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Publications 

OF 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL 
HISTORY 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL SERIES 
Volume XXIV 



/A NATURAL y^ X 
^ HISTORY >^ 



>£.^/cagO 



CHICAGO, U.S.A. 
1936-1951 




PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



147682 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

1. Egyptian Stelae in Field Museum of Natural History ... 1 

By Thomas George Allen. 

2. The Medora Site. West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana . . 81 

By George I. Quimby. 



m 



51Z 05 
FA 



Anthropological Series 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Volume XXIV Number 1 



EGYPTIAN STELAE 

IN 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

BY 

Thomas George Allen 

ASSISTANT CURATOR OF EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 



43 Plates and 43 Copies of Inscriptions in the Text 



Paul S. Martin 

CURATOK, DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY 
EDITOR 



Publication 359 



rA NATURAL %, 
*^ HISTOR.Y ^ 



FOUNDED Br MACISKALL FIELD 

CHICAGO, U.S.A. 
1936 



Anthropological Series ^ 

^%'^^^ 

Field Museum of Natural History ^^-qJ^^^;^ 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 ^^^m/^ 

Volume XXIV number i 



EGYPTIAN STELAE 

IN 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

BY 

Thomas George Allen 

ASSISTANT CURATOR OF EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 



43 Plates and 43 Copies of Inscriptions in the Text 



Paul S. Martin 

CURATOn, DEPARTMENT OF ANTHHOPOLOOY 
EDITOR 



Publication 359 



,%^ o/ -^^ . 

^.S NATURAL X^^ 
^ HISTOIVY ^ 



CHICAGO, U.S.A. 
1936 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



FA 



c 

!$ CONTENTS 



? 



PAGE 

List of Plates 5 



^Preface 7 

^ Introduction 9 

The Individual Stelae 12 

Middle Kingdom 12 

Empire 25 

Late 40 

Ptolemaic . 43 

Roman 70 

-^ Coptic 76 

^ Bibliography 77 

Index of Museum Numbers 79 



v3 






LIST OF PLATES 

MIDDLE KINGDOM 
I. Limestone Stela of Intef (p. 12). 11th Dynasty? 
II. Limestone Stela of Sitimpiyoker (p. 13). 12th Dynasty. 

III. Limestone Stela of Meni (p. 15). 12th Dynasty? 

IV. Limestone Stela of Memi (p. 16). 12th Dynasty? 

V. Limestone Stela of Ibsinisutya (p. 18). Edfu. llth-12th Dynasty. 
VI. Limestone Stela of Senhotep (p. 19). Kom Ombo. 12th Dynasty? 
Limestone Stela of Nakhti and Wahka (p. 20). Abydos? 12th 
Dynasty. 

VII. Limestone Stela of Sebek (p. 20). Abydos? 12th Dynasty? 
VIII. Limestone Stela of Seven Persons (p. 24). Abydos? 12th Dynasty? 

EMPIRE 

IX. Sandstone Stela of Tanebet and Nebnofer (p. 25). Thebes? 18th 
Dynasty. 

X. Limestone Stela of Tefket and Humath (p. 27). Abydos? Early 
18th Dynasty? 
Limestone Votive Stela of Huerhetef (p. 28). Abydos? 18th 
Dynasty. 

XL Limestone Stela of the Doorkeeper Thutmose (p. 29). 18th Dynasty. 

XII. Black Granite Votive Stela of King Amenhotep III (p. 30). 18th 
Dynasty. 
Limestone Stela of Nakhti and Werti (p. 32). 18th-19th Dynasty. 

XIII. Limestone Stela of Userhet (p. 33). Thebes? 19th Dynasty. 

XIV. Limestone Stela of Nefretiri (p. 35). Memphis. 19th-20th Dynasty. 

XV. Sandstone Stela of Bekenamon and Tentishru (p. 37). Thebes? 
19th-20th Dynasty. 

XVI. Limestone Stela of Tetinofer (p. 39). 20th Dynasty? 

XVII. Limestone Stela of . . .het (p. 39). 20th Dynasty f!. 

LATE 

XVIII. Limestone Stela of Four Unnamed Persons (p. 40). 22d Dynasty fT. 
Limestone Stela of a Nameless Lady (p. 41). 26th Dynasty ff. 
XIX. Limestone Stela of a Family of Five (p. 41). 26th Dynasty ff. 

Limestone Stela of an Unknown Man and Woman (p. 43). 26th 
Dynasty ff. 

PTOLEMAIC 

XX. Limestone Stela of Je'khons^efonekh (p. 43). Thebes? Ptolemaic 
Period. 
Limestone Stela of Petowe (p. 44). Ptolemaic Period. 

XXI. Limestone Stela of Netempeashese (p. 46). Abydos? Ptolemaic 
Period. 

XXII. Limestone Stela of Pediese (p. 47). Akhmim. Ptolemaic Period. 

XXIII. Limestone Stela of Tutusirwer (p. 48). Akhmim. Ptolemaic Period. 

XXIV. Limestone Votive Stela with Figure of Horus (p. 50). Ptolemaic 

Period. 



6 List of Plates 

XXV. Limestone Stela of Hor (p. 50). Akhmim? Ptolemaic Period. 

XXVL Limestone Stela of Jehor (p. 51). Akhmim? Ptolemaic Period. 

XXVIL Limestone Stela of Nesimin (p. 53). Akhmim. Ptolemaic Period. 

XXVin. Limestone Stela of Petowe (p. 55). Akhmim. Ptolemaic Period. 

XXIX. Limestone Stela with Confused Text (p. 56). Ptolemaic Period. 

XXX. Limestone Stela of Isikheb (p. 57). Dendera? Ptolemaic Period. 

XXXI. Limestone Stela of InarSs (p. 57). Akhmim. Ptolemaic Period. 

XXXII. Sandstone Stela of Pediupwawet (p. 59). Akhmim? Ptolemaic 
Period? 

XXXIII. Limestone Stela of Pehet (p. 61). Akhmim. Ptolemaic Period. 

XXXIV. Limestone Stela of Pesheremehit (p. 62). Akhmim. Ptolemaic 

Period. 

XXXV. Limestone Stela of Terepet (p. 65). Akhmim. Ptolemaic Period. 

XXXVI. Limestone Stela of Tutpeo (p. 67). Akhmim. Ptolemaic Period. 

XXXVII. Limestone Stela of Tekerthoth (p. 68). Akhmim? Ptolemaic Period. 

XXXVIII. Mica Schist Stela of Shesepmin (p. 69). Koptos? Ptolemaic Period. 



XXXIX. 

XL. 

XLI. 

XLII. 



ROMAN 

Limestone Stela with Somewhat Confused Text (p. 70). Roman 
Period. 

Limestone Stela with Confused Text (p. 72). Roman Period. 
Limestone Stela of Nesimin (p. 73). Akhmim. Roman Period. 
Limestone Stela of an Unnamed Man (p. 75). Roman Period. 
Limestone Votive Stela of a Roman Emperor as Pharaoh (p. 76). 



Roman Period. 



COPTIC 



XLIII. Limestone Stela of 'Apa Johannes' (p. 76). Coptic Period. 



PREFACE 

In preparing this publication of Field Museum Egyptian stelae 
hand copies of most of the hieroglyphic inscriptions have been 
included for the sake of clearness. Among these special attention 
has been paid to the arrangement and forms of the individual signs 
in the case of the earlier stelae. Even in the later ones, however, 
peculiarly made signs are frequently rendered with care. The 
attempt has been made throughout to indicate clearly just what 
signs are meant, except where the traces are unintelligible. 

Where exact transliteration of Egyptian words is required (e.g., 
in the case of certain obscure titles and of the words discussed in the 
notes), the system followed is the same as in Gardiner's Egyptian 
Grammar except that our y represents both his i and his y and that 
we differentiate his s into the z and s which he gives as the original 
equivalents of the two Egyptian letters concerned. Our English 
spellings of Egyptian proper names are based largely on principles 
made current by Professor James Henry Breasted in his Ancient 
Records of Egypt (Chicago, 1906-1907). But since the sound of 
Egyptian d is that of our English j instead of the z there used, we 
have preferred the former letter. This course accords also with 
the fact that z as used in Ancient Records has no relation to the 
English z sound, which belongs properly (as noted above) to one of 
the Egyptian s's. 

Field Museum has been fortunate in possessing detailed labels 
written by Professor Breasted himself soon after the acquisition 
of these stelae. With this material as a background, and aided by 
the availability of almost forty years' further contributions to the 
study of Egyptology, it has, it is hoped, been possible to give here a 
fairly definitive account of these stelae. References to parallels 
have been kept brief. The bibliography on pages 77-78 gives full 
data on the publications concerned. The periods to which names 
cited by Ranke, Die dgyptischen Personennamen, are assigned by him 
have been duly considered in dating the stelae. 

Besides my indebtedness to Professor Breasted, thanks are due 
to Dr. Berthold Laufer, late Curator of the Department of Anthro- 
pology, to Dr. Paul S. Martin, the present Curator, to Mr. 
Stephen C. Simms, Director, and to Mr. Stanley Field, President 
of Field Museum, who have made possible the publication of this 
monogi-aph. Professor William F. Edgerton of the University of 



8 Preface 

Chicago has been so kind as to furnish me with notes on the few 
and brief demotic inscriptions. To my secretary and assistant at 
the University of Chicago, Mrs. Albert R. Hauser, I would express 
my appreciation for her capable services in the preparation of the 
manuscript during her free time. Mr. C. H. Carpenter, head of 
the Division of Photography at Field Museum, is responsible for 
the quality of the plates. 

It should be stated that this manuscript was originally completed 
January 6, 1932, and that the pressure of current duties has not 
permitted as thorough study as should have been devoted to Egypto- 
logical literature published since that time. 

Thomas George Allen 
Oriental Institute, University of Chicago 

November 18, 1935 



EGYPTIAN STELAE 

IN 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



INTRODUCTION 

The Egyptian stelae here published, forming one unit in the 
Egyptian exhibit, were all collected on behalf of Field Museum by 
Mr, Edward E. Ayer. They belong to two different purchases. 
The first group, forming a part of Accession 257 and numbered in 
the 31200's, was obtained in 1896; the second group, part of Accession 
594 and numbered in the 31600's, was obtained in 1898. A few 
analogous pieces similarly acquired, installed before 1931 in the 
rearranged exhibits of tomb sculpture and painting and of writing 
methods and materials, were not available for publication here. No 
record of the history of any of these objects prior to their purchase 
has been preserved. Hence the descriptions here given have all been 
derived from their varying styles, as compared with better docu- 
mented stelae elsewhere, and especially from the inscriptions which 
they bear. 

The history of Egypt falls into various main periods, which may 
for convenience be set down as follows:^ 

Period Dynasties Years 

Predynastic before about 3400 B.C. 

Protodynastic lst-2d about 3400-2980 B.C. 

Old Kingdom 3d-6th about 2980-2475 B.C. 

Middle Kingdom llth-12th about 2160-1788 B.C. 

Empire 18th-20th (first part) about 1580-1150 B.C. 

Decadence 20th (last part)-25th about 1150-663 B.C. 

Renaissance 26th 663-525 B.C. 

Persian 27th-30th 525-332 B.C. 

Ptolemaic 332-30 B.C. 

Roman, etc after 30 B.C. 

Coptic early centuries after Christ 

Stelae such as these are chiefly tombstones. Among the earliest 
which have been found in Egypt are many round-topped tablets 
which belonged to kings of the 1st and 2d dynasties and to their 
retainers.- The superstructure of the tomb was at that period 

' The dates given are those assigned by Professor Breasted. 

* Cf. W. M. F. Petrie, The Royal Tombs . . . (London, 1900-1901), Part I, 
front, and Plates XXX-XXXVI, and Part II, Plates XXVI-XXXI. 

9 



10 Egyptian Stelae 

relatively undeveloped. Under the Old Kingdom, however, the 
superstructure became an imposing rectangular mass with stone 
walls showing a batter. Within its otherwise solid interior were left 
various chambers, independent of the underground tomb, including 
a place or places prepared for the reception of offerings to be made 
in behalf of the dead by the living. The offerings would be deposited 
on an offering-table let into the ground before a niche the shape of 
which has led archaeologists to call it a "false door." It was, indeed, 
conceived as a doorway through which the spirit of the deceased 
might return from the realm of the dead to receive and enjoy the 
offerings.' 

Even in the Old Kingdom it was still only kings and nobles or 
high officials who were able to enjoy such tombs as those described; 
and in many of the non-royal tombs it is expressly stated that they 
were given or at least equipped by the king. Humbler individuals 
seem to have been quite lacking in burial equipment. With the 
Middle Kingdom, however, the common man enters definitely into 
the picture. His tomb was relatively small and simple; but the 
"false door" of the Old Kingdom had survived in the guise of a tomb- 
stone or stela set up to mark his resting-place. Not only actual 
burials but also cenotaphs were thus identified. That is, during the 
Middle Kingdom the dead, wherever buried, were frequently given 
memorial tablets at Abydos, where the god Osiris himself was thought 
to be interred, that they might thereby enjoy a closer intimacy with 
that great ruler of the dead. A few stelae may be assigned to a third 
group as votive tablets, intended magically to perpetuate the worship 
they depict. 

Descendants of both the earlier forms, the round-topped stelae 
of the Protodynastic Period and the rectangular "false doors" of 
the Old Kingdom, were used in the Middle Kingdom. The round- 
topped stela, however, gradually became predominant and persisted 
even into Coptic times.- Other forms, such as that of the Empire 
stela No. 31652, with a pyramid topping its curve, are quite rare. 

The stones most readily accessible in Egypt were used for stelae. 
Limestone predominates; sandstone is rather common. Of other 

' False doors may be seen in position in two Old Kingdom tomb chapels 
brought from Sakkara and re-erected at the west end of the Egyptian hall. For 
a detailed account of the development of their forms see Adolf Rusch, "Die Ent- 
wicklung der Grabsteinformen im Alten Reich," ZeUschrift filr agyptische Sprache 
und AUertumskunde, LVIII (1923), pp. 101-124. 

' A late 18th dynasty tomb chapel with two stelae, one of each form, still 
standing in position, is illustrated by J. E. Quibell and A. G. K. Hayter, Excava- 
tions at Saqqara: Teli Pyramid, North Side (Le Caire, 1927), Plate 8. 



Introduction 11 

stones, this particular group contains one example of granite and 
one of mica schist. The scenes and inscriptions usually combine 
the techniques of sculpture and painting. Their changing content 
from period to period is brought out in our descriptions of the 
individual stelae. The carving, mostly incised, rarely in relief, is 
often crude. The colors may have faded or even wholly disappeared, 
but frequently the surviving traces suffice to give a suggestion of their 
original brilliance. 



THE INDIVIDUAL STELAE 
middle kingdom 

31694. Limestone Stela of Intef, in Form of a False Door. 
11th Dynasty? Plate I. 

The incised decoration shows in the rectangular panel above the 
"doorway" the deceased owner seated at a table loaded with food: 
the leg and head of an ox, another joint of meat, a goose, and some 
vegetables. The legs of his chair imitate those of a bull. Beneath 
the table stand a vase of drinking-water and a ewer and washbowl; 
for it was considered good form even in the other world to wash before 
eating. Over the table is written a prayer for offerings: "[^A thou- 
sand^]' of geese and oxen, beer, alabaster (oil-jars), and clothing for 
the worthy one, Intef." On the lintel below the panel are engraved 
two sacred eyes. 

Above the panel begin two prayers for mortuary offerings, 
extending each way from the central group of signs, which belongs 
to both, and turning downward to frame the panel and the "door- 
way." The prayer to our left reads: "A mortuary offering of bread 
and beer, oxen and geese, belonging to the worthy one, praised of 
his city, ^completely beloved,^ Intef." That to our right reads: "A 
mortuary offering of bread and beer, oxen and geese, [belong]ing [to] 
him who is worthy in the presence of Ptah-Sokar (and) in the 
presence of the great god the lord of the sky, Intef." 

Of the outer columns of inscriptions, incomplete above, that 
at our left reads: "... [worthy in the pres]ence of Ptah-Sokar (and) 
in the presence of the great god the lord of the sky, the gang-boss 

Intef." That at our right reads: " [May . . . ] the lord of Abydos 

[grant] a good passage^ to the worthy one, Intef." 

At the bottom of each of the four columns of text stands a small 
figure of the deceased. 

* Symbols used in transliterations and translations are: 

[ 1 Lost. 

' ^ Uncertain. 

( ) Comments or additions by the translator. 

< > Emendations, usually based on other ancient texts. 

Omitted by the translator, usually because corrupt or damaged and 
hence unintelligible. 

' I.e., from this world to the next. 

12 



The Individual Stelae 



13 



The name Intef was borne by various 11th dynasty kings. 
Though the name occurs earher and later also, the style of this stela 
would suggest that it belongs to that dynasty. 




T"c^ nn i:f%^ — '^ 









in 




* These two lines of small characters are really written still smaller and all in one line on the stone. 

TEXT OF NO. 31694 

31285. Limestone Stela of Sitimpiyoker, in Form of a False 
Door. 12th Dynasty. Plate IL 

This stela resembles in style that of Intef described above, but 
is practically complete. Incised on each jamb of the "doorway" 
stands the name of the deceased: "The worthy one, Sitimpiyoker." 
On the lintel above the drum are carved the sacred eyes. The panel 
above them shows the deceased lady seated before a table loaded 
with meats and vegetables. These rest in turn upon half loaves of 
bread which have already ceased to be understood as such by the 
Egyptians themselves and have become modified into a tablecloth 
of reed leaves. Egyptian convention, which seeks visibility of all 
items in the picture, even though different points of view must be 



14 



Egyptian Stelae 



^'^A^aiAj 




JSL 



^:^ 






D 

p 




/^ 



:i2^?S 












Din 



5|C 



^^PP^H-^e 



.C^DCITD * 






? 



511 



fl£ ^fl 



* Written small above the banquet scene. 

TEXT OF NO. 31285 

combined, is of course responsible for the grouping one above 
another of objects which must in part at least have lain beside one 
another on the table. The lady is enjoying the fragrance of a blue 
lotus blossom held in her left hand. Across the top of the panel 



The Individual Stelae 15 

is written a prayer: "A mortuary offering for the worthy one, 
Sitimpiyoker." 

In the upper right corner of the band above the panel begin two 
other prayers which should in reality, with omission of the duplicate 
elements, form only one. That reading to our left, then downward, 
asks "a mortuary offering of bread and beer, oxen and geese, ala- 
baster (oil-jars), and clothing at the New Year's feast (and) at the 
wig-feast for Sitimpiyoker." The right-hand inscription, using the 
same initial group of signs, asks "a mortuary offering at the feast 
of Thoth for Sitimpiyoker." At the foot of each of these columns 
stands a figure of the deceased lady. 

Above the frame around the foregoing inscriptions comes a 
crudely incised cavetto cornice. The outermost frame again bears 
two inscriptions, one reading each way from the center of the hori- 
zontal member at the top. That to our left says: "A boon which 
the king gives' (and which) Anubis (gives), he who is upon the Viper 
Mountain, he who is in the oasis, the lord of the 'splendid land,'^ 
(namely) goodly burial of the worthy one, Sitimpiyoker." The 
text at our right reads: "A boon which the king gives (and which) 
Osiris (gives), the lord of Busiris, the great god, the lord of Abydos, 
(namely) a mortuary offering of bread and beer, oxen and geese, 
alabaster (oil- jars), and clothing for Sitimpiyoker." 

Though no parallel has been noted for the full name of our 
deceased lady, the names Impi and Sitimpi ("daughter of Impi") 
occur under both the Old and the Middle Kingdom. The two are 
found together on Cairo stela No. 20338, which mentions in its 
inscriptions even more feasts than are named above. Its date is 
indicated as early 12th dynasty by the occurrence of another name, 
Sehetepibre, which is the same as the throne name of Amenemhet I, 
the founder of that dynasty. 

31680. Limestone Stela of Meni, in Form of a False Door. 
12th Dynasty? Plate III. 

The decoration and inscription on this stela are merely painted. 
The colors used are dull blue for the scene, the inscription, and the 
cavetto cornice above it, and black for the base of the stela and for 

' On this formula see Alan H. Gardiner in the Egypt Exploration Society's 
"Theban Tombs Series," I (London, 1915), pp. 79-93, and more briefly in his 
Egyptian Grammar (Oxford, 1927), pp. 170-173. 

* Euphemism for "the cemetery." 



16 



Egyptian Stelae 



the lacings indicated on the upright members at the sides.^ The 
blue coloring for flesh is highly unusual. 

The deceased owner is shown seated before a table on which rest 
two tall loaves and a round loaf or cake. The five-line inscription 
above him, which reads as follows, identifies him: "An offering which 




m 




?f?rts 



, I /v^x^v^ /^ 






TEXT OF NO. 31680 

the king gives (to) Osiris, the lord of Busiris, the great god, the lord 
of Abydos, that he may give a mortuary offering of bread and beer, 
oxen and geese, alabaster (oil- jars), clothing, (and) everything good 
and pure on which a god lives, which the sky gives (and) <the 
earth > produces, to the spirit of the officer of the guard Meni, 
deceased, 2 possessor of worthiness." 

31649. Limestone Stela of Memi, in Form of a False Door. 
12th Dynasty? Plate IV. 

The cavetto cornice here is painted in red and green. Lacings on 
the frame surrounding the incised scene and inscription are indicated 

' The cavetto cornice is derived from palm branches, and the torus molding 
with lacings from bundles of reeds used to protect plastered corners. See W. M. F. 
Tetrie, Egyptian Decorative Art (2d ed.; London, 1920), pp. 97-100. 

* The phrase mi hrw means literally "righteous {or correct) in speech." Its 
use springs from the "justification" of the god Osiris, which came to be shared 
by his subjects, the dead. Thus in the Middle Kingdom it is equivalent to the 
term "deceased" which we are using regularly in our translations. Under the 
Empire, however, the phrase is occasionally in special cases applied to the living. 



The Individual Stelae 



17 



in black. There are traces of black on the background of the panel. 
The four-line inscription reads: "An offering which the king gives 
(to) Osiris, the lord of Busiris, the great god, the lord of Abydos, 
that he may give a mortuary offering of bread and beer, oxen and 
geese, alabaster (oil-jars), clothing, (and) everything [g]ood and 
pure on which a god lives, at the monthly feast and at the [. . .]- 
feasts [to] the spirit of the worthy one, the priest Memi, deceased." 
The name written above the man standing below is surprisingly 
not Memi but "Heni." It is very unlikely, however, that two 




LL 






O 



M€^^^?^^¥ 



/^'r^^Bp™* ^ 




1 \ p) (;;.A^A/vA g\^^^^^ 






TEXT OF NO. 31649 



different individuals are meant. Behind the latter stands "his wife, 
his beloved, Bibi, deceased." Before this couple appear numerous 
food offerings. On a low stand in the foreground (below) are sealed 
jars of drink. On the mat in the center are piled bread and cakes, 
vegetables, and jars of ointment. On another mat, in the background 
(above), rest a goose, an oxhead, and various cuts of meat. 

The stela was broken in two diagonally in ancient times. The 
lower half has been exposed to a weathering which the upper half 
has escaped. 



18 



Egyptian Stelae 



31664. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Ibsinisutya. 
Edfu. 11th-12th Dynasty. Plate V. 

All color, if any was present, has vanished from this crudely 
incised stela. At the top are the sacred eyes with the symbol of "offer- 



I — ^ 




cm 






A/N.-'VA, 







TEXT OF NO. 81664 



ing" between them. The inscription reads: "An offering which the 
king gives' (to) Horus of Edfu and Osiris that they may give a 
mortuary offering of bread and beer, oxen and geese, to the spirit of 

' Except for No. 31685 (see next page) all occurrences of this so-called "offer- 
ing-formula" on the stelae described from here on show the ideogram for "give" 
written before the word "boon or offering." Though this inversion in the writing 
suggests the possibility of a corresponding change in the meaning, Egyptian 
religious thought was so conservative that it has seemed best to translate the 
formula uniformly. In any event, whether we have a nominal clause, as translated, 
or a wish, "May the king give an offering," the formula had by now become in 
effect a spell which was magfically to provide offerings as needed. 



The Individual Stelae 19 

Ibsinisutya.' He says: 'I am one who possessed a good reputation 
in his city, one who settled matters, possessor of love, beloved of 
everybody ^ (about) him\ . . .- Ibsinisutya, who was begotten of the 
count and manager of the <pr>iests, Horhirkhutef, and whose 
beloved wife is Sebekemsauf.' " 

The couple shown seated together at the lower left corner of 
the stela are presumably Ibsinisutya and his wife Sebekemsauf. The 
gentleman holds a tall staff in his left hand. As is customary, the 
lady indicates her affection by embracing her husband. The peculi- 
arities of Egyptian draftsmanship, however, make the postures 
rather awkward. 

31685. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Senhotep. Kom 
Ombo. 12th Dynasty? Plate VI. 

The badly weathered scene on this stela is in low relief, though 
the inscriptions are incised. At the top appear the sacred eyes with 










TEXT OF NO. 31685 

the "ring" symbol between them. The lady "Senhotep" seated at 
our left inhales the fragrance of a blue lotus blossom while receiving 
a libation poured by "her son, her beloved, Nakhtmontu." 

The text below reads: "An offering which the king gives (to) 
Sebek, the lord of Kom Ombo, that he may give a mortuary offering 

' This name, not noted elsewhere, means: "The heart of the King's son 
is glad." 

* May the y^h sign found here represent already in this Middle Kingdom text 
the word iff^, one of the terms applied to the dead? 



20 Egyptian Stelae 

of bread and beer, oxen and geese, and everything good to the spirit 
of Senhotep the daughter of Bau." 

31672. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Nakhti and 
Wahka. Abydos? 12th Dynasty. Plate VI. 

Both the inscriptions and the scenes here are incised. No color 
is preserved. At the top come two spells. That to our left reads: 
"A boon which the king gives (to) Osiris for the worthy one, the 
manager of the household, Nahkti, deceased, (and) his wife Net- 
hej, deceased." The spell at our right reads: "A boon which the king 
gives (to) Osiris for the worthy one, Wahka, deceased, offspring of 
Sebekhotep,' deceased, possessor of worthiness, (and) his (Wahka's) 
wife Nofretrekhit, deceased." 

Beneath these texts we find the two couples seated at either side 
of a table piled with food. The men are both in mummy form 
and wear the beard and carry the insignia of the god Osiris himself, 
with whom at their death they have become identified. The women, 
seated on the ground, seem still to wear the long, close-fitting garb 
of the living. 

The lower half of this stela contains the names and figures of 
relatives and dependents. Those mentioned in the upper row, begin- 
ning at our right, are: "His brother, the chamberlain Sehetepibre" ; 
"the worthy one, the chief of the physicians, Wahka, deceased"; 
and "his wife Wahka, deceased." Those in the middle row are: 
"His mother Nofrettu,- deceased"; "his daughter Ankhettu,' de- 
ceased"; and "his son Nakhti, deceased." In the bottom row we 
find "his sister Maret, deceased"; "his wife Senbet, deceased"; and 
"the steward Senebbu, deceased." Down the margin at our right 
are added the names of "his friend (fem.) Neferhet, deceased," 
and "his sister Shedu." 

31679. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Sebek. Abydos? 
12th Dynasty? Plate VII. 

At the top are incised the sacred eyes with the "ring" symbol 
between them. The three lines which follow read : "An offering which 
the king gives (to) Ptah, Sokar, and Osiris the great god, the lord of 

' His mother. 

- The same spelling, with the order of signs unmistakable, is found in Cairo 
stela No. 20099. 

' Cf. Cairo stela No. 20158 (from Abydos), which seems from this and other 
names occurring upon it to have belonged to a member of the same family. 






Vc:^ 



I: 



HI o 



mB'di">'^ 



^ 



III 



t > 






in 



( t I 



AAAO 

2T 



ui 

I A 



I 



i 



\ o 






:2 



I ? 



o 






^r^ 



I 

X 



TEXT OF NO. 31672 



21 



22 Egyptian Stelae 

Abydos, that they may give a mortuary offering of bread and beer, 
oxen and geese, incense and ointment to the spirit of the supervisor 
of the ruler's table, Sebek,* deceased, (and) his wife, the king's 
ornamenf^ Yusni."^ 

The three registers below picture various relatives. Of the 
four in each register, two face inward from each side. Their names 
are as follows, beginning at the center of each register and reading 
first the two names to our right, then the two to our left : 

"The supervisor of the ruler's table, Sebek, deceased." 

"His son, the judge Nemu."* 

"His son, the judge ^Kirdis^"* 

"His wife, the king's ornament Yusni." 

"His wife Nubyiti." 

"<His> daughter Nubenib."« 

"His brother, the judge Bebiseneb."^ 

"His son, the judge Khnummose." 

"His son, the judge Bebiseneb." 

"His son, the judge Khnum." 

"His son, the judge Merikhnum." 

"His son, the judge Hor." 

Traces of red color remain on the figures, especially those of 
the men. 

' The only Cairo stelae on which this name occurs in this spelling are Nos. 
20296 and 20540, both of which come from Abydos. The name is feminine, 
however, in No. 20540 and possibly even in No. 20296. 

* This title (hkrt ny-swt) seems to be applied to women who have previously 
been inmates of the royal harem. 

* That this name means "She is mine {yw.s n.y)" is shown by its writing in 
Cairo stelae Nos. 20030, 20035, 20155, 20237, 20749, in all of which the name, 
though feminine, ends with a "man" sign which clearly represents the first person 
suffix pronoun. In Cairo No. 20157d, as here, we have instead the "woman" 
sign, which may be either the first j)erson feminine pronoun (representing the 
mother as speaking?) or the determinative of the name as a whole. 

* I.e., "dwarf." The initial n is the negative instead of the normal alphabetic 
sign. 

' The signs seem clear, but their interpretation is obscure. The end of the 
name reminds one of the much later theophorous type represented, e.g., by 
"Amenirdis." Should we by any chance read not i: but fnd, with the epithet 
fndy representing Thoth, and emend r to the "eye" sign yr? 

* This name occurs on Cairo stelae Nos. 201706 and 20660c. 

' The Bb in our name is evidently only an abbreviated writing for Bby. Cf. 
Bby~^nb in Cairo stela No. 20056j7 (fem.) and the numerous Cairo occurrences of 
Bby alone as a name for either men or women. 






n cj 



U 



(fz::^ 






^t^ "^3 



^ ^ Sic 









TEXT OF NO. 31679 



23 



24 



Egyptian Stelae 



31647. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Seven Persons. 
Abydos? 12th Dynasty? Plate VIII. 

This stela, with its numerous beneficiaries, may well have been 
not a tombstone but a memorial tablet, set up at Abydos to gain 
for these humble folk the advantage of direct association with Osiris 
in person; for will they not have made pilgrimages thither to see 
and worship at the god's own tomb in the Abydos cemetery? 

Besides the sacred eyes and the "ring," the symbols of the "East" 
and the "West" are shown presenting offerings at our left and right 




U Lf ^ e 5^ ^ 

1 ^frl iiE tf fs q 

T on — ^^ LIT 

ML [v/I 




I I I 



a ex -^^i^ 'y^^Y^ A.-^yy^ -^^o ^'^^:^ Zflj T^^j^ AAAAA -1/v/v^A •^—7 iZZ r 
M y ^ °^ 1^ i^J g ^ H Tf g 
<= as ^7 ^ /Z ^=7 , -v 'S' ins "=5^ LI ,=5= 



M 



ItTD 



/f i^ 



I n 



in 



n i^ y^ 




TEXT OF NO. 31647 



respectively in the upper register. The figures and inscriptions are 
all incised. No traces of the original colors are preserved on the 
stela; but its lower end is stained, perhaps by a modern preservative. 
The middle register shows three men seated on the ground. 
Before them stand two jars of ointment and a table bearing two 
loaves and a jar. These offerings are evidently being presented by a 
fourth man shown on a much smaller scale at our right. The two 
columns of text above him give his name: "The keeper of the meat 
supply, Ati, deceased." The adjoining columns read, beginning at 
our right: "An offering which the king gives (to) Osiris, the lord of 



The Individual Stelae 25 

Abydos, that he may give everything good and pure on which a god 
Uves to the spirit of the butler fSemsuemno\"' Then follows another 
spell: "An offering which the king gives (to) Osiris, the lord of 
Abydos, < that he may give . . . > to the spirit of the ^master mariner^ 
Seneberau (and) to the spirit of the . . . Seneb[ti]fl, deceased." 

The lowest register shows four women seated on the ground. The 
twelve columns of text above them are a spell in their behalf: "An 
offering which the king gives (to) Osiris, the lord of Abydos, < that 
he may give . . . > to the spirit of the housemistress Nehi, to the spirit 
of the housemistress Abetib, to the spirit of the housemistress 
Anekhtunmutnisut, (and) to the spirit of the housemistress Nehi, 
deceased." 

Across the bottom of the stela runs an addition in large char- 
acters: "For the spirit [of] Sen[eb]tifi, deceased, he carved ['this 
stela^]." 

EMPIRE 

31650. Round-topped Sandstone Stela of Tanebet and 
Nebnofer. Thebes? 18th Dynasty. Plate IX. 

Between the sacred eyes at the top is pictured a bowl with the 
"water" symbol beneath it. The deceased owner and her husband 
are seated at our left before a table of offerings which are being pre- 
sented by her son and daughter. Other offerings are in their hands. 
With his right hand the son is perhaps offering incense, while the 
daughter with her right hand is pouring a libation. Other sons and 
daughters appear in the register below. The offerings on the table 
include loaves and a jar, cuts of meat, onions, and a blue lotus blos- 
som and bud. There are slight traces of the original colors: red on 
the skins and vessels, white on the garments, blue on the hieroglyphs 
and the dividing lines and on the lotus buds. The inscriptions and 
figures are all incised. 

The columns of inscription above at our right read: "Giving 
everything good and pure to his mother by Simut" and "Giving 
bread and beer to her mother by Mehu." The remaining columns, 
reading toward our left, say: "For the spirit of the 'hearer of the call' 
of Amon, Nebnofer, deceased, (and) his wife, the housemistress 
Tanebet." Beside Tanebet's chair stands a small boy holding a blue 
lotus bud in his left hand. Before him is written his name, "Nefer- 
sekheru." Nebnofer himself holds a blue lotus blossom to his nose, 
with the remark: "More beautiful than < any > thing." The fact that 

• The first sign might also be read wr, the last sign r or h. None of the possible 
combinations appears in Ranke's list. 



26 Egyptian Stelae 

the name of Amon in Nebnofer's title has been cut away shows that 
the stela was made prior to the "heretical" reign of Ikhnaton (about 
1375-1358 B.C.), under whom the defacement doubtless took place. 

The relatives in the second register, all of whom have with them 
additional offerings, are, at our right, two men, "her son Peshedu" 




1 



m 






m pp -J 



^ D 



TEXT OF NO. 31660 

and "her son Neferhotep"; at our left, three women, "her daughter 
Mutnofret," "her daughter Tui," and "her daughter Mutemuya." 

Across the bottom of the stela runs a two-line spell: "An offering 
which the king gives (to) Osiris presiding over the Westerners, that 
he may give a mortuary offering of bread and beer, oxen and geese, 
and everything good and pure to the spirit of the housemistress 
Tanebet, justified in the presence of Osiris.^ It is this householder, 
her beloved, her darling, who keeps her name alive, (namely) Neb- 

' The phrase rn^^i hrw hr W^yr is evidently to be translated as above, though 
wiJ'f ^rw alone is normally equivalent to "deceased." Cf. p. 16, n. 2. 



The Individual Stelae 27 

nofer, living again." The final statement agrees with the fact that 
the children are called "her" sons and "her" daughters in showing 
that the stela was erected primarily for Tanebet. Nebnofer's 
epithet "living again" suggests, however, that he too had passed 
away. In any event his affection has succeeded in "keeping alive" 
his wife's name until this day. 

31656. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Tefket and 
HuMATH. Abydos? Early 18th Dynasty? Plate X. 

The background of the sacred eyes and "ring" and of the scene 
below them has been cut away so that those parts appear in low re- 








n 






c:>>. 



TEXT OF NO. 31656 

lief. The writing both here and in the lines below is incised. The 
surface is much darkened ; it was once coated with black paint, part 
of which has survived. 

At our right are seated "Humath" and "Tefket" receiving offer- 
ings from "Tahui" and "Ahmose." With her left hand the former 
pours a libation. The latter holds in his left hand a white lotus 
blossom. On the table in the center lies a bunch of onions. Under the 
table stand a jar of drink and various cakes and loaves. The prayer 
below reads: "An offering which the king gives (to) Osiris presiding 
over the Westerners, the lord of Abydos, that he may give a mortuary 



28 



Egyptian Stelae 



oflFering of bread and beer, oxen and geese, and everything good and 
pure on which a god lives to the spirit of the < house > mistress < Tef- 
ket, deceased > . It is her daughter who keeps her name alive, (namely) 
Tahui." The scribe has been guilty of gross carelessness in omitting 
from this prayer the very name of the deceased lady. Fortunately 
for her, he had written it over her figure in the scene above. The 
last sentence explains the relationship of Tahui. Ahmose may have 
been either the son of Tefket or the husband of Tahui. 

The lower left-hand corner of the stela had evidently been 
damaged even before the inscription was cut, for the prayer was 
finished before the break was reached. This stela, like No. 31650, 
was made primarily as a monument to a mother. 

31655. Round-topped Limestone Votive Stela of Huer- 
HETEF. Abydos? 18th Dynasty. Plate X. 

At the top stands an invocation to the deified king Thutmose 
III: "Live the good god, the Lord of the Two Lands, Menkheperre 






£:::b. 



c^B^ ^ 




■-^- 



TEXT OP NO. 31655 



The Individual Stelae 29 

(his throne name), given life forever." Below are pictured two gods 
who are identified both by their costumes and symbols and by the 
inscriptions accompanying them: "Utterance by Onuris-Re, lord 
of the sky," and "< Utterance > by Horus the son of Osiris." The 
second occurrence of the word "utterance" seems to have been 
actually written, but facing in the wrong direction. After he had 
erased it the scribe apparently forgot to replace it correctly, but 
began instead with the following word, "by." The tablet was 
erected to obtain the favor of these two gods and also of the deified 
Thutmose III. 

Across the bottom the dedicator himself, whom the stela was 
intended to benefit, has added his signature: "The servant of Neb- 
pehtire, Huerhetef, made (it)." 

The figures and inscriptions alike are incised. There are traces of 
red on the crown of Onuris and on the sun-disk of Horus. 

31288. Limestone Stela of the Doorkeeper Thutmose, in 
Form of a False Door. 18th Dynasty. Plate XL 

The scenes and inscriptions are all incised. On the cavetto 
cornice are traces of blue and of red. Traces of flesh color remain on 
some of the women's figures. Bits of background coloring, now 
brown, are also present. 

In the center of the lintel are carved the "ring," the "water" 
symbol, and a bowl, flanked by the sacred eyes and beyond them by 
figures of the wild dog or jackal god. At our left he is called "Anubis 
upon the Viper Mountain"; at our right, "Anubis who is in the oasis 
and upon the Viper Mountain." 

Of the prayers on the jambs, that at our left reads: "An offering 
which the king gives (to) Osiris, the lord of Rosetau, that he may 
give everything good and pure to the spirit of the doorkeeper Thut- 
mose." That at our right reads: "An offering which the king gives 
(to) Osiris, the ruler of eternity, that he may grant exit from and 
entrance into the cemetery to the spirit of the doorkeeper Thutmose, 
deceased, possessor of worthiness." 

The scene in the upper register represents Thutmose and his wife 
praying to Osiris. Between the god and his worshipers stands a table 
piled with food. Under it are jars twined with blue lotus blossoms. 
Above this scene we read: "Giving praise to Osiris, kissing the earth 
to the ruler of eternity forever. May he give water, a cool breeze, 
and wine to the spirit of the doorkeeper of the inundation Thutniose, 



so Egyptian Stelae 

deceased, his sister (i.e., wife) the housemistress Rai, (and) [his] 
mother the housemistress Taka. ..." 

In the second register appear various sons, daughters, and 
servants: "'Her^ son . . . ihu"; "[her ^son^ . . .]"; "her sister Muttui"; 









'■^D 



I I I 



o 



'U 



m 



^ g S y tr, ^ i: 1 Ife 



xr2 



111 " -^ ^ 14 



O 1 



^ 



C\.J\ 



XI ' ^ ^^ # ^ L? 



W ^ f rr a # i f^^ 



t^^ 4: v| ? ^ 



1 



TEXT OF NO. 31288 



"her sister Nofru"; "the maidservant Sekhmet"; "the maidservant 
Yui"; and "the maidservant Hedi." Very little remains of the 
figures of the two men. The stela is modernly patched at that point. 

31281. Round-topped Black Granite Votive Stela of King 
Amenhotep III. 18th Dynasty. Plate XII. 

Though this tablet was ostensibly made in behalf of a king, its 
refractory material has caused great difficulties for the craftsman 
who incised its scenes and inscriptions. There are no traces of paint. 



The Individual Stelae 



31 



In the rounded upper portion between the seated god Osiris and 
the king who stands before him are written their respective names: 
"Os[iris] the great god, the lord of the sky," and "the king of Upper 
and Lower Egypt, Nibmare, the son of [Re], Amenhotep, 'ruler of 
Thebes\" In his hands the king holds other offerings in addition 




Ai r| s S M 

jbr ^^-7r°. ^=3:^ f/l UJo -^ 




^^ 



TEXT OF NO, 31281 



to those piled on the table before him. Between the god and the 
king the stone bears other markings which may possibly be traces of 
faintly incised additional words or phrases. In the lower register the 
king, here called "the son of Re, Nibmare,"' kneels to utter the 
prayer written in the five columns of text before him. Behind him a 
tall jar rests upon a wooden stand. The prayer reads: "Giving 

' This combination of the throne name with the title which normally goes 
with the personal name gives some ground for suspecting the authenticity of the 
stela. 



32 Egyptian Stelae 

praise to Osiris, kissing the earth to the great god. I give f[prai]se 

(and) awe^ to thy beautiful face. Make content the spirit 'of^ 

'Give to him goodly rule.^"' 

31283. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Nakhti and 
Werti. 18th-19th Dynasty. Plate XII. 

The scenes and inscriptions are lightly incised. The stela has 
been broken in two and repaired. 



? 



mF' 



Li m 



G- 



Wk 



Ik 






.Ci 





4 



TEXT OF NO. 31283 



At our left above sits Thoth with the crescent moon on his head; 
at our right, a goddess wearing the sun-disk and cow-horns of Hathor. 

' Partially similar texts are to be found in Hieroglyphic Texts from Egyptian 
Stelae, &c., in the British Museum, Part VII (London, 1925), Plate 12, No. 275, 
and in Aegyptische Inschriften aus den Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin, II (Leipzig, 
1924), p. 119 (No. 7769). These references are due to the kindness of Miss Elizabeth 
Stefanski of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. No parallel 
for the latter portion is known to me. My drawing reproduces only such lines, 
meaningless in part, as close examination could detect. My tentative translation 
of the end involves some emendations of the signs which I have recorded. 



The Individual Stelae 33 

The table between them holds a jar and a blue lotus blossom. Above 
it we read: "An offering which the king gives (to) Thoth, master of 
the divine utterances/ the great god, the lord of the sky." A third 
column at our right evidently applied to the goddess, but its reading 
is obscure. 

In the lower register the owner and his wife, pictured kneeling in 
prayer before a table heaped with offerings, are called respectively 
"the follower of Horus,- Nakhti," and "the songstress of Thoth, 
Werti." 

31663. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Userhet. Thebes? 
19th Dynasty. Plate XIII. 

The surface has been discolored, probably by modern impregna- 
tion with a preservative. No traces of painting remain. In the 
rounded top appear the "ring," "water," and a bowl between 
the sacred eyes. The owner stands praying to Osiris and Isis. On 
the dais before Osiris stand two tables of food offerings. The columns 
of text above the tables read: "An offering which the king gives 
(to) Osiris presiding over the West, the great god, the ruler of 
eternity. The army-scribe of the Lord of the Two Lands,' Userhet, 
living again, possessor of worthiness, made (it)." Isis is designated by 
the inscription before her as "Isis the great, mother of the god, lady 
of the sky, mistress of the Two Lands." Behind Userhet stands 
another prayer: "An offering which the king gives (to) Re-Har- 
< akhte > ,* lord of the mountain of Min,* for the spirit of the priest 
Wajmose." That the latter was a son of Userhet appears from the 
inscriptions below. 

In the next register appear various relatives seated on the ground 
before a low stand of food offerings. They are, beginning at our left: 
"His sister, the housemistress Shefese, born of Amenemopet, 'de- 
ceased^"; "his daughter Muttui"; "his son Kha<m>wese"; "his 

1 The ancient sacred writings or the hieroglyphic script in which they were 
written. 

* A term sometimes applied to the deceased, especially in Middle Kingdom 
texts. Cf. Erman and Grapow, Aegypiisches Worterbuch, IV (1929), p. 486. 

» The king. 

* Though the photograph suggests the presence of the double "horizon" sigjn, 
examination of the original shows that actually the space above the falcon's back 
is blank. 

* This place-name does not appear in H. Gauthier, Dictionnaire des noms 
gcographiques. 



34 Egyptian Stelae 

son, the priest, the scribe of the god, Wajmose"; "his son Mahu"; 
and "his daughter^ ^Nuthermose^''^ 

Across the bottom runs a two-Hne prayer: "An offering which 
the king gives (to) Osiris- Wennofer, lord of Busiris, ruler of Abydos, 

^ ^> fe Af 1 S ^ 

% m ^^° ^ -^ ^ 



a; 



^ m 









@i^c^. ®i^^? O^^y^-i 



TEXT OF NO. 31663 

lord of perpetuity, ruler of eternity, that he (the god) may grant 
that he (the deceased) follow <his> spirit at the ^festivals of the"" 
first (of each month), the water (being) around him.^ It is the 
army-scribe of the Lord of the Two Lands, Userhet, (who makes 
this prayer)." 

• The scribe has omitted the feminine t and has used a man's figure as 
determinative! 

2 Although written Ms-ntr, this name appears to be of the same type as the 
neighboring name Wid-ms. 

' Or, "at the first (of each month), the lords of the water (being) around 
him"? The meaning of this passage is obscure. 



The Individual Stelae 35 

31652. Pyramidal Limestone Stela of Nefretiri. Mem- 
phis. 19th-20th Dynasty. Plate XIV. 

Above the usual rounded top this tombstone has a pointed pro- 
jection which is quite unusual. Under the jackal-deity (probably 



3 \L¥. 



Ikb- Lli ^ tfl ^ ^ 

11^1^ "^^zz^b ^-"^^ *S 



£^ # t ^ 




n ^ ^ /^ ^ n. [S?^] ^ 









TEXT OF NO. 31652 



Anubis) at its summit two apes are seen worshiping the sun as it 
glows between hills on the horizon. This scene suggests that the 
pointed top itself represents a pyramid, symbolic of the sun. Well- 
known expressions of that symbolism are the royal pyramid tombs 



36 Egyptian Stelae 

of the Old Kingdom and the great obeHsks erected by pharaohs of 
the Empire. In the latter as here the fundamental element is the 
pyramid, whether it surmounts a tall obelisk shaft or this otherwise 
round-topped tombstone.' The incised surface of this stela has been 
affected by salts. Subsequent treatment has slightly darkened it. 
No traces of paint remain. 

The upper scene shows the deceased Nefretiri, with attendants, 
praying before Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys. On the table before the 
deities are laid food offerings and a blue lotus blossom. Before 
Osiris is written his name: "Osiris presiding over the West." Isis 
and Nephthys wear their names as headdresses. Over the women 
we read: "Praise to thy spirit, lord of the West, offered by the house- 
mistress Nefretiri, deceased, in peace; her daughter, Osiris the house- 
mistress Maia, deceased; (and) her daughter Da. . . ." These three 
names accompany the figures of four people of progressively smaller 
size. It seems probable that the next to the last figure was inserted 
after the original design was complete, for suggestions of addi- 
tional words of the inscription appear alongside the garments of 
that lady. 

The bottom register shows worship of the Apis-bull in his shrine. 
Above him is written his name: "The living Apis, herald of Ptah."^ 
Above his worshipers we read: "Done by the priest of Ptah, Mer- 
'miptah\'' deceased; his son, the priest Petowe; her daughter, the 
housemistres5 'Bek[ur]^el;'' her ^mother^ the 'amiable^ housemistress 
fNuhei."^ 

' More or less contemporary stelae the scenes of which exhibit pyramid 
symbolism include Cairo 34079 (published by Lacau), Florence 2591 (Berend, 
Plate IX), and University of California No. 88, from Memphis (Lutz, Plate 45). 
Specially interesting is stela No. C 56 of the Musee Guimet in Paris. Each of 
its side panels represents an obelisk. In the middle of its top above a bull figure 
a pyramidion on larger scale stands out. Moret dates this stela to the 22d dynasty 
by comparison with a similar Apis stela published by Mariette (Le Serapeum de 
Memphis, Plate 32). 

' The sign copied as a seated king is surely whm instead. See A. Erman on 
Apis in Sitzungsberichte der K. Pretiss. Akad. der Wiss., 1916, pp. 1147-51. Cf. 
this same scene on Florence stela No. 2541 (Berend, Plate VII). 

'Or "Mermihep<et>," reading before the seated man a weaponed arm 
with ( omitted above it? 

* This name as we have read it is the same as that of Seti I's queen mentioned 
in Papyrus Mayer A3 (ed. Peet), except that we lack room for an r after ivr. 

' A lady with name spelled as here appears as a "daughter" on Florence 
2595 (Schiaparelli's No. 1628), another stela pyramidal above the rounded 
top; but the relatives there named do not seem to permit of her being the same 
person. 



The Individual Stelae 



37 



31272. Round-topped Sandstone Stela of Bekenamon and 
Tentishru. Thebes? 19th-20th Dynasty. Plate XV. 

The scenes and inscriptions are incised. The scenes especially 
are skilfully drawn. The tablet has been broken, and some of the 
surface along the breaks has been lost. 

In the upper register the deceased owner and his wife worship 
Osiris and Isis. The latter wears the sun-disk and cow-horns of 



1W1 




^ a 1 



; ^ u I una^ 






■K^ 



^ •& ^ ft U' ^ ^ 



a w 






^-^'^^MrKt 



c^ O — ^ 



r^-^tLi 



TEXT OF NO. 31272 



Hathor, with whom she has now become identified. The inscriptions 
over the deities give their names: "Os[iris] the great god, ruler of 
eternity," and "Hathor dwelling in the desert." The other columns 
of text at the top read: "Giving ... to Osiris,' kissing the earth to 

' "An offering which the king gives (to) Osiris" is suggested by the traces 
of signs, but is ruled out by the parallelism required by the following expression. 
We would expect "giving praise," but apparently have something else. 



38 



Egyptian Stelae 



Wennofer, by the servant of the temple-estate of Amon, Bekenamon, 
(and) the housemistress Tentishru." 

In the lower register these two are seated before a table of offer- 
ings which are being presented by their son. The inscriptions above 
this scene name once more "Bekenamon, deceased, (and) the house- 
mistress Tentishru." The columns over the offering state: "Making 









fltfi ,1Qi t- 



H x= 



^ 



J^ ^ 



^, 



&M 



3 





ni 



in 



N^V^ 




ir^S - 



CLA^ 



i/i 



m:m 



TEXT OF NO. 31669 

an '< offering > which the king gives,' so that thou art pure for thy 
spirit, by his(!)' son Peser." Behind this son are seated two ladies, 
"his daughter Api" and "his daughter Tiri," who may be partici- 
pating in this rite. The line at the bottom of the stela is the formula: 
"An offering which the king gives (to) Osiris the great god, that he 
may give everything good and pure to the spirit of Bekenamon." 



^ The Egyptian reverts to the third person here and in many other cases 
which would be made to agree differently in English. 



The Individual Stelae 39 

31669. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Tetinofer. 20th 
Dynasty? Plate XVI. 

The incised surface of this stela is smoothly wrought but slightly 
discolored. In the upper scene "the mortuary priest/ the . . . 
scribe Tetinofer, deceased, . . . ," worships "[Osiris] presiding over 
the [Wes]t," "Isis the mother of the god," and "Horus the avenger of 
his father." 

In the middle register two couples are seen, each seated before a 
table piled with offerings. The inscriptions which were originally 
written above this scene have been smoothed away so that very 
little remains legible. The names of those at our left seem to be 
". . . 'Meriptah\ deceased," and "his sister, the housemistress 
Maia." At our right the man's name is illegible, but his wife is 
"the housemistress Nothret." 

The lowest register shows a third scene in the other world. Teti- 
nofer and his wife kneel before a tree-goddess who pours water into 
their cupped hands to satisfy their thirst. Behind them stand 
"Anubis before the hall of the god, lord of the 'splendid land,' " and 
the goddess personifying "the West," who wears its symbol on her 
head. A spell scattered in disjointed fragments through the scene 
reads: "An offering which the king gives (to) Os<iris> pre- 
siding over the West, that he may give everything good and 
pure to the mortuary priest^ Tetinofer." The wife's name has been 
defaced. 

Behind the "West" goddess stand traces of a few more hiero- 
glsrphs which do not seem to belong to the scene. Their presence 
suggests that all of the defacements which we have noticed came 
about from smoothing off a previous inscription. In other words, 
the tablet appears to have been re-used. 

31660. Round-topped Limestone Stela of . . . het. 20th 
Dynasty ff. Plate XVII. 

The grayish surface of the stone shows traces of red color in some 
of the outlines in the lower register. 

In the upper register the deceased, "the priest of ^Min^ . . .- 
het," stands worshiping before "Osiris" and "Isis." The lower 

* Or "/izi-priest"? 

* Or "Azfc-priest," as before. 



40 



Egyptian Stelae 



register shows two women, "Hentmehit" and "Takharu," seated on 
the ground before a table bearing offerings. 



O 



V 



^11 






II % m ^ 



\J 



TEXT OF NO. 31660 

LATE 

31676. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Four Unnamed 
Persons. 22d Dynasty ff. Plate XVIII. 

This stela is merely painted. The outlines are in red, some of 
them redrawn in black. The women's hair seems to have been 



Pf^*: 



SIC? 



o 

5 I <L 



TEXT OF NO. 31670 



painted solid black. Under the winged sun-disk is twice written 
"the Edfuan," designating the god whom it symbolizes. Between 
the words stand the sacred eyes. Three women and one man in the 



The Individual Stelae • 41 

register below stand worshiping the sun-god, this time in human 
form except for his falcon (?) head, on which he wears a large sun-disk. 
The three ladies, at least, wear on their heads cones of perfumed 
ointment such as had been wont to be worn by banqueters of the 
Empire. Over the heads of all four are rectangles which had been 
prepared to receive their names, but which have been left blank. 

31681. Round-topped Limestone Stela of a Nameless Lady. 
26th Dynasty ff. Plate XVI IL 

This painted tablet shows the winged sun above. A border of 
variously colored rectangles frames the top and sides of the scene 
that follows. A deceased lady at our right stands worshiping Osiris, 
Isis, and Anubis. The lower part of the stela contains a prayer in 

four lines; but only the initial sign X remains legible. This suggests, 

however, that the text begins, as so often, "An offering which the 
king gives . . . ." The names of the deities and worshiper in the 
scene itself, though perhaps once written there, are now illegible. 

Much color still survives. The sun-disk is of solid red; the wings 
are sketched in black. The rectangles in the frame are some brown, 
some red, some yellow, and some of uncertain color. The jackal 
face of Anubis and the legs of Osiris (in the center) are deep red. 
The legs at least have probably been retouched. Both the figures 
and the inscriptions were drawn in black. The first and third lines 
of the prayer are written on a yellow background. 

31659. Round-topped Limestone Stela of a Family of Five. 
26th Dynasty ff. Plate XIX. 

This stela in its present form is painted only. It is, however, 
possible that the rough surfaces dividing the text columns in the bot- 
tom register are remains of sunken lines belonging to a previous 
sculptured surface which had been cut down and re-used. 

The winged sun within the rounded top is as before accompanied 
by two writings of the god's name, "the Edfuan." Between them 
stand the sacred eyes, flanking the symbol for "beauty." 

The scene across the middle shows two women and three men, 
all wearing cones on their heads, with hands upraised in prayer, pre- 
senting offerings to Osiris and Isis. The names of the deceased 
persons and of the deities, though inserted, are now illegible.* 

' These and the foregoing legends are not included in our drawing. 




1^ 






^^1 (is iH^d 



d^ ^ 






UD 



i 




ot 






^K<^|); t 




§ 



1^ 



Ife^J 






c^' 







42 



The Individual Stelae 43 

Below comes a two-line prayer, partly illegible: "An offering which 
the king gives (to) Osiris presiding over the West, the great god, the 
lord of Abydos, that he may give food offerings '(and) viands to the 

spirit oV Osiris Efonekh presiding over the Westerners, 

the great god, the lord of . . . , may he give a mortuary offering 
of beer and bread, oxen and geese, and everything 'sweet (and) 
pleasant to the spirit of the steward of^ Osiris presiding over the 
< Wes > t, the great god, the lord of Abydos." In the columns which 
follow, another prayer, beginning at our right, reads: "Utterance by 
Osiris the ... of Tef nut, Efonekh .... ' < An offering > which the 
king gives (to)^ Osiris presiding over the West, the great god, the 
lord of Abydos, that he may give ... all food offerings 'forever^' 
to the spirit of Osiris Efonekh, deceased, .... Utterance by Osiris 
presiding over the < Wes>t '(for)^ the ... of Tefnut, Ef. . . . '[An 
offering] which the king gives to^^ Osiris presiding over the < Wes > t 

This tablet as originally painted had a red sun-disk with tiny 
black dashes for the feathers of its wings. The signs beneath the 
winged sun were outlined in red, and all except the two d's were 
filled with white. The flesh of the women in the main scene has been 
modernly recolored a shiny pink! 

31275. Round-topped Limestone Stela of an Unknown 
Man and Woman. 26th Dynasty ff. Plate XIX. 

The designs on this painted stela are in red with occasional 
traces of additional black outlines. The semihieratic inscriptions, 
mostly vanished, are or were in black.'' Traces of blue remain on 
the brows of the sacred eyes which flank the sign for "beauty" be- 
neath the winged sun. The deceased husband and wife appear below, 
presenting offerings to the falcon-headed sun-god. Abnormal 
shapes and proportions suggest the possibility of a forgery. Three 
large blue lotus blossoms are prominent just under the faded 

inscriptions. 

ptolemaic 

31280. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Je'khons^ef- 
ONEKH. Thebes? Ptolemaic Period. Plate XX. 

The designs and inscriptions on this painted tablet are sketched 
in black. The sun-disk, three of the rectangles in the borders, the 

' The traces do not suit df{}w), "viands," as they did in the first line above. 

* Or is our n, "to," really Mp, "ofifering," occurring here instead of at the 
left in the preceding group? 

' The signs left are too uncertain to justify copying. 



44 Egyptian Stelae 

flesh of the deceased, the bodies of the deities, the tall jars under 
the ofTering-table, and the dividing lines in the inscription below 
are red. 

From the winged sun-disk above depend two uraei, symbols of 
deity and royalty. Beside them at each side is named the deity 
symbolized by the disk, "the great god, the Edfuan, the lord of 
the sky." The single line of text which forms the next item reads: 
"An offering which [the king] gives (to) Osiris presiding over the West, 
the great god, the lord of Abydos, that he may give a mortuary 
offering." 

The main scene, which takes place under a starry sky, shows 
the deceased, "the . . . ,* Jefkhons^efonekh,"'- praying before "Re- 
Harakhte," "Anubis," "Isis," and "Nephthys." 

The six lines at the bottom are again a prayer. It begins like the 
one above, then enters into details: "that he may give mortuary 
offerings: a thousand of bread, a thousand of beer, a thousand of 
oxen, a thousand of geese, a thousand of incense, a thousand of oint- 
ment, a thousand of wine, a thousand of milk, a thousand of raiment, 
a thousand of all good offerings, a thousand of everything pure, a 
thousand of . . . , O Osiris . . . ,^ Je^khons^efonekh, son of the similarly 
titled Inaros."^ 

31657. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Petowe. Ptole- 
maic Period. Plate XX. 

The rectangles in the border of this stela are alternately red and 
blue, with black dots. This band of rectangles is framed by stripes 
of yellow. The outermost part of the border is red. The sun-disk 
and its wings are red, though the inner part of each wing is blue. 
The outlines everywhere are black. The pendent uraei are yellow, 

' Uncertain titles, rep)eated in the last line of the main inscription. They 
may possibly read: "the ymy-yz, the if^2fc-p^iest of Pharaoh." On all but the 
"Pharaoh" cf., e.g., pp. 47, 51, and 67. 

" Khonsu, the god whom we believe to be mentioned in this theophorous 
name, was the child member of the Theban triad. That our stela may have 
come from Thebes is suggested both by the use of his name and by the fact that 
Cairo stelae Nos. 22210 (which names another Jekhonsefonekh) and 22071 (bearing 
the names Khonsirdis and Pekharukhonsu) actually came from Thebes. Cairo 
stela No. 22004, however, which mentions another Khonsirdis, came from Hassaia 
near Edfu. 

' See n. 1 above. 

* The Greek spelling of the father's name, which means in Egyptian: "The 
eye of Horus is against them (i.e., against enemies of the deceased)." On its 
writings and transliteration see p. 58, n. 1. The foregoing inscriptions are easily 
legible on our Plate XX. 



The Individual Steiae 



SIC 



O 



45 



s^ tk n *^ 



r 

© 
1 1 
li 



/ ^h.t^M 




TEXT OF NO. 31657 



as is the skin of the goddesses Isis and Nephthys. The latter's 
dress is red Uke the flesh of Osiris and of the deceased. The crown 
of Osiris is yellow, and the dress of Isis is brown. The backgrounds 
of the five inscribed lines at the bottom were respectively yellow, 



46 Egyptian Stelae 

white, red, white, and red. The white has, however, turned to a 
grayish brown. 

Beside each of the uraei stands the sun-god's appellation, 
"the Edfuan." Beneath him appears the "sky" sign. Under it the 
deceased, "Petowe," is seen "praising the god four times." The deities 
before whom he prays are "Osiris," "Isis," and "Nephthys." The 
prayer at the bottom reads: "An offering which the king gives 
(to) Osiris presiding over the West, the great god, the lord of Abydos, 
(to) Sokar-Osiris dwelling in the midst of the sanctuary, (and to) 
Anubis who is on the Viper Mountain, that they may give everything 
good and pure < to > Osiris Petowe, deceased, son of Pemose, born 
of the housemistress Tekhebi, deceased, 'her mother^ (being) . . . ." 

31671. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Netempeashese. 
Abydos? Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXI. 

On this crudely incised stela only a few traces of red and blue 
remain in the outlines of the forms and signs. Under the winged 






D 



tl 






TEXT OF NO. 31671 



The Individual Stelae 47 

sun "Netempeashese, deceased," worships Osiris, Isis, and the ibis- 
headed Thoth. Buds are twined around the jars supported on stands 
beneath the offering-table. The prayer below reads: "An offering 
which the king gives to' Osiris presiding over the West, the great 
god, the lord of Abydos, that he may give a mortuary offering of 
beer and bread, oxen and geese, everything good and pure, wine, 
milk, (and) clothing to the musician of [Osjiris presiding over the 
West, the great god, the lord of Abydos, Netempeashese, [deceased, 
'son^-] of the ymy-yz, the hzk-pr'iest, the high priest of Osiris the 
great god, the lord of Abydos, Fektihor, [deceased, ^worthy^] in the 
presence of Osiris the great god, offspring of the housemistress Nesi- 
tefnut f(and)^ the hzk-pnest Nesikashuti." 

The names in Netempeashese's family are all interesting. That 
name itself, meaning "Sweet is the call of Isis," may refer to 
the goddess's mourning for her slain husband Osiris or perhaps to the 
pleasure found in serving her.'^ The father's name is "The shaven- 
headed one (i.e., the priest) of Horus." The father's mother, if we 
understand the broken text aright, was "She who belongs to Tefnut," 
and his father was "He who belongs to the Lofty of Plumes (prob- 
ably Min^)." 

The facts that both Netempeashese and the father were in the 
service of Osiris and that the father and grandfather each bore the 
title of hzk indicate that this stela came from Abydos. The hzk 
title is, however, applied in this late age to priests at Akhmim 
also, and the probable allusion to Min might likewise suggest the 
latter site.* 

31678. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Pediese. Akh- 
mim. Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXII. 

On this incised tablet only a few traces of the red outlines which 
guided the stonecutter remain. The winged sun-disk appears alone 
at the top. The scene of worship shows the deceased before Osiris, 
Isis, and Nephthys. Below is written the prayer: "An offering which 
the king gives to Osiris presiding over the West, the great god, the 
lord of Abydos; Ptah-Sokar-Osiris the great god, dwelling in the 

' Here for the first time among these stelae the "to" is surely written. 

* The sex of the deceased remains obscure because of the imperfectly pre- 
served hair and the unusual style of costume. 

' Cf. the title sdm s, "hearer of the call (i.e., servant)." 

* Cf. Min's epithets on Cairo stela No. 22171. 

* Cairo 22171 came from Akhmim. 



48 Egyptian Stelae 

midst of the sanctuary;' Isis the great, the mother of the god, dwell- 
ing in the midst of Akhmim; and Anubis, lord of the 'splendid land,' 
'him who is in the oasis, ^ before the hall of the god; that they may give 









TEXT OF NO. 31678 

a mortuary offering of bread and beer, oxen and geese, (and) provide 
the (magical) protection of Osiris Pediese, son of 'Nepernakht\ 
offspring of the housemistress 'Benret\" 

31654. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Tutusirwer.^ 
Akhmim. Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXIII. 

This incised stela still retains traces of red on the wings of the 
sun-disk and on the figures. Its surface, especially at our right, 
shows traces of brownish yellow. 

"Osiris the priest and servant of the god, Tutusirwer," is seen 
worshiping Osiris, Horus, Isis, and Nephthys. The prayer is 
addressed, in the same terms as those found on the preceding stela, 

' Though written here with the "coffin" sign only, occasional phonetic 
spellings accompanied by that sign show that in this context we should regularly 
read styt. Cf. Erman and Grapow, Aeg. Wb., IV, p. 559. 

» Or "Tutusir the Elder"? 



The Individual Stelae 49 

to Osiris and Ptah-Sokar-Osiris/ It continues with the naming of 
"Isis the great, the mother of the god, dwelling in the midst of Akh- 
mim 'in^ the house of Isis the great in the midst of Akhmim; Anubis 






\a 



>.i'., n 






._ • 



TEXT OF NO. 31654 

the lord of the 'splendid land,' Anubis before the hall of the god, 
Anubis 'dwelling in the oasis^; (that all these deities may) provide 
the (magical) protection of Osiris the priest and servant of the god, 
Tutusirwer, son of the priest and servant of the god Tutushu, de- 

' The sign above the "land" sign in line 2 of the prayer, though transcribed 
as z, must be read as 8. 



50 Egyptian Stelae 

ceased, son of Nesimin, deceased, offspring of the housemistress, the 
musician' of Min, fNofret\ 'Total, fiveJ''^ 

31279. Round-topped Limestone Votive Stela with Figure 
OF HoRUS. Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXIV. 

The sunken relief figure on this stela depicts the sun-god Horus 
in falcon form, wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. 
Above him flutters as usual the winged sun-disk with uraei, this time 
beneath the symbol of the "sky." Over the falcon's back we see 
once more the sun-disk, this time encircled by a uraeus. The burning 
sting of the venom of this sacred cobra presumably caused its 
association with the sun and thence with deified Egyptian royalty. 
A similar votive tablet in the Cairo Museum-^ bears the name 
"Ptolemy." The Field Museum tablet, however, is entirely unin- 
scribed. No traces of coloring remain. 

31667. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Hor. Akhmim? 
Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXV. 

The surface of this stela has been pitted by the action of salts. 
It has been discolored at top and bottom, apparently by a modern 
preservative. 

I ^ sit 






I II 



TEXT OF NO. 31667 

* The yhy sign is similarly made in No. 31671, line 2. 

* Though this seems to be the reading, it makes an unusual ending. If we 
grant the admissibility of this type of ending, we may assume further that the 
scribe has miscounted, for he has named only four people. Or have we here by 
any chance a memorandum referring to the number of figures in the scene? 

» Cairo 22164. 






The Individual Stelae 51 

"Hor, deceased," appears praying before "Osiris," "Anubis," 
"Isis," and "Nephthys the sister of the god (Osiris)." The prayer 
below reads: "An offering which the king gives (to) Osiris presiding 
over the West, the great god, the lord of Abydos; Sokar-Osiris dwell- 
ing in the midst of the sanctuary; Isis the divine; Nephthys the 
sister of the god; Anubis, lord of the 'splendid land'; Imset, Hapi, 
Duamutef, (and) Kebehsenuf; that they may give a mortuary 
offering of bread and beer, oxen and geese, incense, clothing, every- 
thing good and pure, (and) provide the (magical) protection of 
Osiris the priest, the ' < ymy > -yz^, the hzk-priest, Hor, deceased, son of 
the priest, the ^<ymy>-yz^, the /iz/c-priest, Nejemibre, deceased, 
offspring of the housemistress, the musician of Min, Tesheremehit,' 
deceased, forever and ever." 

31273. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Jehor. Akhmim? 
Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXVI. 

The inscriptions on this stela are incised and the figures are 
in sunken relief. Traces of red remain on and below the winged sun- 
disk. The "sky" symbol separates this from the scene below, where 
"Osiris Jehor" is praying to "Harakhte,^ lord of the sky," "Osiris the 
great god," "Anubis, lord of the 'splendid land,' " "Isis," and 
"Nephthys." 

The six-line prayer reads: "An offering which the king gives (to) 
Osiris presiding over the West, the great god, the lord of Abydos; 
Sokar-Osiris dwelling in the midst of the sanctuary; Isis the divine; 
Nephthys the sister of the god; Anubis, lord of the 'splendid land,' 
before the hall of the god, him who is upon the Viper Mountain; 
Imset, Hapi, Duamutef, (and) Kebehsenuf; that they may give 
a mortuary offering of bread and beer, oxen and geese, incense, 
[. . . , everything good and] pure which the sky gives and the 
earth produces and the Nile brings^ from <his> cavern, '(and) the 
sweet breath of the north wind^ to the spirit of Osiris Jehor, deceased, 
son of Thutir'rekhsu\* deceased, offspring of the housemistress 

1 The sign which looks like sd must be read mh. Cf. the same name on stela 
No. 31270 and in Ranke's list. 

* The sun-disk of Re seems not to be present on the falcon's head. The two 
"horizon" signs over his back are not wholly certain. 

* The text mistakenly inserts here, "to thee." 

♦For the apparent phwty-yr-iy)fyt.& read Dhwly-yr-{r)h-Kw)t See Ranke, 
I, p. 407, No. 17. 



»N/VERS;TY0nLU«WS 













-id 

0^ 



N| 




23 3fe 







-r-J 



Oooo< 



ooo< 

^a [L 



t- \y 1l 
yo^ -Y L_ 

k<: 0^3. ^^ 



(i:^ »^: 



/i- 



0- ] d 

□ n , — © :::; 



ooo<^ 




52 



The Individual Stelae 53 

Te'repet\ justified < in > the presence of Osiris the great god, the 
ruler of eternity."' 

Of the very numerous Ptolemaic stelae in Cairo naming Jehors- 
all but three of those cited in Kamal's index (No. 22031 from 
Abydos, Nos. 22058 and 22112 from Assuan) came from Akhmim. 
So it is probable that this Field Museum stela also came from that site. 

31269. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Nesimin. Akh- 
mim. Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXVII. 

The scene and inscriptions on this stela are incised as usual. 
There are no traces of color. The priest Nesimin is shown praying 
before " Osiris- Wennofer, ruler of the West, lord of eternity, king 
of the gods," "Horus the avenger of his father," and "Hathor dwell- 
ing in the midst of the desert." The offerings on the table before 
Osiris consist of four loaves, two geese, a blue lotus blossom, and two 
lotus buds. Two jars appear to be suspended from the table. The 
columns of inscription before Nesimin read: "Osiris the priest Nesi- 
min, son of the priest of Min, Nesihor, he says: 'I have come unto 
thee, Wennofer, great god, ruler of the West, that I may see thee 
and that I may praise thy beauty. Mayest thou grant that my soul 
shall follow thy spirit while my body abides in the realm of the dead 
and my name abides upon earth. May I go forth by day without 
ceasing to behold the sun when he shines.' " 

The much longer prayer in the horizontal lines below says: 
"An offering which the king gives to Osiris- Wennofer, the great god, 
ruler of the West; Sokar-Osiris dwelling in the midst of Akhmim; 
Hathor dwelling in the midst of the desert; (and) Horus, lord of the 
desert; that they may give a mortuary offering of bread and beer, 
oxen and geese, (and) a good remembrance in Akhmim to the spirit 
of Osiris the priest, the servant of Horus, in charge of the mysteries 
of the mother of the god, the great w 6-priest of Thoth and his 
companions, the /i?p-priest of Min, the pure-handed one in charge 
of the mysteries of his divine ennead, stately of step in the seats of 
the lords,'' '(with) the image of Anubis over his eyes,^ follower of his 
lord at his every festival, untiring in performing his every purifica- 

' The text adds, "Twice." If dt alone is to be repeated, the second dl might 
be translated, "forever." 

* For the Greek spellings, "TeCs," etc., see Preisigke, Namenbuch. 

'The knife after swt may be a late phonetic determinative; cf. its use with 
ist (Erman and Grapow, Aeg. Wb., I, p. 20). Are "the lords" the gods or the dead? 
Or should we translate m swt nbw as "everywhere," assuming that the recumbent 
lion can at this late stage stand for nb, "all," as well as for nb, "lord"? 



^i fg i ^1 1i 

""^^^ ^^ i^r ^""^ 

^ ^ S * 

hZV tttbJ "^--^ C2j 

fl^f^ affi <^^ ^ 

fcP £(i ^^ ^ 
o ^I 1.1* ^^ 

(T> ^ T ^1^ ffs ?1DX H,% ^ ^^ ^>^ 



TEXT OF NO. 31269 
54 



The Individual Stelae 55 

tion, . . . doing justice so that the great ones rejoice at hearing what 
he says, mighty '(and) strong^ ... in 'exalting^ him, one who went 
upon the water of his god' (and) spoke in behalf of his territory '(and) 
protected^- his servants, Nesimin, son of the priest Nesihor, son of 
the similarly titled Nesimin, born of the musician of Min, Mut- 
hotep, deceased. Osiris, priest of Min, Nesimin, mayest thou 
behold Re when he rises in life; may his rays mingle with thy mummy. 
Mayest thou praise Atum when he sets in the western mountains; 
may thy soul renew its youth with him. Mayest thou cross < in > 
the nsmt-hark without ceasing thy following of Wennofer at his every 
festival. Mayest thou enter into the cave 'of the wind\ 'Mayest 
thou be in his vicinity early in the morning.^ Mayest thou receive 
cakes upon the pure offering-table after the god at his meals. May 
thy name be remembered at the steps of the temple of Min, beside 
the great god, at the feast 'on the first day of each ten-day period \ 
thou being one among the retinue of Osiris, Mayest thou go forth 
as a living soul, mayest thou assume any form at will, while thy body 
abides in the realm of eternity and thy name abides in Akhmim 
'(and) Senu^ without its perishing forever." 

31683. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Petowe.'' Akh- 
mim. Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXVIII. 

The now brownish surface of this incised stela shows no traces of 
paint. The winged sun-disk is labeled "the lord of the sky, the 
Edfuan, the great god." Beneath the "sky" symbol which follows, 
"Petowe, deceased," worships "Osiris presiding over <the Wes>t, 
the great god, exercising (magical) protection," "Anubis," "Isis," 
and "Nephthys." Petowe's name, as written, confronts his figure, 
though it should normally face in the same direction. 

Below comes the prayer: "An offering which the king gives to 
Osiris presiding over the West, the great god, the lord of Abydos; 
Sokar-Osiris the great god, [dwelling in the midst of the sanctuary]; 
Isis the great, the mother of the god, dwelling in the midst of Akh- 
mim; Nephthys, the sister of the god; (and) Anubis before the hall 
of the god, the embalmer, the great god, lord of the 'splendid < land > ' ; 
that they may give a mortuary offering of bread [and beer], oxen and 
geese, wine and milk, incense and ointment, clothing and libation, to 

' That is, who was subject to his god. 

2 Read hw? 

' This name, in both of its hieroglyphic occurrences, looks like "Pebatowe," 
but the demotic writing supports the simpler reading. 



56 Egyptian Stelae 

[the spirit] of Osiris Petowe, deceased, son of Pediese, deceased, 
offspring of the housemistress [Tajres,' deceased, forever."- The 
inscription continues in demotic with the name and parentage of 
the deceased owner, apparently followed by other personal names the 
connection of which is obscure.'' 

31661. Round-topped Limestone Stela with Confused 
Text. Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXIX. 

This incised tablet is of hard pinkish limestone, its surface dark- 
ened, perhaps by treatment for salts. The stone thickens toward 










in 



TEXT OF NO. 31661 



the base. Under the winged sun-disk, representing Horus, "the 
Edfuan," a man whose name seems to be Hapernesi worships Horus 
and Isis, before whom are written not simply their names but the 
phrases "Utterance by Horus" and "Utterance by Isis" respectively. 
The would-be prayer below is a strange hodgepodge of bits out of 
more normal inscriptions. With emendations, it seems to begin: 

' Cf. Ranke, I, p. 365, No. 6. The tail of the '^'-bird survives. A lady's name 
Tas, written with just the same signs we assume here, except that the r is absent, 
occurs on Cairo stela No. 22006, from Abydos. 

' The somewhat corrupt hieroglyphic text is so clear in Plate XXVIII, if 
followed with the translation in hand, that no line drawing is given. 

' Data on demotic due to Dr. Edgerton. 



The Individual Stelae 57 

"Year 11 — oxen and geese — may she present to Osiris the hearer 
(fern.) of the words of Neit, that she (Neit?) may purify Osiris 
Haperna(!)<si> <be>fore him . . . ." These uncertain and dis- 
connected phrases are followed by others the application of which 
is even less clear. The stela was either wrought by a thoroughly 
ignorant man or else is a forgery. 

31268. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Isikheb. Den- 
DERA? Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXX. 

Traces of colors are preserved: red on the disk and wings of the 
sun, on the flesh of Horus and Osiris, and in many signs; blue in 
some of the lower dividing-lines and signs; dark yellow in some of 
the signs. This stela has been broken in two crosswise below the 
center, but is well mended. At its top the winged sun, labeled at each 
side "the Edfuan," hovers under a curved "sky" symbol. The two 
uraei depending from the disk wear respectively the crown of Upper 
and that of Lower Egypt. The deceased lady then appears, praying 
before Re (falcon-headed), Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys, who are dis- 
tinguished by their headdresses. 

The prayer below is addressed to the sun-god: "0 Re, lord of 
rays, who risest in the eastern horizon of the sky, shine thou in the 
face of Osiris the housemistress Isikheb, deceased, daughter of the 
priest of Horus of Edfu (and) priest of Hathor of Dendera, Amen- 
hotep, deceased, born of the housemistress Titenese, deceased, when 
she praises thee in the morning,' when she makes offering to- thee in 
the evening. May the soul of Osiris Isikheb, deceased, ascend with 
thee to the sky, setting out in the morning bark, mooring in the 
evening bark, mingling." As the last line of the stela has now been 
filled, the inscription stops abruptly in the midst of a sentence.' 
This prayer is the beginning of the post-Empire version of Spell 15 
of the Book of the Dead. 

31673. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Inaros. Akhmim. 
Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXXI. 

The incised surface has been darkened, perhaps by preservative 
treatment. Much red and green coloring is preserved, though no 
longer brilliant. 

' A pun on the root dw^ used for both "praise" and "morning." 

' Another pun is implied here, for the primary meaning of ship is "to put to 

rest," "to make or let (the sun) set." 

' Except for minor breaks, our plate shows the foregoing inscription clearly. 

The first line probably began with a y. The divine figure below it probably wore 

the sun-disk with uraeus as in the first line. In the last line parts of '■ and of the 

w^nrf^-bark survive around the break. 



58 Egyptian Stelae 

Under the winged sun with uraei stands that god's designation, 
"the Edfuan." The two-column inscription at our right reads: 
"Inaros/ son of Pedimin." The corresponding inscription at 
our left reads: "Seeing ^the sun permanently^ without perishing 
forever and ever." 










TEXT OF NO. 31673 



' As written here, this name would seem to mean: "He who carried off the 
eye of Horus is against them." Since no hieroglyphic parallel could be found, 
and since the name of the deceased is usually preceded by "Osiris," the initial 
yn might supposably be emended to the "seat" sign. However, Dr. Edgerton 
has called my attention to Wilhelm Spiegelberg's remarks on "Der Name Inaros 
in agyptischen Texten," Recueil de travaux relatifs a la philologie ei d I'archeologie 
eg. et assyr., XXVIII (1906), pp. 197-201. There numerous demotic writings with 
the same initial yn sign as here are cited. Since they include a case where the 
same person's name is found written both with and without this initial sign, 
the identity of the name found here with that of p. 44 is certain, whether 
we emend the text here or not. That "InarOs" and such Egyptian forms as ours 
represent the same name is proved by the demotic-Greek bilingual text with 
which Spiegelberg initiates his discussion. As he suggests, the yn is doubtless 
purely phonetic. The Egyptian phrase as read probably included a genitive n 
after the word for "eye." This n, though unwritten in our texts, is frequent in 
Greek renderings of similar phrases where the hieroglyphic or demotic fails to 
show it. Cf. e.g. Phentenmout for Pi-hm-ntr-n-M wt {pi and n both unwritten 
in the demotic) in Spiegelberg, Die demotischen Papyrus der Strassburger Bibliothek 
(Strassburg, 1902), p. 23. Dr. Edgerton, to whom this last reference also is due, 
suggests, however, that in our case, whether or not a genitive n was intended, the 
word for "eye" itself should possibly be read not yrt but ^yn, with an n of its own. 



The Individual Stelae 59 

The scene below shows the deceased praying before Osiris, Horus, 
Isis, Nephthys, and Hathor(?). The names which should have been 
written in the columns provided before the deities have been omitted. 
The two columns of text before the deceased are unfortunately illeg- 
ible in spite of their appearance of readability. 

The prayer which follows reads: "An offering which the king 
< gives > to Osiris presiding over the West, the great god, dwelling in 
the midst of Akhmim; Sokar' the great god, dwelling in the midst 
of the sanctuary; Isis the great, the mother of the god, dwelling in the 
midst of Akhmim; all the great gods; Anubis; the two sisters ;2 
Imset, Hapi, Duamutef, and Kebehsenuf; Anubis before the hall 
of the god; <. . .>,'' deceased. May I see thee, may my 'spirit^ 
enter into the sky and my body into Duat. May it (my spirit*) 
behold Osiris presiding over the West together with his divine ennead 
forever and ever." The text continues with five lines of demotic. 
The first four of them utilize less than two-thirds of the width of the 
stela; the last line is of full length. The first line includes mention 
of the father, Pedimin.* 

31653. Round-topped Sandstone Stela of Pediupwawet.* 
Akhmim? Ptolemaic Period? Plate XXXII. 

The scenes and inscriptions are incised. Some red remains on the 
sun-disk, on the bodies of the deities and the deceased, etc. 

Between the two uraei depending from the sun-disk stands that 
god's designation, "the Edfuan, the great god, the lord of the sky." 

In the main scene, beneath the "sky" symbol, "Pediupwawet" 
presents offerings before the squatting deities "Osiris," "Isis," 
"Horus the son of Isis," and "Nephthys."^ 

' The second sign after Sokar's name may possibly be the falcon-headed Re 
wearing sun-disk on head. 

2 Presumably Isis and Nephthys. 

» The scribe has apparently omitted the prayer proper: "that they may give 
a mortuary offering of ... to ... ." 

* The pronoun is masculine, hence cannot refer to "body," which is feminine. 

' The demotic writing is too small to be readily legible from a photograph, and 
the stela itself is too well housed to be readily accessible for study. Hence Dr. 
Edgerton has not been able to furnish further details. 

* Spelled "PetophOis" in Greek; see Preisigke, Namenbuch. 

' Ptolemaic stelae in which deities appear squatting in a bark are quite com- 
mon; cf. Kamal. Otherwise, however, this posture seems rare. One good parallel, 
representing Osiris, Isis, and Thoth, to whom the king himself is seen offering the 
"field" symbol, occurs on a private stela (No. 13943 in the Oriental Institute 
Museum at the University of Chicago) dated in year 11 of King Necho, son of 
Psamtik I, i.e., in 598 B.C. This latter stela, of limestone, is, like the Field Mu- 



60 



Egyptian Stelae 



The four-line hieroglyphic prayer reads: "An offering which the 
king gives to Harakhte the great god, the lord of the sky; to Osiris 
presiding over the West, the great god, the lord of Abydos; to Isis 
the great, mother of the god; to Horus the son of Isis, son of Osiris; 






s 

<?*=» 

& 



-A 



rti 

6 






*# 



(Mi3 






^<^^ 



r<^ 



TEXT OF NO. 31653 



(and) to Nephthys the sister of the god ; that they may give a mortu- 
ary offering, giving oil, incense, libation, wine, milk, oxen, and geese 
to the spirit of Osiris Pediupwawet, deceased,^ son of Tekhi\ de- 
ceased, born of ... , ^deceased^" One line of demotic is added. 
It reads merely: "Osiris Pediupwawet, 'dec[eased]\"- 

seum one, round-topped, surmounted by the winged disk, and has its main inscrip- 
tion written in horizontal lines. The parallelism here suggests that this Field 
Museum stela is perhaps older than the Ptolemaic period to which we have 
assigned it. 

' A possible I and diagonal stroke visible in our plate between the words m^ 
and hrw are more likely to be accidental marks on the stone. 

'^ So Dr. Edgerton, who calls attention to the highly unusual spelling of the 
verb for "give" with d in the middle of the demotic writing of the name. 



The Individual Stelae 61 

31270. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Pehet. Akhmim. 
Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXXIII. 

On this incised stela all the designs and inscriptions were origi- 
nally sketched in red. A ram within the sun-disk on the bark had 
been outlined in black and the spaces between his legs filled with solid 
red which was perhaps intended to be cut away as the part above his 

I !^ ^.1,^ Hf 1 [ft] 



TEXT OF NO. 31270 



back has been. But the cutting around him remains incomplete. 
Red still appears on the garments of Osiris and Isis and on the flesh 
of the deceased. The lines ruled between the columns of inscription 
above the figures in the main scene are likewise red. The surface, 
having been somewhat rubbed, now has a generally pinkish cast. A 
dark spot above the table of offerings is a flint nodule. 

Under the winged sun the bark of the sun-god sails upon the 
"sky" symbol. The bark is occupied by a huge sun-disk within which 
is the partially carved figure of a ram. The ram and the disk 
together thus symbolize the compound deity Amon-Re. 

In the main scene the deceased, whose name has here been left 
unwritten, worships "[Osiris the great god]," "[Horus the son of] 



62 Egyptian Stelae 

Isis, the son of Osiris, the great god," "Anubis,' lord of the 'splendid 
land,' " "Isis the divine," and "Nephthys." 

The long prayer reads: "An offering which the king gives to Osiris 
presiding over the West, the great god, the lord of Abydos; Sokar- 
Osiris dwelling in the midst of Akhmim ; Horus the avenger of < his 
father >; Anubis, lord of the 'splendid land'; Isis the great, mother 
of the god, dwelling in the midst of Akhmim; (and) Nephthys the 
sister of the god ; that they may give a mortuary offering of bread and 
beer, oxen and geese, incense, clothing, (and) everything good and 
pure to the spirit of Osiris the priest, the ^ < ymy > -yz^, the hzk-priest, 
Pehet, deceased, called Nesihor, deceased, son of the priest, the 
f < ymy > -yz^, the /jz/c-priest, Nesimin, deceased, offspring of the house- 
mistress, the musician of Min, Tesheremehit, deceased. He says: 
'0 Re, fgrant that thy ray(s) may . . . unto^ the darkness, ^thy face 
<. . .>''.' The priest, the ^<ymy>-yz^, the /izA:-priest, Pehet, he 
says:^ 'I (was) one worthy ^in the presence of^ his father, praised of his 
mother, the favorite of his brothers and sisters, attached to his 
relatives and his ^city-gods^ I (was) one who did what his god 
desired every day.' ^0^ Re-Harakhte, lord of radiance, rising in the 
eastern horizon of the sky, mayest thou shine in the face of Osiris 
the priest, the ' < ymy > -yz^, the hzk-'pviest, Pehet, deceased, son of the 
priest Nesimin, deceased, offspring of the housemistress Teshereme- 
hit, forever." The last sentence, like the prayer on No. 31268 (p. 57), 
is taken from Spell 15 of the post-Empire Book of the Dead. 

31675. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Pesheremehit. 
Akhmim. Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXXIV. 

The incised surface is now brownish, perhaps from treatment. 
There are faint traces of red color which may originally have covered 
the whole area of the inscription. 

Between the uraei depending from the winged sun-disk is written 
the name of that deity, "the Edfuan, the great god, the lord of the 
sky." At each side lies a wild dog or jackal labeled "Anubis." 

Below the "sky" symbol on which the jackals rest are carved two 
scenes, back to back. At our right "the priest Pesheremehit" wor- 
ships "Min the lord of Akhmim," who stands before his shrine, 
"Horus the son of Isis," and "Nephthys the sister of the god," At 
our left "the priest Pesheremehit" is "offering incense" to "Osiris 

' The n is merely sketched in black; it has not been cut. 

^ The d is merely sketched in red, now very faint; it has not been cut. 



The Individual Stelae 63 

^the great god\" "Anubis before the hall of the god, the great god," 
and "Isis, mistress of sky and earth." 

The long prayer below is so similar to that on No. 31267, described 
next, that the translations of the two are here given together.^ 
They read as follows: "An offering which the king gives to Osiris 
presiding over the West, the great god, the lord of Abydos; Ptah- 
Sokar-Osiris, the great god, dwelling in the midst of the sanctuary; 
Min-Re, lord of Akhmim, king of the gods, the living ^souP who is in 






I?*') 






U 



TEXT OF NO. 31675, UPPER PART 



the house of the moon (-god) ;2 Horus the avenger of his father 
Osiris, the comforter^ of his mother Isis as the great one ^who suc- 
ceeded^'* his father; Isis the great, the mother of the god,* mistress 
of sky and earth ;^ Nephthys, excellent divine sister of her brother; 
Anubis before the hall of the god, the great god, lord of the 'splendid 
land';^ Imset, Hapi, Duamutef, and Kebehsenuf; all the gods and 
goddesses who are in Akhmim (and) Senu; that they may give a 
mortuary offering of bread and beer, oxen and geese, wine and milk, 

1 Cf. especially Cairo stelae Nos. 22045, 22074, and 22077, all from Akhmim. 

^ Cf. Gauthier, Did. des noms geog., IV, p. 47, and the references there given. 
J. H. Walker in Petrie, Athribis, Plate XVIII, has as a variant instead of our 
crescent a disk between horns. Ibid., Plate XVII, he apparently had a form like 
ours but misread it as a coil-shaped w. No. 31267 inserts here "'in' the seat 
of the 'Pleasant One' (Hathor?), mistress of Akhmim." 

' Literally, "him who rejoiced the heart." 

* With n hi for ymy-ht? 

' No. 31675 inserts "dwelling in the midst of Akhmim." 

« "And earth" is lost in No. 31267. No. 31675 adds a slightly uncertain phrase: 
"Sebek, lord of the inundation." 

' Only one of the two signs needed for "lord" and "land" respectively is 
present in No. 31675. 



^p vMSi^i - — -ps — rr^i H 

T-S^J^^i^^-e| ^ ^(^jI If ?^ -^ 

MAIN TEXT OF NOS. 31675 AND 31267 



31-v(.l 






64 



The Individual Stelae 65 

incense and ointment,' clothing, libation, everything good and pure, 
pleasant and sweet which the sky gives and the earth produces and the 
Nile brings forth from his cavern, even the viands whereon the gods 
live,- the pleasant breeze which comes forth from^ Shu (and) the 
good north wind which comes forth from Tefnut* to the nose of* 
the spirit of Osiris'^ the great priest of Senu, the servant of 
Horus, Pesheremehit, deceased, son of Osiris the priest Jehor, de- 
ceased, born of the housemistress, the musician of Min, Tediusir. 
Praise of Harakhte, lord of radiance, rising in the eastern horizon of 
the sky : Mayest thou shine in the face of Osiris the priest Peshereme- 
hit, deceased, son of Osiris the priest Jehor, deceased, born of the 
housemistress, the musician of Min, Tediusir, deceased. May he 
praise 'thee\ . . . ^make offering to^ thy . . . ^as the living soul of 
Upwawet\ May the soul of Osiris Pesheremehit, deceased, ascend 
with thee to the ^upper^ sky in the morning-bark; may it live in thy 
presence forever and ever." The last sentences, beginning with 
"Praise of Harakhte," are based on Spell 15 of the Book of the Dead. 

31267. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Terepet. Akh- 
MiM. Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXXV. 

The shelly porous limestone is incised with scenes and inscriptions 
very like those of No. 31675 above. The line divisions and the 
signs and to some extent the figures in the scenes still show many 
traces of the red with which they were originally outlined. The 
"sky" band and the sun-disk also show some red. 

The vaulted upper portion is decorated like No. 31675 except that 
the plumage of the sun's wings is carved in more detail and that the 
two jackals are not labeled. The two scenes back to back below 
the "sky," this time separated by a vertical line, represent the same 
deities as on No. 31675. Even the inscriptions in the scene at our 
right have the same contents, except that this time the deceased is a 

« "Ointment" lost in No. 31267. 

* No. 31675 omits "whereon the gods live." 
» "From" is omitted by No. 31675. 

* No. 31675 inserts: "the life which comes forth from Re, the 'rfnz' (Cairo 
22074 has znf, "blood") which comes forth from Osiris, and the fragrance {ydt) 
which comes forth from Isis." 

' Our reading r srt is based on Cairo 22077 and the appropriateness of the 
breeze at the nostrils. Cf. also our No. 31277 (below). Otherwise it might be 
preferable to read r hnt, "before." 

* Beginning here with the name of the deceased the two texts differ completely. 
We continue with that of No. 31675. 



(i::!. 






0- 






IL_ 






(\0 



^(C 



-=^ 



IT 



0? 




66 



The Individual Stelae 67 

lady, "Terepet,' deceased," and that she is stated to be "offering 
incense to the city-god." In the scene at our left "Terepet, deceased," 
is "praising the [great] god . . . ." The deities before whom she 
stands are "Osiris the great god," "Anubis before the hall of the 
god," and "Isis, mistress of the sky." 

The long prayer which occupies the rest of the stela has been 
translated above as far as the name of the deceased. Beginning there 
we find "the musician of Min, Terepet, deceased, daughter of Osiris 
the priest, the ymy-yz, the chief hzk-priest of Senu, the servant of 
Horus, Hor, deceased, born of the housemistress, the musician of 
Min, Muthotep, deceased. 'May . . . live^ forever and ever; 
^may there live^ the soul of the . . . , the chamberlain . . . ." The 
badly broken last line, left untranslated, is written in demotic- 

31277. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Tutpeo. Akh- 
MiM. Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXXVI. 

. Pinkish veinings in the stone itself crop out irregularly on its 
incised surface. 

The jackals beneath the winged sun-disk are each labeled "Anu- 
bis." Between the scepters held in their forepaws is written the 















oh. 


-5-p 


o\l 





i 



TEXT OF NO. 31277. UPPER PART (exclusive of demotic) 



phrase, "given all life." A line of demotic fills the "sky" band above 
a scene of worship showing "Osiris Tut[peo], deceased," before 
"Osiris the great god," "Horus < the son > of Isis," "Anubis," "Isis," 
and "Nephthys." The demotic gives only the owner's name and 
parentage: "Osiris Tutpeo, son of Osiris Hor, <his> mother (being) 
Tesheremin, 'ju[stifie]d^ forever."-^ 

> Cf. the name "Terenpet" found on No. 31276 (pp. 68 f.). 

* No certain readings can be derived from a photograph, and the original is 
now not readily accessible for study. 

' Demotic translated by Dr. Edgerton, who notes that m?' in m? hrw (if this 
is intended) is here written with m only. We translate that phrase here "justified," 



68 Egyptian Stelae 

The prayer below' reads: "An offering which the king gives to 
Osiris presiding over the West, the great god, the lord < of Abydos > ; 
Ptah-Sokar-Osiris the great god, dwelling in the midst of the sanctu- 
ary; Isis the great, the mother of the god, dwelling in the midst of 
Akhmim; Nephthys the sister of the god; Anubis before the hall of 
the god, great god, lord of the 'splendid land' ; Imset, Hapi, Duamutef, 
and Kebehsenuf; that they may give a mortuary offering of bread 
and beer, oxen ar.d geese, wine and milk, incense, ointment, cloth- 
ing, everything good and pure, sweet and pleasant which the sky 
gives and the earth produces to the nose of the spirit of Osiris Tut- 
peo,- deceased, son of Hor, deceased, born of Tesheremin, deceased, 
forever and ever." 

31276. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Tekerthoth. 
Akhmim?-^ Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXXVII. 

All the surfaces of this stone are darkened. Much red remains 
on the sun-disk and wings, on the bodies of Horus and Osiris, and on 
the sun-disk on the head of Horus. Both figures of the deceased show 
stripes of red on his garments. Parts of the band of rectangles are 
red; some of the narrower divisions are black; other coloring is lost. 
The two jackals are black with red neckbands. The hieroglyphs 
in the inscriptions were apparently outlined in black before cutting. 

The winged sun is called "the Edfuan" as usual. The two uraeus 
serpents depending from it wear the crowns of Upper and Lower 
Egypt respectively, and are appropriately labeled "Nekhbet" and 
"Uto." 

Two scenes of worship below the band of rectangles are divided 
by a one-column inscription: "Osiris Tekerthoth, deceased, daughter 
of Ankhhapi, deceased." At our left "Osiris Tekerthoth, deceased," 
is "praising Re four times." The sun-god's figure is, however, 
labeled not "Re" but "Harakhte." In the scene at our right "Osiris 
Tekerthoth, deceased," appears before "Osiris." 

rather than merely "deceased" as usual (cf. p. 16, n. 2), because of the "forever" 
which follows. The three names occur in Greek as "Totoes" (without p'- 0, 
"H6ros," and "Semmlnis" respectivoly; see variants also in Preisigke, Namenbuch. 

' Clear enough in our plate. 

' The name might also be read "Tut the Elder," except for the position of the 
seated man determinative, which comes at the end of the whole phrase. 

'Another Tekerthoth is mentioned in Cairo stela No. 22149, from Abydos; 
cf. Ranke, I, p. 371, No. 13. However, the name Ankhhapi, borne by our lady's 
father, occurs on Nos. 22009 and 22032 only, both from Akhmim; and the name 
Terenpet, borne by her mother, is found in various spellings on Cairo 22040, '45, 
'52, '87, '185, and '238, all from Akhmim. 



The Individual Stelae 69 

The text below says: "Osiris Tekerthoth, deceased, offspring of 
the housemistress Terenpet, deceased, she says in doing homage to 
the lord of eternity: 'Hail to thee, Harakhte-Khepri, who came into 
being of himself. How beautiful is thy dawning in the horizon, 
thou who illuminest the Two Lands with thy' rays while all the gods 
exult as they see the king of the sky, 'the lord,^ with the uraeus abid- 
ing on thy head as it takes its place on thy forehead,^ while the crown 
of Upper and the crown of Lower Egypt abide on thy brow.' "^ 
Terenpet's hymn is another selection from Spell 15 of the Book 
of the Dead. 

31677. Round-topped Mica Schist Stela of Shesepmin. 
KoPTOs? Ptolemaic Period. Plate XXXVIIL 

This incised stela of rather unusual material bears no traces of 
color. Long scratches, somewhat suggesting the crocodile-god 
Sebek resting on a shrine, disfigure the first four lines of the 
main text. 

Beneath the winged sun at top sits the ibis of Thoth, his beak 
resting on the feather symbolic of "truth." 

Below the starry sky on which Thoth appears to rest "Osiris 
Shesepmin" stands by a table of offerings, his hands upraised in 
worship before "Osiris presiding over <the West>," "Isis the 
great, the mother of the god," and the ibis-headed "Thoth." 

The prayer that follows reads: "An offering which the king gives 
to Osiris of Koptos, presiding over Hatnub, the great god, Wennofer, 
justified,^ king of the gods, lord of perpetuity, ruler of eternity, 
great sovereign in the realm of the dead; Isis the great, the mother of 
the god, lady of the sky, mistress of the Two Lands, who protected* 
her brother (Osiris), who overthrew his enemies, who put her son 
Horus upon the throne of his father, the righteous lord; Thoth the 
doubly great, lord of Hermopolis, lover of righteousness;" that 
they may give a mortuary offering of bread and beer, oxen and 

' The Egyptian uses here the third person, "his." 

= Literally, "in thy head-and-neck." Or may the last words, in wM.k, mean 
"as thy symbol of power"? Cf. Erman and Grapow, Aeg. Wb., I, p. 363. 

' These texts are all clear in our plate. » 

* This is the phrase mi' hrw which in the case of mortal dead we have been 
translating as "deceased." 

* Read hwt. 

* An Empire occurrence of this epithet of Thoth is mentioned by P. Boylan, 
Thoih, the Hermes of Egypt (Oxford, 1922), p. 187. 



70 



Egyptian Stelae 



geese, wine and milk, incense and libation to Shesepmin, deceased, 
son of Pemin, deceased, offspring of the housemistress Tered, 
deceased." 



# 



ok 

5«- 






-tb 



R 



C~3 




'^ 



^-bft^S-Al 



mnmwm 






'HS o 






I U ^ Q / O f 






■cr>o ^^i. 







TEXT OF NO. 31677 

ROMAN 

31688. Round-topped Limestone Stela with Somewhat 
Confused Text. Roman Period. Plate XXXIX. 

The surface of this crudely incised stela has been much affected 
by the action of salts. It is bordered and divided by bands of wide 
red and narrow black rectangles. The background of the scene was 



The Individual Stelae 



71 



probably yellow, with the figures of the deities in red. The garments 
of the deceased were originally sketched in black and were in part 
left uncut. 

Under the winged sun comes an unusual statement which appar- 
ently reads: "May the king give life and offerings of food." Then 



^U 



%^ ^.^^ x^Hmf'ji^Li 



muftifti 








^4^fe) kp:i:a::^^Mi] 



SIC 



^=^ ^ ex 



Ai 



c^a 




TEXT OF NO. 31688 

beneath a "sky" symbol the deceased appears worshiping the four 
sons of Horus. All five figures wear cones upon their heads. No 
labels accompany them. 

The first line of the main inscription below is framed above by 
a double and below by a triple row of falcon plumage with black in the 
incisions. This line, together with lines 2, 4, and 6 below, has a red 
ground; lines 3 and 5 have a yellow ground. These six lines of text 
show considerable confusion in the use of signs, a confusion natural 
to a writer quite ignorant of the language of the hieroglyphs. That 
language was indeed long since dead in the Roman period here 
represented. With the help of various emendations, however, we 
may read: "< An offering > which the king gives (to) Atum, lord of 



72 Egyptian Stelae 

the Two Lands of Heliopolis, that he may give a mortuary offering 
and offerings of food (and) beer' to Osiris the songstress of the temple 
of Amon, Inaros,^ deceased, ^the^ possessor of worthiness <in the 
presence of >^ the great god, the lord of the sky; daughter of ^Har- 
kheb\ deceased, ^the^ possessor of worthiness < in the presence of > * 
the great god, the lord of the sky. Her mother (was) the songstress 
of Amon ^(and)^ Horus, Tesherenetyah, deceased, [^the^] possessor 
of worthiness <in the presence of>* the lord of the sky. May 
the king give offerings of food." 

31668. Round-topped Limestone Stela with Confused Text. 
Roman Period. Plate XL. 

The porous stone has been elaborately painted. The sun-disk 
and the middle third of the feathers of the wings are red; the rest 




ir 



^»C 5iC S\C 






TEXT OF NO. 31668 

of each wing is green or blue-green. Red occurs also on the body 
and symbol of Nephthys, the dress and symbol of Isis, the disk of 
Re-Harakhte, the body of Osiris, and the flesh of the deceased. 
The inscription "the Edfuan" beneath the winged sun, the kilt of 

' This word has been misplaced in the text so that it stands after "Osiris." 

^Clearly feminine here (cf. mwt.s, "her mother," below); Ranke has mascu- 
line examples only. 

* Emend r.w to hr. * Emend rt to hr. * Emend rt to hr. 



The Individual Stelae 73 

Anubis, the dress of Nephthys, the flesh of Isis, the figure of the 
sun-god, the face and drapery of Osiris, and the serpent(?) below the 
main scene are green or blue-green. The two jackals under the sun's 
wings, the body of Anubis, the scepters of Nephthys, Isis, and the 
sun-god (only that of Nephthys still clearly visible), the hair of the 
deceased, and the lines of inscription below are black. The stela is 
outlined and its divisions marked off with red, supplemented with 
black above and below the serpent(?) only. 

In the main scene a deceased lady appears before Osiris, Re- 
Harakhte, Isis, Nephthys, and Anubis. The four-line inscription 
below is a hit-and-miss combination of misunderstood excerpts from 
mortuary texts. It reads more or less as follows: "^Utterance by 
Osiris the lord of the gods,^ the lords of the West,^ (and) Ptah- 
Sokar-Osiris, the great god, ^lord of the Two Lands\ An offering 
which the king gives ^to the lord of the gods^ • • • , the great god, 
lord of the tomb, Osiris . . . , born of the housemistress Sitre . . . her 
god." Traces of what may be a demotic memorandum form the 
beginning of a fifth line. 

31662. Round-topped Limestone Stela of Nesimin. Akhmim. 
Roman Pef{!od. Plate XLI. 

On this painted stela the sun-disk, uraei, petals of the lotus and 
top of the jar on the offering-stand, flesh of the deceased, moon- 
disk of Thoth, skirt and part of the wings of Isis, and bodies of the 
second and fourth sons of Horus are red, as is the thick stripe between 
the second and third lines of the inscription below. The rectangles 
in the borders are red, green, and blue, with perhaps one yellow 
rectangle, irregularly arranged with narrower black units between 
them. Parts of the wings of both the sun-disk and Isis, the bodies 
of the first and third sons of Horus and of Re-Harakhte, the flesh of 
Isis, and parts of the kilts of Thoth and the deceased are green. The 
outlines and the inscriptions were sketched in black. 

Between the uraei of the winged sun stands his designation: "the 
great god, lord of the sky, brilliant of plumage." At each side stands 
his title, "the Edfuan." 

The main scene shows "Thoth ^the great\ lord of ^Hermopolis^ 
. . . ," leading forward "Osiris the priest of Akhmim, Nesimin, 
deceased." Thoth, the secretary of the gods, is ibis-headed. He 
wears the moon-disk on his head and holds his scribal palette in his 

' Better "lord . . . ," as another epithet of Osiris? Cf. plural probably to be 
read singular in "lord of the tomb" in line 3. 



0-h dircj. 






r\^y 






DIII&® 

1- 



^t 









O 

a D— 

(1 d 

'mo 



" ' i\t 










o 






0^ I 



aC III 






o 

4-0 



D 

0, 










■^" ^ 1^ 










b 



74 



The Individual Stelae 75 

right hand. The gods before whom he is presenting Nesimin are 
"Re-Harakhte, the great god, chief of the gods," "Isis the great, 
mother of the god, lady of the sky," and the four sons of Horus. 

The text below reads: "An offering which the king gives to Re- 
Harakhte, the great god, chief of the gods, who comes forth from the 
horizon, (even) Atum-Re, lord of the Two Lands of Heliopolis, that 
he may give a mortuary offering of bread and beer, oxen and geese, 
incense, clothing, wine, milk, everything good and pure, everything 
good and sweet and pleasant on which a god lives, all offerings and 
all viands for the worthy one, the spirit of Osiris the prophet, the 
priest of Akhmim, the servant of Horus, in charge of the mysteries 
of the mother of the god, the acquaintance of the king, Nesimin, 
deceased, son of the similarly titled Inaros, deceased, born of the 
housemistress 'Yarti^erow,* deceased." 

31687. Round-topped Limestone Stela of an Unnamed 
Man. Roman Period. Plate XLIL 

All the outlines on this crude, painted stela are in black. The 
sun-disk, every third rectangle in the border, some bands across the 

TEXT OF NO. 31687 

vase-stand, and three bands accompanying the lines of inscription 
below were once solid red. The sky and some of the other rectangles 
may have been yellow. 

Two jackals recline beneath the wings of the sun. The scene of 
worship below them takes place under the "sky" s3mibol. Since the 
rectangle over the head of the deceased has been left blank, his 
name remains unknown. He is worshiping Osiris and Isis. The 

'This name is etymologically similar to the preceding (cf. p. 44, n. 4); it 
means: "The two eyes (of some god, here unnamed) are against them." 




76 Egyptian Stelae 

goddess wears not her own symbol but the sun-disk and cow-horns 
of Hathor, with whom she had long been identified. 

The two-line inscription at the bottom is almost illegible; we can 
only be sure that it is a prayer: "0 Osiris, great god, lord of ... , 
give . . .^ for the spirit of . . . ." 

This stela resembles No. 31681 in arrangement, but is dated later 
by its style. 

31666. Round-topped Limestone Votive Stela of a Roman 
Emperor as Pharaoh. Roman Period. Plate XLII. 

The background of this memorial tablet has been cut away so 
that the scene stands out in low relief. Its framework represents a 
chapel with cornice. Under a "sky" symbol stands the squat figure 
of a Roman emperor as Pharaoh, presenting libation (?) and incense' 
before a sphinx Egyptian in attributes but not in style. Over the 
sphinx hovers the winged sun. The emperor's name remains un- 
known. It should have been inserted in the misunderstood blank 
column left in bas-relief in front of his head. 

COPTIC 

31284. Round-topped Limestone Stela of 'Apa Johannes^ 
Coptic Period. Plate XLII I. 

TJiis stela pictures the deceased in high relief within a chapel the 
pediment of which is supported by papyrus columns. Part of the 
surface is covered with an incrustation containing some red coloring 



ATTAGONANNHKAIAlAi 

SIC 

TEXT OF NO. 31284 



matter, all due to natural deposition. Removal of the incrustation 
across the bottom has revealed a corrupt one-line Coptic inscription 
which seems to name the deceased as Apa Johannes.^ 

1 Though the signs beginning the second line seem the clearest of all, they 
have proved the most tantalizing. 

' I owe to Professor W. H. Worrell of the University of Michigan my feeling 
of relative certainty in this emendation. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The leading publications of Egyptian stelae, grouped by the collections which 
they represent, are: 

BERLIN. STAATLICHE MUSEEN 

Aegyptische Inschriften aus den Koniglichen Museen zu Berlin. Leipzig, 1901-24. 
2 vols. Arrangement primarily chronological; stelae not separately grouped. 

CAIRO. MUSEE DES ANTIQUITES EGYPTIENNES 
Catalogue general des antiquites egyptiennes du Mus§e du Caire. 

Nos. 20001-20780. Grab- und Denksteine des mittleren Reichs, von H. O. Lange 

und H. SCHAFER. Berlin, 1902-25 (Vols. V, XXXVI, LXXVIII, and VII). 
Nos. 34001-34186. Steles du nouvel empire, par M. Pierre Lacau. Le 

Caire, 1909-26 (Vols. XLV and LXXXI; more to follow). 
Nos. 22001-22208. Steles ptolemaiques et romaines, par Ahmed Bey Kamal. 

Le Caire, 1905, '04 (Vols. XX-XXI). 
Nos. 8001-8741. Coptic monuments, par M. W. E. Crum. Le Caire, 1902 

(Vol. IV). 

COPENHAGEN. NY CARLSBERG GLYPTOTEK 

Schmidt, Valdemar. Museum Miinterianum, collection de steles egyptiennes 
. . . conservees a la Glyptotheque Ny Carlsberg a Copenhague. Bruxelles, 1910. 

FLORENCE. MUSEO ARCHEOLOGICO 

Antichita egizie, ordinate e descritte da Erne^sto Schiaparelli. Parte prima. 
Roma, 1887. "Bassorilievi e iscrizioni," pp. 230-415 and 477-525. 

Berend, William B. S. Principaux monuments du Musee egyptien de Florence 
.... Premiere partie. Steles, bas-reliefs et fresques. Paris, 1882. 

LONDON. BRITISH MUSEUM 

Hieroglyphic texts from Egyptian stelae, &c., in the British Museum. I^ondon, 
1911 . 

Coptic and Greek texts of the Christian period from ostraka, stelae, etc., in the 
British Museum, by H. R. Hall .... London, 1905. 

PARIS. MUSEE NATIONAL DU LOUVRE 

Catalogue de la salle historique de la galerie egyptienne, par Paul Pierret. 
Paris. 1873. "Steles," pp. 58-83 and 169-170. 

Notice des monuments exposes dans la galerie d'antiquites egyptiennes . . . , 
par . . . E. DE RouGfi. 4. ed., Paris, 1873. "Steles et inscriptions," pp. 68-170. 

Gayet, a. J. Mus^e du Louvre. Steles de la Xlle dynastie. Paris, 1889. 

Pierret, Paul. Recueil ,d'inscriptions inedites du Musee egyptien du Louvre 
.... Paris, 1874-78 (Etudes egyptologiques, 2. et 8. livr.). 

PARIS. MUSEE GUIMET 

Catalogue du Mus^ Guimet. Galerie egyptienne. Steles, bas-reliefs, monuments 
divers, par Alexandre Moret. Paris, 1909 (Annales du Mus^e Guimet, 
T. XXXII). 

SAN FRANCISCO 

Lutz, Henry Frederick. Egyptian tomb steles and offering stones of the 
Museum of anthropology and ethnology of the University of California. 
Leipzig, 1927 (University of California publications. Egyptian archaeology, 
Vol. IV). 

77 



78 Egyptian Stelae 

SOUTH GERMANY, etc. 

Spiegelberg, Wilhelm, ed. Aegyptische Grabsteine und Denksteine aus siid- 
deutschen Sammlungen. Strassburg, 1902-6. 3 vols. (Vol. Ill: ... aus ver- 
schiedenen Sammlungen.) 

STOCKHOLM. NATIONALMUSEUM 
Steles ^gyptiennes . . . , par Maria Mogensen. Copenhague, 1919. 

TURIN. R. MUSEO DI ANTICHITA 

Regio museo di Torino ordinate e descritto da A. Fabretti, F. Rossi e R. V. 
Lanzone. Antichita egizie. Torino, 1882. "Stele," pp. 117-186. 

For ancient Egyptian personal names arranged alphabetically see 
Ranke, Hermann. Die agyptischen Personennamen. I. Verzeichnis der Namen. 
Gliickstadt, 1935. 

Names in their original groupings, indexed alphabetically, were recorded by 
Lieblein, Jens Daniel Carolus. Dictionnaire de noms hieroglyphiques en 
ordre genealogique et alphabetique .... Christiania, 1871. Supplement. 
Leipzig, 1892. 

Numerous personal names and titles of the early Empire are found in 
Legrain, Georges. Repertoire genealogique et onomastique du Musee du 
Caire .... Monuments de la XVIIe et de la XVIIIe dynastie. Geneve, 1908. 

Indexes in the Cairo volumes of Lange and Schafer, Kamal, and Crum are 
especially valuable for similar Middle Kingdom, Ptolemaic, and post-Christian 
lists. Many of the other catalogues likewise contain very helpful indexes. 

Personal names of Egyptian as well as other ancestry found in Greek docu- 
ments from Egypt are compiled in 

Preisigke, Friedrich. Namenbuch enthaltend alle griechischen, lateinischen, 
agyptischen, hebraischen, arabischen und sonstigen semitischen und nicht- 
semitischen Menschennamen, soweit sie in griechischen Urkunden (Papyri, 
Ostraka, Inschriften, Mumienschildern usw) Agyptens sich vorfinden. Heidel- 
berg, 1922. 

Royal names are most fully given in 
Gauthier, Henri. Le livre des rois d'Egypte .... Le Caire, 1907-17. 5 vols. 
See additions in Recueil de travaux relatifs a la philologie et a I'archeologie 
egyptiennes et assyriennes, XL (1923), pp. 177-204, and index in Bulletin de 
I'lnstitut frangais d'archeologie orientale, XV (1918), pp. 1-138. 

Ancient Egyptian geographic names are comprehensively treated in 
Gauthier, Henri. Dictionnaire des noms geographiques contenus dans les textes 
hieroglyphiques .... Le Caire, 1925-31. 7 vols. 

For the study of the ancient Egyptian language the best approach is through 
Gardiner, Alan H. Egyptian Grammar. Oxford, 1927. Supplement .... 
by Alan H. Gardiner and M. Gauthier-Laurent. Neuilly-sur-Seine (Seine), 
1935. 

The standard Egyptian dictionary, covering the whole range of the language 
as far as it is written in hieroglyphic or hieratic, is that which is being published 
on the basis of international co-operation of outstanding Egyptologists under 
the leadership of the Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaf ten : 
Erman, Adolf, and Grapow, Hermann. Worterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache. 
Leipzig, 1926 -. 



INDEX OF MUSEUM NUMBERS 





Plate 


Page 


31267 


XXXV 


65 


31268 


XXX 


57 


31269 


XXVII 


53 


31270 


XXXIII 


61 


31272 


XV 


37 


31273 


XXVI 


51 


31275 


XIX 


43 


31276 


XXXVII 


68 


31277 


XXXVI 


67 


31279 


XXIV 


50 


31280 


XX 


43 


31281 


XII 


30 


31283 


^11 


32 


31284 


XLIII 


76 


31285 


II 


13 


31288 


XI 


29 


31647 


VIII 


24 


31649 


IV 


16 


31650 


IX 


25 


31652 


XIV 


35 


31653 


XXXII 


59 


31654 


XXIII 


48 


31655 


X 


28 


31656 


X 


27 


31667 


XX 


44 





Plate 


Page 


31659 


XIX 


41 


31660 


XVII 


39 


31661 


XXIX 


56 


31662 


XLI 


73 


31663 


XIII 


33 


31664 


V 


18 


31666 


XLII 


76 


31667 


XXV 


50 


31668 


XL 


72 


31669 


XVI 


39 


31671 


XXI 


46 


31672 


VI 


20 


31673 


XXXI 


57 


31675 


XXXIV 


62 


31676 


XVIII 


40 


31677 


XXXVIII 


69 


31678 


XXII 


47 


31679 


VII 


20 


31680 


III 


15 


31681 


XVIII 


41 


31683 


XXVIII 


55 


31685 


VI 


19 


31687 


XLII 


75 


31688 


XXXIX 


70 


31694 


I 


12 



79 



Field Museum of Natural Histury 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate 1 




31694. STELA OF INTEF 
76 X 59 cm. 
See pitge 12 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV. Plate II 




31285. STELA OF SITIMPIYOKER 
69 X 50 cm. 
See page 13 



Field Museum of Natural History 



AnthropoloKy, Vol. XXIV. Plate III 




31680. STELA OF MENI 
46 X 25 cm. 
See page 15 



Field Museum of Natural History 




Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate IV 



^^tl. 



3164i). ST£I>A OF MEMI 
41 x26 cm. 
See page 16 



?. 



I 







^dkui 



I 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV. Plate V 







L ,v ! 






6/-! 



— ^ — Jk 



• 







31664. STELA OF IBSINISUTYA. EDFU 
49 X 28.5 cm. 
See page 18 




(-. ^ a. 

W o <2 




Field Muaeum of Natural History Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate VII 




81679. STELA OF SEBEK. ABYDOS? 
49 X 24.5 cm. 
See page 20 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropolojty. Vol. XXIV. Plate VIII 










fr* I *Jfe. 




i^vr . ^. 




31647. STELA OF SEVEN PERSONS. ABYDOS? 
35x23.5 cm. 
See page 24 



^ 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropoloey, Vol. XXIV, Plate IX 




31650. STELA OF TANEBET AND NEBNOFER. THEBES? 
46 X 35.5 cm. 
See page 25 




S N 




.j£ji?^^wA 




o 

Q 
>H 
pa 
< 

< 

a 

Q E 
Z " 
•< "? 

H X 

H 

b 
O 

< 
H 



Field Museum uf Natural History 



Anthropology. Vol. XXIV. Plate XI 




31288. STELA OF THE DOORKEEPER THUTMOSE 

104 X 87.5 cm. 

See page 29 



^ 










S E 



■"ai! MKg:.,.*aiEi^..t.^..-i^ ^ ^ ^i -I^UIJUCt 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology. Vol. XXIV, Plate XIII 




31663. STELA OF USERHET. THEBES? 
61 X 42 cm. 
See page 33 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate XIV 




31652. STELA OF NEFRETIRI. MEMPHIS 
67 X 48 cm. 
See page 35 



Field Museum of Natural History 



AnthropoloKy. Vol. XXIV, Plate XV 





31272. STEIA OF BEKENAMON AND TENTISHRU. THEBES? 
52 X 37 cm. 
See page 37 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate XVI 




mi: 




31669. STELA OF TETINOFER 

48.5 X 32.5 cm. 

See page 39 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV. Plate XVII 




\ 



k 




f ^e 



^ ') It 



31660 



31660. STELA OF . . . HET 
22 X IG cm. 
See page 39 





-T- f 



f 



I' 




« X 

o 




E " 




i 3 



tteDiiaJMUL^WRK 



l;;**^ll-. '' 




■. i mtUB B Lg- 



^^^^fc 












H 

pa 
w 
K 

ad 

z 

o 

OQ « 

^ 53 

a 'I 

W " 

O 
< 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Antbropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate XXI 



r^' 




ii 



jij^ 




31671. STELA OF NETKMPEASHESE. ABYDOS? 

35.5 X 27.5 cm. 

See pa^e 46 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate XXII 







%\.mPsn. 



^g:2e»^ >■■■ 



f^ 



iz'^^rfY^n^ 



f M 




"— ^* — — — i — .» ^ 



'^ > vr J .JT 



-_ 31678 

31678. STELA OF PEDIESE. AKHMIM 

44.5x31.5 cm. 

See page 47 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology. Vol. XXIV. Plate XXIU 




31654. STELA OF TUTUSIRWER. AKHMIM 
52 X 35 cm. 
See page 48 



Field Museum of Natural History 



AnthropoIoKy, Vol. XXIV, Plate XXVI 




te?^^ 



II 1 '.' 




-il^iA. 



ai273. STELA OF JEHOR. AKHMIM? 

35.5 X 30.5 cm. 

See page 51 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV. Plate XXVII 




31269. STELA OF NESIMIN. AKHMIM 
67 X 33.5 cm. 
Sec page 53 



Field Museum of Natural History Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate XXVIII 




M 



'f^i^jJ^llM 












f 






31683 



31683. STELA OF PETOWE. AKHMIM 
40 X 27 cm. 
See page 65 



Field Museum of Natural Hiatory Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate XXIX 




31661. STELA WITH CONFUSED TEXT 
41 x23 cm. 
See page 66 



Field Museum of Natural History Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate XXX 




r 



■ft" 



•^rro-fr/VKl.^^ 






31268. STELA OF ISIKHEB. DENDERA? 

40.5 X 26.5 cm. 

See page 67 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate XXXI 




31673. STELA OF INAROS. AKHMIM 
41 x31 cm. 
See page 57 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV. Plate XXXIl 





Hm -i^.'-'^j '*^ -, ,- - __ III. Ill I I If nMMl— lir l«i 



gi s $J^Lr^ 



It i.- i i i r I *^ Mu y — 





31653. STELA OF PEDIUPWAWET. AKHMIM? 
54 X 44 era. 
See page 59 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate XXXIII 

















31270. STELA OF PEHET. AKHMIM 
51.5 X 40 cm. 
See page 61 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate XXXIV 







'^>^ 
•^*»i 




31675. STELA OF PESHEREMEHIT. AKHMIM 
57 X 46 cm. 
See page 62 



Field Museum of Natural Ilistory 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate XXXV 









" " .- -f -I 



31267. STELA OF TEREPET. AKHMIM 
57 X 41 cm. 
Sec page 66 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate XXXVI 



<>•'■'. 




-''fc'JSk^iszaa 



/.. 








\Lmlm 





iwn i^-^i'^^n^.^ fttfihi 



mm -fe » f rtsx£-f fm^i 



■■■ML. -Ml ^ ■ - iiiiiiiir" — -r* -- 1 -W"^"^ " 






%cm^:s^\^s^mfi. 



^ 3l£77 



exj 



31277. STELA OF TUTPEO. AKHMIM 
35.8 X 27.5 cm. 
See pat;e 67 



Field Museum of Natural History Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate XXXVII 









y 




{&''"' 


'^1 

r 
1 


! •■ 


1 


W 









^'^^6^;J1 



31276. STELA OF TEKERTHOTH. AKHMIM? 
40.5 X 22 cm. 
See page 68 



Fidd Mus(!um of Natural History 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV. Plate XXXVIIl 




31677, STELA OF SIIESEPMIN. 
44 X 22.6 cm. 
See page 69 



KOPTOS7 



Field Museum of Natural History Anthropology. Vol. XXIV, Plate XXXTX 




31688. STELA WITH SOMEWHAT CONFUSED TEXT 
31.5x21 cm. 
See page 70 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV. Plate XL 





iki',. 











> r 



-*^ 31668 \ 



31668. STELA WITH CONFUSED TEXT 
42 X 33 cm. 
See page 72 



Field Museum of Natural History- 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV, Plate XLI 




31662. STEL.\ OF NESIMIN. AKHMIM 
51 X 45.5 cm. 
See page 73 





2: 

<: 

§ 



< 
% . 

z s 

in 

2 ci 

X 

O ^" 

2" 

H 



Fidd Museum of Natural History 



Anthropology, Vol. XXIV. Plate XLIII 






..^ 




31284. STELA OF 'APA JOILANNES' 

40.5 X 22.5 cm. 

See page 76 



IHE LIBRARY OF THE 

AUG 4-1936 

MNlVERSnYOflLilWlS 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA