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Austria- Hungary, including Dalmatia, Bosnia, Bacharest, Belgrade, 
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Egypt and the SAd&n. With 22 Maps, 85 Plans, and 55 Vignettes 
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England, see Great Britain. 


Paris an. its Environs, with Routes from London to Paris. With 
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Northern France from Belgium and the English Channel to the Loire 
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The Rhine including the Seven Mountains, the Moselle, the Volcanic 
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Great Britain. England, Wales, and Scotlafid. With 28 Maps, 
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Published at net prices 



(Comp. pp. XV, xvi and Tables at end of the book.) 
Approximate Equivalents. 

Arabic Kame 







1 S 

! n 




















































Gold Coins. 

Oineih Masri (Egypt, pound, £ K) 

Nuiseh oineih (half £ El ... . 

Silver Coins. 

Riydl Masri 

Nusseh Ftiydl 

Rub' Riydl 

Kirshein (clnuble piastre) . . . . 

Kirsh T 

Kickel Coins. 

Kirsh (great piastre ; Kirsh xAgh) v 

X^usseh Kirsh (.small or half 

piastre; Kirsh ta'rtfa)\ . . . 

2 ifilliimes 

1 MiUi^me (milyeim) 



: 500 

: 200 

: 100 

: 50 

: 20 

: 10 

10 — 


+ The great piastre (rarely met in silver) is generally indicated by P. T. 
('piastre tarif), sometimes also by P. E. ('piastre ^gyptienne'). The two 
piastres are frequently confounded by Europeans in retail transactions; 
attention therefore should be paid to the Arabic names, 'kirsh sagh' and 
'kirsh ta'rifa'. The contraction 'pias.' is used uniformly throughout the 
Handbook for the great piastre (kirsh). 

In Copper there are pieces of Vi ^"'^ '/* millieme. 

Weights and Measures. 

1 Lirhem = ■i.K grammes = grains troy; 1 Ukiya (12 dirhem) = 
37.44 grammes — I.32 oz. avoirdupois ; 1 Roll (12 ukiya) = 449.28 grammes 
= 15.85 oz. (just under lib.); 1 Okka (400 dirhem) = I.048 kilogrammes = 
2.7513 lbs. (about 2 lbs. 12 oz.) •, 1 Katitdr = 100 Rotl = 36 Okka = 44.928 kilo- 
grammes = 99.0498 lbs. (about 99 lbs." */b oz.). 

1 Rub' a = 8.25 litres = 1 gal. 3 qts. 1/2 pint; 1 Weibeh = 4 rub'a = 
33 litres = 7 gals. 1 gt. ; 1 Ardebb = 6 weibeh = 198 litres = 43 gals. 2 qts. 

1 Dird' beledi = metre = 22.835 inches ; 1 Kasdbeh = 3.55 metres = 
11 ft. 7.763 inches = 3.8S2 yds. — 1 Square Kasabeh = l'2.6o square metres = 
15.072 sq. yds.; 1 Fedddn = 4200.83 sq. metres "= about 5024 sq. yds. = Loss acre. 

In all official transactions the metrical system of weights and measures 
is employed. 

Official Time. 

East European Time {i.e. that of 30° E. long.) has been ofiicially adopted 
in Egypt and the Sudan. Egyptian time is thus 1 hr. in advance of Central 
Europe time (Italy, Switzerland, Germany) and 2 hrs. in advance of Green- 
wich time. 




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,„.sS '^ :>2JS."-ii) E , arabe B A H K " 











All riglttt reserved 

'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 

/ ^8(005.0 

Made and Fbintkd in Gbrmant. 



Ever since the attention of the civilized world was re- 
directed to Egypt at the beginning of the 19tli century, the 
scientific investigation of its innumerable monuments has 
pointed with ever-growing certainty to the valley of the Nile 
as the cradle of history and of human culture. At the same 
time Egypt, like other Eastern countries, possesses high nat- 
ural attractions, in the peculiar charms of its oriental cli- 
mate, the singularly clear atmosphere, the wonderful colour- 
ing and effects of light and shade, the exuberant fertility of 
the cultivated districts contrasted with the solemn desert, 
and the manners, customs, and appearance of a most inter- 
esting and most diversified population. 

The Handbook to Egypt i-, of which the present is the 
seventh edition, is founded on the combined work of several 
Egyptologists and other Oriental scholars. Among the former 
must be specially mentioned Professor Georg Steindorff, of 
Leipzig University, who has edited the German Handbook 
since the year 1897, and has also supervised the preparation 
of the English editions. The Editor gratefully acknowledges 
also the information received from numerous correspondents 
and official sources which has often proved most useful; any 
further corrections or suggestions will be highly appreciated. 

The Editor hopes, that by confining himself to essential 
points and by carefully arranging his material, he has suc- 
ceeded, within small compass, in supplying the traveller with 
the necessary information regarding the country and the 
people he is about to visit. An attempt has been made to in- 
dicate clearly the most important among the bewildering mnl- 
tiplicity of the monuments of antiquity, and the descriptions 
of these have been so arranged that, assuming the traveller to 
have previously read at his leisure our account of the origin, 
history, and significance of a particular temple or tomb, etc., 

T The contents (if the Handbook are divided into Foub Sections 
d. Introductory MattfT. Approaches to Egypt, pp. i-cxc and 1-6; II. Lower 
Egypt, pp. 7-198; III. Upper Egypt, Lower jfubia, Upper Nubia and the 
Sudan, pp. 199-436; IV. General Inde.v, pp. 4374.581, each of which may 
be separ.Ttely removed from the vnlume by cuttinc: the gauze backing 
visible on opening the book at the requisite pages. Linen covers for these 
sections may be obtained through any liookseller. 

vi4^i/ir„ PREFACE. 

he will find adequate guidance on the spot in that portion of 
our description that is printed in larger type, while those who 
have time and inclination for a more thorough examination 
will find additional particulars in small type. 

The Maps and Plans have been the object of the Editor's 
special care, and all have been carefully revised by Prof. 
Steindorflf, with the aid of the most recent publications. Nine 
maps and plans, several new ground-plans, and a represen- 
tation of Egyptian coins have been entirely redrawn or appear 
for the first time in the present edition. The spelling of the 
names on the maps of the Faiyiim and of the Nile from Cairo 
to Assuan (3 sheets) follows the official French transliteration 
of the 'Recensement general de I'Egypte du ler juin 1897', 
whereas in some of the new maps the spelling of the Egyptian 
Survey Department (comp. p. cxc) has been adopted. At the 
end ot' the volume will be found a key-map indicating the 
ground covered by the special maps of the volume. 

Hotels, etc., see p. xviii. Hotels which cannot be ac- 
curately characterized without exposing the Editor to the risk 
of legal proceedings are left unuientioned. 

To hotel- proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing towards 
travellers is the sole passi)ort to his commendation, and that 
no advertisements of any kind are admitted to his Hand- 
books. Hotel-keepers are warned against persons represent- 
ing themselves as agents for Baedeker's Handbooks. 


PI. = plan. I S. = south, etc. 

R. = route; room. E. = east, etc. 

B. = breakfast. I W. = west, etc. 

D. = dinner. ; lir. = hour 

pens. = pension (board and lodging) 

ca. = circa, about. 

comp. — compare. 

r. = right. 

1. = left. 

Dyn. = dynasty 

mill. = minute. 

M. = English mile. 

ft. = English foot. 

yd. = yard. 

iBE = Egyptian pound] 

pias. = piastre >coiiip. p. xv. 

N. = north, northwards, northern. | mill. = millieme 

The letter d with a date, after the name of a person, indicates the 
year of his death. The number of feet given after the name of a place 
shows its height above the sea-level. The number of miles placed before 
the principal places on railway -routes, steamer -routes, and highroads 
indicates their distance from the starting-point of the route. 

Asterisks denote objects of special interest or imply commendation. 



I. Preliminary Information xiii 

(1). Plan of Tour. Season. Expenses. Money. Equip- 
ment. Travelling Companions xiii 

(2). Coinage. Passports. Custom House xv 

(8). Conveyance^ : Steamers. Railways. Narrow Gauge 

Railways. Cabs. Donkeys xvii 

[4). Hotels xviii 

(^5). Post and Telegraph Offices xix 

(61. Public Safety. Consulates. Courts of Justice . . xx 
(7). Egypt as a Health Resort. Medical Hints (by 

Dr. Leigh Canney) xxi 

(8). Intercourse with Orientals. Dragomans .... xxiv 
(9). 4J"*^i*ii Caf^s. Story Tellers. Musicians. Singers. 

Shadow Plays. Baths xxvi 

(10). The Egyptian Dialect of Arabic (by Dr. C. Priifer) xxviii 

II. Geographical and Political Notes xlvi 

a. Area and Subdivisions of Egypt (by Captain H. 

6. Lyons) xlvi 

b. Origin and Present Condition of the Egyptians (by 

Prof. O. Schweinfurlh') xlviil 

il). The Fellahin li 

(2). Copts liv 

(3). Beduins Ivii 

(4). Arab Dwellers in Towns lix 

(5). Nubians Ix 

(6). Sudan Nej^roes Ixi 

(7). Turks Ixi 

(8). Levantines, Syrians, etc Ixi 

(9). Armenians and Jeves Ixii 

(10). Europeans Ixii 

c. The Nile (by Captain H. 6. Lyons) Ixiv 

d. Geology of Egypt and Notice of the Desert . . . Ixviii 

e. Agriculture and Vegetation Ixx 

(1). Capabilities of the Soil IxX 

(2). Irrigation Ixxi 

(3). Agricultural Seasons (Winter. Summer, and 

Autumn Crops). Agricultural Implements . . Ixxiii 

(4). Farm Produce of Egypt Ixxiv 

(5). Trees and Plantations Ixxv 

f. Climate of Egypt (by Captain H. O. Lyons) . . . Ixxvi 
HI. El-lslam (by Prof. C. H. Becker) Ixxix 

Remarks on Mohammedan Customs xciii 

Mohammedan Calendar. Festivals .... ... xuv 


IV. Outline of the History of Egypt xcviii 

I. Ancient History (by Prof. 6. Steindorff) .... xcviii 

a. From the Earliest Times to the Macedonian 
Conquest in 332 B.C xcviii 

1. Prehistoric Period xcviii 

2. Earliest Period of the Kings xcix 

3. Ancient Empire xcix 

4. Middle Empire c 

5. New Empire ci 

6. Period of Foreign Domination civ 

7. Late-Egyptian Period cv 

b. Grffico-Ronian Period (332 B.C.-640 A.D.) . . evil 

1. Alexander the Great and the Ptolemaic Period cvii 

2. Roman Period ex 

3. Byzantine Period . . . ■ cxii 

II. The Middle Ages cxiii 

Egypt as a Pnivince of the Empire of the Caliphs cxiii 

Egypt under Independent Rulers cxv 

III. Modern History cxx 

Turkish Domination after 1517 cxx 

The French Occupation cxx 

Jlohammed Ali and his Successors o\x 

V. Hieroglyphics (by Prof. G. Steindorff) ....*. cxxvi 

1. Phonetic Symbols cxxviii 

2. Word Signs cxxix 

3. Determinatives cxxx 

4. Frequently recurring Cartouches of Egyptian Kings . cxxxiii 

VI. Religion of the Ancient Egyptians (by2>o/'.G.5temdor^) cxl 
List of the chief Egyptian Deities and Sacred Animal? cxlix 
Representations of the most important Deities .... cliii 

VII. Historical Notice of Egyptian Art (by Prof. 0. Steindorff) clvii 

1. Architecture ^ clvii 

2. Sculpture and Painting clxxi 

VIII. Buildings of the Mohammedans (by Franz-Pasha) . clxxviii 

Mosques clxxx 

Tombs clxxxii 

Dwelling clx.xxiii 

IX. Works on Egypt clxxxvii 


1. Approaches to Egypt (Steamship Lines) 1 

Lower Egfypt. 

2. Alexandria 9 

3. From Alexandria to Cairo 31 

4. Cairo 35 

5. Environs of Cairo 104 

6. The Pyramids of Gizeh 123 

7. The Site of Ancient Memphis and the Necropolis of Sakkara 142 

8. Baths of Helwan 167 

9. From Cairo to Mansura via Helbeis and Zakazik .... 170 
10. From Tanta to Damietta via Mansura 174 


Ronte Page 

11. From Port Sa'id to Cairo or Suez via Isma'iliyeh .... 177 

1'2. The Suez Canal from Port Sa'id to Suez 181 

13. Suez and its Environs 187 

14. The Faiyum 190 

Tipper Egypt. 

Preliminary Information 200 

15. From Cairo to Luxor by Railvray 205 

16. From Cairo to As^iut by the Nile 224 

17. From Assiut to Girgeh and Baliana (Abydos) by the Nile 235 
IS. Abydos . ' 237 

19. From Baliana to Keneh (Dendera) and Luxor by the Nile 244 

20. Luxor and its Environs : the Site of Ancient Thebes . . 251 

21. From Luxor to Assuan by Railway 332 

22. From Luxor to Edfu by the Nile 341 

23. From Edl'u to Assuan by the Nile 348 

24. Assuan and its Environs. Philae and the Nile Dam 353, 362 

25. Routes through the Eastern Desert 372 

26. The Western Oases 378 

Lower Nubia. 

Preliminary Information 383 

27. From Shellal (Phil.-cl to Kalabsheh 387 

28. From Kalabsheh to Korosko 393 

29. From Korosko to .4bu Simbel 399 

30. The Rock Temples of Abu Simbel 404 

31. From Abu Simbel to Wadi Haifa ... 410 

Upper Nubia and the Stidan. 

Political Summary. Climate. Preliminary Information . 415 

32. From AVadi Haifa to Khartum 419 

33. From Suez to Khartum via Port Sudan 423 

34. Khartum and Omdurman 426 

Longer Excursions to the Southern Sudan 432 

Index 437 



1. Map of the Delia (1 : 1,000,000), before the Title Page. 

2. Map of the Ewirom of Alexandria (1 : 125,000). with (31 
Map of the Mareotis Distrirt (1 : 1 ,000,000) 25 

4. Map of the Immediate Envirorn of Cairo (1 : 75,000), with 

(^5) Map of the Road to the Pyramids {l : 125,000) ... 105 



6. Suruey Map of the Environs of Cairo (1 : 250,000; show- 
ing Extent of Special Maps) 119 

7. Map of the Suez Canal (1 : 500,000) 185 

8. Map of the Oulf of Suez (1 : 150,000), with (9) Map of 

the Springs of Moses (1 : 50,000) ' 187 

10. Map of the FaiyUm (i:bOO,000) 190 

11. Map of the Nile from Cairo to Benihasan (1 : 500,000) . 205 

12. Map of the Nile from Benihasan to (Baliana) Nag' Ha- 
madj (1 : 500,000) . . . .' 231 

13. Map of the Nile from Nag' Hamddi to Assudn (1 : 500,000) 244 

14. Survey Map of Thebes (1 : 50,000) 254 

15. Map of the Envirom of Assudn (1 : 100,000) 353 

16. Map of the Island of Philae (1 : 8030) 364 

17. Map of the NileValley from Cairo to Assudn (1 : 5,000,000; 

the Western Oases) 378 

18. Map of the Nile from Assudn to Wddi Haifa (1 : 1,000,000), 
with (19) Map of the Environs of Wddi Haifa as far as 

the Second Cataract (1 : 250,000) . . . '. 387 

20. Map of the Environs of KhartHm and Omdurmdn 

(1 : 500,0001 ■ 426 

1i. Map of the Southern Saddn (i -.[0,000,000) 432 

22, General Map of Egypt (1 : 10,000,000, showing lixtent of 

Special Maps), after the Index. 


1. Section of the Step Pyramid of Sakkdra clxix 

2. Arabian Dwelling House: Ground Floor olxxxiv 

3. Arabian Dwelling House: First Floor clxxxv 

4. Plan of Alexandria (1 : 18,000), with (5) Plan of the Inner 
Town (1 : 10,000) 9 

6. Plan of Ancient Alexandria, 100 B.C. - 100 A.D. 

(1 : 58,800) 12' 

7. Plan of Ancient Alexandria in the 3rd-5tli cent, after 
Christ (1 : 58,800) 13 

8. Catacombs of Kom esh-Shakdfa 17 

9. Graeco-Roman Museum at Alexandria 22 

10. Plan of Ramleh (1 : 40,000) 25 

11. Plan of Cairo (_i -.12,300) 35 

12. Mosque of El-Azhar (Arabian University; 1 : 1250) . . 57 

13. Mosque of El-Muaiyad (1 : 1500) 60 

14. Arabian Museum at Cairo 63 

15. Mosque of Sultan Hasan 67 

16. Mosque of Mohammed AU 69 

17. Mosque of Ibn Tulun 72 

18. Egyptian 'Museum at Cairo 81 

19. Plan of Old Cairo (^i -.7150 ) 106 

PLANS. xl 


20. Church of Ahu Sergeh, a.t Old C&ixo 108 

2i. Plan of the Tombs of the Caliphs {1:12,500) HI 

22. Tomb Mosque of Sultan BarMk 112 

23. Tomb Mosque of Kait Bey .' .' 114 

24. Plan of the Pyramids of Gtzeh (1 : 13,560) 123 

25. Section of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh 127 

26. Section of the Second Pyramid of Gtzeh 132 

27. Section of the Third Pyramid of Gheh 134 

28. Valley Temple of Khephren 136 

29. Plan of the Buins of Memphis (i: 20,000) 143 

30. Plan of the Pyramids and Tombs of Sakkdra and Abuih 
(1:25,000) \ . ." ■ . 145 

31 . Sernpeum at Sakkdra 148 

32. Mastaba of Ti ." 150 

33. Mastaba of Mereruka 160 

34. Mastaba of Ke-gem-ni 162 

35. Mastaba of Ptahhotep 164 

36. Plaiiof Helioan{i:2b,000) 169 

37. 88. Plans of the Harbour aiid the Toirn of Port Sa'td 
(1:50,000 and 1:25,000) 177 

39. Plan of Suez (1:25,000) 187 

40. Family Tomb of AmenopMs IV. 217 

41. Plan of Abydos (i : iA,600) 238 

42. Temple of Sethos I. at Abydos (i : UIG) ^ 239 

43. Temple of Hathor at Dendera (1 : 685) 246 

44. 45, 46. Crypts of the Temple at Dendera (1 : 685) . .248, 249 

47. Plan of Luxor (i -.10,000) 251 

48. Temple of Luxor (1 : lOQl) 258 

49. Temple of Khons at Karnak 263 

50. Sketch Plan of Karnak (1 : 4000) 264 

51. Temple of Ammon at Karnak {I : i'dOi) 265 

52. Plan of the Necropolis of Thebes (1 : 19,000), with (53) Plan 

of the Tombs of the Kings at Blbdn el-Muluk (1 : 10,000) '281 

54. Temple of Sethos L at Kurna , . 282 

55. Tomb of Ramses IV. .' 286 

56. Tomb of Ramses IX 287 

57. Tomb of Amenephthes 287 

58. Tomb of Ramses VI 288 

59. Tomb of Ramses III 289 

60. Tomb of Sethos 1 292 

61. Tomb of Thutmom III 296 

62. Tomb of Amenophis II 297 

63. Tomb of Thutmosis 1 297 

64. Temple of Deir el-Bahri 299 

65. The Ramesseum (1 : 1200) 806 

66. Tomb of liekhmere 310 



67. Tomb of Sennofer 310 

68. Tomb of Amenemheb 311 

69. Tomb of Nakht 314 

70. Temple of Deir el- Medlneh 317 

71. TombofHuye 318 

72. Tomb of Queen Titi 320 

73. Tomb of Prince Amen-her-khopshef 321 

74. Tomb of Ne fret- ere Mi-en-Mut 321 

75. Temple of Medlnet Habu (1 : 2300) 322 

76. Rock Chapel of Gebel Silsileh 339 

77. Temple of Horm at Edfu 344 

78. Temple of Kom Ombo 350 

79. Plan of Assuan (1 : 25,000) 353 

80. Temple of Isls on Philne (I : 1006) 365 

81. Temple of Kaldhsheh 390 

82. Temple of Gerf-Hvsein 394 

83. Great Temple of Abu Simbel 405 

84. Temple of Hathor at Ahu Simbel 409 

85. Plan of Kliariam and Omdurman [1 : 60,000) 426 


1. Egyptian Coins xvi 

2. Mohammedan Posttires of Prayer Isxxvii 

3. Cartouches of Egyptian Kings (jxxxiii-uxxxix 

4-23. Mythological Illustrations cliii-clvi 

24-30. Art Illustrations clviii-clx, clxLv, clxxii 

31, 32. Water Carrier* (Sakka, Hemali) "/ 48 

33. Public Kitchen ' 49 

34. /Iranian Barber 49 

35-54. Reliefs in the Mastaba of Ti, at Sakkara .... 151-158 
55. Hypostyle Hall at Karnak f reconstruction, after Maspero) 269 


I. Preliminary Inforaiation. 

(1). Plan of Tour. Season. Expenses. Money. Equipment. 
Travelling Companions. 

Plan. The intending visitor to Egypt may make an outline of 
his tour at home with as great ease as for any of the countries of 
Europe. A glimpse of the country may he obtained in 4 or 5 weeks 
(exclusive of the journey out") as follows: 2 days may be devoted 
to Alexandria and the journey thence to Cairo — travellers landing 
at Port Sa'id should take the first train to Cairo, as the town is 
uninteresting — 10 days may be spent in Cairo and its neighbour- 
hood (pp. 35 et seq.), 12 days suffice for the railway-journey to As- 
suan and back (or 20 days by a tourist-steamer), and 3 days may be 
given to Assuaii (p. 353), while a few days must be set aside for 
resting. An excursion to the Faiyum (R. 14) or to the oasis of 
Khargeh (p. 379) takes 3-4 days. — An expedition to Upper Nubia 
(from Assuan to Wadi Haifa and back) requires 7 days by tourist- 
steamer (see p. 384) ; but if the quicker government steamer (p. 383) 
is used and the railway from "Wadi Haifa, the excursion can be ex- 
tended to Khartum (p. 420) within almost the same period. A month 
should be allowed for tlie steamer-trip from Khartum to Gondokoro 
(Rejaf) and bai-k (p. 434), and 4 days for the return from Khartum 
to Suez via Port Sudan (R. 33). 

Season. The best time for a tour in Egypt is between Nov. 1st 
and Maylst, .Tan. to March being the most crowded period. In 
Alexandria stormy and rainy weather very often prevails from 
December to March, but in the interior of Egypt, to the S. of 
a line joining Dainanliijr, Tanta, and Mansura, the case is con- 
siderably altered. JCven in the Delta, however, marked falls in 
temperature (sometimes to 43" Fahr.) occur between the end of 
November and the end of Marcli, and rain-storms, rendering the 
roads almost impassable, are not infrequent. In Cairo December, 
January, and sometimes February are distinctly chilly, which is the 
more inconvenient as there are no adequate heating-arrangements 
in the houses ; but November and March are very fine, as also 
usually are October, April, and May, especially for travellers who 
do not object to a little heat. In Upper Egypt, from the beginning of 
November till the middle or end of April, the prevalent weather is 
that of a delicious spring or moderate summer. Those who intend to 
winter in Egypt should spend November in Cairo, move on thence in 
December, on the approach of cold weather, to Upper Egypt (Luxor, 
Assuan), and return to Cairo in February. — In summer prices are 
naturally much lower, but most of the larger hotels are closed. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Egypt, and in oriental coun- 
tries generally, is greater than that of a visit to most parts of Europe, 
and the traveller should estimate his average daily expenditure at 


not less than 25-30«. (Steamboat and railway fares are of course 
extra; pp. 1-6.) The traveller whose time is very limited, or who 
is accompanied by ladies, will require also the services of a guide, 
or 'dragoman' (p. xxv; 5-lOa. per day). With modest requirements, 
however, it is possible to live more cheaply. 

Money. A small sum of money for the early part of the journey 
may be taken in English or French gold, but large sums should 
always be in the form of letters of credit or circular notes. These 
are issued by the principal London banks and by Messrs. Thos. 
Cook & Son. Travellers proceeding to Upper Egypt may deposit 
these notes in Cairo and have supplies sent after them, as required, 
by money orders. European bankers in Alexandria and Cairo, see 
pp. 10, 37. The National Bank of Egypt has branches or agents in 
most Egyptian towns and also in Khartum, Suakin, and Port Sudan. 
The cheques issued by the American Express Companies, the Ameri- 
can Bankers' Association, and the International Navigation Co. are 
convenient also. — For Money Orders, see p. xix. 

Equipment. For all ordinary purposes a couple of light tweed 
suits, a few flannel and soft cotton shirts, a supply of thin woollen 
socks, one pair of light and easy boots, one of shoes, and one of 
slippers, a moderately warm ulster or long travelling cloak, a pith 
helmet and a soft felt hat or a straw hat, together with the most 
necessary articles of the toilet, will amply suffice. Evening dress is 
usually worn at dinner at the principal hotels. Riding-breeches 
and gaiters are convenient for excursions. All articles should be 
new and strongly made, as it is often difficult to get repairs properly 
executed in Egypt. I'cw travellers walk in Egypt, except for very 
short distances, but sportsmen should add a stout pair of waterproof 
shooting-boots to their ciiuipmcnt. 

Among the most important extras to be brought from Europe are a 
drinking-cup of leather or metal, » flask, a strong pocket-knife, a thermo- 
meter, a pocket-compass, a lield-glass, and an electric, acetylene, or' mag- 
nesium lamp for lighting caverns and dark chambers. — Phutographic 
materials, dry plates, film.s, etc., can be obtained in Cairo, but it is pre- 
ferable to bring a good stock carefully packed (films in air-tight tin cases) 
from home, taking care to attend the customs examination in_ person. 
On account of the climate photographs should be developed ' as soon as 
possible; but the traveller should be chary of entrusting his negative.s 
(particularly in the case of Dims) to small photograph dealers. 

Companions. The facilities for travel in Egypt are now such 
that even the inexperienced traveller will have little^difflculty in 
managing an independent tour, without recourse to the assistance 
of tourist-agents or of dragomans (p. xxv), which add considerably 
to the cost. — In spring and autumn Tourist Parties are organized 
for a visit to Egypt and the East by the tourist-agents Afc.'srs. Thos. 
Cook <f Son (Ludgate Circus, London) and the Hamburg ^' Anglo- 
American Nile Co. (15 Cockspur St., Loudon, S.W.), programmes of 
which, with full information, may be obtained free on application. 
Travellers who join such parties are enabled to inspect the principal 


points of interest with the minimum expenditure of time and trouble, 
but must naturally surrender, to a great extent, both their freedom of 
choice of companions and the disposal of their time. The expenses 
are not below those of an independent tour. 

(2). Coinage. Passports. Custom House. 

Coinage (comp. the illustrations on p. xvl and the tables before 
the title-page and at the end of the book). The Egyptian Pound ('Livre 
Egyptienne'; £E) is worth 20s. B'/irf., and is divided into 1000 Mil- 
liemes or lOO Piastres. The Arabic name for the piastre is Kirsh (pi. 
Kurush; pronounced in Cairo ^irsh, urusli), but the European name 
is everywhere current. Travellers should note the distinction that 
is still frequently made between the 'great piastre" (kirsh sdgh), worth 
10 raillieraes, and the 'little (or half) piastre' (kirsh la'rtfa) , worth 
f) milliemes. — F]gyptian gold coins are .seldom met with, their place 
being taken by the British sovereign {Qineih inglhi = 97 pias. i) mill.) 
and the French napoleon (20 fr. ; Bintu =^ 77 pias. 2 mill., but reg- 
ularly reckoned at 77 pias.), both of whi<h are legally current, and 
by the banknotes of the National Bank of Egypt (for oO pias., £ E 1, 
£ E 5, £ E 10, £ E 50, and £ E 100). At Alexandria and Suez, and 
a few other points, reckoning also in francs is still common. Where 
British influence is strong, and especially in Cairo, the vfoxdShiliirxj 
. is used for the Riib' liiyOl^ which is equivalent to about la. ^/t^d. Copper 
coins (comp. p. iil are met with only in dealings with tlie natives. 
All the Egyptian roins are minted at Birmingham. 

A liheral supply of small change is more essential in (he Kast than 
anywhere else (comp. pp. x.xiv, 37). When obtaining change, travellers 
should be on their fjuard against counterfeit or depreciated (i.e. worn or 
perforated) pieces, which arc common enough. 

Passpoets are not absolutely necessary; and one's visiting-card 
practically serves all its functions in the interior. Bankers, however, 
freqtiently require strangers to (;st.Tblish their identity by some such 
document; and the countenance and help of consuls also must 
depend upon the proof of nationality offered to them by the travelleT. 
— Travellers who intend to proceed to Turkey must be provided 
either with a passport vise by a Turkish consul at home or with a 
tezkereh (travelling permit) to be obtained through a consul. 

Passports may be obtained in Great Britain direct from the Passport De- 
partment of the Foreign Office (fee 2.^.) or through any nf the usual tonrist- 
agents. — In the United States application for pas,<!iiorts should be made 
to the Bureau of Citizenship, State De.partment, Washington, U.C. 

Custom Housr. Tourists' luggage is subjected to a custom- 
house examination at the port of entry. The objects chiefly sought 
for are tobacco and cigars, ou which a somewhat high tax is levied 
(20 or 25 pias. per kilogramme or 2'/5lbs.). Unused articles are sub- 
ject to an ad valorem duty of 8 per cent, at Alexandria an additional 
V2 V^^ <5®"^ ^s charged for quay and paving dues. A similar duty is 
levied on motor-cars, cycles, type-writing machines, and tirearms 

Egyptian Coins 
Silver Coins 

20 piastres (riyal masri; ca. is.) 10 piastres (nusseh riyal; ca. 2t.) 

5 piastres 
(rub' riyal; 

2 piastres 

(kirsbein ; 

ca. 5d.) 

1 piastre 

(kirsh safsh 

ca. 2Vv<i.) 

Nickel Coins 

1 piastre 

(kirsh sagh; 

ca. 2%d.) 

'/z piastre 

(kirsh ta'rifa; 

ca. Id!.) 

2 milliemes 1 millieme 
(ca. 1/2(^.1 (ca. 'A(i.) 

On the reverse of all the coins is the name of the sultan in ornamental 

3. Conveyanceg. I. PRELIMINARY INFORMATION. xvii 

(p. 418), but the amount is refunded if the article is re-exported 
within a year, on production of the customs receipt (certifloat dii 
payement de droits en depot). The duty is paid at the port of entry 
or in the Bonded Warehouse in Cairo. In case of difficulty or dis- 
pute one of the higher officials should be appealed to. 

Oood, though somewhat expensive, cigars may be obtained in Cairo 
and Alexandria. The importation of one's own cigars is attended with so 
much trouble as hardly to be worthwhile. The traveller is recommended 
to content himself with cigarettes (comp. p. 41). Tobacco (Ditkhkh&n) should 
be purchased in small quantities only, as it gets dry very soon. 

(3). Conveyances. 

Steamers. The necessary information about the steamer-lines 
between Europe and Egypt is given at pp. 1-6. For the Nile 
steamers to Upper Egypt, see p. 201 ; to Lower Nubia, seep. 383; 
in the Sudan, see p. 417. 

Bailways. The official time-tables are published in the Indi- 
cateurdes Chemins de Fer de tEgypte, which is sold for 10 mill, at the 
chief railway stations, at the Cairo central telegraph office, and at 
the booksellers'. Time-tables are exhibited also in the larger hotels. 
Tlie railway-carriages resemble those of France or Italy. First-class 
passengers are permitted to take a reasonable qiiantity of small lug- 
gage with them into the carriages. The second-class carriages arc 
comfortable enough for day-journeys on the main routes (Alexandria 
to Cairo, Cairo to Mansura, Cairo to Port Sa'id or Suez, Cairo to 
Assuan), especially by the express-trains 5 and their use effects a 
saving of 50 per cent in fares. But on branch-lines all travellers 
should take flrst-class tickets, especially at night. The third-class 
carriages are quite unsuited for Europeans. 

The trains are not much slower than in Europe and are very 
punctual. The traveller should be at the station in good time, espe- 
cially as heavy luggage must be booked '/4 hr. before tho departure 
of the train. The luggage-tariff is somewhat complicated. Hand- 
luggage up to 55 lbs. is free. The cloak-room charge is 5 milliemes 
each package per day. Passenger- fares are calculated on a zone- 
system, applicable to both express and slow trains (Istcl. 5 mill, 
per kilomfitre up to 50 kil.; 51-100 kil., 41/2 mill- per kil.; above 
250 kil., 21/2 mill- )• Passenger-tickets are printed in French and 
Arabic; luggage-tickets in Arabic only. A reduced tariff and cheap 
return-tickets are in use on the lAgnes de Banlieue or suburban 
lines (between Cairo, Kalyub, and the Barrage dn Nil; between 
Cairo, Matariyeh, and El-Marg; between Suez and Suez Docks; 
between Alexandria, Ramleh, and Abukir). Return-tickets at a re- 
duction of 5 per cent on the double fare are issued to and from the 
larger stations, but are valid for 4 days only. — In hot weather the 
dust, which penetrates the carriages even when the windows are 
closed, renders railway travelling in Egypt exceedingly unpleasant. 
At the chief stations on the express-routes there are RaUivay Buffets 

IUkoekkr's Egypt. 7th Kdit. '5 


(no hot viands). At other stations refreshments are bronght to the 
carriage-windows (bargaining necessary ; 2 oranges Y2 pi^s.). The 
water offered for sale should be abstained from. In most of the 
express-trains there are dining-cars (B. lO, lunch 20, 0.25 pias.). 

Narrow Gauge Railways. The Egyptian Light Bailways cover 
the Delta and the Faiyum (p. 190} with a network of lines, which, 
though of little importance to the ordinary tourist, enable the busi- 
ness man, the explorer, and the specialist to reach various remote 
points with comparative ease. 

The Cabs (sing. 'araMyeK) in the large towns are generally very 
good. The official tariffs are exhibited in the vehicles and are ad- 
vertised in the 'Indicateur des Chemins de Fer' (see p. xvii). At 
Alexandria and Cairo there are also Taximeter Cabs and Taximeter 
Motor Cabs. The latter are not adapted for drives outside the city 
except on good roads. The cab-drivers (comp. pp. xxiv, 39) are 
unable to read the names of the streets, while many of them know 
the various points only by names of their own. The hotel-portier 
should therefore be employed as interpreter. The traveller should 
keep his eye on the direction taken by the cab, as sometimes the 
cabman drives straight ahead in complete ignorance of the way and 
requires to be guided, e.g. by being touched with a stick on the right 
or left arm according to the turning, or with the words yemtnak (to 
the right), shimulak (to the left), dughri (straight on). The cabs 
usually drive rapidly, so that their use saves time and strength. 

Bonkeys (sing. Aomar) are found everywhere. The better ones 
belong to a finer race than the European breed. In Alexandria and 
Cairo they are, however, not used by Europeans for riding within 
the town. In the towns the donkeys are generally well bridled and 
saddled; side-saddles are not always obtainable, and when they are 
an extra charge of 5 pias. is sometimes made for them. The pro- 
clivities of the donkey-boys for prodding the animals with pointed 
sticks and urging them to gallop should be sternly repressed. When 
a slower pace is desired the rider shouts 'ala mahlak or 'ala mahla- 
kum ; if a quicker pace is wanted, yallah, yallah, or mashsht, or suk 
el-homdr; if a halt is to be made, 'andak, hush^ or the English word 
'stop' (comp. p. xxiv). 

(4). Hotels. 
In Cairo and its environs and at Luxor and Assuan (comp. pp. xxi, 
xxii) there are hotels quite of the first class, though perhaps not 
equal to the most modern establishments in Europe and America. 
There are good hotels also at Alexandria, Port Sa'ld, and a few other 
places. They are managed according to international methods; the 
waiters and chamber-maids are chiefly German or Swiss, while the 
'boots' are generally Nubians (Barabra) who in most cases under- 
stand one or several European languages. As on the American 
system a fixed sum daily is paid for lodging and board, the latter 


consisting of breakfast, luncheon, and dinner. Wine, beer, and 
other liquors, which are extras, are dear, the cheapest wine cost- 
ing 10-15 pias. per bottle and British and German beer 5-6 pias. 
The waiter's fee should be calculated at about per cent of the bill. 
At Pbnsioxs the average charge is 30-50 pias. per day, or £E 7-10 
per month. The hotel-laundries are somewhat expeusive (tariff at 
the hotels); the Arab 'washermen' are very good and mucli cheaper. 
In other towns the hotels are much inferior. They are mostly 
kept by Greeks, some (in the Delta) by Italians; the charge for a 
night's lodging is 8-10 pias. A cafe' or bar is frequently connected 
with the 'hotel' but no restaurant, so that meals have to be taken 
in a neighbouring eating-house. 

(5). Post and Telegraph Offices. 

The Egyptian Postal System (pp. 10, 37) is well organized not 
only in all the principal towns but also in the smaller towns of 
tlie Delta and Upper Egypt. The addresses of letters destined for 
Kgypt should always be written very distinctly, particularly the 
initial letters. They had better be directed to the hotel at which 
the traveller intends to stay, or they may be sent to the head post- 
office (Post Office, Poste Kestaute) in Cairo, in which case the 
traveller should inform the officials at the Bureau de Reuseigue- 
nients by letter of his local address, and his letters will be for- 
warded thither. On leaving for Upper Egypt travellers shouM 
notify the postal authorities at Cairo, so that letters may be punc- 
tually forwarded; passengers by the Nile steamers may have their 
correspondence looked after by the steamboat- company. — Rt- 
gistered Letters are not delivered to the addressee unless he has a 
passport or gets a resident or the consular kavass (p. xx) to testify to 
liis identity. Registration fee 5, for foreign countries 10 milliemes. 
Tiio Postage for letters not more than 30 grammes in weight within 
a town is 3 mil!., within Egypt 5 mill.; letters not exceeding 
20 grammes to Great Britain and its colonies and to Italy 5 mill., 
to other countries in the Postal Union 10 mill. ; domestic Post Cards 
2 mill., foreign 4 mill. — Parcels not exceeding 11 lbs. in weight 
may be sent to the countries of the Union, and must be accompanied 
by two declarations (in English or French). An export duty of 1 per 
cent ad valorem is charged on parcels of more than £ E 1 in value. 
Parcels not exceeding 3 lbs. may be sent from England via P. & O. 
steamer for Is., from 3 lbs. to 7 lbs. Is. Dd., from 7 lbs. to 11 lbs. 
2s. Gd. ; via France and Italy the rates are 2s., 2s. Qd.. os. "Within 
Egypt parcels under 2V5 lbs. cost 20 mill., under 68/5 lbs. 30 mill., 
up to 11 lbs. 40 mill. — Money Orders up to 40i. may be sent to 
Egypt from most European countries. In Groat Britain they are 
issued at the following rates : for sums not exceeding 2l., Gd.-, Gi., 
1«. ; iOl.jia.Gd. The rate of exchange is taken into account. Within 



Egypt money orders cost 3 mill, per £ E 1 (up to £ E 100), to the 
Sfldan 5 mill, (minimum in either case 10 mill.). — Further par- 
ticulars will be found in the official Guide Postal Egyptien, obtain- 
able at any post-office for 30 mill., in the Indicateur des Chemins 
de Fer (p. xvii), or in the Government Almanac (p. xcv). 

Telegrams. There are two telegraph - systems in Egypt, the 
Egyptian and the English. Messages within Egypt may be sent only 
by the former, which has over 300 stations, of which at least 30 are 
open day and night. The tariff is 20 mill, for 8 words or less, and 
5 mill, for every two additional words. The charge for urgent tele- 
grams is three times as much. Telegrams may be sent in any Euro- 
pean language , except from the smaller stations , where Arabic 
messages only are accepted. — Telegrams to Europe and America 
should be sent by the English Eastern Telegraph Co., via Malta and 
Vigo. To Europe each word (not exceeding ten letters ; if longer, 
it counts as two words) costs 48 mill, from Lower Egypt, 58 mill, 
from Upper Egypt, 63 mill, from the Sudan. — A telegram from 
Great Britain to Alexandria costs Is. per word; to other parts of 
Egypt Is., 1?. lei., Is. 4d. — Further particulars will be found in 
the Telegraph Guide (2 pias.), which may be had at the office of the 
government telegraph system in Cairo. 

Telephones. There are exchanges in most of the larger towns, 
and at Cairo and Alexandria there are public call-offices also. 
Charge for 3 min. conversation 50 mill., 6 min. 100 mill. 

(6). Public Safety. Consulates. Courts of Justice. 

Public Safety. The authority of the Khedive is so well estab- 
lished throughout Egypt that travellers are as safe as in Europe. 
Weapons for self-defence are an unnecessary encumbrance. — For 
information concerning firearms and ammunition, see p. 418. 

Consulates. Consuls in the East enjoy the same privilege of 
exterritoriality as ambassadors in other countries. On public occa- 
sions they are attended by kavasses, or armed consular officers. A 
distinction is sometimes made between professional ('consulesmissi') 
and commercial consuls ; and there are consuls, vice-consuls, and 
consular agents, possessing various degrees of authority. In Egypt 
the diplomatic representatives of the powers are known as consuls- 
general. In all cases of emergency the traveller should apply for 
advice to the nearest consul of his country. 

There are no consuls within the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (p. 415). 

Courts of Justice. In place of the exclusive consular juris- 
diction to which foreigners were formerly liable, a system oi Mixed 
Tribunals was established in 1875. The judges consist of natives 
and foreigners (the latter generally appointed by the Khedive from 
qualified officials nominated by the Great Powers), who give their 
verdicts in accordance with Egyptian law, founded on that of France 

7. Health Resorts. 1. PRELIMINARY INFORMATION. vxi 

and Italy. Even cases in which the Khedive himself and the Egyp- 
tian government are concerned are tried before this tribunal, which 
includes courts of first and second instance. The courts of the first 
instance are at Cairo, Alexandria, and Mansura, and there is a dele- 
gation at Port Sa'id. The appeal-court is at Alexandria. Lists of 
qualified barristers are exhibited in the anterooms of the courts. — 
Important civil cases between natives, and all criminal cases, are 
tried by the Native Courts (Central Tribunals), established in 1883, 
situated at Cairo, Alexandria, Benisueif, Assiiit, Keneh, Tanta, and 
Zakazik. These form also the tribunals of second instance for the 
petty misdemeanours and civil suits dealt with by the Summary 
Tribunals (47 in number). In addition there are 108 District Courts 
(Markaz Tribunals), which deal with civil actions and with criminal 
cases not involving more than 3 months' imprisonment or a fine of 
more than £E 10. The appeal-court for important cases is at Cairo 
(at the Bab el-Khalk); about half the number of its judges are Euro- 
peans. The procedure is based upon the Code Napole'on. 

(7). Egypt as a Health Resort. Medical Hints. 

Tip Leigh Canneii, M. I). (Land.), F. R. Met. Soc. 

The beneficial influence of the climate of Egypt (coinp. p. Lxxvi) 
lias been known since the Roman period at least, and of late years 
an increasing number of visitors have flocked to the Nile to enjoy 
the benefits of its remarkably dry winter-climate. Phthisis (if not 
too far advanced and if the patient has a sound heart and little or 
110 fever), asthma, chronic bronchitis, Bright's disease, rheumatoid 
arthritis:, gout, and diseases of the kidneys are some of the most 
important ailments that are at least alleviated by a visit to Egypt. 
Invalids should remember that a stay of a few weeks only is not 
sufficient, and should remain from the beginning of November to 
the end of March. In deciding which of the health-resorts in Egypt 
a given case should be sent to, the physician must of course consider 
whether or not warmth must be secured along with dryness of air, 
whether purity of air alone or also a bright stimulating climate is 
to be specially sought, and whether cold winds and blowing sand 
are harmful or not. It is advisable in all cases to secure the advice 
of the physician resident at the spot selected. 

Cairo itself cannot properly be considered a health-resort. The 
presence of a large city with its noise and bustle, the higher rela- 
tive humidity, owing to the N. wind and the neighbourhood of the 
Delta, and other causes, all combine to compel those who seek health 
from the climate of Egypt to look to other stations. There are, how- 
ever, excellent health-resorts in the immediate vicinity of the capi- 
tal, such as the Mena House Hotel, the Oasis of New Heliopolis, and 
Helwan. Luxor and (still better) AssuCin, in Upper Egypt, offer still 
more favourable climatic conditions. 

xxii I. PRELIMINARY INFORMATION. 7. Health Rcforts. 

Mena House Hotel (p. 36), 8 M. to the W. of Cairo, stands near 
the Great Pyramid of Gizeh , on the verge of the Libyan Desert. 
The mean maximum temperature is 69° Fahr. in Dec, 66° in Jan., 
72° in Feb., 74° in March, and 80° in April. The mean minimum 
for the four months Dec. to March is 50°. The daily range of tem- 
perature is 21°. The relative humidity (i.e. the amount of moisture, 
in relation to the temperature at the time, that the air holds out of 
a possible 100 per cent) from Dec. to March is 58 per cent by day 
(8 a.m. to 6 p.m.) and 80 per cent at night (8 p.m. to a.m.). 
Dew falls in -winter on about two nights out of three. At both Mena 
House and Helwan the prevailing winds and the amount of rain are 
probably much the same as in Cairo. The purity of the air at both 
places is marked ; the medical and sanitary arrangements are ex- 
cellent. — The Oasis of New Heliopolis (p. 119), founded as a health- 
resort a few years ago, possesses similar advantages. 

Helwan (p. 167), 17 M. to the S. of Cairo and 3 M. from the 
cultivated land, is 115 ft. above the river. The mean maximum 
temperature is 70° in Dec, 67° in Jan., 73° in Feb., and 76° in 
March. The mean minimum for these four months is 50°. The daily 
range of temperature is here also 21°. The relative humidity from 
Dec. to March is 47 per cent by day, 66 per cent at night. — Helwan 
has the advantage "f being in the desert in a pure atmosphere. 
It also has warm^ )hurated and saline springs, richer in natural 
constituents thar ' corresponding springs at Aix-les-Bains, Harro- 
gate, Buxton, L The cases suitable for the baths here are such 
as would derive , .eflt from hydro-therapeutic treatment as carried 
on at Harrogate, ^ath, Aix, etc.; of late years Helwan has been 
especially recommended to sufferers from kidney- diseases, and 
suitable diet is provided at all the hotels and pensions. 

Luxor (p. 251) is situated about 400 M. to the S. of Cairo, in 
the Theban plain on the right bank of the river. The prevailing 
winds are N.W. and N., as in the whole country. The mean maxi- 
mum temperature is 76° in Dec, 74° in Jan., 78° in Feb., and 85" 
in March. The mean minimum for these four months is 50°. The 
relative humidity is 41 per cent by 'day, 64 per cent at night. — In 
addition to the advantage of its warm and dry climate Luxor has an 
almost inexhaustible interest in its numerous antiquities, temples, 
and tombs. — The temperature is 7-9° warmer than at Mena House 
and Helwan. The importance of the extra warmth of Upper Egypt 
must not be lost sight of, in cases where it is imperative that the 
action of the skin should be at its highest level — especially as with 
this warmth a bracing effect is obtained from the dryness of the air. 

Assudn (p. 353), situated at the First Cataract, also on the right 
bank of the river, is the dryest of the Egyptian liealtTi-xesorts and 
may be specially recommended in winter, when N. Egypt is often 
decidedly chilly. The prevailing winds are, as at Luxor, N.W. and 
N. in winter. The mean maximum temperature is 78° in Dec, 74^/2° 

7. Medical Hints. 1. PRELIMINARY INFORMATION. xxiii 

ill Jan., 82" in Feb., and 91" in March. The mean minimum lor 
these four months is 55°; and the relative humidity is 35 per cent 
by day, 49 per cent at night. — Assuan is more under the immediate 
influence of the desert; the air is bracing, although about 5" warmer 
than at Luxor. The beauty of the surroundings lends a peculiar 
charm to Assuan. — The accomii;odation for invalids is very good. 

Patients should not leave Upper Egypt until the middle of April, 
ou account of the cold N. wind. They will find at Athens, Corfu, 
Sicily, and Capri and other points near Naples admirable transition- 
stations in spring. 

Medical Hints. Re vaccination is a safeguard to travellers in 
I'-gypt , if not already performed within six years. Special care 
-should be taken to avoid eye-trouble, and it is inadvisable to allow 
one's field-glass to be used by strangers, especially natives, for fear 
of infection. Those, too, who come into contact with natives should 
avoid rubbing their eyes with their hands. A useful precaution 
is to bathe the eyes regularly with boracic acid lotion (3 per cent), 
especially on dusty days or after excursions. Visitors to Upper Egypt 
should have spectacles with grey glasses. — Against sunstroke, 
which, however, is rare in the winter months, the best protection is 
afforded by broad-brimmed hats , sunshades, or cloths tied round 
the hat so as to fall down over the back of the neck. A pith helmet 
with a large flap to protect the neck may be recommended also. 
The remedies for headache resulting from { 'Stroke are rest and 
shade; the clothing should at once be loos "v^V and cold appli- 
cations made to the head and neck. ■ '^'^ 

Colds are frequently followed by fever or bf i/iarrhu;a, which is 
apt to develop into dysentery. Cold or iced drii - shbuld be avoided, 
also unpeeled fruit and green salads. Water and milk should never 
be drunk unboiled, for fear of typhoid. In cases of diarrhoea meat 
should be avoided and a simple farinaceous diet adopted ; the bev- 
erages should be milk and soda-water. There are European doctors 
at Cairo, Alexandria, Helvvan, Luxor, Assuan, etc., also on board most 
of the tourist-steamers. 

Sprains are most effectually treated with cold compresses, while 
the injured limb should be tightly bandaged. — The sting of a 
scorpion is relieved by immediately applying ammonia ; strong doses 
of alcohol may be administered internally. 

Travellers should be careful to pay attention to the daily changes 
of temperature (^p. Ixxvii), particularly at sunset in cultivated dis- 
tricts, when the air cools very quickly and colds are easily caught. 
Warmer clothing or a cloak is useful till 11 a.m., then lighter 
clothing till nearly sunset, when the cloak should be resumed. The 
hour for returning to the hotel varies with the place and the month, 
being earliest in Jan. and latest in March and April. If the traveller 
be guided by the relative humidity, it would be earliest at Mena 
House, say about sunset; a little later at lielwan; at Luxor still 

xxiv I. PRELIMINARY INFORMATION. 8. Native Manners. 

later, 6 p.m. (except in Jan.), and 8 p.m. in March; and latest of 
all at Assuan, — it being always understood that precautions as to 
extra clothing have been taken. — Those who are not invalids, and in 
some cases invalids also, may sleep with the windows open with safety. 
Those who wish to take a small Medicine Chest with them, a pro- 
ceeding strongly recommended to anyone making long independent ex- 
cursions, should consult their physician at home as to the best medi- 
caments with which to stock it. The following suggestions may, however, 
be useful: for fever. Quinine in pills or something of that nature; for 
chronic constipation, castor-oil; for diarrhoea (or dysentery), first an aper- 
ient then Bismuth (in cachets); for inflammation of the eyes, an Eye Lotion 
(made from a doctor's prescription) and a glass for dropping it in; for 
stings, Ammonia; for external injuries, Cotton Wool for bandaging. Subli- 
mate Paiiilles and Iodoform as disinfectants, and Collodion. 

(8). Intercourse with Orientals. Dragomans. 

The average Oriental regards the European traveller as a CrtBsus, 
therefore as fair game, and feels justified in pressing upon him with 
a perpetual demand for bakshish (bakshish), which simply means 
'a gift'. The number of beggars is enormous, but they arc not 
nearly so importunate as those in Italy and elsewhere. Travellers 
are often tempted to give for the sake of affording temporary pleasure 
at a trifling cost, forgetting that the seeds of insatiable cupidity are 
thereby sown, to the infinite annoyance of their successors and the 
demoralization of the recipients themselves. Bakshish should never 
be given except for services rendered, or to the aged and crippled 5 
and the Government appeals to the tourist by public placards not 
to encourage the habit of begging. A beggar may be silenced with 
the words 'al Allah or Allah yehannin 'aleik (God have mercy on 
thee!) or Allah ya'tik (may God give thee! J. The best reply for 
more importunate cases is md fish, md fish (I have nothing for you) 
or mafish bakshish (there is no present), which will generally have 
the effect of dispersing the assailants for a time. 

It is, of course, inevitable that coachmen, guides, donkey-boys, 
and the like should expect a gratuity in addition to the stipulated 
fee for their services, and the traveller should therefore take care to 
be amply supplied with small Change at all times, and especially 
with pieces of half a piastre (comp. pp. xv, 37). Payment should 
never be made until the service stipulated for has been rendered, 
after which an absolutely deaf ear should be turned to the pro- 
testations and entreaties which almost invariably follow. Even when 
an express bargain has been made, and more than the stipulated 
sum paid, they are almost sure to pester the traveller in the way 
indicated. When no bargain has been made, the fees and prices 
mentioned in the Handbook, all of which are ample, should be paid 
without remark ; and if the attacks which ensue are not silenced by 
an air of calm indifference the traveller may use the word ruh or 
imshi (be off!) or uskut (be quiet!) in a quiet but decided and im- 


perative tone. At the same time it must be admitted that the in- 
creasing number of visitors to Egypt tends to raise prices during 
the chief travelling season, so that a larger bakshish than is men- 
tioned in the Handbook may sometimes be necessary. 

While much caution and firmness are desirahle in dealing with 
the people, it need hardly be added that the traveller should avoid 
being too exacting or suspicious. He should hear in mind that 
many of the natives with whom he comes in contact are mere 
children, whose demands should excite amusement rather than 
anger, and who often display a touching simplicity and kindliness 
of disposition. The native communities hold together with remark- 
able faithfulness, and the hond of a common religion, which takes 
the place of 'party' in other countries, and reijuires its adherents 
to address each other as 'i/« akhiiya (my brother), is far more than 
a mere name. On the other hand, intimate acquaintance with Orien- 
tals is to be avoided, especially with the dragomans, who sometimes 
presume on their opportunities of social intercourse (comp. below). 
In Lower Egypt travellers can usually make themseWes understood 
in French or Italian; in Upper Egypt English is more useful. 
A good deal can usually he done by signs. 

Notwithstanding all the suggestions we have ventured to offer, 
the traveller will to some extent have to buy his experience, in 
most cases the overcharges to which he will he exposed will be 
comparatively trifling; hut if extortion is attempted on a larger 
scale he had better refer the matter to his consul or the police. 

For the tours described in this book the services of a Dragoman 
( Arab. Turguman) may easily be disj)cnsed with, even by those less 
accustomed to travelling. They are useful, however, for those who 
wish to see as much as possible in a very short time. Only well 
recommended dragomans should be engaged, preferably those for 
whom the hotels assume some responsibility. They must be treated 
from the lirst as servants and all familiarity should be discouraged. 
The dragomans arc with few exceptions quite uneducated, without 
the least knowledge of the historic or a'sthetic significance of tlie 
monuments; and their 'explanations' of them are only too often 
merely garbled versions df what they have picked up from guide- 
books or from the remarks of previous travellers. 

Those who wish to make long tours in the desert or hunting 
excursions are advised to consult residents learned in these matters. 
The tourist-agents also can sometimes give good advice, and the 
necessary outfit (tents, kitchen utensils, etc.) may be bought or 
hired through them. — For sporting and other expeditions in the 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, see pp. 417, 418. 

On the successful terminatiun of the journey travellers are tuo apt 
from motives of good nature to write a more favourable testimonial for 
their dragoman than he really deserves; but this is truly an act of in- 
justice to his subsequent employers. The testimonial therefore should 
not omit to mention any serious c;iusc lor dissatisfaction. I. PRELIMINARY INFORMATION. 9. Arabian Cafes. 

(^9). Arabian Cafes. Story Tellers. Musicians. Singers- 
Shadow Flays. Baths. 

Arabian Cafes (sing, kahwa) are frequeuted by the lower classes 
almost exclusively. The front consists of woodwork with a few open 
arches. Outside the door generally runs a mastaba, or raised seat 
of stone or brick, covered with mats, and there are similar seats 
in the interior. Coffee is served by the kaliwagi at 1/4-I pias. per cup 
(fingdn), and several nargUeU or shhheh and gozeh (water-pipes) 
are kept in readiness for the use of customers. The tumbdk (Per- 
sian tobacco) smoked in the gozeh is sometimes mixed with the 
intoxicating hashhh (hemp, Cannabis Indica), which has an un- 
mistakable smell. The importation and sale of hashish are prohi- 
bited in Egypt ; it is therefore smuggled in in the most artful ways. 

Story Tellers (who in private domestic circles are generally 
women) are still a characteristic oriental institution. Wherever 
they make their appearance, whether in the public streets or the 
coffee-house, in the densely peopled alleys of the large towns or in 
the smallest country-villages, they are sure to attract an attentive, 
easily pleased, and exceedingly grateful crowd. The more sensational 
the tale, the better, and the oftener is tlie narrator applauded with 
protracted cries of 'Aah', or 'Allah', or 'Allahu akbar!'. — Most 
of the story-tellers belong to the so-called Shu'ara (sing. Sha'ir), 
literally 'singers'. They are known also as 'Andtireh (sing. 'Antari) 
or Abu Zeidtyeh, according as their theme consists of tales and 
romances from the history of 'Antar, a Beduin hero, or from that of 
Abu Zeid. Others again are called Mihadditdti, i.e. narrators of 
history, their province being the recital in prose of passages from 
the history of Sultan Beybars (p. cxvii) and other historical heroes. 
The entertainments of the 'ai/' leileh u leileh! (thousand and one 
nights) are, however, no longer heard, as popular superstition has 
branded this collection of tales as 'unlucky'. The themes of the 
whole fraternity are too often of an immoral character. 

Mnsicians by profession, called Aldttyeh (sing. Aldti), are in- 
dispensable on every festive occasion. The usual instruments are 
the rlkk or tambourine with little bells, the nakkdreh or semi- 
spherical tambourine, the zemr or hautbois, the tabl beledi or 
drum, the tabl shdmi or kettle-drum , and the darabukeh , a kind 
of funnel-shaped drum (generally made of earthenware, but some- 
times of wood inlaid with mother-of-pearl and tortoise-shell, with 
a flsh-skin stretched over the broad end), which last is accompanied 
by the zummdra, a kind of double flute. A better class of instru- 
ments, used for chamber music, includes the ndi, a kind of flute, the 
kemengeh or two-stringed violin, the body of which consists of a cocoa 
nut shell, the rebdbeh, or one-stringed violin with a square wooden 
body, the kdnun, a kind of zither with strings of sheep-gut, and 
astly the 'ud, the lute or mandoline, the oldest of all the instruments. 


The Egyptians consider themselves a highly masic&l jieopie. The 
Kgyptian sings when indulging in his keif (i.e. dolce far niente), whether 
sitting on his heels or stretched out on his mat, when driving his donkey, 
when carrying stones and mortar up a scafiblding, when working in the 
iiclds, when at the sakiyeh, and when rowing. He sings whether alone 
iir in Company, regarding his vocal music as a means of lightening his 
labour and of sweetening his repose. A peculiarity of the Egyptian songs, 
however, is that they have no tune, though they have a certain rhythm, 
which is always dependent on the text. They are sang through the nose 
on seven or eight different notes, on which the performer wanders up and 
down. The character of this so-called music is exceedingly monotonous 
and, to a European ear, displeasing. The songs (maicicdl or shughl) are 
generally of a lyrical, religious, or erotic description, though some of 
them extol the pleasures of friendship and rational enjoyment, or express 
derision of an enemy, or contempt fnr the rustic fellah. — Comp. 'The 
Songs of an Egyptian Peasant', by E. Sehdfer (English edition, Leipzig, 1904). 

Female SiNGBES {'Awalim, sing. 'Almeh; i.e. 'learned women') 
of a good class are now very rare and perform only in the liarems 
of wealthy natives. — Good Female Dancers, or Ghawdzi (sing. 
Ghdityeli), were formerly one of the chief curiosities of Egypt, but 
are now rare ; the performances in the cafes chantants in Cairo are 
very inferior. — The Snake Chabmees {Rifa'iyeh, sing. Rifa'i ; 
p. xci) exhibit performances of a very marvellous character, as 
credible European residents in Cairo have testified; but the trav- 
eller will rarely come in contact with them except by lucky ac- 
cident. The men and boys who exhibit small snakes in the streets 
or at the hotels must of course not be confounded with the Ixii'a'iyeh. 
— The JuGGLEEs oxF!uwd (sing. Hawi) of Egypt are similar to those 
of other countries. — Tlie performances of the Buffoons (Kurudati 
or Mohabhazi) are disgracefully indelicate. 

Shadow Plays (Khdiyal ed-Dill)^ formerly among the most pop- 
ular spectacles in Egypt, the history of which can be traced back 
to the 13th cent., are still to be met with, though seldom, in the 
larger towns, especially Cairo (comp. p. 42) and Alexandria. 

The Khaiyal man, with his little stage of wood and canvas, may be 
seen at the 'mulids' (comp. pp. xcv, xcvi), important weddings, and in a 
tew cafes. The plays, of which the most frequently performed ave tlie 
Comedy of the Convent (Ifb ed-deir) and the Comedy of the Ship (Ifb el- 
markib), are rather coarse, or even slightly indecent, farces in arliflcial 
and long-winded verse. The figures are cut out of coloured translucent 
leather and, by means of small wooden sticks, are pressed against an illu- 
minated cloth in front of the stage, so that their shadows are visible on 
the other side of the cloth. The entertainer, generally supported by 
several assistants and musicians, recites the text of the play while moving 
the figures about by means of the sticks. 

Arab Baths. Tlie baths of Egypt, with their hot-air chambers, 
are those commonly known as Turkish, but they are neither so clean 
nor so well fitted up as some of those in the larger cities of Europe. 
They are therefore seldom visited by Europeans. Those who wish 
to try them once should do so early in the morning, and should 
avoid Fridays, as numerous Moslems bathe on that day, which is 
their Sabbath. When a cloth is hung up at the entrance to the 
baths, it indicates that women only are admitted. 


(iO). The Egyptian Dialect of Arabic. 

£1/ Dr. Curt Friifer. 
The Translitekation of Arabic vocal sounds , so intensely difl'erent. 
from our own, in the ordinary Latin alphabet is rendered additionally 
difficult by the varied international relations of Egypt. In maps and plans, 
in railway time-tables, and in other publications we find the transliteration 
ditfering widely according as the French or the English view has been 
adopted. In this Handbook we have transliterated the consonantal sounds 
so far as possible according to English usage (e.g., sh instead of the French 
ch). The pronunciation of the vowels and diphthongs is as follows: d as a 
in father, a usually as a in final; e as e in belong or as a in final; eh at 
the end of a word as a in final; i as ee in been, i as i in did, final i as ee 
iu been; i!! as o in bone, o as in on; «2 as 00 in fool, « as « in full; ai 
as i in ice; cm as ow in owl; ei as a in lane; oi as oy in boy. Thus: 
emir, which is pronounced 'emeer' ; fultJs-, pronounced 'fulloos' ; sheikh, 
pronounced 'shake' (with a guttural k), etc. — The I of the article is 
frequently unassimilated; e.g. el-rds instead of er-rds (comp. p. xxx). 

Arabic belongs to the Semitic group of languages and has no 
relationship with the tongues of Europe. The classic language of 
the Koran is still regarded as the unrivalled model of literary Arabic, 
but side by side with it there have developed various colloquial 
dialects, differing widely among themselves, of which that spoken 
in Egypt is one. In the following brief sketch references to the 
classic literary language are avoided as far as possible; for that, re- 
course must be had to the accepted grammars (see p. clxxxviii). 
Even in Egypt there are variations in the dialects spoken, but 
the following remarks apply especially to the language as spoken 
in Cairo, which is generally undeistood throughout the country. 

On p. xxix we give the Arabic Alphabet, with the sounds 
corresponding to the different letters so far as it is possible to re- 
present or describe them to the English reader. — Arab writing 
runs from right to left. Long vowels are indicated by the letters 
Elif, Wan, and Yei (comp. p. xxix), while short vowels are often 
left out altogether or represented by special signs placed above or 
below the consonants. 

(^)uANTiTY AND ACCENTUATION OP VoAVELS. Vowels with a cir- 
cumflex accent ('^} are long; other vowels are short. The accent 
falls on the last syllable when that contains a long vowel or a short 
vowel followed by two consonants. It falls on the penultimate (1) 
when that is long, (2) when it ends in a single consonant, and (3) 
when the preceding syllable is long or ends in a single consonant. 
In all other cases the accent falls on the antepenultimate. Diph- 
thongs (ai, ei, au) must be reckoned as equivalent to long vowels. 

The pronunciation of short vowels varies considerably according to the 
consonants adjoining as well as according to the culture of the speakers; 
eg. for iiiUa (when), emteh also occurs, for yiktub (he writes), yiktib, for 
'ariisa (bride), 'ar&seh. 

Grammatical Hints. 
Pkonouns. ana, I int7, thou (fem.) 

inta, thou (masc.) hUxva, he 










































1 Kaf 















Arabic ALniABEX 









t, 3 

















like the Greek soft breathing, accompanies 
an initial vowel, and is not pronounced 
except as a hiatus in the middle of a 
word. It is also the sign for d. 

(word. It 18 
as in English. 

originally as Ih in 'thing', but now pro- 
noanced ( or *. 

in Syria and Arabia like the French j (some- 
times also like the English j\ bnt pro- 
nounced g (hard) in Egypt. 

a peculiar guttural ft, pronounced with em- 
phasis at the back of the palate. 

like ch in the Scotch word 'loch', or the 
harsh Swiss-German cU. 

as in English. 

originally as Ih in 'the', but now pronounced 

d or z. 
like the French or Itnlian v. 

as in English. 

emphasized », like si in 'hi.^s'. 

!both emphasized by pressing the tongue 
firmly against the palate. 

an emphatic 2, now pronounced like No. U 

or No. 15. 
a harsh and very peculiar guttural, 
a guttural resembling the Northumbrian or 

Parisian r. 

as in English. 

pronounced by Syrians and by the natives 
of Lower Egypt (particularly by the 
Cairenes) in the same way as Elif (see 
above), but in Upper Egypt as g (No. ;')). 

I as in English. 

as in English. Also the sign for iJ, 6^ aud cm. 
as in Knglish. Also the sign for f, a», and ti. 


hlya, she inium, ye or you 

ihna, we hum, they 

The possessive pronouns are indicated hy suffixes, added to 
nouns, verbs, or prepositions. 

my, mine = -? (after a final vowel -ya, after verbs -n?) 

thine (masc.) = -dk (after a final vowel -fc) ; thine (fern.) = -ik 
(after a final vowel -ki) 

his = -uh (after a final vowel -li); her = -lid 

OUT ::= -nd 

your = -kum 

their = -hum 

In the case of most feminine nouns ending in a or e (eh) a t is 
inserted before the suffix. When otherwise three consonants would 
come together a short vowel is inserted between the stem and the 
suffix. Examples: kalbl, my dog; kurs'ya, my chair; kalbina, our 
dog; shagaratkum, your tree; darabnt, he struck me; misiktuhum, 
thou tookest them; 'andi^ beside me, i.e. 1 have ; 'andak, beside thee, 
i.e. thou hast; 'aleikum, over you. 

rnTn, who? lei, why? 

ei, what? iza'iy, how? 

enhu, which? (masc.) Hit, which (relative) 

enW, which? (fem.) ii or c7a, this (masc.) \ 

enhum, which? (pi.) dJ, di, this (fern.) placed after 

kdin, how much? dol, these the noun and 

fein, where? whither? duk-ha, that its article 

min ein, whence ? duk-hamma, those 

imta, when? kuU, each, all 

Article. El is the definite article for all genders and all num- 
bers. Before words beginning with t, d, r, s, s, sh, «, d, /, or n the 
I of the article is usually assimilated with such initial consonant; 
e.g. er-ruyil, the man. There is no indefinite article {el-mu'allim., 
the teacher, nm'allim, a teacher), but it is sometimes expressed by 
uneducated people through the numeral wdhid, fem. wahdeh, i.e. 
wnhid beit, n house. 

Nouns. Most feminine nouns end in a or e (eh); el-mu'aUima, 
the female teacher. The regular plural is formed by adding 7n to 
the masculine stem, at to the feminine stem; el-mu' allimtn, the 
teachers, el-mu' allimdt, the female teachers. But there are num- 
erous irregular plurals that must be learned from the dictionary; 
e.g. heit^ house, hiydt, houses. The dual ends in ein for the masculine, 
tein for the feminine; kalbein, two dogs, kalbeteln, two she-dogs. 

There is no regular declension of nouns. The genitive case is 
expressed by the juxtaposition of the two nouns, the former always 
without the article, or by the use of the auxiliary word bitd', bitu'et, 
plur. hitu' ; e.g. leit el-khawdga, or el-beit bita' el-khaivdga, the 
house of the European. The dative case is formed by the use of the 
preposition U (to); li 'l-khawdga, to the European. The accusative 


(objective) is the same as the nominative. The vocative case is yu 
khairdga, Sir I 

Adjectives. Adjectives arc always placed after their nouns, 
with -which they generally agree in gender; e.g. gmeina krvaiyiseh, 
a heautiful garden , el-geneina el-knaiyiseh, the heautiful garden. 
The verb 'to be' is omitted in the present tense; el-geneina kirai- 
yi.<eh, the garden is beautiful. 

Regular Verbs. The pure stem of regular verbs is seen in the 
3rd person singular (masculine) of the perfect tense; kasar, he has 
broken. This part is given in dictionaries instead of the infinitive 
as in most other languages. 

I broke or have broken, kasarl 
Thou brokest or hast -, kasart 

(masc), kasarti (fem.) 
He broke or has broken, ka.iar 



Yoi - - - 
They - - - 
Imperatives : 



Present anu Future 
I break or shall break, aksar 
Thou breakest or wilt - , tiknar 

(masc), tiksar7 (fern.) 
He breaks or will break, yiksar 
She - - - . ^ liksar 
We break or shall - , niksar 
You - - will - , tiksarH 
They - - - - , yihsard 

Break (sing.), iksar (masc.), iksari (fem.). 
Break (plur.), iksaru. 

Pres. Breaking, kanr; Perf. Broken, maksiir. 
So also: I have written, katabt I write, aktub 

kataht, kalaht'i tiktub, lUclubt 

katab, etc. yiktub, etc. 

In the case of most verbs other tenses and moods are indicated 
by prefixing or interpolating letters; e.g. kasar, he has broken, m- 
kasar, he has been broken. 

For irregular verbs the grammar (comp. p. clxxxviii) must be 

To express a negative with verbs the separable form ynn . . . sh(i) 
is used, the verb being inserted in the middle (comp. Fr. ne . . . pas); 
e.g. mudarabah, he did not strike. 

1(5) — wCihid^iQxa.wahdeh the first — el-auwal, fem. el- 

autonleh or el-tlla 



the second 

— tdni, fem. 




the third 

— tdlit. 



■ arba'a 

the fourth 

— rdbe'. 




the fifth 

— khdmis, - 



■ sitteh 

the sixth 

— sddis, 



■ sab'a 

the seventli 

— sdbe\ 




the eighth 

— tdmin, 



■ tis'a 

the ninth 

— tdse% 



- 'ashara 

the tenth 

— 'dshir, 




11 — haddshar 

12 — itndshar 

13 — telatdshar 

14 — arbahtdshar 

40 — arba'tn 
50 — khamsin 
60 — sittin 
70 — sab'in 

15 — khamastdshar 80 — tarmdnln 
10 — sittdshar 90 — fts'Jn 





tus^ army ell 



17 — sabahtdshar 100 . — miyeh; before nonns, 3000 — telat aldf 

18 — tamantdshar 200 — niitein 

19 — tis'atdshar 300 — tultemtyeh 

20 — 'ishrin 400 — rub'amlyeh 
30 — taldttn 500 — khumsemtyeh 
once — marra wahda , marra, 
twice — marratein \ or r?66a 
thrice — teiai marrdt 
four times — ■ ar&a' marrdi 
five times — khamas marrdt a fifth 
six times — sittefe marrdt a sixth 
seven times — sabn,' marrdt a seventh 
eight times — taman marrdt an eighth 
nine times — tisa' marrdt a ninth 
ten times — 'ashar marrdt a tenth 

Substantives following the numerals 2-10 are us^d in the plural, those 
following numerals above 10 in the singular; thus: leldia kildb , 3 dogs, 
but teldtin kalb, 30 dogs. Educated people generally employ the dual 
form of the noun instead of the numeral 2: kalbein, 2 dogs. 

[?m«. 4000 — arbaht dldf 
5000 — khamast dldf 
100,000 — mtt alf 
1,000,000 — malyun 
a half — nuss 

a third — tult 

a fourth — rub' 

three-fonrths — talat irba' 

— khums 

— sudu 


—T tumn 

— tus' 

— 'oshr 

Arabic Vocabulary. 

Above, fok. 

Add, to, sad. Add a little more 

(i.e. hid a little higher), %id 

Address, 'unwdn. 
After, ba'd; afterwards, ba'dein. 
Afternoon, 'asr. 
Against, did. 
Air, hawd. 
All, el-kull, all people, kullen-nds 

(lit. the total of the people). 
Almond, loz. 

Always, ddiman or tamallt. 
America, Amerlka. American, 

marakdni, malakdru, pi. mara- 

Anchorage, roads, mirm. 
Angry, za'ldn. Do not be angry, 

md tiz'alah. 
Apricots, mishmish. 

Arabia, Bildd el- Arab. Arabian, 
rdgil 'arabl, pi. uldd el-arab. 

Arabic, 'arabl. What is that called 
in Arabic? ismeh ei bil-arahl? 

Arable land, tin. 

Arm, dird'. 

Arrive, wasal. When does tlie 
steamer arrive, el-wdbdr yusal 
imta? Arrival, imisitl. 

Ask, to, sa'al. 

At, 'and. 

Aunt, 'amma (paternal aunt), 
khdla (maternal aunt). 

Austria, Bildd en - Nimsn. Aus- 
trian, nimsdiv?. 

Autumn, kharif. 

Awaken, to, sahhd. Awake me, 

Back, dahr. 

Bad, battdl. 


Baker, far run. 

Bananas, rnoa. 

Barber, hallak, mizeiyin. 

Barley, »ha"ir. 

Basket, kuffn, pi. kufuf. 

Bath, bath-establishnieiit, ham- 

Bazaar, see Market. 
Be, to. The copula 'is' (are) is 

not translated; comp. p. xxxi. 
Beans, fasCdya. Broad beans, ful. 

Haricot beans, Idhiyeh. 
r.card, dakn. Full beard, lihyeh. 

Moustache, shanab. 
Beat, to, darab. Beat him, idrabuh ! 
Beautiful, kwaiyis or gamll. 
Bed, ser'tr. 
Beduiu, hedawi, pi. bidu, 'arab, 

'orbdn. Beduiu sheikh, sheikh 

Bee, nahla, pi. nahl. 
Beer, btra. 
Before, kabl (time), kudddm 

Behind, ward. 
Below, taht. 
Bench (of stone or mud), maslaba, 

pi. masdtib (also used for cer- 
tain kinds of tombs, p. clxviii). 
Beside, 'and, gamb. 
Better, ahsan, khcir. 
Between, bein. 
Bill, account, hitidb. 
Bird, teir, pi. tiyiir. Singing-bird, 

'asfur, pi. 'asdfir. 
Bite, to, 'add. It (she) has bitten 

me, 'addetru; it (she) will bite, 
Bitter, murr. [te'udd. 

Black, isivid. 
Blacksmith, hadddd. 
Blind, a'ma. 
Blood, damm. 
Blue, azrak. 
Board, loh, pi. llwdh. 
Boat, feluku. 
Boil, to. The water is boiling, el- 

maiyeh tighll. Boiled, maduk. 
BvuDiiKEK's Kgypf. 7th Kdit. 

Book, kitdb, yl.kulub. I'mokseller, 

ISoot, gasma, pi. gkain. 

Bottle, khdza, pi. kazdiz. Water- 
bottle, kulla, pi. kulal. 

Box, sanduk^ pi. sanddlk. 

Boy, walad, pi. uldd. 

Brandy, 'arakt 

Bread, 'eish. See also Loaf. 

Break, to, kasar (tians.J; inkasar 
(intrans.). Broken, maksur. 

Breakfast, futur. 

Bride, 'arCtsa. Bridegroom, 'arh. 

Bridge, kuhr1, kantara. 

Bridle, ligdm. 

Bring, to, gdb. Bring the eggs, gib 

Broad, 'arid. [el-leid! 

Brother, akh (before suffixes and 
genitives akhH, as akhUnd, our 
brother), pi. ikhwdn. 

Brown, asmar or ahmar. 

Bucket, gardal or satl^ pi. garddil, 

Burn, to. The fire burns, en-ndr 
beyula'. The sun burns me, 
esh-shems (or es-sems) ylhrakni. 

Bury, to, dafan. They have buried 
him, dafanuh. — Burial, dafna. 

Butcher, gazzdr. 

Butter, zlbdeh. 

Button, zirr, pi. zirdr. 

Buy, to. What dost thou wish to 
buy, 'duz tishtiri ei? Hast thou 
bought the eggs, inta ishtareit 
el-bdd? — See also p. 49. 

Cab, 'arabiyeh. Cabman, 'arbugl. 
He is hailed with the ex- 
pression usta. 

Cafe', see Coffee. 

Cairo, Masr. 

Calf, 'igl, pi. 'igul. 

Call, to, nadah. Call the cook, 
indah ll't-tabbdkh. 

Call, to = to name, see Name. 

Camel, gamal (masc), pi. gimdl. 
Hiding camel, hegm. Camel- 
driver, yammdl. 


Candle, sham'a, pi. shama'. Can- 
dlestick, sham'addn. 

Cape (promontory), rds. 

Care. Take care, khallt hdldk (of 
the luggage, min el-afsh), u'Ci. 

Carpet, siggada; busat. 

Carriage, 'arabiyeh (also a railway 

Castle, kasr, pi. kusur; serdyeh, 
pi. serdydt. 

Cattle, bakar. 

Cause, sabab. 

Cave, maghdra. 

Cemetery, kardfa; yabdna; mad- 
fan; malcbara. 

Chair, kursi, pi. kerdsi. 

Change, to, mraf. Change me a 
soyeiBign, usruf It gineih. Hast 
thou changed the sovereign, 
inta saraft el-gineih? 

Cheap, rakkis, pi. rukhds. 

Cheese, gibna. 

Cholera, hawa el-asfar or kuleira. 

Christian, nusrdm, pi. nasdra. 

Cigar, sigdra afrangi; zinobya. 

Cigarette, sigdra, pi. sagdyir; 
cigarette paper, warak sigdra. 

Class. 1st class (railway or 
steamer) berimo; 2nd class, 

Clean, nadif. 

Clean, to, nadda/". Clean the room, 
naddaf el-dda. I have not 
cleaned the room yet, lissa md 
naddaftish el-oda. 

Clear, hright, safl. 

Clever (skilful), shdtir. 

Clothes, libs; hudum. — The Arab 
costume includes: Fez, /ar&i2sA; 
skull-cap, tdkiyeh; felt cap, 
libdeh; head-shawl, kufftyeh; 
cord for fastening the kuffiyeh, 
'ukal; turban, 'imma; trousers 
(wide), shirwdl; women's trou- 
sers, shintiydn; cloak, 'abdyeh; 
dressing-gown, kuftdn; long 
Mouse, galldMyeh; girdle. 

hizdm ; leathern belt, kamar; 
shoe, markub; wooden shoe, 
kubkdb; stocking, shurdb. — 
See also Coat, Trousers. 

Clumsy, ghasMm. 

Coat (European man's), sitra, pi. 
sitar; badleh. 

Coffee, kahwa. Boy, bring a cup 
of coffee, hdl fingdn kahwa, yd 
icalad. — Caf(?, kahwa, Cafe- 
keeper, kahwagl. Coffee-beans, 
bunn; coffee-pot, hakrag. 

Cognac, kunydk. 

Cold, bdrid, fem. barda. Cold 
(noun), bard. It is very cold 
early in the morning, fis-subh 
el-bardeh shedld. — To catch 
cold, khad bard. — I feel cold, 
ana barddn. 

Collar, ydka. 

Colour, Ion, pi. alwdn. Coloured 

Come, to. I came (perf.), geit; he 
came, ga; she came, gat; we 
came, geind; they came, gd or 
gum. (In the pres. : agi, yiyu 
tig7, nigl, yigu.) Imper. : Come, 
ta'dla (masc), ta'dli (fem.), 
ta'dlu (plur.). Come here, 
ta'dla hineh (masc). 

Concerning (prep.), 'ala (with 

Confectioner, halawdnu 

Consul, konsul. Consulate, konsu- 
Idto. Consular guard, Kavass, 

Content, mabsut. 

Convent, deir. Dervish convent, 

Cook, tabbdkh. 

Cook, to. Cook me a fowl, uibukh- 
U farkha. 

Cost, to. What does this cost, 
di bikdni? 

Cotton, kutn. 

Country (fatherland), watan. 

Cow, hakara, pi. hakardt. 


Crofodile. tim.idh. 

Cnp, fingdn. pi. fanaym. 

Customs, gumruk. 

Cut, to, kata'. 

Dagger, khangar, pi. khandger. 

Dance, rak;}. 


Dates, halah. Date-palm, nafc^/<», 

pi. nakhl(dt). 
Daughter, hint, pi. handt. 
Day, yoni or nahdr, pi. aiydm. 

Daily, kulli yom or kulli nahdr. 

By day, hin-nahdr. To-day, en- 

nahdr-di. Yesterday, embdreh. 

Day before yesterday, auiral 

embdreh. Day after to-morrow, 

ba'deh bukra. — Days of the 

week, see Week. 
Dead, maiylt. 
Deaf, atrash. 
Dear, ghdll. That is very (too) 

dear, di ghdll ketlr. 
Deceitful, kh'dn, hardm7. 
Deep, ghamlk or ghawU. 
Delicate, tender, rafT. 
Desert, gehel; khald. The Sahara, 

Dialect, laghweh. 
Diarrhoea, iahdl. 
Die, to, mdt. 
Difficult, m'b. 
Dinner, see Evening. 
Dirt, wasdkha or xvas-akh. Dirty, 

Dismount, to, nizil. We shall 

dismount here, ninzil hineh. 

Dismount (pi.), inzilit! 
District, bildd. 
Do, to, 'amal. He will do or he 

does, ya'mil. Do not do it, ma 

ta 'miliish.' 
Doctor, hakhn, pi. hukama. 
Dog, kalb, pi. kildb. 
Donkey, homdr, pl./ia/n/r. Don- 
key-boy ,s/iar7imur. 
Door, Gate, bdb, pi. blbdn. 
Doorkeeper, Concierge, hauwdb. 

Dragoman, turgumdn (seep. xxv). 

Drink, to, shirib. Pres. : aihrab, 
ti<hrab, etc. Drink coffee, i»'7tra/j 
kahira! Why dost thou drink 
nothing , 'ashshdn ei md bet- 
ishrabshi hag a? 

Driver, see Cabman. 

Dry, ndshif or ydbis. 

Duck, batta, pi. batl. 

Dyer, sobbdgh. 

Each (noun), kulli wdlud; feui., 
kulli rrahdeh. Each man, hull 
insdn. Each town, kulli me- 

Ear, widn. [dhieh. 

Early, hadr'i. 

Earth, ard. 

East, shark. Eastern, sharkl. 

Eat, to, akal. I ate or thou .itest, 
kalt. I wish to eat, biddt dkul. 
We wish to eat, biddind ndkul. 
Eat, kul! 

Egg, beida, pi. beid. Boiled eggs, 
beid masldk. Baked eggs, beid 

Egypt, (bildd) masr. Egyptian, 

Embankment, gisr. 

Empty, fdd.7. 

England, Bildd el-Inglh. Eng- 
lishman, inglizt. 

Enough, kifdyeh ; has.i; bizyddeh. 

Entrance, dukhul. 

Envelope, zarf. pi. zurdf. 

Europe, Bildd el-Afrang. Euro- 
pean, afrangt , pi. ferang, 

Evening, 'ashiya; evening-meal 
(i.e. dinner) 'ashd. 

Eye, 'ein; the eyes (dual), el- 
'einein. My eyes, 'eineiya. Eye- 
drops (medicine), kaireh. 

Eace, ic/s/is/i. 

Faithful, amln. 

Fall, to. I have fallen, 10/7.47. Do 
not fall, ind tCika'sh., ha'tJ. How far is it from here 
to...V fCaddi eihu'id minhineh U? 


Father, ab, but before suffixes 

and genitives abH; e.g. abH 

Hasan, father of Hassan. 
Fatherland, watan. 
Fear, to, khaf. Do not fear, md 

tekhaf.'ih. I was afraid of him, 

khufteh minnuh. 
Feather, rhha. 
Fee, ugra; kireh. 
Fellow, gada% pi. yid'dn. 
Festival, 'id; festival of a saint, 

Fever, himma; sikhUna. 
Field, gheit. 
Figs, tin. 

Filter, 2/r, pi. azydr. 
Find, to, lakd. I can't find Iiim, 

md alkdhsh. 
Fire, ndr. Conflagration, hartka. 
Fish, samaka, pi. samdk. 
Flag, bandeira. 
Flea, barghut, pi. bardghU. 
Flower, zahr, pi. a%hdr. 
Fly, dubbdna, pi. diibbdn. 
Fog, shdbiira. 
Food, afci. Bring the dinner, g'tb 

el-akl. Take the dinner away, 

shU el-akl. 
Foot, rigl (also Leg). The feet 

(dual), er-riglein. His feet. 

For (prep.), 'alashdn. 

Forbidden , mamnu'. Entrance 
forbidden (i.e. no admission), 
ed-dukhCd inamnu\ — Forbid- 
den by religion, hardm; e.g. 
Wine is a thing forbidden by 
God, en-neMd hardm. (A thing 
permitted by religion is called 

Foreign, gharlb. 

Forget, to, nh'i. Do not forget, 
md tins ash. 

Fork, shoka. 

Fortress, kal'a. 

Fountain, sebU (a pious foun- 

Fowl, farkha, pi. firdkh. In Upper 
Egypt farkha means a young 
pigeon. Cock, dtk, pi. diyuk; 
chicken, katkut, pi. katdkit. 

France, Feransa. Frenchman, 

Freight, nduldn. 

Fresh, tdza. 

Friend, habib or sahib, pi. habdib, 

Fruit, fakha; pi. faicdkih. 

Garden, geneina, pi. geneindt. 
Gardener, gendim. 

Garlic, t{lm. 

Gate, bdb, pi. blbdn. 

Gazelle, ghaidl, pi. ghuzldn. 

Germany, Almdnia. German, al- 
mdnt. The German language, 
el-lisdn en-nimsdwi. 

Gift, bakshhh (also reward). 

Girl, bint, pi. bandt. 

Give, to, add. She gave, adet. I 
gave, adeit. He gives or will 
give, yidt I give or shall give, 
adt. I give thee five, adilak 
khamsa. Give me the money, 
hdt el-fulUs (hdt = give). 

Glass, jfizdz. Drinking -glass, 
kubbdyeh, pi. kubbdydt. 

Go, to, rdh. Go, rdh! I went out, 
ruht. Whither is he gone, hd,u-a 
rdh fein? Go on, yallah. Does 
this train go to Cairo, el-kalr 
di rdih 'ala masr ? See Start and 

Gold, dahab. Goldsmith, gohargl. 

Good, taiyib. 

Goods, budd'a. 

Goose, wizzeh, pi. ivizz. 

Grapes, 'inab. 

Gratuity, baksMsh. 

Grave (tomb), turba, pi. turab. 

Grease, semn. 

Great, see Large. 

Greece, Rdm; Bildd^ er-Rihn. 
Greek, rdmi, pi. arwdm. 

Green, akhdar. 


Greeting, saldm (see also p. xlv). 

Gnide, to. Guide me, waddmt or 
khudm. Unless thou guidest me 
alone I shall give thee nothing, 
tewaddini (or tdkhudni) wahd^, 
walla mcL badtksheh haga. 

Gun (musket), bunduklyeh. 

Gunpowder, bdrild. 

Hair, sha'r. A single hair, sha'ra. 

Half, nusi. 

Halt, ukaf or 'andak ! He halted, 
wikif. We shall halt, nukaf. 
See also Dismount. 

Hammer, shakush. 

If and,?d or yadd.The hands (dual), 
el-idein. Herhands,(dej/ia. Right 
hand, on the right, 'alyetmn. 
Left hand, on the left, 'a</i- 

Happen, to, see News. 

Harbour, mina. 

Hasten, to, istn'gil. Hasten (pi.), 

Hat, burneita. [Uta'gilu ! 

Have (to) is expressed with the 
aid of the preposition 'and or 
li; e.g., I have a dog (= with 
me is a dog) 'andt kalb, or Uya 
kalb. See p. xxx. 

Head, ras^ pi. rus. 

Healthy, salhn; sdgh salhn; lai- 
}iib; bis-sahha; mabsiit (mabsCit 
means also contented). 

Hear, to, simi'. He will hear, 
yisma'. Hear (listen), isma'.' 

Heavy, tekil. 

Help, to, sd'id; yisd'id. 

Here, hineh (heneh). Come here, 
ta'dla (fem., ta'dlt) hineh. Go 
away from here, rdh min hineh. 

High, 'dli. 

Hill, tell, pi. tulul. 

Hire, ugra. 

Hold, to, misik. Hold the stirrup, 
imsik er-rikdb. 

Home, belt, xvatan. Is the master 
at home, el-khawdga gHwa? 

Honest, amin. 

Honey, 'a.<ial. 

Horse, hosdn, pi. kheil. 

Horseshoe, na'l. 

Hospital, isbitdliya. 

Hot, sukhn (of food, liquids, etc.), 

hart (of weather). It is hot, 

ed-dunya liarr. 
Hotel, lokanda. — Which is the 

way to the hotel? sikket el- 

lokanda min ein? 
Hour, sd'a, pi. sd'dt. Two hours, 

sd'atein; three hours, taldteh 

sd'dt. To hire (a cab) by the 

hour, bis-sd'a. 
House, belt, pi. biyut. 
How? iza'iy? How much, kam? 

For how much, bikdm? How 

many hours, kdm sd'a? 
Hungry, ga'dn. 
Hut, 'ishsha, pi. 'ishash. 
Ice, telg (also snow). 
Ill, 'aiydn; martd. Illness, 'aiya; 

mar ad. 
Immediately, hdlan. 
In, within, gdwa. 
Interpreter, turgumdn. 
Intoxicated, sakrdn. 
Invoice, fatura. 
Iron, hadid. 

Island, gez7reh, pi. yezdir. 
Italy, Itdlya. Italian, talydni. 
Jew, yahiidi, pi. yahild. 
Journey, to, safir. See Start. 
Judge, kddi. 
Jug, ibrik. 

Key, muftdh, pi. mafdtik. 
Khedive, efendind (lit. 'our lord'). 
Kill, to, mauwit. I have killed 

him, matiwittuh. Kill him, 

Kindle, to, walla' . He has kindled 

the Are (or kindle the fire), 

walla' en-ndr. 
Knife, sikkineh, pi. sttkdk'm. Pen- 
knife, matwa. 
Knock, to, khabbal. 
Know, to, 'irif. I know him, 


la'rafuh. I do not know thee, 

md ba'rafaksh. 
Lady, sitt, pL slttdt. 
Lake (or pond), birkeh, pL Inrak. 
Lame, a'rag. 

Lamp, lamba, pi. lainbdt. 
Land, barr. 
Lane, hdra. 

Language, lisdn; luylia. 
Lantern, fdnus, pL fawdnh. 
Large, kehXr; 'azlm. 
Late, wakhrl. Thou art late, il - 

akhkharl. Do not be late, md 

tit'akhkharsh. Later, afterwards, 

Laugh, to, dildk. Do not latigh, 

md tidhaksh. 
Lay, to, lay down, to, halt. Lay 

the hook there , hutt el-kitdb 

hin&k. I have laid it down, 

halteituh. I have not laid it 

down, ma hattdtush. 
Lazy, kasldn. 
Lead, rusds. Lead-pencil, kalam 

Leave, to, tarak; yitruk. — Leave 

me (in peace), khaUtni! 
Left, shimdi. Go to the left, ruli 

Leg, see Foot. 
Lemon, lamUna, pi. lainun. 
Letter, gawdb, pi. gawdbdt. Re- 
gistered, mesogal or mesokar. 

Are there any letters for me, 

fih gaicdbdt 'ashshdn7? 
Lie, to, kldib. Thou hast lied, 

inta kidlbt. 
Lie down, to (to go to sleep), ralcad. 

He is lying down, yurkud. Lie 

down, urkud. 
Light, nur, pi. anwdr. — A light 

(glowing embers) for a cigarette 

is asked for in a caf^ with the 

word bassa or wil'a. 
Light, to, nauwar. 
Like. I should like, etc., see 


Little (adj.), mghaiyar. Little 
(adv.), shuwaiyeh or shwaiyeh 
(also too little). 

Load, to (a horse). Load up, 
shiddu! Have you loaded (the 
pack-animals), shaddeitu? 

Loaf, ragMf, pi. argMfeh. 

Lock (of a door), kdlun, pi. ka~ 
wdVin. Padlock, fcj/?, pi. akfdl. 

Loc.omotive, wdbur or bdbHr. 

London, Londra. 

Long, tawil. 

Look for, to, see Seek. 

Loosen, to, /taZi. Thou must loosen 
the rein, Idzim tehiU es-seir. 

Lose, to, dalyaJ. I have lost my 
book, daiya'teh kUdb7. He will 
lose it, yedaiya'uh. 

Louse, kamla, pi. kaml. 

Low, wdtL 

Lower, see Below. The lower 
road, et-tarik et-tahtdni. 

Luggage, 'afsh. Luggage-ticket, 

Luncheon, see Midday. 

Mad, magnun. Madhouse, mu- 

Malodorous, nitln. [ristdn. 

Make, to, 'amal. 

Man, rdgil, pi. rigdleh. Human 
being, insdn, pi. nas (people) or 
bent ddam (the sons of Adam). 

Market or Bazaar, suk, pi. aswdk. 

Marriage, marriage - feast, farah. 

Mat, straw-mat, hasira, pi. husr: 

Match (light), kebrlta, pi. kebrlt. 

Matter, to. That matters nothing 
to me (thee) , ana md-lt (inta 
mdlak). What does that matter 
to me, we' ana md-li? That 
does not matter (I hope it does 
not matter), md 'aleish. 

Meat, lahm. 

Medicine, daiva. (Peruvian bark, 
kma; quinine, m.alh el-klna; 
opium, aflUn^) 

Melons. Musk-melons, shammdm. 
Water-melous, battikh. 


Midday, duhr. Midday meal 
(luncheon), ghadCi. 

Middle, imisl. 

Midnight, 7iuss el-leil. 

Milk, lahan. Sweet milk, liallb or 
laban hal'ib. Sour milk, laban 

Minaret, mddna, pi. mdddin. 

Minute, dahlka, pi. dakayik. 

Mist, see Fog. 

Mistake, ghaiat. [Linun. 

Mohammedan, wuslhn, pi. mus- 

Moisture, rutuba. 

Money, fulus. 1 have no money, 
rnCi 'andish fulds. Money-chang- 
er, mrrdf. 

-Month, see below. 

Moon, kamar. New moon, Mini. 
Full moon, bedr. 

More, aklar. More than 100 pias 

tres, aktar min mit kirsh. One 

more, kamdn wdhid^gheir. Still 
. more, kamdn. 
Morning. Early morning, subh or 

sabdh. Forenoon, dahd. 
Mosque, garni', pi. gaxvdmi. 
Mosquito, namma, pi. n&mus. 
Mother, umm. 
Mount (a horse), to, rikib, pres. 

yirkab. We have mounted, 

Mountain, gebel, pi. yibdl (also a 

Moustache, shanab. 
Mouth, furnm. 
Much, too much, very, ketir. 
Name, ism, pi. asdmi. Wliat is 

thy name, ismak ei? My name 

Month, shahr; 2 months, shahrein; 3 months, talat uMiur. — 
Instead of the Arabic names of the mouths used in Syria, the 
Egyptians employ the Coptic (ancient Egyptian) names of the solar 
months, which, however, are always about nine days behind the 
European months. Each Coptic month has thirty days, and in 
order to complete the year live or six intercalary days are added at 
the end (in the beginning of September). The European names, 
liowever, are gradually coming into general use. 















Coptic tiba amshir j bavamhdt 


bashens baHiia 




September October 



European! yUlia 





ndf ember 



ebtb misra 





The intercalary days (see above) are called aii/dy/i en-)iest. 

The Moslem months form a lunar year only (comp. p. xcv). Their 
names are: Moharrem, Safar, Rain' Auicil, Rain' et-Tdni, Gemdd 
Auioil, Gemdd Tdru, Regeb, Sha'bdn, Ramadan (month of the fast), 
Shauwdl, Dhul- Ki'deh, Dhul-Higgeh (month of the pilgrimage). 


is Hassan, isml Hasan. What 
is the name of that in Arabic, 
ismeh di ei bit-'arabt? 

Napkin, fiUa. 

Native, ibn el-beled. 

Narrow, daiyik. 

Near, kuraiyib. 

Necessary, lazim. It is necessary 
that I seize him, Idzim amsikvh. 
Unnecessary, mush Idzim. 

Neighbour, gar, pi. girdn. 

Neighbourhood, bilad. 

Never, abadan, with the negative 
of verbs, e.g. I never smoke, 
ana md ashrabsh ed-dukhkhdn 
dbadan (lit. I never drink 

New, gedid. 

News, khabar. What has happen- 
ed, khabar ei ? 

Night, leil. By night, bil-leil; mid- 
night, nuss el-leil. 

Nile, bahr en- NII0T sim]>]y ei-bahr. 

Nilometer, mikyds. 

No, Id. No, I will not. Id, mush'diiz 
Qduza, if a woman speaks). 

Noon, duhr. 

North, northern, baharl. 

Nose, mandkhir. 

Not, mush or md-sh (see p. xxxi). 

Nothing. There is nothing, md 
fish. What dost thou wish? 
Nothing (answer), biddak ei? 
Walla hdga or shei. 

Now, dilwakt. 

Nubia, Bildd el-Bardbra. 

Number, nimra. 

Oasis, lodh. 

Obelisk, misalla. 

O'clock. What o'clock is it, es-sd'a 
kdm? It is 3 o'clock, es-sd'a 
taldteh. It is I/2 P^st 4, es-sd'a 
arba'u nuss. It is 1/4 to 5, 
es-sd'a khamseh ilia rub'. 
About 8 o'clock, nahw es-sd'a 

Often, keftr, marrdt kettr. 

Oil, zeit. 

Old. An old castle, kasr kadim 

(or kasr 'atik). An old man, 

rdgil kebir or 'agHz. 
Olives, zeitHn. 
On, see Concerning. 
On (interjec), yallah .' 
Onion, basala, pi. basal. 
Only, bass. 
Open, to, fatal}. Open thy box, 

iftah sanddkak! 
Oranges, burtukdn. 
Ostrich, na'dmeh, pi. na'dm. 
Otherwise, walla. 
Out, outside, barra. Out (prep.), 

Out, to go. He went out, tili'. He 

will go out, yitla' (with or 

without barra). 
Ox, tor, pi. tirdn. 
Pack, to, hazam. 
Pain, waga'. 
Paper, warak. 
Para, [adda; pi. the same. 
Parasol, shemsiyeh. 
Parents, wdlidein or ab u wnni 

(lit. father and mother). 
Passport, bassaborlo. Here is my 

passport, dho el -bassaborlo 

Pay, to, dafa'. Thou hast not yet 

paid, lissa md dafa'tish. I shall 

pay, 'dwiz adfa'. 
Peach, khokha, pi. khokh. 
Pen, risha. Penholder, kalam. 
Pepper, fillil. 
Perhaps, balki; yimkin. 
Physician, hakim, pi. hukama. 
Piastre, kirsh, pi. kurilsh. 
Pig, khanzir, pi. khandzir. 
Pigeon, hamdma, pi. hamdm. 
Pilgrim (to Mecca), hagg , pi. 

Pistachios, fistuk. 
Place, to, see Lay. 
Plate, sahn, pi. suhiin. 
Please, min fadlak! 



Please, to. It does not please me, 
m& yi'gibnhh. 

Plums, barkHk. 

Pocket, geib. 

Poison, simm. 

Policeman , bolls or shauwish. 
Police, bolts. 

Pomegranate, rumntan. 

Pond (or lake), birkeh, pi. birak. 

Poor, fakir, v\askin, pi. fuAara, 

Port (harbour), mina. 

Porter, bammdl or shaiyal; pi. 
hammalin, shaiydUn. 

Postage - stamp , warakat bu-ita, 
pi. warak. 

Post-office, liusta. 

Pot, kidra, pi. kidar. 

Poultry, firdkh'. See Fowl. 

Prayer, said, f\. saldivdt. Caller 
to prayer, mu'eddin. 

Pretty, kwaiyis ; gamil. 

Previously, kabl. 

Privy, kanlf, beit er-rdha. Where 
is the privy? el-kanif fein? 

Promontory, rds. 

Prophet, nabl or (applied to Mo- 
hammed) rasdl. 

Pulpit, minbar or manbar. 

Put, to. Put it here, glbiih. Put it 
above, tallauh. Put it below, 
nazziluh. See Send, Lay. 

Pyramid, hdram, pi. ahrdm. 

Quarrel, khindka. 

Question, su'dl. 

Quick, fcatpam; as an exclamation, 
yallah ! 

Railway, es-sikkeh el-hadid. Rail- 
way station, mahatta. Station- 
master, ndzir mahntta. Rail- 
way-train, fcatr. Goods -train 
kalr el-budd'a. Railway -car- 
riage, 'arabiyeh. 

Rain, natar. 

Razor, mUs. [hadinn. 

Ready, hddir. We are ready, ihna 

Receipt (for a bill), xuasl. 

Red, ahmar. 

Reliable, faithful, amh%. 

Religion, din. 

Remain, to, fidil. How long (i. e. 
how many days) wilt thou re- 
main hero? tifdal hineh kdtn 

Rest, to, istiraiyah. I have rested, 
istiraiyalit. I wish to rest for 
half-an-hour, bidd7 astiraiyah 
nussi sd'a. 

Revolver, fard. 

Rice, ruzz. 

Rich, ghani. 

Ride, to. Wilt thou ride, biddak 
tirkab? See also Mount. 

Right, yemin. Turn to the right, 
ruh 'alyemmak. 

Rise, to, kdm. Rise up, kHm. 

Road, see Street. 

Roast, to, shawd. I have roasted 
the meat, shaweit el-lahm. 
Roasted, mashwi. — Roast meat, 

Robber, hardmt, pi. hardmtyeh. 

Roof, sath, pi. sutHh. 

Room, oda, pi. uwad. 

Rope, habl, pi. hebdl. 

Ruin, khardbeh, khirbeh. Ruined 
temple, birbeh. 

Run, to, gard. Run, igrt! 

Russia, Bilnd el-Moskob. Russian 
(noun or adj.), miskobi. 

Saddle, sarg, pi. surdg. Pack- 
saddle, barda'a , pi. barddi 
Saddler, surug'i. Saddle-bag. 

Sailor, bahr7, pi. bahrhjeh. Hivcr- 
boatman, mardkbl. 

Salt, malh. 

Sand, rami. 

Satisfied, shab'dn. 

Say, to, kdl. Say to him he must 
come, kill luh yigi. 

Scholar (savant), 'dlim, pi. 'ulamd. 

School. Elementary school, kul- 
tdh. Secoiidaryschool, medreseh, 



pi. maddris. — Schoolmaster, 

khoga; fiki (of a kuttat). 
Scissors, makass. 
Scorpion, 'akraba, pi. 'akdrib. 
Sea, bahr. 
See, to, to look, shdf. We saw the 

Khedive, shufnd efendind. Do 

you not see him, md tahu- 

fuhsh ? 
Seek , to , dauwar. 1 have been 

looking for thee all day, dau- 

warteh 'aleik tCtl en-nahdr. 
Send, to, to forward. Send the 

luggage jOff, khud el-'afsh or 

waddt el-'afih. 
Serpent, ta'bdn,T^\.ta'dbin; haiyeh, 

pi. haiydt. 
Servant, &/ia(/(Zdm, pi. fcftaddamm. 
Set, to, see Lay. 
Shave, to, halak. 
Sheep , kharuf (masc.) , na'ga 

(fern.), ghanam (plur.). 
Ship, markib, pl.marafci6. Steam- 
ship, wdbur or bdbur. 
Shirt, kamis. 
Shoe (i.e. oriental shoe with 

turned up toes), markub, pi. 

mardklb . 
Slioot, to, darab (/. e. to heat), if 

necessary with the addition 

birrusds, i.e. with the lead. 
Short, kusaiyar. 
Show, to, warrd. Show me the 

way, loarlnl es-sikkeh. 
Shut, to, kafal. Shut the door, 

ikp.1 el-bdb. The door is shut, 

el-bdb makful. 
Silent, to be, sikit. Be silent, 
Silk, harir. [uskut. 

Silver, fadda. 
Sing, to, ghannd. He wiU sing, 

yeghanni. Sing, ghanru. 
Singly (one after the other), wdhid 

wdhid (masc.) ; wahdeh wahdeh 

Sir, khawdga (for Europeans) or 

efendi (for Orientals). 

Sister, ukht, pi. ukhivdt. 

Sit, to, ka'ad. Sit (take a seat), 

Sky, samd. 
Sleep, to, nam. 1 slept, nimt. He 

sleeps, binCim. Sleep (imperat. 

pi.), ndinu ! I cannot sleep, md 

bakdarsh andm. To go to sleep, 

see Lie down. 
Slippers, bantuflt 
Slowly. Go slowly , xhwaiyeh 

shwaiyeh, or 'ala mahlak. 
Small, sughaiyar. 
Smoketobacco,to,«/im6(lit. drink) 

ed-dukhkhdn. Comp. Never. 
Snow, ice, telg. 
So, kideh. 
Soap, sdbun. 
Sofa, diwdn. 
Soldier, 'askarl, pi. 'askariyeh. 

Soldiery, 'askar. 
Son, ibn or ivalad, pi. iddd. 
Sort, gins. Give me some of this 

sort, iddmi min el-ginseh di. 
Soup, shurba. 
Sotir, hdmid. 
South, southern, kibli. 
Speak, to, itkalUm. Dost thou 

speak Arabic, titkaUim 'arabi? 
Spoon, ma'laka, pi. ma'dlik. 
Spring (of water), 'ain, pi. 'iyun. 
Spring (season), rabV. 
Square (in a town), middn. 
Star, nigmeh, pi. nugum. Falling 

star, nigmeh zdrik. 
Start (on a journey), to, sdfir. 

When will you start, tesdfiru. 

imta? We will start to-morrow 

morning, nesdfir bukra hadr'i 

(at sunrise, ma'ash-shems; an 

hour before sunrise, sd'a kabl 

esh-shems). When does the 

steamer start, el-bdbur yesdfir 
Stay, to, see Remain. [imtay 

Ste&mhoa,t,bdburel-bahrov wdbur 

el-bahr. El-bahr is frequently 




Stick, 'asdya, pi. 'asdydt. 

Still. Still more, kamdn. Still 
another, kamdn trdhid, (/heir. 

Stirrup, rikdb, pi. rikdbdt. 

Stone, hagar, pi. hegdra. Stone 
(of a fruit), nakdya. 

Stop, to, see Halt. 

Straight on, dughri. 

Street or road, tarik ; derb, darb ; 
sikkeh. Main street (of a town) 
shdri' (comp. p. 35 ). 

Strike, to, see Heat. 

Strong, shedld (also violent). 

Stupid, haVid. See Clumsy. 

Sugar, sukkar. Coffee with sugar, 
kahwa bis-sukkar. Coffee with- 
out sugar, kahiva mingheir suk- 

Summer, self. [kar or sddeh. 

Sun, shems^OT sems). Sunrise, tuliV 
e.ih-shems. Sunset, maghreb. 
Sunstroke: he has had a sun- 
stroke, esh-shems darbetuh. 

Sunshade, shems^yeh. 

Sweep out, to, kanas. I have swept 
out the room, kanad el-oda. 
Sweep the loom^uknus el-6da. 

Sweet, helu. 

Syria, Esh-Shdm. Syrian (noun 
or adj.), shdm'i. 

Table, sufra; larabeiza. 

Tailor, khaiydt. 

Take, to, khad. Take, khud! He 
takes or will take, ydkhud. 

Take away, to, shdl. Take it away 
(or up), sMluh I 

Taste, to. Taste tlie soup, duk 

Tea, shdy. 

Teacher, mu'allim. See also 

Telegraph, teleghrdf (also tele- 
gram). Telegrapli-wire, aUk. 
Telegraph-offlcial, t eleghrdfgl . 
I wish to telegraph , ana hiddi 
adrab teleghrdf. 

Telescope, nadddra. 

Temple-ruin, birbeh. 

Tent, kheima, pi. khiyam. Tent- 
pole, 'amdd. Tent-peg, xi'atad. 

Thanks, thank yon, kattarkheirak. 

There, hindk. There he is, dhu ! 
There she is, dhi! Is there any 
bread there, fth 'evsh? Tli:;re 
is none, md fluh. 

Thing, /tdjfa, s^hei. 

Thirsty, 'atshdn. 

Ticket, tezkereh, pi. lazdker. 

Tie, to, rabat. I have tied, rabatt. 
Tie it, urbutuh! He (it) is tied 
(on), marbut. 

Time, loaJct. See O'clock and Hour. 

Tired, ta'bdn. 

Tobacco, dukhkhdn. Water-pipe, 
shisheh. See Smoke. 

To-day, en-nahdr-di (na/tar=day). 

To-morrow, bukra. 

Tongue, lisdn. 

Too much, very, kel7r. Too little, 
shuwaiyeh or shwahjeh. 

Tooth, sinn, pi. isndn. 

Towel, futd (also table-napkin). 

Town, medtneh, pi. mudun. 
Quarter of a town, hdra. 

Travel (to) is expressed by tlie 
word for go, with the addition 
of b'd-arab7yeh, by carriage; 
bil-feluka, by boat; bU-m:irkib, 
by ship, etc. 

Travelling-bag, see Box, Saddle- 

Tree, shagara, pi. ashgdr (also 

Trousers (European), bantalun. 

True, saMh. [See Clothes. 

Turkey, Turkhja, Turk, Turkish, 

Ugly, wihish. [turM. 

Uncle, amm (paternal); /i/tdi (ma- 

Understand, to, fihim. I have 
understood thee, fihimlak. I do 
not understand, mdnlsh fdhim. 

Untrutliful, kadddb. 

Upper. The upper route, et-tarlk 



Use, to be of, nafn'. It is no use, 
ma yinfa'sh. 

Vainly, in vain, baldsh. 

Valley, tvddt (wddi). 

Very, ketlr; kawt; khalis. 

Village, beled, pi. bildd. Village 
teadman, sheikh el-beled. 

Vinegar, khall. 

Violent, shedid. 

Visit, ziydra. 

Wages , ugra , kireh. Monthly 
wages, shahrhjeh, mdhlyeh. 

Wait, to, islannd. Wait a little, 
istannd shxuaiyeh. Why didst 
thou not wait, 'ashshdn ei md 

Waiter, siifragl. 

War, harb. 

Wash, to, (jhaaal. I wisii to wash 
ray hands, biddl aghsil ideiya. 
Wash my clothes, ighsilhudujm. 
The washing, ghasU. How much 
does the washing cost, taman 
el kdm? Washerman, 
ghassdl. Washerwoman, ghas- 

AVatch, sd'a, pi. sd'dt. [sdla. 

Watchmaker, sd'dtl. 

Watchman, ghaftr, pi. ghufara. 

Water, maiyeh. Is there any water 
here? flh maiyeh hineh? 

Water-closet, sec Privy. 

Weak, da'tf. 

Weather, hawd (also atmosphere 
and wind). 

Week, pum'a. Fortnight (2 weeks), 
gum'atein. Three weeks, taldteh 
gum'dt. — Days of the week: 
Sun., yom el-hadd; Mon., yom 
el-itnein; Tues., yom et-taldt; 
Wed., yom el-arba' ; Thurs., 
yom, el-khamis; Frid., yom el- 
gum a; Sa.t., yom, es-sabt. Yom 
(day) is frequently omitted. 
Well, Mr, pi. abydr. Public 

fountain, sebil. 
West, gharb. Western, gharbi. 

Wet, mabltll. 
When, imta'i 

Whence, min em.' Whence coinest 
thou, inta gdi (fem., mt? jiaj/eh) 
min ein ? 
Where, fein? Where is he, hHwa 
Whip, kurbdg; sot. [fein? 

White, abyad. 

Whither, fein? Whither goest 
thou, inta rdih (fem., inti rdiha) 
Why, lei? minshdn ei? 'alashdn 

('ashshdn) ei? 
Wide, ivdsi'. 
Wind, hawd; rih. Hot wind, 

khamdsin; samum. 
Window, shibbdk, pi. shebdbik. 
Wine, nebid. 
Winter, shita. 

Wish or to wish, talab. What dost 
thou wish, talabak ei? To wisli 
is also expressed by bidd, a 
wish, with suffixes (p. xxx). 
I -wish to go, biddi aruh. Dost 
thou wish to go, biddak teruh ? 
With, wtyd,, ma'. Come with me, 

ta'dla wiydya. 
Within, gdwa. 
Without (prep.), min gheir. 
Woman, mar a or hurmeh; pi. 

harim. or niswdn. 
Wood (substance), khashab. 
Work, shughl. Work, ishtaghal.' 
Write, to, katab. He will write 
yiktib. Write what I tell thee, 
iktib nil akullak. 
Year, sana. Two years, sanatein. 
Three years, taldteh sinm. This 
year, es-sand-di. Last year, 
Yellow, asfar. 

Yes, a'iwa. Certainly, na'am. 
Yesterday, embdreh. 
Yet, lissa. He has not yet arrived, 

lissa md gdsh. 
Young, sughaiyar. 

Vocabulary. I. PRELIMINARY INFOliMATloN. xlv 

Salutations and Phrases. Health (peacej te with you. Es- 
saldmu 'aleikum. Answer : And with you be peace and God's mercy 
and blessing. V 'aleikum es-salam warahmet Allah wabarakdtuh. 
These greetings are used by Moslems to each other. A Moslem greets 
a Christian with — Thy day be happy. Nahdrak sa'td. Answer : Thy 
day be happy and blessed. Nahdrak sa'td wemubdrak (umbdrak). 
Thy day be white as milk. Nahdrak leben. 

Good morning. Sabdhkum bil-klteir, ot sabdh el-khelr. Answer: 
God grant yon a good morning. Allah yisabbehkum bil-kheir. 

Good evening. Mesdkiun bil-kheir, or meslkum bil-klieir. Answer : 
God vouchsafe you a good evening. Allah yiniesslkum bil-kheir; or 
messdkum Alldh bil-kheir. — May thy night be happy. Leiltfk 
sa'tdeh. Answer: Leiltak sa'ideh wemubdraka (xfumharka). 

On visiting or meeting a person , the first question after the 
usual salutations is : How is thy health ? Iza'iyak, or keif hdlak (keif 
keifak), or eish hdlak ? Thanks are first expressed for the inquiry : 
God bless thee ; God preserve thee. Alldh yibdrek fik ; Alldhyihfazak 
Then follows the answer : Well, thank God. El-hamdu lilldh. — Be- 
duins and peasants sometimes ask the same question a dozen times. 

After a person has drunk it is usual for his friends to raise 
their hands to their heads and say : May it agree with thee, sir. 
HanVan, yd sidi. Answer: God grant it may agree with thee. 
Alldh yehanntk. 

On handing anything to a person : Take it. Khud. Answer : 
God increase thy goods. Kattar Alldh kheirak, or kattar kheirak. 
Reply: And thy goods also. Ukheirak. 

On leaving: In God's care ! 'Alallnh! or Ft amuni Hldh ! Or, 
Now proceed with us. Yallah bina. To a person who is about to 
start on a journey : Peace be with thee. Ma' as-saldma. Answer: 
May God protect thee. Alldh yisallimak. 

On the route: Welcome. Ahlan tea sahlan, or marhaba. Answer: 
Twice welcome. Marhabteirt. 

I beg you (to enter, to eat, to take). Tafaddal (tefaddul, 
itfaddal); fem. tafaddali (itfaddali); pi. tafaddalu (lefaddalu, 
itfaddalil). — Wilt thou not join us (in eating)? Bismilldh (liter- 
ally 'in God's name'). Answer: May it agree with you, Bil-hand. 

Take care; beware. C'd; fem. ^'i. 

I am under thy protection ; save me. Fl'ardak. — My house is 
thy house. Beitt beitak. — If thou pleasest. J'rnil ma'riif. 

What God pleases ('happens', understood). Mushalldit (an ex- 
clamation of surprise). — As God pleases, hishalldh. — By God. 
Walldh, or walldhi. — By thy head. Wahydt rdsak. — By the life 
of the prophet. Wahydt en-nab1. — By the life of thy father. Wahydt 
(( bilk. — Heavens I Yd saldm .' 


II. Geographical and Political Notes. 

a. Area and Subdivisions of Egypt, i 
By Captain H. G. Lyons. 
Egypt proper, the country between the mouth of the Nile and 
the First Cataract, is a small region with well-defined natural bound- 
aries on three sides. On the N, is the Mediterranean Sea, on the E. 
the Arabian Desert and the Red Sea, and on the W. the Libyan Des- 
ert. The S. boundary is not marked by any natural feature, and has 
therefore at all ages been liable to alteration. Its fluctuations to the 
N. and S. form a kind of standard of the political power of Egypt, 
and the causes of the variations involve a great part of Egyptian 
history from the most ancient times down to the present day. 

When Mohammed Ali, the founder of the modern vassal king- 
dom of Egypt (comp. pp. cxx at seq.), died in 1849, he bequeathed 
to his successor a power extending far to the S. of the First Cataract 
and including not only the Nubian Valley of the Nile, with the Nu- 
bian desert-regions, but also the so-called Egyptian Sudan (Bilad 
es-Sudan, 'land of the blacks'), consisting of the districts of Taka, 
Sennar, and Kordofan. The Khedive Isma'il (p. cxxii) pushed his 
boundaries towards the S. until they comprised the whole course of 
the White Nile and the greater part of the basin of the Bahr el- 
Ohazdl^ and finally extended to about 2° N. latitude. But the rebellion 
of the Arab tribes that broke out in 1883 under the Mahdi (p. cxxiv) 
utterly destroyed the new Egyptian power on the White Nile and 
caused the frontier to be withdrawn to Wadi Haifa. The cam- 
paigns of 1896-98 and the capture of Omdurman (p. cxxv), how- 
ever, finally united the Sudan with Egypt, though under totally 
altered conditions. Thus Egypt strictly so called now includes the 
valley of the Nile up to a point 27 M. to the N. of Wadl Haifa, the 
desert-strip along the Red Sea, the coast to the W. of Alexandria 
as far as the Gulf of Solum, the Libyan Desert with the five Oases, 
the greater part of the Sinai Peninsula, and the region of El-'Arish 
(comp. Baedekers Palestine). Its extreme length is 640 M. (N. lat. 
3i°6'to22^), its breadth 596 M. (E. long.25°2' to 34"56'), and its 
area, inclusive of the deserts, ca. 400,000 sq. M. The area of 
Egypt proper, excluding the deserts, the oases, and the districts of 
El-'Arish, Sinai, Maryut, Mirsa Matruh, Ed-Daba', and Koseir, is 
about 12,000 sq. M. The Sudan, which begins on the Nile a little 
to the N. of Wadi Haifa and on the Red Sea at 22° N. lat., is under 
a special Anglo-Egyptian administration (comp. p. 415). 

From the earliest times Egypt has been divided into two parts 
of very unequal size, known as Lower and Upper Egypt. The 
boundary between these is still, as in antiquity, to the S. of Cairo. 

t Comp. the Map after the Index. — Further details on this subject 
are contained in a handy form in the Egyptian Government Almanac 
(comp. p. xcv). 


Upper Egypt, known as Es-Sa'id, extends nominally to the First 
Cataract only, but now embraces in a political sense most of Lower 
Nubia (comp. p. 384). Politically Egypt is now divided into fourteen 
Peovinces or MMlrlijeh. The provinces of Lower Egypt are : (1 ) 
KalyuMyeh (Qaliubia), at the head of the Delta, with Benha as its 
capital; (2) Sharktyeh (Sharqia), i.e. 'the eastern', with Zakazik as 
its capital; (3) i>«fca/iiZi/e/i (Daqahlia), with Mansura as its capi- 
tal; (4) Menufiyeh (Menulia), with Shibin el-K6m as its capital; 
(5) Qharbtyeh (Gharbia), i.e. 'the western', with Tanta as its capi- 
tal ; (6) Beheireh (BehehsL), i.e. 'of the lake', with Damanhur as its 
capital. The last includes the oasis of Siweh. The following live 
governorates are presided over by governors (Mohafez) of their 
own, and are independent of the provincial administration : Cairo, 
Alexandria, Port Sa'id, Isma'iliyeh, and Suez. Sinai and El-'Arish 
are administered by the War Office. The eight Upper Egyptian 
provinces are those of Qizeh (Giza), JSeTOSue?/ (Beni Suef), FaiyCim 
(Fayum), Minyeh (Minia ; with the oases of Bahriyeh and Fardfru), 
Assidt (with the oases of DCtkhleh and KlidrgeK), Girgeh (Girga j capi- 
tal, Sohag), Keneh (Qena), and Assudn (Aswan). 

The chief official in every province is the Mddir or Governor. 
Each mudir is assisted by a sub-mudir, a commandant of police, a 
sanitary inspector, and an engineer (for irrigation and buildings). 
The interior economy and the financial procedure are subject to in- 
vestigation by European inspectors from the Ministries of the In- 
terior and Finance, while others from the Ministry of Public Works 
and the Health Department control the technical work. The 14 pro- 
vinces are subdivided into 84 districts, called Markaz, the chief 
officials of which (Ma'mur) are directly subordinate to the mudir 
and have their official residence in the more important towns. The 
markaz, in their turn, are divided into Ndhiyeh, or communes, which 
include, besides the chief village, hamlets, settlements of agricul- 
tural labourers ('Ezbeh), and landed estates (Ab'adlyeh). The 'Om- 
deh, or chief magistrate of the commune, is directly responsible to 
the ma'mur. In the larger communes the 'omdeh is assisted by the 
Sheikh el-Beled, or mayor. The governorates are divided into quar- 
ters (Kism), each of which has its ma'mur. 

According to the census of 1907 the Population of Egypt proper 
was 11,287,359, of whom 10,903,677 were settled natives, 97,381 
were Beduins, and 286,301 were foreigners (147,220 Europeans 
including 20,653 British). The numbers of males and females were 
approximately equal. The settled population was distributed in 
2 large cities (Cairo and Alexandria), 43 other towns with upwards 
of 10,000 inhab., and 3580 villages. The above figures show a po- 
pulation of 940 per sq. M. for Egypt proper, a density unequalled 
by any country in Europe (England and Wales 619, New York 
State 191, Saxony 830 per sq. M.). The total populaiton in 1897 
was 9,784,405, in 1882 it was 0,831,131. 


b. Origin and Present Condition of the Egyptians. 

By Professor G. Schwein/urlh. 
For thousands of years the banks of the Nile have been occupied 
by the Egyptians. Notwithstanding the interminable series of 
immigrations and other changes affecting the character of the 
inhabitants, the Egyptian type has always predominated with mar- 
vellous uniformity. As Egypt is said to be the 'gift of the Nile', so 
has the character of its inhabitants been apparently moulded by the 
influences of that river. No country in the world is so dependent 
on a river which traverses it as Egypt, and no river presents physical 
characteristics so exceptional as the Nile; so, too, there exists no race 
of people which possesses so marked and unchanging an individual- 
ity as the Egyptians. It is therefore most probable that this unvary- 
ing type is the product of the soil itself, and that the character cf 
the peoples who settled at different periods on the bank of the Nile, 
whatever it may originally have been, has in due course of time 
been moulded to the same constant form by the mysterious in- 
fluences of the river. In all countries, indeed, national characteris- 
tics are justly regarded as the natural outcome of soil and climate, 
and of this connection no country affords so strong an illustration 
as Egypt, with its sharply defined boundaries of sea and desert, and 
in its complete isolation from the rest of the world. This fidelity to 
type, which doubtless many other oriental races share with the 
Egyptians, is by no means in accordance with common theories as 
to the decline and degeneration of the Orient. These races seem to 
possess an innate capacity that is absent from Western nations — 
the capacity, namely, of permanently preserving the original type. 
In Egypt this tendency may be partly assisted by the universal 
practice of early marriages, by which the succession of generations 
is accelerated, while many children are born of parents still un- 
affected by any physical deterioration. Although the country has 
been at various periods overrun by Hyksos, Ethiopians, Assyrians, 
Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, and Turks, and although the people 
were tyrannized over, ill-treated, and in most cases compelled to in- 
termarry with these foreigners, the Egyptians have for thousands of 
years retained the same unvarying physical types, while their char- 
acter has been but slightly modified by the introduction of Christianity 
and Mohammedanism. If it now be borne in mind that these for- 
eigners generally invaded the country in the form of an army, that 
they formed but a small body compared with the bulk of the popula- 
tion, and that they either married native women or sought wives 
in other countries, it is obvious that they would either continue to 
exist for a time as a foreign caste, a condition apparently repugnant 
to nature and necessarily transient, or that they would gradually 
succumb to the never-failing influences of the soil and be absorbed 
in the great mass of the aboriginal inhabitants. An excellent il- 
lustration of this process is afforded by the Arabian iuTasion, with 


the cireunistaiices and results of wliicli wc are better acquainted 
than with the history of the other foreign immigrations; for, dis- 
regarding the Beduin trihes, ■who are entirely distinct from the 
Egyptian population, v'e now meet with genuine Arabs in the towns 
only, where the merchants, pilgrims, and other members of that 
people form a class entirely distinct from the natives, and one that 
is maintained only by means of reinforcements from abroad. Another 
proof of the transforming influences of the Egyptian climate is 
afforded by the uniform character of the domestic animals. The 
oxen, in particular, though they have often been repeatedly ex- 
terminated in a single century by murrain, and have been succeeded 
by foreign races from every quarter of the globe, almost invariably 
after a few generations assume the well-known Egyptian type witli 
whicli the representations on the ancient temples render us so familiar. 

There have been many hypotheses as to the origin of the Egyp- 
tians. In all probability the rise and development of that people 
followed essentially the same course as those of other great races, 
whose geographical positions exposed them to a similar variety of 
external inflnences. In the course of its history this people attained 
a characteristic development of its own; but we have to inquire as 
to the nature of the original prehistoric stock. In classical antiquity 
the Egyptians were considered to be of African origin, and Diodorus 
has given expression to this view by quoting a tradition of the 
Ethiopians, according to which the Egyptians were originally an 
Ethiopian colony, just as their country itself is a product of the 
Nile. But the Greeks and Romans knew little of Central Africa, 
and, more especially, they were acquainted with none of the peoples 
of the Nile district except those whom we now distinguish as Hami- 
tic (proto-Semitic). The term Hamites or Hamitic races is used to 
distinguish that great ethnographic group of peoples which has, in 
the <ourse of ages, altered the population of half Africa, ever press- 
ing from E. to W. and driving out the primaeval population before 
them. The final stage of this migration, which, like those of the 
horse and camel, falls partly within the historic period, was reached 
when the Hamites came in contact with the later Semitic races. 
When these Hamitic peoples began to find their way from Asia 
across the Red Sea into Africa, they no doubt pushed down the 
Nile, after subduing the primaval inhabitants of the river-valley. 
The Ethiopian tradition thus agrees with the Biblical, which de- 
scribes Ham as the father of Mizraim and Cush — names under 
which the ancient Hebrews used to personify Egypt and Ethiopia. 

The civilization and culture of the Egyptians have been suc- 
cessively affected by every race that has played a prominent part 
in W. Asia, from the ancient Babylonians to the modern Arabs and 
Turks. Maspero argues for a gradual infiltration from Libya also 
in the earlier epochs. But the Libyans were themselves Hamitic, 
no less than the Ethiopians who overtook them in their advance 

Basdgkkb's Egypt. 7th Edit. d 

1 11. GEOGJIAPHIOAL AND h. Modern Egyptians: 

westwards. Beceut philologists (such as Reiiilsch) classify the Hani- 
Ites from their linguistic characteristics as the prototype of the 
Semitic family, distinguished by more elementary, more primitive 
forms. It is universally assumed that both Hamites and Semites 
had their original home in Asia. At what period each hived off 
from the original common stock is veiled in prehistoric darkness. 
But it is clear that Asiatic influences most have affected the dwellers 
on the Nile even before the introduction of the art of tillage, while 
the valley of the Nile iu Egypt was still populated by pastoral 
races — a conclusion based mainly on the origin of the domesticated 
ox and of several other domestic animals. On the other hand the 
original ancestor of the Egyptian domesticated ass was peculiar to 
Africa, dwelling among the mountains and steppe sto the S. of 
Egypt. In this fact we find an indication of the route followed by 
the Hamitic invaders of Egypt. 

The beginning of anything like a regular political development 
in Egypt cannot be dated before the introduction of agriculture ; 
most probably it began with the cultivation of wheat and barley, 
grains of which have been found among the remains in the most 
ancient Egyptian tombs, dating from before the earliest dynasty. 
The origin of botli these cereals is indisputably Asiatic; their first 
home was in the valley of the Euphrates or in some more central 
region of the continent. Besides these grains the funeral offerings 
under the earliest dynasties included also linen, wine, and the pro- 
duce of other cultivated plants, originally indigenous to W. Asia. 

Some of the earliest ideal conceptions of the proto-Egyptians 
must likewise have been drawn from Asiatic sources, which, however, 
in this case are to be looked for farther to the S. in that continent. 
Not only the use of incense but also the sycamore and the persea, 
the two sacred trees in the Egyptian Pantheon, were known in 
Egypt from the very earliest period. lUit all these plants are ex- 
clusively indigenous to the mountainous regions of S. Arabia and 
the adjoining coasts of the Bed Sea; they could have been derived 
from no other source. The use of incense is as ancient as the most 
ancient known religion. The tree called by the Greeks persea, and 
known to modern botanists as mimusops, flourished in the gardens 
of ancient Egypt ; and the sycamore, which is now nowhere found 
in a wild state outside the regions mentioned above, is to be seen 
all over Egypt at the present day. 

To sum up. The condition of the prehistoric dwellers in the 
Egyptian Nile valley may be described as the result of a union be- 
tween the autochthonous inhabitants and the Hamitic tribes which, 
advancing from the Red Sea, entered the country from regions to 
the S. or S.E. of Upper Egypt. After along interval of time' the 
ancient dwellers on the Nile were subjected to new modifications, 
arising from the predatory attacks of a race that had attained a higher 
level of civilization. This latter race must have started from the 

Feltohin. POLITICAL NOTES. li 

valley of tlie Euphrates, otherwise it would not have been able to 
introduce into Egypt, as it did, the knowledge of wheat and barley 
and the art of cultivating them with the plough, the knowledge of 
copper, bronze, and various metallurgical processes, and perhaps 
also a religious system of; its own and even the art of writing. The 
net result of the whole historical process was Egyptian civilization 
as it existed under the Pliaraohs. + 

The MonKRN Egyptians. The population of Egypt is composed 
of the following ten different elements. 

[1). The Fkllahin (felldk'in, sing. fellQh), the 'tillers' or 'pea- 
sants', with whom must be reckoned the Coptic peasants of Upper 
Egypt, form the bulk of the population and may be regarded as the 
sinews of the national strength. They are generally slightly above 
the middle height; their bones, and par^icnlarly their skulls, are 
strong and massive; and their wrists and ankles are powerful and 
somewhat clumsy. ln\all these respects the fellahin, like their do- 
mestic animals, contrast strongly with the inhabitants of the desert. 
Notwithstanding this largeness of frame, however, the fellah never 
grows fat. The women and girls are particularly remarkable for 
their slender build. The men generally keep their heads shaved, 
but the hair of the soldiers and the long tresses of the girls, though 
always black and thick, is smooth and wavy, seldom curly. The hair 
on the faces of the men is scantier and more curly. 

The chief peculiarity of the Egyptians is the remarkable close- 
ness of their eyelashes on both lids, forming a dense, double, black 
fringe, which gives so animated ari expression to their almond- 
shaped eyes. The very ancient and still existing custom of blacken- 
ing the edges of the eyelids with antimony ('koM'), which is said 
to serve a sanitary purpose, contributes to enhance this natural 
expression. The eyebrows are always straight and smooth , never 
bushy. The mouth is wide and thick-lipped, and very different 
from that of the Beduin or inhabitant of the oases. The high cheek- 
bones, the receding forehead, the lowness of the bridge of the nose, 
which is always distinctly separated from the forehead, and the 
flatness of the nose itself, are the chief characteristics of the 
Egyptian skull; but, as the jaws project less than those of most 
of the other African coloured races, it has been assumed that the 
skull is Asiatic and not African in shape. The Egyptian peasantry 
liave a much darker complexion than their compatriots in the towns, 
and their colour deepens as we proceed southwards , from the pale 
brown of the inhabitant of the Delta to the dark bronze hue of the 
Upper Egyptians. There is, however, a difference between the tint 
of the Nubians and that of the Upper Egyptians, even where they 
live in close contiguity, the former being more of a reddish-brown. 

•}■ Prnf. G. Elliot Smith's study of the earliest remains has, however, led 
him to essentially diflereut views on the origia of the Proto-Egyptians. 
Comp. his hook mentioned on p. clxxxviii. 


lii II. GEOGRAPHICAL AND h. Modern Egyptians. • 

In the ancient representations women are painted yellow and men 
red, merely because the former were paler owing to their indoor life, 
while the men were browned by labouring in the open air(Virchow). 

The dwelling of the fellah is of a miserably poor description, 
consisting generally of four low walls formed of crude bricks of 
Nile mud, and thatched with a roof of durra straw, on which the 
poultry roost. In the interior are a few mats, a sheepskin, several 
baskets made of matting, a copper kettle, and a few earthenware 
pots and wooden dishes. But the railway-traveller, passing througli 
the Delta for the first time, must not suppose that the miserable, 
ruinous huts that meet his eye are typical of all peasants' dwellings 
in Egypt. In Central and Upper Egypt he will obtain a much more 
favourable impression. The fact is, that beneath an ICgyptian sky, 
houses are not of the same jiaramoUnt importance as in more northern 
regions, all that is wanted being shelter for the night. The day is 
spent in the open air, on the court in front of the hut, shaded by 
acacia trees, among whose branches the pigeons coo. Here the fellah 
spends his 'keif or leisure, chatting with his neighbours and spin- 
ning wool from a spindle that he turns in his hand. 

The poorer peasant's mode of life is frugal in the extreme. 
His meals may be summarily characterized as 'short, scant, and 
bad'. The staple of his food consists of a peculiar kind of bread 
made of sorghum flour in Upper Egypt, or of maize in the Delta, 
wheaten bread being eaten by the wealthier only. This poor kind 
of bread often has a greenish colour, owing to an admixture of flour 
made from the kernels of Fcenum Graecum (see below). Next in 
importance in the bill of fare are broad beans (ful). For supper, 
however, even the poorest cause a hot repast to be prepared. This 
usually consists of a highly salted sauce made of onions and butter, 
or in tlie poorer houses of onions and linseed or sesame oil. Into 
this sauce, which in summer acquires a gelatinous consistency by 
the addition of the universal bamyas (the capsular fnut of the 
Hibiscus) and various herbs, each member of the family dips pieces 
of bread held in the fingers. Both in town and country, goats', 
sheep's, or buffaloes' milk also forms a daily article of food, but 
always in a sour condition or half converted into cheese, and in 
very moderate quantities only. In the height of summer the con- 
sumption of fruit of the cucumber and pumpkin species, which the 
land yields in abundance, is enormous. In spring large quantities 
of lettuce, radish-leaves, and similar green vegetables are eaten ; 
and the lower classes consume, for medical purposes during .January 
and February, considerable amounts of Fcenum Grjecum, a clover-like 
plant with a somewhat disagreeable odour (p.lxxiv). In the month 
of Ramadan alone (p. xcvi), when a rigorous fast is observed during 
the day, and on the three days of the great Bairam festival (Kurban 
Beiram), even the poorest indulge in meat, and it is customary to 
distribute that rare luxury to beggars at these seasons. 


The dress of tbe Egyptian peasant calLs I'or little remark, espe- 
cially as he usually works in the fields divested of everything except 
a scanty apron. The chief articles of his wardrobe at other times 
are an indigo-dyed cotton shirt (kamts), a pair of short and wide cotton 
breeches, a kind of cloak of brown, home-spun goats' wool ('abdyeh), 
ox simply a blanket of sheep's wool (hirdm), and lastly a close- 
fitting felt skull-cap (libdeh). He is generally barefooted, but occa- 
sionally wears pointed red (marktih) or broad yellow shoes (balgha). 
The sheikhs and wealthier peasants wear wide, black woollen cloaks 
and the thick red 'Tunisian' fez (tarhush) with a blue silk tassel, 
round which they coil a turban (^imma; usually white). They usu- 
ally carry a long and thick stick (ndbut), made of ash imported from 
(Jaramania. All watchmen carry similar sticks as a badge of office. 

The sole wealth of Egypt is derived from its agriculture, and to 
tbe fellahin alone is committed the important task of tilling the soil. 
They are, indeed, neither fitted nor inclined for other work, a circum- 
stance which proves how completely the settled character of the 
ancient Egyptians has predominated over the restless Arabian blood, 
which has been largely infused into the native population ever since 
the valley of the Nile was conquered by the armies of Islam. The 
ancient Egyptian racial type has been preserved in extraordinary 
purity in many fellah families, especially in Upper Egypt. This is 
particularly evident in the case of the children and women, whose 
features are not concealed and distorted by veils (which the ancient 
Egyptians despised). Even among the Nubians (p. Ix), between 
the first and second cataracts, faces occur that might almost lead us 
to think that some of the pictures of the period of the old Pharaohs 
had come to life and stood before us in tlesh and blood. In Lower 
Egypt, and especially in the Delta, the Semitic type has sometimes 
prevailed over the African in consequence of the steady stream of 
Arab immigration that has now been flowing formorethan atliousand 
years. The modern I'^gyptians, moreover, resemble the ancient in 
character and in the lot to which they are condemned. In ancient 
times tlie fellah, pressed into the service of the priests and the 
jiriiices, was compelled to yield up to them the fruits of his toil, 
and his position is nearly the same at the present day, save that the 
names of his masters are changed, and he has obtained some relief 
owing to the almost entire abolition of compulsory work. 

In early life the Egyptian peasant is remarkably docile, active, 
and intelligent, but at a later period this freshness and buoyancy are 
crushed out of him by care and poverty and his never-ceasing task 
of filling the pitcher of the Danaides. He ploughs and reaps, toils 
and amasses, but he cannot with certainty regard his crops as his 
own, and the hardly earned ]iiastre is too frequently wrested from 
him. His character, therefore, becomes like that of a gifted child, 
who has been harshly used and brought up to domestic slavery, but 
at length perceives that he has been treated with injustice, and 

liv II. GEOGRAPHICAL AJSD b. Modern Egyptians ; 

whose amiability and intelligence are then superseded bysullenness 
and obstinacy. Thus down to a few years ago, as in the time of 
Ammianus Marcellinns, the fellah would often suffer the most cruel 
blows in dogged silence rather than pay the taxes demanded of him. 

In his own fields the fellah is an industrious labourer, and his 
work is more continuous than that of the peasant of more northern 
countries. He enjoys no period of repose during the winter, and the 
whole of his spare time is occupied in drawing water for the irriga- 
tion of the land. Notwithstanding his hard lot, however, he is an 
entire stranger to any endeavour to better his condition or to im- 
prove his system of farming. As soon as he has accomplished the 
most nece.ssary tasks he rests and smokes, and trusts that Allah will 
do the remainder of his work for him. The fellah is generally of a 
peaceful disposition, kindly and helpful to his neighbour. Foreigners 
can see his best side only by observing his dealings with his fellows; 
for he regards strangers as merely so many convenient sources of 
profit (comp. pp. xxiv, xxv). 

(2). Copts (kibt, 'ibt). While we have regarded the fellahin as 
genuine Egyptians in consequence of their uninterrupted occupation 
of the soil, the religion of the Copts aflords us an additional guarantee 
for the purity of their descent. The Copts are undoubtedly the most 
direct descendants of the ancient Egyptians, there being no ground 
for the assumption that their ancestors were foreign immigrants who 
embraced Christianity after the conquest of the country by the 
Mohammedans, while on the other hand the obstinacy with which 
they defended their monophysite Christinuity for several centuries 
against the inroads of the creed of Byzantium affords another 
indication'of their Egyptian character. At the last census (1907) the 
number of Copts in Egypt was 706, SSS."!' They are most numerous 
in the towns of Upper Egypt (554,282 J, around the ancient Koptos, 
at Nakadeh, Luxor, Esneh, Dendera, Girgeh, Tahta, and particularly 
at Assiiit and Akhmim. 

The Oolitic Patriarch is elected from their own number by the monks 
of the live chief monasteries of Egypt. These are the monasteries of St. 
Anthony andjSt. Paul in the eastern desert (p. 206), two in the Waii Natrun 
(p. 32), and the convent of El-Meliarrak (p. 219), near Maufalut. 

;Most of the Coptsthat dwell in towns are engaged in the more 
refined handicrafts (as watchmakers, goldsmiths, jewellers, em- 
broiderers, tailors, weavers, cabinet-makers, turners, etc.), or in 
trade, or as clerks, accountants, and notaries. Their physique is 
accordingly materially different from that of the fellahin and even 
from that of Coptic peasants. They are generally of more delicate 
frame, with small hands and feet; their necks are longer and their 
skulls are higher and narrower than those of the peasantry; and, 

+ The total' number of Christians in Egypt in 1S07 was 881,692, iiiclud 
ing 76,953 Greek Orthodox, 57,744 Roman Catholira, 13,736 Protestants, and 
27,937 Eastern Christians. 


l;istly, their complexion is fairer. These diftereiices are sufficiently 
accounted for by their mode of life ; for, when we compare those 
Copts who are engaged in rustic pursuits , or the Coptic camel 
drivers of Upper Egypt, with the fellahin, we find that the two 
races are not distinguisha'ble from each otiier. 'J'his dualism of 
type in bodily structure, common to all civilized lands of the South, 
has been recognized also in the skeletons of the ancient mummies. 

Few nations in the East embraced the Gospel more zealously 
than the dwellers on the Nile. Accustomed as they had long been 
to regard life as a pilgrimage to death, as a school of preparation for 
another world, and weary of their motley and confused Pantheon 
of divinities , whose self-seeking priesthood designedly disguised 
the truth, they eagerly welcomed the simple doctrines of Christianity, 
which appeared so well adapted to their condition and promised 
them succour and redemption. Like Eutyches, they revered the 
divine nature of the Saviour only, in which they held that every 
human clement was absorbed; and when the Council of Chaleedon 
in 451 sanctioned the doctrine that Christ combined a human with 
a divine nature, the Egyptians with their characteristic tenacity 
adhered to their old views, and formed a sect termed Eutychians, or 
Monophy sites, to which the Copts of the present day, and also the 
Abyssinians, still belong. 

The name of the Copts is au ethnical one, being simply an Arabic cor- 
ruption of the Greek name of Egyptians. The theory is now exploded that 
Ihey derive their name from a certain itinerant preacher named Jacobus, 
who according to JUakrizi was termed El-Eeradi'i, or 'blanket-beaver\ from 
the old horse-cloth worn by him when he went about preaching. This 
.lacobus promulgated the monophysite doctrine of Eutyches, which had 
found its most zealous supporter in Bioscurus, a bishop of Alexandria, 
who was declared a heretic and banished after the Council of Chaleedon ; 
and his disciples were sometimes called Jacobites. If this name had ever 
been abbreviated to Cobit or Cobt, it would probably have occurred 
frequently in the writings of Jlouophysites ; but there we find no trace 
of it. It is, on the other hand, quite intelligible that the word Copt, 
though originally synonymous with Egyptian, should gradually have come 
to denote a particular religious sect; for, at the period when the valley 
of the Nile was conquered by Amr, the native Egyptians, who almost 
exclusively held the monophysite creed, were chiefly distinguished by 
their religion from their invaders, who brought a new religious system 
from the East. 

These Egyptian Christians strenuously opposed the resolutions of 
the Council of Chaleedon, and thousands of them sacrificed their 
lives or their welfare in the fierce and sanguinary conflicts of the 
Hth century, the causes of which were imperfectly understood by 
the great majority of the belligerents. The subtle dogmatic dif- 
ferences which gave rise to these wars aroused such hatred among 
these professors of the religion of love, that the defeated Mouophy- 
sites readily welcomed the invading armies of Islam, or perhaps 
even invited them to their country. 

After the conquest of Egypt by the Arabs (p. 44 ) the Copts were 
at first treated with lenity, and were even appointed to the highest 

M II. GEOGRAPHICAL AND b. Modem Egyptians: 

government oMces; but tliey were soon doomed to suffer persecutions 
and privations of every description. These persecutions were mainly 
due to their unbounded arrogance and their perpetual conspiracies 
against their new masters, and their Mohammedan contemporaries 
even attributed to them the disastrous conflagrations from j. which 
the new capital of the country so frequently suffered. Their hopes 
were doomed to bitter disappointment, and their national pride to 
utter humiliation. Their conquerors succeeded in maintaining their 
position, and though apparently at first inclined to moderation, were 
at length driven by the conduct and the previous example of the 
Copts themselves to persecute and oppress them to the uttermost. 

In spite, however, of all these disasters a numerous community 
of Copts has always existed in Egypt, a fact which is mainly to be 
accounted for by the remarkable tenacity and constancy of the 
Egyptian character. Owing, however, to the continual oppression 
and contempt to which they have been subjected, they have de- 
generated in every respect, while their character has been correspond- 
ingly altered. Their divine worship will strike the traveller as 
strange, and anything but edifying or elevating (comp. p. 107). 
It is true that the Copt is a regular attendant at church ('keniseh'), 
but his conduct while there and the amount of benefit he receives 
are somewhat questionable. In the service the Coptic language, i.e. 
the language of the Egyptians of the 3rd cent. A.D., is used for pray- 
ing and chanting. But as the majority even of the priests themselves, 
though able to read this ancient speech, do not understand it, the 
Arabic translation of the prayers is given at the same time, and 
the sermon is delivered in Arabic. Since the 6th cent, the doc- 
trine of the Jacobites has been in a state of deathlike lethargy which 
has made even the slightest attempt at further development im- 
possible. In no other religious community is fasting so common as 
among the Christians of Egypt and Abyssinia. They still found their 
creed upon Old Testament institutions, and so show pretty clearly 
that had ChristiaTiity been confined to the East it would never have 
become the chief religion of the world. The Coptic church has not 
even training-colleges for its ministers. 

The Copts are no longer distinguished from the Arabs by their 
dress. Only the priests now wear the dark blue or black turban and 
the dark-coloured clothes, a costume that was originally prescribed 
by their oppressors. A practised eye will frequently detect among 
them the ancient Egyptian cast of features. Towards strangers the Copt 
is externally obliging, and when anxious to secure their favour he not 
unfrequently appeals to his Christian creed as a bond of union. Many 
Copts have recently been converted to Protestantism by American mis- 
sionaries, particularly in Upper Egypt, chiefly through the foundation 
of good schools and the distribution of cheap Arabic Bibles. Even the 
ortliodox Copts have a great reverence for the sacred volume, and it 
is not uncommon to meet with members of their sect who know the 


whole of tlie Gospels by heart. The liomau propaganda, which was 
begun by Franciscans at the end of the i7th and beginning of the 
18th cent., has been less successful among the Copts. There are, 
however, a few small Roman Catholic communities in Upper Egypt 
(atGirgeh, Akhmim, and Nakadeh), forming the 'Church of the 
Catholic Copts', whose patriarch, Cyrillos II., consecrated in 189U, 
is a native Copt. The present patriarch of the old Copts, at Cairo, 
is likewise named Cyrillos. 

(3). Bbduins. Bedu (sing, hcdawi) is the name applied to the 
nomadic Arabs, and 'Arab (sing. 'Arahi) to those who immigrated 
at a later period and settled in the valley of the Nile. They 
both differ materially from the dwellers in towns and from the 
I'ellahin. The subdivisions of the Beduiu tribes are called KabUch. 
'J'hough differing greatly in origin and language, the wandering tribes 
of Egypt all profess Mohammedanism. Again, while some of them 
have immigrated from Arabia or Syria, partly in very ancient and 
partly in modern times, and while others are supposed to be the 
aboriginal inhabitants of the territories claimed by them (as the 
Berbers of N. Africa and the Ethiopians and Blemmyes of Nubia), 
or former dwellers on the Nile expelled from their homes by foreign 
invaders, they all differ greatly from the settled Egyptian population; 
and this contrast is accounted for by the radical difference between 
the influences of the desert and those of the Nile valley. 

According to the census of 1907 there were 635, 012 Beduins 
in Egypt, of whom 537,631 were settled in towns and villages. 

The Beduins may be divided into two leading groups : (1) Beduins 
in the narrower sense, i.e. Arabic-speaking tribes, most of whom 
have probably immigrated from Arabia or Syria, and who occupy 
the deserts adjoining Central and Northern Egypt besides to a con- 
siderable extent settling in the Nile valley; (2) Bega, who range 
over the regions of Upper Egypt and Nubia situated between the 
Nile and the lied Sea, and extending to the frontiers of the Abyssi- 
nian mountains. These are the descendants of the ancient Blem- 
myes (p. 386 ; their territory being known as 'Edbai'J. The two prin- 
cipal races of the second group, with whom alone we have to deal 
as inhabitants of Egypt, are the Bisharhi and the 'Ababdeh. They 
are widely scattered in the valleys of the desert (pp. 372 et seq.), 
between the tropics and the latitude of Keneh and Koseir, and lead 
a poverty-stricken life with their very scanty stock of camels and 
goats. Though closely resembling the other Bega tribes in appear- 
ance, the 'Ababdeh (sing. 'Abadi, probably the Gebadaei of Pliny) 
possess an original language of their own ( 'to-bedyawiyeh'), which, 
however, they have long since exchanged for bad Arabic. They 
have adopted also tlie costume of the fellahin, while the Bisharin 
tend their large flocks of sheep and herds of camels in a half-naked 
coiiilition, girded with a leathern apron and wrapped in a kind of cot- 
ton shawl (meldya). All these 'Ethiopians' are remarkable for their 

Iviii 11. GP:0GRAI'H1CAL AND h. Modern Et/yptians : 

fine and almost Caucasian cast uf features, their very dark, bronze- 
coloured complexion, and their luxuriant growth of hair, which they 
wear loose or hanging down in numberless plaits. Their figures are 
beautifully symmetrical, and more or less slender in accordance with 
their means of subsistence, and their limbs are gracefully formed. 
In other respects they resemlile all the other children of the desert, 
as in the purity of their complexion, the peculiar thinness of their 
necks, and the premature wrinkling of the skin of their faces. Com- 
pared witli their bold and quarrelsome neighbours the lUsharin, the 
'Ababdeh are generally gentle anil inofi'cnsive. 

Besides the Bcga there arc numerous Beduins who inhabit the 
steppes and deserts belonging to the region of the Nile, but beyond 
the limits of Egypt, and range as far as the confines of the heathen 
negro-races on the left bank of the Nile, nearly to 9° N. latitude ; 
but with these we have not at present to deal. As regards the 
Beduins proper of the N., their common home, the desert, seems 
to have exerted a unifying effect upon races that were originally 
different, and the peculiar characteristics of each have gradually 
disappeared before the uniform environment of all. 

There are three important Beduin tribes in the peninsula of 
Mount Sinai : tlie Terdbiyin; the Tiyaha, who occupy the heart of 
the peninsula, between Suez and 'Akaba; and the Sawarkeh or 12- 
'Arayish, to tlie north of the latter. In Upper Egypt, besides the 
'Ababdeh, the most important tribes who occupy the eastern bank of 
the Nile are the Beni Wasel and the Atwani, who, however, have now 
settled on both banks of the Thcban Nile valley and are gradually 
blending with the fellahin, and the Ma'dzeh^ who dwell in groups 
among the limestone mountains between Suez and Keneh, where 
there are good pastures at places. Most of the Arabian Beduins, on 
the other hand, wlio belong to Egypt, confine themselves to tlie 
westernbank of the Nile. They occupy tlie whole of this side of the 
river from the Faiyum as far as Abydos near Girgeh, and it is mainly 
with their aid that communication is maintained with the western 
oases, peopled by a totally different race, who till tlie ground and 
possess no camels, being probably allied to the Berbers of Northern 
Africa (one of the numerous liibyan tribes mentioned in ancient 

The Beduins of the North, and especially the tribe of the Vlad 
'All, have inherited with comparative purity the fiery blood of the 
desert-tribes, M'ho achieved such marvellous exploits under the 
banner of the prophet, but the traveller will rarely come in contact 
with them unless he undertakes a journey across the desert. The 
Beduins who assist travellers in the ascent of the pyramids belong 
to the Nagama tribe. Genuine Beduins are to be found nowhere 
except in their desert home, where to a great extent they still retain 
the spirit of independence, the courage, and the restlessness of their 
ancestors. As in the time of Herodotus, the tent of the Beduin is 

Antb Town-Dwellers. POLITICAL NOTES. lix 

still his home. Where it is pitched is a matter of iudifference to 
him, if only the pegs which secure it be firmly driven into the earth, 
if it shelter his wife and child from the burning sunshine and the 
chilly night-air, and if pasturage-ground and a spring be within 
reach. At Ramleli on the coast, near Alexandria, the traveller may 
see numerous Beduin families of the poorest class encamped in 
their tents, where they live in the most frugal possible manner, wilji 
a few miserable goats and the fowls which subsist on the rubbish in 
their neighbourhood. Though professors of Islam, the Beduins of 
Egypt are considerably less strict in their observances than the fel- 
lahin of the valley of the Nile, who are themselves sufllciently lax, 
and above all they sadly neglect the religious duty of cleanliness. 
They do not observe the practice of praying five times a day, and 
they are as a rule but slightly acquainted with the Koran. Kelios 
of their old star-worship can still be traced among their customs. 

The traveller will occasionally observe Beduins in the streets and 
in the bazaars of the armourers and leather-merchants, and will be 
struck with the proud and manly bearing of these bronzed children 
of the desert, whose sharp, bearded features and steady gaze betoken 
firmness and resolution. In Egypt the traveller need not fear their 
predatory propensities. 

(4). Akab Dwellers in Towns. Those Arabs witli whom the 
traveller usually comes in contact in towns are shopkeepers, officials, 
servants, coachmen, and donkey-attendants. These are generally 
of a much more mixed origin than the fellahin. It thus happens 
that the citizens of the Egyptian towns consist of persons of every 
complexion from dark-brown to white, with the features of the 
worshippers of Osiris or the sharp profile of the Beduins, and witli 
the slender figure of the fellah or the corpulence of the Turk. 
Among the lower classes intermarriage with negro-women has some- 
times darkened the complexion and thickened the features of their 
offspring; while the higher ranks, including many descendants of 
white slaves or Turkish mothers, more nearly resemble the European 
type. As the inhabitants of the towns could not be so much op- 
pressed by their rulers as tl\e peasantry, we find that they exhibit 
a more independent spirit, greater enterprise, and a more cheerful 
disposition than the fellahin. At the same time they are not free 
from the dreamy character peculiar to orientals, nor from a tinge of 
the apathy of fatalism; and their indolence contrasts strongly with 
the industry of their European rivals in political, scientific, artistic, 
and all business ]iursuits. Of late years, however, they have begun 
to occu]>y themselves with scientific studies and to produce a con- 
siderable number of higher oflicials, barristers, doctors, architects, 
ensincers, etc. The townspeople profess Islam , but, in their 
youth particularly, they are becoming more and more lax in their 
obedience to the Koran. Thus tlic custom of praying in jmblic, out- 
side the house-doors and shops, is gradually falling into disuse. Like- 

Ix II. GEOGRAPHICAL AND b. Modem Egyptians: 

wise the European dress is superseding the oriental, though the 
latter is far more picturesque and better suited to the climate. On 
the whole, however, they are bigoted Mohammedans, and share 
the contempt with which the fellahiu regard all other religions. 
Their daily intercourse with unbelievers and their dread^jof [the 
power of the Christian nations tend, however, to keep their fana- 
ticism, which otherwise would be unbounded, in check, and has even 
induced them sometimes to admit strangers to witness the sacred 
ceremonies in their mosques. 

(5). Nubians. The name Bardbra (sing. Berbcrl) is applied to 
tlie Nubian inhabitants of the Nile valley between the neighbour- 
hood of Assuan and the Fourth Cataract. The Egyptians and Nubians 
are radically different, and the dislike between the two races is 
carried to such an extent that Nubians, even in Egypt, never marry 
Egyptian wives. The Nubians are inferior to the Egyptians in 
industry and energy, especially in tilling the soil, and in pliysical 
(and perhaps also in intellectual) vigour j and they are more super- 
stitious as is indicated by the numerous amulets they wear round 
their necks and arms. They are, however, superior to the Egyptians 
in cleanliness, honesty, and subordination, and possess a more highly 
developed sense of honour. The traveller must not expect to find 
them very sincerely attached or grateful, any more than the native 
Egyptians, but as servants they are certainly preferable. The Nubian 
language belongs to a special group of the African tongues; and 
I)r. Brugsch was of opinion that it may afford a clue to the inter- 
pretation of the still undeciphered Meroi tic inscriptions of the Nubian 
part of the Nile valley. It is divided into three dialects: 1. Kenuz, 
spoken between the First Cataract and Es-Sebu'a; 'J. El-Mahasi, 
from Korosko to Hannek (at the third cataract) ; 3. Dongola, pre- 
valent in the province of Dongola from Hannek to Gebel Deiga 
(near Korti) and resembling the Kenuz dialect. 

Those Nubians who do not learnArabicgrammatically neverspeak 
it thoroughly well ; but itis generally, though imperfectly, understood 
in Nubia. The traveller must therefore not expect to learn good Arabic 
from his Nubian servants. In their native country the Nubians till 
the banks of the Nile, but their land is of very limited extent and 
poorly cultivated; and as their harvests are scanty they are rarely able 
to support large families. They accordingly often emigrate at an early 
age to the richer lands of Egypt, chiefly to the large towns, in quest of 
employment. When the Nubian has succeeded in amassing a mod- 
erate fortune, he returns to settle in his native country, of which 
throughout his whole career he never entirely loses sight. They are 
most commonly employed as doorkeepers ('6auu'a6 J, as house-servants 
(khaddam), as grooms and runners (sdis), for which their swiftness 
renders them unrivalled, as coachmen f'artupZj, and as cooks C/aifca&ft^. 
Each of these five classes is admirably organized as a kind of guilda 
w ith a sheikh of its own, who levies a tax from each member, and 

Levantines. POLITICAL NOTES. Ix 

guarantees the cliaracter and abilities of members when hired. Thefts 
are very rarely committed by the Nubians, but in cases of the kind the 
sheikh compels the whole of his subjects to contribute to repair the 
loss, and cases have been known in which several hundred pounds 
have been recovered in this way. The result is that there is a 
strict mutual system of supervision, and suspected characters are 
unceremoniously excluded from the fraternity. Nubian women are 
seldom seen in Egypt. 

(Gi\ Sudan Nkgeoes. Like the Nubians, most of the negroes in 
Egypt are professors of- Islam, to the easily intelligible doctrines 
of which they readily and zealously attach themselves. Most of the 
older negroes and negresses with whom the traveller meets have 
originally been brought to Egypt as slaves, and belong to natives, 
by whom they arc treated more like members of the family than 
like servants. The eunuchs, who also belong almost exclusively to 
the negro races, very seldom avail themselves of any opportunity of 
regaining their liberty, as their emancipation would Jiecessarily ter- 
minate the life of ease and luxury in which they delight. — The 
numerous negroes who voluntarily settle in Egypt form the dregs of 
the people aiid are employed in the most menial offices. 

Most of the negro- races of Central Africa to the N. of the 
equator are represented at Cairo, particularly in the rank and tile of 
the negro regiments. In 1907 there were 65,162 natives of the 
S&dan settled in Egypt. 

(7). TuEKs. Although the dynasty of the viceroys of Egypt is 
of Turkish origin (see p. cxx), a comparatively small section of the 
community belongs to that nation. According to the census of 1907 
there were '27,591 genuine Turks in Egypt, besides 42,134 Turkish 
subjects from other parts of the Ottoman empire (Syria, Arabia, 
Armenia). The Turks of Egypt are chiefly to be found in the towns, 
where most of them are government-officials, soldiers, and merchants. 
The Turkish language is very little understood in Egypt. 

(S). Lkvantinks, Syrians, etc. A link between the various 
classes of dwellers in Egypt and the visitors to the banks of the 
Nile is formed by the members of the various Mediterranean races, 
especially the Christian Syrians, known when of partly European 
origin as Levantines, who have been settled here for several genera- 
tions, and form no inconsiderable element in the population of the 
larger towns. Most of them profess the Latin form of Christianity, 
and Arabic has now become their mother tongue, although they 
speak also French, Italian, or English. They are good men of 
business, and are often employed as shopmen and clerks. Their 
services have also become indispensable at the consulates and in 
several of the government-offices. A large proportion of them arc 
wealthy. The Egyptian press is very largely in the hands of Syrian " 
Levantines, a great many of whom are lawyers, physicians, and 
chemists also. 

Ixii 11. GKOGRAPHICAL AND b. Modern KyyptiaHs: 

(Q). AiiMiiNiANs AND Jews. This section of the com m unity is 
somewhat lesa numerous than the last. The Armenians generally 
possess excellent abilities and a singular aptitude for learning both 
oriental and European languages, which they often acquire with 
great grammatical accuracy. They often hold high positions in the 
service of government, and many of them are wealthy goldsmiths 
and jewellers. 

The Jews (38,635 in 1907) are met with almost exclusively in 
Cairo and Alexandria, and can hardly be reckoned as among the 
natives of the country. Most of them are from Palestine, though of 
Spanish origin, but many have recently immigrated from Roumania. 
The latter are popularly called 'Shlekhti', in reference to the bar- 
barous German idiom tliey speak. Most of the money-changers in the 
streets (sarrdf), and many of the wealthiest merchants of Egypt, are 
Jews, and notwithstandiug tlic popular prejudice entertained against 
them, they now form one of the most highly respected sections of 
the community. 

(10). Europeans. The number of European residents and 
visitors in Egypt was 147,220 in 1907, inclusive of the British army 
of occupation. The Greelvs arc most numerously represented, then 
the Italians, British (including Indians and Maltese), French, Aus- 
trians (including many Dalmatians), Russians, and Germans. Be- 
sides these nationalities, there are also a few representatives of 
America, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, Holland, Scandinavia, and 
other countries. — The Greeks of all classes are generally traders. They 
constitute almost entirely the aristocracy of Alexandria, and, at the 
other end of the scale, nearly all the small inn-keepers and victual- 
dealers (bahkdl) in other towns are Greeks. The cigarette-industry 
also is almost exclusively in the hands of Greeks. They are the 
proprietors of the small steam-mills that abound in the villages, and 
of the numerous small banks which lend money on good security, 
both to the peasantry and the government-officials, at a rate of 
interest sometimes amounting to (5 per cent monthly, the maximum 
permitted by law. The Greeks are the only Europeans who have 
established themselves permanently as merchants beyond the confines 
of Egypt proper. Almost the entire trade with the Egyptian Sudan is 
now in their hands. Of recent years many Greeks have been active 
as physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, and especially land- 
owners, but they are conspicuous by their absence from the govern- 
ment-service. The Greeks have also the unenviable notoriety of 
committing numerous murders, thefts, and other crimes, but it must 
be borne in mind that they are by far the most numerous section of 
the European community (62,978 in 1907), and that most of them 
belong to the lowest class of immigrants. The commercial superior- 
ity of the Greeks to the Orientals is nowhere so strikingly mani- 
fested as in Egypt, where it affords a modern reflex of their ancient 
success in colonization. 

Phtrorenns. POLITICAL NOTES. Ixiii 

The Italian residents, 34,926 in number, consist cliielly of tr.-id- 
ers of a humlilc class, but include also many mcrcliants, advocates, 
and scholars. Of I'rencli nationality (^14,591) arc all the artisans of 
the higher class, who are generally noted for their skill, trust- 
worthiness, and sobriety. Most of the better shops are kept by 
Frenchmen, and the chief European officials of the government, 
including several architects and engineers, were until recently 
French. The British settlers numbered 6118 in 1882 and in 1907 
20,653, inclusive of the troops. Until recently their si)ecialties 
were the manufacture of machinery and the construction of railways 
and harbours; but of late they have also almost monopolized the 
chief posts in those branches of the administration (army, post and 
telegriipli office, railways, custom-liousel that have been remodelled 
after the British pattern. Apart from the troojis, a large majority 
of the residents wiio enjoy the protection of the British consTilate 
are Maltese and natives of India (in 19UT , 6292 from Britisli 
(lolonies). To the Maltese apply even more forcibly most of the 
remarks already made regarding the (i reeks. It has been ascertained 
that the Maltese settlers Iti foreign countries are more numerous 
than those resident in tlieir two small native islands, and of these 
a considerable proportion belongs to Egypt. At home, under the 
discipline of British institutions, they form a pattern little nation 
of their own, but in Egypt, where they are freed from the restraint 
of these influences, they are very apt to degenerate and to swell 
unduly the ranks of the criminal class. Many of the Maltese, how- 
ever, are enterprising tradesmen and industrious artisans, such as 
shoemakers and joiners. To the Austrian (7704) and German ( 1847 ) 
community belong a number of merchants of the best class, many 
physicians and teachers, inn-keepers, musicians, and lastly humble 
hainlicraftsmen. — In 1907 there wero 521 Americans in Egypt. 

With regard to the capability of Europeans of becoming ac- 
climatized in Egypt there are a number of widely divergent opinions. 
Much, of course, must depend on the nature of the climate of their 
own respective countries. It has been asserted that European 
families settled in Egypt die out in the second or third generation, 
but of this there is no sufficient proof, as the European community 
is of very recent origin, and many examples to the contrary might 
be cited. Moreover as the Europeans in Egypt dwell exclusively in 
the large cities, they do not afford very conclusive evidence on the 
general question ; for city life, as opposed to country life, is even 
less propitious to liealth and vigour in warm countries than it is in 
northern climes. Thus the Mamelukes have left no descendants in 
Egypt. The climate of Egypt (comp, p. Ixxvii) is less enervating 
than that of most other hot countries, an advantage attributed to 
the dryness of the air. 

Ixiv II. GEOGRAPHICAT. AND c. The Nile. 

c. The Nile. 

Bff Captain H. G. Lyons. 

From tlicj sources of the Nyavaronyo, a tributary of the Kagera 
River, to the sea the Kagera-Nile is the second longest continuous 
waterway in the world (4037 M.), being surpassed only by the 
Mississippi-Missouri, wliich is probably about 100 M. longer. From 
the Ripon Falls at Lake Victoria to the sea the distance is 3473 M., 
so that the Nile proper is the longest single river in the world, tlie 
Yang-tse-kiang i>robably coming next. 

Rising to the N.E. of Lake Tanganyika, the waters of the Nya- 
varongo-Kagera flow into the great Victoria Lake, on the N. shore 
of which, at the Ripon Falls, begins the true Nile. After a course 
of 242 M. this enters the Albert Lake. From this point, under the 
name of the Bahr el-Gehel, it traverses a rocky channel as far as 
Gondokoro, and it then flows for 470 M. through the swamps Avhich 
till the valley and provide the reeds and grasses of the 'sudd', or mass 
of vegetation wliich from time to time blocks the channel (p. 435). 
Jn latitude 9° 30' N. the main stream receives two tributaries, the 
Bahr el-GhaiCd and the Bahr ez-Zarafeh, and a little farther on it is 
joined by the important Sobat River, to which the annual flood of 
the White Nile is due. From this point to Khartum the Bahr el- 
Abyad or 'White Nile', as it is here called, flows through a shallow 
valley of considerable width, until it is joined by the Bahr el-Azrak, 
i.e. the 'blue', 'dark', or 'turbid' Nile, so called in contradistinc- 
tion to the White Nile, the 'clear' water of which has been filtered 
in its passage through the marshes of the Bahr el-Gebel or has de- 
posited its silt in the upper reaches of the Sobat. Between Khartum 
and the Mediterranean, a distance of 1900 M., the Nile receives no 
further addition to its supply except from the river Atbara, while 
it is being continually diminished by evaporation, by percolation into 
the sandstone of the desert through which it flows, and by the irri- 
gation of its flood-plains in Egypt. — Between Wadi Haifa and 
Assuan the average breadth of the Nile is about 550 yds., to the N. 
of Assuan it varies from 550 to 980 yds. 

As practically no rain falls within its limits, Egypt would cease 
to exist as a fertile country and would become a desert valley, 
similar to those of the Sahara, were it not for its constant supply of 
water from the Nile. Thus the all-important annual Inundation of 
th at river merits special notice as the great event of the Egyptian year. 

The heavy rains which fall from June to September on the Abys- 
sinian tableland cause the Blue Nile and the Atbara to rise rapidly, 
and their waters carry down in suspension vast quantities of the 
mud which has during many centuries formed the fertile valley and 
delta of Egypt, but of which very little is deposited now, however, 
owing to the perennial irrigation (comp. p. Ixxi). The volume of 
the Blue Nile flood, which may reach and even exceed 360,000 cubic 

c. The Nile. POLITICAL NOTES. Ixv 

feet per second, holds back the waters of the White Nile above 
the junction of the two streams, so that in August and September 
the waters of the Bahr el-Gebel and the Sobat are penned up in 
the White Nile valley and contribute only a very small share to 
the inundation of the Nile proper. The rains of Abyssinia may 
therefore be regarded as practically regulating tlie height of the 
inundation of the Nile, and it is their variations which occasion 
the fluctuation from year to year. The region of the equatorial 
lakes has no effect whatever on the flood. 

The Nile begins to rise at Khartum about the middle of May, 
and at Assuan by the beginning of June, reaching its maximum 
height at both places about the end of the first week in September. 
The mean difference between the highest and lowest stages of the 
river is 21 ft. at Khartum, 20 ft. at Wadi Haifa, 23 ft. at Assuan, 
22 ft. at Assiut, 22 ft. at Minyeh, and 16 ft. "at Cairo. After the flood 
has reached its maximum height the Blue Nile falls rapidly, but the 
water of the White Nile, which is now liberated, prevents too rapid 
a fall of the river below Khartiim. By January the Blue Nile sup- 
ply has diminished to a small amount, while that of the White Nile 
is several times as great, and this state of affairs continues until 
June, when the Blue Nile again rises. Thus, for these five months 
the mainstay of the Nile supply is the constant quantity furnished 
by the White Nile, amounting to some 14,000 cubic ft. per second, 
supplemented by a quantity from the Sobat River and the Blue 
Nile, which varies from year to year according to the amount of the 
summer and autumn rains of Abyssinia in the preceding year. 

From time immemorial the Nile flooded its valley annually. 
Crops were sown on the mud flats left by the water as it subsided 
and, at a very early period, a system of irrigation was developed by 
which the flood-water, with its load of rich earth, was led by canals 
into basins enclosed by earthen banks, where it deposited its sedi- 
ment and whence it was allowed to escape when the river had fallen 
suffi(;iently. The crops which grew luxuriantly on the soil thus 
annually enriched were harvested in April and May, after which 
time land in the neighbourhood of the river or where there were 
wells could alone be cultivated until November after the next flood. 
The amount of water was insufficient to meet the needs of agri- 
culture in Egypt during the months of May, June, and July. 

Of recent years, however, especially since Mohammed Ali deve- 
loped cotton-growing in the Delta, a great change has taken place. 
It is no longer in the fljood-season alone that water is supplied to 
the land. Several large works have been constructed in order to 
render Perennial Irriyation (comp. p. Ixxi) possible, by storing up 
the surplus water in November, December, and January for distri- 
bution in the later months before the arrival of the flood, and by 
means of canals and numerous regulating works water is supplied 
to the Delta at such a level as to flow on to the cultivated land at 

BAiiDKK£B'a Egypt. Tth Edit. e 

Ixvi U. GEOGRAPHICAL AND c. The Nile. 

all seasous, thus allowing a series of crops to bo raised througbout 
the year. Moliammetl All deepened canals and began in 1835 the 
construction of the Delta Barrage (comp. p. 122), which was not 
completed, however, until 1890. It renders it possible to raise the 
upstream water-level so that the water can at all times flow into the 
three main delta-canals, the Rayah et-Taufiki, the Rayah el-Menn- 
fiyeh, and the RayAh el-Belieireh. In 1902 were conipletedjthe 
Assuan Dam (p. 371 ) and the Assiut Barrage (p. 232). The tlrst of 
these works (recently heightened) allows a reserve-supply of water 
to be kept to increase the insufticient supply of the river in May, 
June, and July, while the second enables the water-level of the 
river at Assiut to be raised until it flows down the great Ibrahimiyeh 
Canal whii-h supplies the provinces of Assiut, Minyeh, Benisueif, 
Gizeh, and (through the Bahr Yusuf) the Faiyuni. F"inally the bar- 
rage at Esneh (p. 342), completed in 1909, provides for the irri- 
gation of the provini'e of Keneh. One (dfect of the modifications 
thus introduced is to diminish to some extent the importance of the 
high floods, but to enhance enormously the value of a favourable low- 
stage supply, since in April, May, June, and July, when the supply 
of water is lowest, a very large proportion of the country from 
Assist to the sea is bearing crops, principally cotton , the most 
valuable crop of the year. Another effect of increased perennial 
irrigation is that the volume of water brought down by bountiful 
inundations is greater than is now required. Of late years, very 
large sAms liave been expended in providing an efficient system of 
drainage to prevent low-lying lands from becoming water-logged 
and the Rosetta branch is now being remodelled to increase its 
capacity as a flood-escape. 

The breadth of the Nile valley is nowhere great, and only a por- 
tion of it is occupied by the cultivated alluvial plain, the rest con- 
sisting of desert-sands at too high a level to be reached by the 
Inundation. In Nubia the cultivable land is restricted to isolated 
patches, while the valley is rarely as much as 2-3 M. wide; in 
Egypt it is wider, varyiug from 15 M. at Benisueif to 5 M. at Edfu, 
of which 13 M. and 4 M. respectively are cultivated. 

The alluvial deposit which is annually brought down by the 
Nile in flood has accumulated in the course of centuries to an average 
depth of 35-40 ft., occasionally even more. In composition it varies 
slightly from place to place. As a rule it forms a good light soil 
being rather above the average in potash but deficient in nitrates 
The view formerly held that it had a high manurial value was an 
exaggerated one, and it should be considered rather as a virgin soil 
which, added annually to the surface of the land, enables it to 
bear luxuriant crops year after year. 

Every year during the Hood a considerable deposit of silt takes 
place in the river-bed, part of which is carried away as the river 
falls, but the general result is that the bed of the Nile has been 

<j. The Nile. f OLITICAL NOTES. Ixvii 

slowly rising by deposit ai an av(Mai;e rate of about 4 inches prr 
century for at least 5000 years and for a long period before this at 
some undeterminable rate. One consequence of this is that temples, 
which -wore built on the banks of the river, well above the annual 
inundation, are now below it, and foundations which were originally 
dry are now below the indltration-levol and in i'Oi\sequence have 

This remarkable river has exercised a unique influence on the 
history of civilization. The necessity of controlling its course and 
utilizing its water taught the ancient Egyptians the art of river 
engineering and the kindred science of land-surveying, while in the 
starry heavens they beheld the eternal calendar which regulated the 
approach and the departure of the inundation, so that the river may 
perhaps have given the first impulse to the study of astronomy. As 
the annual overflow of the water obliterated all landmarks, it was 
necessary annually to measure the land anew, and to keep a register 
of the area belonging to each proprietor; and above all it became 
an important duty of the rulers of the people to impress them with 
a strong sense of the sacredness of property. Similar causes produced 
a like result in Babylonia, Every succeeding year, however, there 
arose new disputes, and these showed the necessity of establishing 
settled laws and enforcing judicial decisions. The Nile thus led to 
the foundation of social, legal, and political order. 

Subsequently, when the engineers and architects, in the service 
of the state or in the cause of religion, erected those colossal struc- 
tures with which we are about to become acquainted, it was the 
Nile which materially facilitated the transport of their materials, 
and enabled the builders of the pyramids and the other ancient 
Egyptians to employ the granite of Assuan for the structures of 
Memphis, and even for those of Tanis, near the coast of the Medi- 
terranean. As the river, moreover, not only afforded a convenient 
route for the transport of these building-materials, but also an ad- 
mirable commercial highway, we find that the Egyptians had acquired 
considerable skill at a very early period in constructing vessels 
with oars, masts, sails, and even cabins and other appliances. 

From the earliest historical period down to the present time the 
course of the Nile, from the cataracts down to its bifurcation to the 
N. of Cairo, has undergone very little change. This, however, 
is not the case with its Embouchures; for, while ancient writers 
mention seven (the Pelusiac, the Tanitic, theMendesian, the Bucolic 
or Phatnitic, the Scbennytic, the Bolbitinic, and the Canopic), there 
are now practically t\M) channels only through which the river is 
discharged into the se.i. These are the mouths at llosetta (Rashid) 
and Daiuietta(Dumyat), situated near the middle of the Delta, while 
the Pelusiac and Canopic mouths, the most important in ancient 
times, lay at the extreme E. and W. ends of the coast respectively. 

Ixviii 11. GEOGRAPHICAL AND d. Otology. 

d. Geology of Egypt. 

1. The Nile Vallky and the I.sthmus of Suez. The building 
stone generally used at Alexandria is obtained from the quarries of 
Meks (p. 26) and on the coast to the E. of Alexandria. This is a 
calcareous light-coloured stone of the quaternary period, formed of 
fragments of shells and foraminifera, intermixed with oolitic granules 
and grains of quartz sand, or even with fine gravel. This rock forms 
low hills to the W. of Alexandria and the coast-strip from Alexan- 
dria to Abukir. In many places it is covered by sand-dunes and 
other recent formations. 

The cultivated plains of the Delta and the A'j7e Valley consist 
of recent alluvial deposits, ranging from fine sand to the finest silt, 
laid down by the water of the annual inundation. Under these lie 
coarser yellowish sands and gravels of pleistocene age, which here 
and there reach the surface in the Delta as islands of sandy waste 
among the rich cultivation of the surrounding country. These are re- 
lated to the later sand and gravel deposits on the neighbouring deserts, 
and to the traces of marine cliffs and beaches of the same period 
which may be seen on both sides of the valley at Cairo and at other 
places. At Abu Za'bal (p. 120), to the N.E. of Nawa, occurs a low 
hill of basalt which supplies excellent road-metal for Cairo and 

The N. portion of tlie Isthmus of Suez consi.sts of the recent marine 
deposits of the Mediterranean, while in the central portion, near the 
low hill of El-Gisr and round Lake Timsah, are deposits of the Nile 
mud with fresh-water shells. To the S. of the Bitter Lakes are found 
marine quaternary deposits of the Red Sea. 

Reefs of fossil coral of quaternary age occur over a large part of 
the coasts of the Gulf of Suez, and the highest of these are now 
1000 ft. above the present sea-level, while five or six others occur 
at lower levels. The land here, or at least the coast line, must there- 
fore have risen considerably in comparatively recent times, and the 
salines which are now forming appear to show that the movement 
has not yet ceased. The shores and islands of the Red Sea are to- 
day fringed with coral reefs which are most dangerous to shipping. 

Sands and loams occur to the S. of the pyramids of Gizeh, and 
at numerous places on the E. side of the Nile valley between Cairo 
andFeshn, belonging, as is shown by the numerous fossils which they 
contain, to the pliocene age. The small valley immediately to the 
S. of the pyramids of Zawiyet el-'Aryan has been cut out in these 
beds, and a rich collection of pliocene fossils may be made here. 
These deposits are intimately connected with the formation of the 
present valley in pliocene times, when it was at first a fiord into 
which the waters of the Mediterranean flowed at least as far as Keneh 
and perhaps even as far as Esneh. In the time of the older miocene 
sea the Nile valley did not exist, but instead a large river flowed 
from a S.W. direction towards the region that is now Lower Egypt. 

d. Geology. POLITICAL NOTES. Ixix 

The fluvio-marine deposits of Moghara (to the W. of the Wadl 
Natrun) and the silicifled wood of the same district also belong to 
these mioceiie times, as do also the marine limestones of the plateau 
of Cyrenaica, to the N. of the Siweh Oasis and on the E. edge of the 
Arabian Desert (at the foot of Gebel Geneifeh and Gebel 'Atika), 
and on the shore of the Gulf of Suez near Gebel Zeit. 

The 'Petrified Forest" near Cairo consists of scattered fragments 
of the silicifled stems of trees; and these, together with the red 
sandstone of Gebel el-Ahmar and conical hills of the same material 
in the N. parts of the Arabian and Libyan deserts, are connected 
■with the siliceous thermal springs which bubbled forth amid the 
network of lagoons which existed in these parts in oligocene times. 
To the N.W. of theBirket Kariin, in the Faiyiim, these fossil trees are 
even more numerous, while in the sands of oligocene age innumer- 
able bones of former terrestrial and marine mammals and reptiles 
have been found, which were carried down by the river and buried 
iu its estuarine deposits. A flne collection of these fossil animals may 
be seen in the Geological Museum at Cairo. 

The cliffs of the Nile valley above Cairo consist of middle and 
lower eocene limestone, containing numerous nummulites (p. 116) 
and other fossils. The strata are gently inclined to the N.N.W., so 
that the strata increase in age as we go towards the S. 

To the S. of Edfu begins thv upper cretaceous formation, here re- 
presented by the sandstone which at Gebel Silsileh forms steep walls 
of rock and confines the river in a narrow channel. This 'Nubian 
Sandstone covers an area of many thousand square miles, extending 
from the oases to the Sudan. At certain points, such as Assuan, 
Kalabsheh, Wadi Haifa, and the third and fourth cataracts, ridges 
of crystalline rocks (granite, gneiss, diorite, etc.) rise through it, 
and form black or reddish hills in sharp contrast to the low tabular 
masses of the sandstone. 

2. In the Arabian or Eastern Desert (pp. 362, 372 et seq.) a 
line of hills, some peaks of which are 7000 ft. in height, runs parallel 
to the licd Sea and at short distance from it. This is wholly formed 
of crystalline rocks (granite, gneiss, diorite, hornblende-si-hist, mica- 
srhist, talc-schist and tlie andesites and allied rocks which form a 
great series of very ancient volcanic rocks, the imperial porphyry of 
Gebel Dukhan being a well-known representative). The E. and W. 
slopes of this range are overlaid by sedimentary rocks, usually the 
Nubian sandstone, but also (in the N. part) by limestones and marls. 
These stretch away toward the W., forming a great plateau of lime- 
stone in the N. and of sandstone in the S., in which the Nile Valley 
forms a narrow trough. Numerous deeply eroded valleys give a char- 
acteristic appearance to the Eastern Desert. The open plains are 
almost bare of vegitation, but numerous plants may be seen in the 
valleys, especially after rain, while in the sheltered ravines among 
tjje hills where springs occur they grow luxuriantly. 

Ixx II. GEOGRAPHICAL AND e. Agriculture: 

3. The Westekn or Libyan Desert (pp. 378 et seq.) is totally 
different. The level limestone plateau, about 1000 ft. above the sea, 
extends to the W., its S. escarpment overlooking the lower plain of 
the Nubian sandstone to the S. In deep bays in this escarpment lie 
the oases of Khdrgeh, Ddkhleh, and Fardfra, while that of Bahriyeh is 
situated in a depression surrounded by the higher plateau. The pla- 
teau is waterless and practically devoid of vegetation, while isolated 
knolls show how rapidly the erosion of the desert-surface by wind 
is proceeding. In certain parts lines of sand-dunes 100-200 ft. high 
stretch across the desert plateau in a N.N.W. and S.S.K. direction, 
sometimes for several hundred miles with hardly a break. They are 
most developed to the W. of the oasis of Dakhleh. The floor of the 
oases of Khargeh and Dakhleh consists mostly of dark-coloured sands 
and clays of the upper cretaceous formation. Some beds contain alum 
and others are phosphatic. Springs well up at many points from a 
depth of about 400 ft. and furnish an abundant water-supply to the 
cultivated lands (comp. p. Ixxii). Some of these rise through natural 
lissures and others through holes bored for the purpose. 

To the S. of the oases lies the lower plain of the Nubian sand- 
stone. This plain contains no hills of any importance, but pre- 
sents a low rolling surface covered with blackened flint pebbles 
and concretions of iron and manganese oxide, while the silicified 
trunks of fossil trees are frequently met with. Yellow drift-sand is 
seen everywhere, but it is only occasionally that it forms dunes of 
any size. 

The oasis of Farafra lies faither to the W., and to the N. and W. 
of it extends the plateau of eocene limestone as far as the oasis of 
Stweh. The strata here are mostly of miocene age, and they contain 
numerous fossils, a fact recorded by Herodotus and Eratosthenes. 

e. Agricnlture and Vegetation. 

1. Capabilities of the Soil. The land is extremely fertile, but 
it is not so incapable of exhaustion as it is sometimes represented 
to be. Many of the crops, as elsewhere, must occasionally be followed 
by a fallow period ; others thrive only when a certain rotation is ob- 
served (such as wheat, followed by clover and beans) ; and some 
fields require to be artificially manured. Occasionally two crops are 
yielded by the same field in the same season (wheat and saffron, 
wheat and clover, etc.). The great extension within the last thirty 
or forty years of the cultivation of the sugar-cane, which requires 
a great deal of moisture, and of the cotton-plant, which requires 
much less, has necessitated considerable modifications in the modes 
of irrigation and cultivation hitherto in use. As both of these crops 
are of a very exhausting character, the land must either be more 
frequently left fallow or must be artificially manured. The in- 
dustry and powers of endurance of the Egyptian peasantry are thus 

Irrigation. POLITICAI. NOTES. Ixxi 

most severely tried, although the homogeneous soil of the valley of 
the Nile requires less careful tilling and ploughing than ours. As 
the dung of the domestic animals is used as fuel throughout Egypt, 
where wood is very scarce, while that of the numerous pigeons (comp. 
p. 235) is mainly used for horticultural purposes, resource must be 
had to other manures. One of these is afforded by the ruins of an- 
cient towns, which were once built of unbaked clay, but now con- 
sist of mounds of earth, recognizable only as masses of ruins by the 
fragments of pottery they contain. Out of these mounds, which 
conceal the rubbish of thousands of years, is dug a kind of earth, 
known as Sabakh, sometimes containing as much as 12 per cent of 
nitrate of soda, potash, and cliloride of soda. The valuable nitrates, 
however, usually form a very small proportion. So largely have 
these ancient sites been worked of late years, since intensive cul- 
tivation began, that they will be exhausted at no very distant date. 
So long as the inundation deposited a thick deposit of fresh mud 
on the basin-lands every year, and a single crop was raised off the 
greater part of the area, the land could go on producing crops inde- 
finitely, but now that most of the land Is irrigated throughout the 
year a very small amount of the mud is deposited, while two or more 
crops are raised annually. To meet this, manuring in a much more 
systematic manner than hitherto has now become necessary, but as 
yet few cultivators have fully realized this. 

2. Irrigation. As a consequence of the works described on 
y., the whole of Egypt from Assiut to the Mediterranean, with 
tiie exception of a strip of land along the edge of the Western Desert 
and the right bank of the Nile above Cairo, has had its old system 
of flood-irrigation, i.e. a single watering by the annual inundation, 
replaced by a ])erennial supply furnished by innumerable canals 
and watercourses. In the inundation season (p. Ixiv) the sluice-gates 
of the dams are open and the red-brown flood rushes through them 
towards the plains of l\gypt. When the irrigation-basins are flUed 
up to a sufficient level, the water is left in them for about 40 days, 
to deposit its suspended mud and to soak the ground thoroughly. 
The perennially irrigated lands of the provinces of Middle Egypt 
;in(l the Delta receive only so much water as the standing crops 
ru([uire, since these districts cannot be inundated. They, therefore, 
under the present intensive cultivation receive a very much smaller 
amount of mud from the flood-water than the land v/hich has basin- 
irrigation, and this has to be compensated by extensive manuring. 

Briefly stated, the annual routine after the end of the inundation 
is as follows. In November, when the Nile is falling and the whole 
country is amply supplied, the sluice-gates of the Assuan Dam are 
gradually closed, so as to fill the reservoir slowly. This is usually 
accomplished about the end of January. The gates of the Esneh, 
Assiut, and Delta barrages are similarly manipulated so as to main- 
tain the ne(;essary depth of water \n the supply-canals. In April the 

Ixxil II. GEOGRAPHICAL AND e. Agriculture: 

supply falls below the requirements of the country, and, besides 
drawing upon the supply of the reservoir, it then often becomes 
necessary to restrict land-owners on different parts of a canal to 
drawing water from it in rotation. Periods of watering alternate 
with periods when the water is employed elsewhere. The intervals 
become longer as the river falls, and the supply steadily diminishes 
until the flood rises about the beginning of August. 

Above Assiiit flood irrigation still continues. About Aug. 20th 
the river has risen high enough to flow into the supply canals and 
basins; in these, when full, the water stands for 40 days. At the 
end of this period the clear water is allowed to flow back into the 
river, or, in the case of years when the flood is exceptionally low, 
into other basins at a lower level. On the mud thus left the seed is 
sown and a crop is grown without further watering. In years of in- 
sufficient flood the higher portions of the land are not watered; these 
lands are termed 'sharaki' and pay no tax when unwatered. 

The irrigation is effected by means of: (1) The ^Sdkiyeh\ or 
large wheels (rarely exceeding 30 I't. in diameter), turned by cattle 
or buffaloes, and sometimes by camels, and fitted with scoops or 
buckets (kddCis) of wood or clay, resembling a dredging-machine. 
(2) The ^Shuduf\ an apparatus resembling an ordinary 'well-sweep' 
(with bucket and counter-weight), set in motion by one person only, 
and drawing the water in buckets resembling baskets in appear- 
ance; as a substitute for the sakiyeh several shadufs are some- 
times arranged one above the other. (3) When it is possible to store 
the water in reservoirs above the level of the land to be watered, 
it is allowed to overflow the fields whenever required. This is the 
only method available in the oases, where fortunately the springs 
rise with such force as to admit of their being easily dammed up 
at a sufficiently high level. (4) Pumps driven by steam are used also, 
particularly when a large supply of water is required, as in the case 
of the sugar-plantations on the banks (gefs) of the Nile in the N. 
part of Upper Egypt, where they are seen in great numbers. (5) The 
Taftut', a peculiar, very light, and easily moved wooden wheel, 
which raises the water by means of numerous compartments in the 
hollow felloes, is used mainly in the Lower Delta in places where 
the level of the water in the canals remains nearly the same. — 
Archimedean screws also are found in the Delta, and in the Faiyum 
there are undershot water-wheels. Occasionally irrigation is efl'ected 
by means of a basket (nattdl) slung on a rope between two labourers. 
In order to distribute tlie water equally over fiat fields, these are 
sometimes divided into a number of small squares by means of 
embankments of earth, a few inches in height, which, owing to the 
great plasticity of the Nile mud, are easily opened or closed so as to 
regulate the height of the water within them. The efforts of govern- 
ment as mentioned on p. Ixvi are directed towards the emanci- 
pation of agriculture from dependence upon the inundation. 

Seasons. POLITICAL NOTES. liiiii 

3. AoRicuLTUEAii Sbasons. Ill the time of the Pharaohs the 
Egyptian agricultural year, which originally began on July 19th, 
■was divided into three equal parts, each consisting of four months 
of 30 days: the period of the inundation, winter, and summer. At 
the present day there are, strictly speaking, but two seasons: the 
hot season lasting from May to September and a cooler one from 
November to March , while October and April are intermediate 
months; but the effect which the annual Nile flood has upon the 
agriculture of the country rather than upon the ilimate has caused 
the period from July to October to bu considered as a third season. 

(a) The Winter Cultivation, or ^Esh-Shittvi\ lasts on the flooded 
lands of Upper Egypt from November till April; on perennially 
irrigated land the winter- sowing takes place from October onwards, 
while tlie grain-harvest is reaped in April in Middle Egypt and in 
May in the Delta. In this season the principal crops are wheat, 
barley, beans, and barsim (clover). 

(I)) The Summer Crops (Es-Seifi) may be considered as growing 
from May to August in the basin -lands and to October wherever 
tliere is perennial irrigation. The principal crops are rice, which is 
sown in May and harvested in October, and cotton, sown in March 
and picked in September and October. Most of the latter is grown 
from seed, but a limited amount is grown from two-year-old plants 
which have been cutback. On basin-lands of Upper Egypt where 
sufficient water from wells is available a crop of durra (millet) is 
grown and harvested before the flood-water arrives. 

(c) The Autumn Season ('En- Mi', or flood) is the shortest, 
lasting barely seventy days. On the rich land of the Delta maize is 
grown. A large crop of durra is raised on the perennially irrigated 
lands of Upper Egypt, and a considerable amount also grown on 
those which are not reached by the inundation. This crop is cut 
about November. 

The Agricultuk.\i, Implements of tbe Egyptians are exceedingly 
primitive and defective. The chief of these is the plough (mihrdi), the 
form of which is precisely the same as it was 5000 years ago; and the 
traveller will recognize it on many of the monuments and in the system 
of hieroglyphics. It consists of a pole about 6ft. long, drawn by an ox, 
buffalo, or other draucht-animal, attached to it by means of a yoke, 
while to the other end is f;i>tened a piece of wood bent inwards at an 
acute angle and shod with a three-pronged piece of iron (lisdn). Con- 
nected with the pole is the handle which is held by the fellah. These 
rude and light ploughs penetrate .but slightly into the ground. The 
harrow is replaced in Kgypt by a roller provided with iron spikes (kum- 
/ud , literally 'hedgehog'). The only tool used by the natives on their 
fields, or in making embankments of earth, is a kind of hoe or shovel 
(migrafeh, fas, toriyeh). The process of reaping consists in cutting the 
grain with a sickle (mingal), or simply uprooting it by hand. The ndraff, 
or 'threshing-sledge", consists of a kind of sledge resting on a roller 
provided with sharp semicircular pieces of iron, and drawn by oxen or 
buffaloes. This primitive machine, being driven over the wheat, peas, 
or lentils to be threshed, crashes the stalks and ears and set.? free th« 
grain or seeds. 

lxx.iv U. GEOGRAPHICAL AND c. Ayriculture : 

4. Farm Pkoduce op Egti't. The following is an enumeration of all 
the most important industrial crops cultivated in Egypt. On hearing the 
names of those with which he is unacquainted, the traveller may identify 
them with the aid of the Arabic names given below. The various pro- 
ducts are enumerated in the order of their importance. 

a. Cereals. 1. Wheat (kamh). 2. Slaize (dura shdmi, i.e. Syrian; 
called in Syria dura only). 3. Barley (shi'ir). 4. Rice (ruzz), cultivated 
only in the lower part of the Delta of Alexandria and Rahmaniyeh, as 
fa,r as Mansura, Zakazik, Sillihiyeh, and the Wadi Tumilat, and also in 
the Faiyum and in the oases of the Libyan desert. 5. Sorghum vulgare 
(dura beledi, i.e. durra of the country; simply called dura in the Sudan; 
Ital. sort/ho, Engl. Ka.ffir-corn, and the Tyrolese sirch). G. Pennisetuni 
typhoideum (dukhn). 

b. LEGDMiNons Plants. 1. Broad beans (f&l). 2. Lentils {'ads). 3. 
Chick-peas (/(r^mmw^;. 4. Lupins (^to'jnisj. b.Vea.s{bisilla). 6. Vigna Sinensis 
(mbiya). 7. Dolichos Lablab (lablab), which is very frequently seen fes- 
tooning walls and hedges, but is grown also in fields (lilbiya afin). 

c. Green Crops. 1. White Egyptian clover (barsim). 2. Foenum 
Grsecum (helbeh), frequently ground into flour and used in making bread ; 
also generally eaten raw by the natives in spring ; not to be confounded 
with clover. .3. Medicago sativa, or lucerne (barsim hegdzi). 4. Lathyrus 
.sativus, or flat pea (gilbdn). 5. Sorghum halepense (gerau). 

d. Stimulants. Poppies, for the manufacture of opium (afiUn). — The 
growth and importation of Indian hemp (hashish; see p xxvi) and the 
cultivation of tobacco (dukhkhdii) are forbidden, the latter measure being 
in the interest of the customs-revenues. 

e. Textile Materials. 1. Cotton (kutn) , introduced from India in 
1821, but extensively cultivated since 1863 only. 2. Flax (killdn). 3. Hibis- 
cus cannabinus (til). 4. Sisal hemp, or Agave rigida. 

f. Dyes. 1. Indigo argentea, a peculiar kind (iiileh). 2. Lawsonia 
inermis (henna)., used for dyeing the nails, the palms of the hands, and 
the soles of the feet yellowish red fa very ancient custom) ; properly a 
tree, but, like the tea-plant, cultivated in fields in the form of a dwarfed 
bush. 3. Saffron (karlam or 'osfur). 4. Reseda Luteola (bliya), used as 
a yellow dye. 

g. Oil Plants. 1. Castor-oil plant (kharwa'). 2. Sesame (simsim). 

3. 'Ra'P^ (selgam). 4. Mustard (khardal, or kabar). 5. Arachides, or earth- 
nuts (fUl senndri, or simply fUl). 6. Saffron (as an oil-yielding plant). 
7. Poppy (as an oil-plant). 

h. Spices. 1. Capsicum annuum, the Italian peperone (Jil.fil ahmar). 
2. Capsicum frutescens, or Cayenne pepper (shatla). 3. Aniseed (yansUn). 
i. CoTianier (kusbareh). 0. Cummin (kammHn). ^i'.'WigeWa, (kammUii aswad). 
7. Dill (shabat). 8. Mustard. 9. Fennel (shamar). 

i. The Sugau Cane (kasab) is largely cultivated in the N. part of 
Upper Egypt (comp. p. Ixxii). An inferior variety, which is eaten raw, 
introduced from India in the time of the caliphs, is cultivated in every 
part of the country. 

k. Vegetables. 1. Bamyas, or Hibiscus esculentus (bdmiya). 2. On- 
ions (basal).! one of the chief exports of Egypt. 3. Pumpkins (kar'a). 

4. Cucumbers (khiijdr). 5. Egyptian cucumbers (frequently trumpet-shaped 
and ribbed; different varieties csWa^'abdeldwi., 'aggUr^ etc.). 6. Melons 
(kdw&n ; musk-melons, shammdm). 7. Water-melons (battikh). 8. Aubergines 
(hddingdn). 9. Tomatoes (iamdlim). 10. Corchorus oli'torius (meWkhiyeh). 
ii. Col(:ica,aia,(kulkds). i2. GutUc (tdm). 13. Mallows ('i7(«66e»zeA). 14. Cab- 
bage (korumb). 15. Celery (karafs). 16. Radishes, a peculiar kind, with 
fleshy leaves, which form a favourite article of food (figl). 17. Lettuces 
(khass). 18. Sorrel (kommeid). 19. Spinach (i.ibdnikh). 20. Parsley (bak- 
d&nis). 21. Purslane ((•«5''«ft). 22. Turnips (/?/0. 23. Carrots (j'e^ej', a peculiar 
kind, with red juice). 24. Beetroot (bangar). 26. Cress (Eruca sativa; 
gargir). A variety of other vegetables are cultivated in small quantities 

n gardens, exclusively for the use of European residents. 


5. Tkkks and Plantations. The extensive planting of trees 
since the middle of the 19th cent, has introduced a new feature into 
the Egyptian landscape. In ancient times most of the timber re- 
quired for sliip-huilding and other purposes seems to have been 
imported from abroad. Mohammed Ali, a great patron of horti- 
culture, at one time offered prizes for the planting of trees, but his 
efforts Avere unattended with success, as the climatic and other diffi- 
culties attending the task were then but imperfectly understood in 
Egypt. Ibrahim followed the example of his predecessor, but 'Abbas I. 
and Sa'id were sworn enemies to trees of every kind, and they were 
content that their palaces should be exposed to the full glare of the 
sun. A new epoch, however, began when the Khedive Isma'il sum- 
moned to Egypt M. Barillet ( 18691, superintendent of the gardens 
of Paris, one of the most skilful landscape-gardeners of the day. 
The finest of the shade-trees, both on account of its umbrageousness 
and the excellence of its wood, and one which thrives admirably, is 
the lebbakh (Albizzia Lebbek\ which has long been erroneously 
called by travellers the acacia of the Nile (the latter being properly 
the sunt tree). Within forty years the lebbakh attains a height of 
80 ft. and a great thickness, while the branches project to a long 
distance over the roads, covering them with a dense leafy canopy 
within a remarkably short time. Among the most important of the 
other kinds of trees thus planted are the magnificent 'Flamboyer 
des Indes' (Poinciana pulcherrima), the rapidly-growing Jacaranda, 
Casuarina, and Eucalyptus, tropical fig-trees, and several rare 
varieties of palms. 

The lommonest Tkees of an Earlier Period which the trav- 
eller will encounter in every town in Egypt are the following : — 
The Acacia Nilotica (sunt), the thorn-tree of antiquity, the pods 
(karad) of ^Yhich, resembling the beads of a rosary, yield an excel- 
lent material for tanning purposes. Next to the palm, this is the 
tree most frequently seen by the wayside and in the villages. Then, 
the Acacia Farnesiana (fufnch), with blossoms of delicious perfume ; 
the sycamore (gemmeiz)., anciently considered sacred ; the zizyphus, 
or Christ's thorn -tree (neb/c); tamarisks (atl); the Parkinsonia 
(seiseban); mulberry -trees (tut); and carob- trees, or bread of 
St. John (kharrxLb). 

Among the Fruit Trees the most important is the date-palm 
(Phoenix dactyliftra, naktda; the date, halah; the ribs of the leaf, 
yerid ; the points ('f the leaf, sanf; the terminal bud, gummdr; the 
bast, t7f). In 1907 there were 5,966,010 date-palms in Egypt. 
The date-palms blossom in March and April, and the fruit ripens 
in August and September. Fre;h dates are rough in appearance, 
blood-reil or pale yellow in colour, and harsh and astringent in 
taste. Like the medlar they become more palatable after fermen- 
tation has set in. There are no fewer than twenty-seven kinds of 
date commonly offered for sale. The large.'^t attain a length of three 

Ixxi^i II. GEOGRAPHICAL AND e. Agriculture. 

inches, and are called ibrtmi, or sukkoti, as they come from N. Nubia. 
The most delicately flavoured are the dark-brown dates from Alexan- 
dria, known as amhdt, which are eaten fresh. The value of the 
dates exported annually amounts to about one million francs only, 
as they realize too high a price in the country itself to remunerate 
the exporter. — The dum-palm (Hyphaena Thebaica) occurs prin- 
cipally in Upper Egypt and Nubia. It may be seen on the Nile above 
Baliana (comp. p. 244). It is a broad-leafed palm of medium height, 
and its timber and bast are of considerable value. Various objects 
are made out of the hard kernel of the fruit, whilethe soft and fibrous 
rind is edible and has a sweetish taste, not unlike that of ginger- 
bread. — The mango-tree (Mangifera Indica) has recently been in- 
troduced into the Delta for the sake of its fruit. 

The vine thrives admirably in Egypt, and grapes ('inah) abound 
from July to September. Wine was extensively made from them 
in ancient times, and this might still easily be done, were it not 
that Egypt is already amply supplied with cheap and excellent 
wines from every part of the Mediterranean. The vine blossoms in 
March and April, like the palm, and the grapes ripen in June and 
July. Oranges (burtukdn) are abundant and cheap (the harvest be- 
ginning in September), and so also are mandarins ('■Yusuf Effendi ) 
and small lemons {lamun; the small and juii^y fruit of the Citrus 
limonium) ; citrons and cedros are of less frequent occurrence. 
Among other fruit-trees we may mention also the pomegranate 
(rummdn), which yields a handsome return. The common European 
fruits likewise abound, but their flavour is generally very inferior. 
Figs (tin) are very common in summer, but caprification is not 
practised in Egypt. 

The principal Decorative Plants are roses (ward; of which 
the Rosa Damascena moschata and Rosa sempervirens are specially 
cultivated for the manufacture of attar of roses), oleanders of aston- 
ishing height, carnations, and geraniums, all of which have been 
grown in Egypt from a very early period. A bushy tree, which in 
its half-leafless condition attra<"ts the attention of every traveller on 
landing at Alexandria in winter , is the Poinsettia (Euphorbia 
pulcherrima). The insignificant blossom is surrounded by leaves 
of the most brilliant red, presenting a very picturesque and strik- 
ing appearance. Natural forests, or even solitary wild trees, are 
never met with in the valley of the Nile or in the valleys of the nor- 
thern deserts. 

f. Climate of Egypt. 

By Captain H. O. Lyom. 

The blue cloudless sky, the powerful sunlight, and the dry 

vrarm air are among the first facts that strike the traveller on his 

arrival in Egypt; and his surprise increases when he observes that 

f. Climate. 



the conditions remain uniform day after day, and are, in short, so 
generally the rule that 'the weather ceases to be a topic of conver- 
sation. If from the top of the hills or cliffs bordering the Nile valley 
to the S. of Cairo he looks out on the boundless deserts on either 
side, the visitor will realize at once that Egypt is practically a part 
of the Sahara, a verdant strip of fertile soil, 8-12 M. wide, depend- 
ent for its existence upon the Nile; and that the refreshing purity 
of the atmosphere is essentially due to the proximity of the desert. 

Strictly speaking there are but two seasons (comp. p. Ixxiiij. 
During the summer-months (May-Sept.) there prevails throughout 
the whole of Egypt dry and hot weather, tempered by steady northerly 
\vinds, but in the other half of the year, and especially in December, 
January, and February, the storms of the Mediterranean exercise 
so much effect on the Delta that comparatively cold weather, witli 
cloudy days, is sometimes experienced as far as Cairo and even up 
to Benisueif. The temperature is sometimes high even in winter, 
but the dryness of the air prevents it from being trying, while as 
soon as the sun gets low the temperature falls so rapidly as to 
necessitate precautions against a chill. 

The mean maximum and minimum temperatures at some of the 
more important points are given in the following table: 

1 January 

April 1 July October 

















Alexandria .... 









Cairo ('Abbasiyeh) 



























Wadi Haifa. . . . 










In spite of the essential dryness of the climate, the rapid fall 
of temperature at night causes morning-fog to be common in the 
Nile Valley in winter. It is, however, rapidly dissipated when the 
sun rises, and the rapid drying of the air as the day advances is 
shown in the following table. 

Percentage of Relative Humidity. 






Alexandria .... 






Cairo ('Abbasiyeh) 


















Wadi Haifa. . . . 






Rain is rare in Upper Egypt, a slight shower in winter being 
the most that is usually recorded. Heavier rain-bursts take place 

Ixxviii II. GEOGRAPHICAL NOTfeS. f. Climate. 

not infrequently iii the desert, and on rare occasions extend to the 
Nile Valley. 

At Cairo rain usually falls on 4-6 days in the year, the average 
amount being about one inch. In some years, however, as much as 
two inches are recorded, while in others hardly any rain falls. 

At Alexandria and on the coast the regular winter-rains of the 
Mediterrean occur, and the average annual rainfall is 8-10 inches, 
most of which falls in November-February. 

From Assiut southwards the prevalent winds blow from the N. 
throughout the year, being slightly to the E. of N. i]i the spring- 
months and more to the W, in the late summer. In winter and spring 
dry S. winds occur occasionally. In the N. portion of the country 
the winds are more variable, for although N. winds prevail, S. and 
S.W. winds may continue for several days in the winter and are a 
great hindrance to the sailing craft on the Nile at this season. These 
S. winds are due to the Mediterranean winter-storms, which sweep 
by from W. to l]., and if they follow a track between Crete and 
Egypt produce S. winds blowing from the Egyptian deserts towards 
the storm-centre. The winds blowing from the open desert are cold 
and by their dryness seem to be even colder than they really are, 
so that visitors to Cairo in the winter-months may experience the 
sensation of a somewhat greater degree of fold thaTi wonld be ex- 
pected from the temperatures quoted above. 

The spring-storms of the Mediterranean are nlso primarily the 
cause of the Khamastn or hot S. wind which occasionally blows for 
two or three days at a time in March, April, and May. This wind 
blows from the heated deserts and often attains considerable strength, 
carrying with it sand and dust until a thick yellow fog may prevail, 
sufficiently dense to hide the sun. The shade temperature under 
these conditions frequently exceeds 100" Fahr. 

On the desert-plateau the range of temperature is ,it all times 
of the year considerably greater than in the valley, while the dryness 
is much greater. In the valley the temperature varies comparatively 
little and sinks to freezing point only for very brief periods. On the 
desert-plateau, however, the thermometer often stands at the freez- 
ing point and may even fall several degrees below it. 


HI. El-Islam. 

Bp lYo/essor C. H. Becker. 

The term Islam is used to connote the peculiar civilization of 
the Nearer East, which owes its characteristic features to the spread 
of the Arabs and to the reli.cion of Mohammed. However stranp:e 
and novel it may appear to us at first sight, it is nevertheless based 
upon the same general principles as the civilization of media;val 
Europe, from which it differs mainly in being represented by other 
peoples and other races, to whom the brilliant intellectual develop- 
ment of Europe has been denied. 

■i The rise of El-Islam has become historically intelligible only 
within recent years. Formerly it was tacitly assumed on all hands 
that the Arabs had imposed upon the East not only a new language, 
but also a new, specifically Arab, civilization. This view agreed 
with Christian conceptions, which recognized in islam only a new 
religion and founded its opposition to Arab dominion on religious 
and ecclesiastical motives only. In Christian eyes Mohammed was 
identified with Antichrist; he instigated his barbarian hordes to 
hurl themselves iipon the Christian countries of the P]ast in order to 
convert them to Islam by the sword; the oourseof development since 
antiquity was abruptly broken off; and the Islamic Arab civilizatioTi 
superseded its early-Christian predecessor. When, with such pre- 
conceptions as these, the Arabian historical sources were consulted, 
they seemed at first to yield confirmation. The Arab tradition was as 
ecclesiastically coloured as the European; there, too, ^ the starti!'.g- 
point was Moliammed and the Arab migrations; Mohammed and 
the early Caliphs were supposed to have reorganized everything 
and to have rreatcd, in all essentials, the new Islamic civilization. 
As a matter of fact, the erroneousness of all these current concep- 
tions cannot be too emphatically insisted on. 

In the first place it must bc^ clearly understood^that thc^^trium- 
phant campaigns of the Mohammedans were nothing else than an 
Arab Migration^ the latest and, for us, the most obvious of the great 
Semitic migrations, abu'^olutcly analogous with the great migrations 
of the Germanic peoples in Europe. The main difference between 
the Arab and the German ic~migrations is this, viz. that the Arabs, 
owing to their religious organization, were directed by a central 
authority, so that the establishment of a homogeneous Islamic em- 
pire became a possibility. 'It was not religious zeal, it was not 
the fiery words of an inspired prophet that urged the Arabs on 
their warlike mission to the outer world ; simple necessity, the long 
continued economic decline of Arabia, in a word sheer hunger, 
drove them into tjic rich lands of the settled countries. The move- 
ment had begun centuries before Mohammed. The tribes of Inner 
Arabia were already on the move, a peaceful immigration of Arabs 
into Mesopotamia and Syria had already begun, and the standing 


hostility between Byzantium and Persia had many times led to 
incursions into the settled districts by the savage border-tribes of 
both empires. The tide had thus begun to flow long before Islam 
gave the movement a unifying watch-word and an organization. 
Universal dominion for the Arabs was the watch- word ; that was the 
interpretation put upon Islam by the conquerors, in sharp contrast 
with the initial position of their prophet. They had no thought 
of converting the defeated nations by force; so long as tribute was 
paid and Arab supremacy recognized, every religious and civil 
right was confirmed to the conquered. At first conversion to Islam 
was possible only by connecting the convert with the Arab tribal 
system as a client; then, as a Moslem, he became, in theory at 
least, a fully qualified burgess of the Islamic theocracy and no 
longer required to pay tribute. Thus the flood of converts to Islam 
soon became larger than was altogether pleasing to the Arabs; 
but the impelling force was not terror of the sword but the great 
economic advantages that attended the transition of a mere subject 
into even the lowest rank among the rulers. 

The key to a proper appreciation of Islamic civilization lies in 
a due understanding of the relations existing between the thin 
Arab upper layer and the huge underlying mass of their subjects. 
in the case of kindred peoples at least, it was easy for the Arabs to 
impose their language as the language of common intercourse; and 
for the reasons given above their religion also was bound to spread. 
But for the rest the Arabs, comparatively few in number and on a 
lower stage of culture, could hardly hope to stamp a new civili- 
zation upon the highly-developed inhabitants of the ancient empire. 
In each new-won province, therefore, they simply took over the 
arrangements for governing as they found them, and with them 
all the problems of economic and intellectual life. Even their reli- 
gion, in order to be effective, was forced to come to an under- 
standing with the existing ecclesiastical conceptions of expiring 
antiquity. The religion of Islam, born of the religious -spirit of W. 
Asia, did not of its own strength impose upon a population of a 
widely different nature that religious temper which is to this day 
characteristic of the Islamic world, permeating state and society, 
family and individual. On the contrary ; it was by the people of 
the conquered lands that Islam itself was converted to that view of 
existence, as we now see it, which infuses religion into everything ; 
for these new converts, in contrast with the religiously-indifferent 
Arabs, could neither do anything nor leave anything undone without 
bringing it into direct relation with God and the future life. We 
must therefore think of the early Islamic civilization, not as some- 
thing quite new, introduced from elsewhere by the Arabs, but as 
the self-assertion of the remarkable mixed civilization of the 
Near East which had developed in the course of the first six 
Christian centuries. In other words, Islam is the heir of the late- 


Hellenistic Christian civilizatioi\, which we must regard as the 
hybrid product of Greek and Asiatic feelings and philosophy. 

When that point is established Islamic civilization falls into its 
natural position in the general scheme of the historical develop- 
ment of the wovhl. From the days of Alexander the Great down to 
the Roman imperial epoch the East had been forced to bow to 
European ideas and to submit to European domination. But just as 
in the days of the early emperors the Hellenic spirit was suffocat- 
ed in the embrace of the Orient and the classical world hungrily 
assimilated the cults and religions of the East; so an ethnical re- 
naissance of the East began in the second century and the Semitic 
element steadily asserted itself beneath the Hellenistic surface. 
With the spread of the Arabs the Orient once more achieved an 
independence in the political sphere, corresponding to that which 
had slowly been growing in the intellectual sphere. The first result 
of the political union of the whole of the Near East was that the 
Greek intellectual impulses there, cut off from their original sources 
of inspiration and operating only through Semites, were submerged 
by orientalism. On the other hand the seeds of Asiatic civilization 
found fresh nourishment in the new whole formed by the permanent 
political connection between the Near East and Western Asia; and 
the Asiatic reaction against the comprehensive expansion of the 
Greek spirit operated until far on in the Islamic period. Thus Is- 
lamic civilization finds its organic connection with and place in the 
general course of history. Further, we recognize another important 
bond of connection; for, if Islam simply carried Christian civiliza- 
tion a step farther, we are no longer surprised by the profound 
inner relationship between the mental outlook of medisBval Christ- 
ianity and that of Islam ; both systems are based upon the common 
foundation of the Greek-Oriental civilization of Christian antiquity. 
The Arabs on the one hand consistently stressed the oriental ele- 
ments in this civilization; while on the other hand, on European 
soil, the Germanic spirit turned farther and farther away from these 
and elaborated from its inner consciousness the typical western 
forms of the middle ages. 

From these fundamental principles it becomes clear why Arabia 
could not permanently remain the seat of the caliphate. Damascus 
superseded Medina. It was only in the agitated period of the Arab 
empire, the period of expansion, that the artificial condition of 
the political supremacy of the Arabs over subjects superior to theiu 
in culture could be maintained. In the long run the economic 
and intellectual influence of the subjugated races was bound to 
tell and the deposition of the Arab ruling class was inevitable. 
The levelling influence of Islam, as it was understood by the over- 
whelming majority of its converts, destroyed the economic basis of 
the Arab dominion and with it the prerogatives of the Arabs as 
such. The net results of the Arab period of Islamic civilizatiou 

Bakdekkr's EeTT)t. 7th Edit. f 

Ixxxii III. EL-ISLAM. 

were a simple continuance of previously existing elements of civili- 
zation, an advance to a kind of syncretism among the varied civili- 
zations of the Near East, and the spread of the Arah tongue and 
the religion of Islam. 

By-and-by the people that was nationally the strongest and 
the most advanced in culture within the wide empire of the caliphs 
began to assert itself. That people was the Persians, whose civili- 
zation even in pre-Islamic days had permeated the Near East and 
was, indeed, the chief factor in orientalizing it. It is almost im- 
possible to exaggerate the Importance of the Persian element in 
Islamic civilization, which is so often erroneously spoken of as 
Arabian. If we are to connect that civilization with the name of 
any one people, it must be with the name of the Persians; for all 
the notable achievements of the period of the caliphs, the sump- 
tuous buildings, the works of literature, even the higher develop- 
ments of the religion of Islam, are utterly un- Arabian and, so 
far as they are not inspired by Greek influences, are due to the 
Persian spirit. Only the domain of law, so intimately connected 
with the beginnings of a religion, betrays the stamp of the Pro- 
phet's native land. The decisive ascendancy of the Persians is ap- 
parent enough in the facts that the Arabic language never estab- 
lished itself on Persian soil and that under the Abbaside caliphs 
it was a matter of course that court and government, architecture 
and literature, should be modelled after ancient Persian patterns. 
Moreover, when the separate provinces developed into indepen- 
dent kingdoms, it was the Persian rulers alone that followed local 
traditions, while, e.g., the Tnlunide sultans of Egypt could only 
imitate the Persianized Baghdad and the residence of the caliphs 
at Samarra, Even the civilization of the Fatimite empire was 
thoroughly Persian. 

The transference of the imperial residence from Damascus to 
Baghdad heralded a new era, and the Arabian military aristocracy 
was simultaneously changed into an absolute despotism on the 
ancient oriental pattern. This was the natural consequence of the 
deposition of the Arabs as a ruling caste (p. Ixxxi). The Arab 
aristocracy of birth was superseded by a bureaucratic aristocracy 
of Persian ofiicials , the free warriors sank into the condition of 
paid troops, and were finally replaced by an army of slaves. 

With these slaves, who were a constantly growing factor in the 
Islamic world from the 9th century onwards, the third great national 
element powerfully affecting Islam enters upon the scene. The 
Turks, appearing at first in groups of slaves but afterwards as strong 
tribes from Central Asia, introduced fresh traditions and new forms 
' into the empire of the caliphs. This third phase in the develop- 
ment of Islam begins with the appearance of the Seljuks, the most 
powerful of these Turkish tribes. The union of the empire had 
long before begun to crumble, but the Seljuks for a time postponed 

m. EL-ISLAM. Ixxxiii 

its disintegration. Egypt, indeed, at first stood out against tliem, 
but even Egypt in the long run was unable, to repel the tide of 
Seljuk influence ; and Turkish civilization penetrated to the Nile 
under Saladin, who himself stood upon the ruins of the Seljuk 
power. The religious reaction was accompanied by a change in 
ecclesiastical architecture (p. clxxx), and the establishment of a 
feudal system (very different indeed from the European system) coin- 
cided with a total alteration of all titles of honour. The traditions 
of Saladin's epoch were carried on in all departments by the Mame- 
lukes, whose influence is most conspicuous in Egypt; while the 
continuous reinforcements from Central Asia conduced at the same 
time to the growing accentuation of the Asiatic elements. The 
Mongol invasion, which finally overthrew the Seljuk civilization in 
Asia, came to a halt before the gates of Egypt. Egypt's brilliant 
period ended only when she lost her political independence and 
became subject to a foreign people from Central Asia, viz. the 
Osman Turks (1517"). 

A glance over the historical development thus briefly sketched 
shows at once why the Islamic civilization cannot properly be named 
after any particular nation ; from the very first it was a hybrid civi- 
lization resting upon the international basis of religion. Yet amid 
all the mingling of the various constituent elements, amid all the 
confused shiftings of peoples, one unifying principle is clear: wi- 
the steady growth of Asiatic Ideas. Ante-dating Islam, the process 
had begun in a reaction against Greek intellectual supremacy and 
Koman political dominion; European fetters were burst asunder and 
shaken off; and in the course of subsequent development both the 
Near East and Egypt passed under the direct influence of Asiatic 
conceptions, first in the intellectual and finally also in the political 
sphere. Rut that accomplished, the vital ethnic force and the in- 
tellectual energy of Asia were exhausted. This is the true reason of 
the striking decline of Islam under Osman rule. Its civilization 
has culminated; strength fails it for a renaissance. At the present 
day, just as in the Hellenistic period, the European spirit and Euro- 
pean domination are pressing forward in the East. This western move- 
ment in the historical process will certainly be followed by an eastern 
reaction. In any case only the form and not the essence will be com- 
mon to the East and West in the intellectual sphere so long as racial 
difl'erences exist amon^ nations. 

Doctrines of £1-Isl&m + . El-Islam counts to-day about 260 mil- 
lion confessors, mostly in Asia and Africa, but to be found in all 
the other continents also, including Australia. It is rapidly extend- 
ing, especially in Africa. Almost the entire population of Egypt 
(about 913/4 per cent) is Mohammedan. 

+ Partly from the former article by the late Prof. A. Socin. 

Ixxxiv TIT. EL-TSrAM. 

Mohammed^ the founder of the religion, son of 'Abdalldh, was 
born at Mecca about 570 A.D. and at the age of forty announced him- 
self as a prophet. As he found no acceptance in his native Mecca, 
he emigrated in 622 to Medina. This was the famous Hegrra or Uljra 
(quite erroneously translated 'flight'), the date of which, on the in- 
troduction of the Mohammedan calendar, was fixed as 16th Jtxly, 622. 
At Medina he met with more success, and from the position of a 
kind of magistrate he rose to be the head of a new state. After years 
of fighting he captured Mecca in 630, but two years later he died at 
Medina in the prime of life. Mohammed never represented himself 
as anything beyond a mortal man, but in legend, which in the East 
lias the authority of history, he is invested \\ith the halo of the 
miraculous. God, it is said, created the Light of the Prophet even 
before the creation of the divine throne; and this Light wandered 
through all the generations of men until it manifested itself at the 
centre of the world in the best of created beings, a noble scion of 
the noblest family of Mecca. Angels, opening the breast of the 
boy, expunged the last drop of sin from his heart. A little later the 
Archangel Gabriel brought him the Kevelations, the Korans, which 
were then formed into a book. Mohammed wrought many miracles 
and even raised the dead to life, as in the case of his parents, who 
turned their brief resurrection to account by embracing Islam. Among 
his most celebrated feats was the splitting of the moon and his 
nocturnal journey (mi'rSg) on a miraculous steed from Jerusalem to 
heaven, where he treated with the Deity as to the number of prayers 
to be offered by the faithful. 

The starting-point of Mohammed's teaching was the conception 
of the Last Judgment. Borrowing the conviction of a future life and 
of future rewards and punishments from the Jews and Christians, who 
were found all over Arabia, Mohammed exhorted his careless fellow- 
countrymen, who lived merely from day to day, to adopt a more 
serious conception of life. Paradise and hell were drawn by him in 
striking colours. The idea of the Judgment involves the idea of a 
just and single deity; from the beginning, therefore, Mohammed had 
to preach the strictest monotheism in opposition to the fetishism of 
the Arabs. This he named IdCini, i.e. resignation to the will of God. 
He believed at first that Christianity and Judaism were identical, 
and he desired to bring the same glad gospel to the Arabs. When he 
learned the real historical relation of these faiths, he postulated an 
ascending series of revelations, culminating in Islam. At Medina he 
at first endeavoured to accommodate himself to the doctrines of the 
Jewish community there, but soon finding this impossible he shook 
himself free of both Christian and Jewish fetters, although he sdll 
adhered to Abraham (Ibrahim), who was venerated by Jews and 
Christians alike and was, moreover, according to the Bible Ihe an- 
cestor, through Ishmael, of the Arabs. The ancient temple of stone 
at Mecca, the Kaaba (^Ka'ba, i.e. cube), became to him an analogue of 

m. EL-ISLAM. Ixxxv 

iLo temple of Jenisalein. The entire native creed of tlie Meccaiis was 
le-iuterpreted on an Abrahauiistit basis, so tbat its incorporation 
with Islam was rendered possible. On the other hand the reception 
of Islam by the Meccans was equally facilitated. In addition to this 
assertion of religious independence the Begira had another conse- 
quence of great moment for the future of Islam: the position of 
the Prophet as also the head of a state entailed a mingling of polit- 
ical and religious life. And as a matter of fact the present maik- 
edly political character of Islam is a result of this short-lived 
tlieocracy. Mohammed further had dollnite conceptions of a revealed 
religion, for whicli he deemed necessary a sacred book, a prophet, 
and a fixed ritual with recitations and liturgies. But at the date of 
his death neither Islamic law nor dogma, not even the number of 
daily prayers, was lixed and determined. The comprehensive system 
now known as the religion of Islam gradually grow uj) in the course 
of time. 

The foundation is the Koran (p. Ixxxix), the very word of God, 
which was collected and published as early as 650 A.D. This con- 
tains few rescripts or laws. Next to it as a rule of conduct ranks the 
Sunna, the practice of the Prophet and his earliest associates. To 
follow this example in all its details became, doubtless under the 
influence of the Jewish spirit, the aim of every believer. The Siiuua 
was glossed by the sayings of the Prophet and by reports as to his 
practice and as to the things that he suffered to happen without 
comment. These formed the traditions or Hadiths. Originally the 
Ifadiths were substantially genuine, but in the course of the general 
effort to live as the Prophet did they Anally became the literary 
vehicles of religious controversy. To sift them and to harmonize 
their contradictory sayings has given rise to a science of itself. In 
this process the consensus or agreement of the learned (Igmd') was 
the deciding authority, which thus became axxthoritative over the 
Sunna, and indeed over the Koran itself, for only the Igma' was able 
rightly to interpret the Koran. The early scholars of Islam too re- 
ceived the Igma' as the most important principle of development 
next to the Sunna and the Koran. 

Founded on the Koran, the Sunna, and thelgma', Mohammedan Law 
has been developed into a canonical system, embracing every depart- 
ment of life, in the manner of the Jewish and Christian systems. 
When the Arabs became masters of the ancient civilized countries 
of the Near East, there arose at once a crop of unforeseen legal pro- 
blems, which had to be solved according to the Sunna, or at least in 
their spirit. The impulse to independent legal activity in the newly- 
conquered lands was given (as in the 'Irak by Abu Hariifa^ d. 767) 
by the pre - Justinian Roman law that had been accepted by the 
Christian church. Against this intellectual independence, which 
allowed room for differences of opinion, arose the orthodox party at 
Medina (iWuii.t Ihn Anas; d. 795), who admitted only the letter of 


the ancient tradition. Afterwards a cotopiomise was attained by tbe 
admission of analogous decisions (Kiyas), as a legal-theological prin- 
ciple [Esh- Shdfi'i, d. 820). A considerable number of schools of 
jurisprudence (madhhab, pi. madhdhib) arose, named after their 
founders ; but of these only four tinally survived : the Mdlikites, Hane- 
fites, Shdfi'ites, and Hanbalites (^pronounced Hambalites). In Egypt 
the Shafi^ites and Malikites are most influential to-day ; in Turkey, 
the Hanefites; in West Africa, the Malikites. The Hanbalites, re- 
stricted to Arabia, are of inferior importance. Every believer must 
belong to one or other of these rites or schools (which are not 
sects). They mutually recognize each other as orthodox and differ 
only in their distribution of actions among the five recognized classes 
of 'commanded', 'recommended', 'indifferent', 'blameworthy', and 
'forbidden'. The science of law is known as Fikh (recognition). It 
forms practically the entire sphere of Islamic mental activity. Its 
results, varying slightly according to the rites and adapting them- 
selves to the interpretation of each, constitute the Shert'a, or Shar', 
the holy law. It contains the collection of those precepts from the 
Koran and the Sunna that have been approved by the Igma' and are 
therefore authoritative. Certain later text-books also have attained 
a certain canonical authority. The theologian who is officially en- 
trusted with the exposition of the law is called Mufti, his decision 
Fetwd. The chief mufti bears the title Sheikh uH-lsldm. These ex- 
perts are necessary, for only the learned can grasp the eiijtire com- 
plicated system. These learned men ('Ulamd, sing. 'AUm) and 
jurists (Fukahd, sing. Fakth) resemble Jewish scribes rather than 
Christian priests. A sinner may reckon upon divine pardon even if 
he transgress the precepts of the Sheri^a daily or hourly, but if he 
doubt their theoretical authority he is an infidel. This is why Moham- 
medans are always ready to fly to arms when the Sheri'a is threatened. 
In practice they trouble themselves little about its precepts. 

The five pillars {i.e. chief duties) of Islam are the profession of the 
true faith (p. Ixxxviii), the repetition of the daily prayers, the pay- 
ment of the charitable tax, the fast during Ramadan, and the pilgrim- 
age to Mecca. Other matters dealt with by the Sheri'a are the laws 
relating to family duties, inheritance, and marriage ; the manage- 
ment of religious endowments ( Wakf, pi. Aukdf), which occupies a 
ministerial department in Egypt ; and the regulation of ceremonies 
and custom. The precepts of the law as regards these, being regarded 
as religious in the narrower sense, are carried out in practice as far 
as possible. In other matters, regarded as more theoretical (such as 
constitutional law, criminal law, the law of real property, and the 
law of obligations), local customary law ('Ada) has from the very 
first outweighed the Sheri'a. The distinction between the 'Ada, the 
commands of custom, and the Sheri'a, the commands of religion, is 
recognized in every sphere of Islamii" life. The extent to which the 
Sherfa prevails in any country is a measure of the real strength of 



Islam in that country. At times of fanatical excitement its prescrip- 
tions are fulfilled with unusual zeal. Among uneducated people the 
'Ada and the Sheri'a are naturally often identified. 

The hours of Pkatek (saldt) are proclaimeil live times a day by the 
muezzius (mn'eUdin) from the minarets of the mosques: (1) Maghrib, a 
little after sunset; {2)'Ishcft, nightfall, about l>/2 hour after sunset; (3) '%&/', 
daybreak; (4) pnhr, midday; (b)'Asr, afternoon, about 3 hours after mid- 
day. On Fridays the midday recital of prayer takes place three quarters 
of an hour eai'lier than usual and is followed by a sermon. Friday, how- 
ever, is not rejrardcd as a day of rest in the Christian sense. The sonorous 
call of the mue/./.in is as follows : AUdhu akbar (three times) ; afh/uidu anna 
Id ild/ia illatluh; ashhadu anna Huhammedan rasOlulldk (twice); fieiya 
'ala\jsaldh (twice); heiya 'ata'lfaldli (twice); AUdhu akbar (twice); Id ildha 
iUaiidh; i.e. 'Allah is greatest; I testify that there is no God but Allah, 
1 testily that Jlobammcd is the apostle of Allah; come to prayer; come to 
worship; Allah is greatest; there is no God but Allah'. — The duty of 

washing before prayer is enforced by the ritual. In the desert the faithful 
are permitted to use sand for this religious ablution. The person praying 
must remove his shoes or sandals and turn his face towards Mecca, as the 
Jews used to turn towards Jerusalem. He begins his orisons by lioldin;^ 
his hands to the lobes of hi^^ ears, then a little below his girdle, and he 
interrupts his recitations from the Koran with certain prostrations in a 
given order. The most usual prayer is the first Sureh of the Koran, one 
of the shortest, which is used as we employ the Lord's prayer. It is 
called el-fdtUa ('the commencing') and is to the following ertect: — 'In 
the name of God, the merciful and gracious. Praise be to God, the Lord 
of the worlds, the merciful and gracious, the Prince of the day of judg- 
ment; Thee we serve, and to Thee we pray for help; lead us in the right 
way of those to whom thou hast shown mercy, upon whom no wrath 
resteth, and who go not astray. Amen'. Alter praying the Moslem looks 
over his right, then over his left shoulder, in greeting to the two recording 
angels who write down his good and evil actions. 

The Charitable Ta.x (zakdt)- is a high religious ta.x upon properly 
graduated accirding to the kind of property, and earmarked for certain 

Ixxxviii 111. EL-ISLAM. 

purposes, cLietly charily and the 'holy war'. Now, however, it is paid ■ 
only by the very pious. But in relijiious rl=ings the zakat is an inexhaustible 
source of supply. A special kind of charitable tax, called the zaMt el-fitr, 
or tax for breaking the fast, is almost universal. 

For the Fast (^6m) of the month Ramadan, the third of the chief duties 
of Islam, comp. p.' xcvi. 

For the Pilgrimage to Mecca (hagg) the pilgrims assemble ut parti- 
cular points. Those from Egvpt usually proceed by sea to Jidda on the 
Ked Sea (p. 424). On approaching Mecca the pilgrims undress, laying aside 
even their headgear, and put on aprons and a piece of cloth over the left 
shoulder. They then perform the circuit of the Kaaba, kiss the black stone, 
hear the sermon on Mt. 'Arafat near Mecca, pelt Satan with stones in' the 
valley of Muua, and conclude their pilgrimage with a great sacrificial 
feast. On the day when this takes place at, Mecca, sheep are slaughtered 
and a festival called the Great Bairam (El-'Jd el-Kehir) is observed through- 
out all the Mohammedan countries. The conduct of the caravan, with 
the gifts presented to the town of Mecca, the escort, and other items, 
costs the Egyptian government more than 50,000i. annually. 

Other Religious PiiECEPTS forbid the use of intoxicating liquors or of 
the flesh of swine and the eating of the flesh of any animal not slaughter- 
ed in the prescribed fashion or of blood. The position of women is clear- 
ly defined. Every Moslem is permitted to have four wives at a time, 
though monogamy is the rule, owing to economic conditions. A woman 
has full rights under the law of property, but under the law of succes- 
.^ion and as a witness she is regarded as equivalent only to half a man. 
The practice of veiling women, usual in the higher circles, is a matter 
coming under the 'ada not the sheri'a (p. Ixxxvi); except in the towns 
women are usually seen unveiled. The ease with which Islam permits 
divorce is a grave moral danger; in Mecca, for example, prostitution exists 
under the form of marriage. Further details as to Islamic law may be 
found in the 'Handbuch des islamischen Gesetzes'', hy Th. W. Juynboll of 
I.eyden (Leipzig, 1908-10; 9 marks), a work adapted for the layman as 
well as for the legal expert. 

Dogma by no means plays sucli an important part in Islam as in 
Christianity ; for the simple Moslem creed is embodied in the words : 
'There is no God but God (Allah) and Mohammed is the prophet 
of God'. But all the same lively controversies over dogma have not 
been absent in the development of Islam, mainly owing to the in- 
fluence of Grffico-Christian modes of thought. Just as in the sphere 
of law, we find here a literal and a speculative interpretation; and 
in the sphere of dogma also orthodoxy triumphed by adopting the 
speculative method in a modified form. The process of amalgama- 
tion is generally associated with the name of El-Ash'ari (d. 935). 
The questions most eagerly canvassed were those relating to the free- 
dom of the will, the attributes of God, and the nature of the Koran 
[i.e. whether it is 'eternal' or 'created'). The orthodox solutions of 
these problems are roughly as follows. There is but one God, in 
whom certain universal attributes inhere (knowledge, seeing, hear- 
ing, etc.), but who must not be conceived of under a human form. 
He is all-mighty and has therefore created also evil, which serves 
his purposes of salvation in a manner inconceivable by our limited 
human intelligence. Above all, God is the Creator, who at every 
moment re-creates all things. Causality is merely the creative opera- 
tion of the divine will. In this connection man is not free, for every- 
thing is immutably foreordained by God's will. God operates every- 

111. EL-LSLAM. Ixxxix 

thiug iu man, but, man is nevertheless responsible, according as 
he assents to or dissents from the operations of God. The Koran, 
like the Logos of the Christians, is conceived of as uncreated and 
co-existent with God from all eternity; hut on the other hand the 
Koran committed to the Prophet by the augel Gabriel is created. 
The cardinal points whicli every Moslem is bound to hold are the 
beliefs in God and the angels, in written ^e^elation and the pro- 
]>hets, and in the last judgment and predestination. 

God as'd thk Angels. Niuety-niue of the different altributes of God 
were afterwards gatbered t' the Eorun, each of whicli is represented 
by a bead of the Mo>lem ro^^ary. Great imporlauce is attached to the fact 
that the creation of the world was etlected by a simple ellort of the divine 
will. (God said 'Let there be", and there was.) The story ol the creation 
in the Koran is taken from the Bible, with variations fi'Oni Kabbinieal- 
Persian, and other sources. God iirst created his throne; beneath th>' 
throne was water; then the earth was formed. In order to kcei' the earth 
steady God created an angel and placed him on a huge rock, which iu 
its turn rests on the back and horns of the bull of the world. 

In connection with the creation of the Armament was that of the 
Jinn (demons), beings occupying a middle rank between men and angels, 
some of them believing others unbelieving. When the jinn became 
arrogant an angel was ordered to banish them, and he accordingly drove 
them to the mountains of Kaf by which the earth is sui-rounded, whence 
Ihey occasionally make incursions. Adam was then created, on the even- 
ing of the sixth day, and the Moslems on that account oh.^erve Friday a.s 
their Sabbath. As the angel who conquered the jinn refused to bow down 
before Adam, he was exiled and thenceforward called Jblit, or the devil. 
After this Adam himself fell and became a solitary wanderer, but was 
afterwards re-united to Eve at Mecca, where the sacred stone in the Kaabu 
derives its black colour from Adam's tears. Adam is regarded as the 
first Orthodox Moslem. 

The Angels are the bearers of God's throne and execute his commands. 
They act also as mediators between God and men. While there are legions 
of good angels, there are also innumerable satellites of Satan, who seduce 
men to error. 

Weiitkn Eevelation aso the Pkophets. The earliest men were all 
believers, but they afterwards fell away from the true faith. A revelation 
therefore became necessary. The prophets are very numerous, amountinii 
in all, it is said, to 124,000; but they difler very much in rank. They 
are free from all gross sins and are endowed Vjy God with power to work 
miracles, which power forms their credentials; nevertheless they are 
generally derided and disbelieved. The greater prophets are -idajn, ^'oah. 
Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed, Jesus being the next greatest after 
Mohammed. Moses and Christ prophesied the advent of Mohammed, who 
is the promised Paraclete, the Comforter (St. John xiv. 16), the last and 
greatest of the prophets. He confirms previous revelations but his appear- 
ance has superseded them. 

The Koran (Koran), the name of which signifies 'rehearsal', or 'read- 
ing', is divided Into 114 chapters or parts called SHrehs. The tirst revel- 
ation vouchsafed to the Pruphet took place in the 'blessed night' in the 
year 609. With many interruptions the 'sending down' of the Koran 
extended over twenty-three years, until the whole book was in the prophet's 
possession. The earlier or Meccan surehs, placed at the end of the book 
on account of their brevity, are characterized by great freshness and vigour 
of style. In the longer surehs of a later period the style is more studied 
and the narrative often tedious. The Koran is nevertheless regarded as 
the masterpiece of Arabic literature. 

The best English translations of the Koran are those oi E. /Sa2e(1734; 
obtainable in a cheap form or with a preliminary discourse and copious 
notes, edit, by Kev. E. M. Wherry, lb82-86, 4 vols.); Rodwell (London, 


1861 ; 2nd edit., 1878J ; and Falmer (London, 1880). See also Sir William Muiv, 
'The Cdran, its Composition and Teaching' (1878); T. W. Arnold, 'The 
Preaching of Islam' (2nd edit.; London, 1913; 12*. 6d.). 

Last Jcdgment. The doctrine of the resurrection has been highly 
elaborated in the Koran and subsequent tradition; but its main features 
have doubtless been borrowed from the Christians, as has also the appear- 
ance of Antichrist, and the part to be played by Christ at the Last Day. 
On that day Christ will establish Islam as the religion of the world. 
Before him will re-appear the Makdi, the 'well-directed one', the twelfth 
Imam (p. xtiii), who will establish the Islamic ideal empire and will render 
Islamic law supreme. The Last Judgment will begin on the appearance 
of Christ. The first trumpet-blast of the angel Asrdfil will kill every 
living being; a second will awaken the dead. Then follows the Judgment; 
the righteous cross to Paradise by a bridge of a hair's breadth, while the 
wicked fall from the bridge into the abyss of hell. At the Judgment every 
man is judged according to the books of the recording angels (p. Ixxxvii). 
The book is placed in the right hand of the good, but is bound in the 
left hand of the wicked behind their backs. The scales in which good 
and evil deeds are weighed play an important part in deciding the soul's 
fate, and the doctrine of the efficacy of works ia carried so far that it is 
believed works of supererogation may be placed to the credit of other 
lielievers. Hell, as well as heaven, has different grades; and Islam as- 
sumes the existence also of a purgatory, from which release is possible. 
Paradise is depicted by Mohammed as a place of entirely material delights. 

Mysticism, the third great brauch of religious thought under 
Islam, aims at an immediate union with the divine on the basis of 
emotion, in contradistinction to the hair-splitting of the dogmatists 
and to the doctrine of the efficacy of works taught by the moralists. 
The mystics seek their end in two ways. On the one hand they 
bridge over the vast gulf between God and humanity by the con- 
ception of mediators with God, viz. Saints, who with reference to 
an expression in the Koran are known as 'those who stand near 
God' (Auliya, sing. Walt); and on the other hand, by emotional 
exercises in company, they aim at producing an ecstatic exaltation 
of mind, i.e. the immediate blending of their own individuality 
with that of the Deity. The latter is the explanation of the practices 
of the grders of dervishes (p. xci). In the worship of saints, which 
centres principally at tombs and ancient holy sites, we trace the 
same popular polytheistic tendencies as appear in Christianity, 
connected with the primitive traditions of the heroic age. A not 
unwarrantable attempt has been made to deduce the fundamental 
forms of early Semitic religious conceptions from the practices 
current to-day in the Islamic saint-worship. The recognition of 
saints became possible in Islam when Mohammed himself was 
exalted above the infirmities of humanity. The tomb of Moham- 
med at Medina and that of his grandson Hosein at Kerbela be- 
came particularly famous, and every little town soon boasted of the 
tomb of its particular saint. In many of the villages the traveller 
will observe small dome-covered buildings with grated windows. 
These are saints' tombs and are called ''Sheikhs'' (comp. p. clxxxiii). 
'Sheikh' also means a chief or old man. Shreds of cloth are often 
seen suspended from the gratings of these tombs, or on certain trees 

m. EL-ISLAM. xci 

which are cousidered sacred, having been placed there by devout 
persons or by those vcho have made vows. About the end of the 
i8th century a reaction against the abuses of Islam sprang up in 
Central Arabia. The Wahabis, named after their founder 'Aid 
el-Wahhdb, endeavoured to restore the religion to its original pur- 
ity; they destroyed all tombs of saints, including even those of 
^lohammed and Ilosein, as objects of superstitious reverence, and 
sought to restore the primitive simplicity of the prophet's code of 
morals. As a political power, however, they were suppressed by 
Mohammed Ali (p. cxxi). 

Another development quite foreign to the original spirit of 
Islam is that of the Religious Orders (Turulc, sing. Tauka), or 
Orders of Dervishes. Starting with the Christian doctrine of as- 
ceticism (hence Darwish, Fak'ir, poor man, Sufi, man in a woollen 
shirt), the mystics early borrowed Neo-Platonic (Dionysos Areo- 
pagita) and subsequently also Buddhist ideas. Even the Buddhist 
nirvana was adopted under the form of fand, the destruction of 
individuality. As a natural consequence pantheistic and other 
heresies found their way into Islam. The orthodox party long 
opposed the recognition of the mystics, and mysticism did not effect 
its footing until the time of the celebrated philosopher Ohazzdli. 
To-day all those orders that accept the formulae of the faith and the 
received doctrine of religious duties are recognized as orthodox. 
Each order has its own fixed system, with an ascending series of 
degrees. A man may reach the lower degrees in several different 
orders, the higher degrees in one only. A member enters an order 
with a view to obtain a share in the blessings of certain forms, 
which have been consecrated by the founder of the order and are 
maintained in its traditions. The zikrs, or religious exercises, are 
directed towards producing a state of mental excitement by means 
of pious invocations or dancing (hence howling dervishes, dancing 
dervishes; comp. p. 71); the souls of those who reach a condition 
of ecstasy are considered to be absorbed in the Deity. These orders 
represent in the East the religious and other associations of Europe; 
and this fact is the key to their significance. They are more im- 
portant economically than politically, though great political move- 
ments, even in recent times, have been brought about by organi- 
zations resembling these orders, as, e.g., the insurrection of the 
Mahdi at Khartiim. The original orders were few, but numerous 
subdivisions have in course of time established themselves on an 
independent footing. In Egypt all the orders are under the control 
of the Sheikh el-Bekrl, who is the political representative of their 
interests and presides at public functions. 

The following are the principal orders of dervishes (tarikai ed dav&wish) 
in Egypt: — 

(1) Thp Rifd'ineh (sing, rifd'i) , an order founded by Seiyid Ahmed 
er-Ritu'i el-Koblr, are recognizable by their black flags and black, dai-k 
blue, or bluish-green turbans. The best-known branches of this order are 

xuii m. EL-ISLAM. 

the tfldd 'Jlwdn, or ' Uuidniyeh Dervishes^ aud the Ha'diych Dervishes. The 
former are noted for their extraordinary performances at festivals, sach 
as thrusting iron nails into their eyes aud arms, breaking large stones 
against their chests, as they lie on their backs on the ground, and swallow- 
ing burning charcoal and fragments of glass. The Sa'diyeh, who usually 
carry green tlags, are snake-charmers (p. xxvii). — Belonging to this group 
but actually independent and ]>eculiar to Egypt, are — 

(2j The Ahmediyeh (sing, ahmedi), the order of the Egyptian national 
saint Sciyid Ahmed el-Bedawi, who is buried at Tauta (p. 33). They 
are recognized by their red banners and red turbans. This order is 
divided into many branches, but of these the two most important only need 
be mentioned. One of these is the much respected Baiyimiyeh or Shinnd- 
whjch, who play an important part in the ceremonies at Tania (p. 33j. 
The other branch is that of the IJldd NHh, who are generally young men 
wearing high pointed caps and carrying wooden swords aud a kind of 
wliip. — Connected with this group by a mystic genealogy are — 

(3) The Mirghaniyeh or Ehatmiyeli ^ an order conspicuous for the energy 
of its zikrs on dervish festivals {e.g. the Muljd of the ProphetJ. The 
Nubians have joined this order in large numbers, and it is wide-spread 
also in the Sudan. — To the same group belong — 

(4) The Burhdmiyeh, the order of Ibrahim ed-Besuki (p. 32), an ex- 
ceedingly popular saint in Egypt. Their colour is green. 

(5) The Kddiriyeh (sing, koidiri) , one of the most widely distributed 
orders, founded by the celebrated Seiyid 'Abd el-Kadir cl-Gilaui, arc 
quite indeiiendcnt. Their banners and turbans are white. 

In additiiin to these there are 30-40 less important orders and sects. 
The Turkish order of the ifevUvis (comp. p. 71) discharge the religious 
functions connected with the Khedive's court. 

A few words may be added on the Sects, tliougk sectarianism is 
much less important in Islam than in other religions. Mohammedan 
sects separate on a point of constitutional law, the question Ijeing 
which of the early caliphs were the legitimate successors of Moham- 
med. The Orthodox Party, which alone prevails in Egypt, recognizes 
all the 'rightly directed' caliphs — Abu Bekr, Omar, 'Othman, 
and'Ali. The Shiites (from Slua, party, i.e. the party of'Ali) regard 
'All and his sons Hasan and Hosein as the only legitimate caliphs 
and imams Q.e. leaders in prayer), the twelfth [or seventh) of 
whom is believed to be awaiting in concealment the day of restor- 
ation. The fChdregites recognize only Abu Bekr and Omar. All the 
sects have their traditions, and when the Shiites are said to reject 
tlie Sunna, the remark applies only to the orthodox Sunna. Their 
Sunna has developed in the same manner as that of the Orthodox, 
but along different lines. The same is true of all the Moslem sects. 
Egypt has been under a Shiite re'gime only in the time of the 
Fatimites, who recognized the seventh Imam. This dynasty called 
themselves after Fatima, daughter of the Prophet and wife of 'All, 
from whom they claimed descent. They professed a secret doctrine 
which resulted in scepticism. 


Bomarks on Mohammedan Customs. 

The rite of circuineision is performed on boys up to tlie age of 
six or seven, or even later, the ceremony being attended witli great 
pomp. Tlie child is previously conducted through the streets in holiday 
attire; in order to diminish the expense of the proceedings, tlie 
procession is frequently united with some bridal party, or two or 
more boys are driven together in a carriage. The boy generally 
wears a turban of red cashmere, girls' clothes of the richest poss- 
ible description, and conspicuous female ornaments, which are 
ilesigneil to attract attention and thus avert the evil eye from his 
person. He half covers his face with an embroidered handkerchief; 
and the barber wlio performs the operation and a noisy troop of 
musicians head the procession. The first personage in the procession 
is usually the barber's boy, carrying the ^heml\ or barber's sign, a 
kind of cupboard made of wood, in the form of a half-cylinder, with 
four short legs. 

Girls are generally married in their I2th or 1.3th, and some- 
times as early as their iOth year. A man in search of a bride 
employs the services of a relative or of a professional female match- 
maker, and he never has an opportunity of seeing his bride until 
the wedding-day, except when the parties belong to the lowest 
classes. When everythiTig is arranged, the affianced bridegroom 
has to pay a bridal -portion (mnhr) amounting to about 25 Z., less 
being paid when the bride is a widow. Generally speaking, about 
two-thirds of the sum, the amount of which always forms a subject 
of lively discussion, is paid ilown, while one-third is settled upon 
the wife, being payable on the death of the husband or on his 
divorcing her against her will. Before the wedding the bride is 
conducted in gala attire and with great ceremony to the bath. This 
procession is called ^Zeffet el-Hnmmi\m. It is headed by several 
musicians with hautbois and drums ; these arc followed by several 
married female friciuls aiul relatives of the bride in pairs, aTid after 
these come a number of young girls. The bride follows, under a 
silken canopy opeii in front. In Cairo, however, this canopy is now 
generally replaced by a carriage of some kind. The shrieks of joy 
which women of the lower classes utter on such occasions are called 
zaghar'it (sing, zaghruta). The bride is afterwards conducted with 
the same formalities to the house of her hTisband. 

The ceremonies observed at funerals are not less remarkable 
than those that attend weddings. If the death occurs in the morn- 
ing, the funeral takes place the same day ; but if in the evening, 
it is postponed till next day. Tlie body is washed and mourned 
over by the family and the professional mourning women (nedda- 
beh); the filch, or schoolmasters, read several silrehs of the Koran 
by its side ; after this, it is wrapped in its white or green winding 
sheet, placed on the bier, and then carried forth in solemn pro- 


cession. The foremost persons in the cortege are usually six or more 
poor, and generally blind, men, who walk in twos or threes at a 
slow pace, chanting the creed — 'There is no God hut God ; Moham- 
med is the ambassador of God ; God be gracious to him and preserve 
him !' These are followed by several male relatives of the deceased, 
and sometimes by a number of dervishes with the flags of their 
order, and then by a few boys, one of whom carries a copy of the 
Koran. The boys usually chant in a loud and shrill voice several 
passages from the '"Hashrlyeli, a poem describing the last judgment. 
The bier, with the head of the deceased foremost, comes next, 
being borne by three or four of his friends, who are relieved from 
time to time by others. After the bier come the female relatives, 
with dishevelled hair, sobbing aloud, and frequently accompanied 
by professional mourning women, whose business it is to extol the 
merits of the deceased. If the deceased was the husband or father 
of the family one of the cries is : '0 thou camel of my house', the 
camel being the emblem of the bread-winner of the household. 
The body is first carried into that mosque for whose patron saints 
the relatives entertain the greatest veneration, and prayers are 
there offered on its behalf. The body is then borne to the cemetery, 
where it is laid in the tomb in such a position that the face is 
turned towards Mecca. 

Among the women are the relatives and friends of the deceased, 
distinguished by a strip (usually blue) of linen, cotton, or muslin 
bound round the head, with the end hanging down behind. Men 
wear no mourning clothes. The women, especially in the country, 
frequently put dust on their brows and breasts, a practice which is 
a survival from antiquity, as may be seen on comparing the re- 
presentations of ancient funerals at Thebes and elsewhere. Rich 
men or pious sheikhs and 'ulamas are buried with greater pomp, 
to which religious fraternities and dervishes with their flags contri- 
bute ; water is distributed ; and the riding-horse and a buffalo are 
led in the procession. The buffalo is slaughtered at the tomb and 
its flesh distributed among the poor. 

Another custom peculiar to the Moslems is the separation of 
the sexes even after death. In family-vaults one side is set apart 
for the men, the other for the women (comp. p. clxsxiii). Between 
these vaults is the entrance to the tomb, usually covered with a 
single large slab. The vaults are high enough to admit of the 
deceased sitting upright in them when he is being examined by 
the angels Munkar and Nektr on the first night after his interment. 


Mohammedan Calendar. Festivals. 

The Mohammedan era begins with July 16th of the year 62'2 A.I)., be- 
ing the day of Mohammed's so-called flight (Hegira) from Mecca to Me- 
dina (p. Ixxxiv). The Mohammedan year is purely lunar and has no refer- 
ence or relation to the sun; it contains 354 days, op 355 in leap-year.'J, 
eleven of which occur in each cycle of 30 years. There are 12 months, 
the first, third, etc.. of which have 29 days each, the second, fourth, etc., 
30 days. Their names arc given at p. xxxix. 

In order approximately to convert a year of our era into one of the 
Moslem era, subtract 622, divide the remainder by 38, and add the quotient 
to the dividend; or, subtract 622, multiply the result by 1.0307 and add 
0.46. Conversely, a year of the Mohammedan era is converted into one of 
the Chri.'tian era by dividing it by 33, subtracting the quotient from it, 
and adding B2'2 to the remainder. Or, multiply the Mohammedan year 
by 2.977, divide the result bv 100. subtract the quotient from the Moham- 
medan year, and add 621.569. On Nov. 29th, 1913, began the Moslem 
year 1332. 

The Gregorian calendar was introduced into Egypt in 1875, but is 
observed by government in the finance department only. For all other 
purposes the Mohammedan calendar is used, and the dates even of iixed 
festivals cannot easily be stated according to the European computation 
of time. Calendars reducing the Mohammedan and Coptic reckoning of 
time to the European system may. however, be obtained at any bookseller's. 
The Almanac issued yearly by the Government Publications Office in 
Cairo may be recommended (price 5 pias.); it contains a number of other 
useful details. 

Keligious Festivals. The first month of the Arabian year is the 
MoHARREM, the first ten days of which ('ashar), and particularly the 10th 
(!/6))i 'as/iOra), are considered holy. On these days alms are distributed 
and amulets purchased. Mothers, even of the upper classes, carry their 
children on their shoulders, or cause them to be carried, through the 
streets, and sew into the children's caps the copper coins presented to 
them by passers-by. On the 10th Moharrem, the highly revered 'AshHra 
day, on which Adam and Eve are said first to have met after their ex- 
pulsion from Paradise, on which Koah is said to have left the ark, and on 
which Hosein, the grandson of the Prophet, fell as a martyr to his religion 
at the battle of Kerbela, the Garni' Seiyidna'l-Hosein (p. 54) is visited 
about 8 p.m. by a vast concourse of noisy religious devotees. Troops of Per- 
sians in long white robes parade the streets, cutting themselves with swords 
in the forehead until the blood streams down and stains their snowy gar- 
ments. Two bovs, representing Hasan and Hosein, are led throngh tbe 
streets on horseback, with blood-stained clothes. 

At the end of Safar, the second month, or at the beginning of liahi' 
el-Auteil, the third, the Mecca Caravan (p. Ixxxviiij returns home. Its approach 
is heralded by outriders and some enthusiasts advance three days to meet it. 
Detached groups of pilgrims occasionally return before the rest of the caval- 
cade, and their arrival is always signalized by the blowing of trumpets and 
beating of drums. A pyramidal wooden erection, called the Afahmal, hung 
with beautifully embroidered stufl's, and carried by a camel, accompanies 
the procession as a symbol of royalty. The interior of the Mahmal is 
empty, and to the outside of it are attached two copies of the Koran. The 
procession usually enters the city by the Bab en-Nasr (p. 77). In 1V2-2 hrs. 
it reaches the Place Saladin ip. 68), the large open space in front of the 
citadel, from which last twelve cannon-shots are fired as a salute. The 
cortege finally enters the citadel through the Bab el-Wezir. The departure 
of the pilgrims is attended with similar ceremonies (comp. p. xcvil. 

The great festival of the Mdlid en-Nehi. the birthday of the prophet, 
is celebrated at the beginning of RABf el-Auwii, the third month. The 
preparations for it begin on the second day of the month, and the most 
important ceremonies take place on the evening of the eleventh. The 


city, particularly the scene of the festival, at 'Abbasiyeh (p. 78), is then 
illuminated by means of lamps hung on wooden stands (kdim) made for 
the purpose. Processions of dervishes (p. xci) parade the streets with flags 
by day and with lamps by night. The Ddseh, or ceremony of riding over 
the dervi.shes, which also took place on the twelfth of this month, was 
suppressed by the Khedive Taufik, and the ceremonies are now confined 
to the sheikh's walking over some dervishes, his procession, and the read- 
ing of the Koran in the Khedive's tent. At night a great zikr (p. xci) is 
performed by the dervishes. On this festival, as on all the other 'mulids', 
the jugglers, buffoons, shadow-players, and other ministers of amusement 
(corap. pp. xxvi, xxvii), ply their calling with great success. 

In the fourth month, that of R.\Bf el-Akhir (Rabf et-Tdni), occurs 
the peculiarly solemn festival of the birthday or Aliltid of Hosein, the pro- 
phet's grandson, the principal scene of which is the mosque of Hosein 
(p. 54). This festival lasts fifteen days and fourteen nights, the most im- 
portant day being always a Tuesday (y6m et-taldt). On the chief days, 
and on their eves, the Koran is read aloud to the people, the streets ad- 
joining the mosque are illuminated, the shops are kept open, and story- 
tellers, jugglers, and others of the same class attract numerous patrons. 

In the middle of Regeb, the seventh month, is the MUiid of Seiyideh 
Zeinab ('Our Lady Zeinab'J, the granddaughter of the prophet. The fes- 
tival, which lasts fourteen days, the most important being a Tuesday, is 
celebrated at tlie mosque of the Seiyideh Zeinab (p. 74). — On the 27th of 
th^s month is the Leilet el-Mi'rdg, or night of the ascension of the prophet 
(p. l.Kxxiv), the celebration of which takes place outside the Bab el-'Adawi, 
in the N. suburb of Cairo. 

On the first, or sometimes on the second, Wednesday of Sha'ban, the 
eighth month, the AMiid of Jmdm exh-Slidfi'% is commemorated, the centre 
of attraction being the mosque men1i<ined at p. 115. This festival is 
numerously attended, as most of the Cairenes belong to the school of Imam 
Shaft"'! (p. IxxxviJ. 

The month of Eamadan, the ninth, is the month of fasting, which 
begins as soon as a Moslem declares that he has seen the new moon. 
The fast is strictly observed during the day, but the faithful indemnify 
themselves by eating, drinking, and smoking throughout the greater part 
of the night. At dusk the streets begin to be thronged, the story-tellers in 
the cafe's attract numbers of visitors, and many devotees assemble at the 
mosques. The eve of the 27th of the month is considered peculiarly holy. 
It is called the Leilet el-Kadi\ or 'night of honour', owing to the tradition 
that the Koran was sent down to Mohammed on this night. During this 
sacred night the angels descend to mortals with blessings, and the portals 
of heaven stand open, afTording certain admission to the prayers of the 

The month Eamadan is succeeded by that of Shauwal, on the first three 
days of which is celebrated the first and minor festival of rejoicing, called 
by the Arabs El-'td es-Sughaiyav (the lesser feast), but better known by its 
Turkish name of Beirmn (Bairam). The object of the festival is to give 
expression to the general rejoicing at the termination of the fast; and 
as at our Christmas, parents give presents to their children, and masters 
to their servants at this festive season. Friends embrace each other on 
meeting, and visits of ceremony are exchanged. During this festival the 
Khedive receives his principal officials, ambassadors, etc. 

At this season the traveller may also pay a visit to the cemetery by 
the Bab, or to one of the others, where numerous Cairenes assemble. 

A few days after the Bairam , the pieces of the Kisweh, or covering 
manufactured at Constantinople, at the cost of the Sultan, for the Kaaba 
(p. Ixxxiv), whither it is annually carried by the pilgrims, are conveyed 
in procession to the citadel, where they are sewn together and lined. 
The ceremonies which take place on this occasion are repeated on a 
grander scale towards the end of the month of Shautodl (generally the 23rdj, 
when there is a gay procession of the escort which accompanies the pil- 
grimage caravan to Mecca and also takes charge of the Mahmal (p. xcv). 


On this occasion every true believer in the prophet, if he possibly can 
spends Ibe whole day in the streets. The women don their smartest attire 
Many of the harem windows are opened and the veiled inmates gaze into 
the streets. The chief scene of the ceremonies is the Place Saladin (p. 68l: 
where a sumptuous tent of red velvet and gold is pitched for the reception 
of the dignitaries. The procession is headed by soldiers, who are followed 
by camels adorned with gaily coloured trappings and bearing on their 
humps bunches of palm-branches with oranges attached. Each section of 
the cavalcade is preceded by a band of Arab musicians, the largest section 
being that which accompanies the Takhiarawdn, or litter of the Emir el- 
Hagg, and the next in order that of the Deiil el-IJagg, or leader of the 
pilgrims, with his attendants. Next follow various detachments of pilgrims 
and dervishes with banners, and lastly the Slahmal. 

On the, 10th of Dhdl-Higgkh, the twelfth month, begins the great fes- 
tival of £■;-'/(/ el-Kebir (Kurbdn Beiram), which resembles the lesser feast 
(el-'id es-sughaiyar) already mentioned. On this day, if on no other 
throughout the year, every faithful Moslem eats a piece of meat in memory 
of the sacrifice of Abraham, and the poor are presented with meat by 
the rich. 

With the Rising of the Nile also there are connected several inter- 
esting festivals, closely resembling those of the ancient period of the 
Pharaohs, which even the Christian epoch was unable entirely to ob- 
literate. As, however, they take place in summer, few travellers will 
have an opportunity of witnessing them. As these festivals have refer- 
ence to a regularly recurring phenomenon of nature, their dates are ne- 
cessarily fixed in accordance with the Coptic solar reckoning of time, in- 
stead of the variable Arabian lunar year. — The night of the 11th of the 
Coptic month Bauna (Juno 17tU) is called Leilet en-Nukta^ i.e. the 'night 
of the drop', as it is believed that a drop from heaven (or a tear of Isis, 
according to the ancient Egyptian myth) falls into the Nile on this night 
and causes its rise. The astrologers profess to calculate precisely the 
hour o the fall of the sacred drop. The Cairenes spend this night on 
the banjks of the Nile, either in the open air or in the houses of friends 
near the river, and practise all kinds of superstitious customs. One of 
these consists in the placing of a piece of dough by each member of a 
family on the roof of the house ; if the dough rises, happiness is in store 
for the person who placed it there, while its failure to rise is regarded as 
a bad omen. On the 21st of June the river begins slowly to rise. On the 
'27th of the Coptic month Bauna (July 3rd) the Munddi en-Nil^ or Nile- 
criers are frequently heard in the morning, announcing to the citizens the 
number of inches that the river has risen. Each munadi is accompanied 
by a boy, with whom he enters on a long religious dialogue by way of 
preface to his statements, which, however, are generally inaccurate. The 
next important day is the Day of the- Cutting of the Dam (y6vi gebr el-baki\ or 
>/6m wefa el-bahv), about the middle of the Coptic month of Slisra (i.e. the 
middle of August), when the principal ceremonies are performed to the N. 
of the former Fumm el-Khalig (p. lOi). The Nile-crier, attended by boys 
carrying flags, announces the Wefa en-Nil (i.e. superfluity of the Nile), or 
period when the water has reached its normal height of about sixteen ells 
(p. 105). The actual cutting through of the dam can no longer take place, 
but the festivities go on as before. 

Bakj>kkkk'« Egypt. 7th Edit. 

IV. Outline of the History of Egypt. 
I. Ancient History. 

By Professor O. Steindorff. 
a. From the Earliest Times to the Macedonian Conquest in 332 B.C. 

Exact systems of clironology were as little known to the ancient 
Egyptians as to the other peoples of antiquity. The events they 
desired to record were dated according to the years of the king 
reigning at the time. To determine at what period a particular king 
had reigned, the priests drew iip long lists of monarchs, fragments 
of which have survived to the present day (comp. pp. 87, 241, 275^. 
The chronological epitomes, moreover, which are all that has been 
transmitted to us of the 'Egyptian History' written in Greek hy the 
priest Manethot, were founded .on these native registers. Manetho 
arranged all the rulers of Egypt, from Menes, the first king, to 
Alexander the Great, in 31 Dynasties, which correspond, generally 
speaking, to the various royal houses that held sway in Egypt suc- 
cessively or (at certain periods) contemporaneously. This arrange- 
ment has been generally adopted by writers on the subject ; but at 
the same time, for the sake of convenience, several dynasties are 
frequently grouped together under the name of a 'period', 'empire', or 
'kingdom'. It is impossible to assign anything like exact dates for 
the kings before Psammetichos I. The dates, therefore, in the 
following outline are given as approximate merely, and in the 
earliest period may sometimes be even a century or more out. 

1. Prehistoric Period (before 3400 B.C.). 
The dark prehistoric period, which later traditions fill up with 
dynasties of gods and demigods, is illumined by a few scattered 
rays of light only. It may be taken as certain that the country 
did not originally form one single kingdom, but was divided into 
two states — the 'Northern', corresponding to the Delta, and the 
'Southern', stretching from the neighbourhood of Memphis (Cairo) to 
the Gebel Silsileh, and afterwards to the First Cataract. Each of 
these states was subdivided into a number of small principalities, 
originally independent but afterwards dependent, which still existed 
in historic times as 'nomes' or provinces. The two Egyptian king- 
doms were for a time hostile to each other. Their final union seems 
to have been operated from Upper Egypt by King Menes, just how 
is unknown. The memory of the division subsisted beyond the 
dawn of the historic period; the arms of the united empire were 
formed by the union of the lily and the papyrus, the symbolical 

t Manetho of Sebennytos (p. 174) flourished in the reigns of Ptolemy I. 
and Ptolemy II. He was probably a priest at Heliopolis and wrote Ms 
three books of AlYuitTioxa 'Tito(xv/fj.aTO in the reign of Ptolemy II. 


plants of Upper and Lower Egypt ; the king styled himself 'King 
of Upper and Lower Egypt' or 'Lord of both Lands', and woTe the 

double tiara [ zjT J consisting of the white nrown ( /_/ ) of the S. 

and the red crown ( \j j of the N.; and at the base of the temple- 
walls were represented on one side the provinces of the S., and on 
the other the provinces of the N. Even in matters of administration 
respect was paid to this distinction, which was further emphasized 
by the physical differences of the two regions. The introduction of 
the Egyptian calendar also belongs to the primaeval period and be- 
gins with July 19th, 4241. 

2. Earliest Period of the Kings (ca. 3400-2980 B.C.). 
I. and II. DYNASTIES f. 
probably originating at This (p. 221) in Upper Egypt. 
Menes (Meny) united Egypt about 3400 B.C. and founded the so- 
called 'White Walls", a fortified city on the site afterwards oc- 
cupied by Memphis (p. 143). Ilis tomb is believed to be at 
Nakadeh (p. 224\ — The tombs of his successors have been 
discovered at Abydos (p. 243). 

3. The Ancient Empire (ca. 2980-2475 B.C.I. 
III. DYNASTY (2980-2900 B.C.). 
This dynasty originated at Memphis, where their tombs also are 
situated. The most ancient mastabas date from this period. 
Zoser, builder of the Step Pyramid at Sakkara (p. 146). 

rv. DYNASTY (ca. 2900-2750 B.C.). 

An epoch of powerful monarchs, who built the great pyramids. 
Snofru, builder of the Pyramid of Meidum [p. 205) and of the great 

pyramid at Dahshur (p. 166). 
Kheops or Cheops fKlmfu), builder of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh 

ip. 127;). 

Tetf-re, builder of the Pyramid of Abu Roash (p. 139). 
Khephren (h'hefre), builder of the Second Pyramid of Gizeli 

(p. 131). 
Mencheres or Mykerinos (Menkewre). builder of the Third Pyramid 

of Gizeh (p. 183). 

T Only the most important kings of each dynasty are menlioned. 
Dynasties given in full are prefixed by an asterisk. — The names of Ihi; 
kings are here usually given in the Greek form, with the Egyptian fonn 
in bracket.'). 



V. DYNASTY (2750-2625 B.C.). 
Egypt now reached the zenith of her civilization ; art, in partic- 
ular, attained a perfection never again reached. The pyramids of 
the kings are mostly near Ahusir (p. 141), where special sanctuaries 
were built also for the sun-god Re. 

Nuserre built the sanctuary of Abu Gurab (p. 140) and the pyr- 
amid and mortuary temple at Abusir (p. 141). 
Sehure, whose pyramid and mortuary temple are at Abusir (p. 141), 

carried on wars against the Libyans and Asiatics. 
Onnos (Unis), the last king of the 5th Dyn., built his pyramid near 
Sakkara (p. 165). After his death internal dissensions seem to 
have broken out, resulting in the accession of a new dynasty. 

VI. DYNASTY (ca. 2625-2475 B.C.). 

Under this dynasty the power of the kings was more limited, 
and the small principalities recovered some of their independence. 
Far-reaching commercial relations were entered into with the Upper 
Nile, Punt (the S. coast of the Red Sea), Syria, etc. 
Othoes (Teti) | 

Phiops I. (Meri-re Pepi I.) I Builders of pyramids at 

Merenre Ment-em-sof (Methusuphls) I Sakkara (pp. 163, 166). 
Phiops II. (Nefer-ke-re Pepi II.) ] 

Towards the end of the 6th Dyn. the monarchy fell and civil 
strife broke out. While the successors of the 6th Dyn. ( VIII. Dynasty) 
may have maintained themselves at Memphis, a new race of in- 
dependent kings established themselves at Heracleopolis (IX. 
^ X. Dynasties) and for a time ruled the whole of Egypt, On the 
other hand the chief power in the S. was seized by Thetan princes 
(XI. Dynasty )j most of whom were named Mentuhotep. The mortu- 
ary temple of two of these has been found at Deir el-Bahri (p. 304). 
Dependent on these sovereigns were the Theban sub-kings named 
Entef (Enyotef), whose small tombs lay near Drah Abu'l Negga 
(p. 283). The Mentuhoteps finally overthrew the kings of Heracleo- 
polis and gradually succeeded in reuniting the whole country. The 
first niler over reunited Egypt was Amenemhet /., with whom begins — 

4. The Middle Empire (2000-1680 B.C.). 
*XII. DYNASTY (2000-1788 B.C.). 

This was Egypt's most prosperous period, and an epoch of great 
buildings. There is hardly a considerable town in Egypt without some 
traces of the building activity of the kings of this dynasty. Literature 
and art flourished. The kingdom was organized as a feudal state. 
Amenemhet I. restored peace ; his tomb is the northern pyramid at 

Lisht (p. 205). 
SMOBtjitl.(SemeosretI.) conquered Nubia ; Ms tomb is the southern 

pyramid at Lisht (p. 205). 


Amenemhet n. ; his tomb is at DahshAr (p. 167). 
SesostriB n., bnilder of the pyramid of Illahnn (p. 195). 
Sesostris HI. (the famous Sesostris of the Greeks) consolidates the 

sovereignty over Nabia. Pyramid at Dahshdr (p. 166). 
Amenemhet m., builder of the pyramid and great temple (so-callel 

Labyrinth") at Hawara (p. 194). 
Amenemhet IV. 
Sebek-nofrn, a queen. 

XIII.-XVI. DYNASTIES (1788-1580 B.C.). 

The monarchs of the 13th Dynasty, mostly named Sebek-hotep, 
maintained the power of Egypt for some time, but a period of de- 
cline afterwards set in. There is no period of Egyptian history at 
which kings were more numerous, most of them reigning but a 
short time. The South was probably ruled by the descendants of the 
ancient Theban kings, while in the town of Xois, in the W. Delta, 
another family raised themselves to power (14th Dynasty). 

About this time (ca. 1680 B.C.) Egypt was conquered by a 
Semitic people, known as Hyksos, i.e. 'Shepherd Kings' (15th ^- 16th 
Dynasties), who were doubtless Syrian Beduins. Few of their monu- 
ments have been preserved; but it is evident that they conformed 
to the ancient culture of Egypt. While the Hyksos were established 
in the N. part of the land, the S. was ruled by Theban princes, who 
were at first vassals of the foreign intruders. The tombs of these 
princes, among whom were Sekenyenre III. and Kemose, lay near 
Drah Abu'l Negga (p. 283). 

Sekenyenre III., whose mummy was found at Deir el-Bahri {jp. 97). 
Kemose. His queen was perhaps Ahhotep, whose jewels are now in 

the Cairo Museum (p. 98). 

5. The New Empire (1580-1090 B.C.). 
Egypt became a great power during this period. At first the culture 
of the New Empire difl'ered little from that of the Middle Empire, but 
under Thutmosis III. political and social life as well as the art of Egypt 
underwent a radical change, owing to the new relations with W. Asia. 
The tribnte paid by foreign states caused an enormous flood of wealth 
to pour into Egypt, and especially into Thebes, the capital. The earlier 
buildings, that had fallen into disrepair, were now replaced by imposing 
monuments, auch as the temples at Karnak, Lu.vor, etc. 

XVII. DYNASTY (ca. 15S0-1540 B.C.). 

Amosis (^Ahmose, 1580-1557 B.C.), perhaps the son of Kemose, con- 
quered Anaris, the chief fortress of the Hyksos, and expelled 
the intruders from Egypt, which was reunited under one sceptre. 
The Biblical story of the Exodus may possibly relate to the ex- 
pulsion of the Hyksos. * 

AmenophiB I. (^Amenhotep, 1557-ca. 1540 B.C.). This king and his 
mother Nefret-ere were afterwards regarded as the patron-gods of 
the Necropolis of Thebes. 


"XVIII. DYNASTY (1540-1315 B.C.). 

Thutmosis I. [Thutmose, 1540-1501 B.C.). His tomb at Bibau el- 
Muluk (p. "297) was the first royal rock-tomb of the Pharaohs. 
During his lifetime his children fought for the succession. 

Eemare-Hatshepsat, queen and builder of the ^ 

temple of Deir el-Bahri fp. 299). Her tomb . , ,^ 

isatBibanel-Muluk'(p.296). reigned alter- 

Thutmosis II. "**^'y- 

Thutmosis UI. (1601-1447 B.C.). J 

After the death of his sister and brother — 

Thutmosis III. reigned alone. He was one of the most notable 
Egyptian kings, conquered Syria, and established the influence 
of Egypt in "W. Asia. His rock-tomb is at Biban el-Muluk 
(p. 296). 

AmenophisII. (Amenhotep ; 1447-1420 B.C.); rock-tomb at Biban 
el-Muluk (p. 297). 

Thutmosis IV. (1420-1411 B.C.) excavated the Sphinx at Gizeh 
(comp. p. 135). Tomb at Biban el-Muliik (p, 298). 

Amenophis III. (1411-1376 B.C.; called Memnon by the Greeks), 
whose wife was named Teye, maintained intercourse with the 
kings of Babylon, Assyria, Mitani (on the upper Euphrates), etc. 
(see cuneiform tablets from Tell el-'Amarna, p. 212), and built 
temples in Nubia, Luxor, Medinet Habu (Colossi of Memnon, 
p. 330), and elsewhere. His tomb and that of his wife are both 
at Bibin el-Muluk (p. 298). 

Amenophis IV. (1376-1358 B.C.) endeavoured to replace the old 
religion by the worship of a single deity, viz. the sun, an 
attempt perhaps to provide a god that should be worshipped in 
common by all the peoples of the extensive empire (p. cxlvl). The 
movement was probably instigated by the priests of Heliopolis 
and was directed at first only against the gods of Thebes, who, 
during the New Empire, had thrown all others into the shade. 
Many of the ancient deities, especially those of Thebes, were 
fanatically 'persecuted', their images and names being removed 
fiom all monuments. For his own original name, in which the 
name of Amon occurs, the king substituted that of Ekh-en-Aton, 
'the disk of the sun rejoices'. Tell el-'Araarna (p. 211) was 
made the capital instead of Thebes. AmeuophisI V. was buried at 
Biban el-Muluk (p. 298). After his death internal commotions 
broke out and the new religion was abolished. 

Among his successors (1358-1350 B.C.) were Eye (tombs at Tell 
el-'Amarna, p. 216, and at Biban el-Muluk, p. 298) and Tut- 
enkh-Aman, who transferred the royal residence back to Thebes. 

Haremheb (Harmdis; 1350-1315 B.C.) restored peace and founded 
the 19th Dynasty. Tomb at Biban el-Muluk (p. 298). 


'XIX. DYNASTY (1315-1200 B.C.). 

Hamaes I. (Ramesse) bad a short reign. His tomb is at Bibau el- 
Mulflk (p. 291). 

Sethosl. (Sethy I.) fought against the Libyans, the Syrians, and the 
Hittites(Kheta), a powerful people that under the 18th Dyn. had 
penetrated from Asia Minor into N. Syria and threatened the 
Egyptian possessions in Syria and Palestine. Sethos built large 
temples at Karnak, Kurna, and Abydos. His tomb is at Biban 
el-Muluk fp. 292), his mummy at Cairo (p. 96). 

Ramses 11. (Ramesse, ca. 1292-1225 B.C.), the most celebrated of 
all Egyptian kings. He waged tedious wars against the Hittites 
(battle of Kadesh, p. 307), finally making a peace with them in 
the 21st year of his reign (p. 272), which left Palestine proper 
in the possession of the Egyptians, while N. Syria was acknow- 
ledged to be tributary to the Hittites. Kamses developed an 
extraordinary building activity in the course of his reign of 
67 years. Perhaps one-half of all the extant temples date from 
this reign ; and the name of Ramses is found in nearly every 
group of ruins in Egypt. His largest temples were those of Abu 
Simbel(p.404), Karnak (p. 265), Luxor (p. 257), theRamesseum 
(p. 306) , Abydos (p. 243) , Memphis (p. 1U\ and Bubastis 
(p. 171). His tomb is at Biban el-Muluk (p. 287), his mummy 
at Cairo (p. 96). Ramses H. is frequently identified, but probably 
erroneously, with the 'Pharaoh of the Oppression' (Exod. i. 11). 
Of his numerous sons only one survived him, viz. — 

Amenephthes (Merenptah), who carried on campaigns against the 
Libyans and their allies (comp. p. 86), the peoples of the Medi- 
terranean. His mortuary temple is at Thebes (p. 309), his grave 
at Biban el-Muluk (p. 287), and his mummy at Cairo (p! 96). 

Amen-mesesl are all buried at Biban el-Muluk (pp. 289, 298, 

Siptah I 291). Their short reigns were followed by a period 

Sethos II. j of anarchy. Decline of the kingdom. 

•XX. DYNASTY (1200-1090 B.C.). 

Seth-nakht succeeded in restoring peace. 

Ramses III. (^Ramesse, 1200-1179 B.C.) conquered the Libyans and 
in two great battles repelled an invasion of barbarians who ap- 
proached from Asia Minor by land and by water, threatening 
Egypt. His of 21 years was thereafter an epoch of peace 
and quiet, in which several large buildings (e.g. the temple at 
Medinet Habu, p. 323) were erected. The king presented great 
gifts to the gods, especially to the Theban Amon, who had 
been richly endowed by former kings, also. The high-priest of 
Amon gradually became the greatest power in the state. The 
king's tomb is at Biban el-Mulfik (p. 289), his mammy at Cairo 
(p. 96). His successors — 


Ramses IV. -Ramses XII. gradnally fell more aud more under the 
control of the priests of Amon. Their tomhs are at Biban el- 
Muluk (pp. 286 et seq.). 

6. Period of Foreign Domination (1090-663 B.C.). 
XXI. DYNASTY (TAKITES; 1090 946 B.C.). 
Heribor, high-priest of Amon, occupied the throne for a short time 
after the death of Ramses XII. 

The empire now fell to pieces. At Tanis a new dynasty arose 
(Psusennes, Amenemopet), which contested the rule of the high-priests 
at Thebes. Pinotem I., a Theban priest-king, became king of all 
Egypt through marriage alliances with the Tanite dynasty, while his 
sons obtained the influential and lucrative djgnity of high-priests 
of Thebes. Nubia recovered its independence; and the Egyptian 
dominion in Palestine terminated. 

XXII. DYNASTY (945-745 B.C.). 
The kings of this dynasty were of Libyan origin. Their ancestors, 
like the Mamelukes of later days, had come to Egypt as the leaders 
of mercenary troops. Settling in the E. Delta, they grew in power 
as that of the monarchy declined. The royal residence under this 
dynasty was Bubastis (p. 171) ; Thebes steadily declined in import- 
ance. Royal princes assumed the office of high-priests of Amon. 

Sboshenk I. {Sesonchis; iheShishak of the Bible) overthrew the Tan- 
ites. In the 5th year of Rehoboam of Judah he captured Jerusa- 
lem and plundered the Temple of Solomon (ca. 930 B.C.). For 
his monument of victory, see p. 272. 
Under his successors (^Osorkon, Takelothia, Shoshenk, etc.) the 

throiTe once more lost power, and the country was subdivided into 

small independent principalities. Among these are reckoned the 

members of the — 

XXIII. DYNASTY (745-718 B.C.), 
who reigned in Tanis, but of whom we know little. The 
kings of Ethiopia, whose capital was Napata (p, 419), made 
themselves masters of Upper Egypt. 
B.C. 730. Tefnakhte, Prince of Sa'is and Memphis, attempted to seize 
the sovereignty of Lower Egypt, but was defeated by 
Piankhi, King of Ethiopia, who captured Memphis. (For 
Piankhi's monument of victory, see p. 88.) 

Bocchoris (Bektnranf), son and successor of Tefnakhte, se- 
cured the sovereignty of Lower Egypt, while Upper Egypt 
remained subject to the Ethiopians. Sahdkon of Ethiopia, 
son of Kashta , overthrew Bocchoris and burned him to 
death. All Egypt fell into the hands of the Ethiopians. 






Shabako (Sabakon) assisted the smaller Syrian states (^llez- 
ekiah of Judali) against the Assyrians. 

Sebichos (Shabataka). 

Taharka (the 2'irhakah of the Bible) also assisted the princes 
of Syria and Palestine against thB Assyrians , but was 
defeated in 670 by Esarhaddon, King of Assyria, and after 
the capture of Memphis compelled to take refuge in Ethio- 
pia. Both Upper and Lower Egypt became subject to the 
Assyrians, the various local princes (such as Necho of 
Sais, etc.) becoming vassals of the invaders. Various at- 
tempts to expel the latter failed. 

Tanutamun, son of Shabako, succeeded in recovering Egypt 
for a brief period, but was finally defeated by the Assyr- 
ians and driven back into Upper Egypt. 

The Assyrian rule in Egypt was, however, approaching its 
end. The absence of the main Assyrian forces, which were 
engaged in distant wars in Babylon and Elam, afforded 
an opportunity of shaking off the yoke, which was seized 
\>y Psammetichos of Sais, son of Necho (see above), with the 
help of Gyges, King of Lydia. The foreign garrisons were 
expelled; the authority of the small native princes was 
gradually curbed; and Egypt was again united. Since then 
Ethiopia has been separate from Egypt. 

7. Late-Egyptian Period (663-332 B.C.). 
•XXVI. DYNASTY (663-525 B.C.). 
Egypt now enjoyed another period of prosperity. Trade began to 
flourish owing to the new relations with Greece. Art also received 
a fresh impetus; even before the Ethiopian kings artists had begun 
to imitate the models of the classic period of Egyptian art under 
the Ancient Empire. This reversion to an earlier era appeared also 
in other departments, such as literature, the spelling of inscriptions, 
and even the titles of officials, so that the period of the '26th Dyn. 
may be styled the Egyptian Renaissance. 

663-609. Psammetichos I. (Psametik), see above. 

009-593. Necho (Ntkaw). While the Assyrians were engrossed in a 
deadly contest with the Babylonians and Medes Necho 
invaded Syria, defeating and slaying Josiah, King of 
.Tudah, at the battle of Megiddo. The Egyptians were, 
however, defeated atCarchemish by Nebuchadnezzar, King 
of Babylon, and thus lost their possessions in Syria and 
Palestine. — Necho began to construct a canal from the Nile 
to the Red Sea, but was stopped by an oracle (p. 182). 

593-5^. Psammetichos II. warrcil against Ethiopia. 



Apries or Uaphris IWeh-eb-re ; the Hophrah of the Bible) 
made another attempt to recover Syria, but was unable to 
prevent the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in 
586. A military rebellion in Libya dethroned Apries, and 
his general Amasis was proclaimed king. 

Amasis (Ahmose) secured his supremacy by marriage with 
a daughter of Psammetichos II. A campaign undertaken 
by Nebuchadnezzar against Egypt led to the final aban- 
donment of the Egyptian claims upon Syria. Amasis as- 
signed the city of Naucratis (p. 32) to Greek colonists, 
who speedily made it the most important commercial town 
in the empire. A friendly alliance was made with Poly- 
crates, tyrant of Samos. 

Psammetichos III. was defeated at Pelusium by the Persian 
king Cambyses, and Egypt became a Persian province. 


The Persian monarchs appeared as successors to the native 
rulers and by their moderation found favour with the greater 
part of the population. The old religion was unmolested. 

Cambyses led an unsuccessful expedition, via Khargeh, 
against the oases of the Libyan Desert and a campaign 
against Ethiopia. 

Darius I. endeavoured to promote the prosperity of Egypt 
in every possible way. The canal from the Nile to the 
Red Sea was completed (p. 182). A strong garrison was 
sent to the oasis of Khargeh and a temple was built there 
to Amou (p. 381). After the battle of Marathon the 
Egyptians, he^Aei 'hy Khabbash^ revolted and expelled the 
Persians. The insurrection , however, was quelled by — 

Xerxes I., who appointed his brother Achsmenes satrap. 

Artaxerxesl. During his reign the Egyptians again revolted. 
Inaros (Ert - Har - erow)^ prince of Marea, aided by the 
Athenians, defeated Achjemenes, the Persian satrap, but 
the allied Egyptians and Greeks were in turn defeated by 
the Persian general Megabyzos near Prosopitis, an island 
in the Nile, and Inaros was crucified. 

Herodotus visited Egypt. 

Darius II. The Persian power gradually declined. Under — 

Artaxerxes II. and his successor — 

Artaxerxes III. the Egyptians once more revolted and suc- 
ceeded in regaining their independence for a brief period 
under native rulers, whom Manetho assigns to the 28- 
30th Dynasties. 

Amyrtseos of Sais maintained his authority for a short time only. 
In Lower Egypt several dynasties contended for sovereignty. 


*XXIX. DYNASTY (398-379 B.C.). 
This dynasty came from Mendes and relied for support 

chiefly upon Greek mercenaries. 
Nepherites (Nefarit). 
Achoris (HakorJ. 
Psamuthis (Pshe-Mut). 

-XXX. DYNASTY (378-341 B.C.). 

Nektauebes ( Nekht-Har-ehbet), of Sebennytos, built a temple 
f 1 sis at Belibit el-Hagar (p. 174 ), a gate at Karnak (p. 277), 
and a colonnade in the oasis of Khargeh (p. 381). 

Tachos (Teltor) was dethroned, and died at the Persian cooit. 

Nektanebos (Nekhte-nebof) was a powerful monarch, in 
whose reign large temples (e.jr. at Philae , p. 364) were 
once more built. Egypt, however, was reconquered by the 
Persians ; the king fled to Ethiopia and the temples were 

Alexander the Great took possession of Egypt. 

b. Graeco-Roman Period (332 B.C.-640 A.D.). 

1. Alexander the Great and the Ptolemaic Period. 
■Under tbe Ptolemies the lower valley of the Nile became 
once more for three centuries the seat of a brilliant kingdom, 
at first under gifted rulers of the prosperous, richest, and 
most powerful state in the world, but afterwards condemned to 
shameful impotence under their vicious and degenerate posterity, 
torn by fratricidal wars, and existing only by the favour of Rome, 
until it was involved in the domestic struggles of Rome and finally 
perished.'' The customs and religious views of the Egyptians 
were respected by the Ptolemies, who represented themselves 
to the native population as the descendants of the ancient 
Pharaohs. Large temples were built during this period. 

Alexander the Great tolerated the native religion and visited 
the oasis of Jupiter Ammon (Siweh Oasis, p. 878) in 331, 
where he was hailed by the priests as a son of Ammon. He 
founded Alexandria (p. 12), which soon became the centre 
of Greek culture and of the commerce of the whole world. 
After his death in 323 the Macedonian empire fell to 
pieces. Egypt became the satrapy of — 

Ptolemy I. Soter I., son of Lagus, who carried on the govern- 
ment at first for Philippus ArrhidKus and Alexander II., 
son of Alexander the Great, and then for the latter alone. 
Alexander II. died in 311 and Ptolemy assumed the title 
of king in 305. The Museum at Alexandria (p. 13) and 
Ptolema'is Uermiou (^p. 221), in Upper Egypt, were founded 
in this reign. 

Ptolemy n. Philadelphns married first Arsinoe I. , daughter 
of Lysimachus, then his sister Arsinoi II. Arsinoe II. was 
named patron-goddess of the Falyum, which was entitled 


the 'Arsinoite iiome' in her honour. Under Philadelphus 
and his successors great elephant-hunts took place on the 
Somali coast. The elephants were brought to Egypt and 
trained for military purposes. 

Ptolemy III. Eaergetes I. married Berenice of Gyrene. He 
temporarily conquered the empire of the Seleucides in 
Asia Minor. An unsuccessful attempt was made by the 
Egyptian priests to reform the calendar by intercalating a 
day in every fourth year. The power of Egypt abroad was 
now at its zenith. 

Ptolemy IV. Fhilopator. Under the misgovernment of this 
king and his successors the empire of the Ptolemies began 
to totter. Ptolemy IV. defeated Antiochus the Great of 
Syria, who had threatened the Egyptian frontier, at the 
battle of R aphia, butconcluded a dishonourable peace with 
him. The king married his sister Arsinoe HI. For nine- 
teen years a series of native Pharaohs ruled at Thebes. 

Ptolemy V. Epiphanes (comp. p. cxxvi) ascended the throne, 
when five years of age, under the guardianship of Agathocles 
and ffinanthe, the mother of the latter. In consequence 
of a revolt at Alexandria his guardians were obliged to 
resign their office. Advantageof these dissensions was taken 
by Antiochus the Great of Syria and Philip V. of Macedonia 
to invade the foreign possessions of Egypt. Egypt offered 
the guardianship of Ptolemy V. to the Boman Senate, which 
ceded Goelesyria and Palestine to Antiochus, while Egypt 
continued to be independent. Ptolemy married Cleopatra J., 
daughter of Antiochus. The internal affairs of the country 
fell into deplorable confusion; rebellion succeeded rebel- 
lion, and anarchy prevailed everywhere. 

Ptolemy V. was poisoned. 

Ptolemy VI. Philometor, his son, ascended the throne under 
the guardianship of his mother Cleopatra. Onias was per- 
mitted by the king to build a Jewish temple at Leonton- 
polls (p. 171). 

Battle of Pelusium. Philometor was taken prisoner, and 
Memphis captured, by Antiochus IV. of Syria. The king's 
younger brother — 

Ptolemy IX. (Physkon), at first also surnamed Philometor, 
was summoned to the throne by the Alexandrians. 

reigned jointly, having become reconciled, 

and with them also their sister Cleopatra, 

wife of Philometor. 

The brothers again quarrelled. Philometor, banished by his 
brother, fled to Rome, was reinstated by the Roman Sen- 
ate, and thenceforth reigned alone, while the younger 
brother became King of Cyrene. 

Ptolemy VI. and 
Ptolemy IX. 


After the death of Philometor he was succeeded by his sou, 
Ptolemy VIl. Eupator, who, after a very short reigu, gave 
place to — 

Ptolemy IX., who now assumed the title of Euergetes [II.). 
He married his brother's widow aud afterwards also his 
niece Cleopatra. 

Expelled by a revolution, Ptolemy IX. sought refuge in Cy- 
prus, while Cleopatra reigned iu Egypt as Philometor So- 
teira. Memphites, a sou of Euergetes, became, under the 
name Ptolemy VIII. Neos Pliilopator, a rival to his father, 
who succeeded iu murdering him. 

Euergetes II. regained possession of the throne. After his 
death the government was shared by his widow — 

Cleopatra Cocce and her son Ptolemy X. Soter n. (Lathyrua). 

Soter II. was banished, and his brother Ptolemy XL Alex- 
ander I. became co-regent in his stead. 

Alexander, expelled by a rebellion, perished iu a naval 
battle. Soter II. was recalled. 

Thebes rebelled aud was destroyed. 

After the death of Soter II. Ptolemy XII. Alexander II. mar- 
ried Cleopatra Berenice, with whom he reigned jointly. 

He assassinated his wife and was himself slain. 

Ptolemy Xm, NeosDionysos (popularly called Aufetes, i.e. 
'the flute -player'l next ascended the throne and was for- 
mally recognized by Rome. Ho was banished by his daughter 
Berenice, who married Archelaus, an alleged son of Mi- 
thridates VI., King of Pontus, but he was restored by the 
Romans after six mouths. The temple at Edfu (p. 344) was 
completed aud that at Dendera was begun (p. 245). - — 
Ptolemy XIII. was succeeded by his children — 

Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV. , under the guardianship of 
the Roman Senate. Pompey was appointed guardian. 

Ptolemy XIV. banished his sister Cleopatra. Pompey, hav- 
ing been defeated at the battle ofPharsalia, sought refuge 
in Egypt, but on landing was slain at the instigation of 
Ptolemy, his ward. 

Ceesar landed at Alexandria (p. 12), took the part of the 
banished Cleopatra, and defeated the rebellious Ptolemy, 
who was drowned iu the Nile. — Cssar, having mean- 
while become dictator of Rome, appointed — 

Ptolemy XV., the brother of Cleopatra, a boy of eleven, co- 

Ptolemy XV. was assassinated at the instigation of Cleopatra, 
and — 

Ptolemy XVI. Csesar (also called Csesarion), her son by Cae- 
sar, was appointed oo-regent. 

Csesar was murdered. 


Antony, having summoned Cleopatra to Tarsus to answer for 
the conduct of her general AUienus, who contrary to her 
wishes had aided the army of Brutus and Cassius at Phillppi, 
was captivated by her beauty and talent. After having 
spent years of debauchery with the Egyptian queen, he 
was at length declared by the Roman Senate to be an en- 
emy of Ms country. Octavianua marched against him, de- 
feated him at Actium, and captured Alexandria. Antony 
committed suicide, and Cleopatra also is said to have 
caused her own death by the bite of an asp. 

Egypt now became a Roman province subject only to the 
emperor and was governed by viceroys or prefects nom- 
inated by the emperor. 

2. Roman Period. 
The Roman emperors followed the example of the Ptolemies 
in representing themselves to the Egyptian people as successors 
of the old Pharaohs and in maintaining the appearance of a 
national Egyptian state. — Christianity was early introduced 
into Egypt, where it spread rapidly. 

C. Cornelius Oallus (B.C. 69-26), whom Ovid ranked first 
among Roman elegiac poets, was appointed first prefect. 
He repressed an insurrection in Upper Egypt (p. 256) and 
fought against the Ethiopians. Having afterwards fallen 
into disgrace with the emperor, he committed suicide. — 
The reformed calendar was finally introduced by Augustus. 

Caesar Octavianus, under the title of AugnstuB, became 
sole ruler of the vast Roman empire (p. 13). 

The Ethiopians, under their queen Candace, invaded Egypt. 

Strabo travelled in Egypt. 

Tiberius erected the Sebasteum at Alexandria. 

Germaniciis visited Egypt. 

Caligula. In Alexandria civic disturbances took place be- 
tween the Hellenes and the Jews. 

Claudius. The building of the pronaos of the temple at 
Esneh (p. 342) was begun. 

Nero. Egypt acquired a new source of wealth as a commercial 
station between India and Rome. 

Galba. Otho. ViteUius. 

Vespasian (p. 14) was first proclaimed emperor at Alexan- 
dria. From this city his son Titus (79-811 started on his 
expedition against Palestine, which terminated with the 
destruction of Jerusalem in the year 70. The temple of 
Onias (p. cviiil was closed. 

Domitian favoured the worship of Isis and Serapis at Rome. 


Trajan (pp. 13, 182). The canal connecting the Nile with 
the Red Sea was re-opened (Amnis Trajanus). 


Hadrian (p. 14) visited Egypt in 130. His favourite Aii- 
tinous was drowned in the Nile, and was commemorated 
by the founding of the town of Antinotipolis (^p. 209). 

Antoninus Fins. 

Marcus Aurelius (p. 14). 

Rebellion oi the Bucolians, or cow-herds, who had long been 
settled among the marshes to theE. of Alexandria, quelled 
by Avidius Cassius. 

Avidius Cassius was proclaimed emperor by the Egyptian 
legions, but was assassinated in Syria. 

Marcus Aurelius visited Alexandria {jp. 14). 


School of the Cathechists flourished at Alexandria under 
Pantaenus (the first head on record), Clement, and Origen. 

Septimius Severns (p. 14). 

Edict prohibiting Roman subjects from embracing Chris- 
tianity. The Delta at this period was thickly studded 
with Christian communities. 

Caracalla (p. 14) visited Egypt. Massacre at Alexandria. 

The Constitutio Antonina admitted provincials to the Roman 

Caracalla was assassinated by the prefect of his guards — 

Macrinus, who was recognized as emperor by the Egyptians. 
After his death a series of contests for the possession of 
the throne took place at Alexandria. 

Decins (p. 14). Persecution of the Christians in 250 A.D. 
under Bishop Dionysius of Alexandria. 

Valerian. Persecution of the Christians [p. 14). 

Gallienus accorded a certain measure of religious toleration 
to the Christians. Plague in Egypt. 

Rebellion of Macrianus , who was recognized as emperor by 
the Egyptians. He marched into lUyria against Domi- 
tian, the general of Gallienus. 

jEmilianus (Alexander) was proclaimed emperor by the army 
at Alexandria and recognized by the people, but was de- 
feated and put to death by the Roman legions. 

Lower Egypt occupied by an army of Queen Zenobia of 
Palmyra, and part of Upper Egypt by the Blemmyes. 

Clandins 11. 


Probus reconquered Egypt for the empire. 

Anthony of Coma, a Copt, became the first hermit. 

Probus obtained the purple at Alexandria. 

His successful campaign against the Blemmyes. 


Rebellion in Upper Egypt. 

Insurrection of the Alexandrians. 




ca. 320. 



ca. 330. 


ca. 350. 









Diocletian took Alexandria. 

Persecution of the Christians. 

Maximinus. Beginning of the Arian controversies. 

Pachomius founded the first convent in Tabennese (p. 222). 

Constantine the Great, the first emperor who was really a 
friend of the Christians. The government of Egypt was 
reorganized; the country was made into a diocese and sub- 
divided into six provinces, viz. Egypt, Augustamnica, 
Heptanomis (afterwards called Arcadia), Thebais, Upper 
Egypt, and Lower Egypt. 

Council of Nice. The doctrine of the presbyter Arius of Alex- 
andria that Christ was begotten by God before all time, for the 
purpose of creating the world, and was godlike, but not very 
God, was condemned ; while the doctrine that Father and Son 
are hornousioi. or of the same nature, was sanctioned. 

Athannsius, Archbishop of Alexandria. 

Constantine founded Constantinople as a new metropolis of 
Greek art and science. 

Beginning of the communities of anchorites in the Sketian 
and Nitrian deserts (Macarius, Amun). 

Constantius. He favoured Arianism. Athanasius was ban- 
ished from Alexandria more than once. 

The earliest Coptic translations of the Bible date from about 
this period. 

Julian, surnamed the Apostate from his renunciation of 
Christianity (p. 14). 

Athanasius died, after witnessing the success of his cause in 
the last years of his life. 

Theodosius I. the Great. He formally declared Christianity 
to be the religion of the empire. Persecution of the Arians 
and heathens (p. 14). Destruction of the Serapeum (p. 14). 

Partition of the Roman empire, Arcadius being emperor of 
the East, and Honorius of the West. 

3. Byzantine Period, 

Arcadius. Theophilus, the bigoted Patriarch of Alexandria 
(p. 15), carried fire and sword against the opponents 
of anthropomorphism, the doctrine that God must be con- 
sidered to have a human form. 

Theodosius II. 

Theophilus died and was succeeded by Cyril (p. 15). 

Hypatia, the female pagan philosopher (p. 15), died a mar- 
tyr's death at Alexandria. 

The Patriarch Cyril defended his view, that the Virgin was 
7) SeoToxot, against Nestorins, Patriarch of Constantinople, at the 
Third (Ecumenical Council, held at Epesns. 

Death of Cyril. 

_ In the so-called 'Robber Councir at Ephesus the Patriarch 
Dioscurus of Alexandria obtained a victory as representative of 
the monophygite view (see p. cziii). 




At the Fourth CEcumenical Council, that of (Jhalcedon, the 
monophysite doctrine, to the effect that Christ possessed a double 
nature before his incarnation, but that his human nature was 
afterwards absorbed by his divine, was condemned, chiefly 
through the influence of Pope Leo the (ireat. At this council 
the doctrine that Christ possesses two natures, oauyxuxtu; and 
arp^TiTU);, but at the same time aotaip^Tuj? and a^^iuptcrrox;, i.e. 
unmixed and unchangeable, but also indistinguishable and in- 
separable, was formally adopted by the Church. The Egyptian 
Christians, to this day, adhere to the monophysite doctrine. 
Hslablishment of the national Egyptian or Coptic Church. 

Famine in Egypt. 

Justinian (p. 15). New administrative measures. 
Heraclius (p. 15). 

The Persians under Chosroes II. invaded Egypt (p. 15). 
} Alexandria was taken. Clvosroes ruled with moderation. 
G22. [ The Hegira, the beginning of the Mohammedan calendar 

(p. Ixxxiv). 
026. I The Persians expelled by Heraclius. 

632. ' Death of Mohammed. Abu Bekr, his succe^^sor, becomes the 
I first caliph. 

634. ; Beginning of the conquest of Syria by the Arabs. Death of 

Abu Bekr. Omar becomes the second caliph. 
&?G. ! Decisive victory of the Arabs over the Byzantines on the 

Yarmuk. Fall of Damascus. 
637. I Victory of the Arabs over the Persians at Kadesia; fall of 

Ktesiphon. End of the Sassanide empire. 

635. I Fall of Jerusalem. Omar in Syria. 

II. The Middle Ages+. 

Egypt as a Province of the Empire of the Caliphs. 
640. I 'Amr ibn el- As (pp. 15, 44, 109), general of Caliph Omar, 
conquered Pelusium (p. 186) and defeated the Byzantines 
I at Heliopolis (p. 120). 
041. The fortified city of Babylon was handed over (p. 44) through 
the intervention of the Patriarch Cyrus (Mukaukis). Alex- 
andria taken (p. 15). 
642. Fusttit was founded as military headquarters and seat of the 

government (p. 44). 
:-656. [ 'OthmSji. He was overthrown in a revolt which had its origin 

i in Egypt. 

645. Alexandria was relieved by the Byzantine fleet. 

646. [ 'Amr recaptured Alexandria. Egypt now became an undis- 

+ With additions by Prof. C. H. Becker and Dr. C. Piufer. 
Baedekrk's Egypt. 7th Edit. h 




puted possession of the Arabs and the base for their naval 
campaigns against Byzantium and for tlieir conquest of 
N. Africa. 
Civil war between Caliph 'Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed, 
and Mu'iwia, the founder of the dynasty of the Omai- 
yades. Egypt belonged at first to 'Ali, but after 658 to 
the Omaiyades. 

Omaiyades. 658-750. 

This illustrious Arabian dynasty had its residence in Da- 
mascus. Arabian tribes vrere settled^in the Nile valley 
and the system of government was based on Arabian juodels. 
Many Copts embraced Islam. Egypt was ruled by gover- 
nors, who were often princes of the house of the cnliphs. 

Merw&n II., the last of this dynasty, fled to Egypt, and was 
put to death there. Histonibisat Abusirel-Melek(p.206). 
The Omaiyades were then exterminated, with the excep- 
tion of 'Abd er-Kahman, who fled to Spain, and founded 
an independent caliphate at Cordova. 

Abbasides. TnO-SGS. 
The new dynasty, which had risen to power on Iranian soil 
and with Persian assistance, transferred the royaU resi- 
dence and seat of government from Syria to the 'Irak. Bagh- 
I dad was founded and the caliphate reached its zenith. 
■ Egypt was ruled by frequently changing governors. ; The 
I Copts were oppressed and frequent revolts occurred. 
813-833. i Ma'mtin , the son of ITarun er-Rashid, visited Egypt and 
quelled the resistance of the Copts and the Beduin (tribes 
that had settled in Egypt. The fusion between the' Arabs 
and the Copts began and Arabic became the language of 
the fellahin. 
Under Ma'mun's successors the power of the caliphs began 
to decline ; the government became dependent upon Turk- 
ish Mamelukes, and the provinces regained their inde- 

Tulunides. 868-905. 
Egypt became again for a short time independent. 
Ahmed ibn Tultin, governor of Egypt, declared himself an 
independent sultan, and extended the boundaries of 
Egypt beyond Syria and as far as Mesopotamia. Numerous 
buildings were erected during his reign (pp.44, 71, et seq.) 
I and that of his son — 
883-895. Khumaraweih (p. 44). The latter and his successor;; were 
unable to preserve their independence. 


Abbasides. 905-936. 
Egjpt again came under the dominion of the Abbaaide 

sultans at Baghdad. 
The Shiite Fatimites of Kairawan (Kairwan) attacked Egypt, 

but were defeated. 

Ikhshidides. 935-969. 

Mohammed el-Ikhsbid, a Turk and governor of Egypt, took 
possession of the tlirone and founded a short-lived dynasty. 
His successors ruled under the direction of - — 

K&ffir, an Abyssinian eunuch, who afterwards usurped the 
throne and recognized the suzerainty of the Abbasides. 
Syria and the sacred towns were subordinate to Egypt, 
and the court at Old Cairo was very brilliant. On his 
death Kafiir was succeeded by his grandson, who was 
not yet of age, and tho Fatimites took advantage of this 
momont of weakness to conquer Egypt. 

Egypt under Independent Rulers. 

Fatimites. 069-1171. 
The B'atimitcs, the rulers of a kingdom wliicli had arisen in 
the W. part of N. Africa in 909, as the result of a religious 
SUiite miivement, attributed their origin toFatima. the daughter 
of Mohammed. 

Gohar conquered Egypt for his master, the Fatimite Mu'izz, 
and founded the new capital Cairo (p. 44). 

Mu'izz came himself to Cairo and resided there until his 
death (975). He conquered Syria also. 

£l-^Aziz, son of Mu'izz, distinguished himself by his tolerance 
and his love of science fp. 55 I and Egypt prospered under 
his rule. 

£1-H&kim (p. 77), his son by a Christian mother, was a 
fanatic, capable of extraordinary cruelty. Subsequently, 
at the instigation of Ed-Darazi, a Persian sectary, he 
declared himself to be an incarnation of 'Ali (p. cxiv), 
and exacted the veneration due to a god. Ed-Darazi be- 
came the founder of the sect of the Druses (see Baedektr's 
Palestine and Syria). Hakim disappeared on one of his 
nightly rides on the Mokattam hills, where he was prob- 
ably assassinated at the instigation of his sister. The 
Druses believe that he voluntarily withdrew from the 
world in consequence of its sinfulness and that he will 
one day re-appear as a divine prophet. 

Ez-Zihir, Hakim's effeminate and cruel son, succeeded at 
the age of sixteen. 

El-Mustansir, a weak and incapable prince. 

Under Christodulos , the Coptic Patriarch, the seat of the 
Patriarch was removod from Alexandria to Cairo. 










Tlie country was ravaged for seven years by pestilence and 
famine, owing to the failure of tlie Nile inundation. Pal- 
estine and Syria were overrun by the Seljuks, who attacked 
them from the E. There were revolts among the Turkish 
and Berber mercenaries. The palace and the library were 

Badr el-Gamali, Mustansir's Armenian vizier, restored order 
in the capital, ami governed with almost unlimited power, 
to the great advantage of Egypt. His son — 

El-Afdal became vizier to the young caliph, — 

El-Mustali, son of Mustansir, who conquered — 

Jerusalem and the towns on the Syrian coast , but was de- 
prived of his conquests by the army of the First Crusade. 

King Baldirin of Jerusalem attacked Egypt unsuccessfully. 

Owing to a succession of incapable caliphs the Empire of 
the Fatimites gradually fell to pieces. The viziers, El- 
Afdal (assassinated in 1121} and his successors, were the 
actual rulers of the country. 

El-'Adid, the last Fatimite caliph. 

Contests for the ol'flce of vizier took place during this reign 
between Shdwer and Dirgham. The former, being exiled, 
obtained an asylum with Nur ed-D7n, the ruler of Aleppo, 
who assisted him to regain his office with Kurd mercen- 
ary troops, under the brave generals Sh7rkuh and Saladin. 
Shawer, quarrelling with the Kurds, invoked the aid of 
Amalarich I., King of Jerusalem, who came to Egypt and 
expelled the Kurds. A second army of Kurds, which was 
about to invade Egypt, was driven back in the same 
way, whereupon Amalarich himself endeavoured to obtain 
possession of Egypt. Shawer next invoked the aid of his 
enemy Nur ed-Din, whose Kurdish troops expelled Ama- 
larich. Egypt thus fell into the hands of the Kurds Shirkiih 
and Saladin. Shawer was executed. Shirkuh became chief 
vizier, and on his death — 

Saladin (^Saldh ed-JDtn YHsufibn Aiyub ^ p, 4o) ruled in the 
name of the incapable caliph. On the death of the latter 
Saladin became sole ruler of Egypt, and founded the dyn- 
asty of the — 

Aiyubides. 1171-1250. 

Saladin's reign was the most brilliant in the mediaeval history 
of Cairo, though he resided only eight years in the city and 
spent the rest of the time in campaigns in Palestine, Syria, 
and Mesopotamia. He began the citadel (p. 68). The Shiite 
doctrines and forms of worship, introduced into Egypt by 
the Fatimites, were abolished. Syria was conquered. 

Malik el-Adil, his brother, for a short time preserved the 


! flominions intact; on Saladin's death they had been tem- 
porarily divided, and the empire was again dismembered 
at his brother's death, Egypt falling to the share of the 
latter's sou — 

Malik el-K&mil (pp. 173, 176), a prudent and vigorous ruler. 

Damietta (^Dumyat) was captured by the army of the Fifth 
Crusade, but was surrendered again in 1221 (p. 176). 

Kamil concluded a treaty with the Emperor Frederick II., 
wlio led an army into Palestine. By thiS' compact Jeru- 
salem and the coast-towns were surrendered to the emperor 
for ten years. — El-Kamil was succeeded by his sons — 

EI-'AdU li. and — 

Es-SSIih Aijrfib. The latter built the castle on the island of 
Roda ill the Nile. 

Louis IX., the Sdlnt, of France undertook the Sixth Crusade, 
marched against Egypt, and took Damietta, but was cap- 
tured along with his army at Mansura fp. 173) by Ttlrfi,n- 
shah, who had succeeded his father Es-Salib. During the 
negotiations for the release of Louis Turanshah was 
murdered by his body-guards, the Mamelukes. One of 
the Mameluke leaders, named Aibek, was raised to the 
throne, after the short interregnum under a woman, and 
founded the — 

Dynasty of the Bahrite Mamelukes t. 1250-1382. 

lu the space of 132 years there were twenty-five sultans, some 
of whom reigned sei'eral times. 

Beybars I. (Balbars), one of the ablest of this dynasty, anni- 
hilated the last remnants of the kingdom of Jerusalem in 
the course of four campaigns. He brought to Cairo the last 
representative of the Abbaside caliphs, who had been over- 
thrown by the Mongols and expelled from Baghdad, and 
permitted him and his successors nominally to occupy the 

Eal&un, tl-MamuT Kaldun (p. 75), succeeded, to the exclu- 
sion of a youthful son of Beybars (1277-1279), successfully 
opposed the Mongols, and entered into treaties with the 
Emperor Rudolph and other princes. 

El-Ashraf Ehalil captured Acre, the last place in the Holy 
I.aiiil lielil by the Christians. 

En-Nisir, Ndsir ed- 1) in Mohammed (p. 45), succeeded his 
brother Khalil at the age of nine years, but owing to in- 
ternal dissensions was compelled to retire to Syria. With 

+ The Mamelukes were slaves (as the word jnanWtfiJim ports), pur- 
ihased by the sultan.i and trained as soldiers far the purpose of forming 
their hody-finard and the nucleus of their army. They became known as 
the Bahrite Mamelukes from the fact that their barnvcks lay on the island 
of Roda in the river (Bahr). 






the aid ot'tlie Syrian emirs, liowcver, he regained his throne 
in 1298. Once more expelled in the same year, he re- 
gained his throne in 1309 and retained possession of it till 
his death in 1340. Distrust, vindictiveness, and cupidity 
soon showed themselves to be prominent characteristics 
of En-Nasir, who treated his emirs with the utmost capri- 
ciousness, loading them with rich gifts or ordering them 
to execution as the humour seized him. The emir IsmCi'il 
Abfdfida, known also as a historian, succeeded, however, 
in retaining his master's favour until his death (1331). 
Towards the mass of the population En-Nasir was liberal and 
condescending, and towards the clergy indulgent. In order 
to provide the enormous sums required for the expenses of 
his court and his love of building he appointed Christian 
officials in the custom-house and finance departments, as 
they were considered especially clever and cunning. 
Hasan en-N&sir (p. 66), the sixth son of En-Nasir, was still a 
minor when he ascended the throne. The lawless indepen- 
dence of the Mamelukes and emirs was aggravated by a 
plague in 1348-49 which exterminated whole families, 
whose property was immediately seized by the government. 
After having been dethroned in 1351 by Sdlih (p. 45) 
Hasan regained his sceptre three years later, but in 1361 
he was assassinated. — The following sultans became 
more and more dependent on the emirs. 

Dynasty of the Circassian Mamelukes. 1382-1617. 

Barktik (pp. 45, 76, 112), a Circassian slave, succeeded in 
usurping the throne by treacherously setting aside Haggi, a 
boy of six years and great-grandson of En-Nasir. The exas- 
perated emirs dethroned him in 1389; but he triumphantly 
re-entered Cairo in 1390. He fought successfully against 
the Mongols under Timur and the Osmans under Bayazid. 

Farag (^pp. 45, 112), his son, had scarcely ascended the 
throne, as a boy of thirteen years of age, before the Osmans, 
and a little later the Mongols, again began to threaten the 
Egyptian dominions. Farag proceeded victoriously as far as 
Damascus ; but owing to dissensions among his emirs he 
was obliged to retuni to Cairo. After the defeat of the Turks 
by the Mongols under Timur at the battle of Angora, Farag 
had to enter into negotiations with Timur. The latter years 
of Farags reign were constantly disturbed by the rebellions 
of his emirs, particularly Sheikh el-Mahmudi, who after- 
wards became Svltan El-Muaiyad. Farag was at length 
compelled^ by the insurgents to capitulate at Damascus, 
and his execution was followed by the accession of — 

Sheikh el-Mahmftdi Muaiyad (p. 69). His reign was chiefly 


occupied with victorious cauipaigns against liis umuly Sy- 
rian vassals, in which be was greatly aided by the military 
talents of his son Ihrnhlm. 

He exacted heavy contributions from Christians and Jews, 
and he re-enacted and rigorously enforced the sumptuary laws 
of Omar, Mutawakkil, Hakim, and En-Nasir. Not only were 
the colours to be worn by the Christians and Jews i)rescribed 
(the costume of the former being dark-blue, with black turbans, 
and a wooden cross weiiihing 51b3. hung round their necks : 
(hat of the latter, yellow, with black turbans, and a black 
ball hung from their necks); but tlie fashion of their dress and 
length of their turbans, and even the costume of their women, 
were so regulated as entirely to distinguish them from the 
followers of the prophet. 

El-Ashraf Bars Bey (Bursbey; pp. 53, 113j, who Ji.iil tor a 
time been the vicegerent of an infant sultan, ascended the 
throne on April 1st, 1422. He waged successful campaigns 
against Cyprus and the Mongols. 

K&it Bey (pp. 73, 113) was one of the last independent 
Mameluke sultans of Egypt. Both as a general and a diplo- 
matist he successfully maintained his position against the 
Turks (Sultans Mohammed and Bayazid), and even inflicted 
serious losses on them ; but the refractory Mamelukes ob- 
structed his undertakings and in 1496 compelled him to 
abdicate in favour of his son Mohammed, a boy of fourteen. 

EI-Ghftri, Kdiisuh el-Oliuri (p. 59), once a slave of Kai't 
Bey, was upwards of sixty years of age when he ascended 
the throne, but he still possessed sufficient vigour to keep 
the unruly emirs in check. Already seriously injured by 
the discovery of the Cape route to India by,' the Portuguese, 
the trade of Egypt was terribly depressed by high taxes 
and by the accompanying debasement of the coinage. At 
the instigation of the Venetians, El-Ghuri equipped a fleet 
against the Portuguese in India, and in 1508 he gained a 
naval victory over Lorenzo, son of the viceroy Francisco 
d'Almeida, at Chaul, nearjBombay; but;in 1509 his fleet 
was compelled to retreat to Arabia. El-Ghiiri fell, while 
fighting against the army of the Osman sultan Selim I. on 
the plain of Merj Dabik (N. of Aleppo). 

THindn Bey (p. 61) was dethroned by tjie Osman Stiltan 
Selim I. of Constantinople (pp. 45, 120). Cairo was taken 
by storm. Egypt thenceforth became a Turkish Fashalie. 
Selim compelled Mutawakkil, the last .scion of the family 
of the Abbaside caliphs, to convey to him' his nominal 
supremacy, and thus became Khali f (Caliph), the spiritual 
and temporal sovereign of all the professors of El-Islam, t 

t The Osman sultans^ claim to the caliphate is based upon this'act. 
The caliph is not in any sense the -pope' of the Mohammedans, as; he 
claims no spiritual power. He is the temporal head of the true believer." 
and their champion in the holy war. The caliphate of the Osmana is only 


III. Modern History. 

Turkish Domination after 1517. 

The autliority of the Osman sultans soon declined, and with 
it that of their governors. The Egyptian pashas ■were now 
obliged, before passing any new measure, to obtain the 
consent of the 24 Mameluke Beys, or princes, who governed 
the different provinces. These beys collected the taxes, com- 
manded the militia, and merely paid tribute to the pasha. 

'Ali Bey, originally a slave, raised himself to the dignity 
of an independent sultan of Egypt. He conquered Syria, 
but died on the point of returning to Egypt, where his 
son-in-law Mohammed Bey Abu Dahab (p. 58) had seized 
the throne. After Dahab's death the beys — 

Murdd and Ibrahim shared the supremacy, and rendered 
themselves almost independent of Turkey. 

The French Occupation. 

Napoleon Bonaparte (pp. 30, 46, 183) arrived at Alexan- 
dria, lioping to destroy the British trade in the Mediter- 
ranean, and, by occupying Egypt, to neutralize the power 
of England in India. 

Storming of Alexandria. 

The Mameluke Bey Murad defeated. 

Battle of the Pyramids (p. 79). 

Destruction of the French fleet at Abukir by the B^itisl^ 
fleet commanded by Nelson (p. 30). 

Insurrection at Cairo quelled. 

Central and Upper Egypt conquered. 

Defeat of the Turks at Abukir (p. 30). 

Napoleon returned from Alexandria to France, leaving 
General Kl^er in Egypt. 

Kleber defeated the Turks at Matariyeh (p. 120). 

KMber was assassinated at Cairo (p. 46). 

The French were compelled by a British army to capitulate 
in Cairo and Alexandria, and to evacuate Egypt. 

Hohammed Ali and his Successors. 

The retirement of the French was contemporary with the rise 

of the star of Mohammed All, the ablest ruler that the East 

has produced for a long time. Born at Kavala in Macedonia 

in 1769, as the son of an agha of police, he was orphaned 

a de facto caliphate, as according to the Sheri''a fp. Ixxxvi) the caliph must 
be a descendant of the Knreishites, the Arab tribe to which Jlohammed 
and the earlier caliphs belonged. On this aceoTint many of Ihc Sunnites 
do not recognize ihe caliiihate if the Osmans. The Turkisli court theo- 
logians declare that this is not a necessary condition, bi:t that <^od makes 
the final decision in the success with which he. endows the caliph. The 
Shiitt's have never recognized the Osnn an caliphs as they are not descended 
from Ali. 



at an early age and was brought up by the governor of his 
native toAvn, whose daughter he married. He was sent to 
Egypt in 1800 as a captain in the contingent from Kavala 
and so distinguished himself in action against the French 
that Kuiritf Pasha^ the new governor, appointed him bim- 
bashi (colonel) of a corps of Albanians in the contests be- 
tween the Turks and the Mamelukes. In this position Mo- 
hammed adopted the policy of apparent impartiality, while 
he worked (in secret lor the destruction of both parties. 
When the Turkish governor was expelled Mohammed Ali 
became pasha, with the approval of the Porte, and on 
Aug. ;?rd, 1805, he took possession of the citadel of Cairo 
(p. 46). The British meanwhile had occupied Alexandria 
andDamietta, but Mohammed, allying himself with the 
Mamelukes, inflicted two defeats upon them, in consequence 
of which the British fleet withdrew in autumn, 1807. The 
pasha next disembarrassed himself of his now inconvenient 
allies by inviting the Mameluke beys to Cairo, where they, 
with their followers (480 in all), were treacherously mas- 
sacred in the citadel by Mohammed's Albanians, on March 
1st, 1811 (p. 68). 

A campaign, begun in 1811 by Mohammed on behalf of the 
Porte against the Wahabis (p. xci), who had taken pos- 
session of Arabia, was brought to a successful close in 1816 
by Mohammed's son Tusun. A fresh insurrection of the 
AVahabis was suppressed in 1819 by Mohammed's adop- 
tive son Ibrahim Pwha^ a military genius of the first order. 

Mohammed now turned his attention to military reforms. He 
employed his lawless Albanians in Nubia and the Sudan 
(where^his son Isma'il perished, p. 422) and created a home 
army of fellahin, which showed its prowess in 1824-27, 
under Ibrahim, in helping the sultan'in the Greek war of 
independence, until the Turkish-Egyptian fleet was anni- 
hilated at the battle of Navarino (1827). 

To increase the strength and resources of Egypt Mohammed 
energetically encouraged agricultural improvements and 
introduced various manufacturing industries (comp. p. Ixv). 
After the Kussian victories over Turkey in 1828-29 he de- 
cided that the moment had come to free himself from the 
suzerainty of the Porte. At the beginning of 18B2 Ibrahim 
invaded .'^yria and within a]year he was master of Asia Mitior, 
init the intervention of the European powers compelled Mo- 
hammed to concludethe peace of Kutnhia orKonia in 1833, 
which was favourable to the Porte. Sultan Mahmud 11. 
renewed hostilites in 1839 against Mohanimed Ali, who 
had extended his power over S.AV. Arabia, but the Turkish 
army was decisively defeated on June 24th by Ibrahim at 


Nisib, near Birejik, to the W. of the Euphrates, and on the 
deatli of the sultan (1st July , 1839) Ahmed Pasha , the 
Turkish high admiral, and the entire Turkish fleet declared 
for Mohammed. The armed intervention of England and 
Austria, however, obliged Mohammed to yield to the Porte 
a second time. By the so-called lirmau of investiture of 
1841 the sultan assured the hereditary sovereignty of 
Egypt to the Caniily of Mohammed Ali, according to the 
Turkish law of succession (seniorate), and granted to the 
pasha the right of concluding non- political treaties and 
of appointing all Egyptian officials and officers up to the 
rank of colonel. In return the pasha was required to pay 
to the Porte an annual tribute of 80,000 purses (318,930i.). 
During the last years of his life Mohammed fell into a 
state of iml)ecility. He died on Aug. 2nd, 1849, in his 
palace at Shubra. 

Ibrd,him had already taken the reins of government, in con- 
sequence of Mohammed's incapacity, in Jan., 1848, tut 
he died in November of the same year, before his adop- 
tive father. 

'Abb&sl., a son ofTusun(p. cxxi), had all the dislike of a true 
son of the desert for European innovations. He, however, 
maintained the strictest discipline among his officials. 

Sa'ld, his successor, was Mohammed All's fourth son. He 
equalized the incidence of taxation, abolished jnonopolies, 
completed the railways from Cairo to Alexandiia and to 
Suez, and, above all, zealously supported the scheme for 
the Suez Canal. During the Crimean war he was oljliged 
to send an auxiliary army and considerable sums of 
money to the aid of the Porte. He died in 1863 and was 
succeeded by — 

IsmS-'il, the second son of Ibrahim Pasha (b. 1830 ). Isma'il 
had received the greater part of his education in France 
and had there acquired the strong preference for European 
institutions which characterized Mm throughout his reign. 
Most of his innovations, however, such as the foundation 
of manufactories and the construction of canals, railways, 
bridges, and telegraphs, vrere planned mainly in his own 
interest, though of course the country shared in the ad- 
vantage, while even in the establishment of schools, there- 
organisation of the system of justice (p. xx), and the like, 
he acted rather with an eye to produce an impression in 
Europe than from real concern for the needs of his subjects. 
As time went on he succeeded in appropriating for Ms own 
use about one-fifth of the cultivable land of Egypt. In 1866, 
in consideration of a large sum of money, he obtained the 
sanction of the Porte to a new order of succession based 


oil the law of primogeiiituic, and in 1867 he was raised to 
the rank of Khedive, or viceroy, having previously horns 
the title of icali, or governor of a province only. In 1869 
the Suez Canal was opened (p. 184). In 1873 the Khe- 
dive obtained a new firman confinning and extending his 
privileges (independence of administration and judiciaries; 
right of concluding treaties with foreign countries; right 
of coining money; right of borrowing money ; permission 
to increase his army to 30,000 men). The annual tribute 
payable to the Porte was fixed at 133,635 purses (about 
700. 000^). The warlike successes of the Khedive re- 
sulted in the extension of his dominions to the borders 
of Abyssinia and. on the S., to the 2nd parallel of N. lati- 
tude. — The burden of the public debt had now iucreased 
to upwards of 100,000, OOOZ., one loan after another hav- 
ing been negotiated. The Powers brought such a pressure 
to bear on the Khedive that he was compelled to resign 
his private and family estates to the state and to accept a 
ministry under the presidency of Nubar Pasha, with the 
portfolio of public works entrusted to M. Blignieres and 
that of finance to Mr. Rivers Wilson. This coalition, how- 
ever, soon proved unworkable; and early in 1879 the 
whole cabinet was replaced by a native ministry under 
Sherif Pasha. The patience of the Great Powers was now 
at an end; and on the initiative of Germany they de- 
manded from the Porte the deposition of Isma'il. which 
accordingly took place on June 26th. He died at Constan- 
tinople in 1895. 
Isma'il was succeeded by his son Tauflk (or Tewfik, in the 
Turkish pronunciation), under whom the government was 
carried on in a more rational spirit. The debts were reg- 
ulated, an international commission of liquidation was 
appointed, and an extensive scheme of reform was under- 
taken. In Sept., 1881, however, a military revolution 
broke otit in Cairo, which had for its chief object the 
emancipation of Egypt from European influences. The 
Khedive was besieged in his palace and had to yield; he 
,'ippointed Sherif president of a new ministry and arranged 
for an election of Notables, or representatives. As the 
latter espoused the 'national' cause, Sherif resigned in 
Feb., 1882, and Mahmiid Pasha formed a new ministry, 
the soul of which was Arabi Bey, the energetic minister 
of war. This cabinet at once proceeded, without receiving 
the consent of the Khedive, to pass several measures in- 
tended to diminish the Europein influence in the politi- 
cal and financial administration of the country. At the 
end of May the Briti.';h and French fleets made their ap- 


pearance before Alexandria. In tke middle of June serious 
disturbances broke out in that town, in the course of which 
many Europeans were killed, while the others found re- 
fuge on board the ships. On July 11th and 12th Alexandria 
was bombarded by the British fleet, and on Sept. 13th 
the fortified camp of Arabi at Tell el-Kebir (p. 181) was 
stormed by a British force under Sir Garnet Wolseley. 
Arabi and his associates were captured and sent as exiles to 
Ceylon. Since then British influence has been paramount 
in Egypt. Arabi, who had been released and pensioned 
in 1901, died at Cairo in 1911. 

In 1883 Sir Evelyn Baring (afterwards Lord Cromer) be- 
came British diplomatic agent and consul-general in 
Egypt. In his hands lay the control of British policy in that 
country and he has won high distinction as one of the 
makers of modern Egypt. In the autumn of the same 
year a widespread rebellion broke out among the Nubian 
tribes of the Sudan under the leadership of Mohammed 
Ahmed, the so-called 'Mahdi' (p. xcil, which proved fatal 
to the Egyptian supremacy in the Sudan. An Egyptian 
force of 10,000 men nrtder an Englishman named Hicks 
Pasha was annihilated in Nov., 1883, by the Mahdi's for- 
ces (comp. p. 433), and a second expedition of 3500 re- 
gular troops of the Egyptian army, led by Baker Pasha, 
was likewise vanquished at Tokar in February, 1884. On 
the 18th of the same month General Gordon, wlio had 
been Governor General of the Sudan in 1877-79, after a 
perilous ride across the desert, entered Khartum, which 
he had undertaken to save from the Mahdi; while on 
Jan. 29th and March 13th the rebels under the Mahdi's 
lieutenant Osman Digna were defeated at Et- Teh and 
Tarnd'i by the British under Graham. The Mahdi him- 
self, however, still maintained his position near Khartum, 
and towards the close. of the year a second British expe- 
dition (of 7000 men) was sent out under Wolseley to 
rescue Gordon. 

Wolseley selected the tedious and laborious Nile route for 
this expedition in preference to the shorter but more dan- 
gerous desert route from Suakin to Berber. An advanced 
brigade under General Stewart was, however, sent on from 
Korti at the beginning of 1885, which accomplished its 
march across the Bayuda Desert with complete success, 
gaining severely contested victories over large bodies 
of the Mahdi's followers at Abu Klea (Jan. 17th} and at 
Abu Khrilg, near Metemmeh (Jan. 19th). Stewart, how- 
ever, was mortally wounded at the latter engagement. The 
British reached the Nile at Gubat, just above Metem- 


inch, on the evening of Jan. I'.ith, and on Jan. 24th a 
small body of men under Sir CLa.-!. Wilson set out forKhar- 
tilni in two steamboats which Gordon had sent to meet 
them. Sir Charles readied Khartum on the 28th, but found 
that it had already fallen on the 2fith, apparently through 
treachery, and that Gordon had perished (coinp. p. 427). 

The project of reconquering the Egyptian Sudan from the 
Mahdists was temporarily abandoned, and Wadi Haifa re- 
mained the S. limit of the Khedive's dominions (p. xlvi). 
In 1885 the Mahdi died and was succeeded by the Khalifa 
'Abdallah. - — Though Snakin became the basis of more or 
less desultory operations against Osman Digna, the Bri- 
tish devoted their chief attention to developing and im- 
proving the administration of Egypt proper. Negotiations 
on the part of the Porte, instigated by France and Russia, 
to bring the British occupation of Egypt to a close, proved 
fruitless. A loan of 9,000,000/. was raised by the British 
for the purpose of regulating the Egyptian finances. In 
1887 a convention with France established the uncondi- 
tional neutrality of the Suez Canal. 

The Khedive Taufik died on January 7th, 18U2, and was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest son 'Abb&s II. Hilmi (b. May 29th, 
1874). His independence of action is controlled by the 
British diplomatic agent (see below). 

In the spring of 1890 a British-Egyptian military force under 
Sir Herbert Kit(!hener (now Viscount Kitchener of Khar- 
tiim) commenced operations against the Mahdists to the S. 
of Wadi Haifa. On Sept. 2nd, 1898, the army of the Khalifa 
'Abdallah was defeated in a decisive engagement at Ker- 
reri (p. 431), and Omdurman, the Mahdist capital, on the 
left bank of the Nile, opposite Khartum, was taken. Since 
then the Egyptian Sudan, reunited to Egypt, has been un- 
der a special Anglo-Egyptian administration (see p. 415), 
at the head of which is a British Governor-General, or Sirdar. 

In Egypt itself numerous reforms were accomplished by the 
British administration, and, in especial, much was done to 
farther agriculture by the building of light railways and 
the extension of the irrigation system. 

The Great Nile Dam of Assuan was opened. 

Anglo-French understanding by which England promised not 
to alter the existing conditions in Egypt, while France gave 
up all claim to set any period for the evacuation of Egypt. 

Lord Cromer, the British diplomatic agent (1883-1907), 
resigned office and was replaced by Sir Eldon Gorst, who 
retired in 1911 and was succeeded by — 

Viscount Kitchener of Kbartiim (see above). 

V. Hieroglyphics. 

By I'rofessor G. Steindorff. 

Repeated attempts were made in the 17th and 18th centuries 
to decipher the peculiar picture-writing of the ancient Egyptians, 
the Jesuit father Athanasius Kircher (1601-80) being among the 
earliest to take up the subject. It was not, however, until the be- 
ginning of the^l9th century that the key was found, though Sacy, 
a Frenchman, Akerblad, a Swede, and Thomas Young, the Englisli 
physicist (1773-1829), had previously attained a certain amount 
of success in theii efforts. Francois Champollion, a Frenchman, 
succeeded in 1822 in discovering the long-sought alphabet from a 
careful comparison of royal cartouches, and so found the clue to the 
principles of the Egyptian style of writing. Champollion afterwards 
followed up his initial discovery with such success that he may fairly 
rank as the real interpreter of the Egyptian hieroglyphics. 

The first clue was aO'orded by the fauinus 'Rose'ita Stone' (now in the 
British Museum), discovered in 1799 in the Fort St. .lulien at Eosetta (p. 31). 
This tablet of basalt bears three inscriptions: one in the ancient Egyptian 
language, written in hieroglyphics, one in the popular language of a 
later period, inscribed in demotic characters, and a third in Greek ; but 
the tvyo last are merely translations of the first. The subject of the triple 
inscription is a decree of the Egyptian priests issued in 196 B.C. in honour 
of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes. The first step towards deciphering the hiero- 
glyphics was made when it was ascertained that the frequently occurring 
groups of signs each enclosed in an oval (so-called cartouche ; comp. p. cxxx) 
were the names of kings and that the name of Ptolemy must be found 
among them. 

Champollion and his successors established the phonetic signi- 
fication of a large number of hieroglyphic characters, and it then be- 
came possible, from a knowledge of Coptic, the latest form of the 
ancient Egyptian language, not only to read but also to interpret 
the inscriptions. H. Brugsch, who led the way to the complete 
interpretation of demotic texts, was also the first to point out that 
in hieroglyphic writing, as in the Semitic systems of writing, only 
the consonants were inscribed, while the vowels were omitted as 
not essential. 

The Egyptian hieroglyphics form a system of picture-writing, 
in which concrete objects were originally expressed by pictures re- 
presenting them ('i.e. by so-called ideographs) ; e.g. 

'Face' hr '^ 'Eye' yrt -Oi- 

'Moon' y'h /"^^^ 'Sun' r' Q 

'Pigeon' wr "^^ 'Plough' hb' J^ 

Abstract ideas and verbs were represented on the same principle 
by the use of pictures of objects suggesting in some sort the idea 
to be expressed. Thus the idea 'to rule' hk'' was expressed by the 

picture of a sceptre f, 'Upper Egypt' sm' by a lily ^L< , its botanical 

emblem, 'to write' sft, by ,a writing apparatus H 131 , etc. 


A great ailTance was made when words, for which there was 
110 special sign, began to bo expressed by the pictures of other 
and (lifl'crent objects, the phonetic significance of which, however, 
happened to be the same. Thus, e.g., pr 'to go out" was expressed by 
the picture of a house L_ J, because a 'house' also was called pr ; 

s' 'son' by a 'goose' n^^ « ; ipy 'first' by the sign U tp 'dagger'. 

Many of these cliaracters jiradually came to be used torso many 
diflereut words that their original word-signification was lost, and 
they thenceforth were used as of purely syllabic value. Thus, the 

sign A^ p\ originally 'to fly', was afterwards used for the syllable p' 

in any signification; irr, originally 'pigeon' and afterward^ also vr 
'great', was used for any syllable i/r. In this way word-signs also 
came to be used as letters; e.g. <dZ> r 'mouth' was used for r; 
I • I s 'lake' for i; ) j-' 'serpent' (t is the feminine termina- 
tion) for s; etc. ^ 

These syllabic and literal signs were probably used at first 
for grammatical purposes only (as suffixes), but afterwards, owing 
to frequent ambiguities in the significance of the verbal signs, they 
were used to indicate the pronunciation in each particular rase 
and thus to render the reading easier. Thus to the sign ^^ ^ ur 

'great' a <CZ> r was frequently added , written thus ^^=* irr, 
in order to indicate the pronunciation; or "Y" 'nh 'to live' was 
followed by the two explanatory consonants /wwv\ n and ® h, 

thus ■¥* ^ 'nh: or v -^ nh 'lord' was preceded by aaaa^^ n, thus 

"^^ nb. Frequently all the consonants in a word were written 
instead of merely the verbal sign, thus [] ® j\j\J\ '^ht 'field' in- 
stead of |1| iht. 

In addition to these there was another class of hieroglyphics, 
known as Determinatives, which were placed after the word in 
order to give some hint as to its meaning. Thus, e.g., swr 'to 

drink' is written ^s=* ^A, with the determinative ^7\ (a man with 

his finger in his mouth) in order to indicate that the idea expressed 
bysiurhas something to do with the mouth. These determinatives, 
which greatly facilitate the reading of inscriptions, were freely used, 
especially in later hieroglyphic periods. 

The hieroglyphic system, as we find it in the earlier Egyptian 
inscriptions, is already complete ; its develspment, briefly sketched 
above, had already come to a close. The following difi'erent classes 
of hieroglyphic characters were used simultaneously. 


1. Phonetic Symbols. 

a. Alpliabetic Siyns or Lelters, of which there were 24 in the earliest 

Egyptian alphabet. 

(covresponds to the Ar- 
abic klif, p. xxix). 

y (in many cases in later in- 
scriptions this sound disap- 
pears and is replaced by a 
simple breathing like '). 

n ' (a peculiar guttural 
breathing, corresponding to 
the Arabic 'Ain , p. xxix). 

w (as in 'vvelT), u. 


h (an emphasized h -sound, 
like the Arabic Hd, p. xxix). 

h (kh, as 'ch' in the Scottish 
h (kh, resembling the pre- 


k (a sharp k - sound , pro- 
nounced at the back of the 
throat, corresponding to the 
Arabic Kaf). 

th and sometimes t (in con- 
sequence of an ancient 
change of pronunciation), 
d, I (a clear, sharp t-sound, 
' like the Arabic To), 
z (an emphasized s or z) and 
sometimes { (in consequence 
" an ancient change in pro- 


Several other alphabetic signs were afterwards added; e.g. 
\\ Vt ^ '") ' '") rn ") ^t'"- ^or the vowels, comp. p. c.xxvi 

b. Syllabic Signs, of which some of the most important should 
be noted. t 

15. K^ hm. 

16. _^a^ rw. 

t The selection of syllabic and verbal symbols here given has been 
made with a view to assist the traveller in deciphering the names of the 
kings in the list given on pp. cxxxiii et seq. 


2. Word Signs. 
a. In their original signification. 

1. O r', Sun, the sun-god Re. ©^ 

9. V\ f^>'^, the god Horus. 
'~- -—^'7 ?*'-<, fore-part; front. _^E^ 

3. /''^^^ y'h, moon. 'e^ „ 
• ' 10. J^ nwti/, the t'od Thout. 

4. af) jr'(, the goddess M"t (A/rtaO- 

11. c^-y^. ,'ihk, the god Sobek. 

5. S^ Sth, the god Seth. I'i. f At', to rule ; prince. 

. Q _ 13. "O" y's heart. 

(5. %M fl', the sun-god Re. 

^ 14. ^ r, bull. 

7. ^ ]'?«» Cmn), the god Anion. ^r, ^^ /] „j<^ ^ be sirong. 

/i g. IB. A-«=^ Aw, to reign. 

8. ivn" «A, the ijod I't.-ih. "^ ' 
ill ■ IT. ^ s6', star. 

b. In their derived signification. 

A "1 wsf (originally 'sceptre'}, ^.j r|i yum (originally 'column'), On 

strong. ^ ■ n (Holiopolis). 

o ^ ^' f'O (originally 'sacn-d '^ 

~' I '■ pillar'.), to remain. 14. n7r (orig. 'textile fabric'), god. 

Q (1 fjiH (originally 'hammer'), i 

■ V ' majesty. 1,5. H 'it (ovig. 'seat'), Isis. 

4 ^ J)'''!/ (originally 'chessman'), 

■ U strength. ^ ^,,, (^^i^, .^j^j,^^ ,p;,.jt^ 
5. VJ^ ?'*' (originally 'hasket I, "• ^'^J^ " to shine. 

festival. -'-1 

G. W^ f«V, splendid. IT. >CZK ^'|■l, the goddess Neith. 

7. \g\^ s' (oi'ig. 'goose'), son. 18. a ich, to add to. 

o // «?/!«« (orig. 'lez of an animal'), .„ Vi (orig. 'sandal -.strap'), to 

"• I to repeat. ^^- T " live. 

9. J} .sXorig. 'axe'), to choose, ^q 'g^ rwt (orig. 'bow-string'), to 

10. ^^:j 6' (orig. 'ram'), soul. S'"^- 

A<p (orig. 'table of offer- ~1- f^'^ «* (o"^- 'chain'), gold. 

'ne«'>' to be content. (^ j^,. ^^^.j^ .,,eej,e'3^ to ^^, 

12. 1 1 mr (orig. 'lake'), to love. "" w come, be, exist. 

Baedekkk's l"'gypt. 7th ICdit. i 


3. Determinatives. 
E.g. M^i man; ^ woman; i, tree; 

Louse; © town; 

' "^ ' abstract idea. To this class belong also the sign of the plural 

III / I J and the oval ring C > (the so-railed 'cartouche') placed 

round the names 'of kings. 

These various classes of signs , wliich were used in accord- 
ance with certain fixed rules of orthography, were employed in 

writing Egyptian words; e.g. ' ' j mn, 'to remain' (syllabic 
sign i """ ' l mn , sound aaaaa^ n, determinative for an abstract 
ideai=±f=3); r-,"^ s/', 'time' (—»—«, D P, © word-sign sp). We 

cannot, of course, pronounce tliese words tliat are written without 
vowels ; but in many instancfs, by the aid of Coptic (p. cxxxi) or of 
Cuneiform or Greek transliterations ( especially in the rase of proper 
names), we learn what was the pronunciation at later periods, and are 
thus able to supply vowels to the consonantal skeletons. We know, 
e.g. J that the Coptic for 'time' is sop, and we therefore read the 
above hieroglyphic as sop. When, however, no such guide is 
obtainable it is the custom of Egyptologists to render the words 
articulate by inserting an e; thus S^^ /^ , 'bull'. Is read ke\ 

Hieroglyphics are usually written from right to left, sometiaies 
in perpendicular rows, sometimes in horizontal rows; occasionally, 
but quite exceptionally and only for decorative purposes, they 
are written from left to right. For the sake of convenience modern 
reproductions of hieroglyphics are written or printed from left to 
right. It was almost a matter of course that both the shapes of the 
hieroglyphics and the orthography of the words should vary very 
greatly in the course of the thousands of years during which the 
system was used; and with a little trouble the traveller will soon 
learn to distinguish the simple and bold characters of the Early 
Empire from the ornate symbols of the 18th Dyn. (e.g. in. the temple 
at Abydos) and from the small crowded hieroglyphics of the Ptole- 
maic period. 

When the picture characters instead of being carved by the 
chisel were written with a reed-pen upon papyrus, fragments of 
limestone, or wooden tablets, they generally assumed a simpler and 
more rounded form. In this way arose a system of Literary Hiero- 
glyphic, which we meet with mainly in carefully-executed religious 

For the purposes of ordinary writings this system was still 
further simplified and abbreviated and for the sake of speed the 
separate characters were often united, thus forming a Writing or 


Cursive i>lyle, which is usually termed Ilierntic Writing. la this 
style the owl '^X m, which in literary hieroglyphics (written from 
right to left) had the form 

/y J^ , degenerates into y 

outline scarcely recognizable as that of an owl. In hieratic writing 
we possess literary works of almost every kind except dramas. — 
Further abbreviations and amalgamations of letters developed an- 
other cursive style from the hieratic, viz. the Enchorial or Demotic, 
which was the ordinary character employed in the Graco-Roman 
period. The sign of the owl, for example, was curtailed to ^. This 
writing was chiefly used for contracts, accounts, letters, and similar 
documents, whence it was sometimes termed the Epistolographic, 
or 'epistolary character', by the Greeks. 

During the second century after Christ Egyptian magical formul<'R 
were frequently written in Greek characters; and after the intro- 
duction of Christianity it became the universal custom to write the 
Egyptian translations of the Scriptures in the simpler Greek letters 
instead of in the inconvenient hieroglyphics, which were at the 
same time more diflicult to learn. But as the Greek alphabet was 
not adequate to represent all the Egyptian sounds (e.g. s/j, f, kh, eti-. ) 
seven supplementary symbols ^ were borrowed from the demotic. 
Thus arose the Coptic Writing of the Egyptian Christians. 

The use of hieroglyphics extended beyond the borders of Egypt, 
especially into Nubia, where thry were employed in the temples 
built by the Pharaohs. And even after the Nubian -Ethiopian 
kingdom bei-ame imlependent of Egypt in the 8th cent. B.C., 
hieroglyphics siill continvied to be used there. At first, however, 
only inscriptions in the Egyptian language were thus written ; some 
time elapsed before hieroglyphics were adapted to the native lan- 
guage, which was allied to the modern Nubian tongue. In the 
course of this adaptation various formal modifications took place, 
resulting in a Mero'itic Hieroylypliic System, which has not as yet 
been fully deciphered. In the post-Christian era a Mero'itic Cursive 
Style also, probably based on the demotic, was developed (comp. 
p. 386). This also has only partly been deciphered. 

The following hints will be of service to those who may try to 
decipher any of the kings' names with the aid of the foregoing 
lists, consulting first the list of phonetic symbols, then that of 
the verbal signs. The Egyptian kings frequently had several 
names, the two most important of which, viz. the official name 
and the individual name, are enclosed within the cartouche. The 

official name is preceded by the title ^pi^ n-s'ict bity, 'King of 

t UI «A, « /, S5 tti, o h, (^ g (not identical with the Greek y)) "ZS. «, 
ilj, and the syllabic ■^ li. 


Upper and Lower Kgypt', and frequently also by ., ... ■ neb tev)y, 
'lord of both lands' (p. xcix), or v_^ , | , neb he'w, 'lord of the 
diadems'. The title ^x^ s' -B' (se' Re'), 'son of the sun', is an ad- 

dition to the individual or hirth name. Thutmosis III., for ex- 
ample, a king of the 18th Dyn., was named — 

The former is his official name, assumed at his accession to the 
throne, the latter his individual name. O is the original word-sign 
(No. 1} r', 'sun, sun-god Re'; i """ 'i is the syllabic sign [No. l)rrm, 

liere, however, standing for 'to remain' ; M is the transferred word- 
sign (No. 22) hpr, 'to become, to be'. The first name therefore is 
R'-mn-hpr, or, rather, as the words signifying god or king are written 
first out of reverence merely, mn-hpr-R', 'remains the being of Re' 
(vocalized Men-heper-Re% or, according to the system described 

below, Men-lcheper-Re). In the second cartouche -^^ is the 

original word-sign (No. 10) Thivty, 'the ibis-god Thout'; ^^ and 
\\ are the letters t and y, indicating the final syllable of Thivty; 

m is the syllabic sign (No. 5) ins; and u the letter s, added to show 

the sound of ms. The whole is thus Thwiy-mi {i.e. 'the god Thout 
lias created'), corresponding to the Greek Thutmosis, and probably 
to be vocalized Thut-mose. 

It may here be remarked that the Egyptian names oicurring in 
the Handbook are usually written in the traditional Greek form 
and not in the native Egyptian; e.g. Sethos instead of Sthy, Klieops 
(Cheops) instead of Hxofw (Khwfio or Khufu). For names, however, 
of which the Egyptian forms are more familiar, or of which there 
are no known Greek transliterations, the Egyptian forms have been 
retained, with vowels inserted on the principles explained above. 
In these cases, however, the diacritical signs are omitted, so that no 
difference is made between t and t, z and s, k and fc, h and h; w is 
sometimes represented by u; y by i; h and h by kh; «'by s; and in 
certain cases y is altogether omitted. The apostrophes ' and ' are 
uniformly omitted. In short, the general rules adopted by the 
Greeks for the transliteration of Egyptian words are followed. 


4. Frequently Becurring Cartouches of Egyptian Kings, t 
Kliefre Men 


(Meues). ^ >, (Kheops). phren). (Myke- / \ /" V 

4. rinos).4. / \ ( \ 






, UU 

v_y v_y v_y v_y 




Ease. 5. Unis 


Teti Merenre „ . Nefer-ke-re Entef. Mentu- . ,-4t io 

(Othoes). (Methu- Pepi (phiopg n.) u. hotep. 11. Amenemhet I. U. 

6. suphis). (Pliiops).' g. ^ <^ ^-i~«. 

6. b X---V f \f ^ 



(Sesostris) I. 12. 

Senwosret Senwosret 

Amenemhet n. 12. (Sesostris) II. 12. (Sesostvis) UI. 12. 






Amenemhet III. 12. 




V z 

Amenemhet IV. 12. 


t The Arabic numbers place'l after the names are those of the difTerent 
Dynasties. Where two cartouchps are jjivon the first cdntains the official 
cognomen assumed by the king on his accession, while the second is his 
individual or birth name. 



Seken- Ahmojie (Amo- Amenhotep (Amen- Thutniose (Thut- 

yenre.16. sis). 17. ophis) I. 17. mosis) I. 18. 


,^ w 




^ D 

V^!b ^ 

Hatshepsut. 18. Thutmosis II. 18. Thutmosis III. 18. Amenophis II. 18. 

Amenophis IV. 
Thutmosis IV. 18. Amenophis III. 18. (Ekh-en-Aton). 18. 

Haremheb (Ilar- 
niais). 18. 


(Amenephthes). 19. 



1 — I 

Kamses VII.(Lepsias, 
Kamses IV. 20. Ramses V. 20. Ramses VI. 20. Ramses VIII.) 20. 





Setliy (Sethos) II. 19. 


Ramses III. 20. 

Q d 






IvamsesVIU. (Leps., Ramses X. (Leps., Ramses XI. (Leps., 

Ramses XI.) 20. Ramses IX. 20. Ramses VII.) 20. Ramses X.) 20. 

[I. (Leps. 
i.1.) 20. 



1 — I 









Ramses XII. (Lep.s., S hoslienk (Se.sonchis) I. 22 . 
Ramses XIII.) 20. ^^ ,,,,,,, <> f ^ aaaaaa 

V .. vA f| .!= 2iJ 




Osorkdii I. 22. 

^ l!ekenranf 




Takelothis I. 22. 



^^ ^=^ <=^ 

_/j AAAAAA >t_^y] 

Shabako (Sabakon). 25. 

I AW/W\ (1 






Taharka (Tirhakah). 25. Psametik (Psam- Nekaw Psametik (Psam- 
metichos) I. 26. (Necho). 26. metichos) II. 26. 


Quee n Anienertais. 




(Apries. Uapliris. 

Hophrah). 26. 





\^\ z 

Kambizet Entaryush resh 

Alimose 11 (Camhyses). (Darius). (Xer.xes). 

(Amasis). 26. 27. 27. 27. 

J fl 

V-^ v_^ v_y 


Neklit-Har-ehbet Nekhte-nebof 

(Nektanebes). 30. (Nektanebos). 30. 

Alexander Philippus 

the Great. Arrhidjeus. 





Ptulmis (Ptolemy I. Soter I.). 

Ptolemy II. I'hiladelpbus I 

A \^ I I 1 AAAA 


D Us .^ 






Ptolemy III. Euer- 
getes I. 









Ptolemy IV. Philo- 
pator I. 





I'tolemy V. Kpi- 


ci I ci 



V ^ 

I'tolemy VI. 


^ o 

Ptolemy IX. Euerge- 
tes II. (Phyakon). 




'i 1 



V J 




Ptolemy X. Soter II. 

(ir Philometor II., 

usually known 

as Latbyrns. 

Cleopatra VI., with C8esarion, 

her son by Csesar and nominal 


— o 

(^ D 


O I 


(2 a= 



\ I 

(absolute mon- 
arch) and Kai- 
saros (Cffisar). 
Epithets of all 
the emperors. 


Augustus. Tiberius. 



' — < 

Caius Ca- Claudius 

ligula. (Tiberius). 


(3 o, 





Nero. Vespasian. 

D W 





Traian. Hadrian. 

r-^ r-^ r~^ 




!^^ !^-^ 



^ w 







* (^ 


^ w 

51 arc US 
Aureliufl. Coiumodus. 



V > 


A D 

X7 D 


Severus. (Oaracalla). Geta. 


^ w 





'^ w 







VI. Religion of the Ancient Egyptians. 

By Pfofetior G. Steindorff. 

In spite of the numerous religious inscriptions and represent- 
ations that have come down to us from Egyptian antiquity our 
knowledge of the Egyptian religion is still comparatively slight. We 
are indeed acquainted with the names and aspects of many deities, 
and we know in what temples they were worshipped, hut of the true 
essence of these deities, of the particular significance attributed to 
them by priests and people, of the myths attached to the personality 
of each, we know very little. The Egyptians themselves never evolved 
a clear and complete religions system. Their faith accepted the most 
glaring incongruities; and no attempt was made to harmonize pop- 
ular credulity with the esoteric wisdom of the priests, or to recon- 
cile tradition with later accretions. 

The complicated religion which the texts of later times make 
known to us did not exist in prehistoric days. Originally the country 
was divided into a number of town and village communes, each one 
of which had its own protecting deity or 'town god'. We know many 
of these local deities, without, however, being able to assert posi- 
tively their original locality. Among them were Horus^ who was 
worshipped in Buto, the ancient capital of Lower Egypt,; Thout, 
the patron deity of Hermopolis ; Osiris, originally worshipped at 
Busiris in the Delta; the gods Ptah of Memphis, '.ffera/ie/' of Hera- 
cleopolis, Atum of Ileliopolis, Sobek, who was worshipped in the 
Faiyiim , etc. Frequently there are goddesses also who appear as 
protecting divinities of places : e.g. Neith, worshipped in Sa'is, and 
Hathor of Dendera. These local deities have often lost their ori- 
ginal names, and in many eases were known only by some attribute 
or some legendary name. Thus, e.g., the lion - goddess who was 
worshipped in the vicinity of Memphis was known as Sekhmet, i.e. 
'the mighty'; the god worshipped in Assitit in the form of a wolf 
was named Wep-wawet, the 'Path Opener', probably because his 
image, borne in the van of the troops, led the way into the enemy's 
country; the local deity of This was called Enhuret (Greek Onuris), 
'he who fetched the distant one', probably because according to an 
ancient legend he was said to have brought a lion-goddess, who was 
worshipped along with him, from a foreign land. Other local deities 
came to be called after the town to which they belonged. Thus the 
cat-goddess of the town of Bast (Bubastis), in the Delta, was known 
as Bastet, i.e. 'she of Bast', while the goddess of Nekhab (El-Kab) 
was called Nekhbeyet, or 'she of Nekhab'. 

The ancient Egyptians originally represented these deities to 
themselves under very crude forms, which recall the fetishism still 
prevailing among uncivilized African tribes at the present day. 
Thus Osiris of Bnsiris (Tetu) was belif ved to dwell in a post, and 
the god Min of Koptos was worsliipped under a similar form. In 


tlie saim-. wjiy a sycamore tree was believed to be the aboile ol' the 
goddess Hathor, wlio belonged to the district to the S. of Memphis, 
while the god Neferlan was worshipped in the form of a lotus flower, 
and the goddess Neith, of Sais, as a bundle of arrows. But the belief 
that gods chose animals as their abode and revealed themselves in 
the form of animals was much more generally spread; cows, bulls, 
rams, goats, crocodiles, cats, lions, ichneumons, frogs, certain kinds 
of fishes, ibises, falcons, vultures were all believed to be thus chosen 
by one or other god. Thus the god Khnum was represented as a ram, 
Horus as a falcon, Thout as an ibis, Sobek as a crocodile, the goddess 
Nekhbeyet as a vulture, the goddess of Bubastis as a cat, Hathor of 
Dendera as a cow, the local goddess of Athribisasaserpeut, andsoon. 

Besides the local deities who were worshipped in the form of 
animals there were special sacred animals, distinguished by certain 
markings, which were worshipped from a very early period. These 
were kept in the temple , and after their death they were interred 
with all hoi\our, while theirplace in the temple Mas taken by another. 
The best known example of this worship is afforded by the Apis, 
the sacred bull, worshipped at Memphis. It was black with white 
spots; on the forehead it bore a white triangle and on the right flank 
a crescent. Similarly a light-coloured bull ('Afnevis^ was worshipped 
at Hcliopolis, at Hermonthis the bull Bucftjs was sacred, as was the 
heron Phoenit at IJeliopolis. These sacred animals were connected 
with the local deities; the Apis was thus considered to be the 'liv- 
ing replica of Ptah', the Phoenix the 'soul of the sun-god'. At a 
later period, the worship of sacred animals was carried further. Not 
only were these individual 'sacred' animals revered as holy, but 
also all the animals in which the local deities inhered. One or more 
of these animals was preserved in the temple, and all others of the 
same kind, none of which might be killed within the region sacred to 
them, were solemnly interred in special cemeteries when they died. 
The cat-cemeteries ol Bubastis and Benihasan, tlie crocodile-graves 
of Ombos, the ibis-graves of Ashmunein, etc., date from this late 
epoch of exaggerated animal- worship, it was probably only this 
excessive expansion of animal -worship that struck the Greeks in 
Egypt as remarkable. For traces of a similar worship were common 
to various oriental peoples, and even among the Greeks and Romans 
themselves certain animals were regarded as sacred to the gods, as, 
e.g., the lions of Cybele, the owl of Athena, and the eagle of Zeus. 

A stage beyond fetishism was reached when the Egyptians, in the 
beginning of the historical period, began to form an anthropomorphic 
conception of their deities. The gods had human faces and forms 
and wore clothing such as the Egyptians themselves wore. Like 
princes, they wore on their heads helmets or crowns, and, like the 
prima;val rulers, they had tails fastened to the back of their aprons. 
They bore the sceptre or the commander s baton as the symbol 
of their might. The deities that were conceived of as animals now 


received huiuaii figures, with the heads of the animals in which they 
revealed themselves. Thus Sobek appears as a man with a crocodile's 
head, Khnum with a ram's head, Thout with an ibis's head, Horus 
with a falcon's heart , etc. The various Cow Goddesses have a 
human head with cow's horns, while over the vulture goddess 
Mut (worshipped in Thebes) a vulture spreads its wings, and the 
head of Neith of Sais was adorned with a bundle of arrows, which 
was the form in which she was worshipped. Though such a device 
cannot but appear strange to us as it did to the Greeks, it must 
be confessed that the Egyptian artists in their reliefs and statues 
of those animal - headed deities managed the transition from the 
animal's head to the human body with remarkable skill. 

Besides the local deities, whose spheres of influence were limited 
to particular districts, there were even in the earliest times a certain 
number of universal deities, who were revered by the whole nation. 
Among these were the god Keb (the earth), the goddess Nut (the 
sky), the god t'^liow (the air), the goddess Tefnitl (the dew), the sun- 
god Be, a masculine deity with the Egyptians as with the Greek-; 
(Helios), Hapi (the Nile), and Nun (the ocean); among the stars 
Orion and Sothis (Sirius or the Dog Star, a female deity) played the 
leading roles. These were all impersonal beings, who revealed them- 
selves only in natural phenomena; they were therefore not confined 
to any particular place of worship, but were everywhere revered. Only 
at a later period, though still in prehistoric times, did these forces 
of nature, the great gods of heaven, receive human forms and special 
places of worship. Thus the sun-god Re came to be specially wor- 
shipped at Ileliopolis, and the divine couple Show and Tefnut as lion- 
headed deities at Leontoiipolis (p. 171). 

Already at an early period the religious conceptions regarding 
many of the gods were deepenetl or expanded, as certain character- 
istics became especially emphasized. Thus, e._^., the falcon-headed 
Mont, the local god of Ilermonthis, was a war-god; the god Min of 
Koptos, where the desert road across the mountains from the Red Sea 
joins the valley of the Nile, became the patron deity of travellers in 
the desert, then also a god of fertility, whence the Greeks identified 
him with Pan; Ptah of Memphis was the patron of artists, metal- 
workers, and smiths, and was thus the Egyptian Hephaestos; the 
pov/eiiul Sekhmet of Memphis became a terrible war-goddess, who 
annihilated the enemy , while on the other hand stress was laid on 
the more attractive attributes of Ilathor of Dendera, who was wor- 
shipped as the goddess of love and joy (resembling Aphrodite). Many 
local deities were connected with the moon and the sun and other 
cosmic powers. Thus Thout of Herraopolis was regarded as a moon- 
god, who had created the times of day and the cosmic universe; he 
was the inventor of hieroglyphic writing and therefore the patron 
deity of scribes and scholars. Above all Horus was transformed into 
a god of the heavens in connection with the sun and received the 


name of Jtc-Harakhte, i.e. 'the sun, the Horns who is on the horizoir. 
The cow-goddess Uathor (whose name means 'House of Horus) be- 
came a goddess of the heavens. .Many local deities came to be wor- 
shipped all over the country under these particular characteristics. 

Finally there was also a considerable number of lesser deities, 
dsemons, and spirits, who exercised influence over human beings, 
helping or harming at particular junctures, and who therefore 
must be propitiated. Among these rank, for example, the different 
Goddesses of Childbirth, who assisted women and could either cut 
short or protract their pangs; the grotesque god Bes, the protector 
of the marriage chamber and of women in childbirth; various God- 
desses of the Harvest, etc. At a later period unusually distinguished 
mortals, revered after death as saints, gradually came to be included 
among the gods, as, e.g., /m/iofff of Memphis (p. cli), Amenhottp, 
the son of Hapu, etc. 

Like human beings the god frequently had a wife and a sou, 
and in that case this so-called Iriad dwelt and was worshipped in 
one temple. Divine families of this kind are exemplified in Ptah, 
with his wife Sehhmet and his sou Xefertem, and by Osiris, /.<t5, 
and Horus. The theologians of the holy city of On (Heliopolis) even 
created a ninefold group (Entiecd) of gods, at the head of which 
stood Atum, the local deity of the city. Atum was attended by the 
four cosmogonic ileities Shoiv, his wife Tefnut, Keh, and fsut (p. cxlii). 
The number nine was made up by Osiris, his wife 7s«\<, Seth (the 
ancient god nf Upper Egypt and the legendary antagonist of Osiris; 
see below), and his wife Nephth^js. The worship of the nine gods be- 
came so popular that it was adopted in many different localities, 
the place of Atum being taken by the chief local god in each. 

Human passions and virtues were attributed to the gods; and 
numerous tales wore told by the faithful of the divine exploits and 
adventures. Unfortunately most of these myths have perished; of 
the few that have come down to us the best known is the story of 
Osiris, which in autiquity also was one of the most widely spread. 
Osiris ruled as king over I''gypt and the country enjoyed the bless- 
ings of prosperity. But Seth, his wicked brother, conspired against 
him, and at a bauquet persuaded him to enter a cunningly wrought 
chest, which he and his seventy-two accomplices then closed and 
threw into the Nile. The river carried the chest down to the sea, 
and the waves at length washed it ashore near the Phoenician Byblos. 
Meanwhile Isis roamed in distress throughout the world, seeking 
her lost husband; and she at length succeeded in discovering his 
coffin, which she carried to Egypt and there mourned over her hus- 
band in solitude. She then buried the coffin before going to visit 
her son Horus, who was being brought up at Ihito. During her 
absence Seth, while engaged in a boar-hunt, found the body of his 
brother, cut it into fourteen pieces, and scattered them in every 
direction. As soon as Isis learned what had happened she songht 


Tor the fragments, and wherever one was found she bnried it and 
erected a monument on the spot to its memory; and this accounts 
for the numerous tombs of Osiris mentioned as existing in Kgypt 
and elsewhere. When Horus grew up he set out to avenge his 
father's murder, and after terrible contests was at last victorious. 
According to other accounts the combatants were separated by Thout. 
They then divided the country, the S. of Egypt falling to Horus and 
the N. to Seth. Osiris was afterwards magically restored to life by 
Horus and continued to rule the W. land as king of the dead. 

Among the Egyptians as with other peoples the speculations 
about the origin of the world, the movements of the heavenly bodies, 
and the alternation of day and night were closely bound up with 
their religion. Their conception of the world reveals the limited 
geographical horizon of the ancient Egyptians. They regarded the 
earth as a huge oval plain, floating upon the ocean. From one end 
to the other it was traversed by a broad stream, the Nile, which 
flows out of the ocean on the S. or rises from two springs near the 
cataracts of Assuan. All around rose high mountains, and the sky 
was pictured as a flat slab resting upon four mountains, with the 
stars hanging from it like lamps. Another view was that the sky 
had the same form as the earth, and was traversed by a river and 
intersected by numerous canals ; and under the earth there was be- 
lieved to be an underworld, called Twet, which was exactly like the 
sky and the earth and was peopled by the dead. After the cow-god- 
dess Hathor had become a goddess of the heavens (see p. cxliii) the 
sky was sometimes conceived of as a cow, with the sun seated be- 
tween its horns illuminating the world. Another view was that the 
sun sailed in a boat by day on the cow, as on the ocean of the sky, 
while the stars were represented on the body of the cow ; Show, the 
god of the air, stood below the cow of the heavens and supported it. 

The sun and the moon, the principal heavenly bodies, were in 
particular the subject of many theories, probably representing the 
teachings of the different colleges of priests throughout the country. 
A very early idea represented the sun and moon as the eyes of the 
great god who created the world. At the same time this great god is 
no other than the sun-god Ke himself, so that we have the contra- 
dictory idea that the incorporation of the sun (Re) had the sun as an 
eye. When Horus became a sun-god the sun and moon were con- 
sidered to be his eyes. In one way or another the eye of the sun 
played a very important part in Egyptian mythology. It was thought 
of as a sun and was transformed into an independent goddess pro- 
ceeding from the sun-god. With this eye of the sun are identified 
the serpent-goddess Buto, of Lower Egypt, and afterwards other god- 
desses also, such as the lion- headed Tefnut and the cow -goddess 
Hathor. The eye of the sun was sometimes thought of as a poisonous 
serpent (uraeus serpent) rearing itself on the forehead of the sun-god 
and breathing fire against his enemies. This idea gave rise to the 


custom adopted by the kings of Egypt of wearing the uraeus serpent 
as a diadem or as an ornament in their crowns. — Another concep- 
tion identified the sun with the sun-god Re, who, in the guise of an 
Egyptian fisherman, sailed in a boat on the waters of the sky b> day, 
and in the evening stepped into another boat and continued his voyage 
through the underworld. As the sun-god Re-IIarakhte was a falcon 
the sun was sometimes regarded as a brilliantly plumaged falcon 
soaring in the firmament ; or like Horus the sun was a powerful young 
hero, waging a ceaseless combat with the hostile powers of darkness. 
It was conceived of also under the form of a Sairabaeus or beetle 
(p. clxxvli); the sun-god was represented in the form of a scara- 
baeus rolling the round disk of the sun in front of him, in the same 
way as a scarabaeus rolls the small ball in which it has laid its egg. 

The Egyptians of course did not believe that the world, the gods, 
and human beings had always existed , but that they were created. 
The most widespread belief was that Keb^ the god of the earth, and 
Nut. the goddess of the sky, lay in close union in Nun, the primaeval 
ocean, until Show, the god of the air. separated them by raising Nut 
aloft in his arms. The sun-god Re also was supposed to have arisen 
from Nun ; another view, however, made him the child of Keb and 
Nut, newborn every morning. These ideas of course conflict Mith the 
other conception that Re himself created the world (see p. cxliv). 

In the course of its history the religion of Egypt underwent 
many transformations. The dominant position in the Egyptian pan- 
theon shifted from one god to another, either through theological 
speculation and the growth of legends, or through the coming into 
prominence of royal houses and cities that were devoted to the cult 
of particular gods. In the primitive period two independent king- 
doms were formed in Upper and Lower Egypt, and Stth, of Ombos, 
and Horus, of Buto, the local deities of the two capitals, were re- 
cognized as guardians of the two states. After the first union of the 
two kingdoms had been operated from Lower Egypt, presumably 
with Heliopolis as the capital, Horus became recognized as the sole 
royal god, and henceforth remained the pntron of the Pharaohs and 
god of the empire. In the latest period of the prehistoric epoch Egypt 
was again divided into two kingdoms, the capitals being El-Kab (in 
Upper Egypt) and lUito; the patron deity of the former was the vul- 
ture-goddess Nekhbeyet, of the latter the .serpent-goddess i>((<o. These 
thus became the royal goddesses of Upper and Lower H gypt. In the 
same way at the end of the .Ancient Empire Ptah, the local deity of 
the capital Memphis, became the patron deity of the whole of Egypt. 
An important role in the religious history of Egypt has been played 
by the city of On-Heliopolis |p. 120), which was probably the 
religious centre of Lower Egypt in the earliest period, and in all 
likelihood was tor a time the capital of the united kingdom of Egypt. 
The coronation ceremonies of the sovereign seem to have taken place 
in the temple of this city, and here, too, according to legend, the 

Raedkker'8 Egypt. 7tb Edit. k 


goddess Seshet inscribed the years of the coining reign on the leaves 
of the sacred tree. At On stood also the obelisk-like stone column 
of Benben, the chosen seat of the sun-god. The local deity, strictly 
speaking, was, however, Atum; and the astute priests of On put this 
god on a par with the god of the sun and asserted that he was only 
another form, anothername of Ke-Harakhte. This doctrine obtained 
a wide currency throughout the country and all the local gods were 
promptly identified with Re and invested with the symbol of Re, 
viz. the sun-disk with the poisonous royal serpent (uraeus, p.clxxvii) 
coiled round it. Thus even the crocodile-god Sobek Amon of 
Thebes became sun-gods. This amalgamation of local deities with 
Re, which began under the Middle Empire and was carried to great 
lengths under the New Empire, was a fertile source of confusion 
in the Egyptian religion. Attempts indeed were made to draw a 
distinction among the various forms of Re, Khepre for example 
being regarded as the morning-sun and Atum as the evening-sun, 
but nothing like a systematic scheme was ever achieved. 

In the same way a number of female local deities, especially 
when they were of a similar character, were welded into one. Thus 
Hathor, the goddess of the sky, was identified with his; the cat-god- 
dess Bastet with the lion-goddesses Sekhmet and Pekhet, while Sekh- 
met was identified also with the vulture-goddess Mut. 

When the centre of the empire was carried farther to the S. under 
the Middle Empire and Thebes became the capital in place of Mem- 
phis, a new phase began in the development of the Egyptian religion. 
Amon, the Theban local god, who had been identified with the sun- 
god under the name of Amcn-Re, took precedence of all other gods, 
and at the beginning of the New Empire became the head of the Egyp- 
tian pantheon. The great campaigns against Nubia and Asia were 
waged in his name by the Theban kings, temples were erected to 
him in the conquered lands, and the lion's share of the spoil fell to 
his shrines in Egypt, especially to the temple at Thebes. Amon, in 
short, became the national god, the successful rival of his predecessor 
Horns (Re-Harakhte). It was not to be expected that the priests of 
Heliopolis should tamely submit to this weakening of their influence. 
They therefore eagerly seized the first opportunity of overthrowing 
Amon and of restoring the sun-god to his former official dignity. 
When AmenophisIV. succeeded to the throne the sun-god of Helio- 
polis (Re-Harakhte) regained the position of supreme deity, and 
shortly afterwards the sun itself (Egypt. Aton) was announced as 
the one and only god. This revolution was doubtless to some extent 
prompted by the king's desire to put a stop to the prevailing religious 
confusion at a blow, and to make practice square with theory, for 
theoretically all the numerous deities had long been explained as 
in reality one with the great sun-god (comp. p. 211). The repre- 
sentations and names of Amon and his fellow-gods were every- 
where obliterated. But after the death of Amenophis the partisans 


of Amon speedily regained the upper handj the uew religion was 
aholished and the earlier creed restored. The Egyptian religion re- 
mained in its former confusion ; the process of amalgamating different 
^ods became more and more common; and religious belief gradually 
lost all living reality. Men clung anxiously to the ancient traditions, 
and the superstitious belief in amulets and magic as the only pro- 
tection against harmful influences gained universal sway. But no 
fresh religious conceptions are to be found in the innumerable texts 
inscribed upon the temples, tombs, and sarcophagi of the later period. 
After the decline of Thebes Amon began to lose his prestige, and 
his place was taken by the deities of the Delta, such as Osiris and his 
group (Isis, Harpocrates, and Anubis). Under the Ptolemies Osorapis 
(Sarapis, Serapis), i.e. the deceased Apis-bull identified with Osiris 
(comp. p. 147), became the national deity of Greek Egypt, and the 
worship of this god (an infernal deity, like the Pluto of the Greeks) 
gradually spread beyond Egypt to the East and subsequently also to 
the Roman empire. The old religion of Egypt was gradually van- 
quished only by the power of Christianity, 

The Future Life. A considerable diversity of doctrine as to the 
fate of man after death prevailed amongst the Egyptians, and the 
various views were never reduced to a single authoritative creed. 
The only point that was common to the whole people was the firm 
conviction that the life of man did not end at death, but that on the 
contrary men continued to live just as they had lived upon earth, 
provided that the necessaries of existence were assured to them. It 
thus seemed specially necessary that the body should be carefully 
interred and protected from decay. The next step was to build a 
house for the deceased, after the pattern of his earthly abode, in 
which he might dwell, and which, according to the popular belief, 
he could quit at pleasure during the day. Statues, erected in a 
special room for the purpose, represented the owner of the house, his 
family, and his domestics (p. clxviii). Sacrificial offerings provided 
the deceased with food, and pious endowments ensured him against 
hunger and thirst even in the distant future. Nor was this all; re- 
presentations of food, utensils, etc., were painted or carved upon the 
walls of the tomb or the sides of the sarcophagus, and it was believed 
that through magic these representations could serve the deceased 
in place of the real things. Ornaments, clothing, etc., were likewise 
placed in the tomb or depicted on the walls for the same purpose. 
The occupations that engrossed the deceased while on earth, the 
pleasures that he delighted in, the dignities that he enjoyed, awaited 
him beyond the tomb, and these too were represented on the walls 
in order that he might really possess them. To this belief we owe 
those sepulchral paintings that give us so exact a picture of the life 
of the ancient Egyptians. In the earliest times the grandees alone 
were allowed to build themselves tombs, and that probably only by 
favour of the king. Those who were not attached to the court had 


to content themselves with simpler tombs, in which the necessaries 
for the future life were buried with the bodies. But at a later period 
even the ordinary citizens built 'everlasting houses' for themselves, 
at least so far as they possessed the means to do so. 

The dead were under the protection of the local deities, whose 
duty it was to superintend the funeral ceremonies and afford se- 
curity in the tomb. There was also in many towns a special god of 
the dead, named Khente-Amentiu, 'the first of tlie inhabitants of the 
Western Kingdom' (i.e. of the de^d), who was represented in the form 
of a dog. At a later date these local gods retired in favour of Osiris. 
He was gradually recognized as the ruler of the dead by all Egypt, and 
dominion over the departed was assigned to him almost exclusively. 
Abydos became the chief religious centre of his cult. The death 
which, according to the legend (p. cxliii), Osiris suffered was the com- 
mon lot of mortals; but just as Osiris rose again, so a man also could 
begin a new life, provided that the same formulae were pronounced 
for him by some faithful son; he went to Osiris, became united with 
the slain god, in fact was himseU Osiris. Admission to the realm of 
Osiris depended upon the recitation of magical formulae and incanta- 
tions, a knowledge of which must be communicated to the deceased. 
A virtuous earthly life was required to assure the deceased eternal 
happiness, and he had therefore to undergo a trial before Osiris and 
to prove before 42 judges that he was free from mortal sin. Before 
this, and before his heart had been weighed by TJiout in the scales of 
righteousness and found perfect, he might not enter the future land. 

Opinions differed as to the abode of the blessed dead. Their 
dwelling was usually located in the West, among the mountains, 
and in the desert where the sun set. Some believed that they in- 
habited the heavenly fields of Earn, a fruitful country where plough- 
ing and reaping were carried on as upon earth, and where the corn 
grew seven ells high, forming a veritable paradise for the Egyp- 
tian peasant. As the labour in this future land might often be 
too great for the strength of the deceased, it became the custom at 
the period of the Middle Empire to place Ushebtis in the tomb along 
with him. These little figures of men were imbued with life by a 
magic spell written upon them and assisted the deceased when 
he was called to work beyond the tomb. Another doctrine sought 
to unite the different conceptions of the future life and placed the 
abodes of the blessed in Twet, the underworld (see p. cxliv). This 
was divided into twelve parts, corresponding to the twelve hours 
of night, and, according to a certain view, separated from each other 
by massive gates ( comp. pp. 284 et seq.). 

In flat contradiction to these doctrines was the popular belief 
that man possessed not only a body but also a soul (ba'i), which lived 
after death. This was originally conceived of as a bird; at a later 
period as a bird with a human head. It was believed that the spirit 
left the body at death and flew freely about, but could return to the 


body at pleasure, provided, of course, that the latter did not decay. 
Thus from ancient times everything was done in Egypt to prevent 
the destruction of the body, and so to enable the soul to recognize 
its mortal tenement. A prominent place in the belief of the ancient 
Egyptians was taken by the Ka, a kind of guardian-spirit or genius, 
which was born with the individual and accompanied him through 
life as a 'double'. The Ka did not expire with its proteg^ but con- 
tinued to live in order to protect the deceased in the future world. 
In the earliest period the dead were buried in a crouching postnie 
with their knees drawn up and lying on their left side. In the An- 
cient Empire the custom of leaving the corpse at full length began 
to be followed, probably at first in the case of the kings. At the 
same time embalming was attempted. The bodies were treated with 
saline solutions and bitumen and rolled in linen bandages and wrap- 
pings. The process of preparing the mummy was more elaborate at 
later times. The brains were first removed through the nostrils by 
means of an iron hook; the stomach was then opened with a flint knife 
and the viscera removed (Herodotus ii. 86) and placed in four jars, 
known as Canopi. These were usually closed with lids, bearing the 
heads of the four sons of Osiris, to whose protection the intestines 
were committed. The heart also was removed from the body, and 
was replaced by a stone scarabaeus, laid upon the breast of the de- 
ceased, beneath the wrappings. Herodotus states that at a later 
period there were three methods of embalming, differing according 
to the expense involved. So much care was given to the preserva- 
tion of the corpses that to this day the features of many of the mum- 
mies may be clearly made out. 

List of the Chief Egyptian Deities and Sacred Animals. 

Amon, Ammon, or Amun [Fig. 1), specially worshipped at Thebes, 
was made a sun-god under the name Amon-Re and became the 
national god under the New Empire. For his persecution by 
Amenophis IV., see p. cxlvi. His sacred animal was the ram. 

Ant^us or Antaios, the Greek name for a falcon-headed god, akin 
to Horus and worshipped at Antseopolis (p. 236). 

Andbis (Fig. 2), the special god of the 12th, 17th, and 18th nomes 
of Upper Egypt, also a god of the dead, whose function was con- 
nected with the interment. A later myth makes him a brother of 
Osiris. The dog was sacred to him. 

Anuket (Greek Anvkia), goddess of the district of the cataracts. 

Apis, the sacred bull of Memphis. For his distinctive markings, 
see p. cxli. The apis was buried in the Serapeum (p. 147). 

Atum (Fig. 3), the local deity of On-Heliopolis, Pithom, etc., was 
afterwards regarded as a sun-god (specifically the evening-sun). 
His sacred animals were the lion and the serpent. 

B.^STET, the goddess of Bubastis (p. 171), a goddess of joy. Sacred 
animal, the cat. 


Bbs, a popular deity, represented as a dwarf, introduced I'rom the 
land of Punt. He was the god of matrimony and also had in- 
fluence over births. 

BoTo, see Wto. 

Eme-wet, a god of the dead, represented, like Anubis, with a dog's 

head. His symbol was a post with a wine-skin hanging on it^t. 

Emset, one of the four sons of Osiris and guardian-deities of the 
dead, who protected them from hunger and thirst, and to whom 
therefore the viscera of the deceased were dedicated. The other 
three guardians were Hapi, Twe-metf, and Kebh-mewf. 

Enhuret (Greek Onuris), the god of This and Sebennytos. 

Epet, a popular goddess of childbirth. In Thebes, where she was 
revered as the mother of Osiris, she was represented as a pregnant 
hippopotamus. See also Toeris. 

Eri-hems-nufee ('the good companion'; Greek Harensnuphis), 
another name for Show, under which he was worshipped on the 
island of Biggeh and at Phils. 

E\vs-os, goddess of Heliopolis, the consort of Harakhte. 

Hapi, one of the guardian-deities of the dead. See Emset. 

Hakakhte (Fig. 4), a special form of Horus (p. oxliii). He was the 
god of Heliopolis. The falcon was sacred to him. 

Haebndotbs (Fig. 5 ; 'Egypt. Ear -net- yotf), 'Horus who protects 
his father' (Osiris), a form of Horus. 

Har-khentekhtai, god of Athribis (near Benha). Sacred animal, 
the serpent. 

Harmachis, a name given to the Sphinx at Gizeh. 

Haepocrates, Horus the child, represented with a side-lock and a 
finger on his lips. The Greeks regarded him as god of silence. 
He was much revered, especially at a late date. 

Hae-sem-tewe (Ha/rsomtus), 'Horus the uniter of the two lands', a 
form of Horus. 

Harsiesis, 'Horus, son of Isis', a form of Horus. 

Hathoe (Fig. 6), a deity of the sky, and a goddess of joy and love, 
identified by the Greeks with Aphrodite. She was the goddess 
of Dendera (p. 245) and Aphroditespolis (p. 333) and was wor- 
shipped also in Thebes as guardian of the necropolis (p. 302). The 
cow was sacred to her and she was frequently represented with 
cow's horns or a cow's head (Fig. 7). 

Heeishep, the ram-headed god of Heracleopolis (p. 206). 

HoEus received universal homage as the sun-god. He was the local 
deity of Buto and the patron of the Pharaohs (p. cxlv) at Edfu, 
where he is represented as a winged sun (Fig. 20). He is usually 
described as the son of Osiris and Isis, sometimes as the son of 
Re and brother of Seth. The falcon was sacred to him. 


Imhoi'bp (Imulhes), a deified saint of Memphis, revered as a priest 
and physician, was identified by the Greeks with Asklepios 
(jEsculapius). He had a temple at Philae also. 

Isis (Figs. 8 & 9), the wife of Osiris and mother of Horus (Har- 
siesis), was a goddess of Philae and was highly revered at a late 

Ka, the guardian-spirit of men (p. cxlix). 

Keb or Geb, the earth-god, husband of Nut (see p. cxlii). 

IvEBH-sNEWF, ouc of the guardiau-deitics of the dead. See Emset. 

Khepre, the scarabaeus (dung-beetle), regarded as a form of the 
snn-god (p. clxxvii). 

Khnum (Fig. 10) was the god of Elephantine and the Cataract dis- 
tricts, and of Shes-hotep, Esneh, etc. His sacred animal was the 

Khons, the moon-god of Thebes, was the son of Amon and Mut, 
with whom he forms the Theban Triad. Sacred animal, the falcon. 

Maat (Fig. 11), goddess of justice or truth. Her symbol is an 

MiN (Fig. 12), the guardian spirit of Akhmim and Koptos, was also 
the god of travellers in the desert. Later he was revered as a 
god of the harvest and was frequently amalgamated with Amon; 
the Greeks identified him with Pan. He is ithyphallically re-r 
presented. His sacred animal was a white bull. 

Mnbvis, the sacred bull of Heliopolis (p. exit). 

Mont (Montu), the god of Hermonthis and Thebes, was regarded 
from an early period as the god of war. He was represented 
with a falcon's head. 

Mux, the wife or daughter of Amon of Thebes and mother of Khons. 
Her sacred animal was the vulture. 

Nbfertem, son of Ptah of Memphis. 

Neith, goddess of Sais, Esneh (pp. 33, 342), etc. 

NEKHBEYBT(Greek Smilhis), goddess of El-Kab (p. 333) and guardian- 
deity of Upper Egypt. As she presided over childbirth the Greeks 
identified her with Eileithyia. Sacred animal, the vulture. 

Nephthts (Fig. 13), originally a goddess of the dead. Sister of Osiris. 

Nut, a goddess of the sky and wife of Keb. 

Onnophris, see Wen-nopre. 

Osiris (Fig. 14), originally the god of Busiris, afterwards identified 
with the death-god of Abydos, the 'Lord of the AVestern Folk', 
and universally worshipped as god of the dead (p. cxlviii). His 
tomb was at Abydos (p. 237). For his legend, see p. cxliii. His 

symbol was a post ff (Tet). 

Pekhet, the goddess of Speos Artemidos (p. 227), to whom the cat 

was sacred. 
Ptah (Fig. 15), the god of Memphis and patron deity of Egypt 

(p. cxlv), was regarded as the guardian of artists. 


Ptah-Tenen, a special form of Ptah. 

Eb, the sun-god. He was identified at an early period ■with Har- 
akhte of Heliopolis, and named Re-Harakhte. During the night 
he traverses the underworld and is then named Yfu-Rl and 
represented with a ram's head, 

Satet (Greek Satis) , guardian-deity of the Cataract district, was 
worshipped on the island of Seheil and at Elephantine. 

Sbkhmet (Fig. 16), goddess of war. Sacred animal, the lioness. 

Sele:et, a goddess to whom the scorpion was sacred. 

Serapis (Sarapis), a foreign god introduced into Egypt under the 
Ptolemies (p. 147), and more or less identified with the ancient 
Egyptian Osiris-Apis (Osorapis), the deceased Apis bull. 

Seshkt (Fig. 17), goddess of writing. 

Seth (Setekh)^ god of Omhos (near Nakadeh), was the patron deity 
of Upper Egypt in prehistoric times (p. cxliii), and was worship- 
ped also at Tanis and Auaris. He was the brother of Osiris, 
whom he is said to have slain (p. cxliii). Another myth makes 
him brother and enemy of Horus. After the 22nd Dyn. he was 
expelled from the Egyptian pantheon and was thenceforth re- 
garded as god of the impure (Typhon). His sacred animal, with 
a peculiar muzzle and grotesque ears and tail, is perhaps to be 
identified with the Ethiopian ant-eater (Orycteropus). 

Show, god of the air and god of Leontonpolis (Tell el-Yehudiyeh). 
The Egyptians believed that he supported the sky. The lion 
was sacred to him. 

Sobek (Fig. 18; Greek Suchos), worshipped chiefly in the Faiyum, 
at Ombos, etc. The crocodile was sacred to him. 

SoKBR, a falcon-headed god of the dead worshipped in the neigh- 
bourhood of Memphis. 

Tefnut, the goddess of the dew, sister and consort of Show, along 
with whom she was worshipped (in the form of a lioness). 

Tetun, guardian-deity of Nubia. 

Thotjt or Thoth (Fig. 19), a moon-deity and god of the sciences, 
therefore identified by the Greeks with Hermes. He was the 
city-god of Hermopolis (p. 209). The ibis and baboon were 
sacred to him. 

ToEEis, 'the great (^scil. Epet)', another name of Epet (see p. cl). 

TwE-METF, one of the guardian-deities of the dead. SeeEmset. 

Wen-nofee (Greek Onnophris), a surname of Osiris. 

Wep-wawet, protector of Assiut, also worshipped as a god of the 
dead. The wolf was sacred to him. 

Webt-hekew, a lion-headed goddess, wife of Re-Harakhte. 

Wto (Greek Buto), goddess of the town of Buto in the Delta ; also 
a guardian-deity of Lower Egypt. The serpent, ichneumon, and 
shrew-mouse were sacred to her. This goddess was represented 
also with a lion's head. 

Bepresentations of the most important Deities. 


1. Amon-Ee. 

2. Anubis. 

3. Atom, 

4. Harakbte. 



5. Harendotes. 

6. Hathor. 

7. Cow-headed 

8. Isis. 

9. Isis, suckling the 
infant Horus. 

10. Khnum. 



11. Maat, goildess of 

12. Min; behind is the 

curious shrine of 

the god. 

13. Xephthys. 

14. Osiris; behind the god is the syinbul 
of Eme-wet, god of the dend. 



15. Ptab. 

16. Sekhmet. 17. Seshet writing the 

king's name on the sacred tree 
of Heliopolis. 

18. Sobek. 

19. Thont. 


VII. Historical Notice of Egyptian Art 

By Profetsor O. Steindorff. 

1. Architecture. 

Of Egyptian architectural monuments dating from the pre- 
historic period or from the earliest dynasties unfortunately little 
has been preserved — very little compared with what remains of the 
buildings of the period extending from the Ancient Empire to the 
Grseco-Koman epoch. The remains that do exist are chiefly tombs, 
of clay or of sun-dried bricks of Nile mud, materials which were 
used also for houses and temples of the period. For the roof-sup- 
ports, and frequently for the roofs also, round trunks of palms were 
used. In many other cases the chambers were covered with barrel- 
vaulting. — Stone began to be used for tombs and temples at tlic 
beginning of the Ancient Empire, but brick never ceased to be 
the characteristic building-material of Egypt. The characteristic 
Egyptian architectural members, such as the concave cornice 
(cavetto) and the round moulding (torus or roll), had their origin 
in the primitive structures of wattle-and-daub, and the form of the 
circular Column was borrowed from the wooden supports used in 
brick buildings. The square Pier or Pillar, on the other hand, came 
into existence with architecture in stone. 

Piers are first met with in tombs of the Ancient Empire. Their 
lateral surfaces are frequently occupied by reliefs or inscriptions 
and their fronts by other ornamental designs. Thus tall papyrus- 
plants and lilies occur on piers of the time of Thutmosis III. at 
Kamakfp. 274), and a sistrum (a rattle used by women) with a head 
of Hathor at Abu Simbel (p. 409). The four-sided pier was con- 
verted into an octagonal or sixteen-sided pillar by bevelling off the 
corners, part of the pier, however, being left square at the top so 
as to blend with the roof; at the foot was a round, cushion-like 
base. By grooving or fluting the flat surfaces of the pillar a play of 
light and shade was obtained. Sixteen-sided fluted pillars, which 
have received the name of Proto-Doric Columns (Fig. I), occur in 
tombs of the Middle Empire (at Benihasan and As^uan) and in 
temples of the time of Thutmosis III. (Karnak, p. 277 ; Deir el- 
Bahri, p. 302). The name was suggested by certain points of resem- 
blance to the Doric columns of the Greeks, the chief of which are 
the marked fluting and the tapering ; but the Proto-Doric differs 
from the Greek Doric in being destitute of the 'echinus', a member 
resembling an overhanging wreath of leaves, forming the capital 
of the true Doric coluum. The chief difference, however, is that 
the shaft of the Egyptian column rests upon a base, while the 
Doric column springs immediately from the ground. Another 
difference is that some of the sides of the Proto-Doric column are 
frequently unfluted and left flat for the reception of inscriptions. 



Along with tlie pier and the allied Pioto-Doric column the round 
Column began to he used in Egyptian stone architecture after the 
heginning of the 5th Dynasty. Its simplest form was the Tree- 
Trunk Column of two members, -which was an imitation of the an- 
cient palm-tree supports (p. clvii) and is first found in the mortuary 
temple of Sehuie at Abusir. This consists of a low circular b ase 
and a cylindrical shaft, which was adorned in front with a band of 

I. Tomb Chamber and Columns of Benihasan. 

inscriptions. Usually, however, the column had three parts, i.e. it 
was crowned by a capital, ending in a square slab known as the 
abacus, upon which rest the beams of the arcliitrave, supporting 
the slabs of the roof. The Egyptian love of plants is well known 
from various sources, and consistently with this the favourite forms 
for columns as early as the Ancient Empire were borrowed from 
plant-life. Two plants especially were most frequently copied, viz. 
a variety of lotus (Nymphsea lotus) and the papyrus (Cypeius 


papyrus). Sometimes the column represents a single plant-stem, 
sometimes a cluster of stems held together by bands; while the 
capital imitates in turn the closed bud or the open calyx (Fig. II). 
Thus there arise four varieties of plant-columns: the simple plant- 
column with bud-capitals and the same with calyx-capitals; and 
the clustered plant-column with bud or calyx capitals. 

Of the various Lotus Columns [which seem to have been freely 
used if we may judge from the numerous pictures of them) com- 
paratively few have been 

preserved. Clustered col- 
umns of this kind with " 
bud-capitals occur during 
the Ancient and Middle 
Empires (in a tomb at 
Benihasan), but appear to 
have died out under the 
New Empire. The above- 
mentioned shaft at Beni- 
hasan is formed of four 
round stems, rising from 
a round base, and fastened 
together at the top by 
bands (Fig. III). The capi- 
tal is formed of closed 
buds, the green sepals of 
which extend quite to the 
top of the white petals of 
the corolla. Near the top 
of the shaft, between the 
bands which hold the 
main stems together, are 
inserted smaller stems. 
Examples of clustered 

lotus-columns with open (calyx) capitals (Fig. II) are frequently 
seen in reliefs on tombs of the Ancient and Middle Empires; but 
they occur most often in buildings of the later period. 

The Papynts Columns are nim-h more numerous. They differ 
widely from the lotus columns. The stems in the latter are circular 
in section, while in the papyrus-columns they are triangular, and 
moreover taper rapidly at the base, where thoy are encircled with 
pointed leaves — characteristics that are wanting in the lotus- 
columns. There is a difference also in the capitals, the sepals of 
the lotus reaching to the upper edge of the flower (see above), while 
the leaves surrounding the umbel of the papyrus are considerably 
shorter. The simple papyrus-column with a bud-capital is seen only 
in paintings and reliefs, whereas the clustered column is common 
enough (I'Mg. IV a). The latter usually consists of eight stems held 



together by bands at the top, while between these stems smaller 
clusters of three, fastened together by bands, were inserted. These 

inserted stems, however, lost their 
independent treatment at an early 
period. — Towards the close of the 
18th Dyn. the clustered papyrus- 
column underwent an essential 
change. In order to adapt the shaft 
for the reception of inscriptions and 
pictures, all its irregularities were 
abandoned and it was made per- 
fectly smooth. For the same reason 
the capital also was rounded off and 
transformed into a blunt cone, the 
original clustering being recalled 
by painting alone (Fig. IV b). • — 
Papyrus-columns with calyx-capi- 
tals (Fig. V a ; representing the 
opened umbel of the flower), in 
which it is difficult to distinguish 
between simple and clustered col- 
umns, occur in most temples of the 
New Empire, where they generally 
appear supporting the lofty roof of 
the central passage in such hypo- 
style halls as consist of nave and 
aisles. They invariably consist of 
a single rounded shaft, no longer articulated into separate stems 
(and generally covered with inscriptions and reliefs). 


Calyx Capital of a 
Papyrus Column. 

Composite Plant 


Amongst the other aud rarer varieties the Palm Column deserves 
mention . Its shaft is round (without the tapering foot of the papyrus 


column) and supports a capital formed of a bundle of palm-leaves, 
bending sliglitly outwards, and held together by bands (Fig. Vc). 
The earliest and finest palm-columns were found in the mortuary 
temple of Sehure at Abustr. At a later period the base of the 
column was often omitted. — The comparatively simple plant- 
capitals of the earlier periods were elaborately developed during the 
Ptolemaic epoch, until they almost assumed the form of bouquets 
of flowers, resplendent with brilliant colours (Fig. Vb~). 

Besides these plant-columns other varieties occur. The so-called 
Hathor or Sistrum Columns have round shafts crowned on four sides 
with the head of the goddess Hathor (with cow's ears), above which 
was a temple-like addition. These are exclusively confined to tem- 
ples of female deities and are most numerous in the Ptolemaic 
period; they arc doubtless reproductions of the sistrum (p. clvii), 
with its handle. Another curious column is the Tent-Pole Column, 

an imitation of the primitive j] form of tent-poles. This occurs in 

the festal temple of Thutmosis 111. at Karnak (p. 275), where the 
capitals are altered to the form of inverted calices. 

Comparatively few of the ancient Egyptian Secular Buildings, 
even of the later historical periods, have been preserved. The 
number of ruined towns is not, indeed, insignificant ; but the re- 
mains of the earlier houses are almost invariably concealed by those 
of later date and are thus very difficult to examine. The remains 
of earlier houses have come down to us directly in only a few ex- 
ceptional instances, as at Illahua (pp. 194, 196), Tell el-'Amarna 
(see p. 212j, and Deir el-Ballas, and beside the valley temple of the 
Mykerinos Pyramid (p. 133). These, in connection with represent- 
ations preserved on the monuments and models of houses found in 
tombs, afford us some knowledge of the structure and interior ar- 
rangements of Egyptian Pkivate Houses, which in many respects 
resembled the Arab liouses of modern Egypt (p. clxxxiii). The 
house of the humble peasant or workman was as simple then as it 
is to-day. An open court, in which the family spent the day (and 
in summer the night also), was adjoined by a few dimly - lighted 
sleeping-rooms and stables for the cattle, while a staircase led from 
the court to the flat roof, upon which a few smaller apartments were 
often found. The houses of the more prosperous Egyptians of the 
Middle Empire also had a court as their central point, at the back 
of which, on a terrace, was a colonnade or vestibule of light col- 
umns, generally open towards the N. and affording protection from 
the sun. Thence a door led to a wide hall, the roof of which rested 
on columns, and beyond that was a deep hall, also with columns, 
probably used as the eating room. Beyond that again were other 
apartments (bedrooms) for the master of the house and his grown- 
up sons. On one side of the four principal divisions of the house 
(court, vestibule, broad hall, deep hall) were the women's apart- 


raents, or liarem (hariin), the middle point of which was another 
open court; and on the other side were the slaves' apartments, the 
store-rooms, the kitchens, and the stables. This arrangement of 
the Egyptian dwelling-house was probahly the same in essential 
details at all periods, and even in the Royal Palaces (e.g. at Tell 
el-'Amarna) the four principal divisions occur in the same order. 
The houses of the 18th Dyn. which have recently been excavated 
at Tell el- Amarna are built upon a slightly different plan from 
that just described. — The walls of the houses and palaces were 
built of unburnt bricks of Nile mud ; the roofs were made of wooden 
beams, covered with straw or reeds and daubed within and without 
with Nile mud ; the columns were either of stone or of wood, and in 
palaces were inlaid with coloured stones or glass-paste. Colour was 
extensively used also in the interiors; the walls were whitewashed 
and adorned with bright-coloured rugs or with paintings, and even 
the pavements were often covered with colouring matter. 

Numerous Foktifibd Structokes have been preserved. Amongst 
these may be mentioned the Nubian forts at Kuban (p. 397) and 
to the S. of Wadi Haifa (p. 413), where a chain of fortifications 
closed the roads beside the cataract, and the Egyptian forts at 
El-Kab (p. 333) and near El-Aliaiweh (p. 2361, all of which pro- 
bably date from the Middle Empire. 

As taxes and salaries were paid in kind, large Magazines were 
required for the reception of tribute, not only by the state but also 
by temples. The remains of such storehouses have been found 
beside the Ramesseum (p, 309) and elsewhere. 

Probably in no other country have so many Temples within such 
narrow limits survived from antiquity as in Egypt. Most of these, 
it is true, date from the New Empire and the Ptolemaic epoch, so 
that we have a clear conception of the temples of these periods only. 
Few or no complete temples have survived from the Ancient or 
Middle Empires or from the late-Egyptian period. 

Of the Temples of the Ancient Empiee, apart from the mortu- 
ary temples beside the pyramids (pp. 131, 134), only one example 
of a particular kind has been preserved. This is the Sanctuary of 
the Sun at Abu Gurab, erected by King Nuserre (p. 140). This 
temple consisted of a large court bounded by covered passages and 
containing only a few buildings; at the back of the court rose a 
huge obelisk. The walls of the passages and of some of the rooms 
were covered with reliefs representing festivities, hunting-scenes, 
and country life. 

The remains of the Temples of the Middle Empire are even 
scantier than those of the Ancient Empire. Large sanctuaries, 
sometimes even superior in size to those of later times, were built 
during this period at Luxor, Kamak, Koptos , Abydos, Medtnet 
el-FaiyUm, Heliopolis, Bubastis, and Tanis ,• but none has left any 
considerable traces. All probably fell into decay during the troub- 


lous times of the Hyksos supremacy and were replaced under the 
1 8th Dyn. by new buildings, in which the materials of the earlier 
edifices were utilized as far as possible. In plan they seem to 
liave corresponded exactly with the later sanctuaries, and probably 
many temples of the later period were erected on the plans of the 
earlier buildings. In decoration also they exactly resernbled the 
later temples. The inner walls were adorned with reliefs showing 
the king in communion with the gods ; the ceilings of their halls were 
supported by columns of various patterns (comp. pp. clviii at seq.); 
and in front of their entrances rose tall obelisks (p. 121) and colossal 
statues of the Pharaohs. 

However different from each other the Temples or the New 
Empiee appear at first sight, there is but little difficulty in refer- 
ring them all to two general fundamental forms. One of these, re- 
calling, probably quite accidentally, the Greek Peripteros or temple 
surrounded by a colonnade, was especially popular during the 
18th Dyn. , the age of Thutmosis III. and his successors. The 
rectangular cella (ox sanctuary), containing the sacred boat with 
the image of the god and provided with doors at each end, rose 
upon a basement of masonry, crowned with a concave cornice and 
approached by a flight of steps. On all four sides it was surrounded 
by a colonnade, the roof of which rested upon square pillars or 
on Proto-Doric columns, connected by low screens. Occasionally 
this main structure was adjoined at the back by several smaller 
apartments, also used for religious rites. Among the peripteral 
structures of this kind arc the small temples of Thutmosis III. at 
l-Carnak and Medinet Habu (pp. 279, 328), the S. temple of Buhen 
near Wadi Haifa (^p. 412), and a sanctuary of Amenophis III. upon 
the island of Elephantine , which has now vanished. Curiously 
enough this form of peripteros was revived in the Ptolemaic period, 
though with various modifications, being used in the so-called Birth 
Houses (Mammisi)^ which stood beside the principal temples (e.g. at 
Philae; p. 367) and were dedicated to the worship of the maternal 
deity (Isis or Hathor) and her child. The inner sanctuaries in these 
birth-houses also were surrounded with colonnades, the roofs of 
which, however, were borne by the curious sistrum-columns crown- 
ed with heads of Hathor or with figures of Bes. 

The second fundamental form of the Egyptian temple is most 
simply and clearly illustrated in the small temples built by Ram- 
ses III. at Karnak in honour of Khons and of Amon, with his two 
companion-deities (pp. 262, 267 ; see special plan of the great temple 
of Amon at ivarnak, p. 265). The approach to the temple is formed 
by the Pylon, two large towers of masonry flanking the entrance-door. 
These towers are shaped like very steep truncated pyramids; the 
slightly inclining walls, framed with round mouldings, offer the 
greatest available space for reliefs. The towers were imposing from 
heir sheer size, and this impression was heightened (from the 




Middle Empire onwards) by the obelisks and colossal statues placed 
in front of them, and by the lofty flag-staffs which were placed in 
shallow niches in the masonry and fastened by huge clamps (Fig.VI). 
Beyond the pylon we enter a broad open Court, flanked on the right 
and left by covered colonnades. In the centre stood the great altar 
round which the people assembled on festivals. This court was 
adjoined by the Temple proper, which stood on a terrace of moderate 
height adorned with a concave cornice and reached from the cout, 

VI. The Second Pylon at Karnak decorated for a festival (from an ancien 
Egyptian representation). 

by one or more flights of low steps. At the top of the steps we first 
reach a Pronaos or Vestibule, borne by columns. The columns in 
the front row are connected by stone screens, shutting off the temple 
from the court. Behind this lies a Hypostyle Hall, occupying the 
whole breadth of the building. In most of the larger temples (e.jr. 
the Ramessenm and the great temple of Amon at Karnak) this hall 
consisted of a tripartite nave and two or more aisles, the latter con- 
siderably lower than the former. In these cases the roof above the 
nave is usually supported by papyrus-columns with calyx-capitals, 
that above the aisles by similar columns with bud- capitals. Tlie 
wall-space left by the difference in the height of the nave and aisles 


is often uaed (^e.g. at Karuak) for the insertion of windows with stone 
tracery. Beyond the hypostyle hall lies the innermost Sanctuary, a 
comparatively narrow and deep chamber. This contained the imago 
of the god, usually in a sacred boat, which was borne by the priests 
in processions. Only the king or his representative, the high-priest, 
might enter this chamber and 'look upon the god'. When the 
temple, as, e.g., the sanctuary of Ramses III. at Karuak (p. 267), 
was dedicated to a triad of gods, the sanctuary of the chief god 
(Amon") was flanked by the chapels of the other two [Mut and 
Khonsj. Chambers of various sizes used for religious rites or for 
the storage of temple property surrounded the sanctuary; staircases 
led to the roof and to various rooms, which either served as dwellings 
for the temple watchmen and servants or were used in the cele- 
bration of particular ceremonies, etc. 

This form of Egyptian temple, which recurs in most of the larger 
sacred buildings of the New Empire and lingered until after the 
beginning of the Ptolemaic period, closely corresponds with the 
ground-plan of the early Egyptian house or palace previously de- 
scribed. The open court of the house, accessible to every visitor, is 
represented by the great temple-court ; the pronaos of the temple 
corresponds to the vestibule, the colonnaded (hypostyle) hall to the 
broad hall of the dwelling; and the deep hall in which the master 
of the house spent his time finds its analogue in the sanctuary, the 
dwelling-place of the god. And just as these apartments in the 
dwelling-house were adjoined by chambers and rooms for various 
purposes, so the sanctuary in the temple was adjoined by a series of 
small apartments, store-rooms, etc. Thus the temple was literally 
what the Egyptians called it, the House of the Qod. 

In many temples the colonnaded hall is further separated from 
tlie sanctuary by one or more Smaller Halls (with or without col- 
umns) of narrower proportions and dimii\ishing in height. Fre- 
quently also the sanctuary is followed by several other halls and 
chambers; and not unfrequently the temple proper is preceded by 
two colonnaded courts instead of by one. The particular purposes of 
all these various rooms are in most cases hard to determine. 

Though many temples, such as the temple at Luxor and the 
great temple of Amon at Karnak, exhibit a much more com- 
plicated form than that just described, the explanation is that they 
were not built on one uniform plan but owe their construction to 
various builders. In the descriptions of the particular temples con- 
cerned this matter is treated with due attention to detail. 

Occasionally the nature of the site compelled further deviations 
from the above-described form. In Lower Nubia the sandstone cliffs 
approach so close to the bank of the Nile that the temple had to be 
partly or wholly constructed in the rock, the necessary rooms being 
hewn out. At Gerf-Husein (p. 394) the court is built as usual, 
while the colonnaded hall and the sanctuary are hewn out of the 


rock. The larger temple of Abu Simbel (p. 404) is entirely a rock 
building, the pylon and the colossi included. At Abydos the difficulty 
of excavating the rock was avoided by placing the part of the temple 
containing the slaughter-court and other offices at right angles to 
the main edifice, so that the whole now presents the form of a "~| 
(comp. the Plan, p. 239). 

Although many small temple-buildings of the Libyan Epoch 
and the Late Period are still in existence, almost nothing has 
come down to our day of the large temples, with the exception of 
the temple of Hibis, in the Oasis of Khargeh (p. 381), which was 
erected in the time of the Persians. Nearly all the kings of that 
period resided in the Delta (Bubastis, Sais), and therefore mark- 
edly favoured the North in erecting their monuments. There the 
sanctuaries were built of limestone, and in mediaeval and mod- 
ern times the blocks have either found their way into lime-kilns, 
or, since the Delta itself yields but scanty building-materials, have 
boen utilized for new buildings, usually leaving only the more re- 
fractory blocks of granite behind. It was not until the days of the 
Ptolemies that attention was once more directed to the South. These 
monarchs raised many large temples to the gods of the country, 
usually on the site of earlier ruined buildings. All these temples 
are built on one uniform plan, differing but slightly from the older 
forms (comp. the Plan of the temple at Edfu, p. 344, with that of 
the Ramesseum, p. 306). There is a difference in only one essential 
point. The sanctuary for the boat is surrounded on three sides by 
corridors, on which open smaller chambers. This innovation, which 
is seen for the first time in the temple of Khons at Karnak (20th 
Dyn.), provided the temple proper with a chapel closed all round. 
The earlier temples were often altered to conform to this new plan, 
and a separate boat-chamber was inserted among the older rooms 
(e.g. in the temple at Luxor, and in the great temple at Karnak). 
The side-rooms also are numerous at this period and among these 
special mention must be made of a small Sacrificial Court situated 
on the right side (see Plan of Edfu, p. 344) and an elegant Kiosque 
adjoining it (ib.). Eooms of this kind occur, however, even in some 
of the older temples. 

From the earliest known period all flat surfaces on pylons, in- 
terior walls, column-shafts, and ceilings were covered with repre- 
sentations and inscriptions. The external walls, the pylons, and 
the walls of the courts, i.e. those parts of the temple that were ex- 
posed to the vulgar eye, commemorated above all the exploits of 
the king, campaigns, great festivals, or other important events of 
his reign ; the representations were intended to keep the power and 
nobility of the Pharaoh constantly before his people. On the other 
liand the representations in the interior of the temple were ex- 
clusively devoted to the religious proceedings that took place there. 
The king, who theoretically was the only mortal who might have 


intercourse with the gods, appears again and again, offering gifts 
and homage to the deities and receiving from them earthly bless- 
ings. In the late period and especially under the Ptolemies the 
secular representations on the external walls and the walls of the 
court gave place to religious scenes ; the battle-scenes and triumphs 
of the ruler are superseded by sacrificial and other sacred scenes 
depicted at tedious length. On the pylons, however, the primitive 
typical figure of the Pharaoh smiting his enemies in presence of 
the god still appears. — The temple, moreover, like his house and 
his tomb, was in the eyes of the Egyptian a type in small of the 
world. The roof corresponded to the sky, and was, therefore, appro- 
priately adorned with stars upon a blue ground, while above the 
middle passage hovered vultures, protecting the king as he passed 
along below. Not unfrequently, and especially in the temples of 
the Ptolemaic period, the ceiling is adorned -with astronomical re- 
l)resentations — the gods and goddesses of the months and days, 
the planets, various constellations, and the goddess of the sky 
herself, on whose body rested the boat of the sun. Similarly the 
pavement represented the earth. Here (i.e. on the bottom of the 
walls) we see flowers blooming or long processions of the re- 
presentatives of the nomes and other divisions of the country, and 
of the river and canals, bringing their characteristic products as 
offerings to the deities of the temple. Egypt was traditionally re- 
garded as divided into two portions — a northern and a southern — 
and similarly the entire world as represented in the temple was also 
regarded as consisting of a N. half and a S. half. The represent- 
atives of the N. appear on one side, those of the S. on the other ; 
and even in the ceremonial religious scenes on the walls this 
distinction may frequently be traced. The entire temple-preoincts 
were enclosed by a massive brick wall, the portal of which (gener- 
ally a pylon) was approached by a dromos or avenue of sphinxes or 
of animals sacred to the god (e.g. in Thebes recumbent rams). With- 
in this wall stood also the dwellings of the priests, besides store- 
houses and stables, so that the temple proper, like an Arab mosque 
of to-day, stood in the midst of a complexus of domestic buildings. 
Owing to the great value of cultivable land in Egypt Tombs 
were not placed in the lower portions of the Nile valley, but in the 
more elevated desert-regions, which, moreover, being beyond the 
reach of the inundation, were in any case better adapted for the 
preservation of the dead. The Egyptian tomb always had a double 
function to fulfil ; it not only served as a safe resting-place for the 
dead, but it was also a place where the survivors could meet on 
certain days and offer gifts to the deceased. Thus the tomb was in 
two parts, the actual Tomb in the ground, and the Place of Worship 
above ground. — The most ancient graves were simple pits, in 
which the corpses were laid; these were frequently walled with 
bricks and covered over with beams. Larger pits were divided 


into chambers l)y partition walls. Over the grave heaps of stoaes 
were piled or a mound was formed of bricks made of Nile mud, on 
the E. side of which a stele was set up; in front of this a small 
court was made , which served as a place of worship , where the 
gifts for the deceased were deposited. From this early form of 
Egyptian tomb were developed the Mastabas, as the tombs of the 
aristocrats of the Ancient Empire are called ; these were erections 
of limestone blocks or of bricks, with a rectangular ground-plan and 
sloping walls. A perpendicular shaft (10-100 ft. in depth) or a 
staircase led down to the sepulchral chamber, containing the 
corpse, which frequently lay in a coffin of wood or stone. A door- 
shaped stone or stele, resembling a false door, set in a shallow 
recess in the court on the E. side of the upper structure (the 
court or place of worship, seldom discernible now), marked the 
spot that was regarded as the entrance to the grave and to the 
realm of the dead. In front of this the surviving relatives laid the 
food, drink, and other offerings to the dead upon the flat Table of 
Offerings, or recited their prayers for the welfare of the departed. 
After the close of the 3rd Dyn. a chapel was frequently built in 
front of the recess or a regular chamber of worship formed in the 
masonry of the mastaba, and the stele was then removed to its W. 
side. In the time of the 5th Dyn. the inner chamber was enlarged 
and a number of additional rooms added. The extent to which these 
'everlasting abodes' might be enlarged and developed is best illus- 
trated by the mastaba of Mereruka at Sakkara (p. 159), which, like 
any ordinary well-to-do house, contains a suite of rooms for the 
master, another (the harem) for his wife, a third, behind, for the 
son, besides various store-rooms. The inner walls were embellished 
with inscriptions and representations (usually in relief), depicting 
the deceased at his favourite occupations, hunting and fishing, the 
various activities on his estates, his workmen at work, etc. The 
object of these representations was to enable the deceased to con- 
tinue his occupations in the land beyond the grave (comp. pp. 149 
et seq. and p. cxlvii). The deceased and the members of his family 
were represented by statues, which were placed in one or more 
special rooms (the so-called Serddbs, I.e. cellars), generally built 
in the thickness of the walls but sometimes separate structures. 
These received light and air by means of small apertures only. 
Most of the fine statues of the Ancient Empire now in the Museum 
at Cairo (pp. 82 et seq.) were found in such serdabs. 

Just as the streets of a town -were arranged round the palace of 
the king, so the rows of mastabas were grouped around the tomb 
of the king. Originally the royal tombs were large brick mastabas 
like the others (comp. above), in or beneath which were chambers 
for the body of the king, for those of his suite, and for the various 
funeral gifts. Subsequently the royal mastabas were enlarged by 
heightening them and surrounding them with several outer casings. 


'< \ 

J> a 


<v ^ 


' ' 



^ •>'' 


1 jti m 


o >oo 




each ol which was lower than the one inside it. A Step Mastaba 
(step-pyramid) was thus developed, such as may still he seen in 
the step-pyramid at Sakkara and the pyramid at Meidiim (comp. 
pp. 146, 205). The normal form 
of smooth pyramid was evolved 
from the step-pyramid at the 
beginning of the 4th Dyn., and 
thenceforward it remained the 
usual form for royal tomhs until 
the I8th Dynasty. In the rock 
heneath the massive stone erec- 
tion of the pyramid a sloping " 
shaft (PI. a) led to a subterran- 
ean passage, closed by means 
of a stone trap-door, and to the 
chamber (PI. 6) in which the 

sarcophagus stood. The great ,.„ „, ^. , ,. o» n • ■ 
• J X z-,^ 1^ ,v \ VIT. Elevahon of the Step Pviamul 

pyramids at Gizeh, the step- of SakkSra. 

pyramid at Sakkara, and various 

others contain several passages and se veral chambers, but the exist- 
ence of these is due to modifications of the original plan or to 
later alterations (pp. 125, 126). The inner rooms of the pyramids, 
and particularly the sarcophagus-chambers, which were made in- 
accessible after the interment, were almost entirely destitute ol' 
ornament in the ancient period. It was not until the end of the 
5th Dyn. that it began to be customary to adorn the walls with re- 
ligious texts (the so-called 'Pyramid Texts'). The recess or the 
room in which sacrifices were offered to the dead in the mastabas 
was represented in the case of the pyramids by a detached temple 
on the E. side. These temples were divided into two portions, one 
public, the other private. The centre of the public portion was oc- 
cupied by a large open court, surrounded with arcades, off which 
opened five chambers for the statues of the deceased monarch; the 
principal apartment in the private temple was the sanctuary con- 
taining the stele. On the edge of the cultivated land, moreover, 
stood a temple, forming a monumental gateway, rising on a terrace 
and connected by a long covered approach with the mortuary temple, 
which lay on the desert-plateau. The walls of the pyramid-temples 
of the 4th Dyn. were left bare, but those of the temple at Abusir 
are partly covered with reliefs, which to some extent display the 
same types as are seen in the temples of the gods (the king as a 
griffin triumphing over foreign foos, booty captured from the enemy, 
military campaigns, etc.). The best preserved mortuary temples of 
the Ancient Empire are the temple beside the pyramid of MeidUm 
(p. 205; apparently unfinished), the temp'es of Khephren and My- 
kerinos beside the pyramids of Glzeh (pp. 132, 133), and those of 
Sehure, Nefer-er-ke-re, and Nuserre at Abii^7r (p. 141). Less is known 


of the plan of the mortuary temples of the Middle Empire beside 
the pyramids of Lisht, Dahshur, Illahun, and Hawara. Most of these 
are in a very ruinous condition, like the temple of Amenemhet III., 
the so-called Labyrinth (p. 195), while others have not been fully 
excavated. The only one in tolerable preservation is the mortuary 
temple of Mentuhotep III. and Mentuhotep IV. at Deir el- Bahri 
(p. 304), but that is built on a peculiar plan with terraces and can- 
not be considered typical. For the way in which the pyramids were 
built, comp. p. 124. At a later period the kings of Napata and Meroe 
(pp. 419, 422) re- adopted the pyramidal form for the royal tombs. 

The custom of placing their tombs at the foot of a royal pyramid 
was gradually abandoned by the nobles at the close of the Ancient 
Empire ; they preferred to be buried near their own homes. Like 
the Pharaohs they built for themselves small Bkick Pyramids upon 
square or rectangular bases. The tomb-chamber was formed in the 
tliickness of the wall or dug out of the ground beneath ; and a tomb- 
stone was erected on the outside, before which the survivors recited 
their prayers or presented their offerings. But the high and steep 
declivity of the desert-plateau did not always offer space enough 
for such free-standing tombs; and at various points graves were 
hewn in the rock, a practice of which there were isolated examples 
even under the Ancient Empire (p. 139). In accordance with the 
fundamental conception of the tomb as the Home of the Dead, each 
of these Rock Tombs must contain the four principal divisions of 
the ancient Egyptian dwelling-house. Thus a Forecourt, usually 
surrounded with a brick wall, was provided in the open air in front 
of the tomb, generally ending in a small Colonnade with two pillars 
or columns hewn in the solid rock. Beyond this was a large Chamber 
with columns or pillars, followed by a small Chamber or Recess, 
which contained the statue of the deceased, frequently accompanied 
by that of his wife, hewn out of the rock, and thus corresponded 
to the serdab (p. clxviii) of the old mastabas. 

This dwelling-house arrangement is most distinctly seen in the 
rock-tombs of Benihasan and Assuau [comp. pp. 227, 358). The 
inner walls are covered with inscriptions and representations, which, 
though more varied in subject than those of the earlier tombs, agree 
with them in being intended to provide for the enjoyment of the 
deceased. The unembellished sarcophagus-chamber was reached 
from the first hall by a perpendicular shaft hewn in the rock. 

The Tombs of the New Empiee coincide in their general fea- 
tures with those of the Middle Empire. At this date also both free- 
standing tombs (mastabas and pyramidal tombs) and rock-hewn 
tombs occur, according to the nature of the site at different places. 
The former variety of tomb is now, however, represented by very 
few examples. In the rock-tombs a narrow corridor is frequently 
found between the first hall and the small inner chamber with the 
statues; for their general arrangement and decoration, see the re- 


marks on p. 284. After the beginning of tlie 18tb Dyn. the Pharaohs 
also ceased to build pyramids as their last resting-places, and pre- 
pared their tombs in the slopes of a sequestered mountain-valley 
on the W. bank of the Nile near Thebes. These Royal Tombs of 
THE New Empire comprised long corridors and halls, the walls of 
which were occupied by religious inscriptions and scenes (comp. 
p. 284). Like the passages within the pyramids, these were exclu- 
sively destined for the reception of the sarcophagus, while the 
rock itself represented the pyramid built over the grave. Since 
there was no room among the mountains for mortuary temples, the 
latter were built (usually on a large scale) on the plain, where their 
ruins remain to this day. 

The grandees of the late period followed the example of their 
predecessors under the Middle Empire by imitating the tombs of 
the Pharaohs in preparing their own private graves. This was the 
case in Thebes at least. At Asasif (p. 305) near Thebes we find in 
their tombs a complicated series of corridors and halls, the walls of 
which are decorated with nothing but religious texts and representa- 
tions. Unfortunately none of the royal tombs of the last native 
dynasty have as yet been discovered ; these must have lain near the 
large capitals in the Delta. 1''.ven of the larger private tombs of this 
epoch few have been found, with the exception of those at Thebes 
and a few others at Gizeh and Sakkara. 

The Tombs of the Humulbr Classes must, of course, have 
largely outnumbered those of the grandees; but beyond the pits 
which contained the bodies, and some gravestones, they have left 
no traces. From pictures we know that under the New Empire they 
were frequently in the form of small brick pyramids; but nearly 
all have fallen victims to time. The poorer classes were frequently 
buried in Common Tombs, constructed by speculators in ruined tem- 
ples or in long corridors underground. In these the corpses were 
laid in plain coffins (sometimes merely on planks or mats made of 
the fibres of palm-leaves), accompanied by simple gifts for their use 
in the future world. But these common graves are now almost all 
covered by drift sand, and all trace of them is lost. 

2. Sculpture and Fainting. 

No fair estimate of the achievements of Egyptian sculpture 
or of its masters can be obtained from a study of the ordinary co- 
lossal statues, sphinxes, and temple-reliefs; for these, though they 
are now the most conspicuous examples of Egyptian sculpture, 
were, with few exceptions, exclusively decorative and were exe- 
cuted by artisans rather than by artists. For such an estimate an 
acquaintance must be obtained with works produced by genuine 
artists, such as the portrait statues and reliefs now preserved Iti the 
Museum of Cairo, and the reliefs on the walls of mastabas, of rock 



tombs, and of a few special temples (notably the temples of Deir 
el-Bahri and Luxor and the temple of Sethos at Abydos). Genuine 
art-works, it is true, are but thinly sown in Egypt, and, owing to 
the enormous mass of sculpture that has been preserved, it is per- 
haps more difficult in this than in any other branch of art for any 
one but an expert to discriminate the good and artistically worthy 
from the inferior and mechanical ; and the difficulty is increased 
by the fact that even the best artists were unable to emancipate 
themselves from certain traditional peculiarities of representation. 
Our unbounded admiration is commanded by the wonderful skill 
with which both artisan and artist could work the hardest stone 
with comparatively primitive tools. This extraordinary technical 
skill is apparent in all the productions of Egyptian sculpture. But 
the qualities that differentiate the genuine works of art from the 
others are an admirable fidelity in portraiture and a charming sym- 
pathy with nature, which is specially apparent in the representa- 
tion of animals. 

Sculplors at work (from an ancient Egyptian representation). 

Statues. We possess specimens of the art of even the Eahliest 
Pbkiod of Egyptian history in the shape of primitive figures of men 
and animals, mostly carved in bone or ivory, some of which (especially 
among the animal figures) display a high degree of finish. The 
statues dating from the end of the 2nd Dyn. and the beginning of 
the Ancient Empire already possess all the merits of Egyptian 
'sculpture, though they still show traces of archaic stiffness. They 
are mostly seated figures of moderate size, with a constrained ar- 
rangement of the limbs; the right hand usually rests on the breast, 
the left hand upon the thigh. When an inscription occurs it is usu- 
ally given in relief. But the facial features even in these primitive 
works are handled with a portrait-like firmness. 

In all Egyptian statues the head and trunk are carved with a 
strict regard to symmetry, the only freedom ever taken being in the 


arrangement of the arms and legs. If a plane be conceived as de- 
scending vertically from the top of the skull through the face, breast, 
and hack, it will he found to divide the trunk into two symmetrical 
halves and to form a right angle with the line of the ground; the 
trunk bends neither to the right nor to the left. This principle of full- 
face symmetry, or 'law of frontality', as Julius Lange named it, is 
common to the art of all primitive races, and even the Greeks did 
not finally emancipate themselves from it until their plastic art had 
attained its zenith. — Personages who were meant to he invested 
with a certain dignity are shown standing or sitting in a quiet 
posture, or even seated on the ground with their legs folded 
beneath them. They are often combined in family groups. The 
attendants, on the other hand, whose statues were placed in tlie 
grave of the deceased, are represented as indulging freely, within 
certain limits, in their usual occupations. — The art of sculpture 
showed rapid signs of improvement at the beginning of the4thDyn., 
and reached one of its highest points in this dynasty and the fol- 
lowing. Among the works of this period preserved in the Museum 
of Cairo, most of which are of limestone or wood, the best are in- 
dicated at pp. 82-84. In all these statues the chief stress is laid 
upon a faithful reproduction of the face; the rest of the body, 
especially the hands and feet, are conventionally treated. The 
artist frequently imparted a curiously striking effect to his statue 
by iTiserting eyes of black and white quartz, with a wooden or copper 
stud to represent the pupil. 

After a period of decay the art of sculpture attained, in tlie 
Middle Empire, what was probably its highest perfection in the 
wliole course of Egyptian history. Among its masterpieces were 
the fine statue of Amenemhet III. at Cairo (No. 284, p. 84), and 
the statues and sphinxes which were formerly attributed to the 
liyksos, but which probably also represent Amenemhet III. or other 
kings of the close of the i'2th Dyn. (p. 85). These are marked by an 
emphatic rendering of the spiritual expression, and are permeated 
by an appealing seriousness. The period, however, furnishes us 
also with creations of much less intrinsic value, such as the con- 
ventional statues from Lisht (No. 301, p. 84), with their vacant faces. 

The comparatively large number of Statues of the New Em- 
pire which have come down to us, most of which, it is true, were 
intended merely for decorative purposes, present a striking contrast 
to those of the Middle Empire. In place of the melancholy earnest- 
ness shown by the latter we find a certain placid and attractive 
cheerfulness. I^xamples of incomparable verisimilitude, worthy to 
rank with the best productions of the earlier period, are not want- 
ing. Among these may be mentioned the statue of Thutmosis III. 
(No. 400, p. 85), the heads of Ameiiophis IV. (Nos. 3610-3612, 
p. 93), the busts of a married ro\iple (No. 745, p. 87), the heads 
of King Haremheb, of the god Khons, and of the goddess Mut in 


the Museum at Cairo (No. 451, p. 85; No. 491, p. 86; No. 456, p. 85), 
besides a few other specimens in European museums. In many 
cases the artists have abandoned an attempt to produce a faithful 
portrait in favour of ideal beauty, devoting much of their energy 
to the representation of the coiffure, the ornaments, and the flowing 
garments then fashionable. Many new types were invented in this 
period, such as the figure of a man crouching on the ground and 
enveloped in a voluminous mantle. 

After the 20th Dyn. art steadily declined until the time of the 
Ethiopian monarchs, when it again revived under the inspiration of 
the models of the Ancient and Middle Empires. At last began a 
later period of bloom, which has justly been styled the period of the 
Egyptian Renaissance (p. cv). The prevalent tendency at this 
epoch was towards a careful study of portraiture, and it produced 
some extraordinarily good work, especially in the 26th Dyn., in the 
portraits of bald-headed priests, in which the characteristic points 
(such as the shape of the skull) are indicated in a masterly manner, 
while the less significant details are ignored. The best specimens 
of this great style of art are now in Berlin , and with the exception 
of the fine head of the aged Mentemhet (No. 1084, p. 89) and a few 
smaller statues there are unfortunately no examples of it in the 
Cairo Museum, where the traveller will find only insipid, sim- 
pering productions of the Egyptian Renaissance. — Though these 
realistic works show no trace of Greek influence, the development 
of sculpture from the time of the Ptolemies on shows the influence 
of Greek art in an ever -increasing degree. Side by side with 
purely Greek works (chiefly in Alexandria) and purely Egyptian 
works, the sculptors of which clung anxiously and mechanically to 
the ancient style, we meet with specimens of a peculiar hybrid 
Grseco- Egyptian style, in which the figures are Greek in attitude 
and Egyptian in drapery, coifl'ure, and adornment, or vice versa. 
However valuable these may be for an appreciation of Egyptian 
civilization at a late period , they certainly carry no satisfaction to 
the eye intent upon artistic efl'ects. 

Beliefs and Paintings. Egyptian reliefs are either Bas-Rellefs, 
the earliest and at all periods the commonest form, or Incised Beliefs 
('reliefs en creux'), in which the design is sunk below the surface. 
This form, which is peculiar to Egypt, first appears under the 4th 
Dyn. and always serves as a cheap substitute for bas-reliefs. The 
sculptors of the New Empire, however, have often succeeded in 
producing very attractive effects by the skilful use of its peculi- 
arities. Egyptian relief attained its highest point under the 5th 
Dyn. (p. xcix). The high level of technical and artistic skill at 
that period is best illustrated in the mastabas of Ti and Ptahhotep 
at Sakkara (pp. 149, 163), and in the reliefs from the mortuary 
temples of the kings of the 5th Dyn. (p. 82). Under the 6th Dyn. 
and during the Middle Empire the execution of the reliefs had 


distinctly begun to decline, and it is not till we reach the works 
of the 18th Dyn. [e.g. in the temples of Luxor and Deir el-Bahri, 
and in some of the graves of Sheikh 'Abd el-Kurna) that we find 
some approach to the old excellence. From this period on the 
decline is steady, though a few graceful and attractive reliefs were 
produced in the time of Sethos I. (e.y. in Abydos, p. 239). The 
too lavish demands made upon artistic resource for the decoration 
of the numerous new temples led, under Ramses II., to a rough and 
ready style of work, the defects of which were multiplied under 
Merenptah. — In the SaKte Period the works of the Ancient Empire 
were again selected as models for sculptures in this branch of the 
plastic art, though no attempt was made to rival the ancient masters 
Affith actual copies. But all the same the reliefs of this period ofler a 
pleasing contrast to those of the reign of Ramses II., in their deli- 
cate and exact execution, and in a certain elegance and a charming 
softness of form. — Art under the Ptolemies was at first content to 
follow in the track of the Saite artists; but it gradually grew more 
and more crude, and the temple-walls were overladen with rows of 
tasteless reliefs, contrasting with the good taste shown by the ear- 
lier artists in interspersing decorated with undecorated surfaces. 
The figures of men and gods in these became heavy and shapeless, 
so that their features and limbs have a swollen appearance. Unfor- 
tunately the reliefs of this late period of Egyptian art are the most 
numerous and most conspicuous in Upper Egypt, and thus it is that 
the traveller is inclined to assign to Egyptian sculpture a much 
lower rank than even its mediocre productions deserve. — All re- 
liefs were painted, but many of them have now lost every trace of 
colour. "When Painting was used instead of sculpture (as,c.jf., in the 
tombs of the 18th Dyn. at Sheikh 'Abd el-Kuriia, p. 309), it was so 
either in order to save expense or because the available stone was 
not suitable for carvings. That the same rules of drawing applied 
to paintings as applied to reliefs need scarcely be stated. 

It is difficult for the ordinary student to obtain a proper ap- 
preciation of Egyptian reliefs and paintings, owing to the peculiar 
style of Drawing. This arose in the prehistoric age, but was re- 
modelled at a very early period of Egyptian history, and it is easy 
to recognize how in the course of time the means for representing 
the phenomenal world were multiplied. Many forms of the earlier 
period, however, were religiously adhered to. The characteristic 
Egyptian drawing represents the human figure as a composition 
of the various parts of the body drawn from different points of 
view. The head is seen from the side, while the eyes are drawn from 
the front. The shoulders are shown facing us, without foreshort- 
ening, and the rest of the body and the feet and legs in profile. 
The inconsistencies of this method were felt by the later Egyptian 
artists, and the difficulty was got over by treating the whole as in 
three-quarter profile. Alongside of this normal type there gradually 


developed tlie use of a correct profile representation. This is some- 
times met as early as the 5th Dyn. but was not handled witli per- 
fect certainty until the second half of the 18th Dynasty. At this 
time the Egyptian art of drawing had attained its zenith. Nothing 
of equal excellence is found of a later date. The traveller will find 
the best opportunity to study the works of this period at Sheikh 
^ibd el-Kurna and Tell el-'Amarna (pp. 309, 212). — The ani- 
mals, upon the realistic reproduction of which the artists bestow- 
ed great care and devotion, are shown in an almost correct pro- 
file position. — Mention may be made also of another rule of 
Egyptian composition which originated in the effort to represent 
each object in the clearest and most complete manner. Thus per- 
.sons, animals, etc., supposed to be behind others are depicted in 
rows above them, and objects intended to be lying upon tables are 
depicted standing above the tables. At the same time the principle 
that objects lying behind other objects are concealed was recognized 
even at an early period. The principal personages in a representation 
are indicated by the primitive device of delineating them on a much 
larger scale than the other figures. 

The art of drawing in Egypt was hampered from time immemor- 
ial by a number of designs that were copied again and again, though 
some alterations were gradually introduced. In the course of cen- 
turies the ancient treasury of types was increased by the addition 
of new and valuable motives. Thus, e.g., the Ancient Empire 
furnishes numerous scenes from the life of the people on the large 
landed estates, which are often marked by a charming naivete and 
a delicate observation of nature. In the 5th Dyn. pictures of mili- 
tary import join the circle of representations used in the mortuary 
temples, while under the Middle Empire we find scenes of the life 
at the courts of the provincial princes, and various new burial scenes. 
The supply of material, however, dates its greatest increase from 
the period of the 18th Dyn., when Egypt became a world power 
through its political relations with Asia Minor, and when the horizon 
of the artists had consequently become much more extensive. Under 
Amenophis IV. even the intimate life of the royal family and the 
court, which no one had previously ventured to represent, was, for a 
time, drawn into the field of art. Under the 19th Dyn. and under 
Ramses III. new tasks were imposed upon the artists, who were called 
upon to represent the warlike deeds of the king, and to execute huge 
pictures of battles. The beginning of this new tendency may indeed 
be recognized in the 18th Dyn., as in the reliefs on the chariot of 
Thutmosis IV. in the Museum at Cairo (No. 2080, p. 90). With the 
end of the New Empire the supply of types again shrinks and be- 
comes inferior even to that of the Ancient Empire. In scenes of the 
kind here referred to the artist found a free field for his powers of 
invention. When, however, he had to reproduce ceremonial scenes, 
he had naturally to adhere more or less rigidly to the ancient models. 


Among the subjects thus stereotyped were scenes relating to the 
intercourse of the king with the gods (in prayer or sacrifice), the 
celebration of certain festivals, and the slaughtering of animals for 

In the practice of the Artistic Handicrafts, such as cabinet- 
making, glass-blowing, and the production of coloured fayence, 
Egypt was perfect. Tlie goldsmiths and workers in metal in parti- 
cular had attained the most complete mastery of their craft; they 
thoroughly understood all its ancillary arts, such as enamelling and 
damascene work, and they were thus able to produce, especially with 
the aid of coloured gems and fayence inlays, works of a degree of 
finish and brilliancy such as a highly civilized nation alone could 
execute and appreciate. 

The traveller should note the signification of some of the 
Symuols and Signs most commonly used in sculpture and as 

architectural ornamentations. Thus, f is the crook or shepherd's 

staff, the emblem of the prince or monarch; m\ a fan, tlie 

symbol of kingly power; -r" the sign of life; ]T (p. 1569) the 

sign of steadfastness; \J the red crown of Lower Egypt; 
Q the white crown of Upper Egypt ; Yj the united crown of 
tipper Egypt and Lower Egypt; i/y the blue crown of the king; 

Ik """ 

the Uraius or royal serpent, represented on diadems 

and suns by }Qj. Its function was to avert hostile influences, 
just as the Urpeus serpent had once destroyed with its poison the 
enemies of the sun-god. The winged sun-disk, ;^SS7, the emblem 
of Horns of Edfu, was frequently placed over the doors of temples 

to avert everything evil. The sceptre, ) iveser, denoted wealth; 
n maat, an ostrich -feather., truth and justice; Vhj khepre, the 
scarabaeus or beetle, is a form of the sun -god and was frequently 
worn as an amulet. The symbol V (originally meaning a lung) sig- 
nifies union. It is frequently entwined wi h lilies and papyrus- 
plants, when it is symbolical of the union of Upper and Lower 
Egypt and is equivalent to the national arms of Egypt. The lock "5 
on the temple of a figure marks it as a child, at a later period 
generally the offspring of the gods or of the kings. 

Baedeker's Egypt. 7th Edit. m 


VIII. Buildings of the Mohammedans. 

By Franz- Pasha, 

The Moliammedan style of architecture iu the ■valley of the Nile 
was founded upon the forms of art which the victorious Arabs 
found in vogue among the Byzantines and the Copts, and upon those 
of Persian art of the era of the Sassanides. The huildiiigs in Egypt 
exhibit a considerable variety coupled with a certain finish of style, 
but none of them dates back to the first period of the Arabic dominion ; 
for the professors of the new religion were for centuries content 
merely to adapt the religious edifices of the conquered countries as 
mosques. This was a process of little difficulty, for the ceremonial 
requirements of the new religion were comparatively simple, and 
it took place in all parts of the great empire of the Caliphs. From 
casual references by the Arabian chroniclers we learn that the 
earliest prayer-houses built by the Arabs were merely enclosed courts, 
along the walls of which ran covered passages, supported by palm 
trunks, in order to shelter the worshippers from sun and rain. 
Even the large mosque built by the Khalita 'Abdallah in Omdurman 
(p. 430) is of this type. Costly mosques, with marble arcades, be- 
gan to appear very gradually, under the influence of the ancient 
edifices and of the increasing wealth flowing from the military 
successes of the Mohammedans. Columns from Greek and Roman 
temples and even, in some cases, from early-Egyptian buildings, 
were freely employed in these later mosques. This employment of 
ancient columns in the mosques, frequently without any regard to 
harmony of style or size, brings it about that uniformity in the 
architecture of the arcades is observed only when the abacus is 
reached. No distinct Arabian order of columns was thus ever de- 
veloped in Egypt. A few Arabian forms of capital (one a curious 
form of calyx-capital, another including a wreath of stalactites as 
the transition between the shaft and the abacus) are the only evi- 
dence of any effort towards originality iu this direction. 

The most prominent characteristic peculiarities of Arabian archi- 
tecture are the following : — 

1. The use of the pointed arch (Mosque of Ibn TuliVn, p. 71) and 
the Byzantine stilted round arch, as well as of the round and pointed 
horseshoe arch, the scalloped arch, the clover-leaf arch, and the 
'keel' arch. These (except the scalloped and clover -leaf arches) 
were accompanied by corresponding forms of domes. 

2. The development of the form of tower known as the minaret. 

3. The refining of various forms of pinnacles that occur also in 
early Egypt, Assyria, Phcenicia, and Persia. 

4. The employment in facades of two colours, by alternate 
courses of red and white limestone or (in later examples) of black 
and white marble. 

5. The invention of the elegant wooden balconies and the 


system of tlosiag window-openings with niaslirabiyelis (p. olxxxv) 
or with kamariyehs (p. olxxxvi). 

6. The development of surface ornaments into geometrical 
patterns of every kind (entrelacs) or conventionalized foliage (arab- 
esques) ; the use of Arabic ornamental inscriptions on friezes and 
medallions; and the treatment of wall-surfaces and ceilings in rich 
polychrome hues, whether by painting, incrustation, or mosaic. 

The chief monuments of Arabian architecture in Egypt are the 
religious editices (mosques), fountains, and tombs. The period 
within which these were built extends from the accession of the 
Tulunide sultans to the conquest of Egypt by the Turks. The earlier 
mosques have left hardly a trace behind, and our knowledge of them 
depends upon the obviously exaggerated and often confused de- 
scriptions of the Arabic writers. The later mosques are of little 
artistic value. Some of them display a union of Turkish-Arabic 
architectural forms with Egyptian-Arabic ornamentation. 

The only existing building dating from the Tulunide Pbhioh 
(868-905) is the Mosque of Ibn Tulun (p. 71). The oldest plaster 
decorations in this mosque display a system of ornamentation, the 
various elements in which remain, as in the antique, separate and 
distinct, though some of them are so unusual in form «s to defy 
classitication under any known style. 

In the Fatimitb Pekiod (969-1171) that followed, the character- 
istic intertwined geometrical patterns, ^vith spaces filled up by Arabic 
ornamentation showing a tendency to the Byzantine style, begin to 
appear. Bricks ceased to be the exclusive building-material and 
hewn stone was used for portions of the edifices; the mosque of El- 
Akinar (p. 76) showed the first example of a stone facade with 
stalactites. The portals began to be placed in recesses, and small 
cupolas made their appearance in the interior of the mosques. The 
pointed arch of the mosque of Ibn Tulun gave place to the Persian 
'keel' arch. Towards the close of this period forms began to be 
adopted, especially in military architecture, that seem to have been 
copied from the buildings of the Crusaders in Syria and Palestine. 

The leading characteristic of the Aiyubide Peeiod (1171-1'250) 
was the introduction of the ground-plan of the Persian medreseh, 
which superseded the previously used ground-plan of the courts 
until the first Mameluke period. Large domes began to be built 
over the mausolea, which as founders' tombs were placed near the 
sanctuaries of the mosques. 

To the First Bahrite Mameluke Dynasty (1250- 1382) we 
owe a number of huge editices, with ground-plans in both the above- 
mentioned styles and exhibiting, especially in the facades, the in- 
fluence of the architecture of the Crusaders. Most of these struc- 
tures date from the reigns of Beybars and Kalaun, the latter of whom 
raised the first minaret of stone. Under En-Nasir endeavours began 
to be made to design facades independent of foreign influence. 


Under tlie Second Cikcassian Mameluke Dynasty (iSS2-ibiT) 
the mosque-facade attained its zenith, and from this period date the 
most elegant achievements of Arabic architectnre in Egypt. The 
facades assumed a more homogeneous character; the minarets, of 
enhanced elegance ever since the days of Kalaim, reached their 
highest development; the domes, now also built of stone (see below), 
were richly adorned with sculpture; and the walls, ceilings, pave- 
ments, and even domestic furniture were sumptuously embellished 
with mosaics, panels, carvings, and stalactites. The first dome luiilt 
of stone was that of the mosque of Barkuk (p. 112). 

The use of written characters has played a prominent part in 
the decoration of Arabic buildings at all times, and the art did not 
deteriorate in the latest period. Under the Tiilunides the closely 
written Cufic character was employed, while under the !''atinutes, 
and still more under the Aiyubides, the letters became taller and 
more slender. The letters themselves and the spaces between them 
were embellished with ar;ibesque ornamentation. Under the Aiyu- 
bides the cursive charai-tcr known as Naskhi was used also; and the 
friezes of intertwined letters dating from the period of the Mame- 
lukes frequently rise to the dignity of works of art. 

We may now proceed to an examination of the special kinds of 
buildings, beginning with the Religious Edifices. 

Mosques are of two kinds , the Gdmi', lit. an assembly for 
prayer, and Mesgid, the place where the knee is bent for prayer. 
The oldest mosques are very simple in plan (comp. the plan of the 
mosque of Ibn Tiilun, p. 72). Around a quadrilateral court (SahnJ, 
lorresponding to the atrium of a Byzantine basilica, lie four flat- 
roofed colonnades ('^'■""''nv', used for prayers. Tlie Chief L'lwan or 
Sanctuary, placed on the side next Mecca, has usually four oi live 
aisles, the others never more than two. The Cruciform Mosque, 
a new form invented in Persia, was introduced into Egypt about the 
end of the 12th <eiit. by the Aiyubide Saladin. This was developed 
from the previous simple form by the construction of additional 
chambers at the four corners of the liwans, in such a way that the 
liwans, now covered with massive waggon-vaults, formed the four 
arms of a cross. Comp. the plan of the Sultan Hasan mosque (p. 67). 
These liwans were used as school-rooms, whence arose the name 
Medreseh, or 'school-mosque'. — Towards the close of the Mameluke 
supremacy still another form arose, used, however, only for small 
mosques. The side-liwans were shortened and the central court so 
contracted that it could be roofed over and lighted from the top. 
The four arms of the cross were covered with fiat wooden roofs, like 
the colonnades in the original form of mosque, while the waggon- 
vaulting was represented merely by a transverse rib on the side next 
the court (comp. the plan of the mosque of Kait Bey, p. 114). 

With the conquest of Egypt by the Turks under Selim I. (1517), 
the Turkish-Byzantine style of architecture also made its appearance 

Vin. r.Dir.DINGS of THK MOITAMMEPANS. tlxxxi 

ill that country. The four liwans were superseded by a single sanc- 
tuary, consisting of a main building covered with domes and usually 
preceded by a second court (comp. the plan on p. 69). 

The smaller prayer-rooms, frequently added to private houses 
and not unlike the Christian chapels, are known as Zawiyeh. 

The ExTERioE of the earliest mosques was absolutely plain. The 
court was enclosed by a simple battleniented wall and was entered 
liy an unadorned doorway. It was not until the Egyptians beheld 
the buildings of the Crusaders in Syria and Palestine that they began 
to elaborate the facades of their mosques. The hitherto smooth 
walls were now interrupted by panels or fields, receding about 8 or 
10 inches, but again brought forward to the level of the facade by 
smooth slanting surfaces immediately below the unobtrusive bat- 
tlemented main cornice. In these panels were placed the windows 
(rectangular or arched), frequently arranged in pairs with a smaller 
circular or star-shaped window above usually closed with kamariyeh 
(p. clxxxvi). The main portal was a deep rectangular recess, with a 
stone bench on either side, and terminating at the top in a half- 
dome, embellished with stalactites. The doorway at the inner end 
of the recess was surmounted by an architrave-arch and a relieving 
arch. The door itself, often richly panelled, is usually adorned on 
one side with embossed or chased bronze decorations. The threshold 
generally consisted of a block of granite taken from an Egyptian 
monument. The low railing here (or on the steps below) marks the 
boundary to which the visitor may penetrate without removing his 
shoes or sandals. 

"NVe now turn to inspect the Internal Equipment of the mosque. 
The centre of the Court was originally occupied by a fountain, be- 
neath a canopy supported upon columns. This was intended for 
ornament only, for the prescribed ablutions were performed at a 
special basin (Meida) in an adjoining court. Under Turkish rule 
tlie fountain was frequently replaced by an apparatus provided 
with taps and known as the Hane/^i/e/*. 

The 5anctMarj/ contains the Kihla or Mihrdb, the prayer-niclie 
turned towards Mecca. Here we further observe : (1) the Minbar, or 
pulpit, to the right of the Kibla, usually embellished with orna- 
mental panels and incrustation; (2) the Kursi, the seat of the 
Imam, together with a desk forjthe Koran; (3) the Dikkeh. a podium 
borne by columns, and surrounded by a low railing, from which the 
Muballighin (assistants of the celebrant) repeat the words of the. 
Koran and the ritualistic gestures for the benefit of the more dis- 
tant worshippers; (4) the lamps and lanterns ( T(;nnt/r, large chan- 
delier; Toreiya, lit. 'seven stars', small chandelier ; FdnHs, lamp, 
h'andtl , small oil-lamp) which hang by wires from the iron braces 
and ceilings of the arcades as in all the liwans. 

The sanctuary is frequently adjoined by the Turba or Mortuary 
f^hapel of the founder. This is usually a square chamber, contain- 


iiig a catafalque above tlic vaulted tombs in wMch the deceased 
are placed with due atteirtiou to the sepcaration of the sexes. The 
chapel is covered by a dome, the transition to which from the 
square ground-plan is effected by means of a delicately articulated 
intermediate construction, tapering gradually to an octagon. In 
the examples dating from the Fatimite period, the pendentives 
corresponding to the four bevelled angles of the intermediate struc- 
ture retain the large spherical niches borrowed from Roman and 
}*.yzantine models. These were replaced, under the Aiyubides, by 
several rows of prism-shaped niches, and finally, under the Mame- 
lukes, by more or less complicated arrangements of stalactite-pen- 
dentives. These last are formed by a system of gradually projecting 
courses of stone, embellished by dwarf domes and niches exhibiting 
a very great variety of profile-outline. 

The oldest mosques seem to have had no Minarets (Mddna). 
The earlier examples of these towers were square throughout, taper- 
ing upwards, and were covered by a simple conical roof. The later 
examples are square at the base but assume a cylindrical or poly- 
gonal form in the upper stories, and are embellished with galleries 
supported by stalactite-cornices and with balconies; the top story is 
formed of columns or pilasters bearing a roof consisting of a dome- 
shaped protuberance. The minarets contain winding staircases, two 
being sometimes arranged round the same newel for the convenience 
of the blind men who are preferred as Muezzins (^Mu'eddin, p. Ixxxvii). 
The wooden rods and hooks on the galleries and top stories are used 
for hanging up the lamps during the fasting month of Ramadan. 

Since the end of the 14th cent., following the example set by 
the mosque of the Emir Gai el-Yusefl at Cairo (1366), every mosque 
has possessed a SebU, or public fountain , except in cases when a 
separate building is erected for this. The sebils are rooms with 
bronze railings at which passers-by may obtain water. The upper 
story of the sebil is a kind of loggia, supported by columns and cov- 
ered with a tent -roof, frequently in elegant timber - architecture. 
This is the Kuttdb, or elementary school. The detached columns that 
often embellish the exterior of these buildings differentiate them 
from all the other parts of the mosque-facade, in which columns 
appear only built into the angles or immured in the masonry. 

Tombs. The tombs of sultans and emirs and of their families 
are invariably built in connection with mosques (p. clxxxi). On the 
other hand the Sheikh Tombs or tombs of saints (p. xc), which are 
found in all parts of the country, are independent structures, usually 
built on the spot on which the revered deceased ended his days. 
These closely resemble the mortuary chapels of the mosques and are, 
like them, covered with domes. The ordinary tombs of the Moslems 
are generally situated on high ground, beyond the influence of the 
moisture of the river, and preferably in the desert. The subterranean 
vaulted chambers are generally large enough for four or more bodies, 

VIII. IllM 1,1)1 N(iS OK THK MOflAMMKDANS. dxxxiii 

and are destitute of decoration. The corpse, wrapped in white cotton 
cloth, is placed upon a bed of sand, with the face turned towards 
Mecca, When both sexes are interred in the same vault a partition- 
wall is erected to separate them. Above the vault stands a cenotaph 
[Tarkibeh when of stone or brick, Tdbfit when of wood) resting on a 
pedestal, with a small pillar or column at each end. On the column 
at the head of the grave is frequently represented a turban or 
tarbiish, indicating the rank and sex of the deceased. The inscrip- 
tions give the name and the date of death, with texts from the 
Koran. Over tlie cenotaphs of persons of distinction are often cano- 
pies, resting on four columns. Wealthy families surround the tombs 
with extensive buildings (Hush), including rooms for mourners, 
sebil, stables, custodian's residence, etc. The tombs of the Caliphs 
and Mamelukes at Cairo (p. Ill) include many such erections, which 
lend the cemeteries the appearance of small half-deserted towns. 

Among Secular Buildings the Fortifications of tlie citadel of 
Cairo (p. 68), dating from the time of Saladin, recall the mediaeval 
castles of Europe. Some of the numerous gates in the walls of Cairo 
date from the Fatimite period ; they were probably built after Roman 
models and are distinguished for the skill with which they are con- 
structed, especially for accuracy in the jointing of the stones. 

Of the ancient Palaces nothijig but ruins now remaiiis. The 
lower stories, built of massive blocks, have barrel-vaults and pointed 
arches of hewn stone, the upper stories have similar vaults in 
lighter masonry. In one case, viz. the Dar Beshtak Palace at Cairo 
(p. 76), we observe remains of balconies and of a projecting, slightly 
curved cornice supported by wooden consoles; and traces of richly 
painted and gilded coffered ceilings are likewise met with. From an 
examination of the scanty remains and with the help of the Arabic 
writers, whose descriptions, however, are seldom free from exagger- 
ations, we may conclude that the palaces resembled in general the 
houses of the richer private citizens (many of which have been 
preserved), exceeding them only in size and splendour. 

Dvrelling Houses (comp. the plans at pp. clxxxiv, clxxxv) rarely 
have more than two stories; on the groundfloor is the Saldmlik, the 
men's apartments, and on the first floor the Hartm or Harem, the 
women's apartments and family rooms. The following rules are gen- 
erally observed in the construction of a dwelling-house : — (1) The 
principal rooms look into the court or garden. (2) The windows look- 
ing to the street are as few as possible and placed very high, while 
those of the upper floors are closed with gratings. (3) The passage 
( Dirkeh; PI. I, 3) leading from the street to the court is built in the 
form of an angle, to prevent people from seeing into the court. (4) The 
door to the harem (PI. II, 4) is placed in a separate court or, falling 
that, in a retired part of the court of the salamlik. (5) Tha recep- 
tion-rooms nf the master of the house, the servants' quarters, kitchen, 
mill, and stables are arranged round the court of the salamlik. 


Tlie principal rooms, whicU are usually the only rooms with 
any decoration, are the Mandara (PI. I, 7), the reception-room for 
male visitors, with its Khazneh or cabinet; the Takhtabosh, raised one 
or two steps above the level of the court; and the Mak'ad(Fl. II, 1), 
placed in a kind of entresol. The two last are built in the style of 
open loggias. To these may be added the Fasklyeh, a summer-court 
paved with marble and containing a fountain. All these belong to 

Plan I. 

Ground Floor. 


--" , 11- [ i, T^ 

:,;>._ _' x:,ic?ft;>i^ 

1. Entrance of the House. 2. Seat fmastaba) for the doorkeeper (bauwab). 
3. Corridor (dirkeh). 4. Court (hosh). d. A kind of bower in which visit- 
ors are received in summer. 6. Fountain. 7. Mandara. 8. Servants' rooms. 
9. Donkey-stable. 10. Harness-room. 11. Room for fodder. 12. Door lead- 
ing to the women's apartments (bab el-harim). 13. Staircase leading 
to the takhtabosh. 14. Principal saloon (ka'a). 15. Cabinet (khazneh). 
16. Small court. 1/. Kitchen. 18. Bakehouse. 19. Privy. 

the salamlik. On the upper floor is the Kd'a, the chief room in the 
harem, resembling the mandara. In some exceptional cases the ka'a 
is on the groiindfloor (comp. PI. I, 14). 

The ordinary streets of oriental towns are very narrow, so 
tliat no very satisfactory view is to be had of the facades and 
grated balconies of the houses. The groundfloor is built of solid 
ma.«onry and its rooms are frequently vaulted. The upper stories 
overhang and are supported, together with their balconies or oriel 
windows, by stone consoles of peculiar construction. An agreeable 
and effective contrast to the broad, flat surfaces of the hoxise-front is 


offered by the elegantly shaped oriel-windows and by the Mashrabiijehs, 
or wooden balcony-gratings, the carving of which resembles inter- 
laced strings of beads. The deep door-recesses (like those of the 
mosques )also serve to break the level uniformity of the fa5ades. The 
massivewooden doors are strengthened with iron bands or (less fre- 
quently) studded with nails in intricate interlaced patterns. 

The entrance- passage (Dirkeh) admits to the Hosh or court 
(PI. I, 4), corresponding to the atrium of Roman houses. Off 

I'lan U. 
Kir3t Floor. 


1. Open hall (takhtabosh) or mak'ad. 2. Cabinet. 3. Door of the harem . 
4. Rooms of the harem with mashrabiyehs. 5. Magazine. 6. Open courts. 
7. Guest-chambers with khazneh and privy. S. Balcony with mashrabiyehs. 

this open the rooms of the salamlik: maudara and takhtabosh or 
mak'ad. At the back is the Bah el-Harim (Fl. 12), or door to the 
staircase to the .upper floor, before which hangs a brightly coloured 
curtain. The staircase is usually narrow and without ornament. 
At the top is the vestibule of the Ka'a (p. clxxxiv), the drawing- 
room of the harem. The ka'a is usually a long and narrow room with 
a lofty ceiling, and, strictly speaking, consists of three connected 
portions, ditferentiated in shape and height of ceiling. The square 
central portion, known as the Durkd'a, lies one step lower than the 
Liwdns on each side. These liwans arc not always of the same 
width; the broader one is regarded as the place of honour by the 
ceremonious Orientals. The ceiling of the diirka'a, always loftier 


than those of theliwaus, is provided with a wooden cupola or lantern, 
with coloured-glass windows ofthe kind known as Kamariyehs. These 
^amariyehs are plaster -slabs, ahout I1/4 inch in thickness, per- 
forated, while still soft, with patterns representing vases of flowers, 
houses, geometrical figures, writing-characters, etc., the openings 
being afterwards filled in with coloured glass. Owing to the above- 
mentioned difference in the height of the ceilings, two of the walls 
of the durka'a rest upon supports which are based upon massive 
brackets reaching far down on the main side-walls. This arrange- 
ment results in a curious kind of flat arch, against which some of 
the beams of the liwan-ceiling lean. The durka'a is paved with 
coloured marbles and frequently has a fountain in the centre. The 
liwans are paved with ordinary stone slabs, concealed by rugs or 
carpets. On one wall of the durka'a there is always a Suffa, a shelf 
on which are placed the cups, etc. used in entertaining guests. 
The walls of the liwans are panelled to the height of 6-10 ft., and 
against them are placed divans, above which is a broad cornice-shelf, 
on which are arranged porcelain, chased metal-work, and similar 
ornaments. Instead of panelling, the walls oi' the durka'a have marble 
mosaics. The upper part of the walls is usually covered with smooth 
plaster or, in exceptional cases, with plaques ol coloured fayence. 
The expanse of white wall is usually broken by a grated recess in- 
tended for female singers and accessible from without. At the very 
top of the wall is a broad concave frieze, embellished with inscrip- 
tions or stalactites, and forming the transition to the usually elab- 
orate ceiling- decorations. Light and air are admitted to the][room 
from one ofthe ends, where mashrabiyehs are inserted in the lower 
part of the wall and kamariyehs in the upper part. 

The Public Baths, usually of quite unpretending exterior, are 
frequently very large erections in which marble is not spared; in 
their heating arrangements they are modelled on ancient Roman 
vapour-baths (comp. p. xxvii). 

The Okellas (p. 50) were important edifices when the caravan 
trade, especially the caravan-trade with the Red Sea, flourished. 
Their often extensive facades are of a peculiar type. The portals 
resemble those of the mosques, and the doors :ind shutters of the 
outer shops are sometimes carved. Tlie central open court accom- 
modated the caravan, the goods brought by which \yere deposited in 
vaulted chambers on the groundfloor, while the rooms in the upper 
stories, opening off galleries, were used as lodgings by the merchants. 
The centre of the court seems in each case to have been occupied 
by a simple prayer-room (mosalla). 

When we come to analyse the impressions produced by a study 
of Arabic buildings in Egypt, we find that our admiration of the 
harmonious and tasteful ornamentation, unsurpassed by any school 
of architecture, is counterbalanced by a certain feeling of aesthetic 
dissatisfaction. The main reason why Arabian art failed to reach a higli 


level in technical ability as well as in urnameutation must be looked 
for in the early collapse of the great empire of the Caliphs, in the 
uncertain political circumstances of the period that followed, in 
climatic and geological conditions, in the inflnence of superstition, 
and in the characteristic oriental tendency to adhere with obstinate 
fidelity to ancient forms and to leave unaltered anything once accom- 
plished. However mmh admiration the arabesque may excite, how- 
ever great an influence it may e\ert on industrial art, we still miss 
in it the reproduction of living beings, the contemplation of which 
invites, as it were, an intelligent and active sympathy. 

In the period of the Tulunides, when Persian influence made 
itself felt even in the religious conceptions of Egypt, portraits were 
painted and coloured wooden statues erected in the palaces. But no 
long period elapse<l before tlie prohibition of the Sunna (p. Ixxxv) 
against the representation of any living being again came into force. 
Ileprpsentations of this kind arc therefore very rare, and are now to 
be found preserved only in the low reliefs carved by Persian sculptors 
of the Shiite sect. Statues and paintings have disappeared without 
leaving a trace. Painting and sculpture in modern Egyptian art 
have been reserved exclusively for the decoration of wall surfaces 

IX. Works on Egypt. 

HisTor.t AND Geogeaph? of Anciknt Egipt. 
Breatted, Jamet H., History of Egypt; 2nd edit., New Yurk, 1909. 
— , Short History of the Ancient Egyptians: New York, 1908. 
— , Ancient Records of Egypt (a collection of translations of Egyptian 

iiistorical in-seriptions); 5 vols., Chicago, 1906-7. 
Jifugsch , H., Kgypt under the Pharaohs, transl. by P. Smith, 1874; 

condensed and revised edit, by M. Brodrick, London, 1S91. 
Budge, E. A. W.. History nf Egvpt from the end of the Neolithic Period 

tr. Ihe death of Cleopatra VII., B.C. 30; S vols., London, 1902. 
Hall, H. R. , The Ancient History of the Near East from the Earliest 

Period to the Persian Invasion of Greece: London, 1913; 15s. 
King (L. W.) and Hall (H. R.), History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Bab- 
ylonia, and Assyria in the Light of Becent Discovery; London, 1907. 
Mmpeyo, Sir G., Histoire aucienne des peoples de TOrient classique; 

6th edit., Paris, 1904; 90 fr. 
— . The Dawn of Civilization (Egypt and Chaldsea), 5th edit., 1910; The 

Struggle of the Nations (Esypf, Syria, and Assyria), 2nd edit., 1910; 

The Passing of the Empires (850 B.C.-330 B.C.), 1900; all transl. by 

31. L. McClnre and published in London. 
Meyer, Ed., Geschichte des alien /Egyptens, Part I; Berlin, 1887. 
— , Geschichte des Altertums, Vol. I; 3rd edit., Stuttgart, 1913. 
Newberry (Perep E.) and Oarttang (John), A Short Hi^torv of Ancient 

Egypt; 3rd edit., London, 1912; Ss. 6rf. 
Petrie. H'. M- Flinders (editor), Illu.strated History of Egypt: Vols. Mil. 

From the Earliest Times to the end of the XXXth Dynasty, by the 

Editor (1897 et seq); Vol. IV. Under the Ptolemaic Dynasty, by Pro/. 

./. /'. Maliaff'j (1899); Vol. V. Under the Roman Rule, by / 0. Milne 

(1898); V.^1. VI. In the Middle Ages, by S. Lane-Poole (1901). 
Ratolimoii, G.. History of Ancient Egypt; London. 2 vols., 1881. 
Sharpe, S., History of Egypt; new edit., London, 1877 (most useful for 

the Ptolemaic, Koman, and By/.antine periods). 

clxxxviii IX. WORKS ON EGYPT. 

Smith, G. Elliot, The Ancient Egyptians and their Induence. upon the 

Civilization of Europe; London & New York, 1911-, 2s. 6(Z. 
i^teindorff.,G., Die Bliitezeit des Pharaiinenreichs ; Bielefeld, lUtX); 4 marks. 
Egypt Exploration Fund, An Atlas of Ancient Egypt; London, 1894; 'As. (id. 
Egypt Exploration Fund Memoirs, since 1883. 

Classical scholars should provide themselves with the 2nd book of 
Herodotus (vvliich may be suitably supplemented by the commentary by 
W. W. How and /. Wells, published at Oxford in 1<J12), the 17th book of 
Strabo, and the 1st book of Diodorus Siculns. 

Mediaeval and Modern History of Egtpt. 

Butler, A. J., The Arab Conquest of Egypt; Oxford, 1892. 

Cameron, D. A., Egypt in the 19th Century; London, 1898. 

Lane-Poole, S., Vol. V'l. of the Illustrated History of Egypt, see p. clxxxvii. 

— , The Story of Cairo, in the Medipeval Town Series: 2nd edit., Lon- 
don, 1906; is. 

McCoan, J. C, Egypt under Ismail; London, 1899. 

Muir, SirWm.. The Mameluke or Slave Dynasty of Egypt (1260-1017 A.D.); 
London, 1896. 

Civilization op Ancient Egypt. 

Breasted, J. H., Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt; 
New York, 1912 ; $ IV2. 

Budge, E. A.W., The Mummy; chapters on Egyptian funeral archaeology; 
Cambridge, 1893. 

— , The Gods of the E'jyptians; 2 vols., London, 1904. 

Erman, A., Life in Ancient Egypt, transl. by H. M. Tirard; London, 1894. 

— , A Handbook of Egyptian Religion, transl. by Miss A. S. Grifflth; 
London, 1907. 

Maspero, Sir G., Life in Ancient Egypt and Assyria, transl. by Alice Mor- 
ton; London, 1892. 

Moret, A., Kings and Gods of Egypt, transl. by Mme. Moret; London, 1912 
Is. 6d. 

Petrie, W. M. Flinders, The Religion of Ancient Egypt; London, 1906. 

Sayce, A- H., The Religion of Ancient Egypt; 2nd edit., Edinburgh, 
1913; 4s. 

Scott - Moncrieff, P. D., Paganism and Christianity in Egypt; Cambridge, 
1913; 6s. 

Steindorff, G., The Religion of the Ancient Egyptians ; New York and 
London, 1905. 

Wiedemann, A., Religion of the Ancient Egyptians ; London, 1897. 
Wilkinson, Sir Gardner, The Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyp- 
tians, new edit, by S. Birch, 3 vols., London, 1878. 

Language and Literature of the Ancient Egyptians. 

Budge, E. A. W., First Steps in Egyptian; London, 1895. — Egyptian 
Reading Book for beginners; London, 1896. — Easy Lessons in Egyp- 
tian Hieroglyphics; 3rd edit., London, 1910. 

Erman, A.^ Egyptian Grammar; London and Berlin, 1902. 

Maspero, Sir G., Les contes populaires de I'Egvpte ancienne; 4th edit. 
Paris, 1911 ; 7 fr. 50 c. 

Murray, M. A., Elementary Coiitic (Sahidic) Grammar; London, 1911. 

Petrie, W. M. Flinders, Egyptian Tales, illus. by Tristram Ellis; 2 vols., 
London, 1895 (ancient tales of Egypt, edited from original sources). 

Steindorff, G., Koptische Grammatik;2nd edit., Berlin, 1904; 14 marks 80 pf. 

Language of the Modern Egyptians. 
Dirr's Colloquial Egyptian Arabic Grammar, transl. by W. H. Lyall; 

London, 1904; 4s. 
Socin, A., Arabic Grammar, trans!, by Prof. A. R. S. Kennedy; 2nd edit., 
Berlin, 1895; 8 marks. 

IX. WORKS ON EGYPT. clxxxix 

Spiro-Beij, 5., A New Practical Grainuuir of tbe Moileni Araliic of Egypt : 

London, 1912; S$. &d. 
— , Arabic-English Vocabulary; Lundoii, 1S95. 
— , English-Arabic V(icabul:iry; London, 1897. 
Thimtn, C. A., Egyptian Self- Taught (Arabic); 3rd edit., London, 1907; 

2s. &d. 
VolUrs, K., The Modern Egyptian Dialect of Arabic, by F. C. Bur- 

kitt; Canibrid.^e, iS95. 
Willmore, J. S., The Spoken Arabic of Egypt; 2nd edit.. London, 1905. 
— , Manual of S|>oken Egyptian Arabic; London, 19U8 (smaller, practical 

summary of the above). 

Modern Egyi't and JIodern Egyptians. 
Alexander, ./., The Truth about Egypt; London, 1911 (deals with the 

years 1906-10). 
Colvin, Sir Auckland, The Making of Modern Egypt; London, 1906, 18«. ; 

cheap edit., 1909, is. 
Cromer, J^arl of. Modern Egypt ; 2 vols., London, 1908, 24^. ; one-vol. edit., 

1911, 7s. lid. 
Cunningham, A., To-day in Egypt: its Administration, People, and Poli- 
tics; London, 1912; I2s. &d. ' 
Dicey, Edw., The Egypt of the Future; London, 1907; 3*. 6d. 
Edwards, Amelia B., Pharaohs. Fellahs, and Explorers; London. 1891. 
Guerville, A. B. Be, New Egypt (with 180 illustrations); London, 1905, 16j!. ; 

cheap edit., 1910, 10*. 
Kelly, R. Talbot, Egypt painted and described; London, 1902; 20*. 
Lane, E. W., An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern 

Egyptians; London, 1836; several new editions. 
— , Cairo fifty years ago; edited by Stanley Lane-Poole; London, 1896. 
Lane-Poole, S., Social Life in Kgypt; London. 1884. 
— , Egypt; London, 1881. 

Loli, Pierre, Egvpt, transl. by W. P. Baines; London, 1909; 15«. 
Milner, Sir A., England in Kgypt; 11th edit., London, 190i. 
Pen.field, F. C, Present Day Egypt; new edit., London, 1903. 
Boyle, Chat.. The Egyptian Campaigns, 1882-85; new edit., rcvi,<;ed to 

1899. London, 1900. 
Spitta-Bey, Contes arabes niodernes; Leyden, 1883. 
Timdale, If'., An Artist in Egypt; London, 1912; 20s. 
Warner, Chas. Dudley, Wy Winter on the Nile; London, 1881. 
White. A. Silva, The Expansion of Egypt; London, 1899. 

Scientific and Medical Works. 
B Ian cken horn, M., Geologic >Egyptens ; Berlin, 1901; 10 marks. 
Brehm, Reiseskizzen aus Nord-t)st-Afrika; 2nd edit.. Jena, 1862. 
Canney, Leigh, The Meteorology of Egypt and its influence on di.sease 

London, 1897. 
Engel-Bey, Das Winterklima .lEgyptens; Berlin, 1903; 2V2 marks. 
Ilrirtmann, Naturgeschichtlich-medicinische Skizze der Nil-Lander; 2 vols., 

Berlin. 1865-IS6. 
Lyons, II. G., The Physiogi-aphv of the River Nile and its Basin; Cairo, 

l!t06; 40 pias. 
Muschler, H., A Manuiil Flora of Egypt; 2 vols., Berlin, 1912; 40 marks. 
Shelley, (apt. O. E., The Birds of Egypt; London, 1872 
Whymper, Chas., Egyi>tian Birds; London, 1909; 20s. 
Willcocks, Sir Wm., The Nile in 1904; London, 1904. 

IlisTOBT OF Egyptian Art. 
Butler, A. ./., Ancient Coptic Churcbe.<! of Egypt; Oxford, 1884. 
Capart, Jean, Primitive Art in Egypt, transl. by Miss A, S. Griffith; 

Philadelphia, 1906. 
Clarke, S., Christian Antiquities in the Nile Valley; Oxford, 1912; 38*. 


Franz-Patha, J., Die Bankunst des Islam (in Durm's Handbach der Archi- 
tektur); Leipzig;, 1896 (3rd edit., by J. von Strzygowski, in preparation). 

Maxpero, Sir O., Art in Egypt (JFanuals of National Arts) ; London, 1912 ; 6i. 

— , Egyptian Art; London. 1913; 2ls. 

— , Manual of Egyptian ArchiPology , transl. bv Amelia B. Edwards ; 
5tli edit., London, 1902. 

— , New Light on Ancient Egypt; London, 1908, 12s. &d.-. cheap edit., 
1910, 6s. 

Mileham, O. S., Churches in Lower Nubia; London, 1910. 

Perrot & C/iipiez, History of Art in Ancient Egypt, transl. by W. Arm- 
strong; London, 1833. 

Petri'-, W. M. Flinders, Ten Years' Digging in Egypt ; 2nd edit., London, 1893. 

— , Egyptian Decorative Art; London, 1895. 

— , Arts and Crafts in Ancient Egypt; 2nd edit., Ediuburgh, 1909; ijs. 

— , Methods and Aims in Archfeology; London, 19(J4. 

f^aladin & Migeon, Manuel d'Art Musulman ; 2 vols., Paris, 1907; 30 fr. 

Books of Travel. 
Champollion, Lettres e'crites d'Egypte et de Nnbie en 1828 et 1829; Paris, 

1833; new edit., 1868. 
Curtis. George Wm., Nile Notes of a Howadji, or The American in Egypt; 

London, 1851. 
Edwards, Amelia £., A Thousand Miles up the Nile ; London, ISTT. 
Gordon, Lady DiijT, Letters from Egypt; London, 1865-67; new edit., 1901. 
Qrogan (E. S.) and Sliaiy (A. H.), From the Cape to Cairo; London, 1901. 
Lepsius, C. R., Lettei-s from Egypt, Ethiopia, etc. ; London, 1853. 
Stuart. H. Villters, Egypt after the War; London, 1883. 
— , Nile Gleanings; London, 1879. 
Weigall, A. E. P., A Guide to the Antiquities of Upper Egypt ; London, 

1910; 7s. 6rf. 

Works or Fiction. 

About, E., Le Fellah; Paris, 1869. 

Arabian Nights, by E. W. Lane; London, 1841. The learned editor is 
of opinion that these popular tales were written in 1474-1525, being 
based mainly on earlier traditions, that they were probably compiled 
by an Egyptian, and that they afford an admirable picture of Arabian, 
and particularly of Egyptian, life at that period. 

Ebers, O., Series of novels on Egyptian subjects (Engl, transl.). 

Kinysley, C, Hypatia; London, 1863; various new editions. 

Miller, Elizabeth, The Yoke ; New York, 1904. 

Moore, T., The Epicurean; London, 1864. 

Twain, Mark, The New Pilgrim's Progress; various editions. 

Antiquities (Forged), see p. 252; Dam of Assuan, p. 372; Cairo, p. 46; 
Cairo Museum, p. 80; Eastern Desert, p. 312; Faiyiim, p. 191; Goshen, 
p. 180; Helwan, p. 168; Islamic Law and the Koran, pp. Ixxxviii, Ixxxix; 
Oa-ii^ of"Kurkur, p. 362; Meroe, p. 422; Western Oases, pp. 379, 331, 382; 
City of St. Menas, p. 28; Sakkara, p. 142; Egyptian Songs, p. xxvii; Sudan, 
p. 418. 


The best special map of Egypt is the topographical map issued by 
the Survey Department (p. 80) on a scale of 1:50,000 (in four colours; 5 pias. 
per sheet), with names in English and Arabic. It comprises the entire 
cultivated area of the country. The excellent maps by Prof. Schweinfurth 
are mentioned on pp. 168, 263, 372. — For the Sudan the best maps are 
those issued by the Sudan Survey Department (p 429) in sheets at 10 pias. 
each (1 : 250,000) and the map of Africa fl : 1,000,000; 25 pias. per sheet) 
published by the British War Office. 

1. Approaches to Egypt. 

The time-tables and liandhooks of the various steamship companies 
(see below) give full information both as to the direct sea-routes from 
Knijland and as to the steamers from Mediterranean ports (comp. also 
/Saedeker^s Med terrnnean). Overland routes from England to the Mediter- 
ranean, see p. 3. The prineipal steam'^hip companies do nnt issue return- 
tickets to Ezypt. hut a reduction of 20-33V3 per cent is allowed on the 
return -journey if made within 6 or 12 months. Heavy baggage should in 
all cases, if possible, be sent round by steamer. — Travellers from America 
may sail direct from New York, Boston, Philade'phia, or Montreal to Mar- 
seilles, Naples, Genoa, or Trieste and proceed thence by one of the steamers 
mentioned at pp. 3-G. — For occasional steamers and pleasure-cruises from 
Kngland or Amerira, including a visit to Egypt, see advertisements or 
apply to the tourist-agencies. 

Travellers who desire to return from Egypt by one of the larger mail 
lines sliould secure a berth as soon as possible by applying to the ship- 
ping offices in Cairo (p. 38), as these steamers are apt to be crowded 
from February to April inclusive. Information as to available accom- 
modation is telegraphed from Aden to Cairo. The days and hours given 
below for the arrival and sailing of the steamers are approximate only, 
except in the case of the terminal ports. At intermediate ports the steamers 
.are sometimes behind itinerary time, and not unfrequently a day or two 
in advance. In either case they proceed at once on their voyage. 

Alexandria, the chief seaport of Egypt, is regularly visited by British, 
German, French, Austrian, Italian, Russian, Greek, and Egyptian steamers. 
Port Ha'id and Ismd'iltyeh, on the Suez Canal, are touched at by the vessels 
of the great Australian. Asiatic, and E. African lines. — Cairo is reached by 
rail from Ale.xandria or Isma'iliyeh in 3-3V2hrs., from Port Sa'id in i-i'/ilirs., 
and through-tickets are issued by some of the steamship companies. 

Alexandria is almost 30° l*:. of Greenwich, and its time is 1 hr. 59 min. 
in advance of Greenwich time; that of Cairo is 2 hrs. 5 min. and that 
of Port Sa'id 2 hrs. 10 min. in advance of Greenwich. 'Central Europe'' 
time is 1 hr. in advance of Greenwich. 

a. Steamship Lines from England direct. 
The fares given below are in many cases subject to a surtax of 10 per cent. 

1. Peninsular and Oriental Co. (offices, 122 Leadenball St., 
Is.C, and Northumberland Ave., S.W.}. Mail-steamer from London 
(Tilbury Dock) every Frid., and intermediate steamer (from Royal 
Albert Dock) every Sat., to Port Sa'id in 11 days, via Gibraltar and 
Marseilles or via Malta; fares, 1st. cl. 19i. or 17Z., 2nd cl. iSl. or 
iil. — From Marsdlles (Estrine & Co., Rue Colbert 18) every Frid. 
at 10 a.m. arriving at Port Sa'id about 1 p.m. on the following Tues. 
(13;. or ill., %l. or80. 

2. Orient Line (28 Cockspur St., S.W., and 5 Fenchurcli Ave., 
K.C.). From London (Tilbury Dock) every alternate Frid. to Port 
Sa'id in 13 days, via Gibraltar, Totilon, and Naples (19i., 13i.). — 
l-'rom Touion (Worms & Co., Quai Cronstadt) every alternate Thurs. 
(13^, 9;.); from Navle:( (Holme & Co., Via Gugliclmo Sanfelice 24) 
every alternate Sat. (9i., 7i.). 

3. North Gfrman Lloyd (Nnrdde.utsoher Lloyd : 26 f'ockspur 
St., S.W., and 2 King William St.. E.('.). From Southampton ea. 


thrice monthly to Port Sa'td in 13 days, via Genoa and Naples. 
Fares from London 2il., iil.; from Genoa (Fratelli Leupold, Piazza 
San Siro 10) 15?., 10/.; from Naples (Via Agostino Uepretis 49) 
12i., 8l. — From Marseilles and from Venice to Alexandria by this 
line, see p. 4. 

4. Shire Line (4 Fenchurch Ave., E.G.) from London (Victoria 
Docks) fortnightly to Port Sa'td in 14-15 days (12i., iOl.). — Brit- 
ish India Steam Navigation Go. (9 Throgmorton Ave., E.G., and 
16 Northumberland Ave., W.C.) from London (Royal Albert Dock) 
three times monthly to Port Sa'td in 12 days (17/., 11/. 10»'.l. — 
Union - Gastle Line (3 Fenchurch St., E.G.) from London (East 
India Dock) every four weeks to Port Sa'td (17/. 17s., 10/. 10s.) via 
Southampton, Gibraltar, Marseilles, and Naples, going on to Suez, 
Port Sudan, and Mombasa (see pp. 423, 436). 

5. From Liverpool to Port Sa'id: Bibby Line (26 Ghapel St., 
Liverpool) every alternate Thurs. in 13 days via Marseilles. Fare 
ill., from Marseilles (Watson & Parker, Rue Beauvau 8; Frid.) 12/. 
— Joint-service of the Hall and Gity Lines (22 Water St.) every 
7-12 days, someti mes calling at Marseilles or Naples. Fares 14/., 9/. ; 
from Marseilles (Watson & Parker, see above) lO/., 6/. ; from Naples 
(Aselmeyer & Go., Piazza della Borsa 33) 9/., 6/. — Anchor Line 
(Royal Liver Building, Water St.) about once a fortnight via Gibral- 
tar (except in Sept., Oct., & Nov.); fares 12-15/., return 24-27/. — 
Anchor Brocklebank Line (20 Bixtcth St.) about every 9 days 
direct (9-11/., return 18-20/.). 

6. From Liverpool to Alexandria : Ellerman & Papayanni Line 
(22 Water St., Liverpool) in 14 days (12-14/., return 22-24/., round 
trip of about six weeks, with 14 days in Alexandria, 26-28/.). — 
.Moss Line (31 James St.) fortnightly via Gibraltar, Algiers, and 
Malta (14/.). — Henderson Line (15 St. Vincent Place, Glasgow) 
every alternate Thurs. (leaving Glasgow on the previous Sat.) in 
13 days (14/., return 24/.). 

7. Prince Line (Milburn House, Newcastle) every 10 days from 
Manchester and every 14 days from London to Alexandria via Tunis 
and Malta (12/., return 22/.). 

8. From Southampton to Port Sa'td: Union-Castle Line, see 
above ; North German Lloyd, see p. 1 ; Rotterdam Lloyd (3 East 
India Ave. , London, E.G.) via Lisbon, Tangier, Gibraltar, and (9 days) 
Marseilles (Ruys &Co. , Boul. Dugommier 5); Nbuerland Co. (60 
Haymarket, London, S.W.) via Lisbon, Tangier, Algiers, and(9 days) 
Genoa (Piazza Deferrari 36). Both lines start every alternate Tues 
and take 14 days (fares 20/., 13/.). — German East African Line 
(Deutsche Ost-Afrika-Linie) twice monthly from Southampton 
(Smith, Sundius, & Co., 1 Canute Road) to Port Sa'id via Lisbon, 
Marseilles (Wm.Carr, RueBeauvau 16), and Naples (Kellner & Lampe, 
Piazza della Borsa 8) ; fares 20/. 15s., 11/. 10«. (from Marseilles 
13/. 5s., 10/.; from Naples 12/., 8/. 15s.). 

TO EGYPT. 1. Route. 3 

b. Steamers from Mediterranean Forts. 

Overland Routes from London to Meuitekiianean Ports. Brindisi 
may be reached fn)in Londnn via Boulogne and Paris in 47'/2 hrs. by or- 
dinary express (fare 9t. ils. lid. or 61. 9s. lOd.) ; or in 44 hrs. by the 'Penin- 
sular Express', leaving; London every Frid. at 9 p.m. (fare, including 
sleeping-car ticket, 13/. 18s. id. ; tickets obtainable only from the 'P. & 0.' 
Co., p. 1, or the International Sleeping Car Co., 20 Cockspur St., S.W.). — 
Genoa is 271/2 lirs. from London via Paris and Mont Cenis (fares 11. 6s. lid., 
52. is. id.). — Venice is 32 hrs. from London via Bale and the St. Gotthard 
(fares 11. 15s. lid., ijl. Is. iOd.). — Naples is 45 hrs. from London via Paris, 
Jtont Cenis, and Rome (fares 9i. 6s. bd., 6/. 6s. 'Ad.). — Marseilles is reached 
from London in 19V2 brs. by the 'P. & O. Marseilles Express' (every Thnrs. -, 
fare 9i. iOs. ; tickets from the P. <fe O. Co.); or in 193/4 hrs. by the 'Calais- 
Mediterranean Express' (daily in winter; Istcl. only, 9/. 18s. 6d. or 9i. 4s. Id. 
according to season; tickets from the Sleeping Car Co.); or in 22V2 brs. 
liy ordinary express (fares 62. Ss. 6d., M. 7s. lid.). — Trieste is reached in 
35 hrs. via Ostend (fares 8i., ril. Is. 6d.) or in 33 hrs. by the 'Simplon Ex- 
press' (fare lU. 12s. 8d. ; tickets at 20 Cockspur St., London, see above), 
in connection with tlie .\ustrian Lloyd steamers to Alexandria (see p. 5). — 
Constantinople is roai'liod in 72 hrs. either via Paris and the 'Orient Express' 
(4 times weeklv; fare ca. IS/.) or by the 'Ostend-Vienna Express' (fare 
ca. 17/.) 

For further details sec Bra<hhaw''s Continental Uaiiwau Guide (2s. or 3s. 6d.). 

The chief lines of Steamers to Alexandria are: — 

1. From Brindisi. Auilnan Lloyd (Trieste boat, see p. 5) every 
Tues. at 12.30 p.m. and every Sat. at 1 p.m., reaching Alexandriaon 
Frid. at 3.30 p.m. and on Men. at 2p.m. (fares from 300 fr., from 
20U fr.); returning every Thurs. at 3 p.m. and every Sat. at 2 p.m.; 
reaching Brindisi on Sat. at 4p.m. and on Wed. at 5.30 a.m. — 
Societcl Italiana di Servizi Marittimi (Venice fast steamer, see p. 4) 
every second Tues. at 5 p.m., reaching Alexandria at 7 a.m. on Frid. 
(lares from 275 fr., 188 fr.); returning on Sat. at 4 p.m., reaching 
I'rindisi on 'J'ues. at 6 a.m. Also fortniahtly slow steamer starting 
from Venice, see p. 4. 

Brindisi {Grand-Hotel Inlcrnntional, at the harbour, R. 5-lOfr.; Albergo 
d^ lUiropa., Corso Garibaldi, 5 miu. from the station and harbour, K. from 
2 fr., Albertjo Cenirale, same street, near the harbour), with 22,000 inhab., 
is the Brentesion or Brundisium of antiquity; it has regained its ancient 
importance as a place of embarkation lor the Ea^t. — Comp. Baedekm-^s 
Southern Italy. 

2. From Naples. Socleth Italiana di Servizi Marittimi (office, 
Via Agostino Depretis) fast steamer every second Mon. at 11 p.m. 
via Syracuse, reaching Alexandria at 7 a.m. on Frid. (from 300 fr., 
200 fr.); returning on Sat. at 4 p.m., reaching Naples on Wed. at 
4.30 a.m. — Societa Marittima Italiana (Genoa boat, see p. 4) every 
Frid. at 5 p.m., reaching Alexandria on Wed. at 5.15 p.m. (200 fr., 
135 fr., without food): returning every Thurs. at 7 p.m., reaching 
Naples on Wed. at 5.40 a.m. — North German Lloyd, see p. 4. 

Naples [BtrtoliiiVs Palace Hotel, in the Parco Grifeo, R. from U fr. ; H6t. 
Bristol^ Farker's Bo'el. Macphtrsons H61. Hritanniqve, Grand Eden Hotel, all four 
high up in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, the last two patronized by English 
and American travellers, R. from 4 or 5 fr.; H6t. Excelsior, R. from 8 fr., 
Grand-HStei, R. from 5'/2 f r., both by the sea; all these are fashionable; 


Gr.-U6t. Santa Lucia; Or.-HCt. <l't Vdtuve; Gr.-H6l. Victoria; Hot. lioyal det 
Etrangers; Or.-Eot. deLondres; Hdt. Hassler; Savoy Hotel; at these R. from 
31/2 4, 5, or 6fr.), with over 60l),000 inhab., is the most populous town 
in Italy after Milan. The environs of the town are among the most beau- 
tiful in the world. Travellers are recommended to take a in the 
grounds of the Villa If ationale. to drive along the Via Tasso and the Strada 
A'vova di Posilipo , and to see the famous sculjjtures and Pompeian wall- 
paintiDgs in the Museo NmionaU. The finest view is obtained from San 
Martino, near the Casiel Sam'Elmo (tramway and cahle-railway 20 c). — 
Com p. Baedeker'' s Southern Italy. 

3. From Venice. North German Lloyd every other Sun. at 10 a.m., 
reaching Alexandria on Thurs. at noon (from 12^., Si.}; returnina; 
every other Sat. and arriving on Wednesday. — Sociela Italiana di 
Servizi Marittlmi (Ponte Goldoni 44U5), fast steamer every alternate 
Mon. at 10 a.m., via Brindisi (see p. 3). reaching Alexandria on Frid. 
at 7 a.m. (fares from 330 fr., 225 fr.): returning every alternate Sat. 
at 4 p.m., reaching Venice on Weil, at 1.30 p.m. Also fortnightly 
steamer in T'/o da) s via Ancona, Bari, Brindisi, Corfii, and Candia. 

Venice (Hot. Royal Danieli, H61. de V Europe. Grand-Hotel, Gr.-H8t. Bri- 
tannia., all four fashionable, R. from b or 7fr.; Gr.-Hot. d'jtalie- Bauer., 
Grand Canal Hotel et Monaco., HOI. Regina., with Knglish and American clien- 
tele, Hdt. de Milanet Bristol, all lour on the <jrand Canal, R. from S'/z, 4, 
or 5 fr. ; Hot. Beau-Rivage, Riva degli .Si;hiavoni, R. from 4 fr., English and 
.\merican visitors), with 148 500 inhab., was the capital ot the powerful re- 
public iif the same name until 179?. The railway station (restaurant) lies 
at ttie N.W. end of tbe Grand Canal; a gumlola to the Piazzetta, near 
which are most of the hotels, costs I'/a fr. with one rower. 3 fr. with two. 
Travellers are recommended to see the Piazza of St. Mark, the Campanile 
(•View), tbe Church of St. Mark, and the Doge's Palace, and to sail along the 
Grand Canal. — Comp. Baedeker's Northern Italy. 

4. From Genoa. Societa Marittima Italiana (Via Balbi), every 
Tues. at 9 p.m., via Leghorn, Naples (see p. 3), Messina, Catania, 
and Syracuse, reaching Alexandria on the eighth day (Wed.) at 
5.15 p.m. (241 fr., I6O72 fr., food extra); returning on Thurs. at 
7 p.m., reaching Genoa on the eighth dny (Frid.) at 7.10 a.m. — 
.\orth German Lloyd, see p. 5. 

Genoa {Gr.H6t. Miramare , fashionable, above the main station, R. 
from 6 fr. ; Gr.-H6t. de Genes, Piazza Deferrari, R. from Sir.; Hoi.-Pens. 
Bristol, Via Venti Settembre 35, Eden Palace Hotel, below the Acquasola 
grounds, R. from 6 fr. ; Gr.-Hot. Savoy, close to the main sta'itn, Gr.-Hot. 
Isotta, Via Roma 5, II. frcm 4 or 5 fr. ; Hot. de la VilU ; Modern Hot-^l; 
Hot.-Pens. Smith, English; Hot. Victoria; etc.), with 163,200 inhab., is the 
leading seaport of Italy. The Via Balbi, Via Cairoli. and Via Garibaldi are 
lined with palaces which visitors should not tail to see; a splendid view is 
obtained from the Castellaccio (cable-railway from the Piazza Zecca, 50 c). — 
Comp. Baedeker^s Northern Italy. 

5. From MAESEtbLEs, Steamers of the Messageries Maritimes (Place 
Sadi-Carnot 3) leave Marseilles every Thurs. at noon, reaching 
Alexandria on Mon. night (15i., lOZ. ; return 25i. 10s., 17L); return- 
ing on Frid. at 4 p.m. Return-tickets, available one way by the Aus- 
trian Lloyd Trieste -Alexandria service (see p. 5) and valid for 
six months, are issued. — North German Lloyd (Wm. Carr, Rue 
Beauvau 16) every Wed., calling at Naples (agent, see p. 2) every 
alternate Frid., and reaching Alexandria on Sun. (direct boats) or 

TO EGYPT. /. Route. O 

Mou. (from ibt., lOi. ; I'roiu Naples from 12^, 8i. J. Passengers luay 
join the New York steamer of the company at Genoa (fares as from 
Marseilles) and change at Naples. In returning the boat leaves Alex- 
andria on Wed,, reaching Naples on Sat. and Marseilles on Sun. or 

Marseilles {Gr.-Edt. du Louvre et de la Pair, Gr.-Hot. Noaillu el MHro- 
poh, Oruud-Hotd, Rue de Koailles, liegitia HOtel, Place Sadi-Carnot, Ildtel 
Bristol, Rue C'annebicre, all of the first, class, R. trom 4, 4'/'j, or 5 fr. ; Gr.- 
HCit. Beaurav : Gr.-Bdt. de Geneve; U6l. du Petit - Louvre ; HOt. de Riusie et 
d'AngUiarre, Terinimts - B6iel , near the St. Charles station; etc.), with ca. 
560,6lO inhab., is the largest town but one and the most important seaport 
in France. The street called Ln Cannthih'e, beginning at the inner harbour 
or Vievx Pnrt, has long been the pride of the town. The best survey of 
tLe town and iis environs is obtained from the church oi Notra-Dnme de la 
Garde, to the 8. of the Vieu.K Port (cable railway there and back 8U c). — 
Comp. JSaedekcr''s Southern France. 

6. From Tkieste. Audrian Lloyd every Frid. at 1 p.m., touch- 
ing at Brindisi (see p. 3; arriving at 11 a.m. on Sat.) ;ind reaching 
Alexandria on Men. at 2 p.m. (from 360 fr., from 250 fr.); returning 
on Thurs. at 3 p.m., reaching Trieste on ,Sun. at 4 p.m. Also every 
Sun. (Port Sa'id boat, see p. 6). 

Trieste (K.r<-ehior Pidnce Hotel, K. from 4, with bath from 12 A'; Hot. de 
la Ville, K. S-dK; H61. Volpich aW Aquila Nei-a, with cafe-restaurant, R. H- 
.5 K; all near the Molo San (Jarlu), witli 230.0L'U inhab.. is the chief seaport 
of Austria. The South Railway 5tatiou (Stazioue Meridionale ; restauraut) 
lies to the N. of the town, to the E. of the Poiio Nuovo, v\here the Lloyd 
steamers lie to; the State Railway Station (Stazione dello Stato) is on the 
S. side (cab 1 A' 6l) A, at night 2 A). Pleasant excursions may be made to 
the chateau of Miranar ('/^ day), and to Opcina (2 hrs. ; electric mountain- 
railway). — Comp. liaedeker^s An stria- Hvngary. 

7. From Constantinople. Khedivial Mail Line every Tues. at 
3p.m., calling at the Piracu j (Athens) on Thurs. (arriving 10 a.m., 
departing 4p.m. ), and reaching Alexandria on Sat. at 8 a.m. (£ E 8, 
£ E 5 ; from the Pirceus £ E 5, £ E 3, 25 pias.) ; returning at 4 p.m. 
on Wed., reaching the Pirseus on Frid. (10 a.m.) and Constantinople 
on Sun. at 4 p.m. — liussianS.S. Co. every San. at 2 p.m., touching 
at the Pirjeus at noon on Tues., and reaching Alexandria on Thurs. 
at 2 p.m. (200 fr., 140 fr.); returning on Tues. at 4 p.m. — The 
Eoumanian Express Steamers (Serviciul Maritim Roman), plying 
weekly from Constanza ( Kustendji) to (12 hrs.) Constantinople and the 
Pirffius, go on to Alexandria (fares from Constantinople 210-315 fr., 
130 fr.). Constanza is reached from Budapest via Bucharest in one 
day by the Ostend Oriental Express (three times ■weekly), which 
goes on to Constantinople also. 

Constantinople {Pern Palace Hotel, on the public park of the Petits- 
Champs, H6t. Jokatlian, opposite the Galata Serai, R. from B'/efr. ; H6t. 
Bristol, H6t. de Londres, Hut. Bei liner Hof, H6t. Continental, all four on the 
public park of the Pel its Chamois, I!. Irom 4, 4'/4, or 5 Ir. ; E6t. Kroecker, 
Rue Kabristan, a liltle I clow tbe public park, R. from 4fr. ; Khedivial Palace 
Hotel, Grande Rue de Pera, R. 4-7 fr., H8t. Grande Bretagne, Rue Venedik, 
R. 3 5fr,, Hot. St. Pileribowg, on the park t)f the Pctits-Champs, with 
R. only, these three of the second ilass; all the hotels are in the Pera 
quarter, '/2 hr. from the station, cab 4',2fr. incl. liridge-toll, and 20min. 
from the landiug-.stsge, cab 2'/i fr ), ihe capital of Turkey (ca. 1 n)illion 


inli.-vh), consists (if tbe port of Galata and the European suburb of Pera 
ou lUe E. of the Golden Horn and Stamboul on the W. ; it includes also 
Scutari on the Asiatic coast. Passing visitors should ascend the Galata Tower ^ 
drive to Stamboul over the New Bridge and visit the Hagia Sophia Mosque 
and the Museum, walk through the Grand Bazaar with a dragoman, and 
make a steamboat trip on the Bosphorus. — Comii. Baedeker^ s Mediterranean. 

Akkital at Alexandria, f^ec p. 9. 

The chief lines of Steamers to Port Said are the following: — 

1. From Brindisi. Express-steamers of the 'P. >.S' O.' Co. (first 
oahin only, 9i.l every Sun. night in connection with the Brindisi 
P^xpress (p. 3), reaching Port Sa'id early on Wed. morning. — 
Austrian Lloyd, see helow, No. 5. 

2. From Naplks. Orient, North German Lloyd, Union- Castle, 
German East African Line, and Hall i^- Citi/ Lines, see pp. 1,2. — 
Societa Maritlimd Italiana, Genoa bo.its (s(m- below) in 8^/4 davs 
(221 fr., 148 fr., food extra). 

3. From Genoa. North German Lloyd and Nederland Lines, see 
pp.1, 2. — Societa Maritlimn Italiana (office, see p. 4) twice monthly 
(Bombay and Mombasa lines alternately; 267 fr., 176V2 fr., food 
extra) via Leghorn, Naples, Messina, and Catania, in 5^2 days. 

4. P'rom Marseilles. P.^'O., BrUish India, Union- Castle, Bibby, 
Hall if City, Rotterdam Lloyd, and German East African linos, see 
pp. 1, 2. — Messageries Marillmes to Port Sa'id direct five times 
monthly (IbL, iOl.). 

5. From Trieste. Austrian Lloyd every Sun. at 1 p.m. to Brin- 
disi (leaving every Tues. at 12.30 p.m.), Alexandria, and Port Sa'id. 
arriving on Tues. (Wed. in Nov. & Dec.) at 7 p.m. 

Arrival at Port Sa'id, see p. 177. 


loute Page 

2. Alexandria 9 

1/ History and Topography of Anrient Alexandria . . 12 

2. Modern Alexandria 15 

3. 'Environs of Alexandria (Ramleh, Meks) 24 

4. Mareotis District (^City of St. Menas, Abnsir) ... 27 

5. Excursion to Abukir and llosetta 30 

3. From Alexandria to Cairo 31 

4. Cairo 35 

Preliminary Information. 

a. IJailway Stations. Hotels and Pension.'!. Restaurants 

and Cafes 35 

b. Consuls. Police. Banks. Post & Telegrapli Offices. 
Tourist Agents. Steamboat Offices 37 

c. Tramways. Electricliailway. Steamers. Cabs. Donkeys. 
Dragomans .'^8 

d. Physicians. Chemists. Hospitals. Baths. Hairdressers -iO 

e. Shops 40 

f. Theatres. Clubs. Churches. Schools 41 

;;. Sights and Disposition of Time 43 

History of the City 44 

Street Scenes 46 

I'azaars 50 

1. The Ezbekiyeh and the New Quarters 51 

2. The Muski and its Side Streets (Gami' Seiyidna 
'1-Hosein, Gami' el-x\zhar, Ganii' el-Muaiyad, Gami' 
el-Mardani) 53 

3. The South-Eastern Quarters : Shari' Mohammed Ali ; 
Arabian Museum ; Khedivial Library; Mosque of 
Sultan Hasan j Citadel and Mosque of Mohammed 
Ali; Mosque of Ibn Tulun 02 

4. The Northern Quarters: Sflk es-vSaigh; Muristan 
Kalaiin; Tomb of En-Nasir; Barkukiych; Bab el- 
Futijh and Bab en-Nasr 74 

5. Bulak, Gezireh, and the Gizeh Suburb 78 

0. The Egyptian Museum 80 

A. The Ground Floor with the Larger Stone Monu- 
ments 81 

Monuments of the Ancient Empire 82 

Monuments of the Middle Empire and of the Hvksos 

Period .'...'.. 54 

Monuments of the New Empire 84 

Monuments of the Foreign Dvnastie-i and the Laler 

Period " 87 

Monuments of the GrsECO-Rom;in and Coptic Periods 88 

Kaedekuk s Ksrvot. 7th Kdit i 


Route Page 

B. The Upper Floor, witli tlie Smaller Antiquities 

and the Mammies 90 

Natural History Collection 90 

Royal Mummies 93 

Jewelry 97 

Manuscripts, Papyri, etc 101 

5. Environs of Cairo 104 

1. The Island of lirula ;iiul 01(1 Cairo 104 

2. The Tombs of the Caliphs and the Mamelnkes . .111 

3. Tlie Mokattam Hills 116 

4. Spring of Moses and tlie Petrified Forest . . . .117 

5. New Heliopolis (Heliopolis Oasis) 119 

6. Old Ueliopolis 119 

7. Barrage du Nil 121 

6. The Pyramids of Oizeh 123 

History and Construction of the Pyramids .... 124 
The Three Great Pyramids, tlie Sphinx, and tlie 

Valley Temple of Khephren 127 

Circuit of the Pyramid Plateau 1B7 

The Pyramids of Abu Roash and Abusir .... 139 

7. The Site of Ancient Memphis and the Necropolis of 
Sakkara 142 

Colossal Statues of Ramses II 144 

Convent of St. Jeremiah 146 

Step Pyramid of Sakkara 146 

Serapeum 147 

The Mastabas of Ti, ofMereruka, and ofKe-gem-ni 149 

The Street of Tombs. Mastaba of Ptahhotep . 162, 163 

Pyramid of King Onnos 165 

Pyramids of Dah.ihur 166 

8. Baths of Hehvan 167 

9. From Cairo to Mansi'ira via Belbeis and Zakazik . . . 170 

10. From Tanta to Damietta via Mansilra 174 

11. From Port Sa'id to Cairo or Suez via Ismii'iliy eh . . . 177 

12. The Suez Canal from Port Sa'id to Suez 181 

13. Suez and its Environs 187 

14. The Faiyiim 190 





pour I 

MaliormesP QIIT OUEST 

[ I 

(Port d' E un o s t e de ^ An c 

urrr;^ tctim^^^StatiVTn -I'lace ircHtSmertTli: 

2. Alexandria. 

Arrival by Sea. Most of the steamers beith at the wharf of the luner 
Harhour (if not, cinbarkation or disembarkation cosis 2, at night 3 pias., 
each trunk t pias.)- As soon as the brief sanitary inspectiun is over the 
traveller should have his luggage conveyed to the hotel or station (20- 
25 pias., everything included) by the Arab hotel -servants or by one of 
Cook^s or the Uamhnrg-Ainerican Line's agents. These are recognizable by 
heir oflicial caps or 1)y the brass plates on their breasts. Those who em- 
ploy unauthorized person.* will certainly be cheated. Trouble is saved by 
securin;,' a landing ticket (1 pers. ca. 5, 2 pers. 9 fr., etc.) and a railway- 
ticket to Cairo (1st cl. '22 fr. 70, 2ad cl. 11 tr. 35 c.) when purchasing oue\s 
steamer-berth; through-carriages are run from the harbour during the sea- 
son in connection with the principal steamship -lines. The custom-house 
examination (eomp. p. xv) is usually made easy for tourists. 

Railway Station. Gare cln Caiie or Garc Bab el-Gvedid (VI. G, 5 ; bufl'et). 
A new large station building is leing erected. 

Hotels (comi>. p. xviii). '.S.wor Palace IIotei, IPI. n; U, 4), Rue de 
la Porte de Rosette 35, with a bar, R. 30-QO, B. 10, dij.'';0, D. 30, pens. 
70100 pias. — Grand Hotel, formerly Hot. Aubat tPl. h; F, i) , Square 
Ste. Catherine, U. 23-50, B. 6, dej. oi" 1). 20, pens, from GO pias.; Excel- 
sior Hotel (PI. a; H. 4), I'ue de )a Porte de Rosette 21, with a bar, i;. 
from 30, 1!.' 10, di'j. 16, D. 20, pens, from 60 uias. ; JIetkopole Hotel (PI. k • 
F, G, 3), Rue Averoff, near the E. harbonr, R. 20-20, B. 5, d^j. 16, D. 20', 
pens. 4u60pias. ; Windsor Hotel (PI. d; (J, 3l, Rue Averolf7, with bar' 
li. 20-28, 15. 5, <\lj. 15, D. 20, pens. 50-60 pias.; Hotel des Votagedrs 
(PI. f; F, 4), Rue do I'Kglise Eeossaise 4, in course of reconstruction; 
Hotel Bu.N.v.'iRD iPl. c; F, 3), Rue Champollion 7, R. 10-20, de'j. or D. 10 
tincl. wine), peis. 40-17 pias.; Hotel du Nil (PI. Ii ; F, 3), Rue de I'An- 
cienne Bourse 11, R. 1214, B. 4-5, dej. or I). 10, pons. 35-40 pias. ; Hotel 
Canal i>e Suez iPI. i; inset F, 3, 4), Kue de I'Ancienue Bourse 9. — Hotel 
Continental (PI. c; F, 4), Rue de France 2, a hotcl-garni with restaurant; 
Pension lonio (Italian), I!uc Adili, opposite the Deutsche (Irientbank (PI. 
F, 4), per nil nih X E 6-S, and Boul. de Bamleh 35, pens. £ E 9. 

Cafes (.Vi-aliian colfee ■/-• 1 l>ias. per cup), in the PlaceMehemet Ali ( PI. F, 4) 
and elsewhere. — Restaurants. JUsloranle Fireme, Kuc de la Pnste 14 (PI. 
F, 3, 4); r,esi(mrant Vniversel, Rue de PAncienne Bourse 9 (PI. F, 4); Stella 
d' Italia, Rue Tou'^soun Pacha 7. — Beer. Germauiit, Schmidt, Rue de TAn- 
lienne Bourse 5 and 7; Serreli, I!ue de I'Eglise Eeossaise 2 (PI. F, 3, 4). 
— Bars. Old Bourse Bar, elegantly fitted up, Spathis, Rue de rAncienne 
Bourse 3 and 6; Castelli, Rue Cherif Pacha 1. — I'appci, Rue Che'rif Pacha 21 
(preserved meats, etc.). — Confectioners. Conjiserie Albengo, Kue Che'rif 
Pacha 17; Pdlisserie Khkliviale (J. Athineos), Rue Nebi Daniel 25, corner oi 
the Rue de la Porte de Rosette; Saiilt, Kuc Cherif Pacha 26. 

Baths at the hotels (see above). — Sea Baths at Shatbi (p. 25), in the 
Bay of Ant'ushi (p. 19), at San Stefano near Ramleh (p. 26), and at Meks 
(p. 26). 

Clubs. Cercle K/u'divial, on the first floor of the Exchange (P). F, 4), 
handsomely fitted up, patronized by Europeans of all nations; introduction 
by a inemlicr neces.-avy ; after a week visitors must purchase a ticket of 
admission. — Cercle Mohammed Ali, Rue de la Portu de Rosette 2, similar. — 
SporliiKj Club, near Kainleh, see p. 25. — i'nion Club, Rue ds PAncienne 
Bourse 6. — Brilish Club, Rue do la Gare de Ramleh 15. Numerous news- 
papers at Ihe^e, anrl also in the reading room of the Exchange. 

Electric Tramways, focussing in the Place .■»leli.met Ali (PI. F, 4l. 
Fares, 1st class 10 mill., 2nd clas.s 5 mill. — 1. Hand Point (PI. K, 3) -Rue. 
d'Allemaguo- Place M.*hemet Ali-Rue des Sueurs - r/a66«)-i (PI. C, 1), 8; 
p.2G). — 2. Clmmps r/i/s.'ff (l'\. I., 5) U;iilvvay Station - Place Mchemet Ali- 

10 Route 2. ALEXANDRIA. Practical Notes. 

Cuilom House (Dniiaiie; PI. D, 5). — 3. riailwaij Slatioii-Rac du Premier 
Khedive (PI. EG, 5, 6) - Rue de la Marine -fids et-Tin (PL B C, 3), aud on 
to the Bav of AnfUihi (PI. (J, 1, 2; p. 19j. — 4. ^n/(?«At-alonf; the quay-Place 
Mehemel .Ali-Rue .A)io\i Dardaa (PI. F, 4, 5) -Rue de la Cnlonne PompiSp. 
(Pompev's Pillar, p. \S\)-Karnums (Kom esh-Shukala, p. 17). — 5. Ilnnd Point 
(PI. K, '6)-Kuzlia Oarden (p. 20). — 6. Place Mihiiiia ^Zi-Rue Tewfik Premier- 
Rue Masguid el- Attarine-7.'«e Ragheb Pacha (PI. G, H, 6, 7). — 7 (circular 
line), champs Elysees (PI. 1., 5)- Rue MobaTreiu Bey -Rue Ni'bi l>aniel 
(PI. G, 5, 4)-Ruc MissalUi-Jfew (J.uay.s (PI. G, F, 3)-PIa"ce Me'hcmet Ali-Rue 
Tewfik Premier -Rail way Station - ('/saw^,'! Elysfes. — To Mels and Pamleh, 
.seeipp. 26, 24. 

Cabs (comp. p. xviii). Wii/iin the town: one-borse cab per drive not 
exceeding lOmin. 2 iiia.s., twn-horse 3 pias. ; per 20 min. 2^/i and 4 pias. ; 
per 1/2 hr. 3 and 5 pias. ; per hour 6 and 9 pia.s., each addit. 1/4 hr. l'/2 and 
2Hpias.; from tlie steauier to the Gare du Caire or vice vc.rsd 3 and .5 pias. 
To^tbe suburbs, comji. the tarifl' inside each cab. A liaruain should always 
lie made beforehand, especially for longer drives, with the assistance of 
the hotel-porter or of a commissionnaire. — Taximeter Motok Cabs may 
be found in tlie Place M61n'met Ali. 

Commissionnaires (procured through the hotels) charge 20-30 pias. per 
day, but may lie hired for temporary purposes for 4-5 pias. Offers to escort 
the traveller to Cairo, and even np the Nile, should be disregarded, as the 
only suitable dragomans are to be found at Cairo (comp. pp. xxv, 39). 

Post Office iPl. F, 3; p. xixl, open 7-12 & 2-9.30. France has a post- 
office of its own (Rue de la Gare de Ramleh 1). — Telegraph Offices. 
Egyptian, Kue Tewfik Premier, at the Exchange (PI. F, 4); English (PI. F, 4), 
Rue du Teli'graphe Anglais 5. 

Consulates. Bitrn.*ii (PI. 6; H, 3), Rue de THopital Egyptien : consul- 
general, D. A. Cameron, C.M.G.; vice-consul, A. B. Geary. — Amekican, Rue 
Adib 1 (PI. F, 4) : consul, A. Garrets. There are also Danish, Dutch, French. 
German, ^Norwegian, Swedish, and other consular representatives. 

Tourist Agents. Tlios. Cook <f- .5o», Rue de la Porte de Rosette '}. 
f PI. G,.H, 4); ffnmburg-American Line, Square Ste. Catherine (PI. F, 4); F. T. 
Foiiades & Co., Rue Cherif Pacha 27 (PI. G, 4). 

Steamboat Offices. Peninsular it Oriental Co., Rue Cl(5opatre4 (Haselden 
& Co.; 'Box 153); Mrssageries Marilimes, Place M^hemet Ali 3 ( Ricard) ; 
Austrian Lloi/d, Rue de la Porte de Rosette 1 (H. de Pitner); Societii Marittima 
Ilaliana, Rue Tewfik Premier 2 (L. Bonenfaut); Sociela Italiann di'iServizi 
Marittinii, Rue Sc'sostris 11 (A. Capua); North Gorman Lloyd and Poumanian 
Line, Rue .Sosostris 16 (Miiller & Co.); Compagnie Russe, Rue St. Marc 1; 
German Levant Line, Rue Toussoun Pacha i (Stross); Khedivial Mail Steam- 
hip Co., Rue Centrale; White Star Line, Rue de la Jlarine (Ross it Co.). — 
Lloyd's Agent, Francis H. Manley, Rue Cleopatre 3. 

Banks (usually open 9-12 & 3-5). Banque Imph'iale OUomane , Place 
Mehemet Ali 5 (PI. F, 4); National Bank of Egypt, Rue Toussoun Pacha 4 
(PI. G, 4); Anglo-Egyptian Bank, Rue Cherif Pacha 7 (PI. F, G, 4); Cridil 
lyonnais, Rue Cherif Pacha 4; Banque (PAthines, Rue Cherif Pacha 25; 
Dei/tsche Orientbank (PI. F, 4), Rue Adib 4. 

Physicians. Dr. Ekins, Dr. MacLeod, Dr. Morrison, Dr. Wehh-.Tones, and 
others, English; Dr. Gatzky (sxirgeon; see below). Dr. Kanzki , German; 
])r. Kartulis, Greek. — Dentists. Dr. Curtis, Dr. Leuty (Americans); Dr. 
Kdlhe Lederer (German). ~ Oculist, Dr. Osborne, Austrian. — All the ad- 
dresses may be obtained at the chemists' (see below). 

Chemists. Hiiber (Greek owner), Kue Cherif Pacha .35; Rnelberg, Rue 
de TAncienne Bourse 1; Del Mar, Rue Tewfik Premier 2. 

Hospitals. European Hospital (PI. F, 4, 5; large), Rue Sidi el-Met- 
walli; Government Hospitnl (PI. H, 3), with a foundling asylum, an ad- 
mirable institution, with modern appliances; German Deaconesses' Hospital 
(PI. L, 3, 4), at Hadra (p. 20), an excellent establishment, managed by 
Dr. Gatzky; Austria - Hungarian Hospital, Jewish Hospital, both in the Rue 
Jloharrem Bey; Greek Hospital (Pi. G, 4), Rue de THopital Grec. 

HarhoiLr. ALEXANDlllA. -J. Roulc. 11 

Booksellers. L. Scliuler, Rue Cherif Pacha 6 (phologMplis also). — 
Photographs. Beifi'.r .(■ Binder. Rue de I'Ancienne Bourse 6 (also art- 
dealers); Lassavt', Riif dc rEglist' l)olpbaii(< 7; Fettel ti- Bernard, Kue Tous 
soun Pacha 1. — Photographic Materials. Egypt Kodak, Rue Chdri 
Pacha 30; Del Mar, Hue Tewfik Premier 2. — Music. Hugo Hackh, Rue 
Cherif Pacha 18. — English Newsi'apek: Egyptian Gazette (daily). 

Shops for all kinds of European articles are to be fiiuiid in the Rue 
Cherif Pacha (Davies, Bryan, i Co.) aud the Place Meht5niet Ali. — Ready- 
made clothing : Mayer <k Co., Slein, Goldemberg, Place MObeinet Ali. — 
Reproductions of ancient Egyptian ornaments : Stobbe, Rue Cherif Pacha 29. 
— Carpets, silks, etc. at Tatca^s, Rue Cbdrif Pacha 13. — Cigars and cigar- 
ettes at H. iS; C. Flick's, Hue de TAncienne Bourse 1. 

Theatres. Auoro Teatro Alfiambra (PI. 0, 3), corner of Rue Missalla 
and Eue de I'Hopital Egyptien ; Jardin Eosette, Rue de la Porte de Rosette 
(t'l. H, 4). 

Churches. Anolicax: St. Market ('Egl. anglicane'; PI. F, 4), Place 
Mehemet Ali; chaplain, Ven. Archdeacon Ward, M.A. (Archdeacon in Egypt 
and Bishop's- Commissary); service on .Sundays at 8, 11, & 6.15 o'clock. 
All Saints\ at Bulkeley, see p. 26. — Roman Catholic : St. Catherine's Cathe- 
dral (PI. F, ll and Lazarist Church (PI. F, 4). — Peesbytekian : St. Andrew's 
(PI. 1; F, 8,4), Rue de TEgliseEcossaise ; chaplain Bfv. 6. M. Mackie, D. D; 
service at 10.30 a.m. — American Mission Church ('Egl. americ.'; PI. 01, 4), Rue 
Sidi el-Metwalli, near Karakol "^Attarin ; jiastor, Dr. Finney. — Protestant 
Church (PI. F, 3). Rue de la Poste; German or French service at 9.45 a.m. — 
Several Greek Churches, Si/iiagogues, etc. 

Disposition of Time. 1st Day. In the morning walk through the 
inner town, by the Hue Itosette, Rue Chirif Pacha, and Place Miliimet Ali; 
go by tramway or cab to Pompey's Pillar (p. 16) and the Catacombs of 
K8m esh-Shnkdfa (p. 17). The return should be made via the MahmUdiyeh 
Canal and the Nuzha Garden (p. 20), tlience to the Rond Point, and along 
the Rue d' AUemagne to the Place Mehemet Ali. — 2nd Day. Visit the Museum 
(p. 21) in the morning. In the afternoon go by the Rue de France to the 
Palace of Rds et-Tin and into the Arab and Turkish Quarters (p. 19). 

Alexandria, called Iskaiider'teh by the Avails and Turks, the sec- 
niid town of Egypt and one of the most important commercial cities 
on the Mediterranean, is situated at the W. extremity of the Nile 
delta, on the narrow sandy strip separating Lake Mareotis from the 
sea, in p:. long. 29° 58' and N. lat. 31° 1.9'. In 1907 the population 
amounted to 332, 246 (now estimated at 400,000), of whom about 
60,000 were Europeans f Franks), chiefly Greeks (24,600) and Italians 
(15,916), but including also some Britons, Erench, and Austrians, 
and a few llussians, Germans, etc. The Mohammedans live chiefly 
in theN. and W. quarters of the city, the Europeans in the E. quarter 
and at Ranileh. The town has a governor of its own (p. xlvii). 

Alexandria has two Harbours. The Port Est, or E. harbour, 
known in antiquity as the 'Great Harbour' and tlieu sheltered by 
a massive mole, is now accessible only for fishing-boats. It is sur- 
rounded by quay.-i (see p. 19). Tlie Port Quest, or W. harbour, 
originally named Eunoftos or 'Harbour of the Safe Iteturn', was not 
freely used until the time of the later Roman emperors. Since 
1871 it has been enlarged by the addition of an ihtter Harbotir, 
over 1700 acres in area. This is protected by a breakwater nearly 
2 M. in length, con.structed of solid masses of masonry. A second 
pier, or Molo, nearly 1000 yds. in length, protects tiie Inner Harbour, 
which is about 470 acres in area and on an average 28 ft. deep. From 

12 linule 2. AI-r<;.\AiNl)];)A. HiMnry. 

tlie ■beginning of tlie pier a series of quays, backed by warehouses, 
extends along tlie whole E. side of tlie harbour to the Arsenal. The 
Mahmudiych or Mahnudia Canal (p. 15) enters the inner harbour 
by several lociis (PI. D, 6). The port is entered and cleared an- 
nually by upwards of '2000 steamers, about half of which are under 
the British flag. In 1912 the imports amounted to £ E 22, 157, 029 , 
the exports (chiefly cotton, grain, cotton-seed, beans, rice, sugar, 
onions, tomatoes, etc.) to ;£E 33, 790, 256. 

1. History and TorooRAPHY of Ancient Alexandria. 

Alexandria was founded in 331 B.C. by Alexandtr the Great 
and forms a magnificent and lasting memorial of his Egyptian cam- 
paign. He conceived the plan of founding a new and splendid sea- 
port town in Egypt, both to facilitate tlie flow of Egypt's wealth 
towards Greece and the Archipelago, and to connect the venerable 
kingdom of the Pharaohs with that widely extended Greek em- 
pire which it was his great ambition to found. The site chosen 
was opposite the island of Pharos, near the ancient Egyptian village 
of Rhakotis, between the Mediterranean Sea and the Mareotic Lake 
(p. 27), which was connected with the Nile by several navigable 
channels. The choice was both judicious and far-seeing. For the 
older and apparently more favourably situated harbours at the E. 
end of the Delta were exposed to the danger of being choked by the 
Nile mud, owing to a current in the Mediterranean, beginning at the 
Strait of (iibraltar and washing the whole of the N. African coast. 
Deinocrates, the architect, was entrusted with the planning and 
building of the new city. After Alexander's death, when his empire 
was^ divided among his generals, Ptolemy I. Soter (323-285 B.C.) 
came into possession of Egypt. During his wise and upright reign 
Alexandria became a great resort of artists and scholars, including 
Demetrius Phalereus, the orator, who suggested the foundation of 
the famous library, Apelles and Antiphilus, the painters, Euclid, 
the mathematician, andErasistratus and Herophilus, the physicians. 
This Ptolemy founded also the Museum (p. 13), a splendid pile de- 
dicated to science and poetry, in which scholars dwelt as well as 
studied and taught. 

Notwithstanding the continual dissensions among the Ptolemies 
with regard to the succession to the throne (p. cviii), which seri- 
ously disturbed the peace of the city, the fame of Alexandria, as 
the greatest centre of commerce in the world and the chief seat of 
Greek ;learning, steadily increased, and it had readied its zenith 
in 48 B.C., when the Pomans interfered in the quarrels of Cleo- 
patra and her husband and lirothex Ptolemy XIV. After the murder 
of Pompey at Pelusium Caesar entered Alexandria in triumph, but 
was attacked by the citizens and the army of Ptolemy XIV. and 
had considerable difficulty in maintaining himself in the Regia 











1 _ 



I W 



H i 



? "- 










Aiicirnt 'l\j}in<jr(ijiliii. AI-lv\ ANDKIA. -. Hou(c. lo 

(see below). Caisar was afterwards conquered by the charms of the 
I'^gyptian queeu, but Antony fell uiore fatally into lier toils and 
spent years of revelry witli her at Alexandria (42-30). Augustus 
enlarged the city by the addition of the suburb of Nicopolis (see below 
and p. 25). At this prosperous period Alexandria is said to have 
numbered more than half-a-million inhabitants. The Greek element 
predominated, next in importance to wliich was tlie Egyptian, while 
a numerous, but exclusive, Jewish community was settled here as 
early as the 4th cent. 15. C 

The Greek scholar anil traveller Stntbo describes Alexandria as it was 
in the decades immediately before the beginning of our era. in the 17th Book 
of his Geography. The former island of Pharos had lieen united to the 
mainland by an embankment known as the Heptastadium (see below), and 
on the E. e.xtreniity of the island rose the famous lighthouse built of 
white limestone by Sostratu.', the Cnidian, in the reign of Ptolemy II. 
I'hiladelphus (completed in 280-279 B.C.), which was regarded by the an- 
cients as one of the wonders of the world, and gave its name of 'Pharos' 
\n jll lighthouses afterwards erected. Its three-storied design became later 
Ihe model for the Egyptian minaret (p. cLxxxii). Its original height is said 
to have lieen 4t)0 ells (500 ft. 1 and, though even in antiquity it threatened 
more than once to collapse, part of the ancient tower still stood erect after 
the great earthquakes of 1303 and 1326. This was overwhelmed by the sea 
a little later, and the present fortifications ('Fort du Phare' or 'Fort Kait 
15ey') were erected near its site in the 15th century. The Jlepiastadhmi^ 
a vast embankment seven stadia (1 100 yds.) in length, as its name imports, 
was constructed by Ptidemy Soter or by his son Philadelpbus. It was 
pierced by two passages, both bridged over, and before Caesar's time served 
also as an aqueduct. Having since that period been artificially enlarged 
iiy ddbris from the ancient city, thrown into the sea, as well as by natural 
deposits, it has attained a width of more than 1600 yds. and now forms 
the site of a great part of the modern city. 

.\mong the Puincipal Quahtkus of the ancient city Strabo partic- 
ularly mentions the Necropolis or city of the dead, at the extreme W. 
end, 'where there are manv gardens, tombs, and establishments for em- 
balming bodies' ; llhakotis. 'the quarter of Alexandria situated above the 
sliips' magazines', chielly inhabited by Egyptians (comp. p. 12); the Royal 
Citij (Regia; afterwards c aWed BrucHum), which was subsequently walled 
in and contained the palaces and public buildings, on the mainland 
lietween the promontory of Lochias and the Heptastadium; the Jews' 
Quarter, situated to the E. of the Lochias. Outside the Canopic gate, on 
Ihe E., lay the hippodrome, and farther to the E., 30 stadia from Alexan- 
dria, was the suburl) of NiropoUs (p. 26), which possessed an amphi- 
heatre and a race-conrse. 

The town was regularly built, with streets intersecting each other 
at right angles. The main artery of traffic seems to have been the long 
street beginning at the Canopic gate (comp. p. 20). 

Of the Pkikoii-ai. Buildings of ancient Alexandria the scanty relics 
of a few only can be identified. The Paneum is doubtless identical 
with the modern Kom ed-Dik (p. 20). The Gymnasium probably lay to 
the W. of this point. The theatre, the Sema, and the Museum were all 
three situated in the 'Royal City' (see aliove). The Alexandrian Theatre 
lay opposite the island oi' Antirrhodus, so that the spectators had a fine 
view of the sea in the liackground. The Sema, which lay near the royal 
palace, probably to the W. of the present Government Hospital (p. 20), 
was an enclosed space, within whicU were the tombs of Alexander the 
Great and of tlie Ptolemies. 

The Uuseum, the site of which cannot be satisfactorily determined, 
contained 'a ball lor walking, another for sitting, and a large building 
with the refectory of the scholars residing at the Museum'. Connected 

14 Route 2. ALEXANDHIA. Hislory. 

with the Museum was the famous Alexandrian Lib7'ary, which contained 
400,000 scrolls as early as the reign of Ttolemy II. Philadelphus, while in 
Caesar's time, when it was burned, the number had risen to about 900,000. 
The library lay to the N. of the Museum, near the harbour. Apart from the 
revenues enjoyed by the Museum in its corporate capacity, a yearly salary 
was paid to each of the members, whose number in the time of the first 
Ptolemies has been estimated at one hundred at least. 

The Serapeum (Greek Sarapeion), or great temple of .Serapis, whose 
worship was introduced by the Ptolemies, was situated on the hill on 
which stands Pompey's Pillar (p. 16). 

In 69 A.D. Vespasian was proclaimed emperor by tlie Alexan- 
drians, his recognition having been to a great extent due to the 
influence of the philosophers then resident at the Museum. In 
Trajan s reign (^98-117) the Jews, who constituted one-third of 
the whole population, caused sanguinary riots. Hadrian (117-138), 
who visited the city in 130, held public disputatious with the pro- 
fessors at the Museum. Marcus Aureliiis (161-180) attended the 
lectures of the grammarians Athenseus, Harpocration, Hephsestion, 
Julius Pollux, and others. Lucian also lived at Alexandria at this 
period, in the capacity of secretary to the prefect of Egypt. In 
199 Septimius Severus (190-211) visited Alexandria and established 
a municipal constitution. A disastrous visit was that of Caracalla 
(211-217), who revenged himself for the derision of the citizens 
by a bloody massacre and also caused the academy to be closed. 
Still more disastrous were the contests between the Palmyrenes and 
the Imperialists (p. cxi), in which a large part of the population was 
swept away by the sword, pestilence, and famine. 

Christianity early found its way to Alexandria. According to 
tradition the Gospel was first preached to the Alexandrians by St. 
Mark (whose bones were removed to Venice in 829). The first 
great persecution of the Christians, which took place in the reign 
of Decius (250), was a terrible blow to the Alexandrians. The city 
had for a considerable time been the seat of a bishop, and had 
since 190 possessed a theological school, presided over by Pantanus 
and Clement of Alexandria (beginning of 3rd cent.), who endeavour- 
ed to combine Christianity with the Neo-Platonism which sprang 
up about this period at Alexandria and was taught by Ammonius 
Saccas, Herennius, Plotinus (p. 233), Porphyrius, lamblichus, and 
others, A second persecution took place in 257, during the reign of 
Valerian; and shortly afterwards, in the reign of Oallienus, the 
plague carried off a large portion of the population. Alexa dria, 
however, still continued to be regarded as the chief seat of Christian 
erudition and of the orthodox faith (Athanasian Creed), until it 
was eventually obliged to yield to Constantinople its proud posi- 
tion as the centre of Greek thought and science. Sanguinary quar- 
rels'took place between the Athanasian party and the Arians under 
their unworthy bishop Georgius. On the accession of Julian the 
Apostate (361-363) the pagans of Alexandria again instituted a 
persecution of the Christians. In the reign of Theodosius (379-395), 

Jiislonj. AI.EXANDRIA. 2. Route. 15 

however, paganism received its death-blow, and TheopMlns, the 
patriarch of Alexandria, displayed the ntmost zeal in destroying 
the heathen temples and monuments. It was at this time that the 
famous statue of Serapis was burned. The material prosperity 
of the city also fell off so greatly that the municipality was no 
longer able to defray the cost of cleansing the Nile and keeping 
the canals open. The revenues of Alexandria were scill further 
diminished by the proceedings of the patriarch Cyril, who led the 
armed mob against the synagogues and expelled the Jews from the 
city, and in 415 the learned and beautiful pagan Hypatia, daugh- 
ter of the mathematician Theon, was cruelly murdered by an in- 
furiated crowd. Under Justinian (r)'27-565) all the still existing 
heathen schools were finally closed. 

In 619 Alexandria was captured by Chosroes IJ., King of Persia, 
but the Christians were left unmolested. Ten years later Hera(;lius 
recovered possession of Egypt, biit the troops of the Caliph Omar 
soon afterwards invaded the country and took^Alexandria after a 
prolonged siege. In October, 641, 'Amr ibn el-'As, Omar's general, 
entered the city; but he treated the inhabitants with moderation. 
The decline of Alexandria now became rapid in the same propor- 
tion as the growing prosperity of the newly-founded capital on the 
Nile, the modern Cairo, and its commerce received a death-blow 
by the discovery of America and of the sea-route to India round 
the Gape of Good Hope. 

The decay of the once powerful seaport, which contained only 
i'jOOO inhab. in 1800, was at length effectually arrested iiy the 
vigorous hand of Mohammed All (p. oxx), who improved the har- 
bours and constructed several canals. The chief benefit he con- 
ferred on Alexandria was the construction of the Mahmiidhjeh Canal 
(p. 12), begun in 1819 and named after the reigning Sultan Mab- 
mud II. Through this channel the adjoining fields were irrigated 
anew and Alexandria was agaiTi connected with the Nile and the rest 
of Egypt, the products of which had long found their only outlets 
through the Kosetta and Damietta mouths of the river. Subsequent 
viceroys also made great efforts to improve the position of the town. 
It suffered severely, however, during Arabi's rising in 1882(p.cxxiii), 
and a great part of the European quarter was laid in ashes; but all 
traces of this misfortune have disappeared and the town is again 
quite prosperous. 

'2. MoBERN Alkxandkia. 
The great centre of European life is the long Place Mehemet 
All (PI. F, 4), or Vlace de$ Consuls, which is embellished with trees. 
In the centre rises the Equestrian Statue of Mohammed All (PL 3; 
see above^, designed by Jacquemart and cast in Paris. The statue 
stands on a pedestal of Tuscan marble. This S(iuare was the prin- 
cipal scene of destruction in 188'2. On the N.E. side stands the 

16 floute-2. AI.KXANDHIA. J'oinpey's I'iUnr. 

English Church of St. Mark ('Egi. aiiglicane', Pi. F, 4; p. 11), ad- 
joined by St. Mark's Building, belonging to the British community; 
on the E. side is the Exchange; on the S.W. are the Law Courts. 
These are the only buildings which escaped the fury of the natives in 
1882. In the garden beside St. Mark's Building is a bust of General 
Earle^ who fell at the battle of Kirbekan in 1885 (p. 419). — From 
the E. side of the square runs the busy Rue Cherif Pacha, the chief 
seat of the retail trade, witli attractive shops (in the side-streets 
also); from the S. side the Rue des Sceurs (tramway No. 1, p. 9), 
prolonged by the long Rue Ibrahim Premier, constructed through 
an old and crowded Arab quarter, leads to the quarter of Minet 
el-Bassal (PI. D, E, 6), the focus of the cotton trade, with the 
Cotton Exchange (accessible in the forenoon to visitors introduced 
to a cotton-exporter). The Rue Ibrahim ends at the Pont Neuf or 
Pont Ibrahim, crossingthe Mahmudiyeh Canal (p. 12). On the S. bank 
of the canal lies the quarter of Mme( esh-Sharkaunyeh{^Chargaou1ye; 
PI. D,E, 7), occupied by wholesale dealers in grain, sugar, onions, etc. 
— Gabbari and thence to Meks, see p. 26. 

From the S.Pl corner of the Place Meh^met Ali we reach the 
triangular Square Ste. Catherine (PI. F, 4), with the Roman Catholic 
church of St. Catherine. The Rue Abou Dardaa (tramway No. 4, p. 10) 
leads hence to the S., passing the European Hospital (PL F, 4, 5), 
the Armenian Church (PI. F, 5), and the College St. Francois Xavier, 
to the Sidi Amr Mosque (PI. G, 6). 

We now turn to the right into the Rue du Premier Khedive and 
then (almost at once) to the left into the Rue de la Colonne Pompee, 
which leads to the S., past a large Arab cemetery (PI. F, G, 6, 7), 
to an eminence covered with rubbish and fragments of ruins, the 
site of the ancient Serapeum (p. 14). Here rises *Pompey's Pillar 
(Arab. El-'Amud; PI. F, G, 7; adm. 3 pias., June-Sept. 1 pias., but 
comp. p. 21), the largest well-preserved relic of antiquity in the 
city. We reach the top of the plateau by a flight of steps. All 
around lie fragments of Roman buildings and other objects revealed 
by the extensive excavations begun by Botti (p. 21) and continued 
by the Von Sieglin Expedition (1898-1902) and by Breccia (p. 21 ; 
1905-7). The monument is composed of red granite from Assuan. 
The height of the column, including the rectangular pedestal and 
the Corinthian capital, is 88 ft. ; the shaft, 68 ft. high, is about 
9 ft. in diameter at the bottom and not quite 8 ft. at the top. The 
foundations, composed of several blocks (one with the name and 
figure of Sethos I., p. ciii) which once belonged to other buldings, 
are much damaged. On the W. side is a much-defaced inscription 
in honour of the Emp. Diocletian, placed here in 292 A.D. by a 
Roman prefect named Posidius. The latest theory in regard to the 
column, which may once have belonged to the Temple of Serapis, 
is that it was erected here by the Emp. Theodosius to commemorate 
the victory of Christianity and the destruction of the Serapeum 

CnLHonnb^. ALK.\ A M H;l \, :?. linutr. 17 

(;}91 A.l). ; see p. 15). The present name ol" tlie [lillar is due to 
the medi;eval belief that it marked the tomb of Poinpey the Great. — 
To the N. of tlie pillar is an anoient water-basin, to the S. are two 
sphinxes of red granite. 

About 55 yds. to the W. of Pompey's Pillar 'are iXm ' Sublervanean 
Passages of the Serapeum (p. 14; of little interest). We descend by a 
tlitiUt of wooden steps into an open court, from the N. and S. corners of 
which lonii passages are cut into the rock, with small niches of un- 
known purport. 

Continuing to follow tlie Rue do la Colonne Pompee and its pro- 
longation, the Rue Karmous, a little farther, and then diverging to 
the right by the Rue Bab el-Melouk, we pass the small mosque of 
tianii' cl-Miri and reach the entrance (PI. 'E.'; F, 8) to the — 

^Catacombs of Kom esh-Shuk&fa (Pi. F, 8 ; 'iiill of potsherds'), 
lying on the 8. slope of a hill crowned by an abandoned fort and 

now used as a quarry (open 8 a.m. till sunset; adm. 5 pias., June- 
Sept. 3 pias,; combination-ticket, see p. 21). This burial-ground, 
discovered in 1900, is the most important in Alexandria and prob- 
ably dates from the 2nd cent. A. D. ; it is an admirable example of the 
characteristic Alexandrian fusion of the Egyptian and Grseco-Roman 
styles. -Modern flights of steps on the side of the hill lead to the old 
entrance, which has been restored. The chambers lie in several 
stories one above another. The main chambers seem to have belong- 
ed to an Egyptian grandee, while round about are the smaller and 
simpler vaults of his suite and dependents. The exploration of the 
interior is facilitated by wooden bridges and electric light. 

A WrxDiNc; St.viuc.\si-; (PI. A), with a large ciicular light-shaft, 
descends into two stories of thi' catacouib, the lower of which is 
generally under water; near the top of the staircase is a Sarco- 

18 fioute 2. ALEXANDRIA. Cataroinhs. 

PHAGUS Chambek (R) ot' later construction. From the entrance to 
the upper floor (B), on each side of which is a semicircular re- 
cess with benches, we enter a Rotunda ( C). In the middle of this, 
covered by a kind of cupola, is a shaft leading to the lower stories. 
To the right lie two Smaller Roors (D, E), with niches and sar- 
cophagi. Above the latter are loculi or shelf-tombs. To the left 
is the Triclinium Funebke (F), a large room with a ceiling borne 
by four pillars. Three wide platforms or divans have been hewn 
out of the rock for the banquets held in honour of the deceased. — 
The Staircase (G), which commands a good view of the chief se- 
pulchral chambers, divides farther down into two flights, flanking 
the entrance to the lower story (H) and leading to the Vestibule (J) 
of the grave-chamber proper. 

The facade of the vestibule is articulated by two Egyptian col- 
umns, with elaborate flower-capitals, which bear a cornice adorned 
with the winged solar disk and with falcons ; above this is the flat 
arch of the pediment. Inside, in deep niches to the right and left, 
are Statuks of the deceased and his wife in Egyptian dress, carved 
in white limestone. The door in the rear wall of the vestibule is 
surmounted by the winged sun's disk and a Urjeus frieze. To the 
right and left, on pedestals, are two large serpents with the Egyptian 
double crown, the laduceus of Hermes, and the thyrsus of Diony- 
sos. Above are shields with heads of Medusa. 

We now enter the Sepulchral Chamber (K). The sarcophagi 
containing the remains stand in niclies (a-c) and are hewn, like 
their lids, out of the solid rock. The fronts are adorned, after the 
Greek fashion, with festoons, masks, heads of Medusa, bucranla, 
and bunches of grapes. On the middle one is a reclining figure of 
the deceased. The walls of the niches are decorated with represent- 
ations of religious import. 

Cknteal Niche [a). Rear Wall: On a bier in the shape of a lion rests 
the mummy, surrounded by Horus, Thout, and Anubis, the three sods 
of the lowei- world; below the bier are three canopic vases. Left Wall: 
On the right a priest of the dead, weaving a panther-skin, reads from the 
book of ritxial; on the left the deceased is seen before an altar. Right 
Wall: A priest of Isis sacrifices to the goddess. — Right Niche (b). Rear 
Wall: King or emperor offering a collar to an Apis bull, protected by 
the wings of Isis. Left Wall: King sacrificing to the deceased as Osiris. 
Right Wall: Figures of two gods of the dead, one with the head of a cyno- 
cephalus. — The representations in the Left Niche (c) are similar. — To 
the ri^ht and loft of the donr are the dog-headed Auulds, as a warrior, 
and a dog-headed da-mon with a serpent's body. 

Round the sepulchral chamber runs a Gallery (L), entered from 
the passage in front of the vestibule, with two rows of shelf-tombs 
(91 in all). Each of these contained at least three mummies. The 
names and ages of the deceased, in red paint, are still visible on 
some of the slabs. — At the back of the gallery is a Sarcophagus 
Chamber (M), with three tomb-niches and plain pillars. Adjoining 
the W. part of the gallery are four L.iter Rooms (N-Q), with shelf- 
tombs and sarcophagus-niches. 

Greek Rock Tomb.^. ALEXANDRIA. 2. Route. 19 

Close by is a Oi'aeco-Homan Catacomb of tbe 3i(i or 4tli cent. A.D., in 
three stories (excavated in llllO). — Farther to the W. lie some other 
tiimbs, of less interest and noi worth visiting. 

The main portion of the Akar Quartkr lies on the ancient 
Hcptastadium (p. 13), between the E. and the W. harbours. It con- 
tains several bazaars. The chief thoroughfare is the Rue de France 
(PI. E, F, 3, 4), wliich begins at the N.W. corner of the Place Me- 
hemet Ali (p. J 5) and is prolonged by the Rue Masguid Terbana 
and tlie Rue Ras et-Tin. The last diverges to the W. and inter- 
sects the TuKKTsu Quarter (PI. C, D, 3), on what was formerly 
the islaTid of Pharos (p. 13), with less narrow streets and pictur- 
esque houses and gardens. Both these quarters present interesting 
scenes of oriental life. 

To the N. of the Rue Ras et-Tin, near the shore of the Bay of 
Anfushi, lie two Greek Rock Tombs (PI. B, C, 3), dating from 
ca. 200 B.C. PerniissioM to visit them must be obtained through 
the museum ofliclals (p. '21). 

Eastern Burial Place. IJy means of a fliglit of steps and a terraced 
slope wc i-each a rectangular court (now uncovered) off which open two 
tombs, each consisting of a l.irge vestibule and the tomb proper. The 
ceilings consist of liarrel-vaulting;. The walls of the vestibule of the Eaxt 
Tomb bear numerous Greek inscriptions and drawings, including a cleverly 
sketched ship with a tower. In the rear wall of the sepulchral chamber is a 
niche in the Egyptian style. The North Tomb is the tinest of all. The 
walls of the vestibule terminate in a concave cornice and are painted to 
imitate alabaster and black and white marble. The painting of the ceilinii 
is intended to make it look as if divided into colTers. The ceiling of the 
sepulchral chamber seems to have been painted with great taste; in front 
of the niche in the rear wall is an altar of limestone. — Close by is the 
Western Burial Place, which is very similar to that just described. The 
vestibule of the iV''. Tomb served as a triclinium in which the banquet for 
the dead was held. The tomb still contains its granite sarcophagus. In 
the vestibule of the TV. Tomb arc three tombs of later date, constructed 
of bricks. 1 he wall-paintiiigs here also imitate alabaster and limestone. 

The Rue Ras et-Tin ends at tlie khcdivial Palace of Ras et-Tin 
(PI. A, B, 3), a name signifying 'promontory of ligs'. The palace 
contains nothing of interest and is not accessible. The Harem , a 
separate building, is built on the model of the seraglio at Constan- 
tinople. — The street skirts the N. side of the palace to the Light- 
house (PI. A, 4; no adni.). 

The best return-route to the Place Me'hemet All leads past the 
Marine Arsenal (PI. C, D, 3), along the West Harbour (p. 11), and 
through the Ruc> Moutouch Pacha, de la Marine, Bab el-Kar.isIa, and 
Anastasi. To the left of the Rue de la Marine wc see the Fort 
CafarcUi (PI. Pj, 5) or Fori Napoleon, with a signal-station. 

A visit should be paid also to the new quays of the East Har- 
bour (p. 11), which were constructed at a cost of £ E 374,000. 
These have been converted into an attractive boulevard, called the 
Quai-Promenado Abbas-Deux, on which is situated the Government 
Building (PI. E, 3). To the N.W. of the harbour stands the 
picturesque Fort Kait Bey (PI. D, E, 1) , on the site of the old 
Pharos [,ighthouse (p. 13). 

20 Route 2. ALEXANDRIA. ■ Nmha 'Umlen. 

Another importunt thorouglifare is the Hue jje la Purte L)E 
Rosette fPl. (J-1, 4, 3), the continuation of theRucSidi el-Metwalli, 
leading to the E. from the centre of the city. It corresponds with 
the E. half of the [ancient main street (p. 13) and leads past the 
Municipal Buildiny to the former Porle de Rosette (PI. K, 3), on the 
site of the ancient Canopic Gate. — On the top of the Kom ecl-Dik 
(PI. H, I, 4; 115 ft. ; comp. p.43), to the S. of the Rne de la Porte de 
Rosette, is the reservoir of the water-works. The water is pumped 
up from the Farlcha Canal, a branch of the Mahmudiyeh Canal. 

In the Rue Nobi Daniel, to the S. of the Rue dc la Porte do Ro- 
sette, is a Mosque [PI. G, H, 4), with the tombs of Sa'id Pasha, Prince 
Hassan, and other members of the khedivial family. — In the pro- 
longation of the street towards the N. arc the Coptic Church of St. 
Mark (PI. G, 4; 1.) and the handsome Synagogue (r.). 

In the Rue d'Allbmagne (PI. II, I, 3; tramway No. 1, p. 9), 
on the left, lie the Javish School, the German School, and the Kaiser 
Wilhelni Heim (an asylum for old men). Farther on, on a height 
adjoining the Jewish Cemetery, stands the Government Hospital 
(p. 10). In the gardens in front of the hospital is the Omdurmdn 
Column, an ancient granite column found in the ■vicinity and erect- 
ed to commemorate the taking of Khartum (p. cxxv). On the base 
are inscriptions in English and Arabic and two figures of Sekhmet, 
the Egyptian lion-headed goddess of war. The gardens of the hospital 
(men not admitted) contain antiquities excavated on the spot. On a 
hill affording a view of the new harbour is the Victoria Column, also 
found in this neighbourhood and named after Queen Victoria. 

The Rue d'Allemagne goes on past a bronze monument to Nubar 
Pa5ha, chief minister under the Khedive Ismail, to an old Nahlh or 
cistern (key kept by^the gardener). Thence we continue to follow 
the tramway-line, past some new gardens on the site of former forti- 
fications and the Porte de Rosette (see above), and reach the — 

RoND Point (PI. K, 3). Three streets radiate hence. To the 
S.W. the Rue Menasce, with its continuation the Rue el-Rassafah, 
runs to the Mahmudiyeh Canal (p. 12), On the S.E. the Rue Sign 
el-Hadra leads to the German Deaconesses' Hospital (p. 10) and the 
Prisons (PI. L, 4). The Rue Palais No. 3 or Rue Sara'i (tramway No. 5, 
p. 10), to theE. of the Rond Point, runs through the suburb of Hadea, 
with its ancient necropolis, to t]ia'*Nuzha Garden (with cafe; band), 
an attractive public resort on the Mahmudiyeh Canal covering about 
90 acres, with a small zoological collection and hot-houses (adm. to 
tlie latter 1 pias.). Close by lies the Antoniadis Garden, with an an- 
cient rock-tomb; adm. on application at No. 7, Rue de I'Eglise Deb- 
bane (PI. E, G, 4; at the back). We may return to the city either 
along the highly picturoS(|ue canal, which is flanked on the right by 
villas and gardens, and via the Rue Karmous (p. 17), or across the 
Champs Elystes (PI. L, 5; tramways Nos. 2 & 7, see pp. 9, 10) and 
via the Rue Moharrem Bey (PI. L-H, 5). 

Museum ALEXANDRIA. i>. Route. 21 

III tin; IxiK Du MusBK, wliicb diverges to the N. from tlie Hue de 
la Porte de Rosette (p. 20), rises an edifice in tlie Greeli style, 
accoinniodatiiig the — ■ 

'■Museum of Grseco-Eoman Antiquities (PI. H, 3, 4), founded 
by Dr. G. BoLli (d. 1903), an Italian, with the cooperation of the 
Athenaeum Society nnd the municipal authorities. The museum 
soon attained considrrablc importance. Most of the contents are of 
Alexandrian origin, but some were transferred hither from the Cairo 
Museum. The objects found in Alexandria were generally brouglit 
to light cither in digging for old stones for building houses (a com- 
mon practice here) or in the course of excavations. Most of them 
come from tlie extensive catacombs constructed on the outskirts of 
the ancient city. The importance of the collection lies in the bistori- 
<;al significance of these intrinsically somewhat unimpressive remains. 

The museum is open daily, except on I'hurs. from June to Sept., 
9-12 and 3-5.30 (adm. in winter 2, in summer 1 pias.; ticket- office 
at PI. 29, p. 22). Combination-tickets (8 pias.) are issued, in winter 
only, for the Museum, I'ompey's Pillar, and Kom esh-Sliukafa. 
Hand-cameras are allowed. Director, Prof. E. Breccia. 

From tlie Vestibule (PI. A) we Lave a view of the statue of Hercules 
in the transverse gallery (p. 24) connecting the two main wings of the 
museum. In the side-room on the left (PI. '28) is a topographical collection, 
with plans of ancient and modern Alexandria, photogr.tphs, drawings, etc. 
of Alexandrian monuments. — On the right is — 

Room 1. Christian Antiquities. Two line capitals of columns from 
Alexandria. Xos. 1-14. Tombstones of monks of a convent at Alexandria 
(Ed-Dukheileh). dating from the 6th century. 15-226. Or^eco-Ch^istian and 
l.'optic tombstones, chiefly from Upper Egypt , with handled or ausated 
crosses ('the sign of life'; couip. p. 114), peacocks, palms, and other decora- 
tions ; the inscriptions often close with the words 'be not sad; no one on 
the earth is iinmortar. 227-251. Architectural fragments of the Christian 
period. — Fftnne! A-C: Coptic textiles from Akhmim and Antinoe. — In 
the Cases: Terracotta lamps; vessels. Cases G and G': Flasks for boldini 
miracle-working water from the tumb of St. Menas the martyr (p. 28). Be- 
tween the two cases: 240. Marble relief of St. Menas, standing between two 
kneeling camels, from Ed-I)ukheileh. — In the centre: Magnificent sar- 
copbagus-)id of porphyry; Christian mummies. 

Booms 2-5 contain the collection of Alexandrian Coins. The coins of 
the period of Alexander the Great and the Ptolemies are in E. 5; those 
from .Augustus to Alexander Severiis in R. 2; those from .Alexander Severus 
to Diocletian in R. 4 (Salle Glymenopoulos); and those from Diocletian to 
the conquest of Alexandria in R. 3. Tomb-inscriptions from Tehna , the 
ancient Acoris (p. -08); 116. Coptic inscription. Case A contains Byzantine 
gold coins found in a small vase at Shatbi (p. 25), and also 13 live- 
drachma pieces, fnrming part of the treasure trove of Tukh el-Karamus 
(p. 99) and dating from the reigns of the lirst two Ptolemies. — In Room 4: 
Large vase adorned with (ish and birds, from Terenuthis; tombstones from 
Tehna. 0. Colossal seated figure of a woman, with a girl beside her, a 
grave-monument. — We return to the vestibule and thence proceed straight 
on into — 

Boom 6, GuKF.K and Latin Insckii'Tioss, Paitui. and Tomustones. 
To the right: 18-146. Votive and memorial inscriptions of the Ptolemaic 
period; Ptolemaic tombstones with inscriptions and representations resem- 
bling Attic tombs of the Uh cent., with small pediments, the enclosed space 
being sometimes coloured, sometimes occupied by reliefs, sometimes merely 
with name' in red paint; 83. Tombstone with a dying woman attended 

22 Route 2. 



by her two daughters; 87. Tombstone wiih rtilief of a seated woman; 
88. Tombstone with two women from Pisidia; 97. Tombstone with seated 
figure of an old man; l.TO. Relief from the tombstone of a boy, represented 
as carryiug a goose and playing with his little dog; 96. Tombstone of a 
soldier named l.ycoincdea. — To the left: 1-18, 146-303. Votive and memorial 
inscriptions, military dii>lomas (176, 177), and tombstones of the Roman 
period. — In the middle: 305. Lar^e scarabeeus in pink granite, from the 
Serapeum (p. 14); Sphinx with the name of Haremhcb (p. cii), also from 
the Serapeum; o(51. Life.sizc figure of .Apis in granite, found in the Sera- 
peum, witli dedication to 
Serapis by Kmp. Hadrian 
(on small pillar below); 
347. Kneeling figure of 
Ramses U., dedicating a 
vase to the god Atum of 
Ileliopolis — The Desk 
t'ltses contain papyri of 
the Ptolemaic and Ro- 
man periods. 

Room 7. Egtptian 
Antiquities. In the 
centre: 369. Colossal sta- 
tue in pink granite of one 
of the Pharaohs, after- 
wards usurped by Ram- 
ses II., with an incised re- 
lief of his Consort at the 
side, from Abukir. 361, 
363. Two sphinxes of 
Amenemhet from Abu- 
kir, afterwards usurped 
by Ramses II. for a 
liuilding of hia own. 417. 
Bust of Ramses II., from 
Abukir. 376. Capital of a 
sistrum-column (p. clxi), 
with fine heads of Hathor. 
Room 8 (continuation 
of the Egyptiag. collec- 
tion). 885,386-389. Wood- 
en coffins from the com- 
mon tomb of the priests 
of Anion in Deir el-Bahri 
(p. 305); 383. Mummy'of 
a late - Egyptian period. 
— '380. Fine bas-relief 

« •? —B^ ^..^»^_ -_- g °j];i Qf j.jjg Saite period, with 

a man (1.) in a (lowing 
robe, a harper, and singing- women. 378, 379, 381-383. Limestone coffins 
in the shape of mummies, from Upper Egypt. 

Boom 9 (continuation of the Egyptian collection). 407. Seated figure oi 
the lion-headed goddess Sekhmet, erected by Amenophis III. in the temple 
of Mut at Karnak (p. 280); 415. Bust of a priest; 426. Granite statue of 
Ramses II. ; 420. Pillar from the temple of Atum in Heliopolis, with names 
and representations of Ramses II., found in Alexandria. — In the Table 
Case in the centre: Mummy-masks, garlands, head-rests (one with the head 
or the god Bes), sandals, etc., from Deir el-Bahri. 

Room 10 (Salle Antoniadis). Smaller Egyptian Sculptukes. 460. Sacri- 
licial stone, from Abu.sir near Samaniid. — Case C: Bronze, wooden, and 
f:iyence figures of deities and sacred animals (Osiris ; Thout; Ptah; Patsekes, 
p. 100; Nefertem; Anubis; Apis; etc.). — Case AA: Sacred falcons, cats, 
and cyuocephali ; figures of deities (Imhotep; Sekhmet; Bastet); gilt UrsEus- 
snakes. — Case E: Figures of deities. Hieratic and demotic papyri. — 

Museum. ALEXANDRIA. 2. Route. 23 

(Jase U: Alabaster vases; canopic vase^. — Casi: BB: Bronze ligures of 
deities (Isis; Neith; Amon; llarpocrates ; etc.); folding chair with heads of 
geese. — I'ase L: Ushebtis (p. cxlviii) in fayence. — Tahle Case 0: Scarahaei, 
amulets, and rings in fayencf. — Table Case P: Siuall vases from Rhode? 
and Cyprus; gold ornaments of the Ptolemaic, Roman, and Uyzantine 
periods (armlets, necklaces, rings, and earrings). — (In the right, Plaster 
cast of the statue of (^ueen Amenertais (museum of Cairo, p. 8S). 

Room 11. (!i:.Eco-E«ri"TiAN and Roman-Egyptian Antiquitiks. 3192 
et seij., Statues of a late period, prohably representin;;; priests, some of them 
with names (Peteeais, Ptolimy, Iremeus). '3704. Good portrait- head in 
black basalt. — In frames on the right wall: 3180 et seq.. Remains of wall- 
paintings found near Pompey's Pillar, interesting as forerunners and analogies 
of the Pompeian style, and like No. 3185 (Tomb -painting from Gabbari), 
showing a mixture of the (ire:k and Egyjjtian styles. 23. Fine portrait of 
a Roman ; 3163. Bas-relief with the portrait of one of the Ptolemies. — On 
the left wall; 11-lG. Relief with a representation of Horus with the falcon's 
bead (1.) and of .another deity (r.). from a temple of the Ptolemaic period 
at Athribis (Benha, p. 34). 

Room 12. PoKTKAiT Bdsts and Smaller Scdlptukes. In the centre: 
Marble statue of a Roman emperor; a figure on the lower part of the 
armour has been effaced in the Christian period and replaced by the 
monogram of Christ. — 2. Head of a boy; 3. Roman woman; 1. Charming 
head of a child from Kom esh-Shukafa; 16. Head of a youth, of the Attic 
school of the 4th cent. B.C.; 17. Alexander the Gre:\t(?) in red granite 
18. Julius Csesar; 19. Cleopatra; "45 (3908). Ideal head of a woman. — Case A : 
Small sculptures, heads of women; 10-12. Busts of Ptolemaic princesses; 
20. Faun. —^32, 32a (3337, 3339). Busts of men, from Suk el-Wardian 
(near Wardiian, p. 26); 33. Colossal head of Alexander IV. (V) in the royal 
Egyptian headgear; 60. Colossal head of Ptolemy IV. in Egyptian costume, 
with the double crown. — Case B : ''20-24. Small busts of Alexander ; pleasing 
marble heads of women and others; below, Statuettes of Venus. — '^'BB. 
Head of Hercules in marble, thought now to be Zeus (the hair in a sep- 
arate piece). 

Room 13. ScuLBTURES AND Architectural Fragments. 1. Statue of an 
emperor; 3. Small Egyptian naos from Hadra. — 4-7. Draped statuettes 
(No. 5 from Gabbari, p. 26). 

Room 14 (continuation of the preceding collection). 3661. Torso of the 
marble statue i it' a philosopher; sphinxes; 15-17. Elegant composite Qower- 
ciipitals, found at Alexandria in the Rue d'AUemagne (p. 20). 

Room 15 (continuation of the above collection). 29, 50. Frescoes from 
(omlis at Gabbari. — Rnuud the room are architectural fragments and 
.small altars from tombs at Gabbari, made of Meks limestone and executed 
in the mixed Greek and Egyptian style, some of very fine workmanship. 
The .same style is shown in Nos. 2 and '3, brightly painted capitals (in 
which the Egyptian papyrus motive is used) from the quarter of the palace 
of the Ptolemies. 

Room 16. Sculptures. 62 (3930). Arm bearing a globe, probably par 
of a colossal statue of an emperor, from Benha. — On the left wall: 32. 
Fragment of a statue of Zeus(?) found in the East Harbour (p. 11) and 
notable for its draiieries and colouring; 40. Colossal seated marble figure 
of Zeus-Serapis; 39, 41. Colossal heads of Zeus-Serapis ; 52. Roman head; 
14. Apollo on the omphalos; on two granite columns are fine Ionic capitals ; 
51. Recumbent tomb-figure of a Roman, from Abukir. — In the centre : Two 
baths; B. Colossal eagle. — By the right wall: 7(3S6S). Maenad; 13. Nymph; 
17. Venus. — By the door-posts at the entrance to the following room: 
3895, 389j. Sleeping genii. 

Room 17. Small Oujects op Art. Cases A and B are temporarily 
filled with oli.jects discovered in the tombs of Shatbi, and Gritco-Egyptian 
ligures of deities from Ibrahimiyeh (p. 25). — To the right and left of the 
entrance: Cases C and E. Fine glass bottles, including dark-blue specimens 
with veins of yellow and white. — 2312. Helmet. — In the centre: R, JT, J'T. 
Mummies with portraits of the deceased painted on wood (2nd cent. A.D.); 
mummies of various periods. — Case QQ. Cobjured plaster masks of 

Baudkker's Egypt. 7lh Edit. 2 

24 Route 2. ALEXANDRIA. Museum. 

the Roman iicriod (2nd cent. A. 1).); 2319. Fine hrad cif a youtli fiom 
Gabbari. — obis, 4, 4i'is. Green fayence vessels from a tomb at Gabbari. — 
Table Case BR. lironze mirrors; objects in gold and silver, gems, and 
glass. — On the walls: 5334. Colossal porphyry statue, often taken for a 
figure of Christ ; marble sarcophagus with scenes in relief from the story 
of Ariadne. — Cases A and SB. Cinerary urns from Iladra, apparently, 
to judge from the inscriptions, of Greek mercenaries in the service of 
the Ptolemies. 

Koom 18. Ceramics and Objects from Tombs. Terracotta flgure.s of 
the Roman period, especially flgutes of gods, which seem to have served 
as images of saints in the houses of the common people. — Case -ff. Baubo 
and Bes. — Cetse I. Women with tymbals and baskets. — Cases M, D, and 
Z. Harpocrates (Ihe youthful Horus , identified by the side-lock and the 
finger on the lips), often represente<l as riding on animals. — Case EE. 
Isis. — Case GG. Cupid and Venus. — Case HE. Heads of Venus. — Case V. 
Charioteer (368); animals; 836. Frog seated on a fish and playing on a lyre 
(burlesque of Arion on the dolphin i. — Case B. Figures from comedy, etc. 
— Cases F and ^f. Terracottas of the Ptolemaic period, from tombs near 
Alexandria; fragments of 'terra sigillata' (Aretine vases). — Case 0. liarly 
Ptolemaic terracottas. The -'Figures of girls are distinguished by deli- 
cacy of execution and colouring, and some of them (e. g. one with a lute) 
rival the best Tanagra figurines. — Fragments of a red glazed plaque with 
the head of 'Africa and gladiators fighling with wild beasts. — On the 
floor: 'Jlosaics from a temple at Abukir (p. 30). 

Room 19. 'Mosaic and cinerary urns from Sliatbl (p. £5). 

Room 20. On.iECTS FROM To.MBS. In the middle : Torsos of a fine group 
of Dionysos and the Fann, executed under the influence of the school of 
Praxiteles. — Cases A and B. Greek vases and terracotta figures. 

Room 21. In a covered Glass Case: Objects from tombs; sepulchral 
wreaths in terracotta and gilded bron/.e. — Case A. Terracotta figures and 
vases from the excavations at Ibrahimiyeh (p. 25). — Case B. Similar 
objects from Shathi. 

Room 22. Fragments from Canoi'us (p. 30). Mosaic of warriors sur- 
rounded by griffins; on the walls, architectural fragments. — We return 
to R. 17 and there turn to the left into the — 

Transverse Gallery (PI. 13). '8. Colossal seated marble figure of Her- 
cules. A side-room (PI. 27; adm. by special permission only) contains copies 
and articles not adapted for public exhibitioii. 

In the Garden (PI. 24) : Two sphinxes of Apries (p. ovi), originally erect- 
ed at lleliopolis; 24. Colossal head of Antonius as Osiris, from Hadra ; 
4-7. Tomb monuments from Shatbi; I^arge limestone, granite, and marble 
sarcophagi from Abukir, Hadra, Kom esli-Shukafa, and other idaces; Ptol- 
emaic tomb with a large sepulchral bed and remains of painting, from 
Suk el-Wardian (near Wardian, p. 26). — On the other side of the trans- 
verse gallery are some reconstructions of Hellenistic and Roman tombs 
(PI. 25 and 26). 

3. Environs ov Alkxaniuiia (Ramleh, Meks). 

From Alexandria to Ramleh the best route is by the Electric Tram- 
way starting at the N. end of the Rue Missalla (PI. G, 3; from 5.30 a.m. 
till 1 a.m.; ist cl. fare 2 pias., book containing 50 tickets 75 pias.). The 
'Service Palais' (every 8 min.) runs on the N. line, the 'Service Bacos' (every 
41/2 min.) on the S. line (diverging from each other at Bulkeley, see p. 26). 
The journey takes about V2 hr. — The railway (AbukirRosetta line, p. 30) 
is of practically no use to tourists. 

From the starting-point we have a flue view of the E. Larbour; 
projecting into the sea, to the left, is tlie small Fort iSUsUeh(F\. H, 1). 
The line runs parallel with the quay ; on the left is the Lyce'e Fran- 
^•ais, on the right the large buildings of the Greek orphanage and 



:'. Koiile. 25 

the Greek school. The first stopping-place is Shalbi {Chatby; PI. 1, 
2), beyond whicli we pass the Jewish, Christian, and Arab cemeteries. 
— Near the station of Chathy-lrs-Baim (PI. K, 1), to the left, on the 
shore, are sea-baths and an ancient necropolis, the tombs of which 
belong mostly to the early-Ptolemaic period (intending visitors must 
be provided M-ith a permit from Prol'. l>reccia, p. 21). We now 
traverse the rubbish-heaps of the ancient Alcopoif's (p. 13), the large 
E. suburb of Alexandria founded by Augnstus on the site of his 

Wagner i Deljes, Leipag 

liiial victory over the adlierents of Antony (station. Camp de Cesar; 
PI. K, l),and reach the suburban station oi Ihrdhlrrilijehi Ihrahimia), 
with a Greek-Orthodox church and numerous villas. Near here is a 
Grzeco- Jewish necropolis of the 3rd cent. B.C. 

The next stations are Sporting Club (a British club with a race- 
course) and Cleopatra; on the right are the Lake of Hadra and the 
broad expanse of Lake Mareotis. Beside the station of S7di Oaber (a 
station on the railway to Cairo, p. 31, at which the Abuktr-Rosetta 
line, p. 30, diverges) is (I.) a mosque, built by the present Khedive 
over the tomb of the Mohammedan saint Sidi Gaber. 

The track now runs parallel with the road from Alexandria- 
Stat. Moustapha Pacha. On an eminence to the left are the remains 
of a chateau built by Isma'il Paslia, now used by the British mili- 

26 Route -2. RAMLEH. Environs 

tary authorities, and barracks for British troops (parade servico in 
the garrison church of St. George at 1 1 a.m.). The builuing- material 
for the cliateau was taken from the ruins of the Kasr el-Kaydsereh 
('Cast)e of CiBsar'), an old fortifled Roman camp in the vicinity. — 
The attractive villas of Ramleh begin at Carifon, (Carlton Hotel. PI. a, 
A 2, pens. :'iO-60pias.) and Bulkeley. The latter, which contains the 
English church of All Saints [Vl. A, 1 ; Rev. H. T. Valentine; services 
at 8.30, 11, «fc 6.30 ), is named, like most of the following stations, 
after one of the promoters of the railway. 

Ramleh (i.e. 'sand') is the favourite summer-resort for well-to- 
do Alexandrians and Cairenes; in winter it is not so attractive to 
tourists. The N. line (p. 24) runs via Saha Pacha, Gljimenopoulos 
(New Victoria Hotel, Pi. b, B 1 , pens. 40 pias.), Mazloum Pacha, 
and Zizinia to San Stefano and then via Laurem and past the palace 
of the present Khedive s mother (no almission) to the terminus at 
Victoria College. The Litter, o|iened in 1909, was founded by public 
subscription in 1901 in memory of Queen Victoria, to provide a 
liberal erlucation on the lines of the English public schools. — The 
S. line runs to the right via Fleming (Hot. Miramare, PI. c, B 2, 
Italian), Bacos, Se/fer, Schulz (Hot. de Plaisance. PI. d, C 1, pens. 
8-12 fr.), and Uianaclis, and reaches its terminus at San Stefano. 
Bacos, the central part of Ramleh, has a bazaar, a mosque, and a 
Roman Catholic diurch and school. Near San Stefano, on the shore, 
are the * Hotel- Casino San Stefano (PI. B, C, 1 ; owned by the 
George Nungovich Co., see p. 35; pens. 60-100 pias.), with garden, 
terrace, sea-baths, theatre, and concert-rooms (adm. 5 pias.), the 
Hotel Beau-Riuage (PI. e, C 1 ; pens. 50-70 pias., good), with flue 
garden, the Hotel Bagdad (PI. f; B, 1), the Villa Margherita (PL g, 
C 1 ; pens. 40-50 pias.), and the New Victoria Hotel. 

From Alexandiua to Miiics: Electiii; tramway from Gabbari in connec- 
tion with Line Ko. 1 on p. 9, eveiy 10 min. in 25 min. (fares 10, 5 mill.). 

From the suburb of Gahhari (PL C, D, 8) the electric tramway 
runs to the S.W. by tlie Route du Meks, traversing the hilly Necro- 
polis of the imperial period (p. 13). On the left are the gardens, 
the picturesque mosque, and the palace of Gahhari, the last now 
a Quarantine or lazzaretto. A number of interesting tomb-chambers, 
called Baths of Cleopatra, are cut out of the limestone of the 
coast-hills. — Farther on we pass through the Arab village of War- 
didn; to the right is the slaughter-house , to the left the starting- 
point of the Maryiit railway (p. 27). 

Meks or Me.v, the terminus of the tramway, is visited for sea- 
bathing. On the beach are several hotels, the Nuovo Casino Restaur- 
ant, and the Bab el- Arab ('Beduin Gate'), part of the old fortifica- 
tions. Farther to the S.W. are the quarries mentioned on p. Isviii. 

of Alexandria. ^ AMRIYEH. l\ Route. 27 

4. Makeotis District (City oi- St. Menas, Akusir). 

An excursion <o the Marcotis district, intinefting both for its scenery 
and history, is rccinnniended, especially in Feb. and Ularch, when the 
desert flora is S('i;n at its best. A visit to the ruins of Abusir takes a 
whole day, imluding the Jonrnoy tliere and back; furtlie City of St. Menas 
two days arc required, but Abu.sir may lie included on the way back. The 
point of departure fur both places is Behiff, a. station on the JfAKYOr Light 
Railway, a private line belonging to the Khedive (Daira K/iassa), which 
starts at Wardidn (p. 20). From Alexandria we may either take the 
electric tramway from the Place Mi'hcmet Ali to the station of Wardian 
and go by the early train thence (2hrs.; fares 2'J, 11 pias.), or go direct 
from the Gare du Oaire (p. 9) by tlie forenoon express (I'/s In-.; 29V2, 
15 pias.). As ridina;-aninials cannot be procured at Behig, the traveller 
must brin? a donkey with lilm from Alexandria, or must arrange with the 
police officer at Kehig or with the Ma'miir of Ainriyeh (see below) to have 
a horse or donkey (for an extended tour a camel ; 15-20 pias. per day and 
fee) sent to meet him; in the latter case a recommendation from the com- 
mandant's office in Alexandria or from a consul is necessary. — From 
Behig to the (!ity of St. Menas 2 hrs., to Abusir ca. I'/a hr. The night is 
.spent in the rest-house near the City of St.Menas (key at the Jluseum in 
Alexandria), at the police-station ofBehig (recommendation from the com- 
mandant, soe above), or in tents. The visitor should be furnished with 
pruvisions, water, and candles. 

lIisroKY. To the S. of the narrow strip of sand on which Alexandria 
stands there has lain from time immemorial a large inland sheet of water, 
uameil by the ancients Lake Mare.otis or Martia (Arab. Belieiret ifaryiit). 
The lake lies 8 ft. below the level of the sea and was connected with the 
Xile by navigable channels through which the products of Egypt were 
brought (oAlexandria. In the lake lay eight island.s, covered with luxurious 
country-houses; its banks were exuberantly fertile, and its white wines are 
celebrated by Horace and Virgil. In the middle ages the lake dried up. 
r>uring the siege of Alexandria in ISOl the British cut through the dunes 
at Abukir. The sea at once rushed in, destroying 150 villages, and it still 
covers "about 77 sq. 31., although Jloliammed AH (p. 15) spared no cost to 
win back the land for cultivation. The present Khedive also is doing his 
utmost by a carefully planned system of agriculture to improve the arable 
roast-plain, which extends on the W. into the Libyan Desert. The district 
is mainly inhabited by I'.eduins, living partly in small villages and partly 
in tents, who trade in camels and raise sheep. Among the grain-crops 
barley flourishes with especial success; vineyards and orchards have also 
been again planted. 

'I'lie Maryut railway (see above), starting at Wardian. runs 
along tlie N. bank of Lake Mareotis, with the houses of Meks (-p. 26) 
to the right. Tiie lirst station is (2 M.) Me.v Junction, with the large 
factory of the Egyptian Salt & Soda Company; the connecting-line 
from Alexandria (coinp. above) joins ours on the left. — The train now 
runs to the S. along an enibankment (2^/4 M. long I througli the lake, 
then turns to the W. and traverses cultivated land to (0 M.) Mergheb, 
a small Beduin settlement. — IOV2 M. 'Abd el-Kdder; above the 
village stands the small mosque dedicated to the saint of tliat name. 
— 121/2 -^'- Amrhjeh (Amria), with pretty gardens and a villa of the 
Khedive, is tlie headqtiarters of the >!a'mta-, the liighest police offi- 
cial in the Mareotis. Tlie Beduin market held here on Wednesdays 
presents an animated scene, when camels, horses, grain, etc., are 
offered for sale; it is especially interesting in Dec, Jan., and Feb., 
when the date caravans arrive from the oasis of Siweh (p. 378). — 

28 Route 2. CITT OF ST. MENAS. , Pmv irons 

I0I/2 M. Second Mariout, with vineyards. J""arther on wo pass 
through cultivated land and desert. — 21 M. Hawarhjeh (Hawaria). 

26V2 M. Behig (Bahig), where we leave the train. 

Fkom Bkhig to the City of St. Menas, 7'/2 M- — From the 
station we ride to the S.E. across the railway emhankment to (^/^ M.) 
the Bir 'Eseili, a deep cistern witlt good drinking-water, at which 
the P.eduins water their herds of camels. Close hy are a few houses 
and a small school. Proceeding to the iS.E. we ascend an eminence 
from whicli we have a pretty view of P>ehig, of Gebel Batn (con- 
cealing the sea), and of Ahusir. Farther on our route passes be- 
tween fields of grain till the plateau on the edge of the desert is 
reached and the hills of the City of St. Menas appear. 

The City of St. Menas, called harm Abum or Bu Mna (i. e. Karm 
Abu M7na) hy the Rodnins, lies in the Mareotic Desert, about half- 
way between Alexandria and the Wadi Natrun. St. Menas (d. 296 
A.D.), who was looked upon as a kind of patron-saint of the fabyan 
Desert, was buried here, and in Christian times his tomb was a fav- 
ourite place of pilgrimage, whence the pilgrims carried away clay 
flasks filled with its wonder-working water (so-called Menas flasks). 

The extensive site was re -discovered and successfully excavated in 
1905-7 by Monsignor Carl Maria Kaufniann ; comp. 'Three Years in the 
Libyan De'iert' by /. C. En-ctld Falls, tran^l. by KHz. Lee (L;mdon, 1913; 15s.). 
The objects discovered among the ruins are in the museums nf Alexandria 
and Frankfort. 

The great P>.vsilica of Arcauius, the building oif which was 
begun by that emperor (P)95-408) and completed by the Patriarch 
Timothy, forms the central point of the ancient city, the streets and 
houses of which are clearly distinguishable. The church, which is 
orientated with great exactitude , is built on the early-Christian 
cruciform plan. It consists of nave, aisles, and transept supported 
by 06 columns and adjoined on tlie E. by an apse or chancel, 36 ft. 
in width. The transept, 164 ft. long and 66 ft. wide, has a small 
apsidal recess at each end; in the centre stand four columns, for- 
merly bearing a canopy and marking the site of the altar. Access 
is obtained from the apse into some vaulted tomb-chambers. The 
chief entrance (atrium), consisting of three portals, is in the S. 
aisle, and there are other entrances at the beginning of the N. aisle 
and In the N. transept. A number of other rooms, subterranean 
tomb-chambers, corridors, and cellars adjoin the aisles. — At the 
W. end of the basilica stands a tower-like building, the main apse 
of the original Burial Church of St. Menas, of earlier date. This 
consists of a basilica, 125 ft. long and 74 ft. broad, with nave and 
aisles each terminating in an apse. The whole is built over an exten- 
sive crypt lying 26 ft. below and reached by a broad flight of marble 
steps. — Close by the burial church, on the W., is an octagonal 
Baptistery, with a baptismal piscina in the middle. 

On the outer circumference of the town, in the midst of a ceme- 
tery on the N., stands another Basilica, with apse, prothesis, diaco- 

of Mciiindria. AHUSIK. -J. Route. 29 

uicum (sacristy), aud uumeious other chambers, including an elegant 
baptistery adjoining the right aisle. — In various quarters of the 
town are several potteries and kilns, in which the clay flasks for 
pilgrims (comp. p. 28) were made. Among the other secular build- 
ings are some cisterns and an early-Christian hospice (with baths). 
To visit the Wadi NatrO.v (p. 32) from the City of St. Menas 2-3 days 
are required ; the ride to the edge of the valley takes 1/2 day. Guides 
(15 pias. per day): Sheikh Sidi Sadaui, at Amriyeli (p. 27) ; Aloani Hamed, 
at Behig; Sheikh Muftah Dabun, near the City of St. Menas. Camels, 
see p. 27; besides the riding -cameH a camel to carry water is necessary. 
The camp should be pitched near Bir Hooker, the terminus of the light 
railway fmm Khatalheh (p. 32 1. — For the salt-lii!<es and convents, 
coinp. p. 32. 

FaoM IiehIg to Ar.u.siii, 5 M. — From the station we ride in a 
N. direction to tlic prettily situated village of Belug and thence to 
the N.W. across deserts and fields to (ca. I'/olir.) *Abusir, the 
ruins of the ancient Taposiris Magna. The remains of this town, 
which lay on the plain, are very scanty. The Egyptian Te^Q'LE, 
however, situated on a limestone ridge rising from the seashore, is 
in good preservation as far as its enclosing walls are concerned. To 
judge from the Greek name of the place, it was probably dedicated 
to Osiris. The sanctuary lay from E. to W. and was entered by a 
handsome pylon, which, like the rest of the walls, is built of blocks 
of limestone. In the interior of each of the two towers is an ancient 
stairway; from the top we enjoy a magnificent *View of the blue 
sea, the desert, and the fertile land in the distance. The pylon is 
adjoined by the temple, which was surrounded by lofty walls and 
had a length of 295 ft. The rooms in the interior are destroyed. — 
A few minutes to the N. of the temple lie the ruins of a Totocr, 
probably a lighthouse of the Roman period. The rocks in the neigh- 
bourhood contain many quarries and Roman tombs, and near the 
temple a bath has been excavated which deserves a visit. 

The Railway runs on from Behig to (B.'Ji/a M.) Gherbamyat, 
with extensive deposits of gypsum, and (401/0 ^^-^ Hammdm {i.e. 
'bath'), where the caravans from the W. renew their supply of water. 
Next comes a lonely region. — 45'/2 ^r. Rouessdte ( Ilueisat). — Near 
(53 M.) El-Omaied (Amtid) the last lighthouse on the Egyptian coast 
is visible on the right; on the left rises the hill of I'mia el-'Aish 
(475 ft.). — Beyond El-Omaied the line intersects a desert tract that 
stretches for 31 miles. 671/0 M. Alamein. 85 M. 'Abd er-Rahmdn ; 
on the hill rises the conspicuous tower of the mosque (view) ; on the 
right lies tlie sea. — 9IV2 M. Ghazal. — 1021/) M. Ed-Daba', the 
ancient Zepliirium, was the last station of the railway in 1913. The 
line is being prolonged via (I291/2 M.) BTr Fuka and S7di el-Haygag 
to Mirsn Matruli, a seaport (spongc-flsherles) witli a new mosque 
and a Greek church. This was the ancient Paraetonium, whence 
Alexander the Great marched to the oasis of Jupiter .\mmon (p. 378). 
From Mirsa .Matruh it is intended to carry on tlie railway via Sidi 
berani to Solium., which was occupied by Egypt in 1911. 

30 Route -2. ItOSKTTA. 

5. Excursion to Abukir and Kosetta. 
Railway to (44 M.) Roseita in 2'/i-23/i hrs. (two trains daily; fare 
34 pias.); to Abukir in 45-47 min. from Sidi Gaber (fare 4 pias. ; day re- 
turn-ticket 6 pias.)- — Tliose who wish to combine a visit to tbe temple 
of Serapis at Abukir with the excursion to Rosetta fhould take the first 
train in the morning from Sidi Gaber to Mamura and go on thence by 
the next train to Roseita (see below). 

As far as (4 M.) Stdl Gaber (p. 25) the train follows the line to 
Cairo (p. 31), from which it then diverges to tlie left, passing the 
various stations at Uamleli (conip. p. 20) and afterwards crossinK 
the desert. 10 M. El-Mandara, the ancient Taposiris Pcirva; '^j^ M. 
to the S. rises the lull of KCnn ct-Tcrbdn. commanding an exten- 
sive view. — 103/4 M. Montaza, with a khedivial cliateau. The train 
now skirts the edge of the fertile region. — I21/2 M. Mamura, the 
junction for Abukir and Rosetta (to the Serapis Temple, see helow). 

14'/2 M. Abukir or Alu Qir (Santi's AdmiraL Nelson Hottl), a vil- 
lage with a shallow harbour, has become a favourite summer-resort 
and contains the villas of many rich Alexatidrians. It is famous for 
the 'Battle of the Nile' (Aug. ist, 1798), in which the British fleet 
under Nelson signally defeated tlie French, destroying thirteen of 
their seventeen vessels. On July 2oth, 1799, Bonaparte repulsed the 
Turkish army here ; and on March 8th, 1801, Sir IJalph Ahercromby 
defeated the remnants of the French army and compelled the eva- 
cuation of Egypt (comp. p. 27). 

On the shore of the semicircular bay of Abukir are several small 
forts, and on the promontory rises a lighthouse. 

Abukir is probably the ancient Bukiris. — In the vicinity lay the 
ancient city ofCanopus, a favourite resort of the Alexandrians, who there 
celebrated the wildest orgies. The resemblance of the name to that of 
Canobus or Canopu^, the helmsman of Menelaus, gave rise to the Greek 
tradition that that pilot was interred here. The most considerable ruins, 
with remain'* of .sculptures, are to be found near the fort of Taufikiyeh, 
on the W. Hurried travellers may follow the railway to Abukir from the 
station of Mamiira (see above) for about -/a M. and then from the end of 
the village (donkey obtainable) make straight for the fort. About 320 yds. 
to the W. of the latter (1 M. to the W. of Abukir), in a hollow on an 
estate belonging to Prince Omar Tussun, lie tlie remnants of a llonian 
2'ctnple of Serapis, probably the famous sanctuary of this god fit Ganopus, 
which was visited bv many pilgrims in search of health. For the Decree 
of Cauopu?, see p. 8S. 

18 M. El- Tarh. The train traverses the narrow neck of land be- 
tween Lake Edku (area ca. 104 sq. M.) and the Mediterranean. — 
21 M. El-Ma'dhjfh (Madia), near the former Canopic mouth of tiie 
Nile. — 29 M. Edku ; the village lies to the left on a hill. — 06 M. 
Bufdi (Boseill). 

44 M. Rosetta (Hotel R'jyal), Arabic Rashul (a Coptic name), 
with 14,300 inhab., almost exclusively Arabs, lies at the mouth 
of the Rosetta arm of the Nile (Far' el-Gliarhi), the ancient Bolbitinic 
arm (p. Ixvii). During the middle ages and in more recent times 
its commercial prosperity was considerable, until the construction 
of the Mabmudiyeh Canal (p. 15) diverted its trade to Alexandna. 

DAMAN HL)R. 3. Haute. 31 

Numerous antique marble columus are built into the houses. The 
spacious Mosque ofSakhlun also is embellished with many mediifival 
columns. At the S. end of the town, close to the river, lies the 
Mosque of Mohammed el-'Ahbasi, with a tasteful minaret. An attrac- 
tive excursion may be made to the Mosque of Abu Mandiir, to the 
S. of the town, beside the river; Tisitors should go by boat if the 
wind is favourable, otherwise by donkey (l/o lir-; 6 pias.). The hill 
of the same name commands a fine view. — The fortifications to 
the N. of the town are not shown except by permission of the com- 
mandant. The famous Rosetta Stone [p. cxxvi) was discovered in 
Fort St. Julien. 

From Kosetta to Damietta via Lake Burlus, see p. 177. 

From Rosetta the train returns to Bustli (p. 30) and thence runs 
to tlie S.E. to (43Yi M.) Edfina. on the Rosetta arm of the Nile. 
Hence a light railway runs via 'Atf to Damanhur (see p. 32). 

3. From Alexandria to Cairo. 

130 51. Kailwat (comp. p. xvii). Express train in 3-3'/'2) oi'dinary train 
in 6-6-Vi lirs. (fares 88, 44 pias.). — Travellers sUouliI engage the commi.s- 
.'ionnaire of the hotel or one of the tourist-agents (comp. p. 9.1 to assist in 
booking their luggage. — The Alexandria and Cairo line, the first railway 
constructed in the East, was made under .Sa'id Pasha in 18f>0. 

The railway crosses the Farkha Canal (p. 20) and soon comes 
into sight of Lake Marcotis (p. 27), the water of which washes the 
railway-embankment at places during the period of the inunda- 
tion. Beyond Hadra ( p. 20 ) and Sldi Gdher (p. 25) our line diverges 
to the right from that to Rosetta (p. 30). "We cross the MahmiLdhjeh 
Canal [p. 15) by a drawbridge, and the triangular sails of the boats 
which appear above its banks enable its course to be traced for 
quite a distance. Cotton-fields now appear to the left. — 17 M. 
Kafr ed-Dawdr. In the vicinity are the ruins of Kom el-Gheh, 
marking the site o(Schedia, the Nile-harbour of ancient Alexandria. 

A LiGUT Railway diverging at Kafr ed-Dawar (two trains daily in each 
direction) serves a number of villages on the W. m;ir\;in of the Delta and 
rejiiins the main line at Damanliiir (see below). 

We pass several unimportant villages, with the clay-built grey 
houses, crowned by cupolas, which are so characteristic a feature 
of the whole Delta landscape. — 28 M. Abu Jlommos. 

38 m. Damanhtir (liujfet), with 38,752 inliab., was the ancient 
Kgyptian Tinie-en-H'ir (city of llorus) and the Roman HermopoUs 
I'arva. It is now the capital of the province of Beheireh (p. xlvii), 
which extends from the Rosetta arm of the Nile to the Libyan desert. 
The town lies on an eminence, with the towers of a church rising from 
among its houses. In the vicinity are several small mills for the se- 
paration of the cotton from the seeds. The Arab cemetery lies close 
to the railway. 

32 Route 3. WADI NA'l'RUN. From Alexandria 

Fkom Damanhur to Meiiallet RCh, 46 M., railway in 2-2'/4 lirs. (fare 36 
Bias.). — Beyond SanhUr and Rahmaniyeh (Jiahmania) the train crosses the 
Rosetta arm of the Nile. — 13 M. Desiik (Desuq)^ a town with TOOOinhab., 
on the right bank of the Rosetta arm. A large fair (mulid) is held here 
in Aug. or Sept. in honour of the local saint, Seiyid Ibrahim ed-Desiiki 
(p. xcii), the fuunder of an order of dervishes. — Farther on we cross 
several canals and pass the station of S/iahbds. — At Kalin (Kalline, Qallin) 
diverges the branch-line for Sberbin (p. 175). — Then come Shin (Chine^ 
p. 33), Koti'ir (Qohir ; p. 33), and Konaisseh (Konayesseh. Konaiesa). — 46 M. 
Mehallel R-Cth lies on the railway from Tanta to Jlansura (p. 174). 

Damanhur is also the starting-point of several Light Railways: 1. To 
Teh el-BdrHd (see below) via Dclingat and Tod (which are also connected 
by another line). — 2. To Teh el-BdrHd via Shubrakhit (Hot. du Nil, kept 
by a Greek; 2746 inhab.), on the Rosetta arm of the Nile (branch to Miniel 
Saldme/i).^ and Shandid (see below). — 3. To Edjina (p. 31) via ZarkHn (Zarqun) 
and 'At/. At 'Atf the MahmUdiyeh Canal (p. 1.5) diverges from the Nile ; and 
on it barges and small steamers maintain communication with Ale.xandria. 
The machines which here impel the waters of the Nile towards Alexandria 
are very striking. — 4. To Kafr ed-Daicdr, see p. 31. 

From Shubrakhit (see above) we may visit the ruins of Sd el-Hagar 
(Sais, p. 33) by boat or on donkey-back in I-I1/2 hr. In the' latter case 
we cross the Rosetta arm and follow the E. bank. 

48 M. Saft el-MelUk. About 3 M. to the S.E., near NeMreh (Ne- 
beirah), on the Canopic arm of the Nile, lie the ruins of Naucratis, 
a Greek commercial city, founded by Amasis. The ruins do not 
repay a visit. 

531/2 M. Teh el-Barud (liai el-BaruiJ ; buffet) is a village with 
a Ijrge mound of ruins. 

Fkom Teh f,l-Bae6d to Cairo, 76 M., branch-railway along the W. 
uiar;;in of the Nile delta in 3-3V4 hrs. (three trains daily). -^ Q'/i M. K6m 
el-Hamddah; 14'^ M- Wdl'ed (Waged). To the right extends the Libyan 
Desert. — Beyond (I9V2M.) Teiriyeh (Teiria) the train skirts the Khaldlbeh 
Canal, which diverges from the Rosetta arm. — 31 M. Eafr DdOd, a vil- 
lage with 3000 inhabitants. — 381/2 M. Khaldlbeh{\o Bir Hooker, see below). — 
451/2 M Warddn. with 5000 inhabitants. The next stations are Aa«d (Qatto), 
El-Afiindshi (p. 121 1, and Usitn (Onssime. Ausim), the imcient' LeiopnlU. — 
Beyond (741/2 M.) Embdheh we cross the Nile to (76 M.) Cairo (see p. 143). 

Light Railways run from Teh el-Barud to Damanhllr via Dclingat or 
Shuhrakhii (see above) and to Ka/r 'Awdiieh via /Shandid (sec above). 

From Khatdiheh (see above) a private railway of the Egyptian Salt & 
Soda Co. lead.i to (34 M. ; 3 hrs.) Jiir Hooker, on the E. edge of the Wadi 
Natrun ('Natron valley'). This valley (ca. 20 M. long) in the Libyan desert 
contains ten salt lakes, which are supposed to be connected with the Nile 
and which dry up almost entirely in summer. These lakes and the sur- 
rounding soil yield salt and soda (natron), which are used in Egypt for 
bleaching and in the manufacture of soap and glass. The Wadi Natrun 
is celebrated for its hermitages and convents, which were established here 
as early as the 4th cent, and had great influence in the development of 
Christianity. Only four of them are still inhabited, and these are most 
conveniently visited from Bir Hooker. Close to Bir Hooker are the Deir 
es-Surydn ('convent of the Syrians") and, 10 min. from it, the Ueir Abu Bshoi 
('convent of St. Pshoi') ; farther to the N. is the Deir Baramus., while the 
Deir Abti Makdr ('convent of St. Macarius') lies at the S. end of the valley. 
— From Bir Hooker to the City of St. Menas, see p. 29. 

The line skirts an irrigation-canal of considerable size, an 
offshoot of the Khatatbeh Canal (see above), from which numerous 
small branches radiate. The fellahin may be observed raising water 
from the canals by means of Archimedean screws or by large wheels 

to ( airo. 

TANTA. 3. lioule. 3o 

(sakiyeli) hung with buckets or scoops ((;onip. p. Ixxii)- The cul- 
tivated land becomes richer. Beyond Taupkiyeh(Taufiqia) the train 
crosses the Khatatbeh Canal and an iron bridge over the Rosetta arm 
of the Nile (fine view to the leftl, and reaches — 

641/2-^1- Kafr ez-ZaA^kt (Buffet), on the right bank of the Nile. 
The town (10,000 iuhab.) carries on a busy trade in grain, cotton, 
and other products of the Delta, and contains large cotton-ware- 
houses and mills for the separation of the cotton from the seeds. 

A Light Railway, to the N. of the maiu line, runs from Kafr ez-Zaiyat 
o Tanta via Bermd (9000 inhab. ; see below). 

We cross several canals, enlivened by numerous ships. 

76 -M. Ta,ntB.( Buffet). — Hotels. Huleldes Pyramides; UOt. Belle Gr'ece; 
Dot. Kill- lUvi'al; Xew Hotel. The hotels send dragomans to meet the trains. 

British ( 'ossular Agent, B. Ei ha. — Banks. Agencies of the Cridil Lyon- 
nais, Anylo-£'jyptian Bank., national Bank of Egypt, and Deutsche Orienlbank. 

Anglican Chikch SeevickS in winter. 

Tanta, on the Kased (Qised) Canal, the thriving capital of the 
province of Gharblyeh, which lies betw^een the Rosetta and Damietta 
arms of the Nile, has apopulation of 54,437 and possesseslarge public 
buildings, churches, bazaars, a large American mission hospital for 
women and children, an qxtensive palace of the Khedive, and a 
small museum of antiquitiefe. 

'J'he iMosque of the Seirid Ahmed el-Bedawi, the most popular 
saint in Egypt (p. scii), wno was born in the 12th cent, at Fez and 
settled at Tanta after a pijgrimage to iMecca, is a handsome domed 
building, erected by 'Abbjs 1. and Isma'il Pasha on the site of the 
original building, which (fated from 1276. The large forecourt con- 
tains the basin for ablutions. Europeans are often denied access to 
the interior. Tiie catafalque of the saint is covered with red velvet 
adorned with gold embroidery and is enclosed by a handsome bronze 
railing. Connected with the mosque are a college, the largest but 
one in Egypt (2026 students and 99 professors in 1911 ; comp. p. 55), 
and two small schools i^mt'dreseh). The sebil, or tank, with the 
small school above it, in the space adjoining the mosque, is older. 

From Tanta to MehaVe' Rdh. Matifava, and Damietta, see K. 10. 

From Tasta to Cairo. 66'/j M-, branch-railway in 3V2-3V4 hrs. — The 
line runs to the .•>. to (17V'.M-) SItibin el-Kvm, the capital of the province of 
MenHfiy^h, one of the moit fertile regions in the Delta. — 25V2 M. MenHf, a 
town with 22,316 inhab., if the central point of the province. — 38'/'^ M. 
AshmUn. — At (52 M.) Barra/e we join the route to Cairo mentioned on p. 121. 

Tanta is also tlie sta-ting-point of several Light Railways: 1. Via 
Bermd (see above) and Basydn Rigulateur to Shin (p. 32), and thence via 
Sakha (liranch to Kafr e.'-h-Sheikh, ji. 175, and Sidi Salem) to Mehalleh 
el-Kuhra (p. 174). |Froin Basvun Reyulateur a branch-line runs to BdivAn 
(9000 inhah.) and Sd drjagar (see below).] — 2. Via Kot6r (p. 32) to 
Mthalleh el-Kuhru (p. 174). — 3. To Kafr ez-Zaiydt, see above. 

About li2 31. to th< X. of .Sd el-Ilagar (see above; accommodation at 
the 'Onideh's, or chieftoiagislrates) lie the inconsiderable ruins of Sais, 
the resilience of PsamAetichos I. and the kings of the 26th Dynasty and 
one of the centres of lie cult of Neith. 

80 M. Defra (Dira). — The train crosses the Kased Canal and, 
beyond the station a Birkct es-Saba (Btit. Cons. Agent, A.W. Mur- 

34 Route 3. BENE A. 

docli; branch-line to Zifteli, see p. 174), (he Bahr Shibin (p. 175), 
tlie ancient Sebennytic arm of the Nile and now the main arm of 
the Damietta branch. A number of cotton-cleaning mills afford an 
indication of the wealth of the country. — 93 M. Kuesna (Quesna). 
Near Benha, on the Damietta arm of the Nile, is a large khedivial 
palace, where 'Abbas I. (p. cxxii) died in 1854 (probably by vio- 
lence). — The train crosses the Damietta branch of the Nile by a 
large iron bridge. 

lOO'/j M. Benha, with 20,000 inhab., is the capital of the pro- 
vince of Kalydbtyeli and the junction for the railway to Zakazik and 
the Suez Canal (p. 181). It is noted for its oranges, mandarins, aTid 
grapes. A considerable market is held here on Mondays. 

To the N.E. of Benha, not far from the town and to the left of tlie 
railway, are the insignificant ruins of tie ancient Alhribis, now uainod 
K6m el-Atrib. — A branch-line (five trains daily) leads to (8 M.) Mil Berah, 
on the left bank of the Damietta arm, ani light railways run to MumHra 
and the Barrage du Nil (see \>. ITiJ). 

Beyond Benha the train crosses the large Rayah et-Taufiki. Near 
( lOSl/o M.) Tukh or Tukh el-Mala^ (light railway to Beltan and 
Shibin el-Kanatir, see p. 171) the mountains enclosing the Nile 
valley become visible in the distance. — 113V2 M. Kaha (Qaha). 

120'/o M. Kalyub (Calioub, Qalitb), a district -capital with 
16,793 inhab., is the junction of branth-lines to Zakazik (p. 171) 
and to Tanta (see p. 33) via the Barrage du Nil (p. 122 1. The out- 
lines of the pyramids then begin to loom in the distance on the 
right. The track crosses the Sharkdw7ijehjSharqawla) Canal. 

The Libyan chain becomes more distinctly visible, and we 
observe also the Mokattam range with tlib citadel, and the mosque 
of Mohammed Ali with its slender minuets. Gardens and villas 
come in sight. To the left lie the site ♦f the ruins of Heliopolis 
(the obelisk of which is not seen from tlie Railway), Matariyeh with 
its sycamores, Kubbeh, the residence of thcJihedive, and the suburb 
of 'Abbasiyeb, while on the right we perc^ve the long Shari' esh- 
Shubra (p. 78). 

130 M. Cairo (central station), see p. 






^ 'Hospital^ '^ vj- 



^^^-^f e^Ewt^^^ji^ ^ 

i"ivpliou ; ^" Mills 


" Champ 

E :n - N i L 

S oulf imaiiBa si It 

1 --^Bc 


C-^cnncs do Mars \, T ' < 



^. i>£ 

\ lf;uni'< 


rKA S=^ . ^ B D - 

DOU^BA';|lA Ti'i^, 


4. Cairo. 

Plan ok Caiko. The cnmmoncst word for a street J9 fyhdri' (Freneli 
Chareh), meaning a main street, avenue, or boulevard; other words used 
a,ve Siklceh (street), Berh (touiI, also caravan-tvack), //<»•« (lane, also quarter 
of a town), and 'At/a (blind alley). Middn is a square. — Since the British 
occupation the names of the streets have been written up at the corners 
in Arabic, accompanied by Knglisb or French transliterations on a some- 
what inexact system (p. xxviii). Our plan follows this transliteration in 
general, correcting, however, the more obvious defects (e.g. the English 
'c«' is represented, as in the text, by '»'). Some of the old French names, 
eonsecrated by usage, have l)een retained. 

a. Railway Stations. Hotels and Pensions. Restaurants and Cafes. 

Railway Stations. 1. Centkal Station (Gare Oeutrale, PI. IJ,1; Bufl'et), 
on the N. side of the town, 12 miu. from the Ezbekiyeh Garden, for 
Alexandria^ Port Sa'id, Suez, the whole of the Delta, and Upper Egypt. — 
2. Pont I-imCn Station or Gakk dk Matauiteh, beside the last, for the 
line to Shibin el- Kaadlir (coinp. p. 120) via Dcmivddsh (for 'Abbdsiyeh), 
Kubbeh, ZciiOn, Mtiidrvjeh (Old Ueliopolis), El-Mwg, etc. — 3. Bab el-LOk 
Station lOare de Bab el-Loiik; PI. B, O), for Ileladn via El-Ma'ddi and for 
'Ain cs-Siru (p. 115). — The hotel-commissionuaircs, with their omnibuses, 
and representatives of the tourist-agents (p. 38) await the arrival of the fast 
trains. I.uiigage may lie entrusted also to the Arab porters with iiumbereil 
metal badges on tlieir arms (trunk 1 pias., several articles '/^ l''''S- "^'^cb), 
who will conduct the traveller to the holel-omiiibus or procure a cab for 
him (tarilT, sec p 39). Heavy luggage is sent on to the hotel in special 

Hotels (conip. p. ,\viii). The leading hotels at Cairo are e.Kcellent; at 
most of them evening dress is de rigueur at late dinner. Even the tecond- 
class hotels are well fitted up, nearly all having electric light, baths, etc. 
As all the hotels are freciuently full, especially in .Tan,, Feb., and March, 
it is a wise precauti(m to telegrajdi for rooms from Alexandria or Purl 
.Sa'id, if they have not been engaged even sooner. In summer many of 
the hotels are closed and the others lower their prices. Children and 
servants pay half-price. 

In Vie Int-rior of the 2'ow7t: '■'Sukpiieard's Hotel (PI. B, S; owned by 
the Kgyplian Hotels Co.), Shari' Kamel 8, E/.bekiyeh, with 400 rooms 
(180 with bathrooms), separate suites for families, a famous terrace (band 
on Sal.), };ardcn, restaurant, bar, post & telegraph oflice, etc., i)ens. 
from 80 pias, open all the year round; -Savot Hotel (1*1. B, 4; owned 
by the George Nungovich Co. Ltd.), Midan Suleiman Basha, a fashionable 
house, with 2oU rooms (many with balhrooins), central heating, private 
suites, and a high-class restaurant, frequented by British oflicers and ofli- 
cials, pens, from 90 pias.; "Hotel Semikamis (PI. A, .0; owned by the 
Egyptian Hotels i:o.), ed-Dubara, (m the Nile, a fashionable house, 
with 250 rooms (SO with bathrooms), central healing, bar, post- office, 
garden, terrace on the roof (Que view), etc., open Nov. 20th-April 20th. 
pens, from S'J pius. ; "Hotel Continental (Pl.B, C, 3; owned by the same 
company as the Savoy), Shari' Kamel 2, in the Place de rOpera, with 
300 rooms (60 with bathrooms), fainily-snites, terrace, grill-room (dcj. 20, 
D. 30 pias. ; band), pens, from TO, in April-Kov. from 6(3 pias., many English 
vi.sitors. — 'Hotel d'Angleteuue (PI. B, 3; same owners as the Savoy), 
Shari' el-Jlaghrabi, a quiet family hotel, with 100 rooms, separate suites, 
terrace, etc., pens, from GO pias.; "National Hotel (PI. B, 3), Shalri' Su- 

36 Houk 4. CAIRO. Practical 

leiman Basba 30, at the coiner of the Sbari' Oeir el-l'.euat, with 150 room.'', 
pens. 60-8U pias. — New Khedivial Hotel (PI. B, 2), Shari' Nubar Basba 2, 
with 80 rooms, pens. 50-70 pias., well spoken of; Eden Palace Hotel 
(PI. C, 3), Sbari' el-Genaineh, with 126 rooms, pens, from 46 pias., evening 
dress optional; *Villa Victokia Peivate Hotel (PI. B, 3), Shari' .Shawarbi 
Basba 8, a quiet house in a good situation, with 50 rooms, pens. 60-70, 
April-Nov. 50-60 pias. — Hotel Villa Nationale, Shari' Sbawarbi Basha 4 
(PI. B, 3, 4), with garden, pens. 45-.55 pias. ; Hotel Bristol et du Nil (PI. C, 
2, 3), Midan el-Khazindar, to the N.E. of the Ezbekiyeh, with 120 beds, pens, 
from 65 pias., evening dress optional — Hotel lifeTKOPOLE (PI. B, C, 3), 
Haret Zogheb, near tbe Sbari' el-JIanakb, with 80 rooms, pens. 52-60 pias. 
— Hotel des Votagedks (PI. B, 2), Sbari' Niibar Basha 10, with good 
cuisine, pens. 45-50 pias., Hotel de Pakis (PI. B, 2, 3), opposite Shepheard's 
Hotel, pens. 40-50 pias., both patronized by French travellers. 

On the Gezireh Island in the Nile (p. 79) : Ghezikeh Palace Hotel (same 
proprietors as Shepheard's), a family hotel of tbe first class, in a large 
;.;arden (band twice weekly), close to the Khedivial Sporting Club, pens, 
from 75 pias. ; restaurant at the Casino (see below). 

In the Oasis of HeliopoUs (p. 119): ''Heliopolis Palace Hotel, a first- 
class house with modern equipment, on the electric railway mentioned ou 
p. 39, with 400 ri'om'i (2(0 with bathrooms), garden, pavilion, etc., open 
Nov. -April, pens. 80-120pias. — Heliopolis House, a first-class family hotel, 
opposite the last, with 60 rooms, larae terrace (concerts), restaurant, bar, etc., 
pens. 40-.50 pias. — Pens. Belle-Vde, with 33 rooms, pens. 35-50 pias. 

Near the Pyramids of Gizeh (p. l'J3) : 'Mena House Hotel (same pro- 
prietors as tbe Savoy), at the terminus of the tramway to the Pyramids (p. 38, 
No. 14), with 15'J rooms, swimming and other baths, garden, grass golf- 
course, tennis courts, post and telegraph office, library, etc., open Oct. 15tb- 
Jlay 1.5tb ;ind recommended to invalids (p. xxii ; physician in residence); 
pens, from 66 pias. The restaurant (dej. at 1 p.m. 20 pias., D. at 7.30 p.m. 
30 pias.) and tbe swimming-bath are open to non-residents also ; regular 
motor-car services to and from the railway station (25 min.) and the 
town. Anglican Church service every Sunday. — Sphinx Hotel. 10 min. 
to the S.E. of the terminus of the tramway, near the village of Kafr el- 
Haram (p. 138), pens, from 50 pias. 

Pensions. Rossmore House (Misses Greenwell & Chicnll), Shari' el-Madfi- 
begh 15 (PI. B, 3, 4), pens. 40-50 pias.; Cecil Bouse, Shari' el-Bustan 8, 
beside the Mohammed Aly Club (PI. A, 4), pens. 35 5) pias.; Grosvenor 
Souse, Shari' Borsah el-Gedideh 1 and Shari' Kasr en-Nil, near the Savoy 
Hotel (PI. B. 4). pens. 40-60 pias.; Pens. Sim'a, Sbari' el-MaKhrabi 5 (PI. 
B, 3), pens. 40 pias.; Pens. Nationale, Shari' Kasr en-Nil 34 (PI. A, B, 4, 3), 
pens. 45-55 pias.; Villa Chatham, Shari' el-Bustan 32 (PI. A, B, 4), pens. 
40-50 pias. ; Pens. Morisson, Shari' Bfllak 9 (PI. A, B, .3), pens. 40-50 pias.; 
Pens. Tadey, same address, pens. 30-60 pias.; Pens. Ehrlich, Midan Suarez 
(Pi. B, 3), pens. 2o-35 pias. ; Pens. Konig, Shari' 'Imad ed-Din; Pens. Beige- 
Handcar, Shari' Suleiman Basha 15, 2nd floor (PI. A, B, 4, 3), pens. 28 pias. 
incl. wine. 

Private Apartments (mostly unfurnished) are seldom to be obtained 
for a shorter period than six months. Information as to rooms may be 
obtained at the chief shops or from agents whose addresses may be best 
learned at the consulates. A sunny aspect should be chosen in winter, 
and a detailed written contract invariably drawn up. A bargain as to 
food may be made with some neighbouring restaurant ; for only those 
conversant with the language should attempt to keep house for themselves 
with native servants. 

Restaurants. Besides the grill-rooms at the best hotels: ''St. Jatnes''s, 
Shari' Bdlak, opposite the Egyptian telegraph office (p. 37), dej. 15, D. 

(p. 79) formerly 

pavilion, sumptuously fitted up in the oriental style, with a French restaur- 
ant (orchestra 4-6 p.m.); balls and symphony concerts. 

NoUs. CAIRO. t. Route. 37 

Bars &, Cafes. iWw liar, Alahroussa />'«;•, ('ti/6 K/icUivial, all in the 
Place (le I'Opcra; Splendid Bar, Shari' Kaiiiel ; Restaitrant-Bar High Life, 
Shari' Wagh el-15irket 42; Brasserie Urquell, Parisiana, both in the Shari' 
Elfi Bey, near Sliepheard's Gai'den. — CafiJs in tlie Enr()i)ean style, at which 
beer and other lievorascs arc obtained, abound in and near the Ezbekiyeh ; 
none of them are suitalde for ladies. — CAFiis Conckkts (for gentlemen 
only): Sphinx Bar, Shari' Biilak, with grill-room; St. James'' s Restaurant 
(p. 36); Cafi Egypiien, opposite Shcpheard's Hotel, with female orchestra; 
Eldorado, in the E. part of the Shari'' Wagh el-Birket, under the colon- 
nades. — The multitudinous Arab Cai'i>s are small and dirty and hardly 
worth visiting. t'olTee in the Arabian stvle is easily obtained elsewhere. — 
Bodegas. In the U6tel Royal (PI. C,2), Shari' Wagh el-Birket; New Bodega, 
opposite Cook'.-i Agency (\>. .38), with t;ood cuisine; Cairo Bodega, Shari' Elfi 
Bey 7. — foNKECTiouicES. Sault, Shari' Biilak; Qroppi, Sliari' ol-Jlanakh; 
LeIirenhraiKs, Sh.Hri'' en-i<il 22, with garden; Maison Dor<'e, Shari' el- 
Manakh. — Bakers. Kiensle <t Simoi/ds, Shari' el-Maghrabi; Le/irenhravss, 
see above. 

Beer. Restaurant Bavaria (p. 36); Dippmann (p. 36); Flasch, lli'dan 
ITalim B;isha; Brasserie Pilsen, Shari' Elfi Bey: Bayrische Bierhalle, witli 
bar, Shari' Biil.-ll;. 

b. Consuls. Police. Banks. Post & Telegraph Offices. Tourist Ag-ents 
Steamboat Offices. 

Consulates icomp. p. x.\). BuiTisn Aoekct (PI. A, 5), Viscount Kitchener 
of Khartoum, diplomatic agent and consul-general, Shari' el- Walda 3, 
ed-Duliara ; A ]i. Alban, consul, Shari' Gami' esh-Sherkes (PI. B, 4), near llie 
Midan Suleiman Basha; G. G. Kno.v, vice-consul. — Vnited St.\tes Agency 
(PI. A, 5), 0. Arnold, diplomatic agent and consul-general, Shriri' Lazoghli, 
Kasr ed-Duliara; vice-consuls, P. Knabenshue and L. Belrose. There arc 
also Austrian, Belgian, Dutch, German, Krench, and other consular re- 

Sudan Agent. Major L. 0. F. Slack, &^Aa.n Agency (PI. A, B, 5). 

The Police iZabtiyeh, I'l. I), 4; p. 62). which is under a military or- 
ganization, con.-^ists of about S'X) officials, who arc very obliging to strangers. 
There are some European niorabers of the force, chiefly Italians. The town 
is divided into districts, each with a police station (Karakol). 

Bankers. B'lnque Impf.riale Ottomans (PI. B, 3), Shiiri' 'Jmad cd-Din 13; 
Anglo-Egyptian Bank (PI. C. 3). National Bank of Egypt (PI. B, 4), Shari' 
Kasr en-Nil ; Cridit Lyonnais (PI. 0, ill, Shari' el-Bosta (office-hours 9-12 &. 
3-5); Thos. Cook d- Son (p. 38) ; Deutsche Oriinlbank \P\. B. 3), Shari' el- 
Manakh 23; Banque dAthhies (PI. B, 4), Shari' Sheikh Abu'l Seba'a. — 
iMoNEr Changers (comp. p. xv). The neces.sary small change can always 
be obtained from the money-changers in the streets, from the hotel-portier, 
or in making purchases in the shops or at the post-office. The coins re- 
ceived should always be carefully scrutinized. 

Post Office fPl. C, 3; p. 51). at the corner of the Shari' Tahir and 
the Sbarl' ol-Baidak. The office on the street, open daily from' 7.30 a.m. 
to 9.30 p.m., sells postage -stamps only. The inner office is open from 
9 a.m. till 6.30 p.m. (with a short interruption about 12.30 p.m.) and from 
8.45 to 9.30 p.m. for the night express to Isma'illyeh. Lists of the mails 
by steamer to Europe, etc., are exhibited daily in the vestibule. The ar- 
rival of Registered Letters, etc., is intimated to the addressee by a notice, 
which must be produced, bearing the stamp of the hotel or the endorse- 
ment of a well-known resident, wlien the letters are applied for. There are 
several branch [>ost-officKS in the town ; also at some of the hotels. Letter- 
boxes at all the hotels. 

Telegraph Offices. Eastern Telegraph Co. (PI. B, 3; British), Shari' 
'Imad ed-Uin. — Egyptian Telegraph (PI. B, 3), Shari' Bulak, at the corner 
of tbe Shari' 'Imad ed-Din. — Branch-offices in the Muski. a Biilak, and 
in (lezireh. 

38 Routed. CAIRO. Practical 

Tourist Agents. Thus. Cook d- , Son (1*1. 1!, 2, 3j, SliiVii' Kaiuol G, besiJe 
Shepheard's Hotel; Hamburg - American Line., at tbe Hotel Continental; 
Frank C. Clark, near Shepheard's Hotel; Z>. E. Miiiiari (comp. p. 418), Shari' 
Kamel 5; Cox''s International Aijcncy.^ Shari' 'Imad ed-Din ; Cairo Express 
Agency., Shari' cl-31aglirabi. — Compagnie Internationale des ]V(igon-Lits, a 
the Central Slation. 

Steamboat Offices. Ilainhurrj it Anglo-American Nile Co.., at the Hotel 
Continental; Peninsnlar iV Oriental Co., White Star JAne, Union- Castle Line, 
at Cook^s (see above); North German Lloyd and Honmanian lioyal Mail 
Line, Tlace de TOpera 3 (Storzing); German East African Line. Shari' el- 
Bosla 3 (Fi.K & David); Austrian Lloyd, Shari' el-Maghrabi 7 (Heller) and 
at Munari\s (see above); KhudiHal Mail Steamship Co., at Munari's (see 
above); Russian Steamship Co.. Shari' en-Nil 40 (Alshov.^ky); Messa- 
geries Maritimes, Shari' el-Ma;jhrabi 12; Societa Maritlima Italiana, Shari' 
el-Maghrabi 39 (E. Figari); Societa Italiana di Servizi Marittimi, at Cooks 
(see above). — Information as to the departure of steamers in the notice- 
frames at Cook's office and in the hotels. — Lloyd's Agent, D. Rees, Shari' 
'Imad ed-Din. 

c. Tramways. Electric Railway. Steamers. Cabs. Donkeys. Dragomans. 

The Electric Tramways are numbered and have special compartments 
for women (fare, 1st class 10 mill., 2nd 5 mill., unless otherwise 
stated). The principal points of intersection are the Place El-' Ataba el-Khadra 
(PI. 0, 3), to the S.E. of tlie E/.bekiyeh, and the Central Railway Station 
(PI. B, 1; Place Ramsh). — 1 (white lamp). From the Mid/In el- Khdzinddr 
(PI. C, 3) via tbe 'Ataba el-Khadra (.'ee above), Shari' es-Saha (PI. C, B, 4), 
Midan Isma'iliyeh (PI. A, 4, H; Kasr en -Nil Bridge, Egyptian fliiiseum), 
Shari' Kasr el-'Aini, and Fumm el-Khalig (PI. A, 7) to did Cairo (p. 106); 
every G'/z miu., in 40 min. — 2 (yellow). From the Khr-divial Sporting Club 
at Gezireh (p. 79) via the Biilak Bridge, Shari' Abu'l 'Ela (PI. A, 3), Shari' 
Biilak, 'Ataba el-Khadra (see above), and Bab el-Khall< (PI. D, 4) to the 
Citadel (Place Saladin; PI. E, 6); every 12 min. — 3 (white). From the 
'Atdba el-Khadra (see above) via the (!entral Eail\v:iv Station (Place Ram- 
ses; PI. B, 1) and Midan ez-Zahir (PI. D, E, 1) to'Abbdsiyeh (comp. PI. 
K, F, 1); every 3 min. — 4 (red) From the Zabtlyeh (comp. PI. A, 1) via 
the Central Ptailwav Station (PI. B, 1), Shari' Clot Ei-y, 'Ataba el-Khadra, 
Midan Bab el-Luk (PI. B, 4), and Midan Nasriyeh (PI. B, C, 6) to the Seiyideh 
Zeinab (PI. C, 6, 7) ; everv 4 min. — 5 (red). From Ohamra (to the N. of 
PI. D, 1) via the Midan ez-Zfibir (PI. D, E, 1), Bab csh-Sha'riych (PI. D, 2), 
Muski, Bab el-Khalk (PI. D, 4; Arabian JMuseum), Shari' Kbalig el-Masri, 
and the Seiyideh Zeinab (PI. C, 6, 7) to the Abattoirs (beyon.l PI. B, C, 1); 
every 5 min. — 6 (yellow). From Embdbeh (p. 143) to Gezireh and across 
the Biilak Bridge, thence to the Citadel as in No. 2; every 12 min. (fares 
2 & 1 pias.}. — 7. From the Midan ez-Zdhir (PI. D, E, 1) as in No. 5 to 
the Seiyideh Zeinab (PI. C, 6, 7). — 8 (\vhite). From the 'Ataba el-Khadra 
via the Shari' Bulak (PI. B, A, 3), Shari' 'Abbas (PL A, B, 3, 2), and Central 
Railway Station to Shubra (comp. PI. B, 1 ; p. 78); every 6 min. — 9 (green). 
From the 'Ataba el-Khadra via the Shari' Clot Bey and the Central Railway 
Station to Edd el-Farag' (con\\}. PI. B, 1; p. 78); every 6 min. — 10 (red). 
From the 'Ataba el-Khadra as in No. S to the Central Railway Station (Place 
Ramses), then via the Shari' ez-Zahir to Sakakini (comp. PI. D, 1); every 
5 min. — 12 (violet; circular rovite). From the Central Bailwuy Station via 
the Shari' 'Abbas, Shari' Mariette Basha (PI. A, 4; Egyptian Museum), 
en-Nil, Midan el-Azhar (PI. E, 4; Bab el-Luk Station), and Midan Nasriyeh 
(PI. B, C, 6) to the Seiyideh Zeinab (PI. C, G, 7) and back by the Bab el- 
Khalk (PI. D, 4) and 'Atal>a el-Khadra to the Central Railway Station; every 
7 min. — 13 (green). From the Citadel as in No. 2 to the E. end of Biilak 
Bridge, then to (he N. to the Technical School at Biilak (p. 79); every 6 min". 
— 14 (red; Pyramid line). From the 'Ataba el-Khadra (PI. C, 3) via the 
Shari' BCilak (PI. B, A, 3), Biilak Bridge, Zoological Gardens, and Gizeh 
Village to the Pyramids (Mena House; p. 36); during the winter every 


CAIRO. d. Route.. 39 

20 inin. in tlie niMrning and every '/•• h'- •" "le alleriun n (during svunmer 
every hour and half-hour), in 1 hr. (lans l, 2 pias. ; last car leaving for 
Cairo at 11.10 pm.); when the I'.ulak Bridge is open (see p. 79), the cars 
run via the J.-sUind nf Jidda (\k 105). — 15 (vinlct). From Ihe 'Ataba el-Khadra 
(PI. C, 3) either as in Xd. 14 to the Zoological Garditns and to Oizeh Village., 
or as in No. 1 to the Fumm el-Khalig and via the Island of Ruda and 
'Abbas II. bridge tn GUeh Village; every 12 miii. (fares 2, 1 pias.). — 17 
(yellow). From tho Central Uailuiaii ,'<tatiuti as in No. 12 to the Jiasr en-Nil, 
then to GaiiiAmiz ; every 5 min. — From the 'Ataba el-Khadra to HeliopoHs 
Oasis (p. 119); every 10 or 13 niin. 

Electric Express Railway ('Mi'lropolitain' ; dark bruwn and white cars) 
from the ,Slidri' ' Jiuiid ^d-D^v (I'l. i!,3; besidf the K'^ypliun telegraph office) 
to Heliopiilif Oaiit (p. llil); every 6-20 min. from 6 3U a.m. until midnight, 
in 20 min. (fare. 2 nr 1 pias.). 

Steamboats of the Comjmgiiie dcs Baleau.v - Omnibtis du Canal Ismailia 
ply daily from HOd el-Farag (p. 78) to the Barrage (p. 122). Excursions 
are made al<o to the Barrag>: (p. J22) and SaUdva (p. 145). 

Nile steamers to Upper J'-gypt, see p. 201. 

Cabs (comp. p. xviii), generally good victorias with two horses, are 
always abundant in the European quarters and others frequented by 
strangers. Closed cabs (landaus I are usually to be obtained only on special 
order and at higher fares. If a cab is hired by time the cabman should 
be informed before starting. Fares shoiild never bo jiaid until the end 
of the drive, and the passengers should give no attention to the complaints 
of the cabman. IJakshisb is usually given only tor drives of some length. 
— Complaints, with the nnmlier of the cab and the time, should be lodged 
at the police-office (p. 37). During the season the demands of the cabmen 
are often exorbitant, but as a general rule the mere mention of the dreaded 
police ('Icaralior; p. 37) is sufficient to reduce the drivers to reason. 

Cab TAniKi-- for i-3 pers. (each pers. extra 2 pias. ; each piece of luggage 
beside the, driver 1 pias.; night and day rate the same): 

Ordinarv Cahs. 1. Per drive within a radius of 4 kilometres (2V2 M.) 
from the Place de FOpcra (PI. C, 3): 1 kil. 3 pias., each additional kil. 
2 pias. If the cab is dismissed beyond the radius 2 pias. more is charged 
for each kilometre. Wailing, 2 pias. per i/i It. — 2. By time (Arab. Bi.<- 
sd'a), within the town: up to 1 hr. 10 pias.; each additional 1/4 hr. 2 pias.; 
whole day (.*-8) 70 pias. — 3. Longer drives : Citadel 10, there and back (in- 
cluding halt of I hr.) 20 pias. ; Old Cairo 12*25 [lias. (including halt of 
1 hr.); Tcmbs of the Caliphs 15 & 30 pias. (including halt of 2hrs.); Oasis 
of ricliopolis 3U * 50 pias. (including halt of 2 hrs.); Pyramids of Gizeh 40 
it (10 pias. (including halt of 3 hrs.). Cabs. Fur the first kilometre 2 pias., each additiona 
()00 metres 1 pias.; waiting, 2 pias. per '/< lir. 

Taxisietek Motor Cabs (Taxi-Autos). For the first 1200 metres (3/4 M.) 
3'/2 pias.. each additi'uial 4()0 metres or 5 min. waiting 1 pias. On longer 
drives, when the cab is n^it wanted for the return, the cabman is entitled 
to 5 pias. from Gezireh, the t'itadel, or 'Abbasiyeh, 8 pias. from Ueliopolis, 
and 10 pias. from the Pyramids of Gizeh. 

Donkeys (comp. p. xviii), l)er short ride in the city 1-2, (icr hr. 4-5 pia^., 
hall'-a-day S-12, for a day's excursion 20-25 pias. They may be found at 
all the most fre<iuentcd points, but they are now seldom used by Europeans 
in the town. For visits to the Tombs of the Caliphs and the Mame- 
lukes, to the Mokaltam Hills, and similar excursions, donkeys offer this ad- 
vantage over cabs, that they can gi. everywhere, while the bridle-paths are 
much less dusty than the carriage-roads. The liaksbish should be propor- 
tionate to the quality of the donkey and the behaviour of the donkey-boy. 

Dragomans (comp. p. xxvl. Only hurried travellers require a cicerone. 
The best i5-Si. per day) are to be ha<l at C.iok s office (p. 38) or at the 
hotels, where also » list of the guides licensed by the police may be seen. 
Travellers are warned against the guides who offer to show them the life 
of Cairo at night. — Intercourse with the natives, comp. p. xxiv. 

40 Route 4. CAIRO. Practical 

d. Physicians. Chemists. Hospitals. Baths. Hairdressers. 

Physicians. English: J)r. Beddoe; Dr. Day; Dr. Garry; Dr. Keatinge 
fsee below); Dr. Madden; Dr. Milton; Dr. Murison (see below); Dr. Phillips; 
Mr. Richards; Dr. Tribe., anil others. German: Dr. von Backer -Bey; Prof. 
Engel-Bey ; Dr. Kautzky-liey ; Dr. Weriner. Dr. Brossard (see below ; French j ; 
Dr. Hegi (see below), Dr. Hess -Bey (both Swiss). — Oculists: Dr. Fischer 
(English); Dr. Meyerhof {German). — Aurists: Dr. Beddoe {Euf::,\is.h] ; Dr. von 
//«6(;reto?i2 (Hunyavian). — Skin Diseases: Dr. Scheubcr (Russian); Dr. Lotsy 
(Dutch). — Orthopedist: Dr. Conrath (see below; Austrian). — Diseases 
of Women: Dr. yjoft&w (English); Dr. Hildebrandt, Dr. Uetzlaff {Ge.Tmz,ns). — 
Dentists: Dr. Duprey, Dr. Hooper, Dr. Waller (Knglish): Dr. Arbeely, Dr. 
Preund, Dr. Henry, Dr. Steen (Amer.). Tlie addresses of the above may be 
obtained at the hotels, from the chemists, and at Diemer's (see below). 

Chemists. German tb English Dispensary, Shari' el-Bawaki; P/iarmacie 
Anglo- AtnMcaine, New English Dispensary, Stephenson <& Co., all three in 
the Place de rOpera; London Pharmacy, in the Ilalim Building, beside 
.Shepheard's Hotel; Savoy Pharmacy (Norton & Co.), Shari' Kasr en-Nil; 
Roberts, opposite the 8avny Hotel; Pharmacie Nardi, in the Muski. 

Hospitals. Victoria Hospital (PI. A, 3; Prot.), Shari' Deir el-Benat, man- 
aged by German Deaconesses, under the superintendence of Drs. Zeller. 
Murison, and Hegi. — French Hospital (physician. Dr. Brossard), at 'Ab- 
basiyeh (p. 78), served by Sisters of Charity. — Anstria- Hungarian Rudolf 
Hospital (physician, Dr. Conrath), at Shubra. — Anglo-American Hospital 
at Gezireli (p. 79). — Italian Hospital, at 'Abbasiyeh. — The A" el-'Aini 
(PI. A, 7; p. 53), a government hospital for native patients with a school 
of medicine, is under the superintendence of Dr. Keatinge. — Church Mis- 
sionary Society Hospital (physician. Dr. Lasbrey), in Old Cairo (p. 106), for 
native patients. — The Association Jnlernationale d'' Assistance Publique, Shari' 
Garni' esh-Sherkes 32 renders first-aid (gratuitous) to victims of accidents. 

Baths. European Baths at the hotels; Swimming Baths (in summer 
only) behind Shepheard's Hotel. — The Arab Baths are scarcely suitable 
lor Europeans (com)), p. xxvii). 

Hairdressers in the European style abound in the freqnented quarters 
of the town. We may mention K. Weinrich & Co., Shari' Kasr en->{il 44, 
H. Muhr, Shiiri' el-Mauakh 25, and those at the Savoy, Continental, f3emi- 
ramis, Ghezireh Palace and Shepheard's Hotels. — Arabian Barbers (not 
for Europeans), .see p. 48. 

e. Shops. 

Booksellers and Stationers. F. Diemer's Successors (Find: <t Baylaender), 
at Shepheard's Hotel (also photographs and newspapers; foreign literature; 
general information); B. Livadas d: Kutsikos ('The 'fourist'), Shari' Kamel, 
opposite Shepheard's Hotel; Savoy Booksellers (Michel), Shari' Kasr en-Nil, 
opposite the Savoy Hotel; Librairie Cenirale ( Delburgo), Shari' 'Imad ed-Din. 
— Stationery, visiting-cards, etc.: Boehme it Anderer, Shari' el-Waghrabi; 
Diemer (see above); Papeterie Suisse (Baader <& Gross), Shari' en-Nil. — 
English Nkwspai'ees : Egyptian Gazette, the leading English paper (1 pias.), 
Egyptian Morning News (72 pias.), Egyptian Daily Post ('/2 pias.), all three 
daily; Sphinx (weekly during the season only; 2 pias.). — Cikculating 
LiBRAEV, in All Saints' Garden, Shari' Bulak. 

Photographs. Lekegian, beside Shepheard's Hotel ; i)te»!er (see above) ; 
P. Dittrich (Heuman J: Co.), Shari' Elfi Bey 7 (negatives developed). — 
Photographic Materials. Egypt Kodak, Place de TOp^ra; Del Mar, Midan 
Suarez; Dittrich (see above). 

European Wares. Clothing, shoes, articles for travellers, for shoot- 
ing, etc.: Davies, Bryan, & Co., Shari' 'Imad ed-Din, corner of Shari' el- 
Manakh ; Roberts, Hughes, d; ('o., Mi'dan Suarez; Phillips <i' Co., Shari' Kasr 
en-Nil; Collacott, Shari' el-Maghrabi ; Mayer, Muski; S. Stein, Bachdrach 
d- Co., both in the 'Ataba el-Khadra; Karmann, in the Muski and the Halim 
Building, beside Shepheard's Hotel. Ladies' requirements : Au Printemps, 
Shari' en-NiI 23; Miles. V4cile. Shari' Shawarbi Basha 7; Franci's, Shari' 

Notes. CAIRO. 4. Route. 41 

'Imad ed-Din; Cicurel^ Chemla Frires, Sliari' Bfllak 11 and 19; B. Patc?ial, 
Shari' el-Bawaki. — Household requirements : J. d H. Fleurent, Shari' Elfl 
Bey, behind Shepheard's Hotel; Walker <t Meimaraclii, Shari' Kasr en-Nil. — 
Watchmakers and goldsmiths: Pavid , beaide Shepheard's' Hotel; Suys- 
Badollet, opposite Shepheard's; Lattet, Shari' el-Manakh 30; Kramer, Siiss- 
mann, both in the Muski; Alerakis, Zivy, both in the Halim Building, beside 
Sliepheard's Hotel; Rud. Stobhe, Shari' el-Manakh 1^8. — Sporting Goods: 
Bajocchi, in the Ezbekiyeh, near the Bristol Hotel. — Opticians: Davidson tb 
Jieffenstreif, in the Hotel Continental; Lawrence d- Mayo, in Shepheard's Hotel 
Buildings ; lieinisch, Muski ; Siissmann, Kramer, see above. — Flowers : Stamm, 
Shari' el-Mandkh 23; Eggert, in Shepheard's Hotel; Khoulousiy Bey, Shari' 
Kasr en-Nil. 

Tobacco (comp. p. xvii). Turkish tobacco (Stambuli) and cigarettes are 
sold hy Ntitor GianacUs, Halim Building, beside Shepheard's Hotel; Dimi- 
trino i Co., Shari' Kaniel'; Salonica, Place de I'Op^ra; ilelachrino, Halim 
Building; Maiossian, Shari' el-Ezbek; Laurens, opposite the Savoy Hotel; 
etc. — CiGAKs: Engelhardt, Place de TOpera; S. <t C. Flick, Van Vlooten, 
both in the Hotel Continental, and opposite Shepheard's. 

Arabian Bazaars, see p. 50 & pp. 53 et seq. The most important for 
purchases is the Kl>dn el-Khalili (p. 54j. Many so-called oriental articles are, 
however, manufactured in Europe and are to be obtained at home equally 
srenuine and much cheaper. — The prices demanded by the dealers for 
■antiques' are absurd, though unfortunately many travellers are foolish 
enough to pay them, in spite of the notorious fact that most of the articles are 
forgeries (p. 252). Genuine articles may be obtained from. if. Nahman, Shari' 
Sheikh Abu'l Seba'a 20, and from Kytikas, N. Tano, and R. E. Blanchard, 
all three in the Shari' Eamel. Those sold at the Museum are cheaper 
(p. 81). A special permit from the Museum authorities is required by 
law for the export of large specimens. 

Arabian Woodwork, Inlaid Work, and Ivory Carvings are sold hy Parvis, 
an Italian, on the left side of a court near the entrance to the Muski (p. 53), 
and by E. Hutoun, also in the Muski ; strangers should not fail to visit the 
interesting workshops, which they may do without making any purchase. 
Also, Furino, Sliari' Suleiman Basha, behind the Savoy Hotel. 

Oriental Embroidery, Carpets, and other Articles. Vilali Madjar, in 
Shepheard's Hotel; Chellaram, in the Hotel Continental; The Oriental Carpets 
Manvfaciurers, opposite the Savoy Hotel; Joseph Cohen, Khan el-Khalili; 
Jspenian, Shari' Kasr en -Nil; Pohoomull Brothers, opposite Shepheard's; 
Kytikas (see above); Philip; Hatoun (see above); The Oriental Galleries, 
Shari' el-Manakh 13; in the Oriental Museum (Gabriel Antoine); also at 
various dealers in the Khan el-Khalili (p. 54). 

Goods Agents. F. Bancel <t Co., Shari' el-Maghrabi and opposite 
Shepheard's; JohnB. Caffari, Shari' el-Manakh; Congdon <b Co., Blattner & 
Co., both in the Shari' Kasr en-Nil; John Ross & Co., Shari' el-Maghrabi 31 ; 
Cook & Son (p. 38) ; Egyptian Bonded Warehouse Co., Shari' Zabtiyeh, near the 
station. Those who make purchases in Egypt to any considerable extent are 
recommended to send them home through the medium of a goods -agent. 
In order to avoid custom-house examinations, porterage, and various other 
items of expense and annoyance. The consigner should satisfy himself 
that the packing is properly done, as subsequent complaints are generally 
futile. — Parcel Post, see p. xix. 

f. Theatres. Clubs. Churches. Schools. 

Theatres. At the Khedivial Opera House (PI. C, 3 ; p. 51) a French or 
Italian opera company performs in the winter season (chiefly grand opera). 
Box office open 9-12 and 2-5; boxes dear (evening-dress compulsory; closed 
boxes for Moslem ladies). — Thi&tre Printania (PI. B, 3), Shari' Elfi Bey 
(French touring companies; comedies and operettas). — Thidtre Abbas (f\. 
B, 2), Shari' Kantaret ed-Dikkeh (cinematograph performances). — Kursaal, 
Casino de Paris, two variety theatres in the Shari"lmad ed-Din. — Summer 
Thkatee, adjoining the Kasr en-Nil Terrace at the Ka.«r en-Nil Bridge. — 

Baedekke's Egypt. 7th Edit. 3 

42 Route 4. CAIRO. Practical 

English Military Band on Tues. &. Frid. evenings during the summer in 
the Ezbekiyeh Garden. — Shadow Plats (Khaiydl ed-lHll; comp. p. xxvii) 
may be seen in the disreputable quarter of the Fish Market (El-Was'a ; p. 52), 
in a small cafe belonging to a certain Shehata Hamam (Sbari- Bir Hommos). 
As the performances, which begin at about 9 o'clock in the evening and 
last for several hours, take place only two or three times a week, trav- 
ellers should ascertain the programme beforehand. 

Scientific Societies. The Khedivial Oeographical Society (PI. A, 5; Shari' 
Sheikh Yusiif ; p. 53), founded on the instigation of Prof. G. Schweinfurth, 
the celebrated African traveller, possesses a library, a reading-room, and 
a small ethnographical and geographical museum (open daily except Sun. & 
Frid., 8-2; two rooms, in the second a collection of maps-, secretary, Gail- 
lardot-Bey); president, Dr. Abbate - Pasha. — Inslitut Egyptien (PI. A, 5; 
p. 53), with a library; president, Yacoub Artin-Pasha. — Inslitut Frangais 
d'' Archiologie Orieutale (p. 53), with an oriental library and a printing-press. 
— German Imperial Institute for the Sludy of Egyptology (at Gezireh, p. 79), 
with an Egyptological library; director, Prof. Ludwig Borchardt. — SociiU 
Internationale de Midecine ; president. Dr. Comanos-Pasha. — SociM Khidiviale 
de Midecine; president, Dr. Abbas-Bey Hilmi. — Colleges. Azftar University 
(p. 55); Universiti Egyptienne (p. 52); School of Law (PI. C, 4; English and 
French sections); School of Medicine (p. 40); Polytechnic School (p. 80); several 
Training Colleges (comp. p. 53). 

Cluhs. The Club Mohammed Aly (PI. A, 4), Shari^ Suleiman Basha, is 
fitted up in the English style (introduction necessary). — Turf Club (PI. 
B, 3), Shari' el-Maghrahi 12. — Automobile Club, Shari' el-Madabegh 25. — 
Khedivial Sporting Club, at Gezireh (p. 79), Ileliopolis Sporting Club, at Helio- 
polis Oasis (p. 119), botli with golf-links (18 holes) and cricket, tennis, and 
polo grounds. — Ileliopolis Racing >'lub . at Heliopolis Oasis (p. 119). — 
British Recreation Club (PI. A, 3), Shari"^ 'Abbas. 

Churches. Anglican: All Saints'' (PI. B, 3), Shari' Bulak (chief services 
at 11 a.m. and 6 p.m.); St. Mary''s (PI. A, 5), Kasr ed-Dubara. — Presby- 
terian: St. Andrew's (PI. A, 3), at the so-called' Abu'l 'Ela Level Crossing 
(services at 10.3 ) a.m. and 6.15 p.m.). — American Service in the American 
Mission (PI. B, C, 3; at 6 p.m.). — French Protestant Church (PI. A, 3). — 
(ierman Protestant Church (PI. A, 3). — Roman Catholic. Eglise de VAssomp- 
tion (PI. D, 3), Shari' el-Banadkia 2, in the Muski, with branch-churches 
in the Shari' 'Imad ed-Din (St. Joseph's; PJ. B, 4) and at Bulak (La Vierge 
du Carmel); Jesuit Church, Shari' 'Abbas, in the College de Faggala; Church 
of the Mission of Central Africa (Eglise du Sacri-Coeur), Shari' Deir el-Benat 
(PI. A, B, 3). — Orthodox Greek Church of St. Nicholas (PI. D, E, 3, 4), in 
the Hamzawi (p. 58). — Coptic Catholic Church (PI. D, 3) and Coptic Orthodox 
Church (PI. C, 2); service on Sun. at 10 a.m., on Christmas Day and the 
Sat. of Holy Week at 10 p.m. — New Synagogue (PI. B, 3), Shari' el-Maghrabi. 
The Jews here are of two sects, the Talmudists and the Karaites, the 
former being by far the more numerous. Most of the synagogues are in 
the Jewish quarter (Derb el-Yehiid ; PI. D, 3). 

Schools. St. Mary''s English School (comp. PI. A, 5), in the ed-Du- 
bara, Shari' el-'Aini, and the Church Missionary Society School^ at 'Ab- 
basiyeh (p. 78), both for natives. English School for British boys and girls 
in Dean's Buildings, Shari' Geziret Bedran (PI. A, B, 1). — The six Schools 
of the American Mission (PI. B, C, 3) have their sphere of operations among 
all classes and creeds. The American Mission College for Girls, Shari' 'Ab- 
bas 4, is attended chiefly by Copts. — The German School (next the Prot. 
church, PL A, 3) is patronized by all nationalities and sects. There is 
another German school, adjoining the Bab el-Liik Station, kept by the 
Sisters of San Carlo Borromeo. — Besides these there are a Lycie Frangais 
(PI. B, 4), several ColUges des Frires (Rom. Cath.), an Ecole des Soeurs du 
Sacri-Coeur (school for girls), an Institution des Dames du Bon-Pasteur (p. 78), 
a College de la Ste. Famille (school of the Jesuits), and a School for the Blind 
at 'Ezbet ez-Zeitun (p. 120; adm. on Thurs., 2-4). — The Ministry of Edu- 
cation maintains at Cairo 13 Primary Schools (11 for boys and 2 for girls) 
and 3 Secondary Schools for boys. For the elementary schools, see p. 49 


CAIRO. 4. Route. 43 

g. Sights and Disposition of Time. 

Unbelii'vers are admitted by ticket (2 pias.) to most of the Mosqiiei. 
the restoration of which has Id'en taken in hand hy a Comiti de Conser- 
vation des Monuments de I'Art Arabe (in the Arabian Museum, p. 62), and 
to the Tombs of the Mamelukes, except on Frid. and at the time of the 
midday prayer (about u.ion) and on festivals. On leaving the mosques 
•/o pias. bakshish should be given for the use of the slippers. 

1st Day. Forenoon Tour of inspection in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the Ezbtkiyeh (p. 51); then walk or drive through the Muski and 
to the Bazaars (most animated on Mon. & Thurs. ; pp. 53-G2). — After- 
niion (by cab); to the 'Tombs of the Calip/is (p. Ill) and the 'Citadel, with 
the mos(iue of Mohammed AH ('View of Cairo; pp. 68, 69), returning (by 
tramway if preferred) via the Shari' Mohammed 'Ali (p. 62). 

2nd Day. Forenoon: 'Egyptian Museum (p. 80). — Afternoon: Mosques 
of "Sultan Hasan (p. 66), '/to Tuliln (view; p. 71), and "Kdlt Bey (p. 73). 

3kd Dat. -Pyramids of Gi~eh (p. 123), which may be seen in the course 
of a forenoon if necessary. 

4tu Dat. Forenoon : ■'El-Azhar Mosqne (p. 55), Mosques of Ghiiri (p. 59) 
and 'Muaiyad (p. 59), the Bab Ztiueileh (p. 60), and the 'Bookbinders'" House 
(p. 59) ; spare time may be spent in the Kazaars (pp. 53-62). — Afternoon : 
by railway, or by carriage along the 'Abbasiyeh road via Kubbeh, to Matd- 
riyeh (Old ileliopolis, p. 120); or by the electric express line to Heliopolis 
Oasis (p. 119). 

5th Day. Forenoon : Second visit to the 'Egyptian Museum or the Ba- 
zaars. — Afternoon: Ascent of the •Molcaltam (p. 116; view at sunset) and 
visit to the monastery of the Bektashi Uervishes (p. 70). Those who take 
the less common excursion to the Spring of Moses and the Smaller Petrified 
Forest (p. 117), returning by the Mokattam, must start early. 

6th Dat. Forenoon: 'Arabian Museu/it (p. (}2 ; closed on Frid.) and A'Aedma? 
Library (\^. 64). — Afternoon : Across the Kusr en-NU Bridge (closed to traffic at 
certain hours, see p. 79) to Gezireh (p. 79) and the Zoological Gardens (p. 80). 

7th Day. I)y railway (luncheon should be brought) to Bedrashein 
and thence on donkey-back to Memphis and 'Sakkdra (pp. 142 et seq.). It 
is well worth while to ride via Abusir (p. 141) to the Mena House Hotel 
and return thence to the town by tramway (comp. p. 142). 

8th Day. Forenoon: 'Muristdn KalAun(\>.lb), mosques of *Jfo^<ammed 
en-NAsir (p. 76) and Hakim (p. 77),' 'Bab en- Nasr (p. 77). — Afternoon 
(cab, tramway, or railway) : ROda (p. 105) and "O/d Cairo (p. 106), with the 
Coptic churches and the mosque of Amr (p. 109); also, if time permit, the 
H6sh el-Bdsha and the Tombs of the Mamelukes (p. 115), after which we re- 
turn by the Place Saladin (p. '68). 

9tu Day. Barrage du Nil (p. 122), either by railway (from the Cen- 
tral Station; luncheon should be taken) or (preferable) by steamer. 

10th Day. To AbuBodsh (p. 139) or to Abnsir (p. 141), if the latter has not 
already been visited on the way back from"Sakkara (see above, Day 7). 

The Egyptian Museum (p. 80), the Arabian Museum (p. 62), the El-Azhar 
Mosque (p. 55), and the Bazaars deserve repeated visits. 

For the Mohammedan Festivals, see p. xcv. On account of the crowd 
ladies should not attend these except in a carriage. During the festivals 
unbelievers are not admitted to the mosques. 

Cairo, El-Kdhira, or Ma-ir (Misr) el-Kdhira, or simply Masr, is 
situated in 30° 4' N. latitude and 31°'l7' E. longitude, on the 
right bank of the Nile, about 12 M. to the S. of the so-called 'cow's 
belly', tl)e point where the stream divides into the Kosetta and Da- 
mietta arms. It has not inaptly been styled 'the diamond stud oti 
the handle of the fan of the Delta'. On the E. side of the city, which 
covers an area of 11 sq. M., rise the barren, reddish Mokattam Hills 
(p. 116), which form the commencement of the eastern desert. On 


44 Eoute 4. CAIRO. History. 

the W. the city reaches the bank of the river and the island of 
Gezireh and has entirely ahsorbed the suburl) of Btilak (p. 78). 

Cairo is by far the largest city in Africa, as well as in the 
Arabian regions. It is the residence of the Khedive and of the 
principal authorities and has a governor of its own. In 1907 the 
population was returned as 654,476, including the suburb of Hel- 
wan. This was inclusive of about 53,000 Europeans, most of whom 
were Greeks (19,419) and Italians (13,296). The native Egyptian 
population consists of 546,328 townspeople and 4548 Beduins. The 
otlier Ottoman subjects include 10,546 Turks, 14,539 Syrians, 226 
Arabs, and 4205 Armenians, besides whom there are 18, 097 Sudanese 
negroes of various tribes, Persians, Hindoos, etc. The great major- 
ity of the inhabitants are Mohammedans (529,877), while there are 
36,605 orthodox and 3026 Catholic Copts, 22,599 adherents of the 
Greek Church, 20,545 Roman Catholics, 20,281 Jews, 13.720 oriental 
Christians of various sects, and 6867 Protestants. 

History of Cairo. At a very remote period a city lay on the 
E. bank of the Nile, opposite the great pyramids, and was called by 
the Egyptians Khere-ohe., or 'place of combat', because Horus and Seth 
were said to have contended here (p. cxliv). This formed a kind of 
suburb of Heliopolis. The Greeks named it Babylon, probably in 
Imitation of the Egyptian name of the island of Roda, viz. Per-hapi-n- 
On or the 'Nile City of On' (Heliopolis). The citadel of this town 
(p. 100) was fortified by the Romans and under Augustus became tlie 
headquarters of one of the three legions stationed in Egypt. In 641 
A.D. Babylon was captured by 'Amr ibn el- As, the general of Caliph 
Omar, who established a new capital of the country to the N. of the 
fortress, extending as far as the Gebel Yeshkur (p. 71). This, named 
Fustdt (Lat. fossatum = surrounded by trenches), was, like Egypt 
itself, also called Misr or Masr el-Fustdt by the Arabs; its present 
name of Old Cairo (Masr el-'Attka or Masr el-Kadlmeh) was of later 
introduction. A mosque was built on the site of the conqueror's 
tent. When, after the fall of the Omaiyades in 750 A.D. , Fustat, 
with the exception of the great mosque, was burned to the ground 
a new residence was built still farther to the N. by the Abbaside 
governors, and around this sprang up the new quarter of El-' Askar. 
The town was extended to the N.E. as far as the base of the citadel 
by Ahmed ibn Tultin, who erected the quarter of El-Katd'i' (Katd'- 
fyeh). Ahmed's splendour -loving son Khumdraweih embellished 
the town with lavish magnificence. The modern city of Cairo was 
founded by Gohar, the general of the Fatimite Caliph Mu'izz, after 
the conquest of Egypt in 969 A.D. He erected a residence for the 
Caliph and barracks for the soldiers commanded by him to the N. 
of El-Kata'i'. At the hour when the foundation of the walls was 
laid the planet Mars, which the Arabs call Kahir, or 'the victorious', 
crossed the meridian of the new city, and Mu'izz accordingly named 


CAIKO. 4. Route. 45 

the place El-Kdhira. Its N. and its S. limits are to-day marked by 
the Bab el-Futuh (p. 77) and the Bab Zuweileh (p. 60) respectively. 
In 973 Mu'izz took up his permanent residence in the new city of 
Cairo. A new period of prosperity began nnder the Aiynbides. 
Saladin endeavoured to unite the still separated cities of Cairo and 
Fustllt by means of a common wall, which, however, was never 
finished, and in 1179 he founded the citadel. Under his luxurious 
and extravagant successors Cairo was greatly extended and mag- 
nificently embellished, and in the 14th cent, it reached its zenith. 
At that period, however, it was fearfully devastated by the plague, 
as it had been on former occasions (^e.g. in 1065 and in 1295) and 
was also several times subsequently (especially in 1492, when 
about 12,000 people are said to have been carried off by it in one 
day). The town suffered severely in other ways also, and indeed its 
whole history, so far as recorded, like that of the sultans and the 
Mamelukes themselves, seems to have presented an almost con- 
tinuous succession of revolutions, rapine, and bloodshed. As most 
of the Mameluke sultans who resided in the citadel died a violent 
death, so the reign of almost every new potentate began with bitter 
and sanguinary contests among the emirs for the office of vizier, 
while but few reigns were undisturbed by insurrections in the 
capital. During the third re'gime of En-Ndsir (1293-1340), who had 
been twice deposed and as often recovered his throne, a persecution 
of the Christians took place at Cairo. The churches which had been 
built in the capital and elsewhere were closed or demolished, 
while the Christians themselves were so ill-treated and oppressed, 
especially in the reign of Sultan Sdlih (1351-54), that many of them 
are said to have embraced Islamism. In 1366 and 1367, in the reign 
of Sultan Sha'bdn, sanguinary conflicts took place in the streets of 
Cairo between hostile parties of Mamelukes, and in 1377 Sha'ban 
himself was tortured and strangled in the citadel. Even greater 
disorders attended the dethronement of Sultan Barkulc (1389), when 
the wildest anarchy prevailed at Cairo, the convicts escaped from 
their prisons, and in concert with the populace plundered the houses 
of the emtrs and the public magazines. The following year another 
rebellion among the Mamelukes restored Barkiik to the throne. 
Scarcely, however, had he closed his eyes and been succeeded by 
Farag (1399), when the Mamelukes again revolted and renewed con- 
flicts took place for possession of the citadel, during which the city 
was partly plundered. Similar scenes were repeated on almost every 
••liange of government. The turbulence of the Mamelukes, who 
were always treated with too much consideration by the sultans, 
became more and more unbearable; they robbed the people in the 
markets and assaulted citizens in the pjiblic streets. 

On Jan. 26th, 1517, the Osman sultan <Seitm /. , after having 
gained a victory in the neighbourhood of Heliopolis (p. 120), en- 
tered the city. Tumdn Bey, the last Mameluke sultan, was taken 

46 Route 4. CAIRO. Street Scenet. 

prisoner and executed (p. 61). Selira caused tlie finest marble 
columns which adorned the palace in the citadel to be removed to 
Constantinople. Under the Turks few new buildings were erected 
in Cairo and the city was freely exposed to the exactions of the 
soldiery, but it still remained a busy and brilliant provincial capital. 
— After the Battle of the Pyramids (p. 79) in 1798 Cairo was oc- 
cupied by Bonaparte, who established his headquarters here for 
several months. On his return to France Kl^er was left as com- 
mander-in-chief of the French troops at Cairo, where he was assass- 
inated on June 14th, 1800. In 1801 the French garrison under 
Eelliard, being hard pressed by the grand-vizier, was compelled to 
capitulate. On August 3rd, 1805, Mohammed All, as the recognized 
pasha of Egypt, took possession of the citadel, which for the last 
time witnessed a bloody scene on March 1st, 1811 (comp. p. 68). 
Under Ismd'U the neighbourhood of the EzbeMyeh (p. 51) was re- 
modelled, the great thoroughfare known as the Shari' Clot Bey and 
Shari' Mohammed 'Ali was formed, and the new suburb of Isma'Utyeh 
was begun to the S.W. of the Ezbekiyeh. To the N. of the last the 
Tauffktyeh was added under Tauftk. The insurrection of Arabi in 
1882 (p. cxxiii) scarcely affected Cairo. 

Comp. 'The Story of Cairo', by Stanley Lane-Poole, iu the 'MediffiViU 
Town Series' (2nd edit. ; London, 1906) ; 'Oriental Cairo , by Douglas Sladen 
(illus. ; 2nd edit., London, 1913; 7s. Qd.); 'Cairo and its Environs", bv 
A. 0. Lamplotigh and R. Francis (illus. ; London, 1909; 20.S.) ; 'The City ot 
the Caliphs', by E. A. Reynolds-Bnll (lioston, 1897; 12«. 6rf.); TyndaWs book 
mentioned on p. olxxxix ; and 'Cairo, Jeni.salem, and Damascus'', bv D. S. 
Margoliouth (illus.; London, 1907; 20s.). 

The **Street Scenes presented by the city of the Caliphs admir- 
ably illustrate the whole world of oriental fiction and produce an 
indelible impression on the uninitiated denizen of the West. This 
oriental life seems to feel the atmosphere of the newer quarters 
uncongenial, and it must therefore be sought for in the old Arabian 
quarters, where the streets are so narrow that there is hardly room 
for two riders to pass and the projecting balconies of the harems 
with their gratings often nearly meet. The busy traffic in the prin- 
cipal streets presents an 'interminable, ravelled, and twisted string 
of men, women, and animals, of walkers, riders, and carts of every 
description. Add to this the cracking of the drivers' whips, the 
jingling of money at the table of the changers established at every 
corner of the street, the rattling of the brazen vessels of the water- 
carriers, the moaning of the camels, braying of donkeys, and bark- 
ing of dogs, and you have a perfect pandemonium'. It is not, how- 
ever, until the traveller has learned to distinguish the various indi- 
viduals who throng the streets, and knows their different pursuits, 
that he can thoroughly appreciate his walks or rides. 

From a very early period it has been customary for the Arabs to 
distins:uish their different sects, families, and dynasties by the 
colour of their Turbans. And the custom still prevails to a certain 

street Scenes. CAIRO. 4. Route. 47 

extent. The 'Sherifs', or descendants oftlie prophet, now frequently 
wear white turbans, though originally they wore green, the colour 
of the prophet. Green turbans are now worn by the Mecca pilgrims 
of a year's standing. The various orders of dervishes are similarly 
distinguished; the Rifa'iyeh wear black, dark-blue, or bluish-green 
turbans, the Ahmediyeh red, the Kadiriyeh white. The 'Ulama, or 
clergy and scholars, usually wear a very wide, evenly folded turbaii 
of light colour. The orthodox length of a believer's turban is seven 
times that of his head, being equivalent to the whole length of his 
body, in order that the turban may afterwards be used as the wearer's 
winding-sheet, and that this circumstance may familiarize him with 
the thought of death. Many Mohammedans now, however, wear 
European dress or adopt a semi-European, semi-oriental costume; 
a common head-gear is the red tarhiLsh (erroneously known as a fez 
by most Europeans). Little difference is now observable between 
the costume of the Copts, Jews, and other oriental 'unbelievers' and 
that of the Moslem Egyptians, except that the Coptic priests usually 
wear a black turban. 

The Women of the poorer and rustic classes wear nothing but a 
black gown and a veil. Their ornaments consist of silver, copper, 
glass, or bead bracelets, earrings, and anklets, while their chins, 
arms, and chests are often tatooed with blue marks. Similar tatooing 
is common also among the men. In Upper Egypt nose-rings also 
are frequently seen. The women of the upper classes are never so 
handsomely dressed in the streets as at home. When equipped for 
riding or walking they wear a silk cloak, with very wide sleeves 
(toh or sableh), over their home attire. They don also the barkxi\ or 
veil, which consists of a long strip of muslin, covering the whole 
of the face except the eyes and reaching nearly to the feet. Lastly 
they put on the habara, a kind of mantle, which in the case of 
married women consists of two breadths of glossy black silk. The 
Coptic, Jewish, and Syrian women wear the same costume, but are 
generally unveiled. The wealthier ladies, who drive in their car- 
riages attended by eunuchs, usually veil their faces up to their eyes 
with thin white gauze after the fashion of Constantinople. Egyp- 
tian women colour their eyelashes and eyelids dark, and their finger 
and toe nails with henna , which gives them a brownish-yellow 
tint. (Circumcision, weddings, and funerals, see pp. xciii et seq.) 

Amid this busy throng of men and animals resound the warn- 
ing shouts of coachmen, donkey -attendants, and camel -drivers. 
The words most commonly heard are — ^Tiglak, riglak\ ^shimdlak\ 
'yenunak', 'u'u, u'a. As a rule, these warnings are accompanied 
by some particularizing title. Thus, '^riglak yii musyii'' (monsieur), 
or Wiglak yd khawaga' ('thy foot, sir', i.e. 'take care of your foot' ; 
khawaga is the usual title given to Europeans by the Arabs and is 
said to have originally meant 'merchant' only); Hvishshak yd gada'' 
('thy face, young man'); 'shimdlak yd sheikh^ ('to thy left, 

48 Route 4. 


Street Semes. 

chief'}; '■yeminik yd pinf ('to thy right, girl'); 'dahrik yd sitC 
('thy back, lady'); 'j/<2 'arUsa' (bride); 'j/a shertf (descendant 
of the prophet) ; 'j/a efendi" (the title for a native gentleman). — 
Beggabs are very numerous at Cairo, most of them being blind. 
They endeavour to excite compassion by invoking the aid of Allah : 
'yd Mohannin yd RabV ('0 awakener of pity, Master'); 'tdlib 
min Alldh hakk lukmet 'eish' ('I seek from my Lord the price of a 
morsel of bread'); ^ana deif Alldh wa'n-nehi ('I am the guest of 
God and of the Prophet'). The usual answer of the passer-by is 
"al AUdh\ or '■Alldh yehannin 'aleik' ('God will have mercy on thee'), 
or '■Alldh ya'tik' ('God give thee'; comp. p. xxiv). 

The Sakka, or water-carrier, with his goatskin of water, carried 
either by himself or by a donkey, still plies his trade in Cairo 

although the water- works supply every house in the city, as 
well as the public sebils (p. clxxxii), with water, and though on 
many of the houses there are brass tubes through which passers-by 
may take a draught from the main pipes. The Hemali also, wlio 
belong to one of the orders of dervishes (p. xci), are engaged in 
selling water, which they flavour with orange-blossom {zahrj, while 
others use liquorice ('erksus) or raisins (zehih). There are also 
numerous itinerant vendor.? of fruit, vegetables, and sweetmeats, 
which to Europeans usually look very uninviting. The Rammdl or 
soothsayer, squatting by the side of the road, offers to tell the fortune 
of the passer-by by consulting the sand. Lastly, there are itinerant 
Cooks (tabbakMn, sing, tabbdkh). with portable kitchens, who sell 
small meat puddings, fish, and other comestibles. 

Most of the Arabian Barbers have their shops open to the street. 
Besides cutting the hair of their customers thoy may be seen shav- 
ing their heads, an art in which they are very expert. 

Street Scenes. 


4. Route. 49 

Several times during the day and also at night the solemn and 

sonorous cry of the muezzin, summoning the faithful to prayer (see 

p. Ixxxvii) , reverberates 

from the tops of the minarets 

(mctdna). When the shops 

are shut the watchmen 

(bauwdb) place their heds 

(serir) of palm-twigs in the 

streets outside the entrances 

and prepare to spend the 

night there; sometimes they 

have only mats or rugs to 

sleep on. The street-traffic 

ceases in the Arab quarters 

comparatively early, while 

in the European districts it 

goes on till nearly mid- 
night. But during the 

month of Ramadan it con- 
tinues throughout the 

whole night even in the 
Arab quarters; the story- 
tellers (p. xxvi] in the cafe's then have many listeners, while 
shadow-plays (p. xxvii) and broad farces attract others. 

The traveller will ob- 
serve the Schools (kultdb), 
of which there are 193 in 
Cairo, with 363 teachers 
and 11,925 scholars, and 
one of which is attached to 
almost every public foun- 
tain (sebil; p. clxxxii). He 
will find it very amusing 
to watch the ^fc2, or school- 
master, teaching his pu- 
pils with the aid of ad- 
monitions and blows, while 
the boys themselves recite 
verses of the Koran with a 
swaying motion of their 
bodies (a practice supposed 
to 'strengthen the memory') 
or bend over their wooden 
or metal writing tablets. 
They do not fail, however, 
to find time for the same 
tricks as European school- 

50 Route 4. CAIRO. Bazaars. 

boys. It is not advisable to watch the flki too closely, as he is 
easily disconcerted. 

These schools, mostly founded by endowments of the Wakf Administra- 
tion (p. Ixxxvi), are now managed by the Ministry of Education. The mere 
reading and recitation of verses from the Kuran being in itself considered 
a meritorious act, the great object of these schools is to teach the pupils 
to recite the Koran by heart. Although the language is often antiquated 
and obscure, no explanations are given, so that the boy who knows the 
whole book by heart usually understands but little of it. After learning 
the alphabet the pupil is taught to write a few simple words, such as the 
names of his friends, and then learns the ninety-nine 'beautiful' names 
of Allah, a knowledge of vyhioh is necessary to enable him to repeat the 
ninety-nine prayers of the Mohammedan rosary (sebha). The boy is next 
made to learn the Fdtha (p. Ixxxvii), or first chapter (sureh) of the Koran, 
after which he proceeds to learn the last, the last but one, and the others 
in the same inverted order, until he reaches the second, the reason being 
that the chapters gradually diminish in length from the second to the last. 
The course of study frequently takes 4-6 years and its completion is com- 
memorated by the celebration of the K/talmeh, a family festival, to which 
the schoolmaster is invited. 

The Bazaars i of Cairo, though inferior to those of Damascus 
and Constantinople , present to the European traveller many novel 
features and many interesting traits of oriental character. As is 
the universal custom in the East, shops of the same kind, with 
their workshops, are congregated together in the same quarter, 
named sometimes after a mosque but more usually after the wares 
there sold, e.g. Silk en-Nahhastn, bazaar of the coppersmiths, Silk 
el-Khordag7yeh, bazaar of the ironmongers. Most of the bazaars con- 
sist of narrow, and often dirty, lanes, generally covered over with 
an awning to shade them from the sun, and flanked with shops about 
6 ft. wide. These shops (dukkCin) are open towards the street, and 
in front of each is a mastaba or seat on which the customer takes his 
place and on which the shopkeeper offers his prayers at the appointed 
hours. These lanes usually enclose a massive storehouse of con- 
siderable size (khan), consisting of two stories. Several such khans 
together form a quarter of the city (hdra). These were formerly 
closed at night by massive, iron-mounted gates, still in some cases 
preserved, though no longer used. 

The principal market-days are Monday and Thursday, when 
the traffic in the narrow streets is so great that it becomes difficult 
or impossible to traverse them. Pedlars are seen forcing their way 
through the crowd, shouting at the top of their voices. So, too, we 
observe coffee-sellers, water-carriers, sweetmeat-vendors, and others, 
elbowing their way. 

In walking through bazaars and other streets the traveller will 
be interested in observing how industriously and skilfully the 
Artisans work, with tools of the most primitive description. The 
turners (Kharrat), for example, are equally adroit with hand and foot. 

+ Bdzdr is properly speaking a Persian word, the Arabic equivalent 
lor which is sUk. The magazines of the wholesale merchants, with their 
large courts, are called wakk&leh or wakkala, which the Franks have 
corrupted to Occaleh or Okella (comp. p. clx.xxvi). 

1. Ezbektyeh. CAIRO. 4. Route. 51 

European travellers who purpose making large purchases in the ba- 
zaars must arm themselves beforehand with the most inexhaustible pa- 
tience. Time has no value for an Oriental, and that fact must be taken 
into the calculation. Everything must be haggled for, sometimes in the most 
obstinate fashion. When the customer knows the proper price and offers 
it, the dealer will remark '■shicaii/eh' tit is little), but will close the bar- 
gain. Sometimes the shopkeeper sends for cotfee or tea from a neighbouring 
coffee-house in the course of the bargaining. If no satisfactory agreement 
can be reached, the customer should calmly proceed nn his way. Every step 
he takes will lower the demands of the obdurate deab-r. It is advisable 
to offer at first rather a lower sum than the purchaser is willing to pay, 
in order that the offer may be raised. A common phrase in the cere- 
monious East is •khudu/i balasIC (take it for nothing), which, of course, is 
never seriously meant. Foreigners, however, must be prepared to pay 
more than natives. Dragomans and commissionnaires usually have a private 
understanding with the dealer, so that to make purchases in their company 
is to add 10-20 per cent to the price. The street-hawkers often ask as much 
as 5, 10, 15, or even 20 times the value of their wares. Skill in getting 
the bettor of a purchaser is in the eyes of an Oriental merely a desirable 
business accomplishment. 

1. The Ezbekiyeh and the New Quarters. 

The ceutral point of the foreign quarter, between the old Arab- 
ian Cairo and the new town built in the European style within 
the last 50 years, is the — 

*Ezbekiyeli Garden (PL C, 3), or simply the Ezbekhjeh, on the 
site of the former Ezbekiyeh Lake and named after the heroic Emir 
Ezbek, the general of Sultan Kait Bey (1468-96; p. cxix), who 
brought the general and son-in-law of Bayazid I. as a captive to 
Cairo. A mosque, now vanished, was erected here in 1496 in honour 
of his victory. The fine gardens, which have several entrances (adm. 
i/o pias.), were laid out in 1870 by M. Barillet, formerly chief gar- 
dener to the city of Paris. They cover an area of 20i/2 acres and 
contain a variety of rare and beautiful trees and shrubs. Crows and 
kites are here very numerous. In the centre of the gardens is a 
roller skating rink. Military bands, see p. 42. 

To the S. of the Ezbekiyeh lies the Opera House (p. 41), between 
which and the Hotel Continental stretches the Place de l' Opera 
(M7dan et-Teatro; Pl. B, C, 3), with an equestrian statue of Ibrahim 
Pasha (Arab. EL-Husdn). Thence the Shari' 'Abdin leads to the 
S. to the Midan 'Abdin^ on the left side of which lies the Khedivial 
Palace (PI. C, 4, f)), and on the right the Egyptian Army Barracks. 

Between the Ezbekiyeh and the Opera House the Shari' et-Teatro 
leads to the small Midan Ezbek, with the building of the Inter- 
national Tribunal (Tribunaux Mixtes; PI. C, 3^ and the Credit Lyon- 
nais (p. .37). Parallel with this street runs the Shari' Tahir, on the 
right side of which are the building of the Caisse de la Dette Pub- 
lique, the Oeneral Post Office (PI. C, 3 ; p. 37), and the Headquarters 
of the Fire Department. Both these streets end at the" 'Atajba el- 
Khape.*^, a point of intersection of many tramways (p. 38), whence 
the Muski (p. 53) leads to the E. 

52 Route 4. CAIRO. /. Ismd'Uiyeh ^ Taufiktyeh. 

Adjoining the Ezbekiyeh on the N.E. is the small Mi<Mn el- 
Khdzinddr (PI. C, 3; Shari' Clot Bey, see p. 78). The narrow 
lanes to the N.E. lead to the so-called Fish Market (El-Was' a), one 
of the most disreputable quarters of Cairo. 

Westwards from the Ezbekiyeh and to the W. of the Shari' Kamel 
and the Shari' 'Ahdin , as far as the Nile and the Shari' 'Abbas, 
extend the quarters of IsmS-'iliyeh and Taufikiyeh. — The Ismd'- 
Uiyeh was begun by the Khedive Isma'il (p. oxxii), who desired to 
rival the modern quarters of Paris and presented sites here gratui- 
tously to anyone who would undertake to erect on each a house 
worth at least 30,000 fr. within eighteen months. This is still the 
fashionable quarter as well as the seat of the European trade. Several 
of the principal hotels and banks are situated here, also the English 
church, the ministerial offices, most of the consulates, and many 
palaces of European, Levantine, and Egyptian grandees. Isma'il- 
iyeh and Taufikiyeh are separated from each other by the wide and 
busy Shari' Bulak, which, beginning on the W. at the Ezbekiyeli, 
leads to the quarter of Billak (p. 78) and the new Biilak Bridge 
(p. 79). To the left stands the Church of All Saints (PI. B, 3; p. 42). 
— To the S. of the Shari' Bulak, and parallel with it part of the way, 
run the Shari' el - Maghrabi and the fashionable Shari' el- 
Manakh. Farther to the S. is the Shari' Kasr en-Nil, leading 
from the Shari' 'Abdin (p. 51) to the Midan Suleiman Basha 
(PI. A, B, 4), with the monument of Suleiman Pasha, while at the 
N.E. corner stands the Savoy Hotel (p. 35). Beyond this point the 
street leads past the handsome Palace of Count Zogheb, built by 
Herz- Pasha in the Arabic style, to the barracks of Kasr en- Nil 
(PL A, 4) and the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities (p. 80). 

The Shaki' Suleiman Basha (PL A, B, 3, 4) leads from the Midan 
Suleiman Basha to the Middn Ismd'Uiyeh, where it joins the Shari' 
el-Kubri, leading to the Kasr en-Nil Bridge. Farther on the street 
takes the name of Shari' Kasr el-'Aini. On its right side are the 
English Church of St. Mary (p. 42) and a handsome quarter erected 
on the site of the Palace Kasr ed-Dubdra, including the British and 
the United States Agencies [PI. A, 5). On the E. side of the street 
is the Vniversite Egyptienne (PI. A, 5), an institution founded in 
1 908 on the European system, with professors of all nationalities 
(123 students in 1911-12, including 43 women). Farther on, on 
the same side, are the building containing the Ministry of Public 
Works and the War Office (entr. in the Shari' esh-Sheikh Rihan), 
and the building of the Sudan Age7icy (p. 37). In the grounds sur- 
rounding the ministerial building, to the N., is the — 

Museum of Geology (PI. A, B, 5 ; open from Oct. to April 8.30-4, 
at other seasons 7.30-1, on Sun. 8.30-12.30; closed on Frid. and 
holidays). Catalogue (1905), 2^/2 pi^-S- Director, Dr. W. F. Hume. 

The lower story contains petrified trees, (lint implements, and a col- 
lection of dift'erent kinds of Egyptian stones and soil. On tlie upper floor 
is an extensive collection of Egyptian fossils (upper eocene), found by 

2. The Muiki. CAIRO. 4. Route. 53 

Mr. Beadnell in the Libyan desert. In the centre room are three skulls 
(preserved entire) of the Arsinoitherium Zittelii (a species of monster 
rhinoceros; from theFaiyum); bones of the PalBeomastodon and Moerithe- 
rium, the oldest known representatives of the order of pachydermata ; and 
two complete specimens of a monster tortoise (Testudo Ammonia). In the 
side -rooms are mineralo^ical and geognostic specimens (line auriferous 
quartz) and a complete collection of the fossils characteristic of the various 
geological formations of Egypt. 

Adjoining the Museum are the Institut Egyptien (^p. 42) and the 
Chemical Laboratory of the Survey Department ; in the S.W. corner 
of the grounds is the Geographical Society (p. 42); and in the N.E. 
angle, the Public Health Department Laboratory and the Bacterio- 
logical Institute. At the E. end of the ministerial building is the 
Office of the Department of Public Health (Services Sanitaires). 

Farther on, on the left side of the Shari' Kasr el-'Aini, lie the 
Education Office (Ministere de I'lnstruction Publique; PI. A, 6) and 
the Nasrlyeh Training College. Behind the latter, in the Shari' el- 
-Munira, is the French Institute of Oriental Archaeology (p. 42). The 
continuation of the Shari' Kasr el-'Aini passes on the right side the 
large Hospital of Kasr el-'Aini (PI. A, 7; p. 40), with the small Mosque 
of the same name. — Thence to the M7dan Fumm el-Khallg and to 
Old Cairo, see pp. 104 et seq. 

2. The Muski and its Side Streets. 

A visit to the chief £a;aa/.s Icomp. p. 50), to which this section is de- 
voted, is so full of novelty and interest that the traveller will scarcely have 
time to combine with the first visit the inspection of the Mosqves passed on 
the way. — Both ladies and gentlemen, aided by the following description 
and the plan of the town (p. 35), may plunge fearlessly into the thickest of 
the crowd, especially if they do not mind taking an occasional wrong turning. 

Tlie chief thoroughfare of the Arabian part of Cairo is the 
* Muski (PI. C, D, 3), which begins at the square of El-'Ataba el- 
Khadra (p. 51) and, with its continuations the Sikkeh el-Gedideh 
(see below) and the Shari' esh-Sharawani (Pl.E, F, 3), traverses the 
entire breadth of the old town (nearly 1 M.). This street has now to 
a great extent lost its external oriental characteristics. The nu- 
merous tobacco and cigar stores and emporiums of clothing present 
quite a European exterior. But the oriental features of the trafflc 
(p. 46) that surges up and down the street from morning till night 
are still unchanged. At the end of the Muski, a little short of the 
square known as Suk el-Kanto (PI, D, 3), we enter the old city of 
the Fatimites (p. 44), the second wall of which, erected after 1074, 
is still represented by the Bab el-Futuh and the Bab en-Nasr (p. 77), 
its N. gates, and the Bab Zuweileh (p. 60), its S. gate. Its W. 
boundary was the old canal of El-Khalig, now the Shari' Khalig el- 
Masri (tramway No. 5, p. 38). — We follow the continuation of the 
Muski, the Sikkbh el-Gbdideh (Rub Neuve), to the insignificant 
Gdmi' el-Ashraf(Fl. E, 3 ; comp. p. 58), a mosque built by Sultan Bars 
Bey in 1422. Here foot-passengers turn to the left (carriages go 

54 Route 4. CAIRO. 2. The Miiski and 

on to the next turning) into the long line of thoionghfare beginning 
with the Shaii' el-Khordagtyeh, and at the first cross-street on the 
right we enter a large covered bazaar, known as the Khan el-Khalili. 

The KMn el-Zhallli (_P1. E, 3), still the centre of the market 
traffic of Cairo, was founded in 1400 by Garkas el-Khalili, master 
of the horse to Sultan Barkuk, on the site of a chateau of the Fati- 
mites. It forms a distinct quarter of the city, and is intersected by 
a main street and numerous cross-lanes, formed by long rows of 
stalls of tradesmen and artisans, all covered over. Here are the 
headquarters of the silk and carpet merchants and the vendors of 
trinkets. We follow the main avenue, the Sikket el-Badistan, 
which contains two graceful Arab gateways. In the first lane on the 
left is the Bazaar of the Shoemakers, in which the red shoes of the 
Arabs may be purchased. Farther on, to the right of the main street, 
are some large Carpet Bazaars. 

The prices of Carpels, like those of other oriental goods, are liable 
to great fluctuation. As soon as a purchaser appears, the dealers spread 
their wares over the whole court for his inspection. Patience and time 
are essential for a satisfactory bargain (comp. p. 51). The black or white 
tulle shawls, embroidered with gold and silver thread, are sold by the best 
dealers by weight; the price varies from 3 to 6 mill, per dirhem (48.15 gr. 
troy). Many of the so-called Damascene silks, and particularly the lighter 
kuffiyehs in pleasing colours, are manufactured at Lyons and Crefeld. 

Taking the second cross-lane on the right and passing through 
an interesting Arab Gateway, with stalactite vaulting, inscriptions, 
serpentine ornamentation, and a few mosaics, we enter the attrac- 
tive Brass Bazaar (Shari' Khan el-Khalili). From this bazaar we 
enter the Shari' esh-Sharawani (p. 53) or go on through the Sikket 
ol-Badistan. Opposite the end of the latter, in the Mashhad el- 
Hoseini, is the — 

Gkmi' Seiyidna'l-Hosein or £1-Hasauein (PI. E, 3), the mosque 
of the youthful Hosein, who fell at Kerbela in 680 A.D. in battle 
against the enemies of his father Ali, son-in-law of the prophet, 
who was slain in 661. Hosein is still highly venerated by Shiite 
Mohammedans (p. xcii), particularly in Persia. The mosque (in- 
accessible to non-Moslems) is of no architectural importance, while 
it has been almost completely modernized, even to the introduction 
of gas-lighting. The chief attraction is the mausoleum, which con- 
tains the head of Hosein, said to have been brought to Cairo in a 
green silk bag. This mosque is chiefly frequented by men on Thurs- 
days and by women on Saturdays. 

From the mosque we turn to the S., cross the Shari' esh-Shara- 
wani obliquely, and enter the Suabi' el-Halwagi (PI. E, 3), which 
is mainly occupied by the stalls of the Booksellers. 

Most of the booksellers are also scholars, and their shops are the resort 
of the learned world of Cairo. As the prices of books vary greatly in 
accordance with the demand and other circumstances, and as there is no 
such thing as a fixed publishing price, purchasers should always endea- 
vour to ascertain beforehand the true value of any work they wish to 
buy. As in the case of many other wares, the line between new and 

its Side Streets. CAIRO. 4. Route. 55 

second-band liooks is not so strictly drawn in the East as in Europe 
The booksellers generally keep catalogues, several feet in length, to re- 
fresh their memories regarding the state of their stock. The Koran, which 
is shown very reluctantly to non-Moslems, is kept separate from the other 
books. The books are piled up in a very inconvenient fashion. Many of 
them are sold in loose sheets, in which case the purchaser should see that 
the work is complete, as gaps are of frequent occurrence. The bindings 
usually consist of leather or pasteboard. Valuable books are often kept 
in cases of red sheepskin. — The workmanship of the bookbinders, who, 
like other oriental artisans, work in the open street, is far inferior to 
that of European productions. Red is their favourite colour. 

We now follow the Sliari' el-Azbar, which leads to the left to 
the main entrance of the Azhar Mosque. 

The *GS.mi' el-Azhar [PI. E, '6, 4), the 'most blooming', the most 
important monument of the Fatimite period, was completed in 970 
A.D. hy Gohar, the vizier of the Fatimite Sultan El-Mu'izz, and here, 
three years later, El-Mu'izz offered his first prayer after his entry 
into Cairo. Admission, see p. 43; cameras are forbidden and the 
visitor should carefully abstain from any manifestation of amuse- 
ment or contempt. The mosque was converted into a University in 
988 by Caliph El-' Aziz (p. cxv). The rectangular ground-plan of 
the original building, almost entirely rebuilt by the Emir Salar 
after an earthquake in 1303, is easily recognizable, but it has been 
so frequently restored that no part of it can be said to date actually 
from the Fatimite period except the central part of the sanctuary, 
with its cupolas. Everything outside this rectangle is known posi- 
tively to be of later date. The characteristic old ornamentation of 
the arcades and cupolas in the sanctuary deserves special attention; 
that of the walls has been for the most part renewed after vanished 
patterns. The arcades of the court (sahn) were rebuilt under the 
Khedive Taufik with scrupulous reproduction of the old style and 
the retention of the old columns. — Tlie successive rulers of Egypt 
have emulated each other in maintaining and enlarging this vener- 
able building. In the 18th cent, the wealthy 'Abd er-Rahman Kihya 
added four aisles to the sanctuary, and in more recent days Sa'id 
Pasha and the Khedives Taufik and 'Abbas II. have been notable 
benefactors of the mosque. 'Abbas II. erected a new building in 
place of the dilapidated N.W. side of the mosque, and his neo-Arab 
fagade is practically the only one the mosque boasts, the other sides 
being all quite unpretentious and concealed in narrow lanes. 

The university is con.sidered the most important in the territory 
of Islam. Before the British occupation the average number of 
students was 7600-7700, taught by 230 professors. After that 
the numbers sensibly diminished, as no students came from the 
former equatorial provinces of Egypt during the domination of the 
Mahdi. In 1912, however, the numbers had again risen to 14,959 
students and 587 teachers. Most of the students are natives of Egypt, 
so that the Egyptian riwaks (p. 58; Upper Egypt, Lower Egypt, 
Eastern Egypt) are the largest, each having several hundred students. 

56 Route 4. CAIRO. 2. The Muski and 

The nationality of the various groups of students may he learned 
from the guide. 

No lectures are delivered on Thurs. or during the fasting month of 
Ramadan. When teaching, the professor (sheikh) sits cross-legged on a 
straw-mat or chair and reads from a book placed on a desk (rahleh) before 
him, explaining each sentence as he proceeds; or he directs one of the 
more advanced students to read aloud, adding his owa explanations from 
time to time. The students sit in a circle around the teacher, listening or 
attentively taking notes. As soon as a student knovrs by heart and can 
explain the whole of the book that is being studied by the class, the 
sheikh makes an entry {Igdzeh, i.e. permission) in the student's copy of 
the work , whereby authority to lecture in the faculty concerned is con- 
ferred. But the student cannot avail himself of this permission until 
he has passed the final examination , to which he may submit himself 
after receiving an Igazeh in each of the subjects of examination. 

The complete Cokricclum at the Azbar now lasts for 17 years. If the 
student (mtigdwir) successfully passes the final examination at the end of 
this period he receives the Shehadeh el-'AHmiynh, or 'diploma of learning', 
which qualifies him to teach at the Azhar or other institutions of similar 
standing {e.g. the mosque of Ahmed at Tanta, p. 33). At the end of 
the eleventh year a preliminary examination is held, success in which 
secures the Shehadeh d-Ahliyeh, a diploma qualifying for the minor offices 
in the mosques and for the post of elementary teacher. The subjects 
taught at the university fall into two classes : preparatory studies and 
professional studies. The former embrace syntax (nahw), grammar (sarf)^ 
rhetoric (baldgha), logic (manlik), the art of poetry ('ardd and kQflyeli), 
algebra (gibr) , arithmetic (hisdb) , and the proper mode of reciting tlie 
traditions (tnustalah el-hadith). The professional subjects are theology 
(kaldm)., jurisprudence ijikh; p. Ixxxvi), the explanation of the Koran 
(tafsir), and the teaching' of the traditions {hadilh; p. Ixxxv). History, 
geography, mathematics, and style are optional subjects. — The above list 
of the subjects will serve to convey an idea of the intellectual condition 
of Orientals at the present day. The most conspicuous defect of their 
culture consists in the entire absence of independent thought, in conse- 
quence of which they are the mere recipients of the knowledge of the 
past. Their minds are thus exclusively occupied with the lowest grade of 
intellectual work, their principal task consisting in the systematic arrange- 
ment or encyclopfedic compilation of the knowledge handed down to them. 

At the head of the university is the Sheikh el-Odmf, with an admin- 
istrative committee of five. Control, especially in matters of finance, 
is exercised by a Conseil Supt'rieur. Instruction is free ; the university 
is supported by pious endowments, from which also bread and spending 
money are provided for the students. Within the last few years numerous 
'strikes' have taken place among the students in consequence of the 
alleged misappropriation of the endowments by government. The income 
is now ^E 28,900 in cash annually, besides 25,000 loaves of bread daily, 
representing an annual addition of £E 18,250. 

The principal entrance (PI. 1), where strangers receive a guide, 
is on the N.W. side, and is called Bah el-Muzaiyinin, or 'Gate of the 
Barbers', because the students used to have their heads shaved here. 
To the right of this is the Mesgid Taibarsiyeh (PL 8), with a magni- 
ficent mihrab, or prayer-recess , of 1309, and to the left are the 
office of the steward (PL 9), in a restored mausoleum, and the 
Zdwiyet el-lbtighawtyeh (PL 10), now used as a library and contain- 
ing some rare MSS. 

The long archway (PL 7), ending in a portal added by KaVt Bey 
(by whom the adjacent minaret also was built), leads directly into 
the large Sahn el- Gdmi', or mosque- court, enclosed by an arcade 

its Side Streets. 


4. Route. 57 

After Herz-Bet/. 

Gates : 1. Bdb el-Muzaiijinin ('gate of the bai-hers'), on the W. ; 2. Bdh el- 
Qdhargiiieh ('gate of the jewellers''), on the N. ; 3. Bdb es/i-Shorbeh ('soup 
gate'), on the K.-, 4. Bdb es-Sa'dideh ('gate of the Upper Egyptians') ; 5. Bdb 
esft-zSAauwdwi ('gate of the Syrians'); 6. Bdb el-Maghdrbeh ('gate of the North 

West Africans'), these three on the S. 
7. Archwait. S. Mesgid (mosque) Taibarsii/eh. 9. Steward's of/ice. 10. Zdwiyet 
fl-Ibtighdw!veh (library). — LIwan el-Gami% now the principal hall for 
instruction. — 11. of 'Abd er-Rahman Kihya. 12. Dome in 
front of the old prayer-niche. 13. Tomb of 'Abd er-Rahman. 14. Zdwiyet 
Odhargiyeh. 15. Sebil. 16. Court of Ablutions, with Meida in the centre 
and latrines all round. — 17-27. Riwaks (or rooms for study). 17. Riwdlc 
el-Atrdk (Turks from N. provinces of the empire)-, 18. Jiiwdk el-Maghdrbeh 
(N.W, Africans); 19. .Staircase to tlie Itiwdk eth-Shauwdm (Syrians); 20. 
Staircase to the Riwdk el-Baghdddiyin (natives of Baghdad) and to the Riwdk 
e.l-HunHd (natives of India); 21. Riwdk el-Gabart (E. Africans from the 
Somali coast, Zeila', Berbcra, and Tajurra); 22. Staircase to the Riicdk 
el-Mekkiyin (natives of Mecca); 23. Riwdk esh-Shardkiceh (natives of the pro- 
vince of Sharkiyeh) ; 24. A'ftrdi e2-i^as/'7jj!/«rt (UpperEgyptians fromFeshn); 
25. Riwdk es-S'dddniyin (natives' of tlie Sudan) ; 2G. Riwdk el-Baldbiseh (natives 
of Lower Egypt); 27. Riwdk el-Hariafiyeh (Hanefltes; see p. Ixxxvi). — 28. 
Steps to the Terrace and to the Minaret of Ghuri. 29. Gate of the Okella 
Kdit Bey (ruinous but interesting facade). — 30. Riwdk el-'Abbdii. 
Bakdukek's Egypt. 7th I<;dit 4 

58 Route d. CAIRO. 2. The Muski and 

(restored), with Persian keel-arches, niches, medallions, and open- 
work pinnacles. 

The Sanctuary (Ltwan el-Gami"), with its nine aisles, now form- 
ing the principal lecture-hall, has 140 marble columns (100 antique) 
and covers an area of about 3600 sq. yds. The front and older part 
is low in the ceiling. The part at the back, to which we ascend by 
a few steps, has considerably higher arcades (restored). The hall is 
imperfectly lighted. A staircase to the right of "^Abd er-Rahman's 
pulpit (minbar) ascends to an upper story, which is assigned to 
students from Mecca and Yemen, On the S. side is the Tomb of 
'Abd er-Rahman (PI. 13). The N. side is bounded by the very 
elegant little mosque of Zdwiyet Gohargtyeh (PI. 14; restored). 

The ceilings of the Northern and of the Southern Llwan are 
supported by double colonnades. The N. Liwan is adjoined by the 
Court of Ablutions (PI, 16), with a basin in the centre. 

The Lateral Liwans and many of the subsidiary buildings of 
the mosque are set apart as sleeping or working apartments (riwaks, 
literally 'galleries') for the use of students of particular countries or 
of particular provinces of Egypt (comp, the Plan and its reference 
numbers 17-27, p. 57). From the W, angle of the Great Court we 
proceed to the Small Mosque {Riwdkel-'Abhdsi; PI, 30), built by 
'Abbas n,, the reigning Khedive, One of its doors brings us back to 
the Shari' el-Azhar. 

Leaving the insignificant Mosque of Mohammed Bey Abu Dahab 
(p, cxx) on the left, we follow the Shaui' es-Sanadikiyeh (PI. E, 3), 
called also SUk es-SUddn or bazaar for wares from the Sudan (gum, 
dum-palm nuts, etc), which leads direct to the Shari' el-Ashrafiyeh, 
opposite the Mosque of Ashraf (p. 53). 

From the Shari' el-Ashrafiyeh , on the left side of the Mosque of 
Ashraf, the Shaei^ el-Hamzawi es-SeghIh (PI. E, 3j, with the bazaar of the 
same name, leads to the W. The Suk el-Hamzawi is the bazaar of the 
Christian merchants (Syrians and Copts), who vie with their Mohammedan 
fellow-tradesmen in the exorbitance of their demands, and whose chief 
wares are European calico, porcelain, and drugs (which last are oold in 
nearly all the bazaars). This narrow winding street is prolonged to the 
S. by the Shaei' el-Hamzawi el-KebIr, to the left of which (approached 
by a side-lane) is the Orthodox Greek Church of St. Nicholas (PI. D, E, 3, 4). 
— Just at the beginning of the Shari' el-Hamzawi es-Seghir we observe 
on the left the covered Shdri' et-Tarh'yeh (PI.' E., 3), with' the Suk el-'Att&rln, 
or spice -market, which is easily distinguished by its arom'atic odours. 
The perfumes of Arabia, genuine and adulterated, wax-candles, and drugs 
are the chief commodities here. Attar of roses is sold by weight at high 
prices. The small bottles into which it is usually put contain only one 
drop. Then follow the weavers and tailors. A small lane to the left 
(named 'Atfet esh-Sharm) leads to the Ghuri Mosque (p. 59). 

The Shari' et-Tarbiyeh is continued to the S. by the Shdri' el-Fah- 
hdmin (PI. E, 3, 4), in which is the bazaar for wares from Tunis and 
Algiers. We first observe drug-stalls and then magazines for light-coloured 
woollen and other stuffs, Arabian rugs, etc. — We now proceed to the 
left direct to the Shari' el -Ghuri (p. 59), or turn sharp to the right, then 
sharp to the left, and pursue the same direction, parallel with the Shari 
el-'^Akkadin (p. 59) and passing a number of shoemakers' stalls (bawdbishi), 

its Side Streets. CAIRO. d. Boute. 59 

till we come to a broader covered passage, which we follow to the right 
for a few paces, and then take the first lane to the left. This lane is con- 
tinued under the name of Shdri' el-Menaggidin and is inhabited chielly by 
tailors, cloth-merchants, and dealers in undressed wool. A short abrupt 
curve of this lane, to the left, then brings us to the ShdH' el-'Akkddin. 

The Shari' EL-AsHEAFhEH forms the first part of a long line 
of streets leading to the S. and farther on taking successively the 
names of Shari' el-Ghuri, Shari' el-'Akkadin, and Sukkariyeh. 

In the Sn.inf el-Ghuri the first things to catch our eye are the 
beautiful facades of the medreseh and mausoleum of Sultan El- 
GhOri (PI. E, 3, 4), which have so often been depicted by the brushes 
of famous artists. The Medreseh, to the W. (r.), was finished in 
1503 and has a minaret, inappropriately crowned with five modern 
dwarf cupolas. The most notable features of the interior are the 
beautiful pulpit and the tasteful marble panelling of the lower part 
of the walls. Opposite the medreseh, on the E. side of the street, 
is the Mausoleum, dating from 1504. The sultan, who fell in Syria 
(p. ciix), is not, however, buried here. From the rectangular 
vestibule we pass to the right into the oratory, covered by a dome. 
From this a door leads into the mak'ad (restored), or hall in which 
the sultan was wont to await the hour of prayer. To the left of the 
vestibule lies a second chapel, now used as a school office. Adjacent is 
a charming sebil with a school, projecting into the street (p. clxxxii). 

To the E, of the Shari' el-'Akkadin lies the quarter of HQshkadam. 
In its main street stands the "House of Gamal ed-Din ez-Zah'abi fNo. 6 \ 
PI. E,4j, president of the merchants, one of the best preserved of the earlier 
Arabic private houses in Cairo. The building, generally known as the 
'House of the Bookbinder.s', dates from 1637 (visitors knock ; 2 pias.). 
Through a crooked passage (dirkeh) we reach the court of the salamlik, 
or living-rooms of the owner, with two well-preserved facades. In the 
S.W. corner is a flight of steps leading to the mak'ad. an open colonnade 
with two arches. The inscription on the cornice gives information about 
the building. Adjoining the mak^ad is an oriel window with mashra- 
biyehs (p. clxxxv), whence the ladies of the harem could overlook the court. 
Proceeding in a straight direction we enter the beautiful ka'a, or drawing- 
room of the harem (p. clxxxv), adorned with fine mosaics. The middle and 
lower-lying part of the room is covered with a wooden dome, and the flat 
wooden ceiling of the other parts of the chamber is also very beautiful. 

The Sukkariyeh (PI. E, 4) forms the bazaar for sugar, dried 
fruits (niikl), fish, candles, and similar wares. On the left is the 
modern marble Seb'd of Mohammed Ali, and on the right the — 

**Gami' el-Muaiyad (PI. D, E,4), called also Garni' el-Ahmar 
(/. e. 'the red mosque') after the adjoining Derb el-Ahmar (p. 61). 
It was erected by Sultan Sheikh el-Mahmudi Muaiyad (p. cxviii), 
of the dynasty of the Circassian Mamelukes, who had been defeated 
in a rebellion against Sultan Farag and vowed that he would build 
a mosque on this site if he wore released from prison. The mosque 
was not finished till a year after the sultans death (1422). The 
three massive walls, intended to enclose three new liwans, wre 
erected during a thorough restoration in the second half of the 
19th century (modern portions shaded grey on the ground -plan, 
p. 60^. The bronze gate at the entrance (PI. 1), the handsomest 

60 Route 4. 


2. The Muxki and 

in Cairo, originally belonged to tlie mosque of Sultan Hasan 
(p. 66), but was bought for the new mosque for 500 dinars. — 
To the left of the vestibule is a bronze-mounted wooden door, 
leading to the mausoleum of the sultan (PI. 2), which is covered 
•with a beautiful dome. To the right is a corridor (PI. 3) leading 
to the old but restored sanctuary (PI. 4), a magnificent apart- 
ment with lofty stilted arches. The decoration is rich and effective. 
The lower part of the wall with its niches is adorned with panels 
of coloured marble and other stones, surmounted by charming dwarf 

arcades with colonnettes of blue glass -paste and a rich mosaic 
of coloured marbles. Above the niches are stucco windows and in- 
scriptions in finely carved and gilded letters, interspersed with gilded 
arabesques and rosettes. The coloured wooden ceiling and the inlaid 
ornamentation of the pulpit (PI. 5) and doors also deserve notice. 
This hall is now used as a lecture-room when the Azhar Mosque 
(p. 55) is over-crowded. In the S.E. angle is the mausoleum of the 
sultan's family (PI. 6). The sanctuary is separated by a modern iron 
railing from the court, which is planted with trees and furnished 
with a modern Hanefiyeh, or fountain for ablution (PI. 7). 

Immediately adjoining the mosque is the town-gate B&b Zu- 
weileh (PI. E, 4), at the end of the street. This is built of solid 

its Side Streets. CAIRO. 4. Route. 61 

blocks of stone and in plan resembles the two other gates of the 
Fatimlte period, the Bab el-Futuh and the Bab en-Nasr (_p. 77 ). It was 
erected at the end of the 11th cent, by Greek builders from Edessa. 
The S. side consists of t\¥0 huge towers, surmounted by the elegant 
minarets of the Muaiyad Mosque. On the tower to the W. are a 
number of stone and woodeii balls, probably dating from the Mame- 
1 uke period. Tuman Bey, the last of the Circassian sultans of Egypt, 
was hanged on this tower by Sultan Selim I., on April 15th, 1517 
(p. 45). This gate is called also Bab el-Metwaiti, from the old 
tradition that the most highly revered saint Kutb el-Metwalli 
(Mutawalli) has his abode behind the W. half of the gate, where he 
sometimes makes his presence known by a gleam of light. On both 
wings of the gate hang shreds of clothing, teeth, and other votive 
offerings, placed here by sufferers in hope of cure. Opposite the 
outside of the gate is the sebil of Sultan Farag, by the large grated 
window of which executions by strangulation took place down to 
tlie middle of the 19th century. 

From the Zuweileh Gate the Derb kl-Ahmar (PI. E, 4) leads 
towards the E. About 200 yds. from the gate is (No. 36) the restored 
*Mosque of the Emir Eijm&s el-IsMki, a small but handsome 
building, erected in 1481 in the style of KaitBey. The mausoleum, 
which is large in proportion to the mosque, long remained empty, 
as Emir Kijmas el-Ishaki, master of the horse to Kai't Bey, died 
and was buried in Syria. In 1851, however, the pious Sheikh Abu 
Hureiba was interred here. 

In the same street, farther on named Shaei'et-Tabbanbh (PI. E, 
4,6), lies the *M& Mosque (Qamv el-Mdrdcini), one of the 
largest in Cairo, built in 1338-40 by Emir Altun Bogha el-Mardani, 
cup-bearer of Sultan Mohammed en-Nasir. The building was in a 
thoroughly ruinous condition in the 19th cent., but has recently been 
restored by Ilerz-Pasha. — The nearly square court is surrounded 
by colonnades. The prayer-niche and the walls on each side of it are 
covered with costly mosaics. The new com^rete dome in front of the 
prayer-niche is borne by superb ancient Egyptian granite columns. 
The side-colonnades also contain some ancient columns, probably 
from a temple of the period of the Ptolemies. The sanctuary, or 
main hall, is separated from the court by an ancient wooden railing, 
much of which has had to be renewed. The Hanefiyeh in the court 
formerly stood in the mosque of Sultan Hasan and here occupies 
the site of the original fountain. — The Shari' Bab el-Wezir goes 
on to the gate of that name and to the Citadel (p. 68). About half- 
way it passes the picturesque G.\Mf Aksunkor or Qami' Ibrahim 
Agha (PI. E, 5), known also as El-Azrak, or 'the blue', from the rich 
blue tiles on the walls. Built in 1346 by the Emir Aksunkor, 
this mosque was restored in 1651 by Ibrahim Agha and again in 
modern times. 

To the S., immediately adjoining the Zuweileh Gate, is the 

62 Route 4. CAIRO. 3. South-EasUm 

Bazaar of the Shoemakers, at the entrance to which (on the left) is 
the dilapidated Fatimite mosque of Sdlih Talayeh (12th cent.). 
Farther on, in the IShdri' el-Khiyamiyeh^ is the bazaar of the tent- 
makers, where bright- coloured tent-covers may be purchased; and 
this, in turn, ends at the Shari' Mohammed 'Ali. 

3. The South-Eastern Quarters. 

The route described in this section leads via the Shari' Mohammed 
'All to the Citadel, and thence by a wide curve to the S. back to the i>ame 
street. Tramways, see pp. 38, 39 (Nos. 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, & 17j. 

Starting from the Place El-'Ataba el-Khadra (see p. 61), the 
Shaei' Mohammed 'Alt (PI. C-E, 3-6), 1 M. in length, leads to the 
S.E. straight to the foot of the citadel (tramway No. 2, p. 38). On 
the left, about one-third of the way down the street, lies the Place 
Bab el-Khalk, with the Administration Building (^Gouvemorat; PI. 
D, 4), containing the Police Headquarters (p. 37), and the building 
of tlie Arabian Museum and tlie Kliedlvial Library (p. 64). 

The *Arabian Museum (entr. on the E. side), consisting of ob- 
jects of artistic or antiquarian interest from ruined mosques and other 
Egyptian buildings, especially those of Cairo, is due to the zeal of 
Franz-Pasha, formerly technical director of the Wakf Administration 
(p. Ixxxvi). The constantly increasing collections were formerly 
exhibited in the mosque of El-Hakim but were transferred in the 
year 1903 to the groundfloor of the present handsome new building 
in the Arabic style. The museum is open daily from Nov. to April, 
except on Frid. and festivals, 9-4 (adm. 5 pias.); from May to Oct., 
8-1 (adm. 1 pias.). Illustrated English catalogue (1907), 20 pias. 
Director, Max Herz-Pasha ; curator, 'All Bey Bahgat. 

The walls of the Vestibule are occupied by a chronological survey 
of the Mohammedan dynasties of Egypt. — We pass to the right into — 

Room I. Tombstones. Nos. 9-42, 54, 55, with Culic inscriptions; 
64. Marble slab with inscription mentioning an endowment of Saladin ; 
100. Inscription with the name of Sultan Ghiiri, from the water-works 
of Old Cairo ; Tombstones in the form of columns ; 138a. Stone com- 
memorating the dedication of a fountain ; 172. Fine lamp, with the name 
of Sultan Hasan (14th cent.). 

Room II. Marble and other Stone Carvings. No. 26. Fragment of a cornice 
with an eagle (period of the FatimitesJ ; 39. Marble slab with fine orna- 
mentation from the mosque of Sarghutmash (14th cent; p. 73); 89-114. 
Marble fragments, with inlays of "stucco or marble; 115-120, 123. Armorial 
bearings ; 127, 128. Two reliefs with lions, made from the bases of Roman 
columns; 132 et seq.. Stone jars with their stands; 156-172. Capitals of 
columns, including an ancient Egyptian one from the mosque of Milrdani 
(p. 61); 175, 176. Coptic columns; 177-185. Shafts of Arabian columns, with 
•sculptures from prayer-niches ; 186, 18S. Two columns from the mosque of 
Kait Bey in Medinet el-Faiyum; 192. Fragment of the Nilometer atRoda; 
193. Hanging lamp from the mosque of Sultan Hasan. 

Room III. Stone Sculptures, Works in Plaster, and Mosaics. Mosaic 
pavement from the Mahmudiyeh mosque (p. 63); 2. Slab of a fountain from 
the sebil of Sultan Farag, with representations of animals (Persian); 8-10. 
Capitals of ancient columns which have been used for well-curbs; 23-30. 
Mosaics from the walls of a house (conventional ornamental inscription 
on No. 23); 35. Cast of an engaged column from the Tuluu mosque (p. 71), 



4. Route. 06 

with its original capital ; 37. Plaster window-tracery from the mosque 
of Salih TalSyeh ; 39-46. Plaster ornaments from the moaqae of El-Kamil, 
with inscriptious and arabesque ornamentation; 51, 52. Plaster windows 
from the mosque of Mardani ; 54. Fine window from the Kijmas mosque; 
57. Tasteful modern window; 63, 64. Hanging lamp from the mosque of 
Sultan Hasan. 

Room IV. Wood Carvingt. Pulpits, Koran reading-desks. No. 1. 
Coptic door from the Kalaun mosque; 95-97. Prayer-niches in carved 
wood; 101-103. Cenotaphs (No. 101 from a tomb near the tomb-mosque of 
the Imam Shafi'i); 104 etseq., Reading-desks. 

Room V. Wood Carvings, Fret Work, and Turned Work. Mashrabiyehs. 
No. 1 . Door from the tom b-mosqne of Sultan Bs-Salih Aiy ub (13th cent.) ; 21-23. 
Balconies ; 24-31. Perforated wood- 
carvings CNo. 27. from the mo.sque 
iif the Imam Shafi'i, of especially 
delicate execution); 3o. Bronze lamp 
from the mosque of '.-Vbd el-Basit. 

Room VI. Wood Carvings. Speci- 
mens of carved wood illustrating 
the development of Arabic orna- 
mentation; ceilings; painted frag- 
ments of wood; wooden doors with 
fine inlays of ivory : 1. Carved portal ; 
25a. Carving of the Fatimite period, 
with animal-deaigns ; 198. Carving 
from the mosque of El-Ashraf Bars 
Eey. — From the Turkish period : 
205, 206. Carvings from the mosque 
of Suleiman Pasha (p. 70); 214. Carv- 
ing from Damietta. 

Room VII. Wood Carvings. Old 
wooden ceilings. — Wood-carvings 
from doors : to the right of the en- 
trance, -4, 5. from a cenotaph of the 
Aiyubide period. — Show-cases A-D 
contain smaller wood-carvings, most 
of them inlaid with ivory 8 (No. 16, 
in A, Eagle and hare). — 142-145. 
Locks; 146, 147, 149. Wooden tables 
(Kursi); 148. Wooden table with 
fine mosaic from the mosque of 
Sultan Sha'ban. — °156. Koran-case 
with mosaic and elegant hinges, from 
the same mosque. Such boxes have 
always 30 compartments , arranged 
in three rows, for the 30 books of 
the Koran. Small chest inlaid with 

ivory. — 176. Richly painted and gilded wooden ceiling 
of Suleiman Sari. 

KooM VIII (to the left of R. VII). Chairs, Benches, Cupboard Doors, 
Mashrabiyehs. — Minbars or pulpits. — Jlosaic pavement and fountain 
from an Arab house in the Hihniyeh, Cairo. 

Room IX. Works in Metal. Bronze-mounted doors: 1. from the mosque 
of Salih Talayeh (12th cent.); 2. from the tomb -mosque of Imam Shafi'i 
(13th cent!); 3. from the convent-mosque of Bars Bey tl5thcent.); 6. from 
the mosque of Princess Tatar el-Hegaziyeh (14th cent.). — Table Case A: 
9-13. Candlesticks (No. 9 'inlaid with silver). — Table Case B: 15. Koran- 
case, with elaborate brass cover and silver ornamentation; 14a. Writing 
utensils. — Central Case: 19. Fine brazen dish; 22. Brazen vessel with 
ornaments and arms. — Cases C it; D: Choice bronze vessels. — Case O: 
Two fine rifles; weapons ; gold coins. — In the glass-cases beside the middle 
window are ornamental 'Swords and rifles. — 105, 106. Small brass tables 
richly inlaid with silver (No. 105 with the name of Sultan Na-sir, 14th cent.); 

from the sebil 

64 Route 4. CAIRO. 3. South-Eastern 

107. Bronze grating with silver ornamentation ; 110-123. Pine metal lustres 
(No. 110 belonging to Sultan Ahmed , 14th cent. ; 115 & 115a from the mosque 
of Kait Bey, at Medinet el-Faiyum; 123 from the Ghuri mosque). 

Room X. Works in Metal. Door-mounts, bands bearing inscriptions, 
knockers, doors with bronze mounts. — 91. Door studded with iron nails; 
92, 93. Doors from the mosque of Seiyideh Zeinab ; 130, 130a. Scales inlaid 
with silver; 136. Bronze chandelier from the mosque ofEl-Ghiiri; 94-102. 
Crescents from domes and minarets. 

Room XI. Fayence (that on the E. wall native, that on the W. wall 
imported from other oriental countries). Fayence tiles, including several 
with carnations and one with a representation of the Kaaba at Mecca 
(made at Damascus in 1726). — The show-cases contain glazed vessels, 
pottery, dishes of various kinds; 107 etc., Lamps and lamp-weights; frag- 
ments of fayence. Case I: B. Fragments of fayence bearing coats-of-arms; 
D. Magnificent cornelian dish, from the mosque of Sultan Kalaun, a beauti- 
ful specimen, 17^/4 inches in diameter and 4 inches high, with 19 cut facets 
on the edge. Case F: Lamps; dishes with fine glaze. 

Room XII. Fayence. Fayence tiles of European manufacture, such 
as were used to line the walls of rab houses in the 18-19th centuries. — 
On the wall to the right. Stucco decorations of an Arab room from a house 
in Old Cairo. Below, 72-74. Carved doors from Mehalleh el-Kubra. The 
cases contain vessels from Rhodes, Moorish dish (52), Persian and Syrian 
tiles, and Celadon vases (64-67). 

Room XIII. Plaster Casts. — Small Arab room from Rosetta (restored). 

Room XIV. Textiles. First glass-case to the right: 1. Piece of silk with 
the name of Ma'mun, son and successor of Harun er-Rashid; 5. Piece of 
silk with the design of two birds seated facing each other (12th cent.) ; 
0. Fabric with the name of Sultan Nasir (14th cent.); 7. Fabric with a 
double-headed eagle; 8. Waistcoat; 10. Fabric with finely worked inscrip- 
tions; 11. Fabric with printed patterns and inscriptions. Two show-tables 
and frames contain oriental book-covers. — 31, 32. Koran -cases covered 
with leather, with embossed ornamentation and inscriptions (No. 31 from 
the mosque of Sultan Hasan, the other bearing the name of the donor, 
Sultan El-Ghuri). In a glass-case is a map with a compass, within the 
cover of which is a representation of the Kaaba in lacquer-work. 

Room XV. "Enamelled Hanging Lamps from Mosques, most of them 
made of light green, with enamelled flowers, foliage, inscriptions, 
medallions, and coats-of-arms. The oldest of these dates from the 13th 
century. The place of manufacture is unknown. Only about a hundred 
of these lamps are now extant; most of those in this museum (over 60) 
are from the mosque of Sultan Hasan (p. 66). The finest specimens are 
(in Case A) No. 1, with the titles of Sultan Ashraf Khalil; 5, with the 
arms of a OAkdnddr or 'mallet-bearer' (i.e. the Mameluke in charge of the 
game of polo) ; (in Case B) 7, with the arms of the cup-bearer Shekhuh ; 
(in Cases G & H) "51-56. Specimens from the mosque of Sultan Hasan. 

Room XVI. Hanging Lamps (see above). Adjoining the exit, pictures 
of the sacred cities Medina (r.) and Mecca (1.). — Among recent additions 
to the museum is a rich Collection of Oriental Carpets. 

On the first floor of the Arabian Museum is the *Khedivial 
Library (^Kutubkhaneh; special entrance from the Shari' Mohammed 
'Ali), founded in 1870 by the Khedive Isma'il by uniting the li- 
braries of several institutions and mosques, and regularly added to 
since. The chief credit of arranging this fine collection of books 
belongs to four Germans, Dr. Stern, Dr. Spitta-Bey, Dr. Toilers, 
and Dr. Moritz. Present Director, Dr. Schade. The whole library 
consists of over 75,500 vols. (12,000 MSS.), of which 32,000 are 
in oriental languages (Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Amharic, and 
Syrian). The Koran alone accounts for no fewer than 2677 volumes. 

Quarters. CAIRO, 4. Route. 65 

The illuminated Persian MSS. are extremely valuable. The library 
contains also a collection of coins (upwards of 3800) of the Moham- 
medan rulers of Egypt. — The reading-room is open daily, except 
on Frid. and official festivals, from 8 to one hour before sunset (in 
July, Aug., and Sept. 8-1; during Ramadan 10-2). Visitors to the 
otber rooms require a special permit from the director, while those 
who wish to borrow books must obtain a guarantee from some high 
official or other personage in Cairo known to the director. 

The Show Koom (open tree, 9-4) contains coins and specimens of 
oriental MS^^. and printed works. We begin with the table-cases to the 
right. — S/ielves 1, 2. Arabic papyri (7-9th cent): Shelves 3-5. Arabic docu- 
ments on paper, parchment, and potsherds (8-1.3th cent.); Shelf 6. Early 
Arabic books (9-13th cent.) ; Shelf 7. Autographs of famous oriental authors ; 
Shelf 8. Arabic MSS. from North Africa and Spain (li-17th cent.). — 
Shelves 9-20. Fine examples of the Koran. These are remarkable for their 
large size, superb execution, and great age. The Mohammedans have 
always exercised the greatest care in preparing the MSS. of the Koran, 
and have always regarded the sacred book which was sent to them from 
heaven with the most profound reverence. The oldest specimens of the 
Koran (Shelves 9 seq.), dating from the 8-lOth cent., are in the C'lific, or 
early-.\rabic, character and are written on parchment. Among the fine 
large copies of the Koran on paper which were executed for the sultans of 
the Bahrite Mamelukes (1250-1382) and their emirs, the most notable are 
those (Shelves 14 seq.) made for the Sultans Hasan and Sha'ban and their 
emirs Shekhuh and Sarghutmash (14th cent.). — Shelves 21-36: Korans 
of the 14-15th cent, made for the Emirs Ki.jmas and Arghiin and the Cir- 
cassian Mameluke Sultans Barkuk, Farag, Muaiyad, and Bars Bey ; Korans 
and other books of the 15th cent., prepared for the Sultans Hoshkadam, 
Kait Bey, and El-Ghiiri. The largest Koran in the collection, measuring 
443/4 by 35 inches, belonged to Kait Bey. — Shelf 37. Korans of the 14- 
15th cent. (Mameluke period). — ' Shelf 38. Korans written in India. — On 
one of the shelves is a collection of coins. 

Shelves 39-44. 'Persian MSS. with miniatures. The origin and develop- 
ment of this branch of art have not yet been adequately investigated. The 
specimens here exhibited are all the work of Mohammedan artists, though 
the influence of E. Asiatic taste is noticeable in those of later date. These 
book-illu.'itrations are distinguished from the purely ornamental art of the 
Korans by a greater freedom of conception and variety of motive, particularly 
by the frequent employment of living forms. Nearly all are illustrations 
of poetical or historical works. The chronological arrangement shows that 
this art was at its best in the 14-16th cent., and that thereafter a rapid 
decline set in. Shelf 39. 'Divan of the poems of Farid id-Din Attar, written 
in 1454; Poems of Jami, written in the N.E. Provinces of India, perhaps 
in the 17th century. Shelf 40. Anthology of Persian poetry, written for 
the library of Sultan Bayazid (15th cent.); Persian MSS. of the 16th cent: 
•Bustan of Sa'di. Shelf 41. Korans written by Persians. Shelf 42. Korans 
and other books written by Indians ; two albums with Indian mmiatures 
and autographs of celebrated Persian and Turkish calligraphers (16iO-1703); 
tlie poem of Yusuf and Zuleika, by Jami, written in lliOl, with full-page 
illustrations. Shelf 43. Persian miniatures of the 15-lHth cent. ; a second 
specimen of Jami's poem of Yiisuf and Zuleika, written in 1533 ; the Cosmo- 
graphy of Kazwini (1567), translated into Persian, with diagrams in the E. 
Asiatic stvle ; two MSS. of Mehr and Mushtari, a poem by Assar (1493) ; several 
MSS. of the Shahnameh or Book of Kings of Firdausi^ Shelf 44. Persian 
miniatures of the 1G-I7th cent. 5 three copies of the Divan of Hafiz of Shiraz 
(1556, 1565, and 1630); Gulistan of the poet Sa'di, written by Sultan Mo- 
hammed Nir (16th cent.). — Shelf 45, Korans written by Turks. Shelf 46. 
Tnrkish MSS. with miniatures; a copy of the Kudatku Bilik, the first work 
of Turkish literature in Arabic characters, composed about 1110 and written 
in Cairo about 1350; Cosmography of Kazwini (Oct., 1553). — Shelf 47. 

66 Route 4. CAIRO. 3. South-Eastern 

Turkish albums (16-17th cent.); Shelf 48. Aatographs of Turkish saltans; 
Shelf 49. Arabic books, printed in Africa (Zanzibar, Sudan, Egypt, Tunis, 
Algiers, Fez); Shelf 60. Arabic books printed in Asia (China, East Indies, 
Persia, etc.), and also the earliest European specimens ; Shelves 51-54. Arabic, 
Persian, and Turkish book-bindings. On the walls : Koran written for the 
Sultan Oedyaitu of Persia (1311) and later (1326) acquired by the Mameluke 
Sultan Nasir, with wonderful ornameutation. 

From the Bab el-Khalk Square we continue to follow the Shari' 
Mohammed 'All. About 1/4 M. farther on a side-street leads to the 
left to the Oami' el-Malika Safiya (PI, D, 5), a Turkish- Arabian 
mosque of 1611, with a dome borne by six monolithic antique col- 
umns and ornamentation in the Byzantine-Arabian style. Behind 
it, in the Shari' ed-Daudiyeh, lies the small *Mosque of El-Burdeini 
(PI. D, 6), built in 1630 and restored in 1885, lavishly adorned 
with mosaics, and adjoined by an elegant minaret. The beautiful 
wooden ceilings and the elaborate pulpit are especially notable. 

Farther on the Shari' Mohammed 'Ali passes the much altered 
mosque of El-Keisun (^Asdn' ; PI. D, 5) and leads to a large square 
adorned with gardens in front of two large mosques. That on the 
left is the G&,mr Rif&.'iyeh, a handsome columned edifice com- 
pleted in 1912. It stands on the site of the tomb of Sheikh ''Aii 
Rifa'i and contains the family burial-vault of the Khedive Isma'il 
(_d. 1895). — On the right rises the — 

**Gfi,mi' Sult&n Hasan (PI. E, 6), the 'superb mosque', and the 
finest existing monument of Egypto- Arabian architecture. It was 
built in 1356-59 for Sultan Hasan (p. cxviii), perhaps by a Syrian 
architect, and has been restored byHerz-Pasha. The huge proportions 
of the building, which occupies a shelving rock below the citadel, 
taken in conjunction with the masterly execution of its details, pro- 
duce an effect of great majesty. Admission, see p. 43. 

The exterior recalls the broad surfaces of the early-Egyptian 
temples. All the facades are crowned by a unique and boldly pro- 
jecting cornice of 'stalactite' formation and furnished with pinnacles 
(restored). The broad wall-surfaces are relieved by blind recesses 
and round-arched windows in couples. The mausoleum, which pro- 
jects boldly from the S.E. fa(;ade, is covered by a dome (180 ft. high), 
said to have been originally egg-shaped but reconstructed after 1616 
in the Turkish-Arabian style. The N.W. facade is unfinished. — 
The massive **6ateway (PI. 1), 85 ft. high, though its ornamen- 
tation was never fully carried out, has been more or less imitated 
in many other Egyptian mosques. The original magnificent bronze 
gate now adorns the mosque of Muaiyad (p. 59). — • The S. Minaret 
(PI. 11a; 285 ft. high) is the highest minaret in Cairo (that of 
El-Ghuri 213 ft., Kalaun 193 ft., El -Muaiyad 167 ft., El-Azhar 
167 ft., Kait Bey and Barkuk 164 ft., Tulun 131 ft., 'Amr 105 ft.). 
The minaret (PL lib) at the E. corner was overthrown by an earth- 
quake, but was afterwards rebuilt on a smaller scale. 

The building is in the form of an irregularpentagon, 85,000 sq.ft. 



4. Route. 67 

ill area, iu which the cruciform shape of the original Medreseh 
(p. clxxx) has been skilfully incorporated. — From the main en- 
trance (PI. 1) we enter first a domfed vestibule (PI. 2) and then a 
smaller anteroom, whence steps ascend to the corridor (PI. 3), ad- 
joining the large Sahn el-Gami' or mosque-court (115 ft. long and 
105 ft. broad). In the centre of the court is the Meida (PI. 4). 
The four arms of the cross are occupied by four large halls (liwan), 
with lofty barrel -vaulting. These serve as praying rooms. The 
lecture-rooms for the four orthodox schools of Jslam (p. Ixxxvl) 

1. Chief Entrance (from the Sharr Mohammed 'Ali).' 2. Vestibule. 3. Corri- 
dor. 4. Meida (fountain for ablutions).' 6. Dikkeh. 7. Prayer-recess (kibla). 
8. Pulpit (minbar). 9. Mausoleum of Sultan Hasan. 10. S. Entrance. 11a 
and b. Minarets. 12. Medresehs (lecture -rooms) for the four schools of 
Islam. 13. Old court of ablutions in the sunk floor (ruinous). 

were fitted up in the four small medresehs (PI. 12). The Liwan el- 
Gamf or sanctuary has as its chief embellishment an elaborate in- 
scribed *Frieze, cut in the stucco and much restored, with line Cuflc 
letters on a tasteful background of arabesques. The rear wall, with 
the prayer-recess, is adorned with marble. The only remains of the 
once sumptuous fittings of this hall are the dikkeh (PI. 6), the pulpit 
(PI. 8), with a wooden door, inlaid with gold and silver and mounted 
with bronze, and the chains of the innumerable lamps (p. 64). To 
the right of the pulpit is a bronze door (now closed), damascened 
with gold and silver, leading to the mausoleum. The present en- 
trance to the Mausoleum (PI. 9) is an iron door to the left of the pul- 
pit. The square domed apartment, with the simple sarcophagus of 
the sultan, has a beautiful inscribed frieze of carved wooden letters. 
The stalactitic pendentives of the original dome still exist. The 
ceiling and the painted friezes have been partly restored. 

68 Route 4. CAIRO. 3. South-Eastern 

To the S.E. of the mosque of Sultan Hasan extends the large 
*Place Saladin {Mtdan Saladin; PI. E, 6, 7), the finest square in the 
city, at Viscount Kitchener's instigation formed in 1913 out of the 
Place Rumeileh and Place Mohammed AH by the demolition of several 
small streets and buildings. At the N. end of the Place, on slightly 
elevated ground, stand two mosques, the 6dmi' el-Mahm.ildtyeh and 
the Gdmi' Emir Akhor (PI. E, 6). On the E. side rises the citadel 
(see below), with the Bdb el-Azah (PI. E,6), flanked with its huge 
towers. Along the E. side of the Place extends the Shdri' Mastabet 
el-Mahmal; in its S. part is the Stik el-Kasr, the scene of a busy 
afternoon market. Here also take place the festivities on the depart- 
ure of the Mecca Caravan (comp. pp, xcvl, xcvii). At the S. end 
of the Place are the Prison and, farther on, the gate named Bdb el- 
Kardfeh (P1.E,7). — Taking the Shari'Dayir er-Rifa'i, which leads 
round the Gami' Rifa'iyeh to the square mentioned on p. 66, we 
see on the right, on a rocky hill, the small Gohar Mosque (PI. E, 6). 

From the N.E. corner of the Place Saladin the citadel is ap- 
proached by the Shari' el-Mahgar, a carriage-road, and then by the 
winding Shari' Bab el-Gedid, whith a view of the Tombs of the 
Caliphs (to the left). Foot-passengers ascend by the Shari' ed- 
Defterkhaneh, passing the Government Archives (Defterkhaneh; 
PI. E, F, 6), built by Mohammed Ali in 1828, or, quitting the 
Place Saladin by the Bab el-'Azab (see above), proceed straight on 
by a narrow and crooked lane, enclosed by lofty walls. It was in 
this lane, formerly the chief approach to the citadel, that the mas- 
sacre of the Mamelukes took place on March Ist, 1811, by order of 
Mohammed Ali (p. cxxi) Amin Bey, the only one who survived, is 
said to have escaped by making his horse leap into the moat. 

The Citadel {El-KaVa; PI. E, F, 6) was built in 1179 by 
Saladin (p. 46), with stones taken, according to the very credible 
statements of Arabian historians, from the small pyramids at Gizeh. 
Of the original structure, however, nothing now remains except the 
outer E. wall and a few towers in the interior. Although the fortress 
commands the city, it is itself commanded by the heights of the 
Mokattam, rising above it immediately to the S. ; thus in 1805 Mo- 
hammed Ali was enabled, by means of a battery planted on the Gebel 
Giyushi (p. 116), to compel Khurshid Pasha to surrender the Citadel. 
— We enter the outer court of the Citadel by the Bab el-Gedtd 
(PI. F, 6; 'New Gate'), and then pass through the Bdb el-Wastdni 
('Middle Gate') into the main court, where the Alabaster Mosque 
rises in front of us, with the En-Nasir Mosque to the left. 

The *Gami' Mohammed 'Ali (PI. E, F, 6; tickets, see p. 43; 
slippers 1 pias.), or 'Alabaster Mosque', the lofty and graceful 
minarets of which are so conspicuous from a distance as to form 
one of the landmarks of Cairo, was begun by Mohammed Ali, the 
founder of the present Egyptian dynasty, on the site of a palace 
which was blown up in 1824 ; and in 1857 it was completed in its 



4. Route. 69 

South - Kast 

present form by Sa'id Pasha (p. cxxii ). The architect was the Greek 
Yusuf Boshna of Constantinople, wlio, aided hy Greek foremen, 
built it on the model of the Nuri Osmaniyeh mosque at Constanti- 
nople. The columTis are built, and the walls incrusted, with poor 
yellow alabaster. Wood 
painted to resemble ala- 
baster is used also. 

The Entrance (PI. 9), 
near the centre of the N. 
side, leads directly into 
X.\\cSdhnel-Gami' {P\. 10), 
or Court, enclosed by 
vaulted galleries, in the 
upper parts of which plain 
limestone has been used 
instead of alabaster. In 
the centre is the Haneftyeh 
(PI. 11), or basin for ab- 
lution, in the debased 
Turkish style. On the W. 
side is the approach to a 
tower (PI. 13), which ter- 
minates in a pavilion 
with Moorish arabesques 
and contains a clock pre- 
sented to Mohammed Ali 
by Louis Philippe. 

The Interior is en- 
tered through the centre 
of the E. gallery of the 
court. It consists of si 
large quadrangle, with By- 
zantine domes resting on 
4 huge square pillars. 
The size of the place and 
the manner in which it 

1. Sultan's Entrance. 2. Kursi. 3. Pulpit. 

■i. I'rayer-recess. 5. Tomb ot'BIohammed Ali. 

7. Kntrance. 8. Great Gallery. 9. Usual En- 
is lighted produce a very trance. 10. Sahn el-6ami^ 11. Hanefiyeli. 
striking impression. The J?. Openings- to the great cistern under 
„, , . ? , '^ .. . the court. 13. Ascent to the dock-tower. 

lurkish decoration is uii- 14 point of view, 

important, and the read- 
ing-desk, pulpit, and prayer-recess (PI. 2, 3, 4) possess no parti- 
cular attraction. To the right of the entrance is the Tomb of 
Mohammed Ail (A. 1849), enclosed by a handsome railing (PI. 5). 
A magnificent **Vik-w is obtained from the parapet at the- W. 
angle of the mosque (PI. 14), which is reached by walking round 
outside the building, within the railing. From this point we survey 
the yellowisli-grey city, with its countless minarets, domes, and 

70 Route 4. CAIRO. 3. South-EaHem 

gardens. At our feet stands the mosque of Sultan Hasan. To the 
N. and N.W. are the Windmill Hills and the green plain traverseg 
by the Nile. To the "W., in the distance, are the Pyramids, towerind 
above the desert. On the flat roofs of the houses we observe in- 
numerable ventilators, called malkaf, by means of which the cool 
north-wind is introduced into the houses. 

The Gimr en-Nasir (PI. F, 6) was erected in 1317 by Sultan 
En-Nasir. Long used as a military magazine and storehouse, it is 
in a dilapidated condition. It exhibits traces of the Romanesque 
taste on the exterior, particularly on the portals. The two curious 
minarets are surmounted by bulbous cupolas adorned with bright- 
coloured fayence tiles in the Persian style. The sadly misused liwans, 
in the construction of which some fine ancient Byzantine columns 
were used, still retain their painted cassetted ceilings. The dome 
in front of the prayer-recess rests upon ancient Egyptian granite 
columns, but only the drum now remains. 

The entrance to tlie barracks opposite the N.E. facade of the Garni' 
en-Nasir leads to the small Garni'' Suleiman Basha (PI. F, 6), also called 
Sdryat or Sisariyeh, on the E. side of the citadel, which was erected in 
1528 by Suleiman, one of the Mamelukes of Sultan Selim. The architecture 
is a mixture of Arabian and Turkish. The mosque contains Cufic inscrip- 
tions, marble mosaics, a decorated prayer-recess, and a pulpit in marble. 
In the N.E. comer of the forecourt is the tomb of the saint Saryat. 

By skirting the N.E. and S.E. sides of the Gami' en-Na.?ir we reach 
the so-called Well of Joseph (Bir YHsuf; PI. F, 6), a square shaft, with a 
spiral passage around it, sunk in the limestone rock to a depth of 290 ft. 
Within the shaft, at a depth of about 155 ft., is a platform on which the 
oxen stood that brought the water to the surface by means of a sakiyeh. 
The well was sunk by Saladin to provide the citadel with water, but has 
lost its importance since the completion of the new water-works. The 
name is due to the legend that this was the well into which the Joseph 
of Scripture was put by his brethren. 

A narrow lane leads from Joseph's Well to the Bdb el-Oebel (PI. F, 6; 
'mountain-gate'), the S. main gate of the citadel, whence a road leads 
straight to the Mokattam (p. 116). A road diverging to the right a little 
farther on leads to the Monastery of the Bektashi (Deir el-Maganri), a 
Turkish order of Dervishes, situated among green palms on a bare moun- 
tain-slope (visitors admitted). [The monastery may be reached also from 
the Place Saladin via the narrow lanes between the Tombs of the Mame- 
lukes and the citadel.] An easy staircase ascends to a court, in which 
are situated the residences of the monks. The garden in front commands 
an admirable view of the city, the valley of the Nile, and the desert. 
From the court a dark cave (probably an old quarry) enters the mountain- 
side, with the graves of dervishes. At the end is a chamber containing 
the tomb of a sheikh , where worshippers are frequently observed. The 
remains of a wife of 'Abbas I. also rest here, under an elaborate gilt tomb. 

From the Bab el-Gebel a road leads to the 8. to the Tombs of tJit Mame- 
lukes (p. 115). — To the Tombs of the Caliphs, see p. 111. 

"We return to the Place Saladin (p. 68) and follow the Shari' 
Mohammed 'All (p. 62} to its intersection with the Shaei' bl-Hil- 
MiTEH (PI. D, 5, 6). The latter street, along with its continuations, 
the Sh&ri' es-Siyufiyeh and the Shdri' er-Rukhlyeh (PI. D, 6, 7), forms 
the main thoroughfare traversing E. Cairo from N. to S. ( comp. p. 59), 

Quarter.^. CAIRO. 4. Route. 71 

to the S. of the Sliari' Mohammed 'Ali. In the Shari' el-Hilmtyeh, 
on the left, is tlie Monastery of the Mevlevis ('Derviches tourneurs'; 
PI. D, 6), an order of dancing dervishes (p. xcii), whose 'zikr' 
(comp. p. xci) may be witnessed on Frid. afternoons at two o'clock 
(previous application through a dragoman necessary). At the inter- 
section of the Shari' Siyufiyeh and the Shari' es-Salibeh is the rich 
and effective marble Sehll of the Mother of 'Ahhas 1. [PI. D, 6). To 
the left, in the Shari' Shekhuh (leading to the Place Saladin), is 
the Gdmi' Shekhuh^ built by the emir of that name (1350-55), and 
opposite, on the S. side of the street, is the Khankah or Convent of 
ShekhUh, occupied by dervishes of the Kadiriyeh Order (p. xcii). — 
We continue to follow the Shari' er-Rukbiyeh and turn down the 
Shari' Ibn 'Tulun to the right, in which, after about 100 yds. more, 
we observe on the right a lane leading to the E. entrance of the 
now disused and sadly neglected — 

*Gfi,mi' Ibn Tul4n (PI. D, 7 ; also pronounced 'Falun). This 
mosque, the oldest in Cairo but one , was erected in 876-879 by 
Ahmed ibn TuliLn , the founder of the dynasty of the Tulunides 
(p. cxiv). It lies in the quarter oi Kal'at el-Kabsh, on a hill named 
Oebel YeshkxJir, and occupies an area of 30,720 sq. yds., 20,320 
of which are taken up by the mosque proper. The edifice is said 
to have been designed in imitation of the Kaaba at Mecca, but 
without columns, by a Christian prisoner, who, in return for his 
release, constructed the whole of the building of entirely new 
materials (i.e. not taken from other buildings). The walls consist 
of brick, coated with stucco. The older part of the ornamentation, 
which is in carved (not moulded) stucco and wood, exhibits none 
of the intricate forms of the Byzantine- Arabian style, which appear 
in the later restorations. At a later period the mosque was used 
as a magazine and as an asylum for aged men, which explains the 
addition visible in the N.W. liwan, below the minaret. 

From the main entrance(Pl. l,p.72) we pass through the E, outer 
court to the Chief Liw an (PI. 4) or sanctuary, and thence proceed 
to the inner quadrangle or Sahn el-Gdmi% 99 yds. square. With the 
exception of the ceilings, most of which have been restored, the 
building has been preserved almost intact, though its fitting up has 
been frequently altered. The most important renovations were carried 
out by Lagin, afterwards Sultan El-Maiisur. It was he wlio erected 
the mausoleum-like Dome (PI. 6) in the centre of the court, covering 
an octagonal basin, on the site of an older hall which was destroyed 
. by fire. The court is surrounded by a double arcade, except on the 
sanctuary side, where the arcade is quadruple, while a fifth row 
of arches collapsed in 1876. Pointed openings above the pillars 
lighten the weight of the masonry, and the facades are crowned by 
a medallion -frieze and open-work balustrades. The pillars are of 
plastered brick and have their corners rounded into quarter col- 
timns, with delicately ornamented capitals. The pointed arches 

72 Route 4. 


3. South-Eastern 

are among the earliest examples of the kind. On one of the pillars 
of the sanctuary (PL x) is a marhle tablet bearing the charter of the 
mosque in ancient Arabic (Cufic) characters. Another pillar exhibits 
fine stucco ornamentation. The original roof of the arcades, of which 

I. Main entrance. 2. Foreconrts. 3. Liwans. 4. Chief Li wan or Sanctuary. 

5. Prayer-recess and pnlpit. 6. Dome and water-basin. 7. Large minaret. 

8. Small minaret. 9. Sebil of later date. 

remains are extant above the dikkeh, was made of beams of date- 
palm, veneered with sycamore wood. Along the top of the walls 
runs a frieze of sycamore wood, inscribed with texts from the Koran. 
According to the testimony of Makrizi this wood belonged to Noah's 
Ark, which was found by Ibn Tuluu on Mt. Ararat. 

Quartern. CAIRO. 4. Route. 73 

The Prayer Recess (IM. 5) has fine Byzantine capitals and remains 
of gilded mosaic. The wooden cupola over it has lately been restored. 
The Pulpit erected by Sultan El-Mansur (p. 71) in 1298 is still 
noticeable, though it has been robbed of its characteristic panels 
carved in ebony and ivory. These were sold in Europe and some 
of them are now in the South Kensinston Museum. 

The large Minaret (PI. 7), in the N.W. outer court, dates from 
a later period and is perhaps a reproduction of a tower at Samarra 
on the Tigris. It is built of stone, instead of brick, and also shows 
peculiarities in its square lower section and elsewhere. The horse- 
shoe arches at the entrance are particularly fine. The ascent is easy, 
and the top commands an admirable *View. To the S. are the pyra- 
mids of Dahshur and to the W. the huge pyramids of Gizeh; the 
valley of the Nile as far as the Delta lies before us ; to the E. rise 
the picturesque slopes of the Mokattam and the Citadel; in the 
foreground all round lies ('airo, with its houses, mosques, palaces, 
and gardens; to the N., at the foot of the minaret, is the Medreseh 
Sarghutmash. — From the minaret access is gained to the concrete 
roofs of the liwans, protected by elegant balustrades; a walk round 
these is recommended for a full appreciation of the view. 

We return to the Shari' Ibn Tulun, turn to the right by the 
Shari' ez-Ziyadeh, on the S.W. siile of the mosque, and follow 
the winding Shari' el-Kabsh and the Shari' er-Rahaba, all in the 
quarter of Kal'at el-Kabsh (p. 71), to the — 

*Medreseh Bey ( I'l. G, 7), which was erected in 1475 and 
has been recently restored by llerz-Pasha. It is cruciform in ground- 
plan, and its rich and elegant forms afford a good example of the 
style current under the second Mameluke dynasty (p. clxxx). The 
minaret is one of the most graceful in Cairo. The pulpit is richly 
embellished with wood-carving. The mosaics on the pavement and 
the flue ornamentation of the walls also are wortliy of notice. The 
dome is modern. 

The Shari' Bir el-Watawit leads to the E. from the Shari' Ibn 
Tulun, at the Mosque of Tulun, to the Shabi'i;l-Khei)eiri(P1. D,7), 
the W. prolongation of the Shari' os-Salibeh (p. 71). Here, just to 
theN. of the Tulun Mof-quc, stands the small Medreseh Sarghutmash, 
built by one of Sultan Hasan's Mamelukes in 1357 in the style of 
the mosque of Sultan lla.^au. The four liwans form a cross with 
the court in the centre. Ou the walls to the right and left of the 
prayer-niche are the arms of the builder. A door in the S.W. corner 
of the W. liwan leads to the mausoleum, covered by a stately dome. 
— In the Sh.iri' E/.bek, a side-street, lies the beautiful Mosque of 
Ezhek el-Yuaeli (PI. D,6), built in 1495 in the style of K ait Bey 
and recently restored. 

The W. continuation of the Shari' el-Khedeiri expands into 
the Shari' kl-MaeasIn (PI. C, 7), wliich leads almost straight to 

Kaedekeu's Egypt. 7th F.dit. 5 

74 RotUe I. CAIRO. (. Northern 

the small square and mosque of Es-Seiyideli Zeiiiab. On the way it 
passes the high-lying Odmi' Sang'ir el-Oauli (1303), with two stilted 
domes and a minaret resembling that of the Hakim Mosque. To the 
N. of this street lies the quarter of Birket el-FU ('lake of the ele- 
phants'), on the site of a former lake. 

The Gami' es-Seiyideli Zeinab (PI. C, 6, 7) was completed in 
1803 and enlarged and restored in 1884. The interior (not open 
to foreigners) contaiTis the tomb (restored) of Zeinab, daughter of 
Imam Ali and granddaughter of the Prophet; the bronze railing 
enclosing tlie sarcophagus bears the date 1210 (of the Hegira). In 
front of this mausoleum are the cenotaphs of three saints, beneath 
a stone canopy. 

From this point the tramway (No. 5, p. 38) leads to the N., along 
the course of the former Khalig Canal (p. 104), to the Bab el-Khalk 
and the Muski. Koughly parallel with it goes a scries of tortuous 
streets, called successively Shari' Seiyideh Zeinab, Shari' el-Lobu- 
diyeh, Derb el-tTamamiz, Shari' el-Habbaniyeh, and Shari' Bab el- 
Khalk, leading to the (1 V4 M.) Shari' Mohammed 'Ali and the Place 
Bab el-Khalk. In the Shari' bl-Habbaniyeh is the former Dervish 
monastery of Tekkhjeh es- Sultan Mnhmud or Tekkhjeh Hahbanhjeh 
(PI. D, 5). It was erected in the Turkish-.\rabian style about. the 
middle of the ISth cent, by Mustafa Agha, vizier of Sultan Selim, 
and is now occupied by students of the Azhar Mosque (p. 55). The 
building possesses a large court, with a fountain and a few palm- 
trees. Around the court are the cells of the students, and adjoining 
it is a small mosque. Built on to the monastery is the highly inter- 
esting SebU of Sultan MahmUd^ with its prominent rotunda and 
elaborate facade, its projecting blinds, and its coloured marble and 
porcelain interior embellishment. 

4. The Northern Quarters. 

The following section deals principally with the interesting edifices in 
the N.E. part of Cairo, to the N. of the Sikkeh e}-Gedideh, the continua- 
tion of the JInski (p. 53), and with the N.E. suburb of 'Abbn.ii/jeh. Ttie 
route here described is thus a direct continuation of that described in 
Section 2. — The N.W. portion of Cairo (p. IS) contains little of interest. 

From the Sikkeh el-Gedideh (p. 53), opposite the Gami' el- 
Ashraf (PI. E, 3; p. 53), we enter the Shart' kl-Khordagitbh (Fl. 
E, 3), which begins at the Selnl of Sheikh Motahhar, dating from 
1700. This street is the continuation of the great line of thorough- 
fares which runs from the Bab Zuweileh on the S. to the Bab el-Futuh 
(p. 77) on the N. 

To the right lies the entrance to the Khan el-Khalili (p. 54), 
nearly opposite which is the Sfik es-S&,igli (pi. Siydgh^, or bazaar 
of the goldsmiths and silversmiths, which consists of several crooked 
lanes, barely a yard in width. The stalls present a very poor ap- 
pearance, but the filigree-work is sometimes very good. The articles 

Qiiarlerf. CAIRO. 4. UouU. 75 

are usually sold by wciglit, and au oflldal ol' its corrent- 
ness may be obtained in the bazaar. 

From this labyrinth of lanes we return to the Shari" el-Khor- 
dagiyeh, which is prolonged by the Sh'iri' el-Goharghjeh. On the 
left side of this street are the striking red and white facades of 
the Muristan Kalaun, the medreseh of En-Nasir, and the Darkilkiyeli 
(see below and p. 76), which occupy what was once the site of a 
small palace of the Fatimite sultan Mu'izz. 

Opposite is the brnad Shari' Beit el-K&di, leading to the Beit 
el-Kadi (P1. E, 3), or 'House of the Judge', originally a palace of 
Kinir Mamai, a general of Kait Bey. The open veranda, with its 
live lofty pointed arches, dates from this period. This court was 
formerly the supreme tribunal of the country, and the appointment 
of cadi, made by the government at Constantinople, was frequently 
bestowed upon favourites, as it is a very lucrative post. Now, how- 
ever, the cadi is always an Egyptian aiid his jurisdiction is limited 
to questions of civil status (birth, marriage, inheritance). — We 
return to the main street. 

The *MTiristan KalS,6n (I'l. E, 3) is one of three buildings be- 
gun by SulUm EL- Slanmr Kalaun (p. cxvii) in 1285 and finished 
by his son En-Nasir in 1293, the two others being the mosque and 
mausoleum mentioned below. They are the largest monuments of 
their time and are of considerable architectural interest. They date 
from the period during which the Arabian architecture of Egypt 
began to be influenced by the European style introduced into Syria 
by the Crnsaders. — The Muristan was once a vast hospital, the 
greater part of which is now in a ruinous condition and occupied 
by coppersmiths and other mechanics. Part of it contains a new 
ophthalmichospital, erected by the Wakf Administration (p. Ixxxvi). 
Originally there was a separate ward lor every known disease, be- 
sides lecture-rooms lor students and an orphanage. 

The large portal is constructed of black and white marble in 
alternate courses. The doors show traces of their former covering 
of bronze. The adjoining corridor has a richly carved wooden ceil- 
ing. [The other corridors are vaulted in the Gothic style.] To the 
left of the corridor lies the Mosque; to the right is the Mausoleum 
of Kalaun, one of the most beautiful Arab buildings in Cairo. It 
has been restored by Herz-Pasha. The forecourt, the elegant facade 
of which is adorned with carved stucco ornamentation, is adjoined 
by the mausoleum proper. This is covered by a handsome dome, 
supported by four massive granite columns and four pillars. The 
exquisitely carved and coloured wooden ceiling and the prayer- 
recess, with its columns of red porphyry and its beautiful dwarf- 
arcades, are noteworthy. The marble and mother-of-pearl mosaic 
ornamentation of the walls and pillars is the finest of the kind in 
Cairo. In the centre stands the sultan"s catafalque. The stucco 
ornament.ition above the exterior of the W. exit may be noticed. 

76 Route 4. CAIRO. 4. Northern 

Adjacent to the Muristan is the Medreseh and Tomb of En- 
N&sir, dating from about 1303 , now almost a total ruin. 

'We enter it from the street by a marble portal in the Gothic style, 
brought by Sultan El-Ashraf Khalil, the elder brother of En-Nasir, from 
the church of Acre, which he destroyed in 1291. The door leads into 
a corridor, on the right side of which is the tomb of En-Nasir (dome 
collapsed), while t(j the left is the sanctuary of the medreseh. In' front are 
tlie ruins of the main building, now containing coppersmiths' workshops. 

The third large building is the *Barkftkiyeh, the medreseh of 
SuUan Barkilk [138'2-99; p. cxTiii ), built in 1384. It possesses an 
interesting marble portal and a bronze-mounted door. The greater 
part of it has been thoroughly restored, and the colouring and gild- 
ing applied to the sanctuary and mausoleum (in which a daughter 
of Barkuk rests') are, unfortunately, much too loud. — Opposite is 
a modern sebil. 

The N. continuation of the Gohargiyeh is the busy Suari' en- 
Nauhasin, with the market of tjie coppersmiths. To the riglit, be- 
tween the Haret Beit el-Kadi and the Derb Kermez, are the remains 
( stone below, brick above) of the huge facade of tlie palace of Dur 
BeshtdkiPl. E, 3; p. clxxxiii), which was erected in 133Uby the Emir 
Beshtak on the foundations of a palace of the Fatimite caliphs (eutr. 
from the Derb Kermez). The interior still retains traces of its ela- 
borate decorations, wliilc tlie main room of the harem (Ka'a ; inacces- 
sible) is well preserved. — At the intersection of the street with the 
Shari' el-Tombakshiyeh (p. 77) stands the SebU 'Abd er-Rahman^ one 
of the prettiest structures of its sort in Cairo (18th cent.). On the 
groiindfloor is the chamber for the distribution of the water, taste- 
fully decorated with fayence. Upstairs is the hall of an elementary 
school, commanding a striking retrospect of the busy street. 

At tlie corner of the Haret es-Sannannin, farther on, to the 
right, stands the GS.mi' el-Akmar (PI. E, 2), built in 1125 by Kl- 
Ma'mun, the grand vi/.ier of Jll-Amir, the Fatimite. The facade, 
now laid bare for the greater part, is the oldest mosque-fagade in 
Cairo and therefore of considerable architectural interest (comp. 
p. clxxix); it is built of liewn stone, with tall pointed arches in 
rectangular frames alternating with small recesses in two stories. — 
The street now becomes the SHAPa' el-Margush el-Barrani. On 
the left, beside the modern mosque of Es-Selahdar, with its Turkish 
minaret, the Haret Bir Gauan diverges through an archway and 
leads in a zigzag to the Mosque of Abu Bekr Mazhar el-Ans&ri 
(P1.E,2). ■ • 

This mosque was built in 1480 by Abu Bekr, director of the chancery 
of Sultan Kait Bey, in the style of the small mosques of the later Mameluke 
period, and has been thoroughly restored. The walls and ceiling illustrate 
the characteristic decoration of its date. Other noteworthy features are 
the columns in the E. and W. liwans, the carved pulpit, and the pretty 
doors. The central portion is domed. The coloured stucco window- 
traceries are modern. 

Farther on the street assumes the name Shari' Bab el-Fotuh. 
On the right we soon reach the entrance of the ruinous — 

Quarlcr.i. OAIHO. 4. Route. 77 

Gft.mi' el-H&kim (I'l. K, 2), begun in 990, on the plan of the 
Mosque of Ibn Tulun (p. 71), by Caliph El-'Aziz, and completed 
by his son El-IIakim in 1002-1012. It was seriously damaged by the 
earthquake of 1303, but was restored soon afterwards by Beybars II. 
Under the French it was used as a fort. It now lies in ruins, -with 
the exception of the sanctuary, which has a modern ceiling. The 
two minarets, at either end of the W. wall, are noteworthy. Orig- 
inally round, they owe their present cubical shape to a stirrounding 
wall, built at a later date. In the case of the N. minaret, which is 
incorporated in the town-wall (see below), the finely carved marble 
windows and the Fatimitc inscriptions in its original lower portion 
may still be identified. The dome-shaped tops, resembling Arabian 
incense-burners (mabkhara), date from the above-mentioned restor- 
ation. The N. minaret commands a fine view. 

At the end of the Shari' Bab el-Futuh rises the Bfi,b el-Futuh 
(PI. E, 2), or 'Gate of Conquests', which is connected by the ancient 
city-wall with the Bab en-Nasr (PI. E, 2), or 'Gate of Victory', 
165 yds. to the E. (reached by the Shari' el-Kassasin). These 
two gates form the strong N.E. extremity of the old city-forti- 
flcations. Together with the mosque of Caliph Hakim, situated 
between them (see above), they formed a strong position for the 
troops of Napoleon in 1790. These solidly built gates are, along 
with the 15ab Zuweileh (p. 60), the only survivors of the sixty 
sates in tlic Fatlmite walls of Cairo erected by the vizier Badr el- 
Ganiali at the end of the lltli century. Their plan resembles 
that of ancient Roman gateways. Each has an outer and an inner 
gate, flanked by square or round towers and united by means of a 
vaulted inner court. 

The *AscENT of the towers and town-wall is highly recommended 
(adm. 2 pias.). We first ascend the Bab en-Nasr, on which an old 
gallows is still standing, then walk along tlie wall, the battlements 
of whirh are partly preserved, to the Bab ol-Futuh, beyond which 
the wall is <'Ontinued for some distance. The view ranges over the 
city and, on the \V., to the Tombs of the Caliphs and the Gebel el- 
Ahmar (p. 115). The return to the Bdb en-Nasr should be made 
through the casemates, the finely pointed masonry of which includes 
blocks (some inscribed) from carly-lCgyptian buildings. 

In the Moslem cemetery outside I lie I'fib en-Nasr is buried Johaiin 
Ludwig Bvrckhardt fd. 1817), known to the Arabs as 'Sheikh Ibrahim', 
the distinguished oriental traveller. — From the Bab en-Nasr to the Tombs 
of the Caliphs, sec p. 111. 

We return from the Bab cn-Nasr by the Shari" B.\ii kn-Nasr, 
passing (right) the Okella of Kait Bey, dating from 1480. Farther 
on, in the Shaei' r.L-GAMALivEit (Fl. E, 2, 3), to the left, is the 
Conventual Mosque of Sultan Beybars II. 1^1306-9 |, with the domed 
tomb of the founder. We next follow the Sharf el-Tombakshiyeh 
(p. 76) to the right to the Shari' en-Nahhasin. the Shiiri' el-Khorda- 
giyeh, the Sikkeh el-Gedideh, and the Muski (_p. 53). 

78 Route 1. CAIRO. /. ^orthern Quarters. 

The principal thoroughfare of the N.W. quarter is tlie Shakt 
Clot Bey (PI. B, 0,2), which runs to the N.W. from the Midaii el- 
Khazindar to the Central Railway Station (p. 35). — In the Derb 
cl-Wassa, to the W. of the Shari' Clot Bey, lies the Chief Coptic 
Church (PI. C, 2), a modern building dedicated to St. Mark. (For 
Coptic services, comp. p. 107. ) Adjacent are schools and the house 
of the Orthodox Coptic Patriarch. — The Shari' Clot Bey ends at 
the MiDAN or Plack Ramsi^.s (PI. B, 1, 2), which, at the instigation 
of Viscount Kitchener, will eventually be adorned with the colossal 
statue of Ramses II. found at Mit Rahineh in 1820 (comp. p. 144). 
At the end of the Shari' Niibar Basha is the handsome modern 
Seb7l of the Mother of hmd'U Pasha (PI. B, 2 ). 

From the N.W. end of the Place Ramses the Shari' esh-Shuhra 
leads past the Central Railway Station to the village of Shuhra 
(beyond Pi. 15, 1), terminus of tramway No. 8 (p. 38; Hot.-Restaurant 
Shubra). To the left in this street are the Asylum for Aged Men 
and the Ecole Tewflkieh, with a training college; on the right is 
the school of the Dames du Bon-Pasteur. At Sh\ibra is a now neglect- 
ed khedivial garden (adm. in the absence of Prince Husein Pasha; 
fee 5 pias.). — From the tramway-de'pot the road to Rod el-Farag, 
on the Nile, the most N. harbour at Cairo, leads to the left (tram- 
way No. 9). Steamer to the Barrage, see p. 39. 

The Shari' el-Faggaxa runs to the E. from the Place Ramses, 
and from it, a little farther on, to the left, diverges the Sham' ez- 
/Ihir {ed-Daher; PI. C, D, 1), pleasantly shaded by lebbakh-trees. 
In its prolongation is the Middn ez-Zdhir ( PI. E, 1), with the large 
mosque of that name, erected by Beybars 1. (p. cxvii) at the end of 
the 13th century. Its exterior walls only have been preserved. 

From the Midan ez-Zahir the Shari' bl-'Abbasiyeh (PI. E, 1) 
leads past a Seb'd on the site of the former Bab Huseiniyeh to the 
quarter of 'Abb&siyeli (comp. Map, p. 105), in a healthy situation 
on'the edge of the desert (tramway No. 3, see p. 38; rail, station of 
Demirdash, see p. 120). It was founded by 'Abbas I. in 1849. On 
the left 'side of the Shari' el-'Abbasiyeh is the Fadatviyeh Mauso- 
leum (of the time of Kait Beyl, and farther on, at the N. end, are the 
Egyptian Army Military School and Barracks. 'Abbasiyeh contains 
also most of the foreign hospitals mentioned on p. 40 and the 
Government Lunatic Asylum. — To Kubbeh, Matariyeh, and the 
new villa-quarter of Heliopolis, see pp. 119, 120. 

5. Sdlak, Gezireh, and the Gizeh Suburb. 

Comp. the Map^ p. 105. 

Bfil&k (or Bulaq\ the quarter situated beyond the now fllled- 

in Isma'iliyeh Canal , is reached from the Ezbekiyeh by following 

the Shdri' Bv.ldlc (-p. 62^ and crossing a railway -siding (tramways 

Nos. 2 & 6, p. 38). To the left of the level crossing is the Scottish 

d. Gezheh. CAIRO. 4. Route. 79 

Presbyterian Church of St. Andrew (p. 42), to tlie right a French Pro- 
testant cha]>el. Straight on beyond tlie railway line runs the busy 
Shdri' Abu'l 'Eia, whlcli traverses the whole quarter and with its 
narrow side-streets and lanes affords a more characteristic picture 
of oriental lite than Cairo proper. At the end of this street are the 
picturesque Gatni' Abu'l Ela ami the new BCddk Bridge (300 yds. 
long) to Gezireh, built in 1909-12, with a central lifting span 
(closed for traftic daily 12-12.45 p.m. and 8-3.45 p.m.). — Another 
important thoroughfare, the ShSri' es-Sdhil (PI. A, 4), leads to the 
N. of the Egyptian Museum past the building of the Road Board 
(Tanzim) and the Hospital of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals, to the W. end of the Shari' Abu'l 'Ela. 

At the N. end of Biilak is the Arsenal (1835), with a manufac- 
tory of weapons. Of the several mosques the most interesting is 
the Gdinf es-Sindnlyeh, built in 1573 by Sinan, the Turkish gover- 
nor under Selim II. Bulak boasts also of several churches, a Khe- 
divial Technical School, the Government Model Workshops, a House 
of Correction for Women, and the Government Printing Office. 

The Kasr en-Nil Bridge (Arab. El-Kubri; PI. A, 5; 420 yds. 
long), at the end of the Shari' el-Kubri, unites the new town with 
Gezireh. Early in the morning a picturesque crowd of peasants 
may be seen here with the wares they are bringing to market. 
The bridge is opened for the passage of vessels for about li/ohr. 
daily (generally 1.30-3; see notice-boards) and is then impassable. 
— A shorter route from the Ezbekiyeh to Gezireh is offered by the 
above-mentioned Bulak Bridge. 

The Gez'tret Bulak, usually known simply as Gezireh or Oezira 
(island), an island in the Nile, is a fashionable resort. From the 
Midan el-Geztreh (tramway, see p. 80), immediately adjoining the 
Kasr en-Nil Bridge, the Sikket cl-Gezireh leads to the right to tlie 
fashionable villa-quarter of Gezireh, passing (on the right) various 
pleasure establishments and attractive public gardens and (on the 
left) the Anglo-American Hospital and the grounds and racecourse 
of the Khedivial Sporting Club (p. 42). In the villa-quarter are also 
the Ghezireh Palace Hotel (p. 36), the Gezireh Grotto, with the 
Aquarium (open 8.30-5 : adm. 1/27 on Sun. 1 pias.), containing an 
interesting collection of Nile-flsh, and the German Institute for 
Egyptian Archaeology (p. 42), — Farther on the Sikket el-Geztreh 
curves to the S. and joins the Shari' el-Gizeh (p. 80). 

Beluw Gezireh the Nile is spanned by the Embdbeh Railway Bridge, 
which can be used ulso by lodt-passerigers and carriages. The station on 
the left bank is known as Embdbeh (pp. 32, 143). This was the scene of 
the 'Battle of the Pyramids', in whio)i thJ French under Bonaparte defeated 
the Mamelukes (July 21st. 179S). 

The Shari' cl-Kubri el-A'meh runs to the left from the Mlddn 
el-Gezheh\see above) through the S. part of Gezireh, which is occu- 
pied by *Gardens . much frequented especially in the afternoon. 
This street, shaded by lebbakh-trees and popular as a 'corso', crosses 

80 Route 1. CAIRO. 6. Egyptian Mmeum: 

the so-called Font des Anglais, spanning the W. arm of the Nile, 
and, under the name of Shdri' el-Glzeh, skirts tlie river througli 
Oizeh Suburb, a new villa -quarter. [The Shari' Mahattet Bulak 
cd-Dakrur, which diverges to the right, leads to Bulak ed-Dakrur 
(p. 143).] On the right, at the corner of the Shari' el-Brinsat, is 
the Survey Department (director, E. M. Dowson), and opposite is 
the MUdMyeh of the province of Gizeh. Farther on are the public 
Gizeh Gardens, behind which lie the Polytechnic School and the — 

Zoological Gardens (open daily, 9 till sunset; adm. 1/21 on 
Sun., when a military band plays, 5 pias.; cafe-terrace), which are 
rich in rare African animals and birds. The beautiful park itself, 
52 acres in extent, is worth visiting for the magnificent royal palms 
fOreodoxa regia), papyrus reeds, lotus plants, and other character- 
istic Egyptian vegetation. — Tlie road next reaches the N. end of tho 
little town of Gizeh, where, at the station known as Gtzeh Village, 
it joins the tramway to the Pyramids (No. 14, p. 38). To the right 
is the Oovernment School of Agriculture. 

Gizeh or Giza, an uninteresting town with 16,500 inhab., is the 
capital of the province of Gizeh (400 sq. M., with a population of 
460,080). Tuesday is market-day. — For the Pyramids of Gizeh, 
see p. 123. 

6. The Egyptian Museum. 

Tramways (Nos. 1, 12, 1.5, & 17J, sec pp. 38, 39. 

The **Egyptian Museum (Musee Egyptien du Caire, Arab. El- 
Antikkhdneh), containing Egyptian and Greek antiquities found in 
the valley of the Nile, lies in the Shari' el-Antikkhaneh el-Gedideh, 
not far from the Kasr en-Nil Bridge. Founded by the French Egypt- 
ologist Aug. Mariette (1821-81) in 1857 and originally housed at 
Bulak, the Museum was greatly enlarged by later directors (Grebaut, 
De Morgan, Loret, and especially Maspero) and is by far the largest 
and most important collection of its kind. Its growth is steady and 
rapid, owing to the regular archaeological enterprises of the Egyptian 
Department of Antiquities, to purchases, and to the proceeds of 
foreign excavations, half of which have to be surrendered to the 
Museum on request. — The present Director (and also Director- 
General of the Egyptian Department of Antiquities) is Sir Gaston 
Maspero; the Conservators are Emil Brugsch- Pasha, Ahmed- Bey 
Kumal, and G. Daressy. — General Catalogue Q Guide to the Cairo 
Museum'; 1913), by Sir G. Maspero, 20 pias. Comp. also L.Borc/iarcZt'« 
'Kunstwerke aus dem agyptischen Museum zu Cairo' (Cairo, 1908). 

The Museum is open in winter daily, except the great Mo- 
hammedan ( Beiram and Kurban Beiram) and public festivals, from 
9 till 4.30, in summer' (May- Oct.) from 8.30 to 1, on Frid. 
tliroughout the year from 10 to 12; admission 5 pias. (in summer 
1 pias., Mon. free). Sticks and umbrellas are given up at the en- 
trance (no fee). 


alier Oal^r 
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Oround floor. CAIUO. 4. lioulc. 81 

Stuuemts of special subjects should apply to the director or to one of 
the conservators. — There is no restrictinn on Copying. Sketchin<;, or 
Photographing the exhiliits, except that the permission of the director is 
required for scttin;^ up an oasel or tripoii-stand. — In the Sale Room (see 
helowj antiquities (the genuineness of which is guaranteed by the Museum 
authoritie.«) may be purchased; also photographs, picluri- pust-cards, and 
the official publications of Ihe Jluseum. Travellers going on to Upper 
Egypt should provide themselves here with a General Admission Ticket 
of the Service des AntiquiUs de rEgypte (comp. p. 200), admitting them to 
all monuments. 

The museum-building, covering an area of 14,330 sq. yds., was 
crei.'ted in the Grjcco-Roman style in 1897-1902 by M. Dourgnon, 
at a cost of over 5,000,000 fr. In the front-garden rises a Bronze 
Statue of Mariette (p. 80), by Denys Puech (1904), behind the 
marble sarcophagus of the great Egyptologist. 

The centre of the main fagade is occupied by a porch flanked 
with two massive pillars. Above these are two alto-reliefs by Ferd. 
Faivre, representing Upper and Lower Egypt. On both sides of 
the porch are colonnades for the exhibition of monuments of a large 
size. At the corners are two pavilions, that to the left accommo- 
dating the Library, that to the right the Sale Room (see above). 

The brown lettering on our Plan refers to the rooms on the ground- 
floor, the black lettering to the corresponding rooms of the upper floor. 
The letters (A, B, etc.) designating the different rooms are marked on the 
walls. — At the entrance to each room of the groundfloor hangs a diagram 
showing the positions of the larger and more important objects. This 
should in each case be consulted as the frequent rearrangement of the 
f xhibits prevents absolute accuracy in our description (comp. p. 90). 

A. Ground Flooe. 

On the groundfloor are the more ponderous monuments. Oppo- 
site the entrance is the — 

KoTUNDA, forming the centre of the Principal Gallery (see below 
and p. 89). In the four niches are colossal statues: 615, 616, Two 
king^ of the Middle Empire, afterwards usurped by Kamses II. ; 
11. Ramses II. ; 12. Amenhotep, the son of Hapu, a sage of the 
time of Amenophis III. (18th Dyn.). Farther on by tlie pillars, 
to the lelt, 510. Statue of Scsostris III., to the right, 509. Statue 
of a king of the 13th Dyn., both from Karnak. — In the Portico 
(Portique des quatre Fillers) behind the liotunda are two large 
wooden boats found near the N. Pyramid of Dahshi'ir. 

Principal Gallery (Grande iialerie cCJIonneurJ, West Wing: 
liy th<! pillars. 13. Colossal statue of Sesostris I. as Osiris, from 
Abydos; 17. Statue of the same king, from Karnak. — Sarcophagi 
of the Ancient and Middle Empires, behind most of whii;h stand 
large door-shaped steles. — 30. Alabaster coffin from Dahshur; 
44. Granite coffin of Khufu-onekh, adorned on tlu; outside witli 
doors through which the deceased might quit his coffin; 34. Cofflii 
of Tegi, from Thebes, with representations on the inside of food, 
weapons, and ornaments for the use of the deceased in the future 

oL Route i. CAIRO. 6. Kyyptian Muxcum. 

life; 38. Wouileii coffiii of Prince Ainenemhet, with a smaller one 
witliin it. — i5y the pillars, 518, 519. Colossal statues of Sesostris 1., 
from Karuak. — 50, 51. Low reliefs from the tomb of Sahu. 

50. The deceased sits at a lable covered with sacrificial gifts (meat, 
(liiwers, and fruits), while other gifts are brought to liim by servants. 
51. Sabu is being Ijorne in a litter, while below servants carry statues 
of the deceased to the tomb; the victims are dismembered; the deceased 
sails ou the Nile; he visits his flocks. 

Vestibule of the South West Staircase (Vedibule d'EscaUer 
Sud-Ouest). — S. wall: 61. Reliefs from the wall of a tomb represent- 
ing Governor Ipi, with his wife Senbct and two daughters, inspect- 
ing the harvest operations, and Ipi borne in his litter to the river, 
upon which boats are floating. 

We now turn to the right and enter the rooms containing the — 

KEonuments of the Ancient Empire (ea. 2980-2475 B.C.). 

Tlie first iour rooms (A-D ) contain the monuments of the 3rd- 
6th Dynasties, found mostly at Gizch, Sakkara, and Abydos. 

Gallery A. Statues, walls of tombs, false doors. — By the 
pillars, Wall-paintings from the mastaba of Ra-hotep (comp. 
p. 83), in which the silhouettes of the figures are hollowed out 
and filled in with various pigments : to the right, snaring birds 
and ploughing, to the left, a hunt in the desert. — Nos. 91, 92. 
Two alabaster tables of offerings. Two lions support each of the 
tables in a slightly tilted position, so that the libations ran down 
into a vase placed between the tails of the lions. - — In Case A arc 
four royal statues: 96. Khephren , 97. Mykerinos, 98. Nuserre 
(5th Dyn.), 99. Menkewhor; *10'2. Upper part of the wooden statue 
of a woman. — By the projecting walls on each side of this case, 
Reliefs from the mortuary temple of King Sehure (5th Dyn.l at 
Abusir (p. 1411 '■ E- Slaughter of cattle (below) and Personifications 
of provinces presenting their ofl'erings (abovel; P. Two rows of 
figures bearing gifts, with personifications of the Ocean, Sacrifice, 
and Grain; A. King Sehure suckled by the goddess of the South, 
with the goat-headed god Khnum standing by; B. Spoils of war from 
Libya, wlilch the goddess of writing catalogues. — 85. Inscription, 
in which Uni, a high official, gives an account of his career under the 
first three kings of the 6th Dynasty. 111-113. Rock-reliefs from 
Sinai, with King Snofru overcoming a Semitic Beduin. *88. Reliefs 
in wood, depicting Hesi-re standing and seated at a meal. 

**RooM B contains the artistic masterpieces of the Ancient 

Opposite the entrance: **140. Wooden statue from Sakkara, 
known as the Sheikh el-Beled (village-headman), a uame given to 
it by the Arabs on account of its resemblance to a well-fed speci- 
men of that modern functionary. 

The feet, which had been broken off, are re,stored in old wood. The 
arms are separately worked and attached to the body. The upper part 
of the body and the legs are bare, while from the hips hangs an apron. 

Ground Floor. CAIRO. 4. Rontr. 88 

In the haad is the long rod of office (modern). The nmnd head, with its 
short hair, and the portrait-like, pood-natnred face are remarkabl)' life- 
like. The eyes are inserted. The.v consist of pieces of opaque white quart/, 
with pupils I'ormed of rock-crystal, and the.v are framed with thin plates 
of bronze, the edges of which form the eyelids. 

*138. Diorite statue of King Khephreii , fouinl in the valley 
temple of Khepliren, the so-called Granitic Temple (comp. p. 136). 

The king is represented in life-size, silting on a throne, which is bnrne 
liy two lions. At the sides of the seat are the arms of Egypt, and on 
the back is a falcon, protecting the king's he;ul with its outspread wings. 

*141. Statue of an oflicial, sitting with crossed legs and writing; 
tlie eyes are inserted and the colouring has been well preserved. 

Case E. Copy of a group representing King Mykerinos and his 
wife. Figures of servants of the Ancient Empire. 3155. Nude hoy 
carrying a bag and a pair of sandals; 315G. Woman brewing beer; 
3157. Servants lining beer-jars with pitcli ; 3158. Woman grinding 
corn; 3159. Baker; 3160. Man sitting before the fire roasting meat 
and shielding his face from the glow with his left hand. — Case F. 
226. Mykerinos between Hathor and a goddess of an Upper Egpytian 
nome; Statues of the Ancient Empire. — 136E. Relief representing 
Ra-hotep and his wife Nofret (see below) watching the capture of 
birds and the landing of a papyrus boat ; 132, 133. Two large granite 
palm-columns from the mortuary temple of King Onnos (p. 165); 
136F. Ra-hotep and his wife at a hunt in the desert and inspecting 
cattle. — Case A. Statues of the Ancient Empire. 146. Sitting 
figure of a man with a long wig; 147. Seated figure of Hekenu. — 
Case B. 224. Mykerinos between Hathor and the goddess of the 
Theban nome; *149. Wooden figure of a man in a cloak; 151. Priest 
of the dead kneeling. — 155. Large tombstone of Ne-kew-re and 
his wife, of admirable workmanship; 157. Alabaster statne of My- 
kerinos. — Case C. 225. Mykerinos between Hathor and the goddess 
of the nome of Diospolis Parva (p. 244); 159. Statue of the dwarf 
Khnemhotep ; 161. Limestone statue of a nude boy. — Case D. 
Statues and family groups. — 142. Seated figure resembling No. 141 
(see above), along with which it was found, but probably represent- 
ing another personage; 136D. Kelief from the mastaba of Ka-hotep 
(see below), with servants and women representing the villages that 
belonged to the deceased and bringing sacrificial gifts; *137. Re- 
presentation in stucco of six geese, from the same tomb; 131, 134. 
Palm-columns from the mortuary temple of King Sehure at Abusir 
(p. 141). 

Room C. In the centre, 202. Lotus-column with a bud-capital, 
from the grave of Ptahshepses at Abusir (p. 142). 

**I\oost D. In the centre, **223. Limestone statues of Prince 
Ra-hotep and his wife Nofret, from his mastaba near Meidum 
(p. 205), the colouring still remarkably fresh and the facial ex- 
pression excellent (end of 3rd Dyn.). 

*230. Embossed copper statue of King Phiops 1., 231. Similar 

84 lynite i. OAIIIO. 6. Eijyptimi Museum: 

statue of bis son Mercnrc, botli t'roiu Hierakoiipolis (p. 337); 
233-237. Fragments from the walls of tombs (233. Flute and liarp 
players, singers, dancers, and two people beating time ; 234, 237. 
Boatmen fighting; 235. An ape biting a man in the leg; 236. The 
deceased Eiikbeftka receiving from bis attendants the products of 
his estates and different objects for his tomb-equipment. — 229. 
Statue of Ti, from Sakkara (p. 154); 232. Tomb-relief (herdsmen 
with their cattle; below, fishermen and herdsmen preparing a meal; 
to the right, below, brewing); 221, 222. Fine clustered papyrus- 
columns (p. clix), from the mortuary temples of Kings Nuserre and 
Sehure (p. 141); *227, *228. Limestone statues of the priest Ra- 
nofer, from Sakkara ; 238. Fragments of reliefs from the Sanctuary 
of the Sun at Abu Gurab (p. 140). 

Monuments of the Middle Empire and of the Hyksos Period 
(Dynasties XII-XVI; 2000-1580 K.C.). 

We pass through Uoom E, with monuments of the period be- 
tween the Ancient and Middle Empires, into — 

Room F. In the centre, *280. Wooden statue of the tutelary 
genius (Ka) of King Hor, represented as a nude man, bearing the 
hieroglyph Ka (two raised arms) on his head; the statue was 
found in the king's tomb by the S. Brick Pyramid at Dahshur 
(p. 167), where it stood in a wooden shrine (No. 281). — *284. 
Limestone statue of Ainenemhct III., from his mortuary temple 
(p. 194); 285. Table of offerings of Princess Ptah-nofru, in ala- 
baster; 286. Granite statue of Queen Nofret, wife of Sesostris I., 
from Tanis ; 287. Kude painted sandstone statue of King Mentu- 
hotep III. as Osiris, from his rock-tomb at Deir el-Bahri (p. 305). — 
We return to Room E and thence enter — 

*RooM G. In the centre, *300. Tomb-chamber of Harhotep, con- 
taining his limestone coffin and adorned with pictures of house- 
hold utensils required by the deceased; *301. Ten colossal lime- 
stone statues of Sesostris I., from Lisht (the fine reliefs on the 
tlirone should be noticed). 307-310. Boxes for entrail-vases. 

By the walls and in Cases A and B : Statues of kings and pri- 
vate persons of the Middle Empire, from the 'Karnak Cachette' 
(p. 278). — 311. Lower part of a tomb-wall with a relief of a King 
Entef ( 11th Dyn.) accompanied by liis hounds, found, like No. 322, 
at Drah Abu'l Negga (p. 2831; 301-306. Statues of Sesostris I. as 
Osiris, from Lisht. Against the E. face of the central pillar between 
Rooms E and G: 322. Tombstone of the nomarcli Entef. 

Room H. 360. Tombstone of Prince Mentuhotep. 

Monuments of the New Empire (Dynasties XVII-XX; 1580-1090 B.C.). 
Room I. Statues and steles of the ISth Dynasty. — Against the 
E. face of the E. pillar between Rooms H and I; 417. Large in- 
scription of Amosis I., from Abydos. — By the walls (beginning to 

Ground Floor. CAIRO. 4. Route. ^5 

the left of tho entrance of Gallery J): 415. Statue of Amenophis II.; 
410. Memorial stone of Amenophis III., referring to his victories; 
*400. Statne of Thutniosls HI. as a young man, in green schist from 
Karnak, representel as treading underfoot the nine bows sym- 
bolizing the desert- tribes; 467. Memorial stone of Amenophis IV. 
(p. cii) worshipping the sun; 40S. Amenophis IV. sacrillcing to the 
sun; 466. Amenophis II. protected by the snake goddess; *4B2. 
Statue of Amenhotep, son of Hapu (comp. No. 12, p. 81), with 
aged features, from Karnak; *4r)6. Head of the goddess Mut (sup- 
posed by some to be Oueen Teye, wife of Amenophis III. ), from 
Karnak. — Case B. *451. Fine head in black granite with mild and 
regular features, perhaps King Ilaremheb; *45'2. The Queen of 
Punt (p. 2*23), a relief from the temple of Deir el-Bahri (p. 301); 
455. Head of a king. — **445, 446. The chapel and the sacred cow 
of the goddess Hathor, dedicated by 'J'hutmosis III., discovered near 
the temple of Deir el-Kahri (p. 306) in 1906. The walls of the 
chapel, the ceiling of which is painted so as to imitate the vault 
of heaven, are decorated with coloured reliefs representing Thut- 
niosls 111. and women of liis family before the sacred cow and the 
goddess Hathor herself. The cow is a masterpiece of Egyptian sculp- 
ture, the head especially showing close observation of nature; in 
front of it stands the dead king, painted in black, while the living 
king is represented as drawing milk from the udder. 444. Painted 
sandstone statue of Mut-nofret, the mother of Thutmosis II. — Case A. 
*425. Statue of Isis, the mother of Thutmosis III., with a gilded 
diailem, from Karnak ; 426. Statuette of a king, in petrified wood. — 
*'l:22. Triumphal monument of Thutmosis III., from Karnak. 

In the upper part appears tlie kiny; sacrificing in Amnn-Re, with the 
p.ttrori-goddess of Thelii'!! beliitirt liim. In the potitic inscription the king 
is hailed as a viclor l>y Anion, and tlio conquered lands are enumerated. 

Gallery .1. Monuments of the Middle and New Empires. — Be- 
ginning on the S. at the two pillars: 531. Sandstone table of offer- 
ings, dedicated by a King Ameni-Entef Amenemhet (13th Dyn.). 
532. Colossal bust of a king of the Middle Empire; the name of 
King Merenptah (Ameneplithes; 19th Dyn.~) on the breast is a later 
addition. 533. Fine alabaster table of ofl'erings, dedicated by Se- 
sostris II.; 50S. Head of a king, in grey granite, found in Bubastis. 
— Statues of kings with high cheek-bones, folds about the mouth, 
and other pertiliar and foreign facial characteristics, and with hair 
auti beards unlike those of Iilgyptians; these were formerly regarded 
as llyksos princes (p. ci), but are now attributed with greater pro- 
bability to the end of the 12th Dyn.: *500-503. Sphinxes, in black 
granite, found in Tanis; 504. Group in grey granite from Tanis, 
representing two water-deities, offering fish on lotus-stems, while 
they carry other fishes and birds in snares (on the front is en- 
graved the name of King Psusennes, p. civ) ; 497. Upper part of the 
colossal statue of a king, from Mcdiiiot el-Faiyum. — *496. Group 
of Thutmosis IV. and his mother; 493, 491. Statues of the lion- 

oh Rotde d. CAIRO. 6. Efiyplhin Miixcmn: 

headed goddess Sekhmet, dedicated by Amenopliis III. in the temple 
of Mut at Karnak; *49i. Statue of the god Khons, from the temple 
of Khons at Karnak (p. 262); 490. Sacred snake dedicated by Amen- 
ophis II. in the temple of Athrihis, near Benha. 

On the Staircase to the Upper Floor : (1.) 550. Colossal seated 
lion, in red granite, from Tell Mokdam; (r.) 551. Praying cyno- 
cephalus, in red granite, from the base of the great obelisk at Luxor. 

GAiJiERT K. Tombstones and fragments of walls of tombs, of 
the New Empire. — 560. Memorial stone of King Tiit-enkh-Amun, 
referring to his buildings at Karnak; 562. Relief of a burial and a 
funeral dance; 559. Similar relief from the tomb of Harmin. 

Room L (temporary arrnngement). Statues and reliefs of the 
New Empire. — By the column on the left: 578. Group of Amon 
and Mut, dedicated by Sethos I. — *o88. Sacred boat In granite 
from the temple of Ptah at Memphis; 581. Three sandstone blocks 
from Karnak, with representations of a procession of the sacred boats 
and of the dedication of the two obelisks by Queen Hatshepsut. 

North Portico (Porttque du Nord). 592. Ramses II., seated 
between Isis and Hatliov; 593. Ramses II. and tlie god Ptah-Tenen. 
— *596. Stone with memorial inscriptions of Amenophis III., re- 
ferring to his buildings for Amon, and of Amenephthes(Merenptahl, 
referring to his victories over the Libyans ('Israel Stele"). 

This stood originally in a temple of Amennpliis III. at Thebes and 
was alterwards used by King Ainenephtlies, who inscribed upon the back, 
(turned towards the room) a hymn, concludinj; with the words : 'Israel 
is wasted and his seed is brought to nought'. This is the earliest mention 
of Israel in any Egyptian inscription. The stele was discovered by Flinders 
Petrie in 1896. 

612. Sarcophagus of Thntmo.«is I. ; 613. Sarcophagus of Queen 

Central Atrium (Atrmrn Central). This court contains the 
largest and heaviest monuments, including the colossal figures with 
which the Temple of Tanis was adorned (p. 172). On the N. stair- 
case: *610. Colossal group of Amenophis III. and his consort Teye, 
with their tliree daughters; in front of it, 635. Altar from the mor- 
tuary temple of Sesostris I. at Lisht (p. 205); 611. Two chapels de- 
dicated by Ramses II., with representations of the gods Re, Atum, 
and Amon. — 620, 631, 633. Colossal statues of unknown kings (of 
the Middle Empire), with the name of Ramses II. added at a later 
date (from Tanis); 621, 632. King Smenkh-ke-re (13th Dyn.). — 
In the S.W. corner, *614. Limestone coffin of a lady of the harem 
of Mentuhotep III. (11th Dyn.), from Deir el-Bahri, with interesting 
pictures on the outside (the deceased at her toilet, cows, etc.). — 
In the centre: 634. Point from the pyramid of Amenemhet III., 
from Dahshur; Stucco pavement from the palace of Amenophis IV. 
at Tell el-'Amarna (p. 212) including the representation of a pond 
with lishes and water-fowl. — We return to the Nortli Portico and 
pass tliTongh it and Room L to — 

Ground Floor. CAIRO. d. Route. 87 

Galleuy M. *()60. The celebrated 'Tablet of Sakkara', found 
in a tomb at Sakk.ira, on one side of which is inscribed a hymn to 
Osiris, while on the other appears the scribe Tunri praying to 58 
Egyptian kings, whose names are arranged in two rows, beginning 
with Miebis (1st l>yu.) and ending with Kamses II. •, CGI. Memorial 
stone of iiamses II., referring to the working of a sandstone quarry 
near Heliopnlis. 

Gallery N. .Monuments of the New ICmpire. Stone coffins in 
the form of mummies; statues of private individuals. — 673. Statue 
of Amon; 675. Fine liead in granite from a colossal statue of Ram- 
ses II. ; 704. r>roken lid of a sarcophagus of one of the sacred rams of 
Mendes; 706. Bed of black granite with the miinimy of Osiris. 

Uoo.M O ("Room of Apes'}. Chiefly monuments of the 19th and 
■JOth Dynasties. — 765. (>roup representing the gods Horus and 
Seth crowning Ramses III. (figure of Setii lacking), from Med inet 
Habu; 768. The scribe Ranisesnakht, with Thout, the tutelar of 
scribes, sitting on his shoulder. — Case A. 741. Bust of a princess, 
with well-preserved painting, of the time of Ramses II.; *745. Busts 
of a man and a woman, from Thebes; 743. Ramses VI. seizing a 
Libyan. — 729. Upper part of the statue of a king; 728. Two obe- 
lisks of Ramses II., praying cynoccphali, and small chapel with the 
figures of a scarabaius and of the god Thout in the form of a cyno- 
cephalus, from Abu Simbel(p. 40B); 725. Bust of King Ameneph- 
thes; 724. Alabaster statue of a king. — Colossal statue of Ram- 
ses II., in red granite, found at Erraent in 1913; the king is hold- 
ing two poles to which are attached the heads of the falcon-headed 
Horus and of Isis. 

Monuments of the Foreign Dynasties and the Later Period (1090-332 B.C.). 

Room Q ('Naos Room). Various chapels of goils (naoi) in granite. 
— In the middle: 790. Fragments of a ohapel dedicated by Nek- 
tanebos in the temple of Saft el-Hineh (p. 180) atBubastis, covered 
with texts and religious representations; *791. Statne in green stone 
of the goddess Toeris in the form of a hippopotamus, of marvellous 
workmanship, found at Karnak (26th Dyn.). — 795. Memorial stone 
of Ptolemy Sotor, found among the foundations of the mosque of 
Shekhdh at Cairo (p. 71); it relates to a gift of lands to the gods of 
Buto and is dated in the 7th year of the nominal reign of Alex- 
ander II., whose satrap Ptolemy calls himself. C. 870. Tomb-relief of the Saite period, representing the 
deceased watching the transport of ornaments intended for him. — 
854-857. Table of offerings, Osiris, Isis, and Hathor as a cow, before 
whom stands a man called Psamtik, all found in the tomb of the 
latter at Sakkara (a good work of the later period). — 829. Fine 
vase of black granite, dedicated to the god Thout by King Apries. 

r>y the W. pillar (near the entrance to Room R) : 858. Memorial 
stone of Ptolemy Philadelphus from Mendes (p. 172), relating to the 

88 Route 4. CAIRO. G. Egyptian Museum: 

lionours paiti to the sacred ram atMendes. — Ily the E. pillar: *851. 
'Pithom Stele', or memorial stone of King Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
from Pithom (p. 180), recording his exploits and his benefactions 
to Egyptian temples. 

Among the points mentioned are the facts that the king went to Persia 
and brought back to Egypt the images of gods which the Persians had 
carried olf, and that he sent a fleet of four ships under a general to the 
S. parts of the Red Sea. 

850. Memorial stone of Nektanebos, with a decree relating to 
the taxation of the Greek factories and to the imports of Naucratis, 
fonnd at that town. — We pass throngh IJoom 11 into — 

ItOOM S. Ethiopian monuments. — In the doorway: 937. Me- 
morial stone of the Ethiopian king Espelut (ca. 650 B.C.), refer- 
ring to his accession. — In the middle, ^'930. Alabaster statue of 
Queen Amenertais (25th Dyn. ; comp. p. 278). — 937. Memorial 
stone of Piankhi (p. civ), referring to his victories over the minor 
Egyptian princes; 938. Memorial stone of Tanutamun, referring to 
his campaign against the Assyrians and their vassals in Lower Egypt; 
939. Memorial inscription of Harsiotef, referring to his victories 
over the Nubians; 941. Group of the god Amon and an Ethiopian 
queen, from Meroe. — By the pillar at the entrance to Gallery X: 
932. Statue of Osiris, dedicated by Nitocris, daughter of Psam- 
metichos I. — We return through Room R and enter Room T. 

Monuments of the Grseco-Koman and Coptic Periods 
(4th cent. B.C. -7th cent. A.D.). 

Room T. In the middle, 964. Money-box in the form of a snake, 
from a temple at Ptolema'is. — E. wall : 972. Black granite statue 
of an Egyptian scribe named Horns. — 973. Statue of a man bearing 
a naos with an image of the god Horus, from Mit Rahineh. 

Case A. 994. Tombstone or stele, sliowing a woman in a mourn- 
ing attitude, to wliom a child hands a lyre (a Greek work of the 
3rd cent. B.C.); *993. Marble head of a Gaul, an original Greek 
work of the beginning of the Ptolemaic period, from Rhodes. 

*983. The famous Decree of Canopus, in three languages, found 
at Kom el-Hisn, 6I/2 M. to the S. of Naucratis. 

The decree appears above in hieroglyphics, or the ancient Egyptian 
written language, in the middle in the popular dialect written in the 
demotic character, and below in the Greek language and lettering. The 
decree was pronounced by an assembly of the priests iu the temple of 
Canopus on 3Iarch 7th (17thTybil, 238 B.C., in the reign of Ptolemy 111. 
Euergetes I. It praises the king for having brought back the images of 
the gods from Asia, gained many victories, preserved peace in the land, 
and saved it from imminent famine by his forethought in remitting taxes 
and importing corn. In token of gratitude a resolution is passed to in- 
stitute new festivals in honour of the king and queen and their ancestors, 
to call all priests also 'priests of the divine Euergetse', to found a new 
sacerdotal class to be named after Euergetes, and to introduce an improve- 
ment in the popular calendar so that the festival of Euergetes may always 
be celebrated on the first day of the year as in the year of the decree. 
It is resolved also to pay permanent honour to the Princess Berenice, who 
died young, and to celebrate an annual festival to her memory. The 

Ground Floor. CAIRO. 4. Route. 89 

inscriptions lastly declare that the decree is to be inscribed in the holy 
(hieroglyphic), the Egyptian (demotic), and the Greek languages, and to 
be exhibited in the temples. 

980. Another copy of the same decree, found atTanis. — 1016. 
Statue of a priest of Sobek, carrying a crocodile, the animal sacred 
to that god. — Case B. *1010. Venus wringing the water from her 
hair. — We pass through Room TJ into — 

Room V. Coptic monuments, tombstones, and architectural frag- 
ments. Fine *Capitals and ornamented friezes from the Convent 
of Jeremiali at Sakkara (p. 146), and the Convent of Bawit (p. 218), 
illustrating the transition from Byzantine to Arabic decoration. — 

1041. Tombstone with the Madonna and Cliild between two angels; 

1042. Fine capital from Alexandria. 

Gallkry X. Monuments of the Later Period, of the Graeco- 
Roman period, and of Coptic art. — 1080. Hathor capital, dedicated 
to Neitli by Apries; 2004. Emperor in the guise of Pharaoh. 

Case A. *1084. Head of Prince Mentemhet, with peculiar 
features, probably of a negro type ; *1085. Head of the Ethiopian 
king Taharka (the Tirhakah of the Bible), also with a negro cast of 
features. — 2002. Front part of a lion, used as the spout of a gutter; 
2000. Relief from Luxor, representing Isis and Serapis, the latter 
strangling a gazelle. 

Case B. Objects of foreign origin found in Egypt. 433, 434. 
Small clay tablets with cuneiform inscriptions, found at Tell el- 
'Amarna (see p. 212) ; 435. Cuneiform inscription of King Nebu- 
chadnezzar relating to the buiUliug of a temple at Babylon. 

Case C. Post-Christiau objects from the ancient Nubian cem- 
etery of 'Anibeh (p. 402) : statues of the deceased represented as 
souls in the form of birds, terracotta and glass vessels, Mero'itic 
tombstones, etc. — Architectural fragments from the Convent of 
Bawit and the Convent of Jeremiah at Sakkara (comp. above) in- 
cluding columns, capitals, friezes, and niches; *Painted niche from 
Bawit, showing (above) God the Father between the Archangels 
Michael and Gabriel, and (below) the Madonna enthroned and the 
Child Jesus between apostles and saints. — 2020. Coptic inscription, 
ourid in a tomb near Deir el-Bahri which was used as a church, 
containing a sermon against heretii-s and the customary prayer for 
the emperor and his family. 

Opposite the exit from Gallery X, at the E. end of the principal 
gallery, are four columns and an architrave from the temple of 
Augustus on the island of Philae. In this hall stands a marble statue 
of a Roman woman (No. 2041). 

Principal Gallery (Grande Galerie dHonneur), East Wing: 
Against the pillars, 1083. Colossal statue of a Macedonian king, 
perhaps Alexander II. ; Statue of a man of the Graico-Roman period 
in Egyptian costume. — In the gallery. Large stone sarcophagi of 
the Saite and Ptolemaic periods. — Against the pillars of the 

Baedeker's Egyiit. 7tU Edit. 6 

90 Route 4. CAIRO. 6. Egyptian Museum: 

Kotuiicla(p. 81), *662, 663. Statues of the god Ptah from the temple 
of Ramses 11. at Memphis. — For the W. "Wing, see p. 81. 
We now asi'.end by the S.E. staircase to the upper floor. 

B. Upper Floor. 

As extensive alterations are to take place in the upper floor during 
the next few years, many rooms are for the time being re-arranged or 
closed; our description, therefore, can in many cases make no claim to 

The upper floor contains chiefly the smaller antiquities, the 
mummies, the gold ornaments, and the objects found in the Tombs 
of the Kings at Thebes. We begin with the E. wing of the — 

Principal Gallery f r/aierie d'Hrmneur), where are exhibited the 
coffins and mummies of the priests of Amon and their families, 
which were discovered at Deir el-Bahri (p. 305) in 1891. These date 
from the period of the '21st and 227kI Dynasties. Each corpse had 
an outer and an inner wooden coffin, both in the shape of a mummy 
and covered with yellow varnish. The arms are crossed over the 
breast, the men having their fists clenched while the hands of 
the women are open. The women wear round earrings. The mummy 
was generally enveloped in a kind of cover (cartonnage) forming a 
full-length representation of the deceased. In many cases old 
sarcophagi (19th and 20th Dyn.) have been used, and the original 
names replaced by new ones. 

In the E. half of the gallery: *2080. Wooden war-chariot of 
Thutmosis IV., with beautiful reliefs embossed in linen covered 
with plaster, found in 1903 in the king's tomb at Thebes (p. 298). 
Adjacent is the reproduction of a war-chariot, the original of which 
is in the Archaeological Museum at Florence. In the middle: Mum- 
mies of the sacred rams of Elephantine (p. 358), with gold masks. 

In the Anteroom (Pantheon <le I'Egyptologie) to the small galler- 
ies along the S. front of the building are busts of eminent Egyptolo- 
gists. In the E. Small Gallery (to the left) is the Collection of 
Stone Implements (Objets en silex)^ chiefly dating from the pre- 
historic Egyptian period. The W. Small Gallery (on the right) 
contains the — 

Natural History Collection (Objets d'histoire naturelle). Cases 
A <?■ B. Plants from the coffins of the priests of Amon (p. 305) 
and from the Falyum. — Cases D cf- E. Fruit and corn. — By the 
walls : Flowers and garlands from the royal mummies. Palm tree 
with a rudely carved head of Hathor, used as a column In the tomb 
of Sennutem (p. 318). — Early Egyptian fauna. Two mummies of 
crocodiles. — Cases C^- F. Skeletons of Bos Africanus and Buballs 
Buselaphus. — Stand G. Mummies of birds. — Case I. Mummies 
and coffins of apes, dogs, and jackals. — Case K. Cats. — Case L. 
Calves; goats; gazelles. — Case M. Birds of prey. — CaseN. Ibises. 
— Case O. Fish ; shells; coffin of a scarabseus. 

Upper Floor. CAIRO. 4. Route. 91 

We return to tlie W. wing of the Principal Gallery, wliicli 
likewise contains coffins from the tomb of the priests of Amon (see 
p. 90). — Turning to tlie right we enter — 

Gallery A, which contains wooden coffins of various periods, 
but later will have only those of the Ancient and Middle Empires. 

Room B. Earliest period. — Case A. Objects from the tomb of 
Menes (p. 224 ) and the ceraotery of Abusir el-Melek (p. 206); vases 
in hard stone. — Adjacent is a glass case with objects dug up at 
Abydos by Prof. Petrie: Fragments of vases with names of kings; 
two stone vessels with stoppers of gold-leaf. — Case B. Other ob- 
jects from the tomb of Menes: 3021. Ivory tablet with a sacrificial 
scene and the name of King Menes; 3022. Lion in rock-crystal; lion 
and three dogs in ivory; clay stoppers from beer-jars, sealed with 
the king's name ; cow's feet in stone, used as the feet of chests ; flint 
knives; arrow-heads; etc. — Case C. Articles from the royal tombs 
of Abydos (p. 243): Stoneware; flint implements; clay stoppers 
sealed with tiie names of kings; copper utensils; 3030. Elegant ala- 
baster vase, with ornamentation imitating the cord by which the vessel 
was carried; 3033. Seated figure of King Khasekhem (3rd Dyn.); 
3031. Large schist palette of King Narmer (1st Dyn.), with reliefs, 
from Ilierakonpolis (p. 337). — (^ases D^- E. Stoneware and earthen- 
ware, flint knives, combs and toilet-articles, from burial-places in 
Upper Egypt ; 3040. Vessel of diorito. (the ears of the vase, to which 
copper handles are attached, are plated with gold); 3043. Flint knife 
with an engraved hilt of gold plate; 3044. Knife with a gold handle. 

— In the N.W. corner, between Cases D & E: 3052. Vase in red 
granite, with the name and ligiire of King Khasekhinui (2nd Pyn.). 

— Case F. Stoneware; 3000. Fragment of a schist palette with repre- 
sentations of animals; 30H2. Kneeling figure in granite (3rd Dyn.). 

— Cases G-J. Terracotta stoppers. — Cast K. Tombstones of royal 
dwarfs and lap-dogs, from Abydos. — lietween the cases: Tomb- 
stones of kings of the first dynasties, from Abydos. 

Room C. Coffins and mummies, chiefly of the Ancient and Middle 
Empires. — Case E. 3100. Mummy of Ament, a lady of the royal 
harem, with necklaces and tatooing (11th Dyn.). — Case F. Coffin 
with rude representations of men brewing and women grinding corn. 

— 3107. Mummy of King Merenre (6th Dyn.), with a finely woven 
cloth; 3108. Wooden coffin, standing on a bier with lion's feet. 

Room D. Objects found in tombs of the Ancient and Middle 
Empires. — Case A. Wooden models of boats which were used for 
pleasure-trips or for conveying the ilead. — Case B. I'Mgures of fe- 
male servants with sacrificial offerings; models of kitchens; 3124. 
Potter's workshop; 31211. Joiner's workshop; 3l2(t. Master and 
mistress of a house listening to their servants singing and playing 
on the harp. — Case C. 3136. Mode! of a kitchen in whieli a butcher, 
a cook, and a brewer are at work; 3137. Wooden chest with bronze 
models of sacrificial vessels. In the desk-case: Models of sacrificial 


92 Route 4. CAIRO. 6. Egyptian Museum: 

utensils. — Case D. '-'Small limestone statue of a harp player; small 
bronze tables with vessels; head-rests; models of sacrificial geese. — 
Case E. Models of boats and storehouses; kitchen; servants with 
sacrificial offerings; wooden and gilded models of sandals; head- 
rests. — Cases F if G. Wooden models of boats. ■ — • Case H. Boats; 
wooden figures; statuettes of servants; 3195, 3196. Two female 
servants, each with a basket on her head and a goose in her hand ; 
3194, Kitchen. — Case I. Boats, in one of which are soldiers with 
shields; models of storehouses. — Case J. Figures of servants; 
cattle feeding. — Case K. Figures of attendants; 3224. Man carry- 
ing boxes. In the middle: 3220. Wooden figure of a man in whose 
tomb most of these figures were found (6th Dyu.j. — Case L. Models 
of boats; small barks of the sun. 

Room E. Coffins of the late period. — 3262. Wooden bier from 
Akhmim. — Case A. (Jartonnage of the niuinmy of a woman, from 
Thebes (22nd Dyn. ), fresh and beautiful in colonr. 

Room F. Objects found in tombs of the Middle and New Em- 
pires. — In the centre : (Hass Cases H ^' 1. Two wooden coffins from 
Benihasan, on which stand (in their original arrangement) models 
of kitchens, ships, barns, and figures of attendants. — Glass Cases 
J Sf K. *3345. Forty Flgyptian soldiers with shield and spear, *3346, 
Forty negro soldiers with bow and flint-headed arrows, found in the 
tomb of the Nomarch Mesehti of Assiut. — Glass CaseF. 3347. Large 
wooden boat, with two cabins, from the snmc tomb. — Behind Case F: 
*Two coffins and mummy-mask of Mesehti. — By the walls: Case A. 
Models of houses and barns, in terracotta and wood, being gifts to 
the dead. — Case B. Canopic jars. — Case C. Wooden head-rests; 
Ushebtis (p. cxlviii). — Case D. Sticks, sceptres, clubs; wooden 
models of weapons and utensils. — Case E. Wooden models of 
shields; mummy-masks. — CaseF. Bronze, fayence, and alabaster 
vases for oil. — Case G. (Janopic jars; alabaster vases in the form 
of slaughtered geese. — Cane II. Terracotta models of kitchens; 
wooden baskets with models of sacrificial offerings. 

Room G. <Jrnaments and amulets of mummies. — Cases A ^' Y. 
3370, 3600. Two mummies of the later period with masks, breast 
ornaments, and other adornments of gilded and painted cartonnage. 

— Case B. Above, Wooden grave tablets of the later period ; wooden 
head-rests ; in the desk-case, scarabaei, which were laid on the breast 
of the mummy in place of the heart. — Case C. Above, Wooden 
grave tablets; models of women lying on beds, the harem of the 
deceased. In the desk-case, scarabsi from the breasts of mummies. 

— Cases D, //, K^ N, Q, £?' U. Canopi, or jars for the entrails of the 
dead, with lids in the shape of the heads of the guardian deities 
of the deceased (p. cxlix). — Case E. Above, Wooden boxes for 
ushebtis, or figures of the dead; in the desk-case, Amulets from 
the breasts of mummies; tablets with eyes, which were laid on the 
dead at the spot where tlie incision was made for the embalming. — 

V-pper Floor. CAIRO. 4. Route. 93 

Case F. 3365. Figure of the goddess Nephthys, protecting Osiris. — 
Case 0. Above, Wooden boxes for ushebtis. In the desk- case, 
Tablets with eyes (see p. 92); falcons with outspread wings. — 
Cases I, J, L, (S- M. Figures of the dead, including one belonging to 
the vizier Ptahmose (No. 3377) in white and blue fayence; 3375. 
Amenmose, in bronze; 3378. Bier with a mummy beside which is 
seated the soul ; small coffins with ushebtis. — Cases 0-R. Above, 
Mummy masks; bead-nets of mummies; small wooden coffins with 
falcons' heads, for the entrails of the deceased; in the desk-case, 
Amulets; magic wands with curious representations. — Case S. 
3505. Wooden figure of Isis (companion-piece in Case F ). — Case T. 
Above, Wooden figures of Osiris. In the desk-case, Eyes and other 
amulets. — Case V. Above, Figures of Osiris; wooden falcons. In 
the desk-case, Round tablets with representations of the gods, whicii 
were placed under the heads of the mummies as amulets. — Case X. 
Parts of the coverings of mummies; a boat. In the desk -case, 
Leather ends of mununy-straps with pictures stamped on them. 

Royal Mummies. 
Towards the close of the New Empire the vower of the Egyptian state was 
no longer in a position to protect even the last resting-places of the dead. 
Not only the necropoli.' at Drah Abn'l Negga (p. 283), btit even the secluded 
tombs in the 'Valley of Kings' (p. 284) were plundered. The authorities 
i-ontentfd themselves with rescuing the mummies of the ancient Pharaohs. 
Thus the bodies of nine kings were walled up in a side-chamber of the 
tomb of Amcnophis II. Eur the same reason the mummy of Kamses II. was 
transferred from its tomb at Biban el-Muluk (p. 287) to that of Sethos I., 
and when that refuge ceased to be deemed secure it was removed to the 
tomb of Amenophis I. Finally, under the 21st Dyn., it was resolved to 
protect the royal mummies from further profanation by interring them all 
together in a rocky cleft near Deir el-Bahri (p. 305;, which was artificially 
widened for the purpose. The corpses of the ruling dynasty also were 
placed here. Thus at last the remains of the great monarchs of the New 
Empire — Amosis I., Thutmosjs III., Sethos I., and Ramses II. — were left 
in peace until in 1875 the fellahin once more discovered their secret resting- 
place and the plundering of the mummies began again. In 1881 the modern 
thieves were traced and their finds secured fir preservation in the museum 
at Cairo. It was not till 1898 that Loret discovered the group of mummies 
in the tomb of Amenophis II.: and these were transferred to the Museum 
in 1901. Other royal tombs (of Thutmosi.s 1. and II.) have since been 
excavated by Loret and, in 1903-12, by the Egyptian Department of Anti- 
quities, at the expense of Theodore M. Davis, of America. Comparatively 
few mummies of kings or their relatives have been discovered in their 
original tombs (comp. Room U). 

Room H (Salle Theodore M. Davis). **Coffins and other articles 
found in 1905-8 in the graves of Yu'e and his wife Tu'e (the pa- 
rents-in-law of Amenophis III.), of Queen Teye (wife of Ameno- 
phis III.), and of Queen Tewosret. — Case A. **3610-3tJl'2. Canopic 
jars, witli beautifully executed heads of Amenophis IV. forming the 
lids. — Case B. Couch with figures of the god Bes. — Case C. Bier, 
on the linen of which is the figure of the so-called vegetating Osiris, 
outlined in sown barley. — Case D. At the foot: Alabaster and 
terracotta jars of Tewosret; vase of light green fayence with the name 

34: Route 4. CAIRO. 6. lujijplian Museum: 

of Sethos II. In the two upper divisions are objects from the tomb of 
Teye : Three fine cosmetic-pots, small models of papyrus rolls, boxes 
aud vessels, two small figures of Bes, woman carrying a jar (cos- 
metic-pot), ail of light green fayence. — Case E. Lowest division: 
Basket in the form of a house; sandals; alabaster vessels; wooden 
model of a bier. Central division : Large col'fln for an usbebti, or 
statuette of the dead ; gilded figures of the same kind ; wooden models 
of vases. Upper division: Gilded mask of Yu"e; wooden cases; 
bronze hoes and sacks for ushebtis. — Case F. Delicately execut- 
ed ushebtis; cases for similar figures; fine alabaster jar; two small 
masks from canopic jars (see below). — Cases G-J. Four wooden 
coffins of Yu'e, which originally lay one within another, the three 
inner ones gilded and in the form of a mummy. — Case K. Mummy 
of Tu e. • — Cases L, S, T. Three coffins of Tu'e ; the smallest (inner- 
most) coffin is gilded and its hieroglyphics and ornaments are beauti- 
fully inlaid with gems and glass; the outermost, with an arched lid, 
stands on a sled. — **Case M. Chariot of Tu'e; wooden chair decorated 
with heads of women and with well-preserved cane-plaiting, while 
on the back appears the Princess Sitamun, receiving the 'gold of the 
Southlanders' ; gilded chair, on the back of which appear Queen Teye 
and her daughter Sitamun in a boat; small chair, with cushion, the 
back and sides showing the god Bes and the goddess Toeris; two 
jewel-cases richly adorned with enamel. — Case N. Black wooden 
bed painted in white in imitation of ivory inlay. — Case O. Bed 
adorned with figures of Bes and Toeris. — Case P. *3682. Ushebti 
figure in alabaster; 3683. Bowl of light blue fayence of King Tut- 
enkh-Amun. — Case Q. Lowest division : Two boxes for the vessels 
containing the entrails of Yu'e and Tu'e, in the form of coffins stand- 
ing on sleds; four alabaster vessels, containing the embalmed en- 
trails of Tu'e under a gold mask. Central division : Gilded mummy- 
mask of Tu'e, enveloped in a fine linen cloth, which has turned 
black; wooden vases painted to imitate stone. Upper division: Cases 
with embalmed sacrificial offerings. — Case V. Mummy of Yu'e ; the 
incision on the left sirle of the stomach, for embalming purposes, 
is covered with a plate of gold. 

*llooM I. Objects found in the royal tombs. — Case B. Wooden 
models of barks of the sun. — Case C. Articles from the tomb 
of Thutmosis IV. Above: Cow's head, vases, and articles shaped 

like "T" ('crux ansata'), in blue fayence; fragments of embroideries 

in the so-called Kelim style, vvitli lilies and the name of Thut- 
mosis IV. In the desk- cases: Ushebtis and their coffins; magic 
wands in blue fayence; 3750. Fragment of an ushebti in white 
fayence with blue writing; leather quiver and sandals. — Cases 
D-F. Articles from the tomb of Amenophis II. Above: 'Large 
cow's head and calf's head, carved in wood; vessels in fayence and 
glass; two serpents in wood, one with a human head 'and out- 

Upper Floor. GAIHU. 4. Route. 95 

spread wings. In the desk-cases below: Fragments of coloured glass 
vessels. — Case E. Black wooden figures of the king; two wooden 
panthers; wooden vulture; coffins for ushebti figures. In the desk- 
cases below : Magic wands and 'cruccs ansata;" (see p. 94), of blue 
fayence; weapons. — Case F. Above: Wooden swan; alabaster figure 
of Horns; wooden figures of kings and of gods. Tn the desk-cases 
below: Blue fayence vessels, some in the shape of the 'crux ansata' 
(see p. 94). — Case G. Articles from the tomb of Thutmosis 111. 
Above: Wooden swan; papyrus; below: Models of magic wands and 
tools. — Case H. Above: 3744 a. Large wig; figure of Isis, whicli 
contained the papyrus buried with Queen Hent-tewe; canopic jars; 
below: Ushebti figures in blue fayence. — Case I. Above: 3746a. 
Case with the mummy of a gazelle; wigs; below: Blue ushebtis. — 
Case J. Above: 3750a. Case for the ushebtis of King Pinotem; fine 
goblets in glass and fayence; 3751a. Wooden tablet with a decree 
in favour of Princess Nes-khons; 3754a. Casket of wood and ivory 
with the name of Ramses IX. In the desk-cases: 3760 a. Small coffin, 
in which a human liver was found; embalmed portions of sacrificial 
animals; fruit. — CaseK. Above : 3770. Reed casket with wig of Est- 
em-kheb (p. 96); 3768. Inlaid casket of Queen Kemare-Hatshepsut 
(18th Dyn.) with the entrails of Queen Kemare (21st Dyn.); 3769. 
Marvellously fine winding-sheet from the mummy of Thutmosis III.; 
below. Fayence goblet of Princess Nes-khons; 3771. Mirror-case 
inlaid with ivory, from the tomb of Amenophis II. — Case L. Box 
of palm-leaves, for sacrificial gifts; winding-sheets. 

Gallery J (temporary arrangement). Articles from the tomb of 
Me'i-her-peri, the fan-bearer (p. 297 ; 18th Dyn.). — Case A. Large 
rectangular coffin, with a lid sliaped like a gable-roof; within this 
is a second long mummy-shaped coffin (black, with gilding), which 
never contained the mummy. — Case B. *3782. Quiver of red 
leather with stamped ornamentation, a lid, and a green border; 
arrows; dog-collar of pink leather, bearing the animal's name; 
another leathern quiver, not so well preserved; bracelets and neck- 
laces; blue fayence dish; *Polyclironie glass vase; draught-board and 
men. — Case C. Chest for tlie entrail-jars, in the form of a naos 
standing on a sledge. — Case D. 3807. Gilded wooden coffin that 
contained the mummy of Mei-her-peri. — Case E. Wooden bier with 
the painted figure of the vegetating Osiris (see p. 93). — Case F. 
Partly gilded wooden coffin of Mei'-her-iieri. — Behind Cases D, E, 
& F is Mei-her-peri's Book of tlie Dead (comp. p. 102), with col- 
oured vignettes (one of the finest examples). — Stand H. Wooden 
boxes with provisions for the dead. — Stand I. Large jars. 

In the N. part of the gallery are articles found in the royal tombs. 
— Case A. 3820. Coffin and mummy of Teu-hert, chief singer of 
Amon; 3821. Coffin and mummy of the priest Nebseni. — Case B. 
3822. Coffin and mummy of Masaherte, high-priest of Amon and 
commander-in-chief, son of King I'inotom I.; 3823. Coffin and 

96 Route 4. CAIRO. 6'. Eyyplian Museum: 

mummy of a woman (18th Dyn.); 3824. Coffin of Senu. — Case C. 
3825. Small white coffin of Princess Sitamun, daughter of Amosis I. ; 
the mummy was stolen in antiquity and replaced by a doll with a 
child's skull. 3826. Small coffln containing the mummy of a child. 

— Case D. 3827. Coffin of Rai, nurse of Queen Nefret-ere (p. 97), 
whose mummy was replaced in antiquity by that of a queen. — 
Case E. Objects found in the tomb of King Haremheb (18th Dyn.), 
which was discovered by Davis in 1908; head of the king in alabaster, 

— CaseF. Other objects from the same tomb: wooden figures covered 
with pitch (two hippopotamus-heads, lions' heads, jackals, seated 
god, etc.). — By the pillars at the entrance to Room 1: Upper halves 
of two colossal wooden figures of Haremheb. 

**Galleet K (Landing of the N. W. Staircase). In the centre : 
3840. Drawing prepared from the remains of a very artistic pall. — 
Case R. 3841. Double coffln with mummy of Zet-Ptah-efonekh, 
priest of Amon; 3842. Coffln of Queen Hent-tewe. 

South Side of the Gallery. Case A. Lid of the coffln of Queen 
Kemare. — Case B. 3845.Coffln with the mummies of Queen Kemare, 
who died in childbirth, and her infant daughter; 3846. Coffln of the 
priestess Nes-tenebt-asher (21st Dyn.); 3847. Coffln of Pinotem I. 

— Case C. Coloured coffin-lid of Queen Kemare. — Case D. 3849. 
Coffln and mummy of Princess Nes-khons ; 3850. Coffln of Queen 
Notmet, mother of the priest-king Herihor (21st Dyn.), with fine 
inlays of glass. — Case E. 3851. Coffin-lid of Pinotem I.; 3852. 
Coffin and mummy of Pinotem XL, the high -priest. — Case F. 
3853. Coffln of a high-priest of the 18th Dyn., with the mummy 
of Ramses VI. — Cases I ^- J. 3854. Cofflns and mummy of Princess 
Est-em-kheb; 3855. White coffln with the mummy of a poisoned 
prince. — Case G. Coloured coffin-lid of Princess Est-em-kheb. — 
Case H. 3857. Coffin and mummy of Ramses IV.; 3858. Mummy of 
Ramses V.; 3859. Mummy of a King Ramses (20th Dyn.). — Case I. 
3860. Coffln-lid of Amenophis I. (see below). — Case J. 3861. 
Mummy of RamsesIII. ; 3862. Coffln andmummy of SiptahMerenptah 
(19th Dyn.); 3863. Seth-nakht, father of Ramses III. — Case K. 
Enormous coffin of Queen Ahhotep, wife of Amenophis I. 

Centre of the Gallery. Glass Case L. Coffin and mummy of 
Amenophis I., with garlands of flowers. — Glass Case M. Coffln 
and mummy of Sethos I. — Glass Case N. Ramses II. 

North Side of the Gallery. Case 0. 3868. Coffin -lid of 
Ramses II. — Case P. 3869. Mummy of Ramses I. ; 3870. Mummy 
of Amenephthes, son and successor of Ramses II. and considered by 
the Alexandrian tradition to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus; 3871. 
Mummy of Sethos II. — Case O. 3872. Coffin-lid of Sethos I. — 
Case P. 3873. Coffln and mummy of Thutmosis IV.; 3874. Mummy 
of Amenophis III. ; 3875. Mummy of a princess (18th Dyn.). — 
Case Q. 3876. Coffln of a princess; 3877. Coffln of King Kemose; 
3878. Coffin and mummy of Thutmosis III. — Case R. 3879. Gilded 

Upper tioor. GAIKO. 4. Itouic. 97 

cofflu-lid of Queen Ahhotep (p. 98). — Caic S. 3880. Coffin and 
mummy of Thutmosis I. ; ^881. Thutmosis 11.; 3882. Mummy of 
Nefret-ere. — Case T. 3884. Coffin and mummv of Sekeiiyen- 
re III. (16th Dyn.); ^385. Amosis (17th Dyn.); 3886. Coffin and 
mummy of Siamun, son of Amosis. 


**RooM L ( Jewel Room) contains the Egyptian jewelry, illustrat- 
ing the art of working in gold and other metals from the earliest 
times down to the Qrieco-Roman and Byzantine eras. 

In Cases I & II, in the centre of the room, is the **Treasure of 
DahsMr. which was discovered by Mr. J. de Morgan in 1894 and 
1895 in the tombs of various princesses of the 12th Dyn. near the 
pyramids of Dahshiir (p. 166), and shows the work of the Egyptian 
goldsmiths at its very best. 

Case I (W.). A. Jewels of Princess Ite: Dagger, the hilt in- 
laid with gems, the crescent-shaped pommel in lapis lazuli; cornel- 
ian falcon; fan. — **B-D. Jbwkls of Prinxess Khnumet. B. Four 
gold necklaces of the finest workmanship, one adorned with a 
butterfly, the others with rosettes and stars ; gold chain-pendants 
inlaid with gems representing hieroglyphics. C. Necklaces, one of 
which is formed of the three hieroglyphics for 'life', 'wealth', and 
'endurance'; two falcons' heads inlaid with gems; bracelets of gold 
beads. /). *Two gold crowns inlaid with gems; one of these con- 
sists of a net held by six ornaments in the form of flowers and 
adorned with forget-me-nots, the other consists of rosettes and lyre- 
shaped ornaments. To the latter belong two other ornaments, a 
hovering vulture and a gold branch. — E. Plates of silver and copper 
for mirrors, chains, gold needles, etc. — F. Chains (rcstrung). — 
At the top of the case : Chains and nets of gold beads (restrung) 
and semi-precious stones. 

Case II (E.). A. Jewels of the Itk-Weret: Large 
breast-ornaments, bracelets, small chisels with gold blades. — B-D. 
Jewels of Peixcess Mererbt. B. Portions of mirrors (head of 
llathor, goddess of love; head of a lioness). C. Gold necklace with 
small gold shell-shaped pendants; pendants in the form of larger 
gold shells and double lion-heads. I). Gold pectoral or breast- 
ornament inlaid with gems; at the top is a vulture with outspread 
wings representing the goddess Nekhbeyet; below is the cartouche 
of Sesostris III., to the right and left of which are two griffins, as 
symbols of the king, each trampling upon two Asiatic foes. 
Pectoral of the same kind; at the top is the vulture, below on 
either side appears King Amcnemhet III., smiting a kneeling 
Asiatic with his mace. Two gold bracelet-clasps with coloured gems 
and the Tiame of King Amenemhet III. Gold shell, ornamented 
with lotus-flowers inlaid in coloured stones; two gold tubes for 
written amulets; gold necklaces and portions of necklaces; scarab;ei 

oO Route 4. CAIRO. 6. Eijyplian Museum: 

of semi- precious stones; rings with scarabaei. — E, Jewki.s of 
Peincess Sit-Hathor. Gold pectoral inlaid with stones, with 
the cartouche of Sesostris II. in the middle, on either side of 
which is a falcon perched upon the hieroglyphic symbol for 'gold' 
and wearing the Egyptian double crown; gold pendant inlaid with 
stones, representing two water-lilies tied together, from which a 
rattle (sistrum) depends; scarabaei; six gold lions; gold shells and 
knots belonging to chains. — F. Jewels of King Hon and of the 
Princess Nee-hetepti-khrot. Silver diadem inlaid with stones, 
with the Uraeus-serpent in front; gold dagger-blade; necklaces and 
bracelets ; two gold falcons' heads; clasps of a necklace; parts of a 
fan, in semi-precious stones. 

Case III. Amulets and jewelry found with a mummy of the 
26th Dyn. at 

Table Case IV. A. Chains of the earliest period. — B. Gold 
ornaments from the time of the earliest kings and the Ancient Em- 
pire : four bracelets from the tomb of King Zer (1st Dyn.) at Abydos 
(p. 243); gold objects (bull, gazelle), found at Nag' ed-Deir and 
already showing a high degree of perfection in their workmanship. 
— D. Gold pectoral, belt, and sandals, from a tomb of the 12th Dyn. 
at Er-Rubayeh (Lower Egyptl. — E. *Head of a falcon, with inlaid 
eyes, from Hierakonpolis (p. 337). — F. Metal-work of the Middle 
Empire: chains; gold fiilcon; dagger with inscription of the Hyksos 
period. — G-M. **Torab Furniture and Jewels of Queen Ahhotep 
(p. ci), mother of King Amosis (conqueror of the Hyksos), which 
date from the beginning of the New Empire and were found in 
1860 with the mummy of the queen at Drah Abu'l Negga (p. 283). 
O. 4030. Silver boat with crew; 4031. Necklace, with three large 
flies. H. 4035. Axe, with handle of cedar-wood covered with gold- 
leaf and inscribed with the cartouche of King Amosis, the blade 
being of massive gold inlaid with paste; 4032, 4033. Other axes. 
/. 4036. Gold chain with clasps in the form of heads of geese and 
a gold scarabteus inlaid with blue paste as pendant; 4037. Rich 
gold necklace formed of rows of knots, flowers, lions, antelopes, etc., 
with two falcon-heads at the ends. J. 4038. Gold pectoral inlaid 
with gems (the gods Amon-Re and Re-Horus in a boat pour holy 
water over King Amosis; on each side are falcons); 4039. Double- 
hinged bracelet, with delicately engraved figures on blue enamel, 
representing (twice) King Amosis kneeling with the earth-god Keb 
behind him, and two falcon -headed and two dog-headed genii; 
4046. Armlet with a hovering vulture in gold and gems. 4040. 
Diadem with the cartouclie of King Amosis flanked by two sphinxes; 
4041, 4044, 4045. Three bead-bracelets of the same king; 4042. 
Wooden handle of a fan covered with gold-leaf, showing holes round 
the rim for the insertion of ostrich-feathers; 4043. Mirror of the 
queen. K. 4049. Gold boat, on a small wooden carriage with bronze 
wheels, the crew in silver; 4050. Necklace; parts of necklace 

Upper Floor. CAIRO. 4. Route. 91) 

No. 4037 (see ji. 98). L. 4055. Dagger and sheath, both of gold; 
tlie liilt is adorned with gold and semi-precious stones, while the 
pommel is formed of four female heads; the junction of blade and 
hilt is artistically covered with the head of a bull ; the centre of the 
blade is inlaid with fine damascening of gold. 4056, 4057. Two 
daggers of simpler style; 4052-4054. Gold armlets and anklets, — 
M. 4060. Earrings inscribed with the name of Ramses XII. — 
N. 4064, 4065. Two gold bracelets inlaid with cornelian and lapis 
lazuli, from the mummy of Pinotem I. (^IstDyn.); 4062, 4063. 
Pectorals in the form of a temple, from the mummy of Ramses III. — 
O. 4070. Part of a gold pectoral, formed of necklaces with heads of 
gods (20th Dyn,"). — P. Small gold ligures of gods; amulets; pen- 
dants. — Q. Earrings. — It. Rings, several with scarabai. 

Glass Case V. 4100-4104. Vessels of silver found in the ruins 
of Mendcs and probably forming a part of the temple plate. — Glass 
Case VJ. Ornaments from the mummy of the royal admiral Zenhcbu 
(p. 166), from Sakkara: Mask, bands with inscriptions, sandal.s, 
kneeling figure of the goddess Nut with outstretched wings, the 
four tutelary deities of the deceased, gold finger and toe casings, 
small figures of gods and amulets, a palm-tree, and the boat of the 
god Soker, all of the finest workmanship. — Glass Case VII. A-}>. 
Portions of mummy vestments, amulets, figures of gods, and bead 
nets of the Late Egyptian period. /■,\f- F. Gold chain of the Roman 
period; 4133. Gold ornamentation of a Persian swoid-belt. G-iY. 
Bracelets, necklaces, rings, and other ornaments of the Roman and 
Byzantine periods. 0-R. Articles belonging to the treasure-trove 
of Tukh el-Karamu8 (see below). — Glass Case VJJI. i\lummy- 
ornaments (gold mask, etc.). — Glass Case JX. Ornaments from 
the mummy of the royal admiral Haryothes, and articles similar to 
those in Case VI. 

Glass Case X is devoted to the **Treasure of Ttkkh el-Kar&mAs, 
dating from the beginning of the Ptolemaic period (ca. 300 B.C.). 
**4172. Large armlet in the form of a snake, with inlaid eyes, and 
on the head a large ruby; armlet, the clasp of which imitates a tied 
knot, adorned witli gold wire; two small armlets, at the ends of 
each of which are winged sphinxes in tlie Hellenistic style; t^\o 
gold armlets or anklets, ending in the heads of fabulous animals 
resembling deer. Egyptian figures of gods and a neck-oruamcnt 
in pure Egyptian style, with falcons' heads. (Silver dishes and 
bowls; *Front part of a griffin, with gilded beak and wings; head- 
dress of a statue of a goti or a king, of beaten silver richly gilded ; 
*Head of a king in bronze, inlaid with gold, etc. 

Glass Case XI. *Gold Ornaments of Queen Teye (18th Dyn.) 
and Queen Tewosret (19th Dyn.), found by Mt. Davis in 1907 
and 1908 at I'.ib;'in el-Muluk. Diadem in the form of a vulture and 
breast-chain of Queen Teye; crown of Queen Tewosret, consisting 
of 15 blossoms; two large earrings with the name of King Siptah; 

100 Route 4. CAIRO. 6. Egyptian Museum: 

silver armlets with a representation of Queen Tewosret before 
Sethos II. ; gold necklet of pierced gold beads. 

Olass Case XII. *GoId Treasure of the 19tli Dynasty, found at 
Zakazik (Bubastis). Two gold vases of Queen Tewosret, -with rings 
for banging them up; *Silver vase witb a gold handle in the form 
of a goat; silver bowl with beautiful ornamentation; lotus-shaped 
gold bowl with the name of Queen Tewosret ; two. gold bracelets 
with the name of Ramses II. ; necklaces, earrings, etc. 

The Large North Hall (Salon Septentrional) is to accommodate 
the coffins of the 20-30th Dynasties. — In front of the entrance 
to Room L is a *Glass Case (A) containing small articles of especially 
fine workmanship. Middle part of the case, at the top: Censer; 
vases of coloured glass. N. side: 4221. Hippopotamus in a marsh; 
4222. Recumbent hippopotamus; 4223-4229. Wooden statuettes; 
*4227. Hairpin in the shape of a papyrus reed, upon which a man 
stands (Middle Empire). W. side: Beautiful alabaster vase; bronze 
figures of kings; 4238. Man holding a naos with a figure of Osiris; 
*4240. Vessel in the form of a drinking horn, adorned with a cow's 
bead ; 4242. Bronze statuette of a priest, bearing an image of Osiris ; 
4244. KingKheops. S. side: 4246. Apis, in bronze; 4250. Small 
head of a king in blue fayence;, 4251. Statuette of Ptah. E. side: 
4253, 4254. Two ivory draughtsmen in the shape of lions' heads; 
4256, 4257. Bronze statuettes of kings. 

Galleries Q & R will contain the coffins and mummies of the 
Grteco-Roman period, plaster masks of mummies, mummies with 
portraits of the deceased painted on wood or linen, etc. 

Gallery R (temporary arrangement). Case G. Bronze utensils 
found at Bedrashein. — In the Frames by the Walls: Winding- 
sheets of the mummies of the priests of Amon (p. 305), some of 
very fine linen; two fans of papyrus reeds; stick with an ivory 
knob. — Glass Case A (by the pillar near the entrance to Room V). 
Fragment of a painteil floor from the palace of Amenophis III., 
uearMedinetHabu (p. 330). — Glass Case B. 4371. Ground-plan of 
the tomb of Ramses IX. (p. 286), on a large piece of limestone. 

Room S (temporary arrangement) contains the objects of foreign 
origin found in Egypt. 

Room T. Figures of gods and sacred animals. — Case A. Cats. 
— CaseB. Amon, Toeris, Mut, Bastet; 4416. The goddess Nekh- 
beyetin the form of a vulture, in silver; 4429. Nefertem. — Case C. 
Small figures in fayence of the deities Nefertem, Toeris, Amon, 
Mut, Khons, Min, and Khnum. — Case D. The gods of Memphis, 
Ptah, Sekhmet, and Apis; the lion-headed Buto. In the desk-case: 
Steles of Apis; 4495. Relief with the funeral chariot of Apis. — 
Case E. Figures in fayence: ibis-headed Thout; Thout in the form 
of a cynocephalus; Sekhmet; so-called Patfekes (guardian-deities in 
the form of sick children with large heads and crooked legs). — 
Case F. Imhotep, Neith ; Thout, ibises, and cynocephali; Khons; 

Upper Floor. CAIRO. 4. Route. 101 

4602. Orion ; 4623. Maat. In the desk-case : Fayence figures of Thout 
in the form of an ibis and a cynocephalus; amulets in the form of 
stalks of papyrus. — Case O. Fayence figures: Bes, Anubis, Show; 
4578. Isis with the infant Horus, carrying the sacred bark of Osiris 
on her head. — Case U. Anubis, Besj 4600, 4601. Hapi, the god 
of the Nile; god with a snakes head; 4607. Unuris; 4610. Cow- 
headed Hathor; Hathor in the form of a cow. In the desk -case: 
Figures and heads of Bes in fayence; sistra and handles of sistra 
(with the head of Hathor in fayence). — Case I. Sacred lish and 
ichneumons; 4656. End of a sceptre with an ichneumon praying; 
coffins of snakes. — In the doorway to the outer passage: 4750, 4751. 
Two large protective tablets, with Horus upon the crocodiles. 

In the middle of the room : Four large bronze ligures of the lion- 
headed Buto; falcon-headed Horus. — In the Glass Case: Leaden 
headgear for ligures of gods. — 4666-4668. Osiris. 

Case K. Osiris; portions of figures of Osiris. — Case L. Osiris; 
the four sons of Osiris. — Case M. Osiris ; 4680. Osiris coming to 
life again. In the desk-case: Amulets; the backbone of Osiris; 
crowns. — Case N. Figures in fayence and stone of Isis, of Isis 
suckling Horus, and of Nephthys; group of Horus, Isis, and Neph- 
thys. — Case O. Isis; Isis suckling Horus; 4690. Collar with the 
head of Isis. In the desk-case: Portions of figures of Isis; sacred 
crocodiles. — Case P. Fayence figures of Horus and his sacred 
falcons; Harpocrates; 4713. Seth. — Case Q. Horus with the head 
of a falcon; falcons; Harpocrates; 4726. Horus in the form of a 
crocodile with the head of a falcon. In the desk-case: Ivory wands 
with fantastic representations (amulets'); protective tablets (Horus 
upon the crocodiles ). — Case R. Small bronze buckets: censers; 
ends of si-.eptres; 4740. Sacred boat with a shrine and figures of 
gods, borne on a pole at processioTis ; thrones of gods. 

Manuscripts, Papyri, etc. 

Room U. Papyri (copies of the 'Book of the Dead' and the 'Book 
of him who is in the Underworld', see p. 102, Room W); drawings 
on thin pieces of limestone (in the desk-case on the right: battle- 
scenes, wrestlers, foreigners) and models for sculptors. Uncom- 
pleted statues. — Cases A-F. Models for sculptors. 

Room V. Writing materials and ostraka. As papyrus was expen- 
sive, less important writings were committed to wooden tablets 
(4865, 4866), potsherds ('ostraka': 4867, 4868), or thin pieces of 
limestone, like No. 4869 (Case E), from the tomb of Sennutem 
(p. 318), which contains the beginning of the 'Adventures of Si- 
nuhet', an Egyptian romance. — Gla^s Case A. Writing and paint- 
ing utensils; palettes; dishes for mixing colours; pen-case of reed 
formed like a lily at the top; pigments. — Glass Case B. Writing 
tablets ami ostraka. — Glass Cases D-H. Ostraka. — (}lass Case C. 

102 Route 4. CAIRO. 6. Egyptian Museum: 

Clay moulds for amulets aud usbebti figures; limestone moulds for 
birds, probably for purposes of magic. — By the walls: Papyri. 
Above Glass Case F: 4875. Part of a large mythical-geographical 
treatise on the Faiyiim, Lake Mceris, and its crocodile deity Sobek. 

Room W. MSS. on papyrus or linen. The papyri of the dead 
chiefly consist of extracts either from the 'Book of the Dead', a col- 
lection of texts referring to the life after death, or from the 'Book 
of him who is in the Underworld' (p. 284); they are generally 
adorned with pictures. The finest are: In the middle of the room 
(divisions 21 <fe 22 in the desk-case). Fragments of the Book of the 
Dead ofTu'e; on the other side (^divisions 34 & 35), 4888. The 
Book of the Dead of Queen Kemare (21st Dyn.); by the left back- 
wall of the room, 4884. Funerary papyrus of a singer of Amon. 

Gallery X (temporary arrangement). Cases C ^- E. SaTidals, 
baskets, and boxes made of papyrus reeds. — Case O. 4912. Wooden 
door from the tomb of Sennutem (p. 318), with beautiful paintings, 
e.g. Sennutem and his sister in an arbour playing draughts. — In 
tlie middle . Case M. 4920. Side of a sacred slirine dedicated by 
Queen Hatshepsut (see p. 103). — Cases H <^- J. Armchairs; folding- 
chairs; stools. — Case J. 4940. Water-clock of alabaster. — Cases 
F iS' G. Baskets and wicker boxes. — 4952. Fine bronze lion with 
the name of King Apries, used as a padlock in a temple. — 4953, 
4954. Fragments from the temple of Ramses III. at Tell el-Yehii- 
dtyeh (p. ITl), with fayence ornaments. — Case T). Stamped bricks. 
— Cases C-E. IJshebti iigures, steles, etc. — Tlie S. part of the 
gallery contains vessels of various periods, of clay, fayence, bronze, 
and stone. — Case C. Coloured imitation vases of wood, which 
were buried with the dead Instead of the real ones. 

Room Y. Architectural fragments, utensils, etc. — Case A. Mo- 
dels of pillars, capitals, chapels, and temple gates. 5101. Wooden 
model of a pylon. Rosettes and coloured reliefs of fayence, with 
representations of foreign captives (negroes, Asiatics, Libyans), 
mostly from the palace of Ramses III. at Tell el-Yehiidiyeh (p. 171) 
and from Medinet Habu (p. 322); 5116. Figure of Amenophis I. in 
the act of sacrificing, in green fayence, from Karnak. — Case B. 
Inlays of fayence and glass; stone-mason's square, plumb, and in- 
strument for measuring the battering of a wall, from the tomb of 
Sennutem (p. 318); wooden fastenings with the name of Sethos 1., 
from Abydos. — Between B and G : 5155. Picture of a captive 
negro from the pavement of the palace of Amenophis III., near 
Medinet Habu (p. 330 ). — Case C. Foundation deposits from various 
temples, including fayence tiles inscribed with the name of the 
royal builder. Especially interesting are the deposits found at the 
temple of Deir el-Bahri (p. 299), including imitations of tools, axes, 
adzes, chisels, awls, alabaster vases, tip-sleds, and so on. — CaseD. 
Bronze mountings from doors and furniture; tools; foundation de- 
posits (No. 5195 from a building of Apries). — Case E. Bronze 

Upper Floor. CAIRO. 4. Route. 103 

door-inountings; locks in the form of lions; inlays of glass and 
fayence from coffins of the Grsco-Roniau period. Razors. — Case F. 
Wooden boxes and stools ; 5225. Wing of a door from a sacred shrine, 
dedicated at Deir el-Bahri to Ainon by Queen Uatshepsut (whose 
name has been replaced by that of Thutiuosls II.). Parts of a chain, 
of fayence, with small tablets bearing the name of Psammetichos 1. 
Objects in glass of the Grseco-Roman period. — *Ca3e G. Articles 
of the toilet, chiefly dating from the New Empire: Mirrors and 
mirror-handles; cosmetic-pots; perfume-spoon.s and salve-boxes; 
5291. Cosmetic-pot in the form of a kneeling man bearing a jar on 
his shoulder; salve-box in the form of a woman swimming, holding 
a goose in front of her. — Case H. Mirrors; combs; salve-boxes 
( No. 5320 of wood, in the form of a recumbent calf), — Case I. 
Articles of the toilet; salve-boxes; cosmetic-pots; 5335. Mirror- 
handle in the form of the god Bes; 5330. Pincushion in the shape 
of a tortoise. In the central desk-case: Castanets; in the desk- 
cases at the side: Fayence rings. — Case J. Musical instruments: 
lyres, harps, flutes, bronze drum in the form of a cask with skins 
stretched over its ends [18th Dyn.) ; draught-boards and draughts- 
men; figures of women, forming the harem of the dead; children's 
toys, dolls, and balls. In the desk-cases : Scarabffii; in the central 
one: Scaraba:ii which were made to commemorate important events, 
like medals (No. 5401 commemorating the lion-hunt of Amen- 
ophis III.). — Case K. Weapons: sticks, axes, bronze axe-heads, 
arrow-heads, a lance, throw-sticks, clubs, and heads of clubs. In 
the desk-case: Scarabaei. — Between Cases K and L: Sledge lor 
transporting the coffin, from the tomb of Ramses V. at Thebes. — 
Case L. Weapons. In the desk-case: Scaraban ; cylindrical stone 
seals used for sealing in the early period. — Case M. Implements 
for agriculture and for weaving; two jars with stands. In the 
desk-case: Scarabaei. — Case N. Chariots and stone weights; frag- 
ments of yard-sticks; 5510. Alabaster vessel bearing the name of 
Thutniosis III., and inscribed as 27 hin (1 hin = */5 pint); 5512. 
Weight in the form of a calf's head with the name of Sethos I. and 
a statement of the weight as 300 teben (1 teben = 31/5 oz.). In 
the desk-case: Scarabsei and impressions of seals in clay. 

Room Z. Grreco-Roman statuettes and articles of domestic use. 
— Case A, Mummy -labels with Greek and demotic inscriptions. 
Tablets coated with wax, used by school-children. — CaseB. Bronze 
tigures ; 5553. Fine bronze vase. — Case C. Terracotta figures from 
Alexandria, resembling the Tanagra figurines. — Case D. Greek 
vases of various periods; portions of boxes with representations of 
figures in ivory or inlaid with ivory. — Case E. Grfeco-Egyptian 
terracottas. — C' /•'. Lamps. — H. Glass vessels. — Case 1. 
Grasco- Egyptian terracottas. — Case J. Vessels in fayence; two 
dogs, one in fayence, the other in painted terracotta, votive tablet 
of fayence; 6B53, 5664. Two triangular coffin-ends with painted 

104 Route 5. DEIR MART MTNA. Environs 

ami gilded reliefs in stucco , representing sirens (parts of coffin 
No. 4278). — Case K. Bronze lamps and candelabra; sheet of lead 
with representations in relief, from a coffin. — Case L. Mummy- 
labels and writing-tablets; 5677. Parchment document relating to 
a sale of land by a king of the Blemmyes (p. 386). 

In the middle of the room : Glass Case M. Greek panel-por- 
traits of mummies. — Glass Cases N-P. Coloured mummy -masks. 

In the Doorway between Gallery X and Room A'. Case A. 
Vases of alabaster and hard stone. — Case B. Terracotta vessels, 
some of them in the shape of animals or grotesque human figures. 

Room A' (temporary arrangement). Coptic utensils, articles of 
clothing, ornaments (in CaseE, arrow-shaped hairpins, chains, 
armlets, anklets), children's toys (Case D), church utensils (crosses; 
keys ; ivory comb with a relief, in Case F), wood-carvings (Case G), 
pottery (Case L), bronze candelabra and lamps (Case M), censers 
nd bottles (Case N), bron/.c bowls and buckets (Case 0). 

5. Environs of Cairo. 

1. The Island of Koda and Old Cairo. 

Electric Tramways CNns. 1 and 15), see pp. 38, 39. — With a visit to Old 
Cairo may be combined tbat to tbe Tombs of the Mamelukes. returninS 
via tbe Bdb el-Kardfeh (see p. 115) and tbe Place Saladin (p. 68). Those 
who wish to visit only tbe Kasr esh-Sham'a (p. 106) m;iy take the Helwan 
Kaihvay as far as the station of St. Georges (p. 167). 

Through the quarter of Ismailiyeh to the Kasr el -' Aini {PI. A,T)j 
see pp. 52, 53. — Thence the ShdrV Fumm el-KhaUg goes on to the 
M7ddn Fwnm el-Khalig, where the city canal El-Khnllg (now filled 
in) formerly diverged from the Bahr el-KliaUg, or small arm of the 
Nile separating the island of Roda from the E. bank. 

To the S. of the Shari' Sadd el-Barrani, which begins at the Midan 
Famm el-Khalig, are situated tbe Christian Cemeteries^ surrounded by 
lofty walls and presenting no attractions. The first is tbe English and 
Protest^ant Cemetery. — At the junction of the Shari' Sadd el-Barrani and 
the Shari' ed-Deyura stands a SebU with two domes, about 100 yds. to tbe 
E. of which lies the Deir Mari Hina, or convent of St. Menas (p. 28), 
a brick-walled enclosure containing an ancient church. 

Beyond the Midan Fumm el-Khalig rises the Head of the Old 
Aqueduct (p. 116), constructed of solid masonry in a hexagonal 
form, with three stories. — The road to Old Cairo, here called Shari' 
MasT el-Kadimeh, skirts the Nile and goes on to El-Ma'adi (p. 167) 
and Helwan (p. 167). A road, diverging to the right via the bridge 
El-Malek es-Sdleh , traverses the island of Roda and crosses the 
Nile to Gizeh by the 'Abbas II. Bridge (p. 123). — To the left 
diverges the Shari' Gami' 'Amr, leading across the Helwan railway 
to the Deir Abu Sefein and the Mosque of Amr (p. 109). 

of Cairr.. ISLAND OF RODA. 5. Route. 105 

The Coptic convent of Deir Abu Sefein is named alter the largest, 
tliough not the oldest, church within its precincts. The convent has a 
diameter of 050 ft. and includes three (|iarily restored) churches (El-'Adra 
Anha ShenOcla, and Abu Se/ein) and a nunnery (Deir el-Iiandt). The entrance 
is by the small gate at the S.W. angle, near the railway-line. — Among the 
mounds of debris to tlie K. and S. of (Ud Cairo are several smaller Coptic 
convents iDeir DablOn, Deir Todrus, Abu Kir ica Yuhanna., etc.), which, 
however, are of interest to specialists only. All have both male and female 
inmates. The Deir Bablun preserves the name of ancient Babylon (p. 44). 

The Shari' Masr cl-Kadimeh continues to follow the direction 
of the arm of the Nile. Opposite the Haret ed-Dabweh (PL at 
p. 106) is the ferry crossing to the Island of Boda (Geziret Roda). 
We descend the slope, enter the ferry-boat (1 pias. for one person, 
there and back ; payment made on returning), and ascend the oppo- 
site path. A guide is usually easily found to conduct travellers 
through the intricate lanes to the garden at the S. extremity of tbe 
island, belonging to the heirs of Hasan Pasha. 

At the S. end of the garden is a Nilomkter (Mikyus), con- 
structed in 716 A.D. by order of the Omaiyade caliph Suleiman. 
It consists of a square well, 16 ft. in diameter, having in the centre 
an octagonal column, on ■which are inscribed the ancient Arabian 
measures. The dira', or old Arabian ell, is 54 centimetres, or about 
211/4 inches long, and is divided into 24 kirat. The Cuflc inscrip- 
tions on the central column and on marble slabs built into the 
walls refer to restorations of the nilometer in the 9th cent., under 
the Abbaside caliphs Ma'mun and Mutawakkil. Numerous later 
restorations have taken place , the last in 1893. The office of 
measuring the water is entrusted to a sheikh. 

The zero point of the nilometer (according to llahmud-Bey) is 28 ft. 
above the average level of the Mediterranean, so that the top of the 
column is nearly 5'J ft. above sea-level. The water of the Nile, when at 
its lowest, covers 7 ells of the nilometer, and when it reaches a height 
of 15 ells and 16 kirat, the sheikh of the Nile measurement proclaims the 
IVefa (comp. p. xcviil, i.e. the height of the water necessary for irrigating 
every part (jf the Nile valley. The announcement of the wcfa was formerly 
the signal for cutting the embankments of the irrigation-canals, and noisy 
popular merry-makings still take place (about the middle of August) at 
the Midan Fumm el-Khalig (p. 104). The rate of taxation was determined 
in ancient times in accordance witli the height of the inundation (comp. 
p. 357), and even to this day there is a certain connection between these 
two facts (comp. p. Ixxii). 

Adjoining the nilometer is a large Kiosque in the Turkish style 
(no admission). — To tlie N. of a smaller round kiosque on the E. 
quay-wall is a iiiodern nilometer, to which a flight of steps de- 
scends. — The S. end of the island commands a fine view of the 
Nile, with Gizeh to the right, the pyramids in the background, and 
Old Cairo on the left, with its imposing quay. 

in a garden near the N. end of the island (ca. 6 min. tu the S. of the 
bridge El-Malek es-8aleh, p. 104) stands the wonder-working tree of the 
saint J/onrfflro, a huge nebk-tree, hung with innumerable little flags and 
rags. According' to a popular su|ierstition the patient must thus offer to 
thr- s.nint the cloth which enveloped the affected limb, pluck olf two leaves, 
and tie them on the affected part with another c!oth. 

106 Route 



To the left of the Shari' Masr el-Kadimeh lie the bazaars of 
the small town of Old Cairo (Masr el-Kadimeh; conip. p. 44) and 
the Church Missicnarii Society Hospital (p. 40). From the terminus 
of tramway No. 1 we follow the road along the river as far as Sahel 
Attar en-^ebi, a harbour for goods, chiefly, like Rod el-Farag 
(p. 78). for grain from Upper Egypt. The quay lias a frontage of 
about 875 >ds. and a flight of about 40 steps leading down to the 
river. A space of about 28,000 sq.yds. is occupied by the shuna 

= 1 : 7.150 
Old Cairo. 

or warehouses, separated from one another by broad streets lined 
with stalls for the use of the harbour merchants. The warehouses 
and stalls are owned by the government. The quay is to be pro- 
longed to Deir et-Tin, the city boundary, and Sahel Attar en-Nebi 
will then become the chief harbour of Cairo. We turn to the left 
from the quay into the Shari' es-Seghir (PI. A, B, 2), pass the police- 
station, turn to the left again, and reach the rail, station alSt. Georges 
(PL B, 2; p. 167). Beyond the railway lies the quarter of Kasr esh- 
Sham'a (PI. C, 1, 2), almost exclusively inhabited by Copts. It 

of Cairo. OLD CAIRO. 5. Route. 107 

is built witliin the still partly preserved girdle-wall of the ancient 
Roman citadel of Babylon (p. 44). — To tlie right of the railway, at 
the S E. angle of the citadel, stands the Coptic church El-Mo'allaka 
(PI. C, 2; 'resting upon columns'), the oldest in Babylon and re- 
cently restored. Beyond a vestibule we enter a garden and a court, 
whence a broad flight of steps ascends to the church. At the top 
are an anteroom and an open court. We enter the double-aisled and 
handsomely fitted up church through a colonnade. — Beyond the 
angle, on the S. side of the citadel, is a massive Roman Gateway 
with two projecting towers, in which fragments of early-Egyptian 
masonry have been used (key from the porter of the Mo'allaka 
church). — Just beyond the station the road leads past the Greek 
Convent of St. George (Convent grec; Pl.O, l,^), the circular domed 
church of which rests on the foundations of a Roman tower (a on 
the Plan), to the Coptic church of — 

*Abu Sergeh {St. Sergius; PI. C, 1, 2), enclosed by a dense mass 
of houses. This church is believed to have been built before the 
Mohammedan conquest, but this can be true of the crypt only. Ac- 
cording to tradition the "Virgin and Child after their flight to Egypt 
spent a month in this crypt. The church is now being restored. 

This church, which has suffered at various times from alterations 
and additions, now partly removed, may be regarded as the original 
model of the older Egyptian-Byzantine churches in which the Coptic 
Christians now worship i". The basilica consists of a nave and aisles, 

+ Coptic 'Worship. On entering the church the members of the con- 
gregation first pay their homage to a number of pictures of saints hanging 
on the walls (the veneration of saints and of the Virgin being a prominent 
feature of the Coptic system) and then kneel before the altar and kiss the 
hand of the priest. They then take their stand (for there are no seats) in the 
part of the church allotted to them, the feeble leaning on crutches which 
they bring for the purpose, as the service often lasts for more than three 
hours. The service begins with the reading or chanting of prayers and 
passages from the Gospels, partly in the Coptic language and partly in 
Arabic, in which the priest is assisted by a schoolmaster and a choir of 
boys. During this performance the worshippers, with very few exceptions, 
engage freely in conversation. After a time the burning of incense begins. 
The priest, swinging his censer, leaves the beikal and joins the con- 
gregation, each member of which he blesses, placing his hand on their 
heads. — The Celebration of the Euchavist is very frequent in the Coptic 
churches, immediately following the ordinary service. — On January 19th, 
the anniversary of the Baptism of Christ ('id el-ghiids), men and boys 
plunge into the large font or bath which is to be found in most Coptic 
churches, the water having been first blessed by the priest. Or they per- 
form the same ceremony in the Nile, into which they first pour some con- 
secrated water. On the" eve of this festival, as well as at Epiphany, on 
Maundy Thursday, and on the festival of the Apostles, the priest washe.s 
the feet of the whole of his congregation. — On Palm Sunday wreaths of 
palm are blessed by the priest, which are then worn by the Copts under 
their tarbilshes during the whole of the following year as amulets against 
every misfortune that can befall body or soul. — An external form to 
which the Copts attach great weight is the observance of fasts, and a Copt 
who is negligent in this respect will rarely be met with. On these oc- 
casions all kinds of animal food, not excepting fat, eggs, butter, and 
cheese, are prohibited. — Comp. Butler's 'Coptic Churches of Egypt' (1884). 

Ba«obkeb"3 Egypt. 7th Edit. 8 

108 Route 5. 



the latter provided with galleries. The nave and choir, which is 
raised, have open ceilings. The lofty side-walls of the nave consist 
of two rows of columns, one above the other, the columns of the 
lower row being separated by keel-arches, while the upper series, 
supporting the gallery, consists of alternate groups of two marble 
columns and one pillar of masonry. The columns of marble origi- 
nally belonged to ancient edifices, and have been placed here without 

a. Entrance from the street, b, c. Vestibule, d. Basin for ablutions, 
e. Passage, f. Baptistery, g. Men's section, h. Seat for the chief priest. 
i. Pulpit, k. Choir. 1. Sanctuary (Heikal), with the altar, m, n. Siiie- 
chapels. o. Well. p. Keadinj;-desk. q, r. Entrances to the crypt, s. Old 
vestibule or narthex, with the ancient water-basin. — The original walls 
are shown in black, the later ones are shaded. 

the least regard to their suitability in point of diameter or archi- 
tectural features. Two of the three original entrances on the W. side 
are now built up; they all led into the narthex, or old vestibule, 
which had apses at both ends (S. apse now wanting). This narthex 
contains an ancient water-basin (PI. s), in which the priest still 
washes the feet of the men at the Feast of Epiphany. 

The nave, which has a pointed wooden ceiling, is diArided by 
wooden screens into three sections. The first (PI. c, c) is the vesti- 
bule and contains the basin (PI. d) for ablutions ; the second (PI. e) 
is used as a passage and is adjoined ontheN. by the baptistery (PI. f); 
and the third (PI. g) is the section for the men, though it is com- 
monly used by women also, who retire to the galleries only when 

of Cairo. . OLD CAIRO. 5. Route. 109 

the church is crowded. Beyond the nave, and raised by a few steps, 
is the choir (PI. k) where the priests officiate, and which is adjoined 
by the Heikal, or sanctuary (PI. 1), containing the altar, and by two 
side-chapels, that on the left (PI. m) snrmounted by an Arabian 
dome. In the apse of the sanctuary rise several steps, in amphi- 
theatrical fashion, towards the place which in European churches 
is occupied by the episcopal throne, aTid in the present case by a 
picture of Christ. The sanctuary and the side-chapels are shut off 
by wooden screens, panelled and richly adorned with carvings in 
wood and ivory. The finest and oldest of these are on the screen 
to the left of the sanctuary; besides ornamental designs they have 
representations of the Nativity, St. Demetrius, St. George (Miiri 
Oirgis), St. Theodore (?), and the Eucharist. Above the door to the 
right side-chapel (PI. n), engraved in wood, is the Coptic inscription, 
'Greetings to the Temple of God, the Father 1' Below it is an Arabic 
inscription with the date 1195. The church contains also some 
interesting Byzantine carving and mosaics in ivory, now blackened 
and discoloured with age. A number of old pictures of saints, some 
of them on a gold ground and with well-preserved colours, possess 
no artistic value. The guide expects a fee of 1 pias. from each 
visitor, who places also 1 pias. in the collection-plate. 

Steps (PI. q, r ) descend to the Crypt (often flooded), a small 
vaulted chapel with marble columns under the choir, consisting of 
nave and aisles. At the end of the nave is an altar in the form of 
an early-Christian tomb-niche, which tradition indicates as the spot 
where the Virgin and Child reposed; in the centre of the aisles are 
apses. The right aisle contains the font, into which, according to 
the Coptic ritual, the child to be baptized is dipped three times. 

The citadel contains several other basilicas, used by Coptic and 
Jewish congregations, but interesting only to those who are making 
a special study of this kind of architecture. Among them we may 
mention the churches of St. Barbara (^Sitteh Burbdra ; PI. C, 2: 
restored), containing good carvings and paintings, Mdri Girgis 
(St. George), and El-'Adra (PI. C, 1). The Jews say that Elijali 
once appeared in the modern Synagogue (Esh-Shamydn or Ken^-iet 
Elidhu), and show a place in it where Moses is said to have prayed. 

About 20 yds. to the right of Abu Sergeh we enter a pictur- 
esque lane on tlie left, which leads to a low-lying iron-bound door 
^Entree on the Plan, p. 106). Thence a road leads to the N., past 
the rubbish heaps of the ancient Fustdt (p. 44), and after ca. 1/2 ^^^ 
reaches the white and red striped W. facade of the externally in- 
significant mosque of Amr(comp. PI. C, 1), which has three entrances. 
Visitors usually enter by the S. (r.) entrance, below the minaret. 


The G&mi' 'Amr ibn el-' As, or Mosque of Amr, owes its name 
to the general of the Caliph Omar, though not a trace now remains 
of the original mosque, which was only i)0 ells long and 30 ells 


110 Route 5. OLD CAIRO. . Environs 

broad. Indeed there is scarcely a building in Egypt that has so 
frequently been destroyed by water, fire, and eartliquake, and that 
has been so regularly rebuilt. 

The interior exhibits the usual plan of a court surrounded by 
colonnades, and in spite of its imperfect state (the N. and S. 
colonnades are represented by the column-bases only) its mere size 
produces a certain effect. The columns, all of marble of various 
kinds, were once 366 in number. Their heterogeneous nature is 
accounted for by the fact that they were brought from Roman and 
Byzantine buildings in Cairo. 

The facades of the Court (Sahn) have no pretensions to an- 
tiquity ; the arches are of an unusually clumsy shape. In the centre 
of the court, which is now planted with trees, is a hanefiyeh ; the 
deep well is popularly believed to have a connection witli a well 
in Mecca. The South-F.astern Ltwdn is the sanctuary. In front 
of the pulpit, within an iron railing, is a column of grey marble, 
on which, by a freak of nature, the names of Allah, Mohammed, 
and Sultan Suleiman in Arabic characters, and the outline of the 
prophet's 'kurbatsh' appear in veins of a lighter colour. This 
column is believed by the Moslems to have been transported mi- 
raculously from Mecca to Cairo by the Caliph Omar. In the N.E. 
corner is the tomb of Sheikh Abdallah, son of Amr. In the N.W. 
corner is a recess with two low columns ; the blood-stains on the 
top are caused by patients in search of health, who here rub their 
tongues until they bleed. In the W. colonnade, which consists of 
a single row of columns only, is a Pair of Columns^ placed very close 
together, and it is said that none but honest men could squeeze 
themselves between them. 

This mosque is almost disused. On the last Friday in the month of 
fasting, however, a solemn service is annually held here, in which the 
Khedive and his grandees take part. On the remaining Fridays throughout 
the year a handful of poor Moslems, mostly of the working classes, assemble 
for worship in the venerable but poorly preserved sanctuary. — In 1808 
this mosque witnessed a very remarkable scene. The whole of the Mo- 
hammedan priesthood, the Christian clergy of every sect, and the Jewish 
rabbis, with one accord, assembled in the mosque of Amr to pray for the 
rise of the Nile, which had delayed beyond the usual period. 

Near the Mosque of Amr are several Kulla Manufactories, in 
which the process of making the porous water-jars (Arabic Kulla, 
pi. Kulal) used throughout Egypt may be seen. The chief seat of 
manufacture is, however, Keneh (p. 222). The material is a light- 
grey clay; the remarkably delicate porosity of the vessels is pro- 
duced by mixing the clay with ashes. The rapid evaporation caused 
by the porosity of the kulla cools the liquid within to a tempera- 
ture of 12-14° Fahr. lower than that of the surrounding air. — To 
the convent of Deir Abu Sefein, see pp. 104, 105. 

A visit to the Tombs of the Mamelukes (p. 115) may be con- 
veniently made from this point. Continuing to follow the road 
across the rubbish-hills of Fustat, we observe on our right a Mos- 


al'Est cLu Caire 


50 lOO 

ToBibeaxLiu / 
S^lltan el-Gliouri 

Mosquee funer^.f / 
du Siiltan Inal 

^ ' iv- , -"; otuBiviKaiiouk 

*^ ^3= «f el-Acliraf AzromokC < 


# lA-/" 



G-rave et inxprime par 


of Cairo. TOMBS OF THE CALIPHS. 5. Route. Ill 

lem burial-ground and at a sliort distance In front of us the old 
aqueduct (p. 116). A little to the right, on an eminence, rises an 
old ruined mosque (Gami Ahu Su'ild), beyond it is the Citadel 
with the mosque of Mohammed Ali , and farther distant are the 
Mokattam Hills with the mosque of Giyushi (^p. 116). This view is 
very striking towards sunset. The road, which becomes bad farther 
on, leads round the ruined mosque and ascends heaps of debris. 
On the top of the hill it divides. The branch to the left leads back 
to the town. The road, first in a straight direction, afterwards in- 
clining to the right, leads to the mosque of Imam Shafl'i (p. 115). 

2. The Tombs of tlie Caliphs and the Mamelukes. 

Tickets of Admitsion, see p. 43; Carriages, see p. 39; Donkeys, comp. ]). 39. 
The genera) effect is most striking towards sunset. The enjoyment of the 
scenery is, however, greatly impaired by the dustiness of the roads. 

The mediaeval Arab mausolea of Egyptian rulers, which, under 
the names Tombs of the Caliphs and Tombs of the Mamelukes^ stretch 
along the entire E. side of the city, were erected mainly by the 
Circassian Mameluke sultans. The name 'Tombs of the Caliphs', 
applied to the northernmost group, is historically a misnomer, for 
the tombs have no connection with the Abbaside caliphs then re- 
sident in Egypt and treated as mere titled puppets. These mosque- 
tombs were once each provided with a numerous staff of sheikhs 
and attendants. The revenues of the mosques having been con- 
fiscated at the beginning of the 19th century, the tombs gradually 
fell to ruin. Now, however, the Committee mentioned at p. 43 has 
taken them into its keeping. 

The usual route to the *Tombs of the Caliphs (Arab. Turab 
el-Khnlafa or Turab Kail Bey) leaves the city via the Muski (p. 53) 
and its prolongations. It then traverses the mounds of potsherds 
known as the Windmill Hills (p. 114) and reaches the still-used 
cemetery (Karafet el-Afifi). By the roadside lie large mausolea 
(Arab, Hosh), with courts and rooms occupied during certain festi- 
vals by the relatives of the deceased. We first reach the tomb- 
mosque of Kait Bey, to the N. of which is that of Barkuk. Hence 
we return to the city by one of the routes described below. 

Those who wish to combine a visit to the Citadel (p. 68) with 
that to the Tombs of the Caliphs should select the route from the 
Bab el-Attaba (PI. F, 5) to the Kait Bey Mosque (comp. p. 114). 

It is, however, more convenient to begin with the N, group of 
tombs. In this case we quit Cairo by the Bab en-Na^r (PI. E, 2; 
p. 77) and pass the Mohammedan cemetery. To the right are the 
Windmill IliUs (p. 114). Beyond the unimportant tomb of -SAciM 
Galdl we have one of the finest *Views of the city of the dead. 

The N.E. group of the mausolea, which is hardly worth visiting, 
consists of the Tomb of an Fmir of Sultan El-GUuri (p. 59), a cube 



surmounted by a stilted dome, and the tomb-mosques of Sultan 
Inal, with a handsome minaret, and Emtr KeMr, son of Bars Bey 
(p. 113). — Straight on is the — 

*Tomb Mosque and Convent of Sultan Barkfik, reported to have 
been planned by the architect Sherkis el-Haranbuli. The N. dome 
■was completed in 1400-5 by Barkuk's two sons, Farag (p. cxviii) 
and 'Abd el-'Azh, the S. dome and the convent (Khankah) in 

1410 by Farag. The 
mosque has lately 
been restored. — 
The ground-plan is 
square (each side 
240 ft.) and resem- 
bles that of the 
medresehs. The li- 
wans, however, are 
not covered with 
barrel-vaulting but 
are protected against 
sun and shower by 
colonnades with 
spherical domes. 
The present en- 
trance (PL 1) is in 
an out -building at 
the S.W. angle. It 
leads to a domed 
vestibule, whence a 
corridor (PI. 2) runs 
to the fine Sahn el- 
Gami' or large inner 
quadrangle, in the 
middle of which, be- 
neath two tamarisk- 
trees, is the old 
hanefiyeh (PI. 3), or 
fountain for ablu- 
tions. To the right 
(E.) is the exqui- 
sitely proportioned main liwan or sanctuary (PI. 6), with three aisles, 
simple prayer-niches (PI. 4), and a beautiful stone *Minbar or pulpit 
(PI. 5) presented by Kait Bey, To the left (N.) of the sanctuary is 
the mausoleum (PI. 7), with the cenotaphs of Barkiik and of his 
sons 'Abd el-'Aziz and Farag. To the right (S.) are the tombs of 
the female members of the family (PI. 8). The beautifully pro- 
portioned dome is a masterpiece of Arabian architecture. The 
column at the head of Barkuk's cenotaph is said to indicate the 

of Cairo. TOMBS OF THE CALIFHS. 5. Eoule. 113 

stature of the deceased. The W. liwan (PI. 9), opposite the sanctu- 
ary, had three aisles also, hut the arcade next the court has collapsed. 
The two side-liwaus (PI. 10 & 11) have one aisle only. Behind that 
to the N. are cells for dervishes, students, and pilgrims, and a hall 
(PI. 12 ; now very dilapidated), which forms an out-huilding to the 
mosque and connects the khankah with the small mausoleum of Bar- 
kuk's father, Sharaf ed-Dln Anas, who died in 1382. To the W. of 
this hall was the old chief entrance (PI. 14), adjoined by a sebil with 
a medreseh or school (PI. 15). Behind the S. liwan is a court of 
ablution (PI. 13), with a water-basin (meida). — One of the two 
Minarett was restored in 1900. Both had originally three stories. 

To the W. (right) of this tomb-mosque, within a walled court, 
is the Tomb of Suleiman, a contemporary of the sultan of that name 
(first half of the 16th cent.). This contains interesting sculpture 
in the dome and inscriptions in blue fayence, now partly destroyed. 
To the E. of this tomb (and to the S. of Barkuk's mosque) is another 
handsome dome-covered tomb ('MausoMe de Ganem Bey'). On the 
right of the road leading from the mosque of Barkuk to the S.W. to 
the tomb of KaVt Bey (see below) is the Ma'bed er-Rifd'iyeh, a large 
depressed dome of the Turkish period. 

Opposite, to the E. (left), is the Tomb Mosque (Hosh) of Bars Bey 
(p. cxix), completed in 1432. It includes a mausoleum and the 
ruins of a convent. Within the enclosing walls are the tombs of 
some relatives of Bars Bey. The liwan contains good mosaics. The 
dome of the mausoleum is interesting. The remains of a sebil also 
are extant. — Farther on, to the right, is the Tomb of the Mother 
of Bars Bey. a small dome with pentagonal and hexagonal openings. 

In the same street, a few hundred paces farther to the S., we 
observe on the right the RaV or House of Kail Bey, 260 ft. long, 
completed in 1473, but now in ruins. The fagade is plain but the 
gateway is very tasteful. A little farther to the S., in an angle, 
is a Wafer Trough (PI. 15, p. 114), now in ruins, with its once 
beautiful rear wall protected by a roof. The rab', the trough, and 
the mosque (see below) all belonged to the burial-place (Hosh) of 
Kait Bey, which covered an area 330 yds. long. Its exact limits 
cannot now be determined, and a number of modern buildings have 
been erected within them. 

The *Tomb Mosque of K&it Bey [pp. 73, cxix), built in 1463 
and restored in 1898, is the finest edifice among the Tombs of the 
Caliphs. It is distinguished by its beautiful dome, its slender 
minaret (130 ft. high), its harmonious proportions, and its hand- 
some ornamentation, in which stalactites are profusely used. In 
the interior we notice the beautiful marble mosaic, the tasteful ceil- 
ings, the pulpit, and the lattice windows of stucco (partly modern). 
Within the mausoleum (PI. 8, p. 114) are shown a finely carved 
desk and two stones, wliich are said to have been brought from 
Mecca by Kait Bey and to bear impressions of the feet of the prophet 


Route 5. 



To the S.E. of the mosque of Kait Bey the Shari' el-Afifl leads to 
the Tomb Mosque of the Khedive Taufik (p. cxxiii). 

We may now return to the city either through the Bab el-Attaba 
(p, 115) or via the Windmill Hills and the Muski. To the right 
of the latter route is a point ('Point de vue' on the Plan) command- 
ing a beautiful *Retrospect of the tombs. 

lA ?.a 

First Floor. 
Tomb Mosquk of Kii'i Bei. 
— 1. Principal Entrance. 

2. Vestibule with throne. 

3. Sebil. 4. Sahn el-Gami'. 
5. Sanctuary with prayer- 
recess and pulpit. 6. Liwan. 
7. Side-liwans. 8. Domed 
room with cenotaph of Kait 
Bey. 9. Hall with tombs of 
Kait Bey's four wives. 10. 
Library. 11. Uncovered court. 
12. Hilweh (chamber) for the < 

Imam. 13 (first floor), Knttab (elementary school). 15. Water- trough. 
16. Staircase to the minaret. W*, M^, M^. Minaret in the three stories. 

The so-called *Wiiidmill Hills | afford one of the best views in 
the environs of Cairo. A fine effect, especially by evening-light, is 
produced by the domes and the peculiar colouring of the valley 
and the Mokattam. To the W. are the city, the plain of the Nile, 
and the Pyramids ; to the N. lies the straggling suburb of 'Abbasi- 
yeh ; to the N.E., in the distance, is the new suburb of Heliopolis 
and at our feet are the Tombs of the Caliphs. 

of Cairo. TOMBS OF THE MAMELUKES. 5. Route. 115 

Tlie return-route leading to the S. from the Tombs passes the 
cemetery of Kardfet BcLb el-Wezir to the gate oi Bdh el-Attdba (Bdh 
el-Atabeg; PL F, 5), which marks the end of the city of the dead on 
the S. side, towards the citadel. Just to the E. is a fountain (sehil) 
hewn in the rock by Emir Shekhuh in 1349. As soon as we have 
passed the gate we find ourselves once more in the midst of the 
animated life of the city. 

Shoet Walks in the Desert. Those who enjoy the silence and pure 
air of the desert may proceed from the Tombs of the Caliphs (or from 
'Abbasiyeh, p. 7S) into one of the small lateral valleys to the S. of the 
Gebel el-Ahmar (see below). A small round hill of red sandstone in this 
vicinity, known by the Germans as 'Rennebaum's Volcano", commands a 
superb panorama of the Arabian desert, the suburb of 'Abbasiyeh, Helio- 
polis Oasis, and the extremity of the Delta. — We may return to the S. via 
the Oebel OiyHthi (p. 116) or to the N. via the Gebel el-Ahmar, or Ked 
Mountain, rising to the E. of 'Abbasiyeh. The mountain consists of a 
very hard conglomerate of sand, pebbles, and fragments of fossil wood, 
coloured red or yellowish brown by oxide of iron. Centuries ago the 
quarries here yielded material for statues as they now do for excellent 
and durable mill-stones and road-material. 

The Tombs of the Mamelukes, to the S. of the Citadel, includ- 
ing monuments of various periods, are most conveniently visited via 
the Bab el-Kardfeh (PI. E, 7; p. 68). The tombs, both old and 
new, approach close to the city and extend as far as to the slopes 
of the Mokattam. The older tombs are in much poorer preservation 
than the Tombs of the Caliphs, owing to their conversion into 
modern burial-places. Some are now represented only by their 
minarets. A few are of architectural and artistic interest. The 
extant inscriptions upon them are almost exclusively verses of the 
Koran. To the left, halfway up the Mokattam, is the Convent of the 

Outside the Bab el-Karafeh we turn to the right , short of the 
railway, and follow the Shari' el- Kadiriyeh and the Shari' Imam 
Shafi'i towards the conspicuous blue-grey dome of the Tomb Mosque 
of Im&m Sh&fi'i, the founder of one of the four orthodox schools of 
El-Islam (p. Ixxxvi). The mausoleum, erected in 1211 by Malika 
Shemseh, the mother of the Aiyubide sultan Kamil, is a great place 
of pilgrimage and consequently inaccessible to unbelievers. 

Near the mosque of Imam Shafi'i, in a lane passing beneatli 
vine-trellises, is the Hdsh el-B&sba, or family burial mosque, built 
by Mohammed Ali. The monuments (including those of Ibrahim 
and 'Abbas I. ; p. cxxii) are in white marble and were executed 
by Greek and Armenian sculptors. The inscriptions and ornament- 
ation are richly gilded and painted. — About V2 M. to the W. of 
the mosque of Imam Shafi'i lie the sulphur-baths of 'Ain ea-Sira, 
frequented by the Egyptians (train in 14 min. from the Bab el-Liik, 
p. 35, on Frid. and holidays only^. Thence to the mosque of Amr 
and Old Cairo, see pp. Ill, 110. 

116 Route 5. MOKATTAM. Environs 

From the Bab el-Karafeh the Aqueduct (Arab. El-Kan&tir), built 
by Sultan El-Gh<iri and formerly ascribed to Saladiu, runs in a wide 
sweep towards the Nile (see p. 104). It supplied the citadel with 
water before the construction of the new water-works. 

3. The Mokattam Hills. 

An excursion to the Mokattam Hills is best made from the citadel (tram 
ways Nos. 2, 6, and 13, to the Place Saladin, see p. 38). The route from 
the" Tombs of the Caliphs is to be avoided on account of the intolerable 
dust. The excursion may be combined with the visit to the smaller Petrified 
Forest in the manner indicated at p. 119. The View is one of the most 
beautiful that Egypt has to offer, and no energetic traveller should be 
.satisfied wdth the substitutes afforded by the citadel (near the mosque of 
Mohammed Ali, see p. 69j or the Windmill Hills (p. 114). It is best at 
sunset or in the morning between 8 and 9 o'clock. A visit at the time of 
the full moon is attractive also. 

From the Citadel (p. 68) the route ascends in au almost straight 
direction, passing through the Bab el-Gebel (PI. F, 6; p. 70) and 
over the railway-bridge. About ^2 It. brings us to the top. 

The Mokattam or Moqattam Hills (666 ft. high), to the E. of 
Cairo, also called Gebel GiyHshi, after the conspicuous mosque situat- 
ed on the summit, belong to the great range of nummulitic lime- 
stone mountains which extend from N.W. Africa, across Egypt and 
India, to China. This nummulite formation is one of the eocene, or 
oldest deposits of the tertiary period. It yields a favourite building- 
stone, and there are numerous quarries on the slopes of the hills. 

Nummulitic limestone is remarkably rich in fossils, the chief mass of 
which consists of millions of nummulites or rhizopods of the polythala- 
mia group. The larger kinds are about an inch and a half in diameter 
and the smaller about Vs inch. They are frequently seen also in the 
stones of the Pyramids, part of the material for which was taken from 
the quarries of the Mokattam. The quarries yield also a profusion of sea- 
urchins (clypeaster, cidaris, echinolampas, etc.), various kinds of bivalves 
(including many oysters), cerithium, ovula, strombus, nerita, turritella, 
nautilus, sharks, teeth, and bones of the halicore. Beautiful crystals of 
isinglass-stone and of strontian also occur. 

The **ViBw from the top is magnificent and in a good light is 
finer than any other in tlie neighbourhood of Cairo. The citadel, 
the mosque of Mohammed Ali, and the grand burial-grounds of the 
desert form a noble foreground ; the venerable Nile dotted with its 
lateen sails flows below us in its quiet majesty; to the W., on the 
borders of the immeasurable desert, tower the huge and wondrous 
old Pyramids, gilded and reddened by the setting sun. The thousand 
minarets of the city and the citadel are then also tinted with a 
delicate rosy hue. A still more varied view is commanded by a 
steep projection to the S. of the mosque, the foreground being 
especially picturesque, while the horizon to the S. seems more open 
and tempts our fancy to visit the wonders of Upper Egypt. 

The Giyfishi Mosque, one of the oldest in Cairo, was built in 
1085, during the Fatimite period, by the Emir Badr el-Gamali, the 
grand vizier of Sultan El-Mustansir. According to tradition he 

of Cairo. MOKATTAM. 5. Route. 117 

chose this high-lying situation that he might still, even after death, 
he ahle to see the mausolea of his seven favourite wives In the 
valley helow. 

The entrance to the mosque lieS on the K.W. side in the lower part 
of the minaret, which is built in the earlier style of architecture. It 
leads to an open court adjoined by the vaulted prayer-room which is 
decorated in the Byzantine-Persian taste. To the left of it is the tomb 
of the founder. 

Below the mosque are the Rocky Caves of Coptic monks, with Coptic 
and Arabic inscriptions. Some of them may be reached by a steep path. 

At the N. end of the plateau is an old Turkish Fort, whence a 
hridge descends to the citadel. On the N.E. and higher part of the 
Mokattam, separated from the citadel hy a large quarry, is a memor- 
ial stone, to the right, adjoining the summit, erected in 1874 hy 
the British party of scientific men who observed the transit of Venus 
from this point. The projecting rock in front of this commands 
the most extensive panorama in the neighhourhood of Cairo, 
and should certainly he visited if time permit. The S. end of 
these hills is skirted by the road to the smaller Petrified Forest, 
vrhich may be reached from this point in about 1 hr. (see p. 119). 

On the steep slope of the Mokattam, to the S. of the Giyushi 
Mosque, lies the so-called Castle of the Mamelukes or mosque of El- 
Khalawati, built in 1533. The ruinous interior may be entered from 
below. A steep path, practicable for expert climbers only, ascends 
hence through the above-mentioned Coptic caves to the plateau. 

The route back to the town skirts the citadel on the S. and 
leads via tlie Bab el-Kardfeh and the Place Saladin (p. 68). 

4. Spring of Moses and the Petrified Forest. 

The geologist will certainly find it profitable to visit the Petrified 
Forest (comp. p. Ixix), but for other travellers its chief interest lies in 
the fact that they here obtain their first glimpse of the E. desert. The 
latter may therefore ccjnfent themselves with an excursion to the Little 
Petrified Forest, the outskirts of which may be reached in l'/2-2 hrs. The 
expedition may be made in half-a-day on donkey-back (p. 39). Carriages 
require extra horses and even then sometimes stick in the sand. — The 
deviation to the so-called Spring of Moses adds rather less than an hour 
to the expedition, and if the donkey-boy knows the route a guide may be 
dispensed with. A visit to the Great Petrified Forest can hardly be ac- 
complished without the aid of a well-informod guide. 

Starting at the Bab en-Nasr (p. 77), or from the point where 
the route to the Tombs of the Caliphs leaves the Muski (p. Ill), 
we ride by the Tombs of the Caliplis, pass between the Mokattam 
(p. 116) and the 'Red Mountain' (p. 115), and ascend a desert 
valley, into wliich the E. spurs of the Mokattam descend. Farther 
on an isolated hill of red and black sandstone resembling the 'Red 
Mountain' is visible in the desert on our left. W cross a water- 
course (usually dry) , where tlie paths separae That to the 
right (S.E.) leads to the Spring of Moses and te. l.,ittle Petrified 
Forest (p. 118), wliile tliat to the left (E.) is th the te to the Great 
Petrified Forest and the Bir el-Fahm (p. 119). e rou 

118 Route 5. PETRIFIED FOKEST. Environs 

Abont 100 paces to the right, at the foot of the mountain-slope behind 
the tombs of the Caliphs, which we ascend on this side past some large 
lime-kilns, we may trace the high-water level of the sea in the pliocene 
age, 235 ft. above the present sea-level, on a rocky face of the nnmmulife 
plateau, thickly dotted over with holes made by boring shells. 

Following the path to the right, we observe a yellowish hill at 
the foot of the spurs of the Mokattam and reach it in 1/4 hr. more. 
This hill stands at the mouth of the narrow, winding valley, 3/4 M. 
in length , through which the path to the Spring of Moses ascends 
over large blocks of stone and rubble. The ravine terminates in a 
lofty amphitheatre of rock. Here is a cleft in the rock from which 
trickle a few drops of bitter and brackish water, quite arbitrarily 
named the Spring of Moses ('Ain Miiaa). 

In order to reach the smaller Petrified Poorest we return to the 
mouth of the gorge and proceed towards the S.E., skirting the 
slopes of the Mokattam, which are here more precipitous. "We first 
pass a black projecting rock, which has a glazed appearance, and 
then a square gap in the rock, beyond which we observe opposite 
to us gently sloping hills, consisting of limestone, marl, and beds 
of fossil oysters. The route ascends between these hills and soon 
reaches the plateau of the Gebel el-Ehashab, where the scattered 
fragments of fossil wood indicate the beginning of the Little Petri- 
fied Forest. These trunks and fragments have been referred by 
Unger to an extinct tree, which he named the Nicolia ^gypliaca 
and regarded as akin to the bombaceae. The petrifaction is now 
generally supposed to have occurred during the later tertiary period 
under the action of silicious geysers, resembling those to be seen to- 
day in the Yellowstone Park of North America. The silicated trunks 
lie in a secondary stratum, the overlying strata in which they were 
originally embedded having disappeared in the course of the desert 

Crossing the plateau of the Petrified Forest for abont 20 min. more 
towards the S., we suddenly reach the S. slopes of the Mokattam, through 
a gap in which a path descends into the Wddi et-Tih, or 'valley of wan- 
derings' (more correctly Wddi Digla). This valley stretches to the W. 
towards the valley of the Nile, and begins at the hills of Gharabun, like 
the parallel Wadi Hof fp. 170), which" debouches to the N. of Helwan. 
On the S. horizon rise the hills of Tura (p. 170), recognizable by the old 
Mameluke fortress on their right spur and by two heights exactly opposite 
to us, of which that to the left somewhat resembles a coffin in shape while 
that to the right is hemispherical. Crossing the bottom of the valley in 
this direction (S.), we perceive in the Tura hills the entrance to a desert 
gorge, bounded by lofty and precipitous slopes. This valley extends for 
many miles in various windings, communicates with the ravines of the 
desert which begin in the Gebel Hof near Helwan, and is abundantly 
stocked with the plants peculiar to the desert. 

We may return to Cairo from the Little Petrified Forest through 
the Wadi et-Tih (see above), skirting the S. and W. slopes of the 
Mokattam and passing the Jewish cemetery and the tombs of the 
Mamelukes. Another return-route leads across the Mokattam hills 
If we choose the latter we quit the Petrified Forest by a hollow to th 
W., and ascend over ridges to a plateau, stretching towards the W 

of Cairo. NEW HELIOPOLIS. 5. Route. 119 

and bounded on either hand by hills. We hold somewhat to the right 
and soon reach a road, which finally passes through a rocky ravine 
near tlie Giyuslii eminence, the view from which (p. 116) forms an 
admirable close to the day's excursion. Thence to the city, see p. 116. 

The following Shoktek Wat may be recommended. We ride as 
described at pp. 117, 118 direct to the Little Petrified Forest and then 
return to the Spring ol' Sloses. Hence we ascend to the W. to the plateau 
of the Mokattam and ride across it toward the W. to the Giyushi mosque 
(p. 116). From the mosque we descend to the citadel. 

A visit to the Great Petrified Forest near Bir el-Fahm (4 hrs. 
to the E. of Cairo and 2V2 hrs. beyond the Little Petrified Forest) takes 
a whole day, and is fatiguing, especially as the traveller has the sun in 
his face both in going and returning. The route mentioned on p. 117 is 
not recommended for the outward journey, as the point for which we 
are bound, not being conspicuous, is liable to be missed. It is better to 
leave Cairo by the Bdb el-Kai-afeh (P1.E,7; p. 68), pass the Tombs of the 
Mamelukes fp. 115) and the goods-railway to Helwan, and, leaving the village 
of El-Basatin on the right, ascend to the left by the Jewish Cemetery. After 
reaching the lop of the hill we follow the Wddi et-Tih (p. 118) toward.s 
the K. for I1/4-IV2 br. more. Above the gradual slopes of the desert, 
about P/i M. to the left, we then perceive several reddish hills and 
another of yellowish colour in front. Kiding towards the latter we reach 
on its E. slopes the debris of the Bir el-Fahm ('coal welT) and remains 
of some walls, dating from the period (1840) when an unsuccessful search 
for coal was made here. The hills of the desert to the N., N.W., and 
W. of the Bir el-Fahm form the Great Petrified Forest, and are thickly 
strewn with trunks and fragments of fossil timber. These are generally 
brown and black, with a polished appearance, and frequently contain chal- 
cedony. A sand-hill , '/j hr. to the N. of Bir el-Fahm, to the base of 
which the petrified forest extends, afifords a good survey of the district. 
To the K.W. are the Mokattam, the 'Red Mountain', 'Abbasiyeh, and the 
plain of the Nile. 

5. New Heliopolis (Heliopolis Oasis). 

The most convenient route to the new suburb of Heliopolis Oasis is by 
electric expre.'is railway or tramway (see p. .39). Carriage, see p. 39. — 
The excursions to Old and New Heliopolis may be combined by taking 
(on the return from the former) the electric tramway from the railway 
station of Palais de Koubbeh (p. 120) to Heliopolis Oasis. 

New Heliopolis (hotels, see p. 36), or Heliopolis Oasis, known 
also to the Arabs as -Uasrei-Cj'edrde/i ('New Cairo'), is a modern suburb 
founded by a Belgian company in 190G, in the desert to the N.E. 
of 'Abbasiyeh and near the now English barracks. It occupies a 
healthy situation ami is intended to become a residential suburb for 
British officers and officials and a health-resort for tlie inhabitants 
of Cairo generally. It is laid out on an ambitious scale, with broad, 
tree-planted streets and squares, with hotels, pleasure-resorts (Luna 
Park, adm. 2 pias.), a racecourse, a stadium, where stows of all 
kinds are held, and the grounds of tlie Sporting Club (p. 42). 

6. Old Heliopolis. 

This expedition i.'f best made by Carriage (p. 39; drive to the obelisk 
I'/i hr.), though it may be accomplished also by Bailtcay to Matariyeh, 
starting from the Pont Limun Station (PI. B, 1; p. 35). Trains run half- 
hourly and take 17-23 min. for the journey (day return-tickets d'/a or 3 pias.). 

120 Route 5. OLD HELIOPOLIS. Environs 

Donkey from the station of Matariyeh to the Virgin's Tree and the Obe- 
lisk and back, 4 pias. — To New Heliopolis, see p. 119. 

The High Road leads through 'Abbdstyeh (p. 78) and crosses 
the railway to El-Marg, near Pont de Koubbeh. About halfway to 
Matariyeh we skirt the garden of the Khedivial Palace, the winter- 
residence of the Khedive (no admission). The plain between 
Kubbeh and Matariyeh has been the scene of two important battles. 
In 1517 the Battle of Heliopolis made Selim and the Turks masters 
of Egypt; and on March 20th, 1800, General KleTier with 10,000 
French troops succeeded in defeating 60,000 Orientals, and in con- 
sequence of this victory regained possession of Cairo, although for a 
short time only. We then reach the village of Matariyeh (see below). 

The Railway passes the following stations : i-^/^ M. Demir- 
d(Uh (DemerdacheJ, station for 'Ahb'tslyeh (p. 78) ; 21/2 M. Manchiet 
es-Sadr; 3 M. Pont de Koubbeh ( Kubri Kubbeh); 31/2 M. Koubbeh- 
les-Bains (Hammdmdt Kubbeh); 41/4 M. Palais de Koubbeh (/Serut 
Kubbeh; khedivial palace, see above; electric tramway to Helio- 
polis Oasis, p. 119) ; 5 M. 'Ezbet ez-ZeitUn (Gr.-H6t. Zeitun, at the 
station), with numerous villas and a School for the Blind (adm., 
see p. 42); 51/2 M, Helmlyeh. — 6V4 M. Matdrhjeh, station for Old 
Heliopolis. Beyond the station (to the W.) is a road leading direct 
to the (I/2 M.) Virgin's Tree. 

The railway goes on, via 'Fin esh-Shems (Ein-el-Chams) , 'Ezbet en- 
NakhUh, El-Marg (p. 121), Khdnkah (p. 121), and Abu Za'tal, with basalt- 
quarries, to (22'/2 M. from Cairo) Skibin el-Kandtir (p. 170). 

Matariyeh (Or. -Hot. Matarieli) is an insigniflcant village, note- 
worthy only for its proximity to Heliopolis and for its possession 
of the Virgin's Tree, an ancient sycamore, under which, according 
to the legend, the Virgin and Child once rested during the Flight 
into Egypt. The sycamore, planted after 1672, was seriously in- 
jured in 1906, but a shoot still flourishes and is now protected by 
a railing. The garden in which it grows is watered by means of 
a double sakiyeh, supplied from a shallow reservoir fed by springs. 
This water is drinkable, while that of all the other springs, which 
percolates through the ground from the Nile, is usually brackish ; 
and this peculiar quality is popularly ascribed to the fact that the 
spring was called into being by the Child Jesus. Adjoining the 
garden is the Roman Catholic chapel of Notre~Dame de Matarieh. 

From the garden the Shdri' el-Misalla (Chareh el Massalla) leads 
in 12-15 minutes to the obelisk and ruins of the famous ancient 
Heliopolis (p. cxlv), or city of the sun , called On by the Egyp- 
tians. The latter name frequently occurs in the Bible. Thus, in 
Genesis (xli. 45), we are informed that Pharaoh gave Joseph 'to 
wifeAsenath, the daughter of Poti-pherah (Egypt, Pete-pre, 'he 
whom the sun-god Re has given'), priest of On'. 

On-Beliopolis was one of the most ancient Egyptian cities and was 
the chief town of a separate province included in Lower Egypt. The 
deities of the place were the falcon-heailed Re-Harakhte (the sun-god, 

of Cairo. OLD HELTOPOLTS. 5. Route. 121 

whence the Greek name lleliopolis) anil the hnman-headed Atum, to 
whom the sacred Mnevis Bull was consecrated. To these was dedicated the 
famous temple, 'the House of Re', built on the site of an earlier edifice 
hy Amenenthit /., first king of the 12th Dyn., in front of which his son 
and successor Sesottris I. erected two great obelisks (see below) in 
celebration of an important anniversary. A large section of the Egyp- 
tian religions literature was due to the priests of Heliopolis, and their 
doctrines were widely disseminated throughout the country at a very 
early period, so that Ke-Harakhte was one of the most highly venerated 
deities in Egypt. — Even during the Greek period these priests enjoyed 
a high reputation for wisdom ; Herodotus conversed with them and Plato 
is said to have spent thirteen years with them, in order to learn some 
at least of their doctrines. — Under the New Empire the temple of 
Ueliopolis was the largest and most richly endowed in all Egypt, next to 
the temple of Amon at Thebes. — When Strabo (b. about 60 B.C.) visited 
Kgypt the city had been destroyed, but the temple was still intact, ex- 
cept for some minor injuries attributed to Cambyses; even the houses of 
the prie.'^ts and the apartments of Plato and his friend Eudoxus were 
shown to the traveller. The priestly school, however, had ceased to exist, 
and only a few officiating priests and guides for foreigners resided there. 

The outer walls, rising in all directions from the fields, are 
now the only vestiges of the city, while of the temple nothing is 
leftljut a few scanty ruins and a solitary Olelhk (Aral). El-Misalla). 
Tlie latter is of red granite of Syene (_Assuan, p. 354) and is 66 ft. 
high. It is surrounded by a wooden fence and rises picturesquely 
amid mulberry-trees. Each of the four sides bears the same inscrip- 
tion in bold hieroglyphics, recording that Sesostris I. (Senwosret), 
King of Upper and l>ower Egypt, lord of the diadems and son of the 
sun, whom the (divine) spirits of On (Heliopolis) love, etc., founded 
the obelisk on the first festival of Set (a kind of jubilee celebration). 
The pyramid ium at the top and the falcons wbich begin the inscrip- 
tions on each side were once covered with metal. The companion 
obelisk (for these monuments were always erected in pairs) stood 
down to the 12th century. 

To the W. of the obelisk the remains of the temple may be recog- 
nized in a few blocks of granite, bearing inscriptions by Ramses 11. On 
one Ramses II. appears offering a libation to Atnm. — The Necropolis of 
Heliopolis lies about 3 M. to the E. of the obelisk. 

The excursion may be extended to the villages of El-Marg or El- 
Mevg (21/2 M.), with some ruins of the 18th Dyn., and Khdnkdh, on the 
outskirts of the desert (7'/2 M. from ilatariyeh), both stations on the rail- 
way from Cairo to Shibin el-Kanatir (see p. 120). The palm-groves at El- 
Marg afford pleasant walks. 

1. Barrage du Nil. 

The Branch Railway to thkBauraoe is traversed by ten trains daily 
from Cairo (I6V2M., in 30-35 min.; fare 6or4pias., day return-tickets 81/2 
or 572 pias.). The intermediate stations are Shubra and KalyOb (p. 34). 
The best plan is to walk from the Barrage station and to return by the 
small 'trolley', pushed by Arabs, which unites Barrage with the station of 
Kl-Mandshi,' on the West Nile Railway {p. 32; 1-2 pers. 10, 3 pers. 13, 4 
pers. 15 pias. per hr. ; from the station to the village of El-Manashi across 
the river, or vice versa, 4 pias., each addit. pers 2 pias.). Opposite the 
Barrage station is the Restaurant TewCkieh. — Blessrs. Cook & Son arrange 
special excursions by steam-launch to the Barrage (see notice at the hotels). 
Also steamers of the Compagnie dcs Bateaux-Omnibus (p. 39). 

122 Route 5. BARRAGE DU NIL. 

The object of the *Barrag'e du Nil, the largest structure of 
the kind in the world after the Assuan Dam (p. 371 ), is to keep 
the water-level in the Delta uniform in all seasons, so as to ob- 
viate the necessity for the old irrigation machinery, with its great 
expenditure of labour, and to remove the difficulties of naviga- 
tion during the three months when the Nile is at its lowest. 
The work was begun under Mohammed Ali, about 1835. Linant 
Bey proposed to alter the course of the river and to build a weir 
farther to the N. , where the configuration of the ground appeared 
more favourable; but his plan was judged too costly and was reject- 
ed in favour of one proposed by a French engineer named Mougel 
Bey. The cost of establishing foundations in the shifting soil of 
the Delta, however, far exceeded the estimates; and, after all, the 
erection was found to be too insecure for its intended purpose. For 
nearly twenty years after 1867 the Barrage lay useless, as a costly 
failure; but in 1885-90 Sir Colin Scott-Moncrieff sncces&fuUy com- 
pleted it at a cost of 460,000^., so that now a depth of water of 
about 12 ft. can be maintained in the W. branch of the Nile. In 
consequence of a burst in the winter of 1909-10 considerable streng- 
thening works became necessary, which are not yet quite finished. 

Nearest the station are the Weirs on the Rayah et-Tauftld a.n A 
on the E. (Damietta) Branch of the Nile. The latter weir is over 
500 yds. in length and has 68 vertical iron sluices. From the 
farther end a pretty avenue of lebbakh- trees leads across the 
isthmus (about 1/2 M. wide) between the arms, in the middle of 
which is the Rayah el-Menilfiyeh, constructed both for irrigation and 
for communication with the district of MenHfiyeh (p. 33). The Weir 
on thje W. (Rosetta) Branch of the Nile is about 480 yds. across and 
has 58 vertical iron sluices. Farther to the W. is a fourth Weir, on 
the Mahmild'iyeh Canal, constructed a few years ago. The navigation 
of the river is carried on by means of spacious basins and lociis, 
fitted with swing-bridges, at either end of the two weirs and also on 
the Rayah el-Menufiyeh. The superstructures of the works are built 
in an effective Norman castellated style. A junction-canal above the 
weirs connects the two branches of the Nile, and is used to regulate 
the depth of water in each. When the river is low the W. branch 
receives all its water through this canal. 

The island, formerly occupied by fortifications, is now covered 
with attractive and extensive ^Gardens, laid out with flower-beds, 
artificial rocks, etc., by Mr. Draper, an Englishman. — In the gar- 
den is a Museum, with models of the various water-works of Egypt. 

If not pressed for time the traveller should visit the little Arab 
viUage of Shalakdn which stretches along the river near the Barrage 
station. A charming and picturesque impression of Egyptian coun- 
try-life is obtained here on market-days. 

^^ Traces of ancient 
Walls, ErnbanJcfjients, 
<{• Tomb.-.; mosllr rov- 
eretl \\'ith sand 

Route daicraed, W'W^ A^M ' ^^P 

in the Sandbook. 
Modern Buihlinffs coloxtrt'J 



. Smat/ /'zi^^r' 

I Third \ "°^''''' 

ITYramid \ 



1 S. Pyramid 
1 S o^rtc ^J/i-e/i 

'i 1 





7b mi 

(ara-iefren s 

m7A. Cai^f.rns Cenieia^v '■ 

3 !a 

Eiffel. Tower, 


*^® S'Petpr's,Roin.e 



of KUeops XYsktA. 

-^ Pvraxa. 

Comparalive TabLe of He i girts 

Gcogi-apK Tnstit .of 


ters^ ^ 






a Khedivml Kiosqtie 

h . X }>' Cornet- stone vft/ie 

Great Pvrftrtu'd 
c^astaia ol'yifer-be^fUOi 

d. Small natural cleft in- the 
rock through vhidt -rOritors 
descend to the Second TyrajnH 

e. Qwirrv n-irh hierofft ■ 
Itiscriptton above 

f . HieroglJnscrip. on the vail, 
ojid Hock Tombs 

. Jtoc7.- Tomb Tr-ith palm - rdlmg 
h. Tomb ot'Tebdme,Xih Vynas^ 
i. „ ^ Tsamlik 

V. . - Werl.^eKew:SthDvnas^ 

1. Frramid oftheBaughtePor 
JOteopstarrorduy to Hirodatv.^ 

m . Supposed JVortar.p its 
n. 'Tomb of Sumhers' 
o. Sanctuary of Isis 

G r e a i 

' K h e p s > ■^'"'■"'if' 
P vi'aiuid i 

T o 

dirrcren.t pe 

b s I' 





\-^.\ ^\\ y ^ yulttvaied Land 


6. The Pyramids of Gizeh. 

The excursion to the Pyramids of Gizeh recinires at least half-a-day. 
Elbctbic Tbamwat from the 'Ataba el-Khadra to the (1 hr.) Mena House 
Hotel, see No. 14 (p. 38); also, No. 15 as far as Gizeh Village only, see p. 39. — 
By Caeriage the drive takes I-IV4 hr. each way (p. 39). Ctclists and Motor- 
ists will find the road excellent. It should not be forgotten that the Ka-fr 
en-Nil Bridge is open for 11 2 hr. daily for the passage of vessel.s (see p. '79), 
when the somewhat longer routes via the 'Abbas II. Bridge (see below) 
or the Bulak Bridge (p. 79) must be taken. — "Restaubant at the Mena 
House Hotel. There is also a small restaurant at the terminus of the 
electric tramway. Or the travellers may bring provisions with them from 
their hotel (included in the pension-charge). 

A fine and calm day should be selected for a visit to the Pyramids, 
the driving sand in windy weather being very unpleasant. Suti Umbrellas 
and Smoked Spectacles are advisable precantions against the glare of the sun. 
Ladies who intend to ascend the pyramids should dress as they would for 
mountain-climbing. A repetition of the excursion by moonlight produces 
an ineffaceable impression. 

Chief Attractions. Those who are pressed for time should devote their 
attention to the ''Great Pyramid (p. 127; ascend to the summit and visit the 
interior), the *~Sp/iinx (p. 135), and the 'Valley or Granite Temple of Khephren 
(p. 135). The inspection of these chief objects of interest occupies about 
2 hrs. The 'Circuit described at pp. 137-139 will occupy 11,2-2 hrs. more. 

The tramway to the Pyramids (see ahove) traverses the quarter 
oi Bdldk and the Buldk Bridge to the island of Oezireh (comp. 
pp. 78, 79) which it crosses to the Pont Zamalek. From the W. end 
of this bridge it runs to the S. along the small W. arm of the Nile 
to the Pont des Anglais {p. 80), joining the Shdri' el-Gheh which it 
follows past the Zoological Gardens (p. 80), to the N. end of Gizeh 
(station, Otzeh Village, p. 80), the terminus of tramway No. 15 
(p. 39). [The route via the island of Roda, which the tramway 
follows when the Bulak Bridge is open (see p. 79), diverges to the 
right from the line to Old Cairo, ahout 750 yds. to the S. of the 
water-tower (p. 10-i), crosses the narrow branch of the Nile by the 
Kl-Malek ef-Saleh Bridge, traverses the island of Roda, and crosses 
the main arm of the Nile by the 'Abbai II. Bridge (595 yds. long; 
open 10-11 a.m. and 3.30-4. 30p.m. for the passage of ships). It then 
runs to the W. to Gizeh.] Thence the road to the Pyramids (Shdri' 
el-Haram), which the tramway follows, crosses a canal and intersects 
the Upper Egypt Railway (station; Gizeh railway station lies ca. 
5 min. to the S., p. 143). After crossing a second canal it leads straight 
towards the Pyramids, which are still nearly 5 M. distant. On the 
left lie the huts of two fellahin villages, Et-Talibtyeh and Kom el- 
Akhdar (tramway-station). The fields on each side are intersected by 
canals. The huge angular forms of the Pyramids gradually become 
more distinct, and soon stand out in clear outlines. 

At the terminus of the tramway, on the edge of the desert, are 
the extensive buildings of the Mena House Hotel (p. 36) ; opposite 
are a police-office, a post-office, a drug-store, and other shops. The 
road goes on in curves up the steep N. slope of the plateau on 
which the Pyramids stand. 

Basdbkek's Egypt. 7th Edit. • 9 

124 Route 6. PYRAMIDS OF GlZEH. Situation. 

At the tramway-terminus is a stand for donkeys and cameli (6 piss. 
per hr.). The porters of the Mena House Hotel also will procure riding- 
animals at a fixed tariff. 

Tickets for the inspection of the Pyramids and other monuments are 
sold in a small office beside the Khedivial Kiosque (PI. a), near the N.E. 
angle of the Great Pyramid : for the ascent of the Great Pyramid 10 piaa. ; 
for a visit to the interior of the Pyramid 10 pias. ; for a visit to the Valley 
or Granite Temple 6 pias. For the entire expedition, including the ascent 
of the Great Pyramid and the visit to its interior, the charge is 20 pias. 
Guides (Beduins) are procured here through application to their sheikh. 
Bakshish is entirely optional, though a gratuity of a few pias. is customary. 
The inspection of the minor points of interest is free ; our plan and descrip- 
tion render the assistance of a guide entirely superfluous. — No attention 
should be paid to the begging of the Beduins, and visitors are advised 
to have nothing to do with the vendors of so-called 'antiquities' (almost 
invariably spurious). The fossil sea-urchins (Clypeaster jEgyptiacus) offered 
here are said to be found in a miocene deposit, on a hill named by the 
Arabs Gebel Shellul, on the edge of the desert, 2 M. to the S. of the 
Sphinx. Other guides who press their services on the traveller should 
be repelled, if necessary with the help of the police. 

The **Pyramids of Glzeh form the second and most imposing 
of the six groups of pyramids which stand on the margin of the 
plateau of the Libyan desert. To the N. lies the group of Abu Roash 
(p. 139); southwards follow the groups oiZdwiyet el-'Arydn (p. 140) 
and Abustr (p. 141), Sakkdra (p. 145), and Dahihxlr (p. 166). The 
Arab word for a pyramid is hdram (pi. ahrdm). 

The Pyramids of Gizeh rank among the oldest monuments of 
human industry, and their colossal proportions extort from us to- 
day the same astonishment as was felt in antiquity by Greek 
and Roman travellers. We marvel not only at the technical know- 
ledge and ability of the Egyptians, but also at the might of their 
kings, who must have had absolute control over thousands of 
their subjects, to be able to rear such monuments. Some conception 
of the enormous amount of labour involved may be obtained when 
we learn that, according to Prof. Flinders Petrie's calculation, about 
2,300,000 separate blocks of stone, averaging about 2y2 tons, were 
required for the Pyramid of Kheops, and that some of them were 
quarried on the E. bank of the Nile and had to be ferried across 
the river and conveyed to the desert-plateau. 

The Construction of the Pyramids has been admirably described 
by Herodotus, the earliest writer on the subject, who visited Egypt 
about 450 B.C. 

Herodotus states (ii. 124, 125) that there were about 100,000 men employ- 
ed annually for three months in constructing the Oreat Pyramid of Kheops i. 
'They first made the road for the transport of the stones from the Nile to 
the Libyan Mts. ; the length of the road amounts to five stadia (1017 yds.), 
its breadth is ten fathoms (60 ft.), and its height, at the highest places, 
is eight fathoms (48 ft.), and it is constructed entirely of smoothed stone 

t According to Prof. Flinders Petrie, these three months fell during the 
inundation, when field-work was at a stand-still and the services of 100,0(X) 
men for transporting the stones could be easily enough obtained. The 
stone-cutters and masons were probably engaged all the year round in 
the quarries and on the pyramid itself. 

Construction. PYRAMIDS OF gIzEH. 6. Route. 125 

with figures engraved on it+. Ten years were thns consumed in making 
this road and the subterranean chambers (for the coffins). The con- 
struction of the Pyramid itself occupied twenty years. Each of the 
four sides measures eight plethra (820 ft.), and the height is the same. 
It is covered with smoothed stones, well jointed, none of which is less 
than thirty feet long. This pyramid was first built in the form of a 
flight of steps. After the workmen had completed the pyramid in this 
form, they raised the other stones (used for the incrustation) by means 
of machines, made of short beams, from the ground to the first tier of 
steps; and after the stone was placed there it w;is raised to the second 
tier by another machine; for there were as many machines as there were 
tiers of steps; or perhaps there was but one machine, easily moved, that 
was raised from one tier to the other, as it was required for lifting the 
stones. The highest part of the pyramid was thus finished first (by 
smoothing), the parts adjoining it were taken next, and the lowest part, 
next to the ground, was completed last. It was recorded on the pyramid, 
in Egyptian writing, how much was spent on radishes, onions, and roots 
of garlic for distribntion among the workmen and, if I rightly remember 
what the interpreter who read the writing told me ++, the money they 
cost amounted to sixteen hundred talents of silver (upwards of 350,000i.). 
If this was really the case, how much more must then have been spent 
on the iron with which they worked, and on the food and clothing of 
the workmen.' 

In modern times many eager discuasions have been held as to 
the mode in which the Pyramids were erected and the meaning of 
the account given hy Herodotus. The most important questions 
seem to be : (_1) How could Kheops, when he ascended the throne 
and chose an area of 82,000 sq. yards for his monument, know 
that his reign ■would be so unusually long as to enable him to com- 
plete it? (2) If one of the builders of the great pyramids had died 
in the second or third year of his reign, how could their sons or 
successors, however willing to carry out the plan, have succeeded in 
completing so gigantic a task and in erecting monuments for them- 
selves at the same time? (3) And how comes it that many other 
kings did not, like Kheops, boldly anticipate a reign of thirty years 
and begin a work of the same kind, the design for which might so 
easily have been drawn, and might so readily have been carried 
out by his subjects? — To these questions Lepsius, Erbkam, and 
Ebers answer. 'Each king', says Lepsius in his letters from Egypt, 
'began to build his pyramid when he ascended the throne. He began 
it on a small scale, in order that, if a short reign should be in store 
for him, his tomb might be a complete one. As years rolled on, 
however, he continued enlarging it by the addition of outer coatings 
of stone, until he felt that liis career was drawing to a close. If 
he died before the work was completed the last coating was then 
finished, and the size of the monument was accordingly proportioned 
to the length of the builder's reign. ' — This 'layer-theory' of the 

t This causeway is still traceable. It terminated on the E. side of 
the Pyramid of Kheops (see Plan and p. 138). 

+t It is unlikely that the interpreters, who attended travellers like the 
dragomans of the present day, were able to read hieroglyphics. They 
probably repeated mere popular traditions regarding the pyramids and 
other monuments, with embellishments and exaggerations of their own. 


126 Route 6. PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH, Construction. 

construction of the Pyramids has been opposed by Flinders Petrie, 
who has sought to show that the initial plan of each pyramid practi- 
cally contemplated the full extent reached by the completed work. 
But more recently Borchardt has demonstrated conclusively that 
Lepsius's theory of the gradual growth of each pyramid is not incor- 
rect, though it requires modification in some essential points. Ac- 
cording to Borchardt, each pyramid builder began by planning a 
monument of moderate size. In many instances this original small 
conception was permanently adhered to ; but it not unfrequently 
happened that kings who enjoyed long reigns or found themselves 
in control of more extensive powers expanded their original designs 
and enlarged their buildings , either by mere additions without 
altering the passages or chambers (as in the step-pyramid at Sak- 
kara) or by revising the whole original design, including the cham- 
bers, etc., on a new and more extensive scale (as in the second 
and third pyramids of Gizeh). Occasionally a second enlargement 
took place, as in the case of the Great Pyramid. 

The Pyramids were opened by sacrilegious robbers at a very early 
period, probably under the 20th Dyn. , when also the tombs of the 
Theban kings were plundered, or even earlier. Attempts were made 
to force an entrance into the inner chambers, and passages were 
laboriously cut through the solid masonry in order to reach the 
expected treasures. In the course of this mining and tunnelling the 
passages and chambers sustained much damage. Somewhere about 
the period of the 25th or 26th Dyn. these injuries were repaired 
and the pyramids restored. But they seem to have been again in- 
vaded by the Persians ; and also at later periods, under the Romans 
and under the Arabs , renewed attempts were made to penetrate 
to the treasures supposed to lie in the interior. 

The first modern traveller who carefully and successfully examined 
the Pyramids was Nicholas Shaw in 1721 ; but he still entertained the 
notion that the Sphinx had a subterranean connection with the Great 
Pyramid. He was followed by Norden in 1737; Pococke in 1743, who 
gives a plan and dimensions; Fourmont in 1755; Carsten Niebuhr in 
1761; Davison in 1763; Bruce in 1768; Volney in 1783; Browne in 1792-98 ; 
Denon, Coutelle, Jomard, and other savants of the French expedition 
under Bonaparte in 1799-1801. Jomard in particular has the merit of 
having taken very accurate measurements. Hamilton, in 1801, was a 
dispassionate and critical observer. In 1817 Caviglia, a bold, but illiterate 
and fanciful seaman, was fortunate in eliciting new facts regarding the 
interior of the Great Pyramid, and excavated the Sphinx. In the same year 
Belzoni thoroughly explored the interior of the Second Pyramid. Belzoni, 
an intelligent explorer and accurate draughtsman, was originally a monk 
at Rome, but when the French occupied that city he retired to London, 
where he devoted himself to study in spite of many hardships. In 1815 he 
reached Egypt, where, besides exploring the pyramid, he discovered the 
tomb of Sethos I. at Thebes, etc. The next eminent explorer was Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson in 1831. In 1837 and 1838 Col. Howard Vyse and Mr. Perring 
made very thorough investigations and took careful measurements which 
will always be considered authoritative. In 1842-45 Prof. Lep.sius, the 
distinguished German Egyptologist, made several very important discov- 
eries and furnished us with much valuable information. He found no 
fewer than thirty pyramids which had been quite unknown to previous 



6. Route. 


travellers. G. Maspero opened the small pyramids of Sakkara in 1880 
and discovered important inscriptions. W. M. Flinders Petr'ie snbiected 
the Pyramid.^ of Gizeh to a new and thorough investigation in 1881-82. 
The Pyramids of Dahshur were examined in 1894-95 by De Jlorgan: those 
of Lisht in 1895 by Gautier and Jdquier; and those of Abu Roash by the 
Jnstitut Franfais in 1900-2. Excavations were carried on by German ex- 
plorers at Abu Gnrab in 1898-1901. A renewed examination of the pyra- 
mids and tombs of Sakkara was undertaken by the Egyptian Service det 
Antiquit^s in 1900. The German Oriental Socieit/ (Deutsche Orienlgesellscha/I) 
carried on excavations at Abusir iu 1902-8, while Germans and Americans 
(and latterly also Austrians) have been exploring the Necropolis of Gizeh 
.since 1903. The excavation of the Valley or Granite Temple of Eliephren 
was accomplished by the German Von Sieylin expedition in 1909-10. 

The pyramids of Gizeh stand upon a plateau ) which extends 
about 1600 yds. from E. to W. and about 1300 yds. from N. to S., 
the E. and N. margins being precipitous at places. The pyramids 
are built exactly facing the four cardinal points. The diagonal of the 
largest pyramid from N.E. to S.W. is exactly in a line with the dia- 
gonal of the second pyramid. 




The ** Great Pyramid is called by the Egyptians 'Yekhet 
Khufu\ or the •Glorious Place of Khufu\ and was built by Kheops, 
the Khufu of the Egyptians (p. xcii). The outermost covering 
has now disappeared, except lor insignificant fragments on the 
base below the entrance. The length of each side (PI. A A) is now 

128 Route 6. PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH. Qreat Pyramid. 

74:6 ft., but was formerly (PI. B B) abont 756 ft. ; the present per- 
pendicular height (PI. E C) is 450 ft., while originally (PI. E E), 
including the nucleus of rock (PI. FF) at the bottom and the apex 
(PI. CE), which has now disappeared, it is said to have been 481 ft. 
The height of each sloping side (PL A C) is now 568 ft. and was for- 
merly (PI. B E) 610ft. The angle at which the sides rise is 51° 60'. 
The cubic content of the masonry, deducting the foundation of rock 
in the interior, as well as the hollow chambers, was formerly no less 
than 3,277,000 cubic yards and it still amounts to 3,057,000 cubic 
yards. In round numbers, the stupendous structure covers an area 
of nearly thirteen acres. The material of which it is constructed 
is yellowish limestone quarried in the vicinity and containing 
numerous fossUs, chiefly nummulites (p. 116). The outer covering 
was formed of blocks of a finer white limestone, which was obtained 
from the quarries at Tura (p. 170) and other parts of the Moka^tam. 
Construction of the Great Pyramid. According to Borchardt's theory 
this pyramid was not built on a single homogeneous plan (p. 126). It 
was originally designed to contain only one sloping corridor hewn in the 
rocky ground (ar) and leading through an antechamber (t) to the tomb- 
chamber (t). But before this design was completely carried out it was 
exchanged for a more comprehensive plan, involving the construction of 
another chamber, now called the Queen's Chamber fjrj, reached by the cor- 
ridor marked cef. But even this was not final, for Kheops undertook 
another and greater extension, resulting in the construction of the Great 
Hall (h) and the King's Chamber (*). 

The Ascent of the Pyramid, though fatiguing, is perfectly safe. 
The traveller selects two of the importunate Beduins (p. 124) and 
proceeds to the N.E. corner of the pyramid where the ascent usually 
begins. Assisted by the two Beduins, one holding each hand, and, 
if desired, by a third (no extra payment) who pushes behind, the 
traveller begins the ascent of the steps, which are each about 3 ft. 
high. The strong and active attendants assist the traveller to mount 
by pushing, pulling , and supporting him , and will scarcely allow 
him a moment's rest until the top is reached. As, however, the un- 
wonted exertion is fatiguing, the traveller should insist on resting 
as often as he feels inclined. ' Vskut walla ma fish bakshish' (be quiet, 
or you shall have no fee) is a sentence which may often be em- 
ployed with advantage. All requests for bakshish should be refused, 
and it is as well to keep an eye upon one's pockets. — The ascent 
may be made in 10-15 min. but, in hot weather especially, the 
traveller is recommended to take nearly double that time, in order 
to avoid the discomfort of arriving breathless and heated at the 
summit. The space at the top at present is about 12 yds. square, 
80 that there is abundant room for a large party of visitors. 

The **ViEW is remarkably interesting and striking. There is 
perhaps no other prospect in the world in which life and death, 
fertility and desolation, are seen in so close juxtaposition and in 
such marked contrast. To the W., S., and N.W. extend yellowish 
brown tracts of sand, interspersed with barren cliffs. The huge 

Great Pyramid, PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 129 

and colourless mouuments erected here by the hand of man remind 
the spectator, like the desert itself, of death and eternity. On 
a bare plateau of rock stand the other pyramids, while the Sphinx 
reposes majestically on the sand. The arrangement of the extensive 
burial-ground with its various streets of tombs is plainly seen. 
To the S., in the distance, rise the pyramids of Abusir, Sakkara, 
and Dahshur. To the N. are the palm -groves of Kerdaseh and 
the flelds of the valley of the Nile. Towards the E., on the other 
hand, glitters the river, on each bank of which stretches a tract of 
rich arable land, luxuriantly clothed with blue-green vegetation 
and varying in breadth. The flelds are intersected in every direction 
by canals, on the banks of which stately palms wave their flexible 
fan-like leaves. lu the direction of Cairo runs the long straight 
carriage-road. Immediately before us rises the Citadel with its 
striking minarets, while the Mokattam hills, which form the chief 
mass of colour in the landscape, gleam in the morning with a pale 
golden tint and in the evening with a violet hue. 

The descent of the Great Pyramid is hardly less fatiguing than 
the ascent. Persons liable to giddiness may flnd it a little trying, 
but the help of the Beduins removes all danger. 

Intbrioe (comp. Plan, p. 127]. A visit to the interior of the 
Great Pyramid is comparatively uninteresting to the ordinary tourist. 
It will be found fatiguing, and an interval of rest between the ascent 
and this expedition is recommended. Travellers who are in the 
slightest degree predisposed to apoplectic or fainting flts and ladies 
travelling alone should not attempt to penetrate into these stifling 
recesses. The explorer has to crawl and clamber through low and 
narrow passages, which, at places, especially near the entrance, are 
not above 3'/2 ft- high and 4 ft. wide. The floor is often very slippery, 
and the close air smells strongly of bats. The temperature of the 
interior is nearly 79° Fahr. The attempts of the guides to goad the 
visitor into inconvenient hurry should be disregarded. 

The Entrance (PL a) is on the N. side (as in all pyramids), on 
the thirteenth tier of stones, at a perpendicular height of 49 ft. from 
the ground. The long passage a r, which is only 3 ft. 4 in. in width 
and 3 ft. 11 in. in height, descends in a straight direction at an 
angle of 26° 41', and is altogether 106'/>yd3. in length. "We follow 
this passage as far as the point d only, 20 yds. from the entrance, the 
end being filled up. Here diverges the ascending passage d e, the 
lower end of which is filled with massive blocks of granite, placed in 
position after the interment of the mummy to protect the grave from 
robbers. The hardness of the material of which this barrier consists 
compelled treasure -hunters (p. 126) to avoid it and to force a 
new passage (PI, d) through the softer limestone. This is the roughest 
and most awkward spot on the whole route. Beyond the granite 
blocks we enter the passage (PL de), 41 yds. in length, with a very 
slippery floor, beyond which lies the Great Hall (PL h). 

130 Route 6. PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH. Great Pyramid. 

Immediately in front of the entrance to the latter a formerly con- 
cealed opening in the pavement gives access to the horizontal passage «/, 
which terminates in the so-called Chamber of the Queen (PI. g). This 
passage is at first 3 ft. 9 in. only in height, but at a distance of 6V2 yds. 
from the chamber the paving has been removed so that the height increases 
to 5 ft. 8 inches. The N. and S. sides of the chamber are each 17 ft. in 
length, and the E. and W. sides 18 ft. 10 inches. The height is 20 ft. 4 in., 
including the pointed roof, which rises 51/2 ft. above the top of the walls 
and consists of enormous blocks with their ends sunk into the surrounding 

The jointing and polish of the fine-grained Mokattam limestone 
in the Great Hall (PI. K) form an unsurpassable marvel of skilful 
masonry, of which the Arab historian 'Abdellatif accurately re- 
marks, that neither a needle nor even a hair can be inserted into the 
joints of the stones. The Great Hall is 28 ft. high and 155 ft. long. 
The lower part is 3 ft. 4 in. in width; and the upper part, above 
the stone ramps on each side, which are 1 ft. 8 in. thick and 2 ft. 
high, is 68/4 ft. in width. The roof is formed of seven courses of 
stone projecting one above the other and crowned by horizontal 
slabs. The incisions on the walls were used to facilitate the intro- 
duction of the sarcophagus. On the smooth floor are irregularly hewn 
hollows, which now serve to prevent the visitor from slipping. At 
the end of the Great Hall is a small horizontal passage, 22 ft. long 
and 3 ft. 8 in. high, expanding about the middle into an Antecham- 
ber (PI. i), which was once closed by four trap-doors of granite. The 
remains of one of these slabs, in its pendent position, should be 
noticed. We next enter the Tomb Chamber proper, commonly called 
the King's Chamber (PI. fe). The N. and S. sides are each 17 ft. in 
length, the E. and "W. sides 341/2 ft., and the height is 19 ft. ; the 
floor of the chamber is 1391/2 ft. above the plateau on which the 
Pyramid stands. The chamber is entirely lined with granite and 
is roofed with nine enormous slabs of granite, each I81/2 ft. in 
length, above which five chambers (I, m, n, 0, p) have been formed, 
which may be reached from the Hall h by means of ladders. 

In constructing these hollow chambers the over-cautious builders made 
an error in their calculations , for as a matter of fact the uppermost 
chamber by itself would have been sufficient to prevent the roof of the 
King's Chamber being crushed by the superincumbent weight. The name 
of Kheops was found in the two highest chambers (PI. 0, p). 

The King's Chamber now contains nothing but an empty and 
mutilated Sarcophagus of granite, bearing no trace of an inscription, 
the lid of which had disappeared before the time of the French 
expedition (p. 126). The sarcophagus is 772 ft- long, 3 ft. 3 in. 
wide, and 3 ft. 4 in. high. The very massive sides ring with a clear 
tone when struck. Curiously enough, the King's Chamber does not 
lie exactly in a line with the diagonal of the Pyramid but is 16 ft. 
4 in. to the S. of it. 

The Air Shafts (PI. G, ii), the ends of which are seen about 
3 ft. above the floor of the chamber, were perhaps constructed from 
religions motives. They are about 6 in. in height and 8 in. in width 

Second Pyramid. PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 131 

only, expandin by a iw i. cLes at the outer extremities. The N. 
shaft is 233 ft., and the S shaft 174 ft. long. 

We now retrace our steps and, on emerging from these awe 
inspiring recesses, hail the light and air with no little satisfaction. 

The other chambers as yet discovered in the interior of the Great 
Pyramid are inaccessible. The first passage a b r, which is blocked at b, 
leads downwards in a straight line, 293 ft. in length, and terminates in a 
horizontal corridor, 27ft. in length, 3ft. in height, and 2ft. in width, 
which leads to the unfinished subterranean chamber s, hewn in the rock. 
The E. and W. sides of this chamber are each 46 ft. in length, the N. 
and S. sides 27 ft., and the height IOV2 ft. It does not lie in a line 
with the diagonal of the Pyramid and its floor is 101 V2 ft. below the 
level on which the Pyramid is built. The subterranean horizontal pass- 
age t, 60 ft. long, ends in a cul-de-sac. The statement of Herodotus, that 
the subterranean chamber planned by Kheops for the reception of his 
body was surrounded by a canal conducted hither from the Nile, is er- 
roneous, as the chamber lies above the highest level of the overflow of 
the river, and it has, moreover, been ascertained that no channel from the 
river ever led in this direction. — From the lower end of the Great Hall 
a shaft, discovered by Davison in 1763, descends to the lower passage. 
The enterprising Caviglia (p. 126) found that it terminated in the passage (r) 
leading to the subterranean chamber (s). To all appearance it was bored 
through the masonry after the latter had been finished. 

To the E. of the Pyramid stood the Temple for the worship of 
the deceased (p. clxixl, such as was erected in the case of every 
pyramid. Nothing of this now exists, however, except some rem- 
nants of the basaltic pavement. The neighbouring depressions known 
as 'mortar-pits' (marked m on the Plan at p. 123) are natural clefts 
in the rock, some of which have been lined with slabs of stone. — 
On the E. side lie also Three Small Pyramids intended for relatives 
of the king. The middle one of these (I on the Map) is said by 
Herodotus to have been the tomb of a daughter of Kheops. That to 
the S., according to an inscription in the Museum of Cairo, likewise 
belonged to a daughter of Kheops, named Henwetsen. — At the E. 
base of the small pyramid to the S, lies a small Sanctuary of Jsis 
(0 on the Map), the 'mistress of the Pyramid', which was erected by 
King Psusennes (21st Dyn.). It is in a very ruinous condition, 
nothing remaining except a few stumps of columns. 

The Second Pyramid, called by the Egyptians Wer-Khefre 
('■Great is KhefrT). was erected by Khefre, who was called Khephren 
by the Greeks (p. xcix). Owing to the greater height of the rocky 
plateau on which it stands, it appears higher than its larger neigh- 
bour. The perpendicular height of this Pyramid is now 4471/2 ft. 
(originally 471 ft.), each side of the base measures 69O1/2 ft- (ori- 
ginally 7073/4 ft.), and the height of each sloping side is 563^2 ft- 
(originally 5721/2 ft.), while the sides rise at an angle of 52°20'. 
The solid content of the masonry is now 2,156,960 cubic yds., equi- 
valent to 4,883,000 tons in weight (originally 2,426,710 cub. yds., 
equivalent to 5,309,000 tons). As the rocky site rises towards the 
AV. and N., a considerable part of it required to be removed in or- 
der that a level surface might be obtained (see p, 187), while the 

132 Boute 6. PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH. Second Pyramid. 

E. side of the plateau was artificially extended by a terrace-wall of 
enormous blocks of stone. To the E. lies the Mortuary Temple, the 
various chambers of which may be distinctly traced in spite of its 
ruinous condition. Like all these pyramid temples it consisted of 
two distinct principal portions, the public temple and the reserved 
sanctuary. The main chamber of the public temple was a large open 
court, surrounded by a passage like the cloisters of a mediaeval mon- 
astery and embellished with colossal statues of the king. This 
was the scene of the great funeral festivals. The causeway ascending 
to it from the valley, the monumental entrance to which was formed 
by the so-called 'Granite Temple' (p. 135) , is still traceable. To 
theS., within the wall that surrounded this pyramid, stood another 
small pyramid, now almost level with the ground, in which the 
queen was buried. — The incrustation of the Second Pyramid, of 
which a considerable part still remains at the top, consisted of 
limestone slabs in the upper courses and of partially unpolished 
granite slabs in the two lower (well preserved on the W. side). 

The merit of having opened this pyramid belongs to Belzoni (p. 126). 
An inscription over the entrance records that the opening took 
place on March 2nd, 1818. 

The plan of the Second Pyramid also appears to have been altered 
in the course of building. The original intention seems to have been to 
erect a small pyramid over the subterranean chamber. Afterwards a larger 
pyramid was decided upon and the chamber moved towards the S., to 
its present position. 

The Interior is thus entered by two passages, both on the N. side. 
The mouth of one of these, blocked up on the abafldonment of the first 

Third Pyramid. PYRAMIDS OF gIzEH, 6. Route. 133 

plan, is in the level surface in front of the Pyramid and was concealed 
by the pavement (PI. d); that of the other, which still forms the entrance 
to the pyramid, is on the N. side of the Pyramid itself, and is now 38 ft., 
bnt formerly 49 ft., above the level of the ground (PI. a). This Upper Passage, 
which was lined with granite at the beginning, descends at an angle of 
25° 55' for 105 ft. (PI. a b) and then leads as a horizontal corridor (PI. b g c) 
to 'Belzoni's Chamber', which once contained the tomb of the deceased, 
situated 3 ft. 10 in. to the R. of the diagonal of the Pyramid. This cham- 
ber is hewn in the rock and roofed with painted slabs of limestone, 
placed obliquely at the same angle as the sides of the pyramid. It is 
221/2 ft. in height, 46V2 ft. in length from E. to W., and 16'/3 ft. in width 
from N. to .'^. Belzoni here found a granite sarcophagus let into the 
ground and filled with rubbish, 3 ft. in height, 6 ft. 7 in. in length, 
and 31/2 ft. in width, and destitute of inscription. The lid was broken. — 
The Lower Passage (PI. d) descends at first at an angle of 21° 40', reaches 
a trap-door (PI. e1, runs in a horizontal direction for 59 ft. (PI. «/), and 
then ascends, terminating, after a distance of 97 ft. in all (PI. g), in the 
horizontal corridor leading to Belzoni's Chamber. This ascending passage 
was perhaps made to permit the introduction of a broad trap-door of 
granite and to permit of the transportation of the coffin from the old to 
the new tomb-chamber. On the E. (left) side of the middle of the horizontal 
portion of this lower passage was introduced a small recess, and on the 
W. side is a steep passage, 22 ft. in length, descending to a chamber 
(PI. h) hewn in the rock, 8 ft. 5 in. in height, 34 ft. 3 in. in length, and 
10 ft. 4 in. in width. This chamber was originally designed to receive the 
sarcophagus, but was never used. 

The Third Pyramid, named by the Egyptians Neter- Menkewre 
('Divine is Menkewre^), was erected by Menkewre, the Mykerinos of 
Herodotus and the Mencherea of Manetho (p. xcix). Its present per- 
pendicular height (PL B B, p. 134) is 204 ft., its former height (B C) 
was 218 ft. ; the side of the base (A A) is 356'/2 ft. ; the present height 
(AB) of the sloping sides is 2633/4 ft., being originally (A C) 2793/4 ft. , 
these rise at an angle of 51°. The upper part of the incrustation of 
the pyramid was formed of limestone blocks, the lower part of granite, 
left partly unsmoothed. The granite covering is in good preservation, 
especially on the N. and W. sides. On the E. side lie the ruins of 
the customary mortuary temple, laid bare during the American ex- 
cavations of 1907 under Dr. Reisner and , as usual , approached 
from the valley by a still recognizable causeway, beginning with a 
so-called valley-temple, a smaller sanctuary built of brick. 

The Interior is reached only with difficulty. The entrance is on the N. 
side. A passage a c descends at an angle of 26° 2' for a distance of IO41/2 ft., 
being lined with red granite where it passes through the masonry from a 
to 6 and then penetrating the solid rock from 6 to c. From c a horizontal 
passage cd leads to an antechamber/, 7 ft. in height, 12 ft. in length, 10 ft. 
in width, and decorated with door-shaped ornaments. Beyond this cham- 
ber it passes three trap-doors g. descends slightly from h io d (gradient 4°), 
a distance of 41'/2 ft., and finally descends to the chamber e, in a cavity 
in which the sarcophagus of the king seems to have originally stood 
(comp. p. 134). This chamber is 44V2 ft. long, 12'/? ft. broad, and, owing 
to the unevenness of the rock, from which the pavement has been removed, 
varies from 13 ft. to 13 ft. 5 in. in height. 

In the pavement of the chamber e is the mouth (formerly covered) of 
a shaft 30 ft. in length, which has a fine granite lining at its upper end 
and could be closed by a trap-dour at its lower end. It is continued by 
a horizontal shaft, 10 ft. in length, to the granite Tomb Chamber (PI. i). 

134 Route 6. PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH. Third Pyramid. 

Immediately before the latter is reached a, flight of seven steps leads to 
the right to a chamber with recesses on the right and back walls. The 
tomb-chamber is paved with blocks of granite, 21/2 ft. in thickness, and 
its ceiling has been formed by placing the stones against each other at an 
angle so as to resemble a roof and then hollowing them ont on the inside 
in the form of a Gothic arch. The richly decorated sarcophagas of Men- 
kewre was found here by Col. Vyse in a good state of preservation. It 
was made of basalt and measured externally 2 ft. 7 in. in height. The 
lid was gone. Fragments of the inner wooden coffin and of the royal 
mummy (now in the British Museum) were found in the chamber e. 
The vessel in which the sarcophagus was being conveyed to England 
was unfortunately lost off the coast of Spain. 


The original intention of the builder was to construct a pyramid on 
a small scale, containing only the sloping corridor I k, leading to a cham- 
ber at e, smaller than that now existing. But when a larger pyramid was 
projected the corridor abed was formed, leading first to an antechamber 
and then to a tomb-chamber at «, enlarged by deepening the earlier 
chamber at that point. Under the New Empire the interior of the pyramid 
was ruined by the forcible entry of treasure-seekers -, but probably during 
the Saite period a restoration took place. To this restoration are due the 
sloping shaft and the granite chamber (i) in which the stone sarcophagus 
of Menkewre was concealed, as well as the lower-lying room with the 

The Second and Third Pyramids are most conveniently visited in 
the conrse of the circuit of the Pyramid plateau mentioned at p. 137. 
After inspecting the Great Pyramid visitors usually proceed along 
its E. side to the Sphinx, which rises from amidst the sand of the 
desert about 350 yds. to the S.E. 

The Sphinx. PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 135 

The **Sphinx, which next to the Pyramids themselves is the 
most famous monument in this vast burial-ground, is hewn out of 
the natural rock and, with some aid from added blocks of stone, has 
been moulded into the shape of a recumbent lion with the head of 
a king wearing the royal head-cloth, adorned with the royal serpent. 
Originally it was probably a natural rock which from a distance 
somewhat resembled a lion. It was no doubt the workmen engaged 
in building the tomb of Khephren who improved this resemblance 
with the help of blocks of stone and carved the face in the likeness 
of Khephren. Afterwards it was taken for the sun-god and named 
Harmachii (i.e. 'Horus on the horizon'). In front of the breast 
was once an image of a god. The head is now deplorably mutilated; 
the neck has become too thin, the nose and beard have been broken 
off, and the reddish tint which enlivened the face has almost dis- 
appeared. But in spite of all injuries it preserves eyen now an 
impressive expression of strength and majesty. The entire height 
of the monument, from the pavement to the crown of the head, is 
said to be 66 ft., -while its length from the fore-paws to the root 
of the tail is 187 ft. The ear, according to Mariette, is 4'/2 ft., the 
nose 5 ft. 7 in., and the mouth 7 ft. 7 in. in length; and the extreme 
breadth of the face is 13 ft. 8 inches. If the traveller stands on the 
upper part of the ear he cannot stretch his hand as far as the crown 
f the head. There is a hollow in the head. 

Tht Excavation of the Sphinx, so far as is now known, was first under- 
taken by Thutmosis IV. (see below). During the Ptolemaic and Roman 
periods the colossus was several times restored and was highly admired 
und revered, as numerous inscriptions upon it testify. Curiously enough, 
the Sphinx was mentioned neither by Herodotus nor by any later Greek 
traveller. The mutilations which now disfigure it date from the Arab 
domination. In 1380 it fell a victim to the iconoclastic zeal of a fanatic 
sheikh, and it was afterwards used as a target by the barbarous Mamelnkes. 
— In the 19th century the Sphinx was first completely excavated by Caviglia 
(p. 126), at the cost (450/.) of an English society. He discovered the flight 
iif steps which ascended to the stupendous monament, and also found be- 
tween the paws of the lion a carefully laid pavement, at the end of which 
next to the breast of the Sphinx rose a kind of open temple. The latter 
was enclosed by two partitions, through which ran a passage, in the middle 
of which was a small figure of a recumbent lion, facing the Sphinx. In the 
background and at each side were memorial stones erected by Thntmosis IV. 
and Kamses II. The Sphinx was again excavated by Mcupero in 1886. At 
present, however, the Sphinx is much sanded up so that the above- 
mentioned structures are no longer visible. 

About 50 yds. to the S.E. of the Sphinx lies the large *ValIey 
Temple of Khephren, long known as the 'Gkanitk Temple', dis- 
covered by Mariette in 1853 and almost completely excavated by 
the Von Sieglin expedition in 1909-10. This was the sanctuary 
erected as an entrance to the causeway which ascended from the 
valley to the mortuary temple and pyramid of Khephren. It is a 
fine example of the simple and majestic architecture of a period 
when the art of working the hardest kinds of stone had already 
attained perfection. 

136 Route 6. PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH. Khephren's Temple. 

The total structure is 147 ft. square aud 43 ft. in height; exter- 
nally the walls batter. The faijade, on the E. side, was pierced by 
two huge portals (now closed), surrounded by monumental royal 
inscriptions. The present entrance is from the ancient Causeway 
(PI. a). We descend the corridor (PI. b) to the Antechamber (PI. c), 
constructed of red granite, in which the passages leading from the 
two portals unite. Here is also the well (PL dj, now full of water, 
In which Marlette found the famous statue of Khephren now in 

5 L 

the museum at Cairo (p. 83). We return through the large door- 
way in the central axis of the building into the main Hypoityle 
Hall (PI. f), which is shaped like an inverted T, the main arm being 
57 ft. long and 2972 ft- broad, and the cross arm 82 ft. long and 
23 ft. broad. Sixteen monolithic granite pillars divide the main 
arm into three aisles, the cross arm into two. The stone beams of 
the architrave still preserve their sharp edges. These rooms were 
lighted by means of smaU oblique openings, still to be seen in the 
upper part of the side-walls. Against the walls originally stood 23 
colossal royal statues, the bases of which have left rectangular marks 
on the pavement. Several of these statues are now in Cairo. — 
From the S.W. angle of the hypostyle hall a dark passage leads to a 
group of Storerooms (PI. g), arranged in two stories with three rooms 
in each. Thence we return to the entrance-corridor (PI. b), quit it 
by a door on the left, and follow a short oblique passage to the Porter's 
Room (PI. h), which is constructed of slabs of alabaster. To the 
right In the corridor is the entrance to an Inclined Plane (PI. i), 
which turns twice at a right angle and leads to the Roof of the 
temple. The pavement and walls of this plane are likewise con- 
structed of alabaster. 

Circuit. PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH. 6. Route. 137 

Between the Valley Temple and the Sphinx is a series of brick 
walls, of the Ptolemaic or the Roman period, intended to protect the 
Sphinx from the shifting sand. 

The tomhs surrounding the different pyramids, where the rela- 
tives and state-officials of the kings and also the priests and officials 
of the various mortuary temples of the necropolis were interred, are 
far inferior in interest to the tomhs that have been excavated and 
rendered accessible at Sakkara (p. 149). Yet the manner in which 
they are laid out in streets and lanes, especially in the area to the 
W. of the Great Pyramid (recently excavated by German, Austrian, 
and American explorers), affords the best extant picture of an Egyp- 
tian necropolis. The so-called Tomb of Numbers (p. 139) and 
Campbell's Tomb (p. 138) are nsually visited also. 

Travellers who are not pressed for time and who desire to ob- 
tain a closer view of the Second and Third Pyramids are recom- 
mended to make the following *Circuit of the Pyramid Plateau 
(comp. p. 123). 

After having inspected the Great Pyramid (p. 127), we turn 
(following the dotted line on the Plan, p. 123) to the left (W.) of 
the entrance and descend as far as the N.W. angle of the Pyramid, 
where the levelled space on the ground (b on the Plan), intended 
for the reception of the corner-stone, has been exposed to view. 
Towards the W. and S.W. lie numerous mastaba-tomhs presenting 
an impressive appearance. 

Those, however, who are not deterred by difficulty will find the tomb 
(6th Dyn.) of Shtpiet-kef-onekh and his son Itneri, almost due N. of the 
Second Pyramid, the least inconvenient. This tomb, called by the Beduins 
Turha Lepsius {i.e. Lepsius's Tomb), is half- buried in sand, and visitors 
have to crawl through the low entrance in order to reach the long 
vaulted corridor, which is covered with reliefs and inscriptions. — The 
beautiful tomb of Nefer-bew-Ptah (PI. c), a grandson of Shepses-kef-onekh, 
lies to the left (S.), but is unfortunately quite buried. 

We now skirt the N. and "W. sides of the vast necropolis, and 
reach the N.W. angle of the rocky enclosure of the court of the 
Second Pyramid. A natural cleft in the rock (PI. d) here facilitates 
our descent from the top of the rock, which is over 16 ft, in height. 
At the foot of it we reach the levelled plateau prepared for this 
pyramid (p. 131). On the surface are a number of regularly arranged 
square incisions, separated from each other by furrows about 2 ft. 
wide. These date from the quarrying operations (comp. p. 356) 
carried on here during the building of the pyramid. 

On the rock above is an inscription in honour of Mei, chief architect 
la the temple called 'Ramses II. shines in the Great House of the Prince" 
(*.«. Heliopolis) and son of Bek-en-Amun, chief architect of Thebes. In the 
reign of Ramses 11. Mei systematically demolished the temple ofKhephren 
or part of the facing of the pyramid to obtain materials for building a 
temple at Heliopolis. 

On theE. side of the Pyramid are remains of the mortuary temple 

138 Route 6. PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH. Campbell's Tomb. 

connected with it (p. 132). We follow the W. side of the Pyramid. 
On the rock to the right is another hieroglyphic inscription (PI. /") 
by the above-mentioned Me'i , near which are several rock-tombs. 
One of these (PI. ^), that ot Neb-em-yekhet, nearly opposite the 
S.W. angle of the Pyramid, has a fine ceiling hewn in the rock in 
imitation of palm-stems. 

Our route now leads towards the S.W. to the Third Pyramid 
(p. 133). To the S. of it stand three small Pyramids, belonging to 
near relatives of King Mykerinos. 

We now turn to the remains of the mortuary temple to the E. of 
the Third Pyramid and descend towards the E. by the ancient cause- 
way (p. 124). Here, on the left, is another series of rock-tombs dat- 
ing from the 4th and 5th Dynasties. Among these is that of Tebehne 
(PI. K), with several chambers and recesses. This is now closed by 
a wooden door and is regarded as the sacred tomb of Sidi Hamed 
Sam'an. Numerous villagers assemble here on Friday for religious 

In the valley before us. to the right, rises a projecting ridge of 
rock containing tombs of no interest. Adjoining this rock, on the 
left, is a picturesque Arab cemetery. Still farther to the E. we ob- 
serve the remains of a wall (perhaps the ancient town-wall), with 
a gateway. — After passing a high mound of debris, consisting 
of a pyramidal mass of masonry on a projecting rock and supposed to 
be the remains of an uncompleted pyramid, we come to other tombs 
on the left, likewise covered with sand. Among these is the tomb 
of Wer-khewew (PI. fc), a judge under the 5th Dynasty. 

We now proceed to the left (N.) to Campbell's Tomb, a family 
tomb of the 26th Dyn., discovered by Col. Vyse in 1837 and named 
by him after Col. Campbell, the British consul-general in Egypt at 
that period. The upper part, the mastaba proper, has been entirely 
destroyed, and the shaft (53 ft. deep), at the bottom of which is 
a tomb-chamber vaulted with an arch having a span of 11 ft., is now 
uncovered. The sides of the shaft are separated from the surround- 
ing rock by a trench, which is spanned by bridges of stone at only a 
few points. The sarcophagus which stands in the tomb -chamber 
contained the remains of the royal scribe Pe-kop Wah-eb-re-em- 
yekhet, a contemporary of King Apries. Beside the sarcophagus 
lies a stone lid shaped like a mummy. In niches in the S. and W. 
sides of the shaft are two other sarcophagi ; a fourth sarcophagus 
found here is now in the British Museum. All these sarcophagi had 
been opened and plundered. For a description of the similar tombs 
from the Persian period, see p. 166. 

We return past the Sphinx (p. 135) and the Valley Temple 6 f 
Khephren (p. 135) to the Great Pyramid and the three small pyra- 
mids lying in front of it to the E. 

We may now proceed to the E. to the verge of the desert-plateau, 
in the direction of the Arab village of Kafr el-Haram, in order to 

Tomh of Numlers. PYRAMIDS OF GIZEII. G. Route. 139 

inspect the Tombs of the Ancient Empire, hollowed out in the rocky 
slope. Several of these are now used as dwellings or stables. The 
best known is the Tomb of Numbers (PI. n), which belonged to a 
certain Khefre-onekh, a courtier of Khephren. On the left part of the 
entrance-wall appear the deceased and his brother, accompanied by 
a dog, inspecting the cattle that are driven before them by peasants. 
The peasants are arranged in several rows, headed by one bearing 
the sunshade of his master. Scribes are engaged in recording the 
number of cattle of each kind, the numbers being placed above 
the herds (whence the name of the tomb). Thus we are informed 
that Khefre-onekh had 853 oxen, 220 cows and calves, 2235 goats, 
760 asses, and 974 rams. On the left (S.) wall are the deceased 
and his wife at table. On the rear (W. ) wftU are five door-shaped 
steles with a statue of the deceased, to the left. The mural reliefs, 
which are in poor preservation, are in the clumsy and undeveloped 
style of the 4th Dynasty. — On the S. horizon, ca. 6 M. distant, rise 
the pyramids of Abusir (p. 141) and the step-pyramid of Sakkara 
(p. 146). 

An expedition across the desert to the Western Petrified Forest 
(Kom el-Khashah) is attractive (guide necessary). To the N. of the 
Mena House Hotel we strike off to the "W. and after a ride of 3 hrs. 
across a sandy valley reach tlie beginning of the petrified forest, 
which extends as far as the Wadi Natrun (p. 32). Tlie specimens 
of petrified trees here are much finer than those in the petrified 
forest in the Arabian Desert (_pp. 118. 119). 

The Excursion to the Pyramids of Aku Ro.^sh, which lie 5 M. 
to the N. of the Pyramids of Gizeli, takes about half-a-day and is 
most conveniently made from the Mena Uouse Hotel, where donkeys, 
camels, or desert-carriages may be obtained. — Tlie route leads 
through the desert, skirting the edge of the cultivated land. It then 
l)ends to the E. through fields and reaches (3/4 hr.) the village of 
Kerdaseh, which is prettily situated amid palm-groves and is itself 
a sufficient attraction for an excursion, especially on Mon., which 
is the weekly market-day. We then proceed through palm-groves 
to (1 hr.) the village of Abu Roash, with the tomb of the saint of 
that name. Here we again turn to the W. across the desert and 
ascend by the ancient approach from the N.E., of which about 1 M. 
is still preserved, to the (' o hr.l abrupt rocky plateau. On this 
plateau standsthelargePyramidof Abu Koftsh, known by the natives 
as El-k'd'a, the tomb of the king Tetf-re (4th Dyn.). The pyr- 
amid itself has almost entirely disappeared, but we can look down 
into the hollow hewn in the rock which contains the sepulchral 
chamber, and on the passage descending to it. The remains of brick 
buildings to the E. of the pyramid belong to the mortuary temple. 
Adjacent is the house of the French Archaeological Institute. — A 

liAKIiEKKK^ Kgypt. 7II1 Edit. 10 

140 Route 6. ARU GUIiAR. 

smaller stone pyramid to the S.W. has been entirely demolished. 
The plateau commands a fine view of the Nile valley and of the 
gorges of the Libyan desert. ■ — There is a third pyramid, built of 
briclc, in the plain to the N. of the village of Abu Roash. The brick 
superstructure, which was 55 ft. in height when l.epsius saw it in 
1842, has since been entirely demolished, and nothing now remains 
but the rock-core with the tomb-chamber. 

The Excursion to the Pybamids of Aisusin, to the S. of Gizeh, 
is interesting. Wo take tlie eli^ctric tramway to the Mena House Hotel 
(p. 123) and proceed thence in IVs"*^ 'ts. on a donkey (there and 
back 10 pias.), on a camel, or in a desert-carriage (see p. 139j. Or a 
donkey may be taken direct from Cairo in 272 Its., via the villages ' 
of Gizeh, Tirsa, and Shobrement; or the excursion maybe combined <! 
with that to Sakkara (p. 142; comp. Plan, p. 143). i 

Quitting the Mena House Hotel we ride along the verge of the 
desert, leaving the Pyramids of Gizeh on the right. To the left is the . 
cultivated country, witli several villages. After about 1 hr. we have 1 
the large cemetery of the village of Zdwiyet Abu MusaUim on our , 
right. A low mound of rubbish on the summit of the desert-plateau 
marks the site of tlie stone pyramid of Zdwiyet el-' Aryan. In the 
desert, about 3/^ M. to the N.W., lies a second and Unfinished Pyra- 
mid, known as ^Shugl Iskender\ which seems to iiave been begun 
by King Nebka (3rd Dyn.). Tliis has been excavated by Barsanti, 
and plainly sliows the sloping passage cut in the rock and leading 
to a large square shaft, in which the tomb-chamber was to have been 
made. Tlie foundation and pavement of the last were completed 
(both of red granite), and in it stands the finely-worked red granite 
sarcophagus of the king, which was to have been half- embedded 
in the pavement. — In l'/2 hr. we reach the rubbish heaps of Abu 
Gurab. [Another, somewliat longer route leads via the village of 
Zdwiyet Ahu MusaUim, with a picturesque sheikh's tomb.] 

Abu GurS,b, formerly called also the Pyramid of Righa, was ex- 
plored in 1898-1901, on behalf of the Berlin Museum, by Drs. Bor- 
chardt and Schxfer. The building was a Sanctuary of the Sun 
God, erected by King Nuserre (5th Dyn.) on the occasion of the 
jubilee of his accession. 

The sanctuary stands upon a low, artificially altered hill and consists of 
an nncovered court, 330 ft. long by 250 ft. broad, with its entrance on the 
E. side, while in the posterior (W.) and main part of it rose the large 
Obelisk of the Sun. From the entrance-gate a (once) covered passage, or- 
namented with fine reliefs, led to the left along the E. and S. sides of the 
court, and then turned to the right (N.) to reach the obeliiik. The obelisk 
itself has totally vanished, but part of the platform of masonry on which 
it stood is still extant; and the top of this, reached by an internal stair- 
case, commands a fine view. In the front half of the court was the place 
for slaughtering the sacrificial bulls; the channels or gutters in the pave- 
ment empty themselves into nine alabaster basins foriginally ten). In front 
of the platform of the obelisk stands the Altar, 19 ft. long, 13 ft. broad, 

ABUSIR. 6. Roule. 141 

and 4 ft. liigh, built of live massive blocks of alabaster. On the .S. side of 
tbe obelisk is a mined chapel, which was embellished with admirable 
reliefs (now in the museums of Cairo and Herlin). On the N. side of the 
obelisk was another sacrificial court. The N. side of the court was 
flanked by treasure-houses, reached from the entrance-gate by a passafie 
(to the right) similar to that described on p. 140. To the S. of the temple 
lie the brick foundation.s of a boat of the sun. — The temple was conuected 
by a covered cau.ieway with a gateway situated in the valley near the 
N.E. slope of the hill. 

The three largest Pyramids of Abusir, erected by kings of the 
5th Dyn., stand close together, about 1 M. to the S.W. of the sanc- 
tuary of Abu Gurab (comp. the Inset Plan II at p. 145 ). They were 
explored in 1902-8 by the German Oriental Society under Dr. Bor- 
chardt. The masonry of these monuments, having originally been 
constructed with no great care, is now much damaged. The entran- 
ces are on the N. sides, and the interior chambers are almost com- 
pletely in ruins. 

The northernmost of the pyramids is the Pyr.vmid of King 
Sehurb. Its perpendicular height was 16'2Y4ft. (now 118 ft.), its 
sides ■were 257 ft. (now 216 ft.) in length, and they were inclined 
at the angle of 51" 42' 35". On the E. side of the pyramid lie 
the extensive remains of the Mortuary Temple, to which a slightly 
sloping causeway ascended from the small temple in the valley. The 
long vestibule on the E. side of the temple opens into a passage, 
which surrounds the following court on the E., N., and S. sides. 
The large Colonnaded Court, the centre of the building, possesses 
a well-preserved pavement of black basalt. Fragments of the sixteen 
granite palm-cnlumns(p. clxi ), which once supported the roof of the 
colonnade around the walls of the court, are scattered about. The 
court is adjoined by a Transveme Room, which practically forms the 
W. side of the above-mentioned passage, and by a Boom with Five 
Recesses, in which stood statues of the king. A side-door on the left 
admits to the narrow passages leading to the Sanctuary, in which, at 
the foot of the pyramid, stood the large door-shaped stele. Among 
the other apartments we may note the Storerooms for the Sacrificial 
Offerings, a scries of two-storied chambers on the S. side, and the 
two-storied Treasuries on the N. side. At the S.E. angle of the 
pyramid, in a separate court with a side-entrance flanked by two 
tree-trunk columns (p. clviii), stands the small Queen's Pyramid. 

Next, to the S. , is the Pyramid of Nuseree, to which an easy 
winding path ascends (fine panorama). It, too, bad a mortuary temple 
on the E. side. From the plain a sloping causeway ascends to the 
main entrance and the forec,oiirt, on each side of which lir store- 
rooms. This is adjoined by an open court, with columns and a basaltic 
pavement. Fragments of the granite papyrus-columns lie scattered 
about. The following chambers, extending to the N. at the base of 
the pyramid, are in a very ruinous state. To the N. of the temple are 
some large Mastabas of the time of the 5th Dynasty. At the S.E. 
corner of the pyramid is a smaller pyramid, perhaps that of the 


142 Route 6. ABUSIR. 

queen. — The builder of the largest pyramid (sides 325. formerly 
360ft.; perpendicular height 164, formerly 2'28 ft.), situated a little 
to the S.W., was King Nefer-er-ke-re (6th l)yn.). On the E. side are 
the remains of the mortuary temple, built of freestone and brick. — 
The other buildings, some of which were pyramids and others 
sanctuaries of the sun, are mere heaps of ruins. 

A few paces to the S.K. of the Pyramid of Seliure is the Mastaba 
of Ptahshepses (5th Dyn.), excavated by De Morgan in 1893. It is 
mostly covered up again; the locked chambers are opened by the 
keeper of Abusir. We first enter a large hall (only partly excavat- 
ed), with twenty square pillars. Thence a door opens into another 
hall, with three recesses containing statues; on the walls are reliefs 
of goldsmiths and of workmen carving statues of the deceased in 
wood and stone. A third hall, in which the lower parts of two lotus- 
columns with bud-capitals, are still in situ ( comp. p. 83), contains 
remains of fine wall-reliefs. 

Continuing our route to Sakkara we leave to the left a pond and 
the village of Abusir, situated beyond a group of palms to the S.E., and 
soon reach the sandy eminences of the Necropolis of Memphis and Murl- 
ette's House (p. 147), 'A hr. from the first pyramid of Abu.sir. At the village 
of Abusir are the remains of a temple of the Nevr Empire. 

7. The Site of Ancient Memphis and the Necropolis 
of Sakkara. 

A visit to Memphis and Sakkara may easily be accomplished in one 
day. Provisions should not be forgotten. — Tickets admitting to the mon- 
uments of Sakkara may be obtained for 5 pias. each at Marietle's House 
(p. 147). Travellers, however, who possess a general Admission Ticket 
from the Service des Anliquilis de VEgypte (p. 200) do not require these 
special tickets. The custodians are forbidden to ask for gratuities, but a 
single traveller generally gives '/z, parties 2-2'/zpias. 

The following arrangement of the journey will be found convenient. 
Take an early train to (I hr. ) BedrasTiein {Badrechein ; fares Ist cl. lt)V-'i 
2iid cl. S'/apias.), where donkeys and drivers (10 pias. there and back, grat- 
uity 3-5 pias.), camels, and desert-carriages (60 pias. there and back) are in 
waiting. It is safer, however, to order a carriage by telegram addressed 
to the station-master. Eide via the site of Memphis, where the "Colossi of 
Ramses (p. 144) are inspected, and thence , passing the "Step Pj/ramid 
(p. 146l, to (ca. 2 hrs. in all) Marietle's House (p. 147), in the Necropolis of 
Sakkara. For luncheon and a visit to tlie ""Serapeum (p. 147) and the 
""Tombs of Ti and Ptahhotep fpp. 149, 163) 4 hrs. should be allowed; and 
possibly time may be found for the inspection of the Onnos Pyramid (p. 165) 
and the Persian Tombs (p. 166) or for the "Tomb of Merertika (p. 169) and the 
Street of Tombs (p. 162). For returning to the station of Bedrashein I'/z hr. 
more should be reckoned. — A highly attractive return may be made by 
the route already described via Abusir to the Mena House Hotel (2V2 hrs. ; 
bargain beforehand with the donkey -driver at Bedrashein; thence to the 
Mena House Hotel donkey 20, camel 25-50, desert-carr. 80-100 pias.), whence 
we take the tramway to Cairo. Those who confine themselves to the 
Necropolis of Sakkara may make the excursion from the Mena House Hotel 
via At)usir (donkey 20, camel 30, desert-carr. 80 pias.). — For the route 
to Sakkara via Helwan. see p. 170. — Comp. 'The Tombs of Sakkara', by 
A. A. 'Quibell (Ca'ir.i, 1911; 5 piaa.). 


'1 .-a^' 

Jt .5 ^ 


MEMPHIS. 7. Route. 143 

The trains start lioiu the Central Station (p. 3!i). The railway 
crosses the Nile beyond Bul&k (p. 78), passes (i^ji M.) Emhdbeh 
(p. 79; tramway to Cairo, see p. 38, No. 6), a district-capital wit]\ 
3459 inliab., and makes a wide curve to (6 M.) Bfddk ed-Dakrur, on 
a canal. To the right appear the Pyramids of Gizeh ; to the left a 
reformatory for boys and p:irl3. We cross the road to the Pyramids. 
— At(8V2 M-l Oheh (p. 80) we see Old Cairo (p. JOB) on the left, 
above wliich rises the long ridge of the Mokattani and to the S. the 
Gebel Tura (p. 170). To the right, beyond (11 V2 M-) Abu'n-Nomros, 
rise tlie hills of the Libyan desert with the sun-temple of Abu Gurab 
(p. 140), the Pyramids of Abusir, and the Step Pyramid I p. 146). 
Fine groves of palms. 14 M. Tammuh; 171/0 M. El-HawQmdlyeh 
(Hawarndia), witli a large sugar- factory. To the left, at the foot of 
the Gebel Tura, lies Helwan (p. 167). 

At (^201/2 M.l Bedrashein ( Badrechtin) visitors bound for Mem- 
phis and Sakkara leave tlie train, which goes on to Upper Egypt. 
The station lies to the left of the line. 

Via Memphis (Colossi of Ramses) and Mix Hahineh to the 
Neckopoi-is of S.VKK.inA. We ride along the railway, turn to the, 
right, cross a bridge, and follow the embankment towards the village 
of Betlrashein and a conspicuous grove of palms on the W. At the 
end of the embankment, '20 min. from the station, where the path 
divides, we keep to the left. The mounds of rubbish before us, the 
ruins of brick buildings, between whii'li the lines of ancient streets 
may often be traced, scattered blocks of granite, and broken pottery 
mark the ancient — 

Site of Memphis. 

Were it not for the vast Necropolis to the W. of the ancient 
city, no one would imagine that one of the most famous and pop- 
ulous capitals of antiquity had once stood here. The Egyptians, 
from the earliest period down to the Roman imperial epoch, built 
tiieir private houses of large sun-dried bricks of Nile mud, reserv- 
ing better material, such as limestone, .sandstone, or granite, for 
palaces and temples. Hut even the public buildings of Memphis 
have almost disappeared, as the stones were early carried off to build 
other eilifices elsewhere. Excavations have been going on here 
since 1908 under Prof. Flinders Petrie. 

llisTORir. The story of Blempliis stretches back to the beginninf: of 
Egyptian history. According to a very prubable tradition, Menes, the 
first historical ruler in Egypt, is said to have founded the 'white walls'' 
of a fortress in a reclaimed district on the borders between the two 
ancient kingdoms of XJpper and Lower Egypt Cp. xcix), in order to keep 
the conquered inhabitants of Lower Egypt in subiection. To the S. 
of this he i.s said to have built also the temple of Ptah (Hepha-stos), the 
patron-god of the city. The new settlement rapidly became of importance ; 
it was made the capital of a separate district, and the kings of the early- 
dynasties sometimes planted their court here. Under the (jth Dyn. a new 
quarter was founded, in which King Phiops I. lixed the residence of his 
court and near which the sepulchral pyramid of the ruler was situated. 

144 Route 7. MEMPHIS. Coiom. 

This quarter, as well as the pyramid, was callod Men-nefru-Mire, i.e. 'The 
beauty of King Mire (Phiops) remains', and this uame (in the later ab- 
breviated form Men/e, in Greek Memphis) was afterwards applied to the 
whole city. Mempliis attained its greatest prosperity under the monarchs 
of the Ancient Empire, who resided here or in the vicinity (near Gizeh 
and Abusir). Even under the Middle and New Empires, when Thebes 
became the centre of Egypt and the Theban Amon the most revered 
among the gods, Memphis appears to have retrograded but little. Tn the 
time of the 2Uth Dyn. the temple of Ptah was still the largest in tlie 
country but two. In the course of the contest.s fur the possession of 
Egypt, which raged after the 2'2ad Dyn., the city was captured by the 
Ethiopian Piankhi and by the As.syrians. 

Cambyses, the first monarch of the Persian dynasty, took Memphis by 
storm after his victory at Pelusium (525 B.C.j over Psammetichos III. ; and 
even after the foundation of Alexandria (331 B.C.) it appears to have re- 
tained some importance. Under Augustus it was a large and populous 
city, though its palaces, elevated on an eminence, lay ruined aud deserted. 
Among the temples that still existed were those of Ptah, of Apis (p.l47t, 
and of a female deity who was identified with the Aphrodite of the Greeks. 
In consequence of the edict of Theodosius (379-395 A.D. ; comp. p. cxii) the 
temples and statues were destroyed, and under the later Byzantine mon- 
archs the heretical Monophysites (p. cxiii) seem to have been very numerous 
here. Mukaukis, the leader of the Copts, was established at Memphis 
while negotiating with 'Amr ibn el-'A.s , the general of Omar (p. 44). 
The Mohammedan conquerors transferred their residence to the right 
bank of the Nile, opposite the northernmost part of Memphis, using the 
well-hewn blocks, which had once composed the venerable palaces and 
temples of the ancient city of Menes, for the construction of their palaces, 
castles, and mosques at Cairo. But down to a late period the ruins of 
Memphis excited the admiration of all visitors. Thus 'Abdellatif (at the 
end of the 12th cent.) assures us that even in his time the ruins contained a 
profusion of wonders which bewildered the mind and baffled description. — 
After his time the rapidly dwindling ruins of Memphis are rarely mentioned. 

Tlie path continuing in the original direction (W.) from the 
fork (p. 143), and leading through the palm-grove to the village 
of MH RaMneh, brings us to the ^Colossal Statues of Kamses 11., 
which once marked the entrance to the temple. The first of these, 
discovered in 1888, is made of granite and lies on its hack on a 
slight eminence. Its length is 26 ft., not including the crown, which 
is 6^2 ft- long- The square hole in the head of the colossus was for 
the insertion of the crown, which lies on the ground beside it. On 
hoth shoulders, breast, girdle, and bracelet occurs the name of the 
king; and on tlie pillar at the back is an inscription. On the left of 
the statue is an incised relief of Princess Bent-Anat. — Beside the 
statue stands a stele of Apries (p. cvi), in the rounded pediment 
of which appear Ptah and the falcon- headed Soker. — A little 
farther on lies a gigantic Sphinx, excavated in 1912 and in an ex- 
cellent state of preserYation. It is made of alabaster and is, as far 
as we know, tlie largest sphinx that has ever been transported, being 
26 ft. long and 14 ft. high and weighing about 80 tons. It has no 
inscriptions, but may be assigned to the 18th or 19th dynasty. 

We next reach the mud-hut that conceals the Second Colossus 
(adm. 4 pias. for those without official admission ticket, see p. 142). 
discovered by Caviglia and Sloane in 1820. A wooden flight 
of ste£s ascends to a platform from which the statue is in- 


Scale 1 ; 2.5.000 



Modetm BuHdinqsare coloiu-ed bl/tdc. 

" Tombs *: ■ 
:hv A^icierU h'n'ipire 

>' t e I- 




PrramiiL or Phiops I 

Plan 1. 
(SExteiiMon of Ihe Principal Mapi 

S. Groups of llie 


ograpli.TnBU't . of Wagiier *-Deljes,Leipii^. 





.s" '^i-* 

,>" i '^-r T>r v"^' 

fHaraiB.-<'t-SiaK55&itsit) ; ^;- .-y.^ (jo' f ''- r" 

/ TetZ \ '^OTtih or £rget7\ni ' " ^ -'. .^'^.' 

Tnwhs nov / ' atrett of Tombs ol'ihe SthDriu i-l'-rt^fj 

Pvnunia affepvet 


Abu sir ^ 


,Vf^t to Ho V. 





I ■ ^AHfrttany Temp le 


Plan II. 

( N" V\' Kxlonsion of IhePriucipfU M.ip) 



A B U S I R. 

Necropolis. SAKKAKA. 7. Route. 145 

spected. It consists of remarkably liard and liiic-graiucd limestone, 
and before it was injured was about 4'2 ft. in height, corresponding 
to tlie measurement given by Herodotus (30 cubits of I'/o ft- each). 
Tiie workmanship is excellent. The liandsome and gentle features 
of the king are admirably reproduced. A conventional beard is 
attached to the chin. In the girdle is a dagger with two falcon's 
heads. On the right shoulder, the breast, and the girdle appear the 
praeuomina of Ramses II. This colossus is to be removed to the 
Place Ramses in Cairo (comp. p. 78). — In front of the hut are 
several fragments of monuments, showing the name of Ramses 11. 

Two routes lead from the colossi to the Necropolis of Sakkara. 
One, turning to the N., passes the ruins of. the old Temple of Ptah, 
situated below the village of Mit Rahineh and close by a cemetery 
containingthe picturesque tomh of a sheikh. Thence we ride through 
the lanes of Mit Rahineh, beyond which we make for the Step Pyr- 
amid due W. (p. 146). 

The other route, more usually followed, leads to the W. from the 
colossi of Ramses, leaving the village of Mit Rahineh to the right. 
On quitting tlie palm-grove we obtain an attractive view ; imme- 
diately to the right, shaded by palm-trees and lehbakhs, is a small 
villa. About IV2M. to the W. is another long palm-grove surround- 
ing Sakkara and bordering the desert; beyond this, on the yellow 
sand of the desert, rise eleven pyramids. The iirst of these, to the 
left, is the S. brick pyramid, beyond which are the blunted pyramid, 
the N. brick pyramid, and the great pyramid, all belonging to the, 
group of Dahshur (p. 166). Not far from these we next perceive the 
Mastabat el-Fara'6n, with the pyramid of Phiops II.; then, exactly 
above the houses of Sakkara, two pyramids, the lesser of which is 
that of Phiops I.; and, lastly, to the right, the pyramid of Onnos, 
the great step-pyramid, and two smaller ones (to the right, that of 
Teti). These last seven pyramids belong to the group of Sakkara. — 
We ride along the embankment to the W. and then to the N., skirt- 
ing a canal (Bahr el-Libeini), to the lock-bridge, where we join 
the direct route (sec below). We continue to follow the embank- 
ment across the plain towards the W. and arrive (20 min. from 
the lock-bridge) at the Rns el-Gisr ('head of the embankment'). 

From Bbdeashein to the NECROPOiiis or SakkAra direct. — 
From the fork mentioned on p. 143 we ride to the N., following the 
telegraph-poles, traversing the entire palm-grove and passing among 
the brick ruins of ancient Memphis. We then follow the embank- 
ment to the above-mentioned lock-bridge. 

The united routes ascend to the plateau and bring us in sight 
of the vast **NecropoIis of Sakkflira (Saqqara), which extends 
about 41/3 M. from N. to S., and 1/4- 1 M. from E. to W. It contains 
sepulchral monuments of almost every period of Egyptian history. 
Loose heaps of light-coloured sand indicate recent excavations. The 

146 Route 7. SAKKAUA. Step Pyramid. 

whole necropolis lias been repeatedly explored by the Byzatitines 
and the Caliphs, as well as by modern explorers. 

On a hill close to the Ras el-Gisr lie the ruins of the large 
Convent of St. Jeremiah, resembling a deserted village. They were 
excavated in 1907-9 by .J. E. Quibell for the Kgyptian authorities. 
The convent, founded in the second half of the 5th cent, and de- 
stroyed by tlic Arabs about 960, includes two churches, a refectory, 
a bake-house, oil-press, wine-cellars, etc. The cell of St. Jeremiah 
also is preserved. Many of the monks' cells have remained intact, 
each with a recess in the E. wall , which served as an oratory and 
was sometimes adorned with paintings of the Madonna, the arch- 
angels, and the founder of the convent. These paintings, like the 
flue capitals and reliefs from the churches, are now in the museum 
at Cairo (comp. p. 89J. On the walls are numerous Coptic and 
Arabic inscriptions. The tombstones embedded in the pavement 
were brought from the convent-cemetery. The best general survey 
is obtained from the rubbish-heap. 

From this convent we ride to the N.W., straight towards the 
Step Pyramid. 

The *Step Pyramid of tSakkara (Arab. Et-Ifaram el-Mudarrag, 
i.e. 'the pyramid provided with steps'; comp. the illustration on 
p. (Ixix), a very conspicuous feature in the landscape, may be 
regarded as the 'Cognizance of Sakkara'. It was the tomb of the 
ancient king Zo>!er (3rd Dyn.) and is one of the oldest stone 
buildings in I'^gypt that have come down to our days. Tlie pyramid 
consists of six stages, the lowest of which is about 'ijl^/2 ft. in height, 
the next 36 ft., the third 341/4 ft., the fourth 321/2 ft-, the fifth 
30^/4 ft., and the sixth 29 ft., while each stage recedes about 6'/2 ft. 
as compared with the one below. The perpendicular height is 
200 ft. For the graduated construction, comp. p. clxix. The pyramid 
is built of an inferior clayey limestone quarried in the neighbour- 
hood. The original entrance was on the N. side, at the foot of the 
lowest step. The interior ( inaccessible) contains a complicated 
series of passages and chambers, which, however, are due to 
treasure-hunters and to later attempts at restoration ; for the orig- 
inal construction of King Zoser had only one sloping entrance-shaft 
(PI. ab, p. clxix), with ramps at the sides, and a single tomb-cham- 
ber (PI. b). The pyramid is seldom climbed as the stoue of which 
it is composed is very friable, but the top commands an interesting 
view. — There are still some remains of the stone wall that en- 
closed the pyramid; it was decorated with door-shaped ornaments. 

About 300 yds. to the S.W. of the Step Pyramid is the Pyramid 
of Onnos (p. 165). Beyond the Step Pyramid, in the direction of 
Mariette's House, a striking view opens towards the N. In the fore- 
ground lies the green valley of the Nile, bordered by palm-trees, 
and framed on both sides with the yellowish -grey desert; in the 
distance the alabaster mosque of Mohammed Ali at Cairo. On the 

Sernpeum. SAKKAKA. 7. Route. 147 

left tower the tlirec pyramids of Gizoh and tlie three nearer pyr- 
amids of Abusir. The path turns to the right beyond the next heap 
of rubbish (N.W.), crosses the hollow, and soon reaches — 

Marietta's House. Auguste Mariette, the famous Egyptologist 
(see p. 80), first rose into notice by his discovery of tiie Apis Tombs 
in 1851; and from 1858 till liis death in 1881 was director of the 
official excavations in Egypt. Visitors generally eat their luncheon 
(brought from Cairo) on the terrace. A fee of S'/o pias. or more, ac- 
cording to the number of the party, is given to the keepers in charge 
of the house, who supply coffee prepared in the Arab style. From 
this point paths lead to the various points of interest. 

A few hundred yards to the W, of Mariette's House lies the 
Egyptian "'*Serapeum, or subterranean Tombs of Apis, hewn in 
the rock. 

Apis (p. cxli), the sacred bull of the god Ptali (p. 143), which was wor- 
shipped in a special temple at Memphis, was after death embalmed like a 
human being and interred with great pomp in the necropolis of Memphis. 
As early as the reign of Amenophis III., and probably still earlier, the Apis 
tombs consisted of a subterranean tomb-chamber, reached by a sloping 
shaft, over which a chapel was erected in honour of the bull. Under 
llamses II. a large common grave was prepared for the Apis bulls by 
Prince Kharawesot; a subterranean gallery, over 100 yds. in length, was 
hewn in the rock and Hanked with chambers, which were walled up after 
receiving the wooden coffin containing the sacred remains. Psanimetichos I. 
caused a similar gallery with side-vaults to be constructed at right angles 
to the first one. These vaults, which were added to at intervals down to 
the Ptolemaic period, were mucli larger and more carcr\illy constructed 
than the previous series. They have an aggregate length of about 380 yds. 
and are about 10 ft. in width and IT'/s ft. in height. Above them rose 
a, large temple for the cult of the dead god. — The ancient Egyptians 
believed that like man (p. cslviii) the deceased bull was united with Osiris, 
and became the 'Osiris-Apis' (Egypt. Oter-hape; Gr. Osorapis). He thus 
became a kind of god of the dead and was called, like Osiris, 'Lord of 
the western land'; pilgrims crowded to the tomb to iiiy their devotions 
and to present votive offerings. The last were usually small memorial 
tablets, which were inserted in the walls of the subterranean galleries. 
The worship of the foreign god Serapis or Sarajyis, introduced under 
Ptolemy I., rapidly spread in Egypt, and it is easy to understand how 
the new Sarapis was confounded with Osorapis and worshipped along with 
the latter in the ancient temple in tlie necropolis of Memphis. The temple 
itself came to lie commonly known as the Saruyeion or Serapeum. 

A second temple of Osorapis, built by Nektancbos II., once stood op- 
posite the temple covering the Apis tombs (W. of IMariette's house). These 
temples were connected by a path enclosed by walls, on which stood Greek 
statues; a few nf these are still on their original site (but now covered 
with sand). The '^reat Sphinx Avenue, which led to the W. through the 
necropolis to the Seropeum, terminated in front of the temple of Ncktanebos 
in a semicircular space adorned with statues of Greek jihilosophers. But 
the remains of all these monuments are now covereil with sand, and 
only the gallery of Apis Tombt constructed by Psammetichos is accessible 
to visitors. 

Passing through the Gateway (PI. a, p. 148), we enter a Chamber 
(PI. b) of considerable dimensions, with niches in the bare lime- 
stone walls, where many tombstones of deceased bulls and votive 
tablets (see above) were found. Visitors light their candles here. 
The guide now proceeds to the right. After a few paces we 


l4^^1ioulc7. .SAKKAUA. Serapeum. 

observe at our foot a liugc block of black {^laiiitc (I'l. c), which 
once formed the lid of a sarcophagus. Beyond it we turn to the 

left and after ten paces we reach 
■^ i an enormous granite sarcophagus 

_ ,r (PI. d), which nearly fills the 

i ' . passage. The lid and the sarco- 

]-—/ phagus, which belong to each otlier, 

I 'Zi:~ were probably stopped here on 

their way to the vault for which 

they were destiued, in consequence 

"~ of the overthrow of the worship of 

'■ -' - — Apis. Near the end of this passage 

we turn to the left (S.) into another, 

which leads us to the — 

. V-^-~i ' Principal Passage (PI. AB), 

j running parallel witli the ilrst, from 

E. to W., and penetrating the solid 

^.j rock. This passage is flanked with 

side -chambers, about 26 ft. in 

\ r. r lieight, the pavements and vaulted 

' \ 7~^ '^' ceilings of which are constructed 

j , of excellent Mokattam stone. 

I Twenty-four of the chambers still 

i» j ; contain huge sarcophagi in which 

■^- ' i the Apis mummies were deposit- 

„ 1 ed. These monster coffins each 

'j consist of a single block of black 

' r or red polished granite or of 

limestone, and average 13 ft. in 

length, 7 ft. in width, and 11 ft. 

in height, and no less than 65 tons 

I ) 1 ■ in weight. The covers, five of 

1 J which are composed of separate 

' U pieces of stone cemented together, 

^ have in many instances been push- 

■^^^x-^t '^ ed on one side. All the sarcophagi, 

^ ' ^"Y f '." "" ".vfcirea whcn discoverod by Mariette, had 

been emptied of their contents. 

with the exception of two, which still contained a number of 

trinkets. Only a few of the sarcophagi bear inscriptions; one 

bears the n.'ime of Amaiis., another that of Cambyses, and a third 

that of Khabbash, leader of the Egyptians against the Persians 

(p. cvi). The finest is the last sarcophagus on the right side (PI. e), 

to which a flight of steps descends. It consists of black and finely 

polished granite and is covered with inscriptions and door-shaped 


Near the E. end of the principal passage we reach a side-i)assage 

Serapeum. SAKKARA. 7. BouU. 149 

(PI. f) flivcrging to the right, sonic 22 yds. in lengtli, from which 
another passage leads to tlie right, in a direction parallel with the 
main corridor, but now built up. Opposite the side -passage we 
pass over another sarcophagus by means of steps fPl. g) and thus 
regain the door by which we entered the vaults. The temperature 
in these subterranean chambers is alw ays nearly 80° Fahr. 

'I confess', says Jlariette, in bis rep'jrt of the discovery, ' when 
I penetrated for the first time, on Nov. l'2th, 1851, into the Apis vaults, I 
was so profoundly struck witli astonishment that the feeling is still 
fresh in my mind, although five years have elapsed since then. Owing 
to some chance which it is difficult to account for, a chamber which had 
been walled up in the thirtieth year of the reign of Kamses 11. had es- 
caped the notice of the plunderers of the vaults, and I was so fortunate as 
to find it untouched. Although 37tX) years had elapsed since it was closed, 
everything in the chamber seemed to be precisely in its original condition. 
The finger-marks of the Egyptian who had inserted the last stone in 
the wall built to conceal the doorway were still recognizable on the 
lime. There were also the marks of naked feet imprinted on the sand 
which lay in one corner of the tomb-chamber. Everything was in its 
original condition in this tomb, where the embalmed remains of the bull 
had lain undisturbed for thirty-seven centuries.'' 

Next to the Apis Tombs the private tombs [Mastabas, p. clxviil) 
are the most interesting points at Sakkara, though only a few are 
open to the inspection of tourists. 

The most celebrated of them all, to the N.E. of Marictte's 
House, is the **Mastaba of Ti, dating from the epoch of the 
5th Dyn., at the beginning of whicli the deceased Ti was a high 
court-official and wealthy landowner. The building originally 
stood above ground but it is now almost entirely sunk in the sand, 
it was discovered and excavated by Mariettc and has been restored 
by the 'Service des Antiquites de TEgypte', as is recorded on a 
tablet at the entrance. The mural reliefs, besides being interest- 
ing on account of their subjects, are among the finest and best- 
preserved examples of the art of the Ancient Empire (comp. 
p. clxxiv). 

From the street(Pl. A, p. 150) we first enter the Smaxl Vestibulf. 
(PI. B), which contains two pillars (upper parts restored), on each 
of which Ti is represented, in a long wig and a short, broad apron, 
holding a staff in one hand and a kind of club in the other. On 
the E. wall are several peasant women (PI. a), representing the 
villages belonging to Ti, bringing food to the tomb; on the S. wall 
are poultry anil doves being fatteTied in a pen (PL b). The other 
reliefs are obliterated. 

AVe next pass through a doorway, the sides of which show figures 
of Ti and inscriptions, ami enter the Gkeat Court (PI. C), an 
extensive ([uadrangle, with a modern wooden roof borne by twelve 
ancient square pillars (restored). This hall was the scene of the 
offerings to the deceased. In the centre of the court is a flight of 
steps (I'l. d), by which we may descend to a low subterranean 

150 Uoute 7. 



passage, oxteiidiiiK tlie whole length of the building and leading 
lirst to a kind of vestibule and then to tJie tomb chamber. The now 
empty sarcophagus completely fills the niohe in which it stands. 

The Mural Reliefs in the great court deserve no long examina- 
tion j they are much injured by exposure and some have become 
altogether unrecognizable. On the N. 
r '^ Wall (PI. o) Ti is represented super- 

; - intending the sacrifice and cutting 

up of cattle, shown in the woodcut 
at p. 151, and servants with gifts +. 
Behind the wall here was another 
chamber (Serddb,- PI. D ; p. clx viii), con- 
taining statues. On the E. Wall (PI. f") 
there are reliefs only to the left : Ti 
borne in a litter, preceded by attend- 
ants carrying fans, boxes, and chairs. 
On the iv. Wall (from right to left): 
Ti and his wife (Pl. h) inspect the 
fattening of geese and the feeding of 
cranes (PI. g") ; a poultry-yard (PI. i); 
'l"i receiving the accounts of his offi- 
cials, who stand in a house snj>ported 
by columns; Ti (upper part injured) 
superintending the arrival of liis Nile 
boats, while herds of various kinds arc 
driven towards him (PI. k); false door 
dedicated to Ti's son (PI. 1). 

We pass through the door in the 
corner, noticing on each side three 
figures of Ti, represented as walking 
from within, each time in a different 
costume. The door admits to a Corridor 
f PI. E). On each side-wall are servants 
l)earing of offerings into the tomb. On 
the right is also a false door dedicated 
to ^'efer-hoipes, the wife of Ti. Another door admits us to a Second 
(."oRRiDOK. lu the lower row on the Left Wall the slaughter of 
cattle for sacrifice Is represented; in the upper row statues of the 
deceased are being drawn to the tomb on sledges, in front of 
which a man pours water to prevent the heavily laden sledges 
from taking fire by friction. On tlie Right Wall appear ships in 
which Ti has inspected his estates in the Delta. The curious 

f We annex woodcnts of some of the best of these scenes, froiu photo- 
£;raphs taken from impressions obtained by Dr. Reil (d. 1880), and there- 
fore almost facsimiles. With the exception of the large pictTire of Ti 
engnped in hunting fp. 168), which is one-nineteenth Ihe original size, 
they are reduced to one-twellth of the original size. 

of Ti. 


7. Route. 151 

steering-gear should be noticed. Over the door by which we entered 
are Ti and his wife in a boat in a tliicket of papyrus. Over the door 

Tlirowin? down the victim, 

leading to PI. G are dancers and singers. A door on tlie riglit now 
leads into a Side Chamukk (IM. F), in which the original colours 
of the reliefs are adinirahly preserved. On the upper part of tlie 

oking poultry. 

left door-post a piece of the sycamore wood to which tlie door was 

attached is still in its place. Right Wall: Ti, who stands to the right, 

receives from his servants 

sacrilicial gifts (^(lowers, 

cakes, poultry, etc.); in 

the top row, tables with 

sacrificial gifts. BackWalt: 

at the top, pottery being 

fired in a kiln; bakers and 

Faltening geese. 

Feeding cr.ine.a; (he t\vn men aliove 
are preparing the food. 


lloult 7 . 



brewers; below, a man measures corn, wliile scribes note down tlie 
quantity. Left Wall: Ti; to the right, servants with gifts; above, tables 
ami ve^isels of various kinds. Entrance Wall: Tables and vessels. 


Leaving the corridor we pass through the door opening to 
the S. (with a figure of Ti on each side} and enter the Tomb- 
Chamber (PI. G) itself. The ceiling rests on two square pillars, 


(Bair mutCUif^fd) 

;I!a:-jofJ"afi-lu>7<U7ig Scen&r 

East Wall of the Tomb-Chamber (PI. G). 

coloured to imitate red granite. The names and titles of Ti are in- 
scribed on the pillars. The reliefs here, the colouring of which is 
also for the most part well preserved, repay careful examination. 

of Ti. 


7. Route. 153 

Winnnwins corn. 


Ass witi) a sack of com. 

Shaping a tree-trunk. 


rr v»pn 


Sawing. Carpenters making a door. 

154 Route 7. 



Oil the E. Side (to the left of the entraur'e; roiup. the Plan at 
p. 152) Ti, to the right, with his wife kneeling at his side, appears 
inspecting the liarvest operations, which are represented in ten 
rows of scenes ( beginning at the top) : tlie corn is reaped, placed in 
saelis, and loaded upon asses, which hear it to the threshing-floor; the 
ears are taken from the sacks and piled in heaps ; then follows the 
treading out of tlie corn by oxen or asses ; the threshed grain along 
with the chaff is piled in a great heap by means of three-pronged 
forks, then sifted, and winnowed with two small boards; finally 
it is placed in a sack by a woman. 

Farther to the right on this wall are two well-preserved and 
several damaged ship-building scenes, representing the various 
operations: shaping the tree-trunks, sawing boards, and the actual 

Afit^Jofies and staff 

af Justice 


Qfferinns }fiijxrin-nj 

13earerj of 0.''fei-injjS' 

Slnughierutg AnhnaJs 

PigeuTis / G^^se , CranJts . Jnunals being tlaujghi^Kd. 

S. Side of the Tomb-Chamber of Ti. 

construction of tlie ship, on which some workmen are using hammer, 
adze, and chisel, while others are placing the planks. Jn one of the 
ships stands Ti, inspecting the work. The primitive saws, axes, 
hammers, drills, and other tools used by the workmen are parti- 
cularly interesting. 

The S. Side (see Plan above) is richly covered with represent- 
ations, but the upper parts are damaged. From left to right. 
At the top (to the left), Ti. A small cleft below this figure to the 
left, leads to a second Serddb (PI. H), in which a complete statue 
of Ti (comp. p. 84) and several broken ones were found. To the right 
and left of the cleft are two men offering incense to Ti. Ti and 
his wife inspect their workmen, who are represented in four 
rows : from above downwards, 1. Men blowing a furnace (perhaps for 
glass-making or copper-smelting); 2. Sculptors and makers of stone 
vessels; 3. Carpenters; to the left are men polishing a door and a 
chest; then, men sawing planks; two men polishing a bedstead, 

of Ti. 


7. Route. 155 

below wliicli lies a licad-rest; a man using a drill; 4. Leather- 
workers and market-scenes; one dealer has a skin and two pots of 
oil for sale; anotl\er has a wallet for which a man offers him a pair 

H,1&M ^' A a A, IT 1 \ c^-^K 


Carpenters at work. 

:^ fn^^lj 

of sandals; a stamp-cutter makes a stone seal ; to the right a man 
is selling sticks. — At the top \\\\ tlie middlej, Ti, with his wife 
seated at his feet, inspects the different kinds of animals (antelopes, 



Village-eldcB brmight to pive 
e vdence. 


gazelles, goats, stags, cattle; each with the name above) which are 
being brought for sacrifice by the peasantry of his estates. Below, 
three rows of cattle; three village-elders are forcibly brought to the 
estate-office to give evidence as to taxes; at the bottom, poultry of 
Baedekkk's Egypt. 7th Edit. 11 

156 Route 7. 



all kinds (eraucs, geese, pigeons). — At the top (to the right), Ti 
is sitting at table, while attendants bring sacrificial gifts. Below 

\/A^ i uh-cuUuny utnl Bt-rtL - ^ncu^ti/ 



OrFrre^^ Rtutu> Cattle^ Seated 

Ape am. 

Hujfti^ Cattle- Scerce<f 

and Kesit 



QxjjorrvL ajftnitg 

Fishing tn. Boats 

Ploit^fang Sain*- 

seed into the graurid 

'J6 J^ema/a Figures repre^entij^tg Ti S e^ptatcr 

N. Side of the Tomb-Chamber of Ti. 

arc attendants with gifts for sacrifice, and flute-players and liarpers, 
who perform music during the meal; slaughter and cutting up of 
cattle for sacrifice. 

Cattle feeding. 


Tilling. Sowing. 

On the W. Sidt of the tomb-chamber are two large false doors, 
representing the entrance to the realm of the dead. In front of tlie 

of Ti. 


7. Route. 157 

left door is a slab for tho reception of offerings. In the centre of 
the wall are slaughterers and the presentation of gifts (^damaged); 
above are tables. 




Rams treading in the seed. 


Cattle driven tLrousjh a river. 

Dwarfs with ape and dogs. 

Captured fish. 

The **North Side of the tomb-chamber (Plan, p. 156) is adorned 
with scenes representing life in the marshes of the Delta. To the 
left (beginning at the top) : Ti superintending fishing and bird- 




Peasant women vrith offerings. 

ofTi. SAKKAKA. l.Koulc. 159 

snaring (two rows); fisherman shaking flsli from a kind of wicker 
bow-net into a basket; two men seated at a small table cutting up 
fish; below, cattle pasturing; a cow is represented calving, another 
is being milked, wliilc an overseer leans on his staff close by and a 
herdsman grasping a calf by the legs prevents it running to its 
mother; to the left, calves tethered to pegs in the ground try to tear 
themselves free, others are browsing; to the right, herdsmen in 
small papyrus boats drive a herd of cattle across a river in which 
lurk two crocodiles; to the left are two dwarfs with their master's 
pet ape and a leash of greyhounds. 

In the centre: Ti sailing through the marshes in a boat of 
papyrus. In front of him is a second boat, whose crew is engaged 
in hunting hippopotami with harpoons, near which a hippopotamus 
bites a crocodile. In a smaller boat behind is a man catching a 
tish. In the surrounding papyrus-thicket various birds are sitting 
on their nests or fluttering about. — To the right : Boatmen quar- 
relling and lighting; fishing; tilling the ground, a man ploughs 
with two oxen, which anotlier man drives (note the shape of the 
plough), a third man breaks the clods, while a fourth is sowing; 
close by is a scribe. Rams are driven over the newly-sown ground 
to tread in the seed, while men hoe the ground, to the right. Cattle, 
returning from pasturage in the Delta, are driven through the 
water; one of the herdsmen, in front, carries a young calf on his 

The narrow strip running along the entire N. wall at the bot- 
tom consists of a procession of 36 peasant women bearing sacri- 
ficial offerings of meat, poultry, vegetables, fruits, and drink. The 
different figures represent the various estates of the deceased Ti, 
the name of each being inscribed beside its representative. 

The *Tomb of Mereruka is another grave well worthy of a visit. 
It is situated at the N.W. angle of the Pyramid of Teti (p. 163 ), which 
lies to theE. of Mariettas house, beyond a ruined stone pyramid. The 
tomb dates from the beginning of the 6th Dyn. and contains 31 rooms 
and passages, divided into three sections, of which that marked A on 
the plaTi (p. 160) belonged to Mereriiica, that marked B to Hert- 
\ratet-khet^ his wife, and that marked C to their son Meri-Teti. The 
tablet at the entrance records the discovery in 1893. 

Rooms harkkd A. To the right and left of the Entrance: Mereruka and 
his wife (the latter on a small scale). To the right in the entrance: the 
artist who de.signcd the reliefs, seated before an easel, painting the three 
seasons of the Egyptian year (p. Ixxiii), represented by deities; in one 
hand he holds a shell containing colour, and in the other a pen, while a 
writing-apparatus hangs from his shoulder; in front of him stands his 
son Khenu. To the loft: Mereruka, before whom is his little son Mcri- 
Teli, holding a lotus-stalk and a bird; beliind Mereruka appear his wife 
and several rows of attendants. — A 1. N^. Wall. Mereruka, in a papyrus 
boat with his wife, spearing fish; in two smaller boats are men harpooning 
ihrce liippopotami; in the reeds are birds and in the river fish. S. Wall. 
Mereruka hunting in the marshes, in a boat, accompanied by his wife. 

160 Route 


Tornb of 






1 f''^' 




The details are beautifully rendered (birds, lish, etc., hippopotamns with 
a crocodile in its mouth). Below, to the left, cuttle crossing a stream; 
above, cattle thrown on the ground in order to be slaughtered; gardens 
heing watered. The positions of the cattle arc accurately observed and 
reproduced. — A 2 contains the mummy-shaft. — A3. E. ^yall. Mereruka 
and his wife (to the left) inspecting various operations, which are repre- 
sented in six rows. In the two lowest rows are metal-workers and makers 

of necklaces and ves- 
sels ; in the 3rd row, 
three statues are being 
drawn to the tomb, while 
a priest swings a censer ; 
in the 4th row are car- 
penters making bed- 
steads; and in the 5th 
row are men making 
stoneware vessels. TV. 
Wall. Mereruka and his 
wife, accompanied by 
attendants, at a hunt in 
the desert; desert ;ini- 
mals ; hound seizing an 
antelope; lion devour- 
ing a bull; hedgehogs; 
hares. —ALE. Wall. 
To the right, Mereruka 
and hiswife, with attend- 
ants, watching the cap- 
ture of fish ; the fat 
brother of the deceased 
is shown sailing in a 
boat and drinking from 
a cup; to the left, Mere- 
ruka and his wife; be- 
fore them are servants, 
one leading a monkey 
and two hounds in a 
leash. W. Wall. To the 
left is the estate-office, 
a hall with columns, in 
which the clerks sit, 
while the village-elders 
are being dragged, not 
without cudgelling, to 
give evidence as to taxes 
(comp. p. 155); one has 
been stripped and is be- 
ing beaten at a whipping-post. To the right, Mereruka and his wife in- 
spect the offering of sacrifices to the statues of the deceased. — A 5 con- 
tains no reliefs. — Leaving A 6-A 9 unvisited for the present (see p. 161), 
we turn to the right and enter — 

A 10, the roof of which is supported by four pillars, bearing incised 
reliefs of the deceased. W, Wall (beginning to the left). Bedroom scenes. 
Tlie bed, standing beneath a canopy, is prepared in presence of Mereruka 
and hiswife; the deceased, along with his wife, who plays upon a harp, 
sits upon a large couch with lions' feet, beneath which are two rows of 
vases ; Mereruka, seated in an easy chair, receives gifts of various kinds 
in vases and boxes from his retainers. JV. Wall. Priests of the dead bring 
stands loaded with meat and drink to the deceased. E. Wall. Mereruka 
and his wife, with attendants; servants bringing sacrificial gifts; male 
and female dancers (two lowest rows). <S. Wall. The deceased receiving 
sacrificial gifts. — A 11. Only a few reliefs are preserved here, together 
with the false door on the W. Wall, behind which is a Serdab. — A 12. 

Mereruka. SAKKAUA. 7. Route. 161 

iV. ^Vall. Tlic deceased receiving: gifts; in the second row from the liottoni 
arc ten barns or storehouses ; in tlie lowest row, treading grapes and press- 
ing the trodden grapes in a sack. On the other walls arc the deceased 
receivinsx food and drink, and cattle being slaugbtered. 

*A 13, the sacrificial chamber, has six square pillars, on which Mere- 
ruka is represented standing. In the middle is a stone ring for tethering 
the sacrificial ox. iN''. Wall. In a recess is a statue of Mereruka (front view), 
with a sacrificial tablet in front. Mural reliefs (from right to left): Mereruka 
inspecting domestic animals, etc. (in the top row, boat-building, in the four 
lower rows, gazelles, antelopes, and cattle, in the lowest row, feeding 
tame hyfenas); the aged Mereruka conducted by his two sons; Mereruka 
in a sedan-chair, with a large retinue, including two dwarfs leading dogs. 
W. Wall (much damaged). Ships. S. Wall (bottom row only preserved) 
Funeral: entrance to the tomb, with a priest and dancers in front of 
it; tt) the left, men carrying a large chest; sacrificial gifts; fonr ships, 
with several men in the water; the funeral procession with professional 
mourners (very graphic). To the left of the door, the deceased, accom- 
])anied by two women, sails in a boat through the marshes; crocodiles 
and fish in the water. K Wall. To the right, harvest operations in pre- 
sence of the deceased and his wife and mother. To the left, Mereruka 
and his wife playing draughts. Over and beside Vie door to C 1 : Mereruka, 
his wife, and mother, with female dancer.i* and musicians; various games. 
We now pa«s through a doorway of modern construction and enter the — 

Rooms marked C. — CI. E. Wall. To the right, poultry-yard, fatten- 
ing geese; to the left, cattle and antelopes. JV. Wall, Jleri-Teti, son 
of Mereruka. receiving .sacrificial gifts from servants. W. Wall. The de- 
ceased vritnessing a hunt in the desert: gazelles and antelopes. S. Wall. 
Servants witti poultry and fish as sacrificial gifts. — C 2 has no reliefs. — 
C 3. E. Wall. In the two lowest rows, cattle beinv: slaughtered for sacrifice; 
in the upper rows, .Servants bringing gifts, cattle, gazelles, etc. ?f. <t 5. 
WalU. Meri-Teti at table; servants bringing sacrificial gifts. W. Wall. False 
door, with the deoe.ised's name inserted in place of an earlier one; in front 
is an altar. — C 4. E. Wall. Men bearing large chests full of clothing and 
vessels to Meri-Teti, who stands on the left. iV. Wall. In the centre, the 
deceased; at the sides, servants bringing jars and bo.xes ; to the right large 
jars are being brought on sledges. W. Wall. Attendants with gifts (un- 
finished); square hole leading to C 5, the Serdab. /S. Wall, unfinished (re- 
liefs similar to those on the N. wall). — We now return to A 13 and turn- 
ing to the right (W.) enter the nnvisited — 

Rooms markkd A icontinucd). A 14 leads to several sfore-chambers 
(A 1.0 - A 21), only about 3 ft. high; the names are inscribed above the 
doors. — From A 16 we enter .\ 9. W. Wall. In the centre are Mereruka 
and his wife, to the right and left are servants bearing pieces of cloth, 
vessels of sacred oil, bo.ves of elothinz, and stands of ornaments; a sledge 
with three large jars. £. Wall. Similar scenes. — A 8. Beyond the false 
door on tlie W. Wall, iti front of which stood the table of oflerings, nothing 
of interest. — A 6. W. Wall. Feeding of poultry (pigeons, geese, cranes). 
A narrow cleft in this wall leads to the Serdab (A 7), in which a painted 
statue of Mereruka was found. S. Wall. To the left, cattle, antelopes, etc., 
are being driven before the deceased, while scribes note down the numbers ; 
to the right, peasant women, representing villages the names of which 
are inscribed, bringing gifts. N. Wall. To the left, the slaughtering of 
cattle, to the right. Mereruka inspecting his fishermen. 

Rooms marked 1'.. — Bi. Jf. <C- S. Walls. The wife of Mereruka, a 
princess, receiving various gifts from her attendants, ll'. Wall. To the right, 
Jlereruka's wife, son, and daughter; four servants bearing a litter adorned 
with lio'is; to the left, fishing scene; above, capture of wild bulls. — B 2. 
.Staircase. — B 3. A^. Wall fto the left of the door leading to B 5). Dancers. 
On the other walls arc servants bringing food for the deceased, and cattle. — 
B 4. Serdab (inaccessible). — B 5. W. Wall. In the centre is an elaborate 
false door, iu front of which is a square block once supporting a table 
of offerings; to the right and left is the deceased stt table, with servant-s 

162 Route 7. SAKKARA. Street of Tombs. 

briiijiini; fonci, (lowers, etc. iV. Wall. Mereruka's wife arid son carried by 
women iu a litter adorned with a lion, near which aro three dogs and a 
pet ape. On the other walls, Attendants bringing gifts to the deceased ; 
cattle being slaughtered. — B 6. Empty. 

To the right (E.) of Mereruka's Tomb lies the Mastaba of 
Ke-gera-ni, a vizier and judge, also of tlie 6tli Dyn. and excavated in 
1893. The paintings here are of inferior interest. 

Room I (PI. A). On the left wall. Ke-gem-ni 
inspects his cattle and poultry ; hyanas are being 
fed; feeding poultry; bird - snaring. On the right 
wall the deceased inspects the fisheries; the cap- 
tured fish are recorded and carried away. Above 
the door tn the next room is the deceased in his 
litter. — Room II (PI. B). Ke-gem-ni receiving gifts 
from his attendants. To the left is a chamber (PI. C) 
in which fi