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3^ 
niTiPTIAN GRAMMAR 

WITH 

TABLE OF SIGNS, BIBLIOGRAPHY, 
EXERCISES FOR READING 

AND 

GLOSSARY 

BY 

ADOLF ERMAN. 

TRANSLATED 

BY 

JAMES HENRY BREASTED. 



WILLIAMS AND NOEGATE, 

U, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON 

AND 20, SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH. 

1894. 




Authorized Translation. 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 



As the outgrowth of practical academic instruction, 
this book is designed to facilitate as far as possible, 
for the beginner, the acquisition of the Egyptian lan- 
guage and writing, and is also intended for those who 
must dispense with the assistance of a teacher in 
the study. It aims to acquaint the learner with those 
grammatical phenomena which are well established, 
and which must guide us in the interpretation of texts. 
It further aims to afford him as correct a picture as 
possible of the general structure of the Egyptian 
language. 

For those who are familiar with the peculiar 
situation of Egyptian philology, I need not premise 
with the remark, that something else is necessary to 
the study of Egyptian grammar if it is to be at all 
a fruitful study, viz. the simultaneous acquisition of 
Coptic. One who is not familiar with this, the only 
phase of the Egyptian language which we really under- 
stand, will never properly comprehend it in its older 



IV acthor's preface. 

periods, nor, at the most ever attain more than a super- 
ficial capacity for reading Egyptian texts by rote. I 
would therefore request the student of my book to 
work through Steindorff's Coptic Grammar — a book 
parallel with this — and especially, to note also the 
constant cross references in both. 

The selection and limitation of the grammatical 
material offered especial difficulty. The Egyptian 
language as we find it, presents quite different stages 
of development, and even leaving Late Egyptian and 
still later idioms out of account, fifteen hundred 
years of the history of the language still remain to 
be dealt with. These difficulties have been surmoun- 
ted by relegating to certain paragraphs (A and B) 
the peculiarities of the ancient religious literature 
and the inscriptions of the old empire on the one hand, 
and those of the popular language of the middle 
empire on the other. The paragraphs therefore deal 
with what may be caUed the classic language, the 
language of the inscriptions and poems of the middle 
empire, with which the idiom later employed as the 
learned and official language is practically identical. 
The material in the chrestomathy is also taken from 
texts of this character in order that the beginner may 
accustom himself to their linguistic usage and espe- 
cially to their consistent orthography. I have tried 



author's preface. 

to facilitate the understanding of the chrestomathy 
by division into sentences, clear print and explana- 
tory remarks. 

In the use of the book it has seemed to me that 
the beginner should first familiarize himself with the 
most important paragraphs, designated by an aste- 
risk, and should then work through the first part of 
the Chrestomathy. If in doing this he not only looks 
up the paragraphs indicated, but also tries to form 
a connected idea of the sections of the grammar thus 
referred to, he will then be sufficiently advanced to 
take hold of the second part of the chrestomathy, 
where as a rule he must recognize the grammatical 
forms for himself. The appendix to the chrestomathy 
contains the most important of the formularies from 
the list which must now be mastered, in order to 
understand Egyptian inscriptions correctly. 

It further behoves me to state, that in this book, 
much which is not so designated undoubtedly belongs 
to Steindorff and Sethe. But we have so often dis- 
cussed these things among ourselves, that we could not 
separate our "intellectual property" even if we deemed 
it at all important to do so. 

SiJDENDE, August IQth, 3 893. 

Adolf Erman. 



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. 

The peculiar difficulties experienced by the trans- 
lator, in transferring into English the results of the 
grammatical investigations of his honored teacher, 
Prof. Erman, render a word of explanation necessary. 
These difficulties were due firstly, to the unique charac- 
ter of the language investigated, and secondly to the fact 
that the new science of Egyptian Grammar, as it has 
been created by the German grammatical school in 
the last fifteen years, does not yet exist in English.* 

* The above statement may seem strange to one who knows 
that the grammar of Le Page Renouf was reedited in 1889 ("An 
Elementary Grammar of the Ancient Egyptian Language" by P. 
Le Page Renouf, Bagster & Sons, London, 2nd. ed.). But this 
venerable scholar, the Nestor of English Egyptologists, has not 
followed the modern development in Egyptian grammar. His book 
is therefore entirely obsolete. Ex. gr. on p. 1 jou will find the 
Egyptian consonants «, i", C &c. classified under a list of vowels! 
and the statement added, that the "vowels were very commonly 
omitted", and this about a system of orthography exclusively 
consonantal (with the exception of one or two doubtful endings). 
On p. 50 the In of the tn-form of the verb is stated to be inse- 
parable from the subject and separable from the verb, an assertion 
in direct contradiction of the facts, and due to a confusion with 



translator's preface. VII 

There were therefore no termini technici of Egyptian 
grammar ready at hand in English. The ready 
facility with which the German lends itself to the 
expression of compound ideas in one word, is enti- 
rely foreign to English and the peculiar phenomena 
for which a felicitous compound was always ready in 
the flexile German were sometimes the despair of the 



the particle In. Or turn to p. 18 where the absolute pronoun sHs 
called a suffix, the author being misled by the confusion purely 
orthographic in late and corrupt texts, between st, sn and s, for 
in the classic language st is always used absolutely, i. e. separably. 
In the same chapter one searches in vain for any paradigm of the old 
absolute pronouns. Those of the 1 c. and 3 m. s. are incidentally 
mentioned, the latter being called an "independent personal pro- 
noun", but the 2 m. s., 2 f. s., 3 f. s., and all the plurals are 
wanting. But to enumerate forms and phenomena unknown to 
this grammar would be to repeat a large portion of the work 
here translated. Further, though Mr. Le Page Renouf has 
stated in his "Concluding Observations" that the Egyptian lan- 
guage suffered many changes during its enormously long history, 
no hint of these changes appears in the treatment of grammatical 
forms and syntax. The entire treatise is therefore as reasonable 
as would be a grammar, which, without any distinction of time, 
should present the forms of Latin and its offspring Italian in 
heterogeneous combination from the Augustan age down to the 
present day. If the end of the period thus included were two 
thousand years removed from us, the parallel would be complete 
and it could be stated with impunity that the Latin article was 
il and that the Italian nouns were comprised in five terminationally 
inflected declensions. In France the new science is equally dis- 
regarded, as the recent "Manuel de la Langue egyptienne" of 
Victor Loret may testify. 



VIII translator's preface. 

translator. It is hoped, however, that such terms have 
been made at least intelligible to the English reading 
student and the indulgence of the reader is craved 
wherever felicitous English has been sacrificed for the 
sake of clearness. One word has been coined, viz. 
"substantivized", being simply the transferred German 
"substantivirte". With the translation "uninflected 
passive" for the German "endungsloses Passiv" the 
writer was not at all satisfied, but could find nothing 
better and after consultation with the author, it 
stands. The term "pseudoparticiple" is another di- 
rectly transferred word for which nothing better could 
be found; it is, both in conjugation and meaning, 
very similar to the Assyrian "permansive", but to have 
used this term would have been a liberty not justified 
in translating. 

It only remains to be hoped that the results, 
achieved within the last fifteen years, which render the 
grammatical structure of the ancient Egyptian tolera- 
bly intelligible, and which are herewith presented for 
the first time in English, may be as interesting and in- 
structive to the English and American student as they 
have been to the translator, from the lips of the man 
to whom they are almost solely due. 

Berlin, Nov. 11th, 1893. 

James Henky Breasted. 



CONTENTS. 

GRAMMAR. 

§§ 

INTRODUCTION 1—3 

ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. 

1. In general 4— 12 

2. Phonetic Signs. 

a. The Alphabet 13—27 

h. Special Points in Phonetics 28 — 31 

c. Syllabic Signs 32 — 35 

3. Ideograms 36 — 44 

4. Determinatives 45 — 52 

5. Orthographj'. 

a. In general 53 

h. Orthography of the Ideograms 54 — 5^ 

c. Purely phonetic Orthography 59 — 6^ 

d. Abbreviations 63 — 68 

e. Inversion of the Order of Words 69 

f. Unusual Styles of Orthography 70 — 71 

G. Rules for Transliteration 72 

PRONOUNS. 

1. Personal Pronoun. 

a. Personal suffixes 73 — 79 

&. Old Absolute Pronoun 80—83 

c. Later Absolute Pronoun 84 

d. Expression for "self 85 



^ 



2. Demonstrative Pronoun. 

a. Forms with m. p- i. t- 86—90 

h. Forms with n- 91 — 94 

NOUNS. 

1. Substantives. 

a. Expression of Gender 95 — 98 

h. Forms of the Substantive 99 — 103 

c. Expression of Number. 

a. Plural 104—106 

/?. Dual 107—109 

y. Use of the Singular, Plural, Dual. . . . 110—112 

r?. The Article 113—116 

e. The Absolute Substantive 117 — 118 

f. Apposition and Coordination 119 — 121 

g. The Genetive. 

a. Direct Genetive 122 — 124 

yS. Genetive with n 125—127 

2. Adjectives 

a. Adjectives without Ending 128— 131 

h. Adjectives in ? 132 — 137 

c. Appendix {ir'i, Imy, ns) 138 — 139 

3. Numerals. 

a. Beal Numerals 140 — 145 

h. Appendix to the Numeral 146—147 

VERBS. 

1. In general. 

a. The Classes of the Verb. 

a. Usual Classes 148—154 

^. Rare Classes and Irregular Verbs 155 — 160 

y. The Causative 161 

b. Voice 162 

c. Expression of the Subject (Inflection). . . . 163—169 

2. Usual Inflection. 

a. In general 170 — 171 



CONTENTS. XI 

§§ 

6. The Formation sdmf. 

a. The Forms of the First Group. 

A. Its Formation 172 — 173 

B. Use as Indicative 174 — 176 

C. In the Conditional sentence 177 — 178 

D. As a Subjunctive 179 — 180 

E. In a Final Clause 181 

F. As an Optative 182 — 183 

/3. The Forms of the Second Group. 

A. Its Formation 184—186 

B. Use as an Indicative 187 

C. In Conditional Clauses 188 

D. Dependent upon Verbs 189 

E. Dependent upon Prepositions 190 

y. Appendix 191 — 193 

c. The M-Form sdmnf. 

a. Its Formation 194 — 195 

/8. Its Use 196—199 

d. The <»-Form sdminf. 200 — 203 

e. The /^r-Form sdmhrf. 204—205 

3. The Uninflected Passive 206—207 

4. Old Inflection. (Pseudoparticiple.) 

a. Its Formation 208—215 

h. Its Use. 

a. In the Active-Transitive Form 216 

^. In the Passive- Intransitive Form 217 — 219 

5. Compounds with Forms of the Usual Inflection. 

a. Introduced hy "it is". 

a. The Forms iw sdmf and tw sdmnf. . . . 220 — 222 

^. With the Auxiliary Verb wn 223 

b. With Double Subject. 

a. iwfsdmf. 224—227 

/3. The Forms tcnf sdmf and icntnf sdmf. . . 228 

y. The Form Jjrf sdmf. 229 



XII CONTENTS. 

§§ 

c. With a Verb of Motion. 

a. With ChCn and ChC 230—234 

/3. With In, prn and Iw 235—236 

(I. The Form sdmf piv 237 

6. Compounds with ir "make" 238—239 

7. Compounds with the Pseudoparticiple or Infinitive. 

a. Without the Auxiliary Verb (Improper Nominal 

Sentence) 240—245 

b. Introduced by Auxiliary Verbs. 

a. With the Auxiliary Verb Iw 246—249 

/3. With the Auxiliary Verb wn 250 — 252 

8. Compounds with r and the Infinitive 253 — 264 

9. The Imperative 255—257 

10. The Nominal Forms of the Verb. 

a. Participles 258—261 

b. Infinitive. 

a. Its Formation 262—268 

/3. Its Substantive Nature 269—271 

y. Its Use 272—281 

c. Substantivized Forms. 

a. In general 282 

/3. To Denote the Action Itself. 283—288 

y. To Denote a Person or an Object. . . . 288—292 

d. Verbal Adjective 293—295 

ii. Appendix to the Verb: the Object 296—299 

PARTICLES. 

1. Adverbs 300 

2. Prepositions. 

a. In general. . 301 — 305j 

b. Simple Prepositions 306 — Z14 

c. Compound Prepositions 315—3171 



CONTENTS. XIII 

§§ 

3. Conjunctions. 

a. In general 318 

b. Enclitic Conjunctions 319 — 322 

c. Non-enclitic Conjunctions 323 — 326 

THE SENTENCE. 

1. The Nominal Sentence. 

a. The Simple Nominal Sentence 327 — 331 

b. The Nominal Sentence Introduced hy iw and wn. 332 — 333 

c. The Nominal Sentence with pw 334 — 335 

2. The Parts of the Sentence. 

a. The Order of Words 336—342 

6. Emphasis. 

a. In geneial 343 

/3, Without Introduction 344 — 346 

y. With ir, Ir-, r and in 347 — 350 

C. The Ellipses 351—355 

3. Kinds of Sentence. 

a. Interrogative Sentence 356 — 363 

b. Negative Sentence. 

a. With n and nn 364 — 372 

/3. The Circumlocutions with im-, m, tm-. . . 373—377 

y. The Negative Adjective 378—380 

c. Dependent and Substantivized Clauses. . . . 381 — 383 

d. Temporal Clauses 384 — 385 

e. Conditional Clauses 386 — 391 

f. Relative Clauses. 

a. Without Connective 392 — 393 

)3. With the Substantivized Verb 394 — 399 

y. With the Passive Participle 400 

8. With the Adjective nt'i 401 — 404 

Page 

TABLE OF SIGNS I7i 

BIBLIOGEAPHY i94 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Pace 

EXP]RCISES FOR READING. 
FIRST PART. 

1. Canalizing of the First Cataract 3* 

2. From the Address of Thutmosis' I. to the Priests of 

Abydos 4* 

3. Medicinal Receipts 6* 

4. Cosmetics and Domestic Receipts 8* 

0. From the Proverbs of Ptah-hotep 11* 

SECOND PART. 

1. From the Story of Sinuhe 17* 

2. From the Story of the Eloquent Peasant 28* 

APPENDIX. 

1. A Writing of Thutmosis' I. to the Authorities of El- 

phantine. 37* 

2. Examples of the Royal Titularies 39* 

3. Examples of Grave Formulae. . . 40* 

GLOSSARY 42* 



ABBREVIATIONS. 

AZ.: Zeitschrift fiir agyptische Sprache (Bibliography C.) 

Br. Gr. W. : Brugsch, Die agyptische Gi aberwelt, Leipzig 1868. 

Br. Wb. : Brugsch, Worterbuch (Bibliography Ab). 

Butler: Papyrus Butler (Exercises for Heading p. 28*). 

C. : Steindorff, Coptic Grammar. 

Copt. : Coptic. 

Eb.: Papyrus Ebers (Bibliography Be). 

Feminine. 
LE.: Late Egyptian. 

LD.: Lepsius, Denkmaler (Bibliography Ba). 
Leps. Ausw. : Lepsius, Auswahl (Bibliography Ba). 
M. or Merenre': Pyi-amid of Merenre' (BibUography Bf). 
m, : masculine. 

Mar. Ab.: Mariette Abydos (Bibliography Bd). 
Mar. Cat. d'Ab.: Mariette, Catalogue des monuments (Biblio- 
graphy Bd). 

Mar. Mast. : Mariette, Mastabas (Bibliography Bd). 
Math. Hdb.: Eisenlohr, Mathemat. Handbuch (Bibliography Be). 
m. e.: Middle Empire, 
n. e.: New Empire. 

. : Old Empire. 
Peasant : Story of the Eloquent Peasant (Exercises for Reading p. 28*). 
P. L, or Pepy I. : Pyramid of Pepy I. (Bibliography Bf). 
Prisse: Papyrus Prisse (Bibliography Be). 
Pyr. : Pyramid Texts (Bibliography Bf). 

RIH. : Eouge, Inscriptions hi§roglyphiques (Bibliography Ba). 
3in.: Sinuhe (Exercises for Beading p. 17*). 
Siut: Griffith, Inscriptions of Siut (Bibliography Bd). 
Totb.: Totenbuch, ed. NaviUe (Bibliography Bf). 
Una: Inschrift des Wni (AZ. 1882, Isq.). 
Westc. : Papyrus Westcar (Bibliography Be). 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Egyptian language is related to the Se- 1. 
mitic languages (Hebrew, Arabic, Aramaic &c.), to 
the East-African languages (Bischari, Galla, Somali 
and others), and to the Berber languages of North- 
Africa. The language of its oldest monuments belongs 
as far back as the fourth millennium B. C. and did 
not entirely die out until three centuries ago. 

We distinguish the following chief periods of 2. 
the language: 

1. The Old-Egyptian^ the oldest language treated 
in this book, the employment of which as the learned, 
literary language continued into Roman times. Pe- 
culiarities of its oldest form (found in the so-called 
"pyramid texts") are noted in the remarks "A" under 

[the different paragraphs. 

2. 3. The Middle-Egyptian^ the popular language 
[of the middle empire and the Late-Egyptian , the po- 

)ular language of the new empire ; the most important 
livergences found in this period are noted in the re- 

Erman, Egypt, gramm. \ 



2 INTRODUCTION. 2. 3. 

marks "B". It is more fully treated in: Erman 
Sprache des Papyrus Westcar (Gottingen 1889) and 
Erman, Neuagyptische Grammatik (Leipzig 1880). 

^. The Demotic^ the popular language of the last 
pre-Christian centuries, written in a peculiar ortho- 
graphy. Cf. "Grammaire demotique", Brugsch (Ber- 
lin 1855) — of course obsolete. 

5. The Coptic^ the language of the Christian 
Egyptians written with Greek letters. Cf. the Coptic 
grammar, parallel with this book, by Steindorff, which 
I hereafter cite as "C". 
3. Since the idioms cited, from 1 — 4, are all written 

without vowels, (cf. § 14) the Coptic affords the only 
possibility of understanding the structure of the Egyp- i 
tian language. It is therefore necessary, even for the- 
beginner, to acquire a knowledge of Coptic. — Only 
one who is already proficient in Old-Egyptian and 
Coptic should venture into Late-Egyptian or Demotic. 

ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. 
1. IN GENERAL. 

*4. Hieroglyphic writing consists of pictures of men, 
animals, plants, &c.; their number is very large, 
though only about 500 are in frequent use. The alpha- 
betic and syllabic signs of §i5 13, 33 — -35, and the 
determinatives of § 47 are sufficient at the start for 



ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. 1. IN GENERATi. 5 — 7. 



the beginner; the other signs he will best learn 
through usage. 

The writing properly runs from right to left, and 5. 
only exceptionally (when employed for certain deco- 
rative purposes) from left to right; nevertheless, for 
reasons of convenience we always write it in the latter 
direction. Whether an inscription is to be read from 
the right or the left, is easily determined by the 
heads of the animal and human figures, which always 
face toward the beginning. 

The signs stand in part vertically as M j H^' ^• 
in part horizontally _,f_ <cz> 'wwvv ^^; almost the 
only ones used in both positions are the especially 

'requent signs <«=> or A Ci "great" and ^^-^ or } 
'cf. § 47). The frequent abbreviation ^:=^ | mBC-hrw 

"justified" is preferably written or ] |. 

Caligraphy demanded that a number of conti- 7. 
guous signs should together form an approximate 
rectangle. Hence the words rpCfi "hereditary prince", 
smr tvQ'i "nearest friend" and /?s "praise", could 

only be written as follows d 1 t "^ l V 



,pf--rr 



would 



arrangements like <:::> 

)e barbarous. — At the present day we do not always 
ilosely follow this caligraphic law ; but to the Egyptian 

A* 



4 ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. 1. IN GENERAL. 8. 9. 

it was so important, that out of respect for it, he 
sometimes departed from the correct orthography. 
For example, in almost all cases he wrote for sCJi 

"prince", hCh "to play" and rmt_ "man" P \shc, \ J 

i^&c, ^ r^, because the correct writings L " K'X- o 

Jl' "^—-^ ^<. ° — ^ were unpleasing. Similarly ^^ 
is often written for the more correct but unpleasing 
rvt and for 5^;^=_ hft. 



*8. It is customary to sketch the hieroglyphs exactly, 
only in large ornamental inscriptions; in most cases 
it is regarded as sufficient to outline them in a con- 
ventional manner with a few strokes. The beginner 
should take as his pattern practically the writing in 
Brugsch's Dictionary, and should especially familiarize 
thimself with the abbreviations for the different birds 
there employed. 
9. From the earliest times the individual signs were 
very much shortened and rounded off, when written 
upon Egyptian paper. We have accustomed ourselves , 
to contrast these abbreviated hieroglyphs as a sepa- 
rate writing — the so-called "hieratic" — with the 
writing of the monuments. This is however in- 
correct, for they have no other points of distinction 
than are presented by our printed and written letters. 



2. PHONETIC SIGNS. a. THE ALPHABET. 10 — 13. 5 

A knowledge of the Hieratic is not an immediate 
necessity for the beginner. 

The hieratic writing is subdivided further into 10. 
two varieties, a more angular uncial, in which the 
individual signs remain for the most part separated, 
and a more rapid cursive, which often contracts an 
entire word into one ligature. It was this cursive 
writing, out of which the Demotic (cf. § 2, 4) finally grew. 

The hieroglyphic signs fall into three classes ac- 11*. 
cording to their meaning: 

1. Phonetic signs, which are alphabetic or syllabic. 

-2. Ideograms, which represent a certain word, but 
are also very often employed for another word having 
the same consonants as the first. 

3. So-called determinatives, i. e. signs placed after 
a word, to indicate its meaning in a general way. 

As may be seen from the table of signs these 12. 
classes are often not to be sharply defined, for ori- 
ginal determinatives pass over into ideograms and 
original ideograms into syllabic signs. 



2. PHONETIC SIGNS. 
a. THE ALPHABET. 

The alphabet (the arrangement of which is mod- 13*. 
em) is as follows: 



2. PHONETIC SIGNS. «. THE ALPHABET. 14. 



J 



h 



i (Eagle) © 1 

II t (Reedleaf) ^— j^ 

__fl c ('Ajin) -^ 



UP A k 

^ f ^==^ k 

AAAftAA n O t 



"1"" 



To these are further to be added two secondary 
signs : 

(j(]y « • 

B. Since the »ew empire (s is also written for w, / for 
tw and %/ for n. 

14*. Our transliteration of these signs must be regarded 
only as an approximate equivalent of the respective 
sounds; but by means of the Coptic (cf. C. § 15) and 



2. PHONETIC SIGNS. «. THE ALPHABET. 15. 16. 7 

the manner in which Semitic words are transcribed 
in Egyptian, and Egyptian words in Semitic, it is an 
established fact that all signs represent consonants. 
The vowels, just as in Semitic writing, are not in- 
dicated. — For the exceptional use of some few con- 
sonants for the indication of certain vocalic endings 
cf. §§ 15 — 16; 18; on W ^ cf. § 27. 

i probably corresponds approximately to ii. 15** 
But in many words n^ early became i, a pronun- 
ciation, often indicated by the addition of uU y, 
6- g- m ^. ^ ^^ "husband" (*ha^), since the n. e. 

written ra ^^ ^^^ ^^V ^' ®- *^"J^ ^^pt. g Al (cf. 
C§ 15 a, 2). — In the later syllabic writing (cf. § 70) 
^^v is also used for indication of a vowel. 

[1 I etymologically corresponds to i and in many 16*. 

words always remained a i, e. g. (1^ It "father", copt. 

EICDT. But with most words it was early lost, cf. 

(1 ^^ irp "wine", copt. hoTT (from *ierp), or (J 

imn copt. AMOyN "Amon" (from *^mon, Cf. C§ 15 a, 

1 and Rem.) — In certain endings (1 was used in the 

oldest orthography to indicate an i, which the later 
orthography indicates by "^ (cf. § 27), 



8 2. PHONETIC SIGNS, ffl. THE ALPHARET. 17 — 22, 

*17. - — a c corresponds to Semitic y and this pronun- 
ciation was very long preserved ; but in Coptic it has 
disappeared. — Cf. C§ 15 Rem. 

♦18. \:> w corresponds to Semitic 1, Copt, oy; in 

the syllabic orthography (Cf. § 70) and in a few end- 
ings, ^ is also used to indicate a vowel (something 
like u). 

19. 2i\^=>- /about corresponded to our English /"; Qj? 
to the Semitic S.— Cf. C§ 12bc. 

20. <=^ r^ represented / as well as r, cf. C § 8. In 
certain words aaaaaa n also was probably pronounced 
like an /; C§ 8a, 2. 

2j^ ru h is Heb. n, arab. ». P h and O h differ like 
arab. (something like M) and • (something like 
German cli in ach)\ nevertheless in many words © h 
appears to have also possessed a softer sound, for it 
interchanges with s. — ^-=> was originally a special 
sound, standing very near to ® ; but both were so early 
merged into one sound that we transliterate them with 
one and the same sign h. Cf. C§ 14. 

'22, ~~*^~ ^^^ ' were likewise originally different 
sounds; but they were also so early merged into one 
sound that we transliterate them both with the same 
sign s. czszi] s corresponds to it our sh. Cf. C§ 13. 



2. PHONETIC SIGNS. U. THE ALPHABET. 23 27. 9 

z] k corresponds to p, ^C3^ ^ to d; S ^ is a sound 23. 
very near to p, but not to be defined more closely. 
Cf.C§ 10,24. 

<^ t corresponds to Semitic f\ ; s= / is a special 24» 
modification of the same sound, which must have 
sounded about like o in the n. e. But at a very early 
period s=5 had, in most words already passed over 
ints ^. Cf. C§ 11a, 2. 

e^i^i d corresponds for the most part to Semitic 25. 
t3 : 'W^ i? is a special modification of the same sound, 



which must have sounded something like at. But in 
most words 'W^ very early passed into c=^3. In the 

latest period <:=^> becomes t, so that it coincides 
with ^ in Copt. Cf. C§ 11a, 4. 

{1(1 is still the indication of two (I's in the oldest 26*. 

texts, e. g. Ill (In ms^Y (something like *mesioi "I bear", 

cf. WiUy msis i. e. *mesios "she bears"). From the m. e. 

down it is written for (j, in so far as this has remained 

■1, (cf. § 16), only, however, at the end of word stems and 
in certain endings ; we then transliterate it with y. 

N\ i' is a sign used since the m. e. for the fre- 27*. 
quently recurring grammatical ending i; it cannot 
stand at the beginning or in the middle of a word. 
Concerning its origin cf. § 108. 



10 2. PHONETIC SIGNS, b. PHONETICS. C. SYLLABIC SINGS. 28 — 32. 

b. SPECIAL POINTS IN PHONETICS. 

28. Certain sounds, for which a sign is wanting, are 
expressed by a combination of several. Such is a 
kind of <^:> r occurring as the final letter of many 

words, which interchanges with [1 i and is written 

<^^^^(1; and further the combination and (1 

for initial a- 

29. The weakness of the breathing ^^ i produces 

peculiar phenomena. In many words it stands, some- 
times as second, sometimes as third consonant; t^m 
and mi "pleasant", k:$m and km^ "create"; tvh:^ "co- 
lumn" and rv^hi "hall of columns" &c. Along with 
these occur forms like km:$m with Ami "create", sm^m 
with sm9 "kill", wh^h with wh^ "seek"; cf. § 157. In 
very many words i was also early lost. — Similar 
phenomena appear sometimes with (I t also. 

30. A further interchange is ss, ss and s; also hs and 
sh, e. g. ssp, ssp and §p "receive", ss9 and s^i "wise", 
shtn and hsm "holy of holies". 

31. Remarkable is the writing of [{'=' it "father" (copt. 
EIODT) which since the oldest times appears also as 

c. SYLLABIC SIGNS. 

32. Along with the simple consonants, syllabic signs 
were also used which, according to § 40 have become 



I 



2. PHONETIC SIGNS. C. SYLLABIC SIGNS. 33. 34. 11 

pure phonetic signs from original ideograms. Thus 
•^^, really an ideogram for wr ''great", appears as a 
syllabic sign in swri "drink", wrs "spend time", writ 
„anoint" &c. ; i^^^^, really an ideogram for mn "re- 
main", appears as syllabic sign in hsmn "natron", mnli 
"wax" etc. For further examples cf. the list of 
hieroglyphs. 

The syllabic signs, whose second consonant is 33*. 
^^, i, are of importance for the beginner, for such 

syllables for the most part must be written with 
these signs. To be noted are: 

--« l^vs I *^ U « J. i^ 



{] 



TV^ y mS ^ sB O t^ 

&i #^i LToTsi r^^tS 



Of these kB and tB occur also in syllabic writing 
(^C3:^^^^5^^^^) occasionally also hB\ with all the 
others the syllabic sign must be used. The rare ex- 
ceptions (like jn^ in s&i "door" and dhB "restore") 

probably indicate peculiar phonetic conditions in 
these words. 

The syllabic signs in w are almost as frequent as 34*. 
the above ; for these, however, the alphabetic writing 
may also be used: 



12 3. IDEOGRAMS. 35 — 37. 



sw 



^^ Iw nrv ^ . hw li 

If^ frv and Sw JB^, rm 1 sw 

*35. Note further the syllabic signs: (J g7\ perhaps IS^ 
\ il or sometimes also ^ (l- 
probably ri. 

^^^ ' ^^^' ^v ' ^^^^ ^^^' § ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ early 
used in many words as initial ,w (cf. § 102). 

(like the sign for i) or %, (cf. § 43), the 



sign of the ending fiw (cf. § 133), incorrectly also 
for fi. 

3. IDEOGRAMS. 

*36. The ideograms originally denoted the objects 
which they represent: 

tiTD pr house, v^^^ M wood, 

© nt city, ^ lir face, 

O K sun, 1^ m&c soldier, 

tQi tb heart, &c. 

♦37^ Since abstract conceptions and the like cannot 
be sketched, concrete objects in some way suggestive 
of them are used as ideograms for them: 

I Scepter is the ideogram for Mi "reign", 



3. IDEOGRAMS. 38 — 40. 13 

§ Staff of office for hrp "lead", 

■*i* Plant used as the arms of upper Egypt for rs 
"south", 

^, Sacred falcon for Hr "God Horus", 

^ Target for st "shoot". 

In a few cases more than one sign are found united 38. 
to form one ideogram, as _y£^ sm^rvt'i "the uniter 

(of Egypt)" ')^'^nn "this" etc. 

An ideogram is used not only for one specific 39*. 
word but also for all forms derived from it, e. g. © 
not only for nt "city" but also for the plural ntvt 
"cities", as well as the adjective nt'l "urban" and all 

its forms. [ likewise, is used for all forms of the 

verb Mi "reign" and the substantivs Mi "ruler" Mif 
"ruler" (fem.). The ideogram therefore denotes only 
the consonants forming the stem, and not in any way 
a special vocalization of it. 

Although, according to the above remarks, only 40*. 
words belonging to the same stem may properly be 
written with the same ideogram, nevertheless the 
Egyptians from the oldest times transferred many 
signs to such words as accidentally contained the same 
consonants, without belonging to the same stem. 



14 3. IDEOGRAMS. 41. 42. 

Thus e. g. : 

[3Z: pr "house" transferred to pr "go out", 

r-^i-. htp "offering" transferred to htp "rest"'. 

T nfr "lute" transferred to nfr "good". 



1 mia "flute" 


•>i 


n 


mic^ "truth". 


hpr "beetle" 


?: 


H 


hpr "become". 


si "goose" 


55 


n 


si "son". 


• wr "dove" 


91 


55 


wr "great". 



&c. 
In this manner ideograms for all sorts of ab- 
stract conceptions were obtained. — Many of these 
signs were further transferred to so many words that 
they eventually became purely phonetic syllabic signs, 

thus e. g. ^^^ rvr "great" 1^ pB "fly" &c. Cf. § 32seq. 

41. Since words like "good, truth, become, son, great" 
&c. occur much more frequently than words like 
"lute, flute, beetle, goose, dove" &c. the original con- 
crete meaning in the case of many such ideograms 
was therefore nearly forgotten. 

42. A few ideograms really have double values, so 
e. g. ^ which is employed for tpt "head" and dBdB 
"head". In many cases however where a double value 
apparently occurs it has been caused by the subse- 
quent merging together of two originally different 
signs. Thus, in the merging together of the signs 



3. IDEOQRAJIS. 43. 44. 15 

() and Y? 0116 of which meant hrp "lead" and the other 

shm "mighty", one sign () with both meanings found 
its origin, &c. 

A similar confusion of different signs occurs so 43. 
frequently, that it is o/ten no longer possible to deter- 
mine the correct form of a sign. Note especially the 
difference in: 

* S 5^. 2\ nst "throne", /H hr "below, 

I kd "build" &c., i ist "troop", 

I hrtv "voice", | mdw "speak" 

^^and^/)>.,^and^n^, 

which are regularly confused in the inscriptions. 

The following frequently recurring ideograms are 44. 
differently formed from all others: 

J\ Irv "go", [j i "go", [^ sm "come", 

~7T" sh "walk through", s^^ il "rob", 
in which one sign of going is separated into different 
ideograms by the addition of consonants. Similarly 
differentiated are: 

l\ In "bring", '^^^ &s "bring in", 

j4j rs "south", -^ kmC "south", 

j rnj)t "year", | tr "time", "I rnp "bloom". 



16 4. DETERMINATIVES. 45 — 47. 

4. DETERMINATIVES. 

♦45 The determinatives, the latest part of the Egyptian 

writing, are intended to facilitate the reading; with 
very frequent words, which every one recognizes of 

himself, they are not used, e. g. (l^/^w,"tobe", 
Irt "do", ^^ Tvr "great", ^ m "in" &c. 

A. The determinatives are still, far rarer in the pyramid 
texts than later. 

B. At a later period there is an inclination to attach several 
determinatives to a word ; in this case the more general (of. § 47) 
comes after the more special. 

*46. A few determinatives represent exactly the ob- 
ject which their word denotes e. g. the determinative 

of heaven and of crocodile in the words ^p^„heaven" 

and ^^px 's:s==' nish "crocodile". 
*47. But those determinatives are far more numerous 
and important, which indicate only in general the 

meaning of their word, like that of the tree in (I l<zz>0 
hr "tamarisk". Note especially: 
^ man, P» goddess, 

woman, ^ animal, 

bird, insect, 

revered person, "^ plant, 



^people. 






4. DETERMINATIVES. 48. 49. 



17 



Q tree, 


o o dust, 


s; (late V) land, 


S fluid, 


AAAAAA water, 

AAAAAA 


J\ go, 


r\^^^ desert, foreign 


.^^ see. 


and, 


^ what is done with 


© city. 


the mouth, 


1 1 house, 

barbarian, 
9 (late e) flesh, 


^ (late ■; n) that 

which demands strength, 
"^ little, bad, 


1 fire. 


.-^•^ abstract. 


O time, 





i 



When a determinative is difficult to write, espe- 48, 
cially in manuscripts, an abbreviation \ is used, e. g. 

St "Isis" for jj ^ ^• 

Exact scribes, especially those at the end of the 49* 
m. e. distinguish still closer difi'erences in deter- 
mination. They mark a determinative with m, in order 
to render its meaning general, e. g. : 

L^™9 B^r "roast" but (1^ ^ /w/ "flesh" 
2^0\^ pnw "mouse" but "l^"^ Cwt "cattle" 



'^T /«rr# "flower" but (1 "^ ^ "^^'iAr^'onionY?). 
^ • 1 _^o III • 



Brman, Egypt, gramm. 



18 4. DETERMINATIVES. 50. 51. 



♦50. These scribes further add the sign I to a deter- 
minative, in order to restrict its meaning, e. g.: 

""^^^O rk "period of time", but 1^ %^® hrw "day", 



''°\ ' - ^ ' -^nn^ 



Ji I 
^"^s/Wi^^e "northern", but "~^il[l'^ mry? "dyke". 

B. In the n. e. these additional signs 1 1 1 and I are often 
incorrectly employed. — To the m, e. belongs the rare practice of 
occasionally furnishing the determinatives @ and fw^ with the 

feminine ending t (^' ^ .). as if they were the substantives nt 
"city',, smt "land". 
*51. The stroke must be regarded as a special kind of 
determinative which is added to substantives, which 
are written with only one sign and have no other 
determinative, e. g. : 

^^ dw "mountain", "^^ ri (?) "mouth", 



° c "arm", '^' si "son", 

or (with the feminine ending i): 

dt "hand", smt "desert" etc. 

Nevertheless the usage varies much here and two ex- 
ceptions to the law here given are found in all texts: 

J^ hr 1. "face", 2. "upon" with | even when the 

word is a preposition, not a substantive. 

~~^ — 
^ s "man" with | notwithstanding the other] 

determinative which follows. — cf. also § 58. 



5. ORTHOGRAPHY, tt. IN GENERAL. 52. 53. 19 

A determinative is frequently transferred from 52* 
one word to others, which have the same consonants, 
even when it does not suit their meaning. Thus, e. g. 



the syllable kd is written : \ ^ or I because of 

kd "circle" and kd "make pottery"; Ih "to thirst" 
written: (1 \^^^ because oilh "'calf"; ^^"eternity" 

written: ^1 because of dt "landed property", etc. 

A. Especially to be noted in the old texts is the writing 
O twf "he is" which has taken on the determinative of flesh 
from hcf "flesh". 

5. ORTHOGRAPHY. 
a. IN GENEEAL. 

The orthography, which experienced great trans- 53. 
formations in the course of time, determines in an 
often arbitrary manner how far phonetic signs, ideo- 
grams, and determinatives must be employed in writing 
different words. The most widely spread and import- 
ant system of orthography which may be designated 
as classic, is found in the greatest purity in the manu- 
scripts of the m. e. ; with this system the beginner 
should seek to make himself as familiar as possible, 
before he approaches texts in another orthography. 

B* 



20 5. ORTHOGRAPHY, b. ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGRAMS. 54. 55. 

A. The orthography of the p3ramid texts is exceedingly vari- 
able, and renders the understanding of them very difficult indeed; 
but for us it is of importance, because it often — even though not 
consistently — distinguishes grammatical forms which the classic 
orthography leaves undistinguished. — The orthography of the o. e. 
seeks the greatest possible brevity. 

b. OETHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGEAMS. 
54« The majority of words are written with an ideo- 
gram, to which is added an indication of its pronun- 
ciation in alphabetic signs. Whether all the conson- 
ants of the word are to be written, or only a part; 
whether they are to stand before or after or on both 
sides of the ideogram, is decided by usage for each 
separate word. The following paragraphs present 
the usage of the classic orthography. — Caligraphy 
(cf. § 7) is moreover often the motive for the selection 
of a given writing. 
*55. Usually it is only the final consonant which is 
added. To biliteral ideograms the final consonant 
is subjoined, e. g.: 

^^J\ pr "go out", ^^yv, ^h "go in", 
r\\ms "to bear", t '^ M "white", 

to triliterals the final consonant, e, g. : 
^ tipr "become", T | ^1 ^^^ "lay", 

f ^7\^ ^-'^ "stand", I '^ rvSd "green", 



5. ORTHOGRAPHY. 5. ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGRAMS. 56. 57. 21 

or also — but more rarely — the last two consonants, 
e. g.: 

/-> AAAAAA n n 

-¥- Cn?i "live" "1 l<zi> rvsr "strong". 

T nfr "good". 

More rarely all the consonants are written, e. g. : 56*. 

§ \'^ZE^ hi) "feast", □ (^ ^^ "times" (germ. Mai), 

and still more rarely only the initial consonants^ as in: 

^ ^ llgrg "sieze possession", 

n^ J s&i "star". 

A. In the oldest orthography writings of just this kind are 

AAAAAA a ^^^ AAAAAA H Q 

frequent, cf. e. g. : t and t nfr "good", o ^ a 

n M AAAAAA 

ChC "stand"', ^ a 9 §t ChC "palace", "Lord'' instead of the 

classic writings T ' v n ' m ' ^— ^ Mt^. 

Finally in some isolated cases the initial conson- 57. 
ant of the ideogram or its entire phonetic writing is 
placed after it, e, g. : 

W' ^(J "to command", ^^ • dmd "unite", 
jj[ ur-3 Cr "storehouse", ? ^^^^^'' "'^^ sick", 
J m A '"^ "pyramid". 

A. This is also a remnant of the oldest orthography; in the 
pyramids such writings are frequent. 



22 5. OETHOaEAPHY. C. PURELY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY. 58. 59. 



*58. Only a few especially frequent ideograms — except 
the abbreviations of § 67 — are left without any pho- 
netic addition, as: 



^ hr "face", 



pr "house", 
I 

'^^nir "god", 
iM 2i msC "armv", 

m \\\ 

and the feminines : 
^ ^ ht "house", 

I 



^ ss (?) "scribe", 
nb "every", 
^ nb "lord", 



°'=s. 



■' mh "fill", 



^ ^ St "Isis", 



^ 



mrvt "mother". 



Jmt "woman", etc. 



c. PUBBLY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY. 
59. All words for which the orthography possesses 
no ideogram are written with purely phonetic signs 
— i. e. without ideograms. These are in part very 
frequently recurring words, like: 

(1^ tw "to be", Jl^ ^^'^ "^^^"' 

^^^ ^ rn "name", ^ %, (] V »^^^ "lion", 

n^^(l^ STvrl "drink", &c. 

A. In the oldest orthography the purely phonetic writing 
is very frequent. Note the rare cases l\ v\ for v\ h ^^ - 

wd:$ "sound, healthy", § '^^ ^ for "^^ | ^ i/jf "field", which 
also occur occasionally later. 



5. OKTHOGRAPHY. C. PURELY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY. 60 — 62. 23 

Since the syllabic signs employed in these writings 60*. 
were, according to § 40, originally ideograms, the 
pronunciation is added to them in the same way. It 
is mostly the final consonant which is written, e. g. : 

ms, mn^ mr, '^ hr, ^^ rvn, &c. 

But in many cases the initial consonant also is 
written (and such syllabic signs are thereby dist- 
inguished from the real ideograms, cf. § 56) e. g. : 

As a rare writing note that of the syllabic sign 

^ — ^ w'^ • Y>, in which the phonetic value is 

indicated by means of another frequently recurring 
sign for nw. 

A few syllabic signs moreover are often also 61*. 

employed without phonetic addition, thus e. g. ^ tirv, 



6i, LJ ^j>^ [q] 5J>^ O ^^ . those derived from sub- 
stantives then receive a stroke according to § 51. 

Note the writing of the words mln and si^ : [1 62. 

and 'Ij— p^^O f^n-l, sS-i, in which the subjoined i 
is to be inserted within the syllabic sign.* 

* according to Sethe. 



24 6. ORTHOGRAPHY. d. ABBREVIATIONS. 63. 64. 

d. ABBREVIATIONS. 

63. Since the Egyptian writing was naturally intended 
only for such as were familiar with the language, the 
Egyptians omitted much as dispensable, which seemed 
to them self-evident. Almost all grammatical changes 
therefore which take place within a word are left 

unindicated, e. g. hmrvt plur. of J) Jimt "woman" is 

written J) i (that is without indication of the tv). 

But further, the grammatical endings are also often 
omitted, where it is supposed that the reader himself 



will perceive them from the connection: 



n. 



Hi 
for the plural sr{w) "princes", 3 ^^37 for hmt «&[^] 

"every woman" &c. 
64. Further with many phonetically written words a 
consonant is regularly or often omitted. Note especi- 
ally the frequently used words: 

^ for llf h ^ "father", n S for sms "follow". 



^_^ for iht "thing", v^ s^ for f^sr "desolate", 

■ ^ Jl ^^^ ^^- "°^^"''5 oQ for htm "to seal", 

« ^ for hCp "Nile", j] for mr "stone", 

^^^ ^ for hrd "child", ° ^ for ptr "see", 

^ for sm^ "land", °|| for c^i "correct", , 



5. ORTHOOKAPHY. d. ABBREVIATIONS. 65 — 67. 25 

'^ for dfS "food", n ® n T;^ for shsh "walk, run", 

&c. 
A. Belonging to the earliest period, but sometimes occurring 
later also, are: c^ for Iao^ tt "father", <^II> for (J ,. tr'i "be- 
longing to", also \\ "^^ for \\ \\ "^^ iwf "flesh". 

Here belong also the cases where only its second 65. 
consonant is added to a triliteral ideogram in violation 
of § 55, e. g.: 

jf for I stn "king of upper Egypt",, 

(a for I ^^^ ^^^ "to reign", 
"o" ^^'^ oD '^"^^ "offering", 
I I for I l<=r>«;sr "strong", 
() for shmt "name of a goddess", &c. 
In frequently used titles and formulae, still more 66. 
arbitrary abbreviations occur, like: ^^^ for hCfi 

"prince", d for rpCtt "hereditary prince", the bene- 
diction nr |l I for Cnh wdB snb "living, hale, healthy", 
1 0| for nhh "eternity". 

Further, the old divine names, titles &c., which 67. 
are written with only an ideogram are abbreviations, 

like: ^^^ tvp rv^rvt "opener of ways" (a divine name); 



26 e. INVERSION OF THE ORDER OF WORDS./. UNUSUAL STYLES. 68 — 70. 

Toq"^] for O ^ ^"^^^^^ hCwf-RC «his 
diadems are those of ReC" (royal name) &c. 
68. Finally, a word which is obvious from the connec- 
tion, is very often so abbreviated that only its deter- 
minative is inserted, e. g. ^ for l I S>j kBt "labor", 

s Q for ^^ — D nht "strong", | for s"^"^!! trvi 

"statue" &c. (For the most important cases cf. the 
table of signs). 

e. INVERSION OF THE ORDER OF WORDS. 

*69. In titles, formulae, names &c. words which desig- 
nate the king or a god are inserted in the writing 
before the others belonging thereto; in reading, the 
correct order must of course be restored, e. g. : 

1 "^^ sB stn "son of the king", 
I y hn-ntr "servant of the god, priest", 
I '^ Sci 1 5 J}n-ntr Hkt "priest of the goddess Hkf", i 
oQ mi RC "like ReC". 

/. UNUSUAL STYLES OF ORTHOGRAPHY. 

70. Since the m. e. there developed along with the 
usual writing, a syllabic orthography, which never- 
theless was only used for the writing of foreign words,^ 
proper names &c. It consists of the syllabic signs 



/. UNUSUAL STYLES. 71. 6. RULES FOR TRANSLITERATION. 72. 27 

treated in §§ 33 — 35 and of other syllables in i and 
TV. The sounds i and rv evidently serve as the approx- 
imate indication of the vowels ; of. e. g. s=> ^ A^ 
^, f_TV-pB-'irB for the Hebrew nsb "scribe" &c. 

The syllables ^, )'r^(i) and j'TT ^ employed therein, 
seem to correspond to er and en. 

Sportive methods of writing, in which ideograms 71. 
serve as simple consonants, determinatives and un- 
precedented signs are used as ideograms, are found 

as early as the m. e. cf. e. g. ^C^^ \\ for HI 
msdmt „cosmetic", wherein 2j) as determina- 



tive of m5 "child" represents this syllable, c^:^ drv "moun- 

tain^ represents d, \\ mrvt "mother" the syllable 

mt. — But this wanton method first attains importance 
from the fact that such an orthography gradually 
superceded the old hieroglyphs in the Greek period. 
— A summary of these signs may be found inBru^sch, 
Verzeichniss der Hieroglyphen mit Lauttvert (Leipzig 
1872). 

6. RULES FOR TRANSLITERATION. 
The orthography so often leaves the phonetic 72. 
form of the words uncertain, that a transliteration 
free from some arbitrariness is impossible. One should 
accustom himself to the following rules : 



28 PRONOUNS. 1. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN, a, PERSONAL SUFFIXES. 73. 

1. Since most s=>'s and '^"^'s according to §§ 24, 

25 had, in the m. e. already become -^li and ci^^i, in 
texts of the ra. e. and n. e. t and d should always be 
transliterated in cases of doubt, and I and d only 
employed when s=> and '^-=^ are actually written out. 
Hence j j| w^r but | <zr> nirt} 

2. In the case of omitted consonants (§§ 64, 65) 
and grammatical endings (§ 63), only those should be 
supplied which occur in parallel cases really written 
out, and rather too little than too much should be 
restored. Hence nk ^\ according to § 133 imi, but 

3. Words in which the order of consonants changes 
(§ 29, 30) should be written, when in doubt, with the form 
in which they oftenest occur. Hence r) ; first mi andj 

only i^m when this reading is phonetically written outj 

4. In compound words the component parts should 

be separated by a hyphen: fn '1 v^ R(^-ms-sw 



"Ramses". 

PRONOUNS. 

1. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

a. PERSONAL SUFFIXES. 

*73. The personal suffixes, which are subjoined to tl 
noun, the prepositions and the verb, to express poa 



1. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN, tt. PERSONAL SUFFIXES. 74. 29 

session or the subject (e. g. pr-k "thy house", hr-k 
"upon thee", sdm-k "thou hearest"), according to the 
classic orthography are: 

Sing. 1 c. ^ ^^ (^'^) Plur. 1. c.77; n 

2 m. r:z::y(> k 2. c. ^-'^^'^tn ( jaa^aaa j 

' ' ' V/WWVA I I 1/ 

f. .= t (O) 

n A/\AAAA /^~^ •* \ 

3 m. ^^ f 3. c. I 5«[/wsAAA» I 

f. P (--) . 

They are written after the determinative of the 
word to which they are subjoined, e. g. S'^"^ 

rdk (copt. pATK) "thy foot", glj ^^^z::^ mr/t "thou 

lovest". 

The suff. 1 sg. is according to the Coptic an i 74. 
(e. g. XODI "my head"); in the o. e. it is always left 
unindicated, e. g. To l^mt\l\ "my office", from the 
m. e. down it is mostly indicated by determinatives, 
®' g- ^^ ^ or ^^Ji ^^ "^^ Ji according as a 



man, a woman or a god speaks, read s^l "my son". 
Nevertheless it is sometimes left unindicated here 
also, especially in the «-form of the verb (cf. § 194). 

A. The pyramids aways write it (I, and this writing occurs 
as an exception later also. 

B. After consonants the suffix later falls away (e. g. copt. 
pAT "fuy foot" cf. C 5). 



30 1. THE PERSONAL PEONOUN. tt. PERSONAL SUFFIXES. 75 — 79. 

75. In the m. e. s= t of the 2 sg. f. and 2 pi, al- 
ready passes over into o t ; nevertheless £= and ^ — * 
are often written later also. 

B. Late writings of the 2 sg. f. are d 3\ and jlJ ; in Copt, 
this suffix has lost the t (-E), cf C § 50. 

76. The 3 m. sg. is sometimes and the 3 f. sg. often 

used for the neuter "it", e. g. "^1 hrs "on account 

of it" ; the 3 f. occurs even for more than one person, 
where we would expect the 3 plur. 

77. The suffixes of the dual were early superceded 

by those of the plural, nevertheless "ir^. o^'''^ 

ImitTV-sni "between them both" is still to be found.* 

A. The pyramids have 3 du. ] **«*« []' ] snl, 2 du. f^AA^^f^tnt. 

78. On the other hand the suffixes of the singular, 
when they are subjoined to a noun in the dual or 
having the dual meaning, very strangely take the 
dual ending i, though it is not always written out, 

e.g. ^ Cw?/'«"his two arms", ,, sptw'iki\ 

"thy two lips", 'V ^^i'C^^^ TvCrftfi ""his two| 



legs", v::. snnrv/'i "his second". 

A . The pyramids write such a suffix *^- — [l fc. 

79*. These suffixes are not used as object. Nevertheless] 
as possessive suffixes attached to infinitives (e. g.j 

* Todth. 7, 5. 



1, THE PERSONAL PROHOUN. b. THE OLD ABSOLUTE PRONOUN. 80. 81. 31 

^[j^l"" ° /?r Ithk "when they draw thee" lit. "at 

thy drawing") they represent the object to our gram- 
matical sense and the Egyptians themselves later 
conceived them as such. 

B. Since the forms of. the copt. verb are mostly made 
with the infinitive, these suffixes have therefore become real ob- 
ject suffixes in Copt. (cf. C§ 174). 

b. THE OLD ABSOLUTE PRONOUN. 
Its forms, which externally at least are identical 80*. 
with the suffixes in the plural, are: 

Sing. 1 c. '^^ ?v2 Plur. 1. c. ^^J n 

AftAAAA 

1 I 1 - III 



2m.t=>^tTv.i::^^tw 2. c. '^-^^^ tn aaaaaa tn 



f. {1m or Inl) 
3m 



f. 



SW 3. C. I ' /WWVA^^ 

I III III 



W SI 



Neutr. 3 



c.\\c^ St 



They are still employed as subject, almost 
only in a certain few cases (cf. § § 166, 328, 369, 383), 
on the other hand regularly as object. 

The 1 sg. is written in the o. e. ^. The 2 m. trv 81. 
and the 2 pi. fji in the m. e. are already tw and tn. 
-The 3 f. is of course always to be read «, even 
when the ^ is not written. 



32 1. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. C. LATER ABSOLUTE PRONOUN. 82 — 84. 

A. The pyramids write the 1 sg. v\ (1. For the 2 m. they 
have two forms tw and kw, and for the 2 f. tm and tn. 

*82. The form \\^ st perhaps originally belonged to 

the 3 f. ; but it is nevertheless regularly used, from 
the time of the m. e. down, for neutr. "it". It is 
used with decided preference and may even refer to 
a number of persons (cf. § 76); the pron. 3. pi. sn is 
almost entirely superceded by it. Cf. e. g. Cnnsn 
St "they turned themselves (lit. "it") about". 
83. Along with the above, the pyramids have also 
further forms of these pronouns which they employ 
with special emphasis, like 1 sg. wll, 2 m. fwt, 2 f. 

pnt, 3 m. sTvt, 3 f. stt. Of these, only i ^ ^ swt is 
still to be found in the m. e. 

c. LATER ABSOLUTE PEONOUN. 
*84. These forms are only employed as emphatic sub- 
ject, and correspond to the emphasizing of the sub- 
stantive by means of In (cf. § 350). They are: 

Sing. 1 c. Inwk Plur. 1. c. ? 

AAAAA^ AAAAAA g ) 

2 m. oi ntk 2 c. ^wvaaa nttn 



f. o ntt {latter ntt) (later n^^w)| 

a. -^ ntf 
f. ^ 1 nts 



Zm. '^^ ntf 3 c. I ntsn 



2. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. C. WITH p-, t-. 86. 33 

As may be seen, the 1 sg. is an exceptional form, 
the others consisting of a little syllable nt- (cf. § 103) 
and the possessive suffixes. 

A. In the pyramids they are still rare. 

B. There is later an inclination to write the 1 sg., (J 

M^i. Prom these forms the copt. pronouns have descended, cf. 
C§ 51. 

d. THE EXPRESSION FOR "SELF". 

The word p| ds- with the suff. means "self, e. g. 85. 
(hi "myself", dsk "thyself", ^5/" "himself etc. 

B. The word hC "body" with or -without suff. occurs rarely 
for "self"*; this expression, from which the copt. ^(3i(Xi' descends 
(cf. C§ 52), later becomes more frequent. 

2. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 
a. FORMS WITH MASC. J9-FEM. t-. 
The most common demonstrative "this", is: 86.* 

Sing. m. pn ^ f. 

AAAAAA AA/SAAA 

Plur. m. [1 Ipn (pn) f. (i Iptn (ptn) 

The plural forms are, in the m. e., already ob- 
solete, and are replaced by nn (cf. § 91). — It always 

stands after the substantive: pr j9n "this 

I AAAA/VN 

house", J ht in "this castle". — In cere- 

LD 1 1 AAA^/W 



1 Sin. 66. 
Erman, Eg^pl. granim. 



34 2. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. O. WITH p-, t-. 87 90. 

monious language it also follows proper names of 
persons, especially in direct address. 

A. The pyramids use it with especial emphasis before the 
substantive also; m pn gs "on this side". 

B. In n. e. it is almost entirely lost. 

*87. The weaker word for "this" (following its noun) 
prv^ occurs almost only in this one form and then only 

1. in the cases in §§ 237, 239, 334; 

2. in ceremonial address : Ppy prv "o Pepy" ! 

3. in apposition; (^mw'i-n-sl, hhB prv n Tnrv ^'Cmwi- 
n-Sl, the prince of Tnw" (lit. "this prince"). 

A. In the pyramids it still survives: sing. m. pw (also p,pi), 
f. tw ; plur. m. ipw f. Iptw. 

B. In the later language it is entirely lost. 

88. In the archaic language m. lJX\i\ (1 pwy, f. o^ (J (1 

trvy also occur, and are properly perhaps identical 
with the old prv. 

89. The old word for "that" is sing. m. pf, f. 

i/" (properly p/?? //i?), which is also later written 

*^-=--, 1^ \\ ^h^ P^f'i- It follows the substan- 
tive and often adds an implication of despicableness. 
— The plur. is replaced by w/i, cf. § 93. 

A. The pyramids have also the plural ipf and also place it 
(like pn § 86 A) before the substantive. 

"90. The usual later demonstrative is sing. m. 



2. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. &. FORMATIONS WITH U: 91. 92. 35 

pS, f. o^. t^i which, differing from the others, is 
always placed before the substantive: D/>^^^ 
^^^^ v"^ pi* S/drv "thi&_book". — It is also used 
as a substantive (jai pw Wslr "this is Osiris") and 
then has also a plural, Q/^^ ^^ ^ i- — Usually 
the plural is replaced by ni, cf. § 94. 

A, In the pyramids pB does not occur. 

B. The article is later developed from p^, cf. § 113; the 
later demonstrative also pB'i c. TTAl (C§ 68) is descended from pB. 

b. FORMATIONS WITH n-. 
4-4- ^^ ^^ properly a substantive, "this": | 91.* 

I I ddnf nn "he said this"^ — But it is for the 
most part connected by the genetive n with a follow- 
ing singular or plural: I I aaaaaa |j^[j|j ^ nn n sht'i 

"these peasants"^ (lit. "this of peasant"); this combi- 
nation replaces the plural of j9« (cf. § 86). 

B. Later the genetive n falls away: nn (4-4-) ^^^^ "these 

and I I are 

I I AA/v^A^ 

AA/\A/W 

incorrect writings for nn. 

D v\ (older \\) nn> is used precisely like 92.* 

nn; as a substantive it means "this", in nw n . . . it 



> Sin. 32. 2 Bauer 75. ^ Westc. 5, 12. 

C* 



36 NOUNS. 1. SUBSTANTIVES, a. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. 95. 



AA/ViAA 



replaces the plural of prv (cf. § 87): o 

I I I J| I WW n ntrw^ "These gods". It is more archaic 
than nn. 

B. In LA it is lost. 

^^' ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ '^^ same way replaces the 

plural of/?/", e. g. w/j? n c^wt "those swellings (?)"^. 

*94. % «i "this" is also a substantive, "this"; in 

the combination wi n with following plural, it serves 
as the plural of ;?i (cf. § 90, 113), e. g. "V ''^'^ /'^wT 
K^ III wi n gmhrvt "these wicks" ^ 

A. To the pyramids nB is still unknown. 

B. Here also the genetive n falls away in the n. e.; hence 

AAA/SA^ 

the article is for the most part ''K^ wi, cf. § 113 B. 

NOUNS. 

1. SUBSTANTIVES. 
a. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. 
♦95. The masculine and feminine are distinguished. 
The feminine has the ending -t and denotes 

1. the naturally feminine; 

2. various inanimate objects, which are conceived 
as feminine, like nst "throne", wCrt "leg"; 



t Eb. 2, 5. 2 Eb. 108, 20. 3 Siut I, 297. 



1. SUBSTANTIVES. U. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. 96. 97. 37 

3. Collectives, like Cs^t "multitude", rhyt ''huma- 
nity"; 

4. Expressions in the neuter, like ntt "that which", 
and the like; 

5. Abstract conceptions, like stnyt "kingdom", 
JmtC^) "evil". 

The masculine originally had an ending u, which 96. 
was denoted by rv. It is nevertheless only rarely 
written, chiefly 

1. with divine names etc.: [I vx^^wpw Anubis, 
■^^^^£=3% Mntw Month, ?]\, Hnmrv Chnum. 

2. with substantives which denote a person and 
are derived from an adjective or verb: Q ^^^^^^ 
M+i hrvrrv "pauper" (from Q^^""^^^ /?wr "poor"), 

^ V^ s;«sw "follower" (from ny J\ sms "follow") 
cf. also §§ 282, 292, 258, 395. 

3. with various substantives like (] ^ 
Itrw "stream" (pronounce *jotru, c. Fioop), especially 
also those with n like ''-' D%>.5 hnw "jar", ^^O^ 

CTZ] hnw "interior". 

A. In the pyramids this ending is still more frequent. 

B. In the n. e. the ending was probably already lost. 

The ending of the feminine, -^, is always written, 97. 



38 a. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. 98. 6. FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE.99. 

and only disregarded in abbreviations (like | J for 

|n^ ht ntr "house of god"), — The collective 

g — s It rmtt "humanity", which seems to have super- 
ceded the plural of ^ "^ rmf "man", is written 

almost without exception at . 

S=rr> I I 1 
B, From the n. e. down, the feminine ending loses its t, and 

feminine substantives end in e or a long vowel (cf. C§ 61). Hence 

the fem. ending is often omitted in the n. e. or added in the 

wrong place- 

98. The names of foreign lands, like ^:z:^ v\ J^^s 
"Ethiopia" are treated as feminines, although they do 
not have the feminine ending; probably because 

smt "foreign land" is understood with them. 

b. FOEMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. 

99. We perceive from the Copt, that the noun possess- 
ed various definite formations (cf. C§ 63 seq.); but 
these are not to be recognized in hieroglyphic ortho- 
graphy, because they are for the most part distinguished 

only by different vocalization. E. g. I ^. ^ sm = 

*sm (cim) "herb", O K = *reC (oh) "sun", 

^rn = *ran (oAN) "name", (1 :^ lrp=*ierp 

(HOn) "wine", ?^^ dnh = *denli (TNg) "wing", 



1. SUBSTAKT1VE8. h. FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. 100. 101. 39 

yC^ ^^^ "" *^orA (^(Dps) "night", □ ^-^^ spr 
= *spir (cnip) "rib", '^^'^^ /'^^ snf = *snof (CNOq) 
"blood", ^%^ I trvt == *?«;5^ (TOYa)T) "statue, figure". 

A large number of substantives is derived from 100. 
others by the ending l\ this ending is probably ident- 
ical with the adjectival ending of § 132. The old 
writing of this ending, <*, is found later only in proper 

names, like ^w^ u flri "the one belonging to Horus" 

(German "der Horische") from ^^, Hr "Horus". In 

most cases these words have taken on a peculiar form 
in their orthography: in the o. e. they end in m. w, 
f. wt (pronounce ui^ uit'^), in the m. e. , in m. ?/, f. yt. 
So e. g.: 

ningstar" ; 
II ^ "^ ^ Im^hw (1 .^(1 fl ^ Im^Jiy "revered" ; 
mrrvt l\l\ci mryl "love". 



On the other hand, with the numerous substan- loi. 
tives in m. ai, f. yt^ the question seems rather one of 
an i belonging to the stem, than of an ending; in the 
older period the ending of the masculine is in most 

cases not written: °, \v sC'i "sand" (0)0)), 

QUI fl III ""^ 



40 1. SUBSTANTIVES, b. FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. 102. 103. 
A^/^A^A \ aaaaaa r\ r\ 

J n \\ nhs'i "negro" ? f] iJ U ^ nJjsyt "negress". 
Those in rv'i like ^ i=^ Mwi' "darkness", are 



perhaps old duals. 
102. A number of substantives is derived from verbs 
by means of a prefixed m. Since the m. e. this prefix 

is written preferably with the syllabic sign .=^^ m 
(of. §35): 



i 



I 



^ All "ihst "scales" (from h^ "measure"), 
\ msdmt "eye cosmetic" &c. 



103. Note further the prefix nt-^ which is used 

(like the German ". . . wesen",) to express the nature 
or practice of that to which it is prefixed {nt-hsb 
"Rechnungswesen") ; and the expressions, made with 

J ^ in^ "place", for abstract ideas {bw nfr "good 

place" i. e. "the good"). — A remarkable form is the 

frequently recurring -^^ ^^ ) wn m^c (properly, 

AAAAAA - n L 

probably: "it is true"), which is used like a substan- 
tive "truth". 

A. The prefix tl "belonging to" is entirely obsolete; it is 
nevertheless found in the title A I v\ tt-sio "the one belonging 
to him", i. e. follower of the king. 



1. SUBSTANTIVES. C. EXPKES8I0IT OF NUMBEB. «. PLURAL. 104. 105. 41 

c. EXPRESSION OF NUMBER, 
a. PLURAL. 

Apart from the ending, the plural is orthographi- 104*. 
cally indicated: 

1. by a threefold writing of words written with 

an ideogram: | | j ntrrv "gods", prw 

"houses", ^P nwt "cities" (archaic, but still retained 

with some words). 

2. by threefold writing of the determinative: 

=^wiM^wi hCt'iw "princes" (obsolete). 

3. by means of III, i, (more rarely ° °°), which 
follows the ideogram standing alone: !^i Mw "mil- 



lions", 1 1 ntrrv "gods" (abbreviation of 1.). 

4. by means of III, i, which follows the deter- 
minative: l<rz>^|^ ^ 5r/y "princes" (abbreviation 

of 2.). 

A. There is often found in the pyramids also the threefold 

repetition of phonetic signs, e. (j. ^^ ^^ ^^ df^to" victuals", 

X . . hkSw "charm", www mnw "monument"; they also put 
X U • 000 . 

o o o after purely phonetic writings: (1 v° ° ° ^^^^ "®^" 

cellent" (pi.). Such writings also occur sporadically later. 

The plural of the masculine ends in ^ tv (about 105" 



42 1. SUBSTANTIVES. C. EXPRESSION OF NUMBER, a. PLURAL. 106. 

like ^w cf. C§ 109 seq.), which is consistently written 

in good manuscripts, e. g. '^^. v'^ sww "herbs". 
Note especially: 

1. The w is, for the most part, not written with 

words which contain no phonetic signs, so ^ i dSd^w 
"heads", | j | ntrtv ''gods", [^^^ Miw "rulers". 

2. With words which in the singular already end 
in V^, the rv of the plural is not written out: ''-' 

^^ hrrv plural of hrw ''day". 

3. The adjectives in ^ (cf. § 133) take plural 



ending, ^i, those in fi write it with the sign 
firv (cf. § 133 and 43, 61). 

4. On the plural of ""^^^ cf. § 97; that ofl ^ 

stn "king of upper Egypt" has the form 1 (1 (1 ^ 
jv I stnyrv, probably because the word already ends 
in i in the sing. 

B. In the n. e. there are also plurals in (J (J y; that of the 

adjectives in ti ends later in ^\ (I lA ^W- 
"106. The plural of the feminine ends in ^ rvt {*wetj 
cf. C§ 109, 116 seq.), e. g. '^|J^^w^&wr'necks"i 

1 Eb. 58, 12. 



1. SUBSTANTIVES. C. EXPRESSION OF NUMBER. P. DUAL. 107. 108. 43 



CI 



(horn nhbt), '^V'||i ^^P^^ "years"' (pMnooyp. 
from rnpt pOMNF), ^ '^ Cj^tvt "swellings (?)^ 

(from ^ c^t) &c. In classic orthography these 
endings are nevertheless rather seldom written, 3 i 
being usually written for Ijmrvt "women" &c. 

|3. DUAL. 
The dual is orthographically indicated: 107* 

1. by the repetition of the sign, with words 

written with only an ideogram: t^w'i "the two 

lands" mrfi{l) "the two eyes". — In this case the 

-ending is not written. 

2. With other words the determinative is repeated: 
^ ®'^'^\y thnwi "the two obelisks", ^^-^ % Cfi "the 

nn III tit 

two members", wwva^^^ mnti "the two legs". — The 
ending is written for the most part. 

Just as there is a determinative, ill, in the plural, 108. 
by which the threefold writing of the ideogram or 
determinative is avoided, so also in the dual there 
was a corresponding sign, i i or \^, which is still used 

as a determinative in the oldest texts, e. g. or 

5 \\ 



1 Grave in Assuan. - Eb. 108, 19. 



44 Y- USE OF THE SINGULAR, PLURAL, DUAL. 110. 111. 



W 



^(] (j CrvU "the two arms", (for ~^), S^ | 
v:^ U gmhrvTi "the two door jambs". But since the 

m. e., this meaning of I I, \>v is forgotten and it has 
the value of a vocalic sign for the dual ending i, 
which is then also employed for every similar ending?. 
"109. The dual ending is properly an i which, in the 
masculine is joined to the masculine ending m, in the 
feminine to the feminine ending t. The older writ- 
ings of these endings are m. ^Ol] or V^ tvli^ ^' I1h 
ov c^ tl\ from the m. e. on, they are written ^ rv'l 






f. USE OP THE SINGULAR, PLURAL, DUAL. 

110. The singular is often employed collectively, where 
we expect the plural, especially where ^^^::^ nb "every" 
is subjoined to the substantive, e. g. "600 men (select- 
ed) from ^ ^ kn nb "every brave one"\ i. e. 
"from all the brave". 

111. Differently from our conception of it, the plural 
is used: 

1. with abstract nouns, e. g. m^^^ ^ h^f» 

1 LU II 122 b. 



1. SUBSTANTIVES, d. THE ARTICLE. 113. 45 

"time", ^"Ix^nil tSw «heat", "^^^^.^^—^fkBrv 
"reward" &c. 

2. with names of material e. g. aaaaaa mw "water", 
n \\ =0==D==D= Irpw "wine" &c. 

But plurals of this sort are early treated as 
singulars also (e. g. mntv "monument", hrw "height", 
mw "water"). — With words of material, which, like 
the names of the metals, are used in the singular, 
the plural denotes separate pieces of the material; 
e. g. nb "gold", nbw "gold nuggets". 

The dual is only used of persons or things in 112. 
pairs. It early became extinct; cf. C§ 121. 

d. THE ARTICLE, 

The older language has no expression known to 113. 
us for the definiteness or indefiniteness of a sub- 
stantive, and the popular language of the m. e. first 
begins to employ the demonstrative pi (cf. § 90) as 
an article. The forms are: 

Sing. m. ^^ i>^, f. ^^ t^' 

AAAAftA 

Plur. 'Tk '^"^ nB n ("the of . . ') with following 
singular or plural. 

AAAAAA 

B. Since the m. e., "^ n^ with following plural is written 
instead of nB n. — cf. C§ 112 sq. 



46 1. SUBSTANTIVES, d. THE ARTICLE. 114 — 116. 

114. This popular language of the m. e. further, re- 
gularly omits the article with certain words. These 
are 1. the names of all parts of the body, 2. many 
designations of localities, 3. the expressions of the 
cult and the kingdom, 4. a few words occurring with 

especial frequence. 

f 

115. In the later language, the expression pByf "his" 

(lit. "the his") copt. nCDq (cf. C§ 54), originates from 
the combination of the article with the possessive 
suffixes. Before a substantive it denotes the possessive 
relation and replaces the possessive suffixes (cf. § 73) 
in all cases, where the article would be used, e. g. 

a^^;^(1(1j^^^ pSyfpr (really "the his house") 

for ^^ prf "his house". The feminine is tByf^ 

the plural nByf n . . . 

B. In the n. e. the plural is nByf; in Copt, this is the 
"possessive article" HEq-, TSq-, NEq- (cf. C§ 55). 

116. The later "indefinite" article also, does not yet 
exist in the popular tongue of the m. e.; the combina- 
tions '^'^'^ \\ I 'ww^ rvCro n . . "one of. .", (masc.) I 

. Jl - — o^^i 

AAAftAA 

wCt fit "one of . . " (fem.) still mean "any' . 

B. The indefinite article wC copt. OY (cf. C§ 122) grew out 
of this wCw n in the n. e. 



e. THE ABSOLUTE SUBSTANTIVE. 117./. APPOSITION A. COORDINATION. 1 1 9. 47 

e. THE ABSOLUTE SUBSTANTIVE. 
The substantive stands absolutely: 1. very often 117. 

r\ r 

for designation of iime^ e. g. j O '^"'"^ tr n "at 

the time of", ^ rC nh "every day" (lit. "every sun"), 
(dIIII fnpt 4 „in the fourth year". 

3. for designation of place in expressions like 
<^ hnt "in front", °^ mht "northern". 



3. in expressions with sp "time" : □ %» 1 1 1 1 spw 4 
"four times". 

Here also, belong the numerous cases where a 118. 
substantive follows an adjective in order to specify 
that to which the quality of the adjective refers: 



^ 



^ ikr shrw "excellent in plans". "^ 



/. APPOSITION AND COORDINATION. 
In an apposition, the substantive explaining 119. 
stands after the one explained. The following peculiar 
cases are important: 

1. it specifies material: n ^ j 1^ ^^ Inr 

hd, krs "white stone, a sarcophagus", i. e. a sarco- 
phagus of white stone ;^ 

2. it specifies locality : -^ ^ Jc^%\@ Tm{7) 

' Sin. 49. 2 Una 5. 



48 /. APPOSITION AND COORDINATION. 120 — 121. 

Bhdrv "Thinis, Abydos'V i. e. Abydos situated in the 
nomos of Thinis; 

3. it specifies number and measure: 9 S^ ) [It] 

^^^hkt my 22 "Beer, 22 jars", i. e. 22 jars of beer^; 

^\^^^^ Jisb, rmt 600 "number, 600 men",^ i. e. a 
number consisting of 600 men. 

120. In a series of coordinated words, they are 
usually left unconnected: Jj i ^^"^^ U U \>i^=fi> ^ 
hmtvt t^yw "women and men".^ — Things which are 
to be closely connected [dC hr hrvyf "storm and wind") 

are joined by the preposition ^ /?r, while the prepo- 

n AAAAAA 

sition ft hnC permits each of the connected words 

to stand forth individually {Itf hnC mrvtf "his father, 
as well as his mother"^). 

A. The pyramids cooi'dinate also by means of the particle * 
tsf, which comes after the words to be connected. 

121. The expression for "or" dv^v r-jow (older 

D^) comes after the words to be separated by "or": 

m nb, m sn, m hnms r-prv "as lord or as brother or as 
friend"". In rare cases r-prv is repeated after every] 
word. 



1 AZ 29, 120. 2 glut I, 293. 3 LD H, 122 a. « Sm. 132^ 
5 Westc. 11, 14. 6 Leps. Ausw. 8 d. "^ Prisse 9, 9. 



g. THE GENETIVE. a. DIRECT GENETIVE. 122 — 124. 49 

g. THE GENETIVE. 
a. DIRECT GENETIVE. 

This older kind of genetive is apparently express- 122*. 
ed only by the position of the two substantives, in 
which the governing word stands before the governed : 

til It mil i-\ 

pr imn "House of Amon." The connec- 



tion between the two words is for the most part so 

loose, that they may be separated, e. g. .,-n-^. ,-^-^ [l I n 

«=^ ^ n ihrvt Is pw pr-hCfi "but they are not 

things of the prince's house" ^ where the genetive Ihrvt 
pr-hCfi is divided by is pw. 

On the other hand, in other cases the two words 123*. 
in the combination cannot be separated, and are treat- 

ed as a compound word, e. g. ^ JlM^ M..^ 



mr-shi'irv mnh "an excellent overseer of peas- 



^1 
ants".2 

B. This last case persisted down into the Copt. (cf. C§ 140); 
the Coptic forms show that the former of the words so joined 
suffered shortening, as in the ans^logous form of the Semitic 
"status constructus". 

The direct genetive is especially preferred: 124. 

1. After general designations of locality: ^^. "="^ 



» Siut I, 288. 2 Sin. 244. 

Erman, E^ypt. ^ramni. D 



50 |3. INDIRECT GENETIVE WITH W. 125. 

^"^cz^^^^ '§1 ^jS k.^ m m hrdwf "at the head of 
his children".^ 

2. After general designations of time : ^\ O 

y m rk hnf "at the time of his majesty". 

3. After certain frequently recurring words, like 
mr "overseer", ^^37 nb "lord", pr "house", 

si "son": e. g. ^^\ nT) ^^ ^^^ "overseer of 

the works". 

4. Where 1 '^ s/;z "king" and | «?r "god" are the 

T AAAAAA I 

governed words : I hmt stn "wife of the king". — 
On the written order of these words cf. § 69. 

B. The direct genetive was gradually superceded by the j 
later indirect; in Copt, only the cases of § 123 are preserved, cf. 1 
§ 140. ] 



p. INDIEECT GENETIVE WITH n. 

*125. It is formed by means of an adjective *m, which, 
according to § 135 means something like "belonging 
to"; "the priest belonging to Amon" for "the priest 
of Amon". This adjective agreed in gender and num- 
ber with the noun to which it belonged; its forms, 
according to classic orthography, are: 

1 Sin. 78. 



p. INDIRECT GENETIVE WITH tl. 126. 51 



Sing. m. /wwv^ n {*ni) f. nt {*nii), 

Plur. m. nw {*niw), f. nt {*nijvt, cf. § 106). 

/WNAA/v 

A. The old writings are: sg. m. A nt (in the m. e. once 



also ), 1 pi. m. v\, '^ nw. In the older period there 

was further a dual m, mv'i. 

B. This word early lost its inflection; it first lost the dual, 
then (already in the popular language of the m. e.) the plural, and 
also the feminine. Since the LE, aa^w\a n became an unchange- 
able particle, like Copt, fj; cf. C. § 141. 

The indirect genetive ?nust be used: 126. 

1. to designate a part: ^ ,^;;j^ •'" ^P^ ^^ smmf 
"the first of his harvest," "' 

2. to designate material : hip CB ni sst 

I AAAAAA C^ 

"a great offering tablet of alabaster."^ 

3. to subjoin that which will more nearly define 
the noun, where we would often employ an adjective: 

^ I ^^^^ 111 ^^^ ^'^ 3000 "an army of 3000,"^ c^:?. 



S 



5 v^ ^"^^ ni Kht'irv "the city of Coptos,' 



s ni mSQ "a man of truth". ^ 



1 LD IT, 138 d. 2 Slut I, 310. 3 Una 43. 

* LD II, 149 d. 5 LD II, 122 b. 6 Mar. Ab. II, 24. 

D 



52 2. ADJECTIVES, a. ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING. 127. 128. 

127. On the further optional use of the indirect gene- 
tive, note especially, that it is preferred: 

1. to designate the possessor : | M ^"^^^ ^, t 
, '^^^ J| ht ntr ni Wnn-nfr "the temple of W."^ 

2. to express the idea of appurtaining to or hav- 
ing source in a place: ^^ aaaaaa jQ X | ^ Snd 
ni WSw^t "Acacia wood from Nubia".^ 



2. ADJECTIVES. 
a. ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING. 

♦128. These adjectives, perhaps derived from verbal 
stems, had various forms also common to substan- 
tives (cf. § 99) e. g.: 

nfr "good' *wa/r (NOyqE), J [I ^^J)ln 
"bad" Holn (bodcdn), | ^v ndm "sweet" "^nodm 
(NOyTM). 

2. ^^ wr "great" *mer (-oyHp). 

3. ^^zz7 rib "every" *m& (nIM). 
Ci "large" *Coi (-0). Cf. C§ 146 sq. 



1 Eb. 75, 13. 2 Una 46. 



I 



2. ADJECTIVES, a. ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING. 129. 130. 53 

They follow their substantive and agree with it i29*. 
in number and gender: 



§ ^ 8 1^ ^ ^^kt ndmt "sweet beer'V 
III <$=lv V ^^^^ ^^^^ "many ten thousands",^ 
[v^ %" ^ ^'5^^ ^^^^ 5ww?(?) "all bad 



£1^1 



J 



things",^ 

^^^ bhnt'i wrt'i "two great towers".* 

AAAAV YV C 3 iCIi \\ ^ 

Nevertheless most texts are not exact in the writ- 
ing of these endings, self evident of course to the 
Egyptian reader; the ending of the sing. fem. is often 
wanting, that of the plur. fem. always, and for the 
most part the sign I i i also. 

B. Most adjectives later become unchangeable (of. C§ 147); 
the plur. fem. was first lost, being replaced by the plur. masc. 

Of ^^ — y nh "every" only the fem. survives. 

Rarer combinations of the adjective are: 130. 

1. it forms one word with the substantive: c\^H^ 
U|l tB-M-sn "their white bread".^ Cf. C§121, 1. 

2. The possessive suffix of the noun is repeated 

with the adjective: "^^ rh 2^^^=^ sSfrvrf "his great 

son". 6 """^ 



1 Eb. 11, 15. 2 Una 14. 3 Eb. 30, 15. 

J LD ni, 24 d. 5 Siut I, 225. 6 LD II, 124, 54. 



54 b. ADJECTIVES IN ?. 131 — 133. 

131. It is employed also as a substantive^ e. g. 
^^^ «;r "the great one", TIT nfrw "beauty" (Plu- 
ral according to § 111, 1). — On the employment of 
the adjective as predicate and its ending ^^ tv'i cf. 
§ 331. On the employment of the adverb cf. § 300. 

b. ADJECTIVES IN ?. 

♦132. They are all derived from substantives or pre- 
positions by means of an ending, which is written 
with i and in Coptic has the sound of ^ ; if the adjec- 
tive is derived from a feminine, there arises a final 
syllable, ti, from the junction of the feminine ending 
-t and the 'i of the adjective. — As may be seen from 
the Copt, this ending was accented, cf. C§ 93. 

"133. This ending i is only written, where it really 
forms the end of the word, that is only in the sing. 
masc: 

Sing. m. \\ (i), derived from fem. ^ (ii) 
f. o (it) „ „ „ g (tit) 

Plur. m..^ (irv) „ „ „ ^ (?w, cf. § 43. 

61.) 
f. o (iwt) „ „ « ^ ^ (tiwt). 

In the 0. e. the i was left unindicated even in 
the sing. masc. and such writings are often found in 
later texts also. — Thus: 



b. ADJECTIVES IN ?. 134. 55 

Iri "existent at" hnti "existent before" 






AAAAAA 



Sing. m.()'^, (j 
Plur. m. fl^^^"^ 



A. The Pyramids write I i for «, M fl for fi, and V\ vX 
and ^^, ^^. V\ for V^, (according to § 104 a). 

B. In the m. e. v\ already occurs incorrectly for the sing. 
; m the n. e. the plur, masc. is also written , , , and ^| 

V\ [\l\, l\l\. A confusion between and begrins in the 

n. e. also, since they were pronounced about alike according to 
§ 97 B. 

Since the adjectives derived from feminine sub- 134. 
stantives were identical in form with the dual of these 
substantives (e. g. from nt "city" ; nt'i "urban", and ni'i 
"two cities"), such duals, in the oldest orthography, 
are often written for the corresponding adjectives: 

^ |l[|w^^ "urban". A few such writings occur later also ; 

note: |^ ntr nt'i "the urban (i. e. native) god", 

^^^ or ^^^ Jlr Iht'ii^) "Horus dwelling in the 
horizon." 



56 b. ADJECTIVES IN 'i. 135. 

135. Those adjectives which are derived from a pre- 
position, like: 

~[F^^^"[1"^' ^"11") ^"*^ "existent in" (from m), 

(J'^(y^) m "existent at" (from r), 

^ \ y ^''^ "existent upon" (from /ir), 
"^ V ' ^^^ "existent under" (from hr), 

^ ij^ , I J tp'i "existent upon" (from tp), 

(^^^(rffi^i^) hnti "existent before" (from hnt), 

/wwvA ni (cf. § 125) "belonging to" (from w), 
likewise a few others, like: 

^ Irvii "not being" (Copt. AT-, cf. C§ 89), 
mit'i "being like", 

ss.mht'i "north of" &c. 

o\\ 

very often govern a following substantive or personal 
suffix (like the prepositions etc. from which they are 
derived), e. g. 

=^ "^ imt Ibf-'the one (fem.) existent in his heart".^ 
ir'i Q "belonging to the house",^ 



1 LD ni, 24 d. 2 Louvre C 172. 



b. ADJECTIVES IN ?. 136. 137. 57 



-H ^. 



hr'isst^ "one supervising (lit. "over") 



secrets"/ 

y mlt'if "resembling him".^ 

All that is stated in §§ 129, 130 concerning the 136* 
adjectives without ending, is valid also for the adjec- 

tives in i, of. /^ ,^ f ^ I ru ^ rn ^^^^^ -^i- 
Imirv h^rvsn "the priests serving in their times''^ (lit. 

"existent in their times"), i ^ smwt mhfirvt 

^ o I I oo III 

/ M jgv 

"northern lands'V f=^ gssn hr'i "their 

upper side likewise ^ I gs hri-sn 

"their upper-side".^ 

Very frequently they are employed like a sub- 137. 

stantive, e. g. ^ \>- Q Arjfws^ "those existent upon 

I <=» JK 000' 

i the sand" (i. e. the Bedouins),' - - ¥\^^/wvaaa \ 
lira n dirt "the interior of an onion (?)",^ Vo 



III 

mit'iwk "one like thee"^ (with masc. substantive end- 
ing according to § 96, 2). 

In this manner many new substantives originat- 

ed, especially those in ti\ e. g. ^^.^^ ^^ hft'i "enemy" 

1 Mar. Ab. II, 24. 2 lD II, 149 e. 3 Siut I, 311. 

< Sin. 72. 5 LD III, 24d. 6 Eb. 70, 4. 7 Una 13. 

8 Eb. 36, 16. 9 Prisse 6, lb. 



58 c. APPENDIX (iri, imy, ns). 138. 139. 

((^Aqx), ft Imntt "the west" (emnT, from smt 

Imntt "western land"), Iwtt "nothing" &c. 



c. APPENDIX {iri, imy, m). 

138. The following remarkable unchangeable expres- 
sions are probably descended from adjectives: 

1. (J Iri [1 ir'iw (?) "belonging to, corre- 
sponding to" (properly probably the adjective iri) in 
expressions like 

^\ J^gj^; (1 m isw'i Iri "as corresponding 

reward, as reward therefor'V 

^v r \\ m St Iri "in the corresponding 

place, in proper condition".^ 

2. l\ ^A\i\ ^f I'^y "belonging to him ' with 
changeable suffix, e. g. 

ra^AAAAAA I ^^<S^ ^^ ^^^ ''^y "^^® oldest 
one belonging to them, the oldest of them".^ 

139. On the other hand the word «s, which we also 
often translate "belonging to", is really an old verb] 
and in the old language is still construed as suchj 
e. g. 



1 LD III, 24 d. 2 prisse 13, 11. 3 Westc. 9, 11. 



3. NUMERALS, a. REAL NUMERALS. 140. 141. 59 

^ i V ^^ ^^ f'h^O) "belonging to the hori- 

zon" (lit. "the horizon possesses him")'/ 

(I T^"^ [I \sm \ irv ns St mr wC "they 

are from one stone" (lit. "one stone possesses them")^; 
ns s'imr-pr "it belongs to the house- 



P 



»\3 



overseer" (lit. "the house-overseer possesses it") 

3. NUMERALS. 
a. REAL NUMERALS. 
The numeral figures are: 140*. 

I units, T thousands, 

n tens, I tens of thousands, 

§ hundreds, "^^^^ hundreds of thousands. 

The greater number precedes the less: 

ITT 12,635. — In dates the units are indi- 

cated by horizontal strokes ( — , IZ &c.) 

In so far as they are known, the numerals run 141. 
thus: 

\ wC 4 fdrv 

2 sn 5 drv^ 

3 hmt 6 sis 

1 Mar. Cat. d'Abyd. 999. 2 lD III, 24 d. 3 Peasant 16. 



60 3. XUMERALS. a. REAL NUMERALS. 142. 143. - 

7 sfh 100 §^C 

8 hmn 1000 h^ 
9jos(^ 10000 ^&<: 

10 m^ 100000 h/'n 

Of the tens, 30 is mCb^; for the others the plural 
of the units was used. Cf. C§ 157. 
142. The numeral follows the noun and the latter is 

for the most part in the plural: 1 ^ ^S V^'HI 
stnyjv 8 "three kings." On the other hand the noun 
stands in the singular : 

1. with the numeral 2, >J>ii 1 1 wl:^ 2 "two ships" ; 

2. in specifications of measure and time, also in 

accounts, j rnpf iiO "110 years' , ^^|||| inh 4 

"4 ell8^ 

A. The pyramids treat the numeral as a substantive, and 
suhjoin to it the numbered word as an apposition: fdwf ipiv ntrto 
"these his 4 gods'', (lit. "these his four, the gods"). This construc- 
tion has been preserved in the expression \ ^ — ~ v\ 5 hriw 

rnpt "the five, the ones upon the year", i, e. the 5 intercalary 
days. 

B. In LE the numeral precedes the noun, which is for the 
most connected by n\ only in the specifications of an account and 
with the numeral two, does the old construction remain. Cf. also 
C§ 162 sq. 

143. The numeral '^^^''^ wC "one", which is mostly writ 



I 



b. APPENDIX TO THE NUMERALS- 144 — 146, 61 

ten out, agrees with its noun in gender: \ SI- rnpt 

wCf "one year";^ the other numerals perhaps did the 
same. — On tvCrv n cf. § 116. — By placing rvC before 
an adjectiye or verb, its meaning is rendered super- 

tvC Ikr "the only excellent." 



lative: " 



I 



The numerals are also used as substantives: 144. 
( — ^ hi m ii "thousand of bread". 

Ml" 

The ordinal numerals are formed by the ending 145*. 



nw. snnw "the second", Aw/«w "the third" &c.: 
they may precede or follow their noun; "first" is 
supplanted by ^ tp'i (cf. § 135), which, as an ad- 
jective always follows its noun. They are all used 
as substantives also. 

A, In the pyramids the ordinal numbers are entirely written 



out: in like manner U \\Ml^ snntv "the second" is later, still 

found. 

B. They are early supplanted by a circumlocution with mh 
"fill up" (the third" = "that which fills up three"); cf. also C§ 165. 

b. APPENDIX TO THE NUMERAL. 

The probably dual word: m. Kzzy(> u (] ky, f. 146. 

kt (for ktl) "the other" is construed like the numerals 
in the pyramids (cf. § 142 A) : 

1 Una 47. 



62 



THE VERB. a. USUAL CLASSES. 147. 148. 



^ ky gsw "another salve"/ 



147. 



^^(jlj^^^^ ^ "^£55 ktyf ruBt "his other way".- 

The real plural of the word is \^ ar A-wj' (the 

first W is the old determinative of the dual); more 
frequently a circumlocution is used for it 

kt-ht "another hody" and 
thing", i. e. others. 

The substantive pirv "number", with following 
plural or singular means "every"; cf. o ] 
l/vww\ tfiff) M[sn "every one of their revolts"^ (lit. 
"number of their revolts"). 



Ill 



^ o i II I 
kt-lht "another 



THE VERB. 

1. IN GENERAL. 

a. THE CLASSES OF THE VERB. 

o. USUAL CLASSES. 

'148. The verbs are divided into various classes, ac-J 
cording to the number and character of their con- 
sonants, the so-called "radicals". These classes differ 
in manner of inflection, and how considerable these 



1 Eb. 26, 13. 



2 Butler IG. 



3 Una 28. 



1 



THE VERB. a. USUAL CLASSES. 149 151. 63 

-differences were, may still be seen from the forms of 
the verb preserved in Copt. cf. C§ 185 sq. The de- 
signation of these classes is that common to Semitic 
grammar. 

The most common class is that of the bi-literal 149*. 

verbs (abbrev.: II lit.) as e. g, ^^unmr rvn "to open", 
^^ mh "fill", Jd^^^rp M"build"&c.— They retain 
their consonants in all forms unchanged. Cf. C§ 
186 sq. 

The verbs '■''secundae {radicalis) geminatae'' (II ae 150*. 
gem.) are properly triliteral verbs having the last 

two radicals alike e. g. ^^rvnn "to be", ^nlX ^ 

" AAAAAA WVV WS> 

kmm "become black", zl 1 |\) kbb "become cool", 

-*^^^\ V\ in^^ "see". But as these similar rad- 
■<s>- >>^ yy^ 

icals fall together where they are not separated by a 
full vowel, in most forms they resemble the biliterals 
{mn, km &c). Cf. C§ 199. 

The very numerous verbs ^^terdae infirmae" (Illae 151*. 
inf.) have as third radical an i or ""j which neverthe- 
less is visible only in certain forms: (1(1; in most 
cases they show only the first two radicals or double 
also the second: wr, \>- mrr. — e. g. qa 

mr "love", fflfl ms "bear", ^~~^ J\ j9r"goout", Hj' 



64 THE VERB. a. USUAL CLASSES. 152 — 154. 

j^ hS "descend". Cf. C§ 213.— The frequently re- 
curring verb Ir "make" writes the forms Ir and Iry: 
.<2=^ and <2>-(l[l; on the other hand the form irr is 

written 

A. With a part of these verbs the third radical was origin- 
ally a M or m; which as a rule became i or \ 

♦152. The triliteral verbs (I'll lit.) like the II lit. (§ 149) 

© 

Cnh "live , 'Cv ^ nhm "rescue", ^ ^ 

Stp "load". Cf. C§ 200 sq. ' 

153. The verbs '"''tertiae geminatae" (Illae gem.), which 
correspond to the II gem. (§ 150), and the verbs 
'''•quartae infirmae" (IV ae inf.) which correspond to the 
Illae inf. (§ 151), as a rule are not to be distinguish- ; 
ed. Both double the third radical in certain forms j 

(I A 5p<? "prepare": Hc^ii ii spdd\ ffflfl^ h^l 

"be revered": ppl > 1) spss)\ only isolated examples ' 

in which an i is written out { ^y ips'i), can be 

safely classed with the IV ae inf. Cf. C§ 227. 

154. The quadriliteral and quinqueliteral verbs (IV lit. 
and V lit.) correspond to the II lit. and III lit. and 
like these, their consonants remain unchanged. They 



p. RARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS. 155 157. 65 

are mostly derived from II lit. and III lit.: Rj^:^ 

^ hmhm "low, roar' (from */?w), r— ^^1^ 
nhmhm (from nhni). According to the Copt, the IV lit. 
and V lit. seem to have had the same form (cf. C§ 
224. 226). 

p. BARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS. 

Beside these ordinary classes there are apparent- 155. 
ly other, smaller groups, which, however, cannot be 
distinguished with certainty; e. g. the frequently 

recurring verbs y dd "say" and ^ ndr "strike" 

present many points which distinguish them from 
other II lit. and III lit. — Moreover, within the 
above contrived classes, further subdivisions exist, by 
reason of the special phonetic character of one of the 
radicals. 

The verbs mediae i, which have an ^^, for the ise. 

second radical, like Hi'^. \j\ hBb "send", | ^°1 

rvM "become green", have apparently early lost the i. 
Occasionally it appears — at least orthographically 

— as the third radical: H] IH^ A&i for Ai&, T '^^ ) 

smB "unite" along withT'^^; sBm. Cf. § 29. 

The verbs uUimae i (Ilae i, Illae i), as is also 157. 

E r m a n , Egypt, jfiamni. E 



66 p. RARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS. 158. 159. 

evident from the Copt., had various peculiarities (cf. 
C§ 221. 222; 208). Note especially, that (according 
to § 29) a few verbs Illae 9 (mostly those in -mS) 
repeat the second radical after the i, in certain 
forms : 



kmB "create" 

These forms are possibly to be read k^m and rvSh 
and the syllabic sign is only retained out of preference 
for the customary orthography. 

158. The verbs primae «;, like %> n rvsh "be far" 
are, in part, also written by many texts without their 
w;, in certain forms; cf. especially § 161. — The verbs 
mediae rv write the rv only rarely, and in part 

probably early lost it; hence ^. r^ ^t "die" is al- 
ways written for mrvt (cf. C§ 192) and often "^^ 

for <rz=> ^ ^ ) rrvd "grow". — The existence of 

verbs mediae I may only be conjectured from the 
Copt, because e. g. the probable form ris (according 

to pOFlC "wake") is always written "l rs. 

159. The verbs Ilae gem. in i, like ps "divide", 

as a rule make the form^s^^ 7vss^ insdead oipH, wU\ 



p. IRREGULAR VERBS. 160. f. THE CAUSATIVE. 161. 67 

cf. § 30. — On the other hand ° \\ ps (older fs) 

"cook" has 1 \\ pfs and — m— [ 11 psf. 

Entirely irregular are: 160*. 

In "bring" (properly Illae inf.) sometimes written 

TT A AAAAAA 

jj in^ sometimes A int, 

Iw "go", sometimes y\^ ^w, sometimes 7^^ ^w;f, 

I "go" sometimes li \\J\ Ui^\ sometimes \\ « H, 

and especially rdl "give", which has the form <ir> A , 

rdl, A, 0, .a — D dl and A A, °, ^ ° 

dldl{J)\ the last corresponds to the reduplicated 
forms. 

Y. THE CAUSATIVE. 

By means of the prefix I s there may be formed 161*. 

from every verb, another verb with causative meaning. 
E. g. with intransitives lir "fall": sTir "cause to fall", 
nfr "be beautiful": snfr "make beautiful"; more rare- 
ly with transitives Cm "swallow": s^^m "cause to 
swallow" (i. e. "wash down"), rh "know": srh "cause to 
know" (i. e. inform against). These causatives do not 
remain in the class to which their stem verb belongs ; 
thus the causatives of most biliterals have feminine 
infinitives {hr "fall": shrt "to fell", cf. C§ 231), and 



68 b. VOICE. 162. C. EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (iNFLKCTION). 163. 164. 

the causative of mn (infin. smnt) furthermore doubles 
the last consonant in certain forms (smnn cf. C§ 232). 
— The causatives of the triliterals are treated as 
quadriliterals (cf. C§ 238). — With verbs primae w, 
the TV, according to the old orthography, falls away; 

e. g. %P n;s§«befar, broad": Hfl® ssh "broaden"; 

a few of these writings occur later also. 

6. VOICE. 

162. It is certain that the transitive verb distinguish- 
ed an active and a passive, and not improbable that 
the intransitive verb was analogously divided 
(1. incipient, 2. continuous condition); cf. § 241. 242. 
C§ 171. 182. Nevertheless, all details are as yet 
obscure, and the beginner must be satisfied to familiar- 
ize himself with the forms thus far known to us, 
without being able to understand their systematic 
connection more exactly. 

c. EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). 

163. There are two methods of inflecting the verb. 
The earlier, which reminds one of the Semitic perfect, 
is still employed in the classic language only within 
restricted limits (as pseudoparticiple, cf. § 208). 

164. The later method uses the personal suffixes of 
§ 73. Cf. e. g. sdm "hear": 



C. EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). 165 167. 69 



Sg. 1 c. ^^. ^ ^^^^ 


PI 




2 m. ,v/ ^v^^^ *^^^ 




2 c. A^)^ 'V'^^^^sdmtn 


f. ^^\ g=> sdmt 






3 m. ^^^\ 2^-^ sdmf 




g) rvAAAAAA 


f. ^^\ I sdms 






On the writing of each sn 


ffix 


cf. § 74. 75. 



A. Dual forms occiii- in the pyramids also, 

B. Apart from the uninflected passive (cf. § 206 A), this 
inflection was first lost with IV lit. and V lit.^ 

If the subject is a substantive, no suffix is employ- 165.* 
ed and the substantive follows the noun unconnected: 

hears thy voice". 

^ ^^^ V I V S()^^~^ sdmtw hrrvk "thy voice is 
heard". 

An absolute pronoun (cf. § 80) is, by exception, 166. 
also employed thus as subject: hpr si m hsbt "it 
changes into worms" (for hprs). 

When the subject is a substantive or an absolute 167. 
pronoun, the verb frequently receives an ending ^ 

1 According to Sethe. 



70 C. EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). 168. 169. 

shdw srv t^Tv'i r itn "he illuminates the earth better 
than the sun"/ 

168. The impersonal use of the verb (without subject), 
occurring in all forms, is frequently met with. Note 

especially: (1^ ^w "it is"^; irn (w-form, cf. 

1 Jl AAAAAA 

§ 194) "that amounts to"^; m hprhr ($r-form, 

cf. § 204) "that amounts to"^. — The passives are 
employed with especial preference, to express the 

indefinite subject (Germ, "man", French "on"): ) 

o y\ rhtrv "it is known"^, y a o\> ^^^ntw "one stands" , 
I dd "it is said"^. This impersonal subject is 

furthermore, often a respectful designation of the 
king. — On the omission of the subject in animated 

narrative cf. § 353; 1 rdlln "they caused"^ is 

probably also to be explained thus. 

169. A second (logical) subject, to indicate the real 
actor, is often added to a passive or intransitive verb 
which already has a grammatical subject. This is 
done by means of the particles In and hr: 



\ 



' Mar. Abyd. II, 25. 2 Sin. 43. 225. 216. 3 LD III 24 d. 
* Math. Hdb. 26. 41. 5 sin. 243. 6 Sin. 55. " Math. Hdb. 49. 
8 Sin. 263. 



2. USUAL INFLECTION, a. IN GENERAL. 170. 71 

nM . . . hr s "some (of the fruit) is chewed by the 
man"^ 

■3™^ ^ O ^^P ^^ t'^ ^^ " ''by arm is 

siezed &y Re^"^. 

In the same manner the logical subject is added 

to infinitives and participles by means of ^w: L J 

^ [1 'wwvA ^^ ^;>^ ^j>^ ifi hmti "working (lit. making 
work), on the part of the artificer"^. 

2. USUAL INFLECTION. 
a. IN GENERAL. 
The later inflection of the verb falls into a series 170*. 
of forms, which are in part indicated by endings 
attached to the stem (like sdmnf, sdmlnf)^ but in part 
also, are distinguished by the vocalisation only. 
These latter forms have orthographically, essentially 
the same external appearance (sdm/"), in the case of 
most verbs, so that it is difficult for us to distinguish 
them correctly. Any exact separation of these various 
forms, is therefore not attempted in the following, 
and only the two great groups into which they fall, 
are distinguished. 

A. The most important aid for the recognition of the verbal 



1 Eh. 47, 19. 2 Ppy. I, 97. 3 Br. Gr. W. 139. 



72 h. THE FORMATION Sdmf. a. THK FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. 172. 

forms, is afforded by the pyramids, which often prefix a [] for 
the indication of the prosthetic vowel e, to the fornas beginning 
with two consonants: (I' /( ' V\ , pronounced something like 
''Smok. This prosthetic vowel is left unindicated by the classic 
orthography Q J( ' V\ ); on the other hand the manuscripts 
of the new empire again indicate it by means of [I ^7\. 

*171. The passive of the later inflection ends in t (tl, 
trv), which is attached at the end of the word, but 
precedes the suffix: sdmtwf^ sdmntrvf, sdmintrvf. It is 
first made with transitives and causatives, then also 
impersonally with intransitives, for the expression of 
an impersonal subject (Germ, "man", French "on"): 

■T- ' ^ V ^^§^^ "they (impers.) live". — The ending 
is written, t or tw in the m. e., and in the n. e. 
always irv. 

A. The pyr. write the ending 11 tl or c:^ t, 

B. The Copt, has lost this passive. 

b. THE FOEMATJON sdmf. 

a. THE FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. 

A. ITS FORMATION. 

♦172. It apparently includes three or four frequent 

forms, the differences in which, are no longer to 

be determined. Its most important classes are as 

follows : 



b. THE FORMATION Sdwf. «. THE FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. 173. 73 

II lit. 'kdy «he builds" : i c^> FM '^^_, 

III lit. s'dmf "he hears": ^^^.=^, 

III ae inf. m'rr/' "he loves": ^^^-^^-5 the I is 
nevertheless, only occasionally written by the pyra- 
mids ( 0''^^=—) and by the manuscripts of the n, e. 
( n (1 ^^ ). In classic orthography it is only written 
in the 1 sg. l^M^ rn'rl^i, cf. § 26. 

The position of the vowel, indicated in § 170 A, 
is denoted by " ; this vowel was in one case (with the 
verb dependent upon rdl "cause that'', cf. § 179) an 
6 {'Mof, s'dmof, m'rlo/', cf. C§ 234 sq.) ; with the other 
forms nothing is known about it. (Concerning TTPXACl 
cf. C§ 247). 

That this group really includes different forms, 173. 
may be seen e. g. in the case of the II ae gem. which 

in certain cases separate their like radicals: -^^^.^^ 

wnnf "he is" (cf. § 178), but in others, do not: -^^ 
K..=^ wnf (cf. § 180). Furthermore, with irregular 
verbs: in "bring" sometimes has /\ a <^ Int/' (cf. 

§ 180), sometimes l\ Inf (cf. § 178), sometimes 

both forms: Itv "go" varies between 7^^ Ifvif 



74 b. THE FORMATION Sdmf. B. ITS USE AS INDICATIVE. 174. 



an 



d _A^2^-=^ Irvf; rdl "give", between 
rdif{% 174) and ^ — ° ^^/ (cf. § 178. 180). 

B. ITS USE AS INDICATIVE. 
*174. In the old language sdrnf of the I. group, is the 
usual form for the chief events in ordinary narrative: 

nt smr "His majesty established me in the rank of a 
friend"'. In the later language, which prefers other 
forms and constructions for narration (cf. § 222. 
230. 239), sdmf is retained in more descriptive sen- 
tences, in which the action makes no essential pro- 
gress. This is especially the case at the close of a 
short paragraph: 

Tvnln mr-pr . . hr srht "the house overseer complained 
of (the peasant) 
they said, ("he is justly punish- 
ed &c".) 

the house overseer was there- 
upon silent. 

TT I Jr/ I I I 

YiP n wsof n nn n 

3 \\ r i /\AA<V\A 



ddlnsn nf 



gr-prv irn mr-pr 



X 






srn>, wshf n sht'i pn "He did not answer the princes, 
1 Una 2. 



C. m THE CONDITIOKAL SENTENCE. 177. D. AS A SUBJUNCTIVE. 179. 75 

(but) answered this peasant''^ (The last two clauses 
simply enlarge upon the fact of the silence already 
stated.) 

Here belongs also the formal ^^^.^^ ddf "he 175. 

said", "he says", which introduces direct discourse. 

It is further used where a fact is expressed, in 176. 
descriptions, assertions and the like: "The plant snwtt 

"^ ^ I rrvds hr hts it grows upon its 

belly (i. e. it creeps)"^. 

C. IN THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. 
It is further used in conditional clauses introduc- 177. 

€d by the particle (1 <=^ (cf. § 389): (1 <^:>^'i>^ 1^^ 
Ick . . . ^ ^^Z3?6 Ir gmk st . . . ddhrk "If you 

find it . . . then say . . &c."^. 

The Ilae gem. are doubled in this case {Ir m^^k 178. 

*if you see"); In "bring" has the form I\ ; rdl 
^give", the form ^ °. 

-D. AS A SUBJUNCTIVE. 
It is very frequently dependent upon rdi "give, 179*. 
cause that", a combination which led to the formation 
of a new causative in Copt., cf. C§ 230b. E. g.: 

> Bauer 50. * Eb. 51, 16. 3 Eb. 37, 18. 

E 



76 E. IN A FINAL CLAUSE. 181. F. AS AN OPTATIVE. 182. 

' " Vff^ ^ rdlnf stpl nl "he caused 



that I choose for myself (of his land)"^ 
180. In this case the II gem. are not doubled; In 

"bring" has the form A ^ , rdl "give" , Irvt 

"come" j'^^ . — The vowel was here an 6, 

according to the Copt., cf. C§ 234 sq. 



E. IN A FINAL CLAUSE. 
*181. This very frequent form is probably identical 
with that of the subjunctive and optative. It stands 
without introduction : "You might allow your servant 

to come to me, ra^ Jj^W _ 1^ ^ \\hMnk 

sw hrs that I may therefore send him to you^. 

E. AS AN OPTATIVE. 
*182. Probably identical with the preceding: qA 

^^zi:^ Jj ^^zi:^ mrk hmtk "Love thy wife"^. It is often 

introduced by means of the particle Ih: (] ^ ^^^ 

^ Ih dds nl "let her say to me"^ or by means of a 

preceding Ir "do" (impv.): -^^^-^^^^^^ i^ 
mBSk "see"^ 



1 Sin. 79, 2 Peasant 38. 3 Prisse 10, 9, * Sin. 172. 
5 Eb. 75, 12. 



p. THE FORMS OF THE SECOND GROUP. A. ITS FORMATION. 184. 185. 77 

B. Since the n. e. (J V\ ^^\ tml (imperative of rdl 

"cause that", cf. § 256) with following verb is often substituted 
for it : tmi mdicf ni "let him speak with me'' (lit. cause that he 
speak with me). 

The word for "behold" undoubtedly belongs to 183. 
the optative: 

Sg- m. 1;^, In,— f, In,"!' rnk (mik^ cf. § 35). 



f. ^^ (and the like) m?, 



Plur. v\ (and the like) mtn. 



p. THE FORMS OF THE SECOND GROUP. 
A. ITS FORMATION. 
The forms of this group may be recognised with 184*. 
certainty, only with those verbs which are marked 
by the doubling of the last consonant according to 
§ 185. In the case of most verbs they are not to be 
recognised from the orthography. 

A. There are also found forms of this group in ^^ lo and 
(J [J y, especially in old texts, e. g. Rj^^v V,-— « ^^^^ "thou 
comest down", ^^ (I [I -^~^ ddyk "thou saj'est", but probably 

only with verbs which have a t or (according to § 151 A) a ?& as 
the last radical'. 

The form with the final consonant doubled, is 185. 



* According to Sethe. 



78 A. ITS FOllMATION. 186. B. USE AS AN INDICATIVE. 187. 

found in the case of the Ilae gem., Illae gem., as 
well as the Illae inf. and IVae inf. With the last 
two it is especially easy to recognise it, for they are 
not doubled except in the case of § 259. 289. It is 
to be noted that, in the case of the frequently re- 
curring verb Illae inf. Ir "make", the form Irr is 

indicated by 

186. In place of the form with final consonant doubled, 
the irregular verb rdl {di) "give" has the form 

A A, \ or ^ i. e. didl(i) (cf. § 160). 

B. USE AS AN INDICATIVE. 

187. The significance of the form is apparently 
emphasis ; with reference to the future it is used very 
often, in promises, threats, directions, questions &c.: 

<^=><;^>0'" '^^^^ ^ ^°^ gL prr grt hrrv 3 pn 

n sndt'i nb ''These three days (rations) will be delivered 
to every s.-priest" (lit. come out for)^ 

^^ nn pssf "he shall not divide"-. 

-H— X 



drop in"^. 



1 Siut I, 296. 2 Siut I, 311. 3 Eb. 7, 22. 



C.INCONDIT.CL. 188. D.DEP.UPON VERBS. 189. E. DEP. ONPBEPS. 190. 79 

C. IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES. 
It is further used in conditional clauses, where 188. 
the particle Ir (cf. § 389) does not immediately 



precede : /^-^^ f\ ^ js _ ^°^ 



gmfnk fitf . . . ddhrk "If you find that his body .. ., 
then say &c."'. 

D. DEPENDENT UPON VERBS. 
It further follows the verbs _ } rh "know", 189. 
'^'^v ^^ "see", Z'^^O) ^^ ff"^ "find"; likewise 
mr "wish" (lit. "love"), ^^ ^ snd "fear", | "^ ; 
tvd "command" and the like: 

I v\ Y n, <cz> wdnnnfprri 

r sw? ^w "His majesty commanded that I go to this 
mountain"^. 

nirrf "My majesty knows that he is a god"^. 

QO^' ■ ■ ^°^(jO^^^^^==^ "I desire that you say"*. 

E. DEPENDENT UPON PREPOSITIONS. 
It is dependent upon various prepositions, which 190. 
govern a sentence after the manner of our conjunctions ; 
the usage seems to vary. E. g. : 

1 Eb. 36, 15. 2 LD II, 149 e. 3 LD IH, 24 d. * Weste. 9, 8. 



80 Y. APPENDIX. 191—193, 

"let the patient drink this <:z^%'^^ '"'^ r wssf 
"till he urinates"^ 

'^ \^ \^ \> ^ hr mB^f ml "because he 



sees me"^. 



I 

1^=^^^^ ml hccfm IBhti^) "as he shines 
in the region of light"^- 



''Be not haughty toward him ^^^^ 

hft hssf when he is wretched"*. 

Y. APPENDIX. 

191. Beside the cases cited in §§ 172—190, the for- 
mation sdmf is found elsewhere, where it is not 
possible to state anything definitely concerning the 
forms employed. — On the substantivized forms cf. 
§ 282 sq., on the relative forms § 394. 

192. The form sdmf, in contrast with sdmnf (§ 197), ie 
sometimes present in meaning; so especially in rel 
tive sentences, cf. § 396. 

193. All that is stated in §§ 172 — 191, as far as may 
be seen, is valid also for the passive in t (cf. § 171). 
In the first group the II lit. make the form : 'kd^twf, 

the Illae inf. : ||| H 0%^*^-:^ msiwf, rdl\ \i^\ dltwf; 



1 Eb. 6, 15. 2 Sin. 117. 3 LD lU, 24d. * Prisse 



c. THE w-FORM sdmnf. a. its formation. 194. 195. 81 



in the second group however rdl has the form ^ 



"^"^ dldltrv/'. 



A D 



c. THE n-FOKM sdmnf. 

a. ITS FORMATION. 

In this form the stem receives an ending w, which 194*. 

is written after the determinative: Q7\ mrnf 

"he loves". It belongs inseparably to the stem, as 
may be seen from §338sq. ; the passive ending follows 

it: /*-n\ ^. '^^ ' Qf^ntws "she is found". 

Note further, that the form began with a simple 195. 
consonant (that is to say, without the prosthetic vowel, 
cf. § 170 A), and that: 

1. the II ae gem. contract their consonants: .^ 
^^ mBnf "he sees , 

2. the Illae inf. show only the second consonant: 
^\ mrnf\ -<2>- Ir "make" has the form A^AAA^ 

according to § 151, 

■ 3. the verb rdl "give" (cf. § 160) nearly always 

has the form ( <iz>/\ , j. 

B. The M-form had, for the most part, already lost its n in 
the n. e. 

Ermaa, Ag-ypt. Granim. J" 



82 p. ITS USE. 196—198. 

p. ITS USE. 
^gg This form, which is only used independently, or- 

iginally served to narrate events with animation; 
e. g. in an old text, which otherwise usually employs 
sdmf for narrative, the events of war are recalled with 

liveliness by means of the n-form: ^^'^^^ f^ ^ ^ Mt^ 

/i Hr'irv-sC "This army came, it cut to pieces the land 
of the Bedouins."^ 

Thence further also, in asseveration, explanation 
and the like, e. g. : "Lay this upon the place of the 

extracted hair, .^.rUv " nrrvdnf^ii (certain- 



ly) will not grow (again)". ^ 

ra .a Oo >«CZI> g > 

^^ /www rnin rnntn "behold, ye, 

know that etc." (in ceremonious style). ^ 

♦197. It often indicates the past, especially in relative 

clauses (cf. § 396), but occurs elsewhere also (cf. § 

220. 283) in contrast with a preceding verb: "His 

. ^ . n ® « ^"'"^ ©^ /R 

majesty came in peace I S^ f^ 

shrnf hft'iwf "he had overthrown his enemies"* (i.- e^ 
after he had overthrown them). 
*198. Since the m. e. the «-form is used for the mc 

part, in an entirely different manner; it adds to 

1 Una 22. 2 Eb. 63, 17. 3 siut I, 310. * LD H, 1221 



p. ITS USE. 199. 83 

preceding word or sentence, an accompanying remark 
more particularly explaining it (circumstantial clause). 
So in descriptions: 

'^ ^ .,_jv^ c::^:> V ^ ^ ^''' ^ fndrvnf 

''The mouth is silent and he does not speak".' 

"He found the canal obstructed ^^a_^ Iv „ ^vwwv 

>j2i£:, ^ jiL^_ n skdn dpi hrf and no ship sailed 
upon it (longer)".^ 

And likewise in narratives : "Then this peasant 
went to implore him /^^-O) ^^ * V A 

gmnf srv lir prt and found him as he came out &c".^ 

As may be seen in the case of the last clause, the 
question is no longer one respecting an unimportant 
accompanying circumstance, but the second occur- 
rence (he found), overagainst the preceding impor- 
tant event (he went), is pushed into the background 
in a stylistic manner only. 

A. The pyramids already employ the above also. 

It is a remarkable fact, that T nfr "be good" 199. 

seemingly always takes the w-form: nfrn drv "The 
place is good'V nfrn Ppy "P. is well".^ 



1 Prisse 4, 4. 2 Inscription of Sehel. 3 Bauer 34. 

J Prisse 9, 10. » Pepy ]. i69. 170. 

F* 



84 d THE iw-FOEM sdmlnf. e. the /ir-roRM sdmhrf. 200 — 204. 

d. THE (n-FOEM sdminf. 
♦200. That which is stated in §§ 194, 195 is valid also 

for the formation of the In-iorm: ^^. IJ sdmlnf 

201. Originally this form was ceremonial; it is there- 
fore especially preferred where the subject is a person 



to whom respect is due, e. g. (I a/wwv y rdlln 

/jn/ "the king occasioned"^ (sentences of the context 
with other forms). 

202. But many texts of the m. e. also employ it else- 
where in narrative, especially in the case of the com- 
mon words: ^°^ dd "speak", <2>- Ir "do", J\\^ Itv 

"go" and ]\ in "bring". 

A/VWAA 

203. It is further, often used in directions, e. g. 1^^ 

[I AAAAAA ^ [I ^j.^,,^ v8j I srvrlln s "Let the man drink",^ 
or in "when water comes out of it, ■<3>- h 

1 V ^ M 

irlnk ns then make for it (the receipt) &c".^ 

e. THE ^r-FORM sdmhrf. 

204. This rare form also corresponds to the w-form in 

its formation. It is employed in descriptions: -^^ 
[1 ^^ _ _ , wn^irf w3d mi wnn tp 

1 A/V 



1 Sin. 243. 2 Eb. 32, 21. 3 Eb. 56, 9. 



3. THE UNINFLECTED PASSIVE. 205. 206. 86 

^i "He was green (i. e, throve) like one who is upon 
earth".^ Here also, probably belong the formulae 

^ 'i^-^^ Jiprhrf "that is"^ (as result of a com- 

putation) and £^ ^ <rz> 1 (Ellipse for ddhrttv rs 

"they say to her") "her name is".^ 

It occurs more frequently in directions (like the 205. 

m-form § 203), e. g. ^°^ Kzi:^<zi>Uddhrk rs "say 
to her"/ '^ ® o %^ ddhrirv "let there be said".^ 

3. THE UNINFLECTED* PASSIVE. 
This formation, which when written, is exactly 206*. 
like the active, leaves one in doubt whether it should 
be classified with the earlier or later inflection. It is 
only to be found with certainty, with nominal sub- 
ject, e. g. 



AAAAAA 



\ S) ^ ^ 1 1 1 ms «yt hrdw 3 "Three child- 

ren are born to thee",^ 



* The word "uninflected" does not adequately translate the 
term used by the author, viz. "endungslos" as distinguished from 
the passive ending in tw; but "endungslos" has absolutely no 
equivalent in Eng., and as this passive can with certainty be found 
only with nominal subject, it may be stated with the greatest 
probability, (as far as inflection involves pronominal endings) that 
it was uninflected. It certainly is so, for the practical purposes 
of grammar, transl. 

1 Eb. 2, 4. 2 Math. Hdb. 41. 3 Eb. 9, 20. 

* Eb. 36. i4. 5 Eb. 16, 3. 6 Westc. 11, 5. 



86 4. OLD INFLECTION (pseudoparticiple). a. ITS formt'n. 207. 208. 

and occurs with unchangeable stem, in one form only. 
— The impersonal verbs of § 168 also, are probably 
to be explained in part as uninflected passives. 

A. There are a few obsolete passive forms with suffixes, like 
e. g, hrss "she was buried", ^ and these may also belong here. The 
uninflected passive would then belong to the later inflection. 

207. It often takes the place of the passive in t^ especi- 
ally where the latter would be in the «-form, in a cir- 
cumstantial clause (cf. § 198) or the combination with 
ChCn (cf. § 230). On the other hand, it cannot be 
used in dependent clauses, so that, for example after 
rdi, the passive in t must always be used. 



4. OLD INFLECTION (PSEUDOPARTICIPLE). 
a. ITS FOEMATION. 
*208. It is found in only one form, the so called pseudo- 

participle, the formation of which, in the m. e. ac- 
cording to the usual orthography is as follows: 



Sing. 1 c. 

2 m. 
f. 

3 m. 
f. 



1*^"^ 



AAA/V\A Ol 






AAAAAA 



13 AAAAAA 



mnkrvlijnnkwTj "I remain" 
\v\ mntl 
mntl 



mn 



AAy>^A^ 



^u^ 



\\\ mntl 



1 Mar. Mast. 201. 



4. OLD INFLECTION (pSEDDOPARTICIPLe). a. ITS FORMT'N. 209 — 211. 87 



Plur. 1 c. 

AA/V\AA 

2c. '^ 
3 c. '^ 



AAAAAA 



w 

mnwin 
I 1 I 

mnt'iwm 

w 



mn. 



A. The original forms of the 3 pi. (cf. § 212) and the forms 
of the dual (m. tnnivy, f. mntyiv, mnty) were early lost. 

B. In the n. e., other forms also begin to drop out; in Copt, 
(cf. C§ 181) the 3 m. sg. has supplanted all the others and only a 
few 3 f. sg. are preserved with them. 

The ending of the 1 sg. is also written ^zi::^^ 209. 

and many texts seem regularly to use this form with 

certain verbs ( -^^ , | , r\\T\, >t ^ )• C)ther 



writings are -^ziiPt (o. e.), •v^:^ v\ and rarely ^-i: 

B, In the n. e. it was pronounced -Ic. 

In the case of the endings ti, the writing o:, is 210. 
customary, especially in the manuscripts of the m. e. 

B. Vulgar writings of the n. e. are sr=D t and c^ v\ tio; 
the ending was at that time, already spoken -t. 

The 3 m. sg.^ originally had the ending (I , more 211. 

rarely ^ : ^^? jQ ^^^'' "(^® ^^) anointed", "^Q 
^ V M -^^^^ "(^^ ^^) caixed" ; in the case of the Illae 
inf. and IVae inf. the g, with the final ^ becomes (1(1 : 

• Details according to Sethe. 



88 4. OLD INFLECTION (pseudopahticiple). a. ITS formt'n. 212 — 214. 

n(l(l msil "(he is) born". In the m. e. the writings in 

[1 (1 are frequent, those in ^ not rare, but those in 

(1 have disappeared; the ending of most verbs was > 

probably already lost. 

^^^- ^^ may also be written for v\ ; the'^e 

1 I I *' JL I \ \ 



was originally in the plural a 3 m, in v\ and a 3 f . 

in AiJ ^^; but both were already lost at a very remote 
period and only the 3 m. occasionally occurs in the 
m. e.: 0^ Ifv "they come". 
^213. The pseudoparticiple apparently had originally 
two forms, an active-transitive and a passive-intransi- 
tive. But the first was very early lost. 
214. The vocalisation can be restored only in the pas- 
sive-intransitive forms, which are retained in the Copt.; 
thus restored, in the most important cases it runs 
about as follows, the endings being added according 
to the later pronunciation, as -e and -te: 
j II lit. m. mene, f. mente ("remaining") 
^, II gem. m. kebe ("cool") 
(III inf. m. mosje ("born") 
llll lit. m. sodme, f. ^sdomte ("heard") 
(III gem. m. sepdode ("prepared") 
(lY lit. m. hemhome, f. hemJiomte ("roaring"). 



b. ITS USE. a. ACT.-TRASS. p. PASS.-INTRANS. FORM. 215 — 217. 89 

\ A. The pseudoparticiple of the transitive of the II lit. was 

pronounced something like erJj'w ("knowing"). 

In the case of the Illae inf., the forms |T| l^and 215. 
occur side by side, but the latter is the more 
frequent. — Of the irregular verbs, rdl "give" has the 
form Vs> , rdlrv, also . o^ dlw and 

%:v dldlrv; I "go" makes the 3 m. 0()(l7]\5 otherwise 

b. ITS USE. 
a. IN THE ACTIVE-TRANSITIVE FOEM. 

The few old texts, which still make this form of 2J6. 
the pseudoparticiple, employ it as a narrative form, 
and preferably at the close of a short paragraph, from 
which it draws a conclusion. It, seemingly, s^till oc- 
curs, only in the 1 sg.: Irkwl "and I did", 1 fu 

^^ y^ shikrvl "and I caused to descend". — Only the 

verb rh "know", although it is transitive, has preserv- 
ed a living pseudoparticiple; its use corresponds ex- 
actly with that of the passive-intransitive form (cf. 
§ 217sq., 241). 

p. IN THE PASSIVE-INTRANSITIVE FORM. 

The pseudoparticiple of the intransitives and pas- 217. 



sives, as well as that of the transitive verb 



I 



rh 



90 p. IN THE PASSIVE-IKTRAKSITIVE FOKM. 218. 219. 



*218. 



"know" (cf. § 216), is still used as an independent 
verb, almost only in the 1 sg., e. g. | l90''^^~-^ V 
^ ^ I hskrvl hrs "and I was therefore praised".^ 

A. The pyr. still have, e. g. sJitpf vtrwi'', hfpwci "he satisfies 
the two gods, and they are satisfied" 2 (8 m. du.) and the like. 

It is more frequently employed in order to annex 
to a substantive or pronoun a closer limitation, where 
we would, for the most part, employ a participle. E. g. 

"This command came <iz>^ 



A 



re 



ChCktvi to me, (as) I stood (in the midst of my 
tribe)".^ 



fl 



O I 



219. 



lyAAA^AA hugmmk drwfsm, htf khti "If you find his 

sole hot and his body cool" (lit. "if you find his sole, 
it is hot)".'' 

STV slsy "Look at him stretched out".^ 

B. In Copt, the remains of the pseudoparticiple have entire- 
ly gone over into participles. Cf. C§ 181. 182. 

On the use of the pseudoparticiple as apparent 
predicate cf. §§ 240 sq., 246 sq., 233, 234, 402. 



1 LD II, 122 a. 2 Pepy I, 348. 

^ Eb. 37, 3. 6 Eb. 36, 7. 



3 Sin. 199. 



\ 



5. COMP. WITH FORMS OF THE USUAL INFLECTION. 220. 221. 91 



5. COMPOUNDS WITH FORMS OF THE USUAL 
INFLECTION. 

a. INTEODUCED BY "IT IS". 
a. THE FORMS Itv sdmf AND itv sdmnf. 

With tiie impersonal auxiliary verb (1 ^ irv "it 220*. 
is", there are made two forms, which as a rule are 
distinguished in usage as follows: 

irv sdmf "he hears (heard)", 

irv sdm7if"-\s.Q (had) heard" (past, cf. § 197). 

With the first, both passives occur ; with the second, 
only the passive in t. With nominal subject, the forms 
run: irv sdm ntr "the god hears", irv sdmn ntr "the god 
heard". — In contrast with the simple forms sdmf and 
^dmnf these have a certain independence (like other 
clauses introduced by irv cf. § 246, 332). 

It is therefore used, where a fact is to be express- 221. 
-ed in a single independent remark: "This plant is 

used so and so fl^ ^ ^n^^^~^(j; o'^'tl:!, /wwva^ J) 
^ N^ irv grt srrvdtrv sn n st m tSyfprt 

"further, the hair of a woman is made to grow by 
means of its fruit'', ^ 

"The prince came to the king and said, (I ^ A 

% irv inni Ddi I have brought Ddi hither".'^ 



' Eb. 47, 19 (cf. § 115). 2 Westc. 8, 8. 



92 a^. AUXILIARY fEKB tVU. ha.. THE FORM iwf Sclmf. 222 — 225. 

222. It, is used especially at the beginning of a narra- 
tive or of one of its paragraphs: (1 ^ fU^^ 1 

^ ^w Ai&« w^ w&^ "My lord sent me out &c." ^ 

(Beginning of the narrative). 

• p. WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB vm. 

223. The corresponding use of the auxiliary verb -^^ 
Tvn "it is", is far more rare and probably archai 
There are found -^^ ^ ^\ tvn sdmf "he hears ", 

AftAAAA W\S- 

■^^ ^ ^>^ '^^^ sdmnf "he heard" and a -^^ ^. 

^ ^v '^w^w sd'w/' "he heard". 

&. WITH DOUBLE SUBJECT, 
a. THE FORM iwf sdmf. 

♦224. This form [1 ^ ^ ^^ ^^^ srfw/ (lit. "he is, 

he hears"), means "he is accustomed to hear". With 
nominal subject it runs as follows: (1 ^ ] J|^ ^n. 
irv ntr sdmf "The god is accustomed to hear". "When 
a number of verbs in this form follow one another, 
Iwf is used with the first of them only. 
225. It is used (similarly, the forms of § 221) in re- 

» LD II, 149 e. 



p. THE FORMS lonf sdntif AND wtiinf sdmf. 226 — 228. 93 

marks, in which a fact is stated: U y> q°\^ 1 

A DO V^ l^S Irv grt prts dlttvs hr tB "Further, 

its fruit is accustomed to be laid upon bread".^ 

"He who has this book (j%>^^^_-^ ^^^ '--' 

/ f^ V m K^m "^ ^ ^^ Irvf ckf 

prf .... irvf rhf hprrvt nf nbt goes in and out .... 
he knows all that happens to him".^ 

But on the other hand it is also employed (like 226. 
the forms in §§ 246 — 249) in descriptions and des- 
criptive narratives: 

y V^- fl ^ ^^'^^ /vwvAA (I W ?^ ^^ iTvl dll mrv 

\n lb "I gave water to the thirsty".^ 

It is especially preferred in the case correspond- 227. 
ing to § 249, for the continuation of a relative clause 
ior the like: 

~^ A/vwwv'v\ 8 J o "^^^^ ^7 s^^ "^ nhbtf, Irvf mnf Cfi n 
nhbtf "A man on whose neck there is a swelling and 
"who has pain in the two organs of his neck".'* 

p. THE FORMS wnf sdmf AND wrdnf sdmf. 
The form -^'^^ ^^==_ ^ V\ 5^^=.- rvnf sdmf is very 228. 



I 



» Eb. 51, 18. 2 Totb. 15 B, 6. 3 Sin. 96. * Eb. 51, 20. 



94 bf. THE FORM hrf sdnif. en., with chon> and OlC- 229. 230. 

rare; another, rvninf sdmf, which only occurs where 
one of the words for king, forms the subject: -^" (1 

AAA/VV\ I 

majesty sent to me'V is explained by § 346. 

Y- THE FORM hrf sdmf. 
229. This rare formation is evidently related to sdmh?f. 

and like it, is used in directions : ^:zi>« Y fi i '^cn^ 

=^ hrk roBhk dtk "lay your hand",^ 



o\ 



^ ^ 1^ l[] ^^^ §f* s? 5^55 d^dSs Im "Let the woman 

anoint her head with it",^ o %> A c^ \\ hrtw 

diirv "Let there be given".^ 

c. WITH A VERB OF MOTION. 
a. WITH cAc« AND chC- 

*230. The very frequent combination y ^ ^ 

CJiCn sdmnf ("he arose and heard"?), originally markc 
an occurrence in the narrative, as significant (some? 
thing like 'then he heard"). In the popular language 
of the m. e., however, it is weakened to the usual 

form for narrative ("he heard"), v is also writ- 

A AAAAAA 

ten archaically ^ dv , ¥ 7^ ■, and ^ i^-^^^^. 

"' \ 'A Aa 



1 Sin. 174. 2 Eb. 48, 3. 3 Eb. 47, 21. « Eb. 44, 3. 



CO.. WITH chCn AND C^O 231—234. 95 

A. In the language of the o. e. this compound still seems 
to be wanting. 

In the case of the active of the transitives, Q^w 231*. 
always has the w-form following: ^ <^=^^ A 

ChCn rdlnf "he gave", ^ ^^^ "=^ ^'^^'^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

"The prince said". 

No example of the passive in-^ occurs; the unin- 232*. 
fleeted passive, however, is freely used after QiCn (cf. 

§ 207): f— ^nn ° Hi^ V^^ ''^^'"' ''P^ ^^ 
sspt ''The house was fitted out'V 

Y (-hCn rdl "they (impers.) occasioned".^ 

The nominal sentence described in § 240sq., whose 233*. 
verb is in the pseudoparticiple, is employed with in- 
transitive verbs: 

"His majesty went in peace".^ 

If the subject is a pronoun, it is attached to CJiCn 

as suffix: f a ^ fm^' ■Cj/^^^^^^^^H^^^'' intktvi, 

"I sailed up"."* 

M— ^n ^ ^lA chCns grtl "She ceased".^ 

Other than in narrative, there is also used the 234. 

» Westc. 3, 8. 2 ib. 8, 4. 3 LD U, 122 a. 

♦ LD 11. 122 b. 5 Westc. 6, 3. 



96 p. WITH in, prn and iiv. d- the form sdmf pio. 235—237. 

form Y A ^^^, which transitive verbs follow in the 
form sdmf, while intransitives, just as with ChCn, fol- 
low in the pseudoparticiple: 

nbt "then he discharges all worms''.^ 

"flra'^']|(l^ ^^^^^« fi^i^ ^^r ^ "then she 



falls immediately".^ 

/J. WITH in, prn AND iw. 
235. The forms Q (1 -^ In and '~~' ^ , which are 
derived from ^ "come" and pr "go out", are far rarer 
than QiCn, but like it in construction and original 
meaning. 

2^^- ^ V ^^ "^°" ^^ ^^^^ employed like Qf, cf. y\ 
$ °^ -■t=::p5 V\ Vv?» ^^^ mhkrvl "then I am full".^ 



d. THE FORM sdm/ pw. 
237. The form sdmf pw, in the first instance, means 

something like "it is he who hears" (cf. § 87 on prv)'^ 
but it further appears to denote also a condition a^ 

tained: "When you find this or that in him 1 jj 

□ ^ siibf pw then he is well".^ The verb has thi 

form of the second group, cf. § 184 sq. 

1 Eb. 20, 7. 2 Eb. 51, 18. 3 Math. Hdb. 35, 36. ^ Eb. 37, 1^ 



6. WITH Ir. 238. 7. with pseddoparticiple or infinitive. 240. 97 

6. COMPOUNDS WITH ir "MAKE". 

The combination of Ir "make, do" with an infi- 238. 
nitive dependent upon it as object ("he does hearing"), 
is used: 

1. Often with verbs of going: ■<2>-^'^=i ^v « 
irt smt "I went"^ 



2. With compound verbs : =?s= Ov^ Irni 

dr-tS "I journeyed"^, -<2>- ^^zz^^ 9 ) ^ Irhrk rv^- 
dSdi "you multiply"^. 

B, This combination first supercedes the inflection, with the 
IV lit. and cans. Ill lit,*, later with all verbs (of. C§ 249). 

The strange combination ^^N. D V^ sdm 239*. 



prv Irnf ("it was hearing which he did"?) which is 

used since the m. e. especially with verbs of going. 

as a form of narrative, is much more frequent. E. g. 

□ vs\ AAAA/v^ prt pw irnf "he went out", because 

pr is a verb of going, while the parallel verbs are 
expressed by means of sdminf or ChCn sdmnf. 

7. COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPAETICIPLE 

OR INFINITIVE. 

a. WITHOUT THE AUXILIARY VERB (IMPROPER 

NOMINAL SENTENCE). 

The model of the nominal sentence (cf. § 327 sq.) 240*. 
was early transferred to sentences with verbal predi- 



\ 



1 Sin. 19. 2 Una 30. 3 Math. Hdb. 41. *■ According to Sethe. 
Erman, Egypt, granim. Gr 



98 7. COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPARTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. 241. 242. 

cate; the subject (a noun or pronoun) preceding, the 
verb following. In general, the verb is in the pseudo- 
participle in the case of intransitives and passives; 

and in the infinitive with the preposition ^ Jjr, in 
the case of transitives. 

B. This kind of sentence was the origin of the late Egyptian 
forms twfsdm (qCOTM) and twfhr sdm (qCCJOTM). Cf. C§253sq. 
241. More exactly, the following are in the pseudo- 
participle: 

1. the passives (ph^ "divided", shr "overlaid" etc.). 

3. the verbs of going (Ai "descend", Iw "go", / 
"go", hr "fall"), 

3. the verbs of condition when they denote the 
continuation of the condition (mh "be full", mr "be 
sick", ftv "be broad" &c.); but also hpr "to be" even 
where it means "become". 



4. 
object. 



rh "know" (cf. § 216), even with following 



f 
242. The following, however, are in the infinitive 

with hr: 

1. the transitive verbs with or without an object 
following, {rdl "give", ssp "receive", hrp "lead", m^ 
"see" &c.), 

2. verbs of condition, when they denote the 
entrance upon the condition, {m^rv "recommence", 
ik "diminish", hpr "happen"). 



7. COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPARTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. 243. 244. 99 

3. verbs of crying and weeping {nml "roar, low", 
rmy "weep" &c.). 

A. In the oldest language the infinitive with lir does not yet 
seem to have been usage here, for at that time the pseudoparti- 
ciple was still made with all verbs (§ 213). 

Its use corresponds to that of the real nominal 243. 

sentence (cf. § 328 sq.). It is used, therefore in asser- 
n n I I a <::::> o 

tn rl "No contradiction comes out of my mouth'", 
and especially after mk "behold" (§ 183) where the 
old absolute pronouns (§ 80) are used: 



S^-nht iw m c^m "Behold (thou woman), Sinuhe comes 
as an Asiatic"^. 

V ^ ^ V^tI a"^^^^^ Y>^^'^^^^^'^^^"B6hold, 

I "3 

come "*. 

It is further used in descriptions and in the des- 244. 
criptive parts of a narrative : 

^\ ) iBw h^rv . . . Ihw hr m^rv "Old age comes 
on . . ., weakness(?) recommences"^ 



G( \i.-\\t^m-^. 



AAAAAA 



1 



iLDII, 136h. 2 Sin. 265. 3 Westc. 8, 12. « Prisse 4, 2— 3. 

G* 



100 b. INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS. «. WITH THE VERB iw. 246. 

^^ iJl ^ hdn t^, Tnrv (fern, according to 
§ 98) Itl, hCfi rib mBh nl, about: "Day broke and now 
came the people of Tnrv, while every heart burned for 
me'" (not narrative but description). 

Such a description is often introduced by the 

conjunction (1 ls=s Isf (§ 323). — Here also, belongs 



the use of ^^ ^ j\ fn- M "after" in temporal 



clauses: V\ A -^^ _23^'v\'Tr^ ^ m hi 

mlrrv hpr "After it had become evening"^. 

245. A sentence of this kind is often also used as a 

relative clause: ^'^ ft fl . . . J J ^Afl'^? 

ijs^x^v J ^§««^« • • • hnbntsn Sbhw m hrt 

"two obelisks . . . whose summits reach heavenV 
or expresses a subordinate circumstance in connec- 

tion with which an action took place: >ca&; 

^'^--^^(f^\ ¥^f M^ Wfrv "He sailed down 
upon it, his heart being glad"*. 

h. INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS, 
o. WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB iw. 

246. Just as the forms sdmf and sdmnf are introduc i 
ed by the auxiliary verb fi^ Iw (cf. §§ 220—222) 

1 Sin. 129—131. 2 Westc. 3, 10. 3 LD IH, 24 « 

^ Inscription of Sehel. 



fe. INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS. a.WITHTHE VEBB (w. 247.248. 101 

SO the nominal sentence with verbal predicate just 
treated, is also often introduced by irv. The modifi- 
cation introduced by this Iw^ is in both cases the 
same. — If the subject is a pronoun, it is expressed by 

a suffix: (1^^^ ,^y\ V therefore corresponds 

to ^^^^, but (j^^^^^ to ^^-A^- 
E. In the popular language of the m. e. the forms twf sdm 
and twfhr sdm, in the case of a pronominal subject, are already 
supplanting the nominal sentences of §§ 240 sq. ; the use of twf 
sdm especially, later becomes still more extended. They are 
preserved in Copt, as FqCOTM (cwf sdm) and PqCCDTM {iwf 
hr sdm). Cf. C§ 251, 262 sq. 

It is used where a fact is expressed in a single 247. 
independent remark (cf. § 221): 

"Say concerning it, (j ^ i-=c ^ '^'^-^ ° J "^ ^ 

1(1 Irv mrstfi?) ph^tl his liver (?) is divided" ^ 

It is further employed at the beginning of a 248. 
narrative or of one of its paragraphs (cf. § 222): 

^\ o Iw twtl shr m nb, Indwtf m rv^sm "My statue 

was overlaid with gold and its apron with silver- 
gold."^ 

Even when the sentence in question, expresses 

« Eb. 36 17. 2 Sin. 307. 



102 p. WITH THE AUXU.IARY VERB WH. 250. 

only an accompanying subordinate circumstance, this 
form is used like that without Irv (cf. § 245) : 

"^ .^===^ N^ \\ ms^ pw Irns hrf^ Irv msC pn n stn hr mii 

"she bore upon it, while this army of the king 
looked on"^ 

249. When a number of relative nominal sentences 
are joined to one noun (cf. § 245), all but the first 
are introduced by Irv (cf. § 227): 

1 .<2>- J^ .^- <CZr> l) OaaaaaaIII v,.:^^^ 

Ir mBBk hri-stt . . . nht hif hrs, Irvf hr mn r-lbf "If you 
see any one with a swelling .... whose body is there- 
fore stiff and who is diseased in his stomach (?)"^. 

p. WITH THE AUXILIAEY VEEB wn. 

250. Here belong the forms, distinguished according 
to § 241—242, -^^=^1.^^ ^ mnf sdm (the verb is 

pseudoparticiple) and -^"^^.c^^ ^ ^ ^\ rvnf hr sdm: 



AA/\AAA 



'^^ '-==^-'" l-jic^^ nn l^vz^ rvnfhrdrvBntrw 



nb "He worshipped all gods 



"3 



1 LD II, 149 c. 2 Eb. 26, 4. 3 Hr-hwf II a, 14. 



p. WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB Wn. 251. 252. 103 

-^ ^ wnn/' Cnh '-He will live"^ (§ 184, 

AAAAAA *^^=a — 1 ® 

187). 

A remarkable formation, in which the auxiliary 251. 
verb is also in the pseudoparticiple, is found in -^^ 

AAAAAA 

I -^^ J\ '^^zi^^ VQi jvnkl drvnkrvl "I threw 



myself down(?)"^. 

The forms distinguished according to § 241 — 242 252* 

^^^ A AAAAAA ra ^^7 A AAAAAA /^N, CT 

■^^y ^ ¥^ w«fw/ sdm and -^^^(1 ^^ 

roninf hr sdm, which represent an action or a condi- 
tion as the result or conclusion of that previously 
narrated, are more frequent. They are therefore 
employed for the most part, at the close of a para- 
graph: "This or that was done to cheer the king 

^^ j] AAAAAA O AAAAAA U | f\ ^^^^^ '^ \\v) "^''^^ WTlln It tl llUf Jib 
AAAAAA 1 I A \-J. -£^ I A hJ\/\f^f\/\ 

and the heart of his majesty was (on that account) 
cheered (lit. cool)"^. But they are further employed ^ 
at the beginning of a paragraph also, where they 
then connect the latter with that which precedes : 

"The wise man had the children called, gave them 
the book and said to them &c.". New paragraph: 

I AAAAAA I i n M _^ i: I | AAAAAA \^?s^^ M AAAAAA | 

S I I 1 1 I O I I ^ ml AWWVI I 



1 LD II, 149 c. 2 Sin. 252. 3 Westc. 6, 1. 



t 



104 8. COMPOUNDS WITH V AND THE INFINITIVE. 253. 254. 



, I o rvninsn hr rdlt st Jir htvtsn, wninsn 



I I I I c::^ 

hr sdt St "And they threw themselves upon their 

bellies and they read it &c."^ 

B. Toward the end of the n. e. this becomes so frequent, 
that it is temporarily the most common form of narrative. 



8. COMPOUNDS WITH r AND THE INFINITIVE. 
253. On the basis of the construction Itv/" r . . . "he 
will be something" (e. g- fl%^Pf ^^|^^ «V 
r smr "he is for a friend", i. e. "he will be a friend"^), 
there developed a kind of nominal sentence, in which 
(cf. § 240) the preposition <^:^ r, "to", with following 1 
infinitive, indicates the future : 



-, ^,, , - ,,^ -^,„ mk 

Tvi r nhm c^k "Behold, I will take thy ass"^. 
#254. The auxiliary verb (1^ Irv was early prefixed 
to this kind of sentence also (as in § 246 sq.) and the 
form thus originating, (1^ ^^k. ''^f ^ ^^^ "^i® 
will hear", has already nearly superceded the simple 
form in the popular language of the m. e. 

B. In Copt, it is preserved as EqBCCDTM (cf. C§ 269). 



1 Prisse 2, 5. 2 sin. 280. 3 Bauer 11. 



9. IMPERATIVE. 255. 256. 105 

9. IMPERATIVE. 
The imperative had no ending in the singular: 255*. 
°^ mh "fill" (something like 'mho)', in the plural it 

ended in ^ or w {'mhorv). In classic orthography, 
however, these endings are almost never written, and 
the plural of the imperative is indicated only by the 

determinative i; ni^\ QA i shBw "remember" or left 

entirely unindicated. 

A. In the pyr. the II lit. indicate the prosthetic vowel, in the 
sing, according to § 170 A: ihr "fall" (something like %ro; the 
Ilae gem. are doubled, pM. The plural of the Illae inf. in the 

pyramids ends in [J(J, i. e. the third radical t and the ending l. 



B. Since the n. e. the infinitive is also used instead of the 
imperative; the Copt, still possesses but few imperatives of the 
old formation, cf. C§ 305. 

In detail note further: 256. 



impv. of "make, do", 

imi incorrectly in the n. e. (1 



, (J ^\ ^^ , older ^^\ , and the like, 



is used as imperative of rrf^"give, cause". (Copt. 

Ma, cf. C§ 305; the signs n and h n are the deter- 
minatives of giving). 

^v ml^ more rarely \J\i later .i^^ (1^ and 

• Mar. Ab II, 3i; 



106 9. IMPERATIVE. 257. 

the like, as imperative of the verbs of coming, (Copt, 
m. AMOy, f. AMH, cf. C§ 305). 

The distinction in gender observable in the two 
Copt, forms just cited, was probably existent in the 
old language also, but is not indicated in the ortho- 
graphy. 

A. The pyr. -write mi "give" for the most part (J .a -0 inu 

(with the sign ^ d); they have further a real imperative of rdi, 

which is written A dt. 

B. On the employment of (I V\ w\ "give" in clauses 

expressing a wish, cf. § 182 B. From frequent usage since the 
m. e., imt loses its original meaning "give"; imt ditw "cause that 

there be given" (in the LE. contracted to (J ^S\ ^-^^^r^ ), 
replaces it. 
257. The imperative is often followed by the old ab- 
solute pronoun (cf. § 80): 

..^Q-J\c^^s trv "hasten (thou)", 

f[ \\ -'■^ /wvwv rud^rv tn "go (ye)''^ 

The words r- and Ir-^ employed with suffixes for 
emphasis (cf. 348), often follow it also : 

^^^^'^r^"gehe", 

-^^^^sij n<zi>^/vwsA ji;ri i^rtn "open ye", 

^^v (I '^'^'^•^ sdmw Irf in "hear ye"^. 

1 Sin. 282. 2 Totb. ed. Nav. I, 27. 3 LD HI, 24 d. 



10a. PARTICIPLES. 258. 259. 



107 



10. THE NOMINAL FORMS OF THE VERB. 
a. PARTICIPLES. 
The participles, which as a rule are written as 258* 
follows : 

Sg. m. ^%\ sdm 



Pl.m. ^^[j[j^l and 

I. ^^v ^^^^ f- ^^v ' sdmywt(l) 

may have, for the most part, had a vocalic ending ^, 
as may be conjectured from the pi. m. The sing. m. 
furthermore, often has the masculine substantive 

ending 

alone as a substantive, e. g. 

:getter"\ j> — ^ V' ^^/'^ "chosen one" ^ 

The participles occur in active and passive forms, 259. 
of which, those of the present and future, and those 
of the past seem to have been distinguished.^ 

Note in detail: 

1. The II ae gem. have sometimes separated, 

•sometimes contracted consonants: -^^ wnn "being" 

AAAAAA *^ 

AAAAA^ 

or -^^ rvn. 



TV (cf. § 96), especially where it stands 



Tvttw "be- 



» Mar. Ab. II, 25. 



2 LD 11, 122 a. 



^ fiethe. 



3 According to 



108 lOa. PARTICIPLES. 260. 

2. The Illae inf. in the active, sometimes double 
the second radical (present), and sometimes do not 

(past): <cz>^ mrrw "loving", p. prr 



A 

"going out", but (T| 1 "having born" (fern.), J\ 

pr "having gone out. — Beside the forms with doubling 
(present) there occur in the passive, others in which 

the third radical i (cf. § 151) is visible (past): f^^nK 

%J\\^ ^^y^ "found" (fern.) but A§^^ 
gmmt "being found" (fern.) — In the case of •<2>- "make, 
do", is written for irr^ and ■<2>-(](| for try, 

according to § 151. 

3. The irregular verb rdi "give" has the active 
lorm M^, aiat, "giving". 



260. The participle is either used attributively like an 
adjective: 

£v^t^^^.^g>-(j(]^^^^ liwwt{l) iryrvt rf "the 
wrong done against him"'. 

hr liQl "the kings who were before me"^, 
or like a substantive: 

» Eb. 1, 13. 2 RiH 19 sq. 



10a. PARTICIPLES. 261. 109 

ftiP'^^'^^^'W^ ^^^ -^^ "^^^ (fern.), who 
has born a boy"^ 

^^v (l(]'v\ if sdmytv "the listeners"^. 

T ^^ ^^fc-^ ^^''^^ "^^^^ S s '^ mr n iryt rf "pain 

about that done to him."^ 

A remedy v\ '^^'ww »j irrwt n ht oi 

•^ .Ms^<z:> III o I 

that which is made for the body"*. 

A substantive or a suffix is often added to a 261. 
passive participle, to indicate its logical subject 
(i. e. the one, from whom the action in question 
proceeds): 

(1 (1 mry iBrvi "beloved by the two lands". 

^^ K^.^ [1 ]\ K.-^ sSf mryf "his son beloved 
by him". 

The grammatical subject of a verb may also be 
retained, when it is put in the passive participle, cf. 

especially §400 and examples like : (1 .<2>- (J (] T ^^^ 

\\ AAAAAA y ifii ffij-f rf ifi gjif "He to whom 

injury is done by his brother" (lit. f actus malum 
contra eum a fratre)^. 



I Eb. 26, 16. 2 Prisse 5, 14. ' Bauer 25. ■« Eb. 19, 11. 
6 Merenre' 465; the whole according to Sethe. 



110 b. THE INFINITIVE. «. ITS FOKMATION. 262. 263. 



A. The old expressions /www ^yiy jj "beloved of", 



I 



f'^^''^^^ ms n "born of", tr n "begotten of" are pro- 

AAAAAA 

bably passive participles also. 



b. THE INFINITIVE, 
a. ITS FORMATION. 

*262. The infinitive has different forms in the different 

verbal classes. With the following classes it has the 
vowel after the first consonant, and no special 
ending : 

II lit., ^^. wn "open" OYODN (with suffixes 
OYON=) ; 

III lit., ^^. sdm "hear" CCOTM (with suffixes 

COTM=); 

IV and V lit., ^'^^^ "IT^ A li^^t (cf. CoAcA, with 

suffixes cAccdA*). 
263. An is found after the second consonant of some 
III lit. which denote a quality, like <z: 



dsr TOGO) (for *isor) "become red" and also of the 
II ae gem. of like meaning, like .>>^ i ^^\ ^.^ kmom 
"become black". Whether the infinitives of the other 
II ae gem. like ^ f'^O) wH "urinate", are also 
to be vocalised thus, is uncertain. 



h. THE INFINITIVE, a. ITS FORMATION. 264 — 268. 



Ill 



The Illae i>, according to the Copt, have for the 264. 
most part an a after the second consonant in the 

infinitive: ^ I "^^ i wdB "be healthy" oyxAl, [' U 

%^ sk5 "plow" CKAl. 

Certain infinitives, like ? ? a hM "seek", \\ 265. 

^ I '^ "^''^^ "land" (i. e. die, MOONE), in careful 
orthography, end in i. 

The III ae inf. have infinitives with feminine 266*. 
ending and the vowel i or ^: H 1^ mst "bear" MICF 
n. prt "go out" TTipe, nppF, trt "make, 

do", FlpF, rn V\ A h^t '-descend" gF &c. 

A few III lit. have likewise feminine infinitives, 267. 
like ^dh ^^^^ "^^^'' ^- C^HCl, as well as the 

irregular verbs Q fl /\ iit{^) "come" und o rdit 

"give". 

The causatives of the II lit. have likewise femi- 268. 
nine infinitives (according to § 161): 1 j^ ^^ shrt 

"overthrow" (from hr "fall"). 



e^ 



AAAAAA ■Hi 



smnt 



"establish" from mn MOyN "remain") CMINF.-— Among 



W 



smsi 



the causatives of the Illae inf. are found 

"unbind", but also ^^'^(1(1^ sh^yt "cause to 



112 p. ITS SUBSTANTIVE NATURE. 269 — 271. 

descend", — The causatives of the III lit, are classified 
with the IV lit. in the infinitive, 1 ^ /\ sCJiC "get 
up", Copt. COOgF (from *soC}i'C). 

p. ITS SUBSTANTIVE NATURE. 

♦269. The infinitive was originally a substantive with 
the general meaning of the verb. It therefore belongs 
to no definite voice of the verb and governs no ob- 
ject; "to kill him" is rendered in possessive form by 
hdbf "his killing" (cf. § 79), and Mh hffi "to kill the 
enemy" was originally undoubtedly a genetive, "the 
killing of the enemy", (cf. C§ 173.) 

270. Of itself, hdbf "his killing" may also have the 

meaning "the killing, which he does", as in fnl ^ 
^"^ r^^^^^ wsrfr nds sdmf "an ear whose 
hearing is small" ^ (i. e. a deaf ear), but such usage 
is practically rare (the substantivised form of § 283 
is preferred in this case) and a possessive suffix on 
the infinitive is always first to be translated as the 
object of the latter. 

271. The substantive character of the infinitive is 
evidenced also by the fact that a plural is made from 
it. In contrast with the singular it is best rendered 
by a substantive: 

1 Eb. 91, 2. 



■/. ITS USE. 272. 113 

Singular Plural 

msrvt "birth"'/ 
""^^o wr^ "to love" "^^^"^mrw^ "love";^ 

|-^ ChC "to stand" I ^ -^ QiCrv "standing 

place" ;^ 
\ ^^^ Mr "to hunger" Q V^^ likrrv "hun- 

" 4 

ger ^ 
With many verbs however, (e. g. those of going 
and of rejoicing) the plural infinitive is also used like 
the singular. 

Y- ITS USE. 
It stands, precisely like a substantive, as the sub- 272, 
ject of a sentence: 

Irt nf St "My wish was to make it for him"^ (Irt is 
subject, cf. § 335), 

or as part of the genetive relation : 

Intr^ "The day of the lamp-lighting in the temple",*^ 
L fj ^ ^ n i U=/] St krs "place of burying",' 



1 Westc, 10, 8. 2 LD H, 122 a. 3 Westc. 6, 13, 

« LD II, 122 b. 5 LD IH, 24 d. « Siut I, 291. " Westc. 7, 8. 
Erman, Egpypt gramm. j[ 



114 



Y. ITS USE. 273—275. 



or for the qualification of an adjective (cf. § 118): 
T I <:=^:3 ^ Wj w/r mdw "excellent in speak- 



" 1 



mg 
273. Further, as object after verbs of willing, like 



rvd "command", mr "desire", ^i^ q7\ snd 

"fear", as well as ^^^^=^^^8A ^-^ "think" and 
rh "know, be able" (cf. C§ 314): 



rf&i St "It was commanded him to pay it".^ Beside 
the above, the construction in § 189 is also in use 
with these verbs. 

274. The infinitive may be dependent upon any pre- 
position ; with the more common prepositions these 
combinations have in part taken on special meanings, 
which are noted below: 

275. The infinitive with ^^^ m "in", denotes for the 
most part time, 

"They were astonished 



came",^ 



p^mUt when theyj 



but nevertheless occurs with other meanings, e. g.l 

V V ^v ^1 ^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^"^ "free from do- 

mg sin . 



1 Peasant 75. 2 Peasant 48. 3 Prisse 2, 4. * Mar. Ab. 11, 24^ 



Y- ITS USE. 276. 277. 115 

With <;:::> r "to", it almost always indicates pur- 276* 
pose (as still in Copt, with e cf. C§ 315): 

hntf r shrt 'hfUrvf (cf. § 7) "He sailed up to overthrow 
his enemies'V 

"He went <=:> ^ /wwv. ^^^ ra r spr n mr- 

pr-wr to beseech the chief house-overseer".^ 

In the common expression <=i> ^) r ^<? ''in order 

to say" the idea of purpose had already disappeared 
in the m. e., so that it, (like its derivative 2£P, C§ 
370), only indicates the beginning of direct discourse, 

"I wandered through the camp 



AAAAAA a n^ 

^=^ 1 1 A ^ Q 

„ TV. X J^ y U ^ J^f' nhm r dd: irtrv nn mi 

m.^, while I cried, 'How is this done?'".^ 

With ^ hr it denotes simultaneousness ("while ')*, 277*. 

•JUjOiv^in ^-'^ hu hr smsf^'I went, follow- 
ing him",^ 

^'^^^l^tS^^'^^'^^^ ^ri?r^"He 
found him going out" (''as he was going out").^ 

On the use of this combination as a substitute 



* Best rendered in English by the present participle, teansl. 
1 LD II, 122a, 2 Bauer 33. 3 sin. 202. * LD II, 122a. 
Bauer 34. 

H* 



116 Y- ITS USE. '278—280. 

for the pseudoparticiple with transitive verbs, of. 
§ 240. 242. 
278. The prepositions /wvwv n (the — •— of good manu- 
scripts) and ^v mP, with the infinitive, denote 
cause: 

"I lived, honored by the king .=^Vi ^ ^^ 

\ /wwvA I j\ mC irt mSCt n stn because I wrought 

truth for the king".* 
2 '9- TinC "with" connects the infinitive with a 

preceding verb whose meaning it now adopts: 

(I /wvAAA Q7\ ^ g (g iwf hr mm tS 500 .... /m^ 

sTvrl hkt ds 100 "He eats 500 loaves .... and drinks 
100 jars of beer".^ 

This method of continuation is especially prefer- 
red with imperative and optative expressions: 

^ "CH^ O "^^''^^^^ «dl> AftAAAA -y /"S 

-<2>- ^d^^ • • • X ' ° Irhrk 

rf . . . TinC rdlt nf phrt "Make for it . . . and give him 
the remedy".^ 
280. An absolute infinitive is subjoined to a sentence 
for the addition of an explanation: 



1 Prisse 19, 8. 2 Westc. 7, 3. 3 Eb. 40, 8. 



I 



C. SUBSTANTIVIZED FORMS, a. IN GENERAL. 281. 282. 117 

•ODD 



^^^ I AAAAAA Vj. O *^^=i^ (Li dJl 

^^^ ^rws m mnrvs n itfs ' Imn^ Irt nf thnrvi wrwi "She 
made (it) as her monument for her father Amon, 
having made two great obelisks for him"^ (var. 'y 
sQ}C "having set up"). 



(| 



AAAAAA ,^,_n_^ <: ,. 

AAAAAA ^C^ \\\\\^''^^=^pshrmTV^ 

AAAAAA AAAAAA d 



nn rdit Sfryf "Cook (it) in water, without letting ijb 
seethe (?)".2 

The logical subject may be added to an infinitive 281. 
(especially for the sake of intelligibility) ; in this case 
a nominal subject is introduced by the prepositin In^ 
but a pronominal subject is expressed by means of 
the later absolute pronouns of § 84: 

ra <CZI^ A AAAA/\A 

"Agreement made with so and so ^^\ A^ 

n AAAA^\A I I r~\ h.t\N\/^ r\ Q AAA/W\ i IN 

\ ^<=>J\ o. X i ^"^h^\ 

. . m rdlt nf . . . hnC prt ntsn . . . hnC rdit In 

TvCh "that (they) give him . . . and that they go out . . . 
and that the priest give . . ."."^ 



a 



c. SUBSTANTIVIZED POEMS. 
a. IN GENERAL. 

The verbal forms of the later formation (cf. § 170) 282*. 
s^w/and sdmnf^ can be converted into masculine and 

1 LD in, 24 d. 2 Eb. 42, 7. 3 glut I, 307. 



118 |3. TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. 283. 

feminine substantives by adding the substantive end- 
ings m. w, f. t, to their stem. The "substantivized" 
forms thus made, denote in part the action itself (the 
fact that he hears), in part a person or an object, to 
which the action has reference (he who hears, that 
which he hears and the like). 

B. In the n. e. the substantivized forms have disappeared. 

p. TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. 

"283. The forms which denote the action itself, are 
especially: 

sdmtf "the fact that he hears", 

'^'^'^ sdmtnf "the fact that he heard" (with 

the meaning of a perfect, cf. § 197). 

The formation sdmf of the first group (cf. § 172) 
is used in this case with the form sdmtf \ with the 



II ae gem. it is therefore -^^^ mntf^ with thelllae 

inf. ,, Jiv^^=_ prtf, with Ir "make, do" ^^-^^ 

Irtf, with tdl "give" o ^^i.^^ rdltf. Only in the case 

of a future meaning do forms of the second group 

seem to be employed here, \ ^ -^^ ^^zz:^ 

tr n rvnntk "the time when you will be"^ (lit. "the 
time of the fact that you will be"). 

» I'risse JO, 10. 



p. TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. 284 — 286, 119 

These substantivized forms are treated precisely 284. 
like substantives and are used with special frequency 
after prepositions, where we would expect a conjunc- 
tion with a dependent clause. E. g. 

^v. mI P V'^ ^* ^^^^ ^^ "when she bore 

Sw'} 

"on New-years-day <zi> A c^ [331 '^'^^^ 

hft rdlt p}- n nhf when the house gives (presents) to 
its lord".^ 

They gave him this piece rum <iz> A o 

/wsAAA l/wwvA hnt rdltnf nsn before he had given to 
tiiem".^ 

Note, further, the absolute use of this substan- 285. 
tivized form. If it follows a sentence, it adds to it 
an explanatory limitation: 

"Agreement, that they give him a loaf <=> A o 

AAAAAA I AAAAAA I v dltfif HSH Jivs hc, havlug givcu 

i;hem ... for it".^ 

If, however, it precedes the sentence, it contains 286. 
a temporal qualification: 

o ^ I J^±5^ c:^::^ 1 IJJEL 4 1/vwvvA 

^W I^Jl ^^^'^ ^^^ ^ rdwil, dmlnl inbw hkB 

'■ Eb. 95, 8. 2 siut I, 289. 3 Siut I, 276. * Siut I, 274. 



120 f. TO DENOTE A PERSON OK AN OBJECT. 287 — 289. 

"When 1 had given the way to my feet, (i. e. fled), I 
came to the wall of the prince"/ 

287. It sometimes stands independently at the he- 
ginning of a text after a date, e. g. in J ^ n 

n ^-^ czsiD lO MM o 

I n ^^ X X rnpt 18 Irt hnf tBS rst^. This is 

probably to he understood as: "In the year 18 (oc- 
curred) the cirumstance, that his majesty made the 
southern boundary", i. e. "his maj. made the southern 
boundary." 

288. As may be seen, the use of this form is for the 
most part, identical with that of the infinitive. In 
general they are distinguished as follows: the infini- 
tive is used where its (logical) subject is identical 
with the subject of the preceding sentence, whereas 
the substantivized form is otherwise chosen. Thus, 

'■'■They were astonished when they came" ^^^ \\\\ r. 

m lit, but "/ was astonished when they came" 



A 



m ItSH. 

I i ! 



Y- TO DENOTE A PEESON OR AN OBJECT. 
♦289. The substantivized forms which denote the person 
or thing to which the action of the verb has refer- 
ence (he who hears, that which he hears etc.) are 
theoretically as follows: 

1 Sin. 15. 2 LD II, 136h. 



Y- TO DENOTE A PERSON OR AN OBJECT. 290. 291. 121 

m. sdmrvf m. sdmrvnf 

f. sdmtf f. sdmtnf 

in which the n-form is again used for the past. — The 
formation of the second group (§ 184) is used for the 
forms sdmrvf and sdmtf (in contrast with the form of 
§ 283); with the Illae inf. it is therefore 

^^ mtrtf with ir "make, do" Irrif with 

rdi "give' dlditf. — In the case of the II lit. 

and III lit. as well as with all verbs in the w-form, 
these substantivized forms are not to be distinguished 
from those of the first kind. 

On the use of these forms in relative sentences 290. 
cf. § 394. Certain of them are furthermore employed 
with definite meaning, precisely after the manner of 
real substantives as subject, as object, in the genetive, 
or after a preposition. 

The forms ^ ^\ sdmtf and ^ ^^^ '^""'^ 291*. 

sdmtnf with the meanings "that which he hears" and 
"that which he heard" are the most frequent: 

I ^ ^ ^/^ ^^^^^ ^^ "That which I do 

thee is good".* 

^^^ A ^ZXZ H Q mr Innt hCp '^Oxerseer oHha,t 
vhich the Nile brings'. - 

•- » Sin. 77. 2 LD II, 149 c. 



122 d. VERBAL ADJECTIVE. 292. 293. 

^ ^'^'^'^(j^^ §A ddtnfim "according to that 

which he had said about it"^ (while he was still liv- 

ing). — The not infrequent masculine I dldisn 

fl I I 1 

"that which they give"^ is noteworthy. 
292. The form sdmrvf denotes persons and is used 

almost only with nominal subject: 

hssm nbf^^he whom his lord lovesV 



ifr^^ 



"K ^^5^ Vh^ ^'v^^- J\ I tvnnw sndf ht 



" 4 



smwt "he, whose fear comes after the lands 

d. VERBAL ADJECTIVE. 

*293. The archaic forms : 

Sg. m. sdmtif'i, f. sdmt'isi, 

PI. sdmttsn 
almost always mean "he (she), who will hear" and are 
employed both as adjectives and substantives: 

J^ ^ ^ <CZ> Ul iCi "^ W S _^^ Xcm /wwv^ 

s^l rib srrvdt'if'i tSi pn "every son of mine who shall 
make this boundary increase".^ 

3 



"as something brilliant (i. e. useful) for him who will 
hear it".« 



1 LD II, 34 d. 2 gin. 137, 3 lD n, 113f. < Sin. 44 
5 LD II, 136h. c prisse 5, 8. 



11. APPENDIX TO THE VERB; THE OBJECT. 294 — 297. 123 

In classic orthography, the endings are for the 294. 
most part written: 

Sg. m. 2<..::=_ or , f. o l\«v or o 1 

PI. n or ^n 

Willi till 

in the singular, however, \ f. , K\^ also occur. 

In respect of the formation, it is to be noted, 295. 
that 

the II ae gem. always double the second radical, 

•^^ I W rvnnt'isi, 

the Illae inf. in part take w for the ending of the 

stem, rn ^^ ^ p^'i.=:^h^rvt'ift (ct § 151 A); <r "make, 

do" has ^ ; 

rdi "give" has <=> A rdldfi. 

11. APPENDIX TO THE VERB; THE OBJECT. 

The direct object (accusative) is to be recognis- 296. 
ed only by the order of words, cf. § 337 sq. If it is 
a pronoun it is always expressed by the old prono- 
mina absoluia, cf. § 30. 

On account of its substantive character, the in- 297. 
finitive could not originally govern an object; it is 



» Mar. Cat. d'Aby. 807. 2 sin. 75. 



124 PARTICLES. 1. ADVERBS. 298 300. 

therefore, according to § 269, combined with the 
possessive suffixes, r mrtf "for his loving", i, e. "in 

order to love him". Only the neuter pronoun l'^ 

St "it" (cf. § 82) can also follow the infinitive, r mrt 
St "in order to love it" ("them). 

298. Transitive verbs which have no special object, 

are often followed by the word iht "thing" as a 

general object, not to be translated by us. Note 
especially : 

^ r^ iht ''the one knowing (something)",^ 

i. e. the wise man, 

Irt iht "to do (something")'- for the god, 

i. e. to make offering. 

299. The indirect object (dative) is expressed by means 
of the preposition ^^aaaa n (cf. § 306), which by good 
manuscripts, is written — :_, before substantives. 

PAETICLES. 
1. ADVERBS. 

300. A special adverbial formation does not exist.; 
Beside the prepositions (cf. § 303) and absolute sub- 
stantives (cf. § 117), the adjectives are used as ad- 
verbs, thus: 

1 Siut I, 223. 2 glut I, 271. 



2. PREPOSITIONS, a. IN GENERAL. 301. 302. 125 

1. With the preposition r, in the masculine or 
feminine : 



^ ; r mnh "excellently",' 
^ r CBt "very".^ 



AAAAAA 



2. Alone, in the masculine; or more rarely, in 
the feminine (especially with the intensifying wrt 
"very") : 

vomits often".^ 

"He wept ^"^'^'^•[1^^^ <;i'wwr^ very sorely".^ 

2. PREPOSITIONS. 
a. m GENERAL. 

The prepositions are in part simple {m "in", hnC 301. 
"with"), in part compound {m sB "in the hack", i. e. 
"hehind"). Since they were originally suhstantives, 
as is still clear in the case of many, they are com- 
bined with the possessive suffixes {lirf "upon him" 
lit. "his face"). 

They are in part employed like conjunctions also, 302. 
that is to say, verbs may be dependent upon them. 
Cf. § 190 and for details § 306 sq. 



1 Eb. 66, 18. '2 Eb. 37, 20. 3 Eb. 37, 17. < Peasant 25. 



126 b. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 303 — 306. 

303. They are very often used as adverbs also, i. e. 
with the suppression of the suffix, which, according 
to the connection, they should properly have, e. g. 
referring to brv "place" : smnf im "he had gone into" ll 
("into" for imf "into it"). 

304. The prepositional phrase (i. e. the preposition and 
the word dependent it) is frequently subjoined to a 
substantive, where we would employ a relative clause 
or an adjective. Note especially the expressions for 
"entire" (cf. C§ 152): 

<z:> ^ a;^^_ t^ pn r drf "this land up 
to its boundary"/ i. e. "this entire land". 



y V 1/vwvAA gsw'i ml kdsn "the two sides 

according to their extent",^ i. e. "the entire sides". 
305. The prepositional phrase is sometimes treated 

like a substantive also, 6. g. I ^ QA i 1 

hswt nf hr stn "the rewards of the with-the-king",^ 

i. e. the rewards on the part of the king. 

b. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS, 

♦306. AAAAAA n is pronounced before nouns, something 

like *'^n, with suffixes *na- (cf. C§ 349); manuscripts 

dating from the end of the m. e. and the beginning 

of the n. e. distinguish each as — :— ('^n) and 

1 Priase 2, 7. 2 Una U. 3 gin. 310. 



b. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 307. 127 

(na-). — The original meaning is "for the advantage 
of any one"; in particular it then means: 

1. to do something for some one, to bring or give 
something to some one, to say something to some one 
(dative), 

2. to come to some one (only with persons), 

3. because of a thing, 

4. in a period of time. 

As a conjunction and before the infinitive (cf. § 278) 
it means "because", "because of". 

^^^ m is pronounced before nouns something like 307*. 

**»?, before suffixes ^emo-, written (1 ^^ Im- (cf. C§ 

350). — The original meaning is "within", without any 
accompanying idea of direction; itisused in particular: 

1. of place; existent m, into something, out of 
something (inexact for "«r) ; 

2. of time, in the year, on the day and the like; 

3. among a number, belonging to something, con- 
sisting o/ something, made out o/ something; provid- 
ed with something, empty of something ; 

4. in the capacity of, «s; in the manner of, like\ 
according to a command; 

5. in a condition; 

6. after the verbs "to be" or "to make (into) some- 



128 b. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 308. 

things", (j^^^.^^^'^n^^^ iw/'m nds "He is 

a citizen" ^ (cf. C§ 350, 4) ; 

7. occasionally for the introduction of direct dis- 
course, where it remains untranslated; 

8. by means of a tool. 

On m before the infinitive cf. § 275. As a con- 
junction it means "when" and "if (§ 391). As an 

adverb it has the form (1 ^v and means "therein 

(there), thereinto, thereout, therefrom, therewith (by 
means of)" ; it is also joined to a substantive, e. g. 

«^ ^s^s. ^^ ^'^ "*^^ servant there" ^ (humbly 
for "I"). 
*308 <=> (*<^r, with suff. ^^ *erof, cf. C§ 348) origin- 

ally meant "at" or "by" something, without any accom- 
panying idea of direction. Its usual meanings are: 

1. existent at or by something; 

2. thither to something (the most frequent mean- 
ing) ; into something (inexact for m) ; as far as ; 

3. to speak to some one ; 

4. hostile toward some one (in contrast with «); 

5. distributively of time, '■'per day", '•''every four 
days" and the like ; 

6. especially after adjectives '■'■more than\ where we | 

» Westc. 7, 1. 2 gin. 175. 



6. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 309. 129 

would employ our comparative, T <=:> .-^-^ 

nfr r tht nbt "more beautiful than everything".^ 

As a conjunction it means "until" and "so that"; 
on its use before the infinitive cf. § 276. Cf. also 
§ 2.53. 

A. In the pyr. it is also written (I <zz> , with or without 
the suffix. 

^ hr (lit. "face"), with suffixes is written ^ 309*. 

hr- in correct orthography (C§ 351), and means es- 
pecially: 

1.' existent upon something (the most frequent 
meaning); also in inexact specifications of place and 
time, in the north and the like, at the time of and 
the like; 

2. down upon something, in addition to something ; 

3. to pass by something, to deviate from some- 
thing, and the like; 

4. distributively, upon each one; 

5. anoint, cook &c. with something; 

6. pleasant for the heart, and the like; 

7. because of something (frequent). 

On its use in the co-ordination of substantives cf. 
§ 120; on hr with the infinitive cf. § 277. As a con- 
junction it means "because". 



1 Westc. 12, 8, 
Erman, Egypt, gramm. 



130 b. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 310 — 313. 

♦310. ^ hr, lit. "under" (also of direction), is also 

used of being laden (because the bearer is under the 
burden) and therefore often means ^carrying or posses- 
sing something". Cf. C§ 352. 

311. hr, originally, existent rvith some one and the 

like; also, to receive something /rom some one; it is 
obsolete and still used almost only in specifications 
of reigns (under King X.). — On its use in the passive 
cf. § 169. 

312. ^^^ mC (perhaps arising from m c «in the arm") 
means : 

1. in the possession of; 

2. take something from some one, receive from 
some one, and the like; rescue from some one; 

3. something is done by some one; 

4. because of a thing. 

On mC with the infinitive cf. § 278. 

® o 

313. hft (on orthography cf. § 7) originally meant 

"m front of\ but is for the most part employed for^ 
according to, corresponding to and also for, simultam 
ously with. — As an adverb it means "in front", as 
conjunction^ "when". 

Note further the simple prepositions: 



C. COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. 314. 315. 131 

ir ^v^'^ V ^^^^^ (^^ *^® Py^'- i'^'f^ii)} "between, 314. 
in the midst of". 

(1 AAAAAA In only for the expression of the subject 
with the passive and the infinitive. Cf. § 169. 

1) (1 mi (in the pyr. often y <:i=> mr) "like". As 
a conjunction, "as, if" (cf. § 391). 

^'^ JiB (lit. occiput), "behind". 

O AAAAAA 

9 hnC "together with".— Cf. also § 120; with 

the infin. § 279. 

Cm\ hnt (lit. nose) "before" (rest or motion) ; 

as an adverb, hniw "before". 



^ dr "when, since" 



tp (lit. head or the like) "upon" ; it is obsolete. 



c. COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. 

Many prepositions are compounded with a sub- 315. 
stantive (usually the name of a part of the body). 
Note especially: 

^iv.^ P*^^ VI ^ ^^^ ^^^ compensation), "as re- 
ward for". 

)) rCU "opposite". 



132 



J 



C. COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. 315 



1= 



m m. 



m h^h („in the fore- 
skin", cf. C§ 359), "before some one" (also as an ad- 
verb). — 

^^(=Qidr hBh as an adverb, "formerly". 

m m "among persons". 

-^ n mrrvt^ in the m. e^ /ww\a iju^ 
(for love), often as a conjunction, "in order that". 

^-^ mhCt (cf. C§ 356), ^-^ fir JiQ, "at 
the summit"; hr hQ^ as an adverb, "formerly". 

^^^ '^ mhr "in front of, "^ hft hr "in front 

of". 

X m hr-lb: "in the midst of". 

y^ V ^ ^^^ "^^ ^^® inside of" (cf. 

J\ m ht "behind, after"; as an adverb, 

"afterward"; as a conjunction, "after" (cf. § 244,385). 

^ ^ m s9 ("in the back") <=> ^ r sS,^^ hr 

s9 "behind, after"; r si, is also used as a conjunction, 
"after". As an adverb "afterward", r si, hr sB are 

used, also 



C§ 357), 



/wwvA ^ n si. 
I 



C. COMPOUND PEEPOSmOSS. 316. 317. 133 

^ ^ J^ ^ ^^^ ^"^^ *^® entrails'y "in the 
midst of". 

<zi> r gs ("at the side"), "^ Jir gs: "be- 

side". 

^^^ wrf^' "together with"; in the m. e. very rare, 
in the LE. frequent cf. (C§ 359. 338). 

<=> ^ vK. r drw ("up to the boundary"), "as 
far as". 

^^ Tir dMB ("upon the head"), "upon" cf. C§ 361. 

With others, there is prefixed to the preposition, 316. 
a word more exactly qualifying it; thus in: 

X ^ ^ Tvprv hr "except" (also for "but" con- 
junction), and the old ^ wprv r "except". 
^ ^^X^<cz> hrrv r "apart from". 
\\\\\ ^ <^^> nfryt r "as far as". 

^^ ^^ ^ "before some one, something"; as an 
adverb according to § 307 ^ (j ^ tp Im "formerly". 
Finally, there are such peculiar formations as: 317. 
'=^^:;5; y A ^ *'^^ ("i° order to separate"), 
"between" (cf. C§ 354). 

1 Brugsch, Wb. Suppl. s. v. 



134 3. coNjuNCTioxs. a. in gen. h. enclitic conj. 318. 319. 



LM 



s^c m ("in order to begin 



with"), "from" (cf. C§ 355). 






r mn m} ("in order to remain with"), 



"as far as". 



3. CONJUNCTIONS. 

a. IN GENERAL. 
318. The conjunctions are in part enclitically joined 

to the first word of the sentence, in part appear at 
its beginning also. On those prepositions which are 
used as conjunctions, cf. § 302. 306 sq. — Apart from 
the conjunctions noted in the following, there are 

others which are treated elsewhere, thus and 



§347, I D 



^§121, 



319. 



§ 257. 348. 349, 
(^ § 363. 

b. ENCLITIC CONJUNCTIONS. 

^s serves for the most part (like our "namely") 
to introduce an explanatory addition: 

C/T • • • 4; M ' • • • '^^^ nf .. . stn is . . . 

"I made it for him ... (I) the king . . .".^ 



1 LD II, 124, 35. 2 LD lU, 24(1. 



h. ENCLITIC CONJUNCTIONS. 320. 321. 135 

On the other hand .:^a_^(1 I n is means "but not", 
as a restricting adjunct. 

A. In the pyr. this is is very frequent; on the is of the 
later language cf. § 323 B. 

1 ^ srvt and ^ ^^ 1}^ (like our "but") ex- 320. 
press the opposite of that which precedes: 

"All men who injure the tomb, who &c. (1 <ci:> I 
V^ g — >^ Ir srvt rmtt (cf. § 97) nht but all men 

Jl C^ \\\ O:^ 

(who preserve it, who &c.)".^ 

But this contrast is sometimes so weak that these 
conjunctions really serve for the attachment of the 
clause only. 

<=:> grt^ also properly means "but", e. g. "If the 321. 
eye bleeds, then . . . i)^=>,^^ HJ "^ ^^^^ (1 ^H 
Ir grt hB mrv Ims but if water comes out of it &c.''^ 

As a rule, however, it joins an explanation or 
a continuation, like "further" or our weaker use 
of "but": 

"This plant is employed so and so, (1 Vi. ^ ^ 

^^ IU% I Z\ ifv grt prts ditws hr tB but its 

fruit is laid upon bread &c."^ (or "Further, its f. is 
laid upon b."). 

1 Siut I, 225. 2 Eb. 66, 8. 3 Eb. 51, 18. 



136 C. CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC. 322. 323. 

322. Rarer conjunctions of this kind are : 

1. The archaic ^\ twC^, which seems to intro- 
duce the sentence as the result or consequence of 
that which has been previously narrated; 

2. mnQ() »*s in direct discourse; designates that 
which has been stated as something self-evident or 
well known. 

c. CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC. 

323. (1P^= i^h (IP^ (older H s=5 is() specifies the 
circumstances under which anything happens : 

wi m si& . . ., rdl rvi hnf m smr "I was judge , . ., then 
his majesty made me friend"- (i. e. when I was j., his 
maj. made me f.). 

ist^ is especially used, where these circumstances 
are to be emphasized as remarkable. 

Since the m. e. it is employed for the introduc- 
tion of parenthetical or incidental remarks, especially 
with following r/ (cf. § 348, 349): 

pn "this peasant said (this) however, at the time of 
king Nb-kr.^ 

1 Una 5. 45. 2 jb. 8. 3 Bauer 71. 



C. CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC 324 — 326. 137 

A. The pyr. use ist enclitically also, cf. § 120 A. 

B. In LE it is written tstio\ the late Egyptian Is also, Copt. 
ElC-> seems to have arisen from Ist. 

n I '^^n^ Isk (older I ^=^:=:^ Isk) mostly designates 324. 

(like the more frequent 1st) the circumstances under 
which, or the time at which something occurs: 

"He erected this tomb for his son l^z::^ 1^ ^v 

% sk stv m hrd when he was a child".^ 

® ^, older []^^^ thr originally intro- 325. 

duced a substantiating clause (like for or because). 
Then, with much weakened significance, it also intro- 
duces new paragraphs of a narrative and precedes 
especially temporal clauses: 

hrw sjv^ hr nn ^^No?v, after the days had passed by 
this, then &c."2 

B. In LA hr is very frequent, with many varied meanings. 

7\ ^i is used in promises, threats and 326. 
directions, in order to strengthen that which is stated: 

"^""^ ^^ Sh ^ ^'^''^ k^rduhprmTv"S\LTe- 
ly, I will cause water to be".^ 



1 Mar. Mast. 200. 2 Westc. 12, 9. 3 ib. 9, 17. 



138 la. THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE. 327. 328. 

Occasionally it receives the suffix of the 2 m. : 

"^^^^ ^ ^^1 ^'v^ "^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ "'^^^^ ^^^^^ 
throw".^ 

A. In the oldest language kS is also used enclitically. 

THE SENTENCE. 

1. THE NOMINAL SENTENCE. 

a. THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE. 

*327. By the (pure) nominal sentence is understood a 
sentence without a verb, whose predicate is then a 
substantive, adjective or prepositional phrase, while 
its subject is a noun or absolute pronoun. The sub- 
ject precedes the predicate. 

328. It is used in assertions: ^^^^^^^ inwk nb 

ImSt "I am the lord of graciousness";^ 

^=^T rnk nfr "Thy name is beautiful";* 

AAAAAA <. '> 

and is especially frequent after rnk "behold" (§ 183), 
where the old pronouns of § 80 are then employed 
as subject: 

m hShk "Behold I (am) before thee";^ 



1 Westc. 3. 3. 2 Louvre C 172. 3 Prisse 5, 14. * Sin. 263. 



a. THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE. 329. 330. 139 

n ihrvt . . . hr St hrk "Behold these things . . . are 
under thy charge"* (lit. are under the place of thy 
face). 

It is, further, often used in descriptions: 329. 

<:^> ^ ^ I ^^^ ^ ""^ ' ' ' </A:r nb hr htwf «A11 

fruits are upon its trees'',^ 

and often also as a relative clause (cf. § 393): 

man on whose neck are swellings".^ 

Occasionally, in violation of the rule, the predi- 330. 
cate precedes the subject; the predicate is thereby 
emphasized. Thus : 

1. in expressions with rn "name", like 1^ ^\ 

1 D v\ "^ QA I sm^ snwtt rns "an herb whose 

name is Snwtf ^ (for: rns S7iwtt); 

2. when the subject is a demonstrative or an ab- 
solute pronoun: ^ qA ^^ {^ 1 I dpt mrvt nn 
"This is the taste of death".^ 

^^■^ MO I ^^'^\\o^ n rmtj Is nt m St 
"They are not people of strength'"" (for : n st rmtt ni ift). 



» Siat I, 269. 2 Sin. 83. » Eb. 51, 19. * Eb. 51, 15. 

» Sin. 23. 6 LD II, 136 h. 



140 h. THE NOMINAL SENTENCE INTRODUCED BY llV AND IVn. 331. 332. 

*331. This inverted order is especially frequent, where 
the predicate is an adjective: 

1 ^ c^ I }^ ^"^ Vwi nfr mint "My way is { 

good".* j 

In this case the adjective often receives an ending 
^ rv'i^ which perhaps lends it a special emphasis: 

I ^ nfrrv'i hrk "How beautiful is thy 

face!" 

A. In the pyr. this ending is written v\ or 



h. THE NOMINAL SENTENCE INTRODUCED BY iw AND wn. 

332. The nominal sentence is sometimes introduced byj 

the auxiliary verb (1 Vi^ iw "to be" (cf. §§ 220 sq. 

246 sq.), especially when the predicate is a preposi-j 
tional phrase: 

mrv "His one way was under water".^ 

B. In the popular language of the m. e., the pronouns 
where they would stand as the subject of a nominal sentence 

are superceded by the forms of this verb : (1 v\ ^^ for 
Inwk &c. 

1 Bauer 3. 2 Butler 16. 



C. THE NOMINAL SENTENCE WITH 'pW. 333 — 335. 141 

More rarely it is introduced by the auxiliary verb 333. 
^^ rvn (cf. § 223, 250 sq.) as e. g. in ^^ \ \^^^ 
n '^v' 1 rvnin nfr st hr ibsn "It was good for 

their heart"/ (for st nfr cf. § 330, 2), where wnm 
precedes. 

c. THE NOMINAL SENTENCE WITH ptv. 

Sentences like ^^^'^d\\ BC pw «It is ReC",' 334. 

^ o ^ ° ^ ^^'*^ ^"^ "-^^ '^ ^^^*"'' i ^ ^ ^^ ^ 
D ^ fiwrw prv "They are paupers",^ properly have as 

subject, the demonstrative prv "this", which follows 
the predicate according to § 330, 2 ; but this pw is now 
weakened to an unchangeable word having the mean- 
ing "he", "she", "it" or "they". — If the predicate is a long 

expression, prv may be inserted within it: ° D v\ 

■^^ ^^ • PJi^t P^ ^f rvn-m^c «It is a remedy of 

truth" ^ (cf. § 103). 

B. This yw is already superceded by the demonstrative pB'i, 
tS'i, nS'i in the LE; the similar word TTE, TF, NE probably 
arose from this. 

This construction is then used to emphasize the 335. 
predicate of a nominal sentence; in order to render 



1 Prisse 2, 6. 2 Mar. Ab. II, 25. 3 ib. * LD II, 136h. 
5 Eb. 75, 12. 



i 



142 2 a. THE ORDER OF WORDS. 336 — 339. 

emphatic the word iht "horizon" in Ipt tht "Karnak 
is the horizon", the sentence tht prv "It is the horizon" 
is first made, and Ipt then follows as apposition to 

prv "it": ^ n'^(l° jl'^© Iht pw ipt "It is the 

horizon, viz. Karnak'V i. e. "The horizon is Karnak". 

2. THE PARTS OP THE SENTENCE. 
a. THE ORDER OF WORDS. 

336. The order of words is to he especially noted, for 
it is often the case, that it alone indicates how a sen-]] 
tence is to be analysed. 

337. The sentence is divided into two parts: one pre 
ceding, containing the verb, subject, direct and in- 
direct object; and one following, containing specifi-^ 
cations of time and place and the like. 

*338. In the preceding part of the sentence the order] 
is in principle: 1. verb, 2. subject, 3. direct object| 
4. indirect object (cf. § 299). E. g. ■ 



-^ 



(^ FS^ 



AA/W\A O O O 



M^^.:^^ rdln stn nb 

bkf "The king gave his servant gold". 
♦339. But if parts 2 — 4 are partly substantives an< 
partly pronouns, the pronouns precede the substai 
tives. E. g. 

1 LD III, 24d. 



C. THE ORDER OF WORDS. 340 342. 143 

a \Si 1 rdm ni stn nb „The king gave 

AAAAAA S!l T AAAAAA O O O 

me gold". 

Q 1 ^ I /www (^^ ^ r<?«';i s/y sifw w hkf 

AftAAAA 1 /T I AAAAAA _/ J. ^Cda — 

"The king gave it to his servant". 

0^^.^^ v^ rdlnf nl rib "He gave me gold". 

AAAAAA Sr O O O 

If both objects are pronouns, the indirect precedes 340*. 
the direct, that is, the pronominal suffix precedes the 
absolute pronoun: 

a v^ 1 V 4 '"'^^^ ^^ ^^ *^^ "The king gave 

AAAAAA <^ T 11 T AAAAAA 

it to me". 

CZIZI^^ AAAA/V\ AAAAAA O .C\ 

vgi I v\ rdinf nl srv "He gave it to me". 

Except for the sake of emphasis (cf. § 343 sq.) the 341. 
above laws are inviolable; under certain circumstances, 
however, for stylistic purposes, an expression which 
belongs in the latter part of the sentence, may be 
inserted by exception, in the part which precedes: 

QiSrvf "1 caused that his weapons pass by me"^ (for 
swB ChBrvf hrl). 

A vocative stands as a rule at the end of the 342. 
sentence : 

» Sin. 136. 



144 6 a. IN GENERAL. p. WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. 343. 344. 



^ 



f'=Ti) 



1, 



mk rvi r nhm c^k, sht'i, hr wmf "Be- 



hold, I will take away thy ass, peasant, because he 
devours &c."^ 

If it be placed at the beginning of the address, 

as in '^^:z7 J) ^ (] "^ A^7\ ^k. ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ "^^ 
lord, I have found",^ it is somewhat ceremonial; it is 
then often introduced by an interjection, like [1 q7\ t^ 

ru K\ hS and the like. 



h. EMPHASIS, 
a. IN GENERAL. 

343. Emphasis consists in placing before the sentence, 
a word to which it is desired to attract attention, 
and as a rule resuming it by a pronoun in the sent- 
ence. It is very frequently used and often contrary 
to our sense; thus, e. g. the word 'king' is often em- 
phasized without reason. — Cf. also § 330. 331. 335. 

p. WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. 

344. The original method of emphasis leaves the em- 
phasized word without further introduction, e. g.:; 



1 Bauer 11. 



2 Bauer 74. 



p. WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. 345. 346. 145 

§ ? ""^ V§^ D § _SS)fl ° ^ ^s^* i>/*« J3^ "My praise, 
it reached heaven" ^ (for j97« As^*' pt). 

I r i AAAAAA cii. I '^.^a — 



k^tnf irt st ri irni st rf "That which he had thought 
to do it to me, I had done it to him"- (for Irni kBtnf 
Irt st ri rf). 

r\ I £^1 -Zl J\ 2i 1 1 _Zl AAAAAA cl CI^I^ 

vR [1 ^\ I smt nbt rrvtnl rs, irv irni hd ims "Every land 

to which I went, I was a hero(?) therein"^ (for irv 
irni hd m smt nbt, rrvini rs). 

The resumptive pronoun is occasionally omitted, 345. 
especially in poetry: 

m Itrm swrif mrk "The water in the stream, he drinks 
(it) if thou wishest".* 

If the sentence has one of the compound verbal 346. 
forms as its verb, the auxiliary verb with which it. is 
formed, stands before the emphasized word: 

T I t!?^ • • • U f^ (^h<^n hn n sin 

bit'i . . , minnf "The majesty of the king of upper and 
lower Egypt . . . expired".^ 



1 LD II, 122a. 2 Sin. 144. 3 gin. 101. * Sin. 233. 

?risse 2, 8. 
Erman, Egypt, gramm. Yi 



146 Y- WITH ir, ir-, r- and in. 347. 



^ 1 wnln hnf tbf rvS r hrvt(?) hrs "The heart of his 
majesty was sad concerning it".^ 



rvn 

AAAAAA LJ V^ l\f\f\f\J\f\ ^ I U 



Iht nbt, Tvdt nl linf^ rvn hprnl ml kd "All that his majesty 
commanded me, I entirely completed".' 
Cf. also § 228. 

Y. WITH \r, ir-, r-, AND in. 
347. The emphatic particle H Ir is used with every 

kind of sentence; the resumption of the emphasized ; 
word by means of a pronoun is only occasionally 
suppressed, in the case of the subject of a nominal 
sentence^ e. g. 

sdm St "All that is written, hear it"^ 

t\<=> ^ '^[]''^~^^^^n\>^'^^{^ tr firw nhtntr, 

1 /wwvA I III (3(3(3 nnn _zr 1 i • 

r 360 pn> n rnpi "A temple-day, (that) is V360 o^ ^^^ 
year".^ 

Here also, an auxiliary verb is treated according 
to § 346. 

B. This construction is still i-egarded as ceremonious in thel 
m. e. (often in legal style); but in the n. e. it superceded all the] 
other methods of emphasizing. 

1 Westc. 9, 12. 2 Una 42. 3 prisse 2, 4. * Siut I, 30C 



Y- WITH ir, b--, r- and in. 348 — 350. 147 

The emphatic word [1 <>/, which, in many texts 348. 

(like that of § 349), is written rf, follows the 

word to be emphasized JiT^ (1 dsk irf "thou thy- 

self".^ 

It is often used in interrogative sentences (cf. § 356) 
and with imperatives and optatives; in the last case 
it often still has the archaic form rk (cf. A): 

^ ^. (J "■''''''^ sdmrv irf tn "hear ye",^ 
^ dik rk ni "give me".^ 

A. In the pyr. this tr takes the suffix corresponding to the 
subject of the sentence: Irt, irk, Irf, Irs. 

That r/, which is added to the verb (espe- 349. 

cially those of going) at the beginning of short sec- 
tions seems to be different from irf rf\ 

T ^ AAAAA/v Mn rf tS "The earth became 

light'/ 



A\\ 



irvin rf shti pn 



"This peasant came".^ 

A. This r- had originallj' changeable suffixes also. 

The subject of a sentence is often emphasized by 350. 

1 Westc. 7, 8. 2 LD III. 24 d. 3 Peasant 29. * Sin. 248. 
'5 Peasant 52. 

K* 



148 



C. THE ELLIPSE. 351. 



means of \ In (old writing (1 ^^ in) ; the resump- 

AAA/SAA 1 J ^ 

tive pronoun is for the most part omitted as self 
evident: 

in hnf rdi irtf "His majesty 



I A\'w\A y 



- Q' 



caused that it be made"' (for in hnf rdif irtf). 

If the subject to be emphasized is a pronoun, the 
pronouns ntk, ntf &c. are substituted for in and the 
pronoun according to § 84: 

ntf ssm wi "It is he who 



leads me",^ 






ntsn irsn ni "It is they 



AAAAAA r\ n '^ 

I I N\fy/\y^ -<2>-| I AAAAAA 

who do it for me".^ 

B. In LE this In is written: ^^\ (i. e. *n according to late 

pronunciation). 4 

c. THE ELLIPSE. 

351. The frequent ellipses (i. e. the omission of effec- 

tive words as dispensable) often render the under- 
standing of the text very difficult. They are found 
first of all in the parallel members in poetry, where, 
in the second member, one or more indentical words 
are suppressed: 



I I I AAAAAA 



1 Sin. 308. 2 LD III, 24 d. 



I 5^" AAAAAA 
III I I I 



I yr AAAAAA 
III I I I 



3 Siut I, 289. * Sethe 



C. THE EIXIPSE. 352. 353. 149 

iml mi m r n linrvtn 

sh^l hr msTvtn 
"Establish my name in the mouth of your servants, 
(Establish) my memory with your children".^ 



^ f ^^ ^ tms hrf r dd m^Q, mkhS ddrv grg 
"Turning his countenance to him who speaks truth, 
(turning) the back of (his) head (to) those who speak 
lies".- 

Similar is the ellipse in comparisons, where it is 352. 
found in the second compared member: 

AAAftAA sfwf lb n bk im ml hkB n.smt nbt "He re- 

joices (lit. broadens) the heart of the servant there 
(i. e. mine) like (the heart of) the prince of any land".^ 

When several successive verbs have the same sub- 353. 
ject, the latter is sometimes written with the first 
only; thus in animated narrative: 

> Mar. Ab. II, 31. 2 Louvre C 26. 3 gin. 176. 



150 C THE ELLIPSE. 354. 355. 

inni hrrvsn, pr r hnmrvtsn^ hrv kBrvsn^ rvhB its?i, rdl sdt 
Im "I captured their women, I led away their people, 
went to their wells, slew their steers, cut down their 
barley, set fire thereon".^ 
354. An object may likewise remain unexpressed, where 
it is clear from that which precedes. Thus, e. g. 

"He stole his ass, he drove (him), ( « "^^ s^^k for 

sCk sw, with accompanying ellipse of the subject) into 
his village".^ 



"She takes Egypt like the god ''Ir-s?i lO ^^-=^ 
<::^ V /I ^ ^'^^-^ shprnf (for shprnf si) r rvtj ffwf 
he created (her) to wear his diadem (lit. to lift up)".^ 
355. Another form is the ellipse of |) dd "say" in ex- 
pressions like: 

<^^% §r^w "it is said"."* 

[] /wvAAA Q ^',2 jRC "saith Re", (]/wwv^ Maaaaaa /^^^^ "they 
say", 

I I ]'^ ntrm lir "the gods say"^ 
These stand fiir ddhrtrv, ddinsn, ntrrv Jw dd. 
B. (I QA is later written for Inf. 



» LD II, 136h. 2 Peasant 24. 3 lD III, 24 d. * Eb. 9. 20. 
5 Stele from Kuban. 



< 



3fl. INTEREOGATIVE SENTENCE. 356 — 358. 151 

3. KINDS OF SENTENCE. 
a. INTEREOGATIVE SENTENCE. 

The indication of the question by the accent alone 356. 
is very rare; as a rule it is externally marked. Fre- 
quent emphasizing whether of the verb or of the 
interrogative particle, is characteristic of the inter- 
rogative sentence. 

If the sentence contains no special interrogative, 357*. 
it is introduced by means of (Jaaaaaa in or [Jaaaaaa [1 v^ 

1 Q 1 Jm o Ji ^ 2^-=^ _M^ ^ n 

Crvitrvl rf m . . tf "Shall I be robbed upon his 

land(?)?".^ 

n /www [1 v^ ^' °^^-^ □ v^ In irv m^Ct piv "Is it 
truth?" 2 

B. in iw is perhaps preserved in PNE, cf. C§ 394. 

As a rule, the interrogatives stand at the end of 358*. 
the sentence (cf. C§ 392). The most common inter- 
rogative pronoun is v\ mii^ ml cf. on the read- 
ing, § 34) "what?, who?": 

/y ^J^J^^-^f phnk nn hr m? "Why (on ac- 
count of what) have you reached this (place) ?''^ 

"^^^ % 1 1 2 (1 ^^ irtw nn mi m ? "Like what 
is this done?"'' 

» Peasant 18. 2 Westc. 8, 3. 3 sin. 35. < ib. 202. 



152 a. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE. 359 — 361. 

B. In LE. m is already superceded by (I Ih A(l) 

"what?"; cf. C§ 60. "~^^ 

359. '^. as subject with the meaning "who?", is 

usually emphasized by in (cf. § 350): 

A A^AA^A ^— ^ "^ 1 "^ ^^;i//,^^5;y?«Whosaysit?''^ 



"Who brings it?"^ (with doub 



m m irf inf sw ? 
e emphasis). 

B. This in m is already written aaaaaa \^\ 3^ at the end 
of the m. e.; in LE there has arisen from in m, a new word 

AAAAAA PI jQ 

n'im "who" MIM (cf, C§ 60, 2), 



w 

360. Other old expressions for "who?, what?" are 
(jg[l^^ m^and^;^ijij|«^sy(?). Cf. e. g. 

(Igp^^D^ Isstpfv "What is it? who is it?"^ 
-75-(l(j |d^ /sy(?) pw "Who is it?"^ 
Here belongs also TO" O^O is {l)-nw "When?"'' 
(lit. "What of the time?"). 

361. The interrogative for "where?" is ^ V^^=^tn.Qi.: 

AAAAAA I (T^ 

I'VI'^^^ ^ '|W£5£f>*V/^w?"Wherei8it?"' 
(with emphasis). 

^^^^<=> ^ \%& q^ Irt r tn? "Whither goest 
thou?"^ (lit. "Toward where makest thou"; 2 f. sg.). 

1 Math. Hdb. 35. 2 Eb. 58, 10. 3 Math. Hdb. 30. " Sin. 35. 
6 Totb. 126, Schlr. 46. 6 Westc. 9, 15. 7 ib. 9, 4. 8ib, 12, 14. 



I 



b. NEGATIVE SENTENCES. a. WITH « AND ««. 362 — 364. 153 

A. In the pyr. it is written, tnl, tn, and even without a pre- 
position, means "whither?, whence?" 

B. In LE. tmc, Copt. TCDN. Cf. C§ 364. 

The common word, archaically written (1] Q7\, 362. 

1 ^ ptfi, pif-i hut generally -I QA pi'i^ is pro- 

bably not an interrogative, but something like an 
imperative, "show" or the like. It always stands at 
the beginning of the sentence : 

° (^'^§'^1'^-- Pt'i ^W "What is his 
field?" ^ 

° f^^^^l^ P^'^ ^f ^^ "What is it?" 2 (with 
emphasis). 

As a characteristic of the interrogative sentence, 363, 
note further the particle trw^ which follows the first 
word : 

shJnk "Didst thou remember?"^ 

A. B. In the pyr. and in LE. it is written trc. 

b. NEGATIVE SENTENCES. 
o. "WITH n AND nn. 

The usual negation v^ii-^ (more rarely / \) appears 354* 

in two different forms, which are usually distinguished 
in good orthography: .^n_„ and '^■'^. Their pronun- 

1 Math. Hdb. 49. 2 Totb. ed. Nav. 17, 31. 3 Eb. 2, 3. 



154 6. NEGATIVES SENTENCES. 0.. WITH n AND nU. 365 — 367. 

ciation was perhaps approximately n and nn or 
similar, 

A. In the pyr. both forms are written c^JU^. 

B. LE. always has ^;;0^; in Copt, the negation is preserved 
as N-. (Cf. C§ 389). 

365. ,^-A-^ is used with the verbal form sdmf, in so far 
as it is not future in meaning, and always with the 
w-form : 

n rhi srv "I know him not".' 



mw 



"Lay this upon the snake's hole, .^n^ J\ 
(] ^v n prnf im then it will not come out".^ 
366. however, is used with the form sdmf^ when 

it has the meaning of a future (that is, belongs to the 
second group, cf. § 184sq.): 

-^ nn pssf "He shall (will) not di- 



AA^/^AA M- 



367. Before the absolute infinitive (cf. § 280) i& 

AAAAAA 

used. Especially frequent in this case is onn 

rdit "without giving, without causing": 

-J- a— ^^2 ^/^^ rvdC, nn rdit hr gs "Judg- 

ing, without putting upon one side"* (i. e. without 
being partisan). 



1 Sin. 114. 2 Eb. 97, 19. 3 Siut I, 311. * LD II, U9e. 



b. NEGATIVE SENTENCES. a. WITH H AND mi. 368 370. 155 

"Set it where it is cool ^^"^^3^ '^ "^ P B 
^ O nn rdit m^^s srv without permitting the sun to 
see it".^ 

In this combination, rdit has sometimes lost its 
causative meaning, and only means "without" (e. g. 
nn rdit pssf st^ "without his dividing it"). 

o^A^ stands before the nominal sentence, and in 368. 
this case when the subject is a pronoun, the later ab- 
solute pronouns are used (cf. § 84): 

,^n-^ c:^ D ^ ^ ^^ . \ n ntf pw m msCt "It 



lo \ 
is not really he".^ 

-^-^^^ however, is very frequently used with a fol- 369. 
lowing noun or old absolute pronoun (cf. § 80) for "it 
does not exist". -^^^ nn wn also appears with 

the same meaning: 

AA/VAAA AAAAAA 1 _iir^ AAA/W\ /T >^\ \ _/J^^ 

Im "There is no water there, I am not there".^ 

^n®^-^^^N. n wsht, nn hms «A ship 

which has no rudder".^ 

Note further the combinations ,^a_^(1 I n Is "but 370. 

not" and s^-a.^ ^ c^ n grt "however not" (weaker 
than the former): 

1 Eb. 43, 17. 2 Siat I, 272. 3 sin. 267. < Eb. 69, 6. 
5 Sin. 13. 



156 a. WITH n AND nn. p. the circujil. with im-. m, tm-. 371 — 373. 

n wsh Is prv "It was narrow, but it was not wide"J 

"His skin grows, v;^-n-^[j l^^o n is rvrt but not 
much".^ 



371. ^^^jT_^ ^ n sp means "never" : 

n ® 

-^^r^fc^ra^y yc^£^£i ^ Q\nsp 

hS mUif hr smt tn dr rk ntr "One like him never came 
down in this land, since the time of the god".^ 

A. In old texts, the subject of such a sentence is often em- 
phasized by means of the demonstrative fB, f. pBt: n sp pBt irt 



mitt "The like was never done". 4 .^^JU^, V\ _ hot sp with 

Jl D ® 
an old negative iwt also occurs (of. § 378). 

372. A strengthening of the negative, probably obsolete 
in the classic language, is found in w/r n: 

|1 "^^^^I v^-f^ ^^ %\ in nfr n rvnn niCtii 

"If it is not in your possession".^ 

Jy nfr n irt mitt "Never was the like 
done".*^ 

p. THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH im-, m, tm-. 

373. The usual negatives are avoided with certaii 
forms of the verb, and replaced by circumlocution^ 



1 Butler 15. 2 Eb. 104, 8. 3 LD II, 149 e. ^ Una 31 
5 Gr6baut, musee Egyptien, pi. 18. 6 Mar. Mast. 390. 



^i. THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH im-, M, tm-. 374. 375. 157 



witli the obsolete verbs Im- and tm-. These are fol- 
lowed by a (participial?) form of the verb, in which 
the II ae gem. are doubled, the Illae inf. are not 

doubled and rdl "give" has the form 

H ^s. ^^ ^^ Vi^Q^ when the verb to be denied is 374. 
optative or final in meaning and has a pronominal 
subject: 

"Treat it with cold fi |\ ^"^C30 l\ l\ Q mf 



smm that it may not become hot".^ 



I I I 



imk ir iht rs "Do not do 



anything for it".^ 

The imperative of the old verb, which is written 375. 

m, serves for the negation of imperatives and 



optatives with a nominal subject: 



.^^ 



m CB ibk "Let not thy heart 



be proud".^ 



A 



SI 



m ChC rim 



mtrw "Do not stand against me as a witness".^ 



plural 



A. In the pyr. it is written ^\. ; they have also a 



1 Eb. 91, 6. 2 Eb. 110, 3. 

ed. Nav. 30 A 2. B 3. 



3 Prisse 5, 8. * Totb. 



158 p. THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH im-, M AND tm-. 376. 377. 

B. Instead of m the language of the n. e. emplo3's the cir- 
cumlocution ^^^^ m cr "do not", from which arose the Copt, 
MTfp. Cf. C§ 305, 7. 

376. ^iezil ^^^^ tm-^ the use of which is more extended, 

is found, among other uses, in the conditional 
sentence : 

\\ <==> cvjr^ l:^^ ^ ^^ ''^Tifl ^ ir tmf wU St "If 
he does not discharge it";' 
in the form sdmhrf (cf. § 204) : 

hsbt "If it does not become worms" ;^ 
and in the verbal adjective (cf. § 293): 

fhtf'i stv, imtf'i QiB lirf "He who unlooses it (the boun- 
dary) and does not contend for it";^ 
further as an optative in final and interrogative clauses. 

377. The circumlocution ^^imr ^^^ tm rdl, which 

according to the above means "not to cause that", is 
very often employed to substantivize a negative clause 
of intention ; since tm is then an infinitive, this com- 
bination is also construed as such: 

"The boundary is erected <=z>^^ii=n: ^^^^ ^"^i 

1 Eb. 26, 7. 2 Eb. 25, 6. 3 LD II, 136 h. 



Y- THE NEGATIVK ADJECTIVE. 378. 159 

>)■ ^^ Q <^ ^^~~^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ order 

_-Zl A/vvv\A /N I iinr 

that no negro at all should overstep it" ^ (lit. "to cause 
that not any negro should overstep it"). 

rdi hnp drrvyt prv "It is something (i, e. a remedy) in 
order that the vulture may not steal".^ 

B. In the popular language of the n. e. tm rdl occurs with 
weakened meaning, for simple negation; tm rdi mBni tiv "that I 
did not see thee". 3. 

Y. THE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE. 



The adjective ^^^^ Itvtt^ which belongs to the 378. 

formations of § 132 sq. and is derived from the ne- 
gative irvt of § 371 A, originally meant something like 
"not having", e. g. : 

which has not its writing",^ i. e. a book without 
writing. 

^ Tk "^^^v rlj ^^^=^ itvt'imrvtf^ihe motherless one".^ 

A. The pyr. write it [I v\ vj-O-t, A iwU; the rare writing 

2ti also seems to be old. 
W 

B. In such combinations it has also been preserved in the 

Copt, as AT-. Cf. C§ 89. 



1 LD n, 136i. 2 Eb. 98, 5. 3 Westc. 8, 11. •» Eb. 30, 7. 
* Peasant 64. 



160 C. DEPEND. AND SUBSTANTIVIZ. CLAUSES. 379 — 381. 

379. It is a remarkable fact that this irvt'i is used in 
the old language as a negative companion to the re- 
lative adjective ntl (of. § 401 sq.) and like the latter 
attaches clauses of all kinds : 

I "^ 1 ^5*^ twy nt i^hrv(?), irvtt skdrvt hrs "This place(?) 

of the spirits, on which there is no navigation" ^ (with 
junction of the nominal sentence skdrvt hrs "Navigation 
is upon it"). 

v\ I ® v\ I ¥\ iTVt'irv rh bw nt'i 

o -^ I :=^^ J Jl ^ W o 1 _M^ 

St m "Those whose place is not known", (clause: rh 
hrv "The place is known"). -^ 

380. As is observable from the examples cited, this 

"^^^ is often employed as a substantive also; 

where it stands in the feminine entirely without ad- 
dition (cf. 95, 4), it means "that which is not": 

"that which is and that which is not""* 
(i. e. everything). 

c. DEPENDENT AND SUBSTANTIVIZED CLAUSES. 

381. On the usual case of the dependent clause, where 
a verb is dependent upon rdl "to cause" cf. . 



1 Totb. ed. Nav. 149 c, 17. 2 ib. 79, 5. 3 LD II, 149. 



C. DEPEND. AND SUBSTANTIVIZ. CLAUSES. 382. 383. 



161 



§ 179. — On clauses dependent upon other verbs cf. 
§ 189. — On the dependence upon conjunctions cf. 
§ 190. 302. 

The substantivized forms of § 282 sq. take the 382. 
place of a great part of the dependent clauses of our 
own language; parallel with these, another method 
of substantivizing is used in the same manner, viz. 
by prefixing ntt^ every sentence may be converted into 
a substantive and made dependent upon verbs or pre- 
positions: 

Iwl rhkrvl ntt tht prv ipt "I know that Karnak is a 
region of light". ^ 

A I WAAA A I A "" hr ntt rdlsn tB-hd 
pn "Because they give this white bread". ^ 

If a sentence of the kind treated in § 246 ( ^ 383. 



% iwl rhkrvL) be substantivized by 

means of this ntt^ the subject is not expressed by the 
auxiliary verb, but by means of jibe old absolute 
pronouns of § 80: 

i<=>oJi^®U Jim- 

cause of the fact that I know" (i. e. "because I know"), 



'- LD m, 24d. 2 siut I, 311. 
Erman, Eg^pt. gramm. 



3 Totb. ed. Nav. 72, 5. 
L 



162 d. TEMPORAL CLAUSES. 384. 385. 

d. TEMPORAL CLAUSES. 

384. If no conjunction is used for the introduction of 
the temporal clause, it can be recognized as such 
only by means of the connection. As a rule it pre- 
cedes the principal clause, cf. e. g. 

"As the earth became light, I came to Ptn".^ 

'^""'^ ^, sdm St nt'iw m t^-Mrl^ w^hsn d^dBrvsn m tB 
"When those who are in Egypt heard it, they laid 
their heads upon the earth".^ 

More rarely it follows the principal clause : 

Irvf hr mdrvt hint "Be not silent, when he is at (? as 
we say "at work") a wicked speech".^ 

385, The temporal clauses which are introduced by 

the conjunctions (really prepositions) hft "when, 

as", ^^''^^ J\mht "after", <=:>^ r 5i* "after", as 
a rule, follow the principal clause: 

nhi hft hntf "I followed my lord as he sailed up".^ 

» Sinuhe 20. 2 ld II, 149 f. 3 Prisse 5, 14. * Siut I, 298. 
5 LD II, 122 a. 



e. THE CONDITIOKAL SENTENCE. 386 — 388. 



163 



On the other hand the clauses with 

J\ hr mht "now after' so common at beginning of 
paragraphs, always precede (of. § 325; 244). 



e. THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. 

The conditional clause precedes the principal 386. 
clause. It may be introduced by means of a particle 
like ir and ml, but may also stand without such in- 
troduction. 

It is always left without a particle, when it con- 387. 
tains any other verbal form than sdmf (frequently 
sdmhrf ci. § 204) or is a nominal sentence: 



rvhmhrk mi . . . ddhrk "If you examine again (lit. repeat 
the examining) . . . then say &c.".^ 

hrl^ imi mhkrvi "A third of me (added) to me, then I 
am full".^ 

If the conditional clause contains the form sdmf^ 388. 
it can likewise be left without a particle; the verbal 
form then always belongs to the "second group" 
(of. § 184. 188): 



X ^AAAAA 



s ^® 



• Eb. 36, 15, 2 Math. Hdb. 35. 36. 



L* 



164 e. THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. 389 — 391. 

psstn art Iht nbt . . . hprt prv m r 360 "If 
now ye divide all . . ., it (the result) is i/seo"-^ 
389. As a rule, however, a conditional sentence con- 
taining the form sdm/", is introduced by (J'==^^^^^^ tr; in 
this case the verbal form always belongs to the "first 
group" : 



^ tr gmk dUsw . . . him Crvik "If 

thou findest a wise man . . . then bend thy arms" - 
(out of reverence). 

A. In the pyr. a (I awaaa In is used instead of Ir. 
390. If a number of conditional clauses are connected, 
the construction with Ir is, as a rule, employed only 
with the first, while the second is treated according 
to § 388: 

q<==^„v^i T 



'^^ ^ 



(abbreviation) s hr mn ri-ibf, gmmk st hr psdf. . . ddhrk 
"If you examine a man who is diseased in his sto- 
mach (?), and you find it upon his back . . . then 
say &c.".3 
391. The introduction of the conditional clause by 
means of I] (1 mi or ^v m, is far more rare: 

1 Siut I, 286. 300. » Prisse 5, 10— 11. 3 Eb. 40, 5. 



/. REL. CLAU8. a. WITH. A CON. |3. WITH SUBST. VERBS. 392/4. 165 



I ^ V\ K I *^-^=^— »»« dd nk: ifd n 3ht n hi 



.— fl tk s^ 

s I n 

II o\\ 
10 r lit 2, pti Bhtf "If there be said to you: 'A square 

of field of 10 measures by 2 measures', what is its 
content?"^ (lit. its field). 

v\ <=::> ^'wvAA ^^ . . . ^1 m mrrtn Inprv 

. . . (Jdtn "If ye love Anubis . . . say".- 



/. EELATIVE CLAUSES, 
a. WITHOUT A CONNECTIVE. 

The custom of joining one of the usual verbal 392. 
forms as a relative, directly to a noun, is rare and 
doubtless obsolete. The j)seudoparticiple is thus 

used in (Tl ' CT) "^^^ v^ Vh^ [| ^ ^^ t^ msktvl imf 

H illll ^ Jr ^1_M5j 

"The land in which I was born".^ 

Nominal clauses, however, are frequently joined 393. 
to a noun in this manner; cf. §§ 329. 330. 245. 249 
and 227. 

p. WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VERBS. 

The peculiar verbal forms of the usual relative 394. 
clause, are identical with the substantivized forms 
treated in § 289 sq. They are co-ordinated with the 
noun as an apposition, at the same time agreeing 



1 Math. Hdb, 49. 2 Mar. Cat. d'Ab. 711. 3 Sin. 159. 



166 j3. WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VERBS. 395 397. 

with it in gender ; hence, for "the woman whom I 
love" is said hmt mrrti "the woman, the one I love" ; 
but "the brother whom I love", must be written sn 
mrrrvi. 
395. As was remarked in § 289, the forms sdmrvi, 
sdmtl belong to the second group (§ 184) of the form 
sdmf\ in the case of the Ilae gem. it is therefore 



^^_ rvnntf, Illae inf. ^^^ prrtf, 

rdi "give" dldttfko,. — Furthermore, the mas- 



culine ending w in the form sdmrvf is not usually 
written out (most frequently with a nominal subject, 
when written), just as in other cases, it is not every- 
where uniformly inserted (cf. § 96). 

A. In the pyr. the ic is frequently written, e. g. ht piv n Cnh, 
Cnhwsn tmf "that tree of life, from which they Uve"'. 

396. Corresponding to the statement in § 197, the 
forms derived from the «-form have here also, nearly 
always the meaning of the past. The masculine 
ending w, which in the «-form, stands quite within 
the word, is here never written out. 

397. In those sentences in which the subject of the 
relative clause would be indentical with the substan- 
tive to which the relative clause is connected, an at- 
tributive participle is, as a rule, used in its stead 



1 Merenre' 616. 



(3. WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VEUBS. 398. 399. 167 

(cf. § 260). There are, however, examples, in which, 
even in this case, a relative clause seems to be used, 
whose pronominal subject is, to be sure, omitted: 

"300 asses, which are laden with incense".^ 

thn hr psdf '■'■W, is the ills(?), which have invaded his 
back"^ (for thnsn). 

The pronoun which refers to the substantive to 398. 
which the relative clause is joined, is almost always 
wanting, if it is the object of the relative clause*: 

rvhi w<'"this white bread, ye give me"^ (for diditvtn nisw). 

^'^\ 1/vwvvs ww# hkStsn "the villages, they 

govern"/ 

9 _L©S' XC13 Vl/W\A A^ft/v\A 

boundary whicb my majesty hath made".^ 

struction which he (lit.) made".^ 

On the other hand, if it is dependent upon a pre- 399. 
position, the pronoun is, for the most part, expressed: 

II Hr-hwf C. 4. 2 Eb. 40, 6. 3 Siut I, 276. « Una 108. 
» LD II, 136 h. 6 Mar. Abyd. II, 25. 



y ,^ t^s pn irn lyni "this 



168 Y- WITH A PASS. PARTIC. 0. WITH THE ADJECT, tltl. 400. 401. 

<^^^ \> A ^ '^^^^^\\ smt 7ibt. rwtni rs 
^ I ^ Jl JA ^ 1 

"every land to which I journeyed '.^ 

Only with the preposition m "in", "by means of 
&c. it is often wanting: 

"the place in which my heart tarries'.^ 

Y. WITH A PASSIVE PARTICIPLE. 

400. The substitution of an attributive participle for 
a relative clause is also extended (in violation of 
§ 397) to clauses whose subject is different from the 
substantive to which they are joined ; this is the par- 
ticipial construction treated in § 261, e. g. 

try nfmltt "There is no humble one, to whom the like 
is done"^ (properly, parvus factus ei idem). 

0. WITH THE ADJECTIVE nti. 

401. The adjective nti "which", which belongs to those 
treated in § 132 sq., was originally used in purely 
nominal relative clauses without a verb, especially if 
the subject of the relative clause was identical with 
the noun to which it was joined: 



1 Sin. 101. 2 Sin. 168. 3 sinuhe 309. Ace. to Sethe. 



6. WITH THE ADJECTIVE ntt. 402. 169 



AAAAAA 



|]<::z>' °V\5iKz::7 '^ a ;^ iri-Cf nb, nt'i hrf 

"every officer who was with him".' 

Hot t\ =^^^ ddft nbty ntt m 

Jit/' "all worms which are in his body".^ 

l— '%2r ^ 1^ ^ f^^^ mrw-k^t 

o ^) M I ^ W m I I <c:=> 

«f?w /?r //r? "the overseers of the works, who are upon 
the mountain".'^ 

W> P^fl ^^ &w nt'i St im "the place where 
they are""* (with a different subject). 

A. In the pyramids is Avritten for «ft', 1^v ^ forniw. 

AAAAv\A I 

Another archaic writing for JiiVw? is ^^ ^ I • 

B. inXi early becomes an unchangeable particle; it first loses 
'■ the plural (e. g. msw nt'i m ChCf "the children who are in his 

palace" 6 instead of nt'ito), later also the feminine. 

The sentences of § 240 sq. made after the analogy 402. 
of the'pure nominal sentence, may also be so joined; 
their verb is always in the pseudoparticiple or the in- 
finitive with hr: 

"a man who suffers with heat",' 

^ I T ^s. ^i^^ s nt'i mr "a man who is ill. 



i 

^ H /\/WJV^ ^ ,1 1 1 1 IJ l| 



» Louvre C 172. 2 Eb. 20, 8. 3 Sin. 303. ■» Westc. 9, 3. 
» M. 495 = P. L 262. « gin. 176. ^ Eb. 32, 21. 8 Eb. 35, 10. 



170 0. WITH THE ADJECTIVE Tltl. 403. 404. 

403. nt'i was then further used to connect verbal rela- 
tive clauses also ; with negative clauses, this is always 
the case ; but it occurs elsewhere also, where a mis- 
understanding might be apprehended if there were 
no express connection : 

A.AAAAA -rr- /-^ ^-- -^ 

nt'i n mrf "who is not 



III 



sick".i 

"1^ tk ^/~V 9^5? •<2>- fv ^~^ i\ A n ^ 

6/ /TH _ac^ C_Zj A iCi <ZZ> _Z1 Sti. _crN^ aawaa -ad Li 

/^ \\ UJ Si AAAAAA T _ZI 

knbt, nt'i rdini ntn sjv "this bread and beer, which the 
officials deliver to me, and which I have given you".^ 
404. nti is also often used independently, as a substan- 
tive "he who" (f. ntt "that which''): 

^1^ 1 ^^^^^ ml ^ nt'iw m smsf "those who are m 

his following".^ 

itt nbt m ss "all that was in 



(^ ^ ^1:1 
writing" (i. e. written).^ 



I <;Z> I AA'^A A 2-1' /WAAAA C^ \\ I <!II> I I I —CT^ lO I 

swrlln nt'i mrwt m htf "Let him drink (it), in whose 
body there are ills".'' 



1 Eb. 47, 18. 2 siut I, 295. 3 Mar. Ab. II, 25. 

* Prisse 2, 4. » Eb. 14, 6. 



0. WITH THE ADJECTIVE uU. 404. 171 

AA/^A^A 

with the meaning "that which is" is also used 
alone, especially in the idiom cited in § 380. — On 
the use of ntt to substantivize clauses cf. S 382. On 



the relative use of ^^^ cf. § 379. 

^ w 



TABLE OF SIGNS. 

The more important signs and meanings are taken up, in 
the order and with the numbering current in the list of Thein- 
hardt even where this is probably incorrect. The phonetic 
values are given as exactly as possible (distinguishing between 
d, d, t, t), but there are many details here which are still uncertain. 
The feminine ending is separated from the stem. 

The abbreviations signify: 
Prop., the proper meaning as an ideogram (§§ 36 — 39); 
Trfd., the most frequent transferred meaning (§ 40); it was not 

the intention to enumerate all the homophonous words for 

which each sign can be used. 
Ort. Com., orthographic compound; indicates the origin of the 

sign by the combination of two others. 
Phon., the phonetic value as a sjllabic sign or as an alphabetic 

sign (§ 32-35); 
Det., value as a determinative (§§ 45 — 47), or the syllable which 

the determinative always accompanies (§ 52). 
Abb., that the determinative occurs at the abbreviation of a 

word (§ 68). 

A. MEN. 

Det. supplicate; sTDet. high, rejoice; 

Abb. f/wi supplicate, Abb. /i high, Jj'^ 

Bm adoration. rejoice. 

7 ^Det. hn to praise. 10^^ Phon. in. 



173 



15 jj Det. dance. 

19 ^ Det, to bow down; 
Abb. ks bow down. 

27 1 Det. statue, mum- 
my ; Abb. ^w^statue. 
t=:±3 Det. mummy. 

29 TO Prop. Tvr great, sr 
(sir) prince. 
Det. old; 
Abb. i:^w old. 
Det. that which 
demands strength. 
Prop, ^ws build. 

Prop, kd build. 

Phon. As. 

70 l| Det. king; 

Abb. t(y king. 

71 ^ Det. child; Abb. 

^rd child; Phon.i^w. 

79 -^i Det. enemy, death; 
Abb. hft'i enemy. 

82 ^ Prop. msC(^) sold- 
ier; Det. soldier. 



85 
89 
91 

92 



95 



100 



Det. captive, bar- 
barian. 

Det. man, 1. ps. 
sing. (cf. § 74). 
Det. that which is 

done with the 
mouth. 

Det. rest. 



93 47"^ Det. hn to praise. 

94 ^ Det. </wi suppli- 

cate. 

Det. conceal; 
Abb. imn conceal. 
Prop. ^i/> conceal 

(originated from 
48.) 

101 /^ Prop. TvCb priest; 

Tfrd. TvCb pure. 

105 y^ Det.toload,build; 

Abb. ^tp to load, 
/i" carry, k:$-t 
work. 

106 ^ Prop, hh great 
number. 



174 
110 

113 

119 

128 



B. WOMEN. C. GODS. 



Det. revered dead 
(masc). 

Det. revered per- 
son (corresponds 
to A 89). 
Det. king. 

Pro p. 5i shepherd; 



Trfd. si watch 
over, si break. 

129 M Det. revered dead 

(masc). 
131 ^ Trfd. sps glorious 

or sim. 
133^ Det. fall; 

Abb. hr fall. 



B. WOMEN. 



7 

9 

12 



4 
11 

27 



15 



Det.woman (corres- 
ponds to A 89). 

Det. revered dead 
(fern.). 

Trfd. frJf existent at. 



C. GODS. 

Det. and Abb. JVs- 31 
*V(?) Osiris. Qo 

Det. Abb. Pth Ptah. 



^ 



14 }f Det. pregnant; 

Abb. &A-i pregnant. 



Det, Abb.7mw Amon. 
Det. Abb. RC Re. 



55 



Det. bear; 
Abb. ms bear. 



Det. Abb. St Set. 

Det. Abb. B/pvt'i 

Thoth. 

Det. Abb m^C-t 

goddess M., mi(^-^ 

truth. 



D. MEMBERS OF THE BODY. 



175 



D. MEMBERS 
1 ^ Prop, tp-t head, 
dMB head ; Trfd. ip 
upon; Det. head. 
3 ^ Prop, ^r face; Trfd. 
hr upon; Phon. hr. 
5 ^ Det. hair, color, wsr 
destroyed; Abb. In 
hair,wlr destroyed. 
10 -cs:- Prop. wr-?(?) eye, mS 
see; Trfd. Ir do; 
Phon. Ir, m:^{f). 
12-^^ Det. eye, see. 
13:^>=Det. eye cosmetic. 
14^^ Det. weep; 

Abb. rm weep. 
Trfd. Cn beautiful; 
Phon. Cn. 

Det. divine eye; 
Abb. jvd^-t divine 
eye. 

Prop, ir pupil (of 
the eye) ; Phon. ir. 

28 (/p| Prop, htit nose; 

F5 ^ J iibtr. ?}nt in front; 



15 



17 



I 



OP THE BODY. 




Det. nose, breath 


(cf. T 26 and F 4); 


Abb. fnd nose. 


29<==>Prop. r^(-^.) mouth; 


Phon. rS{'^), r. 


31 ^."n^Prop.s/?^ 




lip; 




N28/'=^Prop.si?r 


Confusion 


rib; 


■ with 


Trfd.si?r 


N 30. 


arrive 




at. 




33/^ Det. that which 
flows from the body. 


35 \ Trfd. mdw speak. 


37 >^ Det. the back, cut 


up; 


Abb. i^-t back. 


39 ^ Det. breast, nurse; 


Abb. mnC-t nurse. 


40 ( ) Prop. s$« embrace; 


Trfd. slm happen; 


Det. embrace, jo^i. 


42 A Variant of D 47. 



176 



D. MEMBERS OF THE BODY. 



46 U Prop. A'i, kind of 

spirit ; Phon. k^. 

47 _/u. Prop, n (tin) not, 

irvt'i not having; 
Phon. n (nn) ; 
Det. negation. 

I Trfd.rfsr splendid 
or sim. 



49 \=^ 
51^ 



Prop, hn to row; 
Phon. hn. 

52 Q/^ Prop, c/ii to com- 
bat; Phon. ai. 

58 hr^ Prop. $w reign. 

59^^ DProp.<^arm,</«'give; 

Phon. C; Det. that 
which demands 
strength (=D69), 
(= D 63). 

62 /—^ Prop, w^ ell, 
rmn arm ; 
Trfd. rmn 
carry; Det. 
arm, that 
which is 
done with 
the arm. 



Con- 

fus- 

> ion 

with 

H 17. 



63 a nProp. di give, mc 

give (imp\>.). 

65-0 — oProp. mi give 
(impv.). 

66 Q oProp. hnk to pre- 
sent. 

69L=/]Det. that which 
demands strength; 
Abb. nht strong. 

72 ^^ ^ Prop, hrp to lead. 

76 c:^^ Prop, d-t hand; 

82 ti) Det. fist, grasp ; 
Abb. im grasp. 

84 ^ ] Prop. ^&c finger (cf. 
T 1); 

Tfrd. dbc 10,000. 
Det. middle, cor- 
rect, mtr ; Abk. c/cS 
correct, w^r middle, 
witness. 

90 ('==0) Prop. b:^h phallus ; 
Phon. mt; Det. mas-, 
culine ; Abb.^imas 
culine, kS steer 

93 "fl^ Incorrect for T 20, 
Q 12. 



ii: 






I 



From the Story of Sinuhe. 



17* 



Second Part. 



From the Story of Sinuhe ( 



TW^ 



S^-nht). 

Published 



(Epic poem of the middle empire in the archaic language, 
L. D. VI, 104 seq.) 

I. (11. 12 — 34.) Sinuhe, a man of high position at the court of 
Amen-em-he't I. (c. 2100 B. «J.), while on a campaign against the 
Libyans, learns the death of his king; this news, for unknown 
reasons, so terrifies him that he immediately seeks flight to 
Palestine. 



o. 



IP^^, 



^ I 



AA/WA/» 

■1 I L 



^ 3J r A^AAA^-| 

AA/WA/» I 



] 






N.P 



X 



T 






(I passed by the red mountain.) 

h 



© 



^^ 



^1z!iOM,M H^-«P-r 



a „by means of" or sim. is wanting, b the peculiar ending 
is explained by the coming together of the dual ending and the 
suffix 1 sg. c Name of a fortification on the isthmus of Suez. 
hk^ is written defectively in this old name. 

Erraan, Eg^pt. gramm. Bb 



18* From the Story of Sinube. 



CSI 



^?.?,?Q^ ilSl.^?P 



cy 






1"^ 



^^AAAAAA □ ^ 



(At the 



r^^^ 



r\^''v/1 Km-wr I fell down for thirst.) 

330,2 286 d 



D ^ 



AAAAAA [ 



I « ■ ' ' « t 1 1 1 1 1 1 t 



/VWAAA /VWAAA 



^ 



^kl-¥Pfl.l,^, P^ 



AA/W\A VS\ 






l^f^ 



^:.^ 



> A/VV\AA AA/VWA AA/VAAA 
J] '^^^a — HI AAAAftA 



a poetic for „I concealed myself". & the sentries, e con- 
strued as if it were fem. referring to a collective „the guard**. 
d like our vulgar „pull one's self together", or „gather one's self". 
e p^ like a noun, in apposition with mtn. 



I 



From the Story of Sinuhe. 



1 C^ A^^AAA 1 I 



19=^ 



.^ 






I I I 



A 



rv^^^ 



-H AA/\AAA 



A 



r^^^ 



AAAAAA \\ I W 






AA/^AA^ Q 



f^^^^^ 









/-^ — 1^ 



^ 



I W J 

f 



p"j^| AAAAAA 

o I I 1 



i:=^¥ 



O f\rAfiAf\ . 



27. (II. 78 — 94.) Sinuhe, heaped with benefits by the prince of 
Tntc, lives manj' years with him. 






'\m 



AAAAA/V 



a perhaps to be corrected „he cooked for me", b read whwt. 
c cancel r in irtnsn according to 151. d „a half year"? „a year and 
a half"? e probably „thou art prosperous with me"; 80.330. /" 125 B. 



20* 



From the Story of Sinuhe. 



I D ^^=i=.® 






ro\ 



I A/w^A^ 



X 31 



£1^ ilii I 



S I 






\J AAA/W\ 



^^-^J 






I I I 






^K\^ I 






^1 

:=> III I o 1^^^ 



(C^ O O O Awv\^ ■ 



.^1- 



1 I « I I t I I I t I 11 I 



'5^ 



(He also made me prince of a tribe.) 

f^^^r^^ -2x jf\ I 1 .M:^# 1 O III ID 

[J -fv n n=^-=>-i □ a la. □ 



I \\ I 



^? lYI^fl 



^ I 
# tk -n- 



IfV^ 

I 



a the determinative applies to tlie entire expression. 6 125B 
tvnt refers to the land, c The determinatives of d^b can not be 
read with certainty in the hieratic. 



J 



From the Story of Sinuhe. 



21=* 



(By means of the hunt I also gained a great deal.) 



.f\ .<T:r>. AAAA.NA 



^W\ fl 






'::^l 



111^ <zz 



C^ AAAAAA ifLL I I I 

AAAAAA @ 



^^K 



III 



I I I 



1"^^^I1M?!4 



III. (11. 109 — 145.) Sinuhe defeats a hero in single combat. 

—Zi. ^-^ -'"~ O Jj iljL /VSAAAA JL ' 









A/NAAAA 
AAAAA^ _ / C> n AA/\AAA 



^^^ — n^^ B n 

^ — AAAAAA O "fV ^^ 



AA/\AAA AAAAA/\ 



^ 



(I accepted the challenge and prepared my weapons.) 

210 

AA/VW\ 



s: I 



°^]^--]^^^ ^J: 



a the word is Avanting in the manuscript, b sell. Jq^r, 351. 
c the land of Tmv, cf. 98. 



22* 



From the Storj' of Sinuhe. 



/W^AAA I I ! 



I 
olio 



242,3 



78 

a 



1 



-0. 
I 



(He seized his weapons and the combat began.) 



^ 



Q 



(J 



. AA/\AAA V J^ 



D^ 



I I I 



3X I OO 



e 

R5 A^/v\AA n n /^ Ann iO A^^^AA ^ AA/'AA^ 



^ 



1 



a 



(I stepped upon his neck.) 



I 







a like a relative, 397. b m lit probably as an adverb „there- 
after". c inexact s cf. 22. 161. d a verb is probablj' wanting: „[they 
fell to] the ground useless", e he shoots him therefore from behind. 



From the Story of Sinuhe. 



23" 



) O [] & AAAAAA 

^ Vfii Q ^\ AAAAAA \^ I \\ 

ifLL AA/VV>A WV^ AA/VNAA AAAAAA 



y^^ 



0"^ f~"l 



© -^ 



zd 



n f I r* I I t I I I I t 

AA^SAAA A^\^>A 

A/VWAA 






AA^NAAA J J ^AAAAA r i I I 1 

I I I -^ /^ ^ AAA/v^A 



r 



1' 2^^=^ iC:^ 

/^> AAAAAA AAAAAA 

a "^ ^o 



JF. (Z. 241 — 257,) As an old man Sinuhe-receives from King TT^i 
tsn I. the permission to return home and goes to Egypt. 



A i^ AAAAAA Cli. I _C 



Ml 



Mm%. 



168 
O ® U Ji QaaaJ. 



AAAAAA 



fl AAAAAA 



^ 



7\ m 



^ o 



A 



I 1 2lM I I 
a the people of the dead man. b emphasis, 344. 



[13 



a^ 



I I I 



24* From the Story of Sinuhe. 

305 

a h 

/J AAAAAA TV (9 r\ 

(He goes further to the city of the king.) 

4 

AAAAAA H— lira /^v 



>Ti^^ 






(I trod the palace.) 

in I 1 u D 



crzD 



J] 



1 £1^ 2ti I Ci 
261 






IJ^fJ, 



f^miT] 



III 



,^^ 






I 



MkJ^^i^-1 



a „Tvho had followed me, while they led me", b he presents 
them, c Impersonal; one expects r l^§. d indicates the action of 
the people who lead him forth, e Nominal sentence, f old writing 
according to 109. f the order of words is free according to 341. 



I 



From the Story of Sinuho. 



25* 



(then terror seized me) 



^±!^^ ^-rk^^-^PflT'^l 



I I 1 



Zl-'W QkM< 



V. (Z. 263 — 269.) The king presents Sinuhe to the queen, 



a 

A 



-a AAAAAA 



^ 



ra 



J\ 



IHf'^l,^, ^ 



\ 



X 



Jl^ 



^^ 



o 



I 1 I 



<-^ 



I I 






6 
"I 



c^O I 



I I I 



AA/WW 



o \ 



AA/WW 

o D 



f^^"^ 






;p 



AAAAAA 
AAAAAA 

I I I 

AAAAAA 



I I I I 1 I I 
I 



a Perhaps relative sentence: „as an Cim whom the S. made". 
b hieratic sign of unknown meaning. c i. e. „altogether". 
(I for they had hrought them with them, e „m their hands"? 
cf. 312. 76. 

Bb* 



26* 



From the Story of Sinuhe. 



YI. {Z. 279 — 310.) At the intercession of the queen, Sinuhe is 
pardoned and concludes his life at the court in great prosperity. 



"1 ^ ! 

t-=^^ \ AAAAAA A 



f?^^t&-"&^P-^l>, 



h 



-• -* A/VWVv " 
I I I I I I 

sic 






9 



^ 



Jl , w 



I I I 



\^ 



r ^ 



286 



I I i 



A A/WV\A 
I 1 I 






X fl AAAAAA 

I o 

o 

W 



\ W 



mrrA 



A 



.C\ \\ j^ t\N\N\f\ 



(and there were other good things therein) 



CTT] [Z-ZJ 



^ I Ollll^ AAAAAA^ l^^^_^ffi.¥. 






^liin c^ 



X r-^ 

%^] 111 



a for mm 315. h passive, c read <=> ? d 329 as accom- 
panying circumstance, e read «t and Cxc'i, f read mrrf? „P. 
whom the king loves"? g „they caused" (impersonal „they".) 



From the Story of Sinuhe. 27* 



^'-%^r"i^ 



1-35-1 o — »_~»3 ji 



I'm ^51 

° n ^ -^ 
111 Tl^jr 

(and there was built for me my own house) 

e 

A^AftAA AAAAAA 



IS -Pk n A^AftAA AAAAAA -<T1 n 



ra tko 



±1- 



A/^WAA AAAAAA 



ii_a^t^cr=i 



f 

a „they gave"; the sense is, „the dirt etc. I now resigned 
to the desert", b i. e. the coarse ones, c upon which I had 
hitherto slept, in contrast with hnkyt. d in contrast with tptl; 
read nt. e passive, f read hw8. 



28* 



^^r 



Prom the Story of Sinuhe. 
(it was furnished with the best) 






J] 



AAAA/Vv A (^ 



>A 



ra 



/n 



if^^ 



.F^^ 



'^^^ 



I AAAAAA 
I 



1 



From the Story of the Eloquent Peasant. 

(Prose text of the middle empire in language not so markedly archaic; 
only the speeches of the peasant are poetic. Published LD VI 108 seq.; 

the beginning by Griffith, Proc. Soc. Bibl. Archaeol. 1892.) 
Content: a Peasant who complains of an injustice done him, before 
Mrwitns'i a prince of Herakleopolis, so charms the latter by his elo- 
quence, that, with the King's assent he prolongs the peasant's affair 
in order thus to prompt him to further discourse. 

I. (Butler 2 — 13.) An inferior official meets the peasant as he 
journeys toward Herakleopolis, and desires to rob him of 

his ass. 



l^-\ 




f 



I o\\ 



s 






^ 



a which he needs for his grave, h the statue; passive, c one 
expects the plural. <? 50 B. e read <--^-> A f ^^ead 



m 



Story of the Eloquent Peasant. 



29* 



J\ 



't3. 



i. AAAAA/" 



AAA/V\A I VS 



D 

AAAAAA 






AAAAAA 
f 



I I I I I 



^i— MC 



0V>, ,, ^jos^^ 



AAAAAA 
^ . < 



° [It'] 



JJ. (Butler 13 — 19.) The official plans a stratagem for him. 

L^ J I 2^^=>_ I I W ii ^ A.VWVA I q? S I I 



^\f]\ 



,%5 



^X32_ 



^ ^li m AAAAAA 

n '"i AAAA^W 

.^ I <: J > AAAAAA 



a a hieratic sign of unknown meaning. 5 the name of the 
man is wanting, c i. e. one of the peasantry, d temporal clause. 
e the asses which pleased him or sim. f here he hegins direct 
discourse. The following is probably an elliptical oath: may every 
excellent image [of a god] .... for me I" g The situation must 
be: a narrow road; on one side water, on the other, upper side 
a field, h „his one way" i. e. probably „one edge of the road". 



30* 



Story of the Eloquent Peasant. 



D 3 

AV\A/^A ^ 

I I AAA^A^ 

I III 



w 



c_J. I J J r\N\/-Af\ i-LL Id—a 



>^. 



"7:\ 



A^A^A^ I \\ I 



(and spreads out the clothes in the way.) 



HI. (Butler 22—23; Berliner Papyrus Z. 1—24.) The peasant is 
robbed and derided. 



I I I O .r^ 



\ 






D ^ 






njkT 



D 

AAAAAA 
1.^ 



D 
A/V/VAAA 



w 

AAAA^^ I (T^ I I I y^\ 

I \\i 



I 1 /^ .^ AAAAAA 



A^^AA^ 

^^ D 

Y\ r .1 AAAA/^A 



Ci I 



<II> L _£!>*V^ J AAAAAA I 



a passive, b the middle of the road, c „have a care" or sim. 
is wanting, d „[Take care] my fruit is on (<=>) the road". 



I I 



Storj' of the Eloquent Peasant. 
a 

■^. Q n ® AAAAAA 35 "ft \oJ ra 

M+i (I AAAAAA /I ^^'^T[ ^^ 



<__^-> Till ' ^ AA/^A^^ 

JIT. 



M 



I I I 



I I 1 1 ^ I 



w 



'=^ 



^ 






^5=^ I I I 



AAAftAA r '- i 



31* 
I I I 



X 



i^^v) 



IW-^ZK ^q 



r'=^ 



h 



L AA^^AA 












C > _iir^ AAAAAA I 



X 



X 



^.xn2_ 



AA/\AAA 






1 1 1 

JL AAAA/' 



o I 



J 









^^1 



a [The lower part of the road is] under water, b „Wil] 
you not let us pass by then!" e meaning something like: since 
one [lower path] is obstructed, I will go along its [upper] edge. 
d read mhM 



I 



32* 



Story of the Eloquent Peasant. 



I— H- 1 ^ 

O W AAAAAA 
AAAAAA TTT 



/vvvvv> 



n 



[TZ] 



W Ci 



W 



^^' 



D 

AAAAAA 



'^' 



.^^ 



.^^5>^/ 



^V 



lO V> AAAAVV 

/' AAAAAA A 



S1fc,t 



Jl O I I I 



I AAA/VNA AAAAAA 



^^q-^' 



sio 



AAAAAA 



353 

AAAAAA ra 



C 



1<^ 



^^=11) 



tl 



I I I 



354 



JF. (ib. Z. 24 — 32.) The peasant implores the official in vain. ■ 

f _ * 



AAAAAA AAAAAA 



A\ 



a relative belonging to Jin. h probably a proverb: instead 
of the poor man one makes mention of his lord, c meaning: 
though you should address me, you think first of my lord. 
d the tamarisk was not dry ; rf is probably corrupt, e read the 
n-form. e peculiar infinitive. 



story of the Eloquent Peasant. 



33* 



^^ 



c:.l\\ 



D 



3\\ 



jr ^1 1 I < 



s 



n 

/^AAAA^ 
I I 1 ^ 



.- flf 



^fl 



AAAAAA Q^ 



A AAA/V\A /I 



2^ A/V\AAA f^ (^ 



I I I 

J] 



.<E>- 






Mil 



ra Ik o @ 

;=:>Jrilll I 



v^A^ 



• AAAAAA 



lo \ 



f 



F. (ib. Z. 32—42). The peasant goes to the prince and relates to 
him his matter. 

3 V^ y^' AAAAA> 






[3III 



a „yoa are to" for „you go to", b in the place of the god 
of the dead one must not make noise, c perhaps an invocation, 
to be connected with the following, d 182, the meaning of the 
sentence is not clear, e probably error for O or O. f against 

the injustice. 

Erman, Egfypt gpramm. " Qq 



34* 



story of the Eloquent Peasant 



kZ^^! 



A. 



h' 






Ol 



ra^^_y^<=>^^^ 



A\ 



>j^i^ 






I 



AAAAAA 









W) 



a 



. AA^^^A £^ ) 



I I 









\V\AA I U O SAj AAAAAA ■ 



^ 



FJ. (ib. Z. 42—51.) The prince questions his counsellors. 



AA/^/yA^ AAAA^^ 



/CilW 



/\A/v/\AA 



P^^^,^ 






[J AA/NAAA 1 



/WW\A AAAAAA 

I I I 5*L=_ 






o As the prince desires to sail away the peasant would not 
detain him. 6 they mean: it is probably a peasant suhject to 
him, who unlawfully desired to deliver his taxdues to another. 



story of the Eloquent Peasant. 



35* 



AAAAAA 



D 



III 

^ AAAAAA ^ 

I I I O .-^-^ I I 1 



,^,(i:t: j^\ 



^p 



■<2>- 



A AA/^AA^ ^ H ^ 

a 

/-X AAAA/> 

I ra 



I I 1 1 1 



AAAAAA '5ffY^^^i2i 






a ra 






P--J 



X 



w 



D 

A/WAAA 



^^ 



FIT. (ib. Z. 52—71.) The first complaint of the peasant. 



—ill AA/^AA^ I C—J. r-"^^ \ 



Ezm 



a Sense probably, he must pay this as a fine; or, he should 
be punished because of the natron etc. (with which the asses were 
loaded)? b His reply is not given. 



36* 



Story of the Eloquent Peasant. 



(Thou wilt be fortunate in everj-thing) 






1 ^^^== — CLL AA/^^^^ V 



(■==11) 



.X " J) 9 



AAAAA\ 
6 



I S A/VVV\A 



in D 



i: 



I wvV 77 -^ -" icl I _Z1 WxS AAA^w I 



J] I 



'0\ 



m. 



^ sic g 



kA/WvAA 
ra 



o read nif. 6 treat me so justly that I shall prefer thy 
name to aU laws, c imperative, d imperative, e imperative, f '^ 
is wanting, g sense is probably, prove, how much I have to bear. 



I 



Storj' of the Eloquent Peasant. 



37* 



YIII. (ib. Z. 71 — 77.) The prince announces it to the King, 
W 



sic 






.7^' 



-<2=- 



W ^ 



w 



^- -M ^^^^¥--1 






A AAAftAA /' 



ioV\ 



- fl 



I I I 



V. 



Supplement. 

A writing of Thutmosis I. to the Authorities in Elephantine. 

(Stone in the Cairo Museum. Published Aeg. Ztsch. 29, 117 from a copy 
of Heinrich Brugscb.) 

I. Announcement of the coronation. (The king writes to you) 



© 



0^ o 

78 



mn^i.-m^i 



O 1 -J1 AA^w^ O UL 



AAAAAA n Q ^ w 

^^^^ ® Jx I I I 



AA^/^A^ O /T >\ 

II. The titulary of the new ruler 

AAAAAA 



U^ 



c:^ 



M 



a passive, b sense optative. 




^ 



A writing of Thutmosis I. 



o 

H I I 



Jfffp^^-^ 






1 






III. What name is to be used in the cult. 



1 c±f=]^ — Ji - — a I 



o n I I 1 



mnm 






MPhih^fip mi^i 



IV. What name is to be used in taking oath. 






^AW^filw in 



f 



/O ^^ n AAAAAA f\ AAAAAA 



h MP J 11 

F. Concluding formula, 
d e f 



£^ £Ii T AAAAAA 



a read Q. 5 lit. „cause that one cause that the oath 
remain", c 259, 2 passive, defectively written, d formula of 
correspondence for „this writing purposes", e that which is 
communicated, f likewise further that etc. 



J 



Examples of the Eoj^al Titularies. 
VI. Date. 






onni ^^^'i'—^O® 



39* 



s 



\rT,k 



Examples of the Royal Titularies. 

(Written in abbreviations throughout; for explanation compare the 
titulary fully written out in the preceding letter.) 

I. Wsrtsn I. (Lepsius, Konigbucla 177). 



"^^^l 



V a 



TTmrr 



11 n 






f5SS^ 



Q 






IL Thutmosis HI. (ib. 349) 



n 



0| 

I = 



s III O 

1% ^ 



^ 



^ 



Iaaaaaa 



o 



-3 



>d2 



□ o 



40* 



\ 



M 



r — I 



o III 



o III 



Examples of QTave-formulae. 
lU. Ramses 11. (ib. 420). 

4 

o 



o 



ffl 



Examples of Grave-formulae. 

(Filled with abbreviations throughout, and often in barbarous orthography) . 
I. The sacrificial formula. (Gravestone in Alnwick Castle). 



llLi 



\M^U'^ f^A 



v-i^_-^ ^Al>i3^' 



z2i Di I T 



AlH^ilfJe AP-oTs^^ 



^£7 



:::ii ^Jrj.f.l^k -^f^l 



jr. The same in another form. (Gravestone in Florence). 
a unintelligible formula, b optative, c relative clause. 



291 _ 291 291 

' Q AAAAAA Q _ 1} AAAAAA 

^AAAAAA /WWV\ 

£Ii A D AAAAAA 



Examples of Grave-formulae. 41* 

291 291 

— ^U — f) ^l^f^^ — ^fliri'^Pjl 

a 

M -CaS- O AAAAAA / I 

I AAAAAA JJ 'Vir:- — «3=a 

7ZZ. The same, shorter (Gravestone in Turin). 
IV. Invocation to the visitors to the grave (LD II, 122). 

— fl 1 A^AAAA 1 1 

V. The same, in different form (RIH 16). 

391 

_Cr^'^~~— -* AAAA^V* I AAAAAA W c^> \ AAAAAA JS _Hr^ "^ ^ C^ Dill 



I 



a 259, 2, passive defectively written, b 259, 2 active, plural. 
c Impv. d. the pronouncing of this formula procures the deceased 
nourishment. 

Cc* 



GLOSSARY. 

PREFATORY NOTES. 

The correct orthography occupies the first place; abbr. designates 
a writing as an abbreviation in accordance with §§ 63 — 68; 
arch, as archaic. 

Compound words are to be found under the first part of the compound. 

The endings are separated by -, and are not taken into considera- 
tion in the alphabetic arrangement. 

To a considerable extent the meanings can be only approximately 
determined; to such tcords, or sim. has been added. 

The meaning of the causative has been subjoined, only where it 
does not entirely correspond to that of the simple stem. — The 
construction of the verb has been added by CO. — The §§ cited 
refer to the grammar. With proper names n. I. denotes the 
name of a place, n. pr. m. that of a man, n. pr. f. that of 
a woman. 






i6- 



fj 

u 



^Q (§ 48, for ^) 
\ hour. 

cease, or sim. 



n. 1. Ele- 



f^^^ phantine. 
9b-dw T 1 ^ n. 1. Abydos, 




goose (abbr. 



roast. 






perish, 
(abbr,) to load. 



Sd 



angry? 



43* 

to outrage? be 



0! 



/ij? 



Ay^ (§ 160) come, 

^n.l. 

1 



branch, 
orsim. 
(Ill ae gem.) 
grow old. 



iSr-t 



— ^^ frait, 
c^ III orsim. 

\ (cc. n) call. 
J someone, 
to be. (§ 168. 220. 
224. 246. 253 f.) 
/\'t^(§ 160; cc.n) walk, 
come to anyone. 

t^ t^ (§ 378. 379) he 
who has not. 



ilV 

iw 
iwt-i 



twt-t ' ^^^^(§380) nothing. 



ih V" heart. 



(§ 64A) meat. 



Ibdw --c?^ (abbr.) month. 

D 



tfd I] 



count. 



2^^^ 



§ 307 



chest. 



w 



im-i -\\-W (arch.ij- 



-§135) 



existent in. 

tmBm \\ ^'^ ^^^1;^^; (§29. 

157) tent. 



ImBh fl "^ (abbr. '') 

venerableness. 

§ 100) honored (cc. hr: 
by anyone). 

182 B.) give, set, cause. 
^mn \\ M (abbr. ||) 

Amon. 



44* 



imn-y If^^Nl n. pr. m. (§ 100). 

tmn'fi ft existent in the west; 
I'W 
hnti tmnt'iw "he who is at 

the head of the dwellers 

in the west, (i. e. the 

dead)". 



Imn-tt 
Imr-w 

in 

in-t 

in 

inwk 

inb 

inr 

ins-t 

intf 

Ir 

yr'i 



/CiO 



s I 



(§ 137) the west. 



deaf, or 
sim. 

§ 314. 350. 357. 



Sim. 



AAAAAA 

AA/V\AA I 



kind of 
fish. 

Jj (§ 160) bring on 

or near; bring thither, 
lead away. 







(abbr.) wall. 



n nnni stone. 

1 AAAAAA I J> Sim. 

WAAA 

'^ n. pr. m. et f. 
:> § 347. 348. 389 



1 



IT '1 



§ 135) belonging to; irt 



irt-t 

ih 
ih-w 

ih 
ih-t 

ihil) 

ih-tO) 

ihf 



that which pertains to 
any one, his duty. 
.<2>- (Illae. inf. § 151) 
make, beget ; spend time ; 
to be. aux. verb: § 238. 
239. 

'0 . 



1 



D III 



1 o o 1 1 1 V 1 Oi iC^i y 
milk. 

"^^ (abbr.) ox cf. Ari. 

IX Jl ^^mentalin- 
firmity or sim. 



I I I 



^§64^ 



thing. 



shine, be ex- 



I 



celleut or sim. 

that which is 
brilliant, ex- 



cellent or sim. 



HAAAAAA inundat- 
^^.1= — AAAAAA I 

ed land, or sim. 



§ 319. 
~]T' J\ hasten. 



Tama- 
risk. 



! 



46* 



issl (I 1 I (I n. pr. m 
c^ § 323. 



tstw 

ckr 

It 



100) 
pr.m. 



\ 



excellent or aim; 
J be excellent. 

■^^ barley. 

o o o 

M7i (§ 31) father; 
It ntr kind of priest. 



%(•) J1 king or sim. 

itf cf. it. 
ctn-w 1 1 



H 



DY\^^(CC.»H) 

refractory toward, or 
sim. 
itl Ifi °-jj-'r- n take away; 
spend (time). 



Itn 



O sun. 



(Dual 
-fl'tkw 



) arm. 

Ar-C, hr-Cw'i immedia- 
tely; 
tpiw Cw'i ancestors. 

(^-t Q. member. 

c^ \ 

C-t chamber, small 

on 
house (as part of j3r). 

^^ ^^."^{Icabbr.^^, 



o=>) great, large. 
CS-hpr- ^ t ^ k g 



Thutmosis' I. 



Ci.fei.«_^ up I n.pr.f. 



rj "Sn- — ^ strike or 
a _M^ sim. 

ass. 

Ar) to please? 

uninjured, or sim 



ca 

CCb 



Bedouin or 
sim. 



/I V\2i *^^ °'^*> °^ 
-fl 1 ^ sim. 



J^- 



braid? 



comb? 



*46 



GLOSSARY. 



Cw-t 
CwB 

CwB 
Cwn 

Cb9 

Cff 

Cm-mw'i- 
nn-Si 

Cnh 



Y 



animals. 



"Kv ) rob, plunder. 

f[ _M- Si ber. 
J] Cwn- lb 



AAAAAA 

deceitfulness, or sim. 

JA^ sacrifici- 
Y al tablet. 

fly, or sim. 



AAA/VNA A^^AAA 



n. pr. m. 

(§ 70). 



HI 

p) AA/\AAA p) 

T • '"'''■ T'^ 

live (cc. m on anything). 

-?-( n abbr. Cnh wd^ 

snb : "living, sound, 
healthy" (as adjunct to 
royal name). 



Crr-1/t <=^[ll pa- 

lace or sim. 

CU Q£l^ to contend. 

Ch9 Q^^ a combat. 

Ch^-w [Kx 
ChC 



arrow, or 
sim. 



oath. 

® 



Cnh 

Cnttw 

Cr 



■V-^ ear. 



O 



myrrh, 
goat, or sim. 



ChC-w 
ChC-w 

ChC 
ChC 



. — J stand. 

J\ ChCn § 230 ff. 

a 

Tk Q time, or sim. 

:^=i (pi.) quan- 



1 1 I tity,number. 



or Sim. 



^^1 



kind of ship. 



nru 



palace. 



Chn-wtl a 5^ d'^'II 

AAAAAA _Z1 U 
X AA/WV Ol U 

§ 109 ) royal chamber. 



Ck-w 



A 



numerous, 
I many. 

enter. 

CZD Plur.: 
I I 1 food. 



CHiOeSART. 



47* 



w 



\ 



wB 



tvS-t 



w^-wt- 
Er 



U'^h-'i 

w^s-t 

wBd 
w^dic 



I (sic, contrary to § 
S51) districtjOrsim, 

Pf]^4^ (abbr. 
<C _ f) caus. cc. hr pass 



by something. 



f] 



^ I 



=5= 
) way, road. 



(abbr. 



I I I 



.)n.,. 



^ abbr 
I I I 

) to increase; caus. 
sw^h to visit, or aim. 



fl 



nrz2 

chamber in the palace. 

1 %^^ ^^ ^^^ *^®^°" 
i, _zr late, or sim. 

flm III ^""^' 

to praise, or sim. 

green. 

o 
green cosmetic. 



wC 

wC 

wCb 
wCb 
wCf 



wp-tvt 



§ 80. 



<^^ 



abbr. |) (§ 116) one (as 
subst.). 

(§ 143) one (as adj.). 



pure, clean. 



5 



I (^ to bend, 
\>=/l or sim. 

I household 



servant, cook. 
wp-w^wtX/^:^ J^=^ (abbr. 



message. 



^:^) 



god of the dead. 



name of a 



wf^ 



) praise, 



applause, or sim. 



Jl L__J or sim. 
wn ^^ (Ilae gem.) to be : 

AftAA/V\ ' 

aux. verb. § 223. 250 sq. 



48* 



QLOSSABT. 



41-^ (for -f 



ton) e^t. 
lontc-f -^^^ "jlc hour. 

AAAAAA <0 

twiw-f -^^ i<: S lay 

priesthood, or sim. 
t^nn-nfr^l"^^ name 



AAA'VSA 

of Osiris. 



magnate. 
, in titles 



wrh 

tvrS 
lord 



also !^) great. 

anoint. 

■^_fC=3a spend the 



>o 



day. 

to rest, or 
sim. 






Bedouin tribe. 



§ 100) 



w8-ir 
wsm 



IrO) jj 

1 



Osiris. 



wsr 



F«^ silver- gold 
o 1 1 1 alloy. 

I (abbr.) strong, or sim. 



wsr 
mXt-BC 

wsrtsn 

wsh 

w§C 



p.-^" p (abbr.) name 
m of Bamses II. 



^^' 



di AAAAAA 



n. pr.m. 



broad. 



dSSU. 



to 

answer. 



wdn 

wd 

wdB 



\> bite, or sim. 
also of itching. 
wih W^ J X 

weakness, indolence, or 
sim. 

^^^^^ (niae inf.) 
X 
throw, (also of emission 

of a cry). 

Jl /wvAAAvli or Sim. 
(§57 Illae inf.) 
command. 

(abbr. I) 

_ _ _ _ cHj 

be well, be fortunate; 
8wd^ lb hr to rejoice the 
heart concerning some- 
thing, polite phrase for 
communicating some- 
thing. 

go. 

forsaken 
one?? 



wdB 
wdC-t 



a°i 



I 



GLOSSARY. 



49* 



J 



J 



h^-t W (^^^ VC\ branch, | htn 

or Sim., thicket, orsim. ^j^ ^^^ jj^ 

hole. 



hBh 

bi-t 
bt-ti 



(abbr. | ) in m JiA, 
dr bsh § 315. 

J ■ 



70| 

ID 



< °"- 



I honey. 



king of lower 
'^ Egypt. 



hw 

bnrt 

btiTi 

bhs 



cf. 6/ 

J^ place (§ 103). 

l| I I (§ 28) date. 



1% 



date wine. 



calf. 



bk(bikl)'^^ servant; 

bk cm "the servant 
there" i. e. "I." 

bd-t l^"^^"^^ spelt (kind 
I iO o o o of wheat). 



D ^ 
pt heaven, 

t ) 

P^ ;J^ "^ § ^^• 
PU) □% § 87. 



p D 
pr 



Py □ U t] M> flea. 



pn 



° § 
D 



AAftAAA 

Erman, Eg:ypt. gramm. 



^^ 



( I 1 j house, 

also for possessions. 

P'>'-H CTID ? imi "silver 

house" i. e. treasury. 

^ ^^^A (Illae inf.) 

go out, depart (from 
the way, &c.). 



pry 



prom- 



inent?? 



Dd 



I 



50* 



GLOSSART. 



pr't ^^>o winter (one of 

the three seasons). 
pr4 '^\J/'\\\ (abbr.) fruits. 

vrt-Snw V /> L&> "hair 

^ _MI1I| I Mil 

fruit" as name of a 
fruit. 

f™(?) T <»"'"••* ""^"'-^ 

for the dead. 



ph 






arrive at, attain to. 



ph-U d| -^^ (abb'^- *3^) 



dual: strength. 



Ph^ 






divide ; 



caus. spliB ht purge. 



phr-t 

p7ir-t(l) 
ps 
psJi 
pk-t 

ptn 
pth-Mp 



D <= 
(abbr. 



I I I 



O) remedy. 

>lll 



n 



g troop, or 
I I 1 sim. 



3 Q (§ 159) to 
^'4 ctpfst. 



cook 



bite. 



j finest 
I linen. 



l.^T 



D ^ (\/\ri n. 1. 

is satisfied" n. pr. m. 



/ 



/«' ^^ belong, large, 

broad; of the heart "be 
glad". 



sents, or sim. 



fnd 

fb 
fd 



n. pr. m. ; pr- 
/fi n. 1. 



loosen; go fur- 
_j\ ther, or sim. 

pull out. 

1^^ D 



m 



§ 307. 



Negation § 375. 



GLOSSARY. 



51* 



§ 183 behold. 



mi ^ 

mSw 



new. 



self, recur. 



.^1 



renew 



mi ^'^ (I^ ^e gem.) 
see. 



mBC ^^ in rdcmSC cc. obj. 
offer up something. 



mt-tw 



ml-tt 



mc-w 



\P^\ one like (§ 135. 
^ ^ 137). 

^^|^(§137)thatwhich 
is like (something); m 
mttt "likewise". 



true. 



for 



^ \ 

P|§48(abbr.^^) 



m^Ct 



truth, justice. 

m^C-t A (abbr.) goddess of 
Yl truth. 

miC- 
hrw 



o III 



daily (food). 



AAAAAA 

- 



etc. of. mnt. 



§ 312. 



;wwvv (§ 111) water. 

'1 



A (abbr. 

) "true of 
voice" i. e. declared 
just, appellation of the 
dead. 



'f\ bum, or 
v sim. 



mi/t 

ml ^l^inhhr. 0)§314 



trnvt 



m m 



mn 



mn 



mn-t 



mother, 
die. 



>'*°m^ 



§315. 



i'^^*^ 



(i^^^ abbr.) 



remain. 

^^%6 suffer (cc. 
obj,: with something.) 

' ' /~^ diseased 

AAA/v\A ^tt^ place. 
Dd* 



52* 



GLOSSARY. 



mni '' ' ■' 

{mini) AAAAAA 



qi 



(§ 62) 



to land 



marry, or sim. (cc. m 

anyone). 
mni a^^ 
(mini) /wvAAA 

(euphemistic for die) 

mnl4 ^^^l\^^ kind of 

(mlnfi) /w^A^^ ? ^11 

musical instrument. 
ntn-w i^^^ (§ 104 A) plur. 
(mlnWi)DOD monuments. 



mr-tO) 



mnmn-t ^r^^^^lher*!' 

A excellent, or 

sim.; caus. make ex- 
cellent. 

1.1 1^ jju god 01 
■war. 



mnh 

mntw 
mr 

mr 
mr 

mr 

mr 

mr 



c^ 



K^ii^) 



overseer. 
, canal. 

I — C Vft 



people, or 
sill sim. 



? 



"'^^^^ be sick, 



be sad. 






--^ mourning, 
^^fe^ suffering. 



mr 



mrc 

mrw'i- 
tnsi 



mry-t 
mrh-t 

mh 

mh-tt 
ms 



' Thou (belongs per- 
haps to an other word 
of mas. gen.). 

abbr.^ (Ulae inf.) to 

love, desire; mr^ ntr 
"beloved of god", priest- 
ly title. 

''^^(If© Egypt. 

<CZ> -21 I AA/\AAA I 1 CU. 

n. pr. m. 

"^^[JH^dyke. 

grease, oil. 

fill, be full. 

«x=>^ northern, north 

O W (§ 137). 

(Illae inf.) bear, give 
birth to. 



GLOSSABY. 



53* 



ms-io 



J ren. 



ms-yt ipijlj 



o 



I I I 



I kind of 
)| 
food which was eaten 

on stated (?) evenings. 

*"*^ ^^ ~^ J\ bring 
on or near; play (an 
instrument). 



msdm-t 

msdd 

mk 

mt 



cosmetic. 



II 



eye 



- a 

o \ 



Ulllaegem.) 
il to hate. 
(§ 13 B) pro- 
tect. 



organ (of body.) 



mtn 



mtn 



mtr 



m 



tB 



mdw 



AAAAAA i (T"^ I I I 

way, road. 
I 1^ 



sheikh of the Bedouins, 
or sim. 



give testi- 
mony (cc, obj. about 
anyone). 

V ^ to 
challenge?? to insult?? 
speak. 



md-t 
{mdw-tl)l} c^ 

matter, affair. 



speech, 
mdni-t ^ ^^^^ (] j^ © n. 1. 



n /wwv\ ( ) § 306. 

n'i AAAAAA of the gen. § 125. 
^ -^ (Xdi;^) § 364 ff. 



n-tCi) ^ city. 
n-fi § § 134 urban. 



AAAAAA 

nB 1K § 94. 



^^ 



nCC 
nCffwl 
ny-t H Ij 



of. nd. 

'^ '(?) abbr. powder, or 
O III Sim. 

AAAAAA r^ 1 1 

'-' kernel, grain, 
Ill or Sim. 

) lord, master. 



64* 

nh-kBw- ^ ^ ^ \ i , 

T}^ O ^^^^^^ I I I name 

BC ^ III 

of an unknown king. 
nb ^^— ^ everj', all. 

nb f^^^^^^iii gold. 

nb-p FS^ [J (J goldsmith. 

199). 



GLOSSARY. 



nfr t "^^^ (t abbr. § 



good, beautiful, be good. 

AAAAAA 

cry out, 
to low. 



nmi ( ^^\ (1 J 

AAAAAA 



_— ^ 1 

[=^^ ° (cf. sC) name of 

.- Oil I the Bedouins. 



***^^ I ^v I f^ »^orphan. 



nn 
nr 

nh 

nh-w 

nh-t 



AAA/WA' 
AAA/WA /OS _ 

<c=:> ^ strength, 
manhood, or sim. 

AAAAAA O 

(iJ "^^111 something. 

ra 

or sim. 
[— I a U sycomore. 

AAA/v^A 



lack, mis- 
fortune, 






w7«m 
nhh 

nh-tvt 
nhb-t 

nht 

nht 
nht 

nht 

ns 

nsr-t 



-Dtakeaway, 
^ -S'^ or sim. 



V j eternity. 



^ com- 
Hi' plaint ? 

) titulary. 



X I I I 



(/vwvvN n 
® J 

alary. 
(^>=/l abbr.) 



ngS-w 

nti 
nt-t 



be strong, stifif. 

^-^fc/^M5ihero. 

W=^ abbr. might, 
i:2i victory. 

AAA/\AA 

"^^^■^ n, pr. m. 
•'^ (§ 139) possess. 

n [^ flame (as 

name of the royal ser- 
pent, the symbol of the 
royal rank). 

n. 1. 

^ § 401 flf, 

^^ § 382. 401. 404. 



^^ 



nt-pr-hd 



ntf 



nts 



ntk 



ntr 



(§ 103) 



that which belongs to 
the treasury i. e. costly 
furnishing, or sim. 

o § 84. 

c^ aaaaaap^ sprinkle? 

AAAAA^ 

^ § 84. 



1(10 



god. 



"#-« ^t|lj^ 



littleness, 



nd 



ndm 
ndm 
ndnd 

nds 



ICpH 



triturate ; 



55* 

t 



1 
)\nd snCC rub 



fine (on the palette). 



sweet. 



be well. 



AAAAA^ AAAAAA I 

counsel, or sire 

AAAAAA r\ 



to 



be small. 



ri'(?) 



rC 



<=> § 308. 
<:Z> particle of em- 
phasis (§ 348. 349). 

. mouth, opening. 
In ri" n Ktnt affairs?? 
language?? In rS n 
wBt = ? 

O 



sun, sungod. (most 



proper names made 
with rC are to be found 
under the second word 
in the name). 



rC-ms- 
sw 

rw-t 



rwd 



jlP^n.pr.m. 



Bamses. 



exterior, 



or sim. rwt'i writ part 
of the palace. 

<=>'^(|j^ (irreg.) 






grow; caus 



srivd and srd: make 
grow, restore. 



66* 



GLOSSARY. 



rpC.n ^ (^ abbr.) \ ^p-t ['^ ([o, [, [g) 



hereditary prince, or 
sim. (title of the no- 
bility). 



r-pw 0\\% 121. 

r-pn-t unknown 

I AA/^A^^S I 

local name. 



year. 



r-pr 



rmt 



I I v 

temple. 



•weep. 



rh 



rh 



D 



Oj 



(niaeinf.) 



know, be learned. 

^ cans, de- 
^li nounce. 
^^^~> scholar, wise 
>r man. 



south, cf. tp-rs. 

o 
4> southern grain, i. e. 

Sill ^ 

barley. 



rs-wt v\ lov. 



'^^^jD (§ 64. 97) 
o I 1 I people. 



f/c 



,o 



time of anything, 



/SAAft/\AC_l! \a/VAAAA 



XA/VAAAAy 



epoch. 
»-<i ^ <? legs, feet. 

rit ^ ^ cf. di. 

a \l^ aJ 



h ra 



h^ HJ ^\ j\ descend, (also 

of going on board ship) ; 
enter. 

h^'W rU^X 'vN""^^^ pi. time 
or place of a thing. 

^b rU^^. J La send, send 
as messenger. 



1 ^ band. 

hb rn 1-5^ to plow? 

hp ^^ law, 

hnw ' ^ O V\ earthen vessel. 

AAAAAA /T I 

hrw ^ ^^ (Oabbr.)day. 



57* 



h 



h-t \ I — I large house, castle. 
lit ntr temple. 

Ai 1i/^'fex^d() particle (?) 
of wishing: "if only", or 
aim. 

increase, addition. 

\ ^ take as 
^_ a booty. 

AC " 



hb 



h^k 



Q I body. 



hC (?) 



^J) 



cc.m: begin here 



(as superscription). 

hC-t ■ ^ beginning; m hCt 

o^ I and hr hCt § 315. 

hCfi ■ ^ abbr. prince, (as title 

fl of the nobility). 



hCp ^ 



hCti =^ 
o\\ 



n AAAAAA 

AAAAAA Nile. 



!^ heart. 



'-n\^'i (m 



strike. 



hivr-w 



Jffi 



feast cf.Ar-A6. 



A -idJ /] mourn for? 

^5s i J P N ' *o clothe. 



I I I ) garment. 






embrace. 
nut serpent. 
Am ^t\ N, rudder. 



X 



hm-t 



^ 



woman, wife. 

salt. 

! 

obstruct, or 
sim. 

hn y I majesty or sim. (cir- 
cumlocution for king), 
slave, servant. 



hm^-t 



/\ AAAAAA 



hn 



AAAAAA 

hnC ^ § 314. 120. 279. 



hnw Q \^ O^'^'^^^ things, 



pauper. 



58* 



GLOSSARY. 



Ci yC. A/W\AA 



hns 



hnk 



I AA/\AAA J-1 
!0 

n 



hnn-stn J. ^J '^ n.l. 

(Heracleopolis). 



narrow. 



to offer, 



AAAAW C 

present. 



^1 



hntSsw 



hr 



hr-t 



AAWV\ 

bed? 

^^ 

AAAAA^ L^ 

"=5=1^^ lizard. 



1 



^ § 309. 
I 

^ w 



existent 



i^ g above 



upper 
part. 



kr-w 

hr-dSd^'^^ § 315 

hri-dBdS "^ ^ chief j overlord. 



hr-yt 

hr 
hr-nb 



superior 






§ 316. 



^ terror, 

•n-i I I 

Horus, title of tbe 
king. 

title of the king. 



[hr-w^wt] cf. iv^-wt. 



hs 
hst 



hsst 



hs 

hsb 

hsmn 

m-t 

hk-t 
hkS 



n 



(III ae inf.) 
to pi-aise. 



Y I ^iii Qj\ ) approba- 
tion, sign of favor. — ir 
hstf "do according to 
his wish". 



praise, 
or sim. 



praised. 



approach, or 
_/j sim. 

O) abbr. reckoning, 
, w . , cf. tp-hsb. 

vilo 



AAAAAA vii/ I I I Vvy/ Q III 

abbr. ^ natron. 



) 



name of a 
goddess. 

^11! 
abbr. \ beer. 



a> 5 



M) 



ruler, prince. 



OLOSSABT. 



59* 



hJcn^ o"^ ^praise. 

A AAAAAA /T y W 



Mp-t 

htp 



o n 



o D, 



be satisfied, 
oflfering. 



'( 



o D I 1 I Vo D 
abbr. \ offering; htp 

ntr offering (for the 
gods). 



htm 

hdbl 

hd 
hd 



cans, destroy, or sim. 

feiJVi (cc. hr) 
arrive at?? 

Y TTj) become light. 
T I lessen, or sim. 



h m and 



h-t 
h^w 






cf. iht. 



thousand. 
hSm ®T % 



let (the 
arms) 



hw8 



hpr 



pi^v 



,p^ 



(for 



A—n 



) build. 



h^r-t 
hCte 



droop, or sim 

I (S abbr.) shine. 



S 

e 



wi- 
dow. 



pi. bright- 
111 

ness; coronation; weap- 
ons. 

Au;-«(?)C^'^ ^ I the bad. 



hprt 

hfn 

hm 
hm 



^ (^ abbr.) become, 

be; hpr dsf begetting 
himself; caus. shpr 
create. 

(^ ^^ that which 
Or? 1 ^ 1 happens. 



I c^ 



§ 7. 313. 

^^ (§ 7) enemy, 
not to know. 

Ignorant one. 



60* 



GLOSSARY. 



km 
limC 

hms 



'M 



be hot. 

- — a flee? 
J\ attack? 

,a fl bend, 



bow, or sim. 



hmt C^=^ — think, intend or 
c>, - 
sim. (§ 52. 141). 

nn vK ^A apparent- 

ly a pleonastic addition 
with words of speaking; 
hn n mdivt for simple 
mdwt. 



hnt'i 
hn 



^W 



figure, statue. 



A 



(cc. m) meet, hit 
upon, or sim. 



hn-w AT> DV^ CnH interior, 

AAAAA^ _Zl 

interior of a house ; court 
of the king. 



hn-Cl 



interior of 



- Qt 



the arms, i. e. embrace? 
hnmw Q^ j| god Chnum. 

hnms 



hnt 



AAAAAA VJ _Cr^ I 

friend, or sim. 



hnt-i 

hnt 
hnty-t 

hnd 

hr 
hr-t 



hr 
hr 
hr 
hr-'i 



[\ existent in front, 



harem. 



hntt tmntiw cf. Imnti. 

journeyup-stream, jour- 
ney toward the south. 

d^ ^ ^ Step 
(on anything). 
® § 311. 

that belong- 



ing to something, §msio 
n hrt thf favorite ser- 
vant, one trusted, 

® J^ to fall. 
® ^^ § 325. 

^ § 310. 

/I\ .. having some- 
<:zr> thing. 



hr-t-hrio 



/i\ e ra 



o 



<=> I I 1 <=: 

that which is daily ; (lit. 

that which has the day). 



hrw 



J 



61* 



hrp 



hr-hb 



hrd 



hh 
hs 



be first; hrp 

lb possessed of a good 
understanding and dis- 
position, or sim. ; offer, 
sacrifice. 

(for ^ 



X 1 ) kind of priest. 

aP^ abbr.^ children. 
Ill J 

©if 

I neck. 



^^ (niae inf.) 
be wretched. 



8-t 
s-t-C 

s-t-wrt 
s-t-Hr 



i 



Ir'i correct, 



seat, place ; m st 



i 



Imiiw st-C 



kind of priest. 



l|^^^=f_^1 name 



in. 



fl ^v *^^^* I 



n of 

J the 
throne. 



^^ (cc. obg.) to re- 
pulse; (cc. n) punish 



anyone, or sim. 



ksm 

ht 
hf 

hd 
and 



holy of 



holies in the temple, 
tree, wood. 

§ 315 ; afterward, future. 



fl 



[st-ir] 

si 
sB-nht 

sB-t 



to journey 

down stream, journey 
toward north. 



[j-<S5- cf. Ws-tr. 
'5 back; m sB % 315 



son. 
A«Xn.pr. 

ra^y^ m. 

son of the sycomore. 

daughter. 
*^^ goose (cf. Bpd). 



62* 

si 

8^i 



S^k 



StJ? 



(cc. m) 
defend one's self against. 



cf. sti. 



designation of anything 
bad. 



land, arrive at. 
together, or sim. 
(§ 62) recognize. 



to 



draw 



sip-n ll(J"\\i inspection, 
]iz^ U or aim. 



] 



§80. 



swnl n. 1. 



1^ 



swrt 

s6 -TT- 



to drink. 



lead. 






J^ 



I I I 

I 

I lice ? ? 



s6i 

sbS-w 

sbB-yt 
shB 



■^ ^\ ^ to teach; cc. 
r train as. (trans.) 

^^'^^ teach- 
ing. (substantive?) 

'^ teach- 



sbh 



spr 
spr 

8f 



i=£=3 mg. 
door. 

y\ cry out. 



m 

^ su 2, sign that the 
II 
preceding word is to 

be repeated in reading; 
sp pw for the intro- 
duction of a courteous 
proposal ("here is an 
opportunity to . . ."). 



rive at. 



o 



^ (cc. n) request 
ill anyone. 

yesterday. 



GLOSSARY. 



sfisf^?)^ 



^'^^^ be mild, or 
<£) ^11 sim. 
sm-t ^^^^-^ desert, foreign 
c^ I land. 

swi-fi i lit. "uniting of 

land"; unknown local 
designation. 

smB-id'i ^^ uniter, i. e. lord 

of upper and lower 
Egypt. 



sniB 



smi 



smwn 



to slaught^. 



D 



cream, or sim. 



smr 



-*—^\ -i^^^oj^ /\ pro. 

bably an expression of 
deprecation (like, "Per- 
mit me") or of doubt 
(like, "perhaps"). 

) a rank 



? 



at court 

AAAA/V\ 



cans, ssn 
£s breathe. 



sn-nw 



n to trespass. 

AAAAAA _/Ji 

the second 
(§ 145). 



10 



sn 



snwh 



1^ (I ) 

ion. 

1®^ 



63* 

bro- 
ther; 



to 



snbt 

snbw 

snf 

sntr 

sntr 

snd 

snd 



companion 

— •* — P' 

AAAAAA 

warm, cook, or sim. 

p7'|(|la6br.)b, 
healthy, cf. Cnh. 

r\ AAAAAA Pi 

M J (1 n. pr. m. 

r» AAAAAA .sy 

|1 J ^n.pr.m. 

AAAAAA rt^^^^ 



fill 



blood. 



AAAAAA < >| 1 I 



in- 
cense. 



^^q7\ to fear. 



I abbr, 



) 



prince, or sim. (desig- 
nation of an officer of 
rank). 



shw 



HWi 



unite. 



64* 



aLOSBABT. 



sh-Vi 

shm 
shr 



W 



peasant. 

\ (cc. obj.) 
remember anything. 

memory. 



y W=/l mighty, or sim. 



overlay 
with. 



I v^ I 



A 



open. 



cf. nd. 



scribe. 



lead. 



8sm-w 



is-t 



skm 






leader. 



St 

St 



n ^ a mu- 

sical instrument of the 
women (sistrumi). 

ing grey (noun). 
1^ § 82. 

1 "*^ ^ a shoot. 



8t-lW 






I Bedouins. 



St^ 

stwh 

stp 

stn 

8tny-t 
sd 
sdm 
sdm 

sdr 



tO swelling. 

y^mA iA 




to treat 



J bring c 

(medically) or sim. 
1 {!> — s abbr.) 

select. 

I AAAAAAVJ. \ I AAAAAA Ci 

abbr. ) king of upper 

Egypt, king. 

luOo kingdom. 

■~*^ f^ijp ^ clothe, 
c-"=^^ 1 or sim. 

^^^. hear. 

apply cos- 



metic to. 

,abbr. be at night; 



to sleep. 



J 



65* 



s I w 1 






sC 
ho 
sw 



Sfto-t 



Sm 



Smw 



or sim. 

Mil' 



c^^p"^ swine. 
KV food, 



=^ dig, or 
^W=^ sim. 



Sms.o ^\a'^{^\'§) 



§ms-Er 



follower 



sand. 
Ill 

-^^^ (cc. m) free 
from. 



servant. 

of Horus, i. e. people 
of mythic time. 

X r^. (nae gem.) 
revolve about, or sim. 



p^°d,.. 



"^^^^M^i hum- 



cnn- 

ble one (not of highest 
rank)? 



Sn-w 



^ ^\\ ( ^ 

) 
Snw-tS IC\, 



A/SA/SAA 

abbr. ) hair. 



"ground- 



I I In nil 

hair" name of fruit 



M\ 



that which 
I I I 

is splendid, or sim. as 

designation of food 

furnished by the king. 

I \\ I 

the 



S 



i^v-i X gn^nv ss con. 

courtiers. 



§nC 



r-vr 



itch, or sim. 



^^ (IHae inf.) 
go, go to 
anyone, go away. 

I \\ I 

AAAAAA summer (one of 



I'-^-O designation 

of locality like, 
"margin" or sim. 

Sndyt 9 e^y^'Tf' 

AAAAAA I 1 I 

i^ *^^^-) *P^o°- 
sr -^^ be small. 



the three seasons). 
Erman, Egrypt. gianim. 



Ss^ 



U fine linen. 

I I I I 

£e 



66* 



GLOSSARY. 



I^\M:'- tl 



rrri 

cleverness, or sini. 

r^^- D receive; ssp 

D 
Jcsiv crouch, or sim. 



§§ 



form, figure 
of a god, or sim. 
I \\ I 



n. pv. f. 






k A 



§ 315. 



%, 



boat, or sim. 
kl A 



kbb 



A 



.11 Ofl 



kn 



kd 



C^^ perhaps "bath"? 

(lit. cooling, or sim). kdm 



\\ J^ AAAAAft 
AA^/V\A 



abbr. \ create. 

X be strong. 

AAAAAA 

bad, or sim. 

circle; personality. 

Cans, skd to sail. 






sP^^n. 1. (nnR 
^ east?) 



k-y 
kt-iht 



^q. 



im., f., /c^ 






^^^1 pi. another, 
others. 



fei 



u 

I 

human spirit 



I 1 1 I k^ij-t 

A (CO. obj.) 

think (of something). 



A j^ kind of 
ai 
"Ht?T> steer. 

U 



km 



' I dun<:. 
I or sim. 
Vtx black 
jiL cf. skm. 



GLOSSARY. 



67* 



km-t r I 

o 



^ Egypt. 



g^-U (3 Q -'^K,. designation 

of something injurious, 
perhaps, need, lack, 
cf. logB, 

mo Z5 (1 % ^ name of 
a plant. 

abbr. J find, come upon. 

catch sight of. 



g S 

g*' 



gmv "-^ O 

AAAAAA 

of a bird 



ffrg 
ffs 



ks-to ^^z::^U^rh incli- 
nation of the body. 



s 



be silent, 



Kaus. sgr to silence. 
nb-sgr name of Osiris. 



§ 321. 



s 



X^ 



furnish ; 



grg pr establish a 
household. 

^ ill "«• 

side, half, r gs 



§ 315. 

— »^ 
anoint. 



S 



V — H — - — uy 



t ^ 






( ) bread. 

earth, land. 
s: I 

DmxADx s) 

boundary. 



tiv 



§ 80. 



(ttch) cf. stwh. 
twt 

tp 



statue. 

^ upon § .314; tp m 
§ 316. 

Be* 



68* 
tp 

tp-'i 

tp'iw- 
Ctv'i 

tp-t 
tp-tt 

tm 
tm 






^ tp rs southern pro- 
vince, or sim. tp hsb 
correct computation, 
correctness. 

^ / ^ \ the-first, first 
D \\ \ll/ month. 

ancestors. 



head. 



q9 

of oil. 



"^^"-^^v"^^^ 



( 



^°?^)ki 



I o 



kind 



close up, 
or sim. 



^11 "• ^\ Negation § 
376, tm rcll § 377. 



t 



^ Q 



take. 



(vizier, or sim.). 



tn 
tn 
tniv 

tnt 
tr 

th 
tkn 

tti 
ts 



J dress hair, . 
or sim. 

highest official, i fg^^ 



man, male child. 



tsw 
tsm 



§ 86. 

AA^AA^ § 80 
I I I 

n. 1. 



r^^^ 



c^ 



AA/SAAA 
CI 



time. 



A i^ old age. or 
1 I Jl sim. 



l— <^^ to trespass. 



/■~\ AAAAAA 



7^ 



(cc. m) aji- 



proach 



[1 n. pr. m. 



ZI 



raise, lift 
up. 

^^^"^^^ vertebra of the 
I n spinal column. 

\\ proverbs. 

i=«>=3-f\ / -?■ e officer, 
r or sim. 



i:^ 



hound. 



difV 



1T^ 

constrain, compel, or sim. 



d^b 



figs. 



JO 



GLOSSARY. 



69* 



dl 



A 



(a D, . fl) (also 

rdi, dldi § 160): give; 
deliver over ; give back ; 
express; set down, lay 
down; cause that; per- 
mit that, r rdtt in 
order that. 



didt 
didlw 
dtvS 
dwS-t 

dion 

do 

dbS 



i< 



i< 



n. pr. m. 
O morning. 



r\A praise; 

Chnwfi dwJt part of 
the palace. 

^ ^ ^^ A spread 

A/^\AAA out. 



restore, pay. 



horn. 



dbB-i 



dt 



o^ M eternity. 



dpt 
dpt 
dm 

dm I 

dml 
dr 

' dkr 

dgS 
1 dBls-io 



payment, income, or 
aim. 

let?," 



stop up. 

\ £\A taste. 

Do V ^/ 

^"^^ w^ l^iiid of 
D o ship. 

make mention, to name. 
c-'=^ 1/ (J n — fl touch, 
meet with, or sim. 
\\ city. 

(cc. hr) expell from, 

vanquish, or sim. 

A 
^=^> d?= 

see. 



s 



fruit. 



(l-t 



''^"^ a^wj coll. peasant- j 

™v. 1 I ry, orsim. ■ ^^._^ 

X 

sail across. 



wise man, or sim. 

name of 
o III 

a fruit. 



70* 

d\o 

dhS 

dfB 

drw 

dr 

dr 

dlmti- 
ms 



kind of vessel. 

,/K ■ 

J . yy J wind. 

cf. rfZ/i. 

food. 

boundary, end, or sim. 

(^ r drf as far as 

its end) i. e. all, whole. 

^ § 314 cf. hSh. 

^(^_^ n. pr. m. 
""■^ 1 I Thutmosis. 



ds- 
dsr 



(Id 
ddw 

ddb 



^^ § 85. self. 

^|] (Wabbr.) 

magnificent, or sim. 
Caus. sdsr beautify, or 
sim. t^-dsr name of the 
necropolis. 

'"'-=*. speak, say. Caus. 
r-=^ \ to talk. 



(I 



® ^ n. 1. (Busiris). 

^^ 1 1_ _Q occurring 

as parallel to "as- 
semble". 



UNKNOff'N PHONETIC VALUE. 



name of a musical- 
instrument. 

O the day (only in 

dates). 



clothing, 
or sim. 



village, or sim 



UNKNOWN READING. 



kind of 
cry. 



n^. 






.kind of under 
L official. 



PRINTED BY W. DKUGOLIN, LEIPZIG. 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 




Erman, Adolf 

Egyptian grammar with 
table of signs.., 
t. Breasted 



\^i^^^