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FROM 1846 TO 1855. 









JfcA- zn (0.1.(^0 



The author reserres himself the right of translating. 



If^of the moat pleasing contemplationa of our tirae ia to 
ueBjwhiehhave existedfor thousands of jears,correctedand 
ijudices sanctioned by numberless centuries removed. The 
1 öf eplightenment begina to reach the remoteat parta of the 
■th, and warms with its rays objecto and conditiona, which 
3eared to have been conderaned for ever to an icy death- 
e life. In aimple worda; Science now more than ever 
ies its aalutary influence feit, and all that doea not rest 
on that foundation, Jinda ita very continuation threatened. 
bereever it can be applied one knows beforehand to which 
e victory will finally incline; and it ia tbis conviction 
it apurs on to ever fresh exertion, and ever inspires freah 
irage for continued combat against everything falae and 
i; whether it appears to us in the form of prejudice, of 
iae, of oppression or of vice. — The parta viaited by 
rr J, J. Benjamin, the countriee of the East, offer to that 
trtion an immeasurable field; all that debaaea mankind 
1 beld there for eentui'iea an undistnrbed away, and created 
;h confiiBioa in the notiona of right and wrong, that for 
present one dare not hope for a speedy removal of tbis 
rfnl condition of society. Fanaticiain atands forth there 
its moat repuleive form, and often with bloody 
;e8 the horrors of ite errors on the pages of hiatory. 
fht, Dot right, takcs t)ie precedence*, and W, ^\^ ^c»^ 


) see ^ 

Bessea not the former, can riever obtain the latter. Befor 
others it is especially so with the Jews, who, eveiyw 

disperse^, in no place forming a „people", are expoae 
all the wretchedncsa of ai'bitrary governroent, Only in b 
placee, auch aa Bagdad, do they enjoy a bappier condi 
and develop there an activity and prosperity, which i. 
advantageona to theraeelvea , as it is for the places in w 
they have settled. In most placea however our Benji 
fonud bis co-religionists cnished under the weigbt oJ 
bitrary oppression, here and there even in absolute slav 
others only in name belonging to that great sect, wl 
traditions bave exercised the moat abiding influence a 
mankind. The deepest resentment takes possession 
the Philanthrop ist at the description of such a condidon; i 
filled with pity he looka ai'Onnd for the means to rem' 
Buch a State of thinga, Happily tbeae lie nearer than a suj 
ficial consideratioii of the aubject would incline ua to auppo 
they consist first in tbe removal of prejudices, under wh 
the Jews still groan even in aome of the moat advanced pa 
of Europe. Every man of enligbtenmcnt, in wbatever cir 
of Society he raay move, can do bis part towarda thia; and 
the great stateaman, Lord Stratford de RedclifFe assurcd I 
British Parliament on the 2T^ April 1858, it is our failt 
hitherto in removing the fettere of prejudice in Weste 
Countries, whicb binda the handa of tbe frienda of religio 
freedom and political equality of the Jews in the East. 
When the fiirtherance of such a sacred purpose is in queatäo 
Burely it bchoves every enlightened man to conti-ibute jo 
fiiliy bis mite. Argumenta in favour of bis doing so are n 
wanting; for the leaming of the laat years have supplif 
them abundantly. Moreover tbe Jewa, in every place wbei 
they bave been put on a footing of equality with othi 
religious sects, bave developed an indusüy, attended h 
the most bappy results for thoae countries wbich bave ai 
corded this act of justice ; and tbia haa authorised the pol 
tical economist to ask witli good reason: „ If it would i 
be more advantageous to encourage by liberal conceai 


\ an active intelligent people, rather than to restriet 

k in their material and mental progresa?" — The Jews 

r time have been most siiccesaful in their exertiona in 

Bce and art, and nianj of the most esteemed names among 

k and authoi-s, have been pointed out by them with just 

e as their brethren in the faitb. What this highly gifted 

have effccted under the most unfavourable circum- 

inces, linder continnal oppression and clogging prejudices, 

irians have sufficiently prrfved. But what, if free, they 

1 effect for mankind and the world, hida dehance to 

Y calculation ; it offera the elementa of a power which 

bpolitical economiat, no poÜtician, who would not lay himself 

in to the Charge of shortsightedness, dare undervalne.Where- 

ple ai'e found, even if it be in the most depressed 

I they fumish matter for reflection, and gei-ms capable of 

»rdinarydevelopement. Apartfrom their BibÜcal history, 

iinterest has alwaya been connected with the Jews in their 

Btion and dispersion; and to ascertain wliich country 

i the ten lost tribea of Israel is a scientific problem, the 

i of which possesses universal importance. — To this 

lenjamin's n^^'&fi* years in Äeia and Africa" fumishes 

^retending but nevertheless a valuable contribution, 

k aa such merits recommendation, even to thoae, who 

lot belong to the same faith as the estimable author. 

1 these few words aerve to recommend thia book, — be 

ping band, which one traveller willingly lenda to an- 

i wben tliey accidentally meet, aoon aftcr by different 

• to continue their earthlj wanderings towards the 

BCutonbsiy Square, lalington, London. 
Idt.y 3, ISöS. 

Bertlwlä Seemann, ph. d., f. l. s., 

AdjUDCtOB Pmesidii of tliB Imperinl LeopuldinO' 
Caroline Academj, 


Uuring the time that the present work was in couraq 
prmtiiigj the autbor had the honuur of being allowedtol 
parts of it before seyeral of the most renowned m 
of science, «ivhose favourable opinions of them he prefi^ 
to his own inti'oductory lines; as in tlieni he linda the h« 
proof that his endeavoura have not been quite deatitute 


üxtract from a letter of His Excellency Baron 

Alexander v. Humboldt, Member of the Eing^B 

Frivy Council, and Chambeilain to His 

Hajesty, at Berlin. 

Acknowledging the noble purpose which you have pui 
Bued in your travels in dietant lands to ascertain the con 
dition of a acattered and oppreseed people, I have read wirf 
much interest aeveral poi-tions of your book. You portn^ 
conditions of degradation in the oppresaed, and of arbitru] 
power in the oppreseors, which are but little known i^ 
Europe, and which will aßsuredly and with juetice indoq 
inany to peruae your work. 

May yotir new undertakings be likewise attended w/A 

. March 25'" 1858. 

Alexander von Humboldt. 


Opinion of Professor B'' Carl Bitter in Berlin. 

Several chapterB which I have read from proof sheets 
of an oriental journey of Herr Benjamin have much inter- 
ested me. They describe in verj clear and simple language 
the adventures and experiencea of the author; written cer- 
t.iinly in a special point of view, but in the wärmest intereat 
'1 his brethren and companions in the faith. They arc cal- 
i lilated to contrlbute in no slight degree, by awakening in- 
terest in the West, to new and more complete journies and 
researcbes for the improvement of their State in the East; 
and every real exertion in behalf of their oppreased con- 
äon niust be attended with fmitful result for a better future. 
Berlin, March 30"^ 1858. 

C. Ritter, Dr. & Prof. phil. 

Member of ttie Ao&demy of Scienoea. 


Ipinion of Professor D'' H. Fetermann in Berlin. 

The travels of Herr J. J. Benjamin, which he undertook 

kthe Bame spirit as hia celebrated naioeaake of Tudela, 

res intereating discloaures respecting the dispersion of hia 

Ihren in the faith in the different countries he has viaited, 

tecting their communities, their customa and traditions, 

I may aerve, by being brought into comparison with the 

trk of that Rabbi, to raake known how the Israelitish po- 

lation in thoae parts haa in one part increased and in an- 

decreaaed. Notwithstanding his partiality for hia 

fethren he doea not conceal their faults, their want of edu—,.J 

cation and their snperetition , when it comes to his view; 

$ui altogether bis accounts bear the Bt&m^ of tc\i.\^ %xt^ J 

credibility; so that the work, written aa it is with fireshii 

and livelioess, will gain the mterest of many readera. 
at any rate I heartily wish. — I can corroborate nun 
it by my own experience. 

Berlin, March SB'" ] 

H. Peiet 

Opinion of B'' Ä. HelfiFerich in Berlin. 

To judge from what he has already accomplished, . 
second accurate reBearch of Asia by Herr Benjamin woult 
in my opinion, lead to evcn more satisfactory resulta. ■ H 
is pert'ectly conversant with the condition of thinga in tha 
country, and just the man to draw forth information respect 
ing the now completely iost rem.nant not only of the Jews 
but likewise of the NestorianB of Central- Asia. An invaluabli 
acquisition of raanuscripts conld be then expected, whicl 
could not fail to be weluome to every friend of civilisation. 
The more difficult it i3 to make reaearches amid the mint 
of antiquity the more sincerely is it to be wished that many 
others would not shun the hazard of such ajourney to theae 
clouded but raemorable countries; and the way and manner. 
in which Herr Benjamin Las understood hia work, and in 
part has already aocomplished it, justifieB üb in forming 
great hopes for the future. May the expectations of the 
worthy traveUer himaelf be fulfilled! J 

Berlin, April 10^ 1858. ^ 

Adolph Helfferich. 

Opmion of jy- MagnuB in Breslau. 

Mng requested hj Herr Benjamin from the Moldavia to 

• my opinion of bis book of travels, wbich will shortly 

- complete in print, coneerning bis eiglit years' wan- 

inga and adventures in Asia and Africa, I can aasert 

1 the füllest contidenee, as far as I have had an oppor- 

Djty of looking tLrougli them, that theae accounts are not 

nly adapted to every educated person, as interesting and 

Utertaining as well as inatructive, but that they are, in ao 

r as they describe from the author'a own Observation, the 

Ute of the Jews in tbo above mcntioned countries at the 

Bent time, a valuable acquisition to seience. Herr Ben- 

work posaeaaea peculiar intereat from the unassuming 

md simple language in which it ia written, reminding 

' the book of travels of his celebrated brother in the 

l nftmeaake of tlie 12"' Century after Christ, of the 

lot of Benjamin of Tudela, by the aide of which it 

dly deaerves a place. 

Breslau, June 15'" 1858. 

D'^- E. J. Magnus, 

Prof. of Eosteni and Babbinical Literatnre 
at Ihe UnivMsity of Brealsn. 

Space does not permit me to have printed with these 
Ihe opinions of other leamed men of our time. 

After such recommendationa as theae I hardly dare 
venture myaelf, and in fact I deem it superfluous to say 
more of the work in question, Af'ter the exertions of several 
years I have found in them not only the riebest reward for 
all my labours, but the courage neceasary for the publication 
of thia work, ae well aa a apur to me for unceasing efforta 
in the proseeution of that which I have begun. 

In iaying the resnlts of my eight years' researchea be- 
fifre the general reader as well aa befoie slV i&'j \Rcf&KVGk.i 

in the faith, I venture to reckon on the Indulgent opin 
of all those who know the difficult and almoat impractica 
task impoaed upon me. Sincß the daya of the venera 
and celebrated Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela, no one has i 
elusively devoted hlmself to such a aolemn undertaking, a 
this secular interruptioii of a highly important enterpri 
increasea the natural and mamerous dilBculties whioh opp< 
themselvea to the prosecution of the matter, 

Notwiths tan ding all these obatacles, I believe I ha 
still sucneeded in throwing aome light on the renmant 
the descendants of a people, whoae long exile of hundre 
of years has only appeared in the annals of hiatory; of 
people, who deserve the researches and aympathy of < 
thoae who are impreaaed with a kuowledge of the iä^ 
mission wiiich Providence had asaigned theni. I have a 
deavoured by a faithfiil description of theii- present conditio, 
and by an investigation of their ancient traditions, to draw thei 
forth from their night of forgetfulnesa ; happy shall I esteeJ 
myaelf if thereby I have been able to awakcn some syn 
pathy for them, and if 1 may liope to obtain some araeli( 
ration of theb' materiai condition, some of the benefita c 
civilisation , and in particular religioua tolerauce. Above al 
others, however, I wiah to awaken the sympathy of iny fellow 
believera in Europa for their unhappy brethren, who an 
exiled in those inbospitable countries, which are seldom, i 
ever, trodden by the foot of a European. Under the yoki 
of fanalieism and barbariam for hundreda of years, nothwith' 
Standing all peraecutions and oppreaaions, nohvitbatandinf 
pUlage and murder, they have still remained ateadiaat in 
the faith of their fathera. li' through my deacriptions anything 
effectual should by really achieved, then indeed I ahonlcl 
not consider loat the troublea and dangers of a long 
wearisome pilgrimage. 

Besidea this great and chief object of my wanderinga i 
the East, I have endeavoured to give in their proper places 
in my work, by the introduction of hiatorical, geographica!, 
Statistical, and other notices, aome elucidation, until i 


f known, respecting the countries I have visited, and I hope 
. tbat these will not be everywhere unwelcome. 

The French original edition of tliis work only contains 
an account of my jotimey in Asia; and as I was not able 
to Buperintend personally the printing of it^ a number of 
mistakes in the events themselves^ as well as in the geo- 
graphical names, have crept in. The present English edition 
I contains besides the travels in Asia, aecounts of my wan- 
derings in Afirica; and is likewise thronghout corrected and 
; fanproved. 

After having ceased for a time my wanderings and 
; researches for the purpose of publishing this work, I intend 
I again to resiime them. — In a short time I shall with God's 
belp nndertake a second journey to the East, for which 
I am fnmished with a number of important Instructions for 
my researches from esteemed band, and hope afker the 
completion of my journey to be able to furnish a more 
ezact and valuable work. 

Hannover, May. 1859. 

Israel Joseph Benjamm 


'edio Teizeira. A iketch of Iravels bj- Dr. M. Kaj^erling ■ ■ 
!li»l)teT I. Departnre from the Mnidau, — Object of the jonroey. 

Joarnsl. ^ Tomb of the Rabbi Jacob bat Halariin. — Arrival 

at JerDsolem 

ttliapter II. Jamsalein 

'-'häpiEt 111. Zion 

fliipler IV. Debcon (called by Ibe Araba Chalil) 

tUpter V. Siebam. — Samai-iB. — ZEpbalh. — Mlron .... 
Chtptor Vi. The stale of ibe .fewa in Paleatina 

Jonmey tbrough thu tnouutäin of Lebaman 

Chipler TTI. Dairiascoa 



Siwerek. Tsbermak 

Clupler VIÜ. Diabekr 

Tselma. — The villaguB of the Jewd 

DBcbeeireh. — Sachn. . . ' 

diapter IX. Fir«t jonmey ia the mountuns of Kurdietan .... 


Chapter X. Sccond jonrnuy in the moaatains of Kurdistan • ■ . 

Blodo. — Joume; in the manntain 

3iapter XI. MoboI 

Sb^ter XII. Third jonmey in the menntaina of Kurdistan . . . 
MMar XIII. I. UcBccnt of tbe Knrdisb Jews. The Nostoriuia. 
^k, Forced seivitnde and Iribnteg. IH, Slavery. IV. Righta of 

r — 


, I 

VI. ludtutr? and labatiT. VII. Biblical preoaptB, wbich t 
Jena and olhsr Eaatara natioos foUoir. VIII. Geaeral r 
in a religioua and moral poiut of viaw. Observatians reBpfld 
iag tha cuGtuiilS prsctised against Iho Mosaic law . 

Claptar XIV. Kirknk 

Chaptor XV. Bagdad 

The ruins cf Babylon. — HilUh 

Chapter XVI. Kabnr-Kefil 

Mosched AU. — Kelballa . 

Chapter XVII. Froio Bagdad to BaBHora. — The deaert El Oaeit 

(cälled by the Araba Deeer Aear) 1 

Koiitb. — ßiik-e-Sebejiiob. — Giunruk. — Gorna I 

Saasora 1 

Chapter XVID, Tho East Indies 1 

Cliapier XDC. I. Tbe Bene-Iarael t 

Chapter XX. II. Tbe Canarinz l 

Chapter XXI. UI. The blaok Jewa of Cochin-China li 

Chapter XXII. Jaumey to lUbiiL — Ths tribea of the people in 
India li 

IV. Tbe Baniana li 

V. The Parsaes 1 

VI. The ffindooB li 

Chapter XXIII. Kabul - t 

Chapter SXIV. Tbe Jewa in China li 

Chapter XXV. The JewB of Yemin (YemEn), in Afghanistan and 

Tai'Ury ■ li 

Chaptar XXVI. The Jewa in Peraia 1' 

Chapter XXVII. Jom-ney from Maskat to Abesbur II 

Chapler XXVIII. Joumey througb the deaert to Schiraz .... 11 
Chapter XXIX. Sebiraz. — Deplorable Kondition of the Jews . . l: 

Chapter XXX Ispahan II 

Chapter XXSI. Mesched. — Kasbon. — Yeid 11 

Chapter XSXII. Teheran li 

Chapter SXXIU. Hmaadan ffl 

Chapter XXXIV. Peraian; ita cultqra, caatoma and habits. — Settim 

to Bagdad 21 

Chapter XXXV. Tho condition of tbe Jewa in Peraia. — Petition 

to the Sultan, to the Emperor of the French, and to tbe Queen 

of Oraat Britain 3 

Chapter XXX VI. Conclading reflecüona 8 

Chapter XXXVII. Etturii to GonatanliDople 21 

Chapter XXXVIIl. Travels in Africa. I. Egypt Ä 

Chapter XXXEX II. Trabolus (TripoU di Betberioe) ..... 2; 
Chapter XL. UI, Tniiia 




allster XU. IV. Algiers , 261 

üupter XLIL Y. Morocco 272 

Siapter "KTiin. General renuurki respecting the Jews of North 

Africa 279 

The Portugaese conqnests and discoyeries with respect to the 

Jewi. fiy Dr. IL Kayserling 289 

Conchinon 305 

Shipter XLiy. InatmotionB firom German and French leamed men 
and Orientaliats respecting the researches of the next joumey. — 
liemoir of the Dutdi Chief Rabbis 308 



Pedro Teixeira, 


Dr. M. Kayserling.i 

An unsettled and wandering life has been the appointed lot 
the Jews for thousanda of yeara. As this people in their 
led a nomadic life, so too in later years, after 
had disappeared from the number of nations, did the 
ppy Jewa, accustomed to espulsion and exile, wander 
place to place, from country to conntiy, dependent on 
'folicy and caprice of various Governors and Princea. 
This unsettled, wandering life, which increaaed the suf- 
of these despised outcaats, did not further the cause 
of Bcience or literature. He, who is driven forth as 
ow can he havc an eye for any spot but that oa 
he can rest his weary foot? How can the Wanderer, 
from daiiger, eeek on his long and weai-y journey any 
place but that which protects hini from his pursuers? 
lOse, who reflect on this, have no right to wonder that 
all the journeys and wanderings, which the Jewa above 

I This Bketch haa been published at the ivish, and for Ibe beneöt of 
Mr. Benjamia. Ab an addit[on to the history and geographj of the 
Jews, inay it Gnd » Itieaäly reception. 

all uationä have been forced to uudertake, the i 

geography should have been bo little beiiefitted. Tal 
and powera of Observation were certainiy not wantiag to 
travellers, but they were so eutirely engrossed by thenise! 
and their own fate, that they cared but little for that wl 
siirrounded them. 

Like everything eise it was in Spain that the bist 
of Jewish travel also was early encouraged. 

It is more than a mere metaphor to deeignate the P 
insula of Hesperia as the seat of the best informed and n 
learned Jews of the niiddte ages. Besides the profound 
study of tlie Talmud, philosophy, medecine, natural liisti 
and astrology were also cultivated and fostered by the 
and it is from the Spaniah Jewa, that we received the fi 
accüunts of their travels, . 

Benjamin de Tudela, the well known Jewish travell 
was the first to direct his attention to his exiled brethn 
and the events and resiilts of bis joumey are described 
tbat celebrated and valuable work, which beara his na« 
and has aecured for bim an nndying reputation. 

From Spain, hia native country, Cftarisi began hia wa 
deringa. Having travelled through Spain and Provence, I 
visitcd AlexandrJa, and took np bis residence in the Hol 
City, in that land, glorious in the sacred places it contaiiu 
and proceeded thence to Persia, and through Greece retouma 
to hia own land. 

The Jew, Parchi, was alao a naüve of Spain. He joai 
neyed through Egypt; and it is to bim we are indebta 
for the accuratc knowledge we poaaeaa of the' condition fl 
Palestine at that period, 

The Jews of the Peninsula were learned men ; am 
much aa the greater number of them had ever been oppree 
aed and inaulted, still for centuries they bad been reapectet 
for their acicntihc acquiremente. Not only did they servi 
kings and nilera as miniatcrs of finance and treasui-era, a 
taxcolleetora and stewarde, — not only did they enterhüi 

löetiy, — but they were also tlie teachers and preceptora 
ings and princes, yes, they — the Jewa — were the 
lidians and propagators of knowledge in a Christian land. 
w WLen the Portnguese prince , Henry the Navigator, 
|>rated alike for bis beroic conquests and bis love for 
Taphy, tizrned bis tboughts towards Airica, in order to 
iover tbe gold diatricta tbere, it was from tbe Jews that 
I obtained Information eonccming tbe places tbey had 
l in tbeir commercial joumeys, and every Jewisb tra- 
(er was siire to find an bospitable reception at Algarve, 
w country seat of this atudioiie piince. It would be worso» 
1 ingratitude if, in recalling to mind the earliest disco- 
iea of tlie Portuguese, we did not also remember the 
the important commnnicationa they made and the 
ice they gave. 

' A long line of learned geograpbers sprang from the 
^ese nation; and the widely estended conneotions, 
wLich tbe new discoverers cemcntcd with tbe people of Asia 
aod j\£ica, could not but furtber tbe intereets of science. 

To tbe Portnguese, wbo bave enricbed the science of 
j^Ligraphy by tbeir worka, and who, on account of tbeir 
.-.ivels, have been numbered araong the „travellere of tbe 
inrld, belongs the namc oi Pedro Teixeira" — a man whose 
i:c-mory we wish to revive by this eketch, and whose dis- 
■iveries and reflections, as far as they relate to tbe Jews 
:.'iJ their antiquities, shall be once more in our time brougbt 
"-■Ibre the world. 

Even the itame has a good sound, and is well known 
in geographica! literature.i 

Our Pedro Teixeira^ belonged to one of those Portu- 
gaese Jewish families, wbo dared not openly avow tbeir 

I We will lere only mention Ludwig Teixeira who in 1698 (1602) ( 
wrote s „nueva Oeogroßa y Bydrograßa del Orbe." A Pedro Teixeira 
UsTelled alciiig tbe wliolc Spaniali const of tbe Mediterrsneui Sea, 
uid pabllbbed a, „Deacripcion de ia cosia de EnjiBTia," Ho died in 
the TO* jear of the IT'li oentnry. 

I Not Teireir», Teirera, Taiera, an Woltf (accoiAing \,q 'Brafvo*! VJq\. - 


reÜgion, or edacate their children in tte faith of Ü 
£atherB. Many a youÜi of this race haa only in reeeiT 
tlie laat bleasing of Ms dying father been informed of 
trae descent, and of the religion, to wliicb hia parents, fr 
tiieir inmoat conviction, had remained faitlifu!, and for wh 
their forefatherB had endured tortures and martyrdoms 
every description. Tbia legacy of the beart, if we may tl 
expresa ouraelves, was willingly received by many; a 
raany only rekindied the glimmering apark of love to i 
daism in their he.irta, when the time appeared drawing ne 
•ivben they wonld have to give an account to those belongi 
to them of what they had done and left undone with rega 
to the guardianship of the legacy bequeathed to them, ai 
were about to rojoin those they had loved in another worl 

Tbua it waa with oui" Pedro Teixeira. ! 

Although bornof Jewish parents, wbo in all probabili 
reaided in Lisbon, he was still not edueated in the Jewii 
^tb. Notwithstanding that Eubrnisaion to the Tvill of Ü 
Ahnighty , which aeemed to have been innate in bim , an 
wich may be traeed in almoat every leaf of hia book ( 
travela, — notwitha tan ding bis indwelling conviction thi 
everytliing tbat happened ar bcfcl hira, everything he roceive 
and enjoyed, proceeded from tbe band of bis Creator - 
a feeling, which may be more than once traeed in Teixeir 

— we atiJl think tbat we are able to infer from hia narrfl 
tive, that during a great part of bis life — duriag hia travel 

— even up to ttie period of hia arrival in Antwerp, he w« 
a Cbriatian, and even a devout Catholic. 

hebr. DI. 923, IV. 593 and Zima in his excoUent treaÜBO „od Ou 
geographicid literaturs of the Jewa" — in Äaher'ä Edition of Ben' 
jftmia of Tudel« (Beilin 1840) II. 282, asaetl. — Manj gorman-polial 
Jewa ofteu ptononoue tLe ejUalile et as e; and tlius Spaniab namei 
like Teixeira, Morteira cmne to be read and writlen by tbem et 
Texera and Moitera. Beaidea Ibis the aforesaid Barrioa (IViumpht 
del Giovemo Ftiputar 10, 17) call» him likewiao Pedro Teyxe.vra (ne). 
The leamed Thomas de Pinedo, the editor 
ötepharuB Byzanliona , freq^uentiy montious onr travoller i: 

It was at Antwerp, the oldest dutch settlement of the 
Aüish-portuguese exiles, that Pedro settied himself after 
1 termination of hia jonmey. There he publiahed his va- 
: ible work on the origin and order of Buccession of the 
ütrs ofPersia and Harmez; there he wrote his „Travels from 
lia to Italy" ; ^ — and there, not at Verona,^ most probably 
ii\-^trds the middle of the IT" Century he died in the Jewish 
liih. and wa* gathered to his fathers in a better world, 

Withoiit enlarging further on the above mentioned hiato- 
rical work of Teixeira, who, from his earlieat youth, had 
devoted hiinseif to the study of history, we will resume our 
Qotice for a time of the leamed and eelebrated travcller himself, 
In September 1601 Pedro retumed from hia firat long 
journey to the Philippine lales, China and a portion of the 
New World, which had extended over a year and a half, 
nnd which he had nndertaken, as he expressed himself, to 
pass the time and become acquainted with new countries. 
After a reaidence of two ycars and a half in Lisbon, he 
Started for asecond journey for scientific purposea to India, 
Persia and other countriea. Teixeira was admirably fitted 
for snch an undertaking by posoesaing the talent, not given 
lo all travellers, of remarking everything worthy of note, 
and of intTÜtively uuderatanding it, We will not here en- 

' Tha title of his work, which is uow befor as, is; „Belacinnee de Pedro 
2'eixtira d'ei Origen, deaeendencia y suceunion de loa Eeyei de Peraia 
y de Harmus, y de un viage hecho por et minno aulnr dende la India 
(^ienlal haala Italia tie. Amberei MeronymuB VerdusBen 1610. 
1 Th« Bpsniah poet Daniel Levi de Bsi'rioa — aboat him and his poems ' 
r forthcomiog work: ^Homaiäseke PotstE'a der Jaden in 
■ mentioBS Verona as llie place of his deathj comp. Se- 
% de loi Foetaa Eapanoies, 58: „Pedro Teireira (Td3:eiraJ .... 
." So likewiae Wolif I, c. lU. 922; Znaz T. c; 
teioscbneidej' „Jewish literalure" (London 1857) 25S. — Ban-ioa , a 
glisble autborllhy, lu long as he confinca himself to speakiiig of 
s of hia own time , was not weil informed on this 
point; and Ihe atatement reapectin^ it of the Portoguese Biographer 
fiarboBi cortainl7 dcserves moro ctedence. Borbosa remarks io his 
Bibl. Iiwit. (Liühoa 1747) in. 622: „Vitiloji Venera, donde por terra 
a AnvereM e ne»ta eidade /es o aeu (l<nnicilio at£ a mOTlft 

deavour to ascertain if it was tlie uncient Jewish sj 
incited Um to conBider the Jewish relics of oldeaJ 
as worthy of notice, or if from respect to the fathers i 
race liis enquiring eye sougtt out those sacred placea j 
the remains of those belonging to bis tribe reposed, ^ 
Ulis simple unprejudiced view only bears the higher : 
of the superioritj" of hia scientific acquirements. Eu 
Teixeira, in bis travcla and in his book of travels, thong^ 
of Jewish antiquities and of the Jews themselves; and fo 
this hia brcthren in the faitb are bound to feel gratefiil % 
him. That this „reliable Äuthor", as Menaaae ben larae 
calls hini,l gives his information fi-oin his own observaticn( 
and not from anj dcscriptions made by the Jewish merchad 
of Tudela, searccly needs mention. Benjamin'a book of tr« 
vels was certainly in print, and had passed through maq 
editions in hia time. Without however whisliing to detrad 
from Pedro'a learning, we believe ouraelves justified in ai 
serting that to him Benjamin's wrttings would bave been d| 
litde value, in as mueh as lie did not understand Hebrew : afii 
the first translation of thia work, by the leamed Benedictiaf 
AriasMontano, was imlikely to bave been in his posaessiofll 

With the fiincerest regret tbat our Portuguese travell« 
does not speak more esplicitly of those of hia purauaaion il 
Pereia and India, we now take leave of him.^ 

Teixeira has imderstood his task; and the manner in 
which it haa been accomplished has been fuUy acknowledged 

May the travellor of the 19th Century likewise htm 
cause to rejoice in the favour of liia readera. 

Berlin. June 2-"^ 1858. 

Dr. 31 Kaysetihtg. 

I Spes laraelia c. 26. 

' Tei][eu-a''a notes of this jaimoy, especiaUy Ihose relatini; ths jnoiiu 
ments of ihe Jews , und liis accoantB of hia bratbien in the fiith 
we have added in Üieic proper placoa to onr wurk. — The courso o 
his joomey vr&a from India to Enrope, coDsciluentIf in a conlru] 
direction to cur own; anä therofoie it is that irc have choeen thi 
method of arrangement. ^' 


!urö from tke Moldau. — Object of the joiimey. 
Journal. — Tomb of the Rabbi Jacob hol Haturim. 
_ Arrival at Jervaalem. 

foldtscbeny on the Moldau, where I reside, I used for- 
Hy to carry on an extensive ti'ade in timber and other 
idttctJons of the country. Bcing suddenly utterly nuned 
igh the fault of my partnere, I found niyself compclled 
■my own Bake, and more eapecially for the sake of my 
TJly, to enter on a uew career under changed circum- 
, and thia was the ostensible cause of my wanderings 
the Ea8t. 

L Ädded to these external circumstances therc was a long 
I deeplj cherished wiah of my heart^ a wish fostered from 
' earliest youth; and I determined therefore to make 
t a pilgrimage to those parts, where once my forefathcrs 
Hwelt in the days of thcir glory and of their niisfortnne, 
and thua, aa in a viaion, scarch otit the traces of what re- 
mained of the ten tribea of Israel, 

I began my wanderings on the 5"' of January 1845, 
— After viaiting, as my private affairs conipcllod me to 
do, the principal towns of Austria, I proceeded through 
Turkey in Europe to Conatantbiople, where I embarked for 
.StDj-ma, wich place I reached without any occurrence worthy 
of remark. 


After a voyage of 12 houre I arriTed at the amali« 
o£ Sakis, which is Burrounded bj Ipvelj pomegranawj 
citroD grovea. At the extreme end of the town is the t 
of the Kabhi Jai^ob bal Haturim.i aon of the Rabbi Asch« 
ben Jechiel. The tomb, which is of a round form, is cova 
ed over by a small tiled roof; the mausoleum itself is et 
closed in a building, and the whole surrounded bj a waL 
Near the entrance rest the remains of the Meschoreth (sei 
vant) of the Rabbi, At different seasona of the year ti» 
Jews make a pilgrimage to this tomb. Sakis cari'ies on ( 
very good trade in pomegranatea and citrons with Auatrii 
and Kussia. 

Having retumed to Smyma I reaumed my joumey OB 
horseback, in Company with aome Turks, and arrived at 
Menesaia üfteen hours' joumey north of Smyma. I waa in« 
debted to my European dress and to the Consuls residing 
at Smyma that during this joumey I did not suffer froin 
that molestation, to ^rhich, on account of the hostile feelingit 
of the nativea towards Europeans, to whom they barely paj; 
reapect, travellera are repeatedly expoaed. i 

Six hours' joumey to the southeaat of Menessia lies thfi' 
town of Casiba, tlie principal aource of commerce of which, 
consists in cotton and raieina. These rieh productiona srmi 
cultivated to a great extent, and exported by Jewiah ma-ll 
chants to Conatantinople and other parts. i 

After travelling for three successive days through a 
smiling landaeape, planted with olive treea, and enlivened 
by cheerful villages, the inhabitants of which employ them- 
selves in tho preparation and aale of olive oil, I reached a 

1 Tho Soder Hadttroth (Fol. aS, p. 3) and tlie Öchem Hagdolira (Wilu 
1853. FoL 42, p. S) relnte Ihat the abovementioncd Rabbi dted oa i 
pilgrimage to Paleetine, a daj's joumey from Smyina; and they meu- 
tioa Kiaw, ngt Sakis, as the place of his barial. In tho book ^Abna 
Sikaron" (c. 7) it ia asserted ou the contcary, that he died in Spain, 
and was buried by the aide of bis fathei in Tultila (Toledo) ; and a 
skotch of hin tonibstone is likewiBo added. Wo annex aU tbese ra- 
porta ot notions to our nai'tative of tho abovo traditiou without ftir- 
ther obgarvation. 

called Tirje. In three daya and a half raore, after 

tlirough a long row of luxurious vegetable gardena 

b Tmeyards, inteimixed with fig trees picturesqnely scat- 

I I came to thu sea-port of CouschadaBsi , lying to the 

fiieast of Tirje. It carries on but a small trade, — Here, 

I all the other placea above mentioned, reside Jewa. 

üpon an Island lies Stankoy,' for wtich place I era- 

riied ärom Couschadassi, and reacbed it in about 18 bours. 

j town ia surroimded by beautiful gardens, planted with 

j and lemon trees, the fruit of wbicb is sold in Turkey 

1 elsewbere. Fifteen hours fiirther on, at the foot of a higb 

Mimtain, lies the town and harboiir of Sima.^ The lower 

t of the town is washed by the sea, and the other part 

s built on the ascent of the raoimtain, and here the Euro- 

1 Consuls reside. — The neigbbourhood is rocky, and 

I not built over; and there is also a scarcity of spring 

in the town. The inhabitanta carry on a trade in 

liqpongc and fish ; the latter of which there is an abundant 

Irapply, and not an inconsiderable quantity of salted fish ia 

f^orted to distant parts. 

I Icft SJma in a sniall coastbg veesel, and, after a 
1 »jage of 36 hoors, reached the celebrated town of Rhodea,^ 
«iiuated on the ieland of the sarae name. 

Rhodes, an ancient and farfamed fortress, carries on a 
considerable trade. The population is mucb mised; Chri- 
-liana, Turks, Armenians, Jewa and Greeks alike dwell there. 
I lje Conauls of the European powers occupy a certain quarter, 
■liuh ia aurrounded by a fortiiied wall. The Jews in the 
Tiirkieh quarter live togcther in families, and Christians are 
fiirbidden to enter this part of the town during the night. 
After ataying several daya in Rhodos , I embarked for 


1 Twenty faciiiTS hj Hea, to the north of Comchadsasi. 

' Benjamin of Tndela (A. Aaber's edilion , Berlio and London 1840, 

A. Asher) epeaks (p. 35) likewise of Sima, wbere he fovai 300 Jews. 

Translalor's uote. By an hour's jaurney ia inlendod lo be aigni- 

i distanca of 3 milca or thereaboata. We slste thia onco for all. 

n de Tadek p. 2fi. ,^ . , 

Alexandria , for the purpoae of proecediiig theoi 

My joumey througli Egypt I ahall annex to the n« 
tive of my journey in Afriea, and will only confine myss 
to the remark that I travelled by sea from Damietta to JaJ 
(the ancient Joppa of the Hebrews), and thence proceedfl 
on my journey towards Jerusalem, 

Od the 7* June 1S47 I arrived at Alexandria, remainO 
there several days, ti'avelied tlience to Cairo, from wi<) 
place I proceeded by the Nile to Damietta, wich I reachcii 
on the 20"" Juty. After a sojourn of a few days there, i 
emharked for Jaffa; in whrch place I had to keep qimrantin 
for 10 days. The distance from Jaffa to Jerusalem is ^ 
journey of only 12 hours, The joumey over Lud I pe» 
formed on a Camel, and on Priday, Auguat 14"", at 8 o'clod 
in the morning, I perceived the Holy City of Jerusaleiq 
the goal of my ardent deaires, i| 


Jerusalem. ' 

View of ihe City. — Its foundation. — Gates. — Ruira t 
the Temple. — Tradition of the Sidtan Soliman. — GroUo] 
of King Hiskia. 

„How goodly are thy teuta, O Jacob, and thy tabef- 
nacles, Israel!" 2 — With these words in my mind I eet 
foot lipon the sacred soil of Jerusalem. How it lies thers 
before me, that once mighty and majestic City! The sight 

I The Arabians and Turks call JernEsIem „Kodeacfa", tlie Chaldesns 

and Pei-Bians „Beth-el-MickdaBch". 
s Hnmliars. e. XXIV. 6. (Tbo quotatiHiia »re always »fter the hehrew bäd^ 

rpowered me; and, at the remembrance of all the great 

% noble deeds of tbose days, when my peopie, the .chosen 

i Lord, dwelt there in all the fiillness of tlieir might 

feelinga of the purest pride and joy for the 

I of the deepeat boitow for the present, and the brigbtest 

tnOBt tmsting hope for the fature, paased througli my 

and awakened in me the wärmest gratitude, Tears 

1 my eyes, and I proatrated myself and pressed my Ups 

fte sacred seil of Zion, in atiknowledgment of the mercy 

i Lord God of Sabaoth had shown me : for He it 

kwhn had protected me in the tracklesB wilderiiesa, and 

l Hia right hand had guided me through the deaerta of 

i and Africa, and over the wavee of the mighty ocean 

I His own dwelling place, itnto the seat of Hia glory, 

) He reigns aupreme, and is adored in the holinesa of 

► power; where Hia sanctuary extends its aplendor far 

t the universe in the etemal glory of the Holy Faith. — 

i what veneration did I fall down and pray on entering 

^gatea, Jerusalem! 

There thou art, before my eyes, thou holy cilj, whose 

name filla the univerae, — who, in the dreams of my youth, 

48 1 peruaed the holy Scriptures, wert ever hovering before 

(my mind'a eye, in all the brightneaa of proaperity and glory. 
How deep, how great ia thy fall, thon beloved city of the 
EtaTia! One, — thou Crown of Citiea, — thou Queen of 
Kations! — With what fearful accuracy have the prophecies 
»nd denunciationa of thy Prophets been ftilfilled on thee ! 
-Iflforget thee, Jerusalem, may my right hand forget her 
cunoing; if I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave 
to the roof of my mouth ; if I prefer not Jerusalem above 
my chief joy!" * 

The foundation of Jeraaalem ia aasigned to Sliem the 
son of Noah,^ who began to buiEd the walls of the city. Its 
earlieat name was Salem,3 but after the proposed aacrifice 

1 PBalm CXXXVn. 6. 6. 

1 &«der Httdorolh. Fol. 12, p. 2. 
|_C. XIV. 18. 





of Isaao by hia father, Abraham called the place „Yim 
whencp originated the namc Jerusalem. * — ThuB for ea 
a length of time was this city the residence of princesJ < 
Five and twenty yeara after the liberation of the Israelit 
from the Egyptian captivity, the City was govemcd by Kfl 
Jebusse, the succesaor of Abimeleck : he completed the waB 
and erected a fortreas, which he caJled Jcbu3.2 It was D 
until the reign of David, who came with an army agaiq 
Jerusalem and the Jebusites, that the Jews succeeded \ 
gaining posBesaion of this stronghold.^ The buildiug qf di 
Templo, whieh lasted 7 ycars, was commenced by Solomo^ 
480 yeare after the departure of the Children of Israel i 
the land of Egypt.^ 

The destruction of the Temple, the fate of the JßH 
after their firet disperaion, the rebuildiiig and destruct&^ 
of the second Temple, as M'ell aa the last and cntire disp«! 
sion of the Cliildren of Israel, are too generally known M 
require that I should dwell longer on the relation of thert 
I will only mention one fact; — namely, that seveni 
monarchs and one caliph have made the attempt to nun 
the Temple from its ruins, and could not succeed. TW 
prophecy of the Royal PBalmiat is fulfiUed; „Except ^ 
Lord build the house, they labour in vain that build it: a^ 
cept the Lord keep the cily , the watchinan waketh but Ui 
vain." s 

The Antiquities of Jerusalem are also well known ; m 
the gates of the city however I will say a little. Jerusalem 
haa eis gates, ^ — five of which are open, and one closed. 
They are called thus: 1) towarda the eaat, the Gate of Lions; 

1 Midrasch Ruba c. Sli. 

2 JüdgoB. c. XIX. 10. 11. — S. 
c. XV. 8. 

3 II, Chronicloa. c. V. 6. 7. 

4 L Kings. VI. 1. 

5 Paaioi. CXXVII. 1. 

B Benjamin de Tadela, p. 3S, 
wliialL ha giveB othor munes. 

r Hadoroth. Ful. 9, p. 26. — Josbul 

only foDT gates, to some Ct 

Ocalled from tLe images Bculptured on tlie wallj ita arabic 

e ifi Bab-el-Schebat. 2) To the north, the Gate ofSichein; 

bic called Bab-el-Amoud. 3) Between these two is 

whicli is closed. 4) To the West, the Gate of He- 

, now called tlie Gate of Joffa; in arabic, Bab-el-Chalü, 

fla tbe aoutb the Gate ofZion; in arabic, Bab-el-Dahoud 

I Gate of David). And laatly 6) on the same side the 

ilest of all, Bab-el-Maghra-bim {Gate of the Arabs) ; be- 

; tbe Araba who eome from the West, from Morocco &c, 

r here, and dwell in the adjacent streets. 

Conceming the ancient buildings of tbe Holy City I 

1 only repeat the worda of the celcbrated" and learned 

mk of Paria, who said: „There is not a stone in Jerusa- 

1 whieh is not known, and haa not been deaeribed, and 

fiaa not deaerved it." 

The Heder Hadoroth informs na that the celebrated 

llcholar Rabbi Jehuda Halevy, author of the book „Cusri", 

B his 50"' year, aomewbcre about tbe year 4920, undertook 

I pilgrimagc to Jerusalem, and in deep sorrow proatrated 

MiQself to kisa each atone. In pioiis enthnsiaam he gave 

i'terance to a song of lamentation, wbich commenced with 

Liif Word „Zion." It is to be found in the 31" Chap., and 

I is Qp to the present time sung by the Jewa of the Geiiuan 

I nhoriäi, on the annivereary of tbe destruction of Jerusalem. 

F — A fanatic Arab, who saw and heard the pioua Rabbi, 

rode upon hini in a rage, and the inspired singer perished 

under tbe boofa of bis horse. 


f the J 


The Temple. 

I be^n the description of my pioua pilgrimage through 
Holy City with the venerable ruins of the Temple, 
which have braved thousands of years, and are therefore 
^rtainly entitled to the firat place in our notice. 

tradition, universally known to thoae ot wi-j C&^ 


who dwell Lere, desei-vea however to be mentiooj 

Among those monarchs who atteinpted the rebüi 
of the Temple was Sultan Soliman, ' who governed Jent 
lern in 5280 (1520 yeara after Christ). -- He erected I 
walls of the town, huilt aqueducts, and took up bis residei 
in a building situated to the eouth of the Temple, wlii 
ever to thia day beara the naine of „Medraaa Salomo" (soll 
tific building of Solomou). Later Soliman inhabited a bui 
ing to the west of the Temple, in which afterwards 1 
Turka lield their coui-ts of justice. A mound of rubb 
and manure' at tbat tirae covered the site of the Tem] 
and the ruins of the Sanctuary. One day, so traditi 
relates, the Svdtan remarked an aged woman clothed 
rags, wearily dragging up a sack füll of rubbish, and em] 
it on the mound beeide tbe palace. The Sultan, veiy ang 
gave Orders that the old woman should be seized and brou; 
before him. She came, and seemed tired and exhamt 
After Soliman had asked her where ahe came from, and 
what people she belonged, he deaired to know why sbe 1: 
emptied the aack on that place. Treinbling, the old won 
anawered: „Do not be angry, raighty King, I never in a 
way thought to offend thee by ohserving an ancient cuab 
of my people. Since the taking of Jerusalem by tbe Ron 
Emperor Titus, they have never been able to destroy ei 
rely the walls of tbe Temple. The priests and the soo 
aayers of Rome therefore ordered that all the inhabita 
of the city should daÜy carry a aack füll of rubbish to t 
place; a command which even the inhabitants of the a 
rounding country must attend to. Those who live near i 
obliged to perform It twice a week, and thoae at a grea 
diatance muat do it twice a raonth. The place where 
many Romana feil will, by these means, be hidden for ev 
Be not therefore angry, my Lord, with thy servant, w 
only obeya the law!" 

l Ben nf' Salin) L, alao called Himan Aben Olim; ha rdgned 48 yo 

Soliman however cauaed tlie old woman to be cast into 
firison, and in order to ascertain the truth he caused sonti- 
■U to be stationed aroimd the place, with Orders to arrest 
who should attempt to enipty mbbish on tlie mound. 
I.- Statement of the old ivoman was verified; and Soliman 
- seized with a desire to know what waa concealed be- 
lli the mound. He himseif took a spade and a baaket, 
-i.tnded the mound, and began tn dig, at the same time 
calling on all who were in his service to follow bis exainple. 
Meu and women of every claas came in erowds, and began 
lo clear away the mbbish. For 30 days thousands of per- 
KnB were occupied in this labour; and daily the Sultan 
caused money to be secretly thrown among tbe rubbish in 
Order to stiraialate their zeal. At last the ruins ot" the Temple 
»rere discovered; and a long wall was brought to bght, 
ffhich may be aeen to thia day, and which bears the name 
of „Cotbel Maaravi",! the west wall of the Temple. — 
Döring the Clearing of the place many of thoae had arrived 
who brought sacka and basketa of rubbish, but they were 
»iüed and thrown into prison with the others. On the com- 
pietion of the work Holijnan had the prisoners brought be- 
fbre him, and, in order to puniah tbem for their desecration 
of the Teiflple, be took by lot 30 men and 8 women, and 
hanged tlicm upon the wall; at the aame time hc forbade 
any onc from polluting the place for tbe future, and threa- 
t each ofFender with a like punishment. 

toyamin de Tudola mentionB these walls; bnt aa lio viaited these 

I the l-iOi Centiu-y, thia account of tbe throwing of rubbiali 

it ccrtainl; liave taksii place dariag the thrce following centnries, 

the Tvhole siory wouH not be correot. Benjamin of Tadel» 

t in this wall is situated the gate Schaaro Rachmim (Gate of 

ttcj), at nbicb the Jena uacd to oSet up Ihou' prayers. Rabbi 

Ibachin of Regensburg, who, according to Ritter in hia Erdhmde 

poL 4, p. 1417) only followed Benjamin do Tudela two years later, 

'ipesks, in tbe accoant of bis travela (Lahlin editlon with latin trane- 

lation, p. 198. 199) Ufeewiae of tho Gate of Mercy, which howeyar lies 

o|ipasiIe to theweatern wall, (owarda tbe aide of the mount of Otives. 

_The Imller MMrtion h the right one. 



After Ulis the Sultan summoned the Jewa before hi 
and addressed them Witt the foliowing consolatary wow 
„Acting OD an Inspiration froni above I have done wi 
you bave aeen. Tlirough nie shall the Temple rise ag^ 
in freah splendor, for I also am called Soliman, like ti 
first founder of this Sanctuarj. But as this place is y« 
property, it is for you to eomplete and rcstore the buildin] 
for which purpose 1 offer you the meana." — On beariii 
theae worda these unbappy Jewa wept and remained aileai 
— But Soliman asked: „Why weep ye? — Rejoice rathä 
for yom- God has not forgotten you." — An old man th^ 
approached the Sultan and said: „May thy life be long upel 
the eartb, gracious Sultan. We will praise the Almiglrtj 
for having given to thee auch benevolent thoughts, and tfa 
wish to restoro to us our Teraple, our only glory and pridl 
But aecording to the Scripturea, we aro forbidden to er«ä 
the Temple ouraelvea; God alone can do thia." * 

„What, ye will not btiild up the Temple again!" crietj 
the Sultan; „yet Holomon, in his prayer of the consecratioil 
of this sanctuary aaid: „Moreover concerning a atrangeij 
who is not of Thy people Israel, but cometh out of a fe|( 
country for Thy name'a Bake. For they ahall hear of Thy 
great name, and of Thy strong hand, and of Thy stretchedl 
out arm, when he sball coine and pray toward thia houae. 
Hear Tbou in Heaven Thy dwelling place, and do accord-' 
ing to all that tbe atranger calleth to Thee for!" ^ ^ I my- 
seif will rebuild tbe Temple of tbe Lord, and to llim alone 
shaü it be dedicated." 

Soliman Caused the plan of the iirat Temple to be given 
to bim, in Order that he might erect tbe third in accordance 
with it; an undertabing which howcver remained unper- 

1 The last worda of the old man refer to tie Song of Solomon c- 11, T. 
— Midrasch Rabt>iL. Fol. II, p. 1. Aecording to mj vien one WM 
in Talmud JeruHchalmi, MeBSücliet MasBEir Schoni ohap. 6, v. 3- ihat 
the tMrd Teniple shitll be bnilt as the aecocd was; and that the 
monarcba favonthle to the Jowish nation, shal) ereet thia Temple. 

> I. Kiagg. c. vm. 41—43. 

lönnäd. Under bis reign the Jews enjoyed the same privileges 
Ute rest of bis eubjecta, and lived happilj. 

I have thought the above tradition worth relating only 
far, as it ahows how much faith and hope for a brighter 
Btill animate the hearts of my people.'- 
On the east aide of Jerusalem, oppoaite to the aide of 
Mount of Olivea, lies the site of the Temple, to the 
leaat of the present towa. 

To the north and the weat are those large bitildings, 
«lüch touch the westem wall (Cothel MaAravi), and aur- 
immd the site on all sides. The Jewa of Jerusalem perfonn 
äiEir eveniiig devotiona near this apot each Friday aftemoon 
tai on the evea of their high festivals ; but no one dares to 
(read on the inner part, wliich is strictly guarded by the 
Tnrfea. Ou the site of the Holy of Holies Stands a splendid 
tmilding erected by Solomon, dedieated to the reiigiotis 
»lemnities of the Musaulman. It is Said that there is here to 
befomid acave; the contents ofwhich are miknown however, 
lo this daj. The Jewa aaaert that the aacred coffer of relica 
» concealed here. 2 The first Turkish rulers wished to have 
il examincd; but when persona sent for that purpoae at- 
lempted to enter, they were atruck dead; and so all further 
:hes have ceaaed. 
The Medraaa of Solomon, a building erected by that 
ia the spot, where, according to tradition, the Jews 
ihed the Sanhedrin (or high Court of Juetice). To 
place there are two enti'ancea; one to the north, the 
to the west; the southeni aide le diatinguiahed by 
.eroua Windows, The way from thia building to the 
iiiple is through an avenue of treea, am-roundcd by a 
. ':ti. The Arabians tread this path with bare fcet; as they 
■'^sider the soil sacred; and to this spot they bring their 
dead previoua to interment, in Order to protect them from 

' Thia tradition I likcwiae found in „Chibutb Jerusalem" (whicli appeor- 

cd iii 5601 in Jei'UEalcDi) ; probably likewiBB relatod as tradilion. 
1 He&techet Jama p. Ö4. ' 



the judgnient« of God. — To the west of tlie Tei 
a trench, which ia caJled hj the Arabiana Bir-el-di 
trench of blood; they believe tbat in that trench was pi 
the blood of the burnt offcrings. Beside this trench, 1 
tradition goes on to say, Nebusaradan, a captain of Nebl 
chadnezzar, caused raany cbildren, Jewiah mothera and priefl 
to be masaacred, in order to avenge the innocent blood < 
Zacbariah, son of the Priest Jehoiada. i 

Outaide the city, but still within the walla surroundu^ 
it, ia a eave, excavated by coinniand of King Hiskia. It i 
related that Zedekiah, the last King of Judah, escap« 
through it, in Order to avoid falling into the hands of tb 
Chaldeana, This cave ia near the gate Bab-el-Ainoud, and 
according to the assertion. of some Jewa , it is said to bl 
large enough to contain a man on horsebaak. They sa] 
also tbat in it is a aquare room hewn out of atone , whii^ 
was intended for a Synagogue ; and in the wall of this room 
was embedded a wi-itten roll of the Pentateuch; but anj 
search there ia forbidden. Through a cleft in the roc^ 
which timo had caused, I could perceive something of Ünt 
interior of this cave. j 

At the foot of the Mount of Olives, opposite to üxf, 
Temple, is the torab, surroimded by a wall, of Mary, 
Mother of Christ. 

In the eity of Jerusalem is tho Sepiilehre of Christ] 
to wliich a great multitude of Christian pilgrims from 
nationa of the world resort. At Ea^ter particularly tW' 
atreets of the city are thronged with wayfarers. — As w 
eapecial sign of the intolerance of the 19"' Century, I will 
only add tliat no Jew, at tbe peril of hia life, dare ventorö 
to tread the pathwaya leading to the Church of tbe Öepulchro. 

Every Friday forenoon at 11 o'clock, the Sheik with 
aeveral of hia officers proeeeds, amid chanting of prayem 
from the Mosque of Zion through the city to the aite of thfi 
Tempie, where he performs divine Service, which laata an 


nr; during which time the se-veral gates of Jerusalem ai-e 

)&j closed. 
l>Jerusalem, once so flouriBhing and prosperous, then for 

mg time demolislied and desolate, is aow iiihabited by 

ble of all climes. In my last chapter onFalestine I sliall 
L of thera more particularly. 

I We hope howeyer that as aJl the words of the Lord to 
mon and the Prophets have been fidfiUed, so, one day 
Kprophecies of Isaiah (c. 11, 3) concerning Jerusalem and 
l'fature deatiny may likewiae be accomplished. 


Z i n. 

kOn Mount Zion elands an ancient building, under which 

i be found the entrance to a cave, which ta said to ex- 

1 to the interior of the City of Jerusalem, where a large 

j denotes the place of outlet. The cave is said to cou- 

J the tombs of sevcral Kings of the hoiise of David. In 

Kbuilding above the cave the Mahomedan pilgrima per- 

I their devotions, Sonietim.c3 perinission is also given 

i Jews to pray at tho apot, supposed to contain the 

I of their departed kjngs} for which pennisHion they 

I the tribute of 1 piastre. 

In the year 4915 (H55), so it is related,^ a Bishop en- 

eiivoured to remove stones from thia sacred place, in Order 

I repair a delapidated church with them. 

One day two of the labourers engaged tliei-e < 
come to work at the appointed time; and t}ie overaed 
dered them to make up this losa of time in their 
hours. While digging, these two men diecovered a \ar^ 
slab of marble, which, on account of its weight, they coii( 
scarcely inove from its place. But aftcr mucli exertion thij 
Hucceeded in doing so , and tbund under it the entrance t 
a large cave. Füll of curioaity they wtshed to enter it, ba 
by a strong gust of wind they were violently tlirown to in 
ground, and were found by their fellow workmen in a Btaitt 
of unconscionsiiesa. The Bisliop, to whom tbis event waf 
immediately made known, caused the two men to be brougld 
before liira, and aacertained from them that in thia caee th«J 
had perceived two tablea of gold, upon which a crowi^ 
aceptre, aword, and other inaignia of royalty were displayed) 
but that they had not been ablo to penetrate into the cav« 
itaelf ; but had sunk down unconscious at the entrance of it 
The Bishop after that ordered the cave to bc walied uf 
again. — The Josiphun, which Israelitea ascribe to Flaviiui, 
Josephus, aaaerts that there Solomon concealed hia treasurea.' 
Hircan and Herod the Great took posaeaaion of tbe tombai 
of the Kings of Judah, and appropriated a largG portion of', 
tbe ti'easures to their own use. i; 

At the foot of Monnt Zion lies a valley, whence one 
aacenda to anothcr monnt, on wliicb is to be seen a house 
hewn out of the rock. Over the entrance of it ia an ille- 
gible inacription, which, according to the aaaertion of the 
Jews, contains the following words: „Thia building wna-' 
erected in the reign of our King Solomon." 

Har Haasetbim (the Mount of Olivea) lies to the eaat 
of the town; from which it ia separated by tbe valley of 
JoBophat, An extensive yiew is to be had from the top of 
thia raonntain; Jeruaalem, the aite of the Temple, the Jor- 
dan, the Dead Sea, the Mountains of Gerizim and Ebal, can 
all be aeen from it. On the mountain itaelf ia a small vil- 
läge, and about half an hour's jouraey fi-om it, in a cave, 

U lo be fbuEd the tomb of tbo Propheteas Huldah,' of 
»hom meiuion is made in the ßible.^ 

Furtber down, towards the town, mid way up the nioun- 
ttÖD, ia another cave, coneisting of aeveral divisions, con- 
tuning the tombs of the Frophets Haggai, Zachariah and 
Hftlachi, wMch are frequently viaited by the Jews, At the 
base of the mountain ia a Jewish place of burial, and here, 
eccording to tradition, is the tomb of Zachariah, son of the 
Frieet JehoidSi^ aa well as the houae Bethaehaphachith , in 
«hich Klug Uzziah was confioed when Struck with leprosj.* 

Chazzar Hamathara {the place of priaoii),^ lies to the 
north of the city; in it ia a very deep dimgeon, which 
cao only be reaehed with much diftieulty. According to 
b&dition Jereraiah was kept a priaoner in it by command 
of the King of Judah. The courtyard of the priaon con- 
tains several small houaes and rooma hewn out of atone, 
wMch were used aa placea of confinement. Several old build- 
ings on this place are said, by the people dwelling there, 
to i;oTer the tombs of the Frophets Jereiniah and Isaiab ; of 
which however, after a carefui search, I could find no ti'aces. 

To the north of the city riaes a grand Cluster of rocks 
Wide a courtyard, to which tbe entrance is on the south 
üde. Two trees raiae their branches over it on high, one 
■ date tree and the other a tree bearing a fmit which they 
0*11 tuth, Eere again ia to be found an extensive cave 
(ÜTided into several compartmenta, On entering there ia a 
iirge room first, which leada to two smaller ones; theae 
i^'iin conduct to a still larger Eipartment, fotlowed again by 


' Tbe Talinnd contradicts thia oesertion ; for it mentious tbat eht wa^ I 
boried neor the walla of the towu. Toeepbta Baba chap. 1, and j 
Meaaeobet Bimachol chap. 14. Altogotiiec the writer himaeif believM ] 
Ihst it reqaires mach carefnl research to aacertaiii if olker g 
Ukewise ate rcEtllj iu the pUcGS, where they are bolieved to bc 

» n. KingB. c. XXn. 14. — II. Chroniulea. c. XXXIV. 23. 

3 n. ChroniolEB. c. XXIT. 20. 21. 

* IL Kinga. c. XV. 6. 

i Jeremiah. c. XXXVIIL 13. 

two Bmaller ones. In a small room towards the north 
tomb stone covers the place, where, accordingTo traditw 
reat the aahea of one of the richest men of Jertiaalem, Cal 
SchewTia, who lived in the days of tho second Temp' 
Many wonders are related wliich arc said to liave tak 
place here. — During my stay at Jerusalem in 1847 in 1: 
montli of EUul, the Paeha caused numeroua excayations 
be niade, for the purpose of discovering a treasure wij 
was snpposed to be bnried here. — On account of tbi 
extraordinary aize, thesc rocky buildingB attract the pect^ 
attention of traveliera. 

An houra' joui-ney furüier on, to the north of the cii 
is another cave containing three separate adjoining roon 
In the firat of these rooma hubblea a spring of irater, whi 
ia aometimes dried up. The aecond containa two tombs, a; 
in the third ia the tomb of Simon ha Zadik (the Joat), i 
laat meraber of the Keneaaeth - Hagdola (Great ÄBsembly' 
which was origmally summoned by Eara. The two tom 
in the aecond room are thoae of tho aona of Simon. — Hi 
an hour's joumey distant froni this spot is another ca' 
dividod into tbur parta; of whieh one ia to the right, i 
other to the left, and the remaining two are undergroun 
Here are aaid to reat the remaina of the celebrated men 
the Sanhedrin. 

Jiama. Two houra' joumey to the north weet of Jer 
salem is a mountain, on which, in a grotto, ia ahewn t] 
tomb of tho Prophet Samuel,^ and to the right of it ia tl 
tomb of hia parents. Deacending the mountain one arriv 
at a smaller grotto, from whicb flowa a nmrmuring streai 
they say that this was the batb of Hannah, tho mother 
Samuel. Tho Jewa, aa well as other irihabitants of the cou 
try, make pilgrimages to tliia spot, whicb, in Arabic, ia calli 
Ziara; and they pay a piaatre for perraiaaion to enter. 

Two hours' joumey to the south of Jcruaalem, on tl 

d towards Hebron, etands a smalL fortreas called Barak ^ 
bijside the gate of which are tLree tanka for the reception 
sad preüervation of rain watcr. Near tbis fortreas, beaide a 
spring, Stands a house, aaid to iave been built byKing So- 
iumon. — A mile and a half further to tlio south ' is the 
tomb of KacJiel. As Benjamin of Tudela^ rclates, scveral 
munumenta bave been erected over tbis tomb; of wbicb the 
first consista of a dorne , aupported by eleven columna.^ 
Mahomet Pacha had another erected in tbe year 5385; and 
Ihe present one is indcbted to the piety of Sir Moaea Mon- 
lefiore. The Jews often make pilgrimages to thia tomb of 
iheir ancestreaa; and paiticulary on the IS* of Cheswan 
(November), tbc anniversary of Eacbers death; when many 
go there to perform their devoüona. 

Two hours' joiiraey fi-om Hebron lies tbe village Halbnl, 

lere are tbe tombs of the Prophets Nathan and Gad. Thia 

beara to tbis day ita ancient biblical namc.* 

Half an hour'a joumey from Hebron is shewn the foun- 

lion of a houae, in which it ia said Abraham once dwelt. 

tiie aide of it ia likewise ahewn a spring, wbieh is called 

■'Barah'a Well; aupposed to bave been tbe bath of Sarah; 

many Jewcases make use of it to this day.^ It waa told 


■Ia. fi. XLVni. 7. XXXV. 
kBer^unin of Tndela p. 40. 

Vllkbbi FcthftGhis (p. 196) likoni 

ktrhiab in fortned uf eloven sIü 

l Ädiil parra sepidchrura Rachdii 

ntrt llieroaolymia dialal, iUia 

speaki of tho tomb of Bochel, 
, according to Uia clevsii tiibee. 
Epkrala, qiHte dimidii diei ili- 
andtcim lapklea impiinii 

undecim Trihvnvm tlc. 

' Joshua, i 

XV. I 

' BeujamlD ds Tudelit (p. 42) : In bis time a bouse stooil tbera of which 
bowover dov oiily tbe foundotioDS of tho walls ai'e to be Bsen. — 
Hc spenks likonisc of b. spriog, but doca nnt give its namn. — Kubbi 
Petbaobia (p. 199) wbo oUo menliona tbia ejiring, Calla it by tbe 


~me, that the Araba in üe neighboui-hood, a few yeara a 
hewed dowa tha tree,' under wich Abraham sat wheij 
angels appcared to him.^ 


Hebron (called by tbe Arabs Chalil). 

Fouttdation of tite tmun. — GtoUo and tomha of ihe j 
archs. — Tkree other groUoes. 

Rehron, fomierly called Kiiiath Ärba,3 was, at the 1 
I of the conqueat of the proniiaed land bj Joshua, the can 
. of a amall kingdom.* According to tj'adition, a i 
r giants dwell there, consiBting of four persona: a fatherl 
I three BOns. The ruler of tko country called himsetf J 
I The Talmud (Eruben p. 53) explains the name of I 
' Arba by the faet that four couplcs were buried tht 
; Adam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and 1 
I Jacob and Leah, for the Hebrew word „Arba" sigaifiea ,^^0!j 
The Seder Hadoroth (p. 11) informs us that '. 
founded at the time of the dispersion of men 
building of the tower of Babel. The Bible likewise ass 
I the foundation of the city to the moat remote period.6 
, fltood formerly upoti a hill, where traveUers can find i 
I to thia day. ^ The newly built ci^ is raised aroi^ 

1 Babbi Pethachia (p. 199) speakä of thia tree. 

i Genesis, c. XVm. 4. 

3 JadgoB. c. I. 10. 

i Joshua. 0. X. ni. 

S Joshua, c. XIV. 16, according' lo Abarbonel'a axplanaÜOD. 

* Numbera. p. XIII. S2. 

' Benjamin de Tudela (p. 40) likowisi 


tiie cave, called by the Arabs Halil Machpelo, whieb ia 
aituated in tbe street ealied Eachmaii. Tbe Bible meutiona 
that Hebron was formerly surrounded by vineyards; and 
In tbis day tbere arc still niany to be seen tbere; for tbe 
neigbbouring Araba devote nmcb attentioa to tbe cultivation 
of tbe Tbe. 

Above the cave Stands a magnificent building, tbe first 
stone of wbicb, according to ti-adition, was laid by King 
Solomon himBelf. Estber, Queen of Persia, is aaid to have 
ri-stored thia building; and tbe Empress Helena had it put 
intii tbe same atate in which it remains to tbia day. — ■ For 
iu especial preaervation tbe cave is again surrounded by a 
wall. Witliin it are two Mosques; of wbicb the one over 
ilie grave of Abraham bears tbe name of St Abraham.; 
and the other over the grave of Jacob , tbe name of St. 
Jacob. The pemiisaion to viait these Mosques, which are 
beid in tbe bigbest veneration by tbe Turka, ia given to no , 
nnbetiever. 1 In tbe year 1833 bowever a Jewish merchant 
from Russia, named Schemerl ArUck, succeeded, by meana 
of making great presents to tlie Scbeik, in obtaining leave 
ii.i viait tbe Mosque over tbe grotto, in tbe latter half of tbe 
[liljbt. According to bis assertion, tbe interior ia decorated 
■*irh the greatest spiendor ; illuminated by inuumerable 
.i:tB, wbicb are again reflected with magic brilhancy in 

gold and ailver omamenta. Througb two Windows in 
—•:■ fioor of tbe Mosque one looks down into the grotto. At 
break of day the viaitor, notwitbatanding bis dieguiae in the 
garb of a Tui-kiab priest, was obliged to withdraw for fear 
of being recognised.^ 

Outside the city, in tbe direction of Jerusalem) are three 
wella ; wbicb, according to tbe Bible, were dng by Abraham. 
On leaving the Sepulcbre of tbe Paü-iarchs, and proceeding 

I Neu tbe cntr 

a K.bbi Pathachia (p. 197. 19f 
t« it. 

on the road leading to the Jewish qiiarter, to the I^ 
courtyard, is seeii a Turfciah dwelling houae, by tba 
which is a small grotto, to which there is i 
veral steps. Thia is the tonib of Abner, captain i 
SaulJ It is held in mueh esteem by the Arabs, 
proprietor of it takea care that it is always kept in the^ 
Order, He requires from thoae who visit it a small gratuil 
LikewisB outside the city, towards the south, inavij 
yard, which was purchased by the Jewa, are the graveai 
the father of King David and of the firat Judge, Othni 
the eon of Kinab. 



Sichern. Samaxia. Zephath. Miron. 

An hour's joumey to the east of Sichern 2 near the -v 
läge Ablanuta, is the tomb of Joseph and of bis tivo so 
Ephraim and Manaaseh.^ The gravea are in the fleld whi 
Jacob bought of the Kitig of Sichern, near whicb flow^ 
spring caJted „Jacob"; by the Arabs alao sirailarly nanu 
Beeir Jacob (Jacob'e Spring).* - 

As Midrasch Rabba (book 1, chap. 100) relates, t 
children of Israel on their departure from Egypt took t 

I 11. Samuel, c. III. 32; c. IV. 1. 

a A!i1jlI Bai-gria, Professur at the »orbonno at Paris, whu In the 
1853 Tiaitcd llie H0I7 Land, has given, in an episode of his joni 
under the litle of „La Samarilaim de Naploufe" (Paris 1855), 1 
very clever and clear aeconnts respecting tho aneient city of Sich« 
Ihc Samnritans, tbeii worsbip, and their langaoge, — nhieh k 
especially nith regard to the latter, — of the greatest valn««'! 

3 Joahna. c. XXIV. 3ä. 

* Comparo Bnrg^B „Les Samarilalna de Naploune" p. 10. 11. 



nainB of the ancesUirs of their race in eoffina with 

and, after the division of tho promised iand, by Jo- 

buried eaeh in Üiat portion of Iand which had fallen 

lot of bis poBterity. The writer, who has visited 

) BpotB, is convinced that this tradition is foundcd on 

and using the attthority of Midrasch Kabba as a 

, gives here the account relative to the tombs of the 

jve Fttthers of the Trihe, relying on the statement of 

: Olam Zuta (little Seder Olam) with respect to their 

Reuben, lived 124 years, and was buried in Rumia 

on the further aide of the Jordan. 

Gad, 125 years; buried at the same place as Keuben. 

3) Sinieon, 120 yeara ; his grave is in the village Manda. 

4) Levi, 134 years; buried in tho eame place. 

5) Judah, 12Ö yeara; buried in the village Babi near 

6) Isachar, 122 yeara; liea buried at Sidon. 

7) Zebuion, 124 years; liea there also. 

8) Dan, 127 years; interred in the country of Aatael. 
9j Kapthalj, 132 years; interred in Kadeach-Napthali, 

iO) Asher, 126 yeara; rests in the Iand inherited by his 

ll| Joseph,! iiQ yeara; aa above mentioned. 
12) Benjamin, 111 years; in the neighbourhood of Zion 
(Jebusai, the ancient name for Zion); the exact apot 
The Order of the names doea not agree with the ecrip- 
ture account, but they arc mcntioned according to the order 
nf their gravea, of wich some are to thia day diatinguished 
by monuments , which are held in high veneration by the 

To the north of Sichern, about four houra' joumey from 
it, lies the place Dothan,^ and near it is a tank or cistem, 


in which, according to tradition, the aons of Jacob eaat t 
brotlier Joseph, i Thia apot ia called by the Arabs ( 
Joseph; and opposite to it a Moaque and b. Fimduk {orii 
have been erected. 

In Saniaria, litewise called Sabdia, wich, according t 
the eaying of the people, ia the once celebrated city Som 
ia ahewn, in different parts, the gravea of several of I 
KingB of Israel. 

One day and a hall''B joumoy from Öiohem is the 1 
of Tiberias, wbich by sonie of the Talmadists is called I 
kath, by othera Hainmath (bot watera);^ jn tlie Bible bot 
names are to be found.3 — According to the Talmud t 
town was formerly a moat iraportant one.* In the vicini 
of Tiberias are numerous gravea of Talmudists. -~ In 
year 1857 Tiberias aud Zephath were iaid waste 
earthquake; but the moat dreadfiil misfortune happened i 
them on the S"' of Sivan 1834, which may in truth 
designated a day of niourning in the hiatory of Paleat^nt 

The Draaea of Lebannn invaded the city of Zephat 
and plundered it for the space of 33 daya; the Synagogi 
were deatroyed, and the Tablea of the Law demolished. ThI 
worda of the Prophet Jeremiah were Mfilled.5 The Jen* 
had fled for refuge to the monntains. — The inhabitante 9 
Tiberias, fearing a aimilar fate, sent & deputation to tM 
plundererB, and pnrchased their forbearance by a sum-al 
money. i 

By the earthquake of 1837, Tiberias and Zephath wenl 
almoat entirely destroyed. Mary hundred Jcws and a grea| 
number of Mahonie dana periahed by it; few only were abbj 
to äee for safety to the mountains, and these apent 1 
a night füll of fear and horror, liatening to the distant o 

l GenBBiB. c. XSXVn. 21. 

' Mcssechet Megiln. Fol. &, p. 2 ; Fol. I 

3 Joshnn. c. XIX. 85. 

4 Menaechet Berachot c. 1. 
s Jereminh. c. XIV. 17. 


and angiiish of thoae who belonged to them ; but 
L they were unable to asBist. On the next day tliey 
red to Ihe scene of miefortmie, which presented to 
k feM^'iil aspect. Uuder the eai-tli and niina of the 
r the horribly mutilated bodieä of their relations and 
[ few only were brought out still living, and these 
ktnostly so diafigured that tbey eiivied the fate of the 
Not a family waa there that bad not to deplore the 
E of its members. But still no mumiuring waa to 
eubmisslve and reaigned to the dispenaations of 
nighty, they said: „The Lord gave; the Lord hath 
Heu away: blessed be the name of the Lord." ' 

Zephath lies at the foot of a niountain, and ia now only 
» heap of ruina, from aniong which rlse sorae houses and 
' irks of fortificatioü. At the base of tho mountain is a 
-'/ cave, called by the Arabs Älaarath Jacob; where it is 
:ii Jacob mourned over the loas of bis aon. To the south 
-I. of this niountain is another cave and a spring, which 
!i r ia called Aolad Jacob (Jacob'a children). In the vici- 
'■■ are to be found the gravea of aeveral Talmudiats; and 
^lie burial place of the Jewa, uear the town, are shewn 
' torabs of the Prophet Hoaea and of hia father Beeri; 
■;b the tomba ai-e omamented with a grave stone. 

Two houra' journey from Zephath liea the village Mirom, 
'I half an hours' journey further ia to be seen an extensive 
iityard surrouuded by a wall, on which besido a magni- 
' iit tree atands an ancient building. It containa one large 
..iinber and two smaller ones, in one of which is the tomb 
die celebrated Talmudiat Kabbi Simon, aon of Jochais,^ 
'! ihe other that of hia son, the Kabbi Eleazar. Generally 
ihe IH"' of Ijar (May), a great aolemnity takea place there. 
^'Imy thouaanda of Jewiab pilgrims from Palestine, SjTia, 
l'Tsia, Africa, and other diatant landa arrive aeveral daya 

I lub. c. I. 21. 

'' ÜHnjfliDiD de Tudcla (p. 46) spenks of tliia villHge and of sevorsl 

lamba of Ihe Talmadiats fouud in the vicinitj: of fbs above iiBTDed 

Ivmti buwover bo muketi Do mention. 


before the festiTal and eDcamp in tente round about,^^| 
tKe Rabbis take possessioa of the tomb - bouae an^^| 
neighbonring buildinga. DiTine aerviee, which begins iofl 
night of the 17"" — IS"' of Ijar, conuneiices witli the readinj 
aloud of the work Sohar, which ia ascribed to the Babl^ 
Simon. In the middle of the night they give utteranc« ll 
their aonga of praise and the rejoicing becomes so vebemea 
thatthey even break out inttt dancing, and continue it unq 
break of day. In every part of the court theae ceremoni<l| 
may be seen and heard, and they are repeated in the op«! 
air at the graves of the various Talniudists who are inteiTe|| 
near by. The day appointed for this featival is the IS"" oE 
Ijar, the anniveraary of the death of the Eabbi Simon. Tal 
add to the grandeur of it an imiuenae nmnber of lampf 
lighted, and for thia purpose a coloaaal lamp has been pn 
up in the tiret npartment of the hoiise; this lainp is capaU 
of containing about 100 measurca of oil. The ligbting 
this lamp, which is called Hadlaka di ßabbi Simon, is o 
aidered a peculiar privilege, which is even aold to i 
highoat bidder. The lighting by meana of the smaller lanq 
is called Hadlaka di ßabbi Eleazer. Many rieh people ei 
give their dresscs ornaraented with gold to aerve as wii^ 
for the grcat lamp; ao highly venerated is the memory 
Rabbi Simon, — On receiving the benediction whioh 
bestowed by the Rabbi presiding over the ceremony, e» 
person present bastena to present an offering, oftentimes 
considerable value, — intended for tbe Portugueae Congn 
gation of Zcphatb, and aervea ehiefly to keep the buildii 
in proper repair. 

Theao ceremoniea are called Killoula di Rabbi Simooll 
(wedding feasts of Rabbi Simon), ^ but I cannot relate Üiaw 
tradition which haa giveu rise to them. 1 have not done Bfli' 
in my account of thia featival, which is held in such higll 
estimation in Aaia, Africa, and even araong tho Turka, t' 

1 Thia appellatian ia gencrnlly given bj M Ibe eastem pilgii 
itj, tliAC nhen the Raübi died, He&Ten r^oiäsd. 

IBre confined myself to the simple facta alone; tbe aeveral 
Bftrts of which would fournish matter for a whole liook, if 
one toot into consideration the very copious traditiona con- 
cenÜDg it.' 


The State of the Jews in Falestine. 

' Deep nÜBery and continual oppression are tlie riglit 
1 to deacribe the condition of the Children of Israel in of their fathers, — I compriBe a ahort and faithfui 
i of their actual State under the foUowing heads. 

1) They are entireiy destitute of every legal protection 
1 every means of aafety. Inatead of the secui-ity afforded 

f tiie law, which ia unknown in theae countries, they are 
10y linder the ordera of the Seheika and Paehas, men, 
character and feelings inspire biit little confidence 
1 the beginning. It is only the European Consida who 
fri.quently take care of the oppresaed, and give them some 

2) With unheard of rapacity tax apon tax is levied 
■ I tbem. With the exception of Jerusalem, every where 
l^e the taxes deraanded are arbitrary. Whole communitiee 

■ ive been impovcriehed by the exorbitant claima of the 
■■■li.'iks, who, utider the most trifling pretencea, without any 
■ulrol, oppress the Jews with fresh burthena. It is impoa- 
■■\ik to enumerate all these oppresaions. 

3) In the strict aonse of the word tliey are not even 
iiiHätera of their own property. They do not even venture 


to complain whQn they are robbed and plundered; 
vengeance of the Ärabs would follow eacb compli 

4) Their lives ar« taken into aa little considei 
tlieir property; tliey are exposed to the caprice 
one; foreven the siiiallest pretext, even aharml 
a Word dropped in convcrsatjon, is enough to cause 
reprisals. Violence nf every Idnd Js of daily occurreo 
Wlien, for instance in the contests of MahometAli wlth 1 
Sublime Porto, the City of Hebron was besieged by Egypti 
troopa and talien by storm, the Jews where murdered a 
plundered, and the survivors scarcely even allowod to reti 
a few rag3 to cover them. No pen can deacribe Üie desß 
of these unfortunatea, The woraen were treated with bru 
cruelty; and even to this day, niany are found, who fr( 
that time became miserable cripples, With truth can 1 
Lamentations of Jeremiah' be employed here. Since Ü 
great miafortune up to the present day, the Jewa of Hebt 
languiah in the deepest misery, and the present Scheik 
unwearied in bis endeavoura, not to better their conditi 
but on the contrary to malte it worae. 

5} The chief evidence of their miserable condition is 
universal poverty which we remarked in Palestine, ; 
■which is here truly characteristic ; for nowhere eise in 
long joumeya, in Europe, Asia and Africa did we obsei 
it amoiig the Jewa. It even caiises leprosy araong the Je 
of Palcatinc, as in former times. Robbed of tiieir means 
aubsistence from the cultivation of the aoil and trade, tl; 
only exist lipon the charity of their bretliren in the faiih 
foreign parta. — The wi-iter, who has seen all thia mis« 
with hia own eyes, and with hia hands has tonehed 
deep and ever open and bleeding wounds of hia brethr 
has often repeated in bis heart the worda of Joremiah: 
I go forth into the field, there behold the slain with : 
sword, and when I enter into the city then behold thi 

|rito are sick witli famme." ' — „How is my teart oppressed 

Lth sadneaa! how loudly it throbs tliat I aan nowhere 

td peace." — But with all the miaery which he grieves 

ler, httB he also admired the resignation with which his 

näiren in the faith have bome their misforfinies for hun- 

beds of years up to this time, and the eonfidence, with 

lAicli they eontinue to be ateadfast in hope. Like shadowa 

tliey 8teal over the land, which nourishes their cruel and 

imperious tyrants. The ignorant and barbaroua Arab tramplea 

IWb aacred soil beneath his feet, and considera the Jew a 

- '!>=inberited and aecursed being, unworthy of dwelling there ; 

1 yet theae ruiJis, theae desolate citiea, these wide-apread- 

; 6elda now uncultivated and iaid waste, are the inhe- 

..iit-e of larael; and still does this fruitful land up to the 

■Mint day bring forth abimdantly every kind of grain, 

üits of all comitricB, and excellent wine; and ita air is also 

1 Lsqtiisite purify and freshness. 

,.For who shall have pity upon thee, Jerusalem, or 
■'.ii' shall bemoaii thee?^ — My heart is pained that my 
ple have fallen into such great misfortunea ; it grieves 
ii| afflicts me. — Let us pray, lifting up our soid under 
!'■ Lord. Oh Thou, the hope o£ Israel, the Saviour there- 
if in time of trouble, why shouldest Thou be as a atranger 
in the land, and as a wayfaring man that turneth aside to 
■-irry for a night? — Why shouldest Thou be aa a man 
"'iiied, as a mighty man that cannot save? yet Thou, 
i-il, art in the midst of ua, and we are called by Thy 

■ me; leave üb not."^ Hcal me, Lord, and I shall be 
iltd; saverae, and lahall be savcd: forThou art my praise.' 

In a Word the atato of the Jewa in Palestine, body 

■ II aa mind, is an unbcarable one; and yet there the land 
■-hU moat abundantly. If the posscssion of it were not 
■:-l'letely in the hands of the Araba, — if one could only 

' Joremitth. c. XIV. 18, 
'' Jereinlah. c XV. S. 
ä Jeremiab. c. XIV. 8. 9. 
«reminb. c. XVII. IJ. 


secure for tLe Jews some litÜe portion of it, and give theo 
the means for its cultivation , sufficient aources of industn 
would be open to them, wherewith to obtain a livellliooa 
But wbat does it benefit them to cultivate the ground, | 
tlie Arabs rob them of the barveat? i, 

At the sight of all the misery in whicb a country laa 
guishes, — ■ a tountry, which haa so iiiueh rigbt to imiver«| 
Bympatby, I venture to raiae a cry for help to my brethrei 
in tbe faith in Europe. They will hear me; tbeir be&n 
will be touched, and fuU of noble feeling, they will stretd 
forth tbeir banda in aid of those imfortunatea for whoinjj 
plead. „The fettered priaoner," says tbe Talmud, „cann^ 
free himself, and it adda: „He, who has a good purpose £ 
view will receive from God the naeana to carry it out." 

A noble hearted man, whoae name is ever mentionei 
with gratitude and veneratioii by our bretliren in the fait^ 
baa been himself in Palestine among our people. 1 me« 
Sir Moses Montefiore, of London. ■ 

Tbe charitabl'e institutionB, which he bas himself found« 
at Jerusalem, are the abiding proofa of bis great and nol* 
exertion to alleviate the misery of bis brethren; and thank 
to tbe picty of this distinguiabed man and to tbe unweari« 
benevolence of hia wife, the eondition of the Jews in Jer« 
salem may become in time lesa ^vretched. , 

The old System of yearly alraagiving, which was but i 
little benefit, was of necessity discontinued ; for a mere Ug 
proveraent in their personal eondition, unaceompanied b] 
any elevation of theii- moral worth, could have no lasdn] 
and happy result. In order to raise the Jewish inhabitant 
of Palestine from tbeir degradation, — a work, which wa 
conunenced with much zeal and circumspection — it w« 
necesaary above all elac, besidea secnring to them the suppl 
of their bodily wants, to awaken in them, by instructioi 
and by personal exertion, a feeling of their own worth. 

And certainiy never has assistance been ; 

eeu mor^j^w 

'nl nsefiilly beatowed. Even sti-angera admire this work of 
love; and mouths and hands are füll of praiae and gratitiide. 
May the Almighty, the all aeeing One, protect and 
IsanctUy their work; and tke Children of Isiael will not 
\ oease to bless tkem. 

„The Lord hath shown His power before all people, 
[ that all nations may see the salvation of our God." 

„I pray to the Lord Omnipotent, that He will end my 

I sufferinga. Jlay He aend me help from above, and assiatance 

lagaLnst my oppressors." — The Lord hath made bare His 

' Arm in the eyea of all the nations ; and all the enda 

|-the earth shall see the Balvation of oui- God.i 

Journey through the Mountain of Lebanon. 

In Januaiy 1S48 I left the Holy Land Palestine, in 

I Order to go over Lebanon to Damascus. I began my journey 

i according to the following route. Several hours' journey 

■.!■■. in Zephath flowa the river Jordan, wMch is here very 

iiUTOw, it ia croHsed by a bridge, which by tho Arabs is 

i-^illed Djesser Jacob (Jacob'a bridge). On the other side 

of the Jordan, near the bridge, is built an Arabian Funduk 

I (inti), where I spent the night. From this place I passed 

f In Company with two Arabs over the piain Medan towarda 

Novaran or Nuaran, and towards erening we reached a 

mountaln, which is called by the Arabs Djebel (mouatain) 

Heisch, of which I shall speak later. Opposite this moun- 

tain to the west is another high mountain, the Djebel Mak- 

mel, wliieh is covered with snow ncarly the whole of the 

n'ar. Between these two inountains lies a broad deep valley, 

'lieh the Arabs call AI Bika. In this valley to the east 

I .Mount Makme! are found the ruina of Balbee, and under 

Uie fragments and rubbiah are stones from 10 to 20 feet 

in length, — the remaina of a bnilding which, according to 

i likiali. c. LU. 10. 



tradition, -was formerly a magnificent palace of King Solo 
The legends of the Axabs asBert tliat King Solomon hat 
palaee built for BaUds, Queen of Sheba. 

Balbee ia one of the most remai'kable structures of 
Solomon. It is mentioned in theBible by the name of 
Halwanon (bouse of Lebanon). In the hrst Book of I 
c. VII. 2. the extraordinory stnicture of the Palace ii 
Bcribed ; wliich we 1 ütewise find mentioned in the 
Book c. IX. 19. and in U. Chi-onielea c. Vm. 6. 

In the account of Kabbi Joaeph Schwarz a natin 
Jerusalem in his Hebrew work Tewnat Haarez (Jerua 
1845) Vol. 2. Fol. 33. p. 2. it is related when, and by v 
thJB estraordinary building was destroyed. It is wi 
as follows: „In the year 51 G2, according to Biblical c 
lation, Tamerlane, an eaatem King, who dwelt at Samar! 
in Mongolia, came and conquered the whole of Peraia 
the middle of Aaia. In the Bame year he also sub 
Anatolia, Syria and Paleatino, spreading desolation 
destniction wherever he went. This ancient and remarl 
building in Lebanon likewise feil a sacrifice to his fi 
From this account, according to my caiculation, the i 
of Balbee stood for 2200 yeara : — this I will here hii 
cally note down. 

According to the calcuiationa of Seder Olam '^ 

Solomon began his reign , after Bibiical ■ 

reckoning, in the year 2! 

He conunenced the building of the Temple in 

the 4"' year of his reign (I. Kings VI. 1. 

n. Chronieles IIL 2.); therefore in the year 21 
The building of the Temple lasted seven years 

(I. Kings VI. 38) ; therefore up to the yeai- 21 
Later he built a palace for hiinBelf(I. Kings VII. 1.), 

which took up 13 yeara ; bricging it therefore 

to the year 

Solomon reigned forthy years (I. Kings XL 42. 

n. Chronieles IX. 30); 24 of which were ■■ 

spent in üiectiug the above buildings; after 1 

e nii 




which a period of 16 yeara remains up to the 
time of bis death. la these 16 yeara he 
built thß hoiise of Lebanon, Tadmur and 
Otter placea (I. Kings Vn. 2. IX. 17 — 20. 
n. Chroniclea VIII, 1—7). K wc add these 
16 years to the abovc date 2950, then we 
have the yeai- of the death of Solomon 

The house of Balbec was destroyed 5162 

[t had therefore stood from 2196 

or about 2200 years, 

On the road from Balbec to Damascus one comes to a 

■iiriLg which is called Fije (Arabic FitseliiJ, the water of 

uiich united to aeveral other Springs ultimately forme a 

ri fiver which flows down paat Damascus towards the sea, 

c there it unites with the river Bardi, and falls into the sea 

j Bshret-el-Merdach. 

:_- To the north of Motmt Makmel, near Danijeh, is a 
a forest of several hundreds of cedar trees, of wliich some 
\} (ave attained a height of about 80 feet, and bencath round 
th« trunk a circiunference of 36 to 40 foot. 

The ürst mentioned mountain Djebel Heiach reats with 
Hi base on one side of the Antilebanon mountain, whose 
irth side ia uncultivated and Stretches away into the deeert, 
iLilat its Southern side cultivated and inhabited extends to 
''"i place Banijas,' The north side extends nearly to Da- 
iDMcus. Near the Djebel Heisch a second mountain risea 
npon Antelebanon, — the Djebel Assaik, called by the 
Arabs Djebel Tels (snow mountain). These mouutains form 
llie highest summits of Lebanon, 

On these mountaiiis, on the road to Damascus, lies the 
rijlage Beth-cl-Desana in the neighbourhood of which, about 
an hour's joumey towards the north, rises the source of the 
rivor AI -Bardi (Bardi raeana cold), which flows north -east 
towards Damaacus, where it ia divided into two parts, one 

' On a moontaiii an hour to the north of Btuiijas, is Bhewn to this d»7 
I u »Bcient bui'Ming, called hj tho Ärabs Mmset-el-Tair, wbcro, accord- 
^^B tag lo their tradition, God inade Eis covbnad TiiÜi A^nsbioa. 

of which mns trongh the cily of Damascus, and the otha 
by the 'aide of it, and after a while becomes united wii 
the Fitschi, and falls into the sea Bahret-el-Merdsch, ' 

The mountain of Lebanon is very fruitful: it produCQ 
auperior good gtiän and abundance of excellent wine. H^ 
breeding of cattle, particularly of sheep, is a matter of grei 
importance in the country. Of natural prodnce the com 
vation of cotton and silk is especially attended to, froti 
which tho inhabitants make a stuff which they call Kitl^ 

The chicf pari of the popuIation is formed by tho tiibäf 
of the Druses, whose religion is a mixture of Christiam^ 
and Mahometanism ; araong ivhom I waa told, the practifK^ 
abhorrent to all human notiona prevails, that a father may 
täte bis daughter and a brother bis sister, to wife. ' 

Ah a pai-ticular proof of the degree thia stränge cnstOBl 
ia practised I n-ill relate the followiug fact. An Israelit^ 
was on very friendly tei-ma mth the head of a Druse faniiljijj 
and waa asked one day by the son of hia friend to obtai^f 
for hiin fi-om bis father his own sister for hia wife, ThB* 
Israelite expressed himself willing to undertake this comnüs-i 
sion, and conveyed to bta Druse fiiend the petition of hia 
son. The father however replied that he could not complyi 
witli the wish of his son, because he had determined 
marry his daughter himself. This fact was related to 
by the Israelite himself. 

The inhabitants of the mountain form a sort of republit 
Two aheiks each of whom has his own district, govern the 
country, The one, named Amir Abseliir, dwells in the city 
of Dir-el-Kamir, to the north-eaat ofTyrus; the other, called> 
Hamir, lives near Aldania. The Druses are of great anäj 
powerful stature, and bold and fearleas warriors. I 

In aome places iaolated Jewish familiea are to be found; 
they are much esteemed by the Druses, and, Üke the inha- 
bitants themselves, are occupied in the cultivation of tha 
aoil. The above mentioned unholy custom is not practiaed 
by them; they are very religioua, tut ignorant. Their 
dreiif especially the g^rls, accordmg to the old patrii 

>ir p.hil- 


cnstom, go out to tend their flocks^ just as the Bible (Ge- 
nesis c XXIX. 9.) relates of Kachel. A circumstance was 
related to me which took place some years ago, which was 
to this effect: a young girl was tending her flocks on the 
mountaiBi when she was assailed by a Druse. She begged 
i bim to leave her, and then threatened to meet violence with 
: Tioleiice. As the Druse was heedless of either prayers or 
threats, ihe girl drew a pistol and shot him. When the 
esse came before the Court of Justice the girl not only 
f escaped unpunished, but received much praise for her 

In the district of Sheik Hamir resides a great number 
, of Christians, — the so called Maronites, whose Patriarch 
r lives in the dty of Kaniban, where also their church Stands. 
Sangninary skirmishes frequently take place between them 
snd the tribes of the Druses; in one of which, some time 
nnce, many Christians perished. 

From Lebanon I went on to Eanneitra, Sasa, Kokab, 
Daraya, and after fourteen days arrived at Damascus. 

1 Babbi Joseph Schwarz in the work we have already mentioned like- 
wiBe relates this fact. 


Damascus (Arabic Schamm). 

Synagogut of Djuhar. — Medrasch Gachsi, tkeancienti^ 
of lepers. — The Mosgue Moawialt. — The c 
Naoman. — Latkie. — Antakijeh. — Alappo. 
grotto of Ezra. — Anctent Synagogue. — Ted^ 
Aintah. — Meraech. — An accident. — BirdschaK, 
of Nimrod. — Urfa, aticieiii moiiuments, — Suwere, 
— Tschermuk. 

The city of Damaacus was, as the Eible relates, for 
long time the reaidence of the Kings of Syria. From 5( 
to 600 Jewiali farailies (Rajahs) dwell there. Besides tl 
leprouB Jewa, there also resides here a great nmnberj undi 
the protection of their respective Consule, memberB of the 
own faith dwelling in the city, so that the total amouD 
to more tban 4000.1 They posaess several Synagogues, ■ 
which one contains the five books of Moses, written in oi 
volume on parchment bearing the date of 4749 (989 afti 
Christ). There is another mannscript, containing the writini 
of all the Prophets, datcd 4344 (581 after Chiist). The fir 
pagea are omamented with coloured pictures, representii 
the Temple with the altar of the Holy of Holies, sever 
sacred vessels and a drawing of the ancient walla of Jen 
salem, which latter though somewhat faded ie atill yei 
correct, and heara the tracea of a clever masterhand. Tl 
lette.ra of the manuscript are Hebrew, square, and of_ä 
UBual form. 

1 10,000 Jevrs in Damaaca£.. 

Half a mile to the east of thia town, on leaving hy the 

i Bab Duma , liea the little TÜIage of Djubar ' or Dju- 

H in wliiet reside scveral Jewa, and where there is a 

ancient Sjnagogue.^ Tradition says that it was biült 

j ihe Profjhet EÜaha and destroyed hy Titus, but restored 

1 by tbe Rabbi Eleazar, tho son of Arack. In the Tal- 

id^ there is also mention made of a Sjnagogue in Djnbar, 

l«hicli was ruined in the 16"" Century by the apostasy of a 

The structure of thia aneicnt building reniinda one of 
"11! Mosque Moawiah,5 the interior waa aupported by 13 
mirble piilars; 6 on the right and 7 on the left side, and 

1 fitVfo-, Erdhvndf, Vol. 17, 3. div., p. 1312: The TiilBge Daehobir to 
Eljia norüi-aaat of Damaacus ia particularly hcld Baered by tha Jewa; 
e they coneider it as the Hobar (or Hoba, Geoesia XEt. 15), 
Ig whici place Abraham , «itli hia aervanls pursued the four King« 
)f Syria, ^aiid pnreued them unto Hobab, whicb ia on tbe left band 
tfOainasQus, and delivejed Lot and bis goods from tbe banda of tbe 
But anotber etymolugical explanation of tbe ancient Arab» 
inatead of Hoba the apot Berzeb (derlved frum hartaa, to 
which ia situatcd more to tbe north, at tbe foot of the 
oniitain, &s being; tbe place to wbich Abraham victorlonaly 
■dvanced, and Lhen performed bis devotions on tbe mountain, wHcb 
[i iberefore dedicated to hini, — - Uia houue Eluward Eleazar of Da- 
maicUH is likewiae bonorably meolioned in tbe legend. 
'' HUler'i Erdkimdt, Vob 17, 2. div., p. 1424: In Dsobobar, acconüng 
to T. Kromer, ia an ancient venerated Synagogne, in whicb ia pre- 
aerred an old scroll, written on parchmont, containing the Law. In 
i)iia Synagogue is libewiae ahewn in an old walied dp etona vanlt, 
tlie tomb of tbe Prophet Elijah, in which eick poraons aro aaid to 
recover in ono night. Every Fiiday tbo Jewa dwelling at Üamascus 
iisaeiublo there , and read togclber the Old Teatsment. 
• MessEcLet Beracbot Fol. 50. — ycdoc Hadaroth l'oi. 77. 
^-TMcbuwalh Mabit Vol. 3, fol. 147, p. a. 

n de Tndüla does not mention theso Synagognea. — Petbachi«, 
^ 198, apeaks of two Synagognea ; of which the one waa crected by 
tbe otber by Rabbi Eleazai-, son of Asariah. He tranefers 
1 however toDamaacus: InDamasco Synagoga exatat, quaia con- 
aeiu, iVeraguB alia magna, cujus fandttior B. Elitttr Asariae 
', in 3«a precanlw. — I howevei think that .my asBorlion ia cor- 
i that tbe two Synagognes aro but one, as abQ\6 T(ieo.\wtÄi. 


is everywhere inlaid with marble. There is only one p<»^ 

by wbicK to enter. Under the ho\y shrine, where the Fs 
tateuch was preserved, was a grotto, wherem aeveral porsci^ 
could stand npright; the desceut to which was by a fli^ 
of about 20 Bteps, According to the Jews, thc Propl»! 
Eliaha is aaid to have found in this grotto a place of rciitfl 
from the persecutions of King Aliab. Except the grotto, i 
which there ia notliing uncommon, there is nothiiig more"! 
the above mentioned to be seen. — At the entrance of w 
Synagogue, towarda the middle of the wall to the right, I 
an irregularly formed stone, on which can be observed tn 
traces of several ateps. Tradition asaerta that upon th) 
stone sat King Hazaei, wheu the Prophet Elisha anointej 
him King. The Jewa relate wonderful things of tbis Sya» 
gogue. It was respectcd by every conqueror; and, evSI 
the Araba, who otherwise laid waste the whole countig 
have not touched this building, which ia of an extraordinaB 
eolidity; and the Jews, who aought refuge there, wafl 
never expoacd to attacks. l 

If one go out of the Gate Bab - el - Shorky an hotltj 
joumey to the east of the town standa im ancient buildia; 
caJled MedrasB Gachai, after a servant of Elisha,^ who bein 
ouraed by that Prophet was Struck with white leprosy, whio 
tormented him to the end of hia life. Even in the pres^ 
time they aeek out thoae who are afflicted by thia incurabl 
illneaa, and endeavour for the aake of safety to confine tbei 
to several houaea, which are auiTounded by a garden an' 
moat. Tradition haa aacribed to tliia place aince the n 
motest period, the power of curing this disease. A cle« 
spring of water bubblea on one aide of tbis hospital, whid 
haa been founded for hundreds of yeara , and ia cntirel; 
aupported by the gifts and alma of pioua Mahomcdans. 

In the city is a rery extensive place aurrounded by ! 
atrong and high wall, in the centre of which ia aa ancien 

r called by the Mahomedaas Moawiab,i by the Jews 

ion.2 It ie tised at the present time as a Mosque.^ 

Je coloDDade passea through this large Square build- 

; walis, columns, floor, ceiling, all are of inarbie. Light 

' enter by ineans of a large opening in the ceiiing. 

e are four large portals to the interior of the building. 

I the Mahomedana commenee their pilgrimage to the 

' their Prophet in Mecca. Furnished with all that 

inMeasary for their joumey, the caravana with their camela 

r at one door and go out at the opposite one, contiiming 

thence their pious journey. In the intcrior of this 

lisque is the torab of Jiehia ben Sachor, who ia venerated 

■j. Saint by the Mahomedans, 

In the eastern part öf the town, outside the Gate Bab- 

'-^icherky, at a distance of about half an hour's joumey, 

<•• be found a tomb of colosaal size; but otherwiae tm- 

uthy of any Observation. Tradition relates that it is the 

iili of Naeman, the chief general in the brave army of 

■ King of Arara. The Arabians call this tomb Sheik-Atz- 

;i, and venerate it as a aanctuary. A few stepa from it 

'i\s a atrong atream, which springe from the Mountain 

Iirjui-Viü-Miu-Sar. The Jews aay that tliis is the Mount 

tTOon, mentioned by King David,'' The name of the 

■.\Am ia Zouf (wool); becauae wool ia oftentimea washed 

ita watera. Froiii the aame source riae four streams, 

■liuh send their waters to Damaacus, and from thence 

ide themaelvea into several smaller rivera. The first of 

■'.1 [ii is called Annivad, the second Thora, tho third .Tazid, 

wid the fourth Bardi; these, according to the Jews, are the 

rivers mentioned in tho II. Kinga. c. V. 12. 

From Daniaseus I joumeyed through Mount Lebanon 

' See the history of thia Mosqae in Di. Carl Ritter's Erdkunde B. 4, 
ToJ. 17, div, 2, p. 1363—1375. 

' n. KmgB. c. V. 18. 

3 Benjamin de Tudela p. 47, liktwiac Bpoaks of tliia MuHquo, und calla 
I, il Gnona Dameasok. 
Lgl FMlm CXXSIU. 3. *«* H «^V^ 


up the river Bardi orer Deir Kanon, Zuk, Ez Zebed(]| 
Andjar towards Beirut, where I embarked, and over 1 
di Suri {called by the Ai-abs Trabolus-el-Scbam) proceefl 
to Latkie. This last journey was a very diöicult one c 
account of the wind being against us, and the ship wt 
oftentimes in danger of being wrecked. After a stoni 
passage of 11 days I landed at Latkie, proeured there 
horee and, accompanied by two Arabs, of whom the oi 
acted as guard and the other was the owner of the hora 
rode on towards the Antakijeh of the Talmud, ün the vn 
there we came to a tent, out of which an Arah appearei 
asd demanded of me, as I was a Jew, a toH of 2 piaatre 
whether in the name of the government or for himself I aj 
anable to decide, I declined paying, and rode on ui 
disturbed. In Antakijeh itself I found 150 Jewish familie 
tolerably contented with their position, very religiouB, 
Ignorant, but remarkably superstitioua. 

Äleppo. ' 

Aleppo ia 12 days' journey from Dama^cus, and tl 

route is a very dangerous t 

1 account of the many Ali 

' Kayaerüng, Pedro Teiseira : 1 
hia next place of deatinatioi 
on the Euphratea. ') — Acco 
1 ifl very old, a 

yo aroompanj Teixeirtt to jj^l 
09 makc a halt with liim >t Ja 
) tho Iradition of the inhttbitM 
I in the Bihle under Üie namo 

Hena.'*) The most difficult part of the joorney which paar Ped 
had to perform was that frooi Ana to Aleppo. It Inated from U 
end of Docemher ontil the midiUo of March, and how trn 
did Le thank God when at last he roacheil the town. That Alep] 

•) See Tewat Haarea by Rabbi Joseph BehwarB. Fol 143. 
") II, Kings, c. XVm. 34; c. XIX. 13, and tha corresponding p 
in Isaish. c. XXXVU. 13. — P. Teixeira, 139. 

nes by theJews, viz. Zova 

IT Hileb, aa it ia calied bf Ihe Moora and Turks, U the often men- 
oaeä Aram Soba of the Bible i's maintaiiicd by ancient and ntodern 
MOgraphtirB as well &a bf Tei^ieira. Tlie town , wbicli is generall7 
3 than 14,000 liulises, fornierly numbeisd 
; S200, of whlch many were disUiiguished by Ihoir süie aud 
„But the huuaes nut oulj of tlie Turka and Moors aie as 
Dificent aa cau be imagiued, hnt tbose of the Jows too and of 
le Greek snd Koman Catholic Chriätions and Armonians are beautifnl 
) be the dwelljngs of priucea.*) We do not speak of the 
e hnndred MoaquBS sitaated hero, and of their magaificeDt interna! 
r of the many narehousea , with their morchandüie 
. all parta of the world, nor of the broad ätveets of the town 
l with alabu of machle , neithür du we dwell npon tbe royal 
pital, of the managcmeut of vihicli onr traveller complains, bnt we 
[ of the hin whieb risea in the midst of the town, and like 
jPaUadiam, ia separated from it od all sides. It is round like a 
and lipon it ia a foitreas en miniatuie, wbich as tbe 
Jews and Moora maintain was fuutided byJoab, the goneral of Darid. 
According to tradition , not only the synagogne there was bailt by 
tlie aame Joab, hut — imagination giTes itaelf play ! — the Patriarch 
Abraham is even aaid to have taken up his residence for a time on 
the fortrcsa luount,") Moors and Turka, Christians and Ärnieniana, 
Chaldeans and Groets dwell in thia rieh commercial city. At the 
lime that Teixeira viaited the town inore than a 1000 Jewish familiea 
dwell in a separate part of it, which was enelosed hy walls. Pedro 
relatea tbat they poaseas a lai'ge synagogue, whieb, according to their 
beliof, was bnilt läÜO yenra aga. Moat of tbe Jews there are rieh 
1 trade ; othera oam tboir livelihood as runnera, and 
FB BOppoit Ibemselrea aa artisls, workora in gold and such like. f) 

„ no solo lat de Im Tarcoa y Mbro» lan de aqaelia merk, 
I ouw de lai de loa Judioa y ChritUanoa Oriegoe y Amtenioa aon 
' ' 'info preeio gue «im capaxes de hahilar en ellaa Principa. 
En medlo de Ia ciudad eata un collado alto, aeparado 
VAbnetUe por todas las partes de todo el realo de Ia ciudad, re- 
'd eomo u» monle de Iriijo , aobre el gual eala »no forUdexa gue 
< 3) Judioa tlenen per Iradicion que primero Ia fundo Joah Ca- 
n OfMrt^ de David; lambiea a/firman que en aqiiel mwmo lagar 
"o el Falriarcha Abraham algun lietnpo. 
Ix.lTS: Tambien iriven Judio» de loa qualea hatira mit caaaa buenaa 
I barria leparado , pero deniro de loa muroa , con una grande 8ina- 
1, gve i^firman kauer mil y quinientoa nnos qtie fue jitndada y u 
ema: kay wachoa deUoa ricoa, loa moa »onmercadwes, elreaUiaor- 
OTUj/o/ßcialeaeomoplateroa, lapidariaa, lydeostroa urtes bctiujqwJj«. 

and Aramzova,' Üie ßrst name ia used to tlie prei 
in all Jewisli writings. It was tlie capital of a small 
dorn, whoae raler, in the time of David, was Hadarez« 
of Rechob.3 

The Jewish popuIation of the city comprises aboul 
to 2000 familic8,3 who enjoy great privüeges undeiv thi 
tection of the Eui-opean Consuls, of whom some are ofj 
own ftdth; for Kaphael di Pieubotti, Consui of Eussii 
Prussia, and Eliaa Piechotti, CöhbuI General of Austria, 
obtained a certain influeace over the Pacha, whick 
fi'equently exert in favour of their brethren, 

The Synagogue ia of considerable age, and is auppoi 
inside by a triple row of 72 piDara. In order to enter 
Templo one must descend 20 steps, caused by the 
of the ground. The saying goes tbat thia building vi 
erected bj Joab the general of David. The Windows wUi 
lead out into a large beautiful garden beb n ging to 
Community, ran parallel witli it, on account of the groi 
having aunk. A room in the upper story ia soraewhat 
cayed, and servcs at the present time as a retreat for 
women visiting the Synagogue. 

The Jewa dwelling at Aleppo diatinguish themselveB 
much by their faithful devotion and fidelity to the grel 
and holy bequeet of their fathera — the Jewish Law — 
by their profound Jewish-Süientitio acquirements, Not 1*— ^ 
than 60 learned men bear there the nauie of „Chacham* 
(tlie wise). The venerable, grey headed cbief Rabbi Abi* 
ham Autibi, who by the publication of aeveral learned wort^ 
of which I will only mention „Ohel Jeaeharim", haa gainea^ 
for himself a gi-eat narao, and tho sccond Rabbi Mardoch^ 
Liwaton, who had the kindnesa to visit me aeveral timea in 
Tay lodgings, — atand there as eapecial pattems of pie^ 
and learning, and uierit a place at the aide of the great 
Rabbis of Poland. 

I II. Sumael. o. VIU. 3. 6. 

•i L Chronicles. c. XVIU. 3-6. 

3 Benjamäi äe Tndcla, p. 19, relalee tbat läOO Isj-acHLes dwell a' 

The study of the Law ia oherLshed here with the greatest 

ilevotion, there ia acarcely a Jew in Aleppo of whatever age 

or rank, who, notwithatanding all the demunds made on his 

time by his liuainese or position, does not und leiaure every 

>!j.y at certain time to repair to the ever flowing stream of 

'^ra, in order to derjve Instruction from tbat bubbling 

^■l■ of life, and strengthen himaelf for thc holy and sublime 

;ics of bis religion. At the liour of midnight the greater 

■ t of the Community is to be fouud assembied within the 
iiU of the Synagogue; youtha, in the feeling of their ftill 

1 undiminiahed atrength, — nien, with their carea for 

■ [« and child, — even the weab o!d man, fast approaching 
■ tomb, — all are aasembled in tbat aacred place; and 

iiiic without darknesa Covers the earth, here within awaka 
: the brighteat spiritual hght the pious minda of the faithful 
:js of Jndah. Until the moming dawna they remain to- 
, occupied in the study of the Talmud and Sohar, or 
[ themadrca up to prayer. The morriing prayer cloaea 
> aasemblies, and the day £uda them buay and active 
leir different occupations. 

~Tiu8 passes night after night, with the exception only 
t Friday to the Sabbath; for then their occupations 
tot divided; but led by four conductera of the choir, the 
f assembly joins in sacred and edifying songs composed 
Bbeir Chachamim. Thia kind of psalmody makes a dcep 
tnpresfiion upon an European, by the peculiarity of the 
tbod of singing, aiid the enthusiastie charaeter of the 
■j^irus, The greater nnniber of theae chants are composed 
iiy the disÜDguiahod poet Rabbi Israel Nagai'ah ofDamascua, 
ivhose celebrated work Semiroth Israel ia universally known. 
The leadera of the choir possess an extraordinary memory. 
I heard of one who knew by heart more than 1000 hymua. 
B«Bides tbis thcre ia a singing society, instituted especially 
for practiao of psalmody, which is performed with an enthu- 
-i:iüiii and reverence suth as I never heard before 
i[ tilla the listcncr with a true enthuaiasm. 

The Sabbath and festival days are divÜei V 

so, that ^H 

devotional exercises and amusements. The latter are^f 
through with quite as much conacientiousness as the fd^H 
All take pai't in tliem, the rieh as well as the poor, wl^| 
any diatinction. The wcaltliy take such loving eare 9^M 
poor, that the latter want for nothing in the celebrati^H 
their Sabbaths and festivala. Altogother the heuevfl^B 
and hospitality of the Jewa at Aleppo is really greatr^H 
are indeed worthy sons of Abraham. To the Europeai^^ 
all houses are open; he can spend weeks, even month^| 
the house of his host, without being rcminded by thes^| 
est inattention on the part of his host, or any nieiuMB 
bis bousehold , that he is not at home. I myself f(I^M 
apacc of äve weeks found in the house of the worÜiyi^| 
mon Lunjado the most fricndly reception. ^M 

But not only to the membera of liia tribe and ÜH 
but to every Christian traveller is the JewisL house opH 

Tho houses are very beautiful and ai-e remarkablftV 
their extreme cleantiness. The fnod is prepared in a saTn 
way, and would be found excellent even by the Bpiw| 
palate of aa European. The Jewa dress here aa they difl 
Palestine. They »peak Arabic, but many of them speakS 
Hebrew wjth a so called Portuguese accent, and IJli nU 
Italian with great fluency. The poor of the Community« 
very numerous, but are geaerously assisted. 9 

Aleppo is surrounded by high walls, Its Öomiafl 
commerce extends to Mosul, Bagdad, Diabekr, to^ffl 
Egypt, the Eaat Indies, and even to England and Fnfl 
In the year 1705 an earthquake devastated the town, W 
many persona were half buried, ao that they appeared'H 
treea with their roota in the grouad. Aiiother earthqdfl 
which was feit by the whole province, caused in the M 
1822 great destmction. A third ahock in the year "SM 
which 1 myself witneased tbere, was lesa violent, andV 
behind no important traeea. V 

Eight hours' jonmey from Aleppo, on the road to g 
tab, ia a place called by the Jews Tedif, and by the AM 
after the name of the great Ezra , Capel-Azar, In thäS 

Agogae of Übe place is shewn a grotto, und also a stone, 
rbere, according to tlie tradition of the country, Ezra ia 
1 '1 to have written the Thora^ after tlie return from Eaby- 

Only about 20 Jewish famllies live höre, who, like the 

Aä of all the other placea in the country which I viaited, 

speak Arabic. Before the beginaiog of the Feast of weeks 

the inhabitants of Alcppo annually niake a pilgiimage to Tedif. 

From Tedif I retoumed to Aleppo, whence I travelled 
to the Äi-abian town Killis, to the north of Äleppo; its 
Jewish populatiou of about 50 familiea live hj trade, and 
are in a very happy condition. After a short reat I tumed 
my Steps towards Aiotab, south-east from Killis, which I 
reacbed after a joumey of a day and a half. Before I was 
permitted to enter the town, I was obliged to keep with my 
companions a quarantine of 10 days in one of the two build- 
ings compoaing the lazaretto, which is sonietimes so overfilled, 
'lisi travellers are often obliged to encamp in tho open air. 
, j travellers, who are looked upon with most suspicion by 

officera of Health, are the merehantß from the neigh- 
uuiuüng mountaina, especially from Dagheatan and Gruaim. 

At a distance of three days' joiirney from Äintab, the 
cotintry assumes quito another character; one enters upon 
ftregion ofmountains, whoae summits are eonatantly covered 
with snow, which when melted Rows down in dirty foaming 
itreaniB. To the north of Aintab, on the road to Merasch, 
flowB the river Marad. 

I next arrived at Merasch, which lies at the foot of 
UouDt Taurus, whose gliatening glaciera lift up their heads 
to the clouds. The climate ia alwaya rough but healthy; 
the men are streng and of great atature. The town tradea 
with the neigbbourhood and with Kurdistan in agricultural 
produce, eattle and wool. The streets of the place are on 
both sides encompaesed by caaals, which are supplied 
daring tlie whole year by the water of the melted snow. 
The houaes are handsome; and the inhabitants, of whom 

many are rieh, dress in tlie Turkish style. The i^^M 
Community ie comprised of about 50 families, who ^^H 
a tolerably prosperous coiidition, and enjoy many privi^^l 
From Merasch I roved through the neiglibourhood, ir^H 
rieh in pictui'eaqne viows, deaerves the attention o£ tq^l 
lera, and then retourned to Aintab. While retumiiig,^^B 
ridjng through a streani furmed by tlie nielted moB^^I 
snow, my horse shied and threw nie, and I remained hii]^^| 
with my foot in the atirrnp, I feil backwarda, uid^^l 
dragged by the horse a considerable diGtauee, until a^^| 
bruised and covered with blood, I remained lying o^^| 
grannd in a State of unconsciousnesa, in whicb condit^^f 
WOB picked up by a passing caravan. After some ^s^^l 
reat, I again reanmed my journey; aa I had neither ^^B 
nor money enough to wait until I was perfectly cured. -^ 
I next proceeded to Birdacliak, in Arabic Bir-Saccij 
(Birra), which was only at the distance of a day and U 
hälfe journey. The Jews believe that this ia the city Ära»' 
Naharajim, in which the parents of Rebecca dwclt.i AB 
pvesent Jews no longer dwell in that place; though thej- 
often eome there on bualnesa. ] 

The travellers, who have eluded the quarantine in' 
Aintab, have to endure thia diaagreable proeeaa here. In. 
Order to enter the city one has in a ferry-boat to cross the 
Euphrates, which protects the town on this aide, whilat tho 
other sidea are protected partly by a chain of raountfÜDf 
which riae quite close to tlie town, and partly by eome' oW 
walls, which join on the mountain. From a distance, ÜÖB 
large wall, which surrounds the town in a aemicircle, and 
by ita outlinea forma a atrong contrast with the dark bluo. 
back gronnd of the chain of granite, presents an extraordif 
B ' nary appearanee. At the foot of the mountain are to be 
^H Seen a number of houaea of different aizea, part alreac^ 
^H fallen into mins ; the one howcver always adjoiniDg die 
^^h other. Each of these houses contains a cellar, in which are 

I GenesiB. n. XXIV. 10. 


buÜt two or three rootns, capable of holding at most two 
to three pereous. All these rooms stand in connection with 
Ibe enormous subterranean pasaages, wbich extend under 
Ihe town, under the Euphrates to tbe distance of an hour's 
jovimey from ihe other aide of tbe river. On the sunimit 
«f tbe mouDtaiu is built a Funduk (inn), in whitib dwell 
Amicnian nierchanta. 


Eighteen boura' joumey from Birdscbak lies, in a desert 

ueighboui-bood , tbe town of Urfa, likewise encloaed by a 

■>'ill. Round about tbe towTi are to be foiind a great num- 

i.r of grottoes, built by human band; these are all open, 

::<l lead into a subterranean passage, n'hicb is aaid to be 

.'.oral boura' joumey in Icngth. Eegular gatea, doors, streets, 

.ti.'nsive places and eveu wells are to be found here. It is 

b^jyuud all doubt tbat tbeso are the tracea of a town deatroyed 

by an earthquake. Could it not he tbe ancient „Ur" of the 

Chaldees, of whicli Moses spoaka?! 

In Urfa are to be found monuments of antiquity, which 
dato from the oldest biblical times; some are preaerved up 
to this day; others are lying m mins. We mention bere 
aonie of tbe most remarkable : 

Ij The bouse, iu wbieh Abraham was bom. It is an 
utificial grotto, bewn out of a single piece of rock; and a 
cradle of white stone. Tbe grotto is elosed and gnarded 
by the Arabs; one can however enter it on payment of a 
sniall gratuity. The Arabs are wont to carry tbither their 
sick cbildrcn, and to !ay thcni in Äbrahani's cradle, in which 
they leave tbe little ones for tbe whole night; if they are 
not found dead tbe next moming, their recovery can be 
looked forward to witb safety. 

1 0«iiMiB. D. XV. 7. 


2) The fumace, into which Abraham, accordiag 1 
Sefer Hajaschar, was thrown by Nimrod. It is a trencd 
rounded by a railing, and in order to protect it f 
inclemency of the weather, a house, which is Itept -j 
Eully cloaed, haa been erected on tlie spot. — At the ptil 
time a stream fiows there, wliich dividea and form 
ponda, which abound in fish. Likß all other plat 
subjects, which are in any way able to be 
oonnection with the great patriarch, theae are contem^ 
with the greatest veneration. The Mahomedans ente 
the greatest rcspect for the holy man; the fumace ther^ 
as the place of his martyrdom, and the spring, whic 
there, are considered aacred, Even tbe lishea, whicl 
in the ponds formed and supplied by the spring, are regi 
with reverence; ao much so, that iishing in these i 
watera ia considered a capital crime, and pimisht 
death. The fiahes are consequently so numeroua, 
ao aecuatomed to the presence of man, that instead o 
ning hia approach, they quietly continue tlieir merry gat 


bhed i 

l Koysarling, P. Teixeira: Four änys' jontnay from Aleppo o 
clivily of two moantains, is the old town of Orfa, the original r 
of Äbrnhäm, as sucb, beuiag the amae ot „Ur".') Up t 
eajs tliB traveller, ia the spot on which tbo CbaldeuiB ei 
to harn Ahraham , univorsally revaccnccd. The inhahitants ahaw » 
spring, in which J3 to be füund an excellont kiiid of fish. Il wonlj 
be conaidered a sin to cat tbcso fishos, becanac they ave Said to bin» 
extinguiBbed the fnneral pile, which had been prepBrEd for-Äbraham.'^ 
The inhabitiuits of tbis place likcniec know the spring, out of whieb 
Kehecca, whom they call Rafka , ia said to haye dcawn water for 
the failbfu] servant of Abraham and for his camela, nhen he CUW 
thei'e to fetcb a wife for the son of hia master. t) 

•} Genesis, c XI. 28. 

") Midrasch Bereschit 38. (Of Ihis roiracle tbe Midraach knows nothinp.) 
■\) Teixeira 186: Orfa, ciudad antiquisima, Hamada en oiro llemp» Üt, 
aäo loa CaMfo» guiexifron quemar a Abraham, y hay aun oyenellalU' 
gar con ealt iitalo lertido en graade tienrraeion ; y laueairan alli «na /iiMtf 
«n cuya ajaa ae cria lue» peacada, comer dtl qaal ae (iene por aaert' 
legio, porqjte dliseri qtie /ue criada miraculoaametUt para apagar et 
filtgo w qae querian gaemar el tanto Palriareka: ' ' 

fitera de agv^K 

AboTit 50 Steps from tliis flirnace are two stone pi!- 
connected together bj means of an iron ehain. Ac- 
■ding to the tradition of the place, the fire intu wliich 
Abrabam was tlirown is said to liave been so bot, that a 
near approach to it was impossible; and this apparatiis was 
■' f^-i-efore put up, in order that the martyr might be thrown 
111 afar into the flaroea. Tbe already mentioned book 
.!\iascbar relates all tho detaila, as to how the patriarch 
was saved: hia brother Haran hoivever perished. 

About an hour's journey from the town, on the side of 

;i i'ocky mountain, are built in Beveral places a grcat number 

i>f Square grottoes of considerable size. One of these, more 

roomy than the others, leada into a second one, these to- 

.'eiher form a large Chamber. The interior of these ancient 

: lildings is very regulär; the ceilinga are smooth, some 

Mne pÜlars, consisting of one single piece, are still standing, 

I - ütherB bave fallen down; all are however hoilow and 

'^inluibited by serpenta and scorpions; droadful gneats, whom 

*litif(iuld not be advisable to dieturb in their pleasant repose. 

- Some of these grottoes are furnished with a kind of fore 

-ird, and at the present dme aerve as pens for the herds 

f sheep. 

The Jcws aa well aa the Mnssulmans bclieve and cor- 
■borate tbe tradition of the place, that the celebratcd hunter 
Minrod, who is mentioned in the Bible ' as tbe buüder of 
eitles, dwelt here with his people.^ 

At the distance of an hour's journey from the city of 
Nimrod, I visited another grotto, over which a beautifui 
arabian house, planted round with trees, baa been built. 
This is said to have been the bouse of lob, and beside it 
I, in which the pLoua BufFerer is said to bave 


X. II. * 
Bitter't Ih-dkmde. Vol. 11, p. 317. 

patblo »e 0« un pozo, que affirman ser aqud de euva agua Rehtea 
(a quien tl los dixen Rafka) dio de beuer al criado de Ahraham, gut ^ 
jM a butcar muger para Izach, y a *u» comeUo*, 

Bat, when, tormented with ieproay and affticdon, he reoi 
the Visit of bis friende. In the neighbouring rocka are J 
holes, which were made uae of by lob aa com-magi 
and the Ärabs uao them to this day for the same pid 
In the courtyard near the house is a well, which is f 
with very good water. 

In Urfa reside about 150 Jewish familiea;! theyl 
free and happy; so ignorant however, that hardly 50 pM 
among them are able to perform their devotions, 

The village Ckaran, which is well known in the I 
being the death place of Tarab, the father of Äbral 
is aitiiated six hours' joumey further to the north. 
place Eebecca is said to havß given the advice to berl 
band, that Jacob should flee from bis brother Esaud4| 
The Arabs ahow, half a mile from Cbaran, a very j 
well covered by a stone, and aHsert that thia ia the-l 
mentioned in the Bible.^ 

The Bene - Haraniachim (children of Haramachim) i 
bitants of moiuitaiDs, of whom the Book of Elsther spa 
dwell near to Cbaran, about a day's journey from it. 


Slwerek. Tschermuk. 

On thß day of my departure from Urfa, the cai 
which I had joined, was attacked by robbera. I appli^ 
the captain, and tendered him my aubmission. The t 
offered but a sbort and fruiüess reaiatance; after whicLj 
travellers . were made prisoners, bound and gagged; It 
however left at libertj-, and was conducted in my Mal 
dan dreas to the tent of the chief. As-it was growing J 

1 SUter's Erdkunde. Vol. 11, p. 327. mentions SOO Jews- 

55 ^^^ 

1 offered him a drink, which eonsisted of nothing elae than 
good brandy ; 1 he drank without Buapicion ; and soon after- 
.'. ;irds feil into a deep sieep. Of thia I gave information , 
I iiiy travelling companions; during the night they all freed 
iiimselves from tlieir bonds, and wc escaped. We seized 
the chief bandits, bound them, and then appKed for ^elp in 
tlie next village. Near to Siwerek however a troop of 
asaailed us, and we were ctimpelled to let our 
go, and to take to flight ourselves. On the foUow- 
iiig day we arrived at Siwerek, af'ter a journey of 3 days. 
Öiwerek is a very old town, situated in the midet of a 
Tcry deaert region, and smrounded by a wall half fallen 
into ruins ; on one side of wldch Stands a tower in the form 
of a pyramid. The houses of ihe town are small, and built 
of brick ; every thing makes aa Impression of misery and 
poverty, although the com-market is considerable and richly 
fbrnished. Near to the town are the ruins of a cltadel. 

Only four Jewiah fainilies live in thia place ; but the 
communily was formerly much more numerous; celebrated 
Ksbbie dwelt thero, and conuncrce floiiriahed. Bat the plague, 
tliat scourge of the east, carried away a great nuniber of 
die former inhabitants. An hour's joiu'ney from the town 
is a very large Jewiah place of burial, in which are some 
grsTestones ao ancient, that it waa impoBsible for me to 
decipher either the dates or their inscriptions. 

From Siwerek, the road in a northem direction leads 
through a monntainous region of enormous rocky cliffs; un- 
t'tiilthy, on accoont of the raany swanipa ; it is tbe mountain 
Kirwantachimen DagL, called by the Jewa Touri Taiga 
•iiow mountain). In order to traverae tbis locality mules < 
■iie used, which are espccially ti'ained for tliia pui-pose. 

The Jewa in tbe vicinity call the inhabitants of the 
nioüiitain Ammonitea or Moabites; aa they bolieve tbe are 
Üie deacendants of the tribes ao often mentioned in the Bible i 
its Ämmon and Moab, who still maintain their old place ( 

habitation.i I spent a night among these inliabitantB (^^| 
mouotain in the little TÜlage of Kirwan, and foimd '^^| 
an hospitable shelter. My interpri^ter askcd them wl^^H 
thej were descended from the people Ammon or froml^^H 
to which we received the answer that tbey did not l^^H 
all that could be aasertod was, that the present inhab^^H 
were descendants of both nattonB. Tliey speak a pei^^H 
languagc which much resembles the characters of the4^^| 
dish, which, as I have already mentioned, possesses o^H 
Chaldaic lettera. Their houBes are very large, and are tl^H 
of lime and decorated outside with chalk. In order to )^^| 
oif the continual frost, a large fire is alwaya kept bu(^^H 
in the inside of the dwellinga. The clÖBaate is the sani^^H 
at Kurdistan in Fersia ; the people themBelves are pO^^H 
fnlly bullt; their principal oecupation ia agricuiture; bej^^H 
which they carry on Bome trade in sheep , OKen and >n^^^^ 
The character of the pcopie ia rüde aven savage, and n|^^| 
separated &oni other tribcs üving around them they for^^H 
kind of independent republic. The dress of the peopla <^^| 
sists of a coar.sely woveu mantle, similar to those worol^^l 
the Moldau, add to thia turkish trousers, falling dow^t^^f 
their fcet, which are encloaed in sandals, and a head ä^^| 
of lambskin, or a high feit hat without a brini, resemU^^I 
a. tightly drawn up night cap. ^^M 

I left these mountains accompanied by the Moabite i^^| 
had sheltered me, and by a brother Israelite. The extrein^^| 
difficult path which leads over the steep sides of mountl^^| 
and deep hollows, ia only to be traversed under the direo^^H 
of a guide, which I poaaesscd in the person of my Moa|^^| 
hoEt. In the midst of a deep hollow path surrounded^^f 
all Bides by rocka, near to the rustring Kyziltschibu-Tsclj^l 
river, my guido suddenly stopped, and desired me to aho*" 
him the Contents of my wallet. In reply to my queation a» 
whether we were near to a frontier, or whether he i 


llowed to exercise the right of tax-coUector, he gave me 
he short answer that so he would have it. I seemingly 
>repared myself to comply with his request; but took ad- 
rantage bf a favourable moment when he tumed his back 
fco ihrow my cloak over his head. Deprived of the use of 
bis handSy I bound him with the help of my brother Israelite, 
and took him to Tschermukj but there however I was soon 
obliged to let him go again, as I could find no turkish of- 
ficer of justice. 

Tschermuk lies on the montain Mehrab Dagh. The 
Jewish Community numbers about 100 familieS; who^ exposed 
as tibey are to be continually plundered, live in a wretched 
condition. Their customs and dress are mahomedan. 

An hour fix)m Tschermuk are numerous hot mineral 
qnJBgs; they are collected in a large stone cistem in a 
grotto, and serve as a public bath to the inhabitants of the 
town. I myself had an opportunity of trying the healing 
power of these Springs; for, wounded and exhausted as I 
WBSy by using them for ten days, at the moderate price of 
5 paras (3 Centimes) the bath, I was perfectly cured. Not 
far from the Springs an inn has been built, for the accomo- 
dation of the guests who come here to use the baths. 




TTie toten. — Expedition to Ärmenia. — Ezra'a 

— Nisibin. — Tomb of the Itabbi Jehtida bm BeS 
Jewisk villagea founded by Tsdma. — Djesireh. — fl 

— Eemarkable ctistoms. — Extraordinary marr 

In Order to arrive at the important toira i 
I had to take a two days' journey through the mofli 
on which the Vegetation ia very Bcanty, and few tnfl 
cultiTatioii are to be found. Here, as weil as in other'^^ 
of the east, the Jews are obliged to inhabit a certain \ 
of the town: but this Separation rests only on the CustO| 
of eaBtem countries, and has nothing esclizaive or degradi:^ 
in it, as the ao called Ghetto in Rome. Abnut 250 Jewi^ 
familiea reside in Diabekr ; and although there is no leatsfl 
man to be found among them, still, many of theni posse? 
profound knowledge of our dogmas, and understand the td 
of the Bible. 1 

In a Corner of the aynagogue is a small apartment, d 
waya kept cloaed, which is held in the most extreme resped 
not only by the Jewa, bnt also by the foUowers of otha 
creeda; beoauae it is believed, that the Prophet Elijah ontj 
appeared there. In a niche of the wall of this apartmri 
is preserred a Pentateueh, written in the assyrian charaote« 
(Hebrew, square), This manuficript, a beautifnl volume < 
the uaual size, is only shown once in each year, on the e* 
of tlie day of Atonement (the Col-Nidre), when it is plao» 
on the holy table (Schulchan), and all pioua peraons dr»' 
near and kisa it with the deepest veneration. As a ChachW 
it WOB easy for me to obtain permission to view thia li 

is li^ 

rered relic^ but I found nothing particularly remarkable 
it. It ifi written on very thick parchment; the letters 
Bemble those of cur Pentateuch; the writing bowever is 
»graceful ; in many places it is illegible, and in many it is 
impletely obliterated. The Jews there assert tbat this ^opy 
: the Pentateucb was written by the band of tbe Prophet 

In answer to my quefition as to tbe origin of thia relic, 
was infomiDd that formerly it was in the possession of the 
ery large Jewisb Community at Mardin; bnt as that waa 
Kposed to continual plunderings, it had been confided to 
le Community of Diabekr, which latter had subaequently 
ifiiBed to give back the worfc to its former owncrs. In 
[ardin I found this aasertion confirmed by an acknowledg- 
lent of tbe proper delivery of the book to the commn- 
ity of Diabekr, signed by the chief Eldere and other 
enons of consideration in the place. By further research 
aacertained that the conimunity of Mardin had come into 
ossession of tho work in tho following manner; The Jewish 
ihabitanta ofNisibin (now called Neitzibin by the Jews and 
mbs), being attacked by a horde of robbers, had fled to 
Eardin, and taken the Pentateucb witb them. According 
] their account, this Pentateucb camc from the Jeschiba 
Academy) of the Rabbi Jehuda tien Betera, who had an 
icademy at Neitzibin, and was one of the most celebrated 
«dleamed scbotars of the Talmud. Their tradition also adds, 
hat it was written by Ezra's own band. Many other manu- 
KTipts are said to have bcen thcre at the same tinie; bat 
bave been lost in conaeqnence of numeroua pillagea and 

As thia relic deeply intereated me I made enquiries 
ofmany other persona concerning it; and particularly of a 
■lew, ßving in Mardin, a venerable old man, who seemed 
W me as a prophct in the wildemcaa, related to me the 
fa« almost in the same words. 

Tbe work is doubtiess a very ancient one, and deserves 
^jyery respect tbe special investigation oS a cciTOiQisii^SQx. 

Ar up to thie time, no mention has been made ( 
any leamed man, I e^teem myself happy to be i 
who, if only through the relation of widely spread t 
has related anythiag concerning it. At the same 1 
only, lament that it was impossible for me to devj 
exclusive attention to ttc form of the „Petuchot andl 
motb", ' to tbe letters, and to many other points < 
in the German and Portiiguese rites of the Jews, 
the autority of this ancient codex to decide tbem. Hm 
but imagined the importance of this Pentateuch to the Jewü) 
World, I ahould certainly have devoted my entire time aid 
energy to it, in order to have ensured a more satisfacto^ 
result. I shall however be enabled perhaps in raj eecoa 
journey to make this good, ' 

The townofDiabekr ia enclosed by a high wall, whie 
dates from tbe Roman conquest, as some latin inscriptioi 
prove, which bave been preserved to thia day, Thia walll 
very streng, and extends along a chain of granite rock 
fomiing a sharp descent to the bed of the Tigris, which i 
here at least 20 feet deep, navigable and is the road > 
coramunication between tbe towna of Mosul and Bagda 
The navigation ia however very dangerona, as tbe ships oft* 
get upoa the rocks, and are then engulphed by the boiste 
ous waves. Another great danger ia eaused by the mel 
ing of the snow on the mountains, which rushes down ; 
fearful streama, dragging with it huge masaea of earth ai 
rock, and hurling thera againat the ships, so either cmshii 
them, or causing leaks. I myaelf eaw a ship go down 
this manner with crew and freight; only one sailor was ab 
to save hiniaelf. 

The biulding of these sbipa, which can be construcö 
in the ahort Space of two or three days, ia very aimplo. 
number of goata are alaiigbtered, and their skins taki 
o£f entire ; tbese akina are sewn up at the end where tl 

e different formB of paragraphs in theF< 


', 18 cut off and at other open parts; and are then 

ided with wind, bo that they form larga bladders. These 

ined together in twelve rows, each röw 

ining twelve skins ; ' and upon these are laid Square 

i of wood, and the bladders fastened to them. Upon 

^ rafts planks are laid , and on them the goods are 

These rafta fload very easily, but when they strike 

ptly OQ a rock, the distended skins burst, and goods and 

' are siinlt in the water. 

L Diabelcr numbered in former years over 80,000 inhabi- 

%\ but they are reduced by the ravages of the plague 

»ut one third of that number. This discase however 

t exclusively visited the northern part, whose empty 

s are pemiitted to fall into riün. The town carries on 

tensive trade with Änatolia, Damascua, Aleppo, Moaul, 

and Kurdistan. Industry flourishes, and whjit it 

ices is widely celebrated; many clever artista in silver, 

;rs are to be found here. Splendid gardens 

ind the town ; the interior of which is distinguished 

ULgniticent bnüdings, many bazaars, numerous foun- 

fcornamented with beautiful marble columns, and above 

mperb Mosque. Mach care is talcen to keep the in- 

f of the housea neat and clean. , 

"he walls of the town, which I have already mentioned, 

ixtremely broad, that a carriage caO with ease turn 

\ on them. On the top of them, to which one ascends 

rraces, several houses are built. As, in Company with 

l Jewish friends, among whom was my hoat laaac 

i, I was Walking one day on the ramparts, from which 

: enjoyed a most beautiful Tiew of the town and the 

reaque neighbourhood, I expressed a wish to find out 

B;thoiie hoiiaes containcd. My companions endeavoured 

, me out of such a wild nation, by asserting that 

•r» Erdkundf, vol. It, p. 64, likcwise descritos theae rafts; but 
B b'i Hkins nve meiitioued as roquisita Cot such a Bliip. Oar as- 
□n is huwevor cori'oct; aa we bave «evcritl timea seen tliem 
NifM^and bayc toaToUed by them. 

ghoata frequented those hoases, and all curiosity ' 
dangerous. I woiild not be deterred from iiiy intentioi 
bdldly entered one of the buiidings, in whicli I found u 
remarkable; for it was empty and desolate. It was o 
nay return that the real cause of tliia fear waa ! 
namely, that many Mahoiuedan women hold secret i 
with young Armenians in these solitary buiidings ; Uie d 
myatery ia kept conceraing it, and for safety one < 
enter theae buiidings ai-med; so that any inquisitive pes 
runs the risk of paying with his life for hia intnision i 
such secrets, Later, 1 found this CGuhrmed, when I ivisi 
to investigate a aecond house; for hardly had I entered i, 
wheu a bullet whiatled paat ine, after which I naturally l 
all desire for further investigationa. 

In Diabebr, Arabic, Turkish and Amienian are spokei 
The Jews however generally make uae of Arabic 
national charactcr of tbe inhabitants is mild; the usual d 
is turkish; to which however the Europcans make an q 
eeption; for they go abouE in theii' national garb. 

Two daya' joumey from Diabekr is thu town of J 
din, on the mountain Djebel Mardin; on the summit < 
which are to be found the ruina of an old Castle. About SO 
Jewiah families live here,' who , ' although they have a cfiP* 
tain quarter of the town asaigned to them for their abod^ 
still live tolerably free. They mostly devote theraaelves tt 
agrioulture, dress in the MahoDiedan atyle, and speak Ara^4 
Their Nasal ia called Mailum Moses. | 

Two days' joumey from Mardin ia Nisibin; the Jen 
call the town Neitzibin, which lattcr name is alao inentiolUfl 
in the Talmud. This town, lying on the Tschak-scbak, wa| 
formerly of aome importance ; and, according to the Targiul 
of Jerusalem, is said to be the Arcad of tbe Bihle. Onljl 
two 2 Jewa live there now; a father and aon. The fathei^ 

I RiUer'iErillruTide,Vo].U,p.a90. ETere a conaidecablj grealar nnmfcei 

i)f Jews is msDtioned: aiy aäsertiou 19 however the corieot one< 
3 Boujamin da Tudela, p. 61, spcaks of 1000 Jewe. — Pethaehi», p. I98| 
8 SäUO; he likewüe speaka p. 170 of a Sjnagogua of S 

gogua of art 

V _63 

i Bailtini Samuel, is a butcher; the name of the son is Isaac. 
. »- In the burial place, whicli ie about an hour's joumey 
m tte town, near to wbich are to be seen wonderful 
In of the Roman tinie, ia the toiiib of the Rabbi Jehuda 
i Betera,! whieh, as an object of general veneration, is 
|lgoal of many pilgriraages. Formerly a house stood over 
l'grave; but it waa puUed down about ten years ago by 
ee of the new Pacha, and the stonea of it used in the 
ütion of barracks. One of the stonea removed, ia said, 
■ Mrding to creditable aaaertion, to bear an inacription to 
1 memory of the celebrated Talmudist; but it was impoa- 
) for me to discover it, even after a most atrenuoua 
1 wvh. A round etone about fire feet high was shewn to 
i SS bis gravc stone; but I could find no insoription on 
^ According to general belief, the Pacha was punished 
f thiB desecration by dying in the same year. In thia 
Üe burial place are said to rest the reinains of many 
* limudists ; but no monument and no bistorical trace justiiy 
e tnith of this aasertion. 


I^^Two honrs' jonrney from Nisibin, in a aouth eaat direc- 
■ 'lon, is the village of Tselma. According to ancient bibücal 
:'Qm, which is atill always followed in the East, the village 
.ir^ the name of its fonder, a Jew, celebrated and uni- 
:.^;dly respected in the neighbourhood for bis richcs, bis 
■il'i character, and his tried warlike bravery, 

1 bei) Bstera at Niailiiii. — Eitler'» Erdkunde, Vol. 11, p. 436, 
this lomb, and sayti, s rain is to be found o 
Rt this, OS abuv» mentioned, ia uu lungcr ii 

bijamia de Tndala, p. 40, Bajs, thut the tomb of the ßabbi Jehuda 
ben Belera in in iLo villngB Mei'on in PoIeBtlne. 1 beüeve hovrerer 
Ihat my DHsertion, uccnrdiiig to the Talmud Pcsaachim Fol. 3 ii 

Tselma. — The vülages of the Jews. 


A Paeha, who was favourably dlsposed towards 1 
made him a present of considcrable tract of land. 
built a number of bouses on it, and offered tbese t 
Ärabs find Armeniane, on condition, that they wouldJ 
vate hU fields. Tbus sprung up and encreased ader aa 
tbe abovo mentioned village. Tselina, wlio, wbcn attai 
by BOme plundering hordes, repulsed them by hia ow 
sonal courage, continued to rise more and more 
reapect of tbe inhabitants of bia village, so tbat 1 
governs there aa acknowledged ruier. According t 
custom, he bas two wives, wo bave borne bim Beven 
I remained two daya in tbia traly patriardial family,.! 
enjoyed many proofs of love and sympatliy. Several t 
brethren of my faith have likewiae settied tbere. 

Tbe chain of mountalns Djebel-Sandjack, whicl 
people of tbe coimtry beÜeve to be the moimtains of fi 
extend to witbin an hour'a joumey of Tselma, Thei 
made excuraions into the villages, whicb are cbiefly inhabf 
by Jews, and found during my visits in what deep ignom 
tbey live. The Bible ia to them a dead letter, a book i 
seven seals; they exercise only a few exteraal traditif 
duties, without knowing or und erstan ding tbeir inner i 
On the Sabbath day they aaaemble in the Synagogue ; ' 
Chacbam, wbo is tbe only one who can read, must p 
all. He likewise reads the weekly lessons out of a prii 
Pentatcuch, for manuacripts of tho law they do not j 

Tbey occiipy thcmselvea cbiefly in agricultural pui 
and carry on a small trade in cattle, and weave 8 
few only are engaged in commerce. As they are frequq 
attacked by tbe Kurde, they know how to defend themsrf 
and take active part in tbe combats, in which the wandi 
hordes are ever engaged among themaelves, aa in fact tha^ 
mu8t be on one aide or the other. 

1 I proved I 
coneot ; a 

however thal tliese traditi 

BscheBireh, — Sachu. 

After a sojourn of about tea dajs in these villages, I 
came over Kusri to Dschesireh, on the Tigris, at the foot 
of the mountain Djebel-Üjudi, whieli the Jews call Crez- 
Gezera, and which they hold to be the wilderness mentioned 
in the Bible. ^ I consider this opinion incoireet, although 
I have conaidered myself bound to make mention of it. 
— They ftirther maintain that the mouiitain , caüed by the 
Arabs Djebel-Üjudi, at the basc of which lies the town, is 
the mountain Tschult, of which the Talmudists epeak.^ To- 
warda this part, according to their tradition, on the day of 
Atonement, the scape goat laden with the sina of the people 
was driven forth into the wilderness, but 1 think thia un- 
true, conaidering the great diatance of the mountain from 
Jerusalem, aa, according to the sarae authority, that place 
ia Said only to have been aix houra' journey from Jerusalem. 

About 20 Jewiah familiea Üve in the town, 3 of whom 
somc are very rieh. 

The dresB of the inhabitants ia very peculiar: they 
wear a long ailk undergarment , which by the Moors in 
Algiers is wom open in front; over this a vest richly em- 
broidered in arabeaqnes, and over thia again a kind of red 
satin tnnic without sleeves. The covering for the head con- 
sJBt of a high pointed feit hat, and around thia pyramid 
formed head dreaa are wonnd different atuffs, so that it at- 
tains a very remarkable circumference. They dreaa in thia 
way in sumnier as well as winter, 

On the road from Dscheaireh to Sachu one haa to paas 
over the Tigris, for which purpoae the ahipa I have described 
Kre used. At low water the river can be pasaed by a 

KXevilicas c. XVI. 32. 

Uusecbel Jona chap. 6, r. 4. 
B Beojamiu de Tudeln p. S2 sa,ys, that at that time thore lived in 
I Oieheiiteb 4000 Jens, who posseased a Synagoguo , ivhich vm 
■.fgnnded by the celolirated Autbor Eira. l hMe lie&td. 'aiA\t\a%at.'iS_ 


floatmg bridge, which, wbile I was there, was carried | 
at high tide. In paasing over an accideot occurredg 
came into contact with the rocks ; tbe difltended goat I 
burst, and goods and chattela were all in the water J 
had to be fished out again , withont however havinj 
tained other damage than a wetting. From DscheairelJ 
road goes in a aouth west direction for about 18 1 
joumey. In order ta arrive at the town of Sacha] 
Chabur river haa to be crossed, wbich ia united to t 
canal, and ia paaaed by a brick bridge. At the gat« 
entry tax of 1 piastre is demandeil from all strangera. 
the north and west aidea the town is protected by moai 

Sachu on the Chabur. About 200 Jewiab familioB'i 
in thia town; they Support themselvea partly by coro 
with the neighbouring Kurds, or, aa worltmen, manuj 
woolen stuffs and auch like kinds of fabrica, They^ 
mostly wealthy, but live in a atate of great ignorance. 

Two Rabbis live in the town, of whora the one, ] 
Schalom, ia very rieh, the second, Rabbi Eliahu, is well* 
One day Mailum Eliahu sammoned me to him on very at 
portant buainesa, and on my arrival I found him leai 
over the book Beth Joseph. He then told me, that a J 
who went about in the different neighbouring villagea i 
merchandiae, had disappeared for some tirae. His wife <] 
aidered him dead and wished to marry again. He, -vM 
Mailum, believcd himself justified in giving tlie woman jl 
permission; but he wished iirat to hcar my opinion of ^ 
caae. On this I remarked that as the husband imght 1 
be living, or have been obliged to adopt the Isltun ( 
and aa in this case the woman was imder the controi'j 
her huaband, she ought not to conb-act any new mai 
as it would not be legal. — To this the Rabbi replift 
that the young woman left alone, was expoaed to the J 
of forgetting heraelf. — On my further objection, that ii 
om' country no Rabbi would. venture to decide such an i 
portant question without the advice of his eolleagues. He i 
replied that he was the chiet' Rabbi of the country; hitti 

>rders were aufScient, and would be accepted and executed 
irithout further convocation or appeal. Thua it remained, 
Bild the woman received from liim the permisaion of her 
second mai-riage. 

Sis houi'ü' journey from tha town riaea the summit of 
a great monntain, which joins the chain of mountains of 
Kurdistan. The Jews believe that thia is Ararat, and that 
here the Ark of Noah reated after the Deluge. We find in 
the Bible • the word Ararat, wldch the Targum Unlsulus 
translatea hj Touri Kardn ^ (mountain of Kurdiatan); from 
which the country received its name. The mouutain ia 
very steep, almoat perpendiüular, and it taJiea aix houra 
to reach the summit. Wonderful things are her related of 
the Deluge. One of the Kurdish tribea annually towards 
the end of June, ascenda the mountain, and apenda there 
the whole day in devotional exercises, surrounded by large 
lighted torches, They believe themselves deacended from 
die royal houae of öennacherib ; and they retain among 
tiiemselvea the tradition that King Sennacherib himaelf had 
divine Service performed in meniory of the Ark. ^ On de- 
■cending the mountain they bring with them some remains 
of the Ai'k, which, according to their asaertion, ia atill 
deeply bnried in the earth. The little pieces received are 
in the form of planka; some whitish grey; some black and 
picrced with holes. It ia not possible for me to give a 
niore accurate account of thia Kurdish ceremony; for it did 
not take place dnring my atay ; and I can only repeat what 
1 heard in answer to my queations, 

At the baae of the raounttiin stand four atone pillara, 
which, aecording to the people about here, foi-merly be- 
longed to an ancient altar. Thia altar is believed to be 


' GenesiB c. Vin. 4. 

' Pulbachia p. 170 rclatea thal iiian7 thousalid Jews formerlj dtrelt 

hcrc aiid deacribes tlie cauae wLy Ibey weie driven away 
' Tba Talmud mentioiiB Bnd explains this undar the word „3?ütocK' 
1. XXXVn. 38. 


that which Noah built on coming out of tbe Ärk.^ 
Ükewise aaaert that his remains are buried here; th^ 
not however apecify the exact spot, I myself obl 
several fragments of the Ark which appeared to be ccn 
with a tarry kiud of substancoi but of these, as wellfl 
many other things, I was robbed between Bagdad i 
etaiitinople , three days' journey from Sivas, and twenty 
Scutari. — At the aame time I also lost several manua« 
written in the assjTian charactera ; aud this grieved me e 
tban tbe losa of my fortune. 


First jonrney in the mountains of Kurdistt 

ließectiona reepecting the dispersion of the 10 tribes. -^ i 
dur. — Deik. — Tanwa. — Grotto of the Prophet j 
Alkusch.— Tomb of the Prophet Nahum. — Pilgrimagi 
and ceremonies at this tomb. 

On my arrival in these coimtries, when I saw the happj 
condition of the Jewe who dwelt there, — their frecdom 
from all oppresaion, and the flourishing atate of thcir circum- 
stancea, — I eould not get rid of the thought, that this was 
tbe land, in which tho ancient dispersion of the cbildren 
of Israel took place; in which, according to the words of 
the Bible, „they wcre lost." It was hither that TigUth 
Pileazer had them brought;^ and, by comparing those paat 
timea of misery and anguish with those words of Holj 

> Oenesis c. Till, i 

> n. Kinga o. XV. 89. 

,And the lost of Asayria ahall again be gathered 

hy doea the Prophet call those „lost", who inhabit 
lourishing land, the bigh road of the great Caravans, 
disperse Ufe and wealth on their way, — this land 
happinesB and contentment? — And yet the worda of the 
Bible are fall of tnith; for even becauae the children of 
Israel dwell bere, are these cotmtriea viaited by miafortunea. 

Great was the anxiety with which I began my re- 
searchea. I carefully examined each dwelling, — I inter- 
rogated the inmatea, in order to arrive at the secret I longed 
lo know; and at every queation I believed myself to be a 
Step nearer to the goal of truth, 

My brothren in tbe faith related to me that these widely 
esiending tracts of mountain were inhabited of Jews, who, 
lix-ing dispersed among the Kurda, never came from the 
inountains, and thua ahut out from the world, aa it were 
Tegetated thcre. Notwithatanding all the representations of 
insurmountable difficulties which were made to nie, I still 
kept fast to my determinatioa to aeek them out, and to 
penetrate into the recesses of the mountairs, where no 
Caravans can pasa, and where dangers of every kind tiireaten 
at every atep. I became ill; my brethren beatowed on me 
bodi consolation and pity; and I explained to tliem the 
vorda of Holy Writ, and spoke of the ttuty which I had 
imposed on myaelf of finding out the lost of tbe ten tribea 
of Israel. „I shall recover," said I, „when I aee my brethren, 
of whose very existencc the world haa no idea; who in- 
habit that land where no traveller ever penetratea." My 
repreaentationa and prayera had at length a good rcault; 
and aeveral offered to accompany me. „^ce, he cometh, he 
apringeth upon the mountains, and hath pasaed over tliem."' 

The reader will follow me to thoae desolate monntaina, 
where rise the warning gi-aves of many a traveller to deter 

1 Uiaftb c. XXVII. 13. 
1 Solomoiis song II. S. 

the intmder from the fearfiil wilderneBS he enterS; 
give him proofa of the dangcrs which threaten him. — 
further I advanced the more difficidt the journey becarae. 
For horaemen these small sloping paths are almost im* 
paBsable; and I was often obliged to clamber upon 
haiids and feet. FVom time to tiine only a Single poB* 
granate or figtree ia to bc found. 

I next arrived at Sandur, where the Kurdish chaiu d 
moimtains begins; about 200 Kurdish and 50 Jewish um- 
lies live here. 

Two daya' joumey from Sandur ia the town of De^ 
lyjng in a fertile valley, and aurrounded by niimerous spring», 
aome of which possesa minerai properties. Here dwell 40 
Jewish and 280 Kurdish families, 

After another two daye' journey from Deik, I arrived. 
at Tanura, a town, situated on a high hill and surrounded' 
by mountains; it haa a numeroua Kurdiah population, and 
about 30 Jewish families. Near it are two caves, the one 
cummunicating with the other; the first ia empty, and aerves 
aa an anti-room to the second, üppoaite the entrance falli 
from the wall a moat costly curtain made of rieh stufFs and 
embroidered with gold. In tho middle of the ceiling, which 
is oniamented with oil-paintings, ia suspended an anüqne 
chandelier, in which lights are kept continually buming, 
which, added to other lamps and lights in thia myaterioui 
place, ahed «round a solenm light, which irresistibly affecte 
the visitor. Thia grotto, about which wonderfui legende : 
are told, is said, according to the traditions of the Israelit« 
and Kurda, to have been inhabited by the Prophet Elijah. 
It belongs, aa well aa the fields aiirronnding it, to the Jewish 
Community, who employ the profits ariaing from the produce 
of the fields, in keeping the grotto in proper order, It is 
for thia purpoae placed in the charge of a Mohamedan 
family, who as a reward for their care, are freed from pay- 
ing taxes, and enjoy the higlieat eonaideration; they havfi 
from time immemorial, takcn care of this aanctuary, which 
ia likewise venerated by the Mahomedans. The alms 


gifta of Pilgrims, who at different times of the year come 
to Üua place, are also appropriated to preserve tho interior 
of the grotto ; the especial guard and care of which is linder 
the superiutendance of a Jew. 

From Taniira I went to Alkuach, were I amved in 
1848, two daya before the Feast of Weeka. 


AlktiBch is situated in a very unfruitful neighbourhood, 
The town is inhabited ouly by Armeniana, and appears to 
be very ancient. The houaes, \vhieh stand single, are like 
fortitied towers, riaing at the foot of the mountains. Several 
Isi-aelitea and Kurda accompanied me to Alkiisch, in order 
to attend the ceremonies here, wbich take place at the 
totnb of the Prophet Naham. • Quite cloae to one of the 
luountaiiiB is a iarge court, in the middle of which atandB 
a spacious building, consiating only of one room, capable of 
containing about 1000 persona. There ai'e two entranceB 
into thia building, which waa intended for a Synagogue; 
but, Standing aa it does without a Community, it preaents 
but a stränge appearance. — ■ In tbis desolate Templo on a 
apot, parted o£F by railiugs, is a catafalque, covered with 
tapeatry worked in gold, and ornamented with various 
coins, above whjch is a costly canopy. Thia ia said to be 
the tomb of the Prophet Nahum, The Jewa from Mosul, 
Aruel, Arbil, Kirkuk, from the Kurdistan mountains and 
from a still fui-ther diatance of cight daya' journey round, 
annoally aasemble a week before the Feast of Weeks for a 
ceremony, at whieh tliey spend 14 daya in religioua exer- 
cises. The Armeniens lodge tbem for thia period, and even 
give up their own housea to them, and live themselves dur- 
ing the time In the courtyards and on the terracea. I my- 



! Tndola p. 53, mentions tho Synagogue of Nahnm ■ 
r being in Mosul ; I however found it hero. He likewise e 
\. that the tomb of Nnhum is 6 Iiotii-b' joumoy from the tomb of the i 
Lfrophet Ezochiel at tha place of Mn-Sch^a. 


«elf, was a witness to these ceremonies , and caii to^ 
for the truth of my statement. J| 

The pilgrima bring tiieir manuscripts of the Law v 
them, and deposit them in the holy shrine of the Ten« 
The women then enter the Chamber of the Prophet; and « 
this the Service begins. First the Book of Nahum is 9 
aloud from an old manuscript, which ia laid upon the M 
falque ; when thia ia finished, they make a solenin proceM 
jseven times round the sacred shrine, einging sacred aom 
After the seventh round, a hymn is sung addressed toa 
Prophet, tbe cbortis of which is, „Rejoice in the joy ofa 
Prophet Nahum !" — the initial lettera which comratfl 
each verae follow in alphabetical order. Then come I 
women who do not nnderstand Hebrew, and recite ■ 
prayera translated for them into Arabic or Kurdish, ■ 
then dance singing round the catafalque. Thia cerei^ 
ia gone through enthuaiastically, and lasta for abont an hfl 

On the firat evening of tbe Feast of Weeka, 5"" of SiU 
they aasemble in tbe Synagogue, wbicb is ligbted by aH 
1000 lamps, and enter tha chamber of the Prophet, yM 
Service begins, Those, who are able to read, pray;^ 
otbera listen with devout attention. Tbia solemn procee« 
has nothing particularly important in it; and as soon d 
is over, they go without furtber ceremonies into tbe sad 
house, where afeative and gener al entcrtainment takea p« 
at which coffee ia plentifully served. At break of m 
morning prayer is reeited; and then the men, bearingJ 
Pentateuch before tbem, go , armed witb guns, pistols •■ 
daggers to a mountain in the vicinity, when, in remembrJ 
of the Law, which on thia day was announced to M 
from Mount Sinai, they read in the Thora and go throl 
the Mousaph prayer. Witb the same wai-like procesd 
they descend the monntain. The whole Community brd 
np at the foot, and an Arabic fantaaie, a war performaa 
begins. The pictureaque confuaion, tbe combatants, d 
war cries, beard through tbe clouds of amoke, — fl 
daahing of weapons and the whole mimic tumult preofl 

taatic ßpectacle, which is not -without a certain dignity, 
kes a Strange impression on the speetator. — This 
r Performance is said to be a representation of the great 
eombat, which, according to the belief in those parts, the 
tlews, at the Coming of the Mesaiah, will have to maintain 
KgünBt those nations, who oppose their entrance into the 
promtsed Und, and the forniation by them of a free and in- 
dependent kingdom. The women wbo remaincd behind in the 
town, come, äinging and dancing to tho accompanimcnt of 
a tambourine to meet the men, and they all return together, 
— Even the followera of others creeds take a part in thia 
jubilee fcstival of their guesta, ivhich moreover ia to them 
a matter of pecuniary advantage, 

I was at first almoat stunned by the tumult and ex- 
citement of the_ noisy crowd; but later became quite medi- 
tative, when 1 saw to what a degree ignorance and cuistom 
can deface a religious festival, and injure even the moat 
essential principle. 

iSeveral pai-ta of these ceremonies are doubtless of foreign 
origin, and give evidence of Ärabic custom. I therefore 
thonght it as well to addreas eome worda on thia subject 
to my brethren in the faith, who testify great respect to 
Jewish European travellera, and conaider their opinion 
as especially important. It was oxplained to me, that these 
customa have been held in respect since ancient timea, and 
that they muet bo kept up untU the coming of the Meaaiah. 

The return to the Synagogue took up neai-ly half a . 
day; as they often stopped by the way and renewed their 
warÜke gamea. When at length they reached the Syna- 
gogue, the Pentatench , which they had taken with them, 
was replaced to the holy shrine ; after which bcgan near 
the catafalque the usual aervice for the Prophet, That 
fitüshed, all returned to the town, to rest themaelves after 
ihe exertiona of the day, At Vesper time, the cuatomary 
diviiie aervice was performed in the Synagogue; and after- 
warda all went out of the town to a place of arauaement 

f at the foot of mountain. There the laeTi diasik saiÄ. " 

gave \ra,y to memment, -wliile the womeii danced to n^Hj 
performed by ArmeDians; »od alms for charitable purpfl^p 
and gifts for tbe preservation and embellishmeiit of.j^p 
Chamber of the Prophet, ponred richly in. When the '*j^H 
closed, all hurried back again to the Synagogue, m M^H 
to perform the Arwith prayer. j^K 

The helief in miraclea is here alraoat general, ^H 
numbers many worehippers. llere the pilgrima bring ll^H 
sick, and shut them np alone in the Frophet's chambe||^H 
they surmount the fear so natural in Buch Bolitude, <^^| 
eure is considered certain. For a superstitious patient^^H 
a night is often attended with the worat resulta; for, ai^H 
dition says, at midnight a movement is said to be peroä^^| 
in the catafalque, and a large Hgure arises from it, wi|^^| 
a hollow aepulchral voice addresses tlie patient: „What^^l 
thou here, and what is thy desire?" — If the patient f^H 
tures to reply to these worda without fear, he ia cure^^H 
stantaneously ; in the other case however, he is lo8t.4^H 
every one in good health tt is strictly forbidden to stq|^| 
midnight in thia place. I T^ished to convince uiyself <4^| 
what had given rise to this superstition, and for thatrj^H 
poae took advantage of the tumult and confusion oft^H 
evening to furnieh myaelf with everything neceasary^B 
oppoae or prevent any imaginary fear as well as any re*!^ 
danger which might threaten me, and then concealed my- 
self beneath the draperies with which the catafalque wM 
covered. As soon aa I was alone I quitted my concealmentj 
took the manuseript, which is ascribed to the Prophet N*- 
hum, and began to examinc it; it contains nothing but the 
prophecy whieh is to be found in the Bible. — I feit my- 
self very unconifor table, and often ceaaed reading, fancying 
tbat I heard a suspiciuns noise, or a slight movement. Soon 
however I recovered my moral courage, and went on read- 
ing until I had finished the whole. The night seemed to 
me interminably long, and I was at some trouble to rosist 
the drowsineas which almost overcame me; for this purpose 
I began to read in a book of Psalms. Wheter the oil «A 

üG lamps cause«! my head to ache, or the atnioephere of 
Qpers&tioii, in which I had lived duting the last montbsj 
xercised Its power on my Imagination, — I feit that my 
leas became confused, and rambled on without control. 
D these moments I really fancied I saw the mysterious 
»mb move, and apectral ehapes pass Lefore my mind, which 
.owever gradually disappeared. At last midnight Struck, 
- my heart beat violently, and my whole frame trembled, 
rhile a profound sleep hegan by degrees to take posaession 
f me. Thua I lay until earlythe next moming, when I 
raa awakened by the devotees who entered the Temple, 
a resume the solemnities of the day. They gathered round 
le füll of curiosity, and assaiied me with questions aa to 
fhat 1 had seen, and how I had apent the night. I answered 
iowever that it was forhidden me to diacloBe the cvents of 
be niglit and tliat nothing would ever iiiduce me to betray 
he Beeret, the knowledge of which I had acquired. I really 
lelieved that I did right in not robbing theae people of this 
ImoBt Single prop of their faith ; but towarda their Cha- 
üamim I was not reaerved; but related to them the whole 
rath. The people of the country spoke afterwards very 
lueh of the Services which I had rendered in the matter 
f the Prophet, in having surmounted the dangers to which 
a many had fallen victims. 

Dllring the time of the pilgrimage, a Jewiah attendant 
I entruBted with the care of the Synagogue; during the reat of 
le year the keys are confided to a Christian woman of the 
lace, who attends to the ever burning lamp of the sacred 
)mb. It is she, likewise, wo admita and accoinpanics the 
ious travellers, who wish to pray at the tomb of the Pro- 
The Eider ia Moaea Zellem of Moaid. 


Second journey in the mountains of EurdiBts 

Akra. — llhisage of JewtsTi vromen. — Birsani. — 
of the mouittaia Zlbari. — Sindu. — My illneea i 
covery. — Complaini of a Jew agaitiat Ins wife. - 
pute and arrangument of the difference. — Dangt 
journey in the moantains. — The Jews there. — !" 
of death and fiight. — Eetum to Birsani. 

Five days after the Feast of Weeks I started on 1 
back with several other pügrima for Mosul, which I re« 
after & journey of two days. The portion of country thro 
which I pasaed ia called in the Bible in several ; 
Assyri», a name which ia usod to this day in all 
acta of the Jews, in marriage contracts, in divorces ato 

To my vidt to Mosid I shall devote a whole chaj 
and shall now only speak of the eaatem parta of Km 

The journey there is even much moredifticult and daag«| 
than that which I described in my former pages, and.1 
Jewish brethren oppoaed my determination to visit 1 
districts most strenuoualy; so that nt last accompanied^ 
one Kurd, I set off secretly. The journey through theas 1 
inhospitable desert parts, which are raado unsafe by nume- 
rous bordea of robbers, laated three days ; and on the veiy 
firat day I fonnd ont how dangerous it was. The burning 
heat of the aun obliged me to take off a portion of my I 
dreas; when suddenly my giiide sprang towarda me, covered 
mo with my clothea, and ordered me to throw myaelf upon 
the ground, The fearfui Samum, the wind of the desert, of 
which the Bible speaks no doubt by the name of KoU 


iieriri ', passed over us, The devastating effecta of tliia 
•corching burricane are well known. 

After a journey of three days through a desert, I caine 
from Mosul to Akra at the foot of the Chair-mountain, where 
about 100 Jewish familiea dwell, whose Ehler Elijah bears 
the ancient title of Nassi; which title is generally borne by 
the Eiders of all the Jewiah communities in the East. 

Around the town are fruitfull aod well cnltivated fielda. 
Olive and date trees as well as viiies grow upon the de- 
divities; a considerahle portion of them belonging to the 
Jewjfih Community. In the middle of the fields, about half 
an hour's journey from the town, Stands a Synagoguo, 
remarkable for ita great age; adjoining is a small reaervoir, 
whieh servea as a bath for the women. Formerly the wo- 
nien there were exposed to frequcnt attacks from the Kurda ; 
several facta were related to me, of whieh I will here 
mendon some. ^ One day a woman was surprised while 
in the bath by foiir Kurds, — she had however the courage 
to seize a large piece of wood, and to hurl it at the head 
of one of the men, and thereby killed him on the spot. 
For this her own life was the penalty ; for the three other 
Ktirds murdered her. — Another woman was seized by a 
Kurd; abe defended herseif and sratched from him a dag- 
ger which she buried in hia side. A friend of the wouiided 

acuidentaliy pasaing by, saw him weitering in hia blood: 
lediately threw Himself upon tlie woman, and stabbed 

■ aftenioon before Vespers the Jews go to the 

* which flows near the Synagogue and partake there of 

teal in common, and then perform their devottons, 

■ of our brethren there are very wealthy, even rieh; 

' condition has beconie morc endurable since they 

I linder the Turkish dominion. 

idunbers SXXII. 24. — PeJüi XCI. 6. — Jesainh XXVm. 2. — The 
Talmnd in several places. 
I The samo kind of tlüng took place in France, us llie Sefer Hajsschu- 
«r Rkb. Tom Fol. 74, Icll« n». 


The tract of land is under the control of a PacUj 
Mosul, placed there by the Turkiah Goverament. 
inhabitants apeak Kurdiah, with the exception of t 
wbo speaka Turkisli. The Kurds have preaerved 1 
dependance of charactor as well aa their old 
custoiTis; and the only token of their subjectioa i 
Ottoman Porte consieta in their payment of i 


From Akra I proceeded over the Chair-mounfa 
Biraaui. No caravana paaa through the rece 
mountains I wished to inveatigata, The locality is 1 
desolate and disraal that ciin be iraagined; it is, so 1 
the very heart of the deaerts, little knowii even to 1 
habitanta of the country, and but seldora viai 
mountaina and deep hollows in which enormoua hordea C 
robbera conceal tbcmaelvea, are the principal features m 
this wildernesa. It waa only with the gi'eatest trouble tbai 
we could advauce, and we were ahvaya obügcd to be oi 
OUT guard, as we were not safe for a momeiit. At laat w< 
reached the ancient town of Biraani, ' built on the aummi 
of a mountain. About 200 Jewiah fainiliea live here, whoK 
Nassi ia Mailiun Jacob. I only remained in the town lonf 
enough to collect information reapecting the Community. '. 
remarked that, according to the obaervance there of re 
ligioua customs, there was no proper bath for the women 
as ja preacribed by the religious lawa, and I made represen 
tation upon thia subject to the Eiders of the commani^ 
when it was promised that this deficiency ahonld be supplied 
The ignorance of our Jewiah brethren here ia ao great tha 

wn lies apon a bill between the Cliair- ind Zibtri-MoMi) 


not even capable of recit'mg a prayer; and no- 

, I must confess nitli pain, tiid I find them in &iich a 

led State, and sunk in such moral degradation, as here. 

1 Company witli a brother Israelite named Jonas, son 

) NaBHi Mailum Jacob of Birsani, and a Kxirdiah guide 

t to tbe Nestorian sect, I left the town. In about 

we asc.ended the steep wooded mountain Zibari, 

' the Kurds Baris. On attaining the summit, the 

ish guide called out to me, „Tani Turah!" (the moun- 

ä ascended), words, which are derived from the Chal- 

from which language the Kurda — aa I remarked 

ing Toy journiea in the mountains — mix niany expres- 

9 with their own; for inatance, Malka (the king), Mal- 

L (the queen), and othera which are to be found in Ezra. 

1 whole desert way to this niountain I found but very 

|.wild fruits and nuta; instead of theae a very good 

, which ia eaten by many of the inhabitanta without 

ressing. From the summit of the mountain the eye 

freshed by an extensive view^ into deep valliee, seattered 

and fruitful smiling plaina, in which, surrounded 

•dena, rise the tents of the nomadic Kurds. ' We apent 

•in descending Zibari. Amoag the Nomada, dwel- 

t the foot of the mountain, I found four Jewish famjlies 

■rbom I was received with hearty and almost child like 

I and they asaured me at the eame time that never 

> had a Jewißh European traveiler been seen or heard 

The Jewa of this part languisb under a heavy 

the condition of the Nestorian Christiana is on the 

Irary more endurable. 

Sindu. — Joumey in tbe motmtain. 

After a further march of four houi's through a beautifiil 
and fruitful conntiy abundantly watered, I reached the town 
, of Sindu. The Jews, of whom there are about 250 fasaUie», 



occupy a separate quarter of tbo town. Tkelr Naaai Sfl 
lum Manasseb. Siudu lies on a pUin Burroimde^iH 
chain of mountaina, irom vchicli rush down Qumerous stiH 
Toil and deep privation of every description had so weau 
me that I was attacked by a violent fever- — Withoui| 
medical assiatance, wliiiih is there qiiite unknown, ^H 
not even get any broth, for whiuh tha language ^M 
country has do expression; and I was left sobly to oj^l 
good Constitution, whieh again helped me through, H 
I feh somewhat better, I was conducted onu day im 
desire out of the town to inhale a little fresh air. M 
to the place whcre we were Walking I observed a, ^H 
washing some clotbes in a tank, and I asked her v^M 
did not UBe für tiiis purpose tlie clear water of the b^M 
to which she replied, that the water in the tank waM 
When the woinan tiad ieft the spot, to tJie great astcfl 
ment of my guide, I pinnged into the liealing bath; b]B 
repeated use of which for a few days I was compljs 
restored to health. — Later I pointed out to the inbl 
tanta of tbo place the great use of these warm springsu 
they had no idea of the healing power of the waterjjl 
were aatonished at my daily batha. — Another cirfltimafl 
which greatly contributed to my recovery was an ex^fl 
medicine they brought me, consisting of some dried M 
of a plant similar in smell to the hyasop, from which at 
pared an infusion which greatly benefited me. I wau| 
lold that as an cffective remedy for head ache d 
made use of different horba growing there , which. )9 
boiled in water; and the leaves of a ccrtain shrutx-fl 
used as a remedy for sickness. In the meraoranduiinH 
of which I was robbed, I had written down the narmfl 
these plants; hut I was unable to und any mor»3 of ■ 
on my pedeatrian journiea. 1 

In Order to celebrate my recovery a fcatival waa 
ranged by the mcmbers of the Community. I then ""ttim 
aeveral days in the town, and liad an opportunity ofl 
cidiug a.peculiar case which I rolate as a proof h«H 


^' conditiöii of tbe people is with regard to the observa- 
'..>n of the precepts of religion. 

Aa a Chacliam from Jerusalem I ivaa asked my advice 
bv a man, who accused bis wife of indifferenee to him. 
On my nearer enquiry, the youiig woman began such a 
'no; winded tedioua escuse, that is was impossibte for me 
■ understand tiie State of the case. I perceived however 
.luiQ her answer that her marriage was opposed to religioua 
laws, and I gave her a special hearing. I aaked the woman 
whether at her marriage ehe was maid, widow or divorced, 
to which she replied that ahe was neither the one nor the 
üther , but that she was inanied, Her husband had gone 
over to the Moslem faith , and therefore she was able to 
mairy an otber. — I then tiirned to the accusing husband, 
ind asked him how he had darcd against all precepts and 
lavv-s of religion to marry a woman whose husband was 
ilill alive, — to which he told me that bis father, the Mai 
liim of the Community, had given bim permission to do so. 
I then sent for the Mailum, and had a discussion with 
liim whieh lasted two days, in which I cited all the Mosa'ic 
precepts applicable to the case , and tried to prove that 
bcfire the second marriage , it would have been necessary 
to have a legal Separation from the former husband. The 
Uailum on hia part, insisted upon the force of local custom, 
and niaintained that the. woman was freed from her marriage 
vows in consequenee of the firet husband having deserted 
ber, that the marriage contract was thereby cornpletely 
dissolved, and that the union conti-aeted by Kidduschin 
ijjuttjng on of the wedding ring) became invahd, as itcould 
rjiit be eonsidered binding with regard to any but a member 
cjf the Jewish faith. — I however asserted that this could 
only be eorreet if the man was not originally a Jew; and 
my proofs and qnotations brouglit it so far that the Mailum 
tlanaMeh and Mailum Isaac agreed with me, and as the Mai- 
lum of the Community now stood alone against the general 
opinion, he promised to induce the Erst husband to consent to 
^^irorce, which was obtained on payment oS a ce'rtia.vtt svwa. 




of manej. I theii informed the young woman that m 
the divorce fi-om her örst busband, and my declaratioiiJ 
the second mariiage was invalid, she could only m^H 
third Imsband, and left tliem all in a etate of greatfl 
faction. H 

My weakened frame did not allow me to peafl 
fUrtlier into the mountains, and I therefore retumed toi 
sani, in order to see if the promised bath for the wflB 
had beea constnicted. The Community was aäsembleoH 
bath was soon arranged, and was soleranly conseis^| 
after wbich I raade several iniprovemcnts in tbeirfl 
and ceremonies which were not in accordancc wiän 
customs and rulcs. -J 

At the conclusion of an entertainment which waa n 
in my honour, the chief Eider adressed me in the folloa 
words; „Chacham! thou art our teaeher, thou art Üb 
crown upon our head. The Lord hath acnt thee to na 
keep US from sin, and the ti'uth bas become known m 
tbrough thy wisdom. The belief in thy high mission in 
more strong in us, becausc thou hast refused all the 4 
aents which have been offered thee. — One favor howfl 
we pray thee to grant us, which thou canst not re^sefl 

To this I answered that if it only depended on md 
I would promise to grant it, after which the chief £1 
continued: „Well then, near to Urmia in the mountainM 
the boundary of Lower Persia, live numeroue brethrM 
our faith, who, ignorant as we are, share our desire fod 
Btruction, in order to advance in the path of truth. 9 
are aware of thy presenee here , and wait for thee im 
tiently. We pray that thon wilt not disappoint their hm 
Qo, and seek them out, and thou wilt perform a m 
pleaaing in the sight of the Most High; for it will texM 
the benefit of the unbappy children oi' larael," J 

I promised to undertake thisjourney, and begge4| 
an escort; upon which twelve of the chief men, asm 
whom was the Kassi himself, begged to be allowed t« 
Dompaiir me. After that fonr etrai^ei 

manitieB I was to visit, were brouglit in; they greeted 

i tears of joy, and begged me to foUow them im- 

ly. I informad them I was ready to do so , and 

departed at midnight for their own homes, in Order 

; there my Coming, and to send an armed escort 

l^nieet me. 

In the early part of July 1848 I set off accompanied 

f Beveral Jews and by some Kurds, wlio had hired raulei 

The difflcultiea and dangers of the road are inde- 

Oibable. During two daya we could only advance one at a 

i on a small narrow path, on which no ray of the siin 

r flhines, while the thorns tore oiir clothes ajid lacerated 

r feet. Hardly had we left this difficult path, when we 

aasailed by about 50 Kurds with whom we had a 

gerate skirmiah; after a loTig and firm rcsistance our 

aJIants fled, taking their wounded with them. 

1 the third day we came to a river, which flows at 
t of a mountain ; there Tve wished to rest ourselves, 
we perceived eight Jews, who came to meet us aji 
Bsarjea; their Nassi Mailum Jehuda was among them. 
lifted nie on their ahoiildera , and thus we reached 
9 snmmit of the mountain, where they aet me down near 
a Kurdistan villagc. Here four Jewish familiea live , to 
"iiose Mailum Benjamin they condueted me. Towards 
ecening aix more emissariea arrived, under the guidance 
"f Mailum Aaunah, and the next morning several came 
;ioQj other villages. On my enquiries reapecting divine 
Service I found that many of their Customa did not agree 
■ with the precepts of the Law, and I pointed them out to 
i chief Eider from whom I obtained a promiae to foUoW 
t the improveraentfi and arrangements I had suggested in 
tiiia respect. 

Shortly after my arrival, an event occurred which may 
serve to give an idea of the atate of thinga in these coun- 

Eand widch ohligcd me immediately to reaume my 
1 the village, a njsn iiad assumed tHe üAe o^ 'V^«\%\s 


^ with 
^ out t 


and without any authority or right offieiated as alaughte 
At my Suggestion he was deprived of liia office. This 
pointment he had purchased for a yearly sum from a Kaii 
ctief, who now perceiving tlie injury done to his percuni 
Enterest, came to me hiiiiself, and asked me who I was, i 
what right I had to discharge an officer appointed by h 
My companions explained to him tbat I was a Chachani 
Bet-el-Mikdass, eent out to watch over the proper admi 
stration of the religiona laws among tlte Jewa. I myi 
made him attentive to the fact that a Marabut, who v 
tured to assume thia title and these functions among 
Mahomedans, woidd certainly be iminediately deprived 
his office. To thia the Kurd had no reply to make, fiirti 
than the exclamation: „That ia true, — but you hl 
deprived me of my revenue, and you shall pay for it fl 
your head." He then went out in a rage. 

My companions, and those of my people who had a 
heard this threat, were deeply grieved; for they knew t 
such tbreats were never spoken in vain. We were : 
mediately ailerwards told by some Jews that several ard 
men were lying in wait for us, for the purpose of deliver 
up my head to their master. During the whole eveninj 
reflected on our difiicnJt position and the way in which 
could escape the danger which thrcatened iia. At last 
following idea Struck me. „Eemain together", I said 
my brcthren, „sing and make a noiae, but hring in no lij 
The Kurds will bave no suspicion, and my compani' 
will escape with me." — My proposal was approved of; ' 
we were not to go out all together, but two or three 
a time, and then meet at an appointed spot, 

Our flight happily auceeeded, as we took another n 
through the desert and over the well woodod mountains, 
but what fate befel thoae who remained behind, — whet 
their joyful songs were cbanged into aongsof lamentation, 
I dare not think. 

My esoape soon became known; and armed men yf 
aenC üi'ter as in all directions. Some of them met ofbJ 


■ few in nmnber they were unable to prevent our 
1 to Birsani, at which place we an-ived at the end of 
days, safe but exhauated. 

I had spent 55 days in these two expeditiona to the 

listan moimtains. 


of Nineveh. — Tomh of the Prophet Jondk. — 
Erhil (Arbd). — Oppresaion of the Jetos. — Belation of 
aeveral facts. 

The town of MobuI lies near the city of Nineveh, so 
lowned in olden timea. Once more during my pilgrimage . 

I find myself among the shadowa of thci past. Great 
kings and mighty nationa had dwelt here; eitica, the enor- 
mous remainB of which excite our admiration, still in their 
baffle time, after a decay of centuries. My imagina- 

conjured up from beneath theä'e gigantic remains gene- 
since passed away, and frora thia solemn Und 
noble tomb of antiquity I drew forth pictures füll of strength 
und life. 

Even to thia day one can aee the great estent and 
something of the site of the old celebrated city, whose ruins 
UoDg the shore of the Tigria cover the country to within 
eight houra' joumey of Moaul, At every footatep can be 
found fallen and ahattered palacea and buildinga formed of 
enonuoua piecea of rock of unuaual height, which appear 
to have been raised by the hande of giante ; caves of extra- 
ordinary form, and dwellings hewn out of the rock, which, 
according to tradition, are said to have been used as store- 
_On_both shores of the Tigris Bland, «^"gtiÄ^Ä \ft 



each other, tbe remains of two magniäcent colonnades | 
immeiiso stonee, which are supposed to have been the gat( 
of aacient Nineveh. Antique vases in different fomis x 
sizes, some of them with illegible inacriptiona , are to 
found witbin tbree hours' joumey of Moaul, indicating 
origin dating up the time of the buüding of tbe Tower 
Babel, or at least to tbe tmie of Sing Sennacharib. 

The centre of ancient Kineveh is said to form a villii) 
which is about half an bour's journey from Mosul. In thu 
viilage is shewn a tomb, wbich the people here assert 
that of the Prophet Jonah,* who was sent forth for t 
conversion of the rebellioua city. The tomb lies in a couit 
yard, in which, according to the assertion of the Mahoma- 
dana, the celebrated Kikajon (pumpkin or gourd) growi 
afresh every year, the leaves of which once afforded shade^ 
to the prophet.3 TheArabs honour thia tomb most devout^, 
and pray there especially for their sick. The earth which 
Covers the grave is considered aacred; and littie bags con- 
taining some of it are worn round the neck, and are rfr- 
garded aa a very powerful talisman. The Christians aa well 
as the Jewa are forbidden to Visit this grave. 

In the town of Mosul dwell nearly 450 Jewish familiea,^' 
who have no reason to complain of their condition; seTemt 
among them are engaged in very extensive commerdal 
tranaactiona. The Synagogue is large, but contains nothing 
remarkable, except that behind the sacred shrine is a cave, 
which is said to have been inhabited by the Prophet Elijah.* 
Three Chachamim exercise the judicial and civil Offices; the 

I Benjamin de Tudel« p. 44 8878 th»t the tomb of the Prophet Jontk 

is in Palealino, on Mannt Zipore near the ctty. 
1 Jonah c. IV. «. 
3 Benjamin do Tadala p. 62 Bpeaks of 7000 Jbws. — PolliAchia p, ITI 

menlions 6000 Jews. ^ Bitler'a Erdkunde Vol. 11, p. 211 coral* 

according to Niobnhr 160 Jewish honscs. 
* Benjamin de Tudek p. 52 apeaka of three Synagoguea ; namelr lU 

of the Prophet Obe^ah, that of tbe Prophet Jonah, and that of Ai 

Prophet Elijah. 

W H7 

eisest Chacbam, Kachamini, the second Chacham, Sason and 
the third Cbacbam, David, are all three of the familj of 
ffiraani, who appear to have originally come from the city 
of that name. The ignorance and superstition of tlie popu- 
latiüD is extreme : a school lioweTer ia eatablished, in whish 
the children receive religioua insti-uction ; the teac^her Mor- 
decai, soo of the Chacham David, is a relation of the money 
changer Isaac Zcllcm, with whom I lodged. 

Industry flourishes here; the light transparent tissuea, 
which appear as if made by fairy hands, the celebrated 
muslins, bear their name from this city. 'Hence they were 
first seilt to Europe, and their manufacture there sttained 
a perfection which inhanced their price. 

Mosul is like all other Arabian eities; the honsea have 
only one atory, are furnished ivith a terrace, and have no 
mndows towarda the street. The town is on two sidea pro- 
tected by mountains, while by the tliLrd side flowa the Ti- 
gria, and the fourth adjoins the coast. Niunerous mineral 
»pringB exhaling a atrong smell of sulphur, bubble np in the 
ricinity. On aecount of the heat of the climate the day is 
passed in vaulted rooma situated in the court, for the same 
reason the water could not bei used if it were not collected 
in cistema, or preserved in bluish white earthenware ves- 
«els, which keep it cool and fresh. The interior of the 
bouses ia peculiar; the rooma are long and narrow; on the 
äoor lie cushions epread on thiclc carpets ; mattrasaea are 
ased to sleep upon. — The population conaista of Tnrks, 
Jews and Armenians; nest to the Turiiish, the Arabian 
Unguage is most generally uaed, Tnrks and Jewa wear 
the same kind of dreas, — a red fez or a coloured turban, 
tlie women an oriental head- dreas, which ia ornamented 
with gold and pcarls. A long tunic Covers the body, and 
Üiey wear a kind of slippers; the hands and legs are da- 
oorated with rings of gold and silver, and almoat all the 
woinen and many of the men wear rings in their ears and 
throagh the nose. On going out the women throw a veil 
their bcada. 



In MoBul resido the Consuls of England atid Fi^^^H 
of whom the latter äuring my stay exercJeed much infii^^^H 
among the authoritieB. I placed myeelf under liia proteo^^H 
and confess with gratitude, tbat bis care for me deH^^^f 
all praise. ^^H 

After a staj of a month at MobuI I set out with tt^^| 
ravau for Erbil ^ wbich the Jews cooeider to bc tbe B^^^| 
mentioned in tbe Bible.^ Midway flows tbe atream El 1^^| 
bir, Tvbicb forma the boundary between the Fachalic J^f 
MoBul and Bagdad: it is a. mighty rushing stream, w^i^H 
empties itself into the Tigris. The water aboimds wiÖ» ^H| 
immense number of a reddish kind of äsh, aaid to be 4^H 
cellent eating ; Bome of tbem attain a wcight of 300 Iba.. ^H 

Erbil is divided into two parts ; of whicb the one l^ft^H 
on the mountain is the city, tbe other, in the rast plaioj^| 
tbe seat of trade and indnstry. One bundred and fiJ||H 
Jewisb familiea dwell bere, wboBe Nasei is Mailum MordecdM 
they are howerer much oppressed by the fanatic, rüde anil 
balf civilieed sects of Allah, of whicb I will relate somel 
examples. 1 

A ahort time before my arrival a Jewish girl emptying 1 
some dirty water into the ^reet, accidentally besprinkied I 
with it a Mnssulman who happencd to be paaalng by. Im- I 
mediately a crowd aaaembled before tbe house, broke open | 
the door, seized the giri, and beaped upon ber all kinds of r 
threatening abuse ; aeking her bow sbe, tbe daughter of an 
aceursed race, dare presume to insult a truc believer. The I 
girl defended herseif to the best of her ability, but the ] 
leader of tbe uproar cried out to her: „There is only one I 
way for thy escape, embrace our faith, and thou sbalt many 
one of our people, n'lio is young, haudsome, rieh, and of a 
good family." But the girl refused and answerad: „I am tt 

52 BsjB Ihat Erbil is an kour'a joarney tcop 
howeTer w}uch roiiil the traveller conJd hsre 
it rottte it 19 two dajs' jonrney. 
According to Benjamin de Tudela p. 64 thU towtt 
'.i, at two äayi' jonrney's distance &om it. 

, born so, and a£ Buct I will die; never will I deny 
God, my people and my faith. If you kill me, God 
demand of you my blood, aud tlie Lord will avenge 
— - After that they seized her, killed her before the 
i of her parents by atabbing her with their knivea, and 
( her in pieces, — The conamunity deaired at firat 
refer a complaint before thc Pacha of Bagdad and after- 
S at Conatantinople, but thcy refrained from doing so 
■ fear of other peraecutiona and of a general massacre. 
f In the eame year Rabbi Perachia, a deputy of the Por- 
{aese Jewa at Jerusalem, who was commissioned to receive 
the charitable alma for the poor Jews of Jerusalem , died at 
Erbil, and was buried with all the honours belonging to bis 
»acred office, The night foUowing the burial the Muasul- 
iiiane tore the boiiy out of the grave, cut off a band, and 
threw the remaina into an open ditch, without even a cover- 
ing. The Jewa repaired to the burial ground, and filled up 
the empty grave : that was all they venturod to do. The 
daily oceurrence of such opprcsaion haa crushed them to 
auth a degree, and the fear of still greater miafortuno is so 
great, that they subniit to anything without a murmur, But 
at the tinae of this oceurrence several Jews from Bagdad 
were at Erbil, and informed the European Conauls of the 
matter; for the Rabbi whose grave had been dcaecrated, 
was an Austrian subject. 13y this means thia deed of infamy 
came to the eara of the Pacha, who had the deliuqnents 
brought before bim, and addresaed them in the foltowing 
worda: „Do you not know that gravea are priaons, in which 
God preserves bis people until the day of judgmcnt? Why 
do yon not respect \vhat belongs to Hirn?" — After that 
judicial enquiries were inatituted, and the grave-desecrators 
would have received the punishraent they deserved , if the 
Jewa of Erbil had not been compelled to beg that mercy 
inight be shewn them, which was accorded. 

Another proof of religioua oppression causes especial 
astonishment , because the intolerance of the Muasulmana 
does not otherwiae crosa the threshhold of tKe \ioiaafetÄQiö^ 

The Jewa of the lower part of the town had erectedfl 

Synagogue, and wished to convey aolemnly into it, ; 
ing to cuHtom, the manuscriptB of the Law. On the 1 
they were attacked by Mussulmans, several of them kill« 
othere wounded, and the new Synagogue pulled down. Sini 
then a second Temple has been built; but at the soleni 
conveyance of the Pentateuch into it, the same scenes hai 
been repeated. 

I myself was a witnesa to the last disturbance, and ea 
with justice proctaim the state of my brethren in Erbil I 
be a most unbearable one. They find a feeble compensaüfl 
in mirestricted freedom of trade, for tlierein they are pe; 
fectly free and unmolested. All are Buuk into a State i 
great ignorance: the Schochet is the chief of the communit 

The dres8, cuatoms and language of the inhabitants i 
Erbil resemble those of Moaul; the Jewa speak Arabie. 

After resting for several daya I teade the resoiution ( 
investigating the north -weat part of the mountains of Ko 
diatan towards Peraia, and of going through a number i 
Jewiah and Kurdish tribes, which had never been viaite 
by an European, Sometimes Chachamim from Jerusalei 
go there; but the greater number of these pilgrims fall ti 
tims to their courage and devotion. 


i journey to the nwunlaiTis of Kurdistan. — J^assage over 
Wihe Pirmam-mouJitain. — Rowandia. — Opp-essed state 
Wtjf the Jews there; curious custom. 

r the third time I ventured into tliese wüd and dan- 

I mountains, iato thia primitive land, where the name 

irope is scarcely known, and into which only a fearless 

used to dangers , difficulties and deprivations of 

' description who devotes himself entirely to the pur- 

! of bis journey, daree to penetrate. These rcgions have 

a unexplored until now ; and yet in many ways are they 

l deaerving of investigation. 

■ In Company of a Kurdish guide I passed in two and a 
F dayB from Erhil over the -Pirmam-mountain, which lies 
!he north of the town; it is a desert tract of land, fiül 
^ cavities and hollowa inhahited by robbers, I happily 
i in sui'mounting all ohstacles withoutany moleBtation 
arrived at the town of Rowandis. 
; lies on a very high mountain, at the foot of which 
fiowa the foaming stream Rowandis. The Jews of that city, 
in which for centuries thcy have only been exposed to in- 
Bult and misery, having Jately come ander the dominion of 
Ihe Turkish Government, now find their condition soraewhat 
improved. Their dreas is morc decent, thcir houses are 
better l)ui!t, and eertainly better kept than in other parta 
of the mountain. Formerly they had not only to bear the 
whole tyranny of the Kurda, but were Oven sold like cattle, 
and attacked in that which to them is most sacred — their 
faith. Thus for instance on New Year's day, when the 
liehofer (the hora, which, according to ftie ^oftSÄc \aWjja^ 

blown on New Year's day) snunded in the Sjnagoga( 
Kurds rushed into the Temple attacked the womei 
maltreated them, broke the symbolic trumpet, and 
pelled the Jews to desist from their ceremony, The Ti 
Government haa put a stop to such, tumult and disi 
but in the mors reniote vUlages , where it is more dii 
to watch over them, the Jews still haye to endure evi 
kind of bad treatment, although not sold aa alaves. In 
towna and in Rowandia, which, as I have ah-eady mentioi 
ia linder the Turkiah Grovemment, are still to be found, 
mains of the old oppression — vassaiage — in pome 
with the knowledge of the Mutesellim (bnrgoraaster), thi 
the Pacha dwelling in Bagdad kuowa nothing of it. 
Tiirkiah chiefa compel men and women to break stones 
blirn Ijmo, mould tiles &c. and all thia to the glory 
Lord. Our poor brethren think that it is their destiny 
Buffer, and aubmit patiently to their fate; the aligheat 
lioration of which they consider an unespected happini 
Some of them enjoy a certain degree of opulence; and 
particnlar the Nasai of the place, Mailum NiBsim, ia rieh ii 
landed property and herda, beaides having two wives and 
aeveral children. The Jewiah population on the whoie is very 
ignorant, and haa no Rabbi; the aon in law of the Nassi, 
the Schochet Mailum Samuel, certainly bears the title of 
Rabbi, but understanda at most only how to superintend 
divine service in the Synagogue. Only the Rabbi prays 
aloud, so that tho prayer Schemone Ezra, which aa ig known, 
is first repeated by every meraber of the congregation to 
hiraself, and ia tben repeated aloud by the Rabbi, ia there 
only recited once by the Rabbi. 

All other curioaa cnatom ia that on Kew Year'ß day, 
after the ceremony of the Taachlich (prayer at the waters), 
they go to the strcam flowing at the foot of the mountaln, 
recite there the prayer, and throw tbemaelves into the water 
and awim about. They iniagine that by this batli they ara 
cleansed from all their sins, quite forgetting the new sin 
they commit in taking the bath Itself; as such an aet ilil 

udden on festiva! days.! — I made aeveral remonstrances 
ning it, and an improvement with respect to it was 
P'Rowuidis is a place engaged in agriculture ; grain and 

! are the commodities of trade. 
• After a diffteult march of two days I arrived at Choi- 
Bdjack to the eaat of Eowandis. The Jewish populatioü 
coneists of about 70 families, wlio live in a les8 op- 
Bsed condition than those at Eowandis. Some of them 
ingaged in agricultnral pursuits, anJ some in trade, 
inhabitanta of thia place are more industrious than 
; of the former. ' 

Thus ended my travela in Kurdistan. In my three 
■editions to these wild and inliospitable regions I had 
»sed myself such freqiient and manifold dangers, that 
KOuld not attempt impossibilities. 


/. Deecent of the Kvrdisk Jevis, The ^^estorians. — //. Vas- 
aalage and iviports. — - ///. Slavery. — IV. Claims of 
the master. — V. State of ignorance reepecting religion, — 
VI. IndvBtnj and lahour. — VII. Bihlical precepts, wkich 
the Jewa and olher nations foUow. — VIIL Review of the 
whole in a religious and moral point of view, Observation» 
respecting the customs practised against the Moaaic law. 

In beginning this chapter, I feel the whole importance 
of fhe taak I have imposed on myself. Truth, which I have 
uf\en sought at the coet of so many sacrüices, at length 

VcBSBchet Sabal p. 1. — Miacbna 1. — Hallocbot Sabat in Üie Scbalcbui 
jlmcll Vol. 1, «rt 339, v. 2. — UaUochot Joalof^v ax\. b'lA, -«. \. 

appears to glimmer before me, and the darkness, whial^^| 
BO long rested on the past of tbe lost ten tribes of I^^| 
begins to disappear. But again almost iiisurmouatable f^^ä 
culties rise up before mc, caused hy tbe want of ^^H 
historical vestige and record which could offer certaii^^H 
dence, undiscoverable until novf. In tbe abseoce o^^^f 
proofe I bave coUected togetlier niy own researche^^H 
observatiüna, and througb them bave aiTived &t soma^^H 
scientious concluaions , wbicb, to me , have asBumedi^^l 
value of authentic faets. — After my second joumöj^H 
wbicb by God'e help I sball soon undertake — I bopB^H 
morc accurate researclies to render tbem more clear^H 
eomplete. ^H 

I. T 

If one givGB credence to tbe Jcwb and Nestoriaiis, tiieiH 
Bettlenient in tbese countrieB took place before tbe deBtrno-1 
tioii of tbe tirst Temple.' The same traditiona are every- 1 
where preserved, and tbey assert, tbat tbe anceators of | 
nur bretbren, baniBbed to theee landa, reraained there after 
the Aasjrian captivity, and did not again return to Paleaäne. 
From this it followa, tbat tbey descend direct frotn the 
ten tribee of lerael , wbo were transplanted here bj the 
Aaayrian kicgs from thcir own eountry. We find a proof 
of tbis in the bistory of the Kinga, where it is related, thst 
in the daya of Pekah, king of Israel, the Assyrian king 
Tiglath-pileser took poBBCBsion of a portion of the kisgdom 
of Israel, and cai-ried away its inhabitana aa captives into 
Aasyria.^ It is more than probable tbat Kurdistan, a coon- 
try bordering on Assyria, formed a part of tbat great Assy- 
rian kingdora; for to tbis day it belonga to tbe Pachalic of 
MosTil, the capital of which, bearing the aame name, joinfl 

1 Benjamin de Tuäela p. TT flajs llis aame. — The book Derccb Emed | 
Fol. 15, p. 1 tranalatea tha word Toiiri Kflrdu by „dark i 
talna" ; Cioni whicL perhaps Diiginates the tradition of the Jun-s, Ihlt | 
the banished len tribea lived in the dark mauntaina. 

« n. Km 

kncient Nineveh, the capital of Assyria. To the autho- 
F the Bible is annexed the testimoiiiea of later writers 
corroborative traditions which have been handed 
1 for centiuies. I see therefore no further doubt, nay, 
rish the firm convic-tion that remnaota of the ten tribes 
WeQ in Kurdistan. Other well known travellera assert 
' nmch the same ideatical fact. Thus oiily some years 
Fiince Mr. Grant, an American missionary, who investigated 
these regions maintained that Cliriatiaiis of the Nestorian 
sfi;t resided at Kurdistan, adding that these Nestorians were 
lii'cct descendants frora the banished ten tribea of Israel, 
wlio only in later centuriea had adopted the Chi-iatian faitb. 
1 lest Tay assertions on the foUowing grounds : 

1. Many Nestorians themaelves maintain that they de- 
iceud from the captive Jews, without bowever being able 
fi determine either the period at which they settled or the 
nibe from which they spring, as all written evidence jb 
"■snting, and they themselves are too Ignorant to rely on 
any other proot's than their own traditiona. 

2. The Neatorians of the places which I visited live 
iiiostly in friendly relations with the Jews; whilst with the 
nomadic Kurda they have no intercourse. 

3. They are oppreseed hy the Kurds in the same way 
ai are the Jewe, which appcars to be the result of the 
long captivity; a fall, which all banished nations carried 
into siavery share alike. Tbe Nestorians asserable together 
for the Performance of divine aervice in the aame manner as 
do OUT brethren, They have no Symbol, no cross, no bells; 
and their principles in this respect resemble thoae of the 
JewB. They celebrate the Sabbath. It is an historical fact 
that tbe ten tribea possessed but few learned men, and that 
they easily gave themselvea up to stränge worahip, and 
adopted foreign cjistoms and usages; therefore we may be 
weil jostitied in the belief that theae unhappy exiles, trana- 
planted into unknown countries, and nioving in a perfectly 
new and atrango apbere, either willingly or unwillingly imi- 
^to$ thoae who bad become their mastere, aaÄ. \.\\sa aÄ.Q\.'*^ 

their cuBtoms, manners and habits, part^cularly as 
alaveB, they were obliged to obey. Thus it ia qnlte 
sible that up to a certain extent tlie Jews bave mixed 
could mix with the primitive nations of Kurdistan, 
myaelf hold them to te the deacendanta of tbe tribes. 
Zebulun and Naphthati. (8ee II. Kings XV. 29, iBaiahlX. 
Kurdistan belongs more in name than in fact to 
Turkish kingdom. The Itiliabitanta ot" the mountains 
trenched behind those walla witb whicb nature haa provi 
them, hold faet to their pecubar habits and cuatome, 
and traditions. Thus they adher to their own life of 
dorn, paying the Sultan a small yearly tribute, and thrf 
only of their own accord. They form a kind of umon of 
independent tribes, each govemed by ita own chief. These 
tribes again divide themselves into faniilies, and live gene- 
raliy in sanguinary skirmishes and feuds with each other. 

The Jews scattered here and there, and compelled to 
remain at the piaces assigned to them, are in the true sensa 
of the Word, surrounded by tribes of savagea. One often 
finds five, ten, or even twenty Jewish families the propertj r 
of one Kurd, by whom they are laden with imposts, and ! 
Bubjected to illtreatment. Heavy taxes are imposed upon 1 
them, whicb, for the poorest amourit annually to 500 
piastres. Finally they are compoUed at düFerent periodt I 
of the year to perform serf - aervice, to cultivate their master's ' 
field, without receiving or being able to demand the emaUeat ' 
compensation for their labour. I 


The maBter bas the absolute powei^ of life and deatli 
over bis ßlaves; at bis will he ean seil them to anotber 
master, either in whole families or individually. If a gentle- 
man on horseback meeta a Jew or a Neatorian on the road, 
e makes bim run before hiiu to the stable door, without 

vitbout eu^l 

ice allowing him stop to take breath. 
Lstom is practised almost daily. 

This bai-barous 


A custom, which reminds one of tlie old feudal bar- 
irism of the middle agea, is the so called master'a claims, — 
Tien a youDg Israelite or Neatorian wishes to marry, he 
ust purchaae bis bride from the maater to whom she be- 
Dgs; £or by the raarriage contract the yoimg wii'e comes 
ider the control of another maater, and through that, the 
nner master suffers the loss of the yearly poll tax, for 
hieb a BUm ia atways demanded aa compensation. Besidea 
ia, the bride, before she enters the houae of her husband, 
lust place herseif at the disposal of her maater, which 
ppears to have been an old custom introduced hy the 
»rientalists; for even the Talmudists speak of it.^ 

Only witliin the last few years haa this odious abuse 
*en refonned, and changed into a money payment. A 
anguJnary event was the cauae of thia. A youDg girl, after 
1 desperate resistance having killed her master. One abuse 
las therefore taken place of another: for now the master'ß 
!laiius nmat be bought off. 

The Jewa, who inhabit the placea round Kurdistan, scarcely 
310W even the name of the Moaaic law. But very few of 
hem cftn read, and their only religioua knowledge consists 
if Knath Schema (Schema Israel), ^ of which however they 
mly know the firat verse. For some time past bihles and 
»rayer hooks have been aent to them from Bagdad, Their 
Isilum posaeaa Schoulchan Aruch Beth Joseph (the collec- 
iwi); everything eise is unknown to them, and the whole 

Uiomr VI. 4. 

of tbeir divine serrice ia comprised in eame performai 
aucient ceremonies which are mechanically and su] 
tiously gone through. 

I Lave here to meotion an old traditional custom, 
18 observed in Kui-distan, as well as in the whole of 
East. Whcn a woman approaclies ihe time of her coi 
ment, sweet smelling Iierbs are strewn ou a pan of bi 
coals, \vitb which firat the Synagogue and then the chaml 
in which the mother expectaut ia lying, ai-e fumigated. 
Kurdish Israelitea say that thiis they prcsent to the 
well pleaaing sacrifice, and that the offering itself, the 
fume, aacends as in thf! Temple at Jerusalem. True it 
that the Talmudists speak of it, and mention a mill at Uum^ 
in Tvhich different sweet smelling iugredients were grouni 
In the Messechet Sanhedrin chap. 4, foi. 29, p. 2, Ra^clii 
explains the text, adding that aweet smelling herba were 
nsed to eure the wound cansed by circuniciaion. Thiis in 
the aarae Meaaechet is to be found the expreasion SchewM 
habben (week of the son) ; and this expressicn may well te 
the aame aa that which is at this time used, and the pro- 
uunciation only of which differa somewhat froni the abov« 
mentioned. For during the space of a whole week, fror) 
the bij-th to tlie circumcision of the aon, the father ja ealled 
Avi habben (father of the son), and is ref'eived in the Israe- 1 
litish families, as well aa in the Synagogue, with niarks of | 
honoiir. In our time the use of the herba is different; but I 
they are still uaed as incense. — This provea that a. very c 
ancient custom haa been obaerved among the laraelitea in | 
the East up to the preaent day. • 

When a Chacham from Jerusalem comea into theec i 
parts, which occurs but vei-y aeldom, they go out solemnlj 
to meet him, kiss hia ahouldera, his beard, and even hia 
feet, according to the rank of him by whom he is saluted; 
they then cai-ry him in triumph to the house of the Naa», 
bare his feet and wash thera, and tlie water used for that 
purpoae is. coUected for drinking. I do not exaggerate any- 
I thiog in this aeoount. The highest people of the place hxt^i 

e firet right to partake of tliia water; the rest is divided 
QOng tlie women aiid children; and this unclean beverage 
considered to be a prcventive of all iUneases. Notwith- 
anding my Opposition, I was obliged to submit tuyself to 
is extraordinary mark of respect. 

On week daja tlie meii only wear a shirt with a girdle 
und their waist, short trousers, which only reacli to tbe 
lee, and a little cap, round which is rolled a thin piece 
' black stuff; tbey likewise go harefoot. I inquired why 
ey wore auch a dress, to which I received the answer, 
at it was more convenient for work. Thia reminded me 
' the sacrificial garraents of the priesta, who, according to 
e Mosaie law,i were likewiae obliged to wear euch light 
irments, in order to be able to perfomi the sacrifieea 
lickly, which the wide and inconvenient Egyptian gannents 
ould have prevented ; and in order at the same time to 
.stinguish the priests from the people; for only they were 
lowed to wear such a garb. 

On the Sabhath they lay aside thia dresa, and wear a 
mg dark rohe of woolen cloth. This robe is buttoned from 
le neck down to the girdle, frona which it falls in two 
irge fliips down to the knees; the slecTes reach down to 
le wriat and are quite tight. Only the riebest wear shoea, 
18 others generally leathem sandals. 

The women weara coloured vest; round the bead they 
»Id a cloth or a piece of stuff, from beneath which their 
lack hair falls down to the Shoulders. They go barefooted, 
ut Ornament their bands, arms and feet with gold and 
Iver rings; sometimee they wear through the noae a ring, 
-hieb hangs down to the mouth. 


[The different woolen stuffs, which are manufactured by 

Dews in Kurdistan, are likewise exported into foreign 

This is a branch of trade, which many of them cul- 

VIU. 18. XVI. 4. 


tivate most induatriously. They likewise manufacture 
Their looms are extremely aimple ; on two pieces of 
which are placed in the ground, at a certain distance 
each other, they make good and even beautiAiI stuffii.. Ä 
portion of the liigher classes devote themaelvBB to the cul- 
ture of the soll; one sees them going in the moming wMi 
their wivea and children into the fielda and vineyarda, whenoa 
they only retnrn in the evening. loatead of pressing tha 
grapes, they satiafy themselvea with diying them for thiST ~ 
own use. The harvest ia Bntficient for their necessary wanti; 
and but few fruit trees are planted. 

The houses constructed of wicker work, have a veiy 
bare appearance; they are tolerahly Iiigli, have one stoiy, 
and inside and outaide are plastered with a kind of mortar; 
In Bummer they sleep upon the terraces, in order to eacf^ 
the bites of acorpiona, which, during thia period of the year, 
are frequently to be fonnd in the houses at niglit. Food Ia 
80 badly prepared, that it woidd excite the disgust of tht 
pooreat European, 


Wherever I went during \-intage and harveat time, I 
foand a custom atrictly obaerved by the Jewa and Kurdi, 
which reminded me of the precepts of tho Bible.i Neither 
the ears of com, nor the grapea nor fruita are whoUy col- 
lected; but the portion of the widows and orphans ia al- 
ways left: it ia even allowcd to go into a ripe comfield, to 
break the ahoavea, and on the spot to boil the com in water; 
bnt the ears of com must not be cut|2 neither may they be 
taken away. In the sanie way grapes are aüowed to be gathered 
in the vineyai'da, and to be eaten there.^ 

The ürat fruita of all kinda, wliich the Jews present to 
their Mailum, and the Turka to their Gadj, are placed in 

I Leyilicos c. XIX. f». 10. 
' Deuleronomy c. XXIII. 26. 

baskets made of date and other leaves, and according to mj 
riew remind one of the oäerings, which in olden timea the 
JewB made to their priests. 

Besidea this, there are aeveral other cuatoms in accor- 
JaDce with the Bible, wMch are observed in a very pious 
nanner; some of which I will mention here. 

If a dead hody is found in a field between two districts, 
Jie authorities of the different places around go to the spot, 
B Order to aacertain by accurate raeaaiirement, to which city 
Ir to which village it was ibund nearest, and that place 
iiust pay the price of blood to the faniily of the deceased. 
[f in this measurement they are not ftble to agree, a quarrel 
md fight ensuea, and the place itself is often sprinkled 
tfi-esh with blood.' — The Jewa, who are obliged to take 
pari in these combats, behave with much bravcry; and when 
one of their own people fall, and there is no famüy to de- 
mand the price of blood, they carry bim away, and bnry 
him in the Jewiali burial gronnd, 

It is uaiial to buiy the bodies found in an open field, 
on the Spot where they are found; and this pious custom 
accounts for the great number of graves one meeta with on 
the roads. They are the resting - places of thoee who have 
bcen Struck by sudden death, among whom are many tra- . 
Tellers and misaionarjes. 

A cuatom observed throughout the whole of the Eaat 
by Üie followera of every religious sect ia, to take off the 
shoea on entering the houae of God. Thia also reminda one 
of the precepta of the Biblt. Any one who refuaea to render 
this mark of respect is forbidden to enter the Sanctuary.^ 

Une of the usagea, which has been atrictly followed by 
ihe Jewa and Kurds from the oldest timea up to the preaent 
day ta the refraining from eating pork. The use of fat in 
general in this climate Is productiTe of diaagreeable and ae- 
rioos illnesses ; and I have known Jews, who, from the con- 
stant use of olive oil, have been covered with boile over 

' Dtnteronom]' a. XXI. 1. S. 9. 

1 ExodoB o. III, fi. — Talmad MessGchet Betaohot ¥o\. ^- 

tbe whole of the boJy ; and sometimeB the akin of th&V 
13 coatecl with a kind of scab, with which thi^ disem 
much similarity. 


The condition of the Jewa ia a religioua , morid i 
social point of view h aa followa: Their ignorance 
regard to religion excites commiseration. Few among 
can read or write, and in this they are far behind all 
other brethren in the faitb whoiu I have met on vay trai 
Some Bibles and prayer books are certainly to be found i]l< 
these desolate mountaina; but few underetand the use of 
them, and fewer still how to perform their devotions. TTi« 
elementary notions, and tbe knowledge of the grand ideas ot 
their forefathers and brethren, are completelj wantinginthem; 
and in many places they have never even seen a Pcntateuch. 

Tradition only has preserved the celebration of the, 
Sahbath and biblical festivala, as well as circumcision aiid| 
the slaughtcring of animals; — but theae sacred customs' 
are performed so imperfectly and mechanically, that it can 
he diatinctly aeen that they neithcr know the purpoae or the 
reason of them , and are utterly Ignorant of what they aw 

In a social point of view their condition is deplorable; 
for the greater miinber live in a state of most oppressed 
slavery. The Kui-d owns no masterj and in hla stapIiKty 
and brutality assumes to bims elf the most overbearing 
rights, whicli no one can dispute with him. He acta as un- 
controUed raaater over the proporty, life, and even tbe foet 
Ings of bis Jewiah alavca. The Ncatorians are qiiite in the 
same condition as the Jews. 

The poll tax, an unbearable bürden, ia not enough, — 
any trifling circumstance, any and every excuse is sufficiont 
to alarm and diaturb the existenee of these unfortunate 
beings, They are illuacd, aold, and murdered, juat as the 
master pleases. They eat the bitter bread of exil 
moiatea H with their tears and with their blood. I 


visited liundreds of families living seattered in thesc moim- 
tains, aud did not und ona, wtich could cscape front this 
onendurable existence. I cannot express what I feit at the 
sigbt of all thia misery, — for their low condition and their 
affiictinns are indeacribable. — From attacks withont they 
■re BOtnetimes powerfiilly protectcd; but tliis does not arise 
from generosity or from love of justice ; but is solely attri- 
butable to the advantage and personal intercat of their seifiah 
Kurdisb m asters. 

In the districts of Kurdistan, which is now under the 
dominion of the Sublime Port, the condition of the Jewa ia 
Bomewhat inore bearabie. -- The Muslera appointed by 
the government have abolished slavery; the poll tax goeß 
direct into the handa of the Pacha, 

But the hour of justice and huinanity for thesc unhappy 
ones is not yet come. When I was obliged suddenly to 
give up my aecond journey to the mountains of Kurdistan, 
and to leave my brethren there to save my own life, I was 
surrounded by the deputies of four cities and of about 
thirty other places, which I had the intontion to visit. — 
Uow ' many others may there be in the otlier parts of thia 
barbaronß country, whoae existence is hithcrto unknown to 
the inveatigator and to the world; — and who can teil 
how long this State of seclusion may still last! 


In par^raph VII. I have mentioned several biblical 
precepta which are observed in the Eaat; and here, in con- 
clusion, I add a number of cuetoms, which contrary to the 
MoBÜc law, have been interwoven aince the remotest time 
with the habita of these tribes. 

In the aceount of my journey through Lebanon I men- 
tioned the immoral cuatoms practised among the Druaa tribes 
living there, to which I here again rcfer. 
^^ The alave trade, that moral peat ö^^^,gäi^^a "iÄma^ 


on to a great extent, and is an essential part of the i 
öf tliese ti-ibes. 

In a word, all that our great Lawgiver forbade, tlie 
he foresaw and pointed out, and from whicb he wia 
to preserre our forefathers, ragca to this day among tl 
people. — Tliose who wish to understand the Bible and 
Talmud, should first joumey tbrough the East and inveatij 
it; — many a dark paaaage ivould then appear to then 
the clearest light. I intend later perhapa to explain s( 
pointB of the Talmud, which to a certain extent apj 


Manna. — The quails, — Naphtha (mountain oil). — To 
of tke Prophet» Daniel, Änaniaa, Misael and Azariaa 
Ceremonie» and cubIottis at tkese tomhs. — Joumey tHn 
tke desert. 

The town of Kirkuk on the ChafFeh aea is by the J 
considered to be t!ie ancient Calah ' mentioned in the Bi 
and this name is used to this day in all their public d 
menta. The town is divided into two parta; of ■which 
ODe is fortified, and situated on the eummit of the moiml 
and the other estenda over the piain, The flat part of 
town is the place for commerce j and there our brethrei 
the faith reaide. 

The town presenta an appearance which is uniqu 
its kind, Hardly could a more ill shaped heap of sti 
be found sunk in a swamp, which, during the rainy sea 
ia quite covered with water. The town apperaa then '1 

1 GtaieBi« e. X U. 

^lete morass, which no one ventures to enter. The 
»863 are kept somewhat cleaner, and the food is prepared 
l^ter than in Kurdistan. 

The vicinity of Kirkuk ia very fertile, and, being well 
imgated, only needs a skilfnl cultivation. The inhabitants 
tarry on a conaiderable trade in thread and cotton goods. 
Tke language of the country ie Arabic; the dress generally 
iiura ia the Mahomedan. 

Towards the months of November and December whole 
lÜghts of quails come from different parts and alight here; 
\\:ey are about aa large as a chickon when-a week old, and 
I jiinot fly well, For this reason they are so easily caught, 
.lud taken in such great numbere, that they are aold for 

Iparas (half a farthing) each. The Jews, aa well as the 
>er inhabitants of the place, eat these birds, and I my- 
If did so ; but their fiavour is only good when they are 
k Another estraordinary appearance which reminds one 
sie joumey of the Jews through the wildemess, ia the 
Inna which here, in the form of grain, descenda with the 
dew. The grain is of a whitish colour, and hard to the 
touch. It is collected in vesaeis at break of day, and placed 
ia the aun; in the warmth of which it raelts, and becomes 
icheesy kind of substance in which State it is spread upon 
bread and eaten at breakfast. I found it sweet, like honey, 
and of an agreeable smell. The manna, which falls in the 
vidmty of Mount Sinai, which I have also tried, tastes still 
better; rt ia likewise placed in the aun to dissolve, whereby 
it becomes hard like cookcd honey. Manna is also found 
;i the neighbourhood of Mosul and Bagdad; but there only 
liic trees are covered, whilst at Kirkiik, all the fields and 
ine&dows are strewed with it. 

Another natural production which is of great use to the 

iubabitants, and likewise forma an article of foreign trade, 

n napbtha. The numerous swamps and ditcbes are covered 

with a tiiin blackish fluid, wliich is collected by the in- 

.ts, and represents naphtha in ite nalutsi ?.\a.\.fe'. '■*.'■^s. 



uaed for liglithing and other purposea, and has, i 
a very disagreeable eme!!.! 

Between the upper and lower town, at the 
mountain, stauds a buildiiig in the middie of the courtyi 
containing four tomba. The first of these, to the left of 
eatrance near the wall is, according to the asaertion of th(- 
inhabitants, the tomb of the Prophet Daniel, while the other 
tbree toiiibs, whicli lie at some little diatanee, and are sep»- 
rated from each other, are considered to be thoae of ihfl 
ProphetB Misasi, Azarias and Ananias.^ They are small 
Square sarcophagl, overed with a roof, and protected bj 
a wall of wood, wbich U in tolerablj good condition, al- 
though it bears the tracea of great age. ' The three com- 
panionB of Daniel were, aceording to the Bible, caet by 
Nebuchadnezzar into a fiery fiimace, from which they came 
out unhurt.3 lUegible inscriptionB eover these three aar 
cophagi, but none is to bc observcd on the tomb of Daniel _ 
I myself doubt the indentity of thia tomb, as Daniel is said 
to have died and to have been buried in Persia; but still 
I do not venture to asaert anythlng poaitively, aa, notwith- 
Standing the most accnrate inveatigation , I could neittff 
diacover the spot mentioned, nor the least traca of hia tomb. 

1 It is possible that thia 19 tbo n^iphtlia o( ivbich the Talmudista spetk 
in tho MMsechet Sabalh (div. 2). See SiUer'a Mrdkunds vol. 9. bo«k 
3, p. 655. 

1 Benjaniin de Tadela p. GS lilcsnise spcaks of tfaesB tombs; bat H^ 
that they are sitaated an hour's jouniHy from the lomb of the Pro- ' 
phet Ezechiel, of nhich w^ »peak Inter. The tomb of Daniel I» 
pluoea at Schnachan, — Petachia p. 183 aays tho same. — In JtiUtr't 
Erdkimde Vol. 9, hook 3, p. q83 Ihe desci'iption of Ihc four tombi 
coiTBsponds witb niy aecount. P. 394 ^ 308 tho same boofc saj» 
that Iho tomb of Daniel is in the bed of a river near Suschan or 
Suaa. Tho river mss diverted froin itB conrso , a tomb of sloau 
bnill oBt in iis bed, and thca the liver allowed to flow bock agais. 
Tudela'a asaeitioB that Daniel's ooffin hang» in s glass caaa by * 
chnin in the middie of the bridge, is, p. 306, declared 
T üsdoroth p. 3e. 

taps the aasertion of the inhabitants of Kirkuk is correct; 
t datee &om a tradition of the oldest times. 
l'The tombs are in a state of good preservation, and 
. short tinie since were ornamented with magnificent 
^oidred tapestries. The inhabitants, no matter what is 
ir religion, make pilgrimages to them with the greatest ■ 
reapect. The Jews go there on the first day of the Feaat 
üf weeka, the 6"" Sivan |May), in order to recite the Mussaph 
prayer; bnt tbey coidd give me no other reason for this 
castom, than its ancieut uaage. 

The belief in miraclea, and superstition , of which the 
east haa even been the cradle, finda more foUowers hcre 
than in any other place. Theac tombs are said to possess 
a miraculoua healing power ovcr all kinds of diseases; — 
men likewise flee to them for their mystenous interposition 
in the good result of important undertakinga, and call upon 
them as guardian angels in all affairs of life. This general 
adoration bas an advantageous influence on the condition 
of the Jews Uving in the district sanctified by the protection 
of the tombs of Daniel and of his companions; for they are 
mucli less tormented and oppresaed by the half civilieed 
inhabitants, than they are in otlier places. 


After leaving Kirkuk, my road led me through a de- 
solate and dreary wilderneaa. Imraeasurable tracts of land 
without the least sign of Vegetation, reaching as far as the 
eye can see, and always extending further towards the 
horizon the nearer one approaches, — drifting sand, raised 
by the slightest breatli of air and forming hills, which are 
juat aa quickly dispersed, — a moving sea of dust, in which 
a Caravan is seldom met, — this is a picture of the tracts 
of land through which I had to travel, Whole caravans 
are frequcntly stopped by billows of sand, whicli like the 
tide of the aea, ebb and flow; half covored over they often 
wait for a favorable breeze, a burning blast fvom the desert, 
ends their halt. 



A few p»or villages and scattered Arab tents, whid 
are to be found in the sandy desert, refresL the eye, 1 
gaed by the monotony of the Bcene. The acorchmg rafl 
of the Hua make it impossible to travel during the day t 
at sun-rUe therefore we pitched oiir tents, reposed i 
. night, and made use of the cool hours for continuing o 

For sevea days wo had to ti-avel through the deseii 
tracts; until finally, three days' joumey before the old ca- I 
liph'a town of Bagdad, one arrivea at an enormous pahn 
forest, which cxtenda to within a ahort diatance of the town, 
One must have travelled through a desert, in Order to con- 
ceive what the wanderer feels at the aight of fresh liixu- 
riant nature, bright in all the glowing richneas of Vegetation, 
when, exhausted by fatigue, scorched by the burning raya 
of the sun, the eye wearied by the glaring yellow sajid of 
the monotonoua desert, he enters the forest shades. He 
feels as if newbom, and begins to hope that he is now ap- 
proaehing placea where he will 'ineet with fellow creaturea. 

On quitting thia forest, which alwaya affords refreahing 1 
shades, are to be seen on the horizon the sJender minarets 
and the proud majeatic domes of the Mosquea of Bagdad, 
the white linea of which stand out in strong relief againat ' 
the azure blue of the sky. To the right and left the town ', 
appears to be encircled by a gUttering girdle, which ia i 
formed by the waters of the rapid and foaming Tigris, 


Bagdad. ' 

Ths Jetcs of Bagdad and tkair happy condition; tkeir s 

and govemment. — Synagogue. — Marriage customs. — 
Ttmih of the Marahut Abd-el-Kad&r. ■ — Supposed lomb of 
tht priest Joshua. — General description of the town, 
trade «iid habits. -~ The ruitis of Babylon. — Hillah. — 
Birs Nimrod (tower of Nimrod). 

The Jewish population of Bagdad numbers about 300Ü 
fanülies. By thoir science, industry and opulence they con- 
tribute much to the progress of trade, to general activity, 


■ KaysorllDg-, P. Teixeira: We dow enter with Tsixeira into Bagdad, 
into Ulis Iiigbl7 favonred cily, large, rieb and magnificenl, with its 
beaatiful women, whooD eye« parlicularl}' pleaaed unv traveller. Bag- 
dad bad, in bia tjme, above 30,000 bonsea (caaas), af wbicb 200—300 
Bnre iabablted by Jens. Twclvo or tbirleen of tbcse Jetcieb funiliea 
Hhlerled Ifaat tbeic forefnlhcrs weife transplanled here at tbe timo of 
Pfte dcBtruction of tlia first Temple. Tlie Jeirs of Bagdad of wbom 
nksme carry on trade, and are very poor, live in a certain pari of 
Üie town with thcir Kanis «r Synagagne — perbaps the Kenisa 
^dolfth des ßoacb Hagololi", wbicfa Benjauiin deTudela mentiona') — 
! üf their religion. So far Teixeira. — If we com-' 
ea by him witb Ibe accounts of Benjumin de 
idela, and of him of tbs Moldau, we uouie to tbe coDtflaaion, ibat 
■ Jewish populatioQ of Bagdad in bis lirae mnat bave beeo very 
j de Tudela found 1000 familics,"! and Ttixeira maa- 

ra, 121: Haura de doaeieniaa a (res cienlas caias de Juilioa, de 

w 12 o 13 affirmaii que »on atin del primrro cttpHuerio , al- 

t deüot ton facuUosos, perö los ma» pabritcimoa; biuen tn barrio 

vrado con tu Kania o Synagoga UbTemenle, At that lime B^dad 

i 10 Armenian Cbristiaa faniilica And SO Nealorians. 

a do Tudela 59. 60. 


and to the flouriahiiig condition of this iiuportaDt pro- 
Merchants of the first rank are to be found amODg 
who extend their commercial tranaactions into the renn 
counti'ies, and labotir with suecess not only agalnst 
corapetition of the natives, but likewiBc against that' 
foreign lands. In no other place in tho eaat have I 
my Israelitiah brethren in such perfectly happy circuma 
and 80 worthy of their condition. With respect to 
stition, the fruit of ignorjuice, and the reault of the 
traditions, which pcople of the east imbibe from thei 
liest youth, — the Bagdad Jewa may be considered the 
ideal of the Jewiah population of the eaat. They have nobla 
principlea, are hospitable, enlightened and benevolent to all 
those with wJiom they come in contact. By continual iDte^ 
courae with strangera, they have acquired good mannen 
and politeneas, and they possesa a knowledge of the world, 
which places thera on a level with the naost civilised natioiu 
of Europa. Their Eabbia are well informed men, and M 
treated with the greatest rßspect. 

The three ehief Rabbia are invested with judlcial poWerj _ 
they bear the title of Dajanini {justice of the peace), aml 
are choaen by the Community for this important office. At 
the time of my Bojourn araong them, Rabby Jacob, son of 
Joaeph Jacob, was the firat Dajanim, and was greatly re* 
Bpected on aecotmt of hia learning, benevolence and nobl« 
eharacter. Hia coUeaguca were Rabbi Eliahu Übadja, a 
rieh and leamed man, who, by means of caravans, canie» 
on an important trade with Damascua, — and Rabbi Avdola, 
one of the richeat merchants of Bagdad. Theae three Judgei 

to be wiahed that our IraveUera wonW 
3 Inccease and decrcaae of the Jetrish p(^ 
tLoy viait. Liko Teixeira , Benjamtu ie 
speaks of EOme familica of Bagdad, who 
ieot descent. He also epocka of a Rtiüi, 
TTMlli» r linll Kemacb, who cauld tvace bi» pedtgree d[) to ibe Ptophttl 
^amitel , and be and bis brelbren knew tbe mslodies wbicb wen 
Bnnjf in Llia Temple befote its deslraetion. Ä Rabbi Daniel, *ho« 
, liBced bis desceot from the toyal 

tions 300 familiea I 

pulation in 

Tudela (p. 60, 61), alB( 

cauld boast of tbeir ai 


are not however able to determine any puniahment, as this 
power is possessed ouly by the Char.bam BascLi (cbief Rabbi). 
The Cbacham Baschi is appointed direct to thia dignified 
DfSce by the Sublime Porte. He representa the Community 
liefore tbe highest authorities, and watcbea over their reli- 
gions interests and the administration of ci\'il afFairs. He 
3ollects from tbe Jews the taxes, for which they are in ar- 
rears. Every male member of tbe community pays, from 
the time he arrives at tbe age of fifteen, a yearly tribute of 
15 to 120 piastres, which is coUeeted in quai-terly pajTnents. 

The Chacham Baschi ia supported in hia office by the 
bigbest members of the Community; and it is neceesary that 
their opiniona should agree with hia own, in order to e 
Uish the validity of bis acta. In niy time, this honorable 
^)pöintment was held by Rabbi Kaphael Kassin of Aieppo, 
B man about 30 years of age, of atately figure ai d noble 
«ppearance, wearing a long black beard. He enjoys tbe 
espectal favour of tbe Pacha, who has aasigned bim a guard 
of honour conaiating of four Gavaz (gendarmea), and besides 
these, five or sis Jewa are in atteiidance on him, who have 
lo convey and axecute bis Orders and commands. W 
he goes out, it ia alwaya with truly princely pomp, and the 
guard of honour preceeda bim on horseback. Aa a mark of 
bigh considoration and reapect, he wears the decoration of 
the imperial order of the Nissan, a diatinction, of which 
rery few Jewa in the Ottoman empire can boast. 

Und er the Orders of the Chacham Baaebi the Com- 
munity ia presided over by tbe Nassi. Up to the year 1849 
to 50 Kabbi Joaeph Moses Reuben, a vety rieh learned and 
benevolent man, wae the Nasai of the Community. He did 
me the honour to invite nie aeverai timea to hia table. Before 
the appointment of the higli office of Chacham the Baschi, 
the Nasai waa always chosen from among tbe riebest and 
nioat influential Jews. He posaesBed niuch power, which,' 
if abuscd, might have heen productive of serious ' con- 
aequences, not only among those of bis own pereutiEion, 
ihnt iikewiae among the Mussulmaus ; for aa he vas, OTkl^ 


dependent on the favour of the Facha, he could purclii 
a Bum of money indulgence for all his actions, and 
cording to hia own caprice and advantage, towards 
wliom he wiahed to injure, 

The religious instruction aniong the Jewa of Bagdad ti 
admirable ; for there is a large Jeschiwa (rabbjnical schooljr 
in which 60 young Kabbia study tlieology, This school 
under the direction of the learned Rabbi Abdolah ben Ab» 
ham Seumech, who performs the duties of bis office gr&ti» 
tously. He is a very rieb man, and, in my tiine, conducteä u 
one of the principal commercial houses; he bas given orer 
the management of bis biaaineBS to a partner, in order t6 
devote himself excluaively to bis pious oftice, 

Tbe Jews in Bagdad inhabit a particuJar quarter of fllO 
city; but they bave tbe Option of settling in other parta (f 
the town, and many of tbem dwell among tbo Mussubnaae. 
The Community possesses nine Synagogaes; of which eigbt 
are situated in tbe aame court. At a poor-box, plaiied at 
tbe entrance of the court, stand several of the highfflt 
menabers of the community, moming and evening, to receive 
the alms and gifta of the passers by. These amount daily 
to about 1000 piastres, — and are generally used for tba 
maintenance of the poor of tbe eomnnmity, and for the I 
Hupport of tlie Jeschiwa. For tbe same purpoae a tax is 
abo levied on Koaber meat. 

Tbe nintb Synagogue ie a very large building supported 
by Bixteen columna. Tbe Megila (book of Esther) is read 
there on the U"- and lö"- of Adar (March). The interior 
of the editice presents nothing wortby of note ; the ceiling is 
omamented witb sculpture. Tbis Synagogue is called BeÜi 
Haknezeth Sheik (Isaac) Gaon.' In a side room of it is 
the tomb of this leamed man. It is a catafalque, the faei^ 

' Benjamin de Tadels p. 60 speaka of 10 Jeschiwaä, and p. 63 and 61 
of 28 SynagognsB and of lOüO Jewish families , but of Ihe laltar 
Synagogae he makes no menlioD. — Fcthachia p. 173 meQUoiis tht 
Mme wmben F. 183 he tpeäka of thMo Spiagogiiea. 

113 ^»^ 

t tna3\, decorated vriüi flags üf four colourä at whicli ten 
Ined Rabbis are always readiug and reuiting prayer«. 
l'On Friday afternoon between two and three o'clock, 
business ceases amODg the Jews of Bngdad, and all tlio 
mercial houaes are closed. Eacb retiima to liia own 
home, puts on liia best gannenta, and hurriea to the Syna- 
;.'0^e, wbere cveniiig Service is perforiiaed, wblch lasts until 
^D iiour beforo sunaet. AU then retum to tbeir i'amilies, 
sing pioua Hebrew aonga, and drink aniseed brandy. As 
Boon as tbe last rays of the sun liave disappeared, the Kriath 
Schema ia said; and they then partake of the evening nieal, 
whicb sometimea laats mitil mitinight. On Saturday, 
go to the morning serviee, aftcrwarda breakfast, and dien 
religiouB reading commenees and with such decorum and ' 
devotion tbat even eveiy caaual listener must be cdiüed, 
Several faiiiilies are usualJy asaembied at tbese readinga, | 
which are generally taken from the Prophets, Every niembei 
'if tlie family listens with miich devotion, and the strangera 
«*ho happen to be present foUow thia example. After the 
reading there is an intercbange 'of viaits, and the afternoon 
is devoted to enjoymcnt in the open air. The rieh po* 
beautiful coimtry houses and palmgardens on the Tigria, ' 
äre they spend the sumraer, 

I With feelinga of tbe higbest aatisfaetion and pleasure I 

: how devoutly and aolemnly, and with what atrict at- 

tion to the precepta of the Law, the Sabbath was ob- 

(Ted in Bagdad. With true delight did I asaiat at tbe 

j and brotberly meetings, where pleasure was always 

inced by true and decp knowledge. In iio other country 

sited did I find niy brethren in tbe faith so void of eare, 

*PPy> ^° f*"^^ from persecutions and oppressioiis of Jn- 

i at Bagdad. Üften wben looking with sorrow 

Ibe miaery and profound ignoranco of my bretliren, wben 

' how under the yoke of deapotism they wandered like 

tuere shadows of that once eelebrated, great and leamed 
poople iind compared their condition with that of their 
bretbren in Bagdad, then the hope took poaaession of me, 



tbat eoon for them also a better and happier future wo^f 
da WD. ^M 

In Bagdad I found the words of the Bible verifieJ^ 
„And tliou ähalt rejolce in the presence of thy Lord, thon, 
and thy soa and thy daughter, thy man servant, and thy 
mald servant, and the Levite that ia within thy gates."' 

I myself was received with the greatest hoapitality; 
ond kindnesB, Coming from tbe heart, rejoiceth the soul, The 
head of one of the richest farailies, Awdul Asis ben Awdvl 
Nawi, received me into hia house during niy stay there. I 
eaw with much pleasure how the poor, the widows and o^ 
phans receive before the beginning of the Sabbath tho alm» 
of the rieh, and how often, besides these eustomaiy gifta, 
they are entertained at the tables of the wealthy. The sight 
of all this happiness, of this piety, and of thcir sacred ob- 
servance of the precepta of the_law, was for me a ti'ue rfc 
&eshment, an oasis in the wildemess, and it animated 
oourage to continue my researches. 


Another Observation whicb I made in Bagdad iaJ 

following: In the town about a third more girls are ' 
than boys; at the birth of a girl, the housc ia fiUed \ 
sorrow; for the dowry ia thought of. They likew 
at a very early age, for instance, — some years tefo« 
Visit to Bagdad, a girl of 8 or 10 years old was ma) 
to a yonng man of 18 or 20 years of age, Much b<h 
and evil was caused by these early mai-riages ; there 
therefore a judicial determination that the daughters of ■ 
rieh should not marry before their thenth year, thoM 
the middle classea before their eleventh, and the po( 
popidation not before their twelvth year. If a girl the« 
remains unmarried uiitil her fiftecnth year. she may give-^j 

> Dentei-oDomy o. XVI. 11. 14. 

116 ^ 

^opee of being married at all. 80 it is with widowa; 

have no chance of a aecond marriage ; aa every one 

l prefer to marry a poor girl than a joung and pretty 

V, be ahe ever so rieh: and I was informed that the 

iah Community alonc numbered ab out 4 — 500 widows. 

The marriage ceremonieB are as follows: When a man 
wishea to man-y, it ia not the custom, as with ue, that he 
should previously be acqualnted with his future wife; but 
the mother, or some other female relation, goes and looka 
at the girl, and if she pleasea her, the husband must be 
pleaaed also. 

The night before the wedding is called Lel-al-Chana 
(the Ärabtc word „Lei" meana night, and „Ghana" is a red 
colonr). The relations of the bride assemble in the house 
of her parents, and begin to sing and play music according 
to the custom of the country. After spending about two 
hours in this way, a colour (Ghana), prepai-ed for the pur- 
pose , is taken, and they paint with it the palms of the 
hacds and the nails of the bride and her attendant maidens, 
and the soles of their feet up to the toes. The paint is 
washed o£F the next morning, when a little dark reddiah 
colouring will denote for the space of aeveral weeks the 
places marked. This same eeremony ia gone through with 
ihe bridegroom and with his companions at hia house; and 
then in both houses the night is spent in einging and music; 
as it is considered injurious for the bride and bridegroom 
to sleep the night before the wedding. I was present at 
the eeremony at both houaca; and must confess that it much 

Eied me. 
The next day about three houra before sunset come the 
:haniim with the bridegi'oom and hia relationa to the 
honfie öf the bride, and the preparations for the wedding 
are bcgun. The bride sita veiled with the women beliind a 
curtain. The Chacham lifta the veil from the face of the 
and ahows her to the bridegroom, as, according to 
I Talmud, the marriage eeremony dare not taice place 

> lutlesa tlie bridegroom has seen the bride.' The 
ia then perfoniied according to the precepta of the Tal 
At the conclusion of the cereraony the Chachaniim 
turn with tbe bridegroom to bis house, while the bride re- 
moms undor tlie parental roof. In the evening tlie brid^ 
groom and bis companions fetch the bride, and conduct her 
to hia dwelliiig. The young wife ia not accompanied by 
her parents. Tbey tben partake of a ahort repast, and after 
that, the young couple ara conducted to a Chamber eape- 
ciaJly prepared. The bridegroom being contented with the 
modesty of hia young wife, a uiessenger ia immediately aent 
to the parents and the night ia spent in merry reveb-y. Not 
until the tbird evening do the parents of the young wife 
with all the relationa come to the house of the son-in-law. 
There, grand and expenaive enter tainmenta take place; and 
the poor are liberally remembered. The nian'iage solemnitiea 
laat, according to patriarchal cuatora, aeven whole daya. 

Tbe town of Bagdad ia divided by the Tigris intoif 
unequal parta; of which tbe largest, the toivn itself, is | 
closed by a wall, at tbe end of which is a forb-eea 
barracks. On entering tbe town by the gate of Mosulj .1 
view ia really magnificent. The atreeta are broad; 

numerous shopa, filled with the most splendid i 
and costly bazaars, particularly tliose which are situatfl 
I the middle of the town. 

On the otber shore of tho Tigris is that portion otM 
, town at which the differeat caravaiia arrive, and firom wM 
they take their departure. It is a very large market j 
where the foreign merchanta and travellera join the 
vans. A bridge in a very bad conditio« croaaes the rilN 
the inimdationa of which, particularly in the spring, 
much damage. 

' MeuMhet KlduHbin p. 41. 

Vben the water is very Mgh thej- make usp. of a pecu- 
Jtind of boat to pass over, whicli conaists of a kind of 
leep basket, made of wicker work, and covered over with 
itch; for the same purpose they make use of canoea, which 
re made in two divisionSj and eaeh capable of containing 
—10 persons. Going along tlie streets towarda the Jewish 
aarter of the town, I paased a mosque of imposing appea- 
ince, encIoHed by a wall. In this mosque is the tomb of 
le great Marabut Abd-el-Knder, which is visited by nume- 
)ns pilgrims. Tradition relatea that the mosque was for- 
erly a synagogue, and that the Marabut was no less a 
jrsnii than the celebrated Talmudiat Joaeh HagueÜli. 

In Bagdad the heat in sunimer is unbearable, ao that 
10 is obliged to remain at home during the day, and to 
tend to business at night. On account of the heat subter- 
inean grottoea have been conatructed, which are kept cool 
Y reaervoira of water. lu the aummer one sleepa on the 
irracea, in order to avoid the smothering heat of the rooms, 
nd the stings of scorpions. These scorpiona are real plagues 
I the country; they are everywhere to be found here, and 
Eirticnlarly in the narrow streets, where at night it is ne- 
jssary to be fiimisbed with a lantem in order to be able 
» get out of their way. The scorpiona here are of different 
inds and coloura, they are black, blue, and green; the ating 
t the black scorpion is deadly, and np to this time no re- 
,edy for it has been disccvered. For the stinga of the 
;lier species the following remediee are used: 1) Ä little 
it blackish-blue atone is laid upon the wound, and there 
imaina for 24 houra, until the poison ia drawn out, 2) A 
«rpion is boiled in olive eil and laid upon the woimd ; if 
le same scorpion that caused the wound can be obtained 
It that purpoae, the eure is the more certain. 3) A aheep 
slaughtercd, the inside taken out, and the wounded 
le raber place d in the body of the still warm animal. 
) The poison may be aucked out of the wound by a 
Tong man, a process which for him has no danger. 5) And 
^if) ice appUcations are put on the wounded^ "^ax^ 

tbese remedies must however be employed immediately 

the infliction of the ating; for the effects of tlie poison 
rapid asd fearful. 

The terracea are planted and omamented with flowen 

and when the heat preventB sleep, persona meet togethei] 

■ and spend the time in friend!y converaation. Tho apart- 

menta of the rieh ai-e splendidly decorated, and kept ahnost 

i the European style. 

The populfttion of Bagdad conaiata of four different 
elements. In the first rank are the Arabiana, Jewa and 
Christiana; after them foUow the Persiana and I-ndiana. 

Two conauls reside ia the town, one French, the 
i other Englbh. Arabic, Turkish, Peraian, and Italian are 

The men dresa in the Turkish style, with a aplendour, 
which is only kno>\Ti in the East, Tbey wear yellow shoes, 
with tiirned-up toea, The dresa of the women reaembles 
the neglige ofEuropeans; for a headdress they wear a üttlo 
red fez (a aort of cap), with long gold- or silk-tasaels omtk 
mented with pcarle and diamonds. WTien they go out, they 
wear a silk haik, a kind of apron, reaching to the nedk; 
and a long veil protecta them from the raya of the aun. Itt 
general the women poaaeaa great beauty, and their clever- 
nesH and activity in needle work are astoniahing. 

The importance and estent of the commerce of tha 
town are univeraally known; enormous Caravans, some more 
than 2000 camela atrong, come and go daily in ceaaeless 
change from, and to all parts. I was told that twice a year 
a Caravan of niore than 6000 camela went to Oamascns- 
The trade with India ia completely in the handa of the Jews, 
who possesa manufacturiea in Calcntta, Bombay, Singapore, 
and even at Canton. Tho moat important articles of trade 
in theae comitries are indigo, spicea, silk atnöa, aome kinds 
of rare fruita and dyes, which come from different provinces 
f China. From Persia come chieHy carpeta, shawls, silk, 
tonibako (a kind of tobacco), winea, almonds &c. From the 
I same country are alao obtained precioua stones, rubies, 

es flna^l 

, and corals; and from the Island ßein iu the Persian 
f beautiiul pearls are prociared. 
I The larger sbips containing articlcs of Jewish manu- 

ire go to Maseat, Abeshur, and Bassora; in tlie latter 

I they unlade, and wait for smaüer ships to take their 
''Cftrgo on fartber, — THd steam-boat between India and 
Abeshur only goes once in six weeks. 

In the year 11^41 Bagdad was visited by the plague, 
which caused fearful ravages; maiiy persona died, and many 
thousands left the town. A second misfortune, which viaited 
the town in the same year, was the overflowiiig of the 
Tigris, by which many hoiases Tvere inundated or destroyed. 

According to the prevailing custom of the East the 
houses are alwaya kept closed. If a atranger knocks at a 
door, and a woman opena it for him, she immediately tums 
oside, hides her face, and hurries timidly away. According 
to the Ärabian style of building, the houses have a court- 
yard in their eentre, round which the dwelling is erected. 
The kitchen ia on the ground-floor, and the women live in 
the first atoiy. A stranger may live sevei-al months in a 
bouse without once sceing the female meinbers of the house- 
hold; as aoon however as he ja known, he is treated with 
familiarity. Deprived of all society and arausement, the 
women have no idea of free and social propricty, they 
possess no kn«wledge which might serve to control their 
passioiis, and they readüy surrender themselves to any one 
with all the vehemence of their warm teraperament. When- 
ever they appear in the street, they are wrapped in a long 
veil, from beneath which only gleam their sparkling eyes, 
which look boldly on the passers-by. 

One day I had a cimveraation with aome worthy geiitle- 
men, during which I was asked, if it were really true that 
the women in Europe were free, and ahowcd themselves 
unveiled in public, On my replying in the afiirmative, they 
explained to me that it was the destiny of the daughtera 
Eve to lead aretired lifc, and their faces ought to be veil 
before strangers, and particiilarlj before men. "Yo "fiäa 



Said: n'^i^Q Bible speaks of a velled woman; biit •Fu^H 
the aon of Jacob, took her for a harlot." • — The I^H 
was hard, althougH taken &oni the Bible, with whidt^H 
companions vrere well acquaintcd; otherwise I had ^^| 
too far in saying this: for what matters it if the wi^^| 
Cover their faces, and their foi-m be displayed. The i^^H 
will kindly excuse my biblical reniark with the Same ia^B 
gence as my listenerB did. I will also mention what "MB 
related to me on this occasion ; naraely, that a woman, who 
only wore one most neceasary article of clothing, was clean- 
ing a court-yard whon , at the sight of a stranger who 
entered the door, she tbrew thia, her only garment, over 
her head, in Order to cover her face. — In auch conver- 
Bations it is alwaya better to reat one's arguments on the 
Bible, for there is no gainsaying that authority; althou^ » 
unfortunately it is not alwaya rightly underatood, 

An hour's journey from Bagdad is a small huilding, 
ehaded by eight gigantic date-trees; it is divided into two 
parte, in one of theni ia tho richly decorated tomb of tlie 
High-Prieat Joshua,^ mentioned by Zechaiiah.^ Several old 
manuscripta are under the catafalque, porüons of which are 

I Genesis c. XXXVIH. 16. 

' Kayserlinff, P. Teiseiia: A short diBtance froir Bagdad Tdxeira 
found in a litllo bot a tomb, for n-bicb Moors anj Jews testify gretl 
i'KBpect, They Bay that the bödy of a Jewish High-FrieHt restB thwe. 
It is II laige tomh built of Btono and chi]k. At the top of Ihe 

catafalqua ia a mctal plate 
Jafiuah lioheD Oadol. The 
Uiat he was a holy man 
mlracles, whicli, as they a 
3 Zochariah o. 111. 1. 

•) Tei 

a which ia writl 

labitantH of tha 

uid aU venerata him on accoutrt of th» 

rt, God perfonued Ibrough hini.*) 

n ia hebrew eharacterg: 

teira 124: futra de ugueUa parle tie la ciadad e»/a reoogida ta 
peqafTma caaa una aepullwa lenida de Moros y Jadio« en greaiie 
ventracion, en la gual dixtn etlä depotitado et earrpo de un mumw 
aacerdolc Hebreo. El lamido es coma ima graitde caxa de pitdra f 
cal, y en la cabeeera ticne uita eamiwi de eobrt, eon um» letrat dt 
relieuo en Hthrayca gve dUen-Jebmah Kohen Gada (I) qut tt 
Josuah sitmnio sacerdalo dixen gue fue «aron sanlo, y todoi to ti 
I lal, por müagroi que nfßrman ha Dioa heeho 

— -^ 

' fO TH^ I 


^^K at bis tomb; they contain a narrative pf hia history, 
^^■äi 10 10 1)6 found in the writicgs oi' the Prophet Zecbariah. 
^^H interior of the vaulted tomb is lighted by a long 
^^Bow window, The Jews go there every montb, in order 
^^fcear the writings of th^High-Prieat read; after the con- 
Idneion of which tbey join in einging hyrans, and then 

aasemble at some distance from the tomb, and partake of 

a social meal. 


The niina of Baliylon. — Hillah. 

The ruins of Babylon begiii two and a half days' jour- 
uey to the noi-thwest of Bagdad, and Stretch along tlie 
sbores of the Euphrates to the town of Hillab, * which is at 
the diatance of six hours' journey, Where once atood the 
ancient cclebratcd city of Babylon, ia now a dreary waate, 
only relieved by a few miaerable plantations near the tents 
of the Bedouina. 

A deep religioua feeling muat take posaesaion of any one 
who contemplatcs these magnifieent riiins, theae delapidated 
remains of palaces, monitmonta, columns, and edifices, which 
even in min give evidence of their former aplendonr, Up 
to this day are atill found many coatly articlea under theae 
&agmenta, — antique vaaea, and gold and ailver coins. I 
myaelf poaseased four coins, of which however I was robbed 
as well aa of other things. 

In the vicinity is to be aeen a cave, into which it is 
asserted, Daniel was thrown to the lions, and likewise the 


l. Jt«y8eriing, P. Tcixeira: Not far from Heia he trod llie soi 

. From afar he pereeiTed tle ruins of ancient Babylon, „and 1 
Ltliia plaCB of all others in the vicinity is tht most seldom visited; 
1 folfilinenl of tho words Bpoken by the Prnphot." ') 

STtix. e. III: et el lugar menoa /requentada de toda aquella regitm, 
P«N eomplimieHlo de lo qur deüa ealaua vrnpkettzado. (bcuah, e. £IV, 


place where is said to have stood the furnace, into whieiÄ 
M^ebucbadnezzar caused tlie Frophets Änanias, Misael and'l 
Äzarias to be cast The forrner sitc of the palace of thil I 
king is also shown, aa well as the supposed dweiling n! 1 
Daniel. In the interior of the so%alledDaniers cave bubblei I 
now a spring, which is held in great veneration by the 
Ärabs and Jews; aa ita rairaculons water is aaid to eure i 
fevera. An ancient lime-tree is also here, wbich is parücu- 1 
larly venerated by tlie inhabitants ; as, according to traditioB, 
it was worshipped by Nebuchadnezzar. Formerly tliia tree 
divided itself into three branches, one of which, so I wa» 
told, an English lord had cut off; a desecration which 
cause d a complcte rebellion aniong the Arab population, 
and for which this nobicman as well as the Engiish conaul 
had to pay dearly, 

Six hours' joumey southwest of the ruins of Babylon 
rises a gigantic mass of ruina; it is the world- renowned 
work of presuinptuous men, the well-known Tower of Babel, 
deacribed in the Bible.' I should have liked mach to view 
the nüna of this enormous building, but I did not possess 
the necessary meana for hiring a streng escort, withoiit 
which it is impossible to venture there, as these ruIns are 
infested by hordes of robbers, and wild animals, 

The people say that it takes three days to inspect the 
remains of the Babylonian Tower, among which are still 
to be found rooms in good preservation , and sepulchrea. 
According to the accounts of the Jews and Arabs, these 
ruins are 1450 feet broad, and of such an enormous extent 
that, taking their highest point as a centre, they lie round 
in a circumference of twenty hours' joumey. Seyeral fiights 
of Steps lead to the siimniit. 

About tbree days' joumey from Bagdad on the right 
ahore of the Euphrates, Stands the town of Hillah.3 About 

1 PetachU p. 191 likcwiso Bpoaka of thU tower. 

'' Kaywtling, P. Teixsirs: Not far from Mexat-Ocem Teixeira passsd 
over llie Eapliratee, unterod McsopoUmia, and viaited loifay of Ihosa 
.ent pUcea of biatorical iatcrcst to liis brclhrcn in tbe tuth. -^^ 

123 ^^^ 

tewish families live liere, whose Kasai ia Mailum Mor- 
This little Community posseasea a Synagogue.i In 
!Dah, differei:t kinds of stuffs are manufactured, whicli are 
nsed in the coiintry itself. Tbe town is likewiae celebrated 
for rearing the best Arab horsea. 

From Hill.ih to Kabur-Keiil ia a journey of about six 
hours. Near the latter place I fouiid in the middle of the 
iesert, upon a hill, a small pyramidal-towcr. It is arched 
ud contains a subterranean apartmcnt, which leada into a 
[Totto. This towcr, which ia calied by the Arabs Bira 
Simrod, is of great antiquity, and, according to tradition, ia 
aid to have belongcd to the hunter Nimrod, and to have 
>een inhabited by bim. 

, he Ihinks of Hda, ") menlloned by Tudela aa CMla and 

Bi31ab,") the place which the childrec of Israel passed, nhen they 

! led captivo to BabyJon. The ficHs of Ihis patt Ij-ing on ihe 

i of the Enphi'ates are all intersected by Email utreams, — 

e sticaras of which thePaalmiat Bpeaks in hia \Triiinga.''t) 

. no slay al this place, and does not apeak of the Jeirs 

I, of whom Benjamin de Tudpla found 10,000. 

l Benjamin de Tudela p. Gä ciBnliona 1Ü,Ü00 Jewa and i Synagogues. 

With respect to savoral other towna, of which we will speak later, 

popalation of aeveral thonannd Jows, of whom now 

1 bo fonnd. 

^Bio troces a 

! por do lo) hijos de Israel passaron caativos para 
Bahylonia, We shauld he iadeed inclined to conaider the ancient 
Halah (II. Kinga c. XVU. 6, c. XVIII. 11), Helah to be Hela-Hillah. 
Teixeira does nnt menlion whetber his account is a tradition whiob 
tha Gxperience of the inhubitants has proved, it certainly however 
9es with Holy WHt, aa U. Kinga c. XVIII. 11 ic Gianda thiu: 
\janchtin ha — Halaeh" and he cairiod away eto. The Taltnudisla 
e perfectly acqnainted with the Situation of Haiach, nbich laccord- 
lo Oeaeniua) is the identical Helach (Qenesis c. X. ]1){ and 
Diojr qaite agree wilh the account ofour journey. Talmud bah li, Joma 
Wo it alanda thua : Helach su Thrat d'burgif. (Helach is the neigh- 
beorbood of Iho Enphratoa in the pari near Bursif). Now Buraif 
Toraippa) ia known to bo tho sanie as Babel; »ud thcreby it ia 
Kived tbat Haiach lay on tbe alte of the presenl Heia, or Hillah. 
enjamin de Tudela G5. 

'tid. Sil: oqaMoa heran lot Bios de que et Faalmhla, . 
n lu I^lmo. (Paalm 137.) 




Tomb of tke Prophet Ezekiel, — Pllgriinages to ihe tot, 
Bequest of King Jehoiachim. — Tombs of the Kings t 
kejahu and Jehoiachim. — Sifktf. — Meshed Ali, 

The town of Kabur-Kefil lies near the Etiphrates, se-i 

veral hours' joumey from the ruins of Babylon, Kefil 
in Turkish and in Arabic „sm-ety", and thia nanie of thfl-H 
town is derived from the memorable circumstance of the 
Prophet Ezekiel's standing forth here as surety for the in- 
nocence of the Jews, at the moraent when, in coneequenee 
of calmnniea, a peraecution broke out againat tliera. Even 
at the present time, the Arabs dwelling there treat our 
people with great consideration. 

The town presents the appearance of an irregulär mase 
ofwalls, arid is now cxcluaively occupied by theArabSj and 
hy one of their tribes, that of Hindu. 

In the town is a building enclosed by a wall, contaln- 
ing the tomb of the Prophet Ezekiel, which ia covered with 
coatly tapestry, and different kinda of rieh needle work and 
embroidery. According to the oaiculation of Seder Hado- 
roth the Prophet died during the reign of Nebucbadnezzar, 
who had taken prisoner Jehoiachim, King of Judah. The 
tomb lay between the rivers Euphrates and Kaebar, and 
had at that time no wall t» encloae it. After the death of 
Nebucbadnezzar, bis aon Evil-Merodach aucceeded. He not 
only liberated hia royal prisoner, but presented liim with 
land and vineyarda in the vicinity.' 

1 Jeremiah c. LH. 31. 


fter having regained bis liberty Jehoiachim took several 
ind Jews, and began with their assistanco to build the 
bove mentioned wall.' He iumished it with towera as if 

were a fortresa, the largest of whicb was surrounded by a, 
allery, and aervod aa foundatioa to a building reBembling 

Mosque. A high winding staircase in the interiour leads 
the top of this tower, from which one can diatinctly aee 
irith the naked eye the Eabylonian tower, rising lika a 
;iant in the diatanco. TMb tower has a peculiar contrivance, 
tluch leads the inhabitanta of the country to believe aoine- 
hing wonderful and aiip er- natural. Throiigh thia tower 
loea a wooden beam or polo, botb ends of which run into 
be gallery: if thia beam is violently pulled, a shaking move- 
aent ia feit in the whole upper part of the tower, Accor- 
ling to the belief of the inhabitans, the foUowing worda 
dust be spoken aa a magic apell: ;,BeGchem Malka Schalum 
pa Atharato" [in the name of King Haloiöon and of his 
rown): if thia ia forgotteu to be said, the moat diaastrous 
onaequences may ensue. It waa in vain I endeavoured to 
zplain to my brethren the natural cauae of this auppoaed 
ronder, which moat likely coneiata in a hidden apring, or 
ome other concealed piece of mechaniam; but I was not 
ble to ahake their auperstitioua belief. 

On this apot is the tonib of the Prophet Ezekiel,^ upon 
rhicli a large stone aarcophagua ia erected, which, like the 
eat of the buikling, is whitened over with chaJk. At the 

r Hadarotb. 
üiyserliiig, P. Telxcira: About half a, day's jouriiej from Ihe tawu 
i pereeived a largo büilding- with a high tower. This ccralainii 
B tomb and the retnaina of tho huly Prophet Ezukiel, wlio is called 
fr the Moora and Jews Eskehl — I'uheskhel — and held by all in 
tt' gretteal Taepect.*) 

a cma gro/nde com uiut alia forre, ado ea/a Ia HjiulkiTa 
lanto Prophela Ezechiei, ä quien Moros y Jadioa üamen 
. . y l^da dt lodos en giana titncraäim , lanlo por m vida y 
lad, como par loa milagraa guf afßrman obrfi Diot alli por au 
). BMidei Benjamin du Tudela (66 ff.) thia tomb accordiDg to 
X (!• o> n. 141), is also deeribed by Pelacbift, Chuisl mi. KWvobR. 




aide of it atands a large Synagogue, the oatside of trliich 
covered witli a beautiful varniah, BÜnilar to the colow M 
tortoiBe shell. In the interior, the side towards JemsoleiJ 
is qiiite bare and unfinished, as a sign of mourning for 
Holy Temple in the city of the Ahiiighty, and in renieat 
brance of the fragraenta of its walls. The tomb of the Pm 
phet ia entered by a door in the Sanctuary. 

On one of the walla of the building two figurea of 
Bize of life are to be seen: they were painted in daya tf 
old, and aro alniost obiiterated by age. Äccording to the = 
assertion of the Jewa they are the pictures of the Fropb^ = 
Ezekiel and King Jehoiaehim. From the dim and faded 
outlines of these pictures any rcsemblanee to tlie buniaa 
form ia with difficulty to be traced; the colours and th*' 
fashion of the apparel are no longer to be seen. The whole 
wall at the entrance-door is covered at different placet 
with gronps of figures, BOmething like the inecriptions and de- 
corationa of the aneient EgyptiLins; they are in remembranctt 
of those who built this editice, — that is, of a whoie people, 
who, with their king, erected it. 

Äccording to the assertion of the people of tiie country^ 
this is eaid to be the önly Synagogue buiit by command rf 
a King of Judah, and at the erection of which he personally 
assisted. The sacred and other writinga do not alwaytf 
notice this : later I shall mention several other Synagoguw ■ 
which are to be found, in or near thia province, at tii4*f, 
tomba of the Kings of Judah; but it was impossible for 
nie to obtain any certain proofs that these edifices wen 
erected by command of these kings. 

In the holy shrine of this Synagogue are preaervei 
different manuscripts of the law; among which was one ot 
the moat extraordinary size 1 had ever seen. It is written 
on a kind of parcliraent which is calied Guewil, and, ac- - 
cofding to the belief of the people of the coimtry, vias* 
penned by the band of Ezeldel himaelf. ^ 

.1 Benjamin de TadelA p. 6S, B7 bIbo Bpeaks of this Fenlalench 

Llench a^^l 

I entertain another opinion reapecting thie. After many 
nquiriee I made on the apot iteelf, aud after havjng con* 
nlted with the Chachamim of the country, I have arrived 
it tte conviction that thia Pentateuch was witten by Rabbi 
knan, who lived in the year 4490, at tue timc of the grcat 
Jaonim, aa ia related in the wnrk Raawet. Thia Rabbi 
wssessed no rank imder the Gaonira; he therefore turned 

chiam, aud becamc the founder of the sect of the Karaites, 
?ho, by the Jcws, are called Karahim; that is, FoUowera 
if the Word, of the dead letter of the Bible (from the 
Jebrew Kera, to read). He drew a great number of Israe- 
ites over to his sect- This account is found confinned in 
he work of the Abb6 Bargta, ^ Profeasor of Oriental 
[janguageB at the Sorbonne in Paris, — caiied: „Japhet ben 
Zelt Bassorensia Cara'üae in libronim psalmorum commentarü 
Arabici." The loamed author, who made me a presont of 

1 copy of his work, likewise explains tbe name Carditae 
„Keadera or writera, the sona or modiatora of Holy Writ" 

Thia Pentateucli ia only uaod on tbe Joumkipur (day 
rf atonement) ; and all my entreatiee to be permitted to 
examiae tbe manuscript were uaeless, aa it ia only allowable 
lo read it on the above mentioned day. 

In the interior of the Synagogue ia a certain room, 
irbich ia always kept closed; it ia never even entered by 
ihe Jews, and is ccrtainly therefore not acceasible to any 
)ae eise. It is a ao- called Guenisa' (place for the aafe 
jaslody of ancient writinga) in -which old manuacripta ace 


the tomb of Ihe Prophet Ezeklel, but ha does not menlidh the name 
of tlio place. Hq [ikewiae saye tbat tbe Jews aasemble thera from 
new year nnlii tha dny of Atonement, which howover now takes 
t quite a diJFi-reiit pcriod as we Bhall meiition. Ue nleo Epeaks 
owarB and of many Synagognes. I, hoivevcr, only found one 
and ODe Synagogue. — Petachia. p. 1T9, likewi^je »peaka of 
of the Prophet; bnt does not montion the place. Like 
^elft he also montioiis that the Jews aBsemble thcre from new 
lolil tbe day of Atonement; tbo Pentatench ho does not name. 
IsJew« io theEast and inAfrica have still the cu^tom of preaerv- 
1 Bppointed place torn and wom oul L00V.B ut^mBCBoetV'^, 

preserved, which are aaid to date &otn ancient time^^^J 
to havQ come from differeiit placea. This place for thi^H 
servation of old relics ia held in great veneration byVl 
foUowera of every creed.^ m 

Beeide the Syuagogue and the tomb of the Prophet, m 
Jeschiba is erected, in which the Chachamjin, sometimeB Sw 
]Q munber, continually aasemble for pioua reading and ii)|] 
the study of the Talmud and other books of the law : Th( 
are the only Jewa who have a settted dwellirg place i 
Kabur-Kelil. Their rieh brethren in Bagdad aupply them 
with everything necessaiy for the support of themselvWy 
and of this institution, which is maintained by large giftt 
and legaciea. For inetance, a few yeara beibre I was ther^ 
a rieh Jewish nierchaut in Bagdad, named Jacob Zemaohi 
died ivithout any male heii's, and left tlie whole of hi8 pror 
perty in charitable bequestß to liia bretbi'en in the faith at 
Zephat, Palestine and liliewise 150,000 karans (lkaran^& 
piastrea) for the support of the Jeschiba at Kabui'-Kefil. Tfaeaä 
pious hermits, so devoted to leaming, in whose family Üie 
name of Servant of the Prophet ia hereditary, are &eed 
from all taxes, and aerved by tiiree Arabs, 

The Jews, as well as the Arabs of the vicinity, cheridi 
a very firm belief in the efficacy of certain acta for the 
protection of which they call on tlie toinb of the Prophet 
Ezekiel, especially with regarcl to aick people, who are not 
considered quite incurable. — But who knowa the mit of 
tlje Almighty? — This qucstion no one could anawer. 

Every Friday afteriioon the above mentioned Chacha- 
mim go to the tomb of tlie Prophet, sing hymna tliere and 
pious Bongs, and change tlie tapestry with which the cata- 
falque is covered. The Jewa of the surrounding provinces 
likewise make pilgrimages to tiiia place. Erery year at 

uai Peutnteuclia wlilch bave hecame ille^ble, 
every two iir tliree yeara in the eemeleiy. 

them with tbc inscriptiüQ „Gttenigi 

tbc tilDD. 

I Bei^amin ^ Tudela p. 67 spealcs of Ibis Gueniaa. 

id of burying Ihen 

tone is plaeed ov« 

and a festival tskes plaoe ll 

of the Feast of weeks many pious pilgrima from 
1 and Basaora, from Persia and from other countries, 
t diatinction to rank or aex, conie to celebrate the 
. at Kabur-Kefil, Numerous ceremoniea take place 
time. On the eve of the festival the men go into 
nagogiie, and read there the hook of the Prophet 
1. An hour before daybreak the privilege of re- 
ing the cid covera by new onea as wgII as of reading 
1 before the tornb of the Prophet the Hafthorai of the 
is Bold to the highest bidder. The first of these fun- 
3 oan be esecnted by several pious persons; the reault 
! Bale of this privilege often esceeds the smn of 1000 
es. When thi3 has been arranged, they proceed to 
Inge the draperies, which tates place amid the songs of 
i asserabled multitude; songa, the beauty and harmony 
P which, added to the accuracy with which this solemn 
i ceremony was execiited, excited my admiration. 
ms were sung in the pauses during the ceremony. Thia 
ee hours and the Hafthora lasts qiiite aa long, Dur- 
whole time the women are preaent in the Syhar 
, in Order to listen devontly to the hymns, which are 
cially compoaed for this festival. 
t Shall I now relate some of the narrativea, of which I 
' told thousanda more or less fabulous, concerning the 
ärent mii'acles and wonderftd things, wiiich are said to 
iftve taken place at the tomb of the Prophet? The reader 
will allow me to be silent on this aubject; for I couid not 
relate anything of intereat to him. 

The nomadic Araba of the deaert likewiae come in 
truc belief to the tomh of the Prophet, and kiss the cata- 
falque with veneration, They also offer gifts to the Chacliamim 
ufthe place, in Order to obtain by their raediation the favour 
of the Prophet. 

After tlie liberation of King Jehoiachim from captivity, 
lie gave a great portion of the land and vineyarda, which 


I A pürliou o{ (ba Look o( tlie Prophet, 


Leb M 

he owed to the generosity of the King of Babylon, ft 

Bupport of theae buildingH. The institution standa 
day; and even Ali, a relation of Mahomed, veneratei 
the Peraians as a Prophet, when he eame to these counl 
to obtain followera for the ncw religioa, allowed it« 
remain in its integritj. 

On my retum to these countries at the end of the year '< 
1850, I heard that the Araba of the tribe of Hindu, in con- 
junctioa with other Araba had refiiaed to pay tribute to the 
Pacha of Bagdad. The Pacha sent troops in order to en- 
foree it; but on account of their sniall number they were 
repulsed with loss by the rebels and ivithdrew into the 
town of the Prophet Ezekiel. The Araba did not dare 
venture to follow them there, or to shoot Upon thera, for 
fear of desecrating the sanctuary. Tlie little band ihus 
gained timc to wait for furthor help from Bagdad, on the 
arrival of which the rebels were routed on all eidea, and 
conipelled to subniit and to pay the required tribute. Du- 
ring these events I was at Bagdad, — Veneration for the 
Prophet worka so powerfally on the minda of the uncivilised 
people of these parts, who consist of the most poiverful and 
courageous warriors of the nuraeroua hordea of robbers, 
that the Chachamim of Kabur-Kefil never have to fear the 
leaat invasion on their part, and they are even protected hy 
them against other robbera. 

The tombs of King Sitltejahu, of the Prophet Zephanisb, 
and of aeveral membera of David'a faniily, which are in the 
vicinity of Kabur-Kefil, — aa well as Siftif, mth ita ancient 
Synagogue, — are mentionei by Benjamin of Tudela 
p. 68, 69; to which 1 refer. But the Jews, which he found 
at these places in hia time in such numbers, are now no 
K more to be found; a few only are scattered here and there. 


Meshed Ali — Kelbella. 

tVom Kabur-Kefil I went to Meshed Ali, a diatance ( 
about aix hours' jourpey. 

^^^m 131 

^^Bn the town of Meshed Ali' ia the tontb of Ali, whom 
^^pe before mentioned. He was the founder of a Mussul- 
■Hi seet, which ia greatly diffuaed throughout Persia. — 
Over te tomb ia built a large Mosque of white marble, the 

■ KajHerling, P. Tcixeira: Tbe next place bo visitcd was Bagdad. As 
at, thia time could he not cross the Tigris, be detei'm[ned to tahe tha 
toute throngb thu Syrian - Ärabiati deaert. Tho chlef person of his 

Ela or csravan iraa, according to liis description, e. Jew, who had h 

e over to the faith of Islam : in whom the Ponugnesc, who came ^H 
:rajisact busincss in thia country, and tbe Vonetians, placed much ^H 
Qdeace. On tbe Sd Septombui' tbe carävan hegnn to move. The ^| 
account whicb Toixeira givea of bis joarney througb the wildernesfl 
is intereating. On the socnnd day of hia journey he perceived a 
mountain on hie right band, eolled by the Arahs Gibel Sinai (monnt 
to whicb tho natives place tbe ancieal Baaaot-a.') Tbe 
icnlties of a joarney througb the wilderness were not wanting; 
ifale Simoom to tvoublB him, and tben tbe btirnitig 
It, wich BO often tormenled bim in Ihese dry and parched regiona. 
ras his joy at heing ahle to qucnoh his thirat at ßeamtlab, 
Arabs call this part. But of his wanderinga througb Ute 
IdemesB ve mast not reiste inore here, lest we shonld ovevstep 
apace allowed ua. Only Ihia one remark we muet make, — Ihat 
e wero Jewa who jom-noyed with Toixeii-a in tbat caravan, who, 
be aaid, sepaiated Ihemaelvca an Friday from the general Com- 
pany, becaoae tbey wottld not travel nn tho Sabbnth.") Afler a 
ley of aeveral weeka ho approached the territory of Merat-Aly 
Uam Aly, or Meabod- or Iniam-Ali.|) On a Sabbath he entered 
whicb was fouitdod at the time of Ali. Here waa conaigned 
to the eartb, after baving wandered for aeveral weeks in the vilder- 

*) Petaehia likewiso, tha Iraveller of Begenshurg, mention» p. 78 a 
,. MoDnt Sinai near Bagdad, which is said to form a chuiii with the 

Cred monntaln of tbe sanie iiaine. 
Keir», 94; quedando alU los Judioa, por qat el dia ägaienle hera 
wUi s no podian oomiiwr. 
Accordiag to the Law the Jews ore pcnnilted, on account of the 
gwt to whicb they are expoacd, to travel witb a caravan an the 
Bkbbath day. I was lold of a Uavellar, who, througb the strictnesa 
of hia religiouB obaervances, left tbe caravan on a Friday, and fUr- 
nished with a wallet and mat went into a littte wood to celebrate 
hia Sahbath: — it waa his last. All enqnirica respecting tbe n 
appearanco of the Jew were in vain; he was never beard of again. 
I beiievc thut tbese travellera were Karaitea, who take the Bi 
lUerally. (Exodus XVI. 29.) 
t) iUd. 99: Mexat Ali/ o Mam Aly qite tado es uno, y quicn deär 
" ■ ' 'oranon de Aly. 


cupola of which ia of aiiver gilt, with a massive gold 4 
Ärotmd the Moaque is arranged a eemetery, in whichfi 
riebest Mussulmans of Fersia, within a distance of 30 e 
journey, are buried; in ordcr tliat they may rest i 
made sacred by the tomb of their Prophet. The embal 
bodies are transported on mulce in eolidly closed coH 
and for every such body, brought paat Bagdad, a tuj 
(persian gold coin of 55 piastres) rnust be paid. Thei 
of the dead, they believe, are conducted by their ] 
direct to heaven. 

Near Meahed Ali ia the town of Keibella, 
oaly Peraiaüs reside. Tbe inhabitantB formerly paiS 
taxes, because the aoil was coDsidered sacred, and f 
entrance into the town was deiiied to Jews and Cbnsfi 
About nine years ago the Nasi Pacha of Bagdad insii 
on tbe paynient of tribute ; they resisted, but were conqtu 
and fled into tbe Moaque of Ali, where they thou^ 
find shelter, but the Pacha had the Moaque tired upon: 
upon. thia tbe rebels surrendered, The lialf-destroyed b 
ing was bowever afterwards rebuilt. The town now l 
better population, and is open aüke to Jews and Chriat 

After baving visited tliese piaces I retumed to Baf 
and in October 1848 embarked for Bassora. 

□ess tied lo .the back of a camel , the body of the foundor a 

cckhrated Mahoiiiedan äect, irhicb nfter liim baars t1 

Aliiles. The tomb is held sadred by tho Aiabs i 

Moaque is eroclcd over it. Tbe BttDctuiB of lliia tampla, 1 

when Teixeim saw it, pussessed no longer its fonuor interior splo) 

gires cvidcnCG of tho high artistic taste oF those wbo erecled ) 

(he interior itaelf reminds oiie of tbe well-known i 

tbe Eastero people. The portngueäe IraTeller waa not a littlsi^ 

□iabed at the Üiree larga golden lonipB in Ihe templa, whiolifl 

decoralcd with prccions stones, aud bad beeu presented by Ütei^ 

r«nt princea.') The inhahitanfa of Moshed-AH suffec neilher Jew#3 

Chriatians aniang them; in fact no one who doea l 

their aectj for they baar a mortui hatred to all.") 

•) Teixeira, 199 ff. 

**] Ibid. 101: im assienta en esla puehlo JutUo ni Ohriiliah 
que tUo» tientn a todoi odio Tnortal. 


From Bagdad to Bassora. The desert £1 Ozeir 
(called by the Arabs Deser Asai). 

Voyage on the Tigris. — The bird Debi-Kousch. — The tomb 
of Ezra in the desert El Ozeir. — Koath. — Suk-e- 
Shejuck. — Gumntk. — Goi-na. — Bassora. — Mohamma, 
— Äbeshur. 

1 had the ctoice of two routes ; the oue by land through 

ihe desert, the other down the Tigris. The waj through 

ilje desert waa too dangerous on. account of the many hordes 

■frobbera, soldecided on going by the Tigris, thus choosing 

rbe longer, but the safer and more cönvenient joumey; 

I thoagh even in thia case there are Arabs often lurking on 

the shores, who board the vessela, and plunder them of 

i ereiything. I cmbarked in one of the sailing boats which 

I QtOBs the river. — On my way I waa told of an cnormouB 

I bird, bearing the name of Dcbi-Kousch, which followa the 

Caravans, and feoda on its favorite food. camels düng, from 

which it receives ita name. Later I myself saw thia bird: 

it appeared to me to be a atork, although it looked larger 

Üian the apecimens I had seen in Africa. It cannot fly, as 

it haa only short wings; but ia able with one Aap of them 

to kill a man. When caught young, it ia eapable of boing 


About an hour's joumey in the desert, we discovered 
a largo Square tower, terminating in a point. Four gates 
lead into it, and at its comers are large blocks of stone, 
about 24 feet in height, and 18 in breadth. The buÜding 
is r«iiarkable on account of its beautiful «culi^^nx«\ «xiä.«kp j 


cording to the aasertion of the inhabitanLs of the coimtry, it 
is Said tn have been btult in the time of the first Bab^ 
lonian kings. 

Tbree days' journey down the Tigris, in the middle d 
the desolate and barren desert El Ozeir, rises, on the shoie 
of the river, a large Square building, in whicli is the tonim 
of Ezra. The building is surrounded by some smaller hotue^| 
and contains t^'o spacious rooms leading one into the other, 
ofwhich the first belongs to the Mussulmans, and the aecond 
together with the tomb, to the Jews. A dim half-darkne» 
reigna in the apartment, into which a faint light from withont 
ia admitted through the door. There is a catafalque here, 
16 feet long, 10 high, and 6 broad. Inacriptions, now ille- 
gible, Cover all the four sides of thia catafalque, over which 
are spread costly tapeatries embroidered with gold; and] 
many rieh decorationa ornament the rooni. Although in the , 
midst of the desert, and surrounded by tribes of Arab rob- 
bera, still there is nothing to fear for the safety of theae 
treaaures; aa, from the reneration which the Araba pay to 
the tomb of Ezra, they are safe from bctng plundered, and, 
accordiDg to tradition, no robber would be able to leave 
that aanctuary, without having lirat restored to ita place that 
which he had taiten. 

The ahipB cast anchor not far from this tomb and all 
travellera, without diatinction of faith, betake themselves to 
it, in Order to pray. The atranger, who has speot some 
days in the desert, cannot diveat himaelf of a deep religiouB 
impression when, in the middle of the wilderneaa, he per- 
ceives tbia memorable tomb. 

The tomb of Ezra was for nie an object of repoated 
investigation ; for aa the Bible neither raentiona his death 
nor the place of his burial, I entertained some doubta as to 
the identity of the tomb, From the Seder Hadoroth, and 
other historical worka, I have howcver perfcctiy satisfied 
inyself of the fact. They relate that Ezra went to King 
Artaaatha (from whom he received lettera), in order tp 
: for Bome privileges for hia brethren dwelling in -^^ 


, and that he AieA near Babylon. The Bible likewise 
Btions one part of this assertion. > Tlie place of burial 
|liot distihctly named by the Seder Hadoroth ; I therefore 
> to tradition, as, after a most accurate reaearch, I could 
.- find anything moi'e correut.S The anniversary of the 
||th of Ezra is fixed on the 9* of January in the öelichot 
r the Portuguese Jcws : the Seder Olam says that he died 
l the beginniag of the year 3500, according to Bible- 

f Many Jews £rom Bagdad and Baasora celebrate the 

ist of weeks at tlie tomb of Ezra, and take part in the 

■ ceremoniea. The Arabs know the pni-pose of theee 

iges, and place no bindrance in their way. 

Eoath. Suk-e-Shejuck. Gumruk. Goma. 

After a fiirtber voyage of two days 1 arrived at Koath 
{Kut-el-Amara). Twelve hours' journey from this place is 
the BmaU market -town Suk-e-Shcjuck (called by the Arabs 
Sukasnk); it ia reacbcd from Koath by. the canal Sheb-Sah, 
which iinites the Euphrates with the Tigris. About forty 
Jewiah familiea live here, who oceupy tbemselves in trade; 
tbeir Situation is tolerable, A branch of tlie Tigris divides 
itself here into several smatl streama, and but a few hours' 
jnumey further on is a branch of the Euphrates. TheAraba 
^lsB these small atreams for iriigation by conducting them 
by trenches into their fielda, in which occupation I have 
often aeen them engi^ed. The Tigi'is here is so rapid that 
it carries away whole blocks of rock with it, and in its 

l Ezr» 0. Vn. 11. 

1 Benjamin of Tudela, p. 73, apeaka of the tnntb of Ezra. Ha aays H 
■ Samura on iho PeraUn buundary, and mnny Maho- 
medana dwelt Ihera as well us 1500 Jewe, who posBEBSed fow Syn»- 
gognea. 1 foand it in tha deBert. — Petachia, p. 192, plaoes it ob 
U» boQDdaiy of Babylon. 


^m lies OD 
^^V medani 
^^r KOK»" 

^^u» bo 


hoadlong course overflows tlie Bhore. In vain do the j 

bitants build daraa to centrol the flood, and keep it in l 
The course of the river ib very changeable, and navigi 
ia rendered difficult by its many windinge. The vicimi} 
inhabited by numerous warlike tribes of Arabs, wbo-ij 
almost entirely independent, although the Sheik of the c 
acknowledges the rule of the Pacha of Bagdad by sendinga 
occasiotiai presents. 

Five hours' journey from this place ia the vi 
ruk on the shore of the Euphratea. The Tui-kish 
„Giunmk" signifies „tax", and here tax is demanded. 
this place the Eüphrates becomes very broad; its sIk 
are planted with trces, and of palms in particular tliere a 
considerable wooda, 

Goma lies on a sort of peninsular between the Eu- 
phratea and the Tigris, and is surrounded by fruitful treea 
and fields. Numerous herda graze here, and buffaloea are 
very numeroua, the milk of thoir cows is so rieh, that in an 
hour it becomes as firm as butter, of which fact I convinced 
myself. The Sheik demands a toll from the ahips coraing 
from Bagdad. Not far from Gorna the Eüphrates and the 
Tigris unite into one stream, which then bears the name 
of Shat-el-Arab (river of tke Arabs). The shores abound 
in wooda, and navigation becomes safer, as the desert, the 
territory of the bandit Arab tribes, eods here. From the 
place where the two streama flow together, their waters are 
broad, and calm as a lake. 

The towni ia an important place of commerce, where, 
only about twenty yeara aince, nearly 3000 Jewish familiee 

1 KftjBerling, P. Teiieira: Afi«r a voyag« on the Tigris ftora India, 
I «iriTad, oa the »«■ April 1604, «t flu «utenl wwL ita 


dwelt, which number is now reduced to 50.' Ä devastating 
epidemic decimated the population, so tbat a whole portion 
of the city is empty, and the houses fallen into mins. In 
Üie middle of these mins stand four Öynagogues, of which 
however three are nnused and emptj; for oite now suffices 
for the Uttle conmmnity. The Jews possess füll liberty ; 
thej are all wcalthy, and many of them carry on very ex- 
tensive commercial transaetionB ; they are moreover hospitable 
and benevolent, but their education is mnch neglected. Be- 

Basaora. The town is particolarly celebrsted for its flatei, whieh be 

iTaixeira remark^, form the abitf meana of sappon to ibe inhabitanta 

|«f thispnrt, and nie ao üne and good that bdhus,!!? a large quantity 

this fruit in seul to Bagdad and to Persian cities. Teixeira foDud 

town in a deploiable condition ; oight or ten days bcforo h!a Br- 

!, a powdcr -explosion bad deatrojed a, poition of it and done 

iderable domage. ') It is surprisicg tbat he does not mention 

Jows of tliia eitj , who in the time of Benjamin of Tudela, 

.imounted lo 2000. ") If Iiowever we consider tbat Ihe 3000 Jewish 

wbo otily ao yeara aince dwelt there, havc now decreased 

SO, it is quite poaaiblc tbat their number at the begianiDg of ths 

Century waa in Üko manner too inconsiderable for Teixeira to 

I uijthitig to relate concerning iüem. 

Mew to tiiis town ba perceived a small house , in which native 

rs perfomted their devotions. On tiia enquiry he ascei'tained that 

was dedicated to Ici ben Mariam (Jeaua, tho aon of Mary, f) At 

: timc thase of wtium he enquired lold him tliat thcy rere- 

iced the fouoder of the Christian rebgion aa Rtijalah (spirit of 

Ood), „Bspiracion de Dios," aa Taixeira adds in 

Wilhout donbt Ihese were remains of C'hrialian communitiea , which 

bad formcd thcmsolves at tho timo of Iho foandatlon of Chriatianity. 

Benjamin de Tudela, p. 73, apeaka of it, and 533-3 tbat at his tima 

fl lived tiiere. — Eitler'» Erdkunde, Vol. 11, p. 1037, apeci- 

tOO Jewiah faniiliea acoording to Niebubr. Now the namber ia 

Ijccreaaed to the above s 


*) Tdxeira 77: ocko diez dica anlei de mi llegada hauia lomado 
fuego una caia de mitnicione» y haiiiendo toeado en la folim 
ditron clneo mü y taaloa odrfe ... 
•-) Benjamin of Tndela (ed. Asher) 73. 
f) Teixeira 78: pergunldei ipte cata era ojueüo, reapandier: 

era dedicada a Ifd hen Mariam . . . 
H) Ibid.: log Morot lo ueneron muaho Ihaaandolt Ruj/alah, qne e 
^raeion de Diu». (Ruy tho Hehraw Rnadi.) _^^ 

sides their comniercial transactions they poasess large ^^^| 
tions of date trees, the produce of which lorms a considl^^H 
trade. I was aseured there were 70 sorts of dates; ^^^H 
onlj know 32 of thcm. ^^^| 

Tbe Jew3 of Eassora, wbose Nassi Rabbi Eliahu «I^^H 
to have my opinion of a case conceming a Cbalitza ''^^H 
peculiar customs at tbe burial of tbeir dead. Tbe bof^^H 
borne in an open coffia on a bier buDg witb black^^^H 
amid chanting of funeral songa , tbe processioit pafiS^^^| 
tbe place of burial, They atop seven times on tbeir ^^H 
and at eacb balt the funeral proceasion walka round^^f 
coffin withprayersand singing, and eacb person tbrows a piece , 
. of money into an um placed upon tbe eorpse. At die 
scventb balt tbe Cbacham lifts up tbe unij and says: „Wo 
know that no one in tbe world is free from tlie sin Sera 
Lebatbalab,2 wbicb produces legions of dark thoughts, which 
come after deatb and torment the man, ander tbe pretext 
that they are bis cbildren, and ought to liave part in hia 
inheritance. We therefore give to thee this money, in order 
that thou mayest let bis body and bis soul rost in peacB. 
In tbe name of tbe Etemal and of Hia Holy Tbora, and 
with the conaent of tbe members of the coagregation here 
present, we lay upon tbee tbe Anatbema, which ahall compel 
thee to flee into wild and solitary regiona, wbere thoucanat 
' no more follow any one." On arriving at the burial place 
they go round the grave, and after having placed the body 
in it they return to tbe town. 

Tbe Stadtbolder of tbe Pacha of Bagdad, a very polit» 
and friendly man, desired to see me, and received my ■mb 
very affably. 

Tbe inhabitants of Ba.Bsora suffer from tbe scourge of 
leproay,^ wbich ragee particularly at the time of the ripeninp 
of the dates in the montb of August, wben scarcely any one 

1 Dealeronomy c, SXV. 9. 

3 AccoTding io a ciLbbitliBtio acceplation. 

3 Leviticufl c. Sin. 9. 

ree from this illneaa. The Symptoms of this diaeaae con- 

t of little blue ulcers upon the skin, which later be- 

ä grey, then swell up, extend over the whole skin, and 

attack the flesh. After recovery this illnees ieaves 

ind visible marks and scare. The Jewa call this diaease 

which likewiae appears in winter, though in a milder 

by its biblical narae. Tboae who are attacked by 

;e leprosy never recover, as is meiitioned in the Bible. 

► Near to Eassora are four large buildings fallen into 

, Said by the people of the countiy to have been the 

of King Salomon, which, however, is most improbable. 

1 Bassora I proceeded by the Shat-el-Arab towards 

mimerah, situated at a diataiice of three daya' joumey 

With a favourahle wind the paasage by ship laats 

houra. Thia town belongs to the Persian dominion; 

Ire no Jewiah inhabitanta, Hencc I coctiimed my 

' by the Chor Bahmeahir, caüed by the Arabs Shat 

minerah,' and arrived at the village Koi, which is at 

\' joumey diatance on foot, and forms the extreme 

fliern boundary of Asiatic Tiu'key. Hence I proceeded 

i canal Shat-e!-Arab to Mohamma, where the river * 
i by several mouths into the Persian Gnlf. 

n Mohamma, Abeshur, called by the Persians Bender 
ir, may be reached in 24 hours. 

The tun triles, ti 
and proqfs. 


Hast IndieB. 

r wandevinga and dispersion. 

From Äbeshui- I went by ateam-boat to Bombay, i 
I arrived at the beginning of Febrnary 1849, after a TOyage 
of 20 days. I pas9 over the detail» of my joumey and of iny 
visit to the principal towns of Hindoatan — in which I spcnt 
a year — and shall occupy myeelf here only witli the object 
of my joumey, which was, to diacover the lost ten tribes 
of Israel, Ben-Israel. It is necesaary firat to cast a glaneo 
at the hiatory of their wanderings, for which I take tho 
Bible aa my guide. 

1) In the reign of Menachem ben Gedi , Pul , king of 
ÄBsyria, invaded the land, but was induced to withdraw 
on the payment of a war -tax of 1000 centnera of silver. 
{II. Kings XV. 19.) And again we find in the I. Chronides 
V. 26. that the Aaayria Kinga Pul and Tiglath-pilneaer car- 
ried away into captivity the tribes ofEeuben, Gad, and half 
the tribe. of Manasseh, and brougbt them unto Halah, and 
Habor, and Hara, and to the shores of the river Gozan 

2) Unde'r Pekah ben Remaljahn, Tiglath-pilneser, King 
of Aaayria, carried away the inhabitants of many Israelitish 
citiea, and among the rest the whole tribe of Naphtali into 
Asayria. (H. Kings XV. 29. and Isaiah IX. 1.) 

3) In the 9"' year of the reign of Hoshea ben Elah 
Shahnaneser King of Assyria invaded the land, After a 
siege of three years he conqnered Shomroin (Samaria) and 
carried away the remainder of the ten tribea to Assyria, 


Habor, to the citiea of the Medes and to the Bhorea 
the river Qozen (Ganges). (II. Kioga XVTI. 6.) 

The kiugdoDi of Israel was released after that by meana 

three events following eaoli other; and the difFerent di- 

' the captive children of Israel were conducted to 

irent places, the names of which were not always irien- 

The Bible givea however different intimations con- 

them. Thus, for instance, in laaiah XL 11: „And 

lliall come to pass in tbat day, that the Lord shall set 

band again a second time to recovcr the remnant of Ilis 

tple, which shall bc left, froni Ässyria, and from Egypt, 

n Pathros, and from Cush, and froni Elam, and fron) 

and from Hamaih, and from thß Islands of the aea." 

And further on it is written; „Fear not: for I am with 

tliee: I will bring thy seed from the east, and gather thee 

from the weat; I will say to the north, Give up; and to the 

aouth, Kecp not back: bring My aona from far, and My 

daughtcra from tbe ends of the earth." * — And finally: 

nBehold, theee sball come from far: and lo, these from the 

north and from the weat; and theac from tbc land of Sinim." ^ 

Egypt a.aAÄs»ijria are sufficiently known, With reapect 

toÖ«Ä, it ia generallybelieved that by that name Ethiopia 

■od Abyseinia are meant; for Jeremiah aays: „Can the 

Ethiopian change bis skin, or the leopard hia epots?"^ which 

bss distinet reference to the colour of the skin. — Elam is 

Penia; as is evident from the Prophet Daniel, when he 

«ya: „Shushan in the Province of Elam;"* and I believe 

that this one proof is sufficient, By an edict of King Cyrus 

ibe Bcattered tribes in this latter country were pemiitted 

lo return to their own land; thia refers particularly to the 

tribes of Judah and Benjamin who witb some Priests, Le- 

Tites, and different mcmbers of the famÜy of Äaron, atone 

iMiah c. XLm. 5. 6. 
Isftiali c. XLIX. 12. 
3 Jeremi&h c. XIIl. 23. 
DMÜel c. VUI. 2. 



^^ Dmü 

retumed to Jemaalem. To this I Ttdil add tlie rentarliä^^^| 
;he nameCyruB in ÜieBible is called „Korea." — A b9^^^| 
-eturn took place in the reign of ArtaxerxQB, but cml/J^^H 

latter tribes niade use of this permisBion. Hen(Mi||^^| 
i'ollows tbat the exiles of Israel, together with a smali |^^H 
ion of tlie trlbe of Levi, ' excluded from the benefit of tll^^H 
.wo edicts, remained bebind in the cities of the Medes ^^H 
other places, to wbich they had beeil transported accort^^H 
to the above quuted texta. ^^H 

Halal and Hahor are, aa I believe Chilah or ]^^l^^| 
and Kabur-Keül, to wliich the ten tribea were banialj^^H 
wbo were tben afterwards removed furtber into the intli^^H 
of Aaia. — This subject has been likewise treated by faf^^| 
authors. ^^1 

Skinar is the land of Kurdistan, which, accordiBgi^^H 
the Targum Jerusehalmi, begins near the city of KisibÜi^^l 

The Word Hamaih is explained in the tirst Ladn S^^H 
by „Bunriso"; it means „heat", in the furtber aense (^fl^^H 
Word nButi", and consequently the place where the mom^^H 
3tar risea. The Hebrew expression „Hauiath" can therel^^H 
I believe, aignify all countrics lying to the eaat of FaleBtt^^| 

The Islands of the West. Thia -appellatioii ia a "I^^H 
extensive one; but the discoveriea of celebrated travell^V^ 
allow of the conclueion that by them is meant the West 

According to the credible asaertion of other travellers, 
I Bubjoin the following observationa ; 

Pathrue is, according to the Mikwe lai-ael, Fol. 11, p. 2, 
the land of Parthia on the Black Sea. 

„I will bring thy aeed from the eaat." In these wortfa 
the Bible apeaka of the acattered IsraelitcB in the lands of 
Shinar, Persia, Halah and Habor, in India and China, which 
last place the Oricntalists call Tachina. 

„I will gather theo from the weat" — haa reference to 

1 Ezra c. VUl. 15—20. 

X. 10. Me3.iechot PoBsouliim Fol. 3. after the Ii 


B tribes of Judah and Benjamin, who are in certain coun- 
leBofEurope, which^ according to geographica! calculation, 

) to the west or north-west of Palestine. 


The address to the south: Place no hindrancesi has 
sference to Ethiopiai Abyssinia^ and Nubia. 


The East Indiea, from time immemoria!, have been 
ihabited by many different tribes. I have devoted my 
ttention especially to the six chief tribes ;. and have 
ideavoured to become acqnainted with their habits and 
(ligious customs; of which I will here give a succint ac- 
»unt. — As in the whole of my work I have occupied 
jTself fgremost with njy brethren in the faith, I shall there- 
re mention them first. 

I shall speak of the foUowing tribes: 

1) The Bene-Israel; or the white Jews. 

2) The Canarinz.i 

3) The black Jews of Cochin. 

4) The Banians. 

5) The Parsees. 

6) The Hindoos. 

Derivation from Cranganor. 

L The Bene-Israel, or the white Jews. 

The tribe, wliicli bears tbie name, as well as tbeCan» 
rinz, which I also conaider to be partly descended from the 
ten tribes, bas dwelt in the East Indies since tbe remolest 
ages. I have the firm conviction, and do not eonsider tt 
difficult to prove, that the Bene-Israel are not only resl 
Jews, bat are likewise lineal descendants of the ten tribeai, 
who in the time of Iloshea, tho last king of Israel, were 
carried away by the Aas^Tians to Ilalab, Habor, the shorea 
of the Ganges, aud the eitles of tho Medes. 

I reat my aaaertion on the following facts and obaer- 

1) The syatematic and stiict Separation which they ob-' 
aerve towards the heathen tribes among whom they dwell, 
and their endeavoara to avoid all connexion with them. 

2) Their exact aod strict obserrance of the most essen- 
tial precepts of tlie Jewiah reKgion; for inatance, of circum- 
cision, and of the celebration of the Sabbath. 

3) The extreme care they take in obaeriring all tbe 
ancient customa with regard to the, slaughter of animal^ 
and their abstaining from those which are forbidden in tbe 

4) Their pious veneration for tbe inanuacripta of tha 
Law whiuh, — although they are unable to read them, — 
they preserve in their iSynagogues. These manuscripta of 
the Law are very andent; the writing is of a reddiah colour, 
which can only be attributed to the work of time : in all 
other respects they resemble onrs. 

5j The name of their tribe whiob they have bom for 
centuriea, and by which they are known throughout Hin- 

With respect to the deacent of the Bene- Israel from 
the ten tribea, I add the following proofs : * 

' Biller'a Ei-dkuTide, Toi. 2, p&rt 5, div. 1, Aaio, p. 591 — QOl, aaseiU.,. 
tliat they desccnd fium tlic tribe of MimasBob. 

__145_ ■ 

1) The river üozen, mentioned in the Bibte, is accord- 
ing to the asGertion of the Bene -Israel, no other than the 
i.iacgea which flows through India, on the ehores of whieh 
Ulis trjbe dvi'8ns iii great numbers. The Indian word „Ganges" 
ijuntaiiiB all the letters of the Hebrew word „Goaen" (Gozan). 

2) It iB known the Ganges has ita rise in Upper Thibet, 
•i coimtry borderiog on the kingdom of Cabul. From the 
aide whence the children of Israel caine to India the way 
Üu-ough the desert is so dangerous and diffieult, that only 
large Caravans at long intervals venture upon it, and up 
l'i this day only most imperfect and douhtful accounts are 

issesaed reapeoting the people, who inhabit these wild and 
,1. known regions. The Jews, who wandered through the 
tiesert, have, as it were, left a trace of their passage behind 
them; for several brethren reioained there, wliose descendants 
have been preserved up to the present day. 

3) The Bene- Israel have no Cohanim out of the prieatly 
tribe of Aaron, and no Levites. It ia well known that the 
Jews of the German and Portugußae rites , who spring 
fr'>iii the kingdom of Judah , have, up to the present time, 
'iiLanim and Levitea and pay them extreme respect; and 
i'iiit even in the Temple, they enjoy some privilegcs, in 
remembrance of the ancient privilegea of this prieatly race. 
Il is also known that tho whole tribc of Levi, who per- 
i'ormed the office of priest, was moat cloeely connected with 
;he fate of the royal housc of Judali, and'did not mix with 
ihü rebellioua tribes of the kingdom of Israel. 

4) The Bene-Israel dwelling in India formerly possessed 
■ > chronicle, which was written up to the time of their i 

rival in this country. Unfortunately during the many wars, 
«hich they had with Europeans, rcapecting their occupa- 
tion of the country, this chronicle was lost; the Bene-Israel 
being obliged constantly to flee from one province to another. 
The Bene-Israel of Cochin on the coast of Malabar possess 
bowever a similar document, and have presen-ed it among 
all the stomiB of ages. In this clironicie is written the 
lury of the tribe troni the period ot \ta Xjam^ta.v.v.t , 





the reign of Hoehea, down to our time. For a long period 
tluB ÜDportant document was in the possession of tlie fanulf . 
Halagi, one of tlie most liiglily respet;ted in the tioiuitry. I j 
had the most earnest desire to see thiä remarkable sad , 
interesting work; but could not aucceed. A traveller vrha 
vieited these parts in the former Century was more fortnnate; 
he waa even permittod to copy several passagea from the 
chroniclc, which are to be found in the Mikwe Israel, and ■ 
are likewise mentioned hy Dr. Jost in his hiatory, and ia , 
our firat edition of this work. 

Near Bombay, about two hours' distance from ßarkout, 
18 to be found a Community of theBene-Israel; they live ac- 
cording to patriarchal cuatoras, Their Kasai (chief, preai- 
dent) waa a mau of the iiame of Babi. I waa told concera- 
ing them, that before the arrival of the Europeans they hai 
been a numeroua tribe, and had been governed by a chJef 
chosen by themselves, who had borne the title of Sheik. 
Being eompelled to disperse, many of tbeni had sought a 
place of refuge in the remotest boundariea of Hindostan, 
where they enjoy a certain degree of independence. The 
narrationa of other traveüers aerve to corroborate these 
assertions; aa, for inatance, the account of Gtl dem e ister, who 
relatea tbat at the beginning of the Chriatian computation 
of time in India, Jewiah viceroys governed, from which it 
may bo infeired that there was a numerous population of 
Jews. Dr. Wilson' also, who was in India in the year 1839, 
speaks of the Bene- Israel in the vicinity of Bombay. The 
Bene-Iarael in this colony dwell in houaea aurrounded by 
gardena, which they cnltivate themsclves ; they are in geseral 
wealthy, and oecupy themaelves in trade and agricultuie. 
With Btrangei's they speak the Indian language, but among 
themselves Tamul, in which occiir many Hebrew words. 
The features likewise of tlie Bene-Israel betoken their de- 
scent ; for although the influence of the country and of the 
climate may have produced in them aome change, still the 
original peculiarity of featiire has remained the same. Bot i 
a few yeara since they were very Ignorant with respK 

me. üui I 

147 ^^m 

ti.\ matters of religion, and had completely tbi^tten the 
Hebrew language, even so far as the eiementary kuowledge 
tS the letters, although, as before remarked, they devoutly 
preBcrve aeveral Pentateuchs in their Syuagoguea. Their 
divine Service was confined to aeveral external Performances, 
which had been disfigured by length of time; but their vene- 
ration for the Mosaic law waa deeply rooted in them, and 
to this day they ornanient their manuscripts of the law with 
great splendor, approach them füll of reverence, and kiss 
them fervently, after which they slowly retire in silent prayer. 
They had no Hebrew prayers, and with the exception of 
the otie verse „Schema Israel", all their prayers were in 
the language of their country: they entertained nevertheless 
A firm belief in tho Coming of the Messiah. 

Some JewB of Arabio origin from Bagdad and Bassora, 
fomiing a Community of about öOfamiliea, have, within the 
last seven or eight yeara, sent teachers and alaughterers 
unong theae acattered tribes, in order to spread some 
knowledge and the precepta of Judaism among them. Al- 
thoDgb the Jews of Bombay are favourably disposed towards 
the Bene-Israol, they still do not consider them as real 
brethren in the faith, and avoid intcrmarriagc with them, 
onjostly plaoing this tribe on a Icvcl with the Canarinz 
aad other heathens. But the Beiie-Israel eagerly lay elaim 
to the name of Jew, and strive more and more to ally 
themselves with thosc of the orthodox faith. 

Some Christian miasionaries aometimes visit this tribe, 
bat their endeavoura to obtain proselites have untü now 
been unsuccesaful. 

I estimate the nnmber of the Bene-Israel in this colony, 
and in other placea I have viaited, at about 2000 familiea,' 

In the towu of Bombay live about 50 Jewish families 
from Bagdad, who iiave a Synagogue, but no Chachara only 
*Chochet. The riebest of our brethren in the faith at Bom- 
bay are David Season, Moses Esra and Isaac David. 
-4 ■EiUer'i ßr^kaade. Vol. 6, p. 1087, speatu of 800 Jbwb. 





2. The CaBarinz. 

This Tribe wMcli inhabits tlie coast of Malabar, ü 
a stränge spectacle to the observer. The Canai'inz haiE| 
particulai' religion of their own, but follow the difi| 
religioua ceremoniea of other tribea liviiig around thei^ 
lieving thereby that they follow the only true and ( 
religion, Thus they have appropriated to themaelvea 
many Jewiah custnins, among whicb miist be especiully no- 
ticed the celebratioii of the Purim-feast (Feaat of Esther}, 
mentioned in a former page. Ät this Festival, in order to 
give it a typical meaning, tbey niake two figures of wood, 
dress them in splendid garments, aud knock tbcm one against 
the other, until one is broken to fragments. The broken 
figure ia to roprosent Ilaman , the other Mordecai. In con- 
cluaion they caiTy this childish garae ao far, that the figure 
of the old miniator of Ahafeverua is hanged. 

The origin of this tribe, and the period of their aettle- 
ment in Hindoatan is uncertain, I venture to Start the 
notion, that it is a remnant of the baniahed ten tribea of 
Israel, which, in the courae of centariea, and under the most 
contrary cireumatances , haa forgotten ita laraelitish origin. 

The author of the Zeraach David and other writer« 
relate that a great portion of the ten tribea have inter- 
mixed with the population of Hindostan.i Hence it may 

I Bltler'a Erdkwade, Vol. 6, book 2, p. 699. It was told A. Buchanu 
in India, tliiit tho Juws who once pnased over tho ladoe liad beeome 
so iatei'tiiixed witli the people and cnstüms of tbelr new place of 
residence, tbat they were öfton by IravallaTB pasaing-by , no longer 
reotigiiised as Jewa. 

be conclud^d that the Canarinz originally belonged to 

ihese tribes^ as, notwithstanding the diflference of their 

worship, they believe only in one God as the Highest Being, 

and only marry among themselves ; probably they have been 

compelled by circumstances to forsake the belief of their 

fethers, to which however in some eustoms they have al- 

ways remained faithfiil. This assertion is the more easy of 

credit as, in other countries in Europe, particularly in Spain 

lud Russia^ similar facts were to be met with: thns in 

Rnssia^ at the beginning of the present Century, thousands 

rf Jews, Imown under the name of Shobatnik (observers of 

flie Sabbath), who had been compelled to apostatize for 

aeveral centuries^ of their own free will again embraced 

Jndaism, the fidth of their fathers. I have compiled a col- 

leotion of historical facts relative to the Shobatnik, and 

pnblished them in the year 1855 at Tlemsan in Algeria, 

nnder the tiüe : „Four years war of the Poles against the 

BoBsians and Tartars (1648 to 1652),** to which p. 64—69 

[ I bere refer.i The Shobatnik, like the Canarinz, had com- 

pletely foi^tten their origin; they celebrated mechanically 

the träditional festivals of the Jews, and it only needed an 

accidental circumstance to induce their return to Mosaism. 

[ 1 A portion of the preface of this little work and the conclosion 
p. 61 — 63 were not written by me, bat added by the French 


3. The black Jewa of Cochin.' 

In this town and in ita vicinity dwell about 2000 black 
followers of the Jewish faith: their coloar however is 
quite so dark as that of the negroea. They are real Jewi, 
very religious, and tolerably well-infonned. Respecting their 
descent, the often mentioned Mikwe Israel relates, that a 
the overthrow of the kiiigdom of Israel, about 10,000 i 
tives with a great number of slaves wandored towarda tlie ^ 
Bouthem part of Asia. The slaves, who liad previooily 
adopted the Mosaic faith, murdered their masters on this 
joumey, and took possession of their property; but still con- 
tinued faithfiil to Judaisni.^ Thia aaaertion does not cor- 
respond with the traditions which I collected on the spol j' 
itselfj it ia however poaaible that there were two trifaes of T 
black Jewa, of which the one really deacended frora thoac 1 
alaves, while the othcr relates ita origin aa follows. | 

The conqueat of a part of Hindostan by the Europeans 
had opened immense facilitiea for trade, and had also tempted 
the inhabitants of other countriea to this Eldorado, to which 
they wandered in great numberK. Among these adventurers 
were many Jews, who, young and unmarried, canie liither 
from Bagdad, Bassora, Yemin, and other parts, to seek their 
fortune. These young men aettied themselvea in the con- 
quered proTinces, and bought negro slaves, whom, wiien 

1 öee SiUfr'3 Erdkunde, Vol. 5, book 2, Aaia, p. 598. 

2 In ihe book just mentioned p. 600 it in rcmarkod, thftt Iho blsek Jew» 
JteJie re iheiüsclven to be deaceudad faoia tlw tan, tribaa, 

ah faith, thej» afterwards man-ied. 
FThis account given \>y the native black Jews of their 
escent U rendered credible hy tivo important facts; first, 
liat the falackJows only dwell in thoae parta of the country 
ccupied by Eui'Opeana; and aecondly, tbat thcir religious 
UHtoma are the same as tboae of the Jews of the eaatem 
ites ^ firoiu whom it may therefore be iüferred with cer- 
linty that they are descended. In favour of this opinion, 
nd against the aaaerted descent froni the elaves, can be 
ikewise added, that their features, and their hair bear the 
Ype of pure oriental origin. 

Dr. Buchanan, in the account of hia travela, relatea that 
liis Je\¥i8h population possess Hebrew mamiscripta and Pen- 
iteuchs on parehment, which formerly belonged to the 
ewish fugitives, who, according to the Mikv^'e Israel, were 
lurdered and plundered by their slaves. I myself have aeen 
lese documonts, but found in theni nothing particularly 
amarkablc or interesting, either in respect to their antiquity 
r their contenta. 

The black Jews bear tho curse of prejudice on account 
f their coloiir, Juat aa raost of the Jewa of Bagdad avoid 
ny connection with the Bene- Israel, so do the white Jews 
eject all connection with their bäaek bretliren.' I have re- 
larked in general that the other Jews have niore aympathy 
w their black feüow believera than have the Bene-Iarael; 
jr they take interest in their poor, and often have large 
onimercial traneactions with thein. — The black Jews of 
Jochin rejoice in every recognition of their beiug hrethren . 

PUB faith, and are likewise very hoapitable to strangers 
leir persuasion. 
The black Jews have their communities, their Chacha- 
lim and schools; they live apart from the othera, and ocoupy 
hemselvea with trade, in which many of them have obtained 

Erdkimde, Vol. 5, book 3, Aeisj 
look down upon the black 

a brilliant position. They have two or three Synag^ 
large rooms without any decorations, romid the 
which are placed benches, and in the middlc Stands t 
the Bima (altar), fi-om whicli tlie Pentateuch is read, The 1 
ceremonies are the same as tliosc of tlie oriental Jews, bnt ] 
they sing the Piutim (bymnca) in the Indian maimer. Tbey I 
foUow the Tabnudic laws. — Tbeir dress has no peuuliar I 
character, bnt resembles that of tbe Bene-Israel; the rieh J 
according to the taahion of the Jews of Bagdad, the others J 
like the Batüana. 


Joumey to GabuL Tbe tribes of India. 

My jouniey to Cotchin bad for its principal object 
wish to See the abovo mentioned chronicle of the 
Israel; in which bowever I did not suceeed; althon^ 
received .from the natives the assurance that it was still 
existence. I therefore returned to Bombay, and thei 
began my joiirney to Cabal by the following route. 
seven days' journey through the nionntains of Gath I arrivei 
at Puüah, and tbence went on to Sholapoor, the firat poa- 
session of the Massulmans. After another joiimey of seven 
daya I reached the city of Hydrabad, where enda the ter- 
ritory of the MnsBuimans. Eleven days' joumey fiirther 
brought me to Orinsa on the Goubli, — nine days' jonriM^ 
more to Nagpore, and again eight days' joumey to Bewah, 
which until now has belonged to the English. — I had 
travelled the whole way from Bombay to this place in bul- 
. Bewah to Mirzapore on 


(wbich belongs tn the Hindoos) ie one day's joumey ; and 
for this distance I used horaes. After four days' travelling 
in a bullock waggon I reached the city of Allah.ibad, -and 
went on in the same manner to Cawnpore, which occupied 
seven days. From Cawnpore t& Delhi (eight days' journey), 
nnd to Amritsir (one day's joumey) I again used horsea. 
In Amritsir I joined a caravan going to Labore on the Ra\-i 
and arrived there at the end of eleven days; here ends the 
Cnglieh territory. With another caravan 1 proceeded to Pe- 
shauir in Cabul, towarde the borders of Afghanistau, and 
after I had crossed the Khyber Pasa, arrived in eeventeen 
days at Cabul. Tlie whole joumey irom Bombay to Cabul 
had lasted nearly one hundred days. 

In several places during this long joumey I had met 
■with aome scattered Jewa, but being unablc to tarry on niy 
waj", I oould not collect any paxticular information concera- 
ini,^ them. Eespecting the heathen tribes, their customa, and 
Afirship, I give the reader some of my observations, extracts 
Irom my work pubÜshed in Algeria in the year 1854: „Un 

Ion de eejmtr avx Indes m-ie^itales ," written in Frencb, and 
^esiath I»rad," written in Arabic, and printed in Hebrew 

4. The BanianB. 


The Banians are divided into several aects; some of 
;h worship fire, some water, and others have the cow 
their Deity. The customa of the fire- and water-wor- 

ahippers are aimilar to those of the Farseea, of which I aball ^| 

speok later. I tberefore mention bcre only the last sect, — ^H 

tbfi cow-worshippers. ^H 

kp> The eacred cow is to bc known by ecveral marks, and ^| 

^■uTeiierated from her birth on account of her high destiny. ^H 

^Hm 18 never uaed for labour or aervice, and \i^ a,W<s,^% S.«&. ^H 

with the choicest wheat; she therefore gete extremely | 
and her skia is smooth and gloaay. 

■The worshippers of this Deity aaaemble daily on a B 
outeide tlie town, and form a circle, in the centre of wliiclt 
the cow 13 placed. One of the prieats preaches to the be- 
lievers, and takea one, or more costly vessels, in which tu 
catch the water of the sacred cow, This is mixed with a 
red colour, and each priest dipa bis finger in it, and makes 
a mark over his eycbrowa, 

As a covering for the head the Banians wear a turban, ' 
which is not, as is usual, folded round the head, bat ii 
drawn in front over the foi-ehead, and forma by knots their 
religious symbol, a hom. Their garments are white, they 
consist of a long robe buttoned in front, long European 
trouaers, shoes, anil stockings. 

The Banlana Lave a peculiar language, but likewJBe 
speak Indian, the language of their country. They havc 
a particular dislike to eating flesh, even to milk, and live 
on vegetable diet. Their chiidren are betrothed in their 
third or fourth year, but remain according to an ancient 
custom in the Eaat, until matnrity with their parents. If in 
this interval one of the betrothed ebould die, the survivor 
in condenined to perpetual widowhood, and this cauaes the 
great immorality amoiig the women there, The iatter wear 
a long silk generally a red garment, and when they go out 
a long Teil, which hangs down on each aide leaving the 
face uncovered. 

The dead are not buried but burned,' and tbe ashes 
scattered to the wind; aometimes the family of the deceaaed 
collect Bome of the dust, and preserve it carefnlly in an 
um. They do not believe in afuture reaurrection; with them, 
death is a eomplete diasolution of the whole being, and 
they therefore beüeve that they are acting rightly in com- 
pletely destroying tbe body. Only chiidren under 18 months 

asago (1. Ssmuol. XXXI. U), 

iried, not bumed, wben they die : a peculiar esception, 

1 I could ascertain no reason. 
' the Englifih occupants of the country, these cuatoms 
orbidden; but the Baniana employ all their cunning 
t in Order to escape the vigilance of the aiithorities, 
und to persist in their traditional customs. I myself was a 
witness of one of these burial ceremonieB; when the fire 
loitehed the stomach of the dead body, it burst with a loud 
noiae, like the exploeion of a gun. 


S. The Farsees. 

A great part of this tribe belongs, as already said, to 
the fire- and water-worshippers; many however worahip 
teavenly bodies, the sun, the moon, and the stars as Deities. 
Their daily worship consista in their assembling every even- 
ng, according to the sect to which they belong, at an appointed 
ilace in the open air, and praying. The worahippers of the 
uu place then their handa on their beads and gaze on their 
mu^e of light; the moon- and star-adorers stand after sunaet 
a the same soleinn way, — their eyea tumed towards their 
)eity, The water-worshippera go, according to the poaition 
f their reaidence, either to the seaor to arive'r; and, up to 
leir kneea in water, perform their devotiona. 

Each of theae sects weara, aa an ontward aign of the 
orship, to which it belongs, a particular mitrk which haa 
)me reference to it. We have already aaid that the Baniane, 
i cow-worahippera knot their turban in ii-out in the ahape 
' a hom: in the aame way theae aecta wcar badgea. ^ The 
in-worshippera inake a peak of their turban, which is made 
'fall over the right ear; the nioon-worahippers have it 
rer the left ear. The worahippers of the ann wear a 
'lintler-formed covering for the head, similar to our hate, 
ithout any ribbon, and in front it has a small ahade, aa a 
aisction to the face. The stuff of whicU vi \a Ta^a ^SS&x's, 

according to the means and taste of thewearerjbut it ieJ 

covered with little spots, intended to represent tha( 
The fire-worshipperB are diessed eotirelj' in white 1 
Banians, and, as a badge of their sect, wear a i 
on their garmente. 

AU theae sects live entirely on vegetablea ; their disgt 
to meat is even greater than that of the Banians, even lii9' 
mere sight of it is hat«ful to them. Une day in Bombay 
I saw two officials, one on each eitle of the street in whicli' 
was situated the public slaughter house, who, in reply hr 
my questiona, told me that a rieh Paraee who dwelt there 
had boüght from the Authorities the right of preventing the 
carrying-about of meat, and that he had placed them the« 
fts guarda, and paid them well for it. 

A particularly objectionable custom of these SGcts, which 
inMarch 1849, I myself witnessed in Bombay is aafollows: — 
Each year on three succeeaive days the Parsees aasembi« 
in an open spot; they begin then a regulär scuffle; they 
beat each other, and throw atones and dirt, and during tbis 
time give themselves iip to the most dissolute and repulaive 

On another day I was witness to a sjgbt not less re- 
markable. ■ A iire broke out in the town , and while from 
all aides tbo inhabitants hurried to the apot to extinguish 
the flaraes, the worshippera of that element, which was then 
committing such fearful ravages, threw themselves on the 
gronnd as if enchanted, and prayed. 

6. The Hindoos. 

Of all the trihes which inhabit the country, the Hindoos, 
the original Indiana, are the coarBcat and the most uncivilised. 
Neither the heavenly bodies nor the elements, have they sa 
Deity; but they borrow it from the aninial world, and find 
it in that lowly animal — the goat. This they rt 

IS Bäcred, and in auch a manner that every beüever wor- 
>h)ps liis own goat, which is fasteoed to the door of hia 
li.mse. They milk the aniraal, and then pour the milk into 
'Ji-i sea Ol' the river, according to the Situation of the place, 
iikcre they dwell: in this consiats their whole worship. 

They eat flesh and fowl, but have no meaU in common : 
'■':t:ry one eata alone. They go without any clotbing except 
.1 looae band round their middle, which is faatened on the 
ijody by a sort of girdle. The wonien wear shoi-t trouaera, 
üke those uaed for bathing, and cover the boaom with a 
^'liii veil; amia and legs ave bare. The Indian women are 
.try reserved towarda strangers, and have no intcrcourse 
i.\i;ept with those of their own people. 

Aithough niany among them are very rieh, still in the 
■iiies they lower themsclves to the performance of the 
iardeat and most repulsive laboiir. The colour of their 
ikin is more like copper thaii tliat of the other Indiana; 
tbey speak only Indian. 




After a joumey of nearly hundred days I arrived at 
ihis town, It is very large, and well populated. Of ray 
brethren in the faitli I found here but few, and those had 
»andered from Bokhara. Respecting the town and its in- 
iiabitants, I can give no accurate or detaclied account, as it 
wao not poBsible for me to reiuain here for any lengtb of 
tiiue. The town in conaequence of a revolution which had 
taken place not long before, was still in a state of excite- 
; the tiauae of whieh, as I heard from niy brethren 
J^n. was as foUows; 

A general belief prevaila there in MetampBychoaiß, 
the reaurrection of the body; which latter howevor ciuuiDll 
take place unconditionally ; but the riglit to it caii only bt' 
obtained by a liviiig being voluntarify sacrificing itself wiÄ' 
the dead. If a man dies, leaving no children, bis wife is 
immediately bumt witb bis body, für this «oul füll of lifo 
will serve the dead at tlie resurre ction of tlie first-bom. 
soul, and then foUows a second union nf this faitbful couple.* J 

Tbe cei-emoniea of this human sacrifice are aa follows: 
Tbe body is laid out in a (oom for the apace of eighti 
days, but the survivor (man or woman) ia omamented, and j 
conducted into a princely palace. In ber or bis presencfli j 
daneing, nmsic, and games succeed each other, and tliwe 1 
times daily the inhabitants of tbe place come and fall down j 
before him as before a Deity. On tbe eigbtb day tbe am- j 
vivor is splendidly apparelled, and carried with the body ( 
out of the town to a certain place , where a IJttle bouse ii 
erected of very dry and combuatible wood, in which tlie 
dead ia placed. The survivor ia then aolemnly carried seven 
times round tbe little house in which procession all, even 
children, take a part. After each tum all those preaent fall 
down before hiin. After the sevcntb tum they take froni 
the aacrifice the Ornaments and garments, and place it with 
the deceaaed in the little bouse of the dead, which is theo i 
aet fire to at all four comers. In order to drown the shrieki 
of the sacrifice, the whokc aaaembly join in hynins, amid 
the noise and discordant sounds of tambourines. Wben all 
is reduced to ashes, they collect tbe remains of tbe deceaaed 
couple in an urn, and some time afterwarda place tbem in 
a aepnlcbre. 

The king of Cabul bad an only daughter, wboae bus- 
band had died. Immediately after bia decease, tbe priests 
canie to the young widow witb tbe request tbat she abould 
comply with the aacred custom; for which tbe princess, 

• Orlg.: „tlie fU'BUborn" 

riginal „Soul"; the Sonl poaaesaed by itt 

189 ^"^ 

I passioDately loved lier hueband and cherished a blind 

in the infallibility of tbis reiigioua rite, expreaaed 

willing. The ceremony took place, and the aahes 

joung and illustrioua aacriiice to a barbarous pre- 

: were united witb those of her husband, 

The father inconsolable for the loss of his only child, 
feil into a State of deep melancholy, and detormincd to put 
iiü end to this unholy custoni. At the hour of midnight he 
(Äuaed Ins guards to attack the dwellings of the priest», 
iitd many of theni were murdered as an atonement for the 
death of hia daughter. Tbis sanguinary revenge excited to 
revolt a great part of the population, who held to their old 
customa; so that the king was obliged to seek refuge witb 
the Eogliah, in order to save himself and bis throne. 

These eventa and the general confusion in the kingdom, 
wbich resulted from them, made it impossible for me to carry 
out roy Intention of contjnuing lay joumey to the raountaloB 
of Afghanistan, and coinpelled me to return to Calcutta.l 

Hespecting one of the tribes wbich inhabits tbis country, 
I was told in Calcutta of a curioua custom. On the ahore 
of the Ganges dwells the tribe of the Barbarinadea (bar- 
barians), who do not consign their dead to tbe earth, but 
throw them into the tielda, The Barbarbadea likewise 
treat their aick in a very simple way: they take those who 
are seriously ill in a boat to the middle of tbe river; take 
hold of them by tbe. eara, and dip them three times into 
the water: If they die iznder thia trcatraent, they are finally 
thrown into the river; but if they survive it, they are again 
taken honie. As soou oa a patient haa recovered, they dreas 
hira in a long white garment, witb a rope round his waist, 
and a staff in his haiid ; without rest be ia obliged to wander 
about like Cain, without ever being permittod to retum to 
hia own counti-y. — The öangos often carriea to Calcutta 
the bodiee which this tribe throwa into the water. 

I In ih« French edition of this t 

What the Jewa of Cabul related respecting the ii 
habitanta of Afghanistiui, correaponds with wbat the Couriöv 
Litewaki of the 8"" October 1828 reporta. This paper, whiok 
appears in Wilna, apeaks as follows on this subject: f^liie' 
inliabitants of Afghaniatan are descended from the teil trihe». 
They compriae about 4,300,000 bouIs, who are all nomadio. 
They form an independent people, have princea, and • 
goveniment üf their owu, and their bravery in their wars 
with the English is well known."l 

I hope in iny nest journey to be able to inveatiga» 
thia country more accurately, and I beseech the Eternal lo 
guide thiter my steps. 

I Blfler's Erdlciinde 3. book, Vol. 8, p. 189. The Jewa btlong to tbs 
most venia i'kable of Ihess strangers in Afghanistan, and the Dombcr 
of tbem there ia vcry considerabie. They are thought to ho d»- 
cendantB of tbc teD tribea oC larael, whajhaving been mado capti« 
bj the Medes did not return to Jcrngoleta , but later , in the hfr- 
ginning of the calipbat, like many Neatoi'ian Cbvistian uammiuiiliti 
of Upper Asia perished by the smord of MahomiiJ oc aubmittod lo 
bim ; thoae in Bokbara (Benjamin of Tudela advanced as fir «9 lo 
tbem), Caahmera and Afghanistan resiated and cndui'od crael perM- 
eutiona ; btit the grnatar pai't of tbem yielded. Many who had te- 
moined trne tu the faith uf their fathers retreated to the exlrame 
patt of the apper conntry. Tbe Afghans helieve that they themaelv» 
are descendanta of lai'sel ; Siod according to Vanaittart (in Aaai. 
Res, part 'J) dlrect deacendants of King ßaul. ttuchauan niaiulaiitt 
Ihat the number of Afghans leally deatended from Ibe Jeira can be 
bnt amall, as tbeir Iribes are so very different evon in Isngnagei 
feature aud religion, At present very many Jewa live in Cabnl. 
whose commercial traneaCtionB lead them tbrougfa the wbolo df 
Upper Aaia to China. Abut SO of tbese ancient Jewisli oolonies afO 
mentioned in Upper Asia, India, and China, snd a tnoat inümats ud 
livaly connection ia aaid to exiat among them. No place could be 
more eonventient aa a link of comomniBation than Cabul. BaehanM 
ahowfl Ihat there ai'e two tinda of Jewish Iriboä in the more tb- 
mote pai-ta ofÄaia; Ihe old or dark colöurad Jewa, which are Uardlj 
to he distingttiahüd from the HiiidooB, and live beyond tbc Indua, — 
aud tbe liglit cnlomed Jews, who, according to their own asaeftion 
ouly emigrated here after Ihc second deatruction of tho Temple. AL 
Burnea haa giren iia no new tidinga reapectiiig theae Jews in Cabnl. 


The JewB in China. 

Vrom Cabul to Calcutta, — Joumey io China. — Singapore. 

— Notices respecting tke staie of the Jews in China. 

— Extract frmn the Mikwe Israel. — Extract from the 
^Zeitung /ür Norddetitschland.^ — Menasse hen Israel. 

From Cabul I travelled to Allahabad, Mirzapore, Be- 
iares, and Patna, and so to Calcutta. I conaider it unne- 
«saaty to relate to the reader anjthiDg respecting Calcutta, 
ince I could only repeat what must be already known. 
ffilh reference to my brethren in the faith of whoni about 
IfiOO families dwcU there, I can relate nothing new. Thej 
(tc in free and happy circumstances ; souic of them possesa 
arge commercial houses, and their habits and customs are 
imilar to those of the Jews of Bagdad. They are all well 
idncated, but have no appointed Chachaniini ; one of the 
icfaest commercial men of the town Ezekiel Jehuda Jacob 
lliman, a very enlightened man and an excellent Talmudist, 
lerforma the duties of the Chachaiu. Sorae of the richest 
f our Jewish brethren there are : Joseph E^ra Kalifi, ileuben 
saac Sekar, Ezekiel Ezra Kalifi, and Sason David. 

At Calcutta, I embarked in one of the shipa belonging 
the Eaat India Company, and sailed for Singapore, which 
ilace I reached after a very difficult passage of 25 days. 
lere is a Httle Jewish comnmnity, whose eiders are the 
iHu of the above mentioned Ezekiel Jehuda of Calcutta. 
Jtbough I reniained bat a very short time in Singapore, 
had still the opportunity of making the acquaintance of 
tany of the Jews scttled there, of whom howevor I ascer- 
\iaed nothing particularly worthy of remark. 

Notwitlistanding an indisposition , wliich took place 
coDsequence of my weariaomo joumey, I determined HC 
proeeed by anEngliah packet boat to Canton, which voyaj(8 
lasted aix daya. Among my fellow-b-aveUera I had a brotbsr la 
laraelite froiu Bombay, who was likewise proceeding 
Canton. In tlie city of Canton itself no Jew3 ai'e settle^ 
thougL merchanta froni the remoteat pai-ta are to bc foimd 
passiiig througb the place. . Immediately after my arrival 1 
experienced a violent attack of fever, wliich compelled 
to keep my bed for twenty days; and aa I aacribed mj 
Uliiess to the climate, I again embarked to return to Soor 
bay, and there my health soon really improved. 

The whole advantage iny work derived from this jottrnq« 
to China was confined to some information I obtained froat 
my brethren in the faith. Froni tliem I ascertained that 
Jewa dwell in the vicinity of Canton; but on the other s 
of the Yellow River there ia a tribe, wliich every two or thrai 
years sends a conaiderable caravau to Canton T\-ith Spicei^ 
coloüial goods, dyea, tea, and other produee of the comiöy. 
The people belonging to this cai-avan are known by tHe 
narae of Uavaia or Havaista, and pass for Jewa, In fact 
the Hebrew word „Havaia" (dcrivcd from I. H. W. H.l 
aigniticies „eternal, immortal." Thus in this country, whore 
people are named after their worship, Havaiats would 
signify worshippera of the Etemal, a name which is very 
significant for the followers of Moaes. I do not however 
venture by thia tranalatioii of a word to prove the descent 
of thia tribe: in order however to give it more weight, I 
add the verae from laaiah which I have already quoted: 
„These shall come from Shinar." Aceording to the mOst 
credible accounts, Shinar is China, 

Without doubt I shoiild have been more fortunate in 
my reaearchea, had I been ahle to inatitute them personally; 
but from want of an account of my own, I add an im- 
portant commimication reapocting the Jewa in China, a letter 
written by a fellow-believer living there, for wliich I 
indebted to the kindncss of bis couain, the ehiaf 

bief -^ahh^^d 

Vmauld in Strasburg. I give it to the reader literally, as 
vell as tlie certificate of its authenticity. The letter is as 
Vdlows : 

„Last year, and aince then, a second time, a few daya 
igo, I aaw Bome Chinese Jews. They had come from their par- 
ticnlar quarter of the tovra in Kai-fang-fu in the province 
af Ko-Namri, in conacquenoe of an invitation given them 
by some Arabian Israelites residing there, and of some 
Einglish miasionaries, who were deairous of obtaining some 
exact particulara conceming them, as well as some Hebrew 
maniiacripts and booke. The travellera paid me a visit, and 
I had several conversationa with them in the Hebrew lan- 
guage. They are known in China, and partieularly in the 
province they inhabit, by the name of Pan-Kyin-Kian, which 
ia Said to signify „believers in einew-tearing."* According 
lo their bclief they corae from a conntry wbich they call 
Jon -Tack (Judah), and about 1850 since imigrated imder 
the imperial dynaaty of Khann, By another pedigree they 
Cftn be followed for 800 years. A Chinese eraperor had a 
Bynagoguc erected for them but it is now in i-uina, They 
keep to their religion with that tirmneas which characteriaes 
the Jewa up to the present day, and they only marry women 
of their own faith. For the last 40 yeai's they have had no 
Rabbis, being too poor to be able to maintain them. They 
do not read Hebrew, and the whole of the preaent genera- 
tion ia uncircumcised , bocause joen eapable of perfonning 
the rite are wanting. They are not however wholly jgnorant 
ae to customs, and those wliich they observe quite agree 
with ours. They Icft me several Hebrew Biblcs, and pro- 
mised to give nie a copy of their tableta of stone, which 
liave reference to their wanderinga, and are written 

ualatoT'B note. See OeneuB c. XXXIT, 3!. The Jewa atlll taka 
cnt away the sinow of the thigh of snoh auimalB 
to out, In niany p1a.cea they will not est any of tbe 
Ender qnsrter ; tiecatue great nicoty and aliill arD requiied (□ lako 
ift,y Ibia sinew as it ahould be donc, and but few know hi 
^ «tth exactoMB. 




Cbinese lettere. They ali^o possess the Sefer Thora (S^H 
teuch), Teplülim (for the ceremoniea o£ daUj aervicejfl^| 
zith, and Arba Kanfbth. They intend to bring one W 
two Lojs liere, in order to have thera instructed by ^i 
Arabian Israelites in Hebrew, and in the rites of our wo^ 
ship. During the wäre of the Tartare with the Chinese, a pari 
of them went to the neighbouring province She-Kiang, und 
settled in Kangcheou, which city I have the Intention to 
Visit. Many of them went to Ärnoy in the province rf 
Fokien. These homeiess people arc scattered in Pekin, 
and in the whole of China, and live eveiywhere in the 
satne Btate of degradation and ignorance. In Kangcheou 
and Arnoy there ai-e no Synagoguea. In Kai-fang-fu their 
number amount to nearly 10,000; in Tchangcheou to be 
tween 1000 and 2000; in Arnoy they are more nuroeron». 

Their features resemble those of the Mongols: those I 
have Seen are very intelligent and well instructed witli 
respect to their Chinese edncatioD and knowledge. They 
speak the languagc of the Mandarins, and still make ose 
of some biblical namea, such aa Moses, Aaron, etc. They P 
likewiae know the namea of Jerusalem and Mizraim |Egypt)i ■ 
whence they say they have come. They likewise speak of 
the bondage of the Jews in Egypt, and possess eeveral 
fragmenta of our hiatory, religion, custoraa, and habits, which 
they have obtaiued from tradition. 

The Engliah miasionaries have gained possession of ■ 
very ancient Pentateuch, whieh was in the poasession of 
these Jews, and sent it to England: they obtained It by 
making them believe at first that they only wanted to ' 
inapect and copy it, and then oifering to purchase it. Ab 1 
some cheating took place with respect to the sum of money l 
paid by the English missionaries, the Jews desired to have , 
thoir Pentateuch restorod to them, which, it was pretended, f 
had bccn sent to England. They have come back agaln 1 
thia year to have this affair arranged, in order that they 
may be able to jaatity themaelves to their Community, and 
demaiid with right the reatoration of their booksift 

■efuse to take money for them in exchange, saying, that 
liey are neither able nor vnllirg to seil them. Finally, 
ihey will even await tlie retum of their booka from Eng- 
land , but the missionaries refuse them every compensation 
in TDOney, or in any other way. But tbe Jews will now 
return again in three montha, and make their cause of 
cumplaint known to the English Ambassador." 

Thia notice is a literal exti-act fi'om a letter of my 
cousia Aron. 

Strasburg, Kov. 13'" 1855. 

kAron Ämauld, Chief Rabbi. 
The French original is : 
'ai VQ ici l'aniiäe paas^s, et 
Jbltn, des cDc^IigionDoirea chiiioi: 
cipal de Kai- fang -Tou dana U | 
l'JDvilatioQ de quelques IsraiHiteE 

lepais, tine secondc fois, i1 y a qnelqiio 

IIa aont veims de Icur quartier prin 

ovinoe da Ko-Namri, poor se rendra . 

rabes r^sidaat ici, ainai que de mission 

nsircB anglais. Cca deroiers diiairaient se procarev des renaeignementa 
eiacts et des mannscrita ou dea livvea h^broas. Lea Tos'sgcura BOnt tehub 
me roir, et j'ai eu avec eux pluaienrs coDsetvations en cbinois. IIa sont 
connus en Chine, et particuliferemeEt dana Is province qn'ila habitent, 
son* lo nom de Pan-Eyin-Klan, ce qni signifie: Religion dea arracheurt 
dl Keines, ou, comme nn Va traduit on anglaia: Fiaclc smew religion. Da 
Bont originaires d'une contr^e qu'ila prononfaient : ¥ou-Täk (Joda), ilya 
1S50 ans, soas la dynastie Khaan. Une aeconde colonne les a suivia, il 
y a environ 800 ana. Uu emperenr eliinoia leur a Tjäti ane sjnagogne, 
qtii est h prtSäGnt ni!gligi!e et lomb^e de viitust^. IIa nbaervent lear foi 
atec cette tenacitj caractäriatiqiie qcl diatingue la race dea U^brenx, 
encore Bujourd'hui, ila n'epousent qae dea femmes de Iciu propie rdligion. 
Maia, dopois plus de 40 nne, ila n'ont plns de Rabbins, ätant trop pauvcea 
liio l'hebrou, et la plnpart de 
I eati&re de notre teiupa n'sst 
1 ne aont cepetidant > 
mt parfaitoment d'accord s 
Toa ii^breux, et m'oat proi 
ierres, en chinoia, qni ont rspport k 
i do Stphar-Thora, TkfpkUin, Zisis, Arba- 
u dem petita garcona qua cbs 
t dans lea riloa de notre colte. 
Pendant la gnerre de Tartarea et de Chinois, UDc partio d'entre eux s'est 
Iranaporttfo dans la province do Cke-Kiang, voisine de celle ob est situ^e 
Mfttn Tille, et a'eat ätablie fa Kang-Tchoit, ciii qne je me qcq^om d.'»l.Vn I 

ponr lea en trete 

njr. IIa no Baveut ; 

celU gänäratioD , 

on plntÖt la ginin 

point circoncise, 

. n'ayant^oint de ci 

pas trop ignorai 

ata doB ritoa, qai ac 

natrBS. Hb di'oi 

it Iniaae quelqnoa lii 

m'onyoyer une a 

)pie de tablEtlea de pi 

lear .!migralion. 

Ils aont anssi do 5^ 

Kanfolk. Ila ont 

. rinluntion d'amener 

[u-B^liles arabea 

instmiront dana l'ln^bi 



B sutre pftrtie est k Amol/, dnna la provinoe Fo- 
iträgrii i'gBloment \ P^kin et pai' loate la Cbi 
tonjonrg Asas le meme etat do d^csdance et d'ignorotice. & 
et Arnoy il3 n'oiit point de H7Dagogue. Leur nombrc !l 

1 i. 10,000; ä Kang-Tchou il est de lOOO h 2000; ila 
Dombronx ä Arnoy. On m'aTait ameni! aussi un Israflite 
Lenrs traits aont preflqn'aDÜfeceuieiit confornieB an type de la r«o«[' 
Mongola. Caax que j'ai vua ici sont tvia - intelligents ei blen inatniiU, 
fait d'iSducatioü ot d'inatrttotion cliinuiBB. Ils no parlent qM 
le mandarlti, mois ila so aervent encoro de uoras bibliquea, tela q^lU 
MoTae, Aaron ete. IIa aarent auBsi \ee Doms do Misiatm, J^rusBlem, d'oA 
ils diaent t\xa venua, raconleni roacluvage et los eervitudos dea H^reiu 
en Egjpte, enfin ila possedent des fragments, des difbris de notre hislain, 
de notre religio n, de nos mneurs et de noB contmneB; notions qui Ifl« 
ont i\& oonaorvdcB uniqueiucnt por traditioD. 

anglaia ont accapari! dea S^har-Thora, Vtm anÜ- 
y^fl eu Ängleterre; je dia accapar^ , car loa Chini^ 

ont envoyes h Kal-J'ang-foti no lenr diaaient pai qn . 
Ton vDuIait les acteter , et lear faiaaient accroire que Tun no dä*inil 
quo los voir on les copicr. Quant ä Targonl envoyä par les miasionntüiH 
anglaia, comme il y avait eu das malvcrsationa, lea lara^lites, avaat len 
ddpart, doinandaient la roBtitution dea Sepha,r-Thora qu'on Isnr a ilil 
avoii ^t^ envoy^a eu Angletorre. Ua aoitt revenua cettc ann^o-ci pon 
tScher d'arranger HEtte affairo, afin do ae justifier via-ä-via de laar com- 
mnnaut^. Ha r^clament avec justice la reatitution dea livrea, ot refnaenl 
d'acooptor do l'argent, en diaant qu'ils De poUTont et ne veolent paa 1» 
vendre. — £□£□ Us conaentent ä attendro qu'oD les ait fait revemr' 
d'Anglettere ; mda lea miasionnEures lour refusent touto aatisfaetion , wit 
en argent, aoit atitroment. Ila aomptont revenir eucorc dana troie moil j 
poor faire valoir lenrs Täclamatiana aiiprea du coiiBul anglaia. I 

Cette notice est eutraite iittäralemont d'nne lettre öcrile par mfln i 

ätraabonrg, le 13 nurembre 1855. 

Aaron Aiiiauld, Grand-Babbin. 

quea, et les o 

In the Mikwe Israel there is an account of the Jews 
in China, a report of the missionacy Matthias Bacfaia, whioh 
we gave in the first edition of this work, and to which we 
only alliide, as it is almost generally known. 

In the Zeitung für Niyrddeiitschland (Nr. 2797, Eveniag 
ilditioiij March 1" 1856), which tippeais in tbo^towu ^ 

twork is published, we- read a notice respecting theJews 
phlna, wliich we bere subjoin, as a corroboration of our 
tre-meationed statement. The article is as follows: 
[ „It has Leen known for somo length of tinio that in 
1-fang-fii in Hcinan ia a Jewish colony. The Catholic 
pionaiice in tlie last Century 1704 and 1774 gave infor- 
lllion respecting it. A large sum of money, given by a 
to thc London Society for the conversion of Jewa in 
r to obtain Information respecting them in the country, 
jed the Bishop of Hong-Kong, Dr. Smith, 1850 to in- 
inquirjes through the London Missionary Society at 
Shangliai, and this society on the 25"' Nov. 1850 sent out 
tivo intelligent converted Chili es e for ibat purp ose. As 
Shanghai is only 600 English miles distant from Kai-fang, 
the Chinese retumed in a few daya, bringing with them 
two Chinese Jews; the one 40, the other 45 years old; 
one of whom possesaed real Jewish featurea. With exception 
of their oircumciaion and religion , they had become quite 
Chinese in their language, dress, habits, and customs; they 
likewiae bore Chinese names. 

Tbe most interesting thiugs they brought with them were 
^ manuscripts, with fi'agraenta of the old Testament in the 
Hebrcw language, most of thciu in large rolk, but a few 
in smaller form, distinctly writtcn on very tbick parchment, 
or upon sheepskins with vowel-points, The inanuscript of 
Exodus I-^VI agrees with our editions. They possess little 
more than the books of Moses. The Jewa are said to have 
comc from the north weat oflndia to China about the tbird 
Century after Christ; at first to have remained aecretly im 
Ning-hia, Hantcheou, and Pekin, but later to have aettled 
in Kai-fang-fu. In 1163, the Emperor Iliao-taung allowed 
them to build a Synagogue. In 1446, owing to a great in- 
undation, most of their booka and parchment roUs became 
illegiblc, and the Jews of Ning-po and Ning-hia replaced' 
them. Between 1573 and 1620 the Synagogue and the 
books were hurnt; in 1742 an inundation devastated tlie 
town, and they bought tbeTaking (the five books of Moses) 



of a Mohamedan from Ning-hia, who had them &om a Jew 
at Canton. P. Kögler saw this book. There are now about 
200 individuals in and about Kai- fang -fu. Their familj 
names are quite Chinese. A few of them keep shops, ßome 
are peasants; but the most of them are so poor, — without 
clothing or shelter, — that they seil the inaterials of the Syna- 
gogue, in order to keep themselves alive. They celebrate 
the Sabbath on Saturday. The boys are circumcised within 
a month after their birth. They wash themselves before 
entering the Synagogue (Li-pai-fu), which consists of three 
naves ; and for this purpose there is a bath on each side of 
the Sanetuary. During divine Service they tum the face, 
towards the West, towards Jerusalem. A Hebrew teach^ 
is said to have died here about fifty years since ; now there 
is no one able to read Hebrew. In China the Jews as well 
as the Mahomedans are able to attain to all offices and 
honours. Like the Chinese, they call God, Shangtti. After 
the example of the Chinese, in their place of prayer ihey 
likewise honour their holy men (Tching-jin), such as Abraham 
and others. Insignificant as this colony is in itself, it is still 
remarkable; for it shows how the firm nationality of the 
Jews in some degree overpowers even the nationality of 
the Chinese. 


Particulars respecting the Jews of Yemin (Temen) 
in Afghanistau and in Tartary. 

{Aceording tu tlie stalemonta of trayellera.) 

From the often meutioned chronicle, which ia to be 
fouod in the Mikwe Israel, we also learn that the Jews of 
Yenien in Arabia likewise deseenJ frora the tan tiibes. It 
is poasible that the members of the fiiith scattered in the 
couatry, after having been compelied for a while, under the 
oppression of harbarous nJera and people, to give up the 
faith of their fathera, in later times returned to Mosaism, 
and have remained faithfui to it up to the present day; for 
I have found no mention that, since that tinie, Jews have 
Bettle d in these countriea, 

I have collected the foHowing statements conceming 
them: In the year 1522 Nibuar, a captain in the Danish 
navy, wo had beeu sent out by Frederic V, found in Yenien 
many Jewa : especially in the capital, Sana, whero he num- 
bcred abnost 2000 soula ; and tbe accounts he gives of them 
are most intereating. 

In the year 1846, when I was at Cairo, I lived in a 
Caravanserai with three Jewa from Sana, of whom one was 
tolerably well inetructed in Hebrew, Anioiig other things, 
I asked them about their condition and descent; they ans- 
wered, that their forofathcrs had been settled there since 
the destruction of the firat Tcmplc. 

In the year 1849, at Bombay, I made tte acqnaintance 
ofaChacham from the aamo place, who added the foHowing 
to the foregoing Statement, From the ti-aditions of their 

forefathera, the Jcwb of Sana, had heard that Ezra, after 
his sojourn at Babylon, had vJsited the esilea ofYenien, in 
Order to induce tliem to retiim to their comitry. But Um 
they refused to do, as they imagined that this liberation wonld 
not be as general or as" lasting as that t'rom tlie bondage 
of Egypt, and because they would not espose theraselves to 
renewed persecution. Enraged at this refusal, Ezra had 
given utterance to a corse upon thera, prophefiying against 
them continued niisery and oppresaion. They also had 
cursed and blasphemed Ezrji, beseeching (jod not to permit 
hini to see Jerusalem again. — This double ciirse appeais 
to bave heen fuItiUed; Ezra's tomb is in the desert between 
Bagdad and Bassora, as we have already mentioned; and 
the Jews of Yemen languiah in the moat cruel debasement 
and in the decpeat poverty unto the present day. 

The Danieh captain wlioni we have named likewiBe re- 
lates, that in the vicinity of Sana, and in Ärabia Felis, there 
are many Jews, who in the midst of the desert live as in- 
dependent tribes. 

Even at the time of the Mairaonides the existence of 
Jews in theae localitics was known ; for I myseU' have pos- 
sessed the copy of a letter which waa addresaed to the Jewa 
of Yemen, However, up to this day no one has thought 
of seeking infonnation respecting cur brethren in the faitb 
in these parts. 

In Bombay I became acquainted with a Jeiv froni Bag- 
dad, who had travelied throngh Persia, and had there ac- 
quired a little fortune. He related to me the following, 
jeapecting our fellow-hclievcra : 

In the year 1847, he, in Company with another Jew, 
had trayelled with merchandise from Teheran to Bokhara 
in httle Tartary, Half way, about eighteen daya' journey 
from Teheran, lieBMcshed; from thence to Bokhara is about 
twenty-tivo days' joumey; and from this latter town to Ca- 
bul extends a desert of great extent, which ia tnbabitej^ 

^^^peral tribea, partlj stationary, partly nomadic, some of 
^^Bom etil! bear aDcient biblical names. Thiis are fouad 
^^Kre the Hagarites, of whom it is mentioned in tlic Btble that 
^^Bey waged war with the tribea of Reuben, Gad, and half the 
tribe of Manasseh ; and moat likely carried them away captive 
to Halah and Habor;' also the Togamitea and the Aramites. 
These wild but still hospitable tribes plunder the cara'^ 
vans, and carry the travellers away into slavery if they 
pretend to offer any resistanee. - — The caravan, with which 
oar ü-aveller passed through the desert, met with just such 
a fate ; and the conquerorä led the rest of the travellers to 
their village. There they were examined to see if any one 
from a friendly tribe should be among them ; during the 
course of this investigation it carne to the tum of our tra- 
voller and bis companion, who both declared themselves to 
be Jews, and my acquaintance gave himself out aa a Ha- 
kim-Baschi. His master expressed himself much pleased 
at this, gave bim a decent lodging, and treated liim very 
respectfully. The otlier Jew, who bad no title to boaat of, 
and was not so leamedly educated, was treated with much 
severity, and made to labour in the fielda. The pretended 
physician had continually patients to proscribc for, and 
chanee favoured his eures. Sis nionths thua passed without 
making the amalleat change in the condition of the two 
priaoners. Our travcller, however, had remai'ked tbat bis 
master was very avarieious, and he toob advantage of tbis 
and Said to him one day: „What benefit do you derive 
from supporting me?" (for the patients paid nothing;) „Should.^ 
any of my religion live somewbere in the vicinity, conduot.J 
me and wy brother to them, aod they will ransom us." I 

To this his maater answered that six daya' joumey 
distant in the desert lived sorae Jewa, with whom hia tribe 
WM on friendly tenna; and after some pcrsuasion be ex- 
ssed himaelf willing to conduct hia two prisoners thither, 
by Beveral companiona, he set out with them 

► I I. Chronicles c. V. 19. 20. 2(1. 


on tte way, and they arrived at tlie village of the Jewa. 
Before reaching it, he left the priaoners under the Charge 
of his companiona, and went himself to the chief of the 
place. Wheü the Jatter heard that two of his bretbren in 
the faith were captivea, ho imiuediately hurried out of the 
vitlage to them. He asked them from what eountry they 
caine) to which oiir traveller repUed that they were from 
Babel (Bagdad). „The Dame of Babel is known to us," Baid 
the Jew, „for we know that our fatliera were once therc in 
bondage; yet we have never eeen an inhabitant of that 
couotry. — The acquairitance haviog been tbua luade, the 
ranfioni was discusaed, for whicb the master of the two 
prisoners demanded an exborbitant siun. But the chief of i 
the Jewish village aiiswered: „We will pay the usual Bum 
for these two men : if you will not accept that, we will take 
them from you by force." As this tlireat was supported by 
numeroua inhabitants of the village wUo had beca drawn to 
tbe spot, the matter was soon an-anged} and a ransom waa 
paid for both the prisoners of 1200 karana (a Persian eilver 
coin, worth five piaatera; the whole siun amoiinting there- 
fore to 6000 piaatera); and the liberated captivea were then 
conducted into the village with rejoicings. 

Our traveller then enquired if any other Jewish tribes dwdt 
in the vicinity, and received for answer that several other Jewißh 
tribes iived at a diatance of teil daya' journey; that the road to 
them waa very dangeroua, on accoiint of ita being iufested 
by noinadic hordes of robbers; but if he wiahed to visit 
theae bretbren in the faitli, it would be best to wait untU 
he could join a ati-ong caravan passing that way: fearing 
to fall again into captivity, he remained. A wife, a houae, 
and a piece of land were ofFered to him, and be was en- 
treated to aettle hiniaelf among them; however our traveller 
l; for he waa already married, and longed to retuin 
family, They tried to conaole him, telling htm, tliat 
he should have patience ; that from time to time a caravan 
by, which was alwaya joined by some Jews , and with 
guch a Caravan he could depart. Aüter waiting anxiCii 


f two nionths, a, caravan at last arrived, and our traveller 
fcied it; but hia companion, who had married in the mean- 
te, remained beliind. After a dangeroiis journey of seven- 
dajs , he reached Cabul ; Ckiu thecce proceeded to 

nttsLf and later to Bombay, wbere I made hia acquaintance. 

During my Btay at Cabol, I received from a fellow- 
lliever tbere a confirmation of thc above Statement, and 
fcertained that the Jews of Balach , thirteen days' journey 

i Cabnl, had ransomed him, 

But the Jew was unable to anawer niy principal queation 
Ipecting the origin of theae tribes, or the time when they 
itled in tho desert. In the memoranda of which I was 
bbed, I had noted down several particulara concerning 

I which have now eacaped my memory. 

Thns, even to thia day, Jewiah tribea are wandering 
among the nomadiü tribea of the deaert. 

In Bombay I became acquainted with a fellow-believer 
from Bokhara, nained Meaaiah; from whom I obtained In- 
formation respecting the Jewa dwelling there. My acquain- 
tance had bocn obliged to flee from Bokhara, becauee he 
had given ahelter in his hoiiee to an Engliah misaionary. 
He was pursued by the treacherous policc of the GoTemor 
of Bokhara, who aliowa no European to enter bis country, 
and niuch leas doea he allow the circulation of booke, The 
missionary he liad saved had afterwarda written him a letter 
füll of the livelieat expreaaions of thanka; and thia Ictter I 
myself have seen. — - He told nie that nearly 2500 Jewisb 
families live at Bokhara and in the neighbourhood , who 
Support themaelvea by trade, agricuUural labour, and mecha- 
nical empioyment. They are obliged to wear on tlieir 
garmenta a piece of old atuff, by which they can be j 
diatinguiahed from tlie Tartars, He likewiae related tliat i 
great number of Jewa dwell in thc north of the country, J 
near the Kuasian frontier; a fact, which ia conficmed brj 1 


I other travellera to these parts. It is known that tbey have 

[ dwelt there for several centuriea, and that formerly they 

I bade defiance to powerful neighbouring kings.' 

I An Israeütisli mercl|fcnt from Tabur, whom I met in 

I the year 1850 at Teheran, related that in tbat town, and in 

I the districta round about, dwell about 12,0(X) Jewish fa- 

I miticB; and he addcd that in Great Tartary the Jewa had 

[ bnilt cities, the names of whicb be mentioncd to me. The 

I time of their settlement is said to date from the 6"" Century. 

I Persecuted by the Cbineae, who endeavoured to compel 

[ them to abandon their faith, they had settled in Great 

[ Tartary, and there they lived free, and on the best terms 

with the natives. Tbe chiefa were choaen equaily from 

I among the Jews and Tartars, and botb shared alike the 

I dangers of war; but the Jews contracted uo marriages with 

[ the Tartars," and adliered striclly to their own worship, It 

is worthj of note, that they all believQ themaelvea to be 

descended from tbe tribe of Reuben. — I afterwards aaked 

him if they poasessed the scriptures, prayer-booka, or any 

- guide for the regulation of their rites, to wbicb he replied, 

that a Polish Jew, who had visited them about 40 years 

before, had given them a complete Bible, whicb however^ 

they were not able to read ; tbat be himself had given in- 

Btruction to aeveral among them , and later had sent them 

Bibles and Pentateuchs. — They perform several of onr 

} practica] religioua ceremonies witbout understanding their 

I inner worth, and they have a firm confidence in their faitb. 

In other respecta they are without the ieast connection with 

I tbe rest of the world; they did not even know that Jewa 

[ lived in Europe likewiae. — The day on which tbey received 

' the sacred books ia lionoured by them as a featival day. 

During my Africa, I myself met with the 

above nieutioned Polish Jew; he lives in Algiers, and hia 

name is Sineha Kubinatein. From his own lips I received 

I a oonärmation of the atatements I havo given relative to 

I 1 Petoobia p. 170, äoea not reeogoiae ihe Jewa in Tartnry as re«l 

L JeiTs; becauae tkej do not foUgni' tho Tomul custonu 

the Jews of Bokharii, — The accouuts reapecting this coun- 
try are so doubtful, — it ia so seldom visited, and so little 
knowD, that I conaidered myself very fortunate to have 
obtained this faithfud report of the Jews there. The corro- 
boration of Rubinsteio, wlio possessed a thorough knowledge 
of the Hebrew and other languagea, and who had travelled 
many long yeara in theac remote regioiis, was a vaiuable 
testiniony for me. Liko mj-self, he had also had the mis- 
Ibrtunc to be robbed of all his menioranda at the plunder- 
ing of a Caravan in the desert of Saliftra, on his retum 
Irom Timbuctoo. 

Salomon says: „Heavioeas in the liofirt maketh it stoop; 
bnt a good word maketh it glad."' 

My cares aro not personal. — - The great past and the 
immortal deeds of the people to whora I beiong alone oo- 
cnpy nie. My thoughts are fixed lipon the remnanta of 
them Bcattered in the world, upoii those, whoui fate haa 
hitherto hidden from our eyes. My aim is to seek out the 
great family of Israel, — the membera of which often do 
not recoguise theniselves; and who in many countries eat-1;he 
bread of exile from Egypt and Babylon, wet with their 
tears and molstened \nth thoii- blood. I will speak to them 
words of trath and words of consolation; and with the törch 
öf our saered history in my haud, will carry light among 
them. The, who sees all, and knows all, haa like- 
wise aeen my decda, — none of my wiahes and intentions 
are iinknown to Hirn. He will guide and protect me, He 
will give me atreiigth to carry on the work which has been 
begun. He will inspire ray fellow-believera to help me, ao 
that I may again tum my stepa to tliose saered apota, the 
ptacea of the glory of our forefathera. He will lead me 
&öm the West, where my brcthrcn know all that is heauti- 

I and Bitblime, to the East, where üo many of our nee 
languiBb in ignorance and miaery. — I adresa myself to all 
Bcientifie and leamed men with this requost, and conclnde 
with the words of Salomon: „Hope deferred maketh the 
heart bicIc,"' — „In all labour there ie profit; but the talk 
ot the lip3 tendeth only to penury."^ 


The Jews in Persia, 

!um to Bombay from Mascat by i 
- Mascat. 

■ Perllous voyage. 

In March 1850 I embarted on board an Arabian ehip. 

The wind was strong, but favourable. Seventy persons from 

düTerent countriee were with me in the vessel, and we had 

erery prospect of having a good voyage, — Wo knew not, 

however, the incapacity of our captain. t)n the third night 

afler our departure, our steersman had gona to sleep, where- 

by the ship got considerabiy out of ita right coursGi whioh 

infortunately was only reniarked on the eiglitli day. Three 

days were spent in the most dreadfiil anxiety, I eent my 

1 aervant and intorpreter to the captain, in order to represent 

L our Situation to him. The captain received fiim with cursea 

I and threata, which only inoreased our alann. At soine 

distance from the ship ive renaarked something which looked 

to nie like a flight of birds, and wn began to indulge the 

hope that wo were no longer far frora land; but when we 


carae nearer, we found they were flying-fish, — a sure sign, 
tbat land was far distant. We liad placed all oui* hope oa 
ihe steersman, Svho was an old and experienced sailor; and 
we implored him to uae all tiis powers to rescue ua from 
the tlireatened danger. After that we all went together to 
the captain, and begged him to give up the command of 
the ship to the ateeraman, who knew tbeae parta perfectly. 
tie consented. üur water and proviaions were served out 
in considerably emaller rations. 

This melancholy State of things laated until the eigh- 
teenth day, wlien food hegan to feil completely. In thia 
distress we distilled sea- water, in order to quench our 
tbirst.' On the nineteenth day, the captain himaelf went to 
the top raast, and with his teleaeope observed the horizon. 
After a aurvey of an hour and a half he canie down, look- 
ing pale and disturbed. In the evening he began his aurvey 
anevv; and he eaw a grey stripe in the ocean, Waa it land, 
or was it one of those wonderful delusive appearances, 
L whioh are so dangerous to erring seamen? — Tired and 
exhauBted, I went down to the cahin, leaving my servant 
(in deck. Hardly had I descended, when a huge wave 
[hrew him down. I called out to him: „Are you drunk?" — 
He answered: „Try it youraelf, and you will see." — Im- 
mediately I went again on deck, over which at that moment 
dashed an enonnous foaming wave, which atruck me down. 
I believed myself lost, and waa not a little aatonished when, 
a few minutes afterwards, I becanie again conscious. The 
äaiU were torn — the maat broken — and the deck Üooded 
with water. The etorm continued to rage with unabated 
fury; and the ship, like a lost creature, waa at the merey 
of every wave. We had given up all hope, and saw the 
grave open before us. At this moment all the passengers, 

I This is effected by uicana of sinking a veaael called Tan aas, made of» 
i kind of red eurtii , Ihe uperluro of whicb ia stopped. The 
»Msel takoa in a quantily üf sea-water; of which, when tha veasel 
1 board, the water oozes out, while Ihc silt remaina 
Iwhind. In thia manaer a tolerablv drinkahle watev oe.n lt& o^Va\s«&. 

Vi J 

without diBtiiictioD of faith, feil upon their knees, and coBb 
meiided themeelves to God, wliose awful power with tnigb^ 
breatli movea eartli and aea. — Thia event took place ou 
the eve of Easter-tide, 

I iiniahe'd my prayer, and feit more coniposed, ood 
went down to throw myeelf upon my couoh. The stono 
raged uotil midnight, wlien it gradually subsidcd. The next 
moming we all assembled on deck, füll of joy at our deli- 
verance from danger. But now himger began to be feit in 
a atill greater degree. — One of the passengera had acei- 
dentally ascertaitied that the captain passe SBed a BmiJl 
Store of dates. We desii-ed to have them, but were refiised 
for good reaaons: we were told that they were destined fof 
the sailors, so that they might not lose their strengtb for 
want of food. We, however, were so tormented by himgar 
that we insisted on having our request complied with, and 
threatened the captain to complain against bim to the 
European consul, if he would not givo up the dates. We 
certainly aJlaycd our hunger with them; but feit afterwardß 
in consequence tbe most torinenting tbirst. — Agajn the 
captain ascended the mast, and began hia siirvey. „Landl" 
he cried, and with joyful shouts was the cry repeated. We 
sailed towards tbe coast; with a favourable wind we steered 
round some ridgea of rock, and on the 
of our voyage saw before us the gigantic mountain of 
Djebel Dahoudki, the same we had observed the prevloos 
evening, but which the captain had failed to reeognisü, 
With mixed feeliuga of joy and fear we saw some boats 
approaching us from the ehore. A powerful voice called 
out to ua: „Öalem Aleikuni!" and with delight we all repeat- 
ed the greeting. On the twenty - second day after our 
departure from BoinSay we cast aiichor, and were only sis 
miles distant from Maseat, the goal of our journey. 

We were aaved, but fearfuUy exhausted. I immediately 
sent my servant to take my passport to the English consul, 
and to buy some proviaions for me. An botir later, a boat 
with the English flag sailed up to us, in which were 

were t^:^— 

officials of the consul, who were cominiasioned to fetcli me. 
Ästonished at such a reception, I accompanied them, and 
had the joy of finding in the cohbuI a f'ellow-believer. His 
name is Haai Ezekiel; he is from Bagdad, and Käs dischar- 
ged the office of conaul for the last eleven years as successor 
to bis father-in-Iaw Reuben. Thia man ia the only Jew in 
Mascat, with the exception of hh black household, whom 
!ie has converted to Mosaism. 

The town liaa a very beautifiil synagogue, in which 
Jire some ancient Pentateucha, In the court-yard of the 
synagogue ia a bath for woinen, which waa formerly used 
for reJigiona pnrificatiou. Several centiuües ago the Jews 
of Mascat were viaited by the plague, which carried off 
great numbers ; the remainder left the place. I likewiae viait- 
ed the o!d buriaUplace of the community, round which now 
rise the tenta of tho Arabs. In Maacat I met several fellow- 
worabippers from neighbouring eitles. The inhabitants äre 
fond of the Jews, whom they call Walad-Sara (children of 

Mascat fonnerly belonged to the Portuguese, and was 
forüfied by them; later it was conquered by the Abyssi- 
nians. An Iman now rules theve, supported by England. 
The town ia the moat kuportant commercial place of Arabia, 
and the pearl-trade, in which the Bedouina are chieily en- 
gaged, 13 very conaiderable, Tlie town itaelf ia large, bat 
dirty; it lies at the foot of great mountains, and ia aur- 
rounded by them. The population ainounts to about 60,000 
bohIb. The air is unhealthy, cbiefly cauaed by the dead 
öshea, which are found in grcal maaaea in the atreets. After 
heavy falls of rain, rapid streams foniT in the mountains, 
which carry with them into the sea, all kinds of rubbish. 

I wnjcn carry witi 




K AI: 

H Bbi] 


Joumey from Mascat to Abeshur. 

JetDtsh tribes in the desert of Arabia. — Bender Ahaasi. —■ 1 
Lima. — Abeskur. 

After a rest of 21 dajs, I embarked for Abeshur; but 
on the third day of the journej we were obliged to sail 
along the shore of Ormuzd. A violent gust of wind daabed 
our ship on some rocks, wbere it stranded. The water atreani- 
ed into the ship, and a scene of dreadfiil terror and 
anxiety took place. Every one endeavoured to save bimaelf, 
and sprang into the only boat we possessed, The Httle 
veascl was thus over-loaded and sank. Many saved themGelves 
by swimming to the shore, but othera were drowned. The 
goods and provieions were left in the ship. 

Deprived of all our property fand food, we lay Bpon 
the shore, Before us on one aide the Peraian Golf, on the 
other the extensive desert. On the place where we strack 
formerly stood a town, of wbich now only the ruins remain. 
In the trenchea between the roeks, we found raia-water 
enough to quench our tbirst; but we suffered rauch from 
hunger. While the damaged ship was being repaired, we 
wandered about in the vicinity, seeking for food; but found 
nothing but some herbs and niushrooms, on wbich we lived 
for three days. In the meantime our ship was once more 
got aäoat, and under the protection of Providence, in three 
daya more, without fiirther accidcnt, we reached Bendsr 
Abassi where we remained severa! days, in order tbat our 
ship sbould be properly repaired. 

A wide, friiitful tract of Land extcnds from Beadf 


Väraia. On the opposite side of the Persian Gulf in the 
interior of Arabia, the desert extends to Aden, Medina and 
Mecca. The pilgriras who have visited the city of the 
I Prophet report, that on the road they met with sixteen 
hibes of whom four bear the name of Ihud Cheibar (a name 
rOf terror to the Arabs), and belong to the Mosaic faith, 
I have heard this fact not onty from Mahomedan pilgrims, 
W also from my fellow-worshippers at Bagdad. Theae 
KbeB are said to form among ilie Nomads a confederaoy 
f their own, and like the rest phinder the caravans.i 

Not far from Bender Abassi lies the ialand of Kein, 
f irfiich is celebrated for its pearl fiahery. Somewhat further 
i the town of Linsa. It is govemed by an almoat in- 
dependent sheik, who has nioney coined, whicb has valne 
among the Araba, who inhabit his little territory, Shipa 
3top near Linsa, for the purpose of taking in provisions; in 
other respecta the town ia unimportant. 

Three days' journey from Linea begins the Persian 
boondary, which is marked by Arab camps. At thie place 
our ship stranded in a storm. The captain, who was fear- 
fnl of being plundered, sought out the Commander of the ^ 
sentinels placcd on the frontier, and offered him preaenta, 
whereby he obtained protection for paaaengers and luggage, 
Afterwards we purchased there eggs and vegetablea. 

I The celebrated traTcllcr Dr. H. Petcrmaim in Berlin related to me 
himsoir that in hia travela he littd likewiaa ohtaincd informalion 
respecting thoBO tribes, from a phyaician : — from which account it 
appeais thatthey are really Jeirs, although Ihey posäeaa uo Talmud: 
— he at the same tims expressed >he tvieh that tbose tribea might 
be aonght out, The dweUiog-pUco of these triboB ia twelTO dajs' 
journey from DsSicddah, on the road to Mecca. Aecording to the 
rtatement of thia physician, they had, in Ihe place where be visited 
them, 40,000 teut». ^'ear to them direll the Jan, an Arab tribe. — 
Benjamin of Tndcla p. 71, Vi, spcaks of theae tribes, and reckous 
them as deacended front the tribes of Geaben, Qad, and the half tiibe 
of Manaeaeh. — RUter's Erdkunde Vol. 13, p. 403—407 gives infor- 

mstion from difforont aourcea abnnt theeo tribes. We bopo to viait 

them in aar second journey , in ordcr to be able at last to goin 
certaio intelligenCB reapeoting them. 



When our ship was again in a condition to sail, we 
conlinued our joumey ; and in two days landed at Äbeabur. 
Here live about 70 Jewish families, who are leas oppresBed 
than those living in the interior of Pcrsia. They owe tiiia 
to the EngUsh conaul, bj wbom I also was most kindly 
received , in consequence of a letter of recommendation 
which I presented to Mm. He gave me an introdaction 
to bis vice-consul at Shiraa, made arrangements himaelf 
with the Caravan-Basehi respecting my journey, and ntade 
bim in writing responBible for my safety, 

Abeshur lies on a projßcting point of land in tbe Pe^ "- 
n Gulf, and is Burrounded by a half decayed wall. Tli€ 
town carries on an extensive trade, and twice a year the 
steamers from Bombay anchor here, to ahip cargoes for Üie 
interior of Persia. 

CHAPTER xxnn. 

Journey tbrough the desert to Sbiraz. 

For this jom-ney I wore European clothes, but my ser- 
vant wore tbe dress of the inhabitanta of Kelbella, My 
safety was in the hands of the political authoritiea, and 
with confidence in God I began my Journey. Our road 
led U8 through regione infested by hordes of robbers; but 
Providence protected ua, although victory was often dearly 

During the journey I also was often expoaed to per- 
sonal danger, in which I owed my preservation to the 
Caravan-Baachi, who had pledged himaelf for my safety. — 
Every moming at daybreak I retired before tho caravan 
proceeded on its way, in Order to pray. This was reraarked, 
and one day , when I was on the point of putting on my 
r Tephilim fpbylacteries) in preparation for prayer, I MHH 

with terror the worda; „A Jew is atnong us!" — I tumed 

round; a Persian pointed hia gun at me and fired, but the 

bullet wbistled by me. Tho Caravan -Baschi, who witb many 

üthers had rim to the spot, wreated the weapon from the 

haods of the perpetrator, who eried out in a rage: „A Jew 

ia daring to contaminate our Company!" — „Hoiv do you 

know he is a Jew?" asked the Baschi. Because I have 

"Pen him -pray and put on his aandals!" The Baschi tumed 

i>;ile, but immediately answered : „PerhapB you are raistaken ; 

.>ut be it as it may, Jew or Mussulraan, I anawer for hja 

'il'ety with my head, and muat deliver him up unharmed 

at the house of the vice-consul of Shiraz." — Nobody ven- 

;ured to dispute the authority of the Commander, for they 

wero all too much accuatomed to obey, This quieted the 

disturbance, and the affair waa aoon forgotten. 

Two daya later, we pasaed through aeveral narrow 
n'ads overhung with enormous masses of rock. It was al- 
rcady night when two shota were heard, and we found our- 
^elves attacked from behind and in front, and the outiets 
■f the road were occupied by robbera. A fierce combat 
(■'.ilowed, but, owing to our position, all could not take pari 
in it, and the struggle continued until daybreak. We then 
saw therß had been aome mistake, for in the front of the 
Caravan we found frienda, while behind \is the combat still 
continued. Supported by our new alliea, we aoon »ucceeded 
in putting our assailants to äight. 

On the second day after thia occurence we came to a 
beautiful piain with dwellings and magnlticent plantations, 
which refreshed ua like an Oasis. Accompauied by my 
aervant, I had withdrawn from the caravan, without remark- 
ing that we were fotlowed by two Persians, The day 
pasaed ; tlie caravan was no longer to be seen , and I pro- 
ceeded towarda a village close by. Then, for the first time, 
I obaerved that we were foUowed by the two Persians, 
whose appearance denotcd no good. I had alledged that I 
conld not apeak Peraian, while my servant waa quite niaeter 
of the language; ao we heärd how o\\r two \i'\i."cwi.c.\% -^1«^ 


loadly plaDning that, faroured by the Coming night, th^ 
would kill US and take poBBession of our propert^. In 
Order to prevent this new danger, the idea struck me of 

propitiating theae two men by a bottle of brandy, the &- 
vorite beverage of many Persians. I took a bottle from my 
packhorse, and my aervant offered it to them, asking them 
in broken Persian: „Will you drink of this Rukiuh?" One 
of the robbers replied in Persian: n^l'y not? we will drink, 
and get courage for the execution of our plan." Upon this, 
they took the bottle, emptied it and for a time left us in 
peace. Suddenly we board the tin kling of the bells on the 
leading-horse of our caravan. It was now high time to 
eacape. We cried for help as loudJy as we could, and the 
two bandits fled away at fiall speed. 

The morning after this adventure we arrived at Shiraz, 
when I immediately proceeded to the English vice-consul, 
a Persian by bivth, who received nie in a very friendly 
manner, in consequence of the letter of introdnction I had 
brought from his superior at Äbeshur. 


Shiraz. — Deplorable condition of the Jews. 

Only aboat twenty years since, nearly 3000 Jews' lived 
in thia once magnificent and flourishing city. By perae- 
cutions, oppressions, and odium of all kinds more than 
2500 of them were compelled to go over to the Mussulman 
sect of Ali. Although outwardly apostate, a great number 
of theae families still preserve in their hearts the faith of 
. their fathera, and even find means of having their children 

I fleq/amln of Tadal» p. 82 speaks of 10,000 Jaws. 


oireamciaed in Beeret. Nine aynagoguea in the town testify 
tbe forraer greatneaa of the Jewish commimity; now unfor- 
tonately, they are aJmost all laid waste. The Jews of 
^imz speak the Hebrew language, almost like the Aske- 
nasim (germaD Jews). 

Oß my arrival I found the town in a state of ferment 
Knd reyolt in consequence of a change of govemment in 
Teheran. Fierce combats took place in the streets, and it 
WHS not iintil the evening that the tumult was calmed. The 
vice-consul received nie into his honse, and gave rae a safe 
escort to the Nassi, Mullah Israel, This Nassi, a venerable 
nid man, received me with the greatest kindness, and ac- 
«jording to Eastem ciistom, gave me an hospitable shelter, 
and I lodged witb-his son Isaac. 

My presence had qnickly become known among the 
i;rethren of the faith, and I was soon visited by the leading 
members. From morning untH night I was iu rcqueat, my 
adTice and help asked in many luattera, and ray opinionB 
regarded as oracles, One day my room became gra- 
dually filled by women all wearing white veils, who, one 
after another, introduced themselves to me. As tho Jewiah 
women are allowed only to wear black veils, in order to 
diBtinguish them from othere, this visit desquieted me, for I 
imagined tlie house might be attacked by insurgents. I was, 
however, pacified when they told me that all theae women 
belonged to the families who had been compelled to em- 
limce the faith of Islam, but who in secret adhered to the 
faitb of theii' fathers. My visitora lifted their veüs, and 
Idraed my forebead and hand. I addressed Bome words to 
&sta on their apostacy, whereupon the women wept bitterly. 
One of the men present eame forward and said: „Our 
iMethren know under what fearful circumatances we were 
oompelled to apoetatise: we did it to save onrselves from 
tyranny and death. We acknowledge, however, that, not- 
withstanding our apparent apostacy, we still cling with all 
onr hearts to the i'aith of our fathers, and thie we teatify by 
presence here thia day; fot i£ it -weia Vass^jj 

^^npr pre 


should all certainly be lost!" — Thcae words much affected 
ine; I tried to consoJe tliem and said: „llave patience, my 
brethren; and confjnue to put your confidence in God. 
Perhaps the monarchs of Europe, under wbose protection 
jour brethren live happUy, may be able to alleviate your 
mlRfortunes, and may place noble rulers on the throne of 
Persia, who will loosen your bonds, and allow you freely 
and openly to avow your belief." 

Another day the leader of the rebela came to the Nasai, 
in Order to force on him a ncw tax. When he perceived 
nie there, he asked who I was, to which tbeNassi replied: 
„He is a Chacham from Beth-el-MikdasB." Hardly had tlie 
Perfiian heard this, when he addresaed me in the f'oUowing 
words: „I bave been to!d that the Chacbamim of that town 
ai'e very learned, and underetand in particular the art of 
making amulets; mähe one for me to protect me in war," — 
At first I wished to dieclaim thia honour, but iny scniples 
vanished at the sight of hia blood-atained yatagan (xymetar), 
and I promisod to satiafy hia wiah on the foUowing day. I 
set to work, but aa I would not profane our aaured customs 
by thia auperatition , I turned over irresolutely the leavea 
of my Biblc, and at length came upon the history of Esther. 
I took the namea of the ten sona of Haman, by ineans of 
letters joined them into aentences, and in the form of caba- 
liatic amulets wrote them on a aquare pieco of parchment. 
This I gave to tlie Persian, — who expreaaed great joy on 
receiviug it, — and I told him at the aamc time that the 
amulet would only be of uae to him aa long aa he was 
courageouB and brave. Two days latcr thia Peraian took 
part in a combat of the insurgents agaiust tho troopa, in 
which the latter were worsted: hc now believed tirmly in 
the power of my amulet, brought me presenta, and pro- 
clainied that I waa a man of God, because my amulet had 
been so effective. Thia little affair obtained for me no little 

A few daya later, the report waa spread that the rebela 
were going to attack the Jews, who came to me, begging 

help and protection. I eaid that I was a poor pilgrim, 
tterefore eould not help them; but they answered: 
jj'You are a leamed man, and God is ivith you ; you can eave 
Hfl." Thus urged, I ad\'ised tliat they ahouid all asaemble 
in a large house, and arrange a festive entertainment, that 
at the same timo they should all be well armed, should 
banicade all the entrances, and tlien, truating in God's help, 
await the result. Happily the report was without conse- 

A few months before my airival, the Nassi Mullah 
Eliahu had drawn upon himself the ill-will of the Imaum, 
and was thrown into prison. The Imanra demanded such 
an enormous ranaom for hts release, that the Community 
was aoable to pay it. It was then proposed to liim that, 
ID Order to be free, he should cmbrace the lelani faith. 
The prisoner dcclared, himself ready to do ao, and waa 
conducted before the Cadi. Äs, however, many prepara- 
öons are reqiiiaite bcf*e the cereraony takes place, the 
Nassi Bought tö gain time by ha\-ing this deferred. The 
Imaum made inquiries ae to the reaaon of this delay, on 
fvhich the Nassi declared that he withdrew his word, as 
he cöuld not make up his mind to abjure at his age a 
religion, wbich hc had followed the whole of his life. With- 
r)ut further parley, the Imauia ordered him to receive 500 
filagos tblows) ou the soles of his feet, and then to be 
thrown into a damp dungeon. Four days successively this 
was repeated, so that the unhappy Nassi received 2000 
blows. Without movement, with his face to the ground and 
like a dead man, he lay in that dungeon. Bread and water 
was all Ins food, and he would certainly have fallen a 
victim to these tortures and sufferiogs, if Providence had 
not rescued him. During this time a tumult broke out, 
and on this occasion the rebels released all prisoners, 
among whom was the Nassi. He then repaired to Bagdad, 
snd it was there I made his acquaintance some time after- 
WArds. His fortune the Imaum had appropriated to himself. 
■ Another circumstance, which may ^"«e Ko\A.^a.p>1 


desolate condition of the Jewe, is the following, A 
Persiau took a faiicy to a Je\vi8h girl, aud sought her' 
tho house of her parents. Ab, however, these Visits bi 
dangerouB, he tried to perauade the girl to adopt tbe Mi 
man faith, so that ahe might become bis wife. „^j 
rents would die of grief , said the Jcwess, „if I foi 
my religion." — n^^*^ bear it," said tho Persian to 
companions, „she will embrace the Islam faith." — NoI 
Standing all her protestationa he hurried to the Ächi 
(Priest and Judge), and corroborated by bis companini 
stated to him that the maiden wished to embrace IslamiBca. 
The Achimd iniraediately Cfiused tbe girl, who had mean- 
wbile been concealed, to be sougbt for at her parents house 
tbe measengera treated the parents moat cruelly, and tbeir 
daugbter was dragged before tbe Achimd. At the end of 
two days the prescribed puritications were conclnded, and 
the girl begged for permisaion to walk on the terrace in 
Order to enjoy the evening air, His was allowed, and bIw 
tbrew berself down from the terrace and fractured her sknU. 
The Peraians, who knew the cause of tbis suicide heaped 
the most dreadful insiilta on tho dead body, haeked it to 
piecea, and left it in the strcets. Only during tbe night 
did tho Jewa venture to collect the remaina, and bury them. 
The town of Shiraz had forraerly vcry beautiful plan- 
tations and buildings: mausoleums, coüegea, bazaara, cara- 
vanserai, magnificent batbs etc. It bas been abnost entirelf 
destroyed by an eartbquake. The vicinity is very fruitful, 
and produeea costly wine. Tombaco also, — a plant which 
is smoked Uke tobacco tlirougb water pipea (Nargile) pre- 
pared expressly for tbe purpoae — growa there of a au- 
perior quality, and better than in Ispahan. 



Oecurences on tke journey. 
Minister Ismael. 

ival at Ispahai 

My stay in Sliiraz lasted twenty-one days; after whioh 
I contiiiüed my journey to Ispahan. The vice-consul took 
care that I should join a caravan of more than 2000 men 
going to Ispahan, and it was thus that under the safest 
possible protection I began a journey of 22 days, attended 
with great dangers and toila, through a barreu tract of 
country, 1 By bis advice I gave myaelf oiit for a physician, 
and asauraed an European dresa. 

The third day after our departure we were attacked 
by one of the numerous bands of robbere, whic.h we repuls- 
ed, however, without any aerious loss to ouraelves, and 
gained a booty of several horses; I soon found an oppor- 
tunjty of proving my abilitiea in my new calling of phy- 
sician: During the next few days, three of tbe moat important 
merchants belonging to our caravan becarae ili. With ti-ust 
in the help of God, and the reniedies in my travelling 
medecine ehest, I attended to tbe patients, and succeedcd 
in restoriog tliem to health, By this I gained for myaelf 
thrce friends, whose gratitude protected and saved me in a 
time of great danger. 

Iif Order to aheiter myself fi:om the buruing rays of the 


mjsmin of Tudela p. 82 gires tLe distance ftom ShiTm to lapahao 
4 days' joarney. I do not know whicb way ho weol, for wheo 
go quickly, Ihey w»iit. at teaat 15 to l& ifc^a. 

Bun, I had brouglit witL ma from Bombay a parasol, ^tq^| 
was of beautifiil workmanship, and thia parasol waa-'^H 
cause of iny Ute being twice endangered, One (iay, bemgl 
tormented by the glare üf the sim, 1 matte use of this 
sbelter; — suddenly a shot waa beard and a bullet toucbed 
my iDantle. I did not know that in Persia it waa forbidden 
ibr a stranger to carry a parasol: it was a Persian who 
had fired at me. By thia occurence the whole caravan was 
thrown into a state of coniuslon, and the Oaravan - Baschi 
had much trouble to keep me frora these new incoiivenienees. 

Äpother Pei-sian took a faucy to my parasol and 
begged I would seil it to bim; and wben I refused to do 
this, he Bwoi-e in bis anger that be would not only take the 
parasol but my life also. He concerted a plan with his 
companiona to murder me during tbe night. Providence and 
my three gi'ateful patients and friends, however, aaved me; 
they had diaeovered the whole ptot, and watched carefiiUy 
over me. One evening one of tbem osked me to pitch my 
tent beside bis, and, as I hßd a foreboding of tlte intentioiis 
of the Pei'sians, I willingly complied with his request. In 
the mtddle of the night a man, armed witli a dagger, crept 
up to me, but was suddenly seized by my friend. The man 
begged for mercy, and promised to desist from any fiirtm* 
attempt on nie. He sought, however, several timea the same 
night to come near me, but waa preveüted doing so by my 
three watchful friends. 

I was tbus richly rewarded for my medioal asaistance, 
and thougbt witb gratitude of the vice-consul of Shiraz, to 
whose adviee I owed the friendship of my brave protecton. ' 
From this same cause aroae inany other advantages, eape- 
cially this, — that on tbe wbole joumey, the different 
tribes liaatened to fumish me with provisions. — The con- 
tinued watcbfulnesa of my friends efifectually preserved me 
from any further persecutions. 

For foiu' days we passed through a region filled with 

the ruina of whole cities: melancholy proofs ol" the de- 

P vaatatme ecoareeB of God, — plague aod peraecution. Wehad 

reached within two days' joumey tlie goal of our long pil- 

grimage, when we were attacked by a horde of robbera 
consisting of 2000 men. As we were in the viciuity of a 
caravanserai, wts were able to aave ourselves, and act on 
the defensive. For a day and a half we were engaged ia 
the most obstinate struggle, and our distress had reached 
its highest point, when we tried to obtftin help by means 
of messengerä, whom we sent to Ispahan. They succeedi 
in getting away safely, and on the third day native troops 
came to our rescue, with whose assistance we routed the 
bandita, who left behind them several nf their wounded. - 
Three hours' journey from Ispahan we were again attacked; 
as, however, the noise of the firing could be heard in the 
city, help was at once sent to us, and thus we sunnounted 
the last danger of our journey. 

We entered lapahan in the morning, and immediatciy 
on my arrival I visited the English consul, wbo received 
nie very kindly. I then sought out my brethren in the faitb, 
who where all much astonished that I had so happily t 
mounted the dan^ers of a journey through such barren 
parts, — parts which even numerous and well armed Cara- 
vans searccly ventured to traverae — particularly during the 
political tumults, which had lately taken place in conae- 
quence of a ehange of govenunent. 

Ispahan is the greatest city in the kiiigdom of Persia. 
ITie perfectly beautiftil Situation, the rieh and luxuriant 
Vegetation, the abundance and beailty of whicli pen scarcely 
can describe, offer food enoiigh for reflectioii and admi- 
ratioD to the traveller, and awakened in rae the remem- 
brance of the magnificent regions of the Eaat, — About i 
400 Jewiah families live in the city, they possess 3 ayna- 
gogues and 8 Mullahs (Chacham).! 

During my stay in Ispahan, I had the good fortune to 
meet there the Minister Ismacl, a native Jew named Jekutiel, 
whom the dispensation of Providence had raised to this 

a of Todck p. Ü2 speaks of 1Q,0Ü0 Jews. 

high pOBition. I had the honour of being allowed several 
es tu pay my respects to bim, bis brothera Joseph and 
Mordccai, and bis fathei- Aga Babi. Tbis influeDtial and 
noble man merits tbat I should present the reader with a 
short biograpbical sketch of him, which I obt^ed from the 
Statements of some membera of bia faniUy, and for die 
truth of which I can safely vouch. 

About thii-ty yeara ago a poor Jewish jeweller, nsmed 
Aga Babi, lived in Ispahan. Ha bad three sons, of whom 
one, Jekutiel, distiDguiBhed himBelf an a dancer, and the 
great people of the city were ao delighted with bim, that 
i the dancer tliey forgot tbe Jew. At a large fSte, which 
was given in the city in honour of the Shah, Jekutiel was 
;aged aa a dancer, animated by the preaence of the ruler 
to display the most extraordinary powers of bis art, the 
young man had the boldness in one of hia daring leapB to 
kiaa ihe band of the monarch, who, admiring bis talents, 
kindly excused bis temerity, and induced bim to follow 
him to hia court, although tbe fatber of Jekutiel endeavour 
ed by prayers and remonstrances to keep him back. 

The youth grew up mider tho eyes of bis patroQ tha 
monarch, and proved, by bis fideUty and zeal, tbat he waa 
worthy of the favour which bad been ahewn him. But even 
at court, aun-ounded by flattery and temptation, he never 
forgot lös parentage or hia low origin, and long remained 
faithfui to tbe faitb of bis fathers, The son of tbe Öhah, bis 
friend and companion, whose amusemcnta be sbared, obliged 
bim one day at a feast to partaho of forbidden meat: from 
this time the favorite offered little resistance to the wiähes 
of tbe prince, and soon afterwarda embraced the Islam faith. 

In a short time tbere was an outbreak at Jleabed, to 
subdue which the ähali went in peraon with bis army. In 

Company was liia young i'riend and servant Jekutiel, 

wbo, ftfter going over to Islamism, had taten tbe name of 

Ismael. The town of Meshed was besieged, but the rebela 

defended themaelves obstinately, and in a sally put the 

, army of tbe besiogera to ilight. Diiring this general 


iah was deserted by liis troops, and left alone and 
t shelter: liia faithful lamael alone i-emained, and both 
[ their preservation to the speed of their horses. 
Tien the Shah perceived hie faithful servant foUowiag 
W, he called out to him: „Save yourself if you caii, and 
ave me to my fate." — But Ismael answered: I will not 
ave you, oh Master; I will save myseif with you, or I 
ill perish," — The fugitives gained a wood, in which they 
andered about for the space of six days. The Shah thought 
ley ivould perish of hunger, but Ismael shared with him 
le remaina of Bome biscuit and water. When this elender 
ore was exhausted, the noble youth mounted hia horse 
id rode away to seek for food. After a long search, he 
; lengtli feil in with a Peraian from whoni he obtained 
ime hread, and with that he rode back. But when he ar- 
ved at the spot where he had left the Shah, he was no 
nger there. In despair he prayed to God, and mshed 
irough tho wood in all directiona caliing him by nama. 
t last he found hia maater, but in a half famished State, 
jd refreshcd him with the bread. Finally on the seventh 
ly, the two fugitives were diacovered by some horsemen, 
ho had been sent out to the reseue of the Shab. 
HUb consequence of this fidelity and devotion, the Shah, 
^Kfon aa he had returned to Teheran raised bis favorite 
WSk\ to be the hrst minister of bis kingdom, and this 
igh post he tilled with the greateat zeal up to the deatlf 
' the Shah, Without becoming proud, be remembered 
ith love thoae belonging to bim, and became an un- 
earied protector of bis former brethren in the faith. When 
le Shah was near bis end, he had bis son called to him, 
id eolemnly recoinmended to Mm the minister Ismael as 
Is friend, his most faithful servant, and most honest ad- 
iser; and he begged the beir of his throne to respect the 
jble servant as such and allow him to retain his high 
^fice. After the death of the Sbah, envy and jeaiousy 
ideavoured to render the minister an object of suspicion 

Ce youiig ruler, and to bring him mto ivs.'gcaaa. fesi. > 

especial event, however, kept h ii" in Hb high poaitioiu I 
Diiring the change of auccesaion, the town of IspaLan bad ' 
revolted, and the young Shah determined to punjsh it by i 
a demand of 100,000 turuauna. For the exaction of this sum I 
he choose the minister Ismael, and proraised that, ü" he flil- 1 
älled bis duty, he would keep liini in his place. lu the 
city an Achund had arranged a new revolt against the i 
emiesaries of the Shah; but with a onmeroue army iBmael [ 
Buppreaaed the rebellion, destroyed a portion of the ci^, 1 
chastiaed the rebela, and carried out anccesfally bis diffi- , 
cult coramission. But in these events lie had to monm i 
the death of his fatber and one of hia brotbers. The in- | 
stigator of the rebellion esoaped puniahnient by flight. i 

Theae eventa took place towarda the end of the year 
1850, shortly after the tiine I had left lapahan and diiring 
the timo I was at Teheran. 

lamael atill lives at the court of Teheran, but BO 
longer occupies his former high appointment. In the general n 
esteem and respect wbich are paid him, be finda compen- 
sation for hia fall, and still endeavours to alleviate the 
aufferinga of his fomier brethren in the faith to the extent j 
of hia power. As already mentioned, I had the honour of 
becoming peraonally acquainted with the worthy man , and 
I owe to bia kindness introduetions to sonic inHnential men . 
at Teheran, particidai-Iy to the Mullahs Ababi and Jacob, j 
*proprietors of a conaiderable buainess in jewelry. 


Meshed. — Eashan. 


. desolate and sterile track of Und of eighteen days' 
?ney lies between Ispahau and Meshed. Here are to be 
Fonnd the ancient ruina of a tomb, to whieli tlie Jews uaed 
formerly to make pilgrimages, and wMch the inhabitanta 
isaert ia the tomb of Abraham ben Ezra. It is known that 
ihia great and learned man travelled in the East; I believe, 
bowever, that this tradition about the tomb is falae, although 
it may be the tomb of one of his relations who bore the 

Ä considerable nnmber of fugitive Jewa met rae, and 
ihey related to me cause of their llight as foHowa: Before 
äie death of the tastShah, about 1840 or 1S42, the Muasul- 
mans in Meshed anddenly attacked the Jews who dwelt 
here, who numbered nearly 400 familiea, i and inaiated that 
ihey ahonld embrace the Islam faith. The Jews refused, 
ipon which many of them were murdered by the Peraiana ; 
me of them saved themselvea by flight, and escaped safely 

I^JSiUa-'a Erdkunde Vol. 3, part 8, p. 103. The Jews of whom there 
I about 100 f&niilies in Meahod, are held in great conteiupt, Baja 
,. CoQolly, Thoy are not rieb, bat still woalthy, comparod with 
r brethren in Ispahan und Teheran , who are only permitted to 
f C»ny on the most disgnsting Irafic, like so many in Entope. In 
V^feshed the Jews are not permitted to Iroad on holj places, nar to 
K'TÜil the Moslem batlie; Ibej must neoi' difierent capa front the true 
badge, must haro a atrip of cloth on their breast. 
I Tbey are not alluvred to defend themsclves bj a aingla blan against 
ItA Musaulman , and ai'e followed hy tbe nrchins in the Btreet, who, 
vlnfore the eye» of their parcnta, pelt them with dlit and Btones; for 
|( ii comidered meritoriouB lo frigbtea the aoul of «n veM&V. 

[ to Bagdad, wbälo others were overtakea by their pui8)^^^| 

1 and compelled to apostatiae. Here as in all otber pLt^^H 

notn-ith Standing their seeming apostacy, the enforced «^^1 

[ verts Btill remained in eecret faitlifui to Mosaism. "^^^j^H 

[ agreed together to frequent the Mosques, btit not to parti^H 

' of forbidden meat. Every Friday the Shocbet went ä!^^| 

I house to Louse to the iiew converts and jperforined his oEW^H 

I This complete Separation gave rise to supiciona. TheÄcböM^ 

} asked them if they were tme beüevers in Islam. The Jews 

answered: „With body and soul." Then why do you not 

i partake of meat?" inquired the Achiuid. — „Beeause by 

abstinence we wish to atone for our former sin," wa» the 

I reply. — At first tbia answer eatiaüed them; but tboee who 

* were suspected were watched, and one Friday tbe tihochet 

I was surprised in the Performance of bis office. The un- 

I happy man was immediately hacked to pieces and thrown 

[ to the dogs; tbe other culprits nmrdered, tlie synagogues, 

■whieh until then bad been only sealed up, conipletely de- 

Btroyed, and the Pentateuchs torn to fragments. It is true 

the Shah desired afterwarda to know the cause of theae acts 

of violence, but for the preaent the aSair remained unuoli- 

' ced ; as from the frequent dieturbances in thia country, the 

commands cif the ruler are not always recognised. After 

the deatli of the Shah, and the removal of the Minister fe- 

mael, these atrocitiea remained unpnnished. 

Six daya' journey from Ispahan is Kashan, celebrated 

( for ita silk manufactures. I aaw there magnificent taleda 

(garments to be worn during diviiie aerviee), and one of 

I them I sent home. The Jewiah Community in Kashan 

I nombera 180 families, who live in & State of dreadful oppression. 

Iheir synagogne a portion of ihe hoinily is gung in Persian, the Old 
Testament is read in Hebrew. Ilnring prayer, they coTer Iheir bead 
nitb white nrnntlea , and turn towaids Jcrnsalem during tbe lime 
(hat the priest holda od high tbe roll ol tbe Pentsteuch. In thcir 
Ubrary Ihoj- sllowed 50 copies of ihpir Holy Scripturea; written on 
rolls nf parchnieut hy devotees, to wbicb tbe Eignatoresof tbe ' 
wäre afßxed : each of these writings wa* kept by itaalf. 

It was on a Friday that we enteved the town, and 

kthed to rest there on Saturday. The caravan remained 

( the caravanserai outsidß the gates. I inquired for the 

quarter of the town, intending to proceed there; 

i l had Bcai'cely shewn myself in the streeta, when I was 

rrounded by a mimber of atreet boys and low rabble. 

European dreas excited displeasure , and I was pelted 

nth stones amid abuse and criea of „Giaour" (dog). The 

Ist reaistance would have brought me into stÜl greater 

mger; ho great is the hatred of Persiana for atrangeraJ 

The Nassi Mordecai received me very kindly, and my 

arrivat was hailed by the Community as an especially happy 


The following day I put on my Jerusalem attire, and 
went into the streets. A caravan-coniparäon, who happened 
to meet me, recognised me, and called out loudly: „Thia 
Giaour is a Jesv," He immediatcly infoi-med the Caravan- 
Baschi, as well as his fellow - travetlers , of his discovery, 
who all exclaimed that I had contaminated them by my 
presence. On Saturday evening I eiitered the caravanserai 
(jnite innocently in my European dress. Hardly had I 
entered, when a tumult took place before the closed door, 
which was broken open, and I hejffd the cry: „Death tO ] 
the Jew." 

The Caravan-Bftsehi, who had shewn me much aympathy, 
threw hastily some Persian garmenta over me and concealed 
me in his Harem, tbe door of wbich he closed. He then 
approached the enraged crowd, and asked; „Whom do you 
want? there ia no Jew here ; we had a Hakim-Baschi 
among ua, but he has remained behind in tho town, I know 
not where." The infuriated rabble gave little hecd to this 
explanation, but aurrounded the caravanserai and sought for 
me everywherer the harem, however, as a sacred and in- 

' Mcsscchet Barachat cbap. 9, v. 4, foL 60, remindB 
«hich are apokeii on entoring Aaä leaving a 
if formerlv tho asme dangers Ihteatened tbe Jei 



Tiolate apartment, remained undisturbed, and at last, cursing 
and awearing, the mob retired. When all was quiet, tte 
Baschi conducted me to a trench near by, and adviaed 
me to wait in this place of concealment until tlie caravan 
should paas. With watchful ear and eye, fancying at the 
slightest noise tliat my pursuers were Coming, I waited. At 
last at midnight the caravan, wbicli was going to Teheran, 
approacbed, and I was released. 

Five days' journey to the north -east of Kashan üea the 
town of Yezd, celcbrated for the manufacture of wonderfiilly 
beautiful shawls, A Jewish Community of 150 families dwell 
here, and they too languiah under the yoke of the most 
ignominious oppression. I have not been able to visit thia 
town myself, but frora other fellow-believers, wbo have re- 
lations settled there, I have heard descriptious of their im- 
happy condition. 




In tbe cspital of Persia live about 500 Jewish familiee; 

they posaess eigbt synagogues and have aeveral MullahB. 

Their social condition is also considerably better than those 

of the Jewa in tbe provinces, which is cbiefly caused by 

their llving under the immediate control of the highest 

authoriUes in the land, and, at the seat of govemnient. 

Perhapa another circumatance to which they owe better 

treatment is, that tho fathcr of the reigning Shah has a 

Jewess among bis wives. Üur fellow-believera occupy them- 

I aelvea mostly with trade, especially with the sale of pearls 

land precious stonea; aeveral of them aro jewellers, lapi- 

L^aries, and doctors. ■ - 

The fathcr of the reigning Shah was in the habit of 
personally viaiting occasionally the Jewish quarter of the 
town, all the inhabitants of which came out to meet him, 
and white lambs were slaughtered in hia honour, and the 
flesh divided among the poor. 

A circumstance occun-ed which led to my being sum- 
moned before the Council of the Shah, in order to give my 
opinion on a rather difticult case j — it was aa follows : In 
ähiraz lived two brothers, both Eabbia, Mullah Ababi and 
Mullah Isaac, of whom tbe former for aonie cause became 
an apostate. He was considered one of the most leamed 
Rabbis in Persia, aud obtained access to the court of the 
■Sliah, where he used every means and artifice to establiah 
liimHelf in the favour of the monarch. By application of 
paasagea in the Bible, the principle of which did not accord 
«ith the notions of governmentj he oppressed hia former 
fcHow-believera, and thcn agaiu offered them his eendces in 
Order to ext ort money from them. Thus he drew their 
attention to a passage iu Deuteronomy , where it is thua 
written: „Thou ahalt not lend upon uaury to thy brother; 
uaury of money, usury of victuala, uaury of anything that is 
lent upon usury. Unto a stranger thou mayest lend upon 
Ufluiy, but unto thy brother thou ahalt not lend upon usury." ' 

In consequence of thia, the Mullahs of Teheran, Mullah 
Rachmim, the Nassi Aga Ababi, and the first Jewa of the 
town, were summoned before the highest authoritiea of the 
kjngdom, and desired to explain this passage. They, how- 
ever, said that they were not leamed enough to be able . 
to expound the text, adding, that in all Persia there was I 
no Mullah who could answer thia question; there waa, how- 
ever, a Chacham from Beth-el-Mikdaas in Teheran, who would 
be able to explain it. By this, they meant me; and I, as 
well as several other Jews, received shortly after a meaBage 
from the authoritics, inviting me to appear before them. I 
immediately obeyed the summons, presenting on my entranoe 

1 Donteroromy c. XXIII. 19. 20. 

ra certificate from the RusBian AmbaBHador , with whom I I 
had deposited my paBsport, aod whose influence was very n 
great, remarking that aa an European, I could not subjeot | 

myself to any foreign power withoiit the consent of my Am- 
bassador, btit that I was ready to obey the order and coq- | 
1 eidered it an honour to appear before- that bigh assemhij. 
When the passage alluded to was placed before nie, and my 
Interpretation of it desired, I declared openly that the ex- , 
position of tbe MuUab Ababi was false, adding, tbat in 
Europe, the youngest scbolars, who were at all conversant 
with the Bible would understand bow to give a better ex- 
planation of the text. My Interpretation of the passage 
was as foUows: „Thou sbalt take no iiaury from tby brother 
whoever he may bei" for the Bible aays: „Take thou no 
asuiy of him or increase: but fear thy Qod; that thy brothor 
may live with thee," • and further it says: „Unto a 
Btranger thou mayeat give interest, but thou sbalt 
lend upon usury. " — ■ The aasembly received 
this exposition with satisfaction. I then remarked that 
in Europe it waB tbe custom to draw up a protocol in 
writing reapecting such diacusaions ; to whicb they re- 
plied that the whole affair waa not worth the trouble. The 
whole discusaion, whicb laated about balf an hour, was inter- 
preted by the dragoman Mullah Jacob. When the meeting 
i diseolved, I waa aaked if I knew the Baron von RotL- 
Bchild; they had heard that there waa a famüy in Europ« 
of that name which were veiy rieh and much eateemed bj 
all Eui'opean monarcbs. If thia faraily were really so power- 
ful, wby did tiiey not come to the relief of their i'ellow- 
believera? — I answercd that I only knew peraonally the 
Baron von Rothschild, who, in tbe year 1845, lived in 
Vienna. Besidca, in Europe it was not known in what a 
wretched condition our bretbren lived here: for there their 

tlot was a mucb better one, — With this, the 
broke up. 




I Le-ritioue e. XXV, 3fi. 

201_ ^^W 

The palace of the Shah, the cliief buildings, and the 
palaces of the Ambassadora of Hussia and England oc- 
cupy a particular portion of the town, wbtch is separated 
from the rest- by a moat, over which ia a drawbridge, and 
in this manner it is protected from all diähirbance. The 
palace of the Shali is built in the Arabian style, and haa 
large and strong gates, rcmindiag one of the entrancG of 
our prisona. One of these gatea ia towards the towii, and 
the other towards the palacea of the Ambaaaadors : both 
iead into the forc - court of the palace of the ähah. On 
entering two large ante-rooma are to be seen, one of which 
is the throne room. Twice a year the Shah comea here at 
the Bairam festival, in Order to receive homage, Through 
a screen of glass the true believera see tbeir monarch, The 
throne itself is hewn out of a block of marble, and is about 
15 feet in length and 10 in breadth; and it is supported by 
twelve marble statues of females, grouped at the four 
comers. The throne is approached by several steps, and ifl 
omamented with costly jewels, and wrought with great art. 
It is maintained that it has been uaed by all the Shaha of 
Fersia. Tbe crown room ia closed the whole of the year, 
except on days of audience; but strangers are allowed to 
see it, and it was thua I obtained entrance there. In the 
Becond room, the portraita of all the monarehs of Persia 
are painted ou the walk. In another apartment are aaid to 
be the portraits of alt the oldest kings of the country; bat 
of this I can say nothing, as I did not see them. 

The city of Teheran carries on a coneiderable trade. 
Like all other important towns, the streeta are paved, but 
they look miserably desolate, as, according to Eastem 
cuetom, no house lias Windows towards the street. The 
sbops, bazaars, and markcts make a splendid Impression. 
The population consiats not only of Persians, but also of 
Jews and Christians. 



After a three months' staj in the chief town Teheran, 
where I had several unpleasant affairs with the above-men- 
tioned apostate, — which, however, were not attended 
with any bad reeulta for me, — I began my journey to 

The road thither is thi'ough a wildemees, partly broken 
by high hüls, and relieved by thick bushee and dwarf 
trees, The jouraey occupies 12 daya. 

By the advice of the Eussian consul, I assumed the 
RiiBsian national costume ; for Russia axerciaea in this countiy 
an almoat raagical power. Two Ruaaiana travelled by the 
Same caravan, and I joined them. On the fonrth day of our 
journey we got aeparated: auddenly a great diaturbance took 
place, and we heard the BOund of firing. All ran to arms; 
but, unfortunately, we were already surrounded by a band 
of robbers, and taken prisoners, Tlieac Arameam bandita 
(descendanta of the Chaldeans) charged ten of their people 
to condiict UB into the mountains, while the remainder con- 
tinued the combat against the caravan. They first led us 
to a piain, which was not far from the scene of action. 
The Peraians who were made priaonera with us, took ad- 
ge of a favourable moment, when our guarda were at 
i little distance from each other, and escaped, and joined 
the caravan. Eight of our guarda puraned them, and the 
two Russians and I were left alone with two bandlts. They 
, had not even taken the time and trouble to disarm us, On 
an agreed signal, we suddenly atarted off, taking the ( 

the cn« 

ite direction to the one taken by the other fugitives, 
tvro guards rushed after us, but we turned round, 
led one, and made the other prisoner, and carried hira 
to the Caravan. There the combat had continued 
ithout any deciaion, and they were occupicd in diacu'i'iioiis, 
»hieb finally resulted in an exchange of pnaonera, and the 
payment of a very large ransom on our parts. Alter this 
was settled, at inidnight, twelve bours from the eommence- 
ment of the attack, we were able to continue our joumey. 

By thia occurrence, the two Rusaians and myself gained 
mnch in the opinion of our fellow-travellera; aa our priaoner 
had niiich. leasened the difficulty of Coming to terma with 
the robhera. On the following day alao we were aeveral 
times attacked by atraggling partica of robbers, but our 
danger waa but trifling. On the whole read tliere is no 
caravanaerai eatablisbed, and for abelter therefore we made 
use of aome of the many cavea which are to be found here. 

In the train of the Caravan we had a grcat number of 
raoles, bearing in carefully-closed coffina the bodiea of rieh 
Pereianfl, ibr the purpose (aa haa already been mentioned) 
of interment near the tomb of the founder of their aect in 
Meahed Ali. One evening we had taken shelter from the 
pelttng rain in a cave, leaving the coffins at ita entranoe. 
Saddenly a maas of rock and a quantity of mbbiah became 
loose, and roliing down from tke top of the cave, blocked 
np the entrance. We conaidered ouraelvea aa irrecoverably 
lost, but after a long and anxious aearch we diacovered 
another outlet; the coffina however were bm-ied in the 

After two daya' journey farther on we arrivod at a 
stream, which forma the boundary bctwecn "Peraia and 
Media. As there waa neither boat nor bridge, by whieh it 
coold be croaaed, we were obliged to make up our minda 
to wade through it. Thence to Hamadan, the journey con- 
tinned without any occurrence worthy of uote. 

Hamadan, the former aummer-reaidence of the Feraian 
is a town of great importance to ^V« Vyq^\c 


an ^1 


account of ita trade. Tho Jewish commaiiity, whicli coit I 
sistH of about 500 tamiliea,' have three synagogues and thrae I 
Mullahs. The Nassi of the commumty is Mullah Eliahn. 
The second Muliah, of the name of Äaron, a man advanced 
in years, had once an old wall thrown down, and fonnd J 
two urns, one of whicb was filied with gold and the other J 
with silver coina. Ün making inquiry conceming it, I was 1 
told that this cu-cumstanco was not of rare occurrence. ThiB ' 
reminded me of a paasage in Medrash Rabba by Rabbi 
Simon, son of Jochaias (book 3, chap. 17) and in tbe Jalkot 
(book 3, cliap. 5) to be (!onipared with the words of Moses.* 
What is mentioned in these paasages on the concealment 
of money, prevails in tlie East up to the preaent day. 

Within the walla, near the extreme end of the town, 
Stands a beauttful large biiilding containing an apartment 
lined with polished Delft-ware. There are here two tombs, 
separated i'rom eacb other only by a sraall passage; aaul 
ahove them are covered catafalques. The inscriptions are 
in Ilcbrew letters, hut only two names can be decipLered: 
on the one to the lisft the name of Esther, and on the other 
that of Mordecai, The buildiug is the property of the Jewiah 
Community, and tbe keys are in their posseasion. At the 
commencement of each month, and at the Parim festival, 
pilgrimages are made to these tombs, and the book of 
Esther is read there. When, dnring the reading, certain 
passagea occur, in which these two personagea are particu- 
larly mentioned, all those present knock loudly on the cata- 
falques, as if to aay: „Here they rest, the preaerves of our 
fathera; bere they rest, and we read to-day their glorious 

1 Benjamm of Tudela p. Gl spealu of (iO,DOO Jewa , be IJkewiae mea- 
tions tho tomba of Eathsr and Moidecii, of whicb we make meolion 
farlbef un. 

S LeviticuH c. XIV. 34. 40. 45. 

3 ÄtWer» Erdkunde, book 3, vol. 9, West-Asia, p. 124 & 125, sayg of 
theu tombs: Naar tbe Mosque is a Space witb tombi, unong whioh 
wid to be tbat of Eather luid Mordecai. It ia built of bricb^^H^H 


Wheu aay calamity threatens the town, or when the 
;h commiinity feara any approaehing danger, lambs are 
:ficed before the door of thia house , and their flesh di- 
:d among the poor. One day I was told that aucli a 
ifice was about to be offered up, in order to tum aside 
le danger, which threatened one of the Community. I en- 
.voured to make these auperstitious raisled people under- 
id that, by such a proceeding, they only committed ido- 
, and that our religion expressly forbade every sacrifice, 
the exceptioD of that offered in the Holy Temple at 
iaiem. I was happy enough to prevent the ceremony for 
this time, and to be the cause of the intended expensee 
being given to the poor. 

The Persian Jewa believe that Hamadan is the ancient 
town of Susa, as the tomba of Eather and Mordecai are found 
here. This, however, I do not believe. The fonner kings 
ofPersia had their Bummer-reaidence in Hamadan, and their 
winter - residencc in Susa (in Persian Sustar), which town 
is 15 days' journey from the former, and the climate is 
müder. The ruins of the buildinga, which date from the 
reigna of the former kings, confirra thia opinion. 

Four days' journey from Hamadan lies Karmanshah, where 
reaide about 40 Jewish families. The Mullah of this com- 
mcmity, a very avaricious man, takes a most unworthy 

haa two chambevs, of wliieli iha one aervea as ante-room to the other, 
■nd Hppenrs modern in ooDipnrison (□ the rest of the huildjng. (Hitter 
further quotos Ihe copies of the Fiebrew iDacriptious by Sir Gore 
O1UCI7 and ß. Partei', which, howcver, contradict each other). In 
Ute Srst Chamber only lie old runeral-fiimitarc, — aach as lamps, 
biera &c, Through au opening, only l'/j foot in beight and breadlb, 
one monagea to croep into the second Chamber, in wbich ure two 
wooden Stands ahaped like sarcophagL These are aciid to be the lomba 
et thoae celebrated persona. 

I only found one apartment, in which, at a fev stepa from the 
entrance, is the tomb of Mordecai; and hut a short space from this, 
riaea ü-om the ground an eminence of ahont one foot in faeight, and 
Ibia is tbe tqnib of Esther. Tlie two lombs are not aeparatcd bjr a 



advanta^Q of tbe superstition of the Persians by makingfot 
them amuletä and talismaua. I represented this very pUinly 
to hiin, but only seemed to displeaae him. 

The town ia fortified and very large, aad carries on a 1 
considerable trade. Very costly carpeta are made here. \ 
Lai'ge morasses and a long cbain of mouutaius Surround 
tbe town. 



Persia, its culture, customs, and habitB. Keturn 

to Bagdad. l 

Persia ia one of the riebest and most fertile countries I 
on the Globe. It produeea all that ia necessary for the l 
wanta of the inhabitanta, and the eheapness of all its pro- j 
ductiona, aa well aa of gencral living, ia almoat incredible. ■ 
Induafry flourishea, and the trade is extensive and renonned. 1 
Nuineroua earavana paaa through the country, and magnificeut I 
tiasues, carpets, ahawls &c. are made here, the aplendor ] 
and beauty of which are everywhere admired. I have seen 
Gostly pearls and precioua stones, diamonds, rubiee, and 
emeralds, here in more abundance than in any other country 
in tbe world. They form the chief articles of trade, which 
ia principally in tbe hands of tbe Jews. 

Tbe prescnt iuhabitants of the ancient cities of CyroB 
are divided into three classea: Mussiilraana, Armenians, and 
Jewa. The tirat belüng, as already mentioned, t« tbe sect 
ofAK. Even tbe other Mabomedana must give place before 
tbe grandeur and power of tbia Prophet, I remarked that 
the followera of this aeet, while reciting their prayera • 
their knees, at the same time make uBe of a small s 

or a littlfl piecG of wood or splinter of bone with which 
they touch their fore-head. Titis custom appeara to bc in 
remembrance of former religious ceremonies, dating from 
the times of idolatiy. 

The euperstitioDB of the Eaat likewise exercise great 
power over the inhabitante ofPersia; for tliev exorcise evil 
spirits. Not only the Miissulmans , but the Jews likewise 
iiidulge in this auperstitious practice. For instance, every 
fiick person is in their eyes possessed by an evil spirit, and 
exorcisms are the proper remediea to be employed to enaure 
recovery, This is donc in the following nianner: Seven 
diahes. Med with different kinds of food, are placed in the 
public bathing house, the doora of wliich are locked during 
the night, If, on the following morning, one of the aeven 
dishea ia found to have been touched , it is conaidered a 
proof that the evil apirits have accepted the food, left the eick 
peraon, and the patient will recover, Should the food, 
however, remain nntouched, the sick person is conaidered 
incurable. — I thongjit it my dnty to reraonatrate with my 
brethren in the faith on thia preposteroua notion, on which 
they Said in reply: „Who other than evil apirits could tonch 
the food in a house so aecurely cloaed?" — I answered 
lugfaing that perhapa a mouse might have eaten it, Al- 
Aoogh my opiniona had much weight with them, yet it 
Tras not possihle for me to deprive them entirely of this 

Not4viths tan ding all this bigotry, the Fereiana, in gene- 
tbI, are very well informed, They are a handsome, power- 
•fcl, brave people, and of great stature. Their pride is im- 
mense, and their hostility without bounda againat every 
ibraiiger not belonging to their nation or their faitb. They 
^t in Hb face, just aa they have the dirty custom of epitt- 
ing on the walls of their dwellings. 

The dress of the raen conaista of a long upper-garment, 
witbout any collar, with long narrow sleoves; wide Euro- 
pean trousers, and a garment (kaftan), which they call An- 
tero, which reachea down to the feet ÄÜÄua i^'is.ft >äi '&» 1 

body, and open at the sides. The covering for the head ia 
a high sheepskin cap, They wear their beards long, and 
dyed red; whUe their hair, which is ehaved off on the top 
of the bead, hangs down on eacb side of the teniples. 

The women -wear a garment of sillt or linen , readung 
down to the waist, and open in front; immensely widt 
trousers finish the dress. They ornament their necke, handa, 
and feet with jewels, and wheii they go out, they Trear a 
white veil. The Jewiah iuhabitants of Persia dress in the i 
aame fashion with the exception that the women are obliged 
to wear blaok veils instead of white onea when they ap- 
pear in public. The Persian women are very industrinus 
and clever ; each haa her own work, and it ia by the women 
that thoae wonderful shawis and embroideries are niade. 

The Peraians know nothing of tobaco, but both men 
and women sraoke torabaco, They drink a great deal of tea, 
and in eating use their fingcra. The interior of their houaes 
ia omamented with carpcts and mirrors. 

In every town is to bc found a building suirounded 
by a wall in which is a tomb of somo disciple or relation 
of Ali. These buildings form a place of refiige to every 
. one who has to fear tho arm of justice; for all who liave 
BUcceeded in reaching one of them are safe under public 
protection.' The Jews and Christians enjoy the privilegea 
in the house of the Achund which is Ukewise an asyluni 
for the guilty and persecuted. They are there received, 
and kept in safety. — The judges alone have the right and i 
power to cause any one to be taken from one coart of 
justice to another. If an accuaed ia declai'ed not guilty, he 
ia perfectly free, and enjoys the füllest protection ; if, how- 
ever he is condemned to iniprisonmcnt , ho remains at the 
public place of refiige until the time of his punishment has 
expired, or until the death of tho Achund, after which he 

t perfectly at liberty. 
Among the Persian Muasulmans exists the peculiar 

' Number c. XXXV. U. 

custom that, when a divorced couple wish to be reimited, 
the wife must first marry another man, and then be di- 
TOrced from him, before sbe ia allowed to be united again 
to her first husband. 

The apostaey of a Jew to the Musaulraan rcÜgion is 
made the occasion of a public festival. After the convert 
has gone through the prescribed purifications, he is con- 
dueted, magnificently attired, into the mosque, where the 
Achimd receives bim , and bestows on him a new name. 
He is then placed on a horse ricbly caparisoned, and led in 
triuniph with music round the to^vn, on which occasion every 
one greets lüm, and presenta bina with gifts. 

In the month of November or Deceraber in eaeh year, 
the followers of tbe sect of Ali assemble daily during the 
whole month for two or three hours, in order to celcbrate 
solemnly the anniversary of the death of the founder of their 
religion, whom they believe to have been killed by a Jew. 
For tlie last three daya of thia festival (Katel), songs of lajnen- 
tation are chanted. If, during thia tirae, a Jew ventured to 
»how himaelf in the atreets, he would be exposed to inatant 

The Christiana in Persia live under a aimilar yoke as 
the JewB. The latter, bowever, enjoy greater freedom in 
trade. Keither Jewa nor Chriatiana are allowed to keep 
!Hiy alaves. 

My fellow - worshippers in Persia have repeatedly en- 
-treated rae to publish in Europe a description of their ac- 
taal condition ; I have promiaed to do this; and atate it tuUy 
in the next cbapter. 


The condition of the Jews in Fersia. 

All Jews in Persia declare unanimousty tliat tbe)' axi 
descendants of tho ürst exiles from the kingdom of Israel. 
Altliougb a small rnimber bclongiEg to the tribea of Judah 
and Benjamin are to bo found among tbem, it is still with- 
out doubt tbat the greater number of tbem descend froin 
the ton tribes.' A remarkable proof of tbis is, — tbat 
they posaesa no Talmud. They dato from the time of the 
firat Temple, from the firat centuries of the dispersion of 
the Jews. Although thcy are able to read and praj in 
Hebrew, and aome Mullabs (from Hamadan and Yezd) pOBsess 
copies of the Talmud, together -fnüi the Sbulchan Aruch, 
and prayer - books , still tbey bave only had these books 
within the last few years from Bagdad. 

The women esiat in a smaller nnmber in Peraia than 
in other countries of Asia; tbey are also more respected. 
There are a great roany unmarried men; for when a yonng 
man wisbcs to marry, he must purchase his wife by offer- 
ing to her father a certain sum , and these expenses often 
exceed the means of the young people, A'ery peculiar mar- 
riagos often originate in consequence of tliis circumstance. 
If, for instance, two fatbers, each having a bod and daughter, 
I decide on a union between the two families, they arrange 

< RUtfr't Erdkujuit haok 3, vul. 9, West-Asia, p. 43, ogi'ncs with Üiii 

211 l^B 

a double marriage, iir Order to spare the purchase money, 
and avoid the expenees of the outfit of the daughter. 

Wien a marriage is celebrated, the bridegroom, aeveral 
days before the wedding, an-anges a feast for his fi-iends. 
On the marriage day, he proceeda with them to his bride'a 
liouse, where the Mullah bestows his priestly blesaing upon 
the young couple. Afterwai-ds, the husband, with bis rela- 
tiona and Mends, returns to his own dwelÜHg; where again, 
aecompanied by music, a feast is lield according to the 
ciistom of the natives. About ten o'clock in the evening he 
proceeda with the wedding guesta to the dwelling of the 
young wife; who is conducted by some of them from the 
parental roof, and, as soon as she appears on the threshold, 
she is siirrounded by the relatioiis of the husband. Aecom- 
panied by their relations jnd iriends, and the whole ti»,in, 
the young mau then repaira to his new home. — The men 
^enerally marry between the ages of 25 and 35, and the 
girb are generally from 20 to 22 years of age. 

Once again I refer to the peculiar custom ooncerning 
the superstition mentioned in the former chapter, that every 
sick person is looked upon as possessed, and a eure is at- 
tempted in the manner already related. On my remon- 
strancoB with respect to this folly, I was told that this 
cuatom had been followed for a long time.* 

Amoug the Persian Jewa ave some who are very rieh, 
and this wealth ia tho source of so many dangers, that they 
are obliged to couceal their treasiu'es like crimes. — I com- 
prise their oppressiona under the following heads: 

1) Throughout Persia the Jews are obliged to live in 
a part of the town separated from the other inhabitanta ; 
for they are considered as unclean creatures, who bring con- 
litmination with their intercoui'se and preaence. 

2) They have no right to carry on trade in stuff goods, 

3) Even in the atrecta of their own qnarter of the 
town they are not allowed to keep any open shop. 

^J. Peoteroaomy c. XVm. II, 


^ Tliey may only aell tliere epices and drugs, or carry on 
I the trade of a jeweller, in wMcli they have attained great 
I perfection. 

I 4) Undcr the pretext of their being imcleati, they are 

I treated with the greatest aeverity, and ahould they enter a 

■ Btreet, inhabited by Muesulmana, they are pelted by the 
I boys and mob with slones and dirt. 

I 5) For the same reason they are forbidden to go oui 

I when it rains; for it is said the raiii would wash dirt off 
m them, which would sully the fect of the Muasulmana. 
I 6) If a Jew is recognised as such in the streets, he is 

■ Bubjected to the greatest insults, The pasaera by-spit in bis 
W face, and Bometimea beat hiiu so unnoercifnlly, that he falls 
& to the ground, and is obliged to be carried home. 

K > 7) If a Peraian kills a Jew,^and the family of the de- 

■ ceaaed can bring forward two Mussulmans aa witnesaea to 
the fact, the niurderer is pumshed by a ßne of 12 tumauna 
(600 piaatres) ; but if two auch witneases cannot be produceil, 
the crime remains unpuniahed, even though it has been 
publicly committed, and ia well known. 

S) The flesh of the aninials slaughtered accordiug to 
Eebrew custoni, but as Trefe declared, muat not be boIJ 
to any Muasulmana. The slatighterers are compelled to 
bury the meat, for Oven the Chriarians do not venture to 
buy it, feai'ing the mockery and insult of the Peraiana. 

9) If a Jew entera a shop to buy anything, he is for- 
bidden to inapect the goods, but must stand at a respectfui 
distance and aak the price. Should bis band incautiously 
touch the goods, he niuat take them at any price the aeller 
chooaes to ask for them. 

10) Sonietimea the Persians intrude into the dwellings 
of the Jewa and take poasession of whatever pleaaea them. 
Should the owner make the leaat Opposition in defence ot 
bis property, he incura the danger of atoning for it with 
bis life. 

11) ITpon the least dispute between a Jew and a Per- 
ji, the former is immediately dragged before theAchuni 

lind, if the coiuplaiuant can bring foiward two witnesses, 
tlie Jew is condemned to pay a, heavy tine. la he too poor 
lo pay this penalty in money, lie musfr pay it in hia peraon. 
He is atripped to tlie waist, bound to a stake, and receives 
•forty blowH with a atick. Should the sufferer utter tlie least 
cry of pain during tliia proceeding, the blowa already given 
are not counted, and the puniahment is begiin afreah. 

12) In the aame manner the Jewish children, when they 
get into a quarrel with those of tlioMiissulnians, are imme- 
diately led betöre the Achiind, and punished with blows. 

13) A Jew who traveJs in Peraia ia taxed in every inn 
and every caravaneerai he enters. If he hesitates to satiafy 
any demanda that may happen to be made on him, they fall 
npon Lim, and maltreat hiin iintil he yields to their terms. 

14) If, as akeady mentioned, a Jew showa himself 
in the atreet duiing the three days of the Katel (feast of 
mouming for the death of the Persian founder of the reügion 
of Ali) he ia eure to i0 murdered. 

15) Daily and hourly new auspicions are raiaed against 
the Jews, in order to obtain excuses für fresh extortiona; 
the desire of gain is alwaya the chief incitement to fana- 

These points give a clear inaight into the wretched 
condition in which tlie Jews languish in a country where, 
not 80 very long since, a woman of their people was wife 
of the ruler, and one of her brethren was tirst minister.' 
The only compenaation which they find for these peraecu- 
6ßia, insulta, and oppreseions, is the great contidence which 
ü repoaed in them in commerciai matters. Their integrity 
in trade is recogniaed by the Persians to aueli a degree that 
»Jew, who faila, rinds refuge with the Achund against all 
prosflcntions , and tlnis gains time to acttie with his cre- 

' Erua BeuJBmin uf TuJeln ji. 7(i apüuks of tLe opprestiioti of tlie JewB 
in l'ersia. — Kn))]ji Petacbia p. ITIi desciibus thcse persccutiuiui 



The Jewish doctors are likewiae muoh souglit atter, and 
exercise great influence over the first people of the kingdora, 
wbich they nobly turn to the advantage of their oppresaed 
brethren. Thus are fulfiUed the aublime worda of the scrip- 
turea when it is written: „And yet for all that, when thej" 
be in the land of their enneinies, I will not east themaway, 
neither irill I abhor them, to destroy thera utterly, and to 
brealt niy convenant with tbera: for I am the Lord their 
God," ' 

The Christiana in Persia are nearly aa much oppresfied 
as the Jews. Sorae time since they addressed themselvea 
to the Pope with a prayer for protection, tut this appeal 
was of no avail. 

After my retum from Africa, and after I had publishod 
in Paris in the year 1858 my travela under the title of 
„Cinq ans de vayage en (h'tent de 1846 — 1851," I turned 
to the fiilfihnent of the request made to me, and addressed 
a Petition to the Sultan, the Empoftr of the French, and 
the Queen of England, iniploring protection for my unliappy 
brethren in the faith in Persia. 

The memoria! to the Sultan i 

i follows: 

To His Imperial Ilighnese t!ie Grand-Sultan of the Sublime 
Ottoraan Porte. 


May Tour Imperial Highncss condescend to loois wift ■ 
gracious compassion on thia page, which an obscure tra- 
veller, but one of the most faithful subjects of Yonr Majesty, 
ventures to lay at the feet of the most Just and magnani- 
mous of Princes, whose reign will be bleased by so many 

The undersigned, who has traced these lines, has im- 
poeed on himself the task of exploring the countries con- 

fided to the patemal govemmert ofYour Imperial Highneas, 
and, ainong the lorge population of tlie Great Ottoman 
Empire, he haa endeavoured ia person and on the spot to 
ascertain the social and reügious condition of the last rera- 
iiants of a nation, ivhich, eince the remotest antiquity, has 
been known by its misfortunes, ita resignation under evcry 
trial, and its unahaken faith. His numerous rcsearchea, and 
his eamest investigations, relative to the fate of the ten tribes 
of Israel oblige bim to make known the results of his la- 
bours, of his observations , and of his frequently perilous 
journiea. For several yeara he lived the life of his fellow- 
believere, faithfiil subjeots of Your Imperial Highness, and 
in honour and truth he must confess, that he often mingled 
his tears with theirs, for he had no power to bid them dry 
them, The only conaolation wbich he was able to, offer to 
his brethren, oppressed beneath a bürden of miafortune, waa 
the promise to raise the voice of truth in their behalf, 
and endeavour that this voiee ahould reach Your Imperial 

Providence has deigned to aupport my humble and uq- 
ceasing efforts. Inspired by Providence, Your Imperial 
Highness condescended to promote the happiness of Your 
people by new legal regulations, which will powerfully con- 
Cribute to create for my brethren in the faith a niore equal 
and ondurable social condition. But what Icngth of time 
may still elapse before the benefits of the new law, which 
can but promote the prosperity of the Ottoman Empire, 
may pierce to those barren regioos, far diatant from the 
capital, and with wbich it has liad until now such rare Com- 
munications ! — When will the day of justice and hmnanity 
dawD for my brethren, who, acattered in the monntainoua 
and almost inaccessible regions of Kurdistan , live, as it 
were, a vegetable life on the extreme boundariea of the 
kingdom, chained to the earth in the most complete igno- 
rance aurrounded by Kurdish tribes, whoao turbulent will 
knowe no bounds, and whose rudeness, cmelty, and rapa- 
city, keep the laraelitea in a atate of degrading abaKccbs^vA» 


[ The paternal heart of Your Imperial Higbuesa was fiJled 

[' with the gracious, eompassionate endeavour to promote the 

' happineas of Your fttithful subjects. We place our hope on 

I tiie firm and all powerful will of Your Imperial Iligiuiesa, 
and on the supreme justice of the Etemal, who hus pro- 
tected Your Majesty in all Your undertakiugs , and Who 

, makts all those to proaper who walk in the path of righteoua- 

i oesB for the good of humanity. 

I After having traced a faithful picture of the conditioD 

of hia brethren in the faith before the Promulgation of Üie 

' Hati-Houmajum, after having visited the kingdom ofPereia, 
where the unheard of debasement and oppreesion of the 

I Israelitea for centuries remind one of the ancient Egyptian 

' bondage and Babyloman peraccutioii, the undersigned author 
Las compiled an account thereof iu the work whieh he 
has the extreme honour of laying at the feet of the moat 

' human and glorious of Siilta,ns. 

Home shadea in thia faithful picture are gloomy; they 

I deserve to be known and appreciated according to their real 
value. (Kurdistan, p. 61, 64—6(5; Peraia, p. 160, 226.) 

The undersigned author apeaks only in hia own uame; 
he fiiltils a heartfelt duty and a sacred promiae in r^üaiDg 
his Huppliciating voice in behalf of so many hiunan beings, 
whoae eyea are unceasingly turned towards the august 
dwelling of Your Imperial Highneas, towarda the greatest of 

I Sultans, who, admired by the world, representa upon Earth 
that Providence, which inspirea and guides hini. 

II' tho humble pilgrim, who aoon again will reaume his 

I wauderinga and continuc his researches, ahould have the 
unutterable happineas of attracting the grauious notice of 

I YourMajesty on the precarious eonditiou of hia brethren in 
Kurdistan, his higheat wishes will be gratihed. Hia words 
i too weak for the proper expresaion of all Uia feelings; 
he ia ouly able to lift up hia prayers to the Most High, 
Who aees all, and may He gi'ant to Your Imperial Ilighness 

[ continual happineas. 

pmü, Jone la* 1856. J. J. Benji 

nin H^^J 

217 - ^ 

k. The petitioEB to the Emperor of the French and to the 
laen of England are the Bame aa the abvoe with the ex- 
ception of neceasaiy alterationB. The ono to the Emperor 
of the French heai-s the same dato aa that of the Sultan; 
that to the Queen of England was dated and presented on 
the 22"^ February 1857. 

The Petition to the Sultan I sent through Mr. Lceb 
Kaufmann, leather merehant at Oalata in Constantinople; 
the one to the Emperor of the French I presented myself at 
the TuiJeries, and the one to the Queen of England I de- 
livered at the oflice of the EngUsh Embassy at Paris. 

The original of the above petition ivritten in French 
13 as follows: 

M A Son Uanlesso Imp.5riaic In Grand Sultan de la 
^m Sublime Porte Ottomitne. 

^ Sirel 

Que Votre HautesB« daigne jeter un regai'd d'aoguste coaipaBaion but 
le [ili qu'un vojageni oliscui' , mais an des plus ßdeles sujeta de Votre 
Mijettii, ose depoaer aux pieda du plus tnaguaiümc, du plus ^qnitable 
des Princes, dont le regns eera b^ni par tant de nations. 

Celni qui oae tracer cca mots s'est Imposä la miaaion d'oxplorei' les 
Cüntr^es que TEtcTno! a confif! au gouvomemunt patemel de Votve Hautease 
Imperiale, et ce fat au milien dee popultktions iiombreunes de votre em- 
pire OLtoiuan qu'il s'efforfait de constator persoanclleiueiit et sar lea 
licux memea l'iftat aaciat et räligieux dea deruiera d^bria d'un peuplo 
Fannn depuiü la plus haute antiquite par aca deaastros, comme par aa re- ' 
lignalion k loule tSpreuva et par aa foi in^ranlable ; et aea recberchcB 
Qiultipli^ea et sea inTestigations s^riensea aar le aart dea dix tribna d'Iarael 
loi fönt un devoir de faire couualtre le riSauitat de aea labcars, de Bea 
reOJea et de sca eicuraionH aottvent p^villeuaea. Pendant pluaicors anndea 
il a v^cn de la vie de ses coreügianDairca snjels üdeles de Votre Hauteaae 
Imperiale, et pour rendre baminage ik la Tiiritä, il a, eouvent meM ees 
lannea avec les lenra, car- il n'avait pas la pniaaance de lea aiScber. L'uniqua 
^onaolation qu'il a pu oßrir ä aea coufrferea cotub^a aona lo poida du 
inslhcUT , CO fat ma promcBse d'^lever la voix de la v^rit^ et de la faire 
liarvenir It Votre Majeatä Imperiale. 

La Provideuce eile -mime a daignä aecotider mes bombleg et meg 
iMuetanla offorta. Inapirti par eile Votvc Hautease Imperiale daigna 
israrer le bonheur de aea peuplea pur des Douvcllea preacriptionB l^gnlea 
itu contribueroDt puiaaanimont k cr^er poiu' mea ooreligionnairea nn ^tat 
■oMaJ DOTmal, plus aupportablc. MaiB cotnbion de Icm^ ii'^(iwa\.<£CB. tscun« 


t qne las bienfaJtg de la oouvalle loi, ^ui ne penvenl que furo pro- 

Sparer rempire Ottoman , päni^tieront dane qaelqaes contr^s incnltea tt 

äotgndeä de ]b mijtropole, avec quelle elles n'ont pa avoir jusqn'ii pr^KDl 

que des coiumnnicotions asse» raros. Quand Imra la jour de juaüc« et 

d'lmiiiaDitä poar mes coiificras disperBi^a dnus les conti'^ca montagDonKl 

et inacpesaiLles ponr aiuai dira du Konidistan, aii sar Ics eonfiaa eilrSn« 

, de l'Empirc ils r^götent disperses, altache'a an sol, dana l'i^oruice ll 

f plas cotnpittä de leuv esintencc, ontoiu^s par des tiibua Kourdes, doal 

' l'üldäpeudance larLulenle ue connait pas suaveut de fieiii, et dont 1« n 

dease, Täpteti! et l'eaptit de rapines retienncnt les laraelites dana na ^li 

d^gradant d'abaiascmcnt. Le cocur palernel de Volre Majeat^ Imp^iale 

fut töuohd d'une auguate compaaaiun pum- faire le bonheur in ses ßdil« 

sujelB; iioDB esp^roQB dang la forme et (out puiasaute volonte de VdiM 

BanLesae Impi^riiÜB alnai que dana la supräme jaalice de rEfemel, qoi t 

■piotigi Volre Majestä dana toutea Sea cntrepciaes et qui fut proepfm 

iB ceiijt qui ruBitbent dwis la *oio du bien ponr l'lmniaQil^. 

Aprea aroir trace un tableaa üdMe de l'^Iat de ses coreligianoa^rel 
int la promulgatioa du Uali-IIonmajourn, apres avoir visit^ l'ei 
Purse, oä 1 'ab aisa erneut et reppreasion des laraelttea soiit ioouis et . 

I, oü ils tappellent Tantique servitude de l'Egyplo et lea pera^cntioni 

de Babylon , l'aiileur sonssigu^ en a fait un rdcit contenu doiiB l'onrr*g« 

I qu'il B rinsigne houneut de d^poae)- aax pieda dn plua hnmMn et diipliu 

r glorienx des Sultans. , 

Quelques traila dana ce lableau vdridiquo sunt aomlres; ils m4iÜta\ 
\ d'Stre cODnus et apprdcie'a i. leor juste valeur (Kourdiatan , p. 61, 64— fi6> 
, la Parse, p. 160 et 226). 

i'auteur aoussigcij dg parle qu'cn scn nom. II aceonipllt nn dcTOil 
de ooeur et il remplit une aaintc promesae en ^lovnnt aa TOix auppliaat« 
• eo favcuT de tant d'bonimeB qui tournent Bana cesae leurs regai'da verB 1> 
demeure auguste de Votre Hautcaae Imperiale; Vera le plna grand 4^ 
Sultana admirä par TUaivera et qai rempiace snr cette terre la ProTidtne« 
I qui l'inapiie et qui le gnide. 
I 8i rLumlile p^lerin, qui repvendra ineeaHaniment aoa bätoa de toj>- 

genr ponr continuer aea exploiationa , avait l'insiguc bonbeur d'atlirer 
le i'ogavd augluto de Votve Majestt^ aar le eort pr^caire de aes con&ira ^ 
du Koui-didtan , il «arait au comble de aes Toeux. 6es paroles Bont tmp ' 
faibles pouT exprimei' conveuablemeut (out ce qu'il en resaeutirait; il ns 
pout qu'flevei' aea priferes vers l'Unique Maitie , qui voit lont, et qui 
[ daignera accorder ^ Votre Hautesac ImpiJriale un bonlicur conalanl. 
aria, le IS Jnm 1S56. 

J. J. Benjamm It 


Concluding reflections. 

In my ehildliood I had often heard of tlie ten tribes 
of Israel , wbo were said to have been banished to a dark, 
mountainous country, which was never cheered by the rays 
of the suQ, or troddcn by the f'oot of a strängen It was 
BUd they bad their own governmcnt tbere, and tbat uiider 
tbeir own kinge they rigidly adhered in tbese distant and 
unknown regions to tbe worship of Israel in the promised 
land. They were reputed to lead a marvellous life, whilst 
we, the descendants of the tvvo banished tribea of Judah 
and Benjamin, were obliged to languish In exile under tbe 
yoke of fanaticism. 

As I grew up, I devoted myself to the atndy of the 
Bible, and I leamt from Holy Writ that the other tribes of 
Israel had always bceu more corrupt than the tribea of Ju- 
dah and Benjamin; and I said to myself; „God is just and 
merciful, why does He permit those to be happy who leäst 
doserve it?" — From this moment I began to doubt the 
traditions of my people, especially as I eould nowhere find 
in cur holy books a satiafactoi-y anawer to this question, or 
obtain from them any explanation. The only alternative 
therefore, was to travcl and make my own observations ; 
and this idea occnpied me continualjy, 

When, in after yeara , this idea was acted on, I found 
the sougbt-for explanation, and was led to the following 

The täte which has befallen us, the chiidren of Judah 
1 Benjamin, ia eimilar to that of tbe othei tT\.\^%% <:i^^\« 


Just as we have becn driven out of one lacd, and ^^M 

bad to und a. new refiige in anotber, so bave tlia otfaei^H 

tribes beeu obliged to wander from one country to anod^| 

to aeek new places of shelter irom tbeir persecutioDS t^M 

BufferingB. Aa it has boen with nurselTca, here oppreslwH 

l and iiiEult, there milder treatment and greater freedom, M 

[ baa it been witb them too. Tbey bave tbeir Canarinz, juat 

' as we have our Sbobatnili. In a word, we have all baA 

to sufEei' tbe same bardsbips, and all had to bear tbe same 

miefortunes. Tbe one great difference between us and tlie 

i ten trihea is, tbat, at tbe present time, wben tbe day of 

1 enlightenment begina to dawn over Europa , and fanaticisra i 

I Ib oonipelled to give place to justice and tolerance, we are 

each day treated more and more according to tbe sacred 

priuciplea of bumanity, and nationa and legislators acknow- 

Ißdge that we bave equal rigbts witb those ot" the foltowers 

of otber religions; wbilst tbe cbildren of tbe ten tribes of 

Israel, acattered aniong tbe barbarous nationa of tbe £a«t, 

continue to live in ignorance Century after Century, and np 

to tbe preseiit day groan uüheeded and debaaed as PariaB 

[ under the yoke of tbeir oppressors. 

All that ti'adition bas related regarding tbeir govern- 

I nients and kings ia reduced to the facts we have related in 

', tbeir proper places. Tbeae wandering tribea dwelüng in 

i tbe deaerta of Arabia bave tlieir own sbeika and the igno- 

ratit have conaidered tbeae as migbty kinga and nilers in 

OUT senae of tbe word. Juat iu the same manner, tbe tribes 

I dwelling ia tbe mountaina of Aigbaniatan bave tbeir own 

rulers, and aometimes carry on aanguinary and auccessM 

■ witb the neigbbouring tribea. All tbis baa given rise 

to tbe report, so long current among ue, relative to the 

migbt and greatneas of the baniabed cbildren of Israel. 

I know not whence they could obtain tbeii- knowledge 

of cabala, and their belief in hidden and aupernatural powera, 

We know tbat at tbe time of tbe firat Temple tbere was 

neitber cabala nor Shemotb Hachsedosbim (namea of angels 

1 »nd boly apirits), if it be not tbe unspeakable name 

lame of J^J 


hovah (Shenil; because Shemoih we take to be the awords 
with which our fathers fought against the enemy under Saul 
and David, and für all sacred forma of prayer there was 
only Criatb-Shema. The cabaliiStic treatises, on the con- 
trary, date from the time of the second Temple, and their 
Form is in part the work of the latter great aseemblies. 
tlow and whence tben were the ten tribes able to obtain 
iuch an extraordinary knowlcdge? Thia is all the more in- 
Explicable, since I myself found thcm so ignoraut that they 
were not even able to read. True it is, however, that they 
were banished to theae barren mouiitains, to theae almost 
inaccessible regions. The distance is great, and the diffi- 
sulties extreme to find theni out ; but they are still within 
the bounds of posaibility. The river Sambathion — of which 
both the Jews in Aaia and Africa speak — is said to drag 
in its eoiirae stonea and pieces of rock, and to emit lava 
like a volcano, in order to prevent the approach ;ind en- 
trance of strangera to those parta; this I have not seen, but 
I bave discovered the traces of the ten tribes of Israel. 

At the present day, thanka to brave aeamen and their 
Toyagea of discovery, we have gained accurate and certain 
knowledge of the remotest parta of the world. By the pro- 
greßB of education , geographica! knowlcdge is univcraally 
estended, and by new discovcrics the most distant parta 
are, in a manner brought near to us, so that the Antipodes 
are able to greet eacih other. 

There muat be inany countries atill nnknown, even 
AInnzo da Ercilla aaya in bis poems (vol, II, canto 27): 
The earth is covered with zonea which are unknown to 
raan; the field of discovery which is before ua inexhauatible ; 
and the sphere of our knowlcdge extends facther and farther 
^■ards the discovery of new trutba. 


Before quitting the Eaat, the cradle of mankind, the 
land of myatery, and before taking leave of my brelhieD 
in the faith acattered there, who have been groaning for 
centuriea under the yoke of barbaroue and despotic natioae, 
1 will add here a few general remarka respecting traveU^y 
in tliese countries. ^H 

An European traveller, accuBtomed to cultivated a^^| 
triea, to intercourse with civiliaed people and to the wW 
veniencea of Ufe, wül, od enteriug the Eaat, feel aa if he 
had been transplanted into quite another world, into a world 
which it exceeda my power to describe. At every step he 
ia Burrounded by dangera, hardahipa, and privations of every 
kiad, which increase the fai-ther he goea, But a Jewish 
traveller finda himself placed. in very different circumatances. 
The kindness, the conüdence, the love and attention witb 
which he is everywheve received in theae countries by his 
brethreo in the faith , niake bim forget the many suffering» 
and hardsbips of his jonmey. All kinds of privilegea ara 
allowed liini, and the respect which is shewn bim araoimtB 
almoat to general veneration. 

Above all, it was the pioua faitb of my brethren, their 
careful observance of oiir forma of worship, even to die 
most minute pai-ticulara , and their veneration foF it, which 
made the deepest impression on nie. Their piety is indeed 
well fitted to edify an European Jew, the retnembrance tf 
it ibrms an encouragement for the future, and it was indeed 
difficult for me to bid farewell to theae faithfiit brethren. 
Two pointa descrve eepecial mention; thej are these: tiw 
leaming and the benevolence, the mode of life and tra^- 
tional hoapitality of my brethren in the Eaat. 

If the acholara of the Eaat distinguiah themaelves in 
general by a deeper and more iborough knowledge, it is 
caused chiefly by their dweUing at the fountain head of all 1 
human wiadom : in their researchea tbey have cver the sa- * ' 
cred aprings before their eyes, and thereby become animated 
by an unshaken faitli; ao that in this latter case even those, 

are lesa wellread, may aerve aa examplea 

[es to otbi^j^j 


The leariied men, aud pardcularlj those who come from the 
Hoij Land or from Europe, are treated with tte greateet 
vencration, with even more than is ahewn to their own 
scliolara. In the flowery language of the Eaat, they aay that 
they are crowns, which have come to Ornament their heada. 

He , who is not acquainted with Oriental customs , can 
hardly form an idea of the consideration with which a tra- 
velier is there received and treated. As eoon as he has 
been introduced to the Nassi, all hasten to show him every 
possible honour which bis rank raay demand, AI! his wants 
are anticipated ; lodging, food, raiment, in ahort all that ha 
may need is given to him , without the smallest compenaa- 
tion being required in retum, Feaets and enter tainments 
are arranged in bis honour, aa long as h? remaina in any 
place. And not only during hia atay among them is thia 
attention paid to him, hut ou leaving, it is extended to him 
iu a etiil greater degree. As soon aa the guest prepares 
for departure, the master of the house considers it as hi« 
firat duty to fiimisli him everything necessary for the jour- 
ney. The daya are connted as to how long he will he on 
the way until he arrives at another place, and his provi- 
sions are arranged accordingly, so that he may want for 
nothing. Gare ia taken that he may be able to join a Ca- 
ravan, the expenses are paid, and not one of hia hretiiren 
in the faith would fail to present him with aome useful gift, 
the naturc of which is always regulated by his rank, 

But it ia not only to their own people that the Jewa of 
the Eaat grant such a generous reception. Every traveller, 
every tourist, of whatever religion he may be, everywhere 
receives from them the same asaiatance and protection, every 
possible ioformation he may require as to the laanner and 
difliculties of lüa joumey, the providing of guides or any 
other help. This generous hospitality is extended to every 
one without execption, notwithstanding the numerouä tra- 
vellera who paas through the East; it is considered as a 
sacrcd duty, and curried out in a truly palriarchal manner. 

If a Caravan ia attacked, and a traveller falla icta <^^- 


tivity, he may, on this miefortune being kuown, surelj 
reckon tliat they will not delaj to liberale him: tbe ranaom 
is collected for him, and thia oi'ten amounta to a consi- 
derable Bum. 

Frora this one niay judge bow eaay and convenient 
travolling tlirough the East niay be made, easier than in 
other countries, notwithstanding the difficulties of the joitr- 
ney, ajid tlie many dangers to which travellers are exposeil. 
As the East is the fountain head of aacred knowledge, how 
eameatly do I advise my leai'ned and enterpriamg brethren 
to draw from thia holy aource, For the light of knowledge 
which they would there diffuse and promulgate, they woold 
tind a reception worthy of them, and a comfortable life. 

But traveliing in the Eaat is made considerably easier 
for the Jews than for othera, by one great advantage, whJoli 
they alone possesa. Thia ia a knowledge of the Hebrew 
language. It is a powerfiil bond, the sole mysterioiis meaos 
which enables them to eiitor eyerywhere, and to overeome 
every difficulty. Aniong theae numei'ous tribes, where so 
many different latiguages are written and spoken, the Jewiah 
travellor is sure of Unding in every place at least aome 
persona to whom he can make himself nnderstood, and on 
whose assertions ho can place the most implicit reliance. 

It can be unhesitatingly asserted, that the charaeteriatic 
habits and customB followed by the Jews of the East in tlic 
present day are those mentioned in the Bible aa being pe- 
culiar to the ten tribea ; whilst the habits and cuatoms of 
the European Jews resemble those of the tribea of Judah 
and Benjamin. 1 refer, in conelusion, to two passnges in 
the Bible, which aeem to bear upon this; the first of which 
provea tlie hoapitality of the ten tribea in contraat to the 
tribe of Benjamin. ' The second paaaage reminda one 
of the generosity of the ten tribea towarda their hostUe 
brethren. 2 

1 Jadgea c XIX. 14—22. 

1 II, ChronicloB c. XXVIII, 8—16 

loth theae qaotations ahow forth in the brightest coloura 
Ikliatioiial virtues of the Eastem Jewa, and theae virtuea 
remain unchang-ed even to the preaent day. 

Finallj- I add a few more cuatoms practised by our 
tircthren in the Eaat: 

1) After the perfomiance of divine aervice In the ayna- 
^ogue, two persona stand at the entrance holding rosea or 
äome aweet amellirig fruit in their handa, and these they 
offer to each passer-by, who., betöre touching theiii, ntters 
die appropriate bSessing. 

2) Whtn one laraelite viaita another, at the entrance 
of the bouae, before leaving, he ia sprinkled with rose 
water, and likewiae receivea enough of the aame to waah 
his face, beard, and bands. 

3) The morning aalutation ia the aame as with usj after 
mid-day one ia greeted with the worda: „Peace be with 
you!" To aeveral persona together, one says : „Qod be 
with you!" to whicb tbey anewer; „God blesa youl" 

4) An Israelite , who travela with a caravan , doea not 
put on hia Taletb, or bis phylacteriea (garments for prayer), 
aut every morning and evening he reada Crlath-Sbema (a 
lortion of the Pentafeuch which treats of the unity of the 

5) Thoae Jewa üving in the mountaina of Kurdistan do 
lot wear Zizith (SchaufädenJ the wLoie day as we do, but 
»nly in the aynagogue. 

6) Divorces are conducted as with ua, but with reapect 
o betrotbals, this diGference exista, that every father may 
■eceive for his daughter up to !ier twelfth year the eoin of 
jetrothal, Thia circumatance often canaea much that 
lisagreeable ; for later should the buaband not pleaae the 
young wife, ahe can refuae to remain with him, and ia al- 
lowed by law to leave him without a letter of divorce. 

7j Sometimea marriages are celebrated by proxy; by 
aending to the bride by a meaaenger the coin of betrothal; 
but at the marriage it must be given agaiu by the band of 
the bridegroom. 

8) If a man dies without leaving children, the brotlier 
of the deceased marriea the widow. 

9j If any one wishea to have two wives, he must give 
eatiBtactory reaaona for it^ for instaiice, that by the firat 
wife he has no children, or only girls. Those, who are not 
JewB, can mariy two wives without giving any such reason. 

10) Many who marry a second wife, pledge themBelves 
only to give her food, but no clothing, these she iiiiist pro- 
vide heraelf. 

11) If a man stops in some place for any length of 
time, he ergages for himaelf a wife during the period of 
hia stay; but doea not take her away with him. 

12) Little chickens are eaten which are not yet fledgfld. 
The inhabitants of those parts know rauch better than ve 
do what birds and fishea it ia peniiitted to eat. 

13) After midnight, a singer coniea into the courtyard 
of the Naaai on the tiabbath and festival nights, and singt 
until break of day. This is also the caee when a stranger, 
whom they wish to Lonour, ia staying among theni. 


BetoTti to GonBtantinople. 

I had seea enough of the East to obtain a kuowledge 
of the country and its inhabitants, and above all el&e to 
flbtain an insight into the condition of the Jews dwelling 
there, and 1 hast'ened now to quit this land of prejadioe 
and oppreasion. 

Ten daya' joui-ney led me through a desert country asd 
over rocky hilla. Solltary guard )iouaea are placed along 
, the road, in order to protect the traffic and the caravani 

pnsBlng through, as well aa to guard the frontiers of the 
üountry from the frequent invasiona of tlie nomadic hordea 
from Babylon. These public guarda are, however, more to 
be feared than the robbera; for they themselves attack the 

For instance, the village of Solata on the extreme 
boundary of the country is a i-egular nest of baadita. Sur- 
rounded by all these dangera I wa& indebted to a former fellow- 
believer, the chief inilitary doctor of the province, J. Beer, 
for friendly advice and much kindneaa. At his suggeation 
I assumed the garb of a priest. He then introduced me to 
the Commander in chief of the guards, who, at my requeat, 
gave other letters of introduction to the several under-offi- 
cers on the route I should travel, By theae meana, my 
joumey waa without danger, aa I waa brought under safe 
protection to the frontier. Without any further diaastera I 
reacbed Bagdad. There I had the misfortune to break my 
leg by a fall frora a horse, and was obliged to remain there 
for twenty-one daya, until I recovered, 

On Wednesday, the 12"' of Jar (14"' of April) 1851 
I left Bagdad in order to retum to Constantinople. I had 
joined a caravan which took the road through the deaert, 
— a jouraey which is calculated to last about fifty daya: 
1 gave myaelf out agaiu for a physician. The caravan 
niimbered 200 well armed men, and on leaving, we were 
joiued by another Company of 250, and later by another 
oi' I0() persona; so that we were now about 600 streng. 

After being han'assed by continual attacka from the 
many hordea of robbera through whoae territoiies we passed, 
on the 27* of Jar (29'" of April) we arrived at Kirkuk, 
where we joined Company with an other caravan of 600 per- 
sona, and now contituied o«r journcy 1200 atrong. Up to 
the 8* Sivan (June) we had to endiire slight ekinuishes al- 
moat daily, but without any important loas; ^d on this 
day we joined a third caravan of 800 persous, and were 
now superior in numbers to any band of robbera we might 
and were thue able to continue o\« joM"rc\e,-^ ■wS.'Oa 



|MSt) ai 


feeling of greater security. Notwithatanding our f 
bere, we were, ho^ever, attacked the very next ( 
were at firat obliged to retreat witli a loss of ten dead 
tifteen wounded; but on the foUowing day we overpowi 
tlie banditü, purBued theiii, Jind took from tliem 35 cai 
and 200 sheep. 

On the 9^ of Sivan (19"' of June), three daya' joni 
trom Kaiput, we found an enormously large serpent caliet 
the Arabs Al-Hasse-Kalil , iymg in the middle of the r 
We killed it, and I should have mnch liked to take 
skin of the gigantio reptile with nie, tf my l'ellow-ti 
had not opposed it. ün the aame day we also metil 
which we scared away. 

Froni Karput, privatinna and attacka began to t 
US in 6ven a greater degree. Thua on the 9"" of Ts 
(O"" of July) we were again attacked, and the combat la 
for three daya and three nights. From t!ie 14"' to the 
Tamus we continned onr joumey unniolested. On the li 
day we were, however, auddeniy aBSaiJed by a double it. 
a fierce and bloody struggle took place, in the cours 
which the caravan was blown up and pillaged. When r 
approached, I took shelter to save niyaelf in a palm ■ 
and the next day I joincd aome of my companions. I 
the good tbrtune to find again one of my cameU, ao tb 
was not quite deprived of all I posaeaaed, and with it, I 
lucky enough to aave several objecta which had been 
fided to my care. Three daya after this circnmstance 
arrived at Sivas, whence I proceeded by another car; 
to the harbour-town of Samaun on the Blak Sea. Then 
embarked for Conatantinople , where I aiiived on the 
of Aw {8"' nf August), fifter a voyage of 36 boui^. 

End of the Oriental journey. 


Depärtnre for 

ürged by a desire for repose after the fatigues and 
hardships of such long and difficult joumies^ I determined 
to remain for a time at Rumelia ^ which plan, however, I 
was unable to carry out. 

After having coUected the remains of my property, I 
trayelled through Servia andHungary and came to Vienna, 
passed through Austria, a great part of Italy, and arrived at 
Rome. Thence I proceeded to Livomo, embarked for Mar- 
seille, went on to Cartesan in Spain, and thence to Oran in 
Älgeria. From Oran I travelled by sea over the whole 
north coast of Africa as far as Tripolis, and retumed by 


Habits, customs and conditiun of the J«ws. 

I, Egypt. 

I begin the account of my African travels withÄiei 
dria in Egypt, as I have aLreadj' mentioned this place i 
[ my first joumey. 

Älthough there are niany and great wonders in Egypt, 

I I paas oyer them liere, as the land of pyramids haa often 

[ teen described by learaed travellers, and ia suflicientiy well 

I known in scientific and geographica! pointa of yiew ; Lere I 

speak only of my brethren in the faith. 

Two Jewish communitiea exist in Alexandria, of whicb 
one 18 formed by nativea, the other by Italians. The Aüi- 
can Community eonsists of about 500 families, the Italian of 
about 150 families. 1 Both, however, ore superintended by 
the same Chacham. His name is llabbi äalomo Chasan, a 
native of Zephat, a rieh and learned man, who Stands in 
high repute not only with our people, but likewiae with 
the Viceroy and the Consula of the Eiiropean powers. Each 
, Community has its own aynagogue; that of the African is 
i large ancient atone biiildiag, and beaide it stand eeveral 
other buildings, in which Jewiah travellera are received and 

iaka of 30OO Jtwi 

iodged. The Italian Synagogue is in another atreet; it is 
s simple houae, one story high. Tbe African Community 
iä now building a new Synagogue near the town, a very targe 
and magniticent edifice, and they assert tliat this identical 
Spot was litewise inhabited by Jews centuriea ago. The 
Synagoguß ia placed in & wonderfully beautifui garden, — 
the most beautiful perliaps in Älexandria or even in tbe 
ifhole of Egypt, — planted witb palma, datea, pomegi'anates, 
ethrock (tbe fruit of Hadar}, and many of the most rare and 
beautifiil flowers. 

Of the condition and occupations of the Jews in Egypt 
I will speak Liter, and will now only mentjoii a peculiar 
oustom, which appeared to me very remarkable. — In 
Alexandria, in tbe house of an African Jew of some impor- 
tiuice, wbom I onco visited on the Sabbath, I found in a 
room a large stuffed divan, over whicb one single large co- 
verlet was spread. Under tbia one coverlet sieep in peace- 
ful harmony tbe several married membera of the family 
ffiäi tbeir wives, eaeb pair occupying a different comer of 
;he divan, — the father and raotber, the grown up aon witb 
liä wife, tbe danghter and her husband &c. — On my 
miling and inquiring if auch a peculiar and objectionable 
ustom was general, I received an answer in the affirmative. 
— During niy stay in Alexandria, I Iodged with a banker, 
'baim Miisero, wbo lived quite in the Eui'opean style, and 
rboae bouae waa also arranged in tbe European fasbion. 

Tbe town itself, ita flouriabing trade, ita beautiful Euro- 
ean atyle of building, its broad streets and markets, aa 
/eil as the naagnificeut plantations surrounding it, are all 
generaily known tbat I abould not like to venture a de- 
cription of tbem. 

Froni Alexandria I proceeded by an Arabian sbip to 
he village of Mackmadia on the Nile, aituated at a day's 
ourney from Alexandria, and connected with it by a 
anal. Near Mackmadia the canal is closed by two 
irge gates; all ahipa coming from Alexandria are iin- 
ideo before theae gatea, and their cargoee {ilaced m odiub'e 


^H barks which take tliem on larther. The villa^fe of Maek- 
^^M madia is a dirty spot, inhabited by about 400 Arabe, ^ all, 
^^y both men and women, most base and depraved. l'hey for- 
^H aierly lived in Alexandria, btit when Ibrahim PacLa rebuill 
^^M the ,town in tbe Hiiropean Btylc, he turued them out of tL« 
^H old Btreets, and they then founded in Mackmadia a colony 
^H of their own. 

^V Thence I again proceeded by an Arabian ship to Caiw; 

^V the joorney lasted six days, The voyage on the Nile is i» 
^M every respcct moat agreeable; the landacapo charming; al- 
^m most every hour villages and towns are passed, and everj- 
^B thing that is neceasary can be procured. I found partica- 
^H iarly little chickena, called by the Arabs Jetch-Srir, vety 
^M cheap berö: these chickens are brod in great nurObers, are 
^M hatched in ovena, and are very fat. The ovons arranged tbr 
^B this purpose are almost heruietically Bealed, and are always 
^H divided into compartments; the Arabs who turn the eggs iu 
^M the Oven, and who have the chai-ge of these things at tbe 
^H establishments , are veiy pale and wasted owing to the 
^H excessive heat which it is necessavy to keep up for the 
^H hatching of the eggs: I waa told that these people never 
^^ lived to old flge. — Large gardena are laid out at the 
1. mouth of the Nile, in whieh a great quantity oi" cucurobere 

(Arabic dilla), nielons (batich), and pumpkins (kishua) are 
grown. — One day I went to a village in Order to buy 

IBome bread, there was none to be had: an Arab aaked 
me to wait a few minntes, and he would get some for me. 
He took quickly aomc flour and water and made some 
dougb, shapod it into the form of a cake, and placed it 
in tbe sun: in a fe^v minutes the cake waa ready. This 
reminded me of the departure of the children of Israel from 
Egypt, — for the Bible telh us that they took their dough 
upon their Shoulders, and baked it in the sun, (An accoont 
of the Medraah Rabba.) 
On the sixth day we arrived at Baluck, tlie harbour 
of Cairo. There ia a steam-boat from Mackmadia to Baluck, 
and bv this the joumey only laets eighteen hours; 

to tialucK, 
urs; bi^^^ 


went by another ship, os I wished to see something of the 
Ticinity and ita inhabitants, From Buluck to Cairo is a 
distonce of an hour's joumey through beautiful gardens; the 
landscape is intersccted by many canals t'or the piirpoae of 
imgation. The inundations of the Nile are celebrated hy a 
festival. The inhabitants arrange partiea of pleasure on the 
water; the Bounda of nierry niu&ic are heard, and joy reigna 
aroimd; forafruitfiil proaperousyear is expected,becauBethere, 
fiir want of rain, it is the Nile alone that irrigates the soll. 

In Cairo aho there are two Jewish comiimuities ; one 
African, and one Italian. The tirst nunibers about 6000 far' 
milies, and the latter from 200 to 250 families.i In the year 
1846 the two comiaunitiea sent for a Chacham, Eliahu Israel, 
from Jerusalem, as their Chacham had died. The new Cha- 
«Iiam had two wives, as had also my host with whom 1 
lodged in Cairo, Mailum Moses Mosero, a money-changer, 
and the father of my fonner host in Alexandria, The two 
communities togcther have eight synagogues, of which one ia 
ealled the Synagogue of Rambam (Maimonides), It containa 
several apartnienta for the reception of travellers. The 
town ia large and thickly populated; bnt the sti-ects are 
Darrow and very dirty, although, on account of the intense 
beat, thcy are besprinkled with water three times a day. 

From Cairo to Ancient-Cairo, which the Jewe call Ma- 
sar-al-Atik, is about an hour's joumey. Many ruins are to 
be found on thia road, and the town of Ancient-Cairo itself 
is also nearly a ruin. Only a few poor Araba live there, 
and ten Jewisb faniilies, likewise very poor, and supported 
by their richer brethren in Oairo. Tliere are two Syna- 
goguea in the place, of which the firat, At-Karkujan, is fallen 
into ruins, but the aecond, Al-Shamjan, although a veiy 
cient building, is still in good condition. Some of the Jew« 
call tho latter Synagngue Kenessetb -Eliahu , and aasert that 
Elijah once appeared there. It ia supported inside by twelve 
marble columns, and bas two sacred arka of the oovenant, 

. i Benjamin at Tadels, p. 1 

W8 ^1 

lat ■ 


one placed over the other. Over the Upper one is aD in- 
scriptiou in Square Hebrew chai-acters, which, however, has 
become defaced by time and almost illegible. This ark of 
the covenant ia carefuliy locked, and no one is permitted 
to go up and open it, I requested the attendant to allow 
me to do so in order to see what the ehest contained; but 
he reftiHed mj request, and told me tbat he had now held 
bis ofiice for 20 years, but had never himself once gone up, 
. it was believed that he who did so would die in the 
me year. He fuvther told me that thia ehest contained 
manuacripts written by the renowned Ezra, and that the 
ehest was thua kcpt carefuliy closed to protect theni from 
injury. Wben I beard tliis, I urged my request the roore, 
bat, nothwitlistanding all my pleadings and entreaties, I 
oould not succeed in obtaining permission to see the Con- 
tents of the ehest. When I foimd thia, I remarked laughing 
that doubtiess the whole affair was but a fable, invcnted by 
8ome Chacbam in order to act upon the credulity of th« 
people: whereupon they called me a reformer, who would 
not believe in miracles.i 

As the matter, however, deeply interested me, I made 
reaearches and inqulriea conceming it, aought in many 
books for aome aceount of the Pentateuch, but was not able 
) leam or find out anytbing about it. At last in 1854, 
when I was at Tlenisan in Algeria, lodging in the house 
of a certain Moaes Sarboth, a learned and rieh man, who 
poaaeaaed an extensive library, I happened, accidentally 
one eleepless night, to take up some books'in order to 
study, and in the second pai't of the Shem Hagdolim at the 
letter Ajin (ä) I found as followa: In the year 5248 Rabbi 
Obadiah of Bartannra waa in Cairo ; baving left that place 
for Jerusalem, he wrote a letter to hia father, in which he 
»peaka thua: „I was in Ancient-RIizraim, and went into the 
synagogae of Elijah, where was a Pentateuch kept tn » 

ehest in the handwriting of Ezra. A traveller from Western 
coantries bribed the attendant, took out the Pentateuch, and 
went away with it. But when he was at sea, ho was ship- 
wrecked and drowned, aiid the Pentateuch was lost with 
him: the attendant died in the same jear." The author of 
the Sheni Hagdolim adds that whec he was in Ancient- 
Cairo he was likewiae told about tbis Pentateuch; but when 
he went into the Synagogue they would not ahow it to him, 
and the Chacbamim oi' the town had told him in con^dence 
that the above account was correct, aud that in the ark of 
the covenant there was now only "an empty ehest. I found 
aftenvards in the tirst volume of the Shem Hagdolim at the 
same letter (ä) as in the sccond volume, a paseage where 
the author nientiona that later in the five books of Moaea, 
printed at Amsterdam with the commentaries Chinach and 
Dewed Tow, he had found in the part Waichi a remark of 
Rabbi Menacbem Halevi, wbich asaerts that the Kambam 
(Maimonides) had copied the five book of Moses from the 
Pentateuch in Ancient-Mizraim, and that this Pentateuch 
had been brought at the time of the Talmndista from Jeru- 
salem to Ancient-Mizraim. Later the Eambam heard that 
in Burgiindy there was really a Pentateuch written by the 
band of Ezra, upon which he ivent there and cxamjned it, 
and found that the Parahiot, Pituchot, and Sithumoth quite 
accorded with thoae copied by himself in Ancient-Mizraim. 
The date of this fact was the 28* of Sivan (Jar, May). — 
Thus the whole tradition of this Pentateuch and ita author- 
ahip by Ezra is false; but I had obtained the desired er- 
planation, and was glad that I had considered the wbola' 
afEair from the beginning as a fable. 

Without tho city of Ancient-Cairo is shewn a Syni 
gogue, which is asserted to have been the house of prayer 
of Moses, and the Jews call the building after bis name.' 
This tradition may possibly be true, as in Exodus IX. 29 
we read, that Moses said to King Pharaoh: „As soon as I 


B«nJMiiin of TadeU, p. 103, likewise epeaka of Um S^fnago^oa. 

am f^one out (if tlie city , 1 will spread abroad luy haods 
unto the Lord." 

Several other ancient and interesting remains are to be 
fonnd here; for instance, a sniall palace built of different 
kinds of stone, wliich belonged to Josepb; only the uppei 
part of which ia deeayed. This building is siuTounded by 
a wall, and called by the Arabs Beth-el-Joseph; and from the 
terrace there is a üne extensive view as far as the desert. 

J^ear this building ia a very deep pit, to whicb there 
is a desceiit of 570 stepa, hewn out of the eartb. It is 
called by the Araba Bir-al- Joseph (Joaeph's pit), and they 
aasert it is the dungeon into wliich Joseph was thrown by 
Potiphar. Two Ärab girls with lights accompany tbose ti'a- 
vellers wbo wish to esamino the place, and for this they 
Charge one piastre, Down in the pit is to be found a very 
&esh clear spring of water, and likewiee & catafalque, in 
which rest, they say, the remains of a servaiit of Joseph, 
buried there by order of bis raaster. It was in forraer times 
often the caae that travellera visiting this pit were miirdered 
and robbed by the Arabs; biit thia is now prevented by 
means taken by the authorities for public eafety. 

The dress of the Egyptian Jews resembles that wora 
by the Jews in Turkey, Many wear white turbans, and 
they often dress with great splendour. The women are 
also attired like thoae of Turkey; their headdress alone 
differs from tbat of the Turkish Jewessea, for they wear a 
red fez , the tasael of whicb consists of long single atlkeii 
tbreada, hanging down to the feet. At the end of eaoh 
thread is tastened a silver or eome other coin, whereby this 
headdreas is niade very heavy. I once had such a fez in 
my band, and I should reckon its weight to have been aboul 
ten pounds. The long tasseis with the coina attachcd to 
them cause quito a ringing sound when the women appear 
in the street, The general language in apeaking and writing 
is Arabic, but many also epeak Itaiian. All are very i 

ab 7 ^^ 

! and generous to strangera. I remarked in the Syna- 
tbat tbeir intonation in tlie reading of the portion 
r the week is quite rtifferent from that of the German and 
i Jews; but it was good, and had a particularly 
biying impressioD. 
ä* The houses are handaome, and richly ornamented in- 

side, but they have iio Windows: light coniea from the ter- 
ratic above. — The rieh live almost completely in the 
European etyle; and as already nientioned, niany young 
cfaickens and pigeons, whicb are uncommonly cheap, are 
eaten here. 

On aecount of the heat, the water for drinking ia very 
tiat ; and in Order to make it cool and drinkable , they use 
cooling vessels made out of a kind of bluish earth; these 
vessels are filled over night, aiid placed upon the teiracea. 
From Cairo I embarkeJ for Damietta; the journey 
Ueted eight daya on account of the water being low, at 
high tide it ean he accomplistied in four days. 

The Jews assert that Damietta ia Caphtorim mentioned 
in the Bible. The Targum translatea it into Kaputkai, and 
by tliiä name it is designated by the Talraudiats. ' 

In Damietta dweil 50 Jewiah families;^ they have a 
Synagogue, but no Chacham, only a slaughterer. 

Out brethren there are chiefly oecupied in the aale of 

red fozes, datea, tobacco, cotton, ailk, and other productions, 

^^Ib this city are the Conaula of the European powera, 

^^^ Between Cairo and Damietta aeveral acattered Jewish 

^H|tai>munitiea ai'e to be found in some of tlie towiis, but 

tttey have faUeu into auch a State of ignorance, as to be 

unable to repeat a Hebrew prayer. Even the alaughterer 

cannot read bis Dinim (inatructiüns) in the llebrew language, 

but he haa them in Arahic. 

Six hours' journey do\vn the Nile from Damietta ia the 
TÜlage of Eaha; here the ahipa wait for a favourable wind, 

KDenMis c, X. 1 
Bonjuniii of Tu 

BpeukB of äOO Jews. 

before entering the Mediterraneau Sea. — Geapecting the 
general condition of the Jewa in Egypt, I will only add 

that oiir bretliren live tappily there nnder the present Oo- 
verument, and enjoy every privüege. They trade with all 
coimtriea of Europe, — particularly with England, — aaid 
even with the tartheat parts of the world. There are manj 
very rieh Bankers amoiig them. — I believe they owe all 
the Privileges they enjoy to the preponderating infliience of 
the European Consuls. 

This country ofFera every meana of aafety for travellers. 


H ext 
■ hi> 


n. Trabolus (Tripoli di Berberice). 

The town of Tripoli is on the Mediterranean Sea; itj 
a eonsiderable commercial town and has a large population, 
coinpoaed chiefly of Muasulraana. The Jewish eommunity 
numbers about 1000 familiea: it has four Chachamim, who 
are ealled Dajanini (Justicea of the place). The eldeat is 
named liabbi Abraham Adadi, the aecond Rabbi Shalom 
Agaw, — he ia blind; the third Rabbi Joseph Rüben, and 
tho foiirtb Rabbi Fredjah. Tbey are all very well versed 
in the Talmud and in tbe Codex. The Community has eight 
Synagogues, which, since the Turkish Government has been 
eatablished there , have been enlarged and well arranged. 
They have also teauhers to instruct the cbJIdren in Uebrew 
and Italian. The Cbaid (Naaei) of the eommunity is Rabbi 
Shalom Titu, a rieh and learned man, who posaeases an 
extensive library (Jeahiva) in his houae, and on account of 
hia probity he ia held in as much esteera by the Pacht 

he is by the Jewe and Christiana. He is the partner of 
oDOther rieh merchant named Moses (Ärabic Misani), and 
canies on considerable commercial transactions with Sudan. 
He imports goods froni France and Italy, and the Araba 
frora Sudan come to hira with caravatiB bringing him dyes 
and ivory, for which they receive European articles in ex- 
changc, These Arahs repose auch perfect eonfidence in 
him, that they abnost exciusively do busineas with hira, 
and if tliey do any busineas with othera , they certainly 
always desire beforehand to have bis opinion and ad- 
vice. Ile is about forty yeara of age, haa a liandsome 
wife and two aona, of whom the eldest, Eliahu, is fifteen, 
and the youngeat, laaac, twelve yeara of age. He has bis 
two Bona inatructed by European teachers in the Arabic, 
Hebrew, and Italian languages. He haa likewiae two 
daughtera, of whom the eider, Aaiaa, ia ten, and the other 
three yeara oid. Hie mother, who atill livea, ia highly 
respected in bis houae. His dwelHng, which Stands in an 
open apace, is charmingly situated : he Uvea quite in the 
Kuropean style, though the house ia arranged according to 
the customs of the country. He is at the aame time very 
religinus, and never goea to hia busineas without having first 
studied two hours with the young Ghachamim, of whom 
there are several in the town. Every Saturday all the Cha- 
chamim assemble in hia houae, and the whole night ia 
spent in studying tjie Talmud and sacred hiatory. For 
the Space of two raontha I lodged with tbia hoapitable and 
leamed man, and I have made the above reinarks in 
acknowledgcment of bis great kindness. 

In the town there were several othcr respected and 
well-informed nien, whom I likewise feel myaelf obliged to 
mention : Kabbi Joseph Ohalifi, broker to the French Consul, 
& very rieh man, who also held literary meetinga evOTy 
Saturday ; and a third, Rabbi Chaim Sirusi, who had several 
Chachamim studying in his house, and a beautiful Jeahiwa. 
This last Rabbi has two wivea. 

The Community has an especial overseer, Kabbi Jacob- 

Lokaeach, for the relief of the poor, who mani^öe the fiind« 

the Community. The aupport of the poor and of the 

PiChachamim is managed by every merchant giving weekly 

5 per Ct. on the g.iiii of his businesB for this purpose. The 

I overseer forthe poor goea every week to the commercial pcople, 

examines theii- booka, and takes in cash ÖperCt. of the profits, 

The Jews here are very religious. Every Monday and 

Thuraday the Dajanim aettle processes and adjust quarrels. 

If any one has committed a crime againat religion, lie ia 

brought before the Cadi or the Chachamim, and punished 

by a fine or by the bastinado. Every morning and evening 

moBt of the inhabitanta repair to the Synagogue to perfonn 

iieir devotiona, and many men and wonien fast every new 

moon. In the newmoou of the month ot' ElliU (August) al- 

most all the JewB fast until the day of atonement; and the« 

are even women who fast during the whole of tbe we^. 

At the end of the week there is a lai^e fcast prepared, to 

which all &ienda and acquaintances are invited, and varions 

I kindfi of contits and sweetmeats are sent to the botiaes oi 

those who are not able to come. On the Sabbath and 

festival daya all go to the Synagogue, and they peiform 

their devotiona there with greater fervour than I liave gene 

f rally seen elsewhere. 

I I remarked in the Hynagogue that on Friday eveninga 
kthe prayer Shemona Ezra (silent prayer) is prayed aloud 
Iby the reciter; a cuatom which ia not permitted by the law. 
I 'On inquiring the reasou for thia, 1 was told that fonnerly 
I in their ignoranue they had c>nly celebrated the Sabbath- 
day until a Chaeham liad iustructed them in the observiiice 
of Friday evening and, in meraory of thia, they had deter- 
I mined to h^e thia prayer recited alond. 

I Many dreas in the aame faahion as in Tunis, othera in 

i the fashion of Algiers, and many others weai' a peculiar 
t coatume conaiating of a long garment reaching to the kneea, 
l'H short buraon, white trousera reaching to the kneea, and 
I red shoea. The women wear for headdreas a red fez, wound 
jpeBpd with a MJk kerehiaf, and handaomdy 


in differeat ways. To this ia added a long garment, and 
a wide shawl hanging firom the head, thrown gracefaUy 
round the upper part of the body. They wear sÜppers but 
no stoeküiga, their hands and feet are decked with gold and 
ailver rings, the nails painted red and the eyebrows black. 

Many streets are inhabited aimost entirely by Jews al- 
thoagh they have the privilege of fixing their residence in 
any part they like. Several fanuliee of Italian Jews ar 
be found ainong thera, but they do not form any especial 
Community of themeelves. — Among others is a family of 
the name of Selva, who has immigrated from Spain, where 
they were formerly Christians. Our feliow-worshippers live 
free and happily at Tripoli; they carry on a considerable 
trade, and are mostly very ricli, Many of them hold Go- 
vernment appointments in the Cuatom-House. Respecting 
tbeir uaages and habits at birtha, marriages and deaths, I 
shall apeak in conclusion when I name those of all the 
other African Jews; for their customs are the aame throughout. 

The climate of Tripoli ia very bad; and the inhabitantB 
suSer particuiarly from severe diseases of the eye. Almost 
a fifth part of the whole population auffer in this way, and 
neariy a tenth part are completely blind, so that I never 
saw ao many blind persons aa in thia place. This diaease 
however seems to confine itself oniy to the natives, for the 
Europeans are not affected by it, and can bear the climate 

At the eaat and west of tbe town ofTripoli are several ■ 
villages which have likewise sorae Jewish inhabitants. Two , 
hours' joumey to the east is the village of Amrua; here 
there are 50 Jewish families, who have a synagogue and j 
skughterer. Two houi's' joumey farther on is the village 
of Tiauri, which contains 70 Jewish families. In these two 
villages and their vicinity there are some remarkably beauti- 
fiil palmwoods and vineyarda. A drink called Lagwi (palm- 
wine) is extracted frora these palm trees; it ia swect, and 
bas a pleasant flavour, but intoxicates very easily; it ia sold , 
fi>r 1 piastre the occa. It is prepared in the foUowing way; 

the crowDB of tlie fineat palm trees oje cut off, and the pari 

I 18 covered with a parttcular kind of plaBter. After abouE 
fifteen days, when the whole sap of the tree haB Leen tlius 
drawn up, araall pieces, to act aa tapa, are then inserted into 
the tnmk of the tree, and beneath these, veasels are placed, 
into which the wine runs, 1 was told tliat in this mannei 
sometimes lüOO to 1500 piastrea wortb of wine cotild be 
drawn from one tree ; but the tree diea in uonsequence. 

I A journey of a day and a- half from here is the village 

of Mualata, close to a large chain of mountains, uear the 

[ coast; here growa a particalarly excellent grape. In this 
little place live about 150 Jewisb famüiea, who bave a Cha- 
cbam named Rabbi Moshe; the Nassi of the üttle conuuu- 
nity is Mailum Pinchas; they likewjse have a synagogue. 
Again another day and a half'a journey from tbia place 
over a sandy moimtain lies the village of Zelitna, where are 
100 Jewiah familiea. Here good wine is produced, much 
com growH, and there are scvcral palms. A journey of a 
day and a half farther on, after paseing througb a little 
deaert, one arrives at the village of Mesurata; here live 
about 100 Jewiah families, who have two aynagogues. Very 
few palms are to be found near this village, but good wine 
and frnits. It lies cloae to the Mediten-anean Sea, and 
carries od no smaü trade with Malta. 

After a jom-ney by sea of four daya I came to the 
town of Bengasi. Here dwell about 400 Jewisb families, 
who are divided into two communitiea,. of which one is 
callad the comnmnity of Tripoli, and the other the Commu- 
nity of Bengasi. Each eoinmuuity has ita own particultu* 
synagogue, but they are botb superbtended by the 8«ne 
Chacham, Rabbi Isaac Chaifon. 

The villagea I viaited to the weat of Tripoli are the 
following: Eight boura' journey from the town liestiawia, a 
village, where very extensive palm plantations are to bo 
found, and from whence qnantitiea of dates are exported. 
The Jewisb community consiata of about 40 families, wbo 

K have a Chaoham and a synagogue. — Two days' JOxaailg^ 

243 ^^^^ 

farther on, through deserta and over moiintainB is the village 
of Djebel, extending along two sides of a mountain: hence 
ita name. The inhabitants of this place occupy theiiiselvea 
entirely in agriculture and cattle breeding. Thei'e are 100 
Jewisl» families here, whose Nassi is Isaac Mcdina. In one 
part of the village Stands a synagogue called Grebe, to 
which pilgi'imagea are niade. The Arabs consider this syna- 
gogue sacred, and relate fabulouB wondera conceming it; 
hence it is that all thia aynagogne contains is porfectly aafe 
from pillage. .— An hour's joumey froin here is a small 
Castle called Birs-al-Askar, in which abont 1000 men are 
stationed, in order to auppress any turbulent movement which 
might be made. — A joumey of a day and a half farther 
on, through a very flat coiintry in which graze iiumeroua 
flocks of sheep, brings one to the village of fjhurian, where 
120 Jewish familiea reaide, whose Nassi ia called Chomani. 
Thia village ia employed in agricultural piu-suits and in the 
breeding of cattle; many figtreea alao are found here, — Two 
hours' journcy from thence ia the village of Beneabbas. In 
these two last mentioned villages the inhabitants have the 
extraordinary custom of building their houses in the ground, 
which have the advantage of being agreeably cool in auramer 
and warm in winter. 

In all the above mentioned villages the houses are most 
wretched. In the apartments, mats of palm twigs are apread 
over the bare floor, and upon theae the inhabitants repose; 
carpeta are nowhere to be Seen. Their dresa is dirty; it 
coiiaists of a fez bound round with a kerchief, a gannent 
reaching to the kiiees, and trouaera of the same length. 
They continue to wear the same articies of clothing unti! 
they drop into rags ; on Saturday, however, they change their 
linen. They put on a burnon when they go out. The women 
wear a long robe omamented with silver coina and medala, 
and e fez the same aa the men. They wiap a woollen 

I «hawl round their liead aud the upper part of their bodj; 
I their feet are omamented with rings, and are bare üke 
[ those of the men. Their holiday attire ia but seldom washed, 
their every day clothea Jtßver; it can eaeily therefore be 
[ imagined that tkey are very dirty, 

I I took a siiitable opportunity to luake inquiries of 

I BOme of my feilow-worahippers, how it was that so 

' Ettle importance was attached to either cleanlinesa of 

peraon or of dresa; for beaidea the disagreeable impreasion 

their uiicleanliness niade on every one, tliey were moreover 

acting against the law, aa the Eible in several placea gives 

directions respecting the eleansing and waahing of apparel. 

In anawer to this, I waa told that it was caused by fear of 

I the Arabs, who, if they saw them different would imagine 

[ they were rieh, and plunder them daily. Thia excuae 

' seemed plausible. 

For two hours early in the moming the women are oc- 
cupied in grindjng the com, frora. whicb they afterwarda 
make bread: one may generally hear them singing at their 
task. It Struck me particularly that the beda of theee people 
were in a remarkably good condition. Their food ia very 
bad; two of their dishea, which are considered delicacies, 
but which would diagust an European, ai-e the foUowing: 
Zu-meta and Buai. The first ia thus prcpared: bariey ia 
dried until it ia almoat scorched, after which it is ground, the 
flour aifted and mised with ground carroway aeeds. Some 
water is then poured over this misture, it ia preaaed and 
kneaded in tlic hand until it becomes dough, and thia ia caten 
with raw onions. They drink water with it, and the diah 
ia much reliahcd. Bvsi ia prepared in the foUowing way: 
water ia boiled, and salt and wheat flour poured into it; 
thia is well atirred together, until it becomes a thick, hard 
dough, which ia put into a large djali; a greasy aauce is 
then made and poured over it. The whole famüy then aeat 
k themeelvea round the diah, and, as knives and forks are 
\ not known, each plunges bis band into the dish, teara otf a 
Portion of the dough, dips it aeveral timea into the gl 

sauee, and then eats it, Tlie wliole proceedüig was so 
diBgusting to me, that I really could not look at it, and 
these two delicacies of the country are enjoyed alike by 
Jeivs and Christians, sick and healthy. From this, some 
idea can be formed of the discomforts a ti-aveller in these 
countries has to endure. 

Besides agricultural pursuits aud tlie breeding of cattle, 
the cultivation of the wine and the planting of dates, palma, 
and pomegranatos are the principal employments of the 
Jews in these villagcs. They likewise employ themselvea 
in weaving, and make wooUen covera for sale, blacksmitha 
and locksmiths are also to be foimd among them, and niakers 
of peculiar brushee used in dressing woollon eloths. Jews 
in bad circurastances are very seldoni to be found here ; 
many of them are very wealthy, and almost all can obtain 
a livelihood; for as the Ärabs themselves pay no attention 
to trade, they purchaae all they require of the Jews. Those 
who live near the sea cari'y on likewise a wine and corn 
trade. — Although Government permits them perfect 
freedom, they still suffer much from the fanaticiam of the 

Besides the above mentioned villagea, there are othere 
still in which Jews reside; bat as I have not aeen them, 
l can say nothing of them. 

All the Jews of theae vill^es are under the super- 
intendance of the Chachamim of Tripoli, for all the but- 
rotmding neighbonrhood belonga to the Pachalik of that 


m. Tunis. 


Prom Tripoli, Tunis can be reached by Und as well 
as bj water. I chose the latter mode of travelling, as the 
joamey by land is very dangerous, and at the end of Sep- 
tember 1853, I embarked in an Arab ship going to Zerbi. 
With a favourable wind the voyago lasts from two to three 
days, but we were surpriaed by a sudden storm, so tbat for the 
Space of eight daya we were beaten to and fro, and at length 
driven back to Tripoli, where, cloac to the harbour, oor 
ahip was dashed to pieces. The passengera, however, were 
Bayed. I remaioed there during the festival days, and then 
embarked for the second time, and after a pasaage of two 
daya arrived safely at Zerbi. 

Before entering the town, a quarantine of ten days 
haa to be performed, for which purpose a large build- 
ing haa been erected close to the sea, and in that dirty 
house the ten daya appear to pass to the traveller like ten 

The town of Zerbi is divided into two parts, of which 
one ia on the coast. In this pai-t are situated tbe manu- 
factoriea &c. and huainess is cai-ried on. The beat Taleths 
to be found in Turkey are made at this place. In this 
portion of the town Uve alao the European Consuls 
and the rieh Mahomedans. Half an honr's journey from 
and aepai'ated froin it by a tract of aand, is the 
other part of Zerbi, and in thia part reaide the Jewish 
habiUuita, omnberias about five famtdred families. 



liave several Chachamim, of whom the tirst Rabbi ie calied 
Salomo Matuk, and the second ßabbi, Niaim Semama: the 
Cbachamim are not paidbythe Community, for they tbemaelvea 
are rieh manufacturers. The place haa two synagogues, 
both tolerably large; one of theni is attented by Cohanim 
(priests) only, and ia therefore caJled the Pricata' Öynagogue. 
In no town are so many priests to be found as here; they 
fonm nearly a third part of the Community, The Jews are 
Tery religious and well instnicted in the Talmud; forming 
3. contraat to thoae living in Tripoli, who are rather Igno- 
rant. Their trade flourishes, and they likewiae many of 
theni poaaesa large manufactories, in which Taletha, turbans, 
wooUen and cotton atuffa are prepared. They likewise 
occupy themselves with cultivating the soll and the wine. 
Their eomraereial intercourse is directed particularly towarda 
Malta, and many Europeana likewise come to Tunia for bu- 
ainess tranaactiona. Their dwellings are tolerable, but their 
tbod is bad; barley bread is eaten, and it is only when a 
atranger viaita a house that wheaten bread ia baked in 
bis honour. , 

Numeroua seorpions are found in Zerbi, and many deaths 
are yearly caused by the ating of tbcae dreadfal animala. 

The men dresa according to the fashion of Tunis, with 
only the difference that they wear no atockings, but only 
red ahoos. The women dresa according to the aame faahion, 
and wben they go abroad they wrap themselves in a large 
wooUcn shawl, so that nothing can be seen of the face. 
They also wear neither shoea nor atockings; and if one of 
thern were to do it, ahe would be thought a woman of no 
character, who wiahed to make herseif remarkable. The 
houBea are built in the most simple nianner possible, of street 
dirt and stones; inaide and outaide daubed with lime or 
chalk. Every one ia his own architect, and builds according 
to hie own taste, but it can only be done in winter, as, other- 
wise, he would bo in want of the greatest requiaite — street 
dirt — which is only to be had at that time of tbe year 
nhen the rain falls. A heavy rain penetratea into thew aU^^sSl^,^ 

B)iiilt houaes, as they are only fumiabed with terraces trad ' 
Hiave no roofs. In the year 1853 in the month of Oetober it 
nained very heavily tbr the space of three days ; thereby 
Btwo thirds of the town were destroycd, — almost all the houses 
Kajured, — and quite a lake formed itself betvi'een tbe two 
■parts of the town, so that, in order to get from one part 
Mio the othev, they bad to make use of ahips and canoeB. 
PThe warehouses also were much damaged. 
I Two hours' journey to the Soutb-East of the town is the 

1 village of Deged, which containa 50 Jewish faniilies, and 
■ bas a Bmall synagogue. Äbout half an bour's journey from 
Vtbis place the Community haa another toierably large aod 
f ancient Bjnagogne, which they call Grebe. To this syna- 
gogue they repair to perform their devotiona on Mondays, 
Tbursdays, and Saturdaya, as well as on festival days. This 
synagogue is considered very sacred; and they relate that 
a stone was once found bere witb tiie inacription : ,jUp to 
tbis place came Joab ben Zeruja — the general of King 
David." I desired to aee tbia atone, but I was told that 
it was walled in the place where stood tbe sacred core- 
Imuit of the ark. Tbe synagogue has no Windows, as is 
I tbe case witli all synagogues in all placea in Tripoü. I ■v nMn 
I informed that this arrangement had been made, in od^H 
' tbat the Äraba should be prevcnted from throwing fire i^^H 
I tbe building from tbe outside. ^^| 

Two daya' journey by aea ffom Zerbi ia the town of 
rCabes; here dwell about 100 Je^vish families, Their Chacham 
I and Nassi ia David Cohen, wbo has two wives, is very rieb, 
f and carries on a great business witb the tract of land oalled 
I lerit, in the deaert, thi'cc days' journey from Cabea. In the 
I manufactoriea of Cabea are made the burnons for the wbole 
I territory of Tunis; the Arabs likewise carry on a great 
[ trade in cattle. The dreas and cnstoms resemble those of 
[ Zerbi, only tbe women have theii- faces uncovered, and on 
I their feet they wear red shoes but no stockings. The Jewa 
l occnpy themaelves chiefly in agriculture, and witb wine and 
«ahn plantationB. The Arabs employ themselves muck 


thebreeäing of cattle, particularly of sheep and camels. In 
the year 1853 the rain did here also much daniage. 

Half an hour'a journey from CabeB is a little place 
called Sara, in whieh dweU about 50 Jewish familiea, who 
employ themselves in the same raanner aa thoae living in 
Cabes. The ruler of the place liveB at Tunis, and only 
comes to this neighbourhood for three months in the Sum- 
mer. With him eome the receiver of taxes for the Govern- 
ment of Tunis, Cadi Nathan Shemana, with his son Salomo, 
and they collect the ti'ibutea, The tax-receiver, who has a 

^military escort with him, pitcbcs hia tent about an hour's 
distance from tbia place, and thither tbe Araba of the whole 
locality repair to pay their dues. In this place there are 
laany warm mineral Springs, but tbey are not uaed by the 
inha,bitant3 of the country, their valuable properties not 
being known: I have bathed in them aevcral times, and 
experienced their invigorating effects. 

I have still to mention a few inore placea which I have 
not viflited myself, but have beard described. Three days' 
joiimey from Cabes lies, in tbe desert, a tract of country 
called Isrit, and by the Jews called Crez Hatmarim {country 
of datea); here likewise grow many palms. There are se- 
veral towns in tbis little country. The first ia Gaffa, two 
days' journey farthcr on ia Tozer, again one day'a journey 
farther on Nefta, and another day'a journey still farther Ga- 

Iinar, wfaere meet the boundariea of Tunis and Algeria. 
JewB live in all these placea, and have a Chacham in com- 
mon, named Rabbi Salomo Bursil, a very learned and good 
man. The Jewish inhabitante , as well aa the native Arabs 
occupy themaelves in agricultural pursuita, the breeding of 
cattle, and the cultivation of datea and palma; but few 
I carry on any trade. — Theae statementa I have heard ver- 
I faally from nativea. 

I From Cabes to Sfax one can travel by land or water; 

I bothwaya are, however, very unsafe; the former ou aceount 
I of the Bedouins, and the lattor owing to the great ignorance 
^nof the captains of the ships. I prefered tKe ncs^&^'& "ci^ ^'^'^ 


rbut we Lad to uudergo man^ hardeliipa, Several tinies we 
were in danger of being dashed on tbe rocke, and the flow 
und ebb of the tide cauaed ua rauch trouble. Our journcj 
lasted ten days, so tbat at length our proviaions were ex- 
hausted, We arrived at tbe Jittle island of Kerkena, eigb- 
teen hours' joumey in length and four houi's' in breadth, 
between Cabea and Sfax. The Island is unfruitfiil and nn- 
eultivated; only wild datea grow there. The Arabs Biipport 
themaelves by fisbing, and seil dried fish, with which we 
eatisfied our bunger during the last four days of our voyage, 
The inhabitaiita of the ialand pay no taxea, for they are all 
Holdiers. On tho tcnth day we aiTived at Sfax, and when 
I first saw the place, it seemed to me aa if I waa entering 
a paradiae. The etreets ai'e paved and clean, the houses 
very neat and in appearance comfortable , the food good, 
and well tasted. Nearly 150 Jewiah familiea live here, and 
they have two aynagogues. The Chacham of the Community 
i named Rabbi Saul Chay, the Nassi Rabbi Eliahu Suback. 
The latter, with whom I lodged, ia alao tax-colleetor iw 
the Government, and very rieh. Several Italian familiea also 
dwell here. — The Jews carry on extensive commercial 
transactions, and stand in mercantile connexion with Tunis, 
Malta and Italy, to which they export wool, cotton, com 
and olive eil. Their dresa reaembles that of the Jews of 

In Sfax the ebb and flow of the tide ia very atrongi it 
ia daily 12 houra, from niidnight until midday, and the 
water recedes about an honr'a journey, ao that the ships 
Btand dry. From here one can go by sea to Mebedia, Mick- 
, Monaatir and Husa; but, as I had endured so many 
discomforts during my last sea journey, I joined a caravan, 
and detemiined to try the land-route. The Chacham of 
Sfax travelled with me. The road ia through deaerts and 
over monntains, and lasta five days. 

Halfway ia a Valley, about an hour's journey in breadth, 
the soil of wliich is quite white, as if eovered by a croat 
of aalt; the Arabs call it Geh-Melch (valley of aalt). 

aalt). 9|gJ 

Jew5 of tho \'icinity assert Üiat thia is tlie apot mentioned 
in Psalm LX, 2, and say that Joab ben Zeroja came up to 
this apot wjth his^ariuy, hs tke Pealni relates, I asked for 
8ome prüofs of this assertion ; upon which my travelling 
companion, Chacham Saul, explained to me that about an 
honr'a diatauce from here was a village called Elgemme, 
whero the Caravans halt, and here there was a large, an- 
cient, stone bnilding with a Hebrew inscription, the purport 
of which was as follows : „Ad Khan Higia Joab ben Zeroja" 
(that is to say: „Up to this place came Joab the aon of Ze- 
ruiah"). I was incredutous, and replied that anybody might 
have wi-itten that inacription, hut to this he reniarked that 
the inscription was in ancient characters, — I had become 
so füll of curiosity, that the tinie appeared too long before 
I came to the place where I could raake my own researches. 
Immediately on my an-ival in the village in questinn, I hired 
an Arab, to whom I gave 2 rajala (6 piastres), to act aa 
guide and show me everything worth seeing; my travelhng 
corapanlon accompanied me. We arrived at the ancient 
btiilding. It is round, in the middle of it ia a large court- 
yard, which 1 ascertained to he about 320 feet long, and 
the same in breadth. The portal of the door is about 30 
feet high, and 16 wide, The building itaclf has five atoriea, 
and is about 120 feet in height. In each story are 60 
Chambers, with a window in each, The breadth of the 
rooms with the two side walla ia about 60 feet. Under the 
vooms of the lirst story are large cavea, wlüch are entered 
from the interiov, and among them is one which extends as 
far aa Mchedia, a distance of 12 houra' joumey. The stones 
of the building are enorniously large and tliick. The Upper 
story is nearly in ruins, aa the Arabs have broken away 
the atones to buüd their own houses. On the outside of 
the aecond story, on the northern side, is the inscription, 

(clambered through the window on to a stone in the wall 
lieh somewhat projected, and my Arab guide held me 
a from the inaide of the room, while I read the inscription, 
f travelling companiou remained in the room, aa.d I i^l^d, « 



out to hiiii eaeli letter that was bewn in the stoiie, and he 
wrote it dowD. The form of the characters is not Square, 
1 but resembles that of the Scfardim (Portuguese Jewsf. The 
I letters were as followa: Ha, Nun (final), Tket, Waw, Daleth 
Mem, Ntm (initial), Waw, Thet, Sameck, Pe, Kapk, Nun 
(final), Mem, Pe, Nun (initial), Waw, Tket, Daletk, Mem, Nun 
(initial), C'kaph, Waw, Nun (initial), Zadi, Kaph. Many of the 
letters I could not at all decipher. In German the letten 
I are as follows: H, N, T, W, D, M, N, W, T, S, P, K, N, 
l M, P, N, W, T, D, M, N, K, W, N, Z, K. I conid make 
nothing out of it, at leaat nothing like what my travelling 
companion had mentioned; perhaps in the dangerous poä- 
tion I occnpied on the wall it may be that I overlooked 
something. I thereforc only note down the lettei's of the 
inscription in order to inake other travellera attentive to the 
fact, and to induce them to make further researches. — I 
believo that the ti-adition related to me is iiicorrect, and 
that the building dates from the Eomaus ; the inscription 
may have originnted later in some unknown waj. In i 
parts of the btiilding I found the names of Europeaa J 
vellers, who had visited this place, and to tbese i 
added mine. 

In two and a half days I arrived at Susa. We 

obliged to hurry our journey so much as to travel by night 

! well as by day; and this reminded me of the words of 

1 Jacob, who exclaimed: „In the day the drought consnmed 

, and the frost by night; and my sleep departed from 

le eyea." ^ 

Susa is a large fortress, lying elose to the sea; it pos- 

laesBea a streng garrison. The Jews are divided into two 

I communities: African and Italian. The first numbers about 

250, and the Italian about 150 families; both have the same 

Chacham, whosc name is Rabbi Nathan Bursü. The Cadi 

^H is called by the Ärabs Chogi, and by the Jewa Isaac} ; 

^H is the Bon of the first Chacham at Tunis, Rabbi Jeshoa I 



In m any ' 
eaa ^^H 

1 Omesia o. XSXI. 40. 

aud Bon-in-Iaw to the Cadi at Tunis, Josef Semana. The 
Superintendent of the Italian Community is Rabbi Jehiida 
Halevi of Gibraltar. Each Community has a synagogue ; 
that of the Afi-icanä ia a largo old stone buiJding, that of 
the Italians a small house, one atory high. For the most 
part our brethren here are very well inatructed; tLey speak 
Arabic and Italian. Their dwellinga and food are tolerably 
good, and they are gcnerally rieh andeome evenwealthy. They 
cury ou a Hourishiug trade in wool, and a stÜl greater one 
in olive eil, which ia exported in great quantities. Many 
Chrifitiana live also in this town , and they are engaged in 
similar branchea of trade. Both Jewa and Christians enjoy 
every privllege under thia Government. 

Two daya' journey from here is the town of Nabal, a 
dirty place, completely surrounded by mountaina. Here 
dwell about 100 Jewieh families. Their Chaeham and Nassi 
Rabbi Chay Algez, is chiefly with the Bey in Tunis; he is 
a very clever man, and endeavours to foretell the future 
by algebraic caleulations, and he haa a decided believer in 
the Bey. The Community haa one aynagogue. But few 
Jewa here are engaged in trade; they mostly devote them- 
selves to agricuitural pursuits. They speak Arabic. 

A joumey of one day froni hence brings one to Ham- 
mamet (bath), There are most beautifnl baths and lovely 
plantatlons in this place, and I spent several daya here to 
re&esh myself. Half a day's journey irora this delightfiil 
Bpot is Tunia. 

Near the town of Tunis are still to be seen the ruins 
of the ancient city of Hannibal, the rivaf of Rome. 

In Tunis therc dwell about 15,000 Jews belonging to 
the Aincan, and about 1000 belonging to the Italian Com- 
munity. The Africa^ Community has nine Dajanlm, of 
which the firet is Ihe already nanied Jeahua Basis. He is 
a clever and leamed man, and has atill a very eharp eye 
notwiths tan ding his 80 years. He is rieh and benevolent, 
and tilis his office without any emolument. The sccond 
Rabbi, Nathan Bursil, is nearly as old as his oolleague-, ha 

I iB tall, and hos a dietingmahed and noble appearence, he is 

I also rieh, learned, and cbaritable. The third Rabbi, Joseph 

[ Biirsil, brother to the above mentioncd, is about 50 years of 

, age; he is a particularly leamed Orientaliät, and the author of 

the work „Sara de Joseph" (Livomo 1852). I lodged for some 

time in Ms house, he has a Jeshiwa and several pupiU, to 

; whom he gives instruction gratis: he hiraaelf studiea almoat 

day'and night, onlj allowing himaelf a few hours for sleep. 

The fourth Dajan ia Rabbi Abraham Cohen ; the fifth Rabbi 

Abraham Askanansi, the sixth Kabbi Moshe Gafid, the seventh 

Kabbi Gay; the other two I cannot name, as I da not know 

I them. The Community possesaes fonr large synagoguea and 

1 above fifty smaller ones. There are more than 800 very 

[ well iüBti'ucted Talmudists in the town, and the other Jewa 

[ are also not badly infoi-med. 

The Italian commmiity has three eapecial Dajanim. The 
I -first 13 Rabbi David Bunan, the aecond Rabbi David Kar- 
F tusu, and the third Rabbi Joseph Lambrusu. They have 
' one large and two smaller synagogues. 

I need not apeak of the widely spreading trade of the 
city of Tunis which extenda over all the countries of Europe; 
for thia ia a matter generally known. Tlie fez manufacto- 
I riea ai'e here very celebrated, as well as those of dyes, 
' which are both mostly earried on by Jews. Among the 
Jeivish inhabitants are some very rieh, some even naillio- 
i; maiiy of them occupy appointments under Govern- 
ment. For instance, tho Uadi Rabbi Joaeph Belaiz, presi- 
dent of the Jewish Community, ia docorated with the Nissan 
(order) ; Cadi Nisim Semama is Chancellor of the Exchequer; 
Cadi Salomo Bursil likewiae fiUs some appointment, and 
there are raany otliers I am not able to enumerate. All 
I these men drcsa in the European et^, with the exceptiou 
rof wearing the red fez. The Jewa of Tmiis are benevolent 
f and upright men; the Government allows them every pri- 
vilege, but they still suffer from the fanaticism of the Arabs. 
Their houaea are generally two stories high and very clean; 
tbeir conrtyards rae not unfrequently paved with macbl 


and their raode of life is good. Tliey mostly reside together 
in one particular quarter of the town, althougli they are 
pennitted tu dwell elaewliere if they Üke. The Jewish 
quarter ia calied Ohara; it has gates whicli are closed eveiy 
evening at 10 o' clock, and opened every inorDing at 5 o' ctock. 

The town «f Tunis is very dirty, and eveii after a 
slight raiu, the mud is over one's shoes. It is surrounded 
by a wall and by a boggy ditcli, which, in summer, diffuses 
a particularly offensive smelh The neighbourhood is ex- 
ceedingly fruitful. The gardens round the town are beauti- 
iul, planted with the inost splendid fruit trees and tropioal 
plants, and ornamented with fountains &c. In these gardena 
are built charming countiy houses, many of which beloog 
to cur bretliren. 

The men wear wide cloth trouaera, stockings, and shoes, 
an embroidered vest, and over this a burnon. They shave 
their heads; the unniarried raen wear a small black cap, 
and the married ones a turban with a black fez. The 
women wear a folded garment and wide trousera of silk 
or satin, which are (juite tight from the knee, and orna- 
mented with rieh einbroideries of gold and silver. Over all 
ihis they put on a kind of silk tunic, without flleevea, 
reaching as far as the knee, coniposed generally of two 
difforent coloured kinda of stuff. They cover their head 
with a fez, round which ia wound a silk kerchief, with the 
ends hanging down. They likewise wear stockings and 
slioes. Upon their ti-ousers, in particulap, great extravagance 
is lavished; and I waa to!d that they often coat the rieh 
from 400 to 500 reala, The married women wear round 
their waist a kind of girdle. In the street they wrap tbem- 
selves in a wide silk or fine woollen shawl; but leave 
their face uncovercd, and hold up their garments as high 
aa the knee, in order to diaplay the embroidery on their 
Irousers. They are generally very beautiful, rather stout, 
and in their beauty resemble tkeir sistera in Bagdad; except 
that the woraen in that town are more noble looking and 
graceful, while the ladies of Tunis are more corpulent. The 

(Bagdad ladies are very industriouB , while it is quite the 
contrarj with thoae in Tunis. In Tunis as well aa in Bag- 
dad the girla marry from the age of thirteen. 
I here mention a peculiar and most remarkable custoni 
of tho country. Among the -native womeu, Arabs as well ob 
JeWB and Christians, esiBts a firm belief in evil spirits and 
ghoatB, and the most different kinds of events are attributed 
to their influence. If, for instance, a woman falls lU, and 
OD thß third day is not better, ahe believeB heraelf perat- 
cuted by Satan or one of his impa, and, according to firm 
Süd general belief, there ia no earthly remedy for the eure 
of her eomplaint; the woman can only regain her heaitb 
by an union with the evil one, — a complete inarriage. With 
reapect to thia, the most curious ceremonies are obaerved. 
The eick peraon invitea her femalo relations and acquftin- 
tances to a feast; seven different diahea are cooked and 
served up; the women aeat themselves round the table, but 
the aick pcrson remaina lying in her bed. Music must nOt 
fail at this entertainment ; a band of muBicians (tamburine 

»and kettle drmnmers) therefore is invited, but only on con- 
dition that they are all blind. When the party of women 
are aeated round tho table, the eldeat of them takes an 
empty dirty epoon, fills it with a portion of each of the 
aeven difihes, and carriea it to the ctoaca in the eourtyard; 
thia ia the portion for the ctÜ one, then the women them- 
selves devour the reat. The musicians make a horrible 
fith their drums and tambourines, ainging and howling 
I particiliar songs at the sarae time. At the conclusion of the 
I meal, the women begin to dance and to jiimp, and get at 
I last into such a State of excitement, that by degreea they 
[ even disencuraber themselves of their garments. The patient 
18 taken from her bed, drawn into the wbirl of the dancors, 
deprived of her clothing, and in thiis made to dance with 
the others in this wild frcnzy. They shriek, acream, aing, 
, tili there is really quite a aatanic noise; at last they all fall 
down exhaasted, and roll about on the floor in a state bor- 
I dering on convulsiona. At thia moment ia believed that. 


evil one is united to the patient. After tliia mad ceremony 
the aick person must recover. If she does not, it is beliered 
tbat the devil despises her, and givea her up. In many 
caaes a recovery really does take place, occasioned probably 
by the rapid circulation of the blood and the profuse Per- 
spiration caused by theae mental and bodily exertions. It' 
the woman recovers, ahe weara later, at the pretended Order 
of the devil, a party-coloured tunic. They go so far in thia 
D<»iBenBe as even to attribute a eertain religion to the evil 
one and call him eitlier a Mahomedan, Jew, or Christian. 

The greater part of the women sufFer from this insane 
idea, tut they carefully and rigidly conceal these ceremonies 
from the eyes of the men, Notwithstanding this, I sought 
for and once found an opportunity of witncssing such an 
affiür myself. In Tunis there lived a Jewish tailor from 
Poland, who bad a native woman for bis wife. On viaiting 
him one day, I found him m.oat deprwssed. On inquiring 
the cause of this, be told me his wife was ill, and tbat 
he must solemnize the devil's ceremony with her, and 
for thia he bad no raoney. I scolded him, and asked 
him how he, as a native European, could pemiit or counte- 
Dance such foily? To this he answered tbat he was com- 
petled to do ao on account of her family, otberwise they 
wonld Buppose he wisbcd to kill his wife. After reflecting 
a little, I advised him to let the ceremony take place, 
and tbat we should conceal ourselves, and take part iii 
it aa witnessea. He sbould allow the women to be in 
^eace until tbeir wild dancing began, and then suddenly 
appear among tbem, The man followed my advice, but 
Krmed himself with a stick and appearing at tbo right mo- 
nent upon tbe dancing women, he began to lay about with 
it. With shrieks the Company separated, and in tbe moat 
remarkable costumes, some ecarcely half dressed, they rushed 
ont of tbe bousc. He then gave some hard blowa to hi« ~m 
wife, laid her on her bed, and left her. My advice proved ■ 
good, for in the space of two days the woman had perfectly *■ 
recovered, and was never again tormented by tKa %^\\. ^ 


But for eome length of time I dared not eliow myseU 
abroad; for this story and the part I had taken in it became 
known, and the women were much enraged againet uie. 

ÄBother time I was invited to a party, at which a 
number of women were present. One of tlie natives asked ■ , 
ms if I sbould like to see such a bit of um as I bave above | 
described, for that he would try and arrange auch an amu- 
seinent for me. He then went to the muBiciaua and told | 
them to begin tbe appropriate songa and music used at the 
devil'a marriage ceremony. They began accordingly, and 
after a short time the women, excited by tbe sound of that 
wild miisic and singing, began to scream, sing and dance. 
One of the quieter onea begged iis to put an end to the 
affair, and we ordered the muaiciana to ceaße, Had we not 
done thiB, we certainly ahould have had the wbole spectacle 
played before ua, for the womcn aeomed, as if they were 
auddenly all bewitcked. When all agtün became qaiet, diey 
quitted the party füll of sbame. 

The Chachamim of the town have often troubled them- i 
aelvea to put an end to this absurd ciistom, bnt all their ' 
efforts have hitherto been in vain. 

Belief in witches and witchcraft ia also general; and 
even aome of the women ofFer theraselves publicly in the 
streets to practise witchcraft, and any one who desires to 
hear hia future foretold or to soe her magic art, calls one 
öf theae woinen into his bouae, and leta her make her ex- 
perinicnta. I waa curioua to eee aomething of this, and was 
at the same time anxioua to prove to the people that tlie 
wbole affair was absurd. Accidentally, one day just such 
a hag paeaed the housa whcre I was on a visit, and I 
begged that the woman might bc called in, and allowed to 
show her sorceriea. Tbis request was granted, but unwill- 
ingly. The woman entored, and was asked to sbow her 
art. She took a vesael, went ailently to the well in Üie ^ 
courtyard, and murmuring all the time some unintelligible 
words, filled it with water ; she tben came to me, and d a- 
I aired me to wash my ehest and my hands : 

the wdiB 

and then to drink it. I Jid what she asked, with tbe exoeption 
of the last item; whereupon the old witch foretold great 
succesa to her charms. She then took aeven different kinds 
of pulse, wheat, malze, peas &e., and aeven kinds of green 
stuff, put all togetlier into a pot, poured water into it, and 
placed the pot ou the fire. The mixture aoon began to boil 
und bubhle, and this bubhling forms the aaserted spirit-voices, 
wbich, of course, are only intelligible to witches. The sor- 
ceresa then began to teil me out of the bubbÜng pot the 
inoat wonderful things about niy preaent, paat and fu- 
ture, and Heaven knows what eise besides. When she 
liad finished, I told her that it was all falae, and that 
in Kurope auch things were much better underatood. The 
ivoman, füll of cunoaity, aaked me to teil her then how 
it was managed therc. I told her no pot was needed for 
iliat purpose, but that she would hear a diatinct voice, and 
feel the eliarm. I then took my stick, fooght about with it 
in the air with loud nautterings, and then let it descend 
lipon her with some good hard blowa. Screaming and awear- 
iog she ran out of the liouse, and I threw her soreery-pot 
after her. The people, in whoae honae this had taken place, 
were aeized with terror, and did not evcn venture to touch 
the pot, or to go near the place wbere it feil. I myself 
was obliged to elear away the fragments and contenta, in 
Order to prove there was nothing to fear. When they saw 
thia, and found that at the end of three days no bad con- 
sequencea cnsued, they promised me to give up their belief 
in all witchcraft, by meana of which money waa continually 
heing extorted from tbem. 


One day's journey to the weat of Tunis lies the towa 
of Sunsard on the sea; nearly 150 Jewiah families reaide 
here, among whom are a great nuniber of Italian JewB. They 
have one aynagogue , and their Chacham is called Rabbi 
Salomo. They carry on a flouriahing trade, and the com- 

lial people among them are very rieh, a.ßd «.^ 'Oft». %w5Si». 


time well informed. There is in the town an exteO^H 
fisheiy, eetablished by the Bey, and ita produce (saltedjlj^^l 
dried fish, and liver-oil) forius an important ardcle l^i^^l 
port trade. ^^M 

The Araba of the town. belong partly to a pecoliar l^^| 
which ia called Ousawi, and which is subdivided into sai^^| 
partics; ench party taking some chosen animal as a syn^^H 
and beiug called aftei- it. Thus, there are Ousawi of H^^| 
bears, cameis, and ostriches. The foUowers of these-J^^H 
accompany the pilgrims Coming ü-om and going to Mi^^H 
in and out of the town, a matter which in always atteä^^| 
with much Bolemuity, music, and pomp. Ät these &$^^| 
processions the Ousawi get into euch an excited stal^^H 
religious fanaticism that they appear to have lost their ^^H 
son. They behaye like the wild animala they bare 1M^^| 
for their symbol; they roar like a lion, growl like a l^^| 
and I was told that they even took their food after ^^H 
manner of these animals; thus the lion- and bear-Oal^^| 
would eat raw flesh, and even tear and swallow live chick^^| 
while the os trieb -Oueawi gulp down stones and glass, *^^| 
blood flows from thetr mouths; and the camel-Uusawi^^H 
TOur thorns and tbistles. Their animal ferocity in tbis J^H 
dition goes so far, that they are obliged to be led atioat 
in chaina; though the Sheik, who commands each party, 
possesses such great power over them that by simply touching 
thera on the Shoulder he is able to quiet them, 

The Chacham of the town related tn me the&e lactB, 
bat as I was somewhat incredulous, I asked several Ärabs 
conceming it, and by them the accounts were contirmed; 
during my stay there, however, I did not see anything of it 

One day'a joumey from Bunsard in a Bouthern direction 
ia the town of Ers'ivil, and two days' journey farther on 
Matar; again at a day and a halfs jouroey Bizerta, and 
another day and a half's joui'ney from thence Tistur, and 
twu and a half daya' joumey still farther is Rvkaf. 

this last town, a road of eight tlaya' journey in length 
through the desert leada to the above mentioned date coun- 
try larit. — Another road from Rukaf leada in four daja' 
journey through the deaert to Bona (Arabic Anabi), Jews 
live in all tbeae places, and although they are affluent, they 
are for the most part Ignorant. From Bunsard I returned 
to Tunis, and went by steam boat to Bona; we irerQ a day 
and a half on the way. On the frontier between Tunis and 
Aigeria there is a little villagc in the African territory 
where there are considerable coral fiaberies. 


IV. Algeria. 


d entered ^| 

On entering Bona, it seemed to me as if I had i 
paradise after a aojourn in hell. The sight of a town built 
in the European style, and of civilised men was truly re- 
freshing, One great diacomfort, however, the Europeans 
have to endure bere, and that ia the fever, wbich, although 
not of a dangeroufi kind, rages araong them. 

In the town live about 150 Jewiah familiea, whoae 
Cfaaoham, a native of Morocco, is a man of no great leam- 
ing. The Community has a very large ancient synagogue called 
Qrebe, in whicb, on tbe north wall, the place of the ark of the 
coTenant is formed by a araall room to whieh one ascends 
by several stepa: in thia room are the Pentateuchs. This 
little room has a partieularly aacred character. One day 
I remarked several Muaaulman women enter it, seat them- 
lelves for some time on the floor, and, after having o£Fered 

retire, 1 asked tbe cause of tbia^ for it, «.^ibTaftÄ. Sa.™ 



262 1 

me Strange that Mussulman 'women should visit a synagogao 
in such a manner; and, in replj I heard the ibllowing atory, ^ 
— Several himdred yeara ago, at very higli tide in stormy , 
weather, a plank was driven very near asliore; some Mus- 
sulmans tried to fish it out, but it receded; and tha s&me i 
thing happened when aome Christians endeavoiired to dr»w 
it out: aome Jews, hnwevcr, having come and mnde the 
Bttempt, the plank was driven to land, and tliere reniained. i 
Fastened on this plank they found a Pentateuch, and this 
they conveyed to the synagogue, and displayed it there, 
From this miracle arose the belief in the holinesa of the 
room where the Pentateuch was preserved, and whenever 
a ■woman, either Musstihiian or Christian, is not well, she 
haa only to come here, to pray and make offorings in Order 
to recover. — I expressed my diabelief in the miraculons 
power of this sanctuary, and explained the history of the 
fishlng out of the plank and the I'entateuch from the sea 
quite sitnply; for, if the story was true, perhaps some Jew 
might have suffered shipwreck and might have fastened the 
Pentateuch to a plank in order that it might not be lost; 
but, that it should have happened that Jews had drawn it 
ap, when Mussidmans and Christians had failed to do it, 
I declared to be either an accident, or that the eea muat 
have become calmer during the time. After such an in- 
ference they cousidered me an unbeÜever, and acolded me 
aa auch. 

The diatance between Bona to Constantine can be ac- 
r oomplished on horscback in three days. 

II went by steamer to Philipp eville, and thence in twelve 
hours to Constantine. 
The town of Constantine is built on the top of a moun- 
tain ; it is a considerable fortreaa, and surrounded by strong 
walls. Outaide the walls, a natm-'al moat, 200 feet deep 
and 40 feet broad, aurrounds the town, and at a further 
distance a chain of mountains encirclea the whole. In ike 
Upper part of the town reside the Europeans, and this ia 
also the comraercial part, whilat in the lower part liv^ÜH^ 

Aä^cans, acd raost ot' the Jews. There are aboat 1000 
Jewish famllies in the town, and they poaaeaa three ajna- 
gogues, Besidca having a native Chacham, Rabbi laaae 
Tuwiana, the commiinity ia auperintended by a chief Rabbi, 
Rabbi Ephraim Netter, appointed by the French Govern- 
ment. The President of the Community ia Rabbi Salomo 
Narboni ; he ia a deacendant of the baniahed Spanish Jeiviah 
familiea, about 70 yeara old, and very rieh. The Jews 
carry on a conaiderable trade with the neighbouring Arab 
towns and villagea, and for th« moat part aro vcry wealthy. 

Among the natives, Jews aa well as Muaaulmans and 
Chriatiana , exists also a auperBtitioua cuetom when any illnesa 
occurs; for bere jt is likewise believed, that, if any one is 
Ül, he is pursued by an evil apirit. In Order to appease 
and banish this spirit, a black cock ia killed, and with ita 
blocd the ehest and crown of the head, the eyebrows, and 
handa of the paticnt are besmeared. The cock is then 
cooked, and afterwarda thrown into aome well outaido the 
town ae an offering to the evil spirit. It is tirmly believed 
that after thia the patient will certainly recover. 

At a diatance of two days' journey, aouth east of Con- 
atantine, ia Batna, one day's journey farther on Biskera, a 
day and a half farther is Cidagua, and one day's journey 
from there is G-inge. Near tho lattcr place ia the boundary 
between Algeria and Tunis, and from thence one reaehes 
larit. Little Jewiah communitiea dwell in all these places, 
but there ia notbing worthy of note to say concerning theni. 

One and a half daya' journey north west of Constantine 
is the town of Setif, which has only been reuently built. 
About 100 Jewiah familles, who have come from Cabyla, 
havc settied here. Tbeir president ia David, a son-in-law 
of Narboni in Constantine. The aecond Superintendent is 
Eliahu Manimi, with whom I iodged. The little Community 
has built for itaelf a beautiful new aynagogue; but altogether 
they are very Ignorant, and live according to the cnstoma 
adopted by them in Cabyla. Although their houaea are 
^nilt in the European etyle, atill in the interior they mora_ 

I.reseuible the tenta in wHcli they used to dwell amongii^^H 
I Cabfles. They dreBS in a, veiy simple maimer, wearin^B^ 
I long garment reaching down to the ancies, and over thJB 
I they hang a burnon. They cover theii- heada with a fez, 
I npon wliJch is a small turban. The women dresa in a man- 
laer quite as simple. Care haa of late been bestowed on 
1 the instrucdon of t)ie children. 

I Not far from Setif begins the country of the Cabyles. 

I Oh niy inquiring of the Jews of Setif, if there were many 
lloUow-worshippera aniong the Gabylian tribes, I received 
I an asGurance in the affirmative ; according to their assertiona 
I ihere is a considerable Jewish tribe at Cabyla, whom the 
I Ärabs call Bene-MuBsa (children of Moses), tall, brave war- 
riora. — ■ May not these be the Bene- Moshe of whom my 
fellow-worshippera speak? — It was also told me that there 
was likewiae an Arab tribe of the name of Emare, whom 
I the other Mahomedans call Chums. They are followers of 
l Mahoniedanism and are called Chums (five) because, as it 
I was told me, after they have washed themselves according to 
I the directions of the law before divine aervice, they make some 
Imysterious sign with their five fingers pressed togetlier, for 
r -which reason they are hated and deapised by the other 
Mahomedans. The tribe of the Chum Ärabs ia veiy hoapi- 
table, and when a traveller comea to them, he is stire of a 
friendly shelter from one of them, and they even bring bim 
a companion from among the widows of the tribe, 

Two days' joumey from Setif is the town of Bu-Sada, 

and three daya' joumey to the eouth is Liiguard; this was 

conquered by the French in the year J852, on which oc- 

casion very many Jews, who were among the Arab warriors, 

perished. Eight days' journcy southward from tliis last 

place is Beni-Mizah, the Ärab inhabitants of which 

form an independant tribe; — Ali, the Persian fonnder 

^^ of religion, is honoured by them as a prophet. A 

^L tolerably large Community dwells in the town , but they 

^H_are under great opprcesion. I spoke with eeveral Arabs 

rai Araos 



unong them were mostly profeBsional men, and that but 
iew carried on any trade. 

Near this town beging tlie great desert of Sahara. A 
joumey of twentydays througb the desert bringa one to Sudan, 
in the middle of Timbuctoo;"oiiIy one small market town is 
to be fouiid balf way on the road. Caravans go there but 
very seldom, for if one doea venture to do so, it generally 
goes to ita own destniction. 

I had intended to undertake a joumey to Timbuctoo, 
. but my limited nieana prevented me from cairying out this 

I travelled from Setif to Bufjia (Arabic Busaje) ob 
horaeback; a three days' joumey througb deaerta and over 
great niountaina. Thence I departed by steamer for Algeria. 

It was in March 1854 that I arrived in Algeria. It is 
not neeeaaary for me to apeak of this town, ita liarbour, 
and the extensive trade and commerce wbieb have there 
beeo daveloped ; all thia ia sufficiently well known, and haa 
o^n been described. About 1000 Jewish families reaide 
Üiwe. The chief Rabbi appointed by the French Govern- 
ment is A. M. Woill. He is the chief Superintendent of 
all the Jews in Algeria, and a very learned and benevolcnt 
man. The secretary of the Community is R. Simon, an Eu- 
ropean, and likewiae very well informed. The aecond chief 
Rabbi is Rabbi Jacob Smasi, an Äfrican. The Dajanim are 
Babbi Sadia Amur, Rabbi David Mati, hia brother Saul 
Mati, and Rabbi Salomo DeUla; all well versed in the Tal- 
mud and Codex. The Community poaaeasea two large and 
ten small synagogues. — Much care ia beatowed upon the 
school instruction of the children in the Hebrew and French 

In thia town I remained nearly six months, and published 
■e my two works: „Dwe annee de sejour aux Indes orien- 
(printed byDuboa frferea), and „Neslad Israel" (printed 
by Chaim Cohen Shulalj. During my stay there I found a 
moHt hoapitablc reeeption in the houae of Isaac Stora, a 
rieh manufacturer, descended firom the baiäaW,d. ^«s«'^ 


of tipain. He haa takea bis name &om the t'ormer resi- 
dence of hia parents, Stora (near Skigada). On the ancient 
place of bnrial beloiiging to the community are to be found 
the tonibs of two colebrated Rabbis, Rabbi Isaac bar She- 
sbeth, author of „liitcas", and'Simon ben Cematb, autbor 
of „Taakbaz'*. The family of the latter ia called'Duran by 
the native Jews. 

The housea of the Jewa are built in the European slyle, 
and are very neat and clean. Some of them live in the 
European, otbers in the AMcan style. Some of the men 
dreaa after the faahion of Tunis, and niany of the young 
men wear European attire. The women and girls wear a 
long silk dress without any sleeves, and ornamented on the 
breast with gold einbroidery. The girls cover their heads 
witli a small pointed cap, on wlüch is fastened gold medal- 
lions, and from the peak hanga down a gold or silken tassel. 
The women wear a fez, which by many of them ia wound 
round with gold and pearls, wliile others have only a ailk 
kerehief; tho hair hanga down in one long braid, twisted 
round with a blue ribbon. 

Among the nativea of thia town is likewiae prevalent 
a superstitious belief in sorcery, witchcraft, and incantatione. 
In caeee of illneaa they go with an Arab aorcereas t«i 
spring which riaea near the town, and tbere, with enci 
tions, they kill a black cock, by cuttirg ita throat with' 
gold coin, and then with its blood they beamear the ehest, 
forehead &c. of the patient. After thia, the aorceresa lights 
» fire, throws different perfiimea into it, and then besprinklea 
thia also, as well aa the patient, with the blood of the 
fllaughtered cock. After this ceremony the patient ia said 
to recover. All theae conjurationa only take place on Wed- 
neadays from 8 o'clock in the morning until midday. I 
myself went once to the place appointed for the purpose, 
and found upwards of 200 men and women occnpled in 
these ceremonies. The Jewish women have the cock killed 
for them by their own alaughterer, and take the blood with 
^em m & glass vessel. These ceremonies are calledBecbl 

267 ^^ 

Six houra' joumey from Algiers by omnibus is tbe 
town of Blidah; about 100 Jewiah familiea live liere, tliey 
have two eynagoguea, but do Chacham. It atruck me as 
remarkable that the Jews in thia torni are unable to pro- 
nounce the Hebrew Kupb (hard K): they pronounce it like 
Uph. They live moatly in the African manner, are in gene- 
ral very rieh, and carry on a flourishing trade. 

Eight hours' joumey by omnibua from Blidah ia J/erfenA, 
there reside SOOJewish familiea; they have four aynagogaes 
and a Chacham named Habbi Jeshua, who occupiea himself 
with tbe cabala, and wears only quite white garments. He 
13 toierably well versed in the Talmud, and has two wives. 
— I lodged in tho town with the Merchant Rabbi Moshe 
Ajes, a very rieh man. 

After a journey on horseback of a day and a half I 
MTived at Miljanah ; there reside about 400 Jewish families, 
who have three aynagoguea and a Chacham, Rabbi Jacob 
from Morocco. The town is aitiiatod on the eummit of a 
high mountain, and ia oncircled by a chain of mountain 
which ia the most important in Algeria. The mountain air 
ia partiuularly fresh and healtky, and in the town there ia 
an abuodance of good fresh water. Although the houaea 
are built in the European atyle, their interior arrangementa, 
as well as the mode of life of the inhabitants are quite in 
aceordance with the customs of the natives, 

A fnrther ride of the movmtaina brought me to NiUel- 
ehad. Thia town lies in a beautifiil Valley: it ia still in its 
infancy, and the French are buiiding a fortreaa there. About 
20 Jewish familiea reaide here ; they have no Chacham, but 
posaess a smalt synagogue ; their dwellings and mode of life 
! quite AJi'icau. 

furtlier joiirney of a day and a half on horseback 
lought me to Tijerud. Thia town is built on a little hill, 
pd is still in an unüniehed atate ; here also the French are 
üng fortificatione, The Jewish Community consista of 
> families, who have a synagogue and a Chacham, Rabbi 
Jbraham, a native of Oran, and with him 1 lod^ad. 'ö 





Jewa have imigrated here from Cabyla, and like tbose of 
Setif have remained faithfui to their former customs and 
habits. Here also superstition is as prevalent ae in other 
towns. If any person is ül, a cock is killed and its fleat 
is cooked, which is then callcd kuakua; it is eaten at a 
small entertainment to which acquaintancöB aj-e inyited. The 
remains as well aa thc feathers of the cock, are tlien thrown 
into a well, and tliia is suppoaed to be an effectiial magical 
charm to eure illness. — Another magic remedy for ülnese 
much employed is the following: They take a bottle or 
flaek of oil, and at night, in order to prevent any one from 
seeing it, they go into the street, and pour the oil at nine 
different places on the threaliolds of their neighbours' houses; 
this custom is called Chania. 

After another two days' journey on horseback I came 
to Maskara; here reside about 150 Jewish families; they 
have two synagognea and n Chacham, Rabbi Salomo.- 
lodged with the merchant Uaana, the Superintendent of. 
Community, and a very influential man of businesa. 

At a journey of a day and a half aouth from this pli 
lies the town of Mostaganem , and it is just aa far to Oran. 
The first raentioned town ia aituated about half an bour's 
journey from the sea, and about 300 Jewish familiea live 
there. Their Chachara ia Kabbi Aron from Tiemaan; they 
have also two synagoguos. The Superintendent of the Com- 
munity ia Rabbi Abu. In this town live two very rieh 
Jewish merchants, Salomo Zerphati, a vei^ benevolent man, 
and Abraham K.inovi, an avaricious millionaire. In Moato- 
ganem I lodged with the merchant Baduch-ben-Chaim, 
important manutäcturer, who beatowed on me the kiBI 
attention during an illneaa. 

From the latter town, Oran can be reached by carri^e 
in twelve houra, and by steamer in eiglit hours, Oran lies 
oloae to the sea, and is built pai-tly in a Valley, and partly 
on the side of a mountain: the impnrtance and estent of 
ita trade are universally known. About 500 Jewish families 
dwell there and they possess five synagoguos, The 



Rabbi appointed by the French government is Rabbi David 
Cohen; the Dajanim are native Africaos, Rabbi Jeshua, 
Rabbi Amaram etc. The president of the Consistorium is 
Abraham-ben-Jesii, whose brother, Rabbi Ohaim, is a very 
tearned man, and well versed in Hebrew, Arabic, and French; 
both are verj charitable. — - The Jewa herc live and dwell 
partly in the European and partly in tho Afriean style. — 
Near the town is a liigh mountain, Djebel Djudi, where 
are ßtill to be found ancient fortificationa of the time of the 
Romans. I lodged with a rieb druggist named Michluw 
Aasass. Many Jewa from Morocco, particularly from the 
town of Tetuan, have aettled in Oran, and a great number 
of Spaniards (Christiana) have likewiae aettled themeelves 
here, aa in eight hours one can crosa over to Spain. Ara- 
bic, French, and Spaniah are spoken in the town. A ateamer 
Cornea to Oran every five daya from Algiers, and every ten 
days from Maraeillca ; and this last goes on to Gibraltar. 

From Oran, Tlemsan can be reached by omnibua in 

twelye hom-a. Here dwell 500 Jewiah families, who have 

B i^nree synagoguea. The Dajanim are: Rabbi Mirod, and 

^Htabbi Hamuel; the Superintendent ie Rabbi Jacob, and the 

^necond Superintendent is Maimon Serbetli. In tlie Jewiah 

l>urial ground are the remaina of Rabbi Ephraim Aluncava, 

who came here among other baniahod Jewa from Spain; 

but admission into the town being denied them, they aettled 

«utside the walla. Rabbi Ephraim was a very akillfiil 

loctor, and by his learaing and unaelfiahness he was the 

of bis exUed brethren being allowed to enter and 

well in the town. It happcned thua: Tlie daugbter of the 

i was dangerousjy ill, and given over by all the doctora. 

len Rabbi Ephraim entreated the distreaacd father to allow 

to give bia help aa a laat resource, — and in ten 

layß the patient waa restored to healtli. As the aole recom- 

pense for tlds he implored the Cadi to pcrmit hia brethren 

dwell in the town, — and thia request was granted, I 

rent to the burial gronnd in order to find on his torab- 

tone the date of his death ; although the inwiti^iw^ ■^«ä 


juucli defacedi I could still decipher the foUowing: „BiBiiAt 
Rb. Niftar Kb." i. e. in tho year 5^02, aceording to Bibli- 
alculation (1442), did the Rabbi die. In the Shem 
im (Wilna 1853} fol. IG I f'ound a paragraph about 
him aB follows: „Rabbi Ephraim AluncaTa was a great 
Babbi in the town of Tlemaan in Algeria, and author of 
the work Shaar Kewoth Adonai." The Jews of the town 
ftnd neighbourhood venerute the tomb of the Rabbi, and 
make pilgrimages to it, at which time they take food with 
them, and after prayers partake of part of it at the tomb, 
^and the romaina are disided at home among the fainüy; 
^is custnm is called Said dobe Raw (repast of the Rabbi|. 
teome of them also take some cai-th from the grave with 
pihem, and wear it round their necks ; for, according to tlieir 
tielief, tbis would preserve them in all diseases. The houae 
iind synagoguo of the Rabbi Ephraim are still in existence, 
(md annually Jews assemble there for devout prayer, 
ffhich a feast is arranged. 

The town baa a very healthy aite, and canies 
very floui-ishing trade, Jewa dwell in the neighboi 
mountaina among the Arabs, but I did not visit thera, 
iTlemsan I lodged with the merchant Moses Serbeth, a rieh 
^anufacturer, who poasesses a capital Hebrew library. 
I One day'a journey from bere is the town of Meidi 
rnrhich ia inhabited by Arabs, and very dirty, The Ji 
^mmunity consists of 50 farailiea, and poaaess a synagO] 
;«nd a alaughterer; although very rieh, they are still ignorant, 
And live according to the cuatorus of the C'abylea. 
I Six hours' journey farthor is the town of Ghazuwal, 
Kalted by the French Nimur. The vesaela eoming from 
BUgiers on their way to Gibraltar ancbor here, and take 
Sn cargoea, Fifty Jewish fainiÜes live here, and they have 
in »mall synagogue; their alaughterer is Rabbi Moshe Levy 
lAskanasi, by birth a Pole, and bis wife is from Oran, out 
löf the family oi' Tuwcl. Tbc Jewa carry on a floorialil^l 
Brade, are mostly very rieb, and the greater part of t)l^| 
^re in the European Btyie. ^^^^H 

r, af^ 

ra. In 
a rieh 

^' ^ 



Thence I returned to Tlemsaii; in order to repair to 
Morocco. One and a half days' journey from Tlemsan is 
Magnia, where the territories of Algeria and Morocco unite. 
Not far from this place, on Algerian soil, is a silver mine, 
which is well worked; and yields abundantly. 

On the whole it can be asserted without hesitation that 
the Jews in Algeria live in a happy condition under the 
French Government. In most places they have Chachamim 
and teachers paid by Government, and the instruction of 
the young is well conducted. The young are well satisfied 
with the French Government, but the older members with 
whom I spoke on the subject, fancy that since the French 
Iftve taken possession of the country, religious feeling has 
been on the decline, and that commercial transactions are 
not 80 profitable as when the Arabs were in power. To 
this I replied, quoting the words of Salomon, that „Better 
is a dry morsel, and quietness therewith, than an house 
füll of sacrifices and strife,"^ and that it was therefore better 
to live under the orde^ir^i^^^is^^^ Government of the French, 
rather than under the fanaticism and oppression of the 

1 Proverbs c. XVII. 1. 


V. Morocco. 

t Coming to Moroctio from Algeria, tlie aame feelidl 
esperienced, only in a contrary form and iii a still 
I greater degree, as tliose wliicli I desci-ibed wheii eiiteril% 
l Algeria from Tunia. One comea from a paradise into B 
Ldesert, and as soon as the soll of civilised Algeria is ex- 
I ohanged for Morocco, dangers of every kind begin- 

From Magnia, tlie French frontier town, one passes 

Ithrougli a deaert to Ushda. The diatance between these 

Itwo places is about six hours' joumey. To tbc south of 

tTshda are the mouiitains of Bene Isnaz, inhabited by robbers 

fand bandits, who not orly plundcr tbe caravana passing 

r through the vicinity, but even oftentimes attack the town 

of Ushda, and pillage it. No European can form an idea 

of the fearfuUy dirty State of this town, otherwise it ia large, 

and surrounded by gardens. About 70 to 80 familiea dwell 

here; and they bave two Cbachamim and a synagogue. 

This latter is in the most deplorable conditioii, which is, 

however, to be excused on account of the condition of 

affaira here; for were it in. any other State, it would be 

pillaged and dostroyed by the Arabs. The Nassi of the 

commimity is laaac Sarbeth, a very rieh man, and in order 

r to give Bome idea of the oppression of the Jews, I will de- 

■ soribe his dwelling. In a courtyard siirrounded by a wall, 

f Btood a small dirty little houae ; it certainly had a door, but 

[ there were no windows to be seen from the outside. In 

the interior there were several apartmonts, but all bare and 

\ dark; not a bed, not a cbair, not a piece of LousehiJ 

F Lousehi^^— 

fiimiture was to be aeen; only a mattrass made of palm 
leaves. On mj- inquiring the reason for this dwelling being 
so poverty Struck and wretclied, I was told by the poa- 
sessor tbat he did not dare venture to arrange it better for 
fear of plunder. — If an Arab enters a hoüse, the Jewe 
muBt speak as humbly to him as if he were a prince. If 
he takes awaj with liim anything that happcna to pleaae 
him, not a remark, not a murmur niuat be heard, otherwise 
the intruder would immediately draw hia knife, and there 
is neither judge nor law for the protection of the plundered 
and oppreased. 

Immediately on entering this country, I saw that the 
journey through it must and would be attended with great 
dangera; but as I had niade up uiy mind to reconnoitre il^ 
I arrayed myself in the garb of the country, joined a Cara- 
van, and made a joumey of twenty-five days into the in- 
terior over Temessuin, Teza, Fez, Tetuan to Gibraltar, whence 
I returned to Algiers. I am unable to deseribe all the 
hardships and dangera with which thia journey was attended, 
although I was well acquainted with the language of tha 
country and the customs of the people. Seither Jew nor 
Christian can be surc of bis life for a Single moment. At 
the leaat ofFence, which the inhabitants try to provoke, S 
atranger is immediately taken before the authorities, fined, 
and maltreated, aa false witiiessea and evidenoe can be found 
without much search. And thia takes place*not only in af- 
ffura of religion, but in any fictitioua cause they may choose to 
invent; they dispoae just as they liko, without either right 
or justice, of the livea and property of those of another faith. 

As a proof of this, I will here relate the history of aa 
unhappy Jewish niaiden, and may this history also aerve 
a proof that among the daughters of an oppreased and exiled 
people there are still women who are worthy to be placed 
by the aide of a Huldah and Deborah in the old heroiä 
time of our forefathers; may it likewise prove the piety <a' 
the Jews of Morocco, and be a bright example to the edu- 
c^d women of our people in Europe. 


In Tanaa^ a town of Morocco, lived a, Jew named Sa- 
lomon Chahvil, happy and coiitented in the posBesaion ofan 
excellent wife and several blooming daughters. But the 
I darling nnd pride, not oiily ol' her parenta but of all who 
I knew her, was Zvdcita, who in the year 5591 (1831) the 
I date of our history, aaw spring return for the twelfth time. 
Natura deaired to create lier roasterpiece when she 
created Ziileika. Never had the glowing aun of A£ica 
ahonc upon müre perfect beauty. The most exquisite sym- 
metry of form, the most fair and dazzÜng cöniplexion con- 
trasted with tbe delicate and fresh bloom of her cheek, and 
to these cbarms waa added a profusion of beaulifal glossy 
hair, — while the most iovely eyes wero softened by long 
Silken eyelaehes. In addition to this, Zuleika was gifted 
with an intelligent mind, and the niildest and most gracebl 
ners. All the eharms excited the envy of the neigh- 
bouring Mussulmana. „It is a sin," aaid they, „that bu^ 
a pearl should be in the poseession of the Jews, and it 
would be a crime to leave them such a jewel." 

With the aseertion, ^corroborated by false Mussulman 

witnesses, — that Zulßika had the wish to embrace tlie 

' Islam faith, thej entered the peaceful dwelltng of her father, 

' took posseasion of the beautiful maiden, and carried her to 

I Fez, where they placed their gift, a costly and welcome gift, 

at the diapossd of the heir-apparent of the throne, the son 

of the Emperof of Morocco. 

Even his aated eye bad never beheld auch beauty; and 
i if dazzled, he remained standing before her. Heart and 
band and all the dignity of an Empresa he offered for her 
po33eaaion, annexing only one condition, — that she should 
adopt hia faith. Calraly and decidedly ahe rejected this 
offer, and in vain were all the powers of perauasion and 
promiaea of the nobles of the court. Her answer was : „The 
whole world and all its eharms and treasurea is not 
compared to God and Hia holy law. He ia the L( 
Heaven and Earth, the Creator and Master of all creat 


every one ia Bubject to Hia power both before bis birth and 
after bis death. He delivered our forefathers from Egypt, 
and made ua the guardians of Hia lioly law. To thia law 
I aiibmit rajself, and I am ready to die for its aake; and, 
if the Lord requires it, I offer myaelf willingly as a sacri- 
fioe. If ye laid all the treasures of the world at my feet, 
I would not swerve one hair'a breadth from these iny wordsj 
do witb me therefore acuording- to your will." 

The prince who saw bis proposals thua rejected, endea- 
voured to obtain by aeverity wtiat liad been refused to per- 
suasion. He ordered Zuleika to be taJ;en to a dungeon; 
and when it was thought that suffering and privatlon had 
sufticiently weakened her yontiiful etrength, Jewish women, 
who had adopted the lalam faith, were sent to viait her, in 
Order that by promiaes of every kind, and the example of 
their own life, they ahould induce Zuleika to foraake her 
faith. Theae women diacharged their commiHsion to the 
letter. All the pomp that coiüd charm a aenaual aouthem 
diaposition, all the representations whieh a subtile beart could 
inTcnt, all the terrors which were auflicient to terrify the 
braveat man were all diapiayed. — But in vain ; every at- 
tempt failed to touch the firm and resigned heart of Zuleita. 
She answered in her usnal calm and pious manner: „You 
wiah to persuade me? Earthly life is but Uke a paaaing 
shadow ; it is but a ßeeting moment compared to eternity : 
rather, then, one short hour in miaery and suffering and 
eternal bliaa, than a lue of joy and luxury, to which must 
foUow endless remorae in the world to conie. Every one 
must die, even the bighest and moat migbty must become 
food for worma. The Lord of Hosta only is eternal; will- 
iiigly do 1 Bubrait myself to His decree. You aay that the 
alighteat wish of niy heart ahall be gratitied, well then, I 
pray to God that He may give me power and strength in 
His Service, and that I inay be worthy to be called a 
daughter of the Jewiah people! — Let it aoon bo over." 

One last attempt the prince would make ; he aummoned 
the Chachamim of the city, and told them that the lires of 
■ \%- 


all the Jewisli inhabitanta were in danger if they did not 
aucceed in inducing Zuleika to become willing to folfil hie 
wishes. Trembling für tlieir own livea and those of their 
brethren, tbe Chacbamim proceeded to the dungeon. They 
reminded the tortured girl of the example of Esther, bj 
whose influence her people were so much benefited; but 
Zuleika ailenced them also with the words: „Esther was not 
called upon to give up the sacred faith of her fathera, but 
I am to forsake iL If you consider tbia rigbt, well theo, 
give your daugbter to the prince; I will fulül the law if it 
be God's will, with my death," 

Such an unheard of resistance to the power of the 
prince could only be expiated by death: the ord^ for 
beheading her was therefore given, The moat iovely of 
maideiis , in the beauty of virtue and the bloom of youtb, 
was conducted to the place of execution. 

But the executioner had received Orders to try also his 
powers of persuasion as a last resource in a manner wbich 
only an esecutioner could understand, and he only could 
accomplish. On tbo scafEbld he gave bis victim several 
thrusts with his sword in her neck, and called upon her to 
be obedient. „Kafir ben Kafirl" cried the courageoua maiden, 
„spare thy tvoiible;" and exclaiming : „Hear ob Israel, üod 
aloiie is our Lord, Ile alone!" her liead feil beueath the 
heavy blows of the executioner. 

With the jet of blood tliat rose towavda heaven vanisbed 
tbe rage of the prince ; be feit remorae, and willingly would 
he bare called back life into that heautiful inanimate form. 
Powerleaa roight of the migbty! They are able to destroy 
the Instrument, but wben once deatroyed, they cau nerei 
again awakc its melody. 

The body of Zuleika was giveu for burial to tbe Naasi 
of the Community, Raphacl Zei-phati. — A monument was 
erected on tbe grave, which up to the present day is re- 
gardcd as a sacred spot by Jewa and IVlusaulmana ; aad 
even now that oath ia considered sacred which is swom by 
the memory of Zuleika. 


The prince granted an annual altowance to the parenta 
of hia victim ; two of the sistera became insane from grief for 
the fate of Zuleika. In the year 1854 I mado the acquain- 
tance of her family, and have spoken with those who were 
eye witaessea of her execution. — By maay African Cha- 
cbamini haa Zuleika's heroiam and piety been made the 
subject of poetry, and I have the copies of Bome of the 
poeins, which came under my notice. 

Draw near, mothera and daughters of my peopie, draw 
near, and leam the greatness of her who dwelt here. See 
what was done by an ignorant, uneducated — as you would 
call her ^ African maiden, who knew nothing of the pompa 
and vanities of European culturc, — ■ who perhaps was not 
even able to WTite. Whether joii have so educated your 
daughters and strengthened them in the sacred lawa that 
they are worthy to be calied Zuleika'a Sisters, whether in 
civilised Europe mauy auch aa Zuleika oxiat? — I know 
not; — aak and anawer youraelves. 

Notwithatanding these oppreasions, in Morocco, Fez, 
Tetuan, Tansa, Suera, and in many other towns of the 
kingdom are to be foitnd a gi'eat many Jews, more than 
100,000 Boula, and even, according to the asaertion of the 
peopie of the country, not far ahort of 200,000 soiils. They 
are all very religioua ; their Chachamim are all weil versed' . 
in the Talmud, but occupy theniselves much with cabaliatic 
niattera, and even make a business out of it by copying 
amulets. The Arab Marabouts likewiae carry on this trade, 
AJtogether the Jews are tolerably well infoi-med, with the 
exception of those dwelüng on a tract of land of Tifelel, on 
the road to Tinibuctoo, where the crown prince ia now 
reigning aaViccroy; there the Jewa are very ignorant. In 
many places they posscss considerable plaeea of buainesa, 
and thcre are many rieh Jews among them; but, neverthe- . 
^1^, they live very nnhappily. I ahould be ^aiVVj cfl -t^s^^ 


278 ^m 

tition if I endeavDured to pourtray tfaeir condition; I tbere' 

refer to my accounts relative to the Jews in Persia; 
for in Morocco, as in Persia, persecution, oppreBsion, hatred, 
and fanaticiam BuiTOund our fellow-worahippera on all sidea. 

But the oppression here goea even alilJ furtlier than in 
Persia; for while there the Jews are permitted to walk 
abroad in the eostunie oi'the country, they are here obliged 
to malte themaelves known by weaxirg a black fez, It is 
just the saine with respect to the ChriBtiana; thej inPereia, 
■were allowed aome privilegee not accorded to the Jews, )jnt 
here they are treated alike. For instance, when Jews or 
Christiana pasa a moaque, they are compellcd to take off 
their shoea and uncover their heada, and miachievoua boys 
scatter pieces of broken glaaa in the mud of the Btreet in 
Order to wound their feet. If an European ventured Is 
ahow bimaelf in the street in bis native attire, bis Ufa wocdd 
not be safe foronehour; he would be recetved by a sbower 
of stonea, and the cry of „Giaurl" It ia really surprising 
-tbat a country, situated ao near Europe, and carrying on 
Bucb large and iniportant commercial transactions witb i^ 
should dare to be so savage and barbaroua toivarda strangers 
and nativea, It ia only in the large harbonr towns that the 
coDBula take care that the Europeans änd aome protection and 
justice; but in tbe interior the oppression is all tbe greatsr. 

If all the great powera of Europe together wonld ea- 
dearour to oppoae such barbariBm in tbe placea neareat to 
tbem, they would do great things for themseivea, forscienc^ 
and for the oppressed, 

After having reniained there long enough to enable me 
to form Borae idea of the state of the country, the great 
difGcultica induced me to return to Algeria, whence, » ftw 
a short stay, I procecded to Maracilles in France, 


General reflections respecting the Jews of 

T^etr cuBtOTns and kabits. — Ceremonies at the ohaeroance 
of the Sahbatk and fesHval days, and at births, marriagea 
and deaths. 

Most JewB go on week daya, morning and evening, to 
the synagoguca, and perform their devotions in the usual 
rnanner. On Öabbath and festival days all assenible in the 
teinple, where divine Service is aolemnly pcrforraed; and it 
ia Tery edifying to be present at it. It is divided into se- 
veral parta, and whoever has a beautiful sonoroua voiee 
reads aloud several paragraphs out of the prayer unül Ista- 
bach, wben the reciter goes tu the altar, and reada until the 
Pentateuch L^taken out. Piutim are only said on the firat 
Easter evening, on New Yeai-'a day, and on the feast of 
atoneinent. The chanta arc very tine, and niake a eolemn 
impreesion on the hearer. Tlie ritual ueed in Asia as well 
as in Africa is the Portuguese, and the chanta are thoBe 
peculiar to the country. 

The taking forth the Pentateuch ia always accompanied 
by chanta. At the reading of the appointed portion 
of the Pentateuch, it ia here the custom, as well rb in 
Asia, that the yourigest of those called, ü" he ia able to 
read well, rcada hia portion aloud. In many plaees it is 
the custom that tho one who ia ealled foi-\^'ard to read the 
Thora, when he retirea from the altar, preasea the hands of 
bis relationa, kieses them on the forehead, ahoulder, and. ^ 
band, and is congratulated and honoured by the members e 
tbe Community in the samc i 


When any one belouging to tlie conimuiiity mturiee, 
two Pentateuchß are displayed in the synagogue on tlie 
Sabbath, and one of tbese ia ornamented witb jewela. At the 
conclusion of the weekly lesson, the bridegroom is called 
iip. He Steps with Hs Pentateuch before the altar, and 
reads the history of Abraham when he aent out hia servant 
Eleazar to seek a wife for bis son Isaac. ^ WTien he ha£ 
read a vcrae alond, several children appointed for tlie pur- 
pose translato it into the language of the country, and re- 
peat it with ceremoniea and beautiful chants. This is con- 
üdered to be a particular honour, and the children take mucli 
trouble to tnerit by induatry such a distinetion. 

Even the little children wear Taleth in the synagogue 
dnring divine Service; but out of the synagogue there are 
even grown up people who, aa in Kurdistan, wear no Zizith. 
This is the case in Morocco, as well as in the villagea of 
.Algeria; as, in general, this cuetom Is not strictly adhcred 
to. In A&ica aa well as in Asia the women do not come 
into the synagogue; they are only present at circiimcisione, 
but there are somc old women who attend divine Service 
on festival days. Generally in both parta of the Globe 
(Asia and Africa) there is very seldom a womali to be found 
■who can read or write; this has reference not only to 
Jews, but to all the natives. 

The Sabbaths and festival days in Africa, as wel 
Asia, are very strictly obaerved and kept sacred by 
Jews, not only with respect to divine aervice, but likewise 
as to business, ainusements &c. During my stay thero, I 
soarcely ever found ihat business was earried on the Sab- 
bath, or that work of any kind was done, if it was so, it 
must have been in a case of extreme necessity. In many 
respects, however, they are not so strict in the observance 
of the laws as we are in Europe; for instance, in the baking 
of the Easter cake, and in the indulgence of many dishea 
and drinka. Thua the Jews there eat rice, peaa, 
and drink rum at the Easter festival. 
~i Gene^~^XXIV. 1— S. 



2as, beans ^^H 

The cuatoma and preparationa on Easter eve take place 
in the aame way as with us in Europe; onlj in Africa 
they have the following custom, ttat at the tirst poi'tion of 
the reading concerning tlie departure of the children of 
Israel from Egjpt, one of the family eircle gets up, and 
boMs thö diah, containing the fnod in remembrance of those 
times, over the head of each person present for sonie mo- 
ments; and if any one is omitted on thia occasion, he con- 
sjdera himself very unfortunate. This cuatom is found par- 
ticularly in Tunis, whiie the educated in Algeria do not 
know it. In Asia another good custom has been introduced 
at this festival. A boy is habited completely in the garb 
of a piigrim. With a pilgriins staff in hia hand, and a 
wallet with hread on hia Shoulders, he enters the assembled 
family eircle before the reading comnieöces. The maeter of 
the house then aska the boy: „Whence dost thou come, oh 
Piigrim?" — „From MizrajimI" answera the boy, — ü-'^ 
thou deliverod from the bonds of slavery?" is the next 
question. — The boy replies; „Yea, I am free and delivered." — 
„And where goeat thou?" ie then asked .„To Jerushalajim," 
anawors the pUgrim. Amid great rejoicing and friendly 
greetiiig_ thoae preaent then begin tho Hagada. The read- 
ing of thia takea place on the firat Easter night in the 
Hebrew ianguage, and the second night in the language 
of the country : everywhere the women take part in 
it. Festive songa and hymne are sung, and the whole 
ceremony makea not only an agreeable, but likewiac a very 
edifying and inspiring impression. From the third until the 
eixth day cards are much played, and in this even the 
Chachamim tolte part. During the whole of the featival no 
one thinks of busineas or work, but the daya are spent in 
religioua exerciaes and in amusemeiita. On the last day of 
the feaat, freah atema of com are brought from the field 
into the housea, and acattered with flowers and frcsh green 
in the rooma, and placed upon the tablea, aa a symbol of 
the spring and of the bleasirg of the new year enteri 
the bouse. — In Älgeria it ia the custom to fp cia. t^öak] 


night to the oldest Cliacham, and receive his bleseing. — In 
Oran they bave aiao a peciüiar custom. In the night before 
the iirst eve of the Festival, which is called Lel-el-Ros, in 
every family nothing elae is eatcn but boiled lamb's heada. 
I cou!d find no other reason for thia custom, but that 1 

I thought it niight be in remembrance of the Karbart-f esach, 
of the offeringa on tbe evening before the feativftl. In tfae 

I last night of the feast called Lel-el-Maimun, no meat at all 

I but only milk food is eaten, and on this evening it ia tfae 
cuatom to go to one's acquaintances and relationa to snp 
with them. — In Oran and Morocco, besides the flowers 
and Sterns of com, a diab 'with gold and jewels is placed 

I upon the table, as a symbol of the wealtlt and bleseing it 
18 hoped the new year may bring into the house. In Tetuan 
in Morocco a vesseL füll of water, in which live fish swim 
about, is likewise placed upon tho table, The visita which 
are paid on thia laat fostival night often last until past mid- 
night. When the yonng people go home, one of them calls 

' out: „Maimun!" to which another answera: „Misoth!" and 
s third „Fertsh Allah!" — I inquired the meaning of these 
oft-repeated exclamations , and was told that Maimun and 
Miaoth were the naniea of two happy persona: and that in 
remembrance of them, wishing each other a similar happi- 
ness, they called out to each other their names; and the 
third exclamation: „Fertah Allahl" emplied „God gjvo hap- 
The feast Shewtioih (feaat of weeks) has likewise itfi 
■■ peculiar customs. On the first evening the families aseemble 
in their houaea, and by turns one or another of them reads 

' aloud a portion of the Thora &c. , and during the pauses, 
coffee and other refreahnienta are handed round. In the 
morning, as already mentioned, they go to tho synagogue to pray. 
On the Tissa-Beaw (destruction of the temple), all as- 
semble in tlie evening in the synagogue, where the Kinoth 
(lamentations of Jeremiah) and other appropriate lessons 
are read aioud by the Chacham. After the reading is 

, finiahed, the hiatory of Ghana and her aeven sone, who ^ 

compelled to apostatize, and were therefore kiiled, is read 
aloud just as it is written in the Medrash Rabba, in the lan- 
guage of the country. The Chacham and the Community sing 
altemately veree by verse different funeral dirges. In Kur- 
distan they have another cuatom. The Cliacham geta up 
and says; „My brethren, to-day it is so many years since 
onr holy temple was destrnyed, and we have not yet been 
able to rebuild it!" At these words idl the lights are es- 
liBgnished, and all throw themselvea down with their faces 
to the earth, and begin to lament and weep. Then one 
Bght is lighted, and with songs of lamentation tho history 
of Ghana is read aloud in the Kurdish language. In the 
moining all again asserable in the synagogue, and in many 
places the men put on their Tephilim on this occasion; the 
customary prayera are recited, and the Kinoth is dclivered; 
the Pentateuch is covered with black, and ashcs are strewn. 
At the i-eading of the Hafthora, each verse is translated into 
the ianguage of the country, and conimented on, at which 
Hongs of lamentation are sung. 
^g~ At the feast of Eosk-ka-SItana (New Year's feaat) all 
^^Bteeinble in the synagogue, where praycrs are said, and 
^HbTeral Piutim are apoken. The reading of the Pentateuch 
^liJteB place aa in Europe; only in Aaia and Africa all re- 
main quiet at the sounding of the Shofar, and listen motion- 
less to the aounds of tho symbolic trumpet. Divine Service 
is closed in the forenoon with the Muaaph-prayer. 

On the feast of Aerew-Jom-Kipur (the day before the 
feast of atonement) one finda in Asia and Africa the use of 
the Kaparoth in sorae places very strictly, but in other 
placea not so Hgidly observed. In the aftemoon of this 
day the vesper prayer is recited in the synagogue, and the 
ceremony of the MaSkot ia performod aa with us. In Persia 
this custom ia observed according to the description of the 
Talmudist in the Mcsaechet Sanhedrin. The peraon whoae 
tum it is, bares himself to the waiat, leana against one of 
the pillars, and receives hia 39 regulär hard blows with the 
^Sladka, after which he goes into the Tewilla (c.ald \yiS!ci\, 


When it came to mj tum, I refiised to comply witt this 
custom, and said: „My brethren, I, as an European, sball 

not Hubmit to these blowa, for inmj country, anotber custom 
is followed: I will not allow myself to be flogged before 
tho day of atonement, aa I might become ill from it." They 
laughed at me, disputed for a sbort time abont tbe matter, 
and then left me unmoteated. — In tbe moming and even- 
ing they go to tbe synagogue, and niaoy of them on tbat 
occasion, put on white gannents. Moming Service laste 
until midday, and then they go home for two bours. After- 
noon Service continues tili ncar evening. Thia feast day is 
very strictly observed. 

Tbe feast of Sukoth (feast of taberoacles) ib also very 
rigidly kept, and they only eat under tbe abade of green 
boughs ; alnioat every one bas Lulaw ( branebes of palm 
trees), and Ethrok (fruit of Hadar), The feast ia celebrated 
with many solemnities and amusementä. 

Tbe night before the featival of Hosheina Haha, all as- 
aemble at home in the family circle, and read as in Europe. 
In Tripolis between each part, Selichot is spoken, and the 
Shofar is sounded; mucb coffee is drunk on the occasion. 
In the morning they all go to the synagogue, pray, and 
repeat tbe Hosheinot, Aftei'wards every one takes bis Ho- 
sheina with bim, and tbey strike estch other with the Ho- 
isbeina over the Shoulders. Neither rank nor Station is on this 
occasion taken into consideration ; the women do it also, and 
each oonsiders the blows with the Hosheina as an bononr. 

At the Simchai-Tkora (joy for the law) in many placea 
the Hakafoth is only performed oncc. One of the Community 
places Limself with the Pentatcnch at the altar, and the as- 
Bembly go round bim seven times to tbe Einging of tlie ap* 
pointed Piutim. 

Tbe Ckanoka (remembrance of the Macabeans) 
Piirim (feast of Esther) are celebrated as in Europe. 

I carefuly observed the custome at divine Service 
at the ceremonies of the festiyals, in order as they are 
onknown here, to be able to relato and explain tbeoK* 

At tke birth of a boy the following customs are ob- 
aerved: From the daj of birtli untäl that of circumcision, an 
eDtertainmeiit is given eaeh evening in the house, to which 
acquaintances and i-elationa are invited. That on the firat 
night is called Seudad Eliahu (repast of Elijah) ; that on the 
last night before the circumcision ia called Bilada; and oll 
the relations and friends asBemble. The Chachamim read 
for about two hours, after whicb the entertainment com- 
mencea from the conclusion of which tili towards moming 
the time ia spent in reading, chanting etc. On the morn- 
ing of the eighth day the circumcision takea place in the 
synagogue with great solemnities, 

At the birth of a girl on the evening before the eighth 
day tha Chachamim, relations and friends are invited to an 
entertainment. The new born child in a little cradle ia 
presented to the first Chachain, who givea it to the second, 
and the aecond to the thii'd, and thus it goea on until the 
child has paaaed through every hand. Three tiines ia thia 
ceremony repeated nmid the aiuging of Piutim, and each 
time that those present receive the cradle with the child in 
their hands, they place in it a piece of money, and this 
money is destined l'or the midwife. 

The ßarmtsu;« (confirmation) is celcbrated in the follow- 
ing manner: Wheii a boy is thirteen yeara of age, aome 
weeks previoualy the Chachara teachea bim an address. On 
the Sabbath before the Barmizwa, called Tepbilim (phylac- 
teriea), the relations are invited to an entertainment which 
taata until Sunday morning. On the afternoon of this day, 
the women, drcHaed in their feative attire, go to all the 
fii-iends and acquaintances , os well aa to the schoolfellows 
of the boy, and invite them to the feaat. When all ai-e aa- 
sembled, a barbor is sent for, who sliaves the head of the 
boy to be confirmed, aa well as the heada of bis school- 
fellows, and every guest at the feast eontributea a piece of 
tnoney, which is given to the barber. After this a merry 
meal takes place, which often laata until morning. On Mon- 
J^j morning the synagogue ia featively decorated, wtiÄ. '^'i 



Chacham with the teacher goea to the boy's houae, and 
adorns him in Taled and TepMlim, and tLen he is taken 
with his schooifeilows in proceasion with einging and bear- 
ing of lighta to the synagogue. There, during divine Ser- 
vice, as Boon aH the Pentateuch is brouglit out, the boy is 
called forward with his father and some near relation; the 
Chacham bestowa on him his blessing, the boy then delivers 
his address, and the father and rclations Lestow alms od 
the poor. Whea the ceremony is concluded, all present 
congratulate the boy, and acconipany hini home, where 
again an entertainment is prepared. Tlie boy, still arrayed 
in hia Taled and Tephilim, then proceeds, acconipanied by 
his schooifeilows, - to all his different female relaüons to 
make a visit and eaeh of them undoes a fold of liiä Tephilitu 
and makes him a present of a piece of money. When all 
the Visits are paid, the boy returns home, lays aside hie 
Taled and Tephilim, and in the aftemoon takcs a walk 
with hia companions, on which oecasion all the money he 
baa reeeived ia expended. In the evening, the relationa 
and frienda aaaenible again at the house of the parents of 
the boy to an entertainment, which lasts until the nest mom- 
ing, and concludes the ceremony. Girls are not contirmed, 
except in some towna of Algeria, where the custom is now 
being adopted. 

At mmriages , the following ceremonies take place. 
The Sabbath hefore the wedding is obaerved very solemnly. 
The evening before the marriage, the relationa and Irieods 
and the Chachamim assemble iu the houae of the bride. In 
the middle of the coiirtyard is placed a decorated chür, 
and beside it several other chaira. The Chachamim, the 
parents and relationa then conduct the bride, preceded by 
lights, to the chair, in which she aeats hcrsclt'. At her aide 
are seated the Chachamim, and then in turn her parents 
and those of the guesta who are entitled to the greatest 
honour. This takes place amid the singing of Piutim, and 
laste about two hours ; after which the bride ia reconducted 
the houae, and the Company aeperates. On the wed^ 

moming the bridegroom with liis friends and the bride with 
her companions go to the bath. In the afternoon, after the 
bridegroom has dressed bimself in his festive attire and 
Taled, he ia condiicted by the Chachamira and thoae belon- 
ging to him to the ejnagogue, where vcsper prajer is retiited, 
after which they conduct hiiii home. At the marriage cere- 
mony a high decorated chair ia placed in the courtyard, to 
which the Chachamim and pai'enta eonduct the bride veiled. 
When she has seated herseif in the chair, the bridegroom 
advances to her right aide, the Chachaiu infolda the young 
couple in the Taled of the bridegroom, and pronouncea the 
Berachot; after which he givea the weddiug rings tu the 
bi-ide and bridegroom. The songs of the asseuibled gueet« 
add to the impreasion made by the cercmony. The Ketuha 
(marriiige contract) is then read aloud, and the marriage is 
finished. When it ia concluded, the young pair are con- 
ducted to the house, the Company separatea to reassemble 
again in the evening tbr an entertainment. While this ia 
going on, the young couple are conducted into a separate 
room and left alone. After aome time the bridegroom returns 
to the Company, and, if in all things bis wife answera his ex- 
pectations ho receivcs the eongratulations of the relations and 
assembled gueats. Thon at the merry meal, amid music and 
einging, the night is epent until break of day. The young 
couple remain in the parents house for seven days after the 
marriage, and each evening these entertainmenta are repeat- 
ed. On the Sabbath after the wedding the bridegroom, amid 
songs, and accompanied hy inany persons, repaira to the 
synagogue; the bride remains at home. AU the relationa 
are eummoned, and at the reading of the iesaon for the 
week, tbey and the bridegroom bestow considerable gifta on 
the Chachamim and the poor. With aongs, and accompanied 
by the same train as before, the bridegroom returns to the houae 
of the bride, where one last grand feast is prepared, which 
with joy and merry making laats until the followlr.g morning. 
In Persia they havc another custom. There likewiae 
^for seven daya after the wedding the GhaßUaioMa, -eäbJäk««, 

I and friends assemble in the bride'a house. The young couple, 

richly dreased, are seated on a dais erected on one aide of 

' the room, and two gilded wax Ughts biim beaide them. 

For some hours the gueats sing Piutim, partake of a meal, 

I and then separate; and this is repeated every day for the 

rest of the week. 
I At funerals, an old bibücal cnatom is followed which is 

mentioned in Jeremiah. c. IX. 17, 18. As soon aa any ose 
dies, the Mekononot (hired female mourneraj are called, who 
seat theniselves near the dead, and begin to chant in a 
whining voice the songs of lamentation in the langoage 
of the country. The ceremoniea used are tboae mentioned 
I in the Talmud, Meaaeuhet Moed Kattan. The women relat- 
[ ed to the deceaaed utter loud wailing criea, tear their hair, 
and Bcratcli their faces until tlie blood coines, which ia ex- 
preasly forbiddon by Mosea in Deuteronomy c. XIV. 1 ; and 
I Levitieus c. XXI. ö. The Chaohamim have given theni- 
I flelves much trouble to put asidc thia custom, but have not 
I yet aucceeded. The aongs of lamentation are regulated by 
the rank of the dcceased, and at each tiineral difFerent aongs 
are used. — In Persia the Chachamim sing the songs of 
I lamentation, but there the women neither tear their hair nor 
I disfigure theii- faces. — This lasts for about three höura, 
I after which the body is buried. — In Persia the songs of 
I lamentation only commence after the body haa beeil prepar- 
I ed for intermeut; but in Africa these preparaüona are made 
I afterwards. In proceeding to the burial ground the Chacha- 
mim walk firat, singing the firat twelve vcraes of the Sl** 
Psalm. In the whole of Asia and Africa the body ia not 
clothed in the Taled. — In Morocco it is even cuatomaiy 
for the women and children related to the deceased to as- 
semble oftcn, long afler tha funeral haa taken place, to join 
I in songa of lamentation for the dead, and to tear their hair.' 

> KnlibL Patncliia, p. 169 mentionH just ituch a cuatom as eiiBting iu 
the country ofKasria, where mutbeis teacli tlieir dnughtecs the sang» 
of lamentation. Thia appear» to be «n old cuatom; foi' evon Jeremiah 
e. IX. 17. 18. n 

After having described tliese customa from birth to 
death, I conclude witli the worda of Salomon, who aaya in 
Eccleaiastea c. VII, 1.2: „A good nanie is better than precious 
ointment; and the day of death than the day of birth. It 
is better to go to the hoiise of mourning than to go to the 
house of feaating: for that is the end of all men, and the 
living will lay it to hia heart." And fervently do I wish 
that the words of the Prophet Isaiah may be fullilled which 
are written Isafah XXV, 8. 9 : „He will swallow up death 
in victory; and the Lord God will wipe away tears from all 
faces; and the rebuke of his people shall be taten away 
from off all the earth; for the Lord hath spoken it. And 
it shall be said in that day, 'Lo, thia is our God ; we have 
waited for him, and he will save ua: this is the Lord: we 
have waited for him, we witt be glad and rejoice in Hia 

Tbe Fortn^ese conquests and discoveriea with 
rcspeot to the Jews. ' 

By Dr. M. Kayserling. 

Joäo I, Henry the Navigator, Alfonzo the Äfrican, 
Joäo de Menezes, Azambuja, Vasco de Gama, Columbus, 
Albuquerque , Cabral, Cortez, Pizarro — what namea are i 
theae of mighty men! What histories and heroic deeda 
aeaociated with these adventurera and conquerors! With 
what rapture and delight doea the boy listen to the relation 
of their discoveries and their battles by sea and by !and. 
No people in Europe was, animated by such a spirit of enter- ■ 
piise as the Portugue3e; to the discoveries of their Infants ' 
and admirals they owe their power, and Portugal acquired 

I In coHclusioij we give Ibe following well written arlicle by D'' M. 
Kaystrling, whicb is lo be found io FranktVi „Ma-nattiehrift für ä«r-^ 
lehiehlf und Wisienscha/l du Judenl.ltumj^, 'DEctinÄtte \WA- 


poBseBsions in tbe greatneas of wbich tlio world forgot the 
little mother eountry , and shp, at last, foi^ot hereelf. i 

Üad tbese glorioua and horoic mean, had the discoveries ' 
which raised the little spot ob tbe sea coaet into a migh^p 
power, no relation witli that people, who now, as tben, were 
scattered everywliere, and in those times nowliere foiind a 
home? In tbe long long chain whicb PortugueBe navigatora Ifüd 
round tho coaat of Africa, tbe last golden ring of whicb 
remained fixed in tbe paradise of Iiidia, in tbis chain. did 
not the Jewa also form a link? Uobody has most likeljr 1 
ever doubted this, and yet no one haa attempted to bring ' 
these eventa, which, apparently, are placed so far from the 
history of the Jews, into eonnection wt(A the Jewe and tbeir 
bislory. But what advantage from such a treatmeut of ge- 
neral history ariaes to Jewish acience, how, by suct fexpla- 
nations, the world must elearly see that the Jews have afit 
been created merely for suffering and endurance, but I&e- 
wiae everywhere and under all eircumstances have provsd 
themaelvea active and uaeful, helpful and efficient, needa no 
üu'ther discossion. 

With this object I wish in theae pages to endeavoar 
to treat and illustrate the Portugueae diacoveries and con- 
queats with reapect to the Jews. 

Under Joäo I the diacoveries and conquesta had tbeir 
beginning on African soil. Genta , the first strong city of 
Mauritania, splendid and populous, was taken, — that which 
bad been for many yeara tbe object of the longing wishea 
of the Portuguese Infanta, tbirsting for deeds of glory, was 
attained, Ceuta was the key to the landa of Islam, the 
terror of the Mahomedans, and the point of oudet for furtber 
conqueats on the African coast. At the storming of this 
town, among those with the Annada, at whoae departure 
all Lisbon flocked to the harbour, were likewise — Jewa, 
One of these Jewiah aailors feil in action. • 

I Chronica do Conde D. Pedro, in the CoUecfSo de Uvroa lufditi» de 
mataria Forlaguexa (LUhoa 1730) I, ful. 353; MortQ J 


Some years later Lafash (El Araisb) was taken. On 
this occasion the Portuguese took as prisoners of war four 
Moors, and two Jews. ' 

The jouthfiil Infant Henry, siimamed by history „the 
Navigator and Geographer", assisted in person at these firet 
African campaigne. To render himself and his native land 
illuBtrious by the discoveriea of new countries, to obtaiu 
larger posseasions for Portugal, to fumish new resources and 
advantages for trade, — this was the noble aim which the 
enlightened navigator had set before himself. With onthu- 
siaam, perseverance, and energy he devoted himself to astro- 
nomy; — and Jews from their experience and knowledge 
gave the firat assistance to his undertaking. From Jews he 
received the first Statements of the placea traversed by them 
in the course of their comniercial transactions , — places 
hitherto uaknown to him, — and from their accounts his 
Buppoaition amounted to certainty, that a comraunication 
between Europe and India could be found; and every I 
Jewish traveller Coming from a far country found the kiud- 
est reception at the obaervatory of this coiirteous prince. 

The Island of Madeira with its unchanging spring, thfl I 
home of the ancestor of the celebrated Belmonte, was dia- j 
covered by him.^ 

Storms and revolts at home withdrew for a tirae the J 
Portuguese from these undertakings. 

gae era com oa noäsos eic. The Jewa iß Portagul were thaa earlf S 
engaged !□ seit eervice, and tlio Statement of ShaUhelet Hakubbal«! 

I tlial Sal. Jachia waa a leader of hordemen Ibus gaina belief; and, inl 
I fact, for DO otlicr reasog bas this statement been declared a „ 
l fable", but only because it was related by tbe „Liigenketle" (aot of9 
liara). Would aiiy one believe ShaUhelet if he, for instance, Btatrff 
that under Alpbonzo VII, and Älphanzo VUI of Usstllle Jens tookJ 
pftrt in tbe IreatJes of tbe Cortes, — wbicb evory ona knowg b. 
preaent day represented oar chambors of Depaties — and even 
■cribed the Fneros? 
» Chronica do Conde B. Pedro 405. 
1 Compare tay Sephardin: Romantische Poesien der Juden in Sfiav 
289. Leip-iig 1869. 

AlfODZO V li»ed and was active in Africa; hia apirit 
I was there when even he was in person in Portugal. He 
\ turned all his activitj and the best resources of the coun- 
i try to Moorish Africa, and obtained for himeelf the surname 
t of ptha African." 

Jofio II took greater intereat in the diacoyeries along 

I the weat coast of Africa than in-the conquests. Certainlj 

L with the tribute money which tbe banished Jews from Spam 

were obliged to pay, he wiehed to continue the canipaigns 

I which hifi father bad so glorioualy led; at leaat, he gave 

I this as a reason when he was reproached by some in conn- 

eil, that it was not pioua or Christian like to receive foreign 

Jews into the country for the sake of money and gi«n. 

Prom the Jews paasing over the frontier enormous sums 

flowed Into the State treaanry. Joao did not take the field, 

nor did his iieet sail towards the coast of Africa; but the 

. little children torn by force froni the unhappy Jews were 

aent to those iaianda which had been so recently discovered, 

whose only inhabltants were not haman beinga, but lizards 

and crocodiles. The cruzadea so artfully taken from 'the 

Jews were found after the dcath of Joao perfect and un- 

touched in the public treasury; for hia undertaking against 

[, Africa liad not been carried out. 

By the zeal with which Joao, the grasping and avari- 

i ciona monarch, betook lüraaelf to the work of diacovery, he 

I made powerful preparations for hia siiccesaor, who, by the 

i diacovei'ies in Africa, haa secured for himaelf and Portugal 

undying fame. By Jews he caused investigations to be 

made on land, in Order to find out by their clever research 

and their sharpsighted wisdora the nieans of being able 

H^ to steer with greater aafety on the boundleaa element, and 

^v to find with greater certainty under an unknown sky the 

^K dark but eagerly sought for goal.i 

^B Joäo aent a knight of his court, Pedro de Cavilhäo, to 

^H Jemaalem, in Order to make minute inquiries there relative 

' Bchäfei; Uiitovy üf Portugal (,B.ttm\mig Wbft') m. t«S. 

to the Priest -King John. Cavilhäo aaught through Calicut, 
Goa, and the chief towns of India; and at last, having ar- 
rived at Sofala, was, without haviog obtained bis object, on 
the point of returning to Portugal, when he aecei-tained at 
Cairo the arrival of two Jews from his cotmtry. These men 
were Joseph of Lamego,' by trade a shoemaker, and Eabbi 
Abraham of Beja.2 They delivered (1487) to the knight 

_ 1 Bo called sftcr hia birlbplace or probable place of residence Lamego. 

r A Word respecting tbe book of llie oldest Cortes (Corlea de Lamego), 

"■ which WHH tranaferrad to thia town, may hera opportunely find its 

place, parlicalarly as the mistaken opinion, founded on ignorance, 

that the faiatory and law-hooka of the Fortuguesa aie 

geuerally ailent reapocti 
treats of iho Jews : „Qai 
»ed Porlugall 

ng the Jowa. In thcse Cories §. 12 thus 
de Maurin el de {nß/ietibwi Judeü, 

iberaverini jtersonam Eegia, aat ejus perdo- 
nem (fjj;) aiU ejus filium, vtl genericm in bella, ainl Nobila." For 
centni'ies the aasembly waa couaidered to have takea place, and tbe 
resolutiona that were paaaed tberoupoQ were natural]; couaidered 
legal. The learued chauoellor Antonio do Carmo Yelho de Barhoza, 
in his „Exame crUico das Cortes de Lamego" (Porto 1845) was the 
flrst to provo in a decisive manner that these Cortes did not eiist, 
and that the „Libro de CarCea" preserved in threa different doon- 
meiita , waa forgcd and interpolated , and only appoaacd in the IT") 
Century, perhaps at the same time with aotne letlara of Span iah Jews. 
It is an hiatorical fact, and Barho^a baa forgotten to mention it, that 
the poaition of the Jawa at that time in which the Cortes were held 
at Lamego, was not auch that the paseage cited agaiuat tbem shonld 
bave been puhliahed. Tbia paeaaga was inaertad in order that it 
sbould appear aucient; for the fa.biicator coald not imagine that the 
JewB, who in his cenlury wore baBishod and burnt, oould once have 
Ijyfid undor a happiec ölar in Portugal. 
I Barroa, Mariz, Faria and othera call him Abraham da Baja, Castau- 
hed: Morador em Beja. Sohitfer simply calla hira Rabbi Abraham. 
1. c. lU. 165. 

Barrot, Äaia (LUboa I778J Den. 1. Lib. 3. V. 5; E estando pera 
»e mr a e*te Beytto com recado deiiaa cotiaas gut linha sabido, aoube 
gue andavatn alli dous Judeos de ffespanJia em lua busca, com oa 
quatt «e nio mal aecretamenle, a kam eAamouam Rabi Habrä o, natu- 
ral dt B^ja^Cattanhed: Morador emBija — eaoulroJofepe, 

t) Pendo, « Portogneae word with Laün termination: peiuläa, Aa^ oi 


letterB frora bis king. Joseph, who formerly had been in 
Bagdad, and who on Ms return had related to the nionarch 
all that he had heard there about Ormuz, the world re- 
nowned mart of the spices and drugs of India, had been 
commandcd by the king, in Company with tho aforeaaid 
Rabbi Abraham, to eearch for the wandering Cavilhäo, and 
to deliver to him the injunetion, that he should give Joseph 
a report of the success of his inission, but that he himself 
should travel with the Rabbi Abraham to Ormuz, in order 
to make himBelt' there acquainted ftith the conditions of 
India. Cavilhäo rendered punctual obedienee to Joäo's Or- 
ders: he travelled with the Rabbi to Ormuz, and by a Ca- 
ravan proceediag to Aleppo sent Joseph back to Portugal,' 

capaleiro dt Lameijo; o qualJotepe fiavia poueo Umpo quevitra 
dagutUaa parUt ; e camo »<mbe ^a no Efj/no o grande daejo que el Bej/ 
linha da in/nrmagäo das eonaaa da India, foi-lho dar eonta come 
estivera «n a cidade de Baiylonia, a gue ora ckataam Bagadad, lihi- 
ada no rio Eufrates, e gue alti oamra faltar do trato da tleha tha- 
mada Onaux, que ealava tio boea da, mar daPeriia, eiti a guat havia 
hlima OdadBa mau eelebre de lo-dae aqueilat pa/rieg, pnr a tue eoneorrt- 
rtm, lodalaa eeptciaria» e riquesas da India, aa qnaa per rafila» de 
eameloa vinhtcn ter as Oidadea de Aleppo e Damateo. El Sey, ao lempo 
que »nahe eitan, e twirat coinai dtate Judeo era ja Pero de Ojih'IAÖd 
parlido, ordeaou ae o mandar em Jbmq delle, e aaai o outro chamado 
B. Sahräo , o Joaepe pera Vie traser recado daa car/ax. qne per euer 
mandava a Pero de CoviUiäo , e Babräo pera iV com tue ver a 
Hha de Ormiit e dahi se ir\fonnar da» coutal da htdia. Em Ol qtiati 
cantar El Bey encommendaaa maito a Pero de Covilhäo qat « ainda 
näo tinha -aeliado o Prate Joäe, qae näo receaiiM o trabalho (• 
ver com eilt e Uie dar sua carta e recado; e qae em pumle t 
/esse , per aqitello Judeo Joaept Ihe eaereveaae Ivdo o gtie f 


I Scbäfer, 1. c. III. 15S, in bis deacription snddenly ceases I 

tian Joseph, and lets Abraham, inntead of Joseph retura to Portugü 
with tho stotementB. Gareia de Reacndo, Chronica dei Bey D. Joam II 
(Liahoa 1752), Fol. 2ä>>, withoat tliinking of tho Jewa, condodes his 
aecoant with Ihe words; „Cavilhäo .... nän oiuni tornar." In «c- 
cordanee wilh Portagueae aourcea of Information , Barrioa likpwiH 
apeaka of Ibeso Jcwa. In bis Ilisloria UnivertalJudayco, 7, he Bsjrai 
„£'/ Hey Don Juan Heipindo At Porfugnlpor et Uat aiJuih 


where, some time afterwards, he was rejoined by bis tra- 
vellirg companion Abraham, who had been sent out with 
bim by the king. They had retumed; — but it was only 
to wander forth to Africa in Company with otber bretbren 
of their faitli banished by Joao. 

Just as Joseph the shoemaker and Abraham the Rabbi 
had been by their travels of aervice to the king in his'in- 
tention of subduing foreign countries to the rule of hia 
Bceptre, other Jews were engaged at home in matfaematical 
researches, which being afterwards applied to Liter dis- 
coveries, were foiind to be of no inconsiderable Service. 

In Order to leaaen the danger of loaing one's seif far 
from the coast on an unknown sea, Joäo gave commanda 
to the moat celebrated niathematicians of the kingdom, that 
tliey ebould coiiaidt together to contiive the ineana of being 
able with greator certainty to ahow the course the ahip 
sbould keep in the open sea, and be able to find out where 
they were, if they ahould happen to be far from a known 
coast. After great deliberatiou and reaearch, the use of the 
astrolabe, which until thcn had only been in requiaition for 
aatronomical purposea, was applied to navigation; and this 
diacovery is for the greater part, if not entirely, tbe work 
of Portuguese Jews. 

With Martin Behaira, the celebrated knight and navi- 
gator from Niiremberg, aat also in consultation, together with 
a Moses an'd an Abraham , on account of his mathematical 
acquirements called Rabbi Abraham Estrolico * (the astro- 

I, d«acvfir{o h ta India Orienlat, ^ por etso hiso conßan^ de Sab i 
' Abraham df Beja y de Joseph Zarpater o de Lamego , 
• Ruanda loa embio por fiet-ra 4 lai orilloi del Mar Raxn, dt donde 
I Pedro de Covillam se embarce com Rabl Abraham para Sorntux, j/ 
I Joa^h de Lamego loi-no al re/erido Rfy con el aviio de lo que haata 
I entonce« »e kaeia deaculierlo." — Al'ter BarrioB Basnage also, 
SUloire de» Juif», IX. T29. It is not improbabls lliat ace of the 
Jews iiuned Abralinni, mcntioned in ths coarae of thig U'eatiae as 
> being naar Ssfi ui' Aibdiui', inuy havG bocn tbis same Äbrabam de Bi^o. 
fl Maay of onr reiiders may, at tbe luention of thia Abraham Batrolico, 
be remiuded of I!. Aliraham i^DCUlo, Vliu m\koi til i^^'^tDa^Kvo."' , ki& 

loger), — aceording to a decree gtven in Torres Vedras 
June 9"' 1493, this last raentioned Rabbi waa made by the 
king to pay 10 gold Espardiras;! — Ijkewise Joseph sud 
Rodrigo, tbe Jewiah physicians m ordinary to Joao. Joseph 
and Rodrigo, who were likewise engaged in the making of 
the teirestrial globe tbr thc aforesaid Pedro de Cavilhäo,^ 
Lave acquired importance in the hiatory of Portuguese dia- 
coveriee. Who knows but for the dissuasion of Joseph, if 
the Genoese discoverer of the new world wonld not have 
prevailed upon the king — who found in the worda of the 
noble Columbua „more pride and conceit, than truth and 
certainty" — to have credited hia assertiona, and to have 
granted him a few ships in order to attempt the discovery 
of bis ifiland? But Joäo referrod bim, as BarroB^ relates, 

the well known nstrotogcr of Manuel ; of him we mll speik aaottiBr 
time. Bnt aa wb are nut qnite suru if ZaEQto who certainl/ vu 
drsady in Portugal in 1493 , was likewtsB in tlie Service of Jaäo, 
I feel no heaiditicin in coBEideiing thia Abraham as a difierent persan 
from Zacnto. In fact, from iLe 70"" year of the 15öi cectnry, very 
niiiny leoi'ned Jevis bearing oiily tbe name of Abraham, bave appeared 
in tbe concae of the Portuguese hiatory. An Abram Jadai fityqao e 
pcligarm (a fnirior ?) liyed in EWas and waa appointed by Alfonzo T, 
Jnly 27I1 1475 to he Rabbi of Ms conimnnity. ÄDother ia mentioned 
in 1482 aa an inbabitanl of Braganza. A tlürj in 1484 aa Rabbi in 
LisboD; and a fourlb as a phyaician in BragaliKa, Aveiro, and Setnbal. 

1 Torre do Tomho, Corp. C/iro nie. Pars 1. Mac. 2. Doc.lS in tbe Mf 
mar. d. lüleralar. Porlupitsa (Liahoa 18)2) VIII, 166, d. Eipardlm 
ia a gold coin of the valne of 300 reis. 

2 Maris, Dial. IV. Cap. X. p. 315. 

3 Barroi, Ana, Bee. 1. L, 3. C. 11 : Com lado a forja de moK im- 
portunagies, mandoa gue fsiivesae com D. Diego Ortiz, Bitpo di Catta 
e eom maealreSodrigo e -maealre Joseph, agurat elU eommtlia 
eatoi eouaai da Coamografia e aeu» deecubrimenloa, e iudoa nounerampor 
vaidade aa palaeraa de ckriaCovao Colom por toda «er fundado em 
imasttiaiäea e cauaaa de Mha Cypango de Marco Paulo .... Likewise 
compare Murr diplomatic bistory of the Portuguese knight Martin 
Bebairo (Surembarg 1778) Gl ff. D. Pedro de Menoaea, connt . of 
Villa- Keal, likewiae adviaed the king „not to listen to the dreams 
□f Columbua", and appealed at ibo aaue time to Joseph and Ro- 


ik^P to the Bishop of Ceuta, and to his learned men Joseph and 
fr^v Rodrigo, to whom he left it to investigate such-like cosmo 
graphic discoveries. Joseph and Rodrigo considered the 
request of Columbus to be foolish, and were of opinion thal 
it was all founded upon his discontcnt respecting the island 
Cipango of Marco Polo. The navig^tor was dismissed with 
a reftisal, ajid — the neighbourmg countty reaped the fruil 
of his great discoveries, 

The application of the astrolabe to the purposes of na- 
rigaüon is the work of the Jews,* How important this in- 
vention became for all later discoveries it is not in oui 
power to judge. It lessened the difficultiea, and facilitated 
the trade of the Portugueae with the African tribea: Navi- 
gation thereby made rapid and powerful progresa, and — 
not Joäo, but Joseph and Rodrigo have obtained for them- 
selves for ever a place of honour in history, and science 
always remembera thera with respeet, although the king 
rewarded them with ingratitude, and banished them from 
Öie oountry together with their brethren in the fa h. 

In the daya of Manuel the Portugueae nation endea- 
Toured to elevate itself, and the enthuaiasm for voyagea and 
diseoveriea seized most powerfuUy on the moat energetio, 
active, and enterprising men. Vasco de Qama set aail, 
Di&z joined him, Meneaes fought vietoriously in Africa, Ma- 
ttnel wished to lead in person an army against the Moors, 
and the old Azarabuja, that subtile limping old man, reaped 
•n Moorish soil the moat glorious triumphs of victory. 

His triumphs and conquesta we will now follow; and will 
next proceed with him to the ancient coasting town ofSafi. 

1 Barros, l. e. Dee. 1. L. 4. Cap. 2. Teilet, ^leius, Be Bebua geali, 
Joannia II, (Hagae 1712), 99: Üt minore cum errendi pericuto igno- 
lutn titare nauigari poasel, Hoderico et Joaepho, me^'cu «uü, nee non 
Marlina Bohemo, ea aelale perilisginaa malhemalicts, iniu/nxii Joan- 
ne» 11. etc. Mallhaei, De iiuufi» novi orhU (FrWMof. SG90J, SO: 
...praeclaro aano innento ad ustan rei marilimae apera perxiaaimonan 
PMlhfiaaticoitem, Bolherl et Joaephi etc. Maffei, BUtm: tndicar. 
(Vtnei.) 61. 

I This town, which is called by the Moors Azati, and, 

according to the accounts of Arabian writers, was built by 

the nativea in times of remote antiquity, consisted at the 

time when Azambuja approacbed it of many acattered villagea 

and hamleta, and had more than 4(XNJ dwellings, of which 

' 400 were inliabited by Jewa.^ Through the Jewish popu- 

l lation, Safi had beeome an important place of trade, and 

Chriatian, as well as Moorish merchants, imported by land 

and by water the most different producliona and goods: 

gold and silver, honey, wax, butter and skina. The Por- 

tuguese took advantage of disputes in the Eamily of the 

I Regent of Morocco, and with the asaiatance of the Jews 

Bucceeded In getting the family into tbeir power. 
I Acconipanied by only a few persona, Azambuja pro- 

i oeeded to Safi. Scarcely had he entered the place, when he 
' was informed by a Jew living there, a certain Kabbi Abra- 
ham, wbo BeiTed him aa interproter.^ that sorae of the in- 
habitanta of the town were conapiring againat the Ufe of 
him, who had come as a mediator among them, This aa- 
aertion of the Rabbi was confirmcd by others, so that the 
general in the moment of danger thought it expedient to 
retum for the preaent to Castello-Rea!, trom whenüe he 
oame. On the ö"" August 1507, fumiahed with new instruc- 
tions from his king hc again entered Safi, accompanied by 
Garcia de Melo, who had been appointed to aasist him. But 

1 Damiäo de Gott, Ckroniea d« Bei D. Manuel (Liiboa 1149), FoL 
186: allem dt qualro tentea enaas qvt nella aiüa dt Juden». X«o 
Afrkaiuu, De laliut Afrkae deicriplioite fTiguFi-lSä9J, 120 believei: 
f,Azaphi . . . quamplurimoi olim kabuil Judaeoa, gm et varia» extr- 
cebant arfea. 

I Dam. de Goei , l. e. iSl .- porqae »lyiAe per via da Aum Jitdeu, per 
ii Äbrahäo ijue era mia tingoa qttt algma doa daeidade 
andavam pera o ma'ar, o qua de feilo tra verdade &c. Likeffiae 
Oaorias, De rebm Emmanuella (Celtmlat 1537), ISSb: Ibi vero crtwi {«- 
diclo Ahrakawi Judaei eognovisaet See. Bibutro doa Santo» may nlio 
have haä in bis mmd ths Abrnlnim in question wben he tvrolo Me- 
mor. d. Uli. Porlajaeza, VIU. 223: „Outro AhnAamfeiio ßaü 0» 
JtMieat de prifim." 

now none of the contending parties would enter into any 
negociation with Azambiija. Azambuja reflected on the 
raeans of subduing the town to the rule of the Portuguese 
Bceptre, and deviaed one as ignoble as it wat efficacioiis: — 
he sowed dissension, aa the chronieler expresseB hiinself, 
between the two chiefs of the parties who were waging 
war agaiDst each other, excited miitual distruat, and thus, 
by artitice, took posaesaion of the tuwn. 

Garcia de Melo, Aaambuja's companion and attendant, 
lay iU in bed; a Jewish doctor, who had access to both the 
contending chiefs, was summoned from the town to attend him. 
The Portuguese generals sougbt to win bim over to their 
purpose, and the Jew allowed himself to be used as a me- 
diator. They induced him to deÜver letters to each of the 
two leaders, but in such manner that the one should know 
nothing of the letter of the otber. Both were informed that 
their lives were in danger from their opponenta; both were 
advised to intrust theinselves to the Portuguese generale; 
and to each was the aBsurance gtven, that he, as a vassal 
of Manuel, should govem in conjuuction with the govemor 
named by the king. No one but thoae persona engaged in 
this serious game knew of thia strategetic artifice. Ab 
(^en as the doctor visitcd the still suifering de Melo, he 
placed bis band under the coverlct of the bed aa if to feel 
ibe pulse of bis patient ; but, ia reality, instead of the pulse, 
he took hold of the letters written by de Melo in the In- 
terim , and then retired as quickly a% poasible. This stra- 
ti^em succeeded; each of the leaders feü into the snare 
which had been prepared for him, and — Safi feil.' 

This manncr of conquering towns and gaining countries 
doea not stand alone in history; in evecy war aimilar cases 
occur, and Portuguese and French, Oerman and Engliah 
have no ecruples of conscienca in opening a way in wartime 
by cunning artifice, and in making cunning and violence 
pasB for military science and military law. Yet but few \ 

H I Dam. de Gota t. c. 188, Oaoriua l. c. ItiSa. 

examplea can be cited where Jewe, wlio are alwaya anii 
everywhere the moat faithful Hubjecta of their niler, have i 
been iuduced to side with the enemy. The Jewish doctor 
had the weli'are of bis fellow- Citizens and of bis brethrea , 
in view; be wished to deliver the town from tyrants, and 
boped that the Portuguese would take off the yoke whici 
preesed heavily on all tbe inbabitants. Did be see bis bope« 
fulfilled? History is silent on this point; andyet we believe 
ourselves justified in conjecturing tliat he did. 

As long as Safi stood ander Portugueae nile, the Jews 
I of this town had equal rights and paid the same taxes oe 
the bther inbabitants. 

Safi remained for a long time the aeat of war. The 
more important it was for tbe Portuguese to possess this 
rieb commerciai ' town , on aceount if its extensive trad^ 
from wbich tbe Jews as well as tbe Christians and Moors da- 
rived very rieh profita, the more often did tbe Moors ma^e 
the attempt to wrest it from them, After its capture, the 
aged Azarabuja was appointed sole Governor; but he did 
not succeed in keeping the rebelHoua Moors in subjecdoD. 
In 1511 the whole province ofDuccala, tbe capital of wbich 
is the often mentioned Safi, rose up againat tbe foreign con- 
querors; an army of 5000 oavalry and 600,000 men onfoot 
stood ready for combat. In hurricd marcbes tbe Portuguese 
generai, the clever Atayde advanced agalnst Safi. He 
had the gates cloaed, and gave most positive commands to 
the aentinela not to altow any human being, wbetbcr Moor, 
Jew, or Christian to depart witbout especial permission.* 
In a short time Atayde suppressed the revolt, subdued the 
wbole province, and levied a tributc on all the goods 
imported by tbe intabitants whetherMoor, Jew, or ChrieüaD. 

Wben tbe inbabitants of Morocco, twenty-eight yeara 

1 Dam. de Ooa L c. 39t : ^rando trato de mereadoritu 

que itella oin'o, de qae assl os Okrialiäas eotno as moureta e Judeut 
ftaiäo tmiilos e mui grosaoa ganhos. 

2 ßora L e. 290: S dtfender od« porteiros e juarrfo» qiie Mouro, 
n ClmtUäo ddjMtiem. tair fara aem teu mandada,m 

laier, agitin took to arme, and desired to shake ofiT 
the yoke of the stranger, it was a Jewiah general who 
assiatßd the Portuguese. In the year 1539 the Xarife of 
Moroeco with an araiy of 100,000 men appeared before Safi ; 
on which occasion one of the Jews, who had been banished 
from Spain, and had wandered to Fez, gave a brilliant 
example of Jewish fidelity and Jewish bravery. Samuel Va- 
ienciano (Al-Valenci) is the name of tbis Jewiah general. 
Tills hero, who on bis airival in Fez' had won for bimaelf the 
!ove and respect of the reigning monarch of the family of 
Merines, had before thia time, at Genta, made his name 
feared. Later, the Xarifes rose against the' Merines, and 
drove them out of the Idngdom. The Princea were depcaed, 
and placed themselves uiider Portuguese protection. The 
noble Samuel riaked hia life and hia fortune for the family 
of the rigbtfiil prince; he united with other Aleadea who 
had remained faitbful to the Merines, equipped some ships, 
placed himself at tho head of the undertaking, and aailed 
away to tbe place where the rebela had caused the Portu- 
guese mucb daniage. Al-Valeiici aiTived with hia ahipa be- 
fore Ceuta, He quickly landed hia people, waited in the 
night for a favourable opportunity, and with hia little band, 
f'jr he had not more than 400 men, rusbed upon the hostile 
irmy, which numbered more than 30,000 warriors. He cut 
i|i:iwn more than 5000 without loaing a single man. Ceuta 
was ßtniclc with terror, and before the moming dawned the , 
Xarife withdrew to Fez.^ With similar bravery, with mar- ' 

I Samuel is said to lisva settied later in Aiamor. 

I Tambien iBFreo Hfr celebrada la ßdeUdad y valor de tm Tioble larae- 
tita, tlamado Semuet Abialensi, de loa deaterradoa de&pana: tt quäl, 
auiendo paasado ä Africa /ue fa-aoredda y tnuy mia amado äel Ry ■ 
de Fti, que en aguel Uempo era dt la familia de los Merines. 5ucm- i 
dio qut los Xarifei le Heaantaron contra los Merines, y los nuibiroN ' 
y degpojaTon del Iteyne. Fue lait grande d dolor dsl ijraio y fitt i 
fifmuel Älualenni, que ponicndo su vida, haiienda, y todaa sus eosas A 
manißeilo peligro, »e junfo con otroa Aleaydei crtados de los Merina, , 
y armaran nlgmios nauios, toBiando por Ciipttaii at ualeToso W.iuj 

yellous coiirage, and rare ekill Al-Yalenci compelled tte 
enemy encamped before Safi to give way, and raiaed tiie 
siege. • Azanior ig stated to be the later place of reaidence 
of tlÜ8 brave Jewiali hero; and to Azamor we will accompany 
the Portuguese conquerors. Azamor, but a few milea distant 
fi'om Fez, waa nest to Safi, the chief town of the provinee 
of Duceala. Long before the eapture of Safi, by the- 
Portuguese, King Manuel, in order to oontinue the friend- 
ahip and peace which Joao had established witb tbe Moors 
of Azamor, kept some tnistworthy Portuguese in this town. 
At theii' instigation, and with the aasistance of the Jewish 
Rabbi there, Rabbi Abraham, in 1512,^ tbe inhabitaots of 
Azamor, by letters and treaties, and with the consent oftheir 
chief, Midei Zeyan, anbmitted themselvea to the King of 
Portugal. Mulei Zeyan, who ruled with the greatest tyranny, 
had aeveral timea violated the conti-acta with Portugal, 
and Manuel, therefore, determined in 1513 to conquer 
Azanior. For thia purpose he equipped a fleet of more 

para hir conlra los Xarife», qae eslauan ea nqud Itempo sohrt la 
fofloiltza de Cfpta, y tenian mity aßigidm h laa Portaguete» vaaaUot 
dcl Rey D. Manuei qus la defendian. LUgaron enlonca loa nauioi 
de Tiueatro Alualenii al puerle de Cepia , y laäendo dttembarcado Ui 
genle ea tierra, eapero tianpo opor'uno de la noche, y con fmtfairimf»! 
Nomhrea deo aohre el ezercito äel Xarife, que eraa, man de trtynta 
mil, y molaron mos de cineo mil delloi, «in perder un« solo de Un 
auyos. Lueijo ai olro dia alsfxjo el Xarife el cerco y »e rettro o 
Fex. Äboab, Nomalogia (Ämaterdam 1629) 305 f. 

1 £1 Tirccno Xarife d^. Marruecot cei'co li ta <äudad de Safi eit tt aymo 
de !S39 cait den mit homhres y tl vaüinie Samuel Valeneiano JtixUo de 
Asamor, y Almir(nüe de gaerreroa Vefgar^nes, qiie forma ä <u cotta, 
aoeorria ä los cercadm Porivguexu, y eon adnÜToMs Indagfria, y 
aiidiaia deabaralo li loa MahiTaelanoa y deaeerco a la Ciudad. Barriot, 
Sia/oria Univeraal Jttdayca, 8 f. . 

2 Hain, de Goea l. c. 367 : Malta anies da tomada de Qafim par el 
Hey D. MaTtvel canfimutr naa paxta t amixa de ele. (CompBra lifco- 
wiae Schäfer 1. c. UI, 119, who, like ourselvos, translates Goes) . . .per 
medo dai quaea (cavalleeroa) o de Auni Rabi mar daa Jitdtoi, 
per nome Rabi Abraham (<rby Schäfer doaa i 


thon 400 sliips, and conferred the chief command ou bis 
nepbew D, Jtiime, Duke of Braganza. Joao de Menezes 
witli aeveral of his sons, and many valorous nobles and 
gentlemen, joined the great expedition. 

Ün the 23"^ of August D. Jaiiuc set sail, and in a.few 
days afterwarda camc in sight of Azamor. Tliia town was 
not inferior to Safi in size and importance; it carried on a 
grcat trade, and had morc than 5000 dwellings, 400 of 
wiiicb were inhabited by Jews. • 

Witt a considerable müitary force, Midei Zeyan, ac- 
companied by his two sons, advanced against tbe Portu- 
guese; he himaetf commanded in person. D. Jaiuie gave 
Ute necessary Orders to tbe fleet, disembarked the guus, and 
in raarchiog order advanced with the whole army against 
the Moors, who stood prepared in battle array. Tbeatniggle 
begau. The Moorish warriors defeiided themselves with the 
COUrage of lions. Suddenly a loud lamentation ai-ose in 
ibß town; their brave Commander, who not only with his 
powerfiil voice, but with the moat energetic actions, had 
inspired his people to battle, the valiant Gide Mansus, had 
been strack to the oarth by a bomb sheU. With bim all 
their courage vanished. They rushed from the town, and 
in such haste, that more than 80 persona were preaaed 
death at the gates. 

Before the moming dawned was heard from the walls 
of Azamor, whicb was sunk in deathlike stillness, a voice 
exclaiming: „Diego Ecrio! Diego Berio!" — This cry wasi 
addressed to the braveat man of the Portugueae fleet. It 
was the voice of a Mend, of an old acquaintance from hie 
home; it was the cry of the Jcw Jacob Adibe, who had 
been banished from his country. AVithout delay, Jacob wish- 
ed to be conducted to the Duke. Diego Berio accompanied 
his friend. „The city is free!" With these worda Jacob 

1 Dam. de Qoei l. c. 370: en 
ot doiJitdlMS,quti'enäoqii 
SchafoT I. Q. UI, 120 asserl 



feil on bis face to the earth. „Äzamor is vacated, ob t)uke! 
Azamor is free! I beg for my life, and for the lives of mj 
brethren and fellow-wnrshippera." D. Jaime raiaed the 
suppliant Jew, and promised bim protection and Sup- 
port. He tben bimself sank down, and thanked God for 
bis mercy in allowing bim to take tbis great and noble 
city, without the loas of tbose who Lad come fortb with 
him. Jacob Adibe bad received tbo Duke's promise, and 
joyt'ully retumed to hia own people. The cry of victory 
roBe in tbe camp of the Portuguese; witb flying coloura the 
oonquerors entered Azamor, and aoon did Portii^ese ban- 
nera wave from tbe gilded domes of the numeroua moaques. 
Armed troops were placed for tbe protection of tbe Jews,' 
and wbile the ürst grand vaass was being celebrated in the 
Moorish town, the Jewa witb their proper^ wandered 
fortb to Säle and to Fez, in order that they might ao longer 
live witb people who, as the Moorish Christian Johannes be- 
lieves,^ bad drawn upon tbemselvea the loss of freedora by the 
most dreadfiil crime. The takiiig of Azamor was ibllowed 
in tbe next year by tbe conquest o£ Fednest, in wbich the 
Portugußsc found 1600 housea, of which 100 belonged to 

I Damiäode Gofa,le.372: Dftpijada am a 
Imm Juden de nofoni Poi'tugitez, per nomt 
fwam deate rejno , 511* ahi era mofador 
Diego Berrio ele Daque fez aieuania 

cidadt, aendo ainda noile, 
Jacob Adibe , doa que se 
charaoa derriba do muro 

Jvdeo eoncedeo ^ue Iht pfdia et» . . Eniratiem na eidade t com eitt 

corregedor pera d^endtr oa Judaa que tu nam roubfosem 

Osoriai, l. e. 2B4b: Äatiquam diluiescertt Jadaeua quidam, nontn« 
Jacobus Ädibiue , natiane iMsilamt» , qiä cum reliquU Judjteit m «n- 
Uum putstia fucral , e imtr'm Jacobum {mnst bs Diegiuu) Berr'nHa eU. 
BarrioB tikewiBe mentioDs Jacob Adibe ^^sforia Uniceraai Judapea 13) i 
Jacob Adlhi, fn Axatiior dudad de Jfrica dio las ategreg mirva» tU 
cojno la havian desaiiipaTädo gui temenotoa Moradorai a Don Jnimf 
Daque de Sraganfa, sobriao del Bey D. Manuei. 
! Leo Äfrieaiuta l, c. 123: Judaei vero partivi Salae et parlim Fame 
adlerual re^üinem. Xec pulo aliani ob eaiunnt Id illU a Deo OjA 
Max. faiaie iüatam, quam pi-opler furrrtndum iüud Sodoiitilantm 
crimen, ciii ciut'unt pari maxima tarn fuit addicla, ul juutaim. tax. 
non corruptum a le dtmiltereiii. 

the Jews.' There Üiey lived as artists, free from all taxea. 
They only sometimes sent presents to the nobles in order 
to gain their fnvour. 

Manuel' 9 name in Barbary was aooa so feared and 
honoured, that many Moors, tired of tlie tyranny of their 
Masters, bccame Bubject to the King of their own free will, 
Manuel the Happy died. Under Joao III the might of the 
Kingdom diminiahed; the inquisitioii was introduced — the 
pOBseBsion in Africa were again lost. 

The Portuguese were driven from Barbary; Jews dwell 
there up to the present day. Their condition at that time 
we will discuas on another occasion. To Malabar and ita 
coasts we will next proceed with the Portuguese discovererB; 
bat for the present conelude with the words of a favorite 
QermaQ poet of the day : 

DU game Welt ist lOie ein Buch, 

Darin tim aufgeschrieben 
In bunlen Zeilen manch ein Spmeh, 
Wie Galt utu trea geblieben. 


With my retum to Europe (April 1855) I have to finiah 
the history of my travels. The coloura of the pictui'e I have 
brought before the eyes of my honoured reader may often 
have been glaring, and gloomy indeed may frequently have 
appeared to him the conditiona with wbich my book haa 
made him acquainted; — but I have the eonaciousneas of 
having given my atatements acaording to my own inmost 
sincere conviction. If perchance I have erred, and every- 
une is iiable to error, it haa been unwittingly; iiäentionally 
I have miarepreaented nothing. In the creature I have eve£^H 

^^^^ Dam. dt Qoea l. e. STB correapoiiding wilh Leo Afntmaa \. o. I^^^^H 

IL ' M 

^H acknowledged the brotlier, and have always reuognised in 
^H tijm the image of God, as great as may have been the State 
^H of degeneracy in whicli I bave often found liim. No pre- 
^H eonceived opinion, either good or bad, haa had any weight 
^H or inHuence in the judgment I have formed of all I have 
^H secn and heard. 

^H If bere and thcrc I have let the mental condition of 

^H my people, the Jews, appear dark, is it neceasary for me 
^H to give the assurance that my heart was not fiUed witb the 
^H less affection for them? la it neceasary for me to give the 
^B assurance that I ooly apoke that which -was tme, and that 
^H in every Jewish aoul I recognised a true brother, the son 
^H of our fatlier Abraham, the Joint -heir to the great sacred 
^H treaaure, the Thora, which God has confided to the people 
^H of Israel, and therefore to eaeh one born of aJewish mother. 
^H May it he pei-mitted to the traveller, who from far 

^H diatant countries haa returned to the land of bis birtli — 
^H that land, which waa the home of bis children, whilst their 
^H father was seeking hia way through deaerta and over barren 
^H mountains, — may it be permitted to the ü-aveller who is 
^H nearly prepared to start again for a long and farther jour- 
^^r ney likewise to call the attention of bis European brethren 
to a subject connected with their own intereata. I address 
myaelf tirat to my brethren in Poland, Rusaia, and the 
Moldau, Not one of them can uphold with greater eothu- 

Isiasm than I do that heavenly treasuro, our sacred law, as 
the sole, higheat, and most invaluable gift which truly haa 
the power of eatabllsliing and inauring salvation and peace 
on Eartli. No one can lay to heart with deeper and truer 
conviction than I do that precept: „Day and night thou sh&lt 
apply thy heart unto wiadom", — or underatand more fiilly 
the importancc of the law, or adhere to it more entirely 
with heart and bouI. 
But just for thia very law's sake, we dare not close 
our ears to general knowledge. „Jofe thabnud thora im 
derech erez;" — knowledge of the law must go band in 
band with general knowledge, as our wise men teadi u 

not in vain; let them theu be our teacliers. Let tis follow 
their precepts; we find there is qo field of knowledge Id 
which they were not at home, how could it bc otherwise? 
The Thora is no mysterj, no priestcraft; it is tlie decree 
of the Aimighty loving Father and King of the universe; 
tan there tlien be a corner in this universe where God's 
law could receive such injury, that His word should not 
penetrate thereinto? And now less than ever, ivben every- 
wbere, and even in the conntries I liave mentioned, the dark 
spirit of prejudice ia yielding, and the Jew, in a more in- 
dependent positiou, enters the ranks of thosc of other creeds 
— now, when the power of custoni can no longer ru!e so 
powerfutly, and when door and gate are more open than 
foriiierly to eeductive temptation, ought we to leave the rising 
generation jgnorant of the knowledge which the mind of 
man has acquired, and expose our children without protec- 
tion to the voice of false wisdom and education? Ought we 
not more carefully than ever to fumish them with atl and 
every instmction and refinement, and show them what ia 
godIike«nd pure tberein, and what ia error and man'a pre- 
Bumption ? 

„Jofe thalmud thora im derech erez." Thora and edu- 
cation, such must be in thia age the inscription on our 
Standards; then will our children be faithful under the ban- 
ner of their boly faith, just as they remaiued steadfaat when 
Grecian refinement and learning liad the mastery. 

How have I come to address this old precept to my 
brethren, and how have I been induced to do so ? — It ia 
because I am a cbild of those parts where thia important 
precept has been overlooked, and I have feit and do still 
feel painfiilly ^ I avow it opcnly — the great deficiency 
which this want has occasioned. I look round in Germany 
and France; here likewise, where truth and justice were 
in advance more than half ä Century, this precept was for- 
gotten, and it was foolishly believed that one could ahut 
oue's seit" up, as it were, agaiust the progress of European 
fln lightenment. — What was the consequence? That every 

rone ffho strove after education was couipelied to consider him- 
aelf as not belonging to the Community of Israel; andif in latter 
daya the Lord had not opened the eyes of the faithful Jews, 
one must have said of these countriea; „thora nischkachath", 
the law was completoly forgotten. 

But where thia principle is cherished, knowledge of the 
law, adhereace to the law, and education grow together in 
beautifiil development out of one soil, and the riaing gene- 
ration remain steadfaat to the faith of their fathers, wilkout 
being inferior to others in mental culture. 

May tlius our Russian, Polish, and Moldavian brethren 
learn from Qei-many and France how much the neglect of 
the above precept avenges itself, and what glorious fruits 
spring from its obaervance I With this wish 1 take iii^_ 
1 leave of the Reader. 


After having publiahed in 1856 the Freuch edition of 
l my book of travels, I applied to tlie leamed men aud Orien- 
taliste of France and Gemiany to give me for the furtherance 
of the cause of acience, aome instructions and suggeationa 
for my guidanco in my intended second journey, as, on my 
firat journey, the want of auch directiona waa much feit. In 
consequence of this request, I received the foUowing memo- 
randa, which I here note down,* aa perhaps they may prove 
useful to some other traveller, and in order that, in 
my losing the memoranda themselvea, I may not be e 
deprived of their beneüt. 

A. ßeneral qneettona and propoBitiona from Dr. Uunk ia Parü. 
September 141I1 1856. 

1. General. 

a. To procure a complete written calender uacd by a 
tribe, and made by them, or, at least, an exact copy of 
one, or a füll accotmt reapecting it in which it is clearly 
State d whether they reckon according to solar or litnar 
months, and wlie'tlier the lunar years are regulated aatro- 
nomically, or according to the cbangea of the moon. 

b. The specification of an era from which the general 
calculation of time began. 

c. Information conceming festival daya, their signifioa- 
tion and names. 

d. Information respecting prayera; if possible, to pro- 
cure a book of prayer, or at least some authentic copy of 
it. A translation of the same, particularly into Arabic. Mi- 
nute inveatigation of the writing, and the comparison of it 
with Phoenician, Samaritan, and ancient and modern Hebrew 
eharacters. Inquiry whether tracea of the Hebrew language 
appear in their prayera; for inatance, how the name of God 
is pronounced. Accounta respecting. the belief in angela, how 
Üiey are described; reapecting the immortality of the soul; 
respecting their bnrial grounda, and the making exact eo- 
pies of epitaphs. 

e. Accounta of other written religious books; to pro- 
cnre the Originals, or authentic copiea, or translationa of 

I the same. 

j f. Report of any existing knowledge of Biblical writings, 

I whether perfect, abridged, or fragmentary. With respect to 

thia to seek eapecially for manuscripts, or portions of them. 
g. Report respecting customs and habits. Search after 

written lawa, and at what time, and by whom the sarae were 
1' given. If posaible, the moat detailod information reapecting 

the lawB of food and purification; at which time are to be 
I kept particularly in mind the namea of animals and nlante 

■iL ^J 

[ mentioned in the Pentateuch, aa well as the precepta of 
[ Holy Writ relative to the Kidda. 

h. Röport respecting marriage laws and customs; if 
polygamj ia customaiy, if Chaliza and contracts of marriage 
«re introduced. If possible, to procure original lettera of 
divorce, or authentic copies of tliem. 


2. Special. 

a. The Bene-Israel. Mimte investigation reapecting tl 
deBcent; if thej are primitive Jewa, or only converte^' 
heatlien, as, for instance, the Hagarites were. — Have they, 
beeidea the known aud already mentioned Malabaric Chro- 
nicle, other hiatorical writings, of whicb exact copies may 
be made? — Detaiied informatioQ reapecting their hiatory etc. 

h. The Jews of Cliina. The most detaiied possible ac- 

c. The Jews of Afghanistan. General infomiation; par- 
ticularly reapecting the language for prayer, and the ian- 
guage of the country, their cuatoms etc. 

d. The Jews of Persia. General report. To eearch for 
manuBcripts in Hebrew characters, and for a Peraian trana- 
lation of the Bible. (Thoae raamiacripts found in Paria were 
written in Lar in the beginning of the 17"' Century; one ie 
dated from Dogrun di al jama raba moihuya.) 

e. The Jeus of Kurdistan. General report partieularly 
reapecting the language used for prayer; — and if there 
are no writings in existence respecting the translation of 
the Bible into the language of the country; reapecting mar- 
rii^e contracts, and letters of divorce. 

/. Tke Jews of Arahia. General report, partieularly 
respecting Arabic manuecripts in Hebrew characters, — 
to procure eome ; eapecially manuscripta in Yemen, commen- 
taries on the Bible by Rabbi Tarchum of Jerusalem; Kn- 
tiath on the Bible. — Detaiied report relative to the Bible 
in Diabekr, which, according to the Jewa there, was written 
jrthe hand of£zra, and ia mentioned by the traveller ü 

worfc: nCinq annies de voyage &i Oinent"; also respecting the 
Pentateuch at Keäl, ascribed to the band of Ezekiel, and 
likewifie mentioned by tte traYellcr in the same work. 

B. Bn^gestions of U'' Ooldberg in Paris. 

July 20tt ieSG. 

a. To undertake a comparison betweeii the nanies of 
towns and places in ancient Mesopotamia and Assyria, and 
to note down these names in Hebrew and Arabic with the 
greatest accuracy. 

b. To search for autbentic writings, perfect, as well as 
jfragmentary. They are divided into three clasaes: 

1) Biblical. Pentateuchs and ancient Bibles, complete 
text; some apocryphal books, which existed at the 
tüne of the Talmudiets: such as Ben Sira, Ben Tog- 
lath , Ben Lanath ; and perhaps others tbat are yet 
unknown, such as some fragments froiii the writings 
of Joseph the bistorian which naay perbaps be found 
in the Targuras. 

2) Talmudic. All Talmudic writings, because tbere may 
be among tbem some still unknown to iis; as, for in- 
stance, the Talmud Jerushalmi of Seder Kadashim, 
which was in existeiice in the tinie of Maimonides; or 
the Tosiphta of Bar-Karpara, the fablea of the Rabbi 
Meir &c. 

3) Geoninic in the Chaldaic and Arabic writing; this 
class is very numerousj for instaoce, the celebrated 
R. Sharira, bis son ß. Hai, R. Samuel ben Haphni, 
R. Hephetz ben Jatzlia &c, Perhaps also writings ol 
the opposers of the Talnmdists, i, e. of tba Karaites, 
and oppoaera of theBible; for instance, HevyalBalhi, 
Ben Sakoni, who lived at the tinie of Sadia &c. 

c. Observation and investigation of natui'al production« 
and iniplemcnts ; and niinute information respecting tbeir 
nanaca- Searches after inscriptions, whicb date perbapa froiQ 
ihe most remote periods, and copiea of the same. 


Semark of Br. Dereubourg in Paria. 

September W^ 1856. 

^V It would be desirable that the traveller ahould täte 

I accurate copies of the Hingaritic inscriptiona of which tbere 

are many in Zana (Osel of tbe Bible), aiid in the vicinity; 

partly to check tboae, given by Ämaud, and partly to in- 
la&e and complete tbe sanie. 


S. Oliserratioii of Ur. Landau in Farii., 

September 21* 1830. 

Question. It' any decided assertion exbta in tbe tradl- 
[ tions of the people relative to tbe time of tbe coming of the 
[ Messiah? — and upon what tbis assertion is founded? Can 
f it possibly be traced back to the Thora? ^^ 

E. Semarkfi of Dr, Jost in Frankfoit on the Haine. 

(i. Investigations reapecting the niost ancient Geoi 
■ and their writings. 

b. Respectiog tbeii- position in the Caliphat, partici 
I relative to the Roshe Galuth. 

c. Reapecting the niost ancient Karaites: Joseph ben 
I Noha, Nissim ben Noba, (Hawandi) Benjamin, Joshejaha, 
' Anan, Levy, Japheth, likewiae respecting Japhet ben Said, 

Joseph haniaor, Jacob harkaani. 

d. Reapecting the dwelling places , and the number of 
l £iQiUies of the Earaites. 

e. Reapecting exact manuscrjpts of the same, partii 
t larly those in Arabic. 

/. Respectbg the eect of the Shabathai Zeby, thel 
cnstoms, divine Service, and writings. 


P. Remarks of Mr. Oei^ei in Breslau. 

June 22nd 1858. 

Araong ancient printed works there arc many whicL 
have become disfigured hy later additions ; the iinding of 
ancient manuBcripts would possibly enable us to restore the 
original text. Among tbeae I include especially the „Tar- 
gum Jerushalmi", likewise printed under the name of „Jo- 
nathan"; the „Mechiltha", the „Sifre" (on the last two booka 
of the Thora). By obtaining such manuscriptsj M'- Benjamin 
would greatly benefit the cause of BCJence. 

About 300 years since the Arabic commentai-y of Siiadia 
on the Pentateuch was in existcnce; it might still be found 

■""'■"'"■""■ I 

B Q. Remarks of Dr. C. J. Uagnns in Breslau. ^^| 

^^ Juue ^^1 

^B 1} From the grcat importance of the Chaldaic langnagt^^^ 
^|pid literature for the proper understanding of certain parts^^f 
^^if the Assyrian and ancient Babylonian cuniform inscriptionB, ^^ 

f the Assyrian and ancient Babylonian cuniform inscriptionB, 
every contrihution to our knowledge on these points irniet 
be of the greatest interest. 

K therefore the eupposition ofM'- Benjamin ia corroi 
that in the raountains of Kurdistan, even at the presei 
day, Chaldaic (not perhaps the modera Assyrian, 
compare Eödiger in the „Zeitschrift der deutschen u 
genländischen GeseUsckaJi", Vol. 2, p. 77 ff.) ia epoken 
by the Jews dwelhng there, it would be desirable that 
M''- Benjamin — for want of written books — should 
have written down by a Jewiah learned man a seriea 
of literary tradition as acciirately aa posaible; — such 
as legende, talcs, songs &c. ; but under all circumstanceSl 
with the addition of a vocal accentuation, either Hebre^ 
Assyrian, or Arabic. 




rb. For the same reason M'- Benjamin had better searcb 
for good ancient (eajieeially accentuated) manuscriptB 
of Üie different Targums; — the Jerushalmi Targum 
OD the Pentateueh not to be f'orgotten, 
2) And not less desirable would it be if M''- Benjamin 
would tum bis attention to Samaritan liternture, and would 
take especial trouble to obtain some good tnaauscripts, not 
only of the Hebrew Pentateuch in uae aniong the SamaritanB 

Iwritten in Samaritan characters, but the Samaritan para- 
pbrase of the same, and other literaiy worka of this people 
written in the Arabic (or Samaritan?) language, whelher 
exegetical, historical or graniniatical. 
3) Good manuBcript texts, Biblical versions of Madinchai 
and Maarbai, and of Ben Aaher and Ben Naphtali, aB well 
SB eimple and piain ly- written Masores either in Bible mann- 
scripta or as independent works, especially the book „Ochla 
Weoobla", would bkewiae merit the attention of the travellec^ 

RemarkH of Ur. Stenzlei in Breslau, 

Juni 22nd 1858. 



For the raore accurate knowledge of the Persian 
guage it were important to have partieulars of the different 
dialects Bpoken in the different provinces. In order to be- 
come perfectly conversant with the pronunciation, whicb can 
bat in adequatcly be acquired from a grammar, I should 
propose that a rather long Persian text should be selected, 
and its pronunciation in the different provinces, 
to the various dialects, should be carefuUy written down 
Latin letters. 

Remarks of Mr. Schmölders. 


1) In Jerusalem at the Ilaram are to be found two 

large and two small mosques. The one standing in the 

L jniddle of the Space is the celebrated Omar-Mos^e, wbich 

is likewise called the Rock-Cattedral. The other large mosque 
Stands in the Bouthern part, and was formerly a Christian 
church built by Justinian. The two other amall moBques 
join it, and it is a splendid building, and eontains sevcn 
naves. In the deacriptions given by Christian travetlers it 
ia often called the Äksa, while aome Arabic authors call the 
Omar-Moaque Aksä, It would be desirable to aecertain if 
poasible v>Mch of the two mosques is the Aksä. 

2) W. J. Hamilton has given us some accounts respect- 
ing the ruins of the former town of Ani (on the Turkish- 
Russian-Persian bonndary, 5 geographical miles east of Kars), 
which are of the greatest importance to ecience. Hamiltnn's 
Statements make a more mintite knowledge of tliese magni- 
ticent ruins, the more desirable. Modem travellers do not 
appear to have visited these ruins at all; therefore a de- 
acription, as accurate aa poasible, of theae raonumenta, would 
be of the greatest value to history as well as art. 

3) Layard has drawn attention to the Jeaidis dwelling 
in the vicinity of Mosul. Their peculiar religioua opinions 
and extraordinary worship appear to denote reraote heathen 
antiquity. It would therefore be most intcresting, if other 
travellers would beatow aome attention on the religion, doc- 

ineB, whorship, and traditions of the Jezidis. 

4) D'Herbelot in the „ Bibliothique Orientale " has a 
[otJce respecting the book „Gafr'^, a work of repute among 

j Shüte heretics, which would be of great importance in 
äie history of the religion of Islam. Could not (particularly 
i Kurdistan) more accurate knowledge respecting it, or 
J*en the book itaolf be obtaintd? M 

K Remarks of Mr. R. Gosche. 4 

„Zeitschrift fiiir allgemeine Erdkunde", p. 141): We wish 
Mm ethnographical considerations, that the traveller would 
lot mind taking the additional trouble of coliecting in La- 
btan among the Tadahicks and in tbe Persian-Indian frontier 
iountriea something belonging to the language, whether songs 
! littie phraaes. To Luristan we sKould "msV t^^etÄaSt^ 


I invite his attention; a.s also to reconunend to the 1 

I »ympathy of geographera, and geographica! societies 1 

' whole enterprise of his journey. 

Af'ter having reoeived while in France tlie above 

I atructions, I proceeded to Holland, and first of all to Rotter» 
I idam. There I becamti acquainted witli a rieh merchant and 
' the Superintendent of the Community L. L. Jacobsohn , who, 
with the concurrciice of other influential nien propoaed to 
me that I should undertake a journey to the Eaat-uidies in 
the Netherlands (Java), in order to eatabüah there a Jewish 
Community; for altbough a conaiderable nuniber of our bre- 

I thron dwell there, no auch Community is as yet in existence. 
Although the journey was n.ot too far for rae, still the ex- 
penses attending it were coneiderable ; so I laid the matter 
Defore the Chief-Rabbis of Rotterdam and the Hague 
then, in the foUowing petition, stated the case to the Jc 
Court of Coinraiasionere. 



The undersigned Chief- Rabbis of the laraelitish cl 
■j^nagogues at Rotterdam and the Hague have the honour, in 
^conaequence of a request addressed to theni by W- Israel 
Joseph Benjamin II, relative to the contiouation of his travels 
in the Eaat in the intereat of the Isi-aelitea, to aend the 
aunexed petition to the Chief Court of Commissionera for the 
affaira of the Israelitea in the Netherlands; and thia petition 
ahall not ouly aerve to prove their sincere intcrest in theae 
travela and theii- probable results, but likewise warmly to_ 
bespeak assistance and aympathy in behalf of the above wi 
known and celebrated traveller in his intended joumeyj 
the possessions of the Netherlands in the Eaat Indiea. 
Rotterdam and the Hague. ijar soi7 (Mai 1857). 

(signed) B. S. Berenstein, 

C. K. of tho Jew. Com. at the Hague. 
Ib. van Ih. lerares, Dr. J. Isaacso 

). R. of the Purtuguese Jew. Com. st the Hague. C. E. of Rotttrda 

To tbe Chief Court of ComraiaaionBrs 

r tbe aSiiirs uf the lüriielites in tbc Netberlacda 

a1 the Uague. 


By every oae who has tumed bis attention to tbe hi- 
atory o£ the aettlemeat of our fellow-worshippers in the 
liospitable Netherlands, the close counection and establish- 
ment of our religious confederacy in their transatlantic colo- 
nies deaerves espccial consideration. Tbe firat settlement 
of the Israelites in tbe "Netberlands took place almoat at 
tbe same tiine with tbe discovery of America; and bardly 
had tlie Netlierlands Bome tirae afterwards come into poe- 
seasion of tbe important coloniea in the Woat-Indies, as they 
were called, wben the enterprising spirit of the Jewa of tbe 
Netberlands took advautage of this cii'cumatance by extend- 
ing to thoae parta their coniniercial ti'ansactiona ; and bow 
tbia has ibrwarded the welfare of the communities, and wbat 
general benefit it has conferred upon tbe coloniea, ja Buffi- 
cäeDtly well known. 

In latei' yeara it became a aubjeet of inqidry wby ths 
diacemment of the learned men and mercbanta of former 
days had omitted to take into consideration tbe advantagea 
wbicb niight bave been derived from tbe still more profit- 
able coloniea of the Eaat Indiea. Perhaps they beaitated 
on accotint of tbeir well known devotion to their anceatral 
faith and religioua observances, precepts, and customs, wbicb, 
they believed, they would be unable to follow in such re» 
mote parts. However, from time to time aobtaiy adventurer^, 
mostly from the lowcr claaa, went out either ae sailora or in 
90me such poaition; but tbey were too niuch wanting 
ability and knowledge, and bad too little feeling of religion, 
to tbink of establisbing anytläng tbere of a religioua cba- 
racter. Froin tbe want of mot-al and religioua education in 
theae advcnturera, in every effoi-t to establisb anytbing reW 
tive to divine aei-vice, oiie could not calculate eitlier oa 
Buccesa or conaiatency; tbere was no conlidence to be placed 
in them. It waa conaidered uaeleaa to expend a sum of 
Wy amount for providing even the moet necesaary arrange- 






menta as a first preparation. for the establishment of an Is- 
raelitiBli religious associatioti , for fear of the desecratioii 
of those minor uaagea, wbich Israelitea are bound to observe 
with particular revereiice and care. But within the last 
few years, wben the transniission of means is considerably 
aafer and easier, the wiah to plant the ensign of um- faith 
among our fellow-worshippers in those parts Las gradually 
become more earnest. Not only from a scientific and philan- 
thropic , but Ukewise from a material and commercial 
motive, and even inHuenced by pure selhshnesa, Gomc of 
our brethren from the Netherlands began to perceive the 
beneSts to be derivod from it, and to feel the want of it. 
These wishea, however, were never eai-riod out, and tlie 
matter was never seriously considered nor undertaken with 
any decision, on account of the diflicnlty of tinding Euitable 
persona capable and worthy of auch a mission, to whom it 
could be intruatod with the prospect of its wished-for 
success. — But the appearance at* this moment in the Netber- 
lands of one who posaeaaes an extensive knowledge of the 
Israelitish faith and llterature, and who has the intention 
of continuing in a short time thoae joumies in the far East, 
wbich he has already made with such exti-aordinary circum- 
speetion and aelf-sacritice, in order to add to the discoveries 
flo important for Israelitiah liistory, he haa already made, — 
bis presence, beaides the intereat feit for the aucceas of his 
moat praise-worthy undertaking, and beaides the deaire to 
fiavour bis scientific joumey, haa in a great degree increaaed 
that wiah to establiah a branch of our religious communigr 
in those important Eaatem transatlantic posaessiona of the 
Netherlanda. We are likewise animated by the same wiah, 
and are much pleased that this wish for the fui'therance of 
the plan proposed by the noble enterpriaer of the journey, 
according, as it doea, so well with seience and religion, 
shöuld have found general willing sympathy and supporL 
As prieata, we fcel ourselvea particulajly impelied to forward 
the wishea of eo many membera of our community and to 
offer our asaistance towarda obtaining' the help of our chantf^ | 

able Government. The aaaiatance whiuli ia granted from 
the colonial funda for all public scientiüe, and moral enter- 
prises, mdiices us to take the liberty of laying claim to it 
for the enterpriae in question ; aad we conld not allow the 
preaent favourable opportunity for the possible fulfilment of 
the hopea, which mjtny of iis have 30 long cherished, to 
pasB by, withont eaniestly waging their reatisation on our 
reapected Government. 

For this purpose we take the liberty of bringing before 
your conaideration , aa conciaely as possible, oftr opiniona 
reepecting the advantages and the necessity of the object 
in view; and if they ahoTild meet your approbation, it will 
certainly be easy to your profound diBcernment to suggest 
to the respected Government the means for the attainment 
of our wishes. 

1. Our inextinguishable feeling for our religion is an 
inducemciit important enough to insure the acceptance of 
our representation, Wby sbould we stand behind other re- 
ligioua communitiea who contribute so much to tha support 
and extension of their faith? Certainly, the Jewish religion 
ia not, as othera, bouud to the duty of making proaelytes; 
but still we ought not to be indifferent when ao many of 
our brethren wauder about without any place for religioua 
asaembly, so that religion becomea partly, if not quite, ex- 
tingoiahed among them. We have therefore conaidered it 
as a aacrod Obligation to einbrace the preaent opportunity, 
as the meana of removing thie injurioua state of thinga. 
We certainly could not requeat from the rcapeetetl Govern- 
ment the large expcnaes neceasary for the eatabliahment of 
a aynagoguß at Java, until the certainty of a sueeoasfui re- 
sult existed. — But for the raissjon which M'- Benjamin i» 
willing to undertake, without either certain aaaiatance or 
later reward, a free pasaage and a moderate compenaation 
could well be allowed: for tiiia small outlay it wouM cer- 
tainly be worth while to attempt the improvement of the 
condition of the Israelitea, and it might wel! be granted 

KLB on the princjple of equality wlth oüict le.'ä.^'öMs.* 


The furthering of pliilanthropic purpfiaes mjght abo 
, be taken into account as a motive for a favoitrable conädc- ' 
ration of our Statement; for they are promoted above &U | 
under roligioiia guidance. Furtherance of religious feeliog 
ind extensive of the knowledge of God are Indispensable ' 
to a great estent to the morality of Society. Among the I 
j Europeans dwelling in tlioae countries is especially found 
I tbe necessity of moral influence and pOwerful remedies for 
the restraiiit of human passions, and the checking of im- 
morality. Government itself appears to comprehend this, and 

I further, in consequence, the establishment of churches, i 
and to watch over their safcty. In the colonies the prin- ] 
oiple of the division bctween church and Btate appeara not ' 
yet to have been brought into play; and the joiisdictioii 
' of the Government has a greater eontrol than in the mother 
country over inatruütion and morality. Under its supeiin- 
tendence the clerical authorities exercise direct iaflaence 
I iraportaot interests of aociety. Has not the Israe- 
litiah Community, as bearing a not inconaiderable proportion 
I to the popuIation of the Netherlands, a right to demand fha 
' Bame protection too? Is it anytliing but fair tliat the 
' avowers of oui- faith ehouJd posseas aonie authority which 
woald watch over the interests of their reUgion? For want 
of sueh a superintendence , is not the fear well grounded 
that a baneful influence from otlier churchea there may be 
exercjsed over the minds of our feüow-worshippers? If 
they do not degenerate into complete irreligion, they are 
still exposed to the seductions of missionariea , who, in 
!_ their artfui dealings, leave no meana untried. And when 
the moral feeliug craves for its own religion, but thiß crav- 
I ing can nowhere find meaus to satiafy itaelf, then it be- | 
Cornea all the eaaier to dispose it towards tbe prevailing 
religion of the majority. Experience teaches as daily tlial , 
miBsionaries everywhere täte advantage of the want of I 
religious knowledge ; and they are apt to direct to that 
.. weak point their ctinniug artifices. We have nothing to 
to the appointment of teachers; this can only b) 

manded by the Community itaeif. But to regulate this de- 
mand, and to waken our fellow - worshippera from this 
dangeroua moral slumber, fairnees requires that the (Jovem- 
ment should weigh all this for the benefit of its subjecta, 
and should finally determine to take advantage of the pre- 
sent opportunity, as the means of endeavouring to improve 
their wretched condition. 

3. But likewiae in a philanthropic point of view this 
imdertaking deaerves to be i-ecommeaded. It were super- 
fluons to depict to you the unhappy condition in which 
most of our fellow-Iaraelites are to be found. It ia not to 
be concealed that neithor industry or public trade flouriah 
among them, The cause of it ia not, as ia so often asserted, 
their want of capacity; it is to be found rather in the diffi- 
cultiea which are placed in their way by — yea, we must 
confeaa it to our sliame - — othera from among oui'aelves. — 
Though ive cannot sufliciently acknowledge the noble bene- 
volencc of many belonging to other secta, who generously 
Support the furthcraiico of trade among the laraelitea, atill, 
we but too fi-equently meet with old prejudices, which time 
alone ean eurmount. Besides thia, the general extension of 
commcrcial industry works, on account of the poaition of 
the Netherlanda, very prejudicioualy on the whole of the 
middleclassea of aociety, and particularly on the Israelites, 
among whom, we coni'esa with regrct, trade evidently de- 
creases. The neceasity for an outlet for the population, 
which under God'a blcaaing is increasing, is ever becomii^. 
a matter of greater iniportance, and pointa us to the po*- 
sessiona of the Netherlands beyond aeasj mth their branches 
of trade ao entirely suited to the charactera of the laraelitea. 
Howcver, the laraelites in the Netherlands arf; so much 
devoted to thoir faith, and to their anceatral customa, that 
they cannot reaolve to procecd to a country wliere no op- 
portunity ia givon for the exercise of their holy reljgion. 
Even the eareless desire ardently to reat among their de- 
parted brethren; while those who are indifferent 
point, seldom rise in aociety to a high degree of virtue ai 

de- m 

[ morality. The establislmieiit of an laraelitish commimitj in 

[ those parts is the only way to remove the evil, and to 

I cause the wished-fnr emigration. Such an undertaking is 

generally comnienced with the careful arrangement of an 

. especial place of burial; by this means the fear with which 

the Israelite quits Europe — viz, that of an early death — 

is quieted, and himscif encouraged to trust still to God'e 

L good Providence. Those too who are troubled with the 

I fear of violating and transgreseing religious precepts, see, in 

I the erection of a synagogue, at least the possibility of 

I being able to perform their religious dutiea aright, The 

I Government at the opening of a colony in their Eastem 

possessions has very properly already recognised the necea- 

I «ty of an ecclesiastieal guidance. In consequence of petitions, 

I which have been presented, ecclesiastieal authoritiea have 

' been invited to join the undertaking of the Government; 

and most honourably have they performed their duties, the 

beneficial results of which have distinctly shewn themselves 

in dark days. 

For the laraelites also, their guidance has not been 

lesB uaeful aud nocessary; but the erection of a synagogue 

IB a lirst conaideration ; — this alone can place the Jew in 

• tiie Position of being able to live aa a religious Israelite, 

I and therefore it is that the erection of a place of worship 

I has alwaya been the firat care of every iBraelitish cotnmu- 

nity. In the establishment of a church confederacy in the 

East Indies, a man of religion, tact, and pereeverance is 

requiaite; and, according to our conviction, no one could 

be more fitted for such an undertaking than the well-known 

traveller M''' Benjamin. To this man, who is well acquaintcd 

with all the difficulties attending such an undertaking, and 

,. prepared to surmount them, it will be comparatively easy 

y to take the necessary precautiona, and to raake every prepa- 

['ration for an eatabüslinient, which will eatisfy every scruple 

f coHiScienee on the part of those interested, and arouse the 

opulent Israelites from their carelessness and tiniidi^ 


to develope their physical and mental powers in a countiy 
wtere a better fiiture awaits them. 

4. Meanwhile, nmong the more wealthy clasB of mercbanta 
th.e desire for the realisation of thia plan lias become parti- 
cularly urgent. Confidence is the tirst requiaito for the for- 
mation of transatlaiitio coinmercial connectioiis on such a 
baals as to insure a favonrable result, and a Netherlander 
is not one eaeily induced to feel confidence in a distant 
oountry. A nd even hy our fellow-worahippera in other countries, 
such coiinections exist for the most part among brothers and 
reiations, or between those who by long eerviee have proved 
themselves faithful to those who employed tliem, When 
such connections exist, diatance does not in the least degree 
loosen the bonda of love, of relationship , or of fi-iendship. 
For the Jew of the Netherlands, howcvcr, a very great 
dißiculty presenta itaelf trom the want of all religioua society, 
whereby he can reinäin faithful to his ancestral belief, 
Change of religion loosens at ■ the same time the ties of 
relatkinship , rousea mistruet in mutual intercourae, and 
even frequently destroya coinmercial associations which have 
been arranged but with much trouble. The eatabliahment 
of chui'ch confederacy is alonc able to disperse all fear ; and 
every one will be iviHing to make a aacrifice in order to 
preserve, and do their best to complete the arrangements 
when once made. The extenaion of commercial intercourse 
increases proaperity, and muat work favonrably with regard 
to the church confederacy in the mother country, by raeans 
of the success of its menibers. This is snrely an important 
reaaon; and without doubt a suffiuient one to induce you, 
to whom the chargo of the Israelitish affaira is coniided, 
actively to forward the plan proposed, and to strive to ob- 
tain the co- Operation of the reapected Government in an 
effort to promote its succcaa. 

5. Om" repreaentation is also recommendcd by the ma- 
terial interests arising from it for the members of our faith. 
By the constant increaae of competition , it becoraes Qa<^ 
day more diflicult for parenta and guardiana to obtain for 


F&e objecta of their love nnd CAre good prospecte for the 
rfature. Experience sliowa ub that mäny of our European 
brethren m the faith have m far distant countriea succeeded 
in obtaining good prospecte and a bigh position in the com- 
mercial world. The East-Indian colonies, whioh have not 
yet been worked enough by the epirit of commerce, would 
open a smooth path for our young men, who, in the fall 
vigour of life, and possessed with Bome means, would find 
there an opportunity for the advantageous employment of 
their powers and acquirements, and a hopefiU prospect of 
liiture aticcess. But the pious-minded cannot eaaily resolvc 
to riak eternal salvation for temporal happiness. Conaiderod 
in thia point of Tieiv, the prospect of the erection of a 
Bynagogue, and thereby of the satisfymg the most bnportant 
L religious wants, would induce parents and guardians to allow 
Itbeir charges to proceed thither. With contidencc in the 
r moral principlcB which have been " until now instilled into 
theni, their carefnl preceptors would uo longer hesitate to 
send them to a far coontry, where is ofFered to them, - with 
more certainty than here, a good atanding in tlia commercial 
World, and where also heavenly food can be obtaincd in 
the boBom of the church. And even the greater activitf 
and pnidonce to which they would'be obliged to accustom 
themselves during the first years of their residence there, 
would exerciae a favourable influence on their piety and 
morality, and careleseness and indifference, which now oc- 
cupy their minds for want of emploj-ment, would then be 
changed into earneHtness and zeal, 

6. Even the simple pizrpose of thia joumey, to make 
still fiirther researches eoncerning the condition of cur 
brethren in the faith in several pai-ta deserves encoui-age- 
ment and assistance. This certainly may appear at first 
siglit to be of no interest to oui- Government; but on nearer 
inapection it ib obvious that merely from motives of gene- 
ral philantropy it is fully entitled to the sjmpatliy of Üie 
legislaturo. The experience of later years has oftentiaies 
taught ua how many advantages have arieen for mankiiub 

from the mecliatioii of one kiBgLlom with another, iuid how this 
mediatioii with kiagdoms, where religioua iolerance was nn- 
known, has obtained perfect freecfom and equality for all 
religions for the f'uture. Even the evils arising from reli- 
gious hatrcd and fanatic zeal, nnd degenerating into avarice 
and blood thiratencss , to whieh our brethren in the t'aith 
were exposed 30 years ago, are checked by the Intervention 
of other Powers, and the sufferinga of the unhappy victimea 
have therehy become lese. In a later caae of persecutiaa 
of the JewB, a Government, nnder wliich enaancipation had 
never existed, came forward in the intereats of hnmanity, 
discovered the dreadful means used for persecution, and 
suppreased the crying wrong. The Netherlanders have like- 
wise often shewn their sympathy for the unhappy fate of 
thoBe oppreased in other eountriea ' and in every place, 
where religious hatred has been the cause of persecution, 
they have readily accorded their interceasion for the auffe- 
rers. Hardly a Century ago did the respected Government, 
in answer to a potition preferred hy an IsraeJitish conamu- 
nity in the Netherlands, exercise ita mediation with a foreign 
Government; and with auch effect that the command that 
the Israelites should qait their birth place and homea was 
revoked. Eut many of our brethren still groan under the 
oppreaaion of deapotism in the Eaat ; and in proof of thia 
the above mentioned traveller fiirnishes us with extraordi- 
nary Statements. The credibility of his accounts has been 
recognised by the most celebrated acholars In France; and 
they have likewjae been confirnaed by critical investigation. 
Our traveller has already, in many placea, proved himself 
a benefactor to his suffering brethren ; and it would conduce 
to the imperiahable glory of our Government, if they would 
extend a helping band to their unfortunate fellow - creaturea, 
an act which they can the more easily pei-form, in as^much 
as it is, oniy desired they ehould uudertake the expenses 
of the journey, and nothing more. We feel asaurcd that 
when oncc a rcligioua community for the laraelitea has been 
^«rtablished, our wealthy brethren here as well as thers 



will join in ita support by direct as well as hy indiiect 

7. Further search from the colonies of the Netiierlands 
for aar scattered brethren can, under the bleasing of God, 
be likewiae productive of beneiicial results for the temporal 
welfare of oiir brethren there, and probably open new patbs 
for our Netherlandic trade. The history of the times of 
Charles the Great informs us, that solely through the in- 
«trumentality of our bretbren in the faith very extensive 
commercial transactions were negociated witb Arabia and 
Persia. It appeara that seeking for Bourcea of trade was the 
first indiicement for the celebrated journey of Benjamin of 
Tiidela. The tediousncsH of the mcans of conunimicatioii, 
and the cruelty of the middle agea" cauaed this joiimey to 
be friütlesB, and the enterprises begun were soon frustrated. 
In the meantime, the enterpvising spirit of our fellow-wor- 
shippers has shone brightly aince the persecutions on the 
Iberian peninsula and in Gennany in the pagea of later 
history, and probably the Netherlanda havc also in part to 
thank that spirit of enterpriee for thoir flourishing trade in 
the beginning of the thirty years war. By the extension of 
the association of our brethren, conaraereial connections are 
now eaaier to be formed. The wiah for pious and well edu- 
cated Israelites brought many of tliem from Bagdad and 
Arabia to the English posseesions , where they found a wide 
field for their enterpridng spirit and reaped a rech harvest 
therefrora. By the increase of edueation and knowledge 
among our Western brethren, it will be a matter of lesa 
difficulty in these days for our yonng people to derive ad- 
vantagea from these new openings; and wlien once eflforta 
are conimenced for the promotion of their eternal welfare, 
be, who has proved hiniself worthy of the conädence of hJs 
brethren in the Eaat-Indian poeaessions of the Netherlands, 
will be placed in a posItion of being able to further their 
temporal welfare also. 

We tako the liberty of bringing theee different points 
^imder the consideration of your profound wiadom, 

flatter ourselveB with the hope of obtaining by your media- 
tion the co-operation of the respected Government for the 
esecution of the proposed plan. The ways and raeariB of 
caxiying it out are matters of secondary consideration, ^ if 
Government will only favourably receive our present repre- 
eentation. We will only place in the forcground that with 
■ the many raeans of transport at the dispoaition of Govern- 
ment, the espensc of the journey can he but compara- 
tively trifling; and thus nothing Stands in the way of 
its executiou. The small expenditure bears no compa- 
rison with the ad van tage s promised by the expedition. 
We believe ourselvea justitied in eapeeially recommend- 
ing to yoo this plan for your kind assistance in your 
ofücial capaeity; and then will be enlianced the glory and 
dignity of Israel, when once by your assistance, under the 
flag of the Netherlands, shall wave the banner of larael's 
churcb confederacy in the East-Indies. The reproaeh of 
proselytisni can in no way be made against you, as the 
mission only confinea itsolf to the furtherance of religion 
amoDg our owu people; a pure work of piety, acceptable 
to the God of Israel. It will be calied a noble effort, if 
virtue and probity, prosperity and piety increase in I.'irael, 
if by lerael'a humanity and beiievolence, happy sources are 
opened for so many idle hands ; and if by generous b 
the industry of many an Israelite ia roused, and ho 
birasolf, under the protection of a ehurch confederacy, fireeJ 
from all oppression. Therein will be recognised the fulfi] 
ment of the words of the prophet: „W'erastich." 

Given by us, the Chief-Rabbis of the Chief-Synagogue 
f Rotterdam and the Hague. 

Rotterdam and the Hague. 
Ijor 5617 (Mai 18571- 
' (»igned) B. S. Berenstein, 

C. K. of tha Jew, Com. at Ihe Uugue. 

76. van Ib. Ferareg, Dr. J. Isaacsohn, 

t. of tbs PortngiieBa Jew. Com. nt tlie Ilugue, C. R. of Katterdam. 



^n the part of tlie cliief cominittee, the objection | 
L raised to the above petitioD, that I as a foreigner, ci 
lany-one eise, only go to the Dutch East-Indies if I were 
I able to prove the posaession of a certain eura of money. In 
L Order to remove this difficulty, I addresBed myself to the 
I Profesflors ofOriental languagea at the universities of Lejden 
I andDelizyl, on whose especial recommendations, pcrmiasion 
I was granted to me by the Minister to proceed to the Dutch 
I Eaat-Indies, without being called upon to produce the re- 
I quired atim. — But aa a defiuite decision on the part of the 
r Chief- Committee was delayed, I travelled to Frankfurt on 
I the Maine, and leamt there, for the purpoees of my second 
I journey, photography and stereoscopy, and likewiae provided 
I inyaelf with the necessary apparatua. 

As no definite anawer an-ived from the Hague, I then 
I proceeded to Hanover, where I puhliahcd the preaent wort. 
\ After having arranged my personal and family affaira at 
I home, I hope vmder the protection of the Almighty, Boon to 

menoa my aecond journey, and with the aaaiatance of the 
[ Etemal, once more to investigate thoae countriea, which are 

cradles of all acience and wisdom, and whose secrets 
I have been all too long shrouded in night and darkneas. 

List of snbscribers in Bombay. 

David Sasson 

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A. D. SasBon 

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E. D. Sasson 

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S. D. Sasson 

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R. D. Sasson 

1 » 

Abraham Sasson 

1 « 

Meyer Sasson M. Esra 1 „ 

M. E. Nissim 

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