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E. A. WALLIS BUDGE, M.A., Litt.D., D.Litt., Lit.D. 







Dryden House, 43, Gerrard Street, London, \Y. 




PART 11.— (Continued). 


The Rise of the Nubian or Sudan! Kingdom of 

P IAN Kill 


The Successors of Piankhi 27 


The Successors of Tanuath-Amen . 56 


The Successors of Piankhi 83 


The Sudan in the Ptolemaic Period .... 104 


The Nubian Kingdom on the Island of Meroe . .114 


The Sudan in the First Century before, and the 

First Century after, Christ 153 





The SudAn in the Roman Period . . [66 


The Muhammadan Invasion and Occupation of the 

Sudan . . . [84 

The Rule of Muhammad \\u and his Descendants 

IN THE SUDAN ........ 209 


The Mahdj in the Sudan 240 

Christianity in the Northern Sudan .... 288 
Appendix to chapter xv. — the inscription of silko, 



Christianity in the SudAn. Modern Missionary 
Enterprise • 

The Gold Mines of the SudAn 324 

Tin Modes n .... 

Tiir. British en the SUdAn ..... 448 

Bibliography of the SudAn ... 515 


57 J 



Harua, an official of Queen Amenartas, holding statues of Hathor and 


Ornamentation of the Egypto-Roman Temple at Nagaa 
Scene from north wall of Temple A at Nagaa 
Scene from west wall of Temple A at Nagaa . 

Doorway of a Temple at Nagaa 

Cailliaud's plan of Temples, &c, at Masawwarat As-Sufra 
Lepsius' plan of Temples, &c, at Masawvvarat As-Sufra . 
"Anak" in Eastern Desert drawing water 
"Anak" dwellings at Gebel Maraan .... 

" Anak " house at Gebel Maman 

Scenery in Kordofan ....... 

Major Marchand in Steam-launch Faidherbe at Fashoda 
Fashoda — Major Marchand's house and guns . 

Agar Dinka woman at Shambi 

Shilluks at the American Mission on the Sobat River 

Conquest of Nubia by Rameses II 

Payment of tribute by Nubians to the King of Egypt's representative 
Plan of gold mines in the Eastern Sudan worked in the reign of Seti I 
View of Gondokoro in 1905 
Kagera River ..... 

Native hut on the White Nile . 
Tawfikiya ...... 

Floating sudd on the White Nile 
Woman grinding dhiirra at Kiro 
Women washing clothes at Lado 


Natives in an ambatch canoe . 

Woman drawing water at Omdurman 

Cotton spinners at Omdurman 

Shilluks on the White Nile resting . 

Khor Arab in flood .... 

Modern Sudani silver work 

Woman of Omdurman 

Shilluks at Fashoda. 

Altar with Meroi'tic inscription 

Sirdar inspecting the construction of the 

Nile-Red Sea Railway 

Nile-Red Sea Railway near Gebet . 



Sea Railway 






35 2 




Portrait of Shabaka 

Portrait of Shabataka 

Shrine with seated figure of Amen- Rfi 

Relief on altar of Tirhakah .... .36 

Rowol roped together 

Tirhakah offering to Amen '' .43 

Stele with account of the Dream of Tanuath- Amen 47 

Stele with account of the coronation of K: 

Stele with account of dedication of gifts to Amen-Ra at Napata by 

King Aspelta and his Queen 

Stele with Edict against Eaters of Raw Meat at Gebel Barkal 71 

Reliefs and text from Stele of Heru-Sa-Atef ... jj 

Reliefs and opening lines of stele of Nastasenen, or s - 

5 on Nile near Ad-Damar 103 

Sudan Elephant 

Portrait of Ra-Mer-Ka Amen-Tarit . ... 

Remains of Temple on east bank of Nile near 'Amara 122 

Plan of Temple of 'Amara 

olumns of Temple at V 124 

Portrait of ! len 125 

Metek-Amen : fi 
Queen Amen-Tarit :,from altar at \V. 127 

of Temple at 
Outline of remains of Temples a .... 129 

who built Ten and hei Consort slaughfc 


>uis pillar in shrine of Amen-h.etep II.'s lime 
God worshipped at Na aa 
Lion-hi from a lotu s i 

Lion banner of Queen Amen-Tarit . 1 

; .! IV. 








God worshipped at Nagaa (Jupiter Sarapis ?) . 


Egypto-Roman Temple at Nagaa . 
Plans of Temple E, F, and G at Nagaa . 
Sculptures on columns of Great Temple at Nagaa 

River Atbara 


Papyrus on Bahr Al-Gebel .... 
View of village of Kassam, near Fazogli, in 1837 
View of the Blue Nile, near Fazogli, in 1837 . 
Gebel Kasala, as seen from the New Government 

View of Al-Obed in 1837 

Ripon Falls, Victoria Nyanza .... 

Victoria Nyanza at the Ripon Falls . 

Five-piastre note of Gordon .... 

Twenty-piastre pieces of the Khalifa 

Transport of gunboats by railway . 

Mahdi's Tomb, Omdurman, before the bombardment 

Bahr Al-Gebel at Kiro and Mongalla 

Pyramids of Meroe ..... 

Plan of church in the Christian monastery in the Wadi Al-G 

Christian monastery in the Wadi Al-Ghazal 

Ruined church at Siedever .... 
Plan of gold mines of the reign of Rameses II. 

Southern Sudan and district of the Great Lakes 

Ankoli district mountains .... 

Lake Albert Edward 

View on the Semliki River .... 

Upper Fall on Wakki River .... 

Junction of the Asua River with the Bahr Al-Gebel 

Sobat River 

River Abai, from bridge of Agam Ueldi . 

Abai near Lake Sana .... 

Lake Sana ...... 

Abai Rapids 

Portuguese bridge at Agam Deldi . 

Fola Rapids on Bahr Al-Gebel 

Cataract at Semna and Kumma 


River Bank at Bor 


Earthquake Hill 


44. 1 



45, 146 

49, 151 



Murchison Falls on Victoria Nile 

Khartum and Onidurman 

Palace at Khartum . 

Mosque at Khartum . 

Sudani silver-work cigarette case 


Gordon Gate, Sawakin 

Sawakin Bazaar 

Main street, Sawakin 

Dongolawi merchant 

Sudani woman .... 

Sudani young man . 

Sudani man .... 

Sudani woman .... 

Sudani maiden .... 

Sudani youth of Negro origin . 

Sudani woman wearing the rahat 

Meroitic inscriptions 

Altar with Meroitic inscription . 

IIalfa-Abu-1 lamed Railway 

Sudan Railways 

The Driver of the "Gedaref" . 

American engine on the JJalfa-Abu-I lamed Railway 

A shady resting-place 

Atbara-Sawakin Railway . 

Railway shops, Sawakin . 

Material train Leaving Sawakin 

Laying the Atbara-Red Sea Railway 

Sir W. Garstin's proposed Canal in the Sudan 



















After the departure of the priests of Amen from Thebes to seek a 
refuge for their god and themselves at Napata, the condition of 
affairs in Egypt passed from bad to worse, and no man was able 
to make himself truly the king of Egypt. In Upper Egypt 
disturbances broke out everywhere, .and such influence as the 
priests who remained at Thebes possessed was used by them to 
thwart every attempt of the kings of the North to increase their 
power in the South. In the Delta itself the authority of the 
Rubastite kings was lightly regarded, and little by little each 
governor of a large city arrogated to himself the authority of 
a king. Taking advantage of these circumstances, the native 
princes of Napata soon made themselves independent rulers of 
Nubia, and by degrees their authority was recognized over a 
tract of country which extended from the First Cataract in the 
north to the Blue Nile in the south. Under the influence of the 
priests of Amen who had settled in their capital and had 
established on a firm base the worship of the Nubian Amen, they 
began to regard Thebes in Egypt and the country between that 
city and the First Cataract as parts of their kingdom, and they 
spared no pains in trying to turn the fertile Dongola province into 
a copy of Upper Egypt, which, indeed, in many particulars it 
closely resembled. 

VOL. II. i b 


The time was ripe for the making of this attempt, and the 

population of this portion of the Nile Valley, containing as it did 

a large Egyptian element, was ready and willing to be ruled 

rding to the laws of Egypt, with the civilization and religion 

and manners and customs of which they had been familiar for 

ab »ut fifteen centuries. Since the time of Aniemhrtep II. 

Napata had been regarded as a second Thebes by the Nubians, and 
we may be sure that when l.ler-lleru usurped the title of "' Prince 
of Kash," the act had a profound political as weli as religious 
signification. Whilst the petty kings in the Delta were fighting 
among themselves, and the chiefs in Upper Egypt were striving 
for sovereignty, the princes ^\ Nubia were consolidating their 
power, and apparently waiting for a favourable opportunity of 
making a descent upon Egypt. The kings of the North were far 
too much occupied with their own affair- to have either time or 
attention to give to the Sudan, and. as they had not stiff] 
power to take over the gold mines and work them as a govern- 
ment monopoly, that country interested them butlittle, and it was 
from the interference of Egypt ial generation?. 

About the year B.C 750 there reigned at Napata a Nubian king 
called Piankhi. 1 Of his origin and of the circumstances which 
brought him to tin. 1 throne we know nothing, though his name 
sts that ther< Egyptian blood in him, ami he 

may well have been a descendant of the great Theban royal line 
of which Amen was the ancestor. We may note in passing that 
on a pillar in the temple which he built at Gebel Barkal he styles 
himself the " son of Bast,'" i.e., the greal goddess of the city of 
Bubastis in the Delta, but it is difficult to see how he could be ci>w- 
1 with that city, lie this as it may, he enclosed his name in a 
uche, he adopted the prenomen Usr-Maat Ra, 8 which he also 

rtouche, and placed in front of it the title ^\{fa 

Suten Bat, which Mena., the first king of Egypt, used to express 

1 Probablj the irapfiovs <>l Manetho. 

•jre of Bast which appears to hav ■ 
ted to the goddi ikhi and his wi e Kenensat ; >ee Pierret, 


.( -.. *^ lf° fM_4 


his sovereignty over the South and the North, and he styled 
himself "Meri Amen " (beloved of Amen), son of Bast." These 
facts are interesting, for they prove that a Nubian prince of 
Napata in the eighth century before Christ endeavoured to connect 
himself with the ancient monarchy of the Pharaohs, and used 
their titles, apparently not realizing their exact signification, and, 
it may be added, his absurdity in doing so, and described himself 
as the son of an alien goddess, and the ".beloved " of a foreign god. 
He also called himself " son of Ra." In Northern Nubia we 
see on the reliefs in the temples built by the kings of Egypt 
figures of Tetun, certainly one of the oldest gods of Nubia, if 
not the oldest, but nowhere in Piankhi's inscription, or on his 
buildings, is there any mention of this god, and it is clear 
from this fact that Amen had been made to absorb the 
attributes of the indigenous gods of the country, and had 
become the " king of the gods " in Nubia as in Egypt. In the 
Sudan, as in Egypt, Amen appears in the form of a man, wearing 
a pair of high feathers on his head, or as a man with a ram's 
head, or as a ram, and the Nubians never confounded him with 
the ram-headed god Khnemu, who was especially worshipped in 
the Cataracts. The horns of the species of ram sacred to 
Khnemu project horizontally from the sides of his head, whilst 
those of the ram sacred to Amen curl down on each side of the 
animal's face. As Piankhi assumed the titles of the ancient 
kings of Egypt, so his Queen Kenensat also adopted the titles of 
the ancient queens, and her name was enclosed within a 
cartouche; 1 of her origin likewise nothing is known, but her name 
does not appear to be Egyptian. 2 

The greatest event in the life of Piankhi was his expedition to 
Egypt, of which he caused a lengthy account to be cut upon a 
massive block of black basalt and set up in a temple built by him 
at Gebel Barkal ; this object was found by an Egyptian officer 
in the Sudan in 1862, and was subsequently brought with great 
difficulty to Cairo, where it is now preserved in the Museum of 

Thus, D ^ 



- The title of the goddess Bast worshipped by herself and her husband 
is it at cli taut 


Egyptian Antiquities. 1 The text is the longest and fullest of any 
Nubian king known to us, and is of the greatest interest and 
value for the history of the period. It should, of course, be 
remembered that it is only a one-sided statement of facts, but, on 
tlie other hand, it is the sole authority on Piankhi's conquest of 
Egypt, and as such must be highly prized. The Stele of Piankhi 
is about 5 feet 10 inches high, 6 feet wide, and I foot 4 inches 
thick, and the text tills one hundred and fifty-nine lines. On the 
face of the rounded part of the stele v Lmen seated, and 

behind him the goddess Mut ; before him stands the king receiving 
the address which is made to him by Nemareth, who is bringing 
a horse as a gift. At the feet of Piankhi kneel three kings, and 
behind the goddess are five more; the name of each is above him. 
The narrative set^ forth that Piankhi, the sou of Ra, the 
Counterpart of Tern, and the offspring of a god, was a suten, i.e.. 
king from his mother's womb, and that a certain man came to him 
and reported that the whole of the North of Egypt was in revolt, 
that Tafnekhth, a local chief of the town of Neter in the Delta. 
had first seized the whole country as far as Memphis, and had 
then sailed up the Nile with a large number of soldiers, and 
tlu- governors of the great cities of Medum, Oxyrhynchus, 
Crocodilopolis, and other cities on the west bank of the Nile, had 
thrown open their gates and received him. This done, Tafnekhth 

.I the river, and several cities on the east bank submitted to 
him in a similar manner. The only one that stood out against 
Tafnekhth was I lerakleopolis, the governor of which was 

haa-Bast ; this he besieged vigorously, and in a very short 
time no one could either come out of it or go into it. When 
Piankhi received this intelligence it must have been clear to him 
that Tafnekhth was tlu kind of man to succeed, and to force his 

southwards until he had Thebes at his mercy, but Piankhi 

appears t<> have taken no steps to arrest his pr< >■ Later 

moreover, we find from the narrative that the heads of the civil 

and military powers in all the cities of Egypt sent frequent mes- 

to Piankhi. begging him not " to keep silent," for otherwise 

i the text, see Mariette, Man. Divers^ plates i.-vi. It was first translated 
ee Ckrestomathie K^yptie?uh\ Fasc. iw. Pan's, 1876). 
htc. 1877, pp. 676-707, and its English translation, 
hte, p. 564 ff. 



all the nomes of Middle Egypt and the Land of the South would 
fall into the hands of Tafnekhth. They reported also that king 
Nemareth, after resisting for some time, had at length thrown in 
his lot with Tafnekhth. 

Matters now appeared to be serious, so Piankhi sent a message 
to his generals Puarma and Lamersekni, who were stationed in 
Egypt, and commanded his forces there, to go and seize all the 
men and cattle, and all the boats on the river, to stop all work in 
the fields and to draw up a force before the nome of Hermopolis 
in order to check the advance of Tafnekhth. From this state- 
ment it is clear that there must have been a force of Nubian 
troops stationed somewhere on the southern border of Egypt, 
which was always ready to defend Piankhi's interest in Upper 
Egypt. Piankhi sent his soldiers some excellent advice, and bade 
them fight in the way in which they were accustomed to fight, 
and with boldness, because they were fighting for Amen. He 
also bade them perform religious ceremonies when they arrived at 
Thebes, so that Amen, who was able to make one man to capture 
a thousand, may give them his potent help. His advice is so 
paternal that he even provides them with a formula of prayer to 
Amen, which runs : — 

" O open thou the way before us, and 

" Let us fight under the shadow of thy sword ; for 

" A child, if he be sent forth by thee, 

" Shall overcome him that hath overcome multitudes." 
Piankhi's soldiers returned him a suitable answer, and vowed that 
in his name they would do great things. When they arrived at 
Thebes they worshipped Amen according to their instructions, 
and then they embarked in their boats and sailed down the 
river. On their way they met a force of Tafnekhth's sailing up, 
and a fight took place in which the Nubians were victorious, 
capturing many boats and prisoners, and so destroying Tafnekhth's 
chance of reducing Herakleopolis. Piankhi's troops then marched 
on to the relief of Herakleopolis, and when they arrived there 
they found that the siege was being directed by Tafnekhth him- 
self, assisted by Nemareth, Auapeth, Shashanq, and several other 
chiefs, including the governors of Busiris, Mendes, Hermopolis 
Parva, and Bubastis. The Nubians attacked the confederates 
without delay, and defeated them and captured several of their 



boats, but a remnant managed to escape, and succeeded in finding 
refuge at Pa-pek, which, as Prof. Maspero has pointed out, may 
well be near the modem Al-Ffika'i. At dawn the next morning 
the Nubians left their boats and marched agains.t the foe, and, 
according to Piankhi, his soldiers slew such a large number of 
men and horses that it was impossible to count them. The 
remainder fled, having suffered the "worst and most disastrous 
"defeat which they had ever known." 

Meanwhik: Xemareth escaped and went to HermOpolis, and 
having gathered together the people and the cattle, he went with 
them into the city and entrenched himself behind its earthworks, 
and here Piankhi's soldiers found him when they arrived. They 
surrounded Hermopolis, and then sent to report to their master 
what they had done. When Piankhi received the news he 
me like a panther in a rage, and swore by Amen that as soon 
as he had performed the festival ceremonies of that god at 
Thebes, he would come in person, and make "the Land of 
'• the North to taste the taste of his claws." Leaving a force to 
Hermopolis, the remainder of the Nubians set out to 
attack Oxyrhynchus, and having captured the city with all the 
fury of a water-flood, they sent a report to this effect to 
Piankhi, but the king's wrath was not appeased. They next 
attacked Tatehen and captured it, beating down its walls with a 
battering ram: they killed many of its inhabitants, include 
son ofTafnekhth, but when they sent the report of their success 
to the king his wrath was not appeased. They next attacked 
Hipponon, and captured it. but still the king was not satisfied. 

On tlie ninth day of the month Thoth (August- September) 
Piankhi set out from Napata, and came down quickly on the 
the inundation to Tii bes. Having performed all the 
ceremonies, and made all the- offerings proper for the New 
festivals, In- re-embarked and went on to Hermopolis. Me left 
his boat, and mounted his chariot, and attacked the city at the 
of his troops, and the enemy trembled lie had his tent 
pitched to the south-west of the city, and made his soldiers build 
earthworks, stiffened with poles, up to the level of the tops of the 
walls, and. having caused wooden shelt on these 

he filled them with archers and slingers, who poured their missiles 
among the people and slew many of them. After three days 



Hermopolis capitulated, and Nemareth sent messengers, laden 
with rich gifts, to offer his submission to Pifmkhi ; he also sent 
his queen and her women to entreat for mercy from the Nubian 
queen and princesses and ladies, who had accompanied the 
Nubian king to Egypt. In due course Nemareth himself 
appeared, leading a horse with one hand and holding a sistrum in 
the other, and, having made a suitable speech, he offered to 
Piankhi rich tribute. Having made an offering to Thoth, the 
great god of the city, Piankhi went through the palace and the 
storehouses of Nemareth, and had all their contents brought 
out before him, including the ladies of the royal harim, but on 
these last he did not look at all. Then he passed on to the 
royal stud farm, and when he found that the brood mares and 
foals had been allowed to go hungry, he swore by the Sun-god 
that he considered this neglect of the horses to be the very worst 
of all the offences which Nemareth had committed. Piankhi 
divided the spoil of Hermopolis into two lots , one he gave to 
Amen, and the other he kept for himself. At this time Pef-tchaa- 
Bast, governor of Herakleopolis, also brought tribute, including a 
number of very fine horses. He tendered his submission in 
picturesque words, saying that he had fallen deep down into hell, 
and was buried in the blackness of night, when the light 
of Piankhi fell upon him, and his darkness was rolled away, &c. 

Piankhi then passed on to Al-Lahim, which submitted to him, 
and he thus became master of the Fayyum ; the son of Tafnekhth 
was allowed to march out with his followers unmolested. 
Medum and Thet-taui also opened their gates to Piankhi, and then 
he was able to go straight on to Memphis. Here, however, the 
gates were shut against him. He found some means of address- 
ing the people of the city, and told them that if they let. him in 
he would offer sacrifice to Ptah and Seker, and then sail down 
the river, and that not even a child should cry out in alarm. 
1 hese words the people did not believe, and they kept their gates 
fast shut, and, when they found a few Nubian artificers who were 
examining the quay, or the harbour, separated from the main 
body of the Nubian army, they fell upon them and killed them. 
One night Tafnekhth appeared and addressed the garrison of 
Memphis, which numbered 8,000 men, and pointed out to them 
how well the place was provisioned, and how strongly it was 



fortified, and he advised them to offer resistance to Piankhi, at all 
events until he (Tafnekhth) returned. He then mounted his 
horse and rode away. Tin- next morning Piankhi went to the 

side of the city and examined the fortifications, and he found 
them very strong. When his soldiers saw them they made up 
their minds that the city could only be taken by casting up 
mounds against it, and attacking it under cover of wooden 
towers; but Piankhi thought otherwise, and ordering his boats to 
advance, they dashed in among the vessels which lined the quay 
sides, and as the water was up to the walls, their bows 
projected over them into the city. From the bows of the boats 
the soldiers leaped into the city, and captured it with all the 
force of a water-flood. At dawn next day the king sent men 
to protect the temples, and then he went and made an offering to 
the gods, and he purified the city, and made sacrifices to Ptah 
and Seker. At this time Auapeth, and Merkanshu, and Peta- 
Ast tendered their submission and brought him gifts. The 
following day Piankhi crossed the river to Kher-Aha and 
sacrificed to Temu, and then he went on to Heliopolis to 
perform ceremonies in honour of the gods there. He first 
purified himself by bathing his face in the Sun Well, and then he 
offered up white oxen. &C, to Ra. He entered the temple of Ra, 
ami prayed many prayers there, and the high-priest also prayed 
on his behalf. This done, he asperged and censed himself, and 
then, taking with him flowers and perfume, he mounted the steps 
of the shrine, and opened the doors of the ark, and saw Ra face 
t<> face. He then adored the Boats of Ra and Tern, and, having 
shut the doors of the ark and sealed them, he ordered the priests 

t no other king enter the sanctuary. Piankhi was thus 
acknowledged king of Egypt by the god Amen-Ka. and all the 
people knew that they must tender to him their submission as 
the god's vice-gerent upon earth. The following day the 
Erpa Peta-Ast submitted and paid him large tribute, and 
fifteen other kings, and dukes, and governors followed his 

Meanwhile Tafnekhth, the leader of the rebellion, dismantled 

Unifications, set tire to his treasure-houses, and, taking his 
soldiers with him, fled to the city of M,st. Thither Piankhi sent 
soldiers under the Erpa P< fca-Ast, and they slew every man they 


found there. Tafnekhth seems to have escaped to some place 
among the salt lagoons near the sea-coast, and from this place he 
sent an envoy bearing his submission. He acknowledged his faults 
in picturesque language, and bagged Piankhi not to punish him 
according to his deserts ; in weighing his offences he begs the 
king to hold the scales of his judgment in such a way that such 
merit as he possesses by reason of his submission, and his suffer- 
ings and misery, may tell in his favour as much as possible. 
Finally, he said he was ready to pay tribute to Piankhi and to 
swear an oath of allegiance, and he asked the king to send an 
envoy to receive the tribute, and to hear him swear the oath. 
This Piankhi did, and Tafnekhth went into the house of his 
god, and in the presence of the Nubian commander-in-chief 
and a high-priest, he swore never to offend again ; this satis- 
fied Piankhi, who accepted the tribute, and granted peace to 
Tafnekhth. Soon after this the cities of Cynopolis and Aphrodito- 
polis submitted to Piankhi, and thus the whole of Egypt was in 
his power. Finally, two Governors of the North and two of 
the South, and all the other chiefs of the country, came and 
tendered their submission in person, but as all save one, 
Nemareth, were uncircumcised, and were fish-eaters, they were 
not admitted to the royal tent, and they stood outside in awe, 
" their legs (trembling) like those of women." 

There was nothing further for Piankhi to do. so his boats were 
loaded with the masses of tribute which had been given to him, 
and he sailed up the river with a glad heart, the people every- 
where receiving him with joy. He had added the kingdom of 
the North, which at its conquest by him extended from the 
Mediterranean to Asyiit, to his own kingdom of the South, and 
the Nile Valley so far south as Napata was once more subject to 
one king, just .as it had been under the XVIIIth Dynasty, only 
that king was a Sudani instead of an Egyptian. Piankhi did 
not rule from Thebes as might have been expected, but he 
returned to Napata with his spoil, a large portion of which fell, 
no doubt, to the share of the priests of Amen and their god. 
Probably with the view of commemorating his conquest of Egypt, 
Piankhi built a large temple on the plain at the foot of Gebel 
Barkal, which was dedicated to Amen-Ra and the other deities of 
his triad. It was at least 500 feet long and 135 feet wide, and 



contained two courts, a hypostyle hall, a vestibule, and a sanctuary, 
which held probably three shrines. The pylon which divided 

the first court from the second was decorated with battle-scenes, 
ssions, &c, copied, no doubt, from the temples of Egypt. 
'l"he temple is now a mass of ruins, but thanks to the plans and 
riptions made by Cailliaud, Hoskins, and Lepsius, when they 
in a less confused state than now, its general arrangement 
can be satisfactorily made <>ut. As this has been discussed 
where in the present work, nothing need be said about it here. 
It is a moot point whether Piankhi repaired and enlarged a 
temple erected by one of the great kings of the Wlllth or 
XlXth Dynasty, or built an entirely new edifice; it seems. 
however, most probable that he adopted the former course. It 
is impossible to think that the Thothmes and Amcndietep kings 
did not build temples in the capital of their Sudan kingdom, 
especially as under their reigns Napata must have been the great 
trading centre to which the slaves of the countries <>n the White 
and Blue Niles, and the gold, red stones, ivory, ebony, ostrich 
feathers, skins. &c., were brought. Hoskins tells 1 us that he found 
in the burial ground at Merawi a stone bearing one half of the 
name of Rameses II.: and Lepsius, probably referring to the 
same that the oldest remains which existed at G 

Barkal were confined to '"one temple which Rameses the G 

d to Amen-Ra." The occurrence of the name of this 
king on an isolated block of stone proves nothing beyond th< 
that some admirer of this king cut his name on it. As a matter 
of fact. Rameses II. had little interest in Napata, for in the Wadi 
'Ulaki, near Dakka, he found a rich gold-producing country 
which was far nearer Egypt than the mines of the region further 
south. And we know that his name appears prominently in 
places \\ here he built nothing. 

Piankhi to have neither restored nor built any temples 

\ pt : if he did, no traces of them remain. The black basalt 

stele on which he caused to be cut the history of his campaign 

\ pt tells us nothing concerning his subsequent acts, and 

nothing is known about his dealings with the duels 
further to the south in tin- Sudan, or the system on which he ruled 

-' Letters^ \>. 222. 


his kingdom. The one document which he has left us is, how- 
ever, most valuable, and its contents are of more than ordinary 
interest ; moreover, the information which it gives us is not to be 
obtained elsewhere. No other Nubian king has supplied us with 
such a full account of the chief events of his reign, and that the 
reader may be able to judge of his narrative in a consecutive 
form, an English rendering of it is here appended. A few 
passages are obscure to modern investigators of it, and the mean- 
ings of some of the words in it are not yet known accurately, but 
the general sense of the document is quite clear, and it proves 
that the Nubian Piankhi was no mere savage conqueror, but a 
man endowed with a full belief in his divine origin, a capable and 
energetic soldier, and a ruler who, in the hour of his triumph, 
exhibited moderation in his dealings with the vanquished, and 
who knew how to respect the temples and gods of Egypt, and 
the civil and religious institutions of the country whence his own 
civilization, and religion, and laws were drawn. 

Translation of the Inscription of Piankhi Meri Amen, 
King of the Egyptian Sudan, about b.c. 730. 

On the first day of the month Thoth, in t he twenty-first year of 

the reign of the king of the South and North C Piankhi-meri-Amen 1 , 

the ever-living, His Majesty pronounced the~[following] words : 
Hearken ye to the things which I have done more than [my] 
ancestors. I am a suten (king), the emanation of God, and the 
living counterpart of Tern ; [when I] came forth from the womb I 
was decreed (literally, written down) to be a ruler (heg) who 
should strike fear into his chiefs. I was recognized as a ruler by 
my mother when I was in the egg (i.e., in embryonic state), and as 
a well-doing god, and the beloved of the gods, the son of Ra, the 

work of his hands ( Piankhi-meri-Amen J. 

One came and said unto His Majesty : " The governor of the 
" country of the West (Amentet), the great duke (ha) in the city of 
" Neter (Sais), Tafnekhth, [hath made himself master] in the nome 
" of . . ■ . , in the nome Ka-heseb, in Hap, in An, in Pa-nub, and 
" in White Wall (Memphis) ; he hath taken possession of the whole 
" of the West Country, from the region of the swamps (on the 
"north) to Thet-taui [a district of Memphis]; he hath sailed up 
"the river with a large number of soldiers, and all the lands on 
"both sides of the Nile have joined themselves unto him, and the 



"dukes and the governors of the towns and cities which have 
" temples in them guard his feet like so many dogs. None of the 

" cities which are fortified hath shut its gates against him in 

" the nomes of the south. The city of Nfer-Tem, the city of Pa-Ra- 
" sekhem-kheper, the city of Xeter-het-Sebek (Crocodilopolis), the 
"city of Pa-Matchet (Oxyrhynchus), the city of Thekansh, and 
i \- town in the West Country, have unbolted their gates, by 
"reason of their fear of him. Then he betook himself to the 
" nomes of the East Country, and they also opened theirgates before 
"him, namely, IJet-Bennu Ilipponon), Taiutchait, Suten-^et and 
•• Pa-n< -b-ti-p-iihet (Aphroditopolis) ; verily [thus have they 
"done]. He hath also beleaguered Suten-henen (Herakleopolis), 
"and he hath completely surrounded it. 1 Of those who want to 
"come out none cometh out, and of those who would go into it 
" none goeth in by reason of the fighting which goeth on each day 
"(or, all day long) He hath invested the city closely at e 
"point, and every duke (ha) knoweth the portion of the wall 
" [which he is to attack]. He hath allowed every man among 
"the dukes and the governors of cities, which have temples in 
"them, to dwell in his own district. [These things hath he done] 
" by reason of the arrogance of his rebellious heart, and his heart is 
" swollen with pride and joy." 

And moreover, the chiefs, and the dukes, and the generals 
of the army which were in every town were sending mes- 
to His Majesty every day, saying: "If thou keepest silence 
"in this matter then all the Land of the South, and the 
"nomes of Middle Egypt, will be lost; Tafnekhth carrieth all 
"before him, and findeth none to resist him. Nemareth . . . . 
"the duke of I.Iet-urt hath thrown down the fortifications of 
"'the city of Neferus, and hath himself laid waste his own town. 
" being afraid that Tafnekhth will capture it; but when he was 
"besieged by him in another city, verily he departed and 
"became a watcher of his feet. Nemareth hath now forsaken His 
"Majesty ami hath become an adherent of Tafnekhth, whom he 
/eth, and Tafnekhth hath handed over to him the nome of 
"Oxyrhynchus, and hath given to him everything that his heart 

Then His Majesty sent messages to the dukes and to the 
Commanders-in-chief who were in Egypt, namely to the general 
Puarma, and the general Lamersekni, and t<> every general of His 
Majesty in Egypt, telling them to go quickly with boldness, and 
set in array the battle .... and to seize the men, and the cattle, 
and the barges which were on the river, and to prevent the 
labourers from going out to the fields, and to stop every ploughman 
from ploughing the land, and t<> beleaguer closely the country in 
front of the nome of Un (Hermopolis), and to fight against it each 
day. And thus did they. 

1 Literally, " he hath made himself like a serpenf with [its] tail in [itsj mouth." 



Then His Majesty made soldiers march into Egypt, and gave 
them strict commands, saying: "Ye shall not [pass] the night in 
"pleasure, 1 but as soon as ye see that he hath set his troops in 
" marching order, do battle with him. If any man shall say, He 
" hath marched his infantry and cavalry to another city, then abide 
"ye where ye are until his soldiers arrive. Attack ye when one 
" shall tell you that he is with his forces in another town, and let 
' ' the dukes whom he hath brought to help him be gathered together, 
" [and] let the Thehennu (Libyans), [and] as many soldiers as he 
" pleaseth muster [where they will], and let the battle be set in 
" array according to ancient custom. And say, We do not know 
" how to command him, and to give orders to his soldiers, and to 
"harness the finest horses of the stable. Then fight in battle 
"boldly, for we know that it is the god Amen who hath sent us 
"forth. And when ye arrive at the sanctuary of Uast (Thebes), 
" opposite the Apts (i.e., Karnak and Luxor), go ye into the water, 
" and cleanse ye yourselves in the waters of the stream. Undress 
"yourselves at the head of the lake, unstring your bows, lay aside 
"your arrows, and let not any chief imagine himself to be the 
"equal of the lord of two-fold strength, for the strength of no 
" mighty man shall prevail without his help. Him who is feeble 
"of arm he maketh strong of arm ; if the enemy be many, he 
" maketh them to flee before the hand of the impotent man, and 
" he maketh one man to lead captive a thousand. Wet ye 
"yourselves in the water of his altars, and smell ye the earth 
" before him, and say ye unto him ; ' O make thou a way for us, 
" and let us fight under the shadow of thy sword, for a child, if he 
" be sent by thee, shall overcome him that hath overcome 
" multitudes. '" 

Then the soldiers cast themselves on their bellies before His 
Majesty, saying: "Through thy name Amen will work mighty 
"deeds by us. Thy counsel leadeth thy soldiers, thy bread is in 
" our bodies on every road, and thy beer quencheth our thirst, 
"thy might giveth to us the sword of battle, and victory shall 
" come to us by the mention of thy name. The soldiers who are 
" led by a captain having unnatural passions shall not stand firm. 
" Who is like unto thee ? Verily thou art a strong king, thou 
" workest with thy hands, and thou art the overseer of the opera- 
" tions of war." 

Then the soldiers made their passage down the river, and they 
arrived at the city of Thebes, and they did everything which His 
Majesty had commanded them to do. And they continued their 
journey down the river, and they met several large boats sailing 
up the river containing soldiers, and sailors, and mighty captains 
of every kind of the Land of the North, and every man of them 
was equipped with the weapons of war and ready to do battle 
with the troops of His Majesty. Then the soldiers of His Majesty 

1 De Roug<5 translates: N' (attaquez pas) pendant la nuit,comme pour un jeu. 



inflicted a mighty defeat on them, and slew a countless number, 
and made pri ; their soldiers, and captured their boats. 

and they brought the captives alive to the place where His 
Majesty was. Then they marched on to the territory before the 
city of Suten-hem Lkleopolis) in order to set in array the 

battle against the dukes and the kings of the Land of the North. 
that is to ittack king Nemareth, and king Auapeth, and 

Shashanq, the chief of the Mashuasha, of the city of Pa-Asar neb- 
T< t. i.e., Busiris) : and Tchet-Amen-af-ankh, the erreat chief of the 
Mashuasha, of the city oi Pa-ba-neb-fet (i.e., Mendes) ; and his 
eldest son who was commander of the Hoops of the city of Pa- 
Tehuti-ap-rehehui i.e., Hermopolis Parva) , and the soldiers of 
the Erpa Bakennifi; and his el Nesnaqeti, the chief of the 

Mashuasha in the nome of ka-heseb : and every prince who carrieth 
a fan in the Land of the North ; and king Uasarken, who is in Pa- 
■ Bubastis) and the city of Uu-en-Ra-nefert ; and every duke, 
and every governor of a city wherein there is a temple on the 
west of the river, and on ti of the river, and in the lands 

which art- between them. All these had joined themselves 
ther, and had become guardians of the feet of Tafnekhth, the 
chief <-f the Land of the West, the governor of all the temple 
cities of the Land of the- North, the prophet of Neith, the lady of 
SaYs, and the settl priest of the god Ptah. 

The soldiers of \\\< Majesty marched against them, and they 
inflicted defeal upon them, the greatest defeat there everwas, and 
they captured their boats on the river. A remnant of them made 
their escape and succeeded in reaching a place in the country on 
the western bank called Pa-pek. As soon as the dawn came on 
the following morning the soldiers of His Majesty set out to 
attack them, and they rushed in among them and slew such a 
large number of men and horses that it was impossible to say how 
many had died. I hen panic seized the rest of them, and they 
fled to the Land of the North, having suffered a defeat which was 
greater and more disastrous than they had ever known.' 

And king Nemareth sailed up the river, having been told that 

the city of Khemennu I Hermopolis) was [open] before the enemy. 

that is, the soldiers of Mis Majesty [Piankhi]. He captured its 

ttle, and he himself went into the city of I'm 

f His Majesty [Piankhi) were [in boats] on the 

on the territory of the nome of In. and 

when they heard this, they surrounded the nome of (." n on all its 

four sides, and they allowed no man either t<> come in orto go out ; 

and they sent mess to announce to His Majesty, the King 

of the South and North f Piankhi-meri-Amen J, the life-giver, 

each defeat which had been inflicted on the enemy by the forces 

1 When complete, the text at this j the number of the people who 

nn in tin I) it the figures have either been ei 

wittingly, or broken dentally. 



of His Majesty. And His Majesty raged like a panther, and said : 
" If it should happen that they leave alive a remnant of the soldiers 
"of the Land of the North, and if any one of them escape to 
" relate the story thereof, and if they do not slay utterly every one 
" of them, I swear by my own life, nnd by the love which I bear to 
" Ra, and by the grace which Father Amen hath shown to me, 
" that I myself will go down the river and will overthrow every- 
" thing which he (i.e., Tafnekhth) hath made, and will make him 
" to retreat from the fight for evermore. When I have performed 
''the ceremonies which belong to the Festival of the New Year, 
"and I have made my offering to Father Amen during his beauti- 
" ful festival, wherein he maketh his beautiful appearance at 
" the Festival of the New Year, he shall send me away in peace 
" to see Amen during the beautiful festival of the Festival of Apt, 
" and I shall make him to appear in his divine form in the Apt of the 
" South ' in his beautiful festival of the Festival of the Apt, on the 
" night of the Festival which is stablished in Thebes, the Festival 
" which Ra ordained 2 when time began, and I shall make him to 
" appear in his temple, and he shall take his position on his throne 
" on the day whereon the god entereth, which is the second day of 
" the third month of the summer, on that day, I say, will I make 
" the Land of the North to taste the taste of my fingers."' 

Now when the soldiers [of His Majesty Piankhi] who were in 
Egypt heard of the wrath which His Majesty nursed against them 
they waged war against the nome of Uaseb at Pa-Matchet 
(Oxyrhynchus), and they captured it like a water-flood. They 
sent messengers to His Majesty [to announce this], but his heart 
was not satisfied thereat. Then they attacked Tatehen, 3 which 
was very strongly fortified, and they found it to be full of mighty 
men of war of all kinds of the Land of the North. And they 
constructed a tower 4 to send against it to beat down its walls, and 
they made so great a slaughter among its people that the dead 
could not be counted ; among these was the son of Tafnekhth, the 
prince of the Mashuasha. They sent messengers to His Majesty 
[to announce this], but his heart was not satisfied thereat. Then 
they attacked Het Bennu, and it opened its fortress, and the 
soldiers of His Majesty entered therein. They sent messengers 
to His Majesty [to announce this], but his heart was not satisfied 

On the ninth day of the first month of the summer, His 
Majesty set out on his journey and went down the river to 
Thebes, and he took part in the celebration of the Festival of 
Amen, the Festival of Apt. Then His Majesty continued his 
journey down the river to the city of Un. And His Majesty 
came forth from the cabin of his barge, and he harnessed his 
horses, and mounted his chariot, and the terror of His Majesty 

1 I.e., the temple of Luxor. s Literally, made. 

3 A fortress near Memphis. A I.e., a battering ram. 



penetrated even to the remotest parts of the country of the 
Sati Asia ?), and every heart quaked with the fear of him. And 
His Majesty rushed forth and threw himself upon those whom 
his soldier- hated, and he raged at them like a panther, and said : 
" W ye still continue to fight, and if ye still gainsay my com- 
"mands, and if ye, moreover, persist in your rebellion I must in 
" truth put the fear of me in the Land of the North." And he 
inflicted upon them a terrible defeat, disastrous and crushing. 

Then a tent was pitched for him to the south-west of the city 
of Hermopolis, and he besieged the city every day. lie made 
heaps of earth to cover the walls, and he set up wooden stagings 
ale them. And the archers [who were in them] shot forth 
arrows, and the leathern slings hurled forth stones to kill people 
[in the city] every day. And it came to pass on the third day 
that the city of On was in a stinking state, and the people thereof 
could not breathe by reason of the stench [of the corpses]. 
Then the city ^l~ I'n cast it>elf upon its belly, and it offered up 
supplications for mercy before the king (/W, i.e., His Majesty 
Piankhi . And envoys came forth with things of every kind 
which were beautiful to look upon, that is to say, gold, precious 
stones of every kind, and apparel made of the finest linen, [and 
they said]; "He hath risen! The uraeus is on his brow, he hath 
11 placed his terror [in our hearts], and it is unnecessary for us to 
" allow many days to pass before making supplication to his 
"crown." '1 hen he [i.e., Nemareth] made his wife to come, tin- 
wife of a king and the daughter of a king. Nesthentmeh, to make 
supplication before the queen and loyal concubines, and 
princesses, and sisters of the king (i.e., of Piankhi), and she 
cast herself upon her belly in the house of the women, before the 
queens, saying. " O come with me, queens, and princesses, and 
. and make ye to be at peace Horus, the lord of the 
" palace, whose souls are mighty, and whose- word cometh to pass 

" with great effect indeed, O come ye " 

[Fifteen lines of the text are here broken away] 

*' the way of life. 1 If I were to ascend into the sky like an 

"arrow, I should be [caught by thee. Have submitted to thee] 
" the countries of the South, and the land of the North bows in 
"homage before thee. We beseech thee to let us live under 
"thy shadow .... Not a grown man is seen with his father, 
thy Domes are tilled with children.'" And he cast himself 
upon his belly before Hi- Majesty .... saying: "O Horns, 
"lord of the palace, behold, it is thy souls who have done this 
" thing unto me. I am one of thy royal vassals, who are bound 
"to pay tribute into thy treasury, whose tribute thou dost 
,pute, but I will pay unto thee more than they all." Then 
he brought the tribute which had been laid upon him, silver, 

Lapis-lazuli, turquoises, copper (?), and [precious] stones of 

: This is a part of the speech of the conquered rebel to Piankhi. 


every kind in large quantities, and he filled the treasure-house 
with these offerings. He led a horse in his right hand, and in 
his left he held a sistrum, a sistrum of gold and lapis-lazuli, 

Then [Piankhi] rose in his palace, and he came forth and 
went to the Temple of Thoth, the Lord of the Eight Gods, and 
he slaughtered oxen, and calves, and geese, to Father Thoth, 
the Lord of the Eight Gods in the House of the Eight Gods, and 
the fighting men of the nome of Un [Hermopolis] shouted for 
joy, and the priests said : " Right well hath Horus, the son of 

" Ra, ( Piankhi 1L taken up his place in his town. Thou hast 

" made for us a festival inasmuch as thou hast protected the nome 
"ofUn." • 

Then His Majesty set out to go to the palace of king 
Nemareth, and he went through every chamber of the royal 
house, and his treasury, and his store-houses. Then he made 
them bring to him the queens and the princesses, and they were 
loud in their praises of His Majesty after the manner of women, 
but His Majesty did not permit his face to turn towards them. 
And His Majesty went on to the place where the horses were 
kept, and into the stalls of the foals, and he perceived that they 
had been suffering from hunger, and he said : " I swear by my 
" own life, and by the love which I have for Ra, who reneweth 
*' the [breath of] life which is in my nostrils, that, to my mind, 
" to have allowed my horses to suffer hunger, is the worst of all 
" the evil things which thou hast done in the violence of thy 
" heart. I can testify to the terror of a lord in thy people. 1 
" Knowest thou not that the shadow of God is upon me, and that 
" my luck never faileth me ? I swear that if any man whom I 
" had not known had done this thing to me I would never have 
" remitted to him his offence. I was brought forth from [my 
" mother's] womb having been brought into being from a divine 
" egg, and the god begot me and set his person [in me]. I have 
" never done anything without him, and he himself hath decreed 
" that which I have done." 

Then His Majesty took count of the spoil for the treasury, and 
of his storehouses [which he dedicated] as an offering for Amen in 
the Apts. And the governor of Suten-henen (Herakleopolis >, 
Pef-tch-aa-Bast, came with his gifts to Pharaoh, gold, silver, 
[precious] stones of all kinds, and the finest horses from his 
stables, and he cast himself upon his belly in the presence of His 
Majesty, and he said : " Homage to thee, O Horus, thou mighty 
"king, thou bull who subduest bulls! I dug out a place for 
" myself in the Tuat, 2 I was sunk deep down in the darkness, 

1 A difficult pa-sage. De Rouge reads : " Ne rebelle pas ton cceur ! j'attes- 
terai la terreur du maitre a tes gens : " and Brugsch renders : " That thou 
hast laid thy heart bare through this, evidence is furnished me of thy habitual 
views " (?). 

2 I.e., the Other World. He means to say, " I was in the blackest hell." 
VOL. II. iy C 


11 when light was cast in on me. I found no friend in the day of 
'• evil, or any one who supported me in the day of battle excepl 
" thyself, O king. Thou hast rolled away the darkness which 
"was over me. Henceforward I will be thy servant, and all my 
'• possessions are thine. Suten-luiien shall pay tribute into thy 
"palace, tor 'heboid, thou art the image of Ra-Harmachis and 
" thou art above the stars which never fail (akkemu seku). His 
" existence is thine in thy capacity of king j he never diminisheth 
" a nd thou shalt never diminish, O king of the South and North, 

"f Piankhi J, who livest forever ! " 

Then His Majesty sailed down the river to A.p-she (i.e., the 
Payyum), near to R ehent (Al-Lahun), and he found the city of Pa 

f Ra-sekhem-kheper J, with its fortifications manned, and its 

fortress shut against him, and it was filled with mighty m< 
war of all kinds from the Land of the North. And His Majesty 
sent a message unto them, saying: "0 ye who live in the death 

" of the Tuat, deprived of ye wretched ones ! ye who 

"live in death, if another moment pass without your having 
"opened your gates to me, verily ye shall suffer the doom of 
" vanquished folk, and it shall be disastrous to the king. Do not 

close the doors of your lives at the block of slaughter this 
"day; do not love death and hate life " Then they sent 

engers unto His Majesty, saying: "Indeed the shadow of 
" god is on thy head, O son of Nut, 1 and he hath given unto thee 
" his two hands. The thing which is imagined in thy heart 
" cometh to pass straightway, even as that which cometh forth 
" from the mouth of God, for verily, thou art born of God ; this 
" wesee by the work- of thy two hands. Verily [this is] thy city, 

" and its enclosed fortifications [are thine] let every man 

" enter and let every mango forth, and let His Majesty 'swill be done." 
Then they came forth with the son of the Prince of Mashuasha, 
Tafnekhth. And the soldiers of His Majesty entered into the city, 
and he did not slay any man whom he found therein. [Then His 
Majesty sent men] with those who had the seals to seal up his doc u 
and he had a list made of the things in his treasury for the 

■wy. and the contents of the store-houses were counted as 
offering for his father Anien-ka, the lord of the thrones of the 
Two Lands. 

And His M; ntinued his journey down the river, and he 

found the city ofMer-Tem, the Temple of Seker-neb-sehetch, with 

ates] shut, but before he came th( I onflict broke out 

within it and fear [seized | them, and terror closed then 

mouths Then His Majesty sent messengers unto them, saying: 
" Verily tl two ways before you: cho< according 

your -ates and ye shall In 

I.e.. the goddess of the sky. 

Mom the mouth of thy two han< 


" them closed and ye shall die • for My Majesty passeth by no 
"city that keepeth its gates shut." Thereupon His Majesty 
entered straightway into the innermost part of this city, and he 

dedicated [and offered sacrifices] to the goddess Menhi- 

khent-Sehetch. And he made a list of the contents of his 
treasury and store houses which he set apart as offerings to Amen 
of the Apt?. 

Then His Majesty continued his journey down the river to 
Thet-taui, 1 and he found its fortifications closed and manned by 
mighty men of war of all kinds of the Land of the South. And 
they opened the gates of their strong places, and they cast them- 
selves upon their bellies, [and they sent messengers to] His 
Majesty, [saying] : " Thy father hath decreed that thou shalt 
"possess his heritage of the lordship of the Two Lands: thou 
"hast taken possession of them, and thou art the lord over [all] 
"the earth." Then His Majesty went forth [from the cabin of 
his boat] , and he offered up a great sacrifice to the gods who 
dwelt in this city, oxen, calves, geese, and good and pure things 
of eveiy kind. And he had a list of the contents of the treasury 
made for his treasury, and of the contents of the store-houses he 
made offerings [to Amen of the Apts]. 

[Then His Majesty advanced to] White Wall (i.e.. Memphis), 
and he sent messengers unto the inhabitants thereof, saying : 
" Shut ye not your gates, and there shall be no fighting inside 
" your city. My entry therein shall belike unto the entry of the 
"god Shu, who is from primeval time, and my going forth shall 
"be as his going forth, and my passage shall not be obstructed. 
" I will make an offering unto Ptah and the gods who are within 
"White Wall, I will perform all the ceremonies appertaining to 
" Seker in the secret sanctuary, I will look upon the god who is 
'on his southern wall (i.e., Ptah), and then I will sail on down 
" the river in peace .... White Wall shall remain unharmed 
" and safe, and not a child shall raise a cry of distress. Consider 
" ye now the nomes to the south. Not a man in them, except 
" such as hath uttered blasphemies against god and hath revolted, 
" hath been slain, for the block of slaughter hath only been 
" prepared for those who have rebelled." 

[Nevertheless the inhabitants of White Wall] shut fast 
their gates, and they caused a company of soldiers to go forth 
against a few of the soldiers of His Majesty who were artificers, 
and master- masons, and boatmen [and they slew them on] 
the river bank of White Wall. And behold that Prince of 
Sais (Tafnekhth) came to White Wall by night, and he gave 
orders to his soldiers, and to his transport men, and to every 
officer of his soldiers ;who were in all] eight thousand men, 
and he admonished them very strictly indeed [saying] : — " Verily 

1 This strong-; fortress was built by Amenemhat I., and marked the 
division between Lower and Upper Egypt. It lay a little to the south of 



•• Men-Nefer is filled with the bravest, mightiest men of war of 

"all kinds of the Land of the North, and its granaries arc over- 
11 flowing with wheat, and barley, and grain of all kinds, and 
'• weapons Of all kinds are [stored therein], and [the city is 
" surrounded by] a wall, and the great bastions are built as 
" strongly as the craft of the mason can build them, and [as] the 
11 river floweth round its eastern side no place for attacking it can 
" be found there. The byres remain full of cattle, and the 
" treasury is stored with silver, gold, bronze, clothing, ino 
" honey, and unguents. I am going away, and I commit 
" [this] property to the chiefs of the North, I will open their 
" nomes for them, and I will become . . . [defend ye these 
" for a few] days until I conn-." Then he mounted his h 
for he could not depend upon his chariot, and he went down the 
river through fear of His Majesty. 

And as soon as it was dawn on the following day. His Majesty 
set out for White- Wall : he landed on the northern side of the 
city, finding that the waters reached up to the walls, and the 
boats came up close to the [quay] of Men-Nefer (Memphis). And 
His Majesty saw that it was Strongly fortified, and that the walls 
thereof had been made higher by means of new buildings, and 
that the bastions thereof were provided with fort i tic; it ions, and that 
there was no place available whereat it might be attacked. Now 
every man among the soldiers of His Majesty .-pake his opinion 
as to the method which ought to be followed in attacking [the 
city], and every one said: — "Come, let us surround it on all 
" sides .... verily its soldiers are very many. And the master 
"of affairs [or. works] said:— Make a pas-age to it. We will 
" throw up earth against the walls thereof, and on this we will lay 
" planks of olive wood firmly fastened together, and we' will ■ 
" wooden towers, and will make wooden .... round about 
" its whole circuit, and with these we will make breaches every- 
" where in it from the mounds of earth and the .... to raise 
••the' ground by its walls, and we shall [thus] find a path for our 

Then was His Majesty filled with rage like a panther, and he: 
said : — " I swear by my own life, and by the love of Ra, and by 
"the grace of my father Amen, that I believe 1 this hath 
" happened in respect of it by the' decree of Amen. This ii.e\. the 
ch given above) is the speech of a man ... and the 
" nomes of the south : they opened their gates to him [whilst he 
" was] on the road. They have not set Amen in their hearts, 
"and they know not his decree; this hath he done so that he 
" might make' his souls cause his terror to be seen. I shall 
nire the city like- a water-flood, and this hath [my father 
" Amen] ordered me to do." Then he made his boat 
advance, and his soldiers to attack the quay of Men-Nefer ; and 

1 Literally, " I find " (?). 


they passed in among the barges, and transports, and all boats 
with decks, and all the boats without, and these, in very large 
numbers, they tied up their own boats to the quay of Men-Nefer, 
with their bows close in to the houses of the city .... and 
none of the soldiers of His Majesty caused one child to cry 
out in distress. Then His Majesty himself had the vessels, 
and they were very many, drawn close to [the quay]. And 
His Majesty said unto his soldiers: — " It resteth now upon you 
" to act ; surround the walls, and enter the houses on the 
" waters of the river. If any man among you entereth by the 
" wall, let him not stay upon the place where he is ... . Offer 
" no resistance to the captains [who wish to submit], for that 
" would be an abominable thing [to do]. We have closed the 
" country of the South, and we have arrived at the country of the 
" North, and we sit upon Makhi-taui." l 

And His Majesty captured the town of Men-Nefer like a water- 
flood, and he slew a large number of the people who were 
therein, and the prisoners were brought alive to the place 
where His Majesty was. And when it was dawn on the following 
day, His Majesty caused men to go there to protect the temples 
of God, and he performed acts of worship in the sanctuary of 
the gods, and he poured out libations to the divine chiefs of Het- 
ka-Ptah, and he purified Men-Nefer with natron and incense, and 
he set the priests in their appointed places. Then His Majesty 
went to the temple [of Ptah] and he poured out a libation at the 
entrance thereof, and he performed all the ceremonies which are 
prescribed for performance by the king, he entered into the divine 
house, and he offered up a great sacrifice to Ptah upon his 
Southern Wall, consisting of oxen, calves, geese, and every kind 
of good thing. 

Then His Majesty went into his house, and he heard that all 
the towns which were in the district of Men-Nefer, that is to say, 
the town of Heripetmai, and Peni- .... naunaa, and Pebekhen- 
nebiu, and Tauhibit, had opened their gates, and that all the 
inhabitants thereof had betaken themselves to flight, and that no 
man knew where they had gone. And Auapeth and Merkanshu, 
the chief of the Mashuasha, and the erpct Peta-Asteta, and 
all the dukes of the Land of the North came bearing their 
offerings to look upon the beauties 2 of His Majesty. And he 
adjudged the contents of the treasuries and store-houses of 
Memphis as offerings for Amen, and Ptah, and the company of 
the gods who were in Het-ka-Ptah (Memphis). 

And at dawn on the following day His Majesty made a journey 
to the east side of the river, and he made an offering to Tern in 

1 A name meaning, " The Balance of the Two Lands." This place was near 

3 I.e., to experience the noble qualities of forgiveness and magnanimity of 



Kher-Aha, 1 and to the company of the gods in the temple, 
and to the company of the gods of the Amhet, and to the 
gods who arc therein, consisting of oxen, calves, and geese, 
so that they might give Life, strength, and health to the king of 
the Smith and .\orth, Piankhi, living for ever. 

Then His Majesty set out for Annu ( Heliopolis), oxer the 
mountain of Kher-Aha, by the road of the god Sep to Kher-Aha, 
and Mis Majesty went on to the camp to the west of the town n( 
the two wells (or lakes) Merti (i.e., the modern Matariva>, and 
he made an offering there, and he purihed himself in tin 
of water, and he bathed his face in the milk (i.e.. water) of Nut. 
wherein Ka bathed his face. And he passed on to Shai-qa-em 
Annu, and he offered up a great offering there before Ka as he i 
consisting of white oxen, milk, ami, incense, and sweet-smelling 
wood of all kinds. And as he was going along he went into the 
House of Ra, and he entered the temple, and prayed many pri 
therein. And the chief kher heb priest offered up prayers that 
the attacks of Bends on the king might be repulsed. And he 
performed the ceremonies of the per sba (?) chamber, and he 
girded about him the sefeb garment, and he purified himself with 
incense, and he sprinkled himself with water, and la- brought 
the ankhiu flowers of the shrine (het-benbent, i.e.. the house of the 
obelisk), and he took perfume, and he ascended the steps to the 
great ark in order that he might look upon Ra himself in the 
shrine (het-benbent) . And His Majesty stood up there by himself, 
he drew back the bolts, and opened the doors of the ark. and he 
i upon Ra in the shrine, and he made adorations before the 
• Boat of Ra, and the Sektet Boat of Tern. Then he drew 
together '.he doors [of the sanctuary] and set clay upon th 
whereon he impressed the seal 01 the king himself. And he 
admonished the priests, saying : "1 h [ m y] seal : ^ (,t no 

'•other king whatsoever who may stand [here] enter." And the 
ast themselves upon their bellies before His Majesty, 
saying: " Horns, who loveth Annu (Heliopolis) shall endure, 
" and flourish, and shall never diminish!" 

And His Majesty went on and entered into the house of Tem, 
and he performed the ceremonies connected with the offering of 
figures made of anti of Tem-Khepera, the prince of Annu. 

Then the king Uasarken came to see the beauties of His 

And His Majesty set out on the following morning at dawn, 
at the head of his boats from the river bank, and journeyed t<> 
Ka qem. And his Majesty's tent was pitched to the south of 
Kaheni. and to the east of Ka-qem, and the kings and the dukes 
Oi the Land of the North, and all the chiefs, and all the fan- 
id all the umbrella-bearers, and all the nobles, and all 
the royal kinsfolk from ti and from the West Countries, 

1 A city which occupied the site of Old Cairo. 


and from the regions of Middle Egypt, came to look upon the 
beauties of His Majesty. And the Erpii Pata-Astet threw him- 
self upon his belly before His Majesty, saying: "Come thou 
" to Ka-qem, and may the god Khent-Khatthi look upon thee, 
" and the goddess Khuit protect thee. Offer thou sacrifices to 
" Horus in his temple, oxen, calves, and geese. Enter thou into 
" my house, open the doors of my treasury, and make thyself 
'• lord of the property of my father. I will give unto thee as 
" much gold as thine heart can desire, and a mass of copper (or 
" turquoise) as large as thyself, and the finest horses which are 
" in my stud-farm, and the best and strongest which are in 
" my stables." Then His Majesty went to the temple of Heru- 
khent-Khatthi and made an offering of oxen, and calves, and 
geese to his father Heru-khent-Khatthi, the lord of Qem-ur. 
And His Majesty went into the palace of the Erpa Peta-Ast, who 
presented to him gold, silver, lapis-lazuli, copper (or turquoise), 
and a great mass of property of all kinds, that is to say, suits of 
apparel made of byssus of every quality, and couches, and cover- 
lets of fine linen, and dnti perfume, and vases full of unguents, 
and all the best horses and mares in his stables. Then 
Peta-Ast purified himself and swore an oath by [his] god before 
the kings and governors of the Land of the North, saying : 
" Whosoever shall conceal his horses, or hide any property 
"which he hath [from His Majesty] shall most assuredly die the 
" death of his father. These things I declare so that ye may 
" cease to offer opposition to him. And if ye know of anything 
"that belongeth to me which I have hidden from His Majesty of 
"the things of my father's house ye shall certainly declare it, 
" whether it be gold, or silver (?), or [precious] stones, or metal 
" vessels, or bracelets, or gold ornaments for the neck, or metal 
" collars inlaid with [precious] stones, or amulets for any 
" member of the body, or crowns for the head, or rings for the 
" ears, or ornaments worn by the king, or gold vases wherein 
" the king performeth the ceremonies of purification, or [precious] 
" stones of any sort or kind whatsoever. I have given to the 
" king thousands of suits of apparel made of the finest linen, 
" every kind being of the best which I have in my house, and I 
" know [O king] that thou wilt be satisfied therewith. Pass 
"thou now into my stud-farm and choose thereout as many of the 
" horses which please thee as thou desirest." And His Majesty 
did so. 

Then the kings and dukes spake unto His Majesty, saying : 
" Permit us to depart unto our towns, and we will open our 
" treasure-houses, and we will choose thereout the things which 
" thy heart loveth, and we will bring unto thee the best horses 
" from our stud-farms, and the finest of our chargers." And His 
Majesty did so. [Here followeth] the list of the names of the 
kings ; — 

King Osorkon in Bubastis and Ra-nefer. 



King A.uapeth in Thenteremu and Ta-an. 

Duke Tchet-Amen-auf-ankh in Mendes and Ta- . . . -Ra. 

His eldest son, Anikh-IJeru, commander-in-chief in Pa- 

Duke Merkanesh in Sebennytus, and Pa-Hebi, and Sma- 

Duke and Prince of the Mashuasha, Pathenfin Pa Sept, and 

. . . pen-aneb fretchet 
Duke and Prince of the Mashuasha, Pemau in Busiris. 
Duke and Prince of the Mashuasha, Nesnaketi in Pharbae- 

Duke and Prince of the Mashuasha, Nekht-Heru-na- 

shennu, in Pakerer. 
Prince of the Mashuasha [in] Pentaurt. 
Prince of the Mashuasha [in] Penth-bekhent. 

The Proplu-t of l.lonis, lord of Sekhem, Peta-rleru-sma-taui. 
Duke Murhasa in Pa-Sekhet-nebt-Saut and in Pa-Sekhel neb- 

Duke Tcbet-khiau in Khent-Nef< 

Duke Pa-Bas in Kher-aha and in Pa-Hap. 
[These came with their offerings of fine objects of all kinds, 
that is to say, gold, silver, [lapis-lazuli,] copper (or turquoise), 
[and a great I property of all kinds, that is to say, suits of 

apparel made ofbyssus of every quality], and couches, and cover- 
f fine linen, and ami perfume in \ ... and all the 

best horses and mares [in his stable- .... 

[•And it came to pass after] these things that one came and 
told His Majesty, saying: " [ Tafnekhth] hath [gathered together! 
" his , and he hath I torn down] his walls through fear 01 

•• thee, he hath set fire to his treasure-nouses, [he hath fled in a 
•' boat on the river, and lie hath entrenched himself strongly in 
" the city of M es$ [with his] soldiers.'" And His Majesty caused 
fighting men to go and see what had happened, and they did so 

under the command of the Erpa P And they came back 

and reported to His Majesty, saying ; " We have killed every man 
whom we found there; "and His Majesty gave a reward to the 
Erpa Then Tafnekhth, the Prince of Mashuasha, 

heard of this, and he sent an envoy to the place where His 

to make supplication, saying: "Be thou at > 
" [with me]. I have not seen thy face during the days of shame. 

ind against thy tire, and the terror of thine onset 
•• hath vanquished me. Behold, thou art the god Nubt, the 
.ein. »r of the South, and the god Menthu, the mighty bull! 
'• In every matter whereto thou hast set thy fece thou hast 
*• found none who could resist thee. I have reached the utter- 
■• nu-st swamps on the coast of th< Greal Green Water (i.e., the 
■• Mediterranean), but I am afraid of thy souls because thy word 
fire hath become an enemy to me. Is not the heart of Thy 

•• M .d by reason of the things which thou hast 


" done unto me? Behold, I am in very truth a most miserable 
" man ; punish thou me not in proportion to [my] abominable 
" deeds. The measure of the scales taketh count of qclet weights, 
"and do thou double them on my behalf in forgetting [my 
" misdeeds]. If thou sowest seed thou wilt meet it [again] in 
" [its] season, and dig thou not up the trees when they are in 
" blossom. Thou hast sown the terror of thee in my body, and 
" the fear of thee is in my bones. I do not any longer sit in the 
" beer-hall, and no man bringeth to me the harp. Behold, I only 
" eat the bread [required] by hunger, and I only drink the water 
" [demanded] by thirst. Since the day when thou didst hear my 
kl name wretchedness hath been in my bones. My head hath 
"lost its hair, and my apparel is rags. I have lied and taken 
" refuge with the goddess Nit (Neith), O come to me and turn thou 
" thy face to me ! Seeing that I have separated myself from my 
" sin, hold then thy servant guiltless, and lift his [sin] from him. 
" I beseech thee to receive my goods into [thy] treasury, the gold, 
"and the [precious] stones, together with the best of my horses, 
" and an abundant supply of every thing. I beseech thee to send 
"to me an envoy to take them, and to remove the fear which 
" is in my heart. Verily I will go in his presence into the 
" temple, and I will purge myself of my sin by swearing an oath 
" [of allegiance to thee] by God." 

Then His Majesty sent the hh-r heb priest Peta-Amen-[neb]- 
nest-taui and the commander-in-chief Puarma, and Tafnekhth 
loaded them with silver, and gold, and raiment, and [precious] 
stones, and he went into the house of [his] god, and prayed unto 
him, and purged himself of his sin, and swore an oath of 
allegiance by God, saying : " 1 will never again transgress the 
" decree of the king, and I will never oppose the words of His 
" Majesty. I will never again injure (?) any duke without thy 
" knowledge, and I will perform the king's behests, and I will 
" never transgress any decree which he hath uttered." And with 
these words the heart of His Majesty was satisfied. 

Then one came and reported to His Majesty, saying ; "The 
" city of Cynopolis hath opened its gates, and the city of 
" Aphroditopolis hath cast itself on its belly. There is now no 
" nome shut against His Majesty of the nomes of the South, or of 
" the North, or of the West, or of the East. The districts of 
" the Interior are on their bellies through fear of thee, and they 
" have brought their property, as they were bound to do, to the 
" place where His Majesty is, even like servants of the palace." 

And at dawn on the following day the two governors of the 
South, and the two governors of the North, with their uraei on 
their foreheads, came to smell the ground of (i.e., do homage to) 
the souls of His Majesty, and behold the kings and dukes of the 
Land of the North came also to look upon the beauties of His 
Majesty. Now their legs were like the legs of women. And 
they did not enter into the house of the king, because they were 



uncircumcised, and they were eaters of fish, [a habit] which 
is held m abomination in the royal house. And behold, king 
Nemareth did enter the royal house, because he was i 
monially pure, and was not an cater of fish; [but the 
other el >od on their feet, and not one of them 

entered the royal house. Then [His Majesty] Loaded the 
barges with silver, and gold, and copper, and raiment, and 
kind of product of the Land of the North, and with products 
of all kinds from Syria, and with spices of Ta-netcr. and he 
1 up the river, and his heart was glad, and both sides of 
the river, the Wesl and the East, rejoiced And the people 
welcomed him with rejoicings, and they shouted and cried out 
with gladness, saying :" Hail, divine Governor and Co nge, 

■•Hail, divine Governor and Conqueror! f Piankhi J, the 

\ ernor and Conqueror ! Thou hast come and hast made thy- 
self governor of the Land of the North. Thou hast made men 
*'to | »men. Let the heart of the mother rejoice who 

"hath given birth to a man. He who dwelleth in Am (i.e., Amen) 
"hath poured out the seed which produced thee. Let praise 

tscribed to the Cow which gave birth to the Bull. Mayest 
•"thou live for ever, and may thy strength en. lure eternally. (> 
■■ ( rovernor, who Invest I I 



The great inscription of Piankhi, of which a translation has 
been given in the preceding pages, gives us, unfortunately, no 
particulars of his ancestry, and tells us nothing of his descendants. 
The: list of kings compiled by Lepsius, and adopted by Brugsch 
and Bouriant in their work, 1 gives as the immediate ancestor of 
Piankhi another king of Napata of the same name, whose Horus 
name was " Heru sehetep taui-f," " 2 whose prenomen was 
" Senefer-Ra," 3 and who called himself "son of Ra," and 
" King of the South and North." Why this king was made to 
head the list of the kings of Napata is not clear, but from the form 
of his prenomen, which resembles those of Senka-Amen-seken 4 
and Atlanersa, 5 it is probable that he reigned after Piankhi Meri- 
Amen. Be that as it may, on the death of Piankhi Meri-Amen 
the sovereignty appears to have passed into the hands of a Nubian 
called Kashta, 6 who was then ruling in some capacity at Thebes. 
His claim to the throne is not clear, but he may have been a son 
of Piankhi Meri-Amen, or his mother may have been a descendant 
of one of the priest-kings at Thebes. It is a remarkable fact that 
his name is not found on any monument at Gebel Barkal, and we 
may therefore conclude that he usurped the kingdom whilst 
Napata was still in the hands of one of Piankhi's offspring. By 
some Kashta has been identified with the Zet, Zyjt, or Xet, H>;t, 
whom Manetho makes to be one of the two last kings of the 

1 Le Livre des Rois : Cairo, 1887. 


T /wwv\ \ 


Ileru-seh-taui v\ I <=&*=*. 5 Heru-ker-taui C\ \ 


His prenomen is unknown. 



XXIIIrd Dynasty. Kashta married Shep-en-Apt, 1 a daughter of 
Osorkon III., the great high-priestess of Amen, whose official title 
•• XrUr-Tuat," i.e., "divine adorer," or "morning star/' 
By her he had issue Shabaka, who became king of Egypt and 
Nubia, and Amen&rtas, who attained to the rank of high-priestess 
of Amen. Kashta's influence in Egypt and the Sudan was not 
great, and he made no attempt to slay Bakenrenf, who had 
succeeded his father Tafnekhth at Sais, and who was regarded as 
the king of Lower Egypt. Bakenrenf, who is called Bocchoris 
by the Greek writers, was one of the six great law-giversol Egypt, 
and he is described as a wise and prudent man. 

Kashta's son and su< SHABAKA,' who was the first of the 

Nubian or Sudani Dynasty, ascended the throne between B.C. 
710 and 710, and reigned at least twelve years. His home 
appears to have been at Napata, and it is probable that he began 
to reign their, but he found that the kingdom of the North was 
ling stronger and stronger, and he set out to reduce to 
submission the country which Piankhi had made: a province oi his 
dominions. He left Napata and passed triumphantly into and 
through Egypt, and he defeated all who took up arms against him. 
Bakenrenf, the son of Tafnekhth, king of SaTs and Memphis, 
and a vassal of Piankhi, was either burned or flayed alive by 
Shabaka, who took up his abode at Thebes and ruled Egypt and 
the Sudan from that city. The rule of Shabaka was beneficial to 
pecially in matters connected with the agriculture of the 
country. He made a law that criminals, who would in the ordinary 
way be put to death.'' should be made to labour at raising the 
foundations of the cities and towns above the level of the waters 
of the inundation, and he had the canals cleared out by the 
sam< We must not assume that Shabaka was the first 

king to have such works undertaken, but. with th< which 

1 n the country under his reign, it became possible to carry 

1 I A/WNAA _y< I . 

137 ; Diodoru?, i. 65. 


out works of public utility. The city in the Delta which most 
benefited by the system of forced labour inaugurated by Shabaka 



[Drawn from Lepsius, Denkmdler, Abth. III. Bl. 301. 

was Bubastis, the temple of which evoked such great admiration 
in Herodotus. In Shabaka some writers have identified " So, the 
king of Egypt," who is mentioned in 2 Kings xvii. 4, but there 



can be no doubt now l that So is no other than the Sib', or Sib'e, 
of the cuneiform inscriptions, who was the turdannu or comman- 
der-in-chief of Egypt. That Shabaka was in communication with 
on, king of Assyria, is clear from the fact that clay seals 
inscribed with his name and titles were found among the tablets 
of the Royal Library of Nineveh at Kuyunjik, 2 and the two kings 
certain ly exchanged gifts. 

Shabaka repaired and added to several of the older tempi- 
Egypt, but he appears to have done little or nothing of the kind 
in Nubia. He carried out building operations at Bubastis, in 
which city he took special interest, at Memphis, and at Th 
where his name is found at Karnak, Luxor, and Madinat Habu. 
His sister Amenartas, 8 the high-pri< Amen, lived with her 

husband Piankhi l at Thebes, and the monuments there prove that 
he carried out on them a series of important repairs. hi 
conjunction with her brother she built a sanctuary near the great 
north door of the temple of Karnak, and it is probable that from 
this place came her fine alabaster statue, which is now in the 
Museum in Cairo. Her position in Thebes must have been of 
considerable importance, for her name occurs side by side with 
that of her brother Shabaka, and even in remote places like the 
Wadi l.lammamat her cartouche appears "' between those of her 
father and brother. On a scarab in the British Museum 1 '' her 
cartouche is cut by the side of that of her father, and her name is 

ded a prominent position between the figures of two goddi 
which are held on the knees of the figure of the high official Hani a 
in the British Museun 

( )f Shabaka Diodorus, after speaking of his piety and his kind- 

1 See my IfisA '/, vol. vi., pp. 124 ft". 

1 British Museum registration numbers are 51-9-2, 43, and 81-2-4, 332: 
1 options, see my Afummy, p. 249, and Bezold, Catalogue, p. 1784. I >ne of 
the objects is exhibited in Table-case I., No. 32, in the Nineveh Gallerj . 

; Her prenomen was Mut-kha-neferu f "_^ Q JJJ J. 

Lepsius, Denkmaler, Abth. v., Bl. 1. 
Fourth Egyptian Room, Table-case D., No. 130S. 
Third Egyptian Room, No. 32.555. 


~^^iM(^lO^( ~ 


[British Museum, No. 32555. 



ness to men, says : " A man may likewise judge of his extraordinary 
"piety, from his dream, and his abdication of the government; 
" for the tutelar god of Thebes seemed to speak to him in his sleep, 

WS (oTUUU< 3g (EiaagUl 


[Drawn from Lepsius, Denkm'dler, Abth. III. Bl. 301. 

' and told him, that he could not long reign happily and 
' prosperously in Egypt unless he cut all the priests to pieces 
' when he passed through the midst of them with his guards and 



rants; which advice being often r . he at length sent 

"' for the priests from all parts, and told them that if he stayed in 
" Egypt any longer he found that he should displease God, who 
•• never at any time before, by dreams or visions, commanded any 




British Museum, No. 11,013. 

•• such thing. And that he would rather be gone and lose his 
" life, being pure and innocent, than displease God, or enjoy 
''the crown of Egypt, by staining his life with the horrid 
" murder of the innocent. And so at length, giving up the 
" kingdom into 'the hands of the people, he returned into 
•• Ethiopia." 



Shabaka was succeeded by his son Shabataka ' in the first or 
second year of the reign of Sennacherib, who ascended the 
Assyrian throne B.C. 705. It seems that Shabataka was associated 
with his father and aunt Amenartas in the rule of the kingdom a 
few years before Shabaka's death, for on a painted stele at Turin, 
which is described by the late Dr. Pleyte, 2 we find the cartouches 
of Shabataka, Shabaka, Shep-en-Apt, the high-priestess of Amen, 
Piankhi, and Shep-en-Apt's mother, Amenartas, the high-priestess 
of Amen. On this stele is a figure of the double god Horus- 
Set, with outstretched arms, which seems to indicate that one 
arm specially protects the two royal personages who were 
connected with the South, and the other the two who were 
connected with the North. It may be noted in connection with 
this, that the text, which was copied in the reign of Shabaka from 
a worm-eaten [wooden] :5 tablet on to the black slab preserved in 
the British Museum (No. 32,555), deals with the combat which 
went on perpetually between Horus and Set through the disap- 
pearance of Osiris into the sea. Of the reign of Shabataka, we 
learn very little from the hieroglyphic inscriptions, but he built a 
chamber at Karnak,* and seems to have repaired some portion of 
the temple of Ptah at Memphis. His name is found nowhere in 
the Sudan, but one of the small temples now in ruins at Gebel 
Barkal may have been built by him. That he was a devotee of 
Amen Ra goes without saying, and if proof of this be needed we 
have it from the small bronze shrine in the British Museum, 6 
which contains a figure of this god, and is inscribed with the 
king's name. 

The greatest event in his reign was the agreement which he 
made with Hezekiah, king of Judah, wherein he promised to help 

1 His Horus name was }i '•, his %\j/ name was I fl ^S^ 7 c^'l / 

11 fl S& I r-~-i A % 1 1 

=?=?= . m n <a, ^' 

• his Horus-of-gold name was 4 ^"^ ^ . /! • and his cartourhes 

2 Aeg. Zeit., 1876, p. 51. 

See Lepsius, Denkmaler, Abth. v., Bl. 3 and 4. 
~° Third Egyptian Room, No. 11,013. 
VOL. II. 33 


him to resist the threatened attack of Jerusalem by Sennacherib, 
king of Assyria. In his second campaign Sennacherib set out to 
reduce Hezekiah oi Jerusalem and Sidkai of Ascalon to submission, 
ami before the troops which Shabatakahad sent from Egypt could 
i them, Sidkai had been taken prisoner and deported to 
Assyria, and Sharruludari had been made king of Ascalon in his 
stead. The Egyptians, with their bowmen, and chariots, and 
horses, and large numbeis of men from the Eastern Desert, came 
to Altaku (the Eltekeh of Joshua xix. 44), and there they deter- 
mined to do battle against the Assyrians. In the fight which took 
place immediately afterwards. Sennacherib captured alive the 
sons of the king of Egypt, and the generals of the chariots of the 
Egyptians and of the king of Milukhkhi. and defeated the allies 
witn great slaughter. He then marched against Ekron, which he 
captured, and slew the chiefs of the city and hung their 
holies upon poles round about the city. He next attacked 
Jerusalem, which fell into his hands after a siege, and Hezekiah 
had to pay 30 talents of -old, 800 tal« nts of silver, &c, and to 
deliver up his wives, and concubines, and daughters, and 200,150 
people were made prisoi nnacherib. exasperated with 

the Egyptians because of the help which they had sent to the 
of Jerusalem and Ascalon. set out from Jerusalem to 
invade Egypt, but when he reached the region near Pelusium, 
alamity overtook him whereby he lost probably more 
than one half of his army. The cuneiform inscriptions tell us 
nothing about the disaster, but we may be sure that something 
fraught with dire consequences happened to his army, otherwise 
he would have marched into Egypt and punished her people. 
The Bible narrative states, 1 "that the angel of the Lord went 

" out. and .-mote in the camp of the Assyrians an hundred four- 
thousand : and when th< ly in the 

"morning, behold, they were all dead corpses;" accordin 

legion of laid mice came by night, no one knowing 
whence, and quietly gnawed the quivers, bowstrings, buckler 

strap-. &c., and when the soldiers woke up in the morning, they 
found themselves practically disarmed, and. alter making a feeble 
tance, they lied. 

- ii., cxJi. 


After the battle of Altakii the Egyptians did not during the 
reign of Shabataka attempt to assist the kings of Palestine against 
the Assyrians. From the statement made in Sennacherib's 
Annals it is clear that Shabataka did not lead his troops at the 
battle of Altaku, but it is not unreasonable to suppose that he 
was awaiting in the Delta the result of their efforts. It is 
thought by some that when planning to help Hezekiah he 
appealed for help to the king of Napata, who was called Taharq, 
but is more commonly known from the Bible narrative as 
Tirhakah, and that the Nubian king set out with an army to join 
him in the re-conquest for the Egyptians of a portion of Syria. 
Others, admitting that Taharq set out with an army from Napata, 
think that he did so because he wished to overthrow Shabataka, 
and thought that a time favourable for his purpose had arrived. 
Be this as it may, he marched into Egypt, and sailed down to the 
Delta, where he found Shabataka, and, finding that his army had 
been routed by the Assyrians, made him prisoner, and after a 
time put him to death. Such is the tradition preserved by Greek 

Taherqa, Taharq, 1 or Tirhakah, appears to have seized the 
supreme power in Egypt about B.C. 693. From a short inscrip- 
tion found at Tanis about thirty years ago 2 it seems that he was 
only twenty years of age when he ascended the throne of Egypt, 
and that he came to the North not expecting to be made king. 
A little before his coronation at Tanis he sent to Napata for his 
mother Aqreq or Aqleq, and when she arrived she found 
that her son, who had spent the earlier years of his life in working 
with his father on their farm, had become the " king of the South 
and North." Taharqa's father was not a man of high rank, but 
he must have been a landed proprietor of some importance at 
Napata; he superintended the management of the live stock, and 

1 His Horus name was Y\ • his J^jZ name was ^c\ his Horus-of- 

Q -21 ^^ S _JT 

gold name was ^~j ^ ^ , and his cartouches are ^.aR ( ° J Z\Tu ® \ 1 

ra a 

- See Birch, Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch., vol. vii., p. 193; E. de Rouge, Me- 
langes, torn, i., p. 21 f. ; and Griffith, Tanis, vol. ii., p. 29, p'ate 9, No. 163. 



n looked after the crops. The first coronation of Taharqa 
'took place at ranis,- and was performed with great pomp and 
ceremony, and with all the details which were so much 
appreciated in Egypt On this occasion a number of exalted 
titles were bestowed by Taharqa upon his mother, and upon his 
wife Takehet-Amen, 1 who was the widow of Shabaka. 

During the first few years of his reign Taharqa was fully 

■MlT^ktt&S'JW=5j£tfk. 9 £Sa^ 


[From Lepsius, DenkmtiUr, Abth. V. 

Bl. 13. 

occupied in restoring the administration of Egypt on the lines 
followed by the great kings «>f the XVIIIth Dynasty, and he 
eded admirably. The people felt that peace was assured 
as long as he lived, and under his protection the trade of the 
country increased, and means were forthcoming for the repair of 
ancient temples and the building of new ones. That he should 
one day win back some of the former possessions of Egypt in 
Syria must have been an idea always present in his mind, and 




that the manner of his dealings with the 
kings and governors of Syria was dictated 
with it always in view is evident from 
many considerations. His friendship 
with the kings of that country was dis- 
approved of by Sennacherib, who appears 
to have made a second expedition into 
Palestine with the view of invading 
Egypt, but nothing came of it so far as 
Egypt was concerned, and Taharqa 
continued his friendly relations with the 
kings on the Palestinian sea-coast until 
the middle of the reign of Esarhaddon, 
who succeeded to the throne of Assyria 
after the murder of his father Senna- 
cherib, B.C. 681. 

About B.C. 676 Esarhaddon sent an 
expedition against Milukhkha, i.e., 
against the tribes of the desert on the 
east and north-east of the Delta, for he 
felt that the combination of these tribes, 
if backed by help from Egypt, might 
result in the loss to Assyria of Jerusalem, 
and all the neighbouring towns. The 
success of this expedition was not 
decisive, for Esarhaddon was not able to 
reduce the tribes at once to submission. 
Some three years later he made a second 
attempt to break up the combination of 
people which he now knew to be in 
league against him, but this also failed, 
at any rate, the Assyrian king did not 
advance against Egypt, and invade her 
territories. On this Taharqa rejoiced 
greatly, for he foolishly assumed that 
it was the fear of his arms which kept 
Esarhaddon out of Egypt. And in com- 
memoration of a campaign, which he did 



not fight, in a country which he never entered, he caused a list of 
the gnat peoples of Syria and Palestine to be cut on the base of 
his statue ' as nations which he had conquered ! In this list we 
rind the names of Kadesh, Assur, Kheta, Nehernu, and of many 
other Western Asiatic places, together with the names of several 
districts of the Sudan. 

Among those who hastened to profit by the retreat of 
Esarhaddon was Baal, king of Tyre, who made a treat}- quickly 
with Taharqa, and. following his example, the neighbouring 
princes did the same. For nearly three wars Taharqa was 
permitted to indulge without hindrance his wish to intrigue in 
Syria and in Palestine, tor it was not until the spring of tin 
B.C. 670 that Esarhaddon was ready to strike. In the month of 
Nisan he left Nineveh and set out for Syria, and having visited 
the mainland opposite Tyre, and cut off the water supply oi 
Baal, its king, he went on to Aphek. He did not go straight 
on to Egypt from this place, but turned off to the 'south-east, 
and marched for a considerable distance in the desert. This 
journey was a terrible one for his troops, on account of the 
. and the serpents and scorpions which infested the 
country, but, thanks to the arrangements which he had made 
for the supply of water with the local shekhs, his army 
marched triumphantly through the desert. At length he reached 
Raphia, and, after another march into the desert, made in order 
to avoid the ordinary caravan route into Egypt from Syria, 
arrived at some point on the eastern frontier of the Delta about 
three months after he set out from Nineveh. On the third 
day of the month 'fammuz. Esarhaddon appears to have engaged 
the Egyptian frontier troops, and on the sixteenth and eighteenth 
days of tin- same month two battles were fought by him, no 
doubt against Taharqa's regular army which he had sent to the 
tern Dell 

( )ii each <>f these occasions the Assyrians were the conquerors, 
and Taharqa's soldiers were driven back from town to town 
towards Memphis. Four days after the second battle, Esar- 
haddon appeared before Memphis with his army, and captured the 

1 This object was found in the temple <>f Mut at Karnak. 
'-' Mariette, Karnak % plate 45, a 2. 


city by assault,'and the Assyrian soldiers pillaged it so thoroughly 
that even the Nubian warriors must have been surprised. 
Taharqa himself managed to escape, but he was obliged to 
leave behind him the queen and the other women of the royal 
karim and all their children, and they became the conqueror's 
property. Esarhaddon did not attempt to pursue Taharqa, who 
had probably fled to Napata, but he appointed some twenty 
governors or more, over twenty large cities, which they were 
to rule in his interest, and having fixed the amount of tribute 
which they were to pay to him annually, and gathered together 
a vast amount of spoil, he set out to return to Nineveh. On 
his way northwards he stopped at the mouth of the Nahr al-Kalb 
River near Beirut , and set up a monument to commemorate 
his victory over Egypt and Tyre. Henceforward he styled him- 
self in his Annals, " King of Lower Egypt, of Upper Egypt, and 
of Kash " (Nubia, or the Sudan). At many places he set up 
stelae to record his triumph, and on the large monumental 
tablet found at Sinjirli ' is sculptured a figure of Esarhaddon, who 
holds in his hand cords to which are tied figures of Taharqa and 
Baal of Tyre. The former is kneeling and the latter is standing 
before the king, and each has his hands raised in an attitude of 
supplication. As Taharqa pretended in his inscriptions that he 
had conquered all Syria and Assur, so we find Esarhaddon 
pretending that he had captured Taharqa and Baal, and had 
them fettered at his feet. Both text and sculptures are to be 
understood symbolically, but such examples show that the 
evidence of the monuments of some of these old warriors cannot 
be relied on implicitly. 

Soon after Esarhaddon returned to Nineveh the chiefs of the 
Delta principalities split up into two parties, one being led by 
Pakrer,'- or Paqrer, the governor of the nome of Pa-Sept in the 
Eastern Delta, and the other by Nekau, prince of Sais. Taharqa, 
hearing of this, and knowing that Esarhaddon was in Nineveh, 
gathered together an army and marched to Memphis. It is 
probable that the native chiefs of the Delta would have flocked 
1 See Luscban, Ansgrabungcn in Sendschirli, vol. i., p. 30. 


& _^=£ 


to his standard gladly, for they had no love for the rule of the 
king of Assyria, but they were afraid to do so, because the 
Assyrians in the Delta had sent news of what had happened to 
Nineveh, and it was pretty certain that an Assyrian army would 
be sent to restore order. When Esarhaddon received the report 
he made haste to make one of his sons, Shamash-shum-ukin, 
king of Babylon, and another, Ashur-bani-pal, king of Nineveh, 
and then, even though his health was failing, he set out 
on his third campaign against Egypt. This was in the year 
B C. 668. On the way his illness increased, and he died in the 
month of May. having reigned about twelve years. The death of 
rhaddon did not, however, retard the advance of the Assyrian 
army, which pursued its way to Egypt under the leadership of 
the " Turdannu " (Tartan), or commander-in chief. Wh< n it 
arrived in Syria the twenty-two kings who had been appointed 
tendered their fealty to the Tartan, and the Assyrians approached 
Egypt by the old caravan route from Syria. At a place called 
Karbanit tiny found Taharqa's troops, but in the battle- which 
took place they were utterly defeated, and such large numbers "I 
them wire slain that any attempt to rally at Memphis and defend 
that city was hopeless. Meanwhile Taharqa had once more 
escaped, and had found his way to Thebes, which he fortified to 
the best of his ability. 

Unlike Esarhaddon, the new Assyrian king. Ashur-bani-pal, was 
not content with suppressing the rebellion in the Delta and 
occupying Memphis, but he ordered the commander-in-chief of 
the army which he sent to the aid of the Tartan to ascend the 
Nile and sack Thebes. On his arrival near Egypt, this 
commander-in-chief, whose official title was Rab-saki ( Rabshakeh i. 
collected a fleet of boats and sailed up the Nile to Memphis. 
where In- joined his forces to those of the Tartan, and a- soon as 
tble they set out for Thebes. During the six weeks which 
were occupied by the Assyrians in sailing up to Thebes. Taharqa 
began to intrigue with the chief riders in the Delta, i.e.. Nekau oi 
. l'akier of Pa-Sept, and Sharru-ludari of Tanis, against the 
Assyrians, but his messengers bearing their despatches were 
caught by the Assyrians, who proceeded to punish the con- 
tors according to their usual methods. Their troops in the 



Delta destroyed the cities of Sa'is, Tanis, and Pa-Sept, the ring- 
leaders of the revolt among the people were either flayed alive or 
impaled, and Nekau and Sharru-ludari were sent in fetters to 
Nineveh. Pakrer managed to escape. Taharqa, divining from 
these events what his fate was likely to be if caught, fled from 
Thebes to the south, leaving that city to the mercy of Ashur- 
bani-pal's soldiers. Menthu em-hat, 1 its governor, promptly 
surrendered, and thus Upper and Lower Egypt, and the Sudan. 
became a province of the Assyrian Empire. The fate of Taharqa 
is unknown, but the Assyrian annalist says that Taharqa fled to 
Kush and that the terror of the soldiers of Ashur overwhelmed 
him in the place whither he had gone, and he went to his destiny 
of night. 2 

Taharqa was a capable and energetic king, and under his able 
rule the country, notwithstanding his wars with the Assyrians, 
enjoyed a period of prosperity for about twenty-five years. That 
he should have been able to offer such steadfast resistance to 
Esarhaddon and Ashur-bani-pal says much for his capacity as a 
soldier and leader of men. There must have been something 
attractive in his personality, and his deeds appealed so strongly 
to the popular imagination, at all events in Greek times, that 
they were regarded as the exploits of a hero, and he had the reputa- 
tion of being a great traveller as well as a great conqueror."' As 
a builder he displayed great activity, and remains of several of his 
edifices have come down to us. Near the temple of Karnak he 
built a small temple in commemoration of his coronation at 
Thebes. On the walls here we see Taharqa's mother, Aqleq, 4 and 
a priest performing ceremonies connected with the enthronement 
of her son, who appears under the forms of Tetun, Sept, Amen, 
and Heru, thereby signifying that he is lord of the four quarters 
of the world. Next, a high priestly official called Heru-em-heb, 

2 Cuneiform Inscriptions, vol. v. pi. 2, 1. 20 f. £^£j^T| T r~"T *-T<t'i^ ►^ 
^T*- 7 Ulik s hi mat musJii-shu. 

8 See Strabo, i. 3, 21, and xv. 1, 6, where he quotes Megasthenes. 




makes an address to the people in words which express their 
acceptance of Taharqa as king before Amen-Ra. Elsewhere, 
standing on one side of a sacred tree which grows out of the funeral 
coffer of Osiris, is Queen A.qleq, holding a bow in her hands, and 
shooting arrows into symbols of the four quarters of the world ; 
on the other side of the tree is Taharqa dancing, and hurling 
-tone- with his left hand into the four quarters of the world. 
In his right hand he holds the Sudani club i. It will be 

remembered that Piankhi tells us in his stele that his 

slingers hurled stones into a city which he besieged, and from the 
scene described above it seems as if Taharqa was proud to be 
regarded as a " slinger of The text which refers to the 

shooting of arrows by the queen reads: "the divine wife hath 
••-rasped the bow. she hath shot arrows into the South, the 
•' North, the West, and the East, against the enemies whom 
•• [Amen] hath givenTunto him." 

The greater number of Taharqa'si building operations were 

carried out after his conquest of Lower Egypt, when he was, 

comparatively, a young man. and in these works he was ably 

ted by Menthu-em-hat. the governor of Thebes. At Karnak 

gan to build a large temple, but abandoned the work after 

he had set up a few pillars; he built a little sanctuary in honour of 

l'tah. and to the south of the great temple of Amen is another, 

on the walls ot which he is represented with his wife's son Tanut- 

A nen. On the other side of the river, at Madinat Habu, he 

portions of the temple of Thothmes III., and his name 

irs al a few place s in the Delta. At Semna, just above the 

ite"of the Cataract, and immediately to the south of 

the temple oi Thothmes III., he built a temple of mud brick, with 

irways and pillars, in honour of Qsertsen III., the 

conqueror of the Sudan. This temple was. when in a complete 

. about 1 \ metres lou-. and I- metres 50 centimetres wide. 

It consisted of a fore-court containing -i.\ columns, and a chamber, 
within which is a rectangular sanctuary, 5 metres 48 centimetres 

. and 3 metres No centimetres wide, inside measures. 'Hie 
outer walls are 1 metre 45 centimetres thick, and the space 

Monuments, plates 31-33. 


between them and the sanctuary is i metre 95 centimetres. The 
sanctuary walls are 1 metre 19 centimetres thick. In the 
sanctuary stands an altar with the cartouches of Taharqa and 
Usertsen III. arranged side by side, within four lines forming a 
square.' This temple is oriented due south 

At Gebel Barkal he built a fine temple in honour of Amen-Ra, 

the " dweller in the Holy Mountain," Tut-ab ^ f\ , i.e., Mount 

Barkal, and of Mut, the lady of Kenset. On the walls the king is 
seen offering vases of wine, &c, to the ram-headed Amen, who 
wears a disk and plumes on his head. Behind Amen stands Mut, 
and behind the king is his wife Takhet-Amen, holding a sistrum 
in her hand. Among the gods worshipped by the king here we 
find Amen-Ra-khu-Aten, Tetun, Ra-Heru-khuti, Thoth and his 
company, Tern, Nefer-Tem, An-Her, Shu, Menu, Khensu-em- 
Uast-Nefer-hetep, Hathor, &c, in fact, all the great gods at 
Thebes, among whom is included the old Sudani god Tetun. 
This is now a mass of ruins. On the western side of the 
mountain he built a temple, with a sanctuary hewn in the living 
rock ; here the pillars were ornamented with sculptured reliefs of 
Bes, whose worship flourished at Napata in Taharqa's time. 
Time, and apparently the hand of man, have wrought irreparable 
damage to Taharqa's buildings at Gebel Barkal, but enough of 
them remains to show that they were as well built, and as well 
decorated, as any in Egypt. The inscriptions are cut in bold 
hieroglyphics, 2 and those who made them were either expert 
masons and sculptors from Thebes, or men who had been trained 
to their work under their guidance. The work generally is far 
better than that found at Sulb, of the time of Amen-hetep III., 
and it proves that the people of Napata had absorbed the arts 
and crafts, and civilization, and religion of Egypt most success- 
fully, and that the city was rightly regarded by its inhabitants as 
a second Thebes. We unfortunately know nothing about the 
home affairs of Napata in the reign of Piankhi, but it is quite 
certain that the trade between Nubia and Egypt was considerable, 
and intercourse frequent. Nubia and Egypt, in fact, formed one 

1 The discovery of this temple has been described in Vol. I., p. 487 ff. 

2 See the texts and drawings in Lepsius, Denkma/er, Abth. v., bl. 5-12. 



country, as they must ever do, but Taharqa was the rirst to prove 
that a Nubian king could reign both at Thebes and Xapata with 
the greatest benefit to both countries. 

During the last few years of his reign Taharqa appears to have 
associated his step-son, Tanuath-Amen, with himself in the rule 
of the kingdom, and it seems that this man was in Thebes when 
his stepfather went to his " destiny of night," probably two or 
three years after the accession of Ashur-bani-pal, B.C. 668. Winn 
the news of Taharqa's death reached Tanuath-Amen, he declared 
himself king, and made preparations to go to Xapata to be 
crowned. Whilst these were in progress one night he had a 
dream, which had such far-reaching results that subsequently he 
caused an account of it to be inscribed on a stele of gray granite, 
which he had placed near the famous stele of Piankhi, in the 
temple at Gebel Barkal. This stele was discovered by an 
Egyptian officer in the Sudan, and was brought to the Bulafe 
Museum at Cairo in the time of Mariette's administration. On 
the upper, rounded portion of it are two scenes. 1 In that to the 
right Tanuath-Amen is offering a necklace and a pectoral to 
Amen, and behind him stands the princess, his sister Qelhetat, 1 
holding a sistrum in her right hand, and pouring out a libation 
with her left. Here Amen is ram- headed. In the scene to the 

left the king is making an offering of Mafit. $ , to Amen. 

who appears in the form of a man, with the disk and plumes oil 
his head. Behind him stands the' queen Kumar-/// :; (?), holding 
a sistrum and pouring out a libation, like the prince> 
form of Amen is said to reside in the " Holy Mountain," i.e. 
Gebel Barkal; the ram-headed form gives the king a seat on the 
throne of Horus, and the man-form makes him to rule over all 

►r the text, see Mariette, Monuments Divers, plates 7 and 8. For 

translations, sec Maspero, Revue Arch., 1868, torn, xvii., p. 329 ff". ; Maspero, 

is of the I'ast, vol. iv., p. 81 ft*. ; Brugsch, Geschichte Aegyptens, pp. 707- 

713 : English translation, vol. h\, p. 24S ti". See also Maspero. Melanges, torn. 

in., p. 5 ft"., p. 217 ff. ; Schaefer, Zur Erklarung der Traumstele, in Aeg.Zeit., 

teindorff, Beitrdge su '°g**% V() '- '•• !'• 35^ : Mariette, 

/,//., N.8., torn, xii., p. 1O2 ; de Roug6, M&langes, torn, i., p. 89 ff. 




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countries, and all deserts and mountains, and places all the Nine 
Tribes of the Bow under his sandals. 

The text opens with a string of titles, and the king is described 
as a" fierce lion," and like unto "the dweller in Hesert." The 
document is dated in the first year of the king's reign, and in that 
same year he dreamed a dream wherein he saw two serpents, one 
on his right hand and the other on his left, and when His 
Majesty awoke he saw them no longer. Such is the dream. 
When the king asked his wise men what it portended, they told 
him that he already held the South, and that he must seize the 
North, so that he might wear the crowns of both countries, for 
the whole world would be his, and that none should vie with him 
in power. Then the king went to Napata. and was acknowledged 
by Amen, to whom he offered thirty-six oxen, forty large vessels 
of beer, and one hundred ostrich feathers ; a gift of ankham 
flowers of the god was given to the king, and he was crowned 
forthwith. The remainder of the text describes the next acts of 
the king. He set out for the North, and when he arrived at 
Elephantine he made offerings to Khnemu-Ra, the lord of the 
P'irst Cataract, and to Hapi, the Nile-god, the source of whose 
stream was supposed to be in the neighbourhood. He then went 
on to Thebes, where he offered gifts to Amen-Ra, and amid the 
acclamations of the people on both sides of the river he sailed 
down to Memphis to "repair the temples, to set the statues and 
"emblems of the god on their pedestals, to provide offerings for 
" the gods and goddesses, and the dead, to re-establish the 
"priests in their grades, and to cause all proper ceremonies 
" connected with the worship of the gods to be performed." 

At Memphis his progress was barred by the Assyrian 
garrison, but in the fight which took place Tanuath-Amen was 
victorious, and he took possession of the city, and made offerings 
to Ptah, its great god. He then sailed on to reduce the garrison 
towns to the north, but the troops in these would not come forth 
to do battle with him, and he therefore returned to Memphis. 
From this city he made some arrangement with the governors 
of the chief cities in the Delta, for after a time they came to 
Memphis, with Pakrer, the governor of Pa-Sept, as their leader, and 
they begged for their lives, and promised to be his faithful vassals. 

vol. ii. 49 E 


At this Tanuath-Amen was very pleased, and made a feast, and he 
and the Delta chiefs partook of cakes, and ale, and "all good 
things.*' After some days they said to him, " Why tarry we here, 
O king our Lord ? " And the king replied " Why ? " Thereupon 
they departed, each to his city, and sent back gifts to the king. 
Here the text comes to an end, and the Egyptian inscriptions 
tell us nothing about subsequent events. The Assyrian Annals. 
however, help us, and from these we find that whilst Tanuath- 
Amen was at Memphis, the report of his arrival and proceedings 
was carried to Ashur-bani-pal at Nineveh. The king of Assyria, 
hearing that his troops in Memphis had been slain by the 
Nubian king, whom he regarded as a rebel, set forth without 
delay for Egypt. On his arrival, Tanuath-Amen fled to Th 
and the governors of the cities who had given gifts to him 
promptly tendered their submission to the king of Assyria. 
Ashur-bani-pal and his soldiers advanced to Memphis, and then 
followed the fugitive up the Nile. On hearing of their advance, 
Tanuath-Amen fled to Kipkip,' without attempting to defend 
Thebes, and thus the city fell into the hands of the Assyrians, who 
plundered it in their usual fashion. 

On their return to the North they carried off gold, silver, 
precious stones, rich apparel, costly furniture, fine horses, men. 
women and children, and two objects of which the Assyrian king 
seems to have been especially proud, 'flit ts, which were 

called dimmi in the Assyrian text-, weighed two thousand five 
hundred talents, and they were made of won,], which was over- 
laid with some precious metal. Ashur-bani-pa] was now master 
of the kingdoms of the South and the North : he took no steps to 
assert his authority over Nubia, and so far as we know he made 
no attempt to capture Tanuath-Amen. On his return to Memphis 
he ordered the affairs of the Delta to his own satisfaction, and 
then, laden with spoil, returned to Nineveh, and Egypt saw him 
no more. Of the fate of Tanuath-Amen the inscriptions of Egypl 
tell us nothing, but with his downfall the XXVth Dynasty came 
to an vnd, and the power (A~ Nubia in Egypt was broken, and 

1 In Assyrian ^^J] <J^J J^JJ <JE f ^ T - Ki-ip-M-pi, in Egyptian 



none of her kings or queens again obtained dominion over that 
country. The Nubian rule in Egypt came to an end B.C. 663 or 

When the late Mr G. Smith first translated the Annals of 
Ashur-bani-pal, and thus made the valuable information which 
they contain available to students of Oriental History, he read 
the name of the successor of Taharqa who defied the Assyrian 
king as " Urdamanie," l and this king was supposed by many to 
be the Egyptian king Amen-rut Meri Amen, whose prenomen 
was " Usr-Maat-Ra-setep-en-Amen." ' This was soon found to be 
impossible, and scholars were driven to the conclusion that the 
king who set up the Stele of the Dream at Gebel Barkal and 
Urdamanie were one and the same person. Now the cartouche 
containing the king's name Amen was at first not clear ; but 
subsequent examination showed 3 that the unclear sign was 
ta ===, and that the name must be read Tanuath-Amen. 
Again, however, a difficulty arose, for it was impossible to get the 
Assyrian name Urdamanie from the Egyptian name, and then it 
was thought that Tanuath-Amen was a successor of the Urda- 
manie of the Assyrian text, and not Urdamanie himself. Later, 
doubt was thrown upon the correctness of the reading ur for the 
first sign in Urdamanie's name, which is polyphonous and has 
several values, 4 and finally Dr. Steindorff substituted the very 
unusual value of tan for ur, and thus obtained the reading of 
" Tandamanie " instead of Urdamanie. There is now no doubt 
that the Tandamanie of the Assyrian texts is the Tanuath-Amen, 
king of the Sudan and of Egypt, who set up the Stele of the 
Dream at Gebel Barkal. 5 

The evidence available on the subject, unfortunately, does not 

I V ' - cg ^ Q I A/VWVN AAAAAA J\ ' ... » V I WW\A 1 AAAAAA \ / 

3 See Steindorff, in Beitrage zur Assyriologie, Bd. i., p, 356. 

4 Lik, lik, tas, tash, das, dash, tish, tiz, tis, and tan. 

• His fu,. tides are ^ g ( ^ |J, \ ^ ^ ( (°^ ft] ] 



enable us to decide how long Tanuath-Amen reigned. From the 
fact that figures of him appear side by side with those of Taharqa 
in one of the little sanctuaries which this king built at Thebes, 
it has been assumed that he reigned conjointly with him during 
the last few years of his rule over Egypt. But then, as Professor 
Maspero has pointed out, it is equally possible to assume that he 
appears on the walls of the temple because he finished the building 
of it, which his predecessor began. Most probably he held some 
position of importance at Thebes during Taharqa's life, and there 
is no doubt that he was actually in Egypt and not at Napata 
when he had the dream which he recorded on his stele. At 
Thebes, at one time at least, he was regarded as the lawful king 
of the country, and this fact is proved by a monument at Berlin, 1 
the text on which refers to the entrance of Peta-Khcnsu, a priest, 
into the brotherhood of the priests of Amen-Ra at Thebes. This 
man was a priest of Amen, Mut. and Khensu, and belonged to a 
very old Theban family, and his ancestors had been priests at 
Theb venteen generations. This monument is dated in 

the third year of Tanuath-Amen, and the fact that Pefca- Khensu 
acknowledges his sovereignty in this way makes it quite clear 
that for three years at least Tanuath-Amen was king of U] 
Egypt as well as of Nubia. 

As for Lower Egypt, or the kingdom of the North, that had 

• 1 into the hands of Psammctichus, the son of Nekau, king 

of Sals. It will be remembered that Nekau. king of Sais and 

Memphis, was the leader of the revolt which broke out in Egypt 

in thi f Ashur-bani-pal, and that he. with Sharru-ludari, 

. rted by the Assyrian king to Nineveh. Soon after he 

arrived tl \ssyrian king forgave him, and gave him rich 

apparel t and rings for his lingers, and a dagger inlaid 

with gold and inscribed with the king's name. After a time he 

rein-: kau in his sovereignty at Sais, whither he sent him 

with horses and chariots, and an escort suitable to the position 

of the viceroy of Ashur-bani-pal in Egypt. He also appointed 

nmetichus, 3 Nekau's son, king of Athribis, and gave him the 

1 No. 2," the official Verzeichnis^ p. 253.* 

• In Assyrian J *T- T V tV^ Q 1 



Assyrian name of " Nabu-shezib-anni " ; to Sais also and Athribis 
he gave Assyrian names, that of the former being " Kar Bel- 
matati," and that of the latter " Limir patesi Ashur." After the 
flight of Tanuath-Amen the power of Psammetichus I. extended 
by degrees from the Delta to Thebes, and it is quite certain that 
he, the founder of the XXVIth Dynasty, was the next ruler of the 
kingdoms of the South and North. Thus the period of the rule 
of the Nubian kings over Egypt, which began with Piankhi and 
ended with Tanuath-Amen, was about ninety years, i.e., from 
about B.C. 750 to b.c. 660. 

Soon after Psammetichus I. became king of all Egypt he 
adopted a policy different from that followed by his predecessors, 
and so far as Egypt is concerned it succeeded admirably. Having, 
by the help of the Mediterranean mercenaries, succeeded in 
expelling the Assyrian garrisons, he determined to make use of 
these allies in keeping his country intact ; in other words, he 
dispensed with the services of the Nubians, of whom a strong 
force had usually been massed at Thebes and in the neighbouring 
district, and established a garrison of mercenaries at Elephan- 
tine, which he regarded as the southern boundary of Egypt. He 
placed another garrison at Pelusium Daphnae against the 
Arabians and Syrians, and another at Marea against the Libyans. 
Daring the reign of Psammetichus I., which lasted for fifty-four 
years, there was no war between Egypt and Nubia, and no 
record of any Egyptian expedition for trading purposes into the 
Sudan has come down to us. Having established a garrison at 
Elephantine to prevent any energetic prince or king of Napata 
from troubling Egypt by raid or invasion, Psammetichus I. took 
no further thought about the Sudan. 

During the reign of Psammetichus I. an event happened which 
must have been fraught with important results in the Sudan. 
Psammetichus, as we know from Herodotus (ii. 152), conferred 
many benefits on his Carian and Ionian mercenaries, and he 
formed them into a body-guard, and gave to them the place of 
honour on his right hand when reviewing his army, thus dis- 
possessing a large number of native soldiers who had formerly 
enjoyed the privileges which were now given to foreigners. The 
Egyptians became discontented, and did not approve of the new 



scheme of defence of the country which had been adopted by 
Psammetichus, for it relegated them to the three great garrisons 
which had recently been formed at Daphne, Marea, and Elephan- 
tine. Service in these places was regarded practically as exile, 
and the discontent of the Egyptians increased. On one 
occasion these garrisons were not relieved for three years ; 
" the soldiers, therefore, at the end of that time, consulted 
" together, and having determined by common consent to 
" revolt, marched away to Ethiopia (Nubia)." ' 

Psammetichus set out in pursuit of them, and overtook 
them, and begged them not to forsake the Gods of their country 
and their wives and children. 2 The deserters refused to listen to 
him, and, saying that they were certain to rind wives and 
children wherever they went, pressed on into Nubia. When 
they arrived there they offered their services to the king [of 
Napata ?], who gave them a tract of land which was at that 
time in the possession of his foes, telling the soldiers to turn out 
his enemies, and occupy it. This the new-comers promptly d id, 
and they settled down in the Sudan, and in a few generations 
became a powerful nation. The number of these deserters from 
the Egyptian garrisons is given by Herodotus (ii. 30) as two 
hundred and forty thousand, but there must be some mistake in 
the figures ; the desertions probably went on for a space of 
several years, and the number given above may represent the 
total number of the men who emigrated from Egypt during the 
reign of Psammetichus. 

Herodotus says that these Automoloi, :i or " Deserters," called 
themselves " Asmakh," 'Aaixax, a word which he says means, 
" the men who stand on the left hand of the king," the allusion 
being to the fact that Psammetichus had given to his foreign 
mercenaries the place on his right hand which had been formerly 
held by the Egyptians. Diodorus (i. 67) says plainly that the 
Egyptian troops deserted because they had been placed in the 
left wing, whilst the right was given to strangers. The meaning 

1 Herodotus, ii. 30. 

- Tcov 8( Tiva Xf'yfTai bfigavra to aidoiov flnai, %v6a av tovto ?}, to~tcr$ai auTatm 
(vOavTa teal Teicva Kcii yvviuKa*. 

3 These are the Sembritai of Strabo, and the Semberritae of Pliny (vi. 30). 



of " Asmakh " has been debated by many scholars, but as there 
are variant readings of the name it is not easy to arrive at a final 
conclusion about it. M. de Horrack believed ' that it represented 
the Egyptian word, suggested by Brugsch, " semehi," 2 i.e., "to be 
left," " the left," and, as Professor Maspero says, "it is certain 
" that, the Egyptians, whatever may have been the real significa- 
"tion of the name, had in their minds the word indicated by 
" M. de Horrack, and the very expression used by Herodotus, ol 
" e£ api(JT€pf}<; ^ftpo?, proves it." 3 

Prof. Wiedemann rejects this derivation, 4 and prefers to think 
that Asmakh, or Askam represents some " Ethiopian word, the 
" meaning of which is not connected with the Egyptian word 
" semehi" He further points out that " fan-bearer on the left hand 
of the king " was a position of the highest honour, and that 
when the god separated the good from the bad, the latter were 
placed on the right hand, and the former on the left. According 
to Professor Maspero, the deserters from the Egyptian garrisons 
belonged to the Mashuasha, or Libyan tribes, who henceforward 
disappear from Egyptian history. They were a warlike and turbu- 
lent people, as we know from the inscriptions of the XXIst and 
following dynasties, but they felt that they could not withstand 
successfully the Greek mercenaries, and so retreated to the South, 
where they must have modified profoundly the civilization of the 

1 Revue Arch.) torn, ii., 1862, p. 268. 2 I 

' Passing of the Empires, p. 500 

4 Herodots zweites Buck, Leipzig, 1890, p. 128. 





TURNING now to Napata, it is impossible to say what happened 
there after the flight, and presumably death, of Tanuath-Amen. 
It is probable that one of the immediate descendants of Taharqa 
seized the throne, but the inscriptions are silent on the matter. 
To the second half of the seventh century before Christ the 
following kings may be attributed : — 

1. PlANKHI, with prenomen of SENEFER-RA, and the Horns 

name of Sehetep - taiu - f. His 
names occur on an altar which 
was found in the village ofMerawi,' 
near Gebel Barkal, whence it had 
no doubt, been taken. It will be 
seen from the text here given that 
the altar was dedicated to " Mut. 

4> the great lady, the dweller in Ta- 
kenset." From this it appears that 
there was a temple at Geb 1 Barkal 
specially dedicated to the goddess 
and consort of Amen. The style 

of the hieroglyphics suggests that they were cut not very long 

after the inscriptions on Taharqa's temple. 

2. Netch - KA- Mi£N fes^ ( "t" 5fcji ]• His name is found 
on a door-curve in a room of the temple at Gebel Barkal, where 

the name of a PlANKHI MERI-AMEN-SA-BAST occurs.' 

m 5s ' 

CO * — » 








G( — ) 


At m ¥3i 




1 Lepsius, Denkmaler, Abth. v., Bl. 14 /. 
- Ibid. A Ibid., e. 


I /WWW d 




4. Senka-Amen-seken, with the prenomen of Sekheper-en- 

Ra, and the Horus name of Seh [er] 
taui. His name and titles occur on 
an altar which Lepsius took from 
the ruins of a temple at Gebel Barkal 
to Berlin 1 (No. 1481). In the in- 
scription here given he calls him- 
self " beloved of Amen-Ra, lord of 
" the throne of the Two Lands, the 
" dweller in the Holy Mountain " : 
three copies of this inscription 
appear on the altar. The surface of 
the altar shows marks of long 
the prenomen Khu-ka-Ra, and the 



\i\ it 

5. Athlenersa, with 

Horus name of Hetep(?)-taui, 2 i.e., " the peace of 
the Two Lands," and the Nekhebet-Uatchet title 
of Meri Maat, 8 and the Golden Horus title of 
Smen-en-hepu. 4 On an altar, which Lepsius 
found among the ruins of a temple at Gebel 
Barkal, 5 in addition to his other titles this king 
calls himself " beloved of Amen-Ra, lord of the 
throne of the Two Lands, at the head of the 
and " stablished by his soldiers/* " 
6. Amathel. with the prenomen Uatch-ka-Ra ; the other 
i^^i names are broken away from the headless 
/WWVA granite statue of this king, on which his 
O prenomen and nomen are given. The 
statue was found at Gebel Barkal by 
Lepsius, who took it to Berlin, where it is 
now preserved in the Royal Museum 
(No. 2240, Verzeichnis, p. 401). The 
inscription upon it reads: — "All life, 
all permanence, all joy, all health, all 
1 Lepsius, Denkmaler, Abth. v., Bl. 15 a ; see the official Verzeichnis, p. 401. 

lllltlllll o 






See Denkmaler, Abth. v., HI. 15 b. 



,v happiness are at the feet of this good god, whom all men 
" adore." 

A.SPELTA, with the prenomen Mek-ka-Ra, and the Horus 
name of Nefer-KHA, and the Nekhebet-Uatchet name of Nefeiv 
kha, and the Golden Horus name of Usr-ab. 1 Of the reign of 
this king we know nothing. He seems to have flourished during 
the reign of Psammetichus I., and Dr. Schaefer has come to the 
conclusion ' that his date may be fixed at B.C. 625. The principal 
monument of his reign is a large gray granite stele which was 
found at Gebel Barkal, and brought to Cairo during Mariette's 
Directorship of Antiquities. On its upper portion the ram- 
headed Amen is seen seated on a throne, with a king kneeling in 
front of him ; behind the god stands the goddess Mut, and in 
front of the king stands the royal sister, royal mother, "the 
mistress of Kash," holding a sistrum in each hand. The name of 
this " royal mother," as well as that of Aspelta, has been 
obliterated on the monument, but we may restore it from the 
stele in the Louvre, which was first published by Pierret.'' 
From this we learn that Aspelta's mother was called Enenselsa, 
and his wife- Mat . . henen, and his daughter Khebit.' The god 
before whom the king kneels is Amen of Nept (Napata), and he 
tells Aspelta that he has established the uraei of sovereignty on 
his brow as the heavens upon their four pillars. Below this 
scene are inscribed thirty lines of hieroglyphics, in which Aspelta 

ibes the ceremonies that were performed at his coronation 
or inthionement, and for this reason the monument is generally 
known as the "Stele of the Coronation," or the " Stele of the 
Knthronement." It will be remembered that Diodorus tells us 
that when a king was to be crowned in Nubia the priests first of 
all selected a number of suitable candidates, that these were led 

;. Ze/t., xxxiii., 1 895, p. 10 1 ft. 

' to/o^n/ucs, torn, i., pp. 96-ico; Records of the Past, vol. iv. 
p. 87; see also Schaefer, Aeg. Zeit '.. 1895, p. 101 fif 






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in by them before the statue of the god during the performance of 
certain festival rites, and that the candidate whom the statue of 
the god touched or embraced was regarded as chosen by him to 
be king. This done, all present fell on their faces and adored 
the king-elect as a god, believing that the divine power had 
been transferred to him by the touch or embrace of the image. 1 
Now Diodorus was, as we shall see, well-informed on this matter, 
and the Stele of the Coronation supplies a number of details 
which supplement his statement in a striking manner. 

The document is dated in the first year of the king's reign, and 
sets forth that all the soldiers of His Majesty were in the town 
of Tu-ab (the Holy Mountain, i.e., Gebel Barkal), the seat of 
Tetun Khenti-Nefert, i.e., the god of the country of the Second 
and Third Cataracts. With these were assembled twenty-four 
great officers of the kingdom, six being chosen captains of the 
army, and six of the seal-bearing caste of priests, 2 and six of the 
caste of learned scribes, and six of the chief chancellors of the 
palace, and they agreed to elect a king. And they said, " There 
is a lord among us, but we know him not," and they earnestly 
desired that he might be made manifest to them. And the 
twenty-four officials said one to the other, that none knew who 
he was save Ra, and prayed that he would be defended from 
all evil. Next, allusion was made to the death of the late king, 
and the vacant throne, and then they all decided to gc to Amen- 
Ra, and to lay the matter before him, and to make offerings and 
pray for his guidance. When the twenty-four officials arrived at 
the temple of Amen-Ra, they found the prophets and priests 
already assembled, and they told them the object of their com- 
ing. Then the priests proceeded to asperge and cense the 
temple, and to pour out libations of water and wine, and when 
they had done this, they prayed to Amen-Ra, and asked him to 

1 Ot pev yap lepels e£ avra>v tovs dpiaTovs irpoKpivovcriv, ex 8e tojv K.aTa\e)(8evTa>v, 

01/ av 6 debs K<opd£a>v koto tivci (Tvvrjdeiav 7repi(pep6pevos \dl3rj, tovtov to nXrjdoi- 

alpelrai daaiKea' evBi'S 8e koi rrpoaKvvd <a\ Ttfiq Kaddirtp deov, a)? vixb ri]s TQV 

8aip.oviov irpovoias ey<€)(fipio-fievT]s avrca rrjs dpxrjs. Book hi. 5- 1 (Didot's ed. 

'P 129). 



give them a king who would carry out his good works among 

After their prayer they placed the candidates for the throne, 
who were styled " royal brethren." ' before the god, but the 
would have none of them: among these, presumably, was 
Aspelta. Then they brought Aspelta before the god a second 
time, whereupon Amen-Ra declared that he was to be their 
lord When complete the text stated that Aspelta was the son 
of Enenselsa, queen of Rash, and grandson of a high-priesti 
Amen-Ra, and gave the name of Enenselsa's mother, grand- 
mother, great grandmother, great-great-grandmother, and great- 
great-great-grandmother, but the cartouches of all these royal ladies 
been obliterated. It is important to note that Aspelta's 
maternal ancestress in the sixth generation was a queen of 
Kash. When Amen-Ra had spoken, all present fell on their 
bellies' and " smelt the earth.'" i.e.. adored Aspelta as the son of 
Amen-Ra, and acknowledged him as their kin--. Then Aspelta 
went into the presence of the god, and prayed lor strength and 

guidance to do his will, and Amen-Ra promised togivehim these 

The king then rose up. and put on the crown, and, taking the 
sceptre in his hand, prostrated himself before the god, and 
prayed for " life, stability, power, health, gladness, and long life.*' 
When Amen-Ra had further promised to give him dominion 
over all lands, the king came forth and was greeted with cries of 
joy and shouts of acclamation by his assembled subjects. As ;i 
thank-offering to Amen-F Ita founded several festivals 

which were to be celebrated yearly, and he mad gifts, 

including one hundred and forty barrels of beer, to the god and 
his i 

The Last lines of the text are, unfortunately, much mutilated, 
but the general sense of the remaining portions is clear. From 
the above summary it is evident that Aspelta was no adventurer 
or usurper, and that on his mother's side, at Least, he was the 
legitimate occupant <>f the throne of Napata. His ancestress in 

sixth generation was probably a contemporary of the ■.. 
Piankhi, and may have belonged to the same branch of the royal 


house of Napata as he. The inscription which records Aspelta's 
coronation : is very important as illustrating Nubian customs 
in the seventh century before Christ, and a translation of all the 
portions of it now remaining is therefore given here. 

The Coronation of Aspelta — Translation. 

(i) On the fifteenth day of the second month of spring of the 
first year of the Majesty of Horus Nefer-kha, the king of the 
shrines of Nekhebet and Uatchet, Nefer-kha, the Horus of gold 
Usr-ab, the king of the South and North, the lord of the Two 

Lands, ( Mer-ka-Ra 1L the son of the Sun, the lord of crowns, 

(Aspelta), the beloved of Amen-Ra, the lord of the throne of 

tne Two Lands, who dwelleth in Tu-ab — now behold (2) all the 
soldiers of His Majesty were in the temple-hall of the city of Tu-ab 
— now the name of the god who dwelleth therein is Tetun Khenti- 
Nefert, the god of Kash, — after the god (i.e., the late king) had 
departed to his place of rest. (3) And there were there six captains 
who tilled the heart [of the king] of the army of his Majesty, and 
six of the chiefs who filled the heart [of the king] who were overseers 
of the seal, and (4) six overseers of the archives who filled the heart 
[of the king], and six nobles who were overseers of the chancery 
of the palace. And they said unto all his soldiers, " Come, let us 
" (5) make a king for ourselves, who shall be like unto a bull whom 
" none can resist." And the soldiers pondered anxiously and 
said, " Our lord abideth among us, but we know him not. (6) We 
" wish indeed that we did know him so that we might enter into 
''his service, even as the Two Lands served Horus the son of 
" Isis after he had taken his seat upon the throne of his father 
" Osiris, and ascribed adoration to the two uraei [on his brow]." 

(7) And one spake unto his neighbour, saying, " No man knoweth 
"him, save only Ra himself: may the god drive away from him 
11 evil in every place wheresoever he may be ! " And [again] one 

(8) spake unto his neighbour, saying, " Ra (i.e., the late king) 
" hath taken up his place in the Land of Life (Ankhtet), and his 
"crown is [empty] among us." And [again] one spake unto his 
neighbour, saying, " It hath been a fixed and unalterable decree of 
" Ra since the time when heaven came into being, and (9) since 
" the crown of royalty existed, that he should give [the crown] to 
" his beloved son, for the king is his image among the living, and 
" hath not Ra placed himself in this land because of his love for it, 

1 For the text, see Mariette, Monuments, plate 9 ; and for translations, see 
Maspero, Rev. Arch., 1873, torn. xxv\, p. 300 ff. ; Maspero, Records of the Past, 
vol. vi., p. 71 ; Maspero, Annates &thiopie?i7ies, § ii ; M tiller, Aethiopien, p. 27. 



md that this land may have peace?" And [again] one said 
(10) unto his neighbour, " Hath not Ra ' entered into heaven, and 
•' is not his throne empty without a king ? And do not his rank 

ind his beneficence remain in his hands to give unto his son who 
"loveth him ? For Ra knoweth that by means of them he (i.e., 
"the king) will make good laws on his throne." 

(n) Then all the soldiers pondered anxiously, saying, "Our 
" lord abideth among us. but we know him not.'* And each and all 
the soldiers of His Majesty said with one voice, " Now, moreover, 
••this god Amen Ra, lord of the throne of the Two Lands, the 

Iweller in Tu-ab is the god of Kash. Come, (12) let us ^ r o to 
"him, and let us do nothing without him, for not good is the thing 
"which is done without him. Aral let us place the matter with 
"the god, for he hath bun the god of the kingdom of Kash since 
" the time of Ra, and he will lead us. For (13) the kingdom of 
" Kash is in his hands, and he giveth it unto the son whom he 
"loveth. We will adore him. and we will smell the earth [as we 
" lie on] our bellies before him. and we will declare before him. 

saying, * We have come unto thee. O Amen, do thou give unto 
•• us our lord to vivify us. to build the temples of all the gods and 

goddesses of the South and North, and to provide (14) offerings 
" for them. We will do nothing without thee, thou art our guide, 
••and nothing whatsoever shall be done without thee.' " Then 
each and every soldier said, " This is a saying which is good, and 
" we declare it to be so a hundred thousand times. 

Then the captains of His Majesty went (15) with the chief 
officers of the palace of Amen, and they found the prophets and 
the chief libationers standing at the door of the temple, and 
they said unto them, "[We] come before this god Anien-Ka. the 

:\\«ller in Tu-ab, so that he may give unto us our lord to vivify 
"us, to build the tempi. all the godsand all the g< ddr 

nth and North, and to provide offerings for them, and 
"we will do nothing whatsoever without this god, for he is our 
Then the prophets and the chief libationers went into 
the temple, and they performed all the ceremonies of purification 
the pouring out of water therein. And the captains of His 
Majesty ty) and the nobles of the palace went into the temple, 
and they threw themselves on their bellies before this god, and 
they said, " We have come unto thee. () Amen-Ra, the lord of the 
" throne of the Two Lands, the dweller in Tu-.ab, give thou us a lord 
"to vivify us, to build the temples of the gods of the South and 

rth, and to provide offerings [for them |. and [to receive] 
"the gracious 18) dignity from thy two hands which thou gh 
•• unto thy beloved son." 
/ And they set the royal brethren in th< e of this god, but 

• • • king. 

Sep: this is an old phrase borrowed from the rubrics 


he did not draw to himself one of them. Then they set a second 
time [before the God] the Royal Brother, t he son o f Amen, born 

of Mut, the lady of heaven, the son of Ra, f Aspelta ], who liveth 

for ever, and the god Amen-Ra, (19) the lord oflhe throne of the 
Two Lands, said, " He it is who is the king your lord, and he shall 
" vivify you, and he shall build all the temples of the Lords of the 
"South and North, and provide offerings therefor. His father 

" was the divine son, the son of Ra f \ mad kheru} whose 

" mother was the royal sister, th e royal mother, the mistress of 

" Kash, (20) the daughter of Ra f \ who liveth for ever; 

" whose mother was the royal sister, the Meter Tuat (i.e., hig h- 

" priestess) of Amen-Ra, the king of the gods of Thebes, f J, 

" maat kheru; whose mother was the royal sister ( 1, 

" maat kheru ; whose mother was the royal sister ( J, maat 

"kheru; whose mother was the royal sister ( J, maat kheru : 

"whose mother was the royal sister f J, (21) maat kheru ; 

" whose mo ther was the royal sister, the mistress of Kash, 

"( jL maat kheru. He shall be your lord." 

Then the captains of His Majesty and the nobles of the palace 
cast themselves down on their bellies before this god, and smelt 
the earth in the deepest humility, and gave thanks unto this god 
for the mighty {22) deed which he had don e for his beloved son, 

the king of the South and North, f Aspelta J, who liveth for ever. 

And His Majesty entered in to let himself be crowned before 
Father Amen-Ra, the Lord of the throne of the Two Lands, and he 
found every kind of crown, and the royal apparel of the kings of 
Kash, and their sceptres, laid before this god. Then His Majesty 
spake in the presence of this god, saying: (23) "Come thou to 
" me, O Amen-Ra the lord of the throne of the Two Lands, who 
" dwellest in Tu-ab, grant thou unto me thy beneficent dignity 
"which is not in my heart, and let me love thee (?). Give thou 
" to me the crown, according to the desire of thy heart, and the 
" sceptre." Then the god said, " Thine is the cr own of th e royal 

"brother, the king of the South and North ( j, mad 

" kheru (24); and his diadem is stablished on thy head, even as 
" is stablished .... on thy head ; and his sceptre is in thy 

1 " He whose word is maat," i.e., he who has attained the power of making 
every order he gives to take effect. Thus we know that Aspelta's father was 

VOL. II. 65 F 


" hand, and it shall overthrow all thine enemies." Then His 
Majesty rose up before Amen-Ra, [the lord of the throne of the 
Two Lands], .... and he took the sceptre in his hand, and His 
Majesty cast himself upon his belly before this god (25) to smell 
the earth in the deepest humility. And he said : " Come thou to 
" me, O Amen-Ra, the lord of the throne of the Two Lands, who 
" dwellest in Tu-ab . . . ." From this point onwards the text is 
much mutilated, but enough of it remains to prove that when the 
king came out from the temple he was received by his soldiers 
with shouts of joy (line 28), and that he established festivals in 
honour of the gods, and gave gifts to the priests. 

In connection with the reign of Aspelta mention must be made 
of the Stele set up by his Queen Mat .... henen (?) at Gebel 
Barkal, to commemorate the gifts which she made to the temple 
of Amen-Ra there. This Stele, after it was removed from the 
Sudan, came into the possession of Linant Bey, and it passed 
into the hands of Prince Napoleon and E. de Rouge, and after 
the death of the latter was given to the Museum of the Louvre by 
J. de Rouge. 1 On the upper portion of it is sculptured a scene 

wherein Aspelta is making an offering of Maut, $ , to Amen-Ra, 

Mut, and Khensu, and behind him stand his mother Enselsa, 
his wife Mat . . . henen (?), and his sister Khebit, each pouring 
out a libation with her right hand, and holding a sceptre in her 
left. Each of the three royal ladies is steatopygous, and their 
figures resemble those of the ladies who are seen represented on 
the chapel-walls of the pyramids of Meroe. Beneath the 
sculptured scene are twenty-three lines of text, which set forth 
that on the twenty-fourth day of the fourth month of the season 
Shat, in the third year of Aspelta's reign, the following officers of 
the kingdom of Napata came to the temple: six overseers of the 
seal called Rum-Amen, Amen-tarhaknen .... a-Amen-saknen, 

the Anauasasu official Kuru-Amen-tanen samakhinen, 

Nastaabusaknen,- and the chief scribe of Kash, Marubiua- 

1 First published and translated by P. Pierrot, in 1£iude$ Hgypt. t torn, i., 
pp. 96-106, plate 2, Paris, 1873 ; also published and translated by Schaefer, in 
Zeit., 1895, P- IQI - 

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Amen, 1 and the scribe of the granary, Kbensu-Artas,- the chief 
chancellor of the marches of Ta-Kenset, Arta, 3 the royal scribe 
Takarta, 1 the chancellor Pata-nub/' in all, eleven officials. In the 
presence of these stood the queen, with a silver bowl in her right 
hand, and a sistrum in her left, and she made an offering to Amen 
and agreed to give to the god fifteen loaves of bread, ten of one 
sort and five of another, each day, and e\cry month fifteen 
measures of beer, and every year three oxen, and on festival days 
she promised to give a measure of some kind of beer, and two 
measures of another, extra. These gifts were to be maintained by 
the queen during her life, and by her children and grandchildren 
after her death. Every descendant of hers who carried out her 
wishes would be favourably regarded by Amen-Ra, and would have 
a son to succeed him, but whosoever diminished these offerings 
would be smitten by the sword of Amen-Ra, and be burned by the 
fire of Sekhet, and have no son to succeed him. There were present 
also at the dedication of this endowment, the second, third, and 
fourth prophets of Amen, who were called Uahmani-Amen, 
Tanen-Amen, Tanenbuta, respectively; and the scribe of the 
divine words of Amen, whose name is erased ; the seven chief 
libationer-priests, Sapakhi, Sab, Peta-Amen, Nemkhi, Kurumut, 
Khent(?)-ruhi, Kuru-tanen-Amen ; the three presidents, Nes- 
Anher, Bes . . . ., and Un-nefer, and the temple scribe Nes- 

Here for convenience' sake, and because the document probably 
belongs to the end of the seventh century before Christ, reference 
must be made to the edict against the eaters of raw meat, which 
was promulgated at Napata by a king whose name has been 



U I D 





obliterated.' The edict is inscribed upon a stone slab, with a 
rounded top, which was found by an Egyptian officer at Gebel 
Barkal, and which w quently brought to Cairo, under 

Mariettas Directorship of Antiquities ; this monument is generally 
known as the " Stele of the Excommunication." On the rounded 
part is sculptured a scene wherein th< king, whose name has been 

d from the cartouche, is making an offering of Maat $ , 
to Amen-Ra, who is represented with a ram's head surmounted 

disk and plumes; behind the god stand Mut and Khensu. 

Amen promises to give him "all life and power'*: and Mut, "all 

health," and Khensu, "the veritable scribe of the company of the 

and Horns, the lord of joy of heart, all joy of heart." 

ith the - ten lints of text, the first three of which 

contain the king's names and titles. The rest of the inscription 
sets forth that, in the second year after His Majesty had ascended 
the throm . he went into the temple of Father Amen of 

Napata, the dweller in Tu-al>, to drive away these men (or tribes). 

who were haters of the god [Amen], and were called " Tern pesiu 

■ t khaiu," saying : " They shall not enter into the temple of 

I Napata. the dweller in Tu-ab, because of that thing, 

"whereof to speak is an abomination, which, they did in the 

" temple of Amen." Nowtheydid a thing, which the god had 

not given the command to do, and they made a blasphemous 

n in their hearts, in respect of slaying the man in whom 

listed no abomination, the- which the god had given no 

mand to perform. But the god made their words [empty 

whilst yet] in their mouths, and their words wherein they had 

things which rose up against them in an evil 

! smote them, and he made the fire of the 

3 through their midst. In order to put into all 

prophets, and into all libationers, who enter into the place where 

this holy god is. the fear of the greatness of his souls and of the 

might of his living power, Hi \ saiththus: — 

" All prophets and all libationers who shall commit an evil act 
"in the temple shall [the god Amen] slay. And their feet shall 

tte, Mori. Divers, plate 10 ; and for translations, see 
71, torn, xxi., p. 329 : Records of the Past, vol. iv., 
; and see Mariette, Revue Arch., 
torn, ii., p. 

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" not be permitted to [stand] upon the earth, and their posterity 
" shall not be firmly stablished after them ; therefore shall the 
" temple be free from their pollution, and their defilement shall 
" not be therein." 

From this extract it is clear that the edict was directed against 
a class of people who tried to introduce into the town of Napata 
a custom which was abhorred by the priests and their nominee the 
king, and, though it is impossible to supply details of the custom, 
and to give the exact meaning of the formula which expressed 
the views of these people, it is not difficult to show what they 
were. The first two words of the phrase, 1 tern pesi, seem to mean 
"do not cook," and therefore Professor Maspero, the first to 
translate the edict, believes that the people who incurred the 
wrath of Amen and the king endeavoured to introduce the custom 
of eating raw meat. That it found favour among certain of the 
priests and libationers is clear from the fact that the last para- 
graph of the edict is directed against them. Now, the eating of 
raw meat has been a practice among the Ethiopians from time 
immemorial, and the custom survives to this day among many of 
the tribes on the Abyssinian frontier and in Abyssinia itself. The 
Amharic language, in fact, contains a word for "meat which is 
eaten raw," i.e., brundo, or brendo,' and the Abyssinians, as has 
already been said (see Vol. I., pp. 18, 19), love raw meat. The 
priests of Amen and the men of Egyptian descent in Napata hated 
the innovation, or perhaps the continuation of an old custom, hence 
the edict ; but, seeing that the name of the king who promulgated 
it was obliterated in later days, it may be assumed that he was 
unpopular because of his edict, and that the custom of eating raw 
meat became common in Napata. 

During the reign of Nekau (Necho), the second king of the 
XXVIth Dynasty, Egypt was too much occupied with Syria to 
trouble about Nubia, or the Sudan, and, so far as we know, the 
mercenaries who garrisoned Elephantine had no serious trouble 
with the people who lived to the south of the First Cataract. 
Nekau began to reign about B.C. 611 and died about 594. In a 
battle with him in the Valley of Megiddo Josiah, king of Judah, 

1 Turn pest. Per tot khai, " Do not cook. Let violence kill " (Maspero). 



lain, 1 and Nekau made himself master of all Syria whilst the 
Babylonians and Medes were attacking Nineveh. After the fall 
of Nineveh Nebuchadnezzar II. marched against him. and in a 
pitched battle fought at Karkemish the Egyptians, Nubians, and 
Libyans were routed with great slaughter, and Nekau sought 
safety in flight ; he reached Egypt safely, and died two years 
after his defeat. During his reign he cleared out the old Red 
Sea Canal, in the course of which work 120,000 men perished; he 
also established a fleet of triremes. 

mmetichus II., the son and successor of Nekau, ascended 

the throne when very young, and in the early years of his reign 

at to Klephantine to superintend an expedition into Nubia ; 

on his return he died, about B.C. 589. Whilst he was at 

Elephantine his officers caused his titles and cartouches to be cut 

on rocks on the Islands . Abaton, Konosso, &c, and 

about this time the rock-hewn chapel at Philae, made in honour 

of Khnemu and other gods of the Cataract country, was probably 

dedicated, The object of the expedition into Nubia is not clear, 

and there is no evidence that it met with any opposition on the 

How far south the officers of Psammetichus II. went is not 

known, but they certainly reached Abu Simbel, for they left 

inscriptions there which make this certain. These inscriptions - 

are in Creek. Carian, and Phoenician, and are found on a leg of 

one of the colossal >tatues of Rameses II. The most important 

of those in Greek is that whim ^hues that it was cut by the 

comrades of Psammetichus, the son of Theokles. when king 

nmetichus came to Elephantine The expedition, it goes on 

iled by was- of Ki rkis to the source of the river, Deche- 

mmanding the foreigners, and Amasis the Egyptians. 

who wrote were Damerarchon, the son of Amoibichos, 

and Pelekos, the son of Udamos. 3 The name Reikis * has been 

•e 2 Kings xxiii. 29. 

ee Lepsius. Denkmnler, Abth. vi.. Bl. 98 ff.; Corpus Insert p. Semit., 
torn, i., pi. 19, 20, text, torn, i., pp. 128-137 ; Sayce, Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch., 
. p. 144 \\. 

iXtos tXduvTos is 'EXtquii'Ttvai' VupnaTiKo 
•nura ty papain ot avv ¥afifiaTi\oi toi B/okXos 
(irXtov f)Wov 3« Ke'pnios Karwfp devtairn iruTapos 
dvir) d\6y\oaos A^frroToo-i/xro AtyvKTMK 8i "Apaais 
lypctfpt Aapfpap\ov ^Apoldi^ov kcu TlfXfKos 0l8dp.nv. 
4 See A 1 demann, in Rheiflisches Museum, Bd. xxxv., p. 372. 



the subject of much discussion, but the reading is well-established, 
and it seems better to look for this place to the south of Abu 
Simbel, than to identify it either with Kirsh, opposite to Garf 
Husen, or with Korti, a little above Dakka. Practically speaking, 
the expedition sailed nearly to Wadi Haifa, the Egyptians of the 
time considering that the Nile Valley from Elephantine to this point 
belonged to them. Wadi Haifa, or Behen as it was then called, 
had lost its importance, but this was certain to happen when it 
ceased to be a central market for the products of the Southern 
Sudan. This ancient frontier town was situated in a most 
unproductive portion of the Nile Valley, and it was to the interest 
neither of the kings of Napata nor of the kings of Egypt to 
maintain or defend it against each other at this period. 

During the rule of the early kings of the XXVIth Dynasty of 
Egypt there flourished at Napata, probably between B.C. 610 and 
B.C. 580, a king called P-ankh-aluru, whose name occurs in this 

form :- 







Nothing whatever is known about his reign, but his name occurs 
twice in the Stele of Nastasenen, once in connection with a vine- 
yard, or garden, which he planted at Ta-hehet, and once in 
connection with Heru-sa-atef. 

Following close on the period of his rule came the reign of 
Heru-sa-atef, whose prenomen was Sa-mer- 
Amen. His Horus name was Ka-nekht-kha-em- 
Nept, 1 his Nekhebet-Uatchet name was Netch- 
neteru, 2 and his Golden Horus name was Uaf- 
th-tat-semt-semt-nebt. 3 The only known 
monument of this king is the famous gray granite 
stele from Gebel Barkal which is now in the 
Egyptian Museum at Cairo. On the upper 
portion of the obverse is sculptured a figure of 
the winged disk, with pendent uraei, between 


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which is uche containing the name of Irjeru-sa-atef 

Beneath are two scenes: in that to the right the king is 
standing, and is making an offering of a string of heads, a neck- 

and a pectoral to the ram-headed Amen of Napata, and 

behind him is the "royal mother, royal sister, mistress of Kash, 

Thesma nefer-ru " ;' in tin- seem- to the left the king is making 

mie kind of offerings t<> the man-headed Amen, and behind 

him stands the " royal sister and wife Behth&iis (?). On the four 

<>f the stele are e6i lines of hieroglyphics, wherein is 

rded the history of the principal events of the reign oi Heru- 
sa-atef. a The following rendering of them will illustrate their 
contents: — 

(i The thirteenth day of the second month (^ the season of 
Pert, in the thirty-fifth year under the majesty of the Horns, the 
Mighty Bull crowned in Nept (Napata), the lord of the shrines of 
Nekhebet and Uatchet, (2) the Advocate of the gods, the Golden 
Horus, tht c onqueror i?> o f all foreign lands, the king of the South 

and North, fSa-mer-Amen], the son of Ra, the lord of the Two 

Lands, the lord of crowns, <;■ the lord who hath made creation, 
ceeding] from his body, beloved by him, 

M.Ierw-s.'.-ateM, who liveth for ever, beloved of Amen-ka, the 

if the thrones of the Two Lands, who dwelleth in the Holy 
[Mountain]. We give him (4) life, stability, and all power, and 
all health, and all joy of heart, like Ra, for ever. 

rn the beginning they decided that Amen of (5) Napata . . . . 

my beneficent Father, should give unto me ra-Neheset (i.e., the 

Land »f the Blacks, or Sudan): 111 the beginning it was they who 

iound <»n the royal tiara, in the beginning it was they who 

I upon me with their kind eyes, and who spake unto me, 

sayin n< to the temple of Amen oi Napata, 

" who dwelleth in the Hall of the (8) North." r hen was I afraid, 
and I made supplication unto a certain aged man. and 

him], and he (9) spake unt<> me, saying: " Seek on 

11 behalf of thy two hands: he who buildeth up my (10) holy 

hall be protected." Then they caused me to come into 

the presence of Amen of Napata, my (n) beneficent Father, 

sa\ in- : " I beseech thee to give unto me the diadem of the Land 

1 E221' '" Q^ii^Jii 

. plates 11-13; and for translations, 
of ike Pdsty vol. vi«, pj ttudes de Mythologie, 


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"of the Blacks"; and (12) Amen of Napata said unto me, "I 
" have given unto thee the diadem of the Land of the Blacks ; 
"and [ have given (13) unto thee the Four Quarters of the whole 
"earth; and I have given unto thee the water which is good ; 
" and I have given unto thee (14) the water which is foul ; and I 
" have placed all thy foes so that they may be beneath thy 
" sandals." (15) If any country maketh a [hostile] advance on 
" thy two sides it shall not succeed ; but if thou (16) makest an 
" expedition against any country which is on either side of thee, 
" (17) the thigh and the legs thereof shall come to nought." And 
having seen him I poured out a great libation in return for that 
which Amen of Napata, (18) my beneficent Father, had given me, 
and I stood up in the hall of the Apts of Amen of Napata, (19) 
within the sanctuary. 

And it came to pass after these things that [I] made a journey 
to Amen-Ra (20), the lord who dwelleth in the city of Qemten, 
and I spake, saying, " Amen of Napata." And I made a journey 
to Amen-Ra, the lord who dwelleth (21) within Pa-Nebes. and I 
spake, saying, "Amen of Napata." And I made a journey to 
Bast of (22) Taret, and I spake, saying, " Amen of Napata." 

Then they spake to me, saying, " Get thee gone (23) to the temple 
" of Amen of Tarukhet(?)-reset, for men say that the building 
"thereof is not complete." (24) Then I turned back a second 
time, and I builded it, and I provided materials, and I adorned it 
completely in five months. And when I looked at the (25) 
temple of the Apts of Amen of Napata, and saw that it lacked 

gold, I gave (26) unto the temple of the Apts forty 

teben of gold, and of worked gold (?) five thousand one 
hundred and twenty pek. (27) Then one spake unto me 
saying, " The pa shennut lacketh gold/' And I (28) caused 
them to bring shent (acacia) wood, and wood of Arkaret, in 
abundance, (29) and I made them bring it to Napata, and I 
made them to lay plates of gold on both sides of it [in weight] 
forty teben. (30) And I gave to the treasury (?) of the temple 
twenty teben of gold, and of worked gold one hundred pieces. 

(31) O Amen of Napata, I have given unto thee [a pectoral] 
and beads for thy neck .... and a statue of Amen-Ra .... 
inlaid with . . . and gold, and three .... of gold, which were 
inlaid with [precious stones], and a figure of Ra inlaid with gold, 
and three gold figures of the head of Amen, and two censers (?) 
of gold, and one hundred and thirty-four bands (?) of gold, and one 
hundred teben of silver, and one rncihen vessel of silver, and one 
haru vessel of silver, and five sekaru vessels of silver, and one 
liaru vessel of silver, and one mahen vessel of silver, and one 
dbrek vessel of silver, and nine mennu vessels of silver, and four 
karu vessels of copper, and .... mekatmi vessels of copper, and 
two hahrdmdu vessels of copper, and two fire-holders of copper, 
and one ukhakh vessel of copper, and fifteen sekaru bowls of 
copper, and five patennu vessels of copper, and two large lavers 



r — total, thirty-two [vessels]. And two hundred teben 

. and rive jars of honey (56). 

And on another occasion, when the House of a Thousand Years 

n to fall into ruin, I rebuilt it for thee. I made for it a 

with pillars; 1 built for thee a stable for oxen, two hundred 

and fifty-four cubits [long]. I restored for thee a temple, which 

though small had gone to ruin, and I made supplication, 

." And I spake, saying, - " Be- 
hold, as a king of Egypt have I built for thee, and I have 
"provided for its supply of offerings." And again, I gave unto 
thee five hundred oxen, and I gave unto thee two mQnen vessels 
of milk, and wry many .•. on many occasions. And I 

unto thee ten ministrants. And I gave unto thee captives, 
tiftv men and fifty women, in all one hundred. O Amen of 
tta, I have not reckoned [what I gave] unto thee. I am 
the man who provided for thee that which I vowed. (72) And 
011 the twenty-third day of the third month of the season Pert, in 
tin second year, they made him set out on an expedition against 
the rebels, and I slaughtered the Rehrehsa. and Amen hamstrung 
the thighs that were stretched out against me. I did acts of 
ry anion- them, and defeated them utterly. 

And on the fourth day of the second month of the season 
in the third year, I did acts of bravery among the Met. t 
5, and I defeated them utterly .... and it was thou who 
workedsl for me. 

And on the twelfth day of tl nd month of the 

n Shemu, in the fifth year of the son of Ra, the king of the 

South and North ( Heru-sa-atef JL life, strength, health [to him] for 

wmen and my horsemen to go against the 
rebels in tin- country of Metet. and they performed mighty deeds 
in the towns of Anerua . . . ru, and they defeated them, and 

large numbers of them, and they took many prisoners, and 

I the Prince Aruka .... th. 

\!id on the fourth day of the second month ot 
season Shemu. in the sixth year of the son of Ra, 

I, who liveth for ever, 1 called together a multi- 

iinst the country of MeU-t, and I did 

j among them and their towns, and I 

ted and routed them utterly in the town of Hebsi (?). 

Mills, and cows, and asses, and sheep, and 

i men si I women slaves thereof, and the .... 

tnd it was thy terror which worked graciously on my 

behalf. Then the chief of the land of Metet sent unto me, saying, 

•• I hou art my god, I am thy servant, 1 am a woman, O com* 

And he caused the dfennut* to be brought unto m 

1 The .: the money which he paid to Heru-sa- 



the hands of an envoy (?). And I came and [I] performed the 
ceremonies of Amen of Napata, my beneficent Father. And I 
gave unto thee oxen in very large numbers. 

(92) And on the fourth day of the first month of the season 
Pert, in the eleventh year [of my reign], I made my bowmen to set 
out on an expedition against the country of Taqnat, under the 
leadership of Kasau, for the troops of the chiefs Baruka and 
Samensa had reached the city of Sunt. He did mighty deeds of 
valour there and defeated Baruka and Samensa, and slew all the 
people of the city. It was through the terror of thee which was 
beneficent [towards me] that I did [this]. 

(96) And on the fifteenth day of the first month of the season 
Sha, in the sixteenth year [of my reign], I caused my bowmen and 
my horsemen to set out on an expedition against the rebels of the 
land of Mekhetsa(?) and they performed mighty deeds of valour 
among them, and my bowmen defeated them with slaughter, and 
captured the finest of their cattle. 

(99) And on the thirteenth day of the first month of the season 
Pert, in the eighteenth year of [the reign of] the son of Ra, 

( Heru-sa-atef ], who liveth for ever, the rebels of the country 

of Rehrehsa came under the leadership of with his men 

into the city of Baruat (Meroe), and I repulsed him. Thy 
auspicious terror and thy two mighty thighs smote him bravely, 
and I defeated him and overthrew him with very great slaughter, 
and scattered his men. And thou thyself didst so work for me in 
the lands (?) that he rose up in the middle of the night and took 
to flight. 

(105) And on the eighteenth day of the third mont h of Shemu, in 

the twenty-third year of [the reign of] the son of Ra, ( Heru-sa-atef J , 

who liveth for ever, Arua, the chief of the countries of Rehrehsa, 
and all his men came against me in the city of Baruat (Meroe). 
And I did mighty deeds of valour among thern, and I defeated him 
and overthrew him with very great slaughter, and I repulsed him 
and put him to flight. And I defeated Shaikaru who came to his 
assistance under an agreement with him. It was thy auspicious 

terror and thy two thighs [which smote] the chief and 

my bowmen and my horsemen drove him off. 

(in) And on the fifteenth day of the first month of the season 
Pert, in the t hirty-fourth year of [the reign ofj the son of Ra, 

fHeru-sa-atefl, who liveth for ever, 1 sent a messenger to 

Amen of Napata, my beneficent Father, saying, " Shall I send 
" my bowmen against the countries of Mekhetsai ? " And Amen 
sent a message unto me, saying: "Certainly send them." Then 
I caused to set out fifty scouts and horsemen, and the people of the 
four lands of Mekhetsai who were gathered together did they 
defeat with slaughter, and none remained, and none of them 
vol. 11. 81 g 


. and none of them was able to take the road, 
and none of them was able to put his feet [to ground], and none 

of them was able and none of them was able to grasp a 

bow (?), and they gave themselves up as prisoners (?). 

(in)) And. moreover, so soon as they spake unto me, saying, 
" The temple fell into ruin in the third month of the season Pert 
"during the festival of Ptah," 1 built the temple for the. 
built for thee a temple of gold .... of wood, six chambers of 

1. and four pillars of stone. And moreover, so soon as they 
spake unto me. saying: "Thehouse of the king (i.e.. palace) hath 
"become in such a state of ruin that no man can enter therein,"" I 
built thehouse of the king, and four houses in Napata, and sixty 
houses which I caused to be enclosed within a wall. And. 

moreover, I built a place of each side of which was fifty 

cubits [long], making in all two hundred cubits. And, moreover, 
I planted six gardens with a vine in each, making in all six vines 
in Napata And I gave unto thee most beautiful gardens in 
Barual (Meroe), making in all six. And I caused to be offered 
up unto thee offerings on the twelfth (or, twenty-second) night [of 
each month] one hundred and fifteen measures of grain, and 
thirty-eight measures of barley, making in all one hundred and 
fifty-three measures of wheat and barley. [The next four linesare 
mutilated, but the text seems to mean that the king carried out 
repairs of temples in every town which needed them]. I made 
Osiris to i . celebrated a festival to the god) in ... . tint ; 

[ made to rise Osiris, the dweller in Baruat (Meroe) ; 1 made to 
rise Osiris and Isis in Merthet : I made to rise Osiris and [sis 
four times in Kaivrt ; I made to rise Osiris and Isis and Horns in 
Seh reset ; I made to rise Osiris and Amen-Abti ' in Sekarukat ; I 
made to rise Horus in Karuthet (Korti?); I made to rise K.i 
in Mehat(?); I made to rise An-her in Aruthnait ; I made to 
- in Napata ; I made to rise Osiris in N eh an at : I made 

-<■ Osiris and Isis in Pa-Qemt ; and I made to rise Osiris three 
in Pa-Nebes, for ever. 




The information to be gained from Heru-sa-atef 's inscription is of 
a most interesting nature, and it proves that in the sixth century 
before Christ there lived at Napata a king, who, by means of the 
nine expeditions which he made during his reign of at least thirty- 
five years, made himself master of the Nile Valley from Pa-nebes, 
the Tlvovyjr of Ptolemy, near Wadi Haifa, to Sennaar on the Blue 
Nile, and Dar Fur on the White Nile. How far to the west his rule 
extended cannot be said, but he was certainly conqueror of all the 
country on both banks of the Atbara. He made no attempt to 
wage war against the Egyptians, and he seems to have laid claim 
to no country north of Pa-nebes, a city which lay to the south of 
Wadi Haifa. He devoted all his energies to the conquest of the 
various savage, or half savage tribes, whether with black, or red, 
or white skins, and whether of pure Sudani or Semitic origin, that 
lived south of the Island of Meroe, and his success was great. 
With the spoil which he took from the vanquished chiefs he 
endowed the great temple of Amen at Napata, and he rebuilt the 
sanctuaries of the gods in many cities, and established one or 
more annual festivals in each of the twelve chief cities of his 
kingdom. It is clear that he was wholly in the hands of the 
priests of Amen, and that he took their advice about going to war. 
We see also that the bulk of the spoil went to them and to their 
god, and that Heru-sa-atef bestowed upon Amen of Napata a new 
endowment after each of his great expeditions. 

The gods chosen by him for endowment besides Amen of Napata 
were Osiris, Isis, Horus, Ra, An-Her, and a local form of Amen 
called "Amen-Abti." Heru-sa-atef copied the great Egyptian 
kings of the XVIIIth Dynasty in causing a summary of his deeds 



in the form of Annals to be drawn up, and. like them, he attributed 
to Amen the successful results which he achieved. The exact 
length of his reign is unknown, and nothing is known of the events 
which followed his death. I le may have been succeeded by a son, 
but tin- materials at present available do not permit any statement 
made on this point, and we do not reach a period concerning 
which historical facts exist until tin- reign of Xastasenen. 

Ni.STASENEN, with the prenomrn of Axkh-Ka-Ra, and the 
- Morns name of Ka NEKHT Ml-K PAUT NETERU KHA 
5j* Bid NepiTA, 1 and the title of "son of Ra," 
ended the throne about B.C. 525, and he 
appears to have been the king of the Sudan 
against whom Cambyses directed his campaign, 
nly known monument of his reign is the 
ray granite slab about 5 feet, 6 inches 
high, inscribed on both sides in hieroglyphics, 
which is called by Lepsius the " Stele of 
Dongola." In a note printed at the end of Brugsch's translation 
of the text, Lepsius says that the stele was obtained 
through the agency of Graf Wilhelm von Schlieffen, through 
whom it was given by Muhammad All to the Berlin Museum 
in L854, but then- is some mistake here, for Muhammad AH 
died in [849. The difficulty is partially cleared up by a com- 
munication which Graf Wilhelm von Schlieffen has made to 
wherein he says that he first saw the stele in New 
■la lying Hat on its side in 1N53 ; he cleared away the dust 
from it. and took a paper impression of the text on one side. 
When he returned to Cairo the following winter he was instructed 
by the Prussian Consul-Genera] t<> obtain the stele from 'Abbas 
hen the Ruler of Egypt, and 'Abbas PashA 
; it to His Majesty Frederick William IV. The s1 
ined at New Dongola, and it was not until 1 
when the Crown Prince Frederick William took a personal 



Mighty Bull, beloved of the company of the gods, crowned in Napata." 

1 <S 7 7 . pp. 2 

rliner Museums ^ p. 2. Leipzig, 1901. 


interest in the matter, that the monument was brought to Cairo ; 
in 1871 it was taken to the Museum in Berlin (No. 2268).' By 
some means or other, Lepsius managed to obtain a paper 
impression of the text on the reverse soon after the discovery of 
the stele, for he published the complete text from both sides in 
1856. 2 The stele, as has already been said, was found by Graf 
Wilhelm von SchliefTen at New Dongola, but it is pretty certain 
that it was not originally set up there by the king who had it made, 
and although it cannot be said when, or by whom, it was brought 
there, it is tolerably certain that its original home was Gebel 
Barkal, and that it stood there near the Stele of Piankhi, the Stele 
of Tanuath- Amen, the Stele of Aspelta, the Stele of Heru-sa-atef, 
and the Stele of the Excommunication. It is probable that it was 
brought away from there by the person who removed the Stele of 
Queen Mat . . . henen (?), and who gave it or sold it to Liuant 
Bey, and that on account of its weight, and the great difficulties 
which would be encountered in passing through the Third and 
Second Cataracts, it was dropped at New Dongola to await a 
more favourable opportunity for its removal. 

On the upper part of the stele are sculptured two scenes: 
in that to the right Nastasenen is standing before the ram-headed 
Amen of Napata, to whom he offers a necklace of beads, and a 
necklace with a pectoral attached, and in that to the left he makes 
the same offering to the man-headed Amen-Ra. In the former 
scene he is accompanied by the Queen Sekhmakh, 3 and in the 
latter by the Queen Mother Pelkha. 4 Above these scenes is the 
winged disk, with pendent uraei, between which is the king's name 
enclosed within a cartouche ; the text referring to the winged disk 
reads, " the great god of Behutet (Edfu), the lord of heaven, giveth 
"life and power." Of the ram-headed Amen it is said; "Amen 
" of Napata, the dweller in the Holy Mountain, the great god, the 
"governor of Ta-Kenset, giveth life and all power for ever," and 
he says to the king, " I give thee all life and power, all stability, 
" all health, and joy of heart. I give thee the years of eternity, 

1 See the official Verzeichnis. p. 402. 

2 See Denkmaler, Abth. v., Bl. 16. 


" wherein to rise upon the throne of Horus for ever." The king is 
said to be "giving a pectoral to his father." and he must say 

four times, " I give thee .... tcben of gold in the first month of 
Shemut." The Oueen Sekhmakh is pouring out a 
libation with one hand, and holding a sistrum in the other. 
Of the man-headed Amen it is said; " Amen-Ra, the lord of 
"the thrones of the two lands, th nor of the Apts, the 

'•giver of all life, stability and like Ra, forever," and he 

to the king; " I give to thee all lands, and all mountains 
•'and . and the Nine Peoples who light with the how shall 

11 be fett< : her beneath thy sandals, like Ra, for ever." 

The text ' which runs beneath ti. ies and is continued 

on tb of the stele gives a good account of the election 

to the throne, the coronation, and the war-, or rather raids of 

in. As a young man be lived in Beruat, where he 

d from Amen of Napata a call which said, " Come " This 

aent is interesting, for it shows that about B.C. 525 the 

thood of Napata. on the death of l.leru-sa-atef. found no one 

in their city who was suitable for the throne. At Merofi Nas- 

• .ok counsel with the members of the royal house, and 

as they acknowledged that Amen regarded him as his son, h 

out early one morning for the city of Astersat, which was perhaps 

his native town or village, and passed the night there. The 

situation of this place is unknown, but it was probably on the 

river, as it seems unlikely that Nastasenen would go to Napata 

it desert route, One of which started opposite Meroe. and 

1 her a little to the north of the junction of the Atbara with 

the Nile. From he went to Ta-hehet (?), another place 

! which is unknown. This town was connected in some 

with ( P-ankhi-Aluru J, a former king of Napata, and Nas- 

10 doubt wished to gain the support of its inhabitants. 

net by a company of men from the temple of Amen 
and a number of local magnates, and, as they informed 

U>tb. v., BL 16 ; for translations, see Maspero. 

' /.'.. vol. iv., p. 2, 1K76 ; Records of the Past, vol. x., p. 55 ff. ; 

. vol. in., p. 239 ffi ; Brugsch, Aeg. Zcit., 1877, p. 23 ; Erman, 

Vet Hcknis of the Roy il Museum in Berlin, p. 402 ; Schaefer, 

xschrift (Us Berliner Museums^ Leipzig, 1901. 


him that Amen had laid the sovereignty of the country at his feet, 
he continued his journey, and arrived, by the west bank of the 
river, at Napata. 

He crossed the river and rode on a " large horse " to the temple at 
Gebel Barkal, and when he had performed all the appointed cere- 
monies, Amen gave him the kingdom of the Sudan, which extended 
from the neighbourhood of the modern village of Kosha, about 
one hundred and twenty miles south of Wadi Haifa, to the country 
of Alut, the Alwah of Muhammadan writers, the southern limits 
of which extended along the Blue and White Niles some two or 
three hundred miles south of the modern city of Khartum. The 
capital of this country was probably on the site of the ruins on the 
right bank of the Blue Nile, a little above Khartum, now known 
as Soba. All the country between the Nile and the Red Sea 
formed a part of Nastasenen's dominions, and all the Bayuda 
desert, and the regions to the north and south of it. After 
returning thanks to Amen, the new king danced before his god, 
and sacrificed two oxen or bulls, and then went up and took his 
seat on the Golden Throne, amid the acclamations of gentle and 
simple, who rejoiced in the appearance of a king who would 
renew the prosperity of their country. 

It was now necessary for Nastasenen to show himself in the 
northern parts of his kingdom, and he therefore journeyed to the 
shrine of Amen of Pa-Qem, which was probably situated between 
the Third and Second Cataracts. Here he was received by the 
god, in whose honour he celebrated a festival, and when Amen 
had confirmed his rule the king went up and sat upon the Golden 
Throne. From Pa-Qem he went to Pa-Nebes, which was 
situated near Wadi Haifa, and the Amen who was worshipped 
in this place having confirmed his rule, the king went up and sat 
upon the Golden Throne. At Pa-Qem he received a bow from 
the god, and at Pa-Nebes he received a leather-laced club, and 
thus, having been acknowledged as king in the two chief religious 
centres in the northern parts of his kingdom, he returned to 
Napata. Here he offered up further sacrifices, and then he spent 
four nights in the tchaut chamber in the temple, and during the 
four days he performed some kind of acts or ceremonies, of the 
nature and import of which nothing is known. When these days 



were accomplished he offered up as sacrifices two more oxen or 
hulls, and then he went and seated himself upon the throne which 
is in the house of the Golden Garden (?). 

Up the river from Napata, at a place called Tert, was a famous 
sanctuary of the goddess Bast. Thither Nastasenen journeyed, 
and presented himself before the goddess, who embraced him, and 
him her Left breast [to suck], and presented him with a strong 
club (?). The site of Tert is unknown. The king occupied five 
in going there and coming bark, and we may assume there- 
iiat the sanctuary was situated some distance up the Fourth 
art, perhaps near the modern Berti. When Nastasenen had 
1 Tert his religious pilgrimages, which were also somewhat 
of a political character, came to an end, and he was free to con- 
sider a course of anion which would fill the treasury of Amen 
vvith gold. From his private possessions he dedicated to Amen of 
Napata four gardens and thirty-six men to work them, a gold 
statue of Amen of Pa-(Jem-Aten, and two gold statues of Horus, 
il sets of silver and copper vessels for use in the sanctuary, 
and large quantities of incense, honey, and myrrh. To Amen in 
Apt he dedicated ten very fine bulls and cows, and several sets of 

NOw whilst Nastasenen was consolidating his rule, and 

carrying out the behests of the priests of Amen, events of 

importance were happening in Egypt. Cambyses, king of Persia, 

had quarrelled with Amasis II., king of Egypt, and was making 

preparations to invade Egypt. The causes of the quarrel do not 

rn as here, for once having made up his mind to invade 

!, Cambyses would not have much difficulty in finding an 

by Phanes, who had been formerly an officer in 

Amasis LI., he obtained guides and water from the 

who lived on the north-east frontier of Egypt, and in a 

short time he appeared with his host at Pelusium, where, 

however, he learned that Amasis II. had just died after a short 

id that his son, Psammetichus III., had succeeded him. 

imetichus III. marched out with the Egyptians and his 

naries to fight Cambyses, but in the fierce battle which took 

place at Pelusium his forces were beaten, and he retreated to 

phis. A few days later, having captured Pelusium, Cam- 



byses advanced on Memphis, which in due course fell into his 
hands, and thus Egypt and Nubia so far south as Wadi Haifa 
became a satrapy of the Persian Empire. According to one 
account, Psammetichus III. was compelled by Cambyses to 
commit suicide by drinking bulls' blood, 1 according to another, 
he was exiled, with six thousand Egyptians, to Susa. 

Cambyses next determined to conquer the country to the west 
of Egypt, and Carthage, and Nubia (the Sudan). Before, how- 
ever, he began to do this, he appears to have set to work to gain 
the affections of the Egyptians by adopting their manners and 
customs. He caused his name to be written within a cartouche, 
and he adopted a Horus name (Sma taui, i.e., the " uniter of the 
two lands,") and a prenomen, Mesuth-Ra ; 2 he also styled him- 
self " son of Ra," as if he had been a true Egyptian Pharaoh. 
With the view of further conciliating the Egyptians, he went to 
SaTs, restored at his own expense the temple of Neith, which had 
suffered greatly during the war, and under the tuition of the " ha 
prince and real royal kinsman," Utcha-Heru-Resenet, learned 
something of the mythology of the goddess who was the mother of 
Ra, the Sun-god. Cambyses purified the temple, reinstated the 
priests, restored their incomes, and performed an act of worship 
to Neith and poured out a libation to her. With the money 
which Cambyses restored to him, the priest of Sais did good to all, 
and it is expressly said of him that he provided coffins for those 
whose relatives were too poor to buy them, and that " he took 
care of the children." According to Herodotus (iii. 16), Cambyses 
had the body of his old enemy, Amasis II., brought out from 
its tomb, and then beaten and stabbed, and when he found that 
he could not destroy it, he ordered it to be burned. Herodotus 
says that he did not believe this story, and most people will share 
his scepticism in this respect. 

When Cambyses thought that the fitting time had arrived, he 
determined to send his fleet to Carthage, and a portion of his 
army against the dwellers in the Oasis of Jupiter Ammon, and 

1 The ancients believed that bulls' blood was poisonous, and that Midas, 
king of Phrygia, Themistocles, and Smerdis, all died through drinking it. 



another portion against the Nubians.' The expedition to 
Carthage broke down because the Phoenicians in the fleet of 
Cambyses refused to fight against their kinsmen, the Carthaginians, 
rind the king thereupon decided to send an army to Carthage 
by land. He sent to Elephantine f for a number of the Fish- 
eaters who were acquainted with the Nubian tongue, and when 
they had come he gave them their instructions, and sent them 
into the Sudan with the following gifts: a purple robe, a gold 
neck-chain, amulets, an alabaster box of myrrh, and a cask 
■ 1 m wine. He als« > wanted to know whether the " table of 
Sun" really existed in Nubia. The " table of the Sun " was 
a meadow full of boiled flesh of all kinds of beasts, which the 
t rates stored with meat each night, and whosoever liked 
came and ate during the day. 

The Nubians to whom the Fish-eaters went were the "tallest 
and handsomest of men," and their king was the tallest citizen, 
who- ih equalled his height. When the Fish-eaters 

arrived, they told the king of Nubia that Cambyses wished to be 
his friend and ally, and that the gifts they bore to him from him 
those wherein he most delighted. The Nubian king told 
mvovs that their words were untrue, that they were spies, 
and that their king was not a just man because he coveted his 
country. He then gave them a bow ami told them that when 
ins could pull it easily they might come against the 
Nubians: thus saying he unstrung the bow. Of the gifts which 
Cam! Qt, the only one he approved was the wine, which he 

better than anything they had of the kind in Nubia. 
In answer to the questions of the Fish-caters the Nubian king 
them that most of his people lived one hundred and twenty 
more: that they ate boiled flesh and drank 
nothing but milk; he showed them a fountain, the waters of 
which made their flesh glossy and sleek, and smell of per- 
fume like that of violets; he showed them the prisoners in the 

»f gold, and the "table of the Sun " ; 
and t 1 coffins wherein the dead were placed for one year 

burial.' 1 
When the Fish-eaters returned to Can nd gave him their 

tus, iii. 17. - Ibid., 19. a Ibid., 23, 24. 


report, he was furious, and immediately set out against the 
Nubians, without making arrangements for feeding his troops. 
When he arrived at Thebes he detached fifty thousand men 
from his main army, and sent them off to the Oasis of Jupiter 
Ammon, with orders to take all the people captives, and to burn 
the temple of Jupiter Ammon. These men by the help of guides 
reached the Oasis of Kharga in seven days, and then set out for the 
Oasis of Jupiter Ammon, but when they were half-way across, 
they were overtaken whilst eating their mid-day meal by a " strong 
and deadly " south wind, which buried them all in the sand 
that it brought with it, and never a man returned to Egypt. 
Meanwhile Cambyses continued his journey up the Nile, but 
before he had advanced one-fifth of the distance to the Nubian 
capital his army had eaten all the provisions, and the soldiers 
began to eat the transport animals, and the grass and the herbs 
which grew on the skirts of the desert. When, however, the 
great sandy desert was reached, even these failed, and the troops 
began to kill and eat their comrades, every ten men selecting a 
victim. 1 Then Cambyses became frightened and retreated to 
Thebes with the few soldiers that remained to him. 

Such is the story, as told by Herodotus, of the mad attempt 
made by Cambyses to conquer the Sud&n. Details of the route 
chosen by Cambyses are wanting, and we do not know whether 
he intended to go to Napata or Meroe. If to the former place, 
he would have to go to Wadi Haifa, then traverse the awful 
" Belly of Stones," and the howling wilderness of the Third 
Cataract, and then march from Kerma to Napata along the 
river bank, a distance of at least two hundred miles. If to 
Meroe, he would leave the Nile at Korosko, and cross the 
desert to Abu Hamed, a distance of two hundred and thirty miles, 
and then proceed along the river bank for two hundred and twenty 
miles more. In either case it seems impossible for Cambyses to 
have reached his destination. Several historians, both ancient 
and modern, have, however, thought that Cambyses conquered 
the Sudan. Strabo says* that he conquered the capital of 
" Ethiopia," and gave it his sister's name " Meroe," and the 

1 Herodotus, iii. 25. - Bk. xvii. 



merit is repeated by Josephus ' and Diodorus.- The modern 
authorities who accept this statement adduce the fact of the 
existence of a city somewhere near the Third Cataract, called by 
Plin mbusis," and by Ptolemy 4 Ka/xfiuaov ra/xiela, or 

"the store places of Cambyses." The hieroglyphic texts also 
mention a city called " Qem-baiu-set," 5 which Brugsch was pre- 
pared to identify with the " Cambusis " of Pliny. Whether this 
identification be true or not, matters comparatively little, for the 
real question Is whether there exists in the hieroglyphic in- 
scriptions any evidence that Cambyses conquered the Sudan. On 
this point the Stele of Nastasenen, the contents of which have 
already been partial!) described, throws much light, and its 
evidence goes to show that Cambyses did invade the Sudan, and 
that his troops wen- defeated by Xastasenen with such slaughter 
that Cambyses was compelled to retreat to Egypt. 

In lines thirty-nine and forty it is said : " The Chief Kambasu- 
• ten came, and I made my bowmen to advance against him from 
"the city Tchart. There was a great slaughter. [I captured] 
"all his I made myself master of all the boats of his 

tains, I muted and overthrew him. I seized all his lands (or 
"territory), and all his oxen, hulls, cow j, and animals of 

. v kind, and everything whereon men live, from the city of 
" Kartepl unto the city of Taruti-pe$it ...."' The name of the 
chief whom Nastasenen overthrew is written in the inscription 

Ka-m- ba-sa-u-t-n-? 
Brugsch transcribed these signs by Kambi .... uten, the fourth 
character being to him illegible, hut Dr. Schaefer, after an 

minat itself, identified it as ^ sa. and there is no 


doubt about the correctness of his reading. The last sign may 
be ®, the determinative of "city," and H$, the last character 
of all, proves that the preceding characters are intended to form 
tin: name of the chief against whom Xastasenen fought. When 
.///</., ii. 102. - i. 33. •) vj, « 

J1 Jm^© 


we compare the group of characters with the variant spellings of 
the hieroglyphic forms of the name of Cambyses which are 
known from other monuments, there is no reasonable room for 
doubt that the foe of Nastasenen was Cambyses. 

The position of the city of Tchart, from which the bowmen 
sallied, is unknown, and it is futile at present to hazard guesses as 
to its situation. The boats which Nastasenen seized probably 
belonged to the natives on the river whom Cambyses pressed 
into his service. The camp, or camps, where the Persian had 
stored such supplies as he had were captured by the Nubians 
and all his cattle, but it is instructive to note the absence of any 
mention of gold or women among the articles of spoil. From 
his campaigns in the south Nastasenen obtained large numbers of 
women and gold, the quantities of which are carefully noted. 
Cambyses coming from the north had, naturally, no stores of gold, 
and the number of women who followed his army was probably 
small. The attack on Cambyses' soldiers by the Nubian bow- 
men resembled a modern Dervish raid upon a town on the Nile 
under the rule of the Mahdi or Khalifa, and, as the Persians were 
unused to Sudani methods of warfare, they must have suffered 
severely under the attacks of the Nubian " bowmen." After the 
defeat of Cambyses Nastasenen gave twelve bulls to the city of 
Tarumen, and six bulls to the city of Saksaktit, a lamp to the 
city of Taqtetet, and to Amen of Napata he dedicated twelve 
pectorals, all the crops which were produced on the Nile between 
Kartept and Tarreqet, six hundred cattle, and two hundred men. 
Thus it seems that the priests of Amen were slave-owners on a 
considerable scale. 

Nastasenen next undertook five expeditions against the various 
enemies of his country. The first was directed against Aikhentka 
(?), Chief of Mekhenteqnent, to the south of Meroe, in the Eastern 
Desert. The second was against Reb-khentent, Chief of Rebaru 
and Akarkarhent (?). The third was against Abskhent (?), Chief 
of Arersa. The fourth was against the land of Mekh- 
sherkherthet (?). The fifth was against Tamakhith, Chief of 
Mai-khentka (?). The positions of all these places are unknown, 
but there is no doubt that they were situated in the Eastern 
Desert between the Nile and the Red Sea, in places where gold 



plentiful, and where the local shdkhs possessed large numbers 

of cattle. The names of the chief shekhs of all the countries save 

ire mentioned. The spoil taken in the third expedition was 

dedi< Imen of Napata, and that taken during the fourth 

lition the king kept for himself. The amount of spoil taken 

on ti litions was enormous; it consisted of 673,471 

1 and bulls; [,252,232 cows, calves* sheep and goats; 3,212 

old, i.e., about 800 lbs. troy, besides a "large 

quantity of gold/' and "aquantity of gold so large that it could 

not be told:*' 2,236 women from Mekhenteqnent, besides "all 

the women *' from the four other conquered countries: 322 figures 

nd all stores of provisions from most of the districts 

which Nastasenen Invaded. 

The large quantil >ld mentioned prove that some of these 

3 lay along the countries on the Blue Nile, and the great 
mimi Lttle suggest that the king raided so far south as Dar 

Fur and perhaps Korddfan also. It is quite clear that when 
Nastasenen had raided a country he left it a wilderness, and in 
much the same state as the Sudan was in on the death of the 
Khalifa in November, r&jo. Cattle, women, and gold were the 
three this 1 by the Nubian king five hundred years before 

Christ, and it is interesting to note how closely his views on this 
matter resembled those of Muhammad Ali, twenty-four centuries 
later ! The gifts which Nastasenen made to Amen were on a large- 
1 faet which provesthat he was merely the instrument of the 
ind his frequent laudations of Amen suggest 
that he was a narrow-minded and fanatical adherent of this god, 
and remind us of the frequent references to the mercy and power 
of Allah with which the Mahdi and Khalifa interspersed their 
clamations. Fie was prudent in his benefactions, 
and ' Ltion, at his own expense, of the temple property 

which had been stolen from Amen Pa-( Km-Aten and from the 
goddi iiert. in the Fourth Cataract, was clearly due to 

motives which wer< ligious than political. 

xiption of Nastasenen is a most interesting document, 

dlustrat- of conquest which was followed by a 

- probably an usurper, and of pure Sudani origin. 

1 ally it i- ;rst importance, as may be seen from 


the excellent monograph which Dr. Schaefer has devoted to it. 
x\s a genuine Sudani historical composition its value is very high, 
and a rendering of it in full is therefore given here. 

Inscription of Nastasenen. 

The ninth day of the first month of the season Pert, in the 
eighth year under Horus, the Mighty Bull, beloved of the 
company of the gods, who hath risen in Nepita, lord of the shrine 
of Nekhebet, lord of the shrine of Uatchet, 1 the son of Ra, 

(Nastasenen), Horus, the Bull who trampleth those who 

rebel against him beneath his sandals, the great and tearing Lion, 
who stablisheth all the two lands, the son of Amen, whose thighs 
are great, who maketh broad every part of the two lands, the son 

of the gods, the most mighty one who is adored by all the 

two lands and the gods, who comprehendeth all knowledge like 
Thoth, who marcheth with long steps, who buildeth the house (?) 
of all the two lands like unto the god Pet (Ptah?), who provideth 
the means of living for every one like unto Amen, the son of Isis, 
the most might}' one, whose birth the gods deci ded to brin g 

about, the protector of the two lands, the son of Ra ( Nastasenen I, 

the son of Amen, who hath been proclaimed blessed in heaven . 
I would hav e you to know that the king of the South and North, 

( Ankh-ka-Ra , the son of Ra, the lord of the two lands, 

( Nastasenen ]L who liveth for ever, speaketh, saying : 

When I was a good boy in the city of Beruat (Meroti), Amen of 
Napata, my good Father, called to me, saying, " Come." Then I 
cried unto the members of the royal family throughout all the 
city of Beruat, and I said unto them, "Arise ye, and come with 

" me and let us search out for us a judge for our " And 

they said, " We will not go with thee. Thou art his good child, 
" and Amen of Napata, thy good Father, loveth thee." 

At dawn on the following day I set out on my journey, and I 
arrived at the city of Astersat,-' and I slept there, for there was my 
home(?). And I heard those who were journeying from Napata 
say : " He is in the city (?) of all lands." I set out on the 
morning of the second day, and I arrived at Ta- hehet (?), which is 

the great lion, the vineyard wherein king ( P-ankhi-Aluru. J, 

grew. And as my hand was stretched out (?) straightway to 

benefit (?) and to the temple of Amen, there came unto 

me all the men from the temple of Amen of Napata and from the 

Or, " lord of the vulture crown, lord of the uraeus crown." 

& I©* 

vol. ii. 97 H 



towns, and tli I (i.e., rich) men. and they spake 

unto Napata, thy good Father, hath set 

reignty of the Land [of Kenset]." And all 

the men -aid: " When Will lie land? " Then I spake unto them, 

sayii von down the river, and I entreat you to make an 

■iit with my good Father, Amen of Napata, on my behalf; 

>ne, and prostrate urselves before Amen o( 


Then I set <>nt and went down to the quay, and crossed over 

the river to the House of Ra, and I mounted a large horse and 

arrived at the Great House. And all the great men and the 

rits of the god Amen prostrated themselves before me, and 

, mouth declared my praises. And I went up and opened 

the great doors, and I performed the ceremonies which it was my 

duty to perform, and the good nobles [brought me] to the Golden 

Apt (or, Golden Temple). I told Amen of Napata. my good 

Father, everything which was in my heart, and Amen of Napata 

hearkened unto [the words of] my mouth. And Amen of Napata. 

my good Father, gave unto me tin - sovereignty of Ta-Kenset, 

and the crown of king Mleru-sa-atef J. and the strength of kin^ 


day of the third month of the season Shat. 1 
od Father, Amen of Napata, to rise, and he came 
forth from the < rreat I louse, and he made me to be king ov< 

\lut. ! and the Nine Tribes who fight with bows, and 

the country on both sides of the river, and the Four Quarters of 

th<' world. Then I spake my fair words unto Ra, and unto Amen 

I spake, saying: "It is thou thyself who hast wrought 

"this thing for me, and all lands and all people have heard 

tiing it. Thou didst call me from the city of Berual 

. and I have come doing thy bidding, and thou hast laid 

" before me the sovereignty of Ta-Kenset. It was not men who 

" made me king on that twenty-fourth day. whereon thou didst 

- unto me the sovereignty [of Ta-Kenset]." And there were 

men ofp ! men who were destitute, of every kind on the 

\ad I danced with joy before Ra, and I came to the 

ifices were made, and I took two oxen and slew 

, and 1 went up and sat upon the Golden Throne, in the 

Golden Apt. in the shade, on this day. And all men spak . 

ng: "He shall make all things to prosper, Amen of Napala 

" hath given unto him thi ignty, with life, strength, and 

1 (J QA ^, i -c, Alwah, the capital of which was Sdba. ["his city 

ed on the right bank of the Blue Nile, about ten miles above 
• an. 

the wealthy and the poor. or. gentle and simple, were there. 


"health, over Ta-Kenset. The son of Ra ( Nastasenen ]. 

" hath gone up and taken his seat on the Golden Throne in the 
" shade on this day. He shall reign as king, and shall sit and 
" abide in Beruat." 

On the twelfth day of the first month of the season Sha, I set 
out and went down the river to Amen of Pa-Qem, 1 my good 
Father, and I caused Amen of Pa-Qem to rise and to come forth 
from the Great House, and I spake my fair words with him [and] 
with Ra. And he gave unto me the sovereignty of Ta-Kenset, 
and of the country on each side of the river, and of the Nine 
Peoples who light with the bow, and his own mighty bow. And 
he said unto me the same words which Amen of Napata, my 
gracious Father, had said unto me, and I went up and took my 
seat upon the Golden Throne. 

Then I went to Amen of Pa-Nebes, 2 my good Father, and he 
came from the Great House and gave unto me the sovereignty of 
Ta-Kenset, and his own leather-covered club (?), and I spake the 
fair words which I had to say to Ra, and I went up and sat upon 
the Golden Throne. 

Then I came up [the river] to Amen of Napata, my good 
Father. And on the nineteenth day of the second month of the 
season of Pert, I caused Amen of Napata to rise, and he came 
forth from the Great House. And I spake fair words"' to Ra, and 
I repeated to him all the favourable words which Amen of Pa- 
Qem, and Amen of Pa-Nebes, and all the gods had spoken unto 
me. And I danced with joy. Then I came to the places where 
sacrifices were mad 3 , and I took two oxen and slew them. And I 
went down into the tchaut chamber, and I lay down therein for 
four nights, and for four days I performed .... of every kind. 
Then I went up out of the chamber and came to the place where 
sacrifices were made, and I took two oxen and slew them, and 
then I went into the temple, and I seated myself upon the throne 
which is in the house of the Golden Garden (?). 

On the twenty-fourth day of the month I went up to Bast, who 
dwelleth in Hert, 4 my good Mother, and she gave me life, and 
great age, and happiness, and her left breast, placing me in her 
bosom of beautiful life, and she gave unto me her strong 
club (?). 

Then I came [back] to Napata, and on the twenty-ninth day I 
caused to rise Amen of Napata, and he gave unto me all the 

1 A place which was probably situated near Suwarda. 
" The nvovyjs of Ptolemy, to the south of Wadi Haifa. 

3 I.e., words of an auspicious character. 

4 A town two or three days' journey above Napata. It was probably situated 
near the modern town of Berti, about half-way between Merawi and Abu 



fens, and all the lands, and all the rivers, and all peoples. 
And I went up and seated myself upon the Golden Throne. 

ledicated unto thee four gardens, O Amen of Napata, in 
the city of Napata, whereto were attached thirty-six men. And I 

unto thee three large copper kalulu vessels full of incense, 
and f<»ur large kalulu vessels full of honey, and three [packets] of 
nnti spice; one figure of Amen of Pa-qem-Aten, of gold, and two 
figures of Horus [weighing in all] three feden; three silver mesfi 

Is, three katcha vessels of silver, and seven dpet vessels of 
silver, making in all thirteen vessels, and [weighing] i^tebcn; 
two large copper bowls, thirteen copper skimming pans for milk, 

opper vessels for beer, six copper buckets (?), twelve copper 
kas vessels, and six copper incsti vessels. 

And on the last day of the first month of the season Shemu I 
dedicated unto thee, Amen in Apt, two young oxen and two 
full grown, in all four oxen, two heifers and two full grown, in all 
four cows : one young ox (?) and one full grown, in all two oxen : 
... en khirurteba vessels in copper, two tekht vessels in 

copper, ten red vessels in copper, two batcha vessels in copper, two 
dpet vessels in copper. 

The chief Kambasuten came, and I made my bowmen to 
advance against him from the city Tchart. There was a great 

; or slaughter) : [I captured] all his weapons (?), and I made 

myself master of all the boats oi his captains, and I routed and 

threw him. I seized all his lands, and .all his oxen, cows, calves, 

and animals of every kind, and everything whereon men live, 

from the city of Kartept to the city of Taruti-peht 'I 

ity of Tarumen twelve sacred bulls of those which 

given] to Amen of Napata, and they were brought down 

On the twenty-sixth day of the fo urth month o f the season Shat 
on the birthday of the son of Ra ( Nastasenen J, I gave to the 

ksaktit six bulls of the property of Amen of Napata, my 

'her, and they came down the river from Napata. On 

the last day of the fourth month of the season Sh a, which is t he 

day V rown was given to the son of Ra ( Nastasenen J, 

1 Amen of Napata, twelve breast -plates (or 

I, and th ?) and green herbs (?) from the city of 

Kartept i ;«t. I dedicated to thee, O Amen of Napata, 

1 Father, a lamp in Taqtetet, and of the spoil which I 

ired I brought to thee three hundred oxen, and three hundred 
and calves, and two hundred men. O Amen of Napata, thy 

ntence of which it is difficult to make connected sense. 
• rendering is by Dr. Schaefer (o/>. <•//., p. 121), who trans- 
den Wurmen (?) das. worm YYunden waren, das, wovon 
' >chen leben konnten, liess ich am Leben . . . . " 



two thighs and thine excellent, overwhelming might brought these 

things to pass. I gave thee, O Amen of Napata one 

hundred and ten women. 

Moreover, I caused my bowmen to set out on an expedition 
against the rebels of the country of Mekhenteqnent, 1 and I fought 
against them, and I inflicted great slaughter upon them, and I 
took prisoner their Chief Aikhentkat (?). 2 And I captured all the 
women, all the cattle, a large quantity of gold, 209,659 oxen, 
505,349 cows, calves, and sheep, 2,236 women, and 322 aqit* of 
the city of Katartit. I left for the .... [to eat] whatsoever the 
land on both sides of the river produced for food. 

I dedicated unto thee, O Amen of Napata, a lamp in Katartit, 
and twelve dqit. I dedicated unto thee two massive copper lamp 
standards, and I set them up in the city of Uast O Amen of 
Napata, my good Father, I dedicated unto thee six breast-plates 
(or, pectorals) in the city of Katartit, and I opened the Temple of 
the Gold Bull, whose form (?) is that of Amen of Napata, my 
good Father. 

Moreover I caused my bowmen to set out on an expedition 
against the rebels of the land of Rebarut 4 and the land of Akar- 
karhent (?), 5 and I defeated them with great slaughter. I took 
prisoner their Chief Rebkhentent, and [I captured] all his gold, 
the quantity whereof was so great that it could not be told, and 
203,216 bulls and oxen, and 603,107 cows, calves and sheep, and 
all the women, and everything which men could eat for food. I 
gave the Chief to Amen of Napata, my good Father. [O Amen 
of Napata], thy thigh is mighty, and thy wisdom is good. 

Moreover I caused many threatenings to go against the rebel 
land of Arersat, 7 and I defeated [the people thereof] with great 
slaughter. I took prisoner Abskhent (?) 8 the Chief of the 
country of Mashat, 9 and I captured all the women, and all the 
cattle, and 1,212 teben of gold, and 22,120 oxen and bulls, and all the 
women, and 55,200 cows and calves, and I gave the Chief and all 
his property to Amen of Napata, my good Father. [O Amen of 
Napata], thy name is great and good, and thy overwhelming 
power is good. 

3 Objects made of one of the precious metals, gold or silver? Perhaps 
figures of sacred animals or gods. 

loll" i 21' I <=^> <=> I I 

1iJ7T!V °> 



Moreover I made my bowmen set out on an expedition against 
the rebel land of Mekhsherkherthet, 1 and I defeated the people 
thereof with great slaughter. I took the Chief thereof prisoner, 
and captured all the food of man in the country, and all the 
en. And I seized for my own share 203,146 oxen and bulls. 
:m( l 33»°5° cows, calves and sheep. O Amen of Napata, my good 
Father, thy thigh is strong, and thy name is great and beautiful. 

Moreover I made very many threatenings to go forth against 
the rebel country of Maikhentkat (?).■ and the rebels attacked me at 
the sycamore tree of Sarsart ; :; I did battle with them there, and 
I defeated them with great slaughter. I took prisoner their Chief 
I amakhitlit't, 1 and I captured all his women, and all his cattle, and 
2,000 teben of gold, and ^5,330 oxen and bulls, and 5 5 , 5 _* ^ > cows. 
calves and sheep, and everything which men eat for food Amen 
of Napata, my good Father, hath given unto me all lands, his thigh 
is mighty, his power is good, his name is great and beautiful, like 
the heavens. Amen of Napata, my good Father, hath done [these 
things for me]. 

Moreover, certain things which had been dedicated as votive 
offerings to the temple of Pa-Qem Aten by the King, life, strength, 

health! fAspeltal, had been carried off (i.e., stolen). There- 
upon many urgent appeals went forth to the finest of my soldiers 
[for the restoration of the property which had been dedicated by 

the King, life, strength, health! [Aspeltaj], and for the 

punishment of the enemy who belonged to the Meti country, [but 
the property could not be recovered]. Then they took sonic of 
my own treasure to replace it. It was Amen of Napata, my g 
Father, who gave it to me, and I gave it [back] to Amen of Pa-Qem 
Aten, my good Father. Then Amen of Pa-Qem-Aten, my 
Father, said unto me : " I give thee my bow, wherein are strength 
"and might, and I will make all thine enemies to be prisoners 
" beneath thy sandals." 

And moreover, the enemies in theMetit country 5 stole some of the 
lire which belonged to the goddess Bast, of t he city of Thert,'' 

which had been dedicated by king (Aspeltaj. Then there 

came sonic of my own treasure which I dedicated to the goddess 

. who dwelleth in the city of Thert, my good Mother. And 

she gave unto me a great and beautiful flower-shaped sceptre, 




a good long life extending into an advanced old age, and her might, 
and she said unto me : "This shall be thy protection, and thy 
renewing of power (?) " Amen of Napata, my good Father, 
made [the treasure] for me, he made my wealth abundant {or 
good), his thigh is strong. 

Verily, O Amen of Napata, my good Father, the things which 
thou utterest with thy mouth cannot come to nought ; and verily, 
when thou closest thy mouth no man hath the wherewithal to feed 
himself beneath the heavens. 





. 517, i.e., about the time when Darius the 
Great came to Egypt, and nothing is known about his successor. 
We may assume that at his death the throne reverted to some 

ndant of the legitimate kings of Napata, who probably took 
Up his abode there, and appointed a governor to rule over the 
Island of Meroe. From Egypt the kingdom of Napata had 
nothingto fear, for Darius was wholly occupied in developing her 
trees, and rendering the country prosperous. He honoured 
the Egyptian gods, and studied the- religious works which treated 
of them, and finally he came to be regarded as the sixth of the 
great lawgivers which the country had produced. Egypt, with 
Libya, Cyrene, and Barce, formed the sixth of the twenty satrapies 
into which he divided his kingdom, and it paid to him - 
hundred talents of gold as its annual tribute, besides a heavy tax 
on the fisheri Lake Moeris, and sufficient corn for the 

maintenance of 120,000 men at Memphis. 1 The gold which the 

tians paid to Darius came no doubt from the mines in the 
D from Wadi 'Ulaki, where it was probably 

tied by an arrangement made with the Nubians who lived 

south suit of the peaceful policy pursued by 

caravans nabled to travel in safety from the 

Sudan to Egypt, and their owners did a thriving business in 

iry, ebony. &c. The Persians were fond of 

ribing Darius as a "huckster," saying that "he looked to 

making a gain in everything," ' and it was not long before he 

I the advantages which accrued to the Nubians from his 


1 Herodoti - Ibid., 89. 



He then, according to Herodotus, made the " Ethiopians" 
bordering upon Egypt, who were reduced by Cambyses when he 
made war on the long-lived Ethiopians, and the Calantian 
Indians, bring every third year two schoenices of virgin gold, two 
hundred logs of ebony, five Ethiopian boys, and twenty elephant 
tusks. Herodotus adds that these gifts were paid to the 
Persians down to his own time. A little consideration shows us, 
however, that the " Ethiopians " who sent these gifts were 
probably those who lived between Philae and Korosko, or Derr ; 
in other words, they belonged to that portion of Northern Nubia 
which the Egyptians had for centuries regarded as a portion of 
their Empire. If they were not, they must have been the chiefs 
of caravans who gave a fixed quantity of gold, &c, to the 
Government officials of the chief towns on their route for the 
privilege of bringing their wares into the markets. One hundred 
years ago the governor of Asyiit who levied heavy tax upon the 
caravans from Dar Fur and Kordofan might, in the same way as 
Darius, have claimed the overlordship of these countries, because 
he made the merchants who traded in products from them pay 
import duties. The Persians had never any authority over the 
Nile Valley south of Wadi Haifa, and it is doubtful if the Island 
of Meroe was to them any more than a name. 

The information about the Sudan collected by Herodotus is, 
on the whole, very good. He 'first says (ii. 29) that beyond 
Elephantine the land rises, and that it is necessary to tie a rope to 
the boat on each side ; if the rope snaps, the vessel is borne down 
stream by the force of the current. After four days, the distance 
travelled is, he says, twelve schoenes, and then a plain is reached, 
and also the Island of Tachompsos, round which the Nile flows in 
two branches. Half this island is occupied by the " Ethiopians," 
who live south of Elephantine, and the other half by 
Egyptians. Beyond the Island is a lake, on the shores of which 
live nomad " Ethiopians," and when this is passed, the Nile is 
again reached. Here the traveller lands, and he must journey 
along the banks of the river for forty days, since it is impossible to 
proceed further in a boat on account of the sharp rocks which jut 
out from the water, and the sunken rocks which abound in that 
1 Herodotus, i ii - 97. 


part of the stream. At the end of this time he takes boat again, 
and after twelve days more arrives at a great city called Meroe, 

" which is said to be the capital of the other ' Ethiopians.' "' The 
only gods worshipped by the inhabitants are Jupiter (i.e., Amen- 

chus (i.e., Osiris), to whom ,^ r reat honours are paid. 
There is an oracle of Jupiter In the city, which directs the warlike 

the " Ethiopians " ; ' when it commands they go to 
war. and in whichever direction it bids them march, thither 
straightway they carry their arms. Going onward, after the same 
number of days which it took the traveller to reach Meroe from 
bantine, the traveller reaches the " Automoli," or"Asmakh" 
(see above, p. 54), who are the descendants of the Egyptians of 
the warrior caste, who went over to the "Ethiopians" in the 
reign of Psammetichus (I.), to the number of two hundred and 
forty thousand men, because they had not been relieved of their 
garrison duty for three years. From this statement it is clear 
that Herodotus placed the " Automoli," or "Deserters" (the 
"Sembritae" of Strabo) in a country on the White Nile four 
months' journey south of Elephantine, i.e., some hundreds of 
miles south of Khartum, and he, no doubt, refers to the tribes who 
not negroes, and whose skins were not black, that lived in 
and about the modern kingdom of Sennaar. His statement about 
the river flowing from west to east is to me inexplicable, but when 
on to say that beyond this point "no one has any 
"knowledge of it- source, since the country is uninhabited by 
-on ^( th< it seems that he must be alluding 

to the Swamps about the Hahr al Cdia/;'d. 

information which the Ichthyophagi brought back to 
Cambyses has already been described (see above, p. go), and we 
may ; therefore to the statement of Herodotus (ii. 104) 

about circumcision. He says that the Colchians, Egyptians, 
and "Ethiopians" are the only nations who have practised 
circumcision from the earliest times, but he could not make 
out whether the "Ethiopians" learned the practice from the 
ptians, or the Egyptians from the "Ethiopians." In any 

-. it is undoubtedly of very ancient date in 

itement is found in the Stele of Nastasenen, wherein it is 
Lmen if he should go on a certain war, or not. 


"Ethiopia." As to the clothing of the " Ethiopians " he says 
(vii. 69) that they wore skins of leopards and lions, and that they 
were armed with palm-stem bows, four cubits long ; the arrows 
were short and tipped, not with iron, but with a stone. Their 
spears were tipped with the horns of antelopes, and they had 
knotted clubs. When they went into battle they painted their 
bodies half with chalk and half with vermilion. The monuments 
prove the truth of all these statements except the last, and if we 
had reliefs with coloured battle scenes upon them, we should 
probably find it to be true also. Herodotus divided (vii. 70) the 
" Ethiopians" into two classes, " Eastern," and " Western," the 

sOdan elefhant. 

[From Lepsius, Dtnkm'dler, Abth. V. Bl. 75. 

languages and hair of each being different ; the former had 
straight hair, and the latter woolly hair. 

From this we see that Herodotus calls the negro tribes to the 
west of the White Nile "Western Ethiopians," and the light or 
red-skinned tribes of the Eastern Desert and Blue Nile " Eastern 
Ethiopians." He adds the interesting information that the 
" Eastern Ethiopians " wore upon their heads the scalps of horses, 
with the ears and mane attached ; the ears were made to stand 
upright, and the mane served as a crest. For shields this people 
made use of the skins of cranes. Finally, he says (iii. 114), 
where the south declines towards the setting sun, lies the country 
called Ethiopia, the last inhabited land in that direction. There 
gold is obtained in great plenty, huge elephants abound, and wild 
trees of all sorts, and ebony ; and the men are taller, handsomer, 



and longer-lived than anywhere else. Herodotus here un- 
doubtedh to the countries on the Blue Nile, and his 

information as to their products is correct. 

From h.c. 517 to the beginning of the Ptolemaic Period nothing 

is known of the Sudan cither from native or Egyptian sources, 

and even the world-conqueror. Alexander the Great, left that 

country uninvaded. Greek writers of historical romances about 

Alexander and his exploits, e.g., Pseudo-Callisthenes, were 

■ 1 make their hero master of every country in the known 

world, and thus we find in their works impossible narratives of 

his travels into China and the remotest regions of India. Pseudo- 

Callisthenes in his book (iii. 18) introduces an account of a 

fabulous visit of Alexander to Queen Candace, who is described 

descendant of Seniiramis, and declared to have possessed 

wondrous beauty. To her Alexander is made to write a letter in 

which, after referring to the graves and houses in her land, and 

her worship of the god Amen, he invited her to meet him at the 

boundary of her territory so that they might worship Amen 

ther. To this "Candace, Queen of Meroii," replied that 

Amen, by means of an oracle, has forbidden his image to be 

id, that no one is to enter her country, and if he does he will 

be treated as an enemy. Alexander is not to think scorn because 

her people are dark-coloured, for they arc whiter in soul than the 

white folk who are with him. Her tribes are eight}- in number, 

and they arc ready to punish any who attack them. She approves 

of his worship of Amen, and she sends him by her ambassadors 

bars of gold, 500 Ethiopian maidens, 200 parrots, 200 

sphinxes, and for Amen on the borders of Egypt, a crown set 

with emeralds and impicrced pearls, and 10 string pearls, and 

Besides these things she gave him 308 elephants, 

300 1< 13 rhinoceroses, 4 panthers, 300 man-eating dogs, 

"ghting hulls, 6 elephants' tusks, 300 panther-skins, and 1500 

ebony rods, and told him to send men to fetch them away. The 

ider in the country of Candace do not 

nd for further information about them Mailer's 

llent edition of the (.reck text of Pseudo-Callisthenes may be 

:. Ih- writer of the story given above was ignorant of 

lion of Candace's kingdom, but the alleged visit to 


the queen by Alexander was capable of treatment which he knew 
would appeal to his readers, and historical accuracy was therefore 
disregarded by him. 

Under the Ptolemies an attempt seems to have been made to 
bring the Sudan and Egypt into relations which should be closer 
than those existing as a result of the passage to and fro of 
trading caravans. Ptolemy I. made no expedition into Nubia, 
but it seems that the terror of his arms was carried into 
surrounding countries by Eumachus. This general inflicted a 
great defeat on the Numidians, and then, Diodorus says (xx 58 ff.) 
he made an expedition into " higher Africa." He passed over a 
high mountain two hundred stadia in length, which was full of 
cats. He next entered a country abounding in apes, and came 
to three cities called Pithecussae ; here the apes lived in the 
houses and were worshipped as gods by the natives, and children 
were called after their names. Eumachus took one of the three 
cities by storm, and razed it to the ground, and the other two 
capitulated. He went no further, however, for, hearing that the 
barbarians were gathering preparatory to coming against him in a 
large body, he retreated to the sea. It is impossible to identify 
the region to which Eumachus marched, but it was situated, 
clearly, in some portion of the Sudan where apes abounded. 

Ptolemy II. (b.c. 283-247) was on friendly terms with 
Ergamenes the king of Nubia, who, according to Diodorus (iii. 6), 
had been bred up in the Grecian discipline and philosophy ;' 
whether this Ergamenes is the same as the Arq-Amen who was a 
contemporary of Ptolemy IV. and Ptolemy V. is somewhat un- 
certain. The friend of Ptolemy II. set a precedent in the history 
of his country which is noteworthy. Diodorus tells us that the 
priests at Meroe, i.e., the priests of Amen, who held the greatest 
possible power, had been, up to that time, accustomed to send 
whensoever they pleased a messenger to the king commanding him 
to put himself to death. They supported such commands with 
the statement that they were the will of the gods, and that it 
was unlawful to disregard them. The kings of Napata, who 
always held their authority from the priests, usually obeyed 
the orders of the priests, and so killed themselves, believing that 

1 /xere a xr]Kdos ^Wtjvlktjs ('ywy^r ko.1 <fii\ocro(f)r)(Tas. 


they were performing a religious act. When, however, the order 
to commit suicide reached Ergamenes, instead of obeying he 

plucked Up the spirit and courage which befitted a king, and 

collecting a considerable number of soldiers, he marched to the 

golden temple of the Ethiopians, and cut the throats of all the 

ts, and so put an end to a barbarous, though very ancient 

mi. The "golden temple " referred to is no doubt the Pa- 

nub, f^u wherein was the Golden Throne on which the 

king took his scat "in the shade "after his coronation; in the 
time of Nastasenen (b.c. 525-517) this golden temple was at 
Napata, but when the capital was removed to Meroe another may 
have been built there. Diodorus says that the place where it 
situated was " very difficult to reach," but Ergamenes built 
a temple at Dakka, and must therefore have lived near Egypt. 
When we remember the great development of trade which took 
place under the encouragement of Ptolemy II., it seems most 
probable that this astute ruler found it cheaper to conquer 
Northern Nubia by means of merchants and their caravans than 
by military expeditions. 

His aim was. of course, to obtain possession of the gold mines 

in the Wadi 'Idaki, and to effect this it was only necessary for 

him to be master of the Nile Valley so far as Dakka. Between 

Dakka and 'Amiara, about one hundred and thirty miles south of 

Haifa, the country was at that time a sort of No-man's- 

Land The portion of the Nile Valley in Nubia specially claimed 

by the Ptolemies was called by the Greeks " Dodekaschoinos," l 

■nt ained Twelve Schoinoi,- or one hundred and 

twenty stadia: it probably represented some ancient division 

of the country made in very early times. Originally the Dodeka- 

ted the tract of land which the kings of Egypt set 

apart for the maintenance of the temples on the Island of Philae. 

It is difficult 1 .tent of this tract of land, but 

its Length was probably between ninety and one hundred miles. 

i; Herodotus ii. 29; and Sethe, Dodekaschoinos. 

in M <z=> % J\ (\ 



The principal towns in it were : Parembole, the modern Dabud ; 
Taphis, with Contra Taphis, the modern Tafa ; Talmis, with 
Contra-Talmis, the modern Kalabsha ; Tutzis, the modern 
Garf Husen ; Pselcis, the modern Dakka ; Contra-Pselcis, 
the modern Kubban ; Tachompso, the modern Kurta ; Hiera- 
sykaminos, the modern Miharraka. The last-named town 
marked the southern limit of the Dodekaschoinos. 1 

As already said, Ptolemy II. made one expedition into the 
Sudan by the route which had been followed by the kings of 
Egypt for centuries, but he took steps to develop the trade 
between Egypt and the seaports nearest the South Sudan. From 
the " Stele of Pithom," which was discovered by Prof. Naville a in 
1884, we learn that Ptolemy sent a fleet of ships to the southern 
land of Khemthithet, 3 and to the " borders of the land of the 
Blacks," 4 and that his general brought back the things which 
were " beloved of the king and royal wife Arsinoe." He also 
tapped the supplies of the Eastern Desert by founding the city 
of Ptolemais Epitheras, which cannot have been far from the 
modern Sawakin. From the country to the south of this city 
his officers brought large numbers of elephants which were 
shipped to Egypt, and the writer of the text is no doubt correct 
in saying that "the like of this was never before done for any 
" king in all the earth " In the last line on the stele Ptolemy is 
said to have Egypt in his grasp, and all the southern lands bow 

1 The district between the southern end of the Island of Meroe and Philae 
was dixided into thirteen portions, thus : 1. Pehqennes ^aammM* 

2. Marauat I) J£s& l\-je) (Meroe)- 3. Napt~wwv (I (Napata). 

4. Peten-Hert V\ #.. 5. Pa-Nebes >£< J f] ©. 6. Ta- 

Uatchet ^^^Sh m- 7- Behent J ' LJ (Wadi Haifa). 8. Atefthit 

1 «L ) 11 ©-^ NEHiu 7d <Z* ®^ ,o - me?,t °^ 1 11 ® • 

"■ Maat -£i - ®- ,2 - BAKET %* 7%- ,3 - ***■***» Q (dh- 

2 See The Store-city of Pithom, London, 1885 ; and Brugsch, Aeg. Zeit., 
1894, p. 74. 



lis, and all the nine nations who fight with bows are 
- indals. 
Ptolemy [V. ascended the throne of Egypt b.c. 222, and died 
B.C. 205 During the last few years of his reign he sent 
litions into the Sudan to hunt elephants, which were used 
in the army ; these expeditions marched inland from ports on 
the R An inscription mentioning CharimortOS, a strategos 

of the elephant hunts in the reign of Ptolemy IV., is in the 
British Museum. 1 Among the building operations which he carried 
out must be mentioned the addition he made to the temple built 
.it Dakka by Arq-Amen, king of Nubia. We have already seen 
that Diodorus speaks of a Nubian king called Ergamenes, i.e., Arq- 
Amen, who lived in the reign of Philadelphus, and had received 
a Greek education, but it is doubtful if the builder of the 
temple of Dakka is the same king as the friend of Ptolemy II. 
It is quite possible that he was. for the Ergamenes of Diodorus 
may well have lived through the last few years of the life 
of Ptolemy II.. and the whole of the reigns of Ptolemy III. and 
Ptolemy IV.. and still have been at the death of Ptolemy IV. 
under seventy years of age. Arq-Amen, the contemporary of 
Ptolemy IV.. adopted the prenomen of " Tet-fmkh-Anien taa-[en]- 
and called himself "Son of Ka." and the "ever-living, 
The temple of Arq-Amen at Dakka consists 
(mall building about twenty feet square, with an opening 
in the east wail leading to the sanctuary, and another in the 
west wall leading to a flight of steps. 

In the inscriptions on the walls he calls himself the son of 

and [sis, the son of Khnemu and Sati, beloved of Amen, 

r, andThoth. 1 Ptolemy IV. built a chapel in 

front with doors in the east and west walls, and Ptolemy 

IX. built the' pro-naos, and the other portions of the temple 

as it now stands were built by a Roman emperor, probably 

K. Hall, in the Classical Review, vol. xii., 1898, p. 274. 

• Living hand of Amen, emanation of Ra ' ; ( fl L —- ' ^^^ M."%T ® 

; See I 1 . Vbth. v.. HI. 17. 

1 1 J 


Augustus or Tiberius. The temple is dedicated to Thoth, 
and is oriented due south. Of the reign of Arq-Amen nothing is 
known. His successor was, according to some, Atchakhar-Amen, 
" the ever-living, the beloved of Isis," 1 who adopted the prenomen 
" Taa-en-Amen-setep-en-neteru," 2 and called himself " Son of 
Ra, lord of the two lands, lord of crowns." This king's name is 
found in a dedicatory inscription 3 on the temple of Dabud, which 
is close to the site of the ancient city of Parembole, a few miles 
south of Philae, but nowhere else in the country. Several of 
the Ptolemies who followed Ptolemy IV. restored and added 
to the temples built by their predecessors, but they limited their 
labours in Nubia to the district between Wadi Haifa and Abu 
Simbel ; in fact, they carried on very little building work south of 
Dakka, the nearest point on the Nile to the gold mines of Wadi 
'Ulaki. It is safe to assume that trade went on uninterruptedly 
between the Sudan and Egypt, and that, speaking generally, 
trading caravans passing between the south and north had little 
to fear except the attacks of the ordinary highway robber, and 
the extortionate demands made by the local governors of the 
cities to which they brought their goods to market. 

■fflSESIIS- 2 (E2E3- 

3 See Lepsius, Denkmaler, Abth. v., Bl. 18. 

VOL. II. 113 



In preceding chapters descriptions have been given of the 

reigns of the principal kings of the country of the Sudan 

between B.C. 750 and B.C. 517, and the names of several kings 

who cannot 1 I at present in strict chronological order 

been mentioned. For a period of about three centuries 

after the death of Nastasenen, i.e., from n.c. 517 to about B.C. 

200, nothing is known of Sudan history, and whether the capital 

of the Meroitic kingdom was still at Napata, or in the Island of 

Meroe during that period cannot be said. The descendants or 

kinsfolk of Nastasenen would probably continue to rule for some 

time after his death, but unless there were among them capable: 

and warlike' kings, it is unlikely that they were able to maintain 

their capital at Meroc where they were at all times open to 

k by combinations of desert tribes on the north, east, and 

south. The probabilities are that for some time between B.C. 

200 the kings of the Meroitic kingdom resided at 

Napata, or even further north. In any case they cannot have 

possessed much power, or we should have heard of their exploits 

and found some of their monuments. The first evidences we 

crudescence of the power of the Nubian kingdom is 

the temple which Arq-Amen (Ergamenes) and Atchakhar-Amen 

built in the Dodekaschoinos, the former at Dakka (Pselcis), and 

the latter at Dabud ( Parembole). No other purely Sudani kings 

built temples so far to the north, and it is clear that they would 

not have done so unless the central seat of their power were 

iently near to enable them to protect such buildings. It is, 

that they must have possessed mate-rial as well 

piritual interests in the region wherein they set up their 

and that their power must have been sufficiently great to 



compel the Ptolemies who were their contemporaries to permit 
them to build temples so close to Egyptian frontier. 

Whether we accept the statement of Diodorus that Arq-Amen 
was a contemporary of Ptolemy II., or that of recent writers, 
who say that he lived in the time of Ptolemy IV., it is certain 
that in the reign of the latter king he was the king of Nubia, 
and that he was master of the Dodekaschoinos. This was 
due, not to any special efforts made by the Nubians, but to 
the fact that towards the close of the reign of Ptolem}- IV. (he 
died B.C. 205) the rebellion of the soldiers in Upper Egypt, 
which had been going on for many years, assumed such serious 
proportions that all Government administration in Upper Egypt 
ceased to exist. This rebellion continued in full force until the 
nineteenth year of the reign of Ptolemy V. (b.c. 186), and it 
was only suppressed then by great exertions on the part of the 
Government, and by an awful sacrifice of life. Whilst the 
rebellion was in progress, the Thebans appointed kings to reign 
over them, paying not the least regard to Ptolemy V., who passed 
the early years of his reign in the north ; two of these kings bore 
the names of Heru-khuti, and Ankh-em-khu. Meanwhile Arq- 
Amen seized the opportunity which events in Egypt gave him, 
and declared himself to be the " King of the South and North," 

TSR? i« e -> °f a ^ Egypt. His rule appears to have lasted 

1=1 ^ 

about twenty-five years, and we may be sure that he gave all 
the assistance in his power to the rebels in Upper Egypt. His 
successor, Atchakhar-Amen, with even greater boldness, built his 
temple at Parembole, some ten or fifteen miles only from the 
Egyptian frontier. When Ptolemy V. succeeded in suppressing 
the rebellion, he took steps to reassert his authority in the 
Dodekaschoinos, and he appears to have succeeded. At all events, 
we hear no more of Nubian " kings of the South and North " in 
the Ptolemaic Period. 

We have now to consider briefly the extent of the Meroitic 
Kingdom between B.C. 200 and the end of the second or third 
century after Christ, and to enumerate the names of the kings 
who probably reigned during this interval, and the towns, 
temples, and pyramid-tombs which they left behind them. The two 



tich power as the Meroitic kings and the queen- 
moth i at this time were Meroe and Napata ; their 

si town to the south was Sdba, on the Blue Nile, and their 
frontier town on the north was probably near the modern 
village of 'Amara, which stands on the Nile, a few miles above 
it is important to note that the kings of pure Sudani 
stock never employed the ancient forts of the great Egyptian 
kings of the Xllth, XVIIIth, and XlXth Dynasties as places of 
defence, though it is probable that they made use of them as 
quarri r natural situations for fortresses than 

Senma and Kiimma could be found in the Sudan, yet the only 

Nubian king who built at either place was Taharqa, who 
temple i.> his great predecessor Usertsen III. at 

Sen ma. 

The principal sites chosen by the pure Sudani kings of the 
Meroitic Kingdom on which to build temples are: — i. 'Am aha. 
which lies on the east bank of the Nile, about [30 miles from Wadi 
Haifa. 2. Napata, on the west hank of the Nile, 648 miles from 
Wadi Haifa. Down-stream of this place are the pyramid fields 
nk&sf, Kurru, and Zuma : up-stream is the pyramid field of 
Nuri, or Belal, and opposite to it is the group of pyramids at 

I Barkal. 3. MeroB, on the east bank, 877 from Wadi 
Haifa by river, and 554 miles by the route across the Haifa-Abu 
l.lamed Desert. To the south and east of the city ruins are four 
pyramid fields; they lie near the villages of Sur and Malaga. 
4. W Nagaa, twenty-four miles south of Shendi. At the 

in end of the khor, from seventeen to twenty miles to the 
'die ruins of several temples, and about fifteen miles to 
the north, at Masawwarat as-!§ufra, are also the ruins of several 
temples. 5. Soba, on the right bank of the Blue Nile, a few- 
miles from Khartum. From the ruins of the temples and 
pyramids at these places Lepsius collected the cartouches 
1 kings and several queen-mothers of the Meroitic 
Kingdom, but they, of course, only represent a small proportion 
of the number of kings and queens who reigned between B.C. 

and the downfall of the kingdom. It will be convenient 

ve these cartouches here, but no correctness is claimed for 
the order in which they are plac 



i. The Queen-Mother Katimar, or Katimal 

Jj ^. x Her name was found at Napata. 

2. Amen-taui-kalbath 



Her name was found at Meroe. 



<2>- I 


iHg . 

The lady of the two lands, Amen-Arit, the lady, maker of 
things, Kentha-Hebit. Her pyramid-tomb 2 is near Meroe 
(Northern Group, No. i). This name was first read " Kentakit," 
and was thought to be the original form of the name Candace, 
but it is clear that the fifth sign in the second cartouche is <^§~7 
heb, not ^z^* k. 


" The lord of the two lands, Ankh-ka-Ra, 3 priest of the second 
" order, Arkenkherel." In the second cartouche he styles 
himself " Priest of the second order of Osiris, the lord of the 
South." His pyramid-tomb is near Meroe (Northern Group, 
No. 5). 





tomb is at Meroe. 

beloved of Mut. His pyramid- 



B-] (;pH 1 Cf?j 



Queen Kenrethreqnen-m (?) Ser . . . tinen-m (?). He 
pyramid-tomb 5 is near Meroe (Southern Group, No 4). 
short form of the first name is Kenreth. In the inscriptions on 
the chapel walls two other cartouches are found, viz, Perui, or 


fJ»®K^»«]»™ dK ^ T 

1 See Lepsius, Kbnigsbuch, No. 939. 

2 Lepsius, Denkmdler, Abth. v., Bl. 47. 

4 See Lepsius, Kojiigsbuch, No. 945. 

5 See Lepsius, Denkmaler, Abth. v. Bl. 52 



Ibid., Bl. 43. 


Khni-.m ai:-K\,' son of Ri, Amen-Ark-NEB (?). His pyramid- 
tomb is near Nferoe (Southern Group, No. 6). 

Kakka. <>r Kalka, and Kakteka, or KaltelA. Both these 
names- are found on a pyramid-tomb near Meroe (Southern 
Group, No. 10). 

AnKH-NEFER-AB-RI, son of Ra, lord of crowns, AsRU* 8 Men 

Amen. His name is found on one of the two granite lions which 

Lord Prudhoe brought from Gebel Barkal, and presented to the 

British Museum (No. 34). The pyramid-tomb of this king is 

southern Group, No. 5). 


Aki-Amkn. 1 the ever-living, the beloved of Isis. He ma}- be 

the Arq-Amen who was a contemporary of Ptolemy IV. (see 

above, Vol. II., p. 113), but it is unlikely. His pyramid-tomb is 
near Nferoe (Northern Group, No. 7). 



NfURTEK .... His name is found on the walls of the chapel 
of No. 14. 


Kheper-KA-Ra NeteK-Amen.' The name of this king is 
found at Gebel Barkal, Wad Ba Nagaa, and Meroii (Northern 

1 See Lepsius, Daikmulcr, Abth. v., Bl. 55. '-' Ibid., 55. 

3 Md* Bi * Ibid., Bl. 36. 

5 Ibid., Bl. 25; Konigsbuch, Nos. 963,981. 




/www 22;%; 

Amen akha 1 ab-en 

15- oSS 

. (Northern Group, No. 4). 


r ^n 

Amen-khetashen 2 (Northern Group, No. 18). 






Kheper-ka-Ra 3 .... (Northern Group, Lepsius, No. 27). 
His pyramid-tomb is near Meroe (Northern Group, No. 6). 


l8. TlRIKANLAT (?) 

His pyramid-tomb is near Meroe (Northern Group, No. 19). 


19- Cb? 





Neb-Maat-Ra Amen-Tahnamamip (?) His pyramid-tomb is 
near Meroe (Northern Group, No. 17). 

20. s& 



m o 



Kheper-ka-Ra Netek-Amen.° His name is found on monuments 
at Wad Ba Nagaa, at Nagaa, and 'Amara. His queen was 

called Amen-tari 




and her prenomen was 

At Wad Ba Nasraa he and his wife are asso- 

ciated with Ark-Atalal (?), whose prenomen was Ankh-ka-ra, 
and at 'Amara with a prince called Sharkrar, or Shalklal. 


¥T a l 

1 See Lepsius, Denkmdler, Abth. v. 45. 2 Ibid., Bl. 51. 3 ZfoV/., Bl. 48. 
4 Ibid., Bl. 43. 5 Ibid., Bl. 49- (i /##, Bll. 55, 57, 69. 

II 9 


- 1 1 (ofy] mm Q$^hS>lS, 

.\nkii-k.\-Ka Ark-atalal (?) His name appears at Nagaa. 1 


\> VsJ ZZJ[ ° e ' V -^ n aa^va i ! y ^ 

(J = — ^QQsl 

A.MEN-TARIT 1 was the wife of Netek-Amen (No. 20), and her 
name is found at Wad Ba a, and 'A mar a ; it is clear 

that during her reign building operations were carried on at all 
these places, and that the Meroitic kingdom must have been in a 
state of great prosperity. The fact that she or her husband built 
a temple at 'Amara proves that the Nubian power in the 
Northern Sudan must have been great, and it is probable that 
this queen was the Candace who came in conflict with the 

* («a?°} 

SHARKRAH, or SHALKLAL. This personage must have been a 
contemporary of Netek-Amen and the queen mentioned above, for 
his name occurs with theirs on the pillars of the temple of 
'Amara. :; 

On temple A at Nagaa are also found the following names : 

24- iQ 



■9 a 

Da N 


. a Da _2s&^J < 

J5 - Km « ( 11: 


3 ¥P-^] ; ' 

"( |ZXi 


j? -C 

> naaQ 


1 Lepsius, Dekkmhlet 
1 Ibid.. Bll. 59, 60. 

, Bl. 66. 

■ Ibid., Bl 

55. 57, 69 

*• Ibid., 

Bl. 69. 
Bl. 62. 


28. Shankpitah (?) ^gg ^M^y^EriT )! 
This name occurs at Nagaa, Temple F. 



[Drawn from Lepsius, Denkvi'dlcr, Abth. III. Bl. 304. 

It now remains to enumerate the principal ruins in the Sudan 
which belong to this period. The most northerly of these is a 
1 Lepsius, Denkmiiler, Bl. 68. 


temple at 'Amara, on the right bank of the Nile, a few miles 
above Kosha, When complete it probably consisted of two 
chambers, each wider than it was long, with a court containing 
from six to ten pillars. At the time when Lepsius had his plan 
made. 1 it was only possible to trace the walls of the sanctuary 
chamber, and only six of the columns were standing. The 
columns are deeorated with scenes wherein a king, a queen, and 
a prince arc represented in the act of making offerings to 
Khnemu, Amen-Ra, Isis, Sekbet (?) Osiris, Thoth, Menu, and 

: NIK h:\iiik BUILT r.v \ MER< BANK 


[Fro;: 'ikmiiler, Abth. I. HI. 114. 

other deities <>f the Cataract country. The scenes on each 
column are divided by horizontal rows of stars, and by perpen- 
dicular rows of hieroglyphics, each containing three car- 
touches, consisting presumably of dedications to the gods. 1 he 
cartouches are identical with those- found at Wad Bfi Nagaa, 
Nagaa, and they prove that this temple was built by Netek- 
Amen and his queen Amen-tarit. probably about r>.< . 30. 

( )f the temples which existed at Meroe, on the island of 
the same name, very little can be said, for their remains are 
1 Lepsius, Denkmaler, Abth. i.. Bl. [15. 


extremely scanty. From the plan published by Lepsius ' we see 
that this scholar was able to trace the walls which surrounded a 
space containing the remains of three or four temples (c, d, e), 
and that to the north and east of the enclosure he found ruins of 
six or seven other small temples. To the south of these may be 


10 Metres 


[From Lepsius, Denkm'dler, Abth. I. Bl 115. 

traced another rectangular enclosure, 2 which had a doorway in 
the centre of its east and west sides. The temple itself was rect- 
angular, and was entered through a doorway with pylons; inside 
was a rectangular chamber, entered on the east side,which probably 
was used as a sanctuary, and contained the shrine of the god. 
A passage ran round all four sides of this chamber. The temple 

1 De?ikmaler, i., Bl. 132. 2 Ibid., i., Bl. 133. 



was approached by a flight of steps. Immediately in a line with 
the doorway of the temple are the remains of two small buildings, 
also oriented to the east, and to the south-east may be traced the 
outline of the edge of a large reservoir. This reservoir was probably 
an appanage of the temple, and the revenues which the priests 
derived from the sale of the water in it from passing caravans 

. no doubt, devoted to the support of their god and themselves. 

ssing southwards to Wad Ba Nagaa, there may still be seen 
in the so-called Wadi Al-Kirbikan a number of mounds of bricks, 


[From Lepsius, Dtnkm&ltr, Al>tb. I. HI. 139. 

ruins of columns, &c, which mark the site of a once flourishing 
town. W'lun. or by whom this town was founded is unknown, 
but a settlement of considerable size existed here in the XYIIIth 
Dynasty, for a kneeling statue of king Amen-hetep II. was dis- 
covered among the ruins, 1 a fact that seems to prove conclusively 
that he made offerings in a temple which, even at that period, 
had stood for some time on the site. The most important 
remains of buildings which were seen there by Cailliaud 2 con- 

I of the ruins of two temples; the larger temple contained 
a number of rectangular pillars, ornamented with sculptured 

1 See above, p. 602. 5 See Voyage d Merov, pll. 9, 10. 



figures of the god Bes, surmounted by heads of the goddess 
Hathor in relief. Two of these pillars were in a tolerably good 


[Drawn from Lepsius, Denkm'dler, Abth. III. BI. 304. 

state of preservation, even when the drawing of them published 

by Lepsius 1 was made. Cailliaud, mistaking the god Bes for 

Typhon, called this temple the " Typhonium." The building'is 

1 Denkmaler. i. 139. 



Like the two other temples on this site, to the south. 
The town represented by the ruins at Wad Ba Nagaa lay close to 
the river, and was clearly an important halting-place for caravans 


on the road between towns on the Nile above the Third Cataract, 
and Abu Mara/ on the Blue Nile. 

After leaving the Nile, the first halting-place was Nagaa, the site 

of which lies up the khor at a distance of between seventeen and 

y miles ; here the route joined the main road which ran from 


Shendi to Abu Haraz. As the traveller journeys through the khor 
the ground rises, and when Gebel Nagaa is reached he sees all 
round him a fine open space dotted all over with the ruins of ancient 



temples, large and small. To the east, on the gentle slope of a 
hill, are the remains of a large number of tombs, and it is 
probable that royal personages and notables were buried here. 
Beyond this, to the south, was an enormous reservoir, the greater 
part of the sides of which was formed of the living rock of two 



conveniently placed hills; the gaps on the east and west sides 

filled up by artifical embankments, traces of which are still 

to be seen. At the south-east corner of the reservoir was a 

temple, 1 which was oriented nearly south-east, and which stood 

6 Metres 


LUi, Dt*kmtili r, V ■'■',. I. Bl, 145. 

within an enclosure surrounded by a wall. A colonnade ran round 
the whole of the outside of the temple ; on the south-east side it 
of pillars. To the north-west of this temple are 
1 Lepsius. plan (i. See Denkmaler, i., Bl. 143. 





y -9 

C> * B 



G / 

20 40 Metres 






3 it" 


ugr ' 



100 80 60 40 30 

^ I I i i i I 







ioo Metres 


[From Lepsius, Denkmdler, Abth. I. Bl. 143. 



the remains of another reservoir, and I was told by the natives 
that after the summer rains a considerable quantity of water 
remains in it for two months or more. An examination of the 
site shows that the ruins of some sixteen distinct buildings may 
be traced at Nagaa, but of most of them the remains are so 
scanty that is impossible to attempt to describe the plans of more 
than half a dozen. 

The best preserved of all of them is the important little temple ' 
which was built by one of the Candace queens called Amen-tarit (?) 
who flourished probably in the second or third century a.d. Her 
own name a and that of her consort 3 are mutilated, and there 
exists, unfortunately, no means of supplying the missing signs. 
This temple consists of a single chamber, about 45 feet long, 
and contained four columns, which supported the roof; it has, 
however, fallen in, and the greater part of each pillar is destroyed. 
The pylon is about 22 feet high ; the cornice is practically de- 
stroyed ; in front of the entrance through the pylon was a small 
rectangular portico. The doorway is ornamented with a cornice 
sculptured with uraei having disks on their heads, and with three 
winged disks, with pendent uraei, and closely resembles the 
sculptured shrines in the chapels of the Pyramids of Meroe. On 
the right facade is sculptured a colossal figure of a queen, 
wearing the characteristic Nubian head-dress, with uraei over 
the forehead. She wears a necklace of circular beads, to which 
is attached a pendant in the form of Amen ; her bracelets 
and armlets are deep and richly ornamented. Her neck and 
arms are bare, but she wears a belt with a sheath for a scabbard 
attached, and skirts elaborately decorated with feather work. 
With her right hand she grasps the hair of thirty prisoners, 
representatives of conquered nations, who kneel at her feet with 
their hands raised beseechingly. Her left hand holds a short 
sword, or dagger, and is raised aloft as if about to smite the 
prisoners. By her side is a raging lion engaged in clawing 
the vanquished men before him. Above her head is the vulture - 

1 Called B by Cailliaud, and A by Lepsius (L, Bll. 144, 145). 

MiD- ' fieri °ii1 - 




ins | 

[From Lepsius, Dfnkmtltr, Abtb. V. Ul. 56. 

Mut, and beneath her feet are seven captives with their 
tied at the ,lh.»ws behind them; their bodies are in the 
n of jars. 




[From Lepsius, Deiikmdler, Abth. V. Bl. 56. 

On the left facade is sculptured the figure of a king who is 
about to smite with his battle-axe a group of thirty rebels kneel- 
ing before him. Above his head is a hawk with outstretched 



wings, and beneath his feet is a lion gnawing the dead body of an 
enemy ; in a lower register are seven captives as before. 

On the north wall, outside are sculptured eight colossal figures. 

The first is that of a king-consort, whose name is wanting ; he 

on rath hand a ring which covers the second joints of all 

four ringers, and his robe is ornamented with lions' winged heads. 

The second figure is that of queen ( %^ ^^ ^f >^ □□ R 


- the crown of Isis. The Egyptian name of this queen is 
Amen-tarit, and she was the wife of Netek-Amen; her native 
name is found at 'Amara, and Wad Ba Nagaa. The sceptre 
which she holds in her right hand is noteworthy. The third 
figure is that of her husband, who wears the crown of Osiris. 
Before him stands Isis (?), who is presenting to him a group of 
captives. Behind her stand two gods and two goddesses, three 
of whom hold papyrus sceptres surmounted by symbols of 
" life." The first pair are probably Mut and Khensu, and the 
second Isis and Osiris. 

On the west wall are five large figures, the central one being that 
of a god, with three lions' heads and two pairs of outstretched 
hands and arms, and wearing the triple crown, with horns, 
uraei, disks, &c. In one of his right and one of his left hands 
he grasps a bunch of flowers. Three lions' heads are seen to 
form a very effective ornament above a lotus-pillar in a shrine of 
the time of Amen-hetep II., but what they symbolize is unknown. 

On his right stands king f^^$^^X]' Netek " 
Amen, who is clearly of negro origin, wearing an elaborate crown 
and ornaments, and behind him is another royal personage whose 

robe is decorated with symbols T , which are intended to 
represent ■¥-, "life." On the left of the god is Netek-Amen's 

n, Amen-tarit (?), and behind her is another royal attendant, 

wla-se name appears to be identical with that of the royal servant 

1 Netek-Amen. Each figure wears two rings, with large 

n each hand, 
the south, as on the north wall, are sculptured eight 
es, three being those of royal personages, i.e., Netek-Amen, 



his queen, and a prince, and five deities. The king, queen and 
prince wear very large rings, and the queen's finger-nails are 
several inches long. The first deity has the head of a lioness, and 
is probably Bast ; she holds in one hand a lotus flower, and in 
the other the symbol of " life." Between her and the king is a 

/"\ / \ / \ S\ f\/"S 



l_From Lepsius, Denkm'dler, Abth. III. Bl. 63. 

sort of banner, with tassels, on the top of which is a lion, 
wearing the triple crown ; he may be intended to represent the 
queen's ka, or " double," or may be her fetish. The second deity 
is Ra, or one of the Horus gods, the third is Amen, the fourth is 
Khensu, and the fifth is Khnemu. On the north, west, and south 
walls, on a level with the heads of the gods and royal personages, 



is a row of characters intended to represent the symbol of " life." 
The apparel of the gods is richly decorated with scale and feather 
work, and the forms of the crowns which they wear suggest 
that they were copied from models of the Ptolemaic Period. The 
wings of the pylon are ornamented with : — i. A lion-headed 
nt, with human hands and arms, rising out of a lotus 
flower ; 2. A banner, surmounted by a lion wearing the triple 
crown, the pole of which is driven through the body of a 
captive enemy. 

On the north wall, inside, figures of the same royal personages 
are seen adoring the gods ; above these, in a sort of frieze, is a 


1 . and other gods. Amongthese 

thy is the god who is represented full-face, with 

rging from his head ; he is seated on a throne, and 

Standard in his right hand. He is clearly a form of the 

Sun-god. Among the larger figures of the gods is one wearing 

the plumes of Amen. He is arrayed in long, flowing robes, and his 

attitude somewhat suggests that of Jupiter Sarapis. He holds in 

'land a number of cords, each of which is tied round the neck 

aptive enemy, and the ends of these he is giving to the king 

-lands before him. Figures of this god also appear on the 
insides of the west and south walls. On the upper portion of the 

. I 

LOTUS (?). 

[From Lepsius, Denk7tidler, Abth. V. BI. 60. 



[From Lepsius, Denkm&ler, Abth. V, 

Bl. 60. 


east wall, inside, three members of 
a royal family are seen adoring a 
hawk-headed crocodile, which has 
a disk and plumes, enclosed within 
a circle, upon his head. This 
temple is a very interesting and 
striking object at Nagaa, and it is 
to be hoped that steps will be taken 
by the Sudan Government to pre- 
vent the cracked stones over the 
doorway from falling down. 

The next most important ruins 
are those of the buildings called 
by Cailliaud 1 "Grand Temple 
de l'Est," and by Lepsius c and 
d ; 2 they stand on the slope of a 
hill, at no great distance from the 
quarries whence the stone em- 
ployed in building the town and 
its temples was taken. The total 
length of the ruins is about three 
hundred feet. The temples were 
approached by a flight of steps 
(a), at the top of which was a short 
avenue, consisting of three pairs 
of stone rams (b) ; next to these 
was a rectangular portico 3 with 
fourteen columns (c), and beyond 
this was another avenue, contain- 
ing three more pairs of stone 
rams (d). The head of each ram 
when on its pedestal was about 
8 feet from the ground. 

The hall of the temple (f) im- 
mediately behind the pylon (e) 

1 Planche xv. 

* Denkmaler, i., Bl. 145 ; and see v., 

Bl. 66 f. 
3 Ibid., v., Bl. 66a. 

Wfc Q 

CQ W& 








[From tkm&ltr, Abth. V. Bl. 65. 

contained eight columns. Passing through the pro-naos (g) a 
group of rooms (h-p) are seen ; these were used by the priests for 
the storage of temple property. In the sanctuary (q) was the 


M 1 I.K-AMKN. 


[From Lepsius, Denkm'dler, Abth. V. Bl. 64 


[From Lepsius, Dtnkmaler, Abth.v., Bl. 57. 


figure of the god. The reliefs on the 
portions of the entrances and walls 
which now remain show that this 
temple was built by Netek-Amen and 
his queen Amen-Tarit, and their car- 
touches occur here, together with a 
cartouche of a prince whose prenomen 
was Ankh-ka-Ra and whose native 
name was Ark-teten (?). Numerous 
figures of the Nile-god occur, and 
Amen of Napata and Amen of Thebes 
are represented in several places. 
Both the king and queen wear the 
disk and plumes of Amen. On one 
of the pillars in the first hall x the 
three cartouches of the royal wor- 
shippers are arranged side by side, 
and in the panels each is seen adoring 

1 See Lepsius, Denkmaler, Abth. v., Bl. 67 a. 



[From a photograph by C C F. Mackenzie, Esq. 



Amen, Menu, Morns, Bast, &c. Elsewhere the prince is seen 
standing between Isis and Thoth, and Isis and Horus. 1 

(lose to the top of the mountain is a group of ruins of three small 
temples, one of which is oriented to the north-west, one to the 
north-east, and one to the south. The largest temple was built, 

apparently, by king Shankpitah (!) fel^,^jg ^ 

About 40 feet to the south-east of the temple (a) is a small 
pto- Roman rectangular edifice, which appears to have no con- 
nection with any other build- 
in- at Nagaa ; it is about 28 
feet long, and 13 feet 6 inches 
high. The ornamentation of 
the capitals of the pillars, and 
of the arches between them, 
proves that this portico belongs 
to the period of the most recent 
of the Pyramids of Meroe, and 
it is unlikely that it is older 
than the third century of our 
era. It is well preserved, and, 
if we except the buildings of a 
similar class at Kh&rga, is per- 
haps the best example extant of 
the architecture of the period 
to which it beloiK 

Other ruins at Xagaa are: — 

A small temple, marked l 

the plan of Lepsius, about 50 

. and 30 feet wide, which consisted of two chambers. 

i chamber contained two circular pillars, and had a door 

on the south side; in the second was the sanctuary, which held 

the shrine of the god, and two long narrow chambers wherein the 

tlit statue of the god were stored. The builder of this 

temple is unknown. 

Two temples, the larger of which was connected by a wall with 
a -mall rectangular edifice, and consisted of a single chamber and 

1 See Lepsius, DenJtmdler, Bl. 67 t\ d. ■ Ibid., Bl, 68 d. 


6 Metres 


'idler, Abth. I. HI. 143, 



a portico with six columns. In the hall of this temple were four 
columns, and an altar, and the statue of the god was placed in a 
niche in the end wall. The total length of the temple and portico 
was about 65 feet. The second temple was built at right angles 
to the first, and consisted of three chambers, in the first of which 


[From Lepsius, Denk inciter, Abtb. I. Bl. 145. 

were two doorways, and in the third an altar. This group stands 
on the slope of a hill and is marked Fin the plan of Lepsius. The 
orientation is unusual. 

A temple consisting of a single chamber, marked G' in the plan 
of Lepsius. It was surrounded by a colonnade, which on the east 

vol. 11. 145 L 


side had two rows of pillars, and wt ed within a mud-brick 

w;ill. will in front of the door of the temple. The 

temple enclosure was nearly a square, about [30 feet long and 
1 [8 feel wide. The orientation of the building is unusual. 


10 Metres 

PI ,\\ "i 1 1 Mil 1. Q AT \.v. \ \- 

Hid probably the most perplexing of all the groups 

in the Sudan is that which is found in the Wftdi As-§ufra, 

and which is commonl) known as " Masawwariit as ^ufra," 01 the 

The rums here, like those .11 Na 

1 p. 


stand on raised ground at the head of a valley, and they lie on the 
older of the two routes between Shendi and Nagaa, about thirty 
miles from the former place. 

On this same route, about halfway between Shendi and Mas- 
awwarat, are the remains of some sculptures which Cailliaud 
thought belonged to a small temple, and on the same road, a few 
miles south of Shendi, is an ancient well. The temple, 1 when in 
a perfect state, was about 20 feet long. Its walls are formed of 
comparatively large stones, and were covered with sculptures, 
which are now in a ruined state. Cailliaud, however, was able 
to identify on them figures of women who were dressed in apparel 
similar to that worn by the queens of Nagaa and Meroe. Along 
this road Mr. J. W. Crowfoot discovered some interesting sculp- 
tures which had escaped the attention of Lepsius and other 

The chief group of ruins in the Wadi As-Sufra is found within 
an enclosure of the general shape of which a good idea will be 
gained from the accompanying plans, reproduced from the works 
of Cailliaud and Lepsius." It is impossible to obtain an accurate 
plan of the ruins until many parts of the site have been carefully 
excavated. The ruins consist of the remains of " chambers, 
" courts, corridors and temples, in an enclosure or parallelogram, 
" 760 by 660 feet ; but in more accurate numbers the entire cir- 
" cumference is 2,854 feet. The north-east side is 660 feet long; 
"the north-west, the only side on which there are entrances, 
" 769 J feet ; the south-west side 665 feet ; and the south-east 
" 760 feet." 3 

Opposite to the central entrance is a corridor 8 feet wide and 
205 feet long ; this leads to a temple which stands in an 
enclosure 94 feet long and 85 feet wide. The temple itself is 
47 feet long, and 40^ feet wide, and stands very nearly in the 
centre of the enclosure. It contained four pillars, and was sur- 
rounded by a colonnade which had on its south-east side a double 
row of pillars. On each side of the door leading into the small 
temple on the east side are the remains of a colossal statue 

1 Cailliaud, Voyag?, plate xxx., No. 9 ; and see torn, iii., p. 158. 

2 Ibid., plate xxii. ; Denkmaler, i., Bl. 139. 

3 Hoskins, Travels, p. 100. 



sculptured in very high relief. This temple consisted of a single 
chamber, which contained four pillars, and had a portico in front 
of it: it was approached by a flight of steps, and was 53 feet 

and 45 feet wide. The door is ornamented by two serpents, 
which in form and treatment remind us of Alexandrian Roman 
work of the third centory of our era. 

Another temple to the north-east of the largest temple is 
52 feel long by 29 feet wide. It contained four columns, and 
had a colonnade with two rows of pillars in front of it. The use 
to which this group of buildings was put when complete has 
puzzled every traveller, and it seems impossible to understand its 
object. The most easily understood divisions of it are the 
temples, about the purpose of which there can be no doubt. 
Cailliaud thought the buildings formed a college. Hoskins 
believed them to have been a hospital, and Heeren declared them 
the Ammonium. One thing seems clear, namely, that the 

;1 temple was the first building set up here. It is per- 

missible to assume, until proof to the contrary is forthcoming, 

that chambers were built in the temple precincts for the use of 

the priests and of their royal masters, that these were in due 

nclosed by walls, and that building after building was 

1 ami enclosed, and two other temples were built. Possibly 

ts may have been used for driving cattle into when fight- 

i between the tribes, and the whole group 

of buildings made to serve the purposes of a kkdn, or desert 

the south of the main group of buildings are the ruins of a 

• ingular edifice which contained many chambers, and to 

his. air the remains of a small house (?) of irregular 

1 'o the n^rth and east are the ruins of reservoirs, and to 

nth of the larger reservoir are the remains of three temples. 1 

The largest of these consisted of a single chamber, containing 

as entered through a pylon. There are 

ither ruins on this site, and it seems clear that no town 

The confusion which reigns here is chaotic, but 

here and there among the ruins are mutilated reliefs and 

See Lepsius, J)cnkmalci\ i., Bl. 140. 


[According to 


columns which are of con- 
siderable interest. 1 The 
columns of the first row 
of the colonnade of the 
great temple are unlike 
any found elsewhere in 
the Sudan, and display 
the high pitch of perfec- 
tion attained in the sculp- 
tor's art by the artisans 
who set them up. Their 

capitals are ornamented 
with lotus flowers, and 
the flutings and rope- 
work patterns which 
adorn the shafts give 
them a graceful appear- 
ance ; round the drums 
and bases are sculptured 
figures of gods, warriors, 
athletes, &c, in high 
relief. 2 The reliefs in the 

no. 3. 

panels into which the 
shafts of many of the 
pillars are divided are no 
less interesting. With 
many of the designs we 
are familiar from other 
temples in the vSiidan, 
e.g., 'Amara and Nagaa. 

Worthy, however, of 
special note are the large 
numbers of mythical and 
fantastic animals which 
are sculptured on the 

1 For general views of the site, see Cailliaud, Voyage, plates xxiii. ff. ; 
Hoskins, Travels, plates 14 and 15 ; and Lepsius, Denkmaler, i., Bl. 141. 

2 See Deukmaler, v., Bl. 71. 




rown, crushing a 

ite man with his 

right fort-paw (No. 2). 

;. A lion-headed god 

riding a lion which is 

gnawing the body of a 

man held between its 

fore- pi N ». 3). In 

three scenes the 

lion pmbably typifies the 

.. \ hawk-headed 

r nil the solar disk 

on his head, riding a 

NO. 6. 


lower parts of the 
columns : — I. The rain- 
headed god Khnemu 
leading a child with his 
right hand, and a winged 
lioness, with a curly tail, 
by a string with his left. 
Under the right fore-paw 
of the lioness, which is 
stretched out, are two 
stricken gazelle (No. 1). 
A winged, hawk- 
headed lion, wearing the 

NO. 5. 

winged lioness with a 
woman's head, surmount- 
ed by a disk. With its 
right fore-paw the lioi 
is crushing a couple 
gazelle (No. 4*. The 
lioness probably sym- 
bolizes a queen. 5. The 
vulture-goddess Mut sup- 
porting her weight on 
the body <>f one prostrate 
foe, ami holding a second 


[According to Lepsius, Abth. 


in her claw and beak (No. 5). 6. A god wearing the double-crown, 
riding an elephant, the trunk of which is being held by a kneeling 
man (No. 6). 7. The god Bes, with plumes and a tail, playing 
the harp to a seated lion, which wears the triple crown and 
smells a flower (No. 7). 1 

These sculptures are full of spirit, and the expressions on the 
faces of some of the animals and their attitudes are strikingly 
comical, and can hardly have failed to appeal to the humorous side 
of all the Sudani folk who saw them. The style and character 
of the sculptures and reliefs on this site suggest that the 
ruins are the latest of all the Meroitic buildings. The work is 

too good to have been done by natives guided by purely native 
overseers, and I believe that Egyptians who had been trained in 
the service of Roman architects were imported to carry it out, 
probably in the second or third century of our era. Several of 
the walls must belong to a far later period, and some are 
evidently built of stones which have been carried off from the 
older buildings. 

The next great centre of trade that flourished when the 
Meroitic kingdom existed was Soba, a town of considerable extent, 
which stood on the bank of the Blue Nile a few miles above 
Khartum. Of the history of the town during the first few 
centuries after the establishing of the Nubian kingdom on the 
Island of Meroe nothing is known, but it is tolerably certain that 

1 See Detikma/er, v., Bl. 74, 75. 


it contained a number of temples, built of sandstone, similar to 
those of Napata, As-Sufra, Nagaa, Wad KA Nagaa, c\x. One of 
these, as we may see from the ruins of it which still exist, was 
turned into a church by the Jacobite Nubians. A few facts con- 
cerning the town when it formed the capital of a Christian 
kingdom have been obtained, and these will be ^iven in the 
chapter on Christianity in the Sudan. 




The information which is to be derived from native sources about 
the Sudan between B.C. ioo and a.d. ioo is scanty, but we may 
with advantage summarize here the statements about that country 
made by Diodorus, Strabo, and Pliny. The narratives of Diodorus 
and Pliny are in some respects not so valuable as those of 
Strabo, but the first was very well informed on many points 
connected with the history and civilization of Nubia, and many of 
his statements are supported by archaeological evidence. 

According to Diodorus (i. 33), the Nile rises far away in 
Ethiopia, and in its course forms many islands, the largest of 
which is Meroe, whereon Cambyses built a city, and called it after 
his mother's name " Meroe." This island is shield-shaped, is 
3,000 stadia long, and 1,000 stadia wide. It contains mines of 
gold, silver, iron, and brass, ebony trees and precious stones 
(i. 33). The Inundation begins at the summer solstice, and 
increases until the equinox ; its waters bring down new soil for 
the land (i. 36). The inhabitants of the Island of Meroe call 
the Nile " Astapus " 1 ; Diodorus rejects the opinion of Herodotus 
that the Nile rises from a lake (i. 37). The Ethiopians (ie., the 
Sudani folk) were the first men who ever lived (iii. 2), and are 
generally held to be autochthones; they were the first to institute 
the worship of the gods and sacrifices. The Egyptians were a 
colony from Ethiopia, and Egypt was formed of slime and mud 
brought down from Ethiopia. The laws of Ethiopia and Egypt 
are identical, and the writing in use in both countries is the same 
(iii. 3). Kings are chosen from the priesthood. The candidates 
are brought into the god's presence, and he whom the god 

1 They, of course, referred to the Blue Nile. 


touches becomes king, and is worshipped as a god. When the 
priests were tired of their king they ordered him to commit 
suicide ; this custom lasted for centuries, but was broken by 
Ergamenes (Arq-Amen), who refused to obey the priests, and, 
taking soldiers, went to the Golden House [at Napata ?] and slew 
the priests. This happened in the reign of Ptolemy II. (iii. 6). 
No man is put to death, but he is compelled to commit suicide ; 
when the king kills himself, his servants do the same. These- are 
the laws of the people on the Island of Meroe. 

There are, however, several other Ethiopian nations that 
dwell on each side of the river Nile ; some border upon Arabia 
(i.e., the Eastern Desert), and others are seated in the heart of 
Africa. The greater part of these, especially those near the river 
i iii. 8), are blacks, flat-faced, have curled hair, are exceeding fierce 
and cruel, and are in their manners like unto the animals, not so 
much, however, in their natural temper, as in their studied and 
contrived acts of wickedness. Their whole bodies are filth) and 
nasty, their nails are long like the claws of beasts, and they arc 
very cruel to each other. Some carry raw ox-hide shields and 
short lances ; others darts with forked points ; others have bows 
four cubits long, and when they have used up their arrows they 
fight with clubs. The women fight with men's weapons, many 
wearing a brass ring in their lips Some of them go naked, some 
wear skins, and others wear sheep's tails hanging in front of them 
from their waists. Some wear breeches made of human hair. 
Their food consists of marsh fruit, young branches of trees, 

wis. lotus, roots of cane, &c. Those who are archers live on 

line tiny kill, but most of them live upon flesh, milk, and 
the gods, some are mortal (iii. 9), and others im- 

1 ; among the former are I si s. Pan,' Hercules, and Jupiter,' 
and among the latter, the sun, moon, and the universe. Some 
believe in no gods at all, and when the sun rises they hide in the 
marshes as from an implacable enemy. The dead are disposed of: 
1. By throwing the bodies into the river, j. By pouring melted 

on them, and keeping them in their houses. 3. By burial 
irthen coffins near their temples. An oath sworn by the 

1 Probably the Egyptian god Menu. 

ompare the illustration above, page 141. 



names of the dead is the most sacred. Kings are chosen from 
among the handsomest men, or from the most industrious shep- 
herds, or from the richest men, or from the bravest in war. The 
Ethiopians and Africans quarrel (iii. 10) for the possession of the 
lands near the river. Herds of elephants from higher Libya come 
down to the morasses for food. In the deserts are numerous large 
serpents, which are able to kill the elephants. We must not trust 
writers about Ethiopia too implicitly, for most of them were either 
too credulous, or invented lies as a diversion ; Agatharcides of 
Cnidus and Artemidorus the Ephesian "have in their writings 
nearly pursued the truth." Diodorus then, quoting from Agathar- 
cides, describes how gold is obtained ; as his narrative will be 
given in the Chapter on Gold-mining in the Sudan, we pass on to 
summarize his remarks on the nations in the Eastern Desert or 
Troglodyta, and Southern Ethiopia, i.e., Dar Fur, Kordofan, 
Sennaar, &c. 

The Ichthyophagi (iii. 15) live along the Red Sea coast. They 
go naked, and have their wives in common. The women and 
children catch the little fish in the shallows, and the men catch 
the lobsters, lampreys, dog-fish, sea-calves, &c. They kill them 
with goats' horns and stones. The fish are partly cooked in the 
sun and then boiled with the seed of a plant ; each person eats as 
much as he can. They also eat shell-fish, breaking the shells with 
stones ; when these fail they gnaw the fish bones, which they take 
care to keep. Every fifth day they go to the wells of the 
shepherds to drink, and they drink so much that they can hardly 
move for a whole day. They resemble herds of cattle, and 
make a horrid noise as they go about. Other fish-eating people 
do not drink at all. They speak to no stranger, they are 
interested in nothing ; if assaulted with drawn swords, they stir 
not, and even if hurt they feel no anger. They are unconcerned 
if their wives and children be slain before their eyes. Some of 
them live in caves, and others in tents made of grass and whale- 
bone. Another class lives under the branches of living trees 
plaited together, and a fourth lives in holes which they dig in sea- 
moss. The dead are laid on the shore at low tide, and when the 
sea flows back it carries the bodies away. A fifth class lives in 
holes in the high rocks. 



The Chelonophagi (iii. 21) live on sea turtles. The Rhizophagi 
live on the roots of canes (iii. 23) ; many of these people are 
destroyed by lions, which are, however, kept in check by the gnats, 
which sting them and drive them out of the country. The 
Hylophagi are tree-climbers, and feed on the buds and branches 
of trees ; they leap from tree to tree like birds (iii. 24). They go 
naked, have their wives in common, and tight with clubs. The 
Spermatophagi live on fruits and herbs. The Konegoi (iii. 25) 
sleep in trees, and eat the flesh of wild bulls, leopards, &c, and 
when this fails they eat the skins of animals which they have 
killed. They are good marksmen with the dart. The Elephanto- 
machi (iii. 26) live in forests, and kill elephants by hamstringing 
them. To the west of these live the Simoes, and to the south the 
Struthophagi (iii. 27). Near these are the Acridophagi (iii. 29), 
who are smaller than other men, of lean and meagre bodies, and 
exceeding black. They are small, swift of foot, and short-lived ; 
they rarely live more than forty years, and they die through 
winged lice breeding in their bodies. They live on locusts, which 
they kill by suffocation, and which they salt. Beyond these is a 

country tilled with spiders and scorpions (iii. 30), by which 
the inhabitants were driven out of the country. 

To the south of these are the Canimulgos (iii. 31), who wear 
long beards, and keep large numbers of fierce dogs; they live on 
the flesh of oxen. " The nations that lie farthest south live the lives 

ists under the shapes of men." The Troglodytes, or Nomades 
(iii. 32), live pastoral lives; they are divided into tribes, and have 
a monarchical government. The)- have their wives in common, 
pi only the wife of the king. They drink for a part of the year 
milk and blood boiled together. Cattle that are old or sick are 
killed and eaten. They call no man father, and no woman 
mother, but only a bull, an ox, a goat, or a sheep, of which they 
call the males fathers, and the females mothers, because the)' have 
their daily food from them and not from their parents (iii. 
The common drink is made from the ptxliurus plant, but men of 

ion drink a wine which is made from the juice of a flower. 
! except for beasts' skins round their loins. All the 

lodytes are circumcised, and the cripples among them are 



The Megabarei fight with raw ox-hide shields, iron-bound clubs, 
and bows and spears. The dead are tied neck and heels, and 
carried to the top of a hill, where they are pelted with stones until 
they are covered over ; upon each heap a goat's horn is stuck. 
They fight among themselves for the pastures. The old folk tie 
themselves by their necks to tails of oxen, and so end their days. 
The heat is so great at midday that two standing together cannot 
see each other (iii. 34). The animals in Ethiopia are rhinoceroses, 
sphinxes, and the cynocephali (iii. 35). The cepus has the face 
of a lion, is like a panther, and is as big as a deer. The wild 
bull lives on flesh. He is as swift as a horse, he is red in colour, 
and he can move his horns like his ears. His hair stands on end, 
and his skin is impenetrable. The crocotta is of a mixed nature, 
part wolf and part dog ? and fiercer than both. The serpents are 
huge, some say a hundred cubits long, which no one believes ; a 
serpent thirty cubits long was brought to Alexandria in the reign 
of Ptolemy II., and it became quite tame. 

According to Strabo (i. 2, § 25), " Ethiopia" runs in the same 
direction as Egypt and is long, narrow, and subject to inundation. 
Beyond the reach of the waters the land is parched and desolate, 
and unfitted for human habitation. Near Meroe (xvi. 4, § 9) is the 
confluence of the rivers Astaboras, Astapus, and Astasobas with 
the Nile. On the banks live the Rhizophagi, or Root-eaters, 
and the Heleii, or marsh-men. Here live lions, which are driven 
from the country by large gnats at the rising of Sirius. Close by 
live the Spermophagi, who live on seeds of plants and trees. Far 
in the interior is Endera, where naked men live, who use bows and 
arrows. They generally shoot the animals from the trees. They 
live on the flesh of their cattle, and of other animals, and when 
this fails they roast the skins of animals and eat them. 

Two rivers empty themselves into the Nile, which issue out of 
some lakes towards the east, and encircle Meroe, a considerable 
island. One of these rivers is called Astaboras [Tacazze], flowing 
along the eastern side of the island. The other is the Astapus, 
or, as some call it, Astasobas. But the Astapus is said to be 
another river which issues out of some lakes in the south, and this 
river forms nearly the body of the Nile, which flows in a straight 
line, and is filled by the summer rains ; above the confluence of 
the Astaboras and the Nile, at the distance of 700 stadia, is Meroe, 



a city having the same name as the Island ; and there is another 
Island above Meroe, occupied by the fugitive Egyptians, who 

[ted in the time of Psammetichus, and are called Sembritae, 
or foreigners. Their sovereign is a queen, but they obey the 
king of Meroe. The lower parts of the country on each side of 
Meroe, along the Nile towards the Red Sea. are occupied by 

ibari and Blemmyes, who are subject to the Ethiopians, and 
border upon the Egyptians; about the sea are Troglodytae. The 
Troglodytae, in the latitude of Meroe, are distant ten or twelve 
days' journey from the Mile. On the left of the course of the 
Nile live Nubae in Libya, a populous nation. They begin from 
Meroe and extend as far as the bends[of the river]. They are not 
subject to the Ethiopians, but live independently, being distributed 
int<> several sovereignties. (Book xvii., chap, i., § z.) 

Strabo's remarks on the Elephant-eaters, the Struthophagi, 
and other nations in this country are derived for the most part 
from the writings <>f Artemidorus, and as they have been already 
quoted need no further reference. He continues : — 

The Ethiopians at present lead for the most part a wandering 
life, and are destitute of the means of subsistence, on account of 
the barrenness of the soil, the disadvantages of climate, and their 
great distance from us. For the mode of life [of the Ethiopians] 
is wretched ; they are for the most part naked, and wander 
from place to place with their flocks. Their flocks and 
herds are small in size, whether sheep, goats, or oxen : the 
dogs also, though fierce and quarrelsome, are small. It was 
perhaps from the diminutive size of these people, that the story of 
the Pygmies originated, whom no person, worthy of credit, has 

ted that he himself has seen. They live on millet and barley, 
from which also a drink [rnarissa] is prepared. They have no 
oil, but use butter and fat instead. There are no fruits, except the 
produce of trees in the royal gardens. Some feed even upon 

. the tender twigs of trees, the lotus, or the roots of reeds. 
They live also upon the flesh and blood of animals, milk, and 

<■. The) reverence their kings as gods, who are for the most 

hut up m their palaces. Their largest royal seat is the city 
of Meroe, of the same name as the Island. 1 he shape of the 
Island is said t<> be that of a shield. Its size is perhaps 
exaggerated. Its length is about 3,000, and its breadth 1,000 
Stadia. It is very mountainous, and contains great forests. The 
inhabitants are nomades, who are partly hunters and partly 
husbandmen. IT ilso mines of copper, iron, gold, and 

various kinds of preciou mrrounded on the side of 

I hills of sand, and on that of Arabia by continuous 
In the higher parts on the south, it is bounded by the 



confluent streams of the rivers Astaboras, Astapus, and Astasobas. 
On the north is the continuous course of the Nile to Egypt, with 
its windings, of which we have spoken before. The houses in the 
cities are formed by interweaving split pieces of palm wood or of 
bricks. They have rock salt, as in Arabia. Palm, the persea 
(peach), ebony, and carob trees are found in abundance. They 
hunt elephants, lions, and panthers. There are also serpents, 
which encounter elephants, and there are many other kinds of wild 
animals, which take refuge, from the hotter and parched districts, 
in watery and marshy districts. Above Meroe is Psebo, a large 
lake, containing a well- inhabited island. As the Libyans occupy 
the western bank of the Nile, and the Ethiopians the country on 
the other side of the river, they thus dispute by turns the 
possession of the islands and the banks of the river, one party 
repulsing the other, or yielding to the superiority of its opponents. 
The Ethiopians use bows of wood four cubits long, and hardened 
in the fire. The women also are armed, most of them wear 
in the upper lip a copper ring. They wear sheepskins, without 
wool ; for the sheep have hair like goats. Some go naked, or 
wear small skins or girdles of well-woven hair round the loins. 
They regard as God one being who is immortal, the cause of all 
things ; another who is mortal, a being without a name, whose 
nature is not clearly understood. In general they regard as gods 
benefactors and royal persons, some of whom are their kings, the 
common saviours and guardians of all; others are private persons, 
esteemed as gods by those who have individually received benefits 
from them. Of those who inhabit the torrid region, some are even 
supposed not to acknowledge any god, and are said to abhor even 
the sun, and to apply opprobrious names to him, when they behold 
him rising, because he scorches and tortures them with his heat ; 
these people take refuge in the marshes. The inhabitants of 
Meroe worship Hercules, Pan, and Isis, besides some other 
barbaric deity. Some tribes throw the dead into the river ; others 
keep them in the house, enclosed in hyalus (oriental alabaster?). 
Some bury them around the temples in coffins of baked clay. 
They swear an oath by them, which is reverenced as more 
sacred than all others. Kings are appointed from among 
persons distinguished for their personal beauty, or by their 
breeding of cattle, or for their courage, or for their riches. In 
Meroe the priests anciently held the highest rank, and sometimes 
sent orders even to the king, by a messenger, to put an end to 
himself, when they appointed another king in his place. At last 
one of their kings abolished this custom by going with an armed 
body to the temple, where the golden shrine is, and slaughtering 
all the priests. The following custom exists among the 
Ethiopians. If a king is mutilated in any part of the body, those 
who are most attached to his person, as attendants, mutilate 
themselves in the same manner, and even die with him. Hence 



the king is guarded with the utmost care. This will suffice on the 
subject of Ethiopia. 

Pliny's account of" Ethiopia *' will be found in his Sixth Hook, 
tion 35, and a perusal of it will show that classical writers had 
m his day a very -nod general idea of the extent of Nubia, or the 
Sudan, and of its principal characteristics and products. It will 
be seen, however, that his geographical knowledge is not very 
accurate, and that he transmits a number of fanciful statements, 
compiled from the works of many writers, without question. His 
narrative is, nevertheless, of considerable interest, and is worth 
reproducing here: — l 

On leaving Syene, and taking first the Arabian side, we find 

the nation of the Catadupi, then the Syenitae, and the town <<( 

Tacompsos, 1>\ .died Thatice, as also Aramasos, Sesamos, 

Sanduma, Masindomacam, Arabeta and Boggia, Leupitorga, 

Tantarene, Mecindita, Noa, Gloploa, Gystate, Niegada, Lea, 

Renni, Nups, Direa, Patiga, Bacata, Dumana, Rhadata, at which 

olden cat was worshipped as a god, Moron, in the 

interior, and Mallos, near Meroe ; this is. the account given by 

Bion. Juba, however, gives another account ; he says that there 

is a city on Mount Megatichos, which lies between Egypt and 

Ethiopia, by the Arabians known as Myrson, after which come 

Aramus, Sesamos, Pide, Mamuda, Orambis, situate 

tream of bitumen, Amodita, Prosda, Parenta, Mama. 

tta, Gallas, Zoton, Graucome, Emeus, the Pidibotae, the 
Hebdomecontacometae, Nomades, who dwell in tents, Cyste, 

lagale, Proaprimis, Nups, Detrelis, Patis, the Ganbn 
the Megasnei, da, Crandala, Denna, Cadeuma, Thena, 

. Alana, Mascoa, tlic Scammi, Hora, situate on an island, 
and then Abala, Androgali e, the Malli, and Agole. On 

the African side we find mentioned, either what is another place 
with the same name of Tacompsos, or else a part of the one 

-mentioned, and after it M< Edos, Plenariaj. 

Pinni Buma, Linthuma, Spintum, Sydop, the Censi. 

Pindicitora, Acug, Orsum, Sansa, Maumarum, Urbim, the town 

<>t Molum, by the I ailed Hypaton, Pagoarca, /manes, at 

which point elephants begin to be found, the Mambli, Peri' 

and Acetuma : there was formerly a town also called Epis, over 
against Merer, which had. however, been destroyed before Bion 

re the names of places given as far as Meroe; but at 

I day hardly any of them on either side of the river are 

nts, the praetorian troops that were sent 

1 The rendering is that of Messrs. BostO< k and Riley, London, 1890. 



by the Emperor Nero under the command of a tribune, for the 
purposes of inquiry, when, among his other wars, he was contem- 
plating an expedition against Ethiopia, brought back word that 
they had met with nothing but deserts on their route. The 
Roman arms also penetrated into these regions in the time of the 
late Emperor Augustus, under the command of P. Petronius, a 
man of Equestrian rank, and prefect of Egypt. That general 
took the following cities, the only ones we now find mentioned 
there, in the following order: — Pselcis, Primis, Abuncis, 
Phthuris, Cambusis, Atteva, and Stadasis, where the river Nile, 
as it thunders down the precipices, has quite deprived the 

[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

inhabitants of the power of hearing : he also sacked the town ol 
Napata. The extreme distance to which he penetrated beyond 
Syene was 970 miles ; but still, it was not the Roman arms that 
rendered these regions a desert. ^Ethiopia, in its turn gaining the 
mastery, and then again reduced to servitude, was at last worn 
out by its continual wars with Egypt, having been a famous 
and powerful country even at the time of the Trojan War, when 
Memnon was its king ; it is also very evident from the fabulous 
stories about Andromeda, that it ruled over Syria in the time of 
king Cepheus, and that its sway extended as far as the shores 
of our sea. 

VOL. 11. 



In a similar manner, also, there have been conflicting accounts 

the extent of this country : first by Dalion, who travelled a 

considerable distance beyond Meroe, and after him by Aristocreon 

and Basil 11 as the younger Simonides, who made a stay 

of h\ . . when he wrote his account of Ethiopia. 

Timosthenes, however, the commander of the fleets of Phila- 
delphus, without giving any other estimate as to the distance, says 
that Meroe is sixty days' journey from Syene ; while Eratosthenes 
3 that the distance is 625 miles, and Arteinidorus 600. 
Sebosus says that from the extreme point of Egypt, the distance 
t.> Meroe* is [,675 miles, while the other writers hist mentioned 

KH< >R ARUB, NEAR K.M.I \i: \ I . 

[From Sir W, Ctrstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

it 1,250. All these differences, however, have since been 

settled; for the pei><>ns scut by Nero for the purposi 

discovery ha\c reported that the distance from Syene to Meroe is 

87] miles, the following being the items:— From Syene i<» Hiera- 

iminos they make to he 54 miles, from thence to Tama 72, 

to the country of the Evonymitae, the first region of ^Ethiopia, 

\eina 54. t<> Pittara 25, and to Tergedus lo6. They 

» that the Island of Gagaudes lies at an equal distance 

;ie and Meroe, and that it is at this place that the bird 

1 the parrot was first seen ; while at another island called 

Articula. the animal known as the sphingium was first discovered 


by them, and after passing Tergedus, the cynocephalus. The 
distance from thence to Napata is 80 miles, that little town being 
the only one of all of them that now survives. From thence to 
the Island of Meroe the distance is 360 miles. They also state 
that the grass in the vicinity of Meroe becomes of a greener and 
fresher colour, and that there is some slight appearance of forests, 
as also traces of the rhinoceros and elephant. They reported also 
that the city of Meroe stands at a distance of 70 miles from 
the first entrance of the Island of Meroe, and that close to it is 
another island, Tadu by name, which forms a harbour facing 
those who enter the right-hand channel of the river. The build- 
ings in the city, they said, were but few in number, and they 
stated that a female, whose name was Candace, ruled over the 
district, that name having passed from queen to queen for many 
years. They related also that there was a temple of Jupiter 
Hammon there, held in great veneration, besides smaller shrines 
erected in honour of him throughout all the country. In addition 
to these particulars, they were informed that in the days of the 
^Ethiopian dominion, the Island of Meroe enjoyed great renown, 
and that, according to tradition, it was in the habit of 
maintaining 200,000 armed men, and 4,000 artisans. The kings 
of ^Ethiopia are said even at the present day to be forty-five in 

The whole of this country has successively had the names of 
/Etheria, Atlantia, and last of all, ^Ethiopia, from Aithiops, the 
son of Vulcan. It is not at all surprising that towards the 
extremity of this region the men and animals assume a monstrous 
form, when we consider the changeableness and volubility of fire, 
the heat of which is the great agent in imparting various forms and 
shapes to bodies. Indeed, it is reported that in the interior, on 
the eastern side, there is a people that have no noses, the whole 
face representing a plane surface ; that others again are destitute 
of the upper lip, and others are without tongues. Others again, 
have the mouth grown together, and being destitute of nostrils, 
breathe through one passage only, inbibing their drink through it 
by means of the hollow stalk of the oat, which there grows spon- 
taneously and supplies them with its grain for food. Some of these 
nations have to employ gestures by nodding the head and moving 
the limbs, instead of speech. Others again were unacquainted 
with the use of fire before the time of Ptolemy Lathyrus, king 
of Egypt. Some writers have also stated that there is a nation 
of Pygmies, which dwells among the marshes in which the river 
Nile takes its rise ; while on the coast of ^Ethiopia, where we 
paused, there is a range of mountains, of a red colour, which have 
the appearance of being always burning. 

All the country, after we pass Meroe, is bounded by the 
Troglodytae and the Red Sea, it being three days' journey from 
Napata to the shores of that sea ; throughout the whole of this 
district the rain-water is carefully preserved at several places, 



while the country that lies between is extremely productive of 

gold. The parts beyond this are inhabited by the Adabuli. a 

: and here, over against Meroe, are the 

barri, by some writers called the Adiabari ; they occupy the 
»me of them, however, are Nomades, living on 
the flesh of elephants. Opposite to them, on the African side, 
dwell the Macrobii, and then again, beyond the Megabarri, there 
are the Memnones and the Dabeli, and, at the distance of 20 
days' journey, the Critensi. Beyond these are the Dochi, and 
then the Gymnetes, who always go naked ; and after them the 
Andetae, the Mothitae, the Nfesaches, and the Ipsodorae, who are 
of a black tint, but stain the body all over with a kind of red earth. 
On the African side again there are the Medimni, and then a 
nation of Nomades, who live on the milk of the cynocephalus. 
and then the Aladi and the Syrbotae, which last are said to be 
eight cubits in height, Aristocreon informs us that on the Libyan 
side, at a distance of five days' journey from Meroe, is the town of 
Tolles, and then at a further distance of twelve days' journey, 

. a town founded by the Egyptians who fled from Psam- 
metichus ; he: states also that they dwelt there for a period of 

. and that opposite, on the Arabian side, there is a town of 
theirs called Daron. The town, however, which he calls Esar, 
i> l>v Bion called Sape, who say- that the name means "the 
strangers"; their capital being Sembobitis, situate on an island. 

. third place of theirs, Sinat in Arabia. Between the moun- 

and the river Nile are the Simbarri, the Palugges, and, on 
the mountains themselves, the Asachae, who are divided into 
numerous peoples; they are said to be distant five days' journey 
from the sea, and to procure their subsistence by the chase of the 
elephant. An island in the Nile, which belongs to the Sem- 
berril verned by a queen ; beyond it are the Ethiopian 

1. at a distance of eight days' journey ; their town is Tenu- 
n the Nile. There are the Sesambri also, a pa 
among whom all tin; quadrupeds are without ears, the very 
eleph n. On the African side are the Tonobari, tin 

people who have a dog for their king, and divine 
from I t- what are his commands; the Auruspi, who 

considerable distance from the Nile, and the 
mi, the Phaliges, the Marigerri, and the Casmari. 
Bion makes mention also of some other towns situate on 
islands, the whole distance being twenty days' journey from Sem- 
a town in an adjoining island, under the queen 
of the Semberritae, with another called Asara, and another, in a 

id island, called Darde. The name of a third island is Med- >«'•, 

which is the town of Asel, and a fourth is called Garodes, 

with a town upon it of the same name Passing thence along the 

I the Nil • towns of Navi, Modnnda, Andatis. 

idum, Colligat, Secande, .Vivectabe, Cumi, Agrospi, ^Egipa, 

rogari, Araba, and Summara. Beyond is the region of 


Sirbitum, at which the mountains terminate, and which by some 
writers is said to contain the maritimeiEthiopians,the Nisacaethae, 
and the Nisyti, a word which signifies "men with three or four 
eyes," — not that the people really have that conformation, but 
because they are remarkable for the unerring aim of their arrows. 
On that side of the Nile which extends along the borders of the 
Southern Ocean, beyond the Greater Syrtes, Dalion says that the 
people, who use rain-water only, are called the Cisori, and that 
the other nations are the Longompori, distant five days' journey 
from the (Ecalices, the Usibalci, the Isveli, the Perusii, the Balii, 
and the Cispii, the rest being deserts, and inhabited by tribes of 
fable only. In a more westerly direction are the Nigroae, whose 
king has only one eye, and that in the forehead, the Agriophagi, 
who live principally on the flesh of panthers and lions, the 
Pamphagi, who will eat anything, the Anthropophagi, who live on 
human flesh, the Cynamolgi, a people with the heads of dogs, the 
Artabatitae, who have four feet, and wander about after the 
manner of wild beasts ; and, after them, the Hesperiae and the 
Perorsi, whom we have already spoken of as dwelling on the con- 
fines of Mauritania. Some tribes, too, of the ^Ethiopians subsist 
on nothing but locusts, which are smoke-dried and salted as their 
provision for the year ; these people do not live beyond their 
fortieth year. 

M. Agrippa was of opinion that the length of the whole country 
of the ^Ethiopians, including the Red Sea, was 2,170 miles, and 
its breadth, including Upper Egypt, 1,297. Some authors again 
have made the following divisions of its length : — From Meroe to 
Sirbitum eleven days' sail, from Sirbitum to the Dabelli fifteen 
days', and from them to the /Ethiopian Ocean six days' journey. 
It is agreed by most authors, that the distance altogether, from 
the Ocean to Meroe, is 625 miles, and from Meroe' to Syene, that 
which we have already mentioned. ^Ethiopia lies from south- 
east to souch-west. Situate as it is, in a southern hemisphere, 
forests of ebony are to be seen of the brightest verdure; and in 
the midst of these regions there is a mountain of immense height, 
which overhangs the sea, and emits a perpetual flame. By the 
Greeks this mountain is called Theon Ochema, and at a distance 
of four days' sail from it is a promontory, known as Hesperu 
Ceras, upon the confines of Africa, and close to the Hesperiae, an 
^Ethiopian nation. There are some writers who affirm that in 
these regions there are hills of a moderate height, which afford a 
pleasant shade from the groves with which they are clad, and are 
the haunts of ^Egipans and Satyrs. 

[Book II., cap. 75]. At Meroe, an island in the Nile and the 
metropolis of the /Ethiopians, which is 5,000 stadia from Syene, 
there are no shadows at two periods of the year, viz., when the 
sun is in the 18th degree of Taurus and in the 14th of Leo 
[May 8th and August 4th respectively]. 




THE first pnfict of Egypt was Cornelius Callus, who was born 
about B.C 6g and died B.C. 26 : he was appointed by the Emperor 
Augustus, to whom he had rendered important services, B.C. 30, 
and h ued Egypt four years. 1 Cornelius, having attacked 

and taken the city of Heroopolis with a small body of men, 
advanced into Upper Egypt, and in a very short time reduced the 
ptians to subjection. The centres of the revolt were Coptos 
and Thebes, and it is pretty certain that the rebels were 
supported by the Nubians irom beyond the First Cataract. 
Cornelius next proceeded to Syene, and interviewed the Nubian 
chiefs of the tract of territory which extended from Philae to a place 
a little to the south of WVuli Haifa, and which was called at that 
time Triakontaschoinoi, and, though asserting the rights of Rome 
to that portion of the Nile Valley, he allowed the chiefs to retain 
their independence. During the rule of the later Ptolemies the 
Nubians had remained unmolested, and it is probable that they 
• piite prepared to fight the Romans, unless Cornelius was 
willing to allow them to retain the privileges which they regarded 
;i- their rights. A trilingual inscription in Egyptian (hiero- 
glyph ind Latin, found by Captain H. C. Lyons 
Phila Is the suppression of a revolt b.c. 29, and we may 
.me that the first agreement between the Nubians 
and Roman- \\;is made in that, or in the following year. 
According to Dion Caseins liii., 23), Cornelius became so much 
puffed up through his success in Egypt that he set up statues of 
himself everywhere in the country, and had inscriptions describ- 
ing his exploits cut on pyramids! 1 He was denounced by 

. ,53 ; Dion Cassius, li.9, 17. 

Report on tin- Island and Temples of Philae, p. 29; Lyons and 
rrichte d. k<>n. prcuss. Akad. WtSSen^ April, 1896. 
' tpyn oan tnt7Wtr]Kfi, tarus nvpufxiSns tatypayj/f. 


Valerius Largus to the Emperor, and was deposed by Augustus, 
and later the Senate decreed his exile, and the confiscation 
of his estates ; at length he killed himself with his own sword. 

Cornelius Gallus was succeeded by Gaius Petronius, who, 
according to Strabo, 1 was successful in quelling a revolt which 
broke out in Alexandria. He was in turn succeeded by yElius 
Gallus, about B.C. 25, and was deputed by Augustus to go 
to Arabia Felix, and make friends with the tribes there, so that 
the Romans might get possession of the treasures with which the 
country was supposed to be filled. If the inhabitants refused to 
come to terms, vElius Gallus was instructed to fight them. 
iElius Gallus chose for his guide Syllaeus, the chamberlain of 
Obodas, king of the Nabataeans, and he led both the sea and 
land forces into serious difficulties. Gallus built eighty biremes, 
and triremes, and galleys, at Cleopatris (Arsinoe), but as these 
were useless, he built 130 vessels of burden, wherein he embarked 
10,000 infantry, including 500 Jews and 1,000 Nabataeans. 
After much hardship he reached Leuce-Come in fifteen days, 
having lost many of his vessels, and some with all their crews. 
Large numbers of his soldiers fell ill of what would now be 
called enteric fever, and dysentery, and Gallus had to stay at 
Leuce-Come a whole year. Another six months were wasted 
through the perfidy of Syllaeus, but eventually Gallus returned to 
Alexandria with the remnants of his army. The whole expedition 
was a terrible failure in one respect, but Strabo admits that it 
was of " some small service." ~ 

The Nubians, learning that the prefect Gallus had got into 
difficulties in the Eastern Desert, and seeing that a large number 
of Egyptian troops were engaged in fighting the Arabs, took 
the opportunity of invading the Thebaid, and attacked the 
garrison, which consisted of three cohorts, near Syene. They 
captured Syene, Elephantine, and Philae, by a sudden inroad, 
and enslaved the inhabitants, and overthrew the statues of Caesar. 
When the news of this serious revolt reached the Romans, 
Petronius, who had already been prefect of Egypt, was despatched 

1 Strabo, xvii. 1, 53. 

2 Ibid., xvi. 4, §§ 22-24; Dion Cassiu-, liii. 29. 



with son i infantry and 800 cavalry to fight the enemy, 

whose army contained 30,000 men. The Nubians were either driven 

or withdrew to Pselcis, i.e., the modern Dakka, where Petronius 

parley with them. He sent deputies who demanded the 

tution of the things which the Nubians had carried off, and 

1 them to give their reasons for revolt. The Nubians replied 

that they had been ill-treated by the nomarchs, whereupon 

nius replied that they were not the sovereigns of the 

country, the lord of which was Caesar. The Nubians then asked 

for three days for consideration, but, as they made no overtures 

during this period, Petronius attacked them, and made them fight. 

Badly officered and poorly armed, the result for the Nubians was 

a foregone conclusion, and their skin shields, hatchets, spears, 

and swords, availed nothing. They soon fled, some to the city, 

others to the desert, and others swam away to an island in the 

river. Among the fugitives were the generals of Candace, queen 

of the Nubians, a masculine woman, who had lost an eye. 

nius pursued them in rafts and boats, and, having captured 

them all, sent them to Alexandria; he then attacked Pselcis 

and took it. Nearly all the Nubians were killed or taken 

prison 5. l'rom Pselcis Petronius went on to Premnis, the 

rn [brim, "travelling over the hills of sand, beneath which 

" the army of Cambyses was overwhelmed by the setting in of a 

"whirlwind."-' He took Premnis without difficulty, and then 

ded 500 miles up the river to Napata, the ancient 

tic capital, capturing on his way the cities of Abuncis, 

Phthi \tteva, and Stada 

was not at Napata when Petronius arrived, but 

:im ambassadors to treat for peace, and an offer to 

, tiers whom she had taken at Syene, and. to give 

itues [of Caesar?]: on this Petronius attacked, 

and destroyed Napata He made many prisoners, and 

much spoil, and then returned to the north, for the heat and 

I made it impossible to advance further. On his return 

wii. I . 54, 

•-*s' troops were overwhelmed in the Western Desert, between 
' • w. 35. 



to Premnis he fortified the place, and, placing a garrison of 400 
men there, with provisions for two years, he returned to 
Alexandria. Some of the Nubians were sold as slaves, one thou- 
sand were sent to Caesar, and many died of disease. On the 
departure of Petronius, Candace attacked the garrison he had 
left at Premnis with an army of several thousand men, but he 
returned before the Nubians reduced it, and the queen was 
obliged to send messengers to treat for peace. In reply, 
Petronius referred them to Caesar, and when they said they 
knew neither who he was, nor where to find him, Petronius 
sent men to take them to Caesar at Samos. The ambassadors 
obtained all they asked for, and Caesar even remitted the tribute 
which he had imposed. 1 

It is clear from Strabo's narrative that in the year B.C. 24 the 
Nubians possessed a very large army, and that they were ruled 
by one of the Meroitic queen-mothers, who bore the title of 
" Candace." According to Pliny, 2 this name " had passed from 
" queen to queen for many years," and in support of this state- 
ment it may be noted that a " Candace, queen of the Ethiopians," 
is referred to in Acts viii. 27, and that Pseudo-Callisthenes makes 
Alexander the Great visit " Candace," queen of Meroe. Neither of 
these Candaces can be the opponent of Petronius. Lepsius thought 
that he had recovered the hieroglyphic form of the name Candace 
from Pyramid No. 1 of the Northern Group of the Pyramids of 
Meroe. 3 Now the name of the queen for whom this pyramid was 
built is not " K(e)ntkit," but " Kenthehebit," 4 and unless ^^7 
is a mistake for ^=^s, the name of" Candace " can hardly come 
from the name in the cartouche. Moreover, if " Kenthehebit " is 
a royal title we ought to find it on the pyramids of the other 
queens of Meroe ; but it has not yet been found on them. 5 

To identify with certainty the Candace who defied the Romans 
is also at present impossible. So far as the monumental evidence 
is concerned, we may identify her with Amen-tarit, the wife of 

1 Dion Cassius, liv. 6. 2 vi. 35. 3 See Vol. I., p. 363. 


(3EE5I)I' but Qi^Ml- 

There still remain two chapels to clear out, and until this has been done it 
is impossible to say that Kenthehebit occurs but once. 



[-Amen, whose prenomen and nomen occur on the temples of 

Wad l, and 'Amara. This fact proves that she, 

or her consort, was an able and successful ruler of the Island of 

. ami that her power was effective from Wad Ba Nagaa, at 

least, in the south, to 'Amara in the north, i.e., over a portion of 

the Nile Valley about 800 miles long. It is evident that if the 

country in her time had not been in a prosperous state these 

temples would not have been built. Trade also must have been 

in a flourishing condition, for we may note that all the temples 

ing her name are close to important towns on the great trade 

route- from south to north, and at Nagaa they are near the great 

voirs which supplied the towns close by. If more remains of 

the temples in the city of Meroe existed, we should probably find 

that Queen Amen-tarit was the builder of the largest of them: 

the same also may be said of Napata. 

The invasion of Petronius proved to the Nubians that the 
Romans were a people against whom it was unsafe to rebel, and 
learned well the lesson which he intended his severe chastise- 
ment to teach them. He took with him an ample force of 
infantry and cavalry, struck quickly and hard, and then marched 
to their royal city, and razed it to the -round; he deported 
numbers of them to Alexandria, where they were sold as slaves, 
and then carried off all the booty which he could collect. Pliny 
Speaks of the country being "famous and powerful'" under its 
Memnon Anien-hetep III.), but it was only as a province of 
pt, and when administered by Egyptian officials, that it merits 
such a description. In saying that H Ethiopia" ruled over Syria 
in the time of king Cepheus,' he probably refers to the reign of 
we have already seen (Vol. II., pp. 37, 38) was 
always intriguing in Syria. 

During the reign of Augustus the building of the large temple 
lmis (Kalabsha) pin, and additions, at least, were 

made to the temples of Dendur and Dakka. 

In the reign of Claudius (a.D. 41-54) the Romans undertook 

5 connected with the development of the trade 

\rabia, India, and Egypt,and Nero (a.d. 54-68) meditated 

an invasion of Ethiopia (i.e., the Sudan, not Abyssinia), with the 

1 Pliny, i 


view of making himself master of the products of the country. It 
is curious how little, even at this time, the Romans really knew 
about Sudan geography, otherwise they would have known 
that the richest sources of wealth in the country were in 
Dfir Fur, Kordofan, and the lands on and between the Blue and 

[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

White Niles. Before, however, Nero attempted to invade Nubia 
he sent a tribune, with some praetorian troops, to report on the 
country in general, and when they returned they stated that they 
had found nothing on the banks of the Nile but wastes. 1 The 

1 "Certe solitudines nuper renuntiavere principi Neroni missi ab ea milites 
"praetoriani cum tribunum ad explorandum, inter reliqua bella et Aethiopicum 
" cogitandi.' ; Pliny, vi. 35 (181). 



information which they acquired about the Sudan was consider- 

They went from Syene to Meroe by the following cities: — 
-Svkaminos, 54 miles; Tama, yz miles from Hiera- 
Sykaminos ; the region of the Evonymitae, 120 miles from Tama ; 
Acina. 64 miles from the Evonymitae ; Pittara, 22 miles from 
the Acina; Tergedus, 103 miles from Pittara; Napata, 80 miles 
from Tergedus ; Me roe, 360 miles from Napata; in all 875 miles. 
I that the city of Me roe was 70 miles from the entrance 
to the island, which would make its site to be near Shendi, and 
that it formerlj maintained 240,000 soldiers, and 3,000 artizans. 1 

's soldiers and the two centurions must have peneti 

for a considerable distance into the Sudan, and it is clear from a 

ment of Seneca that they reached the great marshes out of 

which the Nile was supposed to spring. The " Nili Paludes," or 

ai toO NilXou \ifivat, 1 were held to be situated at the foot of 

the mountains of the Moon, but it is incredible that the soldiers 

travelled so far south. They told Seneca that, after travelling an 

Immense distance, they arrived at some marshes of enormous 

extent, that these were without outlet, and that the muddy water 

red over with an entangled mass of weeds, which it was 

impossible to wade through or to sail over. There, too, they saw 

two rocks, from which the river poured forth with tremendous 

force/ 1 N<>\\- the first portion of this description suggests that 

reached some portion of the region of the 

Sudd," the southern limit of which we know, on 

Luthority of Sir William Garstin,* begins north of B6r. 

the marshes are filled with papyrus and ambatch, and 

quire to have their roots under water for 

11 of the year. North of Sham!)], "many islands 

14, 3;), 1S4-186. -jrnphy, iv. 9. 3. 

Dturicrae* duos, quos Nero Caesar, aut aliarum virtutum, 
in primis ainantissmms, ad investigandum caput Nili miserat, 
audivi longum illos iter peregisse, quum a rege Aethiopiae instructi 

nmendatique proximis regibus, penetrassent. Ad ulterioraequidem, 
ad immensas paludes, quarum exitutn nee incolae, 
quisquam potest. Ita implicitae aquis herbae sunt, et 
nee pediti c!uctabile> nee navigio, quod nisi parvum et uniuscapax limosa 
palus non ferat. Ibi, iriquit, vidimus duas petras, ex quibus ingens 
inis excidebat ,J (A'aiuralium turn, vi. 8, ed. Koeler, p. 163). 

B '■ In of the Upper Nile, p. 94. 


" covered with ambatch and papyrus separate the stream 
" into numerous branches, and the whole country is a waste 
" of swamp." 1 

When we compare the description of the swamps of the Bahr 
al-Gebel by Sir William Garstin with that of the marshes, or 
swamps, of the two centurions it seems certain that they must 
have reached some portion of the Nile Valley through which that 
river flows. 

" The scenery of the Bahr-el-Gebel throughout its course 
' through the ' Sudd ' region is monotonous to a degree. There 
' are no banks at all, and, except at a few isolated spots, no 
' semblance of any ridge on the water's edge. The reedy swamps 
1 stretch for many kilometres upon either side. Their expanse is 
' only broken at intervals by lagoons of open water. Their surface 
' is only a few centimetres above that of the water-level in the 
' river when at its lowest, and a rise of half a metre floods them 
' to an immense distance. These marshes are covered with a 
' dense growth of water-weeds extending in every direction to 
' the horizon. Of these reeds the principal is the papyrus, which 
' grows in extreme luxuriance. The stems are so close together 
' that it is difficult to force a way through them, and the plants 
{ reach a height of from three to five metres above the marsh. In 
' addition to the papyrus large areas are covered with the reed 
'called Um-soof, or 'mother of wool,' by the Arabs, another 
1 called Bus, and the tall feathery-headed grass so well known to 
' Indian sportsmen by the name of ' Tiger ' grass. The extent of 
' these swamps is unknown, but more especially to the west of 
' the river, it must be enormous. In all probability the greater 
' portion of the region lying between the Bahr-el-Gebel and the 

' Bahr-el-Ghazal is in the rainy season avast marsh The 

' whole region has an aspect of desolation beyond the power of 
' words to describe. It must be seen to be understood." a 

"North of Rejaf the ' marsh ' formation commences. A low 
' ridge follows the water's edge on either bank. Beyond this 
' again on both sides is a wide depression full of tall elephant 
' grass and very swampy." 3 

1 Report on the Basin of the Upper Nile, p. 95. - Ibid., p. 98. 

3 Ibid., p. 90. 



Th< ks through which, according to the centurions, the 

river rushed with tremendous force are hard to identify ; some 

rapid- appear to be referred to, and it is difficult not to think of 

the Fola Rapids in connection with their statement. These 

Rapids begin " in two or more falls with a drop of five or six 

M metres. . . . Below the falls the stream rushes down an extremely 

14 narrow gorge with a very heavy slope, enclosed between vertical 

" walls of rocks. . . . The water tears through this channel in a 

sheet with an incredible velocity. . . . At the foot of 

"this race the river leaps into a deep cauldron or pot, which it 

•'tills with an apparently boiling mass of white water lashed into 

11 " This cauldron is fifty metres long, and is not more than 

twelve metres across! Below this the channel widens out to 

thirty metres, " while the river thunders down in a series of rapids 

" for a considerable distance." 1 It is to be regretted that more 

details of the report of the centurions have not come down to us. 

but it seems quite clear that their description of the Nile swamps 

;ed upon personal observation. 

From about A.D. 54 to 260 the Nubians gave the Romans little 

trouble, and seem to have acquiesced in the arrangement which 

left them masters of the Nile Valley from Premnis (Ibrim) 

southwards. Kmperor after emperor added to the temples of 

id a few of them, e.g., Trajan, Hadrian, and Verus, 

built at Philae, Talmis, and other places in the district between 

1 1 >akka. The Emperors Vespasian and Titus carried 

on building operations in the Oasis of Dakhla ■ (Oasis Minor), 

which lies a journey of lour days west of Al-Kharga, thereby, no 

doubt, attempting to establish friendly relations with the tribes of 

the V ert for the purposes of trade. 

The tribes of the Eastern Desert, however, whom the ancient 
ptians kn< n,or " Hill-men," towards the beginning of 

the third century a. p. began to encroach on the southern frontier 
ccupy the lands immediately to the south of it, 
and to the east and west of the Thebaid itself. It is said that 
had settlement- even in the Oasis of Kharga. To 
1 Report on the Basin oft 
' l m ^^ ^"^ w ° T< i 



[From a photograph by Sir Reginald Wingate, K.C.B. 


turn them out of Upper Egypt, for the tribes of the Eastern and 

its united against him; eventually he succeeded in 

gaining possession of Coptos, the most important city in Upper 

it, for all the trade from the East passed through it. 
During the early years of the reign of Diocletian (284-305) the 
inroads of the Blemmyes into Egypt became more and more 
frequent, and the Roman troops stationed at Syene and at 

trious posts in the Dodekaschoinos were unable to offer any 
effective resistance to the marauding bands on the river, and to 
stop those who invaded the Thebaid from the desert was impossible. 
Diocletian was unprepared to send a large army into the Sudan, 
and he therefore decided to withdraw his garrisons from Syene, 
Hiera-Sykaminos, &c*, and to hand over the protection of the 
Dodekasehoinos to the Nobatae. a powerful tribe of nomads who 

m the Western Desert. The Nobatae appear to have come 
originally from Dar Fur and Kordof&n, and in Diocletian's time 
their settlements extended to the Oasis of KhArga ; all the trade of 
tli*- Southern Sudan was in their hands, and their warlike and 
savage disposition made them suitable opponents of the Hamitic 
Blemmyes of the Eastern Desert They were the descendants of 
the " Mentiu," or "Cattle-men," who were a terror to the 
Pharaohs, and the ferocity of their modern representatives, the 
" Iiakkiira," or "Cattle-men,"' is too well known to need description, 
Nobatae Diocletian forthwith allotted lands round about 
Elephantine and on each side of the river, and he arranged to pay 
them annually a sum of money in return for their guardianship of 
Roman in At the same time he made an agreement with 

the Blemmyes, in which he undertook to give them yearly a 

n payment in money provided that they ceased to raid 

\ pt and the territory which belonged to the Romans. l 

Thi letian built a strong fortress on an island near 

Elephantine, and set up a temple and altars whereat the Romans 

and the Barbarians might adjust their differences in a friendly 

manner, and renew their oaths to each other in the presence of 

: by the various parties to the agreement. At Philae 

and the Blemmyes worshipped Isis, Osiris, and 

1 ri Ktu BXfpvo-iv (Ta£f diftoadai di(\ nciu eroj prjrov ti \pv(riov cj> <w firjKen yrjv ttjv 
!ttv Ar?«roi'T(ii (Procopius, De Bello Persico, i. 19, p. 103). 



Priapus, 1 besides other gods. The Blemmyes were in the habit 
of sacrificing men to the sun. The arrangements made by Dio- 
cletian were the most natural under the circumstances, but he 
was the first ruler of Egypt who was astute enough to play off 
the tribes of the Western Desert against those of the Eastern 
Desert, and by means of two annual payments, which must 
have been after all comparatively small, obtain peace in Upper 

For a period of more than one hundred years Egypt ceased to 
be troubled by the Blemmyes, and it is tolerably certain that both 
they and the Nobatae kept their agreement with the Romans. 
However, towards the close of the reign of Theodosius II. (408- 
450) the Blemmyes for some reason or other either broke faith 
with the Romans, or overcame the Nobatae, and we find that 
they invaded certain territories which were regarded by the 
Romans as a part of Egypt. They actually took possession of 
the Oasis of Kharga, and defeated the Roman soldiers stationed 
there, and took numbers of the inhabitants captive. The captives 
they subsequently released and handed over to the governor of 
the Thebaid, not, however, because they were afraid of the Romans, 
but because the Mazices, a Numidian tribe, were preparing to 
attack them. 

In the reign of the Emperor Marcianus (450-457), Maximinus, 
the commander-in-chief of the Romans in Egypt, set out on an 
expedition to the south, and routed the Blemmyes and Nobatae 
with great slaughter, and then made them set free all the prisoners 
they had retained, and pay a huge fine, which was distributed 
among all those who had suffered injury or damage at their hands. 
Maximinus compelled them to give hostages for their future good 
behaviour, and to enter into an agreement to keep the peace for 
one hundred years. The sole stipulation which they appear to 
have made is a curious one. They asked permission to make 
annual pilgrimages to the temple of Isis at Philae, and to borrow 
the statue of Isis from time to time, in order that they might 
obtain the blessing of the protection of the goddess, and beg 
boons from her. From this it is clear that the worship of Isis of 
Philae was, even at this period, in a flourishing state. Maximinus 
1 The old Egyptian ithyphallic god Menu (?). 

VOL. II. 177 N 


d to the stipulation, and so long as he lived there was peace 
between the Romans and the two great unruly tribes of the Sudan. 
On his death, however, they came to an understanding with each 
other and oner more invaded Egypt, and succeeded in taking the 
whom they had given out of the hands of the Romans. 
Tlu- revolt was soon quelled by Florus, prefect of Alexandria, and 
once again the Blemmyes and Nobatae undertook to keep the 
ment which they had originally made. 
Towards the end of the reign of Justinian 1.(527-565) the period 
of one hundred years, during which the Blemmyes and the 
Nobatae had agreed with Maximums the general to keep the 
. expired, and it seems as if they must have begun at this 
time to make fresh trouble in Egypt, though there is no direct 
evidence in support of this supposition. Be this as it may, the 
wrath of Justinian fell upon them, and, partly for political reasons 
and partly as a result of his hatred of paganism, he determined to 
put a stop to the worship of Isis and of the other deities of her 
company at Philae, which had long been the home of religious 
fanaticism, and therefore a hotbed of conspiracy, unrest, and 
discontent. So long as the tribes of the deserts had an excuse 
for coining to Philae it was impossible to prevent them from 
gathering there annually in large numbers. The orders of 
Justinian in this matter were carried out by Narses, who went to 
Philae, and closed the great temple of Isis, and removed the 
statues of the gods and carried them away to Constantinople; he 
also confiscated the revenues of the sanctuary of the goddess, and 
threw her priests into prison. 1 

Th( s must have been approved of by large 

numbers <>f the Nubians, otherwise they could not have been per- 
formed, and there is little doubt that the conversion of the 
Ltae to Christianity, which was brought about through the 
instrumentality of the Empress Theodora, about A.D. 540, pre- 
ay for the closing of the temple of Isis. Under 
riusll.0 the tribes of the Sudan again made them- 

tublesome, but their revolt was crushed by Aristomachus, 
maiider-in-chief of the Roman forces in Egypt, and we 

1 Procopius, Persico, 


[From a photograph by Sir Reginald Wingate, K.C.B. 


hear nothing more of them for nearly a century. The Romans 
were fully occupied in keeping the Persians out of Egypt, and the 
nomads of the Eastern and Western Deserts were left to govern 
themselves in their own way. 



The beginning of the country of Beja is from the city of Kharba, 
at the emerald mines in the desert of Kus, about three 2 days' 
journey from that town. Jaheth mentions that there are no other 
emerald mines in the world, but in this spot. They are found in 
far extended and dark caverns, into which they enter with lights 
and cords, for fear of going astray, and with these they trace their 
way back. They dig for the emeralds with axes, and find them 
in the midst of stones, surrounded by a substance of less value, 
[i.e., mica], and inferior in colour and brilliancy. The extremities 
of Beja touch upon the confines of Habesh [Ethiopia]. The 
Beja live in the midst of the island, meaning the island of Egypt, 
as far as the shores of the salt sea, and towards the island of 
Sawakin, and Nadha, and Dahlak. They are Bedouins, and fetch 
the herbs, wherever they grow, in leathern sacks. They reckon 
lineage from the female side. Each clan has a chief ; they have 
no sovereign, and acknowledge no religion. With them the son 
by the daughter, or the son by the sister, succeeds to the property, 
to the exclusion of the true son, and they allege that the birth of 
the daughter, or sister's son, is more certain, because, at all events, 
whether it is the husband or some one else who is the father, he 
is always her son. They had formerly a chief, upon whom the 
minor chiefs depended, who lived at the village of Hejer, on the 
extremity of the island of Beja. They ride choice camels, of a 
reddish colour, the breed of which they rear, and the Arabian 
camel is likewise there met with in great numbers. Their cows 
are very handsome, and of various colours, with very large horns ; 
others without any horns ; their sheep are spotted, and full of 
milk. Their food is flesh and milk, with little cheese, though 

1 See Burckhardt, Travels, p. 503 ff. 2 Al-Mas'ftdl says ten. 



some of them eat it. Their bodies are full grown, their stomachs 
emaciated, their colour has a yellowish tinge. They are swift in 
running, by which they distinguish themselves from other people. 
Their camels are likewise swift and indefatigable, and patiently 
bear thirst ; they outrun horses with them, and fight on their 
backs, and turn them round with ease. They perform journeys 
which appear incredible. 

In battle the Beja pursue each other with their camels : when 
they throw the lance, and it adheres, the camel flies after it, and 
its master takes it again ; but if the lance falls down, the cam 1 
lowers its hinder parts to permit the master to take the lance up 
from the ground. They are people of good faith ; if any of them 
has defrauded his guest, the latter holds up a shirt on the end of 
his lance, and exclaims, " This is the tent-covering of such a one," 
meaning the guilty ; the people then abuse the culpable until he 
satisfies the defrauded. They are very hospitable ; if a guest 
arrives, they kill for him (a sheep) ; if there be more than three 
people, they slaughter a camel of the nearest herd, whether it 
belongs to them or to any one else ; and if nothing else is at hand, 
they kill the camel upon which the guest arrived, and afterwards 
give him a better in return. Their arms are the lances called 
*' Sebaye," with an iron point three pics in length, and a wooden 
shaft of four pics, for which reason they are called " Seb 
The iron head is of the breadth of a sword. They very seldom 
deposit these lances, but keep them always in their hands. On 
the extremity of the wood is something like a handle, which 
■nts it from slipping through the hand. These lances are 
made by women, at a place where they have no intercourse- with 
men, except with those who come to buy the lances. If any of 
women bears a female child by one of these visitors, they 
permit it to live ; but if a male, they kill it, saying that all men 
are a plague and a misfortune. Their shields are made of cow- 
skins full of hair ; and others of their shields, called Aksomye, 1 
are inverted in shape, and made of buffalo skin, as are likewise 
the Dahlakye, or else of the skin of a sea animal. Their bow is 
the Arabian bow, large and thick, made of the wood of Seder and 
Shohat ; they use them with poisoned arrows : the poison is 
1 From the city Axum. 



made of the root of the tree Falfa (or Galga), which is boiled over 
the fire until it dissolves into a glue. To try its efficacy, one of 
the people scratches his skin, and lets the blood flow ; if the blood, 
upon being touched with the poison, is driven back, they know 
that the poison is strong, and they wipe the blood off, that it may 
not return into the body and kill the person. If the arrow hits 
a man, it kills him in an instant, even though the wound be not 
larger than the scratch made in cupping ; but it has no effect 
except in wounds, and in blood, and it may be drunk without 
any harm. 

The country is full of mines ; the higher it is ascended the 
richer it is found to be in gold. There are mines of silver, copper, 
iron, lead, loadstone, marcasite, hamest, emeralds, and a very 
brittle stone, of which if a piece is rubbed with oil, it burns like 
a wick ; other similar productions are found in their researches 
after gold ; but the Beja work none of these mines except those 
of gold. In their valleys grow the tree Mokel \ditm palm ?], and 
the Ahlylej [myrobolan ?], and the Adkher, the Shyh [Artemisia?], 
Sena, Coloquintida, Ban [tamarisk ?], and others. On the 
farthest confines of their country dates, and vines, and odoriferous 
plants, and others grow naturally. All sorts of wild animals are 
seen here, as lions, elephants, tigers, fahed, monkeys, weasels (?), 
civet cats, and a beautiful animal resembling the gazelle, with two 
horns of a golden colour ; it holds out but a short time when it is 
hunted. Their birds are the parrot, the taghteit, the nouby, the 
pigeon called narein, the wood dove, the Abyssinian fowl, and 
others. Maribus omnibus in hac regione testiculorum dexter 
abstrahitur : praecisa autem foeminarum labia pudendi, intensione 
prima, ut medici dicunt, contrahuntur et sibi invicem radicitus 
adhaerent ; ante nuptias perforantur, cum rima ad mensuram 
inguinis virilis efficitur. Haec autem, quae jam rarior est, con- 
suetodo, originem traxisse fertur ex antiquo pacis foedere, cum 
tyranno quodam inito, qui, ad gentem funditus defendam, 
universis imperavit, ut masculorum liberorum testiculos, alterius 
autem sexus mammas abscinderent : hi vero, diversa ratione, 
maribus quidem mammas, foeminis pudenda exsecabant. 

A race of Beja tear out their back teeth, alleging that they do 
not wish to resemble asses. Another of their races living on the 



extremity of their country is called Baza. Among them all the 
women are called by the same name, and so are the men. A 
Moslira merchant once travelled through their country, who, 
happening to be a handsome man, they called out to each other 
and said, " This is God descended from heaven ; " and they kept 
looking at him from afar while he sat under a tree. 1 The serpents 
of this country are large and of many different species: it is 
related that a serpent was once lying in a pond, with its tail 
above water, and that a woman who came in search of water 
looked at it, and died in convulsions. Here lives a serpent with- 
out a head, not large, with both extremities (or sides) alike, and 
of a spotted colour. If a person walks upon its track, he dies ; and 
if it is killed, and the person takes into his hand the stick that 
killed it, he himself is killed; one of these serpents was once killed 
by a stick, and the stick split in two. If any of these serpents, 
whether alive or dead, is looked at, the beholder will be hurt. 

Tin Beja country is always in commotion, and the people are 
prone to mischief. During the [slam, and before that time, they 
had oppressed the eastern banks of Upper Egypt, and had ruined 
many villages. The Pharaoh kings of Egypt made incursions 
against them, and at other times left them in peace, on account 
of their works at the gold mines ; and the Greeks did the same 
when they took Egypt. Remarkable ruins of Greek origin are 
still to be seen at the mines, and their people were in possession 
of these mines when Egypt was conquered by the Moslems. 

The interior Beja live in the desert between the country of Aloa 
and the salt sea, and extend to the limits of the country of 

sh. Their people rear cattle and are pastors : their \\ 
living, their ships, and army, are like those of the Hadharebe, 
but the latter are a more courageous and more religious people, 
whilst those of the interior all remain infidels. They adore the 
devil, and follow the example of their priests : every (Ian has its 
priest, who pitches a tent made of feathers, in the shape of a 
dome, wherein he practises his adorations ; when they consult him 
about their affairs, he strips naked, and enters the tent stepping 
backwards; he afterwards issues with the appearance of a mad 

1 Burckhardt says that when the Beja women saw him they uttered a shriek, 
and those who spoke Arabic exclaimed, "God preserve us from the devil ! '' 



and delirious person, and exclaims, " The devil salutes you, and 
tells you to depart from this place, for that a hostile party (naming 
it) will fall upon you." If you ask advice about an expedition 
which you may be about to undertake against any particular 
country, he often answers, " March on, and you will be victorious, 
and will take booty to such an amount, and the camels you will 
take at such a place must be my property, as well as the female 
slave you will find in such a tent, and the sheep," &c. On the 
march, the priest loads his tent upon a camel destined for that 
sole purpose, and they believe that the camel rises up from the 
ground, and walks with great difficulty, and that it sweats pro- 
fusely, although the tent is quite empty, and nothing is in it. 
Among the Hadharebe live some of those people who still retain 
this religion, and others who mix with it the Islam. 





The fortress of Babylon in Egypt fell into the hands of the 
Muhammadans under 'Amr ibn al-'Asi, general of Omar the 
Khalifa, on the 9th of April, 641, and thus Egypt, and such 
portions of the Sudan as were regarded as her possessions, at once 
became a province of the new Muhammadan Empire. As soon as 
the fortress was taken 'Amr at once set about occupying the 
principal divisions of Egypt, and sent troops into Alexandria, 
Damietta, and Tinnis in Lower Egypt, and into the Fayyum 
and other portions of Upper Egypt. About a year after the 
conquest of Egypt 'Amr sent an expedition into Nubia 1 under one 
of his generals called 'Abd-Allah bin Sa'd, whose force consisted 
of twenty thousand men. 2 Al-Mas'udi tells us (chap, xxxiii.) 
that the Arabs attacked the Nubians, and discovered that they 

1 " In the history of Bahnase (Oxyrhinchus), and that of its valorous defence 

ust the Arab conquerors of Egypt, I find it stated, that a large army of 

as and Xoubas, headed by Maksouh, king of Bedja, and Ghalyk, king of 

" Nouba, came to the assistance of the Christian chief, Batlos, who was besieged 

thnase, by the officers of Amr Ibn el Aas. This black army is said to have 

of 50,000 men. They had with them 1,300 elephants, each bearing 

"upon its back a vaulted house made of leather, in which ten men took their 

> ittle. In the company of the Bedjas were a race of men of 

otic stature, called El-Kowad, coming from beyond Souakin. They were 

" covered with tiger skins, and in their upper lips copper rings were fixed. The 

ims defeated this army. There is a strange mixture of truth and romance 

i in this history, but the arrival of the Bedja army is so well authenticated by a 

•• train of witnesses, that little doubt can remain of it having really taken place ; 

■ ugh the number both of men and elephants seems to be exaggerated. The 

of southern Nubia are, as far as I know, no longer used to ride 

" upon." (Burckhardt, Travels, p. 528.) The giants referred to above arc 

) those who in modern times are known by the name of " Anaks." 

rhe authority for this statement is Al-Makri/i. For the Arabic text, see 

oq Bey Shucair, History of 'the Stiddn, vol. ii., p. 42. 



were first-class archers, but he does not say where the fight took 
place. 'Abd-Allah stayed in Nubia for some time, and there is 
little doubt that he found his task not so easy as he had imagined ; 
he was at length recalled by 'Amr, who, however, gave the 
Nubians no rest so long as he had power in Egypt. The Arabs 
appear to have entrenched themselves strongly at Aswan, which 
they made their frontier city, and they soon found that the 
Nubians were ever ready to cause them trouble, and to break out 
in revolt. When 'Abd-Allah returned to Fustat (Cairo), the 
Nubians saw their opportunity, and, pouring northwards from the 
south, they invaded Egypt and laid waste the country far and 

For some years the Arabs watched these invasions in silence, 
but at length, in 652, 'Abd-Allah returned to the Sudan and 
crushed the rebellion of the Blacks with merciless rigour. The 
capital of the new kingdom of the Blacks, who were now 
Christians, had been placed at Dongola (Old), a town situated on 
the east bank of the Nile, about 280 miles south of Wadi Haifa, 
by Silko, the king of the Blemmyes, about a.d. 450. To this town 
'Abd-Allah sailed or marched, and, when he had battered down all 
itschief buildings, including the church, with stones which hehurled 
against them from slings, the natives cried out for peace. Their 
king Koleydozo 1 came out of the town with all " the signs of weak- 
ness, misery, and humbleness," and was graciously received by 
'Abd-Allah, who granted him peace on the condition that he paid 
the annual tribute of slaves, which had already been agreed upon 
by 'Amr. Al-Makrizi says that his Bdkt,- or tribute, consisted of 
three hundred and sixty slaves, but Al-Mas'udi gives the number 
as three hundred and sixty-five, and says that besides these, there 
were forty slaves for the governor of Egypt, twenty for the 
governor of Aswan, five for the judge, and twelve for the inspectors, 
whose duty it was to see that the slaves were in a sound and 
healthy condition. The place fixed for the payment of the Bakt 
was Al-Kasr (i.e., the Fortress), near the Island of Philae, on the 
western bank, six miles from Aswan. The king of Dongola 
having agreed to observe faithfully the stipulation which had been 
made by 'Amr, 'Abd-Allah made a treaty with him, the contents 
1 Burckhardt, Travels, p. 511. 2 WsJI. 



of which. en by Al-Makrizi, who quotes Ibn-Selim Al- 

ii. ;uv well worth recording here ; it reads : — ' 

" In the Name of God, &c. This is a treaty granted by the 

• Emir 'Abd-Allah ibn Sa'd ibn Abi-Sarh, to the chief of the 

• Nubians and to all the people of his dominions, a treaty binding 
'on great and small among them, from the frontier of Aswan to 
' the frontier of 'Aiwa. 'Abd-Allah ibn Sa'd ordains security and 
'peace between them and the Muslims, their neighbours in Upper 

pt, as well as all other Muslims and their tributaries. 
pie of Nubia, ye shall dwell in safety under the safeguard of 
' God and His Apostle, Muhammad the Prophet, whom God 
' bless and save ! We will not attack you, nor wage war on you, 
' nor make incursions against you, so long as ye abide by the 
' terms settled between us and you. When ye enter our country, it 
' shall be but as travellers, not as settlers, and when we enter your 
' country it shall be as travellers, not settlers. Ye shall protect 
' those Muslims or their allies who shall come into your land and 
' travel there, until they quit it. Ye shall give up the slaves of 
' Muslims who seek refuge among you, and send them back to the 
4 country <>f Islam ; and likewise the Muslim fugitive who is at 
' war with the Muslims, him ye shall expel from your country to 
'the realm oi Islam: ye shall not espouse his cause nor prevent 
' his capture. Ye shall put no obstacle in the way of a Muslim, 
' but render him aid till he quit your territory. Ye shall take care 
'of the mosque which the Muslims have built in the outskirt of 
' your city, and hinder none from praying there ; ye shall clean it, 
' and Light it. and honour it. Every year ye shall pay three 
' hundred and sixty head of slaves to the leader of the Muslims, of 
'tin- middle class of the slaves of your country, without bodily 
'delects, males and females, but no old men, nor old women, nor 
'young children. Ye shall deliver them to thegovernor of Aswan. 

• No Muslim shall be bound to repulse an enemy from yon or 

ittack him, or hinder him, from 'Aiwa to Aswan. If ye 

' harbour a Muslim slave, or kill a Muslim or an ally, or attempt 

' to destroy the mosque which the- Muslims have built in the out- 

1 skirt of your city, or withhold any of the three hundred and 

ad of slaves, — then this promised peace and security will 

withdrawn from you. and we shall revert to hostility, until 

' God decide betw the best of umpires. Forour 

'performance of these conditions we pledge our word, in the name 

ind our compact and faith, and belief in the name of 

'His Apostle Muhammad, God bless and save him! And for 

'your performance of the same ye pledge yourselves by all that 

hold most sacred in your religion ; by the Messiah, and by 

-tie--, and by all whom ye revere in your creed and 

• Poole's translation {Middle Ages,y>. 21) : see also Burckhardt, 
Travels, p. 511. 



" religion. And God is witness of these things between us and 
" you. Written by 'Amr ibn Shurahbil in Ramadan in the year 

"31" (A.D. 652). 

When the Nubians paid the Bakt to 'Amr, they added forty 
slaves as a present for himself, but these he refused to accept, and 
returned them to Samkus, the inspector of the Bakt, who gave 
the Nubians wine and provisions for them. The additional forty 
slaves were always sent with the tribute, and in later times the 
Nubians received in exchange wheat, barley, wine, horses, and 
stuffs. 1 The Bakt was paid regularly by the Nubians for a period 
of about six hundred years. 

In the year 722, 2 under the rule of the Khalifa 'Omar ibn 'Abd 
al-'Aziz, 'Obed Allah ibn al-Habbab, the treasurer, carried out a 
general destruction of the sacred pictures of the Christians in 
Egypt. This resulted in a rising of the Copts in the Delta, 
which, though suppressed for a time, broke out again when the 
Coptic Patriarch was imprisoned. The Nubians were so enraged 
at the ill-treatment which their co-religionists received that their 
king Cyriacus marched into Egypt at the head of one hundred 
thousand men, and was only induced to return to his own country 
by the request of the Patriarch, who was hastily liberated. 

Under the rule of the Beni 'Ommia and the Beni 'Abbas, 3 the 
Nubians sold several villages to the inhabitants of Aswan, and 
when Ma'mun became Khalifa (a.d. 813) their king appealed to 
him for protection against the men of Aswan. The matter was 
referred to the governor of Aswan, and the sale was confirmed. 4 

Under the rule of Ma'mun the Beja, i.e., the tribes of the 
Eastern Desert, caused the Muslims a great deal of trouble, and 
at length, in 831, 'Abd-Allah ibn Jahan set out to do battle 
against them. This general defeated them several times, and finally 
made a treaty with their king Kanun, who lived at Hejer. In 
this it was stipulated that the Beja should pay an annual tribute 

1 The exact amounts are given by Burckhardt, Travels, p. 512. 

2 Stanley Lane Poole. Middle Ages, p. 27. 

' A These tribes appear to have made their way into the Eastern Sudan from 
Arabia in the eighth century, and to have settled on the Blue Nile and near 
the modern Sennaar. 

4 Burckhardt, Travels, p. 517. 



of one hundred camels, or three hundred dinars, that the country 
from Asw&n to Dahlak and Nadha should be the property of 
the Khalifa, who should be the overlord of the whole district. 
Further, the Beja were not to mention disrespectfully the name 
of Muhammad, or his Kur'an, or the religion of God, or to kill a 
Muslim, whether he were free man or slave, or to assist the 
enemies of the Muslims, or to rob a Muslim, wherever he might 
nd i! they did, they were to pay the blood fine ten-fold, and 
/alue of the slave ten-fold, and the value of any Muslim 
tributary ten-fold. Muslim merchants and pilgrims were to be 
permitted to pass through the country in safety. Muslim run- 
aways, or fugitives, and strayed cattle were to be given up, and in 
tin- latter case no fees were to be paid. The Beja were to be 
unarmed when travelling in Egypt. Muslims were to be allowed 
to trade in Beja land without molestation, their goods were not 
to be pilfered, and they were to pass through the land at will. 
N<> mosque of the Muslims was to be injured, and officers were 
to be allowed to enter Beja land to collect alms from the true 
believers. The Nubian king Kanun ibn Aziz was to appoint an 
Agent in Upper Egypt to ensure the payment of the tribute as 
well as of fines. No Beja was to enter the Nuba country 
between Al-Kasr, near Philae, and Kubban. This treaty was 
translated by Zakarya ibn Sfdah of Jidda and 'Abd-Allah ibn 
[sma'll, and some of the inhabitants of Aswan were witnesses 

About ,\.n. 833 the Nubians appear to have become somewhat 

lax in the payment of the Bakt. and the Muslims of the frontier 

ped the supply of provisions which they had been 

o send to them Zakarya ibn Bahnas, the king of 

d by his son Frraki, then determined to cease to 

tribute, and if necessary to prepare to fight his overlord, 

the Khalifa Mo'tasim (833-842). Feraki set out for Baghdad in 

to lay his father's case before the Khalifa, and he was 

n his journey by the king of the Beja and his retinue. 

Khalifa received Feraki very kindly, and accepted his 

ing him in return gifts which were double their 

value. He told Feraki to a>k for any favour he wished, and 

Nubian prince at once asked that certain Nubian prisoners 



might be set free ; this the Khalifa at once did. Feraki found 
great favour in his sight, and the Khalifa made him a present 
of the house wherein he had alighted in Mesopotamia, and 
bought two houses for him in Cairo, one at Giza, and one at 
Beni Wayl in Cairo. When Mo'tasim inquired into the question 
of the Bakt, he found that the gifts given by the Muslims to 
the Nubians exceeded in value their tribute ; thereupon he 
refused to send them any more wine, and reduced the quantity of 
corn and of the stuffs which was to be given to them, and he 
decreed that the Bakt was to be paid at intervals of three years. 
The Nubian king next demanded that the fortress of Al-Kasr 
should be removed from his territory to the frontier, and appealed 
for justice in the matter of certain lands which the inhabitants 
of Aswan had purchased from his slaves ; in each case his suit 
was rejected by the Khalifa, and the Bakt was paid according to 
his decree. 1 

In 854 the Beja broke faith with the Muslims and declined to 
pay the tribute, which at that time consisted of four hundred 
slaves, male and female, a number of camels, two elephants, and 
two giraffes. They slew the Egyptian officers and miners who 
were working the emerald mines in the Eastern Desert, and 
then invaded Upper Egypt, and plundered the towns of Esna, or 
Asna, and Edfu, and drove out the inhabitants from these and 
many other cities. 'Ambasa, the Muslim governor of Egypt, 
wrote to his master Al-Mutawakkil at Baghdad, and asked for 
instructions. Notwithstanding the reports which had reached 
him of the savagery of the Beja and their country, Al-Mutawakkil 
determined to punish the rebels. 

The Muslim troops were collected quickly at Kuft (Coptos), 
Esna, Erment, and Aswan on the Nile, and at Kuser on the Red 
Sea, with large stores of weapons, horses, camels, &c. Seven 
ships were manned at Kulzum, and laden with stores, and they 
sailed for Sanga near 'Aydhab, 2 the chief port on the African coast 

1 Ibn Selim Al-Aswani, quoted by Burckhardt, Travels, p. 514. 

2 'Aydhab was seventeen days' journey from Kus on the Nile ; it had no 
walls, and most of its houses were built of mats. It was formerly one of 
the first harbours in the world, because the ships of India and Yemen 
brought their merchandise there ; it maintained its important position until 



of the R The commander, Muhammad of Kumm, 

marched from Ki'is, with 7,000 men, crossed the desert to the 
emerald mines, and even went near Dongola. 'All Baba, king of the 
Sudan, collected a large army, and prepared to meet him, but as 
his men were naked and armed only with short spears, they were 
at a great disadvantage. Their camels were, moreover, ill-trained 
and unmanageable. The Nubians skirmished from place to place, 
and had nearly worn out the Muslims, when the seven ships from 
Kulzum appeared off the coast. The Muslim general hung camel- 
bells round the necks of his horses, and when the Blacks came on 
to attack him, he suddenly charged them with the cry of" Allahu 
Akbar," i.e., " God is the Great One." The clang of the bells on 
the horses' necks and the noise of the drums and the shoutings so 
terrified the camels, that they threw their riders and, turning 
tail, stampeded. 'Ali Baba himself escaped, but his forces were 
ted with great slaughter, and he sued for peace, and agreed 
to pay the arrears of the Bakt, or tribute. Muhammad of Kumm 
received him with honour, made him sit on his own carpet, gave 
him rich presents, and induced him to go to Fustat, and later, in 
855, to see the Khalifa at Baghdad.' 'Ali Bab8 also undertook 
not to obstruct the work of the Muslims at the emerald 

\. i). 1420, when Aden took its place. It lay in a bare desert, and all provisions, 
and even water, were imported. Its inhabitants grew rich by the taxes which 

■ vied on the merchants who thronged the place, and they took toll on 
every camel-load of goods ; and they hired out to the pilgrims to Mekka the 
ships wherein they sailed to Jidda and back, thereby making much profit. 
Close to 'Aydh&b was a pearl fishery, and the divers, when not working, lived 
in the town. The people of 'Aydh&b lived like brutes, and were more like 
animals than men. The ships that carried the pilgrims were made without 
nails. They bound the planks with ropes made of cocoa-tree bark, and drove 
into them pegs made of palm-tree wood, and they pouted over them butter, or 
oil made from a plant or taken from a large fish which devoured those who 
were drowned. The sails were of mats made from the produce of the Mokel 
tree. The men of 'Aydh&b overcrowded their ships, saying, "To us belongs 
the care of the ships, and to the pilgrims that of their own selves." The 
inhabitants of 'Aydhab were Bejas, who were said to have no religion, and to 
be people of no undemanding. Their males and females were constantly 
round their loins, but many of them having no 

tig whatsoever. 
1 This narrative is told by Ibn Miskaweh, and is translated by Burckhardt, 
els, pp. 508-509, and by Poole, Middle Ages, pp. 41-42. 



In 878 Abu 'Abd Ar-Rahman ibn 'Abd-Allah marched to the 
gold mines in the Eastern Desert, with 6,000 camels and a large 
number of men, and for a time he carried on work there, and 
obtained much gold. The local Arabs caused him much trouble, 
and he moved on to Shankir, to the south of Dongola; here he 
attacked the Nubians who were led by their king George, and 
defeated him. 

In 956 the king of the Nubians attacked Aswan, and slew 
many of the Muslims there, and in the following year Muhammad 
ibn 'Abd-Allah marched against him and defeated him. Mu- 
hammad sent many Nubian prisoners tq Cairo, where they were 
beheaded, and he captured Ibrim (Primis), took its inhabitants 
captive, and returned to Cairo with 150 prisoners and many 
heads. A few years later the Nubians again invaded Egypt, and 
took possession of the country so far north as Akhmim. 

In 969 Gawhar, the governor of Egypt, sent a mission to 
George, king of Nubia, to receive the customary tribute and to 
invite him to embrace Islam. George received the envoy Ahmad 
ibn Solaim with great courtesy, and, presumably, paid the tribute, 
but he remained a Christian. 

In 1005 the peace of Nubia was disturbed in a singular 
manner. A member of the royal 'Umayyad family, 1 who adopted 
the name of " Abu. Rakwa," i.e., "father of the leather bottle," 
from the leather water-skin which he carried after the manner of 
the Dervishes, took possession of Barka, defeated the troops of 
Hakim, who had been sent against him, overran Egypt, and 
vanquished the Khalifa's troops again at Giza, where he encamped. 
He found it necessary to retreat to Nubia with his followers, 
where he was joined by the Nubians, but he was subsequently 
overcome, and his head and the heads of 30,000 of his followers 
were sent to Cairo, and thence in procession through all the 
towns of Syria on the backs of 100 camels, and then thrown into 
the Euphrates. Fadl, the general who had brought about his 
defeat, was ill-rewarded for his services. He was unlucky enough 
to enter Hakim's presence as he was cutting up the body of a 
beautiful little child whom he had just murdered. Fadl was 
horrified, and, knowing that he had seen too much, went home, 
1 Abu Salih calls him Al-Walid ibn Hisham al-Khariji. 


made his will, and admitted the Khalifa's headsman an hour 

In 1 173 an expedition into Nubia was undertaken by the elder 
brother of §alah ad-Din (Saladin), who was called Shams ad- 
Dawlah Tur&n Shah, and surnamed Fakhr ad-Din, first with the 
view of compelling the Nubians to pay tribute, and secondly to 
find out if it was a suitable country for the retreat of his brother 
Saladin in the event of his needing to fly from Egypt beyond the 
reach of his overlord Nur ad-Din Turan Shah crossed into 
Nubia from Yemen, and, driving all the natives before him. he 
arrived at Ibrim, or Primis, which was well supplied with 
provisions and arms. The Nubians made a stubborn defence, but 
were defeated, and their city was destroyed, and all its inhabitants, 
about 700,000 men, women, and children, were taken prisoners. 
In the city were found 700 pigs,-' which the Muslims promptly 
killed. The Muslim conqueror ordered the cross on the ehurch 
to be burned, and his followers pillaged the church, and the 
Muslim call t<> prayer was chanted from the top of its dome. 
Tiie bishop of the district, who was in the city, was examined by 
torture, but he had no hidden treasure to reveal, and he was 
there ton' made prisoner and thrown into the fortress on the- hill, 
which was very strong. A large quantity of cotton was found in 
the city, and this Turan Shah sent to Kus in Upper Egypt and 
sold. Having left a company of horsemen in Ibrim, with an 
abundant supply of food, arms, and ammunition, Turan Shah 

Abu Snlih tells us :: that Saladin went with the Patriarch Anba 
Kha'il to beg for assistance from the Nubians when George was 
king of Nubia. George was tilled with wrath when he heard of 
the treatment meted out to the Patriarch, and he collected 

00 men and as man_\- camels, and inarched into Egypt, 

which he everywhere laid waste. At Length In- reached ( airo. 

Mr. Butler has already pointed out, took place 

in the reign of Marwan II.. the last 'Umayyad Khalifa (a.d. 750- 

1 Poole, Midii. Shucair, History of the Suilhu ii.. p. 50. 

Kvetts and But'er. p. 267; Poole, \ftdd . 197; 

. ii., p. 51 . 
3 lid. Evetts and Butlei 



754), and the Emir of Egypt was nor Saladin, but 'Abd al-Malik 
ibn Miisa ibn Nasir. 

In 1174 Saladin's forces defeated the army of Kanz ad-Dawlah, 
the rebel governor of Aswan, who had marched against Cairo with 
an army of Blacks and Arabs. A battle took place near the village 
of Tiid, and the rebel's followers were routed with great slaughter. 
Kanz ad-Dawlah himself escaped, but he was killed soon 

For a period of about twenty years there appears to have been 
peace between the Nubians and Saladin, and at his death on 
March 4th, 119.3, the port of Aswan became deserted, and the town 
fell into a state of decay. 

In 1275 the Muslims annexed the Sudan. This result was 
brought about by Dawud, the king of the Nubians, who refused to 
pay the Bakt which had been fixed by 'Amr ibn al-'Asi soon after 
the capture of Babylon of Egypt, and broke the terms of his 
treaty with the Muslims by seizing numbers of Arabs, and carrying 
them off as prisoners, both at Aswan and at 'Aydhab, the chief 
port of the Bejaon the Red Sea. Moreover, Dawud burned many 
water-wheels on the Nile, whereby much of the land went out of 
cultivation. The Egyptian governor of Kus set out to do battle with 
him, but could not overtake him ; the governor, however, succeeded 
in seizing many Nubians, and the Lord of the Mountain, 1 and 
having taken these to Cairo, the Bahrite Mamluk Khalifa Rukn 
ad-Din Bebars (1260-1277) ordered them all to be hewn in twain. 
Now it happened at this time that Shakanda, the son of the 
sister of Dawud, came to Cairo to ask assistance, and to plead 
against the injustice which he had suffered at his uncle's hands. 
Bebars espoused the nephew's cause, and sent him, together with 
a large army under the command of two Amirs, into Nubia to 
overthrow his uncle. The army consisted of horsemen, spear- 
men, bowmen, and men who were skilled in burning down the 
buildings of an enemy. 

When the Muslim force arrived in Nubia it was met by Dlwud's 

army, the spearmen of which were mounted on camels ; both 

sides fought bravely, but the Nubians were defeated, and fled. 

The Muslims advanced into Nubia by desert and by river, and 

1 I.e., the governor of the islands of Mika'il and of the province of Daw. 

VOL. II. 193 O 


- after fortress, and slew many men, and took many 
prisoners. At length they reached the Island of Mik;Vil (Michael), 1 
at the •' head of the Cataracts," and drove back the Nubian boats, 
whereupon the Nubians fled to the islands in the Nile. Large 
numbers of cattle fell into the hands of the Muslims. Thereupon 
Kamr ad- Da wl ah, the general of Dawud. swore allegiance to 
Shakanda, and, as the Amir Farkani gave him a safe-conduct, he 
went and brought back the people of Meris to their towns, and all 
the fugitives. The other Amir, Al-Afram, then besieged a tower 
on a small island in the river and took it. Here Dawud and his 
brother had taken refuge. Two hundred men were slain. Dawud's 
brother was taken prisoner, but Dawud himself escaped: he was 
pursued by the Muslim soldiers for three days, but they could not 
overtake him. His mother and sister, however, fell into the hands 
of the enemy. The Amirs now established Shakanda as king of 
Nubia, and 1, I to pay annually three elephants, three 

giraffes, five panthers, one hundred camels of good stock, and four 
bund' . He promised to divide the revenue of his country 

into two parts, one of which was to be given to I or his 

successor, and the other to be devoted to the upkeep and guarding 
of the country. 

The territory of the Cataracts, since it was near Aswan, was to 
belong to Bebars; this territory was equal to one quart 
Nubia, and at that time produced cotton and dates. Besides all 
this, so Ion- as the Nubians remained Christians, Shakanda under- 
took t<> pay annually one gold dinar as poll tax, for every adult 
male of the population. He also swore a solemn oath to observe 
dit ions on behalf of himself, and his subjects also 
inn oaths on behalf of themselves. The Amirs then 
►yed the churches of Nubia, and carried off everything of 
value which they found in them. They seized the p 
about twenty Nubian chiefs, and set free the Muslim prisoners 
from Aswan and 'Aydhab. When Shakanda had taken the oath, 
is set upon the throne and crowned king. He was compelled 
ve Up to I'.ebars all the property of Dawud, as well as all that 
of those who had been killed or taken captive, in addition to the 
V'hich then consisted of four hundred head of 
: Perhaps the Island of S.'u. 


slaves and one giraffe ; in return he was to receive one thousand 
ardebs of wheat, and his delegates three hundred. 1 

In 1287 Al-Mansur Kala'un sent an expedition into Nubia, which 
raided the country for a distance of fifteen days' journey south of 
Dongola. Before his generals returned to Cairo they established 
a garrison in that city, but so soon as they had retired the 
Nubians rose and drove out the garrison, and Kala'un was obliged 
to send a second army to Nubia to put down the revolt and to 
punish the rebels. The first expedition was undertaken as the 
result of a request made by Adiir, king of the Gates, who made 
complaints against Shemamun, king of Nubia, and sent a gift of 
elephants and a giraffe to Kala'un. The king of Dongola then 
sent four hundred and twenty-six head of slaves, and two hundred 
cattle, which he caused to be taken to Kus. When Shemamun 
saw the Muslims approaching he fled, and a great number of his 
soldiers were slain. Jures, " the Lord of the Mountain," and one of 
the king's cousins were taken prisoners, and Shemamun's nephew 
was appointed king ; and the Muslims carried off large numbers 
of slaves, horses, camels, cattle, and stuffs. Shemamun then 
appeared and drove out the Egyptian garrison, and his nephew went 
to Kala'un and told him what had happened. When the second 
expedition reached Aswan, the king of Nubia, i.e., Shemamun's 
nephew, died, and a nephew of king Dawud was appointed in his 
stead. When the Muslim army entered Nubia, the soldiers 
massacred every one they found there, burned the water-wheels, 
and fed their horses on the crops. 

When they reached Dongola they only found there one old man 
and one old woman, for Shemamun and his followers had fled, and 
had taken refuge on an island which was fifteen days' journey 
from Dongola. When the Muslims arrived there, Shemamun 
retired to "the Gates," a further distance of three days' journey. 
Here he was abandoned by his officers and by the bishop and the 
priests, who took away from him his crown and the silver cross 
which he wore. They returned to Dongola, and, having partaken 
of a meal in the Church of Jesus, they crowned as king the nephew 
of Dawud, who took the oath of allegiance, and undertook to 

See Burckhardt, Travels, pp. 514-5 16 ; Poole, Middle Ages, p. 271; and 
Shucair, History of the 6uddn, ii., p. 52. 



pay the tribute. As soon as the Muslims returned to Egypt, 
Shemamun reappeared, and all his soldiers flocked to his standard. 

Marching at their head, he attacked the palace at Dongola, made 
prisoner the new kin^, and so found himself master of the country 
more. He then cut the throat of a bull, and having cut the 
hide into strips, he bound the body of his prisoner with them, 
tying him to a post. As the strips of hide dried, they shrank and 
cut into the ex-king's body, and caused his death. Shemamun 
then slew Jures, " the Lord of the Mountain," and wrote and told 
Kala'un what he had done, and asked for his friendship, and 
promised to pay an increased tribute. His envoys took with them 
rich presents and many slaves, and as Kala'un took no steps 
to chastise Shemamun we may assume that lie condoned his 

In i J04 An-Nasir sent an expedition into Nubia to replace on 
the throne Amai, who had come to Cairo to implore his help : the 
leader of the Muslim troops was Sef ad-Din Taktuba, governor ^i 
K u s. 

In 1 31 1 Kerenbes, king of Nubia, went to Egypt after his 
brother's death, and took the appointed tribute with him. The 
following year Muhammad ibn Kala'un sent 'Abd -Allah, the son of 
Sanbu, to Nubia, with an army under the command of 
ad-Din Ibek, who was ordered to crown Sanbu king. Kerenbes 
and his brother Ibrahim fled from Dongola, but they soon fell into 
the hands of the Muslims, and were sent to Cairo and cast into 
prison. Sanbu was crowned kin^, and the Amir and his army 
returned to Cairo. Thereupon Kanz ad-Dawlah went to Dongola, 
slew the new king, and ascended the throne of Nubia. On this 
the Sultan took Ibrahim out of prison and sent him to Nubia. 
promising him to set at liberty his brother Kerenbes so soon as he 
delivered Kanz ad-Dawlah bound into his hands. When Ibrahim 
came to Dongola, Kanz ad-Dawlah submitted, and Ibrahim arrested 
him, and would have sent him to Cairo only he (Ibrahim) died 
three days later; the Nubians then unanimously elected Kanz ad- 
Dawlah to be their king. 

In [324 Kerenbes returned to Dongola with two Amirs and a 

of soldiers, and Kanz ad-Dawlah lied on their approach. 

Kerenbes was crowned king, but when the Muslims had departed, 



Kanz ad-Dawlah attacked him, and once more defeated him, and 
once more ascended the throne of Nubia. 

In 1365 the tribe of Kanz gained possession of Aswan and the 
desert of 'Aydhab, and they robbed the caravans, and plundered 
travellers, until at length no merchant dared to travel in that 
region. A nephew of the king of Nubia revolted, and attacked 
Dongola at the head of an army of Arabs, and in the fierce battle 
which took place the king was slain and his followers were 
scattered. The loyal Nubians placed their late king's brother on 
the throne, and entrenched themselves in Daw. The rebel 
nephew, having made himself king, invited all the chiefs of the 
Arabs who had assisted him to a great feast, and on the appointed 
day they came to the rendez-vous. Whilst they were feasting all 
the houses round about were filled with wood and set on fire, and, 
as the guests rushed out in alarm from the building in which they 
were, they were cut down by the soldiers of the new king who 
were stationed at the door. In this way nineteen Amirs and a 
large number of chiefs were slain. Not content with this, he fell 
upon the camp of the Arabs and massacred the greater part of 
them, and, having driven away the remainder, seized all their 
possessions. He then went to Daw, and, making peace with the 
last king's brother, joined with him in a petition to the Sultan 
that he would send them help to drive away the Arabs, and to 
regain possession of their kingdom. Their petition was granted, 
and a Muslim force was sent into Nubia. When its commander 
arrived there he learned that the king in the fortress of Daw was 
besieged by the Arabs. He passed on to Ibrim, and soon after 
joined forces with the king of Nubia. Without waiting for the 
remainder of his army, he seized the Awlad Kenz, and the Amirs 
of the Akremi Arabs, and then marched on the west bank of the 
river to the Island of Mika'il, whilst the king of Nubia and his 
forces marched along the right bank. They attacked the island 
on both sides, and nearly all the Akremi were killed by arrows or 
by Greek fire. The Amir Khalil ibn Kusun returned to the Amir 
Aktamiir with much spoil and many slaves. 

With the consent of Aktamur the king of Nubia took up his 
residence at Daw, for the town of Dongola was in ruins, and the 
nephew of the king was in Ibrim ; the former sent presents of 



3, horses, and dromedaries to the Sultan in Cairo, which 
arrived in due course and were accepted. On their way back the 
Muslim generals took with them the chiefs of the Awlad Kenz 
and of the Akremi Arabs loaded with fetters. At Aswan they 
tarried seven days, and executed summary justice upon the slaves 
of the Awlad Kenz against whom complaints were n; 

In the same year the Sultan appointed Hosam, surnamed 
;> Black blood," to be governor of Aswan, and sent to him the 
prisoners of the Awlad Ken/ who were in Cairo. When they 
reached Kus, Hosam had them nailed to pieces of wood, and, 
having marched them in this state t<> Aswan, he-wed them asunder 
there. Here he was compelled to fight the Awlad Ken/, but was 
ted, and Q&OSl of his soldiers were wounded. The con- 
rs wreaked their vengeance on the people of Aswan, 
ravaged the country round about, burned and destroyed the 
houses, slew the men, and carried off the women. 

In 1378 Kart, the governor of Aswan, sentto Cairo the heads of 
eleven chiefs, and two hundred men of the Awlad Ken/ in fetters : 
the heads were exhibited on the Bab Zuwela. In the same year 

the governor arrested an official called Golam Allah, and seized a 
number ofswords which it was believed he intended to hand 
over to the Awlad Kenz. At this time two members of that 
tribe, were nailed to wood, and, having been led through the 
Streets of Cairo and Kustat in this state, were hewn asunder. In 
[385 the Awlad Ken/ seized Aswan, and slew ti r number 

of its inhabitants. Husen, the son of Kart, was appointed 
rnor. About thn later the Awlad Ken/ committed 

further outrages in Aswan and the neighbourhood. In 1 

marched against Aswan ami pillaged the town 
and plundered the house of HusSn, who had fled; the Muslims 
marched against them, but returned without having reduced the 
rebels. In 1 ;<»; Nasr ad-Dm. kin- of Nubia, lied to Cairo to beg 
iinst his cousin. In 1403 I ;vpt was in a state 

o{ desolation, and Aswan ceased to belong to the Sultan of Egypt. 

In 14 1 J the l.lawara tribe attacked and defeated the Awlad Ken/, 
killed many men, carried off the women, and destroyed the walls 
of Aswan, leaving the town a mass of ruins. From this time 
until 1517, when Seliin reconquered Egypt, the Awlad Ken/ were 



masters of the Northern Sudan, and the Khalifa lost all authority 
over them. 

From the facts derived from the works of Muhammadan 
historians given above, we see that the raids and expeditions of 
the Muslims into Nubia, which took place between 640 and 
1400, with one or two exceptions, were confined to that portion 
of the country which lies between Aswan and Gebel Barkal, and 
that, speaking generally, no serious attempt was made by the 
Khalifas to rule or occupy the Sudan from Gebel Barkal to 
Khartum. When we remember the conquests of the Arabs 
in Western Asia, Egypt, and other countries, it seems certain 
that the Khalifas of Baghdad and their viceroys in Egypt 
would have liked to obtain possession of the Nile Valley, and 
the adjoining countries, and we may be sure that they would 
have taken possession of the lands which produced slaves, and 
gold, and ivory if it had been at all practicable. The chief 
obstacle which stood in the way of their ambition was the 
Christian kingdom of Nubia, with its capital at Dongola, and 
there appears to be no doubt that the tide of the Muslim conquest 
from Egypt southwards was stayed by it for about seven hundred 
years. Christianity became the official religion of Nubia in the 
first half of the sixth century, and in spite of raids, persecutions, 
and the payment of heavy tribute, the dwellers on the Nile clung 
both to their own language and to the Christian religion, as they 
understood it, until the fourteenth century, when the Christian 
kingdom of 'Aiwa on the Island of Meroe fell to pieces. The 
extraordinary people who occupied the banks of the Nile from 
Aswan to Dongola preserved also all the fundamental customs which 
had descended to them from Pagan times, and though they learned 
Arabic and talked it, their own language never fell into disuse. 

The Christian Nubian kingdom, which extended from Aswan 
to the Blue Nile, came to an end through internal dissensions, 
and through the attacks made upon it by the peoples who lived 
on its eastern, western, and southern frontiers. Its fall was 
hastened by the rise to power of a number of Arab tribes, and of 
a powerful negro triba called " Fung." There is no doubt that 
Arabs in limited numbers had been crossing the Red Sea from 
the various provinces of Arabia and settling in the rich countries 



on the Blue Nile for centuries, even before the rise of Islam. 
After the establishment of the Muhammadan power it is quite 
certain that the immigration of the Arabs increased, and that 
their caravans travelled in all parts of the Sudan where profitable 
business could be done. The progress of such immigrants, and 
also of the negro tribes to the south and east of Khartum, was 
blocked by the Christian Nubian kingdom, and it was greatly 
to their interest to bring about its abolition. 

During the fourteenth century the negro tribes between the 
Blue and White Niles began to obtain pre-eminence, and the 
descendants of the Muhammadan settlers from Arabia to lose 
power, and a century later, on the downfall of the cities of 
Dongola and Soba, the capitals of the Christian Nubian kingdom 
in the north and south respectively, the negro tribes found 
themselves to be the greatest power in the country. Chief 
among these was the tribe of the Fungs, 1 whose original home, 
according to some, was in the Shilluk country, and, according 
to others, in Dar Fur. Many origins have been suggested for 
them, but in the absence of definite knowledge probability is all 
that can be claimed for the most reasonable of them. But what- 
ever their origin may have been, they fixed their capital at 
Sennaar. and their kingdom at the most flourishing period of its 
existence extended from the Third Cataract in the north to 
Fazd'gli in the south, and from Sawakin on the Red Sea on the east 
to the White Nile on the west. In 1493 the Fungs were the 
dominant power in the Northern Sudan, and in 1515 they 
founded their capital at Sennaar, with ' Amaka DUNKAS as their 
king. Little is known of this king's personal exploits, but he 
must have been an astute ruler, for, observing how the power of 
the Turks was increasing, he strengthened his kingdom by making 
an alliance with 'Abd-Allah (iema'a, a tribal chief, and conquered 
the tribes on tin- Blue Nile between Fazo'gli and Khartum. 

The founding of his kingdom at Sennaar followed as a matter 

of course. Twelve years after 'Amara Dunkas became king Selim 

the Sultan of Turkey, defeated the Egyptian army outside 

(early in 1517), and four days later he entered Cairo in 

1 The Arabic opinions as to their origin are collected by Shucair in his 
•> y of t lie Siu/'hi, ii., pp. 7 1 -73. 



state as the lord of Egypt. He promptly sent a force to 
Sawakin and Masaw'a, and entered Abyssinia, and 'Amara 
Dunkas feared that he would attack him. Thereupon he wrote 
and told Selim that he could not comprehend why he had invaded 
his country, and that if he had done so for the sake of the religion 
of Islam he must know that both he and his people were Arabs 
who had embraced Islam, and who followed the religion of the 
Prophet of God, and that the greater number of his people were 
[descended from] Arabs of the desert. 1 With his letter he sent 
a series of genealogical tables which had been drawn up by an 
Imam of Sennaar called As-Samarkandi, wherein it was shown 
that the Fungs were descended from Arab tribes. When Selim 
saw these tables he was struck with wonder at their contents and 
admitted the nobility of the Arabs of Sennaar. From this state- 
ment it is clear that the Fungs embraced Islam as a political 
measure ; such tribes among them as were contented to lose their 
language, religion, and nationality became Muslims, and the rest 
left the country. The practical result of the diplomacy of 'Amara 
Dunkas was that Selim took possession of Northern Nubia so far 
as the Third Cataract, and ruled it by means of kashafa? or 
governors, whom he appointed over the larger towns, and the 
Fung king ruled from the Third Cataract to Sennaar, presumably 
in peace. 'Amara Dunkas reigned from 1505 to 1534. He was 
succeeded by : — 

1. 'Abd Al-Kader, -5 his son, who reigned from 1534 to 1544. 

2. Na'il, his brother, who reigned from 1544 to 1555. 

3. 'Amara ibn Sakakin, his brother, who reigned from 1555 

to 1563. During his reign 'Abd-Allah Gema'a, shekh of 
Kerri, died, and left his district to his son 'Agib Kafut. 

4. Darin ibn Na'il, surnamed Al-'Adel, who reigned from 

1563 to 1578. 

5. Tabal, who reigned from 1578 to 1589. 

6. Unsa I., who reigned from 1589 to 1599. 

7. 'Abd Al-Kader II., who reigned from 1599 to 1605. 

8. 'Adlan ibn Aba, who reigned from 1605 to 1612. 

1 See Shucair, op. dt, ii., p. 73- 

2 I.e., " governors," kashafa is the plural of kashif. 

3 See Cailliaud, Voyage, torn, ii., p. 255. 



Daring his reign 'Agtb, shekh of Kerri, rebelled, and 'Adlan sent 
an army against him. A battle was fought at Kalmaku), between 
'filful and Khartum, and 'Agib was slain and his followers fled 
to Dongola. 'Adlan sent a free pardon to them by Idris ibn 
Muhammad, and they returned with him to Sennaar, where 
'Adlan treated them honourably, and made one of them, 'Agil, 
governor of Kerri. Shekh Idris was born in 1507, and he died in 
1650, aged 143 years. 1 An authority quoted by Xa'um Shucair 
that Islam hrst entered Sennaar when Harun Ar-Rashid was 
Khalifa (a.D. 786-809). 

0. BIdi, or Sayyid Al-Kum, who reigned from 1612 to 1615. 

10. Rabat, his son, who reigned from 1615 to 1643. 

11. Bad! ABU Dhikn, who reigned from 1643 to 1678. 

I5\pi made war on the Shilluks and captured many slaves. He 

then went further south to Gebel Takali. and destroyed many 

villages on both banks of the White Nile, and carried Large 

numbers of slaves back to Sennaar. Then he built villages 

win rein the members of each tribe could live by themselves, and 

t<> these he gave the names of the villages wherein they had lived 

in their own country, e.g., Takali, Kadro. Kank, Karko, &c. He 

1 patron of learning, and fond of learned men. and he built a 

mosque in Sennaar with brass-framed windows? he also built a 

palace 1 which was surrounded by a wall, and which had nine 

The Blacks whom he had captured on the White Nile 

iic soldiers in his army. 

E2. Ansa II.. his nephew, who reigned from 1678 to 16 
In [683 a severe famine broke out, and men were reduced to 
eating dogs ; the country was swept by an epidemic of small-pox, 
and very many people died. 

Ham Al-Ahmar, i.e., Badi the Red, who reigned from 

i68g to 1715. 

In his reign some of the Fung tribes rebelled, led by Shekh 

Ardab; l>adi attacked them, and slew their leader and many of 

his men. and the rest tied to 'Atshan. In his reign lived Shekh 

l.Iamed ibn At-Tarabi, an Arab, whose tomb is at Sennaar." 

1 Interesting accounts of his life are ;^i\en by Shucair, op. cit., ii., pp. 74-76. 
. ,'/>. </'/., ii., pp. 78, 79. 
the visit of Dr. I'oncct to Sennaar, see Vol. I., pp. I-17. 


14. Ansa III., who reigned from 171 5 to 17 18. 

He was the last descendant of 'Amara Dunkas to reign, and 
was deposed after a rebellion among the Fung tribes in 1718. 

15. Nul, who reigned from 1718 to 1724. 

16. Badi abu Shallukh, who reigned from 1724 to 1762. 
In his reign 'lyasu I., 'Adyam Sagad I., king of Abyssinia, invaded 

Sennaar because Badi had stopped certain presents which 
'lytisu had sent to the king of France. A battle was fought on the 
Dinder river, and the Abyssinian army was defeated with great 
slaughter, 'lyasii I. was crowned 3rd Hamle, 1682, and deposed 
20th Magabit, 1706 ; he was murdered in Tekemt (October) of 
the same year. In the reign of Badi M. le Noir du Roule was 
murdered at Sennaar (see Vol. I., pp. II, 12). ' 

17. Naser, who reigned from 1762 to 1769. 

He was slain by Shekh Muhammad in the place to which 
he had been driven near Sennaar, and his brother was made 

18. Isma'il, who reigned from 1769 to 1778. 

In the first year of his reign a severe famine broke out in the 
country, and in 177 1 an extraordinary rise of the Nile took 

19. 'Adlan II., who reigned from 1778 to 1789. 2 

He was the last of the Fung dynasty of kings, and the powerful 
Hameg tribe usurped the throne. After his deposition anarchy 
prevailed throughout the country, and every man did what was 
right in his own eyes. 

20. Awkal, who began to reign in 1789 ; he only reigned a 
few months, and having fled was succeeded by 

21. Tabal II., who began to reign in 1789 ; he was killed by 

Naser in Sennaar. 

22. Badi V., who began to reign in 1789 ; he was killed by 
Naser at Ad-Damer. 

23. Hasab-raba, who began to reign in 1790 ; he died soon 
after his accession. 

24. Nawwar, who began to reign in 1790. 

25. Badi ibn Tabal, who reigned from 1791 to 1821. 

1 See Shucair, op. a'/., ii., p. 80. 

- For an account of his wars in Kordofan see Shucair, op. tit., ii., pp. 83-86. 



26. Ranfi. 

27. Badi 1 i.n Tabal. 

The most flourishing period in the history of the Fiing king- 
dom of Sennaar was in the reign of Bi'idi Abu Shallukh (1724- 
1762), when its fame reached Constantinople, and learned men from 
Egypt and Arabia flocked there and settled in and about the city 
of Sennaar. 

During the rule of the Fiing kings there flourished in other 
parts of the Sudan several dynasties of Shekhs and semi- 
independent rulers, and among these may be mentioned : — 

1. The 'Abdallat Shekhs, who were descended from 'Abd- 
Allah Gama'a, whose seat was at Kerri, and whose territory 
extended from I.I agar Al-'Asal. i.e., the " Honey Rock," to 
Sawba, or Soba. They had authority over all the countries 
between Arbagi and the Third Cataract. In his History of the 
Sudan Na'um Beg Shucair gives (ii., p. 99 ff.) the following list of 
them : — 

1. 'Abd-Allah Gam a 'a, who was a contemporary of 
'Amara Abu Sakakin, the fourth king of the Fung 
1. 'Ag!b, who was surnamed " Al-Mangaluk." 

4. Hamld Ash-Shemik. 

5. Tthm.'w, his son. 

6. 'Abd-Allah II., 11.N 'AgJl. 

7. MisMak 1 1 ; N 'AbD-AlLAH. 

8. Divab, or Aradab wad 'Agib. 
\i -Amjn wad Mismar. 

10. ( Agib ii'.x 'Abd-Ai i. ah. 

11. 'ABD Allah III. wad 'Ag!b. 

12. 'Amu. brother of 'Agib. 
Muhammad Al-AmIn ibn Mismar. 

14. BadI ibn Mismar. 

15. 'ABD-ALLAH [V. WAD "Ar.ii:. 

16. Naser wad Al-AmIn. 

17. Amjn Ii. IBN NASER. 

t8. Naser wad 'AgIb, who was a contemporary of Isma'il 


2. The seventeen kings of Fftzo'gli, 1 who reigned two hundred 
and fifteen years. 

I. Kallah 


reigned 50 years. 

2. Yamni 

1 > 



3 Idris, his son 

» j 

,, 30 


4. Gabar I. 

> > 

„ 15 

5 5 

5. Gabar II., his son 


,, 2 


6. Zankar (?) 

1 1 



7. Rawya 


,, 2 

J J 

8. Ambadi, his son 

> J 



9. Atwar6 



> > 

10. Adarla 


- 15 


11. Matar, his son 

J J 

„ 16 

) 5 

12. Fankaro, his son 


,, 16 


13. Kalbas, 2 his son 




14. Kambo, his brother 


,, 2 

> 5 

15. Kambar 



) 5 

16. Am6shat, :! his brother 

> 5 

,, 1 

) ' 

17. Hasan ibn Tabal 



J > 

215 ye 

ars. 4 

3. The sixteen kings of Shendi, who reigned two hundred and 
thirty-six years. Shendi was the capital of a district which was 
ruled by the Ga'alin Arabs, and which practically represented the 
territory of the ancient Meroitic kingdom. At an early period in 
the history of the Shendi kings their kingdom was divided into 
two parts, the part on the east bank of the Nile having as its chief 
town Shendi, and that on the west bank having as its chief town 
Matamma. The names of the kings of Shendi are : — 

1. Sa'adab Dabus He reigned 20 years 

2. SULEMAN AL-'ADAD ,, ,, J ,, 

3. Idris I. ibn Suleman ,, ,, 35 ,, 

4. 'Abd As-Salam ,, ,, 1 ,, 

5. Fahal ibn 'Abd As-Salam,, ,, 15 ,, 

1 Given by Shucair (op. cit., pi. ii., p. 102), on the authority of the last king. 
- Slain by his brother. 3 Slain by 'Adlan. 

4 See also Cailliaud, Voyage, lorn, ii., p. 396. 



6. 1 1 > k i s II.. his brother 

He reigned 

6 years. 

>iY\r., his brother 




i tlSHARA 


10. Sn.l-M.AN IP.N S.\I AM 

15 •• 

1 1. Sa'ad I., his brother 


12 Inuis III. 



Sa'ad II.. his son 


40 , 

14. Masa'd, his son 

1 ; 

15. Muhammad Al-Mak 



. N imk. his son 

Dar Fur, \ 

17 .. 

J 15 years. 1 

4. Tin- twenty-six Sultans of 

vho reigned f< 

hundred and tbirt) is : — 

1. SULEMAN I. who 

reigned fron 

1445 to 1476 

Amk I. 

• • 

I47(> to I_|()J 

\r.i> Aw-Kahman I. 

E492 to 15H 

4. Mahmud 

15 1 1 to 1526 

5. Mr ham ma i) !* 

1526 to 1551 


1551 to [561 


[56] to I5S4 


r584 to I593 

0. [DRJS 

i5').; to E615 

to. Salih 

I OI 5 to l622 

11. Man 

[622 to 1639 


i(> ;<i to [658 


1658 to E67O 


[67O t<> [683 

15. Ki 

[683 t.. il)()5 


L695 to r.715 

17. Mi sa, his son 

r.715 to 1726 

\u\i\n BAKR 

I~J() t<> I 740 

. Muhammad Dawra 

[746 to 1757 

•Amk II.. his son 

1757 to [764 

21. ABU'L Kasim 

[764 to 1768 

i<i. r,> 


22. Terab, his brother, who reigned from 1768 to 1787 

23. 'Abd Ar-Rahman II. ,, ,, 1787 to 1801 

24. Muhammad Al-Fadl ,, „ 1801 to 1839 

25. "Muhammad Hasin ,, ,, 1839 to 1874 

26. Ibrahim ,, „ 1874 to 1875 ' 

Of the history of Nubia from the First to the Third Cataract 
between the period of the downfall of the Arab power in Egypt and 
1820 very little is known. It is said that about 1318 a number of 
the Jawabir Arabs occupied the Nile Valley between the First 
and Second Cataracts ; they seem to have been kinsmen of the 
Arabs of Nejd and 'Irak (Mesopotamia). The district between 
the First Cataract and Sabu'a was, and is still, called the 
" country of the Kenuz." Between the Second Cataract and 
Gebel Diisha, i.e., in Sukkot, lived some of the Arabs who belonged 
to famous tribes, and in Mahass, i.e., between Gebel Dusha and 
the Third Cataract, lived Arabs who declared they were descended 
from the tribe of Kuresh. The latter founded a kingdom at Gebel 
Sasi, near Dulgo, or Deligo. In 1520 the Arabs sent to Selim 
and asked for help against the Jawabir Arabs, and he despatched 
with the envoys a number of Bosnian troops, under the command 
of Hasan Kiishi, who drove the Jawabir Arabs to Dongola, and 
only a few of them remained in Haifa. The Bosnian soldiers 
built fortresses in Aswan, Ibrim, and Sai, and established them- 
selves therein, and they drew a certain annual allowance from the 
treasury in Cairo. 

After the death of Hasan the country was governed by 
11 Kashafa " who were known by the name of " Al-Ghuzz." Soon 
after the Fung kings became lords of Sennaar they wished to 
seize Northern Nubia, and sent an army to occupy the country. 
Ibn Janbalan, the chief of the Ghuzz, collected an army, and set 
out to fight the invaders. The two armies met near Hannek, 
and the Fungs were defeated with great slaughter, and retreated, 
leaving their path strewn with their dead. It is said that their 
blood was collected in a pool by the victors, who built a " Kubba " 
- l For the details of their reigns seeShucair, op. at., ii., p. 113 ff. ; for accounts 
of the kingdom of Fur see the following chapter in the same work, p. 132 ff. 
The condition of the kingdom at the end of the XVIIIth century is fully 
described in Mr. Browne's Travels, of which mention has already been made 
(Vol. I., p. 23). 



(Gubba) over it, and that this became the boundary mark be- 
i the territories of the Fungs and the Bosnians. From this 
time until [sma'f] went to Sennaar in 1820 the Bosnians and their 
ippear to have been left severely alone by the Fungs. 
Remains of many of their castles are still to be seen in Sukkot 
and Mahass, both on the islands in the Nile, and on the river 
banks. They consist of a central fort surrounded by walls about 
fifteen cubits high and three cubits wide. Each wall had one tower 
on it about fifty cubits high, and was ascended by steps, or a 
ladder. Every tribe or clan had its castle, and in times of trouble 
the men made all their women and Hocks go into the fortified pail 
of it, and if attacked, they either went up on the towers and hurled 
stones at their enemies, or went out boldly and fought them with 

, and swords, and knives, and their women went out and took 
food to them, and encouraged them to do deeds of valour. 

When Ism.'i'il passed through Nubia in 1N20, the KAshif Hasin 
Ibn Suleman wished to prevent his advance, but was prevented 
from making the attempt by his brother Hasan. He then fled to 
Kordofan with three hundred slaves, and slew Makdum Musallim, 
and took his harnn and his treasury to the Sultan of Dar Fur, 
whose daughter he married. Meanwhile Isma'il made Hasan 
chief of the country from Aswan to Haifa, and gave him 293 

of land and six purses of money, and the new k.'ishif married 
many Nubian women as he liked. 




After the capture of Cairo by Sultan Selim in 1517 the military 
affairs of Egypt and of Nubia as far as the Third Cataract were 
managed by twenty-four Mamluk Beys, whose actions were 
supposed to be controlled by a Pasha and a council of seven high 
officers of state. The principal military appointment was that of 
Governor of Cairo, or " Shekh al-Balad," which at first was given 
to the ablest man among the twenty-four Beys. The country 
remained in a comparatively peaceful state until about 1700, when 
it was found that Bey after Bey throughout the land intrigued to 
obtain the governorship of Cairo, and that many murders took 
place as the result of their endeavours. By this time, too, the 
power of the Pasha of Egypt had become purely nominal, and the 
Beys, headed by the Shekh al-Balad, were to all intents and 
purposes masters of the Turkish province of Egypt and Northern 
Nubia. In 1763 the famous 'All Bey became Shekh al-Balad. 
In 1768 he rebelled against the Sultan of Turkey, and succeeded 
in persuading the Council of Seven to drive out the Pasha and to 
declare Egypt independent. In 1772 Muhammad Abu Dhahab, 
one of 'Ali Bey's generals, rebelled against him, and was declared 
Shekh al-Balad ; he was subsequently made Pasha of Egypt by the 
Sultan. After his death the supreme power was eventually shared 
by Isma'il Bey and Murad. Bey, but in 1785 the Sultan despatched 
Hasan, his Lord High Admiral, to crush their authority and to 
make them pay the annual tribute. After a successful battle 
Hasan took Cairo, and chased Isma'il and Murad into Upper 
Egypt, where a fierce fight between the two forces took place. 
Hasan was, however, obliged to withdraw on account of the war 
which broke out between Turkey and Russia, and Isma'il returned 
vol. 11. 209 p 


ypt and I'-kh al-Balad. He died in the year of 

the terrible plague, 1790. 

In May, 1798, the French Expedition under General Bonaparte 

arrived in Egypt, and on July 5th Alexandria fell. Two years 

Murad B a was m idr governor ol a portion of Upper Egypt 

by Kle"ber, and in ber of that year the French evacuated 

; t. Among those who had been sent by the Sultan to fight 

against the French was an Albanian called Muhammad 'All, 

ivas born at Cavalla in i;(>s. lie married a daughter of the 

rnor of his native town, and by her had three sons. Ibrahim, 

Tiisiiu. and I s : 1 1 ; V 1 1 . At the age of thirty-three he was sent with 

T-in-laW 'Ah AghS and three hundred men to attack the 

French, and after their departure from Egypt he was promoted to 

ommand of one thousand men. Soon after the evacuation 

*ypt by the French the country was filled with anarchy, 

I by the struggle between the Mamluks, who were known as 

Al-Ghuzz, the name of their chief tribe, and the Albanians, or 

'• Arnauts,'* for the supreme power. Muhammad Khusruf. who had 

made Pashfi of Egypt after the departure of the French, 

ked tin/ Mamluks with a force of [4,000 men, but he was 

:ed. and his jjums and ammunition fell into the hands of the 


aim and the Delta were scenes of strife and 

turmoil, and this period was only brought to an end in May. 1805, 

by the people ol Cairo electing Muhammad 'AH to be the Pasha 

:. A month or so later a furmdn arrived from 

tantinople appointing him governor <>f Egypt, but all the 

Mamluk I well as the friends of Khurshid Pasha, now 

<)n August iNth the P>eys with their followers 

I their way into Cairo, and proceeded along the streets until 

they came b> the main road (.died " B6n Al-Kasrdn." Here they 

suddenly tired upon, and when they turned to flee, they 

found all the side stn I against them. Several cut their 

through their foes, and .scaped over the city walls, and many 

in the Mosque of Sultan Parkuk. The latter 

j fifty of them were slain on the spot: the 

inder were taken to the house of Muhammad 'All, who 

ttered and kept in the courtyard until the 


next day. The following morning the heads of those who had 
been killed the day before were skinned, and the skins stuffed 
with straw before their eyes. The same night all but three of 
the remainder were tortured and put to death, and shortly after 
eighty-three heads were sent to the Sultan by Muhammad 'Ali, 
with the boast that he had destroyed the Mamluks. 

On March 17th, 1807, about 5,000 British troops landed in 
Egypt with the view of bringing Muhammad 'Ali to his senses, 
and proceeded to take Rosetta. They advanced into the town 
without opposition, but once inside a heavy fire was opened on 
them, and they only retreated with difficulty, having lost 185 men 
killed and 262 wounded. The heads of the slain were sent to 
Cairo, and stuck upon stakes on each side of the road which 
crossed the part of the city now covered by the Ezbekiya 
Gardens. A second attempt to take Rosetta was made, but it 
was followed by disaster, and the British lost in killed, wounded, 
and missing 900 men. The British prisoners were sent to Cairo, 
and were marched between the stakes whereon were displayed by 
hundreds the heads of their fellow-countrymen. In the September 
following, the British, finding that it was impossible to help the 
Mamliik Beys, left Egypt. In 181 1 Muhammad 'Ali enticed 470 
of the Mamluks into the Citadel, and when they were inside, and 
ascending the sloping road which leads to the great gate, with 
the outer gate shut behind them, a murderous fire was opened 
upon them by the troops from the walls and the surrounding 
houses, and very few *of them escaped. This was a signal for a 
general massacre of the Mamluks throughout Egypt, and for two 
days the houses of the Beys were pillaged and destroyed, their 
women violated, and their friends and servants murdered. 

The Mamluks who managed to escape the general massacre 
fled first to Upper Egypt, and subsequently to Nubia. In 1819 
Muhammad 'Ali determined to conquer the Sudan, first with the 
object of finding occupation for his troops, and secondly in order 
to get the gold which he was told existed there in fabulous 
quantities, and to collect a large number of slaves, of whom he 
intended to form a strong army. In 1820 he collected a force of 
about 5,000 Arabs and Turks, and in the summer of that year 
despatched them to Nubia under the command of his youngest 



son, Isma'il. At Esna the Mamluks offered some resistance, but 
this was speedily overcome, and Isma'il advanced without much 
difficulty to Dongola, where, in a tierce fight, he utterly destroyed 
the power of the Mamluks who had settled there, and were 

t rating terrible atrocities on the wretched Nubians. The 
Shaikiya tribe in the neighbourhood of the Island of Arko were 
foolish enough to attempt to stem the tide of invaders, and they 
paid dearly for their temerity. 1 Isma'il reached Khartum without 
mishap, and then proceeded to Sennaar, where he found the 
country torn with the dissension caused by 'Adlan and Ragab, 
both of whom had claimed the throne. Ragab had murdered 
'Adlan. and had lied the country. Sennaar was taken without 
fighting, and, having been joined by his brother Ibrahim. Isma'il 
proceeded to Fazd'gli, where he established the sovereignty of 
When Ibrahim returned to Cairo, the natives rebelled, but 
Isma'il quickly came back and put down the rebellion in the 
usual way. From F&z6'gM he returned to Shendi, and, when 
epted an invitation to a banquet to be given in his 
honour by Nimr, the Mek of Shendt. When he and his 
followers had eaten, and were, most probably, drunk, Nimr, i.e.. 
" The Panther," caused wood and scrub from the surrounding 

• to be piled up round the house wherein the banquet was 
taking place, and set tire to, and Isma'il and his followers were 
burned to death. This event took place in 1N22. just after the 
founding of the city of Khartum, which Muhammad 'Ali intended 
to be lal of the Sudan. 

While Isma'il was taking ion of the kingdom of Sennaar, 

mmad Bey, the Defterdar, was sent to seize Kord6fan by 

Muhammad 'Ah, and after a long struggle succeeded in his 

ion. When the news of the murder of Isma'il reached him, 

he collected a large army and returned to Shendi to take 

irs of all the men and women he could find of the tribe 

cut off, and sent them to his father in Cairo! Cailliaud, i . pp. 58, 59. 

light two battles and were beaten both tn 

ie word " Mek" is, ii title, ami is not to be confounded with 

It is probably connected with the old Ethiopian root, **** \\ ffl 

"to be glorious," and in the life of Takla Mary 6m we find a scribe called 



vengeance on Nimr and his town. He bombarded the town and 
destroyed the palace and most of the houses, then his soldiers 
entered and massacred every one they found. Nimr himself 
escaped, but his subjects suffered cruelly at the hands of the 
Turks and black men from Kordofan, and the atrocities which 
were perpetrated are indescribable. Meanwhile the natives to 
the south again rebelled, and Muhammad Bey had to return and 
fight several battles on the White and Blue Niles. At this time 
he captured the city of Al-Obed (Al-Ubayyad). 

In 1825 Osman Bey was appointed Governor of the Sudan, and 
he made the recently founded city of Khartum his headquarters. 
His rule lasted about one year, and was not very successful. 
He made Shekh Shanbul of Wad Medani governor of the district 
from Hagar Al-'Asal to Gebel Fung, but he was soon slain ; 
Osman Agha was appointed in his stead. At this time an 
epidemic of small-pox broke out in the country, and then came a 
famine, during which men ate dogs and donkeys. Osman Bey 
died on April 22nd, 1826. 

In 1826 MAHHU Bey of Bsrber ruled Khartum for a few months. 
He was an honest and intelligent man with courteous manners, 
and he endeavoured to do good to the people. He built a 
government house in Khartum, and to the south of the city is a 
large tree which is called after his name ; he also dug a well at 
Berber. In the same year Khurshid Pasha was appointed 
governor of the Sudan. In 1828 he led an expedition against the 
Dinka tribes on the White Nile, and went to the mountains of 
Takali and Fashoda (Kodok). In 1830 he went south in boats 
and attacked the Shilluks, and slew large numbers of them, and 
returned to Khartum with much spoil and many prisoners. In 
this year the Nile rose to an alarming height. In 1832 Khurshid 
marched against the Sabderat tribes and wasted their territory. 
In 1834 ne built a mosque in Sennaar, and went to Kordofan. In 
1836 he went to Egypt via Dongola, and stayed in Cairo for a few 
months. On his return he was obliged to send an army under 
the command of Muhammad Effendi to chastise the Abyssinians, 
who had come down from their mountains and killed many 
people and laid waste the country. Ragab, the son of Bashir, 
their leader, was caught, and was brought to Khurshid at Ruseres, 



where he was killed. In 1837 cholera broke out, and many of the 
notables died of the disease ; when it reached Khartum. Khurshfd 
Went to Shendi ; in the same year a great star appeared which 
visible at noon and shot forth sparks of fire! In [838 the 
Abyssinians attacked Kallabat, and did some damage. 

In May, 1839, Ahmad Pasha was appointed Governor of the 
Sudan : because of the size of his ears he was called " Abu Udan." 
On October 15th of this year Muhammad Ali left Cairo to visit 
Sudan. He reached Khartum on November 23rd, and 
stayed there twenty-two days. He set out for F&zd'glt, and 
arrived there on January [8th, 1N40, and returned to Cairo via 
Korosko on March 14th. A marvellous journey for a man 
seventy years of age ! As the result of his personal inspection of 
the countries wherein he believed gold was to be found in large 
quantities, he determined to send expeditions into the Sudan 
on a large scale for the purpose of bringing back gold and slaves 
in large numbers for his army. He interviewed the shekhs and 
notables of Khartum and Fazo'gli, and no doubt came to an 
understanding with them as to what he required them to do. 
Under the rule of Ahmad Pasha the province of Taka, or Kasala, 
was added to Muhammad 'All's kingdom. Taking advantage of 
the enmity which existed between two of the Bega tribes, the 
Hadanduwa and the I.Ialanka, he succeeded in stirring up strife in 
the country, and then by an artifice managed to destroy a number 
of the people, and take possession of the villages and lands. He 
played one tribe off against the other, fought against all of them, 
and finally succeeded in reducing them to subjection. He then 
iver Taka 'Amr Bey and Farhat Bey in succession, and 
finally made Musa Ibrahim, the nephew of Muhammad Din, the 
Shekh of the Hadanduwa, their governor. The taking of Taka was 
as disgraceful as it was inexcusable, and it was carried out in a 
manner both cruel and shameful. The population of the district 
sent messengers to Ahmad Pasha to announce their submission, 
but notwithstanding this, a company of four hundred "ArnautS," 
or Albanian mercenaries, were sent into the country to murder, 
plunder, burn, and destroy everything and everyone they could 
find, and they performed their mission thoroughly. Hundreds of 
unarmed men and women were slain at sight, and the wretched 


•*•" ^w»-^" '** 




[From Russegger, Reiscn, BI. 20. 


[From Russegger Reisett, Bl. 16. 



captives who were brought before Ahmad were beheaded whilst 
he sat looking on in his tent. Forty-one of the sh^khs who had 

set out to come to Ahmad with the soldiers had been shot on the 
way because the} - could not march fast enough. 

eh captive s< carried before him the stem of a tree as thick as 
-( a man's arm. about fiveor six feet long, which terminated in a 
" fork, into which the neck was fixed. The prongs of the fork 
"were bound together by a cross-piece of wood, fastened with a 

t VV, < rarstin' er of H.M. S 

strap. Some of their hands, also, were tied fast to the handle 
of the fork, and in this condition they remained day and night. 
During the march, the soldier who is specially appointed to 
overlook the prisoner, carries the end of the pole: in the night 
most of them have their feet also pinioi ther . . . ." 

Then after all the conditions that were imposed li 
fulfilled, and the heavy contributions which had been required 
from them under every variety of pretext had been also correctly 
paid, the Pasha caused all the Sheikh- • nee, as if 


"for a fresh conference, but forthwith had them all put in fetter?, 
" together with 120 other people, and led away as prisoners. 
" The young and strong men were to be placed among the troops, 
" the women handed over to the soldiers as slaves ; the Sheikhs 
ft were reserved for punishment till a later day. Such was the 
" glorious history of the campaign against Taka as it was related 
"'to me 1 by the European eye-witnesses." Under the rule of 
Ahmad Pasha the Sudan was divided into seven mudirias, or 
administrative provinces, namely, Fazo'gli, Sennaar, Khartum, 


[From Russegger, Reisen, Bl. 16. 

Kasala, Berber, Dongola, and Kordofan, and a military 
commandant was set over each. Ahmad Pasha died at Khartum 
in October, 1844, and was buried there. 

In 1844 Ahmad Pasha Al-Manikli was appointed Governor 
of the Sudan, and his rule lasted for about two years. 

In 1846 Khalid Pasha was appointed Governor of the Sudan, 

and his rule lasted for about four years. In 1848 Ibrahim 

PAsha, on account of Muhammad 'AlTs failing health, was made 

Ruler of Eeypt, but the disease from which he was suffering 

1 Lepsius, Letters, p. 200. 



captives who were brought before Ahmad were beheaded whilst 
he sat looking on in his tent. Forty-one of the sh&khs who had 
set out to come to Ahmad with the soldiers had been shot on the 
way because they could not march fast enough. 

ch captive " carried before- him the stein of a tree as thick as 
" a man's arm, about five or six feet long, which terminated in a 
" fork, into which the neck was fixed. The prongs ^^ the fork 
"were bound together by a cross-piece of wood* fastened with a 

i W, < rarstin . I.M. Stationei 

... Some of their hands, also, were tied fast to the handle 

of the fork, and in this condition they remained day and night. 
During tin: march, the soldier who is specially appointed to 
rlook the prisoner, the end of the pole : in the night 

most of them have their feet also pinioned together ....'* 
n after all the conditions that were imposed had been 
fulfilled, and the heavy contributions which had been required 
from them under every variety of pretext had b< ctly 

paid, the Pasha caused all the Sheikhs to assemble at i)ncc, as if 


" for a fresh conference, but forthwith had them all put in fetter?, 
"together with 120 other people, and led away as prisoners. 
" The young and strong men were to be placed among the troops, 
" the women handed over to the soldiers as slaves ; the Sheikhs 
" were reserved for punishment till a later day. Such was the 
" glorious history of the campaign against Taka as it was related 
"to me 1 by the European eye-witnesses." Under the rule of 
Ahmad Pasha the Sudan was divided into seven mudirias, or 
administrative provinces, namely, Fazo'gli, Sennaar, Khartum, 


[From Russegger, Reisen, Bl. 16. 

Kasala, Berber, Dongola, and Kordofan, and a military 
commandant was set over each. Ahmad Pasha died at Khartum 
in October, 1844, and was buried there. 

In 1844 Ahmad Pasha Al-Manikli was appointed Governor 
of the Sudan, and his rule lasted for about two years. 

In 1846 Khalid Pasha was appointed Governor of the Sudan, 

and his rule lasted for about four years. In 1848 Ibrahim 

Pasha, on account of Muhammad 'All's failing health, was made 

Ruler of Egypt, but the disease from which he was suffering 

1 Lepsius, Letters, p. 200. 



increased, and be died on November ioth of that year. He was 
succeeded by 'Abbas Pasha, the grandson of Muhammad 'All, 
on December 24th. On August 2nd, 1849, Muhammad \-\li died, 
heart-broken, it is said, because the British Government had cut 
down the number of his army to 18,000 men, and forbidden him 
to make use of his navy, which lay rotting in the harbour at 
Alexandria. He undoubtedly conferred great benefits on his 
country, and, in a fashion, was a patron of art and learning and a 
supporter of many reforms. He was greater as a warrior than as 
an administrator. He failed to see that the resources of Egypt 
of an agricultural character, and encouraged industrial 
schemes which, had they been as successful as he wished, would 
have ruined his country. His character was a mixtui 
shrewdness, cunning, simplicity, cruelty, avarice, and generosity, 
and his love of wealth made him steal the revenues of tombs and 
religious institutions in Cairo, and take possession of nearly all the 
best land in Egypt. His policy in the Sudan encouraged the 
slave trade to a degree hitherto unknown, and the cruelty and 
corruption of his officials there sowed the seeds of the 
rebellion which broke out thirty years later, and culminated 
in the rule of Muhammad Ahmad the Mahdi, and one of his 
Khalifas, 'Abd-Allah. 

In 1850 La in Pasha was appointed Governor of the Sudan. 

In 1851 RUSTUM Pasha was appointed Governor of the Sudan. 
He was stricken with an illness at Wad Medani, and died in 
the following year, and was buried there. 

In [852 IsMA'il Pasha was appointed Governor of the Sudan. 
After making a tour in the Eastern Desert, he returned to 
Khartum, and was recalled to Cairo. 

In 185; Si. 1 im Pasha was appointed Governor of the 

In [854 'Au Pasha Sirri was appointed Governor of the 

Sudan, and in July of the same year 'Abbas Paslu died, and was 

succeeded by Sa* id Pasha, a son of Muhammad 'Ali. About this 

time the Egyptian officials found it more and more difficult to 

1 the revenue, for the taxes were so heavy that the 

;it farmers were ruined everywhere in paying them. 

In 1855 'Aii Pasha Sharkas was appointed Governor of the 


[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office 

[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of ihe Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 



Sudan, and his rule lasted until 1858. During the visit of 'Abd 
Al-Halim Pasha cholera broke out, and very many people died of 
the disease. On January 16th, [858, Said Pasha, the Khediveof 
pt, visited the Sudan, and he was horrified at the state in 
which he found the country. He proclaimed the abolition of 
slavery, reduced the taxes on the water-wheels, made several 
sweeping reforms in the administration of the provinces, and 
established a camel-post between Khartum and Cairo. He 
conceived the idea of connecting the Sudan with Egypt by means 
of a railway, and Mougel Bey made a report on the subject. 
During the rule of k Ali Pasha Sharkas Mr. John Petherick, 
H.B.M's Consul for the Sudan, obtained permission to send a 
series of trading expeditions into the Sudan. He left England 
in March, 1845, and was employed by Muhammad \\li to search 
for coal, and subsequently investigated the mineral resources both 
of Egypt and the Sudan. His expeditions to the country south 
of Khartum took place in November, 1853, October, 1N54, 
November, 1855, December, 1856, and February. 1.858. He 
wrote an account of his travels, which was published in [861, 
and from this excellent work a very good idea of the state of the 
country may be gathered. He was aceused of complicity in the 
and his reputation suffered through many bitter 
ks which ide on it. He appears to have been badly 

treated by the British Foreign which ab dished his 

ilate at Khartum. In 1858 Mr. John Hanning Speke 
d that the Victoria Nyanza was the true source of the 
Nile. 1 

In April, i860, in company with Captain J. A. Grant, he set 

out on another expedition to obtain further proof of the wonderful 

he had made in 1858. Man}' of his statements were 

by the late Sir Richard Burton (see The Nile Basin, 

I, but the priority and genuineness of Speke's discovery 

in unquestioned. 

In 1859 Akakii. I ippointed Governor of the Sudan. 

:•/>/, the Soudan, and Central Africa, \Y. Blackwood, Edinburgh, and 

-' Speke, Journey of the Discovery of the Source of the A He, London, 1863 ; 
and Wh it Led to the Discovery of the Source of the A//<\ Loin: 



In i860 Hasan Bey Salama was appointed Governor of the 

In this year the Europeans who had traded with natives for 
ivory, gum, &c, realized that it was impossible for them to con- 
tinue their business without aiding and abetting the slave trade, 
and, though they made a gallant stand against this shameful 
traffic, they saw that it was hopeless to resist successfully the 
results of the machinations of the corrupt Turkish officialdom at 
Khartum and in Egypt. They therefore sold their trading con- 
cerns to Arabs, with the result that the state of the wretched black 
folk became worse than before, and in a year or two the slave 
trade increased to a frightful extent. 

In March, 1861, Sir Samuel Baker set out to discover the 
sources of the Nile, with the hope of meeting Speke and Grant, 
who had been sent out by the British Government via Zanzibar 
with that object. He left Cairo in April, 1861, and, having 
explored all the country through which the Atbara flows, arrived 
in Khartum on June nth, 1862. 

In July of this year Muhammad Bey Rasikh was appointed 

Governor of the Sudan. The state of Khartum, the capital, at 

this time is described by Baker thus ' : — 

" A more miserable, filthy, and unhealthy spot can hardly 

'be imagined The town, chiefly composed 

' of huts of unburnt brick, extends over a flat hardly above 
' the level of the river at high water, and is occasionally 
' flooded. Although containing about 30,000 inhabitants and 
' densely crowded, there are neither drains nor cesspools ; the 
1 streets are redolent with inconceivable nuisances ; should 
' animals die, they remain where they fall, to create pestilence 
' and disgust. Khartoum is the seat of government, the Soudan 
1 provinces being under the control of a Governor-general, with 
' despotic power. In 1861 there were about 6,000 troops in the 
1 town ; a portion of these were Egyptians ; other regiments were 
' composed of blacks from Kordofan, and from the White and 
' Blue Niles, with one regiment of Arnouts, and a battery of 
' artillery. These troops are the curse of the country : as in the 
1 case of most Turkish and Egyptian officials, the receipt of pay 
' is most irregular, and accordingly the soldiers are under loose 
' discipline. Foraging and plunder is the business of the Egyptian 
' soldier, and the miserable natives must submit to insult and 
' ill treatment at the will of the brutes who pillage them." 

1 Albert Nyanza, New Edition, London, 1870, p. 8 ff . 


On December 18th J>aker left Khartum for the south, and 
arrived at Gondokoro on February 2nd, 1863 ; here, on the 15th 
of the same- month, arrived Speke and Grant. The former had 
walked the whole way from Zanzibar. They explained to Baker 
that they had been unable to follow the course of the Nile west- 
ward to the place where it entered the large lake called by the 
natives Luta N'zige, 1 which Speke believed to be a second source 
of the Nile and Baker determined to proceed to this lake, and 
thus complete the splendid work which Speke and Grant had 
begun. Speke gave Baker minute directions as to the course he 
should follow, and on February 26th Speke and his compa- 
nion sailed from Gondokoro for Khartum in Baker's boats. On 
March 26th Baker set out on his march to the Luta N' 
After innumerable delays caused by the idleness and obstruction 
of the natives, and by grievous sickness, starvation and fatigue, 
he arrived at the Luta on March 14th, 1864, and was the 

first European to look upon its waters. He says: "The glory 
"of our prize burst suddenly upon me! Then-, like a sea of 
" quicksilver, lay far beneath the grand expanse of water — a 
" boundless sea horizon on the south and south-west, glittering in 
• ; the noon-day sun : and on the west, at fifty or sixty miles 1 
"distance, blue mountains rose from the bosom of the lake to a 
" height of about 7,000 feet above its Level. . . . As an imperish- 
" able memorial of one loved and mourned by our gracious Queen, 
"and deplored by every Englishman, I called this great lake 'the 
•' Albert N'yanza.' The Victoria and Albert Lakes are the two 
" sources of the Nile." ■ 

In 1863 Ism. vii . son of Ibrahim Pasha, became Khedb 

•t. and in the same year Musa P&sha Mamdi was appointed 

rnor of the Sudan. *• '1 his man was a rather exaggerated 

"specimen of Turkish authorities in general, combining the v. 

' of Oriental failings with the brutality of a wild animal." * He 

is also described as " an unprincipled and cruel tyrant, who ruled 

"only by military power, and oppressed and plundered the 

pie *' : l and \\ Id that, in spite of the prohibition of 

1 I.e., the " dead locust Lake." \ert Nyanzc^ p. 308. 

tker, Albo 1 1. <s. 

4 Wells. The Heroin kite M/e, p. 38. 


the slave trade by the Porte, " this ruler, like all his predecessors, 
"did but little else, and thus amassed great wealth, and neglected 
" his duties as Governor." 1 Baker is an impartial witness, and it 
must be confessed that, judging from his description of the Sudan 
at this time, the state of the country must have been appalling. 
The revenue was unequal to the expenditure, and fresh taxes were 
levied upon the inhabitants to an extent that paralyzed the entire 
country. Misgovernment, monopoly, extortion, and oppression 
were the accompaniments of the Turkish rule. The distance of 
Cairo from the Sudan had an evil effect on the Egyptian official 
character. Every official plundered ; the Governor extorted from 
all sides, and filled his pockets by obstructing every commercial 
movement with the view of obtaining bribes. Dishonesty and 
deceit characterized officials from the highest to the lowest, and 
each robbed in proportion to his grade. Soldiers collected the 
taxes and, of course, exacted more than was due. As a result, 
the natives produced just as much as they wanted and no more. 
The heaviest and most unjust tax of all was that on the water- 
wheels, on which the agricultural prosperity of the country 
depended. New settlers fled before the horde of tax-gatherers 
who alighted upon them, and thus whole tracts of country 
remained uncultivated. " The general aspect of the Soudan is that 
" of misery, nor is there a single feature of attraction to recom- 
" pense a European for the drawbacks of pestilential climate and 

" brutal associations Upon existing conditions the Soudan 

" is worthless, having neither natural capabilities nor political 
" importance ; but there is, nevertheless, a reason that first 
" prompted its occupation by the Egyptians, and that is in force 
" to the present day. The Soudan supplies slaves. Without 
"the White Nile trade Khartoum would almost cease to exist; 
" and that trade is kidnapping and murder. . . . The amount of 
" ivory brought down from the White Nile is a mere bagatelle as 
" an export, the annual value being about £40,000.'"' 

Baker next goes on to explain how the ivory trade is worked. 
'. A penniless man borrowed £1,000 to make a slave-raiding ex- 
pedition on the White Nile at 100 per cent, interest, agreeing to 
pay the lender in ivory at one half its market value. Having 
1 Wells, op. tit., p. 38. ' Albert Nyanza, p. 11. 



obtained the money, he hired vessels and from ioo to 300 Arabs 
and runaway villains, and bought rifles and large quantities of 
ammunition, and a few hundred pounds of glass beads. Each 
man was paid 45 piastres, or nine shillings, per month, for five 
months in advance, payment being made partly in cash and partly 
in stuffs for clothes, for which an exorbitant price was charged. 
The expedition set out in December, and when the leader came 
to the village of some negro chief, he stopped and made friends 
with him. He thi I t<> help the chief to fight his enemies, 

and on a given night the)- went and bivouacked near the village 
where tiny lived. A little before daybreak, whilst the inhabitants 
■-till sleeping, their huts were set on fire, and volleys of 
musketry poured in on them through the flaming thatch. The 
panic-stricken natives rushed out, and the men were shot down, 
and tlif women and children secured; the cattle were seized as 
the prize of vietory. The women were fastened by the necks to 
forked poles, to which their hands were also tied, and the children 

tied by their necks with a rope attached to the women, and 

marched off to the victor's carap with the cattle. All the 

ivory found in the huts was seized, and the "trader's party" dug 

up the floors of the huts to find the iron hoes, and destroyed all 

the granaries. To obtain the iron or copper bracelets from the 

they cut off their hands. The "traders" then returned to 
the negro chief, who was delighted at the overthrow of his foe, 

tally when they gave him a present of cattle, and a captive 
girl of about fourt* 

The negro chief wanted cattle, and was prepared to exchi 
ivory for them, a tusk for a cow, a profitable business, for the cows 

lothing. One third of all the stolen animals belonged to 

ler's " men. The slaves wen- next put up at auction among 
men, who bought such as they required, the amount of 
their purchases being entered on their papers to be 
against their Kidnapped women and children were some- 

times ransomed : itain number of tusks; if a woman 

attempted to is flogged, or hanged, or shot. 

[uently the " trader " picked a quarrel with his negro ally, 
whom he then murdered, his women and children becoming 
slaves. A raid of this kind produced usually ivory to the value 



of about £4,000, and the " trader's " own profit was represented 
by four or five hundred slaves, each of which was worth from five 
to six pounds — between £2,000 and £3,000. The slaves and 
ivory were then packed in boats and sent down the river under 
the charge of some of the "trader's" men, the rest of whom 
stayed in the country to obtain by plunder, massacre, and enslave- 
ment another cargo for the following season. The slaves were 
landed in parties at various places on the river, being received by 
agents, who transported them to Sennaar, and to Sawakin and 
Masaw'a on the Red Sea, whence they were shipped to Arabia and 
Persia. When the " trader " returned to Khartum he paid his 
original loan of £1,000 in ivory, and having a handsome profit, he 
was able to begin business as an independent merchant in ivory. 
In 1863 the Turkish officials pretended to discountenance the 
slave trade, yet the officers were paid in slaves ! And every house 
was full of slaves, and nearly every European merchant was 
engaged in the slave trade. The slave raiders sailed their boats 
flying the English, French, Austrian, Turkish, and even the 
American flag. This picture is a gloomy one, but the witnesses 
to the appalling condition of misery in which the Sudan was in 
1863 are so numerous, and the agreement in their evidence is so 
universal, that there is absolutely no reason for doubting their 

Soon after the accession of Isma'il Pasha as Ruler of Egypt, 
in 1863, that energetic prince issued orders for the suppression of 
the slave trade, and there is no good reason for doubting the 
sincerity of his wish for the abolition of the trade in human 
beings. He held no foolish or sentimental ideas about the fitness 
of the Blacks to rule either their country or themselves, and he 
made no proposal to interfere with domestic slavery, an institution 
which has always been the fundamental principle of all native 
African society, for he well knew that, speaking generally, slaves 
were kindly treated by their owners, and that the disgusting 
brutality of the slave trade lay in the burning of the villages, the 
murders of the men, the kidnapping of the women and children, 
and in the driving of the slaves over hundreds of miles of burning 
desert, with the attendant deaths from sickness and starvation. 
What Isma'il realized was that the leaders of the slave-raiding 

vol. 11. 225 Q 


expeditions, both Arab and European, formed a serious menace to 
his authority in the Sudan, and an effectual check to the extension 
of his territories. The European Powers urged him to destroy 
the slave trade, and he determined to do it, but as soon as he 
began to take the necessary steps his subjects in Egypt abused 
him for attacking the greatest of all the trading interests of the 
country, his officials declared he was not a true Muslim, and the 
English newspapers asserted that the suppression of the slave 
trade on the White Nile was merely a pretext for annexing the 
whole of the Nile Basin ! 

In 1865 Ja'afar Sadik Pasha was appointed Governor of the 

In 1866 Ja'afar Mazhar Pasha was appointed Governor of the 

lutween 1863 an d 1869 matters went from bad to worse, for 
every official in the Sudan, realizing that the slave trade was 
threatened, made as much money as he could out of slaves 
while he had the opportunity. The actions of the Arab and 
European raiders justified Isma'il's view that they were a serious 
menace to his authority, for some of them had secured from the 
Governors of the Sudan leases of whole provinces, and they wire 
de facto not only independent rulers in the territories leased by 
them, but enemies to any rule except that of lawlessness. Isma'il's 
first great difficulty was to find men to carry out his wishes, 
for his officials in the Sudan could not be trusted. Nearly every 
one of them had an interest in the ivory and slaves that had been 
collected, and were still waiting at stations up the White Nile. 
Many of the largest merchants at Khartum employed exclusively 
bands of Arabs to raid slaves, and one of them had as many as 
1 Arabs in his pay. These gangs were officered by deserters 
from tin Egyptian army, were divided into companies, and were 
armed with muskets. &c There were about 15,000 men thus em- 
ployed in the Sudan, and they raided about 50,000 slaves annually, 
and one "trader" called Akad claimed the right of jurisdiction 
jiiare miles of territory. Each " trader " established 
f stations, manned by about 300 of his men, throughout 
his district, and was thus able to occupy it effectively. 1 

1 I owe these facts to linker. Ismail'ia, London, 1879, P- * ^- 


Early in 1869 IsmtVil, who was now Khedive, selected Sir 
Samuel Baker to carry out the great work of reorganizing the 
Sudan, and he issued a./arwdn wherein he authorized him to : — 

1. Subdue the country south of Gondokoro. 

2. Suppress the slave trade. 

3. Introduce a system of regular commerce. 

4. Open the Equatorial Lakes to navigation. 

5 Establish a chain of military stations and commercial depots, 
distant from each other a three days' march, throughout Central 
Africa, with Gondokoro as the base of operations. 

Baker was to have the supreme command of the expedition for 
four years, beginning April 1st, 1869, and the power of life and death 
over every member of it. He was also given supreme and absolute 
authority over all the country south of Gondokoro included within 
the Nile Basin. 

Baker left Suez on December 5th, 1869, and proceeded to 
Khartum via Sawakin, where he found that about half of the 
30,000 people who formerly lived in the town had disappeared, 
that nearly all the Europeans had gone away, and that most of 
the population of the district had turned into brigands, and were 
hunting slaves on the White Nile. To his disgust, Baker dis- 
covered that Mazhar Pasha, the Governor of the Sudan, had 
prepared for an expedition to Dar Fur eleven vessels and several 
companies of soldiers, and that he had given the chief command 
to one Kutchuk 'Ali, a notorious raider, who had made a large 
fortune out of slave-raiding and dealing ! Thus the Khedive was 
doing his best to suppress the slave trade, and his Governor of 
the Sudan was sparing no pains to support it. On February 8th, 
1870, Baker left Khartum with two steamers, thirty-one sailing 
vessels, and 800 soldiers. After steaming for 103 hours, he reached 
Fashoda, now Kodok, and found it garrisoned by Egyptian soldiers 
under the command of 'Ali Bey, a Kurd, who told him that the 
Shilluk country was in good order, and that according to the 
Khedive's instructions he had exerted himself against the slave 
trade. This statement Baker doubted, and a few weeks later 
actually caught him in the act of kidnapping 155 slaves, 1 and he 
discovered that 'Ali levied a toll upon every slave whom the 

1 Ismaitia, p. 45. 


traders' boat brought down the river, which he kept for himself. 
Baker insisted that the slaves should be set free, and this was 
done with great reluctance by the Governor of Fashoda, who ex- 
plained that he had only been collecting the taxes ! Finding it 
impossible to press to Gondokoro on account of the obstructing 
vegetation in the White Nile, Baker stopped at a favourable place, 
and founded the station of Tawhkiya. Whilst here, he stopped 
several boats laden with slaves and ivory; the former he liberated, 
and the latter he sent on to Khartum, where it was confiscated. 
The complicity of the Sudan officials was established beyond a 
doubt. In October Baker learned that the Egyptian Government 
had already leased to the "trader" Ahmad Shekh Agha ' an area of 
90,000 square miles of the territory which he was about to annex 
in the Nile Basin, for several thousand pounds sterling per annum, 
together with the monopoly of the ivory trade. Ahmad paid 
£3,000 a year for his lease, and he foresaw that if the Government 
were established in his district, his raiding and trading would be 
at an end. The slave-hunters were actually the tenants of the 
Egyptian Government, and they naturally resented the purchase 
of ivory by the Government from countries already leased to 
trailers. It was a difficult position for all concerned, for the Khedive, 
for his Governor of the Sudan, for Baker, and for the trader. 
r himself was obliged to admit that Ahmad had a grievance 
against the Government, and actually agreed with him that no 
ivory should be bought by any one else in the district leased to 
him until after the expiry of the contract on April 9th, 1N72. 

On April 15th, 1871, Baker arrived at Gondokoro, and on May 
26th he officially annexed the country for the Egyptian Govern- 
ment. Twelve hundred men were paraded, with ten guns, and the 
Turkish flag having been run up, the officers saluted with drawn 
swords, the troops presented arms, and the artillery tired a ; 
salute. On May 14th, 1872, at Masindi, with the full approval of 
Kabba Kega, the former kin-. Baker took formal possession of the 
country of Unyoro in the name of the Khedive of Egypt. He 
next set to work to put the commerce of the count ry on a good 
footing, and purchased ivory for the Government with from 

■ lor an acount of his agent, the infamous Abu Sa'ud, see /swai'Iia, pp. 77, 
138, 152. 



1,500 to 2,000 per cent, profit. A few beads, three or four gaudy- 
coloured cotton handkerchiefs, a zinc mirror, and a fourpenny 
butcher's knife would purchase a tusk worth £20 or £30 ! And 
the natives found that such " luxuries as twopenny mirrors, four- 
" penny knives, handkerchiefs, earrings at a penny a pair, finger 
" signet rings at a shilling a dozen, could be obtained for such 
" comparatively useless lumber as elephants' tusks .... In 
" Unyoro each party to the bargain thought that he had the best 
" of it." ' Baker built forts at Masindi, Fatiko, and Fuwera, and 
administered justice in a rough-and-ready fashion with great suc- 
cess. All his troops were Muhammadans, but the natives believed 
in nothing ; even so the latter were " free from many vices that 
disgrace a civilized community." Early in 1873 Baker entered 
into friendly relations with M'tesa, king of Uganda, and thus the 
Egyptian dominions extended to within 2 of the Equator. On 
April 1st, 1873, Baker returned to Gondokoro, or Isma'iliya, and 
his term of service to the Khedive expired. On his way down the 
river he learned that several cargoes of slaves had passed the 
Government station at Fashoda, and his informant, Wad Hojoly, 
himself had 700 slaves, in three vessels, which he was taking down 
to a station a few days south of Khartum. Moreover, the infamous 
Abu Sa'ud had gone to Cairo to appeal to the Government, and 
to represent that Baker had ruined his trade. 2 

In 1873 David Livingstone, the celebrated explorer and mission- 
ary, died of dysentery on April 30th at Chitambo. His body was 
carried to the coast, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, 
April 18th, 1874. He was born at Blantyre, near Glasgow, March 
19th, 1813. He discovered Lake Ngami in 1849; explored the 
Zambesi and Kuanza Basins to Loando in 1851-4; recrossed 
Africa and discovered the Victoria Falls in 1855 ; led an expedi- 
tion up the Zambesi and Shiri Rivers, and discovered Lakes 
Shirwa and Nyassa in 1858-9 ; explored the Rovuma Valley in 
1866, the Chambezi in 1867, and Lakes Tanganyika, Moero, and 
Bangweolo in 1867-8 ; was at Ujiji in 1869 ; navigated Tangan- 
yika, was relieved by Stanley at Ujiji in 1871 ; parted from 
Stanley at Unyanyembe in 1872, and returned to Lake Bangweolo. 
His " Last Journals " were published in 1874. 

1 IsmaiTia, p. 341. ' °P- a '*-> P- 457- 



In 1873 Isma'ii. Pasha Ayub was appointed Governor of 
the Sudan. He is famous for having initiated great reforms in 
the Sudan, and he tried to stop the bribery and corruption which 
were rampant. He did excellent work in connection with clearing 
the Sudd, or blocks of vegetation, from the White Nile, and suc- 
ceeded in re-opening the river to navigation in the following 
summer. On August 24th Baker reached Cairo, and had an 
audience of Isma'ii Pasha, to whom he explained the chart of the 
new territory which he had acquired for him. To Baker belongs 
the great credit of destroying the slave trade between Khartum 
and Gondokoro, of opening up commerce on the Nile, and of 
carrying civilization to within 2 of the Equator. Had Isma'ii 
Pasha's servants in the Sudan been faithful to their orders, the 
abominable traffic in human flesh would have been entirely wiped 
out from the Egyptian Sudan. 

Baker resigned his appointment in 1873, and was succeeded by 
Colonel C. G. Gordon, R.E., who left Cairo to take up his duties 
in the Sudan early in the spring of 1874. His instructions were 
to (airy on the work which Baker had begun, i.e., first, to crush 
the slave trade, which was then, in spite of all Baker's efforts, a 
thriving business ; secondly, to establish law and order in the newly- 
acquired Egyptian provinces south of Gondokoro, and to develop 
trade on just lines. The Khedive's farman made him " Governor 
of the Equatorial Provinces on the Nile," and his authority was to 
extend from Fash 6 da (Kodok) to M'tesa's country to the south. 
The authority of the Governor of the Sudan was not to extend 
south of Pashoda. Gordon arrived at Gondokoro on April 15th, 
where he found Baker's garrison, and at once took steps to con- 
solidate the Egyptian power in the country. He established a 
garrison of 160 soldiers at B6r, north of Gondokoro, and sent a 
member of his staff, Colonel Long, on a mission to king M'tesa at 
nda. He next broke up several slave-traders' stations on the 
liahr az-Zaraf, and established a station on the Sobat, which was 
so placed that he could control the traffic up and down the White 

In the summer of 1N74 Munzinger, the Consul of Britain and 
who lived at Na?aw'a,' took the opportunity of the out- 

1 See Shucair, History of the Sudan, iii., p. 89. 

2 a. 

s I 

cr b 

O «-■ 


break of a war between the Abyssinians and the Gallas to occupy 
Keren, the capital of the Abyssinian province of Bogos, with 1,500 
men. And at the same time the district of Ailet, which lay 
between Hamasin and Masaw'a, was sold to the Egyptian Govern- 
ment by its treacherous governor. Thus the Egyptians became 
masters of Senhit. John, king of Abyssinia, sent an appeal by 
Colonel Kirkman to the European Powers against the proceeding, 
but naturally no action in the matter was taken by them. 

When Gordon arrived at Gondokoro in April, 1874, he relieved 
the commandant, Raw'uf Pasha, who proceeded to Khartum. 
The king of Harar, Ahmad, was dead, and had been succeeded by 
one Muhammad, who was extremely unpopular with the people, 
for he had deposed their nominee to the throne, Sitra Amir. The 
people of Harar sent to the Khedive of Egypt, and asked him to 
take over their province, and the task of occupying the same was 
given to Raw'uf Pasha. He proceeded to Harar, with a sufficient 
force, and, having taken the country, hanged Muhammad without 
giving him an opportunity of defending himself. 1 

In the same year (1874) the Egyptians found it necessary to 
take possession of the kingdom of Dar Fur, for it had been clear 
for years past that it was impossible to put a stop to the slave 
trade so long as slave caravans could pass unhindered from the 
countries near the Equator to Egypt via Dar Fur and Kordofan. 
Dar Fur appears to have been from time immemorial the centre 
of the slave trade, and from about the eighth century of our era to 
have been inhabited by a number of tribes, some of whom were 
partly of Arab descent, and by others whose origin is not clear. 
They were not, however, negroes. The kingdom of Dar Fur 
extended at one time to the Atbara, but the Fung kings of Sennaar 
little by little filched the territory of the Dar Furians until the 
White Nile became the boundary between the two nations. The 
Fung kings were, about 1770, masters of Kordofan, a province of 
Dar Fur, for a few years, but Dar Fur proper seems to have been 
always an independent state, and its line of Sultans was unbroken 
for about four hundred years. In 1822 Kordofan was conquered 
by the Defterdar, Muhammad 'All's son-in-law, who appropriated 
to himself the enormous spoil which he took, and treated the 
1 Shucair, op. at., p. 90. He says the country was taken October nth, 1875- 

23 T 


natives with shameful cruelty, and mutilated hundreds of 
them.' In 1869 Isma'il, Khedive of Egypt, decided that the 
time had come for him to give the natives some proof of his 
authority over Dar Fur, and he therefore despatched to the 
Bahr al-Ghazal an officer called Muhammad al-Ballali, with a 
force of 800 men, 400 of whom were Bashbuzak, or " Bashi 

Among the great slave-dealers of Dar Fiir at this time was 
Zuber ibn Rahama, who traced his descent back to Ghanini, 
a man of the tribe of 'Abbas. When Zuber understood for 
what purpose Al-Ballali had come, he collected an army and 
went against him, and, by a superior knowledge of the country 
and its methods of warfare, he caught him in an ambush, ami 
burned his camp and completely destroyed his force. After this 
the fame of Zuber increased in the Sudan, and the tribes flocked 
to him, and for a few years he was the most powerful man in the 
country. In 1873 a dispute broke out between the Egyptian 
Government and the Sultan of Dar Eur, which assumed serious 
proportions in 1874, when the Sudan authorities seized all the 
slaves in a caravan which had been despatched to Egypt. In 
retaliation the Sultan raided for slaves certain districts which had 
been leased to Zuber, and stopped the supply of corn which he 
and his fellow slave-merchants had been in the habit of obtaining 
from Dar Fur. Zuber, knowing his strength, determined to 
invade Dar Fur and bring the Sultan to reason, but when the 
Egyptian Government heard of this, Isma'il decided to under- 
take the conquest of the country himself, and to employ Zuber in 
the work. Zuber was ordered to attack Dar Fur from the south, 
and Isma'il Ya'kub Pasha from the north. The Sultan of Dar 
l'fir and two of his sons were killed in one of the battles which 
took place soon after, and the country became an Egyptian 
province. Zuber was created a Pasha, but was not satisfied, for 
he wished to be made Governor of the territory which the 
tians had gained chiefly by his skill and goodwill. He 
went to Cairo to urge his claims, but he was " detained " there 2 

; For an account of his acts, see Petherick, Egypt, the Soudan and Central 
Africa, p. 277 ff. 

Gleichen. Anglo- Egyptian Sudan, p. 236. 


until the end of 1898; he now lives at Geili on the Nile, about 
thirty miles north of Khartum. 1 

Meanwhile Gordon had been working very hard, and had made 
the effect of his influence and personality felt all over the countries 
on the White Nile. On September nth, about twenty-five shekhs 
from the region of Gondokoro came and did homage to him, a 
striking example of the belief which the natives had at that time 
in him. He established a post on the Sobat, and stations at 
Naser, Shambi, Makaraka, Bor, Latiika, Lado, Reggaf, Dufili 
(Ibrahimiya), Fatiko, and Fuwera. His measures for the sup- 
pression of the slave trade were vigorous, and his officer, Yusuf 
Bey, Governor of Fashoda, intercepted a convoy of 1,600 slaves, 
and 190 head of cattle.'- When Gordon left Cairo in March, 
1874, he took with him the infamous slave-dealer Abu Sa'ud Al- 
'Akad, 3 who had gone to Cairo to complain that Baker had 
ruined his business. When they arrived at Gondokoro Gordon 
gave him a position of trust, and set him over other slave-dealers, 
no doubt thinking that he would not do any mischief whilst he 
himself was near. He was, however, mistaken, for Sa'ud used 
his appointment to advance his interests in the slave-dealing 
business, and Gordon was obliged to discharge him promptly. 
How Gordon could ever have employed a man with such a past, 
which was well known to him, passes understanding, and suggests 
that he overrated his own powers of discernment. In 1874 
Slatin Pasha visited the Sudan. He reached Khartum, via Aswan, 
Korosko, and Berber, in October, and then went on to the Nuba 
Mountains, and stayed some time at Delen, where there was an 
Austrian Mission. From here he explored the Naima and 
Kadero mountains. He returned to Austria in 1875. 

In 1875 Gordon proposed to the Khedive to establish a station 
at Mombassa Bay, 250 miles north of Zanzibar, 4 but Isma'il 
preferred the mouth of the Juba* River, and fitted out an 
expedition to go there, under the command of McKillop Pasha, 

1 A most interesting account of his life, dictated or written by himself, is 
given in Shucair's History of the Sudan, iii., p. 60 ff. 

2 Gleichen, op. at., p. 234. 

3 See Shucair, op. cit. iii., p. 53, 128. 

4 Gleichen, op. cit., p. 237. 



and Colonels Ward and Long. This site being found unsuitable, 
Mrkillop occupied Port Durnford and the harbour of Kismayu. 
These places, however, belonged to the Sultan of Zanzibar, and 
as the expedition threatened to injure the trade of the mer- 
chants of Zanzibar, Great Britain intervened, and its further 
development was stopped. With great difficulty Gordon trans- 
ported a steamer to the Lakes, and established stations on the 
west bank of the river ; on the east bank the Bar! were hostile, 
and at Dufili a party under Linant, one of Gordon's officers, was 
surprised and massacred. Whilst Gordon was in the south the 
Shilluk tribes rebelled against the cruelty and oppression of the 
Government, and but for Gessi's 1 presence there F&shoda would 
have been lost to Egypt. 

In 1875 a dispute broke out between the Abyssinians and 
Egyptians about the port of Zi^a and the district of Giuda, which 
Kirkman had occupied on behalf of King John of Abyssinia. In 
October Colonel Arendrup, on behalf of the Egyptians, sailed to 
Masaw'a, marched to Giuda and took possession of it; he then 
advanced to Adua, the Abyssinian capital. King John collected 
an army, attacked Arendrup and defeated him, killing 1,800 
nun and capturing 2,000 rifles; among the slain were 'Arakil 
the agent of Munzinger, and Munzinger himself. The 
battle was fought on November nth. Isma'il promptly sent 
out another expedition, which arrived at Masaw'a on December 
nth. It was under R&tib Pasha, and consisted of 15,000 men, 
and with them were Colonel Long and Prince Masau Pasha. On 
March 7th, 1876, King John attacked the Egyptians at Kar'a, 
fifty-five miles from Masaw'a, and slew some 10,000 of them, and 
captured thousands of rifles, and twenty-five guns, and many 
prison^!-. The Egyptian arm)- returned to Cairo in January, 
[877. After the battle of Kar'a, Walda Mikael laid waste the 
Hamasin territory of Abyssinia; this act delayed the peace 
tiations which were in progress, for King John knew that 
Walda Mikael was supported by the Egyptians. 

1 Gessi was employed as interpreter to the British troops during the Crimean 
war, and joined General Gordon's staff in 1874 ; he died at Suez on April 30th, 

- Gleichen, op. tit., p. 238 ; Shucair, )ii., p. 91. 



In March, 1876, Gessi, by Gordon's order, circumnavigated the 
Victoria Nyanza, and found it was 140 miles long, and 50 miles 
wide ; in July a steamer was put together, with heroic exertions, 
above Dufili Falls, and a passage cleared to the Albert Lake. A 
treaty was made with M'tesa, King of Uganda, and Dr. Emin 
Effendi (Edward Schnitzer) was sent to him as Gordon's 
representative. In October Gordon left the Sudan in disgust, for 
all his efforts to suppress the slave trade were nullified by the 
resistance of Isma'il Yakub Pasha, the Governor of the Sudan, and 
his lying and corrupt officials. 

In February, 1877, Gordon was persuaded to return to Egypt, 
and Isma/il made him Governor-General of the Sudan and of the 
Equatorial and Red Sea Provinces, and gave him instructions to 
suppress the slave trade, to develop commerce, and to make peace 
with King John of Abyssinia. Gordon went to Masaw'a and 
made an arrangement with Walda Mikael whereby his raids on 
Abyssinian territory came to an end, and he proceeded to 
Khartum via Kasala and Kadaref. When he arrived there he 
found that a very serious rebellion had broken out in Dar Fur. 
It was led by Harun, a kinsman of the late Sultan of the 
province, and he was joined by all the neighbouring shekhs and 
by every one who had a grievance against the Government and 
was interested in the slave trade. The number of men in open 
revolt amounted to many thousands, and Hasan Hilmi, the 
Governor of Dar Fur, was unable to maintain his authority. 
Gordon went to Dar Fur in June, and learned that the province 
of Bahr-al-Ghazal was also in revolt, and that Suleman, the son 
of Zuber, had collected a large number of men and was ready to 
attack any force which the Government might send into the 
country. In July Harun retreated before Gordon to Tura, 1 and 
when a month later he went to Dara, he found there Suleman and 
made him return to Shakka. Two months later Gordon went to 
Shakka, the chief centre of the slave trade, and sent Suleman to 
the Bahr al-Ghazal. 

Thus, for the time, the slave trade was broken up. Meanwhile 
Walda Mikael was giving trouble, and Gordon wished to seize 
him and send him to Cairo. At the end of 1877 Gordon visited the 
1 See Gleichen, op. a'/., p. 239 ; Shucair, op. cit., Hi., p. 93. 


Red Sea provinces, and from Z61a went on to Harar. Here he found 
that the Governor, Raw'fif Pfisha, had ruled the people in a cruel 
fashion, and that he was a slave-dealer on a large scale ; he there- 
fore promptly dismissed him. In March, 1878, Walda Mikael 
attacked Rfts Bary6n, the commandant of the Abyssinian 
frontier, and defeated and killed him, and succeeded in obtaining 
possession of Gordon's letters to the Ras, wherein his views about 
Walda Mikael were expressed. Osman PAshA, one of Gordon's 
officers, supplied him with ammunition, and the Minister of War 
in Cairo wrote and congratulated Walda Mikael on his victory ! 
Nine months later Walda MikAtM made his submission to King 
John, which was accepted. 

Notwithstanding that most of Gordon's time and attention 
was occupied in keeping the peace, such as it was, in the Sudan, 
he managed to consider matters of commercial and practical 
utility. Among these was the scheme for uniting the Sudan with 
Egypt by a railway. The scheme was an old one, which was 
proposed so far back as 1857 by Sa'id Pasha, and the route was 
surveyed by Mougel Bey, the builder of the Barrage north of 
Cairo. In 1865 the country was examined by Messrs. Walker 
and Pray, but the railway was not begun. Subsequently Isina'il 
ordered a line to be laid from Haifa to the south, but after about 
fifty miles had been laid, at a cost of £450,000, the scheme was 
stopped. Gordon wished to make a line from Berber to the port 
of Sawakin, which is the natural outlet for Sudan produce, 
but the Khedive would not listen to the proposal. Meanwhile 
Gordon was doing splendid work in suppressing the slave trade, 
for in two months he seized fourteen caravans, and he settled a 
batch of 1,300 of ZuImt's old slave-soldiers in a district between 
W'adai and Dar Fur. 

The greatest event of the year 1878 was the campaign of 

: against Suleman, the son of Zuber, who revolted at the 

instigation of his father, 1 and seized the province of Pahr ai- 

(dia/al. Gordon had long realized that it was hopeless to expect 

any support or help from Cairo, and he had good reason for 

ring that, in his inmost heart, [sma'il's sympathies were with 

his own corrupt officials in the Sudan, and that he regarded him 

1 See (ileichen, op. cit. % p. 241 ; Shucair. op. </'/., iii., pp. 96, 97 ff. 


as an honest but visionary and troublesome reformer. Gordon 
knew too that with the success or failure of Zuber's revolt the 
Egyptian Government in the Sudan must fall or stand, but the 
corrupt clique in Cairo which toadied Isma'il understood nothing 
of this, and cared for nothing except their gain and pleasure. 
Count Gleichen aptly points out that at this time Zuber was in 
Cairo, being treated as an honoured guest, and that Nubar 
Pasha, who was well acquainted with Zuber's successes as a 
slave-dealer, actually offered to send him to assist Gordon ! The 
truth, of course, is that Isma'il was constitutionally incapable of 
seeing eye to eye with the British in the matter of the slave trade, 
and his views about the rights of conquered or dependent people 
were fundamentally different from ours. 

The rebellion headed by Suleman had for its object the seizing 
of the Sudan, and he and his friends the slave-dealers had 
arranged to divide the country among themselves. Every tribe 
lent him its support, and sent men, for the Government of the 
country as administered by the Sudan officials was most corrupt, 
oppressive, and abominable ; its main object seemed to be to tax 
the native out of existence. Gessi left Khartum in July, 1878, and 
on his way south to Shambi found the slave trade in full activity, 
the Government steamers and officials rendering to it every 
facility in their power. From Shambi he went to Rumbek, which 
he fortified, and stayed there till November. Here he learned 
that Suleman had surprised and massacred the troops at Dem 
Idris, and that with his army of 6,000 men he was laying waste 
the country in all directions. Gessi's force consisted of 1,000 men 
and two guns. Gessi left Rumbek on November 17th, and arrived 
at Waw, in the province of the Bahr al-Ghazal, on December 5th, 
and established a station there. From this place Suleman had 
carried off 10,000 women and children. Gessi then set out for 
Dem Idris, and was attacked by Suleman on December 28th with 
10,000 men ; he was " repulsed with great loss after severe fight- 
ing." On January 12th, 28th, and 29th, 1879, Suleman again 
attacked Gessi, but he was defeated on each occasion. On March 
nth Gessi set fire to Suleman's camp with rockets, and when its 
inmates rushed out Gessi's soldiers fell upon them ; but pursuit 
was out of the question, for Gessi was short of ammunition. On 



May ist Gessi attacked Sulem&n's fort, which after three days' 
fighting he captured, with much spoil. S ill 6 man himself escaped, 
and was pursued by Gessi, but without success. In July he set 
out again in pursuit of the rebel, and was fortunate enough to 
surprise him on the 15th, and to make him lay down his anus 
Fearing that with the help of his friends Suleman might escape, 

1 shot him and ten other ringleaders, 1 and, with the help of 
the people, he hunted down the other dealers, and broke up their 
parties, and set the slaves free. Gessi's activity and boldness had 
enabled him to crush Suleman's revolt, and for a short period 
slave-trading ceased. 

On June 25th, 1879, Isina'il Pasha - was deposed, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Tawftk Pasha. In August Gordon arrived in 
Cairo to discuss Abyssinian affairs with the new Khedive, and the 
result was his mission to Abyssinia. He reached Masaw'a on 
September 6th, and Gura on the 16th, and arrived at Dabra 
Tabor, near Gondar, where the king of Abyssinia was staying, on 
October 27th. Here he was detained through the shilly-shallying 
of King John, but at length he was allowed to leave, and he 
started for KallAbfit, meaning to go on to Khartum. Before he 
reached Kallabat he was arrested by King John's orders and 

:ht back through Abyssinia, and he arrived, after much 
privation, at Masaw'a on December 8th, and determined never to 
return to the Sudan. During the second period of Gordon's rule 
in the Sudan many administrative changes had been made. 

ral of the stations occupied by Baker had been given up, and 
the territory of Egypt in the Sudan ceased at the Somerset Nile. 
At the end of 1879 RAW'ftF Pasha was appointed Governor of 
din. It will be remembered that he had been dismissed by 

on from the governorship of Harar because he was trading in 

1 ill-treating the people of his province, yet this was the 

man whom the authorities at Cairo entrusted at this critical 

period with the rule of the Sudan ! Before six months had 

d the slave-dealers were again active, and, favoured by the 

I rovernor at Khartum and his subordinates, raiding began 

r their names, see Shucair, op. ctt, iii. p. 101. 
He was born in 1830 and died in 1895 ; he was the son of Ibrahim P&shA 
became Khedive in 1863, though the farm on was not issued until 1867. 


again, and the export of slaves by the Dar Fur road to Egypt 
and the cross-country routes to Sawakin and Masaw'a went on 
merrily. Gessi, of course, found his position under Raw'uf in- 
tolerable, and therefore resigned his office in the Bahr al-Ghazal, 
and left Meshra ar-Rek for Khartum on September 25th, 1880. 
His steamer, the Sasia, was towing boats with 400 men on board, 
and became blocked by the Sudd near Ghaba Ger Dekka. All 
efforts made failed to move the vegetable barrier, food ran short, 
fever killed one half of the men, and their dead bodies were eaten 
by the other half. On January 4th, 1881, Marno appeared in 
the Burden, and brought food and help, and so saved Gessi's 
life. Gessi was succeeded in the governorship by Lupton Bey, 
the captain of a Red Sea merchant steamer. In 1882 the slave 
trade was flourishing in the Sudan, and Suleman's friends were 
making up for lost time. Simultaneously the Sudan was being 
''reorganized on paper" in Cairo, and the authorities were 
deciding that it was to be ruled by one governor, assisted by four 
subordinate governors, and decreeing that schools and courts of 
justice were to be established there, and making special arrange- 
ments for the suppression of the slave trade ! Thus was dust 
thrown in the eyes of European powers. 

In 1883 'Abd Al-Kader Hilmy Pasha was appointed Governor 
of the Sudan. 

In 1883 'Ala Ad-Din Pasha was appointed Governor of the 

In 1884 Gordon Pasha became Governor of the Sudan for the 
second time. 

In 1899 Lord Kitchener became Governor of the Sudan, 
and he was succeeded in the same year (December 22nd) by 
Sir F. R. Wingate, K.C.B., Pasha. 




The facts briefly stated in the preceding pages show clearly that 
in the sixty years which had elapsed since the occupation of the 
Sudan by Muhammad 4 A 1 i in 1820, the country had been ruined 
by bad government, excesssiw taxation, oppression, injustice, 
bribery, and, above all, by the infamous slave trade, which had 
been more or less aided and abetted by all the Rulers of Egypt. 
Thousands upon thousands of square miles of territory had gone 
out of cultivation, the water-wheels were broken in many places 
and had been left to rot, and about seven-eighths of the popula- 
tion had given up a settled life and become brigands, highway 
robbers, cattle-lifters, and slave-raiders. Erom the Equator 
northwards every man was dissatisfied with the Egyptian 

rnment, and the desire for its abolition was boldly expressed 
on all hands. The natives in the towns had just tasted the bless- 
ings of Gordon's just and equitable government, and were becom- 
ing accustomed to his patient hearing of their petitions, and to 
the sight of the punishment which he meted out with unswerving 
justice to evil-doers, when he departed, and his place was taken 
by a notorious slave-dealer, whom the Khedive and his ministers 
their land. The slave-dealing tribes of Arab descent, 
ing that the Government at Cairo talked of the suppression 
of their trade, were ready to revolt, and when they compared the 
number of the men available for the purpose with that of the 

itian troops, they felt no doubt as to their success. Thus 
matters stood at the end of 1879 when Gordon left the Sudan. 
All that was wanted to set the whole country in a blaze of rebel- 
lion was some one person, or an idea round which the elements 
volt could crystallize. Eate, or Fortune, supplied both a person 
and the idea ; the person was Muhammad Ahmad, and the idea 



was one which, though thirteen hundred years old among Muslims, 
is ever new to the generation among which it reappears, viz., the 
regeneration of the Muhammadan Din, or religion, by force of 

Muhammad Ahmad, 1 now known as "the Mahdi," was born on 
the Island of Darar, in the neighbourhood of Dongola, about the 
year 1843; his father's name was 'Abd-Allah, and his mother's 
Zenab, and he claimed a descent from Arabs who had settled 
in Nubia from the Peninsula of Arabia. His pedigree is thus 
given by Shucair (iii., p. 114) : Muhammad Al-Mahdi, the son of 
'Abd-Allah, the son of Mahal, the son of 'Abd Al-Wali, the son 
of 'Abd-Allah, the son of Muhammad, the son of Hagg Sharif, the 
son of 'Ali, the son of Ahmad, the son of 'Ali, the son of Hasab 
An-Nebi, the son of Sibr, the son of Nasr, the son of 'Abd Al- 
Karim, the son of Husen, the son of 'Aun Allah, the son of Negen 
Ad-Din, the son of 'Uthman, the son of Musa, the son of Abu 
Al-'Abbas, the son of Yunas, the son of 'Uthman, the son ofYa'kub, 
the son of 'Abd Al-Kader, the son of Hasan the soldier, the son of 
'Alwan, the son of 'Abd Al-Baki, the son of Sakhra, the son of 
Ya'kub, the son of Hasan As-Sabt, the son of Imam 'Ali, the son 
of Abu Talib. His father was by trade a boat-builder, and when 
hard times came upon him he removed to Khartum, and settled 
in Karari, where he died and was buried, leaving a daughter called 
Nur Ash-Sham, and three sons, viz., Muhammad, Muhammad 
Ahmad, and Earned. A fourth son, 'Abd-Allah, was posthumous. 
Ahmad's brothers worked at their father's trade, but Ahmad devoted 
himself to books and learned the Kur'an in the schools of Karari 
and Khartum. He worked hard, and pleased his instructors, and 
went to Berber and studied under the famous Shekh Muhammad 

From Berber he went to Khartum and studied under Muham- 
mad Sharif, an eminent professor of the Samaniya doctrine. He 
was modest, intelligent, and devout. At prayer-time he wept 
until the ground about him was moist, and all the time his shekh 

1 The most complete account of the life and teaching of this man is 
given by Sir Reginald Wingate in his Mahdiism (second edition), and the 
best commentaries which the reader can have on both are Slatin Pasha's 
Fire and Sword in the Sudan, and Ohrwalder's Ten Years' Captivity in the 
Mahdi 1 s Camp. 

VOL. II. 241 R 


was instructing him he sat with bowed head. 1 He became a 
professor of religion in 1861, and in 1871 he and his brothers went 
to live on Abba Island, in the White Nile, near Kawa. Here he 
led a life of fasting and prayer, and trained many disciples, and 
all the people regarded him as a most holy and learned man. His 
brothers made a good living by boat-building, for there was much 
timber on the island, and they supplied the wants of Ahmad, 
which were few, for he lived in a cave hollowed out in the mud 
bank of the river. 

One day his teacher, Muhammad Sharif, gave a feast to celebrate 
the circumcision of his sons, and he gave his guests an indul- 
gence which permitted them to sing and dance. Ahmad, hearing 
this, told his audience that no man could forgive sins, and singing, 
dancing, and music were contrary to God's commands. These 
words were reported to Muhammad Sharif, who promptly called 
upon his disciple to justify himself. Ahmad humbly asked for- 
giveness, but his irate master abused him, and struck his name 
off the Samaniya order. Twice after this did Ahmad ask for 
forgiveness, but his master repulsed him on each occasion with 
words of contumely and abuse. Ahmad now applied to the 
Shekh Al-Kurt'shi, who lived at Masallamiya, to receive him into 
his order, and this shdkh agreed to do so. Just as Ahmad was 
starting for Masallamiya, a message came from his former master 
telling him to appear before him, and he should receive a full 
pardon. Ahmad declined to do this, saying that he was innocent 
of offence, and that he now sought no forgiveness from him. The 
dispute between Ahmad and Muhammad Sharif created a stir, 
and people's sympathies were with the younger man. Numbers 
of men Hocked to Abba Island to receive his blessing, and all the 
gifts given to him he distributed among the poor, thus gaining 
a great reputation for self-sacrifice and piety. He then travelled 
about among the religious folk in KordolYm, and was everywhere 
received with open arms. He wrote a pamphlet wherein he 
called upon all true believers to help him to purify the religion of 
Islam, which was becoming debased, and was being flouted by the 
facials ; of this seditious work be gave copies to all 
his faithful admirers. Besides this, he preached the absolute 
1 Shucair, op. ci/., iii., p. 115. 


equality of all men, and the community of all goods and 
possessions, and every man was to become a Muslim under penalty 
of death. A programme of this kind was certain to be popular, 
and Ahmad knew well the character of the people to whom he 
preached. His social position was good, for he had married 
daughters of several of the chief Bakkara (Baggara) shekhs, and 
these connections gave him many friends. 

Exactly when the idea came to him is not known, but in 1880 
Ahmad seems to have made up his mind to personate the Mahdi, 
who according to Muslim tradition was to appear in the year of 
the Hijra 1300, i.e., a.d. 1882. Early in 1881 he had a serious 
quarrel with the Mudir of Fashoda as to the taxation of the dis- 
trict, and, knowing the feelings of the people, he openly defied 
him. In May, 1881, he took counsel with his co-n4igionists, and 
in August following, during the Ramadan fast, he boldly and 
publicly declared himself to be the Mahdi, whose advent was 
awaited, and he promised to purify the religion and to right all 
wrongs, and to abolish the Government with its iniquitous system 
of oppression and taxation. He would first take the Sudan, then 
Egypt, and finally he would go and found a kingdom at Mekka 
which should last one thousand years. The Mahdi was at this 
time forty years of age, i.e., the same age as the Prophet when he 
declared his mission. 

When Raw'uf Pasha heard of the Mahdi's proclamation he 
sent Abu Sa'ud, with 200 soldiers and one gun, to Abba Island to 
bring him to Khartum. On their arrival, a member of the force 
called 'Ali Effendi shot a villager by mistake, whereupon the 
people rushed on the soldiers and massacred about 140 of them, 
and the rest with difficulty escaped to their boat. The Mahdi 
was now a rebel, and he was prudent enough to withdraw to the 
south of Kordofan, beyond Gebel Takala to Gebel Kadir ; but he 
also took care to send out everywhere reports of his victory over 
the Government troops. 1 

On December 4th, 1881, Rashid Bey, the Mudir of Fashoda, 

collected 400 soldiers and 1,000 Shilluks, and set out to attack the 

Mahdi at Gebel Kadir ; with him was the slave inspector Berghoff. 

He reached the Mahdi's position on the gth at dawn, and his men 

1 See Slatin, Fire and Sword, p. 135 ; Shucair, op. cit., iii ., p. 130. 



seeing wells rushed to drink ; whilst thus scattered the Mahdi's 
men fell on them, and killed Rashid and Berghoff and nearly all 
their followers. The news of the defeat spread far and wide in 
the Sudan, and all the tribes in Dar Fur, Kordofan, Sennaar, and 
in the Eastern Desert between Berber and the Red Sea were in 
revolt. Raw'af Pasha then collected a force of 4,000 men, which on 
March 18th, 1882, under the command of Nubar Pasha Yusuf, set 
out for the Shilluk country. It reached Kawa, stayed there for 
several weeks, and did nothing ! Seeing that the troops were at 
Kawa, Ahmad Al-Makashif, a relative of the Mahdi, besieged 
Sennaar with 1,000 of the Bakkara ; the siege was raised by 
Salih Bey after a fierce fight. The enemy retreated to Karkog, 
and a few weeks later defeated a force sent against them at 
Masallamiya. Meanwhile Raw'iif Pasha had been recalled and 
had gone to Cairo, and the government of Khartum was carried 
on by Giegler Pasha, the head of the telegraph department, until 
the arrival of 'Abd Al-Kader, the new governor, on May nth, 
1882. On the jrd of May Giegler Pasha inarched against the 
Bakkara on the Blue Nile, and defeated them at Abu I.Iaraz, and 
on the 25th he gained another victor}' over them at Sennaar. 
He then returned to Khartum. In June the Mahdi, whose 
followers had begun to invest Al-Obed, surprised and routed 
Yusuf Pasha, Governor of Fashoda, near Gebel Kadir, and took 
all his arms and ammunition, and a Large quantity of stores. 
Soon afterwards the Mahdi captured Shatt on the White Nile, 
and put all the males to death; and on July 20th he destroyed a 
force of 1,000 Egyptians in Dar Fur. 

In August the Mahdi found that he was master of three 

armies, 1 but his troops were defeated at Bara, Al-Obed was 

mailed, and in a battle fought at Duwem on the 28th he 

lost 4,500 men. Early in September the Mahdi led a force in 

person against Al-Obed, and each of his three attacks on the 

4th, 5th, and 6th respectively, was repulsed. His loss was about 

10,000 killed, and his prestige suffered, for no force led by him in 

n had hitherto been defeated. About this time 'Ali Bey 

Satfi, with 3,000 troops, marched to the relief of Dara, and 

ged the enemy twice: the first time he was successful, and 

1 (ileichcn,^/. a'/., p. 244. 



the second lost 1,130 men. In October the Mahdi besieged Al- 
Obed and Dara, and 'Abd Al-Kader, the Governor of the Sud:\n, 
telegraphed to Cairo for 10,000 men ; in December Colonel 
Stewart was sent to Khartum to make a report on the situation. 

On January 5th, 1883, Bara fell, and on the 17th Al-Obed 
also, and 8,000 men, and rifles, arms and ammunition, five guns, 
and £100,000 in specie fell into the hands of the Mahdi, who took 
up his residence in the Government House at Al-Obed. On 
February 29th 'Abd al-Kader fought Ahmad Al-Makashif near 
Sennaar, and defeated him, and killed 2,000 of his men ; on 
March 4th the rebel was attacked by Salih Agha, who defeated 
him and slew 547 of his men. 'Abd Al-Kader was now 
superseded and 'Ala Ad-Din Pasha became Governor of the 
Sudan. In response to 'Abd Al-Kader's appeal for 10,000 men, 
Hicks Pasha was sent to Khartum, via Sawakin and Berber, with 
10,000 untrained Egyptians, and he arrived on March 4th. 
Hicks left Khartum on April 3rd for Kawa, with about 5,000 
men, and on the 29th he was attacked near Marabia by Ahmad 
Al-Makashif, with 5,000 men ; the rebel commander was defeated 
with great loss, and slain. On September 9th, Hicks left 
Khartum with about 9,000 men, 5,500 camels, 500 horses, and 
20 guns for Duwem, which he reached on the 20th. He marched 
on Al-Obed, via Khor Abu Habl, according to 'Ala Ad-Din's 
recommendation, and arrived at Shatt on the 24th. Meanwhile 
the Mahdi had collected some 40,000 men whom he had made to 
camp in the forest of Shekan. Hicks left Shatt on the 28th, and 
wandered on through a waterless country of which he knew 
nothing. His guides led him astray near Kasghil, and then ran 
away. He wandered about for three days and three nights, 
suffering greatly from the want of water, and then entered the 
forest wherein the Mahdi's men were. 1 Here, on November 5th, 
the enemy fell upon Hicks and his troops, and slaughtered 
men and animals mercilessly ; only about 300 escaped 
death. Hicks and his Staff made a brilliant charge, and 
died fighting like men. The effect of this victory was to 
make the Mahdi master of all the Sudan south of Khartum, and 

1 For the supposed Itineiary of Hicks's Army, see Wingate, Mahdiism, 
P- 549- 



he had now 21,000 rifles and 29 guns at his disposal, with 
ammunition, stores, specie, &c. And men all over the Sudan 
believed that Muhammad Ahmad was indeed the Mahdi, whose 
advent tradition had foretold. 

Early in 1883' Slatin Pasha was ordered to nominate a local 
Sultan as King of Dar Fur, and to retire on Dongola via Kaja. 
It will be remembered that in 1882, after he had twice defeated 
Madibbo at Ingelrla near Dara, he retired to Al-Fasher to 
concentrate his forces. In 1883 he fought twenty-seven actions 
in his province, but little by little his men deserted him, and when 
the remainder heard of the annihilation of Hick>\s army. Slatin 
found that the only course open to him was to surrender; this he 
did at Dara in December, 1883. 2 He was then sent to Al-Obed 
under the name of 'Abd Al-KAder, and thence to Umm Durman 
(Omdurman), where he remained a prisoner until his escape in 

i8 95 . 

About the middle of 1883 Osman Dikna gathered together the 

Hadanduwa and the Bishari and other tribes of the Eastern 

Desert, and they revolted against the Government to such 

purpose that by December the Egyptian garrisons of Sinkat, 

Kasala, Kad.'nef. Kallabat, &c, were in their hands. In October 

and November parties intended for Sinkat and Tokar were cut 

nf\\ and on December 2nd about 700 men wen- annihilated near 

Tamanib. In the Bahr al-Ghaz&l, Jankt, Shekh of the Dinkas, 

rebelled at Liffl on August 18th, [882, on behalf of the Mahdi; 

towards the end of the year Lupton marched against him and 

ited him with great slaughter at Telgona. Early in [883 

Janki returned to Liffi and was again beaten : hut in September 

ked Rufai 'Agha, an officer of Lupton's, at Dembo, and 

-acred him and all his men. The whole Dinka tribe then 

led, and Lupton had to retreat to Dein ZuIh't : after August 

15th he was isolated. 

After the annihilation of Hicks's army it was decided to abandon 

the Sudan, for the simple reason that Egypt could neither produce 

an army, nor pay for one, which should be strong enough to 

crush the revolt in the Sudan, The various Egyptian garrisons 

throughout the country had, of course, to be withdrawn, 

(jleichen, op. a'/., p. 255. M Shucair, op. a'/., iii., p. 1X7. 



and the man chosen by the authorities to perform this work was 
General Gordon. He left London on January 18th, 1884, and 
reached Berber, via Korosko and Abu Hamed, on February nth ; 
he was accompanied by Colonel Stewart, who had been made his 
Deputy- Adjutant-General. At Berber he issued the decree 
authorizing the evacuation of the Sudan, which it is said 
astonished the Mudir, Husen Pasha Khalifa, and practically 
sealed Gordon's own fate. On the 18th Gordon arrived at 
Khartum, and the townsmen welcomed him. The enthusiasm 
was great at his assumption of power, at his remission of past and 
reduction of future taxes, and it lasted about nine days. 1 Soon 
after his arrival Gordon issued a proclamation to the people, in 
which he said : — 

. . . . " I also give you the right to keep the slaves in your 
" service without any interference from the Government or any- 
" body else . . . ." 

"Whereas my sincerest desire is to adopt a course of action 
" which shall lead to the public tranquillity, and being aware with 
" what regret you have regarded the severe and stringent measures 
" which have been taken by the Government for the suppression 
"of the traffic, and the seizure and punishment of all concerned 
" in the slave trade, as provided by the convention and by the 
" decrees, I therefore confer upon you these rights : that hence- 
" forth no one shall interfere with your property ; that who- 
" ever has slaves in his service shall have full right to their 
" services and full control over them without any interference 
" whatsoever." s 

When the first enthusiasm was over the people of Khartum 
began to consider Gordon's pbsition. He was Governor of the 
Sudan, but he had no army, he forgave everybody, he freely 
remitted taxation, and he gave his support to the slave trade, 
which in years past he had done so much to crush. What did it 
all mean ? Then men remembered that Cairo had been taken 
possession of by the British, who had determined to abandon the 
Sudan, and they wondered when their country had been cast off 
by Egypt who was to rule it. Gordon announced that the Sudan 
was now an independent kingdom, with himself as the Governor- 

1 Wingate, Mahdiism, p. 109. 8 Ibid., Appendix to Book v., p. 551. 



General, but no one in Khartum regarded the man who had 
permitted Gessi to shoot Suleman, Zuber's son, and had dismissed 
in disgrace Raw'uf PAshA, the Governor of Harar, for slave- 
dealing, and had liberated thousands of slaves, as the permanent 
Governor of the country, the chief industry of which had, for 
thousands of years, consisted of slave dealing and slave-raiding. 
Nor had the tribes between the White and Blue Niles and the 
Ga'alin Arabs between Berber and Khartum a different opinion, 
and they remembered that it was Gordon who issued the edict to 
eject the Gellabas from the southern districts, and that as a result 
of this drastic measure many of the people had not only lost 
fathers, brothers, and sons, but had been reduced to beggary. 
• Were they," Slatin pertinently asks, "likely to forgive Gordon 
this?"' Gordon's position was an impossible one, and the 
authorities had sent him to do a thing which was, for him, 
impossible. Neither the British nor the Egyptian Government 
realized how serious the situation was, and even Gordon himself 
appears to have underrated the strength and extent of the 
fanaticism which produced the rebellion, and to have overrated 
his ability to cope with it. 

He appointed the Mahdi Sultan of Kordofan by proclamation, 

and sent him some very tine clothes and a letter asking for the 

se of all prisoners. But the Mahdi was already de facto 

master of all the country south of Khartum, and had tens of 

thousands of fanatical followers ready to right for him to the 

deathj whilst Gordon entered Khartum with merely a small 

bodyguard.- The Mahdi knew well that Gordon could not take 

from him by force of arms what he had obtained, and when he 

wrote back to him he advised Gordon to surrender and save his 

This incident is both ludicrous and pathetic, and illustrates 

-n's attitude towards the rebellion. 

In a very short time the natives made up their minds that 
Gordon was merely a Stop-gap, and they began to consider who 
was to be their head after his departure. There was only one 
man whom the tribes admitted to be fit to hold his office, and 
that man was the notorious Zuber ; and it was for him that they 
Mired. Gordon agreed with them, and asked the authorities 
1 fire and Sword, p. 280. Una., p. 281. 



to send Zuber up to Khartum to take over from him the rule in 
the Sudan. The request was, however, refused on the ground 
that he had been a slave-dealer ; therefore Zuber was kept in 
Cairo. When the people in Khartum learned the decision of the 
Government, they were much disappointed, and shekh after 
shekh began to demand that Khartum should be handed over to 
him. Thereupon Gordon lined the forts with soldiers, and made 
ready for war. On March 16th he hazarded a fight, but his men 
" ran like hares and were massacred " ; a week later the " Bashi- 
Bazouks " refused to obey orders, and were promptly disarmed. 
On March ioth the Mahdi called on Gordon to surrender, and 
sent him as a present a suit of Dervish apparel, which consisted 
of a coat, an overcoat, a turban, a cap, a girdle, and beads, and 
invited him to come out to him at once wearing this suit. Gordon 
called a council to consider this summons,' and it decided to 
trust Gordon and resist ; and Gordon accepted the trust. He 
was never allowed to leave Khartum, and even on the most trifling 
boat journey he was always accompanied by vigilant townsmen, 2 
whose fetish he had become. 

Meanwhile Colonel Valentine Baker had set out in January to 
relieve Tokar, with 3,700 men, but on February 4th at At-Teb he 
was attacked by 1,200 Arabs; his men literally ran away, and as 
they made no resistance 2,300 of them were slain. Baker and 
his officers escaped with difficulty, but 3,000 rifles and four Krupp 
guns fell into the hands of the enemy. Four days later Tawfik 
and his men fought their way out of Sinkat, and they were all cut 
to pieces. General Graham was then sent to relieve Tokar with a 
British force of 4,000 men ; he defeated the rebels at At-Teb on 
January 29th, and again on March 13th at Tamai. In April 
Kadaref surrendered to the forces of the Mahdi; on the 21st of the 
same month Karam-Allah, 3 the Amir of Bahr al-Ghazal, forced 
Lupton Bey to surrender. Lupton was given a new name, 'Abd- 
Allah, and sent to Omdurman, where he died on July 17th, 1888. 
On May 20th Berber was attacked, and, after some resistance, 

1 A translation of the document is given by Wingate, Mahdiism, p. 1 1 1 ff. ; 
for the Arabic text, see Shucair, op. a'/., iii., p. 226. 

- Wingate, Mahdiism, p. 116. 

3 He was executed at Al-Fasher by 'Ali Dinar in 1903 ; Gleichen, op. cit., 
p. 259. 



surrendered. On the 27th Karam-Allah called on Emin Bey at 
Ladd to surrender, but he held on to his post, although his men 
very greatly disaffected. Emboldened by his capture of 
Berber, Haddai marched into the Dongola province, where, 
however, he was defeated in July at Debba and Tani. On 
September 1st Mustafa Pasha Yawar, the Mudlr of Dongola, with 
400 men, attacked Haddai and Muhammad Mahmud, and their 
3,000 men, and defeated them with great slaughter; both leaders 
were killed in the battle. 

In the interval the British Government had decided to send 
out a Gordon Relief Expedition, and to Lord Wolseley was given 
the command of it ; he arrived at Cairo on September 9th, and 
the expedition concentrated eventually at Korti in December. 

Towards the end of August Gordon felt that the time had omit' 
to strike- a blow at his enemies, who were hemming him in more 
closely each daw and on the 29th and 31st, his ' 4 fighting Pasha," 
Muhammad ' A 1 i Pasha, set out for the Blue Nile with a large 
force. He defeated \\l>d al-K&der at Geref, and Shekh Al- 
'Obed at I.lalfava, and gained two brilliant victories. On 
September 4th, however, the Shekh Al-'Obed fell upon his forces 
at Umm Dubban at dawn, when they were tired and in disorder, 
for they had lost their way and had been wandering about all 
night, and Muhammad 'All and 800 of liis men were cut down, 
and 980 Remington rifles fell into the hands of the enemy. 1 This 
disaster took place about twelve miles to the east of the town of 
Al-'filaffin on the Blue Nile, a few miles above Soba, and was the 
more heart-rending because it happened after the brave " lighting 
Pasha'* had gained a third victory at '£lafun. After this defeat 

mi believed his position to be, humanly speaking, despx 
and In- despatched the steamer " Abbas" to Cairo 2 with Colonel 
Stewart, Herbin, Power, and a bodyguard of Greeks on board. 
The steamer left on September 10th, and was allowed to proceed 

safely ><> far as Habba in the Fourth Cataract, where she arrived 
on the 18th. Here the steersman ran her on a rock, and she 

sank, but Stewart and his companions managed to land. The)' 
entered a neighbouring village, and, having been invited into the 

1 Win^ate, Malniiism, p. i 57 ; Shucair, o/>. cit. t iii., p. 251. 
ec Shucair, iii., p. 258 tt" 



house of Suleman wad Na'man to drink coffee and to discuss the 
hire of camels, were murdered. The Arabs who murdered the 
party were collected by Fakri wad 'Uthman, a blind man, and 
Suleman wad Kamr, the ShSkh of the Monasir Arabs, assisted 
them. After the murder of Stewart and his party, another body 
of Arabs attacked the crew of the steamer, and only thirteen of 
them escaped. 

On September 26th Gordon sent three steamers under the 
command of Nashi Pasha to meet the British Expedition, but 
this they did not do until January 21st, when they met the 


t'/ rijv' /rf/yn 




Desert Column near Matamma. The steamers were the TelaJi- 
wiya, the Borden, the Manmra, and later they were joined by the 
Safia. On October 10th news was received at Shendi of Stewart's 
death, and a steamer was sent to Khartum to inform Gordon. 
The steamer returned to Shendi, and the attack on that town by 
Gordon's men went on for three months. Meanwhile nothing 
was heard of the British Expedition, and the hearts of men in 
Khartum grew sick at the delay. After the disaster at '£lafun 
the inhabitants " fell into despair and distress, and wept for their 
state," and Burdeni Bey ' says that Gordon wept with them ; it 
1 Quoted by Wingate, Mahdiism, p. 163 ff. 


• the first and last time I ever saw Cordon Pasha in tears/' 
The day after the defeat the Mahdi sent 'Abd A r- Rahman an- 
X;i»unii with 10,000 men to Kalakala, and called upon every 
tribe to send men to besiege Khartum. They did his bidding, 
and began to bombard the town from all sides. But Gordon had 
no fear, and one evening when his friend Burd^ni suggested that 
he should have boxes of sand placed in the windows to stop the 
bullets, he was enraged, and at once had a lantern which would 
hold twenty-four candles brought to the room. He and his 
friend filled its sockets with candles, and lit them. Cordon 
then said, " Winn God was portioning out fear to all the people 
11 in the world, at last it came to my turn, and there was no Fear 
"left to give me; go, tell ajl the people in Khartum that Cordon 
"fears nothing, for God has created him without fear." On 
November 12th a fierce fight between Gordon's men and the 
Is took place, and the latter lost heavily. After the fight the 
rebels built forts between Omdurman and Khartum, and bom- 
barded the latter town continuously. 

On December 28th a River Column left Korti under General 
Earle, with orders to push on to Abu Named, and two days later 
a Desert Column left the same place to occupy Gakdul Wells. 

•On January 5th, 1885, Farak-Allah. the brave commandant of 
Omdurman, was obliged to surrender, and all his men were 
taken prisoners. Thereupon the rebels began to cut off all supplies 
from Khartum, and men began to starve. The crops on Tuti 
Island were sown and reaped under the fire of the guns from the 
fort! They produced 20oardefoot Corn (the ardeb-=z$\ bushels, 
<»r 300 pounds), and each ardeb Cordon bought for £12. When 
this eoni and the biseuits were eaten, the town was carefully 
bed, but very little corn was found. A receipt was given to 
every man from whom corn was taken. Then men ate doe;-. 
donkeys, skins of animals, palm fibre, and gum. The soldiers 
stood like logs of wood on the fortifications, and the corps 
civilians tilled the streets. Then the cattle, 2N animals in all, were 
killed, and their fiesfa distributed among the soldiers. 

On January nth the Desert Column left Gakdul Wells, 1800 

Strong, and on the 17th it engaged a force of 11,000 Dervishes at 

I b Abu Klea"), which it defeated with great slaughter. 


On the 19th it fought another battle at Abu Khrug, and on that 
day Sir Herbert Stewart was mortally wounded. 

On January 20th the rebels fired a salute of 101 guns, pretend- 
ing that they had beaten the British, but Gordon was not deceived. 
On the 24th Sir C. Wilson left Gubat with two of Gordon's 
steamers which had arrived on the 21st at Matamma. Meanwhile 
in Khartum the arrival of the British was expected, " but as day 
by day passed," says Burdeni Bey, " and we neither saw nor 
''heard anything of them, we began again to despair. Gordon 
" Pasha used to say every day, ' They must come to-morrow,' 
" but they never came." On the following Sunday, January 
25th, Gordon observed that a great commotion was taking place 
at Kalakala, and he felt sure that an attack on the town was 
imminent. He summoned his friends, and through Giryagis 
begged them to make a stand for the last time, for he had no 
doubt that in twenty-four hours the British would come. He was 
too much agitated to address his friends himself, and he felt that 
all the town was now believing that he had told them lies when 
he said the British were coming. Burdeni saw him after the 
meeting, and notes that the distress and anxiety of the last few 
months had turned his hair a " snowy white." If only a couple of 
English soldiers of the advancing force " could be paraded about 
" the lines of Khartum," he used to say, " 1 should not fear the 
" enemy's attack." Gordon sat writing till midnight, and then lay 
down to sleep, but was awakened between 2 and 3 a.m. by the 
cries of the 50,000 Arabs, who had crept across the parapet ' and 
over the filled-up ditch into the town. 

For an hour he kept up a hot fire on them, but it was useless to 
stay the horde which thronged to the palace. He then left the 
roof and went to his room, and having changed his sleeping 
apparel for his white uniform, he stepped out at the head of the 
staircase. Here four men, Taha Shahin, Ibrahim Abu Shanab, 
Hamad Wad Ahmad, and a certain Dongolawi, rushed towards 
him as he stood in "a calm and dignified manner, his left hand 
" resting on the hilt of his sword." He asked, " Where is 
Muhammad Ahmad ? " Shahin attacked him at once with the 
words, " O cursed one, to-day is thy day " (i.e., thy time hath come), 
1 Ohrwalder, Ten Years' Captivity, p. 1 54 


and plunged his spear into his body. Gordon, it is said, made a 
gesture of scorn with his right hand, and turned his back, where 
he received another spear wound, which made him fall forward, 
and probably caused his death. The other three men rushed on 
him and hacked at him with their swords, and he must have 
died in a few seconds.' Gordon had a revolver in his hand, but 
he offered no resistance, and did not rire a shot.- His head was 
cut off at once 15 and sent to the Mahdi, and his body was dragged 
down the stairs into the garden, and stripped, and it lay there 
naked for some time ; many Arabs came and plunged their spears 
into it. The head was taken over to Omdurman and shown to 
Slatin Pasha l by Shatta, a black soldier; it was afterwards fixed 
between the branches of a tree and all who passed by cursed it, 
and threw stones at it. His body was finally thrown into a well r> 

1 Burden! Bey, quoted by Wingate. Mahdiism, p. m. 

wholly different version of Gordon's death is given by Neufeld in his A 
Prisoner of the Khalifa. It reads : " By the time Gordon had slipped into his 
" <>ld serge, or dark tweed suit, and taken his sword and revolver, the advanced 
•• Dervishes were already surrounding the Palace. Overco ning the guards, a 
" rush was made up the stairs, and Gordon was met leaving his room. A 
"sin, ill spear was thrown, which wounded him, but very slightly, on the left 
" s-houlder. Almost before the Dervishes knew what was happening three of 
"them lay dead, and one wounded, at Gordon's feet; the remainder fled. 
" Quickly reloading his revolver, Gordon made for the head of the stairs, and 
"again drove the reassembling Dervishes off. Darting back to reload, he 
"received a stab in his left shoulder-blade from a Dervish concealed behind the 
" corridor door, and on reaching the steps the third time, he received a pistol 
" shot and spear-wound in his right breast, and then, great soldier as he was. 
' 4 he rose almost above himself. With his life's blood pouring from his breast — 
" not his back, remember— he fought his way step by step, kicking from his 
" path the wounded and dead Dervishes ; . . . and as he was passing through 
" the doorway leading into the courtyard another concealed Dervish almost 

\ with a single blow. Then Gordon fell." 

o an authority quoted by Shucair(iii., p. 299) the actual murderer 
i»i Gordon was Muframmad Nubawi Shdkh ibn Garar. 
1 Fire and Sword, p. 340. 
An eye-witness who visited the palace after the murder of Gordon says he 
saw his headless body, smeared with blood, lying at the foot of the stairs. He 
went upstairs, and passing three dead bodies entered Gordon's office, wherein 
he also took his meals, and saw on the table a plate with cooked eggs on it, a 
tm of preserved meat with a fork in it, a small spoon, and another plate with 
pieces ot sugar on it. He nexi went into his bedroom and saw clothes hanging 
er his bed, and looking-glasses, and his portmanteaus standing by the 
(Shucair, op. cil., hi., p. 



at Khartum. Gordon was murdered shortly before sunrise on 
Monday, January 26th, 1885. * 

Thus died one of the greatest of Britain's sons, and it was a 
common saying among Muslims. " Had Gordon been one of us he 
" would have been a perfect man ! " His bravery, generosity, and 
self-sacrifice won the admiration of his bitterest enemies.' 2 We 
have it plainly stated by Sir Reginald Wingate, :J the greatest 
living authority on Sudan affairs, that the fall of Khartum was not 
caused by treachery in the besieged, nor by the stratagems of the 
besiegers, but through starvation and long neglect. Only the 
cruel river filled the ditch which protected the town with mud, 
and then ebbed away. Over this swarmed the Mahdi's men, and 
nothing could stop them. Help was at hand, only one short 
hundred miles away — but hunger and despair decided the issue. 4 

For some time past Gordon has been the subject of much cri- 
ticism ; ' some of it is friendly, but a great deal of it is of a decidedly 

1 He was born on January 28th, 1833, at Woolwich. 

2 Ohrwalder, Ten Years' Captivity, p. 169. 

3 Mahdiisw, p. 156. 4 Ibid., p. 199. 

5 Compare the following" from Sir Auckland Colvin's The Making of Modern 
Egypt, pp. 68 ff. On February 8th Gordon telegraphed that security in the 
Sudan would be restored in a month (p. 69). On the 18th he proposed that 
Zuber should be made Governor-General, and a K.C M.G. (p. 72). Gordon 
reversed the order of his instructions, and instead of arranging for the 
evacuation of the Egyptian troops, urged that the Mahdi should be " smashed 
up " (p. 73). Gordon for the first time grasped the situation when he arrived 
at Khartum. From that time he contended that evacuation was a mistake, and 
should be postponed until the Egyptian Government destroyed the authority 
which had superseded its own. He resolved to wreck that authority (p. 74). 
If the policy of evacuation were insisted on he would resign, and on March 25th 
he decided to remain (p. 75). The British Government and their Envoy over- 
estimated the influence which the latter could exercise in the changed conditions 
of the Sudan. "Gordon Pasha, as the representative of Ismail Pasha, at the 
"zenith of that Khedive's powe*-, and with slave-dealers only to contend against, 
" was one man ; but he was another General Gordon altogether as the emissary 
" of Tewfik Pasha— Tewfik the prot^gS of Christian England, the prisoner only 
"yesterday of his own rebellious Egyptian Army — and with Muhammad Ahmed 
" El Mahdi as adversary. Gordon Pasha, in the days when he was Governor- 
" General, by his energy, his ubiquity, his matchless courage, his lofty single- 
"mindedness, his large generosity, and by the absolute authority with which he 
"was endowed, had been a name of terror to evildoers. But General Gordon, 
" shut up in Khartum, authority wrenched from him, assistance from Egypt 
" unavailable to him, and with the Dervishes gathering around him, was not to 



hostile character. What, however, is now plain is that when 
the authorities sent him to the Sudan in 1884 they did not really 
understand the seriousness of the situation in that country. 
Affairs had developed so rapidly since Gordon left the Sudan in 
1879, and on lines so different from what he expected, that he 
himself probably failed to realize that he had undertaken to do 
what was impossible. Any one who ha* travelled in the Sudan, 
and conversed with Europeans and natives who know what state 
the Sudan was in at that time, cannot help hearing that, from an 
administrative point of of view, Gordon himself was impossible as 
a servant of the Government, and that he was often a thorn in 
the side of the authorities. It is said that his impulsive disposition, 
his generous emotions, his utter disregard for rules, orders, and 
precedents, his sometimes injudicious actions and fanaticism, 

" be regarded as of great account " (p. 78). No one realized that the country had 
passed over to the Mahdi (p. 78.) But if the responsibility of misleading the 
British Government rests on Gordon, the Cabinet cannot escape censure for their 
selection of so unsuitable an envoy. Gordon, with all his splendid qualities, 
was the most unfit selection possible for a mission of which retreat was the 
leading feature ; for his task he was eminently and absolutely unsuited. His 
peculiarities were no secret. ' He was not made to obey. In his own Journal he 
writes, " I own to having been very insubordinate to Her Majesty's Government 
" and its officials. But it is my nature, and I cannot help it. I know if I were 
"chief 1 would never employ myself, for I am incorrigible." He thought lie 
was directly guided by Providence, and his " impulsive and emotional nature 
" was beyond human control or comprehension. Years of solitary communing in 
" the African deserts, long days and nights of exhaustion and fatigue, fevers, 
"privation, wrestlings in prayer and spiritual strivings, had worked their 
M inevitable effect on the texture, both of mind and body" (p. 81). 

Lord Fitzinaurice, in his Life of Lord Granville. London, 1905, says, 
,l It is not disputed by the biographers of General Gordon that, once arrived at 
" Khartum, he either forgot or deliberately put aside his instructions" (vol. ii., 

5). Lord Granville wanted to recall Gordon (vol. ii., p. 401). Mr. 
Gladstone approved of Gordon's proposal to send Zuber to the Sudan, and at 
first Lord Granville did also (ii., p. 387). The four Ministers present at the 
meeting of the Cabinet which sent Gordon out were Lord Harrington, Lord 
Granville, Lord Northbrook. and Sir C. Dilke. Mr. Gladstone telegraphed his 
concurrence from Hawarden. Later he wrote : "Gordon remained in utter 
"defian< «• of the whole mind and spirit of our instructions. I do not see what 
" could have justified him, except (like Nelson at Trafalgar) a great success " 
(ii., p. 401). H( iks of the "insufficient knowledge of our man, whom 

rather took on trust from the public impressions, and from newspaper 
"accounts, which were probably not untrue, but so far from the whole truth 
"that we were misled" (ii.. p. 401). 



caused his superior officers the gravest anxiety, and reduced them 
to despair. 

At the same time it is generally agreed that the initial mistake, 
which resulted in his going to the Sudan in 1884, was not made by 
him, and that had the advice of competent counsellors been taken 
he would not have been allowed to go there at all. But once sent, 
he should have been accompanied by a military escort sufficiently 
strong to show that he was supported by the Government, and 
that his orders would be, if necessary, enforced by arms. He was 
besieged in Khartum on March 12th, 1884, and those who knew 
the extent of the rebellion felt and said that his case was hopeless : 
yet the Relief Expedition was not sanctioned till the following 
August. Sir Reginald Wingate says, 1 " There were no elements 
"of chance in the success of the expedition to relieve General 
" Gordon. It was sanctioned too late." And even when the 
expedition was ready to start it was, in direct opposition to the 
advice of the greatest authority on the subject. General Sir F. 
Stephenson, sent by the Nile instead of by the Sawakin-Berber 
route. This involved sending the force a distance of 1,650 miles 
from its base at Cairo, by a river in which were innumerable 
obstacles in the shape of cataracts, rocks, and shoals. It had to 
proceed against the stream, thus making slow progress, and in 
boats every one of which would have to be specially constructed 
for the purpose. 2 All who were acquainted with the difficulties 
of the Nile route, and had had experience of past Egyptian 
expeditions into the Sudan and possessed a competent knowledge 
of the country, strongly recommended the Sawakin-Berber route, 
but to no purpose. 

The Relief Expedition was at Matamma on January 21st, four 
days after the brilliant defeat of the combined forces of the Arabs 
under Musa wad Helu at Abu Tleh (" Abu Klea "), when four of 
Gordon's steamers arrived to obtain news, and to bring British 
soldiers to Khartum. And Slatin Pasha asks, " Why did they 
"not send some Englishmen on board, no matter how few, and 
" despatch them instantly to Khartum ? If they could only have 
" been seen in the town, the garrison would have taken fresh 
" hope, and would have fought tooth and nail against the enemy ; 
1 Mahdiism, p. 156. " 2 Royle, Egyptian Campaigns, p. 313. 

VOL. II. 257 S 


11 whilst the inhabitants, who had lost all confidence in Gordon's 
"promises, would have joined most heartily in resisting the 
"Dervish attack, knowing that the relief expedition was now 
" certain to reach them.'" Gordon had done his best to hold the 
town. lie had made a paper currency,- and distributed honours 
and decorations almost daily, but what good were these now ? 
No one believed his promises, and how could men faint from 
hunger, with only gum to chew, carry out his orders ? The 
streets were tilled with people who had died from starvation, even 
though Gordon had kept his men hungry by distributing hundreds 
of pounds' weight of biscuit and dkurra among the destitute poor. 
But if only one steamer 3 had arrived with news of a British 
victory * the inhabitants would have believed his words, and the 
town and the life of that fearless, brave, and gallant officer, who 
was courteous and generous to all, and careful for every one but 
himself, would have been saved. Father Ohrwalder's statement 
on this point is conclusive: "The unaccountable delay of the 
" English was the cause of the fall of Khartum, the death of 
" Gordon, and the fate of the Sudan. The Mahdi only made up his 
11 mind to attack when he heard that they had delayed at Gubat. 
" He did not begin to cross over his troops till January 24th, and 
"it was not till Sunday night that the crossing was completed." 
After the defeat of his men at 'ftlaffm on September 4th Gordon 
saw that his position was indeed desperate, and from March 1 Jth 
he had known that it was precarious. Still, for 311 days he stuck 
to his post and did his duty, in spite ofwant, hunger, neglect, and 
despair. The imagination fails to grasp how acute his mental 
sufferings were during the last five months of the siege, as he 
ed to the south daily from the palace roof and saw the enemy 
slowly but surely closing in on him, and to the north for the help 
which never came. 

For six hours after the fall of Khartum the town was given up 

1 Fire and Sword, p. 341. 

2 On November 12th Gordon had in the Treasjry only ^831, but his paper 

'ii ted ,£42,000 more. 
■ also the opinion ot the fiki Medawi, quoted by Wing.ite, Maluiiism, 
p. I 

1 Ohrwalder says that if twenty red-coats had arrived Khartum would have 
been saved (p. 167). 



to pillage by the Arabs, and about 4,000 ' people were massacred ; 
the bloodshed and cruelty which attended the massacre are said 
by Slatin 2 to be beyond description. 

On January 28th, 1885, Sir Charles Wilson arrived with two 
steamers at Khartum, and learned that the town had fallen and 
that Gordon had been murdered two and a quarter days 
previously. The news was generally known in England on 
February 5th, and the bitterness of a great national disappoint- 
ment was felt to the fullest extent. All the gallantry and 
devotion of her officers and men had been unavailing ; the costly 
Nile Expedition had proved a dismal failure ; and Gordon had been 
allowed to perish. The main responsibility will always rest with 
the Government which so long delayed the despatch of the 
Relief Expedition, and then, as if to make its failure more certain, 
sent it by the wrong route. 3 

On February 13th the Desert Column, under Sir Redvers Buller, 
who had succeeded General Stewart, evacuated Gubat on the 
Nile, and retreated to Korti, which it reached early in March. The 
River Column succeeded in ascending the Fourth Cataract as far 
as Khulla, about 26 miles from Abu Hamed, and on its way fought, 
on March 10th, a decisive action, with brilliant results, at Kirbikan. 
General Earle was killed. At Salamat the Column destroyed 
house, water-wheels, palm-trees, and all property of Suleman wad 
Kamr, and Fakri wad 'Uthman, who had arranged the murder 
of Colonel Stewart. On March 6th the Column arrived at 

Soon after the fall of Khartum the British sent another Expedi- 
tion to the Sudan via Sawakin under General Graham ; Indian 
and Australian troops were enrolled in it. General Graham was 
ordered to crush Osman Dikna, to occupy the Eastern Sudan, to 
build a railway to Berber, &c. The Expedition consisted of 
13,000 men, and reached Sawakin on March 12th. The season 
chosen for the Expedition was singularly unfortunate, as it 

1 Ohrwalder says (p. 162) that 10,000 people were killed, and that the streets 
were filled with headless corpses. The value of the sovereign sank to two-and- 
a-half dollars. 

2 Fire and Sword, p. 345 ; Ohrwalder, Ten Years Captivity, p. 158. 

3 Royle, Egyptian Campaigns, p. 386. 



coincided with the precise time of the year at which, twelve 
months before, the hot weather had compelled Graham to with- 
draw his army. The Expedition stayed at Sawakin for two 
months, and fought actions at Tell Hashim on March 20th, at 
Tufrik on March 22nd, and at Tamai on April 3rd. The railway 
laid, 4 feet 8J inches in single gauge, so far as Awtan, 
but work on it ceased on April 20th ; the Expedition retired on 
May 17th. 

In February the garrison of Kallabat was relieved, in April the 
garrisons of Senhit and Amadib were relieved, Gira was relieved 
in July, but on the 30th of the same month Kasala was starved 
into submission. 

In March Sir Francis Grenfell became Sirdar of the Egyptian 

On June 22nd the Mahdi died, according to Slatin, of typhus 
fever, and according to Ohrwalder, of fatty degeneration of the 
heart. Before his death he nominated as his successor 'Abd- 
Allah At-Ta'aisln, 1 one of his four Khalifas. Soon after the death 
of the Mahdi a revolt broke out in Dar Fur and Korddfan, and 
Emin Pashi was obliged to withdraw from Lado and retreat to 
Wadelai, whence he hoped to enter into relations with Kabarega, 
king of Unyoro. About this time the frontier of Egypt was fixed 
at Wftdi Haifa, and the British force was withdrawn from 
Dongola on July 5th. Thus the Dervishes were free to raid the 
country so far north as the Second Cataract, and they took the 
opportunity of tearing up the railway and destroying the tele- 
graph. Most of the daggers seen in the Sudan in recent years 
are made from the rails and the fish-plates stolen at this time. 

During the summer of 1885 the Khalifa Wbd-Allah matured the 
plan for the conquest of Egypt which the Mahdi had formulated. 
1 plan was to send two columns to march along the river to 
Haifa, and a third to cross the river from Abu Hamed to 
Korosko, thus cutting off from Egypt the frontier force at Haifa. 
By the beginning of August the Amir 'Abd al-Magid was at Don- 
gola with 4.000 men, and on the 24th the Amir Wad An-Xagumi 
left Omdurman with a large force for the north. In October 

1 See Sbucair, op. a't n iii., p. 302. 


there was a Dervish force of 7,000 men at Hafir, and another 
3,000 at Abu Hamed. On November 17th about 8,000 
Dervishes reached Dulgo, and a week later there were 7,000 at 
'Amara, a few miles from Ginnis and Kosha. On December 29th 
Generals Stephenson and Grenfell, with 5,000 men, attacked the 
Dervishes at Kosha and Ginnis and defeated them. 'Abd al- 
Magid, eighteen chiefs, and 500 men were killed, and 300 
wounded. This defeat was a serious check to the Khalifa's 

On September 23rd of this year Osman Dikna was defeated by 
the Abyssinians and the Beni Amer, at Kufit, and 3,000 of his 
men were killed. 

Early in 1886 Wadi Haifa was again made the frontier station 
of Egypt. In June the Dervishes arrived at 'Ukasha, and tore up 
the railway between that place and Ambikol Wells. In October 
10,000 more left Berber, 1,500 of them having rifles, and this 
force had two or three steamers and a fleet of native boats; a 
month later their advanced guard of 2,000 men was at Abka, 
eight miles south of Wadi Haifa. In September Osman Dikna 
suffered defeat from the tribes on the Abyssinian frontier, and 
was obliged to run away. 

In January, 1887, Mr. Charles Neufeld, a German merchant, 
joined a party of the men of the famous Kababish Shekh Salih, 
intending to go to Kordofan to open up a trade in gum and 
ostrich feathers. When the party arrived at the Oasis of Selima, 
the Dervishes seized them, and the few who were not killed were 
taken to Dongola. There, with the exception of Neufeld, they 
were all beheaded, but he was sent on to Omdurman, where he 
arrived on March 1st. On April 27th Colonel Chermside killed 
Nur al-Kanzi and 200 Dervishes at Sarras. On May 17th, Shekh 
Salih and a large number of his men were killed by the Khalifa's 
men. He was the only man, it is said, of whom the Khalifa stood 
in fear. In June the Abyssinians, under Ras Adal, advanced to 
Kallabat, and defeated the Dervishes under Wad Arbab, whom 
they killed. The Khalifa sent reinforcements, whereupon the 
Ras threatened to invade the Sudan. The Khalifa then sent 
against him an army of 87,000 men under Abu Anga and Zaki 
Tummal, and a great battle was fought at Dabra Sin, thirty miles 



from Gondar, in August. 1 The Abyssinians were defeated, and 
the Dervishes entered Gondar and sacked it. In October the 
Dervishes again occupied Sarras, their force consisting of 2,500 
men. In December a Dervish force led by Osman wad Adam 
(Ganu) fought an action against Zayid of Dar Fur near Dara, and 
repulsed him ; in a second fight he routed him completely, and 
entered Al-Fasher. Zayid and his predecessor Yusuf rled to the 
hills, but were killed soon after. 

Early in 1888 the Dervish force retired to Gemai, and on 
June 4th the last detachment of British troops was withdrawn 
from Aswan, and the frontier was left entirely to the protection 
of the Egyptian army. On August 29th the Fort of Khor Musa 
was captured by the Mahdi's men, and recaptured by the 
Egyptians. In this year a revolt broke out in Dar Fur. It was 
headed by a fanatic, an Anti-Mahdi, called Abu Gameza(" Father 
of the Sycamore"), Shekh of the Masalat tribe; he destroyed 
nearly one half of the Mahdi's force under Ganu at Kabkabia in 
October, and large numbers of men deserted from the Mahdi in 
consequence. Throughout this year attacks were made on 
Sawakin. On January 17th the Dervish camp at Handub was 
attacked by friendlies, who captured it. The Dervishes, however, 
returned, and drove the friendlies into Sawakin with considerable 
Colonel (now Lord) Kitchener and Lieut. Me.Murdo were 
wounded. The object of the attack was to capture Osman Dikna. 
On March 4th the Egyptians made an unsuccessful sortie under 
Colonel Tapp. On September 17th about 500 Arabs attacked 
the Water Forts and began to tire on the town, and the besi 
pushed on their trenches to within 600 yards of the defences. Grenfell arrived in November, and with a force of 2.000 
itians, J, 000 Sudani men, and 750 British troops, attacked 
( >sman Dikna's force at Gameza on December 20th. The defeat 
of OsmAn Dikna's followers was complete, for his trenches were 
rushed, and 500 out of his 1,500 men were killed. The attack 
ought to have been followed up, but no instructions to that effect 
were given, and the British troops were withdrawn. 

On April 28th of this year Stanley and Emin met at Nsabe, 

1 On the prophet * ts i who appeared at this time, see Shucair, op. cit.. iii., 
p. 480. 



and the Khalifa, on learning of this, sent 4,000 troops to annihilate 
Emin. These arrived at Dufili on October 15th, and their leader, 
'Omar Salih, called on Emin to surrender. Emin's men pre- 
ferred to resist, and for two months fighting went on between the 
two forces. On November 15th Reggaf was taken by the 
Dervishes, with large quantities of loot, several prisoners, des- 
patches, flags, &c, which were sent on to the Khalifa in Om- 
durman. Some of these were sent on to General Grenfell at 
Sawakin by means of Osman Dikna, and the worst fate was 
feared for Stanley and Emin. The advance of the Dervishes 
from Reggaf was prevented by Emin's men in December. In 
July the Abyssinian General Ras Adal attacked a Dervish force 
which, under Abu Anga, had invaded Abyssinian territory, and 
defeated it with great slaughter. The Ras made himself king of 
Gojam, and assumed the name of Takla Haymanot. At the end 
of the year the Khalifa prepared to invade Egypt, and collected a 
large force under Wad An-Nagumi to carry out his plan. 

On February 22nd, 1889, Abu Gameza's army was destroyed at 
Al Fasher by the Khalifa's troops, and the Shekh himself died 
the day following. Thus the Khalifa's power became supreme 
once again in Dar Fur, and the invasion of Egypt was taken in 
hand seriously. In April the Amir 'Abd al-Halim arrived at Sarras 
with 1,000 men, and by May 5th about 1,500 more came. On 
June 22nd Wad An-Nagumi came, and joined his men to those 
of 'Abd al-Halim, who had by this time crossed the river to 
Ma'tuka; the united force amounted to 4,000 men. In July 
Colonel Wodehouse engaged the force at Argin, and killed 900 
men and took 500 prisoners. Undismayed by this defeat and by 
the secession of 500 men, who returned to Ma'tuka and thence 
south, Wad An-Nagumi burnt his camp on August 4th and moved 
on northwards so far as Faras. Here he camped, but was shelled 
out by artillery fire, and on the 10th he camped on the hills two 
miles south of Balanga. On July 28th his force consisted of 
3,300 fighting men, and 4,000 camp followers, and with these he 
moved on to the hills four miles south of Tushki, which he reached 
on August 1 st. Here General Grenfell had concentrated his forces 
on the previous day. On August 3rd he discovered that Wad 
An-Nagumi was trying to avoid fighting, and that he wished to 



continue his journey northwards. General Grenfell therefore 
determined to make him fight, and, without waiting for the 
arrival of the squadron of the 20th Hussars, which was on its way, 
attacked him with Egyptian and Sudani troops, and stopped him 
at Tushki, twenty miles north of Abu Simbel. The Dervishes 
were defeated with great loss, for Wad An Naguml and 1,200 of 
his men were killed, and 4,000 prisoners were taken. A> the 
immediate result all the reinforcements which had been sent 
down the river to assist Wad An-Nagfimi either retreated or 
deserted. General Grenfell shattered the Mahdiist vision of the 
conquest of Egypt, which was to be followed by that of the 
world, and struck a blow at the Khalifa's power which it took 
years to recover. 

In January, [889, Abu 'Anga, the great Dervish leader, died. 
In February King John of Abyssinia determined to take vengeance 
on the Dervishes for the sacking of Gondar. and at the end of the 
month he marched against Matamma, the capital of Kallabat, 
with an army of 87,000 men. He surrounded the town, which 
was held by Zaki Tummal, with 60,000 men, and on March 9th 
completely defeated the Dervishes. At the end of the fight King 
John was accidentally shot, and, panic seizing the Abyssinians, 
they retreated. The Dervishes pursued them, and their retreat 
lie a flight, and Zaki Tummal killed man)- of them and 
captured King John's body. 1 Menelek II., King of Shoa, then 
d the throne of Abyssinia, and now reigns as " king of kings 
of Ethiopia." In the latter part of this year Einin Pashl 
succeeded in reaching Zanzibar, and the Dervishes evacuated the 
Bafrr al-Ghazal province, and Karam-Allah was withdrawn to 

On February 11th, 1890, Osman Dikna burned his camp at 
Handub, and removed to Tnkar, which became his head-quarters. 
On October 7th he left Tokar to attend a council to be held by 
the Khalifa at Omdurman. The crushing blow inflicted on the 
-las at Tushki in August, 1888, had completely paralyzed the 
Khalifa's organization. In the autumn of this year Suldman wad 
Kamr. Stewart's murderer, was killed. 

On January 27th, 1N91, Colonel Holled-Smith attacked Osman 
1 See Shucair, op. tit., i i.. p. 480. 


Dikna's camp at Handub and captured it. In February he 
advanced and took Trinkitat and At-Teb, and on the 19th, after a 
fight at Tokar, he captured the village of Afafit, and slew 700 of 
Osman Dikna's followers. Osman himself lied with about 300 
men to Kasala, via Tamarin. On the 22nd, General Grenfell 
visited Afafit, and congratulated the troops on their victory. The 
result of these operations was the re-opening of the Sawakin- 
Berber road for trade. In this year several risings against the 
Khalifa's rule took place in Dar Fur and Kordofan, and Sultan 
'Abbas ruled in Gebel Marra. The Shilluks also rebelled, and 
Zaki Tummfil was sent to reduce them. He made an alliance 
with the Nuers against the Shilluks, and they killed the Mek of 
the Shilluks. Soon after, however, the Nuers turned against the 
Dervishes and drove them out of the country south of Fashoda. 
In December the Shilluks defeated their enemies at Fashoda, and 
were then allowed to rest in peace for a short time. On Sunday, 
November 29th, Father Ohrwalder escaped from Omdurman 
with some Sisters of the Austrian Mission, and a black girl called 
Adila ; they reached Cairo on December 21st. 

In 1892 Osman Dikna continued to raid the tribes near 
Sawakin, and in the summer he attacked the post at Tamarin, but 
was driven off by Major Hunter with a loss of 70 men. The 
Dervishes began again to give trouble on the frontier, and in 
December a fight took place in which Captain Pyne and twenty- 
six of his men were killed. During this year the Shilluks suffered 
a number of defeats at the hands of Zaki Tummfd, who was, how- 
ever recalled with his army, and he was obliged to evacuate 
Fashoda. As the Italians were gaining power in Eritrea, he was 
sent to Kadaref and Kallabat to arrest their advance. When he 
reported that this was impossible he was recalled to Omdurman, 
and, having been invited into the house of Ya'kub (the Khalifa's 
brother), was seized, disarmed, and made a prisoner. His house 
was searched, and 50,000 dollars and a large number of gold rings, 
&c, were found in it. The Khalifa had him walled up in a 
building in the shape of a coffin, and a little water was given him 
through a hole in the wall, but no food. He lingered for twenty- 
three days, without uttering a groan or complaint, and without 
begging : on the twenty-fourth day he died, and the Khalifa had 



him buried with his back towards Mekka, to destroy his hope of 
life in the world to come. 1 In this year the Khalifa, hearing that 
Europeans were advancing from Zanzibar on his southern 
provinces, withdrew his garrison, under 'Omar Salih, from R< 
to B6r, and in October he sent Abu Kirga to bring 'Omar Salih 
to Omdurmfin : Abu Kirga, not wishing to go, fled to Fashoda, 
and he was supposed to have deserted and joined the cause o 
Muzil al-Muhan, whose wish was to destroy the Khalifa. The 
Khalifa was afraid of the success of Muzil al-Muhan, ■ the " father 
of sandals.*' and sent a force of 4,000 men against him under 
Ibrahim Khalil, but this was unnecessary, for the fanatic's preach- 
ings were neglected. 

In July, 1893, Osman Azrak raided the village of Beds, and the 
ptian Government established posts at the Oases of Khfirga 
and Dakhla. In November the Dervishes raided Murat WYlls. 
and killed Shekh Salih. By the end of the year the movement 
started by Muzil al-Muhan had died out. In this year the Khalifa 
became really alarmed at the growth of the Italian power in 
Eritrea, and he ordered a force to march eastwards from Kasala, 
the governor of which at that time was Musa'id Kedum. A 
Dervish force of 12,000 men under Ahmad 'Ali arrived at Kasala 
in November, and marched on to Aghiirdat, halfway to Masaw'a. 
lb re it was overthrown by Colonel Arimondi, with only a force 
of 2,000 men and 42 officers, and on December 21st Ahmad 'Ali 
was killed. 

Aim Kirga. who had fled to Fashoda in 1892, came to Re 
in 1893, and sent a gift of ivory to the Khalifa. When 'Omar Salih 
arrived in Omdurman he reported that his former district was no 

r in danger, and the Khalifa sent 'Arabi wad Dafa' Allah to 

• ommand, and to take the garrison back from B6r to Reggaf, 
and to put Abu Kirga in chains. When 'Arabi arrived, he wrote 

dl al-Mawla Bey, who was in command of some of Emin's 
nun, and told him to bring Baert, the successor of Van Kerckhoveii 
and leader of the Congolese Expedition, and his officers to him. 
Fadl declined to do this, and Baert pushed on in order to establish 

<>n the Upper Nile in the interest of the Congo Free S 

1 Slatin, Fin and Sword, p. 574. 

2 Seethe account of him given by Shucair, op. cit., iii., p. 547. 



His men under Fadl met the Dervishes at Makaraki and Wandi ; 
at the latter place a fight took place, and Fadl was killed, together 
with about half of his men, in January, 1894. 

In the summer of 1893 Abu Maryam, the successor of Osman 
Ganu, the Dervish commandant of Shakka, attacked the Dinkas, 
but he was killed, his force nearly destroyed, and many fugitives 
from his army fled to Shakka. On January 2nd, 1894, Colonel 


No. 2, a specimen of the " Umla Gadida," or " New money," contains 2 dirhams o. 

silver and 5 dirhams of copper. 

Colvile arrived in Unyoro ; he was appointed Chief Commissioner 
of Uganda in 1893, when the British Government took over the 
country. On February 4th Major " Roddy " Owen hoisted the 
British flag at Wadelai. On July 17th Colonel Baratieri, with 
2,510 men, marched from Aghurdat, and surprised and took 
Kasala ; he fortified the town, and the Italians held it for two and 
a half years. In this year the Khalifa sent orders to Mahmud to 
re-occupy the Bahr al-Ghazal province, and he despatched 3,800 



soldiers, under Hatim Musa from Shakka towards the Belgian 
posts. The Belgians retired before him, and the Dervishes entered 
Faroge; Shekh I.lamed went over to the Dervishes. In this 
Father Rossignoli, of the Austrian Mission, escaped from 
Omdurman, and arrived in Cairo on October 20th. 

On January 15th, 1895, Major Cunningham and Lieut. Van- 
deleur 1 planted the British flag at Wadelal, in spite of the 
resistance caused by Kabarega, king of Unyoro. 

In 1895 Osman Dikna raided the country round TAkar. In 
the Bahr al-Ghazal, Hatim Musa, finding that the Belgians had 
retired, retreated to Shakka, whereupon, through want of food, 
most of his men deserted to Zemio ; he then retreated to 
Kordofan. Thus was the province free from Dervishes. In 
June Wad Dafa* Allah retired from Reggafto Shambi, frightened 
at the supposed advance of a European force, and the Khalifa 
sent 4,000 men to help him ; he then returned to Reggaf. On 
February 20th Slatin Pasha escaped from Omdurman, and he 
arrived at Aswan on Saturday. March 16th. 

On February 29th, 1896, an Italian army of about 37,000 men 

lefeated with great slaughter at Aduwa by the Abyssinians 

under Menelek II. They lost 7,000 killed, wounded and missing, 

and the Abyssinians captured 1,000 men and fifty-two guns. 

Their scattered forces were obliged to retreat towards Mas awa. 

and were therefore unable to give assistance to their countrymen 

who were practically imprisoned by the Dervishes in the garrison 

of Kasala. Emboldened by the defeat of the Italians, the 

Dervishes attacked Sabderat on March 18th, and were repulsed; 

on April 2nd they attacked Mukram, and on April 3rd Tukruf, 

sala, but they weir beaten by the Italians under 

Colonel Stefani, and were compelled to retreat. On April 15-17 

Colonel Lloyd from Sawakin and Major Sidney from Tokar, with 

1,000 men, and a party of friendly Arabs led by Shekh 

1 Ttta, killed about 100 of Osman Dikna's men, and 

ided about 100 more, at Khdr Wintri. The rest of his force 

of about 600 men managed to escape to the hills, but his pre 

This brave and distinguished officer, who was killed in action at the age of 
thirty-two, has found a sympathetic and truthful biographer in Colonel Maxse ; 
see Seymour Vamiclcur, London. 1906. 



was destroyed, and there were no more fights in the neighbour- 
hood of Sawakin. 

Early in March, 1896, partly with a view of assisting the 
Italians, and partly because it was felt that the time had come 
when a blow must be struck at the Khalifa's power, the British 
Government determined to make an advance on Dongola. It 
was decided that the Expedition should consist of 9,000 Egyptian 
troops under the Sirdar, Sir Herbert Kitchener, who had 
succeeded Sir Francis Grenfell. On March 12th Colonel Hunter 
was ordered to advance to 'Ukasha. On March 19th the 


Egyptian Government applied to the Commissioners of the 
Public Debt to advance £500,000 towards the expenses of the 
Expedition. Four out of the six Commissioners agreed, and the 
money was advanced. In the lawsuit which followed, the Mixed 
Tribunal in June ordered the Government to refund the money 
(already spent !) with interest, and this judgment was, on appeal 
on December 2nd, confirmed. The British Government, at the 
instance of Lord Cromer, lent the sum due, £515,600, which was 
paid into the Caisse on December 8th. and subsequently 
presented the amount to the Khedive's Government. 



j_ On April 2nd the Italians defeated a force of 5,000 Dervishes 
at Mount Mukram, and killed 800 of them. On May 24th the 
railway from Haifa had reached Ambikol Wells. On June 7th 
the Sirdar attacked the Dervish garrison at Ferket, with a River 
and a Desert Column, the two together consisting of about 9,000 
men, and surprised it, and almost destroyed the entire force there. 
The Dervishes lost 1,000 killed, and 500 were made prisoners, 
and 'Osm&n Azrak and forty chiefs were among the slain. The 
Sirdar sent on his troops to occupy Suwarda, which had until 
that time been the base for Dervish raids. Thus the Khalifa's 
frontier army was destroyed. On June 17th Captain Mahon 
captured eleven boats laden with grain. On August 4th the 
railway was pushed on by Captain Girouard, R.E., to Kosha, 
which on July 5th had been made the Sirdar's headquarters. On 
August 25th a rain-storm swept away part of the line at Sarras. 
Cholera appeared at Kosha on July 15th, and carried off four 
British officers and two engineers who were putting together the 
gunboats. On September 18th the Sirdar's forces reached the 
Island of Tombos, and on the 19th the Dervishes under Wad al- 
Bishara were driven out of Hafir by the gunboats and artillery. 
The Dervishes lost 200 men. New Dongola was occupied at 
1 1 a.m. on the 23rd, and 900 prisoners were captured ; these 
converted into a black battalion and were added to the 
Sirdar's army. Debba, Korti, and Merawi, ten miles from the 
foot of the Fourth Cataract, were occupied a few days later. 
Merawi became the head-quarters of the Frontier Field Force, 
and the Sirdar returned to Cairo, leaving General Hunter in 
command of the province, which was placed under military law. 
Tlic building of the railway was continued, and the rebuilding 
and re-inhabiting of New Dongola began at once. The Khalifa, 
expecting the Sirdar to advance across the desert, began to 
fortify Omdurman. 

In 1897 tne Sirdar continued his policy of advancing slowly, 

and making good every step taken by him towards the re- 

conquest of the Sudan. The railway from Haifa reached Kerma 

i May 4th, but long before this the Sirdar realized 

I s use, so far as the Expedition was concerned, was practically 

lie therefore determined to build another line from Haifa 



across the desert to Abu Hamed (231 miles) ; without such a line 
any advance on Berber and Omdurman was practically im- 
possible. The distance saved in cutting across the desert, instead 
of following the course of the Nile through the Second, Third, 
and Fourth Cataracts, is about 330 miles. The building of this 
line was sanctioned early in the year, and by May 4th about 15 
miles of it had been actually laid. When the Halfa-Kerma line 
was finished the whole of the railway battalion was set to work 
on the Haifa-Abu Hamed line, and it advanced with marvellous 
rapidity under the direction of Captain Girouard, R E. The 
officer in charge of rail-head was Lieut. E. C. Midwinter, R.E., 
and the average rate of progress was ih miles per day. In June 
the Khalifa decided to send a strong force under Mahmud to 
occupy the important strategic point Matamma, the capital of the 
Ga'alin tribe, which lies on the west bank of the Nile a few miles 
south of Shendi. The Ga'alin, an Arab tribe which is famed for the 
chastity of its women, wrote to the Khalifa entreating him not to 
send an army there, and undertaking to defend their town against 
the " Turks." The Khalifa was furious at this request, and ordered 
Mahmud to proceed to Matamma. The Ga'alin sent shekhs to 
Merawi to ask for help and rifles, saying they would resist Mah- 
mud and throw in their lot with the Sirdar and the Egyptians. 
The Sirdar sent 6,000 rifles, and a large quantity of ammunition, 
but to send an army was out of the question, for he could not 
feed it at Matamma, and the town itself was unequal to such a 
task. Besides, the possibility of treachery had to be taken into 
account. Before the rifles reached Matamma Mahmud attacked 
the town, and though his first onset was repulsed, his second 
succeeded. Mahmud arrived at dawn on July 1st, and for three 
days the Ga'alin kept him at bay, but when their ammunition 
was spent they had to surrender. The Dervishes entered the 
town and massacred about 2,000 men, besides women and 
children, and thousands died through the mutilation of their limbs 
which Mahmud had carried out on every male. The women were 
treated in an atrocious manner, and numbers of them drowned 
themselves in the Nile to escape dishonour; the old women 
were killed, and the girls were made prisoners. Practically the 
whole population of Matamma was destroyed. The few Ga'alin 



who escaped made their way to Gakdul Wells, and the Sirdar 
supplied them with rifles and ammunition, food, <S:c. The Shekh 
'Abd-Allah wad Sa'ud was sent to Omdurman, and the Khalifa 
had him wailed up in a hole in such a position that he could 
neither sit down nor stand upright, and then starved him to 
death. Mahmud's loss was 88 killed and 330 wounded. 1 

By the end of July the railway had reached mile 115 in the 
desert, and the Sirdar was obliged to consider the capture of 
Abu l.lamed. On July 29th, General Hunter left Merawi and 
arrived at Aim l.lamed on August 7th; a fierce fight took place, 
and 1,200 out of the 1,500 Dervishes who held it were either 
killed or taken prisoners. Major Sidney and Lieut. Fitz-Clarence 
killed, and were buried a little to the south of the town. 
The quick march to Abu Hamed and the capture of the place 
are held to rank deservedly among the finest episodes of the 

The fugitives from Abu l.lamed made their way to the south 
and told their tale of woe as they went. As a result the Dervishes 
evacuated Berber, and a party of friendlies occupied it on 
September 7th ; on the 13th General Hunter entered it with a 
number of troops. The Egyptian gunboats went on to Ad-Damar, 
a tew miles south of the Atbara. and made it the advanced post of 
the army. A fort was built there, and the place was put in a state 
of defence. Meanwhile, Osm&n Dikna collected about 5,000 men 
at Adaiama, a place on the Atbara river about ninety miles above 
Ad-Damar. On October 23rd General Hunter set out with a 
force to attack him, but when he arrived at Adarama he found 
that Osman Dikna had evacuated it two days previously, and 
that lie was on his way to Abu Dalek, a town in the desert 
Omdurman and Kasala. This was disappointing, but the 
result of Osman's flight was excellent, for it rendered the Eastern 
t free from Dervishes, and the Berber-Sawakin road was 
more open lor trade. On October 15th and 17th Com- 
mander Keppel bombarded Matanuna, where Mahmud's force was, 
and he did the forts much damage. On October jist the railway 
\bu learned, and it was decided to push it on to Berber. 
On November [st General Hunter proceeded with the gunboats 
1 Shucair, op. a'/., iii., p. 597. 


to the foot of the Sixth Cataract (Shabluka). On December 25th 
Kasala was taken over by the Egyptians, and the fort was occupied 
by Colonel Parsons. 

In the Bahr al-Ghazal Chaltin's Column arrived at Bedden on 
the Nile on February 14th, and on the 17th he attacked 2,000 
Dervishes and defeated them with great loss ; before the close of 
the day he occupied Reggaf, and the Dervishes fled to the north. 

On February 10th Mahmud, having been urged by the Khalifa 
either to go forward and destroy the Egyptians or return to 
Omdurmfm, began to move his army of 20,000 men across the 
river to Shendi, preparatory to marching on Berber. On March 
2nd General Gatacre arrived with his force at Berber, then the 
head-quarters of Major Hunter, and on the 16th the Anglo- 
Egyptian force concentrated at Kenur, ten miles south of Berber. 
Meanwhile Mahmud had marched to Aliab, about half way 
between Shendi and Berber, and on the 19th he left Aliab, and 
set out across the desert for a place on the Atbara called Hudi, 
where he intended to cross the river and advance on Berber. On 
the 20th the Sirdar with his force of 13,000 men encamped at 
Hudi, and Mahmud crossed the river at Nakhila, several miles 
higher up. The following day the Sirdar advanced to Ras al- 
Hudi, thus setting his army between Mahmud and Berber. On 
the 25th the Sirdar sent a force to destroy Mahmud's garrison 
near Shendi, and to destroy that town. This was done, and much 
spoil was taken. On April 4th the Sirdar marched his whole 
force to Ras 'Adar, nine miles from Hudi and eleven miles from 
Nahkila, and on the 5th General Hunter succeeded in making 
Mahmud show fight. On the 6th the Sirdar advanced to Umm 
Dabe'a, four miles from Khor Abu 'Adar, and on the 7th advanced 
to Mutrus, one and a half miles from Mahmud. At 1 a.m. on 
the 8th the Sirdar's force set out for Mahmud's camp, and at 6.15 
the guns opened fire, the bombardment continuing for an hour and 
a half. Soon after 8.15 the battle began, and lasted little more 
than half an hour. 

Of Mahmud's force of about 14,000 men, 3,000 were killed or 
wounded, and 2,000 were taken prisoners; all his Amirs were 
killed, and he himself was made captive. Osrmin Dikna escaped 
as usual. The rest of Mahmud's army fled to Adarama, and 

vol. 11. 273 r 


suffered many losses on the way, for hundreds of them died of 
thirst. The Anglo- Egyptian loss was 568 killed and wounded. 
On April 14th the Sirdar made his triumphal entry into Berber. 
The Sirdar ordered the Ga'altn tribe to occupy Mat am ma, and 
thus the Nile Valley as far as the Sixth Cataract was in the hands 
of the Egyptian Government once more. During the winter no 
further advance was made by the Egyptian troops, for the Sirdar 
decided that the proper time to attack Omdurman was at high 
Nile, i.e., about the end of August or the beginning of September. 
In May, [898, preparations for the advance on Omdurman were 
taken in hand, and Fort Atbara was made t lie head-quarters of 
the Egyptian army in the Sudan. Mere tin' Sirdar's force of about 

[2,500 men began to concentrate in August, and by September ist 

they reached a point about six miles north of Omdurman. The 
gunboats steamed up to Tuti Island, and a howitzer battery 
was landed on the cast bank, which soon opened fire on Omdur- 
man : its guns fired 50-pound shells of lyddite, 1 and after a lew- 
rounds the dome of the Mahdi's tomb was practically destroyed. 
Meanwhile the Khalifa's army, which contained between 40.000 and 
1 men, was moved OUt of Omdurman, and it was reported that 
he intended to attack the Egyptians that very night. It is said that 
in a night attack lay the Dervishes' only chance of success, for they 
only four miles away, and they could have crept up in the 
dark to the Sirdar's force, and it would have been impossible to 
n them with any effect until they were within 200 yards. 
1 he struggle would then have become a hand-to-hand fight, and 
the Egyptian losses would certainly have been very considerable, 
in an; ry much greater than they actually were. 

The Sirdar's answer t<> the report of the Dervish night attack 

rid into the Khalifa's camp men who pretended that they 

iters from the Sirdar, who was going to attack the 

Dervishes that night. No night attack therefore took place. At 

5.30 a.m. on September 2nd the bombardment <>f Omdurman was 

continued, and a few minutes later the advance of the enemy 

11. " It was a splendid sight. A huge amphitheatre, lit up by 

1 "On one occasion there were one hundred Dervishes praying in the court- 
•' yard of the mosque ; a lyddite shell burst in their midst, and only two came 
"out unwounded."— Sudan Campaign^ p. 226. 


" a blazing sun, in which a mass of fearless men, clad in gay- 
" coloured jibbahs, waving countless flags, and following reck- 
" less horsemen, were rushing forward with absolute confidence of 
" victory, and absolute contempt of death." l At 6.45 the artillery 
opened fire, and their shells burst in the Dervish ranks, but it did 
not stop their advance. Whilst one body of Dervishes attacked 
the southern face of the Sirdar's position, another rushed out from 
behind Gebel Surgham (Surkab) to attack the left flank. Presently 
the Guards opened fire, and next the Warwicks, the Highlanders, 
the Lincolns, and, later on, Maxwell's brigade. The Dervishes 
fell in heaps, but those behind pressed on until the foremost row 
were only 800 yards from the British force. Whilst the Khalifa 
was attacking the British position, the Khalifa's son, Shekh Ad- 
Din, and 'Ali Wad Helu, with 10,000 men marched out on the 
Egyptian troops under Colonel Broadwood. 

The Dervishes attacked with boldness, and Colonel Broadwood 
was so hard pressed that disaster must have followed had not the 
gunboat opened fire at close range, with deadly effect, and so 
saved the situation. These attacks on the position having failed, 
the 21st Lancers, about 320 in number, under Colonel Martin, were 
sent out to prevent the Dervishes from retreating to Omdurman. 
Soon after they started they saw, as they thought, from 200 to 
300 of the enemy concealed in a khor, and they wheeled into line 
and charged. As they came near, the party of Dervishes was 
found to be about 3,000 strong, and these suddenly rose up and 
opened fire. The Lancers, however, rode on, charged through the 
mass of Dervishes, and fought their way out on the opposite side ; 
then they dismounted, and opened fire on the enemy, and drove 
them out of the position. The Sirdar then ordered his force to 
evacuate the camp and to march on Omdurman. About 9.30, 
when the leading brigades were close to the west side of Gebel 
Surgham, the third division of the great Dervish army, some 
20,000 strong, led by the Khalifa himself, rushed to the attack on 
the Sirdar's flank. The brunt of the attack was borne by the 
brigade of Colonel Macdonald, who, whilst carrying out the change 
of front ordered by the Sirdar, found himself about a mile distant 
from the rest of the army. 

1 Sudan Campaign, 1896 to 1899, by an Officer, p. 192. 


The Dervishes, preceded by 300 or 400 mounted Bakkfua. 
attacked from the west, intending to break Macdonald's line, but 
never a man got within 300 yards of the fighting line. The 
Dervishes drove their banner-poles into the ground, and gathered 
round them, and died. But whilst Colonel Macdonald wasstill fight- 
ing, the Dervishes who were hidden behind the Karari hills, to the 
north of Gebel Surgham, rushed out to deliver a second attack, thus 
threatening Macdonald both before and behind. The Dervishes 
were in two divisions, one led by Shekh Ad-Din, and the other 
by 'Ali wad Helu, and they intended to envelop Macdonald. 
Seeing this, Macdonald coolly moved the men of his brigade into 
such a position that one portion of them faced north and the 
other west. When the Dervishes came up, they were received 
with a fire that no living thing could face and live, and at the 
same time Colonel Lewis's Brigade enfiladed the Khalifa's ranks 
on the left. Colonel Wauchope's Brigade then came up, the 
fight ceased, and the Dervishes broke and fled. " The masterly 
" way in which Macdonald handled his force was the theme of 
icral admiration." The Dervish loss was 10,800 killed, 1 and 
16,000 wounded ; the Sirdar's entire loss was 48 killed, and 
382 wounded. About 4,000 black troops surrendered, and some 
1,222 of these were wounded ; and three of Gordon's old 
steamers were captured. 8 

Soon after 3 o'clock the Sirdar entered Omdurman, and was 
met by shekhs bearing flags of truce, who said the people tendered 
their submission ; this the Sirdar accepted, and the soldiers laid 
down their arms, whilst the people swarmed out of their he 
and cheered the troops. The Khalifa's house was shut and 
barred, and was shelled by the gunboats from the river. The 
Mahdi's tomb was then entered, and it was found to be much 
damaged by the fire from the gunboats and the howitzer batt 
the top of the dome was knocked off, and there were several 
holes in it. The Khalifa unfortunately escaped before the Sirdar 
entered Omdurman, and made his way to the west, leaving 

1 Koylc. Egyptian Campaigns^ p. 571. 

2 See the fine accounts of the battle given by "An Officer," in Sudan 

\igti) p. 191 ff., and by Colonel Maxse, in Seymour Vanddeur, and Royle, 
btian Campaigns, p. 551. 



untouched the dinner to which he had invited the Amirs to come 
after his defeat of the Anglo-Egyptians ! 

As soon as steps had been taken to guard the town, the Sirdar 
went and set free the European prisoners, Charles Neufeld, 
Joseph Ragnotti, Sister Teresa Grigolini, and about thirty 
Greeks, and a large crowd of natives, many of whom had been 


officials under the old Government ; the total number of prisoners 
set free was 10,854. At 5 p.m. five Brigades reached the north 
end of Omdurman, but it was nearly midnight before they had 
marched through the town and bivouacked. The cavalry pursued 
the fugitives until far into the night, but want of forage and stores 
then compelled them to return ; the gunboats steamed 90 miles 
south of Khartum, but could find no trace of the Khalifa. When 



the arsenal was examined it was found to contain an enormous 
collection of weapons and stores of ammunition, including sixty 
cannon, Dervish spears, swords, banners, drums, rifles, and a 
lot of miscellaneous stuff picked up on the battle-field where 
Hicks was defeated. Two carriages, in one of which Gordon 
had driv< also found, 1 and there were shirts ot mail 

said to date from the time of the Crusaders. 

At dawn on September jrd the army marched out and 
bivouacked four miles south of Omdurman, and parties were told 
off to bury the dead. Among these were numbers who pretended 
to be dead, but who jumped up when any one came near and 
either speared or shot the first soldier they met. Such shammers 
were promptly despatched, and incidents of the kind gave ri 
tlie outrageous charge made in the Contemporary Review that the 
Sirdar ordered the Dervish wounded to be massacred, and that his 
soldiers wantonly killed wounded and unarmed Dervishes The 
char- - mischievous as it was untrue, as all who knew 

the Sirdar and the officers who were with him understood. 
British officers neither do such things, nor allow them to be done. 
It is notorious that the Sirdar might have had hundreds of 
unarmed men cut down as they rushed towards him when he rode 
through the town, and that he did all in his power to prevent 
unnecessary slaughter. At one time it was a question whether 
the Dervishes would spare his life, not whether he would spare 
theirs.-' but as he rode coolly among them and promised them 
amdn, i.e., " security," they laid down their arms, and no one 
touched them. We have it on the unimpeachable authority of 
Captain Adolf von Tiedemann, of the Royal Prussian General 
that he saw the Sirdar, wholly regardless of his personal 
. ride into narrow streets and courtyards, with uplifted 
hand, calling out Anion. Tin- charge that Omdurman was looted 
for three days was equally untrue. It was also said that the 
Sirdar did nothing to alleviate the sufferings of the wounded 
ishes, but as we know from the evidence of the Daily 
■i respondent, that b,ooo to 7,000 out of the 16,000 

1 For a picture of it, see Sudan Campaign, p. 222 In the other, Sa'id P&shl 
had driven from Cairo to Khartum. 
udan Campaign, p. 217. 



Dervishes wounded were treated in Hasan Effendi Zfiki's hospital, 
this statement is also seen to be without foundation. 

One other important and most necessary thing was done, at 
the request of, and with the approval of, many Muhammadans. 
The Mahdi's tomb was destroyed, and his body taken from its 
grave, and burned in the furnace of one of the steamers, and 
the ashes thrown into the Nile. The head, it was said, was taken 
possession of by a British officer, but subsequently orders were 
issued to bury it, and a burial ceremony took place at Haifa. 
Had the building been allowed to stand, and the body to remain 
in its grave, the tomb would have become the centre of fanaticism 
and revolt, and the effect of the victory of law and order over 
lawlessness, barbarism, and savage despotism on the minds of 
the tribes for hundreds of miles round would have been ruined. 
The outcry raised against the act showed that there were even 
in 1898 some people in England w r ho did not realize how 
completely the whole Sudan had been held in the grip of 
Mahdiism, but the Muhammadans understood their co-religionists, 
and knew that nothing short of the destruction of the Mahdi's 
body would bring lasting peace to the Sudan, and prove that 
Muhammad Ahmad was, even in the eyes of Muhammadans, an 
impostor. The ruins of the tomb proclaim to all passers-by the 
fate of one of the greatest of false teachers, and the lesson which 
they teach has sunk deeply into the minds of the natives. 

On Sunday, September 4th, the Sirdar, with his staff and a 
large force, steamed over to Khartum. The troops formed up 
into three sides of a square facing the ruined palace, on the 
staircase of which Gordon was murdered on January 26th, 
1885 ; the Sirdar made a signal, and the British and Egyptian 
flags were run up flagstaffs erected on the palace, and the 
bands played " God save the Queen," and the Khedivial Hymn, 
whilst the gunboats saluted with twenty-one guns, and officers 
and men stood at attention. Three cheers were given for the 
Queen, and three for the Khedive, and the Guards' band played 
the " Dead March" in Said; after a short service the Sudani 
band played Gordon's favourite hymn, " Abide with me.' J 

On September 10th the Sirdar left for the south, and on his 
1 Royle, Egyptian Campaigns, p. 581. 


arrival at Fashoda on the 19th he found it occupied by Major 
Marchand ; the British and Egyptian tia^s were hoisted, 1 and leav- 
ing a force there under Major Jackson, the Sirdar went on his 
way. A few days later the Egyptian flag' was hoisted at Meshra 
ar-Rek. Major Hunter occupied Sennaar, Karkoj, and Ruserea 
by October 1st, and Major Parsons defeated the Dervishes at 
Kadaref on September 22nd, and occupied the town. On 
December j(>tli Colonel Lewis defeated Ahmad Fadil, cut up his 
force and killed about 500 Dervishes. ( )n December 7th 
Colonel Collinson hoisted the British and Egyptian flags on the 
old fort at Kail a bat. 

In January. 1899, Lord Cromer visited the Sudan. In 
November, 1:899, Colonel Sir Reginald Win I out to attack 

the Khalifa with a force of 3,700 men. On the -'2nd he seized 
the camp of Ahmad Fadil at Abu Adel, killed 400 of his men, and 
captured all the grain he was taking to the Khalifa. On the 24th 
a fierce fight was fought at Umm Dabr&kat, and the Khalifa and 
all his chief Amirs, including Wli wad Helu and Ahmad Fadil, 
weir killed.' The Dervish loss was 600 killed, and 3,000 
prisoners and 6,000 women and children were taken. It was this 

■ Major Marchand evacuated Fashoda on December nth. 
Sec Shucair, op. 1//., iii., p. 664. 
\s soon as Colonel Wingate's force had swept through the Dervish 
" position into the enemy's camp, the news at once spread that the Khalifa 
"killed with most of his Emirs. Colonel Wingate immediately went to the 
'•spot where the Khalifa was said to be lying. < >n the way a boy of 15 
" caught hold of Major Watson's hand and said, 'The Khalifa is dead. I am his 
"son/ He took Major Watson to the place where his father lay. There was 
•"the Khalifa lying in his forwah (sheepskin), his jibbeh riddled with bullets. 
" Lying over him were his two chief Emirs, Ali Wad Helu and Ahmed Fedil. 
LCh side of him were ten or a dozen of his chief Emirs, and in front of 
"him his faithful bodyguard, all dead. While Colonel Wingate was looking 
"at this terrible but noble spectacle of brave men dead, a small man was seen 
"to crawl out from under the slain. This was Yunis Deghemi, the former 
"' Emir of Dongola. After a short time he began to speak, and at length 
11 answered the questions put to him by Colonel Wingate. He said that when 
" the Dervishes failed to outflank the Egyptians and began to run before the 
u terrible fire the Khalifa called to his Emirs and said. ' I am not going away ; 1 
" shall die here ; I call on you to stay by me and let us die together.' The Khalifa 
"took his forwah (sheepskin), sat down on it, and calmly awaited the end, 
"which was not long in coming. Later in the day, by order of Colonel 
" Wingate, the Khalifa and the Emirs who were killed were buned where they 



fight which finally destroyed the power of Mahdiism in the Sudan. 
The defeat of the Dervishes at Omdurman restored that city to 
the Egyptians, but so long as the Khalifa lived he was the visible 
personification of the Mahdi's movement, and many Muham- 
madans who saw him believed that he would one day be victorious. 
Only in the preceding August Khalifa Sherif ' preached Mahdiism 
openly at Wad Madani; but he was captured by Captain N. M 
Smyth, V.C., and tried by court-martial and shot. On August 
26th the Atbara railway bridge was opened. On December 17th 
Colonel Mahon, D.S.O., occupied Al-Obed. 

On December 22nd Sir Reginald Wingate succeeded Lord 
Kitchener as Sirdar and Governor of the Sudan. 

On January 18th, 1900, Captain F. Burges captured the 
notorious Osman Dikna in the Warriba Hills, to the south-west 
•of Sawakin ; he was first sent to Rosetta, but later to Damietta. 
Captain Burges was assisted by a Commandant of Police called 
Muhammad Bey Ahmad." On March 4th 'Ali 'Abd Al-Karim, 
the leader of a fanatical sect of Muhammadans whose views were 
opposed to the Government, and several of his chief followers, 
were deported to Haifa and placed under restraint. :i The prompt 
action which Sir Reginald Wingate took in this matter is highly 
praiseworthy, for religious enthusiasts of the kind of 'Abd Al- 
Karim should never be allowed to be at large. Their ultimate 
aim is always political power, and every one who preaches in the 
Sudan equality and community of other people's possessions is 
always certain of a large following. The Mahdi adopted this 
method, with what success we have seen. 

On November 29th Colonel Sparkes left Omdurman with a 
force of nearly 400 men in steamers to occupy the Bahr al- 
Ghazfil province, and he arrived at Meshra ar-Rek on December 

In December Lord Cromer visited the Sudan a second 

" fell by their own people with proper ceremonial. They lie in a beautiful spot, 
" near a large sheet of water surrounded by trees, and not so very far (some 
" forty miles) from Abba Island, the cradle of Mahdiism." — Times, December 9th, 

1 He lived at Shakaba, forty miles from Sennaar, and had with him Fadil 
and Bishra, two of the Mahdi's sons. 

2 Shucair, op. cit., hi., p. 670. 3 Ibid., p. 671. 



time, and on the 24th he delivered a speech of an important 
character. 1 

On January 1st, 1901, Colonel Sparkes made Tong his head- 
quarters, and then made expeditions to W&w, Fort Dessaix, 
Rumbek, Amadi, Kird and Shambi. Major W. Boulnois con- 
ducted a patrol to D6m Zuber, Telg6na, F&r6ge\ and Chamamui, 
and returned to Tong on April 10th. In April the post which 
had been established at Kirn was transferred to Mongalla, across 
the river, because Kir6 was claimed to be in Belgian territory. 
In June Colonel Sparkes visited Sultan Tambura of the Xiani- 
Niams, and was well received, and he found the people to be of a 
" comparatively highly civilized order." In this month 'Ali 
Dinar, who after the conquest of Omdurman had been entrusted 
with the province of Da* Fur, began to pay tribute to the Govern- 
ment. In this year the Sudan Government made two treati< 
to the eastern frontier. The first was arranged by Colonel 
Collinson, Mudir of Kasala, with Signor Martini, Governor- 
Cm ral of Eritrea, on February 28th, and the second by Colonel 
tin Hon. M. G. Talbot, R.E., with Lieut. Colli at Kasala on 
April 16th. In April Major Gwynn, D.S.O., and Captain 
Smyth, V.C., surveyed the country about FAmaka. The expedi- 
tion, which left Nasser in January under Major Austin to explore 
the almost unknown, but rich gold-producing country to the south- 
rly came to i, r rief. It was arranged that the Abyssinians 
to store supplies at Murle, on the north bank of Lake 
Rudolf, but when the party arrived they found that the Abys- 
sinians had failed to keep their word. The party suffered greatly 
10m hunger and sickness, and thirty-nine of the fifty-three men 
ir vat ion. During the year 1901 the Sudan Government, 
notwithstanding its small staff of officials, and its limited means, 
explored its vast territories, organized and administered the 
country, established tribunals, and extended communications, 
and, in Count Gleichen's words, "settled down into an <i 

and growing prosperity." 
In January. [Q02, Captain A. M. Pirie occupied Dem Zuber and 
Chamamui; on the toth of this month Lieut. Scott-Barbour was 
murdered by the Agar Dinkas, on the Naam River. Punitive 

1 An Arabic translation of the speech is given by Shucair, op. 0'/., iii., pp. 077 ft". 






k 4 

[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Offk 

[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 



expeditions were quickly organized under Major Hunter and 
Captain L. Strack, who burned the Agar villages, and killed 
1 1 of their men and carried off their cattle. The ringleader of 
the Agars, Myang Matyang, died of his wounds in July, and the 
Agars sued for peace. On May 15th a frontier treaty was signed 
at Adis .Ababa by Menelek II., King of Abyssinia. In the spring or 
summer of this year the Shekh As-Senussi died, having nominated 
his nephew, Ahmad Ash-Sharif, as his successor. His death put 
an end to the communications between the Senussi and 'Ali Dinar, 
Sultan of DAr Fur, which had been going on for three or four 
years. In July the Dervish Amir 'Arabi Daf'a Allah surrendered 
to 'Ali Dinar with 3,000 rifles. 

In December, 1902, Lord Cromer visited the Sudan a third 
time On January 27th, 1903, Lord Cromer made a speech in 
the Grand Hotel, Khartum.' 

In March Colonel Sparkes marched from Kossinga to I.lufrat 
An-nahAs," the famous copper mines in the south of Dar Fur, 
He found a number of shallow pits in a space about half a mile 
square. The place was deserted, for the former chief, Ibrahim 
Murad. went to Kahkingi when the Mahdi rose to power. In 
February Captain Armstrong was sent to open up relations with 
Yambio, the chief of the Niam-Xiams. He was killed by 
an elephant on the 23rd, but the expedition was continued by 
Colour-Sergeant Boardman, R.M.A. On reaching the Niam- 
Niam country he was attacked by Mangi, the son of Yambio, and 
was obliged to retire. In Augusta Mahdi called Muhammad Al- 
Amin appeared ami settled in Gebel Takali. but he was captured 
olonel Mahon, C.B., D.S.O., and taken to Al-Obe'd, where 
inged on September 27th. In November work on the 
Atbara-Sawakin Railway was begun. During the year 1903 good 
progress was made in the delimitation of the Abyssinian frontier 
by Colonel the Hon. M. G. Talbot, Major C. W. Gwynn, and 
Major C. E. Wilson, and a provisional agreement was made 
between tin Sudan and Congo Free State Governments about the 
territory between 5 and 5 30' north latitude. The capture of 
Ahmad al-( ihazali on March 20th, and the death of the brigand 

1 An Arabic translation of it is given by Shucair, op. r//., iii., p. 680 ft. 
For the route, see Gleichen, op. a'/., vol. 11., p. 103. 


[From a photograph by Miss Hilda Burrows. 


Hakos on December 16th, brought peace to Wadai and the 
Abyssinian frontier respectively. 

On January 27th, 1904, Captain P. Wood left Tong to visit 
Yambio, the Sultan of the Niam-Niams, with a view of establishing 
friendly relations with him. He was received with treachery and 
hostility, and found it necessary to destroy the village of Riketa, 
a son of Yambio. His losses on this occasion were Captain 
Haynes, who died of his wounds, two men killed, and eight 
wounded. Wood retired slowly to Mvolo (lat. 6° 6' and 29 58') 
in order to keep in touch with the " Scientific Mission" of Lemaire, 
which had established itself in Anglo-Egyptian territory. 

In May Sir Reginald Wingate visited Itang on the Baro 

On May 23rd Ibrahim wad Mahmud, the notorious slave-dealer 
of Gebel Gerok, was hanged at Wad Madani. In spite of warnings 
given to him in 1903, he had continued his raids, and openly defied 
the Government, and eventually Colonel Gorringe, Governor of 
Sennaar, was sent with 800 men to capture him. Ibrahim escaped 
from his village, but was caught and handed over to Major G. de 
H. Smith by Shekh Ahmad of Asosa on March 3rd. 

In August another religious enthusiast, called Adam, who 
proclaimed himself to be the Mahdi, appeared near Senga on the 
Blue Nile. The Egyptian Ma'amur of Senga, acting with most 
commendable promptitude, went out to capture him, and met him 
with his " twelve Apostles." Adam refused to surrender, and in 
the fight which followed he and his " Apostles " were killed. The 
Ma'amur was, unfortunately, killed also. 

In September, Major O'Connell marched with a force of 340 
rifles, and reduced to subjection the chiefs of Nuba, who had been 
in the habit of raiding the country south of Obed. 

During 1904 the efforts of the Siidan Government towards the 
pacification of its country met with great success, and Count 
Gleichen tells us ' that the desert west of Dongola, and the country 
of the Southern Atbai and of the Gamilab tribe were visited, and 
certain districts mapped and surveyed. Posts too were estab- 
lished between the River Setit and Kallabat, and the raids of the 

1 Op. tit., p. 279. 


Abyssinian brigands who infested the country were checked. 
The district about Gebel Tabi was explored, and garrisons 
established in the country of the northern Burun. As a result 
trade routes were opened up, to the great benefit of the natives. 
More effective control was established over the Shilluks near 
Fashoda (K6d6k),and more friendly relations between the Dinkas 
and the Nuerswere entered into. In the Mongalla districts posts 
were established where necessary, and troops were quartered 
throughout the Nuba mountains. Sir Reginald Wingate visited 
Waw in November, 1904. 

As the attempt made in 1904 to establish peaceful negotiations 
between the Niam-Niams and the Egyptian Government had 
failed, Sir Reginald Wingate despatched a force against them 
under the late Major \Y. A. Boulnois, Governor of the Labr al- 
Ghazal province. The eastern column of this force was under 
Captain A. Sutherland, and tin- western under Major Boulnois ; 
tlie former was to attack Mangi, the son of Yambio, and the 
latter Yambio himself. On January 1st Captain Sutherland's 
was concentrated at Mvolo, and on the 26th that of Major 
Boulnois left N'Doruma, 255 miles south of Waw, and began to 
advance against Yambio. On the 30th Captain Sutherland came 
upon a post oi Congo Free State troops at Ire* (lat. -1 55', long. 
which was a portion of Lemaire's "Scientific Mission*'! 
It subsequently transpired that M. Lemaire had established five 
posts in Anglo- Egyptian territory, " in the interest nee." 

On February 25th Captain Sutherland's force joined that of Major 
Boulnois at Mangi's village. On January 30th Major Boulnois 
reached Zugumbia, and on the 6th he occupied the village of 

Yambio. who had iled into the bush. On the Nth the- late Lieut. 
Fell I Yambio's position, and in the evening Major Carter 

captured him. Yambio received a mortal wound during the 
skirmish and died that night. His death relieved the country of 
a cruel chief, who had oppressed his people for years; the tribes 
came in soon after and tendered their submission to the Govern- 
ment Major Boulnois died on his way back to Waw, and Lieut 
J. L. Fell, Late R.N., who cut the waterway through the great 
marshes of the Giir River, died at Tambura of black-water fever. 
The other British officers who took part in this very successful 


expedition were Captain Sutherland, Major Carter, Major H. A. 
Bray, Captain H. Gordon, Captain A.J. Percival, D.S.O., Captain 
A. B. Bethell, R.A., who went alone on a mission to Tambura's 
country, notwithstanding the hostility of the Niam-Niams 
(Azande), Captain R. I. Rawson, and Captain S. K. Flint. 1 

1 See the summary of their exploits in the London Gazette for Friday, May 
18th, 1906, pp. 3443-3445. 





Of the means by which Christianity was introduced into the 
Sudan, who its introducers were, and when they took up their 
abode in the country, nothing is known with certainty. All the 
evidence which exists on the subject goes to show that Christianity 
did not make its way down the Blue Nile from Ethiopia into the 
Northern Sudan, as some have thought and said, but that it 
entered Nubia from Egypt, as did the civilization of the ancient 
Egyptians, and that in the course of centuries it advanced to the 
southern end of the Island of Meroe, where the Christian kingdom 
of 'Aiwa flourished in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 
The Christianizing of the Northern Sudan was the result of the 
preaching of St. Mark in Alexandria, and the phase of Nubian 
Christianity known to us bears the marks and character of the 
form of Christian belief and teaching which were promulgated by 
the Jacobite (or Monophysite) Patriarchs of that city. According 
to a wide-spread tradition, emanating probably in the first 
instance from the Church of Alexandria, St. Mark preached in 
Alexandria about a.d. 69, and was the leader of the Christians and 
their Church there f<»r some years. The traditions about the 
manner of his death vary : according to one he died a natural death, 
according cond he was burned, and a third declares that 

his body was dragged over stones until it broke into piec( s. Be 
this as it may, a considerable body of respectable tradition asserts 
that Christianity was preached in Egypt before the close of the 
first century, and it is certain that the new religion advanced 
southwards and spread quickly. The oldest authority for this 
I lusebius. 1 
In the third quarter of the second century, the number of 
1 Hist. /ur/cs., ii. 16. 


Christians in Egypt was large enough to necessitate the appoint- 
ment of three bishops, 1 and in the reign of Severus (193-211) their 
number and influence were sufficient to bring upon them the wrath 
of the Romans, and a general persecution was the result.' 2 In 
the second quarter of the third century the number of bishops 
was increased from three to twenty. 1 In the year 250 Decius 
issued his famous edict against the Christians, the object of which 
was to bring the people back to their ancient worship of the gods 
of Greece and Rome, and this could only be done by the stamp- 
ing out of Christianity. The Roman officials everywhere were 
ordered to make the Christians renounce their faith, and those 
who apostatized were required to offer sacrifice and to burn 
incense to the gods. Each person who did this received a 
certificate from the magistrate setting forth that the Emperor's 
demands had been complied with. Large numbers, no doubt, 
sacrificed to the gods and renounced the Christian religion, but 
the "strong spirits " refused to do so, and these were hunted 
down without mercy. When caught, they were cast into prison, 
where many were done to death ; in many respects the persecu- 
tion of Decius resembled that inaugurated by Trajan (98-117). 

With the death of Decius, who fell in battle against the Goths 
in Pannonia, the persecution stopped, but it was revived by 
Valerian (253-260). Many Christians in Egypt, of course, fled 
from their native towns whilst the persecutions of Decius and 
Valerian were in progress, and some have thought that the 
general adoption of the monastic life by the Egyptians dates from 
this period. This may be so, but it is impossible to assume that 
there were no Christians in Upper Egypt, especially in the 
Thebaid at this time, and it is quite certain that some of these 
must have fled from the prison and tortures prepared for the 
Christians who refused to deny Christ. The most natural place 
for such to flee to would be the Nile Valley, south of Aswan, and 
if they did so, they must have carried Christianity with them. 
Apart from this, members of caravans trading between Egypt and 
the Sudan would not fail to describe the events which were 
taking place in the former country, and the leading features of the 
new religion would be much discussed. Taking the probabilities 
1 Eutychius, Annates, i. 2 Eusebius, Hist. Ecctes., vi. 1. 

VOL. II. 289 U 


of the matter into consideration, it is impossible to think that 
individual Christianity was unknown in Nubia in the second and 
third centuries after Christ. 1 In the reign of Diocletian (284-305) 
a severe persecution of the Christians took place in Egypt, due 
partly to the hatred of the young men for military service, and 
partly to their refusal to take part in the worship of this Emperor. 
Those who fled to the south would be certain to find a refuge 
among the Blemmyes, who were at this time masters of Upper 
Egypt, and many, no doubt, retired from Egypt to Northern 
Nubia, where in the islands in the Nile and in the rocks of the 
hills they could lead the life of self-abnegation and religous con- 
templation, which was at the beginning of the fourth century 
becoming popular. Anthony the Great (born about 250) was in 
311a power in Egypt, and crowds of men were at that time obey- 
ing his teachings and emulating his example. 

The persecution continued by Galerius (305-311) and Maxi- 
minus (305-313) only served to fill the hills and deserts with 
monks, and the Nitrian Valley in Lower Egypt under the rule of 
Ammon and the Thebaic! became filled with coenobites and 
anchorites. Indeed, if we may believe Bar-Hebraeus (Hist. 
Dynast., text, p. 135), Christianity had penetrated not only all 
t, but also the regions of the Sudan and Nuba and Abyssinia ■ 
in the time of Constantine. It would be wrong to assume that 
conversion to Christianity had become general in Nubia and 
Abyssinia in the time of Constantine, but there is every reason to 
believe that there were in those countries numbers of Christians in 
the first half of the fourth century, although the Blemmyes, who 
then the masters of the country between Aswan and Primis, 
pagans and idolaters. The portion of the Nile Valley between 
the Second and Fourth Cataracts was far more suitable for the 
Christians to live in than the sterile region between Primis and 
K6sha, a little above the head of the Second Cataract, and those 
who Med to this region probably followed the desert route to the 
west of the Nile. There are several large islands in the Nile 

1 Abu Snlih (ed. Kvetts. p. 265) says that the first Nubian who was converted 
from Star-worship to Christianity was Bahriya, the king's nephew ; he built 
churches and monasteries in lar^e numbers. 

) 12--* ^ gfojaJ! >_»';-»! j)i+*-) t*j£) M-'' \j+ s** J* 1 g* M t j 


above Kosha, e.g., Sai, Arnitti, Nilwatti, Wussi, Nilwa, Ertemri, 
Narnarti, and between the Third and Fourth Cataracts the 
number of them is considerable. In fact the remains of Christian 
buildings, churches, monasteries, &c, are found at comparatively 
frequent intervals all the way up between Hannek and Merawi, 
and many of these stand on sites which were occupied by the 
Christians so far back as the sixth century, when the Christian 
kingdom of Silko was founded, with its capital at Old Dongola. 

But whether the Christians in Nubia during the fourth and 
fifth centuries were many or few, the people generally were 
pagans and idolaters. Olympiodorus, 1 who visited the country 
between 407 and 425, says that the Blernmyes, who occupied 
Nubia so far south as Primis, were heathen, and he makes no 
mention of Christians. The various tribes of the Blernmyes, 
i.e., the Bejas, who lived in the great Eastern Desert, were 
also pagans. Thus it is clear that the edict of Theodosius I. 
(378-395), decreeing that the whole of the Roman Empire 
should become Christian, had failed to abolish the worship 
of idols, which continued to flourish at Philae, Talrnis 
(Kalabsha), and other places in Nubia. The Blernmyes were, 
moreover, still pagans in the year 453 ; this fact is made known 
to us by Priscus, 2 the friend of Maximinus, who in the reign 
of Marcianus (450-457) went into Nubia on a punitive expe- 
dition against that people. The Nobatae had failed to fulfil :i 
the agreement made with them by Diocletian to keep the 
Blernmyes in check, and the latter had invaded Upper Egypt and 
raided the country. 

Maximinus, having severely punished the Blernmyes, made 
terms with them, and drew up an agreement with them which 
was to last one hundred years. They promised to pay for the 
damage they had done, to restore all the prisoners they had taken, 
and to give hostages ; to the first and third of these clauses they 
had never before agreed. On their side, however, they stipulated 
that they should be allowed to visit the Island of Philae according 

1 Ed. Bekker, p. 62. 2 Excerpt, legate in Labbe, Protrept., p. 40. 

3 See Revillout, Memoire sur les Blernmyes, Paris, 1864; Une Page de 
Chistoire de la Nubie, in Revue ILgyfitol., torn, iv., pp. 156 ff. ; and Second 
Memoire sur les Blernmyes, Paris, 1887. 



to their ancient use and wont, 1 and that they should be allowed 
to borrow the statue of Isis, and to take it to a certain place in 
their own country, so that they might make petitions to the 
goddess in their own way. Here, then, we have a proof that the 
worship of Isis flourished at Philae and throughout the country of 
Northern Nubia more than fifty years after the famous Edict of 
Theodosius I. That a Roman general, with a great reputation for 
piety, 2 should agree to such a stipulation is strange, but it is 
more remarkable still that he should select Philae, the seat of the 
worship of idols, as the place wherein to sign the treaty, though 
we can readily understand that the Blemmyes would be more 
likely to regard the treaty as wholly sacred and binding if it were 
signed at the sanctuary of their great goddess. Thirty years later 
the condition of things was unchanged in Nubia, for Marinus of 
Flavia Neapolis in Palestine tells us in his life of Proclus, 1 ' that 
in his day Isis was still worshipped at Philae. 

Of the progress of Christianity in the Sudan during the first 
half of the sixth century we know nothing, but from the now 
famous Greek inscription which the Nubian king Silko caused to 
be cut in the Egyptian temple at Talmis (Kalabsha), it is clear 
that before the close of the century Christianity became the 
official religion of the country. This inscription was published 
for the first time by Gau from a copy made by him,' and its 
contents were discussed by Niebuhr ; B another copy made by 
Cailliaud formed the subject of an exhaustive essay and of a 
translation by Letronne. 6 An excellent copy was also published 
by Lepsius, 7 and from this the uncial text given on p. 309 is taken ; 
the transcription on p. 310 is that of Dittenberger. 8 

In this inscription Silko, who calls himself "BaaiXiaKos of the 
Nobadae and of all the Ethiopians," says that he came to Talmis 

1 Letronne has shown that this custom was at least 250 years old when 
Priscus wrote. Histoire du C/iristianismt\ p. 68. 

1 his fact is well demonstrated by Revillout, Blemmyes, p. 45. 
:i Ed. Boissonade, Leipzig, 1814, p. 109, "laiu tt)v kutu t<\s *t'Aas en TifKofif'vrjv. 
' Antiquit&s de la Nuln'e, pi. 1, No. 1. 
' Inscriptiones Nubienses, Rome, 1820- 

6 Oenvres C/ioisies, torn, i., pp. 3 ff. 

7 Denkmiilcr, Abth. vi., Bl. 95. 

s On'cnlis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae, torn, i., p. 303. 



and Taphis twice, that he fought against the Blemmyes, and that 
God gave him the victory once with three others, that once again 
he conquered [the Blemmyes], and that he made himself com- 
pletely master of their cities, and established himself in them from 
the beginning with his troops. " I conquered them," he says, 
"and they made supplication to me: I made peace with them, 
" and they swore oaths to me by their idols [to observe it], and I 
" believed their oath, because they were good men." This done, 
he returned to the upper, i.e., the southern part of his own coun- 
try. He continues, " Now that I have become BaaiXiaKos, not 
" only do I not follow after the other kings, but I march at their 
"head. Those who love to contend with me I do not permit to 
" dwell in peace in their own country, unless they entreat me for 
" forgiveness. For in the plains I am a lion, and in the hills I am 
"abear(?)." 1 

" And I fought with the Blemmyes yet another time, from 
" Primis to Talmis. And I laid waste the countries of the peoples 
" above (i.e., south of) the Nobadae, because they would contend 
" against me. And as for the chiefs (BeaTrorai) of the other 
" nations who would contend against me, I do not permit them to 
" take rest in the shade unless they bow their backs in homage 
" before me, and they cannot even take a drink in their own 
" houses. And as for those who offer resistance to me, I carry off 
"their women and their children." 

The general meaning of this important inscription is quite clear. 
SiJko warred against the Blemmyes and beat them on various 
occasions, and after his fifth fight he occupied their cities of 
Taphis (Tafa) and Talmis (Kalabsha), which none of his prede- 
cessors had done ; he also took their country so far south as 
Primis (Ibrim). These victories he attributes to God. In his 
earliest campaigns the Blemmyes took the oath of allegiance to 
him, swearing to observe it by their idols. As a result of his 
victory he became /3acrt/\t'o-vo9,' 2 i.e., chieftain, and he be- 
came greater than any of his predecessors. He raided the coun- 
try of the tribes who resisted him, and he harassed the local Shekhs 
{hecnrorat) so mercilessly that they were always in the sun, 
and none of them found a chance to rest in the shade [of the trees 

1 More probably u oryx." 2 Literally, " little king," or "kinglet." 



of his native villagej, still less to take a drink of water in his own 
house Such as resisted him suffered the loss of their wives and 
children. In the lower country he was a lion, and in the hills an 
oryx (?). Finally, we see that Silko was a Christian, and that his 
enemies were idolaters. 

There is no need to discuss here the date of the inscription of 
Silko, for all that can be said on the subject, both for and against, 
has been said by Letronne. He was of opinion that it was 
written not earlier than the middle of the sixth century, 1 and was 
inclined to believe that it belonged to the period towards the end 
of that century. There is, however, one point which must be 
taken into consideration. Silko says that the Blemmyes took 
their oaths by their idols, and this suggests that the worship of 
Osiris and Isis at Philae was still flourishing. Now we know from 
Procopius 2 that Justinian (527-565) ordered Narses the Pers- 
armenian to go to Philae and put an end to the worship of Isis, and 
that this officer did so and closed the temple, and cast the priests 
into prison, and carried off the statues to Constantinople. This 
took place about 563, or, at all events, not many years before 
Justinian's death, but it is obvious that such a high-handed pro- 
ceeding could not have been carried out by Narses unless the 
population generally concurred. Justinian may have felt that the 
custom of sacrificing human beings to the sun, which Procopius 
tells us was in force at Philae, and the worship of Priapus, were 
a disgrace to his empire, or, what is far more likely, he was 
anxious to seize the revenues of the temples of Isis and devote 
them to other purposes, but in either case there must have been 
in Nubia a large number of Christians who were prepared to 
further his views. Among such was Silko, who appears to have 
been urged to attack the Pdemmyes about the time when the 
period of their treaty with the Romans for one hundred years 
expired. Silko crushed the Blemmyes and took their cities from 
Taphis to Prirnis, and then Justinian's envoy removed the statues 
of the gods from Philae, and closed the temple of Isis. The two 
events must have taken place about the same time, and it is 
difficult not to see in them the evidence of some special arrange- 

1 Histoire du Chrisiianismc, p. 39. 
Di Bcllo Persi'co, i., xix., pp. 59, 60. 



ment made with Silko by Justinian or, according to some writers, 
by bis Empress, Theodora. 

The part which Theodora is said to have played in the conver- 
sion of the Nubians is described by Bar-Hebraeus 1 in his 
Ecclesiastical History thus : — About this time (i.e., between 
540 and 548) there lived a priest called Julian, of the orthodox 
faith, i.e., Jacobite, who was at Constantinople in the service of 
the Papa Theodosius of Alexandria. He was greatly concerned 
for the black people of the Nobades, 2 who lived on the southern 
border of the Thebaid, and as they were heathen he wished to 
convert them. Julian told the Empress Theodora of his desire, 
and she begged Justinian to send him to Nubia. The Emperor, 
however, sent a certain bishop to Nubia, and with him went 
envoys and presents for the king of that country ; not to be out- 
done, Theodora sent Julian also, and gave him a letter to the 
" Duke of the Thebaid," wherein she said. " I and the Emperor 
" have determined to send [an envoy] unto the nation of the 
" Nobades, and behold I have sent Julian the priest on my own 
" behalf, and the Emperor hath sent other men, together with 
" objects of price. Do thou take good care that my [envoy] 
" entereth first, and let him make smooth the way for those [whom] 
" the Emperor hath sent." Now when the " Duke of the Thebaid 
" had read the letter of the Empress, he did as she had commanded 
" him, and he detained the ambassadors of the Emperor until 
11 Julian arrived, and he showed him the letter of the Empress. 
''And [Julian] taught and baptized the king and the nobles, and 
" he informed [them] concerning the schism which the Chalcedo- 
" nians had made, and how they had reviled the holy men, and 
" stablished a new faith besides that of Nicaea. ' And when the 
" ambassadors of the Emperor had arrived with the letters and 
" gifts, and said to the Nubians, ' Do not cleave unto those who 
" have been driven out and banned,' the king of the Nobades and 
'* his nobles replied, ' We accept the honourable gifts of the 
'• Emperor, and we will send [back] gifts twofold in return, but 
" we do not cleave to persecutors and calumniators. For behold, 
" we have already received holy baptism from this excellent man, 
1 Ed. Abbeloos and Lamy, torn, i., coll. 220 ff. 



" and we cannot receive a second [baptism].' Thus were all the 
" people of Kushites converted to the orthodox faith, and they 
"became subjects of the throne of Alexandria. And Julian 
" remained there for a period of two years. And it is related 
" that from the third unto the tenth hour he stood and baptized 
" in caves full of water, naked, and with a girdle about him, and 
" the only part of his body which was out of the water was the 
" upper part thereof." 1 Whether this statement of Bar-Hebraeus 
gives the correct reason why the Nubians became Jacobites or not 
is comparatively unimportant, but it certainly supplies the con- 
necting link between the wars of Silko and the removal of the 
statues of Osiris and Isis from Philae, and it suggests that some 
of the earliest of this king's campaigns against the Blemmyes 
took place before 550, The conclusion of the period of the 
treaty of one hundred years which had been made by Maximums, 
and ratified by Florus, gave Justinian the opportunity he wanted, 
and he embraced it with the results already described. 

According to John, Bishop of Ephesus, Julian took with him 
into Nubia the aged Bishop of the Thebaic], and when he left Nubia 
to return to Constantinople he committed the newly Christianized 
people to his charge. The work of Julian was carried on by 
Longinus, who was appointed thereto by the Patriarch Theodosius 
on the day on which he died, and. in spite of all the opposition of 
his foes, Longinus succeeded in escaping from Constantinople, 
and he made his way, with two young men. into Nubia, where he 
built a church and established clergy, and taught the services 
and all the things which were ordered, according to the Christian 
faith. He stayed there about six years, and then, in obedience to 
certain letters which he had received from Alexandria, he proposed 
ive the country; but the king and his nobles refused to allow 
him to depart, and it was only with difficulty that he did so. He 
then went to "Theodore, the aged Bishop of Pildn (Philae), 
"which is in the inner (i.e., southern) Thebaid," a and finally 
departed to Mareotis. 

1 The Syriac text will be found in Abbeloos and Lamy, i. coll. 229-234. Bar- 
Hebraeus drew his narrative from the work of John of Ephesus ; see Cureton, 
John of Ephesus, Oxford, 1853, p. 223 ff. 
John of l-.fihesus, ed. Cureton, p. 228. 



When once the statues of Isis and Osiris were removed from 
Philae Christianity spread rapidly in the country. Silko's 
successor, who was called Eirpanome, or Eirpanomos, 1 was a 
devoted Christian, and either during or about the time of his 
reign the temples of Tafa, Kalabsha, Dakka a (Pselcis), Wadi 
Sabu'a, 'Amada, and Abu Simbel, were turned into Christian 
churches. Under the direction of the Bishop Theodore mentioned 
above, the pronaos of the temple of Isis at Philae was turned into 
a church, and two inscriptions at Philae published by Letronne :! 
prove that he covered the walls with a coating of plaster to hide 
the figures of the Egyptian gods, and a third inscription, also at 
Philae, states that Theodore also built in the portion of the 
pronaos a sanctuary, 4 which was dedicated to Saint Stephen, under 
the diaconate of Posias. The transformation of the pronaos of 
the temple of Isis into a Christian church took place about 577, 
and about the same time the church at Dendur, as M. Revillout 
has shown, 5 was built. Thus it is quite clear that by the end of 
the sixth century that portion of Nubia which lies between the 
First and Second Cataracts had been converted to Christianity. 

The place chosen for the capital of the Christian kingdom of 
Nubia was Dongola, better known to-day as " Old Dongola/' 
New Dongola being Al-Urdi ; it is 351 miles from Haifa by river, 
and stands on the east bank of the Nile. Dongola can easily be 
defended by a small force, and the choice of the site by the 
Nubian king who first settled there was a good one. The people 
who belonged to it probably lived on the west bank of the river, 
where there is a comparatively large area capable of cultivation. 
For nearly one hundred years after Silko founded his capital the 
Nubians were allowed to remain in peace, but soon after the 
conquest of Egypt by the Arabs in 640 they were attacked by the 

1 Revillout sees in this name a form of Ergamenes : see Blemmyes, pp. 4, 6 ff. 

- For the Greek inscriptions from Dakka and sites to the north, see Gau, 
Monumenta Nub., plates xiii. and xiv. ; Light, Travels, p. 270 ; Legh, Narrative of 
a Journey, London, 1820 ; Burckhardt, Travels, p. 106 ; Yorke and Leake, 
Trans. Soc. Lit., vol. i. p. 225; Niebuhr, Inscript. Nub., p. 10; Letronne, 
Recueil, p. 487 ; Letronne, Recherches, p. 370 ; Boeckh, C.I.G. ; Lepsius, 
Denkmdler, Abth. xii., Bll. 13 and 14 ; Dittenberger, Orientis Graeci, torn, i., 
pp. 311 ff. ; &c. 

3 Hist, du Christianisme, p. 80. 4 KTiodfjuvos . . . to Upov tovto. 

5 Blemmyes, pp. 5 ff. 



conquerors, who advanced to their capital, and, having captured it, 
laid upon the king the annual tribute known as the Bakt. The 
facts concerning this are given elsewhere in this volume. In the 
various treaties which the Muslims made with the Nubians it is 
specially stipulated that the mosques shall not be injured, and that 
the Muhammadans are to be allowed to trade and travel at will 
throughout the country, facts which seem to indicate that they 
considered it useless to attempt to convert the Christians to the 
religion of the Prophet. It is tolerably certain that the Nubians 
were kept in subjection by the Arabs, but at the same time they 
seem to have possessed, in the rirst half of the eighth century, 
considerable power. For, in j$j, when the Copts were persecuted, 
and their Patriarch Khail was cast into prison, Cyriacus the king 
of Nubia marched into Egypt with 100,000 horsemen and 100,000 
camels, and laid waste the country from Aswan to Cairo. 1 
Cyriacus is said to have been the over-lord of thirteen kings, the 
chief of whom was Elkera, a Jacobite prince, and his dominions 
extended very far to the south, probably to the borders of 
Abyssinia.- When the governor of Cairo saw what had happened, 
he begged the Patriarch to ask Cyriacus to withdraw his troops, 
and the Nubian king did so. 

About one hundred years later, Ibrahim, the brother of the 

Khalifa Al-Ma'mun, sent a letter to Zacharias, king of Nubia, 

ordering him to pay the Bakt, or tribute, which was fourteen 

in arrears. The annual Bakt consisted of about 400 men, 

therefore 5,600 men were due to the Egyptians from Zacharias. 

icharias found it impossible to pay his debt, he sent his son 

ge to Ibrahim, who was then in Baghdad, to say so, and to 

offer himself to the Khalifa. Ibrahim received him graciously, 

and granted all the petitions of Zacharias, and sent George back 

:\pt with honour. George next went to see the Patriarch 

Anba Yusab (831-850?), and received his blessing, and then 

asked him to ite an altar so that he might take it back to 

tlie house of the amir wherein he lodged. This was done, and the 

amir ordered the wooden board to be struck on the roof of 

•ole. Middle Ages, p. 27 ; Abil Salili, ed. Evetts, p. 267. 
tronne, Histoire dv CArtstiam'sme, p. 36 ; Le Quien, Oriens Christianas, 
torn, ii., p. 662. 


George's lodging, so that his friends might assemble at the house 
for prayers and hear the liturgy as in his own country. When 
George returned to Nubia his father founded a large church 
as a thank-offering to God for his son's safe return. This church 
was consecrated in 1020 by Anba George, Bishop of Natho, 
or Leontopolis. 1 

About the year 970, the Nubians, to a great extent, became an 
independent people, and they devoted their energies to the 
re-establishing of their power, and to the building of churches, 
monasteries, &c. In 1002 Raphael was king of Nubia, and he 
built at Dongola houses with domes of red bricks, similar to those 
which are found in Al-Irak. The flourishing condition of the 
Nubian kingdom in the twelfth century is testified to by Abu 
Salih, the Armenian, who says of Dongola that it is a large city 
on the banks of the blessed Nile, and that it contains many 
churches and large houses and wide streets. Dongola had, in 
fact, taken the place of the old city of Napata, opposite to Gebel 
Barkal, and about this time had become the capital of the kingdom 
of Northern Nubia, which extended from the First to the Fourth 
Cataract. A few years ago, Mr. Carl Armbruster, of the Sudan 
Civil Service, found three fragments of Greek inscriptions built 
into a wall at Dongola. With praiseworthy promptness he 
rescued them, and copies of the texts will be found in the Journal 
of Theological Studies, vol. iv., pp. 583 ff. Between the First and 
Second Cataracts there must have been many churches and 
monasteries, e.g., the " Monastery of Safanuf, king of Nubia," 2 
which was probably situated near Abu Simbel, and the Monastery 
of Ansiin at Tafa, a few miles south of Philae, and the church of 
Saint Michael, which stood close to the frontier between Egypt 
and Nubia. On a large island about twelve miles south of Haifa 
are the ruins of a Coptic church called Darbe. 3 

Abu. Salih also mentions the Monastery of Michael and Cosmas, 
and the Monastery of Dera, and says that the latter was near an 
ancient temple, between two great mountains, but their exact 
sites have not been identified. He speaks, too, of the city of 
Bansaka as being large and handsome and containing many 

1 Abu Salih, ed. Evetts, p. 270. 2 Ibid., p. 261. 

3 Crowfoot in Gleichen, op. cit., i., p. 313. 



churches, and the Monastery of Saint Sin u thins ; as he savs it 
was the abode of the "Lord of the Mountain" (see Vol. II., 
p. 193), and there was a gold mine near it, it certainly lay to the 
south of Wadl Haifa. On the west bank, near the Mountain 
of /1 Ian, was the town which contained the Monastery of Abu 
Garas, and which was the seat of a bishop. This town was 
probably near the Island of Sai, where the pillars of a Coptic- 
church, with crosses cut on them, may be seen to this day. 

In the Oasis of Selima, which lies fifty-five miles in the desert 
west of Sakiat al-'Abd on the Nile, Mr. fames Currie, Director of 
the Gordon College at Khartum, saw the remains of " an old Chris- 
" tian convent, moderately well preserved, but the point of interest 
" attaching to it is that it has apparently been built out of the 


Nl. \K SAN AM Alii' HUM. 

us, Lttttts, p. 219. 

" ruins of something much older, to judge from the inscribed 
"stones one notices." 1 From the neighbourhood of Sai also 
came the sepulchral tablet of Iesou, the Coptic Bishop, which 
was acquired for the Khartum Museum by Mr. Crowfoot and 
:t in [905. The numerous mines of gold and copper 
which existed between Dulgo and Koya,' 2 close to the Third 
Cataract, suggest that there were Coptic settlements near, and 
between Khamlak and Old Dongola Mr. Crowfoot has found 
remains of Christian, or older, sites at Firgi, KhalSwa," Amen- 
togo, Arab Hag. and a place a few miles to the east of Meganda. 

1 Quoted by Gleichen, op. it/., i., p. 203 ; and see Crowfoot, ibid., p. 313. 

1 Irowfoot in ( ilcichen, op. <it., i., p. 313. 
3 Here Mr. Crowfoot found some Greek inscriptions. 



At Bakhit Lepsius found the ruins of a church within a fortress 
which had " eighteen semicircular projecting towers of defence." 
The church was 63 feet long, and the whole nave rested on four 
columns and two pilasters. Close by are the ruins of the church 
of Magal, with monolithic granite columns 13^ feet high up 
to the capital, which is separated from the shaft, and is i| feet 
high, and 2 feet in diameter. It appears to have had five naves. 
At Gebel Deka are the ruins of a church which had three naves, 1 


[From Lepsius, Denkm'dler, Abth. I. Bl. 131 

and which stood inside a fortress with strong, massive walls. On 
Gimeti Island are traces of the ruins of a church. 2 

In the Wadi al-Ghazal are the ruins of a monastery with those of 
a church, built solidly of stone as high as the windows, and above 
them of burnt brick. The walls are plastered, and are painted 
on the inside. The vaulted apse is towards the east, and the 
entrances behind the western transept are towards the north and 
south. All the arches are round, and above the doors are Coptic 
crosses >j«. The building is 80 feet long and 40 feet wide, and 
stands in a great courtyard containing cells for the monks, built 

1 Letters, p. 231. 

2 Crowfoot in Gleichen, op. at., p. 315. 


of stone, and a " cell " for the Abbot, which is 46 feet long. 
There are two churchyards, and in the eastern one Lepsius 
counted twenty tombstones, with inscriptions in Greek and Coptic. 1 
This fact, taken with Mr. Armbruster's discovery 2 mentioned 
above, is important as showing that Greek was used throughout 
the kingdom of Dongola for ecclesiastical purposes, and it con- 
firms the statement of Abu Salih, who says that the liturgy of the 
Nubians and their prayers are in Greek, :i and that their land is 
under the jurisdiction of the see of St. Mark, the Evangelist, 
which consecrates [their bishops] for them. Thus, as Mr. A. f. 
Butler has pointed out, Christianity must have been introduced 
into Nubia before the translation of the Egyptian liturgy into 
Coptic. That this liturgy was originally in Greek is proved by 
the Greek sentences which are still preserved in the midst of the 
Coptic versions, and by the existence of the Greek liturgy of 
St. Mark, which is apparently the original of the Coptic 
St. Cyril. 1 

A few miles beyond Belal, at the foot of the Fourth Cataract 
on the south bank, are the remains of a Coptic church and 
fortified monaster)'. 

The kingdom of Dongola was not, however, allowed to flourish in 
peace, and towards the middle of the twelfth century trouble broke 
out between the Nubians and the Sultan of Egypt about the country 
between the First and Second Cataracts. In the year 1173 Shams 
ad-Dawlah, an elder brother of Saladin, marched to Aswan, and, 
having collected boats, sailed up to Primis with a body of troops. 
Here he attacked the Nubians, and defeated them, and took their 
city, and made many prisoners. The Nubians were said to be 
700,000 in number, and there were in the city 700 pigs, which the 
conquerors killed. In the city there was a large and beautiful 
church dedicated to the Virgin Mary, with a high dome, upon which 
stood a large cross. Shams ad-Dawlah had the cross burned, and 
the church pillaged, and the Muhammadan call to prayer was 
chanted from its summit. A bishop who was in the city was 

1 For copies, see Lepsius, Penkmaler, Abth. xii., Bl. 22. 

- The stone set up to commemorate Marcus is dated in the 528th year of 
Diocletian, i.e., a.d. 812. 
a Ed. Evens, p. 272. « In Abu Salih, note i., p. 272. 



tortured and then thrown into prison. Having left a number 
of men there to garrison the city, with supplies and stores of all 
kinds, Shams ad-Dawlah departed, carrying off with him a large 
quantity of cotton, which he sold at Kus on his way down the 
river. Ibrim had been captured by the Arabs before, in the 
reign of Muhammad ibn Tughg, the Ikhshid (a.d. 935-946). by 
Muhammad al-Khazin. 

Hitherto mention has been made only of the churches and 
monasteries of Northern Nubia, and we have now to consider 
those which existed in Southern Nubia, i.e., the country from the 
foot of the Fourth Cataract to the Blue Nile. The country on 
each side of the Fourth Cataract contains no ruins of any kind, 
but this is not to be wondered at when we remember that the 
routes to the upper country all crossed the desert to Berber or 
Shendi and did not run by the river. Ruins of Christian buildings 
are not found on the Island of Meroe, where, historical tradition 
tells us, a large and flourishing Christian kingdom existed at an 
early period, until we reach the south end of the Island, close to 
the Blue Nile. At a spot on the right bank of the Blue Nile, about 
twelve miles above Khartum, stood the city of Soba, or Suba, 
which was the capital of the great Christian kingdom of 'Aiwa, or 

'Aliya, the Alut (I JH ^ of the hieroglyphic inscriptions. 

In late Christian times, i.e., about 1200, Nubia was divided into 
two great kingdoms, namely, the kingdom of Mukurra, with its 
capital at Dongola, and the kingdom of 'Aiwa, with its capital at 
Soba. The district between Tafa ' and Philae was known as 
" Maris," and its chief lived at Bagrash, which was probably 
near the modern Miharrakah. The people of Maris and those 
of Mukurra were said to be descended from Himyar, and their 
ancestors to have come from Yaman, in Southern Arabia. The 
kingdom of 'Aiwa included a portion of the land between the Blue 
and White Niles, and its capital probably consisted of two parts, 
one on each side of the Blue Nile. 

Eastward of Soba, according to Selim al-Aswani, is the river 

1 A tradition, quoted by Abu Salih and Selim al-Aswani, declares that Moses, 
before he became prophet, made an expedition into Nubia, and destroyed 
Tafa, the people whereof worshipped stars and set up idols to them. 



which dries up, and the bed of which is then inhabited. 1 The city is 
said to have contained handsome edifices and extensive dwellings, 
and churches full of gold, and gardens, and guest-houses wherein 
the Muslims live. The chief of 'Aiwa was greater than the chief 
of Mukurra, and had a larger army, and his country was more 
extensive and fertile than that of Mukurra. He had great flocks 
of sheep and goats, and herds of cattle, fine horses, and cattle of 
a red colour. The religion of the chief and of his subjects was that 
of the Jacobite Christians, and their bishops were appointed by 
the Patriarch of Alexandria. Their [sacred] books were in the 
Greek tongue, and they were translated into the language of the 
country. Sellm adds, ''The understanding of these people is 
inferior to that of the Niibas." The rule of the chief was absolute 
and unquestioned. The tribes beyond 'Aiwa worshipped the sun, 
moon, stars, fire, trees, and animals. 

Abu Salih - says that the kingdom of 'Aiwa was large, and 
consisted of vast provinces wherein were four hundred churches. 
The town stood between the Blue and White Niles, probably 
on the site of the modern city of Khartum. Around it were 
monasteries, some at a distance from the rivers, and some on 
their banks. In the town was a large and spacious church, the 
largest of all the churches in the country, and it was called 
" Manbali." There is no reason to doubt the existence of a large 
number of churches in 'Aiwa, for many of them were in existence 
in the sixteenth century, and Alvarez tells us that he had talked 
to a certain " John of Syria," who declared that there were still 
in the country one hundred and fifty churches which contained 
crucifixes, and pictures of the Virgin Mary painted on the walls, 
and all old. 8 Each church stood within a fortress, as in Northern 

The ruins of Christian buildings which still exist on the Island 
of Me roe are very few, the most important being those which lie 
onthe Blue Nile, about twelve miles from Khartum; these are 
believed to be the remains of a part of the city of Soba. Here at 
all events a Meroitic temple stood in the early centuries of the 
Christian era, and on the portions of the pillars which still 

ickhardt, Travels, p. 500. ■ Ed. Evetts, p. 263. 

ee Mr. A. J. Butlers note in Evetts, op. a'/., p. 264. 



remain is cut the Coptic cross which proves that it was subse- 
quently turned into a Christian church. This temple was built 
about the same time as the temples at Nagaa, judging by the 
colossal stone ram which was found there, and which is now in 
Khartum ; the ram is in the Palace garden, and a good picture 
of it is given by Count Gleichen in his Handbook (i., p. 228). 
The region where search should be made for Christian antiquities 
is along the Blue Nile. Mr. J. W. Crowfoot knows of the 

[From Sir William Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

existence of ancient remains at Anti (west bank), Rodis (east 
bank), Kasamba (west bank, three miles from Kamlin), Arbagi 
(west bank opposite to Rufa'a), Hassa Hissa (near Arbagi), and 
Sennaar, and some of these he has seen. These most likely 
mark the sites of Meroitic towns, but among them will probably 
be found the remains of Christian buildings. Dr. Schweinfurth 
reports the existence of " some curious old Christian stone ruins 
and tombs," at Gebel Maman, 201 miles from Sawakin, on the 
" Ermenab " route to Kasala. Lastly, at Katena on the White 

VOL. II. 305 X 


Nile were found some inscribed bricks and pottery of the Christian 
period ; these are preserved in the Gordon College Museum. 1 

The most flourishing period of the Christian kingdoms of 
Mukurra and 'Aiwa was between noo and 1300, but at the 
beginning of the fourteenth century the power of the Muham- 
madans was in the ascendant, whilst that of the Christians began 
to decline. Up to this time the Christian Church of Nubia had 
acted as a block to the advance of Muhammadanism in the Sudan, 
and for more than seven hundred years it had maintained its 
position in spite of all external persecutions and attacks. 
Towards the end of the thirteenth century the neighbourhood of 
Dongola became filled with Muslims, and a mosque was dedicated 
there to the worship of God in 1317. Subsequently the upper 
part of a church there was turned into a mosque, 2 but the exact 
date of this event is unknown. The immediate cause of the 
d< mnfall of the Christian kingdom of Nubia was due to dissensions 
between the chiefs of 'Aiwa and Mukurra ; and the Arab settlers 
in the north, and the negro tribes of the south, seized their 
opportunity, and wrested their dominions from them. In con- 
nection with this we must remember the loss of power and prestige 
which the Coptic Church in Egypt suffered about a.d. 1300, and 
this could not fail to have its effect in the Sudan. From the 
time of Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria (a.d. 1235), the Nubian 
Church was left practically to native guidance, with the result 
which we should naturally expect. In the second half of the 
fourteenth century there broke out in Egypt a fierce persecution 
of the Copts by the Muslims, doe in a great measure to the in- 
solence and arrogance of the Christians who were employed in 
every department of the government.'' The Muslims burnt and 
destroyed Coptic churches everywhere, they beat and killed (opts 
in the open streets, and in the villages of Upper Egypt the Copts 
were so panic-stricken that they embraced Islam, and pulled 
down their churches and built mosques in their places, and, when- 
ever they could, married Muslim women. The same thing must 
happened in Nubia, and the conversion of the upper part 
of the church at Dongola into a mosque probably dates from 

1 Crowfoot in Gleichen. i., p. 315. * row foot, ibid. 

a See Renaudot, Hist. Patriarckarum, vol. i.. p. 28 ; pp. 607-610. 



this period. At all events, from about a.d. 1300 to the present 
day, the history of the Nubian Church is a blank page. 1 

A glimpse of the general condition of Nubia at the close of the 
fifteenth century is afforded us by Leo Africanus, or Hasan ibn 
Muhammad, the Geographer, 2 and he says that the king of Nubia 
was engaged in continual wars with the people of Dfir Fur and 
Kordofan, who speak a language which no other people under- 
stand, and with the Bejas or Bisharin tribes, who live upon the 
flesh of animals and milk ; the latter took tribute from the king of 
Dongola and from the governor of Sawakin. Nubia was divided 
into " fifteen kingdomes whereof agreeing much in rites and 
" customes, are subject unto fower princes onely." The principal 
town, Dongola, was "exceedingly populous," and contained 
10,000 families, and its houses were built of a " kind of chalke," 
and covered with straw. Its people did a large trade in ivory, grain, 
sugar, sandal-wood, civet, and gold, of which there was " great 
" plentie " in the country, and in a kind of poison which was sold 
at one hundred ducats the ounce ! The Nubians were governed 
by a woman, and they called their queen Gana. The spiritual 
condition of the Nubians he describes as most wretched and 
miserable, for having "lost the sinceritie and light of the Gospel, 
11 they do embrace infinite corruptions of the Jewish and Muham- 
" madan religions." Whilst Alvarez was in Abyssinia the 
Nubians sent messengers to beg the " Prete " to appoint over 
them priests and persons to preach and administer the sacraments 
to them. These messengers said that the Nubians had often 
sent to Rome for a bishop, but as they received no assistance in 
this respect, they, little by little, lost all knowledge of the Christian 
religion, "and became infected with the impious and abominable 
" sects of the Iewes and Mahumetans." As the " Prete " was in 
sore need of clergy for his own churches he could not help the 
Nubians. Many of the churches in Nubia were destroyed by the 
Arabs, and the Portuguese travellers related that they saw 
pictures of saints painted on the walls. 

1 Nawaya Krestos, king of Ethiopia (1342-1372), made war on Upper Egypt 
because the Governor of Cairo had thrown Abba Markos, Patriarch of 
Alexandria, into prison, because he failed to pay the appointed tribute; the 
Patriarch was released, and he returned to his duties. 

2 Edited by Robert Brown, London, 1896, vol. iii., p. 836. 



In the sixteenth century, about 1520, the Nubians were ruled 
by the Bosnians, who were sent into the Sudan by Selim after 
his conquest of Egypt, and about the same time the Arabs and 
Turks overran many parts of Ethiopia, and killed the Christians 
and destroyed their churches. The Portuguese missions to the 
Sfidan had for their object the conversion of the Abyssinians to 
the Roman faith, and nothing was done to help the Nubians, or 
to revive Christianity in their country. 




" I SiLKOam Chieftain * of the Nobadae and of all the Ethiopians. 

••I came to Talmis 8 and to Taphis. 4 Once, twice, I fought 

" with the Blemmyes, and God gave me the victory after the three. 

•• I conquered them once and for all, and made myself master 
"of their cities, and for the first time I stablished myself therein. 
"together with my troops. I conquered them, and they made 
" supplication to me, and I made peace with them, and they 
>re oaths to me by the in f their gods, and I trusted 

" in their oaths that they were honourable- men. Then I returned 
" into the upper part of my country.'' 

" When I had become Chieftain I did not follow behind other 
" kings, but [was] in the very front of them." 

•• And as toi'those who strive with me for the mastery, I do 
"not permit them to live in their own country, unless they beg 

1 I am indebted to Dr. F. <i. Kenyon for several valuable suggestions, which 
I believe make the meaning of some parts of this inscription clear for the first 

- fiuaiXiaicos it is true = "regulus," but Silko was an independent king. 

3 Kalabsha. ' The town near \V7idi T 

5 I.e., images of Isis and Osiris at Philae. 
In the neighbourhood of Dongola. 

7 I.e., he was greater than any king known to him who had preceded him in 



" forgiveness from me. For in the Lower Country I am a lion, 
" and in the Upper Country I am an oryx (P). 1 

"I fought with the Blemmyes from Primis 2 to Talmis once. 
" And of the other Nobadae to the south I ravaged their lands, 
"since they contended with me. As for the chiefs of the other 
" nations who strive with me for the mastery, I do not permit 
" them to sit in the shade, but outside in the sun, and they cannot 
" even take a drink of water in their own houses. :{ As for those 
" who offer resistance to me, I carry off their wives and children." 

(Lepsius, Denkmdler, Abth. VI. Bl. 95.) 



















1 «p£ can hardly mean a bear. He means, " I am as terrible as a lion to the 
men in the plains, and I am as strong and active as an oryx in the hills." 

2 I.e., Ibrim. 

3 I.e., " I keep them flying from place to place in the desert, and they find 
no opportunity of visiting their villages, or of taking a drink in their houses." 





















(Dittenberger, Orictitis Graeci Inscriptioncs Sclcctac. torn, i., p. 303.) 

1. 'Eyw 57X/ca>, BaaiXLcTKos Novfid&Gjp /cat oXojr raw 

2. AWiOTTdiv, rjXOov elf TdXptv K(d Tafyiv. carat; hvo eVo- 

3. Xi/j.T)<ra perd twv BXepvcop, fcai 6 0eo^ eScoKev pot to 

4. viKi)ixa. fiera rcov rpifav dirat evUrjcra ttuXlv tcai eicpd- 

5. T?/cra ra<; TToXeis avrwv. €Katfeo~tfr)v pt-Ta rrliv 

6. g\X(ov /jlov to pev irpoiTov a7ra£, ei>Ut)cra avTuyv 

7. teal avrol r)%lwcrav pe. iirohjaa elpi)vi]v p,€T' avrwv 

8. /cat ojpoadv pot rd eihcoXa avTwv /cat eirLo-itvaa top 

9. bpKov avTcov, g>? fcaXol elaip avOpwiroi. dva\u)pr)Srfv 

10. <ri? tcl ai'co p<ep>) pou. ot€ iyeyopeuyp /SacriX-tWo?, 

11. r.v/c dirrfxdov oXcos oiriaoi tow ciXXcop ftaaiXenop, 



12. dWd a/CfM7]v e/jLTrpoaOev avrwv. 

1 3. ol yap (piXovL/covcTLv /jl€t i/u,ov, ov/c defray avToi/s KaOe^o/x- 

14. evoi et<? yo&pav avroiv, el /jltj Karrj^iwadv /me Kal irapaicakovcriv. 

15. eyco yap et'9 kutco fieprj \ecov el/ml, teal els dvay fiepr) ap% eifjo,. 

16. eTroXifjbrjaa fxerd rdv BXe/xvcov dirb Tlpi/A^ews] e&)<? Te\\_ix]e(a<; 

17. ev envat;, Kal ol dWou NovfidScov dvwrepw enropOrjaa rd<; 

1 8. ^d)pa<s avroiv, eireuhr) e<fri\oviKi)crovo-iv /xer ifiov. 

19. ol 8eo-7roT[ai\ to)v aWcov eOvwv, ol fytXoveiKOvcnv per ifxov, 

20. ovk d(pw avrovs Kadeo-drjvat els rrjv aKidv, el /jlt) vtto tjXlov 

21. efjco, /fat ou/c eircoKay vrjpbv haw et? Tr/^ oltclav avrwv. ol yap 

22. dvTiBLfcol fiov, dpiratyi) twv yvvaiKWV Kal rd ircoihla avroiv. 


CHRISTIANITY IX THE sOd&N —continued. 

Modern Missionary Enterprise. 

THE first European in modern times who attempted to teach 
and preach Christianity in the Egyptian Sudan was Father 
Knoblecher, who about the year 1848, a little before the Pope 
appointed a bishop over Khartum, founded Roman Catholic- 
mission stations on the White Nile. His first band of assistants 
were Fathers Beltrame, Dorvak, Morlang, Rylls, Ueberbacher, 
and Vinci, and eleven other devoted gentlemen, all of whom, save 
two, died of the fever of the country. The principal station was 
at a spot in hit. 5 46' N., about 016 miles south of Omdurman. to 
which the natives gave the name of " Kanisa," i.e., " Church," on 
account of the. mission-church and buildings: these wire situated 
on the east bank of the river, and the garden was on the west 
bank. By Europeans the place was known as " Heiligen Kreuz," 
or "Sainte Croix.'" Sir Samuel Baker visited this station 1 on 
January 24th, [863, and found there about twenty grass huts, and 
another hut which served as a church. Heir Morlang told him 
that the mission was absolutely useless among such savages, who 
utterly impracticable. He describe. 1 the people as being far 
below the brutes, and lying and deceitful to a superlative degree. 
The lathers had decided to abandon the Mission, it being a total 
failure, and Heir Morlang had sold the whole village and station 
to Khurshid Agha for 3,000 piastres, £30 ! Baker purchased a 
horse for 1,000 piastres, and called him " Priest." In the 
cemetery 1 of the station was the grave of Baron Harmer, a 
gallant Prussian gentleman who, whilst buffalo hunting, lost his life 
in saving that of a native. When Sir William Garstin "' was on 

1 Albert Nyanza, p. 50. 

1 It is said that nearly sixty missionaries and lay-assistants were buried here. 
Basin of the Upper Nile, p. 94. 



the White Nile he saw some of the lemon and orange trees of the 
mission garden still alive. 

The next most important station was that of Gondokoro, 1,115 
miles south of Khartum, which Fathers Knoblecher and Vinci 
founded in 1S48. Here the Austrians laboured for years, but 
without success of any kind. They built a church, with a bell for 
calling the natives to service, but the people would surround the 
church, and ring the bell all day and all night, and nothing could 
stop them. Baker visited the station in April, 1871, and saw 
lying there on the ground some sixty or eighty bushels of lemons 
which had fallen from the trees planted by the Christian Fathers. 
He tells us ' that the Baris, who were natives of the district, had 
pulled down the neat mission-house, and that they had pounded 
the bright red bricks of which the church was built into powder; 
this they mixed with grease and then used for smearing their 
naked bodies. " The missionary establishment itself was con- 
" verted into an external application for the skin ; the house of 
".God was turned into ' pomade divine.' This was a result that 
"might have been expected by any person who had practical 
"experience of the Baris." The Austrian Mission was, alas ! a 
failure, and the White Nile stations were abandoned in 1864 or 
1865. The brave and noble fathers did not understand either the 
country or the climate, and the imagination shudders at the 
sufferings of those who died of fever, and of their comrades who 
saw them die, and were powerless to alleviate their misery. The 
example of their lives, however, is not wasted. 

The next pioneer of missionary enterprise was Alexandrine 
Petronella Francina Tinne, the daughter of Philip Frederic 
Tinne, and Henrietta, Baroness von Steengracht Capellen. She 
was born at the Hague in 1839, and her father died when she was 
five years old, leaving her the richest heiress in the Netherlands. 
She loved adventure, even when a child, and her first journey was 
to the North Cape. On her return she induced her mother to 
visit the East, and in due course Miss Tinne arrived at Cairo, 
where she adopted an oriental style of dress. She left Cairo at 
the end of the winter, but returned two years later, and, in the 
winter of 1859-60 she and her mother and an aunt sailed up the 
1 Ismailia, pp. 107, 115. 


Nile nearly as far as Gondokoro. In 1861 Miss Tinne made up 
her mind to visit Theodore, king of Abyssinia, with the view of 
extending Christianity in that country by her wealth and 
influence. About this time, it is said, King Theodore made an 
offer of marriage to Her Majesty Queen Victoria, and when he 
found that his letters were not answered he became furious, and 
his liking for Europeans turned to hate. Miss Tinne therefore 
abandoned her project, and decided to visit the White Nile once 
more. She left Cairo on January 9th, 1862, and in due course 
reached Korosko, where she hired one hundred camels to take her 
party across the desert to Abu Hamed. 

When she arrived at Khartum Musa Pasha was Governor- 
General, and she was horrified to learn that he was to all intents 
and purposes a slave-dealer. From Prince Halim she obtained 
a steamboat,' and in May she began to ascend the White Nile ; 
she was received with kindness by all except the slave-dealers, 
who feared and hated her, but who proposed to her to join them 
in their slave hunts ! The fame of her wealth, and youth, and 
beauty was carried by the caravans to all parts of Africa, and the 
natives called her the daughter of the Sultan of Constantinople. 
The infamous slave-raider, Muhammad Kher, even offered to 
marry her, and make her Queen of the Sudan ! Miss Tinne 
succeeded on this journey in actually reaching Gondokoro, and 
she made her way into parts of the country, and explored a 
portion of the Sobat River never before visited by Europeans. 
At Gondokoro the hostility of the Baris made it impossible for her 
to travel across the country westwards, and she therefore returned 
to Khartum, where she found Dr. Steudner and Herr Theodor 
von rieuglin. 

In the following year, 1863, Miss Tinne prepared a great 
lition, and having taken Steudner and Heuglin into her 
service, and sent them on to Mashra ar-Rek to collect informa- 
tion, she set out from Khartum, intending to travel through the 
country of the Niam-Niams, or Cannibals, towards the sources 
of the Nile. The expedition consisted of a steamer, two 
dahabiyas (house-boats), and two boats for baggage. The party 

1 The first steamboat that sailed on this part of the Nile was put together at 
Khartum in 1846. 



was composed of Miss Tinne and her mother, two European 
maids, and an Italian interpreter, and the boats carried two 
hundred soldiers and servants of different kinds, thirty mules and 
donkeys, four camels, a saddle horse, ammunition, and provisions 
for ten months. Among the stores were 3,000 pounds' weight of 
glass beads, and 12,000 ornamented shells ! In due course the 
expedition reached a spot 600 miles south of Omdurman, which 
from that time to the present day bears the name of " Maya bita 
Signora," or the " Lagoon of the Lady," because this backwater 
was first explored by Miss Tinne. 1 They then passed on to 
Mashra ar-Rek, where the expedition landed and prepared 
to march to the Kosanga and Gur Rivers and the country of the 

As soon as Miss Tinne set out serious trouble began. The 
camels and some of the other animals died, and thus she lacked 
means of transport, and the slave-raiders in the district did all 
they could to obstruct. Heuglin and Steudner left the party to 
go and hire porters in the country to the west, but though they 
went as far as Waw they failed to induce men to come back with 
them. Then both of them fell ill of fever, and Dr. Steudner died. 
Heuglin then went into the Bongo country, where he obtained 150 
blacks, and took them back to Mashra ar-Rek. Nothing daunted, 
Miss Tinne set out for the Gur River, which she and the other 
Europeans crossed in an indiarubber boat, but most of her baggage 
was ruined by water or lost. At length she reached the settlement 
of Biselli in the Bongo country, who apparently afforded her little 
help. There was a famine in the land, the animals died one after 
the other, and the supply of medicines was exhausted, and, to crown 
all her misfortunes, Miss Tinne's mother died of fever. There- 
upon the expedition was abandoned, and Miss Tinne set out for 
Khartum, but before this place was reached, her aunt, the two 
European maids, Contarini the interpreter, and a German 
gardener, to say nothing of natives, all died. Thus so far as the 
spreading of Christianity was concerned, or any useful effect on the 
slave-trade, this costly expedition was fruitless. 

From a scientific point of view, however, this was not the case. 
Owing to Miss Tinne's generosity Heuglin was enabled to collect 
1 Junker's Travels, London, 1891, p. 38. 


a vast amount of information about the birds, animals, and plants 
of the White Nik-, which he published in Reise in das Gebiet 
des Weisstn Nil und seiner westlicken Zufliisse, 1862- 1864. A 
large number of facts about the manners and customs of tribes 
whose very existence was until that time unknown, and the courses 
of the Gur, Kosanga, and Senna Rivers, were made out. Miss 
Tinne's expedition also was the first to discover the existence 
of a great lake, one of the sources of the Nile, which was further 
west than any known at that time. It is claimed by one of Miss 
Tinne's biographers that " the greatest result of this expedition 
" was, doubtless, the moral blow it struck at the internal slave- 
" trade," but it is difficult to see how this statement can 
be substantiated. Altogether Miss Tinne spent three years in the 
Su.lun. 1 

1 On her return to Cairo, via Sawakin and Suez, she began an action against 
the Governor-General of Khartum for his complicity in the slave-trade. She 
next decided to settle in Egypt, and to build a castle on the Island of Roda, but 
the Khedive prevented her from acquiring the necessary land, and she left the 
country with the intention of making a journey from Tripoli to Timbuctoo, 
across the desert. Eventually she prepared an expedition at Tripoli with the 
view of going to Bornu, then on to Lake Tchad, and returning vtd Wadai, Dai 
Fttr, and Korddflln. She left Tripoli on January 28th, 1869, and reached 
Murziik in Fezzan on March ist, where she fell ill. On her recovery she 
m ide an arrangement with the Tuwarek chief to pass the summer in his 
country. One morning when she was journeying thither, as she was 
trying to stop a quarrel between some of her men, and addressing them 
with her right hand raised in the air, a 'Tuwarek struck at her hand with 

oi.i and nearly separated it from the wrist. She staggered into her 

te it, where she was followed by other Tuwareks, who killed her servants, 

and one of them struck her on the nape of her neck, intending to cut off 

her head. She fell on the ground, whereupon two of the natives rushed at 

tripped her almost naked, and then draggled her by her heels out into 

i, where they left her in order to go and join in the robbery of her chests, 
which were believed to be filled with gold. The Tuw&reks prevented any 
help being given to her, and they allowed no one to give her water, for 
which she asked very often, and she died in the course of the day, August ist, 

The motive for the murder of this brave woman appears to have 
been robbery pure and simple. Accounts of her life will be found in Wells, 
the White Xil,\ New York, 1873 ( ? ) 5 ^ xx Harry Johnston. 
The Nile Quest, London, 1903. pp. 192 ff. (with portrait of Miss Tinne and 
details supplied by Mr. T. I". S. Tinne. her nephew); Heuglin, Die 
Tinne* sche Expedition im Westlicken Nil-Q,uellgebiet,\%b% 1864, Gotha, 1865; 
Nachtigal, Relation de la Mort de Mile. Alexina Tinne et voyage an Vibesti, 
Paris, 1870. 



From the facts given above it is clear that at this time the 
Sudan offered a poor field for missionary enterprise, and in this 
connection the views on the subject expressed by Sir Samuel 
Baker in his Ismail'ia ' are of special importance : — 

" If Africa is to be civilized, it must be effected by commerce, 
" which once established will open the way for missionary labour ; 
" but all ideas of commerce, improvement, and the advancement 
" of the African race that philanthropy can suggest, must be 
" discarded until the traffic in slaves shall have ceased to exist. . . 
" Difficult and almost impossible is the task before the missionary. 
" The Austrian Mission has failed, and their stations have been 
" forsaken ; their pious labour was hopeless, and the devoted 
"priests died upon the barren field. . . . The time has not yet 
" arrived for missionary enterprise in those countries ; but at 
" the same time a sensible man might do good service by living 
" among the natives, and proving to their material minds that 
"persons do exist whose happiness consists in doing good to 
" others.'' 

Baker then goes on to say what personal qualifications and outfit 
such a man ought to possess. He ought to be a good rifle shot 
and sportsman to secure the attention and admiration of the 
natives. He ought to be musical, and play the bagpipes, and be 
a skilful conjuror, and possess a magic lantern, magnetic battery, 
dissolving views, photographic apparatus, coloured pictures, &c. 
He ought to be a good surgeon and general practitioner, and be 
well supplied with drugs. He should set all psalms to lively 
tunes, and the natives would learn them at once. Devotional 
exercises should be chiefly musical. And if he had a never-failing 
supply of beads, copper rods, brass rings for arms, fingers, and 
ears, gaudy cotton handkerchiefs, red or blue blankets, zinc 
mirrors, red cotton shirts, &c, to give to his parishioners, and 
expected nothing in return, he would be considered a great man, 
whose opinion would carry considerable weight, provided that he 
only spoke of subjects which he thoroughly understood. A know- 
ledge of agriculture, with a good stock of seeds of useful vege- 
tables and cereals, iron hoes, carpenters' and blacksmiths' tools, 
and the power of instructing others in their use, together with 
1 Chapter xxvii., 2nd ed., London, 1879, p. 467. 


a plentiful supply of very small axes, would be an immense 
recommendation to a lay missionary who should determine to 
devote some years of his life to the improvement of the natives. 

These observations were written in 1873, after Sir Samuel 
Baker had finished his labours in the Sudan, and they are clearly 
the result of a thorough experience and of first-hand knowledge 
of the country. In 1878 General Gordon, when Governor-General 
of the Sudan, appealed to the Church Missionary Society to send 
a Mission to the Pagan tribes on the Upper Nile, arid promised all 
possible help, but the Society was too much occupied in Uganda 
to respond, and in England no steps were taken to help the 
spread of Christianity in this portion of the Sudan. In January, 

. Gordon was murdered, and the Sudan was closed to 
Europeans until the Sirdar, Lord Kitchener, captured Omdurtnan 
in 1898. 

A few months after the re-conquest of the Sudan the American 
United Presbyterian Mission in Egypt began to consider what 
steps should be taken by its missionaries towards opening schools 
at Khartum, and in generally making the Gospel known among 
the tribes which lived to the south of that city ; and it was resolved, 
if possible, to establish a Sudan branch of the Mission and stations 
in such places as were suitable for the purpose. The American 
Mission was prepared to an unusual degree for the proposed 
extension, for in its service were men who not only had a first- 
rate knowledge of the Arabic language, which is generally talked 
and understood in the Sudan, but also great experience in dealing 
with natives, and these qualifications were backed by the prestige 
which accompanies successful work. The record of the Mission, 
which began its labours in C854, was a good one, and, during the 
fifty years ' which it had been in existence, the men who had 
directed it- affairs had proved themselves over and over again to be 
not mere propagandists of the form of religion which they pro- 

i. but true helpers of education and progress and of the 
advance of civilization. Their schools all over Egypt were justly 
celebrated for the excellence of the teaching given in them, and 

lucational advantages which could be derived from them are 

> See Dr. Andrew Watson's unostentatious account, The American Mission 
Xypt t [854-1896, Pittsburgh, 1898. 



well illustrated by the large number of boys and young men in 
Government employ who owe their positions entirely to the 
education and training given to them in the schools of the 
American Mission. The Copts owe them a large debt of gratitude, 
for it was the American missionaries who showed them the ad- 
vantage of an education given on Western lines in the English 
language, and taught them freedom of thought and methods of 

As a result of the decision of the American Mission, Dr. Watson, 
Dr. Kelly Giffen, and Mr. A. A. Cooper went to Khartum on a 
mission of inspection, and on their return they recommended that 
work be undertaken in the Northern Sudan, and in the Blue Nile 
region. In 1900 H. T. McLaughlin, M.D., and Dr. Kelly Giffen 
were ordered to proceed to the Sudan to carry on missionary work. 
The Government, however, declined to allow them to work among 
the Muslims in the Sudan, but at the same time pointed out that 
they might go and open as many stations as they pleased among 
the black tribes on the White Nile, to the south of Khartum. 
Messrs. McLaughlin and Giffen went to Omdurman, taking with 
them Mr. Gebera Hanna, whom they authorized to conduct 
meetings for the young men who had been trained in the Mission 
and were then in Government service. They then visited the 
White Nile, and returned to Egypt to report on the situation. In 
September, 1901, they returned to the Sudan, taking their wives 
with them ; and on March 2nd, 1902, they set out to establish a 
station on the Sobat River among the black Shilluks, or Shullas, 
about 560 miles south of Khartum. On March 27th they arrived 
at a place called Duleb Hill, which is situated on the north bank 
of the Sobat, and there they established an American Mission 
station.' On March 14th, 1903, Lord Cromer visited the station 
and found that it was "manifestly conducted on those sound, 
"practical, common-sense principles which, indeed, are strongly 
" characteristic of American Mission work in Egypt. No parade 
" is made of religion. In fact, the work of conversion, properly 
' " so-called, can scarcely be said to have commenced." He found 

1 A very interesting account of their proceedings there has been written and 
published by Dr. Kelly Giffen, entitled The Egyptian SUddn, and to this the 
reader is referred for details. 



" numbers of Shillouks, men and women, working happily at the 
" brickkiln. Cotton of a good quality has been produced, and 
" the mission houses have been constructed by Shillouk labour. 
" The creation of establishments conducted on the principles 
" adopted by Mr. Giffen and Dr. McLaughlin cannot fail to 
" prove an unmixed benefit to the population amongst whom they 

In 1902 Lord Cromer expressed surprise that none of the 
British Missionary Societies appeared to have devoted their atten- 
tion to the Southern Sudan, especially as its districts presented a 
far more promising field for missionary enterprise than the 
provinces whose populations are Muhammadan. Also he saw no 
objection to the establishment of Christian schools at Khartum, 
provided that parents were warned that instruction in the Chris- 
tian religion is afforded, especially as there is a small number of 
Christians in the city. 

In 1903 the American missionaries applied for the purchase of 
a considerable tract of land to teach the Shilluks agriculture. 

In [904 Lord Cromer and the Sirdar, Sir Reginald Wingate, 
were still of the opinion that "the time was still distant when 
" mission work could, with safety and advantage, be permitted 
'•amongst the Moslem population of the Sudan." 

In answer to the request of Mr. Mclnnes, the Secretary of the 
Church Missionary Society in Egypt, who asked for an expression 
of opinion as to the prospects of missionary work in the Sudan, 
Lord Cromer, on December 23rd, 1904, addressed a letter to the 
Church Missionary Society, in which he informed the Secretary 
that a large tract of country was, for the present, being reserved 
for them. The tract of country referred to is to the south of the 
Bahr al-Ghazal, and it extends south to about lat. 14 north; 8 
to the north-east of it lies the sphere of the American Mission, 
and to the west and north of it is the Roman Catholic Mission 
sphere Roughly speaking, it represents an area of about 25,000 

- Ii is bounded on the N. by the I>ahr al-( ihazal ; on the E. by a line drawn 
from the White Nile to Agiung-Twi, and the Abyssinian Frontier to lat. 5 
N. ; on the S. by the north border of the Congo Free State, the Lado Enclave, 
and Uganda ; and on the W. by a line drawn from Mashra ar-Rek to 


> £ 

25 2 


square miles. In October, 1905, the Church Missionary Society in 
London sent out a party to found the " Gordon Memorial Soudan 
Mission," consisting of the Rev. F. B. Hadow, M.A., the Rev. A. 
Shaw, B A., the Rev. A. M. Thorn, M.A., Mr. E. Lloyd, B.A., B.C., 
and Messrs. J. Comely and R C. J. S. Wilmot, industrial agents. 
The party reached Khartum on November 1st and Mongalla on 
January 8th, 1906. After exploring Mongalla and its neighbour- 
hood, the party decided that it was not desirable to make that 
place the base of the Mission, and on the advice of Cameron Bey. 
the Mudir, and Captain Logan, the Commandant, the mission 
boat was towed down the river to Bor, about eightv-four miles to 
the north. 1 

It now remains to mention the work done by the Austrian Roman 
Catholic Mission in the Sudan. As soon as possible after the 
taking of Omdurmfin in 1898 the Austrian Mission reoccupied the 
site which had formerly been their headquarters at Khartum before 
the rise of the Mahdi, and they found all their buildings and church 
in ruins ; the boundaries of their garden could be made out, but 
when I saw it in December, 1899, ostriches were feeding in it ! 
Monsignor Roveggio, the Bishop of Khartum, with a small but 
devoted staff began to take up the broken threads of their work 
with energy. Soon afterwards the Austrian Fathers went to 
the south, and opened a station near Fashoda, and it was visited 
in 1902 by Lord Cromer, who declared it to be well conducted 2 
and to deserve the same amount of encouragement as that accorded 
to the American Mission. In 1903 Monsignor Gayer, the new 
Roman Catholic Bishop of Khartum, visited the Bahr al-Ghazal 
and made arrangements for founding the mission station of Lul, 
to the south of Fashoda, about 477 miles from Omdurman.* 
Lord Cromer suggested 4 that his operations should be confined to 
the west bank, as the Church Missionary Society was contemplat- 
ing the foundation of a station at Mongalla. The station at Lul 
was worked by five Fathers and three Sisters. 

In 1904 the Austrian Missionaries established stations in the 

1 See the article in the Church Miss. Intelligencer for April, 1906, p. 262 ft. 

2 Egypt, No. 1 (1903), P- 9°- 

3 See the view in Gleichen, op. cit., i., p. 69. 

4 Egypt, No. 1 (1904), p. 95. 

VOL. II. 321 Y 


Tonga district and at WAw, &c, and some of their number 
visited the Golo and Bongo tribes. Sir Reginald Wingate 
regards the work of the American and Roman Catholic Missions 
as that of civilizing agents, and says that the technical instruction 
which they are imparting to the Shilluks, Dinkas, and others, 
is very beneficial from a Government point of view. 1 Lord 
Cromer has stated clearly that " proselytisrn forms no part of 
" the programme of the British Government, either in countries 
" which form part of the dominions of the Crown, or in others 
" where British influence is in some degree predominant. . . . 
" Missionary enterprise is entirely in the hands of private 
" individuals, who receive no pecunairy aid from the Government. 
" The action of the latter is limited to securing perfect toleration 
" for all creeds, and to exercising such an amount of supervision 
" over missionary efforts as will ensure none but legitimate and 
" unobjectionable methods being adopted in order to convert 
" those who are not Christians to the Christian faith." ; 

Every one who knows the Sudan and the exceedingly 
suspicious character of its people will readily understand the 
soundness of the policy and the wisdom of proclaiming it 
unequivocally. Slatin Pasha, whose unique experience of Sudani 
folk renders his opinion on the subject of the greatest value, says 
that missionary work among the pagan tribes is a civilizing one. 
The savages are taught by it the elements of common sense, good 
behaviour, and obedience to Government authority, rather than 
religion, lit- has never known any savage to be baptized, nor 
any to have been converted to Christianity, but, on the other 
hand, there is no doubt that the missionaries have had an 
improving effect on the character of the people amongst whom 
they have settled, and they have certainly gained their confidence. 3 
It is therefore to be hoped that the Missionary Societies, whose 
servants are doing such good work in the Sudan, will continue to 
support the " men on the spot " in all common-sense endeavours 
to promote the physical well-being of the natives, and the growth 
ot trade, and that they will not allow themselves to be hurried by 
enthusiastic stay-at-home persons into attempts to obtain results, 
in the shape of " conversions." which for some time to come can 

/>/. No. i. (1905), p. 141. - Ibid., p. 139. :{ Ibid. (1906), p. 125. 


only be attended with loss to their cause, and which will do the 
native no permanent good, and cause the Government anxiety 
and trouble. The inhabitants of the " land of the whirring of 
wings, which is beyond the rivers of Rush," : as Isaiah (xviii. i) 
calls the territory wherein the Missions of the British, the 
Americans, and the Austrians are now labouring, have been 
pagans and idolaters, as we know of a certainty, for 6,000 years ; 
and it seems only reasonable to suppose that many years must 
elapse before they will be able to make the results of the exalted 
truths of the Christian Religion manifest in their lives and works. 
Finally, among the European institutions in the Sudan which 
are working silently for the good of the people of that country, 
must be mentioned the school conducted by Father Ohrwalder in 
the heart of Omdurman. The history of the trials and sufferings 
of this devout man are well known to every reader of Slatin 
Pasha's Fire and Sword in the Sudan, and from Sir Reginald 
Wingate's translation of Father Ohrwalder's narrative which 
appeared under the title of Ten Years' Captivity in the Mahdi's 
Camp. After his escape from the Khalifa's clutches, Father 
Ohrwalder laboured in Sawakin, but as soon as possible he 
returned to Omdurman, where he now directs a school with 
conspicuous success. He has cast in his lot with the natives of 
that town, and teaches the elements of civilization and practical 
religion to their children in his characteristic, whole-hearted 
manner. His continuous residence in the town gives to his work 
the consistency which is necessary for success, and the example 
of his life, his obedience to the Divine commands, and the 
thoroughness of his ministrations cannot fail to give to all the 
natives who are brought into contact with his personality some 
idea of the beauty of the religion of his Master, Christ, Whose 
loyal servant he undoubtedly is. 

1 D^SJJ bxbx yiN- The allusion seems to be to the buzzing of the 
wings of the innumerable insects which live in the Southern Sudan. 




A GLANCE at the main facts of the history of the Sud;'in for the 
last six thousand years will convince the reader that the prin- 
cipal inducements which made foreigners invade and occupy 
the country from the time of King Seneferu, B.C. 3700. to 
Muhammad "All, a. D. icS20, were the slaves which it produced, 
and the gold which lay hidden in its mountains and hills. The 
Egyptians welcomed the ivory, ebony, skins of animals, ostrich 
feathers, and spices, which the caravans brought northwards at 
intervals, but the objects which stirred their kings up to tight, and 
made them lead their troops over deserts and rocky cataracts 
for hundreds of miles, were not the love of conquest, and the 
desire to extend the blessings of the Egyptian civilization and 
religion t<> hordes of naked savages, but their greed for gold, and 
their need of the Sudani men to carry out their great works, to 
fight their battles, and to police their towns. The whole policy 
of the kings of Egypt towards the Sudan was dictated and 
directed by their need of slaves and gold, and the example set by 
them was closely followed by Persians, Macedonians (Ptolemies), 
Ron lbs, and Turks. 

In primitive times the Blacks traded with Egypt, and exchanged 
then- gold, and ivory, and skins, for stone and porcelain beads 
and other ornaments, amulets, &c, and it is certain that numbers 
of the men who accompanied the caravans from the south would 
settle in Egypt. But the demand for Blacks was greater than the 
supply, and in the IVth Dynasty we find that Seneferu made a 
raid into some part of the Sudan and brought back a large 
number of prisoners, i.e., slaves. In the Vth and Vlth Dynasties 
missions were sent into the Sudan under Ba-neb-Tet, Una and 
Her-khuf, and, besides the pygmies whom two of these generals 


Reproduced from the painted cai 

I. — A Nubian Village. 

V. — Upper register : Tribute of the Nubian.-, — rings of gold, vases of spice, bows, chains, ostrich feathe 
Lower register: Tribute of the Nubians — panther skins, slaves, apes, ostrich, dogs, oxen, panther 


;emple at Bet al-Wali at Kalabsha. 

IV. — Prince Ameni-her-unemi-f. 

II. — Rameses II. charging the Nubians. 

III.— Prince Kha-em-Uast. 

' [ iy, the lion and other animals. 

VI. — Rameses II., " Lord of the Two Lands (Egypt) of 
diadems," seated under a canopy and receiving 
the tribute of the Nubians. The king wears the 
double crown, and holds a club in his left hand. 


obtained in the south, they brought into Egypt many other 
products of the Sudan, including gold and slaves. It is quite 
clear that, more than three thousand years before Christ, a system 
of slave-raiding existed and flourished under the approval of the 
kings at Memphis, and that the chief base of the slave-raiders 
was at Aswan. 

We have, unfortunately, no illustration of a slave-raid dating 
from this early time, but we are able to gain an excellent idea of 
the scenes which took place from the reliefs which Rameses II. 
caused to be cut upon the walls of his little rock-temple at Bet 
al-Wali in Nubia. These are represented on the accompanying 
plate, and are reproduced from the coloured cast made by 
Mr. Bonomi for Mr. Hay, which is now exhibited in the Fourth 
Egyptian Room of the British Museum. The left-hand top 
corner of the first section is mutilated, but what remains of the 
scene illustrates an attack made on a Sudan village by the king 
and his followers. Here we see a woman squatting under a 
tree by a fire, and stirring the food which she is cooking in a 
pot ; in the tree is an ape. Close by is the granary of the house, 
and the housewife stands among the trees, addressing three men, 
one of whom has come from the fight wounded, and is being led 
to his village by two friends. Near the woman are two children, 
naked, just as they are to this day. A little way off is a man 
running and shouting to unseen neighbours to come to him. 
Between two trees is a skin- clad man,. holding a bow, who 
appears to have run away from the fight. Behind him is a fight- 
ing and struggling mass of black men, into whose midst the king, 
standing in his chariot, has charged. Rameses II. and his 
horses are drawn in colossal proportions, and he is about to 
shoot an arrow from his bow. The black men are being trampled 
under the feet of the horses, and several are already dead ; the 
rest are powerless to resist, and their bows are useless. Behind 
the king are two chariots containing his sons, Amen-her-unami-f 
and Kha-em-Uast, and their drivers. There is no reason to 
assume that Rameses II. in person ever raided a village in the 
Sudan, and chariots and horses, considering the nature of the 
ground, would not be of much use. 

The end of the fight outside the village was always the same, 



for bows and arrows were of little use in fighting, at close 
quarters, men armed with metal-headed axes and hatchets, and 
handy short swords, daggers, and spears. Then came the day of 
reckoning, when the local shekhs had to collect from the villagers 
the fine which had been laid upon them by the Egyptian officer, 
or his deputy, and bakshish had to be given in the shape of 
slaves, male and female, gold, &c, to the various servants of the 
Government, in order to get them out of the village. When the 
payment was a large one, the scene represented in the lower half 
of the relief was enacted. The king, or his chief officer, took up 
his position in some prominent place in or near the town, and the 
gifts, or tribute, were brought before him. 

In the scene here given the tributaries are introduced by Prince 
Amen-her-unami-f and by Amen-em-Apt, the son of Pa-ser, the 
Prince of Kash, or Nubia, and the latter is being invested with a 
garment by two Egyptians. On a stand between them rests a 
bar, with flowers above it, whereon are hung animals' skins and 
chains made of rings of gold. Immediately behind Amen-em-Apt 
are two stands, whereon are arranged large rings of gold, and 
leather bags, which were filled either with gold dust or precious 
stones. Next are seen heaps of red carnelian stones, bows, 
shields, chairs, large fans, ostrich eggs and feathers, logs of ebony, 
and the tusks of elephants, and then come men leading a lion, an 
oryx, and a bull, and the rear is brought up by a group of slaves. 
In the lower row the gifts are introduced by the Prince of Kash, 
and the Blacks bring skins, apes, a panther, a leopard, a giraffe, 
two bulls, with a negro's head between the horns, which terminate 
in hands stretched out in supplication, two hunting dogs, an 
ostrich, an oryx or ariel, and logs of ebony. The leader of the 
Blacks is dragged by an Egyptian into the presence of the king 
by means of the forked pole to which his neck is fastened, and to 
which his hands are tied. This instrument of torture was in use 
in the Sudan during the last century, and each captive who was 
brought from Kasala to ShendJ in 1845 was fastened to one 

If we examine the scene represented on the next plate we shall 
find that the tribute sent to Thebes was, but for the omission of 
some of the wild animals, substantially the same as that paid 
to the Prince of Kash in Nubia. In the first register the chief of 



[From Lepsius, Denkm'altr, Abth. iii., Bl. 117, 


the country of Maam, with two feathers in his head-dress, is 
bowing with his head to the ground before the Egyptian governor, 
and by his side kneel the " Chiefs of Shesait," with their hands 
raised in adoration. They are followed by a Nubian lady dressed 
in Egyptian fashion, and by four Nubian chiefs. Immediately 
behind comes a chariot, shaded by an umbrella, and containing 
the queen of the country or tribe, which is drawn by cattle. She 
and the other Nubian notables wear the same kind of head- 
dress. By the side of the chariot walk two slaves, bearing offer- 
ings, and behind her are five slaves, wearing feathers in their 
caps ; the first wears a linen tunic, and the four others leopard- 
skin tunics, with the tail of the animal attached. The rear is 
brought up by a negress, carrying a baby in a receptacle behind 
her shoulders, and leading a child, and by another woman, with a 
lighter skin, who is leading a child. The negress and her com- 
panions come from the country to the south of Khartum. The 
offerings brought by this company consist of shields, chairs, head- 
rests, bedsteads, stools made of ebony and ivory, with cushions, 
bows, and gold. The gold was brought in two forms, viz., in 
rings and in dust. 

In the second register the Blacks bring gold, , carnelian 

stones {kheuemet *^_ oo ), a giraffe, and oxen ; and in the third 

( o o o 

they bring more gold and carnelians, large fans, skins, cattle, and 
balsam trees (?), or spice plants. Thus it is clear that the products 
of the Sudan under the XVIIIth and XlXth Dynasties (b.c. 1600- 
1300) were practically what they are at the present time. Every 
object brought was a natural product of the country, and it is 
tolerably safe to assume that no manufacturing industry of any sort 
or kind was carried on in the Sudan from one end to the other. 

When the ancient Egyptians found that the ordinary caravans 
from the Sudan did not bring a sufficient supply of gold and 
slaves, and that the tribes did not send the tribute of gold and 
slaves, which they were expected to pay, their kings sent at 
intervals expeditions into the country which reduced temporarily 
the people to obedience, and brought back to Egypt the booty 
which had been collected by the usual methods of burning 
villages and slaughtering men. From the Government point of 



view the results were unsatisfactory, for before the Egyptian 
soldiers had reached Aswan, the country behind them was in 
revolt, and a year or two later another expedition had to be 
despatched. Besides this, the bolder among the tribes on the 
frontier took to making raids in Upper Egypt, and it seems 
tolerably certain that from time immemorial the Nubians 
regarded the region between Aswan and Thebes as a portion ^\ 
their own country. The first Egyptian kings who set to work 
seriously to convince the natives that the region in question 
belonged to Egypt were those of the Xlth and Xllth Dynasties, 
about p..c. 2500. From Aswan they advanced step by step to 
Behen, or Wadi Haifa, and in the course of the following two 
hundred years they reduced to subjection the tribes on both 
banks of the river so far as the head of the Third Cataract. 
From the Mentiu, or "cattle-men," the ancestors of the 
" Bakkara " of our own time, who lived on the west bank, they 
obtained the products of Dar Fur, and Kord6fan, and from the 
Anti, or " Hillmen," the ancestors of the Blemmyes, Begas, and 
Bishari tribes, who lived on the east bank, they obtained gold in 
considerable quantities. 

When once the Pharaohs of the Xllth Dynasty had coin pa red 

great tribes, they began to occupy sites on the banks of the 

Nile and to build fortifications on them close to the river. One 

of the earliest of these was near the modern village of Dabfid, 

13 miles south of Philae, and here the Romans built their station 

Parembole. Here was found a stele (now in Berlin) of Amenem- 

hat II., which leaves no doubt that the Egyptians occupied the site 

under the Xllth Dynasty. The next place chosen for a fort 

near the modern village of Kalabsha, between 35 and 40 

miles south of Philae, and a third one was near the modern village 

of Dakka, about 30 miles further up the river. There was 

settlement near Korosko, no miles from Philae, and 

is abundant proof that there were two or more at Wadi 

Haifa. It is probable that there were two or more stations on the 

■ and Wadi Haifa under the Xllth Dynasty, 

for it is unlikely that the garrison at the latter place would be 

left without the support of troops stationed nearer than 

Korosko. We may note that between Philae and Dakka, a 


distance of 63 miles, there were at least two stations, one 
near Dabud, and the other near Kalabsha. From the nature of 
the Nile Valley between Philae and Dakka we see that there 
can never have been any large number of people living there, 
and this being so, the question naturally arises, " Why did the 
kings of the Xllth Dynasty build stations at Dabud and 
Kalabsha ? " There were two reasons : 1. They had to feed a 
garrison at Dakka, and later another at Haifa, and places 
where the boats carrying the supplies could tie up for the night 
without being plundered were absolutely necessary. 2. The 
boats which carried food up the river would bring down Sudan 
products, and strong, secure halting-places were as necessary 
when they came down the river as when they went up. These 
stations were, at first, probably of a purely military character, but 
so soon as they were securely established a small temple was 
built in each to the local god or gods. At these places the boats 
tied up for the night, and the guard turned out, and took steps 
to protect their loads until the time when their crews resumed 
their journey ; and Government caravans travelling from south 
to north, or from north to south, could turn in and halt there for 
the night, or in times when the roads were unsafe. 

Under the Xllth Dynasty Dakka was a station of great import- 
ance, and consisted of two portions, one on each side of the river. 
The reason of this is not far to seek. Just above the modern village 
of Kubban is the entrance to a very old road which is used to this 
day, and which leads to the gold mines in the hilly region called 
4t Wadi al-'Ulaki" (or 'Ullaki). According to the Arab geographer 
Al-Idrisi, 1 this region is situated in the country of the Begas, 
which is a large and sterile plain, without villages and without 
•cultivation. The Wadi, or Valley, itself has from time im- 
memorial been inhabited by men who were occupied in the 
gold trade, and it has always been a sort of large village. Water 
was obtained from wells. The famous gold mines are situated in a 
plain, which is covered by vast masses of shifting sand. According 
to the same authority, the Arabs used to come by night, and each 
man would choose the place on which he intended to work. On 
the following day they came with camels and carried off a. load of 
1 Ed. Dozy and de Goeje. Leyden, 1866, p. 31, text, p. 26 


sand to a well and washed it in wooden buckets, and when they 
had secured the gold from it, they poured quicksilver on it, and 
then melted the mixture. 1 From the Arabs the merchants bought 
the gold thus obtained and carried it into foreign countries. The 
natives of the place have no other occupation except this search 
for gold. The object of the Pharaohs of the Xllth Dynasty in 
invading Nubia is quite clear — they wished to possess themselves 
of the gold mines of 'UlAki, and having conquered the tribes who 
held them, they forced them to produce a regular supply, which 
was sent down the river under the protection of the soldiers 
stationed at the various points on the river already mentioned. 

In the earliest times the natives of WAdi 'UlAki contented 
themselves with washing gold out of the sand, but afterwards 
they found it necessary to dig into the veins of quartz which fill 
the rocks round about the valley, and then the labour of getting 
gold was very great. Now, deposits of quartz are found in many 
places in the Sudan, and the richest veins are in the neighbour- 
hood of the Second Cataract. As we should expect, the 
Egyptians became aware of this fact at a very early period, and 
the kings of the Xllth Dynasty took steps to occupy the country 
by establishing forts and garrisons, and to have the quartz 
crushed and the gold extracted under a Government monopoly. 
The first king to put this on a sure footing was Usertsen III., who 
built fortified outposts at Semna and Kumma, about forty miles 
south of WAdi Haifa, right in the heart of the district containing 
the richest quartz veins. The country round about could never 
have produced sufficient to feed the garrisons here and at the 
stations between this place and Aswan, and we may be sure that 
lu- provided for the safe transport of the grain, &c, coming up the 
river, and of the gold, slaves, &c, going down, by building 
numerous forts. The conquest of this part of Nubia was carried 
out at this time from a purely commercial point of view and 
for gain, and though the Pharaohs spoke of "enlarging the 
boundaries " of their kingdoms in their texts, their real object in 
invading the SudAn was the getting of gold and slaves. 

1 Burckhardt ( Travels, p. 15) thought the natives mistook micaceous sand 
for gold ; but it is clear that his friends did not go far enough to reach the 
mines which undoubtedly exist there. 



Under the kings of the XVIIIth Dynasty the whole of the quartz- 
producing districts near the Nile up to the Fourth Cataract 
passed into the hands of the Egyptians. Step by step, these kings 
advanced south, establishing stations and towns wherever they 
were needed, and, before the downfall of the dynasty, the viceroys 
of the Sudan were absolute masters of all the trade routes, and of 
the river traffic, which they worked on behalf of the Pharaohs. 
Wherever there was a trade centre of importance a temple was 
built, and the size and grandeur of the building depended upon 
the amount of the offerings which the priesthood could extort 
from the worshippers who passed that way. In every station on 
the Nile under the XVIIIth Dynasty there was a small temple, 
which served not only as a place of worship, but as a storehouse 
for the valuable merchandise, which was placed directly under 
the care of the god to whom the building was dedicated. If we 
consider for a moment the position of the stations on the Nile in 
the quartz-bearing region between the head of the Second and 
that of the First Cataract, i.e., a distance of about 335 miles, we 
see that nearly all of them are on the west bank, i.e., that the 
garrisons had the river between them and the ferocious tribes of 
the Eastern Desert. And when all the stations whereat remains 
of temples and forts of the Xllth, XVIIIth, and XlXth Dynasties 
are enumerated, we see that between the limits mentioned above 
there were no less than twenty-one places where travellers by 
river or land would find Egyptian officials to help them. Begin- 
ning from the south, these stations were at Sulb, Dosha, 
Saddenga and Suwarda, the Island of Sit, 'Amara, Semna, and 
Kumma, Gazirat al-Malik, a site on the west bank of the Nile 
near Sarras, Ma'tuka, Wadi Haifa, Adda, Ibrim and Derr, 
'Amada, Sabu'a, Miharraka, Korti, Dakka, Garf Husen, Kalabsha, 
Kartassi, and Dabud. It will be seen that whilst some stations 
were only ten miles from each other, others were as much as 

It is probable that many other stations existed on the river 
between B.C. 1700 and 1300, but hitherto no remains of them have 
been found. Now, the quartz-bearing district referred to above 
was never famous for the production of slaves, for the simple 
reason that the strips of cultivable land on the river banks could 



not grow enough grain, &c, to support a considerable population, 

and we are therefore driven to conclude that the Pharaohs 
maintained this great chain of forts and temples on the Nile in 
connection with their gold monopoly. They did not put themselves 
to the trouble and expense of erecting such buildings for the sake 
of spreading abroad the blessing of the Egyptian civilization or 
religion in the Sudan, but only because it enabled them to keep a 
(inner hold on their monopoly, and because it paid them 
handsomely to do so. Under the XVIIIth Dynasty the chain of 
forts and temples between Aswan and the foot of the Fourth 
Cataract, i.e., Napata or Merawi, was in a most effective state, and 
as Amen-hetep II. made his way so far to the south as Wad Ha 
a. it is pretty certain that the Pharaohs at that time were 
receiving gold from the country round about Sennaar and 

Not content with drawing large quantities of gold from the 
Sudan for their own use, the kings of Egypt, under the XVIIIth 
Dynasty, sent large quantities into Western Asia. Thus 
Kadashman-Bed, king of Babylonia, begs Amen-hetep III. to 
send him the gold about which he wrote, and says that if it comes 
within the season of harvest he will give him his daughter to 
wife' Another king, Burraburiyash, asks Amen-hetep IV. 
indignantly, u Why did you send me two manas of gold only ? " 
And he adds: '"Send me much gold." Assur-Uballit, a king of 
Assyria, writing to Amen-hetep IV.. says, ,% In your land gold is 
" [as] dust. Gather it together ... I am building a new house 
"and I would complete it, therefore send me the gold which I 
"require. When Assur-Nadin-Ahi, my father, sent to Egypt, 
" twenty talents of gold were sent to him ; and when the king of 
" l.lanigalbat sent to your father, he sent back to him twenty 
" talents of gold also. And you should send me twenty talents of 
"gold."' Tushratta, king of Mitani, also writes 4 to Amen- 
hetep III., saying, " You sent my father very much gold . . . let 
u my brother send me a very Large quantity of gold, which cannot 
" be measured, and let him send more gold to me than he did to 
li my father. For in my brother's land gold is as common as 

1 Tell Al-'Amarna Tablet, Berlin, N - Ibid., London, No 2. 

:t Ibid., London, No. 9. ' Ibid., No. 8. 



" dust. And though gold is now very plentiful in my brother's 
"land, I pray that the gods may so ordain that it may become 
" ten times more plentiful even than it is now." Under the rule 
of the kings of the XlXth Dynasty it seems that the gold mines 
in the neighbourhood of the Second, Third, and Fourth Cataracts 
became unprofitable ; at all events, we hear very little about them 
after the reign of Rameses II. 

It is probable that Rameses I. and his immediate successors 
found it impossible to maintain the forts and temples beyond 
Haifa in an effective condition, and that they turned their 
attention to developing the mines in Wadi 'Ulaki, a place which 
was much nearer Egypt, and the route to which gave far less 
trouble to defend. Moreover, the influence of Egypt over the 
Eastern Desert was greater than in former times, and the tribes 
which lived there brought their gold both to Ombos, the " gold 
city," ' the terminus on the Nile of one important desert route, 
and to Coptos, the termination of another. At this period of its 
history Egypt was able to absorb all the gold which could be 
brought into it, for the decoration of the funeral furniture, and 
ornaments of the dead, must have required as much of this metal 
as the jewellery and ornaments of the living. 

The first king of the XlXth Dynasty who took steps to increase 
the import of gold into Egypt was Seti I., about B.C. 1370. 
According to an inscription published by Lepsius, 2 Seti I. was 
thinking about the countries from which the gold was brought, 
and the wish came into his mind to go and see the mines. He 
departed on his way up the river, and in due course set out on the 
desert road which leaves the Nile on the east bank near Edfii, 
and leads to the famous Emerald Mines of Gebel Zabara near the 
Red Sea. As the king went along the road he thought about the 
lack of water on it, and wondered how the ordinary folk quenched 
their thirst. He quickly realized how they must suffer, and that 
unless some means for supplying water to travellers were found, 
caravans could not travel on that road, and it would be impossible 

1 In Egyptian Nubt, fwW . The name is probably connected with nub, 

the word for gold. 

2 Denkmiiler, iii. &pb. 



to work the mines. Thereupon Seti resolved to dig a well, and 
with the help of his god he found a suitable place for digging one; 
he then collected workmen, who dug the well, and the water 
sprang up and filled it, and ran over the sides in such quantities 
that it seemed as if the two great sources of the Nile of the South 
and the Nile of the North had been tapped. After this the king 
established a station near the well, and built a temple. Ra was 
worshipped ' in the sanctuary, Ptah and Osiris in the hall, and 
Horus, Isis, and Seti were associated with the leading gods of 
the place. When this temple was finished and fittingly decorated, 
Seti came and worshipped in it. This temple lies on the old road 
to the Red Sea, at a distance of about forty miles from the Nile, 
and is known as the Temple of Radasiyah. This road was used 
in the reign of Amen-hetep III., for Merimes, Prince of Kash, has 
left his name on the rock near the temple. 

From another inscription 2 we learn that Seti I. dug a well on 
the old road leading from Kubban on the Nile to the Wadi 
'Ulaki, at a place where several other kings had tried to find 
water, and that he, like them, was unsuccessful. These in- 
scriptions show that Seti I. did his best to increase the 
import of gold by making communication easier between the 
Nile and the mines in the Eastern Desert. The activity of 
his son Rameses II. in this matter was not less than his own, 
for this king dug a well on the road which led to the mines in 
the Wadi 'Ulaki, and he and his engineers were rewarded with 
the discovery of a splendid flow of water. From the time of 
Rameses II. onwards the kings of Egypt, whether Egyptian, 
Nubian. Persian, Macedonian, Roman, or Arabian, kept the 
mines working in the Wadi 'Ulftki, and derived revenue from them. 
They protected the roads leading to them, and maintained 
stations on the Nile so far as Dakka for this purpose. It seems 
that the quartz reefs in the Nile Valley between Haifa and the 
Third Cataract were worked out at a comparatively early period, 
i.e., during the XVIIIth or XlXth Dynasty, or at least that the 
working of them had become unprofitable. 

Reference has been made above to the systematic attempt made 

1 See Chabas, Inscriptions des Mines d'Or, p. 6. 

- See Prisse d'Avennes, Monuments Egyptiens, Paris, 1847, pi. xxi. 



W&* J &Vi 

REIGN OF SETI I., B.C. 1370. 
rin. Lepsius, Ausivahl, BL <xii. 


by Seti I. to develop the gold mines of the Eastern Desert, and a 
striking proof of this fact is afforded by the plan of certain gold 
mines on a papyrus which is preserved in the Museum of Turin. 1 
The plan which is here reproduced shows us a portion of the 
gold-bearing country, with the mountains {±C±T, on each side, and 
a valley with two roads and a cross path running between them. 

This is made certain by the legends ^ [mi ^^ f^ « moun- 

££ III o in' 

tains of gold," written four times on the plan. In the top 
right-hand corner, close to the road, is the " sanctuary of 
Amen ; the holy mountain," 2 wherein probably the gold was 
stored ; and between the mountain on which it stands, and the 
next is a path leading to some locality, the name of which is not 
quite clear. Beyond the entrance to this path are four houses, 
which were set apart for the men who were overseers in the mines. 
Beyond these is a well, and the hieratic text further on says that 
the road leads to the sea. On the right-hand side of the winding 
path is another well or tank, filled with water, and round about it 
is a patch painted brown on the plan to represent the earth which 
is irrigated by the well. In the middle of the patch is a stele | |, 
which is described as the " tablet of king Men-Maat-Ra," :J i.e., of 
Seti I. ; this seems to indicate that the well was dug by Seti I., 
who set up a stele to commemorate the fact. Further to the 
right are two lines of hieratic text, which were intended to form the 
title of the plan, for they read, " The mountains whereout they dig 
"the gold ; they are depicted in red colour." The meaning of these 
lines was made out in 1852 by Dr. Birch, who had only Lepsius's 
reproduction of the plan in black and white to work from, and 
did not know that in the original the mountains were coloured 
red. 4 The road which leaves the middle of the winding path also 
" leads to the sea," and the lowest road of all is the main road 

1 First published by Lepsius, Auswahl, Bl. xxii., and later, in colours, by 
Chabas, Les Mines d'Or, Paris, 1862. See also Birch, On a Historical Tablet 
of Rameses II., in Archaeologia, vol. xxxiv., pp. 357-391 • 

A coloured plan was published by Chabas in 1862. 




through the valley. On the original plan this last 1 is bestrewn 
with representations of coloured objects, which Birch and Chabas 
both believed to be sea-shells. There is, unfortunately, nothing 
on the plan which will help us to identify the site depicted, but 
there is little doubt that the gold mines were in the Eastern 
Desert between the Nile and the Red Sea, and they may well be 
some of those which were situated in the Wadi 'Ulaki. 

The Museum of Turin also contains the remains of a plan of the 

gold mines of the " mountain of Bekhani," "*"* \\ , 

and the king's name mentioned in the fragmentary lines of 
text is Rameses II. The exact site of Bekhani is unknown, but it 
was probably situated in one of the valleys wherein quartz veins 
were found, to the south-east of the city of Coptos on the Nile. 
A facsimile of the fragments of this plan will be found at the end 
of Lieblein's " Deux Papyrus HieVatiques du Mnsee de Turin/' 
Christiania, 1868. 

The common Egyptian word for gold is nub fw*|, or f >w « r l, or 

' , and the Egyptians distinguished between "gold of the 

° ° 

mountain," " and " gold of the river ; " :< the ore was called "gold 

on its mountain." 1 There was a difference too between mere 
"gold," ' ', and "good gold,'' ' T, and between "gold of 

OOO o o o 

the mountain," and "good gold of its mountain,'* "' there was 
also "gold of twice," and "gold of thrice," 8 i.e., gold refined twice 
or thrice, or perhaps gold of one-third or two-thirds alloy; and 
there was a quality called " gold of the scale." ' Another kind of 

1 It is called "The road of Thi 
^ Ji*^ 0@ o<P)' 

P amet '"~lkf)^)?1 — ]« 

, r\^i 

- f>M*\ /WWW 

11 ^ 1 

■ phW*^ AAWAA WWW . 

4 fs^^r^^^^^ 
1 ^ 1 

, r^ S2£ and r^\ 1 ^, 

ooo^> 1 o o o ^ 

/WW\A V -^ ' ' /wwv\ v -^. 

7 '^— l^MM^- 




gold was called Katemet, '—I ^ \\ ^ o ? which has been compared 

with the Hebrew word for " fine gold," kethem, in Prov. xxv. 12, 
Job xxxi. 24, &c A large quantity of gold came from Nubia, 
and this is called the "gold of Kash," and large quantities came 
from the Eastern Desert to 
the cities of Coptos, Edfu, 
and Ombos. Lastly, one kind 
of gold was called " white (or 

pale) gold," (>m«q Y o j and 

green gold," ' 


as opposed to the kind 

which the Abyssinians call 
" red gold." From the 
monuments we see that gold 
was brought to Egypt in 
small nuggets and in dust, or 
melted into flat cakes, or 
bars (ingots), or bricks, or 
rings. The gold dust which 
came from the regions of 
Sennaar and Fazogli was tied 

up in bags {arfu <==>^'), 

and the metal in its other 
forms was often brought in 
boxes. 1 The principal gold 

weights were the teben, = 

teben, and the pek 

= yxg-th of a teben ; Lepsius 
thought these weights = 
9°'959> 9"°959> an d 07106 grammes respectively. 

The metal formed by the natural mixture of gold with silver 

was indicated by the sign rwi ° ; this, because the sceptre j 
1 See Lepsius, Die Metalle, p. 43. 
vol. 11. 337 Z 


th of a 

D _ 

s— S 

OF RAMESES II. (B.C. I.330). 

[From Lepsius, Auswahl, PI. XXII. 


has the value tcham} Dr. Birch read the sign " tcham " and trans- 
lated " pure gold " ; " a better rendering is, however, " electrum.' * :: 
This metal was brought into Egypt in bags, and also in the form 
of rings, and from the largeness of the quantities of it which are 
mentioned, it is clear that, as Lepsius says, it cannot have been 
gold of a very fine or pure quality. It was, however, a valuable 
substance, for it is mentioned in connection with gold, lapis- 
lazuli, and turquoise, and that it was a natural product is proved 
by the words "tcham of the mountains, and gold on its mountain " ' 
(i.e., gold ore). The colour of tcham was much admired, and in 
the late period gold and silver were mixed together artificially, and 
the " electrum " of the classical writers was thus produced. 

The mining methods of the ancient Egyptians were not very 
elaborate, and they appear to have been somewhat wasteful in 
character. The sites where the veins of quartz were thickest and 
most easily accessible were worked out first, but as soon as a vein 
ran deep, or a hard stone obstruction was met with, that section 
was abandoned. Where the veins were close to the surface the 
greatest trouble was taken to dig out every bit <>f quartz, as an 
examination of a mining site such as that near Semna on the 
Second Cataract will show. Here alternate layers of quartz and 
some hard stone are found, and the country for miles around is 
covered with fiat pieces of dark stone which were broken in 
getting out the quartz. Whether the old mines would pay in the 
re-working is a matter which only raining experts can decide, but 
it is impossible not to think that with modern tools and modern 
methods much gold might be obtained from the quartz veins 
which have only been partly worked, and from others which were 
overlooked by the ancients. Muhammad * All sent a party of men 
ike experiments with a view of reopening the mines in the 
Wad! 'l/laki, and the conclusion he arrived at was that the gold 

1 See Birch in Bunsen. Egypfs Place, vol. i., p. 574, No. 145 ; and vol. v., 
p. 519. 

2 Lepsius, op. cit.. p. 43. 

3 According to Pliny (xxxiii. 23) a mass of gold of which one-fifth was silver 
was called " electrum." 

4 rwn o (-' ' * <~T , Lepsius, of) cit., p. 4^ ; Dtimichen, Hist. 
'To 1 ^ IIIO III I 4^' 

/nsck., 31. 



obtained by them only barely covered the expense of mining, and' 
he therefore gave up the scheme. In this case the conclusion 
really depended on the honesty of his agents. 

A great proportion of the gold and silver which entered Egypt 
annually between B.C. 1500 and 1200 must have come from the 
Eastern Desert, and for nearly 3,000 years gold must have formed 
the principal article of commerce borne by the caravans from the 
country now called the " Southern Atbai." We have, un- 
fortunately, no information in the hieroglyphic inscriptions which 
enables us to calculate the exact amount or value of the gold and 
silver which were brought into Egypt annually, but that it was 
very great is evident from a statement made by Diodorus Siculus. 
In his first Book (chap. 48 ff.) this writer gives a description of 
the tomb of the king whom he calls " Osymandyas," who is 
really Rameses II. 1 After enumerating the reliefs which are to 
be seen on the various walls, he says that in one part is the figure 
of the king, painted in colours, who is engaged in offering to a 
god the gold and silver which he drew annually from the gold and 
silver mines of Egypt, and above it was an inscription stating the 
amount thereof. Diodorus, or Hekataeus, calculated what this 
sum amounted to in the money of his time, and says that it was 
equal to thirty-two millions of minas ; 2 this sum in round figures 
is equal to about £80,000,000 sterling. 3 It is possible that a small 
proportion of the gold which was paid into the Egyptian treasury 
in the time of Rameses II. came from Northern Syria, but not 
very likely, seeing that this king's dominions stopped at the Nahr 
al-Kalb, or Dog River. The bulk of the gold and silver paid to 
Rameses II. came from the Eastern Desert and the districts near 
Sennaar and Beni Shankul, and, though the estimate of its value 
given above may be excessive, it is quite clear from the figures 
quoted by Diodorus that the value of the precious metals which 
came into Egypt must have been very great indeed. 

1 Osymandyas = Usr-Maat-Ra, ©J Sfcfi, the first portion of the prenomen of 

Rameses II. 

2 imoyeypdqbdai 8e Kai to rrXr/dos, o avyKfCpakaiovpevov els dpyvpiov \6yov eivai pvwv 
TpifjyCkins Kai diaKOcrias pupiddas- Ed. Didot, p. 41* 

3 The mina = 75 drachmae at 8d., or £2 10s. If the mtna be calculated to 
be worth 100 drachmae, the total will be rather more than one-third higher. 



About the working of the gold mines by the ancient Egyptians 
we obtain some valuable information from Agatharcides, who 
was born at Cnidus, probably at the beginning of the second 
century B.C. He wrote a work in five books on the Erythraean 
Sea about B.C. 120, and in the fifth he describes the manners and 
customs of the principal peoples who lived in the countries 
bordering on the Red Sea. From this Diodorus (iii. 12 ff.) 
transcribed the account of the working of the gold mines near 
the Red Sea, which may be summarized thus: — 

To the south of Egypt, and on the borders of Arabia and 
Ethiopia, there is a place full of rich gold mines, whence with 
great expense, and toil, and difficulty, the gold is dug. The 
substance from which the metal is taken is a black stone seamed 
with white veins, and with shining patches. Those who are the 
overseers of the works at the mines employ a very large number 
of workmen, who are either condemned criminals, or prisoners of 
war, or men who, having been unjustly accused and cast into 
prison, have been banished to the mines, or men against whom 
the king had a spite. Frequently the last two classes are sent to 
the mines with all the members of their family, and their kindred, 
and these also are obliged to labour for the king's benefit. These 
wretched people work in fetters by day and by night, and chance 
of escape is impossible, for the guards and soldiers who are set 
over them keep strict watch, and as these speak only foreign 
tongues, it is impossible for them to be corrupted by the wretched 
miners either by bribes or entreaties. 

The rock which contains the gold is very hard and solid, and 
they make it soft by lighting fires under it, after which they can 
it with their hands. As soon as the stone is sufficiently 
softened, and is likely to break under the influence of a moderate 
effort, thousands of the wretched miners break it into pieces with 
the iron tools which are used in the working of stones. At their 
head is the skilled "ganger," who knows where to look for the 
veins of gold, and he shows the men where to dig. The most 
powerful among the wretched men who are condemned to work 
in the mines are told off to break the rock with iron picks, which 
they wield unskilfully, and with infinite labour. The galleries of 
the mines wherein this class of men work are not straight, but 



they follow the direction of the vein of quartz ; and since in such 
crooked passages they have to work in the dark, they carry lamps 
attached to their foreheads. They change their position accord- 
ing to the nature of the rock and the position of the veins of 
metal, and dig down the rock above them in fragments. Thus 
they work incessantly under the eyes of a stern watcher, who 
meanwhile showers blows upon them. 

As the fragments of quartz fall on the ground young children 
creep into the subterranean galleries, and collect them and carry 
them out to the entrances to the galleries. From these places 
men who are not more than thirty years of age take each a certain 
quantity of these fragments, and placing them in stone mortars 
they pound them with iron pestles until the ore is in pieces the 
size of a chick-pea (opoftos). The ore is then taken by women 
and old men and put in a row of mills, each of which is worked 
by two or three people, wherein the ore is ground as line as 
powder. As the poor wretches who do this work are not allowed 
to pay any attention to the care of their bodies, and they wear no 
clothing, not even a rag to cover their nakedness, every one who 
looks upon their pitiable plight must be filled with commiseration 
for them. No respite is given to the sick, or the maimed, or the 
halt, and neither the weakness of old age, nor women's infirmities 
are accepted as a reason for rest or intermission of labour. All 
alike are forced to work, and any temporary relaxation of work is 
visited with an increased number of blows ; finally many of them 
drop down dead through exhaustion. By reason of these suffer- 
ings, and being without hope in the future, these unfortunate 
beings await death with joy, for it is far preferable to life. 

In the next stage the miners collect the ore which has been 
ground, and spread it out on sloping boards, over which they 
pour a stream of water, which carries away the earthy matters, 
leaving the gold lying on the boards. They repeat the washing 
process several times, and at length all the useless matter is 
eliminated, and the gold dust becomes pure and bright. Then 
other workmen take a measured quantity of the dust, and pour it 
into an earthenware vessel, and having added certain quantities 
of lead, salt, tin, and bran, they place on the vessel a cover which 
fits it tightly, and then set it in a furnace fire for five days and five 



nights continuously. At the end of this time they remove the 
vessel from the fire and set it aside to cool, and when they take 
off the cover they find nothing but pure gold inside it, for all the 
dross has disappeared. The gold, of course, weighs less than the 
powder which was put into the vessel to be smelted. 

Thus it is clear that the processes of gold mining were difficult, 
and that the digging out of the ore involved great trouble. Finally 
Agatharcides tells us that the mines which he has been describing 
were discovered in very early times, and that they were worked 
by the most ancient kings. 




In the present and following chapters an attempt is made to 
describe briefly the principal facts connected with the country 
and people of the Sudan as they exist in our time, so that the 
reader may be able to compare the modern conditions of the 
" Land of the Blacks " with the ancient records of its history. A 
description of this kind would naturally deal with the country 
itself and its provinces, first of all, but as the Nile and its 
tributaries form the most important features of the Sudan, and 
the trade, and commerce of the country, and of every living thing 
in it, depend upon them for their existence, the first section of this 
chapter is devoted to the mighty river, which has for thousands 
of years formed one of the chief objects of veneration of the 
dwellers on its banks from the Central African Lakes to the sea. 

I. The Nile. 

The ancient Egyptians called the Nile-god Hep, 1 or Hap, 2 and 
the earliest representations of him depict him in the form of a 
man, with female attributes ; on his head he wears a cluster of 
lotus flowers, and he bears before him a table whereon are vases 
of water, flowers, &c. He dwelt in celestial regions, and poured 
out from his vases the life-giving waters, which appeared on earth 
from out of the two caverns, or Qerti, near the Island of 
Elephantine. The contents of one vase formed the Nile from 
Aswan northwards, and those of the other the Nile from Aswan 
southwards. That the Nile flowed into the sea was well known, 
but the Egyptians cannot have known, at all events with any 
certainty, where its sources were situated, though one would 



think that the caravan men from Dar Fur and Kordofan would 
bring down from the natives of those countries accounts of the 
existence of great lakes in Central Africa. The famous hymn to 
the Nile, after enumerating the benefits which the god gives to 
gods and men, states that his " secret place cannot be explored, 
" and the place where he is is unknown " ; ' elsewhere it is said 
that the Nile-god Hap is One, that he created himself, and 
that his origin is unknown. 2 Whether the true sources of the 
Nile were known by the Egyptians, or guessed at by them, there 
is no evidence to show, but it is certain that the priests of 
Elephantine and Philae found it to their interest to declare that 
the sources of the Nile were at Philae, and according to the legend 
on the rock on the Island of Sahal in the First Cataract, it was 
to Elephantine that Tcheser, a king of the Illrd Dynasty, sent 
when he wished to find out why the Nile had not risen for seven 
years to a proper height during the inundation." 

During the later period of Egyptian history Silsila was regarded 
as the frontier town between Egypt and Nubia, and an idea seems 
to have been prevalent that the home of the Nile-god was here ; 
hence we find Rameses II. setting up an inscription on Gebel 
Silsila recording the establishment of two festivals in honour of 
the Nile-god. These were observed in June and August, and, as 
Dr. Stern pointed out, their modern Arab equivalents are the 
" Night of the Drop," 4 which is observed on June 17th, and the 
" Cutting of the Dam." about the middle of August. The first 
of these festivals was celebrated in connection with the beginning 
of the rise of the Nile, and the Egyptians thought this was caused 
by the tears which [sis shed annually in heaven in commemoration 
of her first great lamentation over the dead body of her husband 
Osiris. Her tears were supposed to possess the power of increasing 



Zet't., 1873, p. 130. 

3 Aeg. Zcitschrift, 1S73. p. 135. 

4 Lelat al-Nukta. These festivals are well described by Lane, Modern 
Egyptians^ vol. ii., p. 224 ff. 


Um Ainegba ^Marbeit * g^TJ 
! y^/M.Zeraf ,/.g;«ni/A'--....-BelfpdiO;| 

<iW ''V', 

| Assi ....-OGenjsnitt " 

1M$ ° \ "wambera.-.. 

V .;.oAfo<?u | y^i'eX\ ^ °Monfcorer or 
■"$\* * ig\.. % Debra Markos- 




G E R M A NI32 E"A S 



the waters of the river, and were the cause of the Nile-flood. 
According to another view the Nile and its flood proceeded from 
the body of Osiris, and Isis represented the land of Egypt which 
was made fertile thereby. The second festival was held when 
the Nile flood had reached its greatest height. In Egypt these 
festivals probably date from the time when the country became 
suitable for agricultural operations, but whether equivalents of 
these festivals existed in the Sudan cannot be said, for nothing 
is known about the religious views of its people at this time. 
There is no evidence to show that the Egyptians knew the cause 
of the inundation, but some of the Sudani folk must have known 
that the flooding of the rivers in their country was due to heavy 
rainfall in the mountains. 

About the origin of the name " Nile " there is diversity of 
opinion. According to some it is derived from the Greek IVetXo?, 
but others say it comes from the Semitic word which occurs in 
Hebrew under the form nakhal tTO, 

The mystery which has been diligently cultivated for centuries 
about the course of the Nile and its sources is more imaginary 
than real, and it is difficult not to think that if the ancients had 
really felt interested in the matter these things would have been 
described over and over again by ancient writers. Aristotle, 1 who 
wrote in the second half of the fourth century B.C., was well aware 
that floods were caused in Ethiopia and Arabia by summer rains 
which poured down in torrents, and he knew of the existence of 
the Pygmies, who fought with cranes, or, as Sir Harry Johnston 
suggests, with ostriches. Many of his statements are based on 
the authority of Hekataeus, who wrote on Egypt and visited the 
country B.C. 500. Eratosthenes (B.C. 276 — 196), the eminent 
geographer, who was appointed keeper of the Alexandrian 
Library by Ptolemy Euergetes, was well acquainted with the 
course of the Nile, and possessed a good deal of information about 
the country through which it flowed. He seems to have known 
of two great rivers, each of which flowed from a lake in Central 

1 Qeopbv fie ylvtrai Ta^y to avviarafievou vdu>p (V re Tills x<*>P ais Kal T( " 9 &pat$ 
Tciis dAeeii/als. Yiverai. fie kcl\ Trepi ttjv ' kpafiiav <a\ rfjv AWioniav rov Qepovs ra 
vdara, Kal ov tov x.ecpu>vos, Kal ravra payfiuia, Ka\ rrjs avrffs rjpepas iroWdicis, dm ri t v 
avrr]v alriav. Meteor ologicorum , I., viii. 19. 



Africa, and the influence of the summer rains on one of them is 
described by him. 1 Aristocreon (Pliny, Hist. \W., v. 9), Caecilius 
Bion (Pliny, Hist. Nat., xxviii. 57), Dalion (Pliny, Hist. Nat., vi. 
35), and Simonides are mentioned in such a way as to suggest 
that they were authorities on the geography of north-east Africa, 
and as the last named is said to have lived five years at Meroe he 
must have heard much about the country to the south and east 
of Khartum. 

Hipparchus, who flourished late in the second century before 
Christ, sketched the course of the Nile to the south, and made 
its sources to be three lakes. 

Among the earliest travellers into the country south of Khartum 
were the two centurions, who about a.d. 65 were sent by the 
Emperor Nero to report on the Sudan. It is perfectly clear from 
the statements which they made to Seneca (see above, p. 172) that 
they reached the region of the Sadd, and if they could have forced 
their way through the obstruction, they would undoubtedly have 
reached the lakes. They were, of course, guided by local shekhs 
who, by taking them up the White Nile, showed that they them- 
selves understood the relation of the two great lakes to the Nile, 
and we may conclude that in the first century a.d. all the main 
facts about the course of the Nile and its lakes were known. 

Ptolemy, the geographer, about a.d. 150 collected all the 

available information about the Nile from early travellers, and 

succeeded in forming a correct opinion as to the general course 

of the Nile. He made the Nile to flow out of three lakes, and 

placed its sources in the Mountains of the Moon, and if the 

identification of these mountains with the Ruwenzori ran 

correct, it is clear that Ptolemy was substantially right as to his 

He made a mistake, however, in placing the sources of 

the Nile to the south of the Equator, but this may be due to the 

monastic copyists «»{' his maps, and in such a matter no one 

would expect accuracy from them, especially as none of the early 

raphers, not even Ptolemy, had correct views about the 

extent and shape of Africa. 

All the Muhammadan geographers state that the springs of the 

1 Murray, Historical Account of Discoveries and Travels in Africa, London, 



Nile are in the Mountains of the Moon ; they are ten in number, 
and five flow into one lake, and five into another. From each 
lake two streams flow, and when all four have united the Nile is 
formed. The principal lake was called the " Lake of Likuri," 
Likuri being the name of a people who have been identified 
with the " Wakuri," who still live on Lake Victoria. These 
geographers knew of the existence of the mountains of snow, but 
they identified them with Gebel Kaf, which surrounded the world. 
The length of the Nile was stated to be 3,748 or 3,000 parassangs. 
Shams ad-Din, 1 who was born in the second half of the thirteenth 
century, says that the Nile springs flow from the Mountains of 
the Moon into two great lakes, which are four days' journey from 
each other, the eastern being called Kuku, or Tamim as-Sudani, 
and the western Damadim, or Galgur Hagami. These lakes, he 
says, are in lat. 7 south, and from them flow four rivers which run 
from the Equator to lat. 7 north, into the great lake which is 
called in Arabic " Gami'a," i.e., the " gatherer together," and in 
the native language " Kuri " (or, Wakuri, the name of a tribe). 

By the end of the seventeenth century a considerable amount 
of definite information about Lake Sana, and the Blue Nile and 
its course had been collected, chiefly through the observations of 
the Jesuits, Father Francisco Alvarez, Father Pedro Paez, and 
Father Jeronino Lobo, who visited Abyssinia in 1525, 1615, and 
1622, and the sources of the Blue Nile in the Sakala Mountains 
of Gojam had actually been visited by Paez. The next European 
to see the sources of the Blue Nile was James Bruce of Kinnaird, 
who was in Abyssinia between 1770 and 1773. The investigation 
of the White Nile began in 1839, when Thibaut sailed up the 
river to within seven degrees of the Equator ; two years later 
Werne, a German, reached Gondokoro, and about this time informa- 
tion about a great lake at a distance of several days' journey to the 
south began to filter down the river through the natives to 
Khartum. In 1848 the missionaries Rebmann and Krapf actually 
saw the snow-covered " Mountains of the Moon," and they 
published accounts of Lakes Nyassa, Tanganyika, Baringo, and 
Victoria. These were the real pioneers of Nile discovery in the 
nineteenth century, and it was chiefly owing to the interest which 
1 Ed. Mehren, St. Petersburg, 1866, p. 88. 


metres ; its one outlet is the Victoria Nile. Its affluents on the 
north are the Sio, Nzoia, and Lukos ; on the east, the Nyando, 
Tuyayo, and Sundo ; on the west, Katonga, Ruizi, and the Kagera ; 
in German territory on the east are the Mara Dabash, Ruwana, and 
Mbalasati, and on the south the Mtuma, Suiuya, Moami, Wami, 
Lokungati, and the Ruiga. A current sets across the lake from 
the Kagera River to the Ripon Falls. The most important of all 
these is the Kagera, which is fed by the Nvavarongo, Akanyaru, 
and Ruvuvu, and if any one river can be said to have a special 


[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

influence on the rise and fall of the waters of the lake, then the 
ra is the real source of the Nile. Sir William Garstin does 
not consider the Kagera to be the real source, but the lake itself. 
The catchment basin of the lake, including the lake itself, is 
240,000 square kilometres. The terminus of the Uganda Railway 
on the lake is Kisuma, or Port Florence. There are several large 
islands in the lake, e.g., Buvuma, Loliu, Busoga, Bugala, and 
Ukerewe, and several groups of islands, e.g., those of Buvuma, 
Sesse, Kome, Damba, and Korne. The level of the water of the 



lake has been steadily falling for some years, and this fact is 
attributed to the steady shrinkage of the water surface which has 
been observed in other Central African lakes. The total amount 
of rain-water which enters the lake annually is computed at 
138,750,000,000 cubic metres, and the amount which runs off into 
the Nile at 18,133,200,000 cubic metres. The amount lost by 
evaporation is 75,737,000,000 cubic metres. The mean daily dis- 
charge into the Nile is 49,680,000 cubic metres. 

Other contributory sources of the Nile are Lake Albert Edward 

[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

and Lake Albert. Lake Albert Edward was discovered by Stanley 
in 1875, and lies between the parallels of lat. o° 8' and o° 40' 
south, and the meridians of 29 32' and 30 6' east. At the north- 
east corner it is connected by a long, narrow channel with the 
small lake called Ruisamba, or Dueru, though Lake Albert 
Edward is itself called Dueru by the Wanyoro. The area of the two 
lakes is 2,100 square kilometres ; the larger is 70 kilometres long 
and 50 kilometres wide, and the smaller is 30 kilometres long and 
16 or 17 wide. The catchment basin, including the lake itself, 
is in area 18,000 square kilometres, and the level of the lake is 
vol. n. 353 A a 


965 metres above the sea. Both lakes lie in the western " Rift," 
which starts from the northern end of Lake Xvassa in lat. 10 15' 
south, and ends near Gondokoro. 1 The other Lakes in this rift 
are Tanganyika and Kivu. The only outlet of Lake Albert 
Edward is the Semliki River. In the Katwe Bay there are three 
islands, and in Lake Dueru two, viz., Chikalero and Naukavenga. 
The principal rivers which How into Lake Dueru are the Makokia, 
Nuisamba, Lokoku, Sebu, Mbuku, Hima, Ruini or Nsongi, Dura. 
Yeria, Balariba, Msongi, Mpango, Igasha, Nakatera, Malluna, 

[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

and Manobo : nil these rise on the eastern face of the Ruenzori 
Mountains. The rivers which flow into Lake Albi it Edward are 
the kutshuru and Ruendu on the south ; the Muwengu or Mtungi 
on the south-east, and the Nyamgasha or Kyamgashani, and the 

Dibirra on the north. 

1 The eastern "Rift" starts from the same place, follows the thirty-sixth 
meridian east of Greenwich, and either disappears at Lake Rudolph, lat. 4° 
north, or skirts the southern limits of the Abyssinian highlands, until it joins 
the similar depression now occupied by the Red Sea. In this "Rift" are 
Lakes Manjara, Natron. Naivasha, Al-Menteita, Nakuru, Hannington, Baringo; 
and Rudolph. See Garstin, Report on the Upper Nile J><is:/;. p. 4 ; Gregory, 
754* Great Rift Valley, London, 1896. 



The connecting channel between Lake Albert Edward and 
Lake Albert is the Semliki ' River. This river leaves the former 
lake in lat. o° 8' 30" south, and following the line of the western 
" Rift " skirts the flanks of the Ruenzori, and after a course of 260 
kilometres discharges its waters into the south end of Lake 

[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

Albert in lat. i° 9/ north. It runs through an almost impene- 
trable hedge of tropical vegetation ; the rainfall below the snow 
peaks of Ruenzori is extremely heavy, and practically continues 
throughout the year, and the climate is often steamy to an 
extreme degree. Nothing is known of the river's course from 
where it enters the forest to its point of exit into Lake Albert, for 

1 Also called Issango, Kakoonda, and Kakibi. 


Stankx rarely descended into the valley of the river. Between its 
head and its mouth the Semliki drops 285 metres. 

Lake Albert, 1 into which the Semliki River flows, was discovered 
by Sir Samuel Baker in 1864. It lies within the parallels of 
lat. i 1 9' and 2 17' north, and between the meridians of 30 35' 
and 31 30' east of Greenwich ; its greatest length is 160 kilo- 
metres, and its greatest width 45 kilometres. It was circum- 
navigated by Gessi Pasha and Mason Bey. It receives from the 
Semliki River the overflow of Lake Albert Edward, and the 
entire drainage of the Ruenzori Mountains, and a great portion 
of that of the western hills. The catchment basin of the lake, 
including the valley of the Semliki River, has an area of 3 2. 000 
square kilometres, and the level of its waters is 680 metres above 
the sea. The principal rivers and streams which flow into it from 
the east are the Msisi, Ravasanja, Ngusi, Mponbi, Nyakabari, or 
Horo, with the Balbona, Jimangawu and Kagarandindu, the 
Wahamba, Lukajuka, Hoimi, Wakki, and the Waiga. All these 
rivers enter the lake in a series of cascades and waterfalls, and 
none of them is very long. The Victoria Nile enters Lake Albert 
in lat. 2° 17' north. The northern end of the lake is a vast 
swamp of papyrus and ambatch several hundred square kilometres 
ill extent. 

The portion of the Nile between Lake Victoria at the Ripon 
Falls, and the point where it enters Lake Albert at Magungo, is 
251 miles long, and is called the " Victoria Nile/' Between its 
junction with Lake Albert and the eastern corner of Lake \7> in 
lat. g° 29' north, i.e., a distance of nearly 723 miles, the Nile is 
called the " Bahr al-Gebel/' or " Upper Nile." From the place 
where the waters of the Bahr al-Gebel meet the waters of the 
Bahr al-Ghazal in Lake No, at the point called " Makren al- 
Buhur," to Khartum, i.e., for a distance of about 600 miles, the 
Nile is called " Bahr al-Abyad," or "White Nile." The length 
of the Nile between the Ripon Falls and Khartum is about 1,580 

The rivers which flow into the Victoria Nile arc : 1. The Kafu, 
which rises in the Unyoro country, and enters the Nile from the 

1 Called by the natives Muta N'zigi, or Luta N'zigi ; this name means 
"dead locust." 



west, near Mruli. 2. The Titi, near Mruli, from the north- 
west. 3. The Lenga, or Kubuli, on the east bank, opposite to 
Fuwera. 4. The Dukhu, on the east bank, ten miles north of 

The rivers which flow into the Bahr al-Gebel are: 1. The 
Tangi, on the east, at mile 15 from Lake Albert. 2. The Achwa, 
on the east, at mile 28 ; it rises in Mount Guruguru. 3. The 
Umi, on the east, at mile 40. 4. The Jokha, on the east, 

[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Ofhce. 

at mile 85. 5. The Ayugi, on the east, opposite to Dufili, 
at mile 130. 6. The Unyami, on the east, near the Ayugi. 
7. The Asua, on the east, at mile 148 ; it is about 170 miles 
long. 8. The Atappi, on the north-east ; it is a tributary of 
the Asua. 9. The Umi, on the east, at mile 173. 10. The 
Karpeto, on the east, at mile 183. n. The Niumbi, on the 
east, at mile 195. 12. The Kiveh, on the east, at mile 199. 
13. The Lugololo, on the east, at mile 216. 14. The Peki, on the 
east, at mile 220. 15. The Kit, or Bahr Ramliya, on the east, at 



mile 234. 16. The Lakodero, on the east, at mile 245. Besides 
these, mention must be made of the large channel on the east of 
the Bahr al-Gebel, which was discovered by Mr. E. S. Grogan ' 
on his march from Bor to the Bahr az-Zarafa, and called the 
"Gertrude Nile." Sir William Garstin investigated this channel 
in 1904, and found that the Gertrude Nile is no other than the 
river which the Dinkas call the "Atem." The course of this 
river is along the high land to the east of the Nile Valley : where 

[From Sir \V. Garstin** Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

ives the Bahr al-Gebel is not known, but it enters it about 
mile 437 from Lake Albert. About 54 miles north of Bor the 
Atem divides into two branches, that on the right being the 
Myding, or Mydang, and that on the left the Awai. A special 
map of the course of these rivers is given by Sir Willian Garstin 
in Appendix VI. of his Report. 

Into the western end of Lake No flat. 8° 29' north) flows the 
Bahr al-Ghazal, or " Gazelle River," which receives the waters of 
all the streams that drain the watershed between the Congo and 
1 From the Cape to Cairo, London, 1900. 


the Nile, i.e., in the area between lat. 5 and 8° north, and long. 
24 and 30 east. The principal tributaries of the Bahr al-Ghazal 
river are the Rohl, the Jan, and the Tonj, on the right, 
and the Bahr al-'Arab, the Bahr al-Homr, and the Jiir on 
the left. Mashra ar-Rek, a place famous in the history of the 

[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

slave-raiding expeditions in the Sudan, was on "Kit Island," not 
far from the bifurcation (lat. 8° 44' 50" north) of the Bahr al- 
Ghazal, at mile 112 from Lake No. 

The tributaries of the White Nile are the Bahr az-Zarafa, or 
" Giraffe River," and the Sobat, or Subat, 1 or the Bahr al-Asfar, 

1 This is probably found in conjunction with A.sta, u river," in the classical 



Yellow River." The Bahr az-Zarafa enters the White Nile 
on the right or east bank, about 48 miles down-stream of Lake 
N6, in lat. 9 53' 17" north. The channel by which it is fed leaves 
the Hahr al-Gebel 240 miles south of Lake No, and it receives on 
its way the waters from Khor Too, Khor Khos, and Khor Kanieti, 
which come from the Latuka Hills. The course of the Bahr az- 
Zarafa was explored by Major Peake, K.A., and Captain Stanton 
in 1898, and by Mr. Grogan and Commandant Henri in 1900. 

Sir VV. Oarstin's Report, by permission of ih* Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

The Sobat rises in the Abyssinian mountains, and for the first 
260 miles of its course is known by the Abyssinians as the 
" Baro," by the Nuers as the " Kir," and by the Anuaks as the 
'• I'peno," and from its junction with the Pibor to the Nile it is 
called the Sobat or Bahr al-Asfar. Its total length is about 460 
miles. The tributaries of the Baro in its upper region are the 
Sako, right bank, Bonga, left bank; and tlu- Khor Gokau, or 
Garre, joins the Baro at Gokau and Machar. The Nigol, or 
Aluro, enters the Baro 17 miles below I tang, on the left bank. 



The Pibor enters the Sobat 25 miles above Nasser, and 200 miles 
from its mouth. A tributary of the Pibor is the Agwei, also 
called Neubari, Ruzi II., and Adjonaro. The Akobo, or Juba 
River, enters the Pibor about 70 miles from its mouth. The 
Ajibir, or Ruzi I. River, enters the Akobo on the west bank about 
80 miles from the south end of the Pibor. The Gelo enters 
the Pibor on the right bank, 26 miles above its junction with 
the Baro. The Mokwai, or Bela, enters the Pibor above 

[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

the Pibor-Sobat junction, and the Khor Filus enters the Sobat 
on the left bank, about ten miles from its junction with the White 
Nile. The portion of the Sudan through which these rivers flow 
has been explored in part by Major Gwynn, Major Austin, Mr. 
Wellby, Mr. O. Neumann, Signor Bottego, Captain H. H.Wilson, 
Mr. Macmillan, Colonel Artomonoff, Messrs. Faivre and Potter, 
Major A. Blewitt, Lieut. Comyn, and others. Excellent sum- 
maries of the results obtained by these travellers and officers will 
be found in Count Gleichen's Handbook, p. 131 ff. 



The Sobat enters the Nile on the right bank, about 800 miles 
from Lake Albert, hit. g 22' 8" north, longitude 31 31' east. 
I he water of the Sobat is at times of a " creamy white " colour, 
and at others a pale red, and it is probable that the White Nile 
derived its name from the milky colour given to its waters by 
those of the Sobat when in flood. The waters of the Nile are 
here of a greenish-grey colour, and Sir William Garstin notes 
that " for a long way down-stream a sharp line separates the two." 


[From Sir W Garstin 's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

Tlie Sobat brings down an immense quantity of water, which 
probably equals that derived from the lakes, and the volume and 
velocity of this are sufficient to hold back the discharge 
the White Nile. The country traversed by the Sobat is a 
rich alluvial plain covered with grass; large herds of cattle 

At Khartum the White Nile is joined by the Blue Nile, or 
Abal, on the east bank. The Blue Nile brings down an immense 
volume of rain-water from the Abyssinian mountains and forests 


It begins to rise in June, reaches its maximum height in August, 
and falls rapidly in September. In flood time its waters are of a 
deep chocolate colour, but in the winter they are of a " beautiful 
limpid blue colour," and from this the river derives its name. 
The Blue Nile rises about 60 miles south of Lake Sana, 1 and 
flows northward into it at the south-west corner, and flows out 
again at the south-east corner of the lake. 2 

Lake Sana takes its name from " Sana," the largest of the 

[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office, 

eleven islands which are in it. The other islands are Bergida, 
Dabra Antones, Dabra Maryam, Daga, Dek, Galila, Metrakha, 
Mesle, Kebran, and Rima. Every island except Dek was 
inhabited by monks. The area of the lake is about 1,200 square 
miles ; its greatest length is about 35 miles, and its breadth is 
about the same. It lies among the Abyssinian hills at an altitude 
of nearly 5,000 feet. After passing through a series of channels 

1 In Amharic Bahr Sana TfhC : *f : or HfhC : rf lF : 

2 See Mr. C. Dupuis's Report upon Lake Tsana, published in Egypt, No. 2 



it unites in a " fine broad stream about 200 metres wide." About 
21 miles down-stream, at Agam Deldi, is the old Portuguese 
bridge, " a quaint, half ruinous old structure, very remarkable 
"as being still the only one spanning the Blue Nile in its whole 
" length." ' The narrow gorge crossed by the bridge is a 
striking one, and the Falls of Tis Esat " are really exceedingly 
fine " ; they are at the head of the gorge which is crossed 
by the bridge, and the river descends 150 feet in a single leap, 
into a profound abyss. Abyssinian writers say that the Abai 
surrounds Gojam in such a way that this country is always on 
its right bank, and that it rises in a place called Sekut,- to the 
west of Bagemder and the Lake of Dara (i.e., Lake Sana), and Bed. 
From this place it travels to Amhara, then turns to the west, 
then passes Walaka, and comes to the borders of Mugar and 
Shawa (Shoa), and passing between BizAma and Gonga, it 
descends into the region of Shankela. Finally it enters the 
kingdom of Senar (Sennaar). After this it flows on and receives 
the waters of two great rivers, the Takaze, 1 which comes from 
Tegr6, and the Guangue, 4 which comes from Dembea, and then 
it runs to Dengula (Dongola) and the country of N6bH (Nubia). 
The course of the Blue Nile from Lake Sana to the eastern 
frontier of the Sudan is Dot well known, but it can hardly be less 
in length than 550 miles, and as Sir William Garstin puts 
the distance by river from Khartum to Ruseres at 426 miles, the 
total length of the Blue Nile must be about 1,000 miles. 

From Lake Sana to Famaka, on the Abyssinian frontier, the 
river is called by its Abyssinian name, "'.\i;\v.'" r ' KHR ; or 
Lwl," i\n*E :" but as soon as it enters the Sudan its name 
nes" Bahr al-Azrak," i.e., the " Blue Nile." The Blue Nile 
must have borne the name of " 'Abai " in the time of Strabo, for 
he calls it u Astapos," which is a Graecized compound of ast, or 
asta, " water, river," and 'Adds, the name of the river. 

1 Arrangements are being made to build a bridge from Halfaya to Khartum, 
and I understand that work on the foundations lias actually been begun. 

flYl'l : Ilrill, : 3.TR : 

' D'Abbadie transcribes Wbbay. 

■ The form 'Abawi, ?\ f | < ^ : also occurs. See Pereira, Chronica, Lisbon, 
1900, p. 634. 



The two tributaries of the Blue Nile are the Dinder and the 
Rahad. The Rahad rises in the Abyssinian mountains near 
Lake Sana, and enters the Blue Nile from the east close to Wad 
Madani, 123 miles from Khartum. The Dinder also rises in the 
Abyssinian mountains, and is about 250 miles long ; it flows 
parallel with the Rahad for about 75 miles of its course, and 
enters the Nile from the east, about 40 miles above Wad Madani, 
i.e., about 163 miles from Khartum. The Dinder has been 
navigated in a steamer so far as Dabarki, i.e., 120 miles from 
Khartum, and Mr. Armbruster once steamed up the Rahad to 
Mashra Abid, i.e., 420 miles from Khartum. 1 The principal places 
on the Blue Nile are : — Soba, or Suba, 14 miles from Khartum, 
'Elafiin, 18 miles, Kfimlin, 61 miles, Rufa'a, 94 miles, Masallamia, 
105 miles, Abii Haraz, 117 miles, Wad Madani, 123 miles, 
Sennaar, 213 miles, Runka and Sanga, 266 miles, Karkoj 
(Karkog), 287 miles, Ruseres, 382 miles, Famaka, 434 miles. 
Beyond these are Gebel Fazo'gli, Gebel Kaba, Gebel Abii Ramla, 
and Gebal Beni Shanku.1. 

Between Khartum and the sea the great river, which is now 
called simply " Nile," receives but one tributary, viz., the Atbara, 
the "Astaboras " of classical, and the "Atbara" 2 of Abyssinian 
writers. According to Mr. Dupuis, the river Atbara is formed by 
the confluence of three large streams, the Goang, the Bulwena, 
and the Gandwaha, a little to the south of Kallabat, on the border 
of Abyssinia ; other tributaries are the Salaam River, 3 which 
enters it on the east bank, about 100 miles north of Kallabat, and 
the Setit River, 4 which also enters it on the east bank, a little to 
the north of Tomato. Its tributary, the Royan, joins it four miles 
east of Khor Umbrega. 5 The upper portion of the Setit River is 
called by its old Abyssinian name, "Takaze." 6 A few miles 
north of Khashim al-Girba is the well-known Fasher Ford, 
where the Kallabat-Kasala road crosses the river. The character 

1 See Sir W. Garstin, Egypt, No. 2 (1904) ; Gleichen, op. cit., i., p. 1 13 ff. 
- I.e., ?i."t"n<5. : See Pereira, Chronica de Susenyos, text, p. 204, line 2. 

3 Also known as the Bahi al-Ankareb. 

4 See Baker, Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia, London, 1867, pp. 136, 216, 468, 
499; F. L. James, Wild Tribes of the Sudan, London, 1863, p. 156 ff. 

* Gleichen, op. cit., p. 101. 6 TYl H, : 



of the Atbara is torrential. 1 The rains begin in its upper basin 
in May, in June the "swelling of the springs" takes place, and 
this is followed by the arrival of dirty red water, and by the end 
of this month the flood water reaches the Nile, in years of 
heavy rain in the form of a high wave which literallv drives 
the waters of the Nile over on to the western bank. The 
Atbara flood is at its highest in August. In September the 
river falls rapidly, in October it is fordable in many places, and 
by the end of November it is nearly dried up. The total annual 
discharge is estimated at 20,000,000,000 cubic metres. East of 
the Atbara is the Kash (Gash) River, which rises in the 
Abyssinian mountains, and flows north to Kasala, but a few miles 
to the north of this town it breaks up into channels, and 
disappears entirely. Further is the Baraka River, which rises in 
the Abyssinian mountains, and floods the country about Tdkar 
in the month of August. It should empty itself into the Red Sea, 
but it usually disappears in the desert before it reaches the coast. 
Between Khartum and Aswan there are on the Nile six great 
series of rapids, or ,k Cataracts," s and five of them are in the 
Sudan. The First Cataract lies between Aswan and Philae, and is 
abmit six and a quarter miles long. The Second Cataract is a 
little to the south of Haifa, and its most difficult part is about 
fourteen miles long. The Third Cataract is at Hannek, but 
between Surras and this place are the smaller cataracts of Senina, 
Ambikol, Tangur, 'Ukma, 'Ukasha. Dal, \Ainara, and Khebar. 
The Fourth Cataract is at Adramiya in the Shaikiya country, 250 
miles from Hannek. The Fifth Cataract is at Wadi Al-Hamar. 
Between the Fourth and Fifth Cataracts are numerous small 
Tin Sixth Cataract lies between Shendiand Khartum 
about 194 miles south of Wadi al-l.lamar. and is ten miles long. 
On the Blue Nile there is a series of cataracts which begins at 
Rushes, and extends southwards for some forty miles ; and on 
the Bahr al-Gebel, 140 miles north of Lake Albert, is the series of 
cataracts which is known as the Fola, or Fiila, Rapids.* 

1 S. Baker, Albert Nyansa, pp. 3 ff. ; Dupuis, special note, Ej^ypt, No. 2 
(1904), p. 226. 

- Called by the Arabs " Shallalat,» or " Ganadal." 
3 There are also the Yerbora Rapids, the Gougi Rapids, &c. 



Here Sir William Garstin considers that a demonstration of 
the force and power of water is to be seen ! which is not to be 
witnessed in any other cataract on the Nile. The Rapids begin 
in two or more falls with a drop of some sixteen or twenty feet, and 
a total width of nearly 200 feet. Below the falls the stream rushes 
down a very narrow gorge, with a heavy slope, enclosed between 
vertical walls of rock. This resembles a gigantic mill race, over 
300 feet long. " The water tears through this channel in a glassy, 
" green sheet with an incredible velocity " ; the width of the " gut ' r 

[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

is only about fifty feet, and in places it is less ! At the foot ot 
this race the river leaps into a cauldron about 160 feet long and 
forty feet wide, and fills it with a " boiling mass of white water, 
" lashed into foam. It is difficult, in words, to give even a faint 
" idea of this unique scene ; . . . photographs do not satisfactorily 
" reproduce it. They cannot show the colouring of the picture, 
" or the wild beauty of the scene." On each side are vertical 
walls of rock from twenty to thirty feet high, polished black, and 
covered with masses of vegetation which resemble green velvet. 
1 Egypt, No. 2 (1904), p. 82. 


"The inky blackness of the rocks and the variegated greens of 
"the foliage, contrast vividly with the seething mass of white 
" water, above which the spray is tossed high in the air in a 
" misty cloud. Above all a deep blue sky and a brilliantly clear 
" atmosphere add to the effect of an exceptionally lovely scene" 

The Inundation, or Nile-Flood, is caused, as Aristotle said, 
by the rains which fall during the summer in the mountains of 
Abyssinia and the Sudan, and which are brought down by the gnat 
tributaries of the river, the Bahr al-Ghazal, the Sobat, the Bahr 
az-Zarafa, the Blue Nile, and the Atbara or Atbara. The Sobat 
rises about the middle of April, the Bahr az-Zarafa about the 
middle of May, and the Bahr al-Ghazal begins to fill about the 
same time. Towards the end of the month the Blue Nile i 
and a little later the Atbara ; the Nile-Flood is highest in August. 
The White Nile continues to rise, and does not fall till October, 
when it does so slowly. Between Tawfikiya and Khartum the 
depth of the river varies from fifteen feet at low Nile to twenty- 
one feet in flood ; and its width varies from one and a quarter to 
two miles. The " green water,'' which is seen at Cairo in June, 
appears at Duw§m a month earlier ; its cause is said to be myriads 
of minute algae, which subsequently putrefy and stink. The 
of the arrival of the Flood at the various places down the 
river vary slightly each year. Sir William Garstin has calculated 
the river discharges as follows: — 

1. The Victoria Nile. At the Ripon Falls, between 500 and 

650 cubic metres per second. 

2. The Bahr al-Gebel. At Wadelal, between 550 and 950 

cubic metres per second. At Lad<>, between 600 and 700 
cubic metres per second. The maxima are : 1,000 cubic 
metres per second in a low flood, and 2,000 cubic m< 
per second in a high one. By the time the river reaches 
B6r half the water has been lost, and at the entrance to 
Lake X<". less than half enters the lake. 

3. The Bahr al-Ghazal. At Lake N6 20 to 30 cubic metres 

per second enter the lake during the summer. 

4. The Bahr az-Zarafa. In flood this river contributed to the 

White Nile 80 to 160 cubic metres per second, but in 
summer only from 30 to 60. 


5. TheSobat. In flood time goo to 1,000 cubic metres per second. 

6. The White Nile. At Khartum the greatest discharge in 

flood time is about 1,700 cubic metres per second. 

7. The Blue Nile. At Khartum, in a good flood, between 

10,000 and 12,000 cubic metres per second. 

8. The Atbara. At least 3,000 cubic metres per second. 

A series of calculations and measurements made in 1903 prove 
that the Nile north of the Atbara in flood time consists of very 
little more than the water which is contributed to it by the Blue 


Nile and the Atbara, in fact at this time the White Nile adds very 
little to these streams. During the spring and early summer, 
however, the water which reaches Egypt is supplied principally 
from Lakes Victoria and Albert, via the White Nile. It is 
calculated that about 1,150,000,000 cubic metres of water pass 
Berber in one day during an ordinary flood. 

The course of the Nile in the Sudan. By Article I. of 

the Treaty 1 between the Governments of Great Britain and 

Egypt, the Sudan begins at the 22nd parallel of north latitude, 

and the course of the Nile from this point to Lake Victoria may be 

1 Signed, July 10th, 1899. 

VOL. II. 369 Bb 


briefly described. 1 The mileage is that given by Count Gleichen, 
but it is understood that strict accuracy is not claimed for it. 

The most northerly settlement in the Sudan is on the Island of 
Faras, twenty miles north of Haifa, where there are remains of 
Egyptian, Roman, and Coptic buildings. At Haifa, formerly a 
thriving town, are the head-quarters of the Haifa province, and 
the terminus of the Sudan Railway. Since the opening of the 
Atbara-Red Sea Railway, the greater number of the workshops 
have been removed to Atbara, and the decline of the town has 
begun, for numbers of Greeks have left it. Here was the terminus 
of the railway which ran to Kerma, but as the line did not pay, and 
the rails, which were practically new, were wanted elsewhere, the 
portion of it between Kosha and Kerma has been taken up. On 
the west bank are the remains of a well-built Egyptian temple of 
the XVIIIth Dynasty. 

From the Rock of Abu Sir (seven miles from Haifa) a fine view 

is obtained of the Second Cataract, the foot of which is close by. 

Here the district called Batn al-I.Iagar, i.e.. the k> Stone Belly," 

begins, and a more desolate, dreary country can hardly be 

imagined. It is about 120 miles long; on the east bank are 

nothing but sun-blackened rocks of savage aspect, and on the 

west bank is an interminable waste of yellow sand. In the 

bright sun. and under a blue sky, the blackened and polished 

rocks of the river present a picturesque contrast to the yellow 

sand on the west bank, and the patches of bright 

vegetation on the islands in the stream lend a unique 

picturesqueness to the view. Near Ma'tuka (ten miles) are the 

remains of a temple of the Xllth Dynasty and those of an ancient 

tian town. At Sarras (thirty-three miles) the railway turns 

off into the rocky country of the Eastern Desert. At Gazirat al- 

Malik (forty miles) are the remains of an Egyptian temple of the 

XVIIIth Dynasty, which is built on the site of one erected by 

Usertsen III. of the Xllth Dynasty, and also those of a large 

fortress. At Semna and Kumma(43 miles), perched on the top of 

rocks 400 feet high, are remains of two Egyptian temples of the 

XVIIIth Dynasty. 

; For full details, see Gleichen, op. ti/., i., pp. 23 ft". ; Garstin, Egypt % No. 2 
(1904) ; and Shucair, op. tit., i., pp. 78 ff. 



At Semna, on the west bank, are also the remains, of a temple 
built by the Nubian king Taharqa (Tirhakah) ; the mountain 
beyond is Gebel Barga. The river here flows through a narrow 
channel, which has been eroded by its waters. The scenery is 
wild and grand. The Atiri, Ambikol, Tangur, and 'Ukma Rapids 
occur at miles 50, 57, 72 and 79 respectively. At 'Ukasha 
(85 miles) is another rapid. Here the railway approaches the 

At Dal (98 miles) signs of cultivation begin ; the cataract here 
renders navigation difficult. Near Gebel Firket (105 miles) the 
battle of Firket was fought on July 6th, 1896 ; near here is some 
cultivated land. The hills seen to the east are Gebel Idris and 
Gebel Hamra. Kosha (113 miles) is the head-quarters of a district, 
and from here southwards much cultivated land is seen, and 
large numbers of palms. At Ginnis (115 miles) the battle was 
fought on December 30th, 1885. At 'Amtira (118 miles) are the 
remains of a temple of Rameses II. (west bank), and those of a 
Meroitic temple (east bank). At Sakiyat al-'Abd (127 miles) a 
road starts for the Selima Oasis, fifty-seven miles distant. 

On the Island of Sai, near 'Abri (130 miles), are the remains of 
two or three Egyptian temples, a Coptic church, and a Bosnian 
or Mamluk fortress. Near Kueka (135 miles), on the east bank, 
is Kubba Idris, the tomb of a famous shekh and leader of the 
Murghani doctrine. Suwarda (142 miles) stands among much 
cultivated land, and round about are some very fine trees. On the 
west bank are the remains of the temple of Queen Thi, B.C. 1450, 
commonly called the Temple of Saddenga ; close by is Kubba 
Salim. Near Sulb (Gurgan Tau, 156 miles) are fine remains of 
a temple of Amen-hetep III., husband of Queen Thi. Between 
Suwarda and Sulb is Gebel Dosha, the boundary between Sukkot 
and Mahass. At Tinnara are the remains of a Bosnian fort. At 
Dulgo (191 miles) are the remains of a temple of Seti I., B.C. 1370 ; 
here the railway rejoined the river. Passing the Kagbar, or 
Khebar, Cataract (203 miles) Arduwan Island is reached at mile 
212. Near Hannek (231 miles) is a series of rapids, and there 
are several small islands in the river. A little further on is Kubba 
Abu Fatma (243 miles), and opposite is the Island of Tombos, with 
rock inscriptions of Thothmes I. On this Island is a fortress 



built by Muhammad Wad Tunbul, king of Ark6, and here are the 
tombs of his ancestors. 

At Kerma (246 miles) was the terminus of the railway (201 miles 

from Haifa'. At Qaftr (248 miles) the Dervishes were defeated on 

September 20th, [896. Between mile 252 and mile 272 is Ark6 

Island, which is well cultivated and thickly populated. Two 

colossal Egyptian statues lie here, and in ancient times there must 

been a large town on the island. From Dongola (280 miles), 

or Al 1'rdi. to Merawi the Nile runs through a plain, and in many 

3 the soil is rich and the cultivation abundant. A few miles 

to the south, at Kawa. on the east hank, are the remains of 

a small Egyptian temple, which was discovered and partly 

: by Col. the Hon. J. Colborne in 1885. Near Hannag 

(j<)i miles) is the Fort of Wad Nimir, king of Dongola. 

Ashaha (296 mil the remains of some Muhammadan 

) buildings. Near Sati Bashlr (304 miles) is the 

island whereon the Mahdi is said to have been born. A.t l.Iandak 

(320 miles) is a mosque, which has been built on the ruins of a 

Christian church, ami the ruins of several churches existed h 

few y 

About Ji miles from l.Iandak is the well of Markum, and three 

miles further on is the well of Aswan! : the people visit these 

springs in the summer, and bathe in their waters, and take hot 

sand baths there for an hour at a time. Those who suffer from 

stomach and other internal complaints derive great benefit from 

baths. Dongola al-' r " Old Dongola '' (351 miles), 

is built on a hill on the east hank : here are ruins of a fort and of 

a Christian church, the upper part of which has been turned into 

A town of considerabL -ted here at onetime, 

and it was the capital of the Dongola kingdom for about 600 years. 

The remains of a paved road leading to Merawi have recently been 

discovered. At Abu K 56 miles) the course of the river 

changes to nearly east and west. On Tankasi Island, near Dabba, 

iid to dwell some of the Fung people who migrated thither 

from Sennaar. 

Dabba (37] miles) was formerly a great trade centre, and 
Is for Omdurman and Korddfan. In the 
bourhood much petrified wood is found. Close by, 


Karad, are the remains of some buildings erected by the British 
in 1885. In the course of the next thirty miles several islands, 
fertile and well cultivated, are passed. At Abfl Dom Kashabi 
the Nile bends and runs to the north-east. At Ambikol (413 
miles) cultivation becomes general. Korti (416 miles) was the 
advanced base of the Gordon Relief Expedition in 1885 ; a road 
to Matamma via Gakdiil Wells starts here. Hannak (432 miles) 
was the capital of the Shaikiya Province. On an island between 
Hannek and Korti was born 'Ali Murghani, the son of Muhammad 
'Uthman. Tankasi (441 miles) is famous for its Tuesday weekly 
market, to which throng merchants from Dongola, Berber, and 
Khartum. Close by are the ruins of Hosh al-Ibyad, an old 
Shaikiya town. Abu Dom Sanam and Merawi (447 miles) are 
well cultivated and are most picturesquely situated. Merawi is 
the chief town of a province, and the abode of the Governor. 
The British camped here in 1885, and it was occupied by the 
Frontier Field Force in 1896. A road leads from here to Gakdul 
Wells. Merawi can now be reached by train from Abu Hamed. 
The line was surveyed by Lieut. Newcombe, R.E., in 1904, and 
has its terminus at Karema. On the right bank is Gebel Barkal, 
302 feet high, and at its feet are the ruins of several temples ; 
close by are several pyramids. On the left bank was situated the 
city of Napata, which as early as the XVIIIth Dynasty was the 
capital of the Northern kingdom of the Sudan. 

A few miles up-stream from Merawi is the foot of the Fourth 
Cataract, and from this place to Abu Hamed, 140 miles distant, 
the river is full of rapids which make navigation very difficult. 
After passing Nuri, where there are several pyramids and remains 
of ancient temples, there are no antiquities on either bank. 
Excellent itineraries for the left and right banks, by Major Slade, 
R.A., and Col. the Hon. M. G. Talbot, R.E., respectively, are given 
by Count Gleichen in his Handbook, pp. 38-43. 

Between Abu. Hamed and the Atbara the country on both 
banks of the river is uninteresting ; there is little cultivation, and 
even now the number of the inhabitants is not great As we 
advance south low ranges of sandstone hills appear, and villages 
and patches of cultivation become frequent on the western bank. 
At a little distance back from the east bank the whole country is a 



howling wilderness. Between Berber and the Atbara there is on 
the east hank a fairly broad strip of cultivation, but now that 
Berber is no longer the capital of the district it is probable that 
the general condition of the neighbourhood will become less 
flourishing than formerly. The railway runs on the east bank. 
After leaving Abu Hamed the river is full of rocks for a few miles, 
and navigation is difficult, but when these are passed the water- 
way is clear for about 50 miles. The Fifth Cataract is found near 
the Wadi al-Homar, about 76 miles from Abu Hamed, and at 
low Nile is practically impassable. 

The Atbara River enters the Nile on the east bank, 151 miles 
from Abu Hamed, and 200 miles from Khartum. Between the 
Atbara and Shendi the country is uninteresting, and on each bank 
of the river the strip of cultivable ground is choked with thorn- 
growths and grass. Large patches of cultivation appear on the 
banks close to the river, but even now the natives find it hard to 
make a living. A large portion of the land went out of cultivation 
soon after Muhammad * Ali began to develop the slave trade, and 
during the rule of his successors the bulk of the population either 
fled and turned brigand, or remained on the land and were 
raptured and sold for slaves. The ruin begun by him was 
completed by the Mahdi and the Khalifa. 

About 44 miles south of the Atbara, and 3^ from the Nile, on the 
east bank, is the site of an ancient Meroitic city, which flourished 
between B.C. 300 and a.d. 200. Further to the east are the 
groups of pyramid-tombs under which its kings and queens and 
their families were buried. On or near the site of Shendi, 86 
miles from the Atbara, another large Meroitic city stood, but 
there is no evidence to show that it was the capital of the 
11 Island of Mi \ few miles to the south of Shendi, on the 

west bank, is Matamma. a town of the Ga'alin Arabs, 2,000 of 
whom were slain by the Dervish leader Mahmud in 1897 ; it is 
the terminus of the road across the Bayuda Desert to Korti and 
other places in the Dongola district. About 130 miles from the 
Atbara is the foot of the Sixth Cataract, commonly known as the 
Shabluka Cataract, which is about 10 miles long. Here the Nile 
Hows through a channel about 500 feet wide, which it has 
made for itself in the granite rocks, and in flood time the current 


is said to run at a rate of from seven to ten miles an hour. The 
river is studded with rocks and reefs nearly the whole way to 
Wad Ramla, and the water-way is frequently blocked by small 
islands ; navigation here is very difficult. After Wad Ramla the 
cultivation increases, and every available acre on the islands all 
the way up to Khartum is covered with crops. Four miles 
north of Khartum, on the west bank, is the town of Omdurman, 
and passing Tuti Island the city of Khartum, which is built in 
the angle formed by the junction of the White and Blue Niles, is 
reached. Khartum is 480 miles from Merawi, 927 miles from 
Haifa, and 1,730 miles from Cairo, by river; the distance from 
Khartum to Cairo by railway and river is about 1,360 miles. 

The river between Khartum and Lake No is known as the 
" White Nile." After leaving Khartum the river banks are flat, 
and the country is low and treeless. 1 The river is very shallow, 
and in some places is two miles wide, and the shelving banks 
make landing in boats impossible. Water-fowl and crocodiles 
are numerous, and in a strong wind the wide expanse of water is 
covered with comparatively high waves. Large crops are grown 
on the banks and islands as the river falls. Gebel Auli is passed 
on the east bank 28 miles from Khartum, and Gebel Mandara on 
the west bank at mile 32. At Wad al-Karel (34 miles) the 
river is three miles wide in flood time. At Al-Katena (55 miles) 
there was a settlement in the Christian period ; fragments of 
pottery from this place are in the Museum at Khartum. South 
of Salahiya (59 miles) as far as Duwem, i.e., for 66 miles, the 
banks are low ; on the east the plain is covered with thick brush, 
and a dense growth of mimosa fringes the channel line. The 
scenery is " monotonous and uninteresting." The cultivation is 
chiefly on the islands and fore-shore, which the people water 
with shaditfs ; the natives live in tukls. Near 'Amara (109 miles) 
is the range called Gebel Arashkol ; this mountain is volcanic, 
and its chief peak is Gebel 'Abd ad-Daim. At Ad-Duwem (125 
miles), on the west bank, the river is divided by an island. The 
town contains 7,000 inhabitants, and is a large trading centre, 
with a good market. The transport service for.Al-Obed starts 

1 See Garstin, Egypt, No. 2 (1904), p. 106; Gleichen, op. at., i., pp. 52 ff. ; 
Shucair, op. at., i., pp. 98 ff. 



and the Kordofan gum is brought here for shipment to 
Omdurman. The Governor of the White Nile Province liv< 
Duwem ; the Government buildings, including a hospital, are 
"substantial." Here there is a Nile-gauge, and the river levels 
are recorded daily. A road to Sennaar starts here. 

Five miles to the south is Hassaniya Island. Between 
Duwem and Kawwa (146 miles) the river is about 750 yards wide, 
and in flood it is double this width; at low water it is 13 feet 
deep. Islands are numerous, and the mud flats are very wide. 
At Kawwa a British Inspector resides. It possesses a gum depot, 
a small grain store, and a market ; it is inhabited by the Hassaniya, 
the Ga'alin, and the Danakla, who grow large crops on the mud- 
flats. The natives have much cattle, and thrive by boat-building, 
and the cutting of wood, which they supply to the steamers. 

Aba Island, usually written " Abba," is about 28 miles long ; 
its northern end is near Shawal (163 miles). This island is long 
and narrow, and thickly wooded, and is higher at the southern 
than at the northern end. Here the Mahdi declared his mission. 
and here Sir William Garstin saw the ruins of his house in 
1904. The country is open and high, with scattered bushes and 
mimosa. Kdz Abu Guma (192 miles) is the head-quarters of a 
district of the same name. The telegraph line from Sennaar 
touches tlie White Nile here, and then proceeds southwards. 
The river is from 750 to 950 yards wide here. This place 
marks the limit of the " Sadd " vegetation on the north, and 
there are no swamps, properly so called. Here begins the 
country of tin- Negro, who takes the place of the Arab. 1 

At 'Abl Gadida (200 miles) is a colony of old Sudani 

soldiers. At Abu Z^\ (208 miles), for about 4 miles, the river 
spreads out to an immense width in a broad, shallow sheet. 
Upon its bed " fresh- water oysters " collect, and the broken 
shells form with the shingle a kind of ''conglomerate" almost 
as hard as rock, which nothing but a specially adapted dredger 
could remove. In years of a very low river the water here 
is only 17 inches deep. The papyrus is first seen here, and 
hippopotami begin to be plentiful. At Danko Salim [ny miles), 
[as ran Island, a reef of rocks " runs right across the river 

./., p. 105. 


"channel, and the only method of passing safely at low water is 
" to steer a course like the letter S." Masran Island is 27 miles 
long, and has Shilluk villages on it. 

Gebelen (238 miles) is marked by a sort of amphitheatre of 
granite hills about a mile from the river on the east bank ; the 
highest of the live peaks is about 330 feet high. The country on the 
right bank once belonged to the Dinkas, but it is now uninhabited, 
for the natives fled to the south to escape the slave-raiders. 

For the next 60 miles the scenery is " dreary and monotonous. 
A fringe of thick forest marks the higher land. Between this 

KASHODA (K01)6k). 
[From Sir W. Carotin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

the river winds through reedy islands bordered by the eternal 

belt of swamp" At Gebelen the serut 1 fly first makes its 

appearance ; it is not poisonous, but is very troublesome. At 

Hellet ar-Renk (298 miles) the forest is very thick ; a British 

Inspector lives here. Gebel Ahmad Aghfi (353 miles) is named 

after Ahmad Agha 'Antabli, a former governor of the district. 

This granite hill is about 340 feet high, is hog-backed in shape, 

and is about two miles east of the river. From this place to 

Kaka (391 miles), the country is almost uninhabited ; in the river 

are several islands. At Old Kaka (404 miles) was a wooding 

1 On the effects of the bite of this pest, see Balfour, Second Report of the 
Wellcome Research Laboratories, p. 32. (Published by the Education Depart- 
ment, Khartum, 1906.) 



station. Between KAkA and Fashoda a succession of grass 
islands is met with. On the west bank is a double line of 
Shilluk villages, the one on the edge of the swamp, and the other 
further inland. On the same side of the river are several 
" Khdrs." To land in this reach is impossible, for the marsh is 
very reedy and deep, and nothing but a hippopotamus can force 
its way through it. 

At Fashoda (Kodok, 459 miles) are the head-quarters of the 
province, with telegraph station, Government buildings, &c. 
Position 9 53' long., and 32 1' latitude. Major Marchand occupied 
it in June, 1898, and evacuated it in December of the same year. 
It was formerly an important trade centre. The station is on a 
small peninsula which juts out into the river, and on three of its 
sides is a deep swamp. It has an evil reputation for malarial fever. 
The climate is steamy and damp, and mosquitoes abound. In 
March the temperature ranges from 98 to 105° in the shade. 
At Lul (477 miles) is the Austrian Mission station. 

From this point onwards the scenery is very dreary. The west 
hank is lined with Shilluk villages, each of which is surrounded by 
groups of Dult'b palms [Borassus /Etkiopicus). The serut fly 
drives the natives into the interior during the rainy season ; there 
arc no tires except palms to be seen, hut hippopotami abound 
in the grass islands in the river. Tawfiklya (511 miles), on the 
east bank, is Sir Samuel Baker's old station, and stands on fairly 
high ground. The place is very unhealthy, and the white ants 
erious nuisam 

The Sobal River joins the White Nile at mile 516 : the country 
is flat and open. Near the junction, on the left hank of the Sobat. 
is the old fort, which was abandoned when Tawtikiya was occupied. 
On the north bank of the Sobat, seven miles from its mouth. i> a 
station of the American Protestant Mission. Tonga Island begins 
at mile 521. The klmr which bounds it on the left is the so-called 
River Lolli, or Fanakama ; according to Perthes's map its source is 
in Dar Nuba, hut Sir William Garstin doubts its being a river at 
all. It was partially explored by Marno in 1880 and by Col. 
Sparkes in [899. For the next twenty-five miles the scenery is very 
the banks are low, and beyond the swamps on each 
1 the river are v;ist grass plains. There is not a tree on the 



left bank, and the line of the horizon is only broken by the large 
ant-hills which dot the plain. The Bahr az-Zarafa enters the Nile 
at mile 547, at mile 600 is Maya Signora, 1 and there is nothing to 
be seen but swamps and a treeless plain. The water surface is 
covered with masses of floating " Sadd." Twelve miles further 
on Lake No is reached and the White Nile ends. 

The next portion of the Nile, which extends from Lake No to 
Lake Albert, is called the " Bahr al-Gebel," i.e., " Mountain 
River," or the " Upper Nile." The Upper Nile starts from the 
extreme eastern end of Lake No, and the region of the " Sadd " 
is here entered. " Sadd," a word derived from the Arabic word 
a-, meaning a "barrier" or "obstacle," is the name given to 
the barrier of floating weed which formerly blocked the navigation 
of the river between Shambi and Lake No, i.e., for a distance of 
about 250 miles." The "Sadd" is formed chiefly of papyrus 
and the reed called umm sitf, i.e., "mother of wool;" the 
former grows to a height of from 17 to 20 feet, and the latter from 
3 to 4 feet. These two, with the earth adhering to their roots, 
form the real obstruction. Other swimming plants assist, e.g., 
the Azolla, the Utricularia, the Otellia, and the Ambatch. Masses 
of these plants are broken from their places on the edges of the 
lagoons near the river by the wind during storms, and drift about, 
and in the rainy season when the swamps are full they find their 
way into the channel of the river. They are soon stopped by 
some bend in the river, and the channel is blocked. The masses 
of reed which follow are sucked by the current under the obstacle, 
and eventually " the whole becomes wedged into one solid block, 
" composed partly of earth, and partly of stalks and roots of 
" papyrus and reed, broken up by the extreme compression 
" into an inextricable tangle. So great is the pressure applied by 
"the water that the surface of the block is often forced several 
" metres above the water level." The thickness of the mass varies 
from 3 feet 6 inches to 23 feet ! 

All through the " Sadd " region the scenery is monotonous to a 
degree. Swamps and lagoons extend for miles on each side of 

1 The Signora was Miss Tinne ; see above, p. 313. 

2 See Garstin, Egypt, No. 5 (1899); Egypt, No. 2 (1901) ; and Egypt, No. 2 
(1904) ; and Gleichen, op. cit., Appendix B., p. 299. 



the river, and the marshes are covered with a dense growth of 
water-reeds, including the papyrus. Throughout this whole region, 
more especially between Bor and Lake No, it is extremely rare to 
see any sign of human life. 1 Even the hippopotami appear to 
shun these swamps. There are no birds except a few night 
herons. Fish and crocodiles abound, and at sun-down the 
mosquitoes appear in millions. " The whole region has an aspect 
" <>f desolation beyond the power of words to describe. It must 
11 be seen to be understood."' - Well may Nero's centurions have 
reported unfavourably on the country as a place for Roman con- 
quests ! 

At I.lellet an-Nuer, or Aliab Dok, 139 miles from Lake X<>, on 
the west bank, is " Captain Gage's channel." It was discovered 
by Captain Gage, who followed its course for 40 miles, but was 
then stopped by the " Sadd." The Shambi station, or Ghaba 
Shambi (256 miles) is on the west bank of the Shambi Lagoon, 
about i\ miles from the river, in lat. y° 6' 12" north. It is a 
dreary-looking spot, but is nevertheless the chief Nile post of the 
Bahr al-Ghazal Province, and has a garrison of 25 men.* Near 
Abu Kuka (293 miles) the papyrus swamps cease, the western 
forest approaches the river, and the banks are dry. The village 
is invisible from the river. 

At Kanisa (304 miles), i.e., " the church." a station of the 
Austrian Mission was placed; it was abandoned in 1864 on 
unt of the deadly effect of the climate on the Fathers. Mere 
the forest is very thick. Between Kanisa and Lake Powendael 
( ; 44 miles) the country is desolate-looking and monotonous. 
This lake contains many small islands and is full of hippo- 

\ miles) is a collection of Dinka villages, which are well 
kept, neat, and clean. The huts are circular in shape, are 
plastered with mud. and have conical thatched roofs. Each has 
;i small door, through which the inhabitants crawl. The people 

'jGarstin, Egypt % No. 2 1904), p. 98. 

-' The positions of the nineteen Blocks into which Major 1'eake di\idecl the 
'• Sadd" in this region are shown in Sir W. Garstin's map {Egypt, No. 2 (1901), 
plates 2 and 3), and their distances from Lake No are given by Count Gleichen, 
/., p. 73. 
leich'n, of>. cit. y \ 

■Mi ^^L ^^H 


WtKFjL^T \mwm\m\\r^mm*mmt. JmW Jmmkf^l 

&v p iff .^Br y ^* »J . 


[From a photograph by Miss Hilda Burrows. 


seem to be comfortable and contented, and they have large herds 
of cattle. x\t Bor the character of the marshes changes, and 
grasses take the place of papyrus and ambatch The Dem, or 
camp, of the Dervish leader Arabi Dafa'a Allah, is visible at mile 
390. A few miles further south the scenery much resembles that 
of the Blue Nile; the forest is close to the river, the banks are 
high, and there is a profusion of creepers and undergrowth. 
About mile 410 the Bari tukls take the place of the Dinka 

[From Sir W. G.irstin's Rcfiirt, by per mission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

huts, and the difference is at once visible. Further on the west 
bank is inhabited by the Aliab tribe, a cross between the Baris 
and Dinkas. Near the site of the Anglo-Egyptian station of 
Kiro (456 miles) the river scenery is tine, and " luxuriant tropical 
" vegetation abounds. Giant Euphorbia area marked feature of 
" the forest. The whole of the banks and most of the trees are 
" covered with a velvety-looking mass of creepers. A bluff, three 
"to four metres high, projects into the stream. . . . The face of 
" this cliff is perforated by myriads of holes made by a very beauti- 
" ful and tiny species of bee-eater. These birds have rose-coloured 
• 381 


" wings, with bronze-coloured bodies. They add much to the 
•• beauty of a lovely scene." ' 

Kim (the Belgian station). 460 miles from Lake N6, is the 
most northerly station of the " Lad<> Enclave; " it stands on the 
bank in lat. 5° u' or 5 13' north. It is a picturesque-looking 
place, surrounded by forest, in which there are some fine 1 
The bank, which is from 17 to 20 feet high, suffers from erosion, 
and pieces of it are frequently falling into the river. The huts are 

nil'. i;ahr ai lDO. 

Sir \Y. < larstin's Rei 

well laid out and neatly built. The cantonment is surrounded by 
aw- ickade, in which Krupp guns are mounted. The 

commandant's house is a good one. and has a thatched roof and 
a deep verandah. On an island in the river vegetables and paw* 
paw 1 grown, otherwise there appears t<> be no cultivation. 

When Sir William Garstin visited Klrd it p I a small 

mer, the Van Kerckhoven, called after the leader of the 
Congo Expedition in [889, and several steel sailing boats. 
The steamer was brought from the west coast in sections. The 

1 Garstin, Egypt^ No. 2 (1904), y. 

§ I 

■ i — > 


garrison is recruited from the negro tribes round about. In two 
years the Belgians lost nine Europeans and 300 natives from fever. 
In 1905 some difficulty arose between Great Britain and the 
Congo Free State with respect to the territory on the Upper Nile. 
On May 8tb, 1906, "an arrangement was signed by Sir Edward 
" Grey and Baron van Eetvelde, at Brussels, which stipulates that 
" the lease of 1894 of the Bahr-el-Ghazal shall be cancelled except 
" so far as regards the Lado enclave, which remains leased to King 
"Leopold during his reign under the present conditions. The 

[From Sir \V. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

arrangement further provides for the construction of a railway 
from Lado to the Congo States frontier, the interest being 
guaranteed by the Egyptian Treasury ; the establishment of a 
commercial port at the railway terminus ; free navigation on the 
Upper Nile for Congo and Belgian steamers ; and free transit of 
passengers and merchandise over the territories of the Egyptian 
Sudan. Finally it is agreed that any differences as to the 
delimitation of the frontier which may henceforth arise between 
Great Britain and the Congo State shall be submitted to the 
Hague Tribunal" {Times, May 9, 1906). 



Mongalla (474 miles) is the most southerly post of the Sud&n 
Government on the Nile; it stands on the east bank, and is 
garrisoned by two companies. There Is a Nile-gauge here. The 
I has been cleared away, and huts for the men and houses 
for the officials have been built. Two miles further on is Shekh 
Lado's bouse. The natives of this part of the country belong to 
the Bari tribe, but they are few in number. Lado (495 miles 
the west bank of the river, in hit. 5 1' 33" north, was at one time 
the capital of the Equatorial Provinces of Egypt, and here Emin 
Pasha lived and governed. The houses are built of brick, and 
have conical thatched roofs; some of them rest on brick arches, 
which permit the air to pass beneath them. It is a desolate- 
looking spot, surrounded by a flat plain covered with bush. It is 
swampy in places. Food for the troops has to be brought from a 
long dist:: 

South of Lad6 the river winds its way between vast marshes, 
the banks are low, and the area of the country flooded is very 
P ipyr . and ambatch abound. There are numerous 

islands and channels in the river. 

504 miles) is the north frontii mda 

Protectorate ; it is on the east bank, and Gordon placed it in lat. 
4 51 rth, andl< LSt. The station stands on 

a high cliff from 18 to 20 feet above the water. Here were the 
church and houses of the Austrian Mission, but these have now 
disappeared, and the erosion caused by the* river threatens t< 
away the whole cliff. The huts for the garrison are built of 
bamboo and straw, and the house of the Collector and his staff is 
of brick, with a thatched roof. Here Sir Samuel Baker founded 
\n " Ismailiya," with a garrison of 1,500 men ; the remains 
of his lines are still to be seen, and a description of them is 
published by Count Gleichen in his Handbook (i., p. 

About eight miles above Gondokoro is Gebel Regg&f, i.e., 
" Earthquake Hill ; " it stands on the west bank, not far from the 
river, and is about 350 feet high. This hill is a perfect cone, and 
its name suggests that it was a volcano. 1 To the north of the 
hill is the Belgian station of Reggaf, with its neat houses and 

1 The Arabic root <-*», m the earth. 

i jj^R 

> • i 

«" r 

* ,1 

? 1 

v, 1 

• VI 









: . 

k -^"mL 



1 * 

. ; •..■ 

"*•.. / 

f mm 






[From a photograph by Miss Hilda Burrows. 


thatched roofs and verandahs. 1 There are no trees, and the 
country all round is open and bare of bush. Four miles up-stream 
the Kit River enters the Nile on the east bank; it rises in the 
Lumoga Mountains in lat. 3 53' north. About twenty-two miles 
from Gondokoro is Fort Berkeley, a collection of straw huts. 
Here the river is divided into three channels. Here is the north 
end of the Bedden Rapids. About mile 45 the Nile flows 
between two granite hills, each nearly 400 feet high. On the 
slopes of the western hill was the old fort of Kiri. Between 


[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 
The original photograph is by G. Butcher, Esq. 

miles 50 and 62 are the Gougi Rapids, and a little further on 
are the Yerbora Rapids. Near the northern end of these was 
Emin Pasha's fort Muggi. At mile 75 the Umi enters the 
Nile on the east bank ; it is the boundary between the countries 
of Madi and Bari. Five miles on, on the west bank, is Emin's 
fort of Labori. At mile 95 the north end of Gebel Kurdu is 
seen on the west bank : this range is fully ten miles long, and some 
of its peaks are 350 feet high. 

1 Garstin, Egypt, No. 2 (1904), P- 9°- 
VOL. II. 385 C C 


About mile ioo the Asua, or Assua, River joins the Nile on the 
east bank. The Asua rises in lat. 2 20' north, in the Suk 
Mountains, and is about 170 miles long. The scenery here is 
beautiful. Between this place and Nimuli are the Fola Rapids. 
which have been already described. On the left bank are the Kuku 
Mountains. At Nimuli (116 miles) is a garrison of two companies 
of Sudani soldiers, each under a British officer. The country IS 
generally high and Hat. The military station is about half a mile 
from the river, and behind it to the north-east are the Arju hills. 
Here the river runs between high banks, and in a series of rapids. 
About mile i_m, on the west bank, is the Belgian station of 
Duiili, lat. 3 34' 35" north, and Ion-. east. Here is a 

collection of thatched houses within an enclosure. The armament 
consists of Krupp guns. Dufili is a dreary spot, is very unhealthy, 
and black-water fever is -aid to be prevalent. At mile 193, and 
40 miles from Lake Albert, is Wadclai, which is situated on a 
rounded hill on the east bank. An English collector and a 
medical officer are stationed here, and their houses and the 

tal are on the top of the hill. It is an unhealthy and ! 
stricken place. From the hill fine views may be obtained, and to 
the south the Rubi Lake and the Albert N van/a mountains are 
visible. On the east the country is of a "park-like char, 
"with grassy glades, alternating with open 1 m the w< 

a bush-covered plain. The channel of the Nile is only about 450 
vide here, and the river rushes along with a high velocity 
I >ufill and MagungO the rivers Achwa and Tangi join the 
Nile on the east bank. About mile 233 Magungo is reached, and 
the I'ahr al-Gebel, or Upper Nile, may for all practical 
purr* tal to begin. Magungo is about 747 miles from Lake 

I miles bom Khartum. 

Between Lake Albert and Lake Victoria the river is known as 
the " Victoria Nile.*' or the " Somerset River," and this section 
of it is about 255 miles long. The scenery for the first fifteen 
miles i> in place- very lovely. About mile 23 is the villa 
i o, where formerly caravan S crossed the river by a i 
A little above it are the Murchison Falls, and a mile or two 
on is the Island m. About mile 38 an- the Karuma 

Falls, and at mi. . which -tands 1,060 111 



above the sea. This village is a large one ; opposite to it the 
Lenga River enters the Nile. Near Mruli, mile 116, lat. i° 39' 
north, and on the right bank of the Kafu River, was Gordon's 
Fort. The Kafu rises in lat. i° north, and is about seventy- 
five miles long ; its tributaries are the Dubengi, the Lugogo, 
and the Maanja. At mile 124 Lake Choga is reached, and the 
river flows through it for more than fifty miles, on the west side. 
This lake is situated between lat. i° and 2° north, and long. 32 15' 
and 33 30' east ; it is joined at its south-east end by the 
Gogonio and Sensiwa Rivers. At mile 180 the Choga Lake is 
left. At mile 205 is Kakoji, and between this village and the 
Owen Falls at mile 243 there are falls and rapids all the way. 
About five miles further on are the Ripon Falls, over which the 
Nile flows out of Lake Victoria. As the Victoria Nile is about 
250 miles long, and the Upper Nile is 747 miles long, and the 
White Nile 612 miles long, and the Nile between Khartum and 
Cairo is about 1730 miles long, it is clear that the Ripon Falls 
are 3>339 miles from Cairo. If to this we add 130 miles for the 
length of one of the two great arms of the Nile from Cairo to the 
sea, the length of the Nile from the point where it leaves Lake 
Victoria to the sea is about 3,469 miles. Those who regard the 
Kagera River, which enters Lake Victoria at its southern end, 
as the true source of the Nile, add to these figures the length 
of Lake Victoria, 250 miles, and the length of the Kagera River, 
including that of one of its tributaries, the Akanyaru, which rises 
in lat. 2° 55' south, and then say that the Nile is 4,000 miles long. 
Sir William Garstin, however, does not regard the Kagera as 
the source of the Nile, but Lake Victoria itself; we must there- 
fore consider the length of the Nile to be not 4,000 miles, but 
about 3,469 miles. 

Since the above paragraphs were written the Survey Depart- 
ment of Egypt has published a masterly treatise on the Nile, 
entitled The Physiography of the River Nile and its Basin, by 
Captain H. G. Lyons, R.E., the Director-General of the Survey 
'Department. In this work the Nile Basin is discussed as a 
whole, and the general lines of its geology, climate, and hydro- 
graphy, which together comprise its physiography, are treated 
scientifically for the first time. Throughout the volume are 



given many maps, plans, tables, &c, which illustrate and 
explain the letterpress of the various sections, and all the in- 
formation given embraces the most recent results obtained by 
Captain Lyons and his staff, and by private investigators and 
travellers. Captain Lyons shows clearly how important it is 
that the Nile should be treated from the geographical as well as 
from the utilitarian point of view, and he is obviously correct in 
his conclusion that the study of the Nile geography is of the 
greatest value for all who are engaged in practical irrigation 
work. Want of space prevents our summarizing here many of 
the results given in this valuable supplement to Sir William 
Garstin's famous Report, but the following facts and figures are of 
general interest, and will be useful to many. 

The area of the Nile Basin is about 2,900,000 square kilometres. 
The areas of Catchment Basins are : — 



Lake Victoria . . . . 

Lakes Albert and Albert Edward and 

Semliki River 
Victoria Nile .... 
Bafrr al-Gebel and Bahr al-Zarafa 
B-ihr al-Ghazfil 
Sobat River 
White Nile 
Blue Nile . 
Nile . 

238,900 9 2 5 2 43 

54,100 20,889 

75,600 29,190 

190700 73>632 

552,100 213,175 

244,900 94 5 56o 

353,550 136,492 

331,500 u/,99& 

220,700 85,216 

605,600 1,832 

Nile ... ... 2,867,650 1,107,227 

Table of Distances on the River Nile. 
pla< distance 

Victoria Nile — miles. 


Ripon Falls, 


Ripon Falls 
Foweira . 
Murchison Falls 
Albert Lake 

40 40 

,s 4 I 24 

47 170 

48 218 






Bahr el-Jebel — 

Bahr el-Jebel entrance 

Wadelai . 


Asua River 

Fort Berkeley 



Mongalla . 

Bor . 


Ghaba Shambe 

Hellet Nuer 

White Nile — 
Lake No . 
Taufikia . 
Khartoum . 

Nile — 
. Shendi 
Atbara River 
Abu Hamed 
Dongola . 
Wadi Haifa 

Delta Barrage 
Rosetta mouth 

Total length of Nile 



Ripon Falls 

































































473 miles. 



II. The Country of the Egyptian Sudan. 

The Egyptian Sudan is bounded on the north by the 22nd 
parallel of latitude, on the south by the Lfido Enclave and by 
Uganda, which extends to the 5th parallel of north latitude, on the 
east by the Red Sea, Eritrea, and Abyssinia, and on the west by 
the French Congo and Wadai. The Lado Enclave is leased to H.M. 
Leopold II., King of the Belgians. 1 The area of the Egyptian 
Sudan is generally estimated at 1,000,000 square miles. The 
population at the present time is said to be 2,000,000, but this 
estimate is a very general one. Before the Dervish rule, i.e., 
about 1880, Sir Reginald Wingate believes the population to have 
been about 8,525,000, but between that period and the year 1899 
3,451,000 persons are said to have died of disease, and 3,203,000 
to have been killed in external or internal war, and in 190 ; he 
estimated the population to be 1,875,500 persons. 2 The Dervish 
policy was to wipe out the tribes which refused to swear allegiance 
to Mahdiism, and in this way whole districts were depopulated. 
Thus, prior to 1882, the district comprising the banks of the 
Rahad and Dinder Rivers contained upwards of 800 villages : in 
1901 not a village remained there. Small-pox alone decimated 
the population, and wholesale butcheries like that of the BaUahin, 
which Slatin PAshA describes, and like that of the Ga'alin at 
Matamma, account for the disappearance of thousands of men. 

The principal Rivers of the Sudan have already been 
enumerated in the preceding section on the Niles. On these the 
very life of Egypt and the Sttdan depends, and the manner in 
which Nature provides the Valley of the Nik; with water during 
the winter and summer is marvellous. The White Nile collects 
the waters of the Upper Nil'.', Hahr al-Gha/Al, l>ahr az-Zarfifa, 
and the Sobat, and thus produces a regular supply the whole year 
round. The Blue Nile and the Atbara collect the waters which 
rush down from the Abyssinian mountains as the result of the 
summer rains, and pour them into the Nile in such quantities that 
Mile Flood, or Inundation, is produced. They bring with 
them the scourings of forests and an enormous mass of mud, 
which has after several thousands of years formed the cultivable 

1 The text of the treaty is given by Count Gleichen, Handbook, ii., p. 286. 
ypt, No. 1 (1904), p. 79. 



land on the river banks between Khartum and the Mediterranean 

The Nubian Desert. On the east of the Nile the country 
between the river and the Red Sea so far south as the Atbara is 
practically a bare and stony desert. There are, however, many 
places in it where rain collects and permits the tribes to produce 
limited crops. From the Atbara south there is a good deal of 
cultivation, and many districts are very fertile. This is due to 
the water which falls as rain, and to the rivers which rise in the 
mountains which lie in Abyssinian territory, beyond the eastern 
frontier of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. On the west of the Nile 
the Sudan includes the southern part of the Libyan Desert and 
the Bayuda Desert. In places these deserts are seamed by 
ranges of low hills, which sometimes have peaks of considerable 
height, but the highest mountains in the Sudan are those of 
Gebel Marra, which lie on the 13th parallel of north latitude, 
to the south-v/est of Al-Fasher, in Dar Fur. Nearer to the 
White Nile are the Nuba Mountains, among which may be 
mentioned Gebel Abu Sinun, Gebel Dego, Gebel Kon, Gebel Abu 
Dom, Gebel Tebun, Gebel Kudr, Gebel Kadero, Gebel Takala, 
Gebel Gadir, Gebel Gurun, Gebel Morung, Gebel Werna, Gebel 
Tekem, &c. In the western desert are a few Oases, e.g., 1. the 
Oasis of Selima, which lies on the Arba'in Road, about 78 miles 
south of the Oasis of Shabb, 55 miles west of Sakiet al-'Abd, and 120 
miles south-west of Haifa. It was visited by Mr. James Currie, 
Director of the Gordon College, in 1901, who examined the ancient 
remains there, and by Captain H. Hodgson in February, 1903, 
who estimated that there were 2,000 date trees there. 1 2. The 
Oasis of Tundubi, 171 miles from Dongola. 2 3. The Oasis of 
Lagia Kabir, 166 miles from Dongola. 3 4. The Oasis of Bir 
Sultan, 283 miles from Dongola. 4 Here natron is found in a 
seam of from half an inch to two inches thick. Horns of the 
oryx and addax are found here in large numbers, and Captain 
Hodgson assumes that from time immemorial these were the tools 
which the natives employed in digging out the natron. 5. The 

1 Gleichen, op. cit., vol. i., p. 203. 2 Ibid., vol. ii., p. 170. 

3 Ibid., vol. ii., p. 168. 4 Ibid., p. 171. 



Oasis of Tura. This oasis is, according to Count Gleichen, 
situated about 150 miles south of the Oasis of Lagia. 

These and the other small oases have formed the chief factor in 
determining the routes of caravans across the desert, and it is 
tolerably safe to assume that travellers in all ages have journeyed 
by the same main routes because of the water and shade which the 
oases afforded. In a few places in the desert pools of water or 
Wills exist ; some of them have been formed in the first instance 
by Nature, and others by artificial means. The best known wells 
are those of Uhmir, Unkat, Tarafawl, and Nugim, between 

Aswan and Berber; the Wells of Murrat, between Abfi Hamad 
and Korosko; the Wells of Handub, Awtaw, Hambuk, Dassa- 
bal, Haratarl, Kukreb, Aryab, and Albak, between Sawakin and 
Berber; the Wells of Magh&gha, Gakdul, and Abfi Tleh, between 
Korti and Matamma; the Seventy Wells in the Bayuda 
Desert, between Ambikdl and the Sixth Cataract; the Wells of 
Gabra, about 100 in number, between Dabba and Omdurman : 
the Wells of Kagmar Safiya, Zaba'l, Shutter, and Mahtul, between 
()he(l and Dabba; and the Wells of Umm Badr and 4 Ain Ham id, 
en Fasher and Dongola. 1 

1 See Shucair, op. dt. y L, pp. 22, 23 ; and Gleichen, Op. (it., Lndcx 
• Wells." 


For administrative purposes the Egyptian Sudan is divided into 
Eight First Class Provinces and Five Second Class ; 
each Province has a chief town, and is divided into a number of 
Districts, as follows : — 

First Class Provinces. 1 
i. Khartum Province. 2 Its chief town is Khartum, and its 
Districts are Khartum, Omdurman, and Wad Ramla. The town 
of Khartum was founded between the years 1820 and 1824 by the 


[From a photograph by R. Tiirstig, Esq. 

sons of Muhammad 'All, and it stands on the angle of land 
between the junction of the White and Blue Niles, and nearly at 
the end of the left bank of the Blue Nile ; it is 1,253 feet above 
the Mediterranean. The obvious meaning of the name, as I 
pointed out years ago, is the "trunk of an elephant," and the 
shape of the land near probably suggested the name " Khartum " to 
the Arabs who first applied it to the town ; but, on the other hand, 

1 For the old arrangement of provinces, see Shucair, op. tit., i., pp. 69-72. 

2 For the boundaries of the provinces, see Gleichen, op. tit., i., pp. 335 ff., 
and for the list of the tribes which inhabit them, see pages 273 ff., and 322 ff. 



" Khartum " may be the Arabic translation of an older name 
meaning the same thing, just as " Elephantine," the name which 
the Greeks gave to the island and town of Aswan, is a translation 
of its ancient Egyptian name "Abu." If the name Khartum means 
" elephant's trunk," 1 the correct transliteration is " Khurtum " 
and not " Khartum." The town of Khartum which has sprung up 
underthe rule of the British is built on the site of Muhammad ' All's 
town, and this in its turn stood on the site of an older settlement ; 
it is certain that a town existed here when the kingdom of Soba 
flourished, and we may assume that one always stood here. 
Khartum is the capital of the Egyptian Sudan, and the seat of the 
Government. It is connected by a chain ferry with Halfaya, or 
Khartum North, and with Omdurman by steamers which run at 
regular intervals. A little to the west of the railway terminus, on the 
opposite bank, is the Palace, built by Lord Kitchener on the site 
of the old Government Palace ; to the south of its fine garden is a 
statue of General Gordon, and in the garden itself is a large stone 
Ram of Amen which was brought from the ruins of Soba, about 12 
miles up the Blue Nile, on the east bank. Close by are the War 
Office and other Government buildings, the Post and Telegraph 
Office, the Office of Works, the British Barracks, and at the west 
end of the town arc the Zoological Garcl« istwards arc Slatin 

lVislnVs house, the Sudan Club, the Egyptian Officers' Mess, &c, 
and further up the river on the same bank is the Gordon College. 
A large mosque has been built in the south-western quarter of the 
town, the foundation stone of which was laid on September 17th, 
1900. The Copts are building a church, and it is to be hoped that 
the British will soon build a church which for size and dignity 
shall be a worthy symbol of the Christian religion, and of the 
dominant power in the land. 

The normal garrison consists of one battalion of British Infantry, 

three battalions of Infantry of the Egyptian Army, and forces of 

Iry and Artillery.- In rebuilding the town the British have 

been careful to provide for the construction of wide avenues, planted 

>. ed B. de Mi-ynard and P. de Courteille, toni. ii., p. 21, line 7. 
It is possible that the allusion is to the tusks of the elephant, for r y»> also 
means the tushes of a boar or the long teeth of any animal. 

e (ileichen, op. a'/., i.. pp. 3 and 49. It is understood that the garrison is 
to be increa 


[From a photograph by Miss Hilda Burrows. 


with trees, and all houses and other buildings have been erected on 
plans which have been approved by the authorities. The hottest 
months of the year are April, May, and June, and the cool and 
pleasant season begins about November 15th, and ends early in 
March. The population at the present time is nearly 10,000, but it 
is increasing rapidly, and in a few years will be very considerable. 
The District of Omdurman, more correctly " Umm Darman," 
lies on the west bank of the Nile, about five miles from Khartum. 
It takes its name from a little hamlet which stood just above the 
sandy bank of the river to the south end of the modern town of 


[From a photograph by R. Tiirstig, Esq. 

Omdurman, and which was frequented by Arab merchants, who 
arranged their wares there before they crossed over to Khartum. 
This hamlet existed for a considerable number of years, and is 
said by some to have been called " Omdurman," i.e., " mother of 
dannan;' because a thicket of darmdn trees stood behind it; 1 if 
this be so, the trees must have been cut down by the inhabitants 
for firewood. Omdurman was occupied by the Mahdi on 
January 5th, 1885, and he lived there with all his followers for a 
few months afterwards. After his death the Khalifa 'Abd-Allah 
built a great Kubba over his tomb, and made Omdurman the 
1 On the other hand " Umm Darman " is a name given by the Arabs to the 



capital, giving it the name " Bak'a al-Mahdi," i.e., the " Province 
of the Mahdi." Then he allowed his followers to build houses for 
themselves, and eventually Omdurman became a town six miles 
long, and nearly three wide, and containing nearly 400,000 
inhabitants. The Khalifa then built a house of two storeys for him- 
self close to the Mahdi's tomb, and also a large bazaar, wherein all 
kinds of Egyptian, Indian, and Yaman work could be brought. His 
so-called mosque, or " hSsa,' 1 was merely a large rectangular piece of 
land surrounded by a wall built of red, i.e., burnt, bricks ; it was 460 
yards long, and 350 yards wide, and had four doors. He set 
apart in the town a place which was called " Bet al-Amana," i.e., 
house of safe-keeping, or store-house, and he built the prison, of 
which such terrible stories are told in Slatin Pasha's Fire and Sword, 
and Ohrwalder's Ten Years' Captivity. The Khalifa's sanitary 
arrangements were very primitive, and he allowed the people to 
fill the town with cess-pits, which Count Gleichen thinks were 
responsible for the disease of cerebro-spinal meningitis that was at 
one time so common in the town. The population is now about 
46,000, and the garrison consists of two battalions of Infantry, 
and they have two Maxims. 

1. Sennaar Province. The chief town is Sanga, and its six 
Districts are Sennaar, Sanga, Abu Na'ama, Binder (Abu Hashim), 
Ruseres, and Par Fung. Sanga was founded by 'Abd-AUah wad 
al- Hasan about nineteen years ago. It stands on the left bank of 
Blue Nile, and is about 266 mile? from Khartum. Sennaar 
was the capital of the Fung dynasty of kings, who flourished from 
the beginning of the fifteenth to the beginning of the nineteenth 
century. Its position as a trade centre has been taken by Wad 
Madani, which has a population of 14,000, and stands on the left 
bank of the Nile, [23 miles from Khartum. Wad Madani was 
founded by a religious teacher called Madani, about a.d. 1800. 
The capital of the district of Dot Fung was formerly Gule, but it is 
now*Keili, where the "Mek,"or local chief, resides. Its inhabitants, 
the Ingassar\a, use boomerangs in hunting wild animals, and they 
have many curious and primitive customs. Their country is not 
well known. 

3. Kokdoi an PROVINCE. The chief town of Kordofan is Al- 
Obed, and its eight Districts are Ob&d, Bara, Khurshi (Umm 



Damm), Tayyara, Nahud, Tandik, Dilling, and Talodi. This 
province lies between the White Nile and the eastern boundary of 
Dar Fur, and in its northern part the tribes which breed camels live. 
In the south are the Nuba hills, and " some of the views of the 
"hills looking over masses of forest are really beautiful" (Gleichen, 
i- ^Z)- The elephant, giraffe, and antelope abound, the trees are 
filled with birds and monkeys, and snakes are said to be common. 
Dotted over the country are several mountains, or hills, and the 
province contains four principal lakes. The inhabitants obtain 
their water from rain, from the lakes and smaller pools of water, 
and from the famous tabaldi trees. These trees are naturally 
hollow, and vary in diameter from 10 to 25 feet, and the portion 
in which the water is stored — some are filled by the rain running 
into them along the branches, and others artificially — is often 
20 feet high. The chief products of the province are gum, cattle, 
and ivory. When the British occupied the country in 1898 the 
whole region was found to have been laid waste by the Khalifa, 
and of some of the most important towns it was difficult even to 
trace the ruins ! " Everywhere the destruction was wanton and 
complete." The only inhabitants who defied the Mahdiists 
successfully were the Nubas, who retreated to their hills, and 
were able to defend their villages with walls. The inhabitants are 
Nubas and Arabs, and among the latter are the camel-breeders 
and the cattle-breeders, i.e., the Bakkara, who are undoubtedly 
the descendants of the terrible " Menti " (" Cattle-men ") of the 
Egyptian inscriptions. Al-Ob£d, or Al-Ubayyad, the capital of 
the Province, is in lat. 13 11' north and long. 30 14' east, and 
Count Gleichen estimates that it contains about 10,000 people. It 
is 268 miles from Khartum, to which town its gum is carried via 
Duwem on the White Nile by a regular transport service. Al- 
Obed was besieged by the Mahdi for six months, and fell on 
January 17th, 1883. Nahud, the chief town of a District of this 
name, lies 165 miles to the west of Al-Obed, and is on the great 
trade route from Dar Fur, the eastern boundary of which forms 
the western boundary of Kordofan. 

Dar Fur is one of a line of ancient kingdoms running across 
Africa, which, according to Sir Reginald Wingate, 1 may be thus 
1 Mahdiism y p. 8. 


enumerated : Senegambia, Bambara. Massina, Gando, Sokoto, 
Bornu, Bagirmi, Waddai, DAr Fur. Sennaar, and Abyssinia. A 
line of Sultans reigned over Dar Fur from the early part of the 
fifteenth to the middle of the nineteenth century, several of them, 
apparently, being of Arab origin, and their territory extended so 
far to the east as the Atbara River. About 1740, however, the 
Fung kings, whose capital was at Sennaar, occupied all the coun- 
try between the Blue and White Niles, and defeated the people 
of Dar Fur in several engagements. Some 25 years later the 
Fungs crossed the White Nile and seized the province of 
Kordofan, but they only held it for a few years, and eventually 
they were driven back across the river. At the close of the 
eighteenth century Dar Fur was visited by Mr. W. G. Browne, 
one of whose objects was to travel southwards to discover the 
true source of the Nile, for lit' was convinced that the Blue Nile. 
whose source Bruce had discovered, was not the true Nile. Mr. 
Browne lived in Dar Fur for nearly three years (1792-1795), and 
his shrewd observations on the manners and customs of the 
people are singularly instructive and interesting. 1 

Soon after 1820 Dar Fur was conquered by Muhammad Bey 

Defterdar, the son-in-law of Muhammad 'AH. whose infamous 

cruelties have been described by Mr. Petherick. In 1874 Dar Fur 

itself was conquered by Xubi'-r Pfisha <>n behalf of the Khedive of 

Egypt, and was annexed to Egypt. The limits of the present 

province are given by Gleichen (i. 184) as lat. io° and 16 north, 

and long. 22 and 27° 30' east, and its ruler is the Sultan 'Ali 

Dinar, who pays an annual tribute to the Sudan Government.. 

The capital of Dar Fur is AL-FiSHER, which took the place of 

" Cobbe,' 1 as Mr. Browne writes the name, at the end 

of tin 1 seventeenth century. It is 388 miles from Obed, and 650 

miles from Khartum. The province produces dJiurra, millet, 

cotton, onions, simsim (sesame), cucumbers, pumpkins, &c, and 

ttives occupy themselves with the breeding of camels, horses, 

cattle, sheep, goats. &c, Salt is made at certain places, and the 

• s of Gebel Marrado formerly worked iron on a small scale. 

The Arabs of Dar Fur, Le., men of Arab descent, are Muhamma- 

. and the Negroes are pagans. 

1 See Travels in Africa, 2nd Edition. London, 1806. 


[From a photograph by Miss Hilda Burrows. 


4. The Fashoda Province, now known as Kodok, or the 
" Upper Nile Province." It extends from Gebelen in the north to 
parallel 5 north ; on the west it is bounded by the eastern 
frontier of Kordofan and the Bahr al-Gebel, and on the east by 
the western and southern boundaries of Sennaar and the western 
border of Abyssinia down to the Uganda frontier. The principal 
town of the province is Kodok, and its four Districts are Renk, 
Kodok, Tawfikiya and Sobat. Mongalla was formerly a District 
in this province, but on January 1st, 1906, it was formed into a 
separate province. 

5. The Bahr al-Ghazal Province. 1 It is bounded on the 
north by Kordofan and Dar Fur, on the south by the frontier of 
the Lado Enclave and a portion of the Congo-Nile water-shed, 
on the east by the Bahr al-Gebel, and on the west by the French 
frontier. Its chief town is Waw, and its three Districts are Waw, 
Dem Zuber, and Awrambek (Rumbek). The province in its 
lower portions is well watered, as may be seen from the large 
number of rivers which are in it." The products are ivory, a 
species of fig, the lulu or " Sudan date," timber and honey, and 
iron is found everywhere in large quantities. Owing to the abun- 
dance of fuel in the Province the natives, i.e., the Gurs and 
the Bongos, find no difficulty in smelting iron in small quan- 
tities, and it is they who have supplied the iron hoes which 
have been used in the country for untold generations. The 
principal inhabitants are Dinkas, Gurs, Bongos, Golos, Ndoggos, 
and Kreich in the north, the Niam-Niams in the south, the 
Mittu, Wira, and Madi tribes in the east, and the Mandalla tribes 
in the west. 3 

6. The Kasala Province. 4 Its principal town is Kasala, and 
its three Districts are Kasala, Kadaref, and Kallabat. The town 

1 For the history of the province since it declared in favour of the Mahdi in 
1882, see Gleichen, op. tit., I, p. 259 ff. 

2 I.e., the Adda, Akoli, Bahr al-Arab, Bahr al-Ghazal, Bahr al-Homr, Biri, 
Bo, Boru, Bolako, Bongo, Buri, Chel, Duma, Gell, Ibba, jur (Gur) or Sueh, 
Kir, Leisi, Lau or Dole, Merridi, Naam, Mulmul, Ragaa, Rikki, Rodi, Shaliko, 
Siri, Sunni, Tong, and Waw. 

3 Gleichen, op. a'/., i., p. 159. 

4 For the boundaries, see Gleichen, op. a'/., i., p. 336 ; and for the amended 
boundary, see the Sudan Gazette, No. 86, p. 415. 



of Kasala is, with one exception, 1 the only permanent town in the 
Sudan east of the Atbara. It stands on the right bank of the 
Kash (Gash) River, 1735 feet above the sea, and is 15 miles west of 
Sabderat on the Abyssinian frontier. Three miles to the east and 
south-east respectively are Gebel Mokran and Gebel Kasala, the 
highest parts of the latter being 2,600 feet above the town. The local 
shekh is Sayyid 'Ali al-Murghani, but his brother Sayyid Ahmad 
acts for him. The total population of the town and district was 
estimated in 1904 at 46,000. As the rainfall is little, the people 
obtain most of their water from wells, which yield an abundant 
supply. Between June and October the country swarms with the 
smit fly. The game found in the country between the Atbara and 
the Eritraean frontier is thus enumerated by Count Gleichen : 
Elephant, rhinoceros, buffalo, giraffe, roan-antelope, kudu, 
waterbuck, tora, hartebeeste, ibex, wild sheep (?), bushbuck, 
roebuck, Abyssinian duiker, oribi, dig-dig, and the following 
gazelles : Sommering's, Dorcas, Heuglin's, Isabella, and possibly 
Rufifrons; also hippopotamus, crocodile, turtle, wart-hog, pig, wild 
ass, lion, leopard, cheetah, serval ; also various civet and wild cats, 
hares, wild dogs, baboons, and monkeys ; ostrich, bustard, guinea- 
fowl, francolin, sand-grouse, geese, snipe, wild fowl, and quail. 

Kadaref District has an area of about 11,000 square miles, and 
its inhabitants numbered 25,000 in 1904. It suffered greatly under 
the rule of the Dervishes, but was seized in 1898 by Colonel 
Parsons, who defeated its Dervish governor Ahmad Fadil after a 
hard fight. The population of the town of Kadaref was in 1904 
about 5,500. A British Inspector lives here for more than half 
the year, and the town is furnished with a detachment of Sudani 
troops from Kasala. Kallabat District has an area of about 12,000 
square miles, most of which is covered by forests. The town of 
Kallabat is on the left bank of the River Abnaheir, a few miles 
from the Atbara. It was sacked by the Dervishes in 1886, and 
here in 1889, towards the close of a terrible battle, King John of 
Abyssinia was killed. His death was the means of turning the 
victory of the Abyssinians into a defeat, and the Dervishes con- 

1 I.e., Adarama on the Atbara, 78 miles above the junction of this river with 
the Nile. Capt. A. C. Parker reports a native tradition which says that the 
Kash has an exit in the Atbara near Adarama. 



tinued to be masters of the town until December, 1898, when 
Colonel Collinson hoisted the British and Egyptian flags. The 
inhabitants of the district and town are chiefly Takruris from 
Dar Fur, and in 1904 they numbered about 3,800. 

7. The Berber Province. 1 Its chief town is Damar, 2 and its 
four Districts are Rubatab, Berber Town, Berber District, and 
Shendi. The town of Berber 8 is a collection of mud huts, and 
stands on the east bank of the Nile, about 30 miles to the north 
of the Atbara ; it formerly belonged to the kingdom of Sennaar, 
and its inhabitants submitted to Isma'il Pasha, one of Muhammad 
'All's sons, without striking a blow. On May 26th, 1884, the town 
was captured by the Dervishes, who made it one of their strong- 
holds, and its possession made them masters of the routes to Aswan, 
(245 miles), Sawakin (242 niles), and Masaw'a (543 miles) ; it was 
evacuated by them after the fall of Abu Hamed, and occupied by 
Lord Kitchener on September 6th, 1897. It was formerly the 
capital of the Berber Province, and a very important place, in spite 
of the dust storms, which at times made life there well-nigh un- 
bearable. 4 Damar, the new capital of the Province, was a seat 
of learning in Burckhardt's days {Travels, p. 266), and was 
occupied by natives of Arab descent. Its governor was " Al-Faki 
al-Kabir," i.e., the "Great Faki," or chief religious teacher of all 
the learned men there. He was reputed to possess supernatural 
power and knowledge, and was the final arbiter and judge in all 
disputes. On one occasion he caused the flesh of a lamb to bleat 
in the stomach of a man who had stolen it ! There were several 
schools here in which young men from all parts of the Sudan 
studied the Kur'an and the Commentaries on it, and Muham- 
madan Law, and theological philosophy ; there was also a well-built 
mosque here. The great Faki lived in a small building, to which 
a chapel was attached. The natives traded with Dongola and 
Berber, and they made a kind of cotton stuff in the town, and 
mats of the dum palm leaves. Burckhardt saw here ostrich eggs 

1 For its boundaries, seeGleichen, op. cit., i. 335. 

2 The capital of the province was formerly Berber Town. 

3 Shucair, i., p. 88, reports a native tradition which derives the name of the 
town from " Barbara," a former queen ! 

4 For a description of the manners and customs of the people of Berber, see 
the interesting section in Burckhardt, Travels, p. 215 ff. 

VOL. II. 401 D d 


and feathers, and wooden bowls used as ornaments on the walls 
of the houses, which had mats on the floor. A large trade is 
done in mats at Damar at the present time, and it is rapidly 
becoming an important trade centre. 

The town of Shendi is said to have been atone time the largest 
in the Eastern Sudan, and at present, though its population only 
numbers about 500, it bids fair to become a very important place. 
It is the residence of a British Inspector and of a Ma'amur, or 
native Governor, and forms the head-quarters of four squadrons of 
■tian Cavalry, and of one field battery. There are large railway 
workshops here, and the railway station is a fine one. In the 
evening, when the north and south expresses are in, and the station 
is lit up by the electric light and crow tied with natives of all kinds, 
it presents an animated and interesting scene, and one which 
many a traveller must be surprised to find in the Sudan some 
1,300 miles from Cairo. Little is known of the history of Shendi 
in the earliest times, but in or near the site of the modern town 
a large city must have stood at the time when the pyramids near 
As-Sur and Bagrawiya were built, between B.C. 500 and a.d. 200. 
The evidence derived from the reliefs in the chapels of these 
pyramids and from the sculptures on the columns of the temples 
at Nagaa shows that the Island of Meroe, or at all events that 
portion of it in which Shendi stands, was ruled by a succession of 
queens; each, according to Pliny, bore the title of " Candace." 

The sculptures represent them as fine, large women, with bold 
features, and an extraordinary girth of body and development of 
hips. Whether or not these large-bodied queens were natives 
of the Island of Meroe cannot be said, but it seems as if they were, 
for Shendi and its neighbourhood have always enjoyed the repu- 
tation of producing beautiful women. Their large dimensions, 
no doubt produced by artificial means, and to this 
day abnormally fat women are appreciated in many parts of 
Africa. Speke tells us that when he was in Karague he went to 
visit Wazezeru, the elder brother of king Rumanika, whom he 
found sitting side by side with his chief wife, with numerous 
wooden pots of milk in front of them. Of his wife he says: "I 
struck with no small surprise at the extraordinary dimen- 
" sions, yet pleasing beauty, of the immoderately fat fair one by 



" his side. She could not rise, and so large were her arms that, 
" between the joints, the flesh hung down like large loose-stuffed 
" puddings." On asking why his host had so many milk-pots 
there, Wazezeru pointed to his wife, and said, " This is all the 
" product of these pots : from early youth upward we keep those 
" pots to their mouths, as it is the fashion at court to have very 
" fat wives." ! Speke also called on one of the sisters-in-law of 
Rumanika, and he found her " unable to stand except on all 
fours." He wished to obtain a good view of her, and to measure 
her, and he gives her dimensions thus : Round the arm, i ft. n in. ; 
chest, 4 ft. 4 in. ; thigh, 2 ft. 7 in. ; calf, 1 ft. 8 in. ; height, 5 ft. 8 in. 
" Meanwhile, the daughter, a lass of sixteen, sat stark-naked be- 
" fore us, sucking at a milk-pot, on which the father kept her at 
" work by holding a rod in his hand, for as fattening is the first 
" duty of fashionable life, it must be duly enforced by the rod if 
''necessary." 2 Dr. G. Schweinfurth gives a picture 3 of a Bongo 
woman of this class, and says that the thighs of some of the women 
of the tribe are "as large as a man's chest, and their measure- 
" ment across the hips can hardly fail to recall the picture in 
Cuvier's Atlas of the now famous ' Hottentot Venus.' ' : These he 
saw day after day, and he thinks they may well demand to be 
technically described as " Steatopyga." 4 

Some of these women wore long switch tails of bast, which 
contributed to their singular appearance. 5 Women of such form 
were known and appreciated among the ancient Egyptians, as 
may be seen from figures and models in the British Museum.* 
The portrait of the Queen of Punt, reproduced by Mariette, 7 also 
proves that the Egyptians knew of the existence of steatopygous 
women in other parts of Africa. Speke tells us that the specimens 
which he saw were produced by a superabundant diet of milk, 

1 Speke, Journal of Discovery, Dent's reprint, p. 172. 

2 Ibid., p. 189. 3 Heart of Africa, vol. ii., p. 121. 

4 The whole subject of Steatopygy is discussed, with illustrations, bv Dr. 
H. Ploss in Das Weib, vol. i., pp. 202 ff. 

5 Heart of Africa, vol. i., p. 295. . 

6 See the marble figure, No. 173 5 the ivory figure, No. 42 (Table-case L) ; 
dolls, Nos. 25, 26 and 33, in Case C; and No. 22906, in Case 192 (Third and 
Fourth Egyptian Rooms). 

7 Deir al-Bahari, plate 13, Leipzic, 1877. 



and it is said in the Sudan at the present time that women are 
fattened by feeding them on milk in which a certain herb is steeped. 
According to Bruce, who was in Shendl ir October, 1772, the 
queen of the place, or " Sittina" as he calls her, 1 was a beautiful 
woman, and he describes her as being " scarcely forty, taller than 
"the middle size, with a very round, plump face, rather large 
" mouth, very red lips, and the finest eyes and teeth he had ever 
"seen. She wore a cap of solid gold on her head, hung round 
" with sequins, and about her neck were gold chains, solitaires. 
" and necklaces of the same metal. Her hair in ten or twelve 
41 plaits hung down to her waist, and her shoulders and arms were 
" hare : her dress was a common white garment and a purple silk 
" stole, or scarf. She wore heavy bracelets and anklets of gold." 
It is only fair to say that Cailliaud made inquiries about this lady 
at Shendl, but could hear nothing of her, and it is clear from his 
narrative that he regarded as fictitious both the lady and Bruce's 
conversation with her! 1 In connection with Shendi, mention 
must be made of the two brave women, FAtma, the mother <>t 
'Uthman al-Morgh&ni of Kasala, and her daughter Nefisa, who 
resisted the Dervish Amir of Shendi, Ahmad Hamza, for months, 
and tried to keep the inhabitants loyal to the Government. (See 
Win gate. Malidiism, p. 162.) 

In 1N14 Jmrckhardt passed a month in Shendi and collecl 
number of very important facts about the manners and customs 
of its inhabitants, its trade, &c. ; these were published in his 
Travels (pp. 277-361), and from his narrative the following facts 
are derived. The town contains from 800 to 1,000 houses, some 
of which had courts 20 ft. square with high walls. The Mek. or 
rnor, was called Ximr, i.e., the "Tiger," who was akin to 
;mg tribes that lived near their capital, Sennaar ; he was 
subject to the king of Sennaar, but up to a point his power was 
absolute. He imposed no tax on the merchants. Burckhardt 
described (pp. 224 and 280) the inhabitants as "people of frolic, 
" folly, and levity, avaricious, treacherous and malicious, ignorant 
" and base, and full of wickedness and lechery.*' They were shep- 
herds, traders and husbandmen, who produced d hurra, millet, 

1 Travels, vol. vi., p. 448 (Edinburgh, 1813). 

I he stoiy is not doubted by Burckhardt. 


wheat, water-melons and cucumbers. The cattle were very fine. 
Tigers, ariel, and ostriches were common in the neighbourhood. 
Crocodiles were numerous, and horses more numerous than at 
Berber. A market was held daily, and a large one once a week. 
Cows and camels were slaughtered daily for food, and milk, both 
fresh and sour, was brought in by the desert girls in the morning. 
Tobacco came from Sennaar and was freely indulged in, and snuff 
was much used. The chemists and druggists sold cloves, pepper, 
cardamoms, tamarinds, 1 sandal-wood, helba (a tonic), Libdn gum, 


gum arabic, shishm (for the eyes), antimony, kerf a bark (for fever), 
tamar al-barr (a digestive), &c. The trades were represented by 
sandal-makers, leather workers, blacksmiths, silversmiths, car- 
penters, and potters. Imported articles were the senbil perfume, 
the mahlab condiment, soap, sugar, blue cambric, white cotton 
stuffs with red borders, blue-striped cloth, English calico, stuffs 
from Lyons and Florence, linen, sheepskins, beads of all kinds, 
coral, real and imitation, paper, pewter, copper, brassware, 
razors, files, thimbles, scissors, needles, nails, steels, sword-blades, 
tar, silver trinkets, bells, looking-glasses, &c. A caravan from 
1 From the Arabic tamar Hindi, i.e., the " Indian date." 


Sennaar bringing d hurra, dammur cloth, slaves, and gold arrived 
every six»weeks. Gold came from Ras al-Fil, four days' journey 
from Sennaar; at Sennaar it was worth 12 dollars an ounce, at 
Shendl 16, at Sawakin 20, and at Jidda 22. The shuts were 
chief!) Nubas. Other imports were ivory, rhinoceros horns, ebony, 
coffee, leather, leather water-flasks, shields made of giraffe and 
rhinoceros skin, honey, water-skins made of ox-hide, ostrich 
feathers, dates, and tobacco, and female slaves from Mahass. 

Slaves were divided into three classes, those under ten years of 
age, those under fifteen, and those who were full grown. A boy 
of the second class was worth 15 or 16 dollars, and a girl from 
20 to 25 ; a boy of the first class was worth 12 and a girl 15 
dollars, and a full-grown man not more than 8 or 10 dollars. 
Tin- Nuba slaves were considered to be the healthiest and to have 
the best disposition ; of the western Negroes the Banda were 
most esteemed. As soon as a slave was purchased, he was cir- 
cumcised and given a Muhammadan name. Eunuchs were made 
;it Zawiyet ad-I)er, near Asyut in Upper Egypt, and this revolting 
trade was carried on chiefly by Coptic Christians, who were 
protected by the Government, to whom they paid an annual tax. 
The deaths resulting from the operation were rarely more than 
2 per cent. A youth ' who had been treated was worth 1,000 
piastres at Asyut (about £10), and 250 were treated annually. 
Among the slave girls who arrived at Shendl and Asyut were 
ral who, by reason of an operation ! which had been performed 
upon them, probably by the merchants, were called in Arabic 
" Mukhayyat" i.e., " consutae." Girls in this state were worth 

1 " Puer, corpora depresso, a robustis quibusdam hominibus, super 1 

netur. Tunc emasculator, vinculis s< ne illitis, genitalia compri- 

'• mit, et cum cultro tonsorio (dum puer pro dolore animo deficit) quam celerrime 
ndit Ad hemorhagiam sistendam plagam pulvereet arena calida adurunt, 
"et post aliquot dies calido oleo inungunt. Dein vulnus cum emplastro aliquo, 
'• quod inter Coptos arcanum est, per quadra ginta spatium dierum donee 
" -lutinetur curatur. Numqu 1111 decelotomia sub hoc coelo audivi." ( Burckhardt, 
Travels, p. 330.) 

- Browne < Travels, p. 347) says : " Mini contigit Digram quandam puellam, 
"qui hanc operationem subierat, inspicere. Labia pudendi acu et filo con- 
"suta mihi plana detecte fuere, foramine angusto in meatum urii 
•■ Apud Esne, Siout, et Cairo, tonsores sunt, qui obstructionem novacula 
'• amovent, sed vulnus baud raro lethale evenit/ 



more than those who were not. The daughters of the 'Ababda and 
Ja'afara Arabs, from Thebes to Sennaar, underwent excision, a 
fact which is also recorded by Strabo (koI ra d-qXea eicTenveiv). 1 
The treatment of slaves was kind, they were well-fed, not over- 
worked, rarely flogged, and kindly spoken to ; this was always 
the case in the town, but in the desert the disobedient slave often 
felt the whip. The male slave of indifferent character was tied to 
a long pole, one end of which was fastened to a camel's saddle, and 
in the other, which was forked, was placed the slave's neck, tied 
with a strong cord ; his right hand also was fastened to the pole. 
Thus he marched the whole day behind the camel, and at night 
he was put in irons. Finally, Burckhardt says, " Slavery, in the 
" East, has little dreadful in it but the name ; it is only by the 
" Turkish soldiers that slaves are ill-treated." 

In 1822 Isma'il Pasha, son of Muhammad 'Alt, was treacherously 
burned to death, whilst he was eating his dinner, by Nimr of 
Shendi; in revenge Muhammad the Defterdar destroyed the town, 
and massacred nearly all its inhabitants. 

8. The Dongola Province. Its chief town is Merawi, and its 
six Districts are Arko, Khandak, Dongola Al-tTrdi, Dabba, Korti, 
and Merawi. This Province lies to the west of Berber, and takes 
in the northern part of the great bend of the Nile. Merawi is a 
few miles below the foot of the Fourth Cataract, and is the 
residence of a Governor. 

Second Class Provinces. 

1. The Gazira Province. Its chief town is Wad Madani, 
and its six Districts are Wad Madani, Abu Dulek, Kamlin, 
Rufa'a, Masallamiya, and Managil. 

1 On this Burckhardt remarks (p. 332) : " Cicatrix, post excisionem clitoridis, 
" parietes ipsos vaginae, foramine parvo relicto, inter se glutinat. Cum tempus 
" nuptiarum adveniat, membranum, a qua vagina clauditur, coram pluribus pro- 
" nubis inciditur, sponso ipso adjuvante. Interdum evenit ut operationem efficere 
" nequeant, sine ope mulieris aliquae expertae, quae, scalpello partes in vagina 
" proiundius rescindit. Maritus crastina die cum uxore plerumque habitat ; 
" undie ilia Araborum sententia, ' Lelat ad-dukhla mithl lelat al-futuh,' i.e., post 
"diem aperturae, dies initus. Ex hoc consuetudine fit ut sponsus nunquam 

* decipiatur, et ex hoc fit ut in Aegypto Superiori innuptae repulsare lascivias 
" hominum parum student, dicentes, ' Tabusni wala takharkani.' Sed quantum 

* eis sit invita haec continentia, post matrimonium demonstrant, libidini quarn 

* maxime indulgentes." 

n «o; 


2. The White Nile Province. Its chief town is Duwem, and 
its four Districts are Duwem, Katena, Kawa, and Gadid. 

3. The Red Sea Province. Its chief town is " old " Sawakin, 
and it has a District of the same name. The town of Sawakin is 
built partly on an island, and partly on a portion of the mainland 
which is called Al-Kef ; ' these are joined by a road which is 
known as " Gordon's Gate and Causeway." The harbour is on 
the east side of the town. The place was originally colonized 


[From a photograph by ( '.. 1 ■'.. M 

by Arabs from Hadr al-Mut (which name has been corrupted 
into " Hadramout ") in southern Arabia ; some say they arrived 
there about a.d. 1800, and others say soon after the great spread 
of Islam. For a description of the town about 100 years ago,, 
see Burckhardt's Travels, p. 431 ; and for one of the modern 
town, see Gleichen, Handbook, pp. 94, 95. Now that the 
terminus of the Atbara-Red Sea Railway has been made at 

1 IJurckhardt, Travels, p. 431. 

Filigree work Matchbox, 



Amulet Case. 


Shekh Mersa Barghut, 1 or " New Sawakin," the importance of 
Saw&kin is certain to decline. This place is thirty-six miles north 
of Sawakin, and is called after a certain Mersa, whose tomb 
stands on the northern point of the entrance to the harbour. 
Tokar, the chief town of the Tokar District, is situated at the 
mouth of the Khor Baraka, fifty-six miles south of Sawakin. 
4. The Mongalla Province. Its chief town is Mongalla 


[From a photograph by G. E. Mason, Esq. 

The boundaries of this Province are set out in the Sudan Gazette, 
January 1st, 1906, No. 86, p. 413. 

5. The Halfa Province. Its chief town is Halfa, and its 
three Districts are Haifa, Mahass (Dulgo), and Sukkot (Kosha). 
The province of Haifa extends from Faras Island (lat. 22 10' 
north) to Abu Fatma, near Kerma, and in 1904 its population 
was 30,800. The term Haifa comprises Haifa Town and the 
" Camp " ; the former being nearly two miles to the north of the 
latter. Haifa is the terminus of the Khartum and Kosha lines, 

1 More correctly Burghuth, <±>£> ; the word means "flea." 


and contained large workshops, some of which have now been 
removed to Atbara Junction. Close by are the old fortifications, 
the barracks, the Sirdariya, &c. 

MINERALS in the Sudan. For several thousand; of years the 
Sudan has been famous as a GOLD-producing country, and almost 
every ridge or vein of quartz shows signs of having been worked 


LFrom a photograph by Lieutenant P. Lord, K 

or less some time or other. To this day. if a native finds a 
of quartz, he is not satisfied until he has broken it to see if 
is any gold inside it. The richest gold-producing districts 
formerly in the region which lies to the south and south-west 
of Lake Sana and Beni Shankul. A considerable quantity of 
alluvial gold was found in the khors or beds of streams here. 



Cailliaud says 1 that in his day the purest gold was found at 
Kamamil, 2 and that the less pure gold, which was of a yellowish- 
green colour, was mixed with silver. The market for gold from 
this neighbourhood was Sennaar, and hence it was called " Sennaar 
gold." A certain amount of gold was also found in Gebel Nuba, 
e.g., at Gebel Tlra and Gebel Shebun, to the west of Gebel Kadir. 
Large quantities of gold must also have been found in the region 


^^j^^ i^N^PgM 

'. L i&e£U£ 

•iliiil **• . a 

*!ftr^«SP ■ r 

m Rf*6^L*iS l 


[From a photograph by G. E. Mason, Esq. 

called " Atbai," which lies between the 26th and 20th parallels of 
north latitude, and which is bounded on the west by the Nile from 
Kena to Haifa, and on the east by the Red Sea. The southern 
portion of this region belongs to the Sudan, and is inhabited 
by the Bisharin and Amarar tribes ; there are no towns or villages 
in the whole district. 

At one period of its history, gold-mining must have been carried 
on in this region on a large scale, for at Deraheb, about 208 miles 

1 Voyage, iii., p. 19. 

- The pillar on which the names of the blessed in heaven will be cut is, 
according to Abyssinian writers, made of "red gold," i.e., pure gold. 


from No. 6 Station on the Haifa-Abu Hamed Railway, Colonel 
the Hon. M. G. Talbot, R.E., found 1 on the right bank of Wadi 
Kamotit " a number of ruined stone houses arranged in streets, 
" and covering three or four acres. They are built in stone and 
M mud, but a few arches in lime are to be seen." Here also are a 
ruined castle of stone set in mud, with two or three pointed arches 
set in lime, and another building of nearly equal size in plan, and 
the ruins of a number of houses and shelters, on the left bank. 

Here we have clearly the remains of a miner's colony, with the 
governor's house* A narrow-gauge railway has been constructed 
from No. 6 Station to Umm Nabadi, and mining work is now 
being carried on there, it is said with great success. Another 
great centre for gold-mining was the Wadi 'Ulaki, which is entered 
near Dakka, on the east bank of the Nile. COPPER is found at 
I.Iufrat an-Xahas, in the north-west ofthe Bahr al-Ghazal Province, 
and in the mountains near Sawakin and in the Peninsula of Sinai ; 
none ofthe mines have been properly worked yet. Iron is found 
in Par Fur, Kordoffm, and Bahr al-Ghazfd, and in some places the 
ore is so rich that it contains nearly 50 per cent, of the pure metal. 
Fuel is plentiful in these places, and the natives smelt the ore in 
small clay furnaces. A great deal of iron is found mixed with the 
sand in the river beds south of Sennaar. Lead is obtained in 
small quantities from Gebel Kutum, to the west of Kobi in D&r 
Fur. Antimony comes from Gebel Marra. A deposit of 
LIGNITE lias been found on the west bank of the river near 
1 tongola, and a Company has decided to make trial borings on the 
east bank, and has sent out a diamond drill for the purpose. 
Lignite has also been found at Chelga in Abyssinia, and in the 
Peninsula of Sinai. Natron occurs in large quantities at Bir 
Xatrun on the Arba'in Road. Salt is found on the Atbara, at 
Sharshar mar Bara, in the Oasis of Selima, and in the Wadi 
Ka'ab, to the west of Dongola. Of Alum there is a large deposit 
in the Oasis of Shabb, i.e., the "Alum Oasis." 

The Inhabitants of THE Sn>.\N. The history ofthe various 
peoples and tribes who have inhabited the Nile Valley during the 
past ten thousand years is a subject of great difficulty, and general 

c the route described in Gleichen, op. cit., ii., pp. 1-5. Gleichen (i. p. 87) 
the number of houses at 500. 



agreement among ethnographers, even as regards its main facts, 
is not to be expected for some time to come. The traditions 
which the present inhabitants of the Sudan possess concerning 
their ancestry cannot be accepted implicitly, and all their racial 
characteristics are not so clearly differentiated that hard-and-fast 
conclusions on all points can be arrived at. The oldest evidence 
on the subject, is, of course, that which is derived from the 
monuments, and tombs, and writings of the ancient Egyptians, 
and this is usefully supplemented by that found in the works of 
Greek, Roman, and Muhammadan writers. The ancient Egyptian 
evidence proves that in the earliest times two kinds of people 
inhabited the Nile Valley between the Great Lakes and Middle 
Egypt, and that both these were included under the general name 
" Nehesu," i.e., " Blacks." One of these peoples possessed the 
chief characteristics of the Negro, i.e., thick lips, wool for hair, 
&c, and the other, though black-skinned, lacked them. The 
Negro people lived probably in the region which stretched from 
the southern parts of the district now called Dar Fur and 
Kordofan to the Equator, and formed the remote ancestors of the 
great belt of Black nations which stretched right across Africa 
from the modern Senegambia to Abyssinia. 

The people who were brown or black-skinned, but not Negroes, 
lived in the regions to the north of the Negro country, and they 
must at one time have occupied parts of Egypt so far north as 
Asyut, if not farther. It goes without saying that from the 
earliest times these two black peoples must have mixed and inter- 
married, and it is probable that the nomadic instincts of both, 
which were in reality the result of their incessant quest for food, 
and trade, led them at regular intervals into each other's country. 
The physical conditions under which they lived cannot have been 
very different from what they were during the past century, and, 
during the historic period, and that immediately preceding it, 
there must have been frequent intercourse between the southern 
and northern portions of the Nile Valley. The Negroes were 
then, as now, pagans or heathen, that is to say, their magic, which 
was probably of a low kind, had not developed into religion, and 
there is no doubt that many of the features of the religion of the 
Egyptians whose writings are in hieroglyphics were derived from 



the Negro Magic of Central Africa. The description written under 
the Dynastic Period of King Unas, who slew, cut up, boiled, and 
ate his gods, who violated the dead bodies of his enemies in a 
shameful manner, who carried off men's wives whensoever the fancy 
took him, better suits that of a successful warrior and slave-raider 
in Central Africa than that of a king of Egypt, who was buried 
with all the religious pomp and ritual which were practised in 
Egypt under the Vth Dynasty. The black-skinned or brown non- 
Negro people had then, of course, many customs in common with 
the Nitrous, but it is clear from the Pyramid texts that in the 
reign of Pepi I. they worshipped a god called Tetun, and that 
they had. some kind of a religion. Down to the Roman Period 
the Egyptians worshipped the bull, Osiris himself being the 
" Bull of Amentet," and, if we may believe the reports of the 
travellers 1 quoted by Professor Wiedemann, 2 the king of the 
crocodiles was, at the end of the eighteenth century, believed to 
live at Armant, eight miles south of Thebes, and a gigantic 
crocodile was held in veneration at Khartum in the reign of 
Muhammad 'All ! 

Many facts go to show the persistence of Negro influence on 
the beliefs, and manners and customs of the Dynastic Egyptians, 
and the most important thing of all in connection with this is 
the tradition which makes them to come from the land of Punt. 
It is unnecessary here to review all the theories which have been 
put forward by various scholars as to the position of this country, 
and we may accept without any misgiving the opinion of 
Professor Maspero and of Professor Naville, both of whom believe 
that it was situated in Africa, at a considerable distance to the 
south-east and south of Egypt. It could be approached by 
sailing down the Red Sea, and entering a certain port on the 
African co;ist, and it could also be reached by land, via the 
□ and Southern Abyssinia. The products of the country as 
enumerated in the inscriptions of the great Queen Hatshepset 
>t that Africa was their source, and that the particular 

1 Sieber, Beschreibendes VetzeUhniss % Vienna, 1820, p. 59; Piickler, Aus 
Reich, iii., p. 250. 
telques Remarques sur U Culie des Animaux en Hgypte t Muse'on, vi. 2, 

pp. 113-128. 



region whence they came was in some part of the south-eastern 
Sudan, or a neighbouring country. 

There is no reason for assuming that the Egyptians knew of 
two countries of Punt, or that the Punt of the XVIIIth was 
different from that of the IVth Dynasty ; we must therefore 
think that the " spice-land " of Punt was the home of one of the 
peoples who were the ancestors of the Dynastic Egyptians. The 
influence of their Punt ancestors shows itself in many ways, 
especially in the matter of their long, plaited beards, and the 
animals' tails which hung down behind from their girdles, and 
their head-dresses. 1 Some think that the men of Punt were 
Semites, but the evidence for this view seems unsatisfactory, and 
is, in many cases, insufficient. It is, of course, possible that a 
number of Semites entered Egypt by way of Punt, but, if this 
were so, we should have found traces of their Semitic speech in 
the early hieroglyphic inscriptions. All things considered, it 
seems tolerably certain that the men of Punt, who influenced the 
manners, customs, and beliefs of the people in the Nile Valley 
were of African origin ; but how, or when, or why they acquired 
the superior qualities which enabled them to do this cannot at 
present be said. 

The Egyptians under the XVIIIth Dynasty divided the world 
as known to them at that time into four parts, which were 
peopled by — i. Reth, or Ret (older, Remt) ; 2. Thehennu ; 
3. Aamu ; 4. Nehesu. The first people, the Ret, i.e., " Men," 
were the Egyptians themselves. The Thehennu were the Libyans ? 
the Aamu were the people on the east of the Nile, and probably 
included the Nomads of Sinai and Southern Syria, and the 
Nehesu were the Blacks. The Egyptians claimed to be of divine 
origin, their primitive home being the "divine land," or the "land 
of the spirits," i.e., Punt. The Thehennu lived to the west of the 
Nile, and their territory stretched away to the south, so far 
probably as Kordofan and Dar Fur ; from the way in which their 
name is written it seems as if they were regarded by the Egyp- 
tians as " the foreigners who brought scent, spices, and gum." 

1 See the description of the curious green stone objects of the Archaic 
Period published by Mr. F. Legge in the Proceedings of the Society oj Biblical 
Archaeology for June, 1900. 



Tlu' Aamu appear to have been looked upon as the "animal- 
men," i.e., hunters of wild animals and shepherds. From the 
above facts it is clear that the Egyptians were not scientific 
ethnographers, but their classification of the peoples of the world 
as known to them is useful, especially as it represents a very old 

From the evidence of the Egyptian monuments we are justified 
in assuming that before the beginning of the Dynastic Period, the 
Nile Valley was inhabited by negroes, and by a brown or black- 
skinned people who are represented by the modern Nubians of 
Sukkot and Mahass, and the Nubas of Kordofan, and that these 
mingled and intermarried with the desert inhabitants on the 
east and west banks of the Nile. Then came a time when the 
country north of the First Cataract was invaded by a people who 
entered Egypt from the East, and who brought with them a high 
order of civilization, the art of writing, superior methods of 
agriculture, and a certain knowledge of arts and crafts. These 
conquered the natives, and their rulers founded a kingdom in 
Egypt, and with the union of the power of the kings of the South 
and North Egyptian Dynastic history begins. These new kings 
of All Egypt, having established their kingdom, soon found it 
necessary to take steps to reduce to submission the dwellers in 
the Eastern and Western Deserts and the Blacks, and from the 
time of king Seneferu, B.C. 3700, to the reign of Rameses II., 
about B.C. 1330, the Egyptian texts are, at intervals, filled with 
accounts of slave-raids into the Sudan, nearly all of which are of a 
more or less bloody character, and of conquests of Ta-Kenset, 
Uauat (Wawat), Kash (or Kesh), and Khent Hen-nefer, i.e., of 
the Nile Valley, from Aswan to the Bahr al-Ghazal. Among the 
peoples of this region were two who were regarded as especially 
brave, ferocious, and terrible, namely, the Anti, or " Hill-men," 
who lived in the Eastern Desert, and the Menti, or " Cattle- 
men," who lived in the Western Desert. 

The Hill-men were fine, tall, strong men, mighty hunters and 

ed to the use of the bow and the boomerang, and their 

boldness and bravery, and rapidity of movement across their 

deserts, struck terror at all times into the Egyptians. To conquer 

was impossible, for when pursued they retired to their 



mountain fastnesses, which were inaccessible ; to follow them for 
any distance into the desert was out of the question on account 
of the absence of water. What the physical characteristics and 
appearance of the Cattle- men were we have no means of knowing. 
In Roman times we find the country of the Hill-men occupied by 
peoples to whom classical writers gave the names of Megabari, 
Blemmyes, and Ethiopians (i.e., not Abyssinians, but dwellers on 
the Island of Meroe), who are now generally admitted to belong 
to the Hamitic race. As their qualities and characteristics were 
identical with those of the Hill-men, it is only reasonable to think 
that they were the descendants of the Hill-men, and that the Hill- 
men themselves belonged to the Hamitic race. Whether the 
Hill-men were indigenous, or whether they entered the country 
from the north, their stock being replenished from time to time 
by new-comers, is not known. Of the Megabari, Blemmyes, and 
Ethiopians (i.e., Meroites), the last people were the most civilized, 
and the " Meroitic " inscriptions, which have been found from the 
Blue Nile in the south to Philae in the north, are probably 
written in their language. The Blemmyes lived nearer to Egypt, 
the southern portion of which they frequently plundered, and 
their reputation for cruelty, robbery, and brigandage is too well 
known to need description. With the Blemmyes there is 
mentioned in the inscriptions of Adulis a group of tribes called 
" Bega " ' and " Bugaeitai," 2 and with them we may certainly 
identify the Baga, or Bejas, of Muhammadan writers. 3 They were 
a fierce and warlike people, and possessed all the characteristics 
of the Blemmyes, and their ancestors, or predecessors, the Anti, 
or Hill-men. For centuries they lived chiefly by plunder and 
brigandage, and they were generally at war with the sedentary 
tribes who lived on the Nile. The modern inhabitants of the land 
once held by the Blemmyes and Begas, or Bejas, are the tribes 
called 'Ababdah, Bisharin, Hadanduwa, Halanka, &C 

The peoples who lived in the deserts on the west of the Nile, 

1 Beyd: see Dittenberger, Orientis Graeri, vol. i., p. 290. 

- BovyaeiTcii : Ibid., p. jOO. 

3 They have been identified by some with the inhabitants of the country of 

Buka, J ^N Li Q^£) ? mentioned in the hieroglyphic inscriptions. 
vol. 11. 417 E e 


among whom were the Menti, or " Cattle-men," were the 
descendants of the Thehennu of the Egyptian inscriptions, and 
were known to classical writers as " Nubae," or Nubians, and 
" Nobadae," or " Nobatae." In Roman times the Nubians 
consisted of a league of the great tribes of the Western Desert, 







HdNcoi. \\\ i MRRCH W l . 

[From a photograph by K. TBrstig, Esq. 

and they were so powerful that Diocletian found it worth his while 
to subsidize them with an annual grant, and to employ them to 
keep the Blemmyes in check. In the second quarter of the sixth 
century a Nubian king called Silko embraced Christianity, and 
having defeated the Blemmyes in several battles, and occupied 
their towns of Kal&bsha, Dakka, and [brim, he founded a 



Christian kingdom in Nubia with Dongola as ,his capital. The 
northern part of this kingdom came to an end in the thirteenth 
century, and the southern portion of it about ioo years later. 

The modern representatives of the Nubians, or perhaps more 
correctly the " vile people of Kash " mentioned in the Egyptian 

[From a photograph by R. Tiirstig, Esq. 

inscriptions, are called " Barabara," and their home is the Nile 
Valley between the First and Fourth Cataracts ; the four 
principal divisions of this district are Haifa, Sukkot, Mahass, and 
Dongola. Akin to them are the Nubas of Kordofan, 1 whose lan- 
guage is cognate with that of the Barabara of the northern Sudan. 

1 Lepsius, Nubische Grammatik, Berlin, 1880, p. cxv. ; see also Reinisch, 
Die Nuba-Sprache, Vienna, 1879. 



The early investigators of the language of the Barabara dis- 
tinguished in it two dialects, namely, that of Dongola, and that 
of Kenuz, or the country from Philae southwards to Korosko. 
Lepsius proved the existence of a third dialect, that of Mahass and 
Sukkot, and Reinisch distinguished a fourth, to which he gave the 
name " Fadigi," which he regarded as the speech peculiar to 
Sukkot. The dialects of Kenuz and Dongola are nearly the same, 
and the men of Kenuz and Dongola can understand each other 
without much difficulty ; the Fadigi and the Mahass dialects also 
are similar to each other. According to Count Gleichen, a man of 
Dongola cannot understand a man of Mahass, and he tells us that 
the Kenuz dialect is spoken from Shellfil to Korosko, the Fadigi 
near Korosko and south, the Mahass dialect from Haifa to 
Hannek, and the Dongola dialect from Kerma to Ambikol. 1 
Lepsius regarded the Barabara as a purely African people, and 
thought that the difference which now exists between them and 
the Nubas of Kordofan was due to their intermarriage with Hamites 
and Semites, whereby some of their semi-negro characteristics 
have disappeared. Opinions differ as to the Barabara. Mr. J. W. 
Crowfoot says, " They are an enterprising people, apt linguists, 
"and great travellers, very ready to take on a veneer of European 
" culture;" while Count Gleichen says, "The natives of Mahas and 
" Sukkot lag behind, the fault being entirely their own ; they are 
" of an extremely indolent nature, perpetually quarrelling among 
" themselves over questions as to ownership of land and date- 
" trees, and do little or nothing towards bettering themselves." 2 
The Barabara are Muhammadans, and most of them speak 

Before referring to the Negro tribes of the Sudan, mention may 
be made of the Arabs, who during the last 500 years have occupied 
large tracts of country, and made themselves masters of them. 
For several hundred years before tin- Arabs became Muham- 
madans, numbers of them must have crossed the Red Sea and 
entered the country now called Eritraea and Abyssinia, and so 
made their way into the fertile country south of the- Atbara, or 
even farther west, where they settled down and became more or 
less absorbed among the population. After the conquest of Nubia 
'• Handbook, i., p. 83. - Ibid., pp. 84 and 318. 



by the Muhammadan Arabs about a.d. 650, we may assume that 
Arab immigration would increase, but it is unlikely that it attained 
to any large proportions until after the downfall of the southern 
half of the Nubian Christian kingdom, which had its capital at 
Soba on the Blue Nile, about a.d. 1400 or somewhat later. After 

SUDANI young man. 

[From a photograph by R. Tiirslig, Esq. 

the conquest of Egypt by Selim in 1517 a very considerable 
number of Arabs must have entered the Sudan by way of 
Abyssinia and Egypt, and their influence and power in the 
country began then to grow steadily. Little by little they added to 
the territories on which they had settled, but so long as the Fung 
Dynasty ruled at Sennaar, the progress of the Arab domination in 



the Sudan generally was impeded, though the Fflng kings them- 
selves had embraced Muhammadanism. In the fourteenth century 
some knowledge of Muhammadanism entered Dar Fur, and in its 
train came some of the manners and customs and the language of 
the Arabs. These were brought in by the Tungur Arabs, who, 
leaving Tunis, travelled southwards, and occupied Bornu, Wadai, 
and Dar Fur, where they settled at Gebel Maria. The natives of 
Dar Fur were Negroes, and their chief tribes were the Furawa 
and the Dago, the latter being the dominant power in the land 
when the Tungur Arabs under 'All and Ahmad al-Makur made 
their appearance. Ahmad married a princess of Dar Fur, and, 
when her father the king died, he succeeded to the kingdom. 
Thereupon the Tungur Arabs left Bornu and Wadai in large 
numbers, and came t<> Gebel Marra, and practically crowded out 
the Dago tribe. When the Tungur kings bad reigned about ioo 
years, the last of them, Shan Durshid, was dethroned by bis half- 
brother Dali, who became Sultan of Dar Fur. Dab is famous as 
the author of the code of laws which was in force in 1N74 when 
ZubiT conquered the country ; be divided his kingdom into five 
provinces. Among Ins successors was SulSman, surnamed Solon, 
whose mother and wife were Arab women : under their influence 
Dar loir became a Muhammadan country. This took pla< 
the end of the fifteenth century. 

In the preceding paragraphs an attempt lias been made to 
sketch the distribution of the inhabitants of the Sudan in ac- 
cordance with the broad historical facts which have come down to 
us, but some of these may be capable <>t" a different interpretation 
when anthropologists and ethnographers have studied Sudan 
ethnography in the country, and when the contents of such ancient 
graves as remain have been exhumed and examined by them. Up 
to the present, very few of the travellers in the Sudan have 
i the technical know ledge and scientific training necessary 
to enable them to deal in a competent manner with the materials 
which surrounded them. Though men like Andersson. Alberti, 
tian, Burton, Browne, Burckhardt, Baines, Bowditch, 
maim. Faith. Baker, Brehm, Clapperton, Cameron. Denham, 
Fleurist de Langle, Guilain, Gussfeldt, Heuglin, Hildebrandt, 
Klunzinger. Kaufmann. Krapf. Livingstone. Len/. Lauder, New, 



Nachtigal, Pechuel-Losche, Pallme, Pruyssenare, Mungo Park, 
Ruppell, Russegger, Speke, Stanley, Thomas, Vogel, and others, 
have done splendid work in elucidating the manners and customs 
of the Black Tribes of North Africa, it cannot be said that any 
one of them was an anthropologist or ethnographer. Of those 
who have travelled and lived in the Sudan, and investigated the 


[From a photograph by R. Tiirstig, Esq. 

subject in a scientific manner, two names stand out prominently, i.e., 
those of Hartmann and Schweinfurth. The works of the former, 
Die Volker Afrikas, Leipzig, 1879; Die N Wander, Leipzig, 1884; 
and other publications by him on the African peoples and their 
kinship and distribution, are most valuable contributions to the 
science of African anthropology, for they contain the results of a 



practical knowledge of the subject gained at first hand by residence 
in the Sudan. Similarly Schweinfurth's The Heart of Africa, 
London, 1873 (translation by E. E. Frewer), forms a rich mine of 
facts collected by a trained mind during a period of three years' 
travel in the country. The researches made by Fritsch, 1 Falken- 
stein," and others, also have a special value, and merit careful 
perusal. Among more recent works must be mentioned Prof. A. H. 
Keane's Ethnology of the Egyptian Sudan:'' and Die Heiden- 
Neger des Aegyptischen Sudan, by Dr. Herman Frobenius, Berlin, 
1893. 4 The last writer divided the peoples of the Sudan into two 
great classes, i.e., Moslems and Heathen. The Moslems comprise 
four divisions: — 1. Nubians, including the Barabara, Bisharln, 
Hadanduwa, &c. 2. The mixed Nuba tribes of Kordofan. 3. The 
mixed Negro tribes of Dar Fur. 4. The Bakkara Arabs. The 
Heathen of the Sudan he divides into six series : — 1. The Negroes 
who live in the swamp region, among whom he includes the 
Shulli (Liiri), the Shilluks (Jur), the Anuaks, the Dinkas or 
Gangas, and the Bari tribes, including the Shir, Mundar, Xifnnbara, 
Fagelu, Kakuak, Liggi, and Markhia. 2. The iron-working 
Negroes, i.e., the Bongo, the Mittu. Madi, Lubari, Kalika, Loggo, 
Brera, Abukaya (Oisila and Oigiga), Gogeri, Morir-Kod6, and 
Moni-Missa. 3, The Niam-Niams, or A-Sande, i.e., the " Great- 
eaters," and the Bomgta. 4. The Mangbattu tribes. 5. The 
Lattuka. Strictly speaking, they live in Uganda territory. 
6. The Batua, who also live beyond Egyptian territory. Under 
each series Dr. Frobenius adds a short description of the physical 
characteristics of each people or tribe, and describes succinctly 
their manners and customs, &c. In the map which accompanies 
his book, he shows by means of colours the distribution of the 
various series of peoples in the Sudan in an effective manner. 

A view wholly different from that usually held as to the manner 
in which the Nile Valley was peopled has been put forth by 

1 Verhand. der Berl. Gesch. Jur Ant/irop. Sits. v.. February 17th, 1883, 

- Die Loango Expedition, by 1'. G.J. Falkenstein and K. Pechuel-Loesche, 
Leipzig, 1879. 

3 Journal oj 'the Anthropological Institute, November, 1884. 

* The most recent commentator on Suchm Ethnography is Mr. J. W. 
Crowfoot ; see Gleichen, op. eii., i.. p. .517, Ethnology oj the Sudan. 



Sir Harry Johnston in his Nile Quest, London, 1903. * Ac- 
cording to him, the first men who entered Egypt and ascended the 
Nile came from the East — from India. They may have been so 
primitive, and ape-like, and of so undetermined a type, as not to 
belong definitely to any one of the three main species of humanity. 
They entered Egypt by the strip of land which (he assumes) joined 


[From a photograph by R. Tiirstig, Esq. 

Arabia to Ethiopia. Many types of Asiatic animals came by this 
bridge, also man, possibly in the form of a low Negroid, repre- 
sented to-day by the Congo Pygmies and the South African 
Bushmen. The region south of latitude 15 north was peopled 
by the Negro species, through southern Arabia. Egypt and 
Arabia were once a part of the domain of the Negroid Pygmies, 



but these were overwhelmed by the negrified Caucasians who 
came from Syria or Libya. About B.C. 7000, there were 
steatopygous men, showing Bushmen affinities, in Egypt, and 
they formed the servile class. Next came people similar to the 
Dravidians of India, or the Brahuis of Baluchistan, and after them 
an aquiline type of nearly pure Caucasian stock, probably from 

\ sCdAn! maiden. 

' From a photograph l>y K. Tiirsti^, Eiq, 

Syria or Cyprus. The men of the northern half of the Nile Basin 

emigrated from the direction of Gallaland, or Somaliland, or 
Abyssinia, and their degenerate descendants exist in the Dan&kil, 
ili, and Galla of to-day. They became the main stock of the 
Egyptian population, and profoundly modified Negro Africa, 
their influence penetrating to /ululand on the south, and to the 



Atlantic on the west. This Hamitic race was the mainstay of 
Ancient Egypt, and, assisted by the cognate Libyans, has been the 
main human agent in saving the Negro from slipping back into the 
life of the anthropoid ape. The Valley of the Lower Nile attracted 
many invasions from Europe and Asia, and from Libya, where the 


[From a photograph by R. Tih>tig, Esq. 

dominant race was of Iberian stock. All the races, save the 
Hittites, were of Caucasian species. The Egyptians penetrated 
among the Negro tribes 'of the Central Sudan and Equatoria ; they 
had in their composition a certain proportion of Negro blood, 
besides the drop of it from their Hamitic ancestors, and they 
absorbed the earlier Negroid population of their country, and 



imported and intermarried with Negro slaves. But they were 
folly Caucasian in the vivid interest they took in nature, &c. 
After the early historical times relations between Egypt and the 
Upper Nile were severed. After the rise of Egyptian civilization 
B.C. 5000 the Egyptians easily impressed the Negroes of the 
south and the Libyans of the west by their power, and eventually 
taught them the art of working metals, &c. In course of time the 
Negro race, through the Hamitic blood which was pouring into 
it, resisted the Egyptians, who lost all interest in the Sudan. 

If we understand this theory aright, it is fundamentally opposed 
to that of Hartmann, who maintained that the ancient Egyptians 
were descended from a purely African black-skinned race ; and the 
labours of Maspero, Lefebure, and Wiedemann have proved from 
the religious ceremonies and social observances, as made known 
to us by the hieroglyphic texts, that a great deal is to be said in 
favour of this opinion. The proofs adduced from philological 
considerations in favour of this or that theory are not convincing, 
especially when we remember what inveterate tramps and wan- 
derers the peoples of the Sudan have always been, and it seems 
clear that a correct racial history of the Sudani folk can only be 
formulated by trained anthropologists and comparative ethno- 
graphers, who have a knowledge of Sudani peoples at first hand. 

Lists of the principal tribes in the Sudan at the present time 
have been compiled by Count Gleichen in his Handbook, and 
by Xaum Bey Shucair in his Arabic History of the S4dan % and 
both are valuable. The list here given is based upon that of 
Shucair, and the facts are collected from the works of Hartmann. 
Junker, Baker, Schweinfurth, and other travellers. 

I. Negro and Negroid Tribes. 

Agar. A branch of the Dinkas. They live on the Rul River in 
the Bahr al-Ghazal. 

'AWRA. In IKu Fur, their chief town being Galla bet wren 
Kabkabiya and Kulkul. 

BANKti (Bongo). In the Bahr al-Ghazal. They smelt iron ore 
and work in iron. Their manners and customs are carefully 
described by Schweinfurth. They have no conception of im- 
mortality, and they do not believe in the transmigration of souls, 



[From a photograph by R. Turstig, Esq. 


but they go in deadly fear of evil spirits, and their terror of 
witches and of their power passes understanding. 1 

Bari. A well-grown race who live near Bari and Gondokoro. 
According to Baker {Albert Nyanza, p. 58) the negro type of thick 
lips and flat nose is wanting. Their features are good, but they 


[From a photograph by R. Tiirstig, Esq. 

have woolly hair. They rub themselves with red ochre and tattoo 
their skins. They keep tufts of hair on the tops of their heads, 
wherein they stick'feathers. They wear a neat lappet of beads or 
small iron rings in front, and a tail of fine strips of leather or 
cotton behind. Their huts have projecting roofs, and entrances 
about two feet high ; they stand in enclosures formed by the 
1 In the Heart of Africa, vol. i., pp. 259-311. 



euphorbia, on ground plastered with ashes, cow-dung, and sand. 
The dead are buried in these enclosures ; a pole marks each grave, 
and on the top of it are fastened a few cocks' feathers. To the 
pole are tied skulls and horns of oxen. They used to poison their 
arrows with the juice of the root of a certain tree. Their bows 
were of bamboo, and their arrows, about three feet long, had 
detachable heads which fitted into sockets. Baker says the Bari 
were held to be the worst tribe on the Bahr al-Gebel. They 
wear no clothes, and are fond of singing, dancing, and strong 

Barkad. Their chief place is Gebel Musku, between Gebel 
l.lanz and Gebel Marra. They worship images in secret. 

Barta. They live in Beni Shankul, to the south of FAmaka. 
They are akin to the Fung tribes, and are nearly black in colour, 
and they have been said by some to possess "Caucasian ''features. 
The men wear a girdle and a kind of tail, and the women go 
nearly naked. They are an industrious people, and they tat 
almost anything. They formerly paid £6,000 annually to 
the Egyptian Government. The Barta were discovered by 

Barti. Their chief place is Gebel Takabu, three days to the 
north of Al-Fasher : they spuak Arabic as well as their own 

BIko. They live to the south of Dara. 

Bud£yat. A nomad tribe to the west of the Natron Wells. 

BURUN. A branch of the Hamags which lives in the mountains 
south of Khdr Dul£b. 

Dago. They live in Gebel Dago, two days west of Dara. 

D&WAR. A branch of the Shilluks ; they live to the west of the 

Dinkas. They live to the east of the White Nile, near the 
Shilluks, between parallels 12 and 6° of north latitude. They are 
tall, comparatively slender nun, with long heads, and wide 
noses, blunted at the tips: they have large mouths, with fleshy 
but not thick lips. The men despise all clothing and go 
naked ; they live in grass-over ed tukls, and sleep on beds 
of ashes of cow-dung. The women wear aprons before and 
behind, and sleep on mats. The men carry spears and clubs. 



The Dinkas of the White Nile ' migrated thither from the Bahr 

Faratit. They live in the Bahr al-Ghazal, in the south-west of 
Dar Fur. 

Fur. Their chief place is Gebel Marra. They became Moslems 
in the fifteenth century, and kings of mixed origin reigned over 
them from 1444 to 1874. 

Gablawiyun. They live in Gebel Mul, to the west of Dar 

Gablayun. They live in Famaka, and are akin to the Fung and 
Hamag tribes. 

Ganki. A tribe of the Bahr al-Ghazal, akin to the Dinkas. 
Gur (Jur). Their country lies between those of the Dinkas 
and Bankos ; they are akin to the Shilluks, whose language they 
speak ; they work in iron. 

Kaga al-Badu. Their country lies to the north-east of Umm 
Shanka. They are expert hunters of the giraffe and the 

Kimr. Their chief place is Abu 'Ushar, three days west of 

Kubk. They live to the north-west of Gebel Marra. 
Kulu (Golos). They live in clean, well-built huts to the west of 
the Banku (Bongos). Their currency is iron hoes, forty of which 
purchase a wife. 

Kumuz. They live to the east of Famaka ; their neighbours are 
the thievish Lamkasna. 

Latuka. A cattle-breeding tribe to the east of the Bahr 
al-Gebel. They live in bell-shaped tukls, and in each village is a 
high platform in three stages, on which are guards who keep watch 
day and night. 

Madi. They live near the Bari. They are a well-built people, 
and have long heads. Men and women cut their hair short ; the 
men cover the right shoulders, but their left and their breasts are 
bare. They are good farmers, and live in neat tukls. 

Makarak.' 2 A branch of the Niam-Niams living in the Bahr 

1 See Gleichen, op. at., i., p, 129; and especially Schweinfurth, Heart of 
Africa, vol. i., pp. 149-169. 

- Junker says {Travels in Africa, p. 234) this name means "man-eaters." 



al-Ghaz-il. Their manners and customs have been described by 
Buchta, Hartmann, Junker, Marno and Schweinfurth. 

:aRit. Their chief place is Galla, between Kabkabiya and 

Masalit. Neighbours of the Kimr. 

ub. They live in Gebel Medub, three days' journey from 
Takabo, near the Arba'in Road. 

Their chief place b A number of them have 

become Moslems. 

:am, or X ya \ \ famous people who live chiefly 

between parallels 4 and 6' of north latitude, and who were at one 
time computed to number 2,000,000. They call themselv 
Sand!, or A-Zaxdi, which is the plural of a Dinka word meaning 
reat eater ; " because they were and still are eaters of human 
flesh, this word is said to mean "cannibals." Of Xiam-Xiam an 
Arabic plural has been formed, M Xiamanjam '* ; the Mittu are 
said to call them " Makarak." the Bongos know them as M Man- 
yanya," the Dyurs as " O'Madyaka," and the Manbattu as 
" Babungera."' They are thought by some travellers to be akin to 
the Somali, or Galla, or Wahuma peoples ; others make them 
akin to the Fan and the Manyema who live to the west of Lake 
Tanganyika. They are dark brown in colour, have well-built 
bodies of middle height, their heads are not long, their faces are 
broad, their noses are said by some to be of a Semitic type, but 
blunt at the tips and wide, the)* have thick lips, full cheeks, ears 
placed high, rounded chins, and small broad hands and feet. 
The hair is worn long by both men and women, and it fall- 
their shoulders, sometimes so far down as the middle of the body ; 
they dress it in fantastic ways, and plait portions of it, and tie it 
namental knots and bows. They tattoo various parts of 
their bodies, they wear long beards, and dress themselves in skins ; 
necklaces made of beads of all kinds are much prized by them. 
They arm themselves with lances, shields, and daggers of curious 
shapes and forms. Tr in groups of huts, but have neither 

towns nor villages. They are great hunters, and they keep dogs 
with pointed ears and tails curled up like those of pigs. They 

1 See Schweinfurth, Heart of Africa, vol i, p. 416 ft. ; vol. 
■me means " man-ea 


trap the elephant, and in former days collected large quantities 
of ivory. The men have many wives, and infidelity on the 
woman's part is punished often with death ; to be the mother of 
many children reflects great credit on a woman, and causes her to 
be held in high honour. They love music of all kinds, singing 
and dancing, and they pass a great deal of time in playing the 
Mangala game on a long board, which stands on four legs, and 
has sixteen cavities, the pieces being twenty-four little stones or 
cowries. They cut off the hair as a sign of grief. 

The bodies of the dead are decorated with feathers, &c, and 
are buried in a half-sitting position in hollows in the ground or 
in hollow trees. They sometimes make a chamber by the side of 
the grave in the ground, line it with boards, and build over it a 
tukl. The Niam-Niams are a very warlike people, and they 
make bold, steady, but cruel soldiers ; they eat those who fall in 
battle, and many who die in the course of nature, and they 
revel in human fat, with which they smear their bodies. They 
also eat dogs, a custom which Schweinfurth believes to be allied 
to cannibalism. Their manners and customs have been well 
described by Junker, Schweinfurth, Buchta, and others, and all 
agree in saying that the Niam-Niams are the most intelligent 
people of the Bahr al-Ghazfd Province. Their most recent visitor 
was Colonel Sparkes, and he says, " They are far superior to any 
other people I have met up here." ' There is a striking similarity 
in their manners and customs to those of the early Egyptians, 
whose ancestors came from Punt, and it is not impossible that 
these and the primitive Niam-Niams may have come from the 
country of the Fan people, which may even have been Pun, or Punt. 

NuwfiR, or Nuwehr. They live between the Sobat River and 
the Bahr al-Ghazfd. Their men go naked, and rub their bodies 
with ashes of cow-dung, and stain their hair red and plaster it 
with ashes mixed with cows' urine. The married women wear 
a fringe of grass about their loins, and perforate their upper lip ; 
in the hollow they wear an ornament of beads on an iron wire, 
which projects like a horn of a rhinoceros. The men wear coils 
of beads on their necks, heavy ivory bracelets and copper rings on 
their arms and wrists, and an iron spiked bracelet which they 
1 Gleichen, op. cit., i. p. 161. 

vol. ii. 433 v f 


for keeping their wives in order. They are tall and powerful, 
and carry lances and clubs, and live in large, well-built huts. 
They live by cultivating the ground, by hunting, and by fishing. 

Runak. They live to the south-west of Dagd. 

SiiKKi. They live a little to the north of (iebel Lfid<>. near the 
Bar!. The men are armed with lances, ebony clubs, bows always 
strung, and arrows; on their backs they carry a stool and a huge 
pipe. The women wear leather lappets, and tails made of strips 
of leather finely cut ; they carry their children in skins slung from 
the shoulders. 

SHILLUK. They live on the west bank of the White Nile, 
between Abu Island .and Lake No; their capital was Fash6da, and 
they are called by natives Shulla, or Ojallo. They are tall, but of 
slender proportions, and most of the men go naked ; the women 
wear a certain amount of clothing. The men arm themselves 
with spears, shields, and clubs, and are said to be good soldiers, 
brave, independent, truculent, quarrelsome, obstinate, crafty, 
cunning, untrustworthy, &c. ; Count Gleichen tells us that they 
are "the finest warriors in the Sudan," and says that "their 
morals in relation to women are very good " (i., p. 193). Accord- 
ing to Hartmann, they live in polygamy. 1 Their chief occupation 
is cattle-breeding, for nearly the whole of the Shilluk country is 
grass land ; wives arc obtained in exchange for cattle. Shilluk 
land is ruled by a Mek, and is divided into two provinces, Gerr 
and Loak, which are subdivided into 29 districts. An excellent 
account of the Shilluks is given by Count Gleichen in his Hand- 
book, i., p. 193. It is based on the Reports made by Major 
Matthew-, bather Banholzer, and the Rev. J. K. Giffen, and it 
contains much new and valuable information about this most 
interesting people, especially as regards their history and religion." 

SlMYAR. A tribe akin to the Kimr and Masalit. near whom 
they live. 

SHULLA, A people of the sam< is the Shilluks; they 

live at the head of the IJahr al-Gebel, or Upper Nile. 
■ \. A people who live near the Kimr. 

Zachawa. They live four days' journey to the north of Al- 
ter. A branch of the tribe, called Kamalt, lives near Dara. 

lander, p. 1 19. - See Schweinfurtli. Heart of Africa, vol. i„ p. 72 ff. 




II. Nubians. 

The Barabara, or Nubians, who are to-day a mixture of 
Nubas, Arabs, and Turks, may be divided into five groups : — I. The 
Danakala, whose kings ruled at Dafar, old Dongola, Khandak, 
and the Island of Arko, and who lived between the Third and 
Fourth Cataracts. II. The Mahass, who live between the Third 
Cataract and Gebel Dusha, and whose kings reigned at Gebel 
SAsi. III. The Sukkots, who live between Gebel Dusha and the 
Second Cataract. IV. The Halfas, who live between Haifa and 
Sabu'a. V. The Kanuzi, who live between Sabu'a and the First 
Cataract. Many writers assume that the primitive Nubas were 
akin to some of the Beja tribes, and have asserted that the 
ancient kingdoms of Meroe and Napatawere founded by them, but 
facts in support of this view seem to be wanting. 

III. Tribes of Hamitic Descent. 

'Ababdah. They live in the region of the 'Atbai, from lat. 
22° 30' north to the Kena-Kuser Road, and are divided into live 
groups : — I. 'Ashshanab, whose seat is Aswan, and who live in 
the desert between Kena and Korosko (Kurusku). II. Malikab, 
whose seat is at Darfiw, and who live in the desert between that 
place and Berber. III. Fukara, whose seat is at Ramadi near 
Edfu, and who live on both banks of the Nile between Kena and 
Korosko. IV. 'Ubudin and Shanatir, whose seat is Sayyala, 
north of Korosko. 

Bisharin. There are three main divisions of this tribe. The 
first occupies the country on the Red Sea from Kuser to the 
Atbara; the second lives on the Atbara; and the third in the 
Gazira of the 'Atbai. The Bisharin claim to be descended from 
Arab ancestors, but this seems to be impossible. They divide 
themselves into the descendants of Umm 'Ali and Umm Nagi, 
the wives of 'Alt Ga'alan, a descendant of Bishar, the son of Kahl, 
and a descendant of Zuber, whose wife was a sister of 'Abbas, the 
uncle of the Prophet. The great 'Aliab section of the Bisharin 
are said to be the descendants of Umm Ali. 

Beni 'Amar. They live in the country between 'Akik and 
Senhit, and likewise claim an Arab origin. 



1.1 a B ah. They live to the east of the Beni 'A mar. 

Hadanduwa. They occupy the country between Khor Baraka 
and the Atbara. 

Halanka. The seat of this people is Kasala. 

UMMAR'AR. Their territory lies between Berber and Sawakin, 
and their chief place is Aryab. 

Sir Reginald Wingate speaks of a tribe of fine, tall men who 
live in the Eastern Desert, and who are generally known as 
"Anaks." They are probably the descendants of the tall, 
handsome men who are mentioned by classical writers in con- 
nection with their descriptions of the Island of Meroe, and of the 

IV. Tribes of Arab Descent. 

'AbdALLAB. They live at Halfaya. Their ancestor 'Abd Allah 
assisted the Fungs in founding their kingdom at Sennaar. 

'AKALYUN. Their district is between the Dinder and Blue 

'Alatiyun. On the Blue Nile between Hudebat and Nfashra' 

'AkakIyin. In the neighbourhood of Abu I.lanix and Wad 

'Arab al-Bashir. Their chief place was 'Ureba. l.lAMiD. They live near the Habaniya. 
Aiiamada. They Live near the Gim'a. 

BAKKARA MAHARABA. Between Sennaar and Gebel Shakada. 
Bakkara Al-IJawzanla. In the south of Kordofan. Their 
chief place is Birka. 

BARRlYAT. Their chief place is Tulu. 
BATTAHlN. To the north of the Shukriya tribe. 
Beni Fadl. In the neighbourhood of Al-Fasher. 
Beni Garrar. In the east of Korddfan, in the region of the 
ostriches and gazelles. 

B i.m I.Iasjn, or Awl.ul Abu Ruf. In the country between 
Gebel Shakada and Khor Duleb. Their chief seats are Al>u 
IJagar and Markum. 

r.i.M HasIn. In the neighbourhood ofMasallt. 

Beni Helba Their chief seat is Bulbul, west of Dara. 


Buderiya. In Khurshi and Tayyara. They are said to be 
akin to the Ga'alin. 

Dar Hamid. In the neighbourhood of the Kabfibish. 

Dbaina. Their chief places are Tumat on the Atbara, and G ira 
on the Setit, and Duka. 


Fung. Descendants of this formerly very powerful collection 
of tribes are found at Renka, near Sennaar, Dabba, and Dongola. 
They were originally Negroes, but even in the time of Selim (1520) 
they pretended that they were descended from 'Abbas, a near 
kinsman of the Prophet. 

Ga'alin, or Ga'aliyun. These tribes live in the country 
between Abu Hamed and Khartum, and they are among the best 
and ablest of all the Arab tribes in the Sudan. 

Gam'iab. On the Nile between 'Akba Kurra and Shekh At- 

Gamu'iya. On the White Nile from Omdurman south. 

Gim'a. Their chief place is Sharkila. 

Guwama'a. Their chief place is Bara. 

Habbaniya. Their chief place is Kaka in Dar Fur. Another 
tribe of the same name has its seat at Sharkila. 

Halawiyun. In the neighbourhood of Masallamia. 

Hamada. In the country between the Rahad and the Dinder, 
and their centres are Dabarki and Dunkur. 

Hamag. A Moslemized Negro tribe. Their chief seat is Gebel 
Kali, three days to the south of Karkog. 

Hamar. x\t Abu Haraz and Nahud, in the district of the 
tabaldi or water trees. 

Hasaniya. In Gebel Gilif, in the Gakdul Desert. 

Hawawir. They are said to have come from Upper Egypt, 
and they live in the Desert of Gabra. 

Hawatiya. To the west of Kabkabia. 

Humr. In Uclia, between Birka and Shaka. 

Hum rax. 

Hussunnat. Their chief place is Katena. 

Kababish. The greatest of all the tribes in Kordofan. Before 
the revolt of the Mahdi they were said to number 250,000. Their 
chief centres are Abar, Sana, and 'En Hamid. 



Kanana. They live near Aba Island on the White Nile. 

Karubat. To the west of Kabkabia. 

Kiiaw .\ i •. i k. The) trace their descent from the Beni Ummia 
and the Beni 'Abbas. They are great breeders of cattle and 
horses., and their chief centre is Wad'a. 

Kiiaw ai. ada. Near 'Abud in the Gazira. 

KhawawIr. They are neighbours of the Hasaniya and the 


KuWlHLA. Near 'Abud and Wad Madani. Their nomads live 
on the west of the Dinder. Akin to them are the HasanAt and 


Kuwahsama. They live to the north of Seimaar. Branchi 
this tribe are the 'AbDALLAB, and the KAMATlR, who live on the 

east of the Blue Nile between Kunka and Ruse res, and have their 
chief seat at Kharko^. 

LahawIyun. Nomads who live on the White Nile between 

Kawwa and Gebelen. 

Mawi.lya. Their chief centre is Karkud, to the north of 
Tnwvsha and Koz al-Ma'a] 

M\i>A\i\r\. Their chief centre is Wad Madani. and they are 
called after their ancestor, Sln-kh Madani. 


MaiiakIva, who are said to be descended from Arabs from 
Yaman : their chief place is Dur. 

MASALLAMlYA. They live on the Blue Nile. 

Mik.u \i.. The)- live to tin- south of the Kubatab. and their 
chief seat is Berber. The four main divisions of the tribe are 
Sayy&m, Mustafyab, Labbay&b, and Rahmab. 

Mr\\siK. On the banks of the Nile at the Fourth Cataract, 
and at Abu Named : their divisions are W'ah.'ib.'ib, Kabbfma, 
Suldmaniya, Kagubab, and l.labra. 

MrsKkh a. Korddfan. 

Kai viyi \. Ki'imlin, on the Blue Nile. 

RaSHAIDA, or Arabs from the Nijaz. 

RubAjab. They live to the south of the Munasir. The three 

divisions of the tribe are Budertya, Faranib, and Da'ifab. They 
hold the views of Sudani folk who are- " the companions of king 


Adh-al-Kkr and the cap," and in their possession are the throne 
on which he sat, and the cap. 

Ruzekat, a great tribe of Dar Fur, with its chief place at 

Sarurab. They live north of Omdurman. 

Shaikiya, a tribe living in the country near the foot of the 
Fourth Cataract. Its main divisions are the 'Adlanab, Suwarab, 
Hannikab, and 'Umarab. 

Shambata. They live between Wad 'Abbfis and Sennaar. 

ShukrIya, a famous tribe which numbered 500,000 souls before 
the revolt of the Mahdi. Their chief centres are Rufa'a on the 
Blue Nile, Al-Fasher on the Atbara, Kadaref, Kala'a Arang, 
Abu Dulek, &c. 

Sulem. South of the Kanana. 

Ta'aisha. Their chief place is Mandawwa, near Kaka, whence 
came 'Abd Allah, the Khalifa, in the region of the Faratit. 

Targam. Neighbour of the Masalit. 

Tumam. Their chief place is Birka. 

'Utefat. Their chief place is Anka. 

'Urekat. Their chief place is Kutum. 

Ya'kubab. To the south of Sennaar. 

Zaballa'a. They inhabit the country between the Rahad and 
the Dinder. The only prophet they acknowledge is Abu Garid, 
who was the founder of their sect, and whose tomb exists at 
Hellet Bunzuka, between Karkog and Ruseres. Thus they say, 
" There is no god but God : Abu Garid is the prophet of God." 
Their women are white in colour, and both men and women love 
pleasure, and the former fatten themselves, and are much addicted 
to perfumes. 

Zayyadiya. Their chief place is Mallit. They trade in salt 
and natron, and derive their stock from Abu Zed of Nejd. 

The following are also given by Naum Bey Shucair (i. 63) : — 

Al-Aganib. This name is given to those who have travelled 
into the Sudan and other places. 

Al-Hadur. These are certain Egyptians who went from Cairo 
before the first "opening" of the Sudan, and they live in Khan- 
dak, Shendi, Masallamiya, and other places on the Nile, and 
occupy themselves with trade. 



Al-AwlAd ar-RIf. This name is applied to the Egyptians, 

Turks, Europeans, and others, who want into the Sudan after the 
first " openio 

Al-Makada, a term of abuse applied to the Abyssinians who 
are Christians. 

Al-Gabarta, a name given to Abyssinians who are Moslems. 

At-Takakaxa. the people of Takriir, to the south of Burnu ; 
now known as Katku. 

A l- I.I a i. a i; at, a name applied to tramps, showmen, jesters, and 
others who lead a careless and irregular life. 

Religions. The dominant religion in the Sudan is Muham- 
madanism, and the Arabs have succeeded wonderfully in imposing 
the teaching of the Prophet on a large number of its inhabitants. 
Speaking generally, those who are not Moslems are pagans. The 
Arabs and the Negroes, or Negroid tribes, together destroyed the 
Christian kingdoms of Dongola and Soba, and their teachings as 
regards polygamy and slave owning and holding have fitted in 
well with the natural manners and customs of the bulk of the 
Sudani folk, [slam appeals to all their material characteristics 
and instincts, and it allows them a freedom of life which is 
condemned by Christianity, and promises them a heaven replete 
with sensual delights and happiness. On the other hand, it must 
be admitted that it has had a good effect upon the people of 
certain savage tribes, and the Arabs have certainly been the 
means of introducing the elements of civilization into places 
which otherwise would have been given up to the cult of devils 
and fetishes, and to nameless abominations of every kind. The 
drawback to Islam, apart from theological considerations, 
when viewed from a practical, European standpoint, is the un- 
progressive character of its teaching. 

Though extraordinarily successful among many of the tribes 
of north-east Africa, and among several of the Negro peoples of 
the Sudan, the teachers of Islam have failed to eradicate many 
m beliefs, customs, and ceremonies, which appear to be 
among the fundamental peculiarities of their natures. Thus in 
Sennaar among the Moslem Fungs phallic ceremonies were 
celebrated during the last century, and the Barta, like the 



ancient Egyptians, used the beetle as an amulet. The Hamags 
in Ruseres and Fazogli at the season of harvest used to tie a dog 
to the leg of a couch (ankareb), and then every one present 
would strike or stab the poor creature until it was dead. The 
Barta also used to dance at the time of full moon round holy 
trees, and then make a great feast, during which the grossest 
debauchery reigned supreme. The Dago in Gebel Dago have a 
stone idol called Kankara, which they worship in secret. The 
Budeyat worship a special kind of tree. The Barkad also 
worship images near Gebel Marra. The Dinkas have a dim 
belief in a good principle, the creator of things, which they 
call Deng-Dit. They also believe in the existence of the spirits 
of the dead, and they maintain a body of workers of magic 
called " Tit," who are supposed to repulse the evil spirits (Jok) 
who would attack them, and to make rain. The dead become 
the children of Deng-Dit. Mr. R. Ttirstig was witness of a 
ceremony performed in commemoration of a dead wife of Shekh 
Bor, during which a sheep was slain ; on another occasion he 
saw a bull slaughtered, and the anointing of the bull and the 
bystanders with butter, and the dances of feather-bedecked women, 
all of which things were done for the benefit of a sick man. 1 
The Dinkas appear to believe also in demoniacal possession. 
Sometimes when the " rain-maker " fails in his work, the 
bystanders fall upon him, beat him with their clubs, and then 
throw him into the river for the crocodiles to eat. Often the 
Tit are expert ventriloquists. 

A number of important additional facts about the religious 
beliefs of the Dinkas have been collected by Major S. L. 
Cummins, 2 which may be thus summarized :— The Dinkas have 
a most elaborate list of gods and demi-gods. At the head of all 
is Deng-Dit, the " Rain-giver," with Abok, his wife ; they have 
two sons, Kur-Kongs and Gurong-Dit, and a daughter, Ai-Yak. 
Their Devil is called L'wal Burrajok, and is the father of Abok, 
the wife of Deng-Dit. They account for their origin thus : Deng- 
Dit gave his wife a bowl of fat, and she and her children 
softened the fat over the fire, and began to mould from it men 

1 Quoted by Gleichen, op. cit., i., p. 146. 

a See Lord Cromer's Report, Egypt, No. 1 (1903), pp. 97 and 98. 



and women in the image of the gods. Deng-Dit warned her 
against L'wal, or the Devil, who was his enemy, but Abok forgot, 

and with her children went to gather wood in the forest. There 
L'wal found the howl, drank the greater part of the fat, and from 
the remainder proceeded to mould caricatures of men and women 
with distorted limbs, mouths, and eyes. Then, fearing the 
vengeance of Deng-Dit. he descended to earth by the path which 
then connected it with heaven. On discovering the result of her 
neglect, Abok hastened to her husband, who, greatly incensed, 
started in pursuit of L'wal. The latter, however, had persuaded 
the bird Atoi-toish to bite asunder with its bill the path from 
heaven to earth, and he thus escaped from the divine wrath. 
The Dinkas do not pray, but they offer sacrifices to their god, 
who, being rather of a malevolent than benevolent disposition, 
must be propitiated ; the sky is to them the place of divinity, 
and the bowels of the earth the place of evil. 

The Niam-Niams practise augury by means of wooden pegs 
dipped in water rolled on a flat stool, and by giving fetish-drink to 
hens; they call such ceremonies " borru." The Bari believe in 
the existence of a kind of creator whom they call Mini, and also of 
evil spirits. The mother of their tribe was, they think, a serpent 
called Yukanye, and they keep tame serpents in their houses. 
The magicians, whom they call " Bunek," are held in great esteem. 
especially if they be successful rain-makers. In the country of the 
Blue Nile, in many places, the people worshipped the river, and 
made offerings to it. Witchcraft is common everywhere in the 
Moslem districts of north-east Africa, and at Sennaar the people 
used to believe that witches took the forms of hyaenas, and went 
about by night ; at Famaka the black soldiers told Hartmann that 
they could cross the river by night in the form of hippopotami, 
and have intercourse with the women on the opposite bank of the 
Blue Nile. All over the same region a certain kind of python was 
held in great veneration by all the people, and in this respect the 
Sudani folk of to-day resemble the Abyssinians. 

The Shilluks believe in a Great Creator, whom they call 
••Jo-iik," who is thought to be in a vague way connected with the 
events of their lives : they worship him and offer sacrifices to him 
in an indirect manner. In the beginning Jo-uk created a great 


white cow, which came up out of the Nile, and was called Deung 
Adok. The white cow gave birth to a son called Kola, who begat 
Umak Ra, or Omaro, who begat Makwa, or Wad Maul, who begat 
Ukwa, who became king. One day Ukwa saw two maidens, the 
lower parts of whose bodies were like those of a crocodile, come 
up out of the river, and after a time, during which they refused to 
have anything to do with him, he went up to them and laid hold 
of them. They screamed, and their father, who was part man 
and part crocodile, came up out of the river to see what was 
happening; he raised no objection to the proceedings, and Ukwa 
married the two maidens, who were called Nik-kieya and Ung- 
wad. Nik-kieya gave birth to two sons and three daughters, her 
eldest being Nyakang (or, Nik-kang or Nyakam), and Ung-wad to 
one son only, called Ju or Bworo. Meanwhile Ukwa married a 
third wife, whose eldest child, a son, was called Duwat. When 
Ukwa died Nyakang and Duwat quarrelled about the succession 
to the throne. In the end Duwat seems to have succeeded Ukwa, 
for Nyakang, and his sisters Ad-Dui, Ari Umker, and Bun Yung, 
his brother Umoi, and his half brother Ju, got wings and flew to 
the south of the Sobat River, which they found to be in the 
possession of the Arabs. These they drove out, and then founded 
a kingdom of their own. Nyakang, however, wished to people 
his country with men and women, and this he did by creating 
them from crocodiles, hippopotami, wild beasts, and cattle. So 
soon as the men and women appeared all their parents, the animals, 
were destroyed, so that the human race might never learn what its 
origin was. 

The men and women who were made from the animals are 
called Shulli, or Shulla, i.e., common people, to distinguish them 
from Nyakang's descendants, who rule and perform all priestly 
functions to this day. Nik-kieya, the mother of Nyakang, is 
immortal. She usually appears in the form of a crocodile, and 
sometimes carries off a human being or an animal ; this mark of 
her favour is much esteemed in a family. The great god Jo-uk 
is worshipped through Nyakang, and sacrifices offered to the latter 
are supposed to be received by Jo-uk, the father and source of all 
life, and of evil as well as of good. Jo-uk is omnipresent, and to 
him the dead go when they leave this world. In every village 



is a temple of Jo-uk, only it is called the " house of Nyakang," and 
sacrifices are made 10 the god once a year, at the beginning of the 
rainy season. An animal is slain with a holy spear, and the flesh 
is divided among the people, and cooked and eaten. The twenty- 
six kings who have reigned over the Shilluks from Nyakang 
are, according to Father Banholzer and the Rev. J. K. Giffen, as 
follows : — i. Dag (Dok). 2. Odage. 3. Kudit. 4. Dokodo (Dak- 
kode). 5. Boj (Boiwj). 6. Tugo (Tuka). 7. Nya Dwai (Nya dwi). 
8. Nya Ababdo. g. Muko (Mo Kao). to. Nya to (Nya ta). 
11. Nyakong (Nik Kang). 12. Okun (Ukon). 13. Nya Gwatse 

1 *&&$2pp-3S&*'» 

"y--)3 Uj %; 


[From Lepsius, Denkm'dler, Abtb. VI Bl. . 

(Nkwaji). 14. Nyadok. 15. Akwot. 16. Ababdo. 17. Awin. i.s. 
Akoj. ki. Nedok (Nyadok). 20. Kwad Keir (Kwat Ki). 21. Ajang 
(Ajung). 22. (.win Kun (Kwoe Kon). 23. Yor Adodoit (Yur). 
24. Akol. 25. Kur Wad Nedok. 26. Fadiet Wad Kwad Keir. 

LANGUAGES. The language most commonly used throughout 
the Egyptian Sudan is Arabic, the principal language of the 
Southern Semitic Group. A useful work which will serve as a 
guide to Sudani Arabic has recently been written by Captain 

1 These facts are taken from (iiffen, The Egyptian Sudan, London, 1905 ; and 
from Father Banholzer s Report, summarized by Gleichen, op. cit., 1.. p, 197 ft". 


^l|fr£' ; 



Amery, and published by the Government of the Sudan. 1 Koelle's 
Polyglotta Africana may also be consulted. The Nubian language 
has, in a great measure, been reduced to writing by Lepsius, 
Nubische Grammatik, Berlin, 1880; and by Reinisch, Die Nuba 
Sprache, I. Grammatik und Texte ; II. Worterbuch (German- 


Nubian, and Nubian-German), Vienna, 1879, 8vo ; and by Riippell, 
Reisen, 1829. On the " Beja Languages," spoken in the Eastern 
Desert, see Almkvist, Grammatik (Hadanduwa), Upsala, 1880 ; 
Hartm'ann, Die Bejah Zeii. Ethnog., 1882. The language of the 

1 English-Arabic Vocabulary, Cairo, 1905. 


Barta has been discussed by Beltrame in 11 Sennaar e la Sciangallah, 
Verona, 1879; Marno, Reisen in flock Seuuaar, 1870-71; Salt. 
Account of a Voyage to Abyssinia, London, [809 ; and several of 
the dialects in their district are also briefly treated of by Marno, 
Riippell, and Munzinger. Valuable contributions to the study of 
the languages of the Niam-Niams, Shilluks, Nuwers, Dinkas, 
Barts, Bongos, Golis, Gurs, &c, x\ ill be found in Schweinfurth, 
Linguistische Ergebnisse {Zeit. far Etnnol.), Berlin, 1873: Heart 
of Africa, London. [873; Petherick, Egypt, Sadat, and Central 
Africa, London, [853-58; Long, C. C, Central Africa, London, 
: J. C. Mutterrutzner, Die Dinka-Spracke in Central Afrika, 
Brixen, [866; Thiermd t rchen % Z.D.M.G., Band xxi., [867; Die 
Sprache der Bart ,Text und Worterbuch, Brixen, [867; G. Beltrame, 
Gram, e Vocab. delta Lingua Peuka, Rome, [882 ; J I Finnic Bianco 
c i Dcnka, Verona, i« s > s i ; Kueppell, Reisen in A'ubieu, A'ordofau, 
cS:c., Frankfort, 1829 ; Brun-Rollet, Excursion dans la Region 
Superieure du Nil {Bulletin dc la Soc. a apAie), iv., s<t. ix., 

1855; Le Nil Blanc et le Soudan. Jltudes sur T Afriquc Ceutrale, 
Paris, 1N55: F. Muiler, Die Sprache der Bari (Grammar, Text, 
and Vocabulary), Vienna, [864; Die Musik-Sprachc in Central- 
Afrika, Vienna, [886; K. W. Felkin and C. T. Wilson, Uganda 
and the Egyptian Sudan, London, [882 : Miani, Viaggi celebri, 
Milan. [878 ; Antinori, // Marchese Orazio Antinori e la Spedi- 
:ione Geografica Italiana neW Affrica Equatoriale, Perugia, 1 
Schuver, Reisen im oberen Nilgebiet, Gotha, [86 

As regards the inscriptions written in hieroglyphics which .arc; 
found at various places in the Sudan, some are written in the 
language of ancient Egypt, and some in a language which has not 
hitherto been satisfactorily identified. The oldest of the former 
were inscribed under the superintendence of Egyptian priests 
and officials who were well acquainted with the language, but the 
later inscriptions of this class are clearly copies made with more 
or less slavish fidelity from documents which the copyists did not 
understand. The latter class are written with pictorial characters 
similar to the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics, and seem to be 
partly syllabic and partly alphabetic, and in what has been called 
a "demotic alphabetic writing." According to Lepsius {Nubische 
Granimatik, p. exxi.), tin- language in which these inscriptions are 


written is that of the ancestors of the Begas, or Bejas, and the 
demotic alphabetic writing is one of the six kinds of writing which 
Eutychius, Patriarch of Alexandria, enumerates, and calls" Nubi." 
Modern writers for convenience' sake have named it " Meroitic." 
Dr. H. Brugsch made an attempt to decipher some of the Meroitic 
inscriptions, and came to the conclusion that the language was 
akin to the speech of the Nubas. 1 The most recent investigator 
of the question is Dr. H. Schaefer." 

Acgyptische Zeitschrift, vol. xxv., 1887, pp. 1 ff., 75 ff. 
- See Die Aethiopische Konigsinschrift des Berliner Museums, Berlin, 1901 ; 
and see Erman, Aegyptische Zeitschrift, vol. xxxv., 1897, p. 152. 




Two days after the defeat of the forces of the Khalifa and the 
capture of his town of Omdurman on September 2nd, 1898, the 
Sirdar, Lord Kitchener, and his troops crossed over to Khartum 
and hoisted the British and Egyptian flags on the flagstaffs which 
had been erected on the ruined Palace, wherein General Gordon 
was killed in January, 1885. This act, which proclaimed to all 
people that the rule of the Khalifa was dead, and that the 
sovereignty of the Sudan had passed into the hands of those who 
intended to make Khartum the capital of the country, was followed 
by a religious service of a most impressive and solemn character, 
in which representatives of every branch of the British and 
Egyptian Annies which had taken part in the campaign, returned 
thanks to Almighty God for the victory which He had given them. 
The manner in which the Anglo- Egyptian conquest was celebrated 
is unparalleled in the history of the Sudan for at least six thousand 
years. The victories of the ancient Egyptians and of the kings of 
Napata, the kings of Me roe, the Arabs, the Turks, Muhammad 
'All's son Isma'il, and his son-in-law Muhammad the Defterdar, to 
say nothing of those of Muhammad Ahmad, the mystic and false 
Mahdi, and of his successor the Khalifa 'Abd- Allah, were followed 
by murder and arson, and by the perpetration of atrocities of the 
most wanton and terrible character. Human blood was shed like 
water, property of all kinds was destroyed, and the energies of the 
conquerors were devoted to the burning of water-wheels, the 
destruction of crops, the raiding of cattle and the abduction of 
girls and young women. When they had turned towns and 
districts into deserts they marched away. 

The restoration of the Sudan to Egypt was marked by none of 
thing . and the natives who \\ witnesses of this fact 



perceived that a new power as well as a new kingdom had 
been born in the land. The awful, but still merciful slaughter, 
which that power had inflicted on the tyrannical and barbarous 
Bakkara, or "Cattle-men," was proof positive that it was a 
very real one, and as the news travelled south along the banks 
of the rivers, in that swift and mysterious way with which all 
who know the East are familar, the natives everywhere rejoiced 
in their overthrow. With the capture of Omdurman, however, 
Mahdiism was not destroyed, for according to Muhammadan 
views the movement was still incarnate in the Khalifa, and 
although he was in flight with a miserable remnant of his 
forces, the influence of his extraordinary personality was a factor 
in the situation which had to be reckoned with. More potent 
still was the fact that the body of the Mahdi himself still lay in his 
tomb, for so long as it remained intact the place where it rested 
would form a centre where religious and political fanatics, and 
renegades of every kind, could meet and conspire against the new 
Government. Orthodox Muhammadans of all sects advised that 
it should be exhumed and destroyed, for they knew well the 
peculiar views which followers of the Mahdi would hold about his 
body and its resting-place, and every one competent to judge will 
approve of the steps which Lord Kitchener's officers took to bring 
about the destruction of both, and especially of the burning of the 
body. The fatalistic Moslems realised, when they saw this done, 
that its destruction had been written on the Tablet of Fate in 
heaven, and thus it became clear to them that the Mahdi was an 
impostor, and only one of the many false prophets who have risen 
among them. The shells fired by the gunboats had only partially 
wrecked the dome of the Mahdi's tomb, and Mahdiists believed 
that it was the power of their dead leader which prevented the 
guns from doing it further harm. To destroy this belief in the 
power of the Mahdi was the Sirdar's duty. 

As soon as the Sirdar had sent down the river the British con- 
tingent, he began to look round on the towns of Omdurman and 
Khartum, and wherever he cast his eyes he found ruin and 
desolation. Omdurman, the seat of the Mahdi's kingdom, was a 
filthy town some six miles long and in places nearly three miles 
wide, and was filled with hundreds of festering cess-pits which 

vol. ii. 449 g g 


poisoned the whole place. Khartum was in ruins, and it became 
clear that an entirely new town would have to be created. For 
hundreds of miles north and south the cultivable land was over- 
grown with halfa grass and thorn bushes, the irrigation channels 
were choked, the water-wheels destroyed, the oxen that worked 
them had been slain and eaten, and for the past dozen years or 
more the palm trees had been neglected. The trade which had 
formerly been carried on along the main caravan routes had been 
well-nigh destroyed, the able-bodied male portion of the popu- 
lation had turned brigand, life and property were nowhere safe in 
the Sudan. law and order had been abolished, and districts which 
had been formerly populous and thriving had become so many 
barren wildernesses. To this pass had the much vaunted rule of 
Muhammad 'Ali and his descendants reduced the country, and the 
revolt of the Mahdi was the logical result of their rule and 

The hearts of men less stout than those of the Sirdar and his 
devoted band must have quailed when they saw the magnitude of 
the task which awaited them, but fear formed no part of their com- 
position, and thev set about the work of the reconstruction of the 
Sudan kingdom with an energy which knew no limits. In solving 
the problems of war, as well as those of peace, which awaited 
them, they have signally displayed the courage, tact, common- 
sense and justice, which have earned for the British among the 
natives the name of" white men." The Sudan has been ruled by 
the British for about eight years, and it will not be out of place 
to consider briefly what they have done in that country during 
this period, and the various works which they have undertaken in 
connection with its development. 

The re-conquest of the Sudan cost in ail ££2,354,354.' Of this 
sum ££725,641 was spent on the Dongola campaign in 1896, the 
Wad i-I.l a 1 fa-Khartum railway cost ££300,000, and the balance, 
££1,328,713, was absorbed by the subsequent military operations. 
And when we consider the magnitude of the results gained, it 
must be evident to all that better value for money was never 
obtained. From first to last the strictest, nay, the most absolutely 

1 Lord Cromer's most recent estimate is £ £2,412,000, of which ££780,000 
was paid by the British Government. 



penurious economy was practised during the Expedition, there 
was no waste, and it may be added that there were no comforts, 
hardly even necessaries, either for officers or men, from the Sirdar 
himself to the private in a Black Battalion. The natives were 
surprised at the penurious administration of the Egyptian army, 
and in 1897 I heard many men wish for the return of the days of 
the Gordon Relief Expedition, during which money was poured 
out like water. When the Expedition was ended and Omdurman 
captured, the same policy of economy was pursued, with what 
success is evident from the following facts. The revenue of the 
Sudan was in 1898 ££35,000 and the expenditure ££235,000, and 
the deficit of £E200,ooo was made good by the Egyptian Treasury. 
Since that time the revenue has increased steadily, and each 
year the sum which the Egyptian Treasury has been called on to 
furnish has been proportionately less ; here are the figures as they 
appear in Lord Cromer's Reports : — 



and Military 



































The revenue of the Sudan is derived from taxes levied on land, 
houses, date trees, animals, boats, &c, from Customs dues, from 
royalties on ivory, &c, from tribute paid by the various nomad 
tribes, and from fees paid for game, liquor and fire-arms 

Count Gleichen gives the following {Handbook, p. 4) 

i r EAR. 















1 90 1 



387 ,660 




369 267 











licences, from stamps of various kinds, from fees paid by litigants to 
the courts, from fees paid for the use of ferries, markets, slaughter- 
houses, &c. ; and from the sale of lands which are the property of 
the Government. The land tax has varied from time to time, 
but, speaking generally, the tax on the best land is 60 piastres 
-per fad dan ( = 103808 acre), and on the least good 10 piastres. 
The incidence of this tax is carefully watched, and due allowance 
is made for the varying quality and position of the land in the 
different provinces. The land tax is generally paid in money, but 
sometimes, for various reasons, it is paid in kind, one-tenth 
( l uskur) of the crops being regarded as a fair equivalent. The 
house tax is practically one-twelfth of the annual rental value; it 
was fixed according to the ancient usage current in the province 
ofDongola, The date tax is 2 piastres on each tree, whether 
male or female. The tax on a camel is 20 piastres, on a horse 3, 
on a mule or donkey 3, on a sheep 1, on cattle 5 piastres per 
head, and on each goat half a piastre. Under the Dervish rule 
the tax on a camel was from 1,200 to 1,500 piastres, i.e., from 
£\2 6s. to £15 ys bd.; on cattle from 900 to 1,350 piastres per 
head ; and on sheep and goats 100 piastres per head ! The boat 
tax is two piastres per ardeb (i.e., 300 lbs.) on the carrying capacity 
of the craft. Game licences are of two kinds, A and B, the 
former costing £E25, and the latter ££5. A liquor licence costs 
£E5o, and a licence to carry fire-arms from 25 to 50 piastres. 
Gum, ivory, ostrich feathers, and india-rubber paid a royalty of 
20 per cent, ad valorem to the Government. In 1904 the royalty 
on ivory was reduced to 10 per cent., and as a result the value of 
the ivory exported rose from £E22,ooo in 1903 to ££42,000 in 1905. 
When we know that the reduction of the duty has resulted in the 
wholesale slaughter of elephants, the Homr tribe killing no less 
than eighty-seven animals in one day, it is impossible not to 
regret the abolition of the Government monopoly. The old tax 
of from 300 to 500 piastres on every water-wheel has, most 
properly, been abolished. From Omdurman northwards the 
Mahdl and the Khalifa continued, substantially, the system of 
taxation which was in force before their rule, but in the southern 
provinces their will alone was law. Thus the province between 
the White and Blue Niles was made to deliver 100,000 ardebs of 



grain in Omdurman, but as the collectors took care to provide for 
the private wants of themselves and their followers, it happened 
that nearly 300,000 ardebs were drawn from this one tract alone. 1 
At the present time the taxes are collected honestly, and the natives 
have begun to realize that they do not have to pay them two or 
three times over; and each year, it is said, the tribes who own 
no land, but live by their flocks and herds, pay more readily the 
tribute which is laid upon them. 

From the Statement of Accounts of the Sudan Government for 
the year 1905, published by Colonel E. E. Bernard (Sudan 
Gazette, No. 95, 1906), we see that the revenue from the Provinces 
was ££216,579, and from the other Services ££448,832, i.e., 
££665,411. The contribution by the Egyptian Government for 
civil expenditure was ££379,763, therefore the total revenue was 
££1,045,174. The expenditure for the year was : — 



Total £E6 3 i,88i 

The cost of maintenance of the Army in the Sudan was 
££186,757, and there was, -therefore, a surplus of ££176,536. 

The following extracts, which give the details of the receipts 
and show how the Revenue is obtained, and the receipts and 
expenditures of the Provinces, are of considerable interest : — 


Land Tax : — 

a. Taxed Land . 

b. Ushur (Tithe) 


Date Tax .... 


Boat Tax .... 


Animal Tax .... 


House Tax .... 


Road Tax .... 

Carried forward 

1 Sir 

W. Garstin, Egypt, No. 5 (1899), p. 24 




• 48,970* 

• 30,453 






. * 



- the millims are omitted. 




Brought forward 



Royalties : — 

<?. Gum .... 


L. Ivory .... 

4> 6 5^ 

c. Feathers 


d. India Rubber 


e. Other Articles 




Tribute from Nomad Tribc.^ . 



Woods and Forests 



By Sales: — 

a. Government Lands 


b. Salt .... 


c. Various 




Customs Dues 






Stamped Paper 

1. 000 


Licences : — 

a. Liquor .... 


b. Fire-arms 


c. Auctioneers and Pedlars 


d. Game .... 


t. Prospecting . 


f. Various .... 



Slaughtering Dues 


1 6. 

Market Fees .... 



Court Fees .... 



Fines ..... 



Rent of Government Lands . 


Contribution to Pension Funds 



Mehkema Receipts 


Tax on Treasury Chest Remit- 

tances .... 


Commission on Postal Money 

Orders .... 



Sale of Postage Stamps 
Carried forward 





Brought forward 



Telegrams .... 



Transport : — 

a. Steamers and Boats 

• 104,643 

b. Railways 

• 172,249 






Refund by Egyptian Ministry 


Contribution by Egyptian Government . 

Grand Total 

Total 665,387 

. £Ei,045,i50 

Statement of the Revenues and Expenditures of 
Provinces and Departments in 1905. 



Bahr al Ghazfil 
Blue Nile 
Haifa . 
Red Sea 
White Nile 
Upper Nile 






















Civil Secretary . 





Legal .... 





Education . 





Agriculture and Lands 





Game Preservation 





Carried forward 

226,645 078 

275,085 335 


Brought forward 


General Central Ser 


Steamers and Boats 

Posts and Telegraphs 


Khartum Town . 

Refund by Egyptian 
Ministry of War 

Contribution by 
Egyptian Govern- 

Governor - General's 

Inspector - General's 

Finance Department . 


Survey ,, 

Cattle Plague Service 

Public Works 

Grand Total 


£E. Mil. 

226,645 078 

1,002 417 

13,248 584 

97,989 063 

109,847 751 

30,532 230 

174,962 466 

9,785 7io 

i,397 884 


1,045,174 [83 

Egyptian War Dept, for maintenance 
of Ann}- in Sudfm .... 

Surplus 1905 passed to Reserve Fund . 

Grand Total 


£K. Mil 


14,085 869 

27,365 74i 

6,359 670 

87,516 385 

30,442 e^s 

[26,225 623 

15,674 532 

2,416 948 

[7,602 377 

14,567 126 

9,078 056 

1.567 462 

4'), 761 516 

681,880 989 

176,536 194 

£1,045,174 [83 

The Reserve Fund of ££445, 229 has been formed thus : — 
I. Credit. £E. 

Surplus of 1902 ....... 20,454 

Surplus of 1903 ....... 42,307 

Carried forward 




Brought forward 
Credit from Egypt in 1904 

Surplus of 1904 

Credit from Egypt in 1905 

Surplus of 1905 

Credit from Egypt for Public Works in 1906 



• 140,932 


• 176,536 





( )|'i;\kd. 


. Debit. 




Partial cost of two Evaporators 20,454 



Telegraph (Tawfikiya to Kika 

) 14,650 

Steamers for Ferry . 




Pearl Fishery Service 




Roads and Communications 




Water Supply Works 


Tawfikiya Dockyard 








Law Courts 



Cadastral Survey 




Apparatus for Gordon College 

< ?>n 



Public Works in 1905 



Omdurman Tramline 




Wing to Gordon College . 




Expropriation of Land 




Cattle Plague Service in 1905 




Electric Lighting 




Engine for Stern Wheeler 



Khartum Roads in 1905 . 




Telephone Extensions 




Telegraph (Tong to Mvolo) 




Relaying Khartum Tramline 




Quarters at Ad-Dfimar 




Carried forward 





( Opened. 


£E. M11. 








J* ',609 



















Brought forward 
Special Grants to Provinces 
Telegraph (Rumbek to Bor) 
Conversion of Haifa Hotel into 


Contingencies .... 
Various Services in 1906 . 

Unpledged Balance .... 

Grand Total . 

One of the most urgent needs in connection with the develop- 
ment of the country is Easy MEANS of CONVEYANCE both for men 
and goods. The natives have from time immemorial used the 
river for this purpose as much as possible, but the mass of floating 
vegetation called sadd or sudd, which choked the river south of 
Lake No, and the Cataract of Shabluka and the cataracts 
between Abu Hamed and Haifa, have always prevented the 
establishment of regular transport from the Sudan to Egypt for 
merchandise in large quantities by river, at certain seasons of 
the year. As a result, the native merchants of Dar Fur and 
Kordofan sent their goods and marched their slave-caravans by 
the " Arba'in ' Road," through the Oases of the Western Desert 
to Asyut or Cairo, and, in order to shorten the journey by cutting 
off the bends and windings of the river, merchants who traded 
with the natives on the Blue Nile sent their wares from some 
town such as Kiis, or Dai Aw. or Korosko, through the Eastern 
Desert, vtd Abu l.lamed and Berber. On the White Nile, i.e., 
the Nile between Khartum and Lake No, the only obstacle to 
navigation is at the ford of Abu Z&d, where in years of very low 
Nile a portage is necessary. On the Upper Nile, now that 
the sudd has been removed, there is a clear water-way to 
Gondokoro. The Blue Nile is only navigable for steamers for 

1 I.e., the " Forty Road,' : because the journey along it from one end to the 
other occupied forty days. 



six months of the year, and the Atbara is useless as a water-way 
the whole year through, but several of the rivers in the Bahr al- 
Ghaztil Province have been ascended in steamers for very 
considerable distances from their mouths. When funds become 
available the Government will, no doubt, place steel boats and 
barges of shallow draught upon these rivers, and the development 
of trade will be greatly stimulated. A small steamer has been 
already placed on the Gur River, with the view of opening up 
communication for trade purposes with the French Congo, but 
the Raffili Falls at present obstruct the navigation to and from 
French territory, and nothing can be done until the rocks are 
blasted away. It is to be hoped that money may be forthcoming 
to extend and improve the Government Steamer Service in the 
Sudan, and that Commander Bond, R N., may be able to increase 
still further the benefits which his sound judgment, unosten- 
tatious work, and capable hands have bestowed upon the Sudan. 

After the rivers, the commonest and most natural means of 
communication are the Roads. Purely native roads in the Sudan, 
as in Turkey in Asia, leave much to be desired. They are narrow, 
winding, and tortuous, and the natives would rather make their 
beasts travel double the distance than remove the obstacles in the 
way of their progress. During the last few years the authorities 
have taken the matter seriously in hand, and Lord Cromer 
reports that there are over 4,000 miles of good roads now in the 
Sudan. The roads are tracks thirty feet wide, more or less 
straight, cleared of trees and stumps when they pass through 
forests or bush, defined by stones in the open country, and with 
ramps into and out of the kkors. Along the 2,550 miles of road 
opened in 1905, some 121 wells were made, thirty-three of them 
by private enterprise. A road for wheeled traffic between the 
White and Blue Niles has been begun by Mr. Gorringe, who has 
already completed the section between Ruseres and Gebel Agadi, 
a distance of twenty-four miles. He is now extending it to Renk, 
and when completed it will bring the southern districts of the 
Province of Sennaar into communication with a water-way open 
at all seasons of the year. 

In connection with the roads of the Sudan it is important to 
note the very thorough exploration of the country which has been 



made by the civil and military officials during the last few years. 
All the old native trade routes and caravan roads have been 
travelled over, the towns and villages, and the country between 
them, carefully described, the distances from place to place 
measured, and every point of interest, and every piece of informa- 
tion, which was thought likely to be of use to administrative 
officials and travellers, have been noted. Besides the old roads 
new country has been diligently explored, and new routes found 
out, and the probability and possibility of the development of 
trade along them have always been kept steadily in view. This 
most useful work has been unostentatiously performed by Capt. 
H. F. S. Amery, Capt. F. H. Armstrong, Mr. J. Baird, Capt. A. B. 
Bethel, R. A., C- Sergeant Boardman, Major W. A. Boulnois, Major 
Bulkeley Johnson, Capt. Y. Bunbury, Mr. Jennings Bramley, 
Capt. Bower, I.S.C., J. Butler Bey, Sorel Cameron Bey, Mr. E. 
Bonham-Carter, Capt. R. C. Carter, Colonel Collinson, Capt. 
T. Conolly, Mr. James Currie, Director of the Gordon College, 
Major de Rougemont, Capt. Dugmore, Lieut. H. L. H. Fell, K.N.. 
Capt. C. E. Foster, Colonel Friend, Count Gleichen, Major C. W. 
Gwynn, D.S.O., R.E., Colonel Gorringe, Capt. H. R. Headlam, 
Colonel St. George Henry, Capt. H. Hodgson, Lieut. L. C. Jackson, 
R.E., Capt. Kenrick, (apt. C. Leigh, Capt. C. H. Leveson, Capt. 
C. 11. Lewin, R.F.A., Mr. C E. Lyall, Capt. H. 1). W. Lloyd, 
(apt. H. G. Lyons. R.E., Colonel B. Mahon, C.B., D.S.O., Capt. 
McKerrell, Capt. E. G. Meyricke, R.E., Colonel Mitford, Capt. 
H. H. Morant, Mr. R. E. More, Capt. J. R. CTConnell, Capt. A. C. 
Parker, Capt. A. Percival, Capt. R. I. Rawson, Major Powell, R.E., 
Major H. Y. Ravenscroft, Capt. C. Roberts, R.A., Capt. G. J. 
Ryan, Major G. de H. Smith, Colonel W. S. Sparkes, C.M.G., 
Capt. X. M. Smyth. Y.C, Major E. A. Stanton, Governor of 
Khartum, Lord Sudeley, Colonel the Hon. M. G. Talbot, R.E., 
Capt. A. A. C. Taylor, Lieut. A. M. Taggart, Capt. C. H. 
Town-end, Major Tudway, Major E. B. Wilkinson, Capt. H. H. 
Wilson, Capt. P. Wood, and others. 

The " Routes " compiled by the above have been carefully 
edited, in some cases with additions, by Count Gleichen in the 
second volume of his Hafidbook, and many of them are to be 
obtained separately at the Sudan Office in Cairo. A number of 



other " Routes " have been compiled by the editor himself and 
printed in the same volume, and this collection of " Itineraries" 
must always be regarded as one of the most important pieces of 
work done by British Officers in the Sudan. All the useful facts 
collected by earlier travellers, such as Baker, Junker, and 
Schweinfurth, have been drawn upon, and there are many 
evidences that the information which has been collected by 
sportsmen and others in the Sudan and Western Abyssinia 
during the last six years has been examined and sifted by Count 

Side by side with the making of " Routes " the survey of the 
Sudan has been carried on under the capable direction of Colonel 
the Hon. M. G. Talbot, R.E., and, as the result of the work of 
himself and of his assistants, the Sudan Government has been 
able to publish a series of accurate maps of the country on a scale 
of about four miles to the inch. It is proposed to issue in all 
about 140 sheets, and of this number more than fifty have been 
already published ; each sheet covers one degree of latitude, 1 and 
one and a half degrees of longitude. The country of the Sudan 
was never so well known by any of its conquerors in the long 
course of its history, and the British are the first among them to 
survey it and to make maps of it. 

From what has been said above it is clear that if the Sudan is 
to be developed, other means of communication must be found 
besides the Nile and the roads, and for nearly thirty years before 
it was carried out the idea of connecting Khartum with Cairo by 
railway was in the air. 2 The first section of the railway to 
Upper Egypt ended at Asyut, about 210 miles from Cairo, and 
from this town travellers to Khartum usually went by river to 
Korosko, crossed the desert to Abu Hamed, and the rest of the 
journey they performed partly by camel and partly by boat. 
Many travellers preferred to take ship to Sawakin, and then to 
cross the desert to Berber, and so on by camel or boat, or both, 
to Khartum. A few hardy travellers with abundant means and 
leisure followed the course of the river the whole way from Cairo 

1 For the list of the sheets already published, see Gleichen, op. cit., i., p. 349. 

2 The first to propose it was Sa'id Pasha in i860. Surveys were made by 
Mougel by Messis. Walker and Bray in 1865, and by Mr. J. Fowler in 1871. 



\ fit to Khartum, but it is obvious that the waste of time 
and money involved in such a journey prevented it from being 
generally adopted by merchants and officials. The administration 
of the Sudan was carried on by means of the telegraph, of which 
there were several lines in the country. Thus there was the main 
line from Cairo to Khartum, another from Khartum to Kordofan, 
a third from Khartum to F&zogtt, a fourth from Berber to Saw&kin, 
and smaller lines connected Khartum and Berber with Masaw'a, 
Saw akin, Kasala, Kallabat, Kadaref, and many other places in 
the Eastern Sudan. 

In a fashion this arrangement worked fairly well, so far as the 
transmission of the orders of the Government were concerned, just 
as it does in Turkey in Asia at the present time, but a telegraph 
system cannot supply a Government with all the information it 
ought to possess, and the first to realize this to the fullest extent 
was Isma'il Pasha. This Khedive determined to quicken the 
means of transport between Khartum and Haifa by building a 
railway on the east bank of the Nile, intending it to proceed 
through the Provinces of Sukkot and Mahass to Dongola, thence 
to Merawi, and on to Khartum via Berber and Shendi. A survey 
of the country was made, contracts were signed, and work began 
at Haifa in 1877. In course of time the railway reached Sarras, 
33 miles from Haifa, and the road-bed was made for about 40 
miles more ; the gauge was 3 ft. 6 in. The route chosen is, how- 
ever, said by experts to have been a wrong one, and the object of 
the surveyors appears to have been to make the undertaking cost 
as much money as possible. The gradients are far too steep, and 
near the Arobikd] Wells and other places they are positively 
dangerous. The cost of the railway per mile was very high, and 
the Khedive decided, some say at the request of General Gordon, 
to stop the work. Even the section of the line which was laid 
was never properly worked, and many of the locomotives ordered 
for it were never put under steam. In 1887 I saw several of them 
still standing on the river bank, tied up in sheets of native calico, 
and scattered about in the mud, close to the water's edge, were 
numbers of the machines used in repairing locomotives; these were 
intended to be placed in the workshops which were never built. 
The decision to stop making the railway at Sarras was an unfor- 



tunate one; had the line been continued to Akasha ('Ukasha) it 
would have been useful in bringing down dates from Sukkot, and 
a reasonable tariff would have led to a development of trade. 

The line from Haifa to Sarras remained utterly useless until 
1884, when the Royal Engineers of the Gordon Relief Expedition 
set it in order, and, having repaired the road-bed and continued it 
to 'Ukasha, used it for military transport. When the British 
retired from the Sudan in the spring of 1885, the Dervishes came 
north, tore up the rails for about 22 miles, and carried away as 
many of them, with bolts and fishplates, as they thought they 
required. Some of the sleepers they used for building huts for 
themselves, and others they burned to warm themselves at night, 
and to cook their food. In 1887 I saw a number of the " sleeper" 
huts made by the Dervishes and the remains of the charred wood, 
and to several places in the Cataract portions of the line, which 
the Dervishes could not take to pieces, had been dragged bodily 
from the road-bed, and thrown down the rocks near the water's 
edge. Curiously enough, the Dervishes did not interfere with the 
portion of the road-bed, 22 miles long, which Isma'il's engineers 
made beyond Sarras. Between 1885 and 1896 the line from 
Haifa to Sarras was just kept in working order and nothing more. 
The engines were old and in a dangerous condition, and there was 
no rolling stock worth mentioning. In 1896, when the Dongola 
Expedition was decided upon, the Royal Engineers once more 
took the railway in hand, 1 and the works which they carried out 
on it were of such a comprehensive character that they may be 
said practically to have rebuilt it. During the expedition the line 
was extended to Kerma, about 201 miles from Haifa, and thus we 
see that the length of the extension added to the old Halfa-Sarras 
line by the British was about 170 miles. The extension was of 
course hastily built, but it did splendid work, under the care and 
superintendence of a band of young Royal Engineer officers, 
among whom may be mentioned Lieutenants E. P. C. (now Sir 
Percy) Girouard, D.S.O., G. B. Macauley, A. G. Stevenson, H. L. 
Pritchard, H. A. Micklem, G. C. M. Hall, E. C. A. Newcombe, 
and R. B. D. Blakeney. For three or four years after the capture 

1 Lord Kitchener actually began to build a railway from Korosko to Abu 
Hamed, but lie abandoned the scheme and made his line start from Haifa. 




From a plan by Sir E. Percy C. Cirouanl, K.C.M.O. 

of Omdurman the Ker- 
ma line was regularly 
worked, but unfortu- 
nately at a loss, and in 
1902, whilst the working 
expenses amounted to 
/'Kj^oo, the receipts 
from paying traffic were 
only ££3,526. The line 
was in a very bad con- 
dition, and as a large 
sum of money would 
have been required to 
repair it thoroughly, it 
was decided to close it. 
In 1 90 3 the rails be- 
tween Kerma and Kosha 
were taken up and sent 
on to Atbara to be used 
in the construction of 
the Red Sea Railway, 
and the sleepers were 
stacked at Kosha. At 
the present time the 
railways in the Stidan 
are: — 

IJalia to Kosha. about 
108 miles long. The 
stations between the t\\ < > 
termini are : Sarra 
miles from Haifa, Murrat 
47 miles, Ambik<M Wells 
(>4 miles, and 'Ukfisha 
86 miles. 


Ha 1. 1 a to Khartum, 
about 575 miles long. 



l:ti° J|rV^.No.i 

J7 ■ 3 "\ 

/PSarras 33 

l»* |» d .J4° 


1 JiyMurat 47 X 

'UfSft 1 ' 1 * 


. ^KP^mbigol 64 

77\<.r Gebil.Nuhoaaiwt 

■ r2/ 
>^\kasheh S0 


703&NO.5 'j^oMurrat Wells 


«eW/feAe/S§j f Gebel Mindara 
726&No.6 Wells 



M »r/.. 


c x 



so 3 


/it jj \N0.9 

/ %' ■< W9 \ <s Gebel Mognii) 


VS j?72\No. 10 Junction 

v^Ji^-VjAbu Hamed 

£//& 24*fcDekheish 



DakhfiuVj/-^ ^\ 

»5^??' Abu DistpoY 

li 5 " 

\ Gebel 

vOr ^—^ Gebel el Kirbehan \V 
«,// Birti \\ on? 
y' f ShereikhV^ 7 


j^X m .'.":••.. Barkal 

,Kareima 220 Kilom. Abu SillemO 

1MEROWE 378 \ J 

V)01dDongola J 

**<"■*%%. Abadiafc 
Vi. 343 W 

V^ ! ^OKorti 

°A 3(j;)\ . 

— . 

D c b b aO^N^^a****^ 


\ 363 a 





Zeida^ 04 

Map of the 



Aliab/f 47C 



cale ofEjiglish Miles 

M IT* 

Pyramids of Merujl:-: 1 




100 Kabushialf44S 

Tarauma# 60 


Wadi Haifa to Khartoum the 



s denote distance in English 

_w*-N^^> . 477 


measured along the Railway. 

Shabluka^jy^% Q °* ^ 

From No 

10 Junction to Kareima distance 

Catamctjf -S^/. "* **«? 


shewn in Kilometres. 

Wad Raml}5547 *^ '^ 


Gubba»557 " i0 
BKadaru 565 


fiHALFAYA (Khartoum North) 

\ ^\ 



1 / V 



|»« { las'V 34° 



[From a copy supplied by Capt. E. C. Midwinter, R.E. 

465 H h 


The construction of this railway is one of the greatest of the works 
which have been done by the British in the Sudan. When the 
advance to Dongola was effected in 1896, the idea was mooted 
that the Sirdar should proceed from Merawi to Matamma across 
the Bayiida Desert, and thence to Omdurman, and for a time it 
seemed likely that the further advance of the Frontier Field Force 

l ^ ^ -A. • J j/m ulfl ^' 

immmm^L _m ^^'^^SgggggggK^^'' ' "W -,4MBHMHl 


fir / 


Wp^'i 4 


would take place by this route. The Sirdar, however, thought 
otherwise, and he determined that his battalions should go for- 
ward by the Nile, and by the Nile only ; in 1897 the places which 
he most wanted them to occupy were Abu Hamed, at the head of 
the Fourth Cataract, and Berber. The Frontier Field Force was 
already at Merawi, at the foot of this Cataract, about 140 miles 



from Abu Hamed, but the Sirdar was wondering the whole time 
if there was not some way whereby he could convey his supplies 
from Haifa to Abu Flamed direct, a distance of about 230 miles, 
instead of sending them by rail to Kerma, 201 miles, by steamer 
from Kerma to Merawi, Jjh miles more, and by camel to Abu 
Named another 140 miles, in all about 5N7 miles. At Length he 
determined to make a railway from Haifa to Abu Hamed, and this 
notwithstanding the objections raised by many engineers and 


others, who knew the desert very well, and who declared the thing 
to be an impossibility. 

No map of the desert by any competent authority existed, and 
those who had crossed it from Korosko gave contradictory 

accounts as to details, but all agreed that there were no wells 
anywhere on the route of the proposed railway, and no water, and 
that it was so full of hills that no railway could be taken across it. 
The Sirdar was unmoved by any of these objections, for he 
the Abu Hamed desert better than any one else, and he 
confident that his knowledge was correct. More likely 
than not he had ridden over every mile of it in years past, 



when he was quietly working out his plans for the reconquest 
of the Sudan. His experience in the Gordon Relief Expedition 
taught him the difficulties which a General who succeeded in 
reaching Omdurmfm would have to overcome before he got there, 
and that the greatest difficulty of all was the country and not the 
enemy. The exact route of the railway had, of course, to be 
planned by railway engineers, and a party was sent out to make 
the survey. When they returned they reported that about ioo 


miles from Haifa the country rose to a height of from 1,200 to 
1,500 feet, but that the ascent to the ridge and the descent from 
it were gradual, and that they had found a strip of "easy desert," 
which reached the whole way from Haifa to Abu Hamed, along 
which the line might be laid. They had also noted two places in 
the desert, about 77 and 126 miles from Haifa respectively, where 
they suggested that trial borings for water should be made; 
subsequently when wells were sunk there, water was found at the 
depth of 70 feet. The discovery at these places decided the route 
of the railway once and for all. 



Without delay work was begun at Haifa (the other terminus 
was actually in the possession of the Dervishes), and after May 4th, 
. when the line to Kerma actually readied that place, the whole 
of the Kerma railway battalion was sent from the Nile to the Aim 
Named desert, and the line was pushed forward with astonishing 
speed and success. 1 It advanced at the rate of over a mile a day, 

1 The following description of the making of the line, by Mr. Knight, the able 
correspondent of the Times (September 11th, 1897), is excellent: — 

". . .1 walked to the end of the work and back. As this is a record 
"railway, and the methods employed are, I believe, in some respects unique, an 
" account of the order of the operations ought to be of interest In the first 
" place, the banking of the section had been completed in the morning (for a 
"great part of the way no embankment was necessary, and the sleepers had 
"merely to be laid on the desert), so the 800 men who had been engaged on 
"this work were at the time of my arrival resting at the end of the formation, 
"to which the entire railway camp was to be moved in the evening. Still 
"further off, and out of sight, was the survey camp, under the command of 
"Lieutenant Pritchard, R.E., which 1 was unable to visit. On walking up the 
"line from the further end of the work I first met the 17c men who were 
" bringing up the sleepers from the train and laying them, and also 200 men, 
"divided into gangs of to each, who were carrying and placing in position the 
'■ heavy rails. No one shirked his work ; on the left of the line hurried up the 
"sleeper carriers, each man with two or three of these on his shoulder ; on the 
•• right of the line worked the rail carriers, nine men to each rail, swinging along 
"with a fine stride. Backwards and forwards they went until they had emptied 
"the trucks of the mile and a half of material, which they did in a remarkably 
"short space of time. Immediately behind these I found a party of thirty men 
"and boys, the former bolting the fish-plates to the newly-laid rails, the latter — 
"the son of Hatriuda, the Dervish general who fell at Firkeh, was among 
"them holding the expansion pieces. Closely following these were 100 first 
"spikers, who spiked every other sleeper only ; and a few rough straight* 
"whose work left the railway incomplete, but made it possible for the engine 
"and train I 1. So just behind these came the train of material from 

"which the first-mentioned parties were unloading the rails and sleepers as fast 
" as they could handle them, following the train and working on the portion of 
" line over which it had just passed came four fish-plate tighteners and sixty 
"final spikers, who spiked the alternate sleepers which had been left by the 
spikers working at the head of the train. Next came six rough 
" straighteners, whose work was preliminary to that of the next party of 100 
"men who were employed in lifting and packing; then came [90 men boxing and 
"tilling, and. lastly, a party of straighteners. It was a mile-long line of men 
tru( ting a railway through all the stages of the work. Every advance of 
"the train, and of the successive working parties from section to section, meant 
my hundreds of yards more of completed railway thrust into the desert. 
" <>ne realized this best when one sat on the train and felt it move on a little 
»'way every few minutes. We timed our progress and found that we were, on 



and in the month of October the telegraph brought us news at 
Merawi that on one day three miles of rail had been laid and 
spiked down. The record for the whole of that month was fifty 
miles. By May 4th about fifteen miles had been laid, and at the 
end of August the railway had reached mile 160, and on October 
31st it entered Abu Hamed. The whole line, 231 miles long, 
was laid in six months, and the work was carried out during the 
hottest months of the year. The engineer officer whose name must 
ever stand out prominently in connection with this wonderful piece 
of work is Lieut, (now Sir Percy) Girouard, who had already 
displayed the powers of organization and resource which he 
possessed in the construction of the Kerma line, and he in turn 
was most ably supported by Lieutenants Macauley, Stevenson, 
Pritchard, Polwhele, Midwinter, and others. There was no 
opening ceremony, and there were no speeches and mutual 
congratulations ; the locomotives alone did the " puffing." That 
trains should be running regularly into Abu Hamed in less than 
three months after it had been captured from the Dervishes seemed 
to be in the usual order of things ! The distance saved by the 
railway between Haifa and Abu Hamed is nearly 360 miles, and it 
enabled the Sirdar to dispense with a whole army of camels, and 
to obtain each supply of stores three weeks earlier than before. 

From Abu Hamed the railway was continued to Atbara Fort 
without difficulty, a distance of 151 miles. After the capture of 
Omdurman on September 2nd, 1898, a sum of £E300,ooo was 
granted from the Special Reserve Fund to continue the railway 
from the Atbara to Halfaya, opposite to Khartum. The Atbara 
is crossed by a girder bridge 1,050 feet long, made by an 
American firm for £6,500 ; the substructure and the making and 
placing of the cylinders were carried out by an Italian contractor. 
At the northern end of the Atbara-Khartum section a good deal 

" the average, doing eighty yards in six minutes— a rapid rate for railway 
"construction, when it is borne in mind that they are here working with only 
"one shift of men. The absolutely finishing work on each section is done by a 
"party of 150 men who are employed on the final lifting, straightening, packing 
"and boxing. They follow on about three miles behind the main working 
" parties which I have described, thus allowing several heavy trains to pass 
" over the lines and settle it before these final adjustments and corrections are 
" made. . . . : ' 



of cutting and banking had to be done, and towards the southern 
end the making of drainage cuttings and culverts cost much time 
and money. In spite of all this, the railway reached J.Ialfaya on 
December jist, 1899, and the journey from its northern to its 
southern terminus could be made with comparative comfort in 
about thirty-six hours. At the present day the time occupied on 
the journey is only twenty-six or twenty-eight hours. The train 
dc luxe, or, as the natives call it, muftakhar, i.e., the '* proud," 
provides the traveller with even- comfort, and supplies food and 
drink without difficulty. The sleeping berths are most comfort- 
able, and the compartments are roomy; they are provided with 
electric light and fans, a flap-table, cane chairs, and wire- 
gauze and other shutters, which permit the occupant to admit as 
much or as little light as he pleases. Though the gauge is only 
3 feet 6 inches, the width of the bodies of the coaches is nearly 9 
Every detail has been carefully thought out, and as the 
internal arrangements of the coaches represent the sum of the 
experience and needs of many desert travellers, the result is 
admirable;. Each compartment contains two berths, but there is 
far more room in it for the occupants than in the ordinary 
Continental train deluxe, unless one of them overcrowds it with 
luggage. There are no baths on the train, but this causes no 
inconvenience, as the train stops long enough at Abu I. lamed to 
allow travellers to enjoy the excellent baths which the authorities 

established by the side of the station. 
The stopping-places and stations on the Haifa- Khartum Kail- 

or tlie Sudan Government Railway, are: — 

Miles From 
IIai.ia. 1 
No. 1. '17. 

2. 36. 

No. 3. 55. 

Xo. 4. 77. Here are wells on the east side of the line. Between 
Xos. 4 and 5 the country rises considerably, and 
in skirting Gebel Xahoganet the line makes a 
series of interesting curves. 

1 I am indebted to Capt. E. C. Midwinter, R.I".., D.S.< ».. for these details. 



Milks from 
Hal fa. 

No. 6. 126. Here are wells on the east side of the line, a large 
triangle, and some workshops. On the east is 
the terminus of the short line which runs to the 
gold mines. 



No. 9. 
No. 10. 



Between Nos. 9 and 10, on the east, is Gebel 

Here is the junction of the new line to Karema. 

Miles From 
Hal fa. 

Abu Hamed 
Mashra' ad- 

Abu Dis 
Abu Sillem . 
Berber (North) 
Berber (South) 
Atbara Junction 

Ad-Damar . 
Zedab . 
Allah . 
Mutmir, or . 
Umm 'Ali . 


Shendi (Shindi) 


Wad Bfi Nagaa 




248. £ The railway runs close to the river. 

267. ' 

291. Here the line bends away into the desert. 
318. In the desert, some miles from the Nile. 
343. A village of some size. 
361. 1 Here the old caravan road to Sawakin 
363. j started. 







47 *« 


Here the Sawakin railway joins the 
Khartum line. 

The first station on the Island of Meroi ; . 

Nearest station for the Pyramids of 

Here are several railway workshops. 

Here the railway leaves the river and 
cuts straight across the bend which 
contains the Shabluka Cataract. 


Miles from 


1 Gari . 

• 5*4- 


• 538. 

Wad Ramla . 547- Here the railway approaches the rivti 

Kubba (Kubalab). 557- 

Kadaru . • 565. 

Hal fay a, or . 

Khartum North 575. 


"From a copy supplied by ( ;ipt. E. ('. Midwintt 

rhe line from the Nile to the Red Sea. This railway 

- the Nile about one mile to the north of Atbara station, at 

a point called " Atbara Junction," or "Sawakin Junction.*' and 

crosses the Eastern Desert to Sal- L6m, where there is a junction. 
The line to the right runs south to Sawakin, via Handub, and 
that to the left runs north to Sh&kh al-Barghuth, which is to be 

officially known henceforward as " Port Si'id.-'in." The distance 
from Atbara to Sawakin is -507 miles, and from the former place 
to Port Sudan about the same. There are in all jji miles of main 



line, and 15 miles of sidings. The cost was about ££1,375,000, 
or about ££4,150 per mile. The steepest gradient is 1 in 100, 
and the sharpest curve 5 degrees. Work on the main line was 
begun in August, 1904, and the first through train from Atbara 
reached Sawakin in safety on October 15th, 1905. The passengers 
were Messrs. Midwinter, Longfield, Sowerby, Lord, and Pelham, 
and the journey occupied 30 hours. Work was carried on 
simultaneously at each end of the line, but the Atbara section 


[From a photograph by Capt. E. C Midwinter, R.E., I). SO. 

advanced more quickly than that which started at Sawakin, where 
there was much blasting to be done. Colonel Macauley, R.E., 
had the greatest difficulty in obtaining labour, and in the end 
recourse was had to the sturdy Egyptians. On several occasions 
there were bad " wash-outs ; ' caused by rains in the mountains 
behind Sawakin, whilst in the desert the men were often short of 
water. Colonel Macauley and Captain E. C. Midwinter had had 
much experience of such difficulties, and in the end they triumphed 
over them all. 



The opening ceremony of the Nile and Red Sea Railway was 
performed by Lord Cromer, and took place on January 27th, 
1906, at Port Sudan. After a speech by Sir Reginald Wingate, 
Sirdar and Governor of the Sudan, Colonel Macauley, R.E., 
Director of Sudan Railways, made a statement of facts connected 
with the new railway, and tendered his thanks for assistance to 
Lieut. W. B. Drury, R..N, Capt. W. E. Longfield, R.E., ('apt. 
M. E. Sowerby, R.E.. Lieut. S. F. Newcombe, R.E., Lieut. P. C. 


From a photograph by < • E Mason, Esq. 

Lord, R.E., Hon. A. Pelham, Mr. R. W. Windham. Capt. E. C« 
Midwinter, D.S.O., R.E., Mr. C. Hodgson, Mr. G. B. Macphersoo 

Grant, Mr. H. V. Hawkins, Mahmud Hey Kh«'r Allah, and five 
other native officers and gentlemen. Lord Cromer then made a 
h worthy alike of the great occasion and the speaker. He 
pointed out that the railway had been made in fourteen months, 
that the distance from Berber to the sea was henceforward 
shortened by nearly 900 miles, that the railway would be the 
main artery of communication which would open out the Sudan 




to the world, that it would create a trade which, but for it, could 
never come into existence, that it was the first step in the execution 
of a series of works of great public utility which would be carried 
out by the British in the Sudan, and he indicated what these 
works would be, and he stated that Port Sudan and the Red Sea 
Railway would be open on equal terms to the trade of all the 
world. There would be no differential rates or duties to favour 
the trade of any one nation. After this speech Sir Rudolf von 
Slatin explained in Arabic to all the notables and local merchants 


[From a photograph by Lieutenant P. Lord, R.E. 

the effect which the railway would have on their trade, and then 
in the name of His Majesty King Edward VII. and H.H. the 
Khedive, Lord Cromer declared the railway open. H.E. 
Muhammad Pasha Chawarby then addressed the assembly in 
Arabic, and described to his auditors the great improvement which 
had taken place in the finances and conditions of Egypt under the 
influence of the British. 

The opening of the Red Sea Railway is the most important of 
all the great works which Lord Cromer has effected by the help 
of Lord Kitchener, Sir Reginald Wingate, and their band of hard- 
working assistants in the Sudan. For years past he has deter- 
mined to have this railway made, for he says that without it the 



Sudan could never develop, and the country would remain shut in 
from the world, as it has been from time immemorial. The Haifa- 
Khartum Railway could never have done what this railway will 
id by no other means could the Sudan have been given a 
seaport. Hitherto the Sudan has never had an outlet for the 
energies of its people and the produce of its land, and for 
thousands of years before the coming of the British its tribes, 
having realized the impossibility of developing a large and profit- 
able trade, have devoted themselves to inter-tribal fighting and 
wars. No one need wonder that the slave-raider turned the 
Sudan into a happy hunting-ground, and that the only function 
which it seemed to perform in the scheme of the world was the 
production of slaves. Some years ago Lord Cromer deli\ 
the fellahtn of Egypt from the oppression of a corrupt rule and 
placed them in the position of free men, and he has now done 
the same thing for the "Blacks" of the " Black Country." He 
it is who has brought the key and unlocked the Sudan for the 
first time. This fact is patent to all, but it is only future genera- 
tions who will be able to appreciate at its proper value the 
" first and preliminary step in the gradual execution of a large 
".-cheme for the construction of works of public utility," which 
was announced to the world in such modest language on January 
27th, [906, at Port Sudan. The stations on the Nile-Red 
Railway are as follows : — ' 

PORT Sidan 84 kilometres from Sawakin. 

Asotriba 19 kilometres from Port Sudan. 

Sal-Pom Junction 39 ,, ., ,, 

llandub _> i kilometres from Sawakin. 

Sal-Lorn Junction 45 ,, ,, 



kilometres from Port Sudan 



., . . , . . , 





" Summit " 

. , 




1 I owe this list to C. Midwinter, R.E., D.S.O. 






from Port Sudan. 




•>■> »5 >> 




" )> 

) J 




>> >> 





5> J) 





J > ) J 





»'» >> 





> J )> 





>» 5> J 





5 > J> > 





,, ,, 





• 1 it j 





>> >> , 


Atbara Junction 486 „ „ 

The fare from Atbara to SawAkin is 307 piastres, first class. 

4. The Line from Abu Hamed to Karema. This line runs 
in the desert on the right bank of the Fourth Cararact, and only 
approaches the Nile once en route, viz., at Dakhfili ; it is 138 
miles long. It was surveyed and made under the direction of 
Capt. E. C. Midwinter, R.E., D.S.O., assisted by Mr. C. G. 
Hodgson, Locomotive Superintendent, Mr. G. B. Macpherson 
Grant, and Mr. H. V. Hawkins. It was opened by Sir Reginald 
Wingate on March 8th, 1906. By the opening of this line the 
Dongola Province is brought into direct communication with 
Haifa, Khartum, and the Red Sea, and it may be confidently 
predicted that its trade will receive a great stimulus thereby. It 
may be mentioned in passing that it will also enable the traveller 
to visit the ruins of the temples and the pyramid-tombs of the 
Nubian kings at Gebel Barkal and Nuri, and, as steamers ply at 
regular intervals between Merawi and Kerma, he can proceed 
without difficulty to Dongola, and the islands of Arko and 
Tombos, where there are interesting remains of the Middle and 
New Empires. 

Other lines contemplated are: — 1. A branch from the Nile-Red 
Sea Railway to Kasala. 2. A line up the left bank of the Blue 
Nile. 3. A line to Al-Obed to bring the gum of Kordofan to 
Khartum. Since the closing of the Halfa-Kerma line the profits 
on the railway system of the Sudan have increased considerably ; 



in 1905 the receipts were ££171.000, the working expenses 
/"E 1 1 8,000, and the profits ££52,000. The receipts from the 
railways in 1899 were ££31,000. One of the most important 
results of the opening of the Nile-Red Sea Railway is that coal is 
now cheaper in Khartum than wood. 

Since 1896, the year of the advance to Dongola, the TELEGRAPH 
m has been developed in a remarkable manner. The good 
work begun by that able officer, Lieut. Manifold, R.E., has been 
continued, and at the present time Khartum is in direct 
communication with all the great towns of the Sudan. About 
3,925 miles of telegraph lines are open, and there arc thirty-five 
telegraph offices in the Sudan. 1 The principal lines are: — 
1. From Khartum to Haifa, both across the Abu Flamed Desert 
and along the river, via Dongola, Kerma, Kosha, <S:c. 2. 1 
Khartum to Fashoda and Tawhkiya. 3. From Herber to Port 
Sudan and Sawakin, and to Kasala, Kadaref, Kallabat, and Wad 
Madani. 4. From Khartum to Sennaar and Ruseres. 5. From 
Sennaar t<> K<">/ Abu Guma. 6. From Mashra 4 ar-Rek to WViw 
and Tong. 8 7. From Khartum to Al-()bed. The extension 
of the line from Tong to Rumbek is now being carried out. 
The receipts from telegrams in 1905 were ££29,000 and the 
working expenses were about £E 30,000 ; in 1NN9 the receipts 
E 3,500. In 1905 about 164,000 private tele-rams 
sent over the wires, while in 1901 the number was only 

In connection with the railways and telegraphs mention must 
be made of the Sudan POSTAL SERVICE. This Service was 
established at Haifa in 1897, and for the next year or two its 
chief customers were the officers and men of the Anglo-Egyptian 
Army. The natives, however, soon perceived the importance and 
value of a speedy and safe letter-post, and merchants and others 
ued to make use of it. In the winter of [901-2 the head- 
quarters of the service were removed to Khartum, and the postal 
and telegraph services were united and placed under the direction 
of Captain Liddell, K.F. The head of the Khartum Office is Mr. 
Williams, to whose experience and labours the Postal Department 

1 See the list in Gleicben, op, d/. } i., p. 219. 
- Ibis line was laid by Major Dale and Corporal Stead, K.K. 




= 'Mr- }- -': 

i a 


supply of water from the Nile in Egypt, but he has proved that it 
influences it to a very small degree. This is not to be wondered 
at seeing that it is the Sobat, the Blue Nile, and the Atbara 
which are the ruling factors in the production of the annual Nile 
flood. On the other hand, the Sudd when it blocked the Bafrr 
al-Gebel, or Upper Nile, seriously interfered with the navigation 
on the river, and it practically cut off all communication with the 
country south of Lake No. In some years the main channel of 
the White Nile was blocked by Sudd for a distance of 250 mile-. 
Thus in 1863, 1864, and [868 it was blocked ; in 1N70 Sir 
Samuel Baker found it blocked so far as Lake No. In 1N72 both 
the Bafrr al-Gebel and the Bahr az-Zara fa were blocked. In 1X74 
Ayub Pasha cleared the former river, but the channel was blocked 
again in 1878, and Linin Pasha could not ascend it. In 1 S 7 < - 
1880 Marno cleared the river once more of Sudd. In 1880 I 
Pasha was completely hemmed in bySudd in the Bahr al-Ghazfd, and 
he lost more than half his force by famine and fever. In [881, i> s >Vf, 
iN()5. and [899 the Upper Nile was completely blocked by Sudd. 
In 1899 the Egyptian Government determined to clear the river, 
and the work of carrying out their decision was entrusted to 
Colonel Peake, R.A. He left Omdurman on December 16th, 
and by March 27th, EQOO,his party had removed 14 blocks of Sudd 
in a length of about 83 miles of river. The total length of these 
blocks was about 8,666 yards, and the thickness of the Sudd varied 
from 5 ft. 6 in. to 20 ft. Colonel Peake worked with 5 gun-boats 
and 800 Dervish prisoners, guarded by 100 black soldiers, 5 English 
and several Egyptian officers, and some English non-commissioned 

rs. The method he employed was to cut the Sudd into rect- 
angular blocks, which he hauled out of their places by steamers. 
and then allowed to float down the stream. 1 When Colonel Peake 
stopped work on March 27th. only two more blocks remained to 
be removed, viz., No, 15 and No. 16. No. 15 was a reach of the 
river, about 2 ; miles long, blocked by Sudd the whole way. No. 
[6 was about 8 miles long, and really contained four blocks ; it 

emovedin January, 1901, by Lieutenant Drury, R.X., assisted 
by one English sergeant of Marines. " Major Peake and all who 
"served with him may well be proud of the results of the season's 
1 Sir William Garstin, /u:v/>/, No. 2 (1901), p. 39. 


" work. He rendered a great service, both to Egypt and to the 
" Sudan, by opening up this important river. The work was well 
" and thoroughly done." l " It is difficult to speak too highly of 
" the work done by Major Peake and his staff in 1900. Lieut. 
" Drury also deserves a word of special mention. The work was 
" very heavy. . . . The result has been an immense improvement 
" in the navigation of the river." 2 

In 1901 and 1902 Major Matthews cleared away about one half 
of block No. 15, but the rains stopped his work before it was 
finished. In January, 1904, Lieut. Drury, R.N., and Mr. Poole 
attacked the remaining portion of the block, but the former be- 
came so dangerously ill of malarial fever that he had to be taken 
back to Khartum, just when success was in sight. Therefore 
steamers passing north and south had, in 1904, to follow the false 
channel through the shallow lakes. This, however, mattered little, 
for steamers plied at regular intervals between Khartum and 
Gondokoro, the most northerly station of Uganda, and communi- 
cation between these places was maintained throughout the year. 
Lieut. Drury's work was taken up by Engineer-Commander Bond, 
R.N., and Engineer-Lieutenant Scott-Hill, R.N. Between 1900 
and 1904 a channel was cut through the Sudd on the Gur River 
by Lieutenant Fell, R.N., the late Captain Saunders, and Colour- 
Sergeants Boardman and Sears. 

Turning now to Agriculture, we find that each year more 
and more land is being brought under cultivation, and that the 
natives are beginning to realize the blessing of peace in the 
country. In 1904 the area cultivated was equal to 529,239 acres, 
and in 1905 it had increased to 704,872 acres, i.e., a total increase 
of 175,633 acres. The principal crops raised were barley, cotton, 
dhurra, millet, maize, onions, lubia, beans, wheat, and simsim. 
There were 23,898 acres of cotton, and 22,000 of wheat. The plant- 
ing of date trees is going on steadily, especially in the Dongola 
Province. The number of fruit-bearing trees there in 1885 was 
about 600,000, but in 1897 the returns furnished to Mr. Dawkins 
by the Ma'amurs gave the numbers as 376,512. This decrease was 
due partly to the cutting down of the date trees by the Dervishes 
in the Haifa District, and partly to the break-up of the date 
1 Egypt, No. 2 (1904), p. 120. 2 Ibid. (1901), No. 2, p. 39. 



trade between Dongola and Haifa caused by the Dervish revolt. 
Colonel Jackson, Mudir of Dongola, reported in 1905 that the 
number of date trees in the province in that year was only 366,000, 
but that thousands more were being planted. 

Intimately connected with the development of agriculture in 
the Sudan are the great schemes for the Irrigation of the country 
which have been thought out by Sir William Garstin, who has 
examined the whole course of the Nile with the special purpose 
of finding out what can be done to regulate and improve the water 
supply of Egypt, and to extend irrigation both in that country 
and in the Sudan. The result of his labours is to show that the 
destiny of Egypt is bound up with that of the Sudan, and that the 
power which holds Egypt must also hold the Sudan, for the simple 
reason that the very existence of Egypt is in the hands of those 
who have control over the waters of the Upper Niles and their 
great tributaries. Stated generally, the twofold problem which 
Sir William Garstin has to solve is how to obtain four thousand 
millions of cubic metres of water to enable the whole of the two 
millions of acres of cultivable land in Egypt, which are at present 
uncultivated, to be irrigated and made to produce crops. Next, 
what steps are to be, or can be, taken, whereby all the summer 
water in the Blue Nile will be used for the benefit of the Sudan. 
It is understood that the waters of the White Nile must be 
ved for Egypt and the river valley between Khartum and 
ii. The only possible solution of the first part of the problem 
is to find some way of saving the waters of the I>ahr al-Gebel or 
Upper Nile, which are now wasted. This waste takes place as 
the river Hows through the " Sudd" region, and is chiefly due to 
ration which goes on over an expanse of marshes 
Ing an area of about 35,000 square miles, and to the absorp- 
tion of the water-plants which fill it. 

The wast that at the point at which the river 

-add " region it is from 50 to 80 per cent, less than 
when it entered it. No matter how high may be the water-level 
of Lake Albert, or how large the added volume brought in by the 
tributary streams which enter the river, the discharge of the Nile 
at the point where it issues from the "Sudd' area is practically 
constant at all seasons and under all conditions. Any works 



connected with the in- 
creasing of the present 
water supply, i.e., which 
shall enable the greater 
portion of the water en- 
tering the Bahr al-Gebel 
from Lake Albert to 
reach the head of the 
White Nile near the 
junction of the Sobat, 
must be carried out be- 
tween Bor, about 100 
miles from Gondokoro, 
and the junction of the 
Sobat, about 444 miles 
north of Bur. To im- 
prove the channel of 
the Bahr al-Gebel suffi- 
ciently to enable it to 
carry all the water re- 
quired in the future is 
impossible,and the same 
maybe said of the Baljr 
az-Zarafa, which is a 
much smaller river. Sir 
William Garstin there- 
fore proposes to cut a 
channel between Bor 
and the Sobat junction 
sufficiently large to take 
the entire future sum- 
mer discharge of the 
Bahr al-Gebel, or Upper 
Nile. This channel 
would practically be a 
huge canal, about 210 
miles long, which 
would be provided with 



[From Sir W. Garstin's Report, by permission of the 
Comptroller of H.M. Stationery Office. 


a masonry regulator at each end. In the winter no water would 
be allowed to pass into the marshes, but in flood time the 
reverse would be the case, and only water sufficient for purposes 
of navigation would be allowed to enter the canal. The present 
long winding channel through the marshes would be replaced by 
a straight canal, very much shorter than the existing line. In 
this way a perfect control over the Upper Nile could at all seasons 
be obtained. 

As regards the Blue Nile, Sir William Garstin proposes to 
construct one or more barrages or weirs on this river somewhere 
between the point where it issues from the hills and Khartum. 
These works, which will raise the water-levels of the river, must 
be accompanied by large distributary canals on either bank. 
Other irrigation works contemplated in the Sudan are in con- 
nection with the Kash, the Rahad, the Dinder, and the Atbara. 
The estimates of cost are : — 

Works on the Bahr al-Gebel . . 5,500,000 

Reservoir on Blue Nile 
Barrage on Blue Nile . 
Gazira canal-system 
Works on Kash River . 
Regulation of Lakes 



It is believed that when the whole of Sir William Garstin's 
scheme is completed, about 1,000,000 acres in the Sudan will be 
brought under cultivation, and that the direct return, in the shape 
of land tax, at 50 piastres tariff per acre, will be £E5oo,ooo a 
year. And Egypt will benefit by the extension of perennial 
irrigation from Aswan to the sea. In this way the Sudan will 
prove to be, as Lord Cromer says, " a priceless possession to 
Egypt," and the life-giving waters, which are now wasted in the 
swamps of the "Sudd" area, will be brought to Egypt and will 
fill the heart of the farmer with joy, and put money in his pocket. 

When the Anglo- Egyptian Army captured Omdurman TRADE 
in THE StDAN was practically non-existent. The most im- 
portant products of the country under Turkish and Egyptian 



rule were slaves and ivory; the market value of the former 
cannot be stated, but the export of the latter brought in 
from ££40,000 to £E6o,ooo. As soon as possible after the 
Khalifa's overthrow, Sir William Garstin visited the Sudan and 
travelled through it, and in his opinion gum, ivory, and senna 
were the three articles most likely to be exported for some years 
to come. There was a demand for clothes, sugar, cheap hard- 
ware, and especially iron nails, tobacco, cheap cottons, and tea. 
He further reported that progress must be very slow, that the 
poverty and depopulation of the country were very great, that the 
people were an indolent race, the Arab scorning manual labour, 
and the Negro doing no work except under compulsion or under 
the goad of his personal necessities. South of Khartum the 
natives needed to do very little work for a living, north of that 
place they had to work harder, for nature was less bountiful in her 
gifts. In spite of these facts, however, the authorities seized every 
opportunity of developing trade, and in 1904 the imports into the 
Sudan, via Wadi Haifa, were valued at ££935, 800, and the 
exports from the same place at ££303,502. The imports 
were : candles, cement, coffee, cotton stuffs, dates, drugs, flour, 
grain, iron and machinery, oil, petroleum, perfumery, provisions, 
rice, salt, soap, spirits, sugar, tallow, tea (100 tons !) timber, 
tobacco (158 tons), &c. The exports were : barley, butter, 
cotton, dates, dhurra, gum, ivory, ostrich feathers, palm trees, 
sinnamecca, sesame seed, skins, timber, lupines, wheat, &c. The 
imports, via Sawakin, Sennaar, Kasala, Italian territory, and 
Lado, were valued at ££136,000, ££4,448, ££15,644, ££6,858, 
and £E2,ooo respectively; and the exports at ££67,000, 
£En,345, ££2,764 and ££4,753 (nothing from Lado) re 
spectively. Thus the total imports were £1,100,750 in value, and 
the total exports ££389,364. The imports via Wadi Haifa in 
1905 were valued at ££1,092,000, and the exports only 
££251,000 ; for Sawakin the figures are ££171,000 and 

The above facts give abundant proof of the extraordinary 
success which has attended the efforts of the " small but very 
capable band of officials, ably directed by Sir Reginald Wingate," 
in the Sudan. In connection with the trade of the country, 



attention must be called to the praiseworthy determination of the 
authorities to control the Liquor Trade in the Sudan. By an 
Ordinance promulgated in May, 1899, it was decreed that no one 
should trade in wine, spirits, &c, except under a licence, which 
costs ££50 a year. Every application for a drink licence is 
considered on its own merits, and with due regard to the size of 
the town, number of people in it, &c. 

We may now briefly summarize what has been done for the 
people of the Sudan themselves. One of the first things decided 
upon by Lord Cromer was the abolition of SLAVERY, but this 
was a matter of very great difficulty, 1 for slavery in all its forms 

Iwaya been a fundamental institution among African peoples. 
In [899 a Slavery Department was formed under the direction of 
Captain McMurdo, and in the same year Colonel (now Sir John) 
Maxwell, Governor of Omdurman, reported that forty-seven 
persons had been condemned to various terms of penal servitude 
or imprisonment for dealing in or kidnapping slaves. In 1902 
strenuous efforts were made to check slave-raiding on the Eastern 
Frontier, and the Sudan Government began to deal with domestic 
slavery in a successful manner. In 1903 Sa'id Ibrahim, a powerful 
shekh, was tried at Al-Obed for slave-trading, and, in spite of his 
influence and popularity, was sentenced to five years' imprison- 
ment. This action had a very decided effect upon the people, 
who clearly saw that the Government were in earnest in their 
efforts to put down the trade. Captain McMurdo, Mr. Gorringe, 
and Mr. Shakerley, all of the Slavery Department, worked with 
great success in the Abyssinian Frontier and in Kordoian, and 
they entirely prevented large gangs of slaves from being smuggled 
down to the coast. In the same year great strides towards the 
abolition of domestic slavery were made in Egypt; according to 
Lord Cromer this was due to the fact that the Egyptians 1 
to think that slave labour was more troublesome and more costly 
than free labour ! This state of things had, of course, its reflex 
effect in the Sudan. 

In 1904 Colonel Gorringe succeeded in capturing the notorious 

-raider Ibrahim wad Mahmud, the terror of the Kastern 
Sudan : the ruffian was hanged, his followers slain, and their 
1 See Lord Cromer's opinions in Egypt, No. 3 (1899), p. 31. 


stronghold destroyed. The scene of Ibrahim's operations was 
the country of the Burun Negroes, and when Mr. Gorringe went 
through it after his namesake had captured the raider, he found 
that there were no children there, that the proportion of adults 
was seven men to one woman, and that there were no sheep, 
goats, poultry, or cattle in the villages. In this year the slave- 
trade received a very great check in the Sudan, and sixteen 
persons suffered imprisonment for being concerned in it, with the 
result that people were beginning to dread the slavery laws. 

In 1905 Colonel McMurdo found that the steady advance of 
civilization, improved means of communication, and the general 
opening up of the Sudan were all tending to destroy the slave- 
trade. The British Inspectors were ever on the watch, and ever 
devising means which more and more convinced the raider that it 
was becoming too difficult and dangerous an undertaking to deal 
in, in fact that slave-raiding did not pay. Moreover, the natives 
themselves are beginning to realize that slavery is illegal and is 
punishable by law. Between January and September 1st, about 
sixty-seven slave-dealers were captured, tried, and convicted, and 
sixty-one of them received sentences of imprisonment varying from 
seven years to one. It must, of course, be some time yet before 
slave-raiding and domestic slavery can disappear from the Sudan, 
but they will certainly come to an end when the country is opened 
up, and its wild parts are under effective control, and the people 
have work to do, and legitimate trading makes the slave-trade 
unprofitable. Meanwhile the British officials are doing a great 
and good work in a quiet and unostentatious manner, and their 
tactful and humane treatment of the natives will do more to bring 
about the result which we all desire than all the heroic measures 
and treaties which have ever been formulated. Isma'il Pasha's 
decree, which ordered that slavery should cease in 1889, was not 
worth the paper it was written on, and in turn amused and 
irritated those who understood the question. General Gordon, 
the best of all judges, knew this quite well, and Colonel Stewart 
took the same view. l 

As regards Education in the Sudan, Lord Cromer states that 
in 1899 the only education obtainable was in the village schools, 
1 See Egypt, No. 11 (1883), p. 24. 


with the exception of two Government schools, one at Haifa and 
the other at Saw&kin. He decided to start two Government 
schools in each of the large towns, and to open a primary school 
at Omdurman. The teaching was to be in the Arabic language, 
and to consist chiefly of reading, writing, arithmetic and Arabic. 
English was to be taught in the higher classes. In 1900 Mr. 
Bonham-Carter started an educational system which produced 
extremely good results, and reflected great credit on his fore- 
sight and energy; 1 in November of that year Mr. James Currie 
became Director of Education in the Sudan, and Principal 
of the Gordon College. During that year it was decided to 
establish a certain number of kuttabs, or village schools, taught by 
trained Egyptian teachers, and a start was made at Khartum, 
Omdurman, Berber, Dongola, Wad Madani, Haifa, and 

Meanwhile the Gordon College was approaching completion, 

and when it was habitable Mr. Currie determined to place there : 

1. A Sudan Reference Library. 2. An Economic Museum. 3. A 

Meteorological Station and a small Observatory. 4. A small 

Analytical Laboratory. Without the College these schemes would 

have been impossible. In 1901 an efficient primary school was 

opened at Omdurman; it was attended by 170 pupils, of whom 

103 paid fees. A similar school was opened at Khartum on 

October 1st, 1901 ; it was attended by 72 pupils, of whom 60 paid 

fees. In these and the village schools Mr. Currie decided to have 

the- teaching done in the Arabic language, and both he and Lord 

Cromer were wholly opposed to the establishing of schools for the 

teaching of English, " for the sake of the supposed political 

" advantage which such teaching indirectly confers upon the 

ruin- class." Only boys who are subsequently going into the 

rnnient service, or who are to follow commercial pursuits in 

which such a knowledge is necessary, should learn English, and the 

schools wherein it is taught should be good, and " it is nearly as 

important that at the present they should be few." They should 

also be fee-paying, though there might be a certain number of 

-cholars. The great need of the country was, and still is, a 

class of young men whose knowledge of reading, writing, and 

1 See Egypt, No. 1 (1901), p. 75. 



arithmetic will enable them to occupy with advantage the 
subordinate places in the administration of the country. The 
lack of such retards the development of the country, and the 
"prevalent illiteracy" enables the petition-writer, the money- 
lender, and others, to victimize the people to a terrible degree. 

In 1902 there were 215 pupils in the Omdurman School, of 
whom 181 paid fees, and in the Khartum School there were 115 
pupils. In 1903 the number of pupils in the five educational 
establishments 1 in the Sudan was about 600; they were of all 
nationalities, Blacks, Arabs, Egyptian Moslems, Copts, Greeks, 
&c. In 1904 Lord Cromer reported that " a very fair amount of 
progress " had been made by Mr. Currie in carrying out his plan 
formulated in November, 1901, viz.: — 1. Creating a small artisan 
class. 2. Diffusing elementary education among the people. 
3. Creating a native administrative class. At the same time, 
however, it was felt in that year that the time had come when the 
introduction of a new educational programme was inevitable, and 
Mr. Currie proposed to establish a good secondary school, and 
two higher primary schools, and " to provide increased accom- 
modation at the Gordon College, so as to make that institution, 
even more than at present, the centre of the higher education of 
the country." To carry out this idea Lord Cromer provided 
£Ei5,ooo. At that time the three chief educational agencies at 
work at the Gordon College were : 1. A Training College for 
Schoolmasters and Judges in the Muhammadan Courts, with 85 
pupils. 2. A Primary School, attended by 150 boys. 3. Industrial 
Workshops, attended by about 70 boys. At the close of 1905 
there were 1,533 boys under instruction at the various Government 
schools in the Sudan. Of these, 392 were at the Gordon College, 
229 at the higher elementary schools, 29 at the training colleges 
at Omdurman and Sawakin, and 723 at the elementary vernacular 
schools, which have now been established at 13 different centres. 2 
The principle of levying an education rate was also sanctioned in 
that year, and it was decided to make a beginning in the Blue 
Nile Province and in Sennaar. 

The educational system of the Sudan now centres in the Gordon 
College at Khartum, an institution which owes its existence to 
1 Egypt, No. 1 (1904), p. 94. 2 Ibid., No. 1 (1906), p. 145- 



the response of the British public to the appeal made to them at 
the end of 1898 by Lord Kitchener. The appeal brought in a 
sum of money sufficiently large to pay for the erection of the 
handsome building which now stands on the west bank of the 
Blue Nile, a little above Khartum, and to provide an endowment 
fund of £100,000. Lord Kitcheners general idea was, "to give 
" the most practical, useful education possible to the boys for their 
11 future in the Sudan," and he intended Arabic to be the basis of 
education. These were his objects in appealing for means to 
establish the Gordon College, and when we come to consider the 
work which is now being done in the College itself, and in 
connection with it, it will be clear that its sphere of usefulness is far 
wilier than that which was originally contemplated by Lord 
Kitchener. It is possible that during the first years of its 
existence the " Gordon School " would have been a better name 
for it than the " Gordon College," for it was originally intended 
to be a sort of " Higher Primary School," where education was 
to be given on the lines of the Aswan and Wad! Haifa Schools. 
The rapid development of the Sudan, however, and the course of 
events in general throughout the country, especially during the 
last three or four years, have shown that, on the whole, the title 
of " Gordon College " is the best that can be given to the 
institution at the present time. 

The handsome building is a very prominent object at Khartum, 
lally when seen from I.lalfaya, and reflects the greatest credit 
on the original designer, Fabricius Pasha, and on Colonel Friend, 
R.E., Director of Works, and others who carried out the work of 
construction. The opening ceremony was performed by Lord 
Kitchener on November 8th, 1902, in the presence of Sir Reginald 
and a very large number of the military and civil 
officers of the Sudan. During the ceremony, Mr. Currie, the 
Principal of the College, read a letter to Lord Cromer from Sir 
William Mather announcing his splendid gift of " the equipment 
" for a Department of Manual Training and Technical Instruction, 
11 together with a Complete Apparatus for the establishment of 
M practical Workshops in the College." This equipment consisted 
of a steam boiler, steam engines, electric dynamos and motors, 
pumps and accessories for raising water from the Nile for the use 



of the College, machines and hand tools for wood and metal work, 
and sundry appliances for experimental illustration. Before the 
Gordon College was finished and opened, Mr. H. S. Wellcome, of 
the firm of Messrs. Burroughs and Wellcome, generously presented 
to the Institution an efficient analytical and bacteriological 
laboratory, equipped with all the necessary apparatus. An 
Economic Museum was also established there under the direction 
of Mr. Butler, of the Animals Preservation Department. 

We may now refer to the work which has been done in the 
Gordon College in recent years, the facts here given being taken 
from Mr. Currie's Report recently issued. The Patron of the College 
is His Majesty King Edward VII. ; the President, Lord Kitchener; 
the Hon. Treasurer, the Right Hon. Lord Hillingdon; and the 
Hon. Sec, Baldwin S. Harvey, Esq. The following are the 
Committee and Trustees : Lord Kitchener, Sir Reginald Wingate 
(ex officio), A. Falconer Wallace, Esq. {ex officio), Lord Cromer, 
Lord Rothschild, Lord Hillingdon, Lord Revelstoke, Sir Ernest 
Cassel, H. Colin Smith, Esq., Sir Henry Craik, Henry S. Wellcome, 
Esq., and Sir William Mather. The College now consists of 
three sections : a Primary School, a Training School for school- 
masters and judges in the Muhammadan Courts, and the 
instructional Workshops. The Primary School is attended by 
180 boys. The curriculum extends over four years, and is intended 
to fit a boy for some minor Government post. The Boarding 
House was in 1904 full, the number of boys being 25 ; it has been 
enlarged and now holds 50 boys. The boarding fee is £g per 
annum. The Military School and the Training College are 
flourishing. The Workshops provide practical instruction in 
Carpentry, Fitting, Smiths' work, Moulders' work, Cotton-ginning, 
and a preliminary stage of mechanical Engineering, which includes 
the management and repair of Oil and Steam Engines, Pumping 
Machinery, and Turning. 

It has been decided to devote a sum of £5,000 from Mr. 
Beauchamp's bequest to a considerable extension of the Work- 
shops. Also the staff of the Higher School will contain a very efficient 
English element, and Mr. Drummond, of the School of Agriculture 
in Egypt, and Mr. Simpson, an Orientalist from Edinburgh, have 
already been appointed. The Workshops are under Mr. S. C. 



Rhodes, and have produced already excellent results, and the 
Head Master of the Primary School and Training College is 
Ahmad Effendi Hadayat. The Director of the Wellcome Labora- 
tory is Dr. Andrew Balfour, who has published two most valuable 
Reports on his investigations into the Sudan bacteriology. One 
important result of his labours is that Khartum is now practically 
free from mosquitoes, and his discovery of the causes* of certain 
diseases in Sudan cattle must, in a very short time, greatly benefit 
the community. In this work the Government have been helped 
by Dr. Sheffield Neave, the Travelling Pathologist, whose appoint- 
ment was made possible by Mr. Wellcome's generositv. Dr. Beam, 
the Chemist to the Laboratory, has carried out a series of analyst - 
of the waters of Sudan rivers, and has obtained important results. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. James Currie I was enabled t 
through a large portion of the Gordon College in February, 1905, 
and to see the arrangements which have been made by him and 
his staff for carrying out work there. I visited the Economic 
Museum and found the exhibits well displayed, and labelled in a 
clear and instructive manner. The collection is one of very 
considerable interest, and it is so arranged that a great deal of 
information may be gained about the products of the Sudan in a 
comparatively short time. The Committee of the Museum have 
for their Secretary Mrs. Broun, an expert botanist and en- 
tomologist, possessing a special knowledge of Sudan and Indian 
plants. In and about the Museum are many objects of interest, 
and among them visitors will note with interest the printing press 
and the lithographic stones from which General Gordon's pro- 
clamations were printed. Dr. Andrew Dalfour explained to me 
the arrangement of the Laboratory, and also some of the 

iments and processes wherefrom he was collecting important 
results. He pr< »udly pointed out a number of bottled " specimens " 
connected with Ins researches into the effect of marissa (beer) 
drinking on the human stomach, and with 4 * pigmentation " in the 
human skin. One remarkable specimen was a child in an 
embryonic state, the offspring of black parents, whose skin was 
quite white. 

The arrangements seemed to be perfect, and that the utmost 

as made of the appliances which Mr. Wellcome had given to 



the College was evident. When one looked round on the orderly 
rooms and the apparatus, it was almost impossible to realize that 
less than seven years ago the Dervishes were in possession of 
Khartum, and that the town was a heap of ruins. Mr. J. \V. 
Crowfoot, Inspector of Education, then showed me some of the 
class-rooms and their equipment, and the arrangements made for 
the well-being of the pupils, and all were excellent. No time has 
been lost in getting the educational machinery of the College into 
working order, but, on the other hand, there has been no undue 
haste. Mr. Currie has made good every step he has taken, and 
the goal which he has ever kept before him has been the 
education of the boys of the Sudan on useful and practical lines. 
Some critics have complained that his system is too practical, but 
this is impossible. It would be a terrible thing for the country if 
the higher education of the people were to consist of " grammatical 
conundrums, and arid theological and metaphysical disputation," 
and it is quite certain that the course which he is following is in 
accordance with the wishes of Lord Kitchener, Lord Cromer, 
and Sir Reginald Wingate, who best know what are the true 
needs of the youth of the Sudan. 

The Gordon College is playing a most important part in the 
development of the country, and events have already justified 
Lord Kitchener's foresight in founding it. England unwittingly 
allowed Muhammad 'All and his descendants to depopulate and 
ruin the Sudan, and it has fallen to England's lot to repair the 
injury to it which they committed. Her soldiers, co-operating 
with the Egyptians, have crushed the Khalifa and restored the 
country to the dominions of the Khedive, and some of the ablest 
of her sons are now shaping the future of the Black Country in the 
interests of peace and civilization, instead of those of the slave- 
raider. Philanthropists never gave money with a better object 
than the founding of the Gordon College, and it should afford great 
satisfaction both to them and to the originator of the scheme to 
note how wisely and judiciously, and with what regard to the true 
interests of the country their money is being spent. 1 

1 For detailed information concerning the curriculum of the Gordon College, 
see the Annual Report (1904) of the Education Department, which may be 
obtained at As-Sudan Printing Press, Khartum. 



The list of schools controlled or inspected by the Education 
Department, Khartum, with the number and nationality of their 
pupils in 1905 and 1906, printed on the opposite page will interest 
all friends of Education in the Sudan. I owe this list to the kind- 
ness of Mr. Currie, and much regret that want of space prevents 
the printing of all the information on the subject with which he has 
so generously provided me. 

The establishment of a simple and humane system of criminal 
and civil JUSTICE, adapted to the requirements of the country, is 
due to the labours of Mr. Bonham-Carter, the Judicial Adviser to 
the Government of the Sudan. The Sudan Penal Code and the 
Sudan Code of Criminal Procedure were enacted and applied for 
the first time in 1899, and both were drafted by Mr. W. E. 
Brunyate, of the Contentieux de l'Etat. The Sudan Penal Code 
is an adaptation of the Indian Penal Code, and the Sudan Code of 
Criminal Procedure of the Indian Code of Criminal Procedure. 
" All offences are ordinarily tried in the province in which they 
" have been committed, the smaller offences before a single 
" Magistrate, the graver crimes, after a preliminary inquiry by a 
" single Magistrate, before a Court of three Magistrates, called a 
" Mudir's Court, or Minor District Court, presided over by the 
" Mudir, or other high official. Except in unimportant cases, 
" there is a right of appeal from the judgment of a single 
" Magistrate to the Mudir. Judgments of Minor District Courts 
- * and of Mudirs" Courts require confirmation, the former by the 
11 Mudir. and the latter by the Governor-General. The Governor- 
" General possesses a general power of revision." 1 

In 1900 Mr. Bonham-Carter found that the "administration of 
justice reached a high level of excellence." Accused persons were 
with little delay, and criminal trials were characterized by 
fairness and patience, punishments being generally lenient 
good beginning was made in the administration of civil justice, 
and Courts for the administration of the Muhammadan law were 
established in the principal towns of the Sudan. Mr. Wasey 
Sterry was appointed to be Civil Judge at Khartum. In 1900 all 
the Kadis, or native administrators of Muhammadan law. were in 
pt of a moderate monthly salary. A scale of fees was fixed, 
1 Mr. Bonham-Carter, in Egypt t No. 1 (i9co\ p. 53. 





























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Nationality Religion 

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au , ei)suq3 

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Blue Nile 

Kassala . 

Dongola . 
White Nile 




Gordon College 

M i) 

Omdurman . 

Haifa" . 
Suakin . 

Berber . 
E\ Damir 
Shendi . 
Rufaa . 
Wad Medani 
Kassala . 



k k 


and these were handed over to the Government. These arrange- 
ments have had a very far-reaching effect in the country. In 1902 
some 624 convictions for crime took place, and Mr. Bonham- 
Carter was satisfied that the system of criminal justice which had 
been introduced was suited to the requirements of the people. On 
the other hand, native ideas were found to be sometimes out of 
harmony with the law, especially in such matters as Slavery and 
the Game Laws. In the matter of the administration of Muham- 
madan law, Mr. Bonham-Carter's efforts were ably seconded by 
the Grand Kfuii, Muhammad Effendi Shakir, and by Sh&kh 
Muhammad Hariin, the Inspector of Muhammadan Law Courts. 
In 1904 the British civilian legal staff of the Sudan consisted of a 
Legal Secretary to the Government (Mr. Bonham-Carter), a 
Chief Judge, three Judges, and an Advocate-General. 

The systems of legal procedure both Criminal and Civil, and 
the manner in which they are administered by military and civil 
officials, have been fully discussed by Lord Cromer in his 
Reports, 1 and to these the reader is referred for information on 
the subject. Neither the systems nor the men who apply them 
may be perfect, but the practical result of their application by the 
said officials is that the natives are generally satisfied with the 
ions of the Courts, and admit that they are just. Moreover, 
they obey them, and they know that the judgments of the Mudirs 
and Magistrates, even when against them, are the result of honest 
investigation of their cases, and that bribery has played no part 
in forming them. In a country like the Sudan, where there are 
so many groups of tribes, each with its own unwritten code of 
and where large numbers of men prefer Muhammadan to 
ipean Law, it must be many years before exact justice will be 
vitv case which is brought before the Courts, and before 
the last dissatisfied litigant will cease to exist. It may, however, 
be claimed, as the result of Mr. Bonham-Carter's efforts, that 
there was never a time in the history of the Sudan when so little 
bribery in the Courts existed, and when the native was treated 
with such fairness, consideration, patience, and humanity as 
now. In many places the minds of the people ait- in such a back- 
ward state that " the principles underlying European systems of 
;/>/. No. i (1904), p. 88, and No. 1 (1905), p. 127 ff. 

49 8 


criminal jurisprudence lose their significance when applied to 
them." In support of this statement Mr. Bonham-Carter quotes 
the following cases : — 

i. A native of southern Sennaar was tried for murder. He 
pleaded guilty, and said that he had killed his victim because he 
had cast the evil eye on his brother, thereby causing his death. 
The guilty man thought it was his duty to avenge his brother's 

2. Taha All and Ahmad Hamad were partners in a butcher's 
business. Taha Ali told his partner that ten and a half dollars 
belonging to the business had been stolen, but Hamad did not 
believe him, and accused him of theft. They agreed to go to a holy 
man (fakir) and try the matter. When the partners had stated their 
case, the fakir wrote certain formulae on a board, and then washed 
off the writing with water which he poured into a bowl. He then 
dipped a piece of bread into the water, and divided it between the 
two partners, who ate it. Soon afterwards Taha Alt was taken 
ill, and, returning to the fakir, told him that he had stolen the 
money ; after this he became worse, and died a few hours later. 
The medical examination revealed no sign of poisoning. 1 

3. A Shilluk called Kwat wad Awaibung was tried for murder. 
He pleaded guilty, and said : " Ajak wad Deng, whom I murdered, 
owed me a sheep, but would not pay me. He said he would show 
me his work, and next day my son was eaten by a crocodile, 
which was, of course, the work of Ajak wad Deng, and for that 
reason I killed him. We had had a feud for years, as I was a 
more successful hippopotamus-hunter than he was, and for that 
reason he was practising witchery over me and my family." 8 The 
majesty of the law was vindicated by a sentence of death passed 
on the prisoner, but it is good to know that on the Governor's 
recommendation it was reduced to a term of imprisonment and a 

In every department of the Government the officials are doing 
their utmost to promote the well-being of the people, and to 
protect the natural resources of the country. The Medical and 
Sanitary Department has, with very limited means, already 
worked wonders in freeing certain districts from the curse of the 
1 Egypt, No. 1 (1903), p. 77- 2 Ibid > No - z ( J 9°4) P- 89. 



mosquito, and under the direction of Colonel Penton many 
districts have been rendered comparatively healthy. In the 
GOVERNMENT Hospitals 40,862 out-patients and 3,357 in-patients 
were treated in 1903, and since that year the numbers have 
increased ; many natives willingly pay for treatment. The 
Prisons Department, started by Captain Borton and now directed 
by Major Coutts, has worked with excellent results, and order is 
kept among the people by the Sudan Police Force, which now 
numbers 1,820 men. The game and forests of tin- Sudan are also 
objects of care. For the former a large tract of land has been set 
apart as a sanctuary, and wise Ordinances for regulating the 
shooting of rare animals and birds have been promulgated. 
Mr. Butler has established Zoological Gardens at Khartum, but 
he is hampered by want of funds. Mr. Broun ' has taken charge 
of the Woods and Forests, and the reckless cutting of trees 
which went on during the first few years after the restoration of 
the Sudan will, it is hoped, be stopped. It would be a terrible 
thing if the Nile were to become like the Tigris between Baghdad 
and Basra, where, away from the towns and villages, for hundreds 
of miles there is scarcely a tree to be seen. Before the advance 
of man both the forests and the wild animals must eventually 
disappear from certain portions of the country, but we may safely 
assume that their destruction will not now be reckless and 

Every attempt possible is being made to develop and utilize the 
natural resources of the country, and this work will be rendered 
easier as new means of communication are opened up. There 
seems t<> be no reason why Cotton should not be grown in con- 
ible quantities in the Sudan, especially when we read 
Mr. Nevile's Report on the subject. For this, however, a great 

:n<>re water will be required, and this cannot be supplied 
until some of Sir William Garstin's schemes have been carried 
out. There is no doubt that at the present time the agricultural 
lopment of the Sudan is being sacrificed and retarded in the 
interests of Egypt. The Pearl Fisheries of the Red Sea may one 
day yield a good revenue, but to attain this result time is 

1 '' "P5K P- 134- 



From the brief summary of facts given above it is clear that 
the officials of the Sudan Government have directed their 
attention chiefly to the present material interests of the Sudan 
and its peoples, but they have done something also towards the 
encouragement of the study of the ancient history of the country 
and its languages. Sir Reginald Wingate has established a 
Museum of Antiquities in the Gordon College, and objects of 
interest are gradually coming into it. He arranged that excava- 
tions of theTyramids of Meroe should be made in 1903, and two 
years later he made it possible for the work to be resumed, and 
for Mr. J.W. Crowfoot and myself to collect a number of antiquities 
from the country between the Second and Third Cataracts, which 
are now in the Museum at Khartum. During this work the 
temple built at Semna by Tirhakah in honour of Usertsen III., 
the first Egyptian conqueror of the Sudan, was discovered and 
excavated, and a new and important set of facts was added to the 
ancient history of the country. Sir Reginald Wingate also 
decided to have the north wall from the chapel of one of the great 
Candace queens removed to Khartum, and thus preserved one of 
the finest sculptures extant of the later Meroitic Kingdom. 
Under his auspices, too, the clearing out of the temple at Haifa, 
and other works at the same place were carried out by Mr. J. W. 
Crowfoot and Mr. P. Scott-Moncrieff, and it is to be hoped that 
he will see his way to excavate other sites, and to remove their 
antiquities to a place of safety in Khartum. He has already 
caused some of the so-called " Anak " tombs to be excavated, and 
will, no doubt, as opportunity offers, continue the examination of 
other monuments of this class in the Eastern and Western 
Deserts. In all these works his efforts have been heartily 
seconded by Colonel E. E. Bernard, the Financial Secretary, who 
has cleverly managed to provide the necessary moneys. In 
connection with antiquities it may be noted in passing that in 1905 
the Sudan Government promulgated "The Antiquities Ordi- 
nance " {Sudan Gazette, p. 376 if.), which provides for the better 
preservation of all antiquities that " were built, produced, or 
" made in the Sudan or brought thereinto before the year 1783 o 
M the Gregorian Calendar." 

Following the excellent example of the East India Company 



the Sudan Government has decided to print works of linguistic 
importance written by its officers The Vocabulary of Suddti 
Arabic? by Captain Amery, is a good and useful piece of work, and 
we hope it will be followed by a. publication giving the texts of 
all the purely Sudani compositions which can be collected. Mr. 
Armbruster, Inspector of the Province of Kasala, has compiled 
an Amharic vocabulary of the Abyssinian language used in 
Kasala and its neighbourhood, and it should prove of considerable 
use to all the officials who are employed in administering the 
country near the Abyssinian frontier. 2 The excellent Dictionary of 
Isenberg (Amharic-English and English-Amharic) is unfortunately 
out of print, and very scarce, whilst the splendid Vocabolario 
Amarico-Italiano (Rome, 1901) of Guidi, and the Dictionnaire 
tie la Langue Amarinua (Paris, 1881) of D'Abbadie, are very 
expensive works. The Sudan Government deserves the hearty 
thanks of all who are interested in the languages of North-Kast 
Africa for undertaking the publication of such works, and con- 
sidering the large number of able Oxford and Cambridge men 
who are now in its service, there is no reason why the Government 
should not, in years to come, produce works on the languages of 
the Sudan which shall be as thorough and comprehensive as the 
famous Grammars of Lepsius and Almkvist on the Nubian and 
Hadanduwa Languages. 

The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan is ruled by a Governor-General 
assisted by a Secretary-General, an Inspector-General, a I 
Secretary, a Financial Secretary, an Agent-General stationed in 
Cairo, a series of Directors of Departments, a number of 
Governors of Provinces, called Mudfrs, who are in turn assisted 
by Inspectors and sub-Inspectors, and by native Ma'amurs. The 
chief Departments are those of Surveys, Works, Education, 
Irrigation, Medicine and Sanitation, Woods and Forests, Agri- 
culture and Lands, Railways, Steamers and Boats, Telegraphs 
and Posts, Customs, Game Preservation, Veterinary work, and 
Slavery Repression. The Sudan comprises all the territories 
south of the 22nd parallel of north latitude which were in the 
possession of Egypt In 1882, and all which may be reconquered 

1 Khartum and Cairo, 1905. 

I his work is being printed at Cambridge, and will appear in 1907. 


by the British and Egyptian Governments acting in concert. 
The British and Egyptian flags are used together throughout the 
Sudan, both on land and water, except in the town of Sawakin, 
where the Egyptian flag alone is used. In the Governor-General 
is vested the supreme military and civil command. He is 
appointed by Khedivial Decree, on the recommendation of His 
Britannic Majesty's Government, and can only be removed by 
Khedivial Decree, with the consent of His Britannic Majesty's 
Government. All Laws, Orders, and Regulations are made by 
Proclamations. The subjects of every Power trade in the Sudan 
under equal terms. Egyptian goods entering the Sudan pay no 
import duty, and the duties on goods from other countries do not 
exceed those on goods entering Egypt from abroad. Traffic in 
slaves in any form is absolutely prohibited, and the provisions of the 
Brussels Act of July 2nd, 1890, in respect of Fire-arms and Liquor 
are strictly enforced. Besides the above, the Anglo-Egyptian 
Convention of January 19th, 1899, which is the real Charter of 
the Sudan, decreed that no Consuls, Vice-Consuls, or Consular- 
Agents should be accredited in respect of nor allowed to reside in 
the Sudan, without the previous consent of His Britannic Majesty's 
Government. Without this last wise provision the progress of 
the Sudan could not have been so great as it has been during the 
last eight years. 

The present Governor-General, who is also Sirdar of the 
Egyptian Army, is Major-General Sir F. Reginald Wingate, 
K.C.B., K.C.M.G.. D.S.O., &c. He is the first authority on all 
questions connected with the history and the origin of the idea 
of the Mahdi both among the mystic Persian Muhammadans and 
the ''traditionalists" of the West. His great knowledge of Arabic, 
and of the manners and customs, and of the phases of thought and 
religions of the Sudani tribes, has proved one of the main factors 
in the successes which have followed the Anglo-Egyptian Army 
in the Sudan. His work, Mahdiism, and the Egyptian Sudan, 
is an encyclopaedia of one of the most remarkable Moslem 
religious movements which ever took place, and will be for many 
years the leading guide to the student of the subject. Fate 
fittingly confided to his hands the destruction of the Khalifa and 
of the Amirs who clung to him, and it was meet that the historian 



of Mahdiism should be the instrument whereby the most baneful 
form of it which the world has ever seen should be finally crushed, 
and the claims of a mischievous impostor and rebel proved to be 
wholly vain. 

Most intimately associated with Sir Reginald Wingate in the 
great work which he has carried out for many years is the present 
Inspector-General, Sir Rudolf von Slatin Pasha, K.C.M.G., &c. 
The extraordinary experiences which this distinguished Austrian 
officer passed through during his long service and captivity in the 
Sudan have given him an insight into the character of the Sudani 
peoples which is possessed by no other man. He is master of 
their languages and dialects, and he is able to look at things from 
their various standpoints, a faculty with which, to the same de 
few Kuropeans are endowed; while his patience and sympathy 
have caused him to be regarded as the friend of the native through- 
out the Sudan. The Sudan Government is fortunate indeed in 
possessing such an Inspector-General, and is to be congratulated 
on having placed him in a position where his unique knowledge 
can best be employed in the true interest of both the conquerors 
and the conquered. 

To describe the work of all the Directors of Departments, and 
the results of the devoted labours of the past and present Mudirs, 
which are all duly detailed in Lord Cromer's Reports t would 
occupy more space than can be spared in this work, but reference 
must be made to the quiet but ceaseless toil of one of the principal 
makers of modern Khartum — Colonel E. A. Stanton, Governor of 
turn since 1900. When he took over the duties of the 
Governorship from the capable hands of Colonel (now Sir) John 
fell Maxwell, the town was, practically speaking, a heap of 
ruins, and the people, though suffering sorely from the effect 
of past oppression, were, as Colonel Maxwell reported. 1 just 
" beginning to appreciate the situation, and learning to under- 
" stand that the officials no longer prey upon them, but try to do 
''what is just and right, and to disentangle the truth from the 
" skein of lies that is generally put before you.'' With the help of 
Colonel Friend, Colonel Stanton set to work to make paths 
and roads, and then had them kept clean, and by degrees he has 

1 (1900), p. 58. 


managed to make the natives appreciate the benefits of street 
sanitation. He has helped to plan and carry into execution 
many works of the greatest public utility, and by the establish- 
ment, of steam trams in Khartum and Omdurman, and the con- 
struction of a road to the ferry, along the Blue Nile, he has 
conferred a great boon on all classes in Khartum. 

The town now contains many fine, broad roads and streets, 
with well defined pavements marked by kerb-stones, and the road 
along the river front is macadamized ; in the matter of cleanliness 
Khartum now compares favourably with many of the large towns 
in Egypt. Small wonder is it that it is now " practically 
" impossible to find a vacant house to let in either the second or 
" the third-class part of the town, and only one or two in the first- 
" class." l Few who visit Khartum now can realize the filthy state 
and disorder of the town in 1899, and among those to whom 
credit is due for the decency and order which obtain there at 
the present time, Colonel Stanton's place is certainly not the 

The Government of the Sudan is, owing to the peculiarities 
and nature of its inhabitants, of a highly paternal character, but 
this under the circumstances cannot be avoided. Not only can- 
not the natives rule themselves, but they cannot take care of 
themselves, and in many particulars officials have to interfere 
promptly in their affairs to save them from the evil results of their 
own recklessness and ignorance. The peoples of the Sudan have 
been oppressed for thousands of years, and the effects of this 
treatment are ingrained in them physically and mentally. It 
would be a great mistake to imagine that the innate characters of 
the various inhabitants of the Sudan can be changed in one or 
two generations, and a greater mistake to think that any radical 
change has already been made. The natives who have Hamitic 
and Semitic blood in them will adapt themselves to their altered 
circumstances more quickly than the Negro or Negroid tribes, 
because some of their ancestors were descended from peoples who 
possessed civilizations of a comparatively high order, and the 
characteristics of these, latent in them, have not been obliterated 
wholly by the climatic and other conditions under which they live 
1 Egypt* No. 1 (1905), P- 147- 


in Africa. The tribes of Hamitic and Semitic ancestry prefer 
fighting, highway robbery, and brigandage, to manual labour, 
just as, as we have already seen, their forefathers did thousands 
of years ago ; and the Negroes, where free and independent, have 
never done more work than they were obliged to do in order to 
satisfy their personal needs or wishes. The best way to help 
both classes of natives to overcome their hereditary instincts is to 
open up their country, to develop trade, and to find for them 
occupation which will keep their minds from being influenced by 
fanatical teachers and religious impostors, and their hands from 
the works of rebellion. 

All these things the British are doing with marvellous success 
at the present time. It is, however, important to remember that 
at intervals of years great waves of fanaticism have broken out 
among many Oriental peoples, and that at such times some of 
the strongest Governments have been swept away like chaff. 
Periods of religious unrest, or malaise, are certain to come again 
in the Sudan as elsewhere, and it behoves the authorities to keep 
in readiness behind their moral influence material power sufficient 
to meet all the demands which may be made upon it. All will 
be well so long as the reins of government are in the hands of men 
who know and understand the native character, and who are able 
to make full allowance lis they rule for the indolence, suspicion, 
ignorance, and fanaticism which characterize the people, especially 
in districts remote from towns. But a weak Governor-General, 
or injudicious taxation, or a great religious " revival "' such as 
might take place as the result of the Pan-Islamic ideas now being 
promulgated in many parts of Turkey and Egypt, and above all 
the knowledge that the garrison at Khartum was numerically weak, 
might tempt the tribes once again to fight for " liberty, equality, 
and a pure religion." Khartum is 530 miles from the nearer 
port, and the means of rapid communication consists of a single- 
line railway which passes for 300 miles through desert and hilly 
country, where it would be easy for the nomad tribes to tear up 
the line in dozens of places simultaneously. To the mere student 
of the history of the country who remembers that the " Hillmen." 
or Blemmyes, or Bejas in the Eastern Desert, and the "Cattle- 
men," or Nobadae of the Western Desert, successfully defied 



the power of Rome, the British force in the Sudan at the present 
time seems insufficient, and there are several competent military 
experts who are of opinion that the garrison at Khartum should 
be strengthened. 

It has already been said that the Government of the Sudan is 
of a highly paternal character, and we may now add that the 
" Father " of the country is Lord Cromer. A little more than 
three months after the capture of Omdurman he visited Khartum, 
so that he might see for himself the nakedness of the land, and 
the poverty and misery to which its scanty population had been 
reduced by forty-five years of Turkish " rule," and thirteen years 
of religious tyranny and cruelty, and might arrange with Lord 
Kitchener how the Sudan was to be administered, and provide 
the necessary funds. He himself has told us that at that time 
the "prospect was certainly not encouraging." There was 
" scarcely a germ of civilization in the land, and a whole fiscal 
" and administrative system had to be created." Nothing daunted, 
however, he returned to Cairo and found money to carry on the 
government of the Sudan, and despatched Sir William Garstin to 
the south to make an exhaustive report on the Nile Valley and 
Basin, the crops, the people, the animals, the Sudd, possible 
irrigation improvements, forestry, minerals, taxes, and trade. Sir 
William reported, as a result of a careful inspection, that there was 
reason to hope that the Sudan Provinces would pay the expenses 
of their administration in course of time, but that the process of 
restoration would occupy many years. The country, he said, 
must have peace and quiet, just government, easy taxation, and 
simple sanitary measures which will tend to reduce mortality. 
He warned the Government, however, that the climate would 
levy a heavy toll in the shape of valuable lives, and his warning 
has been, alas, justified by events. 1 On July ioth, 1899,