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JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, Harvard University 

ANDREW FLEMING WEST, Princeton University 

M. TuLLius Cicero. 
From a bust in the Uffizi Gallery at Florence. 












Copyright, 1903 

Published June, 1903 

• • • ® • • 

• » • e » 




The text of the first six orations in this book is that 
of C. F. W. Muller, now commonly used in the best school- 
books abroad. For the Pro Milone and the Pro Marcello, 
the superior readings of A. C. Clark, in the Oxford series, 
have been adopted. The Selected Passages for extra 
reading were chosen for their worth and beauty, and 
these, together with the few short Letters, will afford a 
glimpse of the orator in other fields of literature. But 
the student's strength should be given to the understand- 
ing of Cicero as an orator — a task quite difficult enough 
for a year's study. 

All long vowels are marked in six orations, the con- 
clusions of Bennett being generally followed. The rest 
of the text is printed without marks, for the student must 
learn to do without crutches, if he is to make progress in 
the reading of Latin. It is devoutly to be hoped that 
still-hunting for hidden quantities may not become the 
chief diversion of our class-rooms. 

The titles of the principal rhetorical divisions of the 
speeches are inserted at the proper places in the text. 
The running summaries are intended to suggest the ideas, 
but not the words of the author. They have been printed 
in full for each speech, in the Notes. 


The Notes are designed for students, and have been 
tested in actual use. No effort has been made to wrest 
grammatical drill from the hands of the teacher, nor to 
deprive him of ample leeway for the illustration and 
elucidation of the subject-matter. The translations sug- 
gested aim to lead the pupil into the paths of respectable 
English, and to prevent the disastrous persistence of 
crude impressions, received while his mind was groping 
for ideas in a wilderness of unfamiliar words. The stu- 
dent will find quite enough material left for the exercise 
of his own powers. Grammatical references for com- 
parison and illustration are uniformly directed to pas- 
sages already studied, that the new knowledge may be 
cemented to the old. The grammars referred to are those 
of West (VV.), Allen and Greenough (A.), Harkness (H.), 
Bennett (B.), and Gildersleeve (G.). 

The sketch of Cicero in the World of Letters is 
inserted in the Introduction in the conviction that the 
life of his books is an integral part of the life of the 
man. Copious references to the subjects discussed in 
the Introduction make that an essential part of the 
student's instruction. 

The Vocabulary treats of derivations and word- 
formation in a way suited to the " preparatory " stage of 
study. Common prefixes and suffixes appear alphabet- 
ically in the list of words. All Latin words used for 
reference in the Vocabulary are translated, if not else- 
where defined, so that no other dictionary may be needed 
to explain this one. 

The illustrations have been chosen with great care. 


and it is hoped that they will be found useful and not 

The book derives its essential character from class- 
room experience, but it is naturally under deep obliga- 
tions to the many works named in the bibliographies scat- 
tered throughout its pages. 

I am grateful to my colleague, Prof. Allen R. Benner, 
for untiring counsel and friendly criticism ; to my col- 
league, Mr. John L. Phillips, for reading the proofs of 
the Notes; to Prof. Andrew F. West, for cordial sup- 
port; and to my publishers, Messrs. D. Appleton and 
Company, for their generous response to my every wish. 

Charles H. Forbes. 
Andover, Mass. 



Introduction : 

I. Life of Cicero ix 

Bibliography xxxiii 

Chronological Table xxxiv 

II. The Government of Rome xxxv 

Bibliography xlviii 

III. The Forum Romanum liv 

Bibliography . . . . . . . . Ix 

IV. The Rhetorical Structure of a Speech . . . Ixi 
V. Ancient Manuscripts ....... Ixii 

Bibliography Ixvi 

Orations : 

In Catilinam I ........ . i 

In Catilinam II ......... i8 

In Catilinam III ........ 34 

In Catilinam IV 50 

De Imperio Cn. Pompei ....... 65 

Pro A. Licinio Archia .98 

Pro T. Annio Milone . . . . . . .114 

Pro M. Marcello - 164 

Selected Passages 177 

Notes 188 

Vocabulary 366 

Lists of Verbs and Nouns 493 




M. TuUiuS Cicero Frontispiece 

The Suovetaurilia .....,.., xHi 

The buried Forum — looking East ...... li 

Plan of the Forum Romanum ....... liii 

Castor and Pollux ......... Iv 

The Forum of the Empire restored — Southeast end . . Ivii 

The Forum of the Empire restored — West end . . . Ivii 

The Imperial Rostra restored ....... lix 

The ruins of the Forum — looking West Ix 

Map of Italy i 

Jupiter 17 

Gladiators and trainer . , 22 

The Mulvian Bridge (Ponte MoUe) 36 

A tablet sealed and unsealed ....... 39 

A Vestal Virgin . 51 

A Roman street scene 60 

Scipio Africanus Major .62 

Cn. Pompeius Magnus -.65 

Gamesters quarreling 104 

Entrance to the tomb of the Scipios 109 

Athena casting her vote for Orestes 117 

A view on the Appian Way 122 

C. Julius Caesar 165 

The Career ; section and plan 225 

Map of Asia Minor 267 




1. Birth and Education. — Like many of the great 
writers of the " Eternal City," Marcus TulHus Cicero was 
not a Roman born. About sixty miles to the east and 
south of Rome lies the little town of Arpino, on the Fihre- 
niis, a branch of the river Liris. This is the site of the an- 
cient Arptnurn, near which, on the 3d of January, 106 b. c, 
Cicero first saw the light. He was the son of a prosper- 
ous knight, who was delicate in health and devoted to 
quiet and to study. Cicero often mentions his father with 
respect, but of his mother, Heh'ia, he has left us no me- 
morial. His brother Quintus has given her an amusing 
immortality as a scrupulous housekeeper by relating how 
she, to outwit bibulous slaves, was wont to seal with wax 
the empty as well as the full wine-jars in her cellar. 

We are told that Cicero as a child was precociously 
quick-witted, exciting the admiration of his schoolmates 
and the jealousy of some of their parents who heard him. 
His father brought the boy with his brother Quintus 
to Rome, to be educated under the best masters of the 
day, and after a time bought a house for permanent resi- 
dence in the city. He was ambitious for his sons to rise 
in the world of politics. From boyhood days Cicero 
imbibed the resolute ambition to become a power in the 
public life of Rome, and gave himself with all his energy 
to the making of himself into an orator. His tongue 


should win him his way. He studied grammar, rhetoric, 
elocution, and history with avidity. On assuming the 
toga of manhood he attached himself to a prominent 
jurist — Scsevola — under whom he acquired legal knowl- 
edge, and whose wise sayings he copied down and com- 
mitted to memory. Upon the death of his patron he fol- 
lowed a nephew of the same name — Scsevola, the Ponti- 
fex Maximus, " the most eloquent of those skilled in law, 
the most skilled in law of the eloquent." He observed 
studiously the delivery and gestures of the prominent 
actors of the day, notably ^sop and Roscius, and fol- 
lowed with interest the speeches of the distinguished lead- 
ers of the Forum, particularly admiring M. Antonius, a 
brilliant, vivacious speaker, and L. Licinius Crassus, a 
shrewd, elegant, witty, and lucid orator. 

In 89 Cicero entered the army of Cn. Pompeius Stra- 
bo, the father of Pompey the Great, and served for one 
campaign, becoming in some measure acquainted with 
military science, an almost necessary adjunct to a Ro- 
man's education. But he was not enamored of the sol- 
dier's calling and returned to Rome. He gave himself 
up to further years of studious life, while Rome was un- 
dergoing the agonies of a bloody revolution. 

2. Politics in Rome (88-80).— Fratricidal strife be- 
tween democrat and aristocrat broke out in 88 with 
Marius, the old-time savior of the state, as leader of the 
people, and the calm-headed aristocrat Sulla as general 
of the opponents. Marius was forced to flee from the 
country. Sulla was master of Rome, but was obliged to 
hasten to Asia Minor early in 87 to conduct the war 
against Mithradates. The Marian party returned in 
force, and a frightful massacre of nobles followed. Ma- 
rius was chosen consul for the seventh time, but the 
insanely vengeful old man died in the midst of his bloody 

Note. — Numerals for dates refer to years before Christ. 


outrages in January of 86. His party continued in power 
until the return of Sulla, who won a battle under the very 
walls of the city and became dictator of Rome, with pow- 
ers as unlimited as those of the kings of old. His revenge 
upon his foes was frightful. Rome again reeked with the 
blood of her citizens, slain literally in thousands. The 
eqiiitcs, or knights, to which class Cicero belonged, suf- 
fered severely. 

What was Cicero doing while all this turmoil was 
going on ? As we have seen, he was quietly studying the 
art of speech and legal lore, as if the world were at peace, 
and regretting only that the courts were suspended, and 
that therefore no model speeches were to be heard. Sulla 
framed anew the constitution of Rome in a party spirit, 
giving complete control of the government into the hands 
of the senatorial body, which was increased in numbers. 
Practically no magistrate was permitted to present a bill 
to the people without a previous indorsement of it from 
the senate. This destroyed the constructive importance 
of the plebeian tribunate. The tribunes were further 
restricted to the original use of their power of veto as 
a protection for private individuals against the arbi- 
trary action of a magistrate ; they were not permitted 
to employ it for the obstruction of governmental meas- 
ures. The office itself was discredited by the enactment 
of a law decreeing that no man who should hold the 
office of tribune should thereafter be eligible for any 
higher magistracy in the Roman political organization. 
Furthermore, the right of electing the members of the 
priestly colleges was taken from the people, and those 
bodies were to fill vacancies by their own choice (coop- 
tatio). There were then sound reasons for the consoli- 
dation of the populace into a strong party opposed to the 

There was another, much more vigorous class which 


was injured and afterward ignored by the Sullan regime. 
It was formed of the prosperous business and financial 
men of Rome, animated by commercial enterprise, and 
quite willing to forego the distinctions of office, provided 
only that sufficient power was left in its hands to protect 
its members in the profitable pursuance of their business. 
This class, called equites, or knights, had charge of the 
farming of the revenues in the provinces. The govern- 
ors of these provinces were members of the ruling sena- 
torial party. Naturally they were in a position to ob- 
struct, if they chose, the business affairs of the knights. 
To protect the business men in their provincial dealings, 
C. Gracchus had had a law passed giving to the eques- 
trian order the exclusive right to sit as jurymen in the 
regular courts. The governor of a province had there- 
after constantly to fear a trial for extortion or criminality 
before this court on his return from office. This fear 
was the safeguard of the knights. Sulla deprived the 
equites of jury rights, and bestowed them upon the 
senate. He also hurt the pride of the knights by with- 
drawing their privilege of reserved seats in the theater. 
The equestrian order was therefore also a strong party 
of opposition to the Sullan senate. With it was bound 
to lie the balance of political power, if it were well 

3. Cicero as Advocate. — Cicero, associated by birth 
with this party, was led by personal interests as well as 
by natural sympathies to throw in his lot with the oppo- 
nents of the aristocrats. He saw in this body of his com- 
peers a power capable of lifting him on his ambitious 
way. But he was resolved also to repay it with ample 
services on his part. He began his career as an advo- 
cate while Sulla was supreme in Rome. The first speech 
which we have preserved to us is of little importance, 
but the next, delivered in 80, was more than a plea at law, 


for it had also a political significance. It is a defense of 
one Roscius of Ameria, who was accused of parricide by 
one of Sulla's favorites, a freedman who was seeking to 
protect property criminally obtained. The defense was 
an easy matter judicially, but a dangerous procedure 
politically. Nevertheless, Cicero dared to risk the dis- 
pleasure of the despotic ruler, and even uttered covert 
but sharp criticisms of his policy. The young man was 
marked for distinction in the ranks of the opposition 
from that day. His health failing, or perhaps the neig^h- 
borhood of Sulla becoming too warm for him, he left 
Rome in 79 and spent two years in traveling through 
Greece and Asia Minor, studying with several famous 
teachers of rhetoric and philosophy as he paused in his 
journeyings. On his return to Rome he married Teren- 
tia, a lady of good family and considerable property, with 
whom he lived for over thirty years, and by whom he 
had a daughter, Ttillia, an4 ^ son, Marcus. Sulla had 
died during his absence fri^m'Rbme. 

4. Political Life to Consulship. — In the year 76 
Cicero was elected to the quaestorship, and during the 
next year he served in/^cily, with headquarters at Lily- 
baeum. Of his governft^ehtal performance we know little 
beyond the fact that ne was honest and capable, and won 
the esteem of the Sicilians. 

By virtue of his quaestorship he returned to Rome a 
life member of the noble senate. He was naturally elated, 
but on one occasion his vanity received a crushing rebuff. 
He tells the story himself : " When I arrived at Puteoli 
in the height of the season, ... I almost collapsed when 
a man asked me on what day I had left Rome, and was 
there any news? On my answering that I was traveling 
from my province, he said, ' Why, to be sure, from Africa, 
I believe ? ' Already vexed and disgusted, I said, * Not at 
all — from Sicily.' A bystander, with the air of knowing 


everything, spoke up : * Why, don't you know that the 
gentleman has been quaestor at Syracuse?' ... I swal- 
lowed my chagrin and moved off." [We must bear in 
mind that he was at Lilybaeum as quaestor, not at Syra- 

For the next four years Cicero was busy in the law 
courts pleading causes. In the year 71 Cnaeus Pompeius 
Magnus, Pompey the Great, returned to Rome after a 
long-protracted struggle in Spain against the brilliant 
Marian general Sertorius. Sulla had demonstrated that 
with a capable general, supported by devoted troops, rest- 
ed the last word in the politics of the degenerate state. 
Pompey had his army with him. He desired a triumph, 
and also the consulship for the year 70, without having 
held the quaestorship and the praetorship, as the law de- 
creed. The nobles resented his haughty conduct, and put 
obstructions in his way. 

The knights and the people had long been struggling 
for the recovery of the privileges taken from them by 
Sulla. They saw in Pompey the power which might win 
them back what they had lost, and they made a compact 
with him. He was elected consul for the year 70. The 
democrats were paid by the restoration of the tribunician 
powers, and the knights by the reestablishment of their 
prerogatives in the jury courts. 

Cicero claimed the honor of effecting the change in 
the judiciary by his conduct, in this year, of the famous 
case against a rapacious and cruel scoundrel, Verres, 
for three years governor of Sicily. The outrages of 
this man were beyond human endurance, and at the 
close of his term of office the Sicilians begged Cicero 
to aid them in bringing the villain to justice. He 
was only too glad to assist in a case that promised to 
hurt the aristocratic party, the supporters of Verres, by 
an exposition of the evils resulting from a system whereby 


governors feared no punishment for their conduct, be- 
cause tried before their fellow aristocrats. Verres fled 
into exile at Massilia, where he long after fell a victim 
to Mark Antony's proscription. The case was the more 
triumphant for Cicero because the losing advocate was 
the hitherto greatest pleader of the day, Q. Hortensius. 
Cicero and he afterward joined forces in many cases in 
court and were friendly rivals for oratorical honors. 
Cicero had shown himself as an ally of the vainglorious, 
but undoubtedly imposing military politician, Pompey, 
whose passion was exalted station. 

In 69 Cicero filled the office of curule aedile, and in 
66 he was prcetor tirhanus, having the presidency of the 
courts for cases of extortion. While praetor he delivered 
his first avowedly political speech, the De Imperio Cn. 
Pompei included in this volume. The circumstances 
which called forth this speech are set forth in the intro- 
duction to the Manilian Law (p. 261, flf.). By it Cicero 
advocated the bestowal upon Pompey of a power not 
indeed unprecedented in Rome, but nevertheless quite con- 
trary to the principles of a republican government. The 
praetor Cicero was looking forward to his own candidacy 
for the consulship, and the support of Pompey's power- 
ful influence would be a very weighty consideration in 
the contest for votes against strong rival candidates. 
It was customary for a praetor at the expiration of his 
year of office to accept the governorship of a province, 
but Cicero, perhaps remembering with chagrin the for- 
getfulness of the Romans when he was quaestor, waived 
this privilege, and determined to bend all his energies to 
canvassing for the consulship of 63. 

For three generations back only one plebeian had sat 
in the consul's chair, and that one was Marius, a towns- 
man of Cicero. The nobles jealously guarded the seat 
as a birthright of the highest social order, and showed 


a frowning front to the daring aspirant of humbler origin. 
' Fato RomcB Hunt Metelli consules ' was a proverbial 
saying, in which Metelli stand for the high-born. But 
Cicero's oratory and honorable record had won him 
friends. Nevertheless, it is possible that he would not 
have overcome the opposition of the nobles had not the 
dread of political panic and anarchy driven them to unite 
on him as a safe and honest man. 

Of his six competitors two only need to be mentioned 
— L. Sergius Catilina and Gains Antonius. Rumor said 
that Catiline was plotting anarchy, and the report helped 
to defeat him. Cicero was elected amid shouts of ac- 
clamation, and with him Antonius, the friend of Catiline, 
as colleague. Overjoyed at the consummation of his 
cherished ambition, he boasted to his equestrian friends 
that " he had shown them the way into the stronghold 
which the nobility had held with its garrisons." He at 
once bound to his service the suspected Antonius by yield- 
ing to him the appointment to the governorship of rich 
Macedonia for the year following the consulship, although 
it had been allotted to himself. 

5. Cicero as Consul. — The greater part of his year of 
office was occupied with routine duty. By his speech 
Contra Rullum he assisted in defeating a dangerous bill 
which was directed against Pompey and which aimed to 
place all the public lands and the booty of war into the 
charge of a commission with such unlimited powers that 
the orator witheringly calls it the " ten kings." The great 
pride of his consulship, however, was the crushing of the 
infamous conspiracy for overthrowing the government 
organized by his disappointed and bankrupt rival Cati- 
line. The story of this overfamous plot is told in the 
introduction to the Catiline Orations (p. 191, ff.). Sev- 
eral of the leaders were arrested and, after a vote of the 
senate, were put to death at the command of Cicero, con- 


trary to the provision of the law that no citizen of Rome 
should be judicially executed, without the right of appeal 
to the sovereign people. -Popular sentiment never quite 
forgave Cicero his share in this breach of law. When 
he ascended the Rostra to make his farewell address to 
the people on laying down his office, a tribune forbade 
him who had deprived Roman citizens of their right of 
speech in defense to address the burgesses of Rome. 
Cicero obeyed, but on taking the customary oath of the 
executive he shouted that he had saved the country, and 
the people cried out their approval. 

6. After the Consulship. — Naturally the overthrow 
of such a wide-spread conspiracy called forth much hos- 
tility as well as much praise. Disappointed plotters, 
envious rivals, and the ill-disposed of all classes mur- 
mured their curses against the " vain upstart " who had 
dared to become famous by saving the state. 

The consul's politics had taken a new turn during his 
struggles for office, and his purposes had become more 
clearly outlined as his terms of administration progressed. 
He believed that it was possible for him to form a new- 
party of good government out of the well-intentioned 
men of both senate and equites. Accident and the dread 
of conspiracy for a time did actually unite the two orders 
in harmonious action under his leadership. Cicero fondly 
hoped that a new era of a regenerated state, with an 
upright and capable senate as guide, was now at hand. 
But the seeming union of naturally hostile parties did not 
last long after the passing of the danger which had occa- 
sioned it. Old animosities soon appeared, and with them 
the old separation. From this time on the life of Cicero 
is darkened with disappointments and saddened by grief ; 
but he clung to his dream of a united state through all 
his vicissitudes, and thereby failed to win the name of 
statesman in history. 


7. Clodius and the Exile of Cicero. — We have now 
to speak of a private quarrel which led to disastrous 
results for the ex-consul. In 6i a reckless young patri- 
cian, P. Clodius Pulcher, was accused of violating the 
celebration of the rites of the Bona Dea sacred to 
women. He had sneered at Cicero's conduct as con- 
sul, taunting him with illegal assumption of authority 
and representing him as pompously remarking that he 
" had got information " about the conspirators, as if 
that were a quite sufficient explanation for doing away 
with a legal trial. The spirited young scapegrace appar- 
ently had been bored by the orator's endless self-lauda- 
tion, for the latter could hardly speak on any subject 
without reverting to his own " glorious actions " as 
consul. Cicero was sorely piqued, and for some time 
shunned the hateful word comperire which Clodius jeer- 
ingly quoted. While the trial of Clodius was going on, 
Cicero appeared as a witness and toppled over a nicely 
planned alibi set up by the defendant. The two became 
cordial foes thereafter, and Clodius resolved to ruin the 
ex-consul, if opportunity offered. Clodius was acquitted 
through the help of Caesar, who persuaded the wealthy 
Crassus to buy up the jury. The nobles led by Cato 
had interested themselves to bring Clodius to punish- 
ment, and the action of the jury, composed chiefly of 
knights and their friends (the tribuni cerarii), served to 
emphasize the breach between the two classes. Cicero's 
cherished plan of a unified party securing political domi- 
nation to the senate and financial security to the equestrian 
order was forever shattered. Another greater than Cicero 
was now forming plans of a more practicable nature. 
Caesar had become the acknowledged leader of the demo- 
cratic party. In the year 60 he returned from the govern- 
orship of Spain and found Pompey estranged from the 
senate. He formed a compact with the disgruntled gen- 


eral and the rich Crassus to unite interests, in order to 
dominate the senate and the Forum. This alHance is 
known as the First Triumvirate. It succeeded admirably 
in securing what each of its members desired. Every 
effort was expended by Caesar to induce Cicero to throw 
in his lot with the coalition, but the orator could not make 
up his mind to abandon the senate, whose champion he 
had been in his consulship and afterward. He was even 
thoughtless enough to dare the displeasure of the Trium- 
virs by openly criticizing them, and he promptly received 
punishment. The turbulent Clodius was let loose upon 
his enemy Cicero. 

In 59 Clodius openly resigned his station as a noble 
and was adopted into a plebeian family, in order to secure 
an election to the tribuneship, an office then well suited 
to the guidance of legislation. As tribune in 58 he won 
the favor of the people by measures of popularity with 
them. He then proposed a bill that all who had caused 
the death of Roman citizens without proper legal trial 
should be denied the privileges of fire and water within a 
radius of four hundred miles from Rome. All knew that 
the bill was aimed at Cicero, on the ground of his exe- 
cution of the conspirators in his consulship. He assumed 
the dress of mourning, and strove to win the compas- 
sion of the people. It is said that 20,cxx) men went into 
mourning with him. Deputations came to Rome from the 
distant towns to plead with the consuls to intervene, but 
to no purpose. The Clodian mob pelted the orator with 
mud as he passed along the streets. The senate had the 
decency to pass a vote to assume mourning, but the con- 
suls forbade the execution of it. Pompey declined to lend 
a helping hand to his old supporter, and Csesar was inex- 
orable. Cicero voluntarily withdrew from Rome, hoping 
to be recalled at every stage of his journey; but Clodius 
had his bill passed the next day, and then another spe- 


cifically naming Cicero. The exile's property was con- 
fiscated, and his beautiful house on the Palatine Hill was 
razed to the ground. His country-places at Tusculum 
and Formise were also plundered. 

The orator traveled in grief and desolation to Thessa- 
lonica, where he spent several months with a friend. He 
then moved to Dyrrachium. If we were dependent upon 
Cicero's public utterances, we might suppose that he en- 
dured his exile with fortitude and philosophy, wrapped 
up in his cloak of integrity and distinction. But he has 
unfortunately left us many private letters which are 
indeed very weak and plaintive utterances. He could not 
endure separation from his beloved Rome. 

8. Return to Rome. Election to Augurship. — In 57 
the friends of Cicero bestirred themselves to secure his 
recall. Pompey even took up, at last, his friend's cause. 
Clodius thwarted all efforts in Cicero's behalf for a long 
time, but finally a force of voters from the Italian towns 
was brought to Rome, and with the protection of the trib- 
une Milo's gladiators, the assembly passed a well-nigh 
unanimous vote to recall the exile. He came back to 
Rome " borne on the shoulders of all Italy," in the midst 
of popular rejoicings. Henceforth he was a supporter of 

In 53 he was chosen to fill a vacancy in the board of 
augurs, an honor which he had long coveted. " Can 
anything be more surprising than to consider Cicero, who 
made the greatest figure in the senate of the Roman com- 
monwealth, and at the same time outshines all the phi- 
losophers of antiquity, ... as busying himself in the col- 
lege of augurs, and observing with a religious attention 
after what manner the chickens pecked the several grains 
of corn which were thrown to them?" {Spectator, No. 


In 52 Clodius was murdered by Milo. The latter was 


tried and convicted, although defended by Cicero, whose 
revised oration is included in this volume. 

9. Cicero as Governor of Cilicia. — In 51 Cicero was 
forced to accept the governorship of Cilicia, as his prov- 
ince was termed, although it included several other 
important districts in the neighborhood. He was well 
equipped for the office by reason of his affability, kind- 
ness, intelligence, and industry. His administration was 
highly acceptable to the people of the province — praise 
which few Roman governors received. His robes of 
office, if not absolutely spotless, appeared remarkably 
clean in contrast with the soiled garments of his fellow 
governors. In his extant letters it seems strange that he 
does not speak freely of the geography, history, or civili- 
zation of the province — subjects which should have inter- 
ested him deeply. His one lament is that he is deprived 
of his stirring life in the metropolis. The Forum and the 
senate were indispensable to his happiness. Man of peace 
though he was, he conducted with cleverness and expedi- 
tion a successful campaign against several marauding 
bands in Cilicia, and secured the mountain fastnesses by 
which the dreaded Parthians must force their way if they 
should wish to march into the province. For this service 
he desired to celebrate a triumph on his return to Italy 
in 50, but circumstances prevented a consummation of 
his absurd wish. 

10. Cicero and the Civil War. — Civil war was brew- 
ing between Csesar and Pompey. Crassus had been 
slain in 53, and Csesar had been in Gaul since 58. Gradu- 
ally Pompey and Caesar had grown apart, and the senate, 
in order to crush Csesar, had won over Pompey by honors 
and flattery to take the lead of the government party. 
In 49 Csesar crossed the Rubicon, and the Civil War 
began. Pompey fled to Greece with his forces. Cicero 
was in a quandary; he had no counsel to offer, save 


that of conciliation, and that was rejected. Pompey ex- 
pected his support, and Caesar tried to win it. After 
much perplexity and vacillation of mind he threw in his 
lot with Pompey, his long-standing leader, who received 
him rather surlily. Cicero soon discovered that the old 
general's powers were on the wane, and that his passion 
for revenge was aroused to such a degree that he had 
planned to give Rome up to pillage if he should return 
victorious. And it seems probable that the triumph of 
Caesar was a merciful dispensation of Providence for 
Rome. The battle of Pharsalus (August 9, 48) gave 
Caesar the mastery of the Roman world. Cicero declined 
to accept the command of the remnant of Pompey's army, 
and went back to Italy to await the pleasure of the con- 
queror, who, on his return, welcomed him to Rome. 

11. Literary Activity and Domestic Trials. — There 
was no room for Cicero now in active politics, and he 
gave himself with extraordinary energy to a literary life. 
His pen flew with incredible speed, and works on philos- 
ophy, rhetoric, and oratory, all written in matchless Latin, 
poured from his study. They form, perhaps, Cicero's 
greatest claim to enduring fame. 

In 46, for some not altogether demonstrable reason, 
he divorced his wife Terentia, with whom he had lived 
for a generation. Legend says that she lived to be one 
hundred and four years of age, and that, after Cicero, 
she had three husbands — a story requiring considerable 
credulity if we are discourteous enough to recall the 
lady's age. Cicero straightway married Publilia, his 
youthful ward, with whom he had little happiness. He 
divorced her in 45 because of her lack of sympathy at the 
death of Tttllia, his much beloved daughter. Grief for 
his child almost broke the old man's heart. 

He exerted himself to win the favor of Caesar for his 
friends of the Pompeian army, and was very successful 



with the lenient conqueror, who loved to hear the eloquent 
pleader, and none the less because he sang Caesar's praises 
to his face. Cicero is a sorry figure as he appears loading 
the dictator with flatteries and subserviency. The speech 
Pro Ma/rcello belongs to this period. 

12. Renewed Activity in Politics, and Death. — The 
Ides of March, 44, marked the death of great Caesar. 
Cicero rejoiced in the deed, thinking that the republic 
might be revived. He was soon undeceived. Mark An- 
tony boldly assumed the mantle of the fallen ruler, and 
seized control of the state. Cicero was persuaded to lead 
the cause of the senate, and was soon in open strife with 
Antony. He poured forth against him in rapid succession 
fourteen invectives of such fiery character that they were 
called, in imitation of the invectives of Demosthenes 
against Philip of Macedon, the Fourteen Philippic Ora- 
tions. They were the last efiforts of the old orator, and 
they show his undimmed powers. Some hope was revived 
at Rome, and Cicero was loaded with praise. He depend- 
ed for military assistance upon the fair-spoken young 
Octavianus, the heir of Caesar, who had gathered about 
his standard many of Caesar's veterans. He promised to 
support Cicero and the senate, but soon turned traitor 
and joined forces with Antony and Lepidus in a compact 
known as the Second Triumvirate. The three usurpers 
united in preparing lists of their opponents for proscrip- 
tion. Each yielded to the hatred of the others some 
friends. Octavianus gave over his friend Cicero at An- 
tony's demand. The masters moved on Rome. Cicero's 
day was over, and the government at Rome was utterly 
helpless. The orator at first thought of flight, but could 
not resolve to leave Italy. He retired to his villa at For- 
miae, where the assassins of Antony found him on the 
7th of December, 43. His slaves sought to save him, but 
the murderers overtook them and slew Cicero in his litter, 


as he thrust forth his noble head and calmly bade them 
strike if they deemed it best. His head and hands were 
taken to Rome, insulted by Antony and his wife, and 
nailed to the Rostra. Moldering in decay, these trophies 
of a new tyranny proclaimed the ruin of old republican 
Rome and the throttling of its eloquent free speech. The 
Empire was at hand. 

13. Cicero's Worth as an Advocate and an Orator. — 
The character of Cicero is a subject for the widest diver- 
gence of opinion among historians, biographers, scholars, 
and literary men. Perhaps we may best form our judg- 
ment by considering in turn his career as an advocate, 
a politician, an author, and a man. We have seen that 
he did not attempt to practise in the courts until he 
felt himself schooled for the high task. He was a per- 
sistent worker, with an omnivorous taste for knowledge 
and a splendid memory. Success before a jury rather 
than the approbation of impartial justice was the test 
of distinction in an advocate. Imaginary details, manu- 
factured and distorted evidence, attacks upon personal 
character, extraneous matter of all sorts, and every device 
honorable or contemptible which a keen mind could 
evolve, were considered proper weapons against an ad- 
versary. Consistency of utterance in successive causes 
was a matter upon which Cicero, in common with advo- 
cates of all times, wasted little anxiety. As an orator he 
was in his natural element and was easily the first of 
Roman speakers. He had a voice carefully trained to all 
the modulations of power, and a pleasing and impressive 
personality that gained in dignity and maintained its fire 
as years progressed. His mastery of the technicalities of 
his art was profound. His style, developed from a careful 
study of several schools, was inclined to ornateness, but 
later became more chaste, and it charmed, thrilled, and 
persuaded the listener. His lively imagination, quick 


sensibilities, emotional force, and ready wit were all sup- 
ported by a masterful skill of fence in debate. At times, 
indeed, his speeches show a paucity of ideas covered over 
by a wealth of splendid verbiage. Not infrequently also 
a flood of language is poured intentionally over an ugly 
spot in his client's case to conceal it from the eyes and 
thoughts of the judges, who are to catch the glitter of the 
eloquence itself, instead of the thing hidden. He was a 
consummate advocate, if success in causes and eloquence 
of speech be the standard of judgment. We have 57 
of his speeches, and fragments of 20 others, and know 
the titles of 30 more. 

14. Cicero as a Politician and Statesman. — As a poli- 
tician and statesman our author was much less impos- 
ing. The advocate and his methods were only too apparent 
in the political leader. He was often bewildered as to his 
course, and unable to cope with the stupendous problems 
set before him. His political speeches not infrequently 
display too much rhetoric, too much haziness of vision, 
and too little practical sense and constructive power ; yet 
in them all there is a splendid love of country and an 
effort to make it good. His policy of coalition was a 
commendable ambition that failed from the utter selfish- 
ness and stupidity of the parties involved. He was fight- 
ing against an inevitably sinking tide and he was strand- 
ed. He was not of the stuff of which great statesmen 
are made, but his rating is high when he is compared with 
any man of his day save only Caesar the supreme. 

15. Cicero as an Author. — As a writer of charming 
and impressive prose he appears in a better light ; in fact, 
he surpasses all his countrymen in the use of their prose 
tongue. His subjects are rhetoric, oratory and orators, 
legal and political science, and various problems and 
phases of philosophy and morals. His chief conceptions 
are largely drawn from Greek sources, but it is the seed 


only that he borrows ; the flower is his own and is always 
beautiful to look upon. His philosophical writings are 
delightful reading, if not imposing as original thinking, 
and they were extraordinarily useful to the Roman people 
and to the Latin tongue. 

Cicero was the prince of letter-writers. Nearly eight 
hundred of his epistles have been transmitted to us. They 
form a treasury of information on contemporaneous his- 
tory, gossip, and life. They tell us of his flickering 
thoughts, his passing emotions, and his barometric sensi- 
bility to the changing atmosphere of political and social 
Rome. It is from them that critics have taken most of 
their weapons against the character of Cicero. Perhaps 
it is just as well for Caesar that his letters have not been 
spared to us. 

Cicero always considered himself a passable poet. 
But the dear old essayist Montaigne says that he does 
not " know how to excuse him for thinking his poetry 
fit to be published," and other critics have quite agreed 
with the Frenchman, although latterly Professor Tyrrell 
of Dublin has praised it. The verses preserved to us 
show an easy facility of composition and gracefulness of 
form, but there is little else of poetical power displayed, 
and his reputation is not helped by them. 

16. Cicero's Personal Character. — In daily life Cicero 
was kind-hearted, generous, and affable. He loved so- 
ciety and had many friends. We have many letters of 
his written to his lifelong friend, adviser, and publisher, 
the cultivated T. Pomponius Atticus, and these bear wit- 
ness of an affection which nothing could break down. 
Many of the most gifted men of his time were his loyal 
friends. His fondness for his slave and freedman Tiro 
received its reward in the devotion of that clever man 
in superintending his master's business and household 
affairs, in assisting at his literary labors, and in collecting 


and publishing his works. Cicero's love for his wife 
seemed to fade, but his affection for his daughter Tullia 
was unbounded. He was a good brother to the hot- 
tempered Quintus Cicero. 

He was fond of the good things of this world, having 
a passion for villas, fine furniture, elegant books, and 
beautiful works of art. Nevertheless, he was an indefat- 
igable worker, and spared no pains in the service of duty 
or fame. How he got the abundant means necessary 
to meet his extravagant expenses is an unsolved mys- 
tery, for lawyers were forbidden to take fees for serv- 
ices in the courts of justice at Rome. A Florentine 
legend relates that Cicero in his travels once came upon 
a ruined castle in which sat six men and a lady. She 
asked him which day of the week he liked best, and he 
gallantly replied " Friday, for it is named for a lady." 
His delighted hostess explained that she and her friends 
were the days of the week, and that for his courteous 
words to her he should be rewarded by finding a bag of 
golden coins at his head every Friday when he awoke. 
The story might almost seem to have come into being 
as a pretty attempt to solve the mystery of Cicero's 

His mind was quick and versatile, but not singu- 
larly profound nor original. He had a memory trust- 
worthy and abundantly stored, and a wit ready and 
reckless. Much of his witticism, as reported, however, 
would now be classed as ordinary punning or as objec- 
tionable personalities. Perhaps an example or two 
of his reported sayings may show the quality of some 
of his wit. Crassus remarked in public that no mem- 
ber of his own family had lived beyond sixty years. 
Cicero declared that he had said this to win favor with 
the people, for he knew how glad they would be to 
hear it. 


One Vatinius had swellings on his neck, and when 
he had spoken, Cicero called him a tumid orator. 

Metellus told him that he had ruined more as a witness 
than he had saved as an advocate, and Cicero replied, 
" I admit that I have more truth than eloquence/' 

When Cicero joined Pompey in the Civil War the 
latter surlily asked him where his son-in-law was. " With 
your father-in-law " (Caesar), was the quick reply. 

17. Cicero in the World of Letters; Through the Mid- 
dle Ages. — Cicero was one of those rare spirits whose 
good fortune it is to give an impulse to succeeding 
generations and to influence the thinking world for cen- 
turies. His real biography begins with his death. The 
times immediately following the orator's murder formed 
the period of Rome's greatest literary productiveness. 
Naturally there was some variance of opinion among lit- 
erary critics as to the authority of Cicero as a master of 
style, but as early as the time of Tiberius the consensus 
of criticism in the schools of rhetoric and oratory was 
favorable to him. About the middle of the first century 
of our era Q. Asconius Pedianus, a painstaking, accurate 
scholar, published an excellent explanatory commentary 
on the orations of Cicero, part of which has survived to 
the present day. Shortly afterward Quintilian, the prince 
of Roman critics and teachers of rhetoric, lifted his potent 
voice in praise of Cicero as a model of oratorical skill, 
and of his style as a criterion of good taste. Ever since 
his time our author has kept a strong hold upon schools. 
Tacitus, the historian, a keen thinker with a forceful 
originality of style, acknowledged in Cicero a master 
through whose teachings he found the road to self-expres- 
sion. The Younger Pliny, a friend of Tacitus, was a 
devoted admirer of the republican orator, and strove to 
make himself worthy of his model. 

The conflict of Christianity with heathenism during 


the second and third centuries of our era naturally devel- 
oped some antagonism to the heathen writers of days 
gone by ; but many stanch Christians still read them. 
Minuciiis Felix, a cultivated Roman of the time of Mar- 
cus Aurelius, has left us the oldest surviving work in 
Latin devoted to the discussion of the relative merits of 
the heathen and the Christian religions. It is a dialogue 
entitled Octavius, and is modeled in part upon the De 
Natura Deorum and the De Divinatione of Cicero. 

Tatian, the Assyrian apologist of Christianity, whose 
activity as a writer was displayed in the period 150-172 
A. D., was highly educated in both Greek and Latin, but 
ostentatiously discarded the stylistic precepts of both, and 
especially of Cicero, as unbecoming to him as a Christian 
writer. Tertullian, the famous churchman of Carthage 
(150-230 A. D.), denounced the study of the heathen 
Cicero as unsuited for the perusal of those whose chief 
aim was the nurture of Christian faith. Had these 
writers been able to mold the opinion of cultivated men, 
there would indeed have been little chance for heathen 
letters to survive. 

Clement of Alexandria (died cir. 214 a. d.) compares 
the shrinking of these teachers from the classical writers 
to the behavior of the comrades of Odysseus, who filled 
their ears with wax, that they might not hear the siren 
song which they knew they had not the strength to with- 
stand. This comparison shows us one of the chief reasons 
for the continuance of classical philosophy through the 
centuries. There was a siren song in the enchanted ears 
of the churchmen which kept them hovering in view of 
the lands of heathen culture. 

Lac t ant ills, a noted teacher of rhetoric in the third 
century, on his conversion to Christianity became a cham- 
pion of the new religion, in works written in elegant 
Latin modeled upon the style of Cicero, whom he praises 


with frankness, and whose work he professes to continue. 
He has been called the " Christian Cicero." 

St. Jerome (34o( ?)-42o), the scholarly translator of 
the Bible into Latin, could not bring himself to part with 
Cicero. In a famous dream he saw himself in the court 
of the Great Judge. So bright was the light that he fell 
upon his face. When asked who he was, he replied that 
he was a Christian. But a voice called out '' You are a 
Ciceronian, not a Christian." Thereupon he cried that 
he would never again use worldly books, and waked with 
tears streaming from his eyes. But he could not keep 
his promise, and his later writings are interspersed with 
reminiscences of his favorite author. 

St. Ambrose (340-397), Bishop of Milan, a powerful 
churchman and an intellectual man, wrote many works 
in Latin. His De Otficiis Ministrorum is what might be 
termed a Christian remodeling of Cicero's De Ofdciis. 
This book was for a long period the popular text-book 
of Christian morals, and thus through Ambrose the 
ethics of Cicero became in part the recognized ethics of 
the Church. 

St. Augustine, the Carthaginian (354-430), was per- 
haps the greatest of the Church Fathers. He tells us 
that he was led from a wild life to the service of God 
through the study of Cicero's Hortensius. His love 
for the heathen writer leads him to hope that Cicero and 
his like may have been saved by Christ from the toils of 

During the Middle Ages the sway of the Church was 
supreme. Gradually the works of churchmen replaced 
in the minds of the reading classes the sources from 
which they had borrowed. Cicero's orations were indeed 
still read, as Augustine had recommended, '' for sharp- 
ening the tongue," but his letters were scarcely looked at, 
and he ceased to be of special significance. 


18. The Renaissance. — The dominating influence of 
the churchmen was broken by the strong minds of the 
Renaissance. In the new birth of intellectual life Pe- 
trarch, the splendid Italian lyric poet, was a forceful 
leader (i304-'74). He sought inspiration in the pages 
of the old classical authors, and to him Cicero became a 
living friend and the champion of intellectual liberty. He 
addressed an epistle to him, in which he declares that he 
was the living stream from which Petrarch and his con- 
temporaries watered their meadows ; that he was the 
leader whose wisdom they followed, whose applause they 
sought, and whose name was their glory. To the zealous 
care of Petrarch and his followers we owe the preserva- 
tion of much of Cicero's work, especially his letters Ad 
Familiares, the manuscript of which he discovered at 

Boccaccio, the friend of Petrarch, also speaks of Cicero 
in the same eulogistic vein, and the generation following 
him adopted his tone. When Petrarch himself was some 
time dead, critics were divided on the question of the 
relative merits of him and of Cicero. It was the begin- 
ning of the great modern controversy regarding classical 
and modern culture. One writer {Leonardo Bruni) in 
discussing the question declares happily that one letter 
of Cicero is worth more than all the prose works of Pe- 
trarch, and that a single poem of Petrarch is more valu- 
able than all the poems of Cicero. 

19. The Reformation Times. — The Reformation was 
the natural sequence of the great intellectual awaken- 
ing in Europe, and we find among its leaders men who 
counted Cicero as an intellectual friend. Luther was a 
delighted reader of the old pagan, whose virtues and 
defects he clearly understood. He, too, like Augustine, 
expressed a hope that God in his goodness might show 
mercy unto the heathen writer. Zzvingli, the Swiss re- 



former, also admitted that Cicero might be in paradise ; 
but the rigorous Calvin would shut him out. The famous 
Dutch scholar Erasmus (1467-1536) wrote a panegyric 
upon Cicero, in which he says : " I am now at a loss 
whether most to admire the divine felicity of his style 
or the purity of his heart and morals. His influence upon 
me rises almost to inspiration, and I always feel myself 
a better man upon every perusal." But on the other hand 
Montaigne (i533-'92), the delightful French essayist, 
steeped as he is in the classics, writes : " As to Cicero, 
. . . boldly to confess the truth, his way of writing, and 
that of all other long-winded authors, appears to me 
tedious ; for his prefaces, definitions, divisions, and ety- 
mologies take up the greatest part of his work ; whatever 
there is of life and marrow is smothered and lost in the 
long preparation. When I have spent an hour in reading 
him, which is a good deal for me, and try to recollect 
what I have thence extracted of juice and substance, for 
the most part I find nothing but wind." Windy judgment ! 
20. Modern Times. — Milton (i6o8-'74) was an ex- 
cellent Latinist, and regarded Cicero more highly than all 
the Fathers of the Church put together. Voltaire honored 
him also, and spared him the sting of his ever-ready sar- 
casm. He declared that with those who ponder the wri- 
tings of Cicero and his noble precepts " the passion to 
belittle him will speedily die away." The Prussian King 
Frederick the Great issued orders for the translation of 
Cicero's works for the intellectual benefit of his people. 
Oliver Goldsmith, whose literary versatility strikingly 
recalls that of Cicero, is high in his praise of the author 
and the man. And the English writers generally have 
always exhibited a heartier appreciation of the Roman 
orator than have the critics of scholarly Germany. Many 
of the leaders in the French Revolution devoted time to 
the study of Cicero's orations as models for their own. 


Since the time of Karl Wilhelm Drumann (1786- 
1861), a German writer on Roman history, the criticism 
of Cicero has been markedly unfavorable in Germany. 
He ransacked in the most thoroughgoing fashion the en- 
tire correspondence of the orator, and coldly judged every 
minutest detail. Every passing whim and fancy and 
feeling is weighed seriously in the estimate of Cicero's 
character, which, under such treatment, is found griev- 
ously wanting, and well-nigh contemptible. Drumann's 
lead has been followed by many other scholars, and even 
by a much greater man than he, the erudite and masterly 
historian of Rome, Thcodor Mommsen, still attached to 
the University of Berlin. 

Of recent years there has been a marked revulsion 
of feeling, however, among students of history, and efforts 
have not been lacking to give Cicero his due as a man 
and as an author. The literature of scholarship, criti- 
cism, annotation, and special study centering about the 
life and works of this multifarious character, is said to 
be more extensive than in the case of any other classical 
author, and of itself forms a quite sufficient claim to 
distinction for Cicero among the leaders of human 


Plutarch. Life of Cicero. [Interesting reading.] 

Teuffel and Schwabe. History of Roman literature. A trans- 
lation by G. C. W. Warr. London, 1891. [Scholarly treat- 
ment, with citations of authorities.] 

Strachan-Davidson. Cicero and the Fall of the Roman Re- 
public. New York, 1894, [A short work of superior merit.] 

Forsyth. Life of Marcus Tullius Cicero. New York, 1869. [A 
good model of serious biography in readable form.] 

BoiSSiER. Cicero and his Friends. A translation from the French 
by A. D. Jones. New York, 1898. [A charming work of 
great value.] 


De Quincey. Cicero : An Essay. 

MiDDLETON. The Life and Letters of Marcus TuUius Cicero. 

London, 1854. [An older work very partial to Cicero.] 
Tyrrell. The Correspondence of Cicero. Dublin, 1885. [The 

Introductions to the several volumes contain superior essays 

upon the life and times of Cicero.] 
Trollope. The Life of Cicero. New York, 1881, 2 vols. [A 

lively defense of Cicero in popular form.] 
Froude. Caesar : A Sketch. New York, Scribner. [Contains a 

brilliant partizan attack on Cicero.] 
MOMMSEN, Drumann, Niebuhr. Discussions of Cicero in 

their histories of Rome. 
Aly. Cicero, sein Leben und seine Schriften. Berlin, 1891. 

[Brief, but very good.] 
HiJBNER. Cicero. Deutsche Rundschau for April, 1899. [A 

vigorous essay championing Cicero.] 
ZlELlNSKL Cicero im Wandel der Jahrhunderte. Leipzig, 1897. 

[A delightful account of the position of Cicero in the literary 

world down to modern times.] 
Weissenfels. Cicero als Schulschriftsteller. [A book to be 

read by all teachers of Cicero.] 
Gudeman. The Sources ofPlutarch's Life of Cicero. Philadelphia, 




106. Cicero born January 3. 

89. Served in army under Cn. Pompeius Strabo. 

82. Sulla made dictator. 

80. Cicero defended Roscius of Ameria. 

79. Departed for Greece. 

'J']. Returned to Rome and married Terentia. 

75. Quaestor in Sicily. 

70. Impeachment of Verres. 

69. Curule asdile. 

67. Pompey given command against pirates. 
. '66. Cicero praetor. Delivered speech De Imperio Pompei. 

65. First conspiracy of Catiline. 

"63. Cicero consul. Second conspiracy of Catiline crushed. The 
'\ Catilinarian orations delivered. 

62. Speech in defense of Archias. 



6i. Trial of Clodius for the Bona Dea profanation. 

58. Cicero forced into exile. 

57. Recalled from exile. 

53. Elected augur. 

52. Murder of Clodius, Oratfon Pro Milone. 

51. Cicero proconsular governor of Cilicia. 

50. Returned to Italy. 

49. Joined Pompey against Caesar. 

48. Defeat of Pompey near Pharsalus. 

47. Caesar permitted Cicero to return to Rome. 

46. Cicero divorced Terentia and married Publilia. Delivered the 

speech Pro Marcello. 
45. Tullia died. Publilia divorced. 
44. Cassar died, March 15. 
43. Cicero slain by order of Antony, December 7. 


21. The Roman Republic of Cicero's day was an ex- 
tremely complex organization administered by magis- 
trates and citizen assemblies with more or less similar and 
conflicting powers, necessitating much nice adjustment 
for the harmonious working of the state machinery. We 
can discuss here only the more important magistrates, 
the popular assemblies, and the chief religious officials 
of the state. 

A. The Magistrates 

The principal regular magistrates of the republic were 
the consuls, the prcctors, the cediles, the qucestors, the 
trihiini plehis (not technically a magistratus) , and the 
censors. We shall discuss them each in turn. 

(^22^) The Consuls. — The chief magistrates were _2_ 
in number, vested with exactly the same powers, and 
holding office for one year. The candidates for this 
magistracy must by law (at times, indeed, disregarded) 


have held the offices of qiicestor and of prcetor, and were, 
normally, at least forty-three years of age. They were 
not nominated by parties, as are our presidents, but per- 
sonally announced their intention to stand for the posi- 
""liofr, and registered their names at least seventeen days 
before election time with the consul who was to preside 
at the election. This official registration was termed 

The canvass for votes frequently began a full year 
before the election and was termed ambitio or petit io. 
The candidates assumed a very white dress (toga Candida 
— note the significance of our word candidate) and went 
about attended by supporters to solicit votes. Citizens 
were more apt to take offense at not being asked for their 
votes than at a brazen request for them. Money was 
spent as the prodigality of the candidates suggested for 
the entertainment of the people, and bribery was by no 
means uncommon. The contestants voiced their opinions 
on public matters as occasion offered. 

Elections took place, usually in July, in the centuriate 
assembly of the people (comitia centuriata) , over which 
a consul (or in default of consuls an interrex) presided. 
A majority- vQt£L_was required for each consul in his 
turn. An election was not valid until the presiding officer 
had formally announced the result. 

between election and entrance upon office the success- 
ful candidates were called consules designafi^ On assum- 
ing office the consul's first act was to secure the divine 
sanction by the taking of auspices, which were always 
favorable, for the attendant formally announced that he 
had seen lightning upon the left, a propitious sign. The 
magistrates, clothed in the toga prcetexta, a garment of 
white bordered with purple, and preceded by 12 lie- 
tors, each bearing a bundle of rods (fasces) as symbols 
of power, then called the senate together. Seated in his 


official chair (sella curulis) one acted as the presiding 
officer of the body. 

The two consuls were of equal authority, and one 
might veto the act^ of the other, but a veto once pro- 
nounced could not itself be vetoed. A division of duties, 
or an alternation in the exercise of them, generally ob- 
viated collision. The consuls might also act conjointly, 
as in summoning the senate or in proposing legislation. 
They were the heads of the general executive and ad- 
ministrative functions in the state, issued decrees, rep- 
resented the republic on state occasions, perTofrried some 
religious functions, and, in the absence of censors, man- 
aged financial matters. In e arlie r days they had charge 
of important criminal trials, but in Cicero's time that 
function had become almost obsolete. They possessed 
the right of veto oyer the actions of inferior magistrates. 
At times of great peril to the state their authority might 
be made practically absolute by a special decree of the 
senate. Their supreme authority came from the imperi- 
um, or high command, with which they were vested. 

This impcrium was exercised at its full measure only 
when the consuls were in command of armies in the field, 
when it included the power of life and death over those 
beneath them. Within the city the citizen had the right 
of appeal to the people. As symbolical of the extension 
of the imperium, an axe was placed in the fasces when 
the consul left the city. In Cicero's time the consuls 
ceased to command armies. They were legally respon- 
sible for their deeds and behavior only after the close 
of their term of office, which extended from January i 
to January i of the following year. Usually these magis- 
trates, on retiring from the consulship, became governors 
of provinces. 

23. The Praetors. — Under Sulla's constitution these 
magistrates were 8 in number, elected, like the con- 


suls, in the centuriate assembly after similar electioneer- 
ing tactics. Candidates must have held previously the 
quaestorship. The praetors served as presiding judges in 
the regular standing courts, the particular province of 
each being assigned by lot or by agreement with the 
others. They issued edicts setting forth the principles and 
precepts of law by which they would be guided in the con- 
duct of cases in court. These edicts were usually adopted 
from those of preceding praetors, with such modifications 
and additions as seemed best. By means of these edicts 
much of the civil and criminal law of Rome was rationally 
and conservatively developed as need for it arose. 

The praetors were vested with the imperium, and 
might therefore summon and preside over assemblies, pro- 
pose legislation, and execute decrees of the senate. In 
the absence of the consuls the prcctor ur.hanus performed 
their duties. The governorship of a province for one or 
more years usually followed the year of service at Rome. 
Two lictors accompanied a praetor inside the city, but 6 
were allowed him when on military duty or in his prov- 
ince. The praetors, like the consuls, wore the toga prcB- 
texta and sat in the sella curidis. When on military serv- 
ice they wore the commander's red cape called the palu- 

24. The -ffidiles. — There were 2 plebeian aediles, 
elected in the concilium plehis, and 2 curule aediles, 
elected in the full comitia trihiita. The former wore no 
distinguishing dress and no emblems of office, while the 
latter wore the toga prcetexta and sat in the curule chair. 
In Cicero's time all 4 had seats in the senate. They 
did not possess the imperium. 

The office, although not obligatory in the cursus 
honorum, or grades of office ending with the consulship, 
was usually sought for after the quaestorship. The duties 
of the aediles involved the superintendence of public build- 


ings, streets, temples, water-supply, and festival games. 
They were also the police commissioner^ of the city, and 
had charge of the corn-supply of Rome, regulating the 
cost of corn and preventing monopolies. They had some 
share in the preservation of the archives of state, and 
exercised some judicial functions. 

25. The Quaestors. — Sulla increased the number of 
these officers from 8 to 20. They were elected in the 
comitia trihuta, and their field of duty was usually 
assigned by lot. There were three departments in the 
quaestorship : 

(a) The urban quaestorship, which was held by two 
officials whose functions included the care of the moneys, 
military standards, and archives of state kept in the treas- 
ury. They were chiefly financial officers, receiving the 
tribute forwarded by governors of provinces, the moneys 
paid in by the tax-farmers, and the fines imposed in many 
cases at law. They disbursed money as directed by the 
senate or the proper magistrates. The booty taken in 
war was sold under their direction. (6) A second 
group of quaestors acted as financial and administrative 
agents with generals in the field and with provincial 
governors. In case of a governor's absence, his quaestor 
performed his duties, (r) A third class was known as 
the Italian quaestors, and these were 4 in number, with 
headquarters in different parts of Italy. Apparently 
they cared for Rome's financial interests throughout the 

As the quaestors were annual officers, the duty 
of account-keeping and of routine work in a depart- 
ment was practically in the hands of clerks {scribes) 
permanently employed, as in our governmental offices. 
Distinction attached to the quaestorship, in that at the 
close of his term the quaestor became a member of the 
senate for life. Quaestors had no insignia of office. 


26. The Tribuni Plebis. — Only plebeians were eligi- 
ble for this office, and elections to it took place in the 
concilium plebis, over which a tribune presided. There 
were, in Cicero's time, lo tribunes of equal powers. They 
wore no distinguishing dress and had no insignia of 
office; but their persons were inviolable, on pain of pun- 
ishment even to death. They represented, originally, the 
individual plebeian's right to protection, through their 
veto, against the arbitrary action of a magistrate. For 
facility of access they were forbidden to leave the city 
overnight, and the doors of their houses were always 
open. Gradually they acquired power to nullify by their 
veto any proposed action of the senate, or of an assembly 
presided over by a magistrate or tribune. But the veto 
(interccssio) had to be delivered in person and before an 
act, judgment, or election was consummated and an- 
nounced. They could not veto acts after they were passed 
and publicly declared. But the veto of an action did not 
prevent the proposal of it at another time. They could 
not exercise a veto over the proceedings of a regular 
court of justice. The tribunes might also serve as public 
prosecutors of magistrates before the people for miscon- 
duct of their office. This power became obsolete after 
the establishment of the qiiccstiones perpetuce (courts). 
The tribunes might also summon the senate, preside 
over it, and lay measures before it. They could call 
meetings of the concilium plebis, and preside over them. 

27. The Censors. — Although they did not possess 
the imperium, and could not summon meetings of the sen- 
ate or of comitia, the censors for a long period in Roman 
history exercised great practical powers and enjoyed vast 
distinction. The office was open, in practise, only to ex- 
consuls. The censors were 2 in number, and were 
elected once in four or five years by the comitia centnriata. 
Both had to be chosen in the same meeting, and office was 



assumed at once and continued for eighteen months. In 
the interval between an expired term and the election of 
new censors, the duties of the office were performed by 
the consuls and other magistrates. The same man could 
not twice hold the office. The right of wearing a purple- 
striped toga and of using the curule chair belonged to the 
censors, and they had the distinction of burial in full 
royal purple. 

The censors had the power to veto each other's acts, 
but no other official could nullify their proceedings. If 
one resigned office, it was binding upon the other to yield 
his position also. The primary duty of these officials 
was to summon the citizens to appear before them in 
the Campus Martins for census rating. Records of prop- 
erty were taken, and citizens were assigned to tribes, 
centuries, and classes. A peculiar attribute of censorial 
power was the right to punish misconduct and offenses 
such as cruelty to slaves, neglect of the education of 
children, luxurious living, etc., by placing the guilty one 
in an undesirable tribe, or by excluding him from all 
tribes. Actors, and probably gladiators, were disqualified 
for voting at elections. 

A powerful political instrument long in the hands of 
the censors was the right of filling vacancies in the senate. 
Sulla's laws took away this power. But the censors kept 
the right to remove, on moral grounds or for misconduct 
of duty, names from the list of senators. A mark (nota) 
was placed against the name to be stricken from the roll. 
The other censor might veto the nota, and the name 
would then stand. A senator might recover standing by 
election to a magistracy carrying the privilege of entrance 
to the senate, or by soliciting the next censors. 

A review of the i,8oo military equites was held by 
the censors in the Forum. Heralds called out the name 
of each knight as he passed leading his saddled horse. 


Those who had honorably performed full service were 
dismissed with the words ' Vende equum '— " Sell your 
horse." To each one retained the command was ' Traduc 
equum ' — " Move on your horse." Moral or military 
misconduct was visited with punishment. 

The financial duties of the censor were very important. 
With the approval of the senate they let out to companies 
the farrning of the provincial revenues; leased public 
lands, mines, and forests ; and contracted for the building 
of roads, bridges, state edifices, and temples. As the con- 
Summation of their work the censors conducted a grand 
sacrifice for propitiation and thanksgiving called the lus- 
trum. A bullock, a ram, and a boar (siiovetaurilia) were 
offered up in the presence of the assembled centuries in 
the Campus Martins. 

B. The Senate 

28. Membership. — The most dignified and influential 
council of the Roman Republic was the senate, for cen- 
turies consisting of 300 members chosen by the censors 
for life. In later times the senators had been selected 
chiefly from ex-magistrates. Sulla's laws raised the num- 
ber of senators to 600, to be recruited mechanically by 
the admission of all who had served in any office of the 
cursus honorum. The quaestorship was therefore the 
natural stepping-stone to the permanent honor of sena- 

Senators received no salary for their services, and it 
was therefore necessary for them to have considerable 
property in order to support with dignity their station. 
Many lines of business were closed to them as not con- 
sonant with their exalted position and great power. 
All members of the senate wore an official shoe, laced 
high (the calceus senatorhis, or mnUens. See long note 
on Mile, §28), a tunic with a broad stripe of purple down 

s i 


the front (tunica laficlaz'ia) , and, like the equites, a gold 
ring. Those who had held a curule office wore the purple- 
bordered toga of their magistracy. 

28 a. Meetings of the Senate. — These could be called 
by a consul, a praetor, or a tribune, either by a proclama- 
tion or by sending heralds to summon the members. The 
Curia Hostilia was the usual place of gathering, until it 
was burned in 52. The senate might meet, however, in 
any tcmplum consecrated by the au^rsl All sessions 
adjourned at sunset, for no proceedings were legal after 
that time. The senators sat on Wooden benches, while 
the curule magistrates used th^tr official chairs. All mem- 
bers rose when a magistrate entered or left the meeting. 
The presiding officer took the auspices and made an offer- 
ing before the session opened. / 

Business was set before the body and discussion 
invited by the president, but n^t after our parliamentary 
fashion ; for the s^enate was not a body of independent 
representatives, put was technically only an advisory 
council to the presiding magistrate. He called upon indi- 
vidual senators to express their /opinions, generally ob- 
serving in his choice an order 01 precedence based upon 
the official r^nk of the member* as consiilares, prcrtorii, 
cedilicii, and quccstdrii. If theije were magistrates-elect, 
they were invited before the e|c-members of their rank. 
Although a senator had to wait for a request to speak, 
there was no restraint upon his range of utterance. He 
might speak upon any subject [he fancied, and make any 
proposal for action. The rragistrate chose whatever 
proposition suited him and pu 
was done by a division of the 
being taken unless the vote wis close. If no magistrate 
interposed a veto before the presiding officer announced 
a vote, the measure became a senatus consultum, and 
through the authority of the magistrate became practical 

it to a vote. The voting 
house, no accurate count 


law, provided it did not encroach upon a lex of the people. 
If a veto was interposed, the action of the senate was 
recorded as a senatus auctoritas, which, though not of 
binding force, exercised a moral influence because of its 
dignified source. A measure passed was not written out 
until the close of the session, when a committee was called 
by the magistrate to engross it. A copy of it was then 
deposited in the Aerarium (Treasury). 

It is remarkable that so much important business was 
transacted in such a large body without the committee 
work, the diplomacy, or the secrecy that characterizes 
modern legislatures. But the explanation is to be found 
in the nearness and accessibility of the members, and 
their familiarity with public matters as former magis- 

28 b. Powers of the Senate. — The senate exercised 
considerable control in religious matters, by taking cog- 
nizance of the will of the gods as expressed in portents, 
by appointing sacrifices and thanksgivings, and by direct- 
ing other sacred functions. Financial affairs were largely 
directed by the senate. It appropriated money for the 
army, for public games and public works, and fixed the 
tribute to be paid by the provinces, and directed the 
sale and rental of state property. It conducted nego- 
tiations with foreign powers and submitted the final re- 
sults to the people for ratification. In the matter of 
declaring war it practically decided the issue by its pro- 
posals to the sovereign people. The nature and gov- 
ernment of the provinces were decided upon, and the 
necessary money and troops for their maintenance were 
provided by the senate. In times of peril to the state 
the senate assumed the right to invest the magistrates 
with almost unlimited powers through a decree called 
the senatus consultum ultimum. 


C. The People 

29. There was a sovereign power above all magis- 
trates and above the senate, and this was vested in the 
people — the great body of citizens possessing the right 
to vote in Rome (popuhis Romanns). For the perform- 
ance of its various functions the populus had in the course 
of time organized itself into three assemblies, each com- 
posed of the entire body, but arranged on different 
schemes. They were called the comitia curiata, the comi- 
tia centuriata, and the comitia tributa. Besides the comi- 
tia, there was also an organization called the concilium 
plcbis, which contained all the populus except the pa- 
tricians, or nobles by birth. 

30. The Comitia Curiata. — This was the oldest of 
the assemblies, dating from the regal period, but it was 
of little account in the time of Cicero. It ratified the 
imperiiun of a magistrate by the ancient lex curiata, but 
even this act was usually performed by a committee of 
30 lictors representing the 30 curice, without a meeting 
of the body. The comitia met under the presidency of the 
pontifcx niaximus to inaugurate some religious officers. 

31. The Comitia Centuriata. — The people in this 
assembly were arranged on a military basis into 373 
centuries. Of these, 350 were divided among the 35 
tribes of citizens, 18 were composed of the military 
cquites, and 5 were made up of craftsmen, musicians, and 
paupers. Voting was by centuries, a majority requiring 
187 centuries. The meeting-place was usually the Cam- 
pus Martins. The body was summoned and presided 
over by a riiagistrate with the imperiiim. It elected the 
consuls, praetors, and censors, decided some judicial ques- 
tions, declared war, and passed laws. 

32. The Comitia Tributa.— The 35 tribes of citi- 
zens formed a much more convenient assembly for the 


passing of laws. Meetings were called in the Forum, or 
in the Campus Martins, and presided over by a consul 
or a praetor. When the body sat as a court, the curule 
aediles presided. These aediles and other lower magis- 
trates were elected by the coi]iitia tributa. 

33. The Concilium Plebis. — This tribal assembly, 
identical with the preceding, except that patricians were 
excluded, was called and presided over by plebeian magis- 
trates only. It exercised great power through its decrees 
(plebiscita), which became laws for the whole people. 
Meetings were ordinarily held in the Forum, or in the 
Comitium, for legislation, and in the Campus Martins for 
elections. The plebeian magistrates were chosen by this 
body, and it sat in judgment on cases presented by those 
magistrates. The sentence of outlawry, or interdiction 
of water and fire, against those citizens who were in exile 
was pronounced by it. 

34. Procedure in the Comitia. — The days upon 
which the comitia could be held were called comitiales 
dies, and were marked in the official calendars with a 
letter C (comitialis). Holy days, devoted to lustrations, 
worship of the dead, or to the solemn memory of disasters 
to the state, were called dies ne fasti (marked with an N), 
and were not available for meetings of the comitia. So 
also days set apart for judicial purposes were exempted, 
and were called dies fasti (marked F). It is probable 
also that the comitia were not held on the market-days 
(nundince), when, once in the eight-day week, the people 
from the country flocked to Rome. The result was that 
little more than half of the days in a year were clear 
for meetings. When a magistrate desired a meeting he 
issued a decree at least seventeen days beforehand, nam- 
ing the day and stating the offices to be filled, the case to 
be tried, or the legislation demanded. Auspices were 
taken by the magistrate before sunrise on the day of 


assembling. If the signs were favorable, heralds were 
sent around the city walls to proclaim the meeting. The 
proclamation in the case of the comitia centuriata was 
made from the Rostra, and a red flag was raised on the 
Janiculum Hill, while military horns were somided upon 
the citadel and about the walls. Before the voting the 
magistrate held an informal meeting (contio) in which, 
after he had sacrificed and offered prayer, he stated the 
matter in question and permitted a limited discussion. 
Then all non-voters were excluded, and the citizens were 
invited to proceed with the voting. For this purpose a 
large space had been railed off and divided into compart- 
ments for the ctirice, centuries, or tribes, as the nature of 
the gathering demanded. A central passageway ran down 
the entire enclosure, connecting all the compartments. 
The citizens of each division cast their ballots into an 
urn guarded by a ciistos and tellers {ro gat ores or dirihi- 
tores). The tellers counted the votes, and the result in 
each division was announced as soon as discovered. 
When a majority of the whole number of sections 
had been ascertained the voting ceased, and the 
presiding officer formally announced the decision. The 
veto power has been discussed under the head of 
the magistrates. A copy of a law decreed was placed 
in the Aerarium. Only the more important laws were 
engraved on bronze and affixed to temples or public 

The procedure in the concilium plehis did not require 
the taking of previous auspices, because only patricians 
had the right to observe them. A meeting of any popular 
assembly might be broken off by the announcement of 
bad omens, such as a flash of lightning or a fit of epilepsy. 
So potent was the latter that it was called the morbus 
comitialis. If a meeting was so adjourned all the action 
taken by it was nullified. 


35. The Contiones. — Besides the formal assemblies 
there were irregular gatherings called contiones. They 
could be called only by magistrates, and were addressed 
only by such persons as the magistrates allowed to speak. 
Since the meetings passed no votes, anybody might attend. 
The contiones served a very useful purpose in inform- 
ing the people of public affairs. The usual gathering 
place was the Forum. 


Greenidge. Roman Public Life. London, 1901. [An excellent 
manual, indispensable for the school library.] 

Abbott. A History and Description of Roman Political Institu- 
tions. Boston, 1 901. [Very clear and interesting. Should be 
in the library.] 

Gow. A Companion to School Classics. London, 1891. [Br4ef 
descriptions, not comparable with the two preceding.] 

MOMMSEN. Romisches Staatsrecht, II, i. Leipzig, 1887. [Au- 

Schiller. Die romischen Staats- und Rechtsaltertiimer. In 
Miiller's Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft. 
Miinchen, 1893. 

Pauly-Wissowa. Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Altertums- 
wissenschaft, Stuttgart, 1894. Articles Aedilis, Consul, Cen- 
sores, Comitia, Concilium, Contio. [All authoritative and 

Willems. Le Senat de la Republique Romaine. Louvain, 

Mommsen. Abriss des romischen Staatsrechts. Leipzig, 1893. 

D. The Courts of Justice 

36. The judicial authority of the comitia has been 
mentioned in the description of the functions of those 
bodies. Only a small portion of the judicial business of 
Rome in Cicero's time, however, could be executed in 
these cumbrous courts. The great volume of legal de- 
cisions issued from the standing courts (qiiccstiones per- 


petuce), which were presided over by the praetors. Sulla 
organized these courts, and until the year 70 b. c. the 
jurors were chosen only from the ranks of senators, 
in conformity to his law. But the reforms of that year 
opened the courts to the senators, knights, and tribuni 
cerarii. The whole number of designated jurors is not 
known, but it was probably over a thousand, chosen by 
the prcctor urbaniis from the three classes mentioned, in 
equal divisions. The official list of available jurors was 
called the album hid i cum. Each class of jurors was 
divided into decuricB, and the panels for the various courts 
were drawn, under some scheme of rotation, from these 
decurial sections. 

The presiding officer was termed a qucesitor. V.oting 
was done with ballots marked A (absolvo) or C (con- 
demno). A majority was required for a decision, a tie 
meaning an acquittal. There was no attempt made to 
keep the jury secluded as with us, and flagrant cases 
of bribery were not uncommon. After the year 59 b. c. 
the three jury classes voted separately, an urn being 
placed for the votes of each class. This system pub- 
lished the attitude of each division of the court on every 

The days upon which a court might sit were called 
dies fasti Normally the season for trials closed with 
the 1st day of September; but cases of violence (vis) 
might be tried at any time, and on all days except actual 
fast days, despite the calendar markings as dies nefasti 
or comitiales. Courts sat in the Forum on a tribunal, 
or in the law courts (basiliccu) bordering the Forum. 
vSessions began early in the morning, and closed before 
sunset. The order of cases was arranged by a docket. 
Special courts were sometimes established to deal with 
extraordinary cases, and these were conducted in the 
same fashion as the regular courts. The procedure in 


such a criminal court is described with some fulness in 
the introduction to the speech for Milo, and that will 
serve as a sufficient illustration of the conduct of courts 
in general. 

For full details respecting the standing courts, the student is 
referred to Greenidge's The Legal Procedure of Cicero's Time, 
pp. 415-525. See also Mommsen, Staatsrecht, II, pp. 111-117, 
572-576, 917-935, and Schiller in Miiller's Handbuch, IV, 2, pp. 

E. Religious Officials 

37. The Augurs. — In Cicero's day the college of au- 
gurs was composed of 15 members elected for life. 
When vacancies occurred they were filled by nominations 
from the college, which were voted upon in an assem- 
bly composed of 17 of the 35 tribes of the people. 
The emblems of office were the toga prcetexta and the 
littms, a smooth staff with a crook at one end. The 
members apparently ranked by age. Regular meetings 
were held on the Nones of each month, often at the house 
of one of the members, for the board probably did not 
possess an official building, although they apparently 
owned a small place on the Capitoline Hill called the 
Augur aciihim. An augur was forbidden to touch a dead 
body, and might not examine the heavens for signs if he 
had a wound on his person. 

The chief duties of the augurs were the taking and 
interpretation of auspices, the conduct of offertory func- 
tions at certain regular festivals, the consecration and 
dedication of temples and holy places, and the perform- 
ance of inaugural rites at the installation of augurs, fla- 
mens, and perhaps other officials. The highly complex 
formulae and rules of interpretation and the precedents 
of the college were preserved with secrecy in the lihri or 
commentarii augurum. But even in Cicero's time the 

The Buried Fc 
From the famou 

M — Looking East. 
tching by Piranesi. 


science of augury had become so little understood that 
there was great dispute as to its meaning. 

Auspices were of two kinds: (a) those deliberately 
looked for {aiispicia impetrativa) ; and {h) those occur- 
ring unexpectedly (aiispicia ohlativa). In early times 
auspices were sought by observing in silence the flight of 
birds, or the sounds made by them in a region of the sky 
ceremoniously marked out. So also the will of the gods 
might be looked for in the movements and actions of quad- 
rupeds. But in the later days there were but two methods 
common: (a) the observance of lightning and thunder 
in the heavens; and {h) the study of the feeding of 
hens kept for this sacred purpose. The first was the 
ordinary form for all augural cult services in the city, 
and the second for magisterial auspices and in military 
service. In fact, the sacred character of augury had so 
far deteriorated that it was not necessary to see the 
lightning, but only that the observer's assistant should 
assert that he had seen it. In the case of the sacred chick- 
ens, it was a good sign if they ate greedily and dropped 
bits of food from their beaks, and so it was not an unusual 
practise to starve them just before the trial. 

The augurs came to have more significance in politics 
than in religion, owing to their power in influencing 
public legislation and elections by the announcement of 
unfavorable omens from the gods. A magistrate taking 
auspices might disregard the warning of an interpreting 
augur, but such action was not customary, because the 
senate would be called upon to investigate and to pro- 
nounce a vitium, or fault, in the proceedings, which 
would then be null and void. The augur was not pre- 
vented from holding any other office in the state. Cicero 
was made an augur in 53. 

38. The Pontiffs. — The name pontifcx is of uncer- 
tain origin, but many favor the derivation from pons and 


facere, explaining that in early times the office was asso- 
ciated with the construction and care of the sacred wooden 
bridge across the Tiber {Pons Sublicius), and that the 
name continued even after the functions of the office had 
become widely different. But it is possible that the 
name dates from times earlier than the building of that 

Sulla increased the number of members forming the 
college of pontiffs to 15, elected for life in the same 
way as the augurs. The president of the board was 
called the pontifex maxirims, and he held office for life. 
The rest of the board formed his advisory council and 
were under his control. His official residence was the 
Regia, a marble structure on the Sacra Via near the 
Forum. Lanciani thinks his real home was the Domus 
Puhlica, ad^joining the house of the Vestals. 

The duties of the college involved the general superin- 
tendence of all religious rites and ceremonials. The forms 
u^d in court procedure were in early times understood 
/Only by the pontiffs who attended court to pronounce 
them. /As guardians of fAs, or moral law, they prescribed 
the iornns of prayers arid vows for set purposes, and estab- 
lished/graduated py^nish^ents for the expiation of sins. 
They i issued and-'enforced commands for the protection 
of sacr^_pla<!es, and personally conducted many sacri- 
ficial ceremonies in the complex state religion. Owing 
to the inaccuracy of the Roman year, extra days had 
to be intercalated, and the days of festivals adjusted to 
the proper seasons. The making of this calendar formed 
part of the duties of the pontifical college and was of 
considerable political importance to its members. Lists 
of the magistrates who held office in Rome and a brief 
account of events were preserved in the office of the col- 
lege. The pontiffs kept also in the archives of their board, 
the libri pontificii containing ritualistic formulae, records 



of the actions of the college, and of opinions delivered 
on matters of religious import. The Vestal Virgins were 
appointed by the pontifex maximus and were under his 
control, as were also the Hamines or priests of the various 

38 a. Connected with the college were also three 
Hamines maiorcs (the priests of Jupiter, Mars, and Qui- 
rinus), the rex sacrorum, and three pontiHces minores. 
The office of rex saerorum was the oldest of the religious 
state offices, but it became of such slight importance that 
for some time before Augustus it was without an incum- 
bent. The Hamen dialis (priest of Jupiter) had to live 
rigorously and dress with scrupulous cleanliness. He 
could not touch a dead body, and workmen laid aside their 
work when he passed. A prisoner entering his house was 
freed of bonds. His wife was priestess of Juno. Other 
Hamines were not so restrained. Their chief duties were 
the various sacrifices in honor of the gods. 

39. The XV Viri Sacris Faciundis. — The famous 
Sibylline Books containing oracular sayings in Greek, 
which legend said had been purchased of the Cumaean 
Sibyl by Tarquinius Superbus, were kept in the vaults of 
the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus under the charge of 
a collegium of 15 members (in Cicero's time) chosen 
from ex-consuls and ex-praetors for life. The duty of this 
college was to guard in secrecy the sacred books, and, on 
order of the senate, to expound the will of the gods con- 
tained in them with respect to any extraordinary calamity 
or portent, and to set forth the expiations necessary in 
behalf of the state. Naturally the college was influential. 
The board also had charge of the worship of several 
foreign deities introduced into the Roman religion, being 
especially concerned with the cult of Apollo, Ceres, and 
the Magna Mater. 

When the Capitol was burned in 83, the Sibylline 


Books perished, but a new collection was made from 
various sources and used like the original books. The 
last collection was destroyed, it is believed, about 405 a. d. 
40. The Haruspices. — Soothsayers from Etruria came 
to Rome in large numbers and with great pretensions 
of ability to read the future from various signs and 
portents, such as lightning, earthquakes, and particularly 
from the entrails of animals. The superstitious Romans 
employed them freely, and although they were not state 
officers they were often consulted by the magistrates upon 
matters of great political import. In fact, the haruspices 
gradually encroached upon the field occupied by the dig- 
nified augurs. 


Pauly-Wissowa. Real-Encyclopadie. Art. Augures, Auspi- 

Smith's, Seyffert's, and Harper's Classical Dictionaries un- 
der titles mentioned in text above. 

WisSOWA, G. Religion und Kultur der Romer, Munchen, 1902. 
[Best work on the subject.] • 

MOMMSEN. Staatsrecht, II, 17 ff. 

Bouche-Leclercq. Les Pontifes de I'ancienne Rome. Paris. 


41. There is not space here to discuss the history of 
the Roman Forum, with its multifarious changes from the 
miasmic swamp of early times to the elaborate public 
square of the imperial city. The " market-place " 
{forum) lay in the valley between the Capitoline, Qui- 
rinal, and Palatine Hills, and very early became the 
general meeting-place of the people and the center of 
public business. It was drained, paved, and surrounded 

£ & 

^ be 
In j_i 


with shops and pubhc buildings, and gradually supplied 
with numerous statues, arches, and honorary columns. 
Its area was limited, the entire length being i6o meters, 
and the widest part being 45 meters. In other terms, it 
was less than one and two thirds times as long as a foot- 
ball field, and 12 feet narrower at its widest end. Many 
ocean steamships are much longer than the Forum. 

We shall consider the main buildings which stood 
about l^ie Forum of Cicero's day, but not those belonging 
to imperial times. The student should consult the plan 
and the pictures of each, and endeavor to get a clear idea 
of what sort of Forum Cicero knew. 

42. The Temple of Castor and Pollux. — In the year 
496, legend ran, two godlike horsemen were seen one 
evening watering their foaming steeds at the fountain 
of Juturna, at the base of the Palatine. They brought 
news of a Roman victory on the banks of Lake Regillus, 
and that victory they had helped to win. Twelve years 
later (484) a temple was erected to the glorious twins, and 
Castor and Pollux entered the Roman calendar of wor- 
ship with a permanent home. The building was recon- 
structed in 117, and again after Cicero's time (6 a. d.). 
The three splendid marble columns still standing belong, 
probably, to this last-mentioned restoration. In Cicero's 
time the building was of brick and stucco, not marble. 
The high platform of the temple, extended in front of 
the entrance steps, oflFered a good view of the busy Forum, 
and was much sought for on gala days. It formed also 
an excellent vantage-point in the strife that often raged 
between political parties. Cicero's enemy Clodius once 
took possession of the temple and tore up the (side?) 
steps to prevent the approach of his foes. 

In the temple vaults were kept the registers of values, 
weights and measures, and many treasures of the state. 
Most of the beautiful marbles of the last rebuilding were 


taken in the sixteenth century for the adornment of St. 
Peter's at Rome. 

43. The Basilica Sempronia and Tabernse. — Across 
the Viciis Tuscus, or Tuscan Street, stood a build- 
ing with columned aisles opening like porticoes on the 
Forum, called the Basilica Sempronia, erected in 170. It 
was used, like all the basilicas, for the sittings of law 
courts, as a general meeting-place for business men, per- 
haps for some business purposes, and for the conf^ort of 
all who frequented the sunny Forum. Along the south 
side of the Forum in front of and beyond this building 
was an older series of small shops, called the tahernce 

Both basilica and shops were removed to make way 
for the huge Basilica Julia, begun by Julius Caesar and 
finished by Augustus. It was soon burned down, and 
again rebuilt by Augustus. The foundations and por- 
tions of the marble floor of this structure still remain. 

44. The Temple of Saturn. — Crossing the street called 
the Vicus lugarius, we come to the Temple of Saturn, 
originally built in 497, but restored in 42. The 8 poorly 
designed Ionic columns still standing with their frieze and 
pediment belong to a later restoration under the Em- 
peror Diocletian. They form an interesting ruin. The 
temple contained the Aerarhim, or state Treasury, in 
which moneys, state papers, and, in time of peace, the 
standards of the legions were kept. 

The statue of the god was hollow and filled with olive- 
oil, the hand holding a pruning-knife and the feet wrapped 
in wool — symbols of agriculture and grazing. The feast 
of the god was the SaUirnalia, celebrated in December. 

45. The Clivus Capitolinus and Tabularium. — The 
western boundary of the Forum was the Capitoline Hill, 
up which wound the zigzag street called the Clivus Capi- 
tolinus, leading to the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maxi- 


mus. By this ascent generals in triumphal procession 
reached the temple. 

The building now stretching along the western end 
of the Forum is the modern senate-house, the lower 
stories of which are part of the ancient Tahularium, or 
Record Office, dating from the time of Cicero. It was 
used for the preservation of state documents, deeds, etc. 

46. The Temple of Concord. — The three beautiful 
columns still standing in front of the Tabularium belong 
to the Temple of Vespasian, erected long after Cicero's 
death. Next to this ruin is a low mass of concrete against 
the wall of the Tabularium. It is the foundation of the 
famous Temple of Concord, originally dedicated after the 
passage of the Licinian laws in 367. It was splendidly 
rebuilt after the death of C. Gracchus, and again by Tibe- 
rius (10 A. D.). A glance at the restoration given will 
show that the building differed from other temples in that 
the entrance to the cella, or enclosed portion, was through 
a portico on the side next to the open Forum. The tem- 
ple was filled with treasures of sculpture and painting. 
The senate often met in it, notably on the occasion upon 
which Cicero delivered the fourth Catiiinarian oration. 
On its steps Cicero and the senators withstood the 
violence of Antony's partizans after the murder of 

47. Basilicas and the Career. — Next to the Temple of 
Concord stood two law courts, the Basilica Opimia and 
the Basilica Porcia, nothing of which now remains. 

At the northwestern corner of the Forum still stands 
(under a modern church) the little career, or dungeon, 
which dates from royal times. It was originally a well 
house enclosing a tullus ('bubbling spring'), whence its 
name Tullidnum. It consisted of this sunken chamber and 
an upper room. Victims destined to death were let down 
into the lower dungeon through a circular opening in 


the floor of the upper cell, and were either strangled or 
allowed to starve to death. In this hole Lentulus and his 
fellow conspirators were put to death by order of Cicero. 
Here, earlier, the African king Jugurtha had perished, 
and later the patriotic Vercingetorix, during Caesar's 
triumph, was slain. Legend says that St. Paul was con- 
fined in the upper cell, in which there is now a shrine 
dedicated to him. 

Along the south side of the career a flight of stone 
steps, called the Scalce Gemonice, or " Stairs of Groaning," 
led to the Forum. Upon these stairs the bodies of exe- 
cuted criminals were thrown for the pleasure of a mock- 
ing mob, before being dragged to the nearest opening of 
the Cloaea Maxima ('main sewer'), or to the Tiber 
itself, and hurled in. 

48. The Comitium, Curia, and Rostra. — The western 
end of the Forum was widened on the northern side by 
the adjoining square, called the Comitium, the ancient 
voting-place of the people, and for many centuries the 
center of public life. In it stood the Curia Hostilia, or 
senate-house, said to have been built in regal times. It 
was the principal meeting-place of the senate until it was 
destroyed by fire in 52, when the body of Clodius, the 
enemy of Cicero, was burned in it by an excited mob. It 
was immediately rebuilt by Sulla's son, but soon torn 
down and replaced by a new structure ordered by Julius 
Caesar and finished by Augustus, who called it the Curia 
Julia, in honor of Caesar. The walls of the Church of San 
Adriano appear to be the remains of a later restoration 
of this building under Diocletian. 

The famous Rostra, a raised platform adorned with 
the beaks of ships {rostra) taken from the Antiates in a 
naval battle in 338, stood at the southeastern edge of the 
Comitium. From it a speaker might address a company 
assembled either in the Comitium or in the Forum. In 

o Z 


:: rt 


Cicero's time the orator faced the Forum. The platform 
was decorated with statues of men whom the senate 
wished especially to honor. The second and third Cati- 
linarian orations and the speech on the Manilian Law 
were delivered from it. On it Caesar's body lay in state, 
and to it were fastened the head and hands of Cicero. 

49. The Imperial Rostra. — In accordance with the 
plans of Caesar, the platform was removed, apparently 
in 42, from the Comitium, and a new Rostra erected on 
the western side of the Forum. The new structure was 
decorated with the ships' beaks taken from the old plat- 
form and set in two rows along the front. It was about 
24 meters long, 10 meters deep, and 3 meters high, and 
was faced with marble and adorned with a marble balus- 
trade and many statues. Important remains of a later 
restoration of this platform are still in the Forum. It is 
mentioned here only because it is often erroneously (?) 
spoken of as the site of Cicero's later oratorical deliver- 

50. The Cloaca Maxima. — A great stone sewer, built 
in early times, but rebuilt later, enters the Forum east 
of the Comitium and crosses to the Vicus Tuscus on 
its way to the Tiber. Near the spot where it enters the 
Forum stood a little shrine to Jiino Cloacina, patroness of 
drainage purity. Modern archaeologists, bowing the 
knee to this divinity, have stimulated an undue interest 
in this monument among people who would not cast a 
glance upon the much more elaborate sewer systems of 
modern cities. It is an excellent piece of engineering, 
probably by Augustan workmen ; but when all is said, it 
is just a sewer, and a disagreeably active sewer. 

51. The Basilica iEmilia. — The rest of the northern 
side of the Forum was occupied until 54 by a row of shops 
called the fabcrncu novcc, in contrast with the tahernce 
veteres of the opposite side. Behind them stood the 


Basilica Fulvia, erected in 179. In 54 the basilica was 
rebuilt and enlarged to the edge of the Forum, and called 
the Basilica ^Emilia. Its colonnades increased the free 
space of the Forum. About two-fifths of the buried 
remains of this edifice have very recently been excavated, 
and some fragments of its marbles found and something 
of its plan discovered. 

52. The Regia and Domus Publica. — Facing the east- 
ern end of the Forum, but outside its area, on the Sacra 
Via, the street along which triumphal and solemn pro- 
cessions passed toward the Forum, stood the Regia, 
or office-building of the pontifex maximus and his assist- 
ants. It was a small structure frequently rebuilt from 
royal times. The foundations and fragments of its archi- 
tecture have recently been laid bare. Near by stood the 
Domus Publica, the residence of the pontifex maximus. 
This was Caesar's home for many years. Scarcely a trace 
of it remains. 

63. The Temple of Vesta. — Not far from the Regia 
stood the round Temple of Vesta, goddess of the hearth, 
whose worship was conducted by the Vestal Virgins, 6 
in number. It was their duty here to keep burning the 
perpetual fire on the altar of the goddess. The magnifi- 
cent house of the Vestals stood southeast from the tem- 
ple, where splendid ruins of the last imperial recon- 
struction may be seen. Near it stood a little shrine to 

For a description of the service of the Vestals, see 
the books mentioned in the bibliography following. 


Smith's, Seyffert's, and Harper's Classical Dictionaries. 
Lanciani. The Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome. Mac- 

millan & Co., 1897. [The most convenient manual for student 

and traveler.] 


Lanciani. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. 
Boston, 1888. 
Pagan and Christian Rome. Boston, 1893. 
The Destruction of Ancient Rome. New York, 1899. [Not so 

good as the others.] 
New Tales of Old Rome. Boston, 1901. [Recent excavations 
described and illustrated.] 

MiDDLETON. The Remains of Ancient Rome. London and 
Edinburgh, 1892, 2 vols. 

Jordan. Topographic der Stadt Rom im Alterthum. Berlin, 
1878. [Full on the history of the monuments.] 

Gilbert. Geschichte und Topographic der Stadt Rom im Alter- 
thum. Leipzig, 1883. [Learned, with extensive citations of 
authorities very valuable for the teacher.] 

RiCHTER. Topographic der Stadt Rom. In Iwan Miiller's Hand- 
buch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, 1901. [Excel- 
lent and authoritative. Should be in the library of the school.] 

Thedenat. Le Forum Romain et les Forums Imperiaux. Ha- 
chette et Cie., Paris, 1898, [Interesting and readable.] 

Schneider. Das Alte Rom. Leipzig, 1896. 

HUELSKN. Die Ausgrabungen aufdem Forum Romanum. Roma, 


54. The science of rhetoric was very highly devel- 
oped among the Greeks, and the various forms of ora- 
torical composition were discussed with painful attention 
to dry details. It would be unprofitable to consider here 
the intricacies of formal rhetoric as taught by the Greek- 
instructed Cicero, but a knowledge of the principal terms 
appHed to the divisions of a speech will help toward a 
better understanding of the orator's presentation of his 
theme in each oration. 

Cicero's speeches were composed upon a more or less 
elaborate plan, determined by the occasion and the char- 


acter of the discussions involved. The principal divisions 
employed in formal orations were the following, viz. : 
(i) The exordium (or proocmium), devoted to introduc- 
tory remarks. This was sometimes followed by a refu- 
tation of circumstances prejudicial to the case under 
discussion (prcciudicia). (2) The narratio, or statement 
of the facts concerned. (3) The propositio, or statement 
of the orator's intention. This was often further divided 
by a partitio. (4) The argument alio, consisting of a con- 
firmatio devoted to arguments in support of the speak- 
er's case, and a confutatio (refutatio), containing a refu- 
tation of opposing arguments. (6) The peroratio, de- 
voted to a review of the case, an appeal to the audience, 
or other appropriate closing words. 

There were many other technical terms employed to 
designate subordinate parts of the main headings, but 
those given offer a sufficient means for the intelligent 
analysis of the speeches. Not many speeches followed 
the type in every detail mentioned above. In fact, a 
study of the analyses of the orations following will show 
considerable variety in their rhetorical structure. 


55. Writing Materials. — The principal material upon 
which the ancients wrote their books was a paper called 
charta (Gr. xo-pT-rfs)- It was made from the pithy stem 
of a tall, jointed reed called papyrus (Gr. ira-rrvpo's, Eng. 
' paper '), which grew abundantly in the Nile Delta. 
Thin strips of this soft stem were placed side by side 
upon a board and covered by a layer of similar pieces 
laid transversely. The layers were then moistened, 
pressed into a sheet, dried in the sun, rubbed smooth, 


and trimmed into a rectangular form varying in size 
from 3 to 13 inches in width and from 8 to 14 inches 
in length. As many sheets as were required for a given 
volume (volumen) were glued together at the edges, 
forming a long ribbon of paper, which, if for a valuable 
work, was then treated with cedar oil, to preserve it 
from insects and worms. A roll so treated had a yellow- 
ish tinge. 

A thin stick of wood (umbilicus) was usually fast- 
ened to the last sheet of papyrus to assist in rolling up 
the volume. The edges of the rolled paper were trimmed 
evenly and often stained in color. A wrapper of stout 
papyrus or of parchment (mcmbrana) stained saffron 
or yellow, was used to protect valuable rolls from wear 
in handling. A little tag (titulus) of parchment, in- 
scribed with the title of the work and stained red, was 
fastened to the roll in plain view. 

In very early times some rolls were made as long as 
240 feet, but such volumes were very unwieldy for a 
reader who was obliged to roll up with his left hand the 
paper which he had unwound with his right. As early 
as the 3d century b. c. Callimachus cried out in weariness, 
fiiya PipXiov fiiya KaKovy ' a big book is a big nuisance.' 
Manufacturers soon offered ready-made volumes of more 
convenient size for the reader. If a book consisted of 
more than one volume, these were kept in a cylindrical 
box (capsa) with a cover. Schoolboys were often at- 
tended by slaves who carried their books and were called 

Ink {atrdmentum) was made of lampblack or oak- 
balls with gum. Pens {calami) were usually made of 
small reeds, although the quill pen was not unknown. 
The writing on a roll was arranged in columns (paginae) 
4 to 6 inches wide, running across the paper, and sepa- 
rated by lines of red ink. 


A more durable writing material was parchment 
(membrana), the dressed skin of an animal. Pergamum 
in Asia Minor became noted for its excellent vellum, 
and the designation membrana Pergamena gave us our 
word ' parchment/ For some undiscovered reason this 
substance was not widely used for important books until 
at least the 3d century of our era, but by the loth century 
it had displaced papyrus. Parchment books were made 
in the same form as our books, and were called codices. 
To them we owe the preservation of all the important 
Latin works which we possess. 

Tablets (tabellae) of wood, covered with a thin coat- 
ing of wax, were used for letters, accounts, and memo- 
randa. The edges of the tablets were raised slightly 
above the waxed surface, to prevent injury to the writing. 
Two or three waxed boards were usually fastened to- 
gether in leaves, the outsides being unwaxed. A tablet 
was sealed by running a thread (linuin) through holes 
near the rims of the leaves and by sealing the knot. The 
instrument used for writing upon the waxed surface was 
called a stilus, and was made of wood, ivory, or metal, in 
the shape of a knitting-needle. 

56. The Transmission of Books. — Slaves called librarii 
or literati were employed to make copies of books. It 
is supposed that one read aloud to a number of copyists 
at a time in order to multiply copies as fast as possible. 
Naturally the accuracy of a copy depended upon the care- 
fulness of the scribe. Cicero's chief publishers were his 
friend Atticus and his freedman Tiro. The orator had 
valuable collections of books at his various villas ; and 
there were large public libraries in Rome. But papyrus 
was too frail to withstand the wear and accidents of 
time, and practically all the boasted treasures of Roman 
libraries have disappeared. 

The monasteries of the Middle Ages aided especially 


in the transmission of parchment books to modern times. 
The scriptorium, or ' writing-room,' was a regular fea- 
ture of their fine buildings, and the monastic libraries 
were famous. 

Oftentimes an ancient writing was more or less care- 
fully erased from its parchment by a copyist monk who 
desired to use the material again for the words of some 
church legend, service book, etc., which chanced to en- 
gage his attention. Such a rewritten book is called a 
liher palimpsestus or codex rescriptus. In some instances 
a palimpsest is the sole form in which a piece of ancient 
literature survives. By the use of chemical reagents, 
and the exercise of great ingenuity and critical acumen, 
the old erased and buried words have been restored to 
life. In some instances a parchment has been erased 
twice and used for a third writing, and all three layers 
of words have been in part deciphered. 

Codices are sometimes dated in the copyist's hand, 
but generally their age has to be determined by records 
of their existence in libraries or by other traceable his- 
tory ; by the quality of the parchment and of the ink ; 
and especially by the character of the writing upon 

57. Manuscripts of Cicero. — The codices of the Cati- 
linarian Orations are very numerous, but only a few are 
of great value for the excellence of their texts. The 
best are the following: 

Florence, in the Biblioteca Laurenziana, a codex of the 13th or 
14th century known as the Mediceus 4^, 2. 

Milan, in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, a codex of the loth century 
called the Ambrosidnus C 2Q. 

London, in the British Museum, a codex of the nth or 12th cen- 
tury known as the Harleidnus 2682. 

Munich, in the Royal Library, three codices known as the Mona- 
censes 15964 (nth century). 461 1 (12th century), and ^8og 
(13th century). 


Of the De Imperio Pompei there are three chief 
manuscripts : 
Berlin, in the Royal Library, a codex of the 12th century known 

as the Erfurtmsis. 
Munich, in the Roydl Library, a codex of the nth century called 

the Tegernseensis. 
HiLDESHEiM, Germany, a codex of the 13th century called the 


Of the Pro Archia there are two leading manu- 
scripts : 

Brussels, in the Royal Library, a codex of the nth or 12th cen- 
tury called the Bruxellmsis 3352. 
Berlin, in the Royal Library, the Erfurtensis mentioned above. 

Of the Pro Milone the best manuscripts are the fol- 
lowing : 

Munich, in the Royal Library, the Tegernseensis mentioned above. 
Berlin, the Erfurtmsts mentioned above. 
Turin, in the University Library, a palimpsest fragment called the 

paltmpsesttis Taurinensis. 
London, in the British Museum, the Harleidnus 2682 mentioned 


Of the Pro Mar cello the reHable manuscripts are the 

following : 

Brussels, in the Royal Library, a codex of the 12th century 
known as the Bruxellensis 3343. 

Berlin, in the Royal Library, the Erfurtensis mentioned above. 

Milan, in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, the Ambrosidnus C 2g men- 
tioned above. 

London, in the British Museum, the Harleidnus 2682 mentioned 


Thompson, E. M. Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography 
(pp. 1-85). London, 1893. [The best book in EngHsh.] 

Taylor. History of the Transmission of Ancient Books etc. 
Liverpool, 1889. 

Johnston. Latin Manuscripts. Chicago, 1897. [An interesting 
monograph with facsimile illustrations.] 



Putnam. Authors and their Public in Ancient Times. New York, 

^IRT. Das antike Buchwesen. Berlin, 1882. [The authority on 

the subject.] 
Marquardt. Das Privatleben der Romer. Leipzig, 1886. 
Smith's, Seyffert's and Harper's Classical Dictionaries. 

Rolls ~ Capsa 

Rolls, tablets, and writing implements. 
From Pompeian wall-paintings. 

J ■ J ^ '^\ 


^ [Afttr KiepertJ 

, ^ Scale of Eiigliah Miles 

V " 5U m 

Sc ale of RomunMilM 
- 50 luO 

l\>' Longitude VZ 

Greenwich IS " 



§ I. How far, Catiline, zvill you go? Has not the gen- 
eral alertness disturbed you? Your schemes are known. 
§ 2. You enter the senate, and we appear too timid to punish 

A. Propositio. — I. Quo usque tandem abutere, i 
Catilina, patientia nostra? Quam cliu etiam furor 
iste tuus nos eludet? Quern ad finem sese effrenata 
iactabit audacia? Nihilne te nocturnum praesidium 
Palati, nihil ^rbis vigiliae, nihil timor populi, nihil 5 
concursus bonorum omnium, nihil hic munitissimus 
habendi senatus locus, nihil horum ora voltusque 
moverunt? Patere tua consilia non sentis? Con- 
strictam iam horum omnium scientia teneri coniura- 
tionem tuam non vides? Quid proxima, quid supe- 10 
riore nocte egigris, ubi fueris, quos convocaveris, quid 
consili ceperis, quem nostrum ignorare arbitraris? 

O temporal O mdres! Senatus haec intellegit, 2 
consul videt; hic tamen vivit. Vivit? Immo vero 
etiam in senatum venit, fit publici cdnsili'particeps, 15 
notat et designat oculis ad caedem unum quemque 
nostrum. Nos autem, fories viri, satis facere rei pu- 
blicae videmur, sT istius furorem ac tela vTtemus. Ad 
mortem te, Catilina, duel iussu consulis iam pridem 

, iiNr'/, or 


oportebat, in te conferri pestem quam tu in nos om- 
nes iam diu machinaris. 

§ 3. There are precedents for putting you to death, and 
the consuls are to blame for not doing it. § 4. Other consuls 
have put men to death, hut we neglect to act under the sen- 
ate's decree. 

'3 An vero vir amplissimus, P. Scipio, pontifex maxi- 
mus, Ti. Gracchum mediocriter labefactantem statum 
5 rei publicae privatus interfecit ; Catilinam, orbem ter- 
rae caede atque incendiis vastare cupi^tem, nos con- 
sules perferemus? Nam ilia nimis antiqua praetereo, 
V'^^'^quo <3K' Q. Servilius Ahala Spurium Maelium novis re- 
bus studLentem manu sua occidit. Fuit, fuit ista 

10 quondam in hac re publica virtus ut viri fortes acriori- 
bus suppliciis civen^ perniciosum quam acerbissimum 
hostem coercerent. Habemus senatus cdnsultum in 
te, Catilina, vehemens et grave. Non deest rei pii- 
blicae consilium neque auctoritas huius ordinis; nos, 

15 nos, dico aperte, consules desumus. 

4 II. Decrevit quondam senatus ut L. OpTmius 
consul videret ne quid res publica detriment! caperet. 
Nox niilla intercessit: interfectus est propter quas- 
dam seditionum suspiciones C. Gracchus, clarissimo 

20 patre, avo, maioribus; occisus est cum liberis M. Ful- 
vius consularisy Simill senatus consult5 C. Mario et 
L. Valerio consulibus est permissa res publica. Num 
iinum diem postea L. Saturninum tribunum plebis et 
C. Servilium praetorem mors ac rei publicae poena 

25 remorata est? :lAt vero nos vicesimum iam diem 
r\ patimur hebes^ere aciem horum auctoritatis. Habe- 
mus enim huiusce modi senatus qpnsultum, verum 
inclusum in tabulls, tamquam in vaelna reconditum, 


quo ex senatus consulto confestim te interfectum '^ 
esse, Catilina, conveniS Vivis, et vivis non ad dep5- 
nendam, sed ad confirmandam audaciam. Cupio, pa- 
tres conscript!, me esse clementem; cupio in tantis 
rei publicae penculis me non dissolutum videri, sed 5 
iam me ipse inertiae nequitiaeque condemno. 

§ 5. Yoiir followers Hock to Etruria, while you stay here 
and plot. You shall die without a voice protesting. § 6. 
Meanwhile you will be watched. Your plans are reported 
to me. .S) 

Castra sunt in Italia contra populum Romanum 5 
in Etruriae fauc^us conlocata; crescit in dies singu- 
los hostium numerus; eorum autem c^astrorum impe- 
ratorern ducemque (hostium intra mo^nia atque adeo 10 
in sen^tii videmus, intestinam aliquam cottidie perni- 
ciem rei publicae molientem. Si te iam, Catilina, 
comprehend!, si interfici iussero,(credo^ erit \^endum 
mihi ne non potius hoc omnes boni serius a me, quam 
quisquam crudelius factum esse dicat. Verum ego 15 
hoc, quod iam pridem factiim esse oportuit, certa de 
caps^ nondum a dduco r ut Faciam. Tum denique in- 
te rficiere , cum iam nemo tam improbus, tam perditus, 
tam tui similis invenlrl poterit, qui id non iure factum 
esse fateatur. ^ / ; - . . 20 

Quam diu quisquam erit qui te defendere audeaJt, 6 
vTves; et vives ita ut vTvis, multis meis et firmis pi^ae- 
sidiis obsessus, ne commovere, te contra. rem publi- 
cam possis. Multorum te etiam oculi et aures non 
sentientem, sTcut adhuc fecerunt, speculabuntur at- 25 
que custodient. ^ 

III. Etenim quid est, Catilina, quod iam amplius 
exspectes, si neque nox tenej^rls obsciirare coeptus 


nefarios nee privata domus pari^ibus continere voces J^ 
coniurationis tuae potest? si inlustrantur, si erum^^ 
punt omnia? Muta iam istam mentem; mihi crede, ^ 
obliviscere caedis atque incendiorum. Teneris undi- 
5 que; liice sunt clariora nobis tua consilia omnia, quae 
iam mecum licet recognoscas. 

§ 7. Did I not foretell the rising of Manlius to a day? 
Also your attempt at massacre? § 8. / frustrated your at- 
tack on Praeneste, and I know of your meeting at Laeca's 

7 Meministine me ante diem xii. Kalendas Novem- 
bris dicere in serfatii, fore in armis certo die, qui dies *^ 
futurus esset ante diem vi. Kal. Novembris, C. Man- 

10 Hum, audaciae satellitem atque administrum tuae? 
Num me fefellit, Catilina, non modo res tanta, tarn 
atrox tamque incredibilis, verum, id quod multo ma- 
gis est admlrandum, dies? Dixl ego idem in senatii'^ 
caedem te optimatium contulisse in ante diem v. Ka- 

15 lendas Novembris, tum__cum multi principes civitatis 
Roma n5n tam sui conservandl quam tuorum con- 
siliorum reprimendorum causa profugerunt. Num 

^'inhtiarl potes te illo ipso die, meis praesidils, mea^-*^ 
diligentia circumclusum, commovere te contra rem 

20 publicam non potuisse, cum tu discessu ceterorum, 
nostra:''tamen,^ui remansissemus, ca^de te conten- 
tum esse dicebas? 

8 Quid? cum te Praeneste Kalendis ipsis Novein-vS 
bribus occupaturum nocturno impetu esse conflderes, 

25^sensistine illam coldniam meo idss^ meis praesidils, 
custodiil^ vigilns esse munitam? f; Nihil agis, nihil 
moliris, nihil cogitas, quod non ego non modo audiam, 
sed etiam videam planeque sentiam. 3^ • 


IV. Recognosce tandem mecum noctem illam su- 
periorem; iam intelleges multo me vigilare acrius ad 
salutem quam te ad perniciem rei publica&f Dico te 
priore n'octe . venisse inter falcarios — non agam ob- ^ 
scure — in M. Laecae domum ;^cDnvenisse eodem com- 5 
plurls eiusdem amentiae scelerisque socios. Num ne- 
gare audes? Quid tace§? Convincam, si negas; vi- 
deo enim esse hie in senatu quosdam qui tecum iina ^ 

§ 9. There are men in the senate who plot murder ! You 
assigned tasks, and got two men to promise my death. § 10, 
/ hafHed them. Depart with your followers. ■ / 

O di immortales! Ubinam gentium sumus? in 9^ 
qua urbe vivimus? quam rem publicam habemus? 
Hie, hie sunt in nostro numero, patres conscripti, in \'^ 
hoc orbis terrae sanctissimo gravissimoque cDiisiHd, 
qui de nostro omnium interitu, qui de huius urbis 
atque adeo de orbis terrarum exnio cogitent. Hos 15 
ego video consul et de re publica sententiam rogo, 
et, quos ferro trucidari oportebat, eos nondum vofb 
volnero. Fuisti igitur apud Laecam ilia nocte, Cati-/^ 
Iina; distribuisti partis Italiae; statuisti quo quemque 
proficisci placeret; delegisti quos Romae relinqueres, 20 
quos te^flr-^du ceres; discripsisti urbis partis ad in- 
cendia; confirmasti te ipsum iam esse exitiirum; 
dixisti pauluni tibi esse etiam nunc morae giiod ego%"^ 
viverem. Reperti sunt duo equites Romani qui te 
ista cura l iberaren t et sese ilia ipsa nocte paulo ante 25 
lucem me in meo lectulo interfecturos esse polli- 

Haec ego omnia, vixdum etiam coetu vestro di- 10 
misso, comperi; domum meam maioribus praesidiis 



munivl atque firmavi; exclusi eos quos tu ad me salu- 
tatum mane miseras, cum illi ipsi venissent quos ego 
iam multis ac summis viris ad me id temporis ven- 
turos esse praedpceram. 
5 /B. Hortatio. — V. Quae cum ita sint, Catilina, 
a," perge quo coepisti. Egredere aliquando ex urbe; 
patent portae; proficiscere. Nimium did te impera- 
tdrem tua ilia Manliana castra desiderant. Educ te- 
cum etiam omnTs tuos; si minus^ quam plurimos; ^^ 
V lo purga urbem. Magno me mety liberabis, dum modo > 
__inter me atque te murus intefrsit. Nobiscum versari 
iam diutius non potes; non feram, non patiar, non 

§ II. Gratitude is due to the gods for our escape. I pro- 
tected myself. § 12. But now you are attacking the state. 
I have not slain you, because I wish you to draw off all your 
vile company. 

II Magna dis immortalibus habenda est atque huic/o 

15 ipsi lovi Statori, antiquissimo custodi huius urbis, ^*' 
gratia, quod banc tam taetram, tam horribilem tam-^r 
que infestam rei publicae pestem^totiens iam effugi- 
mus. Non est saepius in uno hc^mine summa salus 
periclitanda rei publicae. 

20 Quam diia mihi consull designato, Catilina, iiisi-/4 
diatus es, non p(iblic5 me j5ra.esidio, sed piivata dui- 
gentia defend!. Cum proximis comitiis consularibus 
•^ me consulem in campo et competitores tuos interfi- 

cere voluistT, compress! conatus tuos nefarios ^m!co- ^* 

25 rum praesmio et cfepi!s, nullo tumult' publice con- 
citato; denique, quotienscumque me pet!st!, per me^xV 
tibi obstit!, quamquam videbam perniciem meam cum 
J magna calamitate re! publicae esse coniunctam. 


Nunc iam aperte rem publicam universam peLis; 12 
templa deorum immortalium, tecta urbis, vitam om- 
nium civium, Italiam denique totam ad exitium et 
vastitatem vocas. Qua re, quoniam id quod est pri- ^ 
mum, et quod huius imperi disciplinaeque maiorum 5 
proprium est, facere nondum audeo, faciam id quod >^ 
est acT severitatem lenius et ad communem salutem 
iitilius. Nam si te interfici iussero, residebit in re^ 
publica reliqua coniuratorum manus: sin tu, qiiod te 
iam dudum hortor, exieris, exhaurietur ex urlye tuo-\o 
rum comitum magna et perniciosa sentina rei pii- 

§ 13. The consul advises yon into exile. Here all hate 
you and know your base life. § 14. / say nothing of the death / 
of your wife, or of your financial ruin. 

Quid est, Catillna? Num dubitas id me imperaute 13^^ 
facere, quod iam tua sponte faciebas? Exire ex urbe 
iubet consul hostem. Interrogas me num in exsili- 15 
um? Non iubeo; sed, si me consulis, suadeo. y ^^ 

VI. Quid est enim, Catillna, quod te iam in hac 
urbe delectare possit? in qua nemo est extra istam 
coniurationem perditorum hominum qui te non me- 
tuat; nemo qui non oderit. Quae nota domesticae 20 
turpitudinis non inusta vitae tuae e^? Quod privata--^ 
rumrerum dedecus non haeret in fama? Quae libido 
ab oculis, quod facinus a manibus umquam tuis, quod 
flagitium a toto corpore afuit? Cui tu adulescentulo, 
quem corruptelarum inlecebris inretisses, non aut ad 25 
audaciam ferrum aut ad libidinem facem praetulisti?/© 

Quid vero? nuper cum morte superioris uxoris 14 
novis nuptiis domum vacuefecisses, nonne etiam alio 
incredibili scelere hoc scelus cumulasti? Quod ego/3 


l4 praetermitto et facile patior sileri, ne in hac civitate 
l^tanti facinoris immanitas aut exstitisse aut non vin- 

dicata esse videatur. Praetermitto ruinas fortiina- 

rum tuarum, cjuas omnls impendere tibi proximis Idi- 
5 bus senties. ATd^illa venio quae non ad privatam 

ignominiam vitiorum tuorum, non ad domesticam 
7.<%uam difficultatem ac turpitiidinem, sed ad summam 

rem publicam atque ad omnium nostrum vitam salu- 
>j> temque pertinent. 

§ 15. All know of your attempts at murder. How often 
have I barely escaped your dagger! § 16. IVho welcomed 
you as you came into the senate t 

15 /Potestne tibi haec lux, Catilina, aut huius caeli 
'spiritus esse iiicundus, cum scias esse horum neminem 

-^rqui nesciat te pridie Kalendas lanuarias Lepido et 
Tullo consulibus stetisse in comitio cum telo? ma- 
num consulum et principum cTvitatis interficiendorum 

15 causa paravisse? scelerl ac furori tuo non mentem 
aliquam aut timorem tuum, sed fortunam populi R6- 

30 nianl obstitisse? Ac iam ilia omitto — neque enim 
sunt aut obscura aut non multa commissa postea — 
quotiens tu me designatum, quotiens consulem inter- 

20 ficere c5natus es! Quot ego tuas petitiones, ita con- 
iectas ut vitari posse non viderentur, parva quadam 

35xleclinatione et, ut aiunt, corpore effugi? Nihil agis, 
nihil adsequeris, nihil moliris, neque tamen conari 

37 ac velle desistis. 

16 Quotiens tibi iam extorta est ista sica de mani- 
bus! Quotiens vero excidit casu aliquo et elapsa 

^c^est! Tamen ea carere diutius non potes quae qui- 
dem quibus abs te initiata sacrls ac devota sit nescio, 


if2X[uod earn necesse putas esse in consulis corpora de- 

VII. Nunc ver5 quae tua est ista vita? Sic enim 
iam tecum loquar, non ut odio permdtus esse videar, 
quo debeo, sed ut miser^ordia, quae til?! nulla debe- 5 
tur. Venisti paino ante in senatum. Quis te ex hac 
tanta frequentia, totque tuis amicis ac necessariis 
salutavit? Si hoc post hominum memoriam contigit 
nemini, vocis exspectas contumeliam, cum sis gravis- 
simo iudicio taciturnitatis oppressus? Qifid, quod ad- 10 
ventii tuo ista subsellia vacuefacta sunt, quod omnes 
consulares, qui tiW persaepe ad caedem constituti 
fuerunt, simul atque adsedisti, partem istam subsellio- 
rum nudam atque inanem reliquerunt, quo tandem J 
animo hoc tibi ferendum putas? ,.>^ 15 

§ 17. // my slaves or f cllozv- citizens hated me so much, 
I should run away. Your country dreads you. Won't you 
go? § 18. She declares that you instigate all crimes, and 
bids you depart. 

Servi mehercule mei si me isto pacto metuerent, 17 
ut te metuunt omnes cives tui, domum meam relin- 
quendam putarem; tu tibi urbem non arbitraris? Et, 
si me meis civibus iniiiria suspectum tam graviter 
atque offensum viderem, carere me aspectu civium 20 
quam infestis omnium oculis conspici mallem. Tu, 
cum conscientia scelerum tuorum agnoscas odium 
omnium iustum et iam diu tibi debitum, dubitas, quo- 
rum mentis sensusque volneras, eorum aspectum 
praesentiamque vitare? Si te parentes timerent at- 25 
que odissent tui neque eos ulla ratione placare posses, 
ut opinor, ab eorum oculis aliquo concederes. Nunc 
te patria, quae commiinis est parens omnium no- 


strum, odit ac metuit, et iani diu nihil te iudicat nisi 
de parricidio suo cogitare; huius tu neque auctori- 
tatem verebere, nee iQdieium sequere, nee vim perti- 

18 Quae teeum, Catilina, sic agit et quodam modo 
t acita loquitur: ' Nullum iam aliquot annis faeinus 
exstitit nisi per te, nullum flagitium sine te; tibi unrS^ 
multorum civium neces, tibi vexatid direptioque so- 
ciorum impunita fuit ac libera; tu non solum ad ne- 

lo glegendas leges et quaestiones, verum etiani ad ever- 
tendas perfringendasque valuisti. Superiora ilia, 
quamquam ferenda n5n fuerunt, tamen, ut potuT, 
tuli; nunc vero me totam esse in metu propter unum 
te, quicquid increpuerit, Catillnam timeri, nullum 

15 videri contra me consilium iniri posse quod a tuo 
scelere abhorreat, non est ferendum. Quam ob rem 
discede atque hunc miki timorem eripe: si est verus, 
ne opprimar; sin falsus, ut tandem aliquando timere 
desinam.' ^/ 

§ 19. You offered to go into custody, and, indeed, your 
desire should be granted! §20. You demand a vote of the 
senate. Do you need a spoken rebuke from the members f 

19 VIII. Haec si tecum, ita ut dixT, patria loquatur, 
nonne impetrare debeat, etiam sT vim adhibere non 
possit?' Quid, quod tu'te ipse in custodiam dedisti? 
quod vltandae suspTcionis causa ad M'. Lepidum te 
habitare velle dixistl? A quo non receptus etiam ad 

25 me venire ausus es, atque ut domi meae te adserva- 
rem rogasti. Cum a me quoque id responsum tulis- 
ses, me nullo modo posse isdem parietibus tuto esse 
tecum, qui magno in perlculo essem, quod isdem 
moenibus contineremur, ad Q. Metellum praetorem 


venisti. A quo repudiatus ad sodalem tuum, virum 
optimum, M. Metellum demigrasti; quern tu videlicet 
et ad custodiendum dlligentissimum et ad suspican- 
dum sagacissimum et ad vindicandum fortissimum 
fore putasti. Sed quam longe videtur a carcere atque 5 
a vinculis abesse debere, qui se ipse iam dignum cu- 
stodia iudicarit? 

Quae cum ita sint, Catilina, dubitas, si emori 20 
aequo animo non potes, abire in aliquas terras et vi- 
tam istam, multis suppliciis iustis debitisque ereptam, 10 
fugae solitudinique mandare? 

'Refer,' inquis, 'ad senatum; ' id enim postu- 
^-ias, et, SI hic ordo sibi placere decreverit te ire 
in exsilium, obtemperaturum te esse dicis. Non 
-'^ referam, id quod abhorret a meis moribus; et tamen 15 
faciam ut intellegas quid hi de te sentiant. Egredere 
ex urbe, Catilina;. libera rem publicam metu; in exsili- 
um, si banc vocem exspectas, proficiscere. Quid est, 
Catilina? ecquid attendis? ecquid animadvertis ho- 
rum silentium? Patiuntur, tacent. Quid exspectas 20 
auctoritatem loquentium, quorum voluntatem taci- 
torum perspicis? 

§ 21. Such words to a decent man would not have been 
p rmitted. The equites would gladly escort you to the gate. 
§ 22. // you should go into exile, unpopularity would threaten 
me. § 22f. If you wish this, go into exile; otherwise go to i v 

Manlius. x ,-. ^/Ji/ 

At SI hoc idem huic adulescenti optimo, P. Sestio,^2l 
si fortissimo viro, M. Marcelld, dixissem, iam^ihi* ^ j^^j!^^ 
consul! hoc ipso in templo iure optimo senatuB vim ^5 
et manijs intulisset. De te autem, Catilina, cum qui- 
escunt, probant; cum patiuntur, decernunt; cum ta- 


cent, clamant; neque hi solum, quorum tibi auctori- 
tas est videlicet cara, vita vilissima, sed etiam illi equi- 
tes Roman!, honestissimi atque optimi viri, ceterique 
fortissimi elves, qui circumstant senatum, quorum tu 
5 et frequentiam videre et studia perspicere et voces 
paulo ante exaudire potuisti. Quorum ego vix abs 
te iam diii manus ac tela contineo, eosdem facile ad- 
ducam ut te haec, quae vastare iam pridem studes, 
relinquentem us^ie ad portas prosequantur. \^ x>^V^ 

22 IX. Quamquam quid loquor? Te ut Cilia r?s f raft- 
gat? Tu ut umquam te corrigas? Tu ut iillam fugam 
meditere? Tij ut tillum exsilium cogites? Utinam tibi 
istam mentem di immortales cmiiit! Tametsi video, 
si mea voce perterritus ire in exsilium animum in- 

15 diixeris, quanta tempestas invidiae nobis, si minus in 
praesens tempus, recenft memoria scelerum tuorum, 
at in posteritatem impendeat. Sed est tanti, dum 
modo ista sit privata calamitas et a rei publicae 
periculis seiungatur. Sed tii ut vitiis tuis commo- 

20 veare, ut legum poenas pertimescas, ut temporibus 
rei publicae cedas, non est postulandum. Neque 
enim is es, Catilina, ut te aut pudor umquam a tur- 
pitudine aut metus a periculo aut ratio a furore 

23 Quam ob rem, ut saepe iam dixi, proficiscere, ac, 
si mihi inirqico, ut praedicas, tuo conflare vis invidi- 
am, recta perge in exsilium. Vix feram sermones 
hominum, si id feceris; vix molem istius invidiae, si 
in exsilium iussu consulis ieris, sustinebd. Sin autem 

30 servire meae laudi et g*loriae mavis; egredere cum 
importuna sceleratorum manu, confer te ad Manlium, 
concita perditos civis, secerne te a bonis, infer pa- 



triae bellum, exsulta impio latrocinio, ut a me non 
eiectus ad alienos, sed invitatus ad tuos isse videaris. 

§ 24. You have sent to Manlius the eagle which you wor- 
shiped. § 25. You will enter upon the vicious work for 
which you were made. § 26. Your boasted training for had 
ends will he tested. 

Quamquam quid ego te invitem, a quo iam sciam 21^ A^ 
esse praemissos qui tibi ad Forum Aurelium prae- ^^ 
stolarentur armati? cui iam sciam pactam et consti- 5 
tutam cum Manlio diem? a quo etiam aquilam illam 
argenteam, quam tibi ac tuis ojmnibus confido perni- 
ciosam ac funestam futuram, cui domi tuae sacrarium 
s'celerum tuorum constitutum fuit, sciam esse prae- 
missain? Tu ut Ilia cafere diutius possis, quam vene- 10 
rari ad caedem proficiscens solebas, a cuius altaribus 
saepe istam impiam dexteram ad necem civium tran- 

X. Ibis tandem aliquando quo te iam pridem ista 25 
tua cupiditas* efttenata ac furiosa rapiebat; neque 15 
enim tibi haecAre^adfert dolorem, sed quandam incre- 
dibilem voluptatem. Ad banc te amentiam natiira 
peperit, voluntas exercuit, fortiina servavit. Num- 
quam tu non modo otium, sed ne bellum quidem nisi 
nefarium concupistT. Nactus es ex perditis atque ab 20 
omni non modo fortuna, verum etiam spe derelictis 
conflatam improborum manum. 

Hic tu qua laetitia perfruere! quibus gaudiis exsul- 26 
tabis! quanta in voluptate bacchabere, cum in tanto 
numero tuorum neque audies virum bonum quem- 25 
quam neque videbis! Ad huius vitae studium medi- 
tati illi sunt qui feruntur labores tui, iacere humi non 
solum ad obsidendum stuprum, verum etiam ad faci- 


nus obeundum; vigilare non solum insidiantem somnd 
maritorum, verum etiam bonis otiosorum. Habes ubi 
ostentes tuam illam praeclaram patientiam famis, fri- 
goris, inopiae rerum omnium, quibus te brevi tempore 
5 confectum esse senties. 

^2y. Attend to my excuses. My country says to me: 
" Will you suffer a traitor to go forth unharmed f § 28. 
There are precedents for slaying. Do yon fear unpopularity f ■ \ 
§ 29. When Italy is distressed, do you expect to he popular? V _>* 
Had I deemed it wise, I should have slain Catiline. ^ 

27 C. Peroratio. — Tantum profeci tum, cum te a 
consulatu reppull, ut exsul potius temptare quam con- 
sul vexare rem publicam posses, atque ut id, quod esset 
a te scelerate susceptum, latrocinium potius quam bel- 

10 lum nominaretur. 

XL Nunc, ut a me, patres conscript!, quandam 
prope iustam patriae querimoniam detester ac depre- 
cer, percipite, quaeso, diligenter quae dicam, et ea 
penitus animis vestris mentibusque mandate. Etenim 

15 si mecum patria, quae mihi vita mea multo est carior, 
si ciincta Italia, si omnis res publica loquatur: ' M. 
Tulli, quid agis? TCme eum quem esse hostem com- 
peristi, quem ducem belli futurum vides, quem ex- 
spectari imperatorem in castris hostium sentis, auc- 

20 torem sceleris, principem coniurationis, evocatorem 
servorum et civium perditorum, exire p atiere , ut abs 
te non emissus ex urbe, sed immissus in urbem esse 
videatur? Nonne hunc in vincla diici, non ad mor- 
tem rapi, non summ5 supplicio mactari imperabis? 

28 Quid tandem te impedit? Mosne maiorum? At 
persaepe etiam privati in hac re piiblica perniciosos 
civis morte multarunt. An leges quae de civium R6- 


manorum supplicio ipgatae sunt? At numquam in 
hac urbe qui a re publica defecerunt civium iura te- 
nuerunt. An invidiam posteritatis times? Praecla- 
ram vero populo Romano refers gratiam, qui te homi- 
nem per te cognitum, nulla commendatione maiorum, 5 
tam mature ad summum imperium per omnis hono- 
rum gradus extulit, si propter invidiam aut alicuius 
periculi metum salutem civium tuorum neglegis. 

Sed SI quis est invidiae metus, non est vehemen- 29 
tins severitatis ac fortitudinis invidia quam inertiae 10 
ac nequitiae pertimescenda. An cum bello vastabitur 
Italia, vexabuntur urbes, tecta ardebunt, turn te non 
existimas invidiae incendio conflagraturum? ' 

XII. His ego sanctissimis rei publicae vocibus, et 
eorum hominum qui hoc idem sentiunt mentibus, 15 
pauca respondebo. Ego, si hoc optimum factu itidi- 
carem, patres conscript!, Catillnam morte multari, 
unius usuram horae gladiator! ist! ad vivendum non 
dedissem. Etenim si summ! vir! et clarissim! cives 
Saturnini et Gracchorum et Flacc! et superiorum 20 
complurium sanguine non modo se non contamina- 
runt, sed etiam honestarunt, certe verendum mihi non 
erat ne quid hoc parric!da civium interfecto invidiae 
mihi in posteritatem redundaret. Quod s! ea mihi 
maxime impenderet, tamen hoc animo fu! semper, ut 25 
invidiam virtiite partam gloriam, non invidiam pu- 
tarem. . 

§ 30. Some senators are not convinced of the plot. If 
Catiline goes forth, evil will he rooted out of the state. § 31. 
// he alone is removed, the evil will he checked hut not cured. 

Quamquam non niill! sunt in hoc ordine, qui aut 30 
ea quae imminent non videant aut ea quae vident 


dissimulent ; qui spem Catilinae mollibus sententiis 
aluerunt coniurationemque nascentem non credendo 
corroboraverunt ; quorum auctoritate multi n5n so- 
lum improbi, verum etiam imperiti, si in hunc animad- 
5 vertissem, crudeliter et regie factum esse dicerent. 
Nunc intellego, si iste, quo intendit, in Manliana ca- 
stra pervenerit, neminem tam stultum fore qui non 
videat coniurationem esse factam, neminem tam im- 
probum qui non fateatur. 

lo Hoc autem iino interfecto intellego banc rei pu- 
blicae pestem paulisper reprimi, non in perpetuum 
comprimi posse. Quod si se eiecerit secumque suos 
eduxerit et eodem ceteros undique conlectos naufra- 
gos adgregarit, exstinguetur atque delebitur non 

15 modo haec tam adulta rei publicae pestis, verum 
etiam stirps ac semen malorum omnium. 

31 XIII. Etenim iam diu, patres conscript!, in his 
periculis coniurationis insidiisque versamur, sed ne- 
scio quo pacto omnium scelerum ac veteris furoris et 

20 audaciae matiiritas in nostri consulatiis tempus erii- 
pit. Quod SI ex tanto latrocinio iste unus tolletur, 
videbimur fortasse ad breve quoddam tempus cura 
et metu esse relevati; periculum autem residebit et 
erit inclusum penitus in venTs atque in visceribus rei 

25 piiblicae. Ut saepe homines aegri morbo gravi, cum 
aestu febrique iactantur, si aquam gelidam biberunt, 
primo relevari videntur, deinde multo gravius vehe- 
mentiusque adflictantur. Sic hic morbus qui est in 
re publica, relevatus istlus poena, vehementius reli- 

30 quis vivis ingravescet. 

Jupiter (Zeus). 
From a renowned bust in the Vatican. 


§ 32. Let the wicked withdraw, and every man take his 
stand openly. The consuls will do their duty. § 33. With 
such prospects, Catiline, depart. O Jupiter, thou wilt protect 
the city, and punish evil-doers! 

Qua re sg^cedant improbi, secernant se a bonis, 32 
unum in locum congregentur, muro d^nique, [id] 
quod saepe iam dixl, secernantur a nobis; desinant 
insidiari domi suae cmisulT, circumstare tribunal prae- 
taris urban!, obst3rere cum gladiis curiam, malleolos 5 
et ?aces ad inflammandam urbem comparare; sit de- 
nique inscrlptum in fronte unius cuiusque quid de re 
publica sentiat. Polliceor hoc vobis, patres conserip- 
tl, tantam in nobis consulibus fore diligentiam, tan- 
tarn in vobIs auctoritatem, tantam in equitibus Ro- 10 
manis virtutem, tantam in i omnibus bonis consen- 
sionem, ut Catilinae profectione omnia patefacta, • 
inlustrata, oppressa, virmicata esse videatis. 

Hisce ominibus, CatilTna, cum summa rei publicae 33 
_ _ . ._ -^ _ 

salute^ cum tua peste ac permcie, cumque eorum exi- 15 

tio qui se tecum omni scelere parricldioque ivr\xe- 

runt, proficiscere ad impium bellum ac nefarium. Tu, 

luppiter, qui isdem quibus haec urbs auspiciis a Ro- 

mulo es constitutus, quem Statorem huius urbis at- 

que imperi vere nominamus, hunc et huius socios a 20 

tuis [aris] ceterisque templTs, a tectis urbis ac mpeni- "^ 

bus, a vita fortunisque cTvium omnium arcebis, et 

homines bonorum imthTcos, hostis patriae, latrones 

Italiae, scelerum foedere inter se ac nefaria societate 

coniunctos, aeternis suppliciis vivos mortuosque mac- 425 




§ I. We have got rid of Catiline, and have won the first 
move. §2. How he must grieve over his failure! 

1 A. Exordium. — Tandem aliquando, Quirites, L. 
Catilinam, furentem audacia, scelus anhelantem, pe- 
stem patriae nefarie mdlientem, votis atque huic urbi 
ferro flammaque minitantem ex urbe vel eiecimus vel 

5 emisimus vel ipsum egredientem verbis prosecuti su- 
mus. Abiit, excessit, evasit, eriipit. Nulla iam per- 
nicies a monstro illo atque prodigio moenibus ipsis 
intra moenia comparabitur. Atque hunc quidem 
unum hiiius belli domestic! ducem sine controversia 

lo vicimus. Non enim iam inter latera nostra sica ilia 
versabitur; non in campo, non in foro, non in curia, 
non denique intra domesticos parietes pertimescemus. 
Loco ille motus est, cum est ex urbfe depulsus. Pa- 
lam iam cum hoste niillo impediente bellum iustum 

15 geremus. Sine dubio perdidimus hominem magnifi- 
ceque vicimus, cum ilium ex occultis insidiis in aper- 
tum latrocinium coniecimus. 

2 Quod vero non cruentum mucronem, ut voluit, 
extulit, quod vivls nobis egressus est, quod el ferrum 

20 e manibus extorsimus, quod incolumis civis, quod 
18 J^'^' ' 


stantem urbem rellquit, qiianto tandem ilium maerore 
esse adflictum et profligatum putatis? lacet ille nunc 
prostratus, Quirltes, et se perculsum atque abiectum 
esse sentit et retorquet oculos profecto saepe ad banc 
urbem, quam e suis faucibus ereptam esse luget ; quae 5 
quidem mihi laetari videtur, quod tantam pestem 
evonouerit foja^jqjUe proiecerit. 1 

§3. It is not my fault that he lives, for many did not 
believe him guilty. § 4. / brought you to see him as a foe. 
He is not to be feared now. I zvish his fellows were with him. 

B. ConfTrmatio. — II. Ac si quis est talis quails 3 
esse omnTs oportebat, qui in hoc ipso, in quo exsultat 
et triumphat oratio mea, me vehementer accuset,quod 10 
tam capitalem hostem non comprehenderim potius 
quam emiserim, non est ista mea culpa, sed tempo- 
rum. Interfectum esse L. CatilTnam et gravissimo 
supplicid adfectum iam pridem oportebat, idque a me 
et mos maiorum et huius imperi severitas et res pu- 15 
blica postulabat. Sed quam multos fuisse putatis qui 
quae ego deferrem non crederent? [quam multos qui 
propter stultitiam non putarent?] quam multos qui 
etiam defenderent? [quam multos qui propter impro- 
bitatem faverent?] Ac si illo sublat5 depelli a vobis 20 
omne perlculum iudicarem, iam pridem ego L. Cati- 
llnam non modo invidiae meae, verum etiam vltae 
perlculo sustulissem. 

Sed cum viderem. ne vobIs quidem omnibus re 4 
etiam tum probata, si ilium, ut erat meritus, morte 25 
multassem, fore ut eius socios invidia oppressus perse- 
qui non possem, rem hue deduxl ut tum palam pu- 
gnare possetis, cum hostem aperte videretis. Ouem 
quidem ego hostem, Quirltes, quam vehementer forls 


esse timendum putem, licet hinc intellegatis, quod 
etiam illud moleste fero, quod ex urbe parum comi- 
tatus exierit. Utinam ille omnis secum suas copias 
eduxisset! Tongilium mihi eduxit, quern amare in 
5 praetexta coeperat, Publicium et Minucium, quorum 
aes alienum contractum in popina nullum rei publicae 
niotum adferre poterat. Rellquit quos viros! quanto 
aere alieno! quam valentis! quam nobilis! 


§ 5. / despise his army of disreputable men. It is those 
who remain that we must fear. § 6. All their plans are 
knozvn. There is no room for leniency. Let them go to him. 

5 in. Itaque ego ilium exercitum prae Gallicanis 
10 legionibus, et hoc dilectu quem in agro Piceno et 

Gallico Q. Metellus habuit, et his copiis quae a nobis 
cottidie comparantur, magno opere contemno, con- 
lectum ex senibus desperatis, ex agresti luxuria, ex 
rusticis decoctoribus, ex eis qui vadimonia deserere 

15 quam ilium exercitum ] maluerunt; quibus ego'non 
modo si aciem exercitiis nostrl, verum etiam si edic- 
tum praetoris ostendero, concident. Hos, quos vide5 
volitare in foro, quos stare ad curiam, quos etiam in 
senatum venire, qui nitent unguentTs, qui fulgent pur- 

20 pura, mallem secum suos milites eduxisset; qui si hic 
permanent, mementote non tam exercitum ilium esse 
nobis quam hos qui exercitum deseruerunt pertime- 
scendos. Atque hoc etiam sunt timendi magis, quod, 
quid cogitent, me scire sentiunt, neque tamen permo- 

25 ventur. 

6 Video cui sit Apulia attributa, quis habeat Etru- 
riam, quis agrum Picenum, quis Gallicum, quis sibi 
has urbanas insidias caedis atque incendiorum depo- 


poscerit. Omnia superioris noctis consilia ad me per- 
lata esse sentiunt; patefeci in senatu hesterno die; 
Catilina ipse pertimuit, profugit: hi quid exspectant? 
Ne illl vehementer errant, si illam meam pristinam 
lenitatem perpetuam sperant futuram. 5 

u IV. Quod exspectavi, iam sum adsecutus; ut vos 
omnes factam esse aperte coniurationem contra rem 
publicam videretis. Nisi vero si quis est, qui Cati- A 
linae similTs cum Catilina sentlre'non putet. Non est 
iam lenitati locus; severitatem res ipsa flagitat. lo 
Unum etiam nunc concedam: exeant, proficiscantur 
ne patiantur deslderio sui Catilinam miserum tabe- 
scere. Demonstrabo iter, Aurelia via profectus est; 
si accelerare volent, ad vesperam consequentur. 

§ 7. What disreputable fellozv does not confess intimacy 
with Catiline f §8. He had power to lead men to perdition. 
The most reckless were his associates. § 9. They made a 
hero of him. 

O fortunatam rem piiblicam, si quidem banc sen- 7 
tinam urbis eiecerit! Uno mehercule Catilina ex- 
hausto, levata mihi et recreata res publica videtur. 
Quid enim mall aut sceleris fingi aut cogitarl potest 
quod non ille ^uis f^i^^Lalia veneficus, 
quis gladiator, quis latro, quis sicarius, quis parricida, 20 
quis testamentorum subiector, quis circumscrlptor, 
quis ganeo, quis nepos, quis adulter, quae mulier In- 
famis, quis corruptor iuventutis, quis corruptus, quis 
perditus invenlrl potest, qui se cum Catilina non fa- 
miliarissime vixisse fateatur? Quae caedes per hosce 25 
annos sine illo facta est? quod nefarium stuprum non 
per ilium? 


8 lam vero quae tanta umquam in i\\\o homine 

iuventutis inlecebra fuit quanta in illo? Qui alios 
ipse amabat turpissime, aliorum amori flagitiosissime 
serviebat; aliis fructum libidinum, aliis mortem pa- 
5 rentum non modo impellendo, verum etiam adiu- 
vando pollicebatur. Nunc vero quam subito non so- 
lum ex urbe, verum etiam ex agris ingentem nume- 
rum perditorum hominum conlegerat! Nemo non 
modo Romae, sed [ne] ullo in angulo totius Italiae 

lo oppressus aere alieno fuit, quem non ad hoc incredi- 
bile sceleris foedus asciverit. 

9 ^V. Atque ut eius diversa studia in dissimili ra- 
tione perspicere possitis, nemo est in ludo gladiatorio 
paulo ad facinus audacior, qui se non intimum Cati- 

15 linae esse fateatur; nemo in scaena levior et nequior, 
qui se non eiusdem prope sodalem fuisse commemo- 
ret. Atque Idem tamen, stuprorum et scelerum exer- 
citatione adsuefactus fiigore et fame et siti et vigiliis 
perferundis, fortis ab istis praedicabatur, cum indu- 

20 striae subsidia atque Tnstrumenta virtutis in libidine 
audaciaque consiimeret. 

§ 10. His fellows have lost property and credit. Who 
can endure the threats of profligates f § 11. The life of the 
state will be lengthened by their removal, I shall deal with 
this internal trouble. ""^ 

10 Hunc vero si secuti erunt sui comites, sT ex urbe 
exierint desperatorum hominum flagitiosi greges, O 
nos beatos! O rem publicam fortunatam! O prae- 

25 claram laudem consulatus mei! Non enim iam sunt 
mediocres hominum libidines, non humanae ac tole- 
randae audaciae; nihil cogitant nisi caedem, nisi in- 
cendia, nisi raplnas. Patrimonia sua profiiderunt, 



^tMKt>^»lilHi»«»»<»»IIM ».*»»*^i 

Gladiators and Trainer. 
Baumeister : From a mosaic pavement in Trier. 


fortunas suas obligaverunt; res eos iam prldem dese- 
ruit, fides niiper deficere coepit; eadem tamen ilia, 
quae erat in abundantia, libido permanet. Quod si 
in vino et alea comissationes solum et scorta quae- 
rerent, essent illi quidem desperandi, sed tamen essent 5 
ferendi; hoc vero quis ferre possit, inertis homines 
fortissimis viris insidiari, stultissimos prudentissimis, 
ebriosos sobriis, dormientis vigilantibus? Qui mihi 
accubantes in conviviis, complexi mulieres impudicas, 
vind languid!, conferti cibo, sertis redimiti, unguentis 10 
i-^^bliti, debilitati stupris, eructant sermonibus suis 
caedem bonorum atque urbis incendia. 
T» Quibus ego confido impendere fatum aliquod et n 
poenam iam did improbitati, nequitiae, sceleri, libidini 
debitam aut instare iam plane aut certe adpropin- 15 
quare. Quos si mens consulatus, quoniam sanare non 
potest, sustulerit, non breve nescto qliod tempus, sed • 
multa saecula propagarit rei publicae. IsTulla est 
enim natid quam pertimescamus, nullus rex qui hel- 
ium populo Romano facere possit. Omnia sunt ex- 20 
tenia unius virtiite terra marique pacata. Domesti- 
cum helium manet, intus insidiae sunt, intus inclusum 
periculum est, intus est hostis. Cum luxuria nobis, 
cum amentia, cum scelere certandum est. '^Huic ego 
me hello ducem profiteor, Quirites; suscipio inimi- 25 
citias hominum perditorum. Quae sanari poterunt, 
quacumque ratione sanabo; quae resecanda erunt, 
non patiar ad perniciem civitatis manere. Proinde 
aut exeant aut quiescant aut, si et in urbe et in eadem 
mente permanent, ea, quae merentur, exspectent. 30 


§ 12. Of course the timid felloiv went into exile because 
he couldn't endure my words! What senator greeted him 
yesterday? § 13. / asked him questions showing my knowl- 
edge of his secrets. 

12 VI. At etiam sunt qui dicant, Quirites, a me eiec- 
tum in exsilium esse Catilinam. Quod ego si verbo 
adsequi possem, istos ipsos eicerem qui haec loquun- 
tur. Homo enim videlicet timidus aut etiam permo- 

5 destus vocem consulis ferre non potuit; simul atque 
ire in exsilium iussus est, paruit, ivit. Hesterno die, 
Quirites, cum domi meae paene interfectus essem, 
senatum in aedem lovis Statoris convocavi, rem om- 
nem ad patres conscriptds detull. Quo cum Catilina 
10 venisset, quis eum senator adpellavit? Quis salutavit? 
Quis denique ita aspexit ut perditum civem ac non 
potius ut importunissimum hostem? Quin etiam 
principes eius ordinis -partem illam subselliorum ad 
quam ille accesserat nudam atque inanem reliquerunt. 

13 ^ Hie ego vehemens ille consul, qui verbo civis in 
exsilium eicio, quaesivi a Catilina in nocturnd con- 
ventia ad M. Laecam fuisset necne. Cum ille, homo 
audacissimus, conscientia convictus, primo reticuisset, 
patefeci cetera: quid ea nocte egisset, ubi fuisset, 

20 quid in proximam constituisset, quem ad modum es- 
set ei ratio totius belli descripta, edocui. Cum haesi- 
taret, cum teneretur, quaesivi quid dubitaret profi- 
cisci eo, quo iam pridem pararet, cum arma, cum se- 
curis, cum fascis, cum tubas, cum signa militaria, cum 

25 aquilam illam argenteam, cui ille etiam sacrarium 
[scelerum] domi suae fecerat, scirem esse praemis- 


§ 14. To be sure, he will go to Massilia! If he should 
give up his plans, men would call me a tyrant. § 15. Well, 
let them; provided he goes into exile, hut he will rather soon 
he in arms. ^ 

In exsilium eiciebam quern iam ingressum esse in 14 
bellum videbam? Etenim, credo, Manlius iste cen- 
turio, qui in agro Faesulano castra posuit, bellum 
populo Romano suo nomine indixit, et ilia castra 
nunc non Catilinam ducem exspectant et ille eiectus 5 
in exsilium se Massiliam, ut aiunt, non in haec castra 

VII. O condicionem miseram non modo admi- 
nistrandae, verum etiam conservandae rei publicae! 
Nunc si L. Catilina consiliis, laboribus, periculis meis 10 
circumclusus ac debilitatus subito pertimuerit, senten- 
tiam mutaverit, deseruerit suos, consilium belli facien- 
di abiecerit, et ex hoc cursu sceleris ac belli iter ad 
fugam atque in exsilium converterit, non ille a me 
spoliatus armis audaciae, non obstupefactus ac per- 15 
territus mea diligentia, non de spe conatuque depul- 
sus, sed indemnatus, innocens, in exsilium eiectus a 
consule vi et minis esse dicetur; et erunt qui ilium, 
si hoc fecerit, non improbum, sed miserum, me non 
diligentissimum consulem, sed criidelissimum tyran- 20 
num existimari velint! 

Est mihi tanti, Quirites, hiiius invidiae falsae at- 15 
que iniquae tempestatem subire, dum modo a vobis 
huius horribilis belli ac nefarii periculum depellatur. 
Dicatur sane eiectus esse a me, dum modo eat in ex- 25 
silium. Sed, mihi credite, non est ittirus. Numquam 
ego ab dis immortalibus optabo, Quirites, invidiae 
meae levandae causa, ut L. Catilinam diicere exer- 



citum hostium atque in armis volitare audiatis, sed 
triduo tamen audietis; multoque magis illud timeo, 
ne mihi sit invidiosum aliquando, quod ilium emiserim 
potius quam quod eiecerim. Sed cum sint homines 
qui ilium, cum profectus sit, eiectum esse dicatit, 
eidem, si interfectus esset, quid dicerent? 

§ 1 6. The croakers are afraid that he may leave them in 
the lurch; hut he is not a coivard. § 17. What of the foes at 
home? I hope to cure them. 

16 Quamquam isti, qui Catilinam Massiliam ire dicti- 
tant, non tam hoc queruntur quam verentur. Nemo 
est istorum tam misericors, qui ilium non ad Manlium 

10 quam ad Massiliensis ire malit. Ille autem, si meher- 
cule hoc quod agit numquam antea cogitasset, tamen 
latrocinantem se interfici mallet quam exsulem vi- 
vere. Nunc vero, cum ei nihil adhuc praeter ipsius 
voluntatem cogitationemque accident, nisi quod vi- 

15 vis nobis Roma profectus est, optemus potius ut eat 
in exsilium quam queramur. 

17 VIII. Sed cur tam diu de uno hoste loquimur, et 
de eo hoste qui iam fatetur se esse hostem, et quern, 
quia, quod semper volui, murus interest, non timeo; 

20 de his qui dissimulant, qui Romae remanent, qui no- 
biscum sunt, nihil dicimus? Quos quidem ego, si ullo 
modo fieri possit, non tam ulciscj studeo quam sa- 
nare sibi ipsos, placare rei publicae, neque id qua re 
fieri non possit, si me audire volent, intellego.C Ex- 

25 ponam enim vobis, Quirites, ex quibus generibus 
hominum istae copiae comparentur; deinde singulis 
medicinam consili atque orationis meae, si quam po- 
tero, adferam.) 


§ 1 8. The first class is composed of property-holders who 
hope for a repudiation of debts, which they can settle if they 

Unum genus est eorum, qui magno in aere alieno l8 
maiores etiam possessiones habent, quarum amore 
adducti dissolvi nullo modo possunt. Horum homi- 
num species est honestissima, sunt enim locupletes; 
voluntas vero et causa impudentissima. Tu agris, 5 
tu aedificiis, tu argento, tu familia, tu rebus omnibus 
ornatus et copiosus sis, et dubites de possessione de- 
trahere, adquirere ad fidem? Quid enim exspectas? 
Bellum? Quid ergo? in vastatione omnium tuas pos- 
sessiones sacrosanctas futuras putas? An tabulas lo 
novas? Errant qui istas a Catilina exspectant; meo 
beneficio tabulae novae proferentur, verum auctiona- 
riae; neque enim isti, qui possessiones habent, alia 
ratione filla salvl esse possunt. Quod si maturius 
facere voluissent, neque, id quod stultissimum est, 15 
certare cum usurTs fructibus praediorum, et locuple- 
tioribus his et melioribus civibus uteremur. Sed 
hosce homines minime puto pertimescendos, quod aut 
deduci de sententia possunt, aut, si permanebunt, 
magis mihi videntur vota facturi contra rem publicam 20 
quam arma laturi. 

§ 19. The second class consists of debtors who look for 
the spoils of oMce. The odds against them are too strong. 

IX. Alterum genus est eorum, qui, quamquam 19 
premuntur aere alieno, dominationem tamen exspec- 
tant, rerum potlri volunt, honores, quos quieta re pu- 
blica desperant, perturbata se consequi posse arbi- 25 
trantur. Quibus hoc praecipiendum videtur, unum 
scilicet et idem quod reliquis omnibus, ut desperent 



se id, quod conantur, consequi posse: prlmum om- 
nium me ipsum vigilare, adesse, providere rei publi- 
cae; deinde magnos animos esse in bonis viris, ma- 
gnam concordiam, [maximam multitudinem] magnas 
5 praeterea militum copias; deos denique immortalis 
huic invicto populo, clarissimo imperio, pulcherrimae 
urbi contra tantam vim sceleris praesentis auxilium 
esse laturos. Quod si iam sint id quod summ5 furore 
cupiunt adepti, num illi in cinere urbis et in sanguine 
lo civium, quae mente conscelerata ac nefaria concupive- 
runt, consules se aut dictatores aut etiam reges sperant 
futiiros?\^Non vident id se cupere, quod si adepti sint, 
fugitivo alicui aut gladiator! concedi sit necesse? . 

§ 20. The third class consists of Sulla's veterans who long 
for more confiscations. But the country has had enough of 
the reign of terror. 

20 Tertium genus est aetate iam adfectum, sed ta- 

15 men exercitatione robustum; quo ex genere iste est 
Manlius, cui nunc Catilina succedit. Hi sunt homi- 
nes ex eis coloniis quas Sulla constituit; quas ego 
universas civium esse optimorum et fortissimorum 
virorum sentio; sed tamen ei sunt col5ni, qui se in 

2o insperatis ac repentinis pecimiis sumptuosius inso- 
lentiusque iactarunt. Hi dum aedificant tamquam 
beati, dum praediis lectis, familiis magnis, conviviis 
adparatis delectantur, in tantum aes alienum incide- 
runt ut, si salvi esse velint, Sulla sit eis ab inferis exci- 

25 tandus; qui etiam non niallos agrestis, homines te- 
nuis atque egentis, in eandem illam spem rapinarum 
veterum impulerunt. Quos ego utrosque in eodem 
genere praedatorum direptorumque pono. Sed eos 
h5c moneo: desinant furere ac proscriptiones et die- 


taturas cogitare. Tantus enim illorum temporum do- 
lor inustus est civitati ut iam ista non modo homines, 
sed ne pecudes quidem mihi passurae esse videantur. 

§ 21. The fourth class is a motley lot of bankrupt good- 

^ X. Quartum genus est sane varium et mixtum 21 
et turbulentum, qui iam pridem premuntur, qui num- 5 
quam emergunt, qui partim inertia, partim male ge- 
rendo negotio, partim etiam siimptibus, in vetere aere 
alieno vacillant; qui vadimoniis, iudiciis, proscriptione 
bonorum defatigati, permulti et ex urbe et ex agris 
se in ilia castra conferre dicuntur. Hosce ego non 10 
tam milites acris quam infitiatores lentos esse arbi- 
tror. Qui homines quam primum, si stare non pos- 
sunt,^cprruant, sed ita ut non modo civitas, sed ne 
vicini quidem proximi sentiant. Nam illud non in- 
tellego, quam ob rem, si vivere honeste non possunt, 15 
perire turpiter velint, aut cur minore dolore peritu- 
ros se cum multis, quam si soli pereant, arbitrentur. 

§ 22. The fifth class is composed of murderous despera- 
does; and the last class of debauched dandies. § 23. These 
are adepts at crime as well as at debauchery and must be dis- 
posed of. 

Quintum genus est parricidarum, sicariorum, de- 22 
nique omnium facinorosorum. Quos ego a Catilina 
non revoco; nam neque ab eo divelli possunt, et per- 20 
eant sane in latrocinio, quoniam sunt ita multi ut 
eos career capere non possit. 

Postremum autem genus est non solum numero, 
verum etiam genere ipso atque vita, quod proprium 
Catilinae est, de eius dilectu, immo vero de complexii 25 


eius ac sinu; quos pexo capillo, nitidos, aut imberbis 
aut bene barbatos videtis, manicatis et talaribus tuni- 
cis, velTs amictos non togis, quorum omnis industria 
vitae et vigilandi labor in antelucanis cenls expro- 
5 mitur. 

23 In his gregibus omnes aleatores, omnes adulter!, 
omnes impuri impudlcique versantur. Hi pueri tam 
lepidi ac delicati non solum amare et amarl, neque 
saltare et cantare, sed etiam sicas vibrare et spargere 

10 venena didicerunt. Qui nisi exeunt, nisi pereunt, 
etiam si Catilina perierit, scitote hoc in re publica 
seminarium Catilinarum futurum. Verum tamen 
quid sibi isti miseri volunt? Num suas secum mulier- 
culas sunt in castra ducturi? Quem ad modum autem 

15 illis carere poterunt, his praesertim iam noctibus? 
Quo autem pacto illi Apenninum atque illas pruinas 
ac nivis perferent? nisi idcirco se facilius hiemem to- 
leraturos putant, quod niidi in conviviis saltare didi- 

§ 24. Contrast his motley forces with our army. § 25. 
We have resources; he nothing at all. Moral forces are at 
work for us. 

24 XI. O bellum magno opere pertimescendum, cum 
hanc(sit habiturus Catilina scortorum cohortem prae- 
toriam! Instruite nunc, Quirites, contra has tam 
praeclaras Catilinae copias vestra praesidia vestros- 
que exercitus. Et primum gladiatori illi confecto et 

25 saucio consules imperatoresque vestros opponite; 
deinde contra illam naufragorum eiectam ac debili- 
tatam manum florem totius Italiae ac robur educite. 
Iam vero urbes coloniarum ac municipiorum respon-^ 
debunt Catilinae tumulis silvestribus. Neque ego 


ceteras copias, ornamenta, praesidia vestra cum illius 
latronis inopia atque egestate conferre debeo. 

Sed SI, omissis his rebus, quibus nos suppeditamur, 25 
eget ille: senatu, equitibus Romanis, urbe, aerario, 
vectigalibus, cuncta Italia, provinciis omnibus, ex- 5 
tens natidnibus; si his rebus omissis causas ipsas, 
quae inter se confligunt, contendere velimus, ex eo 
ipso quam valde illi iaceant intellegere possumus. 
Ex hac enim parte pudor pugnat, ilHnc petulantia; 
hinc pudicitia, illinc stuprum; hinc fides, illinc frauda- 10 
tio; hinc pietas, illinc scelus; hinc constantia, illinc 
furor; hinc honestas, illinc turpitudo; hinc continentia, 
illinc libido: denique aequitas, temperantia, fortitiido, 
prijdentia, virtutes omnes certant cum iniquitate, 
luxuria, ignavia, temeritate, cum vitiis omnibus; po- 15 
stremo copia cum egestate, bona ratio cum perdita, 
mens sana cum amentia, bona denique spes cum om- 
nium rerum desperatione confligit. In eius modi cer- 
tamine ac proelio nonne, si hominum studia deficiant, 
di ipsi immortales cogant ab his praeclarissimis vir- 20 
tutibus tot et tanta vitia superari? 

§ 26. / zvill guard the city, and Metellus will check Cati- 
line. § 2y. The time for leniency is past. Woe to those who 
stir against the state! 

C. Peroratio. — XII. Quae cum ita sint, Quiri- 26 
tes, vos, quem ad modum iam antea dixi, vestra tec- 
ta vigiliis custodiisque defendite; mihi, ut urbi sine 
vestro motii ac sine ullo tumultti satis esset praesidi, 25 
consultum atque provisum est. Coloni omnes muni- 
cipesque vestri, certiores a me facti de hac nocturna 
excursione Catilinae, facile urbis suas finisque de- 
fendent; gladiatores, quam sibi ille manum certissi- 


mam fore putavit, quamquam animo meliore sunt 
quam pars patriciorum, potestate tamen nostra con- 
tinebuntur. Q. Metellus, quem ego hoc prospiciens 
in agrum Gallicum Picenumque praemisi, aut oppri- 
5 met hominem aut eius omnis motus conatusque pro- 
hibebit. Reliquls autem de rebus constituendis, ma- 
turandls, agendis iam ad senatum referemus, quem 
vocari videtis. 

27 '^ Nunc illos qui in urbe remanserunt, atque adeo 
10 qui contra urbis salutem omniumque vestrum in urbe 

a Catilina relicti sunt, quamquam sunt hostes, tamen, 
quia [nati] sunt cTves, monitos etiam atque etiam 
volo. Mea lenitas adhuc, si cui solutior visa est, hoc 
exspectavit, ut id quod latebat erumperet. Quod re- 

15 liquum est, iam non possum obliviscT meam banc esse 
patriam, me horum esse consulem, mihi aut cum his 
vivendum aut pro his esse moriendum. Nulhis est 
portis custos, nullus Insidiator viae; si qui exire vo- 
lunt, conivere possum. Qui vero se iji_url2^ commo- 

20 verit, cuius ego non modo factum, sed inceptum ullum 
conatumve contra patriam deprehendero, sentiet in 
hac urbe esse consules vigilantis, esse egregios magi- 
stratus, esse fortem senatum, esse arma, esse carce- 
rem, quem vindicem nefariorum ac manifestorum 

25 scelerum maiores nostrl esse voluerunt. 

§ 28. All will he managed without tumult or severity. 
§ 29. Relying upon the help of the gods, I pledge you my 
word. Do you pray for protection. 

28 XIII. Atque haec omnia sic agentur, Quirites, 
ut maximae res minimo motu, pericula summa niillo 
tumultu, belhim intestlnum ac domesticum post ho- 
minum memoriam crudelissimum et maximum, me 


uno togato duce et imperatore, sedetur. Quod ego 
SIC administrabo, Quirites, ut, si ullo modo fieri po- 
tent, lie improbus quidem quisquam in hac urbe poe- 
nam sui sceleris sufferat. Sed si vis manifestae auda- 
ciae, si impendens patriae periculum me necessarid 5 
de hac animi lenitate deduxerit, illud profecto 'perfi- 
ciam, quod in tanto et tarn insidioso bello vix optan- 
dum videtur, ut neque bonus quisquam intereat) pau- 
corumque poena vos omnes salvl esse possitis. 

Quae quidem ego neque mea prudentia neque hu- 29 
manis consiliis fretus polliceor vobTs, Quirites, sed 
multis et non dubils deorum immortalium significa- 
tionibus, quibus ego ducibus in banc spem senten- 
tiamque sum ingressus; qui iam non procul, ut quon- 
dam solebant, ab externo hoste atque longinquo, sed 15 
hie praesentes suo numine atque auxilio sua templa 
atque urbis tecta defendunt. Quos vos, Quirites, pre- 
carT, venerarT, implorare debetis, ut, quam urbem pul- 
cherrimam florentissimamque esse voluerunt, banc, 
omnibus hostium copiis terra marique superatis, a 20 
perditissimorum civium nefario scelere defendant. 




§ I. Yoti see everything preserved by the favor of the 
gdds. § 2. Like the founder of the city, its savior should be 

1 A. Exordium. — Rem publicam, Quirites, vltam- 
que omnium v'estrum, bona, fortunas, coniuges libe- 
rosque vestros, atque hoc domicilium clarissimT im- 
perl, fortunatissimam pulcherrimamque urbem, ho- 

5 dierno die deorum immortalium summo erga vos 
amore, laboribus, consiliis, periculis meis e flamma 
atque ferro ac paene ex faucibus fati ereptam et vdbis 
conservatam ac restitutam videtis. 

2 Et sT non minus nobis iucundi atque inlustres sunt 
lo ei dies quibus conservamur quam illl quibus nascimur, 

quod salutis certalaetitia est, nascendl incerta con- 
dicio, et quod sine sensu nascimur, cum voluptate 
servamur; profectd, quoniam ilium, ^qui hanc urbem 
condidit, ad deos immortalis benevoteritia famaque 
15 sustulimus, esse apud vos posterosque vestros in ho- 
nore debebit is, qui eandem hanc urbem conditam 
amplificatamque servavit. Nam toti urbl, templTs, 
deliibrTs, tectis ac moenibus subiectos prope iam ignis 



circumdatosque restinximus; idemque gladios in rem 
publicam destrictos rettudimus mucronesque eorum 
a iugulis vestris deiecimus. 

§ 3. Since Catiline left, I have kept watch over your 
safety. § 4. / ascertained what the conspirators did. Learn- 
ing that the Allobroges had been approached, I saw my 
chance. , ^. 

Quae quoniam in senatu nilustrata, patefacta, 3 
comperta sunt per me, vobis iam ex^nam breyiter, 5 ^-^ 
Quirltes, ut et^ quanta et quani mani^Sta et qua ra-'^v 
tione itfyestigata et comprehensa idoJ:, vos, qui et ',^^^X 
ignoratis et exspectatis, scire possld^ » 

B. Narratio. — Principio, ut Catillna paucis ante 
diebus erupit ex urbe, cum sceleri^ sulsodps, hj ius^ e 10 
nefarii belli acerrimos duces, Rornae'reliquisset, sem- 
per vigilavl et providi, Quirltes, quem ad modum in 
tantis et tam absccyiditi s Tnsidiis salvi esstf posse- 
mus. 11. Nam turn, cum ex* urbe Catilinam eiciebam 
— non enim iam vereor hiiius verbi invidiam, cum ijl^ 15 
magis sit timen^a, quod vivus exierit — , sed tum, cum 
ilium exterrninarl^ volebam, aut reliquam coniurato- a>^ 

rum manum simul exituram aut eos, qui re^titissent, f^^ 
Infirmos sine illo ac debilis fore putabam. '^ 

Atque ego, ut vidi quo^ ma^mo furore et scelere 4 
esse Tnflammatos sciebam las noblscum esse et R5- 
mae remansisse, in eo omnis dies noctisque consum- 
psT, ut, quid agerent, quid molirentur, sentlrem ac vi- 
derem; ut, qyiijiiam auribus vestris propter incredi- 
bilem magnitudinem sceleris minarjem_fid£m-4aeef^t-25 
oratio mea, rem ita comprebenderem, ut tum demum 
animis saluti vestrae provideretis, cum oculis male- 
ficium ipsum videretis/ Itaque, ut comperi legatos 



Allobrogum belli Transalpini et tumultus Gallici ex- 

^itandi causa a JELj;£ntul6 esse sollicitatos, eosque in 

Galliam ad suos civis eodemque itinere cum litteris 

mandatisque ad Catilinam esse missos, comitemque 

5 eis adiunctum esse T. Volturcium, atque huic esse ad 

Catilinam datas litt^ras, facultatem mih i oblatam pu- 

tavi, ut; quod erat difficillimum, quodque ego semper 

optabam ab dis immortalibus, ut tota res non solum 

a me, sed etiam a senatu et a vobis manifesto depre- 

lo henderetur. 

§ 5. / sent two praetors with troops to the Mulvian 
bridge. § 6. The Allobroges were attacked while crossing. 
Documents were taken. I summoned several unsuspecting 

5 Itaque hesterno die L. Flaccum et C. Pompti- 
num praetores, fortissimos atque amantissimos re! 
publicae viros, ad me vocavi, rem exposui, quid fieri 
placeret ostendi. Illi autepi, qui omnia dereoublica 

15 praeclara atque egregia sentirent, sine 'rtHusanorfe' ac 
sine ulla mora negotium susceperunt et, cum advespe- 
rasceret, occulte ad pontem Mulvium pervenerunt, 
atque ibi in proximis villis ita bipartite fuerunt ut 
Tiberis inter eos et pons interesset. Eodem autem 

20 et ipsi sine cuiusquam' suspicione multos fortis viros 
eduxerant, et ego ex praefectiira Reatina compluris 
delectos adulescentis, quorum opera utor adsidue in 
rei publicae praesidio, cum gladiis miseram. 

6 Interim, tertia fere vigilia ^i^a^Jta, cum iam pon- 
25 tem Mulvium magnpcomitatu legati Allobrogum in- 

gredi inciperent i ir/aqg e Volturcius, fit in eos impetus; 
educuntur et ab illis gladii et a nostris. Res praeto- 
ribus erat nota solis, ignorabatur a ceteris. *' 




III. Turn interventu Pomptini atque Flacci pu- 
gna quae erat commissa sedatur. Litterae quaecum- 
que erant in eo comitatu, i nterns sl^nl s, praetoribus 
traduntur; ipsi comprehensi ad me, cum iam dlluce- 
sceret, deducuntur. Atque horum omnium scelerum 5 
improbissimum machinatorem Cimbrum Gabinium 
statim ad me, nihil dum suspicantem, vocavi; deinde 
item arcessitus est L. Statilius et post eum C. Cethe- 
gus; tardissime autem Lentulus venit, credo quod in 
litteris dandls praeter consuetudinem proxima nocte 10 

§ 7. Although urged to open the letters, I preferred to 
show the seals to the senate. § 8. Weapons were captured 
in the house of Cethegus. Volturcius testified that Lentulus 
had urged Catiline to approach. 

Cum summis ac clarissimTs huius civitatis viris, 7 
qui audita re frequentes ad me mane convenerant, 
litteras a me prius aperiri quam ad senatum deferri 
placeret, ne, si nihil esset inventum, temere a me tan- 15 
tus tumultus iniectus civitati videretur, negavi me 
esse facturum ut de periculo publico non ad consilium 
publicum rem integram deferrem. Etenim, Quirites, 
sT, ea quae erant ad me del^ta. reperta non essent, 
tamen ego non arbitrabar in tantis rei publicae peri- 20 
culis esse mihi nimiam diligentiam pertimescendam. 
Senatum frequentem celeriter, ut vidistis, coegT. At- 8 
que interea statim admonitu Allobrogum C. Sulpi- 
cium praetorem, fortem virum, misl, qui ex aedibus 
Cethegi, si quid telorum esset, efferret; ex quibus 25 
ille maximum sicarum numerum et gladiorum extulit. 

IV. IntroduxT Volturcium sine Gallis; fidem pii- 
blicam iussu senatiis dedl; hortatus sum ut ea quae 


sciret sine timore indicaret. Turn ille dixit, cum vix 
se ex magno timore recreasset, a P. Lentulo se habere 
ad Catillnam mandata et litteras,^t servorum prae- 
sidio tjtereturj ut ad urbem quam primum cum exer- 
5 citu accederet ;/ id autem eo consilio, ut, cum urbem 
ex omnibus partibus, quem ad modum discriptum 
distributumque erat, incendissent caedemque inflni- 
tam civium fecissent, praesto esset ille qui et fugientis 
exciperet et se cum his urbanis ducibus coniungeret. 

§ 9. The Gauls testified that their aid had been sought, 
Lentulus claiming that he was destined to rule Rome. § 10. 
Cethegus acknowledged his seal, and Statilius his. The seal 
of Lentulus. 

9 IntroductI autem Galll ids iurandum sibi et litte- 
ras ab Lentulo, Cethego, Statilio ad suam gentem 
data esse dlxe^unt/atqvie ita sibi ab his et a L. Cassio 
esse pfaescrTptum, ut equitatum in Italiam quam pri- 
mum mitterent;Apedestris sibi copias non def utiiras. "^ 

15 Lentulum autem sibi conflrmasse ex fatis Sibylllnis 
haruspicumque responsis se esse tertium ilium Cor- 
nelium, ad quem regnum huius urbis atque imperium 
pervenire esset necesse; Cinnam ante se et Sullam 
fuisse. /"Eundemque dixisse fatalem hunc annum esse 

20 ad interitum huius urbis atque irnperiXqui esset annus 
decimus post virginum absolutionem, post Capitoli 

10 autem incensionem vicesimus. Hanc autem Cethe- 
go cum ceteris controversiam fuisse dixerunt, quod 
Lentulo et aliis Saturnalibus caedem fieri atque 

25 urbem incendi placeret, Cethego nimium id longum 

V. Ac ne longum sit, Quirites, tabellas proferji 
iussimus, 'iquae a quoque dlc^antur datae.) Primo 



ostendimus Cethego; signum cognovit. Nos linum 
incTdimus, legimus. Erat scriptum ipsius manu AUo- 
brogum senatui et populo, sese quae e5rum legatis 
confirmasset facturum esse; orare ut item illi facerent 
quae sibi eorum legati recepisseiit. Turn Cethegus, 5 
qui paulo ante aliquid tamen de gladiis ac slcis quae 
apud ipsum erant deprehensa respondisset, dixisset- 
que se semper bonorum ferramentorum studiosum 
fuisse, recitatis litteris debilitatiis atque abiectus con- 
scientia repente conticuitAc Introductus est Statilius; 10 
cognovit et signum et manum suam. Recitatae sunt 
tabellae in eandem fere sententiam; confessus est. 
Turn ostendi tabellas Lentulo et quaesivi cognosce- 
retne signum. Adnuit. * Est vero,' inquam, * no- 
tum quidem signum, imago avi tuT, clarissimi viri, 15 
qui amavit unice patriam et civis suos;fquae quidem 
te a tanto scelere etiam muta revocare debuit.*^ 

§ II. Lentulus asked a question, and suddenly confessed 
his guilt. § 12. His letter to Catiline. Gabinius silenced. 
§ 13. The behavior of all showed their guilt. The senate 
took prompt action. 

Leguntur eadem ratione ad senatum Allobrogum 11 
populumque litterae; si quid de his rebus dicere vellet, 
feci potestatem. Atque ille primo quidem negavit; 20 ^ . 
post autem aliquanto, toto iam indicio e'xpositp atque " '*' '^ 
edito, surrexit; quaesivit a Gallis quid sibi esset cum 
eis, quam ob rem domum suam venissenjt, itemgue a 
Volturcio. Qui cum illi breviter constanterque re- 
spondissent per quem ad eum quotiensque venissent, 25 
quaesissentque ab eo nihilne secum esset de fatis Si- 
byllinis lociitus, tum ille subitd, scelere demens, quan- 
ta conscientiae vis esset ostendit. Nam cum id posset 


infitiari, repente praeter opinionem omnium confes- 
sus est. Ita eum non modo ir^genium illud et dicendi 
exefcitatio, qua semper vaTuit, sed etiam, propter vim 
sceleris manifest! atque deprehensi, impudentia, qua 
5 superabat omnis, improbitasque defecit. 

12 Volturcius vero subito litteras proferri atque ape- 
riri iubet, quas sibi a Lentulo ad Catilinam datas esse 
dicebat. Atque ibi vehementissime perturbatus Len- 
tulus tamen et signum et manum suam cognovit. 

lo Erant autem sine nomine, sed ita:^Q»w sim, scies ex 
eo quern ad te mist. Ctird lit vir sis, et cogita quern in 
locum SIS progressus. Vide ecqiiid tibi iam sit necessey 
et curd ut^ omnium tibi auxilia adiungds, etiam iniimd- 
riim.' Gabinius deinde introductus, cum primo im- 

15 pudenter respondere coepisset, ad extremum nihil ex 
eis quae Galli insimiilabant negavit. 

13 Ac mihi quidem, Quirltes, cum ilia certissima visa 
sunt argumenta atque indicia sceleris, tabellae, signa, 
manus, denique unius ciiiusque confessio; tum multo 

20 certiora ilia, color, oculi, voltus, taciturnitas. Sic 
enim obstupuerant, sic terram intuebantur, sic furtim 
non numquam inter sese aspiciebant, ut non iam ab 
aliis indicarl, sed indicare se ipsi viderentur. 

VI. Indicils expositis atque editis, Quirltes, sena- 

25 tum consuluT de summa re publica quid fieri placeret. 
Dictae sunt a principibus acerrimae ac fortissimae 
sententiae, quas senatus sine iilla varietate est secu- 
tus. Et quoniam nondum est perscrTptum senatus 
consultum, ex memoria v5bis, Quirltes, quid senatus 

30 censuerit exponam.. 


§ 14. The magistrates were thanked, and the prisoners 
assigned to custody. § 15. ^ thanksgiving to the gods was 
decreed. Lentulus resigned his office. 

Primum mihi gratiae verbis amplissimis aguntur, 14 
quod virtute, consilio, providentia mea res publica 
maximis periculis sit liberata.)<^ Deinde L. Flaccus et 
C. Pomptinus praetores, quod eorum opera forti fide- 
lique usus essem, merito ac iure laudantur, atque 5 
etiam viro forti, conlegae meo, laus im^ertitur, quod' 
eos, qui huius coniurationis participes fuissent, a suis 
et a rei publicae consiliis removisset. Atque ita cen- 
suerunt: ut P. Lentulus, cum se praetura abdicasset, 
in custodiam traderetur; itemque uti C. Cethegus, 10 
L. Statilius, P. Gabinius, qui omnes praesentes erant, 
in custodian! traderentur; atque idem hoc decretum 
est in L. Cassium, qui sibi procurationem incenden- 
dae urbis depoposcera^n M. Ceparium, cui ad solli- 
citandos pastores Apiiliam attributam esse erat indi- 15 
catum; in P. Furium, qui est ex eis colonis quos Fae- 
sulas L. Sulla dediixib*vin Q. Annium Chilonem, qui 
una cum hoc Furio semper erat in hac Allobrogum 
sollicitatione versatus; in P. Umbrenum, libertinum 
homiiiem, a quo primum Gallos ad Gabinium perdue- 20 
tos esse cojistabatvk Atgue ea lenitate senatus est 
usus, Quirites, ut.xex tanta coniuratione tantaque hac 
multitudine dome^nJorum hostium^novem hominum 
perditissimorum poena ,re piiblica conservata, reliquo- 
rum mentis sanari posse arbitraretur. 7^25 

Atque etiam supplicatio dis immortalibus pro sin- 15 
gulari eorum merito meo nomine decreta est,.iC[uod 
mihi primum post hanc urbem conditam togato con- 
tigit, et his verbis decreta est : ' quod urbem incendiis, 


caede civi/, Italiam hello liber assent.^ Quae supplica- 
tio, SI cum ceteris supplicationibus conferatur, hoc 
interest; quod ceterae bene gesta, haec una c5nser- 
vata re publica constituta est. Atque illud, quod 
5 faciendum primum fuit, factum atque transactum est. 
Nam P. Lentulus, quamquam patefactis indiciis, con- 
fessionibus suis, iudicio senatus non modo praetoris 
ius, verum etiam civis amiserat, tamen magistratii se 
abdicavit, ut, quae religio C. Mario, clarissimo viro, 
lo non fuerat, quo minus C. Glauciam, de quo nihil no- 
minatim erat decretum, praetorem occideret, ea nos 
rehgione in privato P. Lentulo puniendo Hberaremur. 

§ 1 6. The plot is at an end, for Catiline was the only 
capable leader. § 17. His departure was your salvation. He 
would have given us a prompt and bitter struggle. 

16 VII. Nunc quoniam, Quirites, consceleratissimi 
periculosissimique belli nefarios duces captos iam 

15 et comprehensos tenetis, existimare debetis omnis 
Catillnae copias, omnis spes atque qpes his depulsis 
urbis periculis con'cidisse. Quern quidem ego cum ex 
urbe pellebam, hoc providebam animo, Quirites, re- 
mote Catilina non mihi esse P. Lentuli somnum nee 

20 L. Cassi adipes nee C. Cethegi furiosam temeritatem 
pertimescendam. Ille erat iinus timendus ex istis 
omnibus, sed tam diu dum urbis moenibus contine- 

Omnia norat, omnium aditus tenebat; adpellare, 

25 temptare, sollicitare poterat, audebat; erat ei consili- 
um ad facinus aptum, consilio autem neque manus 
neque lingua deerat. Iam ad certas res conficiendas 
certos homines delectos ac descriptos habebat^J^^Ne- 
que vero, cum aliquid mandarat, confectum putabat; 



nihil erat quod non ipse obiret, occurreret, vigilaret, 
laboraret. Frlgus, sitim, famem ferre poterat. 

Hunc ego hominem tarn acrem, tarn audacem, 17 
tarn paratum, tarn callidum, tarn in scelere vigilan- 
tem, tarn in perditis rebus diligentem, nisi ex domesti- 5 
CIS insidils in castrense latrocinium compulis^em, di- 
cam id quod sentio, Quirites, non facile banc tantam 
molem mail a cervicibus vestris depulissem. Non 
ille nobis Saturnalia constituisset, neque tanto ante 
exit! ac fati diem rei publicae denuntiavisset, neque 10 
commlsisset ut signum, ut litterae suae, testes mani- 
fest! sceleris, deprehenderentur. Quae nunc illo ab- 
sente sTc gesta sunt ut nullum in privata domo fiir- 
tum umquam sit tam palam inventum quam haec 
tanta in re publica coniuratio manifesto inventa atque 15 
deprehensa est. Quod si Catilipa in urbe ad banc 
diem remafisisset,quamquani, quoad fuit, omnibus eius 
consiliis occiirri atque obstiti, tamen, ut levissime dl- , 
cam, dimicandum nobis cum illo fuisset, neque nos 
umquam, cum ille in urbe hosjis esset, tantis peri- 20 
culls rem publicam tanta pace, tanto otio, tanto silcn- 
ti5 liberassemus. 

§ 18. The gods appear to have managed everything, and 
to have sent warnings. § 19. When the lightning struck the 
Capitol, the soothsayers predicted ruin. 

VIII. Quamquam haec omnia, Quirites, ita sunt 18 
a me administrata, ut deorum immortalium nutii at- 
que consilio et gesta et provlsa esse videantur. Id- 25 
que cum coniectura consequijpossumus, quod vix vi- 
detur humanl consili tantarum rerum gubernatio esse 
potuisse, ' tum vero ita p raesentes his temporibus 

opem et auxilium nobis tulerunt, ut eos paene oculis 


videre possemus. Nam ut ilia omittam, visas noc- 
turne tempore ab occidente faces ardoremque caeli, 
ut fulminum iactus, ut t^rrjLQrrxQXus relinquam, ut 
omittani cetera, quae tarn multa nobis consulibus fac- 
5 ta sunt, ut haec, quae nunc fiunt, canere dl immor- 
tales viderentur, hoc certe, quod sum dicturus, neque 
praetermittendum neque relinquendum est. 

19 Nam profecto memoria tenetis, Cotta et Torqua- 
to consulibus, compluris in Capitolio res de caelo esse 

10 percussas, cum et simulacra deorum depulsa sunt, et 
statuae veterum hominum deiectae et legum aera li- 
quefacta et tactus etiam ille, qui banc urbem condidit, 
Romulus, quem inauratum in Capitolio, parvum at- 
que lactentem, uberibus lupinls inhiantem, fuisse me- 

15 ministis.^vQuo quidem tempore cum haruspices ex 
tota Etruria convenissent, caedes atque incendia et 
legum interitum et bellum civile ac domesticum et 
totlus urbis atque imperi occasum adpropinquare 
dixerunt, nisi di immortalesfomni ratione placati, suo 

20 numine prope fata ipsa flexissent. 

§ 20. Games for propitiation were held, and a nezv statue 
of Jupiter was ordered. § 21. All must admit divine over- 
sight, for the statue was being set up when the conspirators 
zvere led across the Forum. 

20 Itaque illorum responsis tum et ludi per decem 
dies fact! sunt neque res iilla quae ad placandos deos 
pertineret praetermissa est. . Idemque iusserunt simu- 
lacrum lovis facere mains et in excelso conlocare et 

25 contra atque antea fuerat ad orientetri convertere;,ac 
se sperare dixerunt, si illud signum, qiiod videtis, solis 
ortum et forum ciiriamque conspiceret, uore ut ea 
consilia quae clam essent inita contra saliitem urbis 


atque imperi, inlustrarentur, ut a senatu populoque 
Romano perspici possent.^Atque illud signum conlo- 
candum qonsules illi locaverunt, sed tanta fuit operis 
tarditas, ut neqtie superioribus consulibus neque nobis 
ante hodiernum diem conlocaretur. 5 ^ 

IX. Hic quis potest esse, Quirites, tarn aversus a 21 ^ ^ 
vero, tam praeceps, tam mente captus, qui neget haec ^V^ 
omnia quae videmus praecipueque banc urbem deo-^*^ 
rum immortalium nutu ac potestate administrari? 
Etenim cum esset ita responsum, caedes, incendia, in- 10 
teritum rel publicae compararl, et ea per civTs, quae 
tum propter magnitudinem scelerum non nidlis in- 
credibilia videbantur, ea non modo cdgitata a nefariis 
civibus verum etiam suscepta esse ^ijsisti^. ^Illud 
vero nonne ita praesens est ut nutu lovis Optimi 15 
Maximi factum esse videatur, ut, cum hodierno die 
mane per forum meo iussu et coniurati et eorum 
indices in aedem Concordiae ducerentur, eo ipso tem- 
pore signum statueretur?> Quo conlocato atque ad 
vos senatumque converso, omnia quae erant contra 20 
salutem omnium cogitata, inlustrata et patefacta vi- 

§ 22. Jupiter thwarted the plotters. The gods made them 
mad, and aided barbarians to stand against patricians. § 23. 
Wherefore give thanks to the gods for salvation without 

Quo etiam maiore sunt isti o4io supplicioque di- 22 
gni, qui non solum vestris domiciliis atque tectis, sed 
etiam deorum templis atque delubris sunt fiinestos 25 
ac nefarios ignis inferre conati. ', Quibus ego si me 
restitisse dicam, nimium mihi sumam et non sim fe- 
rendus.) Ille, ille luppiter restitit; ille Capitolium, ille 


haec templa, ille cunctam urbem, ille vos omnis salvos 
esse voluit. Dis ego immortalibus ducibus banc men- 
tem, Quirites, voluntatemque suscepi, atque ad haec 
tanta indicia perveni. lam vero ab Lentulo cete- 
5 risque domesticis hostibus tarn dementer tantae res 
creditae et ignotis et barbarls commissaeque litterae 
numquam essent profecto, nisi ab dis immortalibus 
huic tantae audaciae consilium esset ereptum. Quid 
vero? Ut homines Galll, ex civitate male pacata, 

lo quae gens una restat quae bellum populo Romano 
facere et posse et non nolle videatur, spem imperi ac 
rerum maximarum ultro sibi a patriciis hominibus 
oblatam neglegerent, vestramque salutem suis opibus 
anteponerent, id non divinitus esse factum putatis? 

15 praesertim qui nos non pugnando, sed tacendo supe- 
^^^ . rare potuerint? 

23 C. Peroratio. — X. Quam ob rem, Quirites, 
quoniam ad omnia pulvinaria supplicatio decreta est, 
celebratote illos dies cum coniugibus ac liberis vestris. 

20 Nam multi saepe honores dis immortalibus iiisti ha- 
bit! sunt ac debiti, sed profecto iustiores numquam. 
Erepti enim estis ex crudelissimo ac miserrimo interi- 
tii; sine caede, sine sanguine, sine exercitu, sine dimi- 
catione, togati me uno togato duce et imperatore 

25 vicistis. 

§ 24. Other disturbances have been settled only by much 
bloodshed. § 25. Yet not one of them was so destructive in 
its aim as this, which I have ended so quietly. 

24 Etenim recordamim, Quirites, omnis civilis dis- 
sensidnes, non solum eas qua,s audistis, sed eas quas 
vosmet ipsi meministis atque vidistis. L. Sulla P. 
Sulpicium oppressit; C. Marium, custodem huius ur- 


bis, multosque fortis viros partim eiecit ex civitate, 
partim interemit. Cn. Octavius consul armis expulit 
ex urbe conlegam; omnis hic locus acervis corporum 
et civium sanguine redundavit. ' Superavit postea 
Cinna cum Mario; turn vero clarissimis viris inter- 5 
fectis, lumina civitatis exstincta sunt. Ultus est hu- 
ius victoriae crudelitatem postea Sulla; ne dici quidem^ 
opus est quanta deminutione civium et quanta cala- 
mitate rei publicae^ Dissensit M. Lepidus a claris- 
simo et fortissimo viro Q. Catulo; attulit non tam 10 
ipslus interitus rel publicae luctum quam ceterorum. 

Atque illae tamen omnes dissensiones erant eius 25 
modi quae non ad delendam, sed ad commiatandam 
rem publicam pertinerent. Non illi nullam esse rem 
publicam, sed in ea, quae esset, se esse principes, ne- 15 
que banc urbem conflagrare, sed se in hac florere 
voluerunt. Atque illae tamen omnes dissensiones, 
quarum nulla exitium rei publicae quaesivit, eius 
modi fuerunt ut non reconciliatione concordiae, sed 
iiTternecione civium diiudicatae sint. In hoc autem 20 
lino post hominum memoriam maximo criidelissimo- 
que bello, quale bellum nijlla umquam barbaria cum 
sua gente gessit, quo in bello lex haec fuit a Lentulo, 
Catilina, Cethego, Cassio constituta, ut omnes, qui 
salva urbe salvi esse possent, in hostium numero dii- 25 
cerentur, ita me gessi, Quirites, ut salvi omnes con- 
servaremini; et, cum hostes vestri tantum civium su- 
perfuturum putassent quantum infinitae caedi resti- 
tisset, tantum autem urbis quantum flamma obire 
non potuisset, et urbem et civis integros incolumisque 30 


§ 26. For this I ask only lasting glory and remembrance. 
§ 27. Since I must live with the conquered foe, you must 
protect me. 

26 XL Quibus pro tantis rebus, Quirites, nullum ego 
a vobis praemium virtutis, nullum inslgne honoris, 
nullum monumentum laudis postulo praeterquam 
huius diei memoriam sempiternam. In animis ego 

5 vestris omnis triumphos meos, omnia ornamenta ho- 
noris, monumenta gloriae, laudis insignia condi et 
conlocari volo. Nihil me mutum potest delectare, 
nihil tacitum, nihil denique eius modi quod etiam 
minus digni adsequi possint. Memoria vestra, Qui- 

10 rites, nostrae res alentur, sermonibus crescent, litte- 
rarum monumentis inveterascent et corroborabuntur; 
eandemque diem intellego, quam spero aeternam 
fore, propagatam esse et ad salutem urbis et ad me- 
moriam consulatus mei; unoque tempore in hac re 

15 publica duos civis exstitisse, quorum alter finis vestri 
imperi non terrae sed caeli regionibus terminaret, 
alter eiusdem imperi domicilium sedisque servaret. 

27 XII. Sed quoniam earum rerum, quas ego gessi, 
non eadem est fortuna atque condicio quae illorum 

20 qui externa bella gesserunt, quod mihi cum eis vi- 
vendum est quos vici ac subegi, ill! hostis aut inter- 
fectos aut oppresses reliquerunt; vestrum est, Quiri- 
tes, SI ceteris facta sua recte prosunt, mihi mea ne 
quando obsint providere. Mentes enim hominum 

25 audacissimorum sceleratae ac nefariae ne vobis no- 
cere possent ego provTdi; ne mihi noceant vestrum 
est providere. Quamquam, Quirites, mihi quidem 
ipsi nihil ab istis iam noceri potest. Magnum enim 
est in bonis praesidium, quod mihi in perpetuum com- 


paratum est; magna in re publica dignitas, quae me 
semper tacita defendet; magna vTs conscientiae, quam 
qui neglegunt, cum me violare volent, se ipsi indi- 

§ 28. Protect me, or others will not care to serve you. 
§ 29. / shall prove my devotion to the state. Go, worship 
Jupiter and guard your homes. 

Est enim in nobis is animus, Quirites, ut non 28 
modo nullTus audaciae cedamus, sed etiam omnis im- 
probos ultro semper lacessamus. Quod si omnis im- 
petus domesticorum hostium, depulsus a vobis, se in 
me unum converterit, vobis erit videndum, Quirites, 
qua condicione posthac eos esse velitis, qui se pr5 10 
salCite vestra obtulerint invidiae periculisque omnibus. 
Mihi quidem ipsi, quid est quod iam ad vitae fructum 
possit adquiri, cum praesertim neque in honore ve- 
stro, neque in gloria virtutis, quicquam videam altius 
quo mihi libeat ascendere? 15 

Illud perficiam profecto, Quirites, ut ea quae gessi 29 
in consulatu privatus tuear atque ornem; ut, si qua 
est invidia in conservanda re piiblica suscepta, laedat 
invidos, mihi valeat ad gloriam. Denique ita me in 
re pubHca tractabo, ut meminerim semper quae ges- 20 
serim, curemque ut ea virtute, non casii gesta esse 
videantur. Vos, Quirites, quoniam iam est nox, ve- 
nerati lovem ilium, ciistodem hiiius urbis ac vestrum, 
in vestra tecta discedite, et ea, quamquam iam est 
periculum depulsum, tamen aeque ac priore nocte 25 
custodiis vigiliisque defendite. Id ne vobis diutius 
faciendum sit atque ut in perpetua pace esse possitis 



-/«; iTt:! 7: T T^''"- -'">" / - ,lai to se 
^'•«« be content if lou/J '""'' ' ^""^ '^^'rity, but] 

I A. Exordium.— Viden n,f - 
omnium vestrflm 6ra ato,,'. f- '^°"'"'Pt'. '" me 
Video vosnon solum de2str/'"'°' "^^ ^°"^--^- 

^ tos- Est niihf iacund in "^ P'"'^"'° «^^ «°"'ci- 
-stra erga n,e voCtas sed' " "' ''''' ■'" ^°'°- 

sulatiis data est ufT '' ''^^'^ '^on^icio c6„- 

- -ci.t.s,ue izz'']z:'T'' -r- ^°'-^^ 

verum etiam libenter diim ^ , """"' ^°''''te'-. 

Popu'aque Romano dft'aTsar"^ '^'''"''^"^ ^'^'^- 
2 Ego sum ille con n . "^"^ P""^*"''- 

^°n.m. in quo omnTa 1^ " """'"'''''' -' "- 

'S pus consularibus auspTcifs c" """"''"'"' "°" «- 

;— m auxilium :1I^J::X-' -'"/^'"■^' 

commune perfugiun,, non lectCar; T '°'""^' 


A Vestal Virgin. 

From a statue found in the Atrium Vestae, now in the 
Museo delle Terme, at Rome. 


quam vacua mortis perlculo atque insidiis fuit. Ego 
multa tacul, multa pertuli, multa concessi, multa meo 
quodam dolore in vestro timore sanavi. Nunc si 
hunc exitum consulatus mei di immortales esse volue- 
runt, ut vos populumque Romanum ex caede miser- 5 
rima, coniuges liberosque vestros virginesque Vesta- 
lis ex acerbissima vexatione, templa atque delubra, 
hanc pulcherrimam patriam omnium nostrum ex foe- 
dissima flamma, totam Italiam ex bello et vastitate 
eriperem, quaecumque mihi uni proponetur fortiana, 10 
subeatur. Etenim si P. Lentulus suum nomen in- 
ductus a vatibus fatale ad perniciem rei publicae fore 
putavit, cijr ego non laeter meum consulatum ad sa- 
lutem populi Roman! prope fatalem exstitisse? 

II. Qua re, patres conscripti, consulite vobis, pro- 3 
spicite patriae, conservate vos, coniuges, liberos for- 
tijnasque vestras, populi Roman! nomen salutemque 
defendite; mihi parcere ac de me cogitare desinite. 
Nam pr!mum debeo sperare omms decs, qu! huic 
urb! praesident, pro eo mihi ac mereor relaturos esse 20 
gratiam; deinde, s! quid obtigerit, aequo animo para- 
toque moriar. Nam neque turpis mors fort! viro po-| 
test accidere neque immatiara consular! nee miseral 
sapient!. Nee tamen ego sum ille ferreus, qui fratris 
carissim! atque amantissim! praesentis maerore non 25 
movear, horumque omnium lacrim!s a quibus me cir- 
cumsessum videtis. Neque meam mentem non do- 
mum saepe revocat exanimata uxor et abiecta metu 
f!lia et parvolus f!lius, quem mihi videtur amplect! 
res publica tamquam obsidem consulatus mei, neque 30 
ille, qu!, exspectans huius exitum die!, stat in con- 
spectii meo, gener. Moveor h!s rebus omnibus, sed 


in earn partem, uti salvi sint vobiscum omnes, etiam 
si me VIS aliqua oppresserit, potius quam et illi et 
nos una rei publicae peste pereamus. 

§ 4. Not a Gracchus nor a Saturninus, but much more 
dangerous criminals are before you. § 5. You have already 
declared their guilt. § 6. The decision rests with you. The 
evil is wide-spread, and prompt action is imperative. 

4 B. Narratio. — Qua re, patres conscripti, incum- 

5 bite ad salutem rei piiblicae, circumspicite omnis pro- 
cellas quae impendent nisi providetis. Non Ti. Grac- 
chus, quod iterum tribunus plebis fieri voluit, non C. 
Gracchus, quod agrarios concitare conatus est, n5n 
L. Saturninus, quod C. Memmium occidit, in discri- 

10 men aliquod atque in vestrae severitatis indicium ad- 
ducitur; tenentur ei qui ad urbis incendium, ad ve- 
stram omnium caedem, ad Catilinam accipiendum 
Romae restiterunt; tenentur litterae, signa, manus, 
denique unius cuiusque confessio; sollicitantur AUo- 

15 broges, servitia excitantur, Catilina arcessitur; id est 
initum consilium, ut interfectis omnibus nemo ne ad 
deplorandum quidem populi Romani nomen atque ad 
lamentandam tanti imperi calamitatem relinquatur. 

5 III. Haec omnia indices detulerunt, rei confessi 

20 sunt, vos multis iam iudiciis iudicavistis, primum quod 
mihi gratias egistis singularibus verbis, et mea virtCite 
atque diligentia perditorum hominum coniurationem 
patefactam esse decrevistis; deinde quod P. Lentu- 
lum se abdicare praetura coegistis; tum quod eum et 

25 ceteros, de quibus iudicastis, in ciistodiam dandos 
censuistis; maximeque quod meo nomine supplicatio- 
nem decrevistis, qui honos togato habitus ante me 


est nemini; postremo hesterno die praemia legatis 
Allobrogum Titoque Yolturcio dedistis amplissima. 
Quae sunt omnia eius modi ut ei, qui in ciistodiam 
nominatim dati sunt, sine ulla dubitatione a vobis 
damnati esse videantur. 5 

Sed ego institui referre ad vos, patres conscripti, 6 
tamquam integrum, et de facto quid iudicetis et de 
poena quid censeatis. Ilia praedlcam quae sunt con- 
sulis. Ego magnum in re piiblica versari furorem et 
nova quaedam misceri et concitari mala iam pridem 10 
videbam; sed banc tantam, tam exitiosam liaberi con- 
iurationem a civibus numquam putavl. Nunc quic- 
quid est, quocumque vestrae mentes inclinant atque 
sententiae, statuendum vobis ante noctem est. Quan- 
tum facinus ad vos delatum sit videtis. Huic si pau- 15 
cos putatis adfinis esse, vehementer erratis. Latins 
opinione disseminatum est hoc malum; manavit non 
solum per Italiam, verum etiam transcendit AlpTs et 
obscure serpens multas iam provincias occupavit. Id 
opprimi sustentando aut prolatando nullo pacto pb- 20 
test; quacumque ratione placet, celeriter vobis vindi- 
candum est. 

§ 7. Silanus proposes the death-penalty ; Caesar urges im- 
prisonment, and talks philosophically about death. §8. He 
sets a heavy penalty upon any attempt to release the pris- 
oners. His plan is cruel. 

IV. Video duas adhiic esse sententias: unam D. 7 
SilanT, qui censet eos, qui haec delere conati sunt, 
morte esse multandos; alteram C. Caesaris, qui mor- 25 
tis poenam removet, ceterorum supplicidrum omnis 
acerbitates amplectitur. Uterque et pro sua digni- 


tate et pro rerum magnitudine in summa severitate 
versatur. Alter eos qui nos omnis, qui populum Ro- 
manum vita privare conati sunt, qui delere imperi- 
um, qui populi Romani nomen exstinguere, piinctum 
5 temporis frui vita et hoc communi spiritu non putat 
oportere; atque hoc genus poenae saepe in improbos 
civis in hac re piiblica esse usurpatum recordatur. Al- 
ter intellegit mortem ab dis immortalibus non esse 
supplici causa constitiitam, sed aut necessitatem na- 

lo tiirae aut laborum ac miseriarum quietem esse. Ita- 
que eam sapientes numquam inviti, fortes saepe etiam 
libenter oppetiverunt. Vincula vero et ea sempiterna 
certe ad singularem poenam nefarii sceleris inventa 
sunt. Municipiis dispertiri iubet. Habere videtur 

15 ista res iniquitatem, si imperare velis; difficultatem, 
si rogare. Decernatur tamen, si placet. 

8 Ego enim suscipiam, et, ut spero, reperiam qui 
id, quod saliitis omnium causa statueritis, non putent 
esse suae dignitatis reciisare. Adiungit gravem poe- 

20 nam municipiis, si quis eorum vincula riiperit; horri- 
bilis ciistodias circumdat et dignas scelere hominum 
perditorum; sancit ne quis eorum poenam, quos con- 
demnat, aut per senatum aut per populum levare pos- 
sit; eripit etiam spem, quae sola homines in miseriis 

25 consolari solet; bona praeterea publicari iubet; vitam 
solam relinquit nefariis hominibus, quam si eripuisset, 
multos una dolores animi atque corporis et omnis 
scelerum poenas ademisset. Itaque, ut aliqua in vita 
formido improbis esset posita, apud inferos eius modi 

30 quaedam illi antiqui supplicia impiis constitiita esse 
voluerunt, quod videlicet intellegebant, his remotis, 
non esse mortem ipsam pertimescendam. 


§9. // you adopt it, I shall have a champion with the 
people. His proposal is an earnest of good-will to the state. 
§ 10. The absent have really shown their views. The Sem- 
pronian law does not concern enemies. Caesar is severe. 

V. Nunc, patres conscripti, ego mea video quid 9 
intersit. Si eritis seciiti sententiam C. Caesaris, quon- 
iam banc is in re publica viam quae popularis habe- 
tur secutus est, fortasse minus erunt, hoc auctore et 
cognitore huiusce sententiae, mihi populares impetus 5 
pertimescendi; sin illam alteram, nescio an amplius 
mihi negoti contrahatur. Sed tamen meorum pericu- 
lorum rationes utiHtas rel publicae vincat. Habemus 
enim a Caesare, sicut ipsius dignitas et maiorum eius 
ampHtudo postulabat, sententiam tamquam obsidem 10 
perpetuae in rem pubHcam voluntatis. Intellectum 
est quid interesset inter levitatem contidnatorum et 
animum vere popularem, saluti popuH consulentem. 

Video de istis, qui se popularis haberi volunt, 10 
abesse non neminem, ne de capite videlicet civium 15 
Romanorum sententiam ferat. Is et nudius tertius in 
ciistodiam civis Romanes dedit et supplicationem mi- 
hi decrevit et indices hesterno die maximis praemiis 
adfecit. lam hoc nemini dubium est, qui reo ciisto- 
diam, quaesitori gratulationem, indici praemium de- 20 
crevit, quid de tota re et causa iiidicarit. 

At vero C. Caesar intellegit legem Semproniam 
esse de civibus Romanis constitiitam; qui autem rei 
pfiblicae sit hostis, eum civem niillo modo esse posse; 
denique ipsum latorem Semproniae legis iniussii 25 
populi poenas rei piiblicae dependisse. Idem ipsum 
Lentulum, largitorem et prodigum, non putat, cum 
de pernicie populi Romani, exitio huius urbis tarn 


acerbe, tarn crudeliter cogitarit, etiam adpellari posse 
popularem. Itaque homo mitissimus atque lenissi- 
mus non dubitat P. Lentukim aeternis tenebris vincu- 
lisque mandare, et sancit in posterum ne quis huius 
5 supplicio levando se iactare et in pernicie populi Ro- 
manl posthac popularis esse possit. Adiungit etiam 
publicationem bonorum, ut omnis animi cruciatus et 
corporis etiam egestas ac mendicitas consequatur. 

§ II. / can not see cruelty in executing traitors. I fore- 
see the horrors of massacre. § 12. Thinking of horrors, I am 
stern. Is it cruel to slay a murderous slaved We shall he 
merciful if tve slay these traitors. 

11 C. C5nfirmati5. — VI. Quam ob rem, sive hoc 
10 statueritis, dederitis mihi comitem ad contionem po- 

pulo carum atque iucimdum; sive Silani sententiam 
sequi makieritis, facile me atque vos a crudeHtatis 
vituperatione populo Romano piirgabo, atque obtine- 
bo eam multd leniorem fuisse. Quamquam, patres 

15 conscripti, quae potest esse in tanti sceleris immanitate 
punienda crudeHtas? Ego enim de meo sensu iudico. 
Nam ita mihi salva re publica vobTscum perfrui liceat, 
ut ego, quod in hac causa vehementior sum, non atro- 
citate animi moveor, — quis enim est me mltior? — sed 

20 singular! quadam humanitate et misericordia. Videor 
enim mihi videre banc urbem, lucem orbis terrarum 
atque arcem omnium gentium, subitd tino incendid 
concidentem; cerno animo sepulta in patria miseros 
atque insepultos acervos civium; versatur mihi ante 

25 oculos aspectus CethegT et furor in vestra caede bac- 

12 Cum vero mihi proposui regnantem Lentulum, 
sicut ipse se ex fatis sperasse confessus est, purpura- 


turn esse huic Gabinium, cum exercitu venisse Cati- 
linam, turn lamentationem matrum familias, turn fu- 
gam virginum atque puerorum ac vexationem virgi- 
num Vestalium perhorresco; et, quia mihi vehementer 
haec videntur misera atque miseranda, idcirco in eos 5 
qui ea perficere voluerunt me severum vehementem- 
que prae beo. Etenim quaero, si quis pater familias, 
liberis suis a servo interfectis, uxore occisa, incensa 
domo, supplicium de servo non quam acerbissimum 
sumpserit, utrum is clemens ac misericors an inhuma- lo 
nissimus et crudelissimus esse videatur? Mihi vero im- ^ 
jjortunus ac ferreus, qui non dolore et cruciatu noc en- • 
tis suum dolorem cruciatumque lenierit. Sic nos in 
his hominibus — qui nos, qui coniuges, qui liberos no- 
stros trucidare vokierunt, qui singulas unlus cuiusque 15 
nostrum domos et hoc universum rei pubHcae domici- 
lium delere conati sunt, qui id egerunt, ut gentem 
Allobrogum in vestigils hiiius urbis atque in cinere 
deflagrati imperi conlocarent, — si vehementissimi fue- 
rimus, misericordes habebimur; sin remissiores esse 20 
vokierimus, summae nobis crijdelitatis in patriae ci- 
viumque pernicie fama subeunda est... 

§ 13. L. Caesar's advice was not cruel. Lentulus's grand- 
father took arms against a foe; he against his country. § 14. 
Everything is in readiness to execute your wishes. All decent 
men sympathise with you. 

Nisi vero cuipiam L. Caesar, vir fortissimus et 13 
amantissimus rei publicae, crudeHor niidius tertius 
vTsus est, cum sororis suae, feminae lectissimae, virum 25 
praesentem et audientem vita privandum esse dixit, 
cum avum suum iussii consulis interfectum filiumque 
eius impuberem, legatum a patre mi^gum, in carcere 


necatum esse dixit. Quorum quod simile factum? 
Quod initum delendae rei publicae consilium? Largi- 
tionis voluntas tum in re publica versata est, et par- 
tium quaedam contentio. Atque illo tempore huius 
5 avus Lentuli, vir clarissimus, armatus Gracchum est 
perseciitus. Ille etiam grave tum volnus accepit, ne 
quid de summa re publica deminueretur; hie ad ever- 
tenda rei piiblicae fundamenta Gallos arcessit, servitia 
concitat, Catilinam vocat, attribuit nos trucidandos 

lo Cethegd, et ceteros civis interficiendos Gabinio, ur- 
bem inflammandam Cassio, totam Italiam vastandam 
diripiendamque Catilinae. Vereamini, censeo, ne in 
hoc scelere tarn immani ac nefando nimis aliquid se- 
vere statuisse videamini; multo magis est verendum 

15 ne remissione poenae crudeles in patriam quam ne 
severitate animadversionis nimis vehementes in acer- 
bissimos hostis fuisse videamur. 

14 VI I. Sed ea quae exaudio, patres conscripti, dis- 
simulare non possum. laciuntur enim voces, quae 

20 perveniunt ad auris meas, eorum qui vereri videntur 
ut habeam satis praesidi ad ea quae vos statueritis 
hodierno die transigunda. Omnia et provisa et para- 
ta et constituta sunt, patres conscripti, cum mea sum- 
ma ciara atque diligentia tum etiam multo maiore po- 

25 pull Romani ad summum imperium retinendum et ad 
communis fortiinas conservandas voluntate. Omnes 
adsunt omnium ordinum homines, omnium generum, 
omnium denique aetatum; plenum est forum, plena 
templa circum forum, pleni omnes aditCis huius tem- 

30 pli ac loci. Causa est enim post urbem conditam 
haec inventa sola in qua omnes sentirent iinum 
atque idem, praeter eos qui, cum sibi viderent esse 


pereundum, cum omnibus potius quam soli perire 

§ 15. The equites are one with you, and if this union lasts, 
the state will be secure. The clerks are aroused. § 16. Free- 
men and freedmen are patriotic. Every decently comfort- 
able slave is with us. 

Hosce ego homines excipio et secerno libenter, 15 
neque in improborum civium, sed in acerbissimorum 
hostium numero habendos puto. Ceterl vero, di im- 5 
mortales! qua frequentia, quo studio, qua virtiite ad 
communem salutem dignitatemque consentiunt! Quid 
ego hic equites Romanes commemorem? qui vobis ita 
summam ordinis consilique concedunt ut vobiscum de 
amore rei publicae certent; quos ex multorum anno- 10 
rum dissensione huius ordinis ad societatem concor- 
diamque revocatos hodiernus dies vobiscum atque 
haec causa coniungit. Quam si coniiinctionem, in con- 
sulatu confirmatam meo, perpetuam in re publica te- 
nuerimus, confirmo vobis nullum posthac malum cl- 15 
vile ac domesticum ad iillam rei piiblicae partem esse 
venturum. Pari studio defendundae rei publicae con- 
venisse video tribiinos aerarios, fortissimos viros; 
scribas item universes, quos cum casu hic dies ad 
aerarium frequentasset, video ab exspectatione sor- 20 
tis ad salutem communem esse converses. 

Omnis ingenuorum adest multitude, etiam tenuis- 16 
simorum. Quis est enim cui non haec templa, 
aspectus urbis, pessessio libertatis, lux denique haec 
ipsa et hoc commune patriae solum cum sit carum 25 
tum vero dulce atque iucundum? 

VIII. Operae pretium est, patres conscript!, liber- 
tlnorum hominum studia cognoscere, qui, sua virtute 


fortunam huius civitatis consecuti, vere banc suam 
esse patriam iudicant; quam quidam hic nati et sum- 
mo nati loco non patriam suam sed urbem hostium 
esse iudicaverunt. Sed quid ego hosce homines ordi- 
5 nesque commemoro, quos privatae fortunae, quos 
communis res publica, quos denique Hbertas, ea quae 
dulcissima est, ad salutem patriae defendendam exci- 
tavit? Servus est nemo, qui modo tolerabili condi- 
cione sit servitutis, qui non audaciam civium perhor- 
lo reseat, qui non haec stare cupiat, qui non [tantum] 
quantum audet et quantum potest conferat ad com- 
munem salutem voluntatis. 

§ 17. Lentulus's henchman has failed to stir up the shop- 
keepers. § 18. You are supported by all, and your country 
relies upon you. § 19. Protect the state from future danger. 
I speak from duty. 

17 Qua re si quern vestriim forte commovet hoc, quod 
auditum est, lenonem quendam Lentuli concursare 

15 circum tabernas, pretio sperare sollicitari posse ani- 
mos egentium atque imperitorum; est id quidem coep- 
tum atque temptatum, sed nuUi sunt inventi tam aut 
fortuna miseri aut voluntate perditi, qui non ilium 
ipsum sellae atque operis et quaestus cottidiani locum, 

20 qui non cubile ac lectulum suum, qui denique non 
cursum hunc otiosum vitae suae salvum esse velint. 
Multo vero maxima pars eorum qui in tabernis sunt, 
immo vero — id enim potius est dicendum — genus hoc 
iiniversum amantissimum est oti. Etenim omne in- 

25 striimentum, omnis opera atque quaestus frequentia 
civium sustentatur, alitur otio; quorum si quaestus 
occlusis tabernis minui solet, quid tandem incensis fu- 
turum fuit? 

A Roman Street Scene. 

(Shops on the left.) 
Weichardt : Pompeii vor der Zerstorung. 


Quae cum ita sint, patres conscript!, vobis populi i8 
Romani praesidia non desunt ; vos ne populo Romano 
deesse videamini providete. 

IX. Habetis consulem ex plurimis periculis et in- 
sidiis atque ex media morte, non ad vitam suam, sed 5 
ad salutem vestram reservatum. Omnes ordines ad 
conservandam rem publicam mente, voluntate, stu- 
dio, virtute, voce consentiunt. Obsessa facibus et tells 
impiae coniurationis vobis supplex mantis tendit patria 
communis; vobis se, v^bis vitam omnium civium, vo- lo 
bis arcem et Capitolium, vobis aras Penatium, vobis 
ilium ignem Vestae sempiternum, vobis omnium deo- 
rum templa atque delubra, vobis muros atque urbis 
tect a commendat. Praeterea de vestra vita, de coniu- 
gum vestrarum atque liberorum anima, de fortunis 15 
omnium, de sedibus, de focis vestris hodierno die vo- 
bis iudicandum est. 

Habetis ducem memorem vestri, oblitum sui, quae 19 
non semper faculta^s datur; habetis omnis ordines, 
omnis homines, iiniversum populum Romanum, id 20 
quod in civili causa hodierno die primum vidcmus, 
unum atque idem sentientem^ Cogitate quantis labo- 
ribus fundatum imperium, quanta virtute stabilitam 
libertatem, quanta deorum benignitate auctas exag- 
geratasque fortunas, iina nox paene delerit. Id ne 25 
umquam posthac non modo [non] confici, sed ne co- 
gitari quidem possit a civibus, hodierno die providen- 
dum est. Atque haec non ut vos, qui mihi studio 
paene praecurritis, excitarem, locutus sum, sed ut 
mea vox, quae debet esse in re piiblica princeps, officio 30 
fiincta consulari videretur. 


§ 20. The conspirators are all my foes, but I do not re- 
pent, for my reward is great. §21. All honor to our great 
men; and I shall have some place among them. § 22. / must 
live with my foes. Nothing will break the union of the 
equites with you. 

20 D. Peroratio. — X. Nunc, ante quam ad senten- 
tiam, redeo, de me pauca dicam. Ego, quanta manus 
est coniuratorum, quam videtis esse permagnam, tan- 
tam me inimicorum multitudinem suscepisse video; 

5 sed eam esse iudico turpem eUinfirman^et contemp- 
tam et abiectam. Quod si aliquando alicuius furore 
et scelere concitata manus ista plus valuerit quam 
vestra ac rei publicae dignitas, me tamen meorum 
factorum atque consiliorum numquam, patres con- 

10 script!, paenitebit. Etenim mors, quam ill! mihi 
fortasse minitantur, omnibus est parata; vitae tantam 
laudem, quanta vos me vestris decretis honestastis, 
nemo est adsecutus. Ceteris enim semper bene gesta, 
mihi iini conservata re piiblica gratulationem decre- 

15 vistis. 

21 Sit Scipio clarus ille, cuius consilio atque virtute 
Hannibal in Africam redire atque [ex] Italia decedere 
coactus est; ornetur alter eximia laude Africanus, qui 
duas urbis huic imperio infestissimas, Karthaginem 

20 Numantiamque, delevit, habeatur vir egregius Paulus 
ille, cuius currum rex potentissimus quondam et no- 
bilissimus Perses honestavit; sit aeterna gloria Mari- 
us, qui bis Italiam obsidione et metii servitutis libera- 
vit; anteponatur omnibus Pompeius, cuius res gestae 

25 atque virtutes isdem quibus solis cursus regionibus 
ac terminis continentur: erit profecto inter horum 
laudes aliquid loci nostrae gloriae, nisi forte mains est 
patefacere nobis provincias quo exire possimus, quam 

Scipio Africanus Major. 
From a bronze bust in the museum at Naples. 


curare et etiam ill! qui absunt habeant quo victores 

Quamquam est uno loco condicio melior externae 22 
victoriae quam domesticae, quod hostes alienigenae 
aut oppress! serviunt aut recepti in amicitiam bene- 5 
ficio se obligates putant; qui autem ex numero civi- 
um, dementia aliqua depravati, hostes patriae semel 
esse coeperunt, eos cum a pernicie rei publicae reppu- 
leris, nee vi coercere nee beneficio placare possis. Qua 
re mihi cum perditis civibus aeternum bellum suscep- 10 
turn esse video. Id ego vestro bonorumque omnium 
auxilio memoriaque tantorum periculorum, quae non 
modo in hoc populo qui servatus est, sed in omnium 
gentium sermonibus ac mentibus semper haerebit, a 
me atque a meis facile propulsari posse confido. Ne- 15 
que ulla profecto tanta vis reperietur, quae coniunc- 
tionem vestram equitumque Romanorum et tantam 
conspirationem bonorum omnium confringere et labe- 
factare possit. 

§ 23. In return for my losses and services, I ask only the 
memory of my consulship. I commend my son to you. § 24. 
Decide with courage the case before you. Your consul will 
execute your will. 

XI. Quae cum ita sint, pro imperio, pro exercitu, 23 
pro provincia quam neglexi, pro triumpho ceterisque 
laudis insTgnibus, quae sunt a me propter urbis ve- 
straeque saliitis custodiam repudiata, pro clientelis ho- 
spitilsque provincialibus, quae tamen urbanTs opibus 
non minore labore tueor quam compare, pro his igitur 25 
omnibus rebus, pro meis in v5s singularibus studiis, 
proque hac quam perspicitis ad conservandam rem 
publicam diligentia, nihil a vobis nisi hiiius temporis 


totiusque mei consulatus memoriam postulo; quae 

dum erit in vestris fixa mentibus, tutissimo me muro 

saeptum esse arbitrabor. Quod si meam spem vis 

improborum fefellerit atque superaverit, commendo 

5 vobis parvum meum filium,cui profecto satis erit prae- 

sidi non solum ad saliitem verum etiam ad dignitatem, 

• si eius, qui haec omnia suo solius periculo conservarit, 

ilium filium esse memineritis. 

24 Quapropter de summa salute vestra populique 

10 Roman!, de vestris coniugibus ac liberis, de aris ac 

focTs, de fanis atque templis, de totlus urbis tectis ac 

sedibus, de imperio ac iTbertate, de salute Italiae, de 

universa re publica decernite diligenter, ut instituistis, 

ac fortiter. Habetis eum consulem qui et parere ve- 

15 stris decretis non dubitet, et ea quae statueritis, quoad 

vivet, defendere et per se ipsum praestare possit. 

Cn. Pompeius Magnus. 
From a bust in Paris, and two coins. 



§1.7 have shrunk from speaking from the Rostra until I 
felt prepared. § 2. My activity in the courts has earned me 
the praetorship. My gifts are at your service. § 3. / rejoice 
in my theme. 

A. Exordium. — Quamqiiam mihi semper frequens i 
conspectus vester multo iucundissinius, hic autem lo- 
cus ad agendum amplissimus, ad dicendum ornatissi- 
mus est visus, Quirltes, tamen hoc aditu laudis qui 
semper optimo cuique maxime patuit, non mea me 5 
voluntas adhuc, sed vTtae meae rationes ab ineunte 
aetate susceptae prohibuerunt. Nam cum antea per 
aetatem nondum huius auctoritatem loci attingere 
auderem statueremque nihil hue nisi perfectum inge- 
ni5, elaboratum industria adferri oportere, omne me- 10 
um tempus amicorum temporibus transmittendum 

Ita neque hlc locus vacuus umquam fuit ab eis qui 2 
vestram causam defenderent, et mens labor, in priva- 
tdrum periculTs caste integreque versatus, ex vestro 15 
iudicio fructum est amplissimum consecutus. Nam 
cum propter dilationem comitiorum ter praetor pri- 
mus centuriis cunctTs renuntiatus sum, facile intellexi, 
Quirites, et quid de me iudicaretis et quid aliis prae- 




scriberetis. Nunc cum et auctoritatis in me tantum 
sit, quantum vos honoribus mandandis esse voluistis, 
et ad agendum facultatis tantum, quantum homini 
vigilant! ex forensi usu prope cottidiana dicendi exer- 
5 citatio potuit adferre; certe et si quid auctoritatis in 
me est, apud eos utar qui eam mihi dederunt, et si 
quid in dicendo consequi possum, eis ostendam potis- 
simum qui ei quoque rei fructum suo iudicio tribuen- 
dum esse duxerunt. 

3 Atque illud in primis mihi laetandum iure esse 
video, quod in hac insolita mihi ex hoc loco ratione 
dicendi causa talis oblata est in qua oratio deesse ne- 
mini possit. Dicendum est enim de Cn. Pompei sin- 
gular! eximiaque virtute; huius autem orationis diffi- 

15 cilius est exitum quam principium invemre. Ita mihi 
non tam copia quam modus in dicendo quaerendus est. 

%^. A serious war is going on against us. The equites 
are alarmed. § 5. Many districts are in the power of the 
enemy. The allies desire Pompey. 

4 B. Narratio. — 11. Atque ut inde oratio mea pro- 
ficiscatur unde haec omnis causa ducitur, bellum grave 
et periculosum vestris vectigalibus ac sociis a duobus 

20 potentissimis regibus infertur, Mithradate et Tigrane, 
quorum alter relictus, alter lacessitus, occasionem sibi 
ad occupandam Asiam oblatam esse arbitratur. Equi- 
tibus Romanis, honestissimis virls, adferuntur ex Asia 
cottidie litterae, quorum magnae res aguntur in ve- 

25 stris vectigalibus exercendis occupatae; qui ad me, pro 
necessitudine quae mihi est cum illo ordine, causam 
rei publicae perlculaque rerum suarum detulerunt: 

5 Bithyniae, quae nunc vestra provincia est, vicos 
exustos esse compluris; regnum Ariobarzanis, quod 


finitimum est vestris vectigalibus, totum esse in ho- 
stium potestate; L. Lucullum magnis rebus gestis ab 
eo bello discedere; huic qui successerit non satis esse 
paratum ad tantum bellum administrandum; iinum 
ab omnibus sociis et civibus ad id bellum imperatorem 5 
deposcT atque expeti, eundem hunc unum ab hostibus 
metuT, praeterea neminem. 

§ 6. / shall speak upon three points. § 7. ^ stain must 
be wiped azvay from the Roman name, and a murderer pun- 
ished. § 8. The victories of our generals have had no last- 
ing results. 

Causa quae sit videtis: nunc quid agendum sit 6 
considerate. Prlmum mihi videtur de genere belli, 
deinde de magnitfidine, tum de imperatore deligendo 10 
esse dicendum. 

Genus est enim belli eius modi, quod maxime 
vestros animos excitare atque Tnflammare ad perse- 
quendl studium debeat: in quo agitur populT Romani 
gloria, quae vobis a maioribus cum magna in omnibus 15 
rebus tum summa in re mllitari tradita est; agitur sa- 
lus sociorum atque amicorum, pro qua multa maiores 
vestri magna et gravia bella gesserunt; aguntur cer- 
tissima populi Romani vectigalia et maxima, quibus 
amissTs et pacis ornamenta et subsidia belli requiretis; 20 
aguntur bona multorum civium, quibus est a vobis et 
ipsorum et rei publicae causa consulendum. 

C. CoNFiRMATio. A. Character of the War. — III. 7 
Et quoniam semper adpetentes gloriae praeter ceteras 
gentis atque avidi laudis fuistis, delenda est vobis ilia 25 
macula Mithradatico bello superiore concepta, quae 
penitus iam insedit ac nimis inveteravit in populi 


Romani nomine; quod is, qui uno die, t5ta in Asia, 
tot in civitatibus, uno nuntio atque una significatione 
litterarum civis Romanos omnis necandos trucidan- 
dosque denotavit, non modo adhuc poenam nullam 
5 suo dignam scelere suscepit, sed ab illo tempore an- 
num iam tertium et vicesimum regnat, et ita regnat 
ut se non Ponti neque Cappadociae latebrls occultare 
velit, sed emergere ex patrio regno atque in vestris 
vectigalibus, hoc est, in Asiae luce versari. 

8 Etenim adhuc ita nostri cum illo rege contende- 
runt imperatores ut ab illo insignia victoriae, non vic- 
toriam reportarent. Triumphavit L. Sulla, triumpha- 
vit L. Murena de Mithradate, duo fortissimi viri et 
summi imperatores, sed ita triumpharunt ut ille pul- 

15 sus superatusque regnaret. Verum tamen illTs im- 
peratoribus laus est tribuenda quod egerunt, venia 
danda quod reliquerunt; propterea quod ab eo bello 
Sullam in Italiam res publica, Murenam Sulla revo- 

§ 9. Mithradates raised new forces and allied himself 
with the Sertorians. § 10. Pompey disposed of Sertorius; 
and Lucullus at first did well against Mithradates. § 11. 
Your ancestors made war on less provocation. 

9 IV. Mithradates autem omne reliquum tempus 
non ad oblivionem veteris belli, sed ad comparationem 
novT contulit. Qui postea, cum maximas aedificasset 
ornassetque classis exercitusque permagnos quibus- 
cumque ex gentibus potuisset comparasset, et se Bo- 

25 sporanTs finitimis suTs bellum Tnferre simularet ; usque 
in Hispaniam legates ac litteras misit ad eos duces 
quibuscum tum bellum gerebamus, ut, cum duobus in 


locis disiunctissimis maximeque diversis uno consilio 
a binis hostium copiis bellum terra marique gereretur, 
vos ancipiti contentione districti de imperio dimica- 

Sed tamen alterius partis periculum, Sertorianae 10 
atque Hispaniensis, quae multo plus firmamenti ac 
roboris habebat, Cn. Pompei divino consilio ac sin- 
gular! virtiite depulsum est; in altera parte ita res a 
L. Lucullo summo viro est administrata, ut initia ilia 
rerum gestarum magna atque praeclara non felicitati 10 
eius sed virtiiti, haec autem extrema, quae nuper acci- 
derunt, non culpae sed fortiinae tribuenda esse videan- 
tur. Sed de Li'icullo dicam alio loco et ita dicam, Qui- 
rites, ut neque vera laus ei detracta oratione mea 
neque falsa adficta esse videatur. De vestrl imperi 11 
dignitate atque gloria, quoniam is est exorsus ora- 
tionis meae, videte quern vobTs animum suscipiendum 

V. Maiores nostri saepe mercatoribus aut navicu- 
larils nostris iniuriosius tractatis bella gesserunt. Vos 20 
tot milibus cTvium Romanorum uno nuntio atque uno 
tempore necatis quo tandem animo esse debetis? Le- 
gati quod erant adpellati superbius, Corinthum patres 
vestri totius Graeciae lumen exstinctum esse volue- 
runt. Vos eum regem inultum esse patiemini, qui 25 
legatum populT Roman! consularem vincuHs ac ver- 
beribus atque omn! supplicio excruciatum necavit? 
111! Hbertatem imminutam c!vium Romanorum non 
tulerunt. Vos ereptam v!tam neglegetis? lus lega- 
tionis verbo violatum ill! persecut! sunt. Vos lega- 30 
turn omn! supplicio interfectum relinquetis? 



§ 12. The safety of your allies is imperiled. § 13. They 
desire Pompey, and he is near. § 14. Your most valuable 
revenues are at stake. 

12 Videte ne, ut illis pulcherrimum fuit tantam vobis 
imperi gloriam tradere, sic vobis turpissimum sit id, 
quod accepistis, tueri et conservare non posse. 

Quid? quod saliis sociorum summum in periculum 
5 ac discrimen vocatur, quo tandem animo ferre debetis? 
Regno est expulsus Ariobarzanes rex, socius populi 
Roman! atque amicus; imminent duo reges toti Asiae 
non solum vobis inimicissimi, sed etiam vestris sociis 
atque amicis; civitates autem omnes ciincta Asia atque 
10 Graecia vestrum auxilium exspectare propter periculi 
magnitiidinem coguntur; imperatorem a vobis-certum 
deposcere, cum praesertim vos alium miseritis, neque 
audent neque se id facere sine summo periculo posse 

13 Vident et sentiunt hoc idem quod vos: iinum vi- 
rum esse in quo summa sint omnia, et eum propter 
esse, quo etiam carent aegrius; cuius adventu ipso at- 
que nomine, tametsi ille ad maritimum bellum vene- 
rit, tamen impetus hostium represses esse intellegunt 

20 ac retardates. Hi vos, quoniam libere loqui non licet, 
tacite rogant ut se quoque, sicut ceterarum provin- 
ciarum socios, dignos existimetis, quorum salutem 
tall viro commendetis; atque hoc etiam magis, quod 
ceteros in provinciam eius modi homines cum im- 

25 perio mittimus, ut etiam si ab hoste defendant, 
tamen ipsdrum adventus in urbis sociorum non 
multum ab hostili expugnatione differant. Hunc 
audiebant antea, nunc praesentem vident tanta tem- 
perantia, tanta mansuetiadine, tanta humanitate, ut 


ei beatissimi esse videantur, apud quos ille diutis- 
sime commoratur. 

VI. Qua re si propter socios, nulla ipsi iniuria la- ^4 
cessiti, maiores nostrl cum Antiocho, cum Philippe, 
cum Aetolis, cum Poenis bella gesserunt, quanto vos 5 
studio convenit iniuriis provocates sociorum salutem 
una cum imperl vestri dignitate defendere, praesertim 
cum de maximis vestris vectigalibus agatur? Nam 
ceterarum provinciarum vectlgalia, Quirites, tanta 
sunt et eis ad ipsas provincias tutandas vix content! ^^ 
esse posslmus; Asia vero tam opTma est ac fertilis ut 
et ubertate agrorum et varietate fructuum et magni- 
tudine pastionis et multitudine earum rerum quae ex- 
portentur facile omnibus terris antecellat. Itaque 
haec v5bis provincia, Quirites, si et belli utilitatem et ^5 
pacis dignitatem retinere voltis, non modo a calami- 
tate, sed etiam a metu calamitatis est defendenda. 

§ 15. Wars and rumors of war create panic in business. 
§§ 16, 17. The tax-payers and tax-gatherers must be pro- 

Nam in ceteris rebus cum venit calamitas, tum 15 
detrimentum accipitur; at in vectigalibus n5n solum 
adventus mall sed etiam metus ipse adfert calamita- 20 
tem. Nam cum hostium copiae non longe absunt, 
etiam si inruptio nulla facta est, tamen pecuaria re- 
linquitur, agri cultura deseritur, mercatorum naviga- 
tio conquiescit, Ita neque ex portii neque ex decu- 
mis neque ex scriptura vectigal conservari potest ; qua 25 
re saepe totius anni fructus uno rumore periculi atque 
uno belli terrore amittitur. 

Quo tandem igitur animo esse existimatis aut 16 
eos qui vectigalia nobis pensitant aut eos qui exer- 


cent atqiie exigunt, cum duo reges cum maximis co- 
pils propter adsint? cum una excursio equitatus per- 
brevi tempore totlus anni vectigal auferre possit? cum 
publicani familias maximas quas in saltibus habent, 
5 quas in agris, quas in portubus atque custodiis, ma- 
gno periculo se habere arbitrentur? Putatisne vos 
illls rebus frul posse, nisi eos, qui vobis fructui sunt, 
conservaritis non solum, ut ante dixl, calamitate, sed 
etiam calamitatis formidine liberates? 

17 VII. Ac ne illud quidem vobis neglegendum est, 
quod mihi ego extremum proposueram cum essem de 
belli genere dicturus, quod ad multorum bona civium 
Romanorum pertinet, quorum vobis pro vestra sapi- 
entia, Quirites, habenda est ratio diligenter. Nam et 

15 publicani, homines honestissimi atque ornatissimi, 
suas rationes et copias in illam provinciam contule- 
runt, quorum ipsorum per se res et fortunae vobis 
curae esse debent. Etenim si vectigalia nervos esse 
rei publicae semper diiximus, eum certe ordinem, qui 

20 exercet ilia, firmamentum ceterorum ordinum recte 
esse dicemus. 

§ 18. Yon must protect all who have investments in Asia. 
§ 19. Financial security at Rome depends upon the state of 
the East. 

18 Deinde ex ceteris ordinibus homines gnavi atque 
industrii partim ipsi in Asia negotiantur, quibus vos 
absentibus consulere debetis, partim eorum in ea pr5- 

25 vincia pecunias magnas conlocatas habent. Est igitur 
hiimanitatis vestrae magnum numerum eorum civium 
calamitate prohibere, sapientiae videre multorum ci- 
vium calamitatem a re publica seiiinctam esse n5n 
posse. Etenim primum illud parvi refert, nos piibli- 


cams omissis vectlgalia postea victoria recuperare; 
neque enim isdem redimendi facultas erit propter ca- 
lamitatem neque aliis voluntas propter timorem. 

Deinde quod nos eadem Asia atque idem iste Mi- 19 
thradates initio belli Asiatic! docuit, id quidem certe 5 
calamitate docti memoria retinere debemus. Nam 
turn, cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, sci- 
mus Romae solutione impedita fidem concidisse. Non 
enim possunt una in civitate multi rem ac fortiinas 
amittere, ut non plures secum in eandem trahant ca- 10 
lamitatem. A quo periculo prohibete rem publicam, 
et mihi credite id quod ipsi videtis: haec fides atque 
haec ratio pecCmiarum, quae Romae, quae in foro 
versatur, implicata est cum illis pecuniis Asiaticis et 
cohaeret; mere ilia non possunt, ut haec non eodem 15 
labefacta motu concidant. Qua re videte ne non 
dubitandum vobis sit omni studio ad id bellum in- 
cumbere, in quo gloria nominis vestri, salus socio- 
rum, vectlgalia maxima, fortunae plurimorum civium 
coniunctae cum re publica defendantur. 20 

§§ 20, 21, The war is necessary and important. The deeds 
of Lucullus deserve praise. 

B. Magnitude of the War. — VIII. Quoniam de ge- 20 
nere belli dixi, nunc de magnitiidine pauca dicam. 
Potest enim hoc dici: belli genus esse ita necessarium 
ut sit gerendum, non esse ita magnum ut sit pertime- 
scendum. In quo maxime laborandum est ne forte 25 
ea vobis, quae diligentissime providenda sunt, con- 
temnenda esse videantur. Atque ut omnes intelle- 
gant me L. Liicullo tantum impertire laudis, quan- 
tum forti viro et sapienti homini et magno imperatori 
debeatur, dico eius adventu maximas Mithradati c6- 30 


pias omnibus rebus ornatas atque Instructas fuisse, 
urbemque Asiae clarissimam nobisque amicissimam, 
Cyzicenorum, obsessam esse ab ips5 rege maxima 
multitudine et oppugnatam vehementissime, quam L. 
5 Lucullus virtiite, adsiduitate, consilio summis obsidi- 

21 onis periculis liberavit: ab eodem imperatore classem 
magnam et ornatam, quae ducibus Sertorianis ad 
Italiam studio atque odio inflammata raperetur, 
superatam esse atque depressam; magnas hostium 

lo praeterea copias multis proeliis esse deletas, pate- 
factumque nostris legionibus esse Pontum, qui antea 
populo Romano ex omni aditu clausus fuisset; Sino- 
pen atque Amisum, quibus in oppidls erant domi- 
cilia regis, omnibus rebus ornatas ac refertas, cete- 

15 rasque urbis Ponti et Cappadociae permultas, uno 
aditii adventiique esse captas; regem spoliatum 
regno patrio atque avito ad alios se reges atque 
ad alias gentis supplicem contulisse; atque haec om- 
nia salvis populi Roman! socils atque integris vecti- 

20 galibus esse gesta. Satis opinor haec esse laudis, 
atque ita, Quirltes, ut hoc vos intellegatis, a nullo 
istorum, qui huic obtrectant legi atque causae, L. 
Liicullum similiter ex hoc loco esse laudatum. 

§ 22. Mithradates, like Medea, escaped by a trick. § 23. 
Tigranes and others befriended him. § 24. Our soldiers de- 
sired to return home. Mithradates received help and sym- 

22 IX. RequTretur fortasse nunc quem ad modum, 
25 cum haec ita sint, rehquum possit magnum esse hel- 
ium. Cognoscite, Quirltes; non enim hoc sine causa 
quaeri videtur. Primum ex suo regno sic Mithra- 
dates profugit ut ex eodem Ponto Medea ilia quon- 


dam profugisse dicitur, quam praedicant in fuga 
fratris sul membra in els locis, qua se parens perseque- 
retur, dissipavisse, ut eorum conlectio dispersa maeror- 
que patrius celeritatem persequendi retardaret. Sic 
Mithradates fugiens maximam vim auri atque argent! 5 
pulcherrimarumque rerum omnium, quas et a maiori- 
bus acceperat et ipse bello superiore ex tota Asia di- 
reptas in suum regnum congesserat, in Ponto omnem 
reliquit. Haec dum nostri conligunt omnia diligen- 
tius, rex ipse e manibus effugit. Ita ilium in perse- 10 
quendi studio maeror, hos laetitia tardavit. 

Hunc in illo timore et fuga Tigranes, rex Arme- 23 
nius, excepit diffldentemque rebus suis confirmavit et 
adflictum erexit perditumque recreavit. Cuius in re- 
gnum postea quam L. Lucullus cum exercitu venit, 15 
plures etiam gentes contra imperatorem nostrum con- 
citatae sunt. Erat enim metus iniectus eis nationibus 
quas numquam populus Romanus neque lacessendas 
bello neque temptandas putavit. Erat etiam alia gra 
vis atque vehemens opinio quae animos gentium bar- 20 
bararum pervaserat: fan! locupletissimi et religiosis- 
,simi dlripiendi causa in eas oras nostrum esse exerci- 
tum adductum. Ita nationes multae atque magnae 
novo quodam terrore ac metu concitabantur. Noster 
autem exercitus, tametsi urbem ex Tigranis regno 25 
ceperat et proeliis usus erat secundis, tamen nimia 
longinquitate locorum ac desiderio suorum commove- 

Hic iam plura non dicam; fuit enim illud extre- 24 
mum, ut ex eis locis a militibus nostris reditus magis 30 
matiirus quam processio longior quaereretur. Mi- 
thradates autem et suam manum iam confirmarat, et 


eortim qui se ex ipslus regno conlegerant, et magnls 
adventiciis auxiliis multorum regum et nationum iuva- 
batur. Nam hoc fere sic fieri solere accepimus ut 
regum adflictae fortunae facile multorum opes adli- 
5 ciant ad misericordiam, maximeque eorum qui aut re- 
ges sunt aut vivunt in regno, ut eis nomen regale 
magnum et sanctum esse videatur. 

§ 25. He even annihilated a Roman army. § 26. Lucullus 
has disbanded some troops and given others to Glabrio. Judge 
yourselves as to the importance of the war. 

25 Itaque tantum victus efficere potuit quantum in- 
columis numquam est ausus optare. Nam cum se 

10 in regnum suum recepisset, non fuit eo contentus quod 
ei praeter spem acciderat, ut illam, postea quam pul- 
sus erat, terram umquam attingeret, sed in exercitum 
nostrum clarum atque victorem impetum fecit. Sinite 
hoc loco, Ouirites, sicut poetae solent qui res Roma- 

15 nas scribunt, praeterire me nostram calamitatem, quae 
tanta . fuit ut eam ad auris L. Luculli imperatoris 
non ex proelio niintius, sed ex sermone riimor ad- 

26 Hie in illo ipso malo gravissimaque belli ofifensi- 
20 one, L. Lucullus, qui tamen aliqua ex parte eis incom- 

modis mederi fortasse potuisset, vestro iussu coactus, 
quod imperi diiiturnitati modum statuendum vetere 
exemplo putavistis, partem militum qui iam stipendiis 
confecti erant dimisit, partem M\ Glabrioni tradidit. 
25 Multa praetereo consulto, sed ea v5s coniectura per- 
spicite, quantum illud bellum factum putetis, quod 
coniungant reges potentissimi, renovent agitatae na- 
tiones, suscipiant integrae gentes, novus imperator 
noster accipiat vetere exercitii pulso. 


§ 2^. Would that good generals were plentiful ! Pompey 
surpasses all. § 28. Four qualities are necessary in a great 
commander, and Pompey has them all. His training was 

C. Choice of a Commander. — X. Satis mihi multa 27 
verba fecisse videor qua re esset hoc bellum genere 
ipso necessarium, magnitudine periculosum ; restat ut 
de imperatore ad id bellum deligendo ac tantis rebus 
praeficiendo dicendum esse videatur. 5 

Utinam, Quirites, virorum fortium atque inno- 
centium copiam tantam haberetis ut haec vobis deli- 
beratio difficilis esset, quemnam potissimum tantis re- 
bus ac tanto bello praeficiendum putaretis! Nunc 
vero cum sit unus Cn. Pompeius qui non modo eorum 10 
hominum qui nunc sunt gloriam, sed etiam antiquita- 
tis memoriam virtute superarit, quae res est quae cu- 
iusquam animum in hac causa dubium facere possit? 

Ego enim sic existimo, in summo imperatore quat- 28 
tuor has res inesse oportere: scientiam rel mllitaris, 15 
virtutem, auctoritatem, felicitatem. Quis igitur hoc 
homine scientior umquam aut fuit aut esse debuit? 
Qui e ludo atque e pueritiae disciplinis bello maximo 
atque acerrimis hostibus ad patris exercitum atque in 
militiae disciplinam profectus est; qui extrema pueri- 20 
tia miles in exercitu fuit summi imperatdris; ineunte 
adulescentia maximi ipse exercitus imperator, qui 
saepius cum hoste confllxit quam quisquam cum in- 
imico concertavit, plura bella gessit quam ceteri lege- 
runt, pluris provincias confecit quam alii concupive- 25 
runt; ciiius adulescentia ad scientiam rei mllitaris, non 
alienis praeceptis, sed suis imperils, non offensionibus 
belli, sed victoriis, non stipendiis, sed triumphis est 


erudita. Quod denique genus esse belli potest in qu5 
ilium non exercuerit fortuna rei publicae? Civile, 
Africanum, Transalpinum, Hispaniense mixtum ex 
civitatibus atque ex bellicosissimis nationibus, servile, 
5 navale bellum, varia et diversa genera et bellorum et 
hostium non solum gesta ab hoc uno sed etiam con- 
fecta, nijllam rem esse declarant in iisu positam mili- 
tari quae huius viri scientiam fugere possit. 

§ 29, He surpasses all in superior qualities. § 30. Many 
countries are witnesses of his prowess. §§31-35. The seas 
were infested with pirates, and the state was disgraced and 
helpless. Pompey swept the sea with incredible speed and 
broke the pirates' power. 

29 XL lam vero virtijti Cn. Pompei quae potest ora- 
10 tio par inveniri? Quid est quod quisquam aut illo 

dignum aut vobis novum aut cuiquam inauditum" pos- 
sit adferre? Neque enim illae sunt solae virtiites im- 
peratoriae quae volgo existimantur, labor in negotiis, 
fortitiJdo in periculis, industria in agendo, celeritas in 
15 conficiendo, consilium in providendo; quae tanta sunt 
in hoc uno quanta in omnibus reliquis imperatoribus, 
quos aut vidimus aut audivimus, non fuerunt. 

30 Testis est Italia, quam ille ipse victor L. Sulla hu- 
ius virtute et subsidio confessus est liberatam. Testis 

20 est Sicilia, quam, multis undique cinctam periculis, 
non terrore belli sed consili celeritate explicavit. Te- 
stis est Africa, quae magnis oppressa hostium copiis 
eorum ipsorum sanguine redundavit. Testis est Gal- 
lia, per quam legionibus nostris iter in Hispaniam Gal- 

25 lorum internecione patefactum est. Testis est Hi- 
spania, quae saepissime pliirimos hostis ab hoc supe- 
ratos prostratosque conspexit. Testis est iterum et 


saepius Italia, quae, cum servili bello taetro peri- 
culosoque premeretur, ab hoc auxilium absente 
expetivit; quod bellum exspectatione eius attenua- 
tum atque imminutum est, adventu sublatum ac se- 
pultum. 5 

Testes nunc vero iam omnes orae atque omnes 31 
exterae gentes ac nationes, denique maria omnia, cum 
universa, tum in singulis oris omnes sinus atque por- 
tus. Quis enim toto man locus per hos annos aut tam 
firmum habuit praesidium ut tutus esset, aut tam fuit 10 
abditus ut lateret? Quis navigavit qui non se aut 
mortis aut servitutis periculo committeret, cum aut 
hieme aut referto praedonum marl navigaret? Hoc 
tantum bellum, tam turpe, tam vetus, tam late divi- 
sum atque dispersum, quis umquam arbitraretur aut 15 
ab omnibus imperatoribus uno ann5 aut omnibus an- 
nis ab uno imperatore conficT posse? Quam prdvin- 32 
ciam tenuistis a praedonibus liberam per hosce annos? 
Quod vectlgal vobis tutum fuit? Quem socium de- 
fendistis? Cui praesidio classibus vestris fuistis? 20 
Quam multas existimatis insulas esse desertas? Quam 
multas aut metu relictas aut a praedonibus captas 
urbis esse sociorum? 

XII. Sed quid ego longinqua commemoro? Fuit 
hoc quondam, fuit proprium populi Roman! longe a 25 
domo bellare et propugnaculis imperi sociorum fortu- 
nas, non sua tecta defendere. Socils ego nostrls mare 
per hos annos clausum fuisse dicam, cum exercitus 
vestrl numquam a Brundisio nisi hieme summa trans- 
miserint? Qui ad vos ab exteris natidnibus venlrent 30 
captos querar, cum legati popuH Roman! redempt! 
sint? Mercatoribus tutum mare non fuisse d!cam, 


cum duodecim secures in praedonum potestatem per- 

3^ Cnidum aut Colophonem aut Samum, nobilissi- 
mas urbis, innumerabilisque alias captas esse comme- 
5 morem, cum vestros portus atque eos portus, quibus 
vitam ac spiritum ducitis, in praedonum fuisse potes- 
tate sciatis? An vero ignoratis portum Caietae cele- 
berrimum ac plenissimum navium inspectante prae- 
tore a praedonibus esse direptum? ex Miseno autem 

lo eius ipsius liberos, qui cum praedonibus antea ibi bel- 
lum gesserat, a praedonibus esse sublatos? Nam quid 
ego Ostiense incommodum atque illam labem atque 
ignominiam rei publicae querar, cum prope inspec- 
tantibus vobis classis ea, cui consul populT Roman! 

15 praepositus esset, a praedonibus capta atque oppressa 
est? Pro di immortales! tantamne unius hominis in- 
credibilis ac divina virtus tam brevi tempore lucem 
adferre rei publicae potuit, ut vos, qui modo ante 
ostium Tiberlnum classem hostium videbatis, ei nunc 

20 nullam intra Ocean! ostium praedonum navem esse 

34 Atque haec qua celeritate gesta sint quamquam 
videtis, tamen a me in d!cendo praetereunda non sunt. 
Quis enim umquam aut obeund! negot! aut conse- 

25 quend! quaestus studio tam brev! tempore tot loca 
ad!re, tantos cursus conficere potuit, quam cele- 
riter Cn. Pompei5 duce tant! bell! impetus navi- 
gavit? Ou! nondum tempest!vo ad navigandum 
mari Sicilian! adiit, Africam exploravit, in Sardini- 

30 am cum classe venit, atque haec tria frumentaria 
subsidia re! publicae f!rmissimis praesidi!s classibus- 
que miimvit. 


Inde cum se in Italiam recepisset, duabus Hispa- 35 
nils et Gallia Transalpina praesidiis ac navibus con- 
flrmata, missis item in oram Illyrici maris et in Achai- 
am omnemque Graeciam navibus, Italiae duo maria 
maximis classibus firmissimisque praesidiis adornavit ; 5 
ipse autem, ut Brundisio profectus est, undequinqua- 
gesimo die totam ad imperium populi Roman! Cili- 
ciam adiunxit; omnes qui ubique praedones fuerunt, 
partim capti interfectique sunt, partim unTus huius se 
imperio ac potestati dediderunt. Idem Cretensibus, lo 
cum ad eum usque in Pamphyliam legatos depreca- 
toresque misissent, spem deditionis non ademit obsi- 
desque imperavit. Ita tantum bellum, tarn diutur- 
num, tam longe lateque dispersum, quo bello omnes 
gentes ac nationes premebantur, Cn. Pompeius ex- 15 
trema hieme adparavit, ineunte vere suscepit, media 
aestate confecit. 

§ 36. With other necessary qualities Pompey is excep- 
tionally endowed. § 37. Some generals have been corrupt. 
§ 38. // their armies ravaged our own fields, what must the 
allies have suffered f § 39. Pompey prevents his army from 
being a nuisance. 

XIII. Est haec divina atque incredibilis virtus im- 36 
peratoris. Quid? ceterae quas paulo ante commemo- 
rare coeperam, quantae atque quam multae sunt! 20 
Non enim bellandi virtus solum in summo ac perfecto 
imperatore quaerenda est, sed multae sunt artes exi- 
miae huius administrae comitesque virtutis. Ac pri- 
mum, quanta innocentia debent esse imperatdres, 
quanta deinde in omnibus rebus temperantia, quanta 25 
fide, quanta facilitate, quanto ingenio, quanta hu- 
manitate! Quae breviter qualia sint in Cn. Pompeio 


conslderemus. Summa enim omnia sunt, Quirites, 
sed ea niagis ex aliorum contentione quam ipsa per 
sese cognosci atque intellegi possunt. 

37 Quern enim imperatorem possumus ullo in nu- 
5 mero putare ciiius in exercitu centuriatus veneant at- 
que venierint? Quid hunc hominem magnum aut am- 
plum de re publica cogitare, qui pecuniam, ex aerario 
depromptam ad bellum administrandum, aut propter 
cupiditatem provinciae magistratibus dlvlserit aut 

lo propter avaritiam Romae in quaestii rellquerit? Ve- 
stra admurmuratio facit, Quirites, ut agnoscere videa- 
mini qui haec fecerint: ego autem nomino neminem; 
qua re irasci mihi nemo poterit, nisi qui ante de se 
voluerit confiterl. Itaque propter banc avaritiam im- 

15 peratorum quantas calamitates, quocumque ventum 

38 sit, nostri exercitus ferant quis Tgnorat? Itinera, 
quae per hosce annos in Italia per agros atque 
oppida civium Romanorum nostri imperatores fece- 
rint, recordamini; tum facilius statuetis quid apud 

20 exteras nationes fieri existimetis. Utrum plurls arbi- 
tramini per hosce annos militum vestrorum armis 
hostium urbTs an hibernis sociorum civitates esse de- 
letas? Neque enim potest exercitum is continere im- 
perator qui se ipse non continet, neque severus esse in 

25 iudicando qui alios in se severos esse indices non volt. 

39 Hie miramur hunc hominem tantum excellere 
ceteris, ciiius legiones sic in Asiam pervenerint ut non 
modo manus tanti exercitus sed ne vestigium quidem 
cuiquam pacato nocuisse dicatur? lam vero quem 

30 ad modum milites hibernent, cottidie sermones ac lit- 
terae perferuntur; non modo ut sumptum faciat in 
militem nemini vis adfertur, sed ne cupienti quidem 


cuiquam permittitur. Hiemis enim non avaritiae per- 
fugiuni maiores nostri in sociorum atque amicorum 
tectis esse voluerunt. 

§ 40. Nothing swerves him from a purpose. § 41. Men 
believe him lent from heaven, and have faith in the stories 
of old Roman virtue. § 42. He is wise, eloquent, trustworthy, 
and kind. 

XIV. Age vero, ceteris in rebus qua sit tempe- 40 
rantia considerate. Unde illam tantam celeritatem 5 
et tarn incredibilem cursum inventum putatis? Non 
enim ilium eximia vis remigum aut ars inaudita quae- 
dam gubernandi aut venti aliqui novi tarn celeriter in 
ultimas terras pertulerunt; sed eae res quae ceteros 
remorari solent non retardarunt: non avaritia ab in- 10 
stituto cursu ad praedam aliquam devocavit, non li- 
bido ad voluptatem, non amoenitas ad delectationem, 
non nobilitas urbis ad cognitionem, non denique labor 
ipse ad quietem; postremo signa et tabulas ceteraque 
ornamenta Graecorum oppidorum, quae ceteri tollen- 15 
da esse arbitrantur, ea sibi ille ne vTsenda quidem 

Itaque omnes nunc in eis locis Cn. Pompeium si- 41 
cut aliquem, non ex hac urbe missum, sed de caelo 
delapsum intuentur. Nunc denique incipiunt credere 20 
fuisse homines Romanos hac quondam continentia, 
quod iam nationibus exteris incredibile ac falso me- 
moriae proditum videbatur. Nunc imperi vestri 
splendor illis gentibus lucem adferre coepit. Nunc 
intellegunt non sine causa maiores suos tum, cum ea 25 
temperantia magistratus habebamus, servire populo 
Romano quam imperare alils maluisse. Iam vero ita 
faciles aditus ad eum privatorum, ita liberae queri- 


moniae de aliorum iniuriis esse dicuntur, ut is, qui 
dignitate principibus excellit, facilitate infimis par esse 

42 lam quantum consilio, quantum dicendi gravitate 
5 et copia valeat, in quo ipso inest quaedam dignitas 

imperatoria, vos, Quirites, hoc ipso ex loco saepe 
cognovistis. ■ Fidem vero eius quantam inter socios 
existimari putatis, quam hostes omnes omnium gene- 
rum sanctissimam iudicarint? HiJmanitate iam tanta 

10 est ut difficile dictii sit utrum hostes magis virtutem 
eius pugnantes timuerint an mansuetudinem victi di- 
lexerint. Et quisquam dubital^it quin huic h5c tan- 
tum bellum transmittendum sit, qui ad omnia nostrae 
memoriae bella conficienda divino quodam consilio 

15 natus esse videatur? 

§ 43. His great prestige tells zvith the enemy, § 44. His 
fame extends everywhere. The price of grain fell when he 
was appointed against the pirates. § 45. His mere presence 
in Asia has deterred Mithradates. 

43 XV. Et quoniam auctoritas quoque in bellis ad- 
ministrandls multum atque in imperio militari valet, 
certe nemini dubium est quin ea re idem ille impera- 
tor plurimum possit. Vehementer autem pertinere 

20 ad bella administranda quid hostes, quid socii de im- 
peratoribus nostrls existiment, quis ignorat, cum scia- 
mus homines in tantis rebus ut aut contemnant aut 
metuant aut oderint aut ament opinione non minus 
et fama quam aliqua ratione certa commoveri? Quod 

25 igitur nomen umquam in orbe terrarum clarius fuit? 
Cuius res gestae pares? De quo homine vos, id quod 
maxime facit auctoritatem, tanta et tarn praeclara 
iudicia fecistis? 


An vero ullam usquam esse oram tarn desertam 44 
putatis quo non illius die! fama pervaserit, cum uni- 
versus populus Romanus, referto foro completlsque 
omnibus templls ex quibus hic locus conspici potest, 
unum sibi ad commune omnium gentium bellum Cn. 5 
Pompeium imperatorem depoposcit? Itaque, — ut 
plura non dicam neque aliorum exemplis confirmem 
quantum [huius] auctoritas valeat in bello, — ab eo- 
dem Cn. Pompeio omnium rerum egregiarum exem- 
pla siimantur ; qui quo die a vobis maritime bello prae- 10 
positus est imperator, tanta repente vilitas annonae ex 
summa inopia et caritate rei frumentariae consecuta 
est unius hominis spe ac nomine, quantam vix ex sum- 
ma fibertate agrorum diuturna pax efficere potuisset. 

lam accepta in Ponto calamitate ex eo proelio de 45 
quo vos paulo ante invitus admonuT, — cum socii per- 
timuissent, hostium opes animique crevissent, satis fir- 
mum praesidium provincia non haberet, — amisissetis 
Asiam, Quirites, nisi ad ipsum discrimen eius temporis 
divlnitus Cn. Pompeium ad eas regiones fortuna po- 20 
pull Roman! attulisset. Huius adventus et Mithra- 
datem insolita mflammatum victoria continuit et Ti- 
granem magnis copils minitantem Asiae retardavit. 
Et quisquam dubitabit quid virtute perfecturus sit qui 
tantum auctoritate perfecerit? aut quam facile impe- 25 
ri5 atque exercitCi socios et vectigalia conservaturus 
sit qui ipso nomine ac rumore defenderit? 

§ 46. The Cretans preferred to surrender to Pompey. 
Mithradates tried to bargain zvith him in Spain. §§ 47, 48. 
Pompey has had extraordinarily good fortune. 

XVI. Age ver5 ilia res quantam declarat eiusdem 46 
hominis apud hostis populi Roman! auctoritatem, 


quod ex locTs tarn longinquis tamque diversis tarn 
brevi tempore omnes huic se unl dediderunt! quod 
Cretensium legati, cum in eorum insula noster im- 
perator exercitusque esset, ad Cn. Pompeium in ulti- 
5 mas prope terras venerunt, eique se omnis Cretensi- 
um civitates dedere velle dixerunt ! Quid? Idem iste 
Mithradates nonne ad eundem Cn. Pompeium lega- 
tum usque in Hispaniam misit? eum quem Pompeius 
legatum semper iudicavit, ei, quibus erat semper 

lo molestum ad eum potissimum esse missum, specula- 
torem quam legatum iijdicarl maluerunt. Potestis 
igitur iam constituere, Quirites, banc auctoritatem, 
multis postea rebus gestis magnisque vestris iudiciis 
amplificatam, quantum apud illos reges, quantum 

15 apud exteras nationes valituram esse existimetis. 

47 Reliquum est ut de felicitate, quam praestare de 
se ipso nemo potest, meminisse et commemorare de 
altero possumus, sTcut aequum est homines de po- 
testate deorum, timide et pauca dicamus. Ego enim 

20 sic existimo: Maximo, Marcello, Scipioni, Mario, et 
ceteris magnls imperatoribus, non solum propter vir- 
tutem sed etiam propter fortiinam, saepius imperia 
mandata atque exercitus esse commissos. Fuit enim 
profecto quibusdam summis viris quaedam ad ampli- 

25 tudinem et ad gloriam et ad res magnas bene geren- 
das divinitus adiiincta fortuna. De hiiius autem 
hominis felicitate, de quo nunc agimus, hac utar 
moderatione dlcendi, non ut in illius potestate 
fortunam positam esse dlcam, sed ut praeterita 

30 meminisse, reliqua sperare videamur, ne aut invlsa 
dis immortalibus oratid nostra aut ingrata esse 


Itaqiie non sum praedicaturus quantas ille res 48 
domi militiae, terra marique, quantaque felicitate ges- 
serit; ut eius semper voluntatibus non modo cives 
adsenserint, socii obtemperarint, hostes oboedierint, 
sed etiam venti tempestatesque obsecundarint. Hoc 5 
brevissime dicam, neminem umquam tam impuden- 
tem fuisse, qui ab dis immortalibus tot et tantas res 
tacitus auderet optare, quot et quantas di immorta- 
les ad Cn. Pompeium detulerunt. Quod ut illi pro- 
prium ac perpetuum sit, Quirites, cum communis sa- 10 
lutis atque imperl tum ipsius hominis causa, sicuti 
facitis, velle et optare debetis. 

§ 49. Do you then hesitate to employ his abilities for the 
service of the state f § 50. He ought to be appointed, now 
that he is on the spot. § 51. Catulus and Hortensius oppose 
the bill. But consider the facts, not influence. 

Qua re, cum et bellum sit ita necessarium ut ne- 49 
glegi non possit, ita magnum ut accuratissime sit 
administrandum, et cum ei imperatorem praeficere 15 
possitis, in quo sit eximia belli scientia, singularis 
virtus, clarissima auctoritas, egregia fortuna, dubi- 
tatis, Quirites, quin hoc tantum bom, quod vobis 
ab dis immortalibus oblatum et datum est, in rem 
piiblicam conservandam atque amplificandam con- 20 

XVII. Quod SI Romae Cn. Pompeius privatus 50 
esset hoc tempore, tamen ad tantum bellum is erat 
deligendus atque mittendus; nunc cum ad ceteras sum- 
mas utilitates haec quoque opportunitas adiungatur, 25 
ut in eis ipsis locis adsit, ut habeat exercitum, ut ab 
eis qui habent accipere statim possit, quid exspecta- 
mus? Aut cur non ducibus dis immortalibus eidem. 


cui cetera summa cum salute rei publicae commissa 
sunt, hoc quoque bellum regium committamus? 

51 D. CoNFUTATio. — At enim vir clarissimus, aman- 
tissimus rei publicae, vestris beneficiis amplissimis ad- 

5 fectus, Q. Catulus, itemque summis ornamentis ho- 
noris, fortunae, virtutis, ingeni praeditus, Q. Hor- 
tensius, ab hac ratione dissentiunt. Quorum ego 
auctoritatem apud vos multis locis plurimum valuisse 
et valere oportere confiteor; sed in hac causa, tametsi 

10 cognoscetis auctoritates contrarias virorum fortissi- 
morum et clarissimorum, tamen omissis auctoritati- 
bus ipsa re ac ratione exquirere possumus veritatem, 
atque hoc facihus, quod ea omnia, quae a me adhuc 
dicta sunt, eldem isti vera esse concedunt, et necessa- 

15 rium bellum esse et magnum, et in uno Cn. Pompeio 
summa esse omnia. 

§ 52. Hortensius objects to one-man powejr. But no harm 
has come out of the Gabinian lazu. § 53. The interests of 
the state prevailed. § 54. What state could not guard its 
shores, save Rome? 

52 Quid igitur ait Hortensius? Si uni omnia tribu- 
enda sint, dignissimum esse Pompeium, sed ad unum 
tamen omnia deferri non oportere. Obsolevit iam 

20 ista oratio, re multo magis quam verbis refutata. 
Nam tij idem, Q. Hortensi, multa pro tua summa 
copia ac singular! facultate dicendi et in senatu con- 
tra virum fortem, A. Gabinium, graviter ornateque 
dixisti, cum is de iino imperatore contra praedones 

25 constituendo legem promulgasset, et ex hoc ipso loco 
permulta item contra eam legem verba fecisti. 

53 Quid? tum, per deos immortalis! si pliis apud po- 
pulum Romanum auctoritas tua quam ipsius populi 


Romanl salus et vera causa valuisset, hodie hanc glo- 
riam atque hoc orbis terrae imperium teneremus? 
An tibi turn imperium hoc esse videbatur, cum popuH 
Romani legati, quaestores praetoresque capiebantur, 
cum ex omnibus provinciis commeatu et privato et 5 
pubHco prohibebamur, cum ita clausa nobis erant ma- 
ria omnia ut neque privatam rem transmarinam neque 
pubHcam iam obire possemus? 

XVIII. Quae civitas antea umquam fuit, non dico 54 
Atheniensium, quae satis late quondam mare tenuisse 10 
dicitur, non Karthaginiensium, qui permuUum classe 
ac maritimis rebus valuerunt, non Rhodiorum, quo- 
rum usque ad nostram memoriam dIscipHna navaHs 
et gloria remansit; quae civitas, inquam, antea tam 
tenuis, quae tam parva insula fuit quae non portiis 15 
su5s et agros et aliquam partem regionis atque orae 
maritimae per se ipsa defenderet? At hercule aliquot 
annos continues ante legem Gabiniam ille populus 
Romanus, ciiius usque ad nostram memoriam nomen 
invictum in navalibus pugnis permanserit, magna ac 20 
multo maxima parte non modo iitilitatis, sed dignita- 
tis atque imperi caruit. 

§ 55- ^^ were humbled on the sea, yet our rulers did not 
feel shame. § 56. Distress forced the people to disregard 
your advice, Hortensius. § 57. It's too had that objection 
zvas raised against Gabinius. § 58. There are precedents; 
and I shall put his case before the senate. 

Nos, quorum maiores Antiochum regem classe 55 
Persemque superarunt, omnibusque navalibus piignis 
Karthaginiensis, homines in maritimis rebus exerci- 25 
tatissimos paratissimosque, vicerunt, ei nullo in loco 
iam praedonibus pares esse poteramus; nos, qui antea 


n5n modo Italiam tutam habebamus, sed omnis so- 
cios in ultimis oris auctoritate nostri imperi salvos 
praestare poteramus, — turn, cum insula Delos, tarn 
procul a nobis in Aegaeo mari posita, quo omnes un- 
5 dique cum mercibus atque oneribus commeabant, re- 
ferta divitiis, parva, sine miiro, nihil timebat, — eidem 
non modo provinciis atque oris Ttaliae maritimis ac 
portubus nostris, sed etiam Appia iam via carebamus; 
et eis temporibus non pudebat magistratiis populi 
lo Romani in hunc ipsum locum escendere, cum eum 
nobis maiores nostri exuviis nauticis et classium spo- 
liis ornatum reliquissent. 

56 XIX. Bono te animo tum, Q. Hortensi, populus 
Romanus et ceteros, qui erant in eadem sententia, 

15 dicere existimavit ea quae sentiebatis; sed tamen in 
saliite communi idem populus Romanus dolori suo 
maluit quam auctoritati vestrae obtemperare. Itaque 
tina lex, iinus vir, iinus annus non modo nos ilia mise- 
ria ac turpitudine liberavit, sed etiam effecit ut ali- 

20 quando vere videremur omnibus gentibus ac natiofii- 
bus terra marique imperare. 

57 Quo mihi etiam indignius videtur obtrectatum 
esse adhijc — Gabinio dicam anne Pompeio an utri- 
que, id quod est verius? — ne legaretur A. Gabinius 

25 Cn. Pompeio expetenti ac postulanti. Utrum ille, qui 
postulat ad tantum bellum legatum quem velit, idone- 
us non est qui impetret, cum ceteri ad expilandos so- 
cios diripiendasque provincias quos voluerunt legates 
ediixerint; an ipse, ciiius lege salias ac dignitas populo 

30 Romano atque omnibus gentibus constitiita est, ex- 
pers esse debet gloriae eius imperatoris atque eius ex- 
ercitiis qui consilio ipsius ac periculo est constitutus? 


An C. Falcidius, Q. Metellus, Q. Caelius Latini- 58 
ensis, Cn. Lentulus, quos omnls honoris causa nomi- 
no, cum tribuni plebl fuissent, anno proximo legati 
esse potuerunt; in uno Gabinio sunt tarn diligentes, 
qui in hoc bello, quod lege Gabinia geritur, in hoc 5 
imperatdre atque exercitij, quern per vos ipse consti- 
tuit, etiam praecipuo iure esse deberet? De quo le- 
gando consules spero ad senatum relatiaros. Qui si 
dubitabunt aut gravabuntur, ego me profiteor re- 
laturum; neque me impediet ciiiusquam inimicum 10 
edictum quo minus vobis fretus vestrum ids benefici- 
umque defendam, neque praeter intercessionem quic- 
quam audiam, de qua, ut arbitror, isti ipsi qui minan- 
tur etiam atque etiam quid Hceat considerabunt. 
Mea quidem sententia, Quirltes, unus A. Gabmius 15 
belli maritimi rerumque gestarum Cn. Pompeio so- 
cius ascribitur, propterea quod alter uni illud bellum 
suscipiendum vestris suffragiis detulit, alter delatum 
susceptumque confecit. 

§ 59. Catulus objected to the bill and got a compliment. 
The state should benefit by a great man's life. § 60. There 
are precedents for one-man power. §§ 61, 62. Pompey's 
whole career has been extraordinary, as commander, tri- 
umphator, and consul, and it has been approved by Catulus. 

XX. Reliquum est ut de Q. Catull auctoritate et 59 

sententia dicendum esse videatur. Qui cum ex vobis 

quaereret, si in uno Cn. Pompeio omnia poneretis, si 

quid eo factum esset, in quo spem essetis habituri, 

cepit magnum suae virtutis fructum ac dignitatis, 

cum omnes una prope voce in eo ipso vos spem 25 

habituros esse dixistis. Etenim talis est vir, ut nulla 

res tanta sit ac tam difficilis, quam ille non et c5n- 


silio regere et integritate tueri et virtute conficere 
possit. Sed in hoc ipso ab eo vehementissime dis- 
sentio, quod, quo minus certa est hominum ac minus 
diuturna vita, hoc magis res pubhca, dum per de5s 
5 immortalis licet, frui debet summi viri vita atque vir- 

60 ' At enim ne quid novi fiat contra exempla atque 
instituta maiorum.' Non dicam hoc loco maiores 
nostros semper in pace consuetiidini, in bello utilitati 

10 paruisse, semper ad novos casus temporum novorum 
consiliorum rationes accommodasse; non dicam duo 
bella maxima, Ptinicum atque Hispaniense, ab iino 
imperatore esse confecta, duasque urbis potentissimas, 
quae huic imperio maxime minitabantur, Karthagi- 

15 nem atque Numantiam, ab eodem Scipione esse dele- 
tas; non commemorabo niiper ita vobis patribusque 
vestris esse visum, ut in uno C. Mario spes imperi 
poneretur, ut idem cum lugurtha, idem cum Cimbris, 
idem cum Teutonis bellum administraret. 

61 In ipso Cn. Pompeio, in quo novi constitui nihil 
volt Q. Catulus, quam multa sint nova summa Q. 
Catuli voluntate constituta recordamini. 

XXL Quid tam novum quam adulescentulum pri- 
vatum exercitum difficili rei pubHcae tempore confi- 

25 cere? Confecit. Huic praeesse? Praefuit. Rem 
optime ductu su5 gerere? Gessit. Quid tam praeter 
consuettadinem quam homini peradulescenti, cuius 
aetas a senatorio gradu longe abesset, imperium at- 
que exercitum dari, Siciliam permitti, atque Africam 

30 bellumque in ea provincia administrandum? Fuit in 
his provinciis singulari innocentia, gravitate, virtute; 
bellum in Africa maximum confecit, victorem exer- 


citum deportavit. Quid vero tarn inauditum quam 
equitem Romanum triumphare? At earn quoque 
rem populus Romanus non modo vidit, sed omnium 
etiam studio visendam et concelebrandam putavit. 

Quid tarn inusitatum, quam lit, cum duo consules 62 
clarissimi fortissimique essent, eques Romanus ad hel- 
ium maximum formidolosissimumque pro consule 
mitteretur? Missus est. Quo quidem tempore, cum 
esset non nemo in senatu qui diceret non oportere 
mitti hominem privatum pro consule, L. Philippus 10 
dixisse dicitur non se ilium sua sententia pro consule, 
sed pro consulibus mittere. Tanta in eo rei publicae 
bene gerendae spes constituebatur ut duorum con- 
sulum munus unlus adulescentis virtuti committere- 
tur. Quid tam singulare quam ut, ex senatus con- 15 
sulto legibus solutus, consul ante fieret quam ullum 
alium magistratum per leges capere licuisset? Quid 
tam incredibile quam ut iterum eques Romanus ex 
senatus consulto triumpharet? Quae in omnibus ho- 
minibus nova post hominum memoriam constituta 20 
sunt, ea tam multa non sunt quam haec, quae in hoc 
uno homine videmus. 

§ 63. Let these leaders yield to your will. § 64. What 
the people zvisely zvish shotdd be obeyed. Our commander 
must be more than a general. § 65. We are odious, because 
of our plundering commanders. 

Atque haec tot exempla, tanta ac tam nova, pro- 63 
fecta sunt in eundem hominem a Q. Catuli atque a 
ceterorum eiusdem dignitatis amplissimorum homi- 25 
num auctoritate. 

XXII. Qua re videant ne sit periniquum et non 
ferendum, illorum auctoritatem de Cn. Pompei digni- 


tate a vobis comprobatam semper esse, vestrum ab 
illis de eodem homine iudicium populique Romani 
auctoritatem improbarl, praesertim cum iam suo iure 
populus Romanus in hoc homine suam auctoritatem 
5 vel contra omnls qui dissentiunt possit defendere, 
propterea quod isdem istis reclamantibus vos unum 
ilium ex omnibus delegistis quem bello praedonum 

64 Hoc si vos temere fecistis et rei publicae parum 
10 consuluistis, recte isti studia vestra suis consiliis re- 

gere conantur. Sin autem vos pliis tum in re publica 
vidistis, v5s eis repugnantibus per vosmet ipsos digni- 
tatem huic imperio, saliitem orbi terrarum attulistis, 
aliquando isti principes et sibi et ceteris populi Ro- 

15 man! universi auctoritati parendum esse fateantur. 

Atque in hoc bello Asiatic© et regio non solum 

militaris ilia virtus, quae est in Cn. Pompeio singula- 

ris, sed aliae quoque virtiites animi magnae et multae 

. requiruntur. Difficile est in Asia, Cilicia, Syria, re- 

20 gnlsque interiorum nationum ita versari nostrum im- 
peratorem ut nihil aliud nisi de hoste ac de laude 
cogitet. Deinde etiam si qui sunt pudore ac tempe- 
rantia moderatiores, tamen eos esse talis propter 
multitiidinem cupidorum hominum nemo arbitratur. 

65 Difficile est dictii, Quirites, quantd in odio simus 
apud exteras nationes propter eorum, quos ad eas 
per hos annos cum imperio misimus, libidines et in- 
iurias. Quod enim fanum putatis in illis terris nostris 
magistratibus religiosum, quam civitatem sanctam, 

30 quam domum satis clausam ac munitam fuisse? Ur- 
bes iam locupletes et copiosae requiruntur, quibus 
causa belli propter diripiendi cupiditatem inferatur. 


§ 66. The objectors know the wrongs of our allies. We 
need an upright general. § 67. Our allies desire Pompey be- 
cause of his self-restraint. Other leaders were covetous. 
§ 68. There are weighty men who favor the bill. 

Libenter haec coram cum Q. Catulo et Q. Hor- 66 
tensio, summis et clarissimis viris, disputarem. No- 
verunt enim sociorum volnera, vident eorum calami- 
tates, querimonias audiunt. Pro sociis vos contra 
hostis exercitum mittere putatis, an hostium simula- 5 
tione contra socios atque amicos? Quae civitas est 
in Asia quae non modo imperatoris aut legati, sed 
unius tribunl militum animos ac splritiis capere 

XXIII. Qua re, etiam si quem habetis qui conlatis 10 
signis exercitus regies superare posse videatur, tamen 
nisi erit idem, qui se a pecuniis sociorum, qui ab 
eorum coniugibus ac liberis, qui ab ornamentis fano- 
rum atque oppidorum, qui ab auro gazaque regia 
manus, oculos, animum cohibere possit, non erit ido- 15 
neus qui ad bellum Asiaticum regiumque mittatur. 

Ecquam putatis civitatem pacatam fuisse quae 67 
locuples sit? ecquam esse locupletem quae istis paca- 
ta esse videatur? Ora maritima, Quirites, Cn. Pom- 
peium non solum propter rel militaris gloriam, sed 20 
etiam propter animi continentiam requisTvit. Vide- 
bat enim praetores locupletari quotannls pecunia pii- 
blica praeter paucos, neque eos quicquam aliud adse- 
qui classium nomine, nisi ut detrlmentis accipiendls 
mai5re adfici turpitudine videremur. Nunc qua cupi- 25 
ditate homines in provincias, quibus iacturis et quibus 
condicionibus proficTscantur, ignorant videlicet isti 
qui ad iinum deferenda omnia esse non arbitrantur. 
Quasi vero Cn. Pompeium non cum suls virtutibus 


68 turn etiam alienis vitiis magnum esse videamus. Qua 
re nolite dubitare quin huic uni credatis omnia, qui 
inter tot annos unus inventus sit quem socii in urbis 
suas cum exercitii venisse gaudeant. 

5 Quod SI auctoritatibus banc causam, Quirites, 
conflrmandam putatis, est vobis auctor vir bellorum 
omnium maximarumque rerum peritissimus, P. Ser- 
vilius, cuius tantae res gestae terra marique exstite- 
runt, ut, cum de bello deliberetis, auctor vobis gra- 

10 vior nemo esse debeat; est C. Ciirio, summis vestris 
beneficiis maximisque rebus gestis, summo ingenid 
et prudentia praeditus; est Cn. Lentulus, in quo om- 
nes pro amplissimis vestris honoribus summum con- 
silium, summam gravitatem esse cognovistis; est C. 

15 Cassius, integritate, virtute, constantia singular!. 
Qua re videte horum auctoritatibus, illorum oration! 
qu! dissentiunt, respondere//^ posse videamur. 

§ 69. The multitude approves of your bill, Manilius, and 
I will do my best for it. § 70. / do not speak by request, nor 
to zvin favor. § 71. / have acted for the welfare of the state. 

69 E. -Peroratio. — XXIV. Quae cum ita sint, C. 
Maml!, pr!mum istam tuam et legem et voluntatem 

20 et sententiam laudo vehementissimeqite comprobo; 
deinde te hortor ut auctore populo Romano maneas 
in sententia neve cuiusquam vim aut minas pertime- 
scas. Pr!mum in te satis esse anim! perseverantiae- 
que arbitror; deinde cum tantam multitudinem cum 

25 tanto studio adesse videamus, quantam iterum nunc 
in eodem homine praeficiendo videmus, quid est quod 
aut de re aut de perficiend! facultate dubitemus? 
Ego autem quicquid est in me stud!, consil!, laboris, 
ingem, quicquid hoc beneficio popul! Romxan! atque 


hac potestate praetoria, quicquid auctoritate, fide, 
constantia possum, id omne ad hanc rem conficien- 
dam tibi et populo Romano poUiceor ac defero: 
testorque omnis deos et eos maxime qui huic loco 70 
temploque praesident, qui omnium mentis eorum qui 5 
ad rem publicam adeunt maxime perspiciunt, me hoc 
neque rogatu facere cuiusquam, neque quo Cn. Pom- 
pei gratiam mihi per hanc causam conciliari putem, 
neque quo mihi ex cuiusquam amplitiidine aut praesi- 
dia periculis aut adiumenta honoribus quaeram; prop- 10 
terea quod pericula facile, ut hominem praestare 
oportet, innocentia tecti repellemus, honorem autem 
neque ab uno neque ex hoc loco, sed eadem ilia nostra 
laboriosissima ratione vitae, si vestra voluntas feret, 
consequemur. 15 

Quam ob rem quicquid in hac causa mihi suscep- 71 
turn est, Quirites, id ego omne me rei ptiblicae causa 
suscepisse confirmo; tantumque abest ut aliquam 
mihi bonam gratiam quaesisse videar, ut multas me 
etiam simultates partim obscuras partim apertas in- 20 
tellegam mihi non necessarias, vobis non inutilis sus- 
cepisse. Sed ego me hoc honore praeditum, tantis 
vestris beneficiis adfectum statui, Quirites, vestram 
voluntatem et rei publicae dignitatem et salutem pro- 
vinciarum atque sociorum meis omnibus commodis et 25 
rationibus praeferre oportere. 



§ I. My talent is at the disposal of my early teacher. § 2. 
He is a poet; but all reiined arts have a common bond. § 3. 
Permit me to digress from the case. 

1 A. Exordium. — Si quid est in me ingeni, iudices, 
quod sentio quam sit exiguum, aut si qua exercitatio 
dicendi, in qua me non Infitior mediocriter esse versa- 
tum, aut si huiusce rei ratio aliqua ab optimarum ar- 

5 tium studiis ac disciplina profecta, a qua ego nullum 
confiteor aetatis meae tempus abhorruisse, earum re- 
rum omnium vel in primis hie A. Licinius fructum 
a me repetere prope suo iiire debet. Nam quoad 
longissime potest mens mea respicere spatium prae- 

10 teriti temporis, et pueritiae memoriam recordari ulti- 
mam, inde iisque repetens hunc video mihi principem 
et ad suscipiendam et ad ingrediendam rationem ho- 
rum studiorum exstitisse. Quod si haec vox, huius 
hortatii praeceptisque conformata, non niillis ali- 

15 quando saluti fuit, a quo id accepimus quo ceteris opi- 
tulari et alios servare possemus, huic profecto ipsi, 
quantum est situm in nobis, et opem et salutem ferre 

2 debemus. Ac ne quis a nobis hoc ita dici forte mire- 
tur, quod alia quaedam in hoc facultas sit ingeni neque 

20 haec dicendi ratio aut disciplina, ne nos quidem huic 


uni studio penitns umquam dediti fuimus. Etenim 
omnes artes, quae ad humanitatem pertinent, habent 
quoddam commiine vinculum, et quasi cognatidne 
quadam inter se continentur. 

II. Sed ne cui vestrum mirum esse videatur me 3 
in quaestione legitima et in iudicio piiblico, — cum res 
agatur apud praetorem popull Romani, lectissimum 
virum, et apud severissimos iudices, tanto conventu 
hominum ac frequentia, — hoc uti genere dicendi, 
quod non modo a consuetudine iudiciorum, verum lo 
etiam a forensi sermone abhorreat, quaeso a vobis ut 
in hac causa mihi detis banc veniam, accommodatam 
huic reo, vobis, quem ad modum spero, non mole- 
stam, ut me pro summo poeta atque eruditissimo ho- 
mine dicentem, hoc concursu hominum Htteratissi- 15 
morum, hac vestra humanitate, hoc denique praetore 
exercente iCidicium, patiamini de studiis humanitatis 
ac Htterarum paulo loqul liberius, et in eius modi per- 
sona, quae propter otium ac studium minime in iiadi- 
ciis periculisque tractata est, uti prope novo quodam 20 
et inusitato genere dicendi. 

§ 4. He is and ought to be a citizen. While a hoy, he 
won fame in Antioch, and later abroad. § 5. He was wel- 
comed in Magna Graecia and in Rome, especially by the 

Quod SI mihi a vobis tribui concedique sentiam, 4 
perficiam profecto ut hunc A. Licinium non modo 
non segregandum, cum sit cTvis, a numero civium, 
verum etiam si non esset, putetis ascTscendum fuisse. 25 

B. Narratio. — III. Nam ut primum ex pueris 
excessit Archias atque ab eis artibus quibus aetas pue- 
rllis ad humanitatem informari solet, se ad scribendl 


studium contulit; primum Antiochiae — nam ibi natus 
est loco nobili — , celebri quondam urbe et copiosa 
atque eruditissimis hominibus liberalissimisque stu- 
diis adfluenti, celeriter antecellere omnibus ingeni 
5 gloria contigit. Post in ceteris Asiae partibus cunc- 
taque Graecia sic eius adventus celebrabantur ut 
famam ingeni exspectatio hominis, exspectationem 
ipsTus adventus admiratioque superaret. 

5 Erat Italia tunc plena Graecarum artium ac disci- 
lo pllnarum, studiaque haec et in Latio vehementius tum 

colebantur quam nunc eisdem in oppidis, et hic Ro- 
mae propter tranquillitatem rel piiblicae non neglege- 
bantur. Itaque hunc et Tarentinl et Locrenses et 
Reglni et Neapolitan! civitate ceterisque praemiis 

15 donarunt, et omnes, qui aliquid de ingeniis pote- 
rant iiidicare, cognitione atque hospitio dignum ex- 
istimarunt. Hac tanta celebritate famae cum esset 
iam absentibus notus, Romam venit Mario consule 
et Catulo. Nactus est primum consules eos, quorum 

20 alter res ad scribendum maximas, alter cum res gestas 
tum etiam studium atque auris adhibere posset. Sta- 
tim Liiculli, cum praetextatus etiam tum Archias es- 
set, eum domum suam receperunt. Et erat hoc non 
solum ingeni ac litterarum, verum etiam naturae atque 

25 virtutis, ut domus, quae huius adulescentiae prima 
favit, eadem esset familiarissima senectutT. 

§ 6. He became " the fad " in Rome. The people of 
Heraclea gave him citizenship. § 7. This entitled him to 
Roman citizenship under the laiv. 

6 Erat temporibus illTs iiicundus Q. Metello illi Nu- 
midico et eius Pio filio, audiebatur a M. Aemilid, 
vivebat cum Q. Catulo et patre et fIlio, a L. Crasso 


colebatur. Lucullos vero et Drusum et Octavios et 
Catonem et totam Hortensiorum domum devinctam 
consuetudine cum teneret, adficiebatur summo ho- 
nore, quod eum non solum colebant qui aliquid perci- 
pere atque audire studebant, verum etiam si qui forte 5 

IV. Interim satis longo intervallo, cum esset cum 
M. LucuUo in Siciliam profectus et cum ex ea pro- 
vincia cum eodem Lucullo decederet, venit Heracll- 
am. Quae cum esset civitas aequissimo iure ac foe- 10 
dere, ascribi se in eam cTvitatem voluit, idque, cum 
ipse per se dignus putaretur, turn auctoritate et gra- 
tia Luculli ab Heracliensibus impetravit. 

Data est cTvitas Silvani lege et Carbonis: si QU! 7 


ESSENT PROFESS!. Cum hic domicilium Romae mul- 
tos iam annos haberet, professus est apud praetorem 
Q. Metellum familiarissimum suum. 20 

§ 8. We have unimpeachable witnesses to his enrolment, 
although the records were burned. § 9. He settled in Rome 
and registered with the incorruptible Metellus. 

C. CoNFiRMATio. — Sl nihil aliud nisi de civitate 8 
ac lege dicimus, nihil dico amplius; causa dicta est. 
Quid enim horum Tnflrmarl, Gratti, potest? Hera- 
cliaene esse eum ascriptum negabis? Adest vir sum- 
ma auctoritate et religione et fide, M. Lucullus, qui 25 
se non opTnarT, sed scire, non audisse, sed vidisse, non 
interfuisse, sed egisse dicit. Adsunt Heracllenses 
legatT, nobilissimi homines; huius iudici causa cum 
mandatis et cum. bfJbl^ccS • testimo^iio venerunt, qui 


hunc ascrlptum Heracliensem dlcunt. Hie tu tabu- 
las desideras Heracliensium publicas, quas Italico 
bello, inceilso tabulario, interlsse scimus omnis. Est 
rldiculum ad ea quae habemus nihil dicere, quaerere 
5 quae habere non possumus, et de hominum memoria 
tacere, litterarum memoriam flagitare; et, cum habeas 
amplissimi virl reHgionem, integerrimi municipl ius 
iiirandum lidemque, ea, quae depravari nullo modo 
possunt, repudiare, tabulas, quas idem dicis solere cor- 

lo rumpi, desiderare. 

9 An domicilium Romae non habuit is, qui tot an- 
nis ante civitatem datam sedem omnium rerum ac 
fortunarum suarum Romae conlocavit? An non est 
professus? Immo vero eis tabulis professus quae so- 

15 lae ex ilia professione conlegioque praetorum obti- 
nent piiblicarum tabularum auctoritatem. V. Nam 
cum Appi tabulae neglegentius adservatae dicerentur, 
Gabini, quam diu incolumis fuit, levitas, post damna- 
tionem calamitas omnem tabularum fidem resignas- 

2o set; Metellus, homo sanctissimus modestissimusque 
omnium, tanta diligentia fuit ut ad L. Lentulum prae- 
torem et ad iudices venerit, et unius nominis litiira 
se commotum esse dixerit. His igitur in tabulis niil- 
1am lituram in nomine A. Licini videtis. 

§ 10. What many towns were giving to insignificant men, 
would hardly he refused to Archias. § ii. He was away S 
from Rome during the census, hut has acted as a citizen. -^ 

10 Quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de eius civitate 
dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque in civitatibus 
fuerit ascriptus? Etenim cum mediocribus multis et 
aut nulla aut humili aliqua arte praeditis gratuito 
civitatem in Grae<Sa 'hominesr impetftiebant, Regin5s 


credo aut Locrensis aut Neapolitanos aut Tarentinos, 
quod scaenicis artificibus largiri solebant, id huic sum- 
ma ingeni praedito gloria noluisse! Quid? [cum] 
ceteri non modo post civitatem datam, sed etiam post 
legem Papiam aliquo modo in eorum miinicipiorum 5 
tabulas inrepserunt; hic, qui ne utitur quidem illis in 
quibus est scriptus, quod semper se Heracliensem esse 
voluit, reicietur? 

Census nostros requiris. Scilicet; est enim obscu- 11 
rum proximis censoribus hunc cum clarissimo impera- 10 
tore L. Lucullo apud exercitum fuisse, superioribus 
cum eodem quaestore fuisse in Asia, primis, lulio et 
Crasso/nullam populi partem esse censam. Sed, quon- 
iam census non ius civitatis confirmat ac tantum 
modo indicat eum, qui sit census, ita se iam tum ges- 15 
sisse; pro cive eis temporibus, quem tu criminaris ne 
ipsTus quidem iudicio in civium Romanorum itire esse 
versatum, et testamentum saepe fecit nostris legibus- 
et adiit hereditates civium Romanorum et in bene- 
ficiis ad aerarium delatus est a L. Liicullo pro con- 20 
sule. VI. Quaere argumenta, si quae potes; numquam 
enim hic neque suo neque amicorum iudicio revin- 

§ 12. Archias supplies us with mental refreshment. My 
love for literature has never interfered with my duties. § 13. 
May I not give to letters the time that others spend on idle 
pleasures f 

Quaeres a nobis, Gratti, cur tanto opere hoc ho- 12 
mine delectemur. Quia suppeditat nobis ubi et ani- 25 
mus ex h5c forensi strepitu reficiatur, et aures con- 
vicio defessae conquiescant. An tu existimas aut 
suppetere nobis posse quod cottidie dicamus in tanta 


varietate rerum, nisi animos nostros doctrina excola- 
mus, aut ferre animos tantam posse contentionem, 
nisi eos doctrina eadem relaxemus? Ego vero fateor 
me his studiis esse deditum. Ceteros pudeat, si qui 
5 ita se litteris abdiderunt ut nihil possint ex eis neque 
ad commiinem adferre fmctum, neque in aspectum 
lucemque proferre; me autem quid pudeat, qui tot 
annos ita vivo, indices, ut a niillius urhquam me tem- 
pore aut commodo aut otium meum abstraxerit aut 
lo voluptas avocarit aut denique somnus retardarit? 

13 Qua re quis tandem me reprehendat, aut quis mihi 
iiire suscenseat, si, quantum ceteris ad suas res 
obeundas, quantum ad festos dies liidorum celebran- 
dos, quantum ad alias voluptates et ad ipsam requiem 

15 animi et corporis conceditur temporum, quantum aliivj) 
tribuunt tempestivis conviviis, quantum denique alve- 
olo, quantum pilae, tantum mihi egomet ad haec stu- 
dia recolenda sumpsero? Atque h5c eo mihi conce- 
dendum est magis, quod ex his studiis haec quoque 

20 crescit oratio et facultas, quae, quantacumque in me 
est, numquam amicorum periculis defuit. Quae si cui 
levior videtur, ilia quidem certe, quae summa sunt, 
ex quo fonte hauriam sentio. 

§ 14. Literature has taught me to face perils for the sake 
of glory. What portraitures the old zvriters have left us! 
§ 15. Talent may succeed without literary training, but is the 
better for it, 

14 Nam nisi multorum praeceptis multisque litteris 
25 mihi ab adulescentia suasissem nihil esse in vita ma- 

gno opere expetendum nisi laudem atque honesta- 
tem, in ea autem persequenda omnis cruciatiis cor- 
poris, omnia pericula mortis atque exsili parvi esse 

GaxMesters Quarreling. 
From a Pompeian wall painting. 


rNoxsi, a me tria. 

LEgo fui. 

Non tria, duas est.] 
Orte fellator, ego fui.] 
Itis foris rixsatis.] 


ducenda, numquam me pro salute vestra in tot ac 
tantas dimicationes atque in hos profligatorum homi- 
num cottidiands impetus obiecissem. Sed plenl om- 
nes sunt libi . plenae sapientium voces, plena exem- 
plorum vetus^'is; quae iacerent in tenebris omnia, nisi 5 
litterarum lumen accederet, Quam multas nobis ima- 
gines, non solum ad intuendum, verum etiam ad imi- 
tandum, fortissimorum virorum expressas scriptores 
et Graeci et Latinl reliquerunt ! quas ego mihi semper 
in administranda re publica proponens, animum et 10 
mentem meam ipsa cogitatione hominum excellen- 
tium conformabam. 

-VII. Quaeret quispiam: ' Quid? illi ipsi summi 15 
virl quorum virtutesJitteris proditae sunt, istane doc- 
trlna quam tu eners laudibus eruditi fuerunt?' Dif- 15 
ficile est hoc d^omnibus confirmare, sed tamen est 
certum quidfl^^ndeam. ^ Ego multos homines ex- 
cellent! anfBI^WRrtute fuisse sine doctrina et natii- 
rae ipsius habitu prope divino per se ips5s et mode- 
rates et gravis exstitisse fateor; etiam illud adiungo, 20 
saepius ad laudem atque virtutem naturam sine doc- 
trina quam sine natura valuisse doctrinam. Atque 
Idem ego hoc contendo, cum ad naturam eximiam et 
inliistrem accesserit ratio quaedam conformatioque 
doctrinae, tum illud nescio quid praeclarum ac singu- 25 
lare solere exsistere. 

§ 16. Examples of culture. Literary studies are sfiitahle 
to every time of life. § 17. The death of Roscius was lament- 
ed. § 18. Archias is a skilful extemporaneous versifier. A 
poet has a divine gift. 

Ex hoc esse hunc numero quem patres nostri vi- 16 
derunt, divinum hominem Africanum, ex hoc C. Lae- 


Hum, L. Furium, moderatissimos homines et conti- 
nentissimos, ex hoc fortissimum virum et illis tem- 
poribus doctissimtim, M. Catonem ilium senem; qui 
profecto si nihil ad percipiendam colendamque vir- 
5 tutem litteris adiuvarentur, numquam se ad earum 
studium contulissent. Quod si non hic tantus fructus 
ostenderetur, et si ex his studiis delectatio sola pete- 
retur, tamen, ut opinor, hanc animi remissionem hu- 
manissimam ac liberalissimam iudicaretis. Nam ce- 

lo terae neque temporum sunt neque aetatum omnium 
neque locorum: at haec studia adulescentiam alunt, 
senectiitem oblectant, secundas res ornant, adversis 
perfugium ac solacium praebent, delectant domi, non 
impediunt foris, pernoctant nobiscum, peregrinantur, 

15 rusticantur. 

17 Quod si ipsi haec neque attingere neque sensu 
nostro gustare possemus, tamen ea*mirari deberemus 
etiam cum in aliis videremus. VIII. Quis nostmm 
tam animo agresti ac duro fuit ut Rosci morte nuper 

20 non commoveretur? Qui cum esset senex mortuus, 
tamen propter excellentem artem ac venustatem vide- 
batur omnino mori non debuisse. Ergo ille corporis 
motii tantum amorem sibi conciliarat a nobis omni- 
bus. Nos animorum incredibilis motus celeritatem- 

25 que ingeniorum neglegemus? 

18 Quotiens ego hunc Archiam vidi, iiidices, — iitar 
enim ^vestra benignitate, quoniam me in hoc novo 
genere dicendi tam dlligenter attenditis, — quotiens 
ego hunc vidT, cum litteram scripsisset nullam, ma- 

30 gnum numerum optimorum versuum de els ipsis re- 
bus quae tum agerentur dicere ex tempore! quotiens 
revocatum eandem rem dicere commutatis verbis at- 



que sententils! Quae vero accura^j^^^gg^ateque 
scrlpsisset, ea sic vidi probari ut ad veterum scrlpto- 
rum laudem perveniret. Hunc ego non diligam? non 
admirer? non omnI ratione defendendum putem? At- 
que sic a summis hominibus eruditissimisque accepi- 5 
mus, ceterarum rerum studia ex doctrina et praecep- 
tis et arte constare; poetam natura ipsa valere, et 
mentis viribus excitari et quasi divino quodam spi- 
ritu inflarir Qua re su5 iure noster ille Ennius 
* sanctos ' adpellat poetas, quod quasi deorum ali- 10 
quo ddno atque munere commendati nobis esse vi- 

§ 19. Honor poets. Many towns claimed Homer dead. 
Shall the poet of our deeds be driven out? §20. All men 
wish their fame perpetuated. § 21. Archias has sung of Lu- 
cidlus's glorious deeds. 

Sit igitur, indices, sanctum apud vos, hiimanissi- 19 
mos homines, hoc poetae nomen, quod nulla umquam 
barbaria violavit. Saxa et solitiidines voci respon- 15 
dent, bestiae saepe immanes cantu flectuntur atque 
consistunt; nos iiistituti rebus optimis non poetarum 
voce moveamur? Homerum Colophonii civem esse 
dicunt suum, Chii suum vindicant, Salaminii repe- 
tunt, Smyrnaei vero suum esse confirmant, itaque 20 
etiam delubrum eius in oppido dedicaverunt; per- 
multi alii praeterea pugnant inter se atque conten- 
dunt. IX. Ergo illi alienum, quia poeta fuit, post mor- 
tem etiam expetunt; nos hunc vivum, qui et voluntate 
et legibus noster est, repudiabimus? Praesertim cum 25 jLt^ 
omne olim studium atque omne ingenium contulerit ^^■*''**'^ 
Archias ad populi Romani gloriam laudemque cele- 



brandam? Nam et Cimbricas res adulescens attigit 
et ipsi illi C. Mario, qui durior ad haec studia vide- 
batur, iucundus fuit. 

20 Neque enim quisquam est tarn aversus a Musis 
5 qui non mandari versibus aeternum suorum laborum 

facile praeconium patiatur. Themistoclem ilium, 
summum Athenis virum, dixisse aiunt, cum ex eo 
quaereretur quod acroama aut cuius vocem libentis- 
sime audlret: ' eius, a quo sua virtus optime praedi- 
lo caretur.' Itaque ille Marius item eximie L. Plotium 
dllexit, cuius ingenio putabat ea quae gesserat posse 

21 Mithradaticum vero bellum, magnum atque diffi- 
cile et in multa varietate terra marique versatum, to- 

15 tum ab hoc expressum est ; qui libri non modo L. Lu- 
cullum, fortissimum et clarissimum virum, verum et- 
iam populi Roman! nomen inlustrant. Populus enim 
Romanus aperuit Liicullo imperante Pontum, et re- 
giis quondam opibus et ipsa natiira et regione valla- 

20 tum; populi Romani exercitus eodem duce non maxi- 
ma manii innumerabilis Armeniorum copias fiidit; 
populi Romani laus est urbem amicissimam Cyzice- 
norum eiusdem consilio ex omni impetii regio atque 
totius belli ore ac faucibus ereptam esse atque serva- 

25 tam; nostra semper feretur et praedicabitur, L. Lu- 
cuUo dimicante, cum, interfectis ducibus, depressa 
hostium classis est, incredibilis apud Tenedum piigna 
ilia navalis; nostra sunt tropaea, nostra monumenta, 
nostri triumph!. Quae quorum ingeniis efferuntur, 

30 ab e!s populi Romani fama celebratur. 

H Q 


§ 22.^ Ennius was welcomed to citisenship. Shall we re- 
ject Archiasf § 23. Greek is more widely read than Latin. 
Our fame should " follow the Hag." § 24. Alexander envied 
Achilles his Homer. Pompey made Theophanes a citizen. 

Carus fuit Africano superior! noster Ennius, ita- 22 
que etiam in sepulcro Scipionum putatur is esse con- 
stitiitus ex marmore; cuius laudibus certe non solum 
ipse qui laudatur, sed etiam populi Roman! nomen 
ornatur. In caelum huius proavus Cato tollitur; ma- 5 
gnus honos popul! Roman! rebus adiungitur. Om- 
nes denique ill! Maxim!, Marcelli, Fulvi! non sine 
commun! omnium nostrum laude decorantur. X. 
Ergo ilium qu! haec fecerat, Rud!num hominem, 
maiores nostr! in c!vitatem receperunt. Nos hunc 10 
Heracliensem, mult!s c!vitatibus expetitum, in hac au- 
tem legibus canstitutum, de nostra civitate eiciemus? 

Nam s! quis minorem gloriae fructum putat ex 23 
Graec!s versibus percip! quam ex Lat!n!s, vehemen- 
ter errat, propterea quod Graeca leguntur in omnibus 15 
fere gentibus, Lat!na su!s finibus, exigms sane, con- 
tinentur. Qua re s! res eae quas gessimus,orbis ter- 
rae regionibus definiuntur, cupere debemus, quo ma- 
nuum nostrarum tela pervenerint, eodem gloriam 
famamque penetrare; quod cum ipsis popuHs, de quo- 20 
rum rebus scribitur, haec ampla sunt, tum e!s certe, 
qu! de v!ta gloriae causa d!micant, hoc maximum et 
periculorum incitamentum est et labdrum. 

Quam multos scr!ptores rerum suarum magnus 24 
ille Alexander secum habuisse d!citur! Atque is ta- 25 
men, cum in S!geo ad Achillis tumulum astitisset: ' O 
fortunate,' inquit, ' adulescens, qu! tuae virtutis Ho- 
merum praeconem inveneris!' Et vere. Nam nisi 


Ilias ilia exstitisset, idem tumulus, qui corpus eius 
contexerat, nomen etiam obruisset. Quid? noster hic 
Magnus, qui cum virtu^e fortunam adaequavit, nonne 
Theophanem Mytilen^eum, scrTptorem rerum suarum, 
5 in contione militum civitate donavit; et nostri illi for- 
tes viri, sed rustic! ac milites, dulcedine quadam glo- 
riae commotT, quasi participes eiusdem laudis, ma- 
gno illud clamore adprobaverunt? 

§ 25. Sulla rewarded a poet, while advising him to cease 
writing. § 26. Metellus patronised even boorish poets. All 
desire to be immortalised. § 27. Soldiers have honored the 
muses; surely judges shoidd do as much. 

25 Itaque, credo, si civis Romanus Archias legibus 
10 non esset, ut ab aliquo imperatore civitate donaretur 

perficere non potuit. Sulla cum Hispanos et Gallos 
donaret, credo, hunc petentem repudiasset; quem nos 
in contione vidimus — cum ei libellum malus poeta de 
populo subiecisset, quod epigramma in eum fecisset, 

15 tantum modo alternis versibus longiusculis — statim 
ex eis rebus, quas tum vendebat, iubere el praemium 
tribui, sed ea condicione, ne quid postea scriberet. 
Qui sedulitatem mali poetae duxerit aliquo tamen 
praemio dignam, huius ingenium et virtutem in scri- 

20 bendo et copiam n5n expetisset? 

26 Quid? a Q. Metello Pio, familiarissimo su5, qui 
civitate multos donavit, neque per se neque per Lu- 
cullos impetravisset? Qui praesertim usque eo de 
suis rebus scribi cuperet ut etiam Cordubae natis 

25 poetis, pingue quiddam sonantibus atque peregrinum, 
tamen auris suas dederet. 

XL Neque enim est h5c dissimulandum, quod ob- 
scurari non potest, sed prae nobis ferendum: trahi- 


mur omnes studio laudis et optimus quisque maxime 
gloria ducitur. Ipsi illl philosophi, etiam in eis libellis 
quos de contemnenda gloria scribunt, nomen suum 
inscribunt; in eo ipso, in quo praedicationem nobili- 
tatemque despiciunt, praedicari de se ac nominari vo- 5 
lunt. Decimus quidem Brutus, summus vir et impera- 27 
tor, Atti, amlcissimi suT, carminibus templorum ac 
monumentorum aditus exornavit suorum. lam ver5 
ille, qui cum Aetolis Ennio comite bellavit, Fulvius, 
non dubitavit Martis manubias Musis consecrare. 10 
Qua re in qua urbe imperatores prope armati poeta- 
rum nomen et Musarum delubra coluerunt, in ea^non 
debent togati iudijces a Musarum honore et a poeta- 
rum salute abhorrere. 

§ 28. Archias is writing upon my consulship. § 29. De- 
sire for fame stimulates us to effort. § 30. We should leave 
likenesses of our character. I like to think that memory 

Atque ut id libentius faciatis, iam me vobis, iiidi- 28 
ces, indicabo et de meo quodam amore gloriae, nimis 
acri fortasse yerum tamen honesto, vobis confitebor. 
Nam quas res nos in consulatu nostro vobiscum simul 
pro salute huius ^irhis atque imperi et pro vita civium 
proque universa re publica gessimus, attigit hic versi- 20 
bus atque incohavit; quibus auditis, quod mihi magna 
res et iucunda visa est, hunc ad perficiendum adhor- 
tatus sum. Nullam enim virtus aliam mercedem la- 
borum periculorumque desiderat praeter banc laudis 
et gloriae; qua quidem detracta, iudices, quid est 25 
quod in hoc tam exiguo vitae curriculo et tam 
brevi^tantis nos in laboribus exerceamus? Certe 29 
si nihil animus praesentiret in posterum, et si qui- 


bus regionibus vitae spatium circumscriptum est, 
eisdem omnis cogitationes terminaret suas,^\nec tan- 
tis se laboribus frangeret neque tot curls vigiliis- 
que angeretur nee totiens de ipsa vita dimicaret. 
5 Nunc insidet quaedam in Optimo quoque virtus, quae 
noctis ac dies animum gloriae stimulis concitat atque 
admonet non cum vitae terhpore esse dimittendam 
commemorationem nominis nostri, sed cum omni 
posteritate adaequandam. 

30 XII. An vero tam parvi animi videamur esse om- 
nes, qui in re piiblica atque in his vitae periculis labo- 
ribusque versamur, ut, cum iisque ad extremum spa- 
tium ■ niillum tranquillum atque otiosum spiritum 
duxerimus, nobiscum simul moritura omnia arbi- 

15 tremur? An statuas et imagines, non animorum 
simulacra sed co'rporum, studiose multi summi homi- 
nes reliquerunt; consiliorum relinquere ac virtutum 
nostrarum effigiem nonne multo malle debemus, sum- 
mis ingeniis expressam et politam? Ego vero omnia 

20 quae gerebam, iam tum in gerendo spargere me ac 
disseminare arbitrabar in orbis terrae memoriam sem- 
piternam. Haec vero, sive a meo sensu post mortem 
afutiira est, sive, ut sapientissimi homines putaverunt, 
ad ahquam animi mei partem pertinebit, nunc qui- 

25 deni certe cogitatione quadam speque delector. 

§31. Acquit this beloved man of talent and be courteous 
to one who sings of Rome. § 32. / trust that my words have 
met your approval. 

31 D. Peroratio. — Qua re conservate, itidices, 
hominem pudore eo, quem amicorum videtis compro- 
bari cum dignitate tum etiam vetustate; ing£iiio au- 
tem tantd quantum id convenit existimari, quod sum- 


morum hominum ingeniis expetitum esse videatis; 
causa vero eius modi quae beneficio legis, auctoritate 
municipi, testimonio LucuUi, tabulis Metelli compro- 
betur. Quae cum ita sint, petimus a vobis, iudices, si 
qua non modo humana, verum etiam divina in tantis 5 
ingeniis commendatio debet esse, ut eum qui vos, qui 
vestros imperatores, qui populi Romani res gestas 
semper ornavit, qui etiam his recentibus nostris ve- 
strisque domesticis periculis aeternum se testimonium 
laudis datiirum esse profitetur, estque ex eo numero 10 
qui semper apud omnis sancti sunt habiti itaque dicti, 
sic in vestram accipiatis fidem, ut humanitate vestra 
levatus potius quam acerbitate violatus esse videatur. 

Quae de causa pro mea consuetiidine breviter sim- 32 
pliciterque dixi, iudices, ea confido probata esse om- 15 
nibus; quae a forensi aliena iudicialique consuetiidine 
et de hominis ingenio et commCmiter de ipso studio 
locutus sum, ea, indices, a vobis spero esse in bonam 
partem accepta, ab eo qui indicium exercet, certo 
scio. 20 



§ I. The strangeness of the surroundings is a "fearsome 
thing." §§ 2, 3. But the guards are to protect us, not to men- 
ace Milo. The howling mob should warn you to preserve him. 

1 A. Exordium. — Etsi vereor, iudices, ne turpe sit 
pro fortissimo viro dicere incipientem timere minime- 
que deceat, cum T. Annius ipse magis de rei publicae 
salute quam de sua perturbetur, me ad eius causam 

5 parem animi magnitudinem adferre non posse, tamen 
haec novi iudici nova forma terret oculos, qui quo- 
cumque inciderunt, veterem consuetudinem fori et 
pristinum morem iudiciorum requirunt. Non enim 
corona consessus vester cinctus est, ut solebat; non 
10 usitata frequentia stipati sumus. 

2 Non ilia praesidia, quae pro templis omnibus cer- 
nitis, etsi contra vim conlocata sunt, non adferunt 
tamen oratori terroris aliquid, ut in foro et in iudicio, 
quamquam praesidiis salutaribus et necessariis saepti 

15 sumus, tamen ne non timere quidem sine aliquo ti- 
more possimus. Quae si opposita Miloni putarem, 
cederem tempori, iudices, nee enim inter tantam vim 
armorum existimarem esse oratori locum. Sed me 
recreat et reficit Cn. Pompei, sapientissimi et iustissi- 

20 mi viri, consilium, qui profecto nee iustitiae suae pu- 


taret esse, quern reum sententiis iudicum tradidisset, 
eundem telis militum dedere, nee sapientiae temerita- 
tem concitatae multitudinis auctoritate publica ar- 
mare. Quam ob rem ilia arma, centuriones, cohortes 3 
non periculum nobis, sed praesidium denuntiant, ne- 5 
que solum ut quieto, sed etiam ut magno animo simus 
hortantur, nee auxilium modo defensioni meae, verum 
etiam silentium pollicentur. Reliqua vero multitudo, 
quae quidem est civium, tota nostra est, neque eorum 
quisquam, quos undique intuentis, unde aliqua fori 10 
pars aspici potest, et huius exitum iudici exspectantis 
videtis, non cum virtuti Milonis favet, tum de se, de 
liberis suis, de patria, de fortunis hodierno die decer- 
tari putat. 

11. Unum genus est adversum infestumque nobis 15 
eorum, quos P. Clodi furor rapinis et incendiis et om- 
nibus exitiis publicis pavit; qui hesterna etiam con- 
tione incitati sunt, ut vobis voce praeirent quid iudica- 
retis. Quorum clamor si qui forte fuerit, admonere 
vos debebit, ut eum civem retineatis, qui semper genus 20 
illud hominum clamoresque maximos prae vestra sa- 
lute neglexit. 

§ 4. Now you have a chance to reward him. § 5. In pub- 
lic service zve expect rehuifs. In a court Milo's foes should 
have no hope. § 6. I do not plead his past services, but only 
his right of self-defense. 

Quam ob rem adeste animis, indices, et timorem, 4 
si quem habetis, deponite. Nam si umquani de bonis 
et fortibus viris, si umquam de bene meritis civibus 25 
potestas vobis iudicandi fuit, si denique umquam lo- 
cus amplissimorum ordinum delectis viris datus est, ut 
sua studia erga fortis et bonos civis, quae voltu et ver- 


bis saepe significassent, re et sententiis declararent,hoc 
. profecto tempore earn potestatem omnem vos habetis, 
ut statuatis utrum nos, qui semper vestrae auctori- 
tati dediti fuimus, semper miseri lugeamus an diu 
5 vexati a perditissimis civibus aliquando per vos ac per 
vestram fidem, virtutem sapientiamque recreemur. 

5 Quid enim nobis duobus, indices, laboriosius, quid 
magis sollicitum, magis exercitum dici aut fingi po- 
test, qui spe amplissimorum praemiorum ad rem pu- 

lo blicam adducti metu crudelissimorum suppliciorum 
carere non possumus? Equidem ceteras tempestates 
et procellas in illis dumtaxat fiuctibus contionum 
semper putavi Miloni esse subeundas, quia semper 
pro bonis contra improbos senserat, in iudicio vero 

15 et in eo consilio, in quo ex cunctis ordinibus amplis- 
simi viri iudicarent, numquam existimavi spem ullam 
esse habituros Milonis inimicos ad eius non modo 
salutem exstinguendam, sed etiam gloriam per talis 
viros infringendam. 

6 Quamquam in hac causa indices, T. Anni tribu- 
natu rebusque omnibus pro salute rei publicae gestis 
ad huius criminis defensionem non abutemur. Nisi 
oculis videritis insidias Miloni a Clodio esse factas, 
nee deprecaturi sumus, ut crimen hoc nobis propter 

25 multa praeclara in rem publicam merita condonetis, 
nee postulaturi, ut, quia mors P. Clodi salus vestra 
fuerit, idcirco eam virtuti Milonis potius quam populi 
Romani felicitati adsignetis. Sin illius insidiae clari- 
ores hac luce fuerint, tum denique obsecrabo obtesta- 

30 borque vos, indices, si cetera amisimus, hoc nobis 
saltem ut relinquatur, vitarn ab inimicorum audacia 
telisque ut impune liceat defendere. 

o o 

O > 


First Objection. — § 7. " One who confesses that he has 
slain a man should die." § 8. Precedents for slaying men 
legally. § 9. The law respecting burglars. Story of Marius's 
soldier. § 10. Natural law of self-protection. § 11. Statutes 
forbid only premeditated murderous use of weapons. 

B. Praeiudicia vel Confutatio. — III. Sed ante 7 
quam ad earn orationem venio, quae est propria ve- 
strae quaestionis, videntur ea mihi esse refutanda, 
quae et in senatu ab inimicis saepe iactata sunt et in 
contione ab improbis et paulo ante ab accusatoribus, 5 
ut omni errore sublato rem plane, quae veniat in indi- 
cium, videre possitis. Negant intueri lucem esse fas 
ei, qui a se hominem occisum fateatur. In qua tan- 
dem urbe hoc homines stultissimi disputant? Nempe 
in ea, quae primum iudicium de capite vidit M. Ho- 10 
rati, fortissimi viri, qui nondum Hbera civitate tamen 
popuH Romani comitiis Hberatus est, cum sua manu 
sororem esse interfectam fateretur. 

An est quisquam qui hoc ignoret, cum de homine 8 
occiso quaeratur, aut negari solere omnino esse fac- 15 
tum aut recte et iure factum esse defendi? Nisi vero 
existimatis dementem P. Africanum fuisse, qui cum 
a C. Carbone tribuno plebis seditiose in contione in- 
terrogaretur quid de Ti. Gracchi morte sentiret, re- 
sponderit iure caesum videri. Neque enim posset aut 20 
Ahala ille Servilius aut P. Nasica aut L. Opimius 
aut C. Marius aut me consule senatus non nefarius 
haberi, si sceleratos civis interfici nefas esset. Itaque 
hoc, indices, non sine causa etiam fictis fabulis doc- 
tissimi homines memoriae prodiderunt, eum, qui pa- 25 
tris ulciscendi causa matrem necavisset, variatis 
hominum sententiis non solum divina, sed etiam 
sapientissimae deae sententia liberatum. 


9 Quod si duodecim tabulae nocturnum furem quo- 
quo modo, diurnum autem, si se telo defenderet, in- 
terfici impune voluerunt, quis est qui, quoquo modo 
quis interfectus sit, puniendum putet, cum videat ali- 

5 quando gladium nobis ad hominem occidendum ab 
ipsis porrigi legibus? IV. Atqui si tempus est ullum 
iure hominis necandi, quae multa sunt, certe illud est 
non modo iustum, verum etiam necessarium, cum vi 
vis inlata defenditur. Pudicitiam cum eriperet militi 
10 tribunus militaris in exercitu C. Mari, propinquus eius 
imperatoris, interfectus ab eo est, cui vim adferebat; 
facere enim probus adulescens periculose quam per- 
peti turpiter maluit. Atque hunc ille summus vir 
scelere solutum periculo liberavit. 

10 Insidiatori vero et latroni quae potest inferri in- 
iusta nex? Quid comitatus nostri, quid gladii volunt? 
quos habere certe non liceret, si uti illis nuUo pacto 
liceret. Est igitur haec, indices, non scripta, sed nata 
lex, quam non didicimus, accepimus, legimus, verum 

20 ex natura ipsa adripuimus, hausimus, expressimus, ad 
quam non docti, sed facti, non instituti, sed imbuti 
sumus, ut, si vita nostra in aliquas insidias, si in vim 
et in tela aut latronum aut inimicorum incidisset, om- 
nis honesta ratio esset expediendae salutis. 

11 Silent enim leges inter arma nee se exspectari 
iubent, cum ei, qui exspectare velit, ante iniusta poe- 
na luenda sit quam iusta repetenda. Etsi persapien- 
ter et quodam modo tacite dat ipsa lex potestatem 
defendendi, quae non hominem occidi, sed esse cum 

30 telo hominis occidendi causa vetat, ut, cum causa 
non telum quaereretur, qui sui defendendi causa telo 
esset usus, non hominis occidendi causa habuisse te- 


lum iudicaretur. Quapropter hoc maneat in causa, 
iudices; non enim dubito quin probaturus sim vobis 
defensionem meam, si id memineritis, quod oblivisci 
non potestis, insidiatorem interfici iure posse. 

Second Objection. — § 12. " The senate has decreed 
against Milo." On the contrary, it has always approved of 
him, causing Munatius to assert that it was "under my 
thumb." § 13. The senate voted not for a special court, but 
that violence was " contra rem puhlicam." § 14. It wished 
the case tried in the regidar courts. 

V. Sequitur illud, quod a Milonis inimicis saepis- 12 
sime dicitur, caedem, in qua P. Clodius occisus esset, 
senatum iudicasse contra rem publicam esse factam. 
Illam vero senatus non sententiis suis solum, sed 
etiam studiis comprobavit. Quotiens enim est ilia 
causa a nobis acta in senatu, quibus adsensionibus 10 
universi ordinis, quam nee tacitis nee occultis! 
Quando enim frequentissimo senatu quattuor aut 
summum quinque sunt inventi qui Milonis causam 
non probarent? Declarant huius ambusti tribuni 
plebis illae intermortuae contiones, quibus cottidie 15 
meam potentiam invidiose criminabatur, cum diceret 
senatum non quod sentiret, sed quod ego vellem de- 
cernere. Quae quidem si potentia est adpellanda po- 
tius quam propter magna in rem publicam merita 
mediocris in bonis causis auctoritas aut propter hos 20 
ofificiosos labores meos non nulla apud bonos gratia, 
adpelletur ita sane, dum modo ea nos utamur pro sa- 
lute bonorum contra amentiam perditorum. 

Hanc vero quaestionem, etsi non est iniqua, num- 13 
quam tamen senatus constituendam putavit; erant 25 


enim leges, erant quaestiones vel de caede vel de vi, 
nee tantum maerorem ac luctum senatui mors P. 
Clodi adferebat, ut nova quaestio constitueretur. 
Cuius enim de illo incesto stupro indicium decernendi 
5 senatui potestas esset erepta, de eius interitu quis 
potest credere senatum indicium novum constituen- 
dum putasse? Cur igitur incendium curiae, oppugna- 
tionem aedium M. Lepidi, caedem hanc ipsam con- 
tra rem publicam senatus factam esse decrevit? Quia 
lo nulla vis umquam est in libera civitate suscepta inter 

14 civis non contra rem publicam. Non enim est ulla 
defensio contra vim umquam optanda, sed non num- 
quam est necessaria, — nisi vero aut ille dies, quo Ti. 
Gracchus est caesus, aut ille, quo Gains, aut arma 

15 Saturnini non, etiam si e re publica oppressa sunt, 
rem publicam tamen volnerarunt. 

VI. Itaque ego ipse decrevi, cum caedem in via 
Appia factam esse constaret, non eum qui se de- 
fendisset, contra rem publicam fecisse, sed cum ines- 

20 set in re vis et insidiae, crimen iudicio reservavi, rem 
notavi. Quod si per furiosum ilium tr. pi. senatui 
quod sentiebat perficere licuisset, novam quaestio- 
nem nullam haberemus. Decernebat enim, ut veteri- 
bus legibus, tantum modo extra ordinem, quaerere- 

25 tur. Divisa sententia est postulante nescio quo — 
nihil enim necesse est omnium me flagitia proferre — 
sic reliqua auctoritas senatus empta intercessione 
sublata est. 


Third Objection. — § !$/' Pompey wishes Milo's convic- 
tion." But he has insisted only on an impartial investigation 
of the causes of the killing. § i6. No special courts inves- 
tigated the death of Drusus nor of Africanus. § 17. Some 
are horrified because Clodius was slain on the road his an- 
cestor built. 

At enim Cn. Pompeius rogatione sua et de re et de 15 
causa iudicavit: tulit enim de caede, quae in Appia 
via facta esset, in qua P. Clodius occisus esset. Quid 
ergo tulit? Nempe ut quaereretur. Quid porro 
quaerendum est? factumne sit? At constat. A quo? 5 
At paret. Vidit igitur etiam in confessione facti, iuris 
tamen defensionem suscipi posse. Quod nisi vidisset, 
posse absolvi eum, qui fateretur, cum videret nos fa- 
teri, neque quaeri umquam iussisset nee vobis tam 
banc salutarem in iudicando litteram quam illam tri- 10 
stem dedisset. Mihi vero Cn. Pompeius non modo 
nihil gravius contra Milonem iudicasse, sed etiam sta- 
tuisse videtur quid vos in iudicando spectare oporte- 
ret. Nam qui non poenam confessioni, sed defensio- 
nem dedit, is causam interitus quaerendam, non in- 15 
teritum putavit. lam illud ipse dicet profecto, quod 16 
sua sponte fecit, Publione Clodio tribuendum putarit 
an tempori. 

VII. Domi suae nobilissimus vir, senatus propu- 
gnator atque illis quidem temporibus paene patronus, 20 
avunculus huius iudicis nostri, fortissimi viri, M. Ca- 
tonis, tribunus plebis M. Drusus occisus est. Nihil de 
eius morte populus consultus est, nulla quaestio de- 
creta a senatu est. Quantum luctum fuisse in hac urbe 
a nostris patribus accepimus, cum P. Africano domi 25 
suae quiescenti ilia nocturna vis esset inlata? Quis 
tum non ingemuit, quis non arsit dolore, quem im- 


mortalem, si fieri posset, omnes esse cuperent, eius 
ne necessariam quidem exspectatam esse mortem? 
Num igittir ulla quaestio de Africani morte lata est? 

17 Certe nulla. Quid ita? Quia non alio facinore clari 
5 homines, alio obscuri necantur. Intersit inter vitae 

dignitatem summorum atque infimorum; mors qui- 
dem inlata per scelus isdem et poenis teneatur et legi- 
bus. Nisi forte magis erit parricida, si qui consularem 
patrem quam si qui humilem necarit, aut eo mors atro- 
10 cior erit P. Clodi, quod is in monumentis maiorum 
suorum sit interfectus — hoc enim ab istis saepe dici- 
tur — , proinde quasi Appius ille Caecus viam mu- 
nierit, non qua populus uteretur, sed ubi impune sui 
posteri latrocinarentur! 

§ 18. They don't mention his murder of Papirius. Clodius 
once set a slave to kill Ponipey; ("§ 19J yet no investigation 
was decreed. § 20. It was the same when he tried to kill me. 
But of course Clodius was a greater personage! 

18 Itaque in eadem ista Appia cum ornatissimum 
equitem Romanum P. Clodius M. Papirium occidis- 
set, non fuit illud facinus puniendum — homo enim 
nobilis in suis monumentis equitem Romanum occi- 
derat — nunc eiusdem Appiae nomen quantas tragoe- 

20 dias excitat! Quae cruentata antea caede honesti 
atque innocentis viri silebatur, eadem nunc crebro 
usurpatur, postea quam latronis et parricidae san- 
guine imbuta est. Sed quid ego ilia commemoro? 
Comprehensus est in templo Castoris servus P. Clodi, 

25 quem ille ad Cn. Pompeium interficiendum conlocarat. 
Extorta est ei confitenti sica de manibus. Caruit foro 
postea Pompeius, caruit senatu, caruit publico; ianua 
se ac parietibus3 non iure legum iudiciorumque texit. 


Num quae rogatio lata, num quae nova quaestio 19 
decreta est? Atqui si res, si vir, si tempus uUum 
dignum fuit, certe haec in ilia causa summa omnia 
fuerunt. Insidiator erat in foro conlocatus atque in 
vestibulo ipso senatus; ei viro autem mors parabatur, 5 
cuius in vita nitebatur salus civitatis; eo porro rei 
publicae tempore, quo, si unus ille occidisset, non 
haec solum civitas, sed gentes omnes concidissent. 
Nisi vero, quia perfecta res non est, non fuit punien- 
da, proinde quasi exitus rerum, non hominum con- 10 
silia legibus vindicentur. Minus dolendum fuit re non 
perfecta, sed puniendum certe nihilo minus. 

Quotiens ego ipse, indices, ex P. Clodi telis et ex 20 
cruentis eius manibus effugi! ex quibus si me non 
vel mea vel rei publicae fortuna servasset, quis tan- 15 
dem de interitu meo quaestionem tulisset? VIII. 
Sed stulti sumus qui Drusum, qui Africanum, Pom- 
peium, nosmet ipsos cum P. Clodio conferre aude- 
amus. Tolerabilia fuerunt ilia: P. Clodi mortem aequo 
animo ferre nemo potest. Luget senatus, maeret 20 
equester ordo, tota civitas confecta senio est, squa- 
lent municipia, adflictantur coloniae, agri denique ipsi 
tam beneficum, tam salutarem, tarn mansuetum civem 

§21. Pompey desired to seem upright, and trusted to an 
excellent court, not excluding my friends. § 22. He chose 
Domitius to preside over the court. 

Non fuit ea causa, indices, profecto non fuit, cur 21 
sibi censeret Pompeius quaestionem ferendam, sed 
homo sapiens atque alta et divina quadam mente 
praeditus multa vidit: fuisse ilium sibi inimicum, fa- 
miliarem Milonem; in communi omnium laetitia si 



etiam ipse gaiideret, timuit ne videretur infirmior 
fides reconciliatae gratiae. Multa etiam alia vidit, 
sed illud maxime, quamvis atrociter ipse tulisset, vos 
tamen fortiter iudicaturos. Itaque delegit ex floren- 
5 tissimis ordinibus ipsa lumina, neque vero, quod non 
nulli dictitant, secrevit in iudicibus legendis amicos 
meos. Neque enim hoc cogitavit vir iustissimus, ne- 
que in bonis viris legendis id adsequi potuisset, etiam 
si cupisset. Non enim mea gratia familiaritatibus 

lo continetur, quae late patere non possunt, propterea 
quod consuetudines victus non possunt esse cum mul- 
tis; sed, si quid possumus, ex eo possumus, quod res 
publica nos coniunxit cum bonis. Ex quibus ille cum 
optimos viros legeret, idque maxime ad fidem suam 

15 pertinere arbitraretur, non potuit legere non studio- 
sos mei. 

22 Quod vero te, L. Domiti, huic quaestioni praeesse 
maxime voluit, nihil quaesivit aliud nisi iustitiam, gra- 
vitatem, humanitatem, fidem. Tulit ut consularem 

20 necesse esset: credo, quod principum munus esse du- 
cebat resistere et levitati multitudinis et perditorum 
temeritati. Ex consularibus te creavit potissimum: 
dederas enim quam contemneres popularis insanias 
iam ab adulescentia documenta maxima. 

§ 23. The sole point at issue is, " which laid a snare for 
the other f " § 24. Clodius postponed his canvass for the 
praetor ship. §§ 25, 26. He canvassed against Milo's election 
and threatened his life. 

23 C. Narratio. — IX. Quam ob rem, indices, ut 
aliquando ad causam crimenque veniamus, si neque 
omnis confessio facti est inusitata, neque de causa 
nostra quicquam aliter ac nos vellemus a senatu iudi- 


catum est, et lator ipse legis cum esset controversia 
nulla facti, iuris tamen disceptationem esse voluit et 
ei lecti iudices isque praepositus est quaestioni, qui 
haec iuste sapienterque disceptet, reliquum est, iudi- 
ces, ut nihil iam quaerere aliud debeatis nisi uter utri 5 
insidias fecerit. Quod quo facilius argumentis perspi- 
cere possitis, rem gestam yobis dum breviter expono, 
quaeso, diligenter attendite. 

P. Clodius cum statuisset omni scelere in praetura 24 
vexare rem publicam videretque ita tracta esse co- 10 
mitia anno superiore, ut non multos mensis praetu- 
ram gerere posset, qui non honoris gradum spectaret, 
ut ceteri, sed et L. Paulum conlegam effugere vellet, 
singulari virtute civem, et annum integrum ad dila- 
cerandam rem publicam quaereret, subito reliquit an- 15 
num suum seseque in proximum transtulit, non, ut 
fit, religione aliqua, sed ut haberet, quod ipse dice- 
bat, ad praeturam gerendam, hoc est, ad everten- 
dam rem publicam, plenum annum atque integrum. 
Occurrebat ei mancam ac debilem praeturam futu- 25 
ram suam consule Milone; eum porro summo con- 
sensu populi Romani consulem fieri videbat. Con- 
tulit se ad eius competitores, sed ita, totam ut peti- 
tionem ipse solus etiam invitis illis gubernaret, tota 
ut comitia suis, ut dictitabat, umeris sustineret. Con- 25 
vocabat tribus, se interponebat, CoUinam novam di- 
lectu perditissimorum civium conscribebat. Quanto 
ille plura miscebat, tanto hie magis in dies conva- 
lescebat. Ubi vidit homo ad omne facinus paratissi- 
mus fortissimum virum, inimicissimum suum, certissi- 30 
mum consulem, idque intellexit non solum sermoni- 
bus, sed etiam suffragiis populi Romani saepe esse 


declaratum, palam agere coepit et aperte dicere occi- 

26 dendum Milonem. Servos agrestis et barbaros, qui- 
bus silvas publicas depopulatus erat Etruriamque 
vexarat, ex Appennino deduxerat, quos videbatis. 

5 Res erat minime obscura. Etenim dictitabat palam 
consulatum Miloni eripi non posse, vitam posse. Si- 
gnificavit hoc saepe in senatu, dixit in contione; quin 
etiam M. Favonio, fortissimo viro, quaerenti ex eo 
qua spe fureret Milone vivo, respondit triduo ilium 
10 aut summum quadriduo esse periturum; quam vocem 
eius ad hunc M. Catonem statim Favonius detulit. 

§ 27. He set out a day ahead of Milo to lay his snare. 
§ 28. Milo set forth late in the day and peacefidly. Clodius 
in lighting trim attacked him. § 29. In the fray Milo's slaves 
killed Clodius. §§30, 31. We claim the right of self-defense; 
you have to decide which was the plotter. 

27 X. Interim cum sciret Clodius — neque enim erat 
difficile scire — iter sollemne, legitimum, necessarium 
ante diem XIII Kalendas Februarias Miloni esse 

15 Lanuvium ad flaminem prodendum, Roma subito 
ipse profectus pridie est, ut ante suum fundum, quod 
re intellectum est, Miloni insidias conlocaret; atque 
ita profectus est, ut contionem turbulentam, in qua 
eius furor desideratus est, relinqueret, quam nisi obire 

20 facinoris locum tempusque voluisset, numquam reli- 

28 Milo autem cum in senatu fuisset eo die, quoad 
senatus est dimissus, domum venit, calceos et vesti- 
menta mutavit, paulisper dum se uxor, ut fit, com- 

25 parat, commoratus est, dein profectus id temporis, 
cum iam Clodius, si quidem eo die Romam venturus 
erat, redire potuisset. Obviam fit ei Clodius, expe- 


ditus, in equo, nulla raeda, nullis impedimentis, nullis 
Graecis comitibus, ut solebat, sine uxore, quod nurn- 
quam fere: cum hie insidiator, qui iter illud ad cae- 
dem faciendam adparasset, cum uxore veheretur in 
raeda, paenulatus, magno et impedito et muliebri ac 5 
delicato ancillarum puerorumque comitatu. 

Fit obviam Clodio ante fundum eius hora fere un- 29 
decima aut non multo secus. Statim complures cum 
telis in hunc faciunt de loco superiore impetum; ad- 
versi raedarium occidunt. Cum autem hie de raeda 10 
reiecta paenula desiluisset seque acri animo defende- 
ret, illi qui erant cum Clodio, gladiis eductis, partim 
recurrere ad raedam, ut a tergo Milonem adorirentur, 
partim, quod hunc iam interfectum putarent, caedere 
incipiunt eius servos, qui post erant; ex quibus qui 15 
animo fideli in dominum et praesenti fuerunt, partim 
occisi sunt, partim, cum ad raedam pugnari viderent, 
domino succurrere prohiberentur, Milonem occisum 
et ex ipso Clodio audirent et re vera putarent, fece- 
runt id servi Milonis — dicam enim aperte non deri- 20 
vandi criminis causa, sed ut factum est — nee inipe- 
rante nee sciente nee praesente domino, quod suos 
quisque servos in tali re facere voluisset. 

XL Haec, sicuti exposui, ita gesta sunt, indices: 30 
insidiator superatus est, vi victa vis vel potius op- 25 
pressa virtute audacia est. Nihil dico quid res publica 
consecuta sit, nihil quid vos, nihil quid omnes boni: 
nihil sane id prosit Miloni, qui hoc fato natus est, ut 
ne se quidem servare potuerit quin una rem publicam 
vosque servaret. Si id iure fieri non potuit, nihil ha- 30 
beo quod defendam. Sin hoc et ratio doctis et neces- 
sitas barbaris et mos gentibus et feris natura ipsa 


praescripsit, ut omnem semper vim, quacumque ope 
possent, a corpore, a capite, a vita sua propulsarent, 
non potestis hoc facinus improbum iudicare quin 
simul iudicetis omnibus, qui in latrones inciderint, 
5 aut illorum telis aut vestris sententiis esse pere- 

31 Quod si ita putasset, certe optabilius Miloni fuit 
dare iugulum P. Clodio, non semel ab illo neque tum 
primum petitum, quam iugulari a vobis, quia se non 

10 iugulandum illi tradidisset. Sin hoc nemo vestrum 
ita sentit, ilium iam in indicium venit, non occisusne 
sit, quod fatemur, sed iure an iniuria, quod multis in 
causis saepe quaesitum est. Insidias factas esse con- 
stat, et id est, quod senatus contra rem publicam 

15 factum iudicavit; ab utro factae sint incertum est. 
De hoc igitur latum est ut quaereretur. Ita et sena- 
tus rem, non hominem notavit et Pompeius de iure, 
non de facto quaestionem tulit. XII. Num quid igi- 
tur aliud in indicium venit nisi uter utri insidias fecerit? 

20 Profecto nihil: si hie illi, ut ne sit impune; si ille huic, 
tum nos scelere solvamur. 

§ 32. Clodius would have reaped advantage from the 
leath of Milo. § 33. Are you, judges, ignorant of his evil 
plans f Sextus, bring out that portfolio which you prise. 
You abused the dead man's corpse. 

32 D. CoNFiRMATio. — Quouam igitur pacto pro- 
bari potest insidias Miloni fecisse Clodium? Satis 
est in ilia quidem tam audaci, tarn nefaria belua do- 

25 cere, magnam ei causam, magnam spem in Milonis 
morte propositam, magnas utilitates fuisse. Itaque 
illud Cassianum, ' cui bono fuerit,' in his personis 
valeat, etsi bom nullo emolumento impelluntur in 


fraudem, improbi saepe parvo. Atqui Milone inter- 
fecto Clodius haec adsequebatur, non modo ut prae- 
tor esset non eo consule, quo sceleris facere nihil pos- 
set, sed etiam ut eis consulibus praetor esset, quibus 
si non adiuvantibus, at coniventibus certe speraret se 5 
posse eludere in illis suis cogitatis furoribus: cuius illi 
conatus, ut ipse ratiocinabatur, nee cuperent repri- 
mere, si possent, cum tantum beneficium ei se debere 
arbitrarentur, et, si vellent, fortasse vix possent fran- 
gere hominis sceleratissimi corroboratam iam ve- 10 
tustate audaciam. 

An vero, indices, vos soli ignoratis, vos hospites 33 
in hac urbe versamini, vestrae peregrinantur aures 
neque in hoc pervagato civitatis sermone versantur, 
quas ille leges, si leges nominandae sunt ac non faces 15 
urbis, pestes rei publicae, fuerit impositurus nobis 
omnibus atque inusturus? Exhibe, exhibe, quaeso, 
Sexte Clodi, librarium illud legum vestrarum, quod 
te aiunt eripuisse e domo et ex mediis armis turbaque 
nocturna tamquam Palladium sustuHsse, ut praecla- 20 
rum videlicet munus atque instrumentum tribunatus 
ad aliquem, si nactus esses, qui tuo arbitrio tribuna- 
tum gereret, deferre posses. Et aspexit me illis 
quidem oculis, quibus tum solebat, cum omnibus 
omnia minabatur. Movet me quippe lumen curiae! 25 
XIII. Quid? tu me tibi iratum, Sexte, putas, cuius 
tu inimicissimum multo crudelius etiam punitus es, 
quam erat humanitatis meae postulare? Tu P. Clo- 
di cruentum cadaver eiecisti domo, tu in publicum 
abiecisti, tu spoliatum imaginibus, exsequiis, pompa, 30 
laudatione, infelicissimis lignis semiustilatum noctur- 
nis canibus dilaniandum reliquisti. Qua re, etsi ne- 


farie fecisti, tamen, quoniam in meo inimico crudeli- 
tatem exprompsisti tuam, laudare non possum, irasci 
certe non debeo. 

§ 34. Would Milo benefit by Clodius's death? Not at all. 
He won favor by opposing Clodius. § 35. Milo's hatred for 
him was merely political, but Clodius was enraged at Milo. 

34 Audistis, indices, quantum Clodi interintvxi occidi 
5 Milonem: convertite animos nunc vicissim ad Milo- 
nem. Quid Milonis intererat interfici Clodium? quid 
erat cur Milo non dicam admitteret, sed optaret? 
' Obstabat in spe consulatus Miloni Clodius.' At 
eo repugnante fiebat, immo vero eo fiebat magis, nee 

10 me suffragatore meliore utebatur quam Clodio. Va- 
lebat apud vos, indices, Milonis erga me remque 
publicam meritorum memoria, valebant preces et la- 
crimae nostrae, quibus ego tum vos mirifice moveri 
sentiebam, sed plus multo valebat periculorum impen- 

15 dentium timor. Quis enim erat civium qui sibi solu- 
tam P. Clodi praeturam sine maximo rerum novarum 
metu proponeret? Solutam autem fore videbatis, 
nisi esset is consul, qui eam auderet possetque con- 
stringere. Eum Milonem unum esse cum sentiret 

20 universus populus Romanus, quis dubitaret suffragio 
suo se metu, periculo rem publicam liberare? At 
nunc, Clodio remoto, usitatis iam rebus enitendum 
est Miloni, ut tueatur dignitatem suam; singularis 
ilia et huic uni concessa gloria, quae cottidie augeba- 

25 tur frangendis furoribus Clodianis, iam Clodi morte 
cecidit. Vos adepti estis, ne quem civem metueretis; 
hie exercitationem virtutis, suffragationem consula- 
tus, fontem perennem gloriae suae perdidit. Itaque 
Milonis consulatus, qui vivo Clodio labefactari non 


poterat, mortuo denique temptari coeptus est. Non 
modo igitur nihil prodest, sed obest etiam Clodi mors 

' At valuit odium, fecit iratus, fecit inimicus, fuit 35 
ultor iniuriae, punitor doloris sui.' Quid? si haec non 5 
dico maiora fuerunt in Clodio quam in Milone, sed in 
illo maxima, nulla in hoc, quid voltis amplius? Quid 
enim odisset Clodium Milo, segetem ac materiem 
suae gloriae, praeter hoc civile odium, quo omnis im- 
probos odimus? Ille erat ut odisset primum defen- 10 
sorem salutis meae, deinde vexatorem furoris, domi- 
torem armorum suorum, postremo etiam accusato- 
rem suum. Quo tandem animo hoc tyrannum ilium 
tulisse creditis? quantum odium illius et in homine 
iniusto quam etiam iustum fuisse? 15 

§ 36. Do yoii recall how he effected my exile by unfair 
means f § 37. His acts of violence, and his attempts against 
Pompey and myself. §§38-41. Milo merely restrained Clo- 
dius, hut had many chances to slay him creditably. 

XIV. Reliquum est ut iam ilium natura ipsius con- 36 
suetudoque defendat, hunc autem haec eadem coar- 
guant. ' Nihil per vim umquam Clodius, omnia per 
vim Milo.' Quid? ego, indices, cum maerentibus vo- 
bis urbe cessi, iudiciumne timui, non servos, non arma, 20 
non vim? Quae fuisset igitur iusta causa restituendi 
mei, nisi fuisset iniusta eiciendi? Diem mihi, credo, 
dixerat, multam inrogarat, actionem perduellionis 
intenderat, et mihi videlicet in causa aut mala aut 
mea, non et praeclarissima et vestra, indicium timen- 25 
dum fuit. Servorum et egentium et facinorosorum 
armis meos civis, meis consiliis periculisque servatos, 
pro me obici nolui. 


37 Vidi enim, vidi hunc ipsum Q. Hortensium, lu- 
men et ornamentum rei publicae, paene interfici ser- 
vorum manu, cum mihi adesset; qua in turba C. Vi- 
bienus senator, vir optimus, cum hoc cum esset una, 

5 ita est mulcatus, ut vitam amiserit. Itaque quando 
illius postea sica ilia, quam a Catilina acceperat, con- 
quievit? Haec intenta nobis est, huic ego vos obici 
pro me non sum passus, haec insidiata Pompeio est, 
haec viam Appiam, monumentum sui nominis, nece 
lo Papiri cruentavit, haec eadem longo intervallo con- 
versa rursus est in me; nuper quidem, ut scitis, me 
ad regiam paene confecit. 

38 Quid simile Milonis? cuius vis omnis haec semper 
fuit, ne P. Clodius, cum in indicium detrahi non pos- 

15 set, vi oppressam civitatem teneret. Quem si inter- 
ficere voluisset, quantae quotiens occasiones, quam 
praeclarae fuerunt! Potuitne, cum domum ac deos 
penatis suos illo oppugnante defenderet, iure se ul- 
cisci, potuitne civi egregio et viro fortissimo, P. Se- 

20 stio, conlega suo, volnerato, potuitne Q. Fabricio, 
viro Optimo, cum de reditu meo legem ferret, pulso, 
crudelissima in foro caede facta, potuitne L. Caecili, 
iustissimi fortissimique praetoris, oppugnata domo, 
potuitne illo die, quo est lata lex de me, cum totius 

25 Italiae concursus, quem mea salus concitarat, facti 
illius gloriam libens agnovisset, ut, etiam si id Milo 
fecisset, cuncta civitas eam laudem pro sua vindi- 

39 XV. At quod erat tempus? Clarissimus et for- 
30 tissimus vir consul, inimicus Clodio, P. Lentulus, 

ultor sceleris illius, propugnator senatus, defensor 
vestrae voluntatis, patronus publici consensus, resti- 


tutor salutis meae; septem praetores, octo tribuni ple- 
bei illius adversarii, defensores mei; Cn. Pompeius, 
auctor et dux mei reditus, illius hostis, cuius senten- 
tiam senatus omnis de salute mea gravissimam et or- 
natissimam secutus est, qui populum Romanum est 5 
cohortatus; qui cum decretum de me Capuae fecisset, 
ipse cunctae Italiae cupienti et eius fidem imploranti 
signum dedit, ut ad me restituendum Romam coii- 
curreret; omnia denique in ilium odia civium arde- 
bant desiderio mei, quem qui tum interemisset, non 10 
de impunitate eius, sed de praemiis cogitaretur. 
Tum se Milo continuit et P. Clodium in indicium 40 
bis, ad vim numquam vocavit. Quid? private Milone 
et reo ad populum accusante P. Clodio, cum in Cn. 
Pompeium pro Milone dicentem impetus factus est, 15 
quae tum non modo occasio, sed etiam causa illius 
opprimendi fuit? Nuper vero cum M. Antonius sum- 
mam spem salutis bonis omnibus attulisset gravissi- 
mamque adulescens nobilissimus rei publicae partem 
fortissime suscepisset, atque illam beluam, iudici la- 20 
queos declinantem, iam inretitam teneret, qui locus, 
quod tempus illud, di immortales, fuit! Cum se ille 
fugiens in scalarum tenebras abdidisset, magnum Mi- 
loni fuit conficere illam pestem nulla sua invidia, M. 
vero Antoni maxima gloria? Quid? comitiis in campo 41 
quotiens potestas fuit! cum ille in saepta inrupisset, 
gladios destringendos, lapides iaciendos curasset, dein 
subito voltu Milonis perterritus fugeret ad Tiberim, 
vos et omnes boni vota faceretis, ut Miloni uti virtute 
sua liberet. 30 

XVI. Quem igitur cum omnium gratia noluit, 
hunc voluit cum aliquorum querela, quem iure, quem 


loco, quern tempore, quern impune non est ausus, 
hunc iniuria, iniquo loco, alieno tempore, periculo 
capitis non dubitavit occidere? 

§§ 42, 43. Would he have chosen his own election time 
for such a deed? That was Clodiiis's chance. § 44. Clodins 
prophesied the time of Milo's death. § 45. // zvas easy to 
learn of Milo's journey. Clodius left his work to zvaylay 
the traveler. 

42 Praesertim, iudices, cum honoris amplissimi con- 
5 tentio et dies comitiorum subesset, quo quidem tem- 
pore — scio enim quam timida sit ambitio quantaque 
et quam sollicita sit cupiditas consulatus — omnia, non 
modo quae reprehendi palam, sed etiam quae obscure 
cogitari possunt, timemus, rumorem levem, fictam 

10 fabulam perhorrescimus, ora omnium atque oculos 
intuemur. Nihil est enim tam molle, tam tenerum, 
tam aut fragile aut flexible quam voluntas erga nos 
sensusque civium, qui non modo improbitati irascun- 
tur candidatorum, sed etiam in recte factis saepe fasti- 

43 diunt. Hunc igitur diem campi speratum atque ex- 
optatum sibi proponens Milo, cruentis manibus scelus 
et facinus prae se ferens et confitens ad ilia augusta 
centuriarum auspicia veniebat? Quam hoc non cre- 
dibile est in hoc, quam idem in Clodio non dubitan- 

20 dum, qui se ipse interfecto Milone regnaturum puta- 
ret! Quid? quod caput est, audaciae, iudices, quis 
ignorat maximam inlecebram esse peccandi impuni- 
tatis spem? In utro igitur haec fuit? in Milone, qui 
etiam nunc reus est facti aut praeclari aut certe ne- 

25 cessarii, an in Clodio, qui ita indicia poenamque con- 
tempserat, ut eum nihil delectaret quod aut per natu- 
ram fas esset aut per leges liceret? 


Sed quid ego argumentor, quid plura dispute? 44 
Te, Q. Petili, adpello, optimum et fortissimum civem; 
te, M. Cato, testor, quos mihi divina quaedam sors 
dedit iudices. Vos ex M. Favonio audistis Clodium 
sibi dixisse, et audistis vivo Clodio, periturum Milo- 5 
nem triduo. Post diem tertium gesta res est quam 
dixerat. Cum ille non dubitarit aperire quid cogi- 
taret, vos potestis dubitare quid fecerit? XVII. 45 
Quem ad modum igitur eum dies non fefellit? 
Dixi equidem modo. Dictatoris Lanuvini stata 10 
sacrificia nosse negoti nihil erat. Vidit necesse 
esse Miloni proficisci Lanuvium illo ipso quo est pro- 
fectus die: itaque antevertit. At quo die? Quo, ut 
ante dixi, fuit insanissima contio ab ipsius mercenna- 
rio tribuno plebis concitata: quem diem ille, quam 15 
contionem, quos clamores, nisi ad cogitatum facinus 
adproperaret, numquam reliquisset. Ergo illi ne 
causa quidem itineris, etiam causa manendi; Miloni 
manendi nulla facultas, exeundi non causa solum, sed 
etiam necessitas fuit. Quid, si, ut ille scivit, Milonem 20 
fore eo die in via, sic Clodium Milo ne suspicari qui- 
dem potuit? 

§ 46. Milo could not know of Clodius's changed plans. 
§ 47. We are freed of all complicity in the crime. § 48. The 
reason assigned for Clodius's return is absurd. §§ 49, 50. 
Had Milo cared to lie in wait, he woidd have chosen a more 
advantageous spot, and escaped suspicion. 

Primum quaero qui potuerit? quod vos idem in 46 
Clodio quaerere non potestis. Ut enim neminem 
alium nisi T. Patinam, familiarissimum suum, rogas- 25 
set, scire potuit illo ipso die Lanuvi a dictatore Milone 
prodi flaminem necesse esse. Sed erant permulti alii, 


ex quibus id facillime scire posset. Milo de Clodi 
reditu tinde quaesivit? Quaesierit — videte quid vo- 
bis largiar — , servum etiam, ut Q. Arrius, amicus 
meus, dixit, corruperit. Legite testimonia testium 
5 vestrorum. Dixit C. Causinius Schola, Interamna- 
nus, familiarissimus et idem comes Clodi, P. Clodium 
illo die in Albano mansurum fuisse, sed subito ei esse 
nuntiatum Cyrum architectum esse mortuum, itaque 
repente Romam constituisse proficisci. Dixit hoc 
10 item comes P. Clodi, C. Clodius. 

47 XVIII. Videte, iudices, quantae res his testimo- 
niis sint confectae. Primum certe Hberatur Milo non 
eo consilio profectus esse, ut insidiaretur in via Clo- 
dio: quippe, si ille obvius ei futurus omnino non erat. 

15 Deinde — non enim video cur non meum quoque 
agam negotium — scitis, iudices, fuisse qui in hac ro- 
gatione suadenda diceret Milonis manu caedem esse 
factam, consilio vero maioris alicuius. Me videlicet 
latronem ac sicarium abiecti homines et perditi de- 

20 scribebant. lacent suis testibus; respiravi, liberatus 
sum; non vereor ne, quod ne suspicari quidem potu- 
erim, videar id cogitasse. 

48 Nunc persequar cetera; nam occurrit illud: ' Igi- 
tur ne Clodius quidem de insidiis cogitavit, quoniam 

25 fuit in Albano mansurus,' Si quidem exiturus ad 
caedem e villa non fuisset. Video enim ilium, qui 
dicatur de Cyri morte nuntiasse, non id nuntiasse, sed 
Milonem adpropinquare. Nam quid de Cyro nuntia- 
ret, quem Clodius Roma proficiscens reliquerat mo- 

30 rientem? Testamentum simul obsignavi, una fui; 
testamentum autem palam fecerat et ilium heredem 
et me scripserat. Quem pridie hora tertia animam 


efflantem reliquisset, eum mortuum postridie hora 
decima denique ei nuntiabatur? XIX. Age, sit ita 49 
factum: quae causa cur Romam properaret, cur in 
noctem se coniceret? Quid adferebat festinationis, 
quod heres erat? Primum nihil erat cur properato 5 
opus esset; deinde si quid esset, quid tandem erat 
quod ea nocte consequi posset, amitteret autem, 
si postridie mane Romam venisset? Atqui ut illi 
nocturnus ad urbem adventus vitandus potius quam 
expetendus fuit, sic Miloni, cum insidiator esset, si lo 
ilium ad urbem noctu accessurum sciebat, subsiden- 
dum atque exspectandum fuit. Noctu occidisset. 
Nemo ei neganti non credidisset. Insidioso et pie- 5^ 
no latronum in loco occidisset. Nemo ei neganti 
non credidisset, quem esse omnes salvum etiam 15 
confitentem volunt. Sustinuisset crimen primum 
ipse ille latronum occultator et receptor locus, tum 
neque muta solitudo indicasset neque caeca nox 
ostendisset Milonem; deinde multi ab illo violati, 
spoliati, bonis expulsi, multi haec etiam timentes 20 
in suspicionem caderent, tota denique rea citaretur 

§51. Why didn't he prevent Clodius from reaching his 
villa f § 52. Resume of the points already established. § 53. 
The place of attack was favorable to Clodius. § 54. Milo 
was traveling peacefully, while Clodius's actions betrayed 
his purpose. 

Atque illo die certe Aricia rediens devertit Clo- 51 
dius ad se in Albanum. Quod ut sciret Milo, ilium 
Ariciae fuisse, suspicari tamen debuit eum, etiam si 25 
Romam illo die reverti vellet, ad villam suam, quae 
viam tangeret, deversurum. Cur nee ante occurrit. 


ne ille in villa resideret, nee eo in loeo subsedit, quo 
ille noetu venturus esset? 

52 Video adhuc constare, indices, omnia: Miloni et- 
iam utile fuisse Clodium vivere, illi ad ea, quae concu- 

5 pierat, optatissimum interitum Milonis; odium fuisse 
illius in hunc acerbissimum, nullum huius in ilium; 
consuetudinem illius perpetuam in vi inferenda, huius 
tantum in repellenda; mortem ab illo Miloni denun- 
tiatam et praedicatam palam, nihil umquam auditum 

10 ex Milone; profectionis huius diem illi notum, redi- 
tum illius huic ignotum fuisse; huius iter necessari- 
um, illius etiam potius alienum; hunc prae se tulisse 
se illo die exiturum, ilium eo die se dissimulasse redi- 
turum; hunc nullius rei mutasse consilium, ilium cau- 

15 sam mutandi consili finxisse; huic, si insidiaretur, noc- 
tem prope urbem exspectandam, illi, etiam si hunc 
non timeret, tamen accessum ad urbem nocturnum 
fuisse metuendum. 

53 XX. Videamus nunc, id quod caput est, locus ad 
20 insidias ille ipse, ubi congressi sunt, utri tandem fue- 

rit aptior. Id vero, indices, etiam dubitandum et 
diutius cogitandum est? Ante fundum Clodi, quo in 
fundo propter insanas illas substructiones facile homi- 
num mille versabatur valentium, edito adversari at- 
25 que excelso loco superiorem se fore putabat Milo, 
et ob earn rem eum locum ad pugnam potissimum ele- 
gerat, an in eo loco est potius exspectatus ab eo, qui 
ipsius loci spe facere impetum cogitarat? Res loqui- 
tur ipsa, indices, quae semper valet plurimum. 

54 Si haec non gesta audiretis, sed picta videretis, 
tamen adpareret uter esset insidiator, uter nihil mail 
cogitaret, cum alter veheretur in raeda paenulatus, 


una sederet uxor. Quid horum non impeditissimum? 
vestitus an vehiculum an comes? quid minus promp- 
tum ad pugnam, cum paenula inretitus, raeda impe- 
ditus, uxore paene constrictus esset? — Videte nunc 
ilium, primum egredientem e villa, subito: cur? 5 
vesperi: quid necesse est? tarde: qui convenit, prae- 
sertim id temporis? ' Devertit in villam Pompei.' 
Pompeium ut videret? sciebat in Alsiensi esse; vil- 
lam ut perspiceret? milieus in ea fuerat. Quid ergo 
erat? mora et tergiversatio: dum hie veniret, locum 10 
relinquere noluit. 

§ 55. Contrast their respective readiness for Ughting. 
§ 56. But Milo was always alert, and " fortune favors the 
brave." § 57. Milo freed his slaves as a reward. We admit 
what they would have said if tortured. § 58. Slaves that save 
a master's life deserve reward. 

XXI. Age nunc iter expediti latronis cum Milonis 55 
impedimentis comparate. Semper ille antea cum 
uxore, tum sine ea; numquam nisi in raeda, tum in 
equo; comites Graeculi, quocumque ibat, etiam cum in 15 
castra Etrusca properabat, tum nugarum in comitatu 
nihil. Milo, qui numquam, tum casu pueros sympho- 
niacos uxoris ducebat et ancillarum greges; ille, qui 
semper secum scorta, semper exoletos, semper lupas 
duceret, tum neminem, nisi ut virum a viro lectum 20 
esse diceres. Cur igitur victus est? Quia non sem- 
per viator a latrone, non numquam etiam latro a via- 
tore occiditur; quia, quamquam paratus in imparatos 
Clodius, ipse Clodius tamen mulier inciderat in viros. 
Nee vero sic erat umquam non paratus Milo contra 56 
ilium, ut non satis fere esset paratus. Semper ipse 

et quantum interesset P. Clodi se interire et quanto 


illi odio esset et quantum ille auderet cogitabat. 
Quam ob rem vitam suam, quam maximis praemiis 
propositam et paene addictam sciebat, numquam in 
periculum sine praesidio et sine custodia proiciebat. 
5 Adde casus, adde incertos exitus pugnarum Martem- 
que communem, qui saepe spoliantem iam et exsul- 
tantem evertit et perculit ab abiecto; adde inscitiam 
pransi, poti, oscitantis ducis, qui cum a tergo hostem 
interclusum reliquisset, nihil de eius extremis comiti- 
lo bus cogitavit, in quos incensos ira vitamque domini 
desperantis cum incidisset, haesit in eis poenis, quas 
ab eo servi fideles pro domini vita expetiverunt. 

57 Cur igitur eos manu misit? Metuebat scilicet ne 
indicaretur, ne dolorem perferre non possent, ne tor- 

15 mentis cogerentur occisum esse a servis Milonis in 
Appia via P. Clodium confiteri. Quid opus est tor- 
tore? quid quaeris? Occideritne? occidit. lure an 
iniuria? Nihil ad tortorem: facti enim in eculeo 
quaestio est, iuris in iudicio. XXII. Quod igitur in 

20 causa quaerendum est, id agamus hie; quod tor- 
mentis inveniri vis, id fatemur. Manu vero cur 
miserit, si id potius quaeris, quam cur parum am- 
plis adfecerit praemiis, nescis inimici factum reprehen- 

58 dere. Dixit enim hie idem, qui semper omnia con- 
25 stanter et fortiter, M. Cato, et dixit in turbulenta con- 

tione, quae tamen huius auctoritate placata est, non 
libertate solum, sed etiam omnibus praemiis dignis- 
simos fuisse, qui domini caput defendissent. Quod 
enim praemium satis magnum est tam benevolis, tam 
30 bonis, tam fidelibus servis, propter quos vivit? Etsi 
id quidem non tanti est, quam quod propter eosdem 
non sanguine et volneribus suis crudelissimi inimici 


mentem oculosque satiavit. Quos nisi manu misisset, 
tormentis etiam dedendi fuerunt conservatores domi- 
ni, ultores sceleris, defensores necis. Hie vero nihil 
habet in his maUs quod minus moleste ferat, quam, 
etiam si quid ipsi aeeidat, esse tamen ilHs meritum 5 
praemium persolutum. 

§§ 59> 60. The testimony of Clodius's slaves is worthless, 
for they have been schooled in their evidence. § 61. Milo's 
behavior since the event shows his conMence. § 62. Many 
declared that he would not return, (% 63J but would go into 
exile, and many likened him to Catiline. 

Sed quaestiones urgent Milonem, quae sunt ha- 59 
bitae nunc in atrio Libertatis. Quibusnam de servis? 
Rogas? de P. Clodi. Quis eos postulavit? Appius. 
Quis produxit? Appius. Unde? ab Appio. Di 10 
boni! quid potest agi severius? Proxime deos Clo- 
dius accessit, propius quam tum, cum ad ipsos 
penetrarat, cuius de morte tamquam de caerimoniis 
violatis quaeritur. Sed tamen maiores nostri in 
dominum quaeri noluerunt, non quia non posset 15 
verum inveniri, sed quia videbatur indignum 
esse et dominis morte ipsa tristius: in reum de 
servo accusatoris cum quaeritur, verum inveniri 

Age vero, quae erat aut qualis quaestio? ' Heus 60 
tu, Rufio,' verbi causa, * cave sis mentiare: Clodius 
insidias fecit Miloni? ' ' Fecit: ' certa crux. * Nul- 
las fecit: ' sperata libertas. Quid hac quaestione cer- 
tius? Subito adrepti in quaestionem tamen separan- 
tur a ceteris et in areas coniciuntur, ne quis cum eis 25 
conloqui possit: hie centum dies penes accusatorem 
cum fuissent, ab eo ipso accusatore producti sunt. 


Quid hac quaestione dici potest integrius, quid incor- 

6i XXIII. Quod si nondum satis cernitis, cum res 
ipsa tot tarn claris argumentis signisque luceat, pura 
5 mente atque integra Milonem, nuUo scelere imbutum, 
nullo metu perterritum, nulla conscientia exanima- 
tum Romam revertisse, recordamini, per deos immor- 
talis, quae fuerit celeritas reditus eius, qui ingressus 
in forum ardente curia, quae magnitude animi, qui 

lo voltus, quae oratio. Neque vero se populo solum, 
sed etiam senatui commisit, neque senatui modo, sed 
etiam publicis praesidiis et armis, neque his tantum, 
verum etiam eius potestati, cui senatus totam rem 
publicam, omnem Italiae pubem, cuncta populi Ro- 

15 mani arma commiserat: cui numquam se hie profecto 
tradidisset, nisi causae suae confideret, praesertim 
omnia audienti, magna metuenti, multa suspicanti, 
non nulla credenti. Magna vis est conscientiae, indi- 
ces, et magna in utramque partem, ut neque timeant 

20 qui nihil commiserint et poenam semper ante oculos 
versari putent qui peccarint. 

62 Neque vero sine ratione certa causa Milonis sem- 
per a senatu probata est; videbant sapientissimi homi- 
nes facti rationem, praesentiam animi, defensionis 

25 constantiam. An vero obliti estis, indices, recenti illo 
nuntio necis Clodianae non modo inimicorum Milonis 
sermones et opiniones, sed non nullorum etiam impe- 
ritorum? Negabant eum Romam esse rediturum. 

63 Sive enim illud animo irato ac perdito fecisset, ut 
30 incensus odio trucidaret inimicum, arbitrabantur eum 

tanti mortem P. Clodi putasse, ut aequo animo patria 
careret, cum sanguine inimici explesset odium suum; 



sive etiam illius morte patriam liberare voluisset, non 
dubitaturum fortem virum quin, cum suo periculo 
salutem populo Romano attulisset, cederet aequo 
animo legibus, secum auferret gloriam sempiternam, 
nobis haec fruenda relinqueret, quae ipse servasset. 5 
Multi etiam Catilinam atque ilia portenta loqueban- 
tur: ' Erumpet, occupabit aliquem locum, bellum 
patriae faciet.' Miseros interdum civis optime de re 
publica meritos, in quibus homines non modo res 
praeclarissimas obliviscuntur, sed etiam nefarias su- 10 

§64. He was accused of having' stores in readiness for 
seising Rome. §§ 65, 66. Pompey had to give ear to all sorts 
of silly stories. Milo dramatically refuted the charge of going 
armed. § 67. Pompey, your array of forces is absurd, if 
directed against one man. 

Ergo ilia falsa fuerunt, quae certe vera exstitis- 64 
sent, si Milo admisisset aliquid, quod non posset ho- 
neste vereque defendere. XXIV. Quid? quae postea 
sunt in eum congesta, quae quamvis etiam mediocri- 15 
um delictorum conscientiam perculissent, ut sustinuit, 
di immortales! sustinuit? immo vero ut contempsit ac ' 
pro nihilo putavit, quae neque maximo animo nocens 
neque innocens nisi fortissimus vir neglegere potuis- 
set! Scutorum, gladiorum, pilorum, frenorum etiam 20 
multitudo deprehendi posse indicabatur; nullum in 
urbe vicum, nullum angiportum esse dicebant in quo 
non Miloni conducta esset domus; arma in villam 
Ocriculanam deyecta Tiberi,* domus in clivo Capito- 
lino scutis referta, plena omnia malleolorum ad urbis 25 
incendia comparatorum: haec non delata solum, sed 
paene credita, nee ante repudiata sunt quam quaesita. 


65 Laudabam equidem incredibilem diligentiani Cn. 
Pompei, sed dicam, ut sentio, iudices. Nimis multa 
audire coguntur neque aliter facere possunt ei, quibus 
commissa tota res publica est. Quin etiam audiendus 

5 popa Licinius nescio qui de circo maximo, servos 
Milonis apud se ebrios factos sibi confesses se de 
interficiendo Cn. Pompeio coniurasse, dein postea se 
gladio percussum esse ab uno de illis, ne indicaret. 
Pompeio nuntiatur in hortos; arcessor in primis; de 

10 amicorum sententia rem defert ad senatum. Non po- 
teram in illius mei patriaeque custodis tanta suspi- 
cione non metu exanimari, sed mirabar tamen credi 
popae, confessionem servorum audiri, volnus in la- 
tere, quod acu punctum videretur, pro ictu gladiatoris 

15 probari. 

66 Verum, ut intellego, cavebat magis Pompeius 
quam timebat, non ea solum, quae timenda erant, 
sed omnia, ne vos aliquid timeretis. Oppugnata do- 
mus C. Caesaris, clarissimi ac fortissimi viri, multas 

20 noctis boras nuntiabatur: nemo audierat tam celebri 
loco, nemo senserat; tamen audiebatur. Non pote- 
ram Cn. Pompeium, praestantissima virtute virum, 
timidum suspicari; diligentiam tota re publica suscep- 
ta nimiam nullam putabam. Frequentissimo senatu 

25 nuper in Capitolio senator inventus est qui Milonem 
cum telo esse diceret. Nudavit se in sanctissimo tem- 
plo, quoniam vita talis et civis et viri fidem non facie- 
bat, ut eo tacente res ipsa loqueretur. Omnia false 
atque invidiose ficta comperta sunt. 

67 XXV. Non tamen si metuitur etiam nunc Milo, 
non iam hoc Clodianum crimen timemus, sed tuas, 
Cn. Pompei — te enim adpello et ea voce, ut me exau- 


dire possis — tuas, inquam, snspiciones perhorresci- 
nuis. Si Milonem times, si hunc de Uia vita nefarie 
aut nunc cogitare aut molitum aliquando aliquid 
putas, si Italiae dilectus, ut non nulli conquisitores 
tui dictitarunt, si haec arma, si Capitolinae cohortes, 5 
si excubiae, si vigiliae, si delecta inventus, quae tuum 
corpus domumque custodit, contra Milonis impetum 
armata est, atque ilia omnia in hunc unum constituta, 
parata, intenta sunt, magna in hoc certe vis et incredi- 
bilis animus et non unius viri vires atque opes iudican- 10 
tur, si quidem in hunc unum et praestantissimus dux 
electus et tota res publica armata est. 

§ 68. Milo is your friend and has depended upon you. 
§ 69. Amidst the vicissitudes of life, you may need a trusty 
friend. § 70. Pompey need not have left the case to a court. 
§ 71. He and his guards assure you freedom, judges. 

Sed quis non intellegit omnis tibi rei publicae 68 
partis aegras et labantis, ut eas his armis sanares 
et confirmares, esse commissas? Quod si locus Milo- 15 
ni datus esset, probasset profecto tibi ipsi, neminem 
umquam hominem homini cariorem fuisse quam te 
sibi; nullum se umquam pericvilum pro tua dignitate 
fugisse, cum ilia ipsa taeterrima peste se saepissime 
pro tua gloria contendisse; tribunatum suum ad salu- 20 
tem meam, quae tibi carissima fuisset, consiliis tuis 
gubernatum; se a te postea defensum in periculo capi- 
tis, adiutum in petitione praeturae; duos se habere 
semper amicissimos sperasse, te tuo beneficio, me 
suo. Quae si non probaret, si tibi ita penitus inhae- 25 
sisset ista suspicio, ut nullo evelli posset modo, si 
denique Italia a dilectu, urbs ab armis sine Milonis 
clade numquam esset conquietura, ne ipse baud du- 


bitans cessisset patria, is qui ita natus est et ita con- 
suevit; te, Magne, tamen ante testaretur, quod nunc 
etiam facit. 

69 XXVI. Vides quam sit varia vitae commutabilis- 
5 que ratio, quam vaga volubilisque fortuna, quantae 

infidelitates in amicitiis, quam ad tempus aptae simu- 
lationes, quantae in periculis fugae proximorum, 
quantae timiditates. Erit, erit illud profecto tempus 
et inlucescet ille aliquando dies, cum tu salvis, ut 
10 spero, rebus tuis, sed fortasse motu aliquo commu- 
nium temporum, qui quam crebro accidat experti 
scire debemus, et amicissimi benevolentiam et gravis- 
simi hominis fidem et unius post homines natos for- 
tissimi viri magnitudinem animi desideres. 

70 Quamquam quis hoc credat, Cn. Pompeium, iuris 
publici, moris maiorum, rei denique pubUcae peritis- 
simum, cum senatus ei commiserit ut videret ne quid 
res publica detrimenti caperet, quo uno versiculo 
satis armati semper consules fuerunt etiam nullis ar- 

20 mis datis, hunc exercitu, hunc dilectu dato, iudicium 
exspectaturum fuisse in eius consiHis vindicandis, qui 
vi indicia ipsa tolleret? Satis iudicatum est a Pom- 
peio, satis, falso ista conferri in Milonem, qui legem 
tulit qua, ut ego sentio, Milonem absolvi a vobis 

71 oporteret, ut omnes confitentur, Hceret. Quod vero 
in illo loco atque illis publicorum praesidiorum copiis 
circumfusus sedet, satis declarat se non terrorem in- 
ferre vobis — quid enim minus illo dignum quam co- 
gere, ut vos eum condemnetis, in quem animadvertere 

30 ipse et more maiorum et suo iure posset? — , sed prae- 
sidio esse, ut intellegatis contra hesternam illam con- 
tionem licere vobis quod sentiatis libere iudicare. 


§§ 72-76. Milo might plead that he had slain a villain 
guilty of infamous crimes, who, had he secured power, would 
have stopped at nothing. § yy. Good men would have re- 
joiced at Milo's boast as they do at his deed. 

E. Extra Causam. — XXVII. Nee vero me, iudi- 72 
ces, Clodianum crimen movet, nee tam sum demens 
tamque vestri sensus ignarus atque expers, ut nesci- 
am quid de morte Clodi sentiatis. De qua si iam 
nollem ita diluere crimen, ut dilui, tamen impune 5 
Miloni palam clarnare ac mentiri gloriose liceret: 
' Occidi, occidi, non Sp. Maelium, qui annona le- 
vanda iacturisque rei familiaris, quia nimis amplecti 
plebem videbatur, in suspicionem incidit regni adpe- 
tendi, non Ti. Gracchum, qui conlegae magistratum 10 
per seditionem abrogavit, quorum interfectores im- 
plerunt orbem terrarum nominis sui gloria, sed eum * 
— auderet enim dicere, cum patriam periculo suo li- 
berasset — , ' cuius nefandum adulterium in pulvinari- 
bus sanctissimis nobilissimae feminae comprehende- 15 
runt; eum, cuius supplicio senatus sollemnis religiones 73 
expiandas saepe censuit; eum, quem cum sorore ger- 
mana nefarium stuprum fecisse L. LucuUus iuratus 
se quaestionibus habitis dixit comperisse; eum, qui 
civem, quem senatus, quem populus Romanus, quem 20 
omnes gentes urbis ac vitae civium conservatorem 
iudicarant, servorum armis exterminavit; eum, qui 
regna dedit, ademit, orbem terrarum quibuscum vo- 
luit partitus est; eum, qui plurimis caedibus in foro 
factis singulari virtute et gloria civem domum vi et 25 
armis compulit; eum, cui nihil umquam nefas fuit 
nee in facinore nee in libidine; eum, qui aedem 
Nympharum incendit, ut memoriam publicam re- 


censionis tabulis publicis impressam exstingueret; 

74 eum deniqtie, cui iam nulla lex erat, nullum civile 
ius, nulli possessionum termini, qui non calumnia 
litium, non iniustis vindiciis ac sacramentis alienos 

5 fundos, sed castris, exercitu, signis inferendis pate- 
bat; qui non solum Etruscos — eos enim penitus con- 
tempserat — , sed hunc P. Varium, fortissimum at- 
que optimum civem, iudicem nostrum, pellere pos- 
sessionibus armis castrisque conatus est, qui cum 

10 architectis et decempedis villas multorum hortosque 
peragrabat, qui laniculo et Alpibus spem possessio- 
num terminabat suarum, qui cum ab equite Romano 
splendido et forti, M. Paconio, non impetrasset, ut 
sibi insulam in lacu Prilio venderet, repente lintribus 

15 in eam insulam materiem, calcem, caementa, harenam 
convexit dominoque trans ripam inspectante non 

75 dubitavit aedificium exstruere in alieno; qui huic 
T. Furfanio, cui viro, di immortales! — quid enim 
ego de muliercula Scantia, quid de adulescente 

20 P. Aponio dicam? quorum utrique mortem est mini- 
tatus, nisi sibi hortorum possessione cessissent — ; 
sed ausum esse T. Furfanio dicere, si sibi pecuniam, 
quantam posceret, non dedisset, mortuum se in do- 
mum eius inlaturum, qua invidia huic esset tali viro 

25 conflagrandum; qui Appium fratrem, hominem mihi 
coniunctum fidissima gratia, absentem de possessione 
fundi deiecit; qui parietem sic per vestibulum sororis 
instituit ducere, sic agere fundamenta, ut sororem non 
modo vestibulo privaret, sed omni aditu et lumine/ 

76 XXVIII. Quamquam haec quidem iam tolerabilia 
videbantur, etsi aequabiliter in rem publicam, in pri- 
vatos, in longinquos, in propinquos, in alienos, in suos 


inruebat, sed nescio quo modo usu iam obduruerat et 
percalluerat civitatis incredibilis patientia: quae vero 
aderant iam et impendebant, quonam modo ea aut 
depellere potuissetis aut ferre? Imperium ille si nac- 
tus esset, omitto socios, exteras nationes, reges, te- 5 
trarchas; vota enim faceretis, ut in eos se potius im- 
mitteret quam in vestras possessiones, vestra tecta, 
vestras pecunias: pecunias dico? a liberis, me dius 
fidius, et a coniugibus vestris numquam ille effrenatas 
suas libidines cohibuisset. Fingi haec putatis, quae 10 
patent, quae nota sunt omnibus, quae tenentur, ser- 
vorum exercitus ilium in urbe conscripturum fuisse, 
per quos totam rem publicam resque privatas omni- 
um possideret? 

Quam ob rem si cruentum gladium tenens clama- 77 
ret T. Annius: ' Adeste, quaeso, atque audite, cives! 
P. Clodium interfeci, eius furores, quos nullis iam 
legibus, nullis iudiciis frenare poteramus, hoc ferro et 
hac dextera a cervicibus vestris reppuli, per me ut 
unum ius, aequitas, leges, libertas, pudor, pudicitia 20 
maneret,' esset vero timendum, quonam modo id fer- 
ret civitas! Nunc enim quis est, qui non probet, qui 
non laudet, qui non unum post hominum memoriam 
T. Annium plurimum rei publicae profuisse, maxima 
laetitia populum Romanum, cunctam Italiam, nationes 25 
omnis adfecisse et dicat et sentiat? Non queo vetera 
ilia populi Romani gaudia quanta fuerint iudicare: 
multas tamen iam summorum imperatorum clarissi- 
mas victorias aetas nostra vidit, quarum nulla neque 
tam diuturnam laetitiam attulit nee tantam. 30 


§ 78. The state may now enjoy what would have been 
impossible with Clodius alive. § 79. Would you like to free 
Milo if Clodius could be restored to life? How scared you 
look! And yet you sit to avenge his death. 

78 Mandate hoc memoriae, iudices. Spero multa vos 
liberosque vestros in re publica bona esse visuros: in 
eis singulis ita semper existimabitis, vivo P. Clodio 
nihil eorum vos visuros fuisse. In spem maximam et, 

5 quem ad modum confido, verissimam sumus adducti, 
hunc ipsum annum, hoc summo viro consule, com- 
pressa hominum licentia, cupiditatibus confractis, le- 
gibus et iudiciis constitutis, salutarem civitati fore. 
Num quis igitur est tam demens qui hoc P. Clodio 

10 vivo contingere potuisse arbitretur? Quid? ea, quae 
tenetis privata atque vestra, dominante homine furi- 
oso quod ius perpetuae possessiones habere potuis- 

XXIX. Non timeo, iudices, ne odio mearum ini- 

15 micitiarum inflammatus libentius haec in ilium evo- 
mere videar quam verius. Etenim si praecipuum esse 
debebat, tamen ita communis erat omnium ille hostis, 
ut in communi odio paene aequaliter versaretur odi- 
um meum. Non potest dici satis, ne cogitari qui- 

20 dem, quantum in illo sceleris, quantum exiti fuerit. 

79 Quin sic attendite, iudices. Fingite animis — liberae 
sunt enim nostrae cogitationes et quae volunt sic 
intuentur, ut ea cernamus, quae non videmus — , fin- 
gite igitur cogitatione imaginem huius condicionis 

25 meae, si possimus efficere Milonem ut absolvatis, sed 
ita, si P. Clodius revixerit — quid voltu extimuistis? 
quonam modo ille vos vivus adficeret, quos mortuus 
inani cogitatione percussit? Quid? si ipse Cn. Pom- 


peius, qui ea virtute ac fortuna est, ut ea potuerit 
semper quae nemo praeter ilium, si is, inquam, po- 
tuisset aut quaestionem de morte P. Clodi ferre aut 
ipsum ab inferis excitare, utrum putatis potius factu- 
rum fuisse? Etiam si propter amicitiam vellet ilium 5 
ab inferis evocare, propter rem publicam non fecisset. 
Eius igitur mortis sedetis ultores, cuius vitam si pute- 
tis per vos restitui posse, nolitis, et de eius nece lata 
quaestio est, qui si lege eadem reviviscere posset, ista 
lex numquam lata esset. Huius ergo interfector si 10 
esset, in confitendo ab eisne poenam timeret, quos 
libera visset? 

§80. The Greeks almost deify tyrannicides. §81. Milo 
would confess a deed which deserves reward. § 82. Brave 
men face perils for their country's sake. 

Graeci homines deorum honores tribuunt eis viris, 80 
qui tyrannos necaverunt — quae ego vidi Athenis, quae 
in aliis urbibus Graeciae! quas res divinas talibus in- 15 
stitutas viris, quos cantus, quae carmina! prope ad 
immortalitatis et religionem et memoriam consecran- 
tur — vos tanti conservatorem populi, tanti sceleris ul- 
torem non modo honoribus nullis adficietis, sed etiam 
ad supplicium rapi patiemini? Confiteretur, confite- 20 
retur, inquam, si fecisset, et magno animo et libenter, 
se fecisse libertatis omnium causa, quod esset non 
confitendum modo, sed etiam vere praedicandum. 
XXX. Etenim si id non negat, ex quo nihil petit 81 
nisi ut ignoscatur, dubitaret id fateri, ex quo etiam 25 
praemia laudis essent petenda? nisi vero gratius putat 
esse vobis sui se capitis quam vestri defensorem fuisse; 
cum praesertim in tali confessione, si grati esse velle- 
tis, honores adsequeretur amplissimos. Sin factum 

152 M. TULLI CICERONIS lflra^ ^ 

vobis non probaretur — quamqitam. qui poterat salus 
sua cuiquam non probari? — sed tamen si minus fortis- 
simi viri virtus civibus grata cecidisset, magno animo 
constantique cederet ex ingrata civitate. Nam quid 
5 esset ingratius quam laetari ceteros, lugere eum so- 
lum, propter quern ceteri laetarentur? 

82 Quamquam hoc animo semper fuimus omnes in 
patriae proditoribus opprimendis, ut, quoniam futura 
esset nostra gloria, periculum quoque et invidiam no- 
lo stram putaremus. Nam quae mihi tribuenda ipsi laus 

esset, cum tantum in consulatu meo pro vobis ac libe- 
ris vestris ausus essem, si id quod conabar sine maxi- 
mis dimicationibus meis me esse ausurum arbitrarer? 
Quae mulier interficere sceleratum ac perniciosum ci- 

15 vem non auderet, si periculum non timeret? Propo- 
sita invidia, morte, poena qui nihilo segnius rem publi- 
cam defendit, is vir vere putandus est. Populi grati 
est praemiis adficere bene meritos de re publica civis, 
viri fortis ne suppliciis quidem moveri ut fortiter fe- 

20 cisse paeniteat. 

§§ 83, 84. All admit the hand of Providence in this, ex- 
cept unbelievers. There certainly is a divine force working 
in the world, and it effected Clodius's ruin. § 85. The sacred 
places and altars and Latian Jupiter effected his punishment. 

83 Quam ob rem uteretur eadem confessione T. An- 
nius, qua Ahala, qua Nasica, qua Opimius, qua Mari- 
us, qua nosmet ipsi, et, si grata res publica esset, lae- 
taretur; si ingrata, tamen in gravi fortuna conscientia 

25 sua niteretur. 

Sed huius benefici gratiam, indices, Fortuna po- 
puli Romani et vestra felicitas et di immortales sibi 
deberi putant. Nee vero quisquam aliter arbitrari po- 


test, nisi qui nullam vim esse ducit numenque divi- 
num, quern neque imperi nostri magnitude neque sol 
ille nee caeli signorumque motus nee vicissitudines re- 
rum atque ordines movent neque, id quod maximum 
est, maiorum nostrorum sapientia, qui sacra, qui caeri- 5 
monias, qui auspicia et ipsi sanctissime coluerunt et 
nobis suis posteris prodiderunt. XXXI. Est, est 84 
ilia vis profecto, neque in his corporibus atque in 
hac imbecillitate nostra inest quiddam quod vigeat 
et sentiat, non inest in hoc tanto naturae tamque 10 
praeclaro motu. Nisi forte idcirco non putant, quia 
non adparet nee cernitur, proinde quasi nostram 
ipsam mentem, qua sapimus, qua providemiis, qua 
haec ipsa agimus ac dicimus, videre ac plane qualis aut 
ubi sit sentire possimus. Ea vis igitur, quae saepe in- 15 
credibilis huic urbi felicitates atque opes attulit, illam 
perniciem exstinxit ac sustulit, cui primum mentem 
iniecit, ut vi inritare ferroque lacessere fortissimum 
virum auderet vincereturque ab eo, quem si vicisset, 
habiturus esset impunitatem et licentiam sempiter- 20 

Non est humano consilio, ne mediocri quidem, 85 
indices, deorum immortalium cura res ilia perfecta. 
Regiones me hercule ipsae, quae illam beluam cadere 
viderunt, commosse se videntur et ius in illo suum 25 
retinuisse. Vos enim iam, Albani tumuH atque luci, 
vos, inquam, imploro atque testor, vosque, Albano- 
rum obrutae arae, sacrorum populi Romani sociae et 
aequales, quas ille praeceps amentia caesis prostratis- 
que sanctissimis lucis substructionum insanis molibus 30 
oppresserat; vestrae tum religiones viguerunt, vestra 
vis valuit, quam ille omni scelere polluerat; tuque ex 


tuo edito monte Latiari, sancte luppiter, cuius ille 
lacus, nemora finisque saepe omni nefario stupro et 
scelere macularat, aliquando ad eum puniendum ocu- 
los aperuisti: vobis illae, vobis vestro in conspectu se- 
5 rae, sed iustae tamen et debitae poenae solutae sunt. 

§ 86. The Bona Dea was revenged upon him and inspired 
his comrades to disgrace his corpse. § 87. The man was a 
dreadful law-breaker. § 88. Milo alone could restrain him. 

86 Nisi forte hoc etiam casu factum esse dicemus, ut 
ante ipsum sacrarium Bonae Deae, quod est in fundo 
T. Serti Galli, in primis honesti et ornati adulescentis, 
ante ipsam, inquam, Bonam Deam, cum proelium 

10 commisisset, primum illud volnus acciperet, quo tae- 
terrimam mortem obiret, ut non absolutus iudicio illo 
nefario videretur, sed ad banc insignem poenam re- 
servatus. XXXII. Nee vero non eadem ira deorum 
banc eius satellitibus iniecit amentiam, ut sine imagini- 

15 bus, sine cantu atque ludis, sine exsequiis, sine lamen- 
tis, sine laudationibus, sine funere, oblitus cruore et 
luto, spoliatus illius supremi diei celebritate, cui cedere 
inimici etiam solent, ambureretur abiectus. Non 
fuisse credo fas clarissimorum virorum formas illi 

20 taeterrimo parricidae aliquid decoris adferre, neque 
ullo in loco potius mortem eius lacerari quam in quo 
vita esset damnata. 

87 Dura, me dius fidius, mihi iam Fortuna populi Ro- 
mani et crudelis videbatur, quae tot annos ilium in 

25 banc rem publicam insultare pateretur. Polluerat stu- 
pro sanctissimas religiones, senatus gravissima decre- 
ta perfregerat, pecunia se a iudicibus palam redeme- 
rat, vexarat in tribunatu senatum, omnium ordinum 
consensu pro salute rei publicae gesta resciderat, me 


patria expulerat, bona diripuerat, domum incenderat, 
liberos, coniugem meam vexarat, Cn. Pompeio nefa- 
riiim helium indixerat, magistratuum privatorumque 
caedis effecerat, domum mei fratris incenderat, vasta- 
rat Etruriam, multos sedibus ac fortunis eiecerat; in- 5 
stabat, urgebat; capere eius amentiam civitas, Italia, 
provinciae, regna non poterant; incidebantur iam 
domi leges, quae nos servis nostris addicerent; nihil 
erat cuiusquam, quod quidem ille adamasset, quod 
non hoc anno suum fore putaret. Obstabat eius cogi- 88 
tationibus nemo praeter Milonem. Ilium ipsum, qui 
poterat obstare, novo reditu in gratiam sibi devinctum 
arbitrabatur; Caesaris potentiam suam esse dicebat; 
bonorum animos in meo casu contempserat : Milo 
unus urgebat. 15 

XXXIII. Hie di immortales, ut supra dixi, men- 
tem illi perdito ac furioso dederunt, ut huic faceret 
insidias. Aliter perire pestis ilia non potuit; num- 
quam ilium res publica suo iure esset ulta. Senatus, 
credo, praetorem eum circumscripsisset. Ne cum so- 20 
lebat quidem id facere, in privato eodem hoc aliquid 

§ 89. Unchecked he would have do.ninated the state if 
Milo perished. § 90. The burning of the senate ivas effected 
by his potent corpse. § 91. Rouse him from the dead for 
greater deeds of violence, if you will. 

An consules in praetore coercendo fortes fuissent? 89 
Primum Milone occiso habuisset suos consules; de- 
lude quis in eo praetore consul fortis esset, per quem 25 
tribunum virtutem consularem crudelissime vexatam 
esse meminisset? Oppressisset omnia, possideret, te- 
neret; lege nova servos nostros libertos suos efTecis- 


set; postremo, nisi eum di immortales in earn mentem 
impulissent, ut homo effeminatus fortissimum virum 
conaretur occidere, hodie rem publicam nuUam ha- 

90 An ille praetor, ille vero consul, si modo haec tem- 
pla atque ipsa moenia stare eo vivo tarn diu et con- 
sulatum eius exspectare potuissent, ille denique vivus 
mali nihil fecisset, cui mortuo unus ex suis satelHtibus 
curiam incenderit? Quo quid miserius, quid acerbius, 

10 quid luctuosius vidimus? templum sanctitatis, ampli- 
tudinis, mentis, consiH publici, caput urbis, aram so- 
ciorum, portum omnium gentium, sedem ab universo 
populo concessam uni ordini, inflammari, exscindi, 
funestari, neque id fieri a multitudine imperita, quam- 

15 quam esset miserum id ipsum, sed ab uno? Qui cum 
tantum ausus sit ustor pro mortuo, quid signifer pro 
vivo non esset ausurus? In curiam potissimum abie- 
cit, ut eam mortuus incenderet, quam vivus everterat. 

91 Et sunt qui de via Appia querantur, taceant de 
20 curia, et qui ab eo spirante forum putent potuisse de- 

fendi, cuius non restiterit cadaveri curia? Excitate, 

excitate ipsum, si potestis, ab inferis: frangetis impe- 

tum vivi, cuius vix sustinetis furias insepulti? Nisi 

vero sustinuistis eos, qui cum facibus ad curiam con- 

25 currerunt, cum fascibus ad Castoris, cum gladiis toto 

foro volitaverunt. Caedi vidistis populum Romanum, 

contionem gladiis disturbari, cum audiretur silentio 

M. Caelius, tribunus plebis, vir et in re publica for- 

• tissimus, in suscepta causa firmissimus, et bonorum 

30 voluntati, auctoritati senatus deditus, et in hac Mi- 

lonis sive invidia sive fortuna singulari, divina, incredi- 

bili fide. 


§ 92. I beg for Milo what he declines to ask. Treat him 
as well as you would a resolute gladiator. §§ 93, 94. He says 
to me: "Let my fellow-citizens be blessed. I shall depart 
without complaint, shattered in hopes and unrewarded for 
my labors." 

F. Peroratio. — XXXIV. Sed iam satis multa 92 
de causa, extra causam etiam nimis fortasse multa. 
Quid restat nisi ut orem obtesterque vos, iudices, ut 
earn misericordiam tribuatis fortissimo viro, quam 
ipse non implorat, ego etiam repugnante hoc et im- 5 
ploro et exposco? Nolite, si in nostro omnium fletu 
nullam lacrimam aspexistis Milonis, si voltum semper 
eundem, si vocem, si orationem stabilem ac non mu- 
tatam videtis, hoc minus ei parcere: baud scio an mul- 
to etiam sit adiuvandus magis. Etenim si in gladia- 10 
toriis pugnis et in infimi generis hominum condicione 
atque fortuna timidos et suppHces et ut vivere Hceat 
obsecrantis etiam odisse solemus, fortis et animosos 
et se acriter ipsos morti offerentis servari cupimus, 
eorumque nos magis miseret, qui nostram miseri- 15 
cordiam non requirunt, quam qui illam efflagitant, 
quanto hoc magis in fortissimis civibus facere de- 
bemus ! 

Me quidem, iudices, exanimant et interimunt hae 93 
voces Milonis, quas audio adsidue et quibus intersum 20 
cottidie. * Valeant,' inquit * valeant cives mei; sint 
incolumes, sint florentes, sint beati; stet haec urbs 
praeclara mihique patria carissima, quoquo niodo erit 
merita de me; tranquilla re publica mei cives, quon- 
iam mihi cum illis non licet, sine me ipsi, sed prop- 25 
ter me tamen perfruantur. Ego cedam atque abi- 
bo. Si mihi bona re publica frui non licuerit, at 


carebo mala, et quam primum tetigero bene mora- 

94 tarn et liberam civitatem, in ea conquiescam. O 
frustra inquit ' mei suscepti labores, o spes falla- 
ces, cogitationes inanes meae! Ego cum tribunus 

5 plebis re publica oppressa me senatui dedissem, quern 
exstinctum acceperam, equitibus Romanis, quorum 
vires erant debiles, bonis viris, qui omnem auctorita- 
tem Clodianis armis abiecerant, mihi umquam bono- 
rum praesidium defuturum putarem? Ego cum te ' 

lo — mecum enim saepissime loquitur — ' patriae reddi- 
dissem, mihi putarem in patria non futurum locum? 
Ubi nunc senatus est, quem secuti sumus, ubi equites 
Romani illi, illi ' inquit ' tui? ubi studia municipio- 
rum, ubi Italiae voces, ubi denique tua, M. Tulli, quae 

15 plurimis fuit auxilio, vox atque defensio? Mihine ea 
soli, qui pro te totiens morti me obtuli, nihil potest 
opitulari? ' 

§ 95. He lavished money to win the people from Clodius. 
§ 96. He was almost elected consul, and has acted nobly, 
r§ 97) ^^^ ^^^-^ secured glory as a reward. § 98. He says : 
" The world rings with my fame, and it matters not where 
my body may be." 

95 XXXV. Nee vero haec, indices, ut ego nunc, flens, 
sed hoc eodem illo loquitur voltu quo videtis. Negat 

20 enim se, negat ingratis civibus fecisse quae fecerit, 
timidis et omnia pericula circumspicientibus non ne- 
gat. Plebem et infimam multitudinem, quae P. Clo- 
dio duce fortunis vestris imminebat, eam, quo tutior 
esset vestra vita, suam se fecisse commemorat, ut non 

25 modo virtute flecteret, sed etiam tribus suis patrimo- 
niis deleniret, nee timet ne, cum plebem muneribus 
placarit, vos non conciliarit meritis in rem publicam 


singularibiis. Senatus erga se benevolentiam tempo- 
ribus his ipsis saepe esse perspectam, vestras vero et 
vestrorum ordinum occursationes, studia, sermones, 
quemcumque cursum fortuna ceperit, secum se abla- 
turum esse dicit. Meminit etiam vocem sibi prae- 96 
conis modo defuisse, quam minime desiderarit, po- 
puli vero cunctis suffragiis, quod unum cupierit, se 
consulem declaratum; nunc denique, si haec arma 
contra se sint futura, sibi facinoris suspicionem, non 
facti crimen obstare. Addit haec, quae certe vera 10 
sunt, fortis et sapientis viros non tarn praemia sequi 
solere recte factorum quam ipsa recte facta; se nihil 
in vita nisi praeclarissime fecisse, si quidem nihil sit 
praestabilius viro quam periculis patriam liberare. 
Beatos esse, quibus ea res honori fuerit a suis civi- 15 
bus, nee tamen eos miseros, qui beneficio civis suos 97 
vicerint. Sed tamen ex omnibus praemiis virtutis, si 
esset habenda ratio praemiorum, amplissimum esse 
praemium gloriam; esse banc unam, quae brevitatem 
vitae posteritatis memoria consolaretur, quae efficeret 20 
ut absentes adessemus, mortui viveremus. Hanc de- 
nique esse cuius gradibus etiam in caelum homines 
viderentur ascendere. 

' De me ' inquit ' semper populus Romanus, sem- 98 
per omnes gentes loquentur, nulla umquam obmute- 25 
scet vetustas. Quin hoc tempore ipso, cum omnes a 
meis inimicis faces invidiae meae subiciantur, tamen 
omni in hominum coetu gratiis agendis et gratulationi- 
bus habendis et omni sermone celebramur.' Omitto 
Etruriae festos et actos et institutos dies. Centesima 30 
lux est haec ab interitu P. Clodi et, opinor, altera. Qua 
fines imperi populi Romani sunt, ea non solum fama 


iam de illo, sed etiam laetitia peragravlt. Quam ob 
rem ' ubi corpus hoc sit non ' inquit ' laboro, quon- 
iam omnibus in terris et iam versatur et semper hie 
habitabit nominis mei gloria.' 

§ 99. Milo, if yon should be exiled, I can not say that my 
enemies have done it. § 100. / have done my best for you 
and consider your lot mine. §101. Judges, shall such a bene- 
factor be driven away? 

99 XXXVI. Haec tu mecum saepe his absentibus, 
sed isdem audientibus haec ego tecum, Milo: ' Te 
quidem, cum isto animo sis, satis laudare non possum, 
sed, quo est ista magis divina virtus, eo maiore a te 
dolore divellor. Nee vero, si mihi eriperis, reliqua est 

10 ilia saltern ad consolandum querela, ut eis irasci pos- 
sim, a quibus tantum volnus accepero. Non enim 
inimici mei te mihi eripient, sed amicissimi, non male 
aliquando de me meriti, sed semper optime.' Nullum 
mihi umquam, iudices, tantum dolorem inuretis — ta- 

15 metsi quis potest esse tantus? — sed ne hunc quidem 
ipsum, ut obliviscar quanti me semper feceritis. Quod 
si vos cepit oblivio mei aut si in me aliquid offendistis, 
cur non id in meo capite potius luitur quam Milonis? 
Praeclare enim vixero, si quid mihi accident prius 

20 quam hoc tantum mali videro. 

100 Nunc me una consolatio sustentat, quod tibi, T. 

Anni, nullum a me amoris, nullum studi, nullum pie- 

tatis officium defuit. Ego inimicitias potentium pro 

te adpetivi; ego meum saepe corpus et vitam obieci 

25 armis inimicorum tuorum; ego me plurimis pro te 
supplicem abieci; bona, fortunas meas ac liberorum 
meorum in communionem tuorum temporum contuli; 
hoc denique ipso die, si qua vis est parata, si qua dimi- 


catio capitis futura, deposco. Quid iam restat? quid 
hal)eo quod faciam pro tuis in me meritis nisi ut 
earn fortunam, quaecumque erit tua, ducam meam? 
Non abnuo, non recuso, vosque obsecro, iudices, ut 
vestra beneficia, quae in me contulistis, aut in huius 5 
salute augeatis aut in eiusdem exitio occasura esse 

XXXVII. His lacrimis non commovetur Milo — lOl 
est quodam incredibili robore animi — : exsilium ibi 
esse putat, ubi virtuti non sit locus; mortem naturae 10 
finem esse, non poenam. Sit hie ea mente, qua natus 
est: quid? vos, iudices, quo tandem eritis animo? Me- 
moriam Milonis retinebitis, ipsum eicietis? Et erit 
dignior locus uUus in terris qui banc virtutem excipiat 
quam hie, qui procreavit? Vos, vos adpello, fortissimi 15 
viri, qui multum pro re publica sanguinem efifudistis; 
vos, inquam, in civis invicti periculo adpello, centuri- 
ones, vosque, milites: vobis non modo inspectantibus, 
sed etiam armatis et huic iudicio praesidentibus haec 
tanta virtus ex hac urbe expelletur, exterminabitur, 20 

§ 102. Must I admit that I could not save my own savior f 
§ 103. Has my influence become naught f Would that Clodius 
were hack rather than that Milo depart! § 104. Will you 
exile your benefactor? § 105. / can not speak for tears. Vote 
boldly, and Pompey will approve. 

O me miserum, o me infelicem! Revocare tu me 102 
in patriam, Milo, potuisti per hos, ego te in patria per 
eosdem retinere non potero? Quid respondebo liberis 
meis, qui te parentem alterum putant? quid tibi, 25 
Quinte frater, qui nunc abes, consorti mecum tem- 


porum illorum? mene non potuisse Milonis salutem 

tueri per eosdem, per quos nostram ille servasset? At 

in qua causa non potuisse? Quae est grata omnibus 

gentibus. A quibus non potuisse? Ab eis, qui ma- 

5 xime P. Clodi morte adquierunt. Quo deprecante? 

103 Me. Quodnam ego concepi tantum scelus aut quod 

in me tantum facinus admisi, iudices, cum ilia iudicia 

communis exiti indagavi, patefeci, protuli, exstinxi? 

Omnes mihi meisque redundant ex fonte illo dolores. 

10 Quid me reducem esse voluistis? an ut inspectante me 

expellerentur ei, per quos essem restitutus? Nolite, 

obsecro vos, acerbiorem mihi pati reditum esse, quam 

fuerit ille ipse discessus. Nam qui possum putare me 

restitutum esse, si distrahor ab his, per quos restitutus 

15 sum? 

XXXVIII. Utinam;:.^Hjiimortales fecissent — pace 

tua, patria, dixerinffmetuo enim ne scelerate dicam 

in te quod pro Milone dicam pie — utinam P. Clodius 

non pfCodo viveret, sed etiam praetor, consul, dicta- 

20 to^esset potius quam hoc spectaculum viderem! 

lO^Ju/^i immortales! fortem et a vobis, iudices, con- 

^rvandum virum! ' Minime, minime ' inquit; ' im- 

10 vero poenas ille debitas luerit: nos subeamus, si ita 

^p-ecesse est, non debitas.* Hicine vir patriae natus 

^25 iisquam nisi in patria morietur, aut, si forte, pro patria? 

huius vos animi monumenta retinebitis, corporis in 

Italia nullum sepulcrum esse patiemini? hunc sua quis- 

quam sententia ex hac urbe expellet, quem omnes 

urbes expulsum a vobis ad se vocabunt? 

105 O terram illam beatam, quae hunc virum exceperit, 

banc ingratam, si eiecerit, miseram, si amiserit! Sed 

finis sit; neque enim prae lacrimis iam loqui possumus, 



et hie se lacrimisrMiepidi vetat. Vos oro obtestorque, 
indices, ut jiyre^ffj^ntiis ferendis, quod sentietis, id au- 
deatis. Vestrsim virtutem, iustitiam, fidem, mihi ere- 
dite, is maxime eomprobabit, qui in iudieibus legendis 
optin>um/et sapientissimum et fortissimum quemque 5 



§§ 1-4. This day has put an end to my silence, for I must 
acknowledge such clemency. I grieved that Marcellus was 
not pardoned. Your act assures all of your good-will to the 
state. Marcellus is honored, and all rejoice. 

1 A. Exordium. — Diuturni silenti, patres conscrip- 
ti, quo eram his temporibus usus, non timore aliquo, 
sed partim dolofe, partim verecun^ia, finem hodier- 
nus dies attulit, idemque initium quae vellem quae- 

5 que sentirem meo pristino more dicendi. Tantam 
enim mansuetudinem, tarn inusitatam inauditamque 
clementiam, tantum in summa potestate rerum om- 
nium modum, tam denique incredibilem sapientiam ac 
paene divinam tacitus praeterire nullo modo possum. 

2 M. enim Marcello vobis, patres conscripti, reique 
publicae reddito-non illius solum, sed etiam meam vo- 
cem et auctoritatem vobis et rei publicae restitutam 
puto. Dolebam enim, patres conscripti, et vehemen- 
ter angebar virum talem, cum in eadem causa in qua 

15 ego fuisset, non in eadem esse fortuna, nee mihi per- 
suadere poteram nee fas esse ducebam versari me in 
nostro vetere curriculo illo aemulo atque imitatore 
studiorum ac laborum meorum quasi quodam socio 
a me et comite distracto. Ergo et mihi meae pri- 

C. Julius Caesar. 
From a bust in basalt in the old museum at Berlin, 


stinae vitae consuetudinem, C. Caesar, interclusam 
aperuisti et his omnibus ad bene de re publica 
sperandum quasi signum aliquod sustulisti. In- 3 
tellectum est enim mihi quidem in multis et ma- 
xime in me ipso, sed paulo ante omnibus, cum M. 5 
Marcellum senatui reique publicae concessisti, com- 
memoratis praesertim offensionibus, te auctoritatem 
huius ordinis dignitatemque rei publicae tuis vel dolo- 
ribus vel suspicionibus anteferre. Ille quidem fructum 
omnis ante actae vitae hodierno die maximum cepit, 10 
cum summo consensu senatus tum iudicio tuo gravis- 
simo et maximo. Ex quo profecto intellegis quanta 
in dato beneficio sit laus, cum in accept© sit tanta glo- 
ria. Est vero fortunatus, cuius ex salute non minor 4 
paene ad omnTs, quam ad ilium ventura sit, laetitia 15 
pervenerit: quod quidem merito atque optimo iure 
contigit. Quis enim est illo aut nobilitate aut probi- 
tate aut optimarum artium studio aut innocentia aut 
ullo in laudis genere praestantior? 

§§ 4-8. Tongue can not describe your surpassing achieve- 
ments. It is rightly claimed that circumstances assist in a 
general's success. But this glory is your own. You have 
subdued midtitudes by the sword; but to control your spirit 
is divine. 

B. Tractatio. — II. Nullius tantum flumen est 20 
ingeni, nulla dicendi aut s^ibendi tanta vis, tantaque 
copia, quae non dicam exornare, sed enarrare, C. 
Caesar, res tuas gestas possit. Tamen hoc adfirmo 
et pace dicam tua, nullam in his esse laudem ampli- 
orem quam eam, quam hodierno die consecutus es. 25 
Soleo saepe ante oculos ponere idque libenter ere- 5 
brrs usurpare sermonibus, omnis nostrorum impera- 


torum, omnis exterarum gentium potentissimorumque 
populorum, omnts regum clarissimorum res gestas 
cum tuis nee contentionum magnitudine nee numero 
proeliorum nee varietate regionum nee celeritate con- 

5 ficiendi nee dissimilitudine bellorum posse conferri; 
nee vero disiunctissimas terras citius passibus cuius- 
quam potuisse peragrari, quam tuis non dicam cursi- 

6 bus, sed victoriis lustratae sunt. Quae quidem ego 
nisi ita magna esse fatear, ut ea vix cuiusquam 

lo mens aut cogitatio capere possit, amens sim; sed 
tamen sunt alia maiora. Nam bellicas laudes so- 
lent quidam extenuare verbis easque detrahere du- 
cibus, contmunicare cum multis, ne propriae sint im- 
peratorum. Et certe in armis militum virtus, locorum 

15 opportunitas, auxilia sociorum, classes, commeatus 
multum iuvant, maximam vero partem quasi suo iure 
Fortuna sibi vindicat et, quicquid est prospere gestum, 
id paene omne ducit suum. 

7 At vero huius gloriae, C. Caesar, quam es paulo 
20 ante adeptus, socium habes neminem: totum hoc, 

quantumcumque est, quod certe maximum est, totum 
est, inquam, tuum. Nihil sibi ex ista laude centurio, 
nihil praefectus, nihil cohors, nihiT turma decerpit; 
quin etiam ilia ipsa rerum humanarum domina, For- 

25 tuna, in istius se societatem gloriae non offert: tibi 
cedit, tuam esse totam et propriam fatetur. Num- 
quam eriim' temeritas cum sapientia commiscetur 

g nee ad consilium casus admittitur. f^ III. Domuisti 
gentis immanitate barbaras, multitudine innumera- 

30 bills, locis infinitas, omni copiarum genere abun- 
dantis: ea tamen vicisti," quae et naturam et con- 
dicionem ut Vinci possent habebant. Nulla est enim 


tanta vis quae non ferro et viribus debilitari fraii- 
gique possit. , Animum vincere, iracundiam cohibere, 
victo temperare, adversarium nobilitate, ingenio, vir- 
tute praestantem non modo extoUere iacentem, sed 
etiam amplificare eius pristinam dignitatem, haec qui 5 
faciat, non ego eum cum sunimis viris comparo, sed 
simillimum deo iudico. 

§§ 9-12. Your zvarlike deeds will always he admired, hut 
men will love to read of your nobility of soul. You have 
saved the great family of the Marcelli. Time can not efface 
this deed. You have overcome the temptations of a victor. 

Itaque, C. Caesar, bellicae tuae laudes celebrabun- 9 
tur illae quidem non solum nostris, sed paene omnium 
gentium litteris atque linguis, neque ulla umquam 10 
aetas de tuis laudibus conticescet; sed tamen eius 
modi res nescio quo modo etiam cum leguntur, ob- 
strepi clamore militum videntur et tubarum sono. At 
vero cum aliquid clementer, mansuete, iuste, mode- 
rate, sapienter factum, in iracundia praesertim, quae 15 
est inimica consilio, et in victoria, quae natura insolens 
et superba est, audimus aut legimus, quo studio iri- 
cendimur, non modo . in gestis rebus, sed etiam in 
fictt^, ut eos saepe, quos numquam vidimus, diliga- 
mus! Te vero, quem praesentem intuemur, cuius 10 
mentem sensusque et os cernimus, ut, quicquid belli 
fortuna reliquum rei publicae fecerit, id 'esse salvum) 
velis, quibus laudibus efferemus, quibus studiis prose- 
quemur, qua benevolentia complect emur? Parietes, 
me dius fidius, ut mihi videtur, huius curiae tibi gra- 25 
tias agere gestiunt, quod brevi tempore futura sit ilia 
auctoritas in his maiorum suorum et suis sedibus. 
N^ IV. Equidem cum C. Marcelli, viri optimi et com- 


memorabili pietate praediti lacrimas modo vobiscum 
viderem, omnium Marcellorum mettm pectus memo- 
ria offudit, quibus tu etiam mortuis tM. Marcello con- 
servato dignitatem suam reddidisti nobilissimamque 
5 familiam iam ad paucos redactam paene ab interitu 

11 vindicasti. Hunc tu diem tuis maximis et innumera- 
\ bilibus gratulationibus iure anteponis. Haec enim res 

unius est propria C.Caesaris; ceterae duce te gestae 
magnae illae quidem, sed tamen multo magnoque 
lo comitatu. Huius autem rei tu idem dux es et comes: 
quae quidem tanta est, ut tropaeis et monumentis 
tuis adlatura finem sit aetas — nihil est enim opere et 
manu factum, quod non conficiat et consumat vetu- 

12 stas — at haec tua iustitia et lenitas florescet cottidie 
15 magis. Ita quantum operibus tuis diuturnitas detra- 

het, tantum adferet laudibus. Et ceteros quidem om- 
nis victores bellorum civilium iam antea aequitate et 
misericordia viceras: hodierno vero die te ipse vicisti. 
Vereor ut hoc, quod dicam, perinde intellegi possit 

20 auditu atque ipse cogitans sentio: ipsam victoriam 
vicisse videris, cum ea, quae erant adempta, victis 
remisisti. Nam cum ipsius victoriae iure omnes victi 
occidissemus, clementiae tuae iudicio conservati su- 
mus. Recte igitur unus invictus es, a quo etiam 

25 ipsius victoriae condicio visque devicta est. 

§§ 13-18. Caesar's pardon shows that he buries enmity. 
I have always supported peace; and I followed Pompey for 
personal reasons. Caesar commends the peaceful, and has 
not been bloodthirsty. The gods have saved us from Pom- 
pey' s wrath. 

13 "f V. Atque hoc C. Caesaris indicium, patres con- 
^ scripti, quam late pateat attendite. Omnes enim, qui 


ad ilia arma fato sumus nescio quo rei publicae misero 
funestoqu6 compulsi, etsi aliqua culpa tenemur erroris 
humani, ab scelere certe liberati sumus. Nam cum 
M. Marcellum deprecantibus vobis rei publicae con- 
servavit, me et mihi et item rei publicae, nullo depre- 5 
cante, reliquos^amplissimos viros et sibi ipsos et patriae 
reddidit, quorum et frequentiam et dignitatem hoc 
ipso in consessu videtis, non ille hostis induxit in curi- 
am, sed iudicavit a plerisque ignoratione potius et fal^o 
atque inani metu quam cupiditate aut crudelitate bel- 10 
lum esse susceptum. 

Quo quidem in bello semper de pace audiendum 14 
putavi semperque dolui non modo pacem, sed etiam 
orationem civium pacem flagitantium repudiari. Ne- 
que enim ego ilia nee ulla umquam secutus sum arma 15 
civilia semperque mea consilia pacis et togae socia, 
non belli atque armorum fuerunt. Hominem sum se- 
cutus privato officio, non publico, tantumque apud 
me grati animi fidelis memoria valuit, ut nolla non 
modo cupiditate, sed ne sj>e quidem prudens et 20 
sciens tamquam ad interitum ruerem voluntarium. 
Quod quidem meum consilium minime obscurum 15 
fuit. Nam et in hoc ordine integra re multa de pace 
dixi et in ipso bello eadem etiam cum capitis mei peri- 
culo sensi. Ex quo nemo erit tam iniustus rerum 25 
existimator qui dubitet quae Caesaris de bello volun- 
tas fuerit, cum pacis auctores conservandos statim 
censuerit, ceteris fuerit iratior. Atque id minus mirum 
fortasse tum, cum esset incertus exitus et anceps for- 
tuna belli: qui vero victor pacis auctores diligit, is 30 
profecto declarat maluisse se non dimicare quam 


i6 yO VI. Atque huius quidem rei M. Marcello sum te- 
stis. Nasti:i enim sgnsus ut in pace semper, sic. turn 
etiam in bello congruebant. Quotiens ego eum et 
quanto cum dolore vidi, cum insplentiam certorum 
5 homrnunrturn etiam ipsius victoriae ferocitatem exti- 
mescentem! Quo g ratio r tua liberalitas, C. Caesar, 
nobis, qui ilia vidimus, debet esse. Non enim iam 
causae sunt inter se, sed victoriae comparandae. 

17 Vidimus tuam ^victoriam proeliorum exitu termi- 
te natam: gladium vagina vacuum in urbe non vidimus. 

Quos amisimus civis, eos vis Martis perculit, non ira 
victoriae, ut dubitare debeat nemo quin multos, si 
posset, C. Caesar ab inferis excitaret, quoniam ex 
eadem acie conservat iquos potest. Alterius vero partis 
15 nihil amplius dico quam, id quod omnes verebamur, 

18 nimis iracundam futuram fuisse victoriam. Quidam 
enim non modo armatis, sed interdum etiam otiosis 
minabantur, nee quid quisque sensisset, sed ubi fuis- 
set cogitandum esse dicebant ; ut mihi quidem vi- 

20 deantur di immortales, etiam si poenas a populo 
Romano ob aliquod delictum expetiverunt, qui civile 
bellum tantum et tam luctuosum excitaverunt, vel pla- 
cati iam vel satiati aliquando omnem spem salutis ad 
clementiam victoris et sapientiam contulisse. 

§§ 19-22. You will always rejoice in your magnanimity. 
Spare honest opponents, although you have a right to he sus- 
picious. You need not fear friends; and your enemies are 
dead or converted. But he watchful, for the destiny of the 
state hangs on you. 

19 Qua re gaude tuo isto tam excellenti bono et fruere 
cum fortuna et gloria tum etiam natura et moribus 


tuis; ex quo quidem maximus est fructus iucunditas- 
que sapienti. Cetera cum tua recordabere, etsi per- 
saepe virtuti, tamen plerumque felicitati tuae gratula- 
bere: de nobis, quos in re publica tecum simul esse 
voluisti, ^uotiens cogitabis, totiens de maximis tuis 5 
beneficiis, totiens de incredibili liberalitate, totiens de 
singulari sapientia cogitabis: quae non modo summa 
bona, sed nimirum audebo vel sola dicere.^ Tantus est 
enim splendor in laude vera, tanta in magnitudine ani- 
mi et consili dignitas, ut haec a Virtute donata, cetera 10 
a Fortuna commodata esse videantur. Noli igitur 20 
in conservandis viris bonis defetigari, non cupiditate 
praesertim aliqua aut pravitate lapsis, sed opinione 
offici stulta fortasse, certe non improba, et specie 
quadam rei publicae. Non enim tua ulla culpa est, '15 
si te.aliqui timuerunt, contraque summa laus, quod 
minime timendum_ fuisse senseHmt. 
-^^^f^ VII. Nunc venio ad gravissimam querelam et atro- 21 
^ cissimam suspicionem tuam, quae non tibi ipsi magis 

quam cum omnibus civibus, tum maxime nobis, qui 20 
&\ a te conservati sumus, providenda est: quam etsi spero 
falsam esse, numquam tamen extenuabo, tua enim 
cautio nostra cautio est. Quod si in alteVutro peccan- 
dum sit, malim videri nimis timidus quam parum pru- 
dens. -Sed quisnam est iste tam demens? de tuisne? — 25 
tametsi qui magis sunt tui quam quibus tu salutem in- 
sperantibus reddidisti? — anne ex eo numero, qui una 
tecum fuerunt? Non est credibilis tantus in ullo furor, 
ut quo duce omnia summa sit adeptus^ huius vitam 
non anteponat suae. An si nihil tui cogitant sceleris, 30 
cavendum est ne quid inimici? Qui? omnes enim, 
qui fuerunt, aut sua pertinacia vitam amiserunt aut tua 
16 ~~ 


misericordia retiniterunt, ut aut nulli supersint de ini- 
micis aut qui fuerunt sint amicissimi. ,^ \ 

22 Sed tamen cum in animis hominum tantae late- 
brae sint et tanti recessus, augeamus sane suspicipnem 

5 tuam: simul enim augebimus diligentiam. Nam quis^ 
est omnium tam ignarus rerum, tani rudis in re publi- 
ca, tam nihil umquam nee de sua nee de communi, 
salute cogitans jqui non intellegat tua salute contineri' 
suamlet ex unius tiua vitaT pendere omnium? ^Equidem 
lo de te dies noctesque, ut debeo, cogitans casus dum- 
taxat humanos et incertos eventus valetudinis et natu- 
rae communis fragilitatem' extimesco, doleoque, cum 
res publica immortalis esse^debeat,jeam in unius mor- 

23 talis anim"a consistere. Si vero ad humanos casus|in- 
15 certosque motus valetudinis , sceleris etiam accedit 

insidiarumque consensio, quem deum',; si cupiat, posse 
« > opitulari rei publicae credimus? 

§§ 23-29. You must reestablish government, and heal the 
wounds of war. You have not yet lived long enough for the 
state. There is immortality yet to win. Posterity will de- 
mand of you the completion of your work. 

^ VIII. Omnia sunt excitanda tibi, C. Caesar, uni, 
quae iacere sentts belli ipsius impetu, quod necesse 

20 fuit, perculsa atque prostrata: constituenda indicia, re- 
vocanda fides, comprimendae libidines, propaganda 
suboles, omnia, quae dilapsa iam difiluxerunt, severTs 

24 legibus vincienda sunt. Non fuit recusandum in 
tanto civili bello, tanto animorum ardore et armor 

25 rum, quin quassata res publica, quicumque belli 
eventus fuisset, multa perderet et ornamenta digni- 
tatis et praesidia stabilitatis suae, multaque uterque 
dux faceret armatus, quae idem togatus fieri prohi- 


buisset. Quae quidem tibi nunc omnia belli volnera 
Qy^ananda sunt, quibus praeter'te: irirMeri rieniio. potest^ 
Itaque illam tuam praeclarissimani et sapientissi- 25 
mam vocem invltus audivi:/ Satis diu vel naturae vixi 
vel gloriae.' Satis, si ita vis, fortasse naturae, addam 5 
etiam, si placet, gloriae: at, quod* maxirnum est, pa- 
triae certe parum. Qua re omitte, quaeso, istam doc- 
torum hominum in' contemnend'a morte prudentiam: 
noli'hostrcj periculo esse sapiens. Saepe enim v'enit 
ad meas auris|te' idem istiid mffis 6rel^.p dicere, satis 10 ' j^^^^ 
te vTxisse. 'Credo, sed turn id auctirerii, si tibi "^^ 
veres aut si tibi etiam soli natus esses. Omnium salu- 
tem civium cuhctamque rem publicam res tuae gestae 
complexae sunt; tantum abes a perfectione maximo- 
rum operum,^ ut fundamenta nondutir quae cogitas 15 
).^"teceris. Hie tu modum vitae tuae non "salute rei 
publicae, sed aequitate animi definies?" , Quid, si 
istud ne gloriae^, quidem satis est? ' Cuius' ^te esse 
avidissimum, quamvis sis sapiens, non negabis. ' Pa- 26 
rumne, irfquies, magna relinquemus? ' Imfiio vero 20 
alns quamvis multis satis, tibi uni parum. Quic- 
quid est enim, quamvis amplum sit, id est parum tum, 
cum est aliquid amplius. Quod si rerum tuarum^im- 
mortalium, C. Caesar, hie exitus futurus fuit, ut(de- 
victis adv^rsariisVrem pul)licam in eo statu relinqueres, 25 
in quo nunc est, vide, quaeso, ne tua divina virtus 
admirationis plus sit habitura quam gloriae; si qui- 
dem gloria est inlustris et pervagata magnorum vel in 
suos civts vel in patriam vel in omne genus hominum 
fama meritorum. j.- 30 

-^^jrp^ IX. Haec igitur tibi reliqua pars est; hie restat 27 
actus, in hoc' elaborandum est, ut rem publicam con- 



stituas, eagjie tu in primis summa tranquillitate et otio 

perfruare: tumj e;"si voles, cum'et patriae quod (glebes 

solveris et naturam ipsam expleveris sat ietat e*^ vtvfendi", 

satis diu'^Vixisse dicito. Quid enfm 'est^mnind?hoc 

5 ipsum dill, in quo est aliquid extremum? ^jQuod cum 

ve(jiit, omnis voluptas praeterita prdn iinilo e s6, quia 

irj^t,- ■ 'goster'nulla est futurai. '©iiamquam'iste'tuus animus 

^^\ numquam Qjis, anmistirs, .quas. .natiira nobis ad viven- 

dum dedit, conteii^i£_ JmtP^^ immortalitati^ 

28 amor'e" Hagravit. Nee vefo haec tua vita ducenda(j::'»^'* 
est, quae corpore et spiritu* continetur: ilia, inquaili^ 

-- ilia vita est tua, quae vigebit memoria saeculorum 

omnium, quam-^posteritas afet^^quam ipsa aeternitas 

^ semper ^tj^Bitun" Huic tu inservi£s, huic te ostentes 

^poportet, quae quidem quae mireturlam pridem mul- 

s/'^^ta habet; nunc etiam quae laudet exspectat. Obstu- 

pescent posteri certe imperia, provincias, Rhenum, 

Oceanum, Nilum, pugnas innumerabilis, incredibilis 

victorias, monumenta, munera, triumphos audientes 

20 et legentes tuos. 

29 Sed nisi haec urbs stabilita tuis consiliis et institu- 
tis erit,' vagabitur modo tuum nomen longe atque late, 
sedem stabilem et dornicilium certum non habebit. 
Erit inter eos etiam, qui nascentur, sicut inter nos fuit, 

25 magna dissensio, cum alii laudibus ad caelum res tuas 
gestas efferent, alii fortasse aliquid requirent, idque vel 
maximum, nisi belli civilis incendium salute patriae 

N restmxeris, ut illud fati videatur, hoc consili. Servi 
igitur eis iudicibus, qui multis post saeculis de te iudi- 

30 cabunt et quidem baud scio an incorruptius quam nos; 
nam et sine amore et sine cupiditate et rursus sine 

30 odio et sine invidia iudicabunt. Id autem etiam si 


turn ad te, ut quidam falso putant, non pertinebit, 
nunc certe pertinet esse te talem, ut tuas laudes ob- 
scuratura nulla umquam sit oblivio. 

§§ 30-32. The citisens were at a loss in choosing sides in 
the war, which is now at an end. A generous man has won, 
and all urge him to guard his own welfare for the sake of all. 

-y/^^ X. Diversae voluntates civium fuerunt distractae- 
que sententiae. Non enim consiliis solum et stu^diis, 5 
sed armis etiam et castris dissidebamus. Erat obscuri- 
tas quaedam, erat certamen inter clarissimos duces; 
multi dubjtabant quid optimum esset, multi quid sibi 
expediret, multi quid deC^ret, nqnjiulli etiam quid li- 
ceret.''^ Perfuncta res publica est hoc misero fatalique 31 
bello: vicit is, qui non fortuna inflammaret odium 
suum, sed bonitate leniret; neque omnis, quibus iratus 
esset, eosdem etiam exsilio aut morte dignos Judicaret. 
Arma ab aliis posita,Vab aliis erepta sunt.* Ingratus 
est iniustusque civis, qui armorum^periculoliberatusj 15 
animum tamen retinet armatum, ut etiam ille melior 
sit, (qui in acie cecidij^qui in causa animam profudit. 
Quae enim pertinacia quibusdam, eadem aliis constan- 
tia videri potest. 

Sed iam omnis fracta dissensio est armis, exstincta 32 
aequitate victoris: restat ut omnes unum velint, qui 
habent aliquid non sapientiae modo, sed etiam sanita^ 
tis.^Nisi te, C. Caesar, salvo et in ista sententia, qua 
cum antea tum hqdie maxime usus es, manente) salvi 
esse non possumus. Que re omnes te, qui haec salva 25 
esse volumus, et hortamur et obsecfamus, ut vitae, ut 
saluti tuae c^nsulas, omnesque tibi,mt pro aliis etiam 
loquar quod de me ipso sentio, quoniam subesse ali- 


quid piitas quod cavendum sit, non modo excubias et 
custodias, sed etiam laterum nostrorum oppositus et 
corporum pollicemur. 

§§ 33j 34- I thank you in behalf of all for the restoration 
of Marcellus, whose friend I am. Your act is an added 
service to me. 

33 C. Peroratio. — XL Sed ut, unde est orsa, in 
5 eodem terminetur oratio, maximas tibi omnes gratias 

agimus, C. Caesar, maiores etiam habemus. Nam 
omnes idem sentiunt, quod ex omnium precibus et 
lacrimis sentire potuisti. Sed quia non est omnibus 
stantibus necesse dicere, a me certe dici volunt, cui 
10 necesse est quodam modo, et quod fieri decet M. Mar- 
cello a te huic ordini populoque Romano et rei publi- 
cae reddito, fieri id intellego. Nam laetari omnis non 
ut de unius solum, sed ut de omnium salute sentio. 

34 Quod autem summae benevolentiae "iest, quae mea 
15 erga ilium omnibus nota semper fuit, ut vix C. Mar- 
cello, Optimo et amantissimo fratri, praeter eum qui- 
dem cederem nemini, cum id sollicitudine, cura, labore 
tam diu praestiterim, quam diu est de illius salute du- 
bitatumyAcerte hoc tempore magnis curis, molestiis, 

20 doloribus liberatus praestare debeo. Itaque, C. Cae- 
sar, sic tibi gratias ago, ut me omnibus rebus a te non 
conservato solum, sed etiam ornato, tamen ad tua in 
me unum innumerabilia merita, quod fieri iam posse 
non arbitrabar, magnus hoc tuo facto cumulus acces- 

25, serit. 



Brutus, §§ 301-303. 

Primum memoria tanta, quantam in nullo cogno- 
visse me arbitror, ut quae secum commentatus esset, 
ea sine scripto verbis eisdem redderet, quibus cogita- 
visset. Hoc adiumento ille tanto sic utebatur, ut sua 
et commentata et scripta et nullo referente omnia ad- 5 
versariorum dicta meminisset. Ardebat autem cupidi- 
tate sic, ut in nullo umquam flagrantius studium vide- 
rim. Nullum enim patiebatur esse diem, quin aut in 
foro diceret aut meditaretur extra forum. Saepissime 
autem eodem die utrumque faciebat. Attuleratque 10 
minime volgare genus dicendi; duas quidem res, quas 
nemo alius : partitiones, quibus de rebus dicturus esset, 
et conlectiones eorum, quae essent dicta contra quaeque 
ipse dixisset. Erat in verborum splendore elegans, 
compositione aptus, facultate copiosus; eaque erat cum 15 
summo ingenio tum exercitationibus maximis consecu- 
tus. Rem complectebatur memoriter, dividebat acute, 
nee praetermittebat fere quidquam, quod esset in causa 
aut ad confirmandum aut ad refellendum. Vox ca- 
nora et suavis, motus et gestus etiam plus artis habebat 20 
quam erat oratori satis. 



2. How Demosthenes Overcame Defects 

De Or at ore I, § 260. 
Imitetur ilium, cui sine dubio summa vis dicendi 
conceditur, Atheniensem Demosthenem, in quo tantum 
studium fuisse tantusque labor dicitur, ut primum im- 
pedimenta naturae diligentia industriaque superaret; 
5 cumque ita balbus esset ut eius ipsius artis, cui studeret, 
primam litteram non posset dicere, perfecit meditando, 
ut nemo planius esse locutus putaretur; deinde cum 
spiritus eius esset angustior, tantum continenda anima 
in dicendo est adsecutus, ut una continuatione verbo- 

10 rum, id quod eius scripta declarant, binae ei conten- 
tiones vocis et remissiones continerentur ; qui etiam, 
ut memoriae proditum est, coniectis in os calculis, sum- 
ma voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare con- 
suescebat; neque is consistens in loco, sed inambulans 

15 atque ascensu ingrediens arduo. 

3. The Orator's High Calling 

De Oratore /, Chap. VIII. 

Neque vero mihi quicquam, inquit [Crassus], prae- 

stabilius videtur, quam posse dicendo tenere hominum 

mentis, adlicere voluntates, impellere quo velit, unde 

autem velit deducere. Haec una res in omni libero 

20 populo maximeque in pacatis tranquillisque civitati- 
bus praecipue semper floruit semperque dominata est. 
Quid enim est aut tam admirabile, quam ex infinita 
multitudine hominum exsistere unum, qui id, quod om- 
nibus natura sit datum, vel solus vel cum paucis facere 

25 possit? aut tam iucundum cognitu atque auditu, quam 


sapientibus sententiis gravibusque verbis ornata oratio 
et polita? aut tam potens tamque magnificum, quam 
populi motus, iudicum religiones, senatus gravitatem 
tinius oratione converti ? Quid tam porro regium, tam 
liberale, tam mimificum, quam opem ferre supplicibus, 5 
excitare adflictos, dare salutem, liberare periculis, re- 
tinere homines in civitate? Quid autem tam necessa- 
rium, quam tenere semper arma, quibus vel tectus ipse 
esse possis vel provocare improbos vel te ulcisci lacessi- 
tus ? Age vero, ne semper forum, subsellia, rostra cu- 10 
riamque meditere, quid esse potest in otio aut iucundius 
aut magis proprium humanitatis, quam sermo facetus 
ac nulla in re rudis? Hoc enim uno praestamus vel 
maxime feris, quod conloquimur inter nos et quod ex- 
primere dicendo sensa possumus. Quam ob rem quis 15 
hoc non iure miretur summeque in eo elaborandum esse 
arbitretur, ut, quo uno homines maxime bestiis prae- 
stent, in hoc hominibus ipsis antecellat? Ut vero iam 
ad ilia summa veniamus, quae vis alia potuit aut di- 
spersos homines unum in locum congregare aut a fera 20 
agrestique vita ad hunc humanum cultum civilemque 
deducere aut iam constitutis civitatibus leges, indicia, 
iura describere? Ac ne plura, quae sunt paene innu- 
merabilia, consecter, comprehendam brevi : sic enim 
statuo, perfecti oratoris moderatione et sapientia non 25 
solum ipsius dignitatem, sed et privatorum plurimorum 
et universae rei publicae salutem maxime contineri. 
Quam ob rem pergite, ut facitis, adulescentes, atque 
in id studium, in quo estis, incumbite, ut et vobis 
honori et amicis utilitati et rei publicae emolumento 30 
esse possitis. 


4. Raillery of the Stoics 

Pro Murcna, § 61. 
Et quoniam non est nobis haec oratio habenda aut 
in imperita multitudine aut in aliquo conventu agresti- 
um, audacius paulo de studiis humanitatis, quae et mihi 
et vobis nota et iucunda sunt, disputabo. In M. Ca- 
5 tone, iudices, haec bona, quae videmus divina et egre- 
gia, ipsius scitote esse propria; quae nonnumquam re- 
quirimus, ea sunt omnia non a natura, verum a ma- 
gistro. Fuit enim quidam summo ingenio vir, Zeno, 
cuius inventorum aemuli Stoici nominantur. Huius 

10 sententiae sunt et praecepta eius modi : sapientem gra- 
tia numquam moveri, numquam cuiusquam delicto 
ignoscere; neminem misericordem esse nisi stultum et 
levem ; viri non esse neque exorari neque placari ; solos 
sapientes esse, si distortissimi sint, formosos, si mendi- 

15 cissimi, divites, si servitutem serviant, reges; nos au- 
tem, qui sapientes non sumus, fugitivos, exsules, ho- 
stes, insanos denique esse dicunt; omnia peccata esse 
paria; omne delictum scelus esse nefarium, nee minus 
delinquere eum, qui gallum gallinaceum, cum opus non 

20 fuerit, quam eum, qui patrem suffocaverit; sapientem 
nihil opinari, nullius rei paenitere, nulla in re falli, sen- 
tentiam mutare numquam. 

5. Avoid Greed 

De Officiis I, % 68. 
Quam ob rem pecuniae fugienda cupiditas. Nihil 
enim est tam angusti animi tamque parvi, quam amire 
25 divitias : nihil honestius magnificentiusque, quam pecu- 


niam contemnere, si non habeas; si habeas, ad benefi- 
centiam Hberalitatemque conferre. Cavenda etiam est 
gloriae ciipiditas, ut supra dixi, eripit enim Hbertatem, 
pro qua magnaniniis viris omnis debet esse contentio. 
Nee vero imperia expetenda, ac potius aut non acci- 5 
pienda interdum, aut deponenda nonnumquam. 

6. Gratitude 

Pro Plancio, §§ 80-81. 
Etenim, indices, cum omnibus virtutibus me adfec- 
tum esse cupio, tum nihil est, quod mahm, quam me et 
esse gratum et videri. Haec est enim una virtus non 
solum maxima, sed etiam mater virtutum omnium reli- 10 
quarum. Quid est pietas nisi voluntas grata in paren- 
tes? Qui sunt boni cives, qui belli, qui domi de patria 
bene merentes, nisi qui patriae beneficia meminerunt? 
Qui sancti, qui religionum colentes, nisi qui meritam 
dis immortalibus gratiam iustis honoribus et memori 15 
mente persolvunt? Quae potest esse vitae iucunditas 
sublatis amicitiis? quae porro amicitia potest esse inter 
ingratos? Quis est nostrum liberaliter educatus, cui 
non educatores, cui non magistri sui atque ductores, 
cui non locus ipse mutus ille, ubi altus aut doctus est, 20 
cum grata recordatione in mente versetur ? Cuius opes 
tantae esse possunt aut umquam fuerunt, quae sine 
multorum amicorum officiis stare possint? quae certe 
sublata memoria et gratia nulla exstare possunt. Equi- 
dem nihil tam proprium hominis existimo quam non 25 
modo beneficio, sed etiam benevolentiae significatione 
adligari, nihil porro tam inhumanum, tam immane, 
tam ferum quam committere ut beneficio non dicam 
indignus, sed victus esse videare. 


7. Friendship 

De Amicitia, § 102. 
Quoniam res humanae fragiles caducaeque sunt, 
semper aliqtii anquirendi sunt, quos diligamus et a 
quibus diligamur ; caritate enim benevolentiaque subla- 
ta omnis est e vita sublata iucunditas. 

Ibid., § 47. 
5 Solem enim e mundo tollere videntur, qui amici- 

tiam e vita tollunt, qua nihil a dis immortalibus melius 
habemus, nihil iucundius. 

Ibid,, § 79. 

Digni autem sunt amicitia, quibus in ipsis inest 

causa, cur diligantur. Rarum genus. Et quidem om- 

10 nia praeclara rara, nee quicquam difficilius quam repe- 

rire, quod sit omni ex parte in suo genere perfectum. 

Sed plerique neque in rebus humanis quicquam bonum 

norunt, nisi quod fructuosum sit, et amicos tamquam 

pecudes eos potissimum diligunt, ex quibus sperant se 

15 maximum fructum esse captures. 

Ibid., § 4g. 
Quid enim tam absurdum quam delectari multis 
inanimis rebus, ut honore, ut gloria, ut aedificio, ut 
vestitu cultuque corporis, animante virtute praedito, eo 
qui vel amare vel, ut ita dicam, redamare possit, non 
20 admodum delectari? Nihil est enim remuneratione 
benevolentiae, nihil vicissitudine studiorum officiorum- 
que iucundius. 

Ibid., § 44. 

Haec igitur prima lex amicitiae sanciatur, ut ab 
amicis honesta petamus, amicorum causa honesta facia- 


mus, ne exspectemus quidem, dum rogemur; studium 
semper adsit, cunctatio absit; consilium vero dare au- 
deamus libere. Plurimum in amicitia amicorum bene 
suadentium valeat auctoritas, eaque et adhibeatur ad 
monendum non modo aperte, sed etiam acriter, si res 5 
postulabit, et adhibitae pareatur. 

8. Five Letters of Cicero 


Fain, XIV, 20. 
In Tusculanum vos ventures putamus aut Nonis 
aut postridie. Ibi ut sint omnia parata. Plures enim 
fortasse nobiscum erunt et, ut arbitror, diutius ibi com- 
morabimur. Labrum si in balineo non est, ut sit ; item 10 
cetera quae sunt ad victum et ad valetudinem necessa- 
ria. Vale. K. Oct. de Venusino. 


Fam. V, 7. 

S. T. E. Q. V. B. E. Ex litteris tuis, quas publice 
misisti, cepi una cum omnibus incredibilem volupta- 
tem; tantam enim spem oti ostendisti quantam ego 15 
semper omnibus te uno fretus pollicebar. Sed hoc 
scito, tuos veteres hostis, novos amicos vehementer lit- 
teris perculsos atque ex magna spe deturbatos iacere. 

Ad me autem litteras quas misisti, quamquam exi- 
guam significationem tuae erga me voluntatis habe- 20 
bant, tamen mihi scito iucundas fuisse. Nulla enim 
re tam laetari soleo quam meorum officiorum consci- 
entia, quibus si quando non mutue respondetur, apud 
me plus offici residere facillime patior. Illud non du- 
bito, quin, si te mea summa erga te studia parum mihi 25 


adiunxerint, res publica nos inter nos conciliatura con- 
iuncturaque sit. 

Ac, lie ignores quid ego in tuis litteris desiderarim, 
scribam aperte, sicut et mea natura et nostra amicitia 
5 postulat. Res eas gessi quarnm aliquam in tuis lit- 
teris et nostrae necessitudinis et rei publicae causa 
gratulationem exspectavi; quam ego abs te praeter- 
missam esse arbitror, quod vererere ne cuius animum 
offenderes. Sed scito ea quae nos pro salute patriae 

lo gessimus, orbis terrae iudicio ac testimonio compro- 
bari; quae, cum veneris, tanto consilio tantaque animi 
magnitudine a me gesta esse cognosces ut tibi, multo 
maiori quam Africanus fuit, me, non multo minorem 
quam Laelium, facile et in re publica et in amicitia 

15 adiunctum esse patiare. 


Att. XIII, IS. 

Quid agit, obsecro te, Attica nostra? Nam triduo 
abs te nullas acceperam ; nee mirum, nemo enim vene- 
rat, nee fortasse causa fuerat. Itaque ipse quod scri- 
berem non habebam. Quo autem die has Valerio da- 
20 bam, exspectabam aliquem meorum ; qui si venisset et 
a te quid attulisset, videbam non defuturum quod scri- 


Fam. XVI, iS- 

Aegypta ad me venit pr. Idus Apr. Is etsi mihi 

nuntiavit te plane febri carere et belle habere, tamen, 

25 quod negavit te potuisse ad me scribere, curam mihi 

attulit; et eo magis, quod Hermia, quem eodem die 

venire oportuerat, non venerat. Incredibili sum sol- 


licitudine de tua valetudine; qua si nie liberaris, ego 
te omiii cura liberabo. Plura scriberem, si iam puta- 
rem libenter te legere posse. Ingenium tuum, quod 
ego maximi facio, confer ad te mihi tibique conservan- 
dum. Cura te etiam atque etiam diligenter. Vale. 5 

Scripta iam epistula Hermia venit. Accepi tuam 
epistulam vacillantibus litterulis; nee mirum, tarn gravi 
morbo. Ego ad te Aegyptam misi, quod nee inhu- 
manus est et te visus est mihi diligere, ut is tecum 
esset, et cum eo cocum quo uterere. Vale. 10 


Fam. XIV, 3. 

Accepi ab Aristocrito tres epistulas quas ego lacri- 
mis prope delevi. Conficior enim maerore, mea Teren- 
tia; nee meae me miseriae magis excruciant quam tuae 
vestraeque. Ego autem hoc miserior sum quam tu 
quae es miserrima, quod ipsa calamitas communis est 15 
utriusque nostrum, sed culpa mea propria est. Meum 
fuit officium vel legatione vitare periculum, vel dili- 
gentia et copiis resistere, vel cadere fortiter. Hoc 
miserius, turpius, indignius nobis nihil fuit. 

Qua re cum dolore conficior turn etiam pudore. 20 
Pudet enim me uxori meae optimae, suavissimis libe- 
ris virtutem et diligentiam non praestitisse. Nam 
mihi ante oculos dies noctesque versatur squalor vester 
et maeror et infirmitas valetudinis tuae; spes autem 
salutis pertenuis ostenditur. Inimici sunt multi, invidi 25 
paene omnes. Eicere nos magnum fuit, excludere 
facile est. Sed tamen, quam diu vos eritis in spe, non 
deficiam, ne omnia mea culpa cecidisse videantur. 


Ut tuto sim, quod laboras, id mihi nunc facillimum 
est, quern etiam inimici volunt vivere in his tantis mise- 
riis; ego tamen faciam quae praecipis. Amicis quibus 
voluisti egi gratias, et eas litteras Dexippo dedi, meque 
5 de eorum officio scripsi a te certiorem esse factum. 
Pisonem nostrum mirifico esse studio in nos et officio 
et ego perspicio et omnes praedicant. Di faxint ut 
tali genero mihi praesenti tecum simul et cum Hberis 
nostris frui liceat! 

lo Nunc spes rehqua est in novis tribunis pi. et in 
primis quidem diebus; nam, si inveterarit, actum est. 
Ea re ad te statim Aristocritum misi, ut ad me con- 
tinuo initia rerum et rationem totius negoti posses 
scribere; etsi Dexippo quoque ita imperavi statim ut 

15 recurreret, et ad fratrem misi ut crebro tabellarios 
mitteret. Nam ego eo nomine sum Dyrrhachi hoc 
tempore, ut quam celerrime quid agatur audiam, et 
sum tuto; civitas enim haec semper a me defensa est. 
Cum inimici nostri venire dicentur, tum in Epirum ibo. 

20 Quod scribis te, si velim, ad me venturam, ego 
vero, cum sciam magnam partem istius oneris abs te 
sustineri, te istic esse volo. Si perficitis quod agitis, 
me ad vos venire oportet; sin autem — sed nihil opus 
est reliqua scribere. Ex primis aut summum secundis 

25 litteris tuis constituere poterimus quid nobis faciendum 
sit. Tu modo ad me velim omnia diligentissime per- 
scribas ; etsi magis iam rem quam litteras debeo exspec- 
tare. Cura ut valeas et ita tibi persuadeas mihi te cari- 
us nihil esse nee umquam fuisse. Vale, mea Terentia, 

30 quam ego videre videor, itaque debilitor lacrimis. 
Vale. Pr. Kal. Dec. 



[J^or abbreviations, see page j66.] 



Lucius Sergius Catilina was descended from a 
family that in the early days of the Roman Republic had 
given distinguished citizens to the state. He was about 
two years older than Cicero, whom his aristocratic soul 
spurned as an upstart outsider. He possessed a com- 
manding physique, dashing manners, intrepid bravery, 
practised hardihood, and a sullied character. Men and 
their weaknesses were his study, and he was gifted with 
the diabolical art of captivating them with evil counsels. 
But he possessed neither the commanding intellect nor 
the strategical cunning of a great revolutionist. In the 
days of Sulla's proscriptions, dark rumors were current 
of his base service in hunting down victims, including 
among them, it is claimed, his own brother. 

The quaestorship and the praetorship came to him as 
a prerogative of his social station, and in 6y he was pro- 
praetor in Africa. In 66 he came to Rome to canvass for 
the consulship, but an action in court was brought against 
him and he was forced to give up his candidacy. It is 
said that in the winter of 66-65 he schemed to slay the 
consuls, and to secure his own election to the chief magis- 
tracy by force. This bungling effort, known as the First 
Catilinarian Conspiracy, failed twice of execution. 

In 64 he stood against Cicero and others for the con- 
sulship and again failed. His aim se^ms to have been 
mainly that of a spoilsman-politician seeking office for 



what he and his friends could win from it, by fair means 
or by foul. Disappointed in his struggle to gain his ends 
by the ordinary devices of party politics, he turned his 
thoughts toward plans actually treasonable. He gath- 
ered a band of armed ruffians and adventurers in the 
strongly fortified town of Faesulae (modern Fiesole), in 
Etruria, under the command of a bold centurion named 
Manlius. These he intended to employ in the capture of 
Rome, whose only formidable army was in the East. In 
the city he had about him a company of bankrupt and 
profligate nobles, adventurers of all classes, and such 
ignorant and discontented elements as were always to be 
found in the streets of the great city. With these he 
plotted to slay the consul Cicero at the election for 62, 
and after disposing of his rival candidates at the election, 
to enforce his own success. It was late in October before 
the elections took place. Information of the growing 
plot was brought to Cicero, who on the 21st of October 
laid the matter before the senate. Catiline gave an 
insolent reply, and the timid senate declined to take 
action without further evidence. On the following day 
Cicero disclosed further facts of such a convincing char- 
acter that the senate, at last alarmed, passed a decree 
(consultum idtimum, see Introduction, § 28, b) which 
empowered the consuls to execute summary measures in 
defense of the state. The elections took place on the 28th. 
Cicero stationed armed men in the Campus Martins, and 
himself wore a coat of mail, which he took care to dis- 
play with melodramatic skill, in order to stir the people 
by the evident peril of their chief magistrate. Catiline 
was outwitted and outgeneraled by the cunning consul, 
and was again defeated at the polls. 

On the 27th the armed forces in Faesulae had boldly 
raised the standard of revolt. Catiline held conference 

NOTES 191 

with his fellows in the city and arranged to have Cicero 
slain. He himself intended to set out for Faesulae to lead 
the revolt in person. His confederates were to complete 
arrangements for seizing the city and massacring the 
leading citizens. Cicero, being informed by spies, thwart- 
ed the design on his life. On the 8th of November he 
assembled the senate in the temple of Jupiter Stator, 
about which he had placed a strong guard. Catiline 
even then ventured to appear. Cicero rose indignantly 
as the conspirator entered and deluged him with the flood 
of denunciation known to us, in the author's revised 
version, as the First Catilinarian Speech. 

N. B. — For a fuller consideration of the conspiracy of Catiline 
the student is referred to Mommsen's History of Rome (see its 
Index); to Forsyth's Life of Cicero^ vol. i, pp. 131-147; to 
Beesly's Catiline, Clodius, and Tiberius ; and to the lives of 
Cicero given in the Introduction, pp. xxxiii-xxxiv. There is a 
somewhat heavy drama by Ben Jonson entitled Catiline. 


Note.— This list is intended for teachers, and includes only a few 
of the really useful commentaries. American schoolbooks are not men- 
tioned, because they are so conspicuottsly well known. 

WiLKiNS. The Orations of Cicero against Catiline. Edited after 

Halm. Macmillan & Co., 1892. 
Upcott. Speeches against Catilina. Clarendon Press. 
NiCOL. J. C. The Orations against Catiline. Pitt Press Series, 

Long. M. Tullii Ciceronis Orationes. Vol. iii. London, 1856. 

[Needs revision.] 
Halm-Laubmann. Ciceros Ausgewahlte Reden. Dritter Band. 

Weidmann, Berlin, 1901. [Scholarly and reliable.] 
SCHMALZ. Ciceros Reden. Zweites Heft. [Brief, but excellent 

notes.] Leipzig, 1895. 

192 NOTES 

Stegmann. Auswahl aus den Reden des M. TuUius Cicero. I. 

Hilfsheft. [A superior schoolbook.] Leipzig, 1896. 
Hachtmann. Ciceros Reden gegen L. Sergius Catilina. Kom- 

mentar. Gotha, 1896. 
Richter-Eberhard, Ciceros Reden gegen L. Catilina. [A 

standard commentaiy.] Teubner, Leipzig. 
Also : 
John. Die Entstehungsgeschichte der Catilinarischen Verschwb- 

rung. Leipzig, 1876. 



Delivered November 8, B. c. 63 

This speech, as a violent, emotional outburst, does 

not exhibit any carefully conceived plan ; but we may 

distinguish in it a propositio, a hortatio, and a peroratio. 

[For the meaning of these terms see Introduction, 

§ 54.] 

I. Propositio. — § i. How far, Catiline, will you go? 
Has not the general alertness disturbed you? Your 
schemes are known. § 2. You enter the senate, and we 
appear too timid to punish you. § 3. There are prece- 
dents for putting you to death, and the consuls are to 
blame for not doing it. § 4. Other consuls have put men 
to death, but we neglect to act under the senate's de- 
cree. § 5. Your followers flock to Etruria while you 
stay here and plot. You shall die without a voice pro- 
testing. § 6. Meanwhile you will be watched. Your 
plans are reported to me. § 7. Did I not foretell the 
rising of Manlius to a day? Also your attempt at mas- 
sacre? § 8. I frustrated your attack on Praeneste, and 
I know of your meeting at Laeca's house. § 9. There 
are men in the senate who plot murder! You assigned 
tasks and got two men to promise my death. § 10. I 
baffled them. 

NOTES 193 

II. HoRTATio. — Depart with your followers. § 11. 
Gratitude is due to the gods for our escape. I protected 
myself. § 12. Now you are attacking the state. I have 
not slain you, because I wish you to draw off all your vile 
company. § 13. The consul advises you into exile. Here 
all hate you and know your base life. § 14. I say noth- 
ing of the death of your wife or of your financial ruin. 
§ 15. All know of your attempts at murder. How often 
have I barely escaped your dagger! § 16. Who wel- 
comed you as you came into the senate? § 17. If my 
slaves or fellow-citizens hated me so much, I should run 
away. Your country dreads you. Won't you go? § 18. 
She declares that you instigate all crimes, and bids you 
depart. § 19. You offered to go into custody, and indeed 
your desire should be granted ! § 20. You demand a 
vote of the senate. Do you need a spoken rebuke from 
the members? § 21. Such words to a decent man would 
not have been permitted. The equites would gladly escort 
you to the gates. § 22. If you should go into exile, un- 
popularity would threaten me. § 23. If you wish this, 
go into exile ; otherwise go to Manlius. § 24. You have 
sent to Manlius the eagle which you worshiped. § 25. 
You will enter upon the vicious work for which you were 
made. § 26. Your boasted training for bad ends will be 

III. Peroratio. — § 27. Attend to my excuses. My 
country says to me : " Will you suffer a traitor to go 
forth unharmed ? § 28. There are precedents for slaying. 
Do you fear unpopularity ? § 29. When Italy is dis- 
tressed, do you expect to be popular?" Had I deemed 
it wise I should have slain Catiline. § 30. Some sena- 
tors are not convinced of the plot. If his fellows go, the 
evil will be rooted out of the state. § 31. If he alone is 
removed, the evil will be merely checked, not cured. 

194 NOTES [Page i 

§ 32. Let the wicked withdraw, and every man take his 
stand openly. The consuls will do their duty. § 33. 
With such prospects, Catiline, depart. O Jupiter, thou 
wilt protect the city, and punish evil-doers. 

Page I 

1. abutere. Cicero prefers -re to -ris as the ending for passives 2d 
person, except in the present indicative. In deponent verbs he often 
uses -re in the present indicative also. What case is used with utor 
and its compounds ? W. 387; A. 249 ; H. 477 ; B. 218, i; G. 407. 

2. quam diu etiam : ' how long still.' 

3. quern ad finem : ' to what limit.' 

4. audacia. Has the word here a praiseworthy meaning ? See 

4. Nihilne . . . moverunt : ' Have not the . . . disturbed you at 
all.?' Nihilne is a stronger interrogative form than nonne. Nihil is 
an adverbial ace. W. 316 ; A. 240, a ; H. 416, 2 ; B. 176, 3 ; G. 332. 

5. Palati. The Mons Falatinus, or Palatium, derived its name 
from the early Italian god of shepherds, Pales. It was perhaps the 
earliest settled of the hills of Rome, and was anciently surrounded in 
part by a massive stone wall, remains of which are still pointed out. In 
Cicero's day it was the site of residence for many of the wealthy and 
influential citizens, among whom were both Cicero and Catiline. Its 
abrupt rise made the hill readily defensible. To-day the top of the hill 
is a beautiful park filled with interesting ruins of buildings mostly of 
later times than Cicero's day. 

7. senatus : obj. gen. with gerundive depending on locus. Make 
yourself familiar with this construction. W. 638 ; A. 298 ; H. 626 ; 
B. 339 ; G. 428. 

7. locus : the temple of Jupiter Stator. Just where it stood is un- 
certain, for no remains of it can be identified, but it was probably not 
far from the site of the later Arch of Titus, at the top of the Sacra Via, 
and on the edge of the Palatine Hill. The consul convened the senate 
here apparently because of its defensibility in case of attack on the part 
of the discontents. 

8. constrictam . . . teneri : ' is held firmly bound,' or ' is bound 
hand and foot.' Both words have their full force, and the participle is 
further emphasized by its position. 


10. proxima : ' last.' 

10. superiore nocte : ' night before last.' 

11. egeris : indirect question. Reason for tense ? 

2 13. O tempera : ace. exclamatory. W. 323 ; A. 240, d ; H. 421 ; 
B. 183 ; G. 343, I. Notice that the ace. is independent of the sentence 

14. hie : Catiline. 

14. immo vero : 'nay rather.' The words introduce a statement 
stronger than that preceding. Rhetoricians called this form of speech 
correctio, because it thus ' corrects ' and improves upon a previous state- 

16. unum quemque nostrum : ' each one of us,' i. e. his opponents. 

17. fortes viri : contemptuously ironical. 

18. istius : ' that fellow's.' This pronoun often has a slighting 

19. iussu consulis. Ordinarily, within the limits of the city, the 
consuls did not have the power of life and death over citizens, who had 
the right of appeal to the centuriate assembly. But Cicero now claims 
to be invested with extraordinary powers by a decree of the senate 
passed October 22d {consultum ultimum. See Introduction, p. xliv). 

Page 2 

3 3. An vero: 'why surely.' An va single questions is not so com- 
mon as in double. It introduces an emphatic comment on the pre- 
ceding thought. Although placed with the first member of the sen- 
tence it really introduces the question at the end. 

3. P. [Cornelius] Scipio [Nasica Serapio] in 133 led a mob of riot- 
ous citizens who killed Ti. Gracchus with three hundred of his supporters at 
a meeting of the concilium plebis (see Introduction, §§ 26, 33) at which 
Gracchus was seeking illegally reelection to the tribunate. It is said 
that clubs and benches were the only weapons used. In consequence of 
this riot Scipio Nasica was forced to leave Rome, and he died abroad. 
He was privatus because he held at the time no magistracy. The use 
of the praenonien and cognomen to designate a person was Cicero's prac- 
tise with reference to living members of the aristocracy and nobility. 
For persons of humbler rank the gentile name with the cognomen was 
often employed. 

4. Ti. Gracchum : See Vocab. Read about him more fully in a 
class, diet. There is an excellent account of him in Mommsen's History 
of Ro7ne (see its Index). An interesting life of him will be found in 
Plutarch's Lives of Illustrious Men. See Oman's Seven Roman Statesmen. 

196 NOTES [Page 2 

4. mediocriter labefactantem etc. : ' while undermining (only) in 
slight measure the stability of the state.' 

7. ilia : ' those well-known cases.' He specifies only one of them. 
7. antiqua : ' as too ancient.' 

7. praetereo. The orator here makes use of the rhetorical figure 
called praeteritio, by means of which he emphasizes what he has to say 
by declaring that he will not mention it. Observe his frequent use of it 

8. quod : ' as for example that,' ' namely that.' 

8. C. Servilius Ahala : magister equitum, or first officer, under 
the dictator Cincinnatus in the fifth century b. c. 

8. Sp. Maelius, an eques, distributed grain to the populace during a 
famine. He was consequently accused of seeking kingly power and 
was summoned to appear before the dictator Cincinnatus. He refused 
to obey and was therefore slain by Ahala. 

8. rebus. Why dat. ? Note studentem. 

12. senatus consultum : passed Oct. 22, apparently. 

14. consilium: 'wise counsel.' 

14. auctoritas : ' the authoritative sanction.' 

15. dico. The verb is used parenthetically and does not affect the 
construction of the sentence. 

16. Decrevit. This verb, like statuo and constituo^ is followed by 
an ut clause when the dependent subject changes ; otherwise by the 
infinitive. When it means 'judge' it takes the accusative and infinitive. 

16. L. Opimius, consul 121, was afterwards banished for complicity 
with Jugurtha, an enemy of Rome in Africa. 

17. videret ne quid . . . caperet : the regular formula of the 
senatus consultum ultimum^ or decree by which the senate threw the 
responsibility for the public welfare in time of turmoil upon the magis- 
trates. See Introduction, § 28, b, p. xliv. Opimius was the first 
consul to assume the right to slay a citizen under this power, without 
permitting any appeal to the people. Only one consul is mentioned, 
because the other was in Gaul. Sallust, Catiline 2g, j>, says of the 
senatus consultu?n ultimutn : " This is the mighty power conferred upon 
a magistrate after the Roman fashion by the senate ; the levying of an 
army, the conduct of war, the coercion of allies and citizens by every 
means, the possession of absolute authority and ultimate judgment at 
home and in the field." Many of these powers, however, were not ex- 
traordinary, but were regularly exercised by a commander in war, 

17. ne quid : After si, nisi, ne and 7tum, quis is a greater favorite 
than aliquis. 

19. C. Gracchus : See Vocab. For an excellent laudatory account 

Page 2] IN CATILINAM I 197 

of him and his work and death read in Mommsen's History of Rome 
(see its Index). Read also Plutarch's Life of C. Gracchus. Cf. Beesly's 
The Gracchi, Marius and Sulla; Oman's Seven Roman Statesmen. 

20. patre : abl, of quality. The father of the Gracchi was twice 
consul, was censor, and twice celebrated a triumph. 

20. avo : the great Scipio Africanus, father of Cornelia, mother of 
the Gracchi. 

20. M. Fulvius Flaccus, consul in 125. He served as a com- 
missioner in administering the agrarian laws of Tiberius Gracchus and 
joined interests with Gains Gracchus. He was slain in an attack made 
upon the Gracchan forces in 121. 

21. consulto : what use of the ablative ? 

21. C. Mario . . . consulibus : dative or ablative? Observe est 
per?nissa. These men were consuls in 100, Marius for the sixth time. 
Marius was bom nezr A rpinum, Cicero's birthplace, and was of plebeian 
family. He became the most renowned general of his time and saved 
the republic from an avalanche of Teutons and Cimbrians in 102 and 
loi. As a statesman he was incapable, and in his later years was cruel 
and bloodthirsty. Read Plutarch's Life of Marius, and the account of 
him in Mommsen's History of Rome (see its Index). See also Beesly's 
The Gracchi, Marius and Sulla; Oman's Seven Roman Statesmen, 
chap iv. 

22. res publica : ' the public weal,' ' welfare of the state,' as often. 
The words by no means always denote ' the state.' 

22. num : what answer expected ? See Vocab. 

23. L. Appuleius Saturninus, a fiery orator and a gifted but 
unscrupulous and violent demagogue who had great influence M'ith the 
populace. He was tribune of the people in 102, and secured the office 
again by force for 100, when Marius became consul and C. Servilius 
Glaucia became praetor. Glaucia was a vulgar street orator dreaded 
for his coarse, stinging wit, but powerful with the people. The three 
joined interests in an effort to revolutionize the state, and to this end 
passed several measures popular with the democracy. But dissension 
broke out between the two politicians and the old soldier Marius. At 
the consular elections in 100 (for 99), when Glaucia stood as a candidate 
and was likely to lose to his rival G. Memmius, a band of ruffians was 
set on Memmius by Saturninus and Glaucia and the rival was slain. 
This murder created a revulsion of feeling toward the demagogues. The 
senate demanded that the consuls punish them, and Marius was forced 
to proceed against them, arming for this purpose a large band of young 
men. The forces of Saturninus were defeated on the lOth of December, 
100, and driven to the Capitol, where they were forced to surrender. 

198 NOTES [Page 3 

Marius put his late colleagues for safe-keeping in the Curia Hostilia 
(see Introduction, § 48), but many young nobles and their servants 
climbed to the roof of that building, tore off tiles and with them pelted 
Saturninus and his comrades to death. Glaucia was found in hiding 
and slain. The actual murderer of Saturninus was a slave named 
Scaeva, who received his liberty as a reward for his deed. Cicero's illus- 
tration here is not well chosen, for these men were murdered by a mob, 
not lawfully executed. 

24. mors ac rei publicae poena : ' did the death-penalty inflicted 
by the state.' Hendiadys for mortis . . . poena. We may treat poena 
as appositional, viz. : ' death, and that too as a penalty from the state.' 

24. rei publicae : subjective gen., because az^Z/^t^r of the /^'^wa. 

25. remorata est : 'keep . . . waiting,' 'occasion . . . delay.' 
25. At : introduces a marked contrast to that which has preceded. 

It is a very forceful adversative. 

25. vicesimum. How many days actually since Oct. 22 ? 

26. patimur : hist, present, frequent with iam.dum, iam diu, iam 
dudum, nondum, etc. Render by the perfect with 'have.' 

26. hebescere : The metaphor assumes that the decree of Oct. 22 
is a sharp sword which is becoming dull from disuse and rust. What 
force does -sc- in the endings of verbs have ? See Vocab. 

27. huiusce : see Vocab., -ce. 

Page 3 

I. quo ex . . . consulto : ' and in conformity to this decree.' Do 
not say 'by which decree.' The Latin relative pronoun frequently 
serves in the place of hie, is, et is, is autem, is enim, or is igitur, and 
should be rendered with equal freedom in English, by a personal or 
demonstrative pronoun and a connective ' and,' * but,' ' for ' or * there- 

1. interfectum esse. The perfect inf. passive or deponent, with 
a subject accusative, is often used after a past tense of verbs oi propriety 
or necessity. Commonly however the present inf. is required. 

2. ad deponendam . . . audaciam. Gerundive or gerund ? W. 
640 ; A. 300 ; H. 628 ; B. 339, 2 ; G. 432 and Remark. 

3. confirmandam. Force of <:£>« in composition ? See Vocab., ^^w-. 

5. dissolutum. Force of dis- ? See Vocab. 

6. inertiae : gen. of charge, regular with verb of condemning. 

7. contra: 'hostile to.' 

8. Etruriae faucibus : at Faesulae, modern Fiesole, near Florence. 
10. atque adeo : ' and even so far as,' ' and indeed even.' 

Page 4] IN CATILINAM I 199 

13. credo : used parenthetically and ironically with the first clause 
following. The clause with quant is not ironical. Cicero uses the verb 
frequently in this way, without influence on the grammatical con- 

13. erit verendum mihi : ' I shall have to fear.' W. 339 ; A. 232 ; 
H. 431 ; B. J89, I ; G. 355- 

14. ne non : for the more common iit after verbs of fearing to mean 
' that . . . not.' The idea is that of course all good men will say that 
it was done too late, and he has this to fear more than that any one may 
say that it was done with too great cruelty. 

14. hoc : refers to what ? 

16. factum esse oportuit. See note on interfectum esse, % 4, 

17. nondum adducor ut faciam : ' I have not yet been brought to 
do.' Why render adducor by a perfect tense? Cf § 4, no\.e patimur. 
Does faciam indicate restilt ox purpose ? 

17. interficiere. See note on abutere, i^ i, for form. 

19. tui similis : ' the counterpart of you.' In Cicero similis more 
commonly has a genitive o{ o. person ; but a thing may be either genitive 
or dative. 

20. fateatur : subjv. of characteristic. W. 588, 1-3 ; A. 320, a and 
b ; H. 591, 1,2; B. 283, I, 2 ; G. 631, 2. 

21. quisquam. This pronoun is used in negative, interrogative, 
comparative or conditional sentences, or with the prep. sine. 

22. ita ut : ' precisely as.' Observe that ut meaning ' as ' is used 
with the. indicative. 

28. exspectes : subjv. of characteristic. 

Page 4 

1. voces : ' utterances.' 

2. coniurationis : ' conspirators.' Latin often uses an abstract 
noun where English pi'cfers the concrete. 

2. inlustrantur, erumpunt. Used in contrast to obscurare and 

3. istam mentem : ' that (vile) purpose of yours.' 

3. mihi crede : ' have confidence in me ' (I know whereof I speak). 

4. caedis. Why genitive ? See Grammar under verbs of remem- 
bering and forgetting. 

5. luce. What case would have been used if qitam had stood after 
clariora? W. 380, 381 ; A. 247, a ; H. 471, 3 ; B. 217, 2 ; G. 398. 

5-6. quae . . . recognoscas : ' and you may now review them.' 
W. 504, 3 ; A. 331, i, note 3 ; H. 564, II, i ; B. 295, 6 ; G. 553, 4. 

200 NOTES [Page 4 

7. Meministine : -ne in the sense of nonne. 

7. ante diem . . . Novembris. Look up the Roman method of 
writing dates. W. 720-722 ; A. 376 ; 259, e ; H. 754 ; B. 371 ; G. 
Appendix, pp. 491-492. 

8. (me) . . . dicere : ' that I said.' The present inf. is often used 
with memini where we might expect a perfect, 

9. C. Manlium : a bold centurion in command of the castra in 

10. audaciae : ' in your bold enterprise.' Abstract for our concrete. 

11. Num . . . non modo res . . . verum . . . dies: 'Not to 
mention \non viodo\ a circumstance so important, so outrageous, and so 
incredible, Catiline, did the day even, and that is much more surprising, 
elude me ? ' Frame the sentence in the passive form also. 

13. idem : ' likewise * ; agrees with ego, but this demonst. pronoun 
is often best rendered by an adverb, ' likewise,' ' also,' etc, 

14. in ante diem. Notice that the whole expression ante diem etc. 
is regarded as a substantive controlled by the prep, in. 

15. tum cum : ' at the very time when,' The indicative mood is 
regular with these words. 

16. sui conservandi. See that you understand this construction. 
W. 642 ; A. 298, a, and note ; H. 626, 3 ; B. 339, 5 ; G. 428, Remark i, 
Cicero's explanation is a sarcastic hit in polite language at those who 
left the city in a time of peril to the state. 

16. tuorum consiliorum reprimendorum. Note the repeated 
-oruni which the author apparently enjoyed, 

19. diligentia. This word should not be translated by ' diligence.' 
See Vocab, 

21. nostra . . . caede. For this use of nostra see A, 197, a and 
f ; H. 501, 2 ; B. 251, 2 ; G. 364. The relative qui has for antecedent 
the personal pronoun implied in nostra. 

21. remansissemus. Why subjv. ? Why plup. ? Observe dicebas. 

21. caede : abl. of means with contentum. W. 386 ; A. 254, 2 (called 
locative abl.) ; H. 476, i ; B. 219, i (called abl. of cause) ; G. 401, Re- 
mark 6. 

23. Quid?: 'Why now,' 'furthermore.* Cicero employs this word 
as a sort of formula of transition and to introduce a new point, gen- 
erally framed as an emphatic question as here. 

25. sensistine. The enclitic has the force of nonne. 

TTJ. audiam : Why subjv.? W, 588, 2 ; A. 320 ; H. 591, 4 ; B. 283, 
2; G. 631, 2. 


Page 5 

I. superiorem. See § i, note, super lore node. What date? 

3. quam : ' than.' 

4. priore : refers to same night as superiorem above. 

4. inter falcarios : 'to the scythe-makers' district,' 'down Hard- 
ware Street,' as we might say. 

5. eodem : ' in the same place.' The adv. is used like an ace. of 
limit. With a verb of rest ibidem would have been used, 

6. amentiae scelerisque : ' in the same mad and criminal enter- 
prise.* Abstract nouns for our concrete. Cf. § 7, audaciae, note. 

7. Convincam : not ' convince.' See Vocab. 

8. una: adv. 

10. ubinam gentium : part. gen. W. 358 ; A. 216, a, 4 ; H. 443 ; 
B, 201, 3; G. 372, note 3. 

12. patres conscripti. There has been much discussion as to 
whether this appellation of the senators was originally as it stands, or 
was patres et conscripti. Whatever the history of the title, it certainly 
meant in Cicero's day nothing but ' enrolled fathers.' The English ren- 
dering * Conscript Fathers ' has become stereotyped and is quite good 

14. omnium : gen. appositional, agreeing with the genitive implied 
in nostra . 

15. atque adeo. See § 5 note on same word. 

18. volnero. After nondum how is a present tense to be trans- 
lated? Cf. § 5, note nondum. 

19. quo : ' whither' introduces an indirect question. 

19. quemque : ' each (of your fellows).' 

20. relinqueres. Subjv. in rel. clause of purpose. W. 586, i ; 

A. 317, 2, 3 ; H. 590 ; B. 282, 2 ; G. 630. 

21. tecum. Notice that with personal and reflexive pronouns the 
prep, cum is appended like an enclitic. 

21. ad incendia : ace. to express aim of motion. 

22. confirmasti : 'you gave assurance that.' How may the per- 
fect system of tenses be contracted ? W. 189 ; A. 128, a, i ; H. 238 ; 

B. 116, I ; G. 131, I. 

23. tibi : dat, of possession. 

23. morae : part. gen. depending upon paulum. 

24. viverem. Look up in the Grammar the use of quod with subjv. 
to express cause. 

24. equites. One was C. Cornelius, the other was the senator 
L. Vargunteius. 

202 NOTES [I'AGE 6 

25. cura. Notice that libera takes an abl. of separation without a 
preposition. This is the rule with this verb. 

26. interfecturos. The verb polliceor is regularly followed by the 
ace. and iYiQ ftittire infinitive. 

10 27. Haec . . . comperi. See Life of Cicero, p. xviii, for reference 
to Cicero's experience from using this verb too often. 

Page 6 

I. salutatum : supine denoting purpose. Prominent men received 
callers early in the morning. Cicero's day began with the early visits of 
those who wished to show their adherence to him, or to pay him a com- 
pliment, or ask of him a favor. 

3. viris : dat. with. praedixer am. 

5. Quae cum ita sint : ' Since this is so ' ; a common expression 
with Cicero. 

7. Nimium : adj. used as adverb ; for nimis. The present tense 
following is to be rendered like that after nondum, § 5 (see note). 

8. Educ. Name four verbs which drop final e in the imperative 

9. tuos : used substantively. 
9. si minus : 'if not all.' 

9. quam : with a superlative has the force of ' as possible,' ' possible.' 

10. metu. Cf. § 9, note cura. 

II. intersit : subjv. in proviso. W. 565 ; A. 314 ; H. 587 ; B. 310, 

II ; G. 573. 

11. Nobiscum. Cf. § 9, note tecum. 

12. feram — patiar — sinam : a climax of determination. Observe 
the lack of connectives. This omission of connectives is called asyndeton 
(' haste '). 

11 14. Magna . . . habenda . . . gratia: 'Great gratitude should 
be entertained toward.' 

atque : ' and especially,' emphasizing what follows, 

15. lovi Statori : 'Jupiter our Stay.' Legend says that Romulus, 
driven back by the Sabines, vowed a temple to Jupiter if he would stay 
the flight of his men. The god heard, and Romulus won the battle. A 
temple was built on the spot where the flight stopped, but, according to 
record, not until over four centuries had passed. The site, however, was 
probably sacred from early times. 

16. hanc tarn : ' this specially.' 

18. in uno homine. The thought may be (i) 'in the person of one 
man' {you, through your attacks on it); or (2) 'in the person of one 

Page 7] IN CATILINAM I 203 

man ' {me, because of your attacks on me, a man needful to the state). 
He proceeds at once to expand this last thought. 
20. mihi. Why dat. ? Note insidiatus es. 

22. comitiis consularibus : see Introduction, § 31 and § 34. 

23. in campo : sc. Martio. The great elections were held there. 
Now it is a populous quarter of Rome. 

25. nullo tumultu publice concitato : ' without exciting any alarm 
of war [tumultu] in the name of the state.' 

26. petisti : 'you aimed at,' a common meaning oi peto. 

Page 7 

£2 2. tecta : ' houses.' By what figure of speech is a part used for the 
whole of anything ? Look up in the Grammar metonymy and synecdoche. 

3. ad exitium ac . . . vocas : ' you are dooming to destruction 
• and devastation.' 

4. id quod est primum : ' that which is of first importance,' i. e. 
strict measures. 

5. imperi : ' power of mine ' ; i. e. the special power bestowed upon 
him by the senatus consultum ultimum of Oct. 22. See introduction to 
the speech. 

6. proprium : adj. used chiefly with the gen. by Cicero, the dat. 
being rare. 

6. nondum audeo. What tense in Eng. ? See § 4, note patimur. 

7. lenius : ' less exacting,' 

9. quod . . . hortor : ' as I have already for a long time urged you ' 
Why perfect tense in Eng. ? See § 4, note patimur. 

10. tuorum comitum : gen. appositional to sentina : * composed of 
your comrades.' 

11. magna et perniciosa sentina: 'flood of noxious bilge-water' ; 
strong language for the low rabble of the city 

C3 ^3- Quid est ? Used to turn to a new question, like Quid § 8. 
See note there. 

13. dubitas : usually takes the inf. when it means ' hesitate.' 

14. faciebas : conative imperf. What does that mean ? 

16. non iubeo. Cicero shrinks from officially ordering Catiline into 
exile, in spite of his extraordinary power from the consultum ultimum of 
Oct. 22d, because popular feeling might hold him responsible for arbi- 
trary action against one not proven guilty in a court. 

16. me consulis. Learn the distinction in meaning between con- 
sulo with the ace. and with the dat. See Vocab. 

19. metuat. What subjv. ? See § 5, noiQ fateaiur. 

204 NOTES [Page 8 

20. nota : ' brand ' (noun). A fugitive slave when captured was 
branded with an F {fugitivus) ; thieving slaves with FUR (' thief '). So 
Catiline's shameful life has put its brand upon him. 

24. adulescentulo. The ending -ulus has four uses : (i) to form 
a genuine diminutive ; (2) a term of endearment ; (3) a term of sympa- 
thy ; (4) an expression of contempt. Which use best suits the context 

25. ad audaciam : ' for a bold deed.' Abstract for concrete. So 
libidinetn : ' passionate purposes.' 

26. facem praetulisti : ' lighted the way for.' Slaves performed 
this service with torches when their masters went abroad at night. Sal- 
lust speaks of the same traits in Cat. 14 : Quod si quis etiam a culpa 
vacuus in amicitiam eius inciderat, cottldiano usu atque inlecebrls facile 
par similisque ceteris efficiebatur. Sed maxume adulescentium familia- 
ritates appetebat: eorum animi molles etiam et fluxl dolis baud diffi- 
culter capiebantur. ' But if any one still free of faults had fallen into 
friendship with him, he was readily made exactly like the rest through 
daily intimacy and captivations. But [Catiline] especially sought for 
intimate relations with young men. Their minds still pliable and 
unstable were caught by his wiles without trouble.' 

14 27. Quid vero ? The student should now be accustomed to this 
mannerism of Cicero. See § 8, note Quid. 

27. morte. He insinuates that the death was not natural. We 
have no evidence. 

29. scelere hoc scelus etc. : * did you not also increase your heap 
of crime by another incredible deed of wickedness ? ' Rumor said that 
Catiline had killed his son to please a young widow, Aurelia Orestilla, 
whom he married. Sallust, Cat. 75, says : Postremo captus amore 
Aureliae Orestillae, cuius praeter formam nihil umquam bonus laudavit, 
quod ea nubere illi dubitabat timens privTgnum adultum aetate, pro 
certd creditur necato filio vacuam domum scelestis nuptiis fecisse. 
' Finally captivated by love for Aurelia Orestilla, in whom no good man 
has ever praised anything but beauty, and because she hesitated to marry 
him through fear of a stepson of adult years, it is confidently believed 
that he, by putting to death his son, cleared his house for criminal 

29. Quod : * But this conduct.' 

Page 8 

I. praetermitto. What figure? See § 3, noit praetereo. 
I, sileri : ' to be unmentioned.' 

Page 9] IN CATILINAM I 205 

4. quas omnes : ' which in full measure.' 

4. Idibus. The Ides and the Kalends were regular days for busi- 
ness settlements. On what days of the month did they fall regularly ? 
See Grammar. 

6. vitiorum : ' vicious practises.' 

7. difficultatem : * financial embarrassment* 

15 12. pridie Kalendas. The ace. of the day of the month, or the 
name of a feast-day (e. g. pridie Saturnalia) is used with pridie as if 
it were a preposition. 

12. Lepido et Tullo consulibus : in 66. Sallust says that the at- 
tempt was planned for the first of January, 65. The new consuls for 65 
were to be slain in the Capitol, The plot was postponed because dis- 

13. comitio : a square adjoining the N. W. end of the Forum. 
The Rostra and the Curia stood in it at this time. See plan of Forum 
and Introduction, § 48. 

13. cum telo : 'armed.' 

15. sceleri ac furori : ' wicked frenzy.' Hendiadys. The dat. is 
used with ohstitisse. 

15. mentem aliquam : ' any (remnant of) sense.' 

17. Ac iam : ' and yet now.' 

17. ilia: ' those earlier attempts.' 

17. omitto. What figure? See § 3, note/ra^/^r^t?. 

17. neque enim . . . postea : ' for surely those afterwards per- 
petrated (by you) are neither vaguely known nor few.' They therefore 
do not need to be rehearsed. 

20. petitiones : 'thrusts.' Cf. /^/«j/?, §11, note. 

22. ut aiunt : ' as the phrase runs.' 

22. corpore : ' by the body,' a term drawn from the vocabulaiy of 
fighters. We might say ' by a hair's breadth.' 

16 25. tibi : dat. of ref. W. 337 ; A. 235, a; H. 425, 4, n ; B. 188, i ; 
G. 350, I. 

27. quae quidem . . . nescio quod . . . : ' But indeed I know 
not by what sacred rites it has been consecrated and set aside by you, 
that . . .' The persistent efforts of Catiline to kill the consul make it 
appear that he has vowed to use his dagger only for that purpose. 

Page 9 

4. non : with odio. 

5. quo debeo : ' as I ought.' 

5. quae nulla : ' which is not at all . . .' 

2o6 NOTES [Page io 

6. hac tanta frequentia : ' this great gathering.' Take special 
care in the rendering of tantus after a demonstrative pron. not t*o say ' so 
great,' 'so large,' etc. Omit the 'so' in English. 

9. vocis . . . contumeliam : ' abusive speech.' The gen. is ap- 

10. iudicio taciturnitatis : 'silent judgment.' 

10. Quid, quod . . . quod . . . ^o . . . animo . . . putas : 
' Why, with what feelings, pray, do you Consider that you should endure 
this, that \quod\ at your arrival . . . (and) that, as soon as you took your 
seat near them, all the past-consuls . . '.' 

lO-li. quod . . . quod. W. 549; A. 333, note; H. 588, II, 3; 
B. 299, I, a ; G. 525, 2. 

12. tibi : dat. of agent with compound tense of passive, as often. 

17 18. urbem : same construction as domum. 

19. si me . . . viderem : ' if I saw that I was unjustly an object of 
such serious suspicion and sudi-a stumbling-block to my fellow-citizens.' 

22. ag^noscas : concessive subjv. 

24. mentis sensusque : ' profoundest feelings.' Hendiadys. 

26. placare. Distinguish in meaning placare, placere, and pacare. 
What case is used with each? See Vocab. 

Page 10 

I. iam diu . . . iudicat. What tense in English? See § 4, note 

I. nihil: obj. oicogitare. 

3. verebere. See § i , note abutere, for form. 

18 5. Quae : ' And sfee.' Do not say ' Who.' 
5. sic agit : ' pleads after this fashion.' 

b. tacita loquittir. The figure called oxymoron, a placing together 
of incongruous ideas. Look up the word in your Grammar. 

11. Superiors, ilia: 'those bygone deeds.' 

14. quicquid increpuerit . . . timeri: 'that at every slightest 
so|rhd Catiliner is feared ' ; lit. ' whatever has made a sound.' The subjv. 
is used becaije the clause is closely dependent upon an infinitive. W. 
620 ; A. 3424K H. 652 ; B. 324, 2 ; G. 663, i. 

15. qudi^ a tuo scelere abhorreat : ' which is not linked with your 
wicked counsel.' Literally? 

17. mihi : dat. of ref. used instead of abl. of sep., a construction often 
found with verbs compounded with de, ah, ad and ex. 

18. ne opprimar. Purpose or result? 

19 22. Quid, quod : ' Well, what of the fact that.* 

Page iiJ IN CATILINAM 1 20/ 

22. in custodiam. When accused of complicity with Manlius's 
forces, he offered to give himself into the charge of a prominent man, as 
surety that he would not try to escape. Naturally he was not desired as 
a house-companion by good men. 

27. me . . . posse : appos. to responsum. 

27. parietibus . . . moenibus. Difference in meaning? See 

Page II 

I. A quo repudiatus : ' and when you had been rebuffed by him.' 

1. virum optimum : ironical, as this Metellus was apparently a no- 

2. videlicet : used to emphasize irony. 

3. ad custodiendum : gerund of purpose. 

6. custodia: 'close-keeping.' The sentence is rather childish jest- 
ing. For the abl. with dignus see W. 396 ; A. 245, a ; H. 481 ; B. 226, 2 ; 
G. 397, note 2. 

20 8. Quae cum . . . : see § 10 note on these words. 
9. aliquas : ' some other.' 

12. ' Refer ' : * Lay the matter' ; the technical word for bringing up 
a question for action in the senate. Observe the form of the imperative. 
Dico, duco, facio and fero, and their compounds drop e in the present 
sing, of the imperative. 

15. id quod . . . moribus : ' a proceeding which is incompatible 
with my character.' What he means is not made quite clear. The 
truth was that the senate was not empowered to decree exile. See In- 
troduction under § 33, Concilium Plebis. 

16. faciam ut : ' I shall cause you to.'? 

18. Quid est. Cicero pauses cunningly after his bold imperatives, 
as if waiting for remonstrance from some senator, and then triumphantly 
calls attention to the silence as approval of his words. Naturally, how- 
ever, opponents would not dare to speak. 

19. ecquid attendis : ' do you heed at all?' 

21. auctoritatem . . . perspicis ? : 'an authoritative utterance 
from those whose wishes you perceive by their silence?' Literally? 

21 23. P. Sestio : praetor. In 57 he concerned himself in securing 
the recall of Cicero from exile. Cicero defended him in court, in 56, in 
an interesting speech still extant. 

24. M. Marcello : Later a bitter foe of Caesar, who finally pardoned 
him. Cicero, at that act of clemency, delivered the fine spirited but 
flattering and fulsome speech of thanks to Caesar, which is included in 
this volume {Pro Marcello). 

2o8 NOTES [Page 12 

25. consul! . . . templo. Even against the sacred person of the 
consul, and indeed in a holy temple, violence would have been excusable. 

25. vim et manus : ' violent hands.' Hendiadys. 

Page 12 

1. auctoritas . . . cara, vita vilissima: 'whose sanction, to be 
sure, is highly prized by you, but whose lives are utterly worthless ' (in 
your eyes). Can you explain the sarcasm? What has Catiline been 
planning for the leading men ? 

2. ilii equites : crowding about the temple anxious to learn what 
was going on inside. 

5. frequentiam : ' large numbers.' 
5. studia : ' zealous interest.' 

8. haec : used to represent the buildings of the city. A sweeping 
gesture probably accompanied the word. 

9. prosequantur : ' escort,' like friends going to the city-gate with a 
departing fi-iend. 

22 10. Quamquam : introducing a sentence means * And yet.' 

10. ut . . . frangat : 'What ! any circumstance break you down?' 
The subjv. may be taken thus as an independent exclamatory, or as pur- 
pose after loquor. 

11. te corrigas : 'j^m ever reform?' Construction like /raw^a/. 
13. duint : old form for dent. What sort of wish is expressed by 

the pres. subjv. ? What by the imperfect? See Grammar. 
15. invidiae : the politician's dread, 'unpopularity.' 

15. si minus = si non. Cf. § 10 si ??iinus. 

16. recenti memoria : abl. of cause. 

17. est tanti: 'it is worth the price.' W. 361, 362; A. 252, a; 
H. 448, I ; B. 203, 3 ; G. 380, Remark. 

19. seiungatur. Meaning of prefix j^-.^ See Vocab. 

20. temporibus : ' exigencies.' The word often means ' trying 
time,' 'hour of need.' We may translate here, 'give way to the state in 
its hour of need.' 

22. is : ' a man of such character.' 

23 25. Quam ob rem : ' Wherefore.' 

26. mihi . . . praedicas : ' against me, your personal foe, as you 

27. recta (via) : ' straightway.' 

27. sermones : ' criticisms.' People would say that Catiline was 
the uncondemned victim of the consuls' persecution. 
31. confer: See §20, note Refer. 

Page 13] IN CATILINAM I 209 

Page 13 

1. non eiectus ad alienos : ' not cast out to strangers.' 

2. invitatus : ' by invitation.' 

2. isse = ivisse a form not often found. 

24 4. praemissos : sc. homines. 

5. cui : dat. of agent with past tense of passive. Cf. § 16, note 

6. aquilam : Marius made the eagle the standard of the legion. This 
one, it was said, had belonged to him. 

8. cui domi : cui is dat. of advantage ; domi locative. 

8. sacrarium. One ancient writer defines the word as follows : 
sacrarium est locus, in quo sacra reponuntur, quod etiani in atdificio pri- 
vato esse potest : ' a sacrarium is a place in which sacred objects are 
kept, and it may be even in a private dwelling.' It was properly a 
shrine sacred only as the receptacle for holy things. Catiline treasured 
the eagle as a sacred talisman of power, hoping that it would bring 
him glory like that of its old possessor Marius. 

10. ilia : abl. of separation. 

25 14. quo: ' whither,' i. e. to Manlius. 

16. haec res: 'this fact,' i.e. the departure to join rebels. A 
good instance of the use of res, which may represent any fact, circum- 
stance, state, consideration, thought, etc., which is to be brought before 
the reader in a single word. 

17. amentiam : ' mad enterprise * ; abstract for concrete. 

21. fortuna : considered here as active agent, hence the prep. ab. 

22. conflatam : 'got together,' out of two classes; (i) those who 
are ruined ; (2) those who are abandoned not merely by present fortune, 
but even by hope for the future. 

26 23. perfruere. See § i, note abutere, for form. What case is used 
with it ? W. 387 ; A. 249 ; H. 477 ; B. 218, i ; G. 407. 

24. tanto : ' the great.' See § 16, note hac tanta, etc. 
<* 26. ad huius . . . insidiantem : ' (As preparation) for the pursuit 
of this life, those vaunted \(jui feruntur, lit. ' which are vaunted '] feats 
of enduran'te on your part have been rehearsed ; namely, lying . . . 
keeping watch not merely as a plotter against . . .' 

26. meditati sunt : passive meaning as translated above. It may 
however be conceived as active, meaning with ad studium, ' have had in 
view the pursuit.' 

27. iacere . . . vigilare : inf. appos. to labores. 

2IO NOTES [Page 15 

Page 14 

2. Habes, ubi ostentes : * You have an opportunity to exhibit.' 
Literally? W. 590 ; A. 317, 2 ; H. 589, II ; B. 282, 2 ; G. 54% i. 

3. patientiam : ' power to endure.' 

27 6. turn cum. See note § 7 on these words. 

12. detester ac deprecer : ' ward off by solemn protest and piayer.' 

13. diligenter : ' attentively.' 

15. vita : abl. with comparative. See § 6, note luce. 

16. si . . . loquatur. The apodosis is lacking, but is easily sup- 
plied from the first sentence of Chapter XII. 

16. M. Tulli : voc. Our English writers for centuries called Cicero 

21. patiere : tense and pers. ? The subject is Tu above. Cf. § i, 
note abutere. 

22. emissus . . . immissus : ' let loose ' . . . ' let loose against.' 
Note the play upon the words. 

23. hunc . . . duel . . . imperabis. The regular construction 
with impero is an ut or ne clause with the subjv. Cicero uses an ace. 
and inf. only when the inf. vi passive or deponent. 

28 25. Mosne maiorum ? : 'ancestral preced-ent?' as binding as law 
upon the Roman. 

26. persaepe : an overstatement. Few instances could be pro- 

27. An. See note § 3, y^« vero. 

27. leges . . . rogatae sunt : ' the laws which have been passed.' 
legem rogare =. ' to propose a measure to the people ' ; but the verb was 
often used of a measure even after the bill \rogatio\ had become a lex. 
The laws referred to are those which protected Roman citizens against a 
death-penalty or scourging at the will of a magistrate, by giving them 
the right of appeal to the people as final authority. This right of appeal 
was called provocatio. 

Page 15 

3. Praeclaram . . . gratiam : ' a splendid requital, to be sure, 
you are making.' The wording is, of course, ironical. 

5. per te. Was it easy for one born in Cicero's station to attain 
the consulship ? See Introduction, Life of Cicero, § 4, p. xiv. 

6. honorum gradus : ' steps of office,' i. e. as quaestor, aedile, prae- 
tor, consul. 

20 10. severitatis ac fortitudinis : 'arising from stem and coura- 
geous action.' Abstract for concrete. 

Page 17] IN CATILINAM I 211 

16. factu. The supine in -u is used as an abl. of specification. 

18. gladiatori : ' ruffian.' The gladiators were, of course, a beastly 
lot, ready for any brutal work. Cicero could hardly choose a more in- 
sulting term to apply to the aristocratic Catiline. 

20. Saturnini. See Vocab. for names mentioned here. 

20. superiorum : ' of former days.' ^'''^ 

22. honestarunt : ' won distinction.' Full form of the verb ? 

23. ne quid . . . invidiae . . . redundaret : ' lest any (wave) of 
unpopularity should roll back upon me.' The wave came upon him 
later and swept him into exile. See Life of Cicero, § 7. 

23. hoc parricida interfecto : abl. abs. In early times, and in- 
deed in Cicero's time, a real parricide was, on conviction, sometimes 
sewed up in a leather bag [culeus] and drowned. This was regarded as 
a particularly degrading death. 

25. animo : abl. of quality. 

26. virtute partam : ' incurred through manly conduct.' 

30 28. non nulli : * not a few.' Apparently many senators regarded 
Cicero as somewhat of an alarmist, and required positive proof of his 
assertions regarding the conspiracy. 

Page 16 

I. qui . . . (corroboraverunt) : ' and these.' Observe the indica- 
tives with qui in this sense, stating additional facts about the senators, 
not, however, as charactetistic of them. 

3. quorum . . . multi : ' and many, because of the sanction of 
these men.' 

6. Manliana castra : at Faesulae (Fiesole). 
13. eodem : ' in the same place.' 

15. haec tam adulta : ' this fully developed.' See § 16, note hac 
tanta frequentia. 

31 17. iam . . . versamur : ' we have . . . been living.' 

18. nescio quo pacto : ' in some way or other' (unfortunately). 

21. latrocinio : ' band of brigands ' ; abstract for concrete. 
29. relevatus : ' if relieved.' 

29. reliquis vivis : ' because the rest live ' ; abl. abs. 

Page 17 

32 I. secedant : meaning of -se as prefix ? See Vocab. 

7. inscriptum . . . sentiat. A happy phrasing of a noble senti- 

212 NOTES [Page 17 

9. nobis consulibus. Who was Cicero's colleague ? See Intro- 
duction, Life of Cicero, § 4, p. xvi. 

12. profectione : abl. of time. 
33 14. Hisce ominibus : ' With these facts haunting you ' ; i. e. with 
the picture of a united country to haunt you as an omen of your coming 
failure. Observe that the word is not omnibus. 

14. cum summa . . . salute : ' to the highest weal of the state.' 
The abl. denotes attendant circumstance. 

17. Tu : subject of arcebis below. The orator turns to the statue of 
Jupiter in the temple with his solemn appeal. 

18. isdem . . . auspiciis : ' under the same auspices.' 

18. a Romulo. Probably Romulus (whoever he was) consecrated 
the spot, establishing thus the reverence of the god. The temple was 
built far later than the time assigned to Romulus. 

22. arcebis : the future has the same solemn force of confidence 
that it has in prayer in English. To term it an imperative use of the 
future is not quite right. 

24. scelerum . . . coniunctos : ' joined together by a criminal 
compact and an unholy alliance.' 

The student should now read through and master the outline 
Synopsis of the speech, p. 194, ff. • 


At the close of Cicero's speech in the temple of Jupi- 
ter Stator, Catiline arose and attempted to defend him- 
self against the " upstart consul," but he was hissed into 
abashed silence, and withdrew from the senate. After 
consulting his friends he set out, as he had intended in 
any case, to join Manlius in Etruria. On the succeeding 
day, November 9th, Cicero addressed the people from the 
Rostra in the following speech of explanation. 



Delivered November 9, B. c. 63 

This speech is chiefly narrative and descriptive, with- 
out elaborate plan. It has an exordium, a confirmatio, and 
a pcroratio. 

I. Exordium. — § i. We have got rid of CatiHne, and 
have won the first move. § 2. How he must grieve over 
his failure! 

II. CoNFiRMATio. — § 3. It is uot my fault that he 
lives, for many did not believe him guilty. § 4. I brought 
you to see him as a foe. He is not to be feared now, and 
I wish his fellows were with him. §5-1 despise his 
army of disreputable men. It is those who remain that 
we must fear. § 6. All their plans are known. There 


214 NOTES 

is no room for leniency. Let them go to him. § 7. What 
disreputable fellow does not confess intimacy with him? 
§ 8. He had power to lead men to perdition. The most 
reckless were his associates. § 9. They made a hero of 
him. § 10. His fellows have lost property and credit. 
Who can endure the threats of profligates? § 11. The 
life of the state will be lengthened by their removal. I 
shall deal with this internal trouble. § 12. Of course 
the timid fellow went into exile because he could not en- 
dure my words! What senator greeted him yesterday? 
§ 13. I asked him questions showing my knowledge of 
his secrets. § 14. To be sure he will go to Massilia! If 
he should give up his plans, men would call me a tyrant. 
§ 15. Well, let them, provided he goes into exile, but he 
rather will soon be in arms. § 16. The croakers are 
afraid that he may leave them in the lurch ; but he is not 
a coward. § 17. What of the foes at home? I hope to 
cure them. § 18. The first class is composed of property- 
holders who hope for a repudiation of debts which they 
can settle, if they will. § 19. The second class consists 
of debtors who look for the spoils of office. The odds 
against them are too strong. § 20. The third class con- 
sists of Sulla's veterans, who long for more confiscations. 
But the country has had enough of the reign of terror. 
§ 21. The fourth class is a motley lot of bankrupt good- 
for-nothings. § 22. The fifth class is composed of mur- 
derous desperadoes ; and the last class of debauched 
dandies. § 23. These are adepts at crime as well as at 
debauchery and must be disposed of. § 24. Contrast 
Catiline's motley forces with our army. § 25. We have 
resources ; he nothing at all. Moral forces are at work 
for us. 

HI. Peroratio. — § 26. I shall guard the city, and 
Metellus will check Catihne. § 27. The time for leniency 

Page i8] IN CATILINAM II 215 

is past. Woe to those who stir against the state. § 28. 

All will be managed without tumult or severity. § 29. 

Relying upon the help of the gods, I pledge my word. 
Do you pray for protection. 

Page 18 

2. scelus anhelantem : 'panting after wickiedness, ' like a beast 
excited by the sight of its prey. Others render, ' breathing out,' with a 
different figure in mind. 

3. patriae : dat. of disadvantage. 

4. eiecimus . . . prosecuti. He is chary about using too vigorous 
language, because he dreads the opinion of the people regarding his 
assumption of strict power, and so he hastens to offer milder terms than 

5. ipsum egredientem : ' departing of his own accord.' 

6. abiit . . . erupit. Mark the climax in translating. Note the 
omission of connectives. This omission is styled asyndeton^ ' lack of 
connection,' in rhetoric. 

7. monstro . . . atque prodigio : ' that horrible monster.' Hen- 
diadys. Cicero loves to hurl insulting epithets almost as well as to heap 
up flatteries. 

9. sine controversia : 'unquestionably.' 

II. versabitur: 'will . . . flit about.' 

II. campo, sc. Martio : ' the Field of Mars.' 

13. Loco . . . motus est : ' he was forced from his ground,' ' he 
lost his hold.' The language is drawn from a wrestling or gladiatorial 
contest, hence we may render it by a similar colloquialism. Cicero 
called Catiline 2>. gladiator in I, § 29. 

14. hoste : ' public foe.' By joining the rebel forces at Faesulae, 
Catiline becomes an open enemy of the state, and can find no sympathy 
among loyal citizens. 

14. nuUo impediente : ' without hindrance from anybody ' ; abl. 

15. Sine dubio = sine controversia above. 

18. Quod : causal. Begin the trans, with quanta putatis. 

19. vivis nobis : ' while we (still) lived ' ; abl. abs. 
19. ei : dat. of ref. See I, § 16, note tibi. 

2l6 NOTES [Page 19 

Page 19 

4. retorquet : like a thwarted wild beast. Cf. the figure with that 
in scelus anhe lantern, § I. 

5. quam . . . luget : ' and grieves that it has been snatched out of 
his jaws.' 

5. quae : ' and it,' or ' but it.' See note, p. 3, 1. i, quo . . . 

7. evomuerit : a coarse figure and violently conflicting with the pre- 
ceding. First Catiline is lamenting that he did not devour the city, and 
then the city is represented as having found him unwholesome ! The 
subjv. mood is used because the city's reason is given. 

8. talis, qualis omnis : 'of such disposition as all ought to be.' 
omnis : ace. 

9. in hoc ipso : ' in respect to that very course of action ' ; explained 
in the quod clause following. 

12. non est . . . culpa: '(let me protest that) the blame for that 
\istd\ is not mine.' 

13. Interfectum esse . . . et . . . adfectum : a case of hysteron 
proteron. Look up the figure in the Grammar. For the tense see 
A. 288, d ; H. 618, 2 ; B. 270, 2, a ; G. 280, R. 2. The present inf. is 
the regular usage. 

14. idque : * and that course of action.' 

15. mos maiorum : See I, § 28, note mosne maiorum. 
15. imperi : See I, § 12, note imperi. 

15. res publica : ' public interests,' as often. 

20. illo sublato : ' by the removal of that man ' ; abl. abs. 

22. invidiae meae . . . periculo : ' at the risk ... of unpopu- 
larity to myself.' 

24. cum viderem . . . fore ut . . . possem : 'when I saw that 
... I should not be able.' The verb possum lacks the fut. inf., hence 
this circumlocution, fore is fut. inf. oi sum. 

24. ne vobis quidem . . . re . . . probata : ' inasmuch as the 
fact (of conspiracy) even then had not been established in the eyes of all 
of you.' Note the abl. abs. 

27. rem . * matters.' 

28. Quem quidem . . . putem : ' But indeed how excessively I 
think that he is to be feared as an open foe.' Sarcastic, of course. The 
state had little to fear in open warfare from such a force as Catiline could 
put in the field. 

29. foris : ' outside ' (the city gates). Probably an old locative plu- 
ral oi fora, ' door.' 

Page 21] IN CATILINAM II 217 

Page 20 

1. hinc : 'from this.' Adv. for prep, and pron. in the abl. 

2. parum comitatus : ' with too few attendants.' Cicero says there 
is no need for alarm because Catiline has gone out of the city to join the 
ranks of Manlius ; in fact he wishes that more of the rabble had gone 
with him, as it is an easier matter to deal with such fellows when they 
are open enemies than when they are hidden menaces in the city. 

4. eduxisset. What form of wish ? The present subj v. is used for 
wishes that may be fulfilled ; the imperf. for those impossible of fulfil- 
ment in present time ; the plup. for those impossible in past time. 

4. Tongilium . . . Publicium . . . Minucium : insignificant fel- 
lows, " Tom, Jack, and Harry." 

4. mihi : ethical dat., pointing out the person admitting the state- 
ment. Omit in translation. 

6. popina : ' cook-shop,' a vulgar eating-house, such as slaves fre- 
quented. Debts contracted in such a place could never be very large, 
nor such petty debtors become desperate conspirators because of the 
pressure of debts. 

9. prae : ' in comparison with.' 

II. Q. Metellus Celer : the same man mentioned in I, § 19. 

13. agresti luxuria : 'luxury-loving peasants.' Abstract for con- 
crete. What literally? 

14. rusticis decoctoribus : ' spendthrift farmers.' A hateful re- 
proach in the minds of thrifty Romans. 

15. quibus . . . : 'and if I shall show to them.' 
17. Hos : obj. oi eduxisset. 

19. fulgent purpura: 'brilliant with purple,' i. e. who wear the 
most expensive and brilliant purple stripes on their tunics. 

20. qui si : ' but if these men.' 

22. nobis: dat. why? Oh^erve pertimescendos. 

23. hoc : abl., 'on this account.' 
28. urbanas : ' in the city.' 

28. caedis : obj. gen. indicating the object of the insidias. 
28. depoposcerit : subjv. in indirect question. 

Page 21 

4. Ne : asseverative particle ' verily,' ' indeed.' 

4. vehementer errant : ' they make a serious mistake.' 

6. Quod : ' that which ' ; the antecedent is omitted. 

6. ut . . . videretis : explains quod. Subst. clause of result. 

2i8 NOTES [Page 22 

7. contra rem publicam : ' against the public weal.' 

8. Nisi vero : ' unless indeed,' is used by Cicero ironically, to intro- 
duce a supposition, which, taken in connection with a preceding state- 
ment, is absurd. 

8. Catilinae similis : ' men of Catiline's stamp ' ; the adj. is in 
agreement with a pron. ace. plur. subject of sentire. Compare our vul- 
gar " the likes of you," but do not use the phrase. 

10. res ipsa : ' the nature of the case itself.' 

12. desiderio sui, 'with pining for them'; obj. gen. showing the 
object of the pining. The abl. is causal. 

15. sentinam: cf. I, § 12, note magna . . . sentina. 

16. exhausto : 'removed.' The same verb occurs in the passage 
just noted, I, § 12. 

18. mali : kind of gen. ? Observe Quid. 

19. tota Italia. Note that with a noun in the abl. modified by totus, 
the prep, is regularly omitted. 

22. nepos : 'spendthrift.' Literally? Grandfather clings but grand- 
son flings. 

24. familiarissime : ' on most intimate terms.' 
26. non per ilium : ' without his help.' 

Page 22 

2. inlecebra : cf. I, § 13, for the same word. 

2. Qui alios . . . poUicebatur. " One bad apple rotteth a whole 

12. diversa studia : ' the various aptitudes.' 

12. dissimili ratione : 'in a (totally) diff"erent range.' 

13. nemo est. Insert 'let me remark that there ' before ' is no one.' 
The clause nemo est is abruptly brought in without exact grammatical con- 
nection with the purpose clause preceding. 

13. ludo g^ladiatorio : ' training-school for gladiators.' Slaves and 
vulgar fellows who displayed aptitude and strength were put under a 
lanista, or ' trainer,' to perfect themselves in the fighting art of the 
gladiator. Naturally such a school was a vulgar place. 

14. paulo . . . audacior : ' a trifle more audacious (than ordinary) 
for evil-doing.' Note this use of the comparative to express somewhat 
more than a customary degree of a quality. 

15. in scaena : ' on the stage.' Remember that actors were ordi- 
narily slaves or freedmen. A Roman citizen scorned the stage as a 
place beneath his dignity. 

15. levior et nequior : ' more than usually light-headed and good- 

Page 23] IN CATILINAM II 219 

17. exercitatione adsuefactus : 'because he was trained in the 
practice of debauchery. . . .' The partic. is here used causatively. 

18. frigore . . . perferendis : ' through the endurance of cold, 
hunger, thirst, and night-watchings.' The gerundive agrees with the 
nearest noun. What abl. ? 

19. fortis : ' as a hero.' 

19. industriae subsidia : ' the reserve forces of his (bodily) activity.' 

20. instrumenta virtutis : 'the things that make for manliness.' 
Instrumenta are properly ' tools,' ' equipment,' ' working outfit.' 

10 23. greges : here a disparaging term. 

23. O nos beatos ! : ace. abs. in exclamation. See I, § 2, note 

25. Non . . . iam . . . non : 'no longer . . . nor.' 

26. mediocres : ' ordinary,' i. e. within common limits. 
26. humanae : ' natural to men.' 

Page 23 

1. res: 'property.' 

2. fides : 'credit.' 

3. quae erat, sc. eis: 'which they possessed.* 
3. in abundantia : ' in their season of plenty.' 

3. Quod si : ' But if,' as often. 

4. in vino et alea : ' in the wine-cup and the dice-box.' Literally ? 

4. quaererent : What form of condition ? Observe the tense. 
W. 557 ; A. 308 ; H. 579 ; B. 304, t ; G. 597- 

5. essent . . . desperandi : ' they would, of course, be beyond 
hope,' 'lost to hope.' 

6. inertis : ' shiftless ' ; without energy for honorable action. 
8. ebriosus : meaning of the termination -t^jwj.'' See Vocab. 

8. dormientis : ' heavy with sleep,' i. e. falling into drunken slumber 
when honest men are wide awake. 

8. Qui mihi accubantes : ' And these sots (ugh !) while reclining.' 
The dat. is ethical and has no personal equivalent in English. We may 
substitute for this dative, according to its context in each case, an indig- 
nant, ironical, or witty exclamation. Disgust seems to be the feeling 
here. The Romans when at table reclined on couches and rested on 
their left elbows and sides. 

10. conferti : 'crammed'; ixora. confer cio. 

11. obliti : from oblino. Observe the quantity of the first i. 

II. eructant sermonibus : ' belch forth in their talk ' The drunken 
sots utter their unguarded words with disgusting hiccoughs. The whole 
scene is loathsome. 

220 NOTES [Page 24 

II 17. sustulerit: irom tollo. 

17. non breve nescio quod tempus : 'some not brief season.' 
nescio quod=^ quoddam and limits tempus as an indef. pronoun. A. 334, e ; 
H. 189, I ; 651, 2 ; B. 253, 6 ; G. 467, R. i. 

20. externa : ' beyond our borders,' i. e. outside of Italy. 

21. unius : Pompey the Great, who had just conquered Mithradates 
in Asia Minor, after having put down the pirates who infested the Medi- 
terranean Sea. 

21. pacata: ' reduced to peace.' 

23. luxuria . . . amentia . . . scelere : ' riotous livers . . . mad- 
men . . . criminals.' Abstract rendered by concrete. 

25. suscipio inimicitias : ' I (freely) take upon myself the enmity.' 

27. quacumque ratione : sc. potero. 

2,*j. quae resecanda erunt : ' those which shall need lopping off.' 
The figure seems to be drawn from the surgery. 

28. ad perniciem : ' to the destruction.' 

Page 24 

12 4. videlicet : sarcastic. 

4. permodestus : ' excessively submissive.' Force of per- ? See 

5. simul atque : ' as soon as ' ; takes the indicative. 

6. Hesterno die : Nov. 8th. 

7. cum . . . interfectus essem : ' after I had barely escaped 

9. Quo cum . . . venisset : ' when . . . had come to that place.' 
II. denique : ' in short ' ; summing up. 

11. ita . . . ut : ' regarded him quite as.' 

12. Quin etiam : ' Nay more ' ; introducing an assertion stronger 
than the preceding. See I, § 2, note inu7io vero. For the same scene 
see I, § 16. 

13 15. vehemens : ironical. 

17. ad M. Laecam : cf. I, § 9, apud Laecam. 

17. fuisset necne : double indirect question. Remember that w^«^ 
would be annon in a direct question. 

18. conscientia : sc. rw-^a^, * consciousness of guilt.' 

20. in proximam : ' for the following.' 

21. ei : dat. of agent, ratio totius belli : 'the entire plan of war- 
fare ' ; join totius in sense with ratio. 

22. teneretur: 'embarrassed.' 

23. eo quo : ' to that place whither.' 

Page 26] IN CATILINAM II 221 

23-24. securis : 'axes'; fascis : 'fasces,' a bundle of rods, at 
times with an ' axe ' in the center, bound together, and carried by a lictor 
before a high magistrate as a symbol of power. Catiline had the para- 
phernalia of the consular office sent to Faesulae that he might dress the 
part of a ruler. The axe was removed from the fasces when a magis- 
trate was inside Rome. See Introduction, p. xxxvii. 

25. aquilam ; See I, § 24, note aquilam. 

25. sacrarium : See I, § 24, note on same word. 

Page 25 

1. quern : sc. an antecedent. 

2. credo : parenthetical and ironical, not controlling the construction 
of the sentence. 

2. Manlius iste centurio : ' that centurion fellow.' iste has its 
contemptuous force. 

6. Massiliam : a favorite residence of Roman exiles in southeastern 
France. Now Marseilles. 

11. sententiam : 'purpose.' 

12. belli faciendi. Gerundive construction. What use of gen. ? 
16. diligentia : meaning ? See Vocab. 

16. de spe conatuque : ' from hope in his attempt.' Hendiadys. 
18. vi et minis : ' threats of violence.' Hendiadys. 
22. est mihi tanti ; 'it is worth while for me.' See I, § 22, note 
est tanti. 

24. depellatur : W. 563, 565 ; A. 314 ; H. 587 ; B. 310, II ; G. 573. 
This use of the subjv. is frequent, so master it. 

25. Dicatur sane : ' Let it be said, if you choose, that he.' The 
verb is personal in Latin, hence the masculine eiectus agreeing with the 
understood subject. English prefers the impersonal form. Study the 
use of sane in the Vocab. 

27. invidiae meae : ' dislike toward me.' 

Page 26 

3. ne . . . invidiosum: 'lest there may be ground for ill-will 
against me.' The clause is appos. to illiid. 

4. cum sint : Why subjv. ? W. 542 ; A. 326 ; H. 598 ; B. 2S6, 2 ; 
G. 564, n. 2. 

7. dictitant. What is a frequentative verb ? See Grammar. 

8. tam . . . quam : correlatives. 

8. verentur : because if he went there, it would show that he had 
abandoned his colleagues in crime, and this they dread. 

222 NOTES [Page 27 

9. qui . . . non . . . malit : ' that he does not prefer.' If they 
were really mercifully disposed toward Catiline, they would prefer for 
him safe exile rather than the certain destruction that must come to 
open rebels, malit, subjv. of characteristic. 

12. latrocinantem : ' as an active brigand.' 

13. praeter : ' contrary to.' 

14. vivis nobis. What abl. ? See g 2, note on these words. 

17 19. quod : * as.' 

20. dissimulant : ' who hide their purposes.' See Vocab. 

21. Quos: 'And these men.' 

22. sanare sibi ipsos : ' to bring them to their senses for their own 
sakes.' What use of the dat. ? 

25. generibus : ' classes.' 

26. singulis : ' to them each in turn.' 

27. medicinam consili atque oi'ationis : ' the healing draft of my 
words of counsel.' Observe the hendiadys. The genitives are apposi- 
tional or explanatory to the noun medicinam. 

27. potero : sc. adferre. 

Page 27 

18 I. est eorum : 'consists of those.' Poss. gen. with est. 

I. in acre alieno : ' although deeply in debt.' Literally? 

3. dissolvi : ' be forced to liquidate,' i. e. to be freed of debt ; or it 
may mean ' loose their hold,' i. e. upon their property, in order to settle 
their debts. 

4. species : ' outward appearance.' 
4. honestissima : ' most honorable.' 
4. locupletes : sarcasm, of course. 

7. sis . . . dubites : subjv. in deliberative question. W. 493 ; 
A. 268 ; H. 559, 5 ; B. 277 ; G. 259. The author uses the singular as 
putting the question to each man individually. 

7. de possessione detrahere : sc. aliqidd : ' to draw on your capi- 
tal ' ; our business phrase. 

8. adquirere ad fidem : '(and thereby) to strengthen your credit.' 
adquirere is trans. ; sc. aliquid as obj. 

10. tabulas novas: sc. exspectas : 'do you expect new rating- 
lists?'; i.e. the governmental reduction of all accounts owed, or the 
total abolition of them. Such measures for the benefit of poor debtors 
at the expense of creditors were not unprecedented. Catiline had prom- 
ised a debtor's paradise. 

11. meo beneficio. This is the sort of jest that Cicero loved. Ob- 
serve the pun on tabulae. [Cf. Introduction, § 16, last part.] 

Page 28] IN CATILINAM II 223 

12. verum auctionariae : ' but they will announce an auction sale ' ; 
lit. ' belong to an auction.' He refers to the advertising-posters, or lists 
of property to be sold, used when a forced sale is to take place. These 
will be the "new rating-lists." 

14. Quod si . . . voluissent : ' But if they had been willing to do 
this' ; i. e. to liquidate their debts by the sale of property. 

15. id quod : ' as is.' The clause may be translated, ' in the grossest 

16. certare . . . fructibus : ' struggle to meet their interest with 
the fruits.' What is the literal? fructibus is abl. of means. 

10 22. Alterum : often used for secundum in enumerations. 

24. rerum : ' of the world ' ; obj. gen. \i'\\\\ potiri as often, 

25. perturbata (re pub.) : ' if it should be thoroughly disturbed ' ; 
abl. abs. 

26. Quibus hoc praecipiendum videtur, etc. : ' To these men, 
apparently \yidetur\ this admonition needs to be given (precisely the 
same, to be sure, as should be given to all the others), in order that they 
may lose hope of being able to win that which they are attempting (to 
win), viz., first of all that I myself am on the watch,' etc. The ace. 
and infinitives are in apposition with hoc. Many scholars construe ut 
desperent ... as a substantive clause in appos. with hoc, and make the 
ace. and infin. clauses depend upon a verb of thinking implied in de- 
sperent {cogitent?) ox praecipiendum. 

Page 28 

I. Notice the words of enumeration, primum, . . . deinde, . . . 

7. tantam vim: 'the mighty power.' See I, § 16, note hac tanta 

7. praesentis : ' in person ' ; agrees with deos. 

8. sint . . . adepti : 'should secure.' ¥ vom. ctdipiscor. 

10. quae : ' evils which ' ; referring to the preceding cine^-e and san- 

13. fugitivo : ' runaway slave,' i. e. if violence is suffered to win 
power in the state, every ruffian will have a chance to secure control. 

What two classes have now been considered ? 

20 14. aetate iam adfectum : ' enfeebled by age,' ' worn with years.' 
Twenty years had passed since they were soldiers of Sulla. 

16. cui : whydat. ? Ohs>er\e succedit. 

17. Sulla. See Vocab., and read Mommsen's History of Rome {^ee 
its Index) for an account of this great Roman. Read also Plutarch's Life 

224 NOTES [Page 29 

of Sylla, Beesly's The Gracchi, Marius and Sulla, and Oman's Seven 
Roman Statesmen. He placed his veterans on farm lands, chiefly in 
Etruria, as a reward for service. The Etruscans had held out with the 
Samnites longest against him. 

18, universas : ' as a whole.' 

19-21. se . . . iactarunt : 'have behaved themselves' ; cf. I, § i. 

22. beati : 'wealthy,' 'blessed' in this world's goods. 

22. familiis magnis : ' large retinues of slaves.' 

22. conviviis adparatis : ' elegantly appointed banquets'; a trifle 
extravagant language perhaps. 

24. ab inferis : ' from the world below,' i. e. ' from the next world.' 

25. qui etiam : 'but these men indeed.' 
25. nonnullos : ' not a few.' 

25. tenuis atque egentis : ' of slender means and even needy' ; ace. 
28. eos hoc moneo : ' I give them this advice.' W. 318 ; A. 238, b ; 
H. 412 ; B. 178, I, d ; G. 376, Remark i. 

Page 29 

I. Tantus . . . dolor inustus est : ' For tTie pain of those times 
has been so deeply \tantus\ burned into the state.' How literally? 

3. ne pecudes quidem : a silly hyperbole, which Cicero used more 
than once. 
21 4. sane : ' I admit.' See Vocab. 
5. turbulentum : ' chaotic' 

5. qui : * and these men.' Notice the rel. pron. agreeing in gender 
and number with the persons implied in genus. 

5. premuntur : sc. aere alieno. 

6. male gerendo negotio : ' through bad management of their 
business.' Gerundive construction, abl. of cause. 

7. vetere : 'long-standing.' 

8. vadimoniis, iudiciis, proscriptione : 'citations, judgments, 
forced sales*.' These words express the three stages in a case of bank- 
ruptcy : (i) the summons to court; (2) the adverse judgment; (3) the 
public advertisement [proscriptio'] of the convicted man's property for 

9. permulti : 'in very large numbers.' 

II. infitiatores lentos : 'shifty debtors'; lit. 'obstinate deniers.' 
They are not merely debtors, but full of expedients for postponing pay- 
ment. Cicero seem* to imply a double meaning, in that these men will 
also prove ready of exjcuse in shirking duty as soldiers. 

14. illud : explained by guam ob rem . . . velint, ' for what reason 
. . . they wish.' 


The Carcer ; Section and Plan. 
Middleton : Remains of Ancient Rome. 

A. Opening in ceiling of Tullianum for entrance. 

B B. Rock. 

C C. Drain (not so ancient as the prison). 

D E. Modern stairs. 

F F. Front wall of prison. 

G. Dotted lines show probable original top. 

Page 30] IN CATILINAM II 22$ 

17. cum multis : ' in company with many.' What abl. ? 

22 18. denique : ' in a word,' summing up as often. 

21. sane : ' for all I care,' ' if they will.' 

22. career. The Roman prison was a tiny structure, used in very 
early days as a well-house. See Middleton's Remains of Ancient Rome, 
vol. i, pp. 151-155 ; Lanciani, Ruins and Excavations^ p. 287. Cf. In- 
troduction, § 47. 

24. proprium Catilinae : 'Catiline's own,' cf. I, g 12. 

25. immo vero : cf. I, § 2, note on these words. 

25. de eius dilectu, 'drawn from his chosen ones.' Abstract for 

25. de complexu eius ac sinu : * from those embraced as bosom 
friends,' lit. ' from his embrace and bosom.' Abstract for concrete. 

Page 30 

1. pexo capillo : * carefully combed locks ' ; abl. abs. See pecto 
in Vocab. 

2. bene barbatos : ' with foppish beards.' To wear a trimmed 
beard after the twenty-first year was considered dandified by the stern 
Romans of Cicero's day. In imperial times, however, beards became 

2. manicatis et talaribus tunicis : ' their tunics long-sleeved and 
reaching to the heels ' ; evidences of dandyism. An ordinary tunic was 
a shirt-like garment with short sleeves and reaching only to the knees. 

3. velis : ' sails ' ; because so wide and loose. Others render * veils,* 
not so forceful a picture. 

3. omnis . . . vitae : * whose every effort in life.* 

23 7. versantur. Study the meanings of this verb in the Vocab. It 
is a favorite with Cicero. 

10. Qui nisi. Observe that you can not render by ' unless who.' 

11. scitote. The imperative of this verb and oi memini is regularly 

11. hoc : refers io genus subj. oi futurum (esse). 

12. seminarium. The body of rascals left will constitute a ' nurs- 
ery ' for the propagation of such noxious social weeds as Catiline. 

13. sibi : dat. of ref. 

13. mulierculas : ' contemptible women.' See I, § 13, note adules- 
centulus for meanings of the diminutive ending. 

18. nudi . . . saltare. Full of scorn for the profligate dandies who 
would pretend to serious warfare and its hardships. 

24 21. cohortem praetoriam : 'bodyguard'; properly the guard of a 

226 NOTES [Page 32 

general at headquarters. The passage is vulgarly derisive, and gives a 
sad picture of the sort of life that helped to ruin Rome. 

22-27. Instruite . . . opponite . . . educite . . . conferre : 
distinguish these synonyms. See Vocab. 

28. urbes coloniarium . . . respondebunt . . . tumulis : ' the 
cities of the colonies . . . will be a match for the wooded knolls of 
Catiline,' i. e. those who have the resources of the colonies and cities lo 
draw upon will be a match for those who have only the wooded hills. 
The figure is common in English, as when we say, ' New York is a 
match for Chicago ' ; ' the Gown is no match for the Town.' 

Page 31 

25 3. quibus : abl. suppeditamur = abundamus. 

4. eget ille : 'but which he lacks.' When the connective is omitted, 
what is the figure called? See I, ^10, note feram etc. 

4. senatu : abl. of separation. 

6. causas ipsas : ' the principles themselves.' 

7. contendere: 'contrast.' 

7. ex eo ipso: 'from this very contrast.' 

8. quam valde . . . iaceant : ' how utterly prostrate those men 
lie,' i. e. how perfectly helpless they are. 

9. illinc = ex ilia parte. 

10. hinc = ex hac parte. 

17. omnium . . . desperatione : * with absolute despair.' 
20. cogant . . . superari : * bring it to pass (or insist) that vices 
so many and so great be overcome by such splendid virtues.' ab is used 
because the virttitibus are regarded as agents in the conflict. 

26 23. quem ad modum : ' according as.' 

23. iam antea dixi : he has not mentioned it in this oration before. 
Perhaps dixi would better be omitted here, though such a slip is by no 
means extraordinary. 

24. mihi : dat. of agent. When is this dat. used ? 

25. vestro motu : ' disturbance on your part.' 
25. tumultu : cf. I, § 11, for same word. 

25. praesidi: what gen.? Observe j^//j as a substantive. 

29. quam . . . manum : ' a band which ' ; appos.. to gladiatores. 

Page 32 

1. animo meliore : ' of a better disposition.' Abl. of quality. 

2. pars patriciorum : cf. I, § 30. 

5. hominem : ' fellow.' 

Page 33] IN CATILINAM II 227 

8. vocari: 'summoned.' Praecones, 'heralds,' were sent about to 
notify the members of an appointed meeting. See Introduction un- 
der ^ 28, a, p. xliii. 

9. atque adeo : cf. I, ^ 5, and § 9. 

II. hostes, tamen . . . cives : contrast this with the view ex- 
pressed in I, § 28, 'At nufuquatn . . . tenuerunt.' Can you explain 
Cicero's difference of view in the two cases ? 

13. solutior : ' somewhat lax.' Note this use of the comparative. 

13. hoc : explained by ut . . . rttmperei, a subst. clause. 

14. exspectavit : has lenitas as subject. Put in 'allow me to say.' 
14. Quod reliquum est : ' as for the rest,' or ' for the future.' 

16. mihi : why dat. ? How is vivendum used? 

17. pro his : 'in behalf of them.' 

18. nullus insidiator : ' no one to lay snares.' Literally? 

19. Qui vero : ' But if any one ' ; lit. ' he who.' 

20. cuius . . . deprehendero : ' and if on his part I shall detect.' 
23. carcerem. The lower dungeon, Tullianum, in which execu- 
tions took place is meant See Introduction, § 47. 

Page 33 

I. togato : 'in peaceful garb.' In war a general wore ix paluda- 
mentum, or red military cloak, not the dressy toga. . Cicero boasts that 
he has not needed to employ military forces. In a poem on his consul- 
ship he afterwards wrote the boastful words cedant arma togae, ' let 
arms yield to the toga.' 

7. optandum : 'to be hoped for.' 

8. ut . . . intereat : substantive clause in appos. to illud. 
10. Quae : 'And these results.' 

10. prudentia: W. 389; A. 254, b, 2; H. 476, i; B. 218, 3; G. 
401, note 6. 

18. quam urbem : 'this city which' ; the relative clause often con- 
tains the antecedent when it precedes the main clause. 

Observe how Cicero closes with a solemn call to religious duty. 
Compare this with the close of the first speech with its appeal to 
Jupiter. Such elevated utterances lent dignity and solemnity to 
the impression of a speech as a whole in the minds of the hearers. 

The student should now study the outline Synopsis of this 
speech until he is perfectly familiar with it. 


Shortly after the departure of Catiline from Rome 
news reached the city that he had joined the camp at 
Fsesulae, and had assumed command with all the pomp 
of consular power. The senate declared him and Man- 
lius enemies of the state, but offered amnesty to all their 
followers who should lay down their arms and abandon 
the ranks. Cicero was directed to look to the welfare of 
the state at home, while Antonius was sent with a force 
against Catiline. 

The conspirators who were left in Rome busied them- 
selves in forming a plan to kill the consul, burn the city, 
and join Catiline in overthrowing the government. Ce- 
thegus wished to carry out the plan at once, but Len- 
tulus urged the postponement of its execution until the 
feast of the Saturnalia, the 17th of December. 

Cicero learned of their plans, but did not choose to 
take action against them until he had incontrovertible 
evidence of their guilt. This he secured by chance. A 
commission of representatives of the Allobroges, a Gallic 
tribe, had come to Rome to protest against certain oppress- 
ive acts on the part of their Roman governors at home. 
The conspirators thought that, if they could secure the 
assistance of these discontented representatives of a sub- 
ject people, a diversion might be made in their province 
which would divide the attention of the Roman generals 
from Catiline. Accordingly they baited their trap with 


luscious promises of reward. The delegates hesitated for 
some time, but finally consulted their patronxis at Rome, 
Q. Fabius Sanga, who urged them to disclose the matter 
to Cicero. The consul persuaded them to continue nego- 
tiations with the conspirators and, if possible, to secure 
written documents from them. The Catilinarians sus- 
pected nothing of the counterplot, and readily gave the 
Allobroges sealed papers for their government and a 
letter for Catiline. 

The legates left Rome on the night of the 2d-3d of 
December. Cicero, as had been planned, had a force 
of soldiers at the Mulvian bridge to stop them and to cap- 
ture the documents. The ruse succeeded and the covet- 
ed evidence was secured. Cicero at once summoned the 
senate to meet in the temple of Concord. The conspira- 
tors were brought in and confronted with the evidence, 
which they admitted to be undeniable. The senate com- 
mitted them to prominent citizens for safe-keeping until 
sentence should be pronounced upon them. After the 
meeting Cicero addressed the excited people in the 
Forum, in the following speech of explanation : 



Delivered December 3, B. C. 63 

This speech has an exordium, a long narratio, and a 

I. Exordium. — § i. You see everything saved by the 
favor of the gods. § 2. Like the founder of the city, its 
savior should be honored. 

II. Narratio. — g 3. Since Catiline left I have kept 
watch over your safety. § 4. I ascertained what the con- 
spirators did. Learning that the Allobroges had been 

230 NOTES 

approached, I saw my chance. §5-1 sent two praetors 
with troops to the Mulvjan bridge. § 6. The Allobroges 
were attacked while crossing. Documents were taken. 
I summoned several unsuspecting conspirators. § 7. Al- 
though urged to open the letters, I preferred to show 
the seals to the senate. § 8. Weapons were seized at the 
house of Cethegus. Volturcius testified that Lentulus 
had urged Catiline to approach. § 9. The Gauls testified 
that their aid had been sought, Lentulus claiming that 
he was destined to rule Rome. § 10. Cethegus acknowl- 
edged his seal, and Statilius his. The seal of Lentulus. 
§ II. Lentulus asked a question and suddenly confessed 
his guilt. § 12. His letter to Catiline. Gabinius silenced. 
§ 13. The behavior of all showed their guilt. The senate 
took prompt action. § 14. The magistrates were thanked 
and the prisoners assigned to custody. § 15. A thanks- 
giving to the gods was decreed. Lentulus resigned his 
office. § 16. The plot is at an end, for Catiline was the 
only capable leader. § 17. His departure was your sal- 
vation. He would have given us a prompt and bitter 
struggle. § 18. The gods appear to have managed every- 
thing and to have sent warnings. § 19. When the light- 
ning struck the capitol the soothsayers predicted ruin. 
§ 20. Games for propitiation were held, and a new statue 
of Jupiter was ordered. § 21. All must admit divine 
oversight, for the statue was being set up when the con- 
spirators were led across the Forum. § 22. Jupiter 
thwarted the plotters. The gods made them mad, and 
aided barbarians to stand against patricians. 

HL Peroratio. — § 23. Wherefore give thanks to 
the gods for salvation without bloodshed. § 24. Other 
disturbances have been settled only by much bloodshed. 
§ 25. Not one of them was so destructive in its aim as 
this, which I have ended so quietly. § 26. For this I 

Page 35] IN CATILINAM III 231 

ask only lasting glory and remembrance. § 27. Since 
I must live with the conquered foe, you must protect 
me. § 28. Protect me, or others will not care to serve 
you. § 29. I shall prove my devotion to the state. Go, 
worship Jupiter and guard your homes. 

Page 34 

3. domicilium : ' abiding-place.' What does it mean? 
7. ex faucibus : cf. II, § 2 for same figure. 

10. quibus : ' on which.' 

11. quod . . . laetitia est: ' because the feeling of joy for salva- 
tion is free from doubt.' ccrta is pred. adj. 

11. nascendi . . . condicio : 'the lot at birth is uncertain' ; i. e. 
the state to which one is born in life is filled with uncertainty. 

12. sine sensu : 'without (conscious) feeling.' 

12. cum . . . voluptate : ' with a feeling of joy.' Note \\\^ asyn- 
deton^ or omission of a connective. 

13. ilium : Romulus, who at his death was identified with the god 
Quirinus. See a class, diet, for the story of Romulus, and read Plu- 
tarch's Life of Romulus. 

14. benevolentia famaque : ' through good-will and glorification.' 

15. esse : ' to remain,' ' to stand.' 

16. is = Cicero. The orator is not bashful in claiming honors for 
himself, nor does he hesitate to compare himself favorably with the great 
men of the past or present. 

17. toti : what case? Decline the word. 

18. subiectos : ' kindled underneath.' 

18, prope iam : ' already well-nigh ' ; with subiectos. 

Page 35 

I. idemque : ' and we likewise ' ; the plural is used as we use the 
" editorial we," for the sing. 

4. Quae : ' these facts.' 

6. quanta et quam manifesta : nom. case. 

7. investigata . . . sint : subjv. in indirect question. 

8. ig-noratis : in all probability the audience knew pretty well what 
had happened. 

9. ut : ' since ' ; this use of ut = ex quo is rare. 

232 NOTES [Page 36 

9. paucis ante diebus : *a few days ago.' Learn this phrase. 
The fact is that nearly a month had passed. Why does Cicero slur over 
the time ? Where in the First Oration does he condemn himself for 
neglect ? 

II. Romae : loc. case. 

II. semper vigilavi : ' I have kept constant watch.' 

14. turn cum . . . eiciebam : the indicative is regular with turn 
cum. Cf. I, § 7, note on words. 

15. huius verbi : i. e. eiciebam. Remember that Cicero had hesitated 
to drive Catiline from the city, and had not ventured to act against the 
other conspirators until he had secured incontrovertible evidence. Cf. I, 
§ 23, tempestas invidiae ; I, § 23, vis invidtae, inolem invidiae ; I, § 24, 
eiectus ad alienos ; I, § 28, invidiae . . . metum ; I, § 29, invidiam 
virtute partam ; II, § i, eiecimus. There was much of the lawyer in 
this consul, and it was not a bad trait for an executive to have. 

15. ilia : sc. invidia : ' that occasion for unpopularity ' ; explained 
by (jTuod . . . exierit. 

17. exterminari = ex terminis eici, ' to be exiled.' Do not render, 
*be exterminated.' 

18. restitissent : plup. subjv. after/«i'iZ(5aw. What would the tense 
be in the Direct Discourse? W. 472; A. 286, R. ; H. 644, 2 ; B. 269, 
I, b ; G. 516. 

20. quos : has eos for antecedent. 

22. in eo : ' in this task,' viz. ui . . . sentirem. 

25. minorem fidem faceret : ' might find less credence.' 

26. rem : ' the facts,' relating to the guilt of the conspirators, 

27. animis : unnecessary to the thought. It is an ornamental bal- 
ance to oculis. 

28. ut comperi. What does ut mean with the indicative? See 
Vocab. For Cicero's experience with this verb, see Introduction, p. 

Page 36 

1. tumultus: 'outbreak.' The word is used for a state of war in 
Italy or in Gallia Cisalpina. A war in Transalpine Gaul would be bel- 
lum Transalpinum. 

2. P. Lentulo : at this time praetor. His full name is F. Corne- 
lius Lentulus Sura. He had been consul in 71, and in the next year 
had been expelled from the senate because of his scandalous life. He 
was recovering his senatorial standing by his election to the office of 
praetor. See Introduction, ^ 27. p. xli. 

3. eodemque itinere : ' and while on this very journey.' 

Page 36] IN CATILINAM III 233 

3. litteris mandatisque : ' with written instructions.' It will ap- 
pear later that only one letter to Catiline was found, and that one from 
Lentulus, Three other letters to the senate and people of the Allobroges 
were also found. Perhaps Cicero wishes to create the impression that 
the letters for both the Allobroges and Catiline were numerous. The 
words may, however, be an interpolation in the text. 

5. T. Volturcium. Sallust calls him quendam Crotonieusem, ' a 
fellow from Crotona,' in Magna Graecia. 

6. facultatem : ' opportunity,' as often. What it was is explained 
by uf . . . deprehenderetur^ 'to wit that' etc. 

II. L. Valerium Flaccum : he was later defended by Cicero against 
a charge of extortion during his governorship of Asia. The speech is 
still extant. 

11. C. Pomptinum : two years later, as governor of Gallia Narbo- 
nensis, he put down a rising of the Allobroges, whose wrongs had been 
unheeded by the Romans, in spite of the service rendered by their dele- 
gates in the matter of the Catilinarian conspiracy. 

12. amantissimos : 'most devoted.' 

14. placeret : why subjv. ? This phrase is very common. 

14. omnia . . . egregia sentirent : ' since all their views on pub- 
lic matters are exceptionally noble and superior,' or ' since they entertain 
every exceptionally fine and distinguished sentiment on public matters.' 
The subjv. is in a causal clause with qui. W. 586, 4 ; A. 320, e ; H. 592 ; 
G. 586. 

16. negotium : ' the commission ' ; rem is commoner in this sense. 

16. advesperasceret : Force of -sc in ending of verbs? See Vocab. 

17. occulte : what is the opposite of this word.-* See Vocab. 

17. pontem Mulvium. This bridge (now the Ponte Molle) spans 
the Tiber about a mile and a half outside the Aurelian Wall of Rome, on 
the Flaminian Way. It was first built in 109, and later, in imperial 
times, was the scene of Constantine's victory over Maxentius. It has 
always been a favorite holiday resort of the lower classes of Rome. 

18. ita bipartite fuerunt : ' so disposed (their forces) in two divi- 

20. sine cuiusquam suspicione : ' without rousing suspicion in 
any one.' 

22. opera : ' services. ' Cicero was the patronus or attorney of Reate. 

23. praesidio : why dat. ? 

24. tertia . . . vigilia exacta : about what hour? 
26. unaque : adv. 

28. nota solis, ignorabatur . . . Such repetition of a tho^ught in 
another form is not uncommon. It is called tautology. 

234 NOTES [Page 37 

Page 37 

2. Litterae, quaecumque erant . . . : ' Whatsoever papers were 
in . . .' 

3. integris signis : * with unbroken seals ' ; an important circum- 
stance for Cicero, as it would prove to the senate that the writing inside 
was not forged or tampered with. 

6. Cimbrum Gabinium. Sallust calls him P. Gabinius Capilo. 
He was a knight. The placing of the cognomen before the nomen was 
usual only in every-day speech. Cf. I, ^ 3, note P. Cornelius etc. 

8. L. Statilius : a knight. 

8. C. Cethegus : a senator, of whom Sallust says, ' Natura ferox, 
vehemens, manu proviptus erat' ; 'he was fierce and violent by nature 
and prompt in action.' He had distinguished himself in the war with 
Sertorius by attempting to assassinate Q. Metellus Pius. 

9. credo : ironical. 

10. in litteris dandis : 'in composing a letter.' The irony is evi- 
dent when we read this very short letter, given in § 12 of this speech. 

10. praeter : 'contrary to,' as in H, § 16. 

12. Cum . . . placeret. What use of the subjv. ? 

12. viris ; dat. 
1^ 14. prius . . . quam . . . deferri : regularly the subjv. deferrem 
would be used after the comparative prius with quam. W. 534 ; A. 
327; H. 605 ; B. 292 ; G. 577. For the inf. before and after quam, see 
A. 336, c. note 2 ; H. 643, 2 ; G. 644, Remark 3, b. 

16. negavi . . . facturum ut . . . non- deferrem : ' I said that 
... I should not fail to lay before the public council the case in its 
integrity.' Lit. ' that I should not cause that I should not ' etc. 

19. reperta . . . essent. What tense in the direct form? See 
§ 3, note restitissent. 

22. Senatum frequentem : ' a full meeting of the senate.' 

23. C. Sulpicius : not further known. 

24. aedibus. What does the singular mean ? See Vocgb. 

25. si quid telorum : 'whatever weapons'; the words suppl' an 
object to efferret. 

27. Introduxi : ' I had V brought in ' ; by a lictor probably. 

27. fidem publicam: 'the assurance of state protection.' Lit 'pub- 
lic pledge ' (not to prosecute him if he would turn state's evidence). 

Cf. Sallust, Cat., 47. Volturcius interrogatus de itinere, de litte- 
ris, postremo quid aut qua de causa consili habuisset, primo fingere alia, 
dissimulare de coniuratione : post, ubi fide publica dicere iussus est, 
omnia, uti gesta erant, aperit. ' When questioned about his journey, 


about the letter, and finally about what plan he had entertained, and for 
what reason, Volturcius at first prevaricated and concealed the truth 
about the conspiracy. Afterward, when he was ordered to speak under 
the assurance of state protection, he disclosed everything as it had taken 

Page 38 

3. ut . . . uteretur : * urging that he should employ.' The clause 
depends upon the idea of command involved in tnandata. 

5. id autem : ' and that too.' 

8. praesto esset : ' might be at hand ' ; the clause is appositive to 
eo consilio. 

10. ius iurandum : ' sworn promise ' (to repay services). 

12. ita sibi . . . praescriptum : ' instructions had been given to 
them to this effect.' 

12. L. Cassius Longinus : a senator who had stood for the con- 
sulship at the same time as Cicero. He had been shrewd enough not to 
give any writing to the legates, and had left the city ahead of them. 

15. ex fatis Sibyllinis : ' conformably to prophecies of the Sibyl.' 
Many collections of oracular sayings, attributable to a Sibyl, or inspired 
prophetess, were in the possession of private individuals. Perhaps some 
such collection is referred to here. For the famous Libri Sibyllini see 
Introduction, § 39, p. liii. See also the account of them in a 
class, diet. The Sibyls form the subject for pictures by Michael 
Angelo in the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican, and by Raphael in the 
church of Maria della Pace at Rome. The Sibyl of Cumae is also pic- 
tured by Domenichino (Villa Borghese at Rome), and by Elihu Vedder. 

16. tertium ilium Cornelium : 'that predicted third Cornelius.' 
Remember that his full name was P. Cornelius Lentulus. The other 
two mentioned directly are L. Cornelius Cinna and L. Cornelius Sulla. 

17. regnum . . . atque imperium : ' absolute sway over this city.' 
19. fatalem : ' destined by fate.' 

21. virginum : sc. Vestalium. The Vestal Virgins were priestesses 
of Vesta, goddess of the hearth and hearth-fire. They were bound to 
chastity, and a breach of their duty in this respect was punished by 
burial alive. The trial referred to was probably on this charge, of which 
the maidens were acquitted. When it was held we are not informed. 
For information about the Vestals, see a class, diet., art. Vesta. 

21. Capitoli. The temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was burned in the 
year 83. The fire was, possibly, of incendiary origin. The people be- 
lieved that the duration of the Roman dominion was associated with 
the existence of this temple, and it was therefore always quickly rebuilt 

236 NOTES [Page 39 

in the same general form, though with increasing decoration. Origi- 
nally it was Etruscan in style, and was decorated with terra-cotla tiles 
and statues ; but in Cicero's time it was marble. It had three celiac, 
or sanctuaries, consecrated to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, each with 
its proper statue. 

10 22. Cethego : dat. of poss. 

24. Saturnalibus : ' on the Feast of Saturn.' The Saturnalia 
proper was the 17th of December, on which day sacrifices were made to 
Saturn and a feast given in his honor. The festivities were continued 
for several days, and great license was allowed the people. The con- 
spirators hoped to cover their actions under the confusion of the time. 
Read the account of the festival in Fowler's Rojuan Festivals, pp. 268- 
273, and in a class, diet., art. Saturnalia. Also Gayley's Classic 
Myths, p. 88. 

25. id longum : ' that seemed too far off.' 

27. ne longum sit : ' not to be lengthy.' Purpose parenthetical to 
the main verb. 

27. tabellas : see a class, diet., art. Writing Materials; Thomp- 
son's Palaeography, and Becker's Gallus ; Introduction, § 55. 

28. iussimus: in translation put in ' I will say,' cf. II, § 9. 

Page 39 

I. cognovit = agnovit, 'acknowledged.' 

1. linum : ' the string,' binding the tablet together. The knot was 
sealed with wax. 

2. ipsius : i. e. Cethegus. 

3. sese : the verb of " saying " is understood. 
3. quae : obj. of conjirtnasset. 

5. quae sibi . . . recepissent : ' what they had taken upon them- 
selves to do.' 

7. apud ipsum : ' at his house ' ; cf. I, § 9, apud Laecanu 

12. in eandem fere sententiam : ' of almost the same purport.' 

15. avi tui : P. Cornelius Lentulus, consul in 162. He joined the 
consul Opimius in his fight against C. Gracchus. Cf. IV, § 13. 

16. quae : ' and it,' i. e. imago. 

11 18. eadem ratione = in eandem sententiam, above. 
20. feci potestatem : ' I gave him the opportunity.' 

22. quaesivit a Gallis. The abl. of the person with a prep, is 
regular with this verb, with peto, and with postulo. Other verbs of ask- 
ing govern two accusatives, one of person, one of thing. 

22. quid sibi esset cum eis : ' what he had to do with them.' 

Page 40] IN CATILINAM III 23; 

24. Qui cum : ' and when they.' illi = Lentulo. 

24. constanter : ' consistently.' 

25. per quern : ' (declaring) through whose agency.' 

26. esset . . . locutus : indirect question. 

Page 40 

2. ingenium . . . exercitatio : * natural talent and acquired skill 
in speaking.' 

12 10. nomine : ' signature,' as we should say. The Romans indicated 
the writer of a letter at its beginning, i. e. Lentuhis S. D. {salutem dicit) 
Catilinae. The seal was, however, the best means of identification. 

11. Cura : verb. 

12. ecquid. The ' something ' hinted at is an open act of war, which 
is now a necessity to the conspirators. 

13. infimorum : ' of the lowest classes,' i. e. slaves. The haughty 
patricians had shrunk from welcoming to their ranks the crowds of slaves 
who had flocked to Faesulae, but now they were driven to seek any 
assistance whatever in their despair. Sallust quotes this letter also in 
slightly different form. It is idle to try to determine whether he or 
Cicero has the exact words. Compare the two versions. 

Sallust, Cat. 44. " Qui sim, ex eo quem ad te misi, cognosces. Fac 
cogites, in quanta calamitate sis, et meniineris te virum esse : consideres 
quid tuae rationes postulent : auxilium petas ab omnibus, etiam ab infu- 
mis." Ad hoc mandata verbis dat : cum ab senatu hostis iudicatus sit, 
quo consilio servitia repudiet ? 

13 17. cum . . . tum : 'not only . . . but even.' Cicero is fond of 
this combination for correlation. Watch for its recurrence. 

18. argumenta : see Vocab. for meaning. 

19. multo certiora. A comparative is not infrequently used after a 
superlative to express a still higher degree than that thought of in the 

20. color: '(changing) color.' oculi : '(tell-tale) eyes.' voltus : 
' (guilty) looks.' taciturnitas : 'spell-bound tongues.' 

24. senatum consului : See Introduction, § 28, a, p. xliii, for 
method of inviting discussion at a meeting of the senate. 

28. est perscriptum: 'written out in full,' by a clerk. See In- 
troduction, § 28, a, p. xliv. 

Page 41 

14 I. verbis amplissimis : ' in most honorable terms.' 

3. Flaccus . . . Pomptinus. See § 5. 

4. quod , . . essem. Subjv. because the senate's reason. 

22>^ NOTES [Page 42 

6. conlegae : C. Antonius Hybrida. He had been involved, it was 
rumored, with the Catilinarians earlier, but had been won to desert 
them, by the cleverness of Cicero in relinquishing to him the rich prov- 
ince of Macedonia to govern at the close of his consulship. 

8. removisset. The orator casts a slur of reproach upon his col- 
league for his former associations while apparently praising him. 

8. censuerunt ut . . . traderetur. The ut clause shows the in- 
tention of the vole. If only the content of the vote were given it would 
be expressed by the ace. and infinitive. 

9. se . . . abdicasset : ' had resigned.' Full form of verb ? A 
magistrate could not be brought to trial during his term of office. " Res- 
ignations" were, however, sometimes induced from without, while the 
act appeared to be voluntary, as in our day such things are done. 

10. in custodiam. See I, § 19, note on these words. 

14. Ceparius : he had fled, but had been captured. The others 
here mentioned escaped. 

18. semper erat . . . versatus : 'had constantly bestirred him- 
self . . .' 

19. Umbrenum: Sallust says that this man was employed '< i;od in 
Gallia negotiatus erat [' had carried on business '] plerisque pi incipibus 
civitatium notus erat atque eos noverat." Cat.^ 40. 

2"^. novem . . . poena. Five was the number actually put to 
death later. Cassius, Furius, Annius, and Umbrenus escaped by flight. 
15 26. supplicatio : * a thanksgiving feast * ; lit. ' a bendmg of the 
knee ' (before the images of the gods). Originally a solemn prostration 
in times of disaster. Later the prostration was performed in gratitude 
for signal victories and was attended by joyous festivities. The festival 
season varied from one day in early times to ten and even twenty in 
Caesar's day. Recall Caesar, B. G. IV, 38, 5, and VII, 90, 8, for in- 

26. pro : ' in return for.' 

27. meo nomine : 'in my honor,' as we should say. 

27. quod : ' a distinction which.' 

28. togato. See II, § 28, note on word. 

Page 42 

I. liberassem. The subjv. shows whose reason is given. Full 
form? S>Qe1,%(), noie confirmasti. 

1. Quae supplicatio, si : 'now if this festival.' 

2. hoc interest: 'this difference is manifest.' Observe the apodosis 
with the indicative asserting strongly the fact. W. 556 ; H. 577, 2 ; B. 
303, b. 

Page 43] IN CATILINAM III 239 

3. quod : ' in that.' 
3. bene gesta re publica : ' for the excellent management of the 
state.' Cf. II, § 21, male gerendo 7iegotio. 

8. ius . . . civis : ' rights of citizenship.' 

9-12. ut, quae . . . liberaremur : ' in order that we . . . might 
be relieved of that conscientious scruple, which (however) had not de- 
terred C. Marius . . . from slaying C. Glaucia . , .' The relative 
clause quae . . . non fuerat is considered as equivalent to a clause 
of hindrance (the ' scruple ' being a deterrent) ; hence the quominus 
clause following. Lit. ' which Marius had not (felt) by which the less.' 
VV. 514 ; A. 319, c ; H. 568, 8 ; B. 295, 3 ; G. 549. For an account of 
Glaucia's death see note to p. 2, 1. 23. 

9. Mario : dat. of poss. 

16 15. debetis : 'you have a right,' a not uncommon meaning. 

17. cum . . . pellebam. Cicero now claims the distinction of for- 
cing Catiline from the city, because he feels confident of the support of 
the people. Recall his more timid attitude in the opening sentence of 
II, and see note huius verbi in ^ 3 of this speech. The indicative em- 
phasizes the time and fact. 

19-20. somnum . . . adipes . . . temeritatem. We may ren- 
der the nouns by adjectives in English as follows : ' the sleepy Lentulus, 
nor the corpulent Cassius, nor the wildly rash-headed Cethegus.' Sallust, 
Cat. ^j, describes Cethegus as follows : Natura ferox, vehemens, manu 
promptus erat ; maximum bonum in celeritate putabat. 

21. lUe. Who? The pronoun often denotes the one frequently 
mentioned and prominent. 

22. tam diu dum : ' only so long as.' 

24. norat. Full form novcrat. See I, § 9, note confirmasti. The 
pluperfect of this verb is how rendered? See Vocab. 

24. omnium aditus tenebat : ' he understood how to approach 
everybody ' ; lit. ' he held (in mind) eveiybody's avenue of approach.' 

25. soUicitare : " to play the tempter's part." Prof. Lane. 

25. consilium . . . aptum : ' a power to plan, (admirably) adapted 
to wicked ends.' 

27. certas res: 'special enterprises.' 

29. aliquid mandarat : 'had issued any order.' For teflBe and 
mood see W. 553 ; A. 309, c ; H. 578, i ; B. 302, 3 ; G. 567. The cum 
clause forms a general condition. 

Page 43 

I. quod : obj. o{ obiret. From it are to be supplied the proper cases 
for the following verbs. Note the asyndeton. 

240 NOTES [Page 44 

2. sitim : the regular form of the ace. of this noun. 

17 5. domesticis = tirbanis. 

6. castrense latrocinium : cf. II, § i, in apertum latrocinium. 

7. hanc tantam. How are we to render tantam ? See note tanta 
frequentia I, § i6. 

9. nobis : dat. of disadvantage. 

9. Saturnalia : cf. § 10, note on this word. Catiline would have 
acted before that time. 

9. constituisset : subjv. in apodosis contrary to fact. What is the 
protasis ? 

9. tanto ante : 'so long beforehand.' Abl. of degree. 

II. commisisset ut : 'would he have suffered his seal, a letter of 
his ... to be captured.' Lit. 'allowed that.* 

14. tam palam . . . quam haec . . . manifesto : the adverb in 
the quam clause gives a double comparison with pala7n not desirable to 
imitate in English. 

18. consiliis : why dat. ? Observe occurri. 

18. ut levissime dicam : 'to say the least.' Purpose. Cf. §10, 
note ne longum sit. 

18 23. Quamquam. See note I, § 22, on this word. 

25. Id . . . coniectura consequi : ' reach this conclusion by infer- 
ence,* or simply ' infer this.' 

26. cum . . . tum : See § 13, note, on these words. 

26. quod . . . potuisse : ' because it seems that the guidance . . , 
could scarcely have sprung fiom human wisdom.' videtm- is personal in 
the Latin. 

27. consili : pred. gen. of possession with esse. 

28. ita praesentes : ' so evidently.' Latin adjectives are often best 
rendered by English adverbs. 

Page 44 

1. ut ilia omittam. The subjv. is concessive here. See W. 571 ; 
A. 266, c ; H. 586, II, 3 ; B. 308 ; G. 608. Others explain it as pur- 
pose parenthetical to the main verb, as in ut levissime dicam, § 17. The 
figure employed is, praeteritio. See I, § 3, note praetereo. 

2. ab occidente : ' in the west.' To one looking for omens after the 
Roman fashion, facing the south, propitious sights appeared on the left 
(the east, whence ligtt comes (?) ), and unpropitious signs on the right 
the west, whither light disappeared (?)). 

2. faces : ' torch-like flashes * ; omens of war. 

3. fulminum iactus : ' bolts of lightning ' ; bad omens when the sky 
was clear. 


4. tarn multa : * in such numbers,' or ' so frequently.' 

19 8. Cotta et Torquato consulibus : in 65. 

II. legum aera : 'bronze tablets of laws.' Important laws were 
engraved on bronze, and the plates were fastened to the walls of temples 
for public consultation. See Introduction, § 34. 

13. quem inauratum . . . meministis : ' who, you remember, used 
to stand in the capitol. . . .' It is impossible to find any satisfactory 
evidence that the famous bronze wolf now in the Palazzo dei Conserva- 
tori, at Rome, is the one referred to here. That statue is possibly as old 
as the 5th century B. C, and has apparently been considerably restored 
by a poor artist. See Helbig, Guide to the Class. AntiquitLs in Rome, 
I, p. 459 flf. 

20. prope fata ipsa. The gods themselves could not reverse the 
decrees of fate, but they are represented as able to postpone fulfilment 
for a time. 

20 21. ludi . . . facti sunt : * games were held ' ; the regular idiom 
for celebrating games. 

23. iusserunt . . . facere : * gave orders to make,' The subject of 
the inf. is left out often after iubeo^ just as in the corresponding English 
expression the person who is to make is omitted. 

25. contra atque antea: 'opposite to what it had previously been.' 
27. fore ut . . . inlustrarentur. Remember that this circumlocu- 
tion is used instead of the future inf. passive, which is rare. 

Page 45 

2. conlocandum . . . conlocaverunt : ' placed the contract for 
erecting.' W. 644, 2 ; A. 294, d ; H. 622 ; B. 337, 7, b, 2 ; (i. 430. The 
business of letting contracts usually rested with the censors, but at this 
time, 65, the censors had disagreed and resigned. See Introduction, 


4. superioribus consulibus : i. e. of the two years preceding. 

4. nobis : sc. consulibus. 

21 7. mente captus : ' mentally deranged.' 

7. haec omnia quae videmus : i. e. the universe. 

10. ita : • to this effect,' as often. 

11. et ea: 'and all' ; summing up caedes, etc. 

14-19. Illud . . . est, ut . . . videatur, ut . . . statueretur : 
' But is not the following, an instance so manifest that it appears . . . the 
fact, namely, that ' etc. The first ut introduces what sort of subjv. ? 
What relation has ut statueretur to Illud? 

19. Quo conlocato : ' And after this had been set up.* 

22 23. Quo: 'wherefore.' Those who have attempted to injure the 

242 NOTES [Page 46 

gods who are protecting Rome are especially deserving of punishment at 
the hands of the state. 

23. odio : why abl. ? See I, § 19, note custodia. 

26. Quibus : why dat. ? Obsei-ve restitisse. 

27. nimium. Cicero was not generally troubled by such a scruple. 

28. Ille : pointing toward the new statue. 

Page 46 

I. haec templa. Examine the Plan of the Forum and see what 
temples are comprehended in his sweeping gesture. For accounts of 
them see Introduction, §§ 42, 44, 46, 53. 

3. suscepi : ' conceived ' 

3. haec tanta indicia : ' these convincing evidences.' Cf. I, § 16, 
note tanta. 

5. tantae res : ' matters of such import.' 

6. creditae : 'entrusted.' 

8. huic . . . audaciae : ' these audacious villains ' ; the abstract for 
the concrete. 

8. consilium : ' common-sense,' ' reason.' The idea of the sentence 
is proverbial, " those whom the gods would destroy, they first make mad." 

8. Quid vero ? Cf. I, § 8, Quidl Notice that the emphatic sub- 
ordinate clauses come first in the question. 

9-14. Ut . . . neglegerent . . . anteponerent : clauses explain- 
ing the meaning of id. 

ID. quae gens una : ' the only tribe remaining which.' 

II. et non nolle : ' and not unwilling to do so.' The figure litotes 
by which an affirmative statement is softened by a negative form. 

II. videatur : subjv. of characteristic. 

14. non divinitus : ' without divine interposition.' 

23 18. ad omnia pulvinaria : ' at all the shrines.' Pulvinaria were 
pillowed couches upon which the images of gods were placed at solemn 
festivals \stipplicationes\. A feast was placed upon a table before each 
couch. This was called the lectisierniiim. The people marched from 
temple to temple prostrating themselves at the pulvinaria. The custom 
was borrowed from the Greeks, and only a dozen gods, corresponding to 
Greek divinities, had the rite. 

24. togati. See II, § 28, note togato. 

24 26. dissensiones. Force of prefix dis- ? See Vocab. 

27. audistis : as having occurred before your time. 

28. meministis : from your boyhood days. 
2$.. vidistis : as ntien and participants. 

Page 47] IN CATILINAM III 245 

28. P. Sulpicium Rufum : tribune in 88. He proposed a law by 
which Sulla was removed from his command against Mithradates, and 
Marius appointed in his stead. Sulla declined to obey the law and 
marched on Rome, took the city, and proscribed both Marius and Sul- 
picius. The latter was captured and slain by Sulla's cavalry, and his 
head was nailed to the Rostra. Marius escaped. Read Mommsen, 
History of Rome, under Sulpicius (see Index of the History). 

29. custodem. He had saved Rome from a threatened invasion of 
the Cimbri and Teutones in 102 and loi B. c. 

Page 47 

2. Cn. Octavius : partisan of Sulla. In 87 he drove out his col- 
league Cinna, who had proposed to recall those who had been banished 
by Sulla, and had advocated measures previously supported by Sul- 
picius regarding an extension of the franchise. Octavius was later pro- 
scribed by Cinna. 

3. acervis . . . redundavit : ' was piled high with heaps of corpses 
and flooded with . . .' The verb is used hy zeugma ('yoking') in two 
senses. The horrors of the Forum appear to the orator as a wave-broken 
sea of blood. 

4. Superavit : ' got control.' 
4. postea : in 87. 

6. lumina. We use the same metaphor. Cf. " The men of Eng- 
land — the men, I mean, of light and leading in England." Burke. 

7. postea Sulla : in 82. 

8. deminutione. For the facts read Mommsen, vol. iii, p. 350 
(London edition). 

9. M. Aemilius Lepidus : consul in 78. He tried to overthrow 
the Sullan constitution, but was overpowered by his colleague Q. Catulus 
and fled to Sardinia, where he died. 

II. ipsius: Lepidus. 

20, diiudicatae sint. Observe the tense in sequence to the perf. 
fuerunt. W. 469 ; A. 287, c ; H. 550 ; B. 268, 6 ; G. 513. 
22, quale bellum : ' a war such as.' 
25. salva urbe : abl. abs. 
25. in hostium numero : i. e. to be killed on the spot. 

27. tantum : ' only so many.' 

28. restitisset : ' might have survived.' 

30. integros incolumisque : ' whole and scatheless,' ' absolutely 

244 NOTES [Page 49 

Page 48 

26 I. Quibus pro . . . rebus : ' In return for these important services.' 
2. insigne : adj. used as substantive ; honoris is appositional gen. 

Render the two ' honorable distinction.' 

4. sempiternam. A modest request ! Posterity has granted it, 
10. litterarum monumentis : ' in literary records.' 

12. eandemque diem : ' a common season.' Note the gender. 

13. propagatam esse : ' has been widely extended.' The verb 
means originally to multiply plants by pegging down layers. The ora- 
tor, perhaps, has this figure in mind, and suggests that a new lease of 
life, common to the state and to his fame, has been started " in the garden 
of Time." 

15. duos : Pompey and Cicero. 

15. quorum alter : Pompey, the greatest soldier of the day. 

27 19. condicio : ' resultant situation,' i. e. the state of circumstances 
arising out of his deeds. 

22. vestrum est : ' it is your duty.' The poss. pron. takes the 
place of a gen. of the personal pron. 

23. si ceteris . . . prosunt : ' if their own deeds rightfully profit 
other men.' sua : W. 423 ; A. 196, c ; H. 503. 4; B, 244, 4 ; G. 309, 2. 

27. Quamquam. See I, § 22, note on this word. 

27. mihi . . . noceri potest : ' I myself, indeed, can not now be 
harmed at all.' For case of mihi, W. 331 ; A. 227 ; H. 426, 3 ; B. 187, 
II, b ; G. 346, Remark i. nihil is adv. ace. 

Page 49 

2. quam qui neglegunt : ' and those who heed it not.' 

28 5. is : ' such.' 

6. improbos : in a political sense, as opponents ot the boni. 

9. vobis erit videndum : 'you will have to see to it.' Impers. 

10. qua condicione . . . velitis : ' what you are willing should be 
the state of those.' 

10. condicione : abl. of quality. 
12. Mihi : ' as for me ' ; dat. of ref. 

12. ad vitae fructum : * for life's full fruitage.' 

13. cum : causal. 

13. in honore vestro : ' in distinctions within your gift ' ; i. e. of- 
fices and honors. 

15. quo : ' toward which.' 


29 16. Illud : explained hy uf . . . tuear. 

17. ornem : ' make more splendid.' There is no doubt that Cicero 
kept this promise, for ever afterward he praised without stint his con- 
sular deeds. In a nobler sense, however, his later life did add luster to 
his character. 

17. si qua. See I, § 4, note ne quid. 

19. mihi valeat ad gloriam : ' may redound to my glory.' 

19. ita me tractabo : ' I shall so conduct myself.' The more usual 
verb for this meaning is geram. 

22. venerati : ' after doing reverence to.' 

25. aeque ac : 'exactly as,' ' precisely as.' 

26. vobis : why dat. ? Observe faciundum sit. 

Compare these closing sentences with those of the first and 
second speeches, and study the Synopsis of this oration in full. 


Delivered December 5, B. c. 63 

The capture and exposure of the leaders of the con- 
spiracy did not close the affair. A prompt disposal of 
them was imperative, for rumors were already afloat that 
a rescue was planned. The consul was in a dilemma. He 
hesitated to exercise his extraordinary powers in a sum- 
mary execution of the prisoners, and he did not dare to 
risk an appeal to the people with its delays and possible 
frustration of justice ; yet this latter course was the only 
one legally safe, and he knew it. With a lawyer's clever- 
ness he sought to shift the responsibility for drastic action 
upon the senate, and summoned this body to meet in 
the temple of Concord, December 5th, to advise upon the 
question of a punishment for the conspirators. The sen- 
ate had no legal right to inflict punishment, but it could 
act as a consilium, or advisory committee to the consul, 
with whom the necessary executive power lay, and who 
was responsible. D. Junius Silanus, consul designafus, 
was first asked to express his views. He urged the imme- 
diate infliction of death. Others followed in support of 
his opinion. C. Julius Caesar, however, proposed a form 
of perpetual preventive imprisonment, suggesting that 
the guilty conspirators should be exiled to various mu- 
nicipal towns, which should be held responsible for their 
safe-keeping, and that no one thereafter should be 
allowed to propose any remission of this punishment. 


This novel proposal of Caesar was supported by many 
senators, among whom was Cicero's brother Quintus. 
It was thought to be less dangerous in consequences to 
Cicero. At length Cicero spoke, setting forth clearly the 
opposing views, but evidently favoring the death-penalty, 
and begged the senators to vote fearlessly and without 
regard to the consequences of their decision to him as 
the executive. This speech wrought into its present form 
in the study of the orator follows. 


This oration is divided into an exordium, a narratio, a 
coniirmatio, and a pcroratio. 

I. Exordium. — § i. Think of your own welfare, 
which I am glad to secure at any cost. § 2. Nowhere 
have I had security, but I shall be content if you are 
saved. § 3. Death will find me ready, in spite of my 
love for friends and home. 

II. Narratio. — § 4. Not a Gracchus nor a Satur- 
ninus, but much more dangerous criminals are before 
you. § 5. You have already declared their guilt. § 6. 
The sentence rests with you. The evil is widespread, and 
prompt action is imperative. § 7. Silvanus proposes the 
death-penalty. Caesar urges imprisonment, and talks 
philosophically about death. § 8. He sets a heavy pen- 
alty upon any attempt to release the prisoners. His plan 
is cruel. § 9. If you adopt it, I shall have a champion 
with the people. His proposal is an earnest of good- 
will to the people. § 10. The absent have really shown 
their views. The Sempronian law does not concern ene- 
mies. Caesar is severe. 

248 NOTES [Page 50 

III. CoNFiRMATio. — § II. I can not see cruelty in 
executing traitors. I foresee the horrors of massacre. 
§ 12. Thinking of horrors, I am stern. Is it cruel to 
slay a murderous slave ? We shall be merciful if we slay 
these traitors. § 13. L. Caesar's advice was not cruel. 
Lentulus' grandfather took arms against a foe ; he 
against his country. § 14. Everything is in readiness to 
execute your wishes. All decent men sympathize with 
you. § 15. The equites are one with you, and if this union 
lasts, the state will" be secure. The clerks are aroused. 
§ 16. Freemen and freedmen are patriotic. Every de- 
cently comfortable slave is with us. § 17. Lentulus' 
henchman has failed to stir up the shopkeepers. § 18. 
You are supported by all, and your country relies upon 
you. § 19. Protect the state from future danger. I 
speak from duty. 

IV. Peroratio. — § 20. The conspirators are all my 
foes, but I do not repent, for my reward is great. § 21. 
All honor to our great men ! I shall have some place 
among them. § 22. I must live with my foes. Nothing 
will break the union of the equites with you. § 23. In 
return for my services I ask only the memory of my 
consulship. I commend my son to you. § 24. Decide 
with courage. Your consul will execute your will. 

Page 50 

I. in me: 'upon me.' They were anxious to learn his feelings on 
the question. 

6. voluntas : ' kindly concern.' 
6. earn : the voluntas. 

6. per deos immortales : * for Heaven's sake.' In adjurations, 
the person or thing for whose sake, by reason of whom or what, is put in 
the ace. with/^r, 

7. salutis : obj. genitive with adj. of forgetting. 

Page 51] IN CATILINAM IV 249 

7. de . . . liberis cogitate : * take thought for . . . your chil- 
dren.' Cogitare de aliquo is an idiom to remember, 

8. haec condicio consulatus. consulates is gen. In English it is 
preferable to make ' consulship ' the subj., and to render haec condicio by 
a phrase : ' If the consulship has been given me on these terms.' Cf. 
for the meaning oi condicio. III, § 2 and § 28. 

10. perferrem, feram : the thought is accurately discriminated in 
the compound verb and loosely repeated in the simple verb. 

12. pariatur: subjv. in proviso. See I, § 10, note intersit. 

14. in quo . . . aequitas continetur : 'wherein is the seat of all 
justice.' The courts of the praetors were held in the Forum and in the 
neighboring basilicas, or law-courts. See Introduction, § 36, p. xlix. 

14. campus, sc. Martins. 

15. consularibus auspiciis ; ' by the consular (election) auspices.' 
If the omens were favorable an election took place ; if not, it was post- 
poned to another day. See Introduction, § 37, p. li. For the fact to 
which Cicero refers see I, § ii. 

16. summum auxilium : 'the highest court of appeal,' i. e. the 
senate-house was the highest and last resort to which feebler peoples 
might turn for assistance. 

18. sedes honoris : i. e. the official chair \sella curulis\ like a 
camp-stool, which was part of the insignia of the higher magistrates. Cf. 
Introduction, pp. xxxvii, xxxviii. 

Page 51 

2. multa tacui : ' I left much unspoken ' ; hinting, perhaps, at in- 
formation against prominent men like Caesar and Crassus, which he 
forebore to use. 

2. meo . . . dolore : ' with some pain to myself.' 

3. in vestro timore : 'Ja.Jfear for, ^om.' The poss. pron. is used in 
place of an obj. gen. See A. 217, a; H.440, 2, note 2; B.243, 2 ; G. 304, 2, 
note 2. Others render, ' in your (hour of) dread.' The student should con- 
sider carefully the bearing of each of these interpretations on the thought. 

6. virgines Vestales. See III, § q, note on these words. 

11. inductus : ' led astray.' 

12. fatale: 'destined.' See III, § 9, no\.e fatalgm. 

14. fatalem : ' by appointment of fate.' 

15. consulite vobis. This verb governs the ace, when it means 
' consult,' but the dat. when it means 'look to the interests of.' 

17. nomen. If the good name of the state finds no defenders the 
state ceases to exist, hence nomen is almost equivalent to 'existence,' 

18. mihi : the dat. is regular -with, farcer ^, 

250 NOTES [Page 52 

18. de me cogitare. See IV, § i, note de . . . cogitate. 

19. debeo : ' I have a right to.' Cf. Ill, § 16, note debetis. 

20. pro eo . . . ac mereor : ' in proportion to my deserts.* 

20. relaturos . . . gratiam : '^\\\ requite me.' As the gods have 
an interest in Rome they will reward the savior of the city. 

21. si quid obtigerit : ' if anything (untoward) shall happen ' ; a 
euphemistic way of speaking, quite like our own. The Latin uses more 
frequently acciderit in this sense. For quid cf. I, § 4, note ne quid. 

23. immatura : because a consul has plucked the ripe fruit of life in 
distinction. Read again III, § 28, quid est quod . . . ascendere? 

24. sapienti: 'a philosopher,' who was supposed to look on death 
as not evil in nature. 

24. ille ferreus : ' such a soul of iron.' 

26. movear : subjv. of characteristic. 

27. Neque . . . non . . . revocat : ' Nor does my . . . fail to 
recall.' The double negative is equivalent to an emphatic positive. 

28-29. uxor : Terentia. filia : Tullia. filius : Marcus. 

30. obsidem. The state will treat the son as the father has de- 
served, and the father's actions will be controlled by the future interests 
of his son. 

31. ille . . . gener. C. Calpumius Piso, to whom Tullia had been 
betrothed for some five years. He was not yet entitled to enter a meet- 
ing of the senate. 

Page 52 

I. in earn partem : '(only) in such a way.' 

3. una . . . peste : ' in a general destruction.' 

6. Non Ti. Gracchus . . . adducitur : ' It is not Ti. Gracchus 
. . . who is being exposed to . . .' Understand the thought ; it is not 
men who have committed minor offenses, but men who have sought to 
destroy the state, who are on trial. If the less guilty paid a heavy 
penalty, much more should these traitors. 

9. discrimen — periculum. 

II. tenentur : 'are under arrest.' 

13. restiterunt : ixova. re stare. ''x,-^-^'^-^-^ 
15. servitia : abstract for concrete servi. 

15. id est initum consilium : ' (in short) this is the plan that has 
been adopted, viz., that.' 

16. ne . . . quidem : note the emphatic words between. 

17. nomen : Cf. § 3, note nomen. 

19. rei : from reus. Learn the word. 

20. primum . . . deinde . . . tum . . . maximeque . . . pos- 
tremo. Study carefully the meanings of these words in enumerations. 

Page 54] IN CATILINAM IV 25 1 

21. singularibus verbis : ' in exceptional terms.' Cf. Ill, § 14. 
verbis amplissimis. 

27. qui honos : ' an honor which.' 

27. togato . . . nemini : ' by no civilian.' Dat. of agent with com- 
pound tense of passive, as often. 

Page 53 

6 7. integrum = tamquam res Integra esset. Cf. Ill, § 7 and § 25, 
note integros. 

7. et . . . et . . . : 'both what you . . . and.' The clauses are 
objects of referre ; and integrum is predicative to them. 

8. consulis : pred. genitive of possession. 

9. versari : ' was prevalent.' 

II. banc tantam, tam . . . Cf. I, § 16, hac . . . frequentia, 
II. haberi : * being entertained.' 

15. Huic : sc. facinori. 

16. adfinis : ' implicated.' 

17. opinione : abl. after comparative. 

20. sustentando ac prolatando : ' by endurance and procrastina- 

7 24. haec : as in I, § 21. Cf. Ill, § 21, haec omnia. 

27. pro sua dignitate : ' as befits his dignified station.' 

Page 54 

I. severitate versatur : ' concerns himself with the sternest 

3. vita : abl. of separation. 

4. nomen : see §§ 3 and 4, with notes. 

4. punctum : what use of ace. ? ^ 

5. vita : abl. with frui. What kind of abl. ? \J^x-.^^ 

7. Alter intellegit. Sallust gives a speech which lie says is in sub- 
stance what Caesar said. Sallust Cat., 56. 

9. necessitatem . . . quietem : how related grammatically to mor- 
tem ? quietem refers to the peace of eternal rest secured by suicide, a doc- 
trine upheld by many in ancient times. 

II. inviti . . . oppetiverunt : ' have never been unwilling to meet 
death.' Latin adjectives agreeing with a noun or pron. are often best 
rendered by an English adverb, or by a copula with a pred. adj., as 
above. W. 412 ; A. igi ; H. 497 and i ; B. 239 ; G. 325, 6. 

12. vincula : ' imprisonment.' 

252 NOTES [Page 55 

12. et ea : ' and that.' The demonstrative is following et intro- 
duces an important addition. 

14. dispertiri : sc. eos. 

15. res : 'scheme.' Naturally the towns would object to serving as 
jailers for Rome. The precedent would be a bad one to establish. 

15. velis : tJig^indefinite 2d person. 
o 17. suscipiam : sc. rem. 

17. qui : sc. an indef. pron. as antecedent. 

18. non patent . . . dignitatis : ' will think it not becoming to 
their honorable station.' What subjv. \s putent ? What gen. is dignita- 
tis! See III, § 18, note consili. 

21. scelere : abl. with dignas. See I, ^ 19, note custodia. 

22. sancit ne quis . . . possit : ' he makes it binding that no 
one be able.' Neg. clause of purpose. On ne quis cf. I, § 4, note 
ne quid. 

23. per populum : i. e. by means of a bill passed in the assembly. 
See Introduction, § 33. 

26. quam si eripuisset : ' but had he snatched it away.' 

27. una : ' also ' ; adv. 

28. in vita : ' while living,' as opposed to apud inferos. 

30. illi antiqui : ' those famous writers of old.' 

31. voluerunt : ' insisted that.' 

31. videlicet: 'of course.' Cicero is addressing the senators, among 
whom popular religious tenets found little credence. 

Page 55 

9 I. mea . . . intersit : ' concerns me ' See W. 369 ; A. 222, a ; H. 
449. I ; B. 211, I, a; G. 381. 

3. popularis : ' democratic,' i. e. devoted to the popular party. 

4. erunt: \y\\.\\ pertif?tescendi. 

4. hoc autore : 'with him as the originator.' 

6. nescio an : ' I am inclined to think.' As in our ' I don't know 
but that,' the thought is more positive than negative. 

8. rationes : ' considerations.' 

9. maiorum. The Julian gens traced its ancestry back to legendary 
times, and indeed to the goddess Venus. 

10. obsidem. After proposing severe punishment for the foes of 
the state, Caesar would have to belie his words if he ever took a differ- 
ent position. He has also admitted the right of the senate to pass judg- 
ment (a most remarkable admission ; see Introduction to the Speech). 

13. saluti . . . consulentem. See IV, § 3, note consulite vobis. 

Page 56] IN CATILINAM IV 253 

10 15. non neminem : 'many a man,' or 'a certain person.' An old 
commentator suggests that it refers to Q. Metelius Nepos, an opponent 
of Cicero. 

15. de capite : 'with regard to the civil existence.' Caput is used 
in a political sense to represent the status of citizenship. 

16. Is : refers to non neminem ; 'such a one,' or 'he,' according ^o 
the interpretation of the antecedent as indicated above. 

19. hoc : explained by quid . . . iudicarit, a n^jndirert question. 

20. quaesitori : Cicero, as presiding officer. 

21. quid . . . iudicarit : ' what judgment he has formed.' 

22. legem Semproniam: proposed by C. Gracchus, in 123, to 
secure to Roman citizens the right of appeal to thej ^nturiate a ssembly 
in capital cases. This right was called provocatio. 

24. hostis . . . civem. He aired this view in I, § 28. It is a 
subterfuge used to shun legal responsibility, in case the right of appeal 
is denied the prisoners. Of course it is a lawyer's trick to say that 
citizens detected in criminal plottings are to be treated only as public 
enemies, to whom legal defense may properly be refused. 

25. latorem : C. Gracchus. 

25. inussu populi : ' without the people's mandate.' The instance 
is not a good one for Cicero's point, because Gracchus was not killed by 
order of the senate, but by a mob depending upon the power given the 
consul Opimius by a consultum ultimiim. Opimius was later convicted 
for arbitrary action in the case. 

Page 56 

5. se iactare : Cf. I, § i, sese . . . iactabit. 
5. in pernicie : ' in the ruination.' 

11 10. comitem : Caesar, who would appear with the consul when 
that magistrate should address the people in a contio (see Introduc- 
tion, i:^ 35) to explain to them the action of the senate. Of course, with 
the people's favorite at his side, Cicero would fear little criticism from 
the masses. 

13. populo Romano : dat. of reference. Cf. Caes. B. G. I, 28, si 
sibi purgati esse vellent. 

14. Quamquam. See I, § 22, note on this word. 

16. crudelitas : note the emphasis on the word from its position. 

17. ita . . . liceat ut . . . non moveor : ' let me enjoy to the full 
with you ... in so far (only) as I am animated not by . . .' 

18. quod . . . vehementior sum : ' if I am rather vigorous.' quod 
= ' as to the fact that,' may often be better rendered by ' if,' ' assuming 
that,' 'while.' 

254 NOTES [Page 57 

22. arcem . . . gentium. Cf. auxilium . . . gentium, § 2. 
2Z' cerno : ' clearly discern.' 

24. versatur : 'flits.' 

25. aspectus . . . et furor . . . bacchantis : ' the frenzied as- 
pect of Cethegus revelling.' Is there a case of hendiadys here? bac- 
chantis is gen. depending on eius understood after /«wr. 

12 27. regnantem : 'playing the king.' 

28. purpuratum : ' his purple-robed vizier.' The high officials of 
Oriental monarchies were termed purpurati, ' wearers of purple.' Cicero 
uses the term as particularly hateful to the ears of republican Romans. 

Page 57 

2. familias : an older form of the gen. familiae. It appears with 
pater, mater zxv^ filius. 

3. vexationem. Cf. p. 51, line 7. 

9. supplicium de servo . . . sumpserit : a common idiom for in- 
flicting punishment. 

12. nocentis : sc. eius. An " eye for an eye and a tooth for a 
tooth" doctrine. 

13. in his hominibus : ' in the case of these men.' 

20. remissiores : ' too lax.' 

21. nobis : why dat. } Observe subeunda est. 

13 23. Nisi vero. How does Cicero use this formula ? Cf II, § 6, 
note on these words. The sense is that of course he was not too cruel. 

23. L. Julius Caesar Strabo, consul in 64. His sister had married, 
as her second husband, Lentulus the conspirator. 

25. virum : ' husband ' ; Lentulus. 

27. cum : note the asyndeton at this clause. 

27. avum. Marcus Fulvius Flaccus was the maternal grandfather 
of L. Caesar, and, as a partisan of C. Gracchus, had been put to death 
with his sons by the consul L. Opimius in 121. See I, § 4. 

27. filium. The younger son of Fulvius. During the troubles 
between the senate and C. Gracchus, we are told, Flaccus sent this son 
as a messenger to Opimius to offer terms of peace. The consul refused 
any terms but surrender. The boy was sent a second time and was 
then arrested. The consul attacked Fulvius and his party and routed 
them. Fulvius and his elder son were slain in a bath-house in which 
they had sought concealment. The younger son was slain because he 
had served as the messenger of a foe. L. Caesar appealed to this bar- 
barous severity as a precedent for stern measures against the really guilty 

28. in carcere : the Tullianum. See Introduction, § 47. 

Page 59] IN CATILINAM IV 255 

Page 58 

1. Quorum quod . . . factum : 'What deed of those men is equal 
(to the deeds of these)?' Mommsen thinks C. Gracchus aimed at abso- 
lute rule. Cicero's judgment here is much milder, if not so true. 

2. initum : sc. est. 

2. delendae : ' for destroying the state.' Obj. gen. 

2. Largitionis : 'lavish donations.' C. Gracchus, for instance, pro- 
posed a lex frumentaria by which a monthly distribution of corn at a 
nominal price was provided for poor citizens. 

3. versata est : ' was prevalent.' 

5. avus : P. Lentulus, princeps senatus, was wounded in the fight 
with Gracchus and Fulvius on the Aventine Hill. 

6-7. ne . . . de summa re publica diminueretur : 'that there 
might be no detraction from the highest welfare of the state.' Neg. 

8. servitia : as in § 4, 

9. nos : perhaps he means only himself. 

12. Vereamini : depends on censeo, which is ironical. 

12. in hoc . . . tam . . . : 'in this awful.' Do not say * in this 
so' etc. 

13. nimis aliquid . . . statuisse: 'to have decided upon some 
too severe judgment.' 

[ij, 18. exaudio : 'I distinctly hear.' Apparently some senators were 
muttering to one another. Distinguish the meanings of audio and 
exaudio. See Vocab. 

19. laciuntur . . . voces: 'mutterings are bandied about.' 
21. ut : how rendered after a verb of fearing ? How is the construc- 
tion explained? W. 516 ; A. 331, f. and foot-note ; H. 567, i ; B. 296 
2 ; G. 550, 2. 

23-24. cum . . . tum : correlatives. 

28. plenum : sc. eorum. 

29. templa: what temples? See Plan of Forum, and Introduc- 
tion, III, The Forum Romanum, for information. 

29. templi ac loci : ' consecrated spot.' Figure used? i-C ♦t*-*-^ 1 

31. sentirent unum atque idem: 'hold one and the same view. ' 

Cf. HI, § 5. omnia . . . sentirent. The verb is often used of political 


Page 59 

C5 3- Hosce : i. e. the ^<7j above. Force of -<:^? See Vocab. 
3. excipio : ' I exclude.' 

256 NOTES [Page 60 

6. frequentia. Cf. I, § 16, frequentia. 

8. commemorem : W. 493 ; A. 268 ; H. 559, 4 ; B. 277 ; G. 265. 

9. summam : a substantive here. 

9. de amore : ' in devotion to.' They are rivals. 

10. annorum : gen. of measure. 

11. ordinis : obj. gen. The lack of harmony was occasioned by 
legislation respecting the right to sit on the juries in the regular courts. 
A law of C. Gracchus had bestowed this right upon the knights. Sulla 
had restored it to the senatorial order. In 70 a law was passed which 
divided the jury privilege among the senators, knights and tribunes of 
the treasury. Read Introduction, Life of Cicero, pp. xi, xii, xiv. 

II. ad societatem concordiamque : ' to a harmonious alliance.' 
13. Quam si : ' But if this.' 

15. malum civile ac domesticum : ' evil involving citizens and 

18. tribunos aerarios. Originally these were tribal paymasters of 
the soldiers and perhaps collectors of the tribute. But after 167, when 
taxes ceased to be paid by Romans, their duties must have ended. The 
name continued, perhaps as a designation of the members of the class 
from which the paymasters had been chosen. This class may have 
consisted of those rated at something less than the equites, say at about 
$15,000. Their number, in Cicero's day, must have been considerable, 
for they were given equal jury rights, in 70, with the senate and equites. 
See Greenidge's The Legal Procedure of Cicero's Time, pp. 443-445. 

19. scribas: 'clerks.' 

20. sortis : ' allotment of place,' i. e. for the next year. It took 
place in the temple of Saturn at the Aerarium. See Introduction, 
§ 44. The chief class of clerks were the quaestorii, who were assigned 
positions with the various quaestors. 

l6 25. cum : correlative with turn below. 

27. Operae pretium est: ' It is well worth while.' 

28. virtute : ' by their excellent character.' 

Page 60 

I. fortunam : ' the blessing conferred by this state,' i. e. the blessing 
of Roman citizenship. 

1. consecuti : 'having secured.' 

2. summo . . . loco : ' of high station,' socially. 

3. urbem hostium : ' a hostile city.' Their attitude of destruction 
would be warrantable only toward a city belonging to an enemy. 

4. quid . . . commemoro. How is this different from Quid . . , 
commemorem above in § 15? 


6. denique : ' in short ' ; summing up. 

6. ea quae dulcissima est : ' the sweetest of blessings.' 
8. qui modo : ' provided he.' 

8. condicione : abl. of quality. 

9. civium : contracted with servus. 

10. haec : as in IV, § 7. Cf. I, § 21, and III, § 21. 

11. quantum audet . . . voluntatis: 'as much good-will as he 
dares and can.' The gen. is partitive. 

17 14. lenonem : ' low tool.' The word is purposely chosen by 
Cicero, instead of minister^ to cast additional odium on Lentulus. 

15. tabernas : small booths or stall-like shops, one stoiy high, in 
which wares were made and sold. A row of such shops stood on each 
of the long sides of the Forum. See Plan of Forum. 

15. pretio : abl. of means. 

16. est id . . . coeptum. ' (Let me say that) it has been begun.' 
The abrupt form of the construction is similar to that in II, § 9, nemo 
est , . . etc. See note on that passage. 

19. sellae atque operis et quaestus . . . locum : ' the place 
where they sit and work and seek their daily gain.' Lit. * the place of 
their (work-)stool, their work etc' 

22. eorum, qui . . . sunt : ' of the shopkeepers.' 

23. immo vero. How used ? Cf. I, § 2, note on these words. 

24. oti : obj. gen. with adj. 

24. instrumentum : 'business outfit.' Cf. II, §9, note on the word. 
27. occlusis tabernis : ' by the closing of the shops.' What abl. ? 

Page 61 

18 I. Quae cum ita sint. See I, § 10, note. 

I. vobis . . . desunt : Cf. I, § 3, deest rei publicae. 

7. mente, voluntate . . . voce : ' in thought, will, and utterance.' 
Observe the asyndeton. 

II. arcem et Capitolium. The Capitoline Hill was composed of 
two elevations with a depression between them. The northern peak 
was occupied by the arx and the temple of Juno Moneta. The south- 
ern elevation was crowned with the Capitolium, or temple of Jupiter 
Optimus Maximus. Both stood behind and above the temple of Con- 
cord, in which Cicero was speaking. 

11. aras Penatium : situated near the spot where the Arch of 
Titus now stands. 

12. ilium ignem Vestae. The orator points toward the temple of 
Vesta, at the opposite end of the Forum ; hence ilium. See Intro- 
duction, § 53. Read in a class, diet., art. Vesta. 

258 NOTES [Page 62 

19 18. vestri : obj. gen., the regular use of this form. 

18. quae . . . facultas : ' a piece of good fortune,' ' a happy privi- 

20. id quod : * a phenomenon which.' 

21. in civili causa : ' in home politics.' The Roman people had 
often been agreed on matters of foreign policy, but in questions of in- 
ternal politics there had naturally been much difference of opinion. 

22. unum . . . sentientem. See IV, § 14. 

22. Cogitate quantis . . . delerit : ' Consider with what labori- 
ous efforts the government was founded, with what courage, etc. . . ., 
which one night has almost destroyed.' fundatum, stabilitam, auctas 
exaggeratasque, are participles ; but in English the participles are 
not good form with the interrogative adjective, hence we change them 
all to finite verbs, and make una nox etc. a relative clause. The una 
nox was either the night of the final assembly in the house of M . Laeca 
(cf. I, § 8-9) or the night of the capture of the Allobroges. 

26. non modo : ' I will not say ' ; as often after a negative. 

30. officio : what abl. with fungor ? 

Page 62 

20 2. de me pauca dicam : a not infrequent occurrence with the self- 
appreciative orator. 

3. quam videtis : ' and you see that it.' 

4. suscepisse : ' incurred,' ' won for myself.' 

6. Quod si : ' But even if ' , concessive, as the tamen below shows. 
8. me . . . factorum . . . poenitebit : ' never shall I repent of 
my deeds.' W. 368 ; A. 221, b ; H. 457 ; B. 209 ; G. 377. 

10. mihi : why dat. ? Observe minitantur. 

11. vitae : 'in life.' The case is genitive. 

13. bene gesta . . . See III, § 15, note bene gesta re . . » 

14. gratulationem = supplicationem : as in IV, § 10. 

21 16. P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major: the conqueror of 
Rome's greatest foe, Hannibal. 

18. alter Africanus : P. Scipio A emilianus Africanus Minor, the 
son of Z. Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus and adopted son of the elder 
son of Africanus Major, and destroyer of Carthage. He was also a dis- 
tinguished patron of letters. 

20. L. Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus : conquered the Mace- 
donian king Perses in 168. and celebrated a triumph in the next year. 
He was a man of the sterling old Roman type. 

21. currum . . . honestavit : ' whose chariot . . . adorned with 
distinction ' ; the king marched beside the chariot in chains. 

Page 63] IN CATILINAM IV 259 

23. bis Italiam obsidione : in the battles with the Cimbri and 
Teutones in loi and 102. 

25. solis cursus . . . : similarly, III, § 26. 

26. continentur : ' are limited.' So Caesar uses the word for bound- 
ary limitations, B. G.l, i. Eorum pars una . . . continetur Garumna 

27. aliquid loci : ' some little spot.' Modest language for an ego- 
tistical request. 

27. nisi forte. Like nisi vero, ironical. Cf. II, § 6, note on nisi 

28. quo : ' to which.' 

Page 63 

I. habeant quo : ' may have a place to which.' 

22 3. Quamquam : as in I, § 22. This use should now be entirely 
familiar to the student. y 

3. uno loco : ' in one respect.' Note the omission of a preposition. 

3. condicio. Cf. Ill, i^ 2, nfote ott thy word. 

3. externae : ' outside o)<rr borders.' 

5. recepti : ' welcomed/fo favor.' 

6. qui autem : * but those who ' ; t^e antecedent is eos. 
8. cum . . . reppuleris : ' although you [the indefinite 2d person, 

like veils, % 7] should have driven 4:hem from their destructive plans 
against the state.' 

10. mihi : dat. of agent with susceptum esse. Cf. I, § 16, note tibi. 
The consul foresees that his vigorous measures will excite hatred against 
him. As a matter of fact he was later forced into exile on the charge of 
illegally putting these conspirators to death. See Introduction, Life 
of Cicero, § 7. 

14. a me. Ts this separation or agent? 

16. ulla . . . tanta vis : 'any force be found so powerful.' quae 
, . . possit : ' that it can sever the union between you and the Roman 
knights, and weaken the great harmony of all good men.' Take con- 
fringere with coniunctionem ; and labefactare with conspirationem 
(= concordiath). This union did not last, and Cicero's great error in 
statesmanship was his inability to see that such a union was imprac- 
ticable. Read Introduction, § 14. 

23 20. pro imperio : sc. proconstdari : ' In requital for the proconsular 
command.' He had surrendered to his colleague Antonius the province 
of Macedonia, which was to have been his to govern the next year. He 
might also have had Cisalpine ^aul. 

22. propter . . . custodiam : ' in consequence of a desire to guard.' 

26o NOTES [Page 64 

23. clientelis hospitiisque : ' clients and guest-friends ' ; abstract 
for concrete. These he might secure in a province, as it was common for 
the provincials to choose their governor as their patronus in Rome, and 
to bestow on him the hospitable right of guest-friendship, which meant 
that he would always find a welcome with them. These guest-friend- 
ships were regular contracts among the Romans, who gave tesserae hospi- 
tales (' guest-friend tickets ') to those with whom they made a compact 
and these served as identification for members of the families contracting. 
The relationship was maintained between families until formally abro- 
gated. In the absence of good inns the custom was necessary. 

25. quam : ' than,' after a comparative. 

28. nihil . . . nisi . . . memoriam. His aim is glory and lasting 
fame, and he is not backward in asking for it. Succeeding generations 
have accorded him more than even he dreamed of. 

Page 64 

7. haec omnia : as in § 7. ^ 

7. suo solius periculo : ' with peril to himself alone.' For solius 
see W. 424 ; A, 197, e ; H. 446, 3 ; B. 243, 3, a ; G. 321, Remark 2. 
24 9- de summa salute : ' with a view to the complete safety of your- 

13. diligenter : be careful of the meaning. See Vocab. 

14. eum : ' a.' 

16. praestare : ' to answer for them,' ' go security for them ' ; the 
regular meaning in Cic. when followed by the ace. He found himself a 
weak reed to lean upon, however, when the trial came home to him, and 
he was obliged to bend to the storm and leave Rome. Read Intro- 
duction, § 7. 

Cicero's words did not effect a decision of the question. Ti. 
Claudius Nero proposed a third course, which was to delay action 
until Catiline should be defeated in battle. Many, including Silanus 
himself, subscribed to this view ; but M. Porcius Cato arose, and 
in fiery language urged immediate death to the conspirators. His 
words roused the senators, and a vote for death was passed. Cicero 
at once commanded the prisoners Cethegus, Statilius, Gabinius, 
Ceparius, and Lentulus to be conducted to the prison, where, in the 
Tullianum or lower dungeon, they were put to death. Cicero was 
escorted home by the people and hailed as the savior of the state. 
Later Catiline was killed in battle, while fighting with the greatest 
bravery against his country, near Pistoria, in Etruria, 




In Cicero's time the most imposing foe of the Roman 
RepubHc in the East was the King of Pontus, in Asia 
Minor, Mithradatcs VI, Eupator. He was a man of splen- 
did physique, brilhant in athletic exercises and soldierly 
accomplishments, and mighty in the hunt. He could 
drive a team of sixteen, and he could tame wild horses. 
Like most eastern sultans he loved splendor and was 
fond of gold and jewels. Like a sultan also he dealt out 
death and poison, even to members of his own family. 
But the king had powers of mind as well, and could con- 
verse in twenty-two different tongues or dialects. He 
was devoted to music and to Greek art, and gathered 
about him Greek literary men. But his preeminent claim 
to a place in history is his unfaltering hatred of Rome's 
power, and his inflexible purpose to resist it and to 
drive it from the East, and to establish his own rule 
in its place. 

The King of Pontus gradually extended his sway over 
neighboring countries, until he dominated the lands about 
the Black Sea to the east and north, and also a large 
portion of central Asia Minor. With Tigranes, King of 
Greater Armenia, he formed an alliance and cemented 
it by giving his daughter in marriage. At length the 


262 NOTES 

aggressive ruler came into direct conflict with Rome's 
will, and war broke out in 88. Mithradates was at 
first successful against the Roman forces and came 
into control of most of western Asia Minor, making 
Pergamum his capital. He issued an order for a gen- 
eral massacre of all Romans found in the towns of his 
new possessions, and on one night, it is said, more than 
80,000 victims were butchered in cold blood. His army 
marched into Greece and took possession of Athens. 
L. Cornelius Sulla with a Roman army landed in Greece 
in 87. The forces of the enemy shut themselves up 
in Athens and the Piraeus, and resisted Sulla for over 
a year. The campaign continued favorable to Sulla, who 
finally drove the enemy out of Europe after three years 
of fighting. But just when matters were looking bad for 
the Pontic king, political affairs at Rome aided him. The 
Marian party got control and sent a general to relieve 
Sulla of his command. Sulla ignored this action of the 
government, but was of course anxious to make terms 
with Mithradates and to get back to Rome with his army. 
In 84 he settled matters with the king, and in 83 was back 
in Rome and master of its destinies. 

L. Licinius Murena, whom Sulla had left in command 
of the Roman forces, provoked the war anew, shortly 
after his chief had departed, and received a telling defeat 
at the hands of the enemy. Sulla sent orders to cease 
the conflict, and so ended the Second Mithradatic 
War in 81. 

The king set himself vigorously to prepare for a new 
struggle, and after the death of Sulla he persuaded Ti- 
granes to make an expedition into Cappadocia. He also 
made an alliance with Sertorius, who was resisting Roman 
power in Spain. In 74 the Third Mithradatic War broke 
out. The king defeated the Roman forces in Bithynia 


until the arrival of the aristocratic general, L. Licinius 
Lucullus, who forced him to flee to his ships. A vio- 
lent storm v^^recked the fleet, and the king barely escaped 
to Sinope. Lucullus conducted the war with marked 
success, defeating the king even in his own Pontus. But 
political opposition at Rome was busy undermining his 
reputation. He fought a great battle with Tigranes, in 
which he defeated an overwhelmingly large number of 
the enemy. But his soldiers, tired out with long cam- 
paigning and poor rewards, mutinied and refused to fol- 
low him farther east. The allied kings inflicted a dread- 
ful punishment upon the forces of Triarius, a lieutenant 
of Lucullus, who was coming to reenforce him. Seven 
thousand Roman soldiers were slain. M'. Acilius Gla- 
brio was despatched from Rome to supersede Lucullus. 
Against this incapable and inactive general Mithradates 
had an easy task, and rapidly won back much that he 
had lost. 

In 67 Pompey had come east to put down piracy on 
the seas, and after accomplishing this work he had stayed 
with his army in Cilicia. In 66 the tribune C. Manilius 
proposed a measure to entrust the entire control of mat- 
ters in Asia to Pompey. It was a popular proposal with 
the equites and the democrats, and it passed, in spite of 
the unrepublican power which it placed in the hands of 
one man. Cicero, then praetor, supported the bill in the 
speech which follows. It was his first purely political 
oration. He was speaking to a sympathetic audience, and 
there was no demand upon him for impassioned utter- 
ance. The speech is an excellent model of the orderly 
treatment of a theme, as will be seen from the outlines 
following. The bill of Manilius became law. 

Pompey proceeded with vigor against Mithradates 
and utterly broke his power. The old king at last fled 

264 NOTES 

to a lonely stronghold, took poison, and not dying 
quickly enough, ordered an attendant to strike off his 
head that he might not fall alive into the hands of the 



Delivered B. C. 66 

This speech is an excellent model of the formal rhetor- 
ical structure, exhibiting an exordium, a narratio, a par- 
titio, a coniirmatio, a confutatio, and a peroratio. 

I. Exordium. — § i. I have shrunk from speaking 
from the Rostra until I felt prepared. § 2. My activity in 
the courts has earned me the praetorship. My gifts are at 
your service. § 3. I rejoice in my theme. 

II. Narratio. — § 4. A serious war is going on 
against us. The equites are alarmed. § 5. Many dis- 
tricts are in the power of the enemy. The allies desire 
Pompey. § 6. I shall speak upon three points. 


§ 7. A stain must be wiped from the Roman name, and 
a murderer punished. § 8. The victories of our generals 
have had no lasting results. § 9. Mithradates raised new 
forces and allied himself with Sertorius. § 10. Pompey 
disposed of Sertorius ; and Lucullus at first did well 
against Mithradates. § 11. Your ancestors made war on 
less provocation. § 12. The safety of your allies is im- 
perilled. § 13. They desire Pompey, and he is near. 
§ 14. Your most valuable revenues are at stake. § 15. 
Wars and rumors of war create panic in business. 
§§ 16-17. The taxpayers and tax-gatherers must be pro- 
tected. § 18. You must protect all who have investments 


in Asia. § 19. Financial security at Rome depends upon 
the state of the East. 

B. The Magnitude of the War. — §§ 20-21. The 
war is necessary and important. The deeds of Lucullus 
deserve praise. § 22. Mithradates, hke Medea, escaped by 
a trick. § 23. Tigranes and others befriended him. § 24. 
Our soldiers desired to return home. Mithradates re- 
ceived help and sympathy. § 25. He even annihilated a 
Roman army. § 26. Lucullus has disbanded some troops 
and given others to Glabrio. Judge yourselves as to the 
importance of the war. . 

C. The Choice of a Commander. — § 27. Would 
that good generals were plentiful ! Pompey surpasses 
all. § 28. Four qualities are necessary in a great com- 
mander, and Pompey has them all. His training excel- 
lent. § 29. He surpasses all in superior qualities. § 30. 
Many countries are witnesses of his prowess. §§ 31-35. 
The seas were infested with pirates, and the state was 
disgraced and helpless. Pompey swept the sea with 
incredible speed and broke the pirates' power. § 36. With 
other necessary qualities Pompey is exceptionally en- 
dowed. § 37. Some generals have been corrupt. § 38. 
If their armies ravaged our fields, what must the allies 
have suffered ? § 39. Pompey prevents his army from 
being a nuisance. § 40. Nothing swerves him from a 
purpose. § 41. Men believe him lent from heaven, and 
have faith in the stories of old Roman virtue. § 42. He 
is wise, eloquent, trustworthy, and kind. § 43. His great 
prestige tells with the enemy. § 44. His fame extends 
everywhere. The price of grain fell when he was appoint- 
ed against the pirates. § 45. His mere presence in Asia 
has deterred Mithradates. § 46. The Cretans preferred 
to surrender to Pompey. Mithradates tried to bargain 
with him in Spain. §§ 47-48. Pompey has had extraor- 



dinarily good fortune. § 49. Do you hesitate to employ 
his abilities for the service of the state ? § 50. He ought 
to be appointed, now that he is on the spot. 

V. CoNFUTATio.— § 51. Catulus and Hortensius op- 
pose the bill. But consider the facts, not influence. § 52. 
Hortensius objects to one-man power. But no harm 
has come out of the Gabinian law. § 53. The interests 
of the state prevailed. § 54. What state could not guard 
its shores, save Rome ? § 55. We were humbled on the 
sea, yet our rulers did not feel shame. § 56. Distress 
forced the people to disregard your advice, Hortensius. 
§ 57. It is too bad that objection was raised against Ga- 
binius. § 58. There are precedents ; and I shall put his 
case before the senate. § 59. Catulus objected to the 
bill and got a compliment. The state should benefit by a 
great man's life, § 60. There are precedents for one-man 
power. §§ 61-62. Pompey's whole career has been ex- 
traordinary ; as commander, triumphator, and consul, and 
it has been approved by Catulus. § 63. Let these leaders 
yield to your will. § 64. What the people wisely wish 
should be obeyed. Our commander must be more than 
a general. § 65. We are odious because of our plunder- 
ing commanders. § 66. The objectors know the wrongs 
of our allies. We need an upright general. § 67. Our 
allies desire Pompey, because of his self-restraint. Other 
leaders were covetous. § 68. There are weighty men who 
favor the bill. 

VI. Peroratio. — § 69. The multitude approves of 
your bill, Manilius, and I will do my best for it. § 70. I 
do not speak by request, nor to win favor. § 71. I have 
acted for the welfare of the state. 



Note. — This list is not meant to be exhaustive, but to be useful. 

WiLKiNS. Ue Imperio Gn. Pompei. Edited after Halm. Mac- 
millan & Co. 1889. [Contains an excellent introduction on 
the MrttiradaticNWars.] 

KiNGj/Select Orations for Schools. Clarendon Press, 1896. 

LON^ Ciceronis Orktiones. Vol. ii. [Needs revision.] Lon- 
[don, 1856. \ 

Rici^ter-Eberhard. j Ciceros Rede iiber das Iniperium des Cn. 
I'ompeius. [A schblarly edition.] Leipzig, 1890. / 

Halm-Laubmann. AJisgewahlte Reden. I. Band. Berlin. [Re- 
liable.] \ 

Deuerling. Ciceros Rede iiber das Imperium des Cn. Pompeius. 
Konimentar. Goth A, 1896. 

Stegmann. Auswahl aVis den Reden dfes M. Tullius Cicero. \. 
[A good school comrtientary.] Leipzig, ,'i 896. 

SCHMALZ. Ciceros Redin. ErsJ^ Heft.' [Brief but valuable 
notes.] Leipzig, i895.\ / / / 


/ / 

MOMMSEN. History of R6me. (See Index for the Mithradatic 

Wars and character ot Mithradates.) 

Plutarch. Lives of Sulla, Lucullus and Pompey. 

NiEBUHR. Lectures on' the History of Rome, Lecture 40. 

Reinach. Mithridate^ Eupator. Paris, 1891. 

Beesly. The Gracchi, Marius and Sulla. 

Oman. Seven RomaA Statesmen. New York, 1902. 

Also the Lives of Cicero mentioned in Introduction, pp. 

xxxiii, xxxiv. 



Page 65 

I I. frequens conspectus : 'the sight of your crowded gatherings.* 
What literally ? 

2. multo iucundissimus : 'extremely agreeable.' longe is more 

common with the superlative in classical Latin ; multo is common in old 

Latin. , 


268 NOTES [Page 65 

2. locus : the Rostra. See Introduction, § 49. 

3. ad agendum : so. cum populo : the ius agendi cum populo, ' right 
of proposing measures to the people,' was held by the consuls and prae- 
tors only. Extraordinary officers like a dictator or interrex also had the 
right. Aulus Gellius, a Roman writer, defines the use of age7-e cum 
■bopulo as follows : ' cum populo agere ' est rogare quid populum, quod 
suffragtis suis aut jubeat aut vetet; ' contionem ' autem ' habere ' est 
verba facere ad populum sine ulla rogatione. "'To discuss with the 
people ' is to ask them for something which by their votes they may 
command or forbid ; but to ' hold a contio ' is to address the people 
without proposing any measure." See Introduction, g 35. 

3. ad dicendum {apud populum) : ' for addressing the people ' ; 
gerund of purpose. The reference is to contiones. See Introduction, 
^ 35. Naturally it was a distinction to be allowed the privilege of 
speaking on such occasions. 

4. aditu laudis : 'avenue to glory,' ' gate to fame.' 
6. rationes : ' plans.' 

6. ab ineunte aetate: 'from early manhood,' i. e. from the time he 
assumed the toga virilis, at 16-years of age and became a voter. 

7. per aetatem : ' in consequence of youthfulness.' 

8. auctoritatem \ofZl: ' this distinguished station,' ' the dignity be- 
fitting this place. '^-^ 

9. ingenio : ' with brains.' 

10. industria : ' with diligence.' 

11. tempus . . . temporibus : a play on the double meaning of 
the word, not easily imitated in Eng. : ' my time ... to the exigencies 
(i. e. in law-courts) of my friends.' temporibus means, as often, the 
' critical seasons,' ' time of trial.' 

15. periculis : = temporibus above, in the sense of dangers arising 
from trials at law. 

15. caste integreque : ' with purity and incorruptibility.' Advo- 
cates in Rome were forbidden by law {lex Cincia of 204) to accept any 
fees for legal services. Cicero may mean (i) that he did not violate this 
law, nor (2) allow himself to be bribed by the opposing side in any suit 
nt law to lose his client's case. Bribery was probably not uncommon. 
The wealth of advocates casts suspicion on the efficacy of this old law. 
See Introduction, p. xxvii. 

15. versatus : 'busied,' 'wrapped up in.' 

17. dilationem comitiorum. The reason for this postponement 
is not known. For the causes of a postponement of an election see In- 
troduction, p. xlvii. 

17. ter praetor primus : ' was three times the first to be proclaimed 


praetor.' There were eight praetors of equal powers to be chosen. 
Cicero says that he was the first one to get the requisite number of votes 
for election. As the election was twice postponed he was voted for 
three times. His popularity was emphasized by his getting the votes of 
all the centuries so readily. For the method of election see Introduc- 
tion, § 34. Also read § 23. 

19. quid aliis praescriberetis : ' what you enjoined upon others.* 
The idea is, " You have shown your approval of my work and character, 
and by so doing have said to others, * Go and do likewise, if you would 
find favor.' " The subjv. is in indirect question. 

Page 66 

4. ex forensi usu : ' from (law-) practise in the Forum.' 

6. utar : sc. ea referring to auctoritatis. 

7. ostendam : sc. id. 

8. ei . . . rei fructum : 'full sway to this power.' 7ei refers to the 
power as orator mentioned in si quid in dicendo . . . possum, frtictum 
means the opportunity for the full use of his oratorical powers in the 
service of the government, now open to him as a reward for past distinc- 
tion in his profession. 

9. duxerunt : ' have deemed.' 

10. Atque : 'And further.' 

12. oratio : ' speech,' * material for a speech.' 

14. virtute : ' excellence,' ' worth.' 

16. copia : ' subject-matter.' 

16. modus : ' manner of presentation.' 

18. bellum . . .: '(you are aware that) a seriously dangerous war.' 
For a similar construction of sentence cf. Cat. II, § 9, nemo est, and IV, 
§ 17, est id. 

19. vectigalibus : masc. gender (?) not a case-form of vectigal. It 
is possible, however, to keep the meaning ' revenues.' 

20. Mithradate. See Introduction to this oration for an account 
of him. 

21. relictus : 'left to his own devices ' ; i. e. left unconquered, and 
therefore able to recuperate. 

24. magnae res: 'large capital.' 

24. aguntur : ' are at stake.' vectigalibus : irom vectigal. 

25. occupatae : ' invested.' 

26. necessitudine : ' relationship.' Cicero was born with the rank 
of an eques. He became a senator only after his election to the quaes- 

270 NOTES [Page 68 

5 29. Ariobarzanes I, Philoromaios. The royal family of Cappa- 
docia died out in 95, and the Roman government declared the country 
free. The people, however, asked the privilege of electing a king, and 
when the request was granted they chose Ariobarzanes. He was several 
times forced from his kingdom by Mithradates and Tigranes, but was 
finally firmly established upon the throne by Pompey. 

Page 67 

2. L. Lucullum. See Introduction to the speech. 

3. huic : why dat. ? Observe successerit. 

3. qui : so. is. The reference is to the ex-consul M\ A alius Glabrio. 
3. non satis esse paratum : a very mild statement of the truth 
that Glabrio was a worthless commander. 

6. unum : ' only.' 

7. praeterea neminem : a repetition of sense similar to that in 
Cat. Ill, ^ 6, res . . . nota solis, ignorabatur a ceteris. 

6 12. eius modi quod : ' such that it.' 
15. cum . . . turn : correlatives. 

18. certissima : ' most assured.' 

19. quibus amissis : abl. abs. equivalent to a condition. 

20. ornamenta : 'splendid accompaniments', i e. all those costly 
buildings, works, games, festivals, etc., which make peace splendid, 

20. subsidia belli : ' war-reserves,' i. e. money for war purposes. 

20. requiretis : 'you will miss' ; lit. 'look for' (and not find). 

21. quibus est . . . consulendum : 'whose interests you must 
consult.' Cf. IV, § 3. consulite, note. The abl. of agent is used to 
avoid ambiguity when the gerundive governs a dative. 

7 26. bello superiore : in 88, under Sulla, superior e is used here of 
the war before the last. Cf. superiore nocte. Cat. I, § i. 

Page 68 

1. nomine: ' in the (glorious) name.' 

2. uno nuntio . ' a single message.' 

2. una significatione litterarum : ' a mere written notice.' Eighty 
thousand Romans, it is said, were massacred by this order of Mithradates, 
throughout Asia Minor. 

3. necandos : the gerundive in agreement with the obj., to express 
purpose. W. 644, 2 ; A. 294, d ; H. 622 ; B. 337, 7, b, 2 ; G. 430. 
scelere : cf. Cat. I, § 19, note custodia. 

6. tertium et vicesimum regnat: Cf. Cat. I, § 4. vicesimum 
iam diem patimur. 


7. latebris occultare : ' conceal himself in the lurking-places.* 
With this verb the abl. of place with the prep, in is used ; or the word 
of situation is put as an abl. of means. It is not necessary to strive to 
identify any particular places as the latebrae referred to here. 

8. emergere. Recall the use of this verb in Cat. II, § 21. 

9. vectigalibus : 'in your tax-paying districts.' 

9. in Asiae luce : ' in the broad day-light of your Asia ' ; i. e. where 
we can readily learn of his doings, almost see them. The contrast is 
with Cappadociae latebris. 

9. versari : ' bestir himself.' This favorite verb of Cicero has a 
flexible meaning varying with the context. 

8 II. insignia: ' (only) the emblems.' 

12. Triumphavit : 'celebrated a triumph'; Sulla in 81 ; Murena 
in 80. For the details of a triumph see a class, diet., art. Triumphus^ 
which you will find interesting reading, 

14. sed ita . . . : ' but the triumph they celebrated was such.' The 
idea is that, although they enjoyed a triumph, the enemy was still an 
active opponent. 

16. quod egerunt : ' with reference to what they did.* 

17. quod reliquerunt : ' with reference to what they left undone.' 

9 21. ad oblivionem : ' to effacing the memory of ; i. e. in the minds 
of the Romans, in order to win favor with them. 

24. potuisset : subjv. of integral part. W. 620; A. 342 , H. 652 ; 
B. 324 ; G. 629. 

25. simularet : ' put forward the pretense.' Note the change to 
the imp. tense and its meaning. 

26. duces : those with vSertorius in Spain. 

Page 69 

1. disiunctissimis maximeque diversis : 'very far apart and as 
different as can be.' 

2. binis : the distributive is used instead of the cardinal when the 
modified noun is plural in form, but singular in meaning; viz., bina 
castra, binae litterae; copiae^ the plural = ' a force.' 

2. terra marique : 'on land and sea.' Learn the idiom, and ob- 
serve the omission of a preposition. 

3. de imperio : ' for the mastery,' ' for empire.' 

10 5. Sertorianae. Sertorius was the ablest general of the Marian 
party in its struggle against Sulla. When the latter gained control in 
Rome, Sertorius endeavored to set up a separate government in Spain, 
He was not conquered by any Roman general, but was murdered by his 

272 NOTES [Page 70 

lieutenant Perperna. After his death his troops were defeated by Pom- 
pey. Cicero is bending the truth to flatter Pompey. Read Plutarch's 
Life of Sertorius, or the account of him in Mommsen's History. 

9. initia ilia . . . praeclara : ' those great and splendid initial 
successes.* Lit. ' beginnings of deeds.' The noun initia is better ren- 
dered by the adjective in English. 

10. felicitati : ' good luck,' ' lucky star.' 

11. haec . . . extrema: ' these latest happenings ' ; in 67 C. Tria- 
rius, lieutenant of Sulla, was terribly defeated in Asia Minor by Mith- 
radates. See the introduction to this speech. Cicero purposely refrains 
from any word which would characterize the events as defeats and dis- 

13. alio loco: observe the lack of a preposition. 

14. ei : dat. of ref. (of person) with verb compounded with de. W. 
337 ; A. 229 ; H. 427 ; B. 188, 2, d ; G. 345, Remark i. 

II 17. quern . . . animum suscipiendum : ' what attitude you ought 
to adopt.' 

22. quo tandem animo. Cf. Cat. I, § 16. 

22. Legati. They were sent to the Achaean League, and were 
not only addressed with too much spirit, but also, according to others, 
were actually treated with violence. 

26. legatum : M'. Aquilius, sent to Asia Minor at the head of an 
embassy to reinstate the banished rulers of Bithynia and of Cappadocia 
in their kingdoms. The Roman ambassador urged the Bithynian king to 
make inroads upon the territory of Mithradates, who naturally retaliated, 
precipitating war upon the Romans. Later Aquilius was defeated and 
captured by Mithradates, who put him to death (in 88) by pouring molten 
gold down his greedy throat. 

27. excruciatum necavit : ' tortured and put to death.' When a 
perfect participle agrees with an accusative object, it is usually better to 
render it by a verb constructed like the controlling verb and connected 
with it by ' and,' as above. 

28. libertatem imminutam : ' the infringement of the liberty.' 

Page 70 

12 I. ut . . . pulcherrimum fuit : 'as it was most glorious for them.' 

4. Quid ? serves to introduce a new question ; but observe that the 

main clause of the question is not placed immediately after it. The 

prominent idea is in the ^«<?r/ clause. Cf. Cat. I, ^ 8, Quid, and I, § 16, 

Quid? quod . . . quo tandem animo. 

7. toti Asiae. What case ? Observe imminent. 

Page 71] DE IMPERlO POMPEl ORAtIO 2^% 

9. cuncta Asia : the prep, in is omitted after the analogy of tota 
Asia with which the omission is regular. 

11. certum : 'a certain well-known.' The use of quidam would 
mean 'some (we know not which),' Certus means one whom we all 
know, but do not care to mention by name. 

12. alium: M'. Acilius Glabrio. 

13 15. sentiunt hoc idem quod vos. Cf. Cat. Ill, § 5 ; and IV, § 14. 
16. summa sint omnia : ' are all excellent qualities in the highest 

16. propter : adv. 

17. quo etiam carent aegrius : 'and for this reason too, it is (all 
the) harder for them to do without (him).' 

17. quo = et eo : abl. of cause, carent aegrius = lit. ' with greater 
difificulty they do without.' The verb rar^r^ means 'not to have what 
one would like to have.' 

18. ad maritimum bellum. Pompey had come to the East as com- 
mander-in-chief against the pirates of the Mediterranean, and after 
defeating them was now in Cilicia with an army. 

22. dignos . . . quorum . . . commendetis : ' that you will con- 
sider them fit for you to entrust their welfare to a man of such character.* 
For the constniction digmis qui with subjv., see W. 588, 3; A. 320, f; 
H. 591, 7 ; B, 282, 3 ; G. 631, i. 

28. temperantia : abl. of quality. 

Page 71 

4. Antiochus III, the Great, King of Syria, made war on the 
Romans, but was defeated, in 191, at Thermopylae in Greece, and again 
near Magnesia in Lydia in 190. The familiar bust in the Louvre called 
Caesar is probably Antiochus the Great. 

4. Philippus V, King of Macedonia, was defeated at Cynoscephalae, 
in 197. 

5. Aetoliis. These people had joined Antiochus as allies against 

5. Poenis : the Carthaginians, whose city was finally destroyed by 
Scipio Aemilianus in 146. 

6. convenit : impersonal. 

8. de . . . agatur : ' there is a question about,' or * the issue con- 
cerns.' Cf. the use of aguntur in ^ 6. 

9. tanta sunt, ut . . . : ' are only of such size that we can barely feel 
repaid by them for protecting the provinces themselves.' eis . . . con- 
tenti, ' be satisfied with them,' ' feel repaid by them.' The revenues 

274 NOTES [Page 72 

scarcely enable them to "make both ends meet " in the management of 
the province. 

15. belli utilitatem : ' the practical benefits of war.' 

16. pacis dignitatem : * the (proper) dignity of peace.' The idea 
is that the revenues are " the things which make for profit in war and for 
dignity in peace." 

15 24. ex portu : ' from export {note the derivation) and import 
duties,' 'harbor revenues.' 

24. decumis : ' tithes ' (which is the Anglo-Saxon word for tenths) ; 
taxes consisting of a tenth of the produce raised. 

25. scriptura : 'pasture poll-tax.' Owners were obliged to register 
for taxation the number of head of cattle put out to pasture. 

16 29. exercent : ' farm,' ' manage.' The publicani bought the right 
to collect the revenues. 

Page 72 

1. exigunt : 'exact'; said of the slaves of the publicani, who 
actually gathered the taxes. The word suggests that little leniency was 
exercised by these agents. 

2. propter. See § 13. 

4. familias. Observe carefully the meaning in the Vocab. 

4. in saltibus ... in agris . . . portubus : i. e. as collectors. 

5. in custodiis : ' in the coast-guard posts ' ; as watchmen to pre- 
vent smuggling. 

5. magno periculo : 'at great risk.' 
7. rebus: what abl. is used y^'\\hfruor? 

7. fructui. See W. 343, 2 ; A. 233, a ; H. 425, 3 ; B. 191, 2 ; 
G. 356. 

17 ^3' quorum . . . ratio : ' whose business interests.' 

14. Nam et. The orator begins with et as if he intended to intro- 
duce a list, but, forgetting this, he resumes after dice?nus with Deinde. 
16. rationes : ' speculations.' 
20. iirmamentum . . . dicemus : a trivial inference. 

18 23. ipsi . . . negotiantur : * are personally engaged in business.' 

23. quibus . . .: 'whose interests.' Cf. Cat. IV, § 3, note con- 

24. partim eorum = alii eorum. 

25. Est . . . humanitatis : ' it is incumbent on your human feel- 
ings.' What genitive ? 

29. parvi refert : ' is of little importance.' Gen. of indef. value. 
29. publicanis omissis : ' without considering the publicans.' 


Page 73 

2. isdem . . . facultas erit : ' for certainly the same men will not 
have the means for bidding in (the taxes) .' isdem : dative of pos- 

3. timorem : sc. calamitatis. 

19 5. initio : abl. of time. 

7. turn, cum. Note the mood following. The indicative is regular 
with these words. 

8. Solutione impedita: 'in consequence of the stoppage of pay- 
ments.' solvere ■=' to ^^diy.' ^' 

10. ut . . . trahant : 'without drawine:' Subjv. of result. 

12. id quod : ' a fact that,' ' as.' id Defers to haec fides . . . im- 
^licata est. ,/ 

12. fides . . . /'ratio pecuniarum ;/' credit and system of finance.' 

16. ne non dubitandum . . . si£ : ' that you do not feel it neces- 
sary to hesitate to . . .' /y 

20. re publica : ' public interests.* / 

20 25. In quo : ' And in this matter.' ^ 

25. laborandum est : ' care must be observed.' 

Page 747 

3. Cyzicenorum : ' that of the Cyziceni.' 

21 7. ducibus Sertorianis : abl. abs. Mithradates sent a fleet, which 
Sertorius had assisted in forming, to harass the coast of Italy ; but this 
fleet was met and defeated by Lucullus, not far from the island of 
Lemnos in the Aegean Sea. 

8. studio : ' party-zeal.' 
■b^ 12. ex omni aditu . . . fuisset : 'had been shut off from all access 

HL on the part of the Roman people.' The subjv. is due to indir. disc. 
^^B 14. refertas : from 7-efercio. Cf. conferti cibo, Cat. II, § 10. 

^H 21. ita . . . ut: 'so marked . . . that.' This is a peculiar use of 

^^P ita and suggests that perhaps a participle has been lost here. 

21. hoc: explained by Lucullum . . . laudatum. 

22 24. Requiretur fortasse : ' Perhaps now the question will be 

28. Medea ilia. Do not neglect to read the stoiy of Jason and 
Medea in a class, diet. ; or in Gayley's Classic Myths ; or better still in 
D. O. S. Lowell's /aj^w'j Quest, Boston, 1893. 

276 NOTES [Page 76 

Page 75 

1. quam praedicant : ' for they (i. e. writers of old) assert that she.' 

2. frdtris : Absyrtus. 

2. locis, qua : ' places over which.' qua = quibus. 

2. parens : Aeetes. 

3. conlectio dispersa : ' the gathering of the scattered fragments.' 
Make dispersa agree with eortini in the translation. 

9. conligunt. How is the present tense with dum to be ren- 
dered ? 

9. dilig^entius : 'somewhat too carefully.' The orator veils the re- 
proach of greediness with a mild expression. 

23 12. timore et fuga: 'in that terrified flight.' Figure? 

18. quas numquam . . . putavit. For the disinclination of the 
Romans to interfere in Asia, see Mommsen, History of Rome ^ IV, p. 49. 

21. fani : that of the Persian Nanaea or Anaitis, in Elymais, was the 
richest in the region of the Euphrates. Perhaps the reference is to it, as 

26. usus erat : ' had enjoyed.' 

27. desiderio suorum : ' longing for their own people.' Obj. geni- 
tive. As a matter of fact the soldiers mutinied. Cicero glosses over 
their disgraceful action. 

Page 76 

24 3. hoc fere . . . accepimus : ' we have learned that this generally 
happens, viz., that.' sic is unnecessary after hoc, and fere after fieri 

4. multorum opes : ' many wealthy men ' ; lit. ' the wealth of 

6. nomen regale: ' name of " king." ' 

25 8. tantum victus . . . quantum . . . numquam : ' he was able 
to accomplish more when conquered than he ever dared to hope for when 
unimpaired (in fortune).' What literally ? 

10. eo : explained by the ut clause. Abl. with contentus. 
13. clarum . . . victorem : with exercitum. 
20. aliqua ex parte: ' in some measure.' 

22. modum : ' limit.' 

24. stipendiis confecti : * had served their full time.' What lit- 
erally ? 

25. consulto : adv. 
25. coniectura: 'by inference.' Cf. Cat. Ill, § 18, coniectura. 



Page 77 

27 3-5. restat . . . videatur: * It remains apparently [z/zV^a/wr] nec- 
essary to speak about . . .' A literal rendering of z/iV/^fl/z^r is cumbrous. 

4. rebus: dative with /ra^- in composition. 

4. de . . . deligendo : the third topic mentioned in § 6. 

6. Utinam . . . haberetis. Observe that in wishes an imperfect 
subjv. indicates a desire that can not be fulfilled at the present time. 

8. potissimum . . . praeficiendum : ' most fitted to be put in 
charge of.* 

10. eorum hominum qui nunc sunt: ' of the men of to-day.' 

11. antiquitatis memoriam : * the memorable men of olden times.' 
The abstract for the concrete. Of course Cicero is wittingly extravagant 
in Pompey's praise. 

28 14. sic. Do not translate by ' thus.' 
15. res: 'characteristics.' 

17. scientior : ' better informed in ' ; sc. rei militaris. 

18. e ludo : ' from the school-room ' 

18. pueritiae disciplinis : 'boyish courses of study.' 

19. patris : Cn. Pompeius Strabo. 

20. militiae disciplinam : 'the training of military service,' 'the 
school of the camp ' ; in the Social War (go-88). 

20. extrema pueritia. How are extrctntis, sumnuis, primus, and 
medius in agreement with nouns often rendered? W. 416 ; A. 193 ; H. 
497, 4 ; B. 241, I ; G. 291, Remark 2. 

21. summi imperatoris : his father, in 87. 

21. ineunte adulescentia. Cf. ^ i. ineunte aetate. 

23. hoste, inimico. Discriminate meanings. 

24. legerunt : 'have read of.' 

25. concupiverunt : 'have longed for.' There is a stinging sarcasm 
in this word, when one recalls the greediness of politicians to secure 
provinces to pillage for their own profit. 

27. alienis praeceptis : 'by another's instructions.' The adjec- 
tive alienus is used like the genitive of alius. Take care not to render 
it by ' foreign.' 

Page 78 

2. Civile. In 83 Pompey raised three legions and joined Sulla 
against Cinna and Carbo. 

3. Africanum. He was sent to Africa to destroy the remnant of 
Cinna and Carbo's party. This he did with remarkable rapidity, and 

278 NOTES [Page 79 

on his return Sulla greeted him with the title Magnus, and the senate 
granted him a triumph in 79, while he was only 'a knight. What 
were the conditions for a regular triumph? See a class, diet., art. 

3. Transalpinum. In 76, as he was on his way to conduct the war 
against Sertorius in Spain, he subdued some Gallic tribes which, insti- 
gated by Sertorius, opposed his march. 

3. Hispaniense. The war with Sertorius which ended only after 
the murder of that leader in 72. For this war he demanded a triumph 
and the consulship, and received both, although he was still only a 
knight. His services in Spain deserve little prai§e. 

3. mixtum ex: 'involving,' ' concocted out of.' 

4. servile. Thousands of escaped slaves under the gladiator Spar- 
tacus rose in rebellion and succeeded in defeating the consuls of 72. 
The praetor Crassus won a decisive victory over them, however, near 
Brundisium. About 5,000 escaped and tried to push through to Gaul. 
These were accidentally met by Pompey as he was returning from Spain 
and destroyed. By this victory, he boastfully declared, he had torn up 
the war from its roots. After ihe victory of Crassus, however, there 
were not many " roots" left. 

5. navale : the war against the Mediterranean pirates, which Pom- 
pey had just finished with great brilliancy in the space of three months. 
It was an excellent piece of police work. 

5. varia et diversa genera : ' various and (distinctly) different 
kinds of warfare and (classes of) foes.' 

6. gesta : ' managed.' The author is thinking of bellorum^ not hos- 

6. confecta: 'finished.' 

29 9. virtuti: 'worth.' 

10. par: 'comparable,' 'befitting,' 
10. illo: why abl.? Cf. Cat. I, § 19, note custodia. 
15. tanta . . . quanta . . . non fuerunt : 'greater in this one 
man than they have been in.' What literally? 

30 20. Sicilia. When Pompey set out for Africa, he stopped at Sicily 
and subdued the Marian faction there. 

Page 79 

I. taetro : ' disgusting' ; because against slaves. 
3. quod bellum : reverse the order in translation. 
31 7. cum . . . turn . . . oris : ' not only as a whole, but also on 
every separate coast.* 


13. praedonum : Cicero generally uses the gen. of a pers. with 
refer tus. 

16. omnibus annis : ' in all his years.' 

18. per : intensifies the idea of duration expressed by the accusative. 

20. cui praesidio : explain the two datives. 

24. longinqua commemoro : ' go on at length.' 

24. fuit . . . fuit : for same repetition see Cat. I, § 3. The perfect 
tense indicates what was but is no longer existent. 

25. proprium: 'the characteristic distinction.' Cf. Cat. I, § 12, 

28. cum : concessive. 

29. hieme summa : * in the depths of winter.' 

29. a Brundisio : Names of seaport towns often have a preposition 
to indicate departure from the harbor, 

29. transmiserint : 'have crossed' ; an absolute meaning. 

30. Qui : sc. eos as antecedent. 

31. legati. We are not informed of their names. 

Page 80 

I. duodecim secures. A praetor in a province was attended by six 
lictores, each carrying the fasces. Hence ' twelve axes ' means two prae- 
tors with their trains. See Introduction, § 23. 

6. vitam ac spiritum : i. e. through these ports the grain supplies 
came to Rome from her provinces. 

7. An vero ; Cf. Cat. I, § 3, note on these words. 

7. celeberrimum : ' very much frequented ' ; the regular meaning in 
Cicero with names of places. 

8. inspectante praetore : ' before the eyes of the praetor.' We 
are not told his name. 

10. eius ; possibly M. Antonius, the orator, who commanded 
against the pirates in 103, and was granted a triumph in 102 for his 
victories. Only a daughter is mentioned in other accounts. 

12. Ostiense incommodum : ' reverse at Ostia.' As this city was 
only 16 miles from Rome, the audacity of the pirates and the helpless- 
ness of the Romans is clearly seen. Remains of this port of Rome are 
still in existence. A readable account of them will be found in the 
chapters on Ostia in Boissier's Jiome and Pompei. Putnam's Sons, 

12. labem atque ignominiam: ' disgraceful defeat.' 

13. cum : ' (received at the time) when.' 

14. consul. His name is not given. 

28o NOTES [Page 8i 

15. praepositus esset : subjv. of characteristic. ' A fleet such [ea] 
that in command of it . . .' 

15. oppressa = depressa of § 21, 

16. Pro di. Observe carefully this use oi pro in exclamations. See 

18. modo : 'recently,' 'just now.' 

19. ei : recalls vos of line 18. 

20. Oceani ostium : i. e. the Straits of Gibraltar. 

34 23. a me. What is the regular case for the agent with the gerun- 
dive ? The ablative is used here for emphasis. 

26. quam celeriter : ' so quickly as.' Exactness of statement 
would require either tarn brevi tempore . . . qtiain {brevi tempore), or 
tarn celeriter . . . quam (celeriter). In the text there is a mixture of the 
two forms. 

27. tanti belli impetus : ' the resistless rush of such a great war 
swept the sea.' The personification of impetus is easy of comprehension. 

30. frumentaria subsidia : ' corn-magazines.' 

Page 81 

35 6. ut : ' from the time that,' a rare use. 

8. ubique is generally found to follow a relative or interrog. pron. 

9. partim . . . partim: 'either . . . or.' What literally? 

10. Cretensibus. Q. Metellus Creticus had conquered and cruelly 
oppressed the people of Crete, who turned to Pompey, who under the 
Gabinian Law held the chief command, in order to get better terms. 
Pompey treated with them for a time, and thereby quite naturally in- 
curred the hostility of Metellus, who had done all the fighting. The 
senate supported Metellus. 

11. deprecatoresque = ^M/ deprecarentur : -que often shows that 
the word to which it is appended is an explanation of the preceding 

12. obsidesque : -que after a negative clause is often best rendered 
by * but.' 

15. extrema hieme. Cf. extrema pueritia, § 28, note. 

16. ineunte vere : ' at the opening of spring.' Cf. § 28, note 
ineunte adulescentia. 

36 ^9' Quid ? Cf. Cat. I, § 8, note on this word. We have here an 
exclamation following instead of the usual question. 

21. summo ac perfecto imperatore : 'in an ideally perfect com- 
mander,' 'consummately finished general.' Hendiadys. 

22. artes : ' cjualities,' 


23. Ac primum : introduces a detailed discussion of the artes 

24. innocentia : abl. of quality ; ' blamelessness,' ' incorruptibility ' ; 
especially in the matter of selling patronage, and in the handling of 
public funds. Cf. § 27, innocens. We may change the noun to an 
adjective in English and render ' How blameless ought generals to 

26. facilitate: 'accessibility,' ' approachability ' ; or 'How easy to 
get at.' The homo facilis is the man who is affable and courteous ; the 
opposite is homo difficilis, 'a cross-grained man.' 

27. Quae : neuter because referring to qualities of different genders. 

Page 82 

1. summa : ' of the highest excellence,' 

2. ex aliorum contentione : ' by contrast with others.' 

37 4. ullo in numero putare : ' reckon in any count ' (of real generals); 
i. e. if we were making a list of approved generals, should we be able to 
count in a man who did such things as follow ? 

5. veneant atque venierint : reverse the order. Observe that the 
verb is not venio but veneo. 

9. cupiditatem provinciae. Cf. § 28, note concupiverunt. 

10. in quaestu : 'profitably invested' ; lit. ' in gain-making.' 

11. facit . . . ut . . . videamini : 'shows that you apparently 
recognize.' facio ut with the subjunctive is a common idiom for ' show 
that . . .,' 'make it clear that . . .' The passive forms of video \xs,^^ 
with an infinitive are often best rendered by the English adverb ' ap- 
parently.' Cf. § 27, note restat . . . videatur. 

13. nisi qui ante . . . voluerit : ' unless it be one who has made 
up his mind beforehand to . . .' Anger would betray guilt. 

15. ventum sit : ' they have gone.' Of course the verb in Latin is 
'•' impersonal ; subjv. by attraction. 
39 26. Hie : ' under these circumstances.' 

26. tantum: 'so far.' 

27-29. non modo manus . . . sed ne . . . quidem . . . dicatur : 
' it is said that not only the " itching palms " of that great army, but 
even the print of its feet, did no harm to any peaceful inhabitant ' ; i. e. 
the army refrained from laying violent hands on property, and did no 
damage even by their marching. When non modo is followed by sed ne 
. . . qiiidem the negative of the latter serves also with the former. 

31. ut sumptum faciat in militem ; 'to occasion him expense for 
the soldiery.' 

282 NOTES [Page 84 

Page 83 

1. Hiemis : 'from the winter' ; obj. genitive. 
I. avaritiae : 'for greed'; subj. genitive. 

4.0 4. Age vero : a lively transition. Age is singular even when ad- 
dressing many people, and has practically only an interjectional force. 
4. sit : the subject is Pompeius. 

7. eximia vis remigum : ' an exceptionally powerful crew of oars- 
men,' ' exceptional strength in oarsmen.' 

8. aliqui : mIH is commoner in negative sentences. 

12. amoenitas : ' charming scenery.' 

13. nobilitas : ' the renown.' 

14. signa et tabulas : ' statues and paintings.' Rome was deco- 
rated with the splendid plunder of Greek masterpieces. The great mu- 
seums of London, Paris, and Berlin furnish evidence of the same spirit 
of pillage in modern times. It maybe argued, however, that this ap- 
parent vandalism has been the means of preserving many fine statues 
which would otherwise have perished for lack of care. 

16. ne visenda quidem. Is Cicero giving a sly thrust at Pompey's 
lack of interest in art? Cicero himself was extremely fond of statuary 
and works of art, as his letters show. See Introduction, § 16, p. xxvii. 

41 22. quod : ' a statement which.' 

25. turn . . . cum : with indicative as usual. 

26. populo. Why dative ? Observe servire. 

28. faciles aditus . . . privatorum . . . esse dicuntur : ' it is 
said that private citizens have such ready access to him.' What literally? 
For aditus, cf. Cat. Ill, § 16, note. 

Page 84 

2. facilitate. See § 36, note on this word. 

42 5. dignitas imperatoria : 'dignity of the commander,' i. e. the air 
of a man born to command. 

6. ex loco. Where is Cicero speaking? 

10. dictu. What form of the verb ? What case ? 

11. pugnantes : ' while they were fighting,' or ' in battle.' 

11. victi : ' in defeat.' 

12. quin ... sit : regular form after negative or interrogative ex- 
pressions of doubt. W. 577 ; A. 319, d ; H, 595, i ; B. 295, 3 ; G. 555, 2. 

13. nostrae memoriae : ' of our time.' 

43 16. auctoritas : ' personal influence, 'prestige.' 
19. Vehementer : in very emphatic position. 


20. quid hostes . . . existiment : indirect question after ignorat^ 
and subject oi per ti tier e. 

22. ut . . . contemnant : subjv. of result after commoveri. 
24. fama : ' rumor.' 

24. ratione certa : 'well-founded consideration.' 

26. id quod . . . : ' and this especially begets influence.' id quod 
is common in parenthesis, id referring to a clause ; quod alone may be 
similarly used. 

Page 85 

44 I. An vero. Cf. § 33 and Cat. I, § 3, note An vero. The student 
should understand the use of this formula now without further reference 
to it. 

4. templis. Look at the Plan of the Forum for the temples and 
consult the Introduction, pp. Iv-lx. 

5. sibi . . . depoposcit : 'emphatically demanded'; lit. 'de- 
manded for itself.' The occasion was the passage of the Gabinian Law 
placing Pompey in charge of the war against the pirates. 

5. *ad commune . . . bellum : ' for this general war with all sorts 
of people.' 

6. ut plura non dicam : * not to speak further.' Notice the non in 
a (parenthetical) purpose clause contrary to rule. Cf. Cat. HI, § 10, 
note ne longum sit. ut non dicam = ut omittam. This is a case of 
praeteritio. What is that? See Cat. I, § 3, noie praetereo. 

7. aliorum exemplis confirmem : ' and not to establish the fact by 
illustrations drawn from others.' 

ID. sumantur: potential subjv. W. 485 ; A. 311, a; H. 552 ; B. 
280; G. 257. 

10. qui quo die: *on the day on which he.' Do not begin with 
*who,' Cf. Cat. I, § 4, note quo ex consulto. 

11. vilitas annonae : ' fall in the grain market ' ; lit. ' cheapness of 

II. ex: ' directly after.' The drop was sudden ' from ' high prices 
to low. 

45 16. invitus : 'unwillingly.' Cf. Cat. IV, § 7, note me/iVe. 
17. animi : 'spirits.' 

.19. ad ipsum discrimen eius temporis : 'at the decisive mo- 

23. Asiae. Why dative ? Observe mimtante?n. 

27. rumore : ' rumor (of his approach).' 

46 28. Age vero. Cf. § 40, note on these words. 


284 NOTES [Page 87 

Page 86 

3. noster imperator: Q. Metellus Creticus. See § 35, note Cre- 

4. in ultimas prope terras : ' well-nigh to the ends of the world ' ; 
a very strong hyperbole. The distance from Crete to Asia Minor is 
trifling. Is Cicero perhaps trading on the ignorance of his hearers re- 
specting geography ? or is he thinking of distance from Rome ? 

9. quibus erat molestum : ' who were annoyed that he had been 
sent to him (Pompey) rather than to any one else ' {potissimufu) ; lit. ' to 
whom it was annoying that he . . .' Nothing further is known of the 
47 16. Reliquum est ut . . . dicamus : ' We have still to speak of ; 
a common formula. Cf. restat ut . . . videatur, § 27. 

16. praestare : 'vouch for,' 'guarantee.' Cf. Cat. IV, 24, note 

17. meminisse : asyndeton. Begin with, 'but which.' 

18. aequum est : ' it is proper.' 
18. homines : sc. dicere. 

20. sic existimo. Cf. § 28 for same words. 

20. Maximo. Q. Fabius Maximus Cunctator, one of the leading 
Roman generals against Hannibal. Plutarch has a Life of Fabius. 

20. Marcello. M. Claudius Marcellus, called the " Sword of 
Rome," also a general of the Second Punic War. Landor has an 
"Imaginary Conversation" between Marcellus and Hannibal; Dent 
Edition, vol. I, p. 337. Plutarch has a Life of Marcellus. 

20. Scipioni. He may refer to either the Elder or the Younger 

22. fortunam : ' good fortune,' as usually. 

28. non ut . . . dicam. Non is placed before the ut for emphasis, 
or perhaps to make the arrangement similar to sed ut below. 

29. praeterita : ' the past.* 

30. reliqua : ' the future.' 

30. videamur : ' we may be seen,' a genuine passive meaning. 
30. invisa dis : The gods of Rome were regarded as extremely 
jealous of their power and disposed to punish presumption on the part of 

Page 87 

48 I. non . . . praedicaturus : ' I do not intend to proclaim.' Cice- 
ro's {■zsox'xi^ praeteritio. See Cat. I, § 3, r\otG praetereo. 


2. domi militiae : It is more usual to find the second word con- 
nected by -que with the first, as in terra marique. 

4. adsenserint : the active form is rare in this verb. It is used 
here probably to harmonize with the following perfect active subjunctives. 

7. qui . . . auderet : subjv. of characteristic. 

7. tot et tantas res . . . quot et quantas {res) : • so many 
great blessings . . . as.' We do not imitate the double correlation in 

9. Quod ut . . . sit : ' and that this may be his lasting possession ' ; 
i. e. the blessing of the gods, as shown in his qualities and accomplish- 

lO-ii. cum . . . turn: correlatives. The student should find no 
difficulty in recognizing this common usage of Cicero without further as- 

49 '^1' dubitatis . . . quin . . . conferatis : the regular construc- 
tion after dubito meaning ' hesitate' is the infinitive. W. 626 ; A. 271 ; 
H. 607, I ; B. 328, I ; G. 423, 2, note 2. 

18. hoc tantum boni : * this great advantage ' ; i. e. the chance to 
choose such a commander. 

50 23. erat deligendus. In the apodosia of conditions contrary to 
fact, a verb of ability, necessity, obligation, or duty {oportet, debeo, the 
gerundive or the future participle with sum, etc.) is generally in the 
indicative. A. 308, c ; H, 582 ; B. 304, 3, b ; G. 597, Remark 3. 

25. utilitates : ' practical advantages.' 

28. eidetn : dat. with committamus. - ^ 

Page 88 

I. cum salute : abl. of attendant circumstance. 

51 3« At enim : ' But of course ' ; enim has its early force of ' indeed,' 
' surely.' 

P4. beneficiis : ' offices,' ' posts of honor.' 
5. Q. Lutatius Catulus : an honorable Roman, consul in 78. 
6. Q, Hortensius : the great rival of Cicero in oratory. See In- 
troduction, p. XV. 

8. locis : ' occasions.' 

II. omissis auctoritatibus : 'setting aside the matter of pres- 
tige.' Abl. abs. 

12. ratione : ' reasoning.' 

14. et necessarium . . . esse et : explanatory of omnia. 
16. summa . . . omnia : ' are all the highest of excellent quali- 

286 NOTES [Page 90 

52 20. ista oratio : 'that sort of speech,' 'that objection.' 

20. re : ' facts,' ' events.' 
22. copia : ' fluency.' 

Page 89 

53 i« vera causa : * the real interests.' 

3. An. How used ? Cf. Cat. I, § 3, note an vero. 

5. ex . . . provinciis commeatu : ' from intercourse with all the 
provinces.' commeatu means ' a coming and going,' hence ' intercourse.' 

5. ex with the abl. gives the point of departure. We represent 
it by * with.' 

54 10* Atheniensium : ' the Athenians' ' (poss.). 
XI. permultum : as adv. with valuerunt. 

13. disciplina. It is said that Rome borrowed some principles of 
naval law from the Rhodians, and in turn transmitted them to northern 
nations who still observe them. 

17. At hercule. The name of the deity and the invocation implied 
early passed into a mere interjection. See Vocab. 

17. aliquot annos continuos : ' for several years together.' 

21. multo maxima. Cf § i, note multo iucundissimus. 

22. caruit : ' was forced to do without.' 

55 23. Antiochum. Cf. § 14. 

24. Persem. Cf. Cat. IV, § 21. 

26. ei : repeats the subject Nos of line 23. Cf. § 33, note ei. 

27. pares : ' a match.' 

Page 90 

I. socios . . . salvos praestare : ' to guarantee all our allies 
security.' Cf. § 47, praestare. 

4. quo . . . commeabant : 'whither all . . . "continually did 
come." ' 

8. Appia . . . via. This famous highway was built at great ex- 
pense in 312, by the Censor Appius Claudius Caecus, to connect Rome 
with Capua. It was afterward extended to Tarentum and Brundisium. 
For a considerable distance outside the city walls, in Cicero's day, this 
road was lined with tombs of prominent Romans. Several miles of it 
remain in good condition to-day. 

9. eis temporibus : i. e. at the time when the pirates kept the 
Romans in dread. 

9. pudebat magistratus : this impersonal verb is used with the 
accusative of the person who has the feeling. W. 368 ; A. 221, b ; 
H. 457 ; B. 209, I ; G. 377- 


II. exuviis nauticis et classium spoliis : 'with naval spoils and 
the plunder of ships ' ; i. e. with the beaks (rostra) taken from the ships 
of the people of Antium in the Latin war in 338. See Introduction, 
g§ 48 and 49. 
50 13. Bono animo : * with good intentions.' The expression usually 
means ' with good courage.' 

15. in salute communi : ' in a matter involving the general wel- 

16. dolori suo . . . obtemperare : ' to yield to its own distress,' 
i. e. to measures promising relief from anxiety. 

19. effecit ut . . . videremur : ' brought it to pass that we should 
be . . . seen.' Passive voice oi video. 

20. vere : adv. modifying iniperare. 

57 22. Quo : ' For this reason.' 

22. indignius . . . obtrectatum esse : ' it appears to me that a 
point has been stretched \0btrectatu771 esse\ somewhat unworthily (shall 
I say against Gabinius or Pompey, or, to be nearer the truth, against 
both?), in order that A. Gabinius might not be appointed legate.' Cicero 
here turns aside to make a plea for one of Pompey's supporters. 

24. id quod : ' as.' Cf. § 43. 

25-27. ille . . . idoneus . . . qui impetret. See § 13, note 

Page 91 

58 I. An : introduces the question in uno . . . sunt, although placed 
at the beginning of the sentence. 

2. honoris causa : ' to do them honor,' * out of respect.' 

3. plebi : genitive for fuller iorra plebei. Another form Vs, plebis. 

3. anno proximo. From this argument it appears that it was not 
customary for a tribune of the people to receive appointment as a legatus 
(on the laying down of his tribuneship) in a commission appointed by a 
law proposed by himself. The persons mentioned here are not of his- 
torical distinction. 

5. in hoc imperatore atque exercitu : ' under this commander 
and in an army.' 

8. ad senatum relaturos : ' will put the question to the senate.' 
Cf. Cat. I, § 20, note refer. 

10. impediet . . . quo minus : ' shall hinder me from.' Negative 
verbs of hindrance may be followed by either quo minus, or (more often) 
quin with the subjv. The consuls might forbid him as praetor to bring 
a measure before the senate, but he might still persist. 

12. intercessionem : ' a veto.' The tribunes of the people had the 

288 NOTES [Page 92 

right to intervene and stop legislation by their veto. See Introduc- 
tion, § 26. 

59 20. Reliquum est ut. See § 47 for the same words. 

22. si quid eo factum esset : * and anything should happen to 
him.' eo is abl. ; lit. ' should have been done with him.' 

25. in eo ipso : i. e. Catulus. A charming compliment. 

Page 92 

2. in hoc ipso : * in this matter.' 

2. dissentio: Cf. § 51. 

3. quo minus certa . . . hoc magis : ' the less certain ... the 
more.' W. 393 ; A. 250, Remark ; H. 479 ; B. 223 ; G. 403. 

5. frui : * reap the advantage of.' 

5. viri vita atque virtute. Note the alliteration. 

60 8. Non dicam. A fine example oi praeteritio. The speaker gains 
emphatic attention by saying that he will not mention these instances. 

9. consuetudine . . . utilitati paruisse : ' obeyed the behests of 
custom . . . the demands of practicability.' 

10. casus . . . consiliorum rationes accommodasse : 'adjusted 
their calculations in planning new measures to the new turn of events at 
the time.' What literally? 

14. Karthaginem : destroyed in 146 by the Younger Scipio. 

15. Numantiam : destroyed in 133 by the Younger Scipio after a 
long siege. 

16. nuper: 'recently,' is used flexibly of different periods, like the 
English word. Here it means about forty years ago. 

16. ita . . . esse visum ut : ' you and your fathers decided to 
this effect, viz., that.' The speaker is calling attention to the repeated 
commands of Marius as warranty for the repetition of Pompey's com- 

18. lugurtha : a spirited African king who was finally captured and 
starved to death in the Tullianum by the consul Marius, in 104. Sal- 
lust has left us a finely written history of the Jugurthine War. 

61 20. novi . . . nihil : ' no new precedent to be established.' 
21. nova: 'innovations.' 

23. quam: 'as that.' 

24. difficili . . . tempore : ' at a crucial time.' 

25. Confecit : ' He did it.' 

25. Huic praeesse : sc. Quid tarn novum quam adulescentulum. 

26. ductu suo : ' under his own command.' 

26. praeter consuetudinem : ' contrary to precedent.' Cf. Cat. 
Ill, § 6, for the same use oi praeter. 


28. senatorio gradu. It was customary, at this time, for a man 
to enter the senate only after attaining the quaestorship, the earliest 
regular age for which was thirty years. See Introduction, § 28. 

30. Fuit . . . innocentia: * He exhibited . . . blamelessness.' 
Abl. of quality. 

Page 93 

2. equitem . . . triumphare. Remember that legally only one 
holding the consular or praetorian imperium could celebrate a triumph. 

3. omnium . . . studio : ' with the zealous approval of all.' 

62 6. helium maximum : i. e. the war against Sertorius in the year 77. 
7. pro consule : ' with consular power.' 

10. L. Marcius Philippus: consul in 91, accredited as a wit by 
the men of his time. 

11. pro consule sed pro consulibus. This is one of his wit- 

16. leg-ibus solutus : 'exempted from the laws.' The laws stated 
the minimum age at which one might hold the offices of quaestor, prae- 
tor, consul, etc. In Pompey's case these laws were set aside and he was 
elected consul without having held any of the lower offices. 

18. iterum: in 71. 
^3 23. exempla : ' instances of precedent.' 

23. profecta sunt in eundem hominem a : ' have received their 
initiative regarding the same man from the authoritative influence of . . . 

Page 94 

I. vestrum . . . indicium . . . improbari : ' your judgment and 
. . . are unsanctioned.' The people have supported the optimates, now 
the latter should support them. 

6. isdem . . . reclamantibus : abl. abs 

7. quern . . . praeponeretis : purpose ; quern ■= ut eum. 

64 9. rei . . . consuluistis. Cf. Cat. IV, § 3, note consulite, for case 
constructions with this verb. 

ID. studia vestra : ' your enthusiasms.' 

II. plus : 'further.' 

11. in re publica : ' in matters of the public weal.' 

12. eis repugnantibus : abl. abs. 

14. sibi et ceteris : dat. of agent : ' they and the others.' The 
dative stands because there is no lack of clearness. Cf. § 6, <z vobis. 

15. auctoritati parendum esse : * must obey the authoritative will 
of the Roman people as a body.' The dat. is regular -withpareo. 

290 NOTES [Page 96 

22. qui sunt : ' there are some ' ; indef. pronoun. 

23. eos esse talis : ' that they really are such.' 
65 25. dictu : supine. 

26. propter : with libidines. 

32. causa belli : ' a pretext for war.* 

Page 95 

56 8. animos ac spiritus : ' arrogant airs.' Hendiadys. 
10. quem : ' one ' : indef. pronoun like qui in § 64. 

10. conlatis signis : ' in open battle.' What literally ? 

11. posse videatur : ' is apparently able.' Subj v. of characteristic. 
15. idoneus qui . . . mittatur. Cf. § 57, note idonetis. 

67 17. quae locuples sit : i. e. if it had been subjected, it would have 
been pillaged and therefore could not be rich. 

21. animi continentiam : ' self-restraint.' 

22. locupletari . . . pecunia publica : ' enriching themselves out 
of the public money.' 

22. pecunia publica praeter paucos. Marked instance of allit- 

23. eos : i. e. the imperatores who are getting rich. 

23. adsequi : ' are accomplishing.' 

24. classium nomine: 'with their so-called fleets,' 'with their 
*' navy on paper." ' The commanders embezzled money appropriated 
for ships. 

25. adfici : ' tainted.' 

26. iacturis : ' lavish outlays ' (to secure elections). 

27. condicionibus : ' terms ' (made with those v\ ho aided them). 

27. videlicet : ironical as usual. 

28. unum : ' one man,' 

29. quasi vero: 'just as if; regularly introduces a subjunctive. 
Take the non with videamus. 

29. cum . . . tum . . . vitiis : ' not merely because of his own 
excellence, but, in truth, by reason of the faults of others.' 

Page 96 

68 2. nolite dubitare quin . . . credatis : ' do not hesitate to entrust 
everything to this exceptional man.' Dubito in this sense is usually fol- 
lowed by the infinitive. Cf. § 49, note on this word. 

3. inter tot annos : ' in the course of so many years.' A rare use 
of inter. 


5. auctoritatibus : ' by authorities ' ; just as we use the word of 

6. confirmandam : ' should be supported.' 

6. est vobis auctor : ' you have as authority.' 

7. rerum peritissimus: what adjectives govern the genitive? W. 
352 ; A. 218, a ; H. 451, i ; B. 204, i ; G. 374. 

7. P. Servilius Vatia : commanded against the pirates with marked 
success for three years, 78-75, 

8. cuius tantae . . . exstiterunt : ' whose deeds on land and sea 
resulted so brilliantly ' ; literally ' stood out so great.' 

9. auctor : ' authority.' 

10. est : sc. vobis. C. Curio vanquished the Thracians and Darda- 
nians when he was proconsul of Macedonia, 75-73. 

11. beneficiis : as in § 51. 

12. praeditus : used by zeugma with all four ablatives. Render, 
' honored ' . . . * distinguished ' . . . ' endowed with very great natural 
ability and forethought.' 

12. Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus : a supporter of Pompey. 
As Censor in 70 he erased from the list of senators sixty-four names. 
(Read Introduction, § 27.) He was one of Pompey's legates in the 
war against the pirates. 

13. pro . . . honoribus : ' judging from the most distinguished 
offices in your gift ' ; i. e. one may see from the honors you have paid 
him that you recognize his worth, pro = ' in conformity with ' ; hence, 
' as is shown by.' 

14. C. Cassius Longinus Varus : consul in 73, had been defeated 
by Spartacus the gladiator. 

16. horura auctoritatibus: 'with the authoritative counsels of 
these men ' (Servilius, Curio, etc.). Abl. of means. 

16. illorum : i. e. Hortensius, Catulus, etc. 

16. orationi : ' the objections.' 
69 18. C. Manilius: the tribune of the people who proposed the bill 
upon which Cicero is speaking. 

21. auctore populo Romano : ' with the support of the Roman 
people.' Literally ? 

24. cum tantam . . . videamus quantam . . . videmus. The 
repetition of the verb is clumsy. 

27. de re : ' about the matter in hand.' 

27. perficiendi facultate : ' ability to carry it through.' 

28. studi : what genitive ? Observe quicquid. 

29. beneficio : explained by hac . . . praetoria, the evidence of 

292 NOTES [Page 97 

Page 97 

3. tibi : Manilius. 

3. defero : ' place at the disposal of.* 
70 4. loco temploque: 'consecrated place.' Hendiadys. The Rostra 
was a templuni proper ; that is, a spot consecrated with great formality 
by the Augurs (see Introduction, § 37) for the use of the state, and 
forever set apart. Aulus Gellius, a late Roman writer, has recorded a 
definition by Varro, who is treating of the places in which a senatus con- 
sultum could be passed, and says that it must be effected in loco per 
augurem constitute, quod ' templum ' appellaretur. He also says that non 
omnes aedes sacras te?7ipla esse, ac ne aedem quidem Vestae templum esse. 
Gell. xiv, 7, 7. 

5. mentis : ' the thoughts.' 

6. ad rem publicam adeunt : ' enter the public service.' The 
regular verb in this phrase is accede. 

7. rogatu : ' at the behest of.' 

7. neque quo . . . putem : ' nor for this reason, that I suppose 
. . .' Neque quo introduces an untenable reason in the subjunctive. 
The real reason is usually introduced afterward by sed or sed quod. 
Cicero gives his reason in another form in the next section. 

9. neque quo . . . quaeram : ' nor that thereby I might seek.' 
neque quo = neque ut eo. Cicero elsewhere utters exactly opposite 
views, saying that he did speak in order to win the favor of Pompey, so 
that the latter might help him in his canvass for the consulship. But 
the student should constantly keep in mind that Cicero's practice in the 
courts has disposed him to look to the eifect of the moment in his 
speeches, not to consistency. Read Introduction, § 13, p. xxiv. 

9. amplitudine : ' influential station.' 

10. periculis : * against dangers ' ; dative case. 

11. pericula . . . repellemus: 'protected by the " breastplate of 
righteousness," we (so far as a man should guarantee) shall easily ward 
off perils.' The apology of the ut clause is prompted by the speaker's 
deference to the religious views of his hearers, who believed that the 
gods disliked arrogance in men. For praestare cf. § 55. oportet 
almost = licet or fas est here. 

12. honorem autem . . . : ' and moreover we shall attain to honor- 
able station ' (i. e. the consulship). 

13. ex hoc loco : i. e. from his efforts as an orator on the Rostra. 

13. ilia . . . laboriosissima ratione vitae : ' that systematic life 
of strenuous effort.' What literally? He means his life as an advocate. 

14. feret : * shall bestow it ' ; i. e. honorem. 


71 16. mihi : dat. with perf. passive. Cf. Cat. I, § 16, note tibi. 

1 8. tantumque abest ut . . . videar ut : ' so far from appearing 
to have sought, I . . .' ; lit. ' that I appear to have sought . . . is so far 
away, that I . . .' tantum abest is often followed by two clauses, each 
introduced by «/, the first being untrue, and the second true. A. 332, 
d ; H. 570, 2 ; G. 552, Remark i. 

20. simultates : 'animosity.' 

21. mihi non necessarias: 'not unavoidable on my part.' 
21. non inutilis : ' not without advantage.' The figure litotes. 
23. beneficiis. Cf. §§ 68 and 51 for this word. 

25. commodis et rationibus : ' schemes advantageous to myself ' ; 
lit. 'all my advantages and schemes.' 



Delivered B. C. 62 

A. Licinius Archias was a Greek, born in Antioch 
about the year 119. As a youth he displayed marked 
ability as a versifier, and on the strength of this accom- 
plishment he traveled about Asia Minor and Greece, 
and was well received. In 102 he came to Rome and 
was at once welcomed by the " literary set " in the 
city. He won the favor of Marius by a poem on the 
Cimbrian War. Catulus, himself a cultivated man of let- 
ters, became his friend. But his chief patrons were the 
noble Luculli, particularly L. Licinius Lucullus, the dis- 
tinguished commander in the Mithradatic War, and his 
two sons. Archias honored the father by a poem cele- 
brating his achievements in his Mithradatic campaigns. 
In 93, through the influence of Lucullus, he received citi- 
zenship in the town of Heraclea, in Lucania, and when 
Roman citizenship was offered to the burgesses of that 
town .in 89, he availed himself of the privilege. Until 
the year 62 he exercised the rights of a citizen undis- 
turbed. In that year one Gratius brought an action 
against him challenging his citizenship. The motive is 
not definitely known. Cicero undertook the defense, as 
he says, through friendship for his old teacher. Perhaps 
he was influenced also by the hope of a poem on his 
consulship from that old teacher. 

His argument, as we have it, is brief. There was 
only one written record of his client's claim, because a 


fire had destroyed the archives of Heraclea. He there- 
fore depended upon witnesses to prove that Archias had 
complied with the requirements of law. He also argues 
on the antecedent probability that Archias was honored 
by some provincial town with citizenship. The charm 
of the speech, however, and indeed its only claim to 
permanent life, is the digression from the case devoted 
to the glorification of culture and of letters, and of those 
who foster them for the betterment of mankind. This 
portion has delighted cultured men of all times. 

Archias was, apparently, acquitted. We have no long 
work of his now, but a few short poems of no great 
value still survive. They do not warrant any profound 
respect for him, or for Cicero's judgment of him. His 
chief attraction was his facility in extemporaneous versi- 
fication; a charm which fades with the hour that be- 
gets it. 


Delivered b. c. 62 

This oration contains an exordium, a narratio, a con- 
Urmatio, and a pcroratio. 

I. Exordium. — § i. My talent is at the disposal of 
my early teacher. § 2. He is a poet ; but all refined arts 
have a common bond. § 3. Permit me to digress from 
the case. § 4. He is and ought to be a citizen. 

II. Narratio. — While a boy he won fame in Anti- 
och, and later abroad. § 5. He was welcomed in Magna 
Graecia and in Rome, especially by the Luculli. § 6. He 
became " the fad " in Rome. The people of Heraclea 
gave him citizenship. § 7. This entitled him to Roman 
citizenship under the law. 

296 NOTES 

III. CoNFiRMATio. — § 8. We have unimpeachable 
witnesses to his enrollment, although the records were 
burned. § 9. He settled in Rome and registered with 
the incorruptible Metellus. § 10. What many towns were 
giving to insignificant men, would hardly be refused to 
Archias. § 11. He was away from Rome during the cen- 
sus, but has acted as a citizen. § 12. Archias supplies us 
with mental refreshment. My love for literature has 
never interfered with my duties. § 13. May I not give 
to letters the time that others spend on idle pleasures? 
§ 14. Literature has taught me to face perils for the sake 
of glory. What portraitures the old writers have left us ! 
§15. Talent may succeed without literary training, but it 
is the better for it. § 16. Examples of culture. Literary 
studies are suitable to every time of life. § 17. The death 
of Roscius was lamented. § 18. Archias is a skilful ex- 
temporaneous versifier. A poet has a divine gift. § 19. 
Honor poets. Many towns claimed Homer dead. Shall 
the poet of our deeds be driven out ? § 20. All men wish 
their fame perpetuated. §21. Archias has sung of Lu- 
cullus' glorious deeds. § 22. Ennius was welcomed to 
citizenship. Shall we reject Archias? §23. Greek is 
more widely read than Latin. Our fame should " follow 
the flag." § 24. Alexander envied Achilles his Homer. 
Pompey made Theophanes a citizen. § 25. Sulla reward- 
ed a poet, while advising him to cease writing. § 26. 
Metellus patronized even boorish poets. All desire to be 
immortalized. § 27. Soldiers have honored the muses ; 
surely judges should do as much, § 28. Archias is wri- 
ting upon my consulship. § 29. Desire for fame stimu- 
lates us to effort. § 30. We should leave likenesses of 
our character. I like to think that memory abides. 

IV. Peroratio. — §31. Acquit this beloved man of 
talent and be courteous to one who sings of Rome. § ^2. 
I trust that my words have met your approval. 


Note. — This is only a brief list of useful commentaries. 

Reid. Pro A. Licinio Archia Poeta. [Excellent.] Cambridge: 

University Press, 1893. 
King. Select Orations. Clarendon Press. 
Long. Ciceronis Orationes. Vol. iii. London, 1856. [Needs 

Halm-Laubmann. Ciceros Ausgewahlte Reden. Dritter Band. 

Berlin, 1891. 
RiCHTER-NOHL. Die Rede fiir den Dichter Archias. Leipzig, 

SCHMALZ. Die Rede fiir den Dichter Archias. Kommentar. 

Leipzig, 1895. 

Page 98 

1. Si quid. See Cat. I, § 4, note ne quid. 

2. quod . . . exiguum : ' and 1 perceive how slight it is.' 

3. mediocriter . . . versatum : ' moderately well versed.' 

4. huiusce rei ratio : * rational acquaintance with this art.' 

5. profecta: ' derived.' What is the present tense of the verb? 

6. rerum : ' accomplishments. ' 

7. A. Licinius : the Roman name taken by Archias. 

7. fructum: Archias had sown the seed and now should enjoy the 
ripe fruit of Cicero's oratory. 

8. debet : ' is bound ' ; i. e. he owes it to common sense and to him- 
self to etc. Cf. Cat. Ill, § 16, debetis. 

9. quoad longissime : a questionable combination found only here 
and once in Livy. Translate, ' as far back as my mind can possibly.' 

10. ultimam: 'earliest.' 

11. inde usque: another questionable combination, usque adds 
the idea of the uninterruptedness of the recollection from the given 
point onward. Translate, ' from that time on.' 

II. mihi : dat. of reference. 

11. principem : 'guide.' 

12. et ad suscipiendam et . . . rationem : ' both for the adop- 
tion of this scheme of study and for the pursuance of it ' ; lit, ' the 
scheme of these studies.' 

298 NOTES [Page 99 

14. non nuUis . . . saluti. What two datives are used with sum ? 

15. a quo : the antecedent is huic below. 

15. ceteris : all of Cicero's clients may be helped, some may be saved 
by his advocacy. 

17. quantum : ' in so far as.' 

18. ne quis. See § i, Si quid, note. 

18. ita : 'in such fashion,' 'so emphatically.' 

19. alia quaedam : ' a quite different.' 
19. in hoc : 'in him.' 

19. facultas : ' gift.' 

20. ratio: 'theoretical knowledge,' ' technical knowledge.' 
20. disciplina: ' trained skill.' 

20. ne nos quidem etc. : ' (let me say that) I have not indeed ever 
been given over exclusively to this one branch of study.' He means that 
he too has a taste for poetry. Observe the abrupt introduction of the 
clause and compare Cat. II, § 9, note ut . . . possitis, nemo est etc. 

Page 99 

2. humanitatem : ' culture.' 

3. quasi . . . quadara : used to lessen the effect of the strong 
metaphor ; ' by a sort of kinship, as it were.' 

6. quaestione legitima : ' in a law-appointed investigation,' or ' in 
a standing criminal law-court.' 

6. et iudicio publico : * and (that too) in a trial involving the public 

7. agatur : 'is argued.' Explain the mood. 

7. praetorem. An early commentator says that it was Q. Cicero, 
the orator's brother. 

8. tanto conventu . . . ac frequentia : ' before such a numerous 
gathering of men.' The ablatives denote attendant circumstance ; a 
use here differing little from the abl. abs. 

II. forensi sermone : ' methods of speech in the Forum.' 
13. reo : from reus. Learn the word carefully. 

13. vobis. Note the asyndeton. 

14. ut . . . patiamimi : subst. clause in apposition with veniam. 
What construction do you expect after patior? W. 629 ; A. 331, c ; H. 
614 ; B. 331, III ; G. 553, 2, note. 

15. hoc concursu : abl. of attendant circumstance. 

15. hominum litteratissimorum : ' gentlemen of the highest liter- 
ary culture.' 

16. hac vestra humanitate : ' in this your refined presence.' Ab- 
stract for concrete. 

Page ioo] PRO ARCHIA ORATIO 299 

17. exercente : ' conducting,' ' presiding over.' 

18. in eius modi persona : ' in the case of a character of this sort.' 
Persona was literally *a mask.' On the stage the old man. the young 
lover, the parasite, etc., had each his appropriate mask which explained 
his character to the audience at once. Hence persona came to mean 
' type,' or ' character.' 

19. otium ac studium : ' retirement and devotion to study.' otium 
is here used of the condition of one apart from the stir of public life. 

20. tractata est : 'dragged about.* Cicero uses a strong word to 
depict the unfortunate state of the poor persona, who is forced to 
undergo the perils of a trial. 

24. segregandum : sc. esse. What does the prefix se- mean ? See 

26. Nam : introduces at once the reasons why Archias deserves 

26. ex pueris excessit : 'outgrew childhood,' or "put away child- 
ish things." The expression does not occur again. 

27. artibus: 'skilful exercises.' 

Page 100 

1. Antiochiae. What case? Where was the city situated? See 

2. celebri : ' very populous,' ' swarming with people.' The literal 
significance of this word is common in Cicero. 

2. urbe : notice that the locative ablative is used in apposition to 
the locative case Antiochiae. W. 292, 3; A. 184, c; H. 393. 7; B. 
169, 4 ; G. 411, R. 3. 

6. eius adventus celebrabantur : ' his arrival (in every town) was 
welcomed by throngs.' The plural indicates that arrivals in different 
places are thought of. 

8. adventus admiratioque : ' the admiration displayed at his ar- 
rival.' Hendiadys. 

12. tranquillitatem. Rome had been practically free from warlike 
disturbances between 121 and 91. 

16. cognitione : abl. with dignum. 

17. Hac tanta. Recall note on Cat. I, § 16, hac tanta. 

17. celebritate : 'publicity,* 'general spread.' 

18. absentibus : sc. eis : ' to those distant (from him).' 
18. Mario consule: in 102. 

20. alter : Marius. . . . alter : Catulus. 

21. studium atque auris : ' an active interest and a nice ear' ; i. e. 


300 NOTES [Page ioi 

Catulus could furnish not merely deeds for a poet's theme, but also a 
literary man's interest in and appreciation for the poet's work. 

22. Luculli : L. Licinius Lucullus and his two sons Lucius and 

22. praetextatus : i. e. at most, seventeen years of age ; probably 
a slight exaggeration of his youthfulness. 

23. domum : as usual, without the preposition. 

23. hoc . . . ingeni . . . virtutis ut : ' this was an evidence, not 
merely of talent in letters, but also of his natural excellence of character, 
(to wit) that.' Notice the double hendiadys. ut . . . esset explains hoc. 

2*J. Quintus Metello : an upright leader of the aristocratic party, 
who was consul in 109. He conducted the war against the celebrated 
Jugurtha, in Africa, until he was forced to return to Rome in 107, 
through the political wiles of Marius. He celebrated a triumph and 
was honored with the title Numidicus. Cicero elsewhere praises the 
orations of Metellus. 

28. M. Aemilius Scaurus : a statesman of the time. 

29. L. Licinius Crassus : an orator renowned for his elegance 
and refinement of utterance and for his persuasive powers. He died in 
91, in consequence of a fever induced by a splendid burst of oratoiy in 
defense of the rights of the senate. 

Page IOI 

I. M. Livius Drusus : tribune of the people in 91. 

1. Octavios : a distinguished family ; perhaps its most famous mem- 
ber was Cn. Octavius, whom Cicero mentioned in Cat. Ill, § 24. 

2. Catonem : probably M. Porcius Cato, the father of Cato Uti- 

2. Hortensiorum. The most famous of this family was Q. Hor- 
tensius Hortalus, the most distinguished rival of Cicero among the Ro- 
man orators. 

2. devinctam consuetudine : ' bound to him by ties of intimacy.' 

4. percipere atque audire : ' really \_per\ to learn something and 
to enjoy hearing it.' There is no necessity for looking upon this as a 
case of hysteron-proteron. The first verb suggests a desire for improve- 
ment and the second a desire for the pleasure of hearing the poet read 
or declaim. 

5. si qui forte : ' such people, mayhap, as feigned (interest in him).' 
si qui ' if any ' = * whoever,' * such as.' Supply after simulabant, se per- 
cipere atque audire studere. The two classes are (i) the genuinely lit- 
erary ; (2) those who would like to be considered literary. 

Page 102] PRO ARCHIA ORATIO 301 

7. Interim : i. e. while he was on intimate terms with the literary 
men of Rome. 

7. intervallo : ' lapse of time ' ; some ten years after his arrival at 

10. aequissimo iure ac foedere : ' (enjoying) rights by treaty of 
a most favorable character.' The treaties between Rome and the de- 
pendent cities were of two general classes : (i) those in which the ad- 
vantages to both signers are considered as nearly equal {aequum\ and 
(2) those in which the Romans are the more favored {iniquuni). 

14. Silvani lege etc. : otherwise known from the gentile names of 
the proposers as the lex Plautia-Papiria, of the year 89. M. Plautius 
Silvanus and C. Papirius Carbo were tribunes of the people in that year. 

14. Si qui: '(which declared that) all who'; lit. 'if any.' The 
substance of the statute is given in indirect discourse, the verb of declar- 
ing being understood in the same tense as data est. What tense would 
the verbs ascripti fuissent, habuissent^ and essent professi have in the 
direct discourse ? Can you supply an apodosis ? 

16. cum . . . ferebatur : a remark of the speaker, inserted as ex- 
planatory, hence the indicative. 

17. praetorem : 'a praetor'; any one of the six then in office. 
Sulla afterward increased the number to eight. See Introduction, 


18. essent professi : 'should have registered,' as we use the word. 
23. Gratti. We know nothing of this man who brought suit against 


25. religione : ' conscientious scruples.' 

25. fide : ' trustworthiness.' 

26. se non opinari : ' that he is not merely supposing.' 

26. non . . . sed : ' not merely . . . but,' in each case. 

27. interfuisse : ' concerned in it.' 

27. egisse : 'pushed it through,' by the auctoritate et gratia men- 
tioned in § 6. 

29. publico: 'official.' 

Page 102 

1. Hie: 'at this point.' 

2. Italico : i. e. the Social War (90-89). 

3. interisse : not a compound oi sum. 

4. ad ea : ' with reference to these evidences.' 

4-10. dicere, quaerere, tacere, flagitare, repudiare, and desi- 
derare stand in what grammatical relationship to Est? 

5. memoria ; ' mental records.' 

302 NOTES [Page 103 

6. litterarum memoriam : ' documentary records,' 

8. ea: obj. oi reptidiare. 

9. idem dicis : ' you also (as well as we) say.' 

P II. An: * Or was it that ' ; asking a question implying its own af- 
firmative answer. 

14. Immo vero. See Cat, I, § 2, note, for use of this formula, 

15. professione : ' registration,' 

17. Appi. Apparently A. Claudius Pulcher, father of Cicero's 
enemy P. Clodius. 

18. Gabini. P. Gabinius Capito, who had been found guilty of ex- 
tortion during his governorship of Achaia. 

18. quam diu incolumis : ' as long as he was unassailed,' by process 
of law. 

18. levitas : ' worthless character.' 

19. calamitas : ' ruin,' ' shameful fall.' 
24. in nomine : *in the case of the name.' 

10 25. civitate : i, e. 'citizenship' in Heraclia. 

28. praeditis, sc, eis : ' to those endowed.' 

29. impertiebant. When is the indicative imperfect used with 
cum temporal? W. 536 ; A. 323, i, 2 ; H. 601 ; B. 288, i, A ; G. 580. 

Page 103 

1. credo : here governs the ace, and inf. Usually it is parenthetical 
when ironical. 

2. scaenicis artificibus : 'artists on the stage,' 'play actors,' The 
passage shows how contemptuous was the Roman's opinion of actors in 
general, who were chiefly slaves and freedmen. Cf. Cat. 11, § 9, netno 
in scaena levior et nequior. 

2. largiri : ' to bestow freely.' 

3. Quid? See Cat. I, § 8, note on this word. 

4. post civitatem datam : 'after the granting cf citizenship,' by 
the lex Plautia-Papiria. 

5. legem Papiam : a law proposed by C. Papius, perhaps in 65, 
which banished from Rome all persons not domiciled in Italy, It is 
thought that Archias was accused under the terms of this law, 

6. hie : subj, of reicietur. 

11 9. est enim obscurum : ' It is, of course, a fact not clear,' enim 
is ironical. 

10. proximis censoribus : 'under the last censors,' i. e. those of 
the year 70. There were censors in the years 65 and 64, but they had 
resigned without taking a census. Read Introduction, § 27. 



11. superioribus : sc. censoribus \ i. e. of 86. 

12. primis : in 8g, the first census after the granting of citizenship 
to the allied cities. 

14. Non ius civitatis confirmat : ' does not establish the rights of 
citizenship' ; i. e. the appearance of a name on the census-rolls does not 
prove that the individual has been legally made a citizen, nor does the 
omission of a name prove that such a person is not a citizen. For 
example, in the intervals between censorships many become active 
citizens without a censor's official enrolment. 

14. ac : ' but,' as often after a negative clause. 

16. criminaris: 'you charge,' ' accusingly assert.' 

17. ipsius : Archias. 

17. in . . . iure esse versatum : ' exercised the rights.' 

18. testamentum . . . fecit. Only cives as a rule had the right 
to make a will which could be probated strictly, or to receive inherit- 
ances from other cives. See E. Thomas, Roman Life under the Caesars, 
p. 158 ff. for account of wills. Also a class, diet., art. Testamentum. 

19. in beneficiis : ' on the service merit rolls.' Benejicia were lists 
of services performed for the state by the subordinates of a provincial 
magistrate, and for which he recommended rewards from the treasury. 

21. argumenta : 'proofs.' See Vocab. 

22. neque . . . neque : these words do not annul the negative 
num^uam,hut distribute it. W. 662 ; A. 209, a, 2 ; H. 656, 2 ; B. 347, 2 ; 

G. 445. 
12 25. Quia suppeditat. Supply the lacking main clause. 

25. ubi : ' that with .which.' The adverbs udi, unde, and quo are 
sometimes used in place of a relative pronoun with a preposition. 
A. 207, a ; H. 510, ii ; B. 282, 2 ; G. 611, Remark i. 

27. An. How used ? 

28. quod : sc. id. 

Page 104 

I. rerum : ' topics.' 

I. doctrina : 'study of letters,' 'scholarly pursuits.' The word 
means ' teaching,' and is used here of the lessons of literature to him 
who studies. 

4. ceteros pudeat : ' let others feel ashamed.' 

5. litteris : ' in books' ; abl. case denoting means. 

5. nihil . . . neque . . . neque. See note on neque-neque in 


6. in aspectum lucemque : ' into the full glare of public inspec- 
tion. What literally ? 

304 NOTES [Page 104 

7. me . . . pudeat. Dubitative subjv. Some of Cicero's hearers 
were of the stern old Roman type which deemed literature unbecoming 
to a practical Roman, hence his defense. Are we not often obliged to 
defend ourselves for "wasting time on Greek and Latin " ? 

8. vivo : use the perfect tense in English. 

8. a . . . tempore aut commodo : ' never from anybody's hour 
of peril or (questioned) interest.' tempore refers to trials in which civil 
existence is at stake ; commodo to cases in which property interests are 

13 II- tandem. Meaning in questions? See Cat. I, § i note. 

12. quantum : in each instance has the partitive genitive tempontm 

16. tempestivis conviviis : ' (unseemly) early banquets.' Banquets 
of the " fast set " are referred to, which began very early, in order to 
last very long. 

17. pilae. Ball-playing of various sorts was highly respectable. 
Perhaps Cicero means to refer to excessive time given to the sport. A 
popular form of the game resembled our "hand-ball." 

20. oratio et facultas : ' oratorical power.' 

20. quantacumque . . . est : ' such as it is.' 

21. periculis : like tempore above, means the perils attending a 

22. levior : ' too trivial,' ' of too little consequence.' 
22. ilia : ' those waters ' ; keeping to the figure in fonte. 

22. quae summa sunt : * which are sweetest,' as we might say. 
He means that, if oratory is not a sufficient -end in itself, he knows 
where the " waters of knowledge" are to be found. The figure recalls 
the words of Webster : " Knowledge is the only fountain both of the 
love and the principles of human liberty." Cf. Pope's Essay on Criti- 
cism^ II, 11. 15-16 : 

" A little learning is a dangerous thing ; 
Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring." 

14 24. multisque litteris : ' wide reading.' 

25. suassisem nihil esse. Suadere is rarely found with the inf. 
and ace. in classic prose. It usually is followed by a dependent ut 

27. ea : sc. re ; * this aim ' ; referring to the combined laudem atque 
hones tatem. 

28. parvi. What genitive ? See Cat. I, § 22, note /««//. 


Page 105 

1. tot ac tantas. Cf. Cat. IV, § 6 note, hanc tantam tain. 

2. hos . . . impetus. Cicero was already suffering under the 
attacks of the democratic party for his behavior toward the Catilinarian 
conspirators in the previous year. He had foreboded these attacks in 
Cat. IV, § 22, Quare mihi cum perditis civibus aeternum bellum suscep- 
tum esse video. Read Introduction, Life of Cicero^ § 7. 

3. pleni : sc. talium praeceptorum from praeceptis above. 

4. voces : ' sayings.' 

6. accederet : * were turned upon them * ; lit. ' approached.' 

6. imagines : ' portraits ' (done in words). 

8. expressas : ' vividly modeled,' ' moulded to the life.' The word 
suggests the skill of a sculptor in carving lifelike portraits. 

14. doctrina : ' scholarly instruction ' ; i. e. in literature. 

21. ad laudem atque virtutem: ' for the attainment of distinction 
and nobility of character.' 

24. ratio quaedam conformatioque doctrinae : ' what one may 
call \qtiaedam'\ the orderly principles and the symmetrical culture de- 
rived from learning.' Cicero uses quidam to indicate that the modified 
expression is too strong, or not quite exact. Cf. § 2, note quasi . . . 

25. illud nescio quid . . . exsistere : ' that glorious and unique 
product — I know what to call it — regularly comes into being.' Prof. 
Lane translates elegantly ; " the beau-ideal of perfection always bursts 
into being." 

28. Africanum : the younger Scipio Africanus. 

28. C. Laelius Sapiens : a friend of Scipio, and patron of letters. 

Page 106 

I. L. Furius Philus : a cultivated patron of literature. These 
three men belonged to the famous " Scipionic Circle," as it has been 
termed, which promoted the study of Greek literature. 

3. M. Catonem : the famous Censor, a man of rugged character, 
distinguished for political power, oratorical ability, and literary produc- 
tiveness. He lived to be eighty-five years old. 

8. animi remissionem : suggests that the relief to the mind is like 
the loosening of the string on a bow long strained. 

9. ceterae, sc. remissiones. Learn the sentence, as a beautiful bit 
of writing. 

10. omnium : modifies all three nouiis. 

So6 NOTES [Page io8 

12. adversis, sc. redus : = eis qtii in adversis rebus sunt. 

17 19. Rosci : Q. Roscius, the actor. He was born a slave, but 
achieved distinction through his extraordinary powers as an actor. His 
gestures and carriage of body were charming. He died in 62. 

24. animorum . . . motus : 'the incredible activity of the mental 
powers, and the swift flashes of genius.' Literally? 

18 26. utar : ' take advantage of.' 

Page 107 

2. veterum : * standard,' we might say. 

3. diligam. What use of the subjunctive? Cf. Cat. IV, § 15, note 

9. Ennius : a Latin poet, born in Rudiae, a town in Calabria, in 
239. His chief work was a poem in eighteen books, called Annales, of 
which only fragments remain. He was highly esteemed as the Father 
of Latin poetry. 

II. dono atque munere : 'generous gift.' The two words have 
practically the same meaning here. Hendiadys. 

19 15. Saxa etc. Inanimate nature, as well as beasts of the field, is 
often represented as responsive to the power of song. Read the stories 
of Orpheus, and of Amphion, in a class, diet., or in Gayley's Classic Myths. 

18. Homerum, etc. The names of the seven cities are given in the 
following hexameter verse : 

Smyrna, Chios, Colophon, Salamis, Rhodos, Argos, Athenae. 

*' Seven cities warred for Homer being dead. 
Who living had no roofe to shrowd his head." 

Hierarchic of the Blessed Angels, Thomas Heywood. 

" Seven wealthy towns contend for Homer dead, 
Through which the living Homer begged his bread." 

A non. 
26. olim : ' long ago.' 

Page 108 

I. Cimbricas res: 'the affair with the Cimbri.' These people 
migrated from northern Germany, traversed Gaul, and threatened Italy, 
but were defeated by Marius near Vercellae in loi. The Teutones 
were defeated by him in 102, at Aquae Sextiae. 

20 5- aeternum . . . praeconium ; • the proclamation ... for all 

8. acroama: " artist," ' entertainer.' The word is Greek and signi- 
fies either (i) a musical and literary entertainment, or (2) the "artist" 
who performs at such an entertainment. 


9. eius, sc. vocem. The words of Themistocles depend upon dixisse. 

10. L. Plotium : the first teacher, it is said, to set up a school in 
which declamation in Latin, rather than in Greek, was practised. Cicero 
himself expressed regret that he could not attend this school in his youth. 

21 13. Mithradaticum . . . bellum. See Introduction to the Ma- 
nilian. Law p. 261 fif., for account. 

14. in multa varietate . . . versatum : ' involving great diver- 
sity ' ; i. e. a war of such character that it demanded resourceful expedi- 
ents on the part of the general, 

14. totum. Probably only the "whole" of Lucullus' share in the 
war is meant. 

15. expressum est: 'graphically depicted.' Cf. § 14, expressas. 

19. natura et regione : ' by the natural character of the district.' 

20. non maxima manu : ' with a not very large force,' ' with rather 
a small force.' This was near the city of Tigranocerta in 69. Lucullus 
had been besieging it in order to entice the king of Armenia, Tigranes, 
to come to meet him in battle. The king came with about 200,000 
troops, and Lucullus marched to meet him with 10,000 men. Plutarch 
tells us that when Tigranes saw the Roman force, he said jeeringly, 
" If they come as envoys, they are many, but if as soldiers, few." The 
Romans completely overwhelmed the vast army of barbarians and then 
took the city of Tigranocerta. 

22. laus est : followed by the ace. and inf. The record of the war 
is not chronological in this review. See Manilian Law, § 20. 

25. nostra : * our achievement ' ; predicate after feretur et prae- 
dicabatur, and feminine to agree with the subject pugna. Translate, 
' that scarcely credible naval battle . . . will always be talked of and 
proclaimed as our achievement.' The battle took place by an island 
nearer Leninos (in 73), but it is usually called the battle of Tenedos. It 
is mentioned in the Manilian Law, § 21. 

29. Quae quorum . . . ab eis . . . celebratur : ' is spread widely 
by those by whose talents these achievements ' etc. 

Page 109 

22 2. in sepulcro Scipionum. This tomb was discovered in 1780 
in a vineyard on the Via Appia. A sarcophagus of peperino stone was 
found here, with an inscription in the old Saturnian verse, reciting the 
praises of L. Cornelius Scipio Barbatus who was consul in 298. This 
sarcophagus is now in the Belvedere of the Vatican. A laurel-crowned 
bust of peperino was found in the tomb, and it may be that of Ennius. 
The material, however, is not what Cicero mentions. It is now with the 

3o8 NOTES [Page no 

sarcophagus in the Vatican. Scipio Africanus was not buried in this 
tomb, which may be visited to-day, but which is not in itself very in- 

5. huius : refers to Cato the Younger, whp may have been listening 
to Cicero. 

5. proavus Cato ; the famous " Old Cato " of § 16. Nepos, in his 
Life of Cato, says that Cato brought Ennius to Rome from Sardinia. 

7. Maximi. The most famous was Q. Fabius Maximus Cunctator, 
the ' ' Shield of Rome " against Hannibal. Cicero has preserved the 
words of Ennius regarding this man : " unus homo nobis cunctando 7-esti- 
tuit rem." 

7. Marcelli. The most famous of that day was M. Claudius Mar- 
cellus, the " Sword of Rome," victor over Hannibal at Nola, and con- 
queror of Syracuse. He was slain in ambush by Hannibal's troops. 
Read, for his death, Walter Savage Landor's Imaginary Conversations, 
vol. i, p. 337 (Dent edition), Marcellus and Hannibal. 

7. Fulvii. Q. Fulvius Flaccus was four times consul during the 
Second Punic War, and won Capua back from Hannibal. M. Fulvius 
Nobilior, when consul in 189, conquered the Aetolians. Ennius accom- 
panied him on this expedition. 

9. Rudinum. Rudiae, in Calabria, was the home of Ennius. 

11. civitatibus : dat. of agent with a past participle. 

23 16. exiguis sane : ' narrow, you must admit.' At this period Latin 
was spoken only in Latium and the Roman colonies. Other peoples of 
Italy spoke their own dialects. 

18. debemus : ' we have a right.' This meaning is not very rare. 

21. ampla: ' full of honor.' 

22. de vita : ' at the risk of life.' 

24 27. qui . . . inveneris : causal relative clause. W. 586, 4 ; A. 
320, e ; H. 592 ; B. 283, 3 ; G. 626, Remark. 

Page no 

3. Mag^nus : Pompey. 

6. rustici ac milites : ' rough, common soldiers.' 

6. dulcedine quadam : ' by some indefinable charm.' Force of 
quadam? Cf. § 15, note, ratio guaedam. 

7. Magno : ' loud,' the regular word for this meaning in Latin. 
Clarus is also used. 

25 II. Hispanos . . . Gallos : barbarians, in the eyes of Romans. 

12. quern : subject of iubere. 

13. de populo : ' from the masses.' Archias, on the contrary, naftis 
est loco nobili (§ 4). 


14. quod epigramma : ' an epigram which he had composed in his 
honor.' The clause is explanatory to libellum. 

15. tantum mode alternis . '. . versibus : apparently the poem 
was in couplets of alternating long and short lines, like the elegiac verse, 
but had no other likeness to poetry. Render, ' (but an epigram) only by 
reason of the somewhat longer alternating verses.' 

17. ne quid . . . scriberet : substantive clause in apposition to 

18. Qui : Sulla. 

19. huius ; Archias. 

20 24. Cordubae. Cicero speaks slightingly of the Spanish town. 
Later, however, three of Rome's distinguished writers, the two Senecas 
and Lucan, came from it. 

25- pingue quiddam . . . peregrinum : ' whose utterances have 
a clumsy and provincial sound.' What literally? The accusatives are 

26. auris : ' attention.' Cf. auris, § 5. 

28. prae nobis ferendum : ' should be frankly acknowledged by us.' 

Page III 

4. in eo ipso, in quo . . . despiciunt : ' in the very act of dis- 
daining.' Literally? 

27 6. Decimus Junius Brutus Gallaecus ; consul in 138. 

7. Atti. L. Attius (or Accius) was a tragic poet of distinction, 
born in 170. He lived to be more than eighty years old. About forty- 
five tragedies were written by him, fragments of some of which have 
survived. Cicero as a boy knew him. 

9. Fulvius : M. Fulvius Nobilior, who built a temple to Hercules 
and the Muses in the Circus Flaminius, and adorned it with statues and 

II. in qua urbe . . . in ea. Be careful in rendering. 

28 16. quodam a more : *my passion, as it were.' Cf. § 24, note 
dulcedine quadam. 

18. in consulatu. This dates the speech as after 63. 

21. magna res : * an imposing theme.' Cicero always regarded his 
action in the Catilinarian conspiracy as of vast importance to the world. 

23. mercedem . . . gloriae. Compare for the thought Cat. IH, 
§ 26 ; and IV, § 21. 

25. quid est quod . . . exerceamus ? ' what reason is there for 
harrowing our souls ? ' 

26. quod : adv. ace. 

3IO NOTES [Page 113 

Page 112 

29 3. se . . . frangeret : ' break itself down.' Cf. Cat. I, § 22, Te 
. . . res frangat? 

4. de . . . vita. See § 23, note de vita. 

30 10. An vero, Cf. Cat. I, g 3, note on these words. 

10. tarn parvi animi : ' of such narrow minds,' ' so narrow-minded.* 

19. expressam et politam : ' modeled and exquisitely finished.' 
Cf. § 14, expressas ; and § 21, expressum. 

19. omnia quae gerebam : * all my actions ' ; omnia is subject of 
spargere ac disseminare ; me is object. Cf. Vergil, Aen. Ill, 605, 
spargite me in Jluctus. The thought is that each of his actions would 
sow the seed of memory for himself in the minds of posterity. It is more 
lenient perhaps to regard me as subject, and omnia as object. In either 
case we have an acknowledgment of Cicero's vanity. 

25. cogitatione quadam. For quadam see §§ 28 and 24. 

31 28. vetustate : ' long-continued intimacy.' 

Page 113 

2. causa : • with a case.' The abl. is treated as parallel with the 
ablatives of quality pudore and ingenio. 

32 16. aliena : ' aside from.' 

19. ab eo : tradition says he was Q. Cicero, brother of the orator. 


The execution of the Catilinarian conspirators did not 
effect any lasting purification of the body-politic at Rome. 
Cicero was glorying in his service as savior of his coun- 
try, while riot and violence were ruling the streets before 
his eyes. The police were worthless ; the executives help- 
less. Everywhere there was factional strife, with honors 
for the strongest. 

The most remarkable leader in this warfare of the 
streets was P. Clodiiis Piilchcr, a member of the haughty 
patrician gens Claudia. He was a dashing man of many 
talents and much charm, impetuous and self-willed, con- 
temptuous of law, regardless of the rights of others, bold 
to madness in the execution of his purposes, and loving 
disruption for disruption's sake. In 62 he had been tried 
for sacrilege against the Bona Dea. During the discus- 
sion preceding the trial, Clodius had cast a slur upon 
Cicero's conduct as consul which roused a war of words 
between the two, in which the advantage was with Cicero. 
The orator then appeared in court to crush an alibi of 
Clodius, and so lasting hostility between them was es- 
tablished. In 58 Clodius was the active agent in effect- 
ing Cicero's exile, as told in the Introduction, Life of 
Cicero, § 7. 

He organized into political clubs disreputable citizens, 
outcasts, slaves, and the scum of the gutters, and divided 
the city into wards under district chiefs, who at a signal 
sent forth armed ruffians to fight for him. He ruled and 


312 NOTES 

terrorized Rome. At length, however, a man after Clo- 
dius' own kind dared to meet him on his own ground. 
T. Annius Papianus Milo was a native of Lanuvium. He 
was adopted by his maternal grandfather, T. Annius, 
whose name he took. Why he was called Milo we do 
not know, but possibly it was because his feats of strength 
recalled to mind the famous athlete Milo of Crotona. 
The accident of circumstance made it possible for him 
to indulge his natural taste for fighting by thwarting the 
turbulent Clodius, and to become thereby the champion 
of the better disposed class of citizens. In 55 he mar- 
ried Fausta, the daughter of Sulla, and became connected 
with some of the noblest families of Rome. His political 
career began with the tribuneship in 57, during which he 
was active in securing the recall of Cicero from exile, and 
it ended with his own departure from Rome in 52. He 
was in the meantime busy blocking the lawless moves of 
Clodius. In 53 Milo stood for the consulship, and Clo- 
dius for the praetorship. The year 52 opened, however, 
without consuls, because of the violent breaking up of the 
elective assemblies. Disorder and violence prevailed 
throughout the city. On the 17th of January Clodius left 
Rome for a trip to Aricia. Milo, with a large attend- 
ance, set out on the i8th for Lanuvium. Clodius chanced 
to be returning to Rome. Near Bovillac, a village on the 
Appian Way about a dozen miles from Rome, the two 
parties met, and a fight was precipitated, which resulted 
in the death of Clodius. 

Our chief authority for the details of the murder is 
Q. Asconins Pedianus, a learned, painstaking and trust- 
worthy commentator, who wrote some time during the 
reigns of Claudius and Nero and had access to books 
and records now lost. He believes that the meeting 
of the parties to the crime was accidental, while Cicero, 


Speaking as a special pleader, asserts that it was carefully 
planned by Clodius. The fight broke out among the 
gladiators in the trains of each leader, and early in the 
contest Clodius was wounded by a spear-thrust in the 
shoulder and withdrew to a neighboring tavern. Milo, 
thinking it safer to carry the matter to an end, sent men 
to slay his disabled foe in cold blood. The tavern-keeper 
was killed, as were also a few slaves taken in the villa 
of Clodius near by, one of them being tortured to death 
with great cruelty. Milo sought for the little son of 
Clodius, but did not find him. Several witnesses of the 
crime were seized by Milo and confined for some time 
in his house. Cicero's account of the murder quietly 
ignores these damaging facts. 

The body of Clodius was thrown into the highway, 
from which it was brought to Rome by a returning sen- 
ator. It was placed on view in his house on the Pala- 
tine, where his wife Fulvia with piteous laments strove 
to stir up the people to revenge. Two tribunes aided in 
rousing the crowd to frenzy. The corpse was taken to 
the Rostra and exposed, to show its wounds. The ex- 
cited populace then carried it into the Curia and burned 
it upon a funeral pyre improvised from stools, benches, 
tables, and books seized from neighboring stalls. The 
old revered Senate House was burned to the ground, 
and with it a portion of the Basilica Porcia. (See Intro- 
duction, §§ 47, 48.) 

This violent outrage against law and public property 
turned the tide of popular feeling with a rush. Milo 
boldly came to Rome, and even began again his canvass 
for the consulship. But the apathetic senate was at last 
roused to the alarming necessity for stringent action, if 
anarchy was to be avoided. Murder and arson must be 
checked at all hazards. An interrex was appointed, but 

314 NOTES 

owing to riotous disturbances a series of interreges fol- 
lowed, not one of whom was able to effect an election. 
Toward the end of February, or in the Intercalary month, 
the senate was forced to pass the decretum (or consultum) 
ultimum (see Introduction, §28, b), entrusting, in this 
case, the state to the interrex, the tribunes, and Pompey. 

The real power in this newly appointed executive 
council was Pompey, who acted with his old-time energy 
and speed. Troops flocked to Rome at his call, and the 
citizens began to feel safer. But the murder case needed 
attention still. On the 24th of the Intercalary month, 
Pompey was chosen sole consul, an office devised appar- 
ently to avoid restoring the objectionable dictatorship. 
Three days later he assembled the senate, which passed 
a measure declaring that the murder on the Appian Way 
and the riots attending and subsequent to it were con- 
trary to the public weal. A proposal was also made 
in the senate that the cases be tried before the regular 
courts, taking precedence on the dockets. Pompey, 
knowing well that Milo would escape through bribery 
if tried in the regular courts, had a tribune veto the lat- 
ter proposal. 

The consul then secured the passing of a bill organiz- 
ing a special judicial commission of 360 jurors, from 
which the necessary panels for separate courts might be 
drawn to try cases involving (i) the riots on the Appian 
Way and subsequent acts of violence; (2) bribery in 
election contests. Pompey named for this commission 
men of unimpeachable standing and dignity. They were 
selected, probably in equal numbers, from the scnatorcs, 
the equites, and the trihuni aerarii. L. Domitius Aheno- 
barbus was elected quaesitor, or presiding officer, of the 
general court. An innovation in legal proceedings was 
the limitation of the time which a case might occupy. 


Apparently not more than five days were allowed for 
each trial. 

Milo was prosecuted under four charges, that of 
murder taking precedence. The accusers in this case 
were two nephews of Clodius, each named Appius Clau- 
dius. At the outset the prosecution demanded that the 
court require Milo to deliver up 54 slaves to be tortured 
for evidence. The court replied that as Milo had freed 
his slaves such a proceeding was illegal, but that the 
slaves of Clodius might be subjected to torture. 

The trial proceeded as follows : The quaesitor and his 
consilium iudiciim (an undeterminable number of jurors, 
probably not large) listened to the evidence of witnesses 
and the cross-examination of them by the counsel. On 
the first day such a disturbance was raised by the Clo- 
dian mob that the court was obliged to appeal to Pom- 
pey for military protection, which he provided for the 
remainder of the trial. The evidence was recorded, at- 
tested by the court, and sealed. The fourth day appears 
to have been occupied only with the aeqiiatio pilariim, 
or examination of the tablets containing the names of the 
360 jurors. The object of this was to see that the 
tablets were of uniform size and not distinguishable one 
from another, and that the names of each of the jurors 
appeared. On the fifth day the sortitio, or choosing by 
lot, of the 81 jurors who were to hear the advocates took 
place. These men then sat as a court, and to them were 
read the digest of the evidence recorded and the results 
of the slave-torture. Two hours w^ere then allowed to 
the prosecution for their argument, and three hours to 
the defense. 

Cicero alone spoke for the defendant. A story says 
that Milo, fearful of nervousness on Cicero's part because 
of the soldiers and the mob thronging the Forum, had 

3l6 NOTES 

the orator brought to the court in a closed Htter. But 
his precautions were vain. The presence of the armed 
men, the cries of the rabble, and the effort to win new 
laurels in an unpopular cause combined to unnerve even 
the seasoned advocate, and he failed to speak with his 
wonted confidence and impressiveness. His case was 
doomed. At the close of his speech the number of the 
jury was reduced to 51, each side rejecting five from 
each of the three classes on the list. A vote was then 
taken by which Milo was condemned, only 13 voting for 
acquittal. He set out at once for Massilia, the favorite 
resort of Roman exiles. 

On the following day, in his absence, he was adjudged 
guilty on the other charges preferred against him. His 
property was sold at auction and bought in by a syndi- 
cate of friends, who attempted to save something for him 
out of the wreck. His debts were enormous. Cicero 
became unpleasantly involved in this management of 
Milo's interests, through the questionable actions of his 
wife's business man. Milo's followers escaped punish- 
ment for their share in the murder of Clodius, while the 
leaders of the Clodian rabble which burned the Senate 
House were condemned. 

After the close of the trial, Cicero, smarting under 
his defeat, and chagrined at his breakdown, composed 
in the quiet of his home the skilfully conceived and elab- 
orately finished masterpiece of eloquent pleading which 
has come down to us. The original speech was in ex- 
istence for some time, but has not survived to our day. 
Milo, it js related, on reading the published literary effort 
of his advocate, remarked with humorous irony that it 
was fortunate that this speech was not delivered at his 
trial, as in that case he could not have enjoyed eating the 
delicious mullets of Massilia. 


When the civil war broke out Milo at first took no 
part in it, but when the reckless Caelius invited him to 
join in an attempt to overthrow Caesar's power, he 
quickly responded, and met his death, it is said, by a 
stone thrown from the wall of Compsa, a town in 
southern Italy. 

Delivered B. C. 52 

I. Exordium. §§ 1-6. 

§ I. The strangeness of the surroundings is a " fear- 
some thing." §§ 2-3. But the guards are to protect us, 
not to menace Milo. The howling of the mob should 
warn you to preserve him. § 4. Now you have a chance 
to reward him. § 5. In public service we expect rebuffs. 
In a court Milo's foes should have no hope. § 6. I do 
not plead his past services, but only his right of self- 

II. Praeiudicia [preconceived notions which appear 
to be prejudicial to Milo, and are here answered (Con- 
fiitatio). §§7-22]. 

1. First Objection. — § 7. " One who confesses that he 
has slain a man should die." § 8. Precedents for slaying 
men legally, drawn from history and legend. § 9. The 
law respecting burglars. Story of Marius' soldier. 
§ 10. Natural law of self-protection. § 11. Statutes forbid 
only the premeditated murderous use of weapons. 

2. Second Objection. — § 12. " The senate has decreed 
against Milo." On the contrary, it has always approved 
of him, causing Munatius to assert that it was under my 
thumb. § 13. The senate did not wish an extraordinary 
court. It declared that the murder, like any violence, 

3l8 NOTES 

was contra rem puhlicam. § 14. The senate wished the 
case tried in the regular courts. 

3. Third Objection. — § 15. " Pompey wishes Milo's 
conviction." But he has really insisted only on an im- 
partial investigation of the causes of the slaying of Clo- 
dius. § 16. No special courts investigated the death of 
Drusus nor of Africanus, (§17) because murder is mur- 
der, whatever the victim's rank. Some are horrified be- 
cause Clodius was slain on the road his ancestor built, 
(§ 18) but they do not mention his murder of Papirius on 
this same " monument." Clodius once sent a slave to 
kill Pompey, (§19) yet no investigation was decreed, 
despite the importance of Pompey. § 20. It was the 
same when he tried to kill me. But of course Clodius 
was a greater personage! §21. Pompey desired to sup- 
)ort his avowed friendship to Clodius, but trusted to an 
xellent court to do justice, and has chosen many of 
my friends, (§ 22) and put Domitius in charge of the 

III. Narratio. §§23-31. 

§ 23. If my previous remarks are true, the sole point 
at issue is '' which laid a snare for the other? " § 24. Clo- 
dius postponed his canvass for the praetorship. §§ 25-26. 
He canvassed against Milo's election and threatened his 
life. § 2y. Learning of Milo's official journey, he set out 
on the day preceding it, to lay a snare near his own 
estate. § 28. Milo set out late and peacefully. Clodius 
in fighting trim attacked him. § 29. In the fray Milo's 
slaves, thinking that he was slain, killed Clodius. 
§§ Z^^Z^' We claim the right of self-defense, and you 
have to decide which was the plotter. 

IV. CONFIRMATIO. §§32-71. 

§ 32. Clodius would have reaped advantage from 
the death of Milo. § 33. Are the judges ignorant of his 


evil plans? Sextus, bring out that portfolio which you 
prize ; you abused the dead man's corpse. § 34. Would 
Milo benefit by Clodius' death ? Not at all. He gained 
favor by opposing Clodius. § 35. Milo's hatred for Clo- 
dius was merely political, but the latter was naturally 
enraged at Milo. § 36. Do you recall how he effected 
my exile by unfair means ? § 37. His acts of violence 
and his attempts against Pompey and myself. §§ 38-41. 
Milo merely restrained Clodius, but had many chances 
to slay him creditably. §§ 42-43. Would he have chosen 
his own election time for such a deed? That was Clo- 
dius' chance. § 44. Clodius prophesied the time of Milo's 
death. § 45. It was easy to learn of Milo's journey. 
Clodius left his work to waylay the traveler. § 46. 
Milo could not know of Clodius' movements, for by the 
evidence Clodius did not intend to return that day. § 47. 
We are freed, therefore, of all complicity in the crime. 
§ 48. The reason assigned for Clodius' return is absurd. 
§§ 49-50- Had Milo cared to lie in wait, he would have 
selected a more advantageous spot, and escaped suspicion. 
§ 51. Why did not he prevent Clodius from reaching his 
villa ? § 52. Resume of the points already established. 
§ 53. The place of attack was favorable to Clodius. § 54. 
Milo was traveling peacefully, while Clodius' actions 
betrayed his purpose. § 55. Contrast their respective 
readiness for fighting. § 56. Milo was always alert, and 
" fortune favors the brave." § 57. Milo freed his slaves 
as a reward. We admit what they would have said if 
tortured. § 58. Slaves that save a master's life deserve 
reward. §§ 59-60. The testimony of Clodius' slaves is 
worthless, for they have been schooled in their evidence. 
§ 61. Milo's behavior since the event shows his confidence. 
§62. Many declared that he would not return, (§63) 
but would willingly go into exile, and many likened him 

320 NOTES 

to Catiline. § 64. He was accused of having stores in 
readiness for seizing Rome. §§ 65-66. Pompey had to 
give ear to all sorts of silly stories. Milo dramatically 
refuted the charge of going armed. § 67. Pompey, your 
array of forces is absurd, if directed against one man. 
§ 68. Milo is your friend and has depended on you. § 69. 
Amid the vicissitudes of life, you may need a trusty 
friend. § 70. Pompey need not have left the case to a 
court. § 71. He and his guards assure you freedom, 

V. Extra Causam. §§ 72-91. 

§§ 72-76. Milo might plead that he had slain a villain 
guilty of infamous crimes, who, had he secured power, 
would have stopped at nothing. § "jy. Good men would 
have rejoiced at Milo's boast as they do at his deed. 
§ 78. The state may now enjoy what would have been 
impossible with Clodius alive. § 79. Would you like to 
free Milo if Clodius could be restored to life? How 
scared you look! And yet you sit to avenge his death. 
§80. The Greeks almost deify tyrannicides. §81. Milo 
would confess a deed which deserves reward. § 82. 
Brave men face perils for their country's sake. §§ 83-84. 
All admit the hand of Providence in this, except unbe- 
lievers. There certainly is a divine force working in 
the world, and it effected Clodius' ruin. § 85. The sa- 
cred places and altars and Latian Jupiter effected his 
punishment. § 86. The Bona Dea was revenged upon 
him and inspired his comrades to disgrace his corpse. 
§ 87. The man was a dreadful lawbreaker. § 88. Milo 
alone could check him. § 89. Unrestrained he would have 
dominated the state if Milo perished. § 90. The burning 
of the Senate House was effected by his potent corpse. 
§91. Rouse him from the dead for greater deeds of vio- 
lence, if you will. 


VI. Peroratio. §§92-105. 

§ 92. I beg for Milo what his noble soul declines to 
ask. Treat him as well as you would a resolute gladiator. 
§§ 93-94- He says to me: ** Let my fellow-citizens prevail 
and be blessed. I shall depart without complaint, shat- 
tered in hopes and unrewarded for my labors." § 95. He 
lavished money to win the people from Clodius, and you 
approved. § 96. He was almost elected consul, and has 
acted nobly, (§97) and has secured glory as a reward. 
§ 98. He says : " The world rings with my fame, and it 
matters not where my body may be." § 99. Milo, if you 
are exiled, I can not say that my enemies have done it. 
§ 100. I have done my best for you and consider your 
lot mine. § loi. Judges, shall such a benefactor be driven 
away? § 102. Must I admit that I could not save my 
own savior? § 103. Has my influence become naught? 
Would that Clodius were alive rather than that Milo de- 
part! § 104. Will you exile your benefactor? § 105. I 
can not speak for tears. Vote boldly, and Pompey will 


Note, — The Introductions to several of these books contain excellent 
accounts of the whole case. 

Clark. Pro T. Annio Milone. [The best critical edition in Eng- 
lish.] Clarendon Press. 1895. 

Reid, Pro T, Annio Milone. [The editor is an authority on Cice- 
ronian usage.] Cambridge, 1894. 

COLSON. Cicero pro Milone. [Very useful] Macmillan & Co., 

POYNTON. Cicero pro Milone. [A good school-book.] Claren- 
don Press, 1892. 

Richter-Eberhard-Nohl. Ciceros Rede fiir T. Annius Milo. 
[A scholarly commentary for the teacher's use.] Leipzig, 1892. 

32^ KOtES [Page 115 

Halm-Laubmann. Ciceros Ausgewahlte Reden. V. Band. 

[Very good.] Berlin. 
Scholia Bobiensia. Printed in Clark's edition of the speech. 
ASCONIUS. In Milonianam. [An invaluable commentary, printed 

in Clark's edition and in Reid's, mentioned above.] 

Page 114 

2. incipientem : ' for one beginning.' 

3. T. Annius. Cicero calls him so five times in the speech, but 
uses the name Milo over a hundred times. 

6. novi iudici. See Introduction to the speech for an account of 
the court. 

7. inciderunt : ' their glances have fallen.' 

8. requirunt : ' yearn for.' 

9. corona : used of the 'ring,' or 'wreath' of spectators. 

11. templis. Look at the Plan of the Forum and observe what 
temples are indicated. See Introduction, III. Forum Romanum. 

11-12. non . . . non adferunt : ' necessarily produce some effect.' 
The use of non . . . non for nee . . . non is rare. The two negatives 
make an emphatic affirmative. 

13. in foro et in iudicio : emphatic ; of all places in the world ! 

15. ne non timere quidem : ' not even be free from fear.' The 
play on words means that, although the soldiers free us from fear of 
the rabble, still their mere presence causes alarm and uneasiness, for it 
is evidence of danger. 

17. tempori : 'exigency.' Cf. Arch., § 12, tempore. 

20. iustitiae : pred. genitive. 

Page 115 

6. animo : abl. of quality. 

10. intuentis : agrees with quos. 

12. cum . . . turn : correlatives. 
12. favet. What case follows ? 
17. pavit : from pasco. 

17. hesterna . . . contione : ' at the public meeting yesterday.' 
T. Munatius Plancus had addressed a fiery speech to the crowd after the 
adjournment of the court for that day. 

20. debebit : ' will be bound to.' 

Page 117] IN DEFENSE OF MILO 3^3 

4 23. adeste animis : ' be of good courage.* The phrase sometimes 
means ' pay heed.' 

26. locus : ' opportunity ' ; synonymous with potestas. 

28. studia : ' devotion.' 

28. voltu et verbis : ' look and word.' 

Page 116 

1. re et sententiis : 'act and vote.' 

2. earn potestatem omnem : ' such an opportunity to the full' 

3. ut statuatis : ' of determining.' Subst. clause. 

5 7. Quid . . . laboriosius . . . potest : ' For what can be men- 
tioned or imagined more oppressed with toil, what more anxious, or 
more sorely tried than we two?' Cicero includes himself with his 
client. We may use ' who ' in place of the Latin Quid here, but it is 
not necessary. 

9. ad rem publicam : * to (enter) public life.' 

12. dumtaxat : ' to be sure ' ; synonymous with sane. See Vocab. 

18. talis viros: i.e. ihQ atnplissimi viri. 

6 20. tribunatu . . . abutemur : * I shall not take advantage of the 
tribunate.' He will not call to mind the excellent record of Milo as 
tribune, as a reason for sparing him now. Milo was tribune in 57, and 
exerted himself to secure the recall of Cicero from exile Naturally, to 
Cicero's mind, that act was among the rebtis . . . pro salute rei publicae. 
The orator cleverly employs the figiire praeteritio. See Cat. I, § 3, note 

23. insidias . . . factas : the chief contention of Cicero, who later 
supports it by plausible circumstantial evidence. 

26. salus . . . felicitati : words chosen to leave the impression 
that, from whatever cause, the death of Clodius is beneficial to all. 

30. hoc : explained by «/ . . . liceat. 

Page 117 

7 5. accusatoribus : two young men, nephews of the murdered man, 
both named Appius Claudius, the elder having changed his name from 
Gains when he was adopted. 

ID. primum iudicium de capite : * as its first capital trial that 
of . . .' Read the story of the Horatii and the Curiatii in a class, diet. 
The story places the establishment of the provocatio, or right of appeal 
to the people, in the regal period, when the king probably yielded his 
absolute prerogative and so established a precedent. The legend may 
be a legal fiction. 

324 NOTES [Page ii8 

8 15. negari solere : ' it is customary to make denial.' 
16. defendi : * to set up the defense that.' 

16. Nisi vero. How used by Cicero ? See note on these words, 
Cat. II, § 6. 

20. caesum, sc. esse. 

20. Neque . . . non nefarius. Retain both negatives. 

21. Ahala ille Servilius. When ihe praenomen is omitted (in this 
case Caius) it is Cicero's custom to put the cognomen before the nomen. 
What then is the full name of this man ? See Cat. I, § 3. 

21. P. Scipio Nasica. See Cat. I, § 3. 

21. L. Opimius. See Cat. I, § 4. 

22. C. Marius. See Cat. I, § 4. 

24. fictis fabulis : ' in imaginary tales.' 

25. eum qui, etc. Reference is made to the story of Orestes, who 
slew his mother Clytemnestra to avenge her murder of his father Aga- 

28. deae : Pallas Athena. 

28. sententia : ' vote.' The court of the Areopagus sat in judg- 
ment upon Orestes and voted for condemnation by a majority of one. 
Pallas cast her vote for acquittal and Orestes escaped on a tie vote. 

Page 118 

p I. duodecim tabulae. The Twelve Tables is the name applied to a 
codification of the laws of Rome drawn up by the Decemviri in 451-450 
B. c. These laws were the basis of legal knowledge for a very long period. 

I. quoquo modo : ' in any manner whatever.' 

3. qui, quoquo modo . . . putet : ' who thinks that punishment 
should be inflicted, whatever the manner in which one has been killed.' 
7. quae multa sunt : ' and there are many such times.' 

9. defenditur : ' is resisted.' 

10. propinquus : in fact a nephew, C. Lusius. 

II. ab eo : i. e. the soldier. 

13. ille : Marius. 

14. solutum : ' acquitted.' 

10 16. quid . . . volunt : * what do our swords mean ? ' .y^^^/ is usually 
expressed in this idiom. 

24. ratio : * device.' 

11 25. inter arma : ' in times of strife.* 

26. ei : dat. of agent with luenda sit. 

29. esse cum telo : * to have a weapon.* 

31. quaereretur : ' was the object of inquiry.* 

Page 120] IN DEFENSE OF MILO 325 

Page 119 

2. non . . . dubito quin . . . sim. For construction see W. 
574. H, 576 ; A. 332, g ; H. 595, i ; B. 298 ; G. 555. 

5. illud : explained by caedem . . . factam, 

6. caedem in qua P. Clodius. Cicero intentionally perverts the 
wording of the decree, which actually read P. Clodi caedem. 

II. quam nee tacitis nee occultis : 'how freely expressed and 
how unconcealed ! ' 

,13. summum : ' at most.' 

14. ambusti tribuni : ' singed tribune.' The epithet is con- 
temptuous and points to the burning of the Curia, when T. Munatius 
Plancus continued to harangue the people until the heat of the fire drove 
him off. 

18. potentia : 'mastery,' 'undue power.' Cicero was taunted with 
browbeating the senate. 

20. auctoritas : ' influence.' 

20. hos ofdciosos labores : ' those conscientious efforts,' i. e. as an 

22. sane: ' if you choose.' 

24. quaestionem : ' court.' Cicero goes on to express annoyance at 
the establishment of special courts, when the regular courts should have 
been sufficient. 

Page 120 

4. Cuius : the antecedent is eius. Begin with quis potest. ' Who 
can believe that the senate . . . concerning the death of a man, with 
respect to whose notoriously foul profanation the power of passing judg- 
ment had been snatched from the senate ? ' 

5. senatui : dat. of reference used in place of an abl. of separa- 
tion after a verb compounded with ex. We shall have other refer- 
ences to this incestum stuprum of Clodius. It occurred in Dec. of 62, 
at the Domus Publica [INTRODUCTION, § 52], the residence of Julius 
Caesar, then praetor and pontifex maximus. Holy rites were in prog- 
ress in honor of the Bona Dea, a mysterious goddess worshiped by 
women. Men were absolutely forbidden to witness this solemn function. 
We know little of the form of worship at these secret celebrations, be- 
yond that the place of meeting was hung with vine garlands ; that wine 
was used, but called milk ; that a young pig was sacrificed ; and that 
singing and dancing were prominent in the ceremony. The reckless 
Clodius, disguised in woman's dress, as a musician, entered the house, 

326 NOTES [Page 121 

but was detected. He escaped with the help of a servant, but was later 
brought to trial for profanation. Caesar's wife, Pompeia, was suspected 
of complicity with Clodius, and was divorced by Caesar. Clodius tried 
to establish an alibi^ to prove that he was at Interamna, about ninety 
miles away from Rome, at the time of his alleged crime. Cicero had 
broken down this alibi by swearing that he had met Clodius that morn- 
ing in Rome. Clodius, however, bribed the jury and escaped convicticm. 
It is to this bribed verdict that Cicero refers when he says that the 
power of passing judgment was snatched from the senate. 

7. incendium cu'riae : See Introduction to the speech. ^\it curia 
stood in the comitium. See Introduction, § 48. 

8. M. Lepidi : chosen interrex [see Vocab.] after the death of 
Clodius. His house was attacked by the excited Clodian mob. 

14 13. nisi vero. How does Cicero employ this formula? See Cat. II, 
§ 6, note nisi vero. 

13. ille dies . . . aut ille. Observe the singular alternative sub- 
jects used with a plural verb. The author may have become confused 
by the interposition of the plural arma, or dies may have meant to him 
the * events of the day.' 

15. e re publica : ' in accordance with public interests,' ' from 
(motives of) ' etc. 

18. constaret : ' it was an established fact.' 

21. tr. pi. [tribunum plebisj : T. Munatius Plancus. The careful 
commentator Asconius says that Sallust also vetoed the measure. 

25. Divisa sententia est : ' the motion was put by sections ' ; i. e. 
(i) that the acts were contra rem publicam, and (2) that the trial should 
take place under established laws, but extra ordinem. The second part 
was vetoed, leaving an opening for Pompey to bring forward a proposal 
for a special court. A senator wishing a division of a motion might 
call out '■Divide' but the presiding officer could exercise his own judg- 
ment about complying. Read Introduction, § 28 a. 

25. postulante nescio quo : ' at the demand of somebody.' Asco- 
nius says that it was Q. Fufius, a man who had assisted Clodius long 
before in the trial for the Bona Dea profanation. 

26. flagitia : a strong term for what was merely a clever move of 
the Clodian faction. 

Page 121 

15 2. tulit : sc. rogationem. 

6. iuris : 'of its lawfulness.' 

7. Quid nisi vidisset : ' But had he not seen this.' 

9. quaeri : 'that there be an investigation.' 

Page 122] IN DEFENSE OF MILO 327 

10. salutarem . . . litteram : i. e. A {absolve). 

10. tristem : i. e. C {condemno). These letters were upon ballots 
given to the jury for voting purposes. The meaning is that Pompey 
left the jury free to acquit or to convict the accused. 

14. confessioni : abstract for concrete. 

16 16. ipse : Pompey. 

17. Publione . . . tempori : ' whether he deemed . . . attribu- 
table to P. Clodius or to the exigent times,' i. e. whether he thought it 
due to the rank of Clodius, etc. 

22. M. Livius Drusus : tribune in 91, had incurred hostility 
because of his reform measures, particularly his proposal to grant citi- 
zenship to the Italians. lie was slain by a dagger in the hands of an 
unknown man in a crowd which was accompanying him to his house. 

25. P. Africano (Minori). Report said that the body showed 
signs of strangulation, but friends of Scipio thought that he died from 
natural causes. He had been actively opposed to the plans of C. 

27. quern : the antecedent is eius. 

Page 122 

2. necessarian! : ' inevitable.' 

17 4. alio : ' by one sort of.' Murder is murder in any case. 
5. Intersil :. ' There should be a difference.' 

7. per scelus : ' criminally.' The ace. with per here expresses 

8. erit : ' shall be deemed.' 

9. si qui : ' whosoever.' 

10. monumentis maiorum : i. e. the Appian Way built by the 
censor Appius Claudius Caecus in 312. This splendid road led from 
Rome to Capua, and was later extended to Tarentum and Brundisium. 
Parts of this highway are still in good preservation. Read the article 
Via in a class, diet. 

12. viam munierit : 'built the highway.' This verb is regularly 
used of constructing a road. 

13. non qua . . . uteretur: 'not that the people might use it.' 
Relative clause of purpose. 

13. sed ubi : ' but that on it ' ; ubi is equivalent to a rel. pron. in 
the abl. with a prep. Cf. Arch., § 12, note ubi. 

18 16. M. Papirium : a knight, said to be a friend of Pompey. 

18. nobilis : sarcastic. 

19. quantas tragoedias : ' what a tragic stir.' 
21. silebatur : ' was unmentioned.' 

328 NOTES [Page 124 

21. crebro usurpatur: 'is on everybody's lips.' Literally? 

24. templo Castoris. See position on the Plan of the Forum, and 
in the Restoration of the West End, and read Introduction, § 42. 

26. ei : dat. of reference. 

26. Caruit foro : 'avoided the Forum,' There is irony in this 
picture of a famous general's timidity. But Pompey was not a street 

Page 123 

19 3« summa omnia : 'all in the highest degree.' Cf. Manilian Law, 
§ 36, summa omnia. 

5. ei viro : Pompey. 

6. eo . . . tempore : * and furthermore at that crisis of affairs.' 
9. Nisi vero. Cf. § 14, note on these words. 

II. Minus dolendum fuit : ' there was less necessity for grief.' 

20 17. stulti : ironical. 

21. confecta senio : ' utterly decrepit.' What literally ? 

21 27. quadam : lessens the force of divina. Cf. Arch,, §2, note 
quasi . . . quadam. 

28. ilium : Clodius. 

Page 124 

1-2. ne . . . gratiae : ' lest the trustworthiness of his renewed 
good- will (to Clodius) might appear somewhat impaired.' Pompey had 
made a reconciliation with Clodius when he wished his help for the con- 
sulship in 56. 

9. familiaritatibus : 'by the ties of intimacy.' 

11. consuetudines victus : 'our intercourse in social life.* 

12. si quid possumus : ' if we have any influence.' quid is adv. ace. 

16. mei : obj. genitive with studiosos. Cf. Pomp. § 68, note rerum 

22, 17' Quod: 'As for the fact that.' 

17. L. Domiti Ahenobarbi : consul in 54, was an uncompro- 
mising aristocrat, who later became a leading opponent of Caesar. 

18. nihil quaesivit. Observe the abrupt form of the sentence. 
We may insert 'let me say that . . .' Cf. the similar abruptness in 
Cat. II, § 9, nemo est etc. 

19. Tulit : ' He moved,' as we say of a parliamentary proposal. 
22. potissimum : ' in particular.' 

23 28. aliter ac: 'otherwise than as.' 

Page 126] IN DEFENSE OF MILO 3^9 

Page 125 

3. lecti : sc. sunt. 

5. uter utri : ' which of the two . . . against the other.' 

6. quo facilius . . . possitis. W hen a purpose clause contains a 
comparative adjective or adverb, it is regularly introduced by quo. 
W. 507 ; A. 317, b ; H. 568, 7 ; B. 282, i, a ; G. 545, 2. 

24 II. praeturam gerere : * exercise the office of praetor.' 

12. qui . . . spectaret : ' since he did not aim at official advance- 
ment.' Causal rel. with subjv. He was not anxious to rise quickly 
through all the gradus (* steps ') of the cursus honorum (series of higher 
magistracies), but wished to conduct the offices for his own ends, to the 
harm of the state. 

13. L. Paulum : praetor in 53. 

15. annum suum. This may mean (i) the earliest year at which he 
might hold the office lawfully ; or (2) the year following the legal inter- 
val of two years between two offices. As Clodius was aedile in 56, the 
year 53 would be 'his year' on the second interpretation. It may also 
have been 'his year ' under the first definition, but we do not know the 
year of his birth. 

17. religione : abl. of cause. Recall the use of religio in Cat. Ill, 

§15. _ 

25 26. Collinam novam, sc. tribum. By duplicating the tribe its 
voting power was doubled. 

27. Quanto ille . . . tanto : ' the more he meddled in matters, the 
more.' The ablatives express degree of difference. 

32. saepe. The election had repeatedly advanced far enough for 
several of the tribes to have cast their votes, before it was declared off. 
Cf. Introduction, § 34. 

Page 126 

26 3. silvas publicas : especially in Etruria. The government owned 
large tracts of forest and let out the right to cut timber to individuals or 
companies. Clodius had helped himself. 

8. M. Favonio : a follower of Cato the Younger, nicknamed from 
his imitation of his leader's manner, " Cato's Ape " and " Cato's Shadow." 
Mommsen calls him " Cato's Sancho," thinking of Cato himself as a Don 
Quixote ; a harsh judgment. See Oman's Seven Roman Statesmen 

10. vocem : ' remark.' 

27 13. sollemne : 'regular,' 'annual'; usually referring to some relig- 
ious ceremonial. 

330 NOTES [Page 127 

17. re : ' from the sequel.' 

19. obire . . . voluisset : ' had wished to be prompt at the place 
and time for the deed.' Literally, ' go to meet the place.' 

28 23. calceos. Three kinds of these boots were used by senators, 
according to their station, (i) The mulleus, a high red boot, which had 
thick soles and was laced. Tradition said that the Alban kings and the 
Roman kings had worn it. One writer says that it was later worn by 
senators who had held a curule office. (2) The calceus patricius, a boot 
with four lacings, ornamented with a luna, or crescent of silver, sewn 
upon it. It was worn only by the patrician senators. (3) The calceus 
senatorius, worn by ordinary plebeian senators, was perhaps black, and 
may have lacked the luna. These boots were worn only with the formal 
toga. When at home a Roman wore sandals (so/eae), and when travel- 
ing he wore an ordinary calceus, or heavy boot. See Vocab. 

23. vestimenta. He put off the toga and assumed the paenula, a 
thick, warm, long cape fastened in front and capable of being drawn 
tight about the body. This garment was worn by all classes. A host 
welcomed a guest who was paenulatus, by courteously unfastening the 
garment for him. 

25. commoratus est. Cicero dwells upon Milo's leisurely move- 
ments to show that he was not under the excitement of a preconceived 
plot, and to show that he left Rome at an hour when Clodius should 
have been back, if he had intended to return that day. 

27. Obviam fit ei : ' went to meet him.' For construction, see 
W. 333 ; A. 228, b. The adjective obvius in agreement with the sub- 
ject might have been used. The dat. is used with both adv. and adj. 

Page 127 

3. hie insidiator : Milo. The epithet is derisively ironical. 

5. raeda : a four-wheeled, strong, roomy carriage, capable of carry- 
ing several people. It was drawn by two or four horses. 

5-6. magno . . . comitatu : ' with a large, cumbersome, effemi- 
nate and pampered retinue of maid servants and (singing) boys.' Cicero 
seeks to explain away the formidable crowd with Milo. 

29 7. eius : refers to Clodius. 

7. hora fere undecima : i.e. after 4 p. m., a bold misstatement of 
the fact. The meeting took place about two hours earlier, but Cicero is 
anxious to put Clodius* start for Rome as late as possible, to show that 
it was not natural. 

13. recurrere : historical infinitive. Observe that the nominative 
case is used with this form. 

Page 129] IN DEFENSE OF MILO 331 

i6. animo fideli. What use of the abl. ? Could the gen. have 
been used ? 

^7- pugnari: ' that fighting was taking place.' 

18. succurrere prohiberentur. The infinitive is regularly used 
after prohibeo. 

19. re vera : ' in very truth.' 

19. fecerunt id servi. A clever turn, to make the slaying of Clo- 
dius appear to have been the result of commendable loyalty to Milo. But 
recall the facts in the Introduction to the speech. 

30 25. vi victa vis vel. Note the assonance. 
29. quin : 'without.' 

29. una : ' together with him.' 

31. quod defendam : ' to offer in defense.' Subjv. of characteristic. 

Page 128 

3. quin : ' without.' 

4. omnibus : dat. of agent. 

31 7- ^"i^' Observe the indicative in the apodosis. See A. 308, c ; 
H. 583. 3 ; B. 304, 3 ; G. 254, Remark 3. 

12. quod multis : ' a question which ' etc. 

14. id est. The senate had not even hinted at insidias, but Cicero 
is bolstering his assumption of insidiae in the affair. 

19. uter utri. Cf. § 23 for the same words. 

20. hie : Milo. ille : Clodius, as usually in this speech. The stu- 
dent would do well, often, to use the proper names in place of the Latin 

32 24. belua. Not complimentary, surely. 

27. illud Cassianum . . . fuerit : ' that famous question of Cas- 
sius, " Who benefited by it? " ' L. Cassius Longinus, censor in 125, was 
a strict and wise judge. 

Page 129 

3. non eo . . . quo : ' without having as consul that man, by rea- 
son of whom.' 

4. quibus . . . coniventibus : ' with whose connivance at least, if 
not with their assistance.' The men referred to were Q. Metellus Scipio 
and P. Plautius Hypsaeus, partisans of Pompey. It is not at all certain 
that they would have " winked at " irregular conduct in Clodius, as Cicero 

6. eludere : ' play his game out.' 

33 13. peregrinantur : found also in Arch., § 16. 

332 NOTES [Page 131 

18. Sexte Clodi : a scriba who had led the mob which had burned 
the body of Clodius in the Curia. He was now standing near by. 

18. librarium: 'bookcase.' He means the capsa, a cylindrical case, 
like a hat-box, for holding book-scrolls. It was later termed a scrinium. 
See Introduction, § 55, and p. LXVII, illustration. 

20. Palladium : a sacred image of Pallas, said to have fallen from 
heaven. Prophecy said that as long as it remained in Troy, the city 
could not be taken by foes. Odysseus and Diomedes stole it away from 
the temple. According to another legend, Aeneas saved the image from 
burning Troy and brought it to Latium. It was later carefully treas- 
ured in the temple of Vesta. Fire destroyed this temple in 250, when the 
image was rescued by L. Caecilius Metellus. Cicero pictures Sextus 
Clodius as treasuring the librarium as if it were a sacred Palladium. 

21. instrumentum. Cf. the use of this word in Cat. IV, § 17, note. 
23. aspexit. The orator returns to the third person as he again 

addresses the jury. 

24. , omnibus omnia minabatur : 'was threatening everybody with 
everything.' omnibus is dative with a verb of threatening. 

28. humanitatis : pred. genitive. 

29. cadaver : ' carcass,' a contemptuous word, used chiefly of the 
bodies of common men, slaves, and criminals ; or, in a better sense, of 
the dead on a battlefield. Cf. Caes. B. G. VII, 77, and II, 27. 

30. imaginibus. In the funeral procession of a distinguished man 
the waxen (?) images of his ancestors who had held curule offices were 
worn by men imitating in dress and manners those ancestors. 

31. laudatione : ' a funeral eulogy,' delivered by the nearest male 
relative of the dead, when the procession reached the Forum. 

Page 130 

34 4. Audistis, indices, quantum Clodi inter- : words conjectured 
to fill out the sense by A. Peyron about eighty years ago. 

9. immo vero. How used ? See Cat. I, § 2, note on the words. 
15. solutam: 'unrestrained.' 

22. usitatis . . . rebus: 'by customary means.' Cicero takes a 
great risk in introducing this absurd argument. 

26. adepti estis ne . . . metueretis : ' you have secured freedom 
from fearing any citizen.' The ne clause as object of adepti estis is ex- 
traordinary. A. 319, a. Note ; G. 553, i. 

Page 131 

I. temptari coeptus est. Observe the passive form oi coepi, regu- 
larly employed when the dependent infinitive is passive. With fieri. 

Page 132] IN DEFENSE OF MILO 333 

however, the active form is usual. A. 143, a ; H. 299, i ; B. 133, i ; G. 
423, n. 3- 

35 5' ^o^ dico maiora : parenthetical use of dico. 

8. segetem ac materiem gloriae : ' his glory's harvest-ground and 
substance ' ; i. e. out of Clodius' resistance sprang all Milo's fame. 

9. civile : ' political.' 

10. Ille erat ut odisset : ' it was inevitable that he should have 
hated.' Ille is put first for emphasis, erat ut may also be rendered 
' there was reason why,' 

13. Quo tandem animo. Cf. Cat. I, § 16. 

13. tyrannum : Clodius. 

14. iilius : Clodius. 

36 17. hunc : Milo. 

20. urbe cessi. The exile took place in 58. See Introduc- 
tion, § 7. 

22. Diem . . . dixerat : ' He had, of course, named a day,' i. e. 
for his appearance in court. Clodius, acting lawfully, might have sought 
to fine Cicero. To do this he should have named a day for a hearing 
before the concilium plebis, in which he should have stated his charges 
and the fine desired. After three more hearings, the tribune might 
have declared sentence, subject to appeal to the people. Had Clodius 
wished, he might have instituted a trial for treason [perduellio] before 
the comitia centuriata. But this method was practically obsolete. 
Finally he might have brought the case before the regular courts which 
tried cases of treason \maiestas\. None of these courses suited him. 

23. multam : ' a fine.' 

Page 132 

37 I. Q. Hortensium : the famous orator, now one of Milo's counsel. 
3. mihi adesset : ' was supporting me ' ; at the time when Cicero's 

banishment was threatening. 

3. C. Vibienus. Asconius, generally accurate in his comments, says 
that this man was crushed to death in a mob on the day after Clodius' 
death. We can not decide which account is correct, and it matters little. 

6. sica ilia. Read Cat. I, § 16. Cicero declares that the murder- 
ous plans of Clodius were an inheritance from the arch-villain Catiline. 
Strangely enough, however, Clodius had actually been one of Cicero's 
body-guard during the great conspiracy. 

9. sui : the author forgets that the subject is sica, not Clodius. 

12. regiam. See Plan of Forum, and Introduction, § 52. 

38 16. quantae quotiens : ' how many great.' 

334 NOTES [Page 134 

19. P. Sestio : tribune in 57. Cicero elsewhere says that he re- 
ceived more than twenty wounds in this affair. 

20. Q. Fabricio : another tribune of 57, and author of the bill for 
Cicero's return from exile. 

22. L. Caecili : praetor in 57. Nothing further is known of the 

25. mea salus : ' consideration for my welfare.' 

Page 133 

39 '• septem. The eighth praetor was Appius Claudius Pulcher, the 
elder brother of Clodius. 

I. octo. The other two were Q. Numerius Rufus and Sex. Atilius 
Serranus. On the tribunes see Introduction, § 26. 

3. auctor et dux: ' instigator and prime-mover.' 

6. decretum . . . fecisset : 'had secured a decree.' Pompey was 
a magistrate of Capua. 

10. mei : obj. genitive. 

10. quern qui . . . cogitaretur : ' so that, had any one slain him 
then, there would be no thought of freeing that man from penalty, but of 
rewarding him.' quern = ut eum ; qui = si quis. 

40 13. bis: apparently in 57, when a magistrate forbade the courts to 
sit on the case, and (2) when Clodius' friends insisted that the election 
of aedile take place first, as he was a candidate. 

17. M. Antonius : p^ossibly the famous Mark Antony. At the time 
of the trial, however, his attitude had so changed that he was an oppo- 
nent of Mile. 

20. beluam. Cf. § 32 for the same word. 

23. in scalarum tenebras : ' in the shadows of a staircase.' This 
was in a bookstore near the Forum, in 53. The ace. expresses limit. 

41 30. liberet : ' that it might please.' 

Page 134 

42 6. quam timida sit ambitio : ' how fearsome a thing a canvass for 
an election is.' Cicero knew "whereof he spake." 

43 21. quod caput est : ' and this is the core of the matter.' 

21. audaciae: abstract for concrete = rtM^d-ai^wj, 'for bold rascals.' 
Others connect audaciae with caput. 

22. peccandi : * to wrong-doing.' 
24. facti : ' for a deed.' 

Page 137] IN DEFENSE OF MILO 335 

Page 135 

44 2. Q. Petili : one of the jury, not known. 
4. Favonio. See i:^ 26, note on the name. 

45 9- dies . . . fefellit. Cf. Cat. I, § 7, nott fefellit . . . dies. 

II. nosse (for novisse) negoti . . . erat : 'to learn of the . . . 
was a matter of no difficulty at all.' 

13. Quo : Jan. 18. 

15. tribune. Asconius thinks that Q, Pompeius is meant. 

18. causa. Cicero argues that as there was good reason for Clodius 
to stay in Rome, he should not have gone away, except that he wished 
to catch Milo napping. Is the reasoning good ? Asconius tells us that 
Clodius had attended a meeting of the town council of Aricia. 

46 23. qui: 'how.' quod: 'a question which.' 

24. ut . . . rog^asset : 'suppose he had asked.' W. 571; A. 313, 
a ; H. 586, II ; B. 278 : G. 608. 

25. T. Patinam : unknown. 

Page 136 

2. Quaesierit : concessive, like rogasset above. 

3. Q. Arrius : a man infimo loco natus, who attained praetorian 
rank. He was the first to bring word to Rome of the gathering of the 
Catilinarian forces in Etruria. Cf. Cat. I, § 5. 

5. C. Causinius Schola. Asconius says that it was at this man's 
house that Clodius claimed to be at the time of the Bona Dea outrage. 
7. in Albano : ' in his Alban villa.' 

47 12. liberatur . . . non . . . esse : * is acquitted of having set 
out.' This use of libero is an imitation of the usage with verbs of say- 
ing, etc. 

20. lacent suis testibus : ' They are overthrown by their own 
witnesses.' Cicero, as a lawyer, treats the witnesses not as agents but as 

48 23. Igitur etc. : an objection from the opposing side. 

30. Testamentum. For a clear account of Roman wills and will- 
making, see E. Thomas, Roman Life under the Caesars, p. 158 ff. Also 
article Testamentum in a class, diet. 

Page 137 

49 2. sit ita factum : ' suppose it did happen in that way.' What 
subjunctive? See § 46, note ut . . . rogasset. 

5. nihil erat cur : ' there was no reason why.' 

33^ NOTES [Page 139 

5. properato opus : ' need of haste.* The perfect participle with 
opus is rare in good prose, except in the cases oi properato, maturate and 
facto. Cf. Caes. B. G. I, 42, opus esset facto. W. 389 ; A. 243, e ; H. 
477, III ; B. 218, 2 ; G. 406. 

8. illi : dat. of agent. 

12. noctu: 'by night.' This form of the abl. is found twelve times 
in Cicero's speeches. 

12. occidisset : sc. eum. 

50 14. Nemo . . . non : note the force of the two negatives. 
19. multi : substantive. 

21. rea : ' as defendant * ; feminine of reus. 

51 24. Quod ut sciret : ' But even though Milo knew.' What use of 
the subjunctive ^ See § 46, note ut . . . rogasset. 

Page 138 

1-2. ille . . . ille : Clodius. 

52 4. illi : Clodius ; hunc and other forms of hie in the passage refer to 

12. alienum : 'forced.' 

53 19- id quod caput est : 'and that is the chief point.' Cf. i$ 43 for 
these words. 

23. insanas . . . substructiones : ' senseless foundations,' i. e. 
wildly extravagant. 

24. adversari . . . loco : ' a spot favorable to his opponent.' loco 
is appos. io f undo, 1. 23. Others regard it as in the abl. abs. with edito. 

28. loci spe : ' relying on the situation.' 

54 30* picta : from pingo. 

32. veheretur : ' was riding.' See Vocab. for passive of this verb. 

Page 139 

1. impeditissimum : ' a most serious hindrance.' 

6. qui convenit : ' how is that sane ? ' qui : adv. 

7. villam Pompei: probably near his own. 

8. in Alsiensi : ' at his villa near Alsium.' This Etrurian town was 
a seaside resort, on the site of modern Palo. Why Romans built villas 
there is difficult to understand, for the place is low, swampy, unhealthy, 
and barren to look upon at present. See Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries 
of Etruria, vol. i, p. 221 ff. 

10. veniret. For mood see W. 533 ; A. 328 ; H. 603, II, 2 ; B. 293, 
III, 2 ; G. 572. 

55 12. Age : hardly more than an interjection, and used to strengthen 

Page 140] IN DEFENSE OF MILO 337 

the imperative comparate^ regardless of number. So in English " lo " was 
originally the imperative of " look." 

15. Graeculi : ' Greekling' ; a contemptuous use of the diminutive. 
Cf. Cat. I, § 13, note adulescentulo. 

16. castra Etrusca. Asconius says that when Catiline started to 
join Manlius at Faesulae (see Cat. I, i^ 5), Clodius went with him, but 
changing his mind returned to Rome. The allusion, however, may be 
to the forays of Clodius in Etruria, referred to in §§ 26, 50, 74 and 87 
of this speech. 

18. uxoris: Fausta. The lady must be held responsible for the 
character of Milo's company ! 

20. nisi ut = nisi talem ut. 

20. virum a viro lectum : i. e. the men chosen choose, each 
another in turn, until a sufficient number is secured. 

24. mulier ; contemptuous. The epithet seems absurd after the 
descriptions of Clodius' violent conduct that have preceded. 

56 25. Nec . . . non. Observe both negatives. 

Page 140 

2. quam . . . sciebat : ' which he knew had been proffered and 
well-nigh awarded (to Clodius) because of the very large rewards.' 
Others render, ' offered for sale and almost knocked down,' as if the 
figure were of an auction sale. 

5. Martemque communem : ' and the impartiality of Mars ' ; i.e. 
the fortune of war is as apt to favor one as the other side. The idea is 
taken from Homer, Iliad xviii, 309, \vvhs ivvd\ios, Kal re Kraveovra 
Karettra : ' the war-god is alike to all and a slayer of him that would slay.' 

7. perculit ab abiecto : ' has struck him down (by a blow) from the 
prostrate foe.' 

57 13. eos . . . misit. Asconius says that there were twelve of 
them. Manumission was effected (i) by the master bringing the slave 
before a praetor and permitting that officer to declare him free ; (2) by 
census, that is by the slave recording, with his master's consent, his rating 
among the citizens at the time of the census. This required property ; 
(3) by will, the master declaring the freedom of the slave. See a class. 
diet., art. Manumissio, 

13. scilicet: how used? See Vocab. 

14. tormentis. Slaves might be put to torture by scourging, lacer- 
ation, burning, or the rack, to force evidence from them, in cases involv- 
ing murder, treason, or the pollution of sacred rites. 

16. tortore : a public slave, who conducted tortures. 

33^ NOTES [Page 142 

18. facti . . . est: 'for on the torture-horse the investigation is 
concerned with facts. ' We have no certain knowledge of the form of an 
eculeus. There is a suggested representation of it, by Rich, in Harper's 
Class. Diet. 

22. parum amplis : ' inadequate.' 

23. nescis . . . reprehendere. His meaning is that fault should 
have been found with Milo because he did nothing more than free them ; 
a feeble quibble. 

58 31. id . . . tanti est quam quod: 'that is indeed not worth so 
much as the fact that.' 

Page 141 

3. necis: 'against death.' 

59 8. atrio Libertatis : probably, at this time, on the site later occu- 
pied by Trajan's forum. It was used as a business office for the cen- 
sors, and also, apparently, for the praetor who attended to cases of 

9. Appius (Claudius) : one of the prosecutors. See § 7, note accusa- 

II. severius : ' more rigorous.' 

11. Proxime deos: 'very near to divinity' ; because of the extraor- 
dinary devotion shown by his followers. For the use as prep, with ace. 
see W. 242 ; A. 261, a ; H. 420, 5 ; B. 141, 3 ; G. 416, 22. 

12. turn, cum ad ipsos : ' at the time when he had forced his way 
to their very presence.' Reference is sarcastically made to the Bona 
Dea affair. 

15. quaeri : ' that investigation be made.' 

60 20. Heus tu : the words of the supposed examiner. 

21. Rufio : ' Red-head.' Slaves on the stage wore reddish hair. 

21. cave sis mentiare : ' don't lie now.' sis = si vis is common in 
conversational use. See Vocab. For cave with the subjunctive see W. 
504, 2 ; A. 269, a, 3 ; H. 565, 4 ; B. 276, c ; G. 271, 2. 

22. Fecit : ' Yes.' The slave, as Cicero cunningly suggests, lets the 
truth slip out. 

22. certa crux : ' crucifixion is certain ' ; comment of Cicero on the 
punishment threatening the slave. 

23. sperata libertas : comment of Cicero. 

Page 142 

61 4. tot tam Claris. See Cat. IV, § 6, note tantam tarn exitiosatn. 

10. Neque vero, etc. Observe the form of the sentence, called by 
the Greeks climax and by the Romans gradatio. 

12. tantum: adv. 

Page 144] IN DEFENSE OF MILO 339 

13. eius potestati : Pompey. 

14. pubem —populum. This use of the word is archaic and found 
nowhere else in the speeches ot Cicero. 

17. audienti : ' while he was lending ear to.' 

18. non nulla: ' not a few,' 

62 22. semper : a stretch of fact. 
24. rationem : ' reasonableness.' 
27. imperitorum : ' undiscerning.' 

63 29. illud : explained by «/ . . . trucidaret. 
31. tanti : gen. of indefinite value. 

31. patria: abl. of separation. 

Page 143 

I. non dubitaturum . . . quin : ' would not hesitate to.' See 
Manilian Law, § 49, note dubitatis . . . quin . . . The infinitive is 
more usual with dubitOy meaning ' hesitate.' Cf. Manilian Law, § 68, 
note nolite dubitare . . . 

3. cederet . . . legibus : * bow before the law.' 

5. haec : 'the city,' as in Cat. I, § 21. 

6. ilia portenta : ' those monstrous men.' 

8. Miseros . . . civis : ace. in exclamation. See W. 323 ; A. 240, 
d; H. 421 ; B. 183; G. 343, i- 

9. in quibus : ' in whose case.' 

64 13. admisisset aliquid : ' had committed any deed.' 
14. quae : * those charges which.' 

16. ut : 'how.' 

20. Scutorum, gladiorum, etc. The repetition of -orttm did not, 
apparently, displease Cicero. Cf. Cat. I, ^ 7, tuorum, consiliorum, re- 

21. indicabatur : 'information was given that.' mulHtudo is the 
subject, but the impersonal form is better for the English. 

23. Miloni : dat. of agent. 

24. clivo Capitolino : the steep roadway leading up from the 
Forum to the temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline. See the Plan of 
the Forum, and Introduction, § 45. 

25. referta. Cf. Cat. II, § 10, note confer ti cibo. 
25. malleolorum. See Cat. I, § 32, malleolos. 

Page 144 

65 3- coguntur : the subject is ei. 

4. audiendus : ' had to be listened to ' ; fuit is to be supplied. 

340 NOTES [Page 145 

5. Licinius nescio qui : ' some Licinius or other.' nescio qui is 
equivalent to a demonstrative pronoun ; here with a contemptuous 
meaning. See W. 149 ; A. 334, e; H. 512, 7; B. 253,6; G. 467, 
Remark i, 

5. circo maximo : naturally not a high-class residential quarter. 

10. Non poteram . . . non. Observe both negatives. 

12. credi popae : ' that faith was put in a butcher.' The popa was 
a priest's menial who slaughtered the victims for the altar. The man 
was, says Asconius, a sacrificulus , or low-grade priest, who sacrificed for 
slaves. Cicero purposely uses a contemptuous term. For the construc- 
tion see W. 330 and 331 ; A. 230 ; H. 426, 3 ; B. 187, II, b ; G. 346, 
Remark i. 

66 18. domus C. Caesaris : the Domus Publica was his residence as 
pontifex maximus. See Introduction, §§ 38 and 52. 

20. tarn celebri loco : ' in a place so frequented.' See Plan of 
the Forum and Sacra Via. 

21. audiebatur : ' ear was lent to it' ; a playful turn upon the word 
as used just before. 

23. tota . . . suscepta : ' when the welfare of the entire state was 
upon his shoulders.' What is the literal ? 

25. Capitolio : the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus. 

26. Nudavit se : * He threw off his garment.' To do this in tem- 
plo was a nefas. 

28. res ipsa : ' the action itself.' 

67 31- Clodianum : ' respecting Clodius.* 

32. exaudire : ' to hear distinctly.' Pompey sat in front of the tem- 
ple of Saturn, some distance away from the orator. 

Page 145 

I. perhorrescimus. Cicero had good reason to dread the effect of 
Pompey's suspiciones upon the jury. It is probable that they did in fact 
affect the decision. 

9. certe : ironical. 

68 19. peste : Clodius. 

21. carissima. As a matter of fact Pompey had done nothing to 
prevent the exile of Cicero, although he did finally bestir himself to 
secure his recall. 

24. tuo beneficio : * because of your kindness.' The familiar truth, 
that one kindness leads the receiver to expect another. Pompey, in 
fact, was more inclined to help those who were under obligations to him 
than those who had done him service. 

Page 146] IN DEFENSE OF MILO 341 

25. suo : 'because of his' (kindness to me). "A good turn de- 
serves a /-<?turn." 

28. ne : ' assuredly.' 

Page 146 

1. ita natus est : ' was born for such action.' Our colloquial 
humor puts it, " was made that way." ita refers in a general way to the 
sort of conduct indicated. 

2. Magne. Pompey's title is skilfully employed to remind him 
that petty feelings are beneath him. 

09 5. ratio : ' scheme.' 

6. infidelitates : 'acts of faithlessness.' The plur. of abstract 
nouns is often used to mean acts exhibiting the quality. 

6. ad . . . simulationes : ' time-serving pretenses.' Cicero knew 
the meanness of men by personal experience of it. 

7. fugae : ' boltings,' a political term. 

10. motu . . . temporum : 'in consequence of some disturbance, 
in a public crisis.' The genitive indicates source. If this is prophecy 
on Cicero's part, it was remarkably fulfilled in the Civil War. Cicero 
has been suspected, however, of inserting this passage after Pompey's 
death. But such words might easily come from a man who knew by 
bitter experience the dangers of public life. 

11. qui quam . . . experti : 'and how frequently this happens, we 
who have had experience.' The desertion of some friends at the time of 
his exile was a bitter memory to Cicero. 

13. post . . . natos : ' since the birth of man.' 

70 15. Quamquam. Meaning at the opening of the sentence? See 
Cat. I, § 32, note on the word. 

15. iuris: for case see W. 352 ; A. 218, a; H. 451, I ; B. 204, i ; 
G. 374. 

17. ut videret ne . . . caperet. This is the so-called senatus con- 
sultum ultimum. See Cat. I, § 4, note on the words. The decree was 
peculiar in this instance, because it was addressed to the tribunes, the 
interrex, and the proconsul Pompey. There were no consuls at the 

20. indicium. Pompey, with his special powers, might have dis- 
posed of Milo without resort to a court. But Cicero's own experience 
in that sort of procedure was not encouraging. 

71 25. oporteret, liceret. Observe the meanings of each carefully. 
25. Quod . . . sedet : ' As for his sitting.' 

30. praesidio. What dative ? 

31. contra: ' in spite of.' 

342 NOTES [Page 148 

Page 147 

72 7. Sp. Maelium. See Cat. I, § 3, note on the name. 

7. annona levanda : ' by easing the (tightness of the) grain market.' 
He bought and distributed corn. For annona, see De Imp. Pomp, g 44, 
note vilitas annonae. 

10. Ti. Gracchum. See Cat. I, g 3, note. 

10. conlegae : Octavius, who had vetoed the agrarian bill of Grac- 

14. adulterium. Rumor said that Caesar's wife was involved in 
Clodius* visit to her house, at the time of the Bona Dea celebration. 
The story seems absurd. 

73 17" sorore germana : 'his own sister' ; Clodia, the younger, wife 
of L. Lucullus, who divorced her for unfaithfulness. As 2, pater familias 
he had held an investigation into his wife's conduct, in the presence of 
her relatives, and at this inquiry his slaves were examined with torture. 
At the trial of Clodius, later, he gave as evidence of Clodius' character 
the results of this investigation. 

20. civem : Cicero. 

23. regna dedit, ademit. In 58 Clodius proposed a bill in the 
concilium plebis [see Introduction, § 33] by which the title of king 
was bestowed upon Brogitarus of Galatia. This action was an encroach- 
ment upon the powers of the senate. He also secured an enactment 
depriving Ptolemaeus of the kingdom of Cyprus. 

25. civem. Pompey, perhaps. 

27. aedem Nympharum. The site of this temple is not known, 
but it stood, probably, near the atrium Libertatis [§ 59], and was used as 
a roll-office for the censors. The object in burning the records was 
apparently to prevent the detection of illegal voters. Cicero elsewhere 
ascribes this fire to Sextus Clodius. 

Page 148 

74 4. sacramentis. The sacramentum, originally, appears to have 
been a sum deposited as a forfeit to the god by whom oath was taken 
that a claim was true. Both plaintiff and defendant in a case made the 
deposit, the winner receiving back his, and the loser's being paid in to the 
religious treasury. In Cicero's time the sacramentum was only a wager 
laid by each party to a lawsuit and forfeited to the state treasury by the 
loser. [The teacher will find an excellent account of the procedure in 
Greenidge's Legal Procedure of Cicero's Time. Oxford.] 

7. P. Varium : unknown. 

Pa(;e 150J IN DEFENSE OF MILO 343 

10. hortos : ' pleasure -gardens,' connected with suburban estates, 
such as one may see about Rome to-day. 

13. M. Paconio : unknown. 

14. lacu Prilio : now Lago di Castiglione, a huge morass near Gros- 
selOy almost half-way on the line from Fisa to Rome, near the Tuscan 
coast. There is no trace of an island in it now. Much of it has been 
drained off. See Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etru7'ia, vol. ii, 
p. 230. 

75 18. T. Furfanio : little known. The sentence is broken off 

19. muliercula : ' the poor woman.' P'orce of the diminutive end- 
ing ? See Cat. I, § 13, note adulescentulo. 

20. P. Aponio : not definitely known. 

22. ausum esse. The speaker dashes into oratio obliqua, forget- 
ting for the moment that he is quoting Milo's supposed speech. 

23. mortuum : ' a corpse,' ' a dead man.' 

24. qua invidia . . . conflagrandum : * and because of this (out- 
rage), odium would be bound to consume this worthy [tali] man ' ; i. e. 
he would be looked upon as a murderer. 

25. qui Appium. The oratio directa is resumed. 

29. aditu et lumine : ' entranceway and light.' Most editors read 

Page 149 

76 I. nescio quo modo : ' some way or other.' 

5. omitto : Cicero's favorite traeteritio. See Cat. I, § 3, note 

9. efFrenatas. Cf. Cat. I, § i, effrenaia. 

11. tenentur : 'are in our grasp.' 

77 21. vero : ironical. 

24. piurimum . . . profuisse : ' has been of the greatest service.' 

26. non queo. Cicero uses this form of expression for the first 
person always instead of nequeo. 

Page 150 

7° 2. bona: 'blessings.' 

6. summo viro : Milo. 

12. ius perpetuae possessiones : ' legal title as lasting posses- 
sions.' ea, 1. 10, is subject of potuissent, and possessiones is in apposi- 
tion to ea. 

14. odio . . . mearum : ' by hatred arising from my personal en- 
mities.' Genitive of source. 

344 NOTES [I'age 151 

16. praecipuum . . . debebat : ' it had a right to be surpassing.' 
Cf. Arch., § 23, note debemus. 

79 21. Quin sic attendite : ' Nay rather, pay heed to the following' ; 
i. e. ' look at the matter in this light.' This is the only instance of quin 
with an imperative in the speeches. 

22. sic . . . ut : ' precisely as.' 

24. imaginem ... si possim efficere : * a picture of this pro- 
posal of mine : suppose me able to induce you to.' 

25. sed ita, si : * but on condition that.' 

26. quid . . . extimuistis : ' Why have your faces blanched with 
fear?' A question artfully suggesting that the jurors realize the relief 
derived from the death of Clodius, and should not think that he deserves 
to be avenged. 

Page 151 

1. ea potuerit : ' could do such deeds.* 

2. quae : ' as.' 

8. nolitis, sc. restituere. 

80 13. eis viris : Harmodius and Aristogeiton, murderers of Hippar- 
chus, tyrant of Athens. They were in fact animated more by personal 
enmity than by political considerations. 

15. res divinas : ' divine rites.' 

16. cantus . . . carmina. We possess a portion of a song attrib- 
uted to the poet Callistratus, which Conington has translated as 
follows : 

" In a wreath of myrtle I'll wear my glaive, 

Like Harmodius and Aristogeiton brave, 

Who, striking the tyrant down, 

Made Athens a freeman's town. 

" Harmodius, our darling, thou art not dead ! 
Thou liv'st in the isles of the blest, 'tis said, 
With Achilles, first in speed. 
And Tydides Diomede. 

*' In a wreath of myrtle I'll wear my glaive, 
Like Harmodius and Aristogeiton brave, 
When the twain on Athena's day 
Did the tyrant Hipparchus slay. 

" For aye shall your fame in the land be told, 
Harmodius and Aristogeiton bold, 
Who striking 'the tyrant down, 
Made Athens a freeman's town." 

16. prope . . . consecrantur : ' they are reverenced well-nigh to 
the (degree of) sanctity and abiding memory due to immortality ' ; i.e. 
they are made almost gods. 

Page 153] IN DEFENSE OF MILO 345 

22. quod : ' an action which.' 

81 26. nisi vero. How is this formula used ? See Cat. II, § 6, note 
on the words. 

26. gratius . . . esse . . . se : ' he thinks that it is more accept- 
able to you that he . . .' 

29. factum : ' action.' 

Page 152 

I. qui : ' how.' 

3. grata cecidisset : ' had chanced to be less acceptable.' 

82 II. tantum : ' so mucb.' 

17. Populi : pred. genitive with est. viri : also pred. genitive. 

83 21. uteretur : ' might make use of.' 

23. grata: 'thankful.' 

24. ingrata : ' thankless.' 

24. conscientia : abl. of means, with niieretur. 

Page 153 

I. nisi qui : * except one who.' 
I. vim, sc. divinam. 

3. vicissitudines . . . ordines : ' the changing phenomena of the 
world and its systematic disposition.' 

5. sacra : ' sacred worship,' with all its paraphernalia. 

5. caerimonias : ' rites,' a narrower term than the preceding. 

84 8. neque : ' and (assuredly) . . . not.' 

9. imbecillitate nostra : ' this frail frame of ours.' 

9. quiddam : ' a something ' (undefinable). 

10. hoc tanto . . . motu : ' this great and extremely glorious 
activity of nature.' 

14. videre ac plane . . . sentire. Cf. Cat. I, § 8, videam pla- 
neqtie sentia??i. 

17. sustulit : 'removed.' Cf. Cat. II, § 3, illo sublato. 

17. mentem iniecit. An old proverb runs: '^^ quern deus volt per- 
dere, prius dementat" ' whom the god would destroy, he first makes 

19. quern si vicisset : ' Had he conquered him ' ; begin with a new 
sentence in the translation. 

85 26. tumuli : ' sacred mounds.' 

28. arae. We have no means of knowing what, if any, altars may 
have suffered at the hands of Clodius. 

30. substructionum. Cf. ^ 53, substructiones. 

34^ NOTES [Page 156 

Page 154 

2. lacus : ace. plural. 

86 7. sacrarium. See Cat. I, § 24, note sacrarium. 
8. T. Serti Galli : unknown. 

11. iudicio illo : i.e. at the trial for defilement of the Bona Dea 
mysteries. See note on § 13, incesto stupro. 

14. sine imaginibus : 'unattended by ancestral busts.' See § 33, 
note imaginibus. 

15. cantu : ' (funeral) music' 

15. ludis : held after eight days of mourning. 

16. laudationibus. See § 33, note laudatione. 

16. oblitus : from oblino. 

17. celebritate : ' (respectful) concourse.' 

19. formas : the imaginibus mentioned above. 
21. mortem : ' dead body.' Cf. § "^^^ mortuum. 
21. in quo : 'in that in which.' 

87 23. me dius fidius : found also in § 76. 

29. consensu . . . gesta : ' acts passed with the consent.' 

Page 155 

1. bona. Cicero's property in Rome had been confiscated when he 
was exiled. See Introduction, § 7, p. xx. 

4. fratris : Quintus Cicero. 
6. capere : ' to contain.' 

8. domi : sc. eius. Cf. § 33, librarium . . . legum. 
8. nos . . . addicerent : 'sold us out.' Cf. § 56, note addictum. 
Clodius purposed to redistribute the freedmen for voting advantages. 

88 II. Ilium: Pompey. 

12. reditu in gratiam. See § 21, note ne . . . gratiae. 

13. potentiam : ' the powerful support.' 
16. supra : § 84, mentem iniecit etc. 

18. pestis. Recall the use of this vi^ord in Cat. I, § 30. 

20. praetorem : appositive to eum. 
20. solebat : sc. senatus as subject. 

89 24. suos consules : ' consuls subservient to him,' ' who were under 
his thumb.' 

25. in eo praetore : ' with respect to him as praetor.' 

Page 156 

2. effeminatus : a strange epithet to apply to a man just described 
as fiercely overbearing. Cf. § 55, mulier. 

Page 158] IN DEFENSE OF MILO 347 

90 6. eo vivo : ' with him alive.' 
7. vivus : ' if alive.' 

12. portum : ' harbor of refuge.' 

14. funestari : ' defiled,' by the dead body of Clodius. 

15. uno : Sextus Clodius. 

16. ustor : 'cremator'; properly a slave who took charge of the 
actual burning of dead bodies. 

91 21. cadaveri : dat. with restiterit. 

23. insepulti : ' while an unburied corpse.' The word modifies 

25. ad Castoris, sc. aedem. This building was favorably situated 
for defense. See Introduction, § 42. 

28. M. Caelius : a young man of early promise, whom Cicero 
assisted. He had an intrigue with Clodia, the infamous sister of Clo- 
dius. She cast him off and had him accused of stealing and of attempted 
assassination. Cicero defended him in an oration still extant. 

32. fide : abl. of quality. 

Page 157 

92 7. lacrimam. A defendant was expected to strive to awaken sym- 
pathy by weeping. 

9. ei. Why dative ? Observe parcere. 
9. hand scio an : ' I am inclined to think.' 

15. eoruraque nos. For construction see W. 368 ; A. 221, b ; H. 
457 ; B. 209 ; G. 377- 

93 20. quibus intersum : ' to which I am witness.' 

23. quoquo modo . . . me : ' whatever treatment she shall have 
deserved of me.' 

Page 158 

I. bene moratam : 'well-regulated.' 

94 6. exstinctum : ' annihilated ' ; by mob rule. The word is very 
extravagant here. 

9. putarem : ' was I to think.' 

13. studia : ' zealous partisanship.' 

14. voces: 'acclamations.' 

15. vox atque defensio : ' voice powerful in defense.' 

95 20. se . . . fecisse : ' that he did.' 

21. timidis : ' for those who were timid.' 

23. quo tutior. The comparative in a purpose clause usually re- 
quires quo as introductory to the clause. See § 23, note quo facilius. 

348 NOTES [Page i6o 

25. tribus . . . patrimoniis : used largely for bribes, but Cicero 
makes his conduct appear philanthropic. The three inheritances can not 
be traced. One was from his father Papius, another from his adopted 
father T. Annius. Of the third, Asconius merely remarks, ' I have not 
found out what the other was.' 

26. timet ne . . . non. What might replace ne . . . non? W. 
516 ; A. 331, f ; H. 567, i, 2 ; B. 296, 2, a ; G. 550, 2. 

Page 159 

90 5. vocem . . . praeconis. A herald announced the final vote at 
an election. In this case the election had been broken off before com- 
pletion, so that all the voting had to be repeated. But the people had 
indicated their choice clearly. See INTRODUCTION, § 34. 

7. unum : ' the one thing.' 

9. sibi : dat. with ob stare. 

15. ea res : 'such action.' 

15. honori : dat. of purpose with fuerit. 

97 19- brevitatem . . . consolaretur : ' affords consolation for the 
brevity of life . . .' Observe the following usages of this verb : (i) con- 
solari aliquem de aliqua re \ 'to comfort somebody about something ' ; 
(2) consolari dolor em alicuius : ' to comfort somebody in his grief ; (3) 
aliquid aliqua re consolari : ' to console for something by means of some- 

21. absentes adessemus, mortui viveremus : an example of the 
figure called Oxymoron^ a contradiction in terms 

98 30. actos : ' already celebrated.' 

30. Centesima lux . . . et . . . altera. There has been much 
discussion as to whether the words mean the I02d or the loist day. We 
have no means of deciding the question satisfactorily, for alter is some,- 
times used in place of secundus^ and sometimes in the sense of ' next.' 

Page 160 

99 8* ^^0 • • • niagis . . . eo : take care in rendering the correl- 

16. quanti . . . feceritis : ' how highly you have always esteemed 
me.' For the case see W. 362 ; A. 252, a; H. 448, i ; B. 203, 3 ; G. 
380, I. 

17. in me . . . offendistis : ' you have taken any offense at me.' 
20. hoc tantum mali : ' this great misfortune.' Cf. Manilian Law, 

§ 49, hoc tantum boni. 

Page 163] IN DEFENSE OF MILO 349 

100 23. inimicitias : Cicero is stating the truth. Had he been of a less 
grateful disposition, he might have won new favor with Pompey and the 
people by withdrawing his support from Milo. 

27. in coramunionem . . . temporum : ' to a share in your hour 
of need.' 

Page 161 

3. ducam meam. Milo must have chuckled when he read these 
words later. There was little danger of Cicero seeking exile. He had 
had his cup full of that experience. 

101 9. quodam: 'as it were.' Cf. Arch. § 15, note ratio quaedam. 

10. mortem . . . finem. Cf. Caesar's view in Cat. IV, § 7. 

11. ea mente : abl. of quality. 

14. virtutem : abstract for our concrete. 

19. haec tanta virtus : ' this consummation of manly qualities,* 
i. e. Milo(!) 

102 23. per hos : ' with the aid of these men.' 

26. abes : in Gaul, as a legatus under Caesar. 

Page 162 

103 7' i^^* iudicia : regarding the Catilinarian conspiracy of course. 
10. an ut : ' was it in order that.' 

13. discessus. Cicero speaks as if his exile was a mere withdrawal 
on his part. See Introduction, § 7. 

13. qui possum: 'how can I.' qui, adv. 

20. viderem : after comparative adverbs with quain the subjunctive 
without ut is used. 

104 21. a vobis. The dative is more common with the gerundive. 

22. immo vero. See Cat. I, § 2, note. 

23. luerit : ' let him pay.' Lit., * let him have paid.* 

24. patriae : * for his country's good.' 

25. si forte : ' mayhap,' * possibly.* 

27. quisquam : ' anybody at all.' 

105 32. prae: 'because of.' 

Page 163 

4. is : Pompey. 

5. optimum . . . quemque : ' all the best.' Literally ? 


Delivered B. C. 46 

Marcus Claudius Marcellus belonged to a haughty 
old plebeian family. He was consul in 51 and was a 
vigorous opponent of Caesar, who was then seeking 
election to the consulship while absent from Rome. 
Marcellus did his utmost to overthrow Caesar's power 
and to rouse the government to prepare forces to meet 
the ambitious general. He went to Greece with Pompey, 
and after Pharsalus, losing hope of his cause, retired to 
the island of Lesbos, where he purposed to spend his days 
in philosophical and rhetorical studies, of which he was 
very fond. 

When Caesar was in full power and was granting 
pardon to his late opponents, the friends of Marcellus 
besought the conqueror to forgive the exile. In a meet- 
ing of the senate, and at the request of the brother of 
Marcellus, supported by many senators, Caesar con- 
sented to allow Marcellus to return. Cicero, roused by 
this auspicious act of clemency, arose in his turn and 
delivered a flattering speech of thanks to the dictator. 
The genuineness of this speech, as we have it, has been 
seriously questioned by many critics. 

Marcellus, on hearing of his pardon, started for 
Rome, but was assassinated at the Piraeus ; and his body 
was burnt in the Academy at Athens. The cause of his 
assassination has not been made clear. 



I. Exordium. — §§ 1-4. This day has put an end to 
my silence, for I must acknowledge such clemency. I 
grieved that Marcellus was not pardoned. Your act as- 
sures us all of your good-will to the state. Marcellus 
is honored, and all rejoice. 

n. Tractatio. — §§ 4-8. Tongue can not describe 
your surpassing achievements. It is rightly claimed that 
circumstances assist in a general's success ; but this glory 
is your own. You have subdued multitudes by the sword ; 
but to control your spirit is divine. §§ 9-12. Your war- 
like deeds will always be admired, but men will love to 
read of your nobility of soul. You have saved the great 
family of the Marcelli. Time can not efface this deed. 
You have overcome the temptations of a victor. §§ 13-18. 
Caesar's pardon shows that he buries enmity. I have 
always supported peace, and I followed Pompey for per- 
sonal reasons. Caesar commends the peaceful, and has 
not been bloodthirsty. The gods have saved us from 
Pompey's wrath. §§ 19-22. You will always rejoice in 
your magnanimity. Spare honest opponents, although 
you have a right to be suspicious. You need not fear 
friends, and your enemies are dead or converted. But 
be watchful, for the destiny of the state hangs on you. 
§§ 23-29. You must re-establish government, and heal 
the wounds of war. You have not yet lived long enough 
for the state. There is immortality yet to win. Pos- 
terity will demand of you the completion of your work. 
§§ 30~32- The citizens were at a loss in choosing sides 
in the war, which is now at an end. A generous man 
has won, and all urge him to guard his own welfare for 
the sake of all. 

352 NOTES [Page 165 

III. Peroratio. — §§ 33-34. I thank you in behalf of 
all for the restoration of Marcellus, whose friend I am. 
Your act is an added service to me. 

The Richter-Eberhard edition with German notes is excellent. 

Fausset. Orationes Caesarianae. Clarendon Press, 1893. [A 

good little book.] 
Wolf. M. TuUi Ciceronis quae vulgo fertur Oratio pro Marcello. 

Berlin, 1802. [Contains an attack on the genuineness of the 


Page 164 

I. silenti. Cicero was proconsular governor of Cilicia in 51, and 
on his return the Civil War soon broke out, and there was no room for 
oratory. After his pardon by Caesar he had not cared to take active 
part in affairs until roused at this time by Caesar's clemency. The 
' silence ' had lasted nearly six years. 

5. pristine more : ' after my old-time custom.' 

14. causa : i. e. the cause of Pompey. 

15. fortuna : ' fortunate position.' 

18. studiorum : i. e. literaiy and historical. 

18. quasi quodam. See Archias, § 2, note quasi . . . quadam. 

Page 165 

4. mihi : dat. of agent. 

4. in multis : 'in the case of many.' 

9. suspicionibus. Caesar, it was said, suspected Marcellus of plot- 
ting against his life. 

10. actae vitae. Cf. Milo, § 98, note ados. 

II. cum . . . tum : correlatives. 

12. quanta ... sit laus : 'how great glory there is . . .' 

16. quod : ' and this.' 

17. illo : abl. with comparative. 

20. Nullius tantum flumen . . . quae : ' Nobody has such an 
abundant flow of genius . . . that it is able,' etc. 


24. pace tua : ' with your kind permission.' 

5 26. idque . . . usurpare: 'and to dwell on the thought,' id 
refers to the idea brought before the mind of the orator {ante oculos). 

Page 166 

3. contentionum magnitudine. The student need only recall to 
mind the achievements of the Gallic War and the Civil War to get the 
force of Cicero's words. 

5. conferri : ' compared.' 

7. cursibus : ' marches.' 

8. lustratae sunt : ' traversed.' 

6 13. propriae . . . imperatorum : ' the generals' own.' 
18. ducit : 'considers.' 

7 19. gloriae : i. e. the distinction of granting pardon. 

21. quod certe : ' and it surely.' 

22. ista laude. Observe this use of iste to designate ' that ' be- 
longing to the person addressed. 

24. quin etiam : * nay more.' 

25. in . . . societatem : ' for a share in.' 

28. nee ad consilium . . . admittitur : ' nor is chance suffered 
to enter wise counsels.* 
o 29. barbaras : referring to Gauls, Britons, Germans, etc. 

30. locis infinitas : Caesar's campaigns included, besides the coun- 
tries of the Gallic War, Spain, Greece, Egypt, Asia Minor, and Africa. 

Page 167 

4. iacentem : ' when prostrate.' 

5. qui faciat. The antecedent is eum. 

9 12. nescio quo modo : ' in some way or other.' 

13. clamore militum. What does the orator mean ? 

16. consilio : ' to wise counsel,' ' cool-headedness.' 

18. in gestis rebus : ' in deeds (actually) performed.* 

19. fictis : ' imagined.' 

10 22. reliquum . . . fecerit : 'has left of the state.' 
25. ut mihi videtur : 'as it appears to me.' 

28. C. Marcelli. A cousin of Marcus and a distinguished man. 
Some think that this was his brother. 

Page 168 

1. modo : ' a little while ago.' 

2. Marcellorum : a very ancient and noble family. 

354 NOTES [Page 170 

11 II. tanta est ut . . . sit. The ut clause is grammatically con- 
structed as a result ; but it does not express any result of the preceding 
clause. The logical result is framed as an independent clause, at haec 
Jlorescet, below. 

12 15. quantum . . . tantum . . . laudibus : ' lapse of time will 
add as much to your glory as it takes from your deeds.' 

19. Vereor ut. Be careful in translating ut after the verb of 
fearing. W. 516 ; A. 331, f ; H. 567, i ; B. 296, 2 ; G. 550, i, 2. 

19. perinde . . . atque : ' precisely as.' 

20. cogitans : ' in my thought.' 

20. victoriam vicisse videris. Observe the alliteration. 

13 27. attendite : ' consider.' 

Page 169 

1. nescio quo . . . misero : ' by some wretched and deadly fate.' 

2. tenemur: 'are answerable for.' 

8. hostis : ' public foes.' They were not intentionally foes to the 
state, as Cicero puts it. 

9. ignoratione : abl. of cause. 

14 12. de pace audiendum :. ' that peaceful considerations should be 
given a hearing. ' 

16. pacis et tog'ae socia : * intimately associated with peace and 
the dress of peace.' 

18. private officio : 'out of private considerations of duty'; i. e. 
through loyalty to the man Pompey. 

20. prudens et sciens : ' but wittingly and with my eyes open.' A 
common formula. 

15 ^3* integra re : ' before the breach,' i. e. the open outbreak 
between Caesar and Pompey. 

30. qui vero victor : ' but he who as victor.' 

31. quam : ' rather than.' 

Page 170 

16 4. cum . . . tum : correlatives. 
5. victoriae : ' uses of victory.' 

17 12. dubitare . . . nemo quin . . . excitaret : the common 
idiom with negative verbs of doubting. Cf. Milo, § 11, note tion . . . 
dubito quin. 

16. nimis iracundam. Pompey had threatened to act like Sulla, if 
he wo;i, and to slay his opponents in cold blood. See Introduc- 
tion, § ID. 


18 18. nee quid . . . cogitandum esse : ' that there would be no 
thought taken of what views each person had held, but of where he had 
been,' i. e. in the war. 

19 26. cum . . . turn. How used? 

Page 171 

2. sapienti : for a philosopher.,' 

10. a Virtute. The preposition shows that the noun is personified 
as an agent. 

20 II. Noli . . . defetigari. The common form of prohibition or 
negative command. 

15. rei publicae: 'of a state,' 'of a government.' The thought 
is that Pompey appeared to represent the government. 

16. contraque : ' but on the contrary.' When -que follows a nega- 
tive clause it is often best rendered by * but.' 

21 23. in alterutro : ' in either direction.' 
23. peccandum sit : impersonal. 

25. de tuisne ? ' One of your own followers?* 

29. quo duce : ' under whose leadership?* The antecedent is huius. 

31. cavendum est : ' must you be on your guard? ' 

31. Qui? ' How?' 

Page 172 

22 6. ignarus rerum. See W. 352 ; A. 218, a ; H. 451, i ; B. 204, i ; 
G. 374. 

7. tam nihil . . . cogitans : ' so utterly thoughtless.' 

8. contineri : ' depends upon.' 

9. unius. See for the case. W. 424 ; A. 197, e ; H. 393, 6 ; B. 243, 
3, a; G. 321, Remark 2. 

10. dumtaxat = sane. 

14. consistere: ' depends upon.* 

23 17. opitulari. This verb is- found in Arch., § i. 
19. quod necesse fuit : ' as was inevitable.' 

22. diffluxerunt : 'have flowed to waste.' 

23. vincienda sunt : 'must be confined,' like a bursting stream, 
within proper bounds. 

24 23. non fuit recusandum . . . quin . . . perderet . . . faceret : 
W. 574, n ; A. 332, g ; H. 595, 2 ; B. 295, 3 ; G. 555. 

28. armatus : ' under arms.' 

28. fieri prohibuisset. The infinitive is common dSi&x prohibeo. 

35^ NOTES [Page 175 

Page 173 

2. quibus : dat. with mederi used intransitively. The verb at times 
is transitive and governs the accusative. 

25 4. naturae : dat. of advantage. 

5. vis : from volo. 

9. noli . . . esse. Cf. § 20, note noli defetigari. 
II. audirem . . . si viveres. What form of conditional sentence ? 
15. operum. Caesar was a great builder and a great constructive 
statesman. The word includes both sorts of work. 

17. aequitate : ' calm serenity,' ' even poise,' 

18. cuius : obj. genitive with adjective avidissimum. 

26 19. Parum . . . magna: ' inconsiderable deeds.' Cf. Cat. II, § 4^ 
parum comitatus. 

20. Immo vero. Cf. Cat. I, § i, note, for the same words. 
24. ut . . . relinqueres : substantive clause in apposition to exitus. 
28. gloria est . . . fama meritorum : ' glory is the reputation 
... for great services.* 

27 32. actus : ' act ' (of his life's play). 

32. elaborandum est : ' effort must be expended ' ; impersonal. 

Page 174 

2. turn te. The pronoun is subject of vixisse. 
4. hoc . . . diu : substantive use of diu. 

6. pro nihilo est : ' goes for naught.' 

8. angustiis : 'narrow limits.* Abl. with contentus. 

28 14. Huic : dat. with inservias. 

19. audientes : ' when hearing of.' 

29 26. aliquid requirent : ' will require something more,* * will miss 

28. fati : predicate genitive with fuisse understood. 

28. Servi : imperative. 

30. haud scio an : * I am inclined to think.' 

Page 175 

30 4. Diversae voluntates : i. e. in the Civil War. 

6. obscuritas : ' lack of clearness,* in seeing which side was right. 

31 12. quibus : dat. with iratus esset, as usual. The antecedent is the 
ace. omnis. 

13. exsilio : abl. with dignos, as usual. 


32 24. manente : with te in abl. abs. 

27. consulas. What two cases are used with this verb ? See Vocab. 
27. ut pro aliis . . . loquar : ' to speak for others.' 

Page 176 

3. pollicemur. Within two years' time Caesar fell by the daggers of 
men here present. 

33 7- idem sentiunt. Cf. Cat. I, § 29, note idem sentiunt. 

34 14- niea : ' on my part.' 

17. id : refers to Quod . . . benevolentiae est,2indi is object oi praesti- 

18. tam diu . . . quam diu : 'so long as.* 
18. est . . . dubitatum : ' there was doubt.' 

20. praestare : supply id. 

21. omnibus . . . rebus: ' in all respects.' 

23. quod . . . arbitrabar : ' a feat which I considered no longer 

24. hoc tuo facto : * by this deed of yours.' 



Page 177 


' I. memoria tanta : abl. of quality, referring to Hortensius, the 
person described here, 

4. ut . . . meminisset : subjv, of result. 

5. nullo referente : ' nobody prompting him,' * without a prompter.' 
Public orators apparently often had a prompter near by to assist their 

6. Ardebat . . . cupiditate sic : ' he was fired, moreover, with 
such a passion ' (for his art). 

7. ut . . . viderim : the perf. subjv. often appears in a result clause 
after a secondary tense. W. 469 ; A. 287, c. ; H. 550 ; B. 268, 6 ; G. 513. 

8. Nullum . . . quin . . . diceret : ' For he permitted no day to 
pass without either speaking.' 

II. minime volgare : ' by no means common.' 
15. facultate copiosus : ' rich in store of words,' i. e. he had con- 
trol of a large vocabulary. 

17. Rem: ' subject matter.' 

Page 178 

2. How Demosthenes Overcame Defects 

I. Imitetur : the subject is orator, the typical orator. 

4. diligentia industriaque : ' by painstaking and diligence.' A 
good example of the meanings of these two words. 

5. balbus : it is said that he could not pronounce the Greek letter p. 
5. cui : dat. with studeret^ as regularly. 

8. angustior : ' somewhat short,' as we should say. 
10. contentiones : ' tense strainings,' i. e. rising emphases in a 

II. remissiones : * relaxations,' i. e. receding stress in the latter part 
of a period. 



3. The Orator's High Calling 

18. quo : ' whither.' 

18. velit : ' one wishes.' 

19. res: ' power,' through oratory. 
23. exsistere unum : subject of est, 

25. cognitu atque auditu : supines. 

Page 179 

3. religiones : 'scruples.' 

4. unius : ' of one man.' 

6. periculis : ' from the perils of a court,' ' from the fangs of the 

6. retinere homines : i. e. protect them from exile. 

9. possis : indef. 2d person. Subjv. of characteristic. 

9. lacessitus : ' if attacked.' 

ID. ne . . . meditere : 'lest your thought run always on.' Paren- 
thetical purpose clause. 

12. sermo facetus : ' cultivated speech.' 

16. miretur: dubitative subjv. 

16. summeque . . . arbitretur, ut : ' and who would not think 
that strenuous effort should be expended, in order that he.* 

17. quo uno : ' in that one point in which.' 

18. Ut . . . veniamus: 'To come.' Parenthetical purpose. 

23. ne . . . consecter : ' not to follow up'; parenthetical purpose. 

24. brevi: abl. as adv., ' briefly,' ' in a few words.' 
* 25. moderatione : 'guidance.' 

26. dignitatem: subj. ace. oi contineri. 

27. contineri : ' depends upon ' ; followed by the ablatives modera- 
tione et sapientiu. 

29. in quo estis : ' in which you are now engaged.* 

29. incumbite : ' bend all your energies.* 

30. emolumento : dat. of purpose. 

Page 180 

4. Raillery of the Stoics 

I. non ... in imperita multitudine : Cicero is flattering the 
jury that is trying Murena for illegal practises at an election. 

3. de studiis humanitatis : ' intellectual pursuits.' 

4. M. Catone : Cato Uticensis, who was against Cicero's client. 

5. haec bona : ' these good qualities.' 

360 NOTES [Page 181 

6. quae . . . requirimus, ea : ' those failings which we at times 
note' ; lit. ' those things which we at times look for in vain.* 

8. Zeno : called by Cicero inventor et princeps Stoicorum. See 
Vocab. The orator now proceeds with a light bantering of the Stoics 
as a class, ridiculing the teachings by which Cato strove to live. 

9. inventorum : ' dogmas.' 

9. aemuli : ' zealous followers.' 

10. sententiae : ' maxims.' 

10. sapientem: 'philosopher,' the truly 'wise' man, as often. 

10. gratia . . . moveri : 'moved with gratitude'; because indif- 
erent to emotion. 

11. delicto : dat. with ignoscere, as regularly. 
13. levem ; ' fickle,' ' inconsistent.' 

13. viri non esse : ' that it does not become a man.' 

13. neque . . . neque : 'either ... or.' These words do not 
nullify the negative of iton, but merely distribute it. 

15. servitutem serviant : ' are in a state of slavery ' ; an archaic 
expression from legal language. 

18. paria : ' equal ' ; because they recognized no degrees of sin. 

19. gallum : the Stoics believed in kindness to animals. 

21. nihil opinari : 'guesses at nothing,' 'never indulges in supposi- 
tion ' ; i. e. he waits until he is convinced before making up his mind. 

21. nullius rei paenitere : ' repents of nothing.' W. 368 ; A. 
221, b ; H. 457 ; B. 209 ; G. 377. 

5. Avoid Greed 

24. tarn angusti animi . . . parvi : ' so characteristic of a narrow 
and mean mind.' 

Page 181 

4. magnanimis viris : ' high-minded men ' ; dat. of ref. 

6. Gratitude 

7. cum . . . turn : correlatives. 

8. quam: 'rather than.' 

12. belli: adj. 

14. religionum colentes : ' the supporters of worship.' 

20. altus . . . est : from alo. 

21. versetur : ' hover,' subjv. of characteristic. 

22. quae . . . possint : rel. clause of result. 

23. officiis : ' kindly offices.' 


24. quae . . . nulla : ' and these cannot exist at all.' 

28. quam committere ut . . . videare :' as to be guilty of appear- 
ing to be ' etc. 

29. victus : ' surpassed.' 

Page 182 

7. Friendship 

2. aliqui : 'some fellow-beings.' 
6. qua : abl. with a comparative. 

8. amicitia : abl. with Digni, as usual. 

9. Rarum genus : sc. est. 

9. omnia praedara : * all excellent things.' 
II. sit: subjv. of characteristic. 

13. norunt = noverunt. 

14. potissimum : ' most of all,' ' especially.' 

17. ut honore : * such as honor.' 

18. animante . . . praedito : ' a living creature endowed with 
virtue ' ; note the asyndeton. 

19. ut ita dicam : ' so to say ' ; parenthetical purpose clause, used 
to apologize for the word redamare, which he coins here. It is not 
used by him in any other place. 

20. remuneratione : abl. after a comparative. 

21. vicissitudine . . . officiorumque : 'reciprocal devotion and 
an interchange of (friendly) services.' 

Page 183 

1. dum : ' until.' 

2. consilium : ' advice.' 

3. amicorum . . . suadentium: 'of friends who offer good advice.' 

5. aperte : 'frankly.' 

6. adhibitae : sc. autoritati. The dat. is regular with pareo. 
W. 331 : A. 230 ; H. 426, 3 ; B. 187, II, a. and b. ; G. 346, Remark i. 

8. Five Letters of Cicero 

The student should review carefully the account of writing materials 
given in the Introduction, § 55. A letter was usually headed by a 
salutation in the third person, e. g., Tullius S. {salutem) D. {dicit) 
Terentiae Suae : ' Tullius sends greetings to his Terentia.' Sometimes 
there is a fuller form of salutation : salutem plurimam dicit : ' sends his 
very best greetings ' ; abbrev. S. P. D. A letter closed abruptly, some- 
times without any date or word of parting ; frequently, however, the 

362 NOTES [Page 183 

word vale^ ' farewell,' and the date were added. The place of writing 
was often given in the ablative or locative. A letter was addressed on 
the outside, merely by the name of the person, in the dative case. The 
seal on the binding string served instead of signature. There was no 
public post-office in Rome, and private letters had to be sent by traveling 
friends, by public agents, or by slaves. 

Cicero's letters were collected and published, it is believed, by Tiro, 
his freedman. Those that are preserved to us are grouped as follows : 

Ad Familiares, XVI books. 

Ad Quintum Fratrem, III books. 

Ad Atticum, XVI books. 

Ad M. Brutum, II books. 

On the nature and value of the letters, read Introduction, § 15. 
The best edition of the entire collection, with English notes, is that of 
Tyrrell and Purser : Dublin University Press. 

TuLLius S. D. Terentiae Suae 

7. In Tusculanum : ' to my Tusculan villa,' among the Alban Hills 
at Tusculum. 

7. Nonis : abl. of time. 

8. ut . . . parata : sc. fac or cura, upon which the object clause 
depends ; ' see that everything is in readiness there.' 

8. Plures : 'a greater number than usual.' 

9. diutius : ' somewhat longer than usual.' 

10. ut sit : sc. fac or ctira, as with ut . . . parata above. 

11. cetera: ?>c. cura ut sint. 

11. victum: ' (proper) living.' 

12. K. : abbrev. for Kalendis, abl. of time. 

12. Venusino : sc. agro. 

Cn. F. Magno Imperatori. [b. c. 62] 

The full title of this letter is M. Tullius M. F. Cicero S. D. Cn. 
Pompeio Cn. F. Magno Imperatori : * Marcus Tullius Cicero, son of 
Marcus, sends greetings to Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, son of Gnaeus.' 

13. S. T. E. Q. V. B. E. : Si tu exercitusque valetis, bene est, a 
deferential form of address used (omitting exercitusque) toward persons 
in high station, strangers, and women. 

13. publice : ' officially,' to the senate. Pompey was in Asia, after 
ending the Mithradatic war. 

16. te : abl. \i\\h fretus, as regularly. 


1 6. poUicebar: i.e. when supporting Pompey's cause in the oration 
De Imperio Pompeio. 

17. veteres hostis, novos amicos : probably Caesar and the demo- 
cratic leaders. 

18. deturbatos : because they feared an alliance between Pompey 
and the senatorial party. 

23. quibus si quando . . . respondetur : • for which, if in any 
case no adequate return is made.* 

24. plus offici : 'balance of courtesy,' 'advantage in services.' 
Cicero was hurt because of Pompey's ungenerous attitude toward his 
"great deeds" in the consulship, of which he had written to him. 
Pompey may easily have thought that Cicero was a trifle vain-glorious 
of his actions. 

Page 184 

I. res publica : ' public interests.' 

8. arbitror : * I suppose.' 

8. cuius animum offenderes: 'offend the feelings of any one.' 
Naturally there were many in Rome who did not sympathize with 
Cicero's course toward the Catilinarian conspirators. 

12. ut . . . patiare : subjv. of result. 

12. tibi . . . fuit : ' to you, a man much greater than Africanus 
was.' The Younger Africanus is meant. 

13. me : subj. of adiunctum esse. 

13. non . . . Laelium : * not much inferior to Laelius.' Laelius 
was a cultivated statesman and man of letters and a devoted friend of 
the Younger Africanus. Cicero has made him the chief speaker in his 
dialogue De Amicitia. 

Cicero Attico Sal. 

16. Attica : a pet name for the daughter of Atticus. 

17. nullas : sc. litter as. 

18. quod scriberem : 'anything to write about.' 

19. has : sc. litter as. 

19. Valerio : a friend of Cicero. 

20. meorum : ' of my slaves.' 

21. quid : regular after si^ nisi, ne and num. 

21. quod scriberem : 'something to write about.' 

TuLLius TiRONi Sal. 

23. pr. r=pridie, April 12th, Observe that Idus is ace. a.fter pridie. 

24. belle habere : ' doing finely.' 

27. quern . . . oportuerat : 'who ought to have come.' 

364 NOTES [Page 186 

Page 185 

4. maximi facio : ' I esteem very highly.' The gen. is one of 
indefinite value. 

4. ad te . . . conservandum : what construction ? 

6. Scripta . . . epistula : abl. abs. 

7. vacillantibus litterulis : ' with its shaky little letters ' ; abl. of 

10. quo uterere : * for your use,' * whom you are to use.* 

TuLLius S. D. Terentiae Suae et Tulliae et Ciceroni, [b. c. 58] 
14. miserior . . . miserrima : this use of the comparative to 
express a degree higher than the superlative is not uncommon. 

16. utriusque : the gen. is not unusual with communis. 

17. legatione : offered by Caesar when setting out for Gaul. 

18. Hoc : sc. consilio. He means his plan of leaving Rome without 
a struggle. Abl. after comparatives. 

21. Pudet . . . me : ' I am ashamed.' 

23. squalor: 'mourning.' 
26. Eicere: i. e. into exile. 

26. excludere : ' keep me out.' 

Page 186 

I. Ut tuto sim : the occasional use of an adverb in place of an 
adjective, with sum, is a peculiarity of the style of the letters. 

5. de eorum officio : ' about their services.' 

6. Pisonem : first husband of Tullia. 

7. Di faxint : ' May the gods grant ' ; old form for fecerint. 

10. pi. —plebis. 

II. primis . . . diebus: i.e. the first days after the tribunes en- 
tered upon office on the loth of December. 

11. si inveterarit : ' if it gets to be an old story.' 
II. actum est: 'all is lost.' 

14. ita imperavi . . . ut : ' I gave orders to the effect that.' 

16. Dyrrhachi : loc. case. 

18. defensa est : i. e. as its legal adviser. 

22. istic : ' there,' where you are ; i. e. at Rome. 

24. summum : ' at the latest ' ; adverbial use. 

27. rem : ' action.' The ' action,' in a vote to recall him, did not 
take place until August 4th following. 

27. debeo : ' I have a right to.' 

28. tibi : dat. with persuadeas. 
28. te : abl. with a comparative. 

31. Pr. Kal. Dec. = Pridie Kalendas Decembris. 



a. . . 

. . active. 

neg. . 

. negative. 

abl. . 

. . ablative. 

nom. . 

. . nominative. 

abs. . 

. absolute. 

num. . 

. numeral. 

ace. . 

. . accusative. 

p. . . 

. participle. 

c. . . 

. . common gender. 


. participial. 

cf. . 

. confer y compare. 

p.p. . 

. past participle. 

cogn, . 

. . cognate. 

pass. . 

. passive. 

comp. , 

. . comparative. 

perf. . 

. perfect. 


. . complementary. 

plup. . 

. pluperfect. 


. , composition. 

plur. . 

. plural. 

dat. . 

. . dative. 

poss. . 

. possessive. 

decl. . 

. declension. 

pres. . 

. present. 

def. . 

. . definite. 

pron. . 

. pronoun, pronominal. 


. . defective. 


. reflexive(ly). 


. . demonstrative. 

rel. . 

. relative. 

dep. . 

. . deponent. 


. scilicet^ supply. 

dim. . 

. diminutive. 

sing. . 

. singular. 


. distributive. 

subj. . 

. subject. 

Eng. . 

. English. 


. subjunctive. 

esp. . 

. especially. 


. substantive. 

f. . . 

. feminine. 


. superlative. 

fut. . 

. future. 

V. . 

. verb. 

fig. . 

. figurative. 

viz. . 

. videlicet^ namely. 

freq. . 

. frequentative. 

+ . . 

. indicates that the word 

gen. . 

. genitive. 

or part of the word, 

Gr. . 

. Greek. 

or the suffix follow- 


. impersonal. 

ing, is used in the 


. inceptive. 

composition or der- 


. indeclinable. 

ivation of the word 


. indefinite. 



. inseparable. 


. indicates a word not 

instr. . 

. instrumental. 

existing but as- 


. intensive. 

sumed as having 


. interrogative. 

once existed. 


. irregular. 

I, 2, 3, 4 

. refer to the four con- 

lit. . 

. literally. 

jugations of verbs. 

loc. . 

. locative. 

n . 

. enclose forms indica- 

m., masc 

. masculine. 

ting or suggesting 

mod. . 

. modified. 

derivation and com- 

n. . . 

. neuter. 



A., abbreviation for Aulus. 

a. d., abbreviation for ante diem. 

a, ab, abs, prep, with abl. Of 
place : from^ away from. Of 
time : from, since ^ after. Of 
agent : by. With different point 
of view from English idiom : 
vacuus ab, destitute of ; a tergo, 
in the rear. — In composition : 
a7vay, apart, off; also, not, un-. 
Abs only with te. Cicero gave 
it up for a te in later life. 

abdico, -are, -avi, -atus [ab + 
dlco], I. V. a. (properly, announce 
something as not belonging to 
one). Disown, reject. With re- 
flex, pron., resign, abdicate, the 
office resigned being put in abl. ; 
se praetura abdicavit, resigned 
the praetors hip. 

abdo, -dere, -didi, -ditus [ab + do, 
/^'^]» 3- V. a., put azvay, remove ; 
conceal, keep secret ; se litteris, 
bury oneself in books, abditus, 
-a, -um, p. p. as adj., hidden, 
secret, concealed. 

abduco, -ere, -duxi, -ductus [ab 
+ duco], 3. V. a., lead away, take 
away, carry off, lead off. 

abeo, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itiirus [ab 
+ eo], irr. v. n., go away, go off, 
depart, go from. 

abhorreo, -ere, -ul, — [ab + hor- 
reo], 2. v. n., shrink from, have an 
aversion for, abhor; in weaker 
sense, be at variance with, be in- 

consistent with, a tuo scelere ; 
a meis moribus. Also, be re- 
luctant about. 

abicid, -ere, -ieci, -iectus [ab -H 
iacio], 3. V. a., throw away, throw 
from one, cast away, cast aside. 
With se, prostrate, throw down, as 
a suppliant, abiectus, -a, -um, 
p. p. as adj., cast dotun, dispirited ; 
worthless, low, vile. 

abiectus, -a, -um : see abicid. 

abies, -ietis, f., fir or spruce. 

abiungo, -ere, -iiinxi, -iiinctus 
[ab + iungo], 3. v. a., disjoin, de- 
tach, part. 

abnuo, -ere,-nui,-nutus [ab + nuo, 
to nod^, 3. V. a. and n. {to refuse 
by a nod) ; refuse, decline, reject, 
deny. Found only once in Cice- 
ro's speeches, viz., Milo, ^ 100. 

abripio, -pere, -pui, -eptus [ab + 
rapio], 3. V. a., snatch a^t/ay, tear 
away, drag off, carry off. 

abrogo, -are, -avi, -atus [ab + 
rogo], I. V. a., repeal, annul; of 
a magistrate, depose from office. 

abrumpo, -ere, -riipi, -ruptus [ab 
4- rumpo], 3. v. a., break off, break 
away, tear. With reflex., break 
away, free oneself (by force). 

abscido, -ere, -cidl, -cisus [abs 
-hcaedo], 3. v. a., cut off, hew 
off, lop off divide. 

abscondo, -ere, -condidi or -con- 
di, -ditus [abs + condo (con -J- 
do)], 3. V. a., put azvay out of 
sight, hide, conceal, abscondi- 





tus, -a, -um, p. p. as adj., hid- 
den, concealed, secret. 

absens, see absum. 

absolutio, -onis, f. [cf. absolve], 
a setting free from something, 
an acquittal. 

absolve, -ere, -vl, -utus [ab + 
solvo], 3. V. a., set free, acquit, 
absolve ; complete, finish, bring 
to an end. 

absterg^ed, -ere, -tersi, -tersus 
[abs + tergeo], 2. v. a., wipe off, 
wipe azuay. 

abstrahd, -ere, -traxi, -tractus 
[abs + traho], 3. v. a , drag away, 
pull off, draw azvay, withdraw. 

abstrudo, -ere, -trusi, -trusus 
[abs 4- trudo, thrust'], 3. v. a., 
thrust azvay, h^dr. abstrusus, 
-a, -um, p. p. a.:, adj., hidden, 
concealed, secret. 

absum, -esse, -afui, -afuturus 
[ab + sum], irr. v. n., be away 
from, be absent, be off; a meo 
sensu, be unperceived by senses ; 
a corpore, be free from, not 
found in. absens, -entis, 
pres. p. as adj., absent, in one's 

absurdus, -a, -um [ab + surdus, 
deaf\, adj., discordant, harsh ; 
incongruous, silly. 

abundantia, -ae [cf. abundans], f., 
abundance, plenty, time of plenty. 

abundo, -are, -avi, -aturus [ab + 
undo-], I. V. n., stream over, over- 
flow ; abound, be rich in. abun- 
dans, -antis, pres. p. as adj., 
overffozuing, abounding ; rich, in 

abator, -I, -usus [ab + utor], 3. v. 
dep., misuse, consume, exhaust ; 
make a wrong use of, abuse. 

ac, see atque. 

accedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessurus 
[ad + cede], 3. v. n.. go toward, 
approach, come near, advance to ; 
with an explanatory clause fol- 
lowing, be added; bring to bear 

accelero, -are, -avI, -atus [ad + 
celero], i. v. a. and n., hasten, 
speed, quicken ; intrans., make 
haste, hasten. 

accessus, -us [cf. accedo], m., an 

accido, -ere, -cidi, — [ad + cado], 
3. V. n., fall upon, fall to ; hap- 
pen, come to pass, befall, occur. 

accido, -ere, -cidi, -cisus [ad + 
caedo], 3. v. 2^., cut into, impair, 

accipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus [ad 
+ capio], 3. V. a., receive, take, 
get ; suffer, experience ; welcome, 
accept ; hear, learn, perceive. 

Accius (Attius), -i, m., a Roman 
family name. L. Accius, a tragic 
poet, born b. c. 170. 

accommodo, -are, -avI, -atus [ad 
+ commodo], i. v. a., fit to, put 
on, adjust ; adapt, suit, accommo- 
date, accommodatus, -a, -um, 
p. p. as z.^]., fitted, adapted, suited, 

accubo, -are, — , — [ad + cubo, lie 
doivn\ I. V. n., lie at, lie near ; 
recli?ie, at table in Roman fashion. 

accurate [adj. accuratus], adv., 
zvith care, carefully, nicely, pre- 

accuratus, -a, -um [p. p. of accuro, 
take care of], as adj., carefully 
wrought, nicely finished, exact, 

accusatio, -onis [stem of accuso-f- 
tio], f., an accusation, an indict- 
ment, prosecution. 

accusator, -oris [stem of accuso 
+ tor], m., a prosecutor, accuser, 

accus5, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + verb 
from causa], i. v. a., accuse, re- 
proach, blame ; arraign, prose- 

acer, -cris, -ere, adj., sharp, keen ; 
spirited, violent, harsh, eager. 

acerbe [adj. acerbus], adv., bit- 
terly, harshly, sharply, severely, 
with bitterness. 




acerbitas, -atis [stem of acerbus 
+ tas], f., bitterness, harshness, 
sourness; fi^or, severity, hatred, 
FixiY., grief, sufferings, sorrow. 

acerbus, -a, -um, adj., harsh, bit- 
ter ; cruel, severe, crabbed ; dis- 

acerrime, superl. of acriter. 

acervus, -i, m., a pile, heap. 

Achaia, -ae, f., Achaia^ a district 
of the Peloponnesus. The name 
was applied to Greece as a Roman 

Achilles, -is (-el, -I), m., Achilles, 
the hero of the Greeks in the 
Trojan War. 

acies, -ei, f., a sharp edge, point ; 
line of battle, battle array ; keen 

Acilius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. M\ Acilius Glabrio suc- 
ceeded Lucullus in command of 
the Mithradatic War in B. c. 66. 

acriter [adj. acer], adv., sharply, 
fiercely, keenly ; with spirit, 
zealously ; violently, passionately. 

acroama, -atis [Gr. cocpJo/to], n., 
an entertainment (literary, mu- 
sical, dramatic). One who enter- 
tains, an entertainer, artist. 

actio, -onis, f., a doing, an action. 
Esp. an action at law, a prosecu- 
tion, process. 

actum est, see ago. 

actus, -us, m., a driving, doing, 
impulse. Esp. an act of a play. 

acu5, -ere, -ui, -utus, 3. v. a., 
sharpen, point ; quicken, arouse, 
stir up, incite, spur on. aciitus, 
-a, -um, p. p. as adj., sharpened, 
pointed, keen, acute. 

acus, -us, f., a needle. 

acute [adj. acutus], adv., sharply, 
shrewdly, pointedly. 

ad, prep, with ace. Of motion, to, 
toward, against. Of time, till, 
until, at, to, up to ; ad vesperam, 
at evening. Of intention, for, 
for the purpose of; ad facinus, 

for evil-doing. Of place, at, near, 
in the vicinity of, around; ad 
tumulum, near the tomb. With 
gerund or gerundive, for, to. In 
other relations, in respect to, with 
regard to, with a view to, as to- 
to, in ; ad severitatem, in re- 
spect to sternness. 

adaequo, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
aequo], i. v. a., make equal, even 
with, equalize. 

adamo, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
amo], I. V. a., fall in love with, 
take a fancy to, form a liking 
for, passionately desire. 

adc-, see words beginning acc-. 

addico, -ere, -dixi, -dictus [ad + 
dico], 3. V. a., adjudge, award, 
assign ; sell, sacrifice, addictus, 
-a, -um, p. p. as adj., assigned, 
bound, devoted to, given over to. 

addo, -ere, -didi, -ditus [ad -t- 
do]» 3- V. a., give to, put to, add 
to, attach. 

adduco, -ere, -duxi, -ductus [ad 

+ duco], 3. V. a., lead to, bring to, 
lead in, draw toward; prompt, 
incite, persuade. 

1. adeo, -Ire, -ii (-ivi poetic and 
late), -itiirus [ad + eo], irr. v. 
a. and n., go to, come up to, draw 
near ; approach, address, accost, 
assail ; enter upon ; hereditates, 
enter upon inheritances. With 
or without ad, visit ; encounter, 
incur, go into. 

2. adeo [ad + eo], adv., to that 
point, so far, thus far ; so much, 
so very, to such a degree. For 
emphasis, indeed, precisely, just, 
in fact, atque adeo, and in fact, 
and even. 

adeps, -ipis, c, fat. Plur., cor^ 
pule nee. 

adfectus, -a, -um, p. p. of adficio. 

adfero. -ferre, attuli, adlatus 
[ad + fero], irr. v. a., bring, carry, 
fetch ; produce, occasion, cause ; 
employ, use, apply ; vim et ma- 
nus, lay violent hands on ; force. 




bring to bear\ nemini vis adfer- 
tur, violence is brought to bear 
upon no one. 

adficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [ad + 
facio], 3. V. z.., do to, treat, man- 
age ; inflict upon, visit with, af- 
fect', honor with, confer upon, 
bless with (using ace. and abl.). 
In pass., suffer, be afflicted with, 
be tainted with, affected with, re- 
ceive, adfectus, -a, -um, p. p. 
as adj., supplied tvith, furnished 
with ; endowed, gifted, blessed 
with ; affected, weakened, im- 
paired, worn. 

adfigo, -ere, -fixi, -fixus [ad + 
figo], 3. V. a., fasten to, attach, 

adfing^o, -ere, -finxi, -fictus [ad 

+ fingo], 3. V. z.., fashion in addi- 
tion, form besides ; add, contrib- 
ute, bestow in addition ; invent, 
counterfeit besides. 

adfinis, -e, adj., adjoining, border- 
ing on ; related to, connected rvith, 
associated with, impluated in, 

adfirmo, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
firmo], I. V. a,, cotifirm, strength- 
en ; encourage, put heart into ; 
maintain, positively assert, de- 

adfllcto, -are, -avi, -atus [freq. 
from partic. stem of adfligo 4- to], 
I. V. a., break to pieces, shatter, 
dash against ; overpower, zvreck, 
crush ; trouble, distress, harass, 

adfligo, -ere, -flixi, -flictus [ad + 
fligo], 3. V. a., dash at, overthrow, 
throw down ; damage, wreck, shat- 
ter, ruin ; distress, harass, ad- 
flictus, -a, -um, p. p. as adj., 
-shattered, miserable, cast doivn, 
dejected, wretched, ruined. 

adfluo, -ere, -fluxi (-fluxus, adj.) 
[ad + fluo], 3. V. n., floiv to, flow 
by ; flow in, abound ; to throng. 
adfluens, -entis, pres. p. as adj., 
flowing, abounding, rich in, full 
of; urbs studiis. 

adgrego, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
grego], I. V. a., unite to a flock, 
join, attach ; assemble, collect. 

adhibeo, -ere, -ui, -itus [ad + 
habeo], 2. v. a., hold toward, ap- 
ply to ; summon, call in, admit ; 
use, employ ; aures, lend atten- 
tive ears. 

adhortor, -ari, -atus [ad + hortor], 
I. V. dep., encourage, exhort, 
arouse, urge. 

adhuc [ad + hue], adv. of time, 
hitherto, up to this point, till now, 
thus far. 

adimd, -ere, -emi, -emptus [ad + 
emo], 3. V. a., take away, take 
from, deprive of; 7-emove from, 
snatch from. 

adipiscor, -i, adeptus [ad + apis- 
cor, reach], 3. v. dep., come up 
with, attain, reach, secure, ob- 
tain, get, acquire. 

aditus, -us [cf. adeo], m., a going 
to, approach ; way of approach, 
access, entrance : aditus tenere, 
have access to. 

adiumentum, -i [for adiuvamen- 
tum ; cf. ad + iuvo], n., a means 
of help, assistance ; aid, support. 

adiungo, -ere, -iinxi, -iinctus [ad 
+ iungo], 3. V. a., join to, utiite 
to, fasten to, add, attach. 

adiiitor, -oris [cf. adiuvo], m., 

adiuvo, -are, -iuvi, -iutus [ad + 
iuvo], I. V. a., assist, help, aid, 
support, give assistance. 

adlego, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
lego], I. V. a., cofnmission, de- 

adlicio, -ere, -lexi, -lectus [ad + 
lacio, entice^^, 3. v. a., allure, en- 
snare, entice, attract ; persuade. 

adligo, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
ligo, bind\, i. v. a., bind to, fet- 
ter ; detaiti ; bind, oblige. 

administer, -tri [ad + minister], 
m., an assistant, helper, tool, in- 




administra, -ae [cf. administer], 
f., a female assistant, handmaid. 

administro, -are, -avi, -atus [ad 
+ ministro, wait upon'], i. v. a., 
manage, serve, control, adminis- 
ter, guide, direct, carry on. 

admlrabilis, -e [ad 4- mirabilis], 
2iA]., admirable, marvellous, aston- 

admiratio, -onis [ad + stem of 
miror + tio], f., admiration, zvon- 
der, astonishment. 

admlror, -ari, -atus [ad + miror], 
I. V. dep., look upon with wonder, 
admire, be astonished, wonder at. 

admitto, -ere, -misi, -missus 
[ad + mitto], 3. v. a., send to, let 
go to, admit, allo7v, permit ; com- 
mit (of a crime). 

admodum [ad modum], adv., to the 
full measure, to a degree, fully, 
altogether ; very, very much, ex- 

admoneo, -ere, -ui, -itus [ad + 
moneo], 2. v. a., bring to mind, 
remind; warn, admonish, urge. 

(admonitus, -iis) [ad + monitus ; 
cf moneo], m., found only in 
abl. sing., by the advice {of), at 
the suggestion {of), at the warn- 

admurmuratio, -onis [ad + mur- 
muratio, a murmuring], i., a 
murmur, murmuring. 

adnuo, -ere, -nul, — [ad + nuo, 
nod], 3. V. n., nod to, signal ; give 
assent, assent, nod approval. 

adolesco, -ere, -olevl, -ultus [ad 
4- olesco, grow], 3. v. n., grow 
up, come to maturity, mature. 
adultus, -a, -um, p. p. as adj., 
grown up, mature ; fully devel- 
oped, full grozvn. 

adorior, -orlri, -ortus [ad + orior], 
4 and 3. V. dep., approach as a 
foe, rise against, assail, attack. 

adorno, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
orno], I. V. a., provide, furnish, 
equip ; decorate, adorn. 

adpareo, -ere, -ul, -iturus [ad + 
pareo], 2. v. n., appear, come in 
sight ; be evident, be apparent. 

adparo, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 

paro], I. V. a., prepare, make 
ready, provide for. adparatus, 
-a, -um, p. p. as adj., prepared; 
splendid, elaborate. 

adpello, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a., 

address, accost, appeal to, en- 
treat, call upon ; call by name, 

adpeto, -ere, -ivi or -ii, -itus [ad 
+ petoj, 3. V. a. and n., strive 
for, reach after, aim at, seek to 
win ; draw near, approach, be at 
hand, adpetens, -entis, pres. 
p. as adj., striving after, eager 
for, desirous of. 

adprobo, -are, -avi, -atus [ad -l- 
probo], I. V. a., assent to, to ap- 
prove, favor, agree with. 

adpropero, -are, -avi, -atus [ad 
+ propero], I. v. a. and n., hasten 
toward, accelerate, hasten ; hasten, 
make haste. 

adpropinquo, -are, -avi, -atus 
[ad + propinquo, draw near], I. 
V. n., to draw near, approach, 
come near. 

adquiro, -ere, -quisivi, -quisitus 
[ad + quaero], 3. v. a. and n., 
get in addition, obtain besides, ac- 
quire, gain, obtain, win ; accu- 
mulate, add to. 

adripio, -ere, -ripui, -reptus [ad 

+ rapio], 3. V. a., snatch, seize, 
catch, grasp. 

adroganter [pres. p. adrogans, ar- 
rogant, + ter], adv., prestimptu- 
ously, haughtily, with insolence, 

adscendo, see asc-. 

adscisco, see asc-. 

adscribo, see asc-. 

adsensio, -5nis [ad + sensio ; cf. 
adsentior], f., an assent, agree- 
ment, approval. 




adsentio, -Ire, -sensi, -sensus 

[ad + sentio], 4. v. a., assent^ 
agree with, approve. Commonly 
used as a deponent, adsentior, 
-iri, -sensus, by Cicero. Only 
once active in form in this vol- 
ume, De Imp. Pomp. § 48, adsen- 
serint. The person agreed with 
is put in the dative, and the thing 
agreed upon in the abl. with in 
or de ; e. g. alicui in or de ali- 
qua re. If no person is expressed, 
the thing is put in the dat. Hoc, 
illud, idy cetera, omnia are put in 
the ace. 
adsequor, -1, -secutus [ad + se- 
quorj, 3. V. dep., follow up, over- 
take^ come up with ; reach, attain, 
win, gain ; accomplish, effect. 

adservo, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
servo], I. V. a., preserve, guard, 
keep watch over. 

adsido, -ere, -sedi, -sessurus [ad 
+ sido, sit doivri\, 3. v. n. and a., 
take a seat, sit down near ; sit 
down beside. 

adsidue [adj. adsiduus], adv., con- 
tinually, constantly, diligently, 

adsiduitas, -atis [stem of adsidu- 
us + tas], f., constant attendance, 
unremitting service, persistent at- 
tention ; diligence, persistence. 

adsiduus, -a, -um [ad + (cf. sedeo, 
sit)\, adj., attending, incessant, 
unceasing, unremitting, untiring^ 
constant, indefatigable. 

adsignd, -are, -avi, -atus [ad -f- 
signo, mark\ i. v, a., mark out, 
assign, award ; ascribe, attribute. 

adspicid, see aspicio. 

adsto, see asto. 

adsuefacio, -ere, -feci, -factus 

[adsue(tus), /rtw/Zmr, + facio], 3. 
V. a., accustom, wont, train, 
habituate. Pass., be accustomed, 

adsum, -esse, -fui, -futurus [ad 
+ sum], irr. v. n., be near, be at. 

be present, be at hand ; stand by, 
assist, support. 

adt-, see att-. 

adulescens, -entis [p. of adoles- 
co], m., a young man, youth \ i., 
a young woman. 

adulescentia, -ae [stem of adules- 
cens + ia], f., youth. 

adulescentulus, -i [stem of adu- 
lescens + ulus], m., a very young 

adulter, -eri, m., an adulterer. 

adulterium, -i [adulter 4- ium], n., 

adultus, -a, -um, p. p. of adolesco. 

adventicius, -a, -um [cf advenio], 
adj., arriving by chance, foreign, 
accidental, strange. 

adventus, -us [cf. advenio], m., a 
coming, approach, advent, ar- 

adversarius, -a, -um [mod. stem 
_X)f adversor, resist, + arius], adj., 
turned tozvard, opposite, hostile, 
contrary. As subst. m., an op- 
ponent, adversary, enemy. 

adversio, -onis [cf. adverto], f., 
turning, direction, employment, 
turn (of mind). 

1. adversus, prep, with ace, 

2. adversus, -a, -um, p. p. of ad- 

adverto, -ere, -verti, -versus [ad 
+ verto], 3. V. a., turn toward, 
direct, adversus, -a, -um, p. p. 
as adj., turned toward, facing, 
fronting ; against, opposed, con- 
trary to, hostile ; res adversae, 

advesperascit, -ere, -ravit, — [ad 
+ vesperascit, it gro'ws dark\ 3. 
V. impers., it grows dark, it draws 
on toward evening, evening draws 

aedes, -is, f., a temple. Plur., a 
house, dwelling. 

aedificium, -i [cf. aedifico], n., a 
building, structure, edifice. 




aedifico, -are, -avi, -atus [aedes 
+ facio], I. V. a., build^ construct, 

aedilis, -is, m., an aedile. See In- 
troduction, § 24. 

aedilitas, -atis [stem of aedilis -f- 
tas], f. , aedile ship, ojffice of aedile . 
See Introduction, § 24. 

Aegaeus, -a, -um, adj., Aegean. 

aeger, -gra, -grum, adj., sick, ill, 
feeble-, troubled, afflicted, dis- 

aegre [adj. aeger], ^^v., pain fully, 
feebly \ with difficulty, scarcely, 
hardly. Comp. aegrius ; superl. 

Aegypta, -ae, m., Aegypta, one of 
Cicero's slaves or freedmen. 

Aegyptus, -i [Gr. AryuTrros], f., 


Aelius, -I, m., a Roman gentile 
name. Q. Aelius was cons. B. c. 

Aemilius, -1, m., a Roman gentile 
name. M. Aemilius Scaur us 
was cons. B, c. 115. 

aemulus, -a, -um, adj., striving 
after, emulous, vying with, ri- 
valing', envious, jealous. Subst., 
a rival (m. or f.). 

aequabiliter [adj. aequabilis],adv., 
equally, uniformly, indiscrimi- 

aequalis, -e [stem of aequus + 
alis], ^d\., equal, like, uniform; 
of the same age. 

aequalitas, -atis [stem of aequalis 
+ tas], f., equality, likeness. 

aequaliter [adj. aequalis], adv., 

evenly, equally, uniformly. 
aeque [adj. aequus], adv., evenly, 

equally, in like manner, just as, 

to the same degree. 
aequitas, -atis [stem of aequus + 

tas], f., uniformity, evenness ; 

fairness, justice ; aequitas ani- 

mi, contentment. 

aequus, -a, -um, adj., even, level, 

flat; calm, fair, equitable, proper; 

aequo animo, with equanimity , 

with composure. 
aerarius, -a, -um [stem of aes + 

arius], adj., of copper, of bronze ; 

belonging to the treasury. Neut. 

as subst., aerarium, the treasury. 

See Introduction, § 44. 
aerumna, -ae, f., hardship, dis- 
tress, toil, suffering. 
aes, aeris, n., copper, bronze ; 

money ; aes alienum, debt (lit., 

another s money) ; aera legum, 

bronze tablets of the laws. 
aestas, -atis, f., summer ; media 

aestate, in midsummer. 
aestus, -us, m., heat, glow ; surge, 

aetas, -atis [for aevitas, from 

stem of aevum, age, 4- tas], f., 

age (of old or young), life, years ; 

ab ineunte aetate, from early 

aeternitas, -atis [stem of aeternus 

4- tas], f., eternity, immortality, 

unending time. 
aeternus, -a, -um [for aeviternus, 

from stem of aevum, age, + ter- 

nus], adj., eternal, everlasting, 

endless, enduring. 
Aetolia, -ae, f., Aetolia, a region 

of Greece north of the Gulf of 

Aetolus, -a, -um, adj., Aetolian, of 

Aetolia. Plur., the Aetolians. 
aff-, see adf-. 
Africa, -ae, f., Africa ; often only 

the Roman province of that 

Africanus, -a, -um [stem of Africa 
+ nus], adj., of Africa, Afiican. 

A surname given to the Scipios. 
ager, agri, m., land, a field, estate ; 

territory, lands, country, domain ; 

the country, open land. 
agg-, see adg-. 
agito, -are, -avi, -atus [freq. of 

ago], I. V. a., drive, impel, urge. 




chase ; rouse, stir up, excite, 
trouble ; turn over (in mind), 
agnosco, -ere, -novl, -nitus [ad 
+ (g)no3Co], 3. V. a., recognize, 
identify ; claim, acknowledge. 

ago, -ere, egi, actus, 3. v. a. and n., 
put in motion, drive ; conduct, 
lead ; do, perform, push through, 
transact ; act, treat, discuss ; rem 
agere cum populo, lay a matter 
before the people. Pass., be in 
question, be at stake ; quid agi- 
tur, what is in question ? gra- 
tias agere, express thanks ; de 
vectigalibus agitur, the reve- 
nues are at stake \ age, age 
vero, come, come nozu ; quid 
agis ? 7vhat are you doing? 

agrarius, -a, -um [stem of ager + 
arius], adj., pertaining to land. 
Plur. agrarii, -drum, m., the 

agrarian party, the agrarians. 

agrestis, -e [cf. ager], adj., of the 
fields, belonging to the country ; 
wild, coarse, boorish, rude, uncul- 
tured. As subst. m., a farmer, 
rustic, peasant. 

agricultiira, -ae [stem of ager + 
cultura], f., agriculture, farming, 
tillage of the land. 

Ahala, -ae, m., a name of a patri- 
cian family. C. Se)-vilius Ahala 
was magister equitum under the 
dictator Cincinnatus, 439 B. c. 
He put Sp. Maelius to death for 
refusing to appear before the 
dictator to answer a charge of 
corrupting the people. 

aid (the i is consonant), 3. v. de- 
fect, n., say, assert, say yes ; ut 
aiunt, as they say, as is said. 

Alba, -ae, f., a name of several 
cities in Italy, but esp. Alba 
Longa, the city built, as legend 
ran, by Ascanius, the son of 
Aeneas, near the Alban Mount, 
southeast of Rome. 

Albanus, -a, -um [Alba + nus], 
adj., of Alba, Alban. Neut. 

sing., Albanum, -1, an estate near 
Alba, an Alban villa. 

alea, -ae, f., a game with dice ; a 
die, dice ; gambling. 

aleator, -oris [stem of alea + tor], 
m., a dice player, gamester. 

Alexander, -dri, m., Alexander. 
Esp., Alexander the Great, son of 
Philip of Macedon, born in 356 
B. C. 

alienigena, -ae [stem of alienus + 
root GEN, beget\ m., one born 
in a foreign country, a foreign- 
er, an alien. 

alienus, -a, -um [cf. alius + nus], 
adj., of another, belonging to an- 
other; foreign, alien, strange ; ««- 
favorable, unsuitable, tinnatural, 
forced, aes alienum, debt. As 
subst. m., a stranger, foreigner. 

aliquando [cf. alius + quando], 
adv. of time, at some time, at any 
time, ever. In wishes, at length, 
now at last. Also, at last, fiytally. 

aliquanto [abl. of aliquantus], 
adv., by some little, considerably, 
somewhat, rather. 

aliquantus, -a, -um [cf. alius + 
quantus], adj., considerable, some, 

aliquis (-qui), -qua, -quid (-quod) 
[cf. alius + quis], pron. indef., 
some, any ; some one, any one ; 
something, anything ; some other. 

aliqud [abl. of aliquis], adv., to 
some place, soinewhither, some- 

aliquot [cf. alius + quot], indef. 
num. indecl., some, several, a fe%v, 
a number. 

-alls, suffix appended to adjectives, 
signifying belonging to, co7tnected 
with, derived from. 

aliter [mod. stem of alius + ter], 
adv., otherwise, in another fash- 
ion, differently. 

aliunde [cf. aliquis + unde], adv., 
from another quarter, from else- 




alius, -a, -ud, pron. adj., another, 
other ^ different, else, alius . . . 
alius, one . . . another, plur., 
some . . . others ; alius ex alia 
parte, one from one direction, 
another from another. 

all-, see adl-. 

Allobrox, -ogis, m., one of the Al- 
lobroges. Plur., the Allobroges, 
a tribe of Gaul living near the 
upper Rhone. 

aid, -ere, -ul, alius or alitus, 3. 
V. a., cause to groiu, nourish, sup- 
port, feed (without reference to 
kind of food), sustain ; cherish, 
foster, increase, strengthen. 

Alpes, -ium, f. plur., the Alps. 

Alsiensis, -e [stem of Alsium + 
ensis], adj., of Alsium. As 
subst. f., a villa near Alsium, an 
Etrurian town. 

altaria, -ium, n. plur., a high altar, 
an altar. Cicero does not use the 

alter, -era, -erum, pron. adj., the 
other (of two), one, another ; as a 
numeral, the second, next, alter 
. . . alter, the one . . . the 
other ; alteri . . . alteri, the 
one party . . . the other. 

alternus, -a, -um [alter + nus], 
adj., alternate, in turn, reciprocal, 

alteruter, -utra, -utrum ; gen. 
-utrius [alter + uter], pron. adj., 
one of the two, one or the other, 
either this or that. 

altus, -a, -um, adj., high, lofty ; 
deep. n. altum as subst., the deep 
sea, the sea. 

alveolus, -I [stem of alveus, a hol- 
low, -{-Ins], m., a little basin or 
tray ; a dice box ; gatnbling. 

amans, see amo. 

amb- prep., only in composition, 

ambitio, -onis [amb- + itio], f., a 
going about. Esp. of canvassing 
for votes, a canvassing, canvass ; 

ambition, thirst for office, striv- 
ing for favor. 

ambitus, -iis [amb- + itus], m., a 
going around ; illegal canvassing, 

ambo, -ae, -6 ; -orum, num. adj., 
both (together). 

ambiird, -ere, -ussi, -ustus [amb- 
+ uro], 3. V. a., burn around, 
half burn, singe, scorch. 

ambiistus, -a, -um, p. p. of am- 

amens, -entis [ab + mens], adj., 
senseless, out of one's mind, fool- 
ish, mad, insane. 

amentia, -ae [stem of amens + 
tia], f., senselessness, madness, 
folly, frenzy. 

amicio, -ire, -icul (-ixi), -ictus 
[amb- -I- iacio], 4. v. a., throw 
around, zurap about, cover, sur- 
round, velis amicti, wrapped 
in sails (or veils (?) ). 

amicitia, -ae [stem of amicus -I- 
tia], f., friendship. 

amicus, -a, -um, adj., friendly, 

kindly disposed. As subst. m., a 

Amisus, -1, f., Amisus, a large 

city on a bay of the Euxine Sea, 

belonging to Pontus. 
amitto, -ere, -misi, -missus [ab 

+ mitto], 3. V. a., send away, let 

go, let slip ; lose. 

amo, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a. 
and n., love, amans, -antis, 
pres. p. as adj., loving, fond, 

amoenitas, -atis [stem of amoe- 
nus -I- tas], L, pleasantness, charm 
(of scenery), loveliness, beauty (to 
the eye). 

amor, -oris, m , love, affection, pas- 
sion for. 

ample [adj. amplus], 2Ay., widely, 
broadly, largely, spaciously, ex- 
tensively ; liberally, splendidly, 
generously. Comp. amplius. 




amplector, -i, -exus [amb + 
plector], 3. V. dep., twine around, 
embrace, encircle, grasp. Of the 
mind, understand, grasp, com- 
prehend; favor, value, esteem. 

amplifico, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. 
amplus + facio], i. v. a., increase, 
extend, broaden, enlarge, mag- 

amplitudo, -inis [stem of amplus 
+ tudo], f., width, wide hctent, 
size, greatness ; dignity, gran- 
deur. \ 

amplius, comp. of ample and of 

amplus, -a, -um, adj., broad, large, 
wide, great, grand', ample, spa- 
cious ; protninent, illustrious, 
noble, distinguished, dignified. 
verba amplissima, most digni- 
fied terms ; praemia ampla, 
lavish rexvards ; homo amplus, 
a distinguished man, an epithet 
commonly applied to senators. 

an, conj., used commonly with the 
second member of a double ques- 
tion, or, or rather. It may also 
be used to introduce a single 
question of surprise, or challenge, 
or emphatic comment upon some 
previous thought, baud scio 
an, / am inclined to think. ^ 

anceps, -cipitis [amb- + caput], 
adj., having two heads, t7vo- 
headed ; twofold, doubtful. 'uncer- 
tain ; baffling. 

ancilla, -ae, f., a maid servant. 

angiportus, -us (-1) [root ANG, 
squeeze, -\- portus], m., a narrow 
lane, alley, thoroughfare. 

ango, -ere, — , — , 3. v. a., press 

tightly, throttle, choke ; torment, 

distress, annoy, vex. 
angulus, -1, m., an angle, corner. 
angustiae, -arum [stem of an- 

gustus + ia], f. plur., narrows, 

straits, narrow limits. 
angustus, -a, -um [cf. ango], adj., 

narrow, confined, limited, small. 

anhelo, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. an- 
helus, panting'], i. v. n. and a., 
pant, gasp, breathe heavily ; pant 
after ; breathe out. 

anima, -ae, f., breath ; life, soul, 

animadversio, -onis [cf. animad- 
verto], f., a noticing, inquiry, in- 
vestigation ; punishment. 

animadvert©, -ere, -verti, -ver- 
sus [animum adverto], 3. v. a., 
turn the mind to, give heed to, 
give attention to, notice, observe ; 
censure, blame ; punish, chastise 
(with in and ace). 

animo, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. ani- 
ma], I. V. a., enliven, quicken, 

animosus, -a, -um [stem of ani- 
mus 4- osus], adj., full of spirit, 
courageous , spirited, undaunted. 

animus, -i, m., the rational soul, 
life, intelligence, reason, mind; 
attitude of mind, spirit ; pas- 
sion, feeling, disposition, courage; 
design, purpose, intention, quo 
animo ? with what feelings ? 
aequo animo, cahnly ; animum 
inducere, decide; bono animo, 
with kindly intent. 

anne, like an, which see. 

Annius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. /. T. Annius Milo, a 
man of violent character who 
supported Cicero. See Introduc- 
tion to the speech Pro Milone. 
2. Q. Annius Chilo, a member of 
the Catilinarian conspiracy. 

annona, -ae [cf. annus], f., a year's 
crop, the grain crop ; grain-mar- 
ket, annonam levare, relieve 
the grain-market. 

annus, -I, m., a year. 

anquiro, -ere, -sivi, -situs [am 
(for ambi-) + quaero], 3. v. a. and 
n., seek on all sides, search after, 
inquire into. 

ante, adv. and prep, with ace. 
Adv., before (place or time), iti 




front ; previously, beforehand ; 
with quam, before, earlier than ; 
paulo ante, a little while ago ; 
tanto ante, so long before. 
Prep, with ace, before (time or 
place), in front of. In dates, 
ante diem, on {such) a day be- 
fore ; ante lucem, before day- 
break. In composition, before. 

antea [ante ea], adv., before, pre- 
viously, formerly, earlier, hither- 

antecello, -ere, — , — [ante + 
*cello, rise\, 3. v. n., surpass, 
excel, be superior. 

antefero, -ferre, -tull, -latus [ante 
+ fero], irr. v. a,, bear before, 
prefer, place before. 

anteliicanus, -a, -um [ante + stem 
of lux + anus], adj., before the 
light, before dawn, lasting till 
dawn (cenae). 

antepono, -ere -posui, -positus 
[ante + pono], 3., v. a., place be- 
fore, set in advance, prefer, value 
more highly. 

antequam, see ante. 

anteverto, -ere, -verti, -versus 
[ante + verto], 3. v. a., turn in 
front ; go before, precede ; antici- 
pate, place before ; steal a march 

Antiochia, -ae, f., Antioch, a lead- 
ing city of the Greek kingdom of 
Syria on the banks of theOrontes. 

Antiochus, -1, m., the name of 
several Eastern rulers. Antiochus 
the Great (222-187 B. C.) was for a 
long time an opponent of Rome 
in the East. He was conquered 
by the Scipios in 190 B. c. 

antiquitas, -atis [stem of anti- 
quus -f tas], f., antiquity, age, 
olden times ; men of olden time, 
the ancients. 

antiquus, -a, -um [cf. ante -f- cus], 
adj., old, ancient, of olden times. 
As subst. plur. m., the ancients, 
ancient writers. 

Antonius, -i, m,, a Roman family 
name. M. Antonius, the famous 

-anus, suffix added to noun stems, 
and signifying belonging to^ con- 
nected with. 

Ap., abbreviation for Appius. 

Apenninus, -1, m., the Apennines, 
the long range of mountains run- 
ning through Italy. 

aperio, -ire, -perul, -pertus [ab -|- 
pario], 4. v. a., uncover, open, dis- 
close, lay bare, lay open, open up. 
apertus, -a, -um, p. p. as adj., 
open, uncovered, clear, uncon- 
cealed, disclosed. 

aperte [adj. apertus], adv., openly, 
without concealment, avowedly, 
plainly, clearly, unreservedly. 

Apinius, -1, m., a Roman gentile 
name. P. Apinius, a man robbed 
by Clodius. 

apparatus, see adpar-, under ad- 

appareo, see adpareo. 

apparo, see adparo. 

appello, see adpello. 

appeto, see adpeto. 

Appius, -1, m., a Roman praeno- 
men. /. Appius Claudius Cae- 
cus, censor in 312 B. c. 2. Ap- 
pius Claudius, a nephew of P. 
Clodius and one of Milo's ac- 

Appius, -a, -um, adj., Appian, of 
Appius ; Via Appia, the Appian 
Way, a splendid Roman high- 
way leading from Rome to Capua 
and built by Appius Claudius 
Caecus, the censor of 312 B.C. 
It was later extended to Taren- 
tum and Brundisium. 

approbo, see adprobo. 

appropero, see adpropero. 

appropinquo, see adpropinquo. 

Appuleius, -I, m., a Roman gen- 
tile name. 




Aprilis, -is [cf. aperio], adj., of 

aptus, -a, -um, adj., suited^ fitted, 
adapted, fit. 

apud, prep, with ace, at, near, by, 
among, with ; with the name of 
a person, at the house of, in the 
presence of', in the view of, in 
the mind of. apud Tenedum, 
off Tenedos ; apud Laecam, at 
Laeca's house. 

Apulia, -ae, f., Apulia, a division 
of southeastern Italy on the Adri- 
atic, noted for its verdant pas- 

aqua, -ae, f., water. 

aquila, -ae, f., an eagle ; the stand- 
ard of a legion, the eagle. 

ara, -ae, f., an altar. 

arbitrium, -1 [stem of arbiter -|- 
ium], n., judgment, opinion, de- 
cision, authority. 

arbitror, -ari, -atus [cf. arbiter, a 
witness\ i. v. dep., testify from 
opinion ; think, believe, consider, 

arbor, -oris, f., a tree. 

area, -ae, f., a box, chest, cell, 

arceo, -ere, -cm, — , 2. v. a., en- 
close, confine ; keep off, prevent, 
drive off , keep from. 

arcesso, -ere, -ivi, -itus [cf. ac- 
cede], 3. V. a., cause to come, sum- 
mon, send for, invite. 

Archias, -ae, m., a poet born at 
Antioch about 120 b. c, whose 
Roman name was A. Licinius 

architectus, -1, m., an architect. 

ardeo, -ere, arsi, arsiirus, 2. v. 

n., be hot, be on fire, burn ; flash, 
sparkle ; be inflamed, excited, ar- 
dens, -entis, pres, p., hot, glow- 
ing, flashing, fiery, impassioned. 

ardor, -oris [cf. ardeo], m., a bla- 
zing, burning, flame, heat, glow, 
flre ; fury. 

arduus, -a, -um, adj., steep ; diffi- 
cult, arduous. 

arena, -ae, f., sand. 

argenteus, -a, -um [stem of ar- 
gentum + eus], adj., of silver, 
silver ; plate. 

argentum, -i, n., silver, silver 

argUmentatio, -onis [stem of ar- 
gumentor + tio], f., rhetorical 
term, a proving, proof . 

argumentor, -arl, -atus [cf. argu- 
mentum], i. v. dep., bring for- 
ward proof, adduce reasons, ar- 
gue, reason. 

argumentum, -i [mod. stem of 
arguo + mentum], n., proof, evi- 
dence, ground, argument. 

arguo, -ere, -gui, -giitus, 3. v. a., 
fnake known, make clear, prove, 
manifest, betray ; accuse, charge, 

Arlcia, -ae, f., a town of Latium 
near Alba Longa on the Appian 
Way ; now La Riccia. 

Ariobarzanes, -is, m., Ariobar- 
zanes, king of Cappadocia, an 
ally of the Romans and con- 
cerned in the Mithradatic Wars. 

-aris, suffix of adjectives, signifying 
belonging to, connected with. 

Aristocritus, -1, m., Aristocritus, 
one of Cicero's slaves. 

-arius, suffix of adjectives, like -aris 
in meaning. 

arma, -orum, n. ^\\xx., arms, equip- 
ment', instruments, tools. 

Armenius, -a, -um, adj., of Ar- 
menia, Armenian. As subst. 
m., an Armenian. The country 
Armenia lay east of Cappadocia 
and was of considerable size. 

armo, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a., 
equip with arms, equip, arm. 

arripio, see adripio. 

Arrius, -I, m , a Roman gentile 
name. Q. Arrius is mentioned 
in Milo, § 46. 




arroganter, see adroganter. 

ars, artis, f., skill, art ; skill in a 
special pursuit, art ; theory ; a 
quality (especially a good one ac- 
quired), optimae artes, the 
liberal arts. 

artifex, -icis, m. and f., an artist, 
contriver, master workman. 

arx, arcis, f., a citadel, stronghold, 

ascendo, -ere, -scendi, -scensus 

[ad + scando], 3. v. a., mount, 
climb, go up, ascend. 

ascensus, -us [cf. ascendo], m., an 

asclsco, -ere, -scivi, -scitus [ad 
+ scisco], 3. V. a., adopt, accept, 
acquire, win over, attach to one- 

ascribe, -ere, -Ipsi, -Iptus [ad + 
scribo], 3. V. a., write in addition, 
enroll, enlist ; assign, ascribe, at- 
tribute, impute. 

Asia, -ae, f., Asia Minor. Also 
the Roman province of Asia, em- 
bracing Phrygia, Caria, Mysia, 
and Lydia. 

Asiaticus, -a, -um. adj., of Asia, 

aspectus, -us [aspicio], m., a look- 
ing at, a seeing, a view, sight ; an 
aspect, appearance. 

asper, -era, -erum, adj., rough, 
harsh, cruel ; of style, harsh. 

aspicio, -ere, -exi, -ectus [ad + 

specio], 3. V. a. and n., look at, 
behold, look upon ; look. 

assidue, see adsidue. 

assiduitas, see adsiduitas. 

assuefacio, see adsuefacio. 

asto, -are, -stiti, — [ad 4- sto], i. 
V. n., stand near ; take place near. 

at, conj., but (introducing a con- 
trast to what precedes). In 
transition, but, however. at 
enim, but surely, but indeed ; at 
vero, but verily, but indeed. 

Athenae, -arum, f. plur., Athens. 

Atheniensis, -e [Athena -f- ensis], 
adj., of Athens, Athenian. 

atque or ac [ad + que], conj , and. 
Often emphasizing the following 
idea or word, and indeed, and 
also, and further, and now. Also, 
as, than contra atque, con- 
trary to what, opposite to what ; 
simul atque, as soon as ; pro eo 
ac. according as ; aliter ac, 
otherwise than ; perinde ac, 
exactly as. 

atqui, conj., but yet, but neverthe- 
less, still, however, 

atrium, -1, n., room, hall. 

atrocitas. -atis [stem of atrox -|- 
tas], f., fierceness, savageness, se- 
verity, harshness, cruelty ; enor- 
mity, barbarity. 

atrociter [stem of atrox + ter], 
adv., fiercely, savagely, harshly. 

atrox, -ocis, adj., fierce, savage, 
cruel, harsh, severe, unsparing. 

attenda, -ere, -tendi, -tentus [ad 
+ tendo], 3. V. a. and n., stretch 
toward, direct, strain. With 
animum, give heed, attend, con- 
sider, pay attention. Also in 
same sense, '■fi\\k\. animum omitted, 
attentus, -a, -um, p. p. as adj., 
attentive, intent. 

attenuo, -are, -avi, -atus [ad + 
tenuo], I. V. a., make thin, lessen, 
reduce, diminish, weaken, impair. 

Attica, -ae, f., Attica, a daughter 
of Atticus. 

Atticus, -1, m , Atticus, a cogno- 
men of T. Pomponius, the in- 
timate friend of Cicero. 

attineo, -ere, -tinui, -tentus [ad 
+ tineo], 2. V. a. and n., hold 
fast, detain, delay ; reach, touch ; 
belong to, concern, relate to ; make 
a difference. 

attingo, -ere, -tigi, -tactus [ad 
+ tango], 3. V. a. and n., touch, 
reach, attain ; arrive at, have to 
do with, affect ; touch upon, make 
mention of, refer to. 




Attius, -1, m., a Roman gentile 
name. /. P. Attius Varus was 
a leader of Pompey's forces in 
Africa. 2. L. Attius was a dis- 
tinguished Roman tragic poet, 
born B. c. 170. 

attribuo, -ere, -tribui, -butus 
[ad + tribuo], 3. v. a., assign, 
allot, commit, confide, intrust, 

-atus, suffix of nouns, signifying 
official position or honor. 

auctio, -onis [mod. stem of augeo 
+ tio], f., an increase ; a sale 
by increase, an auction, public 

auctionarius, -a, -um [stem of 
auctio 4- arius], adj., of an auc- 
tion, tabulae novae, fresh ac- 
counts, new lists. 

auctor, -oris, m., a producer, pro- 
moter, originator, supporter, coun- 
sellor, adviser, voucher, author. 

auctoritas, -atis [auctor(i) f tas], 
f., prestige, influence, authority ; 
weight of influence, personal in- 
fluence ; expression of opinion, 
expressed %vi II. senatus aucto- 
ritas, the expressed opinion of the 

audacia, -ae [stem of audax + ia], 
f., boldness, daring', effrontery, 
audacity, recklessness. Generally 
in a bad sense, except in accounts 
of battles. 

audax, -acis, adj., bold, daring, 
reckless, courageous, valiant. 

audeo, -ere, ausus sum, 2. v. semi- 
dep. and n., be bold, dare, risk, 
venture, have the audacity. 

audio, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itus, 4. v. a., 

hear, listen to ; hear with assent, 

aufero, -ferre, abstull, ablatus 
[ab + fero], irr. v. a., carry off, 
bear away, remove, take away. 

augeo, -ere, auxi, auctus, 2. v. a., 

to increase, enlarge, augment, en- 
hance, magnify, extend, add to. 

augur, -uris, m., an augur. See 
Introduction, ^ 37, for account 
of the augurs. 

augustus, -a, -um, adj., consecrated, 
venerable, august. 

Aulus, -i, m., a Roman praenomen. 

Aurelius, -1, m., a Roman gentile 

Aurelius, -a, -um, adj., of Aure- 
lius, Aurelian. Aurelia via, 
the Aurelian Way, leading from 
Rome through Etiniria, near the 
coast ; Forum Aurelium, a 
market town in Etruria about 
fifty miles from Rome, on the 
Aurelian Way. 

auris, -is, f., an ear ; an apprecia- 
tive ear. 

aurum, -1, n., gold. 

auspicium, -i [stem of auspex + 
iumj, n., the science of divination 
by the flight of birds ; an augury, 
omen, auspices. See Introduc- 
tion, § 37. 

aut, conj., (7r. aut . . . B.\it, either 
. . . or. 

autem, conj., post-positive, but, 
moreover, however, whereas, fur- 

auxilium, -1 [cf. augeo], n., help, 
assistance, aid, relief, support. 
Plur. zmxXWbl, forces, auxiliaries. 

avaritia, -ae [stem of avarus + 
tia], f., greed, covetousness, av- 

aveo, -ere, — , — , 2. v. a., desire. 

aversus, -a, -um, see averto. 

averts, -ere, -verti, -versus [ab 
+ verto], 3. V. a., turn away, 
turn aside, avert, ward off. aver- 
sus, -a, -um, p. p. as adj., turned 
away, averse to, unfavorable, in- 
disposed to, hostile. 

avide [adj. avidus], zAv., greedily, 

avidus, -a, -um, adj., eager, greedy, 
desirous, covetous. 




avitus, -a, -um [stem of avus + 
tus], adj., of a grandfather, an- 

avoco, -are, -avi, -atus [ab + 
voco], I. V. a., call away ; divert. 

avunculus, -I [Cf. avus], m., an 

uncle (maternal). 
avus, -i, m., a grandfather . 
-ax, suffix denoting inclination. 


bacchor, -ari, -atus [cf. Bacchus, 
God of fVine], i. v. dep., cele- 
brate the orgy of Bacchus, revel 
like Bacchae, rave, run riot. 

balbus, -a, -um, adj., stammering, 

balineum, -i [Gk. ^aXiv^'iov], n., a 
bathing place, bath room. 

barbaria, -ae [stem of barbarus + 
ia], f., a strange land, a barba- 
rous people ; savagery, barbarism. 

barbarus, -a, -um, adj., strange, 
uncivilized, savage, uncouth ; un- 
intelligible, speaking uncouthly. 

barbatus, -a, -um [cf. barba, beard 
+ tus], adj., bearded, having a 
beard, tvell bearded. 

beatus, -a, -um [p. p. of beo, make 
happy'\, adj., blessed, happy, for- 
tunate ; rich, wealthy, prosper- 

belle [adj. \>Q\\^'i, pretty\ 2,^]., pret- 
tily, neatly, well, belle se ha- 
bere, to be well. 

bellicosus, -a, -um [stem of belli- 
cus + osus], adj., warlike, given 
to war. 

bellicus, -a, -um [stem of bellum 
-I- cus], adj., of war, warlike, 

bello, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. n., 

fight, make war, carry on war. 
bellum, -1, n., war. bellum in- 
dicere (with dat.), declare war 
on; bellum inferre (with dat.), 
make war on ; bellum gerere 

(with cum and abl.), wage war 

bellus, -a, -um, adj., pretty, agree- 
able, charming. 

belua, -ae, f., a wild beast, monster. 

bene [adj., bonus], adv., well, suc- 
cessfully, comp. melius ; superl. 

beneficentia, -ae [cf. beneficus, 
generous\ f., kindness, philan- 

beneficium, -1 [cf. beneficus, gen- 
erous], n., a favor, kindly act, 
service ; as a favor from voters, 
office, reward, meo beneiicio, 

by my kindness, thanks to me. 

benevolentia, -ae [stem of bene- 
volens + ia], f., good-will, kindly 
feeling, benevolence. 

benevolus, -a, -um [bene -I- volo], 
adj., well-wishing, kind, well-dis- 

benlgnitas, -atis [stem of benignus 
+ tas], f., kindness, friendliness, 
courtesy, favor. 

-ber, suffix of adjectives, denoting 
belonging to. 

bestia, -ae, f., a brute, beast, 

bibo, -ere, bibl. (The supine and 
p. participle are supplied by 
potum and potus), 3. v. a. and 
n., drink. 

biduum, -i [bis -I- dies], n., two 
days' time, two days. 

bini, -ae, -a, adj. distributive, two 
each, t7vo at a time, two. Used 
regularly with nouns of plur. 
form and sing, meaning to indi- 
cate plurality, bina castra, two 

bipartite [abl. of bipartitus, di- 
vided\ adv., in two parts, in two 

bis, adv., twice. 

Bithynia, -ae, f., Bithynia, a 
country in the northwestern part 
of Asia Minor on the Black Sea. 




Bona Dea, a goddess worshiped 
by women in early times, appar- 
ently identical with Fauna. See 
Milo, § 13, note, illo incesto 

bonitas, -atis [stem of bonus + 
tas], f., kindliness, goodness, 

bonus, -a, -um, adj., good, excel- 
lent, worthy, fine. Neut. sing., 
good, advantage, blessing, profit. 
Neut. ^Inr., goods, property , bless- 
ings, estate. Masc. plur., good 
men, good citizens, bono animo 
esse, be well disposed. Coinp. 
melior ; superl. optimus. 

Bosporanus, -a, -um, adj., of the 
Bosporus. Plur., the people of 
the Bosporus. 

-bra, -brum, suffix denoting instru- 
ment or means. 

brevis, -e, adj., short, brief. 

brevitas, -atis [stem of brevis + 
tas], f., shortness, brevity. 

breviter [stem of brevis + ter], 
adv., shortly, briefly, concisely. 

-bris, suffix of adjectives, denoting 
belonging to. 

Brundisium, -1, n,, Brundisium, 
a town on the coast of Calabria 
in southeastern Italy with an ex- 
cellent harbor. It was the point 
of departure for Greece. Now 
Brindisi. The name means 
Stag's Head, doubtless from the 
two "horns" of the harbor. 

Brutus, -1, m., a Roman family 
name. /. D. Junius Brutus, 
commander of Caesar's fleet off 
the coast of Gaul, and later one 
of Caesar's assassins. 2. D. 
Junius Brutus, consul B. C. 138, 
conqueror of Lusitania. 

-bundus, -a, -um, suffix of adjec- 
tives, giving nearly the force of a 
pres. participle. 

bustum, -i, n., a funeral pyre; a> 
mound, a tomb. 

1. C, sign of the numeral centum 
— 100. 

2. C, abbreviation for Gains, 
cadaver, -eris, n., a corpse, dead 

body, carcass. Used of the dead 
on the field of battle, and of the 
bodies of slaves and criminals, 
and as a reproachful term. 

cado, -ere, cecidi, casurus, 3. v. 

n., fall ; be killed ; befall, happen, 
result ; perish, cease. 

caducus, -a, -um [cf. cado], adj., 
that falls, falleti, falling ; fleet- 
ing, transitory. 

Caecilius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. L. Caecilius Rufus aided, 
as praetor, in Cicero's return 
from exile. 

caecus, -a, -um, adj., blind, dark, 
obscure, hidden. 

caedes, -is [cf. caedo], f., a cut- 
ting, killing, murder, slaughter, 

caedo, -ere, cecidi, caesus, 3. v. 
a., cut, heiv ; slay, cut to pieces ; 
strike, kill. 

Caelius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. /. M. Caelius, tribune of 
the people B. c. 52. 2. Q. Caelius 
Latiniensis, another tribune. 

caelum, -i, n,, the sky, heavens ; 
atmosphere, weather. 

caementum, -i [caed- (from caedo) 
+ mentum], n., rough stone, un- 
hewn stone ; rubble, broken stone. 

caerimonia, -ae, f., a religious 
ceremony, a sacred rite. 

Caesar, -aris, m., a family name 
of the Julian gens. /. C. Julius 
Caesar, the greatest Roman, 
bom B. C. 100, assassinated B. c. 
44. 2. L. Julius Caesar, consul 
B. C. 64. j». L. Julius Caesar, 
consul B. C. 90. 

Caieta, -ae, f., Caieta, a coast 
town of Latium, now Gaeta. 




calamitas, -atis, f., {injury to 
crops), injury, disaster, misfor- 
tune, defeat, ruin. 

calceus, -1 [stem of calx + eus], 
m., a shoe. Cf. Milo, § 28, note. 

calculus, -i [stem of calx + ulus], 
m., a pebble. 

callidus, -a, -um, adj., shrewd, 
cunning, crafty ; skilful, prac- 

calumnia, -ae, f., trickery (in legal 
matters), deceit, evasion ; a mali- 
cious accusation. 

calx, calcis, f., limestone, lime. 

campus, -i, m., a plain, field. 
Campus Martius, Mars Field, the 
level field along the Tiber out- 
side the walls of Rome. Now 
covered by a multitude of mod- 
ern buildings. 

candidatus, -a, -um [stem of 
candidus + tas], adj., clad in 
white. As subst. m., a candidate 
(because of the assumption of a 
white toga). 

candidus, -a, -um [cf. candeo, be 
brilliant^, adj., shining white, 
clear, bright ; splendid, pure. 

canis, -is, m. and f., a dog. 

can5, -ere, cecini, cantus, 3. v. a. 

and n., sing, sing of; prophesy, 
foretell, predict. 

candrus, -a, -um [cf. canor, tune\ 
adj., melodious, harmonious, eu- 

canto, -are, -avi, -atus [freq. of 
cano], I. V, a. and n., sing, play ; 
celebrate in song. 

cantus, -lis [root of cano -f tus], 
ra., a song, playing, singing. 

capillus, -1 [cf. caput], m., the 

capio, -ere, cepi, captus, 3. v. a., 

take, lay hold of, get, seize, cap- 
ture ; adopt, form, assume, un- 
dertake ; receive, suffer, con- 
silium capere, to adopt a plan ; 
mente captus, insane. 

capitalis, -e [stem of caput -f- 
alis], adj., chiefs foremost, dis- 
tinguished; deadly, fatal, perni- 

Capitolinus, -a, -um [mod. stem 
of Capitol ium + inus], adj., be- 
longing to the Capitol, of the 
Capitol, clivus Capitolinus, 
the Capitoline Street, a steep 
winding roadway leading from 
the Forum to the temple of Jupi- 
ter Optimus Maximus on the 
Capitoline Hill. See Plan of 

Capitolium, -1, n., the Capitoline 
Hill; also the temple of Jupiter 
on the hill, the Capitol. 

Cappadocia, -ae, f., Cappadocia, 
a large division of Asia Minor 
south of Pontus and north of 
the Taurus mountains. 

Capua, -ae, f., Capua, the chief 
city of Campania. 

caput, -itis, n., the head; life, ex- 
istence ; civil status ; chief point. 

Carbo, -onis, m., a Roman family 
name. /. C. Papirius Carbo, 
tribune of the people B. C. 89 
and one of the proposers of the 
Lex Plautia Papiria. 2. C. 
Papirius Carbo, consul B. C. 82, 
the last leader of the Marian 




career, -eris, m., a prison, Jail. 
See Introduction, § 47. 

careo, -ere, -ui, -iturus, 2. v. n., 

be without, be free from, destitute 
of; do without, lack, keep from. 
Cicero himself defines careo as 
follows : carer e hoc significat, 
egere eo quod habere velis. T. D. 

caritas, -atis [stem of carus + tas], 
f., deafness, costliness, high price ; 
affection, esteem, fondness. 

carmen, -inis, n., a song, poem, 

carus, -a, -um, adj., dear, precious, 
valuable, esteemed. 

Cassianus, -a, -um [stem of Cas- 
sius + anus], belonging to Cas- 
sius, of Cassius. illud Cas- 
sianum, that famous question of 

Cassius, -1, m., a Roman gentile 
name. /. L. Cassius Longinus , 
consul B. c. 127. 2. C. Cassius 
Longinus, a supporter of the 
Manilian Law. j. L. Cassius, 
one of Catiline's associates. 

caste [adj. castus], adv., purely, 
without stain, incorruptibly, 
without blemish. 

Castor, -oris, m., the son of Jupiter 
and Leda and brother of Pollux. 
For account of the temple of the 
twins see Introduction, § 42. 

castrensis, -e [stem of castra + 
ensis], adj., of the camp ; open ; 

castrum, -I, n., a fort. Plur., a 

casus, -us [cf. cado], m., a fall, 
mischance, an accident, misfor- 
tune ; chance, circumstance, turn 
of affairs. 

Catilina, -ae, m., a Roman family 
name. L. Sergius Catilina, lead- 
er of the conspiracy which was 
crushed by Cicero. See Intro- 
duction to the Speeches against 
Catiline, p. 189. 

Cato, -onis, m., a Roman family 
name. /. M. Porcius Cato, the 
Censor, was born B. c. 234 and 
died B. c. 149. He was cele- 
brated for his stern resistance 
against Greek influences in the 
Roman state. He was a noted 
supporter of the aristocratic party, 
although of plebeian stock him- 
self. Toward Carthage he was 
a relentless enemy. 2. M. Por- 
cius Cato, grandson of the cen- 
sor, and father of Cato Uticensis. 
J. M. Porcius Cato, great-grand- 
son of the censor, was born B. c. 
95. He was a man of inflexible 
integrity and indomitable will, 
but narrow-minded and stubborn. 
He was an undoubted force in 
Roman politics. He committed 
suicide at Utica, in Africa, after 
the downfall of the Pompeian 
party, and received the surname 
Uticensis from the place of his 

Catulus, -I, m., a Roman fam- 
ily name. i. Quintus Lutatius 
Catulus, consul with Marius B. c. 
102, and with him conqueror of 
the Cimbri in the following year. 
Pie was a man of literary tastes 
and wrote several works, none of 
which has survived. 2. Q. Lu- 
tatius Catulus, son of the pre- 
ceding, was consul B. c. 78. He 
was a man of distinguished up- 
rightness, and a supporter of the 
aristocratic party. 

causa, -ae, f., a catise, reason ; op- 
portunity, occasiojt ; motive, pur- 
pose ; a case (at law), a cause ; a 
party cause, side, faction. Abl. 
causa following a genitive, for 
the sake of, for. 

Causinius, -1, m., a Roman name. 
C. Causinius Schola, a witness in 
the case against Milo. 

caute [adj. cautus], adv., care- 

cautid, -onis, f., a taking care, 
wariness, caution, circumspec- 
tion ; security, bond. 




caved, -ere, cavl, cautus, 2. v. a. 

and n., be on one^s guard, take ! 
care, take heed, beware of, keep 
clear of, guard against, cautus, 
-a, -um, p. p. as adj., on one's 
guard, wary, circumspect, cau- 

-ce or -c, an enclitic particle of 
denionstrative force, appended to 
many pronominal words (like the 
English colloquial here, as in this 

cedo, -ere, cessi, cessus, 3. v. 
n., give way, ivithdraw, give 
place, yield; allow, permit, bozu 
the knee to. 

celeber, -bris, -bre, adj., thronged, 
frcque7ited, crowded ; famous, 
renowned, celebrated. 

celebritas, -atis [stem of celeber 
+ tas], f., a throng, great num- 
ber, crowd; fame, celebrity, re- 

celebro, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. cele- 
ber], I. V. a., throng, frequent, 
crowd; celebrate, honor, praise, 
spread abroad, publish in song. 

celer, -eris, -ere, adj., swift, quick, 

celeritas, -atis [stem of celer + 
tas], f., siviftness, quickness, 
speed, celerity, protnptness. 

celeriter [adj. celer], adv., swift- 
ly, quickly, speedily, promptly, 

cena, -ae, f , a dinner. 

ceno, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. cena], 
I. V. a., dine. 

censed, -ere, censui, census, 2. 

V. a., assess, tax, fine ; estimate, 
reckon ; propose, vote, move ; re- 
solve, decree, determine, decide, be 
of opinion. 

censor, -oris, m., the censor, a 
Roman official. See Introduc- 
tion, § 27. 

census, -us [cf. censeo], m., a 
registration, enumeration of citi- 
zens, a census. 

centesimus, -a, -um [cf. centum], 
adj., the hundredth. 

centum, iudecl. num. adj., one 

centuria, -ae [cf. centum], f., a 

division of a hundred, a century. 

The name applied to a division 

of the people organized on an 

army principle. 

centuriatus, -us [stem of centurio 
-I- tus], m., the office of centurion, 
centurions hip. 

centurio, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. 
centuria], i. v. a., divide into cen- 
turies, organize into centuries. 

centurio, -onis [cf. centuria], m., 
a centurion, commander of a cen- 
tury in a legion. 

Ceparius, -i [cepa + arius ; (onion- 
seller^, m., a Roman gentile 
name. M. Ceparius was one of 
the conspirators with Catiline. 

cerno, -ere, crevi, cretus, 3. v. a., 

separate, part ; distinguish clear- 
ly, see, behold ; perceive, discern, 

certamen, -inis [stem of certo, 
struggle -I- men], n., a struggle, 
fight, contention, rivalry, conflict. 

certe [adj. certus], adv., surely, 
certainly, of course, assuredly; 

1. certo [abl. of certus], adv., sure- 
ly, in fact, with certainty, certo 
scio, / know perfectly well, J am 

2. certo, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. cer- 
tus], I . V. a. and n. , vie with, strug- 
gle, contend, fight. 

certus, -a, -um [p. p. of cerno], 
adj., determined, resolved; sure, 
certain, assured; fixed, estab- 
lished, tried, trusty ; a particular, 
certain, certiorem facere, to 

cervix, -icis, f., the neck, shoul- 
ders. In Cicero it is used only in 
the plur., even when of one per- 




(ceterus), -a, -um, adj., the other ^ 
the remainder^ the rest. Plur., 
the rest, the others, everyone else, 
all the rest. 

Cethegus, -1, m., a Roman family 
name. C. Cethegus, one of the 
conspirators with Catiline. 

Child, -onis, m., a Roman family 
name. Q. Annius Chilo, a con- 
spirator with Catiline. 

Chius, -a, -um, adj., of Chios, an 
island in the Aegean Sea. Plur., 
m., the Chians. 

cibus, -1, m., food, nourishment. 

Cicero, -onis [cicer, chick-pea, + 
o], m., a Roman family name, 
originally a nickname. /. M. 
Tullius Cicero, see Introduc- 
tion, Life of Cicero. 2. Quintus 
Tullius Cicero, the brother of 
Marcus, and a famous lieutenant 
of Caesar in the Gallic War. He 
was a skilful writer. 

Cilicia, -ae, f , Cilicia, a country 
between the Taurus mts. and the 
Mediterranean Sea, in Asia Mi- 
nor. For a long time it was a 
place of refuge for pirates. Pom- 
pey made it a Roman province. 
Cicero was proconsular governor 
of Cilicia B. c. 51. 

Cimber, -bri, m. Plur., the Cim- 
bri, a Celtic people who dwelt in 
Jutland. They emigrated to 
southein Gaul and threatened 
Italy, when they were defeated at 
Vercellae by Marius and Catulus, 
B. c. loi. Also used as a Roman 
name. Gabinius Cimber, a con- 
spirator with Catiline. 

Cimbricus, -a, -um [stem of Cim- 
ber + cus], adj., of the Cimbri, 
Cimbrian. res Cimbricae, the 
story of the Cimbri. 

cingo, -ere, cinxi, cinctus, 3. v. 
a., surround, encircle, bind, en- 
compass ; besiege, girdle. 

cinis, -eris, m., ashes. 
Cinna, -ae, m., a Roman family 
name. L. Cornelius Cinna, col- 

league of Marius, and supporter 
of the popular party in the war 
with Sulla. 
Cinnanus, -a, -um [stem of Cinna 
+ anus], adj., of Cinna, Cinnan. 

circum [ace. of circus], adv. and 
prep, with ace, around, about. 
In comp., around. 

circumcliido, -ere, -cliisi, -sus 
[circum + claudo], 3. v. a., e7i- 
close around, surround, encircle, 
shut in, hem in. 

circumdo, -dare, -dedi, -datus 
[circum + do], i. v. a., put 
around, place about ; encircle, sur- 

circumfundo, -ere, -fiidi, -fiisus 
[circum + fundo], 3. v. a., pour 
around ; surround, encompass. 
Pass, (as middle), pour in, rush 
about, rush in on all sides. 

circumscribo, -ere, -scrips!, 
-scriptus [circum + scribo], 3. 
v. a., write around ; enclose, con- 
fine, hold in check ; limit, cir- 

circumscriptor, -oris, [cf. circum- 
scribo], m., a cheat, defrauder. 

circumsedeo, -ere, -sedi, -ses- 
sus [circum + sedeo], 2. v. a., sit 
around, beset, surround, besiege, 

circumspicio, -ere, -exi, -ectus 
[circum + specio], 3. v. a., look 
about, cast a look around, think 
over, ponder, consider, observe. 

circumsto, -are, -steti, — [circum 
+ sto], I. v. a , surround, beset. 

circus, -1, m., a circle, circus, race- 
course, ring. 

cito [adj. citus], adv., quickly, 
speedily. Comp. citius ; superl. 

civilis, -e [stem of civis + Is], 
adj., of a citizen, civil', inter- 
nal, intestine ; political, public, 

cIvis, -is, c, a citizen, fellow-citi- 




civitas, -atis [stem of civis 4- tas], 
f., the state of citizenship, citizen- 
ship ; a body of citizens, the state, 

clades, -is, f., a mischief, damage, 
harm, destruction, disaster. 

clam, adv., secretly, privately, cov- 

clamo, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a. 
and n., cry out, shout aloud', ex- 
claim, proclaim. 

clamor, oris, m., a shout, loud cry, 
outcry, clamor. 

clarus, -a, -um, adj., clear, bright, 
shining ; distinguished, brilliant, 
celebrated, renowned; of sound, 
clear, distinct, loud ; manifest. 

classis, -is, f., {a calling forth), a 
class, division ; a fleet, naval 

Claudius, -1, m., a Roman gentile 
name. /. Appius Claudius Cae- 
cus, censor B. c. 312, built the 
Appian Way from Rome to 
Capua. 2. Appius Claudius, 
nephew of P. Clodius, and ac- 
cuser in the trial of Milo. 

claudo, -ere, clausi, clausus, 3. 
V. a , close, shut ; end, conclude ; 
confine, fasten, shut up. 

Clemens, -entis, adj., mild, gentle, 
kind, forbearing, merciful, gra- 

clementer [adj. clemens], adv., 
mildly, gently, mercifully, gra- 
ciously, with forbearance. 

dementia, -ae [stem of clemens 
+ tia], f., mildness, gentleness, 
kindness, forbearance, mercy, 

clientela, -ae [stem of cliens, cli- 
ent, + ela], f , clientship, vassal- 
age, relationship of a client to his 
patron. Plur. concretely, clients, 

clivus, -i [cf. clino, lean"], m., a 
slope, declivity, ascent, steep street. 
clivus Capitolinus, the street 
in Rome which ascended in zig- 

zags the eastern slope of the 
Capitoline Hill from the Forum. 

cloaca, -ae, f., a sewer. See In- 
troduction, § 50. 

Clodianus, -a, -um [stem of Clo- 
dius -I- anus], adj., of Clodius, 

Clodius, -i [popular form of Clau- 
dius\ m., a Roman gentile name. 
I. P. Clodius Pulcher, the enemy 
of Cicero, murdered by Milo. See 
introduction to the Notes on the 
speech for Milo. 2. C. Clodius, 
brother of P. Clodius. j. Sextus 
Clodius, a witness at the trial of 

Cn., abbreviation for Gnaeus. 

Cnidus, -1, f., Cnidus, a city of 
Caria, celebrated for a statue of 
Aphrodite by Praxiteles. 

coactus, -a, -um, p. p. of cogo. 

coarguo, -ere, -ui, -utus [con + 
arguo], 3. V. a., prove, prove 
guilty, refute. 

cocus, -1, m,, cook. 

coepi, -isse, defect, v. a., begin, 
comme?tce. The present system is 
not used in classical Latin. Pas- 
sive forms with the same meaning 
as the active are used when the 
complementary inf. is passive. 

coerceo, -ere, -cui, -citus [con + 
arceo], 3. v. a., enclose, confine, 
hold in check, restrain, curb, re- 

coetus, -lis [cf. coeo], m., a coming 
together, assembly, gathering, 

cogitate [cf. p. p. cogitatus], adv., 
thoughtfully , with consideration, 

cogitatid, -onis [stem of cogito -4- 
tio], f., a thought, consideration, 
plan, design, reflection, project. 

cogito, -are, -avi, -atus [con + 
agito], I. v. a., consider, reflect 
upon, think over, discuss ; intend, 
have in mind, meditate upon, 




cdgnatio, -onis [con + (g)natio], 
f., blood relationship, kindred, 
relationship, kinship. 

cognitid, -onis [cf, cognosce], f, 
acquaintance, a becoming ac- 
quainted with ; learning, study. 

cognitor, -5ris [cf. cognosco], m., 
an attorney, advocate ; defender, 
supporter, voucher, sponsor. 

cognomen, -inis [con + (g)no- 
men], n., a name, last name, 

cognosco, -ere, -gnovi, -gnitus 

[con + (g)nosco], 3. v. a., become 
acquainted with, to learn, perceive, 
understand, recognize, acknowl- 
edge. Perf. tense, know, be ac- 
quainted with. 
cogo, -ere, coegi, coactus [con- 
+ ago], 3. V. a., drive together, 
collect, gather, convene ; drive, 
force, compel, exact, constrain. 

cohaereo, -ere, -haesi, -haesurus 
[con + haereo], 2. v. n., cling to- 
gether, be closely bound, be united 
with, cohere. 

cohibeo, -ere, -ui, -hibitus [con 
+ habeo], 2. v. a., hold together, 
restrain, check, confine, repress, 
keep back. 

cohors, -ortis, f., {an enclosure), a 
division of troops, one tenth of a 
legion ; a body of soldiers, a ret- 
inue, suite. 

cohortatid, -onis [con + horta- 
tio], f., an exhortation, encour- 
agement, inciting; an address or 
speech of encouragement. 

cohortor, -ari, -atus [con + hor- 
tor], T. V. dep., exhort, encourage, 
admonish, urge ; address encour- 

C0II-, see conl-. 

coUinus, -a, -um [stem of collis + 
anus], adj., of the hill. Esp. as 
name of a city tribe in Rome, the 

C0I6, -ere, -uI, cultus, 3. v. a., till, 
cultivate, care for ; cherish, wor- 

ship, revere, honor ; dwell in, 

col5nia, -ae, f., a colony (settled 
by Roman citizens). 

colonus, -i [cf. colo], m., a tiller 
of the soil, farmer ; a colonist, 
settler in a colony. 

Colophdn, -onis, m., Colophon, a 
town of Ionia. 

Colophonius, -a, -um [stem of 
Colophon + ius], adj., of Colo- 
phon. Plur. m., the Colophonii, 
the people of Colophon. 

color, -oris, m., color, hue, com- 
plexion ; {tell-tale) color, blush. 

com- (con-, co-), adv. in comp. 
signifies completely, utterly ; with. 

comes, -itis [con and ire], m. and 
f., a companion, comrade, associ- 
ate, partner, attendant. 

comissatio, -5nis [stem of comis- 
sor, revel, + tio], f., a Bacchana- 
lian revel, a revel, noisy carousal. 

1. comitatus, -iis [stem of comi- 
tor, attend, + tus], m., an attend- 
ance, escort, train, retinue, fol- 

2. comitatus, -a, -um [p. p. of 
comitor, accompany\ adj., acconi- 
paniedy escorted. 

comitialis, -e [stem of comitia + 
alis], adj., of an election. 

comitium, -1, n., a place of assem- 
bly, the Comitium, a public square 
adjacent to the Foium. See In- 
troduction, § 48. Plur., a vo- 
ting assembly of the Romans, an 
election, elective assembly. See 
Introduction, §§ 30-34. 

commeatus, -iis [cf. commeo], m., 
a going to and fro, a trip ; sup- 
plies, provisions, stores. 

commemorabilis, -e [stem of 
commemoro + bilis], memorable, 
notable, remarkable. 

commemoratio, -onis [stem of 
commemoro + tio], f., a calling 
to mind, remembrance, commemo- 
ration, reminder. 




commemoro, -are, -avi, -atus 

[com + memoro], i. v. a., recall 
to mind, keep in mind, remember ; 
speak of, make mention of, relate. 

commendatio, -onis [stem of com- 
mendo -t- tioj, f., a recommenda- 
tion, commendation. 

commendo, -are, -avi, -atus [com 
+ man do], i, v. a., recommend, 
entrust, commend, confide. 

commentor, -arl, -atus, i. v. dep., 
meditate, think over ; prepare, 
write, compose. 

commentatus, -a, -um, p. p. as 
adj., thought out. Plur. n. as 
subst., mental compositions. 

commeo, -are, -avi, -atus [com 
+ meo, go\ I. V. n., go and come, 
go to and fro, frequent ; with ad 
and ace, visit {often), resort to. 

commisceo, -ere, -miscui, -mix- 
tus [com + misceo], 2. v. a., mix, 

committo, -ere, -misi, -missus 
[com + mitto], 3. v. a., suffer to 
go together. Join, unite, combine ; 
entrust, trust, commit to ; allow, 
admit ; commit, perpetrate, be 
guilty of. proelium commit- 
tere, to join battle ; nihil com- 
mittere, to do no wrong. 

commodd, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. 
commodus], i. v. a., adapt, accom- 
modate, serve luith ; loan, lend. 

commodum, -1 [neut. of commo- 
dus], n., convenience, advantage, 
profit, comfort. 

commodus, -a, -um [com -f- mo- 
dus], adj., with due measure, 
suitable, fitting, adapted, advan- 
tageous, convenient, appropriate, 

commoror, -ari, -atus [com + 
moror], i. v. dep., delay, tarry, 
linger, wait, stay. 

commoveo, -ere, -movi, -motus 
[com 4- moveo], 2. v. a,, move 
violently, agitate, shake ; disturb, 
alarm, trouble, se commovere, 
to make a move or stir. 

communico, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. 
communis], i. v. a., share, divide 
with ; communicate with, con- 

commiinio, -onis [stem of com- 
munis -1-0], f., a participation, 

communis, -e, adj., common, gen- 
eral, public ; familiar. 

commiiniter [stem of communis -h 
ter], adv., in common, commonly, 
in general. 

commiitabilis, -e [stem of com- 
muto + bilis], adj., changeable. 

commiito, -are, avi, -atus [com 
-f- muto], I. V. a., change, ex- 
change, thoroughly alter. 

comparati5, -onis [cf. comparo], 
f., a comparison ; preparation. 

comparo, -are, -avi, -atus [com 
+ paro], I. V. a., get ready, pre- 
pare, provide, secure, gain ; ar- 
range, establish, compare. 

compello, -ere, -puli, -pulsus 
[com + pello], 3. V. a., drive to- 
gether, force, urge, constrain, 

comperio, -ire,, -peri, -pertus 
[com + pario], 4. v. Q..,find out, 
discover, acquire knowledge of, 
ascertain, learn. 

competitor, -oris [com + petitor, 
a seeker], m., a rival, competi- 

complector, -i, -plexus [com -|- 
plector], 3. V. dep., embrace, in- 
clude, grasp ; honor, esteem, cher- 
ish ; extend to, include. 

compleo, -ere, -plevi, -pletus 
[com + pleo], 2. V. a., fill com- 
pletely, fill, set full ; complete, fin- 

complexus, -iis [cf. complector], 
m., an embrace, grasp, clasp ; 
affection, loving embrace. 

complures, -a (or -ia) [com + 
plus], adj. plur., several, a con- 
siderable number, many, a great 




compositio, -onis [cf. compono], 
f., a putting together^ arrange- 
ment, systefn. 

comprehendo, -ere, -hendi, -hen- 

sus [com + prehendo], 3. v. a., 
grasp, seize, catch, lay hold of, 
arrest, capture, detect ; compre- 
hend, perceive, grasp, take in. 

comprimo, -ere, -pressi, -pressus 
com + premo], 3. v. a., press to- 
gether, crush, suppress, restrain, 
curb, check. 

comprobo, -are, -avi, -atus [com 
+ probo], I. V. a., approve, sanc- 
tion, establish. 

c5natus, -us [stem of conor + 
tus], m., an attempt, undertaking, 
effort, endeavor. 

concedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessus 
[con 4- cedo], 3. v. a. and n., 
give way, retire, withdraw, re- 
treat ; yield, concede, admit, 
grant, allow. 

concelebro, -are, -avi, -atus [con 
+ celebro], i. v. a., frequent, 
throng ; celebrate, solemnize. 

concerto, -are, -avi, -atus [con 
+ certo], I. V. n., contend zeal- 

concidd, -ere, -cidi, -casurus [con 
-t- cado], 3. V. n., fall together^ 
fall ; fail, perish, go to ruin, col- 

concilio, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. con- 
ciliumj, I. V. a., bring together, 
unite ; win over, reconcile ; ob- 
tain, win, gain. 

concilium, -i, n., a meeting, as- 
sembly of people, council. See 
Introduction, ^ 33. 

concipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus 

[con -I- capio], 3. v. a., take up, 
take in, receive, incur, get ; ac- 
quire, conceive, devise, plan ; be 
guilty of. 
concito, -are, -avi, -atus [con + 
cito], I. V. a., put in motion, 
arouse, stir up, agitate, excite ; 
produce, occasion. 

Concordia, -ae [con + stem of cor, 
heart, + ia], f., harmony, concord. 
Personified as a goddess. Con- 
cord. For her temple see Plan 
of Forum and Introduction, § 

concors, -cordis [con -f cor, heart\, 
adj., harmonious, affectionate. 

concupisco, -ere, -cupivi, -itus 
[con + cupio], 3. V. a., desire 
thoroughly, to long for, covet. 

concurro, -ere, -curri (or-cucurri), 
-cursus [con -+- curro], 3. v. n., 
run together, assemble ; rush in, 
hasten in ; join battle, fight. 

concurso, -are, -avi, -aturus [con 
+ curso], I. V. n., rush to and 
fro, run about. 

concursus, -iis [cf. concurro], m., 
a running together ; throng, con- 
course, assembly ; assault, charge, 

condemn©, -are, -avi, -atus [con 
-f- damno], I. v. a., condemn, con- 
vict, find guilty \ blame. 

condicio, -onis [cf. con + dico], 
f., an agreement, terms ; condi- 
tion, state, lot, situation. 

condo, -ere, -didi. -ditus [con + 
do, put\ 3. V. a., put together, 
found, establish, build', preserve, 
treasure, store up. 

condono, -are, -avi, -atus [con + 
dono], I. V. di., give up, stirrender, 
pardon, overlook, refrain from 

condiico, -ere, -diixi, -ductus [con 
+ duco], 3. V. a., draw together, 
collect, assemble ; hire, rent. 

confectio, -onis [cf. conficio], f., a 
finishing, completing, preparing. 

confercio, -ire, -fersi, -fertus, 
[con + farcio], 4. v. a., crowd to- 
gether, stuff. cohfertus, -a, 
-um, p. p. as adj., pressed close, 
stuffed, crammed; close, dense, 

confero, -ferre, contuli, conlatus 
[con -I- fero], irr. v. a., bring to- 




gether, collect, gather, unite ; put 
off, assign, defer ; compare, con- 
trast ; consult, deliberate ; with 
se, betake oneself, devote oneself, 
have recourse ; set, appoint, con- 
fer ; direct, set upon. With in 
and ace, employ. 

confertus, -a, -um, p. p. of con- 

confessio, -onis [cf. confiteor], f., 
a confession. 

confestim [cf. festino, make haste\ 
adv., immediately, in haste, forth- 
with, at once. 

conficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [con 
+ facio], 3. V. a., make ready, get 
together, prepare ; accomplish, fin- 
ish, complete, execute ; finish up, 
exhaust, wear out. 

confido, -ere, -fisus sum [con + 
fidoj, 3. V. semi-dep., trust, have 
confidence in ; confide, rely upon, 
believe in. 

confirmatio, -onis [stem of con- 
firmo + tio], f., an establishing, 
confirming. In rhetoric, the 
portion of a speech devoted to 
affirmative arguments establish- 
ing the thesis. 

confirmo, -are, -avi, -atus [con 
4- firmo], I. V. ^., strengthen, make 
firm, establish, reassure, confirm, 
assert, assure ; prove, state posi- 

c5nfiteor, -fiteri, -fessus [con 4- 
fateor], 2. v. dep., confess, ad- 
mit, acknozvledge. 

conflagro, -are, -avi, -atus [con + 
flagro], I. V. n., be on fire, burn ; 
be consumed, destroyed. 

confligo, -ere, -flixi, -flictus [con 
+ fligo], 3. V. a. and n., dash 
against, dash together, contend, 

confia, -are, -avi, -atus [con + 
flo], I. V. a., blow up, excite, kin- 
dle, inflame ; get together, fuse, 
gather ; stir a " breeze.'' 

conformatio, -onis [stem of con- 
formo + tio], f., conformation. 

shape, for my structure ; sym- 

conformo, -are, -avi, -atus [con 
+ formoj, I. V. z..,form, mould, 
train, shape. 

confringo, -ere, -fregi, -fractus 

[con + frango], 3. v. a., break in 
pieces, shatter, crush to atoms. 

confugio, -fugere, -fiigi, — [con 
+ fugio], 3. v. n., flee, take ref- 

confutatio, -onis, f., a refutation. 
In rhetoric, the portion of a 
speech devoted to a refutation of 
opposing arguments. 

congero, -ere, -gessi, -gestus 

[con + gero], 3. v. a., bring to- 
gether, accumulate, heap up. 

congredior, -I, -gressus [con + 
gradior], 3. v. dep., come together, 
meet, unite with ; meet in battle, 
contend, fight. 

congrego, -are, -avi, -atus [con 

+ grex], I. V. a., collect, assemble^ 
gather together, unite. Pass., as- 

congressio, -onis [cf. congredior], 
f., a meeting, interview. 

congruo, -ere, -ui, — , 3. v. n., 

coincide, agree, harmonize. 

conicio, -ere, -ieci, -iectus [con 
+ iacio], 3. V. a., throw together, 
cast, hurl, throw, drive ; /«/, 
place ; put together, infer, con- 
clude, conjecture, guess. With 
se, I'ush. 

coniectura, -ae [cf. conicio], f., a 
guess, inference, conjecture. 

coniiinctio, -onis [cf. coniungo], 
f., a joining, union, connection, 

coniungo, -ere, -iiinxi, -iiinctus 
[con + iungo], 3. v. a. , fasten 
together, connect, join, associate. 
coniunctus, -a, -um, p. p. as 
adj., united with, joined with. 

coniunx, -iugis, c, a spouse, hus- 
band, wife. 




coniuratio, -onis [cf. coniuro], f., | 

a conspiracy, plot ; band of con- 1 
spirators. I 

coniuro, -are, -avi, -atus [con + 
iuro], I. V. n., take oath together^ 
conspire, plot, coniuratus, -a, 
-um, p. p. as adj . , bound together 
by oath. Plur. m. as subst., con- 

coniveo, -ere, -nivl (or nixi), — , 
2. V. n., shut the eyes, wink at, 

conlatus, -a, -um, p. p. of con- 

conlectio, -onis [con + lectio], f., 
a gathering, collecting. 

conlega, -ae [cf. conligo], m., a 
partner, colleague. 

conlegium, -1 [cf. conlega], n , a 
body of colleagues, a board, a 
bodyy corporation, guild, college, 

conligo, -ere, -legl, -lectus [con 
+ lego], 3. V. a., gather, collect, 
assemble, acquire ; recover, collect 
oneself {w\i\i se). 

conloco, -are, -avI, -atus [con + 
loco], I. V. a., set, put, place, sta- 
tion ; erect, set up ; invest, place 
(of money). 

conloquium, -i [cf. conloquor], n., 
a conversation, discourse. 

conloquor, -1, -lociitus [con + 
loquor], 3. V. dep., talk, parley, 
confer, hold a conversation. 

cdnor, -ari, -atus, i. v. dep., at- 
tempt, try, endeavor, make an 
effort, conatum, -I, p. p., n., as 
subst., an attempt. 

conquiesco, -ere, -quievi, -quie- 
tiirus [con + quiesco], 3. v. n., 
find rest, be quiet, repose ; pause, 
stop, come to rest. 

conquisitor, -oris [con + quae- 
sitor], vsx.,an investigator, search- 
er , recruiting officer. 

consceleratus, -a, -um [con + 
sceleratus], adj., accursed, de- 
praved, criminal. 

conscientia, -ae [cf. conscio], f., 
consciousness, common knowledge, 
feeling, conscience ; sense of guilt. 

conscius, -a, -um [con ; cf. scio], 
adj., knowing in common, privy, 
accessory. As subst. m. and f., 
an accomplice, partaker, wit- 

conscribo, -ere, -scrips!, -scrip- 
tus [con -f- scribo], 3. v. a., %vrite 
together, enroll, enlist, levy, pa- 
tres conscripti, the senators ; 
the senate. 

consecro, -are, -avi, -atus [con 
+ sacro], I. V. a., hallo7o, dedi- 
cate, consecrate, consecratus, 
-a, -um, p. p. as adj., hallozvcd, 
dedicated, sacred. 

consector, -ari, -atus [con + sec- 
tor], I. V. dep., follow eagerly, 
follow up, pursue. 

consensio, -onis [cf. consentio], 
f., an agreement, conspiracy, com- 
mon feeling. 

consensus, -iis [cf. consentio], m., 
agreement, concord, tinanimity, 
common feeling, accord. 

consentio, -ire, -sensi, -sensus 
[con + sentio], 4. v. n., agree to- 
gether, harmonize, conspire, be in 
accord with. 

consequor, -sequi, -seciitus [con 
+ sequor], 3. v. dep., follow up, 
arrive at, overtake, reach, follow ; 
secure, zvin, obtain, attain, succeed 
in ; succeed, follow close upon. 

conservatio, -onis [stem of con- 
sei-vo + tio], f., a keeping; pres- 

conservator, -5ris [stem of con- 
servo -f- tor], m., a preserver, sa- 

conserve, -are, -avi, -atus [con 
-f servo], I. V. a., keep safe, pre- 
serve, save, spare, maintain. 

consessus, -iis [cf. consido] m., 
a sitting down together, an as- 
sembly, a body, session, bench, (of 




cdnsldero, -are, -avi, -atus, i. 

V. a., look at closely f consider ^ ex- 
amine ; contemplate, dwell upon. 

consldo, -ere, -sedi, -sessurus 
[con + sido], 3. v. n., sit down, 
take a seat ; settle, encajnp, take 
one's abode. 

consilium, -i, n., wise counsel, de- 
liberation, prudence, wisdom ; a 
wise plan, purpose, cause, policy ; 
a counselling body, a council, 
deliberative assembly, advisory 

consisto, -ere, -stiti, — [con + 
sisto], 3. V. n., take one's stand, 
stand still, keep one's position ; 
stop, halt ; depend upon, rest on, 
consist of. 

consolatio, -onis [cf. consolor], 
f., consolation ; a comfort, solace. 

cons51or, -arl, -atus [con + solor], 
I. V. dep., encourage, solace, con- 
sole, afford consolation {for some- 

censors, -sortis [con + sors], adj., 
having a coi?imon lot, sharing. 
Assubst. m., a sharer, associate. 

conspectus, -us [cf. conspicio], 

m., a look, view, sight, survey. 
conspicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectus, 

3. V. a., look at carefully, see, ob- 

conspiratio, -onis [cf. conspiro], 
f., an agreement, harmony ; a con- 
spiracy, union. 

conspiro, -are, -avi, -atus [con 
+ spiro], I. V. n., sound in uni- 
son ; harmonize, conspire, league 

constans, -antis, pres. p. of con- 

constanter [adj. constans], adv., 
consistently, uniformly ; xvith con- 
stancy, firmly, resolutely. 

constantia, -ae [stem of constans 
+ ia], {., firmness, steadiness, con- 
stancy, resoluteness, courage. 

constituo, -ere, -ul, -utus [con + 
statuo], 3. V. a. and n., put to- 

gether, place, establish, station, 
effect, regulate, set in order, dis- 
pose ; appoint, determine upon, 
decide upon, settle. 
consto, -are, -stiti, -staturus 
[con -h sto], I. V. n., stand to- 
gether, agree, be consistent ; be 
established, be evident, appear ; 
depend upon ; consist, be made of. 
constans, -antis, pres, p. as 
adj., consistent, steadfast, reli- 

constringo, -ere, strinxi, -stric- 

tus [con -f- stringo], 3. v. a., bind 
firmly, constrain, restrain, bind 
hand and foot, check. 

consuesco, -ere, -suevi, -suetus 

[con + suesco], 3. v. n., become 
accustomed, form a habit. Perf. 
tenses, be accustomed, be wont. 

consuetudo, -inis [cf. consuesco], 
f., habit, custom, use, manners ; 
intercourse, customary round (of 

consul, -ulis, m., a consul, one of 
the two chief magistrates, elected 
annually at Rome. See Intro- 
duction, § 22. The date of the 
year was usually indicated by the 
abl. of the proper names of the 
consuls with the same case, 
plural, of the word consul, i. e. 
Lepido et Tullo consulibus, 
in the consulship of Lepidus and 
Tullus ; me consule, in my 

consularis, -e [stem of consul -|- 
aris], adj., of a consul, consular. 
homo consularis, an ex-consul ; 
also as subst., without homo. 

consulatus, -iis [cf. consul], m., 
the office of consul, consulship. 

cdnsulo, -ere, -ui, -ultus, 3. v. a. 
and n. With ace, consult, ask 
advice of. With dat., to take coun- 
sel for, consult the interests of, 
consult for. 

consult© [abl. of p. p. of consulo], 
adv., deliberately, purposely, de- 




consultum, -i [n. p. p. of consulo], 
n., deliberation ; a decision, decree. 
senatus consultum, a decree of 
the senate. 

consumo, -ere, -sumpsi, -sump- 
tus [con + sumo], 3. v. a., use up, 
devour, eat ; waste, destroy y use 
up, consume, spend. 

contamino, -are, -avi, -atus, i. 
V. a., bring into contact, unite, 
mingle ; contaminate, dejile, dis- 
honor, pollute, stain. 

contego, -ere, -texi, -tectus [con 
+ tego], 3. V. a., cover completely, 
cover, conceal, bury. 

contemno, -ere, -tempsi, -temp- 
tus [con + temno], 3. v. a., value 
little, despise, disregard, disdain, 
contemn. , 

contendo, -ere, -tendi, -tentus 
[con + tendo], 3. v. n., stretch, 
strain ; struggle, contend, strive, 
fight; compare , contrast ', main- 
tain, affirm ; endeavor, try. 

contentio, -onis [cf. contendo], f., 

{\)a stretching thoroughly = exer- 
tion. (2) a stretching along with 
= contrast, comparison. Also 
struggle, contention, fight. 

contentus, -a, -um, p. p. of con- 
tendo and contineo. 

conticesc*, -ere, -ticui, — , [con 
+ taceo], 3. V. n., become silent, 
cease speaking, be hushed. 

continens, -entis, pres. p. of con- 

continentia, -ae [stem of continens 
-f- ia], f., self-restraint, modera- 
tion, control. 

contineo, -ere, -ui, -tentus [con 
+ teneo], 2. v. a., hold together, 
confine, enclose, keep, detain, re- 
strain, constrain ; embrace, in- 
clude. Pass., be bounded by, de- 
pend upon, contentus, -a, -um, 
p. p. as adj., content, satisfied, 

contingfo, -ere, -tigi, -tactus 
[con -}- tango], 3. v. a. and n., 

touch, reach ; with dat., happen, 
befall, turn out, take place, oc- 

continuatio, -onis [stem of con- 
tinuo + tio], f., a continuance, 
continuation ; in rhetoric, a 

continuo [adj. continuus], adv., 
straightway, forthwith, imme- 

continuus, -a, -um, adj., contin- 
uous, unbroken, successive. 

contio, -5nis [for coventio], f., a 
meeting, assembly (without voting 
power). See Introduction, § 
35. Also a harangue, address. 

contidnator, -oris [stem of con- 
tionor, address an asseinbly, -f 
tor], m., a haranguer, demagogue. 

contra, adv. and prep, with ace. 
I. Adv., opposite, in opposition, 
contrary to, against ; on the other 
hand, on the contrary ; followed 
by atque or ac, contrary to what, 
different from tuhat, otherjvise 
than. II. Prep., against, con- 
trary to, opposed to ; in spite of, 
inimical to. 

contrahd, -ere, -traxi, -tractus 

[con -I- traho], 3. v. a., draw to- 
gether, draw in, gather, collect, 
assefnble ; shorten, limit, contract, 
diminish ; bring about, execute. 

contrarius, -a, -um [cf. contra], 
adj., opposite, contrary, opposed, 

controversia, -ae [cf. controversus, 
disputed\ i., a contention, quar- 
rel, dispute, controversy. sine 
controversia, beyond dispute, 
xvithout question. 

contumelia, -ae, f., an insult, af- 
front, outrage, abuse. 

convalesce, -ere, -valui, — [con 
+ valesco, grow strong^, 3. v. n., 
get strong, become well. 

conveho, -ere, -vexi, -vectus [con 
+ veho], 3. v. a., cairy together, 




convenio, -Ire, -veni, -ventus 

[con + venio], 4. v. a. and n., 
come together, assemble, meet ; 
agree upon. Impersonal, it is 
fitting, is appropriate, is sane, is 
likely ; ought. 

conventus, -us [cf. convenio], m., 
a meeting, assembly, gathering. 

conversus, -a, -um, p. p. of con- 

converto, -ere, -verti, -versus 
[con + verto], 3. v. a., turn com- 
pletely, turn about', divert, change, 
appropriate, convert. 

convicium, -i [cf. con + vox], n., 
a wrangling, wrangle, abusive 

convince, -ere, -vici, -victus [con 
+ vinco], 3. V. a., overcome, con- 
vict ; prove, establish (a charge), 
prove guilty ; demonstrate. 

convivium, -1 [cf. con + vivo], n., 
a meal together, a feast, banquet, 
gay dinner. 

convocd, -are, -avi, -atus [con + 
voco], I. V. a., call together, sum- 
mon, convoke, assemble. 

copia, -ae, f., abundance, plenty, 
supply, fund, quantity ; resources, 
luxury, wealth ; power, abundant 
ability. Plur., forces (troops), 
armed forces. 

copiosus, -a, -um [stem of copia 
+ osus], adj., abtindantly supplied, 
rich, copiotis, full of resources. 

coram, adv., in the presence, before 
the eyes, openly, face to face. 
Prep, with abl., in the face of, in 
the presence of, before. 

Corduba, -ae, f., Corduba, a city in 
Spain, now Cordova. 

Corinthus, -I, f., Corinth, a city of 
Greece, situated on the isthmus 
separating Greece from the Pelo- 
ponnesus. The site is at present 
being excavated by American di- 

Cornelius, -1, m., the name of a 
very distinguished old Roman 

gens. I. P. Cornelius Scipio (see 
Scipio). 2. L. Cornelius Cinna 
(see Cinna). j. L. Cornelius 
Sulla (see Sulla). 4. L. Corne- 
lius Lentulus (see Lentulus). 

corona, -ae, f., a garland, chaplet, 
wreath ; crown ; ring of specta- 

corpus, -oris, n., the body, person. 

corrigo, -ere, -rexl, -rectus [con 
-H rego], 3. V. a., make straight, 
correct, reform, restore, amend. 

corrobord, -are, -avi, -atus [con 
+ roboro], i. v. a., strengthen, 
invigorate, confirm. 

corrumpo, -ere, -riipi, -ruptus [con 
+ rumpo], 3. V. a., spoil, ruin, 
corrupt, bribe, corruptus, -a, 
-um, p. p. 2iS did)., corrupt, profii- 
gate, spoiled. 

corruo, -ere, -ui, — [con + ruo] 3., 
V. a. and n , fall together, fall in 
ruins, fall ; overthrow. 

corruptela, -ae [cf. corrumpo], f., 
means of corrupting, enticement, 
seduction, allurement. 

corrupter, -oris [cf. corrumpo], m., 
a corrupter, misleader, seducer. 

coss., abbreviation for consules, 
consulibus, etc. 

Cotta, -ae, m., a Roman family 
name. L. Aurelius Cotta, con- 
sul B. c. 65. 

cottldianus (coti-), -a, -um [cotti- 
die + anus], adj., daily. 

cottidie (coti-) [quot + die (abl. 
of dies)], adv., daily, every day. 

eras, adv., to-morrow. 

Crassus, -I, m., a Roman family 
name. i. M. Licinius Crassus, 
consul with Pompey B.C. 55 and 
one of the First Triumvirate. 2. 
L. Licinius Crassus, a famous 
orator, censor b. c. 103, consul 
95. J. P. Licinius Crassus, cen- 
sor B. c. 89, a partisan of Sulla. 

creber, -bra, -brum, adj., thick, 
close, frequent, numerous, crowd- 




crebro [cf. creber], adv., frequent- 
ly, in quick succession, often, at 
short intervals. 

credibilis, -e [mod. stem of credo 
+ bilis], adj., to be believed, be- 
lievable, likely, worthy of belief. 

credo, -ere, -didi, -ditus, 3. v. a. 
and n., cofujfiit, trust, entrust ; 
believe, suppose, think likely. 

crem5, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a., 
burn, consume. 

creo, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a., 

create, generate , elect, choose. 

cresco, -ere, -crevi, -cretus [cf. 
creo], 3. V. n., grow, increase, 
swell, be enlarged. 

Cretensis, -e [stem of Creta + 
ensis], adj., of Crete, Cretan. 
Plur. m. as subst. , the Cretans. 

crimen, -inis, n. {a decision, Jtidg- 
ment), a charge, accusation (the 
regular meaning in Cicero). 

criminor, -ari, -atus [cf. crimen], 
I. V. dep., accuse, bring accusa- 
tion against, charge with crime, 

criminosus, -a, -um [stem of cri- 
men + osus], adj., criminal, giv- 
ing ground for accusation. 

-cris, suffix of adjectives, denoting 
belonging to. 

cruciatus, -us [stem of crucio, tor- 
ture, + tus], m., a crucifying, tor- 
ture ; suffering, agony. 

criidelis, -e, adj., cruel, rude, se- 

crudelitas, -atis [stem of crudelis 
+ tas], f., cruelty, rudeness, se- 
verity, harshness. 

crudeliter [stem of crudelis + ter], 
adv., cruelly, rudely, severely, 

cruento, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. cru- 
entus], I. V. a., stain with blood, 
make bloody, stain. 

cruentus, -a, -um [cf. cruor], adj., 
bloody, blood-stained. 

-crum, suffix appended to stems of 
verbs to form nouns, and denot- 
ing the means or place of an ac- 
tion, i. e. sepulcrum {place of 

cruor, -oris, m., blood, gore, blood- 
stains ; bloodshed. 

crux, crucis, f., a cross ; death by 

cublle, -is [cf. cubo, lie down\, n., 
a resting-place, couch, bed. 

culpa, -ae, f., a fault, blame, weakr 
ness, guilt, error. 

cultura, -ae, f., cultivation, tillage, 

cultus, -us, m., labor, care, culti- 
vation, culture. 
-cuius, suffix of diminutives. 

1. cum, prep, with abl., with, to- 
gether zuith, in company with, pro- 
vided with. 

2. cum, conj., when, while', since, 
inasmuch as ; though, although. 
cum , . . tum, not only . . . 
but especially, while . . . as well, 
as . . . so, both . . . and; cum 
primum, as soon as. 

cumulate [adj. ciimulatus, heaped], 
adv., in full measure, fully. 

cumulo, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. cu- 
mulus], I. V. a., heap up, fill, pile, 
add to, increase. 

cumulus, -1, m., a heap,^pile, 
mound; an increase, addUion. 

cunctatio, -onis [cf. cunctor, de- 
lay], {., a delayijig, delay ; doubt. 

ciinctus, -a, -um [forcovinctus(?)], 
adj., all in a body, all together, the 

-cundus, suffix of adjectives, giving 
nearly the force of a participle. 

cupide [adj. cupidus], adv., eagerly, 

zealously, ardently. 
cupiditas, -atis [stem of cupidus 

4- tas], f., eagerness, zealousness, 

desire, greed ; cupidity. 
cupido, -inis [cf. cupio], f., desire, 





cupidus, -a, -um [cf. cupio], adj., 
eager^ zealous^ desirous, longing 
for, greedy, with a passion for. 

cupio, -ere, -ivi (or -ii), -itus, 3. 
and 4. V. a. and n., desire eager- 
ly, long for, wish. 

cur, adv. rel. and interrog., why, 

cura, -ae, f., trouble, care, anxiety, 
concern, attention. 

curia, -ae, f., the senate-house, the 
Cuna Host ilia in the Comitium. 
See Introduction, § 48. 

Cdrio, -onis, m., a Roman family 
name. C. Scribonius Curio, con- 
sul B. c. 76, a friend of Cicero. 

curiosus, -a, -um, adj., curious, 

ciiro, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. cura], 

I. V. a. and n., care for, take care 

of, attend to ; with gerundive of 

another verb, to cause, bring 

about, have (done). 
curriculum, -i [cf. curro], n,, a 

course, running, career. 
curro, -ere, -cucurri, -cursurus, 

3. V. n., run. 
currus, -lis, m., a chariot, car, 

wagon, triumphal chariot. 
cursus, -us, m., a running, course, 

career ; journey, voyage. 

curulis. -e [stem of currus + lis], 
z.^]., of a chariot, sella curulis, 
the curitle chair, official chair of 
the higher magistrates. 

ciistodia, -ae [stem of custos + 
ia], f., a watching, guard, desire 
to guard. Plur., guards, keep- 
ers, in custodiis, in the watch- 

custodio, -ire, -Ivi (-ii), -itus [cf. 
custos], 4. V. a., watch, guard, 
protect, act as guard. 

cGstos, -odis, c, a guard, watch- 
man, keeper, protector. 

Cyrus, -i, m., Cyrus, a Greek 
name. Esp., an architect em- 
ployed by Clodius and Cicero. 

Cyzicenus, -a, -um, adj., of Cyzi- 
cus, a Greek city on the Propon- 
tis in Asia Minor. Plur. m., the 
people of Cyzicus, the Cyzicenes. 

D., abbreviation for Decimus. 

damnatio, -onis [stem of damno 
-V tio], f., condemnation, convic- 

damno, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. dam- 
num, hurt\ I. V. a., find guilty, 
condemn, convict. 

de, prep, with abl., from, down 
from, away from, out of; for, by 
reason of; about, concerning, in 
respect to, with regard to ; of, 
from, out of. In comp., do7vn, 
off, utterly ; not, -un. qua de 
causa, for this reason ; de im- 
provise, unexpectedly. 

dea, -ae, f., a goddess. 

debeo, -ere, -ui, -itus [de 4- ha- 
beo], 2. V. a., with inf., be bound, 
have a right to, be in duty bound, 
owe. debitus, -a, -um, p. p. as 
adj., due, owing, deserved. 

debilis, -e [de + habilis, manage- 
able\ adj., lame, weak, feeble, 
crippled, disabled, helpless. 

debilito, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. de- 
bilis], I. V. a., lame, weaken, en- 
feeble, break down, crush. 

decedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessiirus 
[de + cedo], 3. v. n., go away, 
depart, retire, luithdrarc, shun. 

decem, indecl. adj., ten. 

December, -bris, -bre [cf. decem], 
December, the tenth month when 
the year began with March. 

decempeda, -ae [decem + pes], 
f., a ten-foot pole, a measuring- 
rod ten feet long. 

decerno, -ere, -crevi, -cretus [de 
+ cerno], 3. v. a. and n., decide, 
determine, decree, resolve, 

decerpo, -ere, -cerpsi, -cerptus 
[de + carpo, pluck\ 3. v. a., 




pluck off, break off ; detract, take 

decerto, -are, -avi, -atus [de + 
certo], I. V. a. and n , struggle to 
an end, fight out \ contend, strive. 

decet, -ere, -uit, — , 2. v. n. im- 
personal, it is fitting, seemly, 
suitable, becoming. 

decimus, -a, -um [cf. decern], adj., 
the tenth. Esp., Decimus, m., as 
a Roman praenomen. 

declare, -are, -avI, -atus [de + 
claro, make bright\ i. v. a., make 
clear, disclose, make evident ; 
manifest, show. 

declinatio, -onis [stem of declino 
+ tio], {., a leaning aside, dodg- 
ing, side movement, bending. 

declino, -are, -avi, -atus [de + 
clino, bend'\, i. v. a. and n,, bend 
aside; avoid, shun; turn frof/i, 
turn aside. 

decoctor, -5ris [cf. decoquo, boil 
away\, ra., a spendthrift. 

decoro, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. de- 
cus], I. V. a., adorn, embellish, 
beautify, decorate ; honor. 

decretum, -i [cf. decerno], n., a 
decree, decision, resolution. 

decuma (decima), sc. pars, f., a 
tenth part, tithe. 

decus, -oris, n., an ornament, em- 
bellishment ; honor, distinction. 

dedecus, -oris [de + decus], n., 
disgrace, dishonor, infamy, shame. 

dedico, -are, -avi, -atus [de + 
dico, set apart'], i. \. o.., to dedi- 
cate, devote, set apart. 

deditio, -onis [de + datio, a giv- 
ing], {., a giving up, surrender, 

dedo, -ere, dedidi, deditus [de + 
do], 3. V. a., give aiuay, surren- 
der, give up, capitulate. In pass. 
or with reflex., to surrender one- 
self, submit. 

dediico, -ere, -diixi, -ductus [de 
+ duco], 3. V. a,, lead down from, 

lead off, lead aivay, draw off ; in- 
duce, bring, draw. 

defatigo (defetlgo), -are, -avi, 
-atus [de + fatigo, weary], i. 
V. a., weary out, exhaust, fatigue, 
tire out. 

defend©, -ere, -di, -fensus [de + 
fendo], 3. V. a., ward off, avert, 
keep off; defend, guard, protect ; 
maintain, fight for. 

defensio, -onis [cf. defendo], f., a 
defense, guarding. 

defensor, -oris [cf. defendo], m., 
a defender, protector. 

defero, -ferre, -tuli, -latus [de + 
fero], irr. v. a., bear away, bring 
down, caj'ry off, remove ; report 
upon, lay before, put in one's 
hands, confer upon, place at one's 
disposal, tender. 

defessus, -a, -um [p. p. of defe- 
tiscor, become tired], adj , ex- 
hausted, worn out, utterly weary. 

defetigd, see defatigo. 

deficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [de -f- 
facio], 3. V. a. and x\., fail, fall 
away from, abandon, desert, be 
disloyal to. 

defigo, -ere, -fixi, -fixus [de + 
figo], 3, V. 71., fix, fas ten, plant, set. 

definio, -Ire, -ivi, -itus [de + finio, 
limit], 4. V. a., set bounds to, 
limit, define, fix, bring to an end. 

deflagro, -are, -avi, -atus fde + 
flagro], I. V. n., burn down, burn 
up, be consumed. 

deicio, -ere, -ieci, -iectus [de -i- 

iacio], 3. V. a., thrown down, cast 
down, repel frofn, avert. 

dein, adv., then, next. 

deinde [de + inde], adv., thence, 
thereafter, afterward, next, then. 

delabor, -i, -lapsus [de + labor], 

3. V. dep., slip down, glide down ; 

delectatio, -onis [stem of delecto 

+ tio], f., delight, pleasure, ett- 





delecto, -are, -avi, -atus [de + 
lecto, an intensive form of lacio, 
charm\ I. v. a., delight, charm, 
allure, attract, interest. 

delectus, -us [cf. deligo], m., a 
choosing, enrollment, levy, con- 

delenio, -ire, -ivl (-ii), -itus [de + 
lenio], 4. V. a., soothe, soften, 
pacify, captivate. 

deleo, -ere, -evi, -etus, 2. v. a., 
erase, efface, destroy, annihilate, 

dellberatio, -onis [stem of delibe- 
ro + tio], f., a deliberation, dis- 
cus sio ft, consultation. 

delibero, -are, -avi, -atus [de + 
libero], i. v. a., weigh 7vell, con- 
sider, deliberate, discuss, ponder. 

delicatus, -a, -um, tad]., pampered, 
effeminate, luxurious. 

deliciae, -arum, f., plur., delights, 
pleasure ; charm, allurement ; 
luxury, voluptuousness ; a favor- 
ite, pet, darling. 

delictum, -i [cf. delinquo], n., 
a fault, failing, offense, wrong- 

deligo, -are, -avi, -atus [de + 
ligo], I. V. a., bind down, fasten, 
bind fast, fetter. 

deligo, -ere, -legi, -lectus [de + 
lego], 3. V. a , select, pick out, 
choose, separate, single out. 

delinquo, -ere, -liqui, -lictus [de 
+ linquo], 3. v. n., fail, fall 
short ; transgress, offend. 

Delos, -i, f., Delos, an island 
among the Cyclades, in the 
Aegean sea. 

delubrum, -i, n., a place of cleans- 
ing ; a shrine, sanctuary, temple. 

demens, -entis [de + mens], adj., 
insane, demented, mad. 

dementer [stem of demens + ter], 
adv., insanely, dementedly, madly. 

dementia, -ae [stem of demens + 
ia], f., insanity, dementia, mad- 
ness, folly, idiocy. 

demigro, -are -avi, -atus [de -h 
migro, remove\ i. v. n., migrate, 
move away, depart, emigrate. 

deminuo, -ere, -ui, -dtus [de + 
minuo], 3. v. a. and n., make 
less, diminish, lessen, curtail, 
reduce, detract from, abate. 

deminutid, -onis [cf. deminuo], f., 
a diminution, lessening, detrac- 
tion, loss, sacrifice. 

demitto, -ere, -misi, -missus [de 

+ mitto], 3. V. a., let go doivn, let 
down. With reflex,, descend; be 
discouraged. demissus, -a, 
-um, p. p. as adj., bowed, down- 

demonstratio, -onis [stem of de- 
monstro + tio], i., a pointing out ^ 
description, showing, proving. 

demonstro, -are, -avi, -atus [de 
+ monstro], I. v. a., point out, 
show., indicate, prove. 

demum, adv., at length, at last\ 
not until, Just, only. 

denego, -are, -avi, -atus [de + 
nego], I. V. a. and n., deny, re- 

denique, adv., at last, finally, at 
length, lastly ; in short. turn 
denique, then and then only, 
then at last. 

denotd, -are, -avi, -atus [de -1- 
noto], I. V. a., mark out, point 
out, designate. 

denuntio, -are, -avi, -atus [de + 
nuntio], i. v. a., announce, de- 
clare ; denounce, menace, threaten 
one with ; command, issue orders. 

depello, -ere, -puli, -pulsus [de 
+ pello], 3. V. a., drive off, drive 
away, 7'e?nove, set aside, repel, 
throw off. 

dependo, -ere, -pendi, -pensus 
[de + pendo], 3. v. a., zveigh out; 

deploro, -are, -avi, -atus [de 4- 
ploro, cry out], i. v. a. and n., 
7veep bitterly, lament, mourn the 
loss of, deplore. 




depono, -ere, -posui, -positus 

[de + pono], 3. v. a., lay aside, 
put away , deposit; resign, abandon. 

depopulor, -aii, -atus [de + pop- 
ulor], I. V. dep., ravage, plunder, 
pillage, lay waste. 

deporto, -are, -avi, -atus [de + 
porto], I. V. a., carry off, take 
away, bring down, bring home. 

deposed, -ere, -poposci, — [de 
+ posco], 3. V. a., demand, re- 
quest, require, call for, claim. 

depravo, -are, -avI, -atus [de + 
pravus], I. V. a., distort ; pervert, 
corrupt, lead astray, deprave. 

deprecator, -oris [cf. deprecor], 
m., an intercessor, mediator. 

deprecor, -ari, -atus [de + pre- 
cor], I. V. dep., avert by prayer, 
beg to escape ; pray for, intercede 

deprehendo, -ere, -dl, -hensus 

[de + prehendo, grasp)\, 3. v. a., 
seize upon, snatch away, grasp ; 
catch, detect, discover ; compre- 

deprimo, -ere, -press!, -pressus 
[de + premo], 3. v. a..,press doiun, 
sink, depress. 

depromo, -ere, -prompsi, -promp- 
tus [de + promo], 3. v. a., draw 
out, draw forth ; obtain. 

derelinquo, -ere, -liqui, -lictus 
[de + relinquo], 3. v. a,, leave be- 
hind, abandon, utterly desert. 

derivo, -are, -avi, -atus [de + 
rivus, brook\ i. v. a., drazo off, 
divert, shift. 

descend©, -ere, -dl, -scensurus 
[de 4- scando, climb\ 3. v. n., 
climb dozon, descend, fall ; resor 
to, have recourse to ; stoop to. 

describe, -ere, -scripsi, -scriptus 
[de + scribo], 3. v. a., write down, 
define, mark out, map out, de- 

deserd, -ere, -serui, -sertus [de 
+ sero, bind\ 3. v. a., unbind; 
abandon, forsake, give up ; fail. 

desiderium, -i [cf. desidero], n., 
a longing, desire for, wish. 

desidero, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. 
a., long for, desire ; feel the want 
of, miss, regret the lack of. 

designo, -are, -avi, -atus [de + 
signo, markl^, i. v. a., mark out, 
indicate, designate, point out ; ap- 
point, elect. consul designa- 
tus, consul-elect. 

desilio, -ire, -silui, -sultus [de + 
salio], 4. V. n., leap down, leap 

desino, -ere, -sivi (-sii), -situs [de 
+ sino], 3. V. a. and n., leave off, 
cease, desist, make an end, stop. 

desisto, -ere, -stiti, -stitus [de 
+ sisto], 3. V. n., leave off, cease, 
stop, desist from. 

desperatio, -onis [cf. despero], f., 
despair, hopelessness, desperation. 

despero, -are, -avi, -atus [de + 
spero], I. V. a. and n., despair, 
cease to hope, give up hope. 

despicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectus 
[de + specio, look\, 3. v. a. and 
n., look down, look away; look 
down upon, despise, disparage. 

destringo, -ere, -strinxi, -stric- 

tus [de + string©], 3. v. a., strip 

off, strip ; unsheathe, draw. 
desum, -esse, -fui, -futurus [de 

4- sum], irr. v. n. [be away), be 

wanting, be lacking, tnissing ; 

fail, fail in one's duty, abandon, 

desert ; lack, be without. 
deterred, -ere, -ui, -itus [de 4- 

terreo], 2. v. a., frighten off, 

deter, hinder, prevent. 

detestor, -ari. -atus [de + testor], 
I. V. A^y^., entreat, avert by prayer, 
ward off by entreaty ; curse. 

detraho, -ere, -traxi, -tractus 
[de + traho], 3. v. a., drag off, 
snatch away, remove ; disparage, 

detrimentum, -i [cf. tero, rub + 
mentum], n,, a loss, damage, 
harm, injury ; defeat, disaster. 




deturbo, -are, -avi, -atus [de + 
turbo], I. V, a., thrust down ^ beat 
down, dislodge, expel, overthrow. 

deus, -i, m., a god. 

deveho, -ere, -vexi, -vectus [de 
4- veho], 3. V. a., bear away, 
carry away, bring down. 

deverto, -ere, -verti, -versus [de 
+ verto], 3, V. a. and n., turn 
away, turn aside, turn off. 

devincid, -ire, -vinxi, -vinctus 
[de + vincio], 4. v. a., bind down, 
bind fast, fetter, fasten firmly. 

devinco, -ere, -vici, -victus [de 
-h vinco], 3. V. a., conquer com- 
pletely, subdue utterly. 

devoco, -are, -avi, -atus [de + 
voco], I. V. a., call off, call a%vay ; 
bring, summon, invite. 

devoveo, -ere, -vovi, -votus [de 
+ voveo], 2. V. a, , voto away, de- 
vote, consecrate, sacrifice. 

Dexippus, -I, m., the name of one 
of Cicero's slaves. 

dexter, -tera(-tra), -terum(-trum), 
adj., right. Fern, dextra, -ae, 
the right hand. 

died, -ere, -dixi, -dictus, 3. v. a. 
and n., say, tell, speak ; mention, 
relate ; declare, affirm, assert ; 
nayne, appoint, causam dicere, 
to plead a cause ; diem dicere, to 
appoint a day (in court), to bring 
a charge. 

dictator, -oris [stem of dicto, dic- 
tate, + tor], vc\.,a dictator, an ex- 
traordinary magistrate appoint- 
ed in times of great danger to 
the Roman commonwealth. The 
power to appoint lay with the 
consuls, at times under advice 
from the senate, or by vote of the 
people. The maximum term of 
office was six months, but the in- 
cumbent usually resigned as soon 
as the danger was over. In 
early times the dictator was an 
absolute ruler, but later the right 
of appeal and the tribune's veto 
were recognized. The last ap- 

pointment was made B. c. 202. — 
The name was also given to an 
administrative officer in a munic- 
ipal town, 
dictatura, -ae [cf. dictator], f., a 
dictatorship, the office of dictator. 

dictito, -are, -avi, -atus [intensive 
of dicto], I. V. a., say repeatedly, 
keep saying, assert, insist upon. 

dies, -ei, m. and f., a day, a time, 
set day. in dies, frovi day to 
day ; in singulos dies, every 
single day, daily; paucis ante 
diebus, a few days ago. 

differo, -ferre, distuli, dilatus 
[dis- + fero], irr. v. a. and n., 
bear apart, spread, separate ; put 
off, defer, postpone ; differ. 

difficilis, -e [dis- + facilis], adj., 
difficult, not easy, trying, hard. 

difficultas, -atis [mod. stem of 
difficilis 4- tas], {., difficulty, hard- 
ship, trials, trouble. 

diffldo, -ere, -fisus sum [dis- 4- 
fido], 3. V. semi-dep., distrust, 
lose co7ifidence in, despair of. 

diffluo, -ere, -fluxi, — [dis- + 
fluo], 3. V. n., flow apart, flo7v 
aivay, run wild, grow lax, flow 
to waste. 

dignitas, -atis [stem of digno 4- 
tas], f., worthiness, tvorth, exalt- 
edness, dignity, distinction, digni- 
fled station. 

dignus, -a, -urn, adj., worthy, de- 
serving, suitable. 

diiiidicd, -are, -avi, -atus [dis- + 
iudico], I. V. a. and n., decide. 
Judge, determine. 

dilabor, -i, -lapsus [dis- + labor], 
3. V. dep., glide apart, dissolve, 
melt away ; slip away ; fall apart, 
go to ruin. 

dilacerd, -are, -avi, -atus [dis- -f- 
lacero], i. v. a , tear apart, tear 
to pieces, mangle. 

dilanid, -are, -avi, -atus [dis- -t- 
lanio, rend\ i. v. a., to tear in 




dilatio, -onis [dis- + latio, bear- 
ing\, {., a putting off, postpone- 
ment, adjournment. 

dllectus, -us (delectus) [cf. dili- 
go], m., a choosing, choice ; levy, 
enrollment, conscription. 

diligens, -entis [pres. p. of dili- 
go], adj., attentive, careful, scru- 
pulous, painstaking. 

diligenter [stem of diligens + ter], 
adv., attentively, carefully, scru- 
pulously, with painstaking. 

diligentia, -ae [stem of diligens 
+ ia], f.. carefulness, care, pains- 
taking, industry. 

dlligo, -ere, -lexi, -lectus [dis- 
+ lego], 3. V. a., single out, 
esteem, love, be fond of. 

dilucesco, -ere, -luxi, — [dis- + 
lucesco, grow light\ 3. v. n., 
grow light, begin to dawn. 

dlluo, -ere, -lui, -lutus [dis- + 
luo], 3. V. a. and n., wash away, 
dissolve ; weaken, impair ; refute. 

dimicatio, -onis [stem of dimico 
+ tio], f., a fight, struggle, con- 

dimicd, -are, -avi, -atus [dis- -f 
maco, beat\ i. v. n., fight, con- 
tend, struggle, lead a fight. 

dimitto, -ere, -misi, -missus [dis- 
+ mitto], 3. V. a., send away, 
scatter, despatch, disband', let go, 
let pass, relinquish, abandon, 

direptio, -onis [cf. diripio], f., a 
plundering, plunder, pillage. 

direptor, -oris [cf. diripio], m., a 
plunderer, pillager, robber. 

diripio, -ere, -ui, -reptus [dis- + 
rapio], 3. V. a., tear asunder, 
plunder, pillage, spoil. 

dis- (dir-), dl-, prep, found only in 
composition, asunder, in different 
directions, apart ; utterly. 

discedo, -ere, -cessi (-cessum) 
[dis- + cedo], 3. v. n., go apart, 
withdraw, retire, disperse, leave. 

disceptatio, -onis [stem of dis- 
cepto 4- tio], f., a dispute, coti- 
tention, discussion. 

discepto, -are, -avi, -atus [dis- 
+ capto, lay hold of \ i. v. a., de- 
cide, determine ; discuss, dispute. 

discerno, -ere, -crevi, -cretus 
[dis- + cerno], 3. v. a., separate, 
distinguish, discern. 

discessio, -onis [cf. discedo], f., 
a withdraxval, retiring, separa- 
tion, division ; vote. 

discessus, -iis [cf. discedo], m., a 
withdrawal, departure, removal. 

discidium, -i [dis- ; cf. scindo], n., 
a parting, separation, disagree- 
ment, dissension. 

disciplina, -ae [cf. discipulus, a 
pupil\ {., teaching, instruction, 
training ; system of training, edti- 

disco, -ere, didici, — , 3. v. a., 

learn, know, acquire. 

discordia, -ae [stem of discors, 
discordant, + ia], f., dissension, 
va7iance, discord. 

discriba, -ere, -scrips!, -scrip- 

tus [dis- + scribo], 3. v. a., dis- 
tribute, divide, assign, apportion. 

discrimen, -inis [cf. discerno], n., 
that which parts, a separation, di- 
vision ; a critical time, crisis, peril, 
danger, turning-point. 

disiungo, -ere, -iiinxi, -iiinctus 
[dis- + iungo], 3. v. a., unyoke, 
disunite, disjoin, separate, sever. 
disiunctus, -a, -um, p. p. as 
adj., widely separated, parted ; dis- 

dispergo, -ere, -spersi, -spersus 
[dis- + spargo, strew\ 3. v. a., 
scatter, disperse, spread abroad. 

dispertio, -ire, -ivi (-ii), -itus [dis- 
+ partio], 4. V. a., distribute, di- 
inde. Used also as deponent. 

dispute, -are, -avi, -atus [dis- -f- 
puto], I. V. n. and a., discuss, 
argue, treat of, explain. 




dissemino, -are, -avi, -atus [dis- 
+ semino, sozv], i. v. a., scatter 
abroad^ sow broadcast ^disseminate. 

dissensio, -onis [cf. dissentio], f., 
difference of opiniony disagree- 
menty discord, dissension. 

dissentio, -ire, -sensi, -sensus 
[dis- + sentio], 4. v. n., differ in 
opinion *disagree, dissent, differ, be 
at variance. 

dissideo, -ere, -sedl, — [dis- + 
sedeo], 2. v. n., sit apart; dis- 
agree, be at variance, differ. 

dissimilis, -e [dis- + similis], adj., 
unlike, dissimilar, different, vari- 

dissimilitude, -inis [stem of dis- 
similis -I- tudoj, f., unlikeness, dif- 
ference, dissimilitt(de. 

dissimulo, -are, -avi, -atus [dis- 
+ simulo], I. V. a. and n., conceal, 
dissemble (pretend something is 
not as it is). 

dissipo, -are, -avi, -atus [dis- 4- 
*supo, throzv], I. V. a., scatter, 
disperse, spread abroad. 

dissolve, -ere, -solvl, -solutus 
[dis- + solvo], 3. V, a., loosen apart, 
unloose, release, relax, dissolu- 
tus, -a, -um, p. p. as adj., lax, 
unrestrained, abandoned, dissolute. 

distortus, -a, -um [p. p. of distor- 
queo, dis tor t^ adj., distorted, mis- 
shapen, deformed. 

distraho, -ere, -traxi, -actus [dis- 
+ traho], 3. V. a., draw asunder, 
tear apart, tear in pieces, separate ; 
distract, diznde. 

distribuo, -ere, -ui, -utus [dis- + 
tribuo], 3. V. a., assign, distribute, 
apportion, spread, divide. 

distringo, -ere, -strinxl, -stric- 
tus [dis- + stringo, bind'], 3. v. a., 
drazu asunder, stretch apart ; dis- 

disturb©, -are, -avi, -atus [dis- 4- 
turbo, throw into disorder], i.v. a., 
throw into disorder, drive away in 

ditissimus, -a, -um, superl. of di- 

diii, adv., for a long time, a long 
time, a long while, quam diu ? 
hoxa long? Comp. diutius ; su- 
perl. diutissime. 

diurnus, -a, -um [cf. dies], adj., of 
the day, daily. 

dius, -a, -um, adj., godlike, divine. 
me dius fidius (sc. adiuvet), 
may the god of faith help me, 
heaven help me I good heavens ! 

diutius, comp. of diu. 

diuturnitas, -atis [stem of diu- 
turnus + tas], f., length of time, 
lapse of time, long continuance, 

diuturnus, -a, -um [cf. diu], adj., 
of long duration, long continued, 

divello, -ere, -velli, -volsus [dis- 

+ vello, tear], 3. v. a., tear apart, 
tear in pieces, rend, sever, wrench 

diversus, -a, -um, p. p. of diver- 

diverto, -ere, -ti, -versus [dis -f- 
verto], 3. V. a. and n., turn aside, 
direct apart, separate, diversus, 
-a, -um, p. p. as adj., widely dif- 
ferent, distant, separate. Opin- 
ions are diversae when they are in 
contrast ; variae when they are 
essentially alike, but differ in 

dives, -itis, adj., rich, wealthy ; 

divido, -ere, -visi, -visus, 3. v. a., 

divide, separate, force apart ; dis- 
tribute, divlsus, -a, -um, p. p. 
as adj., divided, contrary, oppo- 

divlnitus [stem of divinus -f tus], 
adv., from heaven, by divine in- 
fluence, by the interposition of the 
gods, providentially. 

dlvln5, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. divi- 
nus], I. V. a., foretell, prophesy, 
foresee, predict, conjecture. 




divinus, -a, -um [stem of divus 4- 
nus], adj., of the gods, divine, god- 

divitiae, -arum [stem of dives + 
ia], f. plur., riches, wealth, treas- 

1. do, dare, dedi, datus, i. v. a., 
give, bestow, grant, furnish, af- 
ford, litteras dare, to compose 
a letter ; operam dare, to give 

2. do, confounded with i. do, but 
employed in compounds in the 
sense of put, place. 

doceo, -ere, -ui, doctus, 2. v. a., 

teach, show, inform, represent. 
doctus, -a, -um, p. p. as adj., 
learned, educated, refined, culti- 

doctrina, -ae [cf. doceo], f., teach- 
ing, system of instruction, system- 
atic training, learning ; instruc- 
tion in letters, literary pursuits. 

documentum, -i [cf. doceo 4- men- 
tum], n., a means of teaching, a 
proof, evidence. 

doled, -ere, -ul, doliturus, 2. v. 

n., feel pain, grieve, suffer, be 
pained, be afflicted. 

dolor, -oris [cf. doleo], m., pain, 
suffenng, affliction ; pang, griev- 
ance, vexation, chagrin. 

domesticus, -a, -um [cf. domus], 
adj., of the house ; at home, do- 
fnestic, internal, within the city. 

domicilium, -1, n., an abiding-place, 
abode, habitation, dtvelling ; legal 

domina, -ae [f. of dominus], f., a 
mistress, lady of the house. 

dominatio, -onis [stem of dominor 
+ tio], f., mastery, dominion, rule, 
supremacy, control, pozver, domi- 
nation, tyranny. 

dominor, -ari, -atus [cf. dominus], 
I. V. dep., be master; control, 
dominate, govern, tyrannize over. 

dominus, -i, m., a master, owner. 

Domitius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. L. Domitius Ahenobar- 
btis, consul B. c. 54. 

domitor, -oris [stem of domo + 
tor], m., a tamer, subduer, van- 

domo, -are, -ui, -itus, i. v. a,, do- 
mesticate, tame, subdue, master. 

domus, -lis, f,, a house, home; a 
household, family. 

dono, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. donum], 
I. V. a., present, give., bestozv 
upon, confer upon. 

donum, -i [cf. do], n., a gift, pres- 
ent ; courtesy, kindness. 

dormio, -ire, -ivi (-ii), -itum, 4. v. 
n., sleep. 

Drtlsus, -i, m., a Roman family 
name. M. Livius Drusus, trib- 
une of the people b. c. gi. He 
attempted some reform in favor 
of granting citizenship to the Ital- 
ians, but was assassinated by his 

dubitatio, -onis [stem of dubito 
+ tio], {., doubt, uncertainty, per- 
plexity, hesitation, reluctance. 

dubito, -are, -avI, -atus [cf. du- 
bius], I. V. n., doubt, be perplexed, 
be in doubt. With inf., rarely 
subjv., hesitate, feel reluctant. 

dubius, -a, -um, adj., doubtful, 
uncertain, dubious, non est du- 
bium, there is no doubt. 

diico, -ere, diixi, ductus, 3. v. a., 

lead, conduct, draiv, bring ; reck- 
on, consider, think, deem, regard', 
attract, prolong. 

ductor, -oris [ 1/ dug (cf. duco) + 
tor], m., a leader, commander, 

ductus, -lis [root of duco + tus], 
m., a leading, lead, cojnmand. 

diidum [diu + dum], adv., a short 
time ago, not long since, iam 
dudum, now for a long time. 

duint, old form subjv. 3d plur., 
present tense of d5. 




dulcedo, -inis [stem of dulcis + 
edo], f., sweetness, charm, agree- 
ableness, fascination. 

dulcis, -e, adj., sweet, charming. 

dum, conj., while, as long as ; pro- 
vided only, if only ; till, until. 
With negatives,/^/, as yet. 

dummodo or dum modo, provided, 
only so long. 

dumtaxat [dum -i- taxat, a pres. 
subjv. of *taxo, a byform of 
tangoj, adv., only, merely ; at all 
events, surely, certainly. Cicero 
employs it almost exactly like 

duo, -ae, -o, num. adj., two. 

duodecim (XII) [duo + decem], 
indecl. 2^^)., twelve. 

duodecimus, -a, -um [duo + de- 
cimus], num. adj., twelfth. 

dure [adj. durus], adv., harshly. 

durus, -a, -um, adj., hard, severe, 
stern, rough, unfeeling, harsh. 

-dus, -a, -um, suffix of adjectives, 
meaning giving (cf. do, dare). 

dux, duels [cf duco], m. and f., a 
leader, guide, chief, commander, 
head, me duce, under my leader- 

Dyrrachium, -1, [Gr. Ai»ppaxto»'l. 
n., Dyrrachium, a town of Illy- 
ria on the Adriatic sea nearly 
opposite Brundisium. Now Du- 



e (ex), prep, with abl., out of, 
from ; on account of, in conform- 
ity with, according to ; directly 
after, from, following. In comp., 
out, forth, utterly, e re publica, 
in conformity zirith public inter- 
ests ; ex una parte, on one side. 

ea [abl. of is], adv., on that side 
that way, there. 

ebriosus, -a, -um [stem of ebrius 
+ osus], adj., given to drink, 

ebrius, -a, -um, adj., drunk. 

ecf — , see eff-. 

ecquis (-qui), -qua, -quid (-quod) 

[en + quis], interrog. pron., is 
there any one ? any ? any one ? 
Neut. ace. as adv., ecquid, at all? 
eculeus, -i (stem of equus -f- leus], 
m., a little horse ; the torture horse, 

edictum, -i [p. p. neut. of edico], 
n., a proclatnation, edict, order. 

edo, -ere, -didi, -ditus [ex + do], 
3. V. a., put forth, give forth^ 
publish ; raise up, elevate. 

-edo, suffix forming abstract nouns. 

edoceo, -ere, -ui, -doctus [ex 4- 
doceo], 2. V. a., show forth, in- 
struct, inform. 

educator, oris [stem of educare + 
tor], m., a tutor. 

ediic5, -ere, -diixi, -ductus [ex- 
duco], 3. V. a , lead forth, lead 
out, bring out ; rear, erect ; bring 

effeminatus, -a, -um [p. p. of ef- 
femino, make into a woman], 
adj., effeminate, unmanly. 

effero, -ferre, extuli, elatus [ex 
+ fero], irr. v. a., carry forth, 
bring out, carry away ; raise, 
exalt, extol, praise. 

efficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [ex 4- 
facio], 3. V. a., make out, make, 
cause, produce, occasion. With 
ut or ne and subjv., bring it 
about that, cause that. 

effigies, -ei, f, an image, copy, 
likeness, representation, statue. 

efflagito, -are, -avi, -atus [ex + 
flagito], I. V. a., demand earnestly, 
solicit, clamor for. 

efflo, -are, -avi, -atus [ex + flo, 
blotu], I. V. a. and n , blow out, 
breathe forth. 

effrenate [adj. eflfrenatus], adv., 
without restraint. 

effrenatus, -a, -um [p. p. of eflFre- 
no, unbridle\ adj., unbridled, un- 




effugid, -ere, -fugi, — [ex + fu- 
gio], 3. V. n. and a., flee forth, 
flee away, escape, flee ; avoid, 

effundd, -ere, -fudi, -fusus [ex + 

fundo], 3. V. a., pour out, pour 

forth, shed. 
egens, -entis, pres. p. of egeo. 
egeo, -ere, -ui, — , 2. v. n., be 

needy, want, lack, be in want. 
^gens, -entis, pres. p. as adj., 

needy, in want, poor. 

egestas, -atis [cf. egens], f., need, 
want, poverty. 

ego, mei, pers. pron., I {me, etc.). 
Plur. nos, etc., we, us. 

egredior, -i, -gressus [ex -+- gra- 
dior], 3. V. dep., go out, march 
forth, go away. 

egregius, -a, -um [ex. and cf. grex], 
adj., out of the common, extra- 
ordinary, reitiarkable, excellent, 
distinguished, noble. 

eicio, -ere, -ieci, -iectus [ex + 
iacio], 3. V. a., cast out, drive 
forth, expel, eject. With reflex., 
to rush out, sally forth, eiectus, 
-a, -um, p. p. as adj., cast up 
on shore, cast out, cast away, 

elabor, -1, elapsus [ex + labor], 
3. V. dep., slip out, escape, glide 
forth, slip. 

elaboro, -are, -avi, -atus [ex + 
laboro], i. v. a. and n., work out, 
accomplish, labor, spend one's 

elegans, -antis [for eligens, pres. 
p. of eligo], 2L(\]., fastidious, nice, 
neat, elegant, tasteful. 

eligo, -ere, -legl, -Iectus [ex + 
lego], 3. V. a., pick out, choose, 
select, elect. 

-elis, suffix of adjectives, signify- 
ing pertaining to. 

eloquentia, -ae [stem of eloquens, 
eloquent + tia], f. , eloquence. 

eludo, -ere, -lusi, -lusus [ex + 
ludo], 3. V. a. and n., play out. 

mock, fool, make sport of, baffle, 
insult; avoid, shun. 

eraancipo, -are, -avI, -atus [e -f- 
mancipo, dispose of], 1. v. a., de- 
clare free, emancipate. 

emerge, -ere, -si, -sus [ex -f 
mergo, dip], 3. v, a. and n., bring 
to the surface, rise forth, emerge, 
get one^s head above water. 

emitto, -ere, -misi, -missus [ex 
+ mitto], 3. V. a., send forth, 
send out ; let loose, suffer to go. 

emo, -ere, -emi, -emptus, 3. v. a., 
buy, purchase, bribe. 

emolumentum, -1 [ex -1- molimen- 
tum]. (Lit. the thing ground out 
of the mill.) Gain, profit, ad- 
vantage (of any kind, material or 

emorior, -mori, -mortuus [ex -f- 
morior], 3. v. dep., die off, die. 

enarro, -are, -avi, -atus [ex + 
narro], i. v. a., tell, narrate, re- 
count, describe. 

enim, adv., postpositive, really, in- 
deed ; for, for no%v, in fact. 

enitor, -i, -nisus or -nixus [ex + 
nitor], 3. v. dep., struggle forth, 
struggle, strive, make an effort, 
exert oneself. 

Ennius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. Q. Ennius, a Roman 
poet, born B. c. 239. He was 
looked upon as the father of 
Latin poetry. 

-ensis, a suffix added to names of 
places to form adjectives, deno- 
ting belonging to. 

enumero, -are, -avi, -atus [ex 4- 
numero], i. v. a., count out, 
reckon up, describe. 

T. eo, ire, ivi or ii, itum, irr. v. 
n., go, pass, proceed, march. 

2. eo [old dat., and abl. of is], 
adv., thither, there ; in that place ; 
therefore, for that reason, on that 

eodem [old dat. of idem], adv., the 
same place, thither, there also. 





epigramma, -atis [Gr. iirlypafifia], 
n., an epigram (short poem). 

Epirus, -i, f., Epirus, a country 
to the west of Thessaly along the 
Adriatic sea. 

epistula, -ae, f., a letter. 

epulum, -i, n . , a feast ^ banquet. 

eques, -itis [stem of equus 4- tis], 
m., a horseman, rider ; a knight^ 
one of the equestrian order. 

equester, -tris, -tre [stem of 
eques + tris], adj., of knights, 
of the cavalry, equestrian. 

equidem [perhaps e (interjectional) 
+ quidem], adv., surely, verily, 
at least, indeed, to be sure. Very 
often with the first pers. pron. 

equitatus, -us [stem of equito + 
tus], m., cavalry, horsemen. 

equus, -i, m., a horse. 

erga, prep, with ace, toward, in 
behalf of , in relation to. 

ergo, adv., therefore, then, conse- 
quently. With gen., on account 
of, for the sake of. 

erigo, -ere, -rexi, -rectus [ex + 
rego], 3. V. a., raise up, erect; 
cheet, rouse, encourage. 

eripio, -ere, -ui, -reptus [ex + 
rapio], 3. V. a., snatch away, tear 
out, wrest away ; rescue, deliver ; 
extort, take from. 

-ernus, suffix of adjectives derived 
from adverbs, i. e. hodiernus 

erratum, -i [n. p. p. of erro], n., 
an error, ?nistake. 

erro, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. n., 
wander, go astray, err ; make a 
mistake, be in error. 

error, -oris [cf. erro], m., a wan- 
dering, straying, mistake, error. 

eructo, -are, -avI, — [ex -|- ructo, 
belc}i\, I. V. a., belch forth ; hic- 
cough out. 

erudio, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itus [ex + 
rudio], 4. V. a., train, teach, in- 
struct, cultivate, eruditus, -a. 

-um, p. p. as adj., trained, in- 
structed, cultivated, learned. 
erumpo, -ere, -rupi, -ruptus [ex 
+ rumpo], 3. V. a. and n., burst 
forth, break forth, sally out, break 

escendo, -ere, -dl, -scensus [ex 
4- scando, climb\ 3. v. n., climb 
up, ascend. 

et, conj., and. et . . . et, both 
. . . and. 

etenimi, conj.,/<?r indeed, for really, 
for to be sure ; because. 

etiam [et -f iam], adv. and conj., 
even now, noiv too, yet, even 
yet, also, actually, etiam atque 
etiam, again and again ; quin 
etiam, nay eveti ; non modo 
. . . sed etiam, not only . . . 
but also. 

Etruria, -ae. f., Etruria, the coun- 
try north of Latium and west of 
the Apennines. 

Etruscus, -a, -um, adj., of Etru- 
ria, belonging to Etruria, Etrus- 
can. Plur. m., the Etruscans. 

etsi [et si], conj., even if, although. 
In Cic. regularly with the indica- 
tive mode. 

-eus, suffix of adjectives, added to 
names of substances or materials. 

evado, -ere, -vasi, -vasurus [ex + 
vado], 3. V. n., escape, get away. 

evello, -ere, -velli, -volsus [ex + 
vello, pluck^, 3. V. a., tear out, 
pluck forth. 

evenio, -ire, -veni, -ventum [ex 
+ venio], 4. v. n., come out ; turn 
out, happen, eventum, -i, p. p. 
as subst. n., outcome, result. 

eventus, -us [cf. evenio], m., an 
occurrence, an event, fate, lot ; 
consequence, outcome, issue. 

everto, -ere, -ti, -versus [ex -H 
verto], 3. V. a., turn out, over- 
turn, ruin, overthrow, destroy. 

evocator, -oris [cf. evoco], m., 
one who calls forth., a summoner^ 
I rallier. 




evoco, -are, -avl, -atus [ex + 
voco], I. V. a., call forth, sum- 
mon, challenge. 

evomo, -ere, -ui, -itus [ex + vo- 
mo, vomit\ 3. v. a., vomit outy 
throw out, eject. 

ex (e), prep, with abl., out of, away 
from ; after, following ; on ac- 
count of, in accordance zuith, in 
pursuance of. ex aliqua parte, 
in some measure. 

exaggero, -are, -avi, -atus [ex 
+ aggero, heap\ I. v. a., heap up, 
enlarge ; heighten, magnify. 

examino, -are, -avl, -atus [cf. 
examen, tongue of the balance'], 
I. V. a., weigh, ponder, consider. 

exanimo, -are, -avi, -atus [ex + 
stem of animus], i. v. a,, deprive 
of breath, prostrate, slay, kill; 
wear out, fatigue, exanimatus, 
-a, -um, p. p. as adj., out of 
breath, exhausted, overwhelmed; 

exardesco, -ere, -arsi, — [ex -f 
ardesco, take fire\, 3. v. n., blaze 
out, burst into flame ; become ex- 
cited, become enraged. 

exaudid, -Ire, -ivi, -itus [ex + 
audio], 4. V. a., hear distinctly (in 
spite of some obstacle, such as 
distance, feeble utterance, etc., 
which might lead one to expect 
not to hear). 

excedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessus [ex 

+ cedo], 3. V. n., go out, with- 
dra%v, leave, depart from. 

excellens, -entis, pres. p. of ex- 

excello, -ere, — , -celsus [ex + 
*cello, lise], 3. v. a. and n., be su- 
perior, be eminent ; excel, surpass. 
excellens, -entis, pres. p. as adj., 
superior, surpassing, excellent, 
prominent, remarkable, excel- 
sus, -a, -um, p. p. as adj., high, 
elevated, lofty. 

excido, -ere, -cidi, — [ex 4- cado], 
3. V. XV., fall out, fall 

excipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus [ex 

-f- capio], 3. V. a., take out, take 
up, receive, take in, catch ; follow, 
come after ; except, exclude. 

excito, -are, -avi, -atus [ex 4- 
cito ; cf. cieo], i. v. a., call out, 
arouse, summon forth ; incite, in- 
spire ; raise (from the dead). 

exclude, -ere, -clusl, -cliisus [ex 
-f claudo], 3. V. a., shut out, cut 
off, prevent, exclude. 

excogito, -are, -avi, -atus [ex 4- 
cogito], I. V. a., think out^ devise, 

excolo, -ere, -ui, -cultus [ex 4- 
colo], 3. V. a., cherish, ctiltivate, 
train, refine. 

excrucio, -are, -avi, -atus [ex 4- 
crucio, torture], I. v. a., torture, 

excubiae, -arum [cf. excubo, 
watch], f. plur., a watch (by day 
or night ; vigilia only by night), 
sentinels, watchmen. 

excursio, -onis [cf. excurro, run 
out], {., a running forth, sally, 

excuse, -are, -avi, -atus [ex 4- 
causa], I. V. a. and n., excuse, 
make an excuse. 

exemplum, -i, n., a specimen, sam- 
ple, copy, pattern, model; exam- 
ple, instance. 

exeo, -ire, -ii, -itum [ex + eo], 
irr. V. n., go forth, go otit, with- 
draw, depart. 

exerceo, -ere, -ui, -citus [ex 4- 
arceo], 2. v. a., train, practise, 
try ; employ, keep busy ; harass, 
fatigue ; prosecute, manage, con- 

exercitatio, -onis [stem of exer- 
cito + tio], f. , practise, training, 
exercise, chance for practising. 

exercitatus, -a, -um [p. p. of exer- 
cito, train], as adj., trained, tried, 
practised, versed. 

exercitus, -us [cf. exerceo], m., 
an army (of trained men). 




exhaurio, -ire, -hausi, -haustus 

[ex + haurio], 4. v. a., drain off^ 
exhaust^ remove. 

exhibeo, -ere, -ul, -itus [ex + 
habeo], 2. v. a., hold forth, hold 
outy shoWf exhibit. 

exigo, -ere, -egi, -actus [ex + 
ago], 3. V. a., drive out ; complete, 
finish ; collect, exact (revenues). 

exiguus, -a, -um [cf. exigo], adj., 
scanty, small, narrow, meagre. 

eximie [adj. eximius], adv., ex- 
ceptionally, especially, peculiarly, 

eximius, -a, -um [cf, eximo, take 
out], adj., exceptional, especial, 
uncommon, extraordinary, ad- 
mirable, distinguished. 

existimatio, -onis [cf. existimo], 
f., a Judging, Judgment, estimate ; 
public opinion ; repute, reputa- 

existimator, -oris [cf. existimo], 
m., an appraiser. Judge, critic. 

existimd, -are, -avi, -atus [ex + 
aestimo, value\ I. v. a., estimate, 
value, reckon ; appreciate, esteem, 
consider. Judge ; think, suppose, 

exitiosus, -a, -um [stem of exi- 
tium + osus], adj., destructive, 
ruinous, pernicious, fatal. 

exitium, -1, n., destruction, ruin, 

exitus, -lis [cf. exeoj, m., a going 
out, passage, departure ; an end, 
issue, result. 

exoletus, -a, -um [p. p exolesco, 
cease], as adj., adult. M. as 
subst., a creature of lust, boy 

exopto, -are, -avi, -atus [ex 4- 
opto], I. V. a., desire earnestly, 
long for. 

exordium, -i [ex -H cf. ordior], n., 
a beginning, commencement. In 
rhetoric, a division of a speech, 
an introduction, exordium. 

exorno, -are, -avi, -atus [ex + 
orno], I. V. a., fit out, equip, 
furnish ; adorn, embellish. 

exoro, -are, -avi, -atus [ex + 
oro], I. V. a., move by entreaty, 
obtain by prayer. 

exorsus, -iis [cf. exordior], m., a 
beginning, commencement, 

expedio, -ire, -ivi, -itus [ex ; cf, 
pes], 4. V. a, and x\., extricate, dis- 
entangle, set free ; arrange, set in 
order ; be of advantage, be ex- 

expeditus, -a, -um, p. p. as adj. 
unfettered, unimpeded ; easy. 

expello, -ere. -puli, -pulsus [ex 
+ pello], 3. V. a,, drive out, ex- 
pel, eject, force out, banish, 

experior, -iri, -pertus, 4, v. dep., 
try, prove, experience, make trial 

expers, -tis [ex + pars], adj., 
ivithout a share, not sharing, des- 
titute. Used with a dependent 

expeto, -ere, -ivi or -ii, -itus [ex 
4- peto], 3, v, a., seek after, seek 
for, desire earnestly, try to get, 
aim at. 

expilo, -are, -avi, -atus [ex 4- 
pilo, plunder], i. v. a,, rob, pil- 
lage, plunder. 

expio, -are, -avi, -atus [ex + pio, 
appease], i. v. a., atone for, pu- 
rify, expiate. 

expled, -ere, -evi, -etus [ex + 
pleo, fill], 2, v. a., fill up, fill 
full, satisfy, satiate, sate. 

explicd, -are, -ui or -avi, -atus or 
-itus [ex -f- plico, fold],\.\. a., un- 
fold, disclose ; set forth ; set free, 

explore, -are, -avi, -atus [ex -1- 
ploro, cry out], i, v. a,, search 
out, explore, investigate, search, 
examine, reconnoitre. 

expono, -ere, -posui, -positus [ex 
-F- pono], 3, V. 2.., put out, set out, 
place out, expose ; set forth, ex- 
pound, relate. 




exporto, -are, -avi, -atus [ex + 
porto], I. V. a., carry out, bring 
forth, carry away, export. 

exposed, -ere, -poposci, — [ex 

+ posco], 3, V. a., ask earnestly, 
beg, demand. (Only once in Cic, 
i. e. Milo, § 92.) 

exprimo, -ere, -pressi, -pressus 
[ex -f premo], 3. v. a., press out, 
force out ; portray, represent, ex- 

expromo, -ere, -prompsi, -promp- 
tus [ex + promo, produce\ 3. 
V. a., show forth, discover, dis- 
play, exhibit. 

expugnatio, -onis [ex -l- stem of 
pugno + tio], f., a storming, tak- 
ing by storm, successful attack. 

expugno, -are, -avi, -atus [ex + 
pugno], I. V. a., take by storm, 

exquiro, -ere, -sivi, -situs [ex + 
quaero], 3. v. a., seek out^ search 

exscindo, -ere, -scidi, -scissus 

[ex + scindo, cut\ 3. v. a., break 
down, destroy, extirpate, over- 

exsequiae, -arum [cf. exsequor], 
f., plur., a funeral procession, a 

exsilium, -i [stem of exsul + ium], 
n., exile. 

exsisto, -ere, -stiti, — [ex + 
sisto], 3. V. n., stand forth, step 
out ; appear, be visible ; turti out, 
result ; exist, be, come into be- 

exsolvo, -ere, -solvi, -solutus [ex 
-f- solvo], 3. V. a., unloose, set 
free ; explain, make clear ; ac- 

exspectatio, -onis [ex + specto], 
f,, a ivaiting for, expectation, 
longing for, anticipation. 

exspecto, -are, -avi, -atus [ex + 
specto], I . V. a, and n., lookout for, 
wait for, expect, anticipate, desire. 
With si, wait to see whether. 

exstinguo, -ere, -inxi, -inctus 
[ex + stinguo, ptit out\, 3. v. a., 
put out, extinguish ; put an end 
to, destroy, annul. 

exstd, -are, — , — [ex + sto], 
I. V. n., stand out, stand forth', 
be, exist. 

exstructio, -onis [cf. exstruo], f., 
a building up, structure, erecting. 

exstruo, -ere, -striixi, -striictus 
[ex -f- struo, heap up\ 3. v, a., 
pile up, heap up, build up, con- 
struct, erect. 

exsul, -ulis, m. and f., an exile. 

exsulto, -are, -avi, — [cf exsilio], 
I. V. n., spring vigorously ; extdt, 

extenuo, -are, -avi, -atus [ex + 
tenuo], I. V. a., make small, di- 
minish, belittle, disparage. 

exter, -tera, -terum [ex + terus 
(reduced)], adj., outer, outside, 
foreign. Comp. exterior, -ius. 
Superl. extremus, -a, -um, outer- 
most, extreme, last; last part of. 
ad extremum, toward the end, 
at last. 

extermino, -are, -avi, -atus [ex 
+ stem of terminus], i. v. a., 
drive beyond the boundaries, exile, 
banish, expel. 

externus, -a, -um [exter -|- nus], 
adj., outside, external, foreign. 

extimesco, -ere, -timui, — [ex -l- 
inch. of timeo], 3. v. a. and n., 
dread, fear. 

extoUo, -ere, — , — [ex + tollo], 
3. V. a., raise up, lift up. 

extorque5, -ere, -torsi, -tortus 
[ex -f- torqueo], 2. v. a , wrench 
away, twist from. 

extra, adv. and prep., outside, out 
of, beyond. 

exuo, -ere, -ui, -iitus [cf. induo, 
put on], 3. V. a., throw off, strip 
off, cast aside. 

exiird, -ere, -ussi, -iistus [ex + 
uro, burn\, 3. v. a., burn out, 
consume, burn to the ground. 




exuviae, -arum [cf. exuo], f. plur., 
that which is stripped off, cloth- 
ing, cast-off clothing ; equip- 
ments, spoils, trophies. 

F., abbreviation of filius. 

Fabricius, -I, m., a Roman gentile 
name. Q. P^abricius, tribune in 
57 B. c. 

fabula, -ae, f., a narration, story, 
tale, myth. 

facetus, -a, -um, adj., ^ne, courte- 
ous, polite ; jnerry, witty, face- 

facile [adj. facilis], adv., easily, 
without difficulty, readily. 

facilis, -e, adj., easy, without dif- 
ficulty, convenient. 

facilitas, -atis [stem of facilis + 
tas], f., easiness, ease \ aff'ability, 
courtesy, approachability. 

facinorosus, -a, -um [stem of fa- 
cinus + osus], adj., criminal, 
scoundrelly, vicious. 

facinus, -oris [cf. facio], n., a 
deed, act ; evil deed, misdeed, crim- 
inal conduct, crime. 

facio, -ere, feci, factus, 3. v. a. 
and n., make, fashion, construct ; 
do, act ; perform, commit ; choose, 
appoint, elect. Pass, fio, fieri, 
factus, be made, become ; happen, 
result, occur, certiorem face- 
re, to inform ; ludos facere, to 
celebrate games ; fidem facere, 
to gain credence ; satis facere, 
to satisfy ; reliquum facere, to 
leave. With ut and subjv., to 
cause, see to it that, bring it about 

factum, -I [p. p. neut. of facio], n., 
an act, deed, thing done, achieve- 
ment, fact. 

facultas, -atis [facul- (for facil-, 
from facilis) + tas], f., ease, facil- 
ity ; power, ability ; opportunity, 
chance, privilege. \_Facultates 

sunt aut quibus facilius fit aut 
sine quibus aliquid confici non 
potest. Cic. de hiventione, i, 41.] 

Faesulae, -arum, f. plur., Faesu- 
lae, an old town of Etruria, near 
modern Florence. Its present 
name is Fie sole. 

Faesulanus, -a, -um [stem of 
Faesulae + nus], adj., of Faesu- 
lae, Faesulan. 

falcarius, -a, -um [stem of falx 
+ arius], adj., belonging to a 
scythe, or sickle. M. as subst., a 
sickle-maker, scythe-maker, hard- 
ware dealer. 

Falcidius, -i, m., a Roman gen- 
tile name. C. Falcidius, a trib- 
une of the people. 

fallax, -acis [cf. fallo], adj., de- 
ceitful, deceptive, treacherous. 

fallo, -ere, fefelli, falsus, 3. v. a. 
and n., deceive, cheat, impose 
upon ; escape notice, disappoint. 
falsus, -a -um, p. p. as adj., 
deceived ; deceptive, false, feigned ; 

fals5 [adj. falsus], z.^v., falsely, un- 
truly, erroneously. 

falsus, -a, -um, p. p. of fallo. 

falx, -Icis, f, a pruning- knife, 
scythe, sickle. 

fama, -ae [cf. stem of for, speak^ 
{., a report, rumor, common talk, 
a story; reputation, fame, glorifi- 
\ fames, -is, f., hunger , famine . 
j familia, -ae [cf. famulus, a serv- 
i ant\, {., a collection of servants, 
a household of slaves, a gang of 
slaves ; a family ; family prop- 

familiaris, -e [familia + ris], adj., 
of the household, belonging to a 
family ; domestic, private ; fa- 
miliar, friendly. As subst. m., 
an intimate friend, companion. 

familiaritas, -atis [stem of fa- 
miliaris -I- tas], f., intimacy, fa- 
miliarity, friendly intercourse. 




familiariter [adj. familiaris], adv., 
intimately, familiarly. 

fanum, -i, n., a shrine, sanctuary. 

fas [stem of for, speak, + as], n., 
indecl., right (in the eyes of gods 
or conscience), permitted, al- 
lowed, proper ; divine law, jus- 

fascis, -is, m., a bundle. Plur., 
the fasces, a bundle of rods tied 
together in cylindrical form and 
borne before the higher magis- 

trates as a symbol of power. An 
axe was placed in the centre of 
the bundle when the magistrate 
went outside the city walls. 

fastidio, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itus, 4. 
V. dL., feel disgust, loathe, disdain, 
despise, take offense at. 

fatalis, -e [stem of fatum 4 alis], 
adj., fated, appointed by fate, des- 

fateor, -eri, fassus, 2. v. dep., 
confess, acknoivledge, admit. 

fatum, -1 [p. p. n., of for, speak'], 
n., an utterance ^ oracle ; des- 

tiny, fate, lot; ruin, death, de- 

fauces, -ium, plur. f., the gullet, 
throat, jaws ; a narrow defile, 

faveo, -ere, favl, fauturus, 2. v. 

a., favor, countenance, be well- 
disposed towards. 

Favonius, -i, m., the west wind. 
Name of a Roman gens. M. 
Favonius, a friend of Cato Uti- 
censis, called Cato's ape. 

fax, facis, f., a torch, firebrand; 
cause of kindling. 

faxint, old form for fecerint ; see 

febris, -is, f., a fever. 

Februarius, -a, -urn, adj., of Feb- 

felicitas, -atis [stem of felix + i 
+ tas], f., fertility; happiness, 
good luck, good fortune. 

feliciter [adj. felix], adv., happily, 
forttmately, successfully. 

felix, -icis, ^6!]., fruitful, fertile; 
happy, fortunate, successful. 

femina, -ae, f., a female, a woman. 

fera, -ae [ferus, wild], f., a ivild 

fere, adv. , almost, nearly ; generally, 
usually, commonly. With nega- 
tives, hardly, scarcely. 

Izxb, ferre, tuli, latus, irr. v. a. and 
n., bear, bring, carry; endure; 
suffer, tolerate ; report, say, tell ; 
with reflex., rush, proceed; of a 
bill, propose, bring forward. 
moleste ferre, to take ill, be an- 
noyed at ; sententiam ferre, to 
vote ; prae se ferre, to boast of, 
vaunt of. 

ferocitas, -atis [stem of ferox + i 

+ tas], f., fierceness, savageness, 

ferramentum, -1 [cf. ferrum + 

mentum], n., a tool (of iron), 

sword, weapon. 




ferreus, -a, -um [stem of ferrum 
+ eus], adj., of iron, iron ; iron 

ferrum, -I, n., iron ; a siuord, 
'iveapon. <. 

fertilis -e, z.^!]., fertile, fruitful. 

ferus, -a, -um, adj., 7vild, un- 
tamed, cruel, fierce. As subst., 
f , a wild beast. 

festlnatio, -onis [stem of festino 
+ tio], f., haste, hurry, despatch. 

festino, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a. 
and n., hasten, make haste, hurry. 

festus, -a, -um, adj., festive, fes- 

fictus, -a, -um, p. p. of fingo. 

fidelis, -e [stem of fides + lis], 
a.d]., faithful, trustivorthy, true. 

fides, -ei, f., trust, faith, confi- 
dence ; a promise, pledge ; credit, 
good faith ; protection, assurance. 

fidius, found only in phrase me 
dius fidius, sc. adiuvet, so help 
me heaven ! on my ivord I 

fido, -ere, fisus sum [cf. fides], 
3. V. n., trust, have confidence in. 

fiducia, -ae [cf. fidus], f., confi- 
dence, self-reliance ; overiveening 

fIdus, -a, -um [cf. fido], :i^]., faith- 
ful, trusty. 

flgo, -ere, flxl, fixus, 3. v. a., 
fasten, fix, bind, make fast. 

filia, -ae, f , a daughter. 

fllius, -1, m., a son. 

fingo, -ere, finxi, fictus, 3. v, a., 
mould, fashion, form ; contrive, 
invent, devise, imagitic. fictus, 
-a, -um, p. p. as adj., false, 
imaginary, pretended. 

finis, -is, m., a boundary, limit', 
end, termination, close. Plur., 
borders, territory, country. 

finitimus, -a, -um [cf. finis], adj., 
bordering on, adjacent to, near by, 
neighboring. Plur. as subst. m., 
neighbors. ^ 

fio, passive of facio. 

firmamentum, -i [stem of firmo 
+ mentum], n., a support, prop ; 
buhvark, buttress, stay. 

firmo, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. fir- 
mus], I. V. a., make strong, 
strengthen ; sustain, encourage. 

firmus, -a, -um, adj., strong, firm, 

Flaccus, -i, m., a Roman family 
name. /. L. Valerius Flaccus, 
consul with Marius, B. c. 100. 
2. L. Valerius Flaccus, praetor 
in 63. J. M . Fulvius Flaccus, 
consul in 125. 

flagitiose [adj. flagitiosus], adv., 
shamefully, disgracefully, out- 

flagitiosus, -a, -um [stem of flagi- 
tium + osus], adj., shameful, 
criminal, outrageous, disgraceful, 
infatnous, scandalous. 

flagitium, -i, n., a burning shame, 

disgraceful crime, outrage. 
flagito, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a., 

demand urgently, ask insistently, 

call for, ifnportune. 
flagro, -are, -avi, -aturus, i. v. 

n.,fiafne, burn, blaze, be on fire, 

glow, be consutJied by. 
flamen, -inis, m., a priest, flamen. 
flamma, -ae, f., a flame, fire, blaze. 
flecto, -ere, flexi, flexus, 3. v. a., 

bend, turn ; persuade, influence, 

fled, -ere, flevi, fletus, 2. v. a. and 

n., %veep, shed tears, lament. 

fletus, -lis [stem of fleo -f- tus], m., 
a zveeping, wailing, tearful wail, 

flexibilis, -e [stem of flexus, p. p. 
of flecto + bills], adj., pliant, 
flexible, easily bent, yielding. 

florens, -entis, pres, p. of floreo. 

floreo, -ere, -ui, — , 2. v. n., blos- 
som, bloom ; flourish, be prosper- 
ous, be distinguished, florens, 
-entis, pres. p. as adj., flourish- 
ing, prosperous, eminent. 




fldresco, -ere, florui, — [incep. of 

floreo], 3. V. n., begin to blossom, 
flourish ; grow famous. 

flos, floris, m., a blossom^ flower. 

fluctus, -us [cf. fluo], m., a flood, 
wave, surge, billow, tide. 

flumen, -inis [cf. fluo], n., a flow- 
ing stream, river ; flo%v, fluency. 

fluo, -ere, fluxi, fluxus, 3. v. n., 
flow, stream, run. 

focus, -i. m., a fireplace, hearth. 

foederatus, -a, -um [p. p. of foe- 
dero, a verb not used in other 
forms until later times], adj., 
confederate, allied. As subst., 
m. plur., allies. 

1. foedus, -a, -um, adj. ,/<?«/, loath- 
some, filthy, vile. 

2. foedus, -eris [cf. fidus], n., a 
league, treaty, compact, alliance. 

fons, -tis, m., a spring, source, 

foras [ace. plur. of fora, door\ adv., 
toward the doors, outdoors, out- 

fore, see sum. 

forensis, -e [stem of forum + en- 
sis], adj., of the Forum ; ordi- 
nary, public. 

forls [abl. plur. of fora, door\2A\., 
out of doors, outside, abroad. 

forma, -ae, m , form, figure, shape ; 
beauty of person, beauty ; kind, 
nature, manner. 

Formianum, -1, n., a villa at 
Formiae, the Formian villa of 

formido, -inis, f., fear, dread, ter- 

formldolosus, -a, -um [cf. formi- 
do], adj., formidable, dreadful, 
alarming, terrible. 

formdsus, -a, -um [forma + osus], 
^6^]., finely formed, beautiful. 

fors, fortis, f., chance. Abl. 
forte, as adv., by chance, per- 
chance, by accident, as it chanced ; 

forsitan [fors sit an], adv., per- 
haps, it may be, perchance. 

fortasse, ^As ., perhaps, possibly, it 
may be. 

forte, see fors. 

fortis, -e, adj., strong, staunch ; 
brave, courageous, bold, un- 
daunted, resolute. 

fortiter [stem of fortis + ter], adv., 
strongly, staunchly, bravely, 
courageously, boldly, resolutely. 

fortitude, -inis [stem of fortis + 
tudo], f., strength, staunchness, 
bravery, courage, boldness, reso- 
luteness, firjnness. 

fortuna, -ae [cf. fors], f., chance, 
fortune, good fortune. Plur., 
good fortunes, property, fortune. 
Personified, Fortune, the goddess 
of chance. 

fortunatus, -a, -um [p. p. of for- 
tuno, prosper^ adj., fortunate, 
blessed, happy. 

forum, -i, n., an open space, a mar- 
ket-place, a public square. Esp., 
the Forum, the centre of Rome's 
public life. See Introduction, 
^§ 41-53- 

Forum Aurelium, -1, n., a town 
in Etruria on the Aurelian Way. 

fragilis, -e [cf. frango], adj , break- 
able, brittle, fragile; delicate, 

fragilitas, -atis [stem of fragilis 
+ tas], f., brittleness, fragility, 

frango, -ere, fregi, fractus, 3. v. 
a., b reak^ ash in pieces, shatter, 
crush ; subdue, break down. 

frater, -tris, m., a brother. 

fraterne [adj. fraternus], adv., like 
a brother, fraternally. 

fraternus, -a, -um [frater + nus], 
adj., of a brother, fraternal. 

fraudatio, -onis [stem of fraudo 
+ tio], f., a cheating, deceit, 

fraus, fraudis, f., a cheating, deceit, 
wickedness, deceptiveness. 




freno, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. fre- 
num], I. V. a., bridle, curb. 

frenum, -1, n., a bridle, curb. 

frequens, -entis, adj., crowded, 
thronged, in great numbers, 
largely attended. 

frequentia, -ae [stem of frequens 
+ ia], {., a crowd, throng, great 
number, large attendance. 

frequento, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. fre- 
quens], I. V. a., attend in throtigs, 
crowd ; frequent, resort to. 

fretus, -a, -um, adj., relying upon, 
depending, confident of. 

frigus, -oris, n., cold, chilliness. 
Plur. , frosts, chill. 

fr5ns, -ntis, f., brow, forehead. 

fructuosus, -a, -um [stem of fruc- 
tus 4- osus], adj., fruitful, pro- 
ductive, advantageous. 

fructus, -us [cf. fruor], m., enjoy- 
ment, satisfaction ; fruition, 
frxiit ; produce, income ; result, 
return, profit. 

frumentarius, -a, -um [mod. stem 
of frumentum + arius], adj., of 
grain, of corn, res frumenta- 
ria, grain supply, provisions. 

frumentum, -i, n., corn, grain. 

fruor, -I, fructus sum, 3. v. dep. 
(middle voice), enj'ov, derive the 
benefit of. Used with an abla- 
tive of means. 

frustra, adv., in vain, to no pur- 
pose, tuithout effect. 

fuga, -ae, f., flight, " bolting." 
fugio, -ere, fugi, fugiturus, 3. v. 

n. and a., flee, escape; shun, 
avoid, escape the notice of. 

fugitivus, -a, -um [cf. fugio], adj., 
runaway. As subst., a runaiuay 

fulgeo, -ere, fulsi, — , 2. v. n., to 
gleam, flash, shine, glisten. 

fulmen, -inis [mod. stem fulgeo + 
men], n., a thunderbolt, flash of \ 
lightning. i 

Fulvius, -1, m , a Roman gentile 
name. /. M. Fulvius Flaccus, 
a supporter of the Gracchi, slain 
by the consul Opimius in 121 B. c. 
2. M. Fulvius Nobilior, con- 
queror of the Aetolians, in 1 89 b. c. 

fumus, -I, m., smoke. 

fundamentum, -I [stem of fundare 
+ mentum], n., a foundation, 

1. fundo, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. 

Q.., found, lay the foundations of. 

2. fundo, -ere, fudi, fusus, 3. v. 
a., pour; rout, scatter, put to 

fundus, -i, m., bottom ; a piece of 
land, estate, farm. 

fiinesto, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. 
funestus], i. v. a., pollute, defile, 

funestus, -a, -um [cf. funus], adj., 
deadly, fatal, causing death. 

fungor, -I, functus, 3. v. dep. 

(middle voice), perform, accom- 
plish, discharge. Used with an 
ablative of means. 

funus, -eris, n., a funeral, burial; 
a corpse, dead body. 

fiir, furis, m., a thief. 

Furfanius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. T. Furfanius was a man 
abused by Clodius. 

furia, -ae, f., madness, frenzy. 

furiosus, -a, -um [cf. furia -1- osus], 
adj., full of madness, furious, 

Furius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. P. Furius, a fellow-con- 
spirator with Catiline. 

furo, -ere, -ui, — , 3. v. n., rave, be 
mad ; rage, be furious. 

furor, -oris, m., madftess, fury, 
frenzy, rage. 

flirt im [cf. fur], adv., by stealth, 

furtum, -i [cf, fur], n., theft, rob- 




Gabinius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. /. A. Gabinitis, proposer 
of the law which placed Pompey 
in command against the pirates. 
He was consul in 58 B. c. 2. P. 
Gabinius Capita, praetor in 89 
B. C. J. P. Gabinius Cimber, one 
of the conspirators with Catiline. 

Gabinius, -a, -um, adj., of Gabin- 
ius, Gabinian. 

Gains, -i, m.,"'a praenomen. The 
abbreviation for this name is C, 
an older form than G. 

Gallia, -ae, f., Gaul. The name 
is used of two sections, (i) Gal- 
lia Transalpina or Ulterior, the 
country including what is now 
France, Belgium, part of Hol- 
land, the westeni Rhine country, 
and most of Switzerland. (2) 
Gallia Cisalpina or Citerior, a 
Roman province corresponding 
to Northern Italy. 

Gallicanus, -a, -um, adj., Gallic. 

Gallicus, -a, -um, adj., of the 
Gauls, Gallic, ager Gallicus, 
the Gallic Territory (along the 
Adriatic, and taken from the 
Gauls by the Romans). 

Gallinaceus, -a, -um [cf. gallina, 
hen\ adj., of hens ; gallus gal- 
linaceus, a poultry cock. 

1. Gallus, -i, m., a Gaul. 

2. Gallus, -i, m., a Roman family 

3. gallus, -1, m., a cock. 
ganeo, -onis, m., a profligate, 


gaudeo, -ere, gavisus sum, 2. v. 
semi-dep., rejoice, be glad, be de- 

gaudium, -1 [cf. gaudeo], n., re- 
joicing, gladness, delight, joy. 

gavisus, see gaudeo. 
gaza, -ae [a Persian word], f., 
treasure, riches. 

gelidus, -a, -um [gelu, f(7A/, + dus], 
adj . , cold, icy cold. 

gemitus, -lis [mod. stem of gemo 
-I- tus], m., a groan, outcry, 

gemo, -ere, -ui, — , 3. v. n., groan, 
cry out. 

gener, -eri, m., a son-in-law. 

gens, gentis, f., a race, clan, tribe, 
nation, people. ubinam gen- 
tium ? tvhere in the world? 

genus, -eris, n., a race, family, 
stock ; origin, birth ; rank, class, 
order, kind, sort. 

germanus, -a, -um, adj., (of broth- 
ers and sisters), full, own. As 
subst. m., full brother ; f., own 

gero, -ere, gessi, gestus, 3. v. a., 
carry, bear, ivear ; manage, con- 
duct, carry on, wage ; do, perform, 
accomplish, se gerere, conduct 
oneself, act ; res gestae, ex- 
ploits, deeds ; rem publicam 
gerere, to manage state matters ; 
negotium gerere, to tnanage 
business affairs. 

gestio, -ire, -ii (or -ivi), — ,4. v. n. 
and a., exult, rejoice, be delighted; 
yearn after, desire eagerly. 

gestus, -lis [cf. gesto, bear\ m., 
bearing, carriage, motion, ges- 

gigno, -ere, genui, genitus, 3. v. 
a., beget, produce, create. 

Glabrio, -onis, m., a Roman family 
name. M\ Glabrio, consul in 67 
B. c, and afterward the successor 
of Lucullus in the war against 

gladiator, -oris [cf. gladius], m., 
a gladiator, ruffian, cut-throat. 

gladiatorius, -a, -um [gladiator + 
ius], 2idi\., gladiatorial, of gladia- 

gladius, -i, m., a sword. 

Glaucia, -ae, m , a Roman family 
name. C. Servilius Glaucia, 
praetor in 100 B. c, was accused, 




together with L. Satuminus, of 
securing the death of C. Mem- 
mius, a political rival, and was 
declared an enemy of the state. 
He was slain by a mob. See note 
to p. 2, 1. 23. 

gldria, -ae, f, glory, fame, re- 

glorior, -ari, -atus [cf. gloria], 
I. V. dep., glory in, boast of. 

gloriose [adj. gloriosus], adv., with 
glory, gloriously ; boastfully, ex- 
ult ingly. 

gloriosus, -a, -um [gloria + osus], 
didi^]., famous, glorious; boastful, 

Gnaeus, -i, m., a Roman prae- 
nomen. Abbreviated Cn. Cf. 

gnavus, -a, -um, adj., active, busy, 

Gracchus, -1, m.. a Roman family 
name. /. Tiberius Sempronius 
Gracchus, tribune of the people 
in 133, and proposer of an agra- 
rian law by which the public 
lands were to be more equably 
distributed for the benefit of the 
people. He sought to be made 
tribune the following year, con- 
trary to the law, and was slain by 
a mob headed by P. Scipio Na- 
sica. 2. C. Sefnpronius Gracchus, 
brother of the preceding, tribune 
of the people in 123, and a gifted 
orator. . He was an able advocate 
of his brother's ideas and ini- 
tiated and carrfed through sev- 
eral important measures. He 
was killed in a riot in 121 B. c. 

gradus, -us, m., a step, walk, pace ; 
grade, rank, stage. 

Graecia, -ae, f., Greece. 
Graeculus, -i [stem of Graecus + 

lus], m., a petty Greek, puny 

Greek, Greeklitig. 
Graecus, -a, -um, adj., Grecian, 

Greek. As subst. plur., the 


grandis, -e, adj., full-grown, large, 

gratia, -ae, f., favor, regard, es- 
teem, friendship, gratitude ; pop- 
ularity, gratiam habere, to 
feel grateful or thankful ; gra- 
tias agere, to express thanks, to 
thank ; gratiam referre, to re- 
quite, to repay a favor ; gratia 
(abl.) with a genitive preceding, 
for the sake of. 

gratidsus, -a, -um [gratia + osus], 
adj., acceptable , agreeable ; popu- 

Grattius, -1, m., a Roman gentile 
name. The only one mentioned 
in this book is the accuser of 
Archias, otherwise unknown. 

gratuito, adv., gratuitously, with- 
out compensation ; wantonly. 

gratulatio, -onis [stem of gratulor 
+ tio], f., a congratulation, wish- 
ing of joy ; public thanksgiving, 
joyful festival. 

gratulor, -ari, -atus [cf. gratus], 
I. v. dep., be glad, rejoice ; con- 

gratus, -a, -um, adj., pleasing, 
acceptable, dear ; pleased, grate- 

gravis, -e. adj., heavy, weighty, 
dignified, important, eminent ; 
hard to bear, serious, grievous, 
harsh ; steadfastly moral. 

gravitas, -atis [stem of gravis + 
tas], f., heaviness, weight ; digni- 
ty, importance ; gravity, force of 

graviter [adj. gravis], adv., heavi- 
ly, weightily ; severely, deeply, 
grievously, seriously ; impressive- 
ly, with dignity, graviter ferre, 
to take to heart, be seriously an- 
noyed at. 

gravo, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. gra- 
vis], I. V. a., zveigh down, load, 
burden. Pass., be vexed, ijidig- 
nant, rnake difficulties. 

grex, gregis, m., a flock, herd) 
crowd, throng, ''''gang." 




gubernatio, -oriis [stem of guber- 
no + tio], f. , steering, piloting ; 
control, guidance, management. 

guberno, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a. 
and n., steer, pilot ; control, man- 
age, direct. 

gusto, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a., 
taste ; enjoy, sip. 


habeo, -ere, -ui, -itus, 2. v. a. 

and n., have, hold, keep ; possess, 
own ; regard, consider ; deliver, 
make, spem habere, entertain 
the hope ; contionem habere, 
hold an assembly, address a popu- 
lar gathering ; gratiam habere, 
be grateful. With the past par- 
ticiple of another verb, habeo 
has a force like that of the Eng- 
lish auxiliary have ; pecunias 
conlocatas habere, have money 

habito, -are, -avi, -atus [fre- 
quentative of habeo], i. v. a. and j 
n., dwell, live, abide, have one's 
abode, inhabit. 

habitus, -us [cf. habeo], m., con- 
dition, state, nature, endowment, 

haereo, -ere, haesi, haesurus, 2. 
V. n., stick, get caught, cling, hold 
fast ; be fastened ; be at a loss. 

haesito, -are, -avi, -atus [freq. 
of haereo], i. v. n., stick fast, be 
caught, hesitate 

Hannibal, -alis, m., a Carthagin- 
ian name. The most famous of 
the name was the commander of 
the Carthaginians against the 
Romans in the 2d Punic War. 

harena, -ae. See arena. 

haruspex, -icis, m., a soothsayer, 

baud, adv., not, not at all. It reg- 
ularly modifies a single word, 
not a clause. 

haurio, -ire, hausi, haustus, 4. 
v. a., drain, draw ; drink in, im- 
bibe, derive. 

hebesco, -ere, — ,— [stem of he- 
beo, be dull, 4- scoj, 3. v. x\.,grow 
dull, become blunt, lose edge. 

Heraclea, -ae, f., a Greek city in 

Heracliensis, -e, th^}., of Heraclea, 
Heraclean. Plur. m., as subst., 
the people of Heraclea. 

Hercules, -is [Greek 'H/jo/cAf/s], m., 
Hercules, the renowned hero di- 
vinity, son of Jupiter and Alc- 
mena. In the vocative as a mere 
exclamation, heavens ! verily I 

hereditas, -atis [lengthened stem 
of heres -f- tas], f., inheritance, 
heirship ; an inheritance. 

heres, -edis, m. and f., an heir 

Hermia, -ae, m., the name of one 
of Cicero's slaves. 

hesternus, -a, -um [cf. heri, yes- 
terday'], adj., of yesterday, yester- 
day's, hesterno die, yesterday. 
heus, interjec., here ! ho I see here I 
hiberno, -are, -avi, -aturus [cf. 
hibernus], i. v. r\., pass the win- 
ter, 7vinter. 

hibernus, -a, -um [cf. hiems], adj., 
of winter , ivinter (adj.). Neuter 
plural, hiberna, winter-quarters. 

1. hie, adv., here, in this place ; on 
this occasion, at this point. 

2. hie, haec, hoc, demonst. pron., 
this (near the speaker in space, 
time or interest) ; plur., these. 
In place of pers. pron,, he, she, 
it; plur., they. As correlative, 
hie . . . ille, the one . . . the 
other, the latter . . . the former. 
Referring to things just men- 
tioned, tJiis, these-, this fact, con- 
sideration, etc. Referring to 
what follows, the follo7ving, the 
following words, following con- 
siderations, as follows. hoc, 
abl., on this account, in this re- 
spect; h5c magis, all the more 
on this account. 

hicine [hic(e) + ne], adv., here. 




hiems (hiemps), -emis, f., winter. 

hinc, adv., hence, from this place, 
from this source, hinc . . . il- 
linc, on this side . . . on that, 
here . . , there. 

Hispania, -ae, f., Spain. There 
were two provinces in Spain, 
Hispania Citerior and Hispania 
Ulterior. These together were 
named by the plur. Hispaniae. 

Hispaniensis, -e, adj., of Spain., 

Hispanus, -a, -um, adj., Spanish. 

hodie [ho (hoc) -i- die], adv., to-day. 

hodiernus, -a, -um [hodie + er- 
nus], adj., of to-day^ to-day's ; 
hodierno die, to-day. 

Homerus, -i [Greek "OuTjpos], m.. 
Homer, the great epic poet of 

homo, -inis, m. and f., a human 
being, tnan ; sometimes in con- 
trast with vir it means fellow, 
person, creature. 

honestas. -atis [mod. stem of ho- 
nos + tas], f., honor, upright 
character, honorable station. 

honeste [adj. honestus], adv., hon- 
orably, with honor, decently. 

honesto, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. 
honestus], i. v. a., honor, adorn, 
lend distinction to, grace. 

honestus, -a, -um [honos + tus], 
adj., honored.^ respected; worthy., 

honor or honos, -oris, m., honor, 
repute ; post of honor, official dis- 
tinction, office, honoris causa, 1 
tvith due respect (a polite phrase | 
apologizing for the use of a per- j 
son's name in public). 

honorificus, -a, -um [honor and j 
facio], adj , honorable, in distift- j 
guished terms. \ 

h5ra, -ae, f., an hour, a twelfth of i 
the time between sunrise and i 
sunset. j 

Horatius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 1 
name. M. Horatius, victor in 

the combat between the three 
brothers Horatii and the three 
Curiatii. He slew his sister for 
mourning for one of the Curiatii. 

horreo, -ere, -ul, — , 2. v. n. and 

a., bristle ; shudder at, tremble at, 
horribiiis, -e [cf. horreo], adj., to 
be shuddered at ; terrible, dread- 
ful, frightful, horrible. 

hortatus, -us [stem of hortor + 
tus], m., admonition, exhortation, 

Hortensius, -i, m., a Roman gen- 
tile name. Q. Hortensius, the dis- 
tinguished orator, was about eight 
years older than Cicero. He was 
the foremost speaker in Rome 
until Cicero wrested the palm 
from him. 

hortor, -ari, -atus, i. v. dep., urge, 
excite, encourage, exhort. 

hortus, -i, m., a garden. 

hospes, -itis, m., a host; guest, 

stranger, visitor ; guest-friend. 

hospitium, -i [stem of hospes + 
ium], n., the relatiott of host or 
guest ; hospitality, friendly treat- 
ment ; friendship. 

hostilis, -e [stem of hostis + lis], 
adj., hostile, of the enemy. 

hostis, -is, m. and f., an enemy, 
public foe. Collectively, the en- 

hue, adv., hither, to this place, to 
this point. 

hiimanitas, -atis [stem of hu- 
manus + \.'<x.%\,i.,hu7nanity; kind- 
ness, sympathy, human feeling; 
refinement, cultivation, culture. 

humanus, -a, -um [cf. homo], adj., 
human, of man, civilized, re- 
fined, cultivated. 

humilis, -e [stem of humus + lis], 
adj., low, lowly, hufnble, poor ; 
base, mean, obscure. 

humus, -1, f., the ground, humi 
(loc), on the ground. 




~ia, suffix denoting quality. 

-ianus, suffix added to proper 
names to form adjectives, and 
meaning belonging to, 

iaceo, -ere, -ui, -itiirus, 2. v. n., 
lie, lie prostrate, lie dead; be 
struck down, overthrown. 

iacio, -ere, iecl, iactus, 3. v. a., 
throw, hurl, toss, cast ; bandy 
about; throw up, found, establish. 

iacto, -are, -avi, -atus [frequen- 
tative of iacio], I. V. a., toss about, 
hurl, cast, throw ; bandy about. 
se iactare, to display oneself, 
show off oneself y swagger about. 

iactura, -ae, f., a th-owing away, 
loss, damage ; sacrifice, lavish 
expenditure, wastefulness. 

iactus, -us, m., a thro%ving, cast- 
ing ; stroke, bolt (of lightning). 

iam, adv. , now, at last, already, by 
this time, just now. Of future 
time, presently, soon. With a 
negative, non iam, no longer ; 
numquam iam, never again. 
iam pridem, iam dudum, no7v 
for some time, long since ; iam 
vero, now furthermore, but, 
then too ; nunc iam, now at last. 

laniculum, -i [stem of Ianus, the 
god Janus, + culum], n., the Ja7ti- 
culutn Hill at Rome. 

ianua, -ae, f., a door ; gate. 

lanuarius, -a, -um [stem of ian- 
ua (?) + arius], adj., of January. 

ibi, adv., in that place, there ; there- 
upon, then. 

ic6, -ere, icl, ictus, 3. v. a,, strike ; 
of a treaty, make, strike, solem- 

-icus, suffix added to common 
nouns to form adjectives, and 
denoting belonging to, connected 

ictus, -ViS, m., a blotv, stroke. 

Id., abbreviation of Idiis. 

idcirco [id 4- circo (abl. of word 
seen in circum, circa, circiter)], 
adv., on that account, for that 
reason, therefore. 

idem, eadem, idem, demonst. 
pron., the same. Often best ren- 
dered by an English adverb, 
likeivise, as well, also. As subst., 
the satne man. unum atque 
idem sentire, to hold one and 
the same vietv. 

identidem [idem ante idem, or idem 
tum idem], adv., again and again, 

ideo [id -f abl. eo], adv., for this 
reason, on that account, therefore. 

-ides, suffix added to proper names 
to form patronymics. 

idoneus, -a, -um, adj., ft, suitable, 

adapted, convenient. 
-idus, suffix denoting state. 

idus, iduum, f. plur., the Ides, a 
day in the month, regularly the 
13th, but in March, May, July, 
and October, the 15th. 

igitur, conj., therefore, then, ac- 

ignarus, -a, -um [in (neg.) -f gna- 
rus], adj., ignorant, not knowing, 
unwitting, inexperienced. Used 
commonly with a dependent gen. 

ignavia, -ae [stem of ignavus 4- 
ia], f., laziness, shiftlessness, cow- 

Ignavus, -a, -um, adj., lazy, shift- 
less, cowardly. 

Ignis, -is, xa.,fire. 

ignominia, -ae [in + (g)noniin- + 
ia], f., lack of name, disgrace, 
dishonor ; a shameful defeat. 

ignoratio, -onis [stem of ignoro 
4- tio], f., ignorance. 

ignoro, -are, -avi, -atus [in fneg.) 
-t- (g) nosco], r. V. a., not to know, 
be ignorant of; be utiaware of. 

Ignosco, -ere, -novi, -notus [in 
(neg.?) -f- fg) nosco], 3. v. n. and 
a., overlook, pardon, forgive. 




ignotus, -a, -um [in + (g)notus], 
adj., unknown^ strange. Subst., 
a stranger. 

Ilias, -ados, f., the //tad of Homer. 

-ilis, suffix added to common noun 
stems to form adjectives, denot- 
ing connected with, belonging to. 

ille, ilia, illud, demonst. pron., 
that {pi something apart from the 
speaker or near one spoken of; 
cf. hie). Subst., that man, etc., 
he, she, it, they. Of what is well- 
known, the fatuous, well-knoion, 
renowned. hie . . . ille, this 
. . . that, the latter . . . the for- 
mer, the last mentioned . . . the 
first mentioned. Also such a, 
that sort of. 

illinc [illim, from that place + ce], 
adv., from that place, thence ; on 
that side, on one side. 

Illyricus, -a, -um, adj., of Illyria, 
Illyrian. The country Jllyria^m 
bordered on the eastern part of 
the Adriatic sea. 

imago, -inis, f., an image, likeness, 
effigy, statue, bust, portrait, men- 
tal picture, lifelike conception, 

imbecillitas, -atis [stem of im- 
becillus, weak, + tas], f., weak- 
ness, frailness, feebleness. 

imberbis, -e [in (neg.) + barba], 
adj., beardless, without a beard. 

imbuo, -ere, -bui, -biitus [cf. bi- 
bo], 3. V. a., wet, moisten, satu- 
rate, steep ; stain, infect ; imbue, 

imitatio, -onis [stem of imitor + 
tio], f., a likeness, imitation, 

imitator, -oris [stem of imitor + 
tor], m., an imitator, copyist, fol- 

imitor, -ari, -atus, i. v. dep., imi- 
tate, copy, follow. 

immanis, -e [in + O. Lat. manus, 
good, (?) ], adj., monstrous, fright- 
ful, wild, savage, brutal, inhu- 
man ; enormous, huge, immense. 

immanitas, -atis [stem of imma- 
nis + tas], f., monstrosity, enor- 
tnity, barbarity, ferocity, heinous- 
ness ; vastness, stupendous nattire. 

immaturus, -a, -um [in 4- matu- 
rus], adj., not ripe, unripe^ im- 
mature ; untimely, premature. 

immineo, -ere, — , — [in + mi- 
neo], 2. V. n., overhang; threat- 
en, menace ; impend. 

imminuo, -ere, -ui, -iitus [in + 
minuo], 3. v. a , lessen, diminish, 
impair, injure, weaken, belittle. 

immitto, -ere, -misi, -missus [in 
+ mitto], 3. V. a., send in, let in, 
let loose against, set on, 

imm5, adv., nay, nay more, nay 
rather, immo vero, nay even. 
The word is used to deny the 
sufficiency of a preceding state- 
ment or question, and to intro- 
duce one that is stronger. 

immoderatus, -a, -um [in + mod- 
eratus], adj., unrestrained, with- 
out control, violent, excessive. 

immortalis, -e [in + mortalis], 
adj., immortal, etertial, undying. 

immortalitas, -atis [in -f- stem of 
mortalis + tas], f., immortality. 

imparatus, -a, -um [in + paratus], 
adj., not ready, unprepared. 

impedimentum, -i [stem of im- 
pedio + mentum], n., a hin- 
drance, obstacle. Plur., baggage, 
heavy luggage, luggage train. 

impedio, -ire, -ivi, -itus [in + 
mod. stem of pes], 4. v. a., en- 
tangle, insnare, hinder, impede, 
obstruct, embarrass, impeditus, 
-a, -um, p. p. as adj., entangled, 
hafnpered, embarrassed, hindered, 
blocked, impeded. 

impello, -ere, -pull, -pulsus [in 
+ pello], 3. V. a., drive on, incite, 
instigate, urge on, force, impel. 

impended, -ere, — , — [in + pen- 
deo], 2. V. n., hang over, over- 
hang; threaten, impend, be im- 
minent, be at hand. 




imperator, -5ris [stem of impero 
+ tor], vs\. , a commander-ill-chief ^ 

imperatorius, -a, -um [imperator 
+ ius], adj., of a comfuander, be- 
longing to a general, befitting a 

imperltus, -a, -um [in + peritus], 
adj., unskilled, iiexperienced, un- 
acquainted with, unversed in. 

imperium, -I [c£. impero], n., com- 
mand, military command, su- 
preme power, supreme authority, 
control, supremacy, dominion, 
rule ; an order, command. 

impero, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a. 
and n., command, order, issue or- 
ders, enjoin ; demand, levy, re- 

impertio, -Ire, -Ivi (-ii), -itus [in + 
partio, share\ 4. v. a., share with, 
impart, bestow, assign, give. 

impetro, -are, -avI, -atus [in + 
patro, effeci\, i. v. a., accomplish 
one's end, gain one's tuish ; get, 
obtain, secure (one's way). 

impetus, -us, m., attack, onset, as- 
sault ; violent rush, ftiry, resist- 
less rush, onrush, violence, im- 

impietas, -atis [in + pietas], f., 
disloyalty, irreverence, impiety. 

impius, -a, -um [in + pius], adj., 
disloyal, irreverent, impious, 

impleo, -ere, -evi, -etus [in + 
*pleo,///J, 2. V. a.,///. 

implied, -are, -avi (-ui), -atus 
(-itus), 1. V. a., entangle, enfold, 
involve, bind up with, connect 
closely, associate. 

imploro, -are, -avI, -atus [in + 
ploro], I. V. a. and n., beseech, 
implore, entreat. 

impono, -ere, -posui, -positus [in 
+ pono], 3. V. a., place upon, put 
on, impose, fasten upon, thrust 

importiinus, -a, -um, adj., unsuit- 
able ; cruel, reckless, savage, un- 
relenting, inhuman. 

imprimis [in primis], adv., among 
the first ; especially, particularly. 

imprimo, -ere, -pressi, -pressus 

[in + premo], 3. v. z.., press into, 
press upon, stamp, impress. 

improbitas, -atis [stem of impro- 
bus + tas], f., wickedness, lack of 
principle, blameworthiness , de- 

improbo, -are, -avi, -atus [in + 
probo, make good\ I. v. a., dis- 
approve, censure, blatne, consider 

improbus, -a, -um [in + probus], 
adj., bad, ivicked, unprincipled, 
vile, shameless, rascally. 

improvidus, -a, -um [in + provi- 
dus], adj., improvident, unthink- 
ing, heedless, unforeseeing. 

impriidens, -entis [in + prudens], 
adj., not foreseeing, incautious, 
unsuspecting, unawares, off one s 

impiibes, -eris [in -l- pubes, adult"], 
adj., not of age ; beardless, a mere 
boy, immature. 

impudens, -entis [in + pudens, 
modest\ adj., without shame, 
shameless, impudent, bare-faced. 

impudenter [stem of impudens -f- 
ter], adv., shamelessly, impudent- 

impudentia, -ae [stem of impudens 
+ tia], f., shamelessness, impu- 

impudicus, -a, -um [in 4- pudicus, 
modest], adj., shameless, im?nodest, 

impiine [neut. of impunis, with- 
out punishment (poena)], adv., 
with impunity, without punish- 

impunitas, -atis [stem of impunis 
+ tas], i., freedotn fro7n puiHsh- 
ment, impunity. 




impunltus, -a, -um [in ■+- punitus], 
adj., unpunished, u?irestrained, 

impurus, -a, -um [in + purus], 
adj., not pure, impure, unclean, 
filthy ; vile, rascally, indecent, in- 

imus, -a, -um, superlative of in- 

1. in-, inseparable negative prefix 
of nouns and adjectives, not, tin-. 

2. in, prep, with ace. or abl. i. 
With the ace. of limit of motion, 
into, among, to. Of time rela- 
tions, to, till, for, into. Of other 
relations, among, against, to- 
ward; in respect to., in relation 
to, according to, respecting, in 
eandem sententiam, to the same 
purport; in bonam partem, in 
good part ; in singulos dies, 
every day. 2. With the abl. of 
place where, in, at, on, within, 
among. Figuratively, in the case 
of, in respect to, in relation to, in 
the matter of, in. in uno ho- 
mine, in the case ofotie man. In 
composition, in, toward, against, 
into, upon. 

inambulo, -are, — , — [in -f am- 
bulo, %valli\, I. V. n., walk up 
and down, walk to and fro. 

inanimus, -a, -um [in^(neg.) + ani- 
ma], adj., lifeless, inanimate. 

inanis, -e, adj., empty, void, unoc- 
cupied ; vain, idle, vapid, worth- 

inauditus, -a, -um [in + auditus], 
adj., unheard of, incredible. 

inauratus, -a, -um [p. p. of inauro, 
gild\ adj., gilded, plated with 

incendium, -i [cf. incendo], n., a 
burning, fire, confiagration. 

incendo, -ere, -cendl, -census, 
3. V. a., set fire to, kindle, burn ; 
excite, rouse, infiame, incense, in- 

incensio, -onis [cf. incendo], f., a 
setting fire to, kindling, burning. 

inceptum, -1 [p. p. neut. of inci- 
pioj, n., an undertaking, attempt. 

incertus, -a, -um [in -I- certus], 
adj., uncertain, doubtful, un- 
trustworthy, obscure. 

incestus, -a, -um [in + castus, 
pure\ adj., impure, unclean, im- 

incestus, us [in and cf. castus, 
fure^ m., unc hastily, incest. 

1. incido, -ere, -cidi, -casurus 
[in + cado], 3. v. x\.,fall upon or 
in, fall ; occur, happen ; happen 
upon, fall in with. 

2. incido, -ere, -cidi, -cisus [in -l- 
caedo], 3. v. a., cut into, cut, en- 
grave ; sever. 

incipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus [in + 
capio], 3. V. a. and n., begin, un- 
dertake, enter upon. 

incitamentum, -i [stem of incito + 
mentum], n., an incentive, in- 
ducement, stimulus. 

incito, -are, -avi, -atus [in -l- 
cito], I. V. a., set in motion, hur- 
ry on, quicken, spur on, incite, 
rouse, excite^ inspire. 

incline, -are, -avi, -atus [in + 
*clino, lean\, 1. v. a. and n., in- 
cline, bend, lean ; be inclined, be 

include, -ere, -cliisi, -cliisus [in + 
claudo], 3. V. a., shut in, shut up, 
enclose, include, incliisus, -a, 
-um, p. p. as adj., secret, hidden. 

incoho (inchoo), -are, -avi, -atus, 
I. V. a., begin, commence, essay. 

incolumis, -e, adj., unimpaired, 
uninjured, unharmed, safe, free 
from taint. 

incommodus, -a, -um [in + corn- 
modus], adj., inconvenient, un- 
fortunate. As subst. neut., in- 
commodum, -i, inconvenience, 
misfortune, disaster, reverse, de- 
feat, loss. 

inconsideratus, -a, -um [in 4- 
consideratus], adj., not considered, 
inconsiderate, thoughtless, heed- 




incorrupte [adj. incorruptus], 
adv., uncorruptly, justly. 

incorruptus, -a, -um [in -f cor- 
ruptus], adj., unspoiled, uncor- 
rupted, unbribed, not tampered 

increbresco, -ere, -crebrui, — [in 
+ crebresco], 3. v. n., quicken, 
grow, increase, grow frequent ; 
spread about. 

incredibilis, -e [in + credibilis], 
adj., unbelievable, incredible, ex- 
. traordinary, unparalleled, beyond 

increpo, -are, -crepul, -crepitCi- 
rus [in + crepo, make a noise\ 
I. V. n., make a noise, rattle, 
rustle, sound. 

incumbo, -ere, -cubui, -cubiturus 
[in + cu(m)bo, lie dozun'], 3. v. n., 
lean, support oneself, lie upon ; 
incline toward, bend one's ener- 
gies, set about vigorously. 

indago, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a., 
track cut, chase, trace, folloxv up, 
hunt for, trail, investigate. 

inde, adv., thence, from that place ; 
thence, from that time, thencefor- 

indemnatus, -a, -um [in + dam- 
natus], adj., itncondemned, with- 
out sentence. 

index, -icis, m. and f., one who in- 
fortns, an informer, witness. 

indicium, -i [cf. indico, -are], n., 
information, evidence, proof. 

1. indico, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. 

a., point out, give information, 
inform, make knoiun, disclose, be- 
tray, inform against. 

2. indico, -ere, -dixi, -dictus [in 

-f dico], 3. V. a., proclaim, declare 
publicly, appoint, order. 

indigeo, -ere, -ui, — , 2. v. n., 

need, be in 7vant of, require. 

indlgne [adj. indignus], adv., tin- 
worthily, shamefully ; undeserv- 

indlgnus, -a, -um [in + dignus], 
adj., unworthy, shameful; unde- 
served, j 

induco, -ere, -duxi, -ductus [in 

+ duco], 3. V. a., lead in, bring 
in, introduce, bring forward ; in- 
duce, impel, instigate, lead on. 

industria, -ae, f., diligence, indus- 

industrius, -a, -um, adj., diligent, 
industrious, actively busy. 

ineo, -ire, -ii, -itus [in + eo], irr. 
V. a., go into, enter upon, enter ; 
adopt, take up, begin, engage in, 
participate in. ineunte aetate, 
early youth ; ineunte vere, at 
the opening of spring. 

iners, -ertis [in + ars], adj., with- 
out skill ; shiftless, inactive, help- 
less, lifeless, cowardly. 

inertia, -ae [stem of iners -I- ia], f., 
unskilfulness ; shiftlessness, in- 
activity, helplessness, lifelessness, 

inexpiabilis, -e [in -I- stem of ex- 
pio, make amends + bilis], adj., 
inexpiable, not atoneable, irrecon- 

infamia, -ae [stem of infamis -»- 
ia], f., ill fame, ill repute, dis- 
honor, infamy, disgrace. 

infamis, -e [in + fama], adj., of ill 
fatne, dishonorable, infamous, dis- 

infelix, -Icis [in -l- felix],adj , un- 
fruitful\ ill- fated, unfortunate, 
unlucky, ill-starred ; wretched, 

inferior, comp. of inferus. 

infero, -ferre, -tuli. -latus [in + 
fero], irr. v. a., bring in, carry 
in. import, introduce ; bring 
against, inflict ; cause, occasion. 
bellum inferre, make zuar on. 

inferus, -a, -um, adj., below, low. 
ab inferis, from the dead. 
Comp. inferior ; superl. infimus 
or imus. 




infestus, -a, -um, adj., hostile, in- 

Infidelitas, -atis [stem of infidelis 
+ tas], f., unfaithfulness, infi- 
delity., faithlessness.^ treachery. 

infimus, superl. of inferus. 

inflnltus, -a, -um [in + finitus, 
limited\ adj., unbounded, un- 
limited, endless ; countless, num- 

inf irmitas, -atis [stem of infirmus 
+ tas], f., 7ueakness, feebleness ; 

inf irmo, -are, -avl, -atus [cf. in- 
firmus], I. V. a.., weaken, enfeeble, 

Infirmus, -a, -um [in 4- firmus], 
adj., weak, feeble, infirm ; in- 

infitiator, -oris [stem of infitior + 
tor], m., a denier', debtor (be- 
cause of his refusal to pay). 

infitior, -ari, -atus [cf. infitiae, 
denial\ i. v. dep., deny, disown. 

inflammd, -are, -avi, -atus [in -f- 
flammo, burri\, i. v. a., set on 
fire, kindle ; fire, infiame, infu- 
riate, rouse. 

inflo, -are, -avl, -atus [in +flo], i. 
V. a., blow upon, blow into ; in- 
spire ; elate, puff up. 

informo, -are, -avi, -atus [in + 
formo], I. V. a., shape, form, 
mold, train, instruct. 

infringe, -ere, -fregi, -fractus 
[in + frango], 3. v. a., break 
down, destroy. 

ingenium, -i [in + v^gen, beget {ci. 
gigno) + ium], n., inborn quali- 
ty, nature ; natural talent, gen- 
ius, intellectual ability, intellect. 

ingens, -entis [in + s/Q,-E.-^-,knou\ 
adj., (lit. unknown, uncouth), 
huge, vast, enormous, prodigious. 

ingenuus, -a, -um, adj., freebom. 
As subst., a freeman. 

ingratus, -a, -um [in 4- gratus], 
adj., ungrateful', unacceptable, 

ingravesco, -ere, — , — [in + 

gravesco, grow heazy\ 3. v. n., 
grow heavier, become burden- 
some, grow serious, grow worse. 

ingredior, -i, -gressus [in -l- gra- 
dior, step\ 3. v. dep., advance 
toward, enter, march into ; enter 
upon, proceed, undertake. 

inhaereo, -ere, -haesi, haesiirus 
[in + haereo], 2. v. n., cling fast 
to ; be fastened upon, stick to. 

inhio, -are, -avl, -atus [in + hio, 

open\, I. V. n. and a., gape at, 

open the mouth. 
inhiimanus, -a, -um [in + hu- 

manus], adj., inhuman, cruel, 

inhumatus, -a, -um [in + huma- 

tus, buried\ adj., unburied. 
inibi [in + ibi], adv., therein ; in 

that place, jtist there. 

inicio, -ere, -ieci, -iectus [in -f- 
iacio], 3. V. a., throw in, throw 
upon, cast in ; bring upon, im- 
press ; infuse, inspire ; occasion, 
inimicitia, -ae [stem of inimicus 
+ tia], f., enmity, hatred', cause 
of hatred, grudge. Only in the 
plural in Cicero's orations, 
inimicus, -a, -um [in + amicus], 
adj., unfriendly, hostile, inimical. 
As subst., an eneiny, personal foe, 
iniquitas, -atis [stem of iniquus-h 
i tas], f., inequality, unevenness ', 
! injustice, unfairness ; unfavora- 
\ ble character. 

\ iniquus, -a, -um [in + aequus], 
I adj., uneven ; unfair, unjust, 
\ unfavorable . 

j initio, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. ini- 
I tium], I. V. a., begin ; initiate, 
initium, -i [cf. ineo], n., a begin- 
ning, cofnmencement, initial act. 

iniiiria, -ae [in + ius + ia], f., in- 
justice, wrong, injury, outrage, 
abuse. iniiiria, abl. as adv.. 




unjustly, -wrongfully, undeserv- 
iniuriose [adj. iniuriosus, unjust\ 
adv., unjustly, outrageously, abu- 

iniussu [in + iussus], abl. case 
only, without the order ; used 
with a genitive. 

iniustus, -a, -um [in + iustus], 
adj., tinjust, severe, unfair. 

inlatus, -a, -um, p. p. of infero. 

inlecebra, -ae [cf. inlicio, entice\ 
i., an enticement, allurement; 
power to entice, seductive charm. 

inlucesco, -ere, -liixl, — [in + 

lucesco, incept, of luceo], 3. v. 

n., begin to shine upon, shine 

upon, dawn. 
inlustris, -e [cf. inlustro], adj., 

light, bright, brilliant, splendid; 

illustrious, famous, conspicuous. 

inliistro, -are, -avi, -atus [in + 
lustro, make bright^, i. v. a., 
make light, light up, illuminate, 
add lustre to ; bring to light, clear 
up, make clear. 

innocens, -entis [in + nocens (p. 
of noceo)], adj., har unless, guilt- 
less, blameless, innocent, uncor- 
rupted, free from guile, incor- 

innocentia, -ae [stem of innocens 
+ ia], f., blamelessness, guilt- 
lessness, innocence, incorruptibil- 

^ ity. 

innumerabilis, -e [in + numera- 
bilis, capable of number ing\ adj., 
countless, innumerable, beyond 

inopia, -ae [stem of inops, poor + 
ia], f., want, dearth, scarcity, 
privation, destitution. 

inquam, defect, v. used parenthet- 
ically in quotations ; say. See 
a grammar for forms. 

inrepo, -ere, -repsT, — [in + repo, 
creep\, 3. v. n., creep in, slip in, 
get in (stealthily). 

inretio, -Ire, -IvI, -Itus [in + rete, 
net), 4. V. a., enstiare, enmesh, 

inrlto, -are, -avI, -atus, i. v. a., 
incite, excite, provoke, arouse, ir- 

inrogo, -are, -avI, -atus [in + 
rogo], I. V. -Si., propose in opposi- 
tion, propose (a law, fine), inflict. 

inrumpo, -ere, -rupl, -ruptus [in 
+ rumpo], 3. V. a. and n., break 
in, burst in, break down, force a 
way in ; rush at. 

inruo, -ere, -rui, — [in + ruo], 3. 
V. n., rush in, invade, rush upon. 

inruptio, -onis [cf. inrumpo], f., a 
bursting in, breaking in ; an in- 
road, incursion, raid, invasion^ 

insania, -ae [stem of insanus + 
ia], f,, unsoundness of miftd, in- 
sanity, madness, frenzy ; mad 

insanio, -ire, -ivi (-ii), — [cf. in- 
sanus], 4. V. n., be of unsound 
mind, be mad, rave, be insane. 

insanus, -a, -um [in + sanus],adj., 
unsound in mind, insane, mad, 
crazy, senseless. 

inscitia, -ae [stem of inscitus, «^- 
norant, + ia], f., ignorance, a%vk- 
wardness, stupidity. 

inscribo, -ere, -scripsl, -scriptus 

[in -f scribo], 3. v. a., write upon, 

insepultus, -a, -um [in + p. p. of 
sepelio], adj., unburied. 

Insequor, -sequi, -secutus [in + 
sequor], 3. v. d.^,-^., follow after , 
follozv, pursue y hunt down ; strive 

inservid, -Ire, -IvI (-il), — [in + 
servio], 4. v. n., be serviceable, be 
submissive, be a slave to, serve, 
devote oneself to. 

Insided, -ere, -sedl, -sessus [in 4- 
sedeo], 2. v. n. and a., sit upon, 
settle upon, adhere, cling to ; be 




insidiae, -arum [cf. insideo], f. 
plur., a snare, ambush, trap, 
stratagem ; plot, treachery, treach- 
erous wiles. 

insidiator, -oris [stem of insidiae 
+ tor], m., a snarer, way layer, 
plotter, treacherous assailant, as- 

insidior, -ari, -atus [cf. insidiae], 
I. V. dep., lie in wait, wait in 
ambush for, plot against, assault 
treacherously, set a trap for. 

insidiose [adj., insidiosus], adv., 
cunningly, treacherously, with in- 
tent to trap. 

insidiosus, -a, -um [stem of insi- 
diae + osus],adj.,f«««/;7^, treach- 

insldo, -ere, -sedi, -sessus [in + 
sido, sit\ 3. V. n. and a., sit in, 
settle upon, sink in, be fixed in. 

inslgnis, -e [in + stem of signum], 
adj., marked, distinguished, con- 
spicuous. Insigne, -is, neut. as 
subst., a mark, distinction, decora- 
tion, emblem, token. 

insimulo, -are, -avi, -atus [in + 
simulo], I. V, a., charge, accuse. 

insolens, -entis [in -1- solens], adj., 
unwonted., unusual ; arrogant, 

insolenter [stem of insolens + ter], 
adv., unwontedly, unusually, in- 
sultingly, insolently, arrogantly. 

insolentia, -ae [stem of insolens 
4- ia], i.,unusualness ; insolence, 

insolitus, -a, -um [in -f- solitus], 
adj., unwonted, unaccustomed. 

inspect©, -are, — , — [in + spec- 
to], I. V. a. and n., look upon, 
look at (idly, or in pain). 

(insperans, -antis) [in 4- pres. p. of 
spero] z.^]., not hoping, unexpe cl- 
ing, contrary to expectation. 
Used only in dat. and abl. 

insperatus, -a, -um [in + p. p. of 
spero], adj., unhoped for, unex- 
pected, unlooked for. 

instituo, -ere, -ul, -utus [in + 
statuo], 3. V. a. and n., put in 
place, set in order, fix, set ; deter- 
mine, resolve ; undertake ; train, 
teach, instruct. 

institutura, -i [p. p. of instituo], 
n., a thing set up ; habit, practise, 
custom, institution, decree ; pur- 

insto, -are, -stiti, -staturus [in 
4- sto], I. V. n., he at hand, press 
on ; impend, threaten, menace. 

instrumentum, -i [mod. stem of 
instruo + mentum], n., an instru- 
ment ; furniture, equipment, stock 
in trade, working otUfit ; means 
of conducting. 

Instruo, -ere, -struxi, -structus 
[in + struo, heap up], 3. v. a., 
build ; arrange, draiv up ; equip. 

Insula, -ae, f., an island. 

insulto, -are, -avI, -atus [in + 
sal to], I. V. n., leap upon', leap, 
bound, spring ; scoff at, insult, 
abuse, taunt. 

Insum, -esse, -ful, -futurus [in -l- 
sum], irr. v, n., be in, exist in ; 
be inherent in, belong to. 

integer, -gra, -grum [in -|- root 
of tango + rus], adj., untouched, 
uninjured, unimpaired, intact, 
untampered with ; whole ; up- 
right, unsullied, unimpeachable. 

integre [adj. integer], adv., incor- 
ruptibly, honestly, with integrity. 

integritas, -atis [stem of integer 
+ tas], f., luholeness ; blameless- 
ness, honesty, integrity, upright- 

intellego, -ere, -lexl, -lectus [in- 
ter + lego], 3. v. a., learn, know, 
perceive, understand, obset ve, 

intendo, -ere, -tend!, -tentus [in 
+ tendo], 3. v. a. and n., stretch 
out, strain, aim ; intend, purpose. 

intento, -are, -avi, -atus [in + 
tento], i.,v. ^., strain, brandish, 
ci^rrK', threaten. 




inter, prep, with ace, betiueen, 
among ; wUhin (of time), inter 
se, withy to, at, against, from 
. . . each other or one another. 
In comp., between, among. 

Interamna, -ae, f., Inter atnna, a 
town in Umbria, about ninety 
miles from Rome. 

Interamnas, -atis [Interamna + 
tis], adj., of Interamna. 

intercede, -ere, -cessi, -cessurus 
[inter + cedo], 3. v. n., come be- 
tween, intervene ; of time, pass, 
occur, intervene ; oppose, veto. 

intercessio, -onis [cf. intercedo], 
f., a veto, intervention. 

interclud5, -ere, -clusi, -clusus 
[inter -I- claudo], 3. v. a., shut off, 
cut off, stop. 

interdum [inter dum], adv., for a 
time, sometimes, at times, occa- 

interea [inter ea], adv., mean- 
while, in the meantime. 

intereo, -Ire, -il, -itiirus [inter + 
eo], xxr.y.n., perish, die, go to ruin. 

interfector, -oris [cf. interficio], 
m., a slayer, murderer. 

interficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [in- 
ter + facio], 3. V. a., make away 
with, slay, kill, put to death, mur- 
der, destroy. 

interim, adv., meanwhile, in the 

interims, -ere, -emi, -emptus 
[inter + emo], 3. v. a., kill, slay, 
destroy, ruin. 

interior, -us, gen. -oris, adj. 
comp., inner, interior, farther 
in. The superl. is intimus, -a, 
-um, which see. 

interitus, -us [cf. intereo], m., 
ruin, destruction ; death, murder. 

intermortuus, -a, -um [inter + 
mortuus], adj., half dead, lifeless, 

internecid, -onis [cf. nex], f., 
slaughter, massacre, annihila- 
tion, extermination, destruction. 

internecivus, -a, -um, adj , de- 
structive, murderous, of anni- 

interpello, -are, -avi, -atus [inter 
+ pello], I. V. a,, interrupt, inter- 
fere with. 

interpono, -ere, -posui, -positus 
[inter + pono], 3. v. a., place in 
between, place among ; insert, in- 
terpose ; allege, assert, put in ; 
elapse ; tribus diebus inter- 
positis, after the lapse of three 

interrex, -regis [inter -f- rex], m., 
an interrex, a temporaiy chief 
magistrate, chosen by the patri- 
cian senators in case of a lack of 
consuls through death or the fail- 
ure of an election. This interrex 
held office for five days and then 
appointed a second interrex to 
succeed him. This second officer 
might hold the comitia for an elec- 
tion of consuls, or, if unable to 
do so, he appointed a third, and 
so on, until one of the five-day 
interreges succeeded in getting 
consuls. The last interrex was 
in 52 B. c. 

interrogo, -are, -avi, -atus [in- 
ter + rogo], I. V. a., question, 
ask, inquire, interrogate, 

intersum, -esse, -fui, -futiirus 
[inter + sum], irr. v. n., be be- 
tween, be among, be present ; as- 
sist, be involved in. In 3d pers. 
impers., it concerns, is of impor- 
tance, it interests, hoc interest, 
there is this difference ; mea in- 
terest, it concerns me. See gram- 
mar for constructions used with 
this impersonal verb. 

intervallum, -i [inter + vallus, a 
stake], n., the distance between 
stakes in a rampart ; interval, 
distance (space or time). 

interventus, -iis [cf. intervenio], 
m., a coming between, an inter- 
ruption, intervention. 

intestlnus, -a, -um [cf. intus + 
tinus], adj., internal, intestine. 




intimus, superl. of interior, adj., 
inmost^ deepest^ most secret ; inti- 

intra, adv., and prep, with ace, 
within, on the inside. 

introduce, -ere, -duxi, -ductus 
[Intro + duco], 3. v. a., lead in, 
bring in, introduce. 

intueor, -eri, -itus [in + tueor], 
2. V. dep., look upon, gaze upon ; 
contemplate, admire. 

intus, adv., within. 

inultus, -a, -urn [in + ultus], adj., 
unavenged ; unpunished. 

iniiro, -ere, -ussi, -iistus [in + 
uro], 3. V. a., burn in, burn, 

-inus, suffix added to nouns to 
form adjectives, and meaning be- 
longing to, connected with. 

iniisitatus, -a, -um [in + usitatus], 
adj., unwonted, unusual, not cus- 
tomary, rare. 

inutilis, -e [in + utilis], adj., not 
useful, unserviceable, useless, idle, 

invado, -ere, -vasi, -vasiirus [in 
+ vado, go\ 3. V. n., rush in, en- 
ter violently ; assail, fall upon, 

invenio, -ire, -venl, -ventus [in 
-I- venio], 4. v. a., come upon, 
find, light upon, discover, meet; 
invent, devise, originate. 

investlgo, -are, -avi, -atus [in -|- 
vestigo, track\ i. v. a. and n., 
trace out, track, find out, investi- 

inveterasco, -ere, -ravi, — [in + 
\t.\^X2&zo, grow old\ 3.V. rv.,grow 
old, become established; get a foot- 
hold, become ingrained, get deeply 

invictus, -a, -um [in + victus], 
adj., unconquered, invincible, un- 

invideo, -ere, -vidl, -visus [in -1- 
video], 2. v. n. and a, envy, 
grudge. With dat. of person and 

ace. of thing. Pass, impersonal, 
with person in the dat. 

invidia, -ae [stem of invidus + 
iaj, f., envy, jealousy; unpopu- 
larity, odium. 

invidiose [adj. invidiosus], adv., 
enviously, so as to create unpopu- 
larity or odium. 

invidiosus, -a, -um [stem of invi- 
dia + osus], adj., causing etivy, 
exciting odium or hatred or un- 
popularity, odious. 

invidus, -a, -um, adj., envious, 
Jealous, hateful, ill-disposed. 

invigilo, -are, -avi, -atus [in + 
vigilo], I. v. n., watch over, care 
for ; be devoted. 

invisus, -a, -um [p. p. of invideo], 
adj., hateful, odious, detested. 

invito, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a., 

invitus, -a, -um, adj., unwilling, 
reluctant. Often best translated 
as an adverb, unwillingly. 

ipse, -a, -um, pron. demonst., used 
for emphasis, self, himself, her- 
self, itself, tu ipse, you your- 
self ; very, just, precisely ; Ka- 
lendis v^sis, precisely on the first 
of the month. 

ira, -ae, f, anger, wrath, rage, 

iracundia, -ae [stem of iracundus 
+ ia], f., a disposition to anger, 
irascibility, anger, wrath. 

iracundus, -a, -um [ira + cundus], 
adj., irascible, passionate, wrath- 
ful, resentful. 

irascor, -i, -iratus [cf. ira], 3. v. 
dep., get angry, become irritated; 
be angry, iratus, -a, -um, p. p. 
as adj., angry, enraged, in wrath. 

irr-, see inr-. 

is, ea, id, pron. demonst., this, 
that; pi. these, those (unemphat- 
ic). Often used as a pers. pron., 
he, she, it, etc. in eo, in that 
matter, case ; id temporis, at that 
time. Often best rendered by 




the proper name for which it 

Isse, perf. inf. of eo. 

iste, -a, -ud, pron. demonst., that, 
pi. those, referring to that near 
the person addressed ; such ; that 
contemptible ; that fellow, that 

istic, adv., there (near you), on that 

ita, adv., so, in such a manner; 
thus, as follows ; to this effect. 

Italia, -ae, f., Italy. 

italicus, -a, -um, adj., Italian, of 

itaque, adv., and so, accordingly ; 

item, adv., in like manner, like- 
wise, so also, moreover. 

iter, itineris, n., a place of going, 
a road, way, route ; journey, 

iterum, adv., a second time, again. 

iubeo, -ere, iussi, iussus, 2. v. a., 
order, command, bid, urge. Used 
regularly with the ace. and inf. 

iiicunditas, -atis [stem of iucun- 
dus + tas], i., pleasantness, agree- 
ableness, charm. 

iucundus, -a, -um, adj., pleasant, 
agreeable, charming. 

iiidex, -icis, m. and f., a Judge, 
juryman, iudices, gentlemen of 
the jury. 

iudicialis, -e [stem of iudicium + 
alls], 2id]., judicial, of a court. 

iiidicium, -1 [stem of iudex + 
ium], n., a judgment, trial; de- 
cision, verdict, judg?7ient, opin- 
ion ; a court, panel of jurors ; 
judicial pozver. 

iGdico, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. iu- 
dex], I. V. a., judge, decide, give 
judgment, adjudge ; think, con- 
sider ; determine, resolve. 

iugulo, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. iugu- 
lum], I. V. a., cut the throat of, 
assassinate, murder. 

iugulum, -i [dimin. of iugum], n., 

a little yoke ; the collar bone, 
throat, neck. 

lugurtha, -ae, m., Jugurtha, a 
king of Numidia, defeated by 
Marius in 107 B. c. He was 
starved to death in the Roman 

liilius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. The most famous of the 
line was C. Julius Caesar. 

iungo, -ere, iunxi, iunctus, 3. v. 

a., join, unite, attach. With re- 
flex, pron., attach oneself to, unite 

luppiter, lovis, m., Jupiter, the 
supreme god of the Romans, 
identified with the Greek god 

iiiro, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. ius], i. 
V. n., swear, take oath, iuratus, 
-a, -um, p. p. as adj., sworn, on 

-ius, suffix added to nouns to form 
adjectives, and signifying belong- 
ing to, connected with. 

ius, iiiris, n., right, justice ; legal 
right, law. optimo iure, with 
perfect jttstice or right ; suo 
iure, with perf ect right. 

iiis iurandum, iiiris iiirandi, n., 
an oath. 

iussii, m., abl. sing, only, by order. 

iiiste [adj. iustus], adv., justly, 

iiistitia, -ae [stem of iustus +tia], 
f., justice, uprightness ; sense of 

iiistus, -a, -um [ius + tus], adj., 
just, right, lawful, upright ; rea- 

iuventiis, -iitis [cf.iuvenis,>v««^], 
f., youth ; the youth, young men. 

iuvo, -are, iuvi, iutus, i. v. a., 
help, assist, aid. 

-ivus, suffix appended to nouns to 
form adjectives, and signifying 
belonging to, connected with. 





Kal., abbreviation for Kalendae. 

Kalendae, -arum, f. plur,, the 
Calends, or first day of the month. 

Karthaginiensis, -e [stem of 
Karthago + ensis], adj., Cartha- 
ginian. M. plur. as subst., the 

Karthago, -inis, f., Carthage, an 
African city near the site of mod- 
em Tunis, and a great rival of 
Rome. It was destroyed by the 
Romans in 146 b. c. 

L., abbreviation for Lucius, 
labefacio, -ere, -feci, -factus 

[labo, totter, +facio], 3. v. a., 
cause to totter, shake, undermine. 
Pass., labeflo, -fieri, -factus. 

labefacto, -are, -avi, -atus [freq. 
of labefacio], i. v. a., cause to tot- 
ter, shake, undermine, overthrow, 

labes, -is [cf. labor], f., a fall ; dis- 
grace, shame, stain, spot ; ruin. 

Labienus, -i, m., a Roman family 
name. T. Alius Labienus, a le- 
gatus under Caesar, but ally of 
Pompey in the Civil War. 

labor, labi, lapsus, 3 v. dep., 
slide, glide, slip ; err, fall into 
error, mistake. 

labor, -oris, m., toil, effort, exer- 
tion, labor ; hardship. 

labdriosus, -a, -um [labor + osus], 
adj., toilsome, laborious, 7veari- 

labdro, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. la- 
bor], T. V. n., toil, take pains, la- 
bor, exert oneself ; suffer, be hard 

labrum, -i [for lavabrum (stem of 
lavo, rvash, -}-brum)], n., a tub, 

lacero, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a. 
mangle, tear, rend, lacerate. 

lacesso, -ere, -ivi, -Itus, 3. v. a., 
excite, provoke, irritate, challenge ; 

lacrima, -ae, f., a tear. 

lacrimo, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. la- 
crima], I. V. n. and a., shed tears, 
weep ; lament. 

lacteo, -ere, — , — [cf. lac, milk'], 
2. V. n., suck, lactens, -entis, 
pres. p., suckling, nursing, suck- 

lacus, -us, m., a lake. 

Laeca, -ae, m., a Roman family 
name. M. Laeca, a partisan of 

laedo, -ere, laesi, laesus, 3. v. a., 
wound, injure, harm. 

Laelius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. • C. Laelius Sapiens, a 
close friend of the Younger Afri- 
canus, was consul in 140 B. c. 
He was a cultivated patron of 

laetitia, -ae [stem of laetus -I- ia], 
i.,joy, gladness. 

laetor, -ari, -atus [cf. laetus], i. 
V. dep., rejoice, be glad, be joyful. 

laetus, -a, -um, 2^^]., joyful, glad. 

lamentatio, -onis [stem of lamen- 
tor 4- tio], f., lamentation, weep- 

lamentor, -ari, -atus [cf. lament- N 
um], I. V. dep., lament, bewail. ^ 

lamentum, -i, n., a lamentation, 

languesco, -ere, -gui, — , 3. v. n., 

become faint, grow listless, decline. 

languidus, -a, -um, adj., faint, 
listless, spiritless, languid, stupid, 
dozy, dull. 

lanista, -ae, m., a trainer (o{ glad- 

Lanuvinus, -a, -um [stem of La- 
nuvium 4- inus], adj., of Lanu- 
vium . 

Lanuvium, -i, n., a Latian town 
on the Appian Way twenty miles 
from Rome. 




lapis, -idis, m., a stone. 
laqueus, -i, m., a snare, noose, 

Lar, Lads, m., a household di- 
vinity, household god; home. 

largior, -iri, -itus [cf. largus, co- 
pious'], 4. V. dep., give freely, lavish 
upon, bestow upon. 

largitio, -onis [cf. largior], f., a 
giving freely, lavishness ; brib- 

largltor, -oris [stem of largior 4- 
tor], m., a free giver, a lavish 
giver ; a corruptor by bribery, 

late [adj. latus], adv., broadly, 

latebra, -ae [stem of lateo + bra], 
f., a hiding-place, lurking-place. 

lateo, -ere, -ul, — , 2. v. n., lie hid, 
lie concealed, lurk ; be unnoticed, 
escape notice. 

Latiaris, -e [stem of Latium + 
aris], adj., of Latium. 

Latlniensis, -e, adj., of Latium, 
Latin. Used as a Roman fami- 
ly name. Q. Caelius Latiniensis, 
a tribune of the plebs. 

Latinus, -a, -um [stem of Latium 
+ inus], adj., Latin. 

Latium, -1, n., Latium, the dis- 
trict of Italy in which Rome 
stood. See map of Italy. 

lator, -oris [cf. fero], m., a bringer, 
proposer (of a bill). 

latro, -onis, m., a freebooter, rob- 
ber, brigand, marauder ; pirate. 

latrocinium, -1 [cf. latrocinor], n., 
freebooting, brigandage, maraud- 
ing, robbery ; piracy. 

latrocinor, -ari, -atus, i. v. dep., 
be a freebooter, act as a brigand, 
plunder, rob. 

1. latus, -a, -um, adj., broad, 
wide, extensive. 

2. latus, -a, -um, p. p. of fero. 
latus, -eris, n., the side, flank. \ 

laudatio, -onis [stem of laudo + 
tio], f., a eulogy, funeral oration, 

laudo, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. laus], 
I. V. a., praise, cofumend, laud, 
extol, eulogize, approve. 

laus, laudis, f., praise, honor, 
glory, merit, renown, fa^ne, cred- 
it, distinction, praiseworthiness . 

lectulus, -i [stem of lectus + lus], 
m., a small couch, bed. 

lectus, -i, m., a couch, bed. 

lectus, -a, -um, p. p. of lego. 

legatio, -onis [stem of legare + 
tis], f., embassy, office of ambassa- 
dor ; an embassy, legation, com- 

legatus, -1 [p. p. of legale, as 
noun], m., an atnbassador, legate, 
lieutenant, staff-officer. 

legio, -onis [cf. legere], f., a col- 
lection (of soldiers), a legion, con- 
sisting of ten cohorts, in Cicero's 
time of about 360 men each. 

legitimus, -a, -um [stem of lex 4- 
(i)timus], adj., legal, lawful, le- 
gitimate, according to latv. 

lego, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a., /<? 

commission, despatch ; commis- 
sio7i as legatus, assign as legatus ; 
appoint on a staff. 
lego, -ere, legi, lectus [cf. Gr. 
\4yot)\ 3. V. a. and n., collect, 
choose, pick out; read, read of. 
lectus, -a, -um, p. p. as adj., 
choice, esteemed, selected, excellent. 

lenio, -ire, -ivl (-il), -itus [cf. len- 
is], 4. V. a., soften, soothe, as- 
suage, mitigate, alleviate. 

lenis, -e, adj., soft, gentle, mild, 
lenient, lax. 

lenitas, -atis [stem of lenis 4- tas], 
f., softness, gentleness, mildness, 

lend, -onis, m., a pander, low tool. 

Lentulus, -1, m., a Roman family 
name. i. P. Cornelius Lentulus 
Sura, consul 71 B.C. He was 




ejected from the senate for dis- 
graceful conduct, but was rein- 
stated through his election to the 
praetorship for 63 B. c. He was 
a leader in the Catilinarian con- 
spiracy, and was executed by or- 
der of Cicero. 2. Cn. Cornelius 
Lentulus Clodianus, consul 72 
B. c. J. L. Cornelius Lentulus, 
praetor in 89 B. c. 4. Cn. Cor- 
nelius Lentulus, a tribune of the 
plebs, who was appointed a lega- 
tus the year after his tribuneship. 
J". P. Cornelius Lentulus Spin- 
ther, consul 57 B. C, and a friend 
of Cicero. 

lentus, -a, -um [cf. lenis], adj., 
Jlexibley pliant ; slow, sluggish. 

-lentus, suffix appended to nouns 
to form adjectives, and signify- 
ing fulness. 

lepidus, -a, -um, adj., graceful, 
charming, pleasing. 

Lepidus, -i, m., a Roman family 
name. /. M\ Aemilius Lepidus, 
consul 66 B. c. 2. M. Aemilius 
Lepidus, consul 78 b. c, was 
killed in a contest with his col- 
league, Q. Catulus. 

levis, -e, adj., light (of weight) ; 
trivial, slight, of no consequence ; 
fickle, unstable. 

levitas, -atis [stem of levis -I- tas], 
f., lightness ; fickleness, instabil- 
ity, xuant of character, incon- 

leviter [adj. levis], adv., lightly, 
slightly, superl. levissime. ut 
levissime dicam, to say the 

levo, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. levis], 
I. V. a., lighten, lift; relieve, as- 
suage, lessen. 

lex, legis, f., a law enacted, law ; 

libellus, -i [mod. stem of liber + 
lus], m., a little book, patnphlet, 

libens, -entis [pres. p. of libet], 
adj., willing, glad-, often best 

rendered by our adv., willingly, 

libenter [adj. libensj, adv., will- 
ingly, gladly, with pleasure, 

liber, libera, liberum, adj., free^ 
unrestrained, unchecked. 

liber, libri, m., the bark (of a tree). 
The inner bark of trees was an- 
ciently used as a writing material ; 
hence the word came to mean 

liberalis, -e [liber + alls], adj., of 
freedom ; becoming to a freeman ; 
noble, dignified ; generous, liberal. 

liberalitas, -atis [stem of liberalis 

+ tas], f., generosity, liberality; 

liberaliter [stem of liberalis + 

ter], adv., generously, liberally ; 


Iiberati5, -onis [stem of libero -f- 
tio], f., a setting free, freeing, 
liberation, acquittal. 

! liberator, -oris [stem of libero + 
tor], m., a freer, deliverer, liber- 

libere [adj. liber], adv., freely, un- 
restrainedly, frankly. 

liberi, -orum [plur. of adj. liber], 
m. {free members of a family) ; 

libero, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. adj. 
liber], i. v. a., free, set free, de- 
liver, liberate, acquit. 

libertas, -atis [mod. stem of iTber 
+ tas], f , liberty, freedom, inde- 

libertinus, -i [stem of libertus 4- 
inus], adj. as subst. vcv., a f reed- 

libertinus, -a, -um [as above], 
adj., of a freedman* s condition. 

libertus, -i [mod. stem of liber -h 
tus], m , a freedman. 

libet, libere, libuit or libitum 
est, 2. V. impers., it pleases, is 




libidd, -inis, f., desire for pleasure^ 
passionate desire^ wantonness, 
lust, lawlessness. 

librarium, -i [stem of liber + ari- 
umj, n., a bookcase, portfolio. 

licentia, -ae [cf. licet], f., license, 
lack of restraint, lawlessness. 

licet, licere, licuit or licitum 
est, 2. V. impers., it is lawful, is 
allowed, is permitted. Often used 
with dat. of person and the inf. 
licet, although, though, is fol- 
lowed by the subjv. 

Licinius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. /. Aulus Licinius Arch- 
ias, a writer of poetry, defended 
in a lawsuit by Cicero, 2. Li- 
cinius, an obscure man who kept 
an eating-house. j>. L. licinius 
Murena, a legate with Sulla 
in Asia Minor. 4. L. Licinius 
Crassus, a distinguished orator 
born 140 B. c. 

lictor, -oris, m., a lictor, an at- 
tendant on a high magistrate, 
lignum, -1, n., wood, a log. 
limen, -inis, n., a threshold', door. 

lingua, -ae, f., the tongue ; speech, 

linter, lintris, f., a skiff, boat. 

linum, -I, n.,flax ; a thread, cord. 

liquefacio, -ere, -feci, -factus [cf. 

liqueo + facio], 3. v. a., liquefy, 

melt, dissolve. 
lis, litis, f., a suit at laiv, lawsuit; 


-lis, suffix of adjectives, denoting 
belonging to. 

littera, -ae, f., a letter oi the al- 
phabet. Plur., letters; a letter 
(epistle), a document; literature. 

litteratus, -a, -um [stem of littera 
+ tus], adj., educated, lettered, 

litterula, -ae [stem of littera + 
ula], f., a little letter, a note. 

litiira, -ae, f., an erasure, correc- 

loco, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. locus], 
I, V. z.., place, station, set; let on 
contract, contract for. 

Locrensis, -e [Locri + ensis], adj., 

of Locri. Plur. m., the people of 

Locri, a Greek city in southern 


i locuples, -etis, adj., rich, wealthy. 

locupleto, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. 
locuples], I. V. a., make rich, en- 

locus, -i, m., a place, spot, situa- 
tion ; opportunity, chance ; condi- 
tion, state ; matter, point. Plur. 
loca, n. ; loci, m. (rare). 

longe [adj. longus], adv., far off, 
at a distance, far away. 

longinquitas, -atis [stem of lon- 
ginquus -f- tas], f., distance, re- 

longinquus, -a, -um [cf. longus], 
adj . , rejnote, distant, far off ; last- 
ing, long-continued. 

longiusculus, -a, -um [comp, 
longius + cuius], adj., rather long, 
somewhat longer. 

longus, -a, -um, adj., long (space 
or time) ; distant, far; lasting, 
prolonged, tedious, protracted, 
drawn out. 

loquor, loqui, lociitus, 3. v. dep., 
speak, say, talk, tell. 

liiceo, -ere, liixi, — [cf. lux], 2. v. n., 

shine, beam ; be clear. 

Liicius, -1, m., a Roman prae- 
nomen, Lucius. 

liictuosus, -a, -um [stem of luctus 
+ osus], adj., full of grief, sor- 
rowful, 77ioiirnful, woeful. 

luctus, -lis [cf. lugeo], m,, grief, 
sorrow, afflicticn, distress. 

Liicullus, -i, m., a Roman family 
name. L. Licinius Lucullus, an 
able commander in the Mithra- 
datic war, superseded by the in- 
compent Glabrio. 

liicus, -i, a grove, sacred grove. 

liidus, -i, m., play, sport, game^ 
pastime ; place for exercise, school, 




training school. Plur., games, 
public festivals. 

lugeo, -ere, luxi, — , 2. v. a. and n., 
mourn, lament, deplore, bewail. 

lumen, -inis [cf. lux], n., a light, 
a house's light ; (of men) a dis- 
tinguished person, a shining light. 

Iu6, -ere, lui, — , 3. v. n., loose ; 
pay, suffer ; expiate, atone for. 

lupa, -ae, f., a she-wolf \ prostitute. 

lupinus, -a, -um [mod. stem of 
lupus, tvolf, -\- inus], adj., of a 

-lus, -la, -lum, suffix of diminutives. 

lustro, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a., 
light up, illumine ; survey, ob- 
serve, examine ; go about, wan- 
der, traverse ; (in religion )/'«n^. 

lutum, -i [cf. luo], n., mud, mire. 

lux, lucis [cf. luceo], f., light, light 
of day, daylight. 

luxuria, -ae, f., luxury, extrav- 
agance, luxurious living ; (for 
concrete) fast livers, 


M., abbreviation for Marcus. 

M'., abbreviation for Manius. 

Macedonia, -ae, f., Macedonia, 
in Cicero's time a province of 

machinator, -oris [stem of ma- 
chinor -f tor], m., a contriver, 
inventor, manager. 

machinor, -ari, -atus [cf. machina, 
contrivance^, I. v. dep., contrive, 
invent, devise ; plot. 

macto, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. mac- 
tus, honor ed\ I. v. a., honor, ex- 
tol ; slaughter, kill, sacrifice ; 

macula, -ae, f., a spot, stain, blot. 

macule, -are, -avi, -atus [macula], 
I. V. a., spot, stain, sully, pollute. 

madefacio, -ere, -feci, -factus 
[stem of madeo, be wet, + facio], 
3. V. a., wet, moisten, make wet. 

Maelius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. Sp. Maelius, a ricli ple- 
beian who bought corn for dis- 
tribution among the poor in the 
famine of 440 B. c, and thereby 
created the suspicion of seeking 
royal power. He was commanded 
to appear before the dictator 
Cincinnatus, and on refusing was 
slain by C. Servilius Ahala. 

maered, -ere, — , — , 2. v. a. and 
n., mourn, grieve, mourn for. 

maeror, -oris [cf. maestus], m., 
mourning, sorrow, grief, sad- 

maestitia, -ae [stem of maestus 4- 
ia], f., sorrow, sadness, grief , de- 

maestus, -a, -um, adj., sad, sor- 
rowful, gloomy. 

magis, adv., comp., more, rather. 
Superl. maxime. 

magister, -tri, m., a master, leader ^ 

magistratus, -us [cf. magister], 
m., magistracy ; a magistrate. 

magnanimus, -a, -um [magnus -I- 
animus], adj., great-souled, mag- 

magnifice [adj., magnificus], adv., 
grandly, magnificently, nobly, 

magnificentior, comp. of ma- 

magnificus, -a, -um [cf. magnus 
and facio], adj., splendid, grand, 
magnificent, glorious. Comp, 
magnificentior, -ius. Superl. 
magnificentissimus, -a, -um. 

magnitiido, -inis [stem of magnus 
+ tudo], f., greatness, vastness, 
magnitude, enormity. 

magno opere, abl. as adv., veiy 
much, greatly, particularly. 

magnus, -a, -um, adj., great, 
large, important, extensive ; pow- 
erful, influential \ with words of 
%o\ys\^, loud. Comp. maior, with 
or without natu, elder, older^ 




Plur. as subst., elders, ancestors. 

Superl. maximus, -a, -um. 
Magnus, -I, m., an honorary name, 

e. g., Cn. Pompeius Magnus. 
maior, -ius, comp. of magnus. 
Maius, -a, -um [Gr. Mora], adj., of 


male [adj. malusj, adv., badly, ill; 
hardly, scarcely. 

maledictum, -i [male dictum], n., 
an insult, abuse. 

maleficium, -i [stem of maleficus, 
wicked, 4- ium], n., an evil deed, 
misdeed, crime, wrong-doing. 

malleolus, -i [stem of malleus, 
ha?nmer, + Ius], m., a fire-dart, 
bomb, gi-enade (made of a stick 
with a ball of tow soaked in pitch 
on the end). 

maid, malle, malui, — [magis + 
volo], irr. v. a. and n., wish 
more, prefer^ choose rather. 

malus, -a, -um, adj., bad, ill, in- 
ferior, hartnful, wicked, evil. 
Comp. peior, -us; superl. pessi- 
mus, -a, -um. Malum, -I, n. as 
subst., an evil, mischief, harm, 
wrong, trouble. 

mancus, -a, -um, adj., maimed, 

mandatum, -i [p. p. n. of mando], 
n., a charge, trust, commission, 
instructions, mandate. 

mando, -are, -avi, -atus [manus 
+ do], I. V a., put into one's 
hand, commit, entrust, consign ; 
command, order, instruct. 

mane, adv., in the morning, early 
in the morning. 

maneo, -ere, mansl, mansurus, 
2. V. n., stay, remain, tarry, 
abide ; persist in, last. 

manicatus, -a, -um [stem of ma- 
nicae, long sleeves, -f- tus], adj., 
with long sleeves, long sleeved. 

manifesto [adj., manifestus], adv., 
clearly, palpably, evidently, openly. 

manifestus, -a, -um, adj., clear, 
palpable, evident, manifest. 

Manllius, -I, m., a Roman gentile 
name. C. Manilius, tribune of 
the plebs in 66 b. c, proposed the 
law placing Pompey in charge of 
the war against Mithradates. 

Manius, -i, m., a Roman prae- 

Manlianus, -a, -um [stem of Man- 
lius -f- anus], adj., of Manlius. 

Manlius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. C. Manlius, an old cen- 
turion of Sulla's, and commander 
of the forces of Catiline at 

mano, -are, -avi, — , i.y. n.,fiow, 

trickle ; spread, extend. 
mansuete [adj., mansuetus], adv., 

tamely, mildly, kindly, gently. 
mansuetudo, -inis [cf. mansuetus], 

f., lameness, mildness, kindness^ 

mansuetus, -a, -um [p. p. of man- 

suesco], adj., tame, mild, kind, 

manubiae, -arum, f. plur., booty, 

money from the sale of booty. 

A scholiast defines the word : 

manubiae sunt praeda imperato- 

ris pro portione de hostibus capta. 

Orelli, Schol. II, p. 199. 

manus, -us, f., the hand; violent 
action ; a band, company ; handi- 
work, handivriting. manu mit- 
tere, manumit, jree (of slaves). 

Marcellus, -1, m., a Roman family 
name. i. M.Claudius Marcellus, 
conqueror of Syracuse in 212 B. c. 
He was killed in a skirmish with 
Hannibal's forces in 208 B. c. 
2. M. Claudius Marcellus, consul 
in 51 B. c, an opponent of Caesar, 
finally pardoned by the dictator. 
See the introduction to the speech 
Pro Marcello. j>. M. Claudius 
Marcellus, an insignificant man 
mentioned in Cat. I, ^ 19. 4. C. 
Claudius Marcellus, consul in 49 
B. c, brother (?) of no. 2. 

Marcius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. C. Marcius, a knight. 




Marcus, -i, m., a Roman praeno- 

mare, -is, n,, the sea, a sea. 

maritimus, -a, -um [cf. mare], 
adj , of the sea, maritime, marine, 

maritus, -I, m., a hits band. 

Marius, -I, m., a Roman gentile 
name. C. Marius, a townsman 
of Cicero, was seven times con- 
sul. He defeated Jugurtha io6 
B. c. ; overwhelmed the Teutones 
near Aix in France 102 B. c, and 
the Cimbri near Vercellae in 
Italy in loi B. c. He was leader 
of the popular party against Sulla 
and the aristocrats in the terrible 
Civil War of 88-86 b. c. 

marmor, -oris, n., marble, block of 

Mars, Martis, m.. Mars, an early 
Italian god, identified later with 
the Greek "Apris as god of war ; 
the favor of the %var god ; strife, 

Martius, -a, -um [stem of Mars + 
ius], adj., of Mars ; of the i?ionth 
of March, of March. 

Massilia, -ae, f., Massilia (now 
Marseilles), a flourishing city of 
Greek origin on the Mediter- 
ranean coast of Gaul. 

Massiliensis, -e [stem of Massi- 
lia 4- ensis], adj., of Massilia. 
Plur. as subst. m., the people of 

mater, matris, f., a mother, mater 
familias (gen.), a matron. 

materia, -ae (or materies, -ei), f., 
timber, %vood ; substance, material. 

mature [adj. maturus], adv., sea- 
sonably, early, speedily. 

matiiritas, -atis [stem of maturus 
+ tas], f., ripeness, maturity, full 
growth, full force. 

mature, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. ma- 
turus], I. V. a. and n., make ripe, 
bring to maturity ; hasten, make 
haste, quicken. 


matiirus, -a, -um, adj., ripe, ma- 
ture ; early, speedy. 

matiitinus, -a, -um [cf. matuta, 
of the dawn], adj., of the morn- 
ing, early. 

maxime [adj. maximus], adv., in 
the highest degree, most ; espe- 
cially, exceedingly, very much. 

maximus, -a, -um, adj., superl. of 

Maximus, -1, m.. a Roman family 
name. Q.Fabius Maximus Cunc- 
tator, the shrewd general who by 
avoiding battle strengthened the 
Roman cause against Hannibal. 
He was five times consul, and 
once dictator. 

Medea, -ae [Gr. M^Scta], f., Medea, 
the daughter of King Aeetes of 
Colchis. She was a sorceress and 
assisted Jason to secure the gold- 
en fleece. She then fled with 
him to Greece, but was afterward 
deserted by him. 

medeor, -eri, — , 2. v. dep., heal, 
cure, remedy, restore. Used tran- 
sitively with ace, or intrans. with 

medicina, -ae [cf. medicus, physi- 
cian], f., the art of healing; a rem- 
edy, medicine, healing draught. 

mediocris, -e [stem of medius + 
cris], adj., middling, moderate; 
ordinary ; mean, inconsiderable, 

mediocriter [adj. medocris], adv., 
moderately, tolerably, in an ordi- 
nary degree ; slightly, somewhat. 

meditor, -ari, -atus, i. v. dep., 
reflect upon, consider, meditate ; 
plan, devise ; practise. 

medius, -a, -um, adj., in the mid- 
die, in the midst. Used regularly 
in agreement with a noun, not 
with a dependent genitive after 
the English fashion, e.g., media 
aestate, in the middle of the 

mehercule (mehercle) [tne Hercu- 
les (iuvet)], interj., Hercules help 




me! Heaven help me f good heav- 
ens! indeed! to be sun! 

melior, -ius, comp. of bonus. 

membrum, -i, n., a limb, member. 

memini, -isse, — , defect, v. a., 
remember y bear in mind, be mind- 
ful of . 

Memmius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. C. Mem?Tiius, tribune of 
the plebs 11 1 B. c, was slain by 
a mob instigated by Saturninus 
and Glaucia, 100 B. c. 

memor, -oris, adj., remembering, 

memoria, -ae [stem of memor + 
ia], f., memory, remembrance, 
recollection ; power to remember ; 
tradition ; evidence. 

memoriter [adj. memor], adv., 
from memory, by personal recol- 
lection ; accurately. 

-men, suffix of nouns, denoting 
action, means, instrument. 

mendacium, -i [stem of mendax, 
deceitful, + ium], n., falsehood, 

mendicitas, -atis [stem of men- 
dicus, needy, + tasj, f., beggary, 

mendicus, -a, -um, adj., beggarly, 
needy, indigent. 

mens, mentis, f., the mind, intel- 
lect, soul ; purpose, intention, 
design, thought, mente captus, 
beside himself. 

mensis, -is, f., a month. 

mentio, -onis, f., mention. 

mentior, -iri, -itus [of. mens], 4. v. 

dep., speak falsely, lie. 
-mentum, suffix added to verb stems 

to form nouns denoting means or 

place of action. 

mercator, -oris [stem of mercor, 
trade, + tor], m., « trader, dealer. 

mercennarius, -a, -um [cf. mer- 
ces], adj., hire, hireling, paid, 

merces, -edis [cf. merx], f., price, 
pay, hire, wages ; reward, reco7n- 

mereor, -eri, -itus, 2 v. dep., de- 
serve, merit, win ; serve. 

merito [abl. of meritum], adv., 


meritum, -i [p. p. of mereor], n., 
desert, merit, service ; kindness, 

merx, mercis, f., wares, goods, mer- 

Messala, -ae, m., a Roman family 
name. M. Valerius Messala, 
consul in 61 B. c. 

-met, intens. pron. enclitic, ap- 
pended to personal pronouns, 

Metellus, -i, a Roman family name. 
/. M. Metellus, an otherwise un- 
known associate of Catiline. 2. 
Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer, prae- 
tor in 63 B. c, consul in 60 B. c. 
J. Q. Caecilius Metellus Creticus, 
tribune of the plebs in 75 B. c, 
consul in 69 B. c. 4. Q. Caecilius 
Metellus Pius, consul in 80 B. c. 
with Sulla. J. Q. Caecilius Me- 
tellus Numidicus, consul in log 
B. c, conducted with marked 
success for two years the war 
against Jugurtha, receiving for 
this service the honorary name 

metuo, -ere, -ui, -utus [cf. metus], 
3. V. a. and n., fear, dread, be 

metus, -us, m., fear, dread, appre- 
hension, anxiety. 

meus, -a, -um, poss. pron., my, 
mine, my own. 

miles, -itis, m. and f., a soldier, 
common soldier. Collectively, 

miliens [mille 4- iens], adv., a thou- 
sand times. 

militaris, -e [stem of miles -f aris], 
adj., of a soldier, of war, military, 




militia, -ae [stem of miles + ia], 
f., military service^ service, war, 
active service in the field. 

mllle (indecl. in sing.), adj., a thou- 
sand. Plur. subst. n., milia, -ium. 

Milo, -onis [Gr. MtA.a>y], m., a 
family name of T. Annius. See 
introduction to the Pro Milone. 

minae, -arum, f., threats, menaces. 

minax, -acis, adj., threatening, 

minime [adj. minimus], adv., least, 
very little, in the smallest meas- 
ure, not at all. 

minimus, -a, -um, adj., superl. of 
parvus, smallest, least, very small. 

minitor, -ari, -atus [freq. of 

minor], I. v. dep., threaten, 

minor, -ari, -atus [cf. minae], i. 

V. dep., threaten, menace. 
minor, (-us) ; -oris, adj. comp of 

parvus, smaller, less, younger. 

Minucius, -i, m., a Roman gentile 
name. Only an obscure member 
of the gens is mentioned as one 
of Catiline's associates. 

minuo, -ere, -ui, -utus [cf. minus], 
3. V. a. and n , lessen, make small- 
er, weaken, diminish, belittle. 

minus, see minor. 

mirifice [adj. mirificus], adv., won- 
derfully, marvellously, prodigi- 

mirificus, -a, -um [minis and cf. 
facio], adj., wonderful, fnar- 

miror, -ari, -atus [cf. mirus], i. 
V. dep., wonder, marvel at, ad- 
mire, be surprised at. miratus, 
-a, -um, p. p., surprised. 

mirus, -a, -um, adj., wonderful, 
marvellous, surprising, strange. 

misceo, -ere, -cm, mixtus, 2. 
V. a., mix, mingle ; stir up, con- 
coct, mixtus, -a, -um, p. p. as 
adj., mixed, confused, motley, 

Misenum, -i [Gr. Mtcrrjj/civ], n., 
Misenum, a town and promon- 
tory near Cumae, at the entrance 
to the Bay of Naples. 

miser, -era, -erum, adj., wretched, 
miserable, pitiable , tcnhappy •,poor, 
zvorthless, vile. 

miserabilis, -e [stem of miseror + 
bills], adj., wretched, pitiable, 

misereo, -ere, -ui, -itus [cf. 
miser], usually misereor, -eri, 
2. V. a. and dep., pity, exhibit 
pity. Impers. miseret, with ace. 
of pers. feeling, one pities. 

miseria, -ae [stem of miser + ia], 
f., wretchedness, misery, distress. 

misericordia, -ae [stem of miseri- 
cors + ia], f., tender-heartedness , 
mercy, clemency, compassion, pity, 

misericors, -cordis [stem of miser 
+ cor], adj., tender-hearted, mer- 
ciful, compassionate, pitiful. 

miseror, -ari, -atus [cf. miser], i. 
V. dep., lament, bewail, complain 
of. miserandus, -a, -um, ge- 
rundive, to be pitied, pitiable. 

Mithradates, -is, m., Mithra- 
dates, a name of several kings of 
Pontus in Asia Minor. Esp., 
Mithradates VI, Eupator, called 
the Great. See introduction to 
the speech De Imperio Pompei. 

Mithradaticus, -a, -um, adj., of 
Mithradates, Mithradatic. 

mitis, -e, adj., soft, mild, gentle, 
kind, lenient. 

mittd, -ere, misi, missus, 3. v. a., 
cause to go, let go, send, despatch, 
discharge, manu mittere, free, 

mixtus, -a, -um, p. p. of misceo. 

moderate [adj. moderatus], adv., 
with self-control, with modera- 

moderatio, -onis [stem of moderor 
4- tio], f., a controlling, guidance , 
regulation ; self-control, modero' 




moderor, -ari, -atus, i. v, dep., 
keep within bounds, control, re- 
strain, regulate, moderatus, -a, 
-um, p. p., within bounds, self- 
controlled, well-balanced, re- 
strained. \ 

modestia, -ae [stem of modestus j 
+ ia], f., moderation, discretion, ' 

modestus, -a, -um, adj., self-con- 
trolled, well-balanced, discreet, 
law-abiding. I 

modo [abl. of modus], adv., only, \ 
merely, just, even ; just nozv, \ 
lately, recently, non modo . .'. | 
sed (or verum) etiam, not only ! 
. . . but also. I 

modus, -1, m., measure, manner, \ 
mode, way, fashion', proper meas- \ 
ure, limit, moderation, nullo 
modo, in no way ; eius modi, I 
of such sort. j 

moenia, -ium, n. plur., fortifica- | 
tions, walls, defences, ramparts, 1 
massive structures. 

moles, -is, f., a mass, pile, heap, 
weight, burden, massive struc- 

moleste [adj. molestus], adv., ruith 
trouble, with vexation, zuith an- 
noyance, moleste ferre, take 
ill, be vexed at, be annoyed. 

molestia, -ae [stem of molestus + 
ia], f., trouble, annoyance, vex- 

molestus, -a, -um [moles -I- tus], 
adj., troublesome, annoying, vex- 
ing, irritating. 

molior, -iri, -itus [cf. moles], 4. 

V. dep., exert oneself, struggle, 

toil; plan, contrive, plot; attempt, 

mollis, -e, adj., soft, tender, gentle, 

delicate ; weak, feeble. 

moned, -ere, -ui, -itus, 2. v. a., 

re?)iind, admonish, advise, warn, 

monitum, -i [p. p. of moneo], n., 
a reminder, warning, admonition. 

-monium, -a, suffix of verbal nouns 
and of nouns denoting office, con- 
dition, characteristic, etc. 

mons, montis, m., a mountain, 

monstrum, -i, n., an omen, portent, 
monster, prodigy, monstrosity. 

monumentum, -i [cf. moneo], n., 
a refninder, remembrance, me- 
morial, monument ; a record. 

mora, -ae, f., a delay, hesitation ; 
reason for delay, postponement. 

moratus, -a, -um [mos + atus], 
adj., regulated (in any way, good 
or bad, an adverb defining the 
meaning exactly). 

morbus, -i, m., sickness, illness, dis- 

morior, mori or -iri, mortuus, 3. 
V. dep., die, expire, mortuus, -a, 
-um, p. p. as adj., dead. 

moror, -ari, -atus [cf. mora], i. v. 
dep., delay, tarry, wait, linger ; 

mors, mortis, f., death ; a dead 

mortalis, -e [stem of mors + alis], 
adj., mortal, human. 

mortuus, -a, -um, p. p. of morior. 

mos, moris, m., habit, custom, 
usage ; a measure, institution. 
Plur. , customs, habits, morals ; 

motus, -a, -um, p. p. of moved. 

motus, -us [cf. moveo], m., a move- 
ment, motion, activity ; disturb- 
ance, commotion, revolt ; change, 
vicissitudes ; graceful movement. 
terrae motus, earthquake. 

moved, -ere, movi, motus, 2. v. 
a. , set in motion, move ; stir, dis- 
turb, dislodge, arouse ; change. 

mucro, -onis, m., a sharp point, a 
point of a srvord, edge, blade, a 

mulc5, -are, -avi, -atus, i, v. a., 
cudgel, maltreat, beat, handle 




muliebris, -e [mod. stem of mulier 
+ bris], adj., luomanly, effemi- 

mulier, -eris, f, a woman. 

muliercula, -ae [stem of mulier +- 
cula], f., a little woman ; a poor 
woman, helpless woman ; a dear 
little woman. 

mulleus, -1 (sc. calceus), m., a red 
shoe worn by senators. See note 
on Milo, § 28, calceos. 

multa, -ae, f., a fine. 

multitiido, -inis [stem of multus 
+ tudo], f., a great number, mul- 
titude, crowd, throng. 

multo [abl, of multus], adv., by 
much, much ; far, by far. 

multo, -are, -avi, -atus [cf. mul- 
ta], I. V. a.., punish. 

multum [ace. n. of multus], adv., 
much, greatly, far. 

multus, -a, -um, adj., much. Plur., 
many, numerous. As subst. m., 
many men, many people ; n., 
many things, considerations, etc. 
Comp. n. pliis, pluris ; superl. 
pliirimus, -a, -um. multo die, 
late in the day ; ad multam 
noctem, till late at night ; quam 
plurimi, as many as possible ; 
plurimum posse, to have great 
poxaer or influence. 

Mulvius, -i, m. of adj., Mulvian. 
Mulvius pons, the Mulvian 
bridge, about two miles out of 
Rome to the north. Now the 
Ponte Molle. 

mundus, -a, -um, adj., clean, neat, 

miiniceps, -cipis [stem of munus 
-h -^/CAP (of capio)], m. and f., 
{one rvho takes tip his dtities in a 
state), an inhabitant of a free 
town, citizen, burgher. 

municipium, -1 [stem of municeps 
+ ium], n., a free town, munici- 
pal toum, enjoying independent 
local government within the Ro- 
man sovereignty. 

munio, -ire, -ivi (-ii), -itus [cf. 
moenia], 4. v. a. and n., wall 
about, fortify, defend, protect ; 
make, build, construct (solidly). 
viam munire, to build a road. 

munitus, -a, -um [p. p. of munio], 
adj., well fortified, defended, safe. 

munus, -eris, n., a service, office, 
function, duty ; kindness, cour- 
tesy ; public show, spectacle ; pres- 

Murena, -ae, m., a Roman family 
name. L. Licinius Murena was 
left as propraetor by Sulla in 
Asia, but was recalled as incom- 

miirus, -i, m., a wall (of any sort). 

Musa, -ae, f., a muse, one of the 
nine muses. 

mutatio, -onis [stem of muto + 
tio], f., a change. 

miito, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. a., 
change, alter. 

miitue [adj. mutuus, mutual'\, adv., 

mutus, -a, -um, adj., dumb, silent, 
mute, speechless. 

Mytilenaeus, -a, -um, adj., of 
Mytilene, a city on the island of 
Lesbos in the Aegean Sea. 


nam, conj., for, now, explanatory 
and causal. 

nanciscor, -i, nactus or nanctus, 
3. v. dep., find, get, obtain, secure, 
light upon, chance to find. The 
idea of effort is not present. 

narratio, -onis [stem of narro + 
tio], f., a narration. 

nascor, -i, natus, 3. v. dep., be 
born, spring up, arise, come into 

Nasica, -ae, m., a Roman family 
name. P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica 
Serapio, consul in 138 B. c, led a 
mob which put to death Ti.Cirac- 




natio, -onis, f, a race, nation^ tribe. 

natura, -ae [stem of natu + ra 
(fem. of rus)], f., birth; nature^ 
natural character, disposition. 

(natus, -us), m., only abl. sing., 

naufragium, -i [stem of naufragus 
H- ium], n., a shipwreck, ruin. 

naufragus, -a, -um [cf. navis and 
frango],adj., shipwrecked, ruined. 
As subst. m., a ruined or ship- 
wrecked man. 

nauta, -ae, xs\.,a sailor. 

nauticus, -a, -um [stem of nauta 
+ cus], adj., of a sailor, of sail- 
ors, nautical. 

navalis, -e [mod. stem of navis + 
alis], adj., of ships, naval. 

navicularius, -i [stem of navicula, 
boat, \ anus], m., a shipmaster, 

navigatio, -onis [stem of navigo 
+ tio], f., a sailing, voyage, sea- 
trip ; navigation. 

navigo, -are, -avi, -atus, i. v. n., 
sail, cruise, navigate. 

navis, -is, f., a ship, vessel, craft. 

ne, adv., surely, verily^ really, in- 

ne, conj., lest, that . . . not. After 
expressions of fear, lest, that. As 
adv., not: ne .