generally 
rather thickly spotted and streaked with reddish brown and pale inky or 
violet underlying blotches. The markings sometimes are so thick that they 
almost obscure the ground, and sometimes they tend to form a zone or cap. 
Breeding In Central Europe the eggs are seldom laid before the end of May 

or the beginning of June, and probably one brood is reared; the July nests 



Season. 



143 

which are occasionally met with being probably second layings. In Monte- 
negro von Fiihrer took 13 nests between May 17 and July 14. Apparently 
in N, Africa two broods are reared, for Whitaker says that eggs may be 
taken in April, May and June in Tunis. 

Average of 137 eggs (43 by Bau, 40 by Rey and 54 by the writer), Measure- 
21.96X15.75 mm.. Max. 23.8X16.6 and 22.5X17.1 mm., Min. 19X15 '''^°^'- 
and 20 X 14.6 mm. The variation in size apparently does not depend upon 
locality. Hartert mentions an abnormally large egg, 24.6 X 17.4 mm. Average 
weight of 43 eggs (Bau), 156 mg., of 40 eggs (Rey), 158 mg. 

[In the Canary Isles fi'om Lanzarote to Ferro is found Berthelot's Pipit, 
Anthus berthelotii Bolle. Eggs figured in Journ. f. Ornith. 1890, Tab. VIII, fig. 7. 
They are usually 4 in number, and resemble rather pale eggs of the Meadow- 
Pipit. Breeding season from March to May. Average size of 60 eggs (19 by 
Konig, 14 by Bau and 27 by the writer), 19.2 X 14.6 mm., Max. 20.6 X 14.6 and 
20 X 15.2 mm., Min. 18 X 14.5 and 18.5 X 14 mm. Average weight of 14 eggs, 
122 mg. (Bau). The eggs of the Madeiran race, A. berthelotii madeirensis Hart., 
are variable in size, ranging according to Schmitz from 21 — 17.5 X 16.5 — 14.5 mm., 
and may be found from the beginning of February (on low g'round) till August 
(on the hills).] 

73. Tree Pipit, Autlius trivialis (L.). 
Plate 18, fig. 9—18 (Germany), 41, fig. 10 (Anhalt, coll. Rey). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXV, fig. 7, a— f. Hewitson, I. Ed. I, 
pi. CXIV; II. Ed. I, pi. XXXV; III. Ed. I, pi. XLIII. Baedeker, Tab. 35, 
fig. 8. Taczanowski, Tab. LXI, fig. 1 — 3. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 14; 
id. Col. Fig., pi. 58 a. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. Ill, fig. 97—100. 

Nest: 0. Lee, I, p. 136. 

British Local Names: Tit-, Bank, Field, Tree, or Blood Lark. 
Welsh: Ehedydd or Pihganivr y coed. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Lindiiska lesni. Denmark: Traepiber. 
Finland: Mettdkirvinen. France: Pipi des arhres. Germany: Bauynpieper. 
Holland: Boompieper. Hungary: Erdei pipis. Italy: Prispolone. Norway: 
Traepiplaerke. Poland: Siviergotek drzeivny. Russia: Lasnoi konok. Sweden: 
TradinpMrka. 

Antilles trivialis (L.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 569; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, III, p. 309; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 211; Saunders, Man., p. 131. 
A. trivialis trivialis (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 272. 

Breeding Range: Europe generally, from lat. 69° in Scandinavia and 
66" in N. E. Russia to the Cantabrian and Pyrenean Mountains, mid-Italy 
and the Caucasus. [Also from lat. 62° in Siberia to N. Palestine, etc.] 

In England this species is generally distributed, except in the most British 
barren and treeless districts, such as the high moorlands and W. Cornwall, 
and in some of our well wooded valleys is exceedingly common. In Wales 



144 

it is also common in all the wooded parts of the country, and is found in 
smaller numbers on the bare hillsides of N. Wales up to about 1500 ft. 
(Forrest). It is rare in Anglesea and absent from the Isle of Man. In 
Scotland it is less numerous, except perhaps in the S. W., but exists 
sporadically in suitable spots along the W. coast to Assynt. It is of course 
not found on the higher mountains, but is common in Inverness, and was 
found breeding in E. Sutherland in 1875 by Buckley, for the first time. 
In the Orkneys it has been only once noticed in summer, and is absent 
from the Hebrides. In Ireland it is not known to breed, and is also absent 
from the Fseroes and Iceland. 
Con- In Spain the Tree Pipit is found locally N. of the Cantabrian Mountains 

hnentai ^g^ntander. Ibis, 1883, p. 184), a fact which seems to have been overlooked 
by most writers. In the Pyrenees it is scarce, but throughout the whole 
of central Europe it is found wherever the country is sufficiently wooded, 
breeding in the Alps in some cases as high as the limits of tree growth. 
In Italy it is confined to the uplands of the northern provinces and the Po 
valley, and in the Balkan peninsula it breeds commonly in Rumania and 
Bulgaria, not only in the plains, but also in the mountains to far beyond 
the tree limit, nesting in company with the Alpine Pipit at a height of 
about 5100 ft. South of the Balkans it appears to be found only on 
migration, but in Russia it breeds in the Crimea, and in the Caucasus not 
only in the forest, but also in the subalpine zone, beyond the tree limit. 
In the north it is found commonly in the wooded parts of Norway up to 
lat. 69°, and in Finnish Lapland its range extends to Enare, while in the 
Kola peninsula a few occurrences have been reported from the Kandalax 
district, and in the Petschora valley it was observed by Seebohm at Ust- 
Tsilma (lat. 66°). 

Nest. In the British Isles the nest is found in hedge banks, meadows, parks, 

rough pasture, the outskirts of woods, and occasionally in plantations Avhere 
there is not much undergrowth. Another favourite spot is on the side 
of a railway cutting or embankment. Generally the nest is placed within 
a short distance of a tree or bush, but occasionally at some considerable 
distance from anything of the kind, and it is said to be sometimes placed 
in cornfields. It is built in a small hollow, generally sheltered by a tussock, 
and consists of dead grasses, stalks, moss, etc., lined with finer grasses and 
sometimes, but not always, with horsehair. Von Mojsisovic asserts that 
in Hungary it is frequently found in reed beds! Diameter of cup 2\ — 2f in., 
depth li— If in. 

Eggs. The number of eggs laid varies according to locality from 4 to 6 as 

a rule. In Northumberland and Durham about 30 per cent of the nests 
contain 6 eggs, and it is comparatively rare to find 4 only; while in 
S. Derbyshire the normal set consists of 5, often 4, but rarely 6. Instances 



145 

of 7 eggs in a nest have occurred in Durham (twice), N. Wales, Pomerania, 
etc., but the largest clutch I know of is one of 8 eggs in J. G, Tuck's 
collection, taken in W. Suffolk. In Germany 11 per cent of the nests found 
by Rey contained 6 eggs, and the remainder 5. The variation in colour 
and markings is extraordinary. It is almost impossible to describe all the 
known varieties, of which eleven of the more usual types are figured on 
Plate 18. Exceptionally eggs with purple blotches on a pale blue ground 
have been met with. (R. H. Read.) Roughly classifying the eggs as 'grey' 
or 'brown' and 'red' in general effect, it will be found that among the 'grey' 
eggs in some cases a few bold spots only of dark sepia with soft edges 
are found, in others the spots are evenly distributed as in Motacilla alba 
(fig. 9), and sometimes the ground is almost completely concealed (fig. 10), 
or else the spots form a cap or zone (fig. 11). Somewhat similar variations 
are to be found among the 'red' eggs, and occasionally a bold spot or hair 
line almost black in colour is found at the big end. There is always a great 
similarity in appearance between eggs from the same nest. The curious 
egg figured on Plate 41 appears to have all the colouring matter con- 
centrated on one half of the egg. It will be noticed that some eggs show 
much more gloss than others. 

In England the breeding season begins about mid May, and fresh Breeding 
eggs may be obtained till the beginning of July, but most eggs are laid ^®^^°"- 
in the midlands between May 20 and June 10. In Germany the nesting 
time is very similar, but most eggs are found in June; and in the high 
north eggs are rarely found before the middle of the month. In most 
cases only one brood is reared, but apparently a second is sometimes 
hatched off. When surprised on the nest the hen will sometimes run a 
few yards in order to draw attention from the eggs, but as a rule she 
does not sit very closely, but slips off and joins the cock in uttering the 
monosyllabic alarm note, while the intruder remains in the neighbourhood. 

Average of 174 eggs (82 by Bau, 72 by Rey and 20 by the writer), Measure- 
20.09 X 15.1 mm.. Max. 23.4 X 15.4 and 23 X 17.2 mm., Min. 18 X 14 "''°*'- 
mm. A dwarf egg measures 13 X 10.1 mm. (Derbyshire). Average weight 
of 82 eggs, 132 mg. (Bau), of 72 eggs, 135 mg. (Rey). 

74. Petschora Pipit, Anthus gustavi Swiiih. 

Plate 26, fig. 11 (R. Yenesei, 3. VII. 77, Seebohm). 

Anthus seehohmi Dress. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 295. A. 
gustavi Sw^inh. Id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 217; Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 
p. 274. 

Breeding Range: N. E. Russia, from the lower Petschora eastward. 
[Also N. Siberia eastward to Bering's Sea.] 

10 



146 

Con- Seebohm and Harvie Brown found this species breeding on the swampy 

tinentai ^^^^j-g^ [^ \^q Petschora valley, about 674" N., beyond the limits of forest 

Europe. _ . . . " . 

growth, but interspersed with willow thickets, in June 1875. It was not 

uncommon near Alexievna and several nests were brought in by natives, 

but was not observed further north. [In Siberia Finsch and Brehm 

recorded it from the estuary of the Ob in 1876: Seebohm found it common 

about lat. 704° in the Yenesei valley in 1877; Popham took one nest in 

lat. 69" 40' in 1897, and afterwards found it breeding in some numbers in 

the marshes N. of Toorrukhansk in 1900, obtaining four nests. It has also 

been obtained in Tschuski Land, N. of Kamtschatka and on Bering Island.] 

Nest. Popham describes the first nest found by him as placed in a rather 

swampy place among dwarf willows, well hidden by a tussock of grass, 

which quite concealed the eggs. The bird fluttered along on the ground 

when flushed from the nest. Seebohm observes that the materials used 

are chiefly flat leaved grasses and water plants, with small leaves, and 

occasionally a few dwarf Equiseta. 

Eggs. 4 — 5 in number, and variable in colouring, some eggs being almost 

uniform dark brown, with a black hairstreak or spot, while others are 

much lighter, being almost covered with smaU yellowish brown spots, in 

some cases with purplish marbling and in others with a dark cap or zone 

at the big end. 

Breeding On the Petschora Seebohm obtained fresh eggs from June 22 to the 

Season. ^^^^ week of July. On the Yenesei Popham took a nest on June 26, and 

Seebohm received eggs at the end of June and early July, while young 

were being fed by the parent birds on July 25. 

Measure- Average of 14 eggs in the British Museum, 21.36 X 14.76 mm.. Max. 

ments. 22 X 15.2 mm., Min. 20.5 X 15 and 22 X 14 mm. According to Dresser 

however they range from 24.9 X 16.5 to 20.3 X 14.7 mm. 

75. Meadow Pipit, Antlius i)ratensis L. 

Plate 17, fig. 22—27 (Lapland). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXV, fig. 8, a— c. Hewitson, L Ed. I, 
pi. LXVm, fig. 2, 3; II. Ed. I, pi. XXXVI, fig. 1; III. Ed. I, pi. XLIV, 
fig. 1, 2. Baedeker, Tab. 35, fig. 5. Taczanowski, Tab. LXI, fig. 4. See- 
bohm, Br. Birds, pi. 14; id. Col. Fig., pi. 58 a. Frohawk, Br. Birds, pi. Ill, 
fig. 101. 

British Local Names: Tit-, Ground, Mountain, Meadoiv or Peat 
Lark; Ling Bird, Moor Titling or Peep. Welsh: Ehedydd Bach, Owas 
y gog. Manx: Ushag y veet. Scotland: Moss Cheeper, Cheefinch, Heather 
Lintie. Orkneys: Teeting. Shetlands: Teetick, Hill Sparrow. Gaelic: 
Glasian. Erse: Kirkeen (phon.). 



147 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: LindusJca lucni. Denmark: Eng- Fiber. 
Finland: Heindkirvinen. France: Pipi des pres. Germany: Wiesenpieper. 
Holland: Oraspieper. Hungary: Reti Pipis. Iceland: Grdtitlingur. Italy: 
Pispola. Lapland: Cici-cicas. Norway: Engpiplaerke. Poland: Swiergotek 
laczny. Portugal: Petinha. Russia: Lugovoi konek. Sweden: Angpiplcirka. 
Spain: Cinceta. 

Anthus pratensis L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 575; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, UI, p. 285; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 210; Saunders, Man., p. 133; 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 275. 

Breeding Range: Iceland, the Faeroes, the British Isles, and Con- 
tinental Europe, but absent from the Iberian peninsula, the Mediterranean 
Islands, and the Balkan peninsula, and rare in S. Italy. [Also Siberia (valley 
of the Ob) and Turkestan.] 

In Great Britain this bird is very generally distributed throughout most British 
of the open country,* avoiding only the thickly wooded and highly cultivated ^^^®^' 
parts, and is equally at home in the marshes by the sea shore and on the 
high moorlands some thousands of feet above the sea. It is also found in 
nearly all the islands round our coasts, including the Isle of Man, the Hebrides, 
Orkneys, Shetlands, etc., and has even been recognized on S. Kilda. In 
Ireland it is also common and general. 

Besides being common on the Faeroes and found in Iceland up to Con- 
the limits of plant growth, it is found on suitable QTOund throughout the ^°^'^*^^ 

, ~ ° Europe. 

greater part of the Continent. In Scandinavia it occurs chiefly on the fjeld 
above the coniferous belt in the S., but in the N. is met with at all heights, 
up to the N. Cape, and is found in Finland commonly as far as N. Lap- 
land. In N. Russia its range extends to the Archangel government, where 
it is common on the Murman coast and has been found nestinsr at the 
mouth of the Petschora, but does not breed on Kolguev or Novaya Zemlya. 
Over the great European plain it is generally distributed where the country 
is suited to it, but its breeding range does not extend to the Iberian 
peninsula, where it is only known as a winter visitor. It is also scarce 
in the south of France, and though a few pairs remain to breed on high 
ground even in the southern provinces of Italy, it is chiefly found on double 
passage. In the mountain ranges of central Europe it has been found 
nesting at a height of over 3000 ft. Formerly a few pairs were supposed 
to breed in the mountains of the Balkan peninsula, but later observations 
show that it only occurs there on passage. It is known to nest in the 
Carpathians, but probably only occurs on migration in S. Russia. [East 
of the Urals it is found in W. Siberia as far as the Ob vaUey and 

* It is however unaccountably rare or altogether absent in some districts, 
such as Oxfordshire (0. V. Aplin). 

10^^ 



148 

in N. Turkestan. In Palestine Tristram observed a few pairs up to mid 
summer.] 
Nest. In the British Islands on low ground the nest is generally found in 

marshy places, neatly concealed by a grass tussock or sometimes rushes, 
but on the rough pastures and moorlands it is often found among the 
heather. Other sites are on the edges of peat cuttings, in the scanty 
grass growing among the sandhills by the sea coast, and the nest is said 
to have been found in cornfields in the south of England. It is generally 
well hidden, and the hen sits very closely and can be caught on the nest 
without difficulty when its position is known. In Iceland it is sometimes 
placed quite out of sight in some fissure in the ground. It is slight in 
construction, and Lilford compares it to the inner cup of the Tree Pipit's 
nest. The materials used are dead grasses and bents, sometimes with a 
little moss in the foundation, lined with finer grasses and horsehair. Dia- 
meter of cup about 2-lr in., depth l-J — li in. 
Eggs. In the British Isles 4 to 6 in number as a rule, while a nest with 

7 eggs has been found on the Yorkshire moors. In Iceland usually 5 — 6, 
once 7 (Hantzsch); while in Norway out of 14 nests found on the fjeld, 
7 contained 6 eggs and 3 held 7. As a rule they show less variation than 
those of the Tree Pipit, and generally belong to a brown or grey type, 
thickly covered with fine spots, and often with a black hairstreak at the 
big end. The pink type so common in the Tree Pipit only occurs very 
rarely, and closely resembles that of the Grasshopper Warbler. Eggs with 
a bluish ground and few, if any, pale grey markings are also occasionally 
found, while others are greenish in tint. A remarkable set from Scotland 
has Bunting-like streaks on a dull stone coloured ground, and an Irish 
set has deep rich brown caps to the big end (Brit. Mus.). 

Breeding In the British Isles two broods are generally reared. The first eggs 

are found about April 20 in S. England and about a week later in Wales, 
but not till mid-May in the Shetlands. From this time onward they may 
be found through May and June till early in July. In Iceland rarely before 
June; in S. Scandinavia however the first eggs are laid in May, but in 
the high North often not till mid-June, while in the European plain 
the breeding season does not begin till early in May. Incubation lasts 
13—14 days. 

Measure- Average of 143 eggs (48 by Rey, 43 by Bau and 52 by the writer), 

19.34X14.19 mm., Max. 21.3X15.2 mm., Min. 17.2X13.1 and 17.7X13 
mm. A dwarf egg from Westmoreland in the Brit. Mus. measures 10.3X8.6 
mm. Average weight of 43 eggs (Bau), 121 mg., of 48 eggs (Rey), 114 mg. 
23 full eggs from Ireland average 2.196 g. in weight (Foster). Curiously 
enough Icelandic eggs are rather small; average of 16, 18.36X13.98 mm. 
(Hantzsch). 



Season. 



ments. 



149 

76. Red Ibreasted Pipit, Antlius cervinus Pall. 

Plate 18, fig. 1—4 (Lapland). 

Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 35, fig. 7. Naumannia, 1854, Taf. 3, fig. 4. 
Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 14; id. Col. Fig., pi. 58 a. Newton, Ootheca 
WoUeyana, Tab. XI, fig. 7—12. 

Nest: Pearson, 'Beyond Petsora', pi. 31. 

Foreign Names: Finland: Peurakirvinen. France: Pipi a gorge 
rousse. Germany: RotkeJiliger Pieper. Poland: Siviergotek rdzawoszyjny. 
Sweden: Bodstriipig Angpiplcirka. 

Antlms cervinus Pall. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 299; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 213; Saunders, Man., p. 135. A. cervina Pall. Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 277. 

Breeding Range: N. Europe within the Arctic circle. [Also N. 
Siberia to Kamtschatka and the Aleutian Isles.] 

In Norway this species breeds in the Tromso Stift, and in E. Finmark con- 
is even commoner than the Meadow Pipit. In W. Finmark it is not un- ^°^° * 
common, and also nests in Tromso Amt, but is not certainly known to 
breed S. of the Arctic circle, though it is said to have bred near Trondhjem 
(Collett). In Sweden it was first found nesting in 1867 on the Russian 
border, in Torne^ Lapmark and on Ounastuntura, and in 1904 S. A. Davies 
found it common on the bogs at the head of the Kongama (lat. 69° N.). 
Along the coast of Russian Lapland it is locally common, especially near 
the lakes and on marshy ground, but does not appear to range far inland. 
East of the White Sea it breeds on Kolguev, and is quite common on 
Wai'gatz and Dolgoi, while it has been observed on the S. Island of 
Novaya Zemlya, but has not been proved to breed there. On the mainland 
it is also found on the tundra beyond the limit of forest growth, and is 
plentiful in the Petschora valley (lat. 68").* [Further east it is found in 
the Taimyr peninsula and on the tundra of N. Siberia.] 

During the breeding season it chiefly haunts swampy ground, and Nest, 
as a rule places its nest in a recess of one of the big hummocks or tussocky 
ridges so often met with in bogs. Sometimes the nesting ground is overgrown 
with willow scrub and dwarf birch. Collett mentions a nest under a willow 
bush, and Pearson found one in a hole 6 in. deep, and another in an old 
lemming burrow. Almost invariably the nest is well sheltered and concealed, 
but that figured by Pearson was built in the open, among grass — a most 
exceptional site. It is built of grasses and bents, and in some districts a 
little hair is woven into the lining, while in others this is altogether 
wanting. No feathers are ever used. 

* Alston and Harvie Brown also record it from the Dwina delta (Ibis, 
1873, p. 61). 



150 

Eggs. Generally 5 or 6, while on one occasion Pearson found a nest with 

7 eggs. They vary in the most extraordinary manner, even in the same 
nest; so that in a large series some eggs will be fomid to resemble those 
. of the Lapland Bunting, while others recall those of the Meadow Pipit, 
Blue headed Wagtail, Tree Pipit and even Tree Sparrow! Some show a 
pale bluish green ground with numerous fine spots; others are finely stippled 
all over with pale ochreous and have a dark hair line at the big end, while 
a third type has bold blotches and streaks of sepia, and a very characteristic 
variety is clouded with rich maroon or mahagony colour, sometimes entirely 
obscuring the ground, and varying in depth from the palest shade to almost 
blackish red or dark olive. The rich red type seems to be characteristic, but 
careful authentication is always necessary. Collett remarks that spiral 
lines, though not invariably present, are frequently met with. 

Breeding On the Kongama Davies took the first clutch on June 17, and in 

eason. p^j^mark the breeding season appears to begin about June 20, but fresh 
eggs (perhaps second layings) may be obtained till the beginning of July. 
On the lower Petschora the time is rather earlier, as out of 39 eggs obtained 
by Seebohm and Harvie Brown on June 22, many were much incubated. 
Most clutches taken by Pearson in the first fortnight of July on Kolguev 
and Waigatz were hard sat, and young were seen on the wing on Dolgoi 
on July 20, so that the breeding season varies but little. 

Measure- Average of 100 eggs (33 by Rey and 67 by the writer), 19.23 X 14.24 

°'^°*'- mm., Max. 21 X 14.3 and 18.1 X 15.1 mm., Min. 17.1 X 13.9 and 18 X 13.4 
mm. They are slightly smaller than eggs of the Lapland Bunting, but do 
not differ appreciably from those of the Meadow Pijnt in size. They are 
however decidedly lighter than Lapland Buntings' eggs. Average weight 
according to Rey, 127 mg., but 20 eggs taken by Ottosson only average 
114 mg. 

77. Rock or Alpine Pii)it, Antliiis spinoletta (L.). 
Geographical Races. 

a. Alpine Pipit, A. spinoletta spinoletta (L.). 
Plate 17, fig. 13—16 (Switzerland). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXV, fig. 9, 10, a — c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 35, fig. 3. Taczanowski, Tab. LIX, fig. 1. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Linduska vodni. France: Pipi spioncelle. 
Germany: Wasserpieper. Hungary: Havasi pipis. Italy: Spioncello. Poland: 
Siviergotek nadivodny. Spain: Espioncela. 

Anthus spipoletta (L.). Newton, ed. YarreU, I, p. 581; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, III, p. 335; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 214; Saunders, Man., p. 141. 
A. sinnoletta spinoletta (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 279. 



151 

Breeding Range: The higher mountain ranges of central and 
southern Europe. [Also in Asia Minor.] 

The evidence of the breeding of this species in the Iberian peninsula Con- 
is not altogether satisfactory. Irby recorded it from the Sierra del Nino, ^J)^^ ^ 
near Tarifa at 2500 ft., but only speaks of it as a winter visitor to the 
coast in the Ornith. of the Straits of Gibraltar (2nd. Ed.). Arevalo quotes 
Seoane as recording it from the Sierra Nevada, and also mentions San Ildefonso, 
but gives no details. In the Pyrenees however it is very common on the 
bare uplands above the forest belt to above the snow line, both on the 
French and Spanish sides, and Eagle Clarke met with it in Andorra up to 
8200 ft. In France it is found in the Vosges Mts., and is also generally 
distributed throughout the whole Alpine region up to about 7500 ft., from 
the Basses Alpes through Switzerland to the Tyrol. In Germany it is found 
in the Schwarzwald, Thiiringer Wald, Rauhe Alp, Bavarian Alps, and 
especially on the Sudeten (Riesengebirge) on the Bohemian border. It is 
found also in many other districts of Austro-Hungary, the Carpathian range, 
the Transylvanian Mts., Com. Banat in Hungary, Bosnia, Herzegovina, the 
Semmering Alps, Styria, Carinthia, etc. In Italy it is said to be found 
in the Lombardy highlands, the Apennines and even Calabria. In the Balkan 
peninsula it is known to inhabit the grassy uplands of Montenegro, Albania 
and the Rhodope Dagh, but is only a winter visitor to Greece. It has been 
obtained in Sardinia in spring, and probably breeds there. In the Caucasus, 
and perhaps also in the Urals, it is replaced by A. s. Uakistoni. 

Usually cunningly concealed in a hollow under a grass tussock, at Nest. 
other times under shelter of a Rhododendron bush, or even in a crevice 
of the rocks, or among stones. It is built of coarse grasses and stalks of 
Alpine plants, often with roots attached, and sometimes also moss, lined 
with finer bents and a few hairs, and occasionally a feather or bit of wool. 
It is a difficult nest to find, and the birds are generally wary, but where 
they are plentiful the hen may occasionally be flushed from the eggs. 

Usually 5, but sometimes 4 or 6.* They do not vary much, and the Eggs. 
bright red variety has apparently not occurred. The greyish white ground 
colour is almost hidden by innumerable ashy, brownish olive, or purplish 
brown spots. Some eggs show a tendency to a cap or zone of dark spots 
and there is occasionally a dark hair streak at the big end. 

In the Alps the first eggs are laid at the end of April or early in Breeding 
May, but as they may occasionally be found in June and even early in ^^^on. 
July it is probable that a second brood is sometimes reared. In Carinthia 
Keller took a full clutch as early as April 27, but most eggs are laid in 

* Naumann speaks of clutches of 7 and 3 as rare, but I can find no con- 
firmation of the statement. 



ments. 



152 

May in Central Europe. In the Pyrenees the best time appears to be the 
last week in May and the first days of June. 
Measure- Average of 100 eggs (55 by Rey and 45 by the writer), 21.3 X 15,52 

mm., Max. 24 X 15.8 and 22.5 X 16.5 mm., Min. 19.3 X 14.9 mm. Average 
weight, 152 mg. (Rey). Exceptional eggs are recorded by Blasius (24 X 15.2 
mm.) and Prazak (18.9 X 14 mm.). 

b. Blakiston's Pipit, A. spinoletta blakistoni Swinh. 

Breeding Range: Caucasus and probably also the S. Urals. [Also 
Turkestan, Tian Shan, Altai, and Nan Shan to Chuanche.] 

Common above the tree limit throughout the Caucasus according to 
Radde. Some form of this species also occurs in the Urals up to lat. 64° N. 
On the Nan Shan Przewalski found a nest at a height of 11,200 ft. 

c. American Pipit, A. spinoletta pensilvanicus (Lath.). 

Plate 17, fig. 19—21 (Labrador). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXV, fig. 9, a— c. Baedeker, Tab. 35, 
fig. 6. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 14. 

Breeding Range: Subarctic N. America fi'om Alaska to Greenland, 
and on the mountains above the tree limit as far S. as Colorado. (Has occurred 
on Helgoland). 

For nesting notes see Cones, Birds of the North West, p. 40, Macoun, Cat. 
Canadian Birds, p. 652, etc. Rey describes the eggs as intermediate between those 
of A. pratensis and A. cervinus. Those which I have seen were very variable, 
some showing a tendency towards the pink type, while others resembled the dark 
brown type of A. cervinus eggs, or typical eggs of A. pratensis. 

Average of 44 eggs (20 by Rey and 24 by the writer), 19.54X14.58 mm., 
Max. 23.2X15.3 and 22X16 mm., Min. 17.2X14 mm. Average weight, 126 mg. (Rey). 

d. British Rock Pipit, A. spinoletta obscurus (Lath.). 

Eggs: Hewitson, I. Ed. I, pi. LXVIII, fig. 1; II. Ed. I, pi. XXXVI, 
fig. 2; III. Ed. I, pi. XLIV, fig. 3. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 14; id. Col. Fig., 
pi. 58a. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. Ill, fig. 102. 

Nest: 0. Lee, III, p. 132. 

British Local Names: Sea Titling, RocTi, Sea, or Sand Lark. 
Scillies: Pinnick. Welsh: Ehedydd hacJi. I. of Man: Sea Lark. Scotland: 
Sea Lintie. Orkneys and Shetlands: Tang Sparroiv, Teetick. Ireland: 
Hock Lark. Erse: Kirkeen traw. 

Foreign Name: France: Pipi des roches. 

Anthus ohscurus (Lath.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 586; Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, III, p. 343; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 216; Saunders, Man., p. 143. 
A. spinoletta obscura (Lath.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 283. 

Breeding Range: Coasts of British Isles, Channel Isles and N. W. 
France. 



153 

On all tlie rocky and precipitous coasts of the British Isles this bird British 
is found in the breeding season, but as a rule it avoids the low lying ^ ®^' 
portions of our shores at this time, though not uncommon there during 
the winter months. Thus it is not known to breed in Lincolnshire or East 
Anglia, but on the other hand the nest has been found among the sandhills 
of Walney Island, and Macpherson says that a pair or so may be found 
in the Solway marshes, while a few breed even on the flat coast of Louth, 
It shows a great partiality for islands, and there are few outlying holms 
that are not tenanted by this bird, from the Blaskets and Scillies to 
S. Kilda and the Shetlands. It is strictly maritime in its habits, and is 
seldom seen at any distance from the sea.* 

On the Channel Islands it is very numerous, especially on Alderney, Con- 
Sark, and Herm, as well as the adjacent islets, and is also found on the ^°^° ^ 
rocky and broken coast and islets of N. W. France. On Ushant it is plentiful 
according to Eagle Clarke. 

As a rule the nest is not an easy one to find, as the cock is usually Nest. 
on the look out, and at his warning the hen slips quietly away from the 
eggs. Both parents show great anxiety as long as one remains anywhere 
near the nesting place. The site too is very variable: sometimes the nest 
may be found within a few feet of high water, while at other times it 
may be high up on some towering cliff, and Eagle Clarke took a nest on 
Foula at a height of 1300 ft. It is often placed deep in a crevice of the 
rocks, so that it is sometimes necessary to remove stones from the opening 
before the eggs can be reached. The entrance is often partly concealed 
by some maritime plant or by a curtain of ivy. Other sites which have 
occasionally been used are holes in old walls and in the soil at the top 
of cliffs, old rabbit or puffin burrows, on a shelf in a sea cave (Ussher), 
in the cabin of an old fishing smack (Harvie Brown), or the wreck of a 
boat (Seebohm), on low banks overgrown with grass, under bracken in the 
Scillies (Frohawk), and in thick beds of sea campion or nettles, and 
according to Dixon under heaps of dry seaweed. In the Orkneys it has 
been known to breed among loose stones, on the beach or on the top of 
the cliffs; while in Wexford Ussher says that it generally nests on the 
slopes of grassy banks or low cliffs. Dry grasses and bents are the 
usual materials, generally with more or less horsehair in the lining, 
but moss and seaweeds are also occasionally used, and Borrer records a nest 

* It should however be mentioned that Pipits, supposed to be of this species, 
have been observed far inland in Wales during the breeding" season by Davenport 
(near Bala and on Aran Mt.), Walpole Bond (nest found on the Brecon border), 
and others, while Harting has met with them in the Mangerton Mts., Co. Kerry 
at 2756 ft. (see The Field, Mar. 3 to April 20, 1901). The matter however needs 
further investigation. 



Season. 



154 

from Eastbourne built of seaweed, mixed with tbe egg capsules of the whelk 
{Buccinum undatiim). Dixon noticed a large gull's feather in the lining 
of a nest on the Fames. 
Eggs. 4 — 5 in number, but Aplin found a nest with 6 highly incubated 

eggs in Carnarvonshire. In colour they vary from greenish white, closely 
freckled with greyish brown {Motacilla type), to dirty white, mottled and 
sometimes almost obscured by olive or reddish brown, with grey underlying 
markings. In some eggs the markings are bold and at times they are 
concentrated in a zone or cap at the big end. One egg of this type in 
the British Museum is almost white, with a dark brown cap. Erythristic 
varieties are not uncommon. Ussher has taken eggs with specks of red 
and violet on a pinkish ground in Kerry {Anthus trivialis type); on the 
W. coast of Great Britain the red spotted type occurs occasionally, F. C. 
Selous took a clutch with dark red spots and a few grey underlying marks 
on a bright salmon pink ground in the Orkneys, and a pale brick dust 
coloured form has been taken on Foula (Eagle Clarke). 

Breeding Two broods appear to be usually reared, and the first eggs are laid 

in April (April 17, hard sat eggs on the I. of Man, F. S. Graves; May 7, 
young in nest, Wexford, Poole), but most birds lay during the last days 
of April and the first half of May, while the best time for eggs of the 
second brood is in the first week of June in the S., and the second or 
third in the N. of the British Isles. 

Measure- Average of 100 eggs from the British Isles measured by the writer, 

21.29X15.91 mm.. Max. 24X16.2 (S. Kilda) and 20.5X17.2 mm., 
Min. 17.8 X 15.3 (Waterford) and 20.5 X 14.1 mm. As a rule they are 
decidedly larger than eggs of A. pratensis, but as will be seen the measure- 
ments of the two species overlap. A. H. Evans has clutches of remarkably 
small eggs, authenticated by himself and T. E. Buckley, which are quite 
indistinguishable from typical Meadow Pipits' eggs. Average weight of 
4 Scotch eggs, 160 mg. Four full eggs from Ireland average 3.054 g. 
(Foster). 

e. Fseroe Rock Pipit, A. spinoletta kleiiisclimidti Hart. 

Local Name: Fseroes: Oraatujtlingur. 

A. spinoletta kleinschmidti. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 284. 

Breeding Range: The Fseroes. 

Feilden describes this race as extremely abundant, though confined 
to the coast. Bunyard however observed a pair or two in the mountains 
at a moderate height in 1905. In nesting habits it resembles our British 
bird, and lays 4 — 5 eggs, which vary in much the same way, but there 
is not a single erythristic specimen among the very large series in the 
British Museum collected by Miiller, and one or two eggs show a dark 
hair streak at the big end. Miiller took a nest with 4 eggs on April 29, 



ments. 



155 

1868, and noticed a bird building on April 4, but the great majority of 
his nests were taken in the latter half of May and in June, Average size 
of 100 eggs measured by the writer, 22.21 X 16.11 mm.. Max. 24 X 16.5 
and 22.5 X 17 mm., Min. 19 X 14.2 mm. The last measurement is taken 
from a clutch which is somewhat smaller than any of the others. As will 
be seen at once, the eggs of this form are on an average decidedly larger 
than those of A. s. ohscurus. 

f. Scandinavian Rock Pipit, A. spinoletta littoralis Brehni. 

Plate 17, fig. 17, 18 (Denmark). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfi., Tab. XXV, fig. 11, a— c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 35, fig. 4. 

Foreign Names: Denmark: Skjaer Fiber. Finland: LuotoJdrvinen. 
Norway: SkjaeryiplaerTie. Sweden: Skdr Piplcirka. 

A. ohscurus (Lath.) [part.]. Newton, ed, Yarrell, I, p. 586 {A. ru- 
pestris Nilss.); Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 343; id. Man. Pal. Birds, 
p. 216; Saunders, Man., p. 143. A. spinoletta littoralis Brehm. Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 284. 

Breeding Range: The coasts and islands of Scandinavia. 

A fairly common breeding species along the whole Norwegian coast Con- 
line and islands, but not penetrating far up the fjords, from the Cattegat 
to the Varanger Fjord. In Russian Lapland it is found W. of the Ribatchi 
peninsula, but is absent from the Murman coast and the shores of the 
White Sea. Birds from the N. (Varanger Fjord, etc.) differ somewhat as a rule 
from those found on the W. coast (See Aplin, Zool. 1896, p. 379). In 
Sweden it is found along the coast line from the most southerly part up 
to about lat, 61°, and has been recorded from Bornholm, but does not breed 
on Gotland. It has also been found nesting on some of the Danish islands 
in the Cattegat (Deget, Hirtsholmen and Nordre Ron), and Vejro in the 
Samso Belt (Winge). 

In nesting habits it resembles the British and Faeroe races. The nest Nest. 
is built of bents and moss, seaweed being also used at times, and reindeer 
hair has been found in the lining. Diameter of cup, 2f in., depth 
nearly 2 in. 

Usually 5 in number, sometimes 4. The few that I have examined Eggs. 
were rather pale in colour, and a blackish hairstreak is often found at the 
big end. Reddish types are apparently not found. 

On the west coast of Norway it is one of the earliest breeders, and Breeding 
often has young before the end of May, laying again in June, but in the 
high N. probably only one brood is reared, and the eggs are laid at the 
end of May or early in June. 



tinental 
Kurope. 



156 

Measure- Average of 19 eggs (Norway), 21.5 X 15.45 mm., Max. 24 X 17 mm. 

ments. (^esterlund), Min. 19.2X14.5 and 20.1X14.3 mm. 



78. Yellow Wagtail, Motacilla flara L. 
Geographical Races. 

a. British YeUow Wagtail, M. flava rayi (Bp.). 

Plate 19, fig. 15—18 (England). 

Eggs: Hewitson, I. Ed. I, pi. LIX, fig. 3; II. Ed. I, pi. XXXIV, fig. 3; 
III. Ed. I, pi. XLII, fig. 3. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 14; id. Col. Fig., pi. 58a. 
Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. Ill, fig. 95, 96. 

Nest: 0. Lee, IV, p. 140. 

British Local Names: Yellow Molly or Wagster, Cow Bird, Barley 
Bird, Seed Fool, Oatseed Bird. Welsh: Siglen or Tinsigl felen. Scotland: 
Oatear, Seed Lady. 

Foreign Name: France: Bergeronette a tete jaune. 

Motacilla raii (Bp.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 564; Dresser, Birds of 
Europe, III, p. 277; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 208; Saunders, Man., p. 129. 
M. flava rayi (Bp.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 294. 

Breeding Range: British Isles, N. W. France. 
British In England the Yellow Wagtail is a common summer migrant, breeding 

^ ^^" in the plains and the more open valleys, but not as a rule over about 
700 ft. In Cornwall and Devon it occurs chiefly on migration, but has 
nested in S. Devon. It is scarce in the Lake district, and absent of course 
from the great moorland district of the N. of England. In Wales it is 
exceedingly local, but two or three colonies exist in Cardigan (one on the 
Teifi bog, about 500 ft. above the sea); in Merioneth it breeds at Bala 
and near the S. W. coast, while in the N. it is local in Flint and Denbigh, 
and occurs also in the upper Severn valley; and in Brecon is common in 
the valleys of the Usk and Wye, etc. It is not found on the Isle of Man, 
and in Scotland is practically unknown N. of the Great Glen, though stated 
by Booth to breed near Inverness. In the Dee area it nests on the Aberdeen 
coast (between Don and Newburgh), and is not uncommon in some localities 
in the Forth district (Vale of Menteith, etc.). It also occurs sporadically 
in the Clyde area, and in small numbers in Tay, but further S. our in- 
formation is still defective. In Ireland its distribution is very remarkable; 
one colony breeds about Lough Neagh in Ulster; in Connaught another is 
found along the shores of Loughs Corrib, Mask, and Carra; and in 1868 
it was found breeding near Dublin, but has not been noticed there since. 
.^°°' In E. France M. flava flava appears to be prevalent, but from Dieppe 

Europe. Westward M. f. rayi is found. 



157 

Usually placed among the thickest herbage in mowing grass or pastures, Nest. 
but sometimes also in cornfields, when it is necessarily much more exposed. 
It is sometimes placed beside a bank in Ireland, or at the foot of a wall, 
but all the nests which I have seen were built in the open, though generally 
well concealed by grass. In Sealand it has been known to breed in 
strawberry and cabbage fields (Cummings). In cornfields the nest is some- 
times so low in a hoUow that the back of the sitting bird is below the 
level of the surrounding ground. The birds are wary, but their evident 
anxiety discloses the approximate position of the nest, and the hen will 
after a few tentative flights, drop on to the nest, and sits closely on being 
walked up. As a rule these birds do not breed close to one another, though 
two or three pairs may be found in the same field. Newton however 
records an exceptional case where 3 or 4 nests were placed within a few 
yards of one another annually near Thetford. Most nests are built of 
bents and roots, with sometimes a little moss, and lined with finer grasses 
and horsehair. Occasionally a little wool is also introduced, and Hewitson 
records two nests, one lined with rabbit down and the other without any hair 
in a lining of fine roots. Diameter of cup, 2^ — 2|^ in., depth, 1-^- — 1-|- in. 
It is not uncommon to find a thistle or other conspicuous plant in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the nest; and though most nests are found 
near rivers and lakes, it may be found breeding on hillsides far away from 
the nearest stream. 

Generally 5 — 6 in number, but clutches of 4 eggs have been found Eggs. 
incubated, and 7 are occasionally met with in Norfolk, while Norgate has 
one set of 8. The greyish white ground colour is almost obscured by fine 
mottling of ochreous brown, while many eggs show a blackish hair streak 
at the big end. In some cases the colour may be described as uniform 
greyish olive, and exceptionally almost white eggs have been found. There 
is generally a great similarity in colouring to the eggs of the Sedge 
Warbler, and some varieties are barely distinguishable from those of the 
Grey Wagtail. 

The usual nesting time in the S. of England is from the second week Breeding 
of May to the beginning of June, but exceptionally a full clutch may be 
taken towards the end of April.* In the midlands and N. the usual time 
is during the last week of May or the first fortnight of June: and as a 
rule it is certainly not double brooded, as stated by Dixon and others, 
though it is probable that a second brood is occasionally reared in the S., 
as fresh eggs have been found at the end of June and even in early July. 

Average size of 100 eggs measured by the writer, 19.01 X 14.15 mm., Measure- 
Max. 21.5 X 14 and 20.1 X 15.2 mm., Min. 16.9 X 12.7 (Rey coll.) and '"'"*'• 

* Eggs have also been found in Lancashire on April 26, a month earlier 
than the usual date (F. S. Mitchell). 



158 

17.2 X 12.2 mm. (dwarfs). As will be seen the variations in size and 
shape are very great, but on the average the eggs are slightly larger than 
those of the Blue headed form. Average weight (13 eggs) 110 mg. Six 
full eggs weigh 2.111 g. (Foster). 

1). Pallas's Yellow Wagtail, M. flava campestris Pall. 

Motacilla raw (Bp.) [partim.]. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 277; 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 208. M. flava campestris Pall. Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 294. 

Breeding Range: Kirghis" Steppes, from the Volga to Transcaspia. 
Has occurred in Hungary. This form closely resembles M. flava rayi in 
appearance. No authentic breeding notes available. 

e. Blue headed Wagtail, M. flava flava L. 

Plate 19, fig. 6—10 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXV, fig. 5, a — c. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. CXXXIV, fig. 1—3; II. Ed. I, pi. XXXIV, fig. 1, 2; HI. Ed. I, 
pi. XLII, fig. 2. Baedeker, Tab. 35, fig. 9. Taczanowski, Tab. LVIII, fig. 2. 
Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 14; id. Col. Fig., pi. 58a. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, 
pi. Ill, fig. 94. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Konipas zluty. Denmark: Gul vipstjert 
France: Bergeronette printaniere. Germany: Gelhe Bachstelze, Schafstelze. 
Helgoland: Blilhoaded Giihlblahher. Holland: Gele Kivikstaart. Hungary: 
Sdrga hillegeto. Norway: Gulerle. Poland: Pliszka zblta. Sweden: Guldrla. 

Motacilla flava L. Newton, ed, Yarrell, I, p. 558; Dresser, Birds of 
Europe, HI, p. 261; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 205; Saunders, Man., p. 127. 
M. flava flava L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 287. 

Breeding Range: Europe generally, excepting the British Isles, 

N. Scandinavia and Russia, the Iberian, Italian and Balkan peninsulas and 

S. Russia, where it is replaced by other forms. 

British A few iustauces of the breeding of this race in Great Britain are 

on record, usually near the coast. Hancock mentions four nests in the 

Tyne valley, near Gateshead in 1869 — 70 {Cat. Birds NortJmmherland and 

Durham, p. 60); it has also been recently recorded as breeding in Sussex, 

near Winchelsea, in 1901 and 1903 {Zool. 1901, p. 389'; 1903, p. 420), and 

subsequently in other localities (N. F. Ticehurst). It may possibly have 

also bred in Suffolk and Kent.* 

Con- In France this appears to be the prevalent form, except in the N. W. 

Europe. ^•^- /^"^^^ ^^2/*)i while Eagle Clarke observed 31. f. cinereocapilla in the 

Camargue, where it probably breeds. Possibly the Yellow Wagtails which 

breed N. of the Cantabrian Mts. in Spain also belong to this race, which is 

* See also Cambridge Phillips, Birds of Breconshire, p. 51. 



159 

found on tlie outskirts of the Pyrenees, but the limits of the various races are 
still very imperfectly known, and are complicated by the fact that two, or 
even three, forms may occur on passage in the same locality. In the 
Low Countries, Denmark, Germany, and Austro-Hungary it is tolerably 
common on suitable ground, but as a rule is absent from mountainous districts 
and dry heaths. In Switzerland it nests chiefly in the plains, but also in 
smaller numbers in the higher valleys; and in Italy appears to be restricted 
to the highlands of the Po valley. In Russia it is generally distributed 
through the Baltic Provinces, S. Finland, Central Russia and Poland. In 
Scandinavia the present form is confined to S. Norway, where it is met 
with very sparingly, and Sweden, where it is found throughout Gotarike, 
but becomes scarce in the W., and is probably not found N. of lat. 62°, 
though it is said to occur in Jemtland. 

The nest and breeding habits closely resemble those of M. f. rayi Nest. 
already described. It is always on the ground, frequently on railway em- 
bankments, at other times in rank grass in marshy meadows, or in crops 
of clover, rape, sainfoin, peas, wheat, etc. 

5 — 6 in number, though 7 are occasionally found in S. Finland Eggs. 
(Pousar). Practically all the eggs of the various races of Yellow Wagtail 
are indistinguishable, and some of the smaller eggs bear a great resemblance 
to those of the Sedge Warbler. 

Only one brood is reared annually. In Germany, Denmark, and Austro- Breeding 
Hungary eggs are seldom found before June, sometimes late in July. They 
may however be taken occasionally in the last fortnight of May, and this 
appears to be the more usual time in the Low Countries and E. France, 
while in the Swiss valleys they are still earlier. 

Average of 100 eggs (72 by Rey and 28 by the writer), 18.75X13.90 Measure- 
mm., Max. 21 X 14.3 and 19.2 X 15.2 mm., Min. 16.3 X 12.8 mm. Average ""'"*'• 
weight, 105 mg. (Rey); 108 mg. (Bau, 39 eggs). The shape and size 
of the eggs are very variable, but on the average they are a little smaller 
than those of M. f. rayi. 

d. Dombrowski's Yellow Wagtail, M. flava dombrowskii (Tsch.). 

M. flava domhroivskii (Tsch.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 289. 
Breeding Range: Wallachia, the Dobrudscha, and in small numbers 
in N. Bulgaria. 

e. Sykes's Yellow Wagtail, M. flava beema Sykes. 

M. flava heema Sykes. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 290. 
Breeding Range: W. Siberia, from Orenburg to the Yenesei. Has 
occurred in England. [Zool., 1902, p. 232, etc.) 



tinental 
Europe. 



160 

f. Grey headed Yellow Wagtail, M. flava cinereocapilla Savi. 

Plate 19, fig. 19—22. 

Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 35, fig. 10. 

Foreign Names: Italy: Cutrettola capocenerino. V ortngal: Lavandisca 
amarella. Spain: Nevadilla. 

M. flava cinereocapilla Savi. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 292. 

Breeding Range: The Iberian peninsula, Sicily, Italy (except in the 
northern highlands), Dalmatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina. [Also in N. Africa.] 
Con- In southern Spain this race is not uncommon locally in marshy spots 

in the marisma and near rivers. (Whether the breeding birds of N. Spain 
and Portugal all belong to the same form cannot be stated with certainty 
at present. In Portugal some race of Yellow Wagtail is abundant). Eagle 
Clarke observed it in the Camargue in May, and in Italy it is known to 
breed in Venetia, Tuscany and commonly in Calabria, as well as Sicily, 
but apparently not in Sardinia. Further east it is found in Dalmatia, 
N. W. Bosnia and Herzegovina. [In N. Africa it has frequently been found 
breeding, not only in Algeria, but also in Tunis.] 
Nest. Much resembles the other races in its breeding habits, nesting by 

preference in herbage close to water, but where this is lacking, it has been 
known to breed on sandy islets surrounded by water, in rushy glades of 
woods (Chapman) and in low scrub, near, but not quite on the ground 
(Noble). Where suitable nesting ground is scanty, several pairs will be 
found breeding close to one another. 
Eggs. 5 — 6 in number, and very similar to those of other races in appearance. 

In N. Africa 4 is the usual number. 
Breeding Decidedly earlier than that of the more northern races. In Spain the 

eggs are usually laid in the last ten days of April or early in May, but 
as the nest has been taken in June in N. Africa by Tristram and others 
it seems probable that two broods are reared there. 
Measure- Average of 35 eggs from S. Spain and N. W. Africa, 18.56 X 14.06 

mm.. Max. 20.5 X 14.7 and 18.6 X 15 mm., Min. 17.4 X 13.6 and 
18 X 13.5 mm. 

g. Arctic Yellow Wagtail, M. flava thunhergi Billberg.* 

Plate 19, fig. 11—14 (Lapland). 

Nest: Pearson, Three Summers in Russian Lapland, pi. 57. 
Foreign Names: Finland: Keltasirkku. Lapland: Fiskis-cicdsch. 
Sweden: Nordisk Giddrla. 

* This name is very reluctantly adopted in accordance with Lonnberg's 
paper in the Journ. f. Orn., 1906, p. 531. 



Season. 



ments. 




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Q ^9 M~ , Wi-eD Troglodytes troglodytes L. 6-8 Crested Tit, Parus cristatus L. 

17 9n P ;/■ ^^ i'*™ commums Bald. 13-16 Bearded Tit, Panurus biarmicus (L.). 

.. d r'*' ^^^^^' ''^"^"' ^^•^- ^^-24 ^^^''^^^^^^ I^- i^nicapillus Temm. 
'-5-26 (rrey-backed Warbler, Agrobates galactodes syriaca (H. & E.). 
27—30 Cetti's Warbler, Cettia cetti (Marm.). 



m. 







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f^ 










•- .*:-; 

. ''•'•'*; 



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1 - 6 Fantail Warbler, Cisticola cislicola (Temm.). 7-9 Bonelli's Warbler, Pbylloscopus bonelli 
(Vieill.) 10 Siberian Chiffchaff, P. collybita tristis BIyth. 11-15 Nuthatch, Sitta europaea 
caesia Wolf. 16-18 Subalpine Warbler, Sylvia sabalpina albistriata (Brehm). 19-23 Sardinian 
Warbler, S. melanocephala (Gm.). 24, 25 Dartford Warbler, S. undata (Bodd.) 26 Olive-tree 
Warbler, Hippolais oUvetorum (Strickl). 27, 28 E. Olivaceous Warbler, H. pallida (H & E ) 
29 Booted Warbler, H. oaligata (Licht.). 30 Paddy-field Warbler, Acrocephalus agricola Jerd. 



23 




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18 



15 






16 






17 






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22 






24 



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20 



21 



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25 



23 



26 



1—4 Nightingale, Luscinia megarhynchos Brehm. 5—6 Northern Nightingale, L. luscinia 

(L.). 7—14 Redbreast, Erithacus rubecula (L.). 15 — 17 Black throated Green Warbler, 

Dendroica virens Baird. 18-22 Rock Nuthatch, Sitta neumayer Miohah. 23 Greek Sombre 

Tit, Parus lugubris lugons Brehm. 24-27 Lapp Tit, P. oinctua Bodd. 



24 




^- 





,-.rV*«^ 






^0 








.r^^. 




















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IS 19 



1—6 Great Grey Shrike, Lanius excubitor L. 7, 8 Southern Grey Shrike, 

L. excubitor meridionalis Temm. 9 Isabelline Shrike, L. cristatus isa- 

bellinus Ehr. 10 — 19 Woodchat, L. senator L. 



25 




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5 



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,-. ifl 



1—17 Red backed Shrike, Lanius collurio L. 18—22 Red tailed Shrike, 
L. cristatus L. 23, 24 Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus (L.). 



27 



1 



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•'.-1/ y 
■^> 



4 




11 




21 





2 







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20 




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27 



1—5 Garden Warbler, Sylvia borin (Bodd.). 6 — 10 Whitethroat, S. communis Lath. 

11—16 Blackcap, S. atricapilla (L.). 16—19 Lesser Whitethroat, S. curruca (L.). 20—23 

Barred Warbler, S. nisoria (Bechst.). 26 W. Orphean Warbler, S. hortensis hortensis (Gm.) 

24, 26, 27 E. Orphean Warbler, S. hortensis crassirostris Cretz. 



28 






r.- c\, m 










^v^'..*? 

^M^ 



f 















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:t„-,--? 







11 



f-''J''^^y/"'^/C- 







1 - 5 Willow Warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus (L.). 6—10 Chiff Chafi', P. collyl.ita (Vieill.) 

1 1 14 Wood Warbler, P. sibi tatrix (Bechst.). 15—17 Savi's Warbler, Locustella luscinoides (Savi). 

18—21 Grasshopper Warbler, L. naevia (Bodd.). 22- 25 Moustached Warbler, Lusciniola melan- 

opogon (Temm.). 26—29 Icterine Warbler, Hippolais icterina (Vieill.)- 



30 


















11 





1—10 Blackbird, Tardus merula L. 11 Red winged Thrush, T. fuscatus Pall. 

12 Black throated Thrush, T. ruficoUis atrogularis Temm. 

13 Dusky Trush, T. obscurus Gm. 



31 






,^m 







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^. .i 










10 



'i\''^ 




11 






12 



yfR^cirliert, f, 




1 E. Siberian Thrush, Turdus sibiricus davisoni (Hume). 2—10 Mistle Thrush, T. visci- 
vorus L. 11 Northern Ring Ouzel, T. torquatus torquatus L. 12—13 Alpine Ring Ouzel, 

T. t. alpestris (Brehm). 



32 









Vl?v 







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10 




11 









13 




i.-.^^.' 



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12 



Si- 



lb 



17 



16 



1 — 6 Redwing, Turdus musicus L. 7-14 Song. Thrush, T. philomelos Brehm. 
16 — 17 W. Olivaceous Warbler, Hippolais pallida opaca Cab. 



33 



r^^J^ 



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> <- 



9 










10 




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11 




,o' 



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1—11 Fieldfare, Turdus pilaris L. 
12-13 Swainson's Thrush, T. ustulatus swainsonii Cab. 



35 




1 — 10 E. Russet Wheater, Saxicola hispanica xanthomelaena H. & E. 11 — 12 Wbinchat, 
Pratincola rubetra (L.). 13—17 Stonechat, l\ torquata rubicola (L.). 18—20 White spotted 
Bluethroat. Luscinia svecica cyanecula (Wolf.;. 21 — 26 Red spotted Bluethroat, L. s. 

svecica (L.). 



36 



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^«. 



17 





^11^^ 







6 




11 




15 










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14 







13 





19 




1-4 Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum (L.). 6—8 Palestine Bulbul, Pyenonotus capensis 
xanthdpygos (H. & E.). 9 Blue Rock Thrush, Monticola solitarius (L.\ 10—13 Black 
Wheateai^ Saxicola leucurus (Gm.)- 14 African Desert Wheatear, S. deserti deserti Temm. 
15-16 Asiatic Desert Wheatear, S. d. atrogularis Blyth. 17-20 Pied Chat, S. pleschanka (Lep.^ 



37 



^■. 





m 



^: 












1_4 Gri'iit Spotted Tuckoo, Coccystes glandarius iL.). 5-6 Red breasted Flycatcher, 

Muscicapa parva Bechst. 7-14 Spotted Flycatcher, M. striata (Pall.V 15—19 Swallow, 

Ohelidon rustica (L.). 20-24 Crag Martin, Riparia rupestris (Scop.). 



38 



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14 




15 



16 




17 



_/) .'Ptwtk StI' i yfvw^ 18 



1-6 Nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus L. 7-9 Red necked Nightjar, C. ruficolhs Temm 
10 Red fronted Serin, Serinus pusUlus (Pall). 11 Leaser Redpoll, Carduehs hnana cabaret 
(Mull) 12 Greenland Redpoll, C. hornemanni hornemanni (Holb.K 13 Coues Redpoll b. 
hornemanni exilipes (Coues). 14 Black headed Yellow Wagtail, Motacilla flava melanocephala 
Licht. 15—18 Hoopoe, Upupa epops L. 



39 



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21 









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1—24 Common Guckoo, Cuculus canorus L. 



40 




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23 24 



1—24 Common Cuckoo, Cuculus canorus L. 



Parts I and n now ready. 

"The first part of Mr. Jourdain's book makes a further addition to the 
•works on Oology novsr in progress. The letterpress is excellent and gives 
a fully detailed account of the nest and eggs of each form, with references 
to plates already published, — > and besides, what is even more important 
nowadays, a sketch of the breeding range of the different races that have 
been hitherto 46scribed. We imay prefer the 12th edition of Linnaeus's 
'Systenia; Naturae' to the lOth^ and may be not inclined to follow the author 
closely as regards nomenclature, but there can be only one opinion as to 
the necessity of an exact knowledge of the various geographical rates; 
jfind should their' nests and eggs prove to differ, this should assuredly be 
made kno;wru Moreover, any such diffelrences as exist should be reckoned 
at their full worth in deciding, the diffi^cult question of the validity of the 
various race^i . , . Among the many useful points in the work we may 
notice the lists of local British and foreign names of the birds, the referenees 
to other forms the range of which abuts upon the European area, the 
measurements of the eggs, and the determination of the approximate weight 
of the shells. It is of course impossible to avoid occasional slips, . . . 
but the comparative insignificance and infrequency of these inaccuracies only 
strengthens our opinion of the general accuracy of Mr. Jourdain's work." — 
I6is, 1906, p. 722. 

"So far as we are able to judge from the first part,, this work has 
much to recommend it. The plates are decidedly good, and the letterpress 
dealing I with each species is adequate and affprds much reliable information 
on a wide range of subjects — reference to literature; local , and foreign 
names, breeding range at home and abroad, description of eggs, breeding 
season, etc. - — and bears evidence of considerable research as well, as of 
fijrst hand knowledge on the part of the author. The work is to be 
completed in about 10 parts, contaihing some 140 coloured plates, and 
promises to ije an excellent one in all respects." — Annals of Scottish 
Natural History, 190Q, 1^. 191. ' 

"We have now before us the first part of Mr. Jourdain's publication. 
This is announced to be completed in about ten parts, containing about 
one hundred and forty coloured plates. Geographical races are fully recognized 
and descril^ed, and the nqmenclature recommended by the Fifth International 
Zoological Congress has, been adopted. This instalment Contains foiirteen 
beautifuUy coloured plates and the text is very full and informative." — 
Zoologist, l^OQ, ]^. 199. 

Prospectus and specimen plate sent on application. 



SUBSCRIPTIONS FOR THE COMPLETE WORK ONLY RECEITED. PART III 




EUROPEAN BIRDS, 



REV. FRANCIS C. R. eJOURDAIN, 

JL A^ M. B. 0. D. '» ..- 

-- — ^'^^ — ,j^ 

TO BE COMPLETED IN ABOUT 10 PARTS, 
CONTAINING ABOUT 140 COLOUPvED PLATES 
BY ALEXANDER REICHERT AND THE AUTHOR. 



Price lOs. 6(t per part net. 



If^^^^ LONDOW. 

^'^ ^R H. PORTER. 7 PRINCES ST. CAVEKOISH SQDaKB W, 
[ ' ^"^ GEKA-rnVTEBSIBArS. 

' FR. EDGEN KOHLER. 



^|Cj 



161 

Motacilla viridis Gm. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 269; id. 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 206. M. ftava horealis Sund. Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 294. 

Breeding Range: N. Scandinavia und Russia. [Also in Siberia, 
eastward to the Sea of Okhotsk.] Has occurred in England where it 
is believed to have bred once. (Bull. B. 0. C, XIII, p. 68, etc.). 

In Norway this race is found commonly in the sseter enclosures of con- 
the southern high fjeld as far south as the Dovre. Northward it breeds j;°j° " 
commonly in E. Finmark in all grassy spots. In Sweden it does not 
range further south than lat 63" N. and is plentiful on the Upper 
Muonio. In Finland it is tolerably common in Uleaborg, and in Russia 
is found on the Murman coast, the Olonetz Government N. of Lake 
Onega, and the Archangel Government. It is very numerous near 
Archangel, and also on the Petschora to about lat. 67° N. , but is 
absent from the Kanin peninsula, the tundra N. of the Arctic Circle 
and the islands in the Arctic Ocean. [Eastward its range extends right 
across Asia.] 

Like that of the other races, well concealed and by no means easy Nest. 
to find. It is placed on the ground under shelter of a grass tussock or 
stump. The parent birds ara very wary, and the hen leaves the eggs 
long before the intruder approaches (S. A. Davies). 

Usually 5 — 6 in number, but Pearson once took a clutch of 7 on Eggs. 
the Murman coast. They show the same variations as those of the Blue 
headed form. 

Full sets may be found in Lapland from about June 13 onward. Breeding 
and newly hatched young on the 26th. 

- Average of 100 eggs (77 by Rey and 23 by the writer), 18.31x13.97 Measure- 
mm., Max. 21.3x14 and 19.6x15.4 mm., Min. 16.1x12.9 mm. Average 
weight, 106 mg. (Rey). 

h. Black headed Wagtail, M. flava melanocephala Licht. 

Plate 19, fig. 24—27 (Odessa, 10. V.). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXV, fig. 6, a— b. 

Foreign Name: Greece: Tsina. 

Motacilla melanocephala Licht. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 273; 
•id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 207. M. ftava melanocephala Licht. Hartert, Vog. 
Pal. Fauna, p. 295. 

11 



ments. 



tinental 
Europe. 



162 

Breeding Range: The Balkan peninsula S. of tlie Danube, S. Russia 
and the Caucasus. [Also Asia Minor and Persia.] Has once occurred in 
England {Bull. B. 0. C, XIII, p. 69). 
Con- In Greece it breeds in the marshes and on the edges of the 

lagoons near the sea, and is especially common on the islets where 
colonies of Gulls nest, in Acarnania. It is also abundant in the 
marshes of Macedonia, and Robson found a colony not far from 
Constantinople. In Bulgaria according to Reiser, it is very plentiful 
in some localities, e. g. near Sophia; but avoids mountainous districts 
and becomes scarce in the Danube valley. Although more characteristic 
of the E. than of the W. of the Balkan peninsula, it nevertheless 
breeds in the meadows at the N. end of the Scutari Lake, and is 
also found in S. Dalmatia. In S. Russia it is met with from the 
mouth of the Danube to the Caucasus, where Radde states that it is 
found nesting not only in the lowlands, but also up to over 6000 ft. 
[An Asia Minor it is common on the islands near Smyrna, and Danford 
found it generally distributed on suitable ground in the interior of the 
country; while it also breeds locally in Persia, where Witherby took 
eggs near Shiraz at 5200 ft. on May 3, 1902.] 
Nest. Placed on the ground, either in a marsh, or when on drier 

ground sheltered by tamarisk bush or Salsola. In Bulgaria however 
it is generally built in a cornfield. Most observers describe it as 
well hidden and most difficult to find, but when the nests are placed 
close together, as is sometimes the case, a careful search is generally 
successful. 
Eggs. Usually 5 or 6, sometimes only 4. Most eggs examined have a 

dark hair streak at the big end. 

Breeding In Greecc and Turkey the first eggs are laid at the end of April 

and the beginning of May, but in Bulgaria the time appears to be rather 
later; while in Greece and Asia Minor eggs have been taken till late 
in June, so that possibly two broods are reared. 

Measure- Avcragc of 18 cggs (6 by Rey and 12 by the writer), 18.68x14.45 

mm.. Max. 20.5x14.8 and 19.3x15.1 mm., Min. 17.1x14 mm. Average 
weight (Rey), 122 mg. 



79. Yellow headed Wagtail, Motacilla citreola Pall. 

Plate 19, fig. 23 (Kultuk, Lake Baikal). 
Eggs: Journ. f. Orn. 1873, Tab. II, fig. 20. 



ments. 



163 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Konipas Butohlavy. Germany: Gelb- 
kopfige Bachstehe. Russia: Trjasoguska zeltogolovaja. 

Motacilla citreola Pall. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 245; id, 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 203. M. citreola citreola Pall. Hartert, Yog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 296. 

Breeding Range: N. E. Russia. [Also Siberia to Mongolia.] 

Seebohm and Harvie Brown met with this species in the con- 
Petschora valley in small numbers as far S. as about lat. 66", but in e^^q ^ 
the delta of the river it was quite the commonest bird, haunting the 
open spaces between the willow thickets on the islands in great 
numbers. It is however absent from the Dwina delta, but is said to 
occur in the Orenburg Government (?). [In Asia its range extends 
from the Ob valley and perhaps N. Turkestan through Siberia to Lake 
Baikal. Przewalski found it breeding commonly in S. E. Mongolia, but 
not in Ussuri Land, while in the mountain ranges of Central Asia it is 
replaced by M. c. citreolides (Gould). 

Carefully concealed among the tangled grass and flowers in the Nest. 
open spaces between the clumps of willows, in the Petschora delta; 
while in Dauria, Dybowski found it sheltered by dry grass or low 
scrub in marshy places. It is placed on the ground, and is composed 
of grasses and bents, sometimes with moss, lined with fine roots 
and reindeer hair, while occasionally a few feathers are also added. 
Inner diameter about 21 in., depth about II in. It is a very 
difficult nest to find; the cock being generally on the look out, 
and both sexes flying about overhead with incessant cries on the 
approach of danger. 

Usually 5 or 6, exceptionally 7 in number. They are very similar Eggs. 
in appearance to those of M. flava, but as a rule the markings are 
less distinct, and the general appearance paler. The ground colour 
is yellowish white, thickly specked with small pale rusty spots, and 
frequently with a dark hair line or two at the big end. There is 
but little gloss. 

In the Petschora delta eggs were taken from June 19 to 27, Breeding 
and young able to fly were procured on July 20, and were common 
by August 1. In Dauria also the eggs are laid about mid- June. Only 
one brood is reared. 

Average of 64 eggs (15 by Dybowsky, Rey, etc., and 49 by the Measure- 
writer), 19.05X14.06 mm.. Max. 21x15 mm., Min. 18x14 mm. ""'"*''■ 
A dwarf egg from the Petschora measui^es 16.8x13.2 mm. "Weight 
(5 eggs), 127 mg. (Rey). 

11* 



164 

80. Grey Wagtail, Motacilla boarula L. 

Plate 19, fig. 1, 3, 4, 5 (Germany), 2 (S. Russia). PL 26, fig. 12 
(Staffordshire, Blagg Coll.) 

Eggs: Thienemann , Fortpfl. Tab. XXV, fig. a — c. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. LIX, fig. 2; II. Ed. I, pi. XXXIIl, fig. 2; III. Ed. I, pi. 
XLII, fig. 1. Baedeker, Tab. 35, fig. 11. Taczanowski, Tab. LXIX, 
fig. 2, 3. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 14; id. Col. Fig. pi. 58 a. Frohawk, 
Br. Birds, I, pi. Ill, fig. 93. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 20—24, and pi. — , 
fig. 47, 48. Nest: 0. Lee, IV, p. 114. 

British Local Names: Rock Wagtail. "Welsh: Siglen or Tinsigl 
Lwyd. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Konipas liorni. Denmark: QraaVipst- 
jert. France: Hochequeiie. Germany: Graue Bachstelze. Greece: Tsili- 
hethra. Helgoland: Giihl Lungen. Holland: ^Groote gele Kwikstaart. 
Hungary: Hegyihillegctd. Italy: Ballerina gialla. Poland: Pliszka 
wolarka. Portugal: Alveola amarella. Russia: Trjasoguska gornaja. 
Sardinia: Coetta groga. Spain: Pepita amarilla. Sweden: Grd aria. 

Motacilla sulphur ea Bechst. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 552. M. 
melanope Pall, Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 251; id. Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 202. M. boarula boarula L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 298. 

Breeding Range: Central and southern Eui'ope, but absent from 
the North and represented by subspecies in N. Asia and Madeira. [Also 
found in the Great Atlas.] 
British jjj Great Britain this species, though nowhere very numerous, is 

Isles. (• 1 • 

found m scattered pairs breeding at intervals along the courses of rivers 
and streams in most hilly districts in Scotland, Wales, the Cumbrian and 
Pennine ranges, and the "W. of England, but is absent as a rule during 
the breeding season from the level plains and the sea coast. It breeds 
regularly in the Devonian peninsula, but is only known to nest occasionally 
in the counties east of Dorset, Wilts, and Gloucester in the S. of Eng- 
land, although nests have been recorded from Hants, Sussex, Surrey, 
Kent, Berks, Bucks, Oxford and Northants. Further north a few pairs 
breed in Leicester, and it is common in Derby and AV. Yorks, but does 
not nest in Notts or E. Yorkshire, though recorded by Cordeaux in N. 
Lincoln. It is rare in Anglesea and the Isle of Man, but is pretty 
generally distributed on the mainland of Scotland, while it occurs in small 
numbers on most of the Inner Hebrides and on Skye, and it is said to 
breed in the Orkneys. To the Shetlands and Outer Hebrides it is only 
a straggler. In Ireland it has been recorded as nesting in every county. 
*^°°' It is absent from Ireland, the Faeroes, Scandinavia, Denmark and 

tlnental ^^y -p, . . . ^^ . . . 

Europe. N. Russia; while in Germany it is common on the mountain streams of 



165 

the middle and south of the Country (especially the Harz, Thiiringia, 
Saxony, Franconia and the South), but is rarely met with on the northern 
plains. In Switzerland it is generally distributed, breeding up to about 
6000 ft., and is also found in the hilly parts of France and Belgium. 
It is almost universal along the Pyrenean range, and is met with on all 
the principal sierras of the Iberian peninsula, from the S. Nevada to the 
Cantab rian Mts, as well as in Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, and is said 
to breed occasionally on Malta. In Italy it is confined to the hilly 
districts in the breeding season, and this is also generally the case in the 
Balkan peninsula and Austro - Hungary . In S. Russia it is tolerably 
common, but does not range as far N. as the Government of Moscow, 
though in the Urals it is said to be found as far as lat 59**. [It is also 
common in the Canaries ; and by the streams in the Great Atlas (Meade- 
Waldo).] 

Although essentially a haunter of clear mountain streams, a few 
pairs will generally be found breeding for some distance after the river 
has debouched into the plain, even as far as the sea-coast, using ledges 
and cavities in the stonework of water mills, walls, and bridges as nesting 
sites in default of high banks and rocks. The nest is generally, but not 
invariably, placed close to water, often on a ledge of rock or on a steep 
bank side, and occasionally among tree roots. Among less usual sites 
may be mentioned the top of an old stump, and in a ventilator of a house 
in N. Wales, on a shelf in a room entered through a broken window, 
while Seebohm records a nest built on the ruins of an old Thrush's nest 
and another in the fork of an alder, close to the ground, and E. W. 
Blagg found a nest in semi-darkness at the far end of a natural cave not 
far from the R. Dove. Sometimes the nest is concealed by a natural 
growth of fern, ivy, or other vegetation, and is then not easy to see, 
especially as the bird will sit close when it fancies itself unobserved. It 
is however decidedly a shy bird in the early breeding stages, and when 
flushed from the nest while building or before incubation has begun, is 
very *" liable to forsake it altogether. On the other hand the parents 
display the greatest anxiety for the safety of their eggs or young; and the 
same locality, and sometimes the same spot, is often resorted to year 
after year. The foundation of the nest consists of moss, with sometimes 
a few small twigs, skeletonized leaves, and roots or grasses, and the lining 
is generally horsehair, white preferably, though cowhair is also sometimes 
used, and in one case the lining consisted entirely of pigs' bristles. A 
few feathers are also said to be occasionally found. In the Canaries 
Kouig found goat as well as cow hair, and wool, used as lining material, 
and in the highlands of Greece Seebohm observed that the lining was 
thicker than usual. Diameter of cup about 21 in., depth 1 — li in. 



166 

Eggs. 4 — 6 in number, but 5 is perhaps the usual clutch. In a cold spring 

I have known 3 eggs only to be laid, and in the Canaries 4 is the typical 
clutch, but in S. Derbyshire it is rare to find more than 5, although 6 are 
commonly found in the N. of England, etc. In Germany the first brood 
consists of 5 — 6, and the second of 4 — 5, according to Rey.* In colour and 
markings a good deal of variety exists. Typical eggs somewhat resemble 
these of the Yellow Wagtails, but are as a rule paler in colour. They are 
generally of some shade of buff or stone colour, faintly marbled wdth 
yellowish or greyish brown. Occasionally a set with distinct markings is met 
with, and it is not uncommon to find a blackish hair line at the big end. 
Exceptionally a set resembling miniature eggs of the Pied Wagtail occurs ; 
while E. W. Blagg found a nest with 5 eggs in Staffordshire, which were 
a beautiful warm pink with pale reddish markings and red hair lines 
when fresh, and Meade -Waldo states that brick red eggs are frequently 
met with in the Canary Isles, sometimes together with a single white 
egg. In Ireland R. J. Ussher has taken eggs almost white, and also 
with bold reddish brown and underlying grey markings on a white ground. 
"White eggs have also been recorded from Yorkshire (Zool. 1904, p. 315). 
The shell is very thin and delicate, without noticeable gloss. 

In England and Wales the eggs are usually laid between April 15 

Breeding and tlic beginning of May, often in the last week of April; but occasionally 

Season. ^ p^^j. ^^j |^g fouud breeding at the beginning of April, or even in the 
last days of March. If the first nest be taken the hen begins to lay 
again after an interval of a week, and occasionally a second brood is 
reared, in which case the eggs are laid early in June. In some districts 
of the Continent however, two broods appear to be usually brought off. 
Thus in Germany the first eggs are laid in the latter half of April, and 
those of the second brood in early June; but Jackel records an egg laid 
in Bavaria on March 19 — an exceptionally early date. In Greece Reiser 
has recorded nearly fledged young at the beginning of April, but the 
more usual time for eggs is the end of March or early April, while the 
eggs of the second brood are laid in the latter half of May. Tn the 
Canaries eggs may be found through March and April. 

Average of 100 eggs (61 by Rey and 39 by the writer), 18.81x14.27 

Measure- mm., Max. 21.7 X 14.3 (Cumberland) and 19.1 X 15.1, Min. 17 X 14.1 
and 19.1x12.7 mm. Average weight, 114 mg. (Rey); of 36 eggs, 112 
mg. (Bau). 22 eggs from Tenerife are about the same size, averaging 
18.6 X 14.2 mm, (Konig). 15 full eggs from Ireland average in weight 
1.952 g (Foster). 

[Besides the common European form of this species treated of 
above, M. boarula hoarula L., in Asia the Eastern Grey Wagtail, M. 

* 0. Sachse has recorded a clutch of 7 eggB. 



ments. 



167 

boarula melanope Pall, replaces it, but the boundaries of the two races 
are not yet clearly defined. Six eggs (one of which is bright pink in 
colour) from the British Museum average 18.8 X 14 mm. In Madeira 
and the Azores a third form, M. hoarzida schmitzi Tsch. is resident. 
Average of 19 eggs (9 by Padre Schmitz and 10 by the writer) 
19.4 X 15 mm.] 

81. Pied and White Wagtails, Motacilla alba L. 

Geographical Races. 

a. Pied Wagtail, M. alba lugubris Temm. 

Plate 18, fig. 25—29 (Herts). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXV, fig. 2, a — c. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. LIX, fig. 1; II. Ed. I, pi. XXXIII, fig. 1; III. Ed. I, pi. 

XLI, fig. 1, 2. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 14 (2 figs.); id Col. Fig., pi. 58. 
Frohawh, Br. Birds, I, pi. Ill, fig. 91. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 1 — 6. 

British Local Names: Di^luuasher, Penny Wagtail, Nanny Wash- 
tail; Orey HemiMii, Watty (Lake District), Whipjack (Kent). N. -Wales: 
Brech y Fuclies; S. Sigl digrvt. Manx: Ushag-vreck. 

Foreign Names: Gevmany : Trauer-Bachstehe. Helgoland: ^StmH- 
rogged Liingen. Sweden: Engelska sddesdrla. 

Motacilla luguhris Temm. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 538. Dresser, 
Birds of Europe, III, p. 2.39; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 197. Saunders, 
Man. p. 121. M. alba luguhris Temm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 
p. 301. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles; also in N. W. France and 
occasionally in Holland and on the Norwegian coast. 

The Pied AVagtail is very generally distributed over Great Britain Britigh 
and Ireland and on most of the adjacent islands. There is reason to 
believe that it has occasionally bred in the Shetlands, and it is resident 
in the Orkneys, but is only a straggler to S. Kilda, and is absent fom 
the Outer Hebrides. It nests on Skye and on most of the inhabited 
Inner Hebrides. 

In Scandinavia this race has been met with on a few occasions in con- 
S. Sweden, and probably bred there in 1895. In Norway it is also 
recorded as having nested in the Jaederen, Stavanger and Bergen districts. 
Hitherto it has not been found breeding in Denmark, but O. Leege met 
with a pair nesting in the E. Frisian Islands in 1906, and in Holland 
it occasionally interbreeds with M. alba alba, and has nested in S. Holland. 
Koch asserts that it has once bred in Miinster (Westphalia), but the 
statement is hardly credible. Its scarcity in the Channel Islands is remark- 



Europe. 



168 

able, and recent observations as to its distribution in N. W. France are 
much to be desired; as well as confirmation of the statement that it 
occasionally breeds in the S. W. of France. 

NeBt. The favourite breeding haunts of this bird are in the neighbourhood 

of farm houses, or old buildings, sometimes at some distance from water; 
also the neighbourhood of ponds, chalk pits or old brick fields. It is 
not confined to low ground, but also haunts the hill sides up to 1500 ft. 
in AVales (Forrest). The nest is very often placed in a hole in a wall 
or building, or in thick ivy, but is also frequently built in a hollow in 
a bank by a stream or road side or in a crevice of rock. In some districts 
the crowns of pollarded willows are a favourite site; while on Scotch 
lochs I have seen nests among the loose stonework of the landing stages, 
within a few inches of the water. Sometimes the nest is built against 
a tree trunk (especially when covered with ivy), or in the crotch of a 
bough, as much as 10 or 12 ft. from the ground, while at other times 
it may be met with in wood stacks or stone heaps. A good many 
instances have been recorded in which the old nest of some other bird 
has been adapted for nesting pui'poses (see Zool. 1904, p. 421 and 1905, 
p. 33), and probably those which N, Wood describes on branches of 
laurels were built inside old nests of Blackbirds or Thrushes.* In E. 
Anglia it is often placed in the furze walls of the lambing enclosures, 
and also in hollows of thatch. Among the more unusual breeding sites 
the following may be mentioned: — in flower pots inside greenhouses, 
in trucks or underneath the metals on railway lines, in a boat, on the 
ground in a turnip field, etc. The size of the nest varies according to 
the situation, and is sometimes very bulky, while in other cases it merely 
consists of a lining. Almost anything is used for the foundation, twigs, 
moss, roots, grasses, dead leaves etc., loosely put together, while the 
inner lining generally consists chiefly of hair, with sometimes feathers or 
bits of wool, upon grasses, roots, etc. The hen when incubating is very 
wary in approaching the nest,*}" but will often sit very closely in spite 
of noise and bustle around her. Diameter of cup, 21 to nearly 3 in., 
depth II to li in. 

Egg». 5 or 6 in number. Nests with 10 — 11 eggs have been found in 

Nottinghamshire twice (J. Whitaker) and the Dove Valley once (F. H. 
Sikes), but were in all probability the produce of two hens. In colour the 
ground is bluish or greyish white, evenly freckled with small spots and 
occasionally streaks of leaden brown, with numerous underlying markings 
of pale violet grey. A rather scarce variety is marked with good sized 

* See however R. H. Read's note in the Zool. 1905, p. 33. 
t Cf. Ussher, Birds of Ireland, p. 35. 



Measure- 
menta. 



169 

blotches, chiefly at the big end; while another uncommon type has the 
numerous markings of a much warmer brown than usual, recalling the 
brown variety of the eggs of M. alba alba figured by Seebohm (Col. 
Fig. pi. 58). Pure white eggs have also been taken in Shropshire. 

Two broods are reared in the season as a rule: the first clutch B««^in8 

Season, 

being generally laid towards the end of April or the early part of May, 
while the second is generally to be found about the second or third 
week in June in the Midlands. Occasionally a third brood is reared 
(Cf. Zool. 1878, p. 28, 1903, p. 313), and possibly the exceedingly late 
nests with fresh eggs which are sometimes met with even as late as the 
first week of August belong to this category. Incubation is performed 
chiefly by the hen, and lasts according to W. Evans 13—14: days. 

Average of 100 English eggs (64 by Rey and 36 by the writer), 
20.16 X 15.13 mm., Max. 22.2 X 15 and 21 X 16.5, Min. 18.6 X 14.3 
and 19.8 X 14.2 mm. Two dwarf eggs in the Brit. Mus, from Hants 
measure 13 X 11 and 12.3 X 10 mm. Average weight, 137 mg. (Rey). 
Average weight of 4 full eggs, 2 g. (Foster); of 16,2.309 g. (R. H. Read). 

b. White AVag-tail, M. alba alba (L.). 

Plate 18, fig. 19—23 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXV, fig. 1, a — c. Hewitson, 
III. Ed. I, pi. XLI, fig. 3, 4. Baedeker, Tab. 35, fig. 12. Taczanowski, 
Tab. LVIII, fig. 1. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 14 (2 figs.) id. Col. Fig. 
pi. 58. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I. pi. Ill, fig. 92. Dresser, pi. — , 
fig. 7—12. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Koniims bily. Denmark: HvidVipstjaert. 
Finland: Valkea vastardkki. France: Lavandiere. Germany: Weisse 
BachsteUe. Helgoland: Blii Lungen. Holland: Witte Kwikstaart. Hun- 
gary: Bardzda billegeto. Iceland: Mdriatla. Italy: Ballerina. Lapland: 
Festur. Norway: Linerle. Poland: Pliszka biala. Portugal: Lavandeira. 
Russia: Bieloe Trjasoguska. Sweden: Sddesarla. Spain: Lavandera. 

MotaciUa alba (L.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 548. Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, III, p. 233; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 200. Saunders, Man. p. 
123. M. alba alba (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 302. 

Breeding Range: Iceland and Europe generally, with the exception 
of the British Isles, and apparently also the islands of the Mediterranean. 

The British Isles are annually visited by flocks of this race on their B,itigh 
northward migration, and a few pairs remain to breed, generally in isiea. 
maritime counties, such as York, Lincoln, Suffolk, Kent, Sussex, the Isle 
of Wight, Devon, and the coast of N. Wales, but also occasionally inland 
(Middlesex, Cambs., Hunts., Northants. and Bucks,). Instances of inter- 



tiaental- 
Europe 



170 

breeding with M. a. lugitbris have also been recorded from Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Oxon, Hants, and Cumberland. 
Con- In Iceland this is a tolerably common bird, and is generally to be 

found in the neighbourhood of houses. It has been recorded also from 
S. Greenland and Jan Mayen, but is not known to have bred there. 
It is believed to have nested occasionally on the Faeroes, but is chiefly 
known there as a passing migrant. Over the whole of the European 
continent it is very generally distributed, avoiding only the forest dis- 
tricts and the mountain tops beyond the limits of human habitation. 
Northward it is found in Norway up to the N. Cape, and in Russia 
along the Murman coast and the shores of the Arctic Ocean, breeding 
near every group of Lapp huts. Probably it nests also on Kolguev, but 
is absent from Novaya Zemlya. E. of the Urals it is replaced by other 
forms. In Switzerland it is found in the mountains up to about 6000 ft., 
as well as in the plains. In the Iberian peninsula it is abundant in the 
N. but has only been recorded once or twice as' breeding in the southern 
provinces. It was not observed during the breeding season in Corsica 
or Sardinia by Whitehead, Wharton or Brooke, but some remain to nest 
in Italy, although a large proportion are winter visitors only. In the 
Balkan peninsula it is found as far south as the mountain ranges of 
Greece, and has bred at Naxos, in the Cyclades. It is also numerous 
in S. Russia and the Crimea. [In the E. Mediterranean Stenhouse found a 
pair breeding off the Syrian coast, while Tristram took the nest in 
Galilee, and Kriiper states that it is common in Asia Minor. Some 
appear to remain in Egypt throughout the summer.] 

In breeding habits it closely resembles M. alba lugubris, and is 
quite as variable in its choice of a nesting site. Holes in banks, walls, 
or trees and wood stacks are perhaps the most favoured spots, but in 
the sand dunes of Holland it breeds under shelter of a clump of marram 
grass, and has also been recorded as nesting in Sand Martins' holes, on 
a strawberry bed, in an old hulk in harbour, in a waggon, on pollarded 
willows, in crevices of rocks, under eaves of houses, in an old Fieldfare's or 
Thrush's nest, and in a nesting box in Lapland etc. The nest also resembles 
that of the preceding race, but the lining material varies according to the 
locality. Thus in N. Russia Seebohm found Reindeer hair and spiders' 
cocoons, while in Iceland pony hair or feathers, and on the Continent, 
wool, cow, goat or horse hair, pigs' bristles and feathers are all utilized. 

Usually 5 or 6 in number, rarely 7, while 8 have occasionally 
been recorded for the first brood: the second consisting of 4 or 5. They 
are said to be a trifle bluer in tint in a series when compared with 
those of M. alba lugubris, but are practically undistinguishable. Some 
eggs show a dark hair line at the big end, and an egg from Holland 



171 

in the British Museum has the markings at the big end so thickly con- 
gregated as to appear almost black. Occasionally a clutch is met with 
which has warm brown or yellowish brown markings, and Dr. Ottosson 
has a set beautifully spotted with red on a pinkish white ground, taken 
in N. Iceland in June 1879. 

In Iceland the breeding season is variable. H. H. Slater records Breeding 
fledged young on June 11, an extraordinarily early date, when many 
birds are only beginning to lay. In the extreme N. of Europe the usual 
time is about the second or third week of June. In Central Europe 
two broods are reared, and fresh eggs may be found from the end of 
April to the beginning of July, while exceptionally eggs have been 
found as late as the end of July and the beginning of October (Sachse), 
and fledged young on September 7 (Rey). In Greece the first eggs are 
laid about mid April. 

Average of 100 eggs (72 by Rey and 28 by the writer), Measure- 
20.43x15.11 mm.. Max. 22.1x15 and 20x16.2, Min. 18x15 and ""'"*'• 
21x14.4 mm. (Ban's average for 58 eggs is rather less, 19.54x14.61 mm.) 
J. A. Sandman records eggs from Karlo, 22.9x14.6 and 20.5x14.1 mm., 
and a dwarf egg in Rey's collection measures 14x11.1 mm,, weight 
80 mg. The average weight is 136 mg. (Rey), 135 mg. (Bau). Average 
weight of 6 full eggs from Sweden, 2.3 g. (R. H. Read). 

[Other geographical races which breed in the W. Palaearctic region 
are M. alba dukhunensis Sykes, which is found in W. Siberia and the 
N. Caucasus and M. alba subpersonata Meade -Waldo, resident in W. 
Marocco.] 

[ MNIOTILTIDAE 

Black throated Green Warbler, Dendroica virens (Gm.). 
PI. 23, fig. 15—17 (N. America). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab XXII, flg. 3 (errore). 

Breeding Range: Eastern N. America, from Now England to Hudson's Bay. 
Has occurred on Helgoland once. 

Usually built at the end of a branch of a pine tree, 30 to 50 ft. from the Nest. 
ground, during the month of June. Materials: dry grasses and fibrous matter, lined 
with hair and down. 

Generally 4, but sometimes 5 in number, more or less marked with blotches Eggs. 
of brown and purple on a white ground. Measurements, 17X12-8 mm., weight 
92 mg. (Rey). 

NECTARINIIDAE 

Of this family only one representative breeds in the W. Palaearctic region, the 
Jericho Sun Bird, Cinnyiis osea Bp., which is common in the oases of the plain of 
Jericho and also occurs in the lower Jordan valley. Tristram has described its 
nesting habits and eggs in the Ibis, 1865, p. 75 — 6. ] 



172 

CERTHIIDAE. 

82. Tree Creeper, Certhia familiaris L. 
Geographical Races. 

a. British Tree Creeper, €. familiaris brittaniea Ridgw. 

Plate 26, fig. 13 (Suffolk. 29 IV.). 

Eggs: Hewitson, I Ed. I, pi. XLIX, fig. 3; 11 Ed. I, pi. LlII, 
fig. 2; III Ed. I, pi. LXII, fig. 2. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 11; id. Col. 
Fig. pi. 54. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. Ill, fig. 88—90. 

British Local Names:. Tree Climber, Tree Runner. Welsh: 
Ycropiedydd. Scotland: Woodpecker, Bark Speeler. Certhia familiaris 
L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 468; Dresser, Birds of Europe III, p. 195 
and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 192 (part.); Saunders, Man. p. 117. C. familiaris 
hrittanica Ridgw. Hartert, Yog. Pal. Fauna, p. 320. 

Breeding Hange: The British Isles, with the exception of the 
Orkneys, Shetlands and Outer Hebrides. 

British In Great Britain this unobtrusive little bird is very generally 

^*^®'' distributed in almost all well wooded districts, more especially where 
there is plenty of old timber, and in some localities, such as Devonshire, 
Pembroke, etc. is plentiful. It is of course absent from the barren and 
treeless districts ; but in Wales it haunts the wooded hillsides up to about 
1000 ft, and is resident as far N. as Caithness and E. Sutherland on 
the mainland, as well as on Skye, and some of the larger islands on 
the W. coast of Scotland, such as Mull and Jura. It is also found on 
the Isle of Man and Anglesea, and in all the wooded parts of Ireland. 

Neit. This is very characteristic, and is usually placed behind a piece of 

loose bark, in the narrow space between it and the trunk of the tree. 
Occasionally it is found in some crevice or split in the trunk, and may 
sometimes be placed within a foot or two of the ground, and at other 
times as much as 30 or 35 ft. high, while Booth records one in the 
roots of a dead stump, which was some distance below the ground level. 
Old willows by the side of streams are very frequently chosen as 
nesting sites on account of the structure of the bark. Another favourite 
nesting place is behind the stems of ivy encircling a tree. Where the 
timber is young or suitable sites are scarce the Creeper will nest in 
buildings and outhouses, building in crannies between upright boards 
or window ledges, behind loose plaster, or underneath eaves, and in 
piles of timber. In Merioneth I have seen the nest in the interstices of 
a loose stone wall in a wood, Macpherson records a similar case from 
the Lake District, and Booth from Scotland, while in Ireland according 



173 

to Ussher it is not uncommon to find nests in holes of walls or piers, 
and he met with one among the masses of decaying leaves in the middle 
of an old cypress. In the New Forest it is said to have bred in a 
Squirrel's 'drey', and Lilford believed that Rooks' nests were also utilized 
for breeding purposes, and also records a nest in a bunch of dried herbs 
in an outhouse ! The lower part of the crevice is usually filled with 
birch twigs, while the actual nest is built of moss, roots, grasses, etc., 
with fine twigs interwoven in the rim, and generally feathers, strips of 
outer bark, or bits of wool in the lining. Other materials are sometimes 
used: Borrer noticed one bird using the fibrous matter of asphalted felt, 
and in another case found catkins of the Balsam poplar used as lining 
to a nest built of the dry flower stalks of the Portugal Laiu*el. Though 
rather apt to forsake while building or laying, the Creeper is not at all 
a shy bird, as stated by some writers, but is quite indifferent to the presence 
of man, breeding at times in the recesses of the woods and sometimes 
in the immediate neighbourhood of houses and pathways, flitting back- 
wards and forwards to the nest within a few feet of bystanders. A 
remarkable instance of this is mentioned in the Birds of Sussex, p. 82, 
where a nest is recorded in the hollow between the wall and the side 
post of the door of an occupied cottage. Where suitable sites are scarce, 
the same nesting place is sometimes used for many years. 

Usually 6 in the first brood, but sometimes 5, while 7 have occa- Eggs. 
sionally been taken. Lilford speaks of 8, but probably the references to 
clutches of 8 and 9 in the fourth edition of Yarrell and in Saunders' 
Manual refer to Naumann's statement that the first clutch in Germany 
generally consists of 8 or 9 eggs, which however is not confirmed by 
later observers. 

They vary a good deal in appearance, some being heavily marked 
with a zone of dark reddish brown spots at the big end, with a few grey 
underlying markings, much resembling the eggs of the Crested Tits, 
while others are faintly marked with a few pale red spots, generally 
concentrated towards the big end. The shape is also very variable. 

The usual time in England is towards the end of April or the Breeding 
early part of May for first layings. The earliest date for a full clutch 
of which I have any note is April 10, but from about April 25 to 
May 10 is the best time, while the eggs of the second brood, which is 
sometimes reared, may be looked for in June. Incubation lasts for 15 
days from the laying of the last egg (W. Evans). 

Average of 100 British eggs measured by the writer, Measme- 
15.52 X 12.09 mm., Max. 18 X 12 and 16 X 13, Min. 14.2 x 11.7 and '°*°*'- 
15.2 X 11.3 mm. As will be seen, there is practically no difi'erence in 



tinental 
Europe. 



174 

size between British and German eggs. Average weight of 20 eggs, 
63 mg. Six full eggs weigh on an average 1,178 g. (Foster). 

b. North European Tree Creeper, C. familiaris familiaris L. 

Egg: Taczanowski, Tab. LXXX, fig. 2. 

Foreign Names: Finland: Puukilpija. Germany: Baumlaufer. 
Norway: Traekryher. Poland: Pehacz zashornik. Russia: Fischzucha 
Swertschok. Sweden: Tradkrypare. 

Certhia familiaris L. Dresser, tt. c. (part.) C. familiaris familiaris 
L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 317. 

Breeding Range: Scandinavia, Russia, Poland, E. Germany, and 
Rumania. [Also across N. Asia.] 
Con- In Norway this race is found in the coniferous woods as far north 

as Trondhjems fjord, while in Sweden it was found breeding in Lycksele 
Lappmark (Westerbotten) in 1896. It northern breeding limit in the 
peninsula is therefore about lat. 65°, but on the mainland it appears to 
have a more restricted range. In Finland it is generally distributed, 
and is common at Kuopio: in the Olonetz government Meves observed 
it at Kargopol etc: Mejakoff records it from Wologda, and Sabanaeff 
from the Urals as far as Pavada: southward it appears to be generally 
distributed in the forests of the Baltic Provinces and Central and Southern 
Russia, as far as the N. Caucasus, Prussia, Poland and Rumania. West 
of the Oder and the Carpathians it is replaced by the next form, C. f. 
macrododyla. 

Nest. In breeding habits it resembles C. f. hrittanica, but in nests from 

the N. the paper like outer bark of the birch is much used as building 
material, and hair is said to be found in the lining as well as feathers 
and wool. 

Eggs. Generally 6 in number. 

Breeding Thc first cggs arc laid from about mid April in Scandinavia, and 

Season. ^^^^^ ^^ ^/^^^^ ^^ ^-^^ Baltic Proviuccs : the eggs of the second brood 
being deposited in the latter half of June or early July. 

Measure- Avcragc of 26 eggs (18 from Sweden by Ottosson and 8 from 

Sweden and Esthonia by the writer) 15.52x12.9 mm.. Max 17.1 x; 12.3 
and 15.5x12.6; Min., 15x12 and 16x11.8 mm. Average weight 
of 18 eggs, 59 mg. (Ottosson). 

c. Long: toed Tree Creeper, C. familiaris macrodactyla Brehm 

Plate 20, fig. 21—24 (Saxony). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XVII, fig. 10, a — c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 43, fig. 2,4. (probably this race). 



ments. 



175 

Foreign Names: France: Orimperean. Germany: Baumlciufer. 
Hungary: Fakusz. Italy: RampicJdno. 

C. familiaris L. Dresser, tt. c. (part.). C. familiaris macrodactyla 
Brehm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna p. 319, 

Breeding Range: Central Europe, induding France, Belgium, 
Switzerland, N, Italy, W. Germany and Austro-Hungary.* 

This race is generally distributed throughout the wooded districts con- 
of Central Europe in company with the next species (C. hrachydadyla ^^^^°'*^ 
Brehm), with which it is frequently confused. Much of the literature on 
the subject is therefore unreliable, as the notes may apply to either 
species. It is however tolerably clear that C. f. macrodactyla haunts 
coniferous woods by preference, and in the Alps is found in the forests 
from about 2400 or 3000 ft. up to the tree limit, whereas C. brachy- 
dactyla is more at home in the plains and among willows by the water 
side, and is rarely found higher than 3000 ft. In the Haute Engadine 
C f. macrodactyla has been observed as high as 5700 ft. In Holland 
such specimens as have been critically examined belong to C. Wachy- 
dactyla, but C. f. macrodaciyla has been recorded from Belgium and 
the mountains of France, and is not uncommon in the Pyrenean forests. 
In Italy it appears to be confined to the mountainous districts of the 
north, and in Germany is ouly met with west of the R. Oder. It is 
however found throughout A^ustro-Hungary, and has been recorded from 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, but not from Montenegro or Bulgaria. 

In nesting habits this race appears not to differ from those already uest. 
described; but as a rule it does not breed more than about 18 ft. from 
the ground, while the dimensions of the nest vary according to the size 
of the cavity. 

Although according to the older writers as many as 9 eggs were Eggs. 
occasionally met with, most modern writers agree in giving the usual 
number of eggs in the first brood as 5 — 7, generally 6, and 4 — 5 in the 
second. According to Deichler the eggs are as a rule less strongly 
marked than those of C. brachydactyla and not so elongated in shape, 
but in a large series there is apparently much variation. It is moreover 
worth noting than in Great Britain, where only one form is found, • there 
is quite as much variety as in a series fi-om Central Europe, where two 
species occur. 

The eggs of the first brood are generally laid in the latter part of Breeding 
April or early in May on the lower ground, and those of the second season, 
during June. In some districts eggs are said to have been found at the 

* It is not known yet which race inhabits the forests of Denmark. 



176 

beginning of April, and in the highest forests of the Alps only one brood 
is reared, and the eggs are not laid till June. 
Measure- The scries of eggs measured by Ban and Rey may include eggs of 

ments. other forms or of the next species, and therefore cannot be altogether 
relied upon. Bau gives the average of 63 eggs as 15.6 X 11.9 mm., 
Max. 16.6x12.9 and Min. 14x11 mm: average weight 69 mg. Rey 
gives the average of 100 German eggs as 15.6x12.1 mm.. Max. 16.7x12.6 
and 16x13, Min. 14.6x11: average weight 68 mg. Abnormal eggs 
measure 19,7 X 15.2 (weight 130 mg.) and 6.5 X 4.5 (Aveight 45 mg.) 

d. Corsican Tree Creeper, C. familiaris corsa Hart. 

C. familiaris corsa Hart. Hartert, Yog. Pal. Fauna, p. 320. 

Breeding Range: Corsica. 

Thinly distributed through the coniferous forests among the 
mountains. A nest found by the writer on Mny 26 was placed in the 
dead stump of a pine, and contained 5 eggs, averaging 15.9x12.5 mm.. 
Max. 16.4x12.7, Min. 15.5x12.3. 

83. Short toed Creeper, Certhia brachydactyla Brehm.* 
Geographical Races. 

a. Mid-European Short toed Creeper, C. brachydactyla brachydactyla Brehm. 

Egg: Baedeker, Tab. 43, fig. 3. 

Foreign Names: Holland: Boomkriiipertje. (See also under 
C. familiaris macrodactyla.) 

Certhia brachydactyla brachydactyla Brehm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 323. 

Breeding Range: Central Europe (France, the Low Countries, 
Switzerland, Middle and AVest Germany, and Austria). 

g^jj The exact distribution of this species is still very imperfectly known, 

tinentai owiug to the coufusiou between it and C. familiaris macrodactyla. In 

urope. Q.gj.jjja^j^y j^ jg Qf j.j^j.q occurrcnce in the eastern provinces (E. and 
W. Prussia and E. Pomerania): in the middle and south it is fairly 
numerous and is the common Creeper in the "West, haunting usually 
the districts wooded with deciduous trees, such as willows, alders and 
poplars, rather than coniferous woods. All the specimens hitherto obtained 
in Holland appear to belong to this species, and it is found also in 
Belgium and in the great plain of France. In Switzerland it is met 

* The name should of course; be correctly "Short-clawed": there is no difference 
in the length of the toe between this species and C. familiaris. 



ments. 



177 

with on the low ground, and also on the slopes of the Jura up to about 
1000 ft., but not higher, and it has also been recorded from Austria. 

Usually behind loose bark, but ocasionally in holes of buildings, Ne»t. 
under eaves etc. as in the case of C. familiaris. Hartert found a nest 
near "Wesel in a hedge, not far from the ground, in an accumulation of 
dead leaves, stalks etc., and the late Dr. Kutter knew of a similar instance. 

Generally 5 to 7 in number, but as many as 8 to 12 eggs are said Eggs. 
to have been found in one nest, probably the produce of two hens. 

Deichler {Journ. fur Orn., 1896, p. 449) asserts that the eggs 
are distinguishable from those of the other species by stronger and 
bolder markings, with a tendency to form a zone at the big end, like minia- 
ture eggs of Hirundo rustica. whereas the eggs of C. familiaris as a rule 
have the spots fainter and more evenly distributed, something like those 
of Parus major. Probably the comparison of larger series of well authen- 
ticated eggs will show that these differences are not constant, but at 
present the material is insufficient to decide. 

Probably similar to that of the other species, but in Switzerland, Breeding 
where it inhabits lower ground, the eggs are naturally laid rather earlier. 

Average of 16 eggs (12 by Deichler and 4 by Rey) 16.3x12.3 mm., Measure- 
Max. 16.9x12.1 and 15.9x12.6; Min. 15.9x11.9 mm. As far as can 
be judged from such a small series, the eggs are more elongated in form 
than in the case of C. familiaris. 

b. Southern Short toed Creeper, C. brachydactyla ultramontana Hart. 

Foreign Names: Greece: Murmikologos. Italy: Bampichino. 
Portugal: Trepadeira. Spain: Trepatroncos. 

Breeding Range: The Iberian, Italian and Balkan peninsulas. 

In the wooded parts of Portugal this bird is a very common resi- con 
dent, and is also found throughout Spain, wherever old timber exists, 
from the cork oak woods near Gibraltar to the wooded sierras of north- 
ern Spain. In Italy it is also a common resident in deciduous woods 
in the mountains, and in the Balkan peninsula is found in S. Dalmatia, 
Montenegro, and Albania, breeding generally in the oak forests in the 
mountains, but also in small numbers in the wooded lowlands (von Fiihrer). 
In Bulgaria it appears to be scarce, but is common in Macedonia, breeding 
in the mountains and resorting to the low ground in mnter. In Greece 
it is very scarce, and nests in the highest mountain forests of the Pelo- 
ponesus, Mid-Greece, and Euboea, but may possibly breed in Corfu. 

Very little has been recorded with regard to the nesting habits of Nest 
this race, which however probably differ but little from those of allied 
forms. An abnormal nesting site is mentioned by Camusso, in a bank, 

12 



tinental 
Europe. 



178 

between stones placed against it as supports, about 18 in. from the bottom, 
near Voltaggio in Piedmont. 
Egg« etc. The only eggs which I have been able to examine are 3 from 

Southern Spain, all of which are well marked and decidedly smaller 
than typical Creepers' eggs, averaging 14.4 X 11.7 mm. The breeding 
season in Spain is in April. 

c. Cyprian Tree Creeper, C. brachydactyla dorotheae Hart. 

C. hrachydacUjla dorotheae Hart. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 325. 

Breeding Range: Troodos Range, Cyprus. 

This bird is confined to the Pine forests of the Troodos range, 
and is not met with lower than about 4000 ft. Guillemard obtained 
specimens close to the summit (6500 ft.) 

[The forests of the mountain region of N._W. Africa are inhabited 
by the Moorish Tree Creeper, C. hraclnjdadyla mauritanica Witherby; 
while the race which is found in Asia Minor is known as C. brachydactyla 
harterti Hellm.] 



84. Wall Creeper, Tichodroma muraria (L.). 

PI. 20, fig. 25 (Andermatt, Switzerland, Rey coll.) 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Taf. XVII, fig. 9 (errore): Baedeker, 
Tab. 43, fig. 5; id. J. f. 0. 1856, Tab. I, fig. 11. Seebohm, Br. Birds, 
pi. 18: id. Col. Fig. pi. 54. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 31. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Soupdlek zedni. France: Oiseau 
papillon, Pic de Murailles. Germany: Alpen-Mauerlaufer. Greece: Tf^o- 
pandkos kokkinos. Himgary: Ha jualmaddr. Italy: Pice io muraiolo. Poland: 
Pomurnik Mentel. Russia: Stenolas. Spain: Arane7-o. Tichodroma muraria 
(L). Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 207; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 194. 
Saunders, Man. p. 119. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 327. 

Breeding Range: The mountain ranges of Central and Southern 
Europe, from the Tatra and the Alps southward, and from the Estrella 
Mts. eastward to the Caucasus. [Also in the principal ranges of Asia 
eastward to Mongolia.] 
C""^- Although widely distributed in the more lofty mountain ranges of 

Europe. Southern Europe, the Wall Creeper is nowhere common, and is generally 
met with singly, or in pairs during the breeding season, on the face of 
perpendicular rocks , deep gorges , etc. among the mountains. In the 
Iberian peninsula it is found in the S. Nevada, S. de Antiquera and 
S. de Gaitan in the south: Lilford met with it in the S. de Guadarrama 



179 

and it is also undoubtedly present in the S. de Gredos. It is also said 
to be resident in the Estrella range (Portugal), and is found generally 
but not commonly along the Pyrenean Mts., and its outlying spurs, as 
well as in the Cantabrian Mts. (Picos de Europa etc.). It occurs sparingly 
in the Vosges, locally in the Jura, and also in the whole of the Alpine 
system, from the Basses Alpes and the mountains of Savoie (and possibly 
also in the Cevennes) in the west, through Switzerland and N. Italy to 
the Tyrol, Carinthia, Styria etc. In Hungary and Galicia it is known 
to breed in the Tatra and in other parts of the Carpathian Mts. It is 
not common in the Apennines, and is only found in the higher parts of 
the range. In the Balkan peninsula it is found in most of the higher 
mountain systems, from the Transylvanian Alps, Servia, and Bosnia south- 
wards as far as the Parnassus, where one of Kriiper's collectors found 
a nest with young. It is however much less numerous in Greece than 
in the mountains of Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Bosnia. It has been 
recorded from Sardinia, and may breed there, as well as in Sicily and 
on Elba. In the Caucasus it is resident up to about 8000 ft. [In Asia 
it is found from Palestine and Asia Minor eastward through Persia, 
Afghanistan, Turkestan etc., to the Himalayas, Tibet and Mongolia. There 
is no satisfactory evidence of its occurrence in the Atlas, but it is said 
to have been once met with in Abyssinia.] 

Some interesting notes on the breeding habits of this bird are given Nejt. 
by Girtanner in the Verhandl. der St. Oall naturiv. Oesells. for 1864 
and 1868, Avith a coloured plate of the young bird in the nest*, and 
in the Orn. Monatsschr. 1882, p. 274. It is generally placed in a cleft 
or recess in some precipice or gorge, and is composed chiefly of moss 
and bits of wool, interwoven with roots, a few grass stalks, and down; 
while the inner lining is a felted mass of wool and hair of various animals, 
with occasionally a feather or two or a little fine moss interwoven. The 
outside diameter is about 6 or 7 in. , while the cup measures about 
3 or ^k in. in diameter and li — l? in. in depth. While incubating the 
hen is a very close sitter, being fed by her mate, and only leaving the 
nest once in the day; during the later stages she cannot be dislodged 
even when the entrance to the nest is struck by a stone (F. C. Keller). 

Usually 4, but sometimes 5 in. number. They are fine grained. Eggs, 
slightly pointed ovate in shape, and are sparsely marked with fine, sharply 
defined spots and specks of dark reddish or almost blackish brown, 
chiefly at the big end, on a white ground. The surface of the e^g is 
dull, or only slightly glossy. Some eggs are almost devoid of markings. 

* See also a very valuable article by F. C. Keller in the Zeitschr. fur die ges. 
Ornithologie, 1886, p. 329. 

12* 



180 

Breeding In the Alps full clutches may be found from the beginning of June 

^*^'°''- to about the 26'*^ of that month, but most eggs appear to be laid 

between May 28 and June 10. In Carinthia Keller found full clutches 

from May 25 to June 6. 

Measure- Avcragc of 31 eggs (13 quoted by Rey and 18 measured by the 

°'^"*'' writer) 20.84x14.85 mm., Max. 22.7x15.7, Min. 20x14. (Two eggs 

in the British Museum, said to have been taken on Mt. Cenis, are 

smaller than any others I have seen, measuring only 18.7x14 and 

18.2x13 mm., and may be the produce of birds kept in confinement.). 

Rey gives the average weight of 4 eggs as 137.5 mg. , varying from 

130 to 145 mg.. but an egg from S. Spain is said to have weighed only 

100 mg. (Hocke). 

85. Nuthatch, Sitta europaea L. 
Geographical Races. 

a. British Nuthatch, Sitta europaea britannica Hart. 

Plate 26, fig. 14 (Surrey, 16. V. 04). 

Eggs: Hewitson, I Ed. I, pi. XLIX, fig. 1, 2; II Ed. I, pi. LIV, 
fig. 2; III Ed. I, pi. LXII, fig. 4. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 12; id. Col. 
Fig. pi. 54. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. Ill, fig. 83, 84. Dresser, pi. — , 
fig. 39, 40. 

Local Names: Nuthack, Niitjobber, Mudstopper, Woodcracker, Jar 
Bird. Welsh: Cnocyll y cnau. 

Sitta ccesia Wolf. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 473. Dresser, Birds 
of Europe, III, p. 175 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 188 (part.). Saunders, Man. 
p. 113. S. europaea britannica Hart. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 332. 

Breeding Range: The southern and central counties of England: 
rare in the north. 
British The chief haunts of the Nuthatch are parks and wooded districts, 

Avhere the timber is allowed to grow to a good size. In localities of 
this kind it is found throughout the greater part of England and Wales, 
south of about lat. 55° N., but becomes very scarce or is altogether 
absent in the extreme west, as in W. Cornwall, Pembroke, the shores 
of Cardigan Bay, and Carnarvon. It is absent from the Isle of Wight, 
Anglesea, aud the Isle of Man, but has penetrated to the inland counties 
of Wales, (Montgomery, Radnor, and Brecon) and is not uncommon in 
Carmarthen. North of lat. 55" the records become very scanty: in 
Cheshire it is only found in the S. W., it is local and scarce in N. E. 
Derbyshire, Notts and Lincoln, but occurs in some of the older parks in 
W. Yorkshire. It is said to have formerly bred in Northumberland, 



Isles. 



181 

Durham, and also in Lancashire, and individuals have been obtained in 
the Lake district and the S. E. borders of Scotland, and it has been 
recorded as an accidental visitor to Skye. 

As a rule the nest is in a hole in a tree trunk, or in some large Nest. 
branch, and is found at varying heights, occasionally not far from the 
ground. When the entrance is too large it is plastered up by the birds 
with clay or mud, which sets very hard, and most nests (but not all) 
show traces of this mud daubing round the hole. The size and depth of 
the nesting hollow are variable, and the nest itself consists of the laminae 
of the inner bark of the Scotch fir, or fragments of the outer bark of the 
silver birch ,* as a rule in sufficient quantity to enable the bird to sit close 
to the entrance hole. When pine or birch bark is not available dead 
leaves of oak or beech are utilized, and some writers state that dead 
grass is also met with occasionally. While laying is in progress, the 
eggs are often scattered and even half buried in the nest lining, but are 
collected together when incubation begins. The hole is sometimes a 
natural one: at other times an old woodpecker's nesting place is taken 
possession of, and several cases are on record where a nest has been 
found in a hole of a wall. Other abnormal sites are holes in sandbanks 
or in Sand Martins' burrows, in the foundation of an old Magpie's nest, 
and in the head of a downpipe from the spouting of a house; while the 
well known nest from the side of a haystack from East Grinstead which 
weighed 11 lb., is familiar to visitors to the British Museum. Nest boxes 
are also readily adopted, the lid being generally plastered down and the 
bottom of the box being filled up with mud. Starlings frequently dis- 
possess Nuthatches as well as Woodpeckers of their breeding places, but 
Norgate has on two or three occasions found the mummified remains of 
Starlings in Nuthatches' nesting holes. ■!■ 

The number of eggs is underestimated by most writers, and varies Eggi. 
from 5 to 11, but probably 5 to 8 is the usual clutch, although several 
instances of 9 and 10 eggs in one nest have been recorded. On 
May 19, 1906 A. G. Tomlinson found a nest in Berkshire with 14 eggs, 
but a careful examination showed that some of the eggs were fresh and 
others addled, so that in all probability the eggs were the first and 
second layings of the same bird. As a rule the eggs in a clutch are 
of the same type,** but there is considerable variation in a large series. 
The normal egg is white, almost devoid of gloss, but not so dull as 

* P. H. Bahr counted 1860 pieces of this bark in a single nest (Br. Birds, 
1907, p. 122). 

t Zool. 1880, p. 44. 

** Exceptions however occur sometimes: A. H. Evana has a white egg in an 
exceptionally well marked set. 



1€|2 

that of Parus major, boldly spotted Avith spots and blotches of dark and 
light red brown and a few violet shell marks. Sometimes the markings 
are evenly distributed, but they are generally thicker towards the big end, 
and sometimes form a zone of confluent blotches. Occasionally a set is 
met with in which the spots are replaced by fine speckles, while Norgate 
took a set of 7 white eggs in Norfolk, in which only two showed faint 
traces of markings. 

Breeding Early clutchcs may be taken occasionally in the last ten days of 

April, but the more usual time is in the first two or three weeks of May, 
May 1 — 14 being perhaps the best time. The Nuthatch is apparently 
a life paired bird, and in some cases at any rate, the eggs of a second 
brood are laid about the end of June. "While incubating the hen sits 
closely, and by hissing and the use of her powerful beak seeks to deter 
intruders. The period of incubation is probably about 13 — 14 days, and 
a nest under observation by P. H. Bahr was completed in the short 
space of 4 days. 

Measure- Eggs of thc British race are quite indistinguishable from those of 

ments. ^^ ^^ caesia, but are as a rule smaller than those of S. e. europaea. 

Average of 100 English eggs measured by the writer, 19.2x14.32 mm.. 
Max. 21.5X14 and 20x16, Min. 16.5x13.5 and 19.1x13.2 mm. 
Average weight of 7 normal eggs, 130 mg. 12 full eggs average 2.308 g. 
(R. H. Read). 

b. Southern Nuthatch, S. europaea caesia Wolf. 

Plate 22, fig. 11—15 (Halle a S., Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XVII, fig. 16, a — b. Baedeker, 
Tab. 43, fig. 6. Dresser, pi. — fig. 17. 

Foreign Names: Denmark: Noddehahker . France: lorcliepot. 
Germany: Kleiher, SpecMmeise. Holland: BoomMever. Hungary: Csuszka. 
Italy: Picchio muratore. Portugal: Trepadeira. Spain: Trepatroncos. 
Sitta caesia Wolf. Dresser, tt. c. (partim). S. europaea caesia Wolf. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 331. 
Con- This race is found in the wooded districts of E. Jutland and also 

on Funen, where according to Winge S. europaea europaea also occurs. 
It is also the representative race throughout Germany, with the exception 
of E. Prussia, and is most numerous in the deciduous woods of the low 
ground. Probably the Carpathians form its E. limit in Austro-Hungary, 
and in the forests of Salzburg, Carinthia, the Danube valley and Tran- 
sylvania it is not uncommon. In the Vorarlberg Bau met with it breeding 
up to 3000 ft. In the Balkan Peninsula it occurs in the Dobrudscha, 
and according to Dresser is very plentiful in the oak woods of Wallachia 
and Servia. In Montenegro it haunts the mountain forests and has been 



tinental 
Europe. 



183 

met with as high as 7500 ft., and in European Turkey is not uncommon, 
while in Greece it is resident botli in the oak and pine forests north 
of the Gulf of Lepanto. In Italy and Sicily it is common and sedentary, 
but is not found on Malta, Sardinia, or Corsica, nor has it been recorded 
from the Balearic Isles. In Switzerland it is met with not only on the 
lower slopes, but even in the Haute Engadine, and inhabits the woods 
of the Low Countries and France. In the chesnut and beech forests of 
the Pyrenees is also abundant, and either this, or possibly another local 
race, is found in the principal mountain ranges of the Iberian peninsula 
(Cantabrian Mts., S. de Guadarrama, Gredos and Estrella, S. Nevada 
etc.) [Specimens were obtained by Olcese from the hills near Tangier 
about 1883, and Loche recorded it from Algeria, but recent observers 
have failed to meet with it.] 

In nesting habits this form does not differ from the British race. Nost. 
Old holes of the Great Black Woodpecker are not infrequently occupied 
in Central Europe, and iley once met with a hole excavated by the 
bird itself in a very rotten willow trunk. The usual height is between 
9 and 18 ft., but exceptionally nests have been found only 11 ft. above 
the ground, and 75 ft. high. Notes by Bau in Z. f. Ool, XI, p. 106 (1901). 

Generally 6 to 8 in number, less commonly 5 or 9, and indistinguish- Eggs. 
able from those of S. europaea hritannica. A nest with 12 eggs was 
found by A. Hintz in 1855. 

Most authorities are agreed that only one brood is reared in the Breeding 
year, though Girtanner thinks that two broods are sometimes brought soason. 
off in Switzerland. The breeding season is rather variable. Probably 
Bau is correct in assuming that the older birds re-occupy the nests of 
the previous year and lay first, while the younger hens, which have to 
find and adapt to their needs other sites, breed two or three weeks 
later. In AVallachia full clutches may be found in the first week of 
April, while in Germany the usual time is from mid April to late in 
May in the north, and from April 10 to mid May in the south. In Jut- 
land the first eggs are laid in the last week of April. 

A. Bau gives the average of 86 eggs as 19.7 X 14.4 mm.. Max. Measure- 
21.8 >c; 15.1, Min. 17.6x13.5 mm. Roy gives very similar figures: 
average of 42 eggs, 19.9 X 14.6 mm.. Max. 22.25 X 14.5, and 21.25 X 
15.25; Min. 17.5x14.8. Average weight 135 mg. (Bau); 132 mg. 
(Rey). 

c. Caucasian Nuthatch, S. europaea caucasiea Rehnw. 

S. europaea caucasiea Rchnw. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 333. 

Breeding Range: The Caucasus. 

Little is known of the distribution or habits of this short-billed 



184 

race, except that Radde describes it as a not very numerous resident, 
haunting the lower deciduous forest region, but occurring also in the birch 
forest up to nearly 6000 ft. Two nests with eggs were found near 
Lenkoran on May 7. 

[Other allied forms are found in Asia Minor and "W. Palestine, 
(5. europaea levantina Hart.), and in the oak forests of S. W. Pessia 
(S. europaea persica Witherby)]. 

d. Scandinavian or Northern Nuthatch, S. enropaea enropaea L. 

Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 43, fig. 7: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 13. 
Foreign Names: Finland: Pahkinanakkeli. Norway: Spetmeise 
Nodvakke. Russia: Fopolsen. Sweden: Notvacka. 

Sitta europaea L. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 169 and Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 186. S. europaea europaea L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna p. 329. 
Breeding Range: Scandinavia, the Danish Isles and N. Russia. 
Con- In S. Norway it is tolerably common in tracts of deciduous wood- 

tinentai \q^^^ as far as the highest limits of the hazel and oak, as well as among 
the birch forests on the west coast, and up to the Gudbrandsdal, south 
of the Dovrefjeld. In Sweden it is generally distributed, but nowhere 
very common, in the South up to about lat. 61°; and is also found in 
Gotland, and in small numbers on Oland. In Denmark it is common 
on Zealand, Laaland and Falster, and is said to occur also on Fiinen. 
In Russia it is absent from Finland, but is said to have bred near Arch- 
angel and to be not uncommon in the Vologda Government. Birds from near 
Moscow are also described as having pure white underparts, but the limits 
of this and the next form in E. Europe are not exactly known. 
Nest etc. Apparently similar to that of other races. The eggs number 6 to 

8 as a rule, sometimes 9, while clutches of 10 have occasionally been met 
with. They resemble those of other races. 
Breeding In Denmark full clutches may be obtained from April 25 to late in May, 

Season, ^nd about the same time in S. Sweden, but not till May in Norway. 
Measure- Avcrago sizc of 52 cggs (22 by Ottosson, 26 by the writer, and 

'"'°*'- 4 by Rey), 20.03x14.92 mm. Max. 21.3x15.2 and 21.1x15.3, 
Min. 18.7 X 14.5 and 19.8 X 14.2. Average weight of 22 eggs, 134 mg. 
(Ottosson, in litt.). The eggs of this form, though individually indistin- 
guishable, appear on an average to be slightly larger than those of S. e. 
coesia or hritannica. 

e. Homeyer's Nuthatch, S. europaea homeyeri Hart. 

8. europaea homeyeri Hart. Hartert, Vogl. Pal. Fauna, p. 330. 
Breeding Range: E. Prussia, Russian Baltic Provinces, Poland, 
Galicia, (? Crimea). 



185 

Tolerably common in E. Prussia and in the Russian Baltic Pro- 
vinces, as well as in Poland and on the plains of Galicia. Probably it 
is this race which is also found in S. W. Russia and the Crimea, but 
at present its distribution is not exactly known. Little has been recorded 
as to its breeding habits, but in the Baltic Provinces it is said to lay 
6 eggs at the end of April, 

f. Ural Nuthatch, S. europaea uralensis Glog. 

S europaea uralensis Glog. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 330. 

Breeding Range: The Urals. [Also Siberia]. 

According to Taczanowski's measurements the eggs appear to be 
decidedly small: 6 averaging 17.93x13.66 mm.. Max. 19x14, Min. 
17.3X13.2. 

86. Whitehead's Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis 
whiteheadi Sharpe. 

Plate 26, fig. 15, 16. (Corsica, 26. V. 08, Jourdain.) 

Eggs: Ibis, 1885, pi. II. Cat. Eggs Br. Mus., IV, pi. XIV, fig. 15. 
Dresser, pi. — , fig. 23, 24. Nest: Ibis, 1885, p. 30. 

Sitta whiteheadi Sharpe. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IX, p. 133; 
id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 190. S. canadensis whiteheadi Sharpe. Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 335. 

Breeding Range: Corsica. 

Nothing has hitherts been recorded with regard to the breeding 
of this interesting bird beyond the notes by Whitehead in the Ibis, 
1885, p. 28. The writer however found it not uncommon locally in 
coniferous forest at 3000 ft. above the sea, breeding in dead and 
decayed pine trees. 

Sometimes an old Great Spotted Woodpecker's nest is used, while Nest. 
at other times the hole is pecked out by the birds in rotten wood at 
varying heights from 18 to 80 ft. The cavity is lined with strips of 
the bark of the Mediterranean heath, mixed with moss and a few 
feathers, so that the sitting bird is almost on a level with the entrance, 
which is roughly circular. No clay or mud is ever used. As the nest 
is always in a tree in the later stages of decay, and often at a 
considerable height, to reach it is often attended with considerable 
difficulty and danger. 

Usually 5 or 6 in number, white, as a rule boldly and thickly spotted ^^^^ 
and speckled with dark red, chiefly round the big end; but occasionally a 
set is met with in which the markings are comparatively sparse. They 
have but little gloss. 



186 

Breeding Whitehead took fresh clulches from May 21 to the end of the month, 

but in one case I found newly hatched young on May 26, although other 
nests had fresh eggs on that date. The birds are quite devoid of fear, 
and approach within a foot or so when the nest is being examined. The 
cock can generally be called up by an imitation of the hissing sound 
mentioned by "Whitehead, which is the alarm note of this species. 

Measure- Avcragc sizc of 31 eggs collected in 1884 and 1908, 17.19x12.94 mm.. 

Max. 18.5 X 13.3, Min. 16 X 12.5 and 16.5 X 12.1 mm. 



ments. 



tinental 
Europe, 



87. Kruper*s Nuthatch, Sitta krueperi Pelz. 

Plate 26, fig. 17 (Asia Minor, Kriiper). 

Eggs: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 19 — 22. 

Sitta kr\ieperi v. Pelz. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 189; id. 
Man. Pal Birds, p. 189. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 336. 

Breeding Range: Asia Minor and the Caucasus. 
Con- Radde received six specimens from Borshom in 1897 , and 

Lorenz records one shot near Kislowodsk in October. [In Asia Minor 
it is plentiful in the coniferous woods, from near Smyrna eastward to 
the Taurus, and probably also to the Giaour Dagh*. It occurs among the 
upper limits of the oak forest, but is most plentiful in the pine belt, 
and is not uncommon among the cedars and junipers up to the limits 
of tree growth. Tristram's statement that it occurs in the gorge of the 
Leontes in Palestine has not been substantiated by specimens.] 
Nest. The nesting hole is usually excavated by the birds in the rotten 

wood of a dead bough or an old stump, just behind the bark, and can 
easily be exposed by breaking away the bark by the hand. Occasionally, 
according to Danford, a deserted Woodpecker's hole is utilized, but there 
is never any attempt to plaster round the opening with mud or clay. 
The height from the ground is very variable, usually from 1 to 12 ft., 
but occasionally as much as 20 ft. high or more. Within the hole there 
is generally a foundation of filaments of juniper bark, but the lining 
materials used vary greatly. Some nests are lined with goat's hair, others 
with fragments of cone seeds, while dry grasses, thistledown, and fur are 
also used, and F. C. Selous found one thickly lined with feathers only. 
Eggs. Usually 5, sometimes 6, while 7 have occasionally been found. 

They are a broad pointed oval in shape, with some little gloss, and are 
profusely speckled and spotted with brownish red, and lilac shell marks, 
chiefly towards the big end. In general appearance they are not unlike 
handsomely marked eggs of Parus major. The shell is delicate and 
fine grained. 

* Danford, Ibis, 1878, p. 10. 



187 
Probably from mid April to the end of the month is the best time breeding 

Season. 

for eggs in Asia Minor, but full clutches have been found in the first 

week in April on lower ground, and higher in the mountains eggs have 

been taken occasionally late in May. 

Average size of 63 eggs (58 measured by the writer and 5 by Rey), Measure- 
ments. 
17.14x13.08 mm.. Max. 18.3x13 and 17.1x14, Min. 16x12.7 and 

16.3x12.6 mm. According to Rey the average weight is 100 mg. 

88. Rock Nuthatch, Sitta neumayer Michah. 

Plate 23, fig. 18—22 (Smyrna, T. Kruper). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XVII, fig. 15, a — b. Baedeker, 
Tab. 43, fig. 8. Dresser, pi. — fig. 25—27. 

Foreign Names: Croatia: Kravarica. Germany: Felsen-Kleiher . 
Greece: TsopandJcos. Montenegro: Londar. 

Sitta neumayeri Michsih.. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 183; id. 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 191. Sitta neumayer neumayer Michah. Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Pauna, p. 338. 

Breeding Range: The Balkan Peninsula, from Croatia, Dalmatia 
and the Balkans southward to Greece. [Also Asia Minor, probably as 
far as the Caucasus.] 

In Dalmatia this bird haunts the rocky districts at a low elevation, con- 
and has been also recorded from Croatia. In Herzegovina it is a well ^^pe 
known resident in the Karst region, and in Montenegro it is common 
along the Adriatic coast and also in the subalpine region. Von Fiihrer 
found it ranging as high as 5100 ft. It appears to be unknown in the 
great plains of the Danube valley, but is recorded by Reiser among the 
Balkans at a height of 6000 ft. on the extreme southern boundary of 
Bulgaria. It is found in Albania and Macedonia, but Kruper describes 
it as less common on Olympus than in Greece. It is said to breed on 
Corfu and is locally common in Greece, especially in Acarnania, but is 
not found in the Cyclades. Radde describes a Rock Nuthatch as common 
in the Little Caucasus, up to about 6000 ft., but rare on the S. side 
of the Great Caucasus. [In Asia Minor it is one of the commonest 
birds: but in Syria and Palestine it is replaced by a doubtfully distinct 
pale race, S. neumayer syriaca Temm. (Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 338). 
Other forms occur in Persia and Turkestan.] 

"Wherever found this Nuthatch is always a noticeable bird, its Nest. 
rapidly repeated single loud call note attracting attention at once. It 
is generally met with on rocks or boulder- strewn hillsides, and is very 
rarely seen on trees. Its remarkable nest is found in caves or on the 
face of precipitous overhanging rocks, and is as a rule not difficult to 



188 

find, but occasionally it is built into a natural recess, and is then in- 
conspicuous. It is a solidly built edifice of mud, with chalk stones and 
bits of dung in places, whose walls vary in thickness from i to Ih in., 
somewhat irregular in shape, about 8 in. broad across the base and 
about 24 in. in circumference The entrance, usually in the middle, is 
funnel shaped, varying in extreme cases from 1 to 4 in. in length, but 
generally about 2^ to 3i in. long, and having an opening about li in. 
wide. Within these outer walls is placed a thick layer of some soft 
material such as moss, goats' hair, feathers, thistledown, etc. The 
exterior surface of the nest is roughened by indentations of the birds' 
bills, and wing coverts of various species of beetles (Lydus, Chrysomela, etc.) 
are often imbedded in the mud. 

^^^^' Usually 8 or 9, but occasionally 7 or even 10 in number. In colour 

they are pure white, in rare cases quite unmarked, but usually with rust 
coloured blotches or spots, which are generally, more numerous towards 
the big end. In shape they are very variable, and according to Reiser 
great differences in shape have been noticed in the same clutch. As 
a rule they possess more gloss than those of S. europaea. 

Breeding j^^ Grccce the breeding season extends from the end of March or 

Seaaon. _ " 

early in April to the second week in May, but most eggs are laid in 
the first half of April. In Asia Minor it is rather later, most eggs being 
laid in tJie latter half of April or the first days of May, while in the 
Herzegovina the latter part of May is the usual time. Only one brood 
is reared in the season, and often the same nest is occupied year after 
year. When the eggs have been taken, if the damage is slight, the 
birds will repair the nest and lay again in it a second or even a third 
time, but on the other hand one pair has been known to construct two 
nests in a season, only using one for breeding purposes. When incubating 
the hen sits very closely and may easily be taken on the nest. 

Average of 100 eggs (49 by the writer, 33 by Rey, and 18 by Bau), 
20.6X15.25 mm.. Max. 23x16.5, Min. 18.5x14.5 and 19x14.25 mm. 
Seebohm states that the smallest eggs are scarcely larger than those 
of the House Martin! Average weight according to Rey, 156 mg., but 
Bau gives 164 mg. (varying from 148 to 175 mg.) as the average of 
18 eggs. 

PARI DAE. 

89. Great Tit, Parus major L. 
Geographical Races. 

a. British Great Tit, P. major newtoni Prai. 

Eggs: Hewitson, I Ed. I, pi. LXXXI, fig. 1, 2; II Ed. I, pi. 



Measure 
ments. 



Isles. 



189 

XXXI, fig. 1; III Ed. I, pi. XXXIX, fig. 1. Seebohm, Rr. Birds, 
pi. 9; id. Col. Fig, pi. 53. Frohawk, Br. Birds I, pi. II, fig. 71—72. 

Local Names: Tom Jit, Oxeye, Blackcap, Billy Biter, Bee-eater, 
Nope, Saiv Sharpener; Hickmall or Hackmall (Devon). 

Parus major L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 479; Dresser, Birds of 
Europe, III, p. 79 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 161 (partim); Saunders, Man. 
p. 103. P. major newtoni Praz. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 343. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles. 

This well known bird is common and generally distributed throughout British 
England und Wales, with the exception of the moorlands and higher 
mountains. It is also common in the Isle of Man, and in the south of 
Scotland, but becomes scarce in the north and probably rarely, of ever, 
breeds north of a line drawn from Gairloch to Dingwall, although it 
has been recorded as a straggler to Sutherland, Caithness, the Orkneys 
and Shetlands. In the west it breeds in the wooded districts of the 
Inner Hebrides, Islay, Jura, Mull, etc., and probably also on Skye, but 
is absent from the Outer Hebrides. In Ireland it is a common resident, 
breeding in every county, but avoiding the moors and boglands.* 

Although frequently breeding in the neighbourhood of houses, the 
Great Tit is a decidedly cautious bird, and always avoids observation as 
much as possible while visiting the nest. After the young are hatched 
their noisy cries soon disclose its position. The commonest sites are 
holes in trees or walls, at varying heights, sometimes only an inch or 
two from the ground or actually in it (Zool. 1874. p. 4076, 1884, p. 
229, etc.), but generally a few feet above it. When natural holes are 
scarce, all kinds of artificial openings are utilized: nesting boxes are 
readily adopted, and letter boxes, pumps, inverted flower pots, beehives, 
holes in ironwork or statuary, and old tin cans have all been made use 
of from time to time. Stevenson records nests on the shelf of a three 
cornered cupboard, and Ralfe one inside an old cannon's mouth. In 
rocky districts it is not unusual to find this bird breeding in holes and 
crannies of cliffs, while other cases have been recorded where the nest 
has been built among the foundations of old Squirrels' dreys and old 
or even occupied nests of Crow, Rook, Magpie or Sparrow Hawk, and 
it has been known to breed in a Kingfisher's hole (Zool. 1895, p. 71.) 
All the sites mentioned above are however covered or roofed in to 
some extent, yet occasionally it has been known to reline the nest of 
some other bird, generally a Blackbird, Thrush, or Hedge Sparrow. An 
open nest of this kind is figured in Nelson's Birds of Yorkshire, p. 110. 

* Macpherson records an instance of this species pairing in a wild state with 
P. caeruleus obsciirus {Vict. Hist, of Cumberland, I, p. 184. 



190 

The foundation of the nest consists chiefly of moss ^vith a few bents 
and roots. On this is placed a thick layer of felted hair or rabbits' fur 
and a depression is made in it, usually at one side and not in the middle, 
in order to contain the eggs. While laying is in progress some of the 
hair is pulled over the eggs and to a casual glance the nest looks un- 
finished and empty. The bulk of the nest is very variable, depending 
on the size of the cavity. Approximate diameter of cup 21 in., depth 
It in. Montagu states that the eggs are sometimes laid on chips at 
the bottom of a hole in a tree without any nest. 
Eggs. The usual number of eggs varies from 7 to 11, but I have seen 

6 eggs much incubated, and have known of several instances of 12 and 
13 eggs, while A. W. Johnson and S. Lewis have found nests with 14, 
Coward records one Avith 15, and Bucknill one with 17, which latter 
was probably the produce of two hens. Occasionally the eggs of some 
other hole-breeding species, such as the Redstar,t, may be found in the 
same nest, probably when the Tit has ejected the Redstart: and the two 
species have also been known to breed side by side. The typical egg 
is white, with very little gloss, marked sometimes sparingly and at other 
times richly, with spots or small blotches, and a few fine speckles, of two 
shades of reddish brown. Sometimes the underlying spots are almost 
violet-brown in colour. A clutch of pure white eggs has been taken in 
Hampshire. 

Breeding The Great Tit is a life paired bird, and by far the greater number 

of our residents only rear one brood in the year, as can easily be proved 
by any one who will take the trouble to put up a good supply of nesting 
boxes. Occasionally however, as in the case of some other birds, a 
second brood is reared, but in one instance of the kind, where I had 
the birds under observation, some, of not all, of the young of the first 
brood were killed soon after leaving the nest. The first eggs are laid 
about the end of April or the beginning of May, and fresh clutches may 
be taken till about the end of the month, but the best time is about 
the second or third week of May in the Midlands. When a second 
brood is reared the eggs are laid in the latter half of June. An instance 
of winter breeding is recorded in the Birds of Hampshire, p. 38. The 
hen sits very closely and often refuses to leave the nest unless forcibly 
removed, hissing, making a curious noise by the expulsion of air at 
intervals, and using her sharp beak with effect. Incubation lasts 14 days 
(W. Evans); 12—13 days (Steele-Elliott, Zool. 1900, p. 424). 

Measure- Avcrago of 100 Euglisli eggs measured by the writer, 17.98 X 13.51 

mm., Max. 20.5 X 13.4 and 17.8 X 14.7 ; Min. 16 X 12.6 and 18.5 X 12.5 
mm. Average weight of 20 eggs, 104 mg. Average weight of 26 full 
eggs, 1.677 g. (R. H. Read); of 8 eggs, 1.843 g. (N. H. Foster). 



Season. 



nients. 



191 

b. Continental Great Tit, P. major major L. 

Plate 20, fig. 1—4 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XVIII, fig. 2, a — c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 43, fig. 9. Taczanowski, Tab. LXIV, fig. 1. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 
25—28. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Sjenica velika. D enmsirk : Miisvitmeise. 
Finland: Talitiainen. France: Mesange charbomiiere. Germany: Kohl- 
meise. Holland: Koolmees, Plakker. Hungary: Szenczinege. Italy: Cin- 
ciallegra. Norway: Kjodmeise, Talgite. Poland: Sikora hogatka. Portugal: 
Chapim. Russia: Sinitza kusnetschik. Sweden: Talgoxe, Talgmes. Spain: 
Santa Cruz, Carbonero. Parus major L. Dresser, t. c. {imrt) P. major 
major L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 341. 

Breeding Range: Continental Europe, from the Arctic Circle to 
the Mediterranean, except Greece [Also W. Siberia to the Altai.]. 

The range of this widely distributed bird extends over nearly the *^°°" 

tinental 

whole of Europe. In Norway it is common up to lat. 64 , and breeds Europe. 
sparsely up to the Arctic circle, while in Sweden it is found commonly 
up to Norrland, and less frequently in the coniferous forests of S. Lap- 
land. In Finland it is also numerous and is recorded as common in the 
Vologda government, but is only a straggler to the high North, although 
it has occurred on the Varanger Fjord. Over the whole of Middle 
Europe it is found commonly wherever trees exist, but in the subalpine 
regions it becomes scarce. Southward it is found in all the wooded 
parts of the Iberian peninsula* and also in Italy, but is replaced ly 
P. m. corsus in Corsica and Sardinia. In the Balkan peninsula it is 
perhaps less common than in other parts of Europe, and is chiefly met 
with in the hills, but the race inhabiting the plains of Greece has been 
described as distinct. [In Asia it is found apparently from AV. Siberia 
to the Altai range.] 

What has already been written with regard to the British form of Nest. 
this bird applies equally well to the continental race. Leverkiihn and 
others have recorded many instances in which the eggs of this bird have 
been found in the same nest with those of other species, such as the 
Blue Tit, Redbreast, Pied Flycatcher, Tree Creeper and Roller. (See 
Fremde Eier im Neste, p. 105, and Zeit. f. Ool., VI, p. 13.). In E. 
Prussia Hartert found it breeding in Woodpeckers' holes. 

Usually 10 — 12 in the first brood and 6 — 8 in the second, but Eggs. 
clutches of 14 (Kollibay), 15 (Herold, J. f. 0., 1888, p. 435, and AViistnei 
and Clodius) and even 16 (Fatio) are said to have been found. They 

* Whitaker (Birds of Tunisia, p. 135) attributes Spanish and Italian birds to 
P. m. excelsus Buv. 



ments. 



192 

resemble those of the British race, and show considerable variation in 
a large series, some clutches being white or nearly so, and others boldly 
and handsomely marked. The eggs from one nest are generally much 
alike. Most S. Spanish eggs are exceptionally richly marked, rivalling 
Greek eggs in appearance. 

Breeding Apparently two broods are usually reared on the Continent, the 

second nest being at no great distance from the first. In S. Spain the 
first eggs may be found about April 10, while in Germany the usual 
time is about the end of April or the beginning of May, and the eggs 
of the second brood are found in June, but exceptionally eggs have been 
met with early in April. In the Baltic Provinces they are not laid till 
the second half of May, but in the milder climate of W. Norway from 
the end of April onward. 

Measure- Bau gives thc avcrage of 12-1 eggs from Central Europe as 17.2 X 13.4 

mm., Max. 19.7 X 14.7, Min. 16 X 12 mm. and Rey's average of 50 
German eggs agrees closely: average 17.3 X 13.5 mm.. Max. 19.6 X 13.3 
and 17.6x14.8, Min. 16.4x12.9 and 17x12.6 mm. Spanish eggs 
are almost exactly similar in size. Bau gives the average weight as 
105 mg., and E,ey as 95.5 mg. 

c. Corsican Great Tit. P. major corsus Kleinschm. 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XVIII, fig. 4, a — b (as P. liigubris). 

P. major corsus Kleins. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 343. 

Breeding Range: Corsica and Sardinia. 

A common resident in both islands. 

The eggs are 7 — 9 in number and vary much in markings. They 
are laid in the second or third week of May. Average of 40 collected 
by the writer, 17.82x13.76 mm.. Max. 18.7x13.7 and 17.3x14.5, 
Min. 17x13.3 and 17.2x13.2. 

d. Greek Great Tit, P. major peloponnesius Parrot. 

P. major peloponnesius Parrot. J. f. 0., 1905, p. 547. P. major 
aphrodite Mad. Hartert, t. c. (part.) 

Breeding Range: Greece. 

This small form has only recently been described by Dr. Parrot, 
but is apparently barely distinguishable from the next race. In Greece 
it is common in the plains, and breeds not only on the mainland, but 
also in Corfu and the Cyclades. The first eggs, 8 — 9 in number, are 
found at the beginning of April, but they may be obtained till late in 
May or early in June. They resemble those of other forms, but some 
are very freely and handsomely marked. Reiser gives the Max. of 31 
eggs as 18.7x13.7 mm., weight 210 mg.; Min. 16.4x12.5, weight 
175 mg. A clutch of 9 in the British Museum averages 18.16x13.46 mm. 



193 

e. Cyprian Great Tit, P. major aphrodite Mad. 

P. major aphrodite Mad. Hartert, Yog. Pal. Fauna, p. 344 (part.) 

Breeding Range: Cyprus. 

Not uncommon where trees are to be found. Guillemard obtained 
one near Kikko Monastery, at 4000 ft., and Glaszner found it breeding 
early in May. Two nests, each with 7 eggs, found by him were placed 
in a nest of Hirundo rufula on a clifif, and in a hole of a wall. Eggs 
all brightly marked, but most of them show purplish grey underlying 
markings in addition to the usual reddish brown spots. Average of 
13 eggs (Hartert in litt), 18.07x13.6 mm.. Max. 18.5x14, Min. 
17.7x13. 

[Some form of Great Tit is also resident in Asia Minor and Crete; 
while in the wooded districts of N. W. Africa the representative form is 
P. major excelsus Buvry, and P. m. hlanfordi Praz. is found in Palestine 
and Persia.] 

90. Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus L. 

Geographical Races. 

a. British Blue Tit, P. caeraleas obscuras Praz. 

Eggs: Hewitson, I Ed. I, pi. LXXVI, fig. 1; II Ed. I, pi. XXXI, 
fig. 2; III Ed. I, pi. XXXIX, fig. 2. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 9; id. 
Col. Fig. pi. 53. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. Ill, fig. 78—81. Dresser, 
pi. — , fig. 45—48 and pi. — , fig. 41. 

Nest: 0. Lee, III, p. 70. 

Local Names: Tom Tit, Blue Cap, Billy Biter, Pickcheese, Maup. 
Welsh: Pela glas bach, Yswidiv Mawr. 

Parus caeruleus L. Newton, ed Yarrell, I, p. 483. Dresser, Birds of 
Europe, III, p. 131 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 177 (part.) Saunders, Man. 
p. 109. P. caeruleus obscurus Praz. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 348. 

Breeding Range: British Isles. 

In most parts of England this bird is very generally distributed, British 
and is the commonest Tit in many districts, although outnumbered in ^''®'- 
others by the Great Tit. A few pairs are resident in the Isle of Man, 
while in Scotland, though it is said to have bred in every county, it 
becomes scarce in the extreme north, but has bred in E. Sutherland and 
Caithness. It is also a resident in small numbers in Skye, but not on 
the outer Hebrides, although it is known to inhabit the larger wooded 
islands of the Inner Hebrides, such as Jura, Mull, etc. To the outlying 
islands it is only a scarce straggler. In Ireland Ussher describes it as 
the commonest and most widely spread of the Tits, breeding in every 
county. 

13 



194 

Nest. This is generally placed in a hole of a tree or wall, and the 

opening is as a rule much smaller than that of P. major, while the 
height from the ground is very variable. In one or two cases this bird 
has been known to breed in a hole in a bank or gravel pit {Zool. 1874, 
p. 4034, 1879, p. 219, etc.). At other times it nests in any suitable 
hole or cranny in pumps, letter boxes, old water cans, railings, gate 
posts, street lamps (where I have seen the old birds feeding their young 
within an inch or so from the gas jet), or inverted flower pots, and even 
in the crown of a cabbage plant {Zool. 1875, p. 4291). An empty 
earthenware bottle is known to have been occupied almost annually 
for nearly 100 years (Yarrell, ed. Newton, I, p. 486). Near Ludlow a 
nest was found in a fire hydrant in the ground in 1900: Ussher describes 
another in a human skull in the wall of a ruined church; and a third 
was placed in the body of a dead Redwing in an apple tree (Birds of 
Devon, p. 35). Several instances in which the nest has been built within 
that of some other species are on record: it is known to have built an 
open nest in that of a Blackbird at least three times, three times in old 
Thrushes' nests, once in a Greenfinch's nest, and twice if not more, in 
Hedgesparrows' nests, in each case inserting a new lining of wool, 
hair, etc. G. D. Rowley also records an open nest on the bough of a 
fir tree (Orn. Misc. I, p. 73). Old holes of the Pied Flycatcher are 
also sometimes occupied, and this species has been known to breed in 
the foundation of an occupied Rook's nest {Zool. 1876, p. 4749). The 
size of the nest of course depends much on the capacity of the hole. 
The foundation consists chiefly of moss and dead grass, lined with wool 
and hair in varying proportions, and almost always many feathers. The 
eggs are generally covered up before incubation begins. 
Eggs. The number of eggs laid is very variable. The usual number is 

from 7 or 8 to 12, but occasionally much larger numbers are met with. 
Three birds have been observed in attendance at one nest (as in the 
case of the Long tailed Tit), and there is little doubt that the exception- 
ally large clutches, from 17 to 20 and even 24 in number (Nelson, 
Birds of TorksJiire, p. 113), are the produce of two hens. In colour 
they are white, with little or no gloss, occasionally quite unmarked, but 
usually finely spotted or speckled with light chesnut brown. The markings 
show a distinct tendency to form a zone or cap at the big end. 
n o, As with the Great Tit only one brood is reared as a rule, and the 

SeaBon. first cggs arc laid at the end of April in the south, or during the first 
fortnight of May in the Midlands, while it is rare to meet with fresh 
eggs after the beginning of June. I have never known an instance of 
two broods being roared by one pair of birds, but as this does occasion- 
ally happen in the case of the Great Tit, it is possible that Dixon's 



195 

statement may be true in exceptional cases, though it is certainly not 
the rule. The hen sits even more closely than P. major and makes use 
of the same means to deter intruders. Incubation lasts 13 — 14 days 
(W. Evans). When feeding their young the parents have been observed 
to visit the nest 43 times in half an hour (Birds of Cheshire, p. 58). 

Average size of 100 British eggs measured by the writer, Measure- 
15.34X11.89 mm., Max. 16.8x12 and 16.5x12.5, Min. 14x11.8 "''°*''- 
and 14.3x11.2 mm. Dwarf eggs measure 9x7.4 (Durham, A. W. John- 
son) and 9.7x8.5 (R. H. Read). Average weight of 20 eggs, 70.4 mg; 
19 full eggs average 1.064 g. (N. H. Foster). 

b. Continental Blue Tit, P. eaeraleas caerulens L. 

Plate 20, fig. 5—8 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XVIII, fig. 3, a — c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 43, fig. 11. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Modrinka. Denmark: Blaameise, 
BlaaJcop. Finland: Sinitiiaine)i . France: Mesange hleue. Germany: Blau- 
meise. Holland: Pimpehnees. Hungary: Kek czinege. Italy: Cinciarella. 
Norway: Blaameise. Poland: Sikora modra. Portugal: Megengro. Russia: 
Sinitschka lasorewka, Sweden: Blames. Spain: Hererrillo. 
Pariis caeruleus L. Dresser, 1. c. (partim). P. caeruleus caeruleus L. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 347. 

Breeding Range: Continental Europe, from 64° in Scandinavia 
and 60" in N. Russia, but Spanish birds closely approach the Corsican 
and Sardinian form. 

This race is generally distributed over the greater part of the Conti- con- 
nent, haunting chiefly deciduous woods on low ground, and becoming t»nentai 
scarce in coniferous woods and in alpine regions. In Scandinavia its 
northern limits extend in Sweden up to about lat. 61 '^N, and in Norway 
along the W. Coast up to lat. 64°. In Russia it is not found N. of 
lat. 60" in the E., but occurs in S. Finland and the Olonetz government, 
and is said to have been obtained near Archangel. Southward its limits 
extend to the Mediterranean, but probably the birds from the Iberian 
peninsula will prove to belong to a distinct race. In Italy and to some 
extent in Greece, it haunts the wooded mountain sides rather than the 
plains, but is resident in Corfu and the Cyclades. [Also found in Asia 
Minor and in Crete. 

In nesting habits it resembles P. caeruleus ohscuriis. Where holes are Nest. 
scarce it has been known to breed in old Magpies', Crows' and Squirrels' 
nests, and Bau found a nest in a Saud Martin's hole (J. f. Orii. 1871, 
236), while Loverkiihn records one l)uilt over a deserted Hoopoes nest. 

13* 



ments. 



196 

Eggs. The normal clutch varies from 8 to 11, occasionally 12 or 13, in 

the first brood, and 6 to 8 in the second. They are indistinguishable 

from those of other races. 

Breeding In Scandiuavia, near the N. limit of this bird, the first eggs are 

Season, j^-^ -^^ uiid-May, but in the S. from the latter part of April to the 

beginning of May. In Germany the eggs of the first brood should be 

looked for at the end of April or early in May, and the second brood 

in June or July. In Carinthia the season is rather earlier; from mid 

April to May, and Keller once met with fledged young on May 4, while 

in Greece Reiser noticed a bird slip into its nesting hole on March 4. 

Measure- Avcragc of 72 cggs mcasured by Ban, 15.3x11.7 mm,. Max. 

16.9x12.1, Min. 14x10.5. Rey gives the average of 44 eggs as 

15.4x11.9 mm.. Max. 17x12, Min. 14.3x11.7 and 15.5x11.5. 

L. V. Boxburger records an egg 15.2x12.8. Average weight, 73 mg. 

(Bau); 69.7 mg. (Rey). 

c. Corsiean Blue Tit, P. caeraleus ogliastrae Hart. 

P. caeruleus ogliastrae Hart. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 349. 

Breeding Range: Corsica and Sardinia. 

On Corsica this race is tolerably common, and full clutches of 
7 — 8 eggs may be taken from May 10 — 16 in the low ground, and later 
in the hills. Average of 18 Corsiean eggs: 15.06x11.87 mm.. Max. 
16x12 and 15.2x12.3; Min. 14.3x12.3 and 15x11.4. It is also 
fairly common in the mountains in Sardinia during the breeding season, 
but not in the plains. 

d. Pleske's Tit, P. caeruleus pleskii Cab. 

Egg: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 36. 
P. caeruleus jdeskii Cal. Hartert. Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 351. 

Breeding Range: Unknown. Occurs in N. and E. Russia in winter. 

The breeding grounds of this race probably lie E. of those of 
P. caeruleus caeruleus, perhaps in the Northern Urals or in N. E. Russia. 
Dresser has a clutch of 3 eggs ascribed to this race which was taken by 
Dr. Komar in Vologda on May 30, 1901. Measurements of 2 eggs: 
15 X 12 and 15.2 x 11.5. [From Marocco to Tunis the resident form 
is the Ultramarine Tit, P. caeruleus idtramarinus Bp. (Eggs figui-ed by 
Baedeker, Tab. 43, fig. 12 and J. f. 0. 1856, Taf. II, fig. 14; Dresser, 
pi. — , fig. 1 — 3.). It is common N. of the Atlas, breeding in April 
and May in old Bee-eaters' holes, etc., and laying 4 — 8 eggs Average 
of 13 eggs (5 measured by Rey and 8 by the writer), 16.1x12.25 mm.. 
They are as a rule more heavily marked than European eggs. In the 



197 

Canarian group no fewer than four distinct forms are found, viz., 
P. c. degener Hart., which inhabits Fuertaventura and Lanzarote, nesting 
in holes in the ground: P. c. teneriffae Less, in Tenerife, Grran Canaria 
and Gomera, whose eggs, 4 — 6 in number (figured in Cat. Eggs. Br. 
Mus. IV. pi. XIV, fig. 6) are spotted, chiefly at the big end, with dark 
brown; average size of 39 eggs (2 by Konig and 37 by the writer), 
15.61X12.4 mm., Max. 17x12.4 and 16.3x13, Min. 14.5x12.1 and 
14.7x11.7 mm: F. c. ombriosxis M-Waldo on Hierro, and P. c. palmeusis 
M-Waldo in the pine woods of Palma.] 

91. Azure Tit, Parus cyanus cyanus Pall. 
Geographical Races. 

a. Western Azure Tit, P. cyanus eyanus Pall. 

Eggs: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 6. 
Parus cyanus Pall. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 143 and Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 175. P. cyanus cyanus Pall. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 
p. 352. 

Breeding Range: Eastern Russia [Probably also W. Siberia]. 

According to Menzbier this bird is extending its range in a southern con- 
and south-westerly direction. Lorenz records it as breeding in the Moscow *'"«n*»i 

'' " Europe. 

government in small numbers, although unknown there 40 years ago. 
In the Ura.ls Sabanaelf describes it as a plentiful resident. Eastward 
the exact limits of this and the Eastern form are not yet clearly defined. 

Dresser describes a nest from the S. Ural as composed of green Nest. 
moss, intermixed with cowhair and lined with white hare's fur. 

White, sparsely spotted with dull red, chiefly at the big end. Eggs. 
Sabanaeff took a nest with 4 eggs on May 29, 1869. 

Three eggs in Dresser's collection measure 16x12, 16.1x11.7 Measure- 
and 16.2X11.7. ■"'""'■ 

b. Eastern Azure Tit, P. cyanus tianschanicus (Menzb.) 

Plate 20, fig. 13—16 (Amur). 

Eggs: J. f. 0. 1873, Tab. I, fig. 14. Cat. Eggs. Br. Mus. IV, pi. XIV, fig. 5. 
P. cyanus tianschanicus (Menzb.). Hartert, VOg. Pal. Fauna, p. 353. 

Breediug Range: E. Siberia, W. to Turkestan, S. to Yarkand. Has occurred 
in Europe in winter. Of the nesting habits of this race we have more information 
than of the Western form. Dybowski describes it as breeding in old willows by 
river banks, rarely in old Woodpeckers' holes, and generally at a height of 18 in. 
to 8 ft. from the ground The nest is built of the fur of the White Hare and Squirrel, 
together with a little grass. The Eggs are 10 — 11 iu number, with scanty pale red 



198 

spots at the big end, and are found about May 20—26 in E. Siberia. While laying 
is in progress the hen covers the eggs when leaving them, and sits as closely as 
other Pari. Average measurements of 15 eggs (5 by Dybowski, 5 by Rey, 2 by 
Hartert and 3 by the writer), 16 X 11-84 mm.. Max. 18.5 X 12.5, Min. 15.1 X 12 and 
15.5 X 11 ™ni- Average weight of 5 eggs, 74 mg. (Rey). 

92. Coal Tit, Parus ater L. 

Geographical Races. 

a. British Coal Tit, P. ater britannicns Sh. & Dress. 

Eggs: Hewitson, I Ed. I, pi. LXXXI, fig. 3; II Ed. I, pi. XXXI, 
fig. 4; III Ed. I, pi. XXXIX, fig. 4. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 9; id 
Col. Fig. pi. 53. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. Ill, fig. 73—75. Dresser, 
pi. — , fig. 31-34. 

Local Names: Little Blackcap, Coalhood, Oround Tit. Welsh: 
Penloyn. 

Parus ater L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 489; Saunders, Man. p. 105. 
P. britannicns Sh. & Dr. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 93; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 165. P. ater britannicns Sh. & Dr. Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, 357. 

Breeding Range: British Isles*, but absent from the Orkneys, 
Shetlands, and Outer Hebrides. 
British ^^^ earlier writers on British ornithology describe this species as 

Isles, rarer than the Marsh Tit, but at the present time it is in most districts 
the commoner of the two, and in some parts of Scotland and Ireland 
quite outnumbers the other Tits. Probably this is due to the increase 
in plantations of conifers, which have a special attraction for this bird. 
It breeds in every county in England, and though somewhat local, is 
on the whole common throughout Scotland as far as Sutherland, but 
is rare in Caithness. On the W. coast it is common on Raasay and in 
the woods of Skye, and is found on the better wooded islands of the 
Inner Hebrides, Eigg, Mull, Jura, etc., but not in the Outer Hebrides. 
It occurs in the Isle of Man. and is common in Ireland, breeding, according 
to Ussher, in every county. 
Nest. Generally a hole in a tree or stump is chosen within a short dis- 

tance of the ground; sometimes in a mouse or mole run at the foot of 
some decayed old root, descending to a depth of one or even two feet 
below the ground level, or in a bank side. It is also said to have been 
found in a rabbit hole, and on two occasions I have found nests in holes 
in the steep banks of gravel pits and once in a fissure of rock. Harvie 

* Birds from the Spey Valley and the N. of Scotland show a tendency to 
approach the Continental form. 



199 

Brown records one in a crack on a dry hill of peat by a burn in Suther- 
land, and has seen others in the ground under fallen foliage etc. Holes 
in stone or brick walls or stone faced banks are occasionally used, as 
well as nesting boxes.* In fir woods where holes are scarce, the Coal 
Tit has been known to excavate a hole in an old Magpie's or Squirrel's 
nest (Nelson, Birds of Yorkshire, p. 110); and it has been recorded as 
breeding in an old Thrush's nest {Zool. 1896, p. 375). F. Bond described 
an abnormal nest, something like a Long-tailed Tit's, on a branch of a 
fir tree, close to the bole {Zool. 1861, p. 7444) and similar cases have 
been recorded of other species (Cf. Irby, Orn. Straits Oibraltar, 2 Ed. 
p. 72, and Annals Scot. Nat. Hist. 1898, p. 180). The foundation of 
the nest consists of moss, upon which is placed a thick layer of felted 
wool and hair, generally rabbit's fur. As a rule no feathers are used, 
but Borrer and others have found nests freely lined with feathers. Such 
cases must havever be quite exceptional. 

The number of eggs is understated by most writers. The usual ^ggs. 
clutch varies from 7 or 8 to 11, and sets of 9 — 10 are quite common, 
while 13 have been found. Hancock (Cat. Birds Northumberland etc., 
p. 76) mentions an instance where 21 were discovered in one nest, but 
these were of two types and were almost certainly laid by two hens. 
While laying is in progress the eggs are covered in the absence of the 
hen bird. 

The first eggs are laid about April 20 in the S. of England, but Breeding 
in the Midlands and North full clutches may be found after the first ^*'''°"- 
week in May. The sitting bird behaves like the other Tits, hissing, 
puffing, and sitting until lifted from the eggs. I think that only one 
brood is reared as a rule. 

Average size of 100 English eggs, measured by the writer, 15x11.63 Measure- 
mm., Max. 16.1 X 11.9, and 15.1 X 12.1, Min. 13.8x10.7 mm. Average 
weight of 20 eggs. 67 mg. 9 full eggs weigh 1.415 g. (N. N. Foster). 

b. Continental Coal Tit, P. ater ater L. 

Plate 20, fig. 9—12 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XVIII, fig. 6, a — b. Baedeker, 
Tab. 43, fig. 10. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Sykora uhelnidek. Denmark: Sortmeise. 
Finland: Mustatilainer. France: Mesange noire. Germany: Tannenmeise. 
Holland: Zwarte mees. Hungary: Fenyves czinege. Italy: Cincia mora. 
Norway: Ktdmeise, Sortmeise. Poland: Sikora sosnoivka. Russia: Sinica 
dernaja. Sweden: Svartmes. Spain: Herrerillo, Oarrajnnos. 

* A nest in a box on a window Icdgo 26 ft. from the grouud, is recorded in 
the Zool. 1882, p. 234. 



uienta. 



tlnental 
Europe. 



200 

Parus ater L. Dresser, t. c (part.). P. ater ater L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 356. 

Breeding Range: Continental Europe, except in the S. E. (Crimea 
and S. Caucasus). 
Con- This form is somewhat locally distributed over almost all Continental 

Europe, haunting coniferous forests almost np to the tree limit, and in 
the southern part of its range avoiding the plains altogether during the 
summer months. Along the W. coast of Scandinavia it is found breeding 
up to the Arctic circle, but in Sweden does not range farther N. than 
lat. 64". It is found in S. Finland, and has occurred N. of the Vologda 
government, but only as a rare straggler. Southward it is met with 
wherever extensive coniferous woods are found, as far as the Mediter- 
ranean, and in Switzerland has been known to range as high as 5400 ft. 
Neat. Similar to that of the British form. It is placed in a natural hole, 

sometimes in a deciduous tree at the edge of a pine forest, or, as holes 
are scarce in conifers, in a mouse or mole run in the ground, and 
occasionally in a wall. Collett found a deserted nest in a Sand Martin's 
hole in Norway. 
Egg8. The first clutch usually consists of 8 to 11 eggs, and the second of 

6 to 8; but 12, and on one occasion 14 (Baltic Provinces, J. v. Gernet) 
have been recorded. They resemble those of P. a. hritannicus. 
Breeding Two broods are frequently reared, except in subalpine districts. 

Season. Tj^^ere the season is later. In Germany from mid April onward and 
towards the end of June, while in Scandinavia few eggs are laid before 
the end of April and early May. Definite information from southern 
Europe is scanty, but Kriiper obtained eggs in Greece from May 23 to 
June 12 in the mountains. 
Measure- Average of 105 eggs (55 by Bau, 44 by Rey and 6 by the writer, 

ments. from Mid-Europe) 14.77x11.60 mm., Max. 16.5x12.0, Min. 13.5x10.5 
mm. Average weight, 63 mg. (Bau), 65 mg. (Rey). 

c. Sardinian Coal Tit, P. ater sardus Kleinsch. 

P. ater sardus Kleinschm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 358. 

Breeding Range: Sardinia. (Corsican birds apparently do not 
belong to this race. Cf. Hartert t. c.) 

The resident Sardinian Coal Tit is confined to the mountain forests, 
where it is scarce (Brooke). Apparently the Corsican bird is a late 
breeder, as nests were still empty at the end of May. 

d. Cyprian Coal Tit, P. ater Cypriotes Dress. 
P. Cypriotes Dress. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IX, p. 123 and Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 165. P. ater Cypriotes Dress. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 
p. 359. 



201 

Breeding Range: Cyprus. 

This dark race is found in the pine forests in the mountains and 
must be numerous in the Troodos range, where Glaszner found it nesting 
in May in stone heaps, holes of walls etc. 

Eggs 5, rather thickly spotted and blotched with reddish brown or 
maroon, especially at the big end, where they form a zone. Average 
size of 12 eggs (9 by Hartert in Hit. and 3 by the writer), 16.13x12.6 
mm.. Max. 18.4x12.6 and 18x13.2, Min. 14.8x12.5 and 15.5x12. 

e. Crimeau Coal Tit, P. ater moltehanoTi Menzb. 

P. ater moltcha?iovi Menzb. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 360. 
Breeding Range: Mountain forests of the S. Crimea. 

f. Caucasian Coal Tit, P. ater michalowskii Bogd. 

P. ater michalowskii Bogd. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 360. 

Breeding Range: S. Caucasus. 

Resident in the mountain forests up to the tree limit. Eggs 8, 
laid in May. 

[In N. Africa two races are found, P. ater atlas Meade -Waldo, 
which inhabits the forest region of the Maroccan Atlas from about 6000 ft. 
up to the tree limit, and P. ater ledouci Malh. which is resident in the 
forests of cork oak and Aleppo pine in northern Algeria and Tunis, 
breeding in holes in the ground early in April and laying 8 — 9 eggs. 
Eggs figured by Dresser, pi. — , fig. 35. Average size of 9 eggs taken 
on April 7, 15.1x12.1 mm.. Max. 15.5x12.1, Min. 14.5x12. P. 
ater phaeonotus Blanf. is resident in Persia and S. Transcaspia.] 

93. Crested Tit, Parus cristatus L. 

Geographical Races. 

a. Scotch Crested Tit, P. cristalus seotiens (Prai). 

Eggs: Hewitson, I Ed. I, pi. CXXXIII; II Ed. I. pi. XXXI, fig. 3; 
III Ed. I, pi. XXXIX, fig. 3. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 9; id. Col. Fig. 
pi. 53. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. Ill, fig. 82. 

Nest: 0. Lee, II, p. 104. 
Farns cristatus L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 499. Saunders, Man. 
p. 111. LopJiophanes cristatus (Ij.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 151 
and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 180 (part.) P. cristatus scotica (Praz). Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 365. 

Breeding Range: Strathspey, Scotland. 

Harvie Brown describes the breeding range of this interesting bird 
in Scotland as restricted to an area about 30 miles in length, and varying 



British 
Isles 



202 

from 7 to 10 miles in width, along the Spey valley, in Abernethy, 
Rothiemurchus, and Dulnan, up to the base of the Cairngorms, above Loch 
Morlich and Larig Grhrue and down the Spey valley to Ballindalloch 
(Ver. launa of Moray Basin, I, p. 255; T(iy, p. 93). It is essentially 
a haunter of the pine woods, or where conifers are mixed with hard- 
woods. 
Nest. The more usual sites are holes bored in dead and decayed pine 

stumps or trees, sometimes in the cleft where a tree has been split, and 
also in holes of fence posts, both iron and wooden. Nests have also 
been found in decayed alder and birch branches ( V. F. of Moray Basin, 
I, 257 etc.), and O. A. J. Lee found one in the foundation of an old 
Hooded Crow's nest. Dry moss forms the foundation, on which is placed 
a carelessly formed layer of deer's hair lined with hare's fur and some- 
limes feathers or wool. Tufts of cotton grass are also met with at times. 
The height from the ground varies from 6 in. to 8 ft., often 4 or 5 ft., 
and the hole is generally about 10 or 12 in. deep. 
Eggs. 5 or 6, sometimes 7 or 8 in number, white, spotted chiefly at the 

big end with rich chesnut red, frequently forming a zone or cap of 
markings. Occasionally a nest is met with in which t'le markings are 
almost obsolete, but as a rule the eggs of the Crested Tits are the hand- 
somest of the family. 
Breeding Most cggs are laid about the end of April or early in May, but 

Season, gomctimes much earlier, as in 1894 Hinxman found a nest with nearly 

fledged young on May 9. 
Measure- Average size of 46 eggs from Strathspey, 16.07 X 12.56 mm., 

mcnts. jyij^x. 17 X 13, Min. 14.6 x 12.3 and 15.5 x 12 mm. 

b. North Enropean Crested Tit, P. cristatus cristatas L. 

Egg: Taczanowski. Tab. LXIV, fig. 4. 

Foreign Names: Finland: ToyhtotUainen. Norway: Topmeise, 
Poland: Sikora czubatka. Russia: Chochlataja sinica. Sweden: Tofsmes. 

P. cristatus L. Dresser, t. c. (part.). P. cristatus cristatus L. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 363. 

Breeding Range: Scandinavia, Russia, E. Prussia. 
Con- In Norway the range of this form extends to about lat. 64" N., 

tinentai yj^^j .^^ Y\[gh as thc limit of conifers extends in the mountains; while in 
Sweden it is met with from mid-Augermanland to N. Skane. In Finland 
it has been recorded from Pudasjarvi; and it is found in small numbers 
near Archangel (Cholmogory) in N. Russia, while it is distributed 
through the pine forests of the Baltic Provinces, Mid -Russia, Poland 
and E. Prussia. Probably the Vistula and the Carpathians form the 



Europe. 



203 

boundary between this and the next race. It is not known to occur E. 
of the Urals.* 

Apparently does not differ from that of P. c. scoticus, the hole Nest. 
being usually bored by the bird in the rotten wood of an old pine 
stump. Russow states that in the Baltic Provinces it sometimes breeds 
in old squirrel's dreys, and Hartert has taken eggs from a similar site 
in E. Prussia. 

Generally 5 or 6 in Scandinavia, and 5 to 7 in the Baltic Provinces. Eggs. 
Kolthoff records an instance where 9 were found. Some eggs are very 
boldly and handsomely marked. 

In Scandinavia it is an early breeder, beginning to nest late in Breeding 
March, while the snow is still deep on the ground, and laying in the 
latter half of April. In the Baltic Provinces a second brood may some- 
times be found at the end of May or early in June. Pousar also states 
that eggs may be found in S. Finland about this time. 

Average size of 63 eggs (42 by the writer and 21 by O. Ottosson Measure- 
in lift.), 16.16x12.68 mm.. Max. 17.3x12.6 and 17.2x13.5, Min. """"• 
14.4x12.5 and 15,2x11.6 mm. Average weight of 21 Swedish eggs, 
70 mg. (Ottosson). 

c. Mid Euiopean Crested Tit, P. cristatus mitratus Brehiu. 

Plate 21, fig. 6—8 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XVIII, fig. 10, a— c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 43, fig. 17. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 7—10. Krause, pi. — , fig. 1—42. 

Foreign Names: France: Mesange Jmppee. Germany: Hauben- 
meise. Holland : Kiiifmees. Hungary : Buhos czinege. Italy : Cincia col 
ciuffo. Spain: Capiichino. 

P. cristatus L. Dresser, t. c. (part.). P. cristatus mitratus Brehm. Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 364. 

BreedingRange: Continental Europe, W. of the Vistula (Weichsel) 
and Carpathians. 

This race is very generally distributed in those districts of Middle con- 
and Western Europe where coniferous forests exist, westward of the ""entai 

Europe. 

R. Vistula in Germany and the Carpathians in Austro-Hungary. In the 
Balkan peninsula it is absent from Greece, but occurs in the mountain 
forests of Montenegro and the Balkan range, and in Italy it is confined 
to the spurs of the Alpine system and is not found in the Apennines. 
It is plentiful in the woods of Arcachon. In the E. Pyrenees it is 
common in the pine forest up to 5700 ft; and in the Iberian peninsulg^ 
is not rare in Portugal, and is found in Spain not only in the mountains 

* Radde however x-egards it as resident in the Caucasus, though scarce. 



204 

of Castile, but also in the extreme south, being numerous in the cork 
woods near Gibraltar. Possibly however these birds may belong to a 
different race. Northward its range extends to the fir plantations of 
Jutland, where a few pairs breed. 
Nost. Besides the usual situation in a hole of some decayed stump, this 

bird is known to breed in old nests of Squirrel, Crow, Magpie, and the 
larger birds of prey, such as the Goshawk. Sachse has also recorded 
instances in which he found eggs or young in nests resembling those of 
the Wren and Long tailed Tit, but with twigs woven into the exterior. 
They may of course have been old nests of these birds, appropriated by 
the Tits. In N. Italy, H. M. Wallis found a nest in a hollow log in a 
wood stack, piled against a tree, and in Germany Walter discovered 
young birds in a Kingfisher's hole (-/. f. 0. 1881, p. 310). In the 
Iberian peninsula most nests are placed in hollows in boughs of cork 
oak or pine trees : Tait mentions one in a hole originally occupied 
by the Spanish Green Woodpecker {Ibis, 1887, p. 184). Several 
nests have also been recorded in the foundations of Kites' nests. 
During the process of excavation all the chips are carefully removed 
by the parent birds. 
Eg(?B. Usually 5 to 7 or 8, but Bau gives 8 — 10 as the usual number of 

the first brood, and (i — 8 of the second. An instance of 12 eggs being 
found in one nest is given in the Zeit. f. Ool. VIII, p. 27, but here the 
eggs were undoubtedly laid by two hens. They are not distinguishable 
from those of other races. 
Breeding Two broods are frequently reared: the first eggs being laid in April, 

Season, generally about the second or third week in the month, and the second 
late in May or in June. In S. Spain fresh clutches have been taken 
on April 10, 25, and May 10. 
MeaBure- Avcragc sizc of 90 eggs (41 by Bau, 30 by Rey and 19 by the 

'"""*'^- writer) l(i.34 X 12.28 mm.. Max. 17.8 X 12.9, Min. 15.3 X 12 and 
15.9x11.8. A very small egg which I took in Brabant measures only 
14.3 X 11.3. Average weight 82 mg. (Bau & Bey). 

94. Lapp Tit, Parus cinctus Bodd. 

Plate 23, fig. 24 — 27 (Kiistala, Lapland). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XVIII, fig. 8 (bad). Baedeker, 
Tab. 76, fig. 17. Newton, Ootheca Wolleyana, Tab. XI, fig. 1 — H. 
Dresser, pi. — , fig. 43 — 46. 

Foreign Names: Finland: Pistutiainen. Lapland: Kada yija. 
Norway : Laplands meise. Sweden : Lappmes. 



205 

Parus cincUis Bodd. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 125; id. 
Mau. Pal. Birds, p. 172. P. eindus Bodd. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 
p. 365. 

Breeding Range: N. Scandinavia, Lapland, and N. Russia. [Also 
W. Siberia.] 

In Norway this species is found fi'om Hallingdal in the Langfjeld con- 
(60i°N) and the Dovre up to the limit of tree growth in the N., but on ^"^"*'' 
the southern high fjelds is only met with in the pine forests above the 
spruce belt. In Sweden its range is less extensive and it does not breed 
S. of Lycksele, about 64" or 65" N. It is tolerably common in the forests 
of Russian Lapland and the Kola peninsula, but its range does not extend 
into Finland. It is however a common resident in the forests of the 
Archangel government, and is found on the Petschora to within the 
Arctic Cii'cle, and also in the N. Urals. [Also in Siberia W. of the 
Yenisei, but is replaced by the Eastern race, P. eindus ohtedus Cab. in 
E. Siberia.] 

The most usual situation appears to be in an old Woodpecker's Nest. 
hole in a conifer, but sometimes it is found in a cleft or natural hollow 
and occasionally in a 'tylla' or nest box. The foundation consists of moss 
and sometimes black lichens, on which is placed a thick layer of felted 
hair, usually of the Lemming, Field Voles, or Alpine Hare, with occasion- 
ally a few Reindeer hairs. Wolley has also recorded willow down and 
feathers from the lining in exceptional cases, and noticed that some nests 
were built upon those of the Redstart, from which the original owners 
had been ejected. 

Usually 6 — 7 in number, but 8 and 9 have been recorded. They Eggs. 
are white, spotted with pale rusty brown, and as a rule rather sparsely 
marked, and with rather finer and paler spots than most eggs of Tits. 
In a large series however some sets will be found with much bolder 
and darker markings than others. 

The eggs are laid as a rule in the last week of May or the first Breeding 

1 • r Season. 

week in June. 

Average of 125 eggs (63 by the writer, 37 by Bau, and 25 by Rey), Moasure- 
16.97 X 12.7 mm.. Max. 18.3 X 12.5 and 17.3 X 13.5, Min. 15.3 x 13 ""«""• 
and 15.8x12 mm. Nordling records eggs 15.2x11.8 and 16x11.6. 
Average weight of 37 eggs, 87 mg. (Bau): Rey gives 82 mg. 

95. Sombre Tit, Parus lugubris Temm. 
Geographical Races. 

a. Dalmatian Sombre Tit, P. lugubris lugubris Temm. 
Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 43, fig. 14 (?j. 



tluental 
Europe. 



206 

P'oreign Names: Germany: Trauernieise. Hungary: Oydszos 
czinege. Italy: Cincia dalmatina. Poland: Sikora zaho. Russia : Gaifec/ja 
srjp.dizemnomorskaja. 

Farus lugubris Natt. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 121; id Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 171. P. lugubris lugubris Temm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 368. 

Breeding Range: From Istria, Slavonia, and S. E. Hungary south- 
ward to the Balkans. 
Con- This species differs from its congeners in being of an unsociable 

disposition, aud seems to prefer rocky and broken ground with occasional 
trees or shrubs to dense forest. Its distribution in Austro-Hungary is not 
thoroughly known: it it said to have been met with in the Tatra and 
the Carpathians, is found in the S. E. of Hungary, near Mehadia (Har- 
tert), and certainly is not uncommon on the rugged hillsides of Transyl- 
vania, while it has been found in spring in Slavo'nia, aud also breeds in 
Istria, Dalmatia, Bosnia and Servia, but is not numerous. It is general 
in the Karstregion of Herzegovina, and is the commonest Tit in the 
Avooded districts of S. Montenegro. In Bulgaria it is also very generally 
distributed and breeds, but the limits of this and the next race are not yet 
ascertained, though it is said to be found in S. Russia by v. Nordmann. 
Nest. Most of the nests which have been found were in holes of old 

trees at varying heights, but from the habits of the bird it is probable 
that it also nests in crevices of rocks. (Danford describes that of P. I. 
cmatoliae as constructed of dry grass and lined first with wool and 
afterwards with feathers.) 
Eggs. Probably 5 to 7 in number. The few examined have been of the 

usual Parinetype, marked sparsely with fine red brown spots. 

Breeding In Trausylvauia fresh eggs have been taken in the first half of 

April, while in Herzegovina Kadich gives the end of April or beginning 
of May as the usual time, and in Montenegro v. Fiihrer met with re- 
cently fledged young from mid May to mid June, and KoUibay in S. 
Dalmatia on May 19. 

Measure- Avcrago of 7 cggs from Transylvania (coll. Dresserj 18.57 x 13.84, 

ment.. jyj^x. 19 X 13.6 aud 18.8 X 14, Min. 18.2 >< 13.3. 

b. trreek Sombre Tit, P. Ingubris lugens Brehiu. 

Plate 23, fig. 23 (Grece, Kriiper). 

Eggs: Reiser, Orn. Bale. Ill, Taf. Ill, fig. 5, 6. Dresser, pi. — , 
fig. 43. 

Foreign Name: Greece: Kleidonas. 
P. lugubris lugens Brehm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 368. 

Breeding Range: Southern part of the Balkan Peninsula. 



207 

lu Greece this form is found in most districts, especially near the con- 
coast, thonffh not very numerous anywhere. For details see Reiser, H"^"^"^ 

' "^ "^ • ' Europe. 

Orn. Bale. Ill, p. 176 — 178. It has also been recorded from Zante and 
Cerigo. How far its range extends into Turkey is not known, but pro- 
bably it is found throughout Macedonia. 

Usually placed low down in a hole of a tree, such as the olive or Nest. 
ash. Details of the construction of the nest are still lacking. 

Apparently 5 to 8 in number, but Kriiper remarks that they are Eggs, 
fewer than is usual with the Faridae. They are white, sometimes al- 
most unmarked, but usually rather sparsely marked with fine reddish spots. 

Two broods appear to be generally reared, and according to Kriiper Breeding 
the first eggs are laid at the end of March or the beginning of April. ^^^^°"- 
Lindermeyer however states thut the young are hatched in March, and 
fresh eggs have been found as late as early June. 

Average of 22 eggs (11 by Reiser, 4 by Rey and 7 by the writer), Measure- 
17.63 X 13.55 mm.. Max. 19 X 14 and 17.7 X 14.4, Min. 16.6 X 12.5. "'""''• 
Average weight of 11 eggs, 101 mg. (Reiser); of 4 eggs, 80 mg. (Rey). 

[In Asia Minor a third race, P. I. anatoliae Hart, is found. Egg 
figured by Dresser, pi. — fig. 44. Average size of 6 eggs, 17.05 X 
13.5 mm. P. I. hyrcanns Sar. & Loud, ranges to the S. shores of the 
Caspian and the Elburz range.] 

96. Marsh Tit, Parus palustris L. 
Geographical Races. 

a. British Marsh Tit, P. palustris dresseri Stejn. 

Eggs: Hewitson, I Ed. I, pi. LXXVI, fig. 2; II Ed. I. pi. XXXII, 
fig. 1; III Ed. I, pi XL, fig. 1. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 9; id. Col. Fig. 
pi. 53. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I. pi. Ill, fig. 76. 77. 

Local Names: Willoiv Biter, Blackcap, etc. (generic). AVelsh : 
Yswidw JJwyd fach. 

Parus palustris L. Newton, ed Yarrell, I. p. 495. Dresser, Birds of 
Europe, III, p. 99 and Man. Pal. Birds p. 167 (part.). Saunders, 
Man. p. 107. P. palustris dresseri Stejn. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 
p. 373. 

Breeding Range: Great Britain, except in N. Scotland. 

The study of the Britsh Marsh and Willow Tits is attended with British 
especial difficulty owing to the close resemblance between them. (For ^''*'' 
the distinctions between the two species see Brit. Birds 1907, p. 44.) 
The glossy-black headed Marsh Tit is apparently rather locally distri- 
buted throughout England and Wales, but in some districts, such as the 



208 

N. W. Coast of Wales, it is decidedly rare, and is not found on Ang- 
lesea or the Isle of Man. Although as a rule much less numerous than 
the other Tits, it is common locally, e. g. in parts of Pembroke and Kent. 
In Scotland the records from the Spey valley and the Forth area appear 
to refer to the Willow Tit, but probably the present species breeds lo- 
cally up to about lat. 56", and possibly in other localities S. of the 
Grampians. 
Nest. Placed in holes in the decaying wood of old willows and alders, 

less often in oaks, hazels, apple trees, etc., and frequently in dead stumps 
or holes in bank sides, and occasionally in fence or gate posts. Some 
nests are in natural holes of varying depth, others (which may however 
prove to be the work of the Willow Tit) are neatly cut out by the 
birds to a depth of 6 or 8 inches, ending in a circular chamber, larger 
than the entrance. The Marsh Tit occasionally breeds in nesting boxes, 
while an abnormal nest is said to have been found built in the fork of 
of a tree overhanging the water in Lanark (Annals Scot. Nat. Hist. 
1898, p. 180). The foundation of the nest consists of moss, with a fel- 
ted layer of rabbits' fur or willow or thistle down as lining, but no fea- 
thers. The parents remove the chips while excavating the nest hole. 
Eggs. Usually 7 or 8, sometimes fewer, while sets of 9 to 11 and even 

12 have been recorded (Zool. 1894, p. 345, 429 etc.). As very few of 
the eggs in collections are properly authenticated, it is uncertain whether 
the variation which appears to exist, is due to confusion between this 
species and the Willow Tit. Some eggs are white, others sparsely 
spotted with dull reddish, or boldly marked with dark reddish brown. 
The eggs have been found covered, in the absence of the hen while 
laying was in progress. 

Breeding lu the Midlands the clutch is generally complete about May 8, and 

Season, towards the end of April in the S. of England. Like other Tits the 
hen sits very closely, 'puffing', and refusing to move. A second brood 
is apparently sometimes reared late in May or in June. 

Measure- Avcragc sizc of 47 eggs, 15.63 X 12.25 mm.. Max. 16.6 X 13.2, 

Min. 14.5 X 12.2 and 15 x 11.8 mm. Average weight of 12 full eggs, 
1.153 g. (E. H. Read). These figures however require confirmation. 

b. Scandinavian Marsh Tit. P. palusti'is palustris L. 

Egg: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 37. 

Foreign Names: Norway: Siimpmeise. Russia: Sinitia bolotnaja. 
Sweden: Kdrrmes. 

P. palustris L. Dresser, t. c. (part.). P. palustris palustris L. Hartert, 
A^og. Pal. Fauna, p. 370. 



ments. 



209 

Breeding Range: Middle and south Scandinavia, Baltic Provinces 
and E. Prussia. 

In Norway it is common in the southern and western parts up to con- 
about lat. 64" N., while in Sweden it is found from the extreme south 1°"" * 

' Europe. 

up to lat. 62" N., but is unknown on Gotland, although a few pairs 
occur on Oland. It is also not uncommon in E. Prussia and the Russian 
Baltic Provinces, and is probably the form found on the Danish islands. 

Substantially built of moss, mixed with grasses, and lined with Nest. 
felted hair or fur, with sometimes a few feathers, in a natural hole 
of a tree. 

6 or 7 to 9 in number, of the usual Parine type. As will be Eggs. 
seen from the measurements given, the eggs are generally more elongated 
in shape than those of P. atricapilliis borealis. 

In the Baltic Provinces laying begins at the end of April, and in Breeding 
Scandinavia it is an early breeder, eggs being laid about the second 
week of May, and young being on the wing early in June. 

Average size of 44 authenticated eggs measured by Dr. Ottosson Meaaure- 
(in litt.) 16.22x12.3 mm.. Max. 17.4x12.2 and 17.2x12.8, Min. ""'"*'• 
14.6 X 11.1. Average weight 72 mg. (84 — 51 mg.). 

e. East European Marsh Tit, P. palastris stag-natilis Brehm. 

Eggs: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 38 — 39. 

Foreign Name: Hungary: Bardt czinege. 
P. palustris stagnatilis Brehm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 371. 

Breeding Range: Hungary, Galizia, S. Russia, the Balkan Penin- 
sula, etc. [Also Asia Minor.] 

In Hungary it is met with chiefly in the mountain forests, rather con- 
than in the plains, while in the Balkan peninsula it becomes decidedly g"^" '^^ 
scarce, and has not been recorded from Greece. In nesting habits it 
probably resembles the other forms. 

d. Mid-European Marsh Tit, P. palustris communis Baldenst. 

Plate 21, fig. 9 — 12 (Leipzig, Germany). 

Eggs: Tliienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XVIII, fig. 7, a, b. Baedeker, 
Tab. 43, fig. 13. 

Foreign Name: Germany: Sumpfmeise. 
P. palustris L. Dresser, t. c. (part.). P. palustris communis Bald. Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 372. 

Breeding Range: Mid-Germany, Switzerland, Austria, W.Hungary 
and Croatia. 

This form is found throughout Germany, except in the Rhine valley con- 
on the W., and in E. Prussia, where it is replaced by other races. In ^"10,^ 
Switzerland it is generally distributed up to about 3300 or 3600 ft. 

14 



210 

Nest, Eggs Bau has recorded an instance of breeding in a hole in the ground, 

near Berlin, and nesting boxes with small entrance holes are sometimes 
occupied, but as a rule it does not differ in habits from the British form. 
Bau gives the usual number of eggs as 6 to 9, but in Switzerland 
according to Fatio the number sometimes reaches 10 or 12, and an 
instance of 15 is recorded, probably the produce of two hens. The eggs 
are laid towards the end of April or early in May, while Fatio states 
that a second brood is sometimes reared in July. 
Measure- Bau gives the average of 54 eggs and Rey of 32, probably in most 

'"^"^" of not all cases, of this race. Mean average (86 eggs), 15.91x12.13 mm.. 
Max. 17X12.1 and 16.8x12.7, Min. 14.9x11.5 mm. Average weight, 
70 mg. (Bau), 67 mg. (Rey). 

e. West European Marsh Tit, P. palnstris long-irostris Kleinsch. 

ForeignName: France: Nonnette. 
P. palustris longWostris Kleins. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 373. 

Breeding Range: France, the Rhine valley, Belgium and Holland. 
(? Perhaps Spain). 
Con- In Holland it is somewhat local, but perhaps most numerous in 

tinentai ^^ Proviucc of Utreclit. Little is known as to its distribution in France, 

Europe. 

but in the Rhine Provinces it is not uncommon. (Some form of Marsh 
or Willow Tit occurs in the Iberian peninsula N. of the Cantabrian range 
and also in the S. Nevada). 

f. Italian Marsli Tit, P. palnstris italicns Tsch. & Hellm. 

Foreign Name: Italy: Cincia higia. 
P. palustris italicvs Tsch. & Hellm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 374. 
Breeding Range: Italy. 

Chiefly found in the pine forests of the mountainous districts of 

tinentai Piedmout and Venetia, but also occurs, though less commonly, in the 

Europe. Apennines. Arrigoni states that it has been recorded from Sardinia, but 

this needs confirmation, and it is only known as a rare winter visitor 

to Sicily. 

97. Willow Tit, Parus atricapillus L. 
Geographical Races. 

a. British Willow Tit, P. atricapillus kleinsehmidti Hellm. 

Plate 26, fig. 18. 
Parus salicarius Brehm. Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, p. 168 (part.). P. 
atricapillus kleinsehmidti Hellm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 378. 
Breeding Range: Great Britain. 
British The distribution of this form in Great Britain is still almost unknown. 

Isles, a^g ^j^i[\ 1897 [I ^as confused with the British form of the Marsh Tit. 



Season. 



211 

Since the publication of Dr. Hartert's article in the Zool. 1898, p. 116, 
specimens have been recorded from Middlesex, Sussex, Bucks, Northants, 
Gloucester, and Kent, while the specimens obtained by Mr. W. Evans in the 
Spey, Tweed, and Forth basins also belong to this form. If, as seems pro- 
bable, the long drawn 'chay, chay, chay' is characteristic of this species, 
it will probably prove to be generally distributed and locally common. 

The few nests which have been identified as belonging to this bird Nest. 
appear to be placed in holes bored by the birds themselves, or at any 
rate considerably enlarged by them. They have been found in the decayed 
wood of old alders, willows, etc, at varying heights from the ground, 
extending from 6 in. to 1 ft. in depth. The nest itself is a very scanty 
affair, consisting chiefly of moss. Mr. A. Dixon noticed that the chips 
were left lying untidily below the nest hole, and not removed as is 
usually done by the Marsh Tit (Field, May 21, 1904). 

7 to 9 in number. At present I have not been able to examine Eggs. 
enough eggs to enable me to judge whether they differ consistently from 
those of the Marsh Tit. Eggs from Kent and Sussex have bold, rich 
markings, tending to form a zone at the large end. 

Full clutches about May 10 in the S. of England, but in Strathspey Breeding 
from May 10 to 16. 

Average size of 17 English eggs, 15.27x12.4 mm.. Max. 16.1x13.1, Mea 
Min. 14.4 X 11.6. °'«°*=- 

b. Mid-German Willow Tit, P. atrieapillus salicarius Brehm. 

P. salicarius Brehm. Dresser, I. c. (part.). F. atrieapillus salicarius Brehm. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 376. 

Breeding Range: Mid Germany and Austria. 

This form is now known to exist in many parts of Germany, but 
not in large numbers, and appears to prefer coniferous woods, especially 
pine forests, not only in the plains but also in mountainous districts. 
In some districts it has been met with as high as 3000 ft. 

The nest is usually made in some rotten stump, and is excavated 
by the birds themselves. 

c. Rhenish Willow Tit, P. atrieapillus rhenanns Kleinschm. 

Diagrams of nest, egg, etc: Kleinschmidt, J. f. O., 1903, Taf. V. 
(no letterpress). 
P. atrieapillus rhenanus Kleins. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 377. 

Breeding Range: The Rhine Valley: probably also France and 
the Low Countries. 

This race has been met Avith from Worms and Mainz down the 
Rhine to Wesel, and also in Holland, where it is by no means scarce 
(Orn. Jahrb. 1906, p. 204). Its westward range is still unknown. 

14* 



easure- 



tineotal 
Europe. 



212 

Its breeding haunts appear to be willow thickets by rivers, swampy 
woods etc., where it excavates a hole in some decayed stump. The nest 
is scanty, like that of other races of this species. Probably the eggs 
are laid in the latter half of April, as Kleinschmidt found one in the 
oviduct of a hen bird on April 12. 

d. Northern Willow Tit, P. atrieapillus borealis Selys. 

Plate 20, fig. 17—20 (Karlo, J. A. Sandman). 

Eggs: Baedeker, J. f. O., 1856, Tab. II. fig. 13; id. Tab. 43, fig. 16, 
Dresser, pi. — , fig. 40 — 42. 

Foreign Names: Finland: Hdmottiiainen. Norway: Nor disk Meise. 
Russia: Oaischki, Puchliak. Sweden: Talltita, Orclmes. 
P. borealis Selys. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 107. P. salicarius 
Brehm. Id., Man. Pal. Birds, I. c. (part.). P. atrieapillus borealis Selys. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 378. 

Breeding Range: Scandinavia, E. Prussia, Baltic Provinces, Fin- 
land and N. Russia. 
Con- In Norway it is found haunting the coniferous woods and the ad- 

joining birch region throughout the whole country to E. Finmark, but in 
Sweden its range is more restricted, and it is not found in Skane or 
Blekinge in the S., nor northward of lat. 641". In E. Prussia it breeds 
occasionally in Masurenland according to Hartert (see also Falco, 1907, 
p. 72), and is the commonest Tit in the Baltic Provinces, and also in 
Finland. In Lapland AVheelwright found it breeding near Quikjock and 
it also occurs in the Kola peninsula as far as the tree limit, but only 
in small numbers. It is replaced in the E. of the Archangel Government, 
by P. atrieapillus baikalensis (Swinh.) but is common in Olonetz and 
Vologda. It has recently been recorded from England (Gloucestershire, 1908). 
Nest. The nesting hole is apparently always bored, or at any rate enlarged, 

by the birds themselves in a rotten tree. The entrance hole is about 
6 or 8 in. long, and becomes wider at the bottom, where the eggs are 
laid on a bed of fine strips of juniper bark or fibres of decayed willow 
or alder. No moss, hair, or feathers are used. 
Eggs. Usually 8, sometimes only 7, while 9 to 11 and even 12 have 

occasionally been found. They are as a rule decidedly shorter and more 
rounded in shape than those of the Northern Marsh Tit, and perhaps 
the spots are rather redder, but cannot be distinguished with certainty. 
Breeding The cggs are laid at the end of April in the Baltic Provinces and 

Season, g^ secoud brood is said to be raised there in June: in S. Scandinavia 
they are laid about mid-May and about a week later in the extreme N. 
and in Finland. The eggs are covered up till incubation begins (Zool. 
1877, p. 198). 



menta. 



213 

Average of 49 well - authenticated eggs by Ottosson, in litt., Measure- 
15.28x12.10 mm., Max. 16x11.8 and 15.6x13.1, Min. 14.8x12.1 
and 15.5x11.5 mm. Average weight, 68 mg. (80 — 55 mg.). Mean 
average of 106 eggs, including also 31 by Rey, 15 by Sandman and 11 by 
the writer, 15.52 X 12.17 mm.. Max. 17 X 12.4 and 15.8 X 13.1, Min. 
14.8x12.1 and 15x11.4 mm. Average weight, 74 mg. (Rey). 

e. Carpathian Willow Tit, P. atricapillus assimilis Brehiii. 

P. atricapillus nssimilis Brehm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 379. 

Breeding Range: The Carpathians, Transylvanian Alps, and 
mountains of Bosnia and Servia. 

Inhabits the high lying coniferous forests and probably does not 
differ in habits from other raecs. 

f. Alpine Willow Tit, P. atricapillus montanns Bald. 

Foreign Names: Germany: Alpemneise, Bergmeise. 
P. borealis Selys and P. salimritis Brehm (part.). Dresser, I. c.- P. atricapillus 
montanus Bald. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 380. 

Breeding Range: The Alpine system. 

This race is found in the coniferous forests of the Jura and Alps 
from about 3000 — 3600 ft. to the tree limit, and is resident in the 
Engadine at 6000 ft. The nest is placed in holes of trees or in mouse 
runs, and contains 6 — 10 eggs, which are laid in May or June. Fatio 
describes them as measurnig 14.5 — 16 X 11.5 — -12.5 mm. 

(Another form, P. atricapillus hianchii (Sar. & Harms), has been 
recorded from Pskov in W. Russia in Winter, but its home in the 
breeding season is not known.) 

g. Siberian Willow Tit, P. atricapillus baikalensis (Swinh.) 

P. atricapillus baikalensis (Swinh.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 380. 
Breeding Range: NE. Russia. (Also Siberia to the Sea of 
Okhotsk and N. Japan). This is the form which is found in the E. of 
the Archangel Government and was recorded by Seebohm and Harvie 
Brown from the Petschora. 

98. Long tailed Tit, Aegithalos caudatus (L.) 
Geographical Races. 

a. British Long: tailed Tit, M. caudatus roseus (Blyth). 

Eggs: Hewitson, I Ed. I. pi. LXXVI, fig. 3; II Ed. I. pi. XXXII, 
fig. 2; III Ed. I, pi. XL, fig. 2. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 9; id. Col. 
Fig. pi. 53. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. II, fig. 69. Dresser, pi. — , 
fig. 19—21, pi. — , fig. 42. 

Nest: O. Lee, I, p. 84 and 86. 



214 

Local Names: Bottle Tit or Jug, Feather poke, Long tailed Pie or 
Ca'pon, Bumbarrel, Mumruffin, Miller's Thumb. Welsh: Lleian gynffon 
Mr, Pwd, etc. 

Acredula caudata (L.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 504. A. rosea' (Bljth). 
Dresser, Birds of Europe, III. p. 63; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 158. Saunders, 
Man. p. 101. Aegithalos caudatus rosea (Blyth) Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 
p. 384. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles, and W. France. 
Britijh In all the wooded parts of Great Britain this bird is very 

iBies. generally distributed in varying numbers, but is naturally absent from 
the barren and wind swept districts and the higher mountain ranges 
and is on this account local in N. Scotland, and parts of Wales and 
Ireland. It is also somewhat uncertain in its appearances, being plentiful 
in one season and scarce the next. Its favourite haunts are on semi- 
cultivated land, where whitethorn bushes grow freely. In Ireland it 
breeds in every county, and is numerous in districts suited to its habits. 
It also breeds on some of the larger islands of Scotland, such as Islay, 
Mull, and Skye, and also on the smaller islands such as Raasay, where 
plantations exist. 
Con- There is little doubt that this race is found in W. France, and 

tinentai Hartcrt states that specimens from the Pyrenees in autumn and winter 
are indistinguishable from British birds. Possibly it breeds N. of the 
Cantabrian range in Spain. 
Nest. Very often the nest is built in some thorny bush or hedgerow 

within a few feet of the ground, especially in whitethorn, blackthorn, 
furze, holly or brambles; but it is also found at various heights 
in lichen covered oaks and apples, in conifers, and in the N. of 
Scotland in birches, generally not more than 30 ft. frcm the ground, 
but occasionally as high as 50 ft. {Zool. 1882, p. 188). It has also 
been known to nest in ivy against a wall, at the top of a spruce, 
14 ft. high, and among creepers, while Nelson records an instance 
of breeding within an old Magpies' nest, lined with moss and lichens 
(Birds of Yorks, p. 107). It is generally ovoid in shape and is most 
wonderfully built of mosses (Hypnum), woven together with cob- 
webs and a few bits of wool or hair. The outside is covered with 
lichens, and the inside profusely lined with feathers, over 2000 having 
been counted from a single nest. The opening is high up, and in rare 
cases is said to be covered with a loose flap. An interesting account 
of the method of building will be found in Oswin Lee's Brit. Birds' 
Nests, I, p. 80. The time occupied in building seems to vary a good 
deal, some birds completing their work in 12 — 14 days, while others 
take three weeks over it. They are not shy, and are easily watched 



215 

to the nest while building; both sexes displaying much anxiety when it 
is closely approached. 

Usually 8 to 12. Much larger clutches occasionally are found: 13, Egg.. 
15, 16, 18, 19 and even 20 have been recorded. It must however be 
remembered that many instances of 3 birds in attendance on one nest 
have occurred: Bonhote found 4 birds in one nest with eggs, and 7 
and even 9 birds are said to have been seen together. (Cf. Zool. 1849, 
p. 2567 etc.) In these latter cases however it seems possible that what 
were taken for old birds were in reality the young of an earlier brood. 
The eggs vary a good deal, some being dull unspotted white, others 
finely freckled or spotted with light chesnut, especially at the big end. 

Nest building begins in March, while the trees are still bare, and Breeding 
exceptionally early nests have been found ready for eggs by the middle 
of the month, but in most cases the full clutch is not laid till mid April 
in the S. or the end of April further N. A second brood is often reared 
later in the year, but the nests are are not so easy to see on account 
of the foliage. Incubation begins before the clutch is completed, and 
both sexes roost in the nest at night. 

Average of 100 British eggs (60 by the writer and 40 by Rey in Measure- 
litt.) 14.17x11 mm.. Max. 15.1x11.8 and 15x12, Min. 13.2x10.7 "'""''• 
and 14 X 10.1 mm. An abnormally long egg measures 17.2 X 10.5 
(coll. A. W. Johnson). Average weight of 20 eggs, 51.5 mg. 

b. White headed Long- tailed Tit. JG. caudatas caadatas (L.). 

Plate 20, fig. 26—30 (Halle a S., Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XVIII, fig. II, a — d; Baedeker, 
Tab. 43, fig. 19 [? perhaps etiropaeus]. Taczanowski, Tab. LXIV, fig. 6. 
Dresser, pi. — , fig. 18. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Sykora mlynarik. ¥m\&nd : Pyrstotiiainen. 
Germany: Weisskopfige Schivammeise. Norway: Langlielet Meise. Poland: 
Raniuszek bialoglowi. Russia: Chivostoivka. Sweden: Sfjertmes. 
Acr. caudata L. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 67 and. Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 157 (part.). JE. caudatus caudatus (L.) Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 382. 

Breeding Range: N. and E. Europe as far W. as mid-Germany. 
[Also Siberia to N. Japan.] 

In Norway it is rather sparsely distributed, but is most numerous con- 
in the eastern part, and has been found as far N. as the Saltdal (lat. "cental 

^ ' ^ Europe. 

67°). On the fjeld its range extends as high as the subalpine zone. In 
Sweden it is also rather scarce, but breeds from Skane up to about 
lat. 62" or 63". A few pairs also breed in Finland, and in the Baltic 



216 

provinces it is common, while it is also recorded from Orlof and the 
Perm government in N. Russia. The exact limits of its westward and 
southward range in the breeding season cannot yet be clearly defined, 
but it breeds in many districts in E. Germany, and also in Denmark, 
and apparently is found also in Austro- Hungary. [Eastward its range 
extends to Japan.] 
Nest. Like that of the preceding race. An abnormal retort- shaped nest 

from Denmark is figured in Dresser's Birds of Europe. 
Eggs. Accounts vary considerably as to the number usually laid: probably 

the first laying usually consists of 9 — 12 eggs and the second of 6 — 8, 
while exceptionally clutches of 14 to 18 have been recorded. They do 
not differ in appearance from those already described. 
Breeding In E. Germany finished nests have occasionally been found in mid 

Season- j^arch, but usually laying begins about April 1, and full sets may be 
taken from about April 10 to early May, and about a week later in the 
Baltic Provinces and Scandinavia, while the second brood may be looked 
for in Germany in June. 
Measure- Avcragc sizc of 73 eggs from E. Germany (33 by Rey, 20 by Kollibay 

""'"*'■ and 20 by the writer) 13.95x10.91 mm., Max. 16x12, Min. 12.8x10.2 
and 13x10 mm. Ottosson (in litt.) gives the average of 47 Scandinavian 
eggs as 14.17X10.79 mm.. Max. 15.1x11.3 and 14.4x11.4, Min. 
13.3 X 10.8 and 14.2 X 9.9 mm. Average weight, 51 mg. (Rey.) 

c. Continental Long tailed Tit, M. caudatas earopaeus (Herni.). 

Foreign Names: France: Mesange a longue queue. Holland: 
Staartmees. Italy : Codihiignolo. Acr. caudata L. Dresser, I. c, part. Aeg. 
caudatus eiiropaeus (Herm). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 384. 

Breeding Range: N. and E. France, the Low Countries, W. 
Germany, Switzerland, and the N. Italian and Balkan Peninsulas. 

Con- The breeding range of the difi"erent forms of Long tailed Tit in 

tinentai J^raucc nccds investigation, but it is probably this race which is found 
in the eastern part of the country, except in the extreme S. It breeds 
also in Holland and Belgium, and in W. Germany, Switzerland, N. Italy, 
and the Danubian principalities, Bosnia, Servia, Rumania and Bulgaria. 
Some individuals show much more white on the head than others, and 
are only to be distinguished from Scandinavian birds by their smaller 
size and shorter and more compact feathering. 
Nest etc. In nesting habits it does not differ from other races. 19 eggs 

(5 measured by Hartert and 13 by the writer), from Holland and the 
Rhine valley, average 14.15x11.02 mm. in size; Max. 15.3x11.2 
and 14.6x11.5, Min. 12.8x10.4. Average weight of 6 Dutch 
eggs, 53 mg. 



217 

d. Crimean Long tailed Tit, JE. caudatus tauricus (Menzb.). 

jE. caudatus tauricus (Menzb.). Hartert, Yog. Pal. Fauna, p. 385. 

Breeding Range: The Crimean peninsula. 

Menzbier describes this race as found in the forests of the 
Yaila range. 

e. Macedonian Long: tailed Tit, ]E. caudatus macedonicus (Dress.). 

Acredula macedonica Sal v. & Dr. Dresser, Birds of Europe, IX, p. Ill 
and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 160. j^g caudatus macedo)nca (Dress.). Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 385. 

In Greece this race has been recorded from Mt. Olympus (Thessalia) 
and the Othrys range on the E. side and in Acarnania on the W., but 
does not occur in the Peloponesus. In Turkey specimens have been 
obtained as far N. as Monastir. Little is known as to the nidification 
of this race, but Reiser found a perfect egg in the oviduct of a hen 
killed on March 4. 

f. Irby's Long: tailed Tit, M. caudatus irbii (Sh. & Dres.). 

Foreign Names: Italy: Codihugnolo. Portugal: Rabilongo. Spain: 
Mito. 

Acr. irbii Sh. & Dr.. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 105; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 159. Acg. caudatus irbii (Sh. & Dr.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 386. 

Breeding Range: The Iberian Peninsula, Corsica, S. France, and 
Italy, except in the extreme N., but not in Sardinia or Sicily. 

In Spain it is very local, but common in the Gibraltar cork woods, con- 
and is also found on the foot hills of the S. Morena, near Araniuez etc. *'"«"*^i 

Kurope. 

It is apparently absent from the district N. of the Cantabrian range 
(where the resident form may prove to be roseus), but occurs locally in 
Portugal. It is also met with in the S. of France, and according to 
Sharpe has been obtained near Paris, while in Corsica it is not un- 
common, and is also resident on Elba. In Italy it is sedentary in the 
Middle and Southern provinces, but in summer occurs on passage and 
is also found breeding in the North, as far as Venice in the E. and the 
Riviera in the W. After the breeding season it becomes nomadic in its 
habits, and has occurred in the Tyrol etc. 

Generally placed some 15 — 16 ft. from the ground in thorny Smilax Nest. 
round tree trunks in S. Spain, and among brambles, bushes, or in branches 
of olive and myrtle trees in Corsica. In construction it resembles that 
of other races. 

Usually 7 in number, occasionally as many as 9, and indistinguis- Eggs. 
hable from those of other forms. 



218 

Breeding Eggs may be taken in Andalucia from February 20 to early April, 

^'""°"- while in Corsica Whitehead took full clutches on April 20 and May 23, 

and in Italy most eggs appear to be laid in April. 
Measure- Average of 18 Corsican eggs: 14.14x10.77 mm., Max. 15.5x11, 

ments. jyjjjj 13 X 10.3 mm. Three Spanish eggs are larger, averaging 15.5 X 12.3 mm., 
Max. 16.5 X 12.1, Min. 15 X 12.3 mm. 

g:. Sicilian Long tailed Tit, M. caadatus siculns (Whit.). 
Acr. sicida Whit. Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, p. 160. jE. caudatus sicula 
(Whit.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 386. 

Breeding Range: Sicily. 

According to Whitaker {Ibis, 1902, p. 54) it inhabits the wooded 
inland districts, and breeds in the higher mountain forests, rarely if ever 
descending below 2100 ft. Two nests were found in forks of olive trees 
about 8 ft. from the ground, with half fledged young in June, probably 
second broods. 

h. Caucasian Long: tailed Tit, M. caudatus major (Radde). 

Acr. caucasica (Lor.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, IX, p. 113; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 159. ^. caudatus major (Hadde). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 486. 

Breeding Range: The Caucasus. 

Lorenz records this bird from the northern slopes, and Radde from 
the Talysch lowlands and the Tiflis district. Fledged young were ob- 
tained from the end of May onward in Transcaucasia. 

j. Turkish Long tailed Tit, JE. caudatus tephronotus (Giinth.) 

Egg: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 22. 
Acr. tep)ironota (Giinth.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 75; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 160. jE. caudatus tephronotus (Giinth.). Hartert, Vog. 
Pal. Fauna, p. 387. 

Breeding Range: E. Turkey (Constantinople district). [Also Asia 
Minor to the Taurus and the S. shore of the Caspian in Persia.] 
(,(,„. In Europe the range of this black -throated race appears to be 

tinentai confiued to the district adjoining the Bosporus, where it is not uncommon, 
and in Transcaucasia (Talysch). [On the Asiatic side it is found in Asia 
Minor as far as the Taurus, and also to the southern shores of the 
Caspian.] 
Nest. Little has been recorded as to its breeding habits, which however 

are said not to differ from those of the British race. Robson describes 
the nest as usually placed in a yew tree. 
Egss. Average size of 3 eggs taken by Robson, 13.76 X 10.86 mm.. Max. 

14x11, Min. 13.6x10.6. They are laid in March or early April. 



219 

Q9. Penduline Tit, Anthoscopus pendulinus (L.). 
Geographical Races. 

a. Western Fendallne Tit, A. pendolinus pendalinns (L.). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XVIII, fig. 13, a— b. Baedeker, 
Tab. 43, fig. 20. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 11. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Moudivlddek. France: Mesange remiz. 
Germany: Beutelmeise. Hungary: Fiiggo czinege. Italy: Pendolino. 
Poland: Remiz. Russia: Remess. Spain: Pajnra moscon. 
^githalus pendulinus (L.). Dresser, Birds of Eui'ope, III, p. 159; id. 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 183. Anthoscopus pendulinus pendulums (L.). Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 389. 

Breeding Range: E. Spain, S. France, Italy, Hungary, the Balkan 
peninsula, Poland and S. Russia. In Germany only sporadically. [Also 
Asia Minor]. 

In Spain it has only been definitely recorded as breeding in the con- 
neighbourhood of Valencia, but is probably locally distributed in small ^°^°**^ 
numbers in the southern and eastern provinces, as Arevalo states that 
it has been recorded from Seville, Granada, New Castile, and Gerona. 
It is also locally common in S. France (the Rhone delta etc.), while 
it occurs in small numbers in Italy in the district drained by the R. Po, 
and also commonly in Tuscany, as well as the southern provinces, and 
Sicily, but is not recorded from Apulia. In Switzerland it is said to 
have bred once or twice, and sporadic instances of nesting have been 
reported from various parts of Germany, e. g. Silesia (as recently as 
1900 — 02), and with more or less probability also from Magdeburg, 
Gotha, Brandenburg, Mecklenburg, etc. In Austro-Hungary it appears 
to have decreased in numbers in the Danube valley and is rare in 
Transylvania, but not uncommon in Slavonia. In the Balkan peninsula 
it is found in suitable localities (such as the Scutari Lake, the Utowo- 
Blato, the Danube valley, the Dobrudscha, etc.) as far S. as Greece, 
while in Russia it is found in Poland, and is common in some districts 
of the S., especially Kiew, but does not appear to range N. of about 
lat S-i", while in the E. it is replaced by the Caspian race. 

Usually built on thin twigs of willows, or in some districts on Nest. 
tamarisks, and less frequently on poplars, alders, elms or birches. It is 
placed on the outside of the tree, often overhanging a river or swamp, 
but sometimes by a roadside away from water, and varies in height 
above the ground generally from 6 to 30 ft., but sometimes as high as 
60 ft. It is beautifully constructed of the down of willow catkins, or 
other vegetable down, such as cotton grass, or even flax, woven together 
with fibres of Parietaria, irregular in shape, but something like a flask, 



220 

completely domed, and thickly woven at the bottom, with one or some- 
times two openings.* Some observers maintain that these latter nests are 
unfinished, and it is an undoubted fact that the cock in some cases 
continues to work at the funnel shaped entrance after his mate has 
begun to sit. Double nests have occasionally been met with. Giglioli 
and von Fiihrer estimate the time employed in building at 12 to 15 days, 
while others, probably from observations on young pairs, place the period 
at a month at least. The nest is whitish grey in colour, sometimes tinged 
with brown, and is about 5 to 8 in. high and 3 or 4 in. wide, with a 
funnel It to 3? in. long. The birds continually utter an anxious note 
as long as any one remains near the nesting place. 
Eggs. Usually 6 or 7 in number, sometimes 8, while Goebel once found 10. 

They are pure white, without gloss and very delicate. The remarkably 
elongated shape is very characteristic. 

Breeding In thc uothem part of its range eggs are rarely laid before June, 

but in Montenegro v. Fiihrer took 24 nests between May 15 and June 10, 
and Giglioli states that in Tuscany the eggs are laid about mid April, 
and the young are on the wing by mid June, while in Bulgaria both 
fresh eggs and young birds have been found on May 20. In Asia Minor 
however, fresh eggs may be taken in the middle of May. Incubation 
lasts 14 days, and both birds roost in the nest. 

Measure- Avcrago of 67 cggs (51 by the Avriter and 16 by Reiser) 

'"«°*'- 15.73X10.63 mm.. Max. 18x11 and 16.2x11.3, Min. 14x10. 

(These figures agree closely with Goebel's average of 76 eggs from Kiew, 

15.75 X 10.5 mm.). Average weight of 16 eggs, 68.7 mg., varying from 

55 to 90 mg. (Reiser). 

b. Caspian Pcnduline Tit, A. pendulinns easpius (Poelzaiu). 

Egg: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 12. 
jE. castaneus Severtz. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 165; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 184. Anth. pendidinus easpius (Poelz.). Hartert, Vog. 
Pal. Fauna, p. 390. 

Breeding Range: The basin of the Lower Volga. 
Con- The nothern limit of this race appears to be the Orenburg 

government. It is exceedingly common on the lower reaches of the 
Volga, and Bogdanow also found it plentiful in the delta of the Terek, 
while Radde records it from Tiflis and Lenkoran in Transcaucasia, and 
found it breeding near Erivan. 

In breeding habits it resembles the Western race. Eggs are laid 
in mid May in Transcaucasia, and vary from 5 to 7 in number. 

* Wool is also occasionally but rarely, used. 



linental 
Europe. 



221 

Average of 67 eggs (61 by Rey and 6 by the writer), 16.03 X 10.76 mm., Moasnre- 
Max. 17.7X11 and 16.2x11.3, Min. 14.5x10.5 and 15x10 mm. "'"''• 
Average weight, 67.8 mg. (Rev). 

100. Goldcrest, Regulus regulus (L.). 

Geographical Races. 

a. British Goldcrest, R. reg-alus anglorum Hart. 

Eggs: Hewitson, I. Ed. I. pi. LXXXVII, fig. 1, 2; II. Ed. I. 
pi. XXX, fig. 1, 2; III. Ed. I., pi. XXXVIII, fig. 1, 2. Seebohm, Br. 
Birds, pi. 11; id. Col. Fig. pi. 53. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. II, fig. 46—48. 
Dresser, pi. — , fig. 1. 

Nest: O. Lee, II. p. 30. 

Local Names: Golden crested Wren, Tom Thumb. Manx: Ushag 
fuygh. Welsh: Dryw bach y coed, Dryiv ben aur. 
Regulus cristatus K. L. Koch. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I. p. 449. Dresser, 
Birds of Europe, II. p. 453, and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 91 (part.) Saunders, 
Man. p. 57. R. regulus anglorum Hart. Hartert. Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 396. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles. 

On the mainland of Great Britain this bird is found in all wooded British 
districts from which conifers are not altogether absent. It is also resident 
in the Isle of Wight, Anglesea and the Isle of Man; and has bred in 
Skye, Raasay, Islay, Eigg, Mull, etc. where plantations exist, but is absent 
as a breeding species fi'om the Outer Hebrides, Orkneys, and Shetlands. 
There is little doubt that the increase of plantations has caused a consid- 
erable extension of its breeding range in Scotland and also in Ireland, 
where it is now resident in every county wherever trees exist. 

The beautifully built cup -shaped nest is generally suspended like Nest. 
a hammock from the under surface of the end of a bough of some 
coniferous tree, generally a spruce or silver fir, or a yew, occasionally 
a Scotch fir, cedar, larch, or deodar; and less frequently in an ever- 
green bush, such as juniper or cypress. When the spruces are small 
the nest is sometimes placed among the topmost twigs, instead of being 
suspended, and similarly built nests have been found in whitethorns and 
evergreen oaks, while in exposed districts or where conifers are scarce, 
it will nest among the ivy round the stems of deciduous trees and in 
furze bushes. One found in the Isle of Man was built under a witch's 
broom on a birch, and Ussher records a nest underneath and almost 
touching a Hooded Crow's nest! The principal material used is green 
moss, with occasionally a little wool and a lichen or two affixed to the 
ontside. It is worked together by means of spiders' webs, and wool and 
horsehair are also sometimes used in small quantities, while the inside 



222 

is warmly lined with feathers, which project over the rim of the nest. 
The height from the ground varies considerably: when built in evergreen 
bushes it is often only a few feet high, and Hewitson records one in a 
juniper 1 ft. above the ground : on the other hand in firs or other trees 
it is often 20 to 40 ft. high. When beginning to build the birds are 
shy and apt to forsake, but after the eggs are laid they show great 
confidence. The hen sits very closely and when disturbed Avill often 
approach within a foot or two of the intruder. The depth of the cup, 
about II in., is almost equal to the internal diameter. 
Eggs. Usually 7 or 8 to 9 or 10, but instances of 11 and even 12 eggs 

have been recorded. The ground colour is sometimes white, sometimes 
linged with pale ochreous, but never with the pinky red tinge found in 
eggs of R. ig)iicapillus. The spots of reddish or ochreous brown are 
generally concentrated towards the big end, and sometimes form a con- 
fluent zone or cap. Exceptionally clutches have been recorded distinctly 
spotted with reddish on a white ground. 
Breeding I^ England a few cases have been known in which the eggs have 

Season, jjggj^ ^^^(j about the end of March, but the most usual time for full 
clutches is from April 26 to May 11 for the first brood, while second 
broods may be looked for at the end of May or early in June. In 
Scotland the breeding time is very similar, except that few if any birds 
breed before mid -April, but in Ireland Ussher has found a nest with 
4 eggs as early as March 14, although most birds breed in April, laying 
a second time towards the end of May. 
Measure- Avcragc of 100 British eggs, measured by the writer, 13.61 X 

ments. 10.22 mm., Max. 14.6x9.6 and 14x11, Min. 12.2x10 and 13.6x9.5 mm. 
Average weight of 20 eggs, 37 mg. N. H. Foster gives the average 
weight of 14 full eggs as 745 g. 

b. Continental Golderest, R. regains regnlns (L.). 

Plate 21, fig. 17—20 (Styria). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XIX, fig. 7, a — c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 51, fig. 1. Taczanowski, Tab. XXXIX, fig. 1. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 2. 

Local Names: Woodcock Pilot, Herring Sprat. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: KrdliCek obecny. Denmark: Oultoppet 
Fuglekonge. Finland: Hiripiainen. France: Roitelet huppe. Germany: 
Oelbkopfiges Ooldhahnchen. Holland: Goudhaantje. Hungary: Sdrgafejil 
kirdlyka. Italy: Regolo. Norway: Fuglekonge. Poland: Krolik czubaty. 
Russia: Korolek zeltogolevy. Sweden: Kungsfogel. 

R. cristatus Koch. Dresser, Birds of Europe, II, p. 453 and Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 91 {part.). R. regulus regulus (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 394. 



223 

Breeding Range: Continental Europe, from the limit of conifers 
to the Mediterranean, excepting the Iberian Peninsula. 

This race is pretty generally distributed over the greater part of con- 
the Continent wherever coniferous or mixed woods are to be found. In „"*" " 

rjUrope. 

Norway its northern limit appears to be lat. 67" N. on the AV. coast, 
but in E. Finmark it has been recorded from Vadso (lat. 70°), and ranges 
up to about 68° in Swedish Lapland. In Russia it is found in Finland 
as far as the limits of coniferous woods, and is common in the Olonetz 
government, but becomes scarcer in that of Vologda, although recorded 
from the Urals by Sabanaeff. In southern Europe it has not been found 
breeding S. of the Pyrenees, although not uncommon in some parts of 
that range. In Italy it is chiefly an inhabitant of the mountains, but 
is said to be found in Sicily ; while in the Balkan peninsula it is doubtful 
whether it ever breeds in Greece, but it is resident in the mountain forests 
of Macedonia and Albania. In S. Russia its range extends to the Crimea 
and the Caucasus. [Formerly it was believed to occur in Algeria, but 
recent records are wanting: it is however found in Asia Minor.] 

Does not dififer from that of R. r. anglorum, and like it, is placed ^est. 
by preference in a fir, less often in a juniper or other evergreen bush. 
It is not uncommon to find nests built year after year in the same tree, 
sometimes on the same bough. 

As already described, varying in number from 7 or 8 to 12. In E?gs. 
central Europe there are two broods, the first eggs being laid about the IH^^ 
end of April and the second brood late in June, but in the N. the 
breeding season does not begin till May. 

Average size of 107 eggs (51 measured by Rey, 47 by Bau and Measure- 
9 by the writer), 13.42 X 10.12 mm., Max. 14.2 X 11, Min. 12.1 X 9.7 »"«"*«• 
and 12.3x9.2 mm. Average weight, 40 mg. (Rey); 38 mg. (Bau). 

e. Corsiean Crolderest, R. regulas interni Hart. 

R. regidus interni Hart. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 396. 
Breeding Range: Corsica and Sardinia. 

In Corsica it is fairly common in the mountain forests (Whitehead), 
but is apparently scarce in Sardinia. 

[In the Western group of the Canaries is found the Tenerife Gold- 
crest, R. regulus teneriffae Seeb. The eggs are figured in the ./. f. 0., 
1890, Tab. VIII, fig. 9 ; Cat. Eggs Br. Mus., IV, pi. XIV, fig. 10, and 
Dresser, pi. — , fig. 3. The nest is found in Erica arhorea as well as 
in pine woods. Eggs, 5 — 8 in number and like those of the other 
races. Average size of 30 eggs (27 by the writer and 3 by Kutter) 
13.78X10.66 mm., Max. 14.7x10.2 and 14.2x11.5, Min. 13x10.6 



224 

and 14 X 10. Average weight of 5 eggs, 38 mg. R. regulus azoriciis 
Seeb. is resident in the Azores, while R. regulus tristis Pleske is found 
from Transeaspia to E. Turkestan.] 

101. Firecrest, Regulus ignicapillus (Temm.). 
Geographical Races. 

a. European Firecrest, R. ignicapillus ig-nicapillus (Temm.). 

Plate 21, fig 21 — 24 (Altenkirchen, Germany). 
Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XIX, fig. 6, a — b. Hewitson, 
I Ed. I, pi. LXXXVII, fig. 3; II Ed. I, pi. XXX, fig. 3: III Ed. I, 
pi. XXXVIII, fig. 3. Baedeker, Tab. 51, fig. 2. Taczanowski, Tab. LIV, 
fig. 1. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 11; id. Col. Fig. pi. 53. Dresser, 
pi. — , fig. 4, 5. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Krdlidek ohnivy. Denmark: Rodtojjpet 
Fuglekonge. France: Roitelet a triple bandeau.' Germany: Feiierkopfiges 
Goldhdknchen. Holland: Vuurgoudhaantje. Hungary: Tueesfejii kirdlyka. 
Italy: Fiorranchio. Poland: Krdlik zniczek. Portugal: Estrellwha. 
Russia: Korolek krasnogolovoi. Spain: Reyezuelo. 

Regulus ignicapillus (C. L. BreJini). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 456. 
Dresser, Birds of Europe, II, p. 459; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 93. 
Saunders, Man. p. 59. R. ignicajnlla ignicapilla (Temm.). Hartert. Vog. 
Pal. Fauna, p. 398. 

Breeding Range: Europe, south of the North and Baltic Seas. 
[Also in N. Africa and Asia Minor.] 

In the Iberian peninsula Irby records it as a common resident in 
tinentai the cork woods of Algeciraz, and probably it will be found to breed in 
Europe, ^j^^ ^^^^ forcsts of otlier districts, though hitherto it has only been 
recorded as a visitor in the winter months. In the Pyrenees and the 
pine woods of the Landes it is common, and is said to have bred as 
far N. in France as Rouen (Viellot). It has not been known to nest 
in the Low Countries or Denmark, and is a somewhat local and scarce 
summer visitor to the coniferous woods of N. and E. Germany, but is 
plentiful in some districts of the south and west. In Poland and Lith- 
uania it is scarce, and its distribution in S. W. Russia is still imperfectly 
known, but it is found throughout Austro-Hungary and in Switzerland. 
It is resident in the Italian and Balkan peninsulas, and probably breeds 
in Greece, though the nest has not yet been found there. In the 
Mediterranean it is found on Mallorca, Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily, 
while some species of Regulus also occours on Cyprus. [In N. Africa 
it is common in the cedar and ilex woods of the Little Atlas and Aur6s 
ranges, and is commoner than the Goldcrest in the Taurus range in Asia 
Minor (Danford).] 



225 

In nesting habits it closely resembles the preceding species, building Nest. 
a similar but perhaps slightly smaller and more compact nest of green 
moss, woven together with hair and spiders' webs and lined with feathers. 
Like that of the Goldcrest, it is generally suspended beneath the tip of 
a branch of a fir, well sheltered and hidden by the branching twigs at 
varying heights. Occasionally a nest is found in a juniper bush, only 
a few feet from the ground, and it is usual to find the same trees 
occupied year after year. Diameter of cup. 11 in., depth It in. 

Usually 7 to 9, occasionally 10, while instances of 11 and even 12 Egg'- 
are said to have occurred. Typical eggs are easily distinguishable from 
those of the Goldcrest by their warm pinkish tinge, which is very 
noticeable after they have been blown. C. Sachse took one clutch with 
a white ground and small red spots like a small Wren's egg, but more 
glossy. As a rule however there is not much variation. 

In Germany the eggs of the first brood are laid early in May Breeding 
(according to Sachse about 8 days later than those of the Goldcrest), seaion. 
while second broods may be found at the beginning of July. In the 
Pyrenees the eggs are laid about the end of April and the young are 
on the wing in the fourth week of May, Avhile in Andalucia they are 
still earlier, and Irby records young flying on May 15. 

Average of 100 eggs (71 by Rey and 29 by the writer), Measure- 
13.57 X 10.28 mm., Max. 14.3 X 10.5 and 13.8 X 11, Min. 12.5 X 10.3 ""«""• 
and 13.5X10. Bau records an egg 12.9x8.9 mm. Average weight 
38.5 mg. (Rey); 37 mg. (Bau). 

[In Madeira another form, R. ignicapillus madeirensis Vern. Hare. 
is found in the mountains. Its eggs are figured by Konig, J. f. 0., 1890, 
Tab. VII, fig. 8; Cat. Eggs Br. Mus, IV. pi. XIV, fig. 9, 12; Dresser, 
pi. — , fig. 6, 7. Its chief haunts are the hillsides covered with giant 
Heaths and Arbutus. The eggs are 4 — 6, generally 5, in number, marked 
with reddish spots, chiefly at the big end on a whitish ground. Average of 
18 eggs (16 measured by the writer and 2 by Kutter), 1-4.32x11.1 mm., 
Max. 15.4 X 11.2 and 14.6 X 11.5, Min. 13.3 X 10.4 mm. Weight of 
2 eggs: 55 and 50 mg. (Kutter). The breeding season apparently falls 
in June, and the remarkable nest is not unlike that of Fr. coelebs.^ 

102. Bearded Tit, Panurus biarmicus (L.). 
Geographical Races. 

a. Western Bearded Tit, P. biarmieas biarmicus (L). 

Plate 21, fig. 13—16 (Norfolk Broads). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XVIII, fig. 12, a, b. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I., pi. LXXXI, fig. 4; II. Ed. I., pi. XXXII. fig. 3; III. Ed. I., 

15 



226 

pi. XL, fig. 3. Baedeker, Tab. 43, fig. 18. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 12; 
id. Col. Fig. pi. 53. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I. pi. II, fig. 68. Dresser, 
pi. _, fig. 13—15. Krause, pi. — , fig. 1—42. 

Nest: O. Lee, II. p. 136: Turner, Home Life of Marsh Birds, 
pi. XVIII— XXI. 

British Local Names: Reed or Marsh Pheasant. Foreign 
Names: Bohemia: Sylcora vousatd. Denmark. Skjoeg-meise. France: 
Mesange a moustaches. Germany: Bartmeise. Holland: Baardmamietje. 
Italy: Basettino. Spain: Bigotudo. 

Panurns biarmicus (L.). Newton, ed Yarrell, I. p. 511. Dresser, Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 158. Saunders, Man. p. 99. Calamophilus biarmicus (L.). 
Dresser, Birds of Europe, III. p. 49. P. biarmicus biarmicus (L.). Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 403. 

Breeding Range: E. Spain, France, S. E. England, Holland, 
and Italy. 
British Although this interesting bird is known to have bred formerly in Lincoln, 

isieg. Huntingdon, Cambridge, Suffolk, Essex, Kent, Sussex, and probably also 
in the Thames valley, its haunts are now restricted entirely to the Broads of 
Norfolk*. For many years there has been a steady decrease in the number 
of resident birds on the Broads, and Mr. J. H. Gurney estimated the 
number of nests in Norfolk in 1898 at only 33, but probably this estimate 
was too low, and of late there has been a decided increase^ in numbers, 
due to protection. Interesting details as to its present and former dis- 
tribution will be found in Mr. Gurney's papers in the Tra7is. Norf. and 
Norw. Nat. Soc. YI. p. 429 (1899), and Zool. 1900, p. 358. 
Con- In Spain this species is common on the Albufera de Valencia, and 

tinentai jg q\^q g^id to occur in the lagoons of N. E. Catalonia: in France it is 
plentiful in some parts of the Camargue and near Narbonne, and is said 
also to be found near the mouth of the Gironde. It is very local in 
Italy, but numerous in certain districts, such as the lagoons of Venetia 
and the R. Po, and suitable localities in Tuscany, Campania and Sicily. 
In Holland it is not resident, but breeds in fair numbers in N. and S. 
Holland, Friesland and Overijsel during the summer months, and according 
to Dubois also breeds in N. W. Belgium. In Germany it is now no 
longer resident, but was formerly found in the marshes of the N. from 
E. Friesland to Holstein and Mecklenburg. Probably also it was this 
race which formerly nested on the Mansfelder See in Saxony and in 
Thuringia. 

Usually placed among the stems of reeds or coarse vegetation not 
far from the outer edge of the reed bed, in swampy ground, and from 
6 in. to 1 ft. above the water level. Booth mentions a nest built into 

* A pair or two apparently survived in S. Devon as late as 1888. 



Europe. 



227 

the roots of a tussock of rushes, in a field of marsh hay. In wet 
seasons the nests are liable to be submerged, in which case a second 
nest is built on the top of the old one. As a rule the nest is neatly 
concealed, but on a still day the movements of the parent bird when 
flushed can be detected by the rustling and swaying of the reeds stems, 
and the site approximately located. The materials used consist chiefly 
of dead leaves of reeds, sedges, or sometimes flat grasses, with a lining 
of the flowery tops of the reed and finer grass leaves. A feather or 
two is not unfrequently found in the lining, and J. M. Goodall found a 
nest lined with white down, probably that of a call Duck. The cup of 
the nest is about 2 s in. in diameter. It is usual to find the same locality 
occupied by a breeding pair year after year. 

Generally 5 — 7 in number, occasionally 8 or 9. Instances have ^*f^'- 
been recorded where 10, 11 and 12 eggs have been found in a single 
nest, but there is little doubt that they are the produce of two hens. 
Booth relates an instance where a hen whose mate he had shot, proceeded 
to lay in the nest of another pair not far awav, which already contained 
6 eggs, till 11 had been laid. In confinement they will also lay together 
without quarrelling, and are very prolific. Thus two hens kept by J. 
Young laid about 50 eggs in one season ! He observed that after laying 
the lining was pulled over the eggs on leaving the nest by the hen, as 
in the genus Parus. Possibly it is owing to this that one or two eggs 
may often be found completely buried in the lining of the nest. They 
are quite characteristic: white, with some gloss, sparsely marked with 
fine scrawls, streaks and spots of liver brown. In shape they are a 
rounded ovate, some eggs being almost spherical. 

In Norfolk nesting begins in March, and the first eggs are laid Breeding 
about April 7 or 8, but chiefly in the third week of the month. (In Reason. 
1903 M. C. H. Bird found a nest with 3 eggs on April 3, and a nest 
from which young had flown has been seen at the beginning of May). 
There is no doubt that three and possibly four broods are reared in a 
season under favourable circumstances, as young have been seen still in 
the nest in September both in England and Holland, and Booth found 
eggs on August 16. Both sexes incubate, and the duration of the period 
is about 14 days. 

Average size of 106 Norfolk eggs (83 by the writer and 23 by Rey), Moasure- 
17.22x13.91 mm., Max. 19x15, Min. 14.5x13.2 and 15.8x13 mm. "'"*'• 
Average weight, 108 mg., varying from 95 to 135 mg. (Key). 

b. Eastern Bearded Tit, P. biarmicus russicus (Brehm). 

Egg: Taczanowski, Tab. LIV, fig. 2. 
F. biarmicus russicus (Brehm). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 405. 

15* 



226 

Foreign Names: Hungary: Bajszos czinege, Sgakallas ceinege. 
Russia: Usataja Siniza. 

Breeding Range: Austro - Hungary, the Danube Valley, and S. 
Russia. [Also Asia Minor, Persia, etc., E. to Manchuria.] 

This race is a common summer visitor to the reed beds in the 
lakes and rivers of Austro-Hungary, and is also plentiful in the Dobrudscha 
and Bessarabia. Reiser also records it from a marsh on the coast of 
E. Rumelia, and on the W. side of the Peninsula Lilford met with it 
on the Albanian side of the Scutari Lake, but it has not been observed 
there since. It is also found in S. Russia, and is resident in the low 
lying marshes near the estuaries of the Terek and Kur in Caucasia. [In 
Asia its range extends from Asia Minor eastward to Manchuria.] 
Nest, Eggs In its breeding habits it resembles the western race , and the eggs 

«t<^- are also similar in type, but those examined are slightly larger on an 
average. Thirteen eggs from the Velencze See average 17.47 x 14.06 mm. 
(Coll. F. C. Selous, May 7 and 30). 



LANIIDAE. 

103. Lesser Grey Shrike, Lanius minor Gm. 

Plate 8, fig. 10—17 (Hungary). 
Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXI, fig. 4, a — d. Baedeker, 
Tab. 52, fig. 4. Taczanowski, Tab. XXXYIII, fig. 2. Seebohm, Br. 
Birds, pi. 11; id. Col. Fig. pi. 54. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 17—20. Krause, 
pi. — fig. 1—36. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Tuhyk mensi. France: Pie-grieche 
d'ltalie. Germany: Orauer Wilrger. Greece: Kephalas. Hungary: Kis 
orgebics. Italy: Averla cenerina. Poland: Dzierzba czarnoczelna. 
Russia: Sorokoputh. 

Lanius minor Gm. Newton, ed Yarrell, I, p. 205. Dresser, Birds of 
Europe, III, p. 393; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 236. Saimders, Man. 
p. 149. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 416. 

Breeding Range: S. and Mid-Europe, from the Baltic to the 

Mediterranean. [Also Siberia to lat. 57°; Asia Minor, and W. Turkestan.] 

g^^_ This Shrike is a summer visitor to Europe, migrating southward 

tinentai in August aud September. Although very common in the Rhone delta, 

Europe. ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ stragglcr to S. W. France, and is absent from the N,, 

as well as in the Iberian Peninsula. It has not been recorded from 

Corsica, and Salvadori's statement that it is common in N. Sardinia is 

probably a mistake. It is somewhat irregularly distributed in Italy and 

Sicily, but is not uncommon in some districts, such as the Po valley; and 



229 

is also found in the low ground of Switzerland. It does not breed in 
Belgium or Holland, but occurs throughout Germany with the exception 
of the district N. W. of the Elbe (Hannover and Westphalia). Its 
numbers however vary considerably from year to year. Although 
locally common, and not rare in E. Prussia and Silesia, it is scarce 
in S. Bavaria, Baden and Wiirttemberg. In the Russian Baltic Pro- 
vinces it is not rare in Kurland and its range extends to W. Livonia, 
while in S. Russia it is a plentiful species and is found in Caucasia up 
to about 5000 ft. It is a characteristic species of Austro-Hungary, and 
is extraordinarily numerous in some parts of Hungary, extending its 
range southward to Styria aud Dalmatia. It is the commonest Shrike 
in Montenegro and is also plentiful in the Danube valley (Rumania, 
Dobrudscha etc.), but is apparently now rather scarce in Greece. 

In middle Europe this bird is especially partial to avenues of Nest. 
poplars and other trees by the roadsides, but is also found breeding in 
deciduous woods, parks and orchards. Here it places its nest at a 
height of 10 to 25 ft. from the ground, sometimes on the fork of a 
bough close to the main stem, and in the case of small trees, occasionally 
at the very top. In the S. of Europe it is frequently built in an olive 
tree. A characteristic feature of the nest is the use of fresh and green 
plant stems, especially clover. A few twigs are built into the foundation, 
while various flowering plants, often aromatic, are woven into the structure, 
such as Onaphalium, Thymus, Capsella bursa pastoris, Stachys, Filago 
etc. Internally it is also lined with feathers and at times with roots, 
wool and hair. Diameter of cup, 21 — 3? in., depth 1+ — 2 in. 

From 4 or 5 to 7 in number, and as a rule easily distinguishable Eggs. 
from those of other Shrikes by their more distinctly bluish green ground. 
They are generally boldly blotched with two shades of colour, olive 
brown and underlying pale greenish brown. These markings tend very 
frequently to form a zone. Exceptionally a clutch of eggs may be found 
with creamy white or yellowish ground spotted with brown and violet. 
Krause figures five eggs of this type from Brandenburg. 

In Greece the eggs may be found in the latter half of May, but Breeding 
in the Danube valley the best time is at the end of May and early in ^^^^o"- 
June, and in Germany the breeding season is about the same time, 
though even here clutches have been taken in mid -May, so that the 
period does not vary much. Incubation is performed by both sexes and 
is said to last 15 days. The birds are not shy, and are always on the watch 
to drive away crows or magpies from the neighbourhood of the nest. 

Average of 100 eggs (57 by Rey, 37 by the writer and 6 by Blasius) Me.sure- 
25.1X18.24 mm., Max. 28.2x20, Min. 23x17 and 23.3x16.6 mm. '"«°*'' 
Hartert records an abnormally large egg, 29 X 19, and Reiser another, 



230 

28.8x18.7; while Bau mentions a very small egg, 22.5x17. Average 
weight, 257 mg. (Rey): 281 mg. (Bau). 

104. Great Grey Shrike, Lanius excubitor L. 
Geographical Races. 

a. Northern Great Grey Shrike, L. excubitor excuhitor L. 

Plate 24, fig. 1—6 (N. Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXXI, fig. 1, a — d. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. CVIII, fig. 1 ; II. Ed. I. pi. XV, fig. 1 ; III. Ed. I, pi. XX, 
fig. 1. Baedeker, Tab. 52, fig. 1. Taczanowski, Tab. XXXVIII, fig. 1. 
Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 11; id. Col. Fig. pi. 54. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 6 — 8. 
Krause, pi. — , fig. 1 — 36. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: luhyk sedivy. Denmark: Oraa 
Tornskade. Finland: Isompi-Lepinkaineyi. Fra,ace -/Fie-grieche. Germany: 
Orauwiirger. Helgoland: Oroot VerwoaJirfink. Holland: Klopekster. 
Hungary: Nagy orgehics. Italy: Averla maggiore. Norway: Varsler. 
Poland: Dzierzla srokosz. Sweden: Storre Tornskata. 
Lanius excubitor L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I. p. 199. Dresser, Birds of 
Europe, III, p. 375; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 228. Saunders, Man. p. 147. 
L. excubitor excubitor L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 418. 

Breeding Range: Continental Europe, excepting the Iberian, 
Italian, and Balkan Peninsulas and S. Russia. 
Con- In Scandinavia and N. Russia this bird is only a summer visitor, 

and is nowhere very common. In Norway scattered pairs are met with 
even in the birch region of E. Finmark, but it is scarce in the S. of 
the country, while in Sweden it is perhaps least common in the N. 
In Russia its eastern limit appears to extend beyond the Urals to the 
lower part of the Ob valley (lat. 67 i°). It is very scarce in the Russian 
Baltic Provinces, and has not been recorded of late years as breeding 
in Denmark, but is fairly generally distributed throughout Germany in 
suitable localities as a resident or partial migrant, though always local. 
On the moors of Brabant and Belgium it is not uncommon, and is found 
in small numbers in most parts of France excepting Brittany, Poitou, 
and the Mediterranean district. In Switzerland it breeds not only in the 
plain but also in the valleys up to heights of 4000 and even 5500 ft. 
in the Alps and Jura. A few pairs appear to breed in the valleys on 
the Italian side of the Alps, while in Austria and Hungary it is tolerably 
common, and has been known to breed in Carinthia. 
nm*. The haunts chiefly affected by this bird are the edges of forests, 

clumps of trees on moorlands, and orchards. Here it chooses a site 
which provides a wide outlook, and generally builds its nest at a con- 



tinental 

Europe. 



231 

siderable height above the ground. A favourite site is far out on the 
horizontal bough of a big oak, but frequently a fruit tree in an orchard 
is utilized, and in Brabant it often builds in a pine. Occasionally nests 
have been recorded in big thorn bushes, and on one occasion on the 
ground in a bush in Saxony ! but this last site is of course quite ab- 
normal. In northern Europe the nest is generally placed in a birch, 
It is a bulky and characteristic structure, consisting of a foundation of 
twigs or heather stems, but chiefly composed of dead grasses and moss 
or leaves, lined with roots, bits of wool and hair, with a thick layer of 
feathers, which give an untidy look to the nest. Flowers of Achillea 
millefolium are also sometimes used. It is deep and warm, measuring 
about 3f — 4 in. across the interior, and 2i — 3 in. in depth. The cock 
bird occupies some commanding perch in the neighbourhood of the nest, 
and shows considerable courage in driving away birds of prey, crows, etc., 
especially after the young have been hatched. In some cases the same 
locality, and it is said even the same site and nest, is occupied year 
after year. 

Usually 5 to 7 in number, but clutches of 8 have been occasionally Egg». 
recorded from Central Europe, and a nest with 9 eggs was found by 
S. A. Davies on the Muonio River in 1904. They are not subject to 
much variation, and have but little gloss. The ground colour varies from 
greyish or very pale greenish grey to greyish buff, blotched and spotted 
with darker and lighter olive brown and underlying markings of purplish 
grey. As a rule the markings tend to form a zone or cap at the big 
end. Krause figures a clutch from Transylvania, with a distinctly green 
ground, like the eggs of L minor. 

In mid Europe the eggs are generally laid during the last fortnight Breeding 
of April or early in May*. If these are taken a second clutch is laid 
two or three weeks later, and often a third, but as a rule this Shrike 
is single brooded. C. Sachse however records one case where -t eggs 
were found on June 17 after the young of the first brood of the same 
birds had flown. In Lapland the breeding season is much later, and the 
eggs are laid late in May or early in June. Incubation is said to last 
15 days, and the hen is a close sitter. 

Average size of 117 eggs from Germany, Holland etc. (42 by Rey, Measure- 
38 by Bau and 37 by the writer), 26.28 X 19.28 mm., Max. 30.5 X 19 '"«'>'«• 
and 28x20.5; Min. 23x18.9 and 25.1x18 mm. Average weight 
283 mg. (Rey); 302 mg. (Bau). Lapland eggs are slightly larger: 
average of 34, 20.9x19.7 mm.. Max. 29.5x19.5 and 28.5x20.5; 
Min. 26 X 19 mm. (Wasenius). 

* Seebohm's statement that in Brabant the eggs are not laid till late in May 
is erroneous, and the nests brought to him were obviously second layingi. 



232 

b. Homeyer'B Grey Shrike, L. excubitor homeyeri Cab. 

L. excuhitor homeyeri Cab. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 420. 

Breeding Range: S. Russia and the lower Danube. [Also W. 
Siberia.] 
Con- This race appears to be sparingly distributed through S. Russia, 

tinentai ]t)^^ nowherc common, from Moscow southward to the Black Sea. It is 
known to have bred in Kazan, Charkow, Astrakhan and Uralsk. Pro- 
bably its range extends also to Rumania and Bulgaria, though according 
to Reiser definite proof is still wanting. (Eastward it is found in Siberia 
as far as the Yenesei.) 
Neet. A full description by H. Johansen of a nest near Tomsk will be 

found in the OrnitJi. Jahrhuch, 1900, p. 28. 
Egg,. The 7 eggs taken by Johansen averaged 28.3 x 19.8 mm. in size: 

Max. 29.5x20 and 28.2x20.2, Min. 27.3x19.5. They were some- 
what incubated on May 6. 

c. Southern Grey Shrike, L. exeubitor nieridionalis Temni. 

Plate 24, fig. 7, 8 (Malaga). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXXI, fig. 3, a, b. Baedeker, 
Tab. 52, fig. 3. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 15, 16. 

Foreign Names: France: Fie-grieche meridionale. Portugal: 
Picanso. Spain: Alcaudon real. 

L. meridionalis Temm. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 387; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 234. L. excuhitor me^'idionalis Temm. Hartert, Vog. 
Pal. Fauna, p. 424. 

Breeding Range: The Iberian Peninsula and Provence, 
cou- In the Iberian Peninsula this Shrike occurs locally in suitable 

districts throughout the S. and E., but has apparently not been observed 
in the N. W. Its favourite haunts are wild, uncultivated districts, over- 
grown with patches of scrub and a few trees. In such localities it is 
not uncommon, especially in Andalucia, Granada, Murcia and Valencia. 
In France it is resident in the Provinces bordering on the Mediterranean 
eastward to Nice, and has occurred along the Pyrenean range and in 
the S. of the country. It has also been met with singly along the 
north-western coast of Italy (Liguria, Tuscany etc.). 

In Spain many nests are placed in the middle of thick, bramble 
covered, or thorny bushes, sometimes not more than 2 or 3 ft. from the 
ground, but generally higher. Sometimes however the nest is placed on 
the bough of a small tree, much like that of the Mistle Thrush at home, 
and in such cases is rarely more than 8 or 10 ft. high. It is a bulky, 
rather untidy-looking structure composed of a few twigs and large quan- 
tities of coarse grasses, lined with finer grass and a few feathers. 



tinentai 

Europe 



233 

Feather*, bits of rag, lichens, and generally bits of cudweed are woven 
into the exterior of the nest. When built on to a bough some clay is 
also used as a foundation. The internal diameter varies from 3i to 5 in. 
In the Camarguo this bird is said to be partial to isolated fir trees. 

Usually 4 to 6 in number, but 7 have occasionally been met with. Kggs. 
As compared with eggs of the Northern form, the spots are as a rule 
of a much richer and warmer brown. Sometimes the spots are evenly 
distributed, but well zoned eggs are not uncommon, and some clutches 
have very bold zones of rich brown on a very light stone coloured ground. 

Somewhat irregular, for the first eggs may be found in the second Breeding 
week of March, while on the other hand many pairs do not breed till 
mid-April, and where the birds have been disturbed, fresh eggs may be 
taken late in May, and even in early June. 

Average of 117 eggs (92 by the writer and 25 by Rey) from Spain, Mea^ure- 
27.55X19.57 mm., Max. 30.1x20.1 and 26x20.5: Min. 24x18.2. """"'" 
Average weight, 298 mg. (Rey). 

[Of the other forms of Great Grey Shrike, the following occur in 
the W. Palaearctic region. a. Algerian Grey Shrike, L. excubitor 
algeriensis Less. Has occurred in Italy. The egg is figured in the Cat. 
Eggs Brit. Mus. IV. pi. XII. fig. 16. Breeds in N. Marocco and Algeria, 
and nests in thorny bushes, laying 4 — 7 eggs, as a rule, but not 
always, paler than those of the northern form. Average of 39 eggs 
(24 by Koenig and 15 by the writer), 26.57 X 19.31 mm., Max. 29 X 20: 
Min. 24x17. Average weight of 13 eggs, 262 mg. (Konig)*. The 
breeding season is irregular, as eggs may be found from early in April 
to early in June. b. Canarian Grey Shrike, L. excubitor Icoenigi Hart. 
(Plate 34, fig. 12 — 15). Breeds in the Canaries. Eggs 4 — 6, generally 
rather warm in colouring, may be found from March onward. Average 
of 66 eggs measured by the writer, 25.46 X 19.26 mm.. Max. 28.2 X 19.3 
and 27.3x20.7; Min. 23x19 and 25x18.2. Average Aveight of 
15 eggs, 268 mg. c. Pallid Grey Shrike, L. e. elegans Sw. replaces the 
Algerian Shrike S. of the Atlas in Algeria and Tunis. (Eggs figured in 
J. f. 0., 1896, Tab. VI, fig. 6, a f.) Average of 81 eggs (39 by Konig, 
33 by Erlanger, and 9 by the writer), 25.81 x 19.25 mm., Max. 28x20 
and 25x21; Min. 22x17. Average weight of 39 eggs, 267 mg. 
(Konig). They resemble those of L. e. algeriensis, but vary considerably. 

d. Dodson's Shrike, L. e. dodsoni Whit, is found in Middle and South 
Marocco and also appears to range into Tunis along the mountains. 

e. Palestine Grey Shrike, L. e. aucheri Bp., breeds from the Red Sea 
and Palestine eastward to Persia and Beluchistan. (Egg figured in Cat. 

* The measurements and figures in Roy's work under L. algerieri^ns refer to 
L. e. koenigi. 



234 

Eggs Brit. Mus. IV, pi. XII, fig. 14.) The eggs, 4—5, sometimes 6 in 
number, vary greatly in character, sometimes being very pale and at 
other times boldly blotched and spotted like those of L. e. meridionalis. 
Average of 56 eggs from Palestine measured by the writer, 26.66x19,47 mm., 
Max. 30 X 19 and 27 X 21.2; Min. 24.5 X 19.3 and 26.4 X 18. 
f. Przewalski's Shrike, L. e. przeivalskii Bogd. which inhabits Turkestan, 
the Desert of Gobi, etc., occurs in S. E. Russia in winter occasionally. 
(The American Great Grey Shrike, L. e. borealis Vieill. (Plate 42, fig. 
5 — 10) inhabits the northern parts of N. America, and its supposed 
occurrence in the Old World is erroneous.)] 

105. Woodchat, Lanius senator L. 
Geographical Races. 

a. European Woodchat, L. senator senator L. 

Plate 24, fig. 10 — 19 (Magdeburg, Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXXI, fig. 8, a— f. Hewitson, 
I Ed. I, pi. CVIII, fig. 2; II Ed. I, pi. XV, fig. 2; III Ed. I, pi. XX, 
fig. 2. Baedeker, Tab. 52, fig. 5. TaczanoAvski, Tab. XXXIX, fig. 2. 
Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 11; id. Col. Fig. pi. 54. Frohawk, Br. Birds, 
I, pi. Ill, fig. 109. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 18—25. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Tuhyk rudohlavy. Denmark: Bod- 
hovedet Tornskade. France: Pie-grieche roiisse. Germany: Rotkopfiger 
Wiirger. Greece: Kephalas. Helgoland: Road-hoaded Verwoahrfink. 
Holland: Roodkoppige Klaauivier. Hungary: Vorosfegu gebics. Italy: 
Averla capirossa. Poland: Dzierzha rdzawokarczysta. Portugal: Picanso. 
Russia: Sorokoput. Spain: Alcaudon. Sweden: Rddhufrade to'rnskata. 
Lanius auriculatus P. L. S. Miill. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 215. 
Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 407; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 246. L. 
pomeramis Sparrm, Saunders, Man. p. 153. L. senator senator L. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 434, 

Breeding Range: Continental Europe, S, of the N, Sea, Denmark, 
and the Baltic. [Also N. Africa.] 
British The Woodchat is said to have bred on two occasions in the Isle 

Isles, of Wight, and there is some reason to believe that it has also nested 

in Hants on at least one occasion. 
Con- It is a very common summer visitor to all the countries bordering 

on the Mediterranean, and in some districts the breast of the male forms 
a conspicuous spot of white on the top of almost every bush. In the 
Iberian peninsula it is abundant except in the northern provinces, and 
is also numerous in Italy on the low ground, especially in the S., and 
is one of the commonest birds in the olive groves of Greece. It breeds 



Europe. 



235 

commonly on Sicily, and also on Malta and the Balearic Isles. North- 
ward it is found, though in diminishing numbers, as far as Normandy; 
while it is not uncommon in Brabant, and occurs locally in Germany, 
especially in the S. and W., though decidedly scarce in the N. Further E. 
its distribution is less exactly known, but it is found in the Black Sea pro- 
vinces of Russia and also in the Caucasus. [Also in Asia Minor and the 
Barbary States, though some authors regard the N. African race as distinct 
(L. senator rutilans). In Crete and Cyprus it is decidedly scarce.] 

In the great European plain this bird haunts park lands, copses, Neat. 
orchards, etc., and places its nest on the fork of a bough of some tree, 
generally not less than 12 or 15 ft. from the ground. It is neatly built 
of roots, stalks, moss, lichens etc., with a few twigs in the foundation, 
and lined with wool, finer grasses, hair, or feathers. Flowering plants 
are also frequently interwoven (Capsella, Veronica, Stellaria, etc.) In 
southern Europe the nest may be found occasionally in bushes only a 
few feet from the ground, as well as in olive, ilex, pine, orange and 
other trees. Here frequently cudweed (Onaphalium liiteo-album) is largely 
used as building material , the plants being pulled up by the roots 
and woven together.* Diameter of cup 2* in; depth, li — 2 in. 

Usually 5 — 6, occasionally 7 in number. They bear a strong Kggs. 
resemblance to those of L. collurio, although there is less variation in a 
series, and the type with a distinctly red ground is not found in L. 
senator. The ground colour is usually pale greenish, occasionally brownish 
yellow, and more rarely cream colour or almost white. One clutch from 
Greece (Brit. Mus.) has a pale blue ground, and one or two sets have 
a salmon pink ground, though not so deep as in the reddest eggs of 
L. collurio. The markings are usually in the form of a zone round the 
large end, and consist of greyish brown spots and underlying shell 
markings of grey or lilac. 

In mid-Europe the eggs are laid in May, often about the middle Breeding 
of the month, but in Brabant seldom before the 25th. In S. Spain 
many nests may be found with eggs in the last weeks of April, but 
even there some birds do not lay till mid-May. In Greece Kriiper 
gives mid-May as the average date for eggs. The birds are not 
at all shy, and the hen sits closely. Incubation is said to last for 
14 — 15 days. 

Average of 100 European eggs (73 by Rey and 27 by the writer), Measure- 
22.87x16.97 mm.. Max. 27x17 and 23.9x17.8; Min. 21x15.9 '^«""- 
and 22,1 X 15.7. Reiser records abnormal eggs measuring 29.1 X 15.5, 
24.6 X 18.3, 20 X 15 and 19 X 15.1. Average weight, 191 mg. (Rey). 

* In Tunisia Whitaker states that the nests are often studded over with the 
flowers of Evax pygmaea. 



236 

Konig gives the average size of 23 N. African eggg as 23.74 X 17.17 
mm., weight 207 mg. 

b. Sardinian Woodcliat, L. senator Radius Hartl. 

L. senator hadius Hartl. Hartert, Yog. Pal. Fauna, p. 437. 
Breeding Range: Corsica and Sardinia. 

An abundant summer visitor to the low lying districts of these 
islands, nesting generally in the cork trees at 8 to 20 ft., during the last 
days of May and early in June. 

Nest built of lichens, flowering grass heads, roots and a few twigs : 
lined with fibres and a few feathers. The hen sits very closely. White- 
head found one clutch of salmon coloui-ed eggs out of about 20 nests 
examined. The 5 — 6 eggs are rather large: 31 measured by the writer 
average 23.66x17.46 mm.. Max. 26x17.5 and 22.2x18.2, Min. 
22.2 X 18.2 and 22.3 X 16.6. 

[Palestine and S. Persia are inhabited by another race, L. seyiator 
niloticus (Bp.), the eggs of which are figured in the Ibis, 1905, pi. XI, 
hg. 4, 7.] " 

106. Masked Shrike, Lanius nubicus Licht. 
Plate 62, fig. 1 (Smyrna, 1. V. 06). 
Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 52, fig. 7. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 26—28, 31. 
Lanius nubicus Licht. Dresser, Birds of Europe, 111, p. 417; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 247. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 438. 

Breeding Range: Formerly in Greece, but now extinct there. 
[Also Asia Minor, Cyprus, Palestine and S. W. Persia.] 

Formerly this species appears to have been a regular summer visitor 
to the country near Athens, but according to Reiser there is no definite 
record of its breeding since 1864. It is included in the British list, 
an adult male having been obtained in Kent on July 11, 1905. [It is 
plentiful in Asia Minor, and is the commonest Shrike near Smyrna. 
Guillemard found it breeding on the northern side of Cyprus, and it is 
also not uncommon in the wooded parts of Palestine and in the oak 
woods of Fars, in S. W". Persia.] 

The nest is very neatly and strongly built, and often has frag- 
ments of rag, thread, etc. woven into the exterior, while the interior is 
lined with fine roots or fibres. It is only about half the size of an 
average nest of L. minor or L. senator. Selous describes the nest as 
usually built in an olive tree, 8 — 10 ft. above the ground, on a thick 
branch, in the same situation that a Mistle Thrush's nest might occupy. 
Kriiper however frequently found nests half covered by pendant foliage 
on an upright bough in olives, pomegranates etc. The parent birds are 
much shyer and more retiring in their habits than most Shrikes. 



237 

According to Kriiper it is double brooded, laying 6 — 7 eggs in the Kg?'- 
first brood, and -4 — 5, sometimes only 3, in the second. A clutch of 8 
eggs is said to have been taken in Greece. They are very characteristic 
of the species, although Shrike-like in type, having the ground colour 
creamy buff (in rare instances very pale, almost white) and a zone of 
umber brown blotches or spots and purplish grey underlying shell marks 
round the big end. They vary less than most Shrikes' eggs, but a set 
from Palestine has a distinctly reddish ground (Brit. Mus.), and both 
markings and ground colour differ in intensity. 

In Palestine eggs may be found from April 10 onwards: Witherby Breeding 
found fresh eggs in Persia on April 20, while Kriiper gives the average 
date for the first brood near Smyrna as mid-May; and the second in June, 
but some birds begin to lay at the end of April and eggs have been 
taken as late as July 4. 

Average of 100 eggs from Palestine and Asia Minor measured Measure- 
by the writer, 20.73x15.73 mm.. Max. 23 x 16.5 and 22x16.6, ""'""' 
Min. 19 X 15.2 and 20.5 X 14.4. 

107. Red backed Shrike, Lanius collurio L. 

Plate 25, fig. 1—17 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXXI, fig. 9, a— f. Hewitson, 
I Ed. I, pi. II, fig. 1—3; II Ed. I, pi. XV, fig. 3, 4; III Ed. I, pi. XX, 
fig. 3, 4. Baedeker, Tab. 52, fig. 6. Taczanowski, Tab. XL, fig. 1, 2. 
Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 11; id. Col. Fig. pi. 54. Frohawk, Br. Birds, 
I, pi. Ill, fig. 104—108. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 1—5. Krause, pi. — , 
fig. 1—36. Nest: O. Lee, IV, p. 16. 

British Local Names: Butcher Bird, Pope, Nine killer, Flusher. 
Welsh: Y cigydd cefn goch. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Tuhyk obecny. Denmark: Tornskade. 
Finland: Pienempi lepinkciinen. France: Ecorclieur. Germany: Rot- 
rilckiger Wiirger. Greece: Aetomdchos. Holland: Graauiv Klaauwier. 
Hungary: Tovisszuro gebics. Italy: Averla piccola. Norway: Bodrygget 
Tornskade. Poland: Dzierzha cierniokret. Russia: Sorokoput Ivolan. 
Sweden: Brunryggad Tdrnskata. 

Lanius collurio L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 209. Dresser, Birds of 
Europe, III, p. 399; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 237. Saunders, Man. p. 151. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 439. 

Breeding Range: Great Britain, Europe from 64" N. to the 
Cantabrian Mts., Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily (?), and the N. shores of the 
Mediterranean. [Also Asia Minor and N. Palestine to N. Persia.] 



tinental- 
Europe. 



238 

British The distribution in England of this summer visitor is somewhat 

^'^*"' irregular, hut it is generally to be met with on bush covered commons 
and waste lands in the midland and southern counties of England and 
Wales, S. of lat. 53" N. It is however only a rare visitor to Cornwall, 
and is scarce in Pembroke, but is not uncommon on the Merioneth 
coast. In Lincolnshire it is rare, and is only a very local visitor in 
small numbers to the northern counties, though it breeds occasionally in 
W. Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the Lake District. It has been known 
to nest on Anglesea, and a few pairs appear to extend their range 
occasionally to S. E. Scotland, as for instance in 1893, when a pair 
bred in Lanark. It does not breed in Ireland. 
Con- In the Iberian peninsula this species breeds only in the N., in 

Catalonia, Aragon, and the country N, of the Cantabrian range. Tait 
found a nest on the R, Minho, on the border of Pertugal and Galicia. 
It apparently reaches Europe on migration via Italy. A few pairs are 
said to breed in the wooded parts of Sicily, and it is not uncommon 
on the hills of Sardinia and in Corsica, but is scarce in S. Italy. In 
the Balkan peninsula it is found as far S. as the middle region of the 
higher mountains of Greece but not in the plains, and in the Caucasus 
Radde states that it has been observed at a height of 6300 ft. as well 
as in the low ground. Over the whole of middle Europe it is generally 
distributed and in some districts very common. In Scandinavia it has 
occim-ed in Sweden up to lat. 64", and is common in the Christiania 
district of Norway, while it is also numerous in the Russian Baltic 
provinces and is found in Finland as far as Kuopio, and in Russia up 
to about lat. 64°. 

[In Asia Minor it is a mountain haunting species, and was only 
found breeding on Hermon and Lebanon in Palestine by Tristram. It 
is also found in Transcaspia and N. Persia, but probably the birds from 
Transcaucasia to E. Persia belong to the race described by Buturlin as 
L. coUurio kohylini, if really distinct.] 

Large for the size of the bird, and generally to be found in thorn 
bushes, clumps of briars and brambles, low and thick, or straggling high 
hedges, etc. On the Continent it is also frequently found in thick young 
conifers, and occasionally among the lower boughs of medium sized trees, 
especially oaks. Collett mentions a nest on a large root among high 
grass! It is not uncommon to find the nest close to a road or well 
used path. The usual height is about 3 — 5 ft. from the ground, but 
some nests are not more than a foot or so above it and others have 
been found as high as 9 and even 12 ft. The materials used are 
generally bents, stalks, roots, etc., with a good deal of green moss, 
while fine roots, wool, hair, and down are used for the lining. Some 



Nest. 



239 

nests from the Continent and Corsica are much more slightly built and 
contain no moss. Diameter of cup, 21 — 31 in., depth nearly 2 in. The 
same locality is often resorted to year after year. 

Usually 5 — 6, sometimes only 4 and occasionally 7, while a clutch Eggs. 
of 8 is said to have been found. They are very variable in colouring, 
but may be classified according to the ground colour, which varies from 
pure white to creamy, brownish, greenish, and pinkish. Exceptionally 
sets have been met with bright greenish and deep reddish ground. The 
three commonest types are the pink, green and cream, but the proportion 
varies according to the locality. A clutch of white eggs taken by Major 
Harington is entirely without markings, but as a rule the eggs are rather 
sparingly spotted with some shade of brown or red, with underlying 
blotches and spots of leaden grey, which often tend to form a zone. 
Eggs with a pink or red ground have almost invariably warm sienna 
brown or red spots, and those with a greenish ground are marked with 
umber. The shape is usually rather a blunt, rounded oval, and the 
texture fine, with slight gloss. 

Although a few pairs both on the Continent and in England begin Breeding 
to lay about mid May, the majority have full clutches towards the end ^^'''""• 
of May and early in June. Only one brood is reared, but if the eggs 
are taken, the birds will lay again three or four times if necessary. The 
breeding season in Greece and Corsica is apparently no earlier than in 
Middle Europe, but on Mt. Hermon Tristram took full clutches on May 16. 

Rey gives the average size of 360 eggs as 22.1 X 16.4 mm., Max. Measure- 
25 X 16 and 22.6 X 18.3, Min. 18.3 X 15 and 22.2 x 14. Average 
weight 186 mg. The largest 'double' egg measured 26.5 X 19.3 (250 
mg.) and the smallest dwarf 15.7 X 12 (80 mg.). Average weight of 
22 full eggs, 3.239 g. (R. H. Read). 

Isabelline Shrike, Lanius eristatus isabellinas II. & E. 

Plate 24, fig. 9 (Kuldja). 

Eggs: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 6, 7. 
Lanius isabellmus H. & E. Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 413: Man. Pal. Birds, 
p. 238 (part.) L. eristatus isahellinus H. & B. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 444. 

Breeding Range: Steppes of Mongolia and S. Dauria to Dzungaria and E. 
Turkestan. One specimen obtained on Helgoland, Oct. 26, 1854. 

In breeding habits it resembles its allies. Key gives the average of 9 e^rgs as 
22.84X16.86 mm., Max. 24.5 X 17.3 and 23.9 X 17.6, Min. 21.3 X 16.9 and 22.2 X 16.1. 
Eggs from the S. of the Issyk Kul, probably of tliis bird, average 20.6 X 16.1 (Hartert). 

[The eggs of L. eristatus eristatus L. (Plate 25; fig. 18 — 22, Siberia) are also 
illustrated in the Ibis, 1905, pi. XI, fig. 6, 9. Rey gives the average of 31 eggs as 
21.92 X 17.69 mm., Max. 25 X 18, Min. 20.3 X 16.8; Average weight of 5 eggs, 190 mg. 
L. eristatus phoenicuroides (Sch.) breeds in Transcaspia, Turkestan etc. (Egg figured 
in Br. Mus. Cat. Eggs, IV, pi. XIII, fig. 4; Dresser, pi. — , fig. 8—10.) Radde's 



ments. 



tinental 
Europe. 



240 

Shrike, L. bogdanowi (Bian.) Las been recorded from the B. Kirghis steppes and 
Transcaspia. Eggs figured in Dresser, pi. — , fig. 11, 12, 16, 17; Ibis, 1905, pi. XI, 
fig. 1 — 3. Another species which breeds in the W. Palaearctic region is the Hooded 
Shrike, Telophonus senegalus cucuUatus (Temm.), which is found in Marocco, Algeria, 
and Tunis. Eggs figured by Dresser, pi. — , fig. 32, 33 (not in B. M. Cat. Eggs, 
IV, pi. XIII, fig. 10, which probably represents an egg of L. algoriensis). The eggs 
of this genus are of quite a different type to those of Lanius, being streaked and 
spotted with sienna and grey on a dull white ground. One egg measures 26.3 X 183 mm.] 



AMPELIDAE. 

108. Waxwing, Bombycilla garrula (L.). 

Plate 8, fig. 5—9 (Lapland). 

Eggs: Proc. Zool. Soc, 1857, pi. CXXII (nest and eggs). Nau- 
mannia, 1858, Taf. I, fig. 5—8. J. f. 0., 1859, Tab. I, fig. a, b. Rev. 
et Mag. de Zool.. 1860, pi. 2, fig. 4. Ibis, 1861, pi. IV. Baedeker, 
Tab. 52, fig. 20. 8eebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 11; id. Col. Fig. pi. 54. 
Ootheca AVolleyana, Tab. X, fig. 1—25. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 29, 30, 
34, 35. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Brkoslav. Denmark: Sidensvands. 
Finland: Tilhi. France: Jaseur de Bohenie. Germany: Seidenschivanz. 
Helgoland: Siedensivenske. Holland: Pestvogel. Hungary: Csonttollu 
maddr, Italy: Becco frusone. Lapland: Pdllje rastis. Norway: Sidens- 
vans. Poland: Jemiolucha jedivahniczka. Russia: Siviristiel. Sweden: 
Sidensvatis. 

Ampelis garrulus L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 523. Dresser, Birds of 
Europe, III, p. 429; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 249. Saunders, Man. 
p. 155. Bombycilla garrulus garrulus (L.). Hartert, Yog. Pal. Fauna, 
p. 456. 

Breeding Range: N. Scandinavia, N. Finland and Russia. [Also 
the Arctic Zone of Asia and N. America, but S. to lat. 51" in the 
Rocky Mts.] 
Con- Although Bjorkmann previously to 1842 described the eggs of this 

bird accurately, his description of its breeding habits is quite at variance 
with the facts, so that the whole credit of the discovery of the nesting 
of the Waxwing is due to John Wolley and his devoted assistant L. 
M. Knobloch. Full details may be found in the Ihis, 1861, p. 92 — 106, 
Ooth. Wolleyana, I, p. 212 — 239, so that it is unnecessary here to repeat 
them. The first full clutch was taken on June 11, 1856 by Knobloch 
in Kemi Lappmark, and 29 eggs were obtained during that season. In 
1857 "Wolley himself took a deserted nest on June 16, but only five 
nests were discovered by his collectors in spite of the utmost exertions. 



44 




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1 — 4 Common Buzzard, Buteo buteo (L.)- 5 — 8 Rough legged Buzzard, 

Buteo lagopus (Brunn.). 



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1-4 Sedge Warbler, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (L.)- 5-8 Aquatic Warbler, A. aquaticus (Gm.). 

9_13 Great Reed Warbler, A. arundinaceus (L.). 

14-17 Marsh Warbler, A. palustris Bechst. 18-21 Reed Warbler, A. streperus (Vieill.). 

22—23 River Warbler, Locustella fluviatilis (Wolf.). 



68 









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1 — 4 Great Bustard, Otis tarda L. 



69 








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1 — 3 Crane, Grus grus (L.). 



72 




1 — 7 Stone Curlew, Oedicnemus oedicnemus L 



Parts I and n now ready. 

"The first part of Mr. Jourdain's book makes a further addition to the 
works on Oology now in progress. The letterpress is excellent and gives 
a fully detailed account of the nest and eggs of each form, with references 
to plates already published, •— and besides, what is even more important 
nowadays, a sketch of the breeding range of the different races that have 
been hitherto described. We may prefer the X2th edition of Linnaeus's 
'Systema Naturae' to the 1 0th, and may be not inclined to follow the author 
closely as regards nomenclature, but there can be Only one opinion as to 
the necessity of an exact knowledge of the various geographical races; 
and should their nests and eggs prove to differ, this should assuredly be 
made known. Moreover, any such differences as exist should be reckoned 
at their full worth in deciding the difficult question of the validity of the 
various races. . . . Among the many useful points in the work we may 
notice the lists of^ local British and fbreign names of the birds, the references 
to other forms the range of which abuts upon the European area, the 
measurements of the eggs, and the determination of the approximate weight 
of the shells. It is of course impossible to avoid occasional slips, . . . 
but the comparative insignificance and infrequency of these inaccuracies only 
strengthens our opinion of the general accuracy of Mr. Jourdain's work." — 
Ibis, 190Q, p. 722. 

"So far as we are able to judge from the first part, this work has 
much to recommend it. The plates are decidedly good, and the letterpress 
dealing with each species is adequate and affords much reliable information 
on a wide range of subjects — reference to literature, local and foreign 
names, breeding range at home and abroad, description of eggs, breeding 
season, etc. — and bears evidence of considerable research as well as of 
first hand knowledge on the part of the author. The work is to be 
completed in about 10 parts, containing some 140 coloured plktes, and 
promises to be an excellent one in all respects." — Annals of Scottish 
Natural History, 1906, p. 191. 

"We have now before us the first part of Mr. Jourdain's publication. 
This is announced to be completed in about ten parts, containing about 
one hundred and forty coloured plates. Geographical races are fully recognized 
and described, and the nomenclature recommended by the Fifth International 
Zoological Congress has been adopted. This instalment contains fourteen 
beautifully coloured plates and the text is very full and informative." — 
Zoologist, 190Q,^, 199. 

Prospectus and specimen plate sent on application. 



SUBSCRIPTIONS FOR THE COMPLETE WORK ONLXRECEITED. PART IV. 



THE EG OS 



OF 



EUROPEAN BIRDS, 




BY THE 



REV. FRANCIS C. R. JOURDAIN, 

M. A., M. B. O. U. 



TO BE COMPLETED IN ABOUT 10 PARTS, 

CONTAINING ABOUT 140 COLOURED PLATES 

BY ALEXANDER REICHERT AND THE AUTHOR. 



Price tOs. 6 d. per part net. 



LON DON. 

R. H! PORTER. 7 PRINCES ST. CAVENDISH SQUARE W. 

GEI^A-UNTERMHAUS. 

FR. EUOEN KOHLER. 



i9te. 



^iq^U 



241 

In the following year however great uumbers bred in the district, 
and 150 nests containing G66 eggs were taken by Knol)loch and his 
assistants. In the same year Dresser found a nest with fledged young 
on the island of Sandon, 27 miles from Uleaborg, and K(Mtel also ob- 
tained over 20 eggs near the Muonio River, and since that date the 
eggs have been taken in varying numbers almost annually. The breeding 
range of this species is now known to extend from the extreme N. of 
Norway (Varanger Fjord and R. Tana) to about lat. 65" in Sweden, 
while there is some evidence that a few pairs may breed sporadically 
even in the S. of Norway, but confirmation of this is needed. In Fin- 
land its southern limit is probably the Kuopio district, while in N. 
Russia Pleske describes it as common in the Olonetz governement, N. of 
L. Onega and by the AVhite Sea, and it is also known to breed in the 
Archangel government. [It is also found in Siberia and Alaska, as well 
as along the Rocky Mountains to about 51". For details see Macoun, 
Cat. Canadian Birds, p. 556]. 

Usually found in swampy forest, in conifers (spruce generally but Nest. 
sometimes in Scotch fir or birch), at a height of about 9—15 ft., though 
in stunted birches it has been known to nest only 4 ft. from the ground. 
The usual breeding site is not in thick forest, but in somewhat open 
spaces, among young or stunted trees. Sometimes the nest is placed 
close to the trunk, but usually out on a bough. The foundation consists 
of dry spruce twigs, and the materials are generally dark lichens (Usnea) 
interwoven with a little grass. Occasionally a little down, a feather or 
two, or a little Reindeer hair, are found in the lining. The whole nest 
is about 7 in. across, while the diameter of the cup is about 3 in. and 
2 in. deep. 

Usually 5 or 6 in number, occasionally only 4.* In a large series Eggs. 
there is considerable variation in shape and size, but most eggs are a 
somewhat rounded oval. The ground colour is ashy grey as a rule, 
sometimes ashy blue, and at other times tinged with olive brown. Occa- 
sionally it is so light as to be almost white. The markings consist of 
rounded spots of black, or dark blackish brown sometimes with blurred 
edges, sparsely distributed over the surface, with underlying blotches or 
spots of lavender grey. In rare instances bold streaks are found and a 
clutch in the Cambridge Museum has the markings almost obsolete. An 
occasional tendency to erythristic colouring is also rarely met with. 

Extends from the beginning to nearly the end of June in Lapland, Breeding 
but most eggs are found during the second week of the month, season. 

Average size of 100 eggs (64 by the writer, 25 by Rey, and 11 by Measure- 
Westerlund), 24.03 x 17.29, Max. 28.3 X 18 (Cambr. Mus.) and 24.8 x 18.8, °''°'"' 

* One nest with 7 eggs was brought in by Wolley's collectors. 

16 



242 

Min. 21.1 X 16.3 and 25 X 15.7. A dwarf in the Cambridge Museum 
is only 16x13.5 mm. Rey gives the average weight as 208 mg. 

[BRACHYPODIDAE. 

Dusky Bull)ul, Pyenonotus barbatus (Desf.) 

Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 76, fig. 15. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 1,2. 

Pyenonotus barbatus (Desf.). Dresser, Birds of Europe, III, p. 353; id. Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 222. P. barbatus barbatus (Desf.). Hartert, VOg. Pal. Fauna, p. 460. 

Breeding Range: Marocco, Algeria and Tunis. Doubtfully recorded from 
S. Spain. 

The range of this bird appears to extend further S. in Marocco than in Algeria 
or Tunis, where it is confined to the coutry X. of. the Atlas. It breeds in low trees 
or in large bushes, building a nest of roots, grasses, etc., with creeping plants woven 
into the exterior and lined with finer roots. Near the coast of Marocco it haunts 
gardens and orange groves, but in the Atlas it occurs in the moist woods up to 
7000 ft., and in the scrub covered hills of Tunis. The eggs are 3—4 in number, 
thin shelled, pinkish white in ground colour, irregularly marked with deep red-brown 
and varying shades of purplish grey over the whole surface. The breeding season 
is rather late, and eggs may be found in the latter part of May and in June. 
Average size of 17 eggs measured by the writer, 24.35 X 16.91 mm, Max 26 X 17.2 
and 24.6 X 18.5, Min. 22.1 X 17 and 24 X 16.4. 

In middle Egypt another very distinct race, P. barbatus arsinoe (Licht.) re- 
places this form, and in Palestine from the Taurus to the Sinai peninsula, a second 
species, the Palestine Bulbul, P. capensis xanthopygos (H. & E.), is found in gardens 
and wooded districts. Eggs: Plate 36, fig. 5—8 (Beirut); J. f. 0., 1879, Taf. 1, 
fig. 4, 5; Dresser, pi. — , fig. 3, 4; Cat. Eggs. Br. Mus. Ill, pi. X, fig. 19 (var.). 
This bird was formerly erroneously supposed to occur in the Grreek Archipelago. 
The small and neatly built nest is placed on the fork of a tree and covered exter- 
nally so as to match the adjoining bark. The eggs, 3 — 4 in number, are variable in 
colouring, but are generally spotted and streaked irregularly with chocolate red, 
shading into crimson, and underlying purple grey on a greyish white ground. Some 
eggs have very bold blotches of colour, while the egg figured in the Br. Mus. Cat. 
Eggs has the dark markings altogether wanting and is covered with dense lilac mott- 
lings. The breeding season is early, for some have already young in March, while 
others do not lay till late in April. Average size of 45 eggs (20 by the writer, 
17 by Key, and 8 by Le Roi, Hartert and MuUer), 24.14 X 16.82 mm., Max. 28.8 X 17.1 
and 25.1X17.7, Min. 21.8X16.6 and 23X15. Average weight, 173 mg. (Rey); 
183 mg. (Le Roi, 3 eggs).] 

MUSCICAPIDAE 

^including Sylviidae, Turdidae and Timeliidae). 

109. Spotted Flycatcher, Muscicapa striata (Pall.). 

Plate 37, fig. 7—14 (Germany): 41, fig. 9 (Anhalt, 2. VII. 70). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXIX, fig. 7, a — c. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I, pi. VIII, fig. 2, 3; II. Ed. I, pi. XVI, fig. 1; III. Ed. I, 



243 

pi. XXI, fig. 1. Baedeker, Tab. 52, fig. 11. Taczanowski, Tab. XLI, 
fig. 1. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 9: id. Col. Fig. pi. 51. Frohawk, Br. 
Birds, I, pi. Ill, fig. 111—113. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 1—5. Nest: 0. Lee, 
III, p. 108. 

British Local Names: Beam, Wall, Post, Rafter, or Bee Bird, 
Cherry Sucker, Wall Robin or Chat. Welsh: Cylionydd, Owyhedog. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Lejsek sedivi) Denmark and Norway: 
Oraa Fluesnapper. France: Oohe-mouche gris. Germany: Orauer Miegen- 
f anger. Holland: Vliegenvanger. Hungary: Szilrke legykapo. Italy: 
Pigliamosclie. Poland: Mucholowka szara. Portugal: Taralhao. Spain: 
Pupa moscas. Russia: Pienka. Sweden: Ord Plugs nappare. 

Muscicapa grisola L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 220. Dresser, 
Birds of Eur., Ill, p. 447 ; id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 253. Saunders, Man. 
p. 157. M. striata striata (Pall.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 475. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles and Continental Europe, 
except N. Finmark, the Murman coast and N. E. Russia. [Also N. W. 
Africa, but W. Asiatic birds belong to another race, M. striata neumanni 
Poche.] 

This familiar little summer visitor is generally distributed in all the British 
wooded districts of Great Britain, but becomes scarce in the N. of Scot- 
land, and does not breed in the Outer Hebrides or the Shetlands. It is 
said to have nested in the Orkneys, and has certainly done so in Suther- 
land and Caithness, as well as in Skye and some of the wooded islands 
on the W. coast of Scotland, such as Mull and Jura. It breeds in 
Anglesey and the Isle of Man.; and has been known to nest in every 
Irish county, though somewhat local and not common there. 

It is found in suitable localities throughout the Continent, except in con- 
the extreme N. of Norway and N. Russia. In the former country it is only ""^e'ltai 

Kurope. 

absent from that part of Finmark N. of lat. 70 , but in Russia it breeds 
in the Kola Peninsula up to 681", and is common near Archangel, but 
appears to be absent from the eastern part of the Archangel government. 
Southward its range extends to the Mediterranean, and it is also com- 
mon on the islands, nesting at a considerable height in the mountain 
forests of Corsica and Sardinia. [In N. Africa it breeds as far S. as 
lat. 31° in Marocco, also in the mountains of North Algeria and Tunisia, 
and probably also in Tripoli. Hartert ascribes the Palestine bird to 
M. s. neumanni^ 

In England this bird is one of the latest migrants to arrive, and Nest. 
is generally met with in gardens, parks, edges of woods, etc., appearing 
to prefer the neighbourhood of houses. It is however equally at home 
high up in the mountain forests of Corsica, breeding in crevices of the 

16» 



244 

broken pines, man}- miles from any human habitation. In its choice of 
a nesting site it shows great adaptability. Most nests are placed in a 
recess or hollow of some kind and partly sheltered from above, but the 
sites are very variable. Some are placed in a hollow or against the 
trunk of a tree, supported by the outgrowing twigs, others on projecting 
beams, on trellis work, or even in or under spouting on houses, while 
many nests are placed on branches of fruit trees or creepers trained to 
walls and in holes of walls. A common site is on the hinge of an out- 
house door ; and a good many instances are on record in which the nest 
of some other species of bird has been taken possession of or built upon. 
Among these we may mention the Song Thrush, Mistle Thrush, Black- 
bird, Dipper, Goldfinch, Chaffinch, Hawfinch, Swallow and House Martin. 
The wisps of flood wrack on trees near rivers are sometimes used as 
breeding places, and occasionally a nest has been found in a hedge, 
elder, gorse, or holly bush, in a standard rose tree, or on a ledge of rock. 
In default of more natural sites the bird has been known to nest in a 
cup, on a stove (see Yarrell, I, p. 222), inside lanterns, di'ied hedgehog's 
skin, or skull of fallow deer, etc. These nesting places are often occu- 
pied for many years in succession, and sometimes the remains of the old 
nest are re -lined and made to do duty again. Where alternative sites 
are available, the same nest is seldom used twice in one season. The 
amount of material used varies according to the site, but generally the 
nest is composed of moss, with a few stalks and roots, and sometimes 
cobwebs, lichens, and strips of honeysuckle bark, while the lining con- 
sists generally of hair, sometimes wool, rabbit down, and fine roots, with 
occasionally a feather or two. * Few birds will brook more interference 
with their nesting arrangements, and Gurney {Zool. 1858, p. 6238) gives 
an extraordinary instance of pertinacity in choice of a breeding place. 
Eggs. Occasionally 4, but usually 5 and rarely 6 in number. When a 

second brood is reared the number seldom exceeds 3 — 4. The ground 
colour varies from reddish or yellowish white to pale greenish blue or 
sea green, which however soon fades. Some eggs are freckled all over 
with fine red -brown spots and underlying purplish brown markings so 
as to obscure the ground, others have these markings concentrated into 
a cap or zone at the big end, while a third type is sparsely marked 
with fine spots or bold blotches, and sometimes a set is found with a 
blue ground and entirely devoid of markings. A curious variety in which 
the colouring matter of the markings is concentrated into one big dia- 
gonally placed cap, is figured on PI. 41. There is little or 'no gloss on 
the eggs. 

* In towns cigarette papers and wax matches have been used as nesting 
materials. 



245 

This varies little : most eggs are found at the end of May or early Breeding 
in June. In the Mediterranean they may be met with from May 22, 
and about mid June in the high N. Incubation is performed by the 
hen, and lasts 14 days, while the young remain in the nest about 12 days 
after hatching. When a second brood is reared the eggs are laid early 
in July or occasionally as late as the beginning of August. 

Average of 100 eggs (58 by Rey and 42 by the ^vriter), 18.35 X ^^i«««««- 

ments. 

13.83 mm., Max. 21.3 X 14.3 and 19.6 X 15.1, Min. 16.4 x 13.5 and 
17.1 X 13.2. Bau gives the average of 84 eggs as 18.4 x 13.6 mm. 
Average weight, 115 mg. (Rey); 133 mg. (Bau). Average weight of 
9 full eggs, 1.990 g. (N. H. Foster). 



Brown Flycatcher, Mascicapa latirostris Raffl. 

Eggs: J. f. O., 1873, Taf. I, fig. 16. 

Alseonax latirostris (Raffl.). Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, p. 352. 
M. latirostris Raffl. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 477. 

Breeding Range: E. Siberia to Lake Baikal, Corea, Japan, N. 
China and the Himalayas as far W. as Chamba, and apparently occa- 
sionally in India. Has once occurred in Kent (May 21, 1909). C. In- 
gram (Ibis, 1908, p. 140), describes the nest as a neat, lichen covered 
cup, usually placed on the horizontal branch of a tree, close to the bole. 
Eggs, 4 to 6, but usually 5, pale greyish green, occasionally unmarked, 
but generally very faintly clouded or washed round the obtuse end with 
light red. In Japan they are laid about the third or fourth week in 
May, but in June in Siberia. Average size of 6 eggs (Taczanowski), 
16.7 X 13.5 mm. 

110. Pied Flycatcher, Muscicapa atricapilla L. 
Geographical Races. 

a. Common Pied Flycatcher, M. atricapilla atricapilla L. 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXIX, fig. 9, a, b. Hewitson, 
I. Ed., pi. VIII, fig. 1 ; II Ed., pi. XVI, fig. 2 ; III. Ed., pi. XXI, fig. 2. 
Baedeker, Tab. 52, fig. 12. Taczanowski, Tab. XLI, fig. 2. Seebohm, 
Br. Birds, pi. 9; id. Col. Fig. pi. 52. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. Ill, 
fig. 110. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 7,8. 

British Local Names: Goldfinch (obs.). Laal Magpie (Cumber- 
land). Welsh: Owyhedog du a Gwyn. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Lejsek cernohldvy. Denmark and 
Norway: Broget Fhiesnapper. Finland: Mustakirjavaparmaalintu. France: 
Oobe-mouche noir. Germany: Trauer Fliegenf anger. Holland: Zwaart 



246 

graauive VHegenvanger. Hungary: Kormos legykapo. Italy: Balia nera. 
Poland: Miicholowka zalohna. Portugal: Pajpa moscas. Russia: Mucho- 
lowka, Spain: Cerrojillo. Sweden: Svart-och-hvit Flugsnappare. 

Muscicapa atricapilla L. Newton, ed Yarrell, I, p. 229. Dresser, 
B. of. Europe, III, p. 453 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 254. Saunders, Man., 
p. 159. M. atricapilla atricnpilla L. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 480. 
Breeding Range: Europe, from 70" in Scandinavia, 65" in Fin- 
land and 57" in the Urals, south to Spain, Italy, and Austro - Hungary : 
locally in Great Britain. 
British The main breeding grounds of this species in Great Britain lie in 

^''^'' N. and Mid- Wales, and the N. of England, especially the Lake District 
and the W. Riding of Yorkshire. In the Midlands and southern counties 
many isolated instances of nesting are on record, but though some of 
these are undoubtedly authentic, there is little doubt that many of them 
are due to confusion caused by mistaking the blue unspotted type of 
Pied Flycatcher's egg for that of this species. In Wales it is scarce 
along the N. coast and absent from Anglesey, but occurs locally in the 
other counties except in the S. and S. W. It is most plentiful in 
Merioneth, but is also not uncommon in the Usk and Wye valleys, and 
in many localities in N. Wales, as well as in Salop. In Yorkshire it 
breeds in some numbers in certain valleys of the W. Riding, and in 
smaller numbers in the N. Riding, while the Lake District is one of its 
main haunts. In Northumberland and Durham it is scarce, but it occa- 
sionally breeds in Scotland S. of the Forth and Clyde, and has been 
recorded as nesting in Kircudbright, Dumfries and Midlothian. Hargitt 
obtained eggs from Inverness in 1864, and in 1890 and 1891 it probably 
bred in the Moray area. 
Con- In Scandinavia its nesting limit extends to nearly 70" N., and on 

Euro e ^^® Norwcgiau fjeld it breeds as high as the birch region, but in Fin- 
land its range does not extend beyond 65", and in the Urals only to 
57" N. Over the Continent it is generally distributed in suitable localities, 
but is only locally common, and occasionally absent. Its southern limit 
extends in the Iberian peninsula at least to Beira, and the elm avenues 
of Aranjuez. Von Homeyer states that it breeds in the hills of the 
Balearic Isles, but it appears to be of rare occurrence in Sardinia and 
is only found on passage in Corsica. In Italy it becomes rare in the 
southern provinces, but in the N. is found nesting in the plains as well 
as in the mountains. There appears to be no record of its breeding in 
the S. Balkan peninsula, where it occurs on migration only, but appa- 
rently a few pairs nest in the lower Danube valley. 
xest. This species is generally found breeding not far from running water, 

and where holes for nesting purposes are available. For this reason it 



247 

is often noticed haunting old oaks or beeches, using natural hollows or 
Woodpecker's old holes, but will also breed in rotten stumps, sometimes 
quite close to the ground. Holes in walls of loose masonry, or in the 
gable end of an empty barn are also favourite sites, while nesting boxes 
are frequently made use of, especially in Scandinavia. The nest is slight, 
composed generally of a few dead leaves as foundation, upon which the 
cup is formed of bents, moss, roots and fragments of the outer bark of 
the Honeysuckle, lined with fine roots or sometimes Luzula. A few 
feathers, hair, and wool are said to be occasionally found in the lining, 
and cobwebs are also used at times. (As the same nesting sites are often 
occupied for many years in succession, it probably pairs for life.) The 
height from the ground varies from a few inches up to 30 ft. or more. 
There are instances on record in which eggs have been laid in Blue 
Tits' nests, and also in which this species and the Redstart have been 
found laying together. 

Usually 6 or 7, sometimes only 5, but 8 and even 9 have been Eggs. 
known to occur. They are of a very delicate pale blue, thinner shelled 
and of finer grain than those of the Redstart. 

Some eggs are said to show traces of fine reddish spots, but such 
cases must be exceedingly rare. 

In Great Britain the earliest clutches may be found by mid-May, but Breeding, 
the best time is the last weeks of May and the first days of June. Only 
one brood is reared, but second layings may be found in the latter half 
of June when the first clutch has been taken. The hen sits very closely 
and will sometimes allow herself to be lifted by hand from the eggs, 
and when flushed from the nest is soon driven on again by the cock. 
Incubation lasts about a fortnight. 

Average size of 100 eggs (39 by Rey and 61 by the writer), ^easur.- 
17.36 X 13.44 mm., Max. 19.3 X 13.5 and 18 X 14.2; Min. 15.7 X 13.6 
and 17x12.1. A double e^^ in Reys collection measures 21.7x15.3 
and weighs 150 mg., while two dwarfs measure 16 X 11.1 and 14.8x12.3. 
Rey gives the average weight as 92 mg., and Ban as 89 mg. Average 
weight of 18 full eggs, 1.591 g. (R. H. Read). 

I). Caucasian Pied Flycatcher, M. atrieapilla semiturquata Horn. 

Muscicapa semitorquata Horn. Uresser, B. of Europe, IX, p. 173 
and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 256. M. atrieapilla semitorquata Horn. Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 483. 

Breeding Range: The Caucasus, Asia Minor, Persia. 

Radde states that it breeds in the lower Aragwa valley, near Tiflis, 
and also met with it up to 4000 ft. It apparently also nests in the 



248 

forests of the Kirghis steppes and in Transcaspia and is also common in 
the valleys of the Elburz Mts. Nordmann also describes it as very 
numerous on the E. coasts of the Black Sea. 

A clutch of 6 eggs from the Caucasus averages 18.1 x 13.24 mm. in 
size: Max. 18.5x13.3 and 18.2x13.5: Min. 17.6x13. 

[In the mountain forests of Algeria and N. Tunisia another race, 
M. atricapilla speculigera Bp. is found locally.] 

111. Collared Flycatcher, Muscicapa collaris Bechst. 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XXIX, fig. 10, a, b. Baedeker, 
Tab. 52, fig. 13. Taczanowski, Tab. XLII, fig. 2, 3. Dresser, pi.—, 
fig. 9, 10. 

Foreign Names: Denmark: Hvidhalset Fluesnapper . France: 
Oobe-mouche a collier. Germany: Halshand-Fliegenschndpper. Hungary: 
Orvos legykapo. Italy: Pigliamoche a collare bianco. Russia: Mucho- 
lowska belosheyka. Sweden: Halsbands-Fliigsnappare. 

Muscicapa collaris Bechst. Dresser, B. of Europe, III, p. 459 and 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 255. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 483. 

Breeding Range: Gotland: Central Europe, but rarely in France, 
and absent from the Iberian and the S. of the Italian and Balkan Penin- 
sulas; extending E. to S. Russia. 
Con- This bird is closely allied to the preceding species and the females 

are not easily distinguishable, but it appears to be spora-dically dis- 
tributed in the breeding season over much the same districts, except that 
its range does not extend so far to the N. and W. In Scandinavia it 
has been recorded from Oland, southern Skane and near Goteborg, and 
is known to breed regularly on Gotland and probably also on Borgholm 
and Ottenby. In Germany it nests sporadically in small numbers, and 
is most numerous in the S. W., Bavaria, Baden, Hesse to Brandenburg 
and Silesia, and in France a few pairs are said to breed in Savoie, and 
also in Holland and Belgium. There is little evidence of its presence in 
Spain or Portugal, but in Italy Arrigoni states that it breeds in the 
mountains of Venetia, Lombardy, Piedmont and Liguria, in the Tuscan 
Apennines and possibly in Calabria. It is found sparingly in Switzer- 
land, Styria, Carinthia, Moravia, Galizia etc., and occurs regularly on 
passage in Greece, while in Russia it is said to breed fairly commonly 
in the Crimea and also in the Uman district, and has been recorded as 
far N. as S. Petersburg, Moscow and Kazan. [It occurs also in Asia 
Minor, Persia and Palestine, but has not been proved to breed.] 
>fest. Similar to that of M. atricapilla : frequently placed in natural holes 

of trees, especially beech and oak, but also sometimes in old Wood- 



tinental 
Europe. 



249 

peckers' holes and even in a nesting box (Rey). The materials used, 
chiefly dry grasses, do not differ from those used by the Pied Flycatcher, 
and the holes may be found at any height from 2? to 25 ft., but usually 
from 3 to 7 ft. 

Usually 6 or 7, but clutches of even 8 and 9 are said to have Eggs. 
been found. They are like those of the preceding species, but no spotted 
eggs have been recorded. Bau says that the texture of the shell is 
somewhat smoother and more glossy and when fresh has a somewhat 
transparent and waxy appearance. 

In Gotland about June 1, but in Styria eggs have been found on ^"^^^^"^s 

' J && ^ ^ Season. 

May 9, though this is an exceptionally early date and the usual time is in 
the latter part of May. The hen sits very closely, but leaves the nest 
about 6 or 7 am., and may then be watched on. When the young are 
hatched the parents are so assiduous that the nest is easily found. 

Average of 45 eggs (23 by the writer, 12 by Ottosson and 10 by Measure- 
Bau), 17.25 X 13.34 mm., Max. 18.5x14 and 17.8x14.7; Min. °''°*'' 
15.6 X 12.6 and 16 X 12.5. Bau gives the average weight of 10 eggs 
as 89 mg. Seidensacher gives the weight of unblown eggs as 1.522 to 
1.651 g. 

112. Red breasted Flycatcher, Muscicapa parva Bechst. 

Plate 37, fig. 5, 6 (Central Europe). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXIX, fig. 8, a — c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 52, fig. 10. Taczanowski, Tab. XLI, fig. 3. Seebohm, Br. Birds, 
pi. 9; id. Col. Fig., pi. 52. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 11, 12. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Lejsek mahj. Germany: Zwerg- 
Fliegenschnn'piier. Hungary: Kis legyhapo. Voland : MucJiolowka rdeawka. 
Sweden: Lilla tlugsnappare. Russia: Malaya Mycholovka. 

Muscicapa parva Bechst. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 224. Dresser, 
B. of Europe, III, p. 465 and Man. Pal. Birds p. 256. Saunders, Man. 
p. 161. M. parva parva Bechst. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 485. 

Breeding Range: Russia, S. of lat. 61", Denmark, Rugen, and 
sporadically in Germany (except in the extreme W.), Poland, and Austro- 
Hungary. [Also in W. Siberia.] 

There is no proof at present that this bird has nested in S. and Con 
S. E. Sweden, but is not unlikely that it does so. It is however said 
to have bred in Denmark, and is met with on Riigen and sporadically 
in many parts of Germany; but is absent from the extreme W., while 
in Russia it is not uncommon in the Baltic Provinces and certainly breeds 
on the R. Swir (Olonetz government). Apparently its range extends 
through Central Russia to W. Siberia and the Caucasus, and in some 



tinental 
Europe. 



250 

parts of the country, such as the forests of the Kiew government, it is 
common. In Bohemia (the Eibethal) it is fairly numerous, and is known 
to breed in every part of the Austro - Hungarian monarchy, but is not 
found south of the Alpine chain in Italy, though in the Balkan penin- 
sula it apparently breeds in Bulgaria, but not in Herzegovina, Montenegro, 
Macedonia or Greece. [Also in W. Siberia, but E. of the Yenesei it is 
replaced by M. parva albicilla Pall.] 
Nest. Ti^g favourite haunts of this species are beech forests or mixed 

woods, especially where there is a thick undergrowth, and it is seldom 
found in pine forest. The nest is by no means invariably in a hole, like 
that of the Pied and Collared Flycatchers, but is often built close to 
the trunk on a bough, or where there is an outcrop of small twigs, and 
has also been found exceptionally in a hole in a rock, in an old stump 
and in the side of a strawstack! The height from the ground is very 
variable: occasionally a nest may be found only 3 ft. from the ground, 
but it is generally higher, and according to Bau is often 15 to 25 ft, 
high, though other writers give 5 to 10 or 12 ft. as the usual height. 
The building materials are moss (Hypnum), grass stalks, and sometimes 
a few twigs or bud cases of the beech, lined scantily with hair, and 
interwoven with cobwebs. Breadth of cup about 50 mm., depth 35 mm. 
Eggs- The usual number is 5 to 6, but in some districts 7 are said to 

have been found. In character they are generally compared to miniature 
Robin's eggs, but are not unlike some types of Spotted Flycatcher's eggs. 
The ground colour is very pale bluish green, closely freckled with rusty 
brown. 
Breeding It is a summcr visitor to its breeding haunts, arriving in the first 

Season. ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ generally laying during the first fortnight of June. 
Occasionally an early clutch may be found towards the end of May. 
Only one brood is reared, but if the first clutch is destroyed a second 
is laid late in June. 
Measure- Average size of 100 eggs (48 by the writer, 46 by Bau and 6 by 

Rey), 16.62 X 12.68 mm., Max. 18.2 X 13.1 and 17.5 X 13.4; Min. 
14.6 X 12.3 and 15.8 X 12. Ooebel gives the average of 271 eggs as 
16.6 X 13.2, Max. 18 x 14, Min. 15 X 12 and 16 X 11.5. Average 
weight of 271 eggs, 72 mg. (Goebel); of 46 eggs, 75 mg. (Bau). A 
double egg measured 21.5 X 12 (Goebel). 



ments. 



251 

113. Chiff Chaff, Phylloscopus collybita (Vieill.). 

Geographical Races. 

a. Western Chiff Chaff, P. collyhita collybita (Tieill.). 

Plate 28, fig. 6—10 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XIX, fig. 10, a — c. Hewitson, 
I Ed. I, pi. CXVIII, fig. 1; II Ed. I, pi. XXVIII, fig. 2; III Ed. I, 
pi. XXXVI, fig. 4. Baedeker, Tab. 19, fig. 8, 9. Taczanowski, Tab. 
XLVII, fig. 3. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 10; Col. Fig. pi. 53. Frohawk, 
Br. Birds, I, pi. II, fig. 49 — 51. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 15, 16. Howard, 
Br. Warblers, pi. II, fig. 19—24. Nest: Lodge, Pictures of Bird Life, p. 366. 

British Local Names: Chip-chop, Choice and Cheap, Featherpoke. 
Welsh: Siff snff. Foreign Names: France: Bee-fin veloce. Germany: 
Zilpzalp, Weiden - Laubvogel. Helgoland: Liitjswart-futted Fliegenhitter. 
Holland: Tjif-tjaf. Italy: Lui piccolo. Portugal: Folosa. Spain: Almen- 
drita, Mosquilla. 

Plajlloscopns collybita (Vieill.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, 1, p. 437. Dresser, 
B. of Europe, II, p. 485 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 97. P. rufus (Bechst.). 
Saunders, Man. p. 67. P. collybita collybita (Vieill.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 501. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles, except N. Scotland: Con- 
tinental Europe, from mid Germany and Italy westward, Sicily and 
Sardinia. [Possibly also in N. Algeria.] 

In England the Chiffchaff is a tolerably common summer visitor uritish 
in wooded districts, although its numbers vary from year to year. It is ^'^*^- 
plentiful in the Devonian peninsula, and common in the Midlands, but 
is scarce in E. Anglia and prefers low lying and well wooded districts, 
so that it is practically absent from the Pennine chain and its outlying 
spurs, as well as from many of the uplands and mountains of Wales. 
It breeds in Anglesey and in the Isle of Man. In Scotland it is scarce, 
but has bred in the Forth and Clyde districts and occurs annually in 
fair numbers on the E. side, south of the Firth of Forth, and on the W. 
side, S. of Dumbarton. Northward of these districts it appears to be 
only an occasional straggler. In Ireland it is locally very common and 
breeds in all woodlands. 

In France it is generally distributed in fair numbers in wooded con- 
districts and also in the Low Countries. In Germany the limits of ^^rrpe- 
this and the next race are as yet undetermined, but it is probably 
found throughout Germany except in the eastern provinces. In the 
S. of France it is resident throughout the year, as is also the case 
in the Iberian peninsula. In the E. Pyrenees it is found in summer 



252 

up to over 4000 ft., and is abundant in parts of Portugal. A great 
part of Spain is unsuited to its habits, but it is found breeding as 
far S. as the cork woods of Gibraltar. In Italy it is found in the 
breeding season chiefly in the mountains, from Calabria northward, and 
is said to nest in the hills of Sicily and Sardinia, but is apparently absent 
from Corsica. [In N. Algeria AVitherby found a nest which he ascribed 
to this species.] 
Neet. Much controversy has raged as to the position of the nest, but 

undoubtedly the normal site is some little distance from the ground, 
though occasionally it has been found actually upon it. In the British 
Isles it is usually found among brambles, ferns, rank vegetation, etc., or 
in bushes, such as holly, yew or laurel, especially where dead leaves 
have accumulated. It is sometimes built in ivy on a wall, on trellis 
work, or in gorse bushes. A nest found in Derbyshire was placed some 
10 ft. from the ground on trellis against the wall of a house, and Nelson 
mentions one at the end of a pine branch, 9 ft. high, but these sites 
are unusual , and the majority of nests are from a few inches to 3 or 
4 ft. from the ground. In character the nest differs from that of the 
Willow Warbler, being as a rule more bulky and containing many more 
dead leaves in the substructure. Moss, stalks, dry grasses, roots, and 
sometimes lichens are also used, and the interior is warmly lined with 
feathers. Interesting notes on the courtship of this species will be found 
in HoAvard's British Warblers, pt. 2. 
Eggs. Usually 6 in number, but clutches of 5 and 7 are sometimes found. 

The egg is white, more glossy than that of the Willow Warbler as a 
rule, and finely spotted towards the big end with dark purple brown 
spots. Frequently the small end is almost unspotted, and occasionally 
perfectly white eggs are found. Occasionally the spots show a tendency 
to the red brown type of marking, but many supposed Chiffchaffs' eggs 
of this type are in all probability only WilloAV Warblers' eggs. Some 
violet shell markings are generally present. 
Breeding In the southcm counties the earliest clutches may be taken at the 

Season, beginning of May, but in the Midlands seldom before the 12 May, and 
in Northumberland usually at the end of the month. Some birds un- 
doubtedly rear two broods, but many late nests are only second layings 
of birds which have lost their first clutch. In the case of birds which 
I had under observation an interval of from 3 to 4 weeks elapsed bet- 
ween the first and second layings, a remarkable divergence from the 
habits of other passerine birds. In Germany the eggs are found in May, 
and second layings early in July (Hey). In Spain the breeding time in 
the S. is about April 20 (Chapman). Incubation lasts about 13 days, 
and the young remain 15 days in the nest (Howard). 



Measure- 
ments. 



253 

Average size of 34 eggs from the British Isles measured by the 
Avriter, and 66 from Germany by Dr. Rey, 15.45x12.09, Max. 17.7x12.6 
and 17.1 X 13.7; Min. 13.3 X 10.8 mm. A double egg measures 
19.2 X 13.6 mm. Average weight of 16 full eggs, 1.010 g. (N. H. Foster), 
while Rey gives the average weight of blown eggs as 62 mg, and Bau 
as 51 mg. 

b. Scandinavian Chifif Chaflf, P. collybita abietinus (Nilss.). 

Foreign Names: Finland: Tynnyrilintu. Hungary: Csil-csal 
Fiizike. Norway: Oransanger. Russia: Tenkowka. Sweden: Oran- 
sdngare. 
P. collybita ahietina (Nilss.) Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 503. 

Breeding Range: Scandinavia, E. Germany, Austro - Hungary, 
N. Balkan Peninsula, and Mid-Russia. 

In Scandinavia the Chifichaff haunts the subalpine zone, especially ^°"' 
where deciduous trees prevail. It is found not uncommonly in Norway Europe. 
up to lat. 65^10' and was recorded by Collett from lat. 67" in 1876, 
It is however absent from S. Sweden and but rarely breeds in Denmark. 
In Germany it is the representative form in E. and W. Prussia, Pomerania 
and Silesia, and in Austro -Hungary occurs in the Danubian valley and 
is common in Transsylvania. In the Balkan Peninsula it is common in 
Montenegro, but is only met with in winter or on passage in Greece 
and Macedonia. It appears to breed in N. and Mid Finland, but in N. 
E. Russia is replaced by P. c. tridis, although not uncommon in the 
Baltic Provinces and Poland. Eastward its range extends to the Perm 
Government, and the valley of the middle Volga, but in the S. E. it 
apparently occurs only on passage, and has not been proved to breed 
in the Caucasus, though it often occurs there. 

The nesting habits do not differ from those of the W. race, and ^^^*- 

and 

the eggs are also similar. The clutch consists usually of 6 eggs, but in Ei^gs. 
Norway 8 have been found (Collett). The average date for full clutches 
is from mid May to early June. Average size of 27 eggs from Silesia, 
15,1 X 12 (Kollibay): 16 eggs from Poland average 15.1 X 12.2 
(Taczanowski). 

c. Siberian Chiff chaff, P. collybita tristis Blyth. 

Plate 22, fig. 10 (Altai, 21. V.). 

Eggs: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 13, 14. 

Phylloscopus tristis Blyth. Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 477 and 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 98. P. collybita tristis Blyth. Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 503. 

Breeding Range: N. E. Russia [Also W. Siberia to Transbaikalia]. 



254 

Con- Ijj European Russia the range of this bird extends from the Pet- 

Europe, schora valley eastward, while southward it is found as far south as Perm 
(Meves) and the Middle and Southern Urals. [In Asia it is found 
throughout Siberia as far E. as Transbaikalia, in the Altai range, and 
as far S. as the Karakorum Mts., Ladakh (J. Bomb. N. H. S. XVII, 
p. 112), and Gilgit (Ibis, 1881, p. 65).] 
^^^*- Seebohm and Popham describe nests from the Yenesei valley as 

being hollows in the wisps of flood wrack left stranded in the willow 
bushes after the submergence of the floods, and warmly lined with 
feathers of the "Willow Grouse and Capercaillie. Some nests were 
however found close to the ground in willow and alder thickets or 
among rank vegetation. They varied in height from 4 ft. to only a few 
inches above the ground. 
Eggs. jjj ;^ Siberia 4 to 5 is the usual number but sets of 6 and 7 have 

been sent from the Altai. They much resemble those of P. collybita 
collybita, being finely spotted with dark red, chiefly at the big end. 
Breeding It appears to be a late breeder on the Yenesei, the eggs being 

Season, j^^^ about the end of June or early in July, but eggs from the Altai 

range are dated May and June. 
Measure- Avcragc of 64 eggs measured by the writer, 14.97 X 11.9 mm., 

""''*'■ Max 19 X 11.2 and 15.5 X 12.6 Min., 14 x 11.4 and 19 X 11.2. Rey 
gives the weight of 1 egg as 55 mg. 

[In the Canaries are found two more forms of Chiifchaff: P. colly- 
bita canariensis Hartw. on the Western islands of the group, Tenerife, 
Gran Canaria , Palma and Hierro : and P. collybita exsul Hart, on 
Lanzarote. P. e. canariensis lays only 3 to 4 eggs as a rule, occasionally 5, 
which are either white or sparsely marked with fine brown spots. They 
are laid in March and April, and 48 average in size (30 by Koenig and 
18 by the writer), 15.52x12.05 mm.. Max. 17x12.5, Min. 13.5x12 
and 16x11.5.] 

114. Plain Brown Willow Warbler, Phylloscopus neglectus 

Hume. 
Geographical Races. 

a. Caucasian Plain Brown Warbler, P. neg-lectus lorenzii (Lor.). 

Nest: Lorenz, Beitr. Orn. N. Kaukasus, Taf. II, fig. 2. 
Phylloscopus neglectus lorenzii (Lor.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 506. 

Breeding Range: The Caucasus. 

Lorenz describes the nest of this bird, which he found near Kis- 
lowodsk at about 4000 ft., as of the usual Phylloscopine type, built of 



255 

coarse stalks and lined with finer grasses and a layer of feathers of 
Chough and Thrush as well as some hair. It contained 5 eggs on 
May 26, white, marked with dark red brown spots and a few streaks. 

b. Hume's Plain Brown Warbler, P. neg-lectus Home. 

P. neglectus Hume. Dresser, B. of Europe, IX. p. 79 and Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 98. P. neglectus neglectus Hume. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 
p. 506. 

Breeding Range: Transcaspia, Turkestan, Persia and Kashmir. 
Sarudnoi has recorded this race from Transcaspia, Russow and Sewerzow 
from Turkestan, and Witherby found it breeding in S. W. Persia (Farzistan). 
He describes the nest as 2 ft. 6 in. from the ground between two thick 
bushy boughs of a small bush, neatly w^oven of grass and well lined with 
feathers. The eggs were 4 in number, and pure white in colour. 
Incubation had just begun on April 28. Average size of 3 eggs, 
15 X 11.36 mm. Col. Ward {Journ. Bomb. N. H. S. XVIII, p. 461) 
also records 4 eggs taken at Kargil, Kashmir, on May 28 and again on 
June 22. 

115. Willow Warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus (L.). 
Geographical Races. 

a. Common Willow Warbler, P. trochilus (L.). 

Plate 28, fig. 1—5 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XIX, fig. 9, a — c. Hewitson, 
I Ed. I, pi. CXV, fig. 1, 2; II Ed. I, pi. XXVIII, fig. 3, 4; III Ed. I, 
pi. XXXVI, fig. 1, 2. Baedeker, Tab. 19, fig. 7. Taczanowski, Tab. LI. 
fig. 3. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 10; Col. Fig. pi. 58. Frohawk, Br. 
Birds, I, pi. II, fig. 52—54. Dresser, pi. — , flg. 8—10. Howard, Br. 
AVarblers, pi. II. fig. 25—27, 31, 32. Nest: 0. Lee, I, p. 66. 

British Local Names: Willoiv Wren, Peep. Manx: Drein vane. 
Welsh: Dryw Felen. Foreign Names: Bohemia: Biidnidek vetsi. Denmark 
and Norway : Lo/sa/i^er. Finland: TJunilintu. France: Pouillot-Fltis. Ger- 
many: Fitis-Laubsdnger. Helgoland: Liitj Fliegenbitter. Holland: Fitis. 
Hungary: Fitisz fiizike. Itsilj : Lui grosso. Fol&nd: Oajowka pier iviosnka. 
Portugal :/^oZosa. Pussia: Penotschka. Spain: Mosquitero. S^ffeden: Lo'fsdngare. 
Phylloscopus trochilus L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 432. Dresser, B. of 
Europe, II, p. 491 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 94. Saunders, Man. p. 69. 
P. trochilus trochilus (L.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 507. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles and Continental Europe, 
except N. Scandinavia and Russia, where it is replaced by the next race. 



256 
British Although outnumbered iu a few districts by other species, for 

Isles. 

example by the Wood Warbler in W. Merioneth and by the Chiffchaff 
in W. Pembroke, the Willow AVarbler is by far the most numerous 
and widely distributed member of its genus in the British Isles, and its 
pleasant little descending song may be heard in the spring in almost 
every part of the country up to the fringe of the moorlands. It has 
even been met with in the hills as high as 1500 ft. It breeds on the 
Isle of Man and on all the wooded islands of the Inner Hebrides, is 
found locally in the Lews and has bred on Barra, while in 1901 it was 
recorded as nesting in the Shetlands, and perhaps also breeds in the 
Orkneys. In Ireland it has been recorded as breeding in every county. 
^°"' It inhabits almost the whole of the Continent, but is replaced in 

tineutal 

Europe. N. E. Russia (from the Petschora to Orenburg) by the Arctic form, 
which apparently occurs also in Finmark. Towards the Mediterranean 
it becomes scarcer, but breeds near Gibraltar, though rare in the plateau 
of Central Spain, and apparently does not nest in the Balearic Isles or 
Corsica, although a few breed in the mountains of Sardinia and Sicily, 
while it is also absent in summer from the Balkan Peninsula, south of 
Bosnia and Montenegro, and S. E. Russia. [It has not yet been proved 
to breed in Marocco or Algeria, although suspected of having done so.] 
Nest. The neatly domed nest, with opening at the side, is often placed 

in growing grass in a hedge bottom or bank side,, as a rule on the 
ground. Occasionally however it may be found a foot or so from the 
ground in seedling conifers, bushes or whins, and still more rarely at a 
considerable height. Von Hugel found a nest 16 ft. from the ground 
in a fir, and another 14 ft. high is recorded in the Birds of Lancashire, 
Other occasional sites are in trellis or among ivy on a wall, in old nests 
of other birds, such as Redbreast, Spotted Flycatcher, etc., among heather 
on edge of moors, in a strawberry bed, etc. The nest is generally well 
concealed, and often only found by the bird flying off when disturbed. 
It is built of grasses and stalks, interwoven with green moss, occasionally 
of dead bracken, lined with finer stalks and roots or a few horsehairs 
and almost invariably a thick lining of feathers. I have however seen 
two nests which undoubtedly belonged to this species and which did 
not contain a single feather. The AVillow Wren is much attached to 
its eggs, and has been known to continue to sit after the nest has been 
removed bodily or partly destroyed. 
Egg.. Usually 6 — -7 in number, sometimes 5 and rarely 8. Prof. Salter 

found a nest in Wales with 12 eggs (Zool. 1894, p. 345). Three very 
distinct types are found. In the first the egg is covered with fine freckles 
of light reddish brown: in the second the markings consist of blotches 
of light chesnut; while in the third type, the egg is spotted rather 



257 

sparingly with much darker sienna brown. Of these three types the 
second is much the rarest ; while occasionally pure white eggs are found, 
sometimes in the same clutch as normally marked eggs. The markings 
are generally evenly distributed over the surface, and eggs of the first 
two types show very little gloss. 

In England the earliest clutches are found about the end of April breeding 

Season. 

in the S. of England, and a week or two later in the Midlands and N. 
of England. In Germany the breeding season commences early in May. 
and in S. Spain in the second week of April, but in Finland not till 
late in May. Fresh eggs may be taken in June and July in small 
numbers, but though second broods may occasionally be reared, these 
are most probably only second or third layings. Incubation lasts 13 days. 

Average of 100 eggs (73 by Rey and 27 by the writer). Measure- 

, , ,. ments. 

15.31x12.38 mm.. Max. 17.3x12.7 and 16.6x13, Mm. 13.5x11.2 
and 14.2 X 10.9. Dwarf eggs measure 11.7 X 9.4 and 10.6 X 8.5. 
Average weight, 62 mg. (Rey): of 16 full eggs, 1.164 g. (N. H. Foster). 

b. Arctic Willow Warbler, P. trochilus eTersmanni (6p.). 

P. trochilus eversmamii (Bp.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 509. 

Breeding Range: N. E. Russia. [Also in Siberia, E. to the 
Kolyma delta.] 

This form, which occurs on migration on the E. coast of Great con- 
Britain) is apparently found in the N. of Norway (Finmarken), and it is ^°^°**^ 
probably also this race which is common along the Murman coast. In 
the Archangel Government it is common in the Petschora valley and is 
also found along the Ural range as far S. as Orenburg. [In Siberia it 
breeds on the Ob, Yenesei, Boganida, Lena and Kolyma.] 

The nest resemples that of the southern form, while the eggs. Nest. Eggs 
which are usually 5 or 6, sometimes 7 in number, are usually of the 
light reddish freckled type. They are generally laid in the last 10 days 
of June or early in July. 21 eggs measured by the writer from the 
Petschora and Kolyma, average 15.52 X 12.19 mm.. Max. 18 X 12.3 
and 17.2x12.5; Min. 14.3x12 and 15.1x11.6. 



116. Green Willow Warbler, Phylloscopus niticlus Blyth. 

Geographical Races. 

a) Bright Green Willow Warbler, P. nitidus nitidus Blyth. 

Philloscopus nitidus Blyth. Dresser, B. of Europe, IX, p. 83 and Man. 

Pal. Birds, p. 101. P. nitidus nitidus Blyth. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 

p. 510. 

17 



258 

Breeding Range: The Caucasus, and perhaps the Crimea. [Also 
Transcaspia to the W. Himalayas.] Recorded from Helgoland. 
Con- Although Lorenz found this bird breeding in the valleys of Cis- 

Europe. caucasia, he does not appear to have taken any nests and the eggs are 
still undescribed. It has been recorded from the Crimea in winter and 
may breed there. [In Asia Sarudnoi records it from Transcaspia, and 
probably it is found from Bokhara and perhaps Persia to the W. 
Himalayas.] 

1). Greenish Willow Warbler, P. nitidus viridanus Blyth. 

Foreign Name: Russia; Pnnosclika-zelenaya. 
P. viridanus Blyth. Dresser, B. of Europe, IX, p. 87 and Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 101. P. nitidus viridanus Blyth. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 
p. 510. 

Breeding Range: Russia (Baltic Provinces to Perm) and W. 
Siberia. 
Con- Although formerly supposed to breed only in the E. of European 

Europe. Russia, the range of this bird is now known to extend to the Russian 
Baltic Provinces (Ehstland, Livland, N. Kurland) and possibly even to E. 
Prussia, where an example has been obtained in June. Poljakow records 
it from the Olonetz Govt., and Sabanaejeff from Jaroslaw, and it has also 
been met with in Moscow, Kazan, Perm, Ufa and Orenburg. Meves 
observed unfledged young being fed by the parents in the Urals near 
Tjubuk. [E. of the Urals its range extends through Turkestan, Kashmir 
and W. Siberia to the Tian Shan and Altai ranges.] 
Nest. The only accessible information with regard to the breeding of this 

bird in Europe is contained in Menzbier's paper in the Ornitli. Jahrbuch, 
1898, p. 1. Three nests found by Teplouchoff stood on the ground or 
close to it. They were built of green moss, held together by thin grass 
blades, and contained inside (presumably as lining) a certain amount of 
wool. In Asia Brooks found an empty domed nest on a hillside in 
Kashmir at about 11.000 ft., and Stuart Baker found one with 3 eggs 
inside a crevice between loose stones by a roadside. It was large and 
globular, loosely built of moss and a few dead leaves and lined with a 
mass of white goats' hair. Height about 8 in., breadth 5i in. Osmaston 
also describes a domed nest, thickly lined with hair, on a hillside as 
that of this bird. 
Eggs. Usually 3 — 4 in number. An addled Qgg found by Teplouchoff 

was white, and 4 eggs in my collection from Turkestan are similar 
to those described by Stuart Baker, being white and almost without 
gloss, short oval in shape with very fragile shells. Dresser has however 



259 

a clutch from the Irtish valley, some of which are faintly marked with 
reddish. Breeding season, late in May and early in June. 

Average of 7 eggs (4 by the writer and 3 by .Stuart Baker), M""'""- 
14.59x11.41, Max. 15x12.2, Min. 14.2x11.7 and 14.7x10.4. 



luenta. 



117. Bonelli's Warbler, Phylloscopus bonelli (Vieill.). 
Geographical Races. 

a. Western Bonelli's Warbler, P. bunelli bonelli (Tieill.). 

Plate 22, fig. 7—9 (Styria). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XIX, fig. 12, a — c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 19, fig. 6. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 17, 18. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Budnidek horni. France: Bee - fin 
Bonelli. Germany: Berg - Lauhvogel. Hungary: Bonelli filzike. Italy: 
Lui bianco. 

Phylloscopus honellii (Vieill.). Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 503 and 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 96. P. honelli bonelli (Vieill.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 513. 

Breeding Range: The mountain ranges of S. W. and Central 
Europe, but replaced in the S. E. by the next form. [Also in N. W. 
Africa.] 

Bonelli's AVarbler is generally distributed throughout the hilly parts con- 
of the Iberian Peninsula, from Gribraltar to the Cantabrian range and -^°^° ^ 
the Pyrenees. It also occurs in the hillsides of southern and western 
France up to about lat 461 on the W. coast, and is said also to be 
found near Metz and Paris. In Belgium Aplin records meeting with a 
pair near Dinant, while it is distributed over the whole of the Alpine 
district, and is especially common on the southern slopes of the Jura. 
In the Engadine it breeds up to nearly 6000 ft. Northward its range 
extends into Lothringen, Wiirtemberg, Bavaria and N. E. Bohemia 
(Riesengebirge). It is found locally in Lower Austria and also in the 
Tyrol, Styria, Carinthia, etc., and is not uncommon in the hills of N. 
Italy, but becomes local in the S., and only occurs on passage in Sicily. 
It is not recorded from Corsica, and only on passage from Sardinia, but 
is found in the Balearic Isles. [In N. Africa it breeds in the Atlas 
range up to 5000 ft, and also in certain wooded mountains of Algeria 
and Tunisia, but has apparently a very restricted range.] 

Less carefully concealed that that of the other Leaf Warblers, the Nest. 

nest is generally built on the ground in a slight depression, and is of 

the type usual in this genus. It is usually placed on a sunny hillside 

wooded with conifers, beeches or oaks, and is built of dead leaves, dry 

grasses, bents and a little moss, lined with fine bents, roots and a few 

17* 



ments. 



260 

hairs, but no feathers. Occasionally it is built among ferns or growing 
plants at some little distance from the ground. The song of the male 
is distinctive : it resembles that of the Wood Warbler to some extent, 
but is shorter, consisting only of 3 or 4 notes, constantly repeated, 
without the long drawn 'Whiou, whiou', which the Wood Warbler 
introduces at intervals. 
Eggs. Usually 5 or 6, sometimes only 4 and rarely 7 in number. They 

are much like those of the Wood Warbler, being thickly spotted with 
dark liver brown of different shades, sometimes with a violet tinge, on 
a white ground, with little or no gloss. 
Breeding jj^ Central Europe it is a late breeder, and eggs may be found in 

Season. 

the last 10 days of May and early in June, but in S. Spain the season 
is somewhat earlier, probably about the second and third weeks in May. 
Tristram took eggs in Algeria between May 20 and June 4, but apparently 
has not recorded them in his notes on Algerian ornithology. Only one 
brood is reared, but second layings may be found late in June occasionally. 
Incubation lasts about 13 days. 
Measure- Avcragc of 69 cggs (54 by the writer, 10 by Rey and 5 by Bau), 

15.23 X 12.33, Max. 17 X 13.1 and 13 X 16.6, Min. 14 X 11.5 and 
14.8 X 11.2. Average weight of 10 eggs, 69 mg. (Rey), of 5 eggs, 
69.6 mg. (Bauj. 

b. Eastern Bonelli's Warbler, P. bonelli orientalis (Brehm). 

P. bonelli orientalis (Brehm). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 514. 

Breeding Range: The mountains of the Balkan peninsula: possibly 
also Bukowina, Transsylvania and the Crimea. [Also Asia Minor, 
Palestine and probably Cyprus.] 
Con- This is the only Phylloscopus which is known to breed in Greece. 

Reiser describes a nest found by him with young on May 26. 1898 as 
the first record for Greece, but Kriiper took eggs as far back as May 
10, 1880, not far from Athens and also in the Parnassus. Its range is 
evidently very imperfectly known at present, for it is not recorded by 
Mac Gregor from Macedonia or by Reiser from Bulgaria or Montenegro 
although Kadich describes it as common in the warmer valleys of 
Herzegowina. It has occurred in E. Hungary in August and probably 
breeds in Transsylvania. It is also said to breed in Bukowina and has 
been recorded from the Crimea. [In Asia Minor it is tolerably common, 
and breeds in Palestine, and possibly also on Cyprus.] 

Probably in its breeding habits it does not differ from the western 
race. The eggs are apparently laid in Greece about May 10. Average 
size of 6 Greek eggs, 15.53 x 12.55, Max. 16.3 X 12.6, Min. 14.5 X 13 
and 16.2 X 12.2. 



tinental 
Europe 



261 

118. Wood Warbler, Philloscopus sibilatrix (Bechst.). 

Geographical Races. 

a. Northern Wood Warbler, P. sibilatrix sibilatrix (Bechst.). 

Plate 28, fig. 11—14 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XIX, fig. 11, a — d. Hewitson, 
I Ed. I, pi. CXVIII, fig. 2, 3; II Ed. 1, pi. XXVIII, fig. 1; III Ed. I, 
pi. XXXVI, fig. 3. Baedeker, Tab. 19, fig. 5. Taczanowski, Tab. LI, 
fig. 2. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 10; id. Col. Fig., pi. 53. Frohawk, 
Br. Birds, I, pi. II, fig. 55. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 11, 12. Nest: 0. Lee, 
III, p. 36. 

British Local Names: Wood Wren, Oven Bird, Yellow Wren. 
Welsh: Dryw Felen. Foreign Names: Bohemia: Sykavka. Denmark 
and Norway: Oronsanger. France: Pouillot siffleiir. Germany: Wald- 
laubscinger. Helgoland: Oiihl Fliegenhitter. Holland: Fhiiter. Hungary: 
Sisego fuzike. Poland: Gnjowka hvistunka. Russia: Beresowka. Sweden: 
Gro?isdngare. 

Phylloscopus sibilatrix (Bechst.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 427. Dresser, 
B. of Europe, II, p. 497 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 95. Saunders, Man. 
p. 95. P. sibilatrix sibilatrix (Bechst.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 515. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles and Continental Europe, ex- 
cepting N. Scandinavia and N. Russia, where it is absent, and the 
Mediterranean basin, where it is replaced by a somewhat doubtfully 
distinct race. 

This is the latest to arrive of the Leaf-"Warblers in our islands, British 
and is also the most local in distribution. A few pairs are generally to 
be found wherever woods of deciduous trees (especially beech and oak) 
are to be met with, and in some parts of England and "Wales, such as 
the woods of Northumbria and W. Merioneth it is exceedingly plentiful, 
quite outnumbering the Willow Warbler locally. On the other hand it 
is practically unknown in W. Cornwall and W. Pembroke, and is every- 
where rather irregularly and locally distributed. It has bred in the Isle 
of Man, and has apparently increased its range in Scotland of late years. 
Its northern limits appear to be S. E. Sutherland, Caithness and W. Ross, 
while A. C. Chapman has recorded its presence in treeless N. Uist! 
[Cf. V. F. of N. W. Highlands etc., p. 64 for details of increase in 
Scotland). To Ireland it is a very scarce visitor, but has been known to 
breed in Queens Co. and Galway, and is observed annually in Co. 
Wicklow. 

Though absent from Norway, it occurs in Sweden, up to about con- 
lat. 63", but only in S. Finland. It is however exceedingly common in ^uro^e 
the forests of N. Germany and in the Baltic Provinces, extending 



262 

eastward to Archangel, and the Kazan Government. It is also distributed 
over middle Europe, but towards the basin of the Mediterranean appears 
to be replaced by the Southern race, although the boundaries of the 
two forms are not yet defined. Apparently however the Northern form 
does not extend further S. than the middle of France and the Alpine 
and Transsylvanian chains. 

Nest. Placed generally on a hillside partly covered with bracken and 

wooded thinly with deciduous or mixed timber. It is built on the ground 
and is not easy to see, as the materials used, dead grasses, bracken and 
perhaps a little moss, are difficult to distinguish from the surroundings. 
It is of course domed and the opening is somewhat flattened, while the 
interior is neatly lined with fine grasses, and occasionally, but not always 
a few horsehairs. Feathers are never used. Exceptionally Aplin has 
recorded a nest in a diagonal cleft across the face of a large boulder: 
another, without a dome, was built under shelter of a tree root, while 
in a third case a pair are said to have bred some distance down an 
rabbit hole! Rey states that in the German forests most nests face east, 
but this does not apply to the broken and hilly country where this bird 
often breeds with us. The song of the male is not much guide to the 
position of the nest, but the hen can often be put off the eggs by 
beating, and is generally feeding between 6 and 7 am. Her alarm note, 
a high pitched, 'Tee, tee', is characteristic, and she can easily be watched 
on again to the eggs. 

Eggs. Generally 6 or 7 in number, sometimes only 5, while 8 have oc- 

casionally been found. They are thickly spotted and finely speckled with 
dark red brown, with a slight purplish tinge and sometimes ashy violet 
shell markings can also be distinguished. In some sets a good deal of 
the white ground is visible, but generally the markings are evenly dis- 
tributed, frequently tending to form a zone or confluent blotches at the 
big end. They can only be confused with those of Bonelli's Warbler, 
which are however slightly smaller on the average. 

Breeding The time appears to vary little and the last ten days of May and 

Season, ^ihc beginning of June appear to be the best time for full clutches both 

in the British Isles and Mid-Europe, but a few pairs may be found with 

eggs by the middle of May. Only one brood is reared in the season. 

Incubation lasts about 13 days. 

Measure- Avcragc of 100 cggs (67 by Rey and 33 by the writer), 15. 87x12. 39mm., 

ments. ^g^^ ^8.3 X 13 and 17.5 X 13.5, Min. 14.4 X 12 and 15.2 X 11.4. 

A dwarf egg measures only 12.4 X 9.7 (Coll. R. H. Read). Average 

weight of 42 eggs, 72 mg. (Rey). R. H. Read gives the average of 

17 unblown eggs as 1.227 g. 



263 

b. Southern Wood Warbler, P. sibilatrix erlang-eri Hart. 

Foreign Names: Italy: Liii verde. Portugal: Folosa. Spain: 
Mosquita. 
P. sihilatrix erlangeri Hart. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 516. 

Breeding Range: Not clearly defined, but probably the countries 
forming the basin of the Mediterranean in Europe, and N. W. Africa. 

This race, barely distinguishable by the yellower colouring of the con- 
male, is apparently found breeding in small numbers in the cork woods ^mq ° 
of S. Spain, though over the greater part of that country it is only 
known as a migrant, and rarely occurs in Portugal. It also is the 
representative form in S. France, but specimens from the Pyrenees have 
not been critically examined. In Italy it breeds in the hilly districts of 
the N. and Central Provinces, but not in the S., and though it has 
been recorded in Sardinia, I can find no proof of its breeding there.* 
In 1909 I met with a single pair which were evidently breeding in S. 
Corsica, but was unable to find the nest. In the Balkan Peninsula it 
is found from Dalmatia to Servia, but only occurs on passage in Greece. 
It is uncertain which form is found in the Caucasus. [There seems little 
doubt that it breeds in N. W . Africa, from Marocco to Tunisia, although 
no nests appear to have been recorded.] 

Apparently in their breeding habits the southern birds do not differ Nest, Egg« 
from those of the northern race. 

119. Eversmann's Warbler, Phylloscopus borealis (Bias.). 

Plate 34, fig. 20 (Siberia). 

Eggs: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 19, 20. 
Phylloscopus borealis (Bias.). Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 509 and 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 99. P. borealis borealis (Bias.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 517. 

Breeding Range: Finmark and N. Russia. [Also N. Siberia.] 
Has occurred at Fair I. and Suleskerry. 

Collett has given an interesting account of the breeding of this ^°^' 
bird in Finmark (Ibis, 1886, p. 217). He found it nesting in scattered Europe. 
pairs among the stunted birch woods along the valleys of the larger 
rivers flowing into the Porsanger, Tana and Varanger Fjords. In N. 
Russia it occurs along the Murman coast of the Kola Peninsula, and 
has been obtained on the N. shore of L. Onega, while Moves also met 
with it breeding in the Onega valley. Eastward it is found in the 
valleys of the Dwina, Mezen and Petschora and apparently reaches the 

* Probably Brooke's note in the Ibis for 1873 refers to BonoUi's Warbler, as 
Bonomi does not mention the Wood Warbler 



264 

N. of the Perm Government. [In Asia its range extends right across the 
northern part of the Continent to the Kolyma delta, Korea, Ussuria and 
Kamtschatka.] 
Nest. Apparently this bird does not arrive at its breeding haunts in 

Finmark and the Murman coast till the latter part of June, when-the 
monotonous song of the cock may be heard all day among the birch 
trees. The nest is placed on the ground on wooded slopes : it is domed 
and loosely built of dry grasses and stalks with some moss, on a foun- 
dation of dead birch leaves. The lining consists of fine grasses only, 
without any hair or feathers. The cock sings at some distance from 
the nest, and does not show any anxiety with regard to it. 
Egga. Apparently 6 or 7 in completed clutches. Very few authentic eggs 

are available for comparison, but two sets in Messrs, Dresser's and 
Bunyard's collections show a good deal of the white ground and are 
sparingly marked with bold spots of dark red brown. The clutch taken 
by Seebohm on the Yenesei is very different in character, being spotted 
with faint reddish or pink, but the nest was similar to those found by 
CoUett. 

Breeding CoUctt estimated the dates for the first eggs in the three nests 

found by him as July 9, 10 and 11 and probably the usual time is from 
the last week in June to the second week of July. 

Measure- Average of 7 Lapland eggs, 16.38 X 12.7 mm.. Max. 17.1 X 12.7 

and 16.9x13, Min. 15.7x12.5. Seebohm's clutch of 5 eggs averages 
16.26X12.5. 

120. Yellow browed Warbler, Phylloscopussuperciliosus(Gm.). 

Eggs: Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 10; id. Col. Fig. pi. 53. 
Phylloscopiis superciliosiis (Gm.). Newton, ed Yarrell, I, p. 443. Dresser, 
B. of Europe, II, p. 469 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 104. Saunders, Man. 
p. 61 (part.). P. superciliosa super ciliosa (Gm.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 518. 

Breeding Range: Siberia, from the R. Ob to the Sea of Okhotsk, 
and S. to lake Baikal. 
Dis- This bird is of frequent occurrence in W. Europe on the autumn 

migration. Its breeding haunts are among the woods of the Siberian 
valleys. Finsch has recorded it from the R. Ob; Seebohm, Popham and 
others have found it very common on the Yenesei, and it is also known 
to occur on the Lena, Kolyma, and many other rivers east to the R. 
Anadyr. It is apparently absent from Kamtschatka, but is found in the 
Stanovoi Mts., and is small numbers in Corea, as well as in Transbaikalia, 
Kultuk, S. B. Mongoha etc. 



265 

Neatly concealed among the moss on the ground in the Yenesei ^*»*- 
valley, and built of dry grasses like the other Leaf Warblers' nests, 
neatly Uned with reindeer and roedeer hair. In Dauria Dybowski found 
the nest in Rhododendron scrub. 

These are 5 — 7 in number, white, thickly spotted at the big end, ^^«^ *'*°- 
in the form often of an irregular zone of dark and lighter red brown 
markings. Seebohm found eggs on June 26 on the Yenesei. 

Average size of 4 eggs in the Brit. Museum, 14.8 X 11.2 mm. Measure- 

[A southern form of this species, Hume's Yellow browed "Warbler, P. super- 
ciliosus humei (Brooks), breeds in the Altai and Tian Shan ranges, Turkestan, and 
Kashmir (Eggs figured in Br. Mus. Cat. Eggs. IV, pi. X, fig. 5, 6, and Dresser, pi. — , 
fig. 21 — 23). For nesting notes by Brooks see Ibis, 1872, p. 24, etc. The eggs, 
usually 5 in number, laid late in May or early in June, are like those of the N* 
race, and 44 measured by the writer average 14.23 X H-2 mm. in size : Max. 15.2 X 11-2 
and 14.7 X 12, Min. 13.2 X 11.2 and 14.1 X 104.] 

121. Pallas' Willow Warbler, Phylloscopus proregulus (Pall.) 

Plate 34, fig. 11 (Alexander Mts.). 

Eggs: J. f. 0., 1873, Taf. I, fig. 10. 
Phylloscopus proregulus (Pall.). Dresser, B. of Europe, IX, p. 73 and 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 105. Saunders, Man. p. 63. P. proregulus prore- 
gulus (Pall.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Pauna, p. 523. 

Breeding Range: E. Siberia, from the R. Lena to the Pacific, 
and N. to the Stanovoi range, but replaced by P. p. newtoni S. of the 
great deserts of E. Asia. 

This bird has occurred once in Norfolk as well as on Helgoland dis- 
and in Orenburg in E. Russia. Its breeding haunts are in the mountain Nest,etc. 
forests of E. Siberia, from L. Baikal to the Stanovoi range. Dybowski 
found it nesting in Dauria on the boughs of old moss covered pines, 
close to the trunk, generally about 9 — 12 ft. from the ground. The 
materials used were green moss and dry grasses, while the nests were 
domed and lined with feathers and hair. 

From 5 to 6 in number, spotted with dark red, generally in the Eggs. 
form of a zone round the big end, and a few ashy shell markings on a 
white ground, and little or no gloss. 

Dybowski found eggs in mid June. He states that the hen begins ^"edmg 
to sit as soon as the first egg is laid; so that sometimes fresh and in- 
cubated eggs may be found in the same nest. The hen is a very close 
sitter and can be caught on the eggs. 

According to Dybowski the eggs vary in size from 15 X 10.5 to Measure- 

, . , , ments. 

14 X 11 mm. 



266 

[The southern race, P. proregulus newtoni Gaetke, breeds in the Himalayas 
from Kashmir to Butan and also in Chuanche and Gansu. Egg figured, Dresser, 
pi. — , fig. 24. Captain Cock describes the nest as domed partially and built of moss 
and lichens, lined profusely with feathers and fragments of thin birch bark, and 
placed on boughs of pine trees from 6 to 40 ft. above the ground. Eggs 5, like 
those of the N. race. Average size (!0 eggs) 13.82 X 10.77, Max. 14.2 X 11-3, 
Min. 13 5 X 1' a^nd 14 X 10.3. Breeding season, end of May and early June in 
Kashmir. Phylloscopus subviridis (Brooks) , has once been obtained in E. Russia. 
It breeds in Afghanistan, Kashmir, etc. Cf. Ibis, 1909, p. 124.] 

122. Radde's Bush Warbler, Herbivocula schwarzi (Radde). 

Lusciniola schwarzi (Radde). Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, p. 127. Saunders, 
Man. p. 73. Herbivocula sclmmrzi (Radde). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 
p. 530. 

Breeding Range: From mid Siberia E. to Ussuria and Saghalin. 
(Has once occurred in Lincolnshire, Oct. 1, 1898). 
Bis- The range of this species is stated by Pleske to extend from Kul- 

tnbution, ^ . j^ Baikal to Ussuria and Saghalin, but Godlewski records it as 

etc. ' '=' ' 

singing in early August between Irkutsk and Tomsk. Schrenk met with 
it on the Amur, and Nicolski in the forests of S. W. Saghalin. 

It arrives at its breeding haunts early in June, and haunts thick 
scrub, but as yet no information is available with regard to its nest and 
eggs, which are still unknown. 

123. Cetti's Warbler, Cettia cetti (Marm). 

Plate 21, fig. 27—30 (Andalucia). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Taf. XXI, fig. 3, a, b. Naumannia, 
1858, Taf. 2, fig. 5, a— i. Baedeker, Tab. 19, fig. 24. Dresser, pi.—, 
fig. 35, 36, 41, 42. Krause, pi. — , fig. 1—36. 

Foreign Names: France: Bouscarle. Greece: AedonaJd. Italy: 

Busignuolo di fiumi. Portugal: Rouxinol bravo. Spain: Mascareta. 

Cettia cettii (Marm.). Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 639 and Man. Pal. 

Birds, p. 137. C. cetti cetti (Marm.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 537. 

Breeding Range: The Iberian, Italian and Balkan Peninsulas, 

S. France, and the Mediterranean Islands; probably S. Russia. [Also 

N. W. Africa and Asia Minor: has occurred in Sussex, May 12, 1904.] 

Con- This short winged and skulking species is widely but locally dis- 

tinentai tributed in the Iberian peninsula wherever there are thick bramble brakes 

^""P®- Qj. tamarisks close to the banks of rivers and streams, and also in the 

swamps, especially where there are bushes growing, from the Bay of 

Biscay to the Mediterranean. It is found also in southern France N. 

to the Indre Department, but more especially in those bordering the 



267 

Golfe du Lion. In N. Italy it is very scarce, but breeds in Liguria, 
Tuscany and Campagna in suitable spots, and is apparently only of 
accidental occurrence in the S. It is recorded from Mallorca, plentiful 
in the low ground in Corsica and in Sardinia, and, locally common in 
Sicily. In the Balkan peninsula it is found in Dalmatia, Herzegowina, 
Montenegro, and in small numbers in the valley of the lower Danube, 
while it is also known to be resident in Macedonia, Albania, and Greece. 
Here it is to be met with not only in the plains, but also by the brush 
grown watercourses up to 3500 ft. Probably it is also this form which 
occurs in S. Russia, the Crimea and the Caucasus ; and it is certainly 
resident in Crete, Cyprus, Asia Minor, and Palestine. It breeds in 
Tunisia and Algeria north of the Atlas, and also in Marocco. 

The usual site for the nest is among the trailing branches of ^^*'*- 
bramble thickets, often interspersed with Smilax, in swampy woods or 
overhanging watercourses and among tamarisks near the banks of rivers- 
In the latter site the nest may be found without difficulty, and is usually 
not far from the ground, but among brambles it is often placed over 
the water and is curiously inconspicuous, and difficult to find. In the 
open swamps and marshes some birds nest among the coarse vegetation 5 
suspending the nest like a Reed Warbler's, from the stems of adjacent 
marsh plants such as Willow Herb. The nest is very neatly made and 
recalls those of the Tree Warblers, being somewhat conical in shape 
and very deep. It is built of dead grasses, leaves, and bits of sedge^ 
mixed with plant down and roots, harmonizing well in colour with dead 
brambles, and the deep and neatly hollowed cup is lined with fine 
grasses mixed with down, and horsehair or feathers in varying quantities. 
Externally it has rather an untidy look, and might easily pass for an 
accumulation of flood wrack. Rough dimensions are: depth 41 — 6 in., 
diameter of cup, 2 — 2h in, depth of cup, 2 — 21 in. Although the bird 
is difficult to observe on account of its skulking habits, its presence is 
easily detected by the extraordinarily loud, ringing notes of its brief song. 

Almost always 4 or 5 in number. In most collections eggs may Eggs. 
be seen varying in colour from pale brick red and pink with a dull 
purplish tinge, to deep brick red and rich mahogany brown. Unfortun- 
ately the colour is fugitive, and the paler eggs are often merely faded 
specimens. Many eggs show more or less distinct zones of darker specks 
rund the big end. The amount of gloss varies, but is not as a rule great. 

In S. Spain and Corsica the last week in April and the beginning Breeding 
of May are the best times for the eggs of the first brood, while those ^^^'°^- 
of the second are found at the end of May and early in June. In Asia 
Minor Kriiper found the first clutches in the latter part of April and 
two broods are also reared there. 



268 

Measure- Average of 100 eggs (85 by the writer and 15 by Rey). 18.03x13.90, 

Max. 19.6 X 14.3 and 18.5 X 14.5, Min. 17 X 13.5 and 17.1 X 13.2. 
Rey gives the average weight as 94 mg., and Ban as 92 mg. [An Eastern 
form of this species, C. cetti cettioides Hume, which breeds in Trans- 
caspia, the Kirghis steppes, Turkestan and N. Persia, lays similar but 
apparently rather larger eggs, if one may judge from the few specimens 
examined. Average of 4 eggs from Persia, 20 X 14.5.] 

124. Moustached Warbler, Lusciniola melanopogon (Temm.). 

Plate 28, fig. 22—25 (Dinnyes, Hungary, V. 92). 

Eggs: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 19 — 21. 

Foreign Names: Germany: lamariskensdnger. Hungary: Fiile- 
miile sitke. Italy: Forapaglie castagnolo 

Lusciniola melanopogon (Temm.). Dresser, B. of Europe. II, p. 605 and 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 128. L. melanopogon melanopogon (Temm.). Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 540. 

Breeding Range: E. Spain, Italy, Sicily, Hungary and possibly 
also the Balkan Peninsula. [Also said to be resident in Lower Egypt.] 
Con- The breeding range of this species is not yet thoroughly worked 

out, but there seems little doubt that it is resident in the lagoons of 
E. Spain, such as the Albufera of Valencia, and possibly also in the 
province of Gerona, although wrongly identified eggs have been sent 
from Spain as those of this bird. Crespon regarded it as resident in 
Gard, in southern France, but it has not been reported by more recent 
visitors to the lower Rhone. It is however known to breed in fair 
numbers locally in Italy, especially in the Maremma of Tuscany and the 
Roman Campagna and possibly also in Liguria and Venetia. In Sicily 
Lynes found it breeding plentifully at a small lake near the E. coast 
(Pantana di Lentini) and it has also been recorded from Messina as 
resident. It breeds in considerable numbers in Hungary in reed and 
sedge grown morasses and lakes, and possibly also in Dalmatia and 
Bosnia. In Greece although it has been met with in the winter, it has 
not yet been proved to breed. [Shelley obtained specimens at Damietta, 
and believed it to be resident there, but confirmation of the statement 
is needed.] 
Nest. On the Velencze Lake the nest is generally built underneath the 

knots tied by the fishermen by binding the heads of the reeds together 
as beacons, and neatly suspended by basket handles. Where such sites 
are not to be found it breeds among the rushes, sedge or old reeds, 
from 1 ft. to 2 ft. 3 in. above the water. In Sicily Commander Lynes 
describes the nests as sometimes placed in small bushes growing in 
shallow water, or among bases of reed clumps at edges of clearings. The 



tinental 
Europe. 



Measure- 
ments. 



269 

nest has been compared to those of both Reed and Sedge Warbler: it 
is built of dead grasses, roots, fragments of sedges from the floating 
scum and bits of tamarisk down, etc., lined neatly and smoothly with 
grasses, bits of reed flower, and sometimes a feather or two is woven 
in. Some nests have quite a large number of feathers of Purple Gallinule, 
Water Rail, and Little Bittern in the lining. Dimensions: depth from 
3 in. upwards, diameter 3i in., diameter of cup, 11 — 2 in., depth II in. 

Usually 4, occasionally 3 or 5, and 6 have occasionally been found ^8g»- 
in Hungary. They closely resemble those of the Sedge Warbler, but 
when fresh have generally a greenish tinge and are as a rule lighter in 
colour. The fine speckles of olive brown and ashy shell markings are 
evenly distributed over the surface, generally showing the pale greenish 
(or occasionally light yellowish brown) ground, but in a few cases are 
so thick that the ground is quite obscured. Many eggs have a black 
hairstreak at the big end. 

In Hungary the eggs may be taken from mid-April onward to the ^"^'^>°8 
end of May and even in June, and two broods are reared. In Sicily 
Lynes found young on the wing and fresh eggs (presumably second 
broods) on June 6 — 8. Both sexes take part in incubation. 

Average of 86 eggs (45 by the writer and 41 by Rey), 17.86x13.12, 
Max. 19x13.1 and 18.3x14.1, Min. 16.3x12.3 and 17x12. 

Average weight, 83 mg. (Rey); 85 mg. (Bau). 

[The Eastern form of this species, L. melanopogon mimica Mad. 
breeds from the Volga delta and the Kirghis steppes eastward to Persia. 
The eggs do not differ from those of the Western form.] 

125. River Warbler, Locustella fluviatilis (Wolf). 

Plate 29, fig. 22, 23 (Breslau, 20. VI. 81 and 15. VI. 86). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXI, fig. 6, a— c (errore) ; Taf. IC, 
tig. 11, a, b. Heckel, Verb. d. Z. B. Ver., Wien, 1852, Taf. fig. 1—3 
and Naumannia, 1853. Taf. II. Baedeker, Tab. 19, fig. 19. Taczanowski, 
Tab. XIV, fig. 1. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 33, 34, 39, 40. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Rdkosnik ri^ni. Finland: Virtakerttu. 
Germany: Fluss-Rohrsanger, Fluss-Schwirl. Hungary: Berki tilcsokmaddr . 
Poland: Oajowka strumeniotva. Russia: Retschnaja kamyschefka. 
Locustella fluviatilis (Wolf). Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 102 and Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 135. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 547. 

Breeding Range: Germany (chiefly in the E.), Austro -Hungary, 
and Russia N. to about 60°, but everywhere local. 

In Germany the River Warbler has long been known to inhabit ^^^l^'^^^ 
certain marshy districts in the E. provinces, such as E. Prussia (especially Europe. 



270 

near the Kurische Haff), Pomerania, Mecklenburg, Brandenburg locally, 
Posen, Saxony (near Leipzig) and Silesia (the Oder, Neisse, Bart- 
schniederung etc.). It is also recorded from Anhalt, Thiiringia and Bavaria 
(near Erlangen), while recently specimens have been obtained in W. 
Germany also at various points on the Rhine (Cf. Le Roi, Vogel Rhein- 
provinz, p. 274). In Austro-Hungary it breeds in Moravia, Lower Austria, 
Hungary (in some numbers locally), Galizia, probably Transsylvania, and 
certainly Croatia and Slavonia. In Russia its northern limit extends to 
the middle of Finland and about 60" N. in the Urals; while southward 
it ranges through mid-Russia (common near Moscow and S. Petersburg), 
the Baltic Provinces and Poland, and E. to Orenburg and Perm, but 
Pleske thinks that it only visits S. Russia on migration; although it has 
been obtained in the Crimea early in August. (Cf. Lindner, Ornith. 
Monatsschr., 1897, p. 214 for further details). 

Nest. "Well concealed, like those of the other - Locustellae, and placed 

either on or not more than 18 in. from the ground, generally in thick 
willow or other bushes, especially when overgrown with rank grass, not 
always in the neighbourhood of water. The reeling note of the male is 
louder than that of the other members of this genus, and somewhat dis- 
syllabic in character. The nest is built of coarse grasses and leaves of 
reed and is rather loosely constructed on a foundation of a few dead 
leaves, with a lining of finer grasses and roots and sometimes a little 
horsehair. Height 3 — 31 in., outer diameter, 4i in., diameter of cup, 
2i in., depth li — II in. 

Eggs. Usually 5, sometimes only 4 and rarely 6. They vary considerably 

in colour, shape and especially in size. The ground colour is white, 
sometimes tinged with pink and showing some little gloss, while fine 
spots of reddish brown, greyish red, or brown are distributed fairly 
evenly over the surface, together with a few ashy shell markings. At 
the big end there is often a tendency to form a zone, and the spots 
are often a little bigger. 

Breeding jjj Germany from the beginning of June to the end of the month 

is the usual time. The earliest dates of which I have notes are, one 
from Hungary with eggs on May 15, and one with young from Uman, 
Russia, about June 7 ; but these dates are exceptional, and few eggs are 
found before the end of May. The hen is not a close sitter, and does 
not as a rule allow herself to be surprised on the nest, but slips off 
quietly when approached. 

Measure- Average of 100 eggs (79 by Hartert, 18 by Rey and 3 by the 

ments. 

writer), 20.4 X 15.12, Max. 22.3 X 16 and 20.9 X 16.8, Min. 18 X 14. 
Average weight of 18 eggs, 124 mg., varying from 102 to 142 mg. (Rey). 



271 

126. Savi's Warbler, Locustella luscinoides (Savi). 

Plate 28, fig. 15—17 (Hungary). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXI, fig. 12; IC, tig. 12, a— c. 
Hewitson, II Ed. I, pi. XXV;* III Ed. pi. XXXI, fig. 2. Naumannia, 
1853, Taf. II, fig. 6. Baedeker, Tab. 19, fig. 20. Taczanowski, Tab. 
XLVI. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 10; id. Col. Fig. pi. 52. Frohawk, 
Br. Birds, I, pi. II, fig. 64. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 31, 32, 37, 38. 

British Local Name: Night Reeder (obs.). Foreign Names: 
Bohemia: Bdkosnik slavikovy. France: Fauvette des Sanies. Germany: 
Nachtigall - Bohrsanger. Holland : Nachtegaal - Rietzanger. Hungary: 
Nddi tiicsokmaddr. Italy: Salciajola. Poland: Brzeczka. Russia: Kamy- 
schefka solowjinaja. 

Locustella luscinoides (Savi). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 389. Dresser, 
B. of Europe, II, p. 627 and Man. PaL Birds, p. 136. Saunders, Man. 
p. 91. L. luscinoides luscinoides (Savi). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 548. 

Breeding Range: Continental Europe W. of the Rhine, Holland, 
Italy, Sicily, Austro - Hungary, Poland, Mid- and S. Russia, and the 
Danubian States; formerly in the English Fens. [Aso N. W. Africa, 
and possibly Lower Egypt.] 

Formerly this bird bred in the Cambridgeshire fens (Milton, Burwell, British 
and Wicken fens) as well as in Huntington (Wood Walton), and Norfolk 
(Surlingham and probably other broads). Details will be found in 
Newton's article, but here it is sufficient to state that the last British 
nest was taken in Norfolk in 1856. It is also said on very slight evi- 
dence to have bred in Essex and other counties.* 

In Spain it is not uncommon locally in the marshes of the lower ^°"" 
Guadalquivir, and also in certain lagunas of southern Andalucia, while Europe. 
it is said to have bred at the Albufera (Valencia), and near Coimbra in 
Portugal. In France it appears to be confined to the Camargue, the 
marshes of the lower Loire, where it is common, and probably the 
Garonne. In Holland it is commoner than is generally supposed, breeding 
in the reed beds of the Maas, on the Naarder Meer and in the v/ilder 
parts of Friesland. In W. Germany its presence in the Rhine Province 
was only recognized in 1904. In Austro - Hungary it breeds in Galizia 
and is very common in some of the marshes of the great Hungarian plain, 
and also nests in Croatia, Slavonia and Traussylvania. In Russia it is 
confined to the central and southern districts, from Poland E. to Oren- 
burg and the mouth of the Volga, where it is common, and S. to Odessa, 
but apparently not the Caucasus. In the Balkan states it is not un- 

* It may possibly have revisited Norfolk in recent years, but at present there 
is not enough evidence to warrant more than this suggestion. 



272 

common in the Danube valley, while in Italy it is exceedingly local, but 
occurs in suitable districts of Lombardy, Venetia and JBmilia, as well 
as in Tuscany (Massaciuccoli), and Sicily (Catania). [It also breeds in 
Algeria: possibly in Marocco, while Shelley says it is resident in the 
Fayilm, though it is more likely to winter there: and according to Se- 
vertzow nests in Turkestan.] 
Nest. Tjjg approximate site of the nest may be located to some extent 

by the actions of the singing male bird, which utters its monotonous 
reel from the top of high reeds in the vicinity, with widely opened bill 
and swelling throat. It is however very difficult to find , being always 
hidden from above, sometimes but little above water level among masses 
of broken down reeds, and at other times among the big clumps of 
dead and matted sedges, perhaps 18 in. above the water, but only to be 
found by laboriously parting the thick mass of dead vegetation. The 
nest itself is smoothly and neatly rounded intern-ally, and has been well 
compared to that of a miniature Rail or Waterhen. According to Newton 
the material used is the dead leaf of Glycerium, but some nests appear 
to be built of fragments of dead, brown, reed and sedge leaves. 
Eggs. Usually 5, sometimes 4 or 6. They are oval in shape, closely 

speckled all over with fine spots of grey brown, less frequently reddish 
brown, and violet shell markings, on a ground, which is sometimes hardly 
visible, of greyish white, sometimes with a faint reddish tinge. Occa- 
sionally a blackish streak is found at the big end, where the markings 
are generally thickest, and often an egg is found with a distinct zone. 

Breeding In Central Europe eggs may be found from about the middle of 

May to early June, but in England and Galizia few eggs have been 
taken before the end of May, while in Andalucia Irby says that the 
breeding season is rather variable, but took 13 nests (all with eggs 
except one) between May 4 — 13. Some birds however nest much earlier, 
for I found a nest with young a few days old on April 30 in the Marisma. 
AVodzicki says that both sexes take part in incubation and sit very 
closely. From the difference in the nesting dates it seems probable that 
in some cases two broods are reared. 

Measure- Avcrago of 100 eggs (96 by the writer and 4 by Hartert), 19.68 X 14.55, 

Max. 21.5 X 15 and 20.7 X 15.4, Min. 17.5 X 13.6. Cerva records a 
dwarf, 17 X 8. Average weight of 8 eggs, 108 mg. 

[A paler Eastern form, L. luscinoides fusca Sev.), breeds in Trans- 
caspia and Turkestan.] 



Season. 



ments. 



273 

127. Pallas's Grasshopper Warbler, Locustella certhiola (Pall.). 

Plate 34, fig. 16, 17 (Darasun, Dybowski). 

Eggs: Taczanowski, J. f. 0., 1873, Taf. I, fig. 4, 5. Dresser, 
pi. — , fig. 22—24. 

Locustella certhiola (Pall.). Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 633 and Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 133. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 550. 

Breeding Range: Siberia, from Tomsk and the Yenesei E. to 
the Amur mouth. Has occurred on Helgoland (1856), and the Rockabill, 
Ireland (Sept. 28, 1908). 

Seebohm found this bird frequenting the marshes and swampy dis- 
woods in the wide river meadows by the Yenesei, and more recently 
Johansen has recorded it from Tomsk, while Dr. Theel met with it up 
to lat. 62° N. It also breeds in the Altai district; in Transbaikalia, 
where Dybowski obtained eggs, near Irkutsk (Radde), am! according to 
Przewalski very commonly in Ussuria as well as in the Hoang-ho valley. 

Built close to the ground in a tussock of grass in wet and moss Nest. 
grown meadows with a growth of long grass. Sometimes it is described 
as built on a hummock of moss, but well concealed by the grass. It is 
usually found by the sitting bird flying off close to the feet of the 
passer by. 

Usually 5, less often 4 or 6 in number. They are thickly covered ^8g»- 
as a rule with very fine and almost confluent pinkish brown specks, 
which generally form a zone at the big end, and occasionally a dark 
hair streak. In some eggs the colour appears to be a uniform brownish 
pink, perhaps because the ground is completely obscured, but the colour 
is rather fugitive. 

In the Baikal district from mid June onwards, but in early June Breeding 
in Ussuria and the Amur, where fledged young were found early 
in July. 

Average size of 16 eggs (9 by Taczanowski and 7 by the writer), 
18.88 X 13.76, Max. 19.7 x 14 and 19 X 14.2, Min. 18.3 X 13.3. 

128. Grasshopper Warbler, Locustella naevia (Bodd.). 
Geographical Races. 

a) Western Grasshopper Warbler, L. naevia naeria (Bv/dd.). 

Plate 28, fig. 18—21 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXI, fig. 8, a — c. Hewitson, 
I Ed. I, pi. LXX, fig. 3; II Ed. I, pi. XXV, fig. 1; III Ed. I, pi. XXXI, 
fig. 1, Heckel, Naumannia, 1853, Taf. II, fig. 4, 5. Baedeker, Tab. 19, 
fig. 21. Taczanowski, Tab. XLV. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 10: Col. 

18 



Season. 



Measure- 



274 

Fig. pi. 52. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. II, fig. 63. Cat. Eggs. Br. Mus., 
IV, pi. VIII, fig. 21 (var.). Dresser, pi. — , fig. 25—30. Howard, Brit. 
Warblers, pi. II, fig. 7—18. 

British Local Names: Reeler, Cricket Bird. AVelsh: Y. Troellwr 
bach. Foreign Names: Bohemia: Rdliosnik zeleny. Denmark: Bufik- 
sanger. France: Becfin locustelle. Germany: Heuschreckensanger. Holland: 
Sprinkhaan-RieUanger. Hungary: Reti tiicsokmaddr. Italy: Forapaglie 
macchiettato. Poland: Trziniak swierszczyk. Russia: Swertschok. Sweden: 
Or dshoppsdnga re. 

Acrocephalus 7iaevius (Bodd.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 384. Locustella 
naevia (Bodd.). Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 611 and Man. Pal. Birds, 
p. 131. Saunders, Man. p. 89. L. naevia naevia (Bodd.). Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 551. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles, and Continental Europe, south 

of the Baltic and about lat. 62" in Russia, but absent from S. Spain, 

S. Italy, and the Balkan Peninsula, and replaced by the Eastern race in 

S. E. Russia. 

British rjij^g uumbcrs of this species in a district vary considerably from 

leleg. 

year to year, and while in one season it may be almost plentiful, next 
year perhaps not a single pair will be found. It is moreover every- 
where local, partly no doubt owing to the necessity of suitable breeding 
sites. It is fairly though irregularly distributed throughout England and 
Wales, but is scarce in Cornwall, and is perhaps most numerous in the 
valleys of Durham and S. Northumberland, on the Solway littoral, and 
in the Broad district. It is by no means confined to the low ground, 
but also haunts the heather covered slopes of the Pennines, and the 
Welsh hills up to about 1500 ft. It is found also in Anglesey, and in 
the Isle of Man. In Scotland it is found sporadically over the counties 
S. of the Firths of Forth and Clyde, but only sparingly further N., 
although it has been recognized not only in N. Argyll, but as far as 
Arisaig on the W. coast, in the Moray district, on the Upper Forth 
and in the Tay area. In Ireland it is more general, and is locally common, 
except on the western seaboard. 
Con- In the Iberian peninsula although occurring on passage in some 

Europe, numbcrs and probably wintering in the S., there is no reason to believe 
that it breeds S. of the Cantabrian range. Northward of this it is not 
uncommon and is found in suitable districts in most parts of France, 
more especially in the N. W. Though scarce in Belgium, it is found 
in Holland near the coast as well as in Brabant, and may be met with 
locally throughout the great plain of central Europe. In Denmark it 
only breeds in the S., and has been obtained in Scandinavia only in 
Jaedderen and near Kristiania. Eastward it is found in the Baltic 



275 

provinces, in Finland in one or two localities only; was recognized by 
Meves in the Onega district, and breeds regularly in the S. Petersburg 
Government. In S. E. Russia it is however replaced by the next race. 
In Austro-Hungary it is known to breed in most parts, Bohemia (rarely), 
Lower Austria, Hungary (locally common), Galizia, Transsylvania, Sla- 
vonia. AV. Tyrol, etc. In Switzerland it chieflv haunts low ground, but 
is occasionally met with in valleys up to about 4500 ft., while in Italy 
it is absent from the southern provinces, but breeds in Trentino, Veneto 
and Lombardia and has been noticed in spring in Liguria. Nizzardo and 
Piemonte. 

Generally most carefully concealed, and often so hidden by long Nest. 
grass and scrub that it can only be found after most painstaking search, 
even when the site is approximately known. In the broads of Norfolk 
it often utters its reeling note from a reed, like Savi's Warbler, breeding 
close to the water, but inland many pairs nest on dry hillsides, where 
there is good cover, far from any water. On the slopes of the Pennines. 
I have met with it in long heather on the fringe of the moors ; and osier 
beds, plantations of saplings with long grass, water-meadows, commons 
and tangled hedge bottoms, are all likely spots. As a rule the 'reel' may 
be heard between 8 pm. and a few hours after sunrise, but also at times 
in the middle of the day. (For interesting notes on the courtship and 
breeding habits H. E. Howard's British Warblers, Pt. I, p. 1 — 25, 
should be consulted). The nest usually rests in a grass tussock, close 
to the ground, but occasionally as much as 18 in. or 2 ft. above it, 
among thick brambles or undergrowth. On the continent it is said to 
be sometimes placed in a cornfield, but in the British Isles only in the 
adjacent hedge bottoms. A little moss, a few leaves, and bits of bracken 
have been found in the foundation, but the actual nest is built almost 
entirely of dead leaves of grasses and some stalks, and is fairly substantial, 
but not particularly neatly constructed. Outer diameter about 4 in., 
diameter of cup 2 — 21 in, depth 1 J — 2 in. In this nest the hen sits 
with beak and tail pointing almost perpendicularly upwards, but is not 
easy to see, as the nest is generally quite hidden from above by rank 
grass or scrub. 

Typically 6, but sometimes only 5. Most books give 7 as found Eggs, 
occasionally, but I can only find one nest recorded with this number. 
They are generally thickly and uniformly speckled with very fine reddish 
brown spots on a creamy or pinkish white ground, and have little gloss. 
Sometimes the spots form a zone usually at the big end, and a purple 
or almost black hair streak is also not infrequently met with. Violet 
grey shell markings are not always present, but are sometimes conspicuous. 
In one very pretty variety in A. W. Johnson's collection there is a zone 

18* 



merits. 



276 

of pink spots round the big end on a creamy ground: while J. M. Goodall 
has a set with bold purplish red blotches (figured in Howard's British 
Warblers, pi. II, fig. 7), and R. J. Ussher took a somewhat similar set 
in Ireland. 

Breeding rpj^g earliest dates recorded appear to be May 12 in the S. of 

England, and May 14 in the northern counties, but the great majority 
of eggs are taken between May 25 and June 5. Late nests may be 
found in July and even up to Aug. 6 (Nelson), but as 0. Grabham 
states that no fewer than 30 eggs have been taken from a single pair, 
it seems probable that many supposed second broods are really only 
second or third layings. Ussher however states that a second brood 
may be found late in July or early in August in Ireland. Incubation 
lasts about 16 days (Howard), and is performed by the hen, who sits very 
closely and when flushed generally runs like a mouse for some distance, 
only taking wing to the nearest cover. The young leave the nest during 
the day when only a few days old and forsake it altogether about the 
ninth day, before they can fly. 

Measure- Avcragc sizc of 100 cggs (63 from England by the writer and 

37 from the Continent by Rey) 17.64 X 13.59, Max. 20.3 X 14.2 and 
19.1 X 14.8, Min, 16.1 X 12.5. The English eggs are as usual slightly 
larger than the German. Average weight, 94.5 mg. (Rey); 96 mg. (Bau). 

I). Eastern Grrasshopper Warbler, L. naevia straminea Seeb. 

Locustella straminea (Sev.). Dresser, B. of Europe, IX, p. 652 and Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 132. L. naevia straminea Seeb. Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 553. 

Breeding Range: From the Urals (Orenburg) and the Caucasus, 
E. to Trauscaspia, Turkestan and the Altai range. Possibly also in the 
Himalayas. 

Probably differs little in habits from the Western race, but little 
seems to have been recorded on the subject. Lorenz found it up to 
about 4500 ft. on the N. side of the Caucasus, and Severtzow says that 
in the Pamirs he met with it at the end of July on brook swamps at 
nearly 15,000 ft., where it was probably nesting. Three eggs taken in 
the Tian Shan range by Ottosson's collector resemble those of the Western 
race and average 17.86 x 43.7 mm. in size. 

129. Temminck's Grass Warbler, Locustella lanceolata (Temm.). 

Plate 34, fig. 19 (Transbaikalia). 
Egg: Cat. Eggs Br. Mus., IV, pi. IX, fig. 9. 
Locustella lanceolata (Temm.). Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p, 617 and 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 132. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 553. 



277 

Breeding Range: Onega R., N. Russia (Meves). Has occurred 
near Cattaro, Nov. 1907. [Also Siberia from Tomsk to Kamtschatka, 
N. Yezo, Saghalin and the Kuriles.] 

The only instance in which this bird has been obtained in Europe 
during the breeding season took place on July 9, 1869 near Possad on 
the R. Onega, M^hen Meves shot a singing male bird. When Pleske's 
account of its distribution (Ornithogrciphia Eossica, p. 629) was written, 
it was not known to breed W. of Kultuk, near L. Baikal, but has now 
been recorded from Tomsk by Johansen and has probably been over- 
looked. 

After arriving in its breeding haunts about mid June, the male Neat. 
'reels' nearly all day. The nest is built in marshy places, on a moss 
hillock overgrown by coarse grass and sheltered from above by a grass 
tussock. It is well concealed and as the bird sits close, is very hard to 
find. The materials used are dry grasses and stalks as a rule, but leaves 
of Vaccinmm or Moss may be used in the exterior. Outer diameter, 
3i in., cup 21 in., broad and If in. deep. 

Eggs 5, thickly marked with reddish brown on a rosy ground with ^^s'- 
grey shell markings, especially towards the big end. They are laid to- 
wards the end of June. 

Average size of 4 eggs taken by Dybowski, 17.4x12.95, Max. M««'"re- 
17.8 X 13: Min. 17 X 13 and 17.4 X 12.8. A clutch of 6 eggs from '°'°*'' 
the Baikal district taken by Ruckbeil, and ascribed to this bird, are 
slightly larger, averaging 17.9 X 13.8, but can only belong to this species 
or L. fasciolata (Gray). One egg weighs 90 mg. (Rej). 

130. Great Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus arundinaceus (L.). 

Geographical Races. 

a. European Great Reed Warbler, A. arnndinaceus arandinaceus (L.). 

Plate 29, fig. 9—13 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXI, fig. 5, a— c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 19, fig. 10. Hewitson, III Ed. I, pi. XXXII, fig. 3, 4. Taczanowski, 
Tab. XLIII, fig. 1. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 10; id. Col. Fig. pi. 52. 
Howard, Br. Warblers, pi. I, fig. 25—34. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 43—46. 
Nest: R. B. Lodge, Pictures of Bird Life., p. 227. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Rdkosnik velkij Denmark: Ro'rdrossel. 
France: RousseroUe. Germany: Drossel-Rohrsdnger. Holland: Groote 
Karakiet, Rietlijder. Hungary: Nddirigo. Italy: Cannareccioiw. Poland: 
Trzciniak diozdowka. Portugal: Chinchafoes. Russia: Trostjanoidrosd. 
Spain: Carrizalero. Sweden: Trastsdngare. 



tinental 
Europe. 



278 

Acrocephalus arundinaceiis (L.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 364. Dresser, 
B. of Europe, II, p. 597 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 119. A. turdoides 
(Mey.). Saunders, Man. p. 83. A. arundinaceus arimdinaceus (L.). 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 556. 

Breeding Range: Middle and South Continental Europe, from 
the Baltic and Gulf of Finland to the Mediterranean, and from Andalucia 
E. to Orenburg, but replaced by the Caspian race in S. E. Russia. 
[Also in N. W. Africa, Asia Minor and W. Siberia.] 
Con- It is very curious that a species, which breeds in such numbers 

on the opposite side of the Channel and whose northern range extends 
to the Gulf of Finland, should only be a rare accidental visitor to the 
British Isles. It is abundant in the reed beds of Portugal, and in the 
S. of Spain, but becomes very scarce in the plateaux of the interior, 
although it is found in the lagoons of the E. coast. In France it is 
fairly general in all suitable ground and is very common in some parts 
of Holland and Belgium. In Germany it is most numerous in E. Prussia, 
Pomerania, parts of Silesia, the Mark, Mecklenburg, Brunswick and the 
lower Rhine, but becomes scarce in Schleswig, although a few pairs 
have been found breeding in Denmark. In Switzerland it is confined to 
the low ground, and in Italy is found in the marshy districts of the N. 
and Central Provinces, but is scarce in the S., although not uncommon 
in the lakes and marshes of E. Sicily. Corsica and Sardinia are only 
visited on passage. Eastward it is found in almost all parts of Austro- 
Hungary where reed beds exist, in Poland, the Baltic Provinces to the 
islands in the Gulf of Riga and to about lat. 57" N. in the Urals. In 
the Balkan Peninsula it is common in the Danubian states, and breeds 
in the marshes of Herzegowina, Albania and in Corfu, but apparently not 
in Macedonia, while only a small proportion stay through the summer 
in Greece. [Also breeds in W. Siberia (Johansen), Asia Minor, probably 
in Palestine, and in some numbers in N. W. Africa, especially in parts 
of Algeria.] 
NeBt. The presence of this bird in reed beds is very easy to detect on 

account of its extremely loud and rather harsh song, which becomes 
almost deafening when uttered simultaneously by a dozen or more males. 
Unlike most bird songs, it can be very accurately represented by words, 
Karra, karra, karra; karee (or Keeit) karee karee; charra, charra, 
charra, etc. The nest is a copy on a larger scale of that of the Reed 
Warbler, but is even more neatly constructed. It is built round 3 to 
5 reed stems growing close together at heights varying as a rule from 
2 to 4 ft. above the water, which it almost always overhangs. One nest 
only have I seen which was well concealed among rank marsh vegetation 
(not reeds), and within a foot of the water. Occasionally however nests 



279 

are found among the twigs of Willow or Sallow bushes both in Germany 
and Italy, as much as 7 or 8 ft. from the water, or even at some dis- 
tance from it. One is recorded in the J. f. 0., 1881. p. 313, as being 
12 ft. above the ground. In shape the nest is cylindrical, built of leaves 
of grasses, reeds and sedges, with roots interwoven, and reed blossoms 
worked into the foundation, lined with stalks, reed blossoms, or plant 
down and sometimes a few horsehairs or a feather or two, forming a 
deep cup. Height about 5t — 6i in., outer diameter, 4 — 41 in., inner 
diameter, 21 in. 

Generally 4 or 5, sometimes 6, and occasionally only 3 in number. Eggs. 
In appearance they approach to the Marsh Warbler type, but are of 
course much larger. The ground colour is as a rule bluish or greenish 
sometimes with an olive tinge, very boldly blotched (especially towards 
the big end) with dark umber brown or blackish broM^. There are 
generally some smaller spots as well, and underlying shell spots and 
blotches of ashy grey or paler olive. A pretty variety has a distinctly 
blue ground: another has only a few fine grey and black spots, sometimes 
in a zone, on a whitish ground: while a third variety has a cap of dark 
umber shading into a belt of pale olive at the big end, on a greyish 
white ground. In shape they are a somewhat blunt oval and show little 
gloss as a rule. 

Breeding 

This varies to some extent according to the season, and the result- season. 
ant growth of the reeds, and some pairs will be found nesting a fort- 
night or so before the majority. In Holland the best time for eggs is 
about the second week in June, and about mid June in E. Germany, 
but clutches may be taken there occasionally as early as the third week 
in May. In N. Italy full sets may be taken from May 19, and in S. 
Spain from about May 15. Incubation is said to last 14 days, and the 
young soon leave the shelter of the nest, climbing with extraordinary 
activity among the reed stems while still unfledged. Only one brood is 
reared in the season. 

Average of 100 eggs (60 by Rey and 40 by the writer), 22.56 X 16.24, Mea.ure- 
Max. 24.8 X 16.3 and 23 X 17.2, Min. 20.9 x 16.2 and 21.2 x 15.3. 
These measurements are however sometimes exceeded: abnormally long 
eggs measure 26.2 X 15 (coll. H. M. Wallis), 25.5 X 16, etc. Average 
weight, 178 mg. (Rey). 

h. Caspian Great Reed Warbler, A. amndinaceus zarudnyi Hart. 

A. arundinaceiis zarudnyi Hart. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 558. 

Breeding Range: The mouth of the Volga and the Kirghis 
Steppes. [Also Transcaspia and Turkestan.] 



ments. 



280 

Apparently does not differ in habits from the "Western form. Average 
size of 5 eggs, 23 X 15.5 mm. 

[Still further E. is found A. arundinaceus orientalis (T. & S.), breeding in China, 
S. E Siberia and Japan, which lays smaller eggs. Average size of 28, 21.04X15-24, 
Max. 22.5 X 15.5 and 22 X 16.2; Min. 20 X 14.8 and 21.1 X 14.5. In Egypt, the 
Red Sea district and Palestine, another allied species breeds, the Clamorous Reed 
Warbler, Acrocephalus stentoreus stentoreus (H. & B.) Eggs figured in J. f. 0., 
1868, Taf. II. fig. 2 and Heuglin, Orn. N. 0. Afrika, Taf. XLIII, fig. 13—15. They 
are similar to those of the European Great Reed Warbler: average size of 4, 
21.9 X 16.05. An Eastern form of this species breeds from Transcaspia to India 
and Ceylon, A. stentoreus brunnescens (Jeid.). Eggs figured by Dresser, pi. — , 
fig. 47, 48. Average size of 8 eggs, 21.96 X 15.45.] 



131. Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus streperus (Vieill.). 

Plate 29, fig. 18—21 (Saxony). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXI, fig. 7,c, e, f (rest = A.palustris). 
Hewitson, I Ed. I, pi. LXX, fig. 1; II Ed. I, pi. XXV, fig. 3; III Ed. 
I, pi. XXXII, fig. 1 (2 = palustris). Baedeker, Tab. 19, fig. 11—15. 
Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 10; id. Col. Fig. pi. 52. Frohawk, Br. Birds, 
I, pi. II, fig. 56, 57. Cat. Eggs Br. Mus., IV, pi. VIII, fig. 20 (var.). 
Howard, Br. Warblers, pi. I, fig. 13 — 18. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 7 — 9. 
Nest: 0. Lee, IV, p. 56. 

British Local Names: Reed Wren or SiKirrow. Welsh: Aderyn 
y cyrs. Foreign Names: Bohemia: Rdkosnik obecny. Denmark: Ror- 
sanger. France: Rousserolle effarvatte. Germany: leich-Rohr Sanger. 
Holland: Kleine KaraJciet. Hungary: Cserrego poszdta. Italy: Cannaiola. 
Poland: TrzrAonka. Russia: Trostnikowaja Kamyschefka. Sweden: Ror- 
sdngare. Spain: Pimoleta. 

Acrocephalus streperus (Vieill.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 369. Dresser, 
B. of Europe, II, p. 567 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 117. Saunders, Man., 
p. 79. A. strepera strepera (Vieill.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 560. 

Breeding Range: England, S. Sweden, and Continental Europe 
S. of the Baltic, but eastern limit in Russia as yet uncertain. 
British Owing to the fact that this bird is chiefly confined in the breeding 

season to the reed grown banks of sluggish streams or still water, it is 
necessarily somewhat local everywhere, and is entirely absent from moun- 
tainous districts where the streams flow rapidly and there are few or no 
reeds. It is however quite common in some favoured spots, especially 
in the S. and S. E. Counties of England, many pairs nesting within a 
short distance of one another. It does not breed in Cornwall and is 
scarce in Devon, except at Slapton. It is also absent from the S. W. 
Counties of Wales, but breeds in Brecon (Langorse Lake), and in a few 
localities in N. Wales, where however it is scarce as well as very local. 



laleB. 



tineiital 
Europe. 



281 

It nests in some numbers in the meres of Salop, Cheshire and Stafford- 
shire, but only in the Trent valley in Derbyshire, and very locally in 
Notts, although there are a few records of its breeding in Lancashire 
and it is supposed to have nested in Cumberland. On the E. side, though 
scarce in Lincolnshire, it certainly breeds in Yorkshire, especially in the 
E. riding, while a few pairs are to be found in the N. and W., and it 
has bred once in Durham according to Tristram. 

On the Continent the northern limit of this species extends to the con 
S. shores of Lake Wener in Sweden and the southern Russian Baltic 
Provinces, while its eastern range extends to Volhynia and Kiew, where 
it is common. Either this or the Eastern form, A. strepera macronyx 
(Sev.) also occurs on the Lower Volga and the Kirghis Steppes, but the 
limits of the two forms are not yet defined. It breeds wherever suitable 
marshy breeding places are available over the greater part of Europe, 
south to Andalucia, Italy and Sicily, but not in Corsica and Sardinia, and 
also breeds in the Balkan Peninsula to Greece and Thessaly. [No eggs 
have yet been taken in N. W. Africa, but Hartert believes that it breeds 
on Lake Fetzara, Algeria; and Krviper records it from Smyrna.] 

Characteristic: usually built among reeds at a height of from one Nest 
to three feet above the water level. Occasionally it may be found among 
coarse marsh vegetation in England, and in Andalucia Irby noticed many 
nests on dead stems of Willow herb, while in some districts many nests 
are built among osiers or in the branches of other trees and bushes, up 
to 10 or even 20 ft. from the ground. Lilacs, snowberries, alders, elders, 
and laurels are often chosen for this purpose, and though in some cases 
the nest is built over water, it has also been found found at considerable 
distances from the nearest stream. In shape the typical nest is somewhat 
cylindrical and deep internally, so that the bird has been known to in- 
cubate eggs when the wind has been strong enough to blow the reeds 
almost to the water's edge. The materials used are chiefly dry grasses, 
fragments of duckweed, and old reed flowers, lined with fine grasses or 
reed tops and occasionally a feather or two, a bit of wool and a little 
horsehair. The cock accompanies the hen while building, but does not 
share the work, and in suitable spots it is usual to find several pairs 
nesting not far from one another. 

Usually 4, sometimes 5 and very rarely 6 in number. They are Eggs 
greenish white in ground colour, blotched and marbled, sometimes closely 
and occasionally sparingly with dark olive brown and ashy grey, while 
some markings are so dark as almost to be called black. Another but 
much scarcer type has an almost pure white ground, boldly spotted with 
brown or greenish brown. Major Proctor has two sets of this type, which 
have only pale markings of greenish grey and lilac. Some eggs show 



Seuson. 



ments. 



282 

rich brown caps at the big end, and in others the markings are entirely 
of smoky brown Avithout a tinge of green. 

Breeding ^hc first cggs are laid in England during the last ten days of May, 

but the breeding season is rather variable and many birds do not lay 
till early June. This is also the case in Central Europe, but in Anda- 
lucia eggs mey be found quite early in May. When the first laying is 
taken the birds build again at once, and a second and if necessary a 
third clutch may be found at intervals of about ten days. As fresh eggs 
and young have frequently been found in August, it is evident that a 
second brood is sometimes reared, in the south of England at any rate. 
Incubation lasts 13—14 days (Naumann) and is apparently performed 
by the hen. 

Measure- Avcragc of 100 cggs (55 by Rey and 45 by t-he writer), 18.2 X 13.62, 

Max. 21.4 X 14.2 and 19 X 14.6, Min. 16.3 X 12.4. A dwarf egg mea- 
sures 14.7 X 10.8. Average weight, 90.5 mg. (Rey)_, 89 mg. (Bau). Average 
weight of 20 full eggs, 1.633 g. (E. H. Read). 

[The Eastern form, A. strepera macronyx (Sev.), apparently breeds 
from Transcaspia and Turkestan to Baluchistan and the Altai.] 

132. Marsh Warbler, Acrocephalus palustris (Bechst.). 

Plate 29, fig. 14—17 (Halle a Saale). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXI, fig. 7, a, b (and d)* He- 
witson, III Ed., pi. XXXII, fig. 2.* Baedeker, Tab. 19, fi^. 16. Tac- 
zanowski, Tab. XLIII, fig. 2. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 10; id. Col. Fig. 
pi. 52. Frohawk, B. Birds, I, pi. II, fig. 58—60. Howard, Br. Warblers, 
pi. I, fig. 19—24. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 10—12. Nest: Kearton, Br. Birds' 
Nests, p. 466. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Bakosnik bdhni. Denmark: Sumpsanger. 
France: RousseroUe verderolle. Germany: Sunipfrohrsdnger. Holland: 
Bosch-Rietzanger. Hungary: Enekes nddiposzdta. Italy: Cannaiola ver- 
dognola. Poland: Lozowka. Russia: Kamyschefka. 

Acrocephalus palustris (Bechst.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 373. Dresser, 
B. of Europe, II, p. 573 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 118. Saunders, Man. 
p. 81. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 562. 

Breeding Range: S. England, and Continental Europe, S. of the 
Baltic and about lat. 59° in Russia, but scarce in S. Italy and absent 
from the Mediterranean Isles and Greece. [Perhaps S. to Palestine.] 
Britii=h Until recently the breeding range of this species was supposed to 

be restricted in England to Somerset, Gloucester, Oxford and Cambridge, 
but later observations prove that it a visitor in small numbers to 

* Figured as Acrocephalus streperus. 



Isles. 



283 

Kent, Sussex, Surrey, Hants, Wilts, and Worcester. Possibly it also 
breeds in Norfolk, and it will probably be recorded sooner or later from 
Dorset and Berks. 

On the Continent it is pretty generally distributed in suitable localities Con- 
south of the Baltic, but it not numerous in Denmark. In Russia its northern '"*'" ^ 

■ ±iurope. 

limit extends to Reval in Ehstland, and the Governments of Twer. Jaroslaw, 
Kazan and Orenburg. It is known to breed in France south to the Pyrenees, 
but the evidence as to its status in the Iberian peninsula is very conflicting. 
There are however three clutches of eggs from the Malaga district in the 
British Museum, one of which was obtained from H. Saunders; although 
in his Manual he says that as yet no specimens are forthcoming from 
the Spanish Peninsula, contradicting statements in the Ihis, 1871, p. 215 
and Dresser's Birds of Europe. It is scarce in S. and Middle Italy, rare 
on passage in Sardinia and absent from Corsica, while in the Balkan 
Peninsula although it breeds plentifully as far south as Macedonia it is 
still not definitely recorded from Greece. It is rare in the Caucasus, but 
apparently is found in Transcaucasia and also in the Volga delta. [Recently 
Schmitz reports having taken the nest in Palestine, and Loche met with 
it in Algeria, where it may breed, though proof of this is still lacking.] 

The favourite haunts of this species are osier beds, and swampy Nest. 
ground overgrown with rank vegetation, such as meadow sweet (Epi- 
lohium), or nettles, and bushes, but it is by no means confined to such 
spots and may also be found breeding in hedge bottoms, dry ditches, etc., 
at the edges of fields at a considerable distance from water. The nest 
somewhat resembles that of the Warblers in appearance and is shallower 
than those of the other Acrocephali, but is recognizable by the 'basket 
handles' by which it is attached to the stems of the surrounding vege- 
tation. It is generally from 2 to 4 ft. above the ground, and is built of 
dry grasses, lined with fine rootlets and a few horsehairs. The diameter 
of the cup is about 2 — 21 in., and the depth about 2 in. The cock 
usually sings in the neighbourhood of the nest till the work of building 
begins, when the song almost ceases for a time. 

Although it has been stated that the number varies from 5 to 7, ^«s*- 
all the authentic records with which I am acquainted agree in placing 
it at 4 to 6. The bluish or greenish or greenish white ground is more 
conspicuous than in typical Reed Warblers' eggs, and the markings are 
more scanty and bolder, and consist of irregular spots and blotches of 
olive brown and underlying violet grey, with ocasional small spots or 
streaks of almost black. Characteristic fine specks of olive brown are 
also nearly always present. 

In the south of England most eggs are laid during the second or Breeding. 
third week in June, while in Switzerland Bau says that the usual date '^^''""'- 



ments. 



284 

is from 10 to 15 June. Mc Gregor took a clutch in Macedonia on May 
21 and Schmitz reports eggs in Palestine on April 14, but in Germany 
and Holland eggs are rarely found before the first week of June. Only 
one brood is reared, and incubation lasts 13 days (Bau), 14 — 15 (W. 
W. Fowler), and is performed by the hen, who is relieved by the cock 
for part of the afternoon. 
Measure- Avcrage of 130 Continental eggs (54 by Rey, 45 by Bau and 31 by 

Hartert), 18.83 X 13.67. The largest eggs recorded appear to be 21.5x14 
(Noack) and 17x14.8 (G. v. Boxberger): Min. 17x14.8 (L. v. Box- 
berger) and 18 X 10 (Hartert). Dwarf eggs measure 10.5 X 9, 11 X 9 etc. 
Average weight, 100.4 mg. (Rey). British eggs average a little larger, 
19.13 X 13.8 mm. 

133. BIyth's Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus dumetorutn Blyth. 

Plate 26, fig. 19 (Altai.)." 

Eggs: Cat. Eggs Br. Mus., IV, pi. IX, fig. 1, 4. Dresser, pi. — , 
fig. 4—6. 

Foreign Names: Finland: Viitakerttu. Russia: Ssadowaja Malinofka. 
Arroceplialiis dumetorum Blyth. Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 561 and 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 116. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 563. 

Breeding Range: Chiefly in N. E. Russia. [Also W. Siberia to 
the Himalayas and the Altai range.] 

In Europe the range of this species is confined to Russia, where 
Europe, it has bceu met with as far west as the S. Petersburg government, while 
probably its northern range extends to Archangel, and its southern limit 
beyond the governments of Novgorod, Twer, Moscow, Tula, and east to 
Orenburg. [In Asia it is found in W. Siberia, Transcaspia. Turkestan, 
the Altai range, Bokhara, and the Himalayas.] 
Nest. Hulton and Anderson describe Indian nests as domed, with an en- 

trance at the side and built in thick bushes: built of coarse dry grasses 
and lined with finer bents, but rather loosely put together. On the other 
hand Pleske quotes Bianchi and others as having taken nests in Russia 
resembling those of the Marsh Warbler, built of stalks and leaves of 
grasses, with some admixture of leaves, down or cobwebs, and lined 
with hair in small or large quantities. Diameter of cup, 2 — 21 in., 
depth li — II in. The song of the male is rich and the alarm note a 
sharp 'Tick, tick'. 
Eggs. Usually 4 or 5, occasionally 6. They are very variable: some eggs 

are pale pink in ground colour, blotched or spotted irregularly with 
violet grey and pinkish brown: others are white, similarly marked with 
olive brown and violet: a third type is also white, with fine rufous specks. 



Con 
tinental 



285 

while a fourth is closely mottled with violet grey, umber brown and 
perhaps a blackish spot or so and has the greyish ground almost obscured. 
There is a fair amount of gloss. 

Eggs may be found in Russia from about the second week of June breeding 

®® •' . . Season. 

to the end of the mouth, but earlier in the Himalayas. 

Average of 52 eggs (28 by the writer and 24 by Pleske), 17.6 x 13.7, Measure- 

nients. 

Max. 19.5 X 15, Min. 16.2 X 13.2 and 17.5 X 12.75. 



134. Paddy-field Warbler, Acrocephalus agricola Jerd. 

Plate 22, fig. 30 (Turkestan). 

Eggs: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 1 — 3. 
Acrocephalus agricola Jerd. Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 559 and 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 115. A. agricola agricola Jerd. Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 564. 

Breeding Range: S. E. Russia. [Also from Transcaspia S. to 
E. Persia, E. to Nepal and the Altai range. Replaced in China by 
A. agricola concinens (Swin.)] 

Like the preceding species this bird is only known to breed in ^°°- 
Europe within the boundaries of Russia, but has a different range, being Europe, 
chiefly confined to the S. and S. E. Pleske states that it breeds in the 
Crimea, the Kirghis steppes and the Astrakhan district, Orenburg and 
Perm. It may possibly also be found breeding in the Dobrudscha, as a 
specimen was obtained there on April 18. [In Asia its range extends 
from Transcaspia, Turkestan, and the Altai range to Tsaidam, Tibet, and 
the Himalaya range, while southward it has been found breding at Seistan 
in E. Persia.] 

Generally built in marshes among reeds and other water plants, Nest. 
and attached to them like the nests of the Reed Warblers, which they 
much resemble. Davidson describes nests found in Kashmir as solid 
cups, from 1 to 3 ft. above the water, built of rough grass, with an 
intermixture of reed fibre and catkins, lined with finer grasses and some- 
times a feather or two. This agrees with descriptions of nests from the 
Kirghis steppes, about 5 in. high, inner diameter 11 in., depth 2? in., 
but differs widely from Brooks' account of an empty nest in a rose bush. 

In Kashmir generally 4, but 5 have been recorded from other Eggs, 
districts. Some eggs are said to resemble those of the Reed Warbler, 
and are blotched and spotted all over with greenish brown and pale 
grey and a few very dark specks, on a greenish grey ground. Kashmir 
eggs on the other hand show much more of the white or bluish white 
ground, and are only sparingly marked, chiefly at the big end, with olive 
brown and underlying grey. They show hardly any gloss. 



286 

Breeding The Bggs are laid in June as a rule: Sarudny took eggs at Seistan 

on June 2 and on the Kirghis steppes they have been found on June 7, 
but in Kashmir Davidson found 7 nests with eggs on June 22 and 
Rattray took eggs on the 19th. 

Measure- Average of 20 eggs (18 by the writer and 2 by Pleske), 17.14 x 12.93, 

Max. 18 X 13.1 and 17.6 X 14, Min. 16 x 13.3 and 16.5 X 11.7. 



ments. 



135. Sedge Warbler, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (L.). 

Plate 29, fig. 1—4 (Denmark). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Taf. XXI, fig. 10, a — c. Hewitson, 
I. Ed. I. pi. LXX, fig. 2; II Ed. pi. XXV, fig. 2; III Ed. pi. XXXI, 

fig. 3. Baedeker, Tab. 19, fig. 17. Taczanowski, Tab. XLVII, fig. 2. 
Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 10; id. Col. Fig. pi. 52. Frohawk, Br. Birds, 
I, pi. II, fig. 61, 62. Howard, Br. Warblers, pi.- 1, fig. 7—12. Dresser, 
pi. — , fig. 16—18. Nest: 0. Lee, III, p. 144. 

British Local Names: Sedge Bird or Chat, Chamchider, Mock 
Nightingale. Welsh: Dryw yr liesg. Foreign Names: Bohemia: Mysak. 
Denmark and Norway: Sivsanger. Finland: BuoJwkerltu. France: Bee-fin 
des joncs. Germany: Schilfrohrsanger. Holland: Bietzanger. Hungary: 
Folios sitke. Italy: Forapaglie. Poland: Rokitniczka. Russia: Kamy- 
schefka. Sweden: Sdfsdngare. Spain: Bnscarla. 

Acrocephalus scJioenobaenus (L.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 376. Dresser, 
B. of. Europe, II, p. 597 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 123. Hartert, Vog. 
Pal. Fauna, p. 566. A. phragmitis (Bechst.j. Saunders, Man. p. 85. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles and Continental Europe, ex- 
cepting the extreme N, and the three southern peninsulas. [Also in 
Asia E. to the Yenesei, and possibly N. W. Africa.] 
British Very generally distributed in England and Wales, except on the 

high lying moorlands and mountains. In Scotland it becomes less numerous 
in the N., although increasing its range in Moray and now plentiful in 
Dee, and is rare in W. Ross and very local in Sutherland, being every- 
where confined to ground below about 800 ft. It is found in the Isle 
of Man and some of the Inner Hebrides, has bred in Skye and occurs 
in Barra, and also breeds in the Orkneys, but not in the Shetlands. It 
is one of the commonest Irish birds, somewhat unevenly distributed, but 
breeding in every county (Ussher). 
Con- Its distribution in Scandinavia is curious, for it is rare in S. Norway, 

but commoner further N., ranging up to lat. 70*^, while in Sweden it is 
chiefly confined to the middle and S. In Russia it is tolerably common 
in S. Finland, while a few pairs reach N. Finland and Lapland, and 
it has even been recorded from Enare and the Kola peninsula. Further 



Isl 



tiueutal 
Europe 



287 

eastward it ranges to Archangel, and lat. 68" on the R. Petschora. It 
is unnecessary to trace its distribution through Central Europe, as it is 
found in all suitable breeding ground. To the southward there is no 
definite record of its breeding in the Iberian peninsula, and it occurs on 
passage only in Corsica and Sardinia, but it is locally common in Italy, 
but becomes rare or absent in the southern provinces and Sicily. In 
the Balkan peninsula also it is found in Greece only on passage, but 
breeds abundantly as far S. as Macedonia; and though possibly only met 
with on migration in the Crimea, it said to nest locally in the Caucasus. 
[In Asia it is found up to 67" on the Ob and Yenesei, as well as in 
the Altai and N. Turkestan, while there is reason to believe that it may 
breed in Algeria and Tunisia.] 

Although generally it shows a preference for marshy spots and the Nest. 
neighbourhood of water, yet occasionally this species may be met with 
breeding in hedgerows and among coarse vegetation some considerable 
distance away from it. It is often built close to the ground, although 
in hedges it is frequently found 4 or 5 ft. high and exceptionally has 
bred as much as 10 ft. above the ground in Yorkshire, Rutland and 
N. Wales. It is often well concealed by rank grass or other vegetation 
and it is as a rule much flatter than the Reed Warbler's nest, and not 
suspended, although in one or two cases it is said to have built a sus- 
pended nest like its congener. The materials used are moss and dead 
grass as a foundation, with walls of stalks and bents mixed with willow 
down, thickly lined with hair as a rule, sometimes a few feathers or 
flowering grass tops. Diameter of cup. Urn. The work of nest building 
is performed by the hen only. 

As a rule 5 or 6, but 7 are occasionally found. In general appe- Eggs. 
arance they resemble the rather larger eggs of the Yellow Wagtails, 
being so finely and thickly speckled with varying shades of ochreous 
brown or greyish brown that the yellowish or greyish ground is some- 
times hardly visible and the eggs appear to possess an almost smooth 
greyish brown surface. At other times the markings form a more or less 
distinct zone. Streaks and smudges of very dark brown often occur at 
the big end, or almost black hairstreaks like those found on the eggs 
of the Yellow and Grey Wagtails. A scarce and beautiful variation is 
the pink type, which has occurred in several districts, while white eggs 
have also been found, sometimes with a few blackish markings. 

The usual time for full clutches in Great Britain varies according Breeding 
to locality from about May 20 to June 10. In Scandinavia the eggs ^^"°"- 
are laid in early June and in Central Europe from mid May to the end 
of the month or early in June. Exceptionally clutches have been taken 
as early as May 9 in Lancashire and there is no doubt that second 



288 

broods are sometimes reared, for young are not infrequently found in 
the nest in August, and even in September. In an incubator the eggs 
hatched on the 15 th day (W. Evans), and the young leave the nest 
when about 10 days old (H. E. Howard). 
Measure- Average of 100 eggs (51 by the writer and 49 by Rey), 17.73x13.45 

"""""■ mm., Max. 20.5 X 13.2 and 19.6 X 15, Min. 15.7 x 13.4 and 17.2 X 12.4. 
Dwarf eggs measure 12.2 x 9.2, 12.8 X 9.6 etc. Average weight, 102 mg. 
(Rey), 99 mg. (Bau). 

136. Aquatic Warbler, Acrocephalus aquaticus (Gm.). 

Plate 29, fig. 5—8 (S. France). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XXI, fig. 11, a — c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 19, fig. 18 (errore). Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 10; id. Col. Fig., pi. 
52. Howard, Br. Warblers, pi. I, fig. 1 — 6 [?, 2]. Dresser, pi. — , 
fig. 13—15. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: RakSsnik vodiii. Denmark: Vandsanger. 
France: Fauvette des marais. Germany: Binsen-Rohrsanger. Hungary: 
Csikosfejil sitke Italy: Pagliarolo. Poland: Oajdivka wodniczlca. Russia: 
Kamysdiewka wertljawaja. Spain: Araiidillo. 

Acrocephalus aquaticus (Gm.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 380. Dresser, 
B. of. Europe, II, p. 591 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 122. Saunders, Man. 
p. 87. A. aquatica (Gm.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 568. 

Breeding Range: Central and southern Europe, S. of the Baltic, 
but apparently wanting from the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas. 
British [Although it is by no means improbable that it has bred in the 

Isles. gj,^|.jgjj ig}es, there is as yet no satisfactory evidence that it has done so]. 
Con- rpj^Q evidence as to the breeding of this species is far from satis- 

Europe. factory. In some cases it has probably been confused with the Sedge 
Warbler, or overlooked altogether. Saunders doubts its breeding in Spain, 
yet Irby's work contains a reference to a nest found by Verner in Anda- 
lucia. It does however certainly nest in France, somewhat sparingly in 
the Camargue, and locally in suitable spots further N., especially in the 
departements of Somme and Nord, La Brenne etc. A few pairs breed 
in the Low Countries, and in some parts of N. Germany, such as the 
Mark Brandenburg, it is locally common, and in Silesia it is not un- 
common, while it nests sparingly also in Schleswig-Holstein, S. Jutland 
and Zealand. In S. Germany it is generally rarer, but is common in 
Poland, E. of the AVeichsel, and ranges E. to the middle Urals (lat. 56°), 
but evidence from S. E. Russia is unsatisfactory. It is sparingly distri- 
buted in Switzerland, but has been found nesting at over 3000 ft. It is 
found in Galizia and is not rare locally in Hungary, but is apparently 



289 

not found S. of the Danube, although it breeds in Herzegowina and 
in Italy it is said to range S. to Sicily and to be common in Lombardy, 
Venetia and Tuscany. Brooke stated that it bred in the marshes of 
Sardinia, and Wharton records it from N. E. Corsica in late April, but 
later records are lacking. [Tristram records it as breeding in Algeria, 
but eggs taken there resemble Reed Warbler's somewhat, although he 
does not mention that species, and though it probably breeds in N. W. 
Africa, confirmation is desirable.] 

The few descriptions of the nest available depict it as generally Nest. 
built among grass grown willow bushes or clumps of sedges, not far from 
the ground and seldom more than 18 in. above it in swampy ground, 
on banks of streams etc. The nest is said to be rather smaller and deeper 
than that of the Sedge AVarbler, built of grasses and bents, with cobwebs 
and plant down interwoven, and lined usually with horsehair and some- 
times a few feathers. It also generally contains macerated leaves. 

Vary in number from -1 to 5 or 6. As far as one can tell from Eggs. 
the small series of thoroughly authentic eggs examined, they cannot be 
distinguished with any certainty from the eggs of the Sedge Warbler, 
which they closely resemble. The ground colour is pale greenish yellow, 
closely speckled with stone coloured or brownish yellow, varying in depth 
of colour, but usually light, and sometimes darker at the big end or for- 
ming a zone of darker markings. Shell smooth. 

Said to breed about a fortnight earlier than the Sedge Warbler by Breeding 
Naumann : in Poland from mid May (Taczanowski), and in Switzerland 
from mid May to early June. 

Average size of 52 eggs (17 by the writer and also by Hocke, 11 by Meaaure- 
Proctor and 7 by Blasius), 17.11 X 13.01, Max. 18.3 X 14 and 17.5 X 15, ""'"*'• 
Min. 15 X 13.7 and 17.6 X 11.8 mm. Ban gives the average of 36 eggs 
as 16.7 X 13, and the average weight as 88 mg. They are thus sniiiller 
and lighter on the average than those of the Sedge Warbler. 



137. [cterine Warbler, Hippolais icterina (Vieill.). 

Plate 28, fig. 26—29 (Leipzig). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XIX, fig. 13, a — d. Baedeker, 
Tab. 19, fig. 1, Taczanowski, Tab. LI, fig. 1. Seebolan, Br. Birds, 
pi. 10; id. Col. Fig., pi. 52. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 25—28. Howard, 
Br. Warblers, pi. II, fig. 34, 35. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Sedniihldsek. Denmark and Norway: 
Bastard Naktcrgal. Finland: Kultarinta. France: Bcr-fin a yoitrinc 
jaune. Germany: Gartensjjotter. Holland: Spotvogel. Hungary: Oeze. 

19 



290 

Italy: Canapino maggiore. Poland: OajSwka szczebiotliwa. Russia: Ljesnaja 
Malinowka. Sweden: Gulbrostad sdngare. 

Hypolais icterina (Vieill.). Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 360. Dresser, 
B. of Europe, II, p. 521 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 107. Saunders, Man. 
p. 75. Hippolais icterina (Vieill.). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 570. 

Breeding Range: Continental Europe, except N. Scandinavia and 
Russia, W. France, and the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas. [Also W. 
Siberia and probably Algeria.] 

[Although it is a fact that one (or more) species of this genus has 
bred on several occasions in the S. of England, there is no definite proof 
as yet, beyond the presence of eggs which might belong to this species 
or H. polyglotta.] It is remarkable that it should be so little known in 
England, for its range extends in Norway up to lat. 67 i°, well within 
the Arctic circle. In Sweden it is chiefly confined to the southern part 
and the islands of Gotland and Oland, but is found up to about lat. 63°, 
while in Finland it occurs as far as Kuopio and in N, Russia ranges 
to Archangel and lat. 57" at least in the Urals. Its southern limit in 
Russia coincides with that of the birch, but isolated instances of its 
occurrence have been recorded from the N. Caucasus, Crimea, Odessa etc. 
Throughout middle Europe it is generally distributed in fair numbers, but 
becomes scarce S. of the Danube valley, although a few pairs breed in 
Bulgaria and Montenegro and it is tolerably common in S. Dalmatia. 
In Italy it is generally distributed and is said also to nest in Sicily, but 
has not been found breeding in Sardinia or Corsica. In France it is 
only found in the E. and S., and is absent from the N. "W., from the 
mouth of the Garonne and the departements Charente, Vienne, Cher, 
Nifevres and Seine et Marne almost to Calais (L. Bureau). In the Low 
Countries, Denmark and Germany it is common and has twice bred on 
Helgoland. [The nest has been taken in W. Siberia about 57" N. and 
74" E., and it is almost certain that it breeds in Algeria and Tunisia, 
for Hartert shot a female in N. Algeria with enlarged ovary on May 24.] 
Neet. The neatly constructed nest is generally placed in the fork of slender 

twigs of some shrub, such as syringa or lilac; sometimes in a tree or tall 
hedge, as a rule between 4 and 8 ft. high, but sometimes as much as 
30 — 40 ft. from the ground and occasionally only a foot or two above 
it. It is rather deep, and firmly built, but very light. The materials 
vary according to locality, but generally consist of vegetable down, dry 
grasses, sometimes bits of wool, lichens or moss, interwoven with fine 
strips of birch bark, fibre or roots, and lined with grasses, roots and 
a few hairs. In some cases (especially in the N.) feathers are used in 
the lining. Birch bark is freely used to decorate the exterior as a rule, 



Measure- 
ments. 



291 

so that the nest looks very white.* A typical nest measures 31 in. high 
and 3i in. broad; diameter of cup, 21 in., depth If in. Each pair has 
its own district, and the extraordinary song of the cock at once calls 
attention to the locality. 

Usually 4 or 5, sometimes 6 in number, with the characteristic dull ^8»'- 
rose coloured ground, varying in depth somewhat and sparingly marked 
with sharply defined black spots and streaks with an occasional hair line. 
Greyish shell markings are also sometimes met with. They can generally 
be distinguished from eggs of H. yolyglotta by their larger size, but vary 
a good deal in this respect. 

In middle Europe eggs are occasionally found at the end of May, breeding 
but as a rule not till early in June, while in Scandinavia the usual time 
is about mid June, sometimes not till the end of the month. Incubation 
is performed by both sexes in turn for 13 days., the male bird sitting 
during the afternoon (Naumann). 

Average size of 142 eggs (95 by Rey and 47 by Bau), 18.35 X 13.4, 
Max. 20.6x13 and 19x14.1, Min. 17x13 and 18.1x12.4 mm. 
Average weight, 91 mg. (Rey); 92 mg. (Bau). 

138. Melodious Warbler, Hippolais polyglottc (Vieill.). 

Plate 15, fig. 7—9 (Madrid, Spain). 

Eggs: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 29, 30. Howard, Br. Warblers, pi. II, 
fig. 33. 

Foreign Names: France: Fauvette polyglotte. Portugal: Folosa. 
Italy: Canapiuo. Spain: Ahnendrita de vercwo. 

Hypolais polyglotta (Vieill.). Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 517 and Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 108. Saunders, Man. p. 77. Hippolais polyi/lotta (Vieill.). 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 571. 

Breeding Range: The Iberian peninsula, France (except in the 
N. E.) and Italy. [Also N. W. Africa.] 

[Like the preceding species this bird has also occurred in England 
in spring, and there is reason to believe that it has bred occasionally, 
but further confirmation is required. Cf. Ibis, 1897, p. 627 etc.] 

In the Iberian peninsula this species is common, but on the whole con- 
less numerous than the W. Olivaceons Warbler. It is fairly well distri- E^p" 
buted over the greater part of Spain and Portugal on suitable ground, 
except N. of the Cantabrian range, where it has not yet been recorded, 
but is more common in the southern and eastern provinces than in the 

* Rey met with two nests in a large rookery wliich were almost covered with 
Rooks' feathers. 

19* 



292 

central plateau. In France it is said by Bureau to be found everywhere 
except in the N. E., and is only absent from the following departements, 
Somme, Pas-de-Calais, Nord, Aisnes, Ardennes, outer Meuse, Meurthe 
et Moselle, Vosges, Haut SaOne and Doubs. In Italy it is somewhat 
irregularly distributed, but is probably found along the western side, and 
is not uncommon in Tuscany, while it is found in Venetia and up to 
S. Tyrol, as well as in Sicily. It is absent however from Sardinia and 
Corsica, and is only a straggler to the rest of Europe. [In N. W. Africa 
it breeds in Tunisia, Algeria, and Marocco, at least as far as the Rio 
de Oro on the W. Coast.] 
Ne.t. rpj^e favourite haunts of this bird in S. Europe are wooded guUies 

and watercourses, or banks of rivers, though Lynes occasionally also 
found it nesting in cistus scrub on the hillsides. In Algeria Hartert 
found it frequenting tamarisks and beds of huge nettles. It builds its neat 
nest in bushes of all kinds, willow, alder, oleander, arbutus, broom, etc., 
generally from 3 to 5 ft. from the ground. The nest is compactly and 
smoothly built of dry grasses and willow catkins or thistledown, with a 
dead leaf or two woven in., and is lined with down, long rootlets and 
a few hairs or rarely a few feathers. Diameter of cup nearly 2 in., 
depth, li — 11 in. The song of the male is sweeter and less forced than 
that of the Icterine. 
Eggs. lu Europe 4 or sometimes 5, while 6 are said to have occurred 

rarely, but in N. Africa the clutch consists sometimes of 3 only. The 
eggs have the same rose red ground as the Icterine's, but are often 
brighter in tint and generally smaller, while the markings are similar., 
but the surfac is dull and without gloss. 

Breeding Although a few pairs have eggs in S. Spain by May 12, the 

majority do not lay till about May 20. Apparently two broods are reared 
and the eggs of the second hatch may be looked for about the third 
week of Juue. In Algeria eggs have been taken after the third week 
in May. 

Measure- Avcragc sizc of 100 eggs from Spain and Algeria measured by the 

writer, 17.72 X 13.22, Max. 19.2 X 13.6 and 18.6 X 1-1.5, Min. 16.1 X 13 
and 17 X 12.3 mm. Weights of 3 eggs, 90, 80 and 80 mg. (Koenig). 

139. Olive-tree Warbler, Hippolais olivetorum (Strickl.). 

Plate 22, fig. 26 (Greece). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XIX, fig. 1-4, a — c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 19, fig. 3. Taczanowski, Tab. LII, fig. 1. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 31, 32. 

Foreign Names: Greece: Stritsida, Tirtirli. Italy: Canapino 
levantino. 



Season. 



meiits. 



293 

Hypolais oliretorum (Str.). Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 527 and Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 109. Hippolais olivetorum (Str.). Hartert, Yog. Pal. Fauna, 
p. 572. 

Breeding Range: The Balkan peninsula, locally (Dalmatia, Greece 
and the Archipelago). [Also Asia Minor and N. Syria.] 

Although not universally distributed this species is common in many ^°°" 
parts of Greece, especially on the low ground and foot hills, where olive Europe. 
groves prevail. Kriiper also records it from Naxos and Erhard from the 
Cyclades. It is however very scarce in Macedonia and has only once 
been obtained in Bulgaria, but its distribution in the Balkan peninsula 
is probably still imperfectly known, for it is now known to be locally 
common in the Gulf of Cattaro, in S. Dalmatia (Kollibay), and also 
breeds in Montenegro (v. Fiihrer). [In Asia Tristram found it nesting 
in N. Palestine and Kriiper describes it as tolerably common near Smyrna. 
Tristram's breeding record from Algeria is erroneous.] 

It is an extraordinarily wary and shy species, spending its time in ^*"'- 
the tops of the olive trees, where it would be very difficult to detect 
if it were not for its loud and rich but rapid and monotonous song, which 
is frequently uttered while in motion. The nest is neatly built among 
the smaller twigs of an olive or other tree, sometimes as low as 1 ft. 
from the ground, but usually from 2 to 9 or 10 ft. high. It is built of 
grasses, roots, gnaphalium stalks, mixed with down and covered exter- 
nally with cobwebs, lined with yellow down and a few roots or hairs. 
Diameter of cup, 3i — 4 in., depth li — 2 in. Lindermayer states that it 
is built in about 12 days: in Greece it is generally found in olives, but 
also in pomegranates, almonds, laurels, figs, mulberries etc., and in Dal- 
matia commonly in oak forest. Here Grossmann noticed in a summer 
when the foliage was devoured by caterpillars, that it bred in large 
colonies of some hundred pairs, a pair nesting in almost every tree. 

Sometimes 3 but more usually 4. The ground is a much paler Eggs. 
and more delicate rose than that of the Icterine's egg, which otherwise 
it closely resembles, although that of the Olive-tree Warbler is larger 
and heavier. The rounded black spots are sparingly distributed and 
rarely show any tendency to a zone. The surface is without gloss. 

It is a late arrival in its summer haunts, seldom laying before the breeding 

Season. 

last days of May and early June in Greece, although clutches have been 
taken at the end of the third week of May. Dalmatian clutches are 
dated June 11 and 15, and in Asia Minor Selous took clutches at the 
end of May. 

Average of 100 eggs (42 by the writer, 29 by Reiser and 29 by Rey), Me»»ure- 
20.12 X 14.77. Max. 22.5 x 14.7 and 20.5 X 15.7, Min. 17 x 13.5 mm. 
Rey gives the average weight as 127 mg. and Reiser (29 eggs) as 117 mg. 



tlnental 
Europe 



294 

140. Olivaceous Warbler, Hippolais pallida (H. & E.). 

Geographical Races. 

a. Eastern Oliyaceous Warbler, H. pallida pallida (H. & E.). 

Plate 22, fig. 27, 28 (Attica, Greece). 

Eggs: Thienemann: Fortpfl. Tab. XIX, fig. 15, a— c. Baedeker, 
Tab. 19, fig. 4. Reiser, Orn. Bale. Ill, Taf. Ill, fig. 10—12. Dresser, 
pi. — , fig. 35, 36. 

Foreign Names: Greece: lirtirli-honnchros, Myiochdphtes. 
Hypolais pallida (H. & E.). Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 537 and Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 110. Hippolais pallida pallida (H. & E.). Hartert, Vog. 
Pal. Fauna, p. 574. 

Breeding Range: The Balkan peninsula, Greek Islands and Crete. 
[Also Asia Minor, Palestine, Egypt, and E. to Persia as well as N. to 
Transcaspia.] 
Con- In Europe this race is confined to the Balkan peninsula, where it 

is the commonest Warbler in the southern part. In Greece it is very 
generally distributed on the low ground, breeding in the valleys and not 
ranging higher than the limit of the olive. It is also plentiful on the 
Greek islands, especially on Naxos, and on Crete. Northward it becomes 
scarcer in Macedonia, but is the characteristic Warbler of Albania and 
is very common in S. Dalmatia, S. Montenegro, and in the coast region 
of Herzegowina, and has been recorded from Bulgaria and E. Roumania. 
[It breeds abundantly in Egypt and Nubia, as well as in Palestine, Meso- 
potamia, Asia Minor and Cyprus; while its range also includes Persia, 
Transcaucasia, Turkestan, Bokhara and Transcaspia.] 
Nest. In Greece the nest is generally found among the drooping outer 

boughs of the olive, concealed by the pendent leaves, but in Montenegro 
it is found in wild pomegranates, willows and tamarisks, rarely higher 
than 3 ft., and in Cyprus among brambles and bushes near streams. In 
Egypt many nests are built in clumps of flowering plants or shrubs. The 
nest is a typical Tree Warbler's, built of fine grasses, roots, fibre and 
strips of bark, mixed with down of various kinds and bits of wool, the 
whole being compactly woven together, and lined with wool, down and 
fine roots, with an occasional feather or horsehair. Diameter of cup, 
II in, depth li — 2 in. 
Bggs. Generally 4, sometimes only 3, while 5 are said to occur very 

rarely. They are quite, without gloss and have a pale greyish ground, 
sometimes with a slight reddish, violet or yellowish tinge, and dark blackish 
brown spots (generally rounded) and specks, with occasional streaks or 
hair lines at the larger end. Reiser obtained a variety with a single 
large blackish spot on a flesh coloured ground. 



Meature- 
ments. 



295 

In Greece eggs may be taken from mid May to early June, and breeding 
after the first week of May in Cyprus, while in Asia Minor from May 12 
to the beginning of June, and from the beginning of May in Persia. 
Incubation is performed by the hen alone and lasts 13 days (Reiser); 
during the whole day the cock sings in the neighbourhood of the nest. 
The hen sits very closely and may be touched as she sits (D. Bate). 
Only one brood is reared, and the parents migrate south at the end of 
July from Greece. 

Average of 105 eggs (63 by Rey, 26 by Reiser and 16 by the 
writer), 17.38 X 13.33, Max. 19.5 X 13.8 and 17 X 14, Min. 15.9 X 12.3 
and 17 x 12.1 mm. Average weight 80 mg. (Rey); 79.7 mg. (Reiser). 

b. Western Oliyaceoas Warbler, H. pallida opaca Cab. 

Plate 32, fig. 15—17 (Spain). 

Eggs: Baedeker, Tab. 19, fig. 2. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 33, 34. 

Foreign Name: Spain: Pinchahigos. 
Hypolais opaca (Licht.). Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 531 and Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 110. Hippolais pallida opaca Cab. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, 
p. 575. 

Breeding Range: S. and E. Spain. [Also N. W. Africa, N. of 
the Atlas.] 

In Spain, although locally very common, this species appears to con- 
be confined to the southern and eastern provinces, and apparently does ^°®° * 
not penetrate to the high plateau of the interior or the N. It breeds 
at least as far W. as Huelva, but has not been recorded from Portugal, 
and is common in parts of Andalucia, Murcia and Valencia. As a 
straggler it has occurred in the Riviera and perhaps also in S. France. 
[In N. W. Africa it is a common summer visitor to the well watered 
districts of Marocco, Algeria and Tunisia, N. of the Atlas range, but 
in the oases of S. Algeria is replaced by a paler form, H. j)(^^lida 
reiseri Hilg.] 

In Spain the nest is generally placed in trees or bushes near river Nest. 
banks, as a rule from 4 to 15 ft. from the ground, but one found by 
me in a garden in Jerez was nearly 30 ft. high. It is woven round the 
forking twigs, and its built of thistle and other downs, together with fine 
roots, grasses etc., lined with down or sometimes bits of wool and a few 
hairs. I have seen feathers also used occasionally. The cock is not shy 
and sings very persistently near the nesting place. Diameter of cup, 
II in., depth If — 2 in. 

From 3 to 5 in number, but generally 4, while 6 are said to «g«»- 
have occurred in Spain. In colour they have a greyish white or dove- 



merits. 



296 

coloured ground, and are spotted, sometimes boldly and sometimes only 
lightly, with blackish brown. As a rule the markings are rather larger 
and bolder than in the Eastern race, but many clutches are quite in- 
distinguishable, and both are equally devoid of gloss. 
Breeding jjj gpain tlic bcst time is about the second week in June, but I 

Season. • ii i • i ii r 

have seen an exceptionally early nest with eggs on May 13, and clutches 
are not infrequently found at the end of May. In N. Africa the breed- 
ing season begins earlier, and eggs may be found in May and June. 
Measure- Average of 100 eggs (87 by the writer and 13 by Key), 18.69x13.51 

mm., Max. 20.1x13.6 and 20x15, Min. 17x13 and 18.4x12.3. 
Average weight, 92 mg. (Rey). [A third form, H. 'pallida reiser i Hilgert, 
is found in the Oases of S. Algeria.] 

141. Booted Warbler, Hippolais caligata (Licht). 

. Plate 22, fig. 29 (Kirghis Steppes). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Taf. XXI, fig. 9 (errore). Dresser, 
pi. — , fig. 43, 44. 

Foreign Name: Russia: Kamyschewlm milowidnaja. 
Hypolais caligata Licht. Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 541 and 
Man. Pal. Birds, p. 113. Hippolais caligata (Licht). Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 575. 

Breeding Range: East Russia, from Olonetz east to Perm and 
south to Astrakhan. [Also W. Siberia to the Yenesei, Transcaspia, Tur- 
kestan and Kashmir.] 
Con- This bird is a summer visitor, whose northern limit extends to the 

Latscha Lake in the Olonetz Government (Meves), while it is not un- 
common in Moscow and Tula and also in the district between the rivers 
Oka and Volga. Eastward it is found in the Perm and Orenburg Go- 
vernments on the S. W. slopes of the Urals, while it is distributed through 
the basin of the middle Volga southward to Saratow and the Kirghis 
steppes in the Astrakhan Government. [In Asia it is now known to 
be found in Transcaspia, Turkestan, the Altai range, Bokhara, and W. Si- 
beria up to at least 61" N. in the Yenesei valley and E. to Krasnoyarsk, 
as well as in Kashmir.] 

Sarudny writing from the Orenburg district, describes the nest as 
built either close to or actually on the ground in dry meadows overgrown 
with Caragaiia and Astralagiis bushes, generally on the edge of a thicket 
or in single bushes in valleys. Nests from other sources are built in 
twigs like those of other Tree-Warblers. They are neatly built of grasses, 
stalks etc., lined with finer materials, such as fine grasses, horsehair, willow 
and duck down, etc. Average width of cup 2 — 21 in., depth 11 — Ii in. 



tinental 
Europe. 



menti. 



297 

From 4 to 6 in number, long oval in shape and decidedly smaller Eggs, 
than those of other Tree Warblers. When fresh they are pale pink, 
with blackish spots, chiefly at the big end, and a few purplish shell 
markings. There is practically no gloss on these eggs. 

In middle Russia the usual time for full clutches is about June 8, breeding 
while in Orenburg the first eggs are found at the beginning of the month 
and the young are fledged early in July. 

Average of 45 eggs by the writer, 15.57 x; 12.24, Max. 17x13 Meamre- 
and 15x13.5, Min. 14x11.3. Rey gives the average weight of one 
clutch as 70 mg. 

[Two other species of Tree Warbler occur in the W. Palaearctic reaion, 
Upcher's Warbler, Hippolais languida (H. & E.), and Sykes' Warbler, H rama (Sykes). 
The eggs of Upcher's Warbler are figured in the Cat. Eggs Br. Mus., IV. pi. X, fig. 2; 
Dresser, pi. — , fig. 37, 38. Breeding Eange: Palestine, Persia, Transcaspia, Turkestan, 
Baluchistan and Afghanistan. The nest is a neat cup with cobwebs and down inter- 
woven and is placed in bushes from 3 to 6 ft. from the ground. Eggs, 4 to 5 in 
number, delicate mauve wlien fresh, are marked with small spots and streaks of deep 
chocolate brown and are like those of H. oliveforum, but slightly smaller. In S. Persia, 
the eggs were nearly hatching at the end of May, but Tristram found eggs on Her- 
mon as late as June 4. Possibly this was a second brood as eggs are said to have 
been taken there at the end of April. Average size of 16 eggs by the writer, 
19.04 X 13.8, Max. 20.4 X 14 and 20 X 14.5, Min. 18.2 X '4 and 18.5 X 13.2. Eggs 
of Sykes' Warbler are figured in P. Z. S., 1874, pi. LXXIX (nest); Dresser, pi. — , 
fig. 39 — 42. Breeding Range: Transcaspia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Persia Turkestan 
S. E. Mongolia, Kashmir and Sind. .Nest: usually about a foot from the ground in 
tamarisk, saxaul or other bushes, built of bents and sedge with a lining of fine grasses, 
down, horsehair etc. Eggs, usually 4 or 5, sometimes 6 and even 7 in number ex- 
ceptionally. They are dull white with a faint greenish or greyish tinge, and are 
covered with a tracery of nearly bl;ck lines as well as the usual markings and uflen 
have a well marked zone. Breeding season according to Riissow, May 25 — June 1. 
Average size of 20 eggs by the writer, 14.78 X 12.41, Max. 1G.6 X 12.5 and 16 3 X 13, 
Min. 14.7 X 12 and 15.2 X 11.8.J 

142. Barred Warbler, Sylvia nisoria Bechst. 

Plate 27, fig. 20—23 (N. Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Taf. XX, fig. 3, a — c. Baedeker, Tab. 51, 
fig. 14. Taczanowski, Tab. XL VIII, fig. 1. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 10; 
id. Col. Fig., pi. 52. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 45, 46. 

Foreign Names: Bohemia: Fenice vlasska. Denmark: Brystvatret 
Sanger. France: Fauvette epervmre. Germany: Sperher -Orasmiicke. ^q\- 
golsindiKat-Unger. HungaxjiKarvalypos^dta. ItsAj: Bigiapadovana. Poland: 
Fokrywka jarzebata. Russia: Fodoreschnik. Sweden: Hokfcirgad sdngare. 
Sylvia nisoria (Bechst.). Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 435 and Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 73. Saunders, Man. p. 51. S. nisoria nisoria (Bechst.). 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 578. 



tinental 
Europe. 



298 

Breeding Range: Central Europe, S. of the Baltic and Gulf of 
Finland and B. of the Rhine, but absent from the S. of the Italian and 
Balkan Pensinsulas. [In W. Asia it is replaced by S. nisoria merz- 
hacheri Schal.] 

Cod- In Scandinavia it is found in S. Sweden in Skane, Blekinge, S. 

Kalmar Ian, Oland, and Gotland, and perhaps also in Asker in Norway. 
In Russia it breeds on Drumso near Helsingfors in Finland and its 
northern limit extends to the Governments of S. Petersburg, Jaroslaw 
and Kazan, but only in small numbers, though it becomes more numerous 
in middle Russia and ranges S. to Bessarabia, Poltawa, Charkow, the 
Crimea, and in smaller numbers even to Astrakhan and the N. Caucasus. 
In Germany its distribution is irregular and it is absent from some 
districts, but is found locally E. of the Rhine valley, and is not scarce in 
Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Saxony, Anhalt and Pomerania, and is es- 
pecially common in Prussia, but local in Silesia, and fairly common in 
the South, though always local. It is tolerably common in Austro-Hungary, 
but has not been proved to breed in Switzerland, and nests in the N. 
and N. E. provinces of Italy, and in the Balkan peninsula in Montenegro, 
Dalmatia, Bulgaria and the Dobrudscha, where it is locally common. 
In France it is of very rare occurrence, but breeds in small numbers in 
Holstein and Denmark. [The range of the Asiatic form, S. n. merzbacheri 
Schal., may extend from Asia minor to Persia and Turkestan, but needs 
defining.] 
Nest As a rule this species haunts the outskirts of woods, commons, and 

rough ground overgrown with bushes, such as blackthorn, rose, bramble etc. 
The nest is generally well hidden, from 1 ft. 6 in. to 6 ft. from the 
ground, but has been found exceptionally as high as 25 ft. Two or 
three pairs may often be found nesting not far from one another. The 
rather flat nest is somewhat roughly built externally, but is a typical 
Warbler's, built of grasses and roots, with some cobwebs or down inter- 
woven, and lined with horsehair and sometimes fine roots. Bau notes 
that it frequently breeds close to the Red backed Shrike, and that the 
alarm notes of the two birds are very similar. 
Eggs. Usually 5, but occasionally 6 or only 4, which latter number is 

often found in second layings. The ground colour is pale yellowish, 
milky white or greyish, closely speckled with pale leaden or brownish 
grey. In some eggs the markings are very faint and barely visible, while 
in others they are darker and form a zone. Hartert found one set near 
Pillau with large red brown spots and streaks. Generally they show a fair 
amount of gloss. 
Breeding In Swcdcu from the last week of May to mid June: in Germany 

Season. 



299 

during the second half of May and exceptionally as early as May 8 (Hey). 
Bail says that incubation lasts 14 days and that the male relieves the 
female during the mid-day hours, while the young remain in the nest for 
another fortnight. 

Average of 113 eggs from Germany (Hey), 21.07x14.41, Max. Measure- 
22.8x15.6 and 22.5x16.3, Min. 19.5x14.5. Double egg. 23.9x17.2: 
dwarf, 12.5x10. I have seen an egg 23.2x16.6. Average weight, 
158 mg. (Key). 



143. Orphean Warbler, Sylvia hortensis(G!Ti.) [S. orphea auct.]* 

Geographical Races. 

a. Western Orphean Warbler, S. hortensis hortensis (Crm.) 

Plate 27, fig. 25 (Spain). 

Eggs: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 37 — 39 (not typical). See also p. 300, 
note. Nest: R. B. Lodge, Bird Hunting, p. 55. 

Foreign Names: France: Caravasse. Italy: Bigia grossa. Spain: 
Canaria, Pinzoleta. 

Sylvia orphea Temm. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I. p. 423. Dresser, B. of 
Europe, II. p. 411 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 85. Saunders, Man. p. 45. 
S. hortensis hortensis (Gm.) Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 580. 

Breeding Range: S. W. Europe. [Also N. W. Africa.] 

In the Iberian peninsula it appears to be confined to the southern ^°^- 
half of the country in Portugal, and breeds abundantly in Algarve. In Europe. 
Spain it is found in all the central, eastern and southern districts, and 
is very common in the wooded hills and olive groves of Andalucia. In 
France it is entirely absent from the N. W., although it is said to breed 
sparingly in La Brenne, but occurs in south and mid-France and in small 
numbers as far as Luxemburg and Metz. A few pairs breed in W. 
Switzerland, near Geneva and in the Valais. In Italy it breeds chiefly 
in Liguria, Piedmont and Lombardy, but also occurs in Venetia and 
near Firenze. It is said also to be found, though rarely, in Sicily, but 
not in Corsica or Sardinia, and Homeyer only met with one in the Bale- 
aric Isles. [In Africa it breeds commonly in the wooded parts of Al- 
geria and Tunisia, but becomes scarce in Marocco , though some cer- 
tainly breed in the Maroccan Atlas and also in Tripoli.] 

Generally built among the branches of medium sized tres, such as Nest. 
olives, oaks, cork-oaks, pines, oranges, etc., usually near end of a branch 
at a height of about 8 to 15 ft., but sometimes not more than 4 — 5 ft. 

* An unfortunate change which may produce much confusion in the future, 
but rendered necessary by the adoption of strict priority. 



300 

high in bushes. Rey foiind a nest in tall Erica near Lisbon and Koenig 
found one in Juniijerns oxyderus in Algeria. It is a typical Warbler's 
nest , fairly neat and compact , built of stalks of grasses and weeds, 
interspersed with bits of down, and lined with fine roots or grasses and 
sometimes fibre or a little hair. Diameter of cup 21 — 2i in., depth 
II— If in. 
Egcs. Usually 4 or 5, sometimes only 3. Noble records a nest with 7 

fresh eggs, which must have been the produce of two hens. They 
vary in shape but are typically of a rounded oval, with a very pale 
greenish white ground Avhen fresh, which however fades in time to al- 
most pure white, and are marked with very dark umber brown spots, 
streaks, and an occasional scrawl, generally softened at the edges like 
brand marks, and also marked with paler umber blotches and small spots 
and ashy shell markings. Most of the spots are concentrated towards the 
big end. Gates describes the eggs as very glossy, but this does not agree 
with my experience of Spanish eggs and probably refers only to those of 
the next race. 

Breeding? In S. Spain cggs may be found from the beginning of May onward, 

but the best time is about the middle of the month. Rey gives the 
breeding season in S. Portugal as extending from the end of April to 
the end of June. S. of the Atlas range in Tunisia the breeding season 
begins earlier in April. Though eggs may be obtained till early in June 
it seems doubtful whether two broods are reared in Europe, as stated by 
Arrigoni. 

^TZT Average of 100 eggs (81 by the writer from Spain and 19 by Er- 

langer from Tunisia) 19.01x14.41, Max. 21.5x14.5 and 19x15.5; Min. 
17.5x13.6 and 20.3x13.2. An abnormally large egg (not a Cuckoo's) 
measures 22.3x17.3. Average weight of 9 Spanish eggs, 118 mg. 
Koenig however gives the average of 11 eggs from Algeria as 127 mg., 
which seems unusually heavy. Rey has a dwarf egg either of this or 
the next form, 11x9 mm. 



b. Eastern Orphean Warbler, S. hortensis crassirostris €retzschm. 

Plate 27, fig. 24, 26, 27 (Greece). 
Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Taf. XX, fig. 1, a — c. Hewitson, 
III Ed., pi. XXXV, fig. 3. Baedeker, Tab. 51, fig. 10. Seebohm Br. 
Birds, pi. 10; id. col. Fig. pi. 52 [Possibly some of the above figures 
may apply to the W. race, as localities are not given]. Reiser, Grn. 
Bale, III, Taf. Ill, fig. 7—9. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 40,41 (? 41,42). 
Sylvia jerdoni (Blyth). Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, p. 86. *S'. hortensis 
crassirostris Greta. Hartert, Vog Pal. Fauna, p. 581. 



301 

Breeding Range: From Herzegowina and S. Dalmatia to Greece. 
[Also Asia Minor, Syria, Persia, Turkestan, Afghanistan and N. W. India]. 

In the Balkan peninsula this race is common in S. Dalmatia and ^°"' 
Herzegowina and is found near the Lake of Scutari in Montenegro. It Europe. 
probably breeds also in Albania and is not rare on Olympus, while it is 
widely distributed in Greece, not only on the low ground but also in the 
mountains, and is very common in the Parnassus, and is also found in the 
Gyclades. In S. Russia and the Crimea the evidence of its occurrence is 
unsatisfactory. [It breeds in the wooded districts of Palestine, and is 
common in Asia Minor, occurs in the mountains of S. Persia, in Turkestan, 
S. Afghanistan (common near Quetta) to Gilgit and the N. W. Provinces 
of India.] 

Although the bird is of a skulking disposition, the nest is generally Nost. 
easy to find, being often placed near the top of a small bush, or else 
about 6 to 12 ft. high in some small tree. It is fairly substantial for 
a Warbler's nest, built chiefly of bents, dry stalks of OnapJialium, grasses 
and a little down or a few hairs. 

Usually 4: or 5, but Selous found several clutches of 6 in Asia Egge. 
Minor. As a rule they are easily distinguishable from those of the W. 
form, as was originally pointed ont by Baldamus. Typical eggs have a 
very light greyish or greenish ground, almost white, and are sparingly 
marked, chiefly at the big end, with small spots of greyish or brownish 
and ashy shell markings. The dark brown spots and brand marks of 
Spanish eggs are generally absent, although one or two sets have been 
found with brown blotches. Reiser describes a variety as resembling the 
the type of Mot. alba. There is generally more gloss than in Western eggs. 

Arriving in Greece and Asia Minor about the end of March or Breeding 
early in April, eggs may be found from the end of April onward, but *^''*^°"'- 
mostly about the third week of May : while in Syria the season extends 
from May 6 to June 6. In S. Persia Witherby found eggs on May 17. 
Kriiper's observations show that apparently the hen alone incubates, the 
cock singing his powerful song some distance off. 

Average of 100 eggs (78 by the writer and 22 by Reiser), 20.02x14.92, Measure- 
Max. 23.3x15.1 and 20.6x16.5, Min. 18x14.4 and 20.4x14.1. They """"'• 
are therefore larger as a rule than Spanish and African eggs. Average 
weight of 21 Greek eggs, 137.8 mg, varying from 115 to 180 mg. 

144. Garden Warbler, Sylvia borin (Bodd.) [S. hortensis auct.] 

Plate 27, fig, 1—5 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Taf. XX, fig. 2, a — e. Howitson, 
I Ed. I pi. XIII; II Ed. pi. XXVII, fig. 3: III Ed., pi. XXXIV, fig. 3, 4. 



302 

Baedeker, Tab. 51, fig. 11. Taczanowski, Tab. XLIX, fig. 1. Seebohm, 
Br. Birds, pi. 10: id. Col. Fig. pi. 52. Cat. Eggs. Br. Mus., IV. pi. 
VIII, fig. 13. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I. pi. II, fig. 42—44. Dresser, pi. — , 
fig. 16—18. Howard, Br. Warblers, pi. Ill, fig. 13—18. Nest: O.Lee, 
IV p. 44. 

British Local Names: Nettle creeper, Peggy (gen.). Foreign 
Names: Bohemia: Penice slavikoiva. Denmark and Norway: Havesanger. 
Finland: Lehtokerttu. France: Fauvette des jardins. Germany: Oarten- 
grasmiicke. Helgoland: Orii tinger. Holland: Tuinfiuiter. Hungary: 
Kerti Poszdta. Poland: Fokrywka ogrodowa. Russia: Travnik. Sweden: 
Hdcksdrigare. Spain: P'mzoleta. 

Sylvia salicaria (L.\ Newton, ed. Yarrell, I. p. 414. Dresser, B. 
of Europe, II. p. 429. 8. hortensis Bechst. Dresser, Man. Pal. Birds, 
p. 78. Saunders, Man. p. 49. S. borin borin (Bodd.) Hartert, Vog. Pal. 
Fauna, p. 582. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles and Continental Europe, ex- 
cepting the extreme N. of Scandinavia and Russia and the S. Italian and 
S. Balkan peninsulas. [Also N. W. Africa and W. Siberia.] 
British In England this species is generally distributed, but its numbers 

Isles. ^g^j.y j^j^ different seasons and in some districts of S. England it is much 
less numerous than the Blackcap (e. g. Berkshire, where the proportion 
is about 1 to 10), while on the other hand in the Midlands and N. it is 
decidedly more plentiful. In Cornwall it is confined tho the valleys of the 
Tamar and Lynher and is scarce in N. Devon; while in Wales it is 
scarce and local along the N. coast from Carnavon and Anglesey to N. 
Flint and Denbigh, becoming commoner in wooded valleys further S., 
but absent from Pembroke, though known to breed in Cardigan, Brecon, 
Radnor and Glamorgan. In Scotland it is by no means general, but is 
commoner than the Blackcap in some of the southern areas (Solway, 
Forth and Clyde), and has bred in Tay, but is only of accidental occur- 
rence in Dee and on the Outer Hebrides, and apparently absent from the 
mainland N. of the Great Glen. In Ireland its distribution is curious, 
for it visits localities in all four provinces, though very local and little 
known. It has however been proved to breed in Fermanagh, Sligo, 
Roscommon, Longford, Down, Kerry, Clare, and Tipperary, and probably 
in other districts also. 
Con- In Scandinavia the Garden Warbler has been found breeding up to 

70° N. in Norway and to 67 — 68" in Sweden. In Russia its N. range 
includes S. and Mid. Finland, the Olonetz Government, the Archangel 
district and to lat 62" in the Urals. South of these localities it seems 
to be generally common as far as Caucasia and the Crimea, though scarce 



tlnental 
Europe. 



303 

in Transcaucasia. It is also of general occurrence in suitable country 
over the whole of central and W. Europe. Southward its range extends 
to S. Spain and Portugal and Irby records it as nesting in the Gibraltar 
cork woods, but in Italy it is chiefly known on passage, though a few 
pairs breed in the hills of the Po valley and in the Apennines and it 
is said to nest in Sicily, but it is absent from Corsica, and rare on 
migration in Sardinia. In the Balkan peninsula it breeds in Montenegro, 
Herzegowina, and Epirus (Lilford), but is not known to nest in Greece, 
Macedonia and apparently Bulgaria, except in the hills of the Dobrudscha. 
Although for the greater part of its range it chiefly haunts low ground, 
it ranges up to 5500 ft. in the Pyrenees, and 3000 ft. in the Car- 
pathians and Caucasus. [In N. W. Africa Irby states that it nests near 
Tangier, Hartert states that it breeds in considerable numbers near Ham- 
mam Meskoutine and Algiers, and AVhitaker believes that it must breed 
in Tunisia: eggs ascribed to this species from Gafsa are however those 
of S. hortensis (orphea auct.) In Asia it is found in W. Siberia to 
Krasnoyarsk, and also in Transcaucasia, while it has been obtained in 
Persia in May, and is said by Tristram to breed in Palestine, though this 
requires confirmation.] 

Generally placed lower down in bushes than that of the Blackcap, Nest. 
and often found in gardens, shrubberies etc. The usual height is from 
1 ft. 6 in. to 6 ft., but exceptionally nests have been found 10 — 14 ft. 
from the ground in trees. Several nests have been found in tall ferns, 
while others are recorded in rows of peas, among tares in fields, in ivy 
on walls, and often in gooseberry or currant bushes. Perhaps the most 
remarkable site is that recorded by von Homeyer from Hiddensoe, at the 
bottom of a deep hole in sandy ground, probably an old mouse hole! 
The nest is slightly constructed of long dead grasses and stalks bent 
round, lined with finer grasses and a few hairs. It is rather more sub- 
stantial than that of the Blackcap. Diameter of cup abont 2i — 21 in. 
depth. II in. 

Usually 5, occasionally only 4 or rarely 6 in number. They are Eggs, 
generally but not invariably to be distinguished from Blackcap's by 
slightly larger size, greater gloss, lighter surface markings and distinct 
grey shellmarkings , while the distinctly red type rarely if ever occurs. 
Probably the few cases in which it is said to occur are due to errors 
in observation. Ground colour, either pure white or yellowish or pale 
greenish, spotted and blotched sometimes with light shades of olive and 
brown, sometimes also with darker markings and soft edges. One variety 
is almost white; another has big yellowish patches on a white ground, 
a third has brand spots like a Waxwing's egg on a greyish ground (Rey) 



304 

and others have zones of small spots round the big end. As the hen sits 
very closely identification is not difficult and is indispensable. 
Breeding Altliough cggs havc bccu taken as early as the middle of May and 

Season. 

once on May 9 in S. England, the usual date is towards the end of the 
month or early in June, lley says in Germany eggs are seldom found 
before May 10: often up to the end of June or July. In Spain Irby 
found eggs on May 10. Only one brood is reared and the late nests are 
apparently those of birds which have been robbed. Incubation lasts 13 
days: Bau says the male relieves the hen in the middle of the day. 
Measure- Avcragc of 100 cggs (50 by Rey and 50 by the writer), 20.05x14.69, 

Max. 23x14.8 and 19x16, Min. 18x14.6 and 19x13.4. A double egg 
measures 23.8x16.4 (Rey) and dwarfs measure 14.5x12, 16.2x13.2 etc. 
Average weight, 140 mg. (Hey.) 



145. Blackcap, Sylvia atricapiila (L.) 
Plate 27, fig. 11—15 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XX, fig. 1, a — d. Hewitson, I 
Ed. I. pi. XLII fig. 3; II Ed. pi. XXVII, fig. 1,2: III Ed. pi. XXXIV, 
fing. 1,2, Baedeker, Tab. 51, fig. 12. Taczanowski, Tab XL VIII, fig. 
2. Seebohm, Br. Birds, pi. 10: id. Col. Fig. pi. 52. Frohawk, Br. Birds, 
pi. II. fig. 38—41. Cat. Eggs Br. Mus., IV. pi. VIII, fig. 114. 
Dresser, pi. — , fig. 19 — 21, Howard, Br. AVarhlers, pi. Ill, fig. 1 — 12. 
Nest: O. Lee, IV. p. 126. 

British Local Names: Blackcap Peggy, Coal Hoodie. Welsh: 
Peiiddii. Foreign Names: Bohemia: Cernolddvek. Denmark and Nor- 
way: Mimk. Finland: Muslapad-Kerttu,. France: Fauvette a tete noire. 
Germany: Moiich-Grasmiicke. Holland: Zwartkop. Hungary: Bardtka 
poszdta. Italy: Capinera. Poland: Pokryivka czarnogtowka. Portugal: 
Tidinegra real. Russia: Tscliernoyolowka. Spain: Pulverilla. Sweden: 
Svarthufvad Sdngare. 

Sylvia atricapiila L. Newton, ed. Yarroll, I. p. 418. Dresser, B. of 
Europe, II. p. 421 and Man. Pal. Birds p. 84. Saunders, Man. p. 47. 
S. atricapiila atricapiila (L.) Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 583. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles, Continental Europe (except 

the high North), and the Mediterranean Islands. [Also the Cape Verde 

Isles, the Azores and in N. W. Africa, Asia Minor, Palestine and AV. 

Persia.] 

British jjj England this species is on the whole generally distributed but is 

Isles. _ ' 

much commoner in some of the home counties than further north, and 
is scarce in W. Cornwall, Lincolnshire and the Sol way coast; while in 



305 

Wales it is not common in Pembroke and rare also in the greater part 
of Carnarvon and Anglesey. In Scotland it is chiefly confined to the 
areas of Solway, Tweed, Clyde, Forth and Tay, but is not so common as 
the Garden Warbler. It has also bred once in Dee, occasionally in 
Moray, and also in W. Ross, as well as on Jura, while it is reported 
as having bred in the Orkneys and once tried to do so in the Shetlands. 
In Ireland it is widely, but very sparingly distributed, and is commonest 
in Wicklow, but has bred also in Dublin, Kildare, Cavan, Fermanagh, 
Sligo, Galway, Mayo, Tipperary, and probably several other counties. 

In Scandinavia it is only sparingly distributed to about lat. 66" in 
Norway and middle Sweden, and on the Dovre and Fille fjeld ranges 
as high as 3800 ft. It is not scarce in Finland, but has not been found 
further N. than between Uleaborg and Tornea, and reaches to 62" on the 
Dwina, the Wiatka government, and about 60" in the Urals. [East of 
the Urals it becomes rare, but has been recorded from Omsk]. South 
of these limits the Blackcap is generally distributed in suitable localities 
throughout the Continent to the Mediterranean, where it is resident; breed- 
ing in the Alps up to 5500 ft., in the Caucasus to 6600 ft., while in the 
E. Pyrenees it has been found nesting up to 3200 ft. It also breeds in 
most of the Mediterranean islands, the Balearic Isles, Corsica, Sardinia, 
Sicily and Cyprus. [Also nests in the Cape Verde Isles, the Azores and 
N, W. Africa, but only N. of the Atlas range, and is replaced by 8. atri- 
capilla lieineken Jard., in Madeira and the Canaries: while its range ex- 
tends to Asia Minor, Palestine, Transcaucasia, and in small numbers to 
W. Persia.] 

Although on the average the nest is placed rather higher than that ^^^*- 
of the Garden Warbler, this is by no means always the case, and Rey 
found near Leipzig that out of some 200 nests examined nearly all Avere 
lower. Nests 10 to 12 ft. high have occasionally been found in England 
and in Andalucia I have taken eggs quite 25 ft. from the ground. But 
the usual site is among undergrowth, brambles, briars, honeysuckle, etc- 
in woods, young plantations or country lanes : sometimes in bushes, espec- 
ially the snoAvberry, or hollies', alders, and rhododendrons. It is also 
said occasionally to be placed among long matted grass and nettles close 
to a tree. The nest is slightly built, neater than the Garden Warbler's 
and rather lighter, composed of stalks and bents, lined with finer grasses, 
roots and often (but not always) horsehair. Other materials sometimes 
used are honeysuckle bark, moss, wool, cobwebs and cocoons. Diameter 
of cup about 2 in., depth about li — 11. 

Usually 4 or 5, but in the Mediterranean district, sometimes only 3, ^s^'- 
and clutches of 6 occur now and then, especially in N. Europe. They 
vary considerably, but the ground colour is generally some shade of 

20 



306 

pale buff or stone, clouded and blotched with yellowish brown and grey 
shellmarks, while usually there are also much darker spots, streaks and 
scrolls of sepia to sienna brown, with indistinct edges. Some varieties 
are almost white, either without markings, or faintly marked with grey 
or fine red specks. The well known red variety has a distinctly pale 
salmon pink ground with reddish brown or pinky red markings. Though 
rare in England, it is not uncommon in some parts of the Continent and 
R,ey estimates the proportion of red clutches in Germany at about 6 per 
cent. Transition stages also occur between the red and brown types. 
Breeding In Germany the breeding season lasts from the beginning of May to 

Season, j^^j g^^j ^wo broods are often reared. In the S. of England clutches may 
occasionally be taken in the last days of April, but in the Midlands and 
northern counties the second half of May is the best time, and on the 
borders few pairs lay before the first week in June. In the S. of Spain 
eggs have been taken by the middle of March-. In my opinion only a 
small proportion of British breeding birds can be double brooded. Full 
and interesting accounts of the courtship of this species will be found 
in Howard's BritisJi Warblers, pt. 3, p. 5. Incubation lasts about 15 
days (Howard); the cock frequently taking part, and both birds sit very closely. 
Measure- Avcragc of 100 cggs (50 by Rey and 50 by the writer), 19.3x14.56, 

Max. 21.5x15 and 20.6x15.5, Min. 17x13. Abnormal eggs measure, 
24.2x16, 22.9x15, 14.7x12.1, 12.9x11, etc. Average weight of 14 full 
eggs, 2.22 g. (R. H. Read); blown eggs average 131 mg. (Rey). 

[In Madeira and the Canaries another subspecies is found, S. atri- 
capilla heineken Jard. (Eggs figured in Cat. Eggs B. Mus, IV pi. VIII, 
fig. 10 : Dresser pi. — , fig. 20.) The eggs of this race are laid in April 
and are subject to extraordinary variation, being frequently boldly mar- 
ked with reddish brown spots and grey shell marks on a white ground, 
or finely spotted with blackish and pale violet. The clutch usually con- 
sits of 3 or 4 eggs: average size of 25 (17 by Koenig and 8 by the 
writer), 19.06>cl4.17, Max. 21x15 and 20x16: Min. 17x13 and 16x12. 

146. Whitethroat, Sylvia communis Lath. 
Geographical Races. 

a. European Whitethroat, S. communis communis Lath. 

Plate 27, fig. 6—10 (Germany) 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortfl. Tab. XX, fig. 6, a.— d. Hewitson. I Ed. I, 
pi. XLII; II Ed, pi. XXVII, fig. 4: III Ed. pi. XXXV, fig. 1, 2. Baedeker, 



ments. 



In order to avoid discrepancies in nomenclature between the text and plates, 
the remaining four plates will be issued in later parts of this work. 

F. C. R. J ourdain. 



307 

Tab. 51, fig. 9. Taczanowski, Tab. XLIX, fig. 2. Seebohm, Br. Birds, 
pi. 10; id. Col. Fig. pi. 52. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. II, fig. 32—34. 
Cat. Eggs B. Mus.; IV, pi. VIII, fig. 11. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 1—3. 
Howard. Br. Warblers, pi. Ill, fig. 25—36. Nest: O. Lee, II, p. 62. 

British Local Names: Peggy, Nettle Creeper, Splitstr aw. Welsh: 
Llwydfron. Foreign Names: Bohemia: Penice popelavd. Denmark: 
Tornsanger. Finland: Harmaakerttu. France: Babillard grisette. Ger- 
many: Dorn-Orasmilcke. Greece: Tsirobdkos. Holland: Orasmusch. 
Hungary: Mezei poszdta Italy: Sterpazzola. Norway: Oraasdnger. 
Poland: Pokrzywka popielata. Russia: Sawinicha. Sweden: Tornsmygg. 
Spain: Pinzoleta. 

Sylvia riifa (Bodd.) Newton, ed. Yarrell, I, p. 406. Dresser, B. of Eu- 
rope, II, p. 377. S. cinerea Lath. Id. Man. Pal. Birds, p. 74. S. cinerea 
Bechst. Saunders, Man. p. 41. 8. communis communis Lath. Hartert, 
Vog. Pal. Pauna, p. 586. 

Breeding Range: The British Isles; Europe, except N. Scandi- 
navia and N. Russia. [Also N. W. Africa and Asia Minor.] 

Next to the Willow Warbler this is by far the commonest and Bdtish 
most generally distributed of our British Warblers, and is found through- 
out England and Wales, except on the high moorlands and mountains. 
In Scotland it is also common and has extended its range of late years. 
On the E. side it is found in fair numbers in suitable localities in the 
Moray area, and ranges at least to the Dornoch Firth and is thinly 
distributed along the E. coast of Sutherland; while on the W. side it 
haunts the valleys of W. Ross. It breeds on Skye and in many of the 
Inner Hebrides, and was first recorded with certainty as breeding in 
the Outer Hebrides (Barra) in 1900. In Ireland it is very plentiful and 
general. 

The northern limit extends in Norway to about lat. 65", and in t'o"- 
Sweden to about lat. 62% and on the fjeld the Whitethroat ranges as i,;„,J,,e_ 
high as the conifer limit. It inhabits S. and Mid-Finland to Ijo and 
Kuopio, and eastwards breeds near Archangelsk and up to about lat. 
63" N. in the Urals. The limits of this race and S. c. icterops in S. E. 
Russia are not easy to define, but the E. form certainly replaces this 
in Transcaucasia. In the Balkan, Italian, and Iberian peninsulas it is 
found breeding to the extreme south locally; it also nests in Sardinia, 
Sicily, and possibly in Corsica and Cyprus. Over central Europe it is 
generally distributed and in the Alps is found commonly up to 3600 ft., 
and exceptionally to 5400 ft. [It breeds also in N. Algeria and Tunisia 
(Whitaker); and it is common in Asia Minor.] 

Generally placed quite low down, often almost touching the ground ^est. 

12* 



308 

in small bushes overgrown with rank grass, among coarse vegetation, 
nettles, etc., in hedgerows and bramble thickets. Exceptionally cases 
have been recorded of nests at a considerable height: one 12 ft. high 
in a whitethorn and one 16 ft. high in an elder are mentioned in the 
Zoologist for 1875 and 1876. The nest varies in the amount of mate- 
rial used and is sometimes very slightly built, but always has a noticeably 
deep cup. It is built chiefly though not entirely, by the male, and is 
constructed of dry grasses and a few roots, well lined with horsehair 
which is nearly always black, and strengthened with cobwebs and frag- 
ments of down or wool. The male usually builds one or more incomplete 
nests in addition to that actually used. Diameter of cup, 21 in.; depth 
li— 2 in. 
Eggs. Usually 4 or 5, sometimes 6 in number, but a clutch of 7 eggs of 

the pink type is said to have occurred in Yorkshire. Remarkable vari- 
ations in colour occur at times. Typical eggs have a greenish or stone 
coloured ground, and are finely speckled with ochreous and leaden spots 
or blotches, but sometimes the brownish markings take the form of large 
blotches and occasionally dark caps or zones are found, and their colour 
ranges from oil green, olive, umber and ochreous to bluish black. The 
scarce erythristic type has a pink or salmon coloured ground and is 
marked with red -brown and grey spots, while among the more remark- 
able varieties may be mentioned, (a) pure white, unmarked; (b) pale 
bluish, unmarked; (c) bluish white, with a few ashy markings; and (d) 
two wonderful sets in the Rey collection, not unlike Marsh Warblers' 
eggs, blotched with dark brown and dark ash on a pale blue ground. 

Breeding In S. England nests may be found from the beginning of May, 

Season. ^jjQ^gjj generally later, while in the Midlands eggs are not laid till mid 
May, often not till the last week. In Germany from May 7 — 10 to 
the end of July (Rey) and apparently two broods are reared. Most of 
our English birds are single brooded, though exceptionally eggs may be 
found in July and even young in August. In Scandinavia the eggs are 
usually laid early in June. Curiously enough the breeding season in the 
Mediterranean Basin is not particularly early, and in Greece the eggs 
are laid inMay and aboutMay 12 in Andalucia. Incubation lasts 11 — 12 days 
as a rule, and the young remain about 11 days in the nest. Howard's obser- 
vations on the habits of this species [Br. Warblers, pt. 4) should be 
consulted. 

Measure- Avcragc of 100 cggs measurcd by Rey 18.1x;13.8, Max. 20.3x14.8 

and 18.2x15, Min. 16x13.2 and 17x12.6. Ban's average for 66 eggs 
is 18.8x13.9. A dwarf egg measures 15x7 (R. H. Read). Average 
weight of 14 full eggs, 1.905 g. (N. H. Foster). Rey gives the average 
weight of blown eggs as 114 mg. and Bau as 113 mg. 



menta. 



309 

b. Eastern Whitethroat, S. communis ieterops Menetr. 

Eggs: Dresser, pi. — , fig. 4. 
Sylvia communis ieterops Men. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 587. 

Breeding Eange: Caucasia. [Also from Palestine and Traus- 
caspia E. to Persia, Turkestan and W. Siberia.] 

In the Caucasus it breeds up to 6000 ft. but the limits of the two ^'^■ 
races are not yet clearly defined. In Palestine it is a plentiful resident, " " ' ' 
but the W. form occurs also in autumn. From Transcaspia and Persia 
its range extends eastward through Turkestan and W. Siberia to the Altai 
range and the R. Yenesei. 

In breeding habits it resembles the western race , but the eggs are ^'«^*- ^88' 
extremely variable and clutches of the red type occur very frequently. 
The greenish ground colour is often replaced by white or creamy, spotted 
with ochreous and lead colour. In Palestine eggs are laid from the be- 
ginning of April onward, and in Turkestan during May. Average size 
of 17 eggs measured by the writer, 18.45x14.36, Max. 19.3x14.5 and 
19X15, Min. 17.2X14.3 and 17.6x13.4. 



147. Lesser Whitethroat, Sylvia curruca L. 

Plate 27, fig. 16—19 (Germany). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Tab. XX, fig. 11, ad. Hewitson, 
I Ed. I, pi. XIII; II Ed. pi. XXVII, fig. 5, 6; III Ed. pi. XXXV, fig. 
4. Baedeker, Tab. 51, fig. 8. Taczanowski, Tab. L, fig. I. Seebohm, 
Br. Birds, pi. 10; id. Col. Fig. pi. 52. Frohawk, Br. Birds, I, pi. II, 
fig. 35 — 37. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 7 — 9. Howard, B. Warblers, pi. Ill, 
fig. 19—24. Nest: O. Lee, IV, p. 158. 

British Local Names: Peggy, Hazel Linnet. Welsh: Llwyd fron 
fach. Foreign Names: Bohemia: Fenice podkkrovni. Denmark and 
Norway: Oraesmutte. Finnland: Hernekerttu. France: Bee-fin babillard. 
Germany : Zaun-Orasmileke. Holland : Braamsluiper. Hungary : Kis pos- 
zdta. Italy: Bigiarella. Poland: Pokrzyivka piegza. Russia: Peresmeshka. 
Sweden: Artsmygg. Spain: Parlanchin. 

Sylvia curruca L. Newton, ed. Yarrell, I. p. 410. Dresser, B. of Europe, 
II. p. 383 and Man. Pal. Birds p. 76. Saunders, Man. p. 43. S. cur- 
ruca curruca (L.) Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 588. 

Breeding Range: Great Britain and Continental Europe, except 
N. Scandinavia and N. Russia, and the Iberian peninsula. [Also Palestine, 
Asia Minor, and Persia to the Caucasus.] 

This species has a much more limited range in the British Isles British 
than the Common Whitethroat. As a breeding species it is unknown in ^^^^"' 



310 

Ireland, and in England and Wales is absent from Cornwall and very 
scarce in Devon, only becoming common in E. Somerset and E. Dorset. 
It is also practically unknown or only of extremely rare ocurrence in the 
W. of AVales, from Anglesey and Carnarvon S. to Pembroke and Car- 
marthen. In the N. of England it is only thinly distributed in York- 
shire and Lancashire, and only breeds occasionally in Durham and North- 
umberland, while it is scarce and local in the Lake district. In Scotland 
it is also decidedly scarce, and it is doubtful whether it is anything 
more than an accidental visitor to any area N. of the Solway district, 
although a nest (with 7 eggs !) is said to have been taken in W. Ross, 
and it has visited Fair Island and the Orkneys on migration. 

uon- In Norway its northern limit is about 65" N., and in Sweden from 

Europe. 64" to 65", while on the Dovre fjeld its vertical range extends to 3500 ft. 
From the N. end of the Gulf of Bothnia it is thinly distributed in N. 
Russia as far as Archangel and about lat. 60" -in the Urals. In S. E. 
Russia it appears to breed in the Caucasus, but the limits of the W. race 
are not clearly defined and possibly these birds may belong to the next 
race. Throughout the rest of the Continent it is fairly general, but be- 
comes very scarce in S. Italy and apparently is only a rare winter visitor 
to the Iberian peninsula beyond the Pyrenees, except possibly in the 
province of Gerona. On the other hand a few pairs breed in the pine 
forests of the Greek mountains as well as in Macedonia. It is only a 
scarce migrant to Sardinia, but AVhitehead found it breeding in Corsica, 
and the evidence with regard to Sicily is somewhat conflicting, though 
it is said to nest there. Its numbers vary in different localities and in 
some districts, such as Transsylvania, it is extremely abundant, far out- 
numbering the Common AVhitethroat. [In Asia Minor it is generally 
distributed, but commonest in the mountains, and visits Crete and Cyprus 
on migration. It also breeds commonly in Palestine according to Tristram, 
and apparently in the mountains of Persia]. 

Nest. In England often found in thick hedges, bushes, shrubberies, etc., 

generally rather low down, from 2 ft. 6 in. to 4 ft. from the ground. 
The nest is smallish, built of dry stalks and grasses, lined with roots 
and fibre alone in many cases, but sometimes horsehair is freely or 
sparingly used. Cobwebs and down are also used to fasten the outer 
material together. It is always much flatter than that of the Common 
Whitethroat, but there is much variation in the amount of material used 
and the thickness of the walls. Diameter of cup, 2 — 21 in., depth, 
li in. Rey records a nest built almost entirely of Erica vulgaris in 
Germany. 

Eggs. From 4 to 6 in number, usually 5, and quite characteristic. (Ten 

eggs have been found in a nest, but were obviously the produce of two 



311 

birds). The ground colour is white or pale cream, sparingly blotched 
and spotted, generally with a more or less distinct zone or cap at the 
big end, with purple grey shell marks and surface spots varying from 
pale brown to deep sepia. Many of the markings have softened edges 
and some sets show a good deal of the white ground; while occasionally 
a clutch may be found without any markings. 

In England the first eggs are found towards the beginning of May, Breeding 
and have been recorded at the end of April, but the more usual time ^^"^°"- 
in the Midlands is from mid-May onward: on one occasion I found eggs 
as late as July 12, but think it probable that one or two previous layings 
had been destroyed and that it is not double brooded. In Germany 
eggs are usually found from the beginning of May till June, and second 
layings to the end of the latter month (Rey). The hen is a close sitter, 
and the period of incubation probably lasts from 11 to 12 days; but 
when laying or while building the nest is readily forsaken. 

Average of 100 eggs by Rey, 16.5x12.6, Max. 18.7x13 and Measure- 
17.7x14.2, Min. 14x12 and 15x11.5. A double egg (S. Derbyshire), '"'"*" 
measures 22x12.2 mm. Average weight of 19 full eggs, 1.437 g (R. 
H. Read) ; blown eggs average 85 mg. (Rey). 

[In Asia the European race is replaced by the Eastern Lesser White- 
throat, S. curruca a/finis Blyth, which is found in Siberia (and accor- 
ding to Pleske also in the Kirghis steppes) ranging E. to Transbaikalia 
and Manchuria, and according to AVhitehead and others, S. to the Kurram 
valley and Kashmir. Suschkin has described the form from the S. E. 
Kirghis steppes under the name of S. c. Judimodendri Suschk. A third 
race, S. c. minula Hume, breeds in Transcaspia, Amu Darya, Afghanistan, 
etc. Egg figured in Cat. Eggs B. Mus., IV, pi. X, fig. 3 (Afghanistan). 
Average size of 11 eggs from the same locality, 17.93x12.9 mm. Dresser 
figures eggs of S. c. affitiis Blyth from Kashmir on pi. — , fig. 10 — 12. 
For nesting notes see Ibis 1880, p. 59; 1898, p. 16. An allied species, 
the Himalayan whitethroat, S. althaea Hume, breeds in Transcaspia, 
E. Persia, Bokhara, part? of Turkestan, Gilgit, and N. W. Kashmir. 
Eggs from Transcaspia figured by Dresser pi. — , fig. 5,6. The distri- 
bution of these forms in AV. Asia is however as yet very imperfectly 
known and requires further study]. 

148. Desert Warbler, Sylvia nana (H. & E.). 
Geographical Races. 

a. Asiatic Desert Warbler, S. nana nana (H. & E.). 

Sylvia narm (H. & E.). part. Dresser B. of Europe, IX, p. 648 and Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 79. S. nana nana (H. & E.). Hartert. Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 590. 



312 

Breding Range: Transcaspia E. to Turkestan and Alashan: Persia, 
Baluchistan and N. W. India. Has once occurred in European Russia. 

Inhabits the bush grown steppes of Transcaspia and ranges E. through 
Turkestan to Alashan. Loudon describes it as common in the Kara 
Kum desert. Tristram says it is found at the S. end of the Dead Sea, 
so probably it occurs in the N. Arabian deserts as well as in S. and E. 
Persia, Baluchistan and the wastes of Sind, Bahawalpur and Rajputana to 
the S. of the Punjab. Sarudny found a nest with young in a tamarisk 
bush, which resembled a Reed Warbler's. Eggs still undescribed. 

b. Algerian Desert Warbler, S. nana deserti (Loche.) 

Eggs; J. f. 0., 1896, Taf. VII, fig. 1. 
Sylvia nana deserti (Loche). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 591. 

Breeding Range: The Algerian and Tunisian Sahara to Tripoli. 
Has occurred once in Italy. 
^*^- Hartert describes this bird as haunting the desert plains between 

Tuggurt, Quargla, and Gardaia to the dunes betwen Biskra and Umasch 
in Algeria : on Djebel Dekaris and near Galb-el-Assued in Tunisia and 
near Oumsinerma in E. Tripoli. 
Nest. Where the dunes are sparsely covered with small bushes and dwarf 

shrubs of various species this delicate and beautiful species makes its home, 
building a deep nest, not unlike that of a Reed Warbler in shape, in some 
bush. Hartert describes the nest as about 82 ft. from the ground and 
somewhat conspicuous. It is composed of grasses, stalks and leaves, 
interwoven with Qnaphalium blossoms and softly lined with down, wool, 
cobwebs or bits of thread. Diameter of cup, 2 — 2i in., depth 2i — 3i in. 
Eggs etc. Probably 3 in number. The ground colour is white or pale greenish, 

spotted with pale olive brown and pale bluish grey shellmarks and fine 
spots, chiefly at the big end. Size (2 eggs) 14x11 mm, weight 69 and 
59 mg. (Koenig); three eggs in the Tring Museum measure 16.5x12.4, 
16.2x12.4 and 15.4x12. (Hartert in litt.) 
Breeding Kocuig took a ucst with two eggs on Apr. 13, and Rothschild and 

Hartert found two empty nests, on which the birds were sitting on Apr. 
14, but also found one with three eggs on May 6 at El Oued. 



149. Riippell's Warbler, Sylvia ruppeli Temm. 

PI. 26, fig. 20. (Asia Minor, F. C. Selous.) 

Eggs: (The figures in Thienemann, Fortpfl. Taf. XXII, fig. 1, a, 
b, and Baedeker, Tab. 51, fig. 13 are erroneous). Reiser, Orn. Bal., 
Ill, pi. Ill, fig. 3, 4. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 22—24. 



Season. 



Dis- 



313 

Sylvia ruepelli Temm. Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 417 and Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 86. S. mppeli Temm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 592. 

Breeding Range: Greece. [Also Asia Minor, Crete, Palestine 
and probably Cyprus.] 

In Greece this species has been recorded from several localities in 

tribution, 

the Peloponesus (Messenia, Lakonia and Arcadia), and also in Acarnania 
and Attica. It is however not common, but is no doubt often overlooked. 
[In Asia Minor it is almost the commonest warbler near Smyrna, and 
Danford says it is not uncommon on the hillsides near Anascha in the 
Taurus. Tristram describes it as a scarce resident in Palestine. It is 
a common summer visitor to Crete and breeds there, and probably also 
nests in Cyprus.] 

In the breeding haunts of this bird, the females are rarely seen ^®^*- 
and are very skulking in their habits. The nest is placed in a bush of 
some sort, and is not particularly hard to find. It is somewhat substantial 
for a Warbler's nest, and is built of bents and grasses, lined with horse- 
hair. 

Usually 4 or 5, pale greenish or greyish in ground colour, thickly ^^^^• 
mottled all over with small yellowish or olive brown spots and under- 
ling grey mottlings, sometimes so as to almost hide the ground colour 
A tendency to a cap or zone at the big end is sometimes apparent. In 
general appearance these eggs approach most closely to those of the 
Spectacled Warbler. 

Kriiper states that on one occasion he found a full clutch near breeding 

-^ , . Season. 

Smyrna on April 7, and that the usual season begins in mid April, but 
this may be a misprint for May, as the bird does not reach its nesting 
quarters till very late in March, and Lynes found it beginning to build 
in Crete about April 25, while Selous found many nests in Asia Minor 
between May 14 and 28. 

Average of 28 eggs (25 by writer and 3 by Reiser), 17.92x14, Measure- 

ments. 

Max. 19.3x14.6 and 19x14.8, Min. 17x13.3 and 17.5x13.2. Average 
weight of 2 eggs, 85 mg. (Jourdain): of 3 eggs, 108 mg. (Reiser). 



150. Sardinian Warbler, Sylvia melanocephala (Gm.) 

Plate 22, fig. 19—23 (Provence). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Taf. XX, fig. 7, a, b. Baedeker, 
Tab. 51, fig. 4. Taczanowski, Tab. LIII, fig. 1. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 
25—29. 

Foreign Names: Fraince Fauvette melanogephale. Italy: Occhiocotto. 



314 

Portugal; Tutinegra dos vaUados. Russia: Slavka chermogolovaja. Sar- 
dinia: Cahu de moru. Spain: Palmcrilla. 

Sylvia melanocephala Gm. Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 401 and Man! 
Pal. Birds, p. 83. S. melanocephala melanorophala (Gm.). Hartert, Yog. 
Pal. Fauna, p. 593. 

Breeding Range: S. Europe, in the countries bordering on, and 
the islands in the Mediterranean. [Also in the Canaries, N. W. Africa 
and Syria, where it is represented by local races.] 

^°°- In the Iberian peninsula this species is chiefly confined to the pro- 

Eur^pl vinces bordering on the S. and E. coasts of Spain. Here it is plentiful 
among the brush covered foothills and low ground, but does not penetrate 
far into the central plateau. In Portugal it is chiefly confined to the S., 
and has not been recorded N. of the Douro: it appears also to be ab- 
sent from the district N. of the Cantabrian range- in Spain. In S. France 
though common in some parts of Provence, it was not observed in the 
Camargue by Eagle Clarke; while in Italy its distribution is somevx^hat 
irregular, and though a common resident near the Ligurian coast, the 
Marches and Apulia, is only accidental in the Po valley. On the E. side 
of the Adriatic it is found in S. Dalmatia, Herzegowina, Montenegro, 
Epirus, and probably also Albania, but never far from the coast: while it 
is also resident in Corfu, and in Greece, but only in small numbers. It 
nests also in many of the islands of the Greek Archipelago. It is said 
to breed also in Turkey, but the records from Bessarabia and Kiew in 
Russia require confirmation. In the Mediterranean it is characteristic 
and common in the Balearic Isles, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta, and 
Crete. [Probably it also breeds in Asia Minor, but it is best known 
there as a winter visitor, and its very scarce and local in Cyprus. See 
also note at end on the forms inhabiting the Canaries, N. W. Africa, 
Syria etc.] 

Nest. Usually placed from 2 to 4 ft. from the ground, often in a thick 

bush in some sheltered spot close to a wall and well concealed, but 
occasionally quite conspicuous. It is said sometimes to build in trees, 
and in Malta generally nests in branches of carob trees, close to the 
ground. The nest is neatly and substantially built, with thick walls : it is 
composed of dead stalks and grasses mixed with bits of down, sometimes 
also dead thistle leaves, lined in some cases with finer grasses and bents, 
at other times with rootlets or horsehair. Diameter of cup 2 — 21 in., 
depth li— 2 in. 

Eggs. Usually 4 or 5, sometimes only 3, while Lilford states that 6 have 

been found. They vary in the most extraordinary way. Many eggs are 
finely speckled all over with pale ochreous and ashy grey on a pale 



315 

stone coloured or yellowish ground. These eggs are not unlike White- 
throat's or Sedge Warbler's and the ground varies to pale yellowish 
green, while the spots sometimes form a zone and range to brown in 
colour. The second principal type has a creamy white to bluish grey 
ground and is sparingly and boldly spotted and blotched with leaden 
shellmarks and brown or ochreous. This type is much less common and 
some eggs are very handsome. The third type is erythristic, the ground 
being creamy or very pale sienna, sometimes thickly and finely marbled 
and speckled with sienna brown and grey shellmarks, and in rare in- 
stances boldly blotched with deep sienna red. Eggs of the second type 
bear some resemblance to the boldest type of S. curnica eggs, while the 
third type approaches that of Locustella iiaevia. Erythristic eggs are not 
at all uncommon in Spain, but appear to be unrecorded from Greece. 

Like many residents in the Mediterranean area, it is an early breeder i^r^^'^ng 

•' ' •' Season. 

and the first eggs may be found in S. Spain and Malta about March 
12 — 16, but the second half of April is perhaps the best time, although 
probably 2 or 3 broods are reared in the season and fresh eggs may be 
found throughout May and June and according to Hansmann, even in 
August. The cock has been seen incubating by Irby and Lynes. 

Average of eggs (61 from Spain and Corsica by the writer and Measure- 
39 by Rey), 17.86 X 13.6, Max. 19.3 X 14.2 and 18.2 x 14.5, Min. 
15.3 X 13.4 and 16.8 X 13.1. Average weight, 95 mg. (Rey). 

[In the W. {.'anaries a somewhat smaller race, S. melanocephala leucogastra 
(Ledru) is found; while in Syria and W. Persia the representative form is Bowman's 
Warbler, S. m. niomus (H. & E.). Average of 3 eggs from Persia, 17.57 X 13.1. 
Possibly also the birds from N. W. Africa and the E. Canaries are subspefically sepa- 
rable. From Marocco to Tripoli it is a common resident and is said occasionally 
to breed in long grass in Algeria, but more usually in thorny bushes, from April 
to July. 

The Palestine Warbler, Sylvia melanothorax Tristr. breeds apparently only on 
Cyprus, althongh possibly it may be found in Palestine, where Tristram obtained a 
pair. Eggs figured by Dresser, pi. 106, fig. 3. The nest is built in low thorn bushes, 
and the eggs, 4 in number, are laid in May. The ground colour is greenish, and 
they are marbled and spotted with yellowish brown and violet grey shell marks, 
sometimes showing a distinct zone at the big end. Average size of 12 
17.28 X 13.3. Max. 18.3 X 13.5 and 18 X H Miu. 16.5 X l'^-3.] 



151. Menetries' Warbler, Sylvia mystacea M^netr. 

Plate 26, fig. 21 (Persian Gulf, A. G. Tomlinson). 

Eggs: Cat. Eggs Br. Mus. IV, pi. X, fig. 4. Dresser, pi. 106, fig. 2. 
Sylvia mystacea Men. Dresser, B. of Europe, IX. p. 59. and Man. 
Pal. Birds, p. 80. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 595. 



ments. 



316 

Breeding Range: S. Caucasus and Transcaucasia. [Also from Persia 
and Transcaspia to Afghanistan and Turkestan.] 

Di3- This species was first recorded by Menetries from the lower Kur 

♦nbution. ^g^^gy 'j^ Transcaucasia and Radde obtained specimens at Lenkoran, 
while Ssatunin has more recently shown that its range extends further 
in the S. Caucasus. [In Persia it is common in the Elburz range at 
4000 ft. and is also found in the central and southern parts of the pla- 
teau, while in 1908 A. G. Tomlinson found it breeding on the Kairun R. 
and near Bussorah, at the head of the Persian Grulf. It is the commo- 
nest warbler in Transcaucasia and also ranges E. to parts of the valleys 
of Syr and Amu Darya and N. Afghanistan.]. 

Nest. Generally low down in a bush, but sometimes 3 ft. from the ground 

in scrub or in sapling date bushes. The nest is rather slight, built of 
stalks and grasses, lined fine grasses and roots. (Sarudny describes it 
as built of tamarisk twigs, bents, and down, lined finer bents, vegetable 
filaments and a few horsehairs.) 

Eggs. From 4 to 5, very pale stone colour or with a faint greyish tinge, 

finely spotted or marbled with underlying leaden shellmarks and ochreous 
brown spots and fine specks. Four clutches examined show very little 
variation, but Sarudny' s description, if correct, points to the existence 
of other types. 
Breeding Tomliuson took clutches on April 9 and 27, "Witherby on May 2 

and incubated eggs on May 31, the two latter^ at over 5000 ft. 
Measure- Avcragc of 18 cggs by the writer, 17.31 x 13.1, Max. 18.2 x; 13.5, 

""'"*'■ Min. 16.3 X 13.3 and 16.6 X 12.5. 



152. Subalpine Warbler, Sylvia cantillans (Pall.) 
[S. subalpina auct.] 

Geographical Races. 

a. Western Subalpine Warbler, S. cantillans cantillans (Pall). 
Plate 26, fig. 22 (red type, E. Guadiana, Commr. Lynes). 

Eggs: Seebohm, Col. Fig. pi. 53 (red type). 

Foreign Names: France : Bee-fin passerinette. Italy : Steryazzolina. 
Spain: Cagachin 

Sylvia subalpina Bon. Dresser, B. of Europe, II, p. 389 and Man. Pal. 
Birds, p. 81. Saunders, Man. p. 53. S. suhalinna subalpina Temm. 
Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 596. 

Breeding Range: The Iberian Peninsula, S. France, Italy, occasion- 



317 

ally in Switzerland, Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily. (Has once occurred 
in S. Kilda and once on Fair Island.")* 

In Spain this species seem to be local, and chiefly confined to the con- 
maritime provinces, from Catalonia to Andalucia, but it also occurs in ^'^^°g 
some districts of the central plateau, and Saunders obtained eggs near 
Madrid. In Portugal it is common in the S. (Algarve), but is apparently 
absent from the N. of the country; though plentiful in the lower Gua- 
diana valley (Lynes), In France it is found in Languedoc and Provence 
and ranges northward into Savoie. In Switzerland it has bred occasion- 
ally near Geneva, and once near Neuchatel, while in Italy, although 
met with commonly in Tuscany and Liguria, it is rare in the Po valley, 
Piedmont and Lombardy, but breeds in the southern provinces. In the 
W. Mediterranean it is common in Corsica and the small islands lying 
between it and Italy, and is also not rare in Sardinia and plentiful in 
suitable localities in Sicily, but absent from Malta. To all these localities 
it is a summer visitor only. 

The nesting sites vary from 1 to 5 ft. above the ground, but usually Nest. 
2 — 3 ft. high, sometimes in gorse, cistus, brambles, and myrtle bushes, 
or else in sapling ilex and other trees. Most nests are rather slightly 
but neatly built of dry grasses or bits of dead thistle leaves, lined often 
only with finer bents, but sometimes also with horse or pig hair. The 
structure is strengthened by cobwebs, and plant down is often inter- 
spersed; and in some nests dark reddish brown fibrous matter is used 
as lining material. Average diameter of cup II — 2i in., depth li — If in. 

Almost invariably 3 or 4, but Lynes found a single nest in Spain Eggs, 
with 5 eggs. Almost all the eggs which I have seen from Corsica and 
Sicily are of one type, being greyish or pale greenish white, finely speckled 
and spotted, chiefly at the big end, with ochreous or umber and under- 
lying inky violet or pale grey markings. There is a certain amount of 
variation in depth of colour in the spots, and lightly marked eggs are 
exceptional, while one set in the British Museum shows a great deal of 
the white ground, and a distinct zone of dark spots is not uncommon. 
From Spain however the erythristic type is very prevalent, with pinkish 
white ground either spotted with reddish brown and lavender or boldly 
blotched with deep chesnut red, chiefly at the big end. There is little 
or no gloss. 

The first eggs may be found in Spain from the second week in Breeding 
April onward till early in June, so probably two broods are reared. In ^^"°°- 

* The statement in Dresser's and other works, that this species breeds in the 
Canaries, is due to an error by BoUe, who confounded it with S. conspicillata. 
Cf. Koenig, J. f. 0., 1890, p. 371. 



318 

Corsica the earliest date appears to be the first week in May, and eggs 
may be found at the end of the month, but in Sardinia Brooke records 
young on the wing on May 12. Incubation must be usually performed 
by the hen as Lynes only once found the cock on the nest. 
Measure- Avcragc of 69 cggs mcasurcd by the writer, 16.48x12.93, Max. 

"''"*'■ 19.1 X 13.7 , Min. 15 X 12.1. Average weight of 4 incubated eggs 
(unblown), 1.555 g. (R. H. Read). 

1). Eastern Subalpine Warbler, S. cantillans albistriata (Brehm). 

Plate 22, fig. 16—18 (Parnassus). 
Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl., Tab. XX, fig. 9, a, b. Baedeker, 
Tab. 51, fig. 7, Dresser, pi. — , fig. 13 — 15. S. subalpina albistriata 
(Brehm). Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 597. Cf. Dresser I. c. partim. 
Breeding Range: The Balkan Peninsula, in the S. and W., the 
Cyclades and probably Crete. [Also Asia Minor.] 
Con- Along the rocky coast of Istria, Croatia and Dalmatia, where there 

Europe ^^ cover, this is the first warbler to return in spring, and is a common 
breeding species. It is also found in the scrub covered foot-hills of 
Montenegro and the Karst district of Herzegowina, as well as in many 
of the islands in the E. Adriatic. Probably it occurs also along the 
Albanian coast, and in Greece seems to be pretty generally distributed in 
the macchia zone on the bases of the mountains. Kriiper also records 
it as breeding on Naxos and other islands in the Cyclades, while it 
certainly visits Crete and probably breeds there. [In Asia Minor Kriiper 
found it common in summer near Smyrna, but it has only once been 
recorded from Cyprus, and has not been found breeding in Palestine.] 
Nest. Resembles that of the previous race, and like it is placed in thick 

bushes, sometimes quite close to the ground, and at other times a foot 
or so above it. 
ERgs. Usually 4 or 5, much resembling those of the "W. form, but in the 

greenish type the markings are rarely dark and are generally evenly dis- 
tributed, while the fine grey shell markings are characteristic. Erythristic 
types eccur not infrequently but are less boldly and handsomely marked 
than the finest Spanish eggs. 
Breeding Kriipcr oucc fouud eggs on April 20, but the more usual time is 

Season. f^.Qjj^ ^j^g beginning of May onward till early in June. 

Measure- Avcragc of 60 cggs (33 by the writer, 12 by Rey, 9 by Reiser and 

6 by Kollibay), 17 X 13.21, Max. 18.2 X 14, Min. 15 X 13 and 16.4 X 12. 
Average weight of 12 eggs, 93 mg. (Rey); 9 eggs, 84 mg. (Reiser). 

[A third form, the African Subalpine Warbler, S. cantillans inornata 



ments. 



319 

Tsch., inhabits N. W. Africa, breeding from Marocco to Tripoli, not only 
along the coast but also up to about 7000 ft. in the mountains. Average 
of 9 eggs taken by Koenig and Erlanger in Tunisia in May, 17.9 X 13.55, 
Max. 19 X 14, Min. 16 x 12. Average weight of 5 eggs, 94 mg. (Koenig). 
For nesting notes see J. f. 0., 1892, p. 398.] 



153. Spectacled Warbler, Sylvia conspicillata Temm. 

Plate 26, fig. 23 (Malta). 

Eggs: Thienemann, Fortpfl. Taf. XX, fig. 8, a, b. Baedeker, Tab. 
51, fig. 6. Dresser, pi. — , fig. 32. 

Foreign Names: France: BahiUard a luneites. Italy: Sterpazzola 
di Sardegna. Spain: Friolencos. Sylvia conspicillata Marm. fide Temm. 
Dresser B. of Europe, II, p. 393 and Man. Pal. Birds, p. 80. S. con- 
spicillata conspicillata Temm. Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 598. 

Breeding Range: Locally in Spain, S. Portugal, S. E. France 
and Italy; the islands in the W. Mediterranean. [Also N. W. Africa, 
Palestine and probably Cyprus.] 

In the Iberian peninsula this species is found commonly in Algarve con- 
in S. Portugal, but has only been recorded a few times from the rest of ^^^" ^ 
the country. In Spain however it is local in Sevilla, fairly common 
in Granada, and also breeds in Murcia and Valencia, while according 
to Lilford it is found also in the plains of the central plateau, not far 
from Aranjuez. In France it breeds in the Camargue, but is confined 
to the desert plains of the Crau and Bone, and is said to occur locally 
in S. E. France as far as Savoie. In Italy it is scarce and is chiefly 
found in the S., but is said to breed in the Roman Campagna as well 
as in Calabria. In Corsica Whitehead found it nesting, and it is said 
to be not uncommon in Sardinia and in the mountains of Sicily, while 
is the commonest warbler in Malta. [In N. W. Africa it is common in 
some districts, but local in Marocco and Algeria and more general in 
Tunisia, while it is also found on Fuertaventura. In Palestine it is found 
on the bare highlands of Judaea and the Jordan plain, while it is chiefly 
known as a visitor on migration to Cyprus. Curiously enough it has 
not yet been recognized with certainty from Greece or Crete.] 

In the Camargue Eagle Clarke found a nest well hidden in a clump Nest. 
of sea blite, while Whitehead's nest was 3 ft. from the ground in heath 
on a brush covered hillside. It is common among the low bushes in 
the Salt lake district of Algeria, and in S. Tunisia von Erlanger found 
many nests in the patches of scrub between cultivated land. They are 



Season. 



ments. 



320 

substantially built of grasses, interwoven with dead thistle leaves and 
stalks of various plants and bits of thistle down, lined with fine roots, 
down, and a few horsehairs. Diameter of cup 2i in., depth H — If in. 
The foundation is more solidly built than in the case of the other Medi- 
terranean warblers. 
Eggs. Usually 4 or 5 in number, sometimes only 3. They are greenish 

white, often closely freckled all over with fine spots of greenish grey or 
greyish brown. Sometimes the markings tend to form a darker cap or 
zone at the big end, and some eggs show pale leaden markings, or a 
fine blackish hair line or two. 

Breeding In Malta two broods are reared, for fledged young have been found 

by March 24 (Stenhouse) and also in May and June (C. A. Wright), 
while in Tunisia the season extends from the middle or end of March 
to June (Whitaker). In Corsica and on the N. Shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, where it is a summer visitor, the breeding season is probably 
rather later, and the few nests of which I have records were taken 
in May. 

Measure- Avcrage of 53 eggs (20 by Erlanger, 14 by Bau, 14 by the writer 

and 5 by Koenig), 16.71x13.06; Max. 18.6x13.7, Min. 15.5x12. 
The average of 109 eggs quoted in Dr. Hartert's Vog. Pal. Fauna, p. 
599, included measurements of 83 eggs from the Canaries by an oversight. 
Average weight, 88 mg. (Bau). 

[A darker race, known as S. conspicillata bella Tsch. , breeds in Madeira, the 
Canaries and the Cape Verde Isles. Eggs figured by Dresser, pi. — fig. 31, 33 — 36. 
In Tenerife eggs may be found from March onward, but in some of the islands of 
the Cape Verde group it breeds even in November! In nesting habits it does not 
differ from the Eastern form, but Alexander found nests in lavender bushes as much 
as 7 ft. above the ground. In Madeira Schmitz states that most eggs are laid in May 
in the mountains and that the nest is always lined with wool and sometimes also with 
roots. Average of 29 eggs from Madeira , 16.9 X 13.09, Max. 17.6X13.5 and 16.8X14, 
Min. 15.5 X 11-5. Average weight of 16 eggs 70 mg. (Schmitz). Average of 83 eggs 
from the Canaries (57 by Koenig and 26 by the writer), 16.31 X 12 51, Max. 18X12 
and 17 X 13, Min. 15 X 12 and 17.1 X 11-5. The clutch is usually 4, less often 3 or 5. 
Tristram's Warbler, Sylvia deserticola Tristr. breeds in the Atlas and Aurfes ranges in 
N.W.Africa. Eggs figured in J. f. 0., 1896, Taf. VII, fig. 2; nest and young, t. c, 
1895, Taf. IJ. Meade- Waldo records it from the Atlas Mts. in Marocco, from above 
the tree limit up to 9000 ft., while Koenig found it common in the Aur6s range in 
Algeria and Whitaker describes as not uncommon among the maquis covered hills 
of N. Tunisia. The nest is generally placed in a rosemary bush, and is built of stalks 
and bents interspersed with down and lined with flowers of Aerva javanica and 
sometimes hair. The eggs are usually 4 in number, greenish white, with slight gloss, 
thickly covered especially towards the big end with olive or dark brown spots, 
blotches, etc., which sometimes form a zone. Eggs may be taken from the beginning 
of May. Average size of 15 eggs (8 by Whitaker and 7 by Koenig\ 15.6 X 12.47, 
Max. 16 X 13, Min. 15 X 12. Average weight of 7 eggs, 81 mg. (Koenig).] 



87 



















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