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Fourth Volume 


Writ by a 


Who liv*d Five and Forty Years 
undifcover*d at 


Giving an impartial A c c o u N T to the Dhan 
at Conftantimpk of the moft remarkable Tranf- 
aftions of Europe : And difcovering fcveral I/j- 
trigucs and Secrets of the Chr'ijiian Courts ( efpe- 
cially of that of France) continued from the Year 
1649, to the Year 1682. 

Written Originally in Arabick. Titjl Tranjlatedinto 
Italian, afterivardi French, and now int» Englifli. 

The Eleventh Edition. 


Printed for G. Straban, S. Ballard, J . Brothrton, 
W. Mead^nvs, 7. Cck, fT. HincbUffe; J. Stag, J. Clarke, 
in Duck-Lane, S. Birt, D. Br(nvre, T. Aftley, S. Aujien, 
y. Shuckbun-b, L. Gilliver, J. Hodges, E. IVkkfteeJ, 
J. Ofnvald, '7. Comynt, C. Batburji, T. Fifocr, J. Carter, 
and A. miJt. M.D.CC.XLI. 





\ '■; 

T O T H E 


EXPECT no more Commen- 
dations of our Arabian Author ; 
or Apologies for any Thing that 
may feem Hable to Cenfure in his LeU 
ters. There is no End of anfwering the 
Cavils of thofe, who, to gain the Cha- 
rafler of Criticks, will create Faults where 
they find none •, and impute the very 
Overftgks of the Prefs to the Ignoranct 
of the Author^ rather than a Bcok Hiall 
cfcape free from Cenfure. 

What is wanting in the Style, where 
it may be fuppos'd to come ilhort of the 
Original, mull be laid to the Italian^^ 
Charge, who undertook the firjl Verfton 
of fo remote a Language. For the En^ 
glifh 'Tranjiaior has endeavour'd to fol- 
low him as clofs as the Difference of 
Idioms will admit. And all the World 
knows, that the Englijh Tongue is none 
A 3 of 


To tbe Re AD E 'R, 

of the moft Copious and Significant. 
But, if this fliall feem an invidious Re- 
fiecflion, fubftituted in the Room of a 
paffable E^cufe ; the EngWJh Traiijlator, 
in Honour both of the Foreign Copies^ 
and his own Native Language ( for he 
is a true Englijhman both by Blood and 
AffeUlon) is vvilhng to take the Blame of 
all Defefts on himfelf Afiuripg you, 
That v/hatfoever Roughnefs, or Wane 
-cf Elegance -, whatfoever Carelefnefs of 
^,xprefiion is to be found in the EngliJJj 
Traiijlaliofi, tho* it may be a Fault in- 
deed, yet 'tis purely owing to the Can- 
dor of him who has committed it : Since 
the chief Reafon of fuch Negleft is, be- 
caufe he was loth the Reader fhould lofe 
the Original Senfe, for the Sake of a 
fwcet Period, or a delicate Cadence. 

If in other Places he feems affcded, 
as in retaining the 'TurkiJJj and Arahick 
Words, where they might as well have 
been render'd Englijh ; this alfo was out 
of Refpe6l to his Copy^ where thofe 
Words are left as, we may fuppofe, 
they were found in the Original Jrahick. 

This is addrefs*d to fuch Gentleinen as 
have procured the Italian Copies of thele 
Letters. For we are informed, that they 
are in the Hands of feme Esglijh Tra- 


To tbeV^EADE R .' 

vellers, who had a Curiofity to compare 
the different Tranjlations together. 

However to evidence, that this is not 
fpoken in Partiality to ourfelves, but with 
equal Regard to that Learned Foreigner, 
who firft brought thefe Letterslo Light; 
it will not be amifs to exhibit fuch pro- 
bable Reafons, as might induce him to 
leave fome Arabick Words untranflated 
rather than ethers^ tho' they had both 
the fame Senfe. 

The beft Method of clearing up this 
Point, will be by producing Inftances, 
fuch as that. Page 53, at the Bottom ; 
where tlie Word [Vizirs] is retained by 
the Englijh Tra?iflator, becaufe it was noc 
changed by the Italian. Doubtlefs it had 
been as eafy to fay [Tlje feven Chief Spi- 
rits, Angels, Chancellors or Alini/iers a- 
bove] as [The /even Fizirs."] But finceihe 
Italian Copy has not altered the Word 
[Fizirs] zht EngliJbTran/lator thought fit 
to let it ftand. And he conceives, 'tis 
proper enough in both Verfwns •, becaufc 
it better expreffes the Thought of the 
Turkijh Author, than any Italian or En- 
glijh Word can do, being a Title o^ Dig- 
nity peculiar to the Ottoman Empire: 
Where the Credulous People are made 
to believe, that their Monarchy, with all 
A 4 its 

- To the TLt: AT> 'E Sk» 

its Officers of State^ is exadly modelled 
according to the Pattern of the Celejlial 
Court and Kuigdotn. Therefore it ap- 
pears very natural in a Jtirk, to call the 
Minijlers of Heaven by the Title of Ki- 
^irs^ Beglerbegs, Bajfa*s, or whatfoever 
other Appellatives are ufed by them, to 
exprefs the Dignity of their Grandees on 
Earth. And who would go to fpoil his 
S-^nfe for the Sake of a Word? 

B-^fidcs, not to let this Paflage flUI 
without due Remarks, is it not common 
in our BibU to call God [Lord of Lords?] 
And how can this be otherwife exprefled 
in Arahick, but by the Title which is ap- 
propriated to the principal Governors of 
Provinces^ whom in their Language they 
call Beglerhegs ? It is equally ufual in 
Scripturey to ftylc God [King of Kings'] a 
Title frequently aflumed by the Eaflern 
Monarchs, Nay, in our common Dif- 
courfe here in England^ it is cuftomary 
to give to God the Title of [The King of 
Heaven.] And why may we not as well 
give to the Arch- Angels^ and A^igels, &c. 
the Titles which are ordinarily apply'd to 
the Princes and Nobles on Earth ? But 
however, if this will not appear allow- 
able in a Chrijlian^ yet no Man can won - 
der at the Turk, when he hears him ufe 


To /^^ R ii A D E R. 

his native Dialed, fpeaking of the Po- 
tentates Abcroe, And if this be granted, 
I hope neither the Italian will he blamed 
for preferving the peculiar Phrafe of an 
E'aflern Author, nor the EngliJJj T^ran- 
Jlator be accus'd, for following fo polite 
a Pattern. 

This Inftance had not been prefs'd 
lb far, but in hopes that what is already 
faid may lerve as a Plea for feveral other 
Examples of like Nature in this Volume : 
Where it is impoffible for any European 
to exprefs the full Meaning of an OW- 
ental Author^ without referving fome 
Words of his very "Language . And, in 
this, the Italian 'tranjlator is chiefly vin- 
dicated ; from whofe Copy, the Englijh 
in fuch Cafes had no Reafon to fwerve. 
And thus much may fuffice to anfwer all 
Objedioris about the Style, 

As to the Matter itfelf, it appears full 
of Jnftrudlion, in Hijforical, Moral, and 
Political Affairs. Nor need any Man 
wonder, if he encounter fome Paffages 
whic!^, may be found in other Writers, 
both Gentile and Chriftian •, fince the Au- 
thor of thefe Letters profefles. That he 
has taken much Pains to perufe the Treo' 
tifes of the Ancients, both whilft he ftu- 
dy'd in the Academies, and during his 
A 5 Refidence 

To tke Reader. 

Rcfidence at Par'is^ he often frequented 
the Libraries in that City, whereof there 
is no Scarcity. He fpent a great deal 
of Time in reading modern as well as an- 
cient Authors : By which means, he not 
only improv'd his Knowledge in the uni- 
verfal Hijlory oi former Times^ but grew 
familiar with the moft remarkable Oc- 
currences in Europe^ during thefe later 
Centuries. So that, in fome of his Letters^ 
one would fwear he had read Sabellius^ 
Petrus Juflinianus, Philip de Comines, 
and other European IFrtters : For he 
feems to come very near them, in rela- 
ting {ome particular Stories. And it may 
be fuppos'd that he took this Advantage 
to oblige the Turkijh Grandees to whom 
he writ, by inferting in his Letters fuch 
Paflages as they were wholly Strangers 

There need no more be faid, but that 
you may expefl another Volume of thefe 
Letters vtvy fpeedily. Farewell, 





Letters and Matters con- 
tained in this Volume. 



MAhmut the Arahian, and indefatiga- 
ble Slave to the Grand Seignior, to 
Mahomet, the moft illullrious f^izir 
Azem at the Por/e. Pag. i 

He congratulates his AJfumption to the chief Vizi- 
rate : Remonjirances his civa Grie-vances i and 
craves his ProteSion, 

II. To the Kaimacham. 5 

Of the Neiu Troubles in Paris, and of EliachimV 

being feized-i ivhich forced Mahmut to abfcond 

from bis Lodgings. 

Ad III. To 


III. To Nathan Ben Saddi, a yeiv at Vienna. 8 
He acquaints him 'with the fame News ; and forbids 

any Difpatches till farther Order. 

IV. To Adonai a Jenu at Venice. 9 
On the fame SuhjeSI : and of an Attempt to rob the 

Treafury of Venice. A Relation o/"Tiepoli'j 
Conf piracy, 

V. To Mahummed, Hodgia^ Dervife, Eremite^ 
Inhabitant of the Prophetick Cave in Arabia 
the Happy. 1 2 

Of the Ceutempt t&* Franks fbenv to the Beafts : 
Sefveral nfmarkahle Infiances of the Tendernefs 
•which the Ancitnis JheiJued to the Dumb Crea- 

Vr. To the Kaimacham. 20 

Of his Return to his former Lodgings. The true 
Reafon o/^Eliachim*^ being feix^d. 

VII. To Nathan Ben Saddi, a ^^wat Vienna. 

He informs him of the fame Matter ^ and relates 
the Entertainment he found at his Return ; bis 
Hofiefs being nen.vly de liver'' d of a Son, 

YIII. To Adonai, ^.fenuzxVenice. 25 

Of a Marble Statue, 'with a m/fierious Infer ipt ion 
on it. 

IX. To the Reis Effendi, chief Secretary of the 
Ottoman Empire. 27 

Of a Peace concluded betwueen the French Court an/ 
the Parliament of Paris. A Defcription of the 
King'j Houfe a/;^ Gardens at Ruel. 

X. To Dgnet OgloM, 29 


The T A B L E. 

Of the Death of Egri Boinou. Of the Eajiern 
Jealoujy. A memorable Example of Seleucus'/ 

XI. To the Captain Baja. 33 
He informs him of a League lubicb the CoiTacks, 

Circaflians, Mingrelians, and other Nations 
ivere engaged in againjl the Porte. Ihe differ- 
ent CharaSer of thole People. Some Remarks 
en the Life of Ilhmael Sophi. 

XII. To Cara Hali, Fhyjician to the Grand Seig- 
nior. .37 

He congratulates his new Honour, and ad-vifes him 
to be cautious of the Vizir Azem. 

XIII» To Chiurgi Muhammet, Baffa. 40 

He acquaints him ivith the Flight of Mahomet, the 

Son of the Dey 0/^ Tunis j and his Converfion ts 

the Chriilian Religion. 

XIV. To Sale Tircheni Emin, Superintendant of 
the Royal Arfenal at Conjlantinople. 45 

Of the fVars in the Black-Sea j the Hifory ^Pa- 
chicour the Circaflian Pjrate, 

XV. To Melee Amet, Baffa. 48 
Of the Murder of Doriflaus, the Englifli Ambaf- 

fador at the Hague, ivith other mitterj. 

XVI. To the Venerable Mufti. 51 
He accufes the Septuagint, attd all the Chriftian 

Tranflators cf the Bible, of Flatnefs, Err or s, 
and not rightly rendering the Original Hebrew. 
Some particular Remarks on the Pfalms ofDa.- 
vid, and Canticles 0/*Soioinon. 


The T A B L E. 

XVII. To the Ciiaus, Baja. 57 
Remarks on the German, Swedifli, and Engllfh Af- 

fairs. A Difco'very nuhich Ofmin the Dwarf 
made of a Letter from the Captain Bafia, to 
Cardinal Mazarini. 

XVIII. To Cara Hali, Thyfician to the Grand 
Seignior. 6 1 

He informs him of great Injuries done By-Lightning 
in France. Difcourfes of the Pleafures of a Country 
Life', and complains of his otxin Entanglements, 

XIX. To Kenan Baffa, Chief Treafurer to his 
Highnefs at Conjiantinople. 66 

He congratulates his Adn^ancement, and exhorts 
him to Moderation. Putting him in mind alfo 
of the Cheats that have been committed in tht 

XX. To Vejieli Halt, his Brother. 69 
Of the Pleafure he takes in reading his Travels. 

He informs him of the progrejji've Conquefts madt 
in China ^ the young 'EvciTperor of the Tartars. 
He advifes him to 'wait on Kerker HafTan, BaHa. 

XXI. To Kerker Hafan, Baffa. 75 
He gives him ajhort Account o/China, to encourage 

him to learn more from his Brother. 

XXII. To Chornezan, Baffa. 78 
Offeveral Royal Marriages and Funerals in Eu- 
rope. Remarks on EcHpfes; and -what hap' 
pen'd to the Sun in the Days of Jehofliuah and 


The T A B L E. 


TO Muhummed Eremite, Inhabitant of the 
P raphe tick Ca-ve in Arabia the Happy. 84 
He dejires his AJJtJiance and Counfel in federal 
Scruples that entangle his Confcience» 

II. To Minezim Aluph, Bajfa. 99 
Of the Imprifonment of three French Princes of the 


III. To the Reis Effendiy Principal Secretary of 
the Ottoman Empire. 95 

He acquaints him nuith the Indiflion of the Jubilee 
at Rome. Difcourfes of the Sabbatical Tear 
among the Jews ; and of the Secular Games 
among the Ancient Romans. 

IV. To the Tlorwer of High Dignity, the moft 
Magnificent Vizir Azem. 99 

Of the Valour of the Baffa of Buda and his Son, 
Remarks of the French Campaigns. He defends 
the Jujlice of the Ottoman Forte, in releafing 
the Bailo of Venice, and firangling his Inter- 

V. To Sedree AP Giraivn, chief Page of the 
Treafury. 103 

Of the Cuftom in the Eaft, to prefer Men 0/^ Merit, 
^ thaugh of mean Birth, to Places of Truft. Iht 


The T A B L E. 

contrary 0-verJight of the Franks. A Story of 
■ Pafquil /« Rome. Of the Remo'val of the three 
imprifofi'd Princes to Havre de Grace. The 
Revolt of Bourdeaux. 

VI. To the Kaimacham. lo6 
He acquaints him nvith the Lofs of the Box, 'where- 
in all the Letters itr/V by the Minifters of 
the Porte to him 'v^ere contairidi and lAjbat 
Fears he ivas in about it, 

VII. To the fame. 

He informs him that a Negro Slave to Eliachim 
the Jew had ftollen the Box cf Letters ; iKiho 
being examined by Tortures, e'ven to Death, con- 
fefs'd he had hid it in the Earth. 

VIII. To Soljman, Kuflyr Aga, Prince of the 
Black Eunuchs. 1 1 3 

Of the Affront done to the Porte in the Claim tht 
Tartars made to the Tutelage cf the young Sul- 
tan. Of the Cruelty often exercised on the Prin- 
ces cfthe Ottoman Blood. 

Va. To T>gnet Oglou. T16 

"He complains of an unjuft Reproof gi'ven him by 
the Reis Eflfendi, on the Account o/" Kenan BaiTa, 
and jujiifes his onun ConduS end Integrity. 

X. To the Reis Effendi, principal Secretary oi 
the Ottoman Empire. 120 

Mahmut eicpofiulatis nuith him about his fuppofed 
Crime, in nvriting freely to Kenan Baffa. Acf 
quaints him nuith the Orders he received from 
//?>f Vizir Azem, and other principal Minifters 
of the Divan, to that Purpofe. Of the Murder 


»fan Englifh Ambaflador at Madrid, and of » 
Fight beticeen the Scotch avd Englifh. 

XI. To Solyman ^ga, principal Chamberlain of 
the Womens Apartments in the Seraglio. I 24^ 

Of the Di/ordcrs and Mutinies among the Janiza- 
ries. Of the French King's Guard of Switzcrs. 
/// Neijos from Candia. The Bra'very of the 
M;iltefe Knights. Of the Death of the Prince 
of Orange. 

XII. To Kifur Dramelec, Secretary of the Na- 
suirene Affairs at the Porte. 127 

JB^ rallies him for his angry Letter. 

XIII. To Minezim Aluph, Ba/pz. 130 
Of the Releafe of the three imprifon''d French 

Princes : And of Cardinal Maasarini'j private 
Departure from the Court. 

XIV. To Ifouf his Kinfman at F^jz. 133 
Jle difcourfes voith him of bis Travels in Afia : 

Challenges his Promife to fend him an Account 
of Africk. Several Remarks on that Quarter 

XV. To Kerker Uafan, Bajfa. 1 37 
He complains of the Injuries had been done him by 

Ikirgi, Mafler of the Pages, and by others. 
Defer es him to intercede for Leave to return 
Home ; pfofejjing himfelf lAjeary of this Em- 

XVI. To Chufein Bafa, the Magnanimous Vi- 
%ir Azem, and Invincible General oi the Otto- 
man Forces in Candia. 142 


The T A B L E. 

Mahmut complains of the Injlahility of all fuhlu- 
nary Things. Of the Cruelties exercifcd to- 
Kvards fame of the Sultans, Vizirs, BafTa?, and 
other Minifters of the Empire. Reflexions on 
the Death of the old Queen. Remarks on the 
delightful Confinement of the yEthiopian Prin- 
ces of the Blood. 

XVI I. To Naffuff, Baffa of ISatolia. 147 
Of a parrel betiveen the Dukes of Branden- 

burgh and Newburgh. 

XVIII. To Ufeph Baffa. IjO 
Of the Mifunderjianding hettueen the Queen of 

France and the Prince of Conde, fence his 
Enlargement. Of the Prince'j flight from 

XIX. To Solyman his Coufin, at Confeantino- 
ple. 153 

Jle reproves his former Lihertinifm : Endeavours 
to re£lify his Mijlake about Hell : And gives 
him good Counfel. 

XX. To Enden JP Zaidi Jaaf Beglerheg of 
Dierbekir. I r 6 

He congratulates his Happinefs, in heing Lord 
of the Earthly Paradife. Of a Tret five hun- 
dred Miles high in Dierbekir. Of the firft 
Parents of Mankind, according to the Tradi- 
tions of the Indians. With other Matters* 


The T A B L E. 


To Ahdel Melee Muli Omar, PreJUentoithc 
College oi Sciences at Fez. i6o 

He difcourfes after the Manner of a Sceptick, on 
the Differences in Religions. 

II. To the Kaimacham. 1 66 
The Sentiments of Jfouf Eb'n Hadrilla, an Ara- 
bian Philofopher, concerning the Original of 
Mankind, and their being born in a State of 
War. Of 150,000 Livres promifed as a Re- 
ivard to thofe nvho Jhould bring in Cardinal 
Mazarini ali've or dead. Of the Return of 
/i-fl/ Miniller to the Coart. 

III. To the Rets Effendi, Principal Secretary 
of the Ottoman Empire. I jO 

More of the Domejiick 'troubles in France. 

IV. To Cara Hali, Fhjtcian to the Grand 
Seignior. I7J 

He relates fe'veral Examples of the Wifdom and 
Morality that is found in the Brutes. 

V. To the Captain Baffa. 179 
He expojiulates about the ill Succefs of the Maho- 
metan Fleets ; and relates to him a Vifion Kjohich 
he had in Paris ; With the Ceremonies that 
fivent before it. Advifes him to make a Defceni 


The T A B L E. 

iit Italy. Informs him of a terrible Sea-CotO' 
bat between the Englilh and the Dutch. 

VI. To the Kiay Bey, or Lieutenant-General of 
the Janizaries. 1 84. 

Of the Corruptions crept into the "DifcipVme of that 
Order : Which he counfels him to reform. Of 
an Infurreftion in Paris : With other Matters. 

VII. To Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jeiu^ at Vien- 
na. 188 

Of a Duel fought between the Dukes of Beau- 
fort and Nemours. The Parliament of Paris 
divided. The Roman Catholick Religion re* 
fored in Cologne. 

VIII. To the Kaimacham. igo 
Of the French King'j Return to Paris, and the 

uni'verfal Joy of his People for the fame. Of 
. the Rebellions in Syria and Egypt. 

IX. To Bgnet Oglou. 193 
Of the Vnhappinefs of Kings. Particular Re- 

feSiions on the Depofing of Sultan Ibrahim ; 
and the Minority of Sultan Mahomet. 

X. To Mclec Amet. 1 96 
Of a French Lord, nvbo, being clofe purfued by bit 

Enemies, efcaped over an Arm of toe Sea, by 
the Strength of his Horfe, for ivhich Service 
he immediately killed him. CyCarabuIuc, Sul- 
tan Selim'j Horfe. Remarks on the Birth of 
Alexander the Great, and the Burning of Di- 
ana'j TV/w/i/f c/ Ephefus. Of the Imprifonment 
of Cardinal de Retz. Of the Taking of Dun- 
kirk and Cafal hy the Spaniards. 

XI. To 

The T A B L E. 

KI. To the fame. too 

He difcourfei of a Comet fwhich at this Time ap- 
peared in the Heavens, ahovt the Sphere of 
the Sun. 

XII. To Tejleli Haliy his Brother, Mafter of 
the Grand Seignior's Cuftoms. 203 

He congratulates his nenv Preferment, and counfels 
him not to he hafiy in grooving rich or migh- 
ty. O/^ Cardinal Mazarini'j Return from his 
fecond Banifhment. 

XIII. To Kerker Hafan, Bajfa. 206. 
He thanks him for the Favour be hadjhenun to his 

Brother. Of the Honours ivhich the French 
King hejlanu^d on Cardinal Antonio Barbari- 
ni. Of certain Prodigies. 

XIV. To t^athan Ren Saddi, a Jew, at Tr. 
enna. 209 

He endeavours to ixiean him from the Prejudiees of 
Education ; and to convince him that other Na- 
tions are in as fair a Way to Paradife as the 

XV. To the fuhlimely Wife, the Senior of exceU 
lent Dignity, Ahul Reco-itiorM' n , Grand AlmC'^ 
ner to the Sultan. 213 

Of the Difference betnueen impudent Beggars, and 
the truly indigent. A remarkable Infance of a 
certain Cardinal'^ Charity. He recommends to 
him, in particular, the Cafe of a certain dif- 
carded Timariot. 

XVI. To the Captain "Bajfa. 217 
Gf federal Sea-Fights between the Englifh and 


The T A B L E. 

Dutch. j4nd particularly of that ivherein Ge- 
neral Trump ivas killed. 

XVII. To Sale Tircheni Emin, Superintendant 
of the Royal Arfenal at Confiantinople. 2 1 2 

Of a ^-onderful Ship built at Rotterdam by a 
French Engineer, nvhich Jhould perform Mi' 
racUi, He difcourfes of Spouts at Sea. 

XVIII. To Murat, Baffa. 224 
Remarks on the nenv Englifh Common-wealth r 

On the young King of Scots, and on the French 

XIX. To Afis, Baja. 226 
Of divers Prodigies and Difajiers in the Low- 
Countries. Of the Whale and its Guide. Of 
the narrow Efcape the French King made as he 
ijcas Jhooting a Partridge, 

XX. To Dgebe Nafr, Baffa. 230 
He congratulates his SucceJJion in the Dignities 

cf Chiurgi Muhammet, Baffa. Of the taking 
Saint Mcneho.ud. (^ Oliver the Englifh Prc- 


The T A B L E. 


TO Bedredin, Superior of the Convent of Deri 
njiches at Cogni in Natalia. zS6 

Remarks on the Birth and Life of the Meffias. A 
Charaiier of the Effenes. 

II. To the Venerahle Mufti. 242 
Of a Letter fent out of Armenia hy the Jefuits, 

to fome of their Order in Spain, concerning the 
Opening of the Earthy and Snuallo'wing up of 
MahometV Tomb. 

III. To Cara Hali, Phyfician to the Grand 
Seignior. 244 

Of the reverend Efleem the Ancients had of the 
Beails. Several Injlances of this Nature, 

IV. To Mujlapha Berber Aga, at the Serag- 
lio. 249 

Of the Imprifonment of the Duke of horrzm. 

V. To Nathan Ben Saddi, a few at Vienna. 25 1 
Of the unwritten Traditions of Mofes, andoftht 

written Law. £ncomiums on the Alcoran. 

VI. To Dicheu Hujfein, Bajfa. 259 
Of Cardinal Mazarini'j Bolicy in marrying his 

Nieces to the French Princes of the Blood. 

VII. To Vgnet Oglou, 262 


The T A B L E. 

He dejcants on the accidental Lofs of his Si^htfor 
tixo Days. A DigreJJion concerning the Wifdom 
that is to he found in Brutes. 

VIII. To Afs, Baffa. 266 
K)f the Preparations for Crotvning the young King 

of France. Difcontents renenued at Paris, on 
the Death of the Archbilhop. 

IX. ToMurat, Baffa. 369 
Of certain Witches apprehended in France. Of 

Pancrates, a Magician ^/^ Egypt ; and of Xy to 
a German Conjurer. 

X. To Chernezau Mujiapha, Baffa. 275 
O/" the Propofals hetnueen Queen Chriflina, end 

Charles Prince Palatine, her Succejfor. 

XI. To Sale Tircheni Emin, Superintendant of 
th? Kv^al Arfenal at Confiantinople- 276 

Of the Blowing up of Graveling by Gunpotuder, 
and of a Mill that took Fire. 

XII. To Mehemet, an Eunuch in the Seraglio. 278 
Of Mahmut's Antipathy to Spiders. A Difcourfe 

of Antipathies. Of a People in Africa that 
feed altogether on Locufts. 

XIII. To the Kaimacham, 282 
Of the Coronation of the King (f France. Of the 

Duke c/'Lorrain'j heingremo'vedinto Spain, nxjith 
other Matters out of Sweden and Mttfcovy. 

XIV. To Dgnet Oglou. 204. 
He difcourfes of the Uncertainty that ts to he found 

zw Hiftory- Of the Difagreement lett»tenth» 
Chronologies ^the Eaft and Weft. 


< I ) 


Writ by a 



L E T T E R I. 

Mahmut the Arabian, and indefatiga- 
ble Slave to the Grand Seignior, To 
Mahomet, the moji illujlrious Vizer 
Azem atjhe Port. 

I Congratulate thy Afcent to that Top of 
Honour, \\\ejirj} Dignity in the Empire ever 
'viciorious. ' lis thy Turn to be now exalted 
in the Orb oi Fortune : Let not this high Sta- 
tion make thee forget, that the Wheel is always 
in Motion. But confider. That, fince the Advance 
thou hall made was not but by the Fall of thy 
Fredeceffor, thou haft lefs Reafon to think thy 
own State fecure. 

B lam 

'2 Letters JVrit by Vol. IV. 

lam no Tortiine-Teller, nor would be fo rude 
as to prognolticate ill Luck to my Superiors. But, 
Men in tminent Dignity have need oi' a. Moni- 
tor : And, it is recorded of a great Monarch, 
That he commanded one o^\i\%Pages every Morn- 
ing X.O lakte him, when he firft awaked, with 
theie Words, Remember y O King, that thou art 
a Mortal. 

Let this Example, fupreme Mivijler, plead my 
ExCLife, and incline thee to pardon the Freedom 
which Mahmut takes ; who by this, thou feeft, is 
jjio Flatterer. 

Certainly all fublunary Things ebb and flow 
like the Water*. And, though Men may 
fometimes enjoy a Spring-T\6^ of Felicity, yet 
Fate has hidden Sluices, which in a Moment 
Ihall convey the mighty Torrent to fome other 

I my felf have in fome meafure experienced 
this, who am but a Puny in Compariion with ' 
thee. Vet DejUnyzxA Chance are allotted to the 
Little, as well as to the Great. The Worm en- 
coiuiters as many grofs Contingencies, in her 
humble reptile State, as does the tow'ring Eagle, 
in all her lofty Flights and Range?, through the 
wide ftretch'd Air. 

In my Infancy I was fnatchM from the Cradle, 
and from the Arms of my mournful Mother ; 
mournful on two Accounts, the Death of a 
Husband, and the rseceffity of parting with, her 
Child. Yet this early Separation turn'd to my 
Advantage, and her Comfort. The Sequel of 
my good Fortune invited her to forfake her 
Solitudes, and ixiUcw me to the hi^crial City ; 
where las exchan'ged her melancholy Widow- 
hood, for the S-ciety and Love of a Merry 
Greek: Whilft Tate had another Game to play 
viih me; ic being the Will oi Heaven, That from 


Vol. IV. rt Spy «/ Paris. 5 

the Delights of the Seraglio, and the Honour of 
ferving the greatejt So'vereign in the World, \ 
fhoald fall into a cruel Capti-vity, and be com- 
pelled ignominioufly to drudge for a barbaroui 
Jnfidel. Afterwards, I gnin'd my Liherty, and 
apply'd my felf to ftudy in the Academies. I 
will not boafl of the Proficiency I made -. Bur, 
at my Return to Conflantinople, thou knoweft, my 
Superiors thought me capable of doing the Port 
Service in this Place. Thus Pro-uidence fports 
with Mortals, and, by an unaccountable Clew of 
Difcipline, leads them through the Mazes of this 

How I have dlfcharged my Truft here, I dare 
appeal to all ; yet can pleafe none. Every Man 
will be my Judge to give Sentence againlt me ; 
and fome, I believe, would willingly be my 
Executioners : Which, at certain Times, carries 
me into fo deep a Melancholy, that I ever join 
with my Enemies, and condemn myfelf, though 
I know not for what. Surely, fay I, fo many 
perfpicacious Men cannot be all in the wrong, 
and 1 only in the right : They muft needs 
fee fome Faults in me, which I cannot difcern 
in my felf- Doubtlefs I'm partial, and never 
chang'd the Order of ALfop''% Wallet. Then I 
refledl on thefe 1 houghts, as the mere Produft 
of Melancholy •. For, after the ftrideft Exami- 
nation of my Conduit, I find myfelf innocent 
of thofe Things whereof I am accus'd. Yet, 
whilft I am jultifying my Integrity towards my 
great Mafier, my Sadnefs returns ag;iin, and tells 
me, That, withou. doubt, I have fome Ways of- 
fended God and his Prophet, who, for that Rta- 
fon, fufier the Envious to perfecute me ; and 
drive me into a more intimate and familiar Con- 
verfe with myfelf, that fo, by making a frequent 
Strutiny aiter the Caufe of my outward Mif- 
B z fortunes. 

4 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

fortunes, I may difcover the fecret Crimes which 
I may have committed againll Hea-ven, and 
which lie hid under my Inadvertence and Ob- 

Then I'mfiU'd with a thoufand Scruples about 
my tellirg Lyes, and taking falfe Oaths, though 
I'm difjenfed with forall thofe Immoralities, by 
tht fovereign Arbiter of the Laiv. In a Word, I 
know ret fometimes what to think. And were 
it not that my Agency in thefe Parts meets with 
feme Succefs, I fhould often conclude. That I ei- 
ther lie under fome Curfe of Gud, or Charms of 
Men ; that either Heat'en, or Hell, haveapeculiar 
Hand inafflifting me. 

But all this may be only the Fumes of my 
own diilemper'd Spleen. And the indulgent 
Judge of Man may pafs a milder Sentence on me, 
than either I do myfelf, or my Fellow-Mortals. 
He is tranfcendently benign and merciful : 
And our Sins of Frailty appear in his Eyes but 
rs fmall Atoms in the Rays of a Morning-Sun; 
which, though they be innumerable, yet the 
leall Breath of Wind blows them all out of 

^Y what I have faid, 'tis apparent, That I have 
Regard both to thee and myfelf ; To thee, as the 
fuprtme Difpejer of Life and Death, under the 
Gra7;d Seignior ; to myfelf, as one cuU'd out for a 
Viclim by the Malicious, and lying at the Feet of 
thy ncble Nature, begging thy Proteftion. My 
Enemies are indulhious to ruin me, and lay hold 
on all Opportunities to accompli fh it. The 5f«- 
tence, which they could not procure from thy Pre- 
deceffory they may hope to draw from thee by 
their falfe Informations. This makes me ufe Pre- 
caution in my own Defence, hoping to foreftal 
their Malice by this humble Addrefs. 


Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Paris, 5 

Imitate thou the dinjiue Nature, and be not fe- 
vere in remarking the Peccadillo'^, anc4 fmall De- 
linquencies of thy Slave. U I turn Infidel or 
Traytor, I crave no Favour. 

That fupreiuelf merciful and gracious, the 
Jirji and lei/i of the World, and Lord of F/7/-«- 
,dife, heap on thee as many Blelhngs every Day, 
as would employ my fwifteft Wifhes aThoufand 
Years ; and grant that thou may'Il find Admit- 
tance into the Place full of Ritrrs, whofe Springs 
take their Ri/e from the Bottom of the Rock of 

Paris, I 'th of the zd Mooi, cf the Tear 1649, 
accorJiav to the Chriilian St^le. 


'To the Kaimacham. 

TH E Troubles of this Kingdom, which a while 
ago feem'd to be compos'd, are now again 
broke out afrefh. The private Grudges of fomC, 
and the Ambition of others of the Nobility, have 
once more put all in Arms. This City b block'd 
up by the Prince of Conde\ Army, who has not 
been long return'd from Flanders. The King, 
the Queen, with Cardinal Mazarinr, and the 
whole Court, are at St. Germains in Lay, whither 
they went by Night. This abrupt Departure gave 
frelh Courage to the Seditious, and at the lame 
time furnifh'd them with new Matter of Accufa- 
tion againft Cardinal Mazarini, who, they fay, 
has llole away their Sovereign from them. The 
Parliament have declared him an Enemy to the 
B 3 Govern'- 

6 Letters TFrit hy Vol. IV 

Government. They are levying Soldiers as faftas 
they can : And Provificns are laid in, as if they 
were tofullain a long Siege. Several Princes .ind. 
Grandees are come over to the Ci/izens, having 
defcrted th-; Court j among whom is the Prince 
of Co' ti. Brother to the Prince of Cnnde. Yet 
the Ptirifmns are dillr llfu' of him, and have con- 
fin'd his Siller, a'^ a Hoitrge for his Fidelity ; not 
kn 'V\ing, that his Defertion is rer.!, being occa- 
lion'dby lome Quarrel between him and his elder 

* : IS faid, Th::t Cardinal Maxarini has taken a 
Refolution to depart the Kngdom, that fo he may 
avoid the Tempell; that threatens him from ail 

The ^een has fent Orders to the Colonels, that 
ferve uncer Marefchal Tu>enne, in Germa7iyy 
commanding tnem to abandon ttiat General, who, 
they fay. has declared for the Parliament, and fent 
tc I fF^r tnepi h:- Service. 

On the trh'-rfide, the Citizens endeavour to 
fl;eng hen the r Party, by tending to all the Par- 
liamenti of Frajice, tu defire their Conjundion ia 
cfpoiifing the Quarrel i.f this oi Paris. 

TheLompanies, v\hich the Burghers ofthisCity 
hive rai;'d, we^r this Mutto in their Enjigns, 

In the mean while, the Arch-Duke of Aufiria 
keep;, near the Fion.iers of this Kingdom, with 
an Army of Twenty-thoufand Men ; and fends 
frequent Propofals to the Parliament, in order to 
a Peace. 

VVhilft I was writing the laft Words, News 
was brought me, that Eliachim the ^^tv is feiz'd, 
and clap'd in Prifon at St. Denys, which Place is 
in the King's Hands. I cannot learn the Reafoa 
of his Confinement, but am apt to fufpeft 'tis on 
the Score of his late appearing among the Rab- 

Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Paris. 7 

ble of Paris, whereof I gave an Account in a 
Letter to the Aga of the janizaries . 

The Surprize, 1 am in at this unfortunate Ac- 
cident, puts me upon a thoufand Thoughts, 
I know not what Courfe to take for my own 
Safety. Jf Eliachifn's Papers fhouU be fearch'd, 
Mahtr.ut mud be difcover'd ; and then, if I tarry 
in the City, I cannot efcape a Prifon : For tho' 
at this Junfture, one would think this Place a 
fufficient Protedion from the Court ; yet the Ha- 
tred they bear to the true Believers, and the Difco- 
very of fo important z.CommiJftomi% mine, would 
fuperfede their intefline Animofities. I l"hould 
infallibly be either delivered up to the Court, or 
fent to the Bajiile. If I go cut of the Ciiy, my 
Dinger is yet greater ; all the PjITcs of ihe 
Country being narrowly watch'd, and ftrongly 
guarded by the King's Soldiers. This made me, 
at ftrft, refolve to defer the Conclufion of this 
Letter to another Time, whi'fl I provided for my 
own Safety ; as thinking it impcfllble to convey 
any Intelligence out of France undifcovered. Bac 
being inform'd of a Courier, that was juft going 
from the Parliament to the Arch-Duke of AuJIria^ 
and fearing lell I fhould never have the Privi- 
lege of Pen, Ink, and Paper again, I have ravifli'd 
a few Moments, from that little Time I have- left 
to Ihift for myfelf, that fo I might give thee no- 
tice of this Accident. 

I have written alfo to Nathan Ben SaJJi at Fi- 
anna, to prevent any Di/patches from him, till far- 
ther Order. Both thefe Letters I venture in the 
Hands of a faithful MefTenger, who has caufed 
them to be fewcd up in the Heels of his Shoe?, 
to prevent Difcovery. He travels under the Pro- 
teftion of the Courier, 

I have not a Minute left to fay more. Than, 

that I am at this Inllant parting from my Lodg- 

B4 ingj 

B Letters fFrit ly Vol. IV. 

ing ; my Books and other Things being paek'd up, 
and Porters ready to carry them away. If I get 
fafe out of the Houfe, I muft change my Habit 
and Name, and fo lay the Foundation of a new 
Concealment, till the Iffue of this Adventure fhall 
direft me what to do. 

Adieu, illuflrious Kaimacham, and expedl to 
hear more in my next ; or let my Silence convince 
thee. That Mahmut is no longer at Liberty. 

Paris, t^th of the zd Moon, 
of the Year 1649. 


7<? Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew at 

IF thou haft any Dlfpatches coming for me, and 
it be yet in thy Power to Hop them, ufe 
Wings in doing it : For I fear we are difcovered 
in this Place. 'I"hy Brother Eiiachim is arrefted 
by the King's Orders. What is laid to his 
Charge I know not for certain ; neither is it 
receflary for thee to be informed in that Point, 
But if his Confinement be owing to fome Ser- 
vices he has lately done me, we are all loft. His 
Papers will be fcarch'd, which muft of Neceffi- 
ty betray our Secrets : And then we have No- 
thing to expeft but the fevereft Execution of the 
Chriftans Fury and Revenge. I am in no fmall 
Confufion at this Accident hrtving fcarce Time 
to provide for my Concealment. Send no more 
to Pwr/j till thou receiveft further Advice. We 
are all in Arms, tiiis City bang block'd up by 


Vol. IV. a S?Y ai?.AKis. 9 

the ^left's Troops ; (o that I knew not well 
which way to (hift for myfelf, and efcape a 
thoufand Scrutinies, which they will every whers 
make into the Affairs of a Stranger. But, that 
Fate which over-rules human Contingencies will, 
I hope, refcue me out of this Danger : To which 
I commend both thee and me ; bidding thee 
Farewel, as if I were never to write to thee again; 
For fo the Iffue may prove. 

Paris, ztth of the i J Moon, 
of the Tear, 1649. 


^0 Adonai, a Jew at Venice. 

I 'HAVE fomething more Refpite now, than 
' when I wrote laft to my Brother Nathan at 
Vienna, to inform him of Eliachim's being made 
a Prifoner. I was in agreater Hurr)'at that Time, 
than the ninth Sphere. All my Motions were 
fwift. I went backward and forward, like the 
Planets ; but had no Leifure to ifcird ftiU, as they 
do fometimes. In a Word, I have run over the 
whole Zodaick of Policy, to feek for a new Houfe; 
that wherein I lodg'd being like to prove too 
hot for me. At length I have found ore, where- 
in I hope tomeet with no maie^vaieut AfpsSis, but 
to remain, as before, in ^ fneKJh Conjun^ion 
with the Moon ; behind whofe Splendors, I may 
lie covered from the Inquifuions of peeriiig 
Mortals . 

To fpeak more intelHgrbty, I am, for the pre-. 
fciK, remov'd to other Lodgings in this City, . 
B s thfr 

TO Letters }Vril by Vol. IT. 

tlie better to fhelter myfelf from the Storm 
which feems to hang over my Head, fince Elia' 
chim was feiz'd. Yefterday I wrote to the Kai- 
maicbatriy and to Nathan Ben Sad^i, to give 
them an Account of this Accident. This goes along 
with the fame Meflenger ; for I durft not confide 
in the Pofis, during the prefent Diforders of this 

I receiv'd a Letter from thee, wherein thou 
informed me, of an Attempt th^t has been lately 
made, to rob the Treafury of Venice ; Which, ac- 
cording to thy Defcription, is very rich and 
magnificent ; not to be match'd in Europe. Per- 
haps if thou hadft feen the Wealth that is pre- 
ferv'd in the Church of St. Dcn^s, a City not far 
from Paris, thou wouldll be of another Mind. 
Bat neither of us can make proper Ccmparifons, 
having not feen both Place?. The French extol 
the latter, and fay, it far exceeds tliat of Venice. 
But they may fpeak partially ; it being the Hu- 
mour of all People to magnify the Grandeur of 
their own Nation : And, the French come not 
fhortofthe rdl of the World in Vain-Glory. 
However it be, it was a v.-fl Attempt and full of 
infinite Difficulties ard Perils, to rob the Vaults 
of a Ghurchm the Heart of that great and popy- 
Icus City, where all the Riches of the 6'f/f7;i<7;;5i 
wee rcpcfited. It is an Argument of the Great- 
ncf? of their Souls who durlt undertake fo hazard- 
ous an Enterprize. 

But this is not the firilTime the Penetlant have 
been in Danger to lofe that prodigious Mafs of 
Wealth. A poor Grecia7i once found a Way, 
through marble Barricado's under Ground, to 
enter thofe golden Cells ; from whence he car- 
ried awny, to the Value of Twenty-hundred 
Thoufard Zechins in Jewels. But, making one 
of his Ccuntry-men ac^uaiuted with it, tlie Vil- 
la i a 

Vol. IV. <? Spy ^/^ Parts. rfT 

kin betray'd him to the Doge, who caufed him to 
be hang'd. 

That Cofnmoti'wealth has been all along very- 
happy in Difcovery of P/(p/j, and other Mifchiefs 
intended againft her. I know not whether thoa 
haft heard of the famous Con/piracy of Tiepoli ; 
who, not content with the Life and Eftate of a 
pri'vafe Gentleman, fought to render himfelf So- 
*vereign of Venice. And, to this End, infinuated 
into the Afreflions of many Thoufands of the 
Citizens ; whom he kept in conftant Penfion for 
above nine Years together, under the Notion of 
aflifting him, to revenge certain Injuries he had 
rcceiv'd from the Roman Gentleman. They were 
all to run with their Arms into the Streets, whea 
they fhould hear the Name Tiepoli utter'd aloud, 
and often repeated. 

But, when the Day \vas come, whereon he 
was to put his Defigns in Execution, and the A- 
larm was given in the Streets, an old Woman 
madefuch hafte to look outofher Chamber-Win- 
dow, to fee what was the Occafion of the Tu- 
mult, that fhe threw down an earthen Vefiel, 
which, falling diredly on the Head of 7/V/o/r, 
kiird him, and fo put an End to the Rfbellion. 
For which happy Accident, the Senate fettled a 
yearly Penfion of a Thoufand Zechins on the old 
Woman, during her Life, and the fame to be paid 
to her Heirs and Pofterity for ever. 

Send me no Difpatches, till thou haft received 
another L/:tter from me, which will diredl thee . 
what to do. 

Paris, 2-/th cfthe zd Mso», 
cfthe Yt:ar 1C49. 

B 6 LET- 

j-i Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 


I'o Mahiimmed, Hadgia, Dervlfe, 
Eremit, Inhabitant of the Prophetic 
Cave in Arabia the Happy. • 

TH E franks (who are more ready to find; 
Faults in others, than to mend their own). 
cenfure the Muffulmans, for extending their Cha- 
rity to Bealls, Birds, and Fifhes. They laugh at 
the Alms we beftow to feed Dog% Cats, and other 
living Creatures ; and ridicule the Tendernefs of. 
fuch, as go into the Markets, and buy the Birds 
that are there fold, on Purpofe to reftore them, 
to their native Liberty. They fay, ' Tis a fuffici- 
ent Demonftration of Piety to relieve the Ne- 
cefllties of Men ; and that. It is but a fruitlefs 
Hypocrify, to fliew Kindnefs to the Brutes, who^ 
in their Opinion, have neither Souls nor Reafon,, 
and confequently are infenfibte of our good Offices 
towards them. 

Thef^ arc the Charges of Wcjiern Raillery, the 
Scoffs of the obdurate, with which they load 
the generous Oricntah, the Hearts transfixed 
with univerfal Love. What would they fay, if 
they had heard of thy heroick Piety, who not. 
only afFordeft Protedlion and Relief to thofe 
Creatures whereof we have no Need, but even 
abftainell from the Flefh of all Animals, though 
the Prophet himfelf has indulged us the Ufe of 
fome for our necelTary Food, and without which 
many plead, I'hat we cannot fultain Life ? 
Oh ! excellent Man, born for the Reproof and 
Light of the Age, how is the Soul of our great 
Lanv-giver exliilarated, wh?n he beholds thy inno- 

Vckl. IV. ^? Spy tf/ Paris? 13 

cent and unblemifhed Life ? The Treafury of 
Heaven is enrich'd with thy good Works, the fer-f 
tile Harveft of Virtues, the Firft-Fruits of the 
Parity of thy Nature ! From thy firft Defcent in- 
to that holy Ca've, the Angels, who regifter tha 
Words of Men, never heard thee utter a Syllable 
that could be reprehended. Thy Thoughts ra- 
vifh the Heart of God himfelf with Joy. The 
uni'vcrfal Spirit full of EyeSj Watcher of the Vni- 
verfe, would fall afleep, were it not roaz'd by 
the ftrong Vibrations of thy fublime Soul. Thy 
Contemplations are Themes for the College of 
thofc who are affiftant in forming of all Things. 
Were it not for fuch as thee, the Angel of the 
Jirji Motion would ceafe to whirl the Globes of 
Light through the Heavens : The Orbs above 
would grow rujiy, and all the Wheels and Springs 
of Nature would Jiandjail. Oh eleft Idea, be- 
fore, whofe purify'd Effence the Sun himfelf ap- 
pears full of Blemifhes ! Human Wit cannot find; 
thy Equal on Earth : Thou art the Imprefs on the 
Seal of the Prophets, the5(?«/of the Soul 
of Mahomet. 

In thus celebrating thy high Perfedions, if 
I. have offended thy Modefty, thou haft the Good- 
nefs to afcribe it to the Excefs of my AfFedlion, 
which carries me beyond human Regards. I- 
v/ould fein be an Imitator of thy incorrupt Life. 
Eor^ let the ChriJIians fay what they pleafe, I will 
evtr e^eem AhJIinence a. divine Virtue. I havei 
confuUedthe Sages of Old, that I might learn 
what was the Praflice of former Times, whilft 
human Nature was yet in its Infancy, before 
the Manners of Men were debauch'd. I have 
purfued the feleft Writings of the Ancients, the 
Records of Truth, and void of Fables. And, 
believing that fuch Memoirs will not be unwel- 
come to thee, I prefume to lay them at thy Feet,. 


14 Letters PTrh hy Vol. IV.' 

a» a Mark of that profound Veneration I owe to 
the Tenant of the Darling of GoD. 

Thefe Hifioriam fay, That the firft Inhabitants 
of the Earth, for above Two thoufand Years, 
livM altogether on the me^etable ProduSis ; of 
which they offer'dthe Firji-Fruits to God ; It be- 
ing efteem'd an inexpiable Wickednefs, to fhcd 
the Blood oi arxy Animal, though it were in Sa- 
crifice, much more to eat of their Flefli. To this 
End, they relate the firft Slaughter of a Bull 
to have been made at Athens, on this Occafion, 
The PrieJioiiheTonvn, whofe Name was Diomui, 
as he was making the accullomed Oblation of 
Fruits on an Altar in the open Field (for as yet 
they had no Temples) a Bull came running from 
the Herd, which was grazing hard by, and eat 
of the confecratcd Herbage. Upon which Dio- 
mus the Prieji, mov'd with Zeal at the reputed 
Sacrilege, and fnatching a Sword from one of 
thofe that wereprefent, kiU'd the Bull. But, when 
his PafBon wa» over, and he confider'd what a 
heinous Crime he had committed j fearing alfo 
the Rage of the People, he perfuadcd them, 
Tliat a Go^ had appeared to him, and commanded 
him to offer that Bull in Sacrifice, by burning 
his Flefh v.ith Fire on the Altar, as an Atone- 
ment for his devouring the confecrated Fruits. 
The devout Multitude acquiefced to the Words 
of their Priefi, as to an Oracle, And" the Bull 
being flay'd, and Fire laid on the Altar, they 
all afiilled at the new Sacrifice. From whlch 
Time, the Cuficm v/as yearly obferv'd among 
the Athenians, to fiacrifice a Bull. And by them 
this Method oi religious Cruelty was taught, not 
only to all Greece, but to the reft of the World. 
Iii prcccfs of^Time, a certain Priefi, in the midft 
of his bloody Sacrifice, taking up a Piece of the 
btoiled Flefh which.had fallen from the Jltew on 


Tol. rV. a Spy ai PAKisr t^ 

the Ground, and, burning his Fingers therewith, 
fuddenly clap'd them to his Mouth, to mitigate 
the Pain, But, when he had once tafted the 
Sweetnefs of the Fat, not only long'd for more 
of it, but gave a Piece to his Affiftant, and he 
to others : Who all, pleafed with the new found 
Dainties, fell to eating of Flefti greedily. And 
hence this Species of Gluttony was taught to 
other Iflortals. Neither is it material, what the 
Hebre-w DoSors objeft againft thefe Teltiraonies, 
when they introduce the Son of Adam, facrificing 
living Creatures, in the Infancy of the World ; 
fince, thou knoweft, many Errors are inferted 
in the 'written Lanu, from whence they take this 

They fay alfo,That the firft Goat, that fell by 
the Hands of Men, was killed in revenge for 
the Injuries it had done the Owner of a Vine- 
yard, in brouzing on his Vines ; fuch an impious 
Deed having never been heard of before. 

This is certain, That the Egypt ians^ the wifeft 
and moft ancient People in tKe World, having 
receiv'd from the firft Inhabitants of the Earth a 
Tradition, forbidding Men to kill any living Crea- 
ture ; to give the greater Force to this Frimitinie 
Laiv of Nature, they form'd the Images of their 
Gods, in the Similitude of Beajis : That fo the 
Vulgar, ftruckwith Reverence at the /arr^d'Syw- 
bols, might learn to abftain from killing, or fo 
much as hurting the dumb Animals ; under whofe- 
Forms, they reprefented whatlbever among them 
waselleemed adorable. 

Yet, left any in his Life-Time (houIJ by Ac- 
cident, or otherwife, have tranfgrefs'd the Laiv- 
oi Ahjlinence, they ufcd a kind of 5.)r^/«//o,7 for 
the Deed, after this manner : The Pricjis took 
the Bowels out of the Belly of the Dcccafed, 
and putting them in an earthen Veffel, they held' 


1 6 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

it towards the Sun ; and calling Witneffes, they 
made the following Speech, in behalf of the Dead: 
** O thou Sun, whofe Empire is univerfal, and all 
** ye other Po-ivers, who give Life to Men, re- 
*' ceive me into the Society of the immortal Gods, 
" for, fo long as I liv'd in this World, I religi- 
" oufly perlevered in the Worjhip of thofe Deities, 
'* which were made known to me by my Ance-' 
** Jlors. IzXwzysL'onoured my Parents, who be- 
*' gat my Body. I never killed any Man or BeaJ}; 
*' nor have been guilty of any black Crime, But, 
" if whilft I lived I have trefpafs'd in tafiing any 
*' of thofe Tl^vVf^j which zxt forbidden, it was not 
*' my Sin, but the Fault of thefe Entrails, which 
*' are here feparated from the reft of my Body. '*' 
And having faid this, they call the VefTel into 
the River, on the Banks of which the Ceremony 
was perfbrmM, embalming the reft of the Body,- 
as pure and free from Sin. 

After the fame manner the Perfian Magi, or. 
ixiife Men, praitifed Ahjlinence. And, to imprint 
in their Difciples a Tendernefs and Friendfliip to- 
ward the Bea/ls, they called them, according to. 
their different Stations, either Lions, Hysna's, 
Crows, Eagles, Hawks, ^V. And their Gar- 
ments were painted all over with the various 
Figures of Animals 'y thereby infmuating, the- 
Dodrine of the SouPs travfmigration ; and in- 
culcating this Myjiery, That the Spirit of Man> 
enters fucceffi'vely into all forts of Bodies : Whicht 
thou knoweft is not remote from the Faith of true. 

It would not be amifs, as a Teftimony of the 
Pradice of th& Ancients, to infert a memorable- 
Addrefs, whidi the Reform' d Priefs of Crete were 
wont to make before the Altar of Jupiter. " O 
*' Di'vxe Governor oithe Hundred Cities , we have 
** led a Holy Life, from the Time that we were . 

•• initiated 

Vol. IV. rt Spy ^/ Parts. 17 

** initiated in thy MsJIeries, and forfook the noc' 
** turnal Rites, and bloody Feajls of Bacchus: 
" We are now purify'd, and cloath ourfelves in 
" "johite Vejiments, the Emblems of our Inno- 
" cence : We fhun the Society of polluted Mor- 
•' tals ; neither approach we to the Sepulchres of 
" the Dead, nor tajle of the Tlejh of any Things 
*' which has been endued with Life. " 

Such alfo was of old, and to this Day Is, the 
Abjlinence of the Indians ; among whom tlxeBrach- 
fnans^ perform the Office of Priejlhood, Thefe 
the ancient Grecians call'd Gymnofophijis . They 
are all of one Race, neither will they admit a 
Stranger into their Order. They live for the 
jnoft part near to Ganges^ or feme other River, 
for the Sake of their frequent Purificatians. 
Their Diet confifts of Milk, curdled with fowre 
Herbs. They feed alfo on Apples, Rice, and 
other Fruits of the Earth ; efteeming it the 
Height of Impiety to tafte of any Thing that 
has Life. They live in little Hutts or Cottages^ 
every one by himfelf, avoiding Company and 
Difcourfe ; employing all their Time in Contem- 
plation, and the Service of the Ternple. They 
efteem this Life but a neceffary Difpenfation 
of Nature, which they voluntarily undergo as 
a Penance ; ardently thirfling after the Diffolu- 
tion of their Bodies ; and firmly believing. That 
the Soul, by Death, is releafed from -its Prifon, 
and launches forth into immenfe Liberty and 
Happinefs, Therefore they are always chearful- 
ly difpofed to die, bewailing thofe that are 
alive, and celebrating the Funerals of the Dead, 
with joyful Solemnities and Triumphs. Among 
their good Works, it is accounted an Afl of 
of great Reputation and Virtue, to build Ho/pitals 
for Beajls as well as Men : And, in every City, 
there are great Numbers of fuch as fpend all 


i8 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV.' 

their Life, in tending on fick and wounded Ani- 
mals, or fuch as have no Suftenance elfewhere. 
And, this is nononjel hjlitution, but deliver'd down 
to them by Tradition, from immeraorab'e Ages. 

The Precepts alfo of Triptolemus and DracOf 
the mod ancient La-tv gi<vers of the Athenians^ 
are a Teiliraony of the Innocence and Sincerity of 
xhejirjl Age: For they comprehended all the whole 
Syfftn of Piety and Virtue, in pradifing thefe 
lew Rules : 

** Let it be an eternal Sanftion to the Atheni' 
*' ar.s, to adore the immortal Gods ; to reve- 
** rence the departed Heroes j to ce.'ebrate their 
" Praifes with Songs, and the Firji-Fruits of the 
" Earth ; to honour their Parents', and neither 
♦' ic^ kill Manor BeaJ}. " 

I could relate to thee Examples of -/^^7?//?fff« in 
the ancient Lacedcnioniar.s, Spartans, Jenvs, and 
almqll all Nations of the Eajl : Nor are there 
wanting fome. Teliimonies of it in thefe Wefiern ■ 
Parts. 'I'his Kingdom of France was in old Times 
inftruiled by a kind of Prophets or Philo/opherSf . 
whom they call'd Druids, who took up their 
ufual Refidence under CXa /if. Thefe taught the 
Tranfmigrction of Souls, and therefore prefcrib'A 
Ahftinence from Flejh ; and ihew'd to Men, the 
Method of worfhipping Go d with the Firfi-Fruits 
of the Earth. From hence they fail'd over into 
Britain, and planted themfelves in that JJland, . 
propagating the fame Doilrines ; and were reve- 
renced by the People as /acred Oracles. 

By all which it is evident, That the tender Re- 
gard, which the true Faithful have for ih^Brutes, 
is no Innovation, or fingular Caprice of Supcrjiition, 
but the primitive PratSice of the Ancients, the uni- 
lurfal Tradition of the vohole Earth, Nay, the 
Eaftern Chrijlians, for the moft part, live an ab- 
ftemious Life ; fuch as the Grecians^ Armenians^ 

Georgians, , 

Vol. IV. «Spy^/ Paris. ig 

Georgians, Minp-elians, and others that are fcat- 
ter'd up aiid down in divers Parts of Jjia. 
Thefe, following the Examples and TradttioKs of 
the Atopies and Primitive Fathers of their 
Churches, ei'.her tafte not at all, or very fparingly, 
the Fl-'Jh of Biaftf, Birds, and Ftfies. But the 
Naxarenes of the fVeji boaft of I know not what 
Liberty they have, to ear, without fcruple, of all 
Things ; having the Difpeniation of the Roman 
Mufti, whom they call the ficar of God. Hence 
it is, That thefe religious Libertines arc not afraid 
to gorge themfrlves, even with the Blo<d 6i 
Jiaughterd "Beajls, which their own Luiv forbids 
'eintotatle. And they prop themelves up ia 
their Impiety, by faying, That tne Pobe has 
Power to chcnge the Traditions and Ordinances 
of the yipojlles, and even cf Jefus the MeJJiah 
himfelf. Heuce proceeds their Den fion of thofe 
who fhcw any Tendernefs of the Brutes ; for, 
they are harden'd in their gluttonous Cruelty ^^ 
and are but one Remove from the moft Savagt 

But thou, holy Man of God, pity thefe Inf- 
dels, and pray that Mahmut may be a fincere 
DifcipU of thy Purity, 

Paris, \6thofthe '^d Moon, 
of the Tear 1649. 


20 Letters Writ ly \(A. ly. 


To the Kaimacham. 

I Am returned to my former Lodging again, 
the Cafe of Eliachim being not fo bad as my 
Fears. The Occafion of his Confinement were 
certain Words he fpoke againft the Proceedings 
of Cardinal MaKarhii znd. the Court, in Company 
of fuch as were officious to oblige that Minifier. 
This was «[one at St. Denys, not far from Pari:; 
where they immediately caus'd him to be taken 
into Cuftody by the King's Guards who quartered 
in that Town. It has coft him a confidcrable 
Som of Money to pure ha fe hi3 Liberty, whicH 
he now enjoys as before. I had other Thoughts, 
xvhen I firft heard the News of his being feized i 
and that it wa> for feme feditious Expreflions : 
For then I call'd to Mind, how he had adled laff 
Year, by my Order, during the Tumults of Paris ; 
and concluded, that fome unlucky Accident 
hiad now betray 'd him : Which, if it were fo, 
would infallibly bring me into the fame Danger. 
This made mefo fuddenly change my Habitation, 
and put a Stop to the Di/patches of the fuhlimt 
Tort. I thought no Caution too much, toprefervc 
the Affairs of my CcmmiJJion indemnified ; and. 
That it were better to offend in being too wary, 
than too fecure. If I have taken wrong Mea- 
fures in thus abfconding, 'tis for want of fuller 
Inftruftion from my Superiors. I wiih they would, 
honour me with particular Rules, . in cafe of 
fach Emergencies; then I fhould fteer my 
Courfe, without running the Hazard of Rocks 
and Sands. I have often defired to know. Whe- 
ther, if I were difcover'd, 1 fhould own myfelf 


Vol. IV. ^ S P V ^/ P A R I S. 21 

an Agent for the Grand Seignior. But none of 
the Minijlers have vouchfafed to direft me in this 
Point : Whereby I may commit an irrepairable 
Millake, if fuch a Thing fhould happen. 

Adonai the Jeixj informs me of an Attempt 
lately made to rob the Treafury of Venice ; which 
according to his Defcription is very rich and 
magnificent. He fays, There are twelve Croixins 
of pure Gold, and an equal Number of Breaft- 
plates cf the fame Metal, fet with all Sorts of 
precious Stones of ineltimable Value : A hun- 
dred Veffels of Agat : Threefcore Ser-vices for the 
Altar^ all of pure Gold, enrich'dwith Diamonds, 
Sapphires, Emeralds, and other Stones of Price. 
There is alfoan Uni earn* s Horn, above thePurchafe 
of Money. There are fourteen unpolifh'd Pearls, 
as large as a Man's Fift. The Ducal Cap is valu- 
ed at a Hundred-thoufand Zechins ; with many 
other Rarities, and coftly Ornaments, too tedious 
to be inferted in a Letter. 

Certainly fo much Wealth was never deftin'd 
to fall into the Hands of little private Thie'-jes : 
It is a Booty fit for Kings and great Generals, the 
licens'd Banditti of the Earth So many glitter- 
ing Jewels would tempt the Honelly of an An- 
gel, and he would be glad to adorn the Apart- 
ments of his Heaven with thefe radiant Drops of 
the Sun which he fees on Earth. 

I have met with fome pretty Relations of the 
Boldnefs of Robbers, but none that ever match'd 
the Bravery of this Enterprize ; which was no 
lefs than to rob one of the moll potent States in 
the World of her chiefeft Treafure. 

He wanted not for Impudence, who, when 
the Emperor Charles V. was removing his Court, 
and ail the Oncers were bufy in packing up the 
Goods, enter'd the Chamber where the Emperor 
was; and, having made his Obcifancc, fell round- 

22 Letters Writ by Vol. IV. 

ly to pulling down the rich Hangings of Ti^uey 
which by the Help of his Confederates he carried 
away, with abundance of Plate : No Body ever 
fufpedling but that he was one of the Emperor^ 
Servants, 'till the Perfon canve, whofe Office it was 
to remove thofe Goods, and then the other was 
known to be a Thief. 

I have heard of a Spaniard, who on a great 
Tejlival, when the Priefts had finifh'd the Serniice 
of the Altar, and were retired to their Lodgings, 
went very boldly and took the golden Veflels off 
the Altar, and carry'd them away under his 
Cloak, as though he had been the Stei.vard of the 
Church, no Body fufpedling any other. 

I kifs the Hem of thy Veft, illuflrious Kama' 
cham, and pray. That thou may 'ft monopolize the 
choiceft Bleffings of Heaien, and have thy Share 
of the Riches of the Earth, without Danger of 
lofing them to great or fmall Thie'ves. 
Paris, i6th of the ^d Moony 

of the Tear, 1649. 


To Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew af 

NO W thou may'ft continue thy Difpatches 
as before. Our Fears are vanifli'd : Elia- 
chitn is releafed, and all Things are in Safety. 
Thou haft no Reafon to tax me with Timorouf- 
nefs, in fo abruptly forfaking my Habitation, 
on the bare Forefight of far-tetch'd Pcfl^ibilities; 
when thou flialt confider. That there is no arm- 
ing againft Contingencies in the Momen*^ they ar- 
rive, and that he, who trufts allThings \oChance, 


Vol. IV. a Spy at Vakis. 23 

makes a Lottery of his Life, wherein, for one 
happy Event, he fhall meet with ten unlucky 
ones. To what Ufe ferves that afprehenji've Fa- 
culty, which Nature has pofted as the Corps du 
Guard oi our Lives and Fortunes, allowing it the 
Senfes for Scouts and Centinels ? To what End, 
I fay, ferves this 'watchful Faculty, but to take 
the Alarm at doubtful Emergencies, to rouze our 
Caution, that fo we may make Provillon, and be 
in a Pofture of Defence, againft whatfoever may 
happen ? 

News came. That EUachim was feiz'd for fedi- 
tious Words againft the Government. I was con- 
fcious. That both he and I had been guilty of 
more than Words in that bare Kind. I'hcrefore 
what had happened to him, I look upon as due to 
myfelf alfo ; and that my Confinement would 
foon follow, if I took no fpeedy Care to prevent 
k, by feafonably abfconding. This was the Rea- 
fon of my fuddcn Departure, which cannot juftly 
be afcribed to Cowardice, fince 'twas the EfFeft 
of common Prudence. 

Now I am return'd to my old L^^/zrj' again, 
where the Joy they are in, for the Birth of a Son, 
will not give them Leifure to refleft on my Af- 
fairs : So that I am received by my Haft without 
the lead Jealoufy or fufpiciom Animadverfions. 
Brim-full of Mirth and jovial Thoughts, the 
good Man compliments me, and proclaims his 
better Fortune : Invites me to fit down with his 
Friends, and partake of the Gifts of Ceres and 
Bacchus. This, thou knowel, is the Cuftom of 
the whole Earth at the Birth of Mortals, They 
make merry over one that is born to the fame Mi- 
feries as themfelves, who, the firft Moment he 
draws the Breath oi Life, is enrolled in the Re^i- 
fler of Death ; and, from the Womb, makes fvvift 
and direft Advances to the Grave. 


44 Lett-ers /Fr/7 hy Vol. IV. 

However, I fat down with the reft, to cwnpljr 
M'ith the exhilarated Humour of my Hofl. I eat, 
I drank, and feem'd merry with the Company ; 
yet, at the fame time, I could not but naufeate 
my Entertainment, and difdain the extravagant 
Profufion of Spirit, which appeared in every 
one of this vain Affembly. They all talk'd ea- 
gerly, and one Man's Words drowned thofe of 
another ; whilft an univerfal Laughter-confound- 
ed the Senfe of all. Then I praiied, in myfelf, 
the Modefty and Order obferv'd in our Eafiern 
Banquets -and Feafts, where no uncomely Ge- 
ftures or Aflions efcape the well-natur'd Guefts ; 
■no loud Talking or Braying like Affes, but every 
one ftrives to fupprefs the Motions and Ap- 
pearances of a too forward and indulgent Mirth, 
and contain themfelves within the Bounds of a 
decent and civil Referve. Such were the Feafts 
inftituted by Lycurgus among the a^jcient La- 
{edemonians ; where fuch as vitr& /^riends and 
Acquaintance met together, and refreflied them- 
felves, without Riot and Luxury. They con- 
vers'd together interchangeably, after the manner 
of Philofophers or Men of the Laivt Difcour- 
fing foberly either of Natural Things, or Ci-vil 
Affairs : Mixing facetious and. witty Jefts with 
their more ferious Talk, w 'thout Clamour, 
Scurrility, or giving any 0"ence. But thefe 
Wejiern People think themfelves not merry, till 
they are drunk, nor witty, unlefs they be rude. 
They play a thoufand various Tricks, like Apes, 
and the greateft Buffoon is the bell Company. 

Wherefore, fick to fee Men fo much degene- 
rate from themfelves, I made my Excufes, and 
retired to my Chamber, v/here I prelently let 
Pen to Paper to give thee an Account of ray 
Return. * 


Vol. IV. ^z Spy «/ Paris. 2^ 

If thou continueft thy former Refolution of 
following the DiSates of Reafon in Matters of Re- 
Ihian, thou wilt quickly find, that thy Kabbr% 
have taught thee to believe in Fables, which ac- 
cord neither with Reafon nor common Senfe. Fol- 
bw the bcfl Guide, and be happy. 

Paris, xdth of the '^d Moojtf 
of the Tear 1649. 


To Adonai, a Jew at Venice. 

TH Y Pen is now free again : Write as 
foon and as often as thou wilt ; our Fears 
are diffipated, and all goes well. If thou canlt 
inform me of any more remarkable Paflages and 
Adventures, fpare not to oblige me with frequent 
Letters : And, to encourage thee, I will relate to 
thee a Story which is recorded in the Hijiories of 

In former Times there was a Statue of Marble 
{landing on the Top of a Mountain in Apuliay 
with this Lifcription on the Head, which was 
Brafs, On May-Day at Sun-Rising I shall 
HAVE A Head of Gold. No Man in all 
thofe Parts could be found who was able to 
unriddle this myflerious Expreffion, and therefore 
it was not regarded for many Ages, But at 
length, in the Reign of a certain Prince, there 
was a Saracen, who having feen and confidered 
the Statue, with the Infer iption, propofed to 
explain it for a certain Reward. The Prince 
hearing of thif, and being greedy of the Novel- 
ty, fent for the Saracen, and bargained with him 
C for 

26 Letters ^r/V ^^ Vol. IV. 

for a thoufand Crowns to unfold this Riddle. 
He waited till Mzy-Z)^ came, and watching the 
Image that Morning early, he obferved the Place 
where the "Read call its Shadow juft as the Sun 
rofe. There he ordered certain Men to dig ; 
^vhich when they had done, and were got pretty 
deep in the Earth, they encounter'd a prodigious 
Treafure of Silver, Gold, and Jewels ; with 
which the Prince was fo well fatisfy'd that he 
doubled the Saraceri's Reward, and fent him 
Home into his own Country laden with rich Pre- 
fents. Doubtlefs, there is much Wealth buried 
by Men in the Earth. For in former Times 
they were of Opinion, that if they fliould die 
•fuddenly in the Wars, or otherwife, fuch Riches 
as they had hidden in the Earth would ferve 
them in the other World. And this is the Prac- 
tice of the Indians to this Day, as my Brother 
informs me, who has been among them. 

Strange Blindnefs ! That Men ftiould think the 
immortal Soul needed the Afllftance of Silver, 
Gold, or any material Subftance, after fhe her- 
felf is divefted of the Body, and become a tmked 

Let thou and I have a nobler Idea of our- 
felves, than to fancy we fhall be in Want of 
the glittering Drofs in that itfvijihle State, v/hi- 
ther we are all haftening. There are no Money" 
Changers in that World oi Spirits. If thou hall 
Supeifluity hide it not in the Earth, but give it 
to the Poor, and thou (halt receive it again, trans- 
formM into a Subftance more refined and radiant 
than the Stars. 

Pa r is , 1 6th of the 3 d Moo», 
cfthe Tear 1649. 


Vol. IV. ^Spy«/Paris. If 


To the Reis Effendi, Chief Secretary of 
the Ottoman Empire. 

TH E Inteftine ^arrels\ of the French feem 
to be like thofe of Liyvers, whofe cholerick 
Intervals ferve but to give a new Edge to the Re- 
turns of their AfFeAion. As if one of thefe Paf- 
ftons was made to whet the other, and make ic 
more fprightly : Or, as if Love would grow dull 
and feculent, were it not fometimes roufe^ and 
fermented by Anger. 

But I believe there is a greater Myftery in the 
Reconciliation between the French Court and the 
Tarliament of Paris. Some Ends of Policy have 
haften'd both Parties to clap up a Peace, while 
the fecret Rancour remains unpurged. 

Perhaps the Union of fo many Princes and No- 
bles, with the Parliament, might incline tht^een 
to milder Councils than her own Spanijh Genius. 
Befides, the ConjunAion of the other Parliamentt 
of the Kingdom, the Revolt of Normandy, Gaf~ 
coigne, and Pro^jence, with many eminent Cities, 
were very prevailing Motives. But that, which 
was of greateft Force, was the Want of Money 
and Men to carry on the War, which could not bs 
raifed without vaft Difiiculty, during thefe pub- 
lick Alienations. 

Whatever were the Inducements, a Peace was 
concluded about the latter End of rhethird Moo7t, 
at a Place call'd Ruel, not far from Paris, where 
the King has a Houfe of Pleafure, feated in the 
Midll of a little Paradife. In one of my Letters 
to the Kamaickam, I formerly defcribedthe Kirig'-j 
Hiaufe and Qardcn at St. Germain en Lay. Thi^ is 
C 3 but 

'Zt Letters Wrii by Vol. Vf, 

but a little Chiofe or Bower in CoiTiparifcn of 
that {lately Palace. Yet what is wanting in the 
Grandeur of the Fabrick is fupplied in its ele- 
_g2nt Contrivance, and the Richnefs of its Orna- 
"ments. And as for the Garden, it comes not far 
Ihort of the other, there being in it all Manner 
of curious Water-works, Groves, Soltiudes, Foun- 
tains, Statues, and whatfcever the Ingenuity of 
tht(e JVeJIern Artills could fuggeft, as proper to 
render this Place agreeable to the melancholy Hu- 
mour of the late Queen Mother, Mary de Medi' 
iisy to w hom it belonged during her Life. 

When you enter this delicious Eden, your Eyes 
and Ears are prefently deceived by the counterfeit 
Kotef' and Motions of all Kinds of Birds, which 
perpetually fing as the Water tunes their Throats. 
A little farther you fee feveral old Gentile Sta- 
tues adorning two Fountains : And among the 
relt a Crocodile, big as the Life, who, by the 
Harmony he makes, feems to have a Concert of 
Mufick in his Belly, as regular and as fweet 
as that of the Italian Society at Conjlantinople ^ 
which thou haft often heard. 

As we depart from this, full of Complacency 
and Admiration at the exquifite Imitation of 
Nature in thefe Contrivances, we fall infenfibly 
into a Place exactly like what the Poets defcribe 
when they fpeak oi Elyjiuin. It is a Grove, the 
Tops of whofe Trees are fo thick interwoven, 
that the Sun appears no otherwife through them, 
than as if he were behind a Cloud, or an Eclipfe. 
So that the Daiknefs of this Place, and fclemn 
Murmur the Winds make on high amorg the 
Tops of the Trees, fills it with a Kind oi /acred 
Horror ; which has often made me think tliis 
Wildervcfs fomethirg like that which Hijlorians 
defcribe, when they fpeak of the A'verues to the 
liTTifle of Ji/piter Amnion in Eg)^t. For in the 


Vol. IV; a Spy ai Parts. i^ 

very Cen^er of this Grove ftands the Houfe ; a 
Place one would think fitter for a Convent than a 
Princess Court. At b?ft it appears but like a R^yal 
Hermitage, a Cr //confecrated to Kingly Melancholy. 
I could not forbear making this Digrefli )n when 
J mentioned Ruel to be the Place where the Peace 
was concluded between the Court and the Parlia^ 
ment : This Encomium is a Tribute which I owed 
fcr the Satisfaftion and Pleafure I have often re- 
ceived in this Retirement. Befides, I thought an 
Jdta of fuch a Garden would not be unwelcome 
to the^ who art a Lover of Solitude. 

The Coadjutor of Paris, who is an Archhijhr,p^ 
15 highly affronted that this Peace was concluded 
without him, who had a chief Hand in begin- 
ning the War. He labours to inflame the Peo- 
rle again, and reduce all to the old Confufion, 
being an irreconcifeable Enemy of Cardinal Ma- 
xirini. Si that we expeft another Jnfurredlion 
in a fnort Time : For the French cannot be long 

Hippy Mtnifier, I leave thee under the Wings 
of that Spirit which guards the Ele3y and bid 
thee Farewel. 

Paris, 1 ^th of the ^tb M-jon, 
of the 7'tar 1649. 


I'o Dgnet Oglou. 

SHall I tell thee, I mourn for the Death of our 
Friend Egry Boinou, whom thou fay'ft a Fever 
Inatch'd from us the lirll Day of the ^'L)on Rgih ? 
That Fever it feems was the Effeft of iu> con- 
C 3 tinaal 

30 Letters PFrit hy Vol. IV. 

tinual and excefllve Grief for the Lofs of his Eyes ;. 
io that we may fay, he has been dying ever fince 
the Hour that fatal Sentence was put in Execution : 
And, fliall we grudge our Friend a Releafe from 
{q lingring a Death ? At beft, it was but the 
Winter of Life wrapp'd up in Clouds and Dark- 
jiefs : Now, like the Serpent, he has call: his 
Slough, lifts up his Head with new Vigour, fports 
himfelf in the Meadows of Paradife, and balks 
in the Warmth of an eternal Spring. 

'Twill not therefore be a Mark of our AfFeai- 
on to him, but only a Difcovery of our Self-love^ 
to condole the Occafion of his Happinefs, be- 
caufe it has leffened ours, by robbing us of his 
beloved Company and Friendlhip. Befides, we 
know not but that he may ftill continue to be 
our Friend, even in that innjijible State ; and ei- 
ther manage our Interefts fl^cT/f, or at leaft pro- 
teft us from Dangers here belo^v. We are igno- 
rant of the Laivs and Covjiitutions of that King- 
i^cm of Spirits ; and, for aught we know, the 
Souls of juft Men, after Death, may become the 
Tutelar Genii, or Guardian Angels of their fur- 
viving Friends and Relations. Let it be how it 
will, doubtlefs, Egry is immortal and happy, and 
'twill be Envy in us to repine at it. Rather let^ 
us congratulate the Time of his Deceafe as the 
Day of his Nativity, and \ez.vt Mourning to the 
Crowd of Mortals, who do a thoufand Things 
without ever thinking what they are about. 
They tread in the Steps of their Fathers, ne- 
ver examining whether they be right or wrong ! 
Cuftom and Education have almoft banilhed Rea- 
fcn from the Earth. Is it not a pleafant Spefta- 
cle to fee the Kindred of an old rich Mifer 
(for whofe Death they had long waited, like 
Harpies for their Prey) now flock about his life- 
kfs Carcais, howling out a thoufand forced» 


Vol. rV. aSpY al Fatljs. 31 

Lamentations ; whilft, in the mean Time, their 
Blood dances in their Veins for Joy ? Yet how- 
ever, this carries a Shew of civiliz'd Manners, and 
is belter than the barbarous Cuftom of the Scythi- 
ans and Majfagetes, who, when their old Men 
grew ufelefs or troublefome, were wont to facri- 
fice them, and make a Banquet with their Flefh ; 
or the Thebarenes, who threw their aged Friends 
alive down Precipices. Thefe were Savages ; 
but much more To were the Hyrcanians and 
BaSlrians, who cift their aged Parents, yet living, 
to be devoured by Degs j which Inhumanity, 
^hen Stafanor the Deputy of Alexander the Great 
endeavoured to fupprefs, they had like to have 
depofed him from the Government : So prevalent 
IS the Force of a received Cullom on the Minds 
pf the unthinking Herd. 

Let tliou and 1 therefore not fupinely take up 
with common Pradlices ; but, like Men of Rea- 
ibn, let US adjull the laft Offices we owe to our 
Friend, whillt we pour forth fome devout Orai- 
fons for the Health of his Soul, without dillurb- 
ing his and our own Repofe with fruitlefs La- 
mentation. And, fince we are bereaved of his 
Society on Earth, let us prepare to follow him, 
and render ourfelves agreeable Company at our 
next Rendezvous in Hewoen. 

It was an unjuftifiable Rigour in Sultan Ihraham 
to deprive him of his Eyes, becaufe he had only 
call them unhappily on one of the Sultana\ as 
Ihe enterM the Garden. This Jealoufy is the pecu- 
liar Vice of the EaJ}. Yet they are more fevere 
in Perjta, where 'tis prefent Death to be within 
two Leagues of the King\ Women when they tra 
vel the Road. But I never knew that Eunuchs were 
thus punifli'd. Or is there fuch a Difference be- 
tween a ivhite and a black Eunuch, that the One 
deferves to lofe his Eyes for beholding that by 
C 4 Chance, 

52 Letters PFrit by Vol. IV. 

Chance, which the other is honourably rewarded 
for having Accefs to, and feldom being out of 
their Sight ? 

This was the worft Punifhment that Saleucus, 
the Lan.v-gi'ver of the Locrians, impofed on them 
that were adlually caught in Adultery j which 
puts me in Mind of a notable Inftance.of this 
Man's Juftice : For when his own Son was ac- 
cufed, and proved guilty of this Crime ; at once 
to (hew the Tendemefs of a Father, and the Incor- 
ruptible Se'ueritj of a yudge, he firft caufed one of 
his own Eyes to be put out, and then one of hiis 
Sons : Thus taking on himfelf i^a^the Penalty j 
that fo the Laixj might be fatisfied in the njuhole, 
and vet his Son not be totally deprived of his 

Thou tellell me no News of our Armies, nor 
what Alterations have been made amoneft the 
Minijiers of the Port fmce the Death of Sultan 
Ibrahim. We have various Reports here, and 
fome fay that the new Vizier Jzem will be no 
iong-liv'd Man. I defire thee to write often to 
nie, and fend what Intelligence thou canft. 

Let nothing flip the Knot which has faftened 
us fo many Years together in an entire Friend- 
ship ; but let us carry that Magnet with us to our 
Graves j that, at what Diftance foever we may 
be buried, our Souls may, by the Force of that 
Attraftive, find one another out, and converfe 
together in that Region of Silence and Shadows. 

Paris, c^thofthe ^th Moony 
of the Tear 1649. 


Vol. IV. rt Spy ^/ Paris. 33 


To the Captain Bafla. 

I Know not where this Letter may find thee ; on 
the Shore, or at Sea. If thou art in thewatry 
Wildernefsy I have no Art to trace thee. There 
are no certain Roads on that inconjlant Element. 
It is a mighty Plain, without Path or Track. 
And though there be certain Stages In it, yet thy 
Arrival at them is timed at the Pleafure of the 
Winds 9nd Waves, which will not obey even the 
Orders thou haft received from the Grand Seigvicr^ 
Lord of ihe Four Seas. Perhaps thou art in Pur- 
fuit of feme Venetian Ships, or other Chrifiian 
Veflels, the Cor/airs of the Mediterranean. Or 
thou may'il be careening thy Fleet in fome (c- 
curer Retreats of the Archipelago. Thou may'il 
be within a Minute of a Wreck, or juft entering a 
Harbour. Where-ever thou art, may Heav.n 
preferve thee from the Dangers which alwjyn 
threaten fuch as truft their Lives to a Piece of 
Wood ; for there wil! be great Need of thee, if 
out Intelligence be true in thefe Parts. 

It is reported here, that the Cojfacks, CircaJ/iatis, 
Mingrelinns, and other People who border on the 
Black Sea, and obey not the Laxv brought down 
from Hea'ven, are enter'd into a Z.^'ag-K^againft the 
Blejfed Port, and have cover'd thofe Seas with a 
mighty Fleet ; while the Prince of Georgia rulhcs 
down from his Mountains with an Army of forty 
thoufand Armenians, Perjiant, and fforderers of 
Mount Cauca/us : That the former have taken a 
thoufand of our trading Saich, and are ad- 
vanced as far as the Ferry of the Bull, which thou 
knoweft is bat fix Hours fail from the Imperial 
C 5 City ; 

;54 Letters JFrit Hy Vol. IV". 

City : That the latter have made Incurfions into 
the Territories of the Grand Seignior ; put all 
to the Sword who refilled them as they march'd 
along ; burned and laid waile the Country ; and 
that all the Greeks and Armenians flock to them, 
threatening an univerfal Defeftion from the OttO' 
man Empire. 

As to the Truth of thefe Report?, I can af- 
certain nothing, but am inclined to believe the 
Cojfacks are troublefome at Sea, and that they 
may have drawn fome of their Neighbours into 
a League, thofe pilfering Nations who live by 
Rapine and Spoil on both Elements. Our fmall 
VefTels trading on the Black Sea, full of Riches 
and empty of Arms, mud needs be a Tempta- 
tion to thofe Pirates, who are the mod dextr'oua 
at a Robbery, and the boldeft Fellows in the 
World. The Merchants of thefe Parts, who 
have had feme TrafRck. at Caffa, and other Towns 
on the Banks of the Black-Sea, give a frightful 
Defcription of thofe tempeftuous Waters, a;nd no 
good Charadler of the People that border on them. 
The Cojfacks, they fay, are valiant and mercena-^ 
ry ; the Circnjfans hardy and bold ; the Mingre- 
Hans fly and crafty ; and the Georgians of an 
^/?/-a/ Complexion, capable of all Virtues and 
Vices. The Firjl feldom a6l unlefs encouraged 
by the King of Poland, or the Czar of Alufcovy ;. 
.ind then they are content with their Pay, and 
the lawful Plunder of War. The Second are 
never idle when there is Hope of Prey, whe- 
ther they fight their own Caufe, or are em- 
ployed by others, and fear neither Hunger, Cold, . 
nor any other Extremity for the Sake of a Prize, 
The Tiird are good at a Stratagem, and would 
fteal a Man's Teeth out of his Gums, if he be not 
wary ; great Cowards, yet defperate in their, 
own Defeuce, when they fee no Medium between 


Vol. IV. cSpy^/ Paris. 33 

Fighting and Death. As for the Fourth, thejr 
feem to be a Kind of Mungrels, a medley Race, 
whofe Charailer is compounded of the other 

They are flout and witty, dextr'ous at a Cheat, 
and no Bunglers at an ingenious Theft ; great 
Lyars, full of Compliments and external Civi- 
lities, but perfidious and implacable in their Re- 

Yet after all, I cannot believe the Prince of 
this Country, who is a Tributary to the King of 
Terjia, would venture his Gwernment at two fuch 
defperate Stakes, by breaking the Peace concluded" 
by his Smereign with the Grand Seignior, and fo 
drawing upon himfelf the Vengeance of them 
both. Therefore, he is either fecretly abetted by 
that Monarch, or elfe the News is falfe. 

Would'ft thou know how this Country came 
to be fubjeft to the Cromcn of Perfui ? It was 
conquered by Ifhmael Sophi, to whom the Perjian 
Hijlorians, in Flattery, give the Epithet of Great. 
He was the Jirji of that Name, and of the Verjian 
Kings, that refufed to obey the Orthodox Succejfort 
of the Sent of God. This Prince was valiant in 
the Field, and- no Coward at Wine, if we may- 
believe one of iiis Courtiers, who wrote Memoirs 
of his Life. He records fixteen Battles, wherein 
he always got the Vidory i and twice that Num- 
ber of Rcyal Debauches, when he Ihewed the 
Strength of his Brain in the Company of Foreign 
Amhajfadon ; with whom he would always ca- 
roufe, before they departed his Court, that he 
might found the Depth of their Inftruflions ; ibr, 
none were able to cope with him at the Juice of 
the Grape. And he always efteemed that Liquor 
a Friend to Truth. 

If he fufpeded his Minijlers oi State, or any of 
the Geier/iin of Provinces, he ufed to invite them 
C 6 to 

3^ Letters IVrit by Vol. IV .' 

to a Banquet } where, in the MidH of his Drink- 
ing, he unravell'd their fecret Inclinations and 
Councils ; being the moft dexterous at picking 
the Locks of a Man's Heart, of any one living. 
They never went alive from his Prefence, if by 
one falfe Step in their Carriage, tho' it were but 
a Word too paffionate, or a Look lefs compofed 
to Refignation, he could difcover or frame to 
himfelf the Grounds of a juft Jealoufy. It be- 
ing ever his Maxim, That Credulity nuas the only 
Vice that could ruin a happy Prince. He had an-r 
other Saying alfo, Ihat Perfia ivas fertile of 
Men, hut barren of faithful Officers. 

I cannot admire thefe cruel Strains of Policy : 
Yet Kings have Rcafons for their Adions and 
Words, which we cannot comprehend. The Phi' 
kfophers fay, That Wine ivas gi'ven us by the 
Oods, to mitigate our Cares ; and, for a Time, to 
make us equal to their Divinities, in the free Enr 
joyment of our/elves. And though, as a Mufful- 
man, I am not bound to fubfcribe to the Princi- 
ples of Pagans ; yet, as a Man, Partaker of Flefh 
and Blood, I think he doubly mifufes that Li- 
quor, who perverts it to the Ends of Cruelty. 

But this Mojutrch had other Thoughts, when, 
by the Affiftance of the Georgian Forces, having 
fubdu'd the Regions bordering on the Cafpian Sea, 
at that Time in the Hands of the Ottomans,. )\q 
invited the King of Georgia to his 7>n/. under 
Pretence of a fefii'val ]oy for their mutual Sue- 
ccfs. The unwary Prince, trufting to his own 
Merit, and the Faith of his Neighbour, ventures 
himfelf with a fmall Guard to the Camp of JJh- 
mael. ThtPerJlan entertained him, with all the 
outward Demonftrations of Aft'edUon and Grati- 
tude, for his repeated Aids : But, in the End of 
the Feaji, taking Exceptions at fome Words the 
King of Georgia fpoke, in Praife of his own 


Vol. IV, a Spy at V ar i s. 57 

Soldiers, he commanded his Eunuchs to fcize on ' 
him, and carry him to the Tent of the Unfortunate 
(fo they called the Pa'vilion or Cage of the Gran- 
(dees fallen into Difgrace.) Then he gave Avift Orr 
ders for the Georgian Soldiers to be manacled. 
'And having thus done, he bellowed th-e Govern- 
ment of Georgia on one Luarzab, on Condition, 
That he and his Succeflbrs would embrace the 
Faith of Halt, and pay Tribute to the Crown of 

From this Luarzah has the Government of 
Georgia defcended, not in a Line of Blood, but 
at the Pleafure of the Perjian Kings, to him who 
now holds it, Shanavas-Chan ; who, I believe, 
has more Wit than to hazard his PofTellions for 
the Sake of a Chimera, 

In thus roving from my firfl Point thou canfl 
not blame me, fince thou thyfelf adleft by the 
Rules of NanjigatioK, which vary according to 
the Byafs of the Needle. Thou followeft one 
Magnet, and I another ; yet, let us both meet 
in the Center of Duty we owe the Grand Seignior* 

Paris, z^d of the bth Moon, 
of the Tear 1649, 


To Cara Hali, Phyfician to the Grand 

THOU, wilt fay,, 'tis an unmannerly Wiy 
of congratulating thy Nev/ Advance, to 
begin my Addrefs with Complaints. Yet Fricnd- 
ihip overlooks Pun^ilio\, 'Tig not the firfl 


3^ Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

Time I have trefpafled on thy generous Tem- 
per. I am indifpofed, and cannot aft the Cour' 
tier, though I am ravifhed to hear the News. It 
is fome Support to my languifhing Spirits, that, 
whilft I am crumbling and dwindling away into 
the little Principles of which I was made, thou 
my Friend art growing in the Bulk of mortal 
Greatnefs, in the Favour of om glorious Sultan. 

However, I cannot but fufpeft the pretended 
Kindnefs of him who raifed thee, I mean the ne'w 
Vixier ; neither haft thou much Reafon to take 
this fudden Reconciliation for any other than a 
Mafk of his old Malice. He cannot forget the 
Quarrel between thy Father and him, on the Ac- 
count of D<stra Mefock, the LieutenarJ-Ger.eral 
of the Janizaries ; when the brave old Cheik put 
a Stop to the defigned Revenge of this inhuman 

Aflure thyfelf, That he who has made the 
Steps to the Grandeur he now poflefTes, o'er the 
Neck of his Majler, will not fpareany from whofe 
Wit or Power he may fear a Shock, And he 
knows both by Experience and Intereft too great,- 
not to miftruft the Son of his Enemy. 

Befides, the eminent Command, thy Brother 
has over the Spahi''s, mull needs be an additional 
Caution to the Man, whofe Name founds no 
where fo fweetly, as in the Chamber of the Ja- 

Thou art fenfible, that the newly reviv'd Anl- 
mofity between thefe Military Orders threatens 
a Calamity to the Ottoman Empire, which cannot 
be diverted, without a Sacrifice on one Side or 
other. And, fmce the SpahVi have engaged fo 
many potent "Bajfas in their Quarrels, who can 
expeft to fall, but the mighty Fawurite of th« 
Infantrs ? 


Vol. IV. « S p y ^/ P A R IS. 29'- 

He knows this very well ; and, to prevent his 
ownKuin, he refolves on thine and thy Brother's : 
Thine under the Mafque of Friendfliip, till by his 
Wheedle he has drawn thy Brother to Conjlanti' 
nople ; where he will not fail to be llrangl'd, that 
fo a Creature of the Vizier may be promoted in 
his Room : And what will become of thee after 
this, I leave to thy own Judgment. 

Perhaps thou wilt defpife the Advice of a flck 
Man, and impute my Fears to an Excefs of Me- 
lancholy ; from which Diftemper, thou knowell, 
I am fddom free. But I tell thee, my Reafon 
labours under no Hypocondriack Diforders, tho*' 
my Bodi may. I am no Enthujiaji when I coun- 
fcl my Friend to avoid an apparent Danger. How- 
ever, if thou thinkeft it needlefs for me to bufy 
myfelf in fuch Cafes, I have done. But I ihall 
never ceafe to pray for thy Profperity, as often 
as I comply with the Laiu, in kiffing the Floor 
Jive Times a Day, and repeating the appointed 
Oraifons of Faith. 

Methinks, when I write to thee now, my Pert 
is at a Lofs : I am puzzled for a Style fuitableto 
thy neiv Honour and our old Friendlhip. 

But, if I take too much Liberty, afcribe it to 
the Sincerity of my AfFeftion, which knows not 
how to be referv'd or ftrange to a Perfon, whom 
once I could call my other felf : For no wider is 
the Dillance between Friends. 

Baris, ^th of the -jth Moon^ 
ofthi Tear 1649. 


40 Letters Wrlthy Vol. IV. 


5r<? Chiurgi Muhamet, Baflk. 

I Know not, whether what I am going to relate 
will be News to thee, or to any of the Mini- 
fitrs refiding at the fuhlime Port. However, 'tis 
fo to me, and T ara commanded to conceal no- 
thing of Moment that comes to my Ears. 

Mahomet, eldeft Son of Achmet, the Dey of 
Tunis, is row at Rome, having embraced the 
Chriftian Religion. People relate vnrioufly the 
Motives that induced him to this Change. Some 
fay, 'twas Intereft, he having held a private Cor- 
refpondence with the Viceroy of Sicify, who pro- 
mifed him, in the King of Spain s Name, to 
make him Lord of feveral large Territories in the 
fTe^ Indies. 

Others fay, 'twas Difcontent at his Father's 
Government, and auftere Carriage towards him ; 
the old Man having forced him to marry the 
BaJfao^Tripoli''s daughter againft his Inclination. 

But the greateft Part afcrihe this Change in 
Jteligion to the Force of his Confcience ; which 
they fay was convinced by a Miracle, of the 
Truth of the Chrijiidn Faith. For, as they relate, 
being once at Sea in a VeJJel, wherein were many 
Cbr^ians, and a dreadful Tempeft arifing, the 
Mariners, who were all Mujfulmtins., feeing the 
Havock that the Winds and Waves had made of 
the Ship-Tackle, gave over all for loft, and faint- 
ing under fo much Labour, Watching, and Ter- 
t^x as they had undergone, lay down, and let 
the Ship drive where-ever the Storm would carry 
her. But there being a Chriftian Prieji aboard, 
eileem'd a very holy and blame lefs Man, he 


Vol. IV. aSrvailpARis. 41 

excited the Chrijiians to appeafe the Wrath of 
God by fome extraordinary Adls of Devotion. 
'J hen they all made a folemn Procejpon on the 
Decks ofihtShtp, the Pm;/'? carrying before them 
that which they call the Sacrainenf, imploring the 
Mercy ofGou, and often calling on yry^j and 
Mary. When behold, as the Prieji flood aloft oHv 
the Poop, reading aloud Part of the Go/pel, the 
Storm fuddenly ccafed, the Clouds were difpers'd, 
tlie Air grew ferene and calm, and the V'efTel 
got (life into Hai4)our. Upon thi-s they fay, Ma- 
homet, when he came alhore, took that Prieji 
along with him, defiring to be inllrudled in the 
Chriji'ian Belief -^ making a Vow alfo, That he 
would renounce the Law of the Mujfulmans, and 
embrace that of ye/us. 

This is what fuch, as are zealous for the Ho- 
nour of the Chrijiian Faith, relate concerning 
this Prifice^s Converfion. However it be, it is 
certain, that he privately made his Efcape from 
Tunij by Sea, and bent his Coorfe diredly for 
Sici/y ; where in a few Days he landed, and was 
received by the Viceroy, according to the Dignity 
of a Prince. A while after, he was baptiz'd by 
an Aichbijfjop, who gave him the Name of Don 
Philippo, by which he is called in all Places. 

They fay, he was a little fcanualized at firft, 
when he faw with what Freedom the Sicilian 
Women appeared abroad in the Streets, and 
converfed with Men ; but that afterwards, he 
took a great Delight in their Company, efpecially 
thofe that could ling well, or play on any In- 
ftrument of Mujick, to which he is much ad- 
difted. And therefore, he chufes to frequent 
thofe Temples, where their Seri/ice is performed 
with Variety of excellent Mujici, as it is in all 
great Cities. And for aught we know, the 
Charader, which the Chrijiian Prieji gave him of 


42 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

this harmonious Manner Qi'u:o7-Jhipping God, might 
have no fmall Influence on a Man naturally affed- 
ed with that Science. Certainly Mufick has a 
mighty Force on our AfFedions j and it is a Pro- 
*verb iiere in the IJ'^eJi, That he, nvho does not love 
Mufick, has Ko Soul. One of the ancient Philo- 
Jofhcrs defined the Scul itfelf to be an Harmony. 
And another was fo fenfible of the various Eftedls 
of this Science, in raifing different Paflions in 
Men, that he left it as an Aphorifm, Such as the is, Juch are the Vecplc of fi. Co7n}r.oii'v:ealth. 
"Whence it was the great Care cf fucli as took 
upon them to form the Manners of y'outh, that no 
Tunes fhould be played in their hearing, which 
naturally provoked to Levity and Wantonnefs ; 
but grave and martial Strain?, fuch as prompted 
heroick Thoughts, and difpofed them to Vir- 
tue. The Italiaju are great Mafiers of this Sci- 
ence i and the Airs which they compofe for 
their Church Service are very deep and ravifk- 
ing. Which caufes their fie-zv Profelyte, Don 
Philippo, to pafs his Time very attentively, du- 
ring the Celebration oi ih.dx High-^Iafs and their 
Even-Song. They report, that he will turn Je- 
fuit. ^ . 

He went from Sicily leaden with Gifts and 
Prefents, and came to Rome, the Seat of the 
Chrifiians chief Mufti, whom they call the Pope, 
He is much honoured and careffed by the Holy 
Father, and all the Cardinals, who have told him 
fomany fair Things of the Nazarene Faith, and 
Ihewed him fo imx\y facred Relicks oi Antiquity^ 
that he thinks himfelf already within the Ferge 
of Heaven, ai;d that Rome is no other than th? 
Suburbs of Paradife. There is fomething very- 
charming and fweet in the Converfation of the 
Chrijiian Prelates, if they be Men of Learning, 
as aaolt generally they are. And 'tis no Wonder 


Vol. IV. a Spy ai Paris. 4^ 

that fuch polite Company fhould prevail much 
on tlie flexible Temper of a young Prime, wha 
IS as a Pi/grim in a flrange Country, where he 
can' hear nothing but perpetual jS/^/oj-zV/ of the 
Chrijiian Religion ; nor fee any Thing but Ob- 
jeds, which ferve only to confirm in his Mind 
a venerable Idea of that Faith he has embraced. 
Befide?, they fay he is fallen deeply in Love with 
a young Roman Lidy j fo that there is no Hope 
of refcaing him from the Power of fo many En- 

Therefore, giving him over as loft, let us pray 
the Omnipofent, to eftablifh us in his Tntih ; that 
neither Intereft, Paffion, nor an erroneous Con- 
fcience may ever be able to make us fwerve 
from the Laiv written in Heaven, but, that wfr 
may adhere to God and his Prophet s^ with a- 
Thoufand Souls. 

Paris, i^th of the yth Moon, 
of the Tear 1649. 


To Sala Tircheni Ermin, Superinten- 
dant of the Royal Arlenal at Con- 

WE are all alarm'd here with the News of 
I know not what boifterous Adventures 
of the Cojfacks, and their Neighbours, that poffefs 
the ancient Kingdom of Colchis. Had I not a 
firm Faith in the Alcoran, 'twould fill me with 
Panick Fears. But no Attempts can prevail 
againft the Men fighting under the ^{Wmv of 


44 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

the Prophet. He defcended with a confummate 
Authority, from the Miw^rrA who commnnds all 
Things. T!\it Man date of Heat'en vjiW difperfe 
the Infidels. The ft'ven Viziers above were Wit- 
neffes to the Word?, whofe Echo\ caufed Thun- 
der, when the Prophet retir'd from the Sups of 
the Throne. Had nor Mofes given him Warning 
(who remember'd the Noife in the Mourzt). the 
Apojlle had loft his AMirefs, and been confounded i 
before the Angels ; bit encouraged by the Whif- 
per of the Mm with Horns, he made no Default- 
in his Conge : Andwith little Ljfs of Time arriv'd 
to' thc\Ni/2ih Sphere, where he proclaim'd the Ne-- 
fiarum ; and all the Inhabitanit of that Orb re- 
{brted to the Banner which he had in his Hands. 
The Prophet told 'em, Tijcas only for a Trial of 
their Fidelity. They made Obeifance, and retir'd.. 

From that Plice he made no Scruple, but th:it 
the Eleii in Heat'en and Earth would obey the 
Vi'vine Pateiit. Hefini'h'd his Defcent triumphant- 
ly, and pitched his Feet on Mcimt Uriel. Thofe 
that believe Hali fay, 'Twas on the Top of the 
ragged Rock : But let Hereticks alone in their 
Infidelity. Be it where it pleafed God, he fpoke 
the Words that (hall ne'er be revers'd, when he dif- 
play'd the heavenly Silk, and faid, Whoever takes 
up^Arms againfi this Banner, fi^all he reputtd an 
Infidel ; he fijall he exterminated from the Earth. 

I often think on thefe Paflages in the holy Me- 
moirs, the Collegians of the Life full of Wonders. 
Then I comfort myfelf with this Thought, That, 
if all the uncircumcis'd in the World fhould enter 
into a Combination, they would not fucceed a- 
gainft the Men fighting under the Commijfion with 
the Seal. 

I'have fent a Letter to the BaJTa of the Sea, 
acquainting him with the News of'^this Expedition 
of the Cojfacki. Since which lam informed, Thit 


Vol. IV. ^Spy^/ Paris. 45 

thefe People are headed by a famous Pirate in 
thofe Parts, a Mm of a daring Spirit, and ca- 
pable of the boldell Undertakings. 'I'hc French 
Merchants, who have traded in the Black Sea, 
j^ive him a high Charafter ; and portend great 
Injuries to the Ottoman Empire from the Succefs 
of his Arms : For, they fay, he is a good Cap- 
tain, both by Sea and Lancf. I have heard feve- 
ral different Stories both of his Birth and Educa- 
tion : But this, I am going to relate, comes 
from the beft Hands, and feems moft probable. 

His Name is Pachicour, a CircaJJian by Birth, 
but bred up in a Sea To--wn of the Ukrain, near 
the Mouth of the NieJIer. He left his Native 
Country at the Age of twelve Year?, out of a 
Defire to fee foreign Parts, embarking himfelf 
nnknown to his Parents in a Veflel ot Podolia. 
which then was ready to fet fail from Bala Clug. 
He carried with him a fmall Sum of Money, 
which he had purloin'd from his Father, and 
ferved as a Fund of his future Fortune : For, ar- 
riving at a certain Town in Padolia, he fre- 
quented the Keys, and offered his Service to fe- 
\tx2\ Merchants ; one of which, obferving in his 
Face- the Marks of a promifing Genius, enter- 
tained him in his Houfe. He lived with him fe- 
ven Years, and performed his Office fo well, 
that he made him his Factor to Conjiantinople. 

Pachicour difcharged his Trull there with 
much Proft to his Mafier, and Honour to himfelf. 
So that, at his Return, feveral il/? rr^a«/j entrufted 
him with their Goods ; and fent him to trade at 
Caffa, and other Towns on the Black Sea. His 
Judgment and Reputation encreafing with his 
Years, he became in Time famous in all the 
trading Towns. And fuch was his Credit 
in the Ukrain, that all the Merchants put their 
VefTels and Goods into his Hands : So that he 


4^ Letters Writ hy Vol. IV* 

failed many Times with a Fleet of twenty Ship'?, 
having the Difpofal of all the Goods committed 
to his Management. He grew fo rich in Time 
hy his Dealings, that he was able to drive a con- 
fiderable Trade for himfelf. And then it was, 
he began to lay the Foundation of a Defign, 
which he has fmce executed. His Genius was 
too aftive always to be confined to this flow Way 
of growing Great : Therefore, he was refolved 
at one Blow to raife his Fortune to the Pitch he 
aim'd at. He was the only Brother Banquier and 
Merchafit where-ever he came. 

It was no difficult Thing for a Man of fo" vaft 
a Credit to raife an extraordinary Stock ; and 
Pachicour could eafily filence the Alarms of Con- 
fcience. There happen'd alfo a Jundture very 
proper for his Defign. For while he was at If- 
gaoit, a Port of Circajfia, Day and Night projeft- 
ing how to exalt himfelf, a War broke out be- 
tween his Countrymen and the Mingrelians. The 
latter appeared with a l^any at Sea, which alarm- 
ed all the Maritime Parts of CircaJJia. Pachi- 
cour., whofe Invention was always bufy, took a 
Hint from this, to accomplifh his Plot. Expedi- 
tion was his chiefeft Game. Therefore he fpeedi- 
ly made the utmoft Ufe of his Credit among the 
PodoUan Merchants ; and other Foreigners rea- 
ding at Ifgaou. And, when he had amafs'd to- 
gether prodigious. Sums of Gold, for which he 
only gave them Bills of Exchange, he privately 
fends away this huge Treafure, with all his Jew- 
els, TifTues, and other rich Merchandize, to his . 
Father's Houfe, who lived not many Leagues 
from this Town. 

Within two Days after this, the Mingrelian 
Fleet made a Defcent at Ifgaou, fack'd it, carried 
away two thoufand Captives, and went to their 
yciTels again, 


Vol. IV. a Spy at Paris. 4f 

Pachicour, who knew how to make an Advan- 
tage of this Opportunity, privately fled after his 
Wealth, as foon as the Mingrelian Fleet appeared 
before the Place. And it happen'd that moll 
of his Creditors were made Slaves, and tranf- 
ported to Mingrelia. He had no Need to take 
any farther Care, but how to fecure his Riches 
from his pilfering Neighbours : For the CircaJJi' 
am are all profefs^d Thieves. He therefore makes 
Hafte to his Father ; and, having gratified him for 
his Trouble, he in a fhort Time purchafed four 
Men oHVar^ with which he fets up for a Pirate, 
infefting thofe Seas, and robbing all the Mer- 
chants, except thofe who had formerly entrufted 
him. His Bounty and Valour charm'd all that 
ferved him. And, his Fame fpreading with his 
wonderful Succefs, many CircaJJians put out to 
Sea, and joined with him : So that in a little 
Time he made no fmall Figure in the Kingdom oi 
Neptune. Seeing himfelf Comtnander of a power- 
ful Navy, he found out quickly the Mingrelian 
Fleet, and, engaging with them, got a glorious 

Soon after, a Peace was concluded, and Pachi- 
cour was declared Admiral of all the 
Sea-Forces : To which the Mingrelians were ob- 
liged by Treaty to join theirs, and to obey P^- 
f/.'/fowr's Orders. In a little Time, this fortunate 
General became fo famous, that the Cojfacks fent 
to him an Agent, and entered into a League ; fur- 
nilhed out three hundred Vefl"els, and joined the 
CircaJJian and Mingrelian Fleets. 

This is the Bottom of the nenu Expedition 
which makes fo loud a Noife in thefe Parts. 

Thou, who art Mafier of the Arfenal, wilt 
know what Meafures are fitteft to be taken againft 
this bold Infidel, if he perfifls to break the 
Peau of the molt Zerent Empire^ Yet, though he 


4-8 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV; 

is an Enemy, let us not envy him the Praifes 
that are due to his Wit and Courage. He feems 
to furpafs thefneakingTi/V'ufjof hisown Nation i 
and undertakes nothing hnx fo-vet-eign Cheats, ^.nd. 
noble Thefts, fuch as would pafs for njirtmui Ac- 
tions in a Man of a higher Birth. 

I do not plead for Robbery, nor take the Part 
of an hfidel.; but, if I had Time to tell thee 
(ome heroici PaiTages of this Pirate, thouwculd'fl 
fay, he is worthy of a generous and favourable 
Ufage, fhould he become a Captive. In another 
Letter I will oblige thee with a Relation, which 
will not be unwelcome to a Man who gives not 
Sentence with the Vulgar. I had more to fay 
on another Subjeft. but I am interrupted. Par- 
don the EfFedl of my Duty to the Giand Seignior, 

Paris, 1 gth o/" the Sth Moon, 
of the Tear 1649. 


To Melee Amet Bafla. 

TH E R E is News arrived here lately of the 
Murder of the Englifh Ambo^lador at the 
Hague. His Name was Doriflaus. He was fent 
by the neiAj Governors in England to make an 
Alliance with the States oi Hollatid, and to latisfy 
them in reference to their late Proceedings againft 
xYitir Soai ere ign. ^Tisfaid, his Negotiation vjo\x\d 
have had but little Succefs, in regard the Prince of 
Orange, who is Prejidetit or Chief o\tT the States, 
and who married the Daughter of the Englijh 
King, takes to Heart the untimely Death of his 


Vol. IV. /z S p V ^/ P A R I s.' 49 

Father-in La'M, and cannot be reconciled to his 
Murderers. Yet, 'tis to be thought that Princes 
are no farther touch'd with one anotJier's Misfor- 
tunes than concerns their Intereft. 

However, on the 3^ Day of the ^tb Moon, 
fome Scots enter'd into the Lodgings of the ylm- 
bdjffador, and, having difpatch'd him with feveral 
Wounds, made their Efcape. Jt is not certainly 
known who fet thefe Ajfajpns at work. People 
defcant varioufly, as their Affedlions byafs them. 
Some refleft on it as a Judgmenty///?^ infli£led by 
God, though by an uyijuft Aft of Men, on one 
who had been a notorious Promoter of his Sove- 
reign's. Death : Others cenfure it as a moft impi- 
ous Sacrilege, in regard the Pcrfons of Ambajfa' 
dors are by the Lanx: of Isaticns efteemed facred 
and inviolable ; and the Injuries which they fulfar 
are interpreted not only as done to their l^lajiers 
who fend them, but to all Mankind, as \i human 
Nature itfelf were wrong'd in the Perfons of 
Pub lick Minijiers. 

Indeed there is no Method of eftablifhing or 
conferving Friendihips and Alliances between dif- 
ferent Nations, if their Agents be not fecured with 
an Immunity from Affronts and Violences. 

The French relate a pretty Paffnge of one of 
their Kings, who, before he came to the Crou;n, 
being Dukeoi Orka-ns, liad received very ill Ufage 
in his Travels from a certain Italian Lord call'd 
the Baron of Benevento. After this Prince was 
poffefs'd of the Kingdojn, the fame Italian Lord 
was fent Amhajfador from the Viceroy of Naples, 
to congratulate his AcccJJlon to the Throne of his 
Ancejlcrs. Some French Courtiers, who had been 
WitJicffes of the Injuries this LordhzA foriherly 
done to their Mafcr, now perfuaded the King to 
revenge himfcif, by caufing fome grofs Indig- 
nities to be done him vvhillt he had him in las 
D Power. 

^o- L E T T E Pv s Writ hy Vol. IV, 

Power. To whom the wife Monarch reply'd, // 
becomes not theYJingoffr&nce to rei-evge on the 
Ambaffador c/'NapIes the Injuries 'which the Duke 
c/" Orleans recei^ved from the Baron £/"Benevento. 
'Tis faid, the Englijh Nation have demanded 
Satijfaaion of the Hollanders for the Murther of 
their Amhajfador, but were anfwered, Ihat they 
themfehes otight firjl to expiate the Murther of 
their King. 

The Scots have revolted from the l^e^jj Go'vern- 
ment in England^ and are yet in fufpence, whe- 
ther they fhall fet up the Son of the late King, or 
form themfelves into an independent Rcpublick. 
The Irijh are ftedfaft to the Interett of the Crc-jjn : 
And many Iflands in America, fubjeft to the 
Kings of England, have now denied all Obedience 
to -the wfau Englijh Gonjernment, which feems to 
tend towards a Democracy. 

c There is much Talk of one Crcmnvel, the Gene- 
ral of the Englip Forces in Ireland. This Man, 
from a private and cbfcure Eftate, is afcended to 
the Dignity of 2. General-, having purchafed this 
Command by his Condua and Valour. The French 
extol him for the greateft Soldier of this Age ; 
and, if Fame be true, no lefs a Statefman. 

As a Mark of the Refpeft I owe thee, thou 
wilt receive with this Letter a Piftol of curious 
Workmanfhip, which, being orce charg'd, will 
deliver fix Bullets one after another. It thou ac- 
cepteft this fmall Prefent, it will be an Argument 
oi thy Friendlhip. 

Paris, igth of the S/h Moon, 
of the Tear 1649. 


Toi. IV. ^ Spy <?^ Paris." 51 


To the Venerable Mufti, 

IHiive often wonder'd at the Lethargy wherein 
the Nazarenes feem to be drown'd. They for- 
get what they read in their own Bibles ; they 
there encounter with ExprefTions which favour 
of the Eaft. Every Page of the 'vjritten Lanju 
relifhes of the Dialed which is pure and lively, 
though the Tranjlators have cropp'd the Flower of 
the Senfe. I have read their Bible in Greek, Latin, 
and French, but none of thefc Languages exprefs 
to the Life the original Hcbreiv ; nor can it be 
expedled. It is impoffible to fcrew up the dull 
Phrafes oi Europe to the fignificant Idioms of AJia. 
We may as well expeft Dates to fpring from 2 
Heed. And for that Reafon it is forbidden the 
true Faithful to tranflate the Vohwie of Light 
from the original Arabick ; which is no other 
than Hebreiv in its ancient Purity. 

This is the Language of thofe who dwell above 
^zfe'venth Orb. 'Tis the Dialed wherein Go d 
converfes with the Pages of his divine Seraglio, 
wherein all the Records of the cclejlial Empire arc 
writ. And when he ifTues out Orders to the 
Minijlers and Baffa^ of Hea'ven, Hafmariel the 
Secretary of the itmnortal Di'van ufes no other 
Charafler, or Speech, but that which is peculiar 
on Earth to the Sons of'ljl^mael, the Inhabitants 
of the Region on the Eaji of the Red Sea. In fine, 
this is the Language wherein the Omnipotent 
thought fit to difcover his Pleafure to Mortals. 

JitWtvtMahnut, when he tells thee with pro- 
found SubmilHon, that he has taken fome Pains 
to pry into ihzi^ Languages wliich have been the 
D z Chann^'lj 

•^a Letters Writ by Vol. IV. 

Channels of divine Knowledge. I have been pe- 
culiarly ambitious to ftudy the Anatomy oi orien- 
/fl/ Words : And it would be no Hyperbole to fay, 
I have learned to diflcdl even the very Syllables, 
therein the various placing of Points and Letters 
alters the Senfe, or at leaft makes it ambiguous. 
So fignificant and myfterious are our /acred Cha- 
racers. - 

I fpeak not this in Peeviflmefs, or to vindicate 
inyfelf from the Contempt which Ichingi Cap 
OglarA has put upon me. J have no Emulation 
in that Point; nor can any little Spur of pedan- 
tick Ambition make me forward to contend with 
a Man, whofe whole Talent confifts in knowing 
and remembering other Men's IVorks ; as if he had 
ftudied at Jthens only for this End, to learn the 
facetious Art of turning his Brains into a Cata- 
logue of Books. Eut 1 refleft on the Leartied 
among the Naxarefies,' who are chiefly to blame, 
havino- the Cuftody of the Book delivered to them 
from The Jeivs : And among them the Tranjlatars 
of that Volume are paft Excufe, for they have de- 
flower'd the Original, and robb'd the I'irgih 
Language di\\.h Beauty and Honour, whilft the reft 
Ere Vv'imeffes and filent Abettors of the Rape, in 
concealing the Indignity that has been done to the 
Letters form'd by the Finger of God, and full of 
^in;ine Msjleries. 

In thiis acccfing the Chripan Interpreters of 
the Bible, I do rot patronize the critical Whimfies 
of the Jc-j:ijl:> Cahbalijis. They are exploded by 
nil Men of Senfe ; yet there is a Medium betweea 
the Excefs of that affeftcd Niccnefs, which has 
rendered the one ridiculou<-, and of that ftudicd 
Care'efnefs to which the Obfcurity of the other 
is owing. As the Bebrc^Ms, by prelTing the Letters 
too dole, have fqueezed out dl'vine Chimera's ; fo 
the Chrijliansy in ullng too flack a Hand, have 
"' fcarce 

Vol. IV. ^ S P Y ^/ P A R I s. 5^ 

fcarce gain'd a grofs Draught of common human 
Senfe, leaving the genuine Elixir of the Writer's 
Meaning behind. 

I will not hy much to the Charge of the- 
TranJIators emp'.oy'd by Ptolomy Pkiladilphus 
King of £'/)■/'/. Thefe were no Chriflians, nor 
yet in the Number of thofe who adored the ce- 
lijlial Bodies and Elements : Nor did any of tiieni 
pay their De-voticns at the fame Altar with that 
Egyptian Mmarch, who was a Worjbipper of the 
God Serapis : But they were y^nvs, fevcnty, or 
two more in Number, as tiie Tratiiiion goe?. 
And being every one commanded feverally to 
trandate thofe Manufcripts which the .Ti.':-.; 
efteemed the Oracles of Gov, without converfin;; 
wich, or feeing each other, it is faid, iheix /V/- 
^ all agreed to a Syllable. 

This is the Story of the j'^xtv, and fcems to be 
credited by the Chrijliarts : Yet fume have found 
m^ny Errors -and Ineorvgruit-es in that celebrated 
Copy. And 'tis eafy for an impirtial Eye, cfpe- 
cially in the Head of an Oriental, to fpy vnxw^ 

Dot the Latin, which they call the 'uulgar Trnn- 
Jlation, is full of Miilake?. And the pretended 
Sainty who made it, fhould have gone farther than 
Pakjiine for his Intelligence in ancient Hehrew. 
His Name (if I miftake no ) was Hieronyfn:^s. 
He pa/Ted many Years ina Cell, near the fuppofed 
Tcnh of the ChrijUans Mejjiab in the Holy 
Land : Where, they fay, he was infpii'd wich the 
Kno-jjledfj oi Hebreikj ; and from thence ventured 
upon a TranJIation of the Old Tejlame-nt. 

Thou wilt not expedl a Certificate of thefe. 
Things from Mahmut, who only tells thee whac 
he has read in Chrifiian Authors, whom tlwy 
call the Hijiorians of their Church. 

D 3 JBcit 

54 Letters Writly Vol. IV. 

But I can affure thee 'twas no Spirit of the 
lajl .'ifSfted this Ecclcjiajlic ia his Verf.on. For 
he comes far fhort of rightly rendering the lofty 
Hyperboles^ appofite . Similitudes, elegant Figures, 
r,nd other OrKariUhts cf Speech peculiar to the 
Writings of thole who lirll fee the Riftng-Sun^ 
Such are all thgfe pcnn'd in the Eafl : From which 
we mull not exclude the Mavufcri^ts of Mofes, 
and the reR of the Hebrew Prophets, Poets, HiJIo- 
rians, and PhiloJ'ophcrs. Of thefe does the OlA 
Tejiameiit ccnfill, except one Book writ by my 
Countryman Job, who five Times foil'd the Dc- 
<vil in fo manyyi-/ Combats before God. 

What Ihall I fay then of rhe Travftations that, 
have been made of tlieir Bible in other Languages^ 
not fp copious and fjgnificant as the Latin, 

Since this Divifion arofe between the Roman' 
Catkolicks and Prctcftants, their Bible has been 
taught to fpeakthe Dialeflof al),or moft Nations 
in Europe^ Yet fuch is the Unhappinefs of 
the Franks, that, the more they tamper with 
the Language of g>eat Purity, the worfe they 
fucceed. Which has occafioned feme learned 
Men, as I am inform'd, to mark above a thoufand 
Faults in the laft French Verjion of that mjjlirious 

What Room will they leave for the Cenfures 
of the Mujfiilmans, if the Chrijlians themfelves 
are thus critical upon the Grand Patent of their 
Sal'vation F 

It would be an endlefs Taflc to recount all the 
Errors that may be difcern'd in the various Tra- 
diuls of the Bible, by any Man that has conver- 
fed in the Eajl. Neither will I intrench on thy 
Patience to gain the Charafler of a Critick. 

Permit me to glance only on the Pfalter, or 
the Odes oi Sultan David. How flat and dull are 
Xh^Mea/ures of the Chrijlian Tranjlaton ? How 


Vol. IV. <2 S P Y ^/ P A R I S. 55 

low have they funk the Senfe ofihztRoya/Poet ? 
He never began to warble forth any of thofe Di- 
vine Songs, 'till firfl infpir'd by a Seraph, whom 
he had lur'd dov/n from Paradifehy the Melody 
of his Harp. That Seraph was Mailer of the 
Mw/Ft-i above, as the Hebre^u DoSlors teach, liv'ry 
time £)«i;/rt'play'd on his Inilruments, Jriel, (for 
fo was the Spirit call'd) made his DeCcent, and 
fung with a Grace which cannot be exprcfs'd. 
The docile Poet foon learn'd both his Notes and 
Words. Seven hundred Times David touch'd 
his harmonious Strings, and fo often the Jngel 
ftocd by him with the Bock of the Choir. He 
taught him feven hundred Sonnets that are chant- 
ed by the Lovers in Paradife. But the Devil ftole 
them from the King whilft he was gazing on ano- 
ther iVIan's Wife, bathing heifclf in an adjoining 

Yet there are above a hundred Hymns remain- 
ing, which David compofed by Memory out of 
the former. But fome Se£ls among the Chrijiians 
have turn'd them to the Ballads of the Vulgar. 

So have they dealt with that furpafling Voem of 
Solyman, taught him by the Ethereal Tutor of his 
Father. Por Jrielwa.s enamour'd of one of the 
Virgins of Paradife, at the fame Time that Solomon 
enjoy'd Pharaoh\ Daughter, and had newly built 
for her a Seraglio of Cedar. The heavenly hover 
therefore, to accommodate himfelf to the PaJJion 
of the Mortal, taught him one of the Pajlorals of 
Lden, a Song peculiar to his own Amour. 

But the Nazarenes have turn'd it into a dry and 
infigniiicant Allegory by their Glojjfes ; putting an 
Affront alfo upon the Rhetorick and Poetry, in 
wording their TravJlatio:t . 

If 1 fhould go on and number the Miflakes 

they have made in the IVriiin^s of the Prophets^ 

and. other Boch of the Old Tejlamcnt, though it 

n 4 were 

56 Letters TFrit by Vol. IV. 

were but in this general y[:ir\ntr, I fhould tire 
theeout; but to xtco\i.nt ihs. Part icu Ian would 
be a thirteenth Task for Hercules. 

Yeti after til thefe Defaults of the Learned, 
neither they nor the Igvorant can be excufed from 
wilful Blindnefs, in fhutting their E^es againft 
the Twilight which appears in the worfl Tran- 
Jlatlon, and is fufRcient to direfl any Man to 
the Eajl, where Wifdotn fhines in her perfed 

There are Exprefllons all over the Scriptures 
which point to the Lanx:s, Cujloms, Habits, Diet, 
and Manner of Life ufed in the Regions firil vifit- 
cd by the Morniig Sun. Thefe are the fame mnv 
as they were of old; and the Muffulmans of this 
Age cbferve no ether Rule of Life but what was 
pradifed by the Patriarch Ibrahim, above three 
thoufand Years £go, and by all the Faithful oi 
thofe Times.. Our Marriages, CircumcifanSy Fu- 
r.erals. Prayers, JVaJhings, and all other Ceremonies 
of Religion or Ci'vility, are ihc fame wo^u as then : 
There is nothing added or diminifhed, fave the 
Faith and Obedience we owe to Mahomet the Am- 
hajfador of GoD, and to the Volume put into his 
Hands by Gabriel, Prince of the divine Meffew 

Oar very Habits, and the Manner of our Build- 
ir;g ; our Salutations and ivhole Addrefs are the 
fame at this Day, as the Scripture tells us were 
in Ule in thofe ^i^^j next after the //W among the 
Patriarchs and Prophets, and among all the true 
Belieiers, the Poilerity of Ibrahim, efpecially the 
Defendants by the Right Line, the Stem of If 
mael, the eldell Son of him who entertained three 
Angels at once in his Tent. 

Yet the Infdels will not confider it ; but per- 
fuade themfelves they are the only Children of the 
faithful Ibrahim, pretending to prafti^fe, in I 


VoJ. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Paris. 57 

know not ^•hd.t/igurati've Senfe, the Life we lead 
in Truth j Cheating themfelves with empty S)m- 
bols, while we enjoy the Subjlance. 

But thou, great Succejfcr of Ibrahim, and the 
Prophets, vouchfafe to pray for Mahmut, that 
whilft his Duty to the Grand Seignior obliges him 
to dwell here in the Wefi, and to converfe with 
none but Infidels, he may ftill retain the Faith of 
the Eafi, the Devotion of an Ifmaelite, and the 
Purity of a true Believer ; flill crying in his Hearty 
even in the Temples of the Infidels, there is but 
one God, and Mahomet his Mejfenger. 

Paris, ^th of the (^th Moony 
of the Year 1649. 

^0 the Chiaus Bafla. 

TH E Peace agreed on laft Year, between the 
Germans and Sixiedes, is not yet fully eila- 
bl.ihed and coniirmed, there has been a Cejfation 
ai Anns fince that Time, And now xki^Duhe 
Amalfi on the Emperor''^ Side, the Duke of Vandort 
for the King of France, and he of Erskin for the 
Croicn oi Si'.edclard, are met zt Ncrimtur^h, tO 
conclude a final Ratification of the Articles. 

During this Confult, the S-ixedj?} Army are per- 
mitted by the Empercr^s Agreement to quarter up 
arid down in/e'ven Circles of the Empire, and not 
to be difcharged till all their Arrears are paid at 
the Coil of the Germans. 'Tis fsid it will amount 
to three Millions of Zequins. This War has bflcd 
near thirty Years ; in which, above three hua- 
djed-thoufand Men have lofl their Lives. 

D s hi 

58 Letters PP^it h^ Vol. IV. 

As to the Englijh Af&irs, the prevailing Party 
there have declared that ancient Kingdom to be a 
free State, and the Monarchy is abolilh'd \)j -Apuh- 
lick J3. Neverthelefs, after Charles was behead- 
ed, his eldeft Son was proclaimed King, both in 
England and Ireland, by fome of the Nobles and 
Gentry that were Friends to that Royal Family. 
And in Ireland, a certain great Duke appeared at 
the Head of a numerous Jrmy, in Behalf of the 
young Kings Intereft, having laid Siege to the 
Metropolis of that Kingdom ', which, v.ith one other - 
Town, were the only ftrong Holds that re- 
fiiled the King's Party, ' But in the %tk Moon the 
Army, which the EngUJh States had newly fent 
over to that 7/^^;;.Y, engag'dwith the /'b/v^jof this 
Duke, entirely routed them, killing ten Thoufand 
Men on. the Spot, and taking many Thoufand 
Prifoners, with all their Ammunition and Bag- 
gage. This being fcconded with other Viflories, 
in a fmall Time reduced that Kingdom under the 
Obedience of the EngliJJj States. 

In the mean Time, I hear no pleafing News 
from the Len;ant. Veflels daily arrive in the Ha- 
'vtns of France, who confirm each other's Relati- 
ons of a dreadful Naval Combat between our 
Fleet, and that of the Venetians ', wherein, they 
fay, we have loft fevcnty two Galliots, threefcore 
Merchant Veffels, and eighteen Ships of War : 
That, in this Fight, fix Thoufand five Hundred 
Mujfulmans have loft their Lives, and near ten 
Thoufand were taken Prifoners. 

I tell thee, thefe are great Breaches in the AV 
«ry, which, belonging to the /.-//v/ of the Sea and 
"Land, has affum'd to itfelf the Epithet of 
Invincible. Thefe are Blemiihes in the En- 
Ijgns of h'gh Renown, Reproaches to the Em- 
fire which we believe is to fubdue all Nations. 
I refledl not on the CouragCj or Ccnduft of 

Vol. IV, <7 S P Y^/ P A R IS." 59 

the Captain Bajfa ; neither am I willing to help 
forward the Ruin of a Man, who cannot expeft 
to be honour'd with a Veft, a Sword, or any- 
other Marks of the Sultan's Favour, for his Ser- 
vice in the Sea- C«;«/ia/g-», lam naturally com- 
panionate. 'Tis not in my Praife I fpeak it : For, 
I believe this Tendernefs, to be rather a Vice of 
my Conjiitution, than to have any Rank oi Morals, 
much lefs to be of Kin to the Family of Virtues; 
I pity a Man falling into Difgrace, on whom the 
Weather of the Seraglio changes, from which he 
muft expeft nothing but Clouds and Storms. 
Thofe Tempefts will prove more fatal to him than 
any that ever tofTed his Fleet on the ruffled Ocean. 
In all probability, he will fufFer a Ship-wreck of 
his Fortune, if not of his Life. Therefore 'tis 
with extreme Regret that I muft fay that which. . 
may haften his Fall. 

But I am commanded, not to conceal any In- 
telligence that relate* to the Intereft of the Sub- 
lime Port, nor to fpare the Son of my Mother, 
if I know him guilty of criminal Pradlices. 

All that I have to lay to the Charge of the ■ 
BaJfa of the 6"^^ is, a private Correfpondence 
which he holds with Cardinal Mazarini. This I 
difcover'd by the Affiftance of a Dnuarf, whom 
I have often mentioned in my Letters to the 
Grandees of the Port. I need not repeat to thee, 
what I have faid already to them of the Birth, 
Education, and Genius of 0/5w/« ; (for fo is the 
little Spark call'd) nor of the Method I have put 
him upon, to wind himfelf into the Secrets of 
the Publick Minijlers. Only thou may'ft report 
to the J5/'z;a«, that this diminitive Man continues 
to purfue his Advantages of Accefs to the Clo- 
fets of the French Minijiers, whereof I gave an 
Account laft. Year, in a Letter to Chiurgi Ma- 
hamni&t BaJfa,- 

D 6 Thou J 

<>o LETTERS IVrit hy Vol. IV, 

Thou may'lla/Ture them alfo, That, when he 
was Yeflerday in the Chamber oiCarMnal Maza- 
rini, he cait his Eyes on a Letter which lay 
open on the Table, while the Cardinal was in ear- 
neit Difcourfe with an extraordinary Courier U^xsl 
Rome. He had not Opportunity to read more 
than the Superfcription, and a Line or two of the 
Matter ; which contained thefe Words : 

7he Mild Commander, the humble Shadonv of the 
bright Star of the Sfa, Bilal, Captain Bajfa. 

To the moft Illufii-icus Prince of the Kingdom of 
the MeJJiah, eminent among the High Lords of 
holy Honour, the fublime Director oi \\i& Peor 
p/eefJBsvs, AiTiliantto the Chair cf Sovereign 
Dignity, the Seat of the Roman Caleph, Ju/io 
Maxarini, Cardinal, and cur Friend. May 
whofe latter Days encre^fe in Happinefs, 

THTafeSlicnafe Letter and Prefents ivere 
deliver'' d fafe to me, as I lay at Anchor 
nuith the Y\ttl under my Command, not far /torn 
the liland r/" Chios. And, as a Mark of my Ac' 
kmvjkdgmer.t and good Will to thee and all the 
Nazarenes, I ejnhraced in my Arms the r.ohle Cap' 
tain Signicr Antonio Maratelji, ivho had the Ho- 
nour to be iKith this Negotiation. I im- 
mediately difrob'd myfelf, and caufed that brave 
Italian, thy Mejfenger, to he vefed 'with my cwn 
Garment, as a Pledge cf———— 

Before Ofmin could read farther, the Cardinal 
approached the Table and took up the Letter, 
letting fall fome Words to the Courier, by which 
the Dkvarf was confirm'd in his Sufpicion of the 
Bcffa's Perfidioufnefs, and that this Letter newly 
came from him. He polled immediately to give 
me an Account of this Paflage; believing it to 
be, as it ir, cf great Import. for he has a 


Vol. IV. a Sp Y ai Paris. 6i 

fmgular Regard for the Family, which firft exter- 
minated the Greeks from Confiantinople. 

Thou knoweft what Ufe to make of this Intel^ 
ligence. I am not cruelly inclin'd, but I muft do 
my Duty. The reft I refer to thy Prudence. 

I will only advertife thee of one farther Re- 
mark of Ofminy who by comparing what he has 
feen now, with a Difcourfe he once before over- 
heard between Muzarini and a French Nobleman, 
whilft he lay under the Cardinal'^T&hXe (which 
I have inferted in one of my Letten) concludes, 
That the Baja, there mentioned by the Cardi- 
nal, was this fame Bilal Bajfa, who was at the 
Ipllance of the Janifaries made BaJfa of the Sea; 

I could not, without making myfelf an Ac- 
complice, conceal fo foul an Ingratitude to the 
Grand Seignior, and fo villainous a Treafon againU 
the Empire, which holds \}i\z firjl Rank among all 
the Dominioas on Earth. 

Paris, 2^th of the (jth Moon, 
of the Tear 1649. 


^0 Cara Hali, Phyfician to the Grand 

WE have had a violent hot Summer in thefe 
Parts, with much Tlntnder and Lightning, 
which has done confiderable Damage to the Far- 
mers, in burning their Hay and Com in their 
Granaries. Complaints arrive here daily from all 
the Provinces, that Hcaten has confum'd their 


^2 Letters Writ by Vol. .IV. 

This the Court Party interpret as a Judgment 
on them for their Rebellions y caufing it to be in- 
duftrioufly fpread about in all Companies that 
Hea'ven is angry with the Inhabitants of Guyenne, 
"Eourdeaux, and other Provinces^ for taking up 
Arms this Year againd their So'vereign. I know 
not how far this Cenfure is juftifiable: But 'tis 
obferv'd th;.t the People of thefe Rebellious Pro- 
i»nces have receiv'd more apparent and irrepa- 
rable Injuries by the Lightning, than thofe of o- 
ther Parts. Several Members of the Parliament 
of Jix were found dead in their Bed?, after a tem- 
peftuous Night of Lightning. And next Day, 
the Roof of the Houfe^ where they affembled, fell 
down and kill'd feveral. 

In \.\\t great Church of BourJeaux, as they were 
celebrating their Ma/s, a Ball of Fire broke in 
from behind the Altar, fmote down feveral Ima- 
ges, and, filling the Church with an intolerable 
Stink, flew out of a Window, without doing any 
farther Harm. And a great Bank of Money, 
raifed by this City to pay their Soldiers, was all 
melted down by Lightning, to the Aftoniihment 
of thofe who faw it ; for it was done in the Day- 
time, the Grandees of Bourdeaux being prefent. 
It would be endlefs to recount all the Mifchiefs 
that have been done in thofe Parti. We had no 
great Harm here, fave that almoft all the Wine in 
the City was turn'd to a Kind of Vinegar in one . 
Night. Which the Philo/ophers attribute to the 
peculiar Energy of Lightning ; which plays the 
Chymiji vMh. this Liquor, and in a Moment fepa- 
rates, and drinks up its Vital Spirits, leaving only 
a mortuujn Caput behind- 

The Scafon has been fo hot during the Dog- 
Days, that the Air itfelf fcem'd combuiliblej 
and the very Winds, from whence we look'd for 
Jlefrefiimeat, were like the Breath of a Stove : 


Vol. rV. a Spy ai Far i^. 6^ 

All Things feem'd ready to take Fire, as if the 
E/emeNts waited for the Grand Conflagration. 
Heat was the Cry every where. Men*s Bodies 
were fcalded with internal Flames ; the Shade of 
Trees aiForded no Relief, the Fountains could not 
allay their Thirft, All Nature feem'd to be in a 
Fever, ready to expire. 

Now thofe Fervors are abated, and \v& begin 
to have frofty Mornings. The nitrous Air re- 
flores Men's Appetites. Abundance of Rain has 
new moulded the gaping parch 'd Earth, and pro- 
duced a fccond Spring. The Hu/bandman com- 
forts himfelf with the Hopes o^ another Crop of 
Hay, to repair the Lofs of x^t former, which the 
Lightning robb'd him of. In the mean Time, the 
"Winds arc very bufy in difrobing the Trees, and 
fcattering not only their Leaves, but alfo the 
Fruit that is not gathered, on the Ground ; . 
whereby a Banquet is prepared for the ^gs in 
every Orchard, who claim as much Right to feed 
on what lies on the common table, as their Ow;/- 
ers : And 'tis no unpleafant Mujick, to hear a 
Herd of S'vAne fet their Teeth at work on the 
wind- fallen Apples. Atleaft,. this Speiflacle and 
Noife is delightful to me, who have been with- 
out Appetite thefe three Mscw, and but juft be- 
gin to recover my Stomach. I often ride out of 
Paris, on purpofe to take the Country Air, where 
my Bread taftes more favourily than in the City. 
There appears fomething fo harmlefs and inno- 
cent in the Faces and Behaviour of the Rujiicks^ . 
as effedlually relieves my Melancholy. I cannct 
difcern in them any Signatures of Court-Craft 
and Villany. Their Converfation chears my Spi- 
rits. I love to hear them talk of their rural ki- 
fairs. My Eye follows the Ploughmen with En- 
vy. Then I could wifh it had been my Lot to . 
have b?cn bred up in fome homely Cottage, 


^4 Letters IVrit hy Vol. IV. 

where I might have tended Oxen, Sheep, or 
Affes J all which adl regularly according to 
their Nature : Whereas he, that is the Seriatil-oi 
Princes, is compelled to do many Things contrary 
to his Reafon ; which is the greateft Unhappineft 
that can befall a Man. How fweet is the Sleep of 
the Hulbandman by Night, and how void is his 
Mind of imbittering Cares by Day ? He rifes 
with the Larky and is as chearful as that pretty 
Bird, fs luting usurer a with a Song or Lejfon on his 
Pipe. He fnufFs up the wholefome and fragrant 
Dew of the Morning, as he walks over the Lands. 
He beholds, with Admiration and Fleafure, the 
gilded Clouds and Tops cf Mountains, when 
the ^un comes forth cf his Bed- Chamber in the 
Eaji. He fpurs himfelf on to his daily Labour, 
by the Example of that aflive Planet, follcwirg 
his Work with Content and Joy. His Food is 
plcafant both in his Mouth and his Belly ; he 
feels no After-pangs through Satiety ; but, well 
refreflied and nourilhed with his homely Diet, 
he lies down with the Lamb, and fleeps in Peace, 
never dreaming of State- Intrigues, or the Plcts 
of the Mighty. Thus he paffes his Life in a Cir- 
cle of Delights. 

Tell me, dear Hali, are not thefe proper Ob- 
jcfls of Envy to a Man in my Circumftances ? 
Or, canft thcu blame Mahmut, who has neither 
Health cf Body, nor Peace of Mind, for wiihing 
himfelf in a Condition, which would entitle him 
to both ? I am entangled in a thoufand Snares j 
my Employment is a perfefl Riddle. I muft fay 
and unfay the fame Things, as often as Occafion 
requires. I muft tell an hundred Lyes, fwear 
and forfwear myfelf every Hour, if the Intereft 
of the Grard Seignior be at Scake. I muft be a 
Makctr.etan, ChriSian, Jew, or any Thing that 


Vol. IV, a Spy t!f Vakis. 6^ 

will ferre a Turn ;diflremble with God and Man, 
blafpheme the Prophets, curfe the True Belie-vers, 
and myfelf too, rather than baulk the Cau/e I am 
engaged in : And yet, all this while they will 
perfuade me, I am a good Man, and (hall go to 
Paradife. As if the MuftVs Difpenfations were 
available to cancel the exprefs, pcfitive Law of 
God ! Do they think to amufe me with fuch Um- 
brages, and fend me muzzled to Hell with my 
Eyes open ? I tell thee, I have a C:>nfcie?7ce, and 
fuch a Coft/cience as will not let me be at reft in 
this Mrinncr of Life. It were better to die, than 
to live flain'd with fo many Prevarication?. I 
know not what to do amidll fo many Terrors ; I 
feel my Body decay apace, and ha.tening towards 
its Diflblution. What will become of me, if I 
fhould die under the Burthen of {o many Sins ? 
What fhall I be able to make to the t--Mo 
Inquijltors of the Grave, the Angeh who fhall exa- 
mine me, who is my God, and who is my Pro- 
plet, and what is my Faith ? The Darknefs of 
that Region of Shadoivs will not be fufficient to 
hide my Blufhes, and the Cdflfufion I (hall be in 
at fo prefEng a Tr) al. 

All my Comfort i?. That I have yet Friends 
left, to whom I may freely vent my Thoughts 
and afk their Counfel. 

If thou haft any Remains of that Friendfhip 
that has been between us, weigh my Cafe 
throughly, and tell me whether I am not loft for 
ever, without a Change of Life ? Flatter me not, 
neither ufe the Artifices of Civility, in palliating 
my Crimes j but fearch my Wounds, and give 
me thy Advice without a Veil, and Makmut 
fhall efteem the Phjlcian of his Ssul, 

Paris, 24/^ of the c)th Moor, 
of the Year 1649. 

^6 "Letters rp'rit I'y Vol . I V. 


To Kenan Bafla, Chief .Treafurer fa 
* bis Highnefs ^/ Conftantinople, 

IF I have not addrcffed to thee before, attri- 
bute it to my Ignorance of thy ^alltj snd 
Per/on. As foon as J heard of thy Advancement 
to this important Trull:, I refolved to filute thee, 
as becomes a Slai-e in my Poft, and to wifli 
thee all the Happlnefs thou canfl defire. Yet, 
when I congratulate thy Rife, remember, I do 
but Vr'elcome thee to a Precipice, a mere Pinnacle 
cf Fortune, where thou hall no Reafon to expeft 
fecure Footing. The BlaA of an envious Mouth 
will make thee totter. Thou breathelt in an 
Element full of Tempefls. The fly Pr."dices of 
a Riial may undermine thee ; or the more 
open Frowns of thy Scvereign may call thee 
down. Thou art ever liable to the Malice of 
the Vulgar, and not a little in Danger of thy own 
"Weaknefs, the infeparab'e Companion of Hu- 
manity. If thou fliouldell once look with Dif- 
dain on thofe that are beneath thee, the vaft 
Diftance and Height of the Profpeft may make 
thee giddy. Therefore it would be good for 
thee to have thy Eyes always fix'd on thyfeJf. 
That will prove the bell Chart, by which to fleer 
thy Courfe through the Rocks and Sands, which, 
on all Hands threaten the Life of a Courtier. It 
will not be amifs alfo to place before thee the 
Examples of wife Men, thy Predecejfors. There 
is a greater Force in thefe, than in the bell Coun- 
fels ; becaufe Matter of Fa£l leaves no Room 
for Dillrull : Whereas Men are naturally jealous 
of thofe who pretend to inilrucl them. We are 


Voi. IV. ^ S p y ^/ Pa R I s. 67 

all forvd of our own Reafon and Judgment ; and 
are apt to fufpefl him of fome Defign who feeks 
to perfuade us, though to our Good. Befides, 
there is a Species oi Pride, zPunililio oi Honour 
in Mortals, which will hardly permit us to yield 
eurfclves in a Condition to need another's Advice : 
Whence comes the Arabian Proverb, which fays, 
A Man profits more bj the Sight of an Idiot, than 
by the Orations of the Learned^^ We all love to 
make our Experiments, and fooner trull any 
Senfe than aur Ears. Therefore the Lacedemonians 
caufed their Slaves to be made drunk in the Pre- 
fence of their Children ; that from the Squalidnefs 
of the Spectacle they might conceive a Hatred 
againll that \'ice, which by all the InJlruSlions in 
the World they would never learn to abhor. 

The Crimes of feme in thy Station have more 
of Sobriety in them, but lefs Honelly. Wonder 
r.ot at the Exprcffion, nor accufe me of Impu- 
dence. I rtflefl only on the Wicked : Number 
not thyfelf among them. 

Thou knoweft it has been an ancient Cuflom 
for our renowned Emperors to divert themfelves 
at certain Times with the Sight of their ineJUma- 
hie Treafury. 1 am no Stranger to the Cere- 
monies ufed at fuch Times j one would think it 
impoflible amidft fo much Caution, that the 
Grand Seignior faould be defrauded of the lealt 
Part of his Wealth. I do not fpeak of the Cham- 
ber oi Arms, or thofe others which make up the 
Imperial Wardrobe. The Bulk and Weight of 
thofe rich Velvet Brocades, and other Furniture 
of Gold and Silver, difcourages the Theft. But 
who can number the Robberies that have been 
committed among the Jenuels, and invaluable Ra- 
rities of the myjlerious Clofst ? It has been found 
eafy to conceal and tranfport from thence whole 
Beds of Diamonds, and Chains of Pearl, undif- 


68 Letters JVrit by Vol. IV. 

covered, I will not fay unfufpeded, at the Times 
when Anackdar- Agafs gives three Knocks on the 
Cabinst of" the Keys. 

Thefe are Hours of Munificence and royal 
Bounty, when the auoitft Lord of the Mines is 
pleafed to gratify his Slwves iflxh. Gifts, and make 
them fcnfible they fcrve kirn, who commands this 
tipper World, and that underneath. 

No Prince can difccmmend this domeflick 
Sport of our So-vcreign, when he makes his Pages 
fcramble for Diamonds and Rubies, fince it gives 
him a Talle of his Humanity j nothing being 
more agreeable, in Cafes on this Side of amorous 
Jealoufy, than to let others partake of our Plea- 
fures : And 'tis the peculiar Delight of Kings 
fometimes to lay afidfe their Srjte and Granfeur, 
to be familiar with their Attendants, making 
them their CompaniofiSj or, atleafl, their Proxies 
in many Enjoyments. 

But 'tis Pity this Favour fhould be sbufed, as it 
has been, in the Inllance I mentioned. Thcu art 
no Stranger to the Records of the Ha/na, which 
tell us. That when Gelep Chiaus Bajfa was made 
chief Treafurer, in the Reign oi Sultan Mujiapha, 
the Lucre of the glittering Jewels had tempted 
him to defraud his Majler, to the Value of five 
hundred thoufand 7.equins\ which, upon the In- 
formation of three Pages, and a diligent Search, 
were found in his Trunks. 

It has been whifpered alfo, That ft^ have en- 
joyed that Office, who have not purloined fome- 
thingfrom the Imperial QoStrs. They fay, 'Tisan 
hereditary Theft delivered by Tradition from one 
to another ; every HafnadarbaJJt being advanc'd 
to that Honour by the Recommendation of his 
P>vflVf(/^r, for the Service he has done him in 
conniving at thefe Praftices, which cannot be hid 
from any of the Sixty who guard the Royal Wealth. 


Vol. IV. aSpY afVARis. 69 

Thou canft not blame me, for putting thee in 
Mind of thefe Things ; in Regard I am command- 
ed to write with all Freedom to the fublime Mi- 
nijlcrs, whatever concerns the Intereft of our 
great Majier. 

I have no more to fay, but to defire thee, in 
tranfmitting what Money is appointed for me to 
be timely and punctually, to fend Duplicates by 
different Po/?f, that, if one Ihould mifcarry, I may 
not be at a Lofs : For, there is no Oedit for a 
hlujfulman in Paris. Eliachim would fupply me 
with what may fufEce a Dervich ; but it belongs 
to thee to take Care, that I want not what is re- 
quifite for an y^^ent of the Grand Seignior. 

Paris, zzd of the'ioth Moon, 
of the Tear 1649. 


To Peftelihali, his Brother, 

I Unwillingly concluded my lad Letter, before 
I had vented half my Thoughts, on thofe O/-/- 
ental Subjeds, fo full of Inftrudion and Plea- 
fure. Thy Journal^ become my Pocket-Compa- 
nion. I carry it with me to the Gardens and So' 
litudes, and even to the Libraries and Churches : 
To which laft, I am obliged to go fometimes, 
that I may avoid Sufpicion. 

The Chrijiians, when they enter the moft de- 
lightful Gardens of Paris, fpend their Time, and 
weary themfelves, in walking forward and back- 
ward. They will meafure feveral Leagues in 
traverfing one yi/^y : Which vain Cullom, thou 
knoweft, is contrary to the Pradliceof the Eafiern 


70 LuTTERs Writ by Vol. lY. 

People, who love to folace themfelves, in fitting 
ftill under the cool Shades, and feeding their 
Eyes with the grateful Verdure of Trees, their 
Nofes with the fragrant Smell of Herbs and Flow- 
ers, and their Ears with the pretty Melody of 
the Birds : All which ferve as Helps to their 

After this Manner I many Times pafs away 
fome Hours in iht Gardens of this City, whereof 
there are great Plenty, And when I am cloy'd 
with the fore-mentioned Pieafure, then I take out 
thy Journal, and fall to reading ; which winds 
up my Thoughts afrelh, like a Watch that is 
down : Nay, it opens new Sources of Contem- 
plation, and ferves as a miraculous Talifman to 
bring China, India, and all the Eajl into the Place 
where I am ; fo lively and natural are thy Dif- 
courfes of thofe Parts. 

When I am in Churches it ferves me inftead of 
a Prayer-Book : And, whiiil others are babbling 
over they know not what, or at leaft they care not 
what ; I offer up to God the Pirji-Fruit of my 
Reafon and Knowledge, which he has given me 
to diftinguifh me from all Sorts of Beafts, whe- 
ther in human Shape, or not. 

W' hen I go to the Libraries, I compare thy 
ycurnals with the Writings of others who treat of 
the fame Matters j and find, that thou agreeft 
With fome, correfteft the Millakes of others, and, 
in all, fheweft a Genius elevated above all others 
of the common Hijlorians and Travellers ; who 
feek rather to amufe the Reader with uncouth Sto- 
ries and Adventures, than to inftrud him with 
what is really ufeful and profitable. 

Thus thy Journal is become the Companion 
of my Solitudes, the Objeft of my Studies, and 
the Help to my Devotions Abroad; and it is 
no lefs the Diverfion of my Retirement and 


Vol. IV. « Spy ^/ Paris. 71 

Melancholy at Home. I am a great Admirer of 
Antiquity ; and therefore an o!d craggy Rock, 
o'er-grown with Mofs, and full ofgapiiig Ckafms, 
is a more agreeable Sight to me, than the flow'ry 
Meadows or verdant Groves ; becaufe the former 
looks like a Relick of the primiti've Chaos ; where- 
as, I know the latter to be only the Produft of 
the lall Spring. 'Tis for this Reafon, thy Narra- 
//f^ affords me fo vafta Delight, becaufe it treats 
of the moft ancient Kingdoms and Gonjernmefits 
in the World ; And is not fluffed with Chijmerc^s 

and Fables, as moft Relations of thofe Countries 
are j but gives us a fincere and true Account of 
whatever is confiderable, without touching oa 

But above all, I am delighted with that Part 
which relates thy Travels in China : That Counr 
try being of fo vaft an Extent, fo rich, fo po- 
pulous ; the People fo induftrious, learned, and 
politick (befides the Antiquity of their Empire 
which cannot in that Point be match'd by any 
Qo-vernment under the Hea'vens ;) that the exadt 
Knowledge of thefe Things feems to me of 
greater Moment, than any other Difcoveries 

What thou fayeft of the Chinefe Letters and 
Words fhews. That thou haft made fome In- 
fpedion into that Language. And thy Remarks 
on the long SucceJJion and Series of their Kings 
is an Argument, that thou art noStrange»to their 
Chronology, which takes in many Thoufands of 
Years before Noah^s Flood. Thou art very exaft 
in enumerating their publick Tribunals and Courts 
of Jujlice ; as alfo in defcribing fome remarkable 
Bridges, Temples, Palaces, and other Struftures : 
Which ferve to give the Reader a true Idea of 
the Magnificence and Grandeur of the Chinefe 
Emperors ; and of the Ingenuity of the People, 


7.2 Letters /^ri/ hy Vol. IV. 

who feem to excel all others in Arts and Sciences. 
In a Word, it is evident, that thou didfl not pafs 
thy Time with thy Arms folded, whilll thou wert 
in that Kingdom. And I know not how better to 
exprefs the Efteem I have for thee, on the Ac- 
count of the Pains thou haft taken to inform 
both thyfelf and me in Matters of fo great Im- 
portance, than by giving thee an Account of what , 
Progrefs the Tartars have made in the Conquejl of 
that Empire, fmce thy Return to Conjiantinople. 
In my laft I acquainted thee with the Coronation 
of the Tartar King at Pekin ; fince which, other 
VelTels are arrived from thofe Pflr/j, which bring 
an Account that the young Tartarian Conqueror 
foon pufhed forward his Vidlorics ; and marching 
with an Army into Corea (vi'hich Kingdom, thou 
knowcft, borders on China) the King of that 
Country made his Submiffions ; and, entering into 
a League with Zunchi, held his Crcwn in Fe^ 
of that viftodous Emperor. 

Afterwards he haftened to ftibdae the PrO' 
rviKces which remain'd unconquered. His Me- 
thod in accomplifhing this great Work was by 
fwift Marches, like another Alexander the Great ; 
and by laying Siege to the principal City of a 
Pro<vince, which he never failed either to take by 
FoTce, or compelled to furrender, that fo they 
might efcape Famine : And, when this was done, 
he took Pofleffion both of it and the whole Prc- 
*vince, fummoning the Cities of lefler Note to 
furrendA" ; which they feldom refufed after they 
bad beheld the Fate of Xhtfirjl. Thus, in a lit- 
tle Time he became Majier of all that fpacious 

i he Fame of his Succefs quickly brought in- 
numerable Tartars out of their Natiaie Country to 
follow the Fortune of their Emperor. To thefe 
he gave the chief OJiics of his Ar?ny, and conti- 

Vol. IV. « Spy ^/ Paris/ y^ 

continued the Chinefes in the Adminiftration of 
Ci^ll AfFiiirs ; and, as a Token of their Subjecti- 
on, he commanded all the Chinefes to cut their 
Hair (hort, and to cloath themfelves after the 
Fafhion of the Tartars. 

They give a high Charafter of this young 
Trince, who, amidll fo many SuccefTes and Tri- 
umphs, difcovers not the leall Vainglory, but: 
contains himlelf within the Bounds of a virtuoust 
Moderation, afcribes all to the Decrees of Dejliny, 
and is not in the leaft puffed up with any ol: 
his glorious AAions ; which is an Argument 
of a Sjsirit truly heroick. And yet this Prince is 
an Idolater, as are all the Tartars of that Nation ; 
or rather, they are Men of no Religion, which 
make their Morals the more admirable ; For, ac- 
cording to the Relation of thofe who came laft 
from China, the Tartars are very temperater 
and continent People, abhorring thofe Vices 
which are but too common in other Parts of the 
World, and from which the true Believers them- 
felves are not free. They are rigorouflyjuft al fo, 
and punifh all Manner of Fraud and Deceit with 
immediate Death. As for their Conduft and 
Courage in the Wars, tliere is no Nation fur- 
pafTes them, few are their Equals. They are 
pafiionate Lovers of an aftive Life, fpending 
moft of their Time on Horfeback, either in 
hunting wild Beafts, or fighting with their Ene- 
mies : And their Horfes are the beft and moll 
courageous in the World. There is nothing the 
Tartars fo much defpife, as the fedentary Life 
cf Students and learned Men ; accounting them 
the Burthen of a Commonnvechh, lazy Drones, 
fit only to be fold for Slaves : But Men of 
Service and Merit in the Wars they have in 
great Efleem ; never failing to reward fuch with 
Dignities and Commands, proportionable ro 
E • their 

74 hzTT-ERS PFril hy Vol. IV. 

their Deferts and Capacities. Nay, fuch is the 
martial Genius of this Nation, that the very- 
Women ride to the Wars with the Men, and 
perform Exploits above what is expeded from 
that foft and delicate Sex. Both Men and Wo- 
men are habituated from their Infancy to live 
in Tents or Waggons, there being very few Ci- 
ties in all Tartary : There they are iriur'd to 
Hunger, Cold, Thirft, and all the Methods of a 
frugal and hardy Life. This is that which 
renders them excellent Soldiers, and a Terror to 
all the Nations round about them. This is that 
which fo foon reduced all Ch'ma to their Obe- 
dience ; the Chivefe, among all their Virtu^? and 
Accompliihments, being the moft effeminate 
People upon Earth. TJiis, no doubt, thou haft 

Brother, I advife thee to go to Kerker Hajfan 
IBaffa our Countryman, and prefent to him thefe 
Obfervations on the Tartars ; which thou may'ft 
eafily do by tranfcribing what is for thy Turn 
out of this Letter. He inherits his Father's 
Genius ; who, thou knoweft, was one of the 
grcateft Hunters in all Arabia, and has a Charadler 
rot much different from what I have here given 
thee of the Tartars. That Bajfa will take great 
Delight in thefe Memoirs , and will think himfelf 
obliged to make thee fome proper Acknowledg- 
ment. He is generous and great, and it lies in 
his Power to promote thee. I have writ to him 
already, and have given him an Encomiufii of thy 
Ability. I will feccnd it with another Letter, in 
Aniwer to one I lately received from him, where- 
in he defircs a farther Account oi China. I will 
inform him therefore of feveral Paffages out of 
thy Journal, He, no doubt, to make a farther 
Trial of thy Knowledge, will afk thee feveral 
i^eftions relating to thefe Matters. So ihalt 


Vol. IV. ^Spy^/Paris. 75 

rfiou have a fair Opportunity of rendering thy- 
felf confpicuous, and of gaining his Efteem. 
Follow my Advice ; take Time by the Forelock, 
and the Event /hall prove happy. 

Paris, Sfh of the wth Moan, 
of the Tear 1 649. 


7'(7 Kerker HaiTan, Bafia. 

I Received thy Commands, and am proud of 
the Honour thou haft done me in requiring 
the fmalleft Service at my Hands, efpecially 
one of this Nature, which is an Argument 
that my former Relation of China was ac- 
ceptable to thee. This I account my Honour 
and Happinefs, that I have a Brother who has 
made fuch confiderable Improvements in his Tru' 
niels : For 'tis to him I owe the Knowledge I 
have of that Country, and the other Parts of 
the EaJI. As for my Coufin J/uof, he would ne- 
ver vouchfafe to fend me a Syllable relating to 
his Travels, though he had rambled throughout 

I defired this Favour of him in feveral Letters,' 
but have received no Anfwer ; fo that I know 
not whether he be dead or alive. My Friends 
tre very backward in writing to me ; and, un- 
kfs it be fome of the Minifers of StatCj wha 
fometimes honour me with a Difpatch, though 
very rarely, I hardly receive a Letter from my 
familiar Friends and Relations in twenty Moovs ; 
I'hich makes me conclude, that Abfcnce of io 
E z long 

q^ Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

long a Date has quite blotted me out of their 

As to what thou defireft farther to know, con- 
cerning ChinUf my Brother fays. That Empire 
.contains 4400 wall'd Towns and Cities ; 3000 
Caftles and Towers of Defence on the Frontiers, 
wherein are always garrifon'd a Million of Soldi- 
ers, who are relieved at due Times by others of 
equal Number. There are a Million alfo con- 
ilantly kept in Pay to guard the Go'vernors of Pro- 
fvinces, Amhajfadorst and other Officers of State : 
The Emperor of China maintaining five hundred 
thoufand Horfe to attend his Perfon. All this is 
an Time of Peace. But, upon any Revo/t or Inva- 
fton, the Forces are innumerable. There are in 
China 331 Bridges, remarkable for their Strength 
and Magnificence, beyond all others in the 
"World ; 2099 Mountains ; Lakes and Medicinal 
Fountains 1472; 1159 triumphal Arches and 
other Monuments, ereded in Honour of valiant 
and learned Men ; 272 Libraries, abounding 
with all Manner of excellent Books ; Temples 300, 
000, and as many PrieJJs, befides the Convents 
of their Religious. They reverence 3036 Male 
Saints, and 208 Female. All which have Temples 
dedicated to their Honour, befides thofe which 
are confecrated to the Sun, Moon, and Stars, 
Fire, Air, Earth, and Water, and to the Hea- 
<vens which comprehend All, and to the Cek' 
fiial Gods who rule All, and to the fupremt 
God, Creator of the fVorlds. In 0iefe Temples 
they celebrate the Praifes of their Gods and He- 
roes with Mufick and Songs, Incenfe and Sa- 
crifices; believing, That all Things which are 
confpicuous for the Excellency of their Nature, 
or from which Mankind receives any general ot 
extraordinary Benefit, ought to be worfhipped 
jvith diwne Honours. In this they differ not 


Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Paris, 7/ 

from the ancient Pagans of Greece and Rome, 
who had almolt as many Gods and Goddejfes as 
there were feveral Creatures in the World ; lo that 
there was no Beginning nor Ending of their Su- 
perftitions ; and the moll learned and contempla- 
tive of their Prief.s found the Ceremonies of theic 
Religion to be an inextricable Labyrinth, where 
they were often loft. Certainly, happy are the 
faithful Mujfulmnns, who adore but one God, 
the Fountain of the Uni-verfe, without entangling 
themfelves in the Abfurdities oi Infidels. 

The Chine fes are great Admirers of themfelves, 
and their own Notions j believing, that no Peo- 
ple can (land in Competition with them for Learn- 
ing, Wifdom, and Riches. They have a very 
contemptible Idea of all other Countries y with their 
Inhabitants, efteeming them either as Idiots or 

'^1 his Conceitednefs is owing to their Igno- 
rance of the reft of the World ; for they feldom 
or never travel beyond the Limits of their own 

1 could fay a great deal more of this People, 
but it will be better for thee to hear it from my 
Brother, who has been there, and can give thee 
an ample Satisfaftion in all Things relating to 
that Empire. I have wrote to him to go and 
kifs the Duft before thy Feet. If thou makeft 
Trial of his Abilities, thou wilt find him impro- ^ 
ved by his Travels, a Man fit for Bufinefs, and 
one in whom tliou may'ft confide j which is a Vir- 
tue never enough _to be priz'd in thefe corrupt 

In thefe Things, however, mingle thine own 
Difcretion with, the Kindnefs of a Countrj'man, 
and the Affeftion of a Friend. 

Paris, %th of the \ i ih Moon^ 

E 3 LET- 

jrS Letters Writly Vol. IV. 

^Q Cornczan, Bafla, 

■fTT" ERE Ox'/^ alive, the Events of this Year 
' '^ would aiFord him Matter for ne^v FiSlions. 
He would either tell us, I'hat the Goddejs oi Lo've 
had fet a Spell upon Mars, and charm'd him into 
good Nature ; or. That he had drank fo large a 
Draught oi Nepenthe as has made him forget his 
old Trade of embroiling Mortals in War. How- 
ever it be, Hjmen feems to have the greateft Share 
in this Year's Adlions. For, inflead of Battles 
and Sieges, the Nazarene Princes have been en- 
gaged in Encounters of a fofter Charader, the 
gentle Affairs of Love and Marriage. 

In the firft Moon the nenu King of Poland^ 
whcm they call John Cajtmir, married the Wi- 
dow of his deceafed Brother. In the ninth, the 
Prince oiHainault efpoufed the Duke oi Holjiein'i 
Daughter : And the la^Moon was remarkable for 
two Matches ; one of the King of Spain with 
Anna Maria, the German Emperor''s Daughter ; 
the other of the Duke of Mantua with Ifahella 
Clara of Aujlria. 

Thefe are all brufhing forward in the Crowd of 
the Liinng j they are bufy in augmenting the Ge- 
"71 er at ions oi Men ; whilft others of as high Blood 
are gone to increafe the Number of the Dead ; be- 
ing enroU'd among the Ghofts, and made Denizens 
Jn the Region of Shadoivs. 

The Empre/s of Germany died in the fifth Moon, 
the Duke of Braganza in the ninth ; the Dutch' 
<y} of Mo^(f»a in the eighth ; and a certain Ger- 
man Prince, whofe Name I have forgot, died in 
the Moon of Oiiober. Befides thefe, Death has 


Vol. IV. aSp Y at P a'r: rs. . 79 

alfo arrefted Ojfalmikl, the great Chancellor (f' 
Poland ', J'Frangel, General of the S-Jjcdijh Army j 
Frederick, the German ylmbajfndiir at }iome j Fifr- 
dinand, Eledor of Cologne ;. and the Viceroy ( f ' 
Bohemia, who was by his Enemies thrown out of 
a Window, and his Brains dafh'd out. So chat tho' 
Mars may have feem'd to lie dormant this Year, 
yet his Companion in Mifchief, old Saturn, has 
been very aftive, as the Ajlrologers fay, who at- 
tribute all Events to the Injlux of the Stars. 
Sbme are alfo of Opinion, that the Eclipfes of the 
Sun and Moon, this Year, were Prefages of the 
Death of thefe great Pcrfoxs. They might as 
well plead, that the daily Rijing and Setting of 
thofe Luminaries portended all the tragical 
Events that happened on Earth ; fmce it is not 
more natural for them to continue unalter/'bly 
moving from jf«/? to Weft, than it is for them 
to be obfcur'd, at certain determined Stations, in 
their Journey, by Lit erpcfu ions which^ happen of 

We are Strangers to the Chronologies of the 
Chine fe and Indian Gentiles. Neither can arj^ 
good Account be now given of the ancient Egyp- 
tian and AJp^rtan Records : They run many Ages 
back beyond the common Epocha of the Beginning 
of the World. 

But the whole Sy/lem of knoavn Hijlorf relates 
but two extraordinary or preternatural Charges 
in the Courfe of the Sun during thefe fix thoufand- 

One, when that Luminary flocH rtill in the 
Time oijehojhua. General of the Ifraelites, to 
ferve Ends of Dejiini, and prolong the Light of 
the Day to a double Proportion, till the op'pofite 
Army was quite deilroy'd, and not one of the 
Uncircutpcis^d could efcape the Swoxds cf the vic- 
torious Sons of Jacob. 

E 4 That 

So Letters J^nl hy Vol. IV. 

Thst Day prov'd a long Night to their Anti- 
fodes : They turnM themielves in tlieir Beds, 
when they had outflept the ufual Hours of 
Night, and faid in their Hearts, Surely the Sun 
is fallen ajleep, or is banqueting vjith the Gods of 
the Sea : Perhaps Thetis detains him in her Em' 
traces, niohilji the Tritons fajlen his Slumbert 
mjith their foftejl Mufick ; or Neptune regales in 
the Palaces /f the Deep. Thus the difconfolate 
Nations argued in their Chambers : They were 
alarm'd with Fears of unknown Events. 

Such as dwelt on the Borders of the Earth, and 
were accuftom'd to mark the conftant Ebbing and 
Tlcvoing of the Sea, admired the Delay of the ufu- 
al Tides, and ask'd, Whatnuas become of the Moon ? 
for that Planet alfo flood flill with the Sun. 

The Light of their Souls was eclipfed, and 
their Reafon labour'd under a greater Darknefs 
than that which troubled their Eyes. They were 
ignorant of the Works of God ; and knew not 
that the celejlial Orbs flood ftill at the Command 
of the Spirit which formed them, even at the 
Wordo{\]\t Prophet infpir'd from above. 

So in the Days o^Hezekiah, King of the feivs, 
the Sun went back in his Circuit, and all the 
Frame o{ Heaven was retrograde to confirm the 
Trophct'% good News, when he told the fick King, 
That Fate had prolonged his Life for ff teen Tears. 
1 his was in the Days of Merodach Baladan, the 
King of Babylon, who fent Ambaffadors to con- 
gratulate B.e%ekiaV% miraculous Recovery. 

Befides thefe, nothing has happened to the Sun, 
cr any of the beanienly Bodies, beyond the ordina- • 
ry Courfe of Nature. A Man may as well prog- 
noflicate, from cloudy Weather, the Calamities of 
Emperors and meaner Men, as from the Eclipfes 
of the 5'«wand Moon, fince \h.tone, as well as the 
other, obfcures the Light oi ihok heaven /j Bodies: 



Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^?/ Paris; Si 

And the former quite hides them from us ; which 
is the greater Eclipfe of the two. 

Let us pray Heaven to grant us the continual 
Ufe of our Sen/es, and not eclipfe the Light of oar 
Reafotiy and we need fear no Difajiers from the 
common Appearances of Nature. 

Paris, 7/^ of the Moon Chaha»t 
of the Tear 1649. 

The End of the Firft Book. 

E 5 L E T- 

( 82 ) 


W R I T by a 





To Muhammed Eremlt, Inhabitant of 
the Prophetic Cave in Arabia the 

PA R D O N my Importunity, if I this 
once trouble thee with an Addrefs of 
Scruples, begging thy Counfel in the Af- 
fairs of my Soul. I feem to myfelf as 
a Traveller loit in a Wildernefs of Doubts and 
Uiicertainties, without Guide or Condudl. Not 
tlut I queuion the Truth of our Holy Religion f. 
or miftruft the Authority of the Sent of God. 
Certainly I revere the Book oi Glory, yjho^e facred 
Verjicles are tranfcribed on my Heart. But there 
is wanting to every Man a particular Condud 


Vol. IV. a Spy at 'Paris. 85 

in the Intricacies of this Life. I have not the 
Art of applying the general Precepts of the Laiv 
to my own perfonal Occafions and Neceflities. 
Infinite Diihculties arife from my daily Affairs. 
My Converfation with Infdeh, and the Duty I 
owe my great Majler, entangle my Confcience. 
I am embaraffed on all Hands ; and, whilll I 
ftudy to conferve Purity, I find myfelf ftill de- 

I am no Heretick, nor in the Number of thofe 
who are predefiinated to be damned {or the inju- 
rious Love they bear to Hali : Injurious, I fay, 
becaufe it derogates from the Honour they owe 
to Omar, Ofman, and Ehubecher, the true Suc- 
ceiTors of the Apojile of G o d .' 

As I firmly believe the Alcoran, .fo I give an . 
entire Faith to the Book of AJfotiak, or the Agree- 
ment of the Wife, with the Writings of the four 
principal Imaiims, Haniff, Schafi, Melechi, and 
Hambtli. And I am refigned to the Sentence of 
the Mufti, . as our fathers were of Old to the 
oraculous Determinations of the Babylonian Califs. 
I curfe the Ky%ilbafchivji\\\ as much Devotion, as 
I pray for the Health and Felicity oitrueBelic'vers. 
I fpitat the naming of them, who deny the 
Chapter Qi\)xt Covering, and the Verficles brought 
down by the Squire of Gabriel, in Honour of the 
Prophefs Wife. I never lifted up my Hand a- 
gainft any, who defcended from the Divine 
hleffenger : And if, in my Paflion, I have ever 
curs'd a MuJJulman, I took of the Duft under his 
Feet, and laid it on my Lips, before the Shadow 
of the Sun had advanc'd a Hair's Breadth j and 
fo I hinder'd the fwift Recorder of our Words . 
from regiftring the Imprecation : For that Duft, 
I believe, has Power to blot out tiie Memorials 
of our evil Words and Works. 

E 6 When 

$4 Letters JVrit hy Vol. IV. 

When I meet a Santone, or one of thofe di- 
vinely mad, I put in praftife the LelTon of Or- 
chanes ; and, honouring the holy Frar.tick, I fall 
down and adore Virtue in that contemptible Dif- 

I negledl none of the Purifications command- 
ed by cur hohyLanxj-gi-ver ; but rather add thofe 
that we Jrahiafis have received by Tradition 
from oar Fathers, iheSonsof I/mae/: Yet, I hope, 
in Cafe of Negleft, fome Indulgence is allowable 
to a Mujfzilman in a Country of Infidels. I ufe 
the Wajhing oi Ahdefi at all Times in my Cham- 
ber, wh?re no curkjus Eye can cbferve my Clean- 
lineff, or fufpicious Aprrehenfion draw Conclu- 
fions of my being a Mahometan. But I cannot 
thus praftife the Wafijing oiTaharet ; there being 
not fuch Conveniencies for that Purpofe in Paris, 
as in Confiantinoph : Yet I am careful to fupply 
this Want by other Methods of Purity; other- 
wife 1 Ihould be an Abomination to myfelf. 
There is no Neccfiity that I (hould frequent the 
Bath, who never touch'd a Woman j yet I often 
go into the River, taking a Boat with me for 
that End, and caufmg myfelf to be rowed half 
a League from the City, where, in a little Bay- 
er Creek, I wa{h my whole Body, that I may do 
fomething beyond the Obligations of the La'^v, to 
expiate the involuntary Breaches of my Duty. 
Yet, after all this, I cannot call myfelf clean. 

I pray at the appointed Hours ; or, at leafl, 
if the Affairs oi my CommiJJion hinder me from 
complying with the Latv, as to the exaft Times 
of the Day, I attone for that Negleft, hy ivatch- 
rng the greateft Part of the Night : And, to the 
Oraifons appointed by j^uthority^ 1 add fuper- 
numerary Prayers of my own, tO evidence the 
the Sincerity of my Devotion, 

Vol. IV. ^2 Spy tf/ Paris. 85 

\ fafi and give ^Zw/ according to my Ability. 
I beftow much Time in reading and medita- 
ting on the Alcoran. In a Word, I, do all that 
my Reafon tells me is neceflary to render me a 
good Mujfulman ; and yet I have no Peace in my 
Mind. Methinks, I fee our f>o/ji Prophet furrow- 
ing his Brows at me, and darting angry Looks 
from his Paradife : He feems to reproach me 
with Uncleannefs and Infidelity. By Day, my 
Imagination troubles me ; and, at Night, I am 
terrified with fearful Dreams : Which makes me 
conclude, that, notwithftandingall my Obedience 
to the La-iv, and the ftrideft Care I take to acquit 
myfelf a true Be/ie'ver, yet I am far (hort of 
my Aim ; and therefore, T number myfelf with 
thofe with whom God is dilpleafed. 

It is impoflible to exprefs the Horror which this 
Thought creates in me. I am ovenvhelmed 
fometimes with Melancholy and Defpair. And, 
becaufe I am forced to keep my Grief to myfelf, 
without having the Privilege of venturing it to a 
bofom Friend, it is ready to burft my Heart. 

This is my Condition at certain Seafons, which 
I efteem as bad, or worfe, than thofe who 
are doom'd to Aaraf: For, as they cannot enjoy 
the Felicities of Paradife, fo they are fecured 
from the Torments of the Damned ; whereas, for 
aught I know, my Portion may be in Hell. 
Wilt thou know how I redrefs this evil Temper of 
Mind, and what Method I take to cure my Me- 
lancholy ? Receive it net as Flattery, when I 
tell thee, thou art my Phyfician, and the Idea 
of thy innocent Life, my Medicine. When I 
have roird over ten thoufand Thoughts, which 
afford me, no Eafe or Relief, no fooner do I fix 
my Contemplation on the Solitary of Mount 
Vriely but a fudden Beam of Light and Comfort 
glances through my Soul, I promife, myfelf 


86 Letters Writ ly Vol. IV. 

greater Satisfadlion from thy, Advice, than from 
all the Imaums and ^lollahs of the Empire. 

Tell me therefore, O holy and pious Eremit, 
how fhall I diffipate thefe Milts of Grief and Sad- 
nefs, which envelop my Mind, and threaten to 
fufFocate my Intelleft. 

If, in this Darknefs and Confufion, I fhould 
apply myfelf to the Di/ciples of Alhazon for In- 
ftrudio^, they will puzzle me with intricate Nice- 
ties about the Ejfence and Unity of Go D ; where- 
as I am too much troubled already with diftrafting 
Speculations : I feek not to dive into that which 
is incomprehevjible, but to be inftrufted in the 
plain and intelligible Way to Happinefs. What 
imports it, whether God be Gocd by his Goo'nefs, 
or by his Ejfence ? This is to throw metaphyfical 
Daft in my Eyes, and fo leave me in a worfe Con- 
dition than they found me. 

No better Light mull I expeft from the Mom- 
fconderan: For, if they are ftrift Obi'ervers of the 
La'Wy fo am I, where the Precepts are applicable 
to my Condition and Circumllances. But I 
wanta Diredion in many Emergencies, for which 
the Alcoran feems to have made no Provifion, 
but leaves every Man to the Conduft of his.own 
Prudence j and I mull confefs, I dare not truft 
mine in all Cafes of this Nature. Befides, in- 
ftead of interpreting to me, in a plain Style, 
the 5^<?/«/^i of the Laiu, they will confound me 
with high and uninteiiigib'.e Notions of the Di'vine 
Attributes, which are fufficient to dazzle the 
Intelledl of the brighteil Senphim : and, if they 
could (>nce perfuade me to be zealous for their 
Specul.t ot^s, I might, in Time, turn fuch ano- 
ther religiou' Fool, as was one of their Fo/Zq-xv- 
ers, the Poet Namifi, who being wrapp'd in his 
profound Speculation of the Divine Unity, and 
hearing an hnaum pronounce the /acred Sentence^ 


Vol. IV. ^ S P Y ^/ P A R I S. 87^'. 

God is O;;^, gave him the Lye, and told him,, 
that he multiply'd the Divlnuy in afligning it. 
any Attribute, tho' it were only that which ex- 
prefled his Unity. For which impudent Affertion 
he was flay'd alive. 

In as bad a Condition (hould I be if I afk'd the 
Advice of the Muferin, thofe Infidels in Mafque- 
rade, who, under the Difguife of Mujfulmans, 
deny the Beifig of a God, affert all Things to 
come by Chance, and live without Hope or Faith - 
of another Life. For if this were true, that there 
were no Reward or Punifhment of good or bad 
Works, 1 would either foon make my Way to 
earthly Happinefs, by not boggling at any Vice 
that would conduce to that End : Or, if I fail'd: 
io that Attempt, I would not tamely wait for a 
Martyrdom from Men, but bravely rid myfelf of 
a Life which was attciided with nothing but 

Almoft as bad as thefc are the Hairet, thofe 
Mahometan Sceptich, who dare not trull their own 
Reafon, but are ever wavering and irrefolute. If 
I fliould feek for Inftrudlion at their Hand, they 
would anfwer me, God kno-wt hefi nuhat I ought 
to do > and fo leave me in the fame Sufpence as I 
was before. 

Much worfe are the Guaid, thofe morofe In- 
terpreters of the Laxv oi Merc)fVi^o damn a Man 
irrecoverably to Helliox ccmmittlng one mortal 
Sin. This is enough todri veal! Mankind to Defpair. 

Indeed the Morals of the Sabin pleafe me, who 
feem to be ^x{tdi.j\'Iahometan Stoicks, afcribing all 
Events to Dejiiny, and the Infiuence of the Stars. 
I could willingly embrace the Advice oi Philofo- 
phers who appear fo void of Paffion ; but I 
could never join with them in adoring the Sun, 
Moon, and Conftellations of Heaven, becaufe 
the Alcoran has exprefly forbidden it. And, 


88 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

were there no fuch Prohibition, my own Reafon 
would convince me, that I ought as well to adore 
the Fire for warming me, and ferving my other 
Neceffities, or the Water for quenching my 
Thirft, and purifying me, or my own Hands for 
feeding me, as to pay thefe divine Honours to the 
Celejiial Bodies ; fince the one, as well as the 
other, aft according to their Nature. 

In a Word, of all the innumerable 5f^j into 
which the Mujfulman Empire is divided, I cannot 
expeft entire Satisfaftion from any ; for, if they 
appear Orthodox in fome Tenets, in others they 
are manifeftly Heretical. Yet I cannot but fee 
a higher Value on fome than others, as their Doc- 
trines and Pradlices approach nearer to Reafon 
and Truth. For I am not yet fuch an Academick 
astoalk thatMock-Queftion, What is Truth ? 

Doubtlefs our Fathers knew it, and the Mejfen- ■ 
ger of God was fent to divulge it on Earth. But 
if Ignorance, Superftition,and Error have banifh'd 
it from Courts and Cities, let us feek it in the 
Defart. Perhaps we may find this Wanderer 
among the Rocks and Woods ; or, 'tis poffible, 
fhe has fhelter'd herfelf in fome Den or Cave ; as 
hoping for greater Favour from the wild Bcafts, 
than from the Society of Men. 

If Truth be no where to be found entire, but 
has divided herfelf among the different Religions 
and SeSls in the World, then, rather than mifs of 
this di'vine Jewel, I will fearch for it in Frag- 
ments, and whatfoever is rational and pious in any 
Se£i I will embrace, without concerning myfelf 
in their Follies and Vices. 

After all, the Munajihi feem to be the only- 
Orthodox and illuminated of God; who, decli- 
ning the private By-ways oi Schi/maticks, walk 
in the high Road of priftine Juftice and Piety, fol- 
lowing the Steps of the Aticientf, and obeying the 


Vol. IV. a Spy at Paris. 89 

Traditions which know no Origin. Among 
thefe thou appeareft as another Pythagoras^ con- 
firming them by thy Example in an innocent 
Life ; enduring the utmoft Severities of Abfti- 
nence, rather than be guilty of fhedding the 
Blood of thofe Creatures, which the great Lord of 
allThbigs created to enjoy the Herbage of the 
Field, and to partake of the common Bleffings 
of Nature as well as we. 

To thee therefore I have Recourfe, as to an 
Oracle : Tell me, O /acred Syhanian, am I not 
obliged to obey the Infpirations oi my Nature , 
or better Genius, which tells me, 'tis a butch- 
erly and inhuman Life to feed on flaughtered 
Animals ? Did not all thofe whoaim*d at PerfeSii- 
on among the primitive Difciples of the Prophet^ 
abftain from murthering the Brutes ? 'Tis true, 
iht Mejfenger ofGoo did not pofitively enjoin 
Jbftinence from Plejh ; yet he recommended it as a 
divine Coun/e/ ; And thofe, to whom he indulg'd 
the Liberty of eating it, he ty'd up to certain 
Conditions. Do not all the religious Orders preach 
up Ahjlinence, both in their Sermons and Li'ves ? 
I make no longer Doubt, but the Corruption of 
Manners, and Voluptuoufnefs of Men, are the 
Caufes that this ancient Sobriety is now difufed 
and flighted. My own Experience confirms me 
in this Opinion, who have often attempted to 
live in Ahjlinence ; but, by the Force of a vora- 
cious Appetite, fufier'd myfelf to be carried 
back to my old Intemperance. 

Yet, in eating Flefh, I have been precifely care- 
ful to obferve the Prohibition of our holy Prophet, 
fo long as it was in my Power ; I never knonju- 
ingly tafted of Blood, nor of any Thing jlrang- 
led or knocked down. But it is impoffible for me to 
aiTure myfelf of this, or that all the Flefh I eat 
was killed in pronouncing that tremendous 


90 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

Name which gave it Life. Neither could I once 
efcape a Neceffity of eating Sivine's Tlefl?, 

But I abominate mylelf for this involuntary 
Crime J and, to obviate the like Temptation for 
the future, 1 will tafle of nothing that has 
breathed the common Air ; being inclined to be. 
lieve the Metempjychojis ; which if it be true, I 
vvifh for no greater Happinefs, than that, in my 
next Change, my Soul may pafs into the Body of 
the Camel, which lh.Jl carry thee to Mecca. 

Paris, \j^th of the \Ji Mocn, 
of the Tear 1650. 


To Minezim Aluph, Bafia.. 

MY Intelligence from the Imperial Pbrtt^ 
fometimes arrives late ; either through the 
Negledl of Kifus Darmolcc, to whom that Lare is 
committed, or through the Badnefs of the Roads,, 
which many Times are impaiTable; befices the 
frequent St' ps and Interceptions of the Pofs in. 
this l ime of War ; which is the Reafon I do not. 
always hear of the Alterations at the Seraglio^ . 
and the Changes that are made in the Govern- 
me fits of the fining Empire, 'till many Moons are 
pafs'd : Who is exalted, or wh.o imde Manfou I, 
are Things to which Mahmut is for a Time a great 

Therefore thou hall no Reafon to be offended 
that I am thus late in fending to thee my congra- 
tulatory Addrefs ; but reft confident, that I wifli 
thee Jncreafe of Happinefs, like the fproutivg of 
the Paltn, 


Vol. IV. « Spy «/ Paris. 91 

As a Mark of my Duty and AfFeflion, I fliall 
now acquaint thee with News, which though it 
may feem of fmall Import to the Divatiy yet has 
ftartled all Europe. 

It is the Imprifonment of three of the French 
Princes ; not thofe of the ordinary Rank, but 
Branches of the Royal Stem, whofe Names are not 
unknown in the Seraglio, the Rejidence of Fame. 
They are the Princes of Conde and Conti, Bro- 
thers, and the Duke of Longueville, Husband tp 
their Siller. They are the principal Subjefts in 
this Nation ; all three having the Majeftick Blood 
of the Kings of France running in their Veins. 

They owe their Confinement to Cardinal Ma- 
zarini, or rather to their own inartificial Conduft. 
The Prince of Conde is a p iflionate Man, and ha;5 
never learned how to conceal his Refentments. 
When he firll returned from the Battle of Lens in 
Flanders, whereof I formerly gave an Account, 
the InfurreHion in Paris began. The Prince 
block'd up the City, and promii'd the Cardinal 
(againft whom alone all this Storm was raift'd) 
'I'hat he would either bring him back in Tri- 
umph to Paris, or die in the Attempt. He per- 
form'd his Word ; and the Cardinal rode through 
the Streets oi Paris, in the fame Coach with the 
King, Queen, and all the Royal Blood, after the 
Siege was raii'd, and a Peace concluded. And 
the Prince, when he alighted out of the Coach, 
addrefs'd himfelf thus to the Cardinal : " Now, 
** Sir, I elteem myfelf the happieit Man in the 
•* World, in that I have been able to perform my 
*' Engagements, in bringing your Eminence back 
" to Paris J and that by my Prefence the Hatred, 
*' which the Multitude have for your Perfon, 
*' was reprefs'd whiift we pafs'd thro' the Streets. 

This too nearly touch'd the Cardinal. And in- 
deed the Queen, with all the reil, were fenfible, 


92 Letters TVrit by Vol. IV. 

that thePrince had too far over-flict himfelf in this 
laft Expreffion. However, the Cardinal rc^'^y'' 6. in 
a kindof Modefty, not wholly void of Cholerand 
Difdain : " Sir, You not only oblig'd me to 
*• that Height, but have done the Kivgdom fo con- 
*' fiderable a Service in this Aftion, that I fear 
** neither their Majejiies nor myfelf fliall be ever 
** in a State to make you anfwerableCompenfation. 

Thofe, who flood by and heard thefe inter- 
changeable Difcourfes, were apt to interpret the 
frji for a Reproach, jind thefccond as a Menace. 
Since it is not ufual for great Men to over-value 
the Services they do their King and Country ; and 
for Princes, when they cannot duly reward an 
eminent Performance, to turn their Gratitude into 

This is certain, That the Prince of Conde has 
prefum'd much on the Merit of his late Services ; 
and it wa.' noi eafy for the ^een or the Cardinal 
to invent fuch Acknowledgments as he expected. 
For he imagined they ought to deny him nothing, 
who had fo often hazarded his Life for their In- 

It was on this Ground he thought he had a 
Right to interpofe in a Marriage which Mazarini 
defign'd to make between one of his Nieces and 
tlie Dzde of Mercaptir. 

This Duke is of a Family which has been a long 
time at Variance with that of the Prince of 
Conde : And therefore the Prince was jealous left 
the Cardinal, by the intended Match, fhould 
fortify his Intereft among the Prince's Enemies, 
and fo be in a Condition not to want his Pro- 
tedlion ; the only Thing he was ambitious of. 
For, cou*d he have once reduc'd the Cardinal to 
this Neceffity, he himfelf had been abfolute Ma- 
Jler at Court. Therefore he oppos'd the Match 
with all Vigour and Induflry. This nettled the 


Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Paris. 93 

Cardinal. He complains to the ^een of the 
Prifue\ Unkindnefs. She intercedes, and ufes her 
utmoft Endeavours to reconcile the Prince to this 
Marriage. But his Brother, the Duke of Lon- 
gueville, has fo pofTeiTed the Prince with a Jea- 
loufy of the Cardinari Proceedings, that no Ar- 
guments could prevail on him, or overcome his 
fix'd Averfion for Mazarini\ defigned Alliance 
with the Houfe of Vendofme^ (fo they call the Fa- 
mily from whence the Duke oi Mercceur is fprung.) 
He rails at the Cardinal, and lampoons him ia 
all Companies. This begets ill Blood in the fw 
preme Minifter of Ztate^ who fecretly refolves 
the Prince' % Ruin. 

In this, his Policy and Malice exceeded the 
petty Revenges of the Prince ; who being of a 
frank, opeu Heart, contented himfelf with 
Railleries and fatyrical Expreflions, whilft the 
Cardinal concealed his Anger under the Mafque 
of extraordinary Civilities ; returning all the Con- 
tempts of the Prince, with a Refpedl which 
feemed to fpeak much AfFeftion and Devoir. 

He has been a long Time tampering with a 
TaSlion which goes by the Name of the Trondeurs. 
Thefe were his Enemies, not fo much in Hatred 
qf his Perfon, as out of a Zeal to ferve their 
Country, which they imagined was oppreffed 
under the Condui5l of this Minifter. 

Thefe he has lately gained over to his Party, by 
reprefenting to them the Prince of Conde, as the 
Author of all thofe Evils which they afcribed to 
himfelf : Whilft, at the fame Time, heperfuaded 
the Prince, that they had fome Defign againft his 
Pei'bn. Thus he artificially blinded both ParZ/Vx, 
and engaged them in mutual Revenges, privately 
animating theFrondeurs againft t\\tPrince,2iad pro- 
voking the Prince to feek th? Ruin of the Fron- 


94 Letters J-Frit by Vol, IV. 

rffarj. By this Trap the Prince was inveigled to 
confent, and give Orders for his own Imprifon^ 
went, whilft he was made to believe the Arrefi 
was defigned againft his Enemies j and the People 
werefatisfied, fmce they were perfuaded the Fac' 
tion of the Frondeurs had a Hand in the Plot. 

The 1 8th of the laft Moon the three Princes 
were taken into Cufiody, and fent to a Place they 
call the Crt/yA- of \!hs.Wood o^ Finciennes, fome 
Leagues from Paris. The fame Day the ^een 
fent for the Dutchefs of Longue-vUle to come to 
her ; but the wary Dutchefs would not put her- 
felf into a Ca^e. She immediately fled in Dif- 
guife to a Sea Tenxin belonging to her Hufband. 

*Tis faid, the Prince oi Coade had Notice given 
him of his defign'd Imprifonment ; but that he 
would not efcape, projedting to himfelf fome great- 
er Advantages from the Difcontents of the People 
(who now behold him as a Patriot) than from 
a clandeftine or fugitive Liberty. This is cer- 
tain, his Coach broke on the Road between Paris 
and Vincier.nes ; and 'tis thought his Friends might 
eafily have refcu'd him : For this Accident occa- 
fion'd a Stop of fix Hours in their Journey, Time 
enough to have raifed a thouiand Men to his 
Relief, being only guarded by fixteen Cavaliers. 
But it feems he courts the Cardinal's Perfecution, 
that he may have deeper Grounds for Revenge. 
I know not whether his Policy is juftifi.ible or 
no ; but, if I were in his Circumftances, I fhould 
hardly take this Method to gratify my Refent- 
ments, which in all Probability I fhould not be in 
a Condition to accomplifh 'till the Greek Cakfids, 
that is, never. 

Paris, i^thcfthe 2d Moo", 
^ of the Tear 1650. 


Vol. IV. aSpY al 'Paris. ^j 


To the Reis Etfendi, Principal Secretmy 
of the Ottoman Empire. 

TH E Devotees among the Franks talk much 
of the Jubilee that is to be celebrated this 
Year at Rome. They enrich their Fancies with 
the Hopes of I know not what fphifual Trea/ure, 
which the Roman Mufti, or Pontiff, will diftri- 
bute among the Pilgrims that refort to Rome du- 
ring this holy Tear. 

This, as lam told, is celebrated in Imitation of 
the Sabbatical Year, ioxvaitXy obferv'd by the Jevjs 
when tliey poflefs'd the Holy Land. The Hebreiv 
Writers, fuch as Jofephus, and others, call that al- 
fothe Tear o{ Jubilee. Their Cabbalijis, like the 
"Pythagoreans, pretended to derive great Mjfieries 
from certain J>!umb. rs : And the Number Se'ven 
was had in particular Veneration by the Hcbrenvs ; 
Therefore they kept t\try feuenth Day, Week, 
and Year, Holy. In thefe^uenth Year it was not 
lawful to till the Ground, plant Vineyards, or 
fowany Seed. And \v\\tn fe'vetiT'imcs fe-ven Years 
were expired, the Yenr of Jubilee was proclaim'd, 
being always ihQ Fiftieth : They proclaim'd it 
by 7'rumpets throughout the whole Country of 
Palejline, in the forty ninth Year. And the 
Muezins cry'd in the Gates of their Cities and Sy- 
nagogues, at the Beginning of the Jubilee : " Let 
" every Man return this Year to his own Poffef- 
" J:on and Tribe, whether he be a Sla've or Free. 
" He that has fold his Houfes or Lands, if he 
*' wr.s not before r^ble to redeem them, let him 
•* this Year take Pcfleflion of his Inheritance. 
*' He that is become another Man's Slave, and 

*' neither 

^6 "Letteks IVrii l>y Vol IV, 

" neither himfelf norhis Friends can redeem him, 
** let him this Year bedifmifs'd, and fent Home 
*' to the Family to which he belongs ; for hence- 
** forth he is free by the Indulgence of the Lanxj. 
" Let no Man fow the Ground, nor gather the 
*' Fruits that grow of themfelves this Year : But 
*' let the Earth, as well as its Inhabitants, enjoy 
*• Liberty and Reft \ for this is the Year of Grace 
*' and divine Bounty. 

After this Manner was the Hebrenxj Jubilee pro- 
daimed and obferved : And, they fay, from 
hence arofe the Cujiom among the Ckrijlians, who, 
in many Things, may be ftiled the Jeivs Apes. 
But others iay. That the pre lent Roman Jubilee 
is derived from the fecular Games, celebrated 
by their Pagan Anceftors ; in Regr.rd, this was 
renewed every hundred Years at firft, even as 
thofe Games were. Whence it was, that the 
Crjer, in thofe Days, at the IndiSiion of the fecu- 
lar Games, faid, " Come to the Plays which no 
" Man living has yet fcen, nor fhall ever fee 
** again." For, Man's Life being generally fo 
Ihort, they thought it improbable that zny Mor- 
tal fhould live to fee this Solemnity repeated. 

The Modern Jubilee was firft publifhed by 
Boniface IX. Bijhop of Rome, in the Year 1 300 of 
the Chrifian's Hegyra: At which Time, he pro- 
mifed full and entire RemiJJion oi Sins to all who 
fhould refort in Pilgrimage to Rome that Year. Af- 
ter him it was celebrated every hundredth Year, 
according to his Inflitution, 'till the Days of 
Clement VI, who, at the Inftance of the Reman 
Citizens, reduced it to every fiftieth Year. Then 
Urban VI, another Pope, reduced it to the thirty- 
third Year. And, lail of all Paul II, contrafted 
the Interval to five and twenty Years: Which 
Space of Time has been obferved by all his Suc- 
ceffors to this Day, 


Vo]. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Paris. 97 

If thou wouldft know the Reafon why they 
have thus alter 'd the Periods, it is for Profic. For, 
in the Year of Jubilee, there is a valt Conflux 
of People from all Parts of Europe ; who bring 
a far greater Treafure into the Roman Coffers 
than they carry away from that City. Though 
the Pope, 'tis laid, is very liberal of that which 
they call the Treafure of the Church : Which is 
a ccrtaia Futid of Merits and fuper abundant 
Graces, left by the MeJJiah and his Saints m 
the Cuftody of this Prelate, to fupply the Lefeifls 
and Infirmities of fmful Men : And they be- 
lieve 'tis only in his Power to difpofe of this 
heavenly Wealth to whom he pleafes. They talk 
alfo of Indulgence and Pardons, whereby the holy 
Father can redeem Men from all Sin, and the 
Punifliments that are due to it ; And this won- 
derful Prerogative, they fay, does not only be- 
nefit the Living, but extends even to the Souls 
departed ; whom the Pope, according to their 
Perfuafion, can free from the Torments of Purga- 
tory, and at bis Pleafure admit into the Gates of 

We that are Mujfulmans cannot declaim againfi: 
the DoOrine of Praying for the Dead, fince it 
is praftifed by all the Faithful : Neither have we 
Reafon to inveigh againft Indulgences, or Releafes 
from Penance : But that the Power of granting 
and difpenfing thefe Favours fhould be only re- 
pofited in the Chrijlian Mufti, will not accord 
with the Faith of a trut Believer . We know 
who fwore by the Hooves of his fiuift and faith- 
ful Elborach, which in one Night carry'd him a 
Journey of fix Moons, that from thenceforth 
the Key of Aaraf, or the Place of Prifons , was 
committed to him. Doubtlefs the Omnipotent 
■can transfer his Commiffions when, and to whosi 
he pleafes. \i he once gave this Authority of 
f remitting 

98 "Letters Wrii hy Vol. IV. 

remitting Sins to the Mejfftah, and Peter\a% Lieu- 
tenant, does it follow that all Peter"?, Succeffors, 
the Cailiffs of Rome, have retain'd this Pri'vilegef 
There have been many good Men in that Seat, 
and not a few nuicked; fome Prophets, and feme 
Magicians ; a Catalogue interfpers'd with SaintSf 
Martyrs, Butchers, and Deijils. 

But 'tis evident they forfeited their Authority, 
when they dedin'd from the Truth, from the un- 
blameable Profeflion of the Divine Unity, and re- 
filled the Mejfenger of Hea'ven, fent to corred 
their Error?, reform their Vices, and reduce 
Mankind to one Laiv of Purity and Light. 

I write not partially, nor am I imbitter'd 
againft the Patriarch of the Romans : He is a Man, 
like others, fubjeft to the Will oi Dejiiny. The 
Babylonian Cailiffs, and thofe of Egypt, fuccef- 
fively enjoy'd the fame Power, tranfmitted to 
them from the Prophet, who feal'd up all the for- 
mer Z)//^f»/2i//ow; Yet in time, through their 
Sins, they forfeited their Authority, together with 
their Empire, when the bright Oftnans conquer'd 
all Things. Then was the Propbetick Office tran- 
flated to our Mufti, the Guide of thofc who pof- 
fefs the Sefulckre oi Mahomet: To him all the 
World ought to have Recourfe for Solution of their 
Doubts, Dire3icn\n X.h.t\T Li'ves, Ahfolution ixQva. 
their Sins, and for the Pa/sport of Immortality, 
t'le Vefta requir'd of all that enter the Gxtes of 

But all "Mortals are naturally tenacious of 
whatfoever advances their Honour and Intereft. 
Ki)!^s hug empty Titles that yield them no Profit. 
And the Roman Bijhops are unwilling to acknow- 
ledge themlelves divelled of the Privileges which 
were cnce annex'd to that Chair of Peter : They 
fhew the Keys, the Symbols of a Power which they 
have loll. And the credulous Nazarenes believe 


Vol. rV. a Spy af V ARIZ. 99 

that Heaven and Hi?// are open'd and fhut at their 
Pleafure. On the Eve of the MeJJiah\ Nati'vity^ 
the prefent Pope knock'd three ti?nes with a golden 
Hammer at the Gates of the principal Mofque in 
^fl«7^ ; which were then open'd, to fignify the 
enfuing Year of Jubilee ; when the Chriflians 
are perfuaded, that Heaven is open to all that 
vifit Rome in this holy Time. 

I wi(h thee a Life of many Jubilee}. 

Paris, 9/>& of the 3^/ M70//, 
o/" /^^ Tear 1650. 


Ti? the Flower of High Dignity, ths 
moji Magnificent Vizir Azem. 

Vy H E N I firft heard the News of the Trow 
* ' hies that have been at Conjiantinople, the 
Depojition of Mahomet, the late F/x/r Azem, and 
the Advancement of the Jani%ar-Aga to that Z)/^- 
k;V)», I imagin'd it had been CaJJim Hali. But it 
feems that brave old Soldier is elevated to a more 
lofty Station: He has enter'd the immortalPoJj^eJJionSf 
being tranflated to an high Seat : For I underftand 
he has his Reft in Paradife. On that Hero be the 
Mercies of the fupremely Indulgent ; whilft I turn 
myfelf to thee, his late Succejfor in that military 
Honour t but now the Lieutenant of the Shado-iv of 
God. I touch the Earth thrice vvith my Forehead 
when I falute thee. Great Prince of the Vizirs, in 
Token of my Humility and Reverence ; and in 
Remembrance of my Original : That I, who 
am but the Produd of Duft, a raeie Worm, may 
F 2 not 

100 Letters IVrit by Vol. IV. 

not commit an Indecency, when I addrefs to the 
bright Image of our auguji Emperor, who is the 
Type of the Sun. 

In fpeaking of Perfons of thy imtnenfe Finuer^ 
I drive equally to Ihun Flattery and Difrefpeft ; 
endeavouring to deport myfelf with an even 
Coarfe between thofe two Extremes, as Mariners 
fleer between Sylla and Carjbdis. Thefe are dan- 
gerous Places in the Sicilian Seas. 

All Europe celebrates thy Praifes, and extols 
thy Juftice for releafing the Ambajfador of Venice f 
imprifon'd in the i^th Moon of this' Year. They 
fay, fince thy Aflumption to this important Tray?, 
<he Ottoman Port is reform'd, and grown more 
civiliz'd ; (for the Franks efteem all the FolloW' 
ers of the Prophet, who could neither write nor 
read, as Barbarians.) 

Here is much Talk about the Defeat given to 
our Forces in Hungary : The French fpare for no 
Encomiums on the Ba£'a of Buda, who fought 
■valiantly till his Legs were (hot cfF; and then 
caub'd himfelf to be carry'd up and down through 
the Army to encourage his Soldiers. Neither 
do they diminifh the Glory that is due to his Son, 
who received his Death in defending his Father, 
at what Time the old Captain was taken Pri- 

But they bkme the Conduft of him who be- 
feg'd the Foit oi CliJJ'a, in regard he undertook 
it in the wrong Seajcn of the Year : The Defeft 
of a General'' i, Judgment, in fuch Cafes, is ma- 
ny times fatal to an Army. The French are the 
beft in the World at fpyir.g Advantages, and the 
moft dextrous in making ufe of them. Moll 
of their Campaigns are Ipent in their Trenches, 
or in light Skirmilhes ; feldom hazaiding a B:;t- 
tle, unlefs on fome unequal Terms to their own 
Intereil j and then they never let flip the Oppor- 

Vol. IV. a Spy ai Varis. ioi 

tunity. This commends their Po/icy, but is no 
great Argument of thsir Courage : tor true Va.' 
lour never regards Dangers. 

Adonai the Je^M fends me Word, that the Ve- 
netians are put jin greit Hopes of accomoJaticg 
their AfFairl with the tnyjlerious Divan, fince the 
Releafe of their Bath : Yet both they and all 
the Nazarenes refent highly the Strangling of^his 

They underftand not the Meafares of the /«^- 
/ime Port, full of Wifdom and Jullice ; and that^ 
by the Terror of fuch Examples, the Minijhrs 
of the Righteous Throne feek to prevent future 

In thefe Wefiem Courts, a little Gold, or a great 
Friend, fhall eafily palliate and procure a Pardon 
for thtgreateji Crimes. Their Procejfes here aie 
flow in the Execution of Juftice; being Stran- 
gers to the impetuous Orders and fwJf: Perfor- 
mance praftis'd in the Eaft. Befides, this Litei pre- 
fer fported himfelf to Death by the Licentiouf- 
nefs of his Tongue. He delighted to play upon 
htujejiy, and with an infolent Licivioafnefs of 
Speech, to deceive him whofe high, fubliinc, and 
remote Intelled ufes no other Expreflions of hij 
Wrath, but the Hands of his Mutes. It does not 
become the Emperor of the World to be profufe in 
Words, as the Chrijiian Princes are, who take 
great Pams to fatisfy xhdr Fajpils of the Juftice of 
their Proceeding''. They cannot condemn tbt 
Wicked without a formal Procefs, wherein vari- 
ous Wits fhevv their Skill in canvaffing theCaufe, 
which, upon fmcere Evidence, may be decided ia 
two Words. This is the ^lafqutrade of Chrijiian 
Jujlice, a mere Trap for Gold, the Secret of the 
Wejlern La'v.yers ; who enrich themfelves at the 
Price of other Mens Folly, and to the Difgrace 
of the Monarch who there pretends to command. 
F 3 Should 

102 Letters TVrit hy Vol. IV. 

Should thofe Men of Laiv fee this Letter, and 
know who wrote it, how would they not circum- 
cife and flay the minuteft Dafhofmy Pen to find. 
Arguments of Revenge againfta Mujfulman ? 

All Men are full of themfelves and their own 
Principles : And the Nazarenes of the Wejl are fo 
brimming with them, that there is no Room left 
for Inftruftion or Amendment. Like the Chinefe, 
they boaft of their own Science and Wifdom, re- 
puting all the reft of the World ignorant and blind. 

They are fo narrow in their Tenets, fo dogma- 
tical in their Decijlons, and fo conceited of all, 
that it is difficult for a Man, who has convers'd in 
a free Air, to frame himfelf to their Rules. 

By what I have faid thou may'il determine, 
that it is no eafy Task for an Arabian Native, 
bred in the Seraglio, to conform himfelf adroit 
to the Humours and FaOiions of France. Yet I" 
curb all the natural Propenfions of my Birthy 
Blood, and Education, as much as in me lies, that 
I may ferve the Grand Seignior. I am incognito in 
all Refpefls, favc thofe wherein I cannot be hid. 
And I would change my Mafque a hundred 
Times over, rather than fail cf my Ends. 

What can I fay more to him who only values 
a Slafve for his Deeds ? 

I turn not my Back on thee, fublime Idea of 
ahfclute Pciuer ; but, retiring after the moft re- 
fpedtful Manner of the Eajl, I make a thoufand 
Obeifances, till the -r^»/;/o/-/ has cover'd me from 
thy illujlrious Prefence. 

Paris, 1 -]th of the ^tb Mooftf 
of the Year 1650. 


Vol. r\^ «Spy^/ Paris. 103 


to Sedrec Al* Girawn, Chief Page 
of the Treafury. 

THOU wilt have Reafon to wonder at a 
Man pretending Acquaintance with thee, 
whom thou canll not remember to have feen. 
'Tis from my Brother Pejlelibali, thy former 
Majier, I received the News of thy late Prefer' 
ment, who art thyfelf but early in Years ; yet no 
Time is unfeafonable to a Man mature in Virtue 
and Wifdom. 

I knew thee an Infant in the Arms of thy 
Mother, the Widow of an y/r«<^/rt«- Soldier, who 
fcrved my Brother in the I^Vars of Perfia. There 
appear'd then fuoh evident Symptoms of thy 
future. Wit and Dexterity, as prompted thy Fa- 
ther's Captain to take thee into his Proteftion and 
Care ; and thy Mother by her Charms foon found 
a Way to his Bofom. 

I vi'rite not thefe Things to reproach thee 
with the Meannefs of thy Birth'. Thy Merits 
equal tlice with thofe who are born of Nobles. 1 1 is 
not the Cuftom of the Eaji to prefer Men for their 
Parentage, or becaufe they can fhew the eiujiy Sta- 
tues of their Anceftors. This is the peculiar Over- 
fight of the Infidels, to give that Honour to 
Names, and Men of a noijy Defcent, whicu is only 
due to Virtue. There Are Families in Rome in this 
Day who boaft of their Pedigrees, and that they 
fpring from the renowned Heroes that are re- 
corded in the Hijiories of that Empire : But they 
glory in their Shame, lince they are quite dege- 
nerated from the brave polities which enno- 
bled their Progenitors ; and by their fordjd A£ii- 
F 4 ons 

104 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

ons are become a daily Subjeft for the Dcfcants 
of Pajquil. This is an Image in a certain publick 
PJace in Rome, to which in the Night-time they 
affix the Libels which they dare not own : A kind 
of dumb Satyr on the Vices of the Grandees, not 
fparing even the chief Mufti of the Chrijiians, if 
he is guilty of any Follies which merit to come 
within the \'^erge of a Lampoon. 

It is no contemptible Jell which was in this 
Manner put upon the prefent Pope, and one of 
his Nephe^^^s, at the latter End of the laft Year. 
It feenis the good old Father had advanced this 
Spark from a poor ignorant Taylor to the Dignity 
of a Reman Baron ; bellowing on him Offices 
which brought him a Re--jenue fufficient to main- 
tain his Title and Port. All the ancient Nobility 
were difgulled at this j and fome arch Wag was 
fet at work to ridicule the Pope's Condudl, and 
the new Baron'' i Honour. Wherefore on the 
Day which the Nazarenes celebrate with great 
Solemnity, for the Birth- Day of yefus the Son of 
Mary, early in the Morning the 'fore mentioned 
Image, Pafquil, was obferv'd to be apparell'd all 
in Rags, and a very nally Habit, with a Sckidule 
of Paper Ln his Hand, wherein was writ, H(no 
Koiv, Palquil j ivhat ! all in Rags on a Chriftmas' 
Day? (for fo they call the iV^//i;//)' of their Mef- 
fias ) And underneath was inscribed this Anfwer : 
Alas, I cannot help it; for my TAYLOR is 
becc/ne a LORD. 

Yet notwithftanding the Obfcurity of this Man's 
Birth, and the Meannefs of his former Trade, he 
became an eminent .S/fl/f/OTi2H after the Pope had 
exalted him to that Dignity ; and lived with an 
unblemift'd Reputation, whilft he faw all, or 
moll of the ancient i\^:;^i//V)' pafquill'd every Day 
for their effeminate Vices. 


Vol. IV. a Spy al Paris. 105 

By what I have faid thou may'ft be affured, 
that I have not the lefs Elteem for thee, becaufe 
thou waft not the Son of a BaJ/a ; fince, had thy 
Father liv'd, his Fortune and Courage might have 
promoted him to that Honour, or a Command 
equal to it ; and thou thyfelf art in a fair Way to 
fupply fome future Vacancy in thofe great Charges 
of the Empire. 

I have no News at prefent to fend thee, fave 
that the three French Princes, of whofe Impri- 
fonment I gave an Account to Minezim Alouphy 
are remov'd by Cardinal Mazarini% Order from 
the Cafile of Vinciennes, to a Sea Tcnun call'd 
Havre de Grace, for fear they fhould be refcued 
by Marjhal Turenne, who is much devoted to their 
Intereft. The Princefs of Conde is retired to 
Bourdeaux, a City at this time in Arms againft 
the King, having alfo with her the young Duke 
of Enguein her Son. 

The Marjhal de la Meilleray is gone with his 
Army to befiege this Place > and 'tis faid, the 
King will foon follow with the whole Court. All 
Things feem to portend another Relapfe of this 
State into the old Diforders. 

But this is not of fo near a Concern to us that 
are Mujfiilmam, as the Quarrels that I hear are 
broach'd between the Janizaries and Spahi''s. 
They fay, the whole Ottoman Empire is warp'd 
this Way and that Way into contrary Faftions ; 
and that the Seraglio itfelf is full of diiferenC 
Cabals, on the Account of thefe Military Orders. 
It afflifts me with extreme Grief to receive no- 
thing but fad News from the Port, ' iiich is, or 
at leaft ought to be, a Fountain of Joy to the 
ivhole Earth. I pray Heavemvert the Omen f for 
it looks with an ill Prefage, when the CL^mpions of 
the divine Unity are thus divided againlt them- 

F s If 

io6 Letters /STr// /^y Vol. IV. 

If thou wilt take my Advice, enter not thy" 
felfinto the Secret of either Party ; but, pofing 
thy AfFedions with Prudence, ftand Neuter to 
all Things but the Grand Seigtiior's Intereft. In 
that be as zealous as thou canft. As for the reft, 
wait the Decrees of Dejiinj. 

Paris, zqthofthe <^th Moottt 
of the Tear 1650. 


^0 the Kaimacham. 

GFapluI Ehen Zhahefjhnh the Arabian 
Philofcfher has faid it, and every Man's Ex- 
perience confirms it. That no human Care can pre- 
vent the Accompliniment of what Heaven has de' 
creed. There nre certain Moments of our Lives 
wherein Fate delights to mock our Wit and Pru- 
dence, to baffle our ftrifleft Caution, and to ridi- 
cule all cur Condud, that we may learn the Lcffcn 
ci MeJignation,zr[6.riOt. trull too much to ourfelvef. 
When I firft faluted the Light of this Morn- 
ing Sun, my Spirits were ferene and joyful : No 
melancholy Dreams had left their black Impref- 
fions on my Mind, no faddening Thoughts poffef- 
fed my Soul ; I awak'd chearful and fprightly as 
the Lark. After I ador'd the Omnipotent, and 
performed my accuftom'd Holy Things, I began 
to refleft on my own Happinefs ; in that I had 
fo many Years ferved the fuhlime Tort in this 
Station, full of Difficulties and Perils, yet by no 
Misfortune had ever betray'd the leaft Secret of 
my CommiJJion. It pleas'd me to thinlc I ftill 


Vol. rV. a Spy ai Faris. 107 

pafs'd for Titus of Moldavia among the French^ 
who are the moft apprehenfive People in the 
World ; and even in the Opinion of Cardinal 
Mazarini, who, like Janus, has more Eyes than 
two. lembrac'd myfelf (if J may fo fpeak) in 
the Conceit of my good Succefs ; concluding I 
was born wvAtt fortunate Starst and that no Dif- 
after could ever hurt me. 

But I took wrong iMeafures of the Ways of 
Dejiiny, which are as untraceable as the Mines : 
For before Mid-day my Sun was cclipfed; the Air 
of my Soul ruffl'd with Storms, and all my Joy 
turn'd to Mourning and Sadnefs. 

Wilt thou know the Occalion of my Grief? It 
was this. In the Year 1645, according to the 
Style of the Nazarenes, I receiv'd fome particular 
Inilrudions from t\i& then Vizir Jzem, putting 
me in Mind of the Hazards I run in this Poft, 
and giving me ftridl Charge to beitow all my 
Letters in a fecure Place, whether the Tranfcripts 
of thofe I write to the Minijiers cf the Port (for 
I always retained a Copy'of the Original) or the 
Difpatches I receive from thence. 

'i hat Minijicr was afraid, left I might fome 
Time or other be difcovcr'd ; and confequently 
that my Chamber would be fearch'd. Therefore, 
obeying his Hint, I immediately carry'd all my 
Writings to Eliacbim the Jeiu; knowing his 
Hoiife to be free from any Jealoufy of the StatZi 
and that the moft important Secrets in the World 
might be there an Age unreveal'd. 

The Letters of my writing v.ere inclofed in 
one Box, and thofe which I receiv'd from the 
invincible Poit in another. And this was my- 
conftant Cuftom from that Time ; as oft as I writ 
to the Minijiers of the Divan, or had perU'>'d the 
Difpatches which came from them, I difpofcd of 
both in proper places, leaving all to the Care of 
BdiOfhim.. F 6 But 

io8 Letters JVrit by Vol. IV 

But neither his Caution nor mine were faffi- 
'cient to prevent the Refohis of Heaven : It was 
determined ab)ve that we fhould lofe fome of 
thefe Papers. Eliachim came to me To-day, before 
the Hour of UIana?>iiJi, all in Paffion, aftonifhed, 
raving and Ilaring like a mad Man. As foon 
as he enter'd my Chamber he tore his inner Veft, 
which was of Crimfon Silk, fring'd round with 
Gold, and cry'd, IFe are undone, betrayed, and 

I prefently thought of my Writings ; and aflc'd 
him whether they were fafe. In a Word, he 
told me he had loll the Box, which contain'd the 
Letters fent from the Miniflers at the Port to me, 
and that his Slave a Negro, whom he kept in his 
Houfe, was miffing. Thou may'il imagine, fage 
Minificr, That this News put me into no fmall 
Confufion. I prefently fufpeded that this ^^illain 
of a Negro had got the Writings, and was gone to 
Cardinal Mazarini with 'em : But then recol- 
ledling with cooler Thoughts, that this African 
underllcod not Arahick, in which Language ?\oTLt 
Eliachim and I us'd to converfe ; and that confe- 
quentiy he never could know our Affairs, or read 
the Lettersy which might tempt him to fuch a 
Trea/cn, I was at lofs what tx) think of it : Nei- 
ther am I better fatisfy'd now, though I have ru- 
minated on it thefe twelve Hours : Only I think, 
if Cardinal Alazarini has thefe Papers in his 
Cuftody, he would have given Orders before this 
Time to feize the fuppofed Titus of Moldavia j 
for fomc of thefe Letters take Notice of my 
having ?ffiimed that Name : But I cannot per- 
ceive any Attempt that has been made in that kind^ 
or that any body has been to enquire for me at my 
Lodging ; for 1 fet Spies to obferve, as foon as I 
depa^rted thence with Eliachim, v/hich was about 
Noon. We are now together in a Friend's Houfe, 


Vol. rV. flSpy^/ Paris. 109 

where we fhall continue 'till we hear farther of 
this Event. As yet we are in the Dark, and full 
of Fears ; but Time, which brings all Things to 
Light, will convince us what we have to truft to. 

In the mean while there is little News, fave a 
Difcourfe of a certain Convention at Noremhergh, 
and the great "Jubilee which is celebrated at Rome, 
where they fay, the Chrijllans chief Mufti, th« 
Week before their Beriam, or Eafer, wafh'd the 
Feet of twelve Pilgrims ; and that Cardinal Lw 
donjifio cntertain'd nine Thoufand of thefe DenjO' 
tees at once with a very magnificent Feaft. They 
fay alfo, that the Pope will get this Year two 
Millions of Z^^«/» J, by the Refort oi Pilgrims to 
that City. 

The King of Denmark^ Refident at this Court 
has received a Letter, which certifies him that 
his Mafter has declar'd Prince Chrijiian his Son 
Succeffor in the Throne, 

1'hey talk alfo of a Marriage lately folemnized 
between Charles a German Count and Charlotte f 
Sifter to the Landgrave of HeJJg- Cajfel. 

But that which moll takes up IVlens Ears, and 
employs their Tongues and Thoughts, are the Ci- 
vilfVars of this Kingdom ; which is all in a Flame, 
by Occafion of the Imprifonment of the Prince of 
Conde, dnd his Brothers. The Citizens oi Paris 
are very jocund, attherepeatedNews ofthe King's 
ill Succefs ; for they \vi(h not well to his Arms, 
whilll employed againft the Mal-contents. 

Illuflrious old Grandee, I wifh thee the Years 
of Ncjior, and thofe calculated by Full Moons of 
Projferity. But I pray Heaven avert from thee 
fome of his Moments, wherein they fay he was 
tormented with the Gout, as I am at this Inltant : 
It is a Pain hardly to be f»pported. 

Paris,, n th of the 6th Moon, 

»f the Tear 1650, LET* 

110 Letters IVrithy Vol. IV. 

To the fame. 

BY the Go D whom I adore, and by YAiShadovi', 
I fwear there is no Difloyalty in Mahmut, 
yet his Life is full of Temptations and Perils. 
The Box of Letters, I mentioned in my laft, is 
irrecoverably gone, and laid up in the Bowels 
of the Earth, if we may believe the Confeflicn of 
a Man ; every Angle of whofe Heart has been 
fearched with exquifite Torments, even to Death. 
EUachinti Slave, the Negro whom I fpoke of, 
miftook that Box for one very like it, out of 
which he has often feen his Majler take Je-ivels j 
for this is the particular Merchandize of that 
Jeiu : And the Weight of each was not fo une- 
qual as to reftify his Error. Lucre tempted him, 
and the Defire of Liberty j whilft the Darknefs 
(for he committed the Villany before Sun-Rifing) 
and his own guilty Fears, confpired to baffle his 
intended Theft. The Boxes ftood together (fo? 
careful was EUachim of the fublime Secrets., as notT 
to%'tnture 'em in a Place lefs fecure than that cf 
his yeivels) and the Villain, hafty to be gone, and 
confounded for Want of Light, took up that, 
wherein were the Writings, inllead of his defigned 
Prey, the Jenuels. He went direflly into the 
Fields, purpofing to bury this fuppofed Treafure 
in the Earth, in fome private Place where he 
might take it forth at Difcretion ; But firft open- 
ing the Box, to fupply himfelf with fuch Stcnes as 
he thought would be unqueftionable Pawns for 
Money, to anfwer his prefent Neceffities, that. 
fo he might the better provide for his Conceal- 
ment ;. 

Vol. IV. «Spy^/ Paris. hi 

ment ; he was aftonifhed, and his Heart became 
like Lead, when he found nothing but Papers 
full ofCharaders, to which he was wholly a 
Stranger. A thoufand Refolutions prefented 
themlelves to him in that Agony of his Mind, 
and he knew not what to fix on. Sometimes he 
thought to carry the Box back again as he found 
it ; and fince his Defign had been thus ftrangely 
baulk'd, tocontent himfelf 'till another Opportu- 
nity. But then he confider'd it was too late to 
return before his Matter would mifs both his Slave 
and Box ; for the Sun was now far advanced in 
our Hemifphere, and Eliachim is an early Rifer. 
In a Word, therefore, he thought it the fafeft 
Way to bury it in the Ground, as he firft intend- 
ed, had it been the Box of yrouf A, and fo (hift 
forhimfelf. Propofing to himfelf this AdvAntage 
in hiding the Papers in a fecure Place, that, if 
they were of Value, he might at any Time make 
Compofition with his Majier, by difcovering 
where they were. 

All that 1 have here related is drawn from his 
own Mouth, in the Midft of Tortures. For Eliu' 
chivi foon heard of his fugitive Ni^ro, who was 
-feizcd on the Road to Lyons by fome Correfpon- 
dents of this ye^. Who, having Intelligence of 
it, took Horfe immediately, and went to the 
Place. He did not think it fafe to make a publick 
Bufinefs of it, or to arraign him before the ap- 
pointed Judges of the Country ; but, relying on 
the Jufiice of his Canfe, and the Right of a A/<a- 
Jier,he privately put him toTortures of diversKinds, 
in a Houfe where he could command any Thing. 

The flout African at firlt deny'd that he had 
meddled with any Box, faying, he efcaped purely 
for the Sake of Liberty. But when a SucceiTion 
of divers Torments had quite overthrown his Corir- 
Uancy, ha confeffed all that J have already related. 


112 Letters Writ by Vol. IV. 

Eliachim ftill fufpeAing worfe, and that he only 
fram'd this as a plaufible Story, to be freed from 
or at leaft to refpite the Pains he fuffered, caus'd 
fliarp Thorns to be thruft under the Nails of his 
Fingers and Toes ; believing that the Extremity 
of fo fenfible a Pain would extort the true Secret 
from him. But he could get nothing elfe from 
the poor excruciated Negro, though now almoft 
ready to expire, than that he had hid the Box un- 
der Ground in a certain Corner of a Field out of 
the City, to which he knew not how to diredl 
Eliachim, but promis'd to fhew it him if he 
would carry him alive to Paris. 

This was no hard Tafk to perform in the Opi- 
nion of the Je^ ', it being but a Day's Journey 
tothi? City from the Place where they then were. 
But he was deceived in his Hopes; and now all 
the Applications and Cordials, they could ufe, 
came too late; for that very Night the Negro 
breath'dout his Soul. 

However, when Eliachim came to Paris, he 
foUow'dthe Direftionsofhis dead Slate, as well 
as he could, in fearching every Corner of the 
Fields on that Side of the City where this Blaci 
had been feen to go out. But all to no Purpofe. 
Ke cou'd find nothing ; nor have we any HopC3 
ever to fee that Box again. Yet I have many 
Qualms of Fear, left feme time or other it fhould 
come to Light, to our Difadvantage and Ruin. 

I defire thy Inftruftions, fage Gyvt7fior of the 
Capital City, how I {hall deport myfclf if it be 
my Lot to be difcover'd. As* to the remaining 
Box, which has in it the Tranfcripts of my own 
Difpatches, I have taken it home to my Lodging, 
believing it will be a'^^ fafe here as in the Houfe of 
Eliachim ; fince that faithful Jen-v is no more ex- 
empted from Contingencies tlian myfelf : And I 
have no Servant to betray me. 


Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^2/ Paris. 113 

This Kingdom abounds at prefent in Treafons 
and Rebellions, 1 he French (pitc not to maflacre 
one another for the fake of a Paffion : While the 
Spaniards make their Advantages of thefe intef- 
tine Feuds ; for, under Pretence of affifting the 
Princes of the Blood, they get Footing in Ficardj^ 
from whence it will not be eafy to expel them. 
Leopold, Arch-duke of Aufiria, is at the Head of 
the Spanijh Army, and has taken feveral Towns 
belonging to the French King. 

When the parrels of thefe Infidels will end 
I am not follicitous ; my Thoughts being ever 
taken up in the Service which I owe to the Em^ 
pire of true Belie'vers. 

I cannot bid thee adieu, illuflrious Kaimacham, 
'till I have affur'dthee I am macerated with Zeal 
for the Grand Seignior. 

Paris, z^d of the qth Moon, 
of the Year 1650. 


^0 Solyman Knflir ^Aga, Prince of 
the Black Eunuchs, 

AFter I had perus'd thy Difpatch, wherewith 
thou haft honour'd thy Sla've Mahmut ; and 
I was full of Joy for the continued Demonftrati- 
ons of thy Friendfhip and Protedlion ; fo my Breaft 
conceived an Indignation at the Affront which 
has been offer'd to the fublime Port by the Cham 
of the Tartars, in prefuming to demand the Tute- 
lage of our auguft Emperor, it is an Indignity to 
the Minifen offupreme Jufticezxiii Honour y Lights 


ri4 Letters JVrit hy Vol. IV. 

of the Imperial Di'van, to whom is committed 
the Cognizance of all human Events ; the illuftri- 
ous Viziers, who manage the Affairs of the migh- 
ty and invifible Sultan Mahomet, whofe Throne 
may God fortify, 'till the Moon ihall no more 
appear in the Hewvens. 

Thofe People have been ever thirfty of Rule, 
and 'tis number'd among the Virtues of their 
Anceftors, that they enlarged their Dominions by 
the keen Edge of their Swords. But, in all the 
Regijiers and Archinies of the Empire, it has not 
been found, that any of that Nation challenged a 
Right to govern our Sultans, though during their 
Minority. It is fufficient, that they fhall have 
the Honour (according to the ancient Capitalati- 
ons) to fucceed in the Throne of the Ofman Prin- 
ces, if ever that /acred Line fhould be extinft r 
WhichGoD avert, 'till the final Confummation. 

It is a Wonder they demanded not alfo his 
J?(7)'fl/ Brothers, the other Sons o^ Sultan Ibra- 
him; that fo they might, atone Blow, cut off 
the whole Ofman Race, and take PuJfeJJion of the 
vacant Throne. 

I have not heard any Thing thefe many Moons. 
what i^s become of thole high-born Infants ; whe- 
ther they are alive, or facrificed to the Jealoufy* 
of the Sultan, as has been the Cuflom. Here are 
various flying Reports concerning them. Some 
fay that thou haft conveyed away Sultan Achmet, 
and that he is privately educated in the Houfe of 
a certain Georgian. The Blefling oi Mahomet be 
upon thee, and refrefli thy Heart, if thou haft 
taken this Care to preferve the Life of an Ofman 
Prince, which is more precious than ^a hundred 
thoufand o^ common Birth. 

As ior So lyman, and the reft of th^Lt fublime 
Race, the French gave 'em over for loft ; and I can- 
DOt contradia 'em for.Want of true Intelligence. 


Vol. IV. aSPY alPARis. 115. 

Befides, I have Reafon to fear it is too true, in 
regard it has been the cruel Pradice of all, or 
moft of our late Emperors, either to flaughter 
their Brethren as foon as they afccnded the 
Throne, or to put *em to a more lingering Death 
and Martyrdom in a Prifon. 

'Tis true, indeed, our prefent Sovereign is not 
yet arrived to thofe Years wherein Children com- 
monly lofe their native Innocence. I believe he 
fufpeds none of his Brethren, nor harbours any 
unkind Thoughts againft their Lives. Yet Cru- 
elty may be infinuated into his tender Years by 
the Artifices of his Mother ; efpecially againft 
thofe of his Father's Blood, that did not alfo par- 
take of her's. For, Sultan Ibrahim, thou know- 
eft, had Children by other Women befides the- 

The Maltefe think they have one of thefe Royal 
Infants in their Poffeffion : Thou knoweft the 
whole Story of thy PredecrJJor''s Voyage toward 
Egypt, with his beautiful Sla've and her Son, 
whom thefe hfJeh honour as the Off-fpring of 
the Grand Seignior. Thou art not ignorant, alfo, 
that this hfant, with his Mother, were banifhed 
cut of Jealoufy, by the Order oi her who bore 
in her Womb Sultan Mahomet, cur glorious So- 
vereign. The Remembrance of which makes 
me tremble for the Sake of the young Prince, if 
there be any yet remaining alive. It is in thy 
Power to certify me, and, in doing fo, thou wilt 
rid me of much Anxiety.. 

1 am but a Slave of the Slaves who ferve the 
Grand Seignior ; and it is not decent for me to de- 
fcanton the Aftions oi out moil abfn lute Monarch, 
whofe Will is not to be controul'd : But I am ftill 
a Man, and have fome Share of Humanity and 
Reafon. Thou alfo art my particular Friend, 
and wilt permit me to difcourfc with Freedom. 


ii6 Letters TVrit hy Vol. IV. 

Was it not a blooJy Feaji, to which our King's 
Great Grandfather iV/fli'c>7/;f/ III. invited nineteen 
of his Brethren en the Day of liis Inauguration ? 
Was it not a cruel Ad., to caufe thofe Rsyal 
Guejij, in whofe Veins ran the BJocd of his (nvn 
Father, to be ftrangled before they departed from 
his Table ? No lefs inhump.n was it oi Makotnet, 
the late Vizir A%em, to guide the Hand of this 
our prefent Sovereign, v/hen but fix Years old, and 
incapable of knowing what he did, to fign a War- 
rant for the Execution of his Father. Well may 
the Nazarenes call us Barbarians, when they con- 
template the Empire of the MuJfulmanSy fup- 
ported by fuch unnatural Methods. 

Thou, that haft the fuperlative Honour of be- 
ing the immediate Guardian of our young Etnpe', 
ror, wilt pardon the Liberty I take. Alcribeall 
to the Force of my Zeal and Lpyalty. Thou art 
valiant and wife- Proteil thy Charge as the Cry- 
_/?fl/ of thine Eyes, which thou wilt not fufFer to 
be hurt by the Duft of the Streets. 

Paris, \/^th of the \cth Mcon^ 
of the Year 1650. 


'to Dgnet Oglou. 

NOtwithftandingallmy Philofophy, I have not 
Command enough of my Paflion, to con- 
ceal it from thee, who haft always been the Par- 
taker of my unequal Fortunes. Whatever Mag- 
nanimity of Spirit I pretended to formerly in my 
Sicknefs, 'tis at prefent overcome by the Defire of 


Vol. IV. <2 Spy rt/ Paris. 117 

Eafe. At that time, I remember, fome Stoical 
Confiderations made me induftrioufly hide from, 
thee the tormenting Pains I felt. I endeavoured 
todifguifemy Sufferings, and to paint my Mifery 
in fuch Colours, that it could hardly be di- 
ftinguilhed from Happinefs. But now I have not 
Courage enough to hide from thee my Fears and 
Apprehenfions : j^nd all Setieca\ Morals are too 
little to hinder me from complaining of the Un- 
certainty that we daily experience in human Af- 
fairs, This is a Theme (o popular, that, were not 
particular Misfortunes very preffing, 'twould 
make me fick to fay any thing on a Subjeft, that^ 
has been in every Man's Mouth fmce the Time 
that our frji Father appear'd among the Trees. 
Therefore thou may'ft be afTured, I am not going 
about to make a Declamation, or play the Orator i 
to expatiate and make large Defcants on the In- 
fiability of all Things. What I have to fay re- 
fers to myfelf, and no Body elfe, fave to thofc 
who are the Occafion of my Melancholy. 

In the loth Moon of the lalt Year, I fent a 
Letter to Kenan BaJJa, the new Hafnadar Bajy. 
I have a Copy of it by n;e, as I always retain of 
whatever Difpatches I fend to the fublime Port, 
whether to the public k Minijiers, or my private 

I haveperus'd this Zf//^r feveral Times within 
thefe eight and furty Hours, and can find no 
jull Ground of Offence, which that Grandee cou'd 
take thereat ; unlefs he was angry with me for 
defiring him to be careful in tranfmitting my 
Money. As for the Reft, I only obey'd the par- 
ticular InftruAions I received from Mahomet the 
late Vizir A%em ; who commanded me not to 
fpare the greateft Minijler of the Port. If I had 
Reafon either to counfel, or to reprehend him : For 
faid hi in his Letter, " To this End art thou pUc'd 

" at 

Ii8 Letters Writ by Vol. IV. 

*' at fuch aDiftance, that, befidcs the Service thou 
*' doft our Smrreign in difclofing the Secrets of 
*' the Infideh, thou may'il alfo be free to write 
*' whatever thou thinkell wilt conduce to his Inte- 
** reft, without ftanding in fe:ir of the Revenge of 
*' th. Grandees." Thefe were the very Words of 
of the prime MiniJIer of the Ottoman Empire. 

Now I only told him of feme Mifcarriages in 
his Fredecejfors, warning him to be wary in his 
Station. Either he was offended at this Freedom 
I took, or becaufe I prefum'd to advife him how 
to order my Bills. Be it which it wil', I have a 
feverc Reprimand from the Reis EJ'endi, whom 
I have the greateft Reafon in the World to efteem 
my Friend. 

It would never have vexed me, had he wrote 
• plainly, and not difguifed his Sentiments. But 
all was obfcure, faving one bluni Expreflion, 
which convinced me. That the real Ground of 
all this Anger was my Letter to Kenan, wherein 
I defired his Care as to my Money. 

Can that Minifter blame me for being appre- 
henfive of Want in a foreign Country, a Re- 
gion of Ltfdeli, where I have no other Commerce 
but with Courtiers and Strangers, where, if I 
fhould be in the leaft fufpeded, they would pre* 
fently put me in Prilbn, which would hazard a 
.Difcovery of the fuhlime Secrets F Does he not 
Icnow that Money commands all Things ; and that 
the greateft Potentates obey the Power of Gold ? 
It cannot be imagin'd, but that a Man in my 
Po^ has a thoufand preffmg Occafions for Hlonej ; 
which 'tis troublefcme to exprefs ; and I have 
had very wrong Notions of my Employment, 
if I deferve, on this Account, to be reproved 
and threaten'd with fuch politick Circumlocuti- 
ons : For the ^S^trf/ar); charges me with Unwil- 
lingnefs to continue in the Service of the Ever- 


Vol. IV. a Spv at Pari^. u^ 

happy Tort \ as if he thought my Fidelity were 
corrupted, or that I had an Inclination to the 
Nazarene Intereft. 

I tell thee, my Dgnet, Perfidy I ever abhorr'd^ 
This appears to me the moft terrible and odious 
of all Vices ; I could bear the Guilt and Re- 
proach of a great many Crimes, which have lefs 
of Malice in their Conftitution. I am not afham- 
ed of many venial Frailties which I daily com- 
mit, though the Laiu is fevere againll them. 
But cou'd any Man accufe rae of wilful Treache- 
ry and Ingratitude, I wou'd pray inllantly. That 
the Luminaries of Heaven might be extinguifh'd, 
and that no terrene Subjiance might henceforth 
have in it the lead potential Light ; that fo I 
might neither be capable of feeing myfelf, or of 
being exposed to the Eyes of others : And, the 
better to efcape the Confufion which would at- 
tend that horrid Guilt, 1 would not only avoid 
human Society, but, if it were poflible, would run 
away from myfelf. 

After all this, methinks fuch a Temper need 
not be fufpefled, as averfe from the Intereft to 
which he has fo folemnly fworn. 

I wou'd not have troubled thee with the News 
of any other Affliftion ; but to be fufpedled of 
what I never was guilty of, and to be menac'd in 
dark myfterious Terms, not by an Enemy, but 
by my Friend, and one who has in his keeping 
the immortal Records of my Xeal and Integrity ; 
this cuts me to the Heart : And I had no other 
way to eafe myfelf, but by venting my Anguilh 
to thee. 

If any of the Minijien will charge me with 
Weaknefs, or Want of Ability to aft in this Stati- 
on, 1 fhould have no Reafon to repine } fince none 
of them can think fo meanly oi Mahmuty as he 
does of himfelf. I boaft of nothing, but a Loyalty 


120 Letters /Fr/V ^ Vol IV,. 

to my TrufV, incapable of being corrupt- 

But I forget that I am a MuJ'ulman, and there- 
fore ought to be refign'd to the PFUl of Heaven 
in all lliings, without Complaint or Murmur, 
£efides,I am infinitely obliged, in many Regards, 
to the Reis Ejendi ; and therefore he may be 
allow'd to take his own Advantages. Perhaps his 
Reproofs may be juft, and''tis my own Peevifh- 
nefs that hinders me from difcerning it. Howe- 
ver, I could wifh he would henceforth exprefs 
his Refentments with lefs Obfcurity, and not 
give me Grounds to apprehend the Lofs of his 

For, where I once love, I hate a Change. 
And, if thcu beeft of the fame Mind, we two 
fhall continue oftr Frwidjhip to the other Side of 
the Grave. 

Paris, 30/'?' of the i \th iSfloon, 
of the Year 1 650. 


^othe Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary 
of the Ottoman Empire. 

IF thou wilt permit me to learn fomething from 
Husbandmen, they fay, 'tis not profitable to 
plow the Fields, whofe barren Glebe brings forth 
nothing but Briars and Thorns. Such are the 
Grounds of Pafllon and Anger among Friends : 
Let 'cm lie fallow for ever. Perhaps thou wilt 
call it Prefumption in me, to challenge fuch a Re- 
lation between us : Or, if thou owneil the Title 


Vol. TV. a Spy at Fa r'i s. 121 

■of a Friend, thou wilt claim a Right to reprove 
me. Be it how it will, Reproofs make the bell 
Impreffion when they are given with Mildnefs 
and Moderation ; efpecially, they ought not to 
be founded on a Miftake, or falfe Apprehenfion. 
For they appear like Arrows difcharg'd in the 
Dark, which, being fliot at random, may, hy 
giving an undeferved Wound, make an Enemy 
of a Friend, or atleaft render a Friend fufpeded 
to be an Enemy. 

But I tell thee, I will not blow up the Embers 
of a Fire, whofe Flame is extinguifli'd long ago, 
and whereof, by this Time, I hope there remains 
not the leaft Smoak. I never love to add Fuel 
tofiiich Cafes -. Othcrwife, had I retum'dan An- 
fwer to thy Angry Letter in the Heat of my Re- 
fentments, I might have play'd the Incendiary: 
For I had both Matter enough, and Paffion fuf- 
ficient to ventilate the already kindled Sparks. 
And, of this I know thou art fenfible. 

Well ; to make the beft Conftruftion of it : 
The Hafnadnr-BaJJy was affronted, I believe, at 
the Freedom I took in advifing him, not know- 
ing that I had pofitive Orders to do fo, even to 
the/r/? Minijler of State y if I faw Occafion. And, 
to vent his Choler, he mifreprefented the Biifi- 
nefs to thee, hoping by thy Means to awe me in- 
to a fawning Acknowledgment of my fuppofed 
Crime. If this was thy Intention in writing that 
fharp Letter, I fmile at his Millake, but am for- 
ry for thine, becaufe I efteem thee my Friend. 
''Twas but an Overfight in you both j and fo let 

Thy Friendfhip I court, and refufe not his, nor 
that of any Oficer of the Seraglio. I honour all 
the Bajfa's and MiviJIers of the Imperial Port : I 
fliew to every one the Refpeft that is due to his 
i^ality : But I am commanded to write with 
G Freedom 

-122 Letters PFrit hy Vol. IV. 

Freedom to all, and not to fpeak, as if I had the 
bearded Head of a Barley Stalk on my Tongue, 
which is apt to flip down a Man's Throat, and 
threatens to choak him that fpeaks vvhilft it is in 
his Mouth. This Charge I firft receiv'd from the 
late Vizir A%em Mahomet, and it has been fince 
renew'd with frelh Inftrudlions from others of 
great Authority. They all tell me with much 
Affurance, that one chief End of my being placed 
here is, that being out of the Limits of the Ot- 
toman Empire, yet holding a conflant Intelligence, 
I may freely, and without Fear, reprove the 
Vices, and encourage the Virtues of the greateft 
Gcvernors and Princes among the MuJJulmans. 
Nay, I am threatened with Punifliment, and the 
Sultan's Difpleafure, if I negledl any Opportu- 
nity of this Nature, or appear partial and timo- 
rous in my Reprehenfions. 

For it feems this is judged the moft ready 
and efFedlual Method to reform the Corruptions 
that are crept into Court, Camp, and City ; iince 
every Man is obliged to communicate the Letters 
which he receives from me : And they are all 
regijlred by thy Care : Whereby the Grandees are 
compeird, either to live within the Limits of 
Juflice and their Duty, or elfe to be the Difco- 
verers of their own Faults j which will unavoid- 
ably bring them into Difgrace, if not the Lofs 
of their Liberty and Lives ; or at leaft put them 
to the Expence of coftly Prefents to make their 
Attonement. And thou knoweft feme Men would 
almoft as willingly part with their Lives as their 
Money, which is their God. 

After all this, I hope thou wilt not be difpleaf- 
ed if I periorm my Duty. It is not forme to be 
frighted with Menaces, or foftened with Bribes. 
My Integrity is Proof againft the Pride of the 
4Hie, and falenefs of the other. Yet I have great 


Vol. IV. a Spy af "Parts, i2J 

Efteem for the Trca/urer and thee, with other 
Miniflers who are my Friends. I could, to ferve 
fuch, freely hazard my Liberty, Fortune, and 
any Thing but my Honour, which I value at a 
far higher Rate than my Life, 

Thou may'ft regijier it for a Truth, That an 
Englip JmbaJJTador w^i in the 6th Moon of this 
Year murder'd by Villains in his Chamber at 
Madrid, the Capital City of Spain. There has 
been alio a great Battle fought in Scotland, be- 
tween the Army of that 'Nation, who maintain 
their King's Intereft, and the Forces of the new 
Englijh Common-iuealth ; wherein the latter ob- 
tain'd a fignal Viftory, having kill'd three thou- 
fand on the Spot, taken nine thoufand Prifoners, 
fifteen thoufand Arms, two hundred Enfigns, and 
all their Cannon and Baggage. Thefe are prof- 
perous Beginnings of that Republick, and redound 
much to the Honour of the Englijh General Oli- 
vjer, whom every body extols for a gallant Man. 
And I can affure thee the Wejlern Nations are 
not barren of Heroes. 

Principal Scribe of the Mujfulmans, I wi(h thy 
Heart may be a Tranfcript of the beji Copies, 

Paris, \J} of the \zth Moon^ 
of the Tear 1650. 

G 2 LET- 

J 24 Lii T T E R s Writ hy Vol. IV. 


21? Solyman Aga, Principal Chamber- 
. lain of the PFomens Apartments in the 

THESE Tartars, of whom I fpoke to thee 
in my lafl, are a ftrange fort of People in 
their Manner of Life. But we mufl not cenfure 
'em, becaufe we are of Kin. I fpeak not of my- 
felf ; for though I am an Jrab, yet the greateft 
Part of thofc, who ferve in the Armies of the 
Grand Seignior, are defcended from the Crims, I 
mean the Spahis and Timariots. Thou know'ft 
the Originals of the Military Orders, and that they 
are more honourable than the Janixaries j who, 
being Strangers by Blood, are brought up to die 
Lure of the Sei-aglio. They know neither Father 
nor Mother ( I fpcak to the Tributary Youths) 
nor have they any partial Fondnefs for their Ka- 
tive Country. 1 hey are educated in a perfefl Re- 
iignation to the Grand Seignior, and his chief Mi- 
mjiers ; yet often difobey both, and not feldom put 
"•em in Hazard of their Lives. How many Vizirt 
have been facrihced to a cunning J anixar-Jga ; 
who, to prevent his own Ruin, has tempted thofe 
under his Command to mutiny, and accept of no 
Atonement for their pretended Grievances, lefs 
than the Life of the /^y? Deputy? The rigid Fate 
oi Sultan Ofman, Uncle to ourprefent So^'ereign, 
wiU not be forgot by thofe who love the Ottoman 
family htttti tlian thefe baft or d Hcdiors. Shal 1 the 
Empire of true Belienjers be ruin'd by the Rene- 
gades? Belides, their Z)(/2-//'/rM(f is extremely cor- 
rupted ; they marry, and follow MechanicKYxzAt^^ 
lepuguant to the Aiiilere Manners of the primi- 


Vol. IV. a Spy «/ Parts. 125 

iive Guards, who are wholly attentive to Mar- 
tial Exercifes. 

Were this to come to the Hands of a Janizary-f 
he would curfe me to the Pains which have nei- 
ther Medium nor End. Yet I had once a Friend 
of tliac Order, CaJJimHali , the chief Aga, a brave 
Man, and of the fame Sentiments as myfelf: 
He fought to reform that diforderly Militia, but 
was oppos'd by the wife Men in Power. He wou'd 
freely have facrificed his own Grandeur and In- 
terell for the Good of the Mujfulman Empire ; but 
was over-aw'd by thofe who had no other Intereil 
but in its Ruin. 

Thou know'ft who I mean. Neither am I a 
Stranger to the heroick Bravery of the faithful 
Solyman, when he bearded the Bojlangi Aga, on 
that Account. That Gardiner was of the FaSIion, 
being the Son of a "Janizary, and train'd up in all 
the Praflices of the Seditious. It makes mea{ham'd 
when I hear the Infidels upbraid the Wifejl of th« 
Wife, thtfupreme Monarch on Earth with Folly, 
for permitting this infolent and mutinous Soldiery 
to continue in the Empire. And I tremble to 
think, that one time or other the renown'd Off' 
fpring of Ertogriet vjiW owe its Ruin and Catajiro^ 
phe to thefe difloyal Vipers, whom he cheriihes in 
the Seraglio, 

Much more afTur'd is the French King of his 
Guards of Sivitzers ; whofe Fidelity was never 
ilain'd with the leaft infamous Brand of Perfidiouf- 
nefs,in taking up Arms againft their Mafer, whofe 
Bread they eat. Thefe are mercenary Soldiers, who 
travel out of their Nati've Country to ferve Foreign 
Princes, and will fhed the lafl Drop of their Blood 
rather than betray their Truft. Therefore they are 
admitted into the Palaces, and nigh the Bed- 
Chambers of the Pope and the King of France, 
with full Confidence of theirValour and Integrity, 
G 3 A8 

126 Letters /fr// hy Vol, IV^ 

As for their Country, it is barren and poor, 
confifting chiefly of Rocks and Defarts ; which- 
occaiions the Youth, who are generally very 
ftrongand hardy, to feek their Subfiftencc abroad, 
by ferving in the Guards and Armiei of neigh- 
bouring Mcnarchs and States. 

Some Regiments of the S^'itxers now ferve in 
the Wars of Candy, under the Standard oi Venice. 

There are Veffels arriv'd lately in fome of the 
Trench Harbours, which bring News of the il! 
Succefs of our Arms in the Siege of Candia, the 
chief City of that IJland. They talk, as if above 
two thoufand MuJJulmans were blown up in the 
ninth Moon j and that Chufaein BaJJa, difcourag'd 
by this Lofs, and with the Inconveniences of the 
approaching Winter, was forcM to raife the Siege 
in the Moon of October. 

The French magnify the Valour of the Knights 
of 'Malta, who fignaliz'd themfelves by many 
brave Actions during this Siege : And if all be 
true that is related of thefe Chrifiian Champions^ 
we cannot in common Juftice deny 'em their due 
Charadler, and number fome of them at leaft 
among the Heroes. 

Otherwife, we fhouM come Ihort of thefe 
Wcftern Nazarenes in Generojity, who, with no 
lefs honourable Expreffions, extol the repeated 
•Courage and invincible Conftancy of the illuftri- 
CU3 Chufaein, and the Alacrity of all the Mujful- 
man Soldiers in the Service of omt great Mafier. 

Yet they cannot forbear refiedting on the Cow- 
ardice of the Janizaries ', who, after that fatal 
Blow, had they ftoutly maintain'd their other 
Ports, that brave BaJ/a wou'd not fo foon have 
quitted the Siege of this important Place. 

As for other News I have little to acquaint 
thee with, fave a feeming Calm at prefent in this 
Kingdom of Francey which has, for the greateft 


Vol. IV. <7 Spy ^/ Paris. 127- 

Part of the Year, been harrafs'd with Civil Dif- 
forrt'j and Slaughter. Bourdeaux, the chief City 
which held out againfl the King, is now reduc'd 
to Obedience, the pacify'd Monarch retired, and 
there is now Appearance oi Peace. 

The ^een of S^veden, we hear, was folemnly 
/•roccv/Vin the tenth Moon of the lad Year,having 
declared for her Succejfor Carolus Gujlavus, Prince 
Palatine, and her Coufin. 

In the fame Moon died the Prince of Orange ; 
and foon after the Count d^A'voux, a French 
Grandee, and Minifler of State. 

In the mean time I rejoice to hear, that my old 
Friends are alive and flourilliing ; and that the 
Knot is not loofened which was tied in our Tottth. 
May it continue firm to the Day of the Earth' 
quake y and to a Term unlimited* 

Paris, 29^/5 of the \ft Moon, 
of the Year 1651. 


"To Kifur Darmelec, Secretary of the 
Nazarene Affairs at the Port. 

IN the Name of God and his Prophet, what 
Occafion hadft thou to fend me fuch an angry 
Letter ; thou art thyfelf but a Slave, as I 
am, to the Slaves of him whofe Throne is above 
the Flight of the Eagle ! Doft thou think to 
frighten Mahmut into fordid Compliance with 
thy Ambition, whom nothing can terrify, fo 
long as he preferves himfelf free from any Stain 
of Difloyalty ; I tell thee I'm another Achilles^ 
invulnerable all over, fave the Soah of my Feet^ 
G 4 whic^ 

12 8 Letters PFrit by Vol. IV\ 

which are the Emblems oi omv moft tender JffeBi- 
cns. There thou may'it wound me with the foft 
.Arrows of pretended Frieiidlhip. But, if once 
thou appeareft with the naked Face of an Enem}V 
I'm prefently on my Guard. 

Thou accufeft me of many Crimes whereof 
I was never guilty, loadeil me with a Thoufand 
undeferved Reproaches, and all to vent thy Cho- 
Jer : Threatening me with Revenge, becaufe I 
once excus'd the Latenefs of my Addrefs to Mine- 
mha Aluph Baffa, then newly veiled by our muni- 
ficent Sultan, by laying the Blame on the Cadnefs 
of the Ways, or the Infolence of Soldiers, by 
whom the Pojls are often intercepted in Time of 
War : Or, in fine, on thy Negleft in not fupply- 
ing me with more early Intelligence. Wherein 
'tis eafy to difcern, that thou wert the laft I 
wouM accufe to that Minijler, though thou wert 
principally in the Fault. For I was afterwards in- 
lormM, That the PoJls were neither retarded by 
any impajfable Roads, or ftop'd by the Orders of 
military Men, but arriv'd here at their ac- 
cuftom'd Sextons. Wherefore thou haft no Rea- 
ibn to be offended at me, unlefs it be for the 
Shortnefs of my Accufation, and that it was de- 
feftive in Malice. 

Thou would'ft take it ill, if in my own Defence 
I fhould complain to the Vizir Azem of thy fre- 
quent Neglefts in this kind. But 1 fcorn to vin- 
dicate myfelf at the Price of another Man's Dif- 
grace and Peril. Only I advife thee to forbear 
'i hreatening. It is a Refledion on thy Prudence 
to menace a Man who has no otKer Refentmcnts 
of thy Paffion, than to own himfelf oblig'd ta 
thee for fo open a Difcovery of it. 

Would'll have the very Spleen of my Humour > 
I fmile at thee. Thou haft made me as jocund as 
Dezaocritus, If thou know'ft not how I mean, 


Vol. IV. a Spy at Paris, 129 

he was a pleafant fort of a Philofopher, to whom 
all human Aftions were Objefts of Mirth. There 
was another whining Sage that perpetually wept. 
The moft comical Paffages, and fuch as mov'd 
all Men to Laughter, drew Floods of Tears from 
his Eyes : His Name was Heraclitus. It is hard 
to determine which of thefe two was in the right. 
But I think I am not much in the wrong to be a 
little pleafant with thee : Perhaps it may put thee 
into a better Humour. However, 1 would not 
have thee difpleafed with thyfelf for being of fo 
pcevifh a Difpofition. 'Tis obferv'd. That paffio- 
nate Men are always beft natur'd, and free from 
fecret Malice. Chohr is as neceflary as our Blood', 
Without the latter we cou'd not live ; and, if we 
were void of the /pz-wfr, omt Lives wou'd be as 
unacli've as that ol Snails and Oyjlers : Welhould 
beabfolutely Droves. 

Hippocrates , the famous Phyfician, fay?, This 
Complexion is the moft noble of all the/o«>-, tranf^ 
forming Men to Heroes, and refining our carthlf 
Mould, in a Conftitution like that of the imtmrtal 
Gods ', whofe Bodies, according to l\it Poets, ccn- 
fift wholly of an /ethereal Flame. 

Therefore be not difcouraged, neither repine 
at a Temper which ranks thee among thofe to 
whom Sacrijices are made. On the other fide, 
take it nbt amifs from Mahrnut, if he tells thee, 
ke has not Devotion enough to become thy vo- 
luntary Viilim. 

Yet if I cannot be fo obfcquious as to throw 
myfelf away by acknowledging Crimes wherein- 
I was never concerned, and for which I have a 
natural Abhorrence; reft fatisfy'd at leaft. That 
} will ferve thee as far as I can, without intrench*^ 
ing on the Duty I owe to the Grand Seignior. 
And be aflur'd, I will do thee no Harm, fo long, 
as thou obferveft that Rule. 

G 5 In. 

Xjo Letters VFrit hy Vol. IV. 

In fine, I advife thee to order thy Steps like a 
Man that is walking in the Bogs of Egypt, where, 
if he obferve the Track of thofe who have gone 
before him, he may be fafe ; but, if his Foot flips, 
he finks in the Mire, Such is the Life of Coitx^ 

Paris, \%thofthe id ^loon^ 
of the Tear 165 1. 

To Minezim Aliiph, Bafla. 

T N the Beginning of the laft Year I fent thee 
•*■ a Difpatch, wherein 1 acquainted thee with 
the Imprifonment of three Princes of the Royal 
Blood oi France j now thou flialt receive the New$ 
of their Liberty. 

They wexe releasM by an Order from the King 
on the 13/^ Day of this Moon, and arrived in this 
City on the \()th, which was Yefterday, attended 
by a numerous Cavalcade, confifting of fome 
Princes, divers of the Nobility and Gentry, andy 
one would think, of half the C///z^»/ of Paris. 
Even thofe who triumph'd Jail Year, and made 
-Bonfire? for their Confinement, Yefterday throng'd 
©ut of the City to welcome them Home with, 
^Acclamations of Joy, and to congratulate their 
Releafe. So fickle and inconftant a Thing is the 
Multitude, driven hither and thither with every 
artiiicial Declaration oi Statefmeny or Pretence 0^ 


Vol. IV. « Spy ^/ Paris. 13 r 

But there were divers Princes and Nollemenf 
who, from the firft Hour of their being feiz'd, re- 
folved not to leave a Stone unturn'd to procure 
their Freedom. The Grandees, that were their 
Friends, retir'd to their Governments, and rais'd. 
Rebellions in the Provinces. All the Kingdom was 
harrafs'd with Civil Wars. The Parliaments de- 
creed againft the Court ; and there wanted not 
Cabals offeditious Courtiers, even in the Palate 
of the King, to undermine the Royal Authority j 
which the Cardinal Mini jler thought to eftabliQi, 
by the Imprifonment of the Princes. In all Places 
the King's Intereft ran retrogade. 

Thou wilt not wonder at this when thou (halt 
know, that the Princes of France are not Slaves to 
the King, like the Bajfa% of the moft ferene Em- 
fire, who owe all their Greatnefs to the fole 
Favour of our munificent Sultans. Thefe Princes 
enjoy all that and more by Inheritance, whicb 
our Gratidees acquire only by their Merits, and 
the Smiles of their Sovereign. Hence iti?, that 
their Intereft is riveted in the Hearts of the Peo- 
ple, who revere the Blood Royal, in whatfoever 
Channel it runs. 

Therefore thinking Men blame the CardinaPi 
Conduft in this Affair; faying, there wa? nei- 
ther Jufiice or Policy in it. Indeed, if a Man's 
"Wit is to be meafur'd by the Succefs of his Con- 
trivances, the Cenfure of thefe People is true j 
for the Cardinal feems to have made a Trap for 

As foon as he perceiv'd the King was prevaiPd 
on by the Importunity of his Uncle, the Duke of 
0< leans, and the Parliament of Paris, to releafe 
the Princes, and that they had at the fame time 
earnellly bcgg'd of him, that this Minifier might 
be removed from the Court ; he fuddenly pack'd 
up his Moveables, and withdrew privately 
C 6 towards 

132 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

towards the Place where the Princes were con- 
iin'd : Hoping, that, though he had loft his firit 
Point, yet he might make an indifferent After- 
Game, by going in Perfon to the Royal Prifaners, 
and affuring them, 'twas to him they ow'd their 
Releafe ; fince it was in his Power to carry them 
away with him, as alfo thofc w ho brought them- 
the King^ Mandate. For he travell'd not with- 
out a confiderable Guard. 

'Tis faid the Princes receiv'd him with feem- 
ing Compliments and AddrefTes of Civility ; pro- 
mifmg their Friendfhip to the Cardinal, now a 
^voluntary Exile, and in a worfe Condition than 

It i^ very ftrange that fo great a Minijier, who* 
inherited all that ab folate Po^urr which his Prede- 
cejfor Ricklieu had at this Court, (hould thus on a- 
fudden abandon his Fortune. But it is thought- 
he is not gone to pick Str.iws. 

However, he ha?, by this timely Flight, avoided- 
the Difpleafure of feeing himfclf compell'd to- 
depart by an Arrefi of Parliament, which was- 
publifli'd within two Days after he was gone ; 
commarding him to depart the Kingdom within: 
ifteen Days. 

The wife Minijler forefaw this Difgrsce ap- 
|>roachiflg, and therefore thought- it more be- 
coming his Honour to depart of his own Accord: 
Having (till ihe Advantage to reproach the State 
with Ingratitude, in that they have reduced to 
fuch Sti-eights the Man, by whofe aufpicioa* 
Conduft, France has been elevated to an extraor- 
dinary Grandeur in Europe. 

By this thoa may 'ft comprehend, illuftrious5fl/^' 
fa<, that there's no Stability in human Great nefs ; 
but that the Wheels of a. Courtierh Life run thro', 
uneijual Tracks, often ilicking in the Mire of the 
IfaUey, and not fcldom threatening to overthrow.a 

Vol. IV. fl Spy ^/ Paris. rj3 

Man, and caft him headlong from the Precipice 
of a Mojintaiv. Againll thefe inc^njiant Turns- 
of Fortune, I advife thee to be arm'd with Modt- 
r at ion ; fince no Man can avoid his Dejlitiy. 

Paris, i^th of the '^dMoon^ 
of the Tear 1 65 1 . 


To Ifouf, his Kinfman ai Fez. 

I Am glad to hear thou art alive. Thy Letter 
came in a good Hour ; for I bear a true Af- 
faftion to thofe of my Eloid, and have been par- 
ticularly anxious for thee thefe many Years. The 
Sun has nine times meafur'd the t^vclve Signs of 
the Zodiack, fince I received thy Lift Letter be- 
fore this, or heard any News of thee. It feems 
thou haft trnvell'd a great Part of the Earth du- 
ring that Time. 

Twas kindly done of thee, to remember thy 
fick VncWf, Requeft when thou wcrt at Aleppo in 
making Oblations for his Health to Sheigh Boubac 
the Santone j and diftributing Corban to the Poor, 
in Honour of Sytaria FiJ/a. 

Thou haft fent me a large and fatisfidlory Ac- 
count of thy Ob/ervations in Jjia : Yet I am forry 
thou hadft not Time to penetrate into the Religion 
and Secrets of the Indian Bramins. I am more 
ambitious to pry into the Wijdom and Learning of 
thofe Philofophers, than into any other Species of 
Knowledge whatfoever. Methinks 'tk Pity the 
Records of fo vaft an Jjitiquit^ (hould be ccn- 
oeaKd. from the rejl of the World, and only 


134 Letters JVrit hy Vol. IV. 

known to thofe happy Priefls. I protefl 'tis im- 
poffible for me to think of it without Envy : But 
perhaps it is the Will of Hempen to lock up thofe 
Myfieries in the remcteil Pro'vinces of the Eaji, as 
a Reward of their Conftancy, in adhering to the 
Traditions of their Father, which know no Ori- 
gin; and as a Reproach to all other Nations, who, 
in Matiers of Religion, have been mutaBle as the 

I have conversed with feveral yefuits and others, 
who have been in the Indies ; but they feem to 
relate all Things partially, out of a natural Avtr- 
iion for the Manners of the Eaft ; and I knew not 
how to difprove 'em, 'till thy Brother Pejlelihali 
undeceived me. He has alfo vifited thofe Parts, 
and refideda confiderable Time in China. It is 
a difficult Thing for a Traveller to keep himfelf 
within the Bounds of Truth in his Relations ; 
but I believe he has not exceeded. Thy jfour- touches but lightly the Indian Affairs, not 
having Lei'fure, as thou telleft me, to obferve 
much. However, thou haft made Amends in thy 
Relations oi Perjia, Tartary, and the Land of the. 

I depend much on thy Promife of fending me a 
yaurnal of thy Tra<vels in Jfrick. To that^/ir- 
ter of the World I am mucn a Stranger, not hav- 
ing met with any authentick Relation of the Re- 
gions of the South. 

It feems thou haft been in jEthiopia, Lihya, 
^gypt ; and in fine, all over the Torrid Zotic. 

Hiftorians tell wonderful things of thefe Parts j 
Herodotus mentions a fort q{ People in ^;7V/z,whofe 
Bodies were more venomous than Serpents. Thefe 
affronted once at the Winds for driving the Sands 
of Libya into their Country, and filling up all their 
Wells and Streams, enter'd into a War againft 
the Kingdom of .^Eolus i but the South Wind met 


Vol. IV. ^Spy^/ Parts. rj^ 

*ein in their March, and bury'd'em under Mauw 
tains oi Duji. 

I do not reprefent this to thee as a Truth, tho* 
related by that learned Grecian. Thou may'ft re- 
pute it for a Fable, as I do, but let this PafTage be a 
Hint that I expeft from thee none but folid Re- 

It would pleafe me to be aflured of one Thing, 
which perhaps thou haft heard of when thou waft 
in Barbary. Very credible Authon report, that 
when the Phoenicians were expell'd by the Ifrae^ 
lites, and driven into this Corner of A/rick, they 
fet up two Pillars of Marble, whereon they en- 
graved thefe Words, as a lajting Monument of their 
Expuljion, We are a Remnant op those, 


THE Robber, the Son of ^t/iVi. 

Theyfr/? Innjention of Ships is by fomeafcrib'd 
to thefe People, whom Necefilty taught to feek 
Reft on the unquiet Ocean ; fmce the more tur- 
bulent Sons oi Jacob would not permit them to 
enjoy any Repofe on the Land, having harrafs'd 
'em from one Place to another, till at length they 
drove 'em to the very Borders of the Earth. But 
thou knoweft, the Chinefe pretend to the Vfe of 
Ships many thoufand Years before this Depreda- 
tion of the Ifraelites. Every Nation aims to be 
efteem'd the moft Ancient. And when there was 
formerly a Difpute between the Egyptians and 
Scythians on this Point, 'twas adjufted in Favour 
of the latter. But the Chronologies of the Chinefe 
and Indians far exceed all others in the World t 
For they feem to outftrip Time itfelf in Antiquity ; 
at leaft, they tranfcend the common Date of the 
World's Creation. 

I have heard a Tra'veller aflert, that, as he was 
journeying through the Defarts of Lybia, he dif- 
covec'dan Altar of Stone y with, this Infcription on 


136 Letters U^rit hy Vol IV- 

it, in Grecian Charaaers, I, POLTSTRATUS 
OF ATHENS, HAVE Consecrated this 
Altar, to allthat is Good in Heaven; 


I defire thee to inform me, whether thou haft 
ever feen or heard of fuch an Altar, when thou 
wert in thofe Parts. You Travellers muft expedl 
this kind of Trouble from your Friends : Every 
body is naturally inquifitive, and defirous of 

'Twill be acceptable alfotofend me TtXiAhfiraSl 
of the prcfent State oi Fez. I {hould be glad to. 
hear of the Health of Abe I Melee Mul/ O.rar, the 
Superior of the magnificent College in that City, 
built by Al^ Habu Ennor, King of the Country. 
They fay. it coft him Two hundred and forty 
thoufand Zequins. 

'Tis added, that in Ee% there is a Mofque near 
half a League in Circuit ; in which are as many 
Gates as there be Days in (kt Revolution of a Moon. 
And that the Number of the Pillar?, which fup- 
port it, is equal to the Tear of the Hegira where- 
in It was founded ; being encompaffed alfo by 
feventeen high Minarets, befides innumerable 
Domes and Terraffes ; having alfo 900 Lamps 
burning in it by Night, and 300 Windows to let 
in the Light of the Day. The Revenue of this 
famous Mofque is faid to be 36500 Zicjia/^j a Year. 
They relate many other Things of Fez, and the. 
Provinces belonging to it. Of all whicli I defire 
thee to fend me a dillinft Account. 

I hadalmoft forgot one Paflage, which I have 
read in the Ancients, concerning a certain fubtle 
African, whofe Name was Pfaphon. This iVIaa. 
]^d train'd up a Parrot, to repeat very frequently 
Uieie Words, Pfaphan is. a great God. When the 


Vol. IV. a Spy at "P ARTS. 137 

Bird had perfeflly learn'd his Leflbn, he let it 
loofe ; which, being accuftomed to a Doinei'uck 
Life in a Cage, fled not prefently to tlie Fields, 
but pearch'd on the Temple of the Town, where it 
was heard by the People to utter the aforefaid Sen- 
tence aloud, and very often. They, ignorant of 
the Quality oi Parrots, and led with native Su- 
perfiition, elleem'd it zn'O/acle from Hea-ven, 
Wherefore, immediately flocking to the Houfe 
of P/aphon, they offer'd Sacrifice to him, and ia 
all Refpefts treated him as a Di'viniiy. 

Whether this Story be true or no, 'tis certain,. 
Idolatry had no better Foundation than Artifice 
and Lyes : Unlefs we fhall conclude with the Poet, 
That Fear made thefirjl Gods in the World. Cou - 
fin, let there be a frequent Intercourfe belweea 
us. It will be proHtable to thee and me. 

Paris, f^th of the \th Itloon, 
ef the Year 165 1. 


'To Kerker Haffan BafTa. 

' TT* I S a Cuftom in the Court of Rome, TTiat 
I. every Nation of the Weji has a ProteBor 
among the Cardinals there, who are Princes of 
the Raman Church. Such I efleem thee, in the 
moft exalted Court of the Eaji. 

Arabia gave thee thy firft Breath : But thy own 
Merits have lifted thee up to the Dignity of a 
Bajfa, a Prince of the Ottoman Empire, whole 
Limits far exceed thofe of the Modern, or even 
of antient Rome, 


138 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

'Tis from hence our Countrymen addrefs to 
thee, as to their Patron, ufmg thy Power and 
Mediation with the Granti Seignior in all their 

Among the reft, wonder not that the humbleft 
of thy Slaves, Mahmut, the Son of thy Father's 
Neighbour, falls at thy Feet in a Time of great 
Dirtrefs, in the Agonies of his Spirit, the Hazard 
of his Fortune, and Peril of his Honour, which 
he values more than his Life. 

I complain not of the many repeated Abufes 
and Contempts I have received from fome in the 
Seraglio, to whom It belongs not to meddle with. 
Things outof their Sphere, ravLch lefs to difcourage 
the faithful Agents and MiJJioners of the Grand 
Seignior. Yet the Perfecutions I have felt from 
their Hands are fuch, as would drive another 
Man, lels patient of Injuries, either to Revenge 
or Defpair. 

They have vilify'd all my Condu£i in this Sta- 
tion ; reproach'd my beft Adlions with the odious 
CharaSler of Imprudence and Dijloyalty ; and mif- 
reprefented thefmalleft Peccadilloes (for which al« 
fo I have the Mufti's Difpenfation) under the ig- 
nominious Title of Infidelity and Atheifm. In a 
Word, they thirft after my Blood : Nothingwili 
fetisfy their greedy Malice, but my Life. 

I never was afraid to die, fmce I perfe^lly un- 
derftood what it is to li'-ve. Nor can I be fond of 
protrafting my Breath, when my Great Majier fhall 
pleafe to call for a Surrender of it, for whofe Ser- 
vice only it was given me.^ But it would render 
the Scene of my Death tragical, and ftrew my Paf- 
fage into the ether World with Thorns, to be fent 
out of this, under the Notion of a Tray tor, who 
have adled my Part without a real Blemifh. 

Ikingi, that learned Tutor of the Royal Pages , 
was the firft that broach'd this Emnicy againft 


Vol. IV. «Spy^/PARis. 139 

me ; (for I have forgot the Prevarications oi Sha- 
fiiim Ijlham, \\it black Eunuch, fince the Time he 
acknowledg'd his Fault wirh much Candour and 
Ingenuity.) 'Twas that Athenian Sophiji, who de- 
bauched the Integrity of my Cotijin Solyman ; and 
perfuaded the unwary Youth to enter into a Con- 
fpiracy againft his Unc'e. But I reprehended 
my Kinfman's Folly in one Letter ; and his An» 
fwer, though late, convinc'd me, that he was 
not guilty of Malice, fo much as of Rafhnefs and 
Credulity. I was extremely obligM to the Kai- 
macham for his Benignity and Friendfhip in this 
Affair. The good old Minijier had a real Kindnefs 
for me, and took no fmail Pains to penetrate into 
theCaufes of my Coufin'% eager Paffionand Malice 
againft me. At length he found it to be only 
the Praflices of Ikingi, who took Advantage of 
Sofyman's Temper, equally loyal and flexible, in- 
finuated into his youthful Mind monftrous 
JJea^j ofme; and, in fine, fet him a railing at 
me with a fierce kind of Liberty where-ever he 
came. The wife BaJ/a foon open'd my Kinfman's 
Eyes, brought him to his Senfe, and the I flue 
of all was. That Solyman writ me a Letter of 

But, fince this, the Mafier of the Pages has laid 
new Trains for me, and drawn a great many 
more to his Party. He has corrupted Muftapha 
Guir, an Eunuch, and Page to the alii ^een ; 
with whom I once held a Correfpondence, and, as 
I thought,had contradedaFamiliarityandFriend- 
fhip ; but, it feenis, it was only an Appearance, 
without Reality. I could give thee a long Lift of 
thofe, whom this Academick has taught to fiander 
Mahmitt ; but I will not appear fo revengeful : 
Behdes, this is not tl^e only Grievance of which 
I complain. 


140 lu-ETTERS Wrii by Vol. IV. 

Shall I remonftrate to thee, mod excellent an<J 
ferene BaJ/k, the true Caufe of my Uneafinefs ? 
I am weary of living among Infidels. Favour me 
with thy Affiflance and Interceffion, that I may 
have Leave to retire from this Place, and vindi- 
cate myfeif before the Faces of my Enemies. 
And having had that Honour, rendering alfo a 
juft Account of the Affairs wherewith I am en- 
trufied, I may vifit my Natit's Country, and fpend 
the Refidue of my Days in Arabia, the Scene of 
all our Prophet's great Aftions, the Place where 
I firft drew my Breath, I languifh for the Aro- 
matick Air oi Admoim, the Chryftal Fountain, 
and cooler Shades of that happy Province. I long 
to fee the Groves which encompafs the Village of 
my Nati'vity, the Turrets of thy Father's Houfe, 
and the Mofque of Hafen the Prcphet ; for tho' I 
took no Notice of thefe things in my Infancy , yet 
having once feen 'em in my riper Years, when I 
was able to make more lafting Refleflions, I fhall 
never forget thefe delightful Objects fo long as I 

If this be an Infirmity, pardon it, illuftrious 
Arab, fince it is natural to all Men. Thou, thy- 
felf, hall enjoy'd the Pleafure of revifiting that 
fweet Region : Pity Mahtnut, who burns with 
Defire to tafte the fame. 

Or if this fnall be thought too great an Indul- 
gence to the poor exiPd Mahmut, yet it will ba 
eafy for thee, who art a Favourite, to obtain of 
the Grand Seignior^ that I may at lead be recall'd 
from this Employment, and fome body elfe fubfti- 
tuted in my Place. There are thofe among my 
Enemies who are ambitious of the Fatigue ; and 
Jkingi, my old Friend, would exchange all the 
Honours he is pcflefs'd of in- the Seraglio for this 
obfcure, yet hazardous Poft. '^Tis Pity but fuch 
aMaa's Tbirii of Perils Ihould be gratify 'd. 


Vol. IV. tf Spy ^/ Paris. 141 

!^ut if, after all that I have faid, my Superiors 
fhall think it expedient to continue me here, I am 
refign'd ; only defiring, That from henceforth 
my Slanderers may be lufpeded, as Men ill af- 
fedled to the fublime Port, for traducing a Man 
that has waded through a Thoufand Difhcalties, 
Temptations, and Perils ; and ferv'd the Ottoman 
Empire in this Station Fourteen Years, without 
making a falfe Step, or tranfgreffing the leaft Point 
of his Initrudions. 

I hear that Clmfaein Bajpi is made Vizir Azem, 
TJie French have a very great Opinion of his \ a- 
lour. They are generally impartial Criticks in 
Martial Affairs, Icorning to deny a brai'e Eiietny 
his due Charader. 

We are at prefent barren of ether News, fave 
a new Arreji of Parliament againll Cardinal Ma- 
yxirini, and all his Kindred and Creatures ; where- 
by they are declar'd Enemies of the State, and 
charg'd witha large Catalogue of Crimes, where- 
of perhaps ihey were never guilty. 

Here are alio fome flying Reports of the Car' 
dinaPi, Death ; who, fay they, haspoifon'd him- 
felf for Grief of his ill Succefs in this Court : But 
I elleem this only as the Froth of his Enemies 
Malice, who really wifh him dead ; and, to dif- 
courage his Friends, give it out that he is fo. 

Serene BaJJa, I commit my Affairs to thy Pro- 
teftion ; beieeching thee, to do the Office of a 
Countryman and a Friend, to the Betray'd for 

Paris, z6th of the ^th Moon^ 
ef the Tear 1 65 1 . 


142 Letters Writ by Vol. IV, 


To Chufaein BafTa, the Magnanimous 
Vizir Azem, and Invincible General 
of the Ottoman Forces in Candia. 

I Am not much above forty three Years Old, 
yet have feen great Changes in the Worlds 
mighty Revolutions in Kingdoms and States, and 
the Death of many Sovereign Monarchs, illuftri- 
ous Generals, and wife State/men. Doubtlefs, 
all fublunary Things are fubjedl to Vicijfitude, 
There appears nothing conjlant zxid, fettled, but 
the Heavens and Stars : 7 hey indeed perfevere 
in their immutable Courfes, never change their 
Orb, nor Hart from their eternal Pof.s. The Sun 
rifes and fets at his accuftom'd Hours ; and the 
Moon exadtly obferves the determin'd Periods of 
her Encreafe and IVane : Thefe vary only as the 
Seafons of the Tear^ with exquifite Regularity and 
conftant Returns. 

But, here below, there is an univerfal Tran/mi- 
gration and Metempfychofis of States, and Forms 
ofThings ; a perpetual Flux and Reflux of human 
Eventi. Men die hourly, and others are hourly 
born to fupply their Places. One y^ge treads clofe 
upon the Heels of another. And we, who live 
at prefent, as we walk in the Steps of our Fathers, 
fo ihall we follow them down to the Grave, 
where our Fle/i>, by a new Metamorplofis, Ihall 
be turn'd into the Bodies of Worms, InfeSs, and 
Serpents ; and what fliall become of our Souls is 

I was born in the Reign of Sultan Achmet, from 
whom our prefent Sovereign v^ the fixth Emperor, 
that has afcended the glorious throne of the O/rt- 

Vol. IV. aSpY ai Paris. 143 

mans. May God grant him a long Life, and a 
Series of Years blefs'd with a continual Health, 
and Vidlory over his Enemies. I pray Hewven 
al fo to perpetuate thy new O^ce to the lalt Period 
of the Sultan's Life ; and, in wifliing this, I fay all 
that can beexpedled. 

But when I refleft on the frequent and bloody 
Tragedies that have been aded in the Seraglio fince 
I can remember; and the many 5i7cr//ff^/ that have 
been made oi Sultans ^ Viziers, Bajas, and princi- 
pal Minijlers of State, befides the iVIafiacres and 
Butcheries of meaner Perfons, it makes me me- 
Jancholy amidll the Joys I conceive for thy late 
Exaltation ; and fills me with Fears left my 
Good Wifhes to the Grand Seignior and thee, 
who art his Right-hand, ftiould, by fome finiftcr 
Decree of Fate, be almoft as foon difannuU'd as 
pronounc'd. 1 pray Heaven avert my melancho- 
ly Prefages- 

The Death of the old ^een (the News of 
which is lately arriv''d at this Court) does but re- 
vive and encreife my Apprehenfion of greater Tra- 
gedies to come, becaufe one Ad of Cruelty ftill 
propagates another : Revenge is prolific!?, and 
Mifchief is never at a ftand. 'Tis true indeed, as 
it is not decent to infult o'er the AJhesol illujirioHS 
Perfons; fo neither has a loyal Mujfulman any 
great Reafon to mourn for the Fall of a Woman, 
by whofe Connivance her Royal Son, and our late 
Great Majier Sultan Ibrahim, fell a Sacrifice to 
the MuftP^ Indignation. 'Twas an unnatural Part 
in a Mother : And we may fay, the divine fufiice 
has overtaken her, in making her Grand/on fign 
the Warrant for her Death, with the Con/en t of 
that very Mufti, at whofe Infiigation (he had con- 
fented to the Murder of his Father. 

Yet, after all, may (he not have left behind her 
a Party in the Seraglio, or at lealt in the State, 


144 Lettep.s JVrit by Vol. IV, 

who will ftudy to revenge her Fall ; or, how- 
ever, do fcme"Mifchief to prevent their own ? 
Let me not feem to contradidl my own Argu- 
ments, and, whilft I plead againft Revenge and 
Cruelty, appear an Ad'vocate Tor thofe inhuman 
Pafiions. I do not mention the furviving Creatures 
of this unhappy ^een, to excite in thee falfe 
Sentiments of J uftice, fufpicious Chimera's ci d, 
Tpo?ii\AeConfpiracy, andfo Ilimulate thee to punifh 
them by Anticipation for Crimes of which per- 
haps they never will be guilty. I rather fug- 
jgcft thefe Things, That, after fo many Tragedies 
in the Rvyal Family, a Step may be now put to 
future Mifchiefs ; left, whilft Men pur fue a par- 
ticular and felf-interefted Revenge, the Conta- 
gion fhould fpread, and Cruelty become univerfal 
and infinite. 

Let it fuffice, that no lefs than three of our 
Sultans have been depos'd and ftrangled within 
thefe thirty Years : Not to mention the Deluge of 
Royal JBlcod thzt has overflowed the private Cham- 
bers of the Seraglio, the Prifoners of the Ottoman 
Princes, Brothers or Sons to the Emperors for- 
merly reigning. 

Thefe were barbarous Cures of untimely Jea- 
loufies ; and it is Pity that fuch Royal Maflacrcs 
fhould ever be repeated again. Why Ihould the 
Pofterity of Ottoman be in this Regard the only 
unfortunate Princes en Earth ? Were it not much 
more noble, and equ".!ly wife, to take the Mea- 
fures of Aithiopian Policy, where, to prevent Se- 
dition and Difcords about SucceJJion, the Princes 
of the Blood are confiu'd indeed, but to a verj 
pleafing Liberty : Whilft they have Palaces, 
Parks, and large Fields at command; are ferv'd by 
?t. princely I rain, and deny'd no lawful Pleafutcs 
within the Pale of their Rejlraint. For there is 
an exceeding high Mountain in the Country, the 


Voi. IV. aS?Y atVh r"i s; 145 

Top of which is very fpacious, containing largs 
Tradls of Ground, many beautiful Seraglio'^ fur- 
nifh'd with whalfoever can contribute to the 
Enjoyment of thefe Princes^ or at leall to com- 
penfatefor their Want of greater Liberty. This 
Mountain is environ'd with a high and ftrong 
Wall, having but one Entrance, and that guarded 
by Soldiers, fo that no Man can go in or out who 
has not the Emperor % Warrant, or at leaft a Per- 
mii£on from the Prime Minijler of State : For he, 
upon the Death of the Emperor, immediately 
calls a Council of the Jhpreme Oncers, who, from 
among thefe imprifon'd Princes, chufe him whom 
they think moll worthy to fucceed. The reft, 
who never felt the Appetite to reign (for they 
are carried to this Place in their Infancy, and 
kept in perpetual Ignorance of State-Jffairs) paft 
away their Time without Envy, or repining at 
the Exaltation of their Brother, addifting them- 
felves wholly in the innocent Delights of that 
rural Life, or to the Study of Books, whereof they 
have great Plenty in their Libraries, and thofe 
altogether treating of Matters of Divine and Na- 
tural Speculation. Whereby, though they know 
nothing of State- Jrtijices and Intrigues of Courts, 
yet they become able Philo/ophers, and vers'd in 
all the Liberal Sciences. 

Would to Go D our OttomanPrinces (I mean the 
younger Brothers)had but half this Liberty grant- 
ed them, then the Infidels wou'd have no Reafon 
to call the exalted Port a liefi of Vultures. 

But we muft not find Fault with the A6\iona 
of our Sovereigns, though they tend to the Scan- 
dal and Ruin of the hlujfulman Empire. Yet I 
know to whom I write thefe Things; having 
often heard thee declaim againft this barbarous 
Cujlom of fhutting up the Royal Offspring in a 
Duigeon, without Light or Comfort during their 
H Lives > 

14^ Lett:ers TFril by Vol. IV. 

Lives ; which many times are alfo cruelly fhort- 
en'd by the Hands of the Executioner. 

But, turning ocr Eyes from the Tragedies of the 
Bajf, let us fix them on the Affairs of the Naza- 
reties in ihcJ^'eJ}. 

The chief Difcourfe at prefent is about a Mar- 
riage lately folemnized between the Emperor of 
Germany and the Dutchefi o'i Mantua. She is his 
■third Wife fucceffively ; for Polygamy is not al- 
!ow'd, even to the Sovereigns in. thefe Parts, where 
the Priejis bear all the Sway. 

The Port from S'weden informs us of the Death 
tA General Torjlenfon, of whofe Exploits in Ger- 
tnany thou haft often heard. That Empire is very 
unfortunate, fpending its Time and Vitals in un- 
profitable Jjfemblies and Confults ; whilll her 
adive Enemies take whole Provinces from them 
with Eafe ; but this need not grieve us. 

Great Atlas of the MuJ/ltlman Empire, I wi(h 
thee the Continence of Scipio, the Fortune of j^lex- 
ander^ and the Temperance of Cato \ who, when 
he was marching through the Sands of Lyhia, with 
his Jrmy, all ready to expire with Thirft, and 
one of his Soldiers brought him his Helmet full 
of Water, as a rare Prefent in that general Di- 
ftrefs, gratify'd the Soldier for his Gift, but fpilt 
the Water on the Ground, faying. That, fince 
there was not enough to fatisfy the whole Army, 
he would not tafte a Drop; and that he was un- 
worthy to be a General, who would not endure as 
much Hardfliip as the meaneft Soldier. 

Paris, z6th of the ^th Moon, 
of theTear it-iu 


Vol. IV. aSpY ai Faris. 147* 


^0 NaflbufF, Baffa of Natolia. 

PRaife be to God, F^r^of x!iitfe'ven Heavens t 
and of all that is within their Circumference : 
Thefe Wejiern Nar.arenes arealw.iys a quarrelling. 
They are rePjlved to do their Parts towards the 
fulfilling the Mujjfuh.tan Prediclions, and thofe of 
'their own Prophets, It ma-;es me fmile to fee 
thefe Infidels employing their Arms againll each 
other, contending about petfy Rights and Poffef- 
fionsjwhilft they negle£l theGV«cr«/Confervatioii 
and Defence of Chriflend'im, from the impetuous 
Tcrrents of our in^oincible Armies. ^ 

The Ele^or of Brandenhurgh\% enter'J into the 
Dutchy of Mons with conHderable Forces, pre- 
tending to adjuft I know not what Differences be- 
tween thofe whom they call Catholicks and Pro- 

'Twould be too tedious for a Letter to run 
back to xkitfirjl Origi/t^/ of this War, and trace it 
down from above a hundred Years ago to the 
prefent Time. Befides, 'tis of no Import to a 
Muffulman, to hear a long Story cf the Marri- 
ages, Deaths, Heirs, and Luv-Difputes of thefe 
petty hifidel Princes. Yet, that thou may'll know 
fomething of it, I will relate the whole Bufinefs 
aa. briefly as I can. 

In theYear i ^\6JFiniamDukeofMons,yu?ierSy 
and C/eves, married Mary, the Daughter o{ Ferdi- 
nand I. Emperor of Germany, and by this Match- 
obtain'd of the Emperor (whom they call C<.-efar, 
as thoy did the ancient Emperors of Rome, whofe 
Succejfor he pretends to be ) fome Privileges, 
touching the Succejfion of his Children, and their 
H z Rizh 

148 Letters ^r/V^ Vol IV/ 

Hight to his Dominions ', and particularly, that this 
vail EJiate fhould not be divided, but reft in the 
entire PoffefTion of one Heir-Male ; or, in Default 
of that, it fliould defcend to the next Female; 
which, as I ani told, is a Cuftom in Germany; 
that fo the Grandezza and Authority of Princely 
Families may be fupported. 

I will not trouble thee with the Particulars, 
which would take up a Volume. But in fhort it 
appears, that, notwithftanding all the ftrift Pro- 
vifion that was, or could be made, this great 
Fjlate, after it had remain'd fixty Years united, 
was at lergth di'viJedhziviCtn two Princes, both 
claiming an equal Right to the Wl>ole ; yet, to 
prevent V/ars and Effufion of Blood, each was 
contented with Half. Thefe were Wolfang, Duke 
of Ncivburgh, and Ernejl, Marquifs of Branden- 
hurgh. In whofe Families the parted SucceJJion 
has continued to this Day. 

The Occafion of the prefent Quarrel is their 
Difference of Religion ; the Duke of Neif:burgh . 
being a Catholick, and he oi Brandenhurghz Pro- 
tejiant. It feems the Brandenburghers had former- 
ly made Inroads on thofe ofMons and Juliers,c&v- 
rying away Captive iht'nPrieJis and Der<vi/es from 
their Jltars and Coni'enfs, and detaining them in 
Servitude for many Years, contrary to certain 
ylrticles that had been dr?wn up between them 
Theyalfo us'd them with great Cruelty, and ccm- 
mitted a thoufand Infolencies on the Roman Ima- 
U7KS, whereever they got 'em in their Power. 

Thus their AfEiirs continu'd till the late Agree- 
ment at Murfer. Since which Time the Duke of 
Neiiburg/j cndeavour'd to free his Subjeds from 
their former Calamities, and reftore Things to 
their ancient State. 

The FleBur of Brandenburgh, making this an 
Occafion oi fVar, has now invaded the Dctninions 


Vol. IV. aS?Y at "Paris. 149 

of the faid Duie. He is not gone in Perfon, but 
has fent a good Soldier, whom they call Otho 
Spar, with four thoufand Men, to begin the Cam- 
paign : who, 'tis faid, will be followed by a 
greater Army. 

But, before he took the Field, the EleBor of 
Brandenbiirgh had an Inter'vic-TU and Conference 
with the Duke 0^ Saxony shont this Affair, who is 
alfo a Protejlant : So that 'tis thought no fmall 
Diflurbance will arife in the Empire. All Joy and 
Peace to frue Belie'vers ! 

He of Brandenburgh has caus'd a DeclaratioH 
to be fpread abroad full of fpecious Pretences, that 
fo his Conquefts may be the more eafy. He talks 
of nothing but reftoring the People of yiiliers and 
Mons to their ancient Liberties and Rights, both 
in Civil and Religious Matters, promifing the 
faireft Things in the World to thofe that obey 
iim, and receive his Armies with Friendfhip : 
On the other fide, threatening to treat thofe who 
refill him with the utmoll Severity that is due to 
Tray tors and Rebels ; and all this for the Sake 
of two or three xn^igrnfiCZXiX. Ceremonies and 
Cpiniotis wherein they differ ; mere Trifles, li- 
teral Whimfies, the Sport pf their DoSlor), the 
*Spawn of wanton and luxuriant Brains. For 
lio greater was the original Differences between 
the Lutherans and thofe of the Roman Church. 
One will be faved by the Strength of his Fancy, 
which he calls Faith, without doing any good 
Work towards it : The other toils all his Life- 
time to merit Hea-ven, and thinks he can ne\ e: 
do enough to obtain his End. He wears out ih? 
Pavement of Churches, and makes the Skin of his 
Knees, like that of a C««^/, with perpetual kr eel - 
ing and praying to Images and Pihures. And 
after all, they may be both damned for aught I 
know for their ill Lives. They tear and devour 
H 3 one 

I5P Letters /FnV hy Vol. IV. 

cnc another like wild Beaft?, and think to gaia 
Pan^a'ijc by their unnatural ZeaJ. 

The Duke of Ne-~julurgh has pub'iiVd a Mani- 
fi-JIo againft the Proceedings of Brundenburgh, and 
follicited the Duke of Lcnaiti's Aid, as alfo that 
of Leopold, Arch-Duke of Aujlria. What will be 
the Iflue no Man know? ; but oft-times a fmall 
.Sprk kindles great Fir^s : And it is not impofli- 
b!e, that this little Feqd may fet the whole Empire 
jn a Flame. 

Mighty Bajpz, I pray Heaven blefs thee with 
Peace, Healthy and thy due Rei'er.ue. If thefe 
.be not enough to make thee Happy, I wifli thee an 
Increafe of Honours, and all the glorious Fatiguti 
which Mortals court as their Way lo Bli/s. 

Pari, zQth of the "fth Mootiy ; 

of the Tear 165 1. 


"To Ufcph Bafla. 

SUfpefl me not : I have an equal Efteem fop 
thee, as I have for the other Ba£as and Mini- 
Jicrs of the Divan. Bat I find it difficult to pleafe 
iiny. They are captious, and every one wou'd 
have al! my Letters addrefs'd tohimfelf : As if I 
were plac'd here toferve/)a;/;Va/<3/Intereft5, and 
not the Publick. However, I can but acknow- 
ledge the tacit Honour they do me in being fo 
covetous of poor Mahmui^ Correfpondence. I 
wifh I were in a Condition to be more partial : 
Then I would quickly make thee and fome others 
fenfible, which are the Perfons for whom 1 have 
a peculiar Regard. 


Vol. IV. a Spy at Paris. 151 

But, as the Cafe is at prefent, I muft obferve 
the Ififlru3ions I have received; and by turns 
write to all. 

Wherein, if I fail o£ Arithmetical Proportions^ 
I will make amends by the Rules of Geometry : If 
I write bat feldom to fonie, I defire that the 
Length of my Letters, and Solidity of the Matter, 
may be accepted as a proper Supplement. 

But thou haft no Reafon to complain on this 
Score, unlefs it be with thyfelf for travelling into 
remote Countries, whither I know not how to fol- 
low thee with Letters, or any other Way. Be- 
iides,- the former Friendlhip, that has been be- 
tween us, is a fufficient Counterfcarp againft all 
Sufpicion of Negledl on my Part, who am a 
thoufand Times obliged to thee for many rC' 
peated Favours. For the Sake of God therefore 
and all that is Good, wound my Heart no more 
with thefe undeferved Reproaches ; but believe 
ftcdfaftly, that ^lahmut can never be ungrateful 
and falfe. 

Thy Letter is a Mifcellany of friendly Com- 
plaints and Compliments. Thou giveft me a 
Character to which I do not pretend. *Tis true, 
indeed, and I thank Go d and my good Stars for it, 
that I was not born Blind, Deaf, or Dumb. A'^- 
ture gave me my Senfes free from any manifeft 
Defed J and I have an indifferent good Memory. 
When I 'was young I had an Inclination to read 
Books ; and Fortune has fince favoured me with 
many Opportunities for that Purpofe. But I 
found the moft profitable Study to be that of Mv- 
SELF, to which all the laborious Pains of ths 
Schools and Academies ferve only as a certaia 
Gradation and Difcipline. Nay, without thefe a 
Man may attain all the Knowledge that is neceffli- 
ry to the Acccmplilbment of his Nature ; for fo 
did the firil Philofophers, before Booh or Let- 
H 4 /f/-i 

152 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

ters were extant. If tliou wilt be perfeftly wife, 
read the Alcoran, and the Universe ; after 
that, perufe Thy Self j thou wilt find Matter 
cf Wonder and Improvement in each; but 
moft of all in the laji j for Man is a 'Medley oi all 

Were this LefTon well Icarn'd and praftis'd ia 

the Court of Fiance, there would not be fo many 

little Quarrels among thefe Infidels ; or at leall 

fuch petty Originals would not produce fo many 

fatal Confequences. 

From the firft Time the Prince of Conde with 
his Brothers were releas'dfrom their Imprifonment 
(whereof I have given an Account to Minezim 
Aluph ) there appeared much Coldnefs in the 
Recti's, Reception of 'era, and their AddrefTes to 
her. On both Sides they were at a Lofs how to 
behave themfelves, for all their Civilities were 
forc'd. 'Tis true, there was a fplendid Um- 
brage of Reconciliation ; but it foon vanifh'd. 
Their fupprefs'd Paffions difcover'd themfelves by 
Degrees, and at length broke out into an open 

The ^een appeared full of Condefcenfion and 
Favours : But young Corde is as full of his Me- 
rits and brave Exploits ; remembring what Servi- 
ces he has done to this Cro^'n. Befides he is not void 
of Sufpicion and Jealoufy, left all thofe Excefles 
of Royal Kindnefs are ftrain'd only to render him 
more fecure, and fo entrap him a fecond Time 
with greater Advantage. The Horror of his 
firft Imprifcnment is yet fix'd in his Mind ; from 
whence it will not be eafy to efface it. Three 
principal Servants of the ^een were banifhM to 
remove his Fears ; for he imagin'd them to be In- 
ftruments of Correfpondence between the ^een 
and his old Enemy Cardinal Mazarini. Yet fhe 
publilh'd ^Declaration,{^gr^\iy\r\gy TkattheQzr6\x\z[ 


Vol. IV. « Spy J/ Par IS. 153 

Jhouldhe for e'ver bamjh'd, not only from the Court, 
but from the Kingdom. 

And this Moon the King, being come of Age, 
invited the Prince to the Ceremonies ufual on fuch 
Occafions : Which Conde apprehended as a Snare, 
and fo fled out oi Paris. 

The Event of thefe Emergencies is yet in the 
fecret Pages of Defiiny : But in all Likelihood a 
Civil War will follow. People are whifpering. 
caballing, and making /*^r//V/ on both fides. All 
the Powder in Paris is engrolTed and gone ; but 
• no body knows by whom. Some fay the Prince 
is polled into Flanders ; others report, that he is 
xctir'd to his own Government, there to raife an 
Army. The moll knowing aver, that, where- 
ever he is, he has two hundred thoufand Sequins 
in Bank to give Life to his Defigns, let them be 
what they will. 

Think not this News of fmall Importance, fe- 
rene Bajfa : But when thou hearell of the Civil 
Wars among C/{'r//?/flff/,efpecially in the Realm of 
France f the frji a,r\d moll vicarious Empire of (he 
Wef, look on thy Right Hand and on thy Left, 
for our holy Prophet, or his Herald,n near at Hand. 

Paris, 2 id of the gth Moon, 
of the Year 1 65 i . 


To Solyman his Coufin at Ccnflan- 

THOU feed what thy Libertinifm has brought 
on thee. For my Part, I am fick in read- 
ing thy Letter, full of Melancholy, and the 
w orft kind of Enthufafim. 

H 5 Hadil 

154 Letters Wrii hy Vol. IV. 

Hadft thou follow'd my Advice ; or, if that be 
ccntemn'd, hadft tJicu-but cbey'd the Precepts of 
thy Father, an honeft Man, and one that went 
down to the Grave in Peace, thou would'ft have 
liv'd as happily as other Men ; but now thou art 
ovcrwhelm'd with HypochoKdriack Vapours, and 
Dreams of a filthy Brain. I counfel thee to purge 
thyfelf with Hellebore ; for thou haft more Need 
of that than of Bath. In all my Life I never 
heard of fuch religious Nonfence from a MuJfuU 
man, as thy laft Letter is ftufPd with. 

I have no Patience to make Repetitions, or 
anfwer every particular Whimfy of thine. But in 
God's Name, what makes thee fright thyfelf with 
fuch a wrong Notion of Hell? It is a common 
Maxim in Nature, That tiothincr fviolent is perma- 
nent. Either therefore the Pains of the Damn' J 
are not infinitely Intenfe, or clfe they are not Etet' 
nal in their Duration. Thou wilt fay. The Jlco- 
ran itfelf afterts the Eternity of thofe Torments. 
But doft thou underftand the figurati've Manner of 
Speech us'd in that divifie Booky and in all'Our 
Eafiern Writings ? Is it not common to call a 
\ejy high Mountain, The Mountain of God? As- 
if all the Mountains and Vallies of the Earth 
'«\ere not equally his. So, to cxprefs an uncertain 
length of Time, 'tis cuftomary to ufe the Epithet 
\\. Thus we in ordinary Converfation fay 
\xi Arahia, 1 love you eternally ', I njcill fer'veyou, 
fght fcrycu, &c. eternally ; and the fame of the 
ioKtrary PaJJions : And yet we all know we fiiall 
live but a few Years. ' , ^•• 

Eu*: granting, that the Alcoran fpeaks in a lite- 
r^r/Senfe; it does not follow, that thofe Prtz/rr 
are without hterials of Reji. We read of the 
Tree Zacon, which grows in tlie Center of Hell :■ 
l^nt who will inLcrprct what is underitood by this 
r/ant ? 


Vol. IV. ^Spy^/PARis» 155 

Coujin, make ufe of thy Reafon, and pracflife 
the heft Things. As for our Condition after this 
Life, trouble not thyfelfj for no Man knows 
what will become of him when he goes hence. 
However, we cannot believe the Supremely Mer- 
ciful delights in Cruelty. 

There is a Path which thtEagle has not wing'd, 
nor the Serpent tra.c'd, though *tis obvious to both. 
But their own Rafhnefs blinds them, and they 
cannot difcern the Way of the Wife. There arc 
Men of tow' ring Speculations, and others very 
cnifty ; neither one nor t*other can grope out 
the dire.51 Road to Blifs. If I may advife thee, 
let Nature be thy Guide. Do nothing but what 
Hutnanity prompts thee to : 'Tis this alone diflin- 
guilhes thee from other Animals. Honour the 
Mi'mory of thy deceafed Parents, love thy Friends, 
and be generous to thy Enemies : Do JullicetoMi 
Men : Obferve the Purifications and Prayers pr^- 
fcrib'd by the La^M: But give no Credit to the 
Fables of Infidels. It is common here among tl>e 
Chrifiians, to print Hell with horrid Flames »hd" 
Deijils flying up and down with red hot Prongs, 
to tofs the Damned from Fire to Fire. And their 
Preachers make long and direful Harar.gups on 
the fame Subjedl : When, all the while, neither 
they nor-wt' know, tuhat or luhere Hell is, or after 
wliat Manner the Wicked ^zW be chaftis'd. 

Only the Illuminated of God have this Stand- 
ard oi Truth ; that both our Pains and Pleafures, 
after this Life, fliall be exadly proportion'd to our 
Virtues and Vices. There is no Malice or Injufiice 
in X^t good Creator of all Thing:. 

Coufin, once again, let thy Senfes be awake, 
and fufFcr not thy Reafon to dream of Things 
which have no Exigence. For, afTuredly, GoD 
is the moil impartial fudge of the Univerfe. 
Taris, zidofthe icth Moon, 

of tht Year 165 1 . H 6 LET- 

156 Letters J^r/V ^ Vol. IV. 


to Endel Al* Zadi Jaaf, Beglerbcg of 

T Have not the Honour to know thee in Perfon, 

•■• but have heard of thy Fame. So Mortals are 

unacquainted with the Secrets of ih.tjixed Stars^ 

'yet we obferve their Luftre and Rank, and the 

■ Figure they make in thofe remote Worlds. 

Thy Exploits among the Curds and Georgians 
are not unknown in thefe Parts. The Franks, that 
travel in the Eaji, have tranfported hither fuch 
a Charafter of thy magnanimous Adtions as makes 
all Men of Honour in love with thee : and I have 
conceiv'd a particular Veneration for thy Vir- 
tues. May God encreafe them with thy Hours, 
and grant thee a Monopoly of Blifs. 

Thou art placed in an eminent Seat, and may'ft 
with Reafon be call'd Lord of Lords, as thy Title 
imports ; for thou art PoJfeJ/or oi the terrejiial Pa- 
radife, if we may give Credit to the Tradition of 
the Ancients. They tell us, that for a Time Jdam 
dwelt there with his fecond Wife; and that the 
particular Place of his Abode was an TJland, en- 
compafs'd with the Rivers Euphrates, Tygrisy Pi- 
fen, and Gihott. From whence it wa? call'd Me- 
Jbpotamia by the Greeks ; which fignifies, a Re- 
gion en^uiron^d luith Pinjers. 

All the Weji of AJia have a profound Refpeft 
for this Country. And the feiKis relate ftrange 
Stories of a Tree in Dierbekir which grew Five 
hundred Miles high in the Days of Adam ; which, 
they fay, was cut down by an Ange/, left Man 
fhould c/imh to Hea^ven by it before his Time. 
f cii it feems. Ambition was a Fice early as oar 

Nature % 

Vol. IV. <2 Spy ^/ Paris. 157 

Nature ; and Adam was no fooner fenfible that 
he was a Man, but he afpir'd to be a God,OT fome- 
thing like one. So great a Charm there is in Ho- 
nour and Authority. 

They fay alfo, that Abraham was born in this 
Region. However, 'tis certain, if there be any 
Certainty in Recordszxi^ Hlfioriesy that he refided 
there a confiderableTime. But thou knoweft beft 
yj\iZ.^raditions thy Subje£ls|have of thefe Things. 

The Chinefe and Indians laugh at all this, as a 
Romance oi later Date than their Chronic/es,which. 
make thofe Extremities of the Eajl to be the Stage 
o^ x)\t fir Ji Mortals. Inftead ai Adam and Eve^ 
or Alikth, they affert the Names of the original 
Parents of Mankind to be Panzon and Panzona j 
whofe Off- Spring, they fay, continued ten Mil- 
lions of Years ; but at length were all deftroyed 
from the Earth by a Tempell from Heaven. After 
whom, they tell us, Go d created Lontixam, a Man 
with tnuo Horns, each as big and tall as a Tree in 
that Country, which they call the Plant of God, 
being the largeftand firft of all Vegetables. This 
Man's Horns being prolifick, according to their 
Tradition, out of the Right fprang a thoufand 
Men every Day for a Hundred Years ; and as 
many Women out of the Left, in the fame Space. 
From whom defcended all Mortals of both Sexes 
to this Day ; though we are much diminilhed in 
Bulk, thro' the general Decay oi human Nature. 
For thefe People affirm, that the firji Race of 
Men were all Giants ; but that, through Intem- 
perance and other Vices, their Off-fpring fhrunk 
by Degrees into fmaller Dimenfions, 'till at 
length they arrived at the prefent Stature, and 
appear'd like Pygmies in Ccmparifon of the primi- 
tive Sons of Lontixam. In Confirmation of this, 
the Indians (hew to Travellers fome of their 7i?»j- 
/■/^r/hewn out of vaft Rocks, with the Images of 


«5^ Letters U^rit hy Vol. IV. 

:rhofe Gigantick Men, who they fay were em ploy 'd 
in the Work. Thefe they honour as Heroes, or 

I do not relate this for Truth, but only to di- 
vert thee in reprefenting the different Opinions of 
Men. God only knows hmv to feparate the Truth 
from Faljhood in Hiftories. 

But to return to Dicrbeker : This Country is fa' 
raous for the Ttrwer of Babel, built by Nimrod and 
his Folloivers ; at what time the Lafiguages were 
confounded, as ^iofes relates. 'Tis remarkable 
alfo, for the JJ^Z/A- fought between \.\ve Parthians 
and Romans at Harran ; and for the Death of Ca- 
racalla, the Son of Se'verus, Emperor of Rome, 
who was murder'd by ISiacrinus, the Roifian Gt- 
veral. Thek Emperors were all call'd Cefars, as 
the Kings of Egypt were call'd Pharaohs and Pto- 
lemies. Itfeems, the Word Cafar was firft ap- 
ply'd to yulius the Roman Dictator, for that, his 
Mother dying under the Pains which were to give 
him Life, her Belly was ript up, and he drawn 
forth from her Womb by the Hands of a Surgeon. 
In Memory of which, he and all his Succejfors were 
call'd C^fars ', that Word fignifying [drawn forth 
by Violence]. But howfoevtr the Manner of his 
Birth was, this is certain. That he, and forty of 
hi Succejfors, were hurry'd out of the World by 
untimely Deaths : For they either laid violent 
Hands on themfelves, or were murdered by 
Tray tors. 

If thou wouldeft have any News out of thefe 
Parts, the chief Difcourfe at prefent is, of a 
great Viftory obtain'd by the Polanders againft the 
■Cojfacks and Tartars. And I could wifh this were 
all : But the Nazarenes are continually made joy- 
ful with the Succefs of the Venetians again li the 
Arms of the in-vincible Empire. They beat us by 
Sea.,, and bafile all our Attempts by Land. We 


Vol. IV. ^ Spy rt/ Paris. 159 

have not got an Inch of Ground in Candia, du- 
ring the iail Campaign, but loll many thoufandsof 
Men, and brought the Name of i\iC fublime Port 
and 'viSlorion.s Mujfulmatis, into Contempt and 
Scorn. Where .the Fault lies God knows. 'Tis 
too melancholy a Theme to infill on Particulars. 

Don Jaan of Aujlria has alfo befieg'd Barce- 
lona by Sea and Land. 

Several Arrejis of Parliament are here publiihed 
againft the Prince of Con Je und his Adherents; ?Lad 
*tis reported, the King will recall Cardinal Maze- 
rini from his Banifiment. 

Illullrious prince and Governor of a happy /?<?- 
gion, I beg thy favourable Conftruflion of this 
Addrefs, And thus, in Reverence, I defitl, full 
of dutiful and affeftionate Vows for thy Pro- 

Paris, \gthofthe\zthM)on, 
cf the Tear 1651. 

The End' of the Second Book. 

L E T- 

( i6o ) 

L E T T E R S 

Writ by a 

S?Y at P^RIS. 



S'o Abdel Melech Muli Omar, Pre- 
fident of the College of Sciences 
at Fez. 

THOU haft formerly receiv'd a Letter 
from me, wherein I menticn'd the 
Tenets of a certain French Phito/opher^ 
who maintains that the Earth moves 
like the reft of the Planets, and the Sun ftands 
ftill, being the Center of this our World : For he 
afferts that there are many. 

The Name of this Sage is Des Charles, renown- 
ed throughout the World for his Learning and 
Knowledge. He lays as a Bajis of all his Philo- 
/ephythxi ihort Pofition and hferente, I think, 


Vol. IV. « Spy ^/ Paris. i6i 

THEREFORE I A M. In this alonc he \s- dogmatical ^ 
allowing a lawful Scepticifm in aU the uncertain 
DeduSlions which may be drawn from it. 

PardoH me, oracukus Sage, if I expofe before 
thee my Infirmities. I am naturaily dillruftful 
of all Things. This Temper puts me upon perpe- 
tual Thinking. And that very Aft convinces me 
of the Truth of my Being, according to the Me- 
thod of this Philofopher. But what lam, I know 
not. Sometimes I fancy myfelf no more than a 
Dream or Idea of all thofe other Things which 
Men commonly believe do really cxiil ; a mere 
Imagination of Poflibilities. And that AU, which 
we call the World, is but one grand Chimtera, or 
Nothing in Mafquerade. 

At other times, when thefe wild Thoughts are 
vanilh'd, and my Spirits tired, in the Purfuit of 
fuch abllraded Whimfies, begin to flag, and that 
my lower Senfe, awak'd by fome prefent Pain or 
Pleafure, rouzes my fleeping Appetites ; when I 
am touch'd with Hunger, Thirft, or Cold, or 
Heat, and find experimentally I am fomething 
that cannot be a mere Thought or Dream, but of 
a Compofition which ftands in need of Meat, 
Drink, Garments, and other NecefTaries ; then, 
rather than fret myfelf with vain and endlefs 
Scrutinies, I tamely conclude I am that which I 
call a Man ; I lay the Sceptick afide, and without 
any farther Scruples or Doubts fall roundly to 
eating, drinking, or any other Refrelhments my 
Nature craves for. 

But no fooner have I tafted thefe Delights, 
when my old Diftemper returns again. I then 
confider myfelf as a 5f;>ff capable ofHappinefs 
or Mifery in fome Degree ; as I (hall poffefs or 
want thofe very Delights I juft before enjoy'd. 
This is a fufiicient Damp to a thinking Man, 


1 62 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

when he knows that he ftands in Need of any 
thing out of himfclf. But 'tis fir greater, when 
he will take the Pains to number all the Train of 
his particular Neceffities, which he is not fure he 
fhall always be able to fupply. 

This makes me prefently conclude, thit, as 
I am indebted to other Creatures for my fenfible 
Happinefs, fo I owe my very Being to fomethinw 
befide myfelf. I examine n\yOrigi/ial, and fina 
I am born of Men and Women, who were in 
the fime indigent Circumiiances as myfelf: 
And that it is not only fo with my particular 
Family, but with all Mankind ; our whole hu- 
man Race being born natural Mendicant i from the- 
Womb. As foon as we breathe the vital Air, we 
cry ; and, with thofe Inarticulate Prayers, beg for 
Help and ?rotei;Hon from others, without whofe 
generous Aid we could rot fubfill a Moment : 
So poor and beggarly a Thing is Man, from hi» 
Birth. This is the Condition of all ; Neither 
is a King any more exempt from that cotnman 
CharaScr oiMartaliy than ^^tSlwvt ^hojhuee^s 
the Streets. 

If I could have refted in this Thought, I 
fiiould have been happy t For it would have had 
this Influence on me, either to convince me, that 
I ought to be content with the Condition to which 
1 was born, or, to rid myfelf (Hit of fo defpfca- 
ble a State by Death. 

But alas ! one Thought produces another : And, 
from the Contemplation of our prefeat Miferjr 
in this Life, 1 fall to thinking what will become 
of us after Death. For as we know not n^;hat or 
luLere we were before we came into this World ; 
fo there is no human Certainty, '\uhither we 
{hall go, or in luhat Condition we ihall be, when 
we leave it : And therefore, it would be an un- 
pardonable Madnef?, to throw myfelf headlong 


Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Paris. j6^ 

into a State of which I have no Account. And 
to avoid the little Miferies of this Life, which 
muft have an End one time or other, call myfelf 
down a Precipice (for aught I know) of intdera- 
lle Torments, which has no Bottom. 

I hear the Philofophers tallc of Immortality, the 
Poets of Elizium, the Chrijiian Priejis of Heanierty 
Hell, and Purgatory ; the Indian Bramins of Tranf- 
migration : But I know not avhat or which I have 
Reafon to believe of all tkefe. 

I fpeak after the Manner o^ Philofophers ; for,if 
we come to the Faith, the Cafe is alter'd. Think 
not, I befeech tJiee, that I call in queilion the 
Jacred Oracles, the Revelations of the Sent of 
God. But I only acquaint thee how my natural 
Reafon hatters me with Doubts. 

I fee Men every where profeffing fome Peligioa 
or other ; paying divine Honours to (ome fuperior 
Being, or Beings, according as they have been edu- 
cated: Which manyTimes tempts me to think, that 
Religion is nothing but the EJ^e^ of Education. 

Then I wonder how Men, when they come to 
Years of Difcretion, and their Reafon is able to 
diflinguilh between Things prohahk, and mereRo' 
mances, canftill retain tlae J^rrorj of their Infaticy. 
' Tis natural for Children to be wheedled or aw'd 
into a 5f/t(/^of what theirP^jrf;;//, Nurfes, or Tu- 
tors teach them. But, when they come of Age, 
they foon redify their mifled Undcrflandings, in 
all Things, fave the Affairs of Religion. In this 
they are Children ftill, tenacious of the /acred 
Fables of their Priejis, and obllinate in maintain- 
ing them, fometimes even to Death. 

It puzzles me to find out the Caufe of fo 
llrange an EfFeft, That Men otherways endu'd 
with mature Judgment, and an extraordinary- 
Sagacity in all Things elfe, fhould yet be Fools in 
l^Iatters of Religion, and believe Things incon- 


1^4 Letters Tf^rit hy Vol. IV. 

ften with the common Senfe and Reafon of IMan- 

I could never give Credit to the Wftories of 
the ancient Pagans, which acquaint us with the 
devout Adoration they paid to the Creatures of the 
Painter or Carver, did I not fee the fame prafti- 
fed among the Chrijiians ; Or, that thofe luife 
Men old could fwallow the Forgeries of their 
Triefts concerning the Gods and Goddejfes, were 
I not an Eye Witnefs how bigotted the modern 
Nazarenes are to the Legends of their Saints, and 
the yeivs to thofe more ridiculous Figments of the 

It perplexes me to fee Mankind generally la- 
bouring under fo great a Darknefs, not fo much 
the EfFeft of Ignorance as of Superjiition : To be- 
hold Men well vers'd in Sciences, and all kinds of 
human Learning ; yet zealous Afferters of mani- 
feft Contradiftions in Matters of Z)/'v/«//>'> rather 
than oppofe, or fo much as examine, the Iradi' 
tions of their Fathers. 

When I behold M:»yfrW divided into fo many 
innumerable different Religions in the World, all 
vigoroufly propagating their own Tenets, either by 
Subtlety or Violence, yet few or none feeming 
by their Practice to believe what they with fo 
much Ardour profefs ; I could almoft think that 
thefe various Ways ofWorJhip were firft invertted 
by Politicians ', each accommodating his Model to 
the Inclinations of the People whom he defign'd 
to circumvent. 

But when on the other fide I confidcr there 
appears fomething fo natural and undifguis'd in 
th.€ furious Zeal and unconquerable Obftinacy of 
ihegreatejl Part ; I am as ready to join with Car- 
dan, and conclude. That all this Variety of Reli- 
gions depends on the different Influence of the 
Stars. This was a femous Philofophtr in Europe j 


Vol. IV. <2 Spy <«/ Paris. 165 

and held, That the Religion of the Jeivs ow'd 
its Original to the Forces of Saturn ; that of the 
Chrijiians to Jupiter, and Ours to Mars. Ai for 
the Pagans, he affigns to them many Conjiella- 
tions and AfpeSls. 

Thus there is fo equal an Appearance of Truth 
and Falfhood in every Religion, that I fhould 
not know how, in human Reafon, to £x on 

Superfiition renders a Man a Fool, and Scepticijm 
is enough to make him mad. To believe all 
things is above Reafon ; to give Credit to nothing 
is below it : I will keep the middle Path, and di- 
reft my Faith by Reafon. 

That Faculty tells me, That, if I were inclined 
to adore the Sun, Moon, and Stars for their Peauty 
and Influence, I might on the fame Ground 
luerjhip my own Eyes, without which I could not 
behold their tempting Splendors : Or, I might as 
well pay divine Honour to that more intimate 
Sen/e my Feeling, or any of my other SenCts which 
only render me capable to know the Vertue of 
thefe Luminaries. The fame maybe faid of the 
Elements, and all vifible Beings, 

What then fhall I adore, or to whom fliall I 
return Thanks for all the BleJJings 1 enjoy ( for 
even in this miferable Life I tafte fome Happi- 
nefs) ? To what Being, I fay, Ihall I addrefs my 
Fo<ws and Supplications, for all the Good that I 
poflefs and want ? Is it to any Thing that I have 
feen or can fee, or that I can reprelent to myfelf 
under a Figure ? Is it to any Part of the Uni' 
I'erj'e, or no ? No. To the whole Complex toge- 
ther ? No ; I have a thoufandkind Thoughts for 
the Sun, Moon, and Stars, for the Elements, and 
many other compound Creatures. My Soul, and 
that of the World, are Unifons. But 'tis the pro' 
found Depth gf Eternity, the infnitt and immor., 


i66 Letters TVrithy Vol. IV. 

tal, who is the Diapa/oii, and makes perfeft Har- 

To that Being which has r\oRefemhlance,Xit'nhtT 
is di'Vj<ied h\io Parts,nor circumfcr2h''dwuh Limits; 
whofe Center is e-very nvhere. Circumference no 
nvhere, who hath neither Beginning nor End ; To 
the only Omnipotent, from whom all other Things 
flow, and to whom they all return j to whom I owe 
all that I have, and will pay what I can. And 
fomething by hisDetermination I am indebted, and 
will dilcharge it to thee, Orient Light of the Mo- 
refco Mitjjfulmans i that is, the Duty of an humble 
slave, in begging Pardon for this Pre/umption. 

Paris, xi^hofthe zdMoon^ 
of the Tear 1652. 


^0 the Kaimacham. 

' "in WAS the Contemplation of Ifovf Eh'n Ha- 
J[ drilla, an Arabian Philofopher, that all 
Men were at frjl created in a State of War ; For 
this Sage gave no Credit to the Writings of Mofesy 
the Jenjjijh Hijlorian, and Prophets j neither could 
any Arguments perfuade him to believe. That all 
Mortals defcended from Adam. 'Twas an Article 
of his Faith, That in the Infancy of the World 
Men were fort/I'd of the prolifick Slime of the 
Earth, impregnated by the vigorous Warmth of 
the Sun, and that all other Animals had their Ori- 
ginal vci the fame Manner : But that, in Procefs of 
Time, the Richnefs of the Seminal Soil being ex- 
haufted by a continual Spontaneous Produiiion of 
living Creatures, there was no other Way to per- 


Vol. IV. a Spy atTAKis. 167 

petuate the various Kinds of Beings, and multiply 
the hdi'viduals, but by the ordinary Method cf 
Generation. For which Re:U"on Nature i'eems to 
have fubdivided every Species into two Sexes. 

Hence this Pbilofifhcr concludes. That at iirft 
there was no nearer Relation between Man and 
Man, than there is now betwixt a Lion and a 
Sheep, or any other difFerent Kinds of Animals ; 
faving only. That as thefe arc diftinguifhed by 
their Forms, in four-footed Beafts, Fowls, 
Fiihes, and creeping Things, fo Men afium'd 
to themfelves the Charadler of rational Crea- 
tures : And a Principle o{ Se/fPre/er-vation was 
the firft Ground of a tacit and common League 
between Men, againft the reft of their Fellow- 
Animals ; efpeclallyagainfl thofe, which made a 
more frightful Figure on Flarth than we do, 
and feem'd more rapacious, and inclin'd to 
Mifchiefs ; fuch as Dragons, Tygers, Bears, 
Lions, ^c. 

But notwithftanding this general Aflbciation of 
our Race, againll the more falvage and fierce 
Troops of Beajis ; yet one Man ftill flood upon 
his Guard againll another : And all the Sons of 
the Earth endeavoured to maintain the Pofts 
which Nature had allotted each Man ; that is, the 
Place where he was firft form'd, and drew Breath. 
But Things could not laft long in this State : 
For either by InflinS or Reafon (call it which 
you will, fays this Author) Men being ftreightened 
for want of Fruits, or fpurr'd on by feme fecret 
Defire of Novelty, foon went out of their 
Bounds, and encounter'd each other, more by 
Chance than Defign ; whence arofe the firft 
Occafions of aiSlual War : For every Stranger ap- 
pear'd like an Invader ; they naturally ftartled 
and fufpefted each other. Reciprocal Paffions of 
Choler fprungin their Breafts ; and every Man, to 


i68 Letters Writ by Vol. IV. 

prevent the Effeft of his own Fears and Appre- 
henfions, rufh'd on his Neighbour ; who was, on 
the fame Ground, as ready for an Affault as him- 
felf. Thus an uni-verfal War commenc'd in the 
World, which, by various Methods of Improve- 
ment, was carried on by the fucceeding Genera- 
tions, and continu'd to the prefent Time. 

As for the Original oi Gcmemments, the parti- 
cular Time cannot be jdetermin'd ; but it may 
be fuppofed, that Men generally finding the In- 
convenience of thefe private perfonal Combats, 
and by degrees arriving to greater Maturity of 
Experience, form'd themfelves at firll into little 
Societies and Friend/hips, or as they dwel t near one 
another, or as they agreed in fome common In- 
clinations Principles, and Interells. From which 
fmall Aj/ociatiofisthty gradually fpreadinto larger 
Communities, living under certain Laws and Ob- 
ligations of mutual Peace, Juftice, and Afliilajice 
toward each other, and of Defence againil their 
common Enemies : Some living under the Form 
of a Commoniuealth, others of a Monarchy ; each 
Body of Men fetting up fuch a Model, as beft 
fuited their own Interells and Neceffities. 
From hence fprung the DiHinftion of Nations, 
Kingdoms, and Empires. Ihus far the Arabian 

But, without enquiring into the Trutli of his 
Principles, one would think, that fome of the 
Wejiern Nazarenes were his Di/ciples. And indeed 
all Civil Diffentions feem to be grounded on the 
fame Maxims. Whilft Men, on the Jesft Diicon- 
tent or Jealoufy, lay afide the Obedience they owe 
to their Sovereigns, claiming I know not what 
natural Right to defend themfelves againft the 
Incroachments and Ufurpations of others. 

Thus no fooner was it fuppos'd here. That the 
King intended to rec&llCfirdinalMaxarini irom his 

Exile i 

Vol. IV. ^ S P Y ^/ P A R I S. 1 69 

Exile ; but the Parliament of Paris, who are fe- 
cret Friends to the Prince of Conde, publifh'd an 
Arrefi againft the Cardinal^ whereby all Perfons 
are forbid to contribute toward the Return of this 
Minifter : r.nd ordering, that his Library, with all 
his Moveables, fhould be fold, to raife a Sum of a 
Hundred and fifty thoufand Liiires ; which is pro- 
mifed as a Reward to thofe who (hall either take 
him Prifoner, or kill him. They alfo petitioned 
tht Duke q{ Orleans to make the utmoit Ufe of 
his Authority againft the Cardinal i who there- 
upon raifed confiderable Troops, and gave the 
Command of them to the Duke of Beaufort. 

In the mean Time the Cardinal is not idle, 
but, with what Forces he has, performs fome con- 
fiderable AiSlions in his own Defence. He has. 
taken Prifoner zn eminent Counfellor o( Parlia'- 
ment. The Parliament fent a Trumpet to demand 
his Releafe. This Meflenger was rejeded. Where- 
upon the Parliament are taking new Me- 

The Prince of Conde has fent a Letter and Re* 
queft to the Parliament, defiring them to fufpend 
the Execution of the Arrefl publifli'd againft him; 
fince the Time given him to lay down his Arms 
was not yet expired, and that the Cardinal was 
returned into the Kingdom, contrary to the Pro- 
hibition fign'd by the King. 

But,notwithftandingall thefe Traverfes,A/rt2^- 
rini is come again to the Court, which is now 
kept at Poiiliers ; wiiere he was received within- 
finite Rcfpeft and Carefles by the A7H^,the ^een, 
and all his Friends. Animofities daily increale 
between the different Parties : Pri-oaie Grudges 
are improved to fublick Faftions : An uajverial 
Peeviftinefs has pcfTcfs'd the Hearts of the French 
Nation : They are jilarm'd and offended at one 
another's Looks. If a Man fmilej too much, or 

I tC«] 

170 Letters fVrit hy Vol. IV. 

too little, in converfing with his Friend, *tis 
enough to give him the Charadler of an Enemy, 
or at leaft to render him fufpefted. So that he, 
who would live peaceably here at this Junfture, 
had need to be well fkilled in all the Secrets of 
Phyjiog?romy, and make frequent Ufe of his Look- 
ing-Glafs ; left an oblique Call of his Eye, or 
facyrical Wrything of his Nofe, fliould be inter- 
preted for Symptoms of hidden Malice. For now 
they'll fpy Treafon in every Feature of a Man's 

As for me, when I go abroad I conform to all 
Companies, yet alter not my Addrefs ; I neither 
play the Ape, nor counterfeit a Statue : But, ob- 
serving a Medium^ I pay a civil Refpeft to all, 
without being courtly or rude ; For this Carriage 
beft fuits with my Circumftances. Hence it is 
that no body fufpeds the plain, deform'd, blunt, 
crook- back'd T.itus of Moldat'ia, to be what I am 
really, hlahmut the Slave of the exalted Port. 

Paris, 1 4/-^ of the 2d Moo»y 
of the Tear 1652. 


To the Reis Effendi, Principal Secretary 
cf the Ottoman Empire. 

TH E Prifice of Conde'i Takirg up Arms has 
more puzzled the Counfels cf the King of 
Travccy and more embarrafs'd his Affairs, than 
any Occurrence that has happened fmce the Death 
of his Father. 

I have 

Vol. IV. /r Spy <?/ Paris. 171 

1 have already inforra'd the K limacham and 
others of all Paflages hitherto relating to tlic'c in* 
tejline Broils ; fince which they fetm to be im- 
prov'd into a War, wherein Foreign Nations take 
a Part. After the Return of Cardinal Mazarini to 
this Court, the Prince of Conde was driven to great 
Strcights ; being compell'd by the fwift Marches 
of the King^s A: my to retire to Bourdeaux : 
Where, confidering that it would not be fo much 
his Intercft to keep this Place, as to encreafe his 
Forces, he fent Envoys to the Ki»g of Spain and 
Arch- duke Leopold in Flanders^ to defire their 

The former immediately diftjatched away Or- 
ders for a confiderable Body or Men to approach 
the Confines of Gafcoigne, where the Prince had 
a great lotereft ; and the latter fent him eight 
thoufand Men, to aft on the fide of Flanders, and 
,loward Paris, as Occafion ofFer'd. 

This is the particular Game of the Spaniards, 
to take Advantage of the Civil Wars in this 
Kingdom, that fo, by affilling the weaker Party, 
they may balance the contefting Power of the Na- 
tion, and keep 'em in a perpetual Quarrel ; whilll 
in the Interim they gain Ground, recover the 
Places which the French took from 'em in Time of 
domeftick Peace, and fo pave the Way to ne'vt 

In the mean Time the Parliament fent Deputies 
to the Ki7ig, befeeching him to remember his 
Royal Word, by which he had for ever banifhed 
Cardinal Mazarini, and reprefenting to him the 
fatal Confequences which were like to proceed 
from his Return. But the AVw^n^, inilead of com- 
plying with their Requeft, caus'd an Ediii of 
Council to be publifh'd, wliich juliify'd his Con- 
duct in thii Matter. 

I z He 

iy2 Letters /FnV hy Vol. IV. 

He alfo writ a Letter to the Parliament full of 
Complaints, that they had not yet publifh'd any 
Order to hinder the Entrance of a Foreign Army 
into the Kingdom. But all fignified nothing to 
Men paflionately bent to maintain the Prince of 
Conde'i, Quarrel againft their Sovereign. He has 
but few trufty Men in that Senate, and they are 
over-aw'd by the reft. Befides, the Duke of Or- 
leans bears a ftrange Sway, both in the Parlia' 
ment and Country. 

At the Inftigation of the Prince, the Citizens 
of Orleans fhut up their Gates, when they heard 
the King was coming that Way in his Return to 
Paris : Yet the Country was open for the Prince 
of Conde a Subjeft j he travell'd up and down the 
Provinces to make new Jnterefts, and confirm 
the old, leaving the Command of his Army in 
Ga/coigne, to his Brother the Prince ofConti. 

There have been many Skirmifhes and Encoun- 
ters between the King^s Forces and thofe of the 
Male-contents, and one fierce Combat, wherein 
the Prince of Conde defeated the Vanguard oi the 
King's Aimy, as he was marching to this City : 
Whereby, getting the Start of his Sovereign, he 
arriv'd here and was receiv'd in the Parliament, 
whilft the Monarch was forc'd to lie encamp'd in 
the Field. 

The Prince found a different Reception, ac- 
cording to the various Humours of People : The 
greatelt Fart favour'd him ; and he receiv'd infi- 
nite CarefTes from the Citizens of Paris : But met 
with feme Oppcfiticn from Perfons of higher 
Pank, &nd more fledfaft Loyalty to the Crcwn, 
The Duke cf Orleans is his greateft Friend, and 
one for whom the Parlian ent have a great Defe- 
rence : not fo much in Contemplation of his 
Wit and Policy, as for the fake of his near Rela- 
tion to the Cro--wn, he being Uncle to the prefent 

Kivg ; 

Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Par IS. 173 

King : Whereby he has a Right to affume more 
Authority than others, in regulating the Difor- 
ders of the Court ; among which the greatell \% 
elleem'd that of Cardinal MazarinPs Return. 

In a Word, both Parties ferve themfelves of 
thofe who have the greateft Intereft, and are 
moft likely to compofe the Quarrel. The exil'd 
^een of England and her Son, who have taken 
Saniftuary in this Kingdom from the Perfecutions 
of their own Subjefls, make it their Bufinefs to 
mediate between the Court Party and the Faction 
of the Princes. 

The Prince of Conde alfo fent Deputies to the 
King, to reprefent to him, that the only Means 
to give Quiet to the State was to baniih the Car^ 
dinal Minijier : And, as they were delivering their 
Addrefs, MazarinicvLvnexn, attheSight of whom 
they aggravated their Charge, and faid to his 
Face, " That he v/as the Caufe of all the 
" EVILS which the Kingdom fuffer'd." 7he 
Cardinal, interrupting them, turn'd to the Kin^^ 
and faid, "Sir, It will not be juft that fo flourilh- 
" ing a Kingdom, and to whofe Grandeur I have 
'* contributed all that lay in my Power, fhoulj 
** ruin itfelf for my fake ; therefore I humbly 
*' intreat your Majefty to grant that I may re- 
'* turn to my own Country, or whitberfoever 
" my Fortune fliall call me. No, no, replfd th* 
'* ^een (not ivithout fome PaJJion) this cannot 
" be granted : the King had nevermore Need of 
" your Counfels than at this Junflure : We can- 
" not confent, that fo ferviceable a Man (hould 
** be banifli'd only to humour his Enemies ; 
*• therefore let us hear no more of that. 

The Z)^/«/;V/, perceiving nothing of Hopes, re- 
turn'd to Paris. Then the Parliament deputed 
others to go to the King, and remonftrate the de- 
plorable State of the Realm. This was done a few 
Days ago. I 3 In 

174 Letters tVrit by Vol. IV. 

In the mean Time, we have been alarra'd her& 
in the City, with daily Ir.furredlicns cf the Mul- 
titude. The Occafion was, fome private Orders 
which the Duke of Orleans had given to the Pro- 
voft of the Merchants, relating to his Charge, and 
the Welfare of the City. This being mifunder- 
ftood by the People, who have not the Senfe to 
dirtinguifh the good Offices of their Go-vemors 
from Injuries, put 'em all into a Tumult. They 
aflaulted the Frcvojt in his Coach, as he was pal- 
fmg the Streets : And, had he not efcaped into an 
j^pthecarfs^Vo^, they would, perhaps, in their 
Fury, have torn him in Pieces ; for fo they ferved 
his Coach, as an after Revenge. 

I am weary of beholding the malicious Quar- 
rels of thefe Infidels. But when I confider, that 
their Difcord will be inftrumental to the future 
Conquefts of the true Belie'vers, I am patient and 

However, 'tis one Comfort to me in this Thor- 
ny Station, that one Time or other, inflead of 
the perpetual Jangling of Bells in Paris, I may 
again have the Happinefs to hear the Muezins cry 
on the Minarets in Conftantinople, There is but 
One God, and Mahomet his Prophet. Or if I 
fliall not live to enjoy this Willi, yet, in the invi- 
Jible State, I Ihall hear the fame Cry, and fhall 
be pad doubt of thofe Thing=, whereof I have 
no Certainty in this Life. 

Paris, 29/^ cf the \th Mo9»f 
tf tht Year 1652. 


Vol. IV. ^jSpy ^/ Paris. 175 


7<? Cara Hali, Phyfician to the Grand 

TH E Chrijlians fcem to have too proud an 
Opinion of themfelves, and fet a greater 
Value on human Nature than fuits with Reafon. 
They aflert, that all Things were made for Man, 
and ftile him Lord oi his Fell<rui-Creatures ; as if 
Gort'had given him an abfolute Dominion over the 
reji of his JVorks, efpecially over the Animal Ge- 
nerations ; and that all the Birds of the Air, Bcafls 
of the Earth, and Fifh of the Sea were created 
only to ferve his Appetite, and other Neceflities 
of Life. I remember a Letter I formerly fent to 
thee, wherein I difcourfedof the Cartejian Phiiofo' 
fbers, and their Contempt of the Beafts, in de- 
nying them Souls, or the Vfe of Reafon. 

Give me Leave to entertain thee now, and di- 
vert myfelf with fome farther Remarks on this 
S'jbjeft. ' Tis a Refuge from Melancholy, when I 
can thus freely difcover my Thoughts to a Friend, 
who I know will not be partial to the Truth. 

I have been long an Advocate for the Brutes^ 
and have endeavoured both to abftain from injur- 
ing them myfelf.and to inculcate this fundamental 
Point of JulUce to others. This is owing to the 
.Example and Phihfcphy of Mahummcd, the 
Eremite in Arabia, that Light and Glory of reli- 
gious Men. And, were it not that my Humour is 
to be doubtful in all Things, the Influence of his 
Converfation would make me a profefsM Pythago- 
rean, a Difciple of the Indian Brachmans, a 
Champion for the Tran/migration of Souls. 

1 4 Th« 

176 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

The laft Lettersfave one I writ to that Solitary^ 
was upon this Subjed; fuch an one as would divert 
him in his Ca<ve. Ic contain'd an Account of the 
Frimiti-ve Manner of Life, praftifed by the An- 
cients, a Narrati've of the Golden Agey a Hijhry 
of human hr.ocence, and the Steps which Men 
hrft took to uie Violence and Cruelty to their Fel- 
lew Creatures. Now I will prefent thee with 
fome additional Obfer'/ations, fome Remnants of 
an antiquated Truth, glean'd from Phitofophers 
nnd Hijiorians, and winnow'd f rom the C/iiS^ of 
Error and Superfition. 

Who would not believe the Benfts to be endued 
with Reafon, v/hen he beholds them perform all 
the Adtions of rational Creatures with more 
Caution, though lefs Pride than Men ? They are 
more provident than we, and much more fubtle 
in avoiding any AfHidion or Danger. Witnefs 
Ihaks the Philofopher''s Mule, which he often 
employed to carry Salt to a certain Market ; but 
the cunning Bcaji, finding herfelf over-loaded, 
when fi)e was palflrg through a River, lay down, 
whereby the Water, penetrating into the Sacks 
cf Salt, melted it away, and lightened her Bur- 
den. And this was her ccnibnt Pradlice, 'till the 
PlAlofopher, perceiving himfelf thus out-witted 
by his Beajl, was refolved to circumvent her an- 
other Way. Wherefore, inftead of Salt, he loaded 
her with Wool, which he knew would grow 
heavier by being wet. But the wary Mule, fenfi- 
ble of the DiiFerence of her Burden, would couch 
no more in the Water ; but, feeing no other Re- 
medy, went forward on her Journey. 

Who will not admire the Wifdom of the Fox 
in cold Countries, v/hich the Inhabitants ufe as a 
Guide when they would pafs over any frozen 
Lake or River ? For this Creature, going before 
ihem, lays her Ears clofe down to the Ice, and 


Vol. IV. <2 Spy ^/ Paris, 177 

lifiens to try if fhe can hear any Motion or Noife 
of the Water running underneath ; which if 
fhe does, Ihe will not venture on the Ice ; but, if 
all be ftill, then by a logical DeduBion (he con- 
cludes the Ice is thick enough to bear Paffen- 
gers ; and fo (he leads the Way, whilft the Men 

When a Dog is hunting in the thick Wood?, 
and by chance comes to a Place where three Paths 
meet, he firft fcents the one, then the other ; 
and perceiving, that the Game is not gone by 
any of thofe two Ways, he throwshirafelf fwift- 
ly forward in the third, without fuch a particular 
Application of his Nofe. Which is an evident 
Argument, that he makes ufe of the like Choice 
we ourfelves (hould do. 

And now I have mcntion'd this Creature, I 
cannot forbear celebrating their Virtue and Fide- 
lity, whereof we have daily Experience ; and 
there are many pleafant Examples recorded by 
grave Hijionans. 

Such is that of Hyrcanus, a Dog belonging to 
Lyfimachus, who would never depart from the 
Body of his dead Mafter, but, following to the 
Funeral Pile, leap'd into the Fire, and was burn- 
ed for Company. 

But the Gratitude of a Lion to a certain Slave 
in Rome, is beyond all Parallel. This Slave 
was one of thofe who were appointed to 
combat with ^jjild Beajls in the Amphitheatre, ac- 
cording to the Cuftom of the ancient Romans, in 
the publick Shows which were exhibited to the 
People. As foon as the Lion was let loofe in the 
Pavement, he ran furioufly at the Slave; 
ing nearer, he ftopp'd on a fudden, as one afto- 
nifhed : Then he came gently towards the Slave^ 
fawning upon him, and licking his Hand, which 
caus'd all the People to give a Shout. The Em- 
I 5 peror 


Letters IVy-ithy Vol. IV 

^ror being prefent, and taking Notice oftfie Teem- 
ing Friendiliip and Acquaintance that was between 
the Sla've and the Lion, fent for the Sla've, and 
enquired the Occafion of fo ftrange an Accident. 
-To whom the Slave made the follo\ving Relation. 

*' My Name, faid he, is Andredusy and T am 
** SlanjB to a certain Proconful, who having deter- 
*♦ min'd to kill me, I made my Efcape, and hid 
" myfelf in a Cave ; where I had net lain long 
•* before this Lien, which yon now fee, came in, 
*' being very lame of one Foot. As foon as he 
" efpy'd me, he came limping toward me, and 
** ftretched forth the Paw that was wounded, as 
•' thoughhebegg'dof me to eafehim. Affrighted 
*' as I was, I took his Paw in my Hand, and 
** pu!l'd out a great ragged Thorn which ftuck 
•• feft in it. Then I wafh'd the Wound with 

■ *' my own Water, whilft he lay very patiently 
■♦• 'till I thoroughly drefs'd it. The Eafe he found 
** by my Application made him fail afleep ; and 
** when heawak'd,helick'd myHands,andfhew'd 
** other Signs of Affeftion and Gratitude. 1 liv'd 
** with him thus threeYears in that Cave,and eve- 

-*^ ry Day he brought me a Share of his Prey, on 
*' which I fnRain'd myfelf. But at length, tir'd 
** with this mariner of Life, I took my Opportu- 

■ *• nity when he was gone abroad to make my Ef- 
" cape. I wandered up and down three Days^ 
** when a Company of Soldiers meeting with me^ 
** and knowing to whom I belonged, took me» 
" and brought me hither to my old Majfer, who 
•* has condemn'd me to this cruel Death. But it 
'* feems Fcrnme fo order'd it, that this Lien fhould 
** be taken about the fame Time, and appointed 
•* to be my Executioner this Day. Yet you fee he 
■** refufes to perform his Office out of Gratitude 

•* to me for my former Kindnefs. 

Vol. IV. <z Spy ^/ Paris. 179 

The Emperor, aflonifli'd and pleafed at this Paf- 
fage, gave the Sla've his Life and Freedom, bellow- 
ing alfo the Lion on him, which brought him in 
a conftant Livelihood, by fhewing him to all 
People ; who, having heard of this wonderful Ac- 
cident, were defirous to fee both the Lion and his 
Tenant, for fo they ftil'd the Slwve j and feme 
call'd him the Lion's Phyfician. 

I fhould think I had faid enough already to tire 
thy Patience, and make thee forfwear reading my 
Letters for the future, were I not well acquainted 
with thy Genius, and know that thou delighteft 
in Relations of this Nature, being no Enemy to 
the harmlefs Brutes. 

Whatever thy Sentiments are towards thefe, I 
dare be fure thou art my Friend, and wilt bear 
with my Importunity, when I ftrive to convince 
all Men, and confirm myfelf in this Truth, that 
the nviU Beajls are not void of Reafon and iU<?- 
ral Virtue. 

Paris, %oth of the jth Moon, 
of the Tear 1652. 


To the Captain Bafla» 

IN the Name of Go^, fuperlativeTy indulgent and 
benign, Lordoi j^rmies which cannot be num- 
her''d, Confer-vator of the Empire founded on his 
own Unity ; Praife be to him that has neither5<?j^/a- 
vini^ nor £';/d'/ What is theReafon that we are always 
baffled by the Infidels ? Every Year our augujl Em- 
peror fends out mighty Armies by Land, and cur 
I 6 Fleets 

i8o Letters ^nV ^j Vol IV. 

F/eetJ hy Sea are termed Invincible, yet they 
are flill overcome by the Cbrijiians. Where the 
Fault lies is beft known to thee, and the Generals, 
to whom the Command of all is committed. 

My Spirit is difquieted about thefe Thing?, 
and I am uneafy by Day, neither does the Night 
afford me any Repofe. This hot Weather I go 
up to the Terrafs of my Houfe at the Hour of 
Sleep, thinking that the Coolnefs of the Air 
would incline me to reft ; but I can find none. I 
turn myfelf on the Leads to the Right Hand and 
to the Left, yet all Poftures are alike. Sleep has 
abandoned my Eyes. My Zeal for the Empire of 
the Faithful will confume me. 

One Night I made folemn Preparations to wel- 
come the firft Appearance of the Moon, after the 
manner of my Countrymen. I fprinkled Water 
on the Floor of theTerrafs, and with a newBeefom 
fwept away all Vvcleannefs : I fiU'd a Lamp with 
the moil precnus Oil I could get in Paris ; which 
having lighted at the going down of the Sun, I 
placed dircftly on that Part which is neareil to 
Mecca. Then I fell on my Face and prayed the 
eternal Source of Light, " That at the Moment, 
" when the Moon firfi afcended our Hsrisum, an 
*• intellectual Splendor might fnine in ray Breaft ; 
" that I might there, as in a Mirror, behold the 
" future Tate of the Muffubna-ns, and the Events 
*' which as yet were hid in the ^rk Womb of 
•• Poffibilify. 

My Petition was granted. The Night was in 
her {hady Courfe, the Stars en their Watch, and 
T?V/7if, as from a Limhsck, diftill'd the filent Mi- 
nutes, 'till the Moment w h'erein the Neighbour 
Planet firft peep'd on the Tops of Mountains. 
At that InHant I fcw and heard Things (or at 
leaft I thought fo) which I never fo much as 
dream'd of before, neither caa I remember the 
thoufar.dth Part. Believe 

Vol. IV. ^j Spy ^/ Paris. i8i 

Believe me, fupreme Commander of the Ma- 
rine, I do not boaft or joy in this : For I think, 
there can be no greater Affliftion than to be 
once made Partaker of fuch a Blifs, and then to 
lofe it almoft as foon as gain'd. Yet there are 
fome Foot-fteps of the Fijion remaining on my 

*' Methinks T beheld Armies of Muffiilmatis 
" (for I thought 'em to be fuch by their Turbants) 
" making feveral Defcents on the Shores of Italy: 
" Methought I faw them proftrate themfelves on 
*' the Ground ; and, after a confiderable Space of 
•* Silence, the Air eccho'd with the Sound of 
*' Jllahy Allah, much like the Noife of great 
♦ • CafcaJes, or Falls of Water. 

" Then they feem'd to difperfe themfelves all 
*" ever the Country in divers Bodies. The In- 
*• habitants of Rome appear'd all in a great Con- 
" fternation: The r^/^il/iiy^r/ of that Place went 
*' forthwith into the Streets, followed by his 
•' Cardinals and Der'vifes, accompanied by an 
" innumerable Multitude of People. They carried 
'* their Gu^/r of Gold and Silver along with them; 
** and being apparelled with Garments of coarfe 
" Hair, they fprinkled A flies on their Foreheads 
" in Token of their Humility, and to pacify the 
** Indignation that was kindled againft them. 

" But Heaven was deaf to their clamorous 
** Vows, neither could all the Pomp of thciry«- 
*' perfiitious Solemnity dazzle the Eyes which are 
•* a thoufand times brighter than the Sun, pene- 
** trating into the darkeft Corners of the Heart. 
•• In a word, tl^efe Infidels feem'd a while after to 
" be in a great Confuiion and Hurry, running 
' ' this Way and that Way to hide their Goods, 
*• and fave themfelves from the viftorions Stran- 
*' gen. In fine, I faw the Crojfes taken down from 

««^ the 

i82 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

•' the Minarefs of the Mofques in Rome, and 
'* Crefcents advanced in their Place. 

I do not relate this, as if I gave Credit to Viji- 
ens and Trances : Perhaps all this might be but a 
nva/kin^ Dream. Yet fuch Vifionary Entertain- 
ments happen of courfe to our Countrymen, when 
they obferve the aforefaid Ceremonies. But I tell 
thee, I am not afleep at this Moment ; and yet it 
appears to me a very probable Undertaking, for 
the Muffulmans to fit out a mighty fleet y which, 
having afufficient Army of Land-men a-board, 
might deliver them with little or no Oppofition, 
on feme of the wealthy Shores of Italy : And if 
it is not thought worth the Labour to make new 
Conqucfts, which would be difficult to maintain ; 
yet at leafl our Soldiers, by plundering only the 
rich Temples zr\A Con'vents of the Nazarenes, might 
carry away ineftimable Treafures. 

I wrote formerly to one of thy PredeceJJors 
about the fame Matter, propofing the Surprize of 
Lorettot as a very eafy Attempt, and that the 
Booty would infinitely furpafs the Expence and 
Trouble : But Mahmiti'% Advices are never re- 
garded 'till 'tis too late. We fquander away 
Thoufands of Men, and Millions of Money, to 
purchafe little infignificant IJlands, which are de- 
fended indeed with feeming Vigour by the Chrifii- 
ans, but 'tis rather to amufe us, than out of any 
real Value they have for thofe Places. 

It is only a Maxim of Wejiern Policy, thus to 
give Diverfion to the Arms which are deftin'd to 
fnbdue all Nations. They fport themfelves, to 
fee the Flower of the Eajiern Militia confum'din 
their Trenches, before the impregnable Fortrefs 
of Candia, which, if won, will not quit the Coft 
of fo tedious a Siege. Whereas, in half tliat 
Time, our invincible Forces might have over- run 
all Italy. 


Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Paris. i8j 

Thou wilt not think this an imprafticable En- 
terprize, when thou (hah confider the Divifions 
of the Italian Princes, the univerfal Security and 
Voluptuoufnefs of the Inhabitants, and yet the 
Oppreffions and Tyranny they live under, being 
fleec'd and poird of all their Subftance, to main- 
tain the Grandeur of their Governors, and the 
Pride of the Clergy ; which renders 'era equally 
difgufted at their prefent flavilh Manner of Life, 
and defirous of a Change. It is not hard to furmife, 
after all this, that a Conqueft would be eafy to the 
viftorious Mujfulmans ; or at leaft, fuch Depreda- 
tions would mightily enrich them. 

The moft proper News, that I can fend thee, is 
of a Combat lately fought at Sea, between the 
^nglijh and the Dutch. The Generals on both 
fides are faid to be brave Men. He of Britain is 
called Blake ; the other's Name is Trump. Which 
had the beft on't, is not certainly known : Men 
fpeak as they are byafs'd. Yet the Dutch loft two 
Ships in this Engagement, tho' their Tleet was far 
mo-^e numerous than that of the Englijh. 

If I were worthy to advife my Superiors, I 
would propofe fome notable Exploit by Land; for 
God has given the Earth to the true Believers f 
but the Sea to the ChriJIians. 

Paris i^th of the 6th Mbon^ 
of the Year 1652. 


1 84 "Letters PFrii ly Vol. IV. 


To the Kiaya Bey, or Lieiitenant-Ge- 
neralofihe Janizaries. 

I Had once a great Intimacy with Cajfim Haliy 
the brave Jga, who now is no more on Earth ; 
that honeft old General merited all Men's Love : 
Follow thou his Example, and in Time his Poll 
will fall to thy Lot. Thou art already in the lall 
Advance to it ; let no airy Vice make thee giddy, 
and give thee a Fall. 'Tis a common Aphortfm 
That Health, long Life, and Honour defcend 
from above. But if they do, I tell thee, 'tis like 
the Rain, which only then does good, when it 
penetrates the Earth, and moiftens to the Root. 
An humble Heart is like a kindly ^LU, receiving 
the Dews oF Heaven with Advantage and Profit ; 
but Pride is a Rod, which fpatters away the 
BleJJings fhower'd down on it. 

Perhaps thou wilt be affronted at my Blunt 
Way of writing : Yet affure thyfelf, I honour 
thee more than a thoufand Flatterers. I am not 
fent hither to fludy nice Expreffions, but to ferve 
the Grand Seignior with Integrity. Befides, I 
know thou haft not been accuftom'd to the foft 
Entertainments of Ladies Chambers, but the 
rough Dialed of War. It is thy Honour to be un^ 
acquainted with the Delicacies of Difcotirfe,Diet, 
or Drefling ; Things only fit to enervate a Man's 
Courage, and change his Fleart into that of a Wo- 
man. Thou knoweft how to handle the Cui- 
rafs and Lance, the Sabre and Shield, the Bimj 
and Gun ; and art perfeftly vers'd in all the Mili- 
tary Terms of Art. A Difcourfe of Sieges and 
Campaigns, florming of Forts, and plundering of 


Vol. IV. rt Spy «/ Paris. 185 

Camps, is more agreeable to thee than all Tullfs 
Oratorf, or the fineil Strains of the Perjian Poeti. 
I am therefore confident thou wi't not take it ill, 
that I addrefs to thee in a Style void of Artifice, 
yet full of real Refpeft and Love. 

If I counfel thee, 'tis for thy Good ; and I am 
commanded to exprefs my Sentiments with Free- 
dom. Befides, I have a /i^ryS»<j/ Privilege to ad- 
vife thee, the Right 0(3. Friend; which thou \vi!c 
acknowledge, when I tell thee, that I once had 
the Happinefs to fave thy Life, as we travelled to- 
gether in Arabia. 

Thou can'il not but remember that Paflage ; 
and how that, in Heat of youthful Blood, tlioa 
had'il provoked an Emir to kill thee in the Sight 
of the whole Cara'va)i,hcLd I not fallen at his Feet, 
and told him, thou wert a Stranger to the Cujionu 
of the Country. 

Believe me, I do not reproach thee with this, 
but only make ufe of it, as an Argument to 
convince thee, that the fame Motive, which 

Erompted me to interpofe myfelf at that time 
etween thee and certain Death, induces me now 
to give thee Warning of a Precipice, of which 
thou art in danger. Every one gives thee the 
Charafter of a brave Man ; and no body likes thee 
the worfe, for being of an Air as fierce as a Tar- 
tar. All this becomes a Idan of the S^ord ; and 
they fay, thou doft every thing with a martial 

But I am told likewife, that thou art guilty of 
Avarice : And that,for the Lucre of Prefents, thou 
enrolleft Men in the Liji of the Janixuxries, who 
are not fit to ferve in the I'f'ars ; fuch as are Houfe- 
keepers, Perfons entangled with Wives and Chil- 
dren, with Debts and other Incumbrances ; that 
they only appear on certain Days in the Military 
Habit, and then return to their Domejlick Bufineis, 


i86 Letters JVrit by Vol. IV. 

without ever r ■ e Di/cip/ine of the Royal 

Chambers, or:.. eiTuelves obliged to learrt 

the Jrt of fi'i^r : i ha.t thou in the mean Time 
.takeft their Pay, and many additional Bribes, 
whilll they are only contented with the T^itle and 
Privilege of a Janizary, to Ihelter themfelves from^ 
Juflice, and prote^ theai in their Rapine and 

I tell thee, fhould this be known, and proved 
againft thee, it would be to thy Ruin ; But I hope 
better Things, and that thei'e are on! y the Surmile» 
of thy Enemies. For thou knowell, That none 
ought to be admitted in that ancient Order, but 
the Tributary Sons of the Naz.arenes : who, be- 
ing in their Infancy iiited in the College, know 
neither Father nor Patron, fave the Grand Seig- 
nior, who, is the common Parent and ProteSlor 
of the Ofman Empire. On his Service is all their 
Zeal and Courage fixed, having no private Byaff, 
no partial Inclinations, to warp them from the 
Fidelity they owe their great 'Majler, They are 
devoted to ir;defatigable 1 oils and Hardihip du* 
ring their whole Lite. 

This was thefrjl Injiitution of the Janizaries, 
though, through the Corruption of the Times, 
they have much degenerated from their primiti've 
Rules. But thou, who art honoured with an iuj-/^ 
Command, wilt fignalize thy \irtueand Loyalty, 
in reforming thefe Abufes, and in not fuffering the 
College of Men of ^ar to become a Receptacle 
of Rogues and Drones. 

Such Diforders as thefe have promoted the in- 
tejiine Broils of this Kingdom, I fay not that they 
are the original Caufes ; yet 'tis a great Diminu- 
tion of Sovereign Majejly, when a King Ihall find 
his own Armies fighting againft him, as they dio 
at prefent here in France. How many Muti- 
.nies acd Rebellions have been rais'd by the licen- 


Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Parts. 187 

tious ya>:ixartes at Coyijlantinople ; when, laying 
aftde all Refpeftand Duty, they have not fpar'd 
to violate the Seraglio itfelf ; but, entering within 
thofe fncred Walls with Bands of armed Men, 
have turn'd all Things Topfey-Turvey, feizcd oa 
the Imperial Treafure, chang'd the Domejiick Of- 
ficers of their Sovereign, and fometimes chas'd 
him from his own Palace, to the Hazard, if not 
to the Lofs of his Life? 

If thou would' ft know what they are doing 
here in France, the Men of ^rms are cutting one 
another's Throats, whillt the Rabble are burning 
their Neighbours out of their Houfcs. 

Two Days ago, the Multitude affembled in the 
Streets, and, having befet a certain Palace in this 
City, they put Fire to it, refolving to kill all that 
ihould atempt to make their Efcape out of the 
Flames. A Perfon of ^ality, coming OHt to 
pacify them, fell a VicJim to their unbridled Rage: 
And had not the Duke oi Bequford (of whom I 
have often made mention in my Letters) interpos'd 
his Authority, they had murder'd all that were 
within thofe fufpeded Walls. 

Sometime before this, the Marefchal turerine 
took a Place of Strength from the Prince of Condei 
who in lieu of it took St. Denys, a Town not far 
from Paris, wherein there is a Temple, which, the 
French fay, is the richeft in Europe. But they are 
laagh'dat by the Italians, who boaft of far richer 
Mofques in Venice, Milan, Naples, and Rome. 

The Duke of Lorrain plays faft and loofe with 
the Prince of Conde. Heenter'd the Kingdom with 
an Army, pretending to efpoufe the PW^e's Quar- 
rel, but was quickly brought oiFby the ^een, fo 
that he is now gone to Flanders z^xn ; by this Ac- 
tion leaving a free Paflage to the King's Army un- 
derlilarefchalTurenne to range whither they pleafe, 
which were before block'd up by his Forces. 


i88 'L-ET TER5 Writ by Vol. IV. 

Four Days ago there was a bloody Encounter 
between the 7 roops of the Prince and thofe of 
Mare/chat Turcnne, in one of the Suburbs oi Pa- 
ris. Neither could boaft of the Viftory, tho' the 
Battle lalted five Hours ; But at length, the Prince 
of CoKiie^s Troops retir'd into the City, being 
frighten'd with the main Body of the King's Ar- 
my, which appeared on the neighbouring Hills. 

Illuftricus Janizary, fortify thy Heart with all 
the neceflary Retrenchments of beroick Virtue ; 
and, rather than furrender to Temptations of 
Vice on difhonourable Terras, run the Hazard 
of a Storm. 

Paris, ()th of the 'jth Moony 
of the Tear 1652, 


to Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew at 

WE are altogether by the Ears in this King- 
dom, killing, burning, and deftroying one 
another, whilft you in Germany enjoy abun- 
dance of Peace. The Occafion of our Quarrels 
here is, the Return of Cardinal Mazarini, 
againft whom the Duke of Orleans and Prince of 
Conde are inveterate Enemies. The former is de- 
clared Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom by the 
Parliament of Paris ; who give it out, that the 
King is Cardinal Mazarini''^ Prifoner. They 
have alfo beftow'd the Command of all Forces un- 
der the Authority of the faid Duke, on the 
Prince of Conde. 


Vol. rV. ^Spy ^7/ Paris. 189 

Their principal and only Pretence, is the Remo- 
val of the Cardinal from the King and his Council. 
What will be the lifue. Time will demonltrate. 

There has been a Duel lately fought, between 
the Dukes of Beaufort and Nemours, two eminent 
Friends to the Prince of Conde. 

The King going to a Town call'd Pontoife, fome 
Leagues from Paris, drew a great many Counfel- 
lors and Prejidejits of Parliament thither ; Men 
who are loyal and ftedfail to his Caufe. This en- 
couraged the King to put forth a Declaration, 
commanding the Parliament to meet at Pontoife. 
They, on the other fide, publifli'd an Arreji 
againll this Declaration. Thus they continue Pi- 
quering one at another. 

But here is News arriv'd from Cologne, which 
furprizes People very much. I know not the true 
Ground of their Allonifhment ; but the Priejh 
feem to be mad for Joy, All that I can hear 
about it is, the Reftoration of the Roman Catho- 
lick Religion in that Province, which is a Novelty 
unexpefted ; efpecially the Ecclejjaf id Grandeur, 
which, it feems, has been laid afide above thefe 
hundred Years. I tell thee only as I am inform'd 
myfelf: It lies in thy Power to certify me of 
the Truth of Matters. 

They fay alfo. That the famous General yo/jn 
cie Werdt is dead ; as likewife the Archbishop of 
Tre'ves. It is added. That Frankendal is furren- 
der'd to the Eledor of Heidelberg, according to 
the late Agreement at Munjier ; and that there is 
a £)/>/ begun at Ratishon. 

I defire thee to inform me of all thefe Things 
particularly, and of whatfoever elfe occurs in the 
Court where thou refideft. 

As to Matters of Religion, be not over fedulous : 
Piety is corapriz'd in a few Rules. Yet the Soul 
oi Man i$ naturally Inquifuive, and would fain be 


ipo Letters P^rit hy Vol. IV. 

acquainted with all Things. I advife thee to caft 
thy Eyes frequently on the Earth that is under 
thy Feet ; furvey the Groves and Fields, the 
Mountains and Vallies, Rocks and Rivers : Then 
look up to the Heavens, and take a ftedfatt View 
of the Stars ; confider the Beauty and Order of 
all Things : And after this tell me, if thou can'll 
imagine. That the great and immenfe Creator of 
this ijuonderful Fabrick form'd all the Nations of 
the Earth to damti 'em eternally, fave only thofe 
of your Race. 

Son oi J/rael, I wifli thee heartily adieu. 

« Paris, 1 1 th of the %th Moon, 
of the Tear 1652, 


^0 the Kaimacham. 

np H E Varljlans feem to be all in a Dream or 

■*■ Trance : They know not what they fay or 
do, or at leaft they care rot : Such is the im- 
menfe Joy for the Return of the King to this City. 
The Steps to this fudden Change, were the reti- 
tiring of Cardinal Mazarini from theCoar/j which 
was ieconded wkh a. Declaraticn oi Indemnity, or 
VLge?!era I Pardon for all that had paffed during 
thefe Troubles, fave fome particular Referves, 
Sacrilege, Fires, and fuch like. This worked 
ftrangely on the Inhabitants of Paries. But the 
Prince of Ccvde not finding any Satisfadion, as to 
his own Perfon in this Jihnejly, calTd in the Duke 
of Lor rain'' s Army to his Affillance. Thefe re- 
duc'd the King't Forces to fo great a Streight and 


Vol. IV. aSpY aiFAKis. 191 

Extremity, that the Parliament, being fenfible of 
the Advantage, made ufe of it, and fent Deputies 
to the King^ befeedhing him to continue in the 
fame good Refolution he had taken before tliis 

The Monarch fuffer'd himfelf to be overcome, 
by a Violence mix'd with fo much Submiffion, 
and yielded to their Requefts. Immediately the 
Hearts of the Prince of Conde^s Friends grew 
cold, and began to change their Sentiments. In 
a Word, they were refolved to defert their new 
Majier, and caft themfelves at the Feet of their 
lawful Sovereign. The Grandees, who had mod 
affedled ConJe^s Intereft, laid down their Offices. 
The Foreign Armies of Spaniards and Lorrainert 
retired out of the Kingdom. The Citizens of Pa- 
ris fent a Deputation, confiding of Sixty-fix Per- 
/o>!s of Honour, to invite the King to the City, 
and affure him of their future Allegiance. All 
tht Officers of tht Militia did the like. The King 
being fati^fy'd with the timely Penitence of his 
SubjeSls, and having commanded fome prepara- 
tory Alterations in Places of T^rufi, entered this 
City on the Twenty-firft of the lafl Moon, with 
the Joy and Acclamation which could exprefs 
the Love of his People, and the Regret they had 
laboured under during his Abfence. 

Thou feeft, illuftrious Minijier, that though by 
the Artifices of a Faction a King may be rendered 
odious to his SubjeSls, be banifhed from his 
Palace, and have theGates of his Cities (hut againll 
him, as befel to this King ; Yet the Inconvenien- 
ces they feel, in taking up Arms againft hio), foon- 
er or later bring them to Repentance ; and they 
are glad to court his Return, whom but awhile 
ago they forced away by their Undutifulnefs, to 
gratify the Ambition of a bold young Prince of 
the Bloody who promifed, and ventured all things 


192 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

in hopes of a Croivtt. For it cannot be fuppofed. 
That the Prince of Cor/de had lefs Aims when he 
firft began this War ; tho' his Pretences were fpe- 
cious, only to remove Cardinal Mazarini, and 
other evil Minijiers from the King, and to proteft 
the French from the Machinations of Spanijh and 
Italian Counfels ; whilfl. it is evident, That all 
along he and his Party have been fupported by 
the Kiitg of Spain in their Rebellion. One would 
wonder how the French, a fenfible and witty A«- 
thiH, could be thus impofed upon. But the Jirabi- . 
an Pr<n.'erb fays, There are none fa blind, as thofe 
that luilfullyjhut their Eyes. 

Yet whateverStupidity reigns among l\\tFranks\ 
methinks nothing but Light and Realon ought to 
appear in the Adions of the MuJJulmans. Ism 
confounded to hear of the Rebellions in Syria and 
Egypt. Will they never give Reft to the Banner 
of the Prophet! Muft \.\\e Jupretne Minijierhe ever 
employ'd in proclaiming the KiJIraun: F What 
Offence has been given to the BaJ/ii of Datnajcus, 
or to him of Cairo ? 

Sage Prejidtnt of the Imperial Cit-t, I am 
abafti'd before the hfdels, when I hear thefe /ra- 
j'fV<?/ Reports out of the Eaji. 

But what can be expeded, when the Manners 
of the Faithful are quite eitranged from thofe of 
their Fathers? The Mufu/fnans almoil out- do the 
Franks m Vice and Debauchery. 

When thou readell this, draw thy Scymiiar and 
make a Scabbard of the next Man who mutters a 
Word againft our laiiful So-zereign. 

Paris, iSthcf the <^th Moon ^ 
of tie Year 1651. 


Vol. IV^ ^Spy^/ Paris. 193 


^0 Dgnet Oglou. 

T Tell thee, I am neither melancholy nor merry 
-*■ but in a kind of mungrel Humour, between 
both. I am lialf Democrittis, and t'other half 
Heraclitus i being equally difpos'd to laugh and 
weep r.t the Vanity of all Things here below. 
That Thought touches me fenfibly, yet not 
enough to carry me into Extremes. The Mi- 
fcry and Happinefs of the whole Life of Mor- 
tals, are Themes fcarce worth a Paffion. What- 
ever we endure as an £1;//, or poflefs as a Good, 
are both fo lliort, that as the one reed not fink us 
to an Excefs of Grief, fo neither docs the other 
deferve a Paroxifm of Joy. A Sigh or a Tear are 
enough for the firft, and a Smile is too muck 
for the lalt. My Mind at prefcnt is an jE^ui- 

What fignifies the Birth of the greateft Mo- 
narchy or that he can boall of a long Defccnt of 
Kings, his Progenitors ? He is born to Labour 
and Trouble as well as other Men ; and all the 
charming Pleafures that attend a Craivn are fcarce 
fufficient to recompenfe his Cares and Fatigues, 
his Hazards and Toils, and the perpetual Rifques 
he runs both in Peace and War. 

If from the Cradle he make an early Step to .i 
Throne, 'tis but a meek Honour to be c/cu^i^J 
with a Wreath of Briars, fquecz'd and prefi'd in- 
to his tender Temples by the deceitful Hands of 
his Guardians and Miniilers, who ftrive only to 
lay the Foundation of their own Honour in his 
Ruin, by improving the Time of his Minority, 
and making Opprellion chymical ; that, during 
K. their 

194 Letters Writ by Vol. IV. 

their prefent Authority, they may expefl the Life 
and Elixir of his Subjedls Wealth, and hoard it in 
their own Coffers, leaving only the Lees to him 
when he comes of Age, and thefe generally com- 
pounded with the 111 will of his People. I wifti 
the Cafe prove not the fame in our prefent Sove- 
reign Sultan Mahomet ; who, thou knoweft, was 
lifted to his Father's Throne before his Time, and 
by Methods which cannot be juilify'd. It was 
the Mufti^ Plot, who is the Oracle of the La'vjs ; 
and fo the MuJJulmans acquiefced. But mark the 
End ; fuch Treafons feldom efcape unpunifhed. 
Tho' Sultan Ibrahim was depos'd and imprifon'd, 
(not to mention that which grates the Ears of any 
loyal Ottoman) though his eldeft Son be placed on 
his Throne to ierve the Ends of a FaQion ; yet a 
Younger than he may live to revenge the Wrongs 
that were done to his Father, and reftore the £;w- 
//r^ of the Faithful to its priftine Grandeur. There 
are now above three Years elaps'd fmce the 
Change Affairs at the Seraglio. In the mean 
Time, doft thou notobferve the Difcontents of the 
People ? Is there not a general Coldnefs and Neu- 
trality to bedifcern'd in the Converfation of thofe 
who, at firft, were moft forward to approve the 
^Jufti't Proceedings ? Men begin every where 
to ref.eiSl on the prefent Re^jolution, and its fatal 
Confequences. The Venetian War, they fay, has 
qnite impoverifh'd the Empire. Decay of Trade, 
Want of Money, and a Thoufand other Things 
are the daily Complaintsin Confantinople : This 
I am told from very good Hands, Men of fe- 
veral Nations, Merchants who trade in that 
City, Perfons altogether unbyafs'd. They, as 
Strangers, have been inquifitive, during their 
Rcfidence there, into the Humours of the People, 
to find how the MuJ/ulmans Hand affedled to the 
prelent State of the Ottoman Affairs. I who ap- 

Vol. rV. aSpY atFAKis. ig^ 

prove not the Prefumption cf thofe InfJels, yet 
make ufe of it to inform myfelfof feveral material 
PafTages, which I could not othenvife learn at this 
Dillance from the auguji Port. 

They tell me, Th6 Sokliers murmur that fo 
many thoufands of Men have been facrific'd iti 
Candia and Daimatia ; whilll what they gain in 
the IJlandt\\zy lofe on the Continent : for it feems, 
the Venetians are Itill too hard for us oneway or 
other. They grumble alfo for Want of their du? 
Pay, and that they have not Bread enough to 
keep 'em from ftarving. A certain Greek affur'd 
me, he had heard feveral of the Spahi'% fwear fo- 
lemnly. That it was agreed among them, not 
to go into Daimatia the next Campaign. But this 
I took as a Strain of the Grecian''^ natural Faculty 
who, thou knoweft, are much given to Roman- 
cing. However I hear enough both from them 
and other Travellers of £(i/?and Wejl, to convince 
me, That fome of the Grandees at the Imperial 
City are in a tottering Condition. 

AH which ferves but to confirm my firft Dif- 
courfe, that hardly any Thing on Earth is worth. 
a Thought, fince all Things are of fo fhort Du- 

In a Word, the World feems to be a Garden in- 
termingled with Rofes and Weeds. The yf^y? are fo 
clofe encompafi'd with Thorns, That aMan can- 
not gather 'em without wounding himfelf : Aqd, 
if there be more Eafe in cropping the latter, yet 
they are unwholefome, and {link j putting a Man 
to as frequent Purifications, as the Times he 
touches 'em. 

Let thou and I, dear Dgnet, pafs along the Alleys 
of this Garden, view her Beauties and Deformities 
with an even Mind ; not putting ourfelves to 
the Fatigue of gathering her Flonxiers, or fufFering 
ourfelves to be tempted with htv/ifter Plea/ures. 
K % BuC 

ig6 Letters B^rit hy . Vol. IV. 

But let every Thing we fee and hear in this en- 
chanted Grcund ferve the Ends of our Contem- 
plation, being ftedfaflly mindful of this Truth, 
7hat all thofe 7hhigi, tvl.ich appear fo gay and full 
of Charms, are nothing but mere empty IdtiCs and 
fieetir.g Shad(yivs of that fubjlantial and perma- 
nent Plea fur e ixhich has her Rejidence only, in 

Thou may'ft tell the Kaimacham, our Friend, 
that now the King of France begins to play the 
Monarch on the bottom of his own Wit and Cou- 
rage, without the Affiflance or Counfel of Tutors. 
He has brought the Parliament to an abfolute 
Compliance with his Will, having purged that Se- 
nate of difaftedcd Member?, and banifh'd from 
the Court the Duke of Orleans, who pretended a 
Right to rule his Sovereign. In the mean'f ime, the 
Prince of Conde has taken Re the I, and. ^l.Menebcud, 
whilll Barcelona is furrender'd to the Spaniards. 
Thus what is gain'd in one Point,is lofl in another. 
Doubtlefs there is nothing liable on Earth. 

Paris, %th of the wth Moon, 
of the Tear 1652. 


^0 Melee Amet. 

TH Y Adventure, and miraculous Efcape 
ever the Danube, put me in mind of a 
certain French 'Nobleman of the Prince of Condt^s 
Party, who laft Summer being clofely purfu'd 
by fume of ihe King'i Hnrfe, and himfelf excel- 
lently mounted, kap'd Hedges and Ditches to 


Vol. IV. « Spy <?/ Paris. 197 

avoid Captivity. At length they had chas'd him 
into the Corner of the Land, from whence it was 
impoffible for him to efcape but by fwimming 
o'er a fmall Arm of the Sea. What Rifques wiil 
not a Man run for the Love of Liberty ? This 
Perfon, like an o'er-heated Stag, perceiving his 
Hunters clofeat his Heels, boldly leap'd on Horfe- 
back into the Sea, chufing rather to perifh in the 
Waters, than to fall inco his Enemies Hands. 

None were fo hardy as to follow him through 
the uncertain Waves. However, his Horfe, being 
of matchlefs Strength, carried him fafe over to 
the oppofite Shore. As foon as he arrived at the 
next Town, where he hnd many Friends, he re- 
lated this wonderful Paffage. But, inftead of che- 
rifhing his Hor/e for fo faithful and invaluable a 
Service, he drew his Sword, and immediate!/ 
kili'd the Bead that fav'd his Life, faying, He 
did it for the Sake of Fame, being refolv'd that 
his Horfe fhould never perform the like Service 
to any other Mortal. 

This was an ungrateful Caprice, and far from 
the Morality of Sultan Selim, the Son of Bajazef^ 
who, when his trulty Hor/e Cai-abulu: had once 
fav'd his Life by his extraordinary Swiftnefs ; he, 
in Token of his Th inkfulnefy, built a Stable on 
purpofe for him in a large Enclofure of Mea- 
dows allowing a Pcnfton to a Groom to wait on 
the meritorious Bcaji, and give him his free De- 
light in all Things as long as he liv'd, com- 
manding that he (houkl never more be forced to 
labour or travel. And, to compleat the Happ> 
nefs of the Beaji, he cuU'd out iome of the beau- 
tiful'il Mares of Arabia to accompany him, charg- 
ing aifo, that the Doors of the Stable fhculd be 
always open for the Horje to go in or out, and 
range when and where he pleas'd. 7 his was a 
Gentrofity worthy of an Enjhrn Moaarc/?, whom, 
K 3 as 

198 Letters ^^r/V ^3' Vol. IV. 

?t thy Letter informs me, thou haft in Part imi- 

But fuch is foine Mens Ambition and vain 
Defire to be talk'd of, that they care not by what 
barbarous Methods they accomplifh their Aim : 
It was a Motive of this Nature which tempted 
Erofiratus to fet Fire to the famous Temple of 
Epbeftis ; which had been two hundred Years in 
building, and was numbered among the Seven 
ly^onders of the World. 

This happen'dcn the very Night that Alexan- 
der the Great was born. And the Villam being 
ask'd, why he committed fo deftrudive a Sacri- 
Ugt, anfwer'd, " That it was to acquire an im- 
*' mortal Fame by fo ftupendous a Wickednefs, 
*' fince he could not hope to be recorded for his 
" Virtue. 

Plutarch mentions a Jeft that was made on this 
Deftrudion o{ Diana's Temple. For it was com- 
mon in every Body's Mouth, That the Goddefs be- 
ing call'd that Night to the Labour of Oljmpiasy 
the Mother of Alexander, could not be prefcnt at 
Home to fave her Houfe from burning. For the 
Gentiles believ'd. That Diana (whom they alfo 
call'd Lucina) was invifibly affiflant at the Birth of 

However, the Priefis made no Jeft on't ; but 
ran up and down howling and making Gafhes in 
their Flefti, prefaging, that Fate was that Day bu- 
fy'd in figning the Decree of y^a's Ruin. This 
is certain, that that very Night the Man was 
born who was deftin'd to fubdue all AJia, and 
rn the Ruins of the Perfian Empire raife the 
Monarchy of the Macedonians. However, the 
Villain who burnt the Temple had not his Defire ; 
for it was decreed throughout all Ajla, that his 
Name fhould never be mentioned in /////(?;j, or 
any publick Writings. 


Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Paris. 199 

It is recorded of a certain Governor of a City 
in Italy, that being on the Top of an high. 
Toiver with only the Pope^ the German Emperor , 
and an Ambajfador from Venice in his Company, 
he was tempted to throw the two former over 
the Battlements, as they were taking a Survey of 
the City ; which he might have eafily done, for 
they were both aged, and incapAblc of refilling 
his Strength. This Pafflige he confefs'd to his 
ghoflly Father ; and being ask'd, what induced 
him to think of fuch a horrid Trea/on ? He an- 
fwer'd, '• That it might be faid. He did a Thing 
" which never was done before, nor in all proba- 
" bility would ever be done again; fince noPrince, 
" having heard fuch a Story, would ever venture 
" himfelf into the fame Danger without a fuffici- 
" ent Guard of his own." But however, he ha4 
not Refolution enough to go thro' with his Proje6>. 

1 hear thou art like to acquire Fame by other 
Methods than thefe, being in a fair Way to rife 
by thy Virtues to fome confidcrable Employments 
in the Empire ; for which I equally rejoice with 

In the mean Time 'twill perhaps be obliging to 
tell thee fome News out of thefe Parts j which will 
make thy Company welcome to the Grandees : 
They love to converfe with Men who can furnilh 
'em with Intelligence of Foreign Affairs. 

The frefheft Difcourfe, here, is of the Impri- 
fonment of the Cardinal de Rett, who was arrell- 
ed by the AT/^g-'s Order on the nineteenth of thig 
Moon. What his Crime is 1 cannot inform thee, 
unlefs it be that he is an Enemy toCardinal Ma- 
Tcarini. People generally give him the Character 
of a very honeft Man ; but thou know'ft Honefiy 
is counted a Vice in the Courts of thefe Wejlern 
Princes. The Crafty are the only Men of Virtut 
and Merit among the Infidels. 

K 4 Thou 

200 Letters TFrit by Vol. IV. 

Thou m.iy'll alfo report for a Certainty, That 
the Spaniards have taken Dunkirk'm Flaniiers,2irA 
Cazal in the Dukedcn of Mantua. This Tonvnis 
faid to be the Key of all Italy : I cannot tell thee 
which is the Lock it belongs to ; nor, I believe, 
they themfelves. But this I obferve, that when 
the KiJig of France fits down before any Place 
with his Army, whoever has the Key, neither 
Locks nor Bolls can keep him oat long. And 'tis 
fen to one if he do not find an Entrance into this 
Place ag?.in very fpeedily, when the Spanijh King 
has pleas*d himfelf for a while with an imaginary 
Poffeffion of it. 

I conclude my Letter jufl at the Hour when 
the eld Year expires, according to the Account 
of the Cbrijlians, wilhins thee a Scene of Ninu 

Paris, "i^^Jiof the \ 2th Moon, 
of tie Tear 1652. 


To the fame. 

HAving the Opporrunity of a Day or two 
more before the Poji goes out of Town, 
1 make ufe of it to ask thee, Whether there be 
any Notice taken in your Parts of a Comet newly 
nppenrir.g above the Orh of the Sun ? It has not 
been cblerv'J here till within thefe few Nights. 
And the AJlroncmers, notwithftanding ihe'CcH- 
nefs of the Scafon (which I alFure thee is ftiarp 
enough) are very bufy with their Tele/copes to 
pry into the Figure of this Meteor, and obferve its 


Vol. IV. ^SpY^/PaRIS. 201 

Motions. They take great Pains, and endure all 
the Rigour of Froft and Snow, in hopes of making 
fome new Difcovery. 

The Vulgar look on it as a great Prodigy ; 
There are a Thoufand Opinions among them 
about its Confequences : Every Body fees up for 
z judicial Mjlrologer. Nay, the Learned x.}\cm(e\\tSt 
and fuch as are elleem'd ^t2XPhilofophers, cannoc 
agree in their Judgment concerning it. Some 
affert that the Matter of the Hea'vens is fubjedl 
to Corruption and Change, and that this Comet is 
generated after that Manner : Whilft others hold a 
contrary Opinion. They are all divided, and dif- 
pute hotly in as unintelligible Terms as the Lan^ 
guages of America are to us of this Continent, 
They amufe one another, and themfelves.withfar- 
fetch'd Words : And all this while, for aught I 
know, the wifeft among 'em may be as much 
under a Miftake as thofe who never ftudy'd fuch 
Things. All the Inftruments of the Opticks are 
fought out to help their Sight ; and yet they may 
be as much in the Dark as the Men in Plato'iCa've, 
It is an Article of my Faith, that we Mortals 
know very little of thofe far-diftant Beings. But 
thefe Franks are the moll opiniated People in 
the World : No Man has the Modefty to allow 
another as much Right to Reafon as himfelf. 
Every one fets up for a Dogmatift, and requires the 
Intelleds of all others to be refign'd to his j the* 
perhaps that be only form'd by the Rules of his 
Parents, the Impreflions of his early Years, the 
Force of Education, the Falhion of his Country, 
or by fome notable Accident in his Life : Ail 
which are equally liable to Falihood and Truth. 
How many Seils were there of the ancient Philo- 
fopkers, ftifHy defending their fevcral Opinions ? 
One fays, the Hea'vens are made of Brafs ; ano- 
ther of Iron ; a third of Smoke. This will 
K 5 have 

'202 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

have *em to be folid, that fluid : There is no End 
of their Controverfies. 

In the mean Time no Man knows what they 
are made of, or what is the Figure of the World i 
whether round or fquare, or beyond all Dimenfi- 
ons ; whether Matter be divifible or indivifible in 
the laft /^tom. Who can affure me, if there be 
only one World, or whether there may not as well 
be a thoufand Millions ? Whether the Stars be 
Opake Bodies as this Earth, and inhabited, or no ? 
I tell thee again, there is no Certainty of thefe 
Things. Man's Senfes are too weak, his Imagina- 
tion too frail, and all his Faculties far too ftiort 
to comprehend the Works of the Otnnipotenty who 
alone is nfjife zvAperfcSi in Science. 

Wilt thou have my Opinion of this Comet ? I 
am apt to think 'tis fome fuch Globe of combujiibie 
Matter as our Earth appears to be, and perhaps 
burJen'd with as •a\zx\y Sinners, that either by 
the Ccur/e of Nature, or Decree of Dejliny, the 
xnclos''d Fire has broke its Bounds, and fpread its 
confuming Flame o'er the Surface; which embody- 
ing thcmielves in the Pyramid of Smoke, arifing 
from fo vaft a Coj:^a£ration,c?iuk that Jppearance 
which we call the Tailoi a B/azing-Star And, 
for aught I know, after the fame Manner fhall all 
our G/obe appear to the Inhabitants of thofe re- 
mote Worlds at our Day of Judgment. 

I am not pofitive in thefe Matters, nor will I 
fhut up my Soul from future Lights ; but leaving 
Things as I find 'em, full of Myltery and double 
Faces, I will expeft no better Fate than that of 
Socrates, That as I have liv'd, fo fhall I die in 
Doubt, only hoping for plenary Satisfaftion in 
the next World. 

i^aris, 2d cf the \Jl Moon, 
of the Tear » 65 2 . 


Vol. IV. /z Spy «/ Paris. 203 


To Pefteli-Hali, his Brother^ Mafter of 
the Grand Seignior'j Cuftoms. 

NO W thou beginneft to reap the Fruit of thy 
Tra'uels : May'ft thou live to have a /u/J 
Hawejl. I efteem myfelf infinitely obliged to the 
illujirious Bajfa, our Countryman, for this parti- 
cular Friendinip in this Bufinefs. 'Tis true, thy 
own Merits were a fufficient Recommendation,; 
But what Light can a Candle give that is fhut up 
clofe in a dark Lanthom ? So thick was the Veil, 
which thy own Mode fly had drawno'er the 5^/f«- 
dor of the moft accomplifh'd Virtues. 

Son of my Mother, let not what I have iaid 
pafs for the Words of a Flatterer. Thou knoweft 
I am as free from that Vice, as I am from Envy. 
'Tis Affeftion only guides my Pen, when I tell 
thee, I heartily rejoice in my Brother's Profperi- 
ty ; and that the Grand Seignior has a faithful 
Sernjant. I hope that So<vereign ofSovereigm will, 
in time, find Reafons to acknowledge to the no- 
ble Kerker Hajfan the good Office he has done 
him, in prefenting fuch a Slave. Let no £rr9r 
of thine baulk my Expeftation. 

'Twill be an eternal Honour to the Houfe and 
Tribe from which we delcend, if, by acquitting 
thyfelf fairly in this Poll, our "great Alafler fliaU 
think thee worthy of a more fublime Station. 
Therefore efteem this only as a 'TVya/ of thy Fide' 
Uty, and how far thou art capable of ferving the 
Sultan. Be induftrious but not afFefted in dif- 
clofing thy Abilities. Obferve a Gradation ; for 
the flowell Steps of Greatnefs are the moft fecure. 
Aim not to be rich and mighty on a fudden. 
K 6 Swift 

2-64 Letters Writ by Vol. IV. 

fwift Rifcs are often attended with precipitate 
Falls. If in other Cafes 'tis commendable to be 
niggardly of Time, ard fquecze every Minute 
to an Improvement of Virtue ; yet thou wilt find 
it expedient to follow other Maxims, in the Way 
of growing Great : And that to be liberal, in 
Years of Patience, will be no unprofitable Fru- 
gality in the main ; fince what is fooneft got, is 
generally fhort in the PofTeffion ; and he, that mo- 
nopolizes Hor.ours or Wealth, is moil times en- 
vied to his Ruin. 

Nature itfelf (hall convince thee of this, if thou 
wilt but contemplate her moft olnious Works. Call 
thy Eye on the Oak among the Plants : What 
Vegetable is more permanent, Or of greater Ser- 
vice to Men ? Yet the Tree of fo vaft a Bulk, in 
whofe aged hollow Trunk I have feen fixteen 
Men fitting round a Table, under whofe wide- 
fpread Branches the H^ufe of Erom Eh'tsiel Eben 
Sherophaim, the f iff Emir oi Arabia , is built and 
ftands at this Day. I fay, this Tree, in its firft 
Original, was not fo big as the Thumb of thy Right 
Hand : And, if Naturalijis fpeak Truth, 'twas 
a Hundred Years a growing to thefe Dimenfions, 
as many in a fix'd and flourifhing Condition, and 
that it will not take up a lefs Time in decaying 
to its laft RotctJinefs, 

They f^y alfa. That an Elephant, the biggeil 
and (Irorgeit of all the Bettjis on the Earth, lives 
two hundred Years, and continues encreafing in 
its Suture the grea eft Part of that Term. The 
like they relate of Crocodiles and Dragons. 

But not to tire thee-with Examples of this Na- 
ture, let us conf;der, that whatfoever is great 
md durable : mong Men, whatfoever is illuftrious 
and excellent, is (lew in the Produdion, and 
makes not hrdy Le;:ps to Maturity, View all 
the I/Ionard'us that have made fo much Noife on 


Vol. IV. aSpY^/ Paris. 105 

Earth, and thou wilt find, that, in Proportion to 
the Time of their growing Greatnefs, was the 
Term of their Duration. How fwift was the Rife 
and Fall of the Perjian Empire ? Equally precipi- 
tate was that of the Macedonians. None could 
everboart of fo permanent and univerfal a Sway as 
the City of Rome, of which it is commonly faid, 
Rome ivas not l>uilt in a Day. 

To come nearer Home : How lafting and per- 
petually vidorious is the /acred Empire of the 
Muffulmans ? Yet it took its Rife from very 
fmall Beginnings, met with frequent Repulfes, and 
has made a flow Progreflion to the ^xtitnt formi- 
dable Height of Sovereign Ponjuer it now pofleffes : 
For, thou knoweft, this is the thoufandth, fixti- 
eth and third Year, fmce the ^i3/)» F//^-^/ of the 
Meffenger of G o D. 

What I have faid may be apply'd, with Pro- 
portion to Mens perfonnl Advances in the Honours 
and Fortunes of this World. Be content therefore 
with thy Seafons wherein Defiiny ftiall think ft to 
raife thee, and ftrive not to out-run thy Fate. 

All the News I can tell thee is, that Cardinal 
Mazarini returned the 13th of the laft Moon from 
his fecond Banifhment ; which thou mayll report 
for a Truth to the Minifers of State. 

We are all Exiles here on Earth. God reftore 
us to a Region more agreeable, and admit ps to 
the Careffes of our Friends in Paradife. 

Paris, i^th of the ^d Mcon, 
of the Tear 1 65 3 . 


2o6 L5 T T E Rs Writ hy Vol. IV, 


To Kerker Haffan, Bafia. 

THE Bleffings of God and his Prophets de- 
fcend upon thee from a thoufand Sources. 
Thou art a true Friend, and our whole Family 
are obliged to thee for Favours which have 
no Number : But none more than my Bro- 
ther and I J Our Engagements to thee are equal j 
fmce what Kindnefs thou haft fhewed to him, 
in recommending him to the Sultan's Favour, 
and to a Place of Honour and Trofit, I take as 
done to myfelf, we being naturally Sharers in 
each other's Profperity, or adverfe Fortune ; for 
fuch is the Method of ftrift Relations and Friend' 
fiips. And I have a particular Reafon to thank 
thee, becaufc it was at my Inllance thou promo- 
ted'ft him. Yet, tho' he is my Brother, I fhould 
not be fo partial as to fay thefe Things in his be- 
half, did I not know him to be a Man of Merit. 
For Places of Truft ought not to be beftow'd for 
Favour or AiFeftion. We are bound to facrifice 
all pri'vate Regards to the Interefi of the Grand 
Seignior ; and not a£l like the French, who get 
Officers of the greateft Importance many times 
hy being of a Fa8ion, or Tarty, oppolite to their 

Since the Return of Cardinal Ma%arini to this 
Court, which was in the foregoing Mocn, the 
King has reform 'd many Abuies of this kind. He 
begins to feel his own Strength and Authority 
cv'ry Day more and more. 

In theMww oi December 6y''diCardinal Richlieu^s 
Brother, who was Bijhop of Lyons, ?.nd Grand 
Almoner of France. The King has beftow'd thefe 


Vol. IV. ^Spy at Paris. 207 

Honours on Cardinal Antonio Barberini, who 
took SanStuary in this Court, from the Perfecu- 
tions of the prefent Roman Pontiff, almoft ten 
Years ago. He has always efpoufed the King of 
France's Intereft in Rome. And the grateful Mo- 
narch received him with much AfFeftion ; and, 
as an additional Honour, has made him a A^w/^/^/ 
of the Holy Spirit. This is the chief eji Order of 
Knighthood in France. 

It is frelhly reported here, that the Duke of 
Ne'wburgh , a great Prince in Germany, is dead. 
They talk of certain Prodigies that have been 
lately feen in England, Ireland, and other Parts 
of Europe ; as raining of warm Blood, Tin, and 
Copper. And 'tis affirmed for certain, that three 
Suns were lately feen at Dublin, the chief City of 

There has been a Sea-Combat between the En- 
glijh and Hollander son the Coaft of Italy. Where- 
in they fay the Dutch had the Viflory, having 
funk two of their Enemies Ships, and taken one, 
without any conliderable Lofs on their own 

Here is no other News ftirring at prefent 
worth the Knowledge of a Muffulman Grandee. 
The Eyes of all the Wefiem Nazarenes are fix'd 
on that Refuge of the World where thou refideft, 
and on the Actions of our invincible Vizir in 

They difcourfe of fome Overtures of Peace 
which that great General has made to the Vene- 
tians, if they will forthwith furrender the City of 
Candia to the njiiiorious Ofmans. 

If this be true, one would think fo great 
Clemency muft needs tempt the proud Infidels to 
SubmiJJion and Compliance. But, if Dejiiny has 
otherwife decreed, I wilh they may feel the Force 
•f our Arms, which appear more keen than 


2o8 Letters TVrit hy Vol. IV. 

even the Scythe of Time, that Devourer of all 

Paris, I \th of the ^d Moon, 
of the Tear 1653. 


Tb Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew at 

TH Y laft Letter fpeaks thee at once willing 
to be enlightened, yet tenacious of thy old 
FrepoffeJJions. I wonder not at the Difficulty thou 
findeft in fhaking off the Precepts of thy RabbPs, 
thofe Religious ^riflers. The Influence of Educa- 
tion \i as forcible as that of our Birth: And the 
Habits that are rooted in us in our tender Years are 
harder to be difplanted. than tht inherent Affec' 
tions of our Blood: This is fignified by the Ara- 
bian Proverb, which fays, T^he Tutors of Youth 
have an Afcendant over the Stars of their Na- 

I know it has been efteem'd the peculiar Glory 
of thy Nation, that you have been rigid Obfer- 
vers of the Traditions of your Fathers : From 
which, rather ihan deviate a I'ittle, there have 
not been wanting fuch as freely expos'd them- 
felves, and have bravely endur'd Racks, Scourg- 
ing?, Burnings, and all forts of Torments, even 
the moftexquifitely cruel Deaths, that the Malice 
of Tyrants could invent. But do not I know alfo 
that, in feme of the moft weighty Points of your 
Laiv, your Zeal has exceeded your Prudence ? 
I fpeak not of the private Bigotry of one Man, 
or a ffvo ; but of the Reprefentative Body of 
your whole Nation, How foolifhly fuperllitiaus 


Vol. IV. a Spy af Faris. 209 

were your Armies in the Days of Mattathias, 
when being aflkulted by their Enemies on the Sab- 
bath-Day, they refufed to draw a Sword in their 
own Defence, and fo were all cutofFby the Army 
oi Antiochus ? This is no invidious Remark of your 
Ad'verfaries in Religion, but the Obfcrvation of 
Jofepkus, a Man of the fame Faith, and fprung 
from the Stack of Ifrael as well as thyfelf. 

Now tell me thy Opinion, didyour Fa/^tr/do 
well in thus facrificing themfelves and the whole 
Intereft of Ifrael to a miftaken PunSiilio of that 
Obedience they ow'd the Lniv, or no ? If thou 
allowed the former, then Mattathias did wicked- 
ly in making a Decree, that from thenceforth it 
Ihould be lawful on the Sabbath- Day to refift 
their Enemies ; and all the ye-ivs were guilty of 
many notorious Breaches cf the Laiv, in obey- 
ing this Decree, and fighting on the Sabbath-Day : 
But if thou fay'rt, they did ill in not fighting, 
tho' at a prohibited Time, and prohibited under 
the feverell Curfes, then it follows, that there is 
no PoitJt of your iaiu which may not, nay, which 
ought not to be difpenk J with, and give way 
to the Interert of State, and the Good of the 
Common-nxealth. So that,atthi3 rate, the Religion^ 
for which you are all fo zealous, will appear to 
be but a Form of Gcvernmcnt, divinely contrived 
for human Regards. I do not call in Quellion the 
rniraculous Delivery of your Lanu on Mount Sinai. 
SufFv-T me to plead without Sufpicion of Partiality : 
I do not go about to invalidate the Tejiimony 
cf Mojes and the Prophets. Doubtlefs the mc'jl 
///]^-6 came down through i}\e Heavens, attended 
wi'^h Myriads of Jngels, and thirty two thoufand 
Chariots of Fire ; and, when he ftood on the Top 
of the Mountain, the Rear of his Train had not 
pafs'd the Silver Gates of the Myon. The Sun .-.p. 
pear'd in his Circuit, as oaeaftonifti'd j he blulh'd, 


210 Letters PFr'it hy Vol. IV. 

and fled away from the eternal Brlghtvefs, not 
able to endure the Lujlre of a Glary fo far furpaf- 
fing his own. The Stats were dazzled at the ;w 
mortal Splendor, and miftook their Courfe ; they 
runagainft one another in their affrighted Careers. 
And, as a lafting Memorial of t.h:it glorious De/c£Kt, 
the Jngels left their bright hiprejfions of their 
Footf.eps in the Path ; that heavenly Road is to 
this Day diflinguifh'd from all the reil of the Sky 
by its Whitenefs, which makes the Afirotiomers 
call it The Milky Way. 

The Nations of the Earth were amaz'd at the 
tremendous Vifion and Noife ; for the Mountain 
was all on Fire, whofe Flames reach'd up to the 
Clouds, and its Smoak to the Mid-Heat'en. The 
Globe trembled and quak'd at the dreadful Thun- 
derings, and the penetrated the Myfs 
cf Hell. The infernal Spirits were ftartledat the 
uncouth Flajhes j and ask'd one another. If the Day 
of Judgment ivere come ? The Waters hid them- 
felves in their Fountains, and the Ocean utter'd a 
deep Murmur. Every thing in Nature was fur- 
priz'd with Wonder and Dread ; and Mofes him- 
felf, when he came down from the Mountain^ 
was all transform'd into Light. 

Thou feeft, Nathan, I am no Infidel, but believe 
as thou doll, that the La^M of ^i}fes was brought 
down from Hea'ven. But does it therefore follow, 
that this Laiv is uni<verfal zn^ eternal? Can none 
be faved but the Sons of Ifrael, and fuch as are 
profelyted to their Religion ? Doubtlefs this is an 
. Error as thou thyfelf wilt acknowledge, when 
thou haft well examin'd the Matter, Remove 
thy Poft a little, if it be only in Imagination : 
Rife from the Feet of thy DoSors, who have in- 
ftill'd into thee Prejudices againft all the Sons 
of Adam, except thofe of your own Race. Stand 
aloof ibr a while^ and look round about thee to 


Vol. IV. a Spy at "Paris. 211 

the four Winds ; but fix thine Eyes on the Eajl, 
for from thence WiJ'dom takes her Origin. Did not 
the fame Go^, who created the Jeijos^ alfo create all 
the "Nations on the Earth ? And cand thou be fo 
blind and obdurate as to think. That S(rjereignty 
Merciful made fo many Millions of Souls on pur- 
pofe to damn them ? Or that it fhall be imputed to 
them for Sin, that they were not born of the Seed 
d Jacob ? Was it in their Power to chufe the Fa- 
ther that Ihould beget them, or the Mother that 
fhould concei've them ? How abfiird are the Con- 
fequences of this narrow Opinion ? It is an un- 
pardonable Pride and Malice, thus to contema 
and judge thofe that are compounded of the fame 
Ingredients as yourfelves. 

Doubtlefs God has fent Prophets into all Nati- 
ons, to guide them into the right Way, and not in- 
to the Way of Infidels. Thofe who believe the 
Prophets, and obey their Precepts, Ihall be faved : 
For they preach the Unity of the Divine EJfence, 
the RefurreSfion of the Dead, the Day of Judg- 
ment, the Joys oi Paradifc, and the Torments oi 
the Deimn'd. They teach the Neceffity of Juftice, 
Purity, and good Works ; exhorting all to prac- 
tife the Golden Rule, without entangling their 
Minds in endlefs Niceties, which are but the 
Superfetation of Piety, the excrementitious Bur- 
dens of a religious Life. Such are m^oft of the 
troublefome and ridiculous Ceremonies obferved 
by the Zealots of your Laiv, at which I have 
known the wifer fort of Je^^s to laugh. Thefe lit- 
tle Superjlitions, like unprofitable Suckers, exhauft 
the Vitals of Religion, and leave it only zfaplefs 
Trunk, from which no Fruit can be expeded. 
Were they commanded in the Laifj of Mofes,{ome- 
thing might be pleaded in their Defence; but, as 
they are only tlie Dreams of yonr Rabbi's, a wife 
Man would beware how he put on a needlefs 


212 "Letters fFrii hy Vol IV# 

Yoke, the Stratagem' o^ your crafty Guides, to 
keep you in fubjeftion, and a fervile Awe of their 
Authority, and a religious Timoroufnefs of yon 
know not what. 

Thy Letter replies to this by Anticipation : For 
fuppofing that I fhculd argue thus, and charge you 
with adding Traditions of your own to \\it pcjiti've 
Jrjun^ionsof the Laiv, thou telleil me,That thofe 
are greatly miftaken, who think that all which 
was deliver'd to Mofes in the Mount was written 
in the T^^o Tables, or comprizM even in the Penta- 
teuch, as if the Prophet fpent thofe /or/y Days and 
Nights only in keeping of Gee/e. For it is evi- 
dent, fay 'ft thou, That, if Go d had nothing elfe to 
give him but the Written La^in, he might have 
difpatch'd him in an Hour or a Day at moll. There • 
fore thou addeft, That by Dav he gave to him the 
Written Laiv, and by Night the Mxjlet ious Expla- 
nation of it, caird, The Oral La-.v : Which Expla- 
nation Mofes tpught by Word of Mouth to Jojhua 
his Succejfor, Jcjhua to the Se-venty tivo Seniorr ; 
and that they tranfmittcd this Oral Traditionary 
Comment down to their Pojierity, even to the lall 
of the Prophets, from whom the great Sanhedrim 
received it. After this every one deliver'd it to 
his Son, as he had receiv'd it from his Anceflors \ 
and fo it continues to this Day to be the Rule of 
your Lives, in thofe Cafes where the IVritten Laiu 
is filent. I tell thee, Nathan, There appears a 
great Shew of Reafon in what thou fay'it : And 
it cannot be fuppos'd, Thzx. Mofes fpent all that 
Time only in receiving the Written La-iv. But en 
the other Side, I cannot believe that the eternal 
Mind WHS bufied fo many Daysin prefcribing thofe 
ridiculous Rules and Ceremonies which are found 
in the Talmud, and the Writings of your Rahbi''i. 
If thou canft convince me of that, I will ceafe to 
perfuade thee to a Change. 

I have 

Vol. IV. «Spy^/ Paris. 213 

I have a great deal more to fay, but the Hour 
of the PoJ} calls on me to conclude my Letter. 
In my next I will fully aniwer all thy Arguments. 
In the mean Time, let not Cujlom, and the Dic- 
tates of the Synagogue, fupplant thy Rea/on, b«t 
remember thou art a iV/««. 

Paris, I -jth of the ^d Moon^ 
of the Tear 1653. 


To the Sublimely Wife, the Seignior of 
Excellent 'Dignity^ Abul Recowawn', 
Grand Almoner to the Sultan. 

'T^ H O U art placed on a high Seat eminent 
-*■ among the Faithful; and the Eyes of the 
Diftrefs'd are fix'd on thee. Thou art the Patro>t 
of all the Miferable. To thee, as to a SanSiuary, 
flies the Man, whofe Misfortunes have bereav'd 
him of all other Hope ; whofe drooping Spirits 
can find no Comfort from the reft of Mortals. 
His lad and only Refuge is to thee, who art the 
faithful Ste<Txatd of the Grand Seignior s Liberali- 
ties. Let not too much Prudence fuperfede thy 
Charity. The Wicked and the Innocent have 
equal Accefs to thee : And it ought to be fo ; for 
no Man at firft can diftinguifti between the one 
and the other by their outward Afpeft. Yet .1 
little Examination and Converfe will ihew the 

There are thofe who get large Pofleffions un- 
der the Mafque of Poverty. There are impu- 
dent Beggars, who make a Trade of impofing on 


'ti4 Letters IVrit by Vol. IV. 

human Com paffion, and fport fhemfelves in this 
humble Method of cheating People of their Mo- 
ney ; whilrt, imagining they bellow it on Perfons 
really indigent, it is thrown away on Counter- 
feits, Villains and Infidels. 

On the other fide, I have feen true Objefts of 
Pity, Men reduc'd to the laft Extremities, who 
would rather perifh, than expofe their Condition 
to any, fave the Great and liable. They efteem 
fuch to be wife Men, generous, and confi- 
derate of the Accidents which commonly befal 
Mortals. They think to thefe they may freely 
unbofom themfelves, tell their Wants, and claim 
Relief, without the Hazard of a Reproach, 
which wounds more deeply than a fliort De- 

Thou may 'ft know them by the Modefly which 
appears in their Faces (fays our holy Prophet) and 
that they are foon repuls'd. To fuch as thefe, 
give plentiful Alms, and do not repine- For it 
is as a profitable Merchandize^ fent to remote 
Countries ; which though ventur'd on the uncer- 
tain Waters, yet in Time, by the fpecial Bleffing 
oi Heaven, fhall return with feven-fold Intereft. 

Nay, give to all that ask : For it is better to 
mifplace our Charity on nine unworthy Perfons, 
than to deny an Alms to one that is really in need. 
Befides, it is not for the Honour of a Sovereign 
Monarch, that any Perfon in Dillrefs fhould de- 
part from his Court, fad or difcontented for want 
of Relief. 

I have in feme of my Letters glanc'd at the 
Vices of thefe Wefiern Nazarenes ; and have not 
been altogether filent as to their Virtues. Among 
which, their Charity is very confpicuous. 

The French relate a pretty Paflage of a certain 
Cardinal, a very good Man, and one that, by 
the Multitude of his generous Anions, gave Oc- 


Vol. IV. ^Spy^/ Paris. 215 

cafion for the World to call him, the Patron of 
the Poor. 

This Efslejiafiick Prince had a conftant Cuftom, 
once or twice a Week, to give publick Audience 
to all indigent People in the Hall of his Palace, 
and to relieve every one according to their various 
Neceflities, or the Motions of his own Bounty. 

One Day a poor Widow, encourag'd with the 
Fame of his Generofity, came into the Hall of 
this Cardinal, with her only Daughter, a beau- 
tiful Maid, about Fifteen Years of Age. When 
her Turn came to be heard, among the Crowd of 
Petitioners, the Cardinal difcerning the Marks 
of an extraordinary Modelly in her Face and Car- 
riage, as alfo in her Daughter, he encourag'd her 
to tell her Wants freely. She blufhing, and not 
without Tears, thus addrefs'd herfelf to him : 
** My Lord, I owe for the Rent of my iloufe Five 
" Crowns, and fuch is my Misfortune that I have 
*' no other Means to pay it, fave what would 
" break my Heart, fmce my Landlord threatens to 
*' force me to it ; that is. To proftitute this my 
*' only Daughter, whom I have hitherto with 
" great Care educated in Virtue, and an Abhor- 
*' rence of that odious Crime. What I beg of your 
** Eminence is, That you would pleafe to interpofe 
*' your facred Authority, and proteft us from the 
** Violence of this cruel iMan, 'till by our honeft 
*• Induftry we can procure the Money for him. 

The Cardinal, mov'd with Admiration of the 
Woman's Virtue and innocent Modelty, bid her 
be of good Courage. Then he immediately wrote a 
Billet, and giving it to the Widow's Hands, Ge, 
faid he, to my Ste-juard ivith this Paper, and he 
Jhall deliver thee Five Cronvns to pay thy Rent. 

The poor Woman overjoy'd, and return- 
ing the Cardinals. Thoufand Thanks, went di- 
redly to his Steward, and gave him the Note : 


ai6 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

Which when he had read, he told her out Fifty- 
Crowns. She afionifli'd at the Meaning of it, 
and fearing this was only the Ste'ward's, I'rick to 
try her Honefty , refus'd to take above Five, fay- 
ing, She ask''d the Q7ir6\n3.\ for no more, and f^e 
ifsas fure ^ t-imas fame Mijiahe. 

On the other fide, the Sfeivard infifted on his 
Mafter'% Order, not daring to call it in Queftion. 
But all the Arguments, he cou'd ufe, were infuf- 
ficient to prevail on her to take any more than 
Five Crowns. Wherefore, to end the Contro- 
verfy, he ofFer'd to go back with her to the Car- 
dinal, and refer it to him. When they came be- 
fore that munificent Prince, and he was fully in- 
formM of the Bufmefs ; ""lis true, faid he, Imif- 
took in nxriting Fifty Crcnuns ', gi've me the Paper, 
and Imuill reSlify it. Thereupon he wrote again, 
faying thus to the Woman : So much Candour and 
Virtue defer'ves a Recompence ; Here, I ha've or- 
der'' d ycu Fi've hundred Cro^vns ; iihat you can 
fpare of it, lay up as a Donfjry to gi've luith yout 
Daughter in Marriage. . ^ 

If I miftake not, this Cardinal wz.^ cairdivzr«(/f. 
But, whatever his Name was, this was an Adion 
truly hcroick, and which has but few Parallels. 

It will be much to the Glory and Intereft of 
the Shining Port, if thou femetimcs, by an ex- 
traordinary Largeneff, raife the Fortune of de- 
ferving Men ; and put them in a Capacity to ferve 
ihQ Grand Seignior : At lea ft, fuch Bounty will 
oblige 'em not to differve him. 

Among the reft, permit me, to recommend the 
Cafe of Ebnol Barntsana Kayemas, thy Country- 
man : He was once FrofefTor of a fair Timariot, 
but was turn'd out by Sultan Ibrahim, to gratify 
a Creature of Shechir Para : Thou know'ft the 
Life of that infamous Woman. I fay no more, 
Paris, zd of the t^th 'Moony 

ef the Tear ib^l. LET- 

Vol. IV. a Spy at Paris, 217 


21? tbe Captain Bafla. 

THOU that art a Man of War delightef^, 
no doubt, to hear of Combats and Bat- 
tles : and I tell thee, that fince the Beginning 
of the World there have never been known fuch 
dreadful Sea-Fights, as during the prefent /i^^zr be- 
tween the Englip and Dutch. It feems there is aa 
Emulation fprung up in the latter : They grudge 
the Inhabitants of Britain the CharaSler, which 
has been given 'em froin a.\\ ^ntijuity, Ofbeinrr 
the mojl Fi^lorious on that Element of any Nation sn 
the Earth. 

'Tis poffible there may be fome more particu- 
lar Grounds of their prefent parrel, to which I 
am a Stranger : But afTuredly they have purfued 
their Animofities very eagerly on both Sides; and, 
let the Occafiou be what it will, the Dutch arc 
ftill Lofers. 

I fent thee an Account of a Comhat between 
their Fleets laft Year, fince which they have had 
many other Engagements. And 'tis faid here, that, 
during this IVar, the £//^///2' have taken from the 
Dutch near two thoufand Merchant Ve^th, have 
funk and burnt many of their Ships of War, fliin 
fome of their chief Commanders, fpoil'd theirTrayif, 
and reduced 'em almofl to as great Streights as 
when they firlt courted the Prbtedion of the 
Englijh againll their Sovereign the King oi Spain ^ 
from whom they had then newly revolted. 

But the molt terrible Cor.flidt was on the fe- 

cond uf this Moon, wherein the Dutch had {tven 

and twenty of their greatclt Ships either funk 

or b'jrnt, two thoufand of their Seamen and 

L Soldiers 

2i8 Letters ^n'/ ^y Vol. IV. 

Soldiers killed, and a Thoufand taken Prifoners, 
with many Captains. That great General Trumps 
whom I mention'd in my laft, was flain in this 
Fight, after he had performed Prodigies of Va- 

The French fay, that, during the Heat of this 
Engagement, Trump y being exceffive thirfty, calPd 
for a Bowl of Wine : which his Servant had no 
fooner delivered to him, but a Cannon-Bullet took 
his Hand off juft as he was retiring from his 
Mafier. The brave General, touch'd with a* noble 
Ccmpaflion, fpilt the Wine on the Deck, faying, 
// is 7iot Jit that I Jhould quench tny Thirjl ivith the 
JBlood of a faithful Slave. And as focn as he had 
fpoke thefe Words, another Bullet took from 
him the Power of ever drinking again. 

If fuch an Accident fhould happen to thee 
when thou fighteft againfl the Infidels, know for 
certain that thou fhalt be immediately tranfport- 
ed to the green and Jhady Banks of the Rivers 
of Wine in Paradife, where thou may'll drink 
thy fill in eternal Security : For he that dies 
fighting for the Faith is a Martyr. 

Paris, izthof the ^th Moon y 
of the Tear 1653. 


Vol. IV. ^ Spy 5/ Par IS. 219 


To Sale Tcrcheni Emin, Superinten- 
dant of the Royal _Aifenal at Con- 

T Remember I promlfed in my laft to give thee 
-■■ a farther Account of Packicour, the famous 
Pirate of the Black-Sea. ','Twere eafy to perform 
it, but a Temptation diverts my Pen another 

I remember when thou wprt Chiaus, I have 
heard thee fpeak of the Kitigctom of Tunist whi- 
ther thou was fent by Sultan Amurat., to com- 
pofe the Differences that happened between the 
Dey and the Di'van of that City. At the fame 
Time thou mad'ft mention of a certain admirable 
Engine, contrived to draw up Ships, or any 
thine elfe from the Bottom of the Sea : And that 
the Divan of Tunis gave to the Artiji who fram'd 
it an Hundred thuufaud Piajlers, as a RewarJ oi 
his Ingenuity. 

I have read in a certain French Author of fuch 
another Device at Venice, made on purpofe ta 
draw up the famous Carrack, which they call'd 
die Cajile of the Sea, This Galleon was built of 
a monllrous Bulk, more for State than Service ; 
and was overturn'd by her own Unwieldinefs, 
as fhe lay at Anchor, and funic to the Bottom : 
From whence neither that 'fore-mentioned En- 
gine, nor all the Art of Mnn could rsife hor. 
Yet the Skill of the Engineer was highly com- 
mended, and tlie Senate honour'd him with the 
Title of ClarijJImo, and fettled a noble Penfun on 
him during Liii;. 

L 2 If 

•220 Letters JVrit hy Vol. IV. 

It is quellioned, whether the States of Holland 
will be fo liberal to a certain French Engineer^ who 
has made a Ship at Rotterdam, which, they fay, 
will cut-do all the Miracles of NoaFi Ark. 
' This Ship is at prefent all the Talk at Paris. 
Our Merchants receive Letters full of Wonders 
from the Lon-u-Countries, concerning this Whirli- 
gig of a Veffel, which is to move by Clock-work, 
without Sails, Oars, Rudder, or any common 
Marine Tackle ; yet fiiall cut her Way through 
the Sea with a fwifter Prcgrefs than the Moon 
glides along the Sh, or Bullet out of a Cannon. 
This is the Difcourfe of thofe who love to advance 
all that they hear to the Height of a Miracle or 
Romance. Yet, 'tis certain, the Jrtiji has pro- 
mis'd it fhall equal the Motion of forae Birds, and 
run twelve Leagues an Hour. Neitlier Winds nor 
Tides fhall forward or hinder its Courfe, which, 
depending on an internal Principle of perpetual 
Motion, is to be dire>fled only at the Pleafure of 
h'lta. who manages the Springs and Wheels. So 
that the Mafter of this Vejfel fiiall be ab'e with a 
fingle Tci:ch cf his Hand to turn it to any Point 
of the Compafs in the moll boiflerous Weather 
that blows. 

This Engineer farther engages, that his Veffel 
fhall make a Voyage to the Eaji- Indies in the Re- 
nolutioi: of a Moon, and to fome Regions of Ame- 
rica in a fourth Part of that Time. If he be as 
good at Performance as he is at Promifing, he will 
iail round the Globe at this Rate in three Moons. 

In farther Cf mplendation of this wonderful 
Machine, 'lis faid, that by a new invented Art it 
fnall ffcrcdy, under V/ater, dif;;ble cny Ship, 
ptovided fhc be within Cannon fhof ; and this 
v/ith fo fuJden a Force, that in the Space of fiit 
Hours it will fucceflively fink a fleet of a hundred 
3h'ps oi li'ar. 


Vol. IV. « Spy j^ Paris. 221 

Moreover, this Artiji, to appear not lefs fubtls 
againft the Efforts oi Hcavai, than in furpafiing 
all the Iffventions on Earth, promifes, that his 
miraculous Veffel fhall, at the Dillmce of a 
League, cut alunder any Spouts or CafaraJIs of 
Waters, which ufually threaten Mariners in the 
Mediterranean and other Seas. 

'Tis poffible tjiou art very well acquainted with 
the Nature of thefe Spouts, and the D.ingcr of 
Ships that fail near them. Yet give me Leave 
to inform thee what I have heard from a certain 
Corfair, who has often met with them in the 

This Pirate tells me, that a Spout is a kind of 
.AqueduSl between the Clouds and the Sea, by 
which thofe pendulous Cillerns Above are reple- 
nifli'd with Water from the Oceait, drawing it up 
as through a Pipe ; which feems to be let down 
for that End, at certain Seafon*:, and in feme 
particular Places, where the Water boils up firil 
above the S irfice of the briny Plain, as a Signal 
to thole thirlly Bladders, to make a Defccnt 
there, and fuck their Fill. 

If this be tri:e, v.'ho knows but that all the 
Rain, to which the Earth is indebted for its Ferti- 
lity, comes thus originally from the Se^. r For, 
it may be made frelli, either in its firll Afctnt 
through the Rofcid Air. or after its Reception in- 
to the Clouds by fome hidden Energy oi that Ele- 
ment, or the natural Force of the 'Middle Region : 
Or at leall by fome unknown \''eriue, perhaps 
not inferior to that by which the Waters of a Bit- 
ter Lake in the Defart became Siveet at the Inter- 
ceffion of our Hsly Prophet, when the whole Ar- 
my of the primitive Mujfulmans was like to have 
perifh'd of Thiril. 

And then how will the Wefiern Phihfiphers 

difpofe of all the Vapours which they fay arc 

L 3 exhal'd 

222 Letters ^rit hy Vol. IV. 

exhal'd from this Globe, and afterwards condcns'd 
into Clouds ? I tell thee that's bat a loofe Noti- 
on of fuch retentive Bodies, as the Clouds feem 
to be. And 'twould tempt one ton flc. What the 
Veflels are made of which hold thofe condens'd 
Exhalations, fo that they do not fall at once upon 
oar Heads and overwhelm us, but only diftil in 
fmall fucceffive Showers drop by drop, to refrefh 
the barren Parts of the Earth, and ferve the Ne- 
cefiities of Men ? And why the Rains fall in the 
Indies, and other Regions of the Eaji, whole 
^loons together without Intermiffion, the reft of 
the Year being dry : Whereas, in other Coun- 
tries, the Periods of the Weather's Alteration 
are uncertain, and in fome Parts it feldom or ne- 
ver rains at all. 

Doubtlefs the Works of the Ommpotent are in- 
fcrutable : And though it may bean Argument of 
a great Wit, to give ingenious Reafons for many 
wonderful Appearances in Nature ; yet 'tis an 
Evidence of Imall Piety or Judgment, to be poii- 
tive in any thing, but the Acknowledgement of 
onr ow n Ignorance. 

Now, I have made as wide nn Excurfion from 
my firll Difccurfe, as theM/7«'/«did, who began 
an Oration in Praife of NoaJ/s Ark, and ended 
with telling a Tale of an Armenian Wheel-Bar- 
ronv. But I will not forget that I was fpeaking of 
the P/omife which the Rotterdam Engineer has 
made of his Machine, That it fhould efFe<flually 
break all the Force of Spouts; which would render 
him very ferviceable to "Merchants, as a Cmwoy to 
defend them from thofe terribleliugbears to Sailers. 
For the Cor/air tells me, That thefe Spcuts very 
often occafion Ship-wrecks ; either by entangling 
the Mails of a Ship, and fo overturning it: or, 
by breaking in the Encounter, over>vhelm it with 
Water and fo fink it. 

Vol. IV. a Spy at Va^is. 223^ 

He fays likewife, that the Chrijiian Pirates zre 
accuilom'd to ufe a certain Charm aeaiaft thefe 
Spouts. They have a Knife, whofe Haft is made 
of the Bone of a Man's Right Arm ; and every 
Vejfel is bound to provide one or two of thefe 
Knives when they loofe from the Shore. They 
buy 'em of certain Perfons who have the Cha- 
rader of Magicians : And when they fee a Spout 
at fome Dillance from 'em at Sea, the Mailer of 
the Vejfel, or any body elfe, takes this enchanted 
Knife in his Right Hand, and holding the Book 
of their Go/pel in his Left, reads fome Part of it, 
and when he comes to a certain Verjicle which 
mentions the hcamation of their MeJJiah, he 
makes a Motion with his Knife towards the Spout 
as if he would cut it in two ; whereupon imme- 
diately the SpTjut breaks in the middle, and all the 
inclos'd Waterfalls into the Sea. 

But I tell thee, he who gives Credit to the Sto- 
ries of Charmst or the Projefts of Men pretend- 
ing to excel all the relt of their Race, has more 
Faith than is requifite to him who reads jEfop''i 
Fables, fmce in perufing that ingenious Figment 
we are only defired to believe the MORAL. 

'Tis thought by fome that this Engineer will, 
by the natural Clock-work of his Heels, be much 
rnore nimble* than his Veffel in flying the Dif- 
grace which will attend him, if his phantaftick 
Projeft prove unfucccfsful. In vay next thoa 
flialt hear of Pachicwr. 

Parin, \zth (f the %th Moon y 
of the Tsar 1 65 3 . 

L:4 LET- 

2 24 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

To Murat, Bafla. 

TH E Englijh, at prefent, make the greateft 
Figure and Noife of all the Nations in the 
Weji. Spain, Portugal, and even France itfelf 
courts the Friend/hip of that IJlanJ, fince the In- 
habitants have formM themfeives into a Common- 
nveaiih. It appears as if the Englifl? were but 
newly awaken'd to a Senfe of their own Strength, 
and by thus rouzing themfeives had alarm'd all 
their Neighbours. • 

However it be, this King has fentan Ambajfador 
to the Englijh Court to break the Negotiation of 
the Spaniards there, and to eftablifti a Peace be- 
tween England and France, if poffible. 

One cannot tell what to make of the Maxims of 
thcfe Infidth. For, at-thefame Time, x.\\q banijh'^d 
i/tvV of the Er.gltjh Cro-wn takes his SanSuary in 
this Court, where he is carefs'd, and made to be- 
lieve great Things they will do towards his Rejlau- 
ration : But Literejl fuperfcdes all Arguments of 
Ajfeilion and Confanguinity. They are more foUi- 
citcus here fortheSuccefs of the AmbeiJJy, than for 
the Right of the poor exiled Prince. He is call'd 
the K:':g of Scot land, hcivlr.g been folemnly croiui'd 
in that Kingdom fince the Death of his Father ; and» 
entering into England with an Army of Scots, was 
routed ; and, having narrowly efcaped the Trains 
that were laid for his Liberty and Life, at length 
landed in this Kingdom, where he has been enter- 
tain'd with much feeming AfFedtion. But the 
Dread, they are under of the viftorious new Englijh 
Comman-^ealth, makes 'em begin to talk of his 
Departure from hence. 


Vol. IV. ^? Spy ^/ Paris. 225 

The Prince of Conde has taken Rocroy ; which 
was the firft Place where he fignaliz'd his Arms 
in the Infant Reign of this King about ten Years 
ago ; which the Supercilious interpret as an Omen 
of ill Luck to the King. This fort of People are 
led by Maxims void of Reafon, and fo there is 
no Regard to be given to their Obfcrvations : Yet 
fome of the wifer fort think this will prove a long 

That which amufes People moft, is the fmall 
Concern the Prince of Conti and the Dutchefs of 
Longueville (hew for their Brother's Caufc. For, 
while the Kingwzson his March againft the Prince 
of Conde, they came and fubmitted themfelves to 
him, and were received to Favour. Thofe, who 
are apt to fufped an Intrigue in every thing, fay, 
that this Reconciliation is only feign'd on their 
Part, it being a Means to ferve their perfecuted 
Brother with greater Security and Succefs. Others 
are of Opinion, that it is real, efpecially on the 
Prince of Conti\ Part ; fince he and his Brother 
had never any good Underftanding. 

There has been a Battle lately fought between 
the French and Spanijh Forces in Italy : Wherein 
the Spaniards loll twelve hundred Men, and the 
French above half that Nnmber of their beft Sol- 
diers. So that the King of France may fay with a 
famous General, " Vidories, attended with fo 
*' little Advantage, will ruin rather than enlarge 
*' an Empire. 

Bajfa, in the midft of thy Grandeur I wifii 
thee Health, which fweerens tlie worlt Events. 
As for me, I'm like one hovering between two 

Farif, I :^th of the qth Moon, 
of the Tear 1653. 

L /; L E T- 

226 Lb T T E R s Jf^rit hy Vol. IV. 


"to Afis, Baffa. 

THE Go^s of the Nazarefi£s, one would 
think, were ftudying how to perplex their 
Adorers. Thefe Wefiern Parts abound with Pro- 
digies and furpaffing Events. More efpecially 
the Lonjo-Countries feci the Strokes of a Handy 
which, by making 'cm fmart, feems to put them 
in mind. They're too high in their oivn Conceit. 

For feveral Weeks we have been alarm'd from 
thence with the Tragical Stories of Ship-wrecks, 
Inundations, Tempells of Thunder and Lighten- 
ing, not ul'nal at this Time of the Year ; mon- 
ftrcus SpcJlres feen rifing out of the Seas, Lakes,, 
and Rivers ; Jrinies in the Air^ with Comets and 
other 'wonderful Apparitions. 

The States of the United Provinces have lofl by 
Wreck fixteen Ships of IVar, and thirty fevcn- 
Merchant Vejfels. It looks as if Aiolus and Isep^ 
tune, the z\i\ziGods of the Hollander!, had enter'd 
into a League to punilh 'em for ftruggling againft 
their Fate, whilil they maintain a Fleet to brave 
and plunder the Englijh, under whofe Shadow 
they firft rofe to the Power they fo ungratefully- 
now pcffefs. 

For, befides thefe Loffes at Sea, the Winds 
and Waves have confpir'd to break down their- 
very Banks, the only Guards they have againll 
tliat encroaching Element. All the Lo^ui Countries 
?,re overuhelm'd with Water : Infomuch as, five 
Miles within Land from Ojiend, thcr'e has been 
found a Whale newly call up, {Q\'cVi. times as long 
a£ a. Man. 


Vol. IV. /? Spy ^/ Paris. 227 

This the hfideh look on as a great Prodigy, and 
the Forerunner of feme ftrange Revolution ; tho* 
it is but a natural Event, and frequently happens 
in thofe Seas where JVhales are more plentiful. 
The Naturalijls fay, That this King of the Scaly 
Nations never makes his Progrefs through the 
Seas without his Guide ; which is a certain fmall 
Fifli, that always fwims before him, and gives 
him Warning of Flats and Shallows, upon which 
he often ftrikes, and fometimes on the main 
Shores, if this little Guide chanc'd to be devour'd 
by any other Fifh, or come to other Mi(hap. 
And this may be the Reafon, why fo mVinyWkales 
are found on the Sands when the Tide ebbs. 
They fay alfo, that, when this little Fifli is in- 
clin'd to Reft, it retires into the JVhale's Belly, 
repofing itfelf there for fome time ; during 
which the Whale refts alfo, not daring to venture 
forward, 'till his Guide comes forth, and leads the 
"Way. If this be true, it feems as if there were 
a League or Friendihip contracted between thefe 
two, they mutually performing all the neceflary 
Offices of Love and Gratitude. And how this 
can be done without fome Species of Reafon^ I 
cannot comprehend. 

Let them at the Port call me Minejtb, or what 
they pleafe, I cannot forbear doing this Juftice to 
to the Fijh of the Sea, as well as to the Animals on 
Earth, to acknowledge, that either they are in- 
dued with a kind of Reafon ; or that Faculty, which. 
we call fo in Men, is no other than Senfe. If the 
Brutes perform many things without any Deli- 
beration or Couni'el, fo do moll Men : And no 
Man can demonftrate, that even thofe dumb Be- 
ings do not advile and projeft, before 'they at- 
tempt any thing of Moment towards their own 
Prefervation, or the Service of others. And if 
they fecm to dg many things raihly, it may be 
L 6 attributed 

22 8 Letters Writ by ^ Vol. IV. 

attributed to the Quicknefs and Mvacity of their 
Senfe, which needs not the flow and flegmatick 
Methods oi human Counfel. 

Suffer thefe Digreflions, courteous Bajpi ; and, 
fince I have led thee fo far out of the Road, take 
but another Step, and I'll fhew the a great Mo- 
narch, who commands Millions of Men, carried 
away Captive by a filly Beajl. 

The King oi France, t'other Day, as he was a 
Hunting, difcharg'd a Fovvling-Piece at a Par- 
tridge on the Wing. The Bird drop'd, and the 
Monarch, eager to take up his Game, gave the 
Reins to his Horfe, who ran away with him over 
a great Plain, for the Space of half a League, 
And had not the King fallen off, within fix Paces 
of a great Chafm or Hole in the Earth, he would 
liave been carry'd, for aught I know, to keep 
Company with Horatius Curtius, the venturous 
Roman, of whofe Exploit thou haft heard ; for 
the furious Steed not being aware of the Danger 
before him, as foon as he had caft the King, grJ- 
lop'd full fpeed into the gaping Precipice, and 
was never more heard of. 

This the Priejis cry up for a miraculous Efcape 
and Prefage, That the King is refemj'd by Proii- 
dence / or great Things. 

The King of Portugal hzs an Amhafpidor here, 
who in his Majler''% Name propofes a Match be- 
tween this /T/wj-and the Infant a of Portugal, pre- 
ferring four Trillions of Crowns as her Do^jLt).. 
But the Court entertains this Motion coldly, the 
Cardinal being averfe, for what Reafon is not 
known ; for the Infanta h"s an illuftrious Cha- 
rafter, and known to be a Princefs of incompa- 
rable \ irtue. 

This Minijler is mtinagmg a. Match of nearer 
Concern to himfelf, defigning to marry one of 
iis Nieces to the Prince ofCoK/i, Brother to the 


Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Paris. 229 

Prince of Conde. And 'tis faid, this Prince re- 
ceives the CardinaTs Propofals with lefs Scorn, 
than did Count o{ Soijfons thofe oi Cardinal Ricb- 
lieu, on the like Occafion. 

Here is a Rumour, as if the Prince oi Conde 
would be condemn'd by a Procefs of Parliament^ 
and that he will be put to Death in P-ffigy. 

This Indignity is common among the Infidels, 
who efleem whatfcever Honour and Difgrace is 
fhewn to Images, as done to the Per/ons whom 
they reprefent. They have no other Excufe for 
their Worjhip of Things made by the Hands of 
Men like themfelvcs, but that it is purely relative, 
and centers in the Prototype. 

In the mean Time the Prince ofConde's Friends 
and Well-Wifhers fmile at his imaginary Death j 
knowing, that, if no efFedlual Stroke of Fate carry 
him out of the World, he will be at the Head of 
a potent Army in the Spring, to put many to 
Death in Reality, and by the Edge of the Sword, 
who fight for his Enemie?. 

A while ago a Man was imprifon'd here by his 
own Folly ; having voluntarily declar'd, that he 
was hir'd by this Prince to affaffinate Cardinal 

I have formerly fpoken of the Count d'Har court, 
and the Difgrace he was in at this Court, for not 
continuing the Siege of Londa, a llrong Holdoi 
the Spaniards in Catalonia. The General is Z 
brave Man, and has done eminent Services to the 
Cro^jsn of France. It is no Wonder, therefore, that 
he laid to Heart the Coldnefs and Contempt 
with which he was receiv'd at his Return from 
that unfortunate Campaign. Great Souls are to 
be carefs'd with more than ordinary AfFeflion in 
their ad'verfe Fortunes ; and faithful Servants 
ought not to be reproach'd with every falfe Step, 
«r ill Succefs in their Affairs . The Count refent- 


ijo Letters TVrii hy Vol. W. 

ing in the King's Carriage towards him, removed 
himfelf from Court, and then out of the King' 
dom ', defigning, as is fuppofed, to ferve the Em- 
feror of Germany, 

Laft Week his two Sons, that were detain'd 
as Hojiages in this City, made their Efcape ; the 
Duke of Lorrain having promifed to give the Eld- 
elt his Daughter in Marria2;e. 

The Duke roves up and 9own like a Free-Boo- 
ttr, with an Army 6{ Ban.^iftt at his Heels. 

Renown'd Jfis, I make an humble and affec- 
tionate Obeifance ; wiQiing thee as many Years 
of Life, as thou canft paft without languifhing 
for Death. 

Paris, ijtb of the wth Moofiy 
of the Tear 1653. 


To the Dgebe Nafir, Bafla. 

'T' H O U fucceedeft a righteous Minifer, Chi- 
-* urgt Muhammet : I wifh thee a Surplufagc 
of Happinefs ; which thou wilt not fail to poflcfs 
if thou inherited the Virtues of that Bafa, as well 
Hi his OJice. May his Sou/ now talle the Reward 
of his juft Life: And I doubt not but he has 
made an happy Experience of my Wiflies. He fits 
down in Quiet under the Trees of Eden ; his Head 
cncompafs'd with a Garland of Flowers, which 
rever fade j veiled with the immarcefcible Crimfon 
and Purple of Paradife. He repofes on his Bed 
ci Delights, whilft beautifal Pages ferve him in 


Vol. IV. a Spy ^z Paris. 231 

Veffeh of Gold, fet round with Sapkires and Eme- 
ralds : He drinks the delegable Wine which never 
inebriates ; and eats of the Fruits, every Morfel 
of which prolongs his Life for a thoufand ^^j. 
He hears nothing but the Voices of fuch as are 
foil of Benedi(Elion and Joy. The Virgins of Pa- 
i-adife falute him with a Grace which cannot be 
exprefs'd. They chant to the new-come Guefis 
Songs of immortal Lo've. To the Stranger from 
Earth, they tell their Paflions in Strains which 
ravifli his Heart. He is diffolv'd in a Thoufand 
Ecfiacies. This is the Re-ivard of a pious MuJJul- 
tnan, a wife Minijier, a juft Judge of the Faithful. 
Follow his Example, and thou fhalt be tranflated 
into his Company : For he is in a goodly Place, 
near the Spring Head of perfeft Blifs. 

Thou wilt expeft fome News from me, as a 
Teitimony of my Refpefl. And I cannot pre- 
tend there is none ftirring, at a Junfture when 
all this Part of the World is fo full of ASion, or 
at leaft of Counfels. 

Here has been great Rejoicings lately for the 
taking of St. Mcnehoud, a llrong Tofwn in the 
Hands of the Prince of Conde. All the Officers of 
the French King's Army endeavour'd to diiTuade 
him from the Siege of this Place ; but Cardinal 
Mazarini ovcr'TwVdx.hcir Argument?, and, having 
reprov'd their groundlefs Fears, caus'd it to be 
invefled and attack'd the zzd of the loth Moon. 
Some fay he had a Party there ; yet he held out 
'till the 27th of the laft Mcon, at which time it 
was furrendered upon Articles to the King, who 
was there in Perfon, with his Brother the young 
Duke of AnJQU, the ^een, the Cardinal, and the 
whole Court. They returned to this City the 
f th of this prefent Moon. 


232 Letters IFrit by Vol. IV. 

They were receiv'd with great Acclamations, 
and fccming Joy, by thofe who would have tri- 
umph 'd more heartily, had they been defeated, or 
forc'd to raife the Siege. For the Citizens of Pa^ 
ris wifli well to the Prince of Condi^ Arms, not 
fo much out of Love to him, as in Hatred of his 
Enemy the Cardinal Minijler. And they are fen- 
fible. That this fuccefsful Siege will redound 
wholly to the Cardinals Honour, by whofe fole 
Orders the P/ace wa.s invefted. 

It is difcours'd, that this Mini/ier has forae new 
Defign on Foot, to conquer the Kingdom of Na- 
ples. This is certain, a mighty Fleet is fitting 
out to Sea : Whither bound no Man knows but 
thofe of the Cabinet, among whom the Cardinal 
is chief. 

In the mean while, the common People liften. 
after certain Prodigies that have been feen in the 
Air. They fay, Tijlamitjg ^oua^v/ appear'd lately 
to rife in the North, and take its Courfe South- 
Eaji-v:ard. From whence People make various 
Prognojiicks, as their PaiGons or Interefts infpire 
'em. Some are of Opinion, it prefages the Con- 
quejl of Naples by the King's Arms. Others ajv 
ply it to the new Ccmmon-vjealth of England, 
and to the vidol-ious Sword of Oliver ; who, 
from General oi tht Englifi Army, is now, in this 
very Moon, exalted to the Height of So^oereign 
Ponver, governing the Nations of England, Sect- 
land, and Ireland, under the Title of their Prc- 

Here are divers of his SuhjeSis in this City ; 
and other Englijh, Scots, and Irijh, who embrace 
the Intereft oi Charles, the Son of their late mur- 
der'd King, v.ho has been fince crown'd Kin^ of 
the Scots. They give a different Charadlcr of 
Oliver ; yet all agree, that he is a ivi/e Stale/- 
man, and a great General. 


Vol. IV. a Spy at Par is. 233 

The Scotch KijigWd-riy fpeak contemptibly of 
Oliiieri Birth and Education : Yet thou knoweft 
this hinders not, but he may be a Man of Cou- 
rage and Virtue. They relate many odd Paflages 
of his Touih, which feem to me fo many Evi- 
dences of an extraordinary Genius, and that he 
is a Perfon of a deep Reach. 

He tampcr'd with ieveral religious TaSlions in 
England, counterfeiting an exquifite Piety, where- 
by he firH rais'd himfelf a Name among the 
Zealots of that "Nation, who look'd upon him 
there as a very holy Perfon, and one mark'd out 
by Dejliny for great Undertakings. 

He foon got a confiderable Command in the 
Army of the Reiohers ; where he fignah'z'd him- 
felf by many brave Adions, which fpoke him a 
Man of an invincible Courage, and admirable 
Condudl. So that at length none thought 
more fit than he to be General. In fin'.-, he ac- 
quitted himfelf fo gallantly in that high Office^ 
and has fo wrought himfelf into the AfFedions 
of the People, that they now Irok upon him as 
a Prophet or Saviour ; and the Divan, or Parlia' 
went of that Nation, have conferr'd en him the 
Scvereign Authority. 

Thole of the Englip, which are afFefled to his 
Intereft, fpeak great Things in his Praife : They 
call him another Mofes or Jojhua j they prefer 
him to Hannihal, Scipio, and even to the Great 
Alexander. It is difiicult for them to fpe^dc of 
him without Hyperboles. 'Tis faid the King of 
France ViWl court his Friendftiip. 'Indeed all the 
Neighbouring Countries Hand ina\ve of this fuc- 
cefsful Hero. And the Hollanders, who are the 
only People that durft engage in a Ifar with the 
Englijh Commonivealth, now feek for Peace, fince 
he is invelled with t.\ic/upreme Authority. 


2 34 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

In the mean Time the poor cxiPd King of the 
5ro/.•^^\ke* Sanftuary in this Court, with his Mo- 
ther the late ^een oi England, and his Brother, 
whom they call the Duke of Tork. ^he French 
King allows them all very confiderable Penjhns ; 
and the latter has fome Command in the Arti^ in 
Flanders. There is another Brother alfo ; but 
little talk*d of as yet, being the youngeft of the 

They are generoufly entertain'd here, it being 
the peculiar Honour of this Court to be a hofpi- 
teble Refuge to Princes in Diftrefs. Yet obferving 
Men fay, the King will in Time grow weary of 
his Royal Guejls ; it being \try chargeable to 
maintain them, and their birrdenfome Retinue. 
Befides, he will have fome Reafon of State ta 
difcard them, if he enters into a League with 
Oliver, the new Englrfly^ Sovereign, who is court- 
ed on all Hands. 

Eliachim the Jero (of whom thou wilt hear In 
the Di'van) is jull come into my Chamber, and 
brings me Word, that there is an Exprefs newly 
arriv'd, who informs the ^een of a Defeat giverr 
to the S^paniards near a City called Rozes, which- 
they liad befieged in Catabnia. The French 
were going to the Relief of this Place, and the 
Spaniards fet upon them in their March, but 
were beaten into their Trenches ; from whence 
they fled by Night, leaving Three hundred 
Spaniards on the Spot, almoll Two thou- 
fand Prifoners, and all their Cannon and Bag- 

This has put the Court into a jolly Hu- 
mour. Nothing but Revelling and Dancing 
employs their Time : The young King taking 
great Delight in Balls, Mafques, and uich Re- 
creations ; having left off Hunting, ever fxnce 
]iis Horfe ran away with him in the Tenth 


Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Paris. 235 

Moon of this Year, after he had fhot a Partridge. 
Whereof I have fpoken already in one of my 

The greaf God preferve thee from PrecipictSy 
Poi/on, the Glances of a Witch, and from being 
canoniz'd a Martyr in a String : And, for other 
Deaths, thou haft VirtMs enough to encounter 'eia 

Paris, 30/-6 of the i zth Moon, 
of the Tear 165 J, 

the End of the Third Book, 


( 236 ) 


Writ by a 

SYY at P^RIS, 




Tb Bedrcdrin, Superior of the Con\''ent 
of Derviches, at Cogni at Nato'ia. 

WH E N I firfl open'd thy venerable 
Letter, my Heart on a fudden be- 
came frefli as a Garden of Rofes or 
Field of Cinnamon and Myrrh, whofe Odours are 
exhal'd by the Wejl Wind. In my Breaft there 
fprung a Fountain of Joy, ferene as Chryftal, and 
refrefhing as the Waters oi Euphrates. 

I contemplate thee as a CcJar among the Trees 
of the Foreji, or as the durable Oak of the De- 
fart. May Heaven prolong thy Life, till the 
5<i««</of the Trutr.tetm 


Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Paris. 237 

The Commands, with which thou haft honour'd 
me, came in an acceptable Hour. I have receiv'd 
them with a Complacency which I cannot ex- 
prefs. My Eyes were fo fix'd on the Lines of 
great Purity, that I could not for a long Time 
take them olF. Thou haft hit the Mark of myAf- 
feftion, in employing me to write what the moft 
impartial Hijlorians iay of Jefus, the Son of Ma- 
ry, the Chrifiian MeJJias. 

Thzt Hofy Prophet wa.s honour'd by his very 
Enemies. Jofephtu, a learned J eiv, who liv'd in 
his Time, and wrote the Hijfory of that Nation, 
makes worthy Mention of him. 

So did many of theG\«/;7^ Philofophers, though 
they oppos'd his Dlfciples :i.i\6.Follo^ii:ers. Porphyry^ 
whom the Chrifiians commonly repute as a bitter 
*Enemy to their P/-i?/'^?ff, yet calls Jefus, Wifcy 
Blejfed, and Divine. That Sage was exafperated 
againft a certain Se^ of Naxarenet in his Time, 
whom they call'd Gnojlicks. Thefe corrupted the 
Doiirines of Plato, and the Theology of the An- 
cients ; wantonly mixing human Fables with di- 
I'ine Truth. Againft thefe Porphyty ftiarpen'd his 
Pen, and, not m.ikinga Difference between them 
and other Chrifiians, drew upon himfelf the Ill- 
will of tiiem all. Yet he rctain'd a profound At- 
tachment for the MeJ/ias. 

Would'ft thou know the Circumftance of this 
Holy Prophet''^ Birth ? They were glorious even 
in Obicurity. For, though his Father and Mo- 
ther were then upon the Road to ye/u/alem,Sira.n- 
gers at Bethlehem, and forc'd for want of Room 
in the Cara-vancera to lodge in a Stnble with an 
Ox and an Af , where the MrJ/ias waf born, and 
l.'iid in a ]\' .or ; yet in this contemptible State 
there came k;;'V*ofthe hJaoj out aA Perjia and 
ChalJ.ta, win. brought Prefents to the Holy In- 
fant ; and having laid at his Feet Gold, niyfrh, 


238 Letters /Fr/V ^ Vol. IV. 

and Incenfe, they proftrated themfelves on the 
Ground, and praifed God, the Mo^ His^h King 
of Jil, in that he had honour'd them with a 
Sight of the Mejftas. 

This was in the 43d, Year of the Reign o^ Au- 
guftui Ctefar the Roman Emperor ; at which time 
one Hercd was Prefident of Judea. This JVIan 
being inform'd, that certain noble Strangers were 
come out of the Eajl to Jerufalem, he fent for 
them, and acquiring the Occafion off© tedious 
a Journey, they gave him this Anfwer. 

*' Peace be to thee, O Sultan ; There was of 
** old Time a Prophet of great Fame in our Na- 
** tion; who, among other Predictions that have 
** fincecometopafs, left alfothisin Writing. 
■ " That in Palejline Ihould be born a Child oi 
*' hewjenly Race, who would rule over the great- 
" eft Part of the World; and by this Sign ye 
" fhall know the Time and Place of his Birth : A 
** ftrange Star fhall appear in the Firmament, 
** which Ihall direft you to the very Houfe where 
*• you may find him. When therefore ye fhall be- 
** hold this 5/flr, take Gold, Myrrh, and Incenfe, 
*' and following the ConduiSt of the i'/rtr, go and 
*' offer thefe Gifts to the young Child; then re- 
" turn immediately to your own Counsry, lelt 
** fome grievous Calamity befall you, 

*• Now this Star has appeared to us, we are 
** come to perform what was commanded us. 

Herod faid to them, Te ba've done ^well. Go 
therefore and feek diligently for the Infant ; and 
n^vhen ye hai'e found him cone and tell mCy that 
I may go and fay Homage alfo. 

But they never return'd to him again. Where- 
fore Herod in his Anger and Jealoufy command- 
ed all the Infants in Bethlehem to be ftrangled, 
that had not been born above Four and twenty 
Moons. But the Father and the Mother of the 

Vol. IV. a Spy al Fakis. 239 

Ho/y Infant fled away with him into the Larid 
where it never rains, the fame Night that the 
Magi came. 

What I here relate to thee, fage Bedreditiy is 
taken out of approv'd Hiftorians, for many 
among the Gentiles wrote of thefe Things befides 
the ChriJiianS' 

There was a Roman Philofopher, much about 
the fame Time, a Man in great Elleem with 
Ceefar ; to whom he wrote a Letter, wherein he 
mentions the coming of the Magi after this Man- 
ner. " Certain Oriental Perfians, fays he, have 
** fet Foot within the Limits of thy Empire^ 
" bringing Prefents fit only for Kings, to a cer- 
*' tain Child, newly born in the Country of the 
' ' Jenxs ; but who this Infant is, or whofe Son, 
*' we are yet ignorant. 

Thou feeft, O pious Dervich, that the MeJJiai 
appear'd with no fmall Luftre, even in his Cra- 
dle ; and, in his early Years, he enter'd into the 
Temple, and difputed with the Hebrenv RabbPsy 
convincing them of an univerfal Defeftion from 
the primitive Laiv of 'Mofes, declaring himfelf 
the Mejfas; and yet in profound Humility ac- 
knowledging. That a Prophet fliould come after 
him, who fhould be preferred before him, the 
Duft of whofe Feet he was not worthy to kifs. 
This PaflTage the ChriJlians have perverted to a- 
nother Senfe ; but the true Faithful know it was 
fpoken only of Mabcmetf the SEAL of the 

The Time would fail me, to recount all the 
ftupendious Aftions of this il/a«'s Life : And, in 
calling him MAN, I imitate his own Example: 
fmce throughout the whole he never called him- 
felf God, or the Son of God, as the Chrijiians 
do, but moft frequently gave himfelf the Title of 
the Son of Man, He turn'd Water into Wine, 


240 Letters /^V/V ^y Vol IV. 

fed five thoufand People with five Cakes and two 
fmall Tench : Heal'd all Difeafes, reftor'd Sight 
to them that were born Blind, rais'd the Dead, 
went invifibly through Crowds of hi 5 Enemies, 
and, finally, was taken up into Paradife. 

If thou would'ft know more of this Holy Pro- 
phet ; there are Hijlorians who fay, He was ini- 
tiated in the Myjlerics of the Ejfenes, a certain 
SeSI among the yenvs. 

That Nation, it feems, was then divided into 
feven Clajfes : Among which, this of the Ejjenes 
was none of the leaft confiderable, as being the 
moft religious Obfervers of the La^jj. Their Con- 
verfation was full of Humanity, both among 
themfelves, and towards Strangers j avoiding 
Pleafures as Enemies to the Mind, and elleem- 
ing Chaftity the very Cement of all Virtues. 
Therefore they defpis'd Marriage, as an Entan- 
glement to Men devoted to Contemplation. They 
had alfo an equal Contempt for Riches : No 
Man of this Sed call'd any Thing his own, 
though 'twere his lawful Inheritance ; bat their 
Poffeflions were in common, and equally dillri- 

It was among their MyJIeries, to anoint their 
Bodies frequently with Oyl, and as often to wa(h 
'em with running Water. 1 hey neither bought 
nor fold, nor frequented ihe puhlick Places ; but 
every one communicated freeiy fuch Things as 
he poflefi'd to him 'hat flood in Need. 1 hus 
there was a reciprcciJ Exchange of KindiiefTes 
and AfTiflance, according to every one's Faculty 
and Power. 1 hey were very afllduous in Watch- 
ing, Fafting, and Prayers, curious in obfervir.g 
the various Names of the A/igeh, which they 
frequently repeated, in vc eating thofe hnppy Be- 
ings, m th.t Minijlers of (t^e King eternal : And 
tbofe, wlio ws:e exercis'J in tliif kind of .'elt^-imis 

VoJ. IV. a Spy a^ "Paris. 241 

, Life, arrlv'd to fo great a Conlbncy of Mind, 
that neither Racks, tire. Sword, or any other 
Tortures, could ever move 'em to renounce their 
Laiv, or fpeak the leall Word in Contempt of 
their Jnjlitution. Nay, they v/ould rather fufFer 
Martyrdom, than be prevail'd on to tafte of any 
Thing that had Life in it : For they were ftridl 
Obfervers of the Laiv, Which commands perpe- 
tual AblHnence from the FleJJjo^ Animals. 

It was an eftablifh'd Article of their Faith, that, 
as foon as the Vnion of Soul and Body was dif- 
folv'd by Death, the former by a natural Inclina- 
tion afcends to the Skies, even as Sparks fly up- 
ward when freed from the grof?, earthly Matter 
in whjch they lay imprifon'd. 

I have here given thee a (hort and true Charac- 
ter of the Effenes. Of which SeB all Chrijlians 
own the MeJJias to be a Favourer, if not a Mem- 
ber; in regard he is no where recorded to have 
upbraided them as he often did the Phari/ees, 
S'ttdduces, Herodians, and the reft. 

Time will not permit me to fay more at pre- 
fent concerning that venerable Prophet. But, if 
thou would'ft have a perfect Idea of all his Vir- 
tue and Sanftity of Life, turn thy Eyes inward, 
and fix them on thyfelf. For thou art a lively 
Tran/cript of the Holy Jefus. 

Paris, \ft of the \ft Moon, 
of the Tear 1654.. 

M ,L E T-: 

242 Le T T E R s Writ hy Vol. IV. 
L E T T E R II. 

To the Venerable Mufti. 

TH OU haft heard of the Jefuits^ an Order 
of Naza7ene Dewifei. All Europe abounds 
with them ; and they have attempted to fettle 
themfelvesat the /ul>Iime Port, andfeveial Places 
of J/:a : Befides their aftual Poffeffions in the 
Indies, where they are very numerous and pow- 
erful. They are efteem'd the richeft Order of the 
Eotnan Church, tho' the Covjlitutions of their 
/oa«^(fr oblige them X.o perpetual Fo-certy. But 
what will not the yJzr/-^^ Hunger of GoZ^ tempt 
Men to ? Bor the Sake of this charming Metal, 
they can difpenfe with antiquated Laius, and dull 
melancholy Vc-ivs. 

Thefe religious Perfons have lately fpread about 
a Letter in Print, which they pretend comes from 
one of their Order in Armenia. 

This Difpatch relates a ftrange Accident that 
has happen'd at the Sepulchre of our holy Prophet^ 
(upon whom reft the Favours of the Eternal.) 
For it afHrm5, That, in the eighth il/oe/r of the laft 
Year, the Shrine which contains the Body of the 
lea'venly MiJJioner, fell from the Hoof of the fa- 
cxcAMofque (to which, fay they, it adher'd by 
Vertue of a Magnet) fattened in the Cantrel of the 
Arch ; and that, at the fame Time, the Pavement 
of the Temple opened, and fwallow'd up that ve- 
nerable Ark, wherein was repofited the moft holy 
Jieliques in the World, And that from the Chajm 
there ifl'ued out a Flame like that oi Sulphur, ac- 
c< mpany'd with" fuch a Smok r and intolerable 
Stench, as caus'd all the Pilgrims that were pre- 
fect to hvoon away : Whereupon many of them 
are fioce turn'd Chrijlians. 


Vol. IV. a Spy ^z/ Paris. 243 

This Forgery is believ'd liere by thofe who 
never examine any Thing their Priejls tell rhem, 
but take all on Truft. 1 he common People b'efs 
themfelves in that they were born of Chiijiian 
Parents, and not of the /y//f;/i/^j of that wicked 
Impofior : So they blai'pheme the Man in whom 
the Promifes of their MeJJias are verified, when 
he faid. He tvuoud intercede nvith Gon to fend a 
Prophet njjko Jhould lead ""em into all Truth. 

They would never be at the Pains or Coft to 
examine, whether the Foundation of this Story 
be true or falfe. All the Muffuhnans who have 
been at that Holy of Holies know, that the Body 
of our Divine Laiv-gi'ver repofes in a Sepulchre^ 
built after the fame manner as the Tombs of our ««- 
guji Emperors, and other Dormitories of the Great: 
Chily with this Difference, that it furpafies all 
the Monuments of the World in the invaluable 
Richnefs of its Ornaments, the Gi.'ts of devout 
Ivlujfulman Princes. There appears always fuch an 
infupportable Luftre of Gold and precious Stones 
in every Angle of that myfterious Recefs, as may 
well dazzle the Eyes of mortal Spedators, finci 
the Angels themfelves are forced to be veil'd 
within thofe tnajejiick Walls. 

Hence it is not hard to fuppofe, that the cir- 
cular RefraQions of fuch a glittering Orh of 
Jeiuels might create the Refemblance oiz.Tomb 
fufpended in the Air, or cleaving to the Roof of 
that glorious Edifice, deceiving the Eyes of fome 
ignorant, but devout Mujfulmans, from whom 
this fnagnetick Fable firft took its Origin. How- 
ever it be, no Man o^ common Faith, or but or- 
dinary Senfe, will believe, that God, who has 
for fo many Ages protefted the Sepulchre of his 
Jpofle 2cnA Favourite, verifying therein the P/o- 
phecy of Mahomet himfelf, who foretold, as did 
Other Prophets before him. That the PLice o/hisRefi 
M z Jlimli 

244 Letters Writ by Vol. IV. 

Jhould be glorious, and that the greatcfi ^hnarchs 
of the Earth pould <v:/it it : I fay no Man will 
believe that God would at length fuffer fo vile a 
Difgrace to happen to the Totnb of his Mejfenger, 
the Refuge of Sinners. 

But the Nazarenes will believe any thing fave 
the Truth. They are given up to a Spirit of 
Delujion and Error, incapable of Light and In- 

Thus I leave 'em 'till the Day of Alarm, and 
the Hour of Scrutiny ; when the Angels of the 
left fhall enter the Graues, and, having made Ex- 
periment of every Man's Works and Faith, fliall 
give the Juft a Regifter of their Virtues in their 
Right Hand, but to the Wicked in their Left 
Hand, a black Record oi their Sins. 

In the mean Time, I proftrate myfelf before 
thee, begging, that, when thou turneft thy Face 
to the Houfe of Ibrahim, and the Tomb of the 
Prophet, thou wilt fend up one Ejaculation for 
Mahmut, that he may perfevere in (hunning the 
Errors of the Infidels. 

Paris, \C)th cf the \ft Moon, 
of the Tear 1654. 


To Cara Hali, Phyfician to the Grand 

SINCE what I wrote laft, in behalf of the 
Brute Animals, is fo acceptable to thee, I 
will comply with thy Requeit, in continuing 
that Difcourfe. 


Vol. IV. <7Spy^/ Paris. 245 

'Tis certain the Ancients hid another Opinion 
of the Beajls than thefe French PhUofophers," who 
deny them the Ufe of Reafon. Socrates us'd to 
fwear by the animal Generations, and fo did Rha- 
damanthus before him. The Egyptians form'd the 
Imaf^es of their Cods in the Similitude oi Beafts, 
or Birds, or Fipes. So the Grecians fix'd the Horns 
of a Ram on imH^ad oi J upiters Statue, and thofe 
of a Bull on the Image oi Bacchus. 1'hey com- 
pounded the Image oi Pan of a Man and a Goat ; 
painted the I^Iufes and Graces with Wings : And 
the Po(?/ Pindur makes all the (/o^'j winged, and 
difguifes them in the Shapes of feveral Bcajisy 
when, in his Hymns, he introduces them chas'dby 
Tryphon. Thou knowelt alfo, tljat our koly Doc- 
/c^rj affirm the Angel Gabriel to have Wings, with 
one of which he once give a Mark to the Ahon. 

When the Poets bring in Jupiter courting Pa- 
Jipbae, he appears in the Form of a Bull. And 
in his other Amours, if we may believe them, he 
chang'd himfelf foraetimes into a -Stc-j?;?, then in- 
to an Eagle : They report alfo, that he was 
fuckled by a Gcat. 

For thefe and other Reafons, the Ancients not 
only forbore to injure their Felloxu-Aninuils, but 
entertain'd them with fingular AfFe£lion and 
Friendihip. A Dove was the Darling of Semira- 
mis. A Dog was the Joy of Cyrus. Philip, 
King of Macedonia, made a Sivan his Companion. 
And our holy Lazv gia/er was often wont to fport 
himfelf with a Cat. He lov'd this Creature for 
its Cleanlinefs and Aftivity ; and therefore we 
Mujfulmans generally have a Cat in great Efteem 
and Veneration. 

That Favourite of God underflood the Za»- 

guages of Beajls, and convers'd as familiarly with 

them as with Men. So it i5 fam'd of Melampus 

and Tirejias of old, as alfo of Apollonius TyanauSy 

M 3 who 

246 Letters Writ by Vol. IV. 

whoaffirm'd to his Friend, fitting by him, that a 
Spnrrc^.v, which he heard chirping to his Fellows, 
told them of an Afs which he' had feen fall down 
with his Load a little Way off from that Place. 
It is alfo recorded of a Boy, who underllocd all 
the Fo'uesoi Birds, and by that Means could fore- 
tel Things to come. That his Mother, by pouring 
Urine into his Ears when he was afleep, deprived 
liim of this incomparable Gift, for fear he fhould 
be taken from her, and prefented to the King. 
There is no Queftion, but feveral Nations have 
a certain Knowledge of the Speech of fome y^ni- 
mals. My Countypncn, by a peculiar Gift beflow'd 
on our Fathers and their Pojhrity for ever, under- 
Hand the Language of Crc-ius and Eagles. And the 
^indents were {o well vers'd in this Kno-zvUdget 
that when they convers'd with the Birds, or at 
leaft when they heard them in their Layiguages 
utter Pre/ages of what fhould fhortly happen to 
Earth, they perfuadcd themfelves that thofe Birdsr 
were the Mejfengers of the Gods. Therefore the 
Ecgle\N?L% fuppofed to be the Mejfenger ci Jupiter , 
the Cro^v and Haivi of Apollo, the Stork of y««», 
the Ooi/of Minerva, and fo of others. 

Jt is evident, that our common Hunt/men un- 
derfland the different Voices of their Dogs, when 
at a Diftance they fignify by one kind of Cry, 
that they are quelling after the Hare ; by ano- 
ther, that they have found her ; by a third, that 
they have taken her, or that (he is turn'd to the 
Jfigh Hand, or to the Left. So thofe, who look 
after Cattle, know by the Voice of the Bull when 
he is hungry, thirlly, or weary, or when he is 
(lung with Luft. So by the Roaring of the Lion, 
the Honvling of Wolves, the Bleating of Sheep, 
Men .ire made fenfible of the various Wants, In- 
clinations, and Paffions of thofe Creatures. 


Vol. IV". ^Spy^/ Paris. 247 

Nor are thefe Animals ignorant of our Lan- 
guaiCf but by our Voice and Words they know 
when we are angry or pleas'd, when we call 
them to us, or drive them from us : And our do- 
mejiick Animals obey accordingly, with as much 
Promptnefs and Alacrity as a Man or Maid- 
fervant. All which could not be, if they were 
not endu'd with Faculties conformable to ours. 
They alfo teach their young Ones to fmg artifi- 
cially. In a Litter oi Dogs^ Hunt/men chufe the 
bell by this Experiment : They take all the 
Whelps from the Bitch, and carry them to fome 
Place a little diflant ; then they obfervc which 
fhe firll carries back again, and thofe always prove 
the bed Dogs. What is ibis diflinguiflnng Faculty 
in the Bitch but Reafin, or fomething like it ? 

We fee apparently, that every living Creaturf 
knows its own Weaknefs or Strength, and knows 
how to ufe mod dexteroufly thofe Weapons with 
which Nature has furnifli'dit foritsoivw Defence. 
They are alfo fenfible what Places are moft con- 
venient for them to dwell in, and which not. 
Thus the nveakejl Creatures, as Dogs and Cats, 
live altogether in Houfes and Cities with Men ; 
whilft the Lions, Tigers, and fuchyfrrr^ Animals 
dwell in theDe/art. Thus Sparro'u.-s and Sivallctvs 
make themfelves almoft domejiick wirh Men ; 
whilft Eagles, Haivks, Vultures, and other Birds 
of Prey build their Nells in Woods or Rocks, re- 
mote ifrora human Society. Some Birds change 
their Habitation at certain Sea/ons of the Year, 
as bell fuits with their Convenience ; others al- 
ways remain in the fame Place. The fame is cb- 
ferv'd in Tijhes. And in all living Creatures it is 
eafy to trace the Footfteps of Prudence and Fore- 
caft, in order to their own Prefervation. Let 
Men call this what they pleafe, InjlinSl, or Nature, 
or Sen/e, it is evident, that there is an exaft Con- 
M 4 formity 

248 Letters Writ by Vol IV. 

formity and Refemblance between thefe Famlties 
in Brutes and what we call Reafon, JVifdom, or 
Prudence in Men. And we have no mere Ground, 
to conclude them void of Reafon, becaufe they do 
not enjoy it in that PerfeSion as ourlelves, than 
v/e havfe to conclude curfelves blind or deaf, be- 
caufe we fee not fo clearly^ and hear not fo readi- 
ly as the Brutes, and that we have no Legs, be- 
caufe we run not fo /xt//> as fome of them do. 

Doubtlefs, the Brutes are endu'd with a Fa- 
culty of Reafon as well as we ; but this Faculty in 
them is weak and imperfeft for v^ant of Dif inline 
and Art, which polilli all Things, This is ma-' 
nifcll from thofe Creatures which are taught to 
dance and play a thoufand Tricks, to tell Mo- 
ney, tofhootoffGuns, to find cut hidden Thirg«, 
and bring them fome Miles to their Mnfiers, as 
well educated Spaniels will do. What can be 
a greater Argument of the Proficiency they make 
in Reafon and Knotvledge? Are not Elepha?its 
taught all the Arts of tVar, and placed in the 
very Front of the Battle ? Do not the Indian 
Princes repofe as much Truft in their Carrisge 
and Conduft, as in the Service of their ftouteft 
and wifeft Ctmmanders ? This Cre,rture is as 
traclable and prompt to learn any Thing when 
young, as a Boy at School, which cannot be 
done without the Ufc of Reafon. 

To conclude, I have omitted five hundred 
Arguments, which might be brought to prove 
the brute Animals to have Souls as well as we, to 
have Faculties and AffeSlions conformable to ours. 
And therefore it is little lefs Injuftice to kill and 
eat them, becaufe they cannot fpeakand converfe 
with us, tlian it would be for a Cannibal to mur- 
der and devour thee or me, becaufe we underftood 
not his Language, nor he ours. 


VoJ. rV. aSpvai'PAR rs. 249 

God, who locketh up the JVinds during the 
Time the Halcyon hatcheth her Toung, thereby 
fhewing that this Bird is his Favourite, will af- 
furedly grant us a perpetual Tranquillity, ifwc 
abftain from injuring our Felloiu- Animals. 

Paris, zzd of the \Jl Moon, 
of the Tear 1654. 


I'o Muftapha, Berber Aga, at the 

THOU haft formerly heard me fpeak of the 
Duke of terrain, and his feveral Loflea 
wliichinoft People thought wou'd have ended 
with the Excommuincation pronounc'd againft him 
by the Roman Mufti, whereof I gave thee Intel- 
ligence. But Experience teaches us, That Mis' 
fortunes feUomfet upon any Man Jin? ly, but ajfault 
him in Troops 'whom Fate has marlCd out for Ruin. 
Yet this Prince owes his Sufferings chiefly to his 
own Inconltancy, whilil he has all along play'd 
fall and loofe with the Kings of France and Spain, 
taking up Arms by fucceflive Turns for one, and 
at the fame Time underhand and pradtifing with 
the other, always unfaithful to both, and only 
driving on an independanc Intereft of his oivn. 

This is his true Charadler. To which we may 
add, an ungovernable Difpofition, and infa- 
tiable Thirft of Money, which has prompted 
him, by all the Methods of Rapine and Violence^ 
to heap up an incredible Treafure of Gold and 
Jewels. So that having procur'd the Enmity of 
M 5 feveral 

250 Letters Writhy Vol. IV. 

feveral Monarchs, the Jealoufy of his late Mafler 
the King of Spain, the Ill-will of his own Bro- 
ther (whom they call Duke Fravcts) and the Cur- 
fes of all People where-ever his Army has been 
quartered ; he is at length feiz'd and imprifon'd 
by Arch-Duke Leopold, in the Cajlle oi Antzverp ; 
for which joyful News the Inhabitants of the 
Spanijh Netherlands every-where made Bonfires 
for Joy. He was confin'd on the 2^th of the 
laft I^Ison. And foon after his fecond Wife was 
taken into Cuftody, that by her Means they 
may difcourfe his Papers and Money : This lat- 
ter being the chief Thing they aim at, he being 
reputed prodigioufly rich ; and the Spanijh Cof- 
fers want a Supply. They conniv'd at his Rob- 
beries, whilil there was any Thing left for him 
to plunder, and that they faw he hoarded up. 
But now he has done his Work, they punifh.him 
for the Crimes which they themfelves encou- 
rag'd, that fo they may become Mailers of hh 
Wealth. 'Tis faid, he brook'd his Reftraintvery 
well at firft ; but a while ago, being deny'd the 
Liberty cf the Cajlk Walls, he grew raving 
Mad, flung a Candlejiick (which was all the Wea- 
pons they allow'd him) at the Gon)ernor''i Head, 
and broke the V/indows of his Lodgings. So 
that they have been forc'd to confine him to a 
Hole without any Light, fave a little that finds 
Admittance through an iron Gate at the Top of 
the Room. 

His Brother /Vflwm oi Lorrain is to command 
the Army in his ftead ; who pretends great Fide- 
lity to the Houfe of Auftria, yet may in the Iffue 
prove as waverirg as his Brother : For the King 
ei France has Baits wou'd tempt the Virtue of an 
Angel. Yet nothing fhall ever corrupt the Integri- 
ty of Mahmut the Muffulman, on whofe Forehead 
fat& has engraven this Motto, Prepared to fuffer. 

■ Iblufli 

Vol. IV. a Spy at Paris. 251 

I blufh, ferene Aga, when I think I am fo bar- 
ren of Virtues^ that I have nothing elfe to boaft 
of but my Loyalty : Whilll thoufands of illuftrious 
Sou/s, crown'd with a Circle of Merits, daily af- 
cend to Paradife : And tho' they made but an ob- 
fcure Figure on Earth, even as contemptible as 
the exil'd Arabian in his Hutch at Paris, yet now 
take their Seats among the hundred zn^ twenty four 
thoufand Prophets, Favourites of the Eternal. 

May'ft thou encreafe that happy Number, but 
not till thou haft had thy Fill of Blifs on Earth ; 
and that all thy Enjoyments here feeni like the 
Perfumes of Ointments, which, tho' they pleafe 
for a Time, yet at length cloy the Senfe. 

Paris, zid of the ^d Meon, 
cf the Tear 1 654. 


To Nathan Ben Saddi, a Jew at 

DO not fufpcfl me of Partiality, or that I 
am fond of making Pro/elytes, becaufe I 
take fuch Pains to reftore thee to Rcafon, and 
make thee fenfible thou art a Man. I have no 
Defign, or Self-Intereft, in doing thee this good 
OfRce ; and 'tis remote fifcm my Humour to 
bufy myfelf in gaining Ccn'verts. Only the Love 
of Truth fets my Pen at work in this Manner ; 
being ever of the Mind, That a free Difquifition, 
in Matters either of Religion or Philofaphy, is the 
only Way to get quit of Errors. Perhaps my Cafe 
may be the fame as thine : and, for aught thoa 
knoweft, I feek not more to undeceive thee, than 
M 6 to 

'252 Letters Writ by Vol. IV. 

to fatisfy myfcif, by thus frankly venting my 
Thoughts ; fince nothing is more commonly 
obferv'd, than, that, whilft a Man is teaching an- 
other, he improves himfelf. Our Memories are 
frail and treacherous,, and we think many ex- 
cellent Things, which, for want of making a 
deep Imprcffion, we can never recover after- 
wards. In vain we hunt for the llraggling IJea ; 
and rummage all the Solitudes and Retirements 
of our 5W for a loft Thought, which has left 
JK) Track or Footlleps behind it. The fwift Off- 
fpring of the Mind is gone ; 'tis dead as foon as 
born ; nay, often proves abortive in the Mo- 
ment it was conceived. The only Way therefore 
to retain our Thoughts, is to fallen them in 
Words, and chain them in Writing. This is one 
Caufe that I trouble thee with Letters of this Na- 
ture, that, whilft I am inftrudling thee, I may 
eilablifii my own Reafon, and confirm myfelf in 
the Method I have taken, to live according to 
my Nature ; that is, by not fufFeringmy rational 
Faculties to fall afleep, whilft my Paflions are 
r.ftive and" vigorous in working my Ruin : For I 
reckon no greater Shame or Misfortune can befal 
a Man, than to be deprived of his Humanity, 
that is, his Reafan. 

What I have faid, concerning the Perfidlouf- 
nefs of our Mctncries, may ferve as a proper In- 
troduftion to the Objeflions I fhall make againft 
your Traditionary La'as. 

If one ask you, nv^j thefe Laws luerenot ivritten 
as I'.ell as the other ; you anfwer, That God took 
Cart in this, lejl the Gentiles, getting Copies of etn^ 
Jhculd corrupt and per'vert their Setife, ei'en as they 
hai'e done the written Laws. But how then came 
he to fulFer any to be nuriiten ? Had he not equal 
Care of one Part, as of the other ? Or, could 
^eGf>7//A,f do more Harm, by altering and cor- 

Vol. IV. «Spy^/ Paris. z^g 

rupting the lefs fubftantial Traditions, than the 
very fundamental Statutes ? For, that thcfe »«- 
ivritten La^vs contain'd only Circumftantials, 
your Z)(75<?rj thcmfelves confefs. What Man of 
common Senfe then can fit down contented with 
fo trivial an Anfwer ? Or will you fay, that God 
took more Care to preferve thefe Traditions incor- 
rupt from the Gentiles, than to retain them in 
their Purity among the Jen^js ? For that commit- 
ting them to Writing had been the fareft Way 
to retain them in their original Purity, is evident 
by the Prefervation of the ivritten Laiu ; of 
which there was fo great Care taken in tranfcrib- 
ing it, that if but a Letter or Point were added, 
diminifh'd, or mifplac'd, they took it for d, fatal 
Omen of feme Calamity, and the faulty Scribes 
vere feverely punifn'd, nay, the whole Congre- 
gation were bound to expiate the Offence by Faji- 
ing, Prayers, and j4/ms. So that it was in a Man- 
ner impofTible, that, with all this Circumfpeftion, 
the leaft Corruption or Alteration fhould creep 
into the ivritten Laiv. 

I appeal now to thine own Rcafon, Whether 
this was not a much fecurcr Way of preferving 
the Laivs uncorrupt, than by trufling them to tlie 
fickle Memories of Men ? 

Befides, I would fain know what became of 
thefe Traditions during the various Capti'vities of 
the Je-Ls, and Depopulations of the Holy Land'? 
Who took Care to deliver thefe Traditions unal- 
ter'd to Pojlerity when they were without Brief s. 
Prophets, ox Synagogues ? When they were difpers'd 
over the remote Province: ci Media, Perfa, Egypt, 
and Babylon ? In thofe Days your Fathers were 
Slaves to the Gentile Kings of Jfta ; there were 
then no Seniors fitting in the Sanhedrim, who 
might take Care of thefeThing<:. Neither do I find, 
that Efd/Ri the Scribe was any ways concernM 


254 Letters /Fr/V ^ Vol. IV. 

for thefe Traditions^ when he with his Brethren 
the fe^Kis return'd from their long Captivity in 
Perjia and Babylon. All his mod flrenuous En- 
deavours were employ'd in recovering the loft 
Books of the Written Lain, without fo much as 
regarding or mentioning the other. From whence 
I gather, that either thefe Traditions were of no 
great Importance ; or if they were, yet they 
were wholly, or for the moft part chang'dor loft, 
many hundred of Years before the Talmud was 
firft compos'd, which, thcu fay'ft, is the grand 
Repcjitory of thefe /acred InfiruBions. And, in 
faying fo, thou contradideft thy own Arguments : 
For if thefe Traditions were appointed to be tranf- 
mitted by Word of Mouth, from Father to Son, 
to all Generations y as you fuppofe, then what need 
was there of writing them in the Talmud, or any 
other Book ? And yet the Writings of your Rab- 
bi% are full of them. Thus thou confoundeft thy- 
felf, and runneft blindful round in a Circle of 

Rcuze up therefore thy Reafon, and fuffer not 
thyfelf to be hoodwinked by the Eables of your 
Rabbrs, thoie induftrious Mid^vi-ves of old \\'o- 
mens Tales. Doubtlef? thofe Traditions, about 
which you make fuch a Buftle, are no other than 
the Whini/ies of your Cabalijis, who pretend to 
fpy more Myfieries in the Order of two or three 
Hebrinv Letters or Points, than they are able to 
unfold in whole Volumes. They crack their Brains 
in conjuring up far fetch'd Interpretations, from 
the particular Fafiaion and Placing of one fingle 
Dafh of a Pen. They puzzle and amufe their 
Difciples, with teaching them more knotty and 
romantick Di-vinity out of iht four and tiventy 
Letters, than ever Pythagoras did with all his ^- 
fiick Numbers. The Alphabet to them is the Oracle 
of Theology;. They have turned the Law into a 
perfeft Riddle » Believe 

Vol. IV. tf Spy ^/ Paris. 2^^ 

Believe not therefore thefe Religious Mounte- 
banks, thefe holy Jugglers, who with their fanc- 
tify'd Legerdemain would turn you into ^pes, that 
they may laugh in fecret at your Folly : while 
they behold, how precifely devout you are in 
cringing, jumping, dancing, howling, braying, 
and all your other antick Poftures and A£lions in 
the Syna?o?ue ; in thePraftice of which you have 
beftowedfo much Care, and are fo exa£l, that 
you quite neglefl the nxieighty Points of the Laiv. 
I hope what I have faia is fufficient to convince 
thee, that thofe Traditions, which, you are taught 
to believe, were deliver'd to Mofes in the Alount of 
God, are no other than the Impojitions of your 
blind Guides, who are ftudious of nothing more, 
than to entangle you in a perpetual Labyrinth of 
Superjiition and Error. 

It will not be a greater Difficulty to demon- 
ftrate, that the ivritten Laiv itfelf, tho' Di'uine 
in its Original, is not of univerfal Obligation to 
all -People, but only calculated for your particular 
Nation, and fuch as were willing to enter into 
your Interefts, among the Nations adjacent to 
the Holy Land. 

And becaufe my Time haflens me, I will only 
fugged one Argument for all, and leave it to 
thy Deliberation ; whether it was poffible for all 
Mankind to repair once a Year to Jerufalem, to 
facrifice in Salomcn's Temple, as is requir'd in your 
Lanxi ? For that it was not lawful to facrifice any 
where elfe is evident, both from the Lww itfelf, 
which exprefsly forbids it, and from the Exam- 
ples of your Fathers ia their feveral Capti'vities ; 
and from your own Pradice at this Day, who 
have made no Sacrifice fince the Days of Titus 
Vefpafian, the Roman Emperor, who laid wafie 
your Ci:y, aiid burnt your Temple to Alhes. 


156 Letters fVrit by Vol. IV. 

And this alfo may ferve to convince thee, that 
the Laiu of Moj'es was not o^ perpetual Obligation f 
even to the Jevjs themfelves ; fince 'tis evident 
from Matters of Faft, that, for thefe Sixteen hun- 
dred Years, you have not been in a Capacity to 
keep it: And doubtlefs, God would never re- 
quire any thing of Men, which he forefaw they 
would not be able to perform. 
- Ceafe then to think fo highly of thy Nation , as 
if none but they were the Ele^ of God, or capa- 
ble of his Favours: Ceafe to infult over the reft 
of MafikinJ, and to curfe thy Brethretj the Sons of 
one Father, even Noah the jtiji Man, and Prophet 
of God. Behold the Sun and Moon, with all tlie 
Conflellativns in Heaven : Their hjluences are 
equally difpers'd to all oi human Race. Behold the 
Elements ; they ferve all the So?is of j^Jam alike ; 
they are not partial to Mortals, neither does any 
Tadion byafs the Winds and Rain. Thefe happen 
all at their appointed Time and Place. And the 
four Seafons of the Year return with even Courfes 
to the Inhabitants ofihcfour^arters oftheWorld. 
The Plants know no Difference between the Cir- 
cumcis''d and the Vncircumcis'd ; but yield their 
Encreafe with equal Indifferency to the one and 
the other ; And the Brute Animals equally ac- 
knowledge both for \!ti€\x Lords. The Birds of the 
Air are as foon caught by a Heathen, Chrifiian, or 
Mahometan Fo^-ler, as by one that is a Jeiu. And 
the Fijh of the Sea, when they fwallow the Hook, 
or plunge themfelves into the Net, regard not the 
Difference of Religion in thofe that catch them. 
All Things happen to every Man according to 
their Nature and the Pleafure of Dejiiny : Only 
Man himfelf tranfgreffes the Condition of his 
Being. But thofe that obey the internal Latu- 
git'er, let them be of what Nation or Religion fo- 
ever, doubtlefs they live happily, and die in Peace. 


Vol. IV. a Spy «/ Paris. 257 

However, left Men fhould err for want of 
Kfwnvled^e, a Light is fprunjf forth in the Eaji, 
even the Book of Glory, which confirms the Writ' 
tan Laiv, and inilrufts Men in the Truth. Doubt- 
lefs this Book was brought down from Hea'ven : 
It carries its own Evidence, and a Teftimony of 
its Di'vine Original, in the Majefty of the Style: 
There is a Spirit and Energy in every Word, fub- 
limating the IntelleB of the devout Reader, and 
purifying his Affeftions : It is written in Arabick, 
in a Dialed fo pure and perfect, that the moft ac- 
curate Criticks can find no Blemifh from the Be- 
ginning to the End. One Part coheres exadlly 
with the other ; 'tis void of Contradidlion. All 
the Chapters in this glorious Volume mq. of a piece ; 
which Excellencies could not have thus met toge- 
ther without a Miracle, in a Book divulg'd by a 
Man, who could neither ivrite nor read. 

The Succefs, it has had in the World, fpeaks it 
cf celeftial Dejcetit. The greateft Part of Jjia, and 
J/rick,\\ix.\\ manyKingdoms i nJ^r^ri?/?, have obey 'd 
the Alcoran for above thefe thoufand Years. Cou'd 
fuch a Thing come to pafs, without the Decree of 
Hea'ven ? When the Prophet and Fa'vourite of Goo 
firft rt-ceivVl his Di'vine Comttiijfion , he was like a 
Pelican in the Wildernefs, folitary, and without 
Companion. Nevcrthelefs, he was not difcou- 
rng'd, but obey'd the Orders oi Heaven. He faw 
himfelf in the midft of Pocks and Sands, encom- 
p::fied on all Sides with terrible Beajls : Yet he 
defpnir'd not of Affiftance from aboi'e, but com- 
forted himfeL^ in the Promife of the Eternal. He 
iirll preach'd to the favage Lions and Tigers ; who, 
as if they had heard another Orpheus, grew tame 
and fociable at his powerful Words. Thofe 
fierce Inhabitants of the Woods came and pro- 
flrated themfelves before the Sent of God ; they 
lick'd his feet, in token of Submiffion ; they 


253 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

environ'd the Place of his Repofe, as his Guards, 
and brought him Food Morning and Evening. 
The Prophet wonder'd that fo great Grace was 
given to the Beajis of the Earth He prais'd the 
Creator of all 'Things, and his Mouth was full of 
Bejiediiiions. He blefs'd the Day and the Night, 
and the Ob/cur ity that comes between them. He 
blefs'd the Deivs that fall at the rifmg of the odo- 
riferous Star, and the refrefhing Winds that ftir 
the Leaves of the Trees at Midnight. And in the 
Morninfr he pray'd that all Men might become 
true Belie'vers. Doubtlefs God had granted his 
Petition, had not the Angel, who carry 'd up his 
Prayers to Heaven, met with the Devil, a little on 
this fide the Orb of the liloon, who ftole from him 
fome of Mabn'.ut''i Words, that fo the Prayer af- 
cended imperfe«ft to the Throne of the Merciful. 
Neverthelefs, a great Part of Men became Betit' 
I'crs ; and more lliall be added to the Number. 

In a little Time the folitary Prophet faw him- 
felf at the Head of a numerous Army, all Fo- 
luntiers, who refcrted to him in the Wildernefs, as 
they were infpir'd from Abo-ve. The mighty RIen 
of Arabia oppos'd the facred Hero : They led the 
Flower of the Eaf againft him ; but they acce- 
lerated their own Fate, and incens'd their angry 
Stars. The Elements took up Arms againft them, 
and the Meteors fought in Defence of the Mejferi' 
ger of God. Lightning and Hail, with Stones of 
Fire, blafted the Troops of the Infidels : And ter- 
rible Storms of Winds buried whole A rmies in 
the Sands. Thus the Hofi of the Muffulmam 
became vidlorious without drawing a Sword, and 
the Empires of the Wicked {t\\ to the Poffeffion of 
true Believers. Perfia, Babylon, and Egypt were 
fubdued and embrac'd the undefiled Truth. The 
Alcoran was receiv'd from India to the Mauritani- 
an Shore: From the rifmg of the Sun, to the going 


Vol. IV. ^Spy^/ Paris. 259 

down thereof, this holy ProfeJJton is made vvitli 
one Confent, There is but one God, and Maho- 
met his Prophet. 

Now Nathan confider, whether ever the Lifut 
of Mofes had fuch Footing in the World., or the 
Children of Ifrael could boall of fuch uniuerfal 
Conquefis : Your little A^/rg^^ew has had its Pe- 
riod long ago ; and both that, and all the Em- 
fires oi JJta and yJfrick, are fwallow'd up in the 
./ill-conquering Monarchy of the Ofmans. Your 
Tabernacle, Temple, City, and Sacrifices are quite 
extindl : Your Nation fcatter'd over the whole 
World, witliout Lands or Pojfejfions that they call 
their own. Neither is there Prince, Priefi, or 
Prophet, to whom you can have Recourfe for De- 
livery from your Misfortunes. 

Come out therefore from x\\z Synagogue, which 
lies under the Scourge of Heaven; JhakeofFthe 
Maledidion-, and, being purified, join thyfelf to 
the/;a? Believers, who are ble/s^d in this World, 
and fhall be happy in Paradije. Or at lead Hand 
by thyfelf, and follow thy own Light. Adieu. 

Paris, zidofthe %d Moon, 
of the Tear 1654. 


To Dicheu Huflein, Baffa. 

'T* H E Policies of Cardinal Mazarini are no 

•*■ Secrets at the Imperial City. Now he is 

about to p!ay his Mafter-piece. He has all along 

maintained Penjloners in the Service of the French 


26o Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

Grandees. No Man of prime ^ality cou'd be 
fure he entertain'd not at his Table Ibme Crea- 
ture of this Mbiifier. I^iiguifes of all Sorts, both 
for Body and Mind, were never wanting to Men 
dexterous at Treachery, and officious to do Mif- 

But now he is fetting Sfies of another Charai^er 
on the Princes of the Blood, and the chief Nobility 
of France. Women are to become his private 
Agents ; Females oi Km own Blood, trae- If alians, 
and brought up under his particular Care and Ma- 
nagement : In a Word, his Sijlers and Nieces. 

Five of them arc newly come to this City, 
having been conducled hither by the Cardiiiafi 
Secrttary, acconipany'd with a confiderable Re- 
tinue of Courtiers, who went to meet them fome 
Leagues from Paris. 'Tis faid, 'I'hat one of 
thofe Ladies is a great Beauty, and that the 
young Ki7igf having feen her Pidure, fell in love 
with her. 

This is certain, the Prince of Conti has married 
one of them ; with whom the Cardinal has given 
his Palace, and two hundred thoufand Crowns in 

They talk as if another of them was to be 
married to the Duke oi Candale ', and a third, to 
the Son of General Harcourt. And, as if Maza- , 
rini were emulous of JofeplPi Charadler and Au- 
thority in Pharaoh'^ Court, he has fent for his 
Father alfo, with all his Family, to come and re- 
fide in France. He is refolv'd to ftock this King- 
do7n with Sicilian Blood, a Race of Ma%^rins : 
Who by Inftind, as well as by Rules, fhall car- 
ry on the Defign he has laid ; and either raife this 
tottering State to the Height of his Msdcl, or 
abfolutely ruin it. For that aftive Spirit cannot 
take up with Mediums. 


Tdl. IV. aSpY at V ARis. 261 

'Tis faid, That the Duie of Orleans refents 
very ill the CardinaPs Ambition, in marrying 
his Nieces into iht Blood Royal. ThatPr/wf^ vvili 
not be prevail'd on to come near the Court ; but 
rather favours the Prince oi Conde, and the other 
hlalecontents ; whence fome People are apt to 
prefage another Turn of Affairs before 'tis long ; 
for the Generality of the French are inclin'd to 
the Prince's Party. 

There is great Caballing all over the Kingdom ; 
and the Cardinal llrives to pufli his Intereft for- 
ward by all the Methods of a cunning Statefman. 
He knows the Prince of Conde^ Spirit too well to 
dream of a Reconciliation, and he has a double 
Intereft in the Ruin of that unfortunate Ge- 
neral ; his own Prefervation, and the Aggrandi- 
zing his Niece, thePrzV/ff/Jof Cow// ;,who, by the 
Fall of her Brother-rn-LaiUy will be Mijlrefs of 
his Eftate. 

He is endeavouring alfo to make an Alliance 
with the Cardinal dt Ret%, his profefs'd Enemy, 
and one rais'd by the Pope to that Dignity, on 
purpofe to counter-ballance Mazarini^s Power at 
this Court ; where he is fufpefted to animate the 
King againft the Court of Rome. 

That Cardinal de Retz is now a Prifoner of 
State, and has been fo a long Time ; being firft 
confin'd by Mazarini^s Orders. But the wife Mi' 
nijier now thinks it fafer to compound with aMan, 
whom he cannot longer perfecute, without draw- 
ing on himfelf the Revenge of all the Ecclefi- 
aflicks, and efpecially the Thunder of the Roman 

Therefore, to reconcile Matters, and fortify 
himfelf, he has propos'd a Match between his 
Nephew and de Retz^s Niece. The Court is wholly 
taken up \Wth making Friendfhips of this Na- 
ture ; which is an evident Sign they feel their 


262 Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

Power at an Ebb, and fear it will be much lower, 
if the Prince of Conde fhould once take the Field 
in France. 

'Tis nothing to the MuJJulman Intereft, which 
Side gets the Advantage, for they are all equal 
Enemies to the Sent of G o d . 

If I can by any fuccefsful Artifice promote the 
Divifions of thefe Infidels, I Ihall notdifferve the 
Jhining Fort. However, I will ftill pray. That 
thofe Swords may be turn'd againft each other ; 
which, united, would hazard the State of the true 

Iliullri^us Friend, let thy Prefence in the Z);- 
'van be as a ftrong Bajiion^ under the Covert of 
which Mahmiit may be fheher'd from the Artil- 
lery Kii et'il Tongues and Sycophants. 

Paris, x/^hofthe^thMoonf 
of the Tear 1 654. 


To Dgnet Oglou. 

THOU art not ignorant that when I firll 
heard of the cruel Sentence executed on our 
late Friend Egri Boinou (on whom be the Mercies 
of the Creator) I wrote to his Succeffor Jfmatl 
MoutaFaraca. a Letter of Condolence; wherein, 
to keep a Medium between the Tendernefs I ow'd 
to the Lofs which my Friend had fuftained of his 
Eyes, and the Diftruft I had of a Stranger, I 
-filled up my Letter to Ijhmael with coniblatory 
Expreffions ; fuch as I would have ufed to Egri 
himfelf, had I been in his Company : JBelieving 


Vol. IV. aSpvaf Paris. 263 

that Ifmael would read my Letter to his blind 

I plaid the Steick, and encouraged the DoBrine 
of Apathy j or, at leaft, I abounded in Philo/o- 
phical Counfcls, almoft as impradlicable as the 
other : Nothing but fevere Morality drop'd from 
my Pen. And all this, to cover my real Con- 
cern and PafEon for Egrd Sufferings ; who, thou 
knoweft, was beloved by more than thee and me. 
I told thee in a former Letter, That I did not 
dare to truft my Sentiments, though difguis'd, to 
a Man, who, on the Score of his new Preferment, 
might become more quick-fighted than before, 
and would foon penetrate the thin Veil of Words, 
and fpy fomething in that Difpatch, to my Dif- 
advantage, fhould I have ventur'd to defcant on 
the Sultans Severity, or Egri\ Merits. 

Therefore I thought it bell to pretend an In- 
differency, to which I am as much a Stranger as 
any Man, in Cafes that too nearly touch our 
Senfe. 'Tis eafy to give Counfel to another, 
which in the fame Circumftances we are far from 
praftifing our felves. Then we can be full of 
Wifdom, and grave Morals ; but when it once 
comes home, all our Philofophy vaniflies ; there 
remains nothing to be feen, but a mtxt fenjitivt 
Animal, without Virtue or Patience. 

My own Experience, but two Days ago, forces 
this Confeffion from me, when, by an unlucky 
Blow, I loft the Sight of both my Eyes, for the 
Space of eight and forty Hours, 'Tis true, I 
fhould not have ufed them much during a Third 
Part of that Time, had they not been hurt ; un- 
lefs thou wilt fay, they are ferviceable in our 
Dreams, and help our Souls to fpy the dark Chi- 
tnera\ of the Night. However, I remember 
' twas no fmall Grief, even in that Abfence of the 
Sun, to be only fenfible of the Privation of my 

Ears : 

264 Letters Writ by Vol. IV^ 

Ears : For, whilft the Windows of my Soul were 
fhut, 'twas in vain for thofe of my Chamber to 
be open ; which before this Misfortune would, 
by letting in the Light of the hloon or Stars, have 
convinc'dme, That it was Night, without being 
beholden to the Clocks and Bells of the Corfjents 
for my Intelligence, as I was under this Affliftion. 
Then it was, that in my Heart I unfaidall that 
I had written to the Eunuch^ on the Subjeft of 
Blindfiefs, and curfed the Philofopher for a Fool 
or a Madman, who put out his own Eyes for the 
fake of his Thoughts. I envied thofe more happy 
Fools, who are without Thoughts, but enjoy 
their Sight, which helps to form and regulate the 
Conceits of the moft wife and thinking Men. 

Nay, fuch was my Faffion and Melancholy, 
during this fhort Eclipfe of my Eyes, that I pre- 
ferr'd to mine even the Life of thofe dumb Ani- 
mals, whom Men have learn'd to call irrational, 
becaufe they exprefs their Sentiments by inarticu- 
late Sounds, a Dialed which we -don't under- 
lland. And T could almoft have wifhed myfelf 
metamorphos'd, though it were into a Dog, pro- 
vided I might have but that Senfe, the Want of 
which renders our Humanity imperfed, and a 
Burthen to itfelf. Or, if thou wilt blame me for 
fuch a Wifh, I cannot forbear thinking that Dog- 
happier than his Majier, whom I have feen lead- 
ing a blind Man in a String along the Streets of 
Paris. How prudently did that faithful Crea- 
ture adl the Guide, in crofiing the Way, if any 
Danger threatened his Charge, as a Cart, Coach, 
or Throng of People? And all this Conduft 
was owing to his Eyes, which made him wifer 
than his Majier, who, had he enjoy'd this 
Senfe, might not, for aught I know, have fur- 
paffed his tind Brute in the Exercife of Rea/an. 


Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Paris. 26^ 

And now I am fallen on this Subjeft of the 
Wijdom of Brutes, I muft not forget a Story 
which I have read in Plutarch, as alio in a cer- 
tain French Author, of a Dog in the Court of the 
Roman Emperor Vefpajian wnich would aft to the 
Life all the Agonies and Symptoms of Death at 
the Command of a Mountebank, who had taught . 
him many fuch comical Tricks to divert the 
Grandees of Rome. 

The fame Frenchman mentions certain Oxen^ 
which it feems had learned Arithmetick : For be- 
ing employed in turning the Wheel of a Well 
an hundred times every Day, when they had 
finifli'd that Tafk, would not ftir a Step more; but, 
having refolv'd that Number in their Minds, de- 
filted of their own accord ; nor could any Vio- 
lence compel 'em to farther Labour. Who will 
deny now that thefe Oxen were Mathematicians ? 
or, that that Ship Dog had any need toftudy Ew 
clid'% Elements ; who, having a great defire to tafte 
of feme Oil that he faw in a. deep earthen Veffel, 
and not being able to put his Head in far 
enough, by reafon of the long ftrait Neck of the 
Pot, after fome Study ran to the Ho/d of the Ship, 
which was ballafted with Gravel-Hones ; from 
thence he brought in his Mouth, at feveral times, 
as many of thofe little Stones, as, half filling the 
Pot, forced the Oil up to the Mouth, fo that he 
could lap his Belly full ? Of this Plutarch fays, 
he was an Eye-Witnefs. Was not this, thinkefl 
thou, an Archimedes among the Dogs ? Are not 
the Goats of Candy abfolute Phyficians, when, 
being wounded, they never ceafe ranging the 
Plants of that fertile IJland, 'till they have found 
the Herb Dittany, with which they reftore them- 
felves to Health ? 

Should the French read thefe Lines, and the 

others I have writ on this Subjeft to Cava Halt ; 

N and 

266 Letters JVrit hy Vol. IV. 

the great Mahummed of the Defart, they would 
cenfure me as a Heretick, a Fool, or a Madman : 
Or, at leaft, they would conclude, I am too 
importunate an Advocate for the Beajls. They 
would call me Brute my felf, and fix my Pedigree 
among fome of the dumh Generations. 

But thou who haft been educated in the ferener 
Principles of the Ea^, and haft had the Honour 
to pour out Water on the Hands of the abftemious 
Eremit, wilt have another Opinion of what I fay, 
in Defence of our Kindred Animals. 

He that has given Wifdom and Language to the 
Pi/miresy and inftrudled them to converfe toge- 
ther by mute Signs, fo that, when the Signal was 
given, the Alarm was t:^en throughout their 
humble Territories, and they all fled away with 
their Bag and Baggage when the Army of Solo' 
mon approached : Infpire us wiih Grace to under- 
ftand the Language of the Beajls, or at leaft, not 
think ourfelves wifer than them who underftand 

Paris, \/^th of the ^th Moony 
of the Year 1654. 


"To Afis, BalTa. 


HIS Court is wholly taken up at prefent 
_ with the Preparations that are making to 
cronxin the young Kitig. The Place, defign'd for 
that Ceremony, is a City call'd Rkeims. 'Tis faid 
the Duke of Orleans will not be there, though the 
King has fummon'd all the Princes and Nobility to 
attend ^th.'i% Inauguration, according to the ancient 

Cuftom : 

Vol. IV. tf Spy ^/ Paris. 267 

Cuftom : But that Prince flomachs the great Sway 
Cardinal Mazarini bears at Court. Befidcs his 
Daughter, who has no fmall Power over him, is 
afFeded to the Party oi 'Malecontents. 'Tis thru* 
her Perfuafions the I>uke her Father abfents himfelf 
from the King his Nephew. Yet there are thofe 
that fay, his Mind will change before the Time 
appointed for the Coronation : And that he will 
rather diflemble his Grudge, that fo he may more 
advantageoufly ruin the Cardinal, who keeps the 
King lull'd in a Circle of Pleafures agreeable to 
his Youth, that fo he may not have Time or In- 
clination to pry into his Management of Affairs. 

The Court is at prefent at Fontainbleau, a, 
Houfe of P/ea/ure belonging to the King. 'I'hey 
pafs their Time away in Delights, drowTi'd ia 
Security : Whilll the wakeful Princes of the 
£lcod are plotting new Methods to rouze 'em 
from their Lethargy, and teach the young iWa- 
narchy that the Sound of the Trumpet and Beat of 
the Dru7n will in a fliort Time be more ncceflary 
Mufick than \}s\!t foft Airs of the Lute^ and fuch 
Chamber- Melody. 

In the mean Time, the Prince of Conde being 
condemn'd, the Princefs, hx6 Wife, has petition'd 
the Parliament, that her Dozvry may be fecur'd 
to her . But they have referr'd the Matter to the 
King. Her Hulband feems to be loft in all Re- 
fpeits, fave thofe of the People's Affeftions, who fa- 
vour any that are Enemies to Cardinal Mazarini. 

Monjieur Broujfel, one of the Counfellors of Par- 
liament, whofe Imprifonment I formerly men- 
tion'd to be the Caufe of the ^r/? Sedition at Paris, 
is newly dead ; yet the Caule, whereof he was a 
Patriot, dies not with him, but rather takes frefh 
Vigour from daily Grounds of Difcontent. 

It was more particularly reviv'd upon the 

DeatJi of the late Archbijhop of Paris; the Clergy 

N 2 cliufmg 

iCS Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

chufing for his Succejfor the Cardinal de Retz, a 
Prifoner of State, and under the fevere Difplea- 
fure of the King. This EleSlion was counter- 
manded by a Declaration from the Council Royal. 
Neverthelefs t\\t Ecclejiajiicks perfift in their firft 
Choice ; whilft Cardinal Mazarini threatens 'em 
with the PunifViments due to thofe who contemn 
the King's Authority. But they flight his Me- 
naces, trufting to the j^rms of the Prince oiConde, 
which they hope will deliver them in time from 
the Oppreffions of that great Minijier. 

1 he Men of Jbility cabal, whilft the Vulgar 
are eafily drawn into Parties, as their Affedlions 
byafs 'em. Here is nothing but Murmuring and 
Whifpering againft the Government. Every Man 
endeavours to purchafe Arms, and lay 'em up 
privately as againft fome publick Invafmn. Nay, 
the Citizens walk not abroad without Daggers 
hid under their Garments, as if they either in- 
tended a Majfacre, or were afraid of one . All 
Things feems to portend fome fudden Eruption 
o^ popular Fury j and the Wifeft know not what 
will be the liTue of fo many threatening Occur- 

Only Mahmut (furrounded with hfidels) is re- 
fign'd to Dejiiny ; knowing that no human Coun- 
/el can haften or retard the Decrees fign'd above. 

Paris, I -jth of the ^th Moon^ 
,ofthe Tear 1654. 


Vol. IV. « Spy ^7/ Paris. 269 


To Murat, Bafla. 

IT feems the Devils have been lately let loofe 
in thefe Wejiem Parts, if we may give Credit 
to the Depofuion of fuch as have accus'd certain 
fuppoi'd Witches. 

\\\ Bretagne, a Pro-vince of this Kingdom, above 
forty old Women have been feiz'd and imprifon'd, 
for holding Correfpondence vj'\ Porvers, 
and above ha;f of them condemn'd to Death : 
God knows with what Jullice. 

Some of them are accus'd of enchanting the 
Perfons of tlieir Neighbours ; others for bewitch- 
ing their Cattle ; and a third Sort for diflblving 
the mifchievous Charm of the firft and fecond : 
All of them for aflembling in the Night time, 
and ufing certain diabolical Ceremonies, which, 
they fay, begin and end in kiffing the Pojierioit 
of a Goat, or the Devil in that Form 

I know not how far thefe poor fuperannuated 
Figures of Mortality may be wrong'd. 'Ti? a 
Queftion whether their Judges are always in tl.e 
Right, A fliriveird meagre Face, a hollow Eye, 
join'd with irrecoverable Poverty, are many 
times the chief Grounds of Sufpicion, which, 
improv'd by Superftition, Miftakes, and Malict, 
have often prevail'd on thofe who ought to 
adminifter Jullice, to condemn poor Wretches 
more innocent than themfelves, as guilty if 

Yet it cannot be deny'd but that there have 

been both Men and Women vers'd in magicol 

Arts, as they are commonly called, which I take 

to be only the more mvfierious Science of Naturr. 

N 3 Suci 

2yo Letters Writ hy Vol. IV. 

Such was Zoroajier, the great Grand child of 
Noah, ar.d Kir.g of that Part of y^yfa, which was 
then caird BaSirta. Such was Jpallomus Tyattetuif 
Philijlides Syracafanus, with many others of an- 
cient Date : Thefc underflood the hidden Force 
of the Elements, the Influence of the Stars, the 
fpecifick Operation of Metals, Minerals, and 
other fubterranean Bodies, with the Virtuesofall 
Vegetables. They knew exaftly how to frame 
Ajiral Images and Tali/mans^ by Help of which 
they were able to' efFeft Wonders. And all this 
perhaps without once dreaming of infernal Spirits, 
or having the leaft Society with De-vils. 

Yet I believe Luclan, an ancient Writer, who 
never fpoke ferioufly of any Thing, fcarce be- 
liev'd himfelf, when he related the Story of Pan- 
crates, a famous Magician of Egypt, who by thefe 
Tali/mans was able to transform inanimate Things 
into the Appearance at leaft of li^o'ng Creatures. 
Thus he wou'd turn a Stick or Piece of Wood in- 
to a feeming Man, who fhould walk, difcourfe, 
and perform all the Adlions of a rational Being. 

A certain Stranger travelling with him once to 
Memphis, and lying with him in the fame Cara- 
'vanfera, as focn as they were alighted from their 
Oimels, Pancrafes took a Plank of Oak, and ha- 
ving touch'd it with his Tali/man, and pronounc'd 
two or three Syllables, incontinently the Stock 
mov'd, flood upright, walk'd, and, taking the 
Camels by the Bridle, led them to the Stables : 
After which this '•jooodtn Man came in and pre- 
pared their Pilaiv, went on whatfoever Errands 
Pancrates fent him ; and when they departed, the 
Magician ufmg a certain private Ceremony, this 
officious Servant return'd to a Plank again. This 
wss his Praftice all along the Road. 

One Day his Fellow Traveller, being refolv'd 
to try the Experiment, took Advantage of the 


Vol. IV. a Spy at Paris. 271 

Magician^s Abfence, who was gone to the TVw- 
p/e, and left his Tali/man behind him. The cu- 
rious Traveller, having been often an Eye-VVit- 
nefs of this Trick, takes a Piece of Wood and 
touches it with Pancrates'^ Tali/man, repeating 
the Syllables he had heard him utter. Immedi- 
ately the inanimate timber became a Man, ask- 
ing his Pleafure. The Traveller, aftonifh'd at the 
Event, commanded his new Servant to bring him 
a Bucket of Water. The enchanted Spark obeys. 
The Traveller told him it was enough, and bid 
him return to a Piece of Woodz^xw ; but, inllead 
of that, he continued drawing of Water, and 
bringing it in till the Houfe was full. The Tra- 
veller, fearing the Anger oi Pancrates, thought 
to diffolve the Enchantment, by cleaving the 
Wooden .^.nirnal in two. But this augmented his 
Trouble ; for each Piece, taking a Bucket, fell 
to drawing of Water, fo that of one Servant he 
had made two. This continued till the Magician 
came to his Refcue, who, having iternly rebuked 
the Traveller's Raihnefs, at a Word turn'd the 
two bufy Drudges to their primitive Loggifhaefs 
and Inadlivity again. 

I do not tell this Story as if I would have thee 
believe it, or that I give Credit to it mylelf. Let 
us imitate the Author of it, who, laughs at all that 
delight in fuch Fables. But the Chrijlians, who 
believe a Piece of Bread is transformed to FUjb 
and Blcod, and becomes an immortal God at the 
pronouncing of four Words by the Priefi, may be 
excus'd, if they put Confidence in the Figments 
of Poets and Orators. 

I have in my Cuftody the Journal of Carcoa, 
who formerly refided at Vienna, a private Agei.t 
for the Ever Happy Port. Some of his Letters 
fpcak of the Superftition and Credulity of the 
Germans in this kind. Yet in a Letter to the 
N 4 Mufti 

lyi Letters If^rii hy Vol. IV. 

Mufti, he acknowledges himfelf overcome by the 
unqueftionable Tellimonies of fuch as had been 
P^ye-Witneffes of the Life and Death of one Faw 
JluSf a German Magician, who play'd a thoufand 
infernal Pranks (as he calls them) even before 
the Emperor himfelf. 

He tells alfo of another Magician^ call'd 7.yt0t 
who liv'd in the Days of the Emperor Charles 1 V. 
And when the Efnperor\ Son, to whom Zyto be- 
long'd, was to marry the Duke of Bavaria'i 
Daughter, the Duke to oblige his Son-in-law, 
who was much taken with Magical Tricks, as 
were all the Germans, fent for a great many 
famous Sorcerers to the Wedding. Among the reft, 
while one was performing a rare Exploit, on a 
fudden 7,yto the Prince' a Conjurer came up to him 
with a Mouth feeniing as wide as that of an old 
Crocodile, and fwallows him up at a Morfel. When 
Jbe thus had done, he retires and voids him again 
in a Bath, and brings him thus drench'd into the 
Company, challenging any of the other Magici' 
ans, to do a Feat like that, butthey were all filent. 

I hear of no fuch Tricks done by thofc French 
Witches, who caufe fo much Difcourfe at prefent. 
The worft they areaccus'dof, is bewitching their 
Neighbours Hogs toMadnefs, which thou know- 
eft may be only a natural Malady. 

I pray Heaven defend us from the Enchant- 
wents of a deluded Fancy, that DomelHck Incw 
bus of every Mortal, and we need fear neither 
IVitcb nor Wizard. 

Paris, zoth of the t^th Moon, 
of the Tear 1654. 


Vol. rV. a Spy at Paris. 273 

To Cornezan Muftapha, BafTu. 

TH E Fame of Chrijiina, Queen oiS-iceJen, 
has no doubt reach'd thy Ears : I have 
made mention of her in feveral of my Letters, 
That Royal Virgin is now about to furrender her 
Croivn to her Coujffi, whom they call Charles 
Prince Palatine. This is a voluntary Refignation. 
And her Motive is faid to be a ftrong Inclination to 
Solitude unA. a. pri'vate Life, being efteem'd the 
moft accompliih'd and learn'd Princefs of this Age. 
But thofe, who pretend to know more than others, 
fay, that the true Ground of her abandoning the 
Kingdom, is a Refolution fhe has taken to change 
her Religion, and embrace the Faith of the Roman 
Mufti, which is forbidden by the Laws ofSiveden. 

Thou wilt fmile at the Propofals which this 
^een fent to her defign'd .S«f f(/7or j and his An- 
fwer to them. 

In the firft Place, " She will keep the greatcft 
*' Part of the Kingdom and Revenues in her own 
" Hands. 

Secondly, '* She will be no SubjeS!, but alto- 
" gether Independant and Free. 

Thirdly, " She will have Liberty to travel in- 
** to Foreign Countries, or into any Part of that 
" Dominion. 

Lafly, " She will not have the Offices ofTruJ?, 
*' or any other Gifts that fhe fiiall have difpos'd 
** of to her Faivurifes, revoked by her SucceJ/hr. 

To thefe Jr tides Prince Charles anfwei *d, 

FirJ}, •' That he will not be a mere titular 
*• King, without Dominions, nor without fuch a 
*' Revenue as isneceffary to defray the Royal Ex- 
** pcncesy both in Peace and fFar. 

N 5 Secmdly^ 

274 Letters /iTr// ^ Vol. IV. 

Secondly, " That he will fufFer no Competitor ^ 
*• Equal, or Sovereign in his Kingdom. 

Thirdly, " That he will not run the Hazard of 
•* her Intrigues in Foreign Courts. 

Lajily, " That, if he heKing, he will difpofe of 
** Treferments as he thinks fit. And in fine. That 
** he will not be the Shad(r<jj of a King, without 
•' the fubjiantial Prerogati'ves ofScvereignty. 

'Tis added. That when the ^eenheard his Re- 
ply, fhe faid aloud, *' I propos'd thofe Articles 
*' only to try his Spirit. Now I efteem him wor- 
** thy to reign, who fo well underftands the in- 
*• communicable Rights of 2 Monarch. 

This Intelligence comes by a Secretary to the 
Spanijh Ambaflador, who is newly come out of 
Siceden to negotiate at this Court a Ten Years^ 
Truce between France and Spain. 

Here is likewife an Ambafl'ador from Portugal 
who acquaints the Court, that the Portugmze 
have expeli'd the Hollanders out of the Places 
they held in the Eafi- Indies. But,if our Merchants, 
bring true Intelligence, the Tartars will exter- 
minate all the Franks that are in China, 

In the mean Time, the young King of France 
pafies away his Hours in Dancing, feeing of 
Plays, and other Recreations, provided with vail 
Expence by Cardinal Mazcrini, to divert him 
from meddling with publick Affairs, and from 
thinking too ferioufly on the Sentence he has pro- 
nounced in Parliament againft the Prince ofConde^ 
One knows not well how to b'nmc the Prince 
of Conde'f, Proceedings, nor yet to accufe the 
King of Injultice. Neither is it proper for a Muf- 
fuhnan Slave to decide the Controverfy : Our 
t Principles and Lanus are different from theirs : 
And he, that is elteem'd a Patriot here in :he IVeJl, 
would be condenm'd for a Rebel without Hefi- 
tation in any Part of the Eajly where but one 


Vol. IV. ^ Spy <7/ Paris. 275 

God in Heaven, and one Sovereign on Earth, is 
acknowledg'd by the Subjeds of every Kingdom 
and Empire. 

But in France the Vrince.s of the Ro^al Blood 
are invefted with furh a Power, as renders it diffi- 
cult for thofe under their Command to diilinguifh 
'em ixom fupreme Monarchs. Yet not one of 'em 
polTefles a Government equal to that of the Bajfet 
of Egypt ; or fuperior to his of Aleppo. 

I have fpoken of thefe Princes formerly in fome 
of my Letter i to the happy Minijlen oi him who, 
when he pleafes, can make the greateft Sovereigns 
the Squires of his Stirrup. 

And therefore 'twill be needlefs to fay any 
more on that Subjeft, but only acquaint thee, 
that the French Court, tho' they cannot relent of 
the Rigour they have ufed towards the Prince of 
Conde, yet feem willing to compound the Bulinefs 
with his Son, the young Duke of Enguien, and by 
a fubtle Artifice, to ftrike two Strokes for the 
State at one. A great Duke of this Realm has 
been lately difpatch'd to the Duke of Orleans, to 
propofe a "Match between his Daughter and Con- 
//?'s Heir. Whereby the Ejiate of the Prince of 
Conde will fall to the Duke of Orleans's PofTeffion, 
during the Minority of the young Couple. This is 
a Wheedle to reconcile the Kings Uncle to the 
Court y who has been a long Time eftrang'd. But 
'tis thought his Difpleafure is of too deep a Dye 
to be wafh'd off with Court Holy- Water. 

I have no more News to tell thee, fave the 
Death of a certain Prince, whom they call the 
Duke of Elbeuf. And it is of no Import to the 
Divan, whether a hundred of thefe Infidel Prin- 
tes die every Day or no, fo long as tlie Grand 
Seignicr lives, and is ever fupply'd with faithiul 

-^ § For 

lyS Letters ^r/7 ^jy Vol IV^ 

For his Health I pray, before the Sun peeps 
o'er the Tops of the Eajlern Mountains, and after 
he hides himfelf in the Vallies of the Weji. Nei- 
ther do I rife from my Knees at the/i/f appointed 
Hours, without an Oral/on for Cornefan^ and the 
otiier Bnjfa's of the Port. 

Paris, \Oth of the 6th Moon, 
of the Tear 1654. 


To Sale Tercheni Emin, Superinten- 
dant of the Royal Arfenal at Con- 

'Tp H O U, that haft the Charge of the Ammii>- 
-*• nithn defignM for the Conqtiejl of the World, 
iirt fictefl to receive the News of a terrible Blow 
lately given to a City of the Infdcls in Flanders. 
This Place is callM Grave lins, whereof I have 
made mention in fome of my former Letters. 
On the 29th of the laft Moon, the Powder of the 
Magazine there took Fire, whether by Accident, 
or Defign, is not certainly known ; but the Da- 
mage it has done is very great. It is reported, 
that a third Part of the City is blown up, and the 
thief Fcrtif cations about it, with the Outnvorks 
cf the Citadel. Three thoufand Mortals had 
their Breath exhaufted by the violent Convalfion 
of the Air, and were fent into another World, 
well feafon'd with Salt Petre : Befides a vaft Mul- 
titude cf all Sorts, that werebury'dinthe Ruins 
»f the Houfes. 


Vol. IV. ^z Spy rt/ Paris. i*]'j 

Some fay, A certain Perfon cominp; to buy 
fome Powder of the Steward of the AlagaziTief 
as they were knocking out the Head of a Powder 
Barrel, the Hammer llruck Fire. Others report, 
that this Perfon, who pretended to buy Powder, 
was a Spy, or private Jgetrt of Cardinal Mazarini 
in thofe Parts : And that, by his Mailer's Order, 
he had prepar'd a certain artificial Fire, enclos'd 
in a Shell or Box ; and that, at a certain determin'd 
Period of Time, it would caufe the Box to fly in 
Pieces, and fcatter Flames almoft as fubtil and pe- 
netrating as thofe of Lightning. 

Having therefore, this little Inftrument of Mif- 
chief ready, and being inltruded in all Things, 
he with the SteiLord emer'd the Vaults where the 
Powder lay, under Pretence of buying fome for 
XherGovernor of Bruffels. And, when they had 
open'd one of the Barrels, he thruft his Hand 
among the Powder, as though he would take up 
fome to look upon ; at the fame Time dextroufly 
conveying his little Shell or Box into the Barrel, 
knowing that in an Hour's Time it would work 
its EfFe^. In the mean While feeming todiflike 
that Barrel, they open'd another; which he 
bought, and fo departed. Within an Hour after- 
wards, all ihe Countries round about were afto- 
nifli'd at the dreadful Blow, which made the 
Earth to tremble. They fay, it was heard be* 
yond the Seas into England. 

Thus the Contrivance of this Trage^ns faften'd 
on Mazarini ; and fuch is the Hatred the Peo- 
ple bear to this Miniller, that, if an Earthquake 
(hould happen in thefe Parts, I believe they 
would accufe him as the Author of it. 

But it feems as- if all the Elements were at fP^ar 
againft the Naherland Provinces. I have already 
acquainted the Minifters of the Ever-happy Port, 
w]iat Diftreffes befel thefe People by Storms at 


278 Letters /^r/V ^ Vol. IV. 

Sea, and Inundations on Land. After which the 
Element of /Vr^ took its Turn to chaftife them. 
For, in the iirft Moon of this Year, a certain Wind- 
mil, in the Lo<vij Countries, whirHng round with 
extraordinary Violence, by Reafon of a furious 
Storm ; the Stone at length by its rapid Motion 
became fo intenfely hot, as to fire the Mill ; 
from whence the Flame?, being difperfed by the 
High Winds to the Neighbouring Houfes, fet a 
whole Town on Fire. 

And now the Wrath of Heaven has been kin- 
dled again to dellroy thefe Infidels : Yet thofe that 
furvive will not be converted. Perhaps they will 
be ruin'd Piece-Meal, even to a. final Extermina- 
tion, like the People of Jad p. ad Thamod, of 
whom at this Day there remain no Foot-fteps. 

I pray God guard the Imperial City and ^r/e- 
ual from all Cafeialties of Fire, from Inundations 
of Water, and from Earthquakes : And thy own 
watchful Care and Prudence will defend the Ma- 
gazines in thy Cuftody, from the fly Attempts 
of Traitors and Villains. 

Paris, loth of the 6th Mock, 
of the Tear 1654, 


^0 Mehemet, an Eunuch, in the 

I Acquainted thee formerly with the firft Ne- 
ceffity I had to drink Wine, that I might the 
better conceal my being a MuJJulman, when I 
was mad« % Prifoner by Cardinal Mazarines Or- 

Vol. IV. /7 Spy ^/ Paris. 279 

der, I tell thee now, this Liquor is grown habi- 
tual to me, it being the natural Bea;erage of the 
Country where I am. But the French temper it 
with Water, the better to allay their Thirft, 
and prevent Fevers : Which Cuftom agrees not 
with the Stomach of a Mahometan, who, when he 
drinks either Water or Wine, loves to have them 
pure without Mixture, I ufe it moderately for 
my Health, and to create an Appetite. But this 
Evening 1 drank a Glafs of Wine, which is like 
to make me abhor it for ever. In all Probabi- 
lity I ihall turn as ftrift and precife as a 
Hodgta. For, in the midfl of my Draught, I had 
almoft fwallowed a great Spider, which lay 
drowned in the Wine. The little Beaji had 
pafs'd my Lips ; but I Toon clear'd my Mouth 
of fo ungrateful a Morfel. I wifh I could as 
eafily difcharge my Imagination of the hated 
Ideas it has imbibed with this fatal Potion. Not 
that I think I am poifoned, or have received any 
real Damage from the Spider : The worft Venom 
lies in my own Fancy It will be impoflible for 
all the Water in France to wa(h away the Preju- 
dices I have conceived againft this little In- 
feSl. I have a perfeft Antipathy againft it. The 
Sight of a Spider would always make me fweat 
and tremble. Now, if ever I Ihould tafte of 
Wine again, I Ihould imagine every Mouthful 
I fwallow'd had a Spider in it. My Reafon tells 
me, there was no Danger if I had one in my 
Stomach ; having feen a Phfician, without the 
Ufe of any Antidote, fwallow two or three large 
Spiders in a Glafs of Wine : And this was his 
Grdiuary Praftict every Morning. And moft of 
that Profeffion maintain, that Spiders, fo drank, 
can do no Harm j yet my Antipathy overcomes 
my Reafon in this Point. And if Galen or Hippo- 
crates were alive, they would not be able with all 


iSo Letters IVrii hy Vol. IV. 

their learned Demonfirations, to reconcile me to a 
Creature, for which I have an invincible Averfion 
and Abhorrence. I had rather encounter with a 
Lion or Tiger in the Defarts of Arabia, provided 
I had but a Sword in my Hand, than to have a 
Spider crawling about me in the Dark. And 
therefore I have often envied the Happinefs of 
the Irijh Men ; for in that IJIavd, they fay, No 
'venomous Creature will live. The fame is report- 
ed of the IJle of Malta : which wonderful Privi- 
lege both thefe IJlands afcribe to the Prayers of 
certain Saints. 

There is no Reiafon to be given for thefe fecret 
Antipathies, which are difcover'd in many Men. 
Some will fvveat. and faint away, if there be a 
Cat in the Room where they are, though they 
know nothing of it, any otherwife than by the 
fecret Intimations of this unaccountable Senfe, 
which "Nature has added to the other/"-!;? . I have 
feen a Gentleman drop down in a Swoon, as foon 
as he enter'd a Chamber where there was a Squir- 
rel kept in a Cage. And thofe that knew him. 
faid, It was his conftant Infirmity. 

If there be any Truth in the Do£lrine of the 
Soul's Tran/migration^ I (hould think the beft Rea- 
fons for thefe private Antipathies might be drawn 
from fome former State of the Soul. And accord- 
ing to that Suppofition I fhould conclude,- that 
I had been a Fly before I came into this Body ; 
and, having been frequently perfecuted by Spiders 
in that State, do flill retain the Dread of my 
old Enemy, which all the Circumftances of my 
prefent Met amor phofis are not able to efface. But 
if this be fo, I wonder I fhould have no di0in6l 
Remembrance of my former little volatile Life; 
fmce Pythagoras the great Patron of the Metem- 
pfychojis declares, that he could remember feve- 
ral Changes he had undergone. And particular- 

Vol. IV. ^ Spy ^/ Paris. 281 

]y recounts, how he led a merrier Life when he 
was a Frog, than fince he became a Philofopher. 

It aiFords mc a Matter of Thought, and is no 
fmall Diverfion to behold the Contrariety that 
is in Men's Diet. One Man never taftes oi Fijh 
all his Days, another abhors Tlejfj ; this faints if 
his Bread be cut with a Knife that has touched 
Cheefe, that fwoons at the fmell oi Mutton. Men 
have as different Appetites, as they have Faces. 
Some are fqueamifh, and almoft naufeate every 
Thing that others eat freely of: Again, there 
are others to whom nothing comes amifs. For 
my Part, I have many Averfions in Point of 
Diet ; And, above all Things, I can never be re- 
conciled to the eating of hife£ls. Serpents, and 
other Reptile Creatures ; yet here are Men in this 
Kingdom, who live upon Frogs, Vipers^ Grajhop' 
ferj, and fuch kind of loathfome Animals. And I 
have read of a People in the Southern Parts of 
Africa, who had no other Diet but faked Locujls^ 
which they catch in the Spring ; when certain 
Winds bring innumerable Swarms of them over 
the Land, ib that all the Country is covered. 
Thefe People are very lean, aftive, and black. 
They run fwift as Stags, and will climb Trees, 
and jump from one Bough and Tree to another 
as nimble as Apes and Squirrels. But they are 
fhort liv'd, never exceeding forty Years of Age. 
For, about that Time, they feel a violent Itch- 
ing all over their Bodies ; which tempting them 
to fcratch tlierafelves, they never ceafe 'till they 
make Holes in their Flefh, where certain winged 
InfeclshrteA: Which multiply fo fall, than in a 
little Time they devour the poor Wretches. 
This is thought to be the Refult of their ill Diet. 

Let not what I have faid create any Squea- 
milhnefs in thee, but eat thy Pilaw with a good 

Stomach : 

282 Letters Writ by Vol. IV. 

Stomach : For that Food has the BenedlBion of 
God and his Prophet. 

Paris, z^doftbe 6th Moon, 
of the Tear 1654. 


To the Kaimacham. 

' I ' K E King of France has been folemnly 
■*• cro-ivKed at Rhims ; where were prcfent 
his Mather and B) other y Cardinal Mazarini, with 
divers Princes and Nobles, and Foreign Minijiers. 
But nothing could perfuade the King^s Uncle, 
the Duie of Orleans, to grace this Ceremony with 
his Prefence. He has declared he will never 
Com'e to the Court fo long as Cardinal Mazarini 
is there. 

Marjhal Turenne has recelv'd private Orders to 
repair fpeedily to his Army in Flanders. What the 
Defign is we are not certain. Some fay. He is 
gone to furprize Gra'velines, a City in Flanders^ 
which was lately fo ruin'd by the Blowing up of 
the Magazine, that it is not in a Condition to re- 
fill the French, (hould they affault it. 

Others fay, the King has commanded his Ge- 
neral to lay Siege to Stenay, a. City belonging to 
the Prince of Conde, a Place of great Strength, 
and exquifitely fortify 'd. 

'Tis reported, that Cardinal Mazarini holds a 
Correfpondence with the Go'vernor of this Jfrong 
Hold r And that on this Ground it was he promis'a 
the King, on the Honour of his Purple, that, if he 
would fuffer his Army to lie down before it, it 
Ihould by fuch a Day be delivered into his Hands. 


VoJ. IV. tf Spy 5/ Par IS. 283 

The'Duie of Lorrain, of whofe Imprifonmet t 
at Jntnverp I infcrm'd Mtiftapha Berber Aga^ it 
now remov'd from thence and fent to Spain ; from 
whence 'tis believ'd he will never come back. 

From the "North the Poft brings News of the 
Refignation which ChrijUna, ^een of S^ueden, 
has made of her Croncn, to her Coufin, Prince 
Charles. They add. That {he caus'd a Crtnv» to 
be made with this Infcription, From GOD and 
Christina ; and that fhe plac'd this Croivnon 
the Prince'^s Head with her own Hands, having 
before abfolv'd all her Subjeds from their Oaths 
oi Fidelity to her. 

The fame Poji alfo tells us, of a mighty Army 
of Mufc<n>ites which are enter'd into Poland, de- 
ftroying and laying defolate wherever they come. 
The pretended Caufe of this Invafion is faid to 
be a Difguft the Czar has taken at a certain Hi- 
Jiorian and Poet of Poland ; who, in reciting the 
^ar/ between thoie Nations , had made a Miitake 
in the Genealogy cf the Mufco'vite Emperors, na- 
ming the Father for the Son. The Czar, being 
inform'd of this, demanded the Head of the 
Writer as an Attonement ; which being deny'd, 
he rufli'd into the Territories of Poland, to re- 
venge himfelf by Fire and Sword. 

Thefe are the Aftions of fuch as pretend to 
follow the Example of y^^y/^/, ih^ Me^as ; who 
commanded Men toforgi've Injuries, even as did 
our Holy Prophet; yet they fcruple not to accufe 
us of what they themfelves are only guilty. Thus, 
whilft; they are Chrijiians in Name, we fliew by 
our PraBice that we are true Difciples of the ve- 
nerable fefus. 

Doubtlefi all Men zxtjuji or icicked by Na- 
ture. Every Man's Fate is engraven on his Fore- 
head. And neither the Precepts nor Examples of 
Je/us, or Mahomet, can alter the Inclination of 


284 Letters /FW/ ^jy Vol. IV. 

thofe, whofe Stars have fign'd 'em in their Na' 
tivitj with the indilible Characters of Vice. 

Paris, "^d of the 6th Moony 
of the Tear 1654. 



'To Dgnet Oglou. 

Itherto I have been in a Wildernefs, or at 
_ _ leaft I'll fuppofe it, wandering up and down, 
loll and confounded in the Dark, without Sun, 
Star, Land-mark, or any faithful Guide to diredt 
me. What fhall I do in this Cafe ? I am tired 
with perpetual Rambling ; and rell dare I not ; 
neither can I, fuch is my Uneafmefs, even in 
the only Circumllance which gives to other Mea 

Thus I difcourfe with myfelf when I am alone, 
and confider my prefent State as a Mortal. 
The Miferies of this Life are the Themes of my 
firft Contemplation ; and 'tis but Reafon it 
fhould be fo, becaufe we feel 'em every Mo- 
ment. They touch our Senfe nearly, and afflift 
us with fharp Pains. Vet they are but like the 
Sting of a JVafpy violent for a Time, but laft not 

This Thought carries me farther, and puts me 
upon an endlefs Meditation, what will befal me 
after I am dead. When I have contemplated all 
that I can, run over a thoufand Paths of Fancy, 
and track'd all the Footfteps of the Wife, or of 
fuch as were efteem'd fo ; ftill I find myfelf in 
a Defarty more entangled than a Traveller lolt in 


Vol. IV. aSpY ai Varis. 285 

the ForeJI of Hyrcania, which extends from the 
mod Northerly Part of Mu/covy, to feme Pro- 
'vinces in the German Empire ; and 'tis reputed 
five hundred Leagues in Length. 

In this bewilder'd Condition I met with many- 
pretended Guides ; one telling me this is the 
Way, another that. But, becaufe they do not 
agree in their Advice, I know not which to truft j 
and am inclin'd to fufpeft fome for Cheats, and 
the reft for Fools ; as much at a Lofs, if not 
more than myfelf. 

Permit me todifcourfe with Freedom, my dear 
Dgneti and let us unmafk like Friends. What 
fignifies all that the Imaums and Mollahs can fay 
01 Paradife and Hell, fince none of 'em have been 
there to make an Experiment ? Why fhould we 
fufFer ourfelves to be amus'd with Notions of 
Things, which for aught we know have no other 
Exiftence, but in the Harangues of the Preachers, 
and the Fancies of the Credulous, 

Think not that I am going to perfuade thee to 
the He'refy of the Muferin, who deny the Being of 
a God. I tell thee, I am no Atheijl. From every 
Thing I behold, my Thought foon flies up to a 
firft Caufe ; and there 'cis dalh'd into a thoufand 
^eries. This I lay as a folid Foundation, Alt 
Things nxiere not ahvays in the fame State as they 
are noiv, (my Experience demonftrates to the 
contrary.) But how much longer they have been 
otherwife, than my own Remembrance, I can- 
not be affurcd, but by the Confidence which I rc- 
pofe in People that are older than myfelf, and 
the Faith I give to Books. Both which agree in 
this. That they are guilty of Contradiftions 
without Number. 

Thofe that were born before me, and liv'd in the 
Days of Sultan Mahomet III. tell me many Paf- 
fages of his Reign, quite different from the Rela- 

2 86 Letters Writ by Vol. IV. 

tions of others, who alfo liv'd in thofe Times, and 
rcmark'd the Tranfadlions of their Age. 

I like the Difagreement I find among Authorsy 
who have committed to Writing the Hijiorles of 
former Times, 'Tis difficult to encounter with two 
Men of the fame Opinion, even as to Matters 
of Faft. Some take a Pride in difguifing the 
Truth, whilft others have not Skill to take 
off the Malk. There are a fort of Perfons in the 
World, Men of fupine and eafy Judgments, 
credulous, and not daring to call in Queltion 
what has been tranfmitted to them from the Au' 
thority of fuch and fuch a Writer. They fuper- 
ftitioufly revere, as an Oracle, the Mamifcripts of 
a mortal Man like themfelves, fubjeft to as many 
Frailties and Miftakes. And all this, only becaufe 
they have been taught to do fo from their Infan- 
cy : So forcibly is the Influence oi Education. 
Thus the Hel>re*ws believe the Records of their 
Nation to be of divine Original, though they 
want not 'verbal Contradi<Sions, and abound with 
logical and philofopkical Inccnfiflencies. But that 
which is of greateft Moment is, that neither they 
nor any other Nation, no not even the AJJyrian 
or Egyptian Records, come near the immenfe 
Chronologies of the Chinefe and Indians. So 
that, amidft fuch Variety of Accounts, a Man 
knows not where to fix his Belief. But whetlier 
the World be only Five or fix thoufand Years 
old, or of a more indefinite Antiquity, this k 
a fure Maxim, That fomething is eternal, EveH 
the Jeius and CkriJUans^ who deny the Eter- 
nity of Matter, and affer: the Creation of the 
World out of NoTHtNG, in a determin'd Pe- 
riod of Time, muft of Neceffity own. There was 
an eternal and infinite Eniptinefs or Vacuity, 
which is the fame as Mofes calls by the Name of 
Nothing: Which will found as harfh to 


Vol. IV. ^7 Spy ^/ Par IS. 287 

Philofophy as the Eternity of Matter does in their 
Di'vinity Nay, if I millake not, 'tis of a worfe 
Confequence, even in the DoSlrlnes of ReligioVf 
to affert an infinite Privation, or Want of Exi- 
Jlence, to be Coeternal with the /uifiantia/ Go D, 
who is Omnipotent, Li'ving, and Strong ; than to 
affirm Matter itfelf to be Coeternal with him, 
fince this is an adual Sub fiance, and may with 
Reafon be fuppos'd, as a necejfiary Emanation of his 
Po^ver and Goodnefs ; whereas the other is a mere 
naked Potentiality, a Non- Entity, as the Wefiern 
Philo/ophers call it ; and therefore cannot be con- 
ceived to flow from the Divine Nature which is 
Ejfiential Life and Being. Yet in thefe nice and 
remote Speculations I am timorous, and dare 
not be pofitive ; left I fhould prophane the Ho- 
nour of that So'vereignly Good, who is the Breath 
of our Nofirils. To fpeak the Truth, I am wa- 
vering in all Things but this : That there is an 
eternal Mind, every where prefent, the Root and 
Bafis of all Things vifible and invifible, whom we 
call Jlla the Support of infinite ^ges, the Rock 
and Stay of the Univerfe. 

Let thou and I, dear Friend, perfevere in ^diO- 
TVCigt\i3X/uperlati've Effence oi E^ences, with in- 
ternal and profound Devotion. Let our Thoughts 
be pure, our Words few, and thofe full of inno- 
cent and grateful Flames. For afTuredly, God 
delights not in the Babbling of the Tongue. 

^s for the reft, Let us live according to our 
Ncture and Reafon, as we are Men. For we may 
believe. That the indulgent Father oi all Things 
will accept us, if we fquare our Adions accord- 
ing to this Rule, without aiming at the Perfedion 
of Angels, 


288 Letters /Fr/V ^ Vol. IV. 

In a Word, Let us love all human Raccy and 
fhew Juftice and Mercy to the Brutes. For, in fo 
doing, we fhali not be unkind to ourfelves- 

Paris, i^th of the -jth Moon, of the Tear 1654, 
according to the Chrijftian Stjle. 

ne End of the Fourth Volume, 

University of California 


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