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: . » ^ » " - 

V OLTJJi^E 131. aJTETW- S-m-R.TT.iR ) 

Prom JANUARY 1, 1892, to JUNE 24, 1892. 




Printed and Published for the l>roprictor by Bioos k Co., at "Thk ELRrTRiOAL Enoineek " Offices, 139-140, Salisbury-court, 

Fleet-Atrect, E.C. 




INDEX TO VOL IX. (New Series.) 

HOTE.— Q«BerKl Irtlclei, OoPMipondenoe, and ComputleB' Heetlnji an indirated by heavier type (thni, 290) than the Hates, 
reference! to which are shewn by li^t type (Uioa, 291)). 

AbtiHalra. ElMtrocullan 4t, IH 
Abetdwn Tnmwiji, 1, Ufi 
Acddanti, it, S13, 4H, tm, a% ^». 601 
Accnmolatar PkUnti. 677 
AecnniDlkton, Tata, ifil ; WiTofortb, E 

SaU-DlMltuis <^ ast ; Crooipion-Ho' 
Add TnniH from Tmnwrnf Batterlu, 1 
Acnw Wort* BxbiblU at lAjilil Pil*cc 
Acme Worki, Ymr'i Work, J7 
AdtliOil HolaL LlTecpool, Tclinhone In 


AlhrtBht. J. T., Portra:. __. „ 

AlHuder, General B., Death of. ITl 

AUgBinelnB Companr'a fileclrio TtatBlllug Crane, 41 

Alatca, VtlUuUDD o[ Water Power In, 1E1 

A IternaU .Current InieitlgatlonB, Alei. Slemeni, UI 


Altera ate-Current Moton, ST7, 1» 
AltemUlDg Gurrenta, H. H. Kllsour. 11, 11 
AlUmaUns Cnrreiita, Teila'a KiperlmenlJi, Tt, 111 

Allonulon In Parallel, Bxptrimenta at Madrid, B. O 

AmmaUn, Lame, l, 61 

Anmaten and VDltmeteti, The Weatun, STB, 400 
Ampere Balaicea. Sir Wni. Thonuoo'i. in 
Ainpu»€MitlaiMre — A Meiime ot Glectrumag- 

BaUm, C. aerlDs, SM 
ADdMt and Ifodarn, TlUe ot at^ Llefatlng, r>» 
ADdrew*. J. D.P., andCn., Work Dl the Year, gt 
Audrsn'l Conantrlc Wiring, 3H 
AnflO'Ainerloau Telegraph Companr, Meeting!, etc, 


AppolDtmentB, !&, 87, MV, tSI, bS» 

Aro Lampe: 

V. Inoandeacent Lampt, IBS 
PairUae OlobM tor, at B*(b, mi 
and Shadaa, 287 

for Shape, 217 

Are, The Blectric. Notea on the Light ol, A. F. 

'batter, 38S. W, 411 
ArmHroniii Oiaaa Company'a Eihlblt at CryaCal 

FalKMLM ' 
Arm;, The, and the Telephone, IW 
Art nulDga, 387 
AabaatoB, Porcelain, 98& 

Arte, Society ol : 

Addenbrooke, G. L., Uiea and Appllcatlona ol 

Alunlnlnm, ts3 
AanoDncement ol Cantor Lecturea, by Prol. W. 

Cantor L*cttir*> on Oitrlbntl 

HU FhoUigr*] 

n, by Prof. Purbea, 

jrapbj, 181 

M CrriCal Palaoe, e 

BlEh-Tenakni Eiperlmente at, L. Pyke, B79 
Medal Awarded to BdUon, 6DT 

rd. Electricity Bupplf, 


Ayrtoo and Hathrr' 

tntlon at Electrical Er 

Hf SS6, 

Baker, Mr B., Portrait of, US 
BaDd Hualc by Telephone, 219 
Bangar, Plre Alarm for, 2efi 
Banet Arbitration Cau, US, 181, SK, S2S 
Banet Complaini of Ita Oai Lighting, IBS, sse 
Barraclongh and Co. , Work of the Year, Q 
BaUi Electric Light Company, Ueellngi, ef., !» 
Bflli.EfpanAoitail) QDiiMMtliui of Main* at, Tl, 1 

BiR€Bflea. PilUarsi'**- 

Cninp<illtlutl fur at MnrnV^HA, 110 

thtf urSftnn.Til*' -. ; 

■.a^»Lilrt''irA4.(i.js-j . 

EhtfcMOR gAspn&rd : 

for Central Stattona'. Kiparlence at Keailngton, 38 
Chanoea ol E.U.P. In, J. U. Oladilone and W. 

Bll%ert, 4M, SU, M9, SW 
the D.P , a 

Epitaln'i, 13 

Fumetlrom, onCan, 170 

LI than ode, H 

Nlblelt'a, 97 

Sub-gtatlona lor Llfhtlng Toxna, 60 

belliia and Co. 'a Electric Light Englnea, :aj 

Bell-pnli and Kepeater, Bagiiold'a, IM 

BeU telephone ^actorr, The WeaUra Blectric, Stl. 

Bella, Tubular and Electric, C 
Benardoa Welding Proceaa, b 
Beneit, H,, Coaat CommunlcaUon, 30fi 
Benham and Frond') Httlngi at Ciyital 

Exhibition, 80, ITl 
Benliam and Frond, Work o( the Vear, Jg 
Berlin Undannmnd Eleclric Kallway, 138 
Berl^'a BleoMtial Dbeelory, Mt 
" BlbUotheca Beotioteohiiica," Beileir of, A 
Blc^elai, Electric, 484 
Blcfcle Trainer, Bleclrlo, 1 
Bldwall, H., Change! Prodi 

Iron Wirea^BU 
Blfge, D. B., Blectrlcal Tranamlaa 
Blnawanger, O., Portrait ol, lit 
Blrkbeck Lecturea, 4(8 

I, IM 

etc, in. IM, ns 

Birmingham Trarawaya. 17 

Blahopwale-Blreat Raii'mi 


Blahop Telephone Cable at CryBtal i' 

BlBoknun VenUUIiDg Oompany'i Bi 

Palace, 144 
Blackpool Lighting, Report of Comm 
Blackpool Tramway Bill, S17 
Blake, B. W., Appointed to Derry, 4 

~-" iolt,andC< "'----'■■ 

uiiui, iiui,, wind Powi 

Board Dl Trade Labotat- 

Boat, Electric Submarine, 4M 

Boat Kace, The, and Electric Launchei, 33e, 382 

Bailer Gxploalon at ProTlni, 241 

Boiler Palania, 218 

Boiling Magnet*, IM 

Bollon Technical School, Initallatlou at, MS 

Boi^ Becelved, 4S, 103, 410, 433, 481, 482, COO, iiS, 

Boome, H. K and W. F., Behavloar ol Inanlitlng 

Uaterlala, m 
Boyi, C. V.jKlectilc Spark Photography, 268 

Bradlord Tnunwayi, 2, ii, 444, !«l. : 
Biadley'i Multlphaae Patenta, 4M 

Bradlotd, tiev Electrical Firm at. U 
Bramwell and Hania, a Hew Firm, 2 
BraHlian Cable, 677 
Brailllan Submarine Company, Ueetl 
Brealan Central Station, &B1 
Brian ne Arc Lamp. Sid 

Br.iah ComparV'a Rihib 

»s"-— •■"-"■ 

Bndapeat, Popp'a Syitera 

t» at Cryatal P 
In, 1 

alBce Eihi. 
Plant, BIS, 


:able D. Blectric Can, r.!.:, 

."able-Laying at Tsngler. HO 

lableUachrnerr, 280,311 

tablet, New, 146, 170, 171. !S0, !02, 337. M7, 386, *S7, 

Cabtel Bepalred. 1, 26, IS 

Cablet to the Ei 

tuart Kuiaell'* Book on, MM 
d Iiilnglon Proviaional Order, Id, 
leal Enterpriae In, 4 

Canal BoaU, Uectric Pn>pulBlon ' 
Csnnea Blectric Light Company, !i 
Canterbury Lighting, 138 
Cantwbury, Ughia, Beport ol Cod 
Cantor Lecturea (lee FOEBKS) 

Cuboni, Coat of.'su 

Carbon Tranamliter without Bled 

Cardiff Lighting, 116 

ead Electric Tramwa 

Cumarthan, Coit of Qaa at, 241, 2W 
Carriagea, Electric, 3, 147 
Carrlagee, Blectric, tor Boaton, U.S., 201 
Carpenter Blectric Heating Syatem at Cryatal Fi 

Switch, 103; Nalder Broa. and Co. a, S68, W; 
Paterwn and Cooper'g, 140, 1<I9 ; duarllchi, 8M i 

pany i, 3D ; WoodUiue and Bawaoue, 170 
CaterplUara and Blectridty, 6M 
Cathcart, Peto, and Kadlord'a Blhiblt at CrrMal 

Palace, tot 
Cauatlc Soda and Chlorine, Oreenwood'a Proceaa, H 
CeUolold BatUry Plate!, 410 
Central Loudon Electric BaUway, U, 6t, 146, 170, 

itralSUtlon Burnt Dl 


h Accumulatora (I 

jLeDaiDKuin, a^ 

Chaogea of E.M.F. In Secondary Batterlat, 1. B. 

Oladitoiie and V. Hlbbart, 4n, G93, HI, Nt 
Changing the Badge ot the National Blectric LI|U 

Sapptement to "The Electrical Engineer, H 
June 2i, 1802. J 


f- VOL. VL 

Iltthiin Accident, The, 88S, 866, 292 
Chfttham Central Station Water Supply, 40 
Chatterion, A.. Alaminium llanufactare, 248 
Cbelaea Electricity Supply Company, Meetlnga, etc., 

CSiemical Analysis, Introduction to Qualitative, 

Barker North. 160. 255, 386. 353. 304 
Chester Lighting, 60, 138 ; Report by Dr. Hopkinson, 

Giicago. Electric Unicycle Railroad for, 1 

Chicago World's Fair. 25, 49, 66, 07, 08, 121, 124, 170, 

171, 173, 194, 316, 337, 886, 386, 400, 434, 470, 606, 554, 

Chill Telegraphs, 457 
China, Telegraph to, 86 

Churchill and Co.'s Exhibits at Crystal Palace, 534 
Church Lighting in London. 601 
Church Serrice Transmitted by Telephone to Derby, 

Clark Cell as a Standard of Electromotive Force, 

SL T. Qlazebrook and S. Skinner, 374 
Cloaed-Couduit Systems, 468 
City, Electric Poirer for, 07 
City Electric RaUways, Opposition to, 107 
Ctty end GuQds Old Students' Association, 74, 07 
City and Guilds Institute, 411 
City Ughting. 27. 76 

City uf London Electric Lighting Company, 96, 620 
City Notes, see " Business Notes " in each issue 
City and South London Railway, Meetings, etc., M, 

65, 73, 119, 139, 140. 168. 170 
deeihorpes and its Lighting, 663 
Coal-Cutters, Electric, Manufacturers of, 578 
Coast Communication, 29, 61, 146, 172, 107, 217, 211, 

242, 305, 313, 337, 386, 412 
Cobalt, Resistance of. 104 
Combined Engine and Dynamo, 488 
Commerce, Year-book of, 07 
Commuted Currents, 371 

CompMiies' Meetliiipi, Beporta, etc. : 

Anglo-American Telegraph, 96, 119, 148 

BaUi Electric Light, 239 

Birmingham Electric Supply, 167, 198, 216 

Brazilian Submarine. 453 

Brush Company, 96 

Central London Railway, 143 

Chelsea Electricity Supply, 478, 603 

City and South London Railwsy. 119, 189, 168 

Ooromsrdal Cable Company, 810 

Consolidated Telephone Construction and Main- 
tenance. 599 

Cuba Submarine, 148, 167 

Direct Spanish Telegraph, 216. 887. 810 

Direct United Stetee Cable, 47, 71, 96 

Eastern Extension Telegraph, 463 

Eastern Telegraph, 71 

Edinburgh Electric Supply, 46 

Edison-Swan, 148 

Electric Construction Corporation, 3, 863, 310 

Electric and General Investment, 575, 596 

Elmore's Copper Depositing, 81 

Elmore's French Copper Depositing, 405, 480, 527 

Elmore's German and Austro-Hungarian Metal, 

Elmore's Wire. 10 

Giant's Causeway Electric Railway, 131 

Globe Telegraph, 72 

Oocdou AiUL Co., J. B. U., 120 

Hastings Electric Light, 123 

Honse-to-House Electric Light, 884, 858 

Indiarubber, etc., 190 

Indo-European Telegraph, 430 

International Electric Subway Company, 834 

Kensington and Knlghtsbridge Company, 262, 287 

Keswick Electric light, 289 

Liverpool Electric Supply, 261 

Liverpool Overhead Railway, 167 
' London Electric Supply, 811, 331 

Metropolitan Electric Supply, 454, 477 

Mix and Genest, 239 

Mutual Telephone, 46 

National Telephone Company. 620 
I Newcastle and District Electric Lighting, 180 

Newcastle Electric Supply. 120. 148 

Northampton Electric Light, 239 

Northern Electric Wire, 168 

Notting Hill Electric Light, 334 

Oriental Telephone Company, 888. 431 

Renter's Telegram Company, 551 

St. James's Electric Light, 94, 116, 143 

Submarine Cables Trust, 478 

Telegraph Construction, 168, 215. 238 

Telephone Company of Egypt, 359 

Western and Brazilian Telegraph. 455, 508 

Wtstem Counties and South Wales Telephone, 
574. 566. 619 

West India and Panama Telegraph, 508 

Westminster Electric Supply, 191, 213 

Commercial Cable Company, Meetings, etc., 810 

Companies. New, see each iuue 

Oompaniea Share List, see each issue 

Companies Wound up in 1891. 41 

Compass Needle. The. A. H. Fison, 468 

Compound Winding Patents, Tlie, 337, 356 

Cmcentric Cables, Rise of Pressure in, M. IL 
KUgour, 11, 41 

CooduiU, A. A. C Swlnton, 386 

Oboduits for Mains, Johnstone's System, 26, 182 

Oongreas at Chicago. 104 

ConaoUdated Telephone Construction and Main- 
tenance Company, Meetings, etc., 599 

Oootinental Edison Company's Receipts. 1 

Cootractors, Electrical, Suggested Registration of, 

Cooking. Electric, at Crystal Palace, 127, 266, 36? ; 

at South Shields, 488 
Copper Conductors, Tables, etc., Relating to, 863 
Cooper. H. and J., their Rooms at Crystal Palace 

Exhibition, 78 
Cork Tramways, 2, 122, 193 
Ooat of Electric Lighting, 4, 28, 60. 885 
Oovnting Coins by Eiec&iclty, 565 
 OBsotry Town Lighting, 679 

L ^ODty of London Company's Clerkenwell Order. 146 
QDiekneU. E. C, Address to New South Wales Elec- 
trical Club, 48 

Crane, Electric, Allgemeine Company's, 242 ; Cromp- 
ton's, 56 ; Erratum, 125 

Crane, Travelling, Tenders Wanted for. at Hull, 630 

Cranes, Allgemeine Company's Electric Travelling, 

Cranes, Sandwell's Electric Travelling, 899 

Croggon's Exhibits at Ciystal Palace, 150 

Crompton and Co. 's Exhibits at Crystal Palace Exhi- 
bition, 58, 105.246, 867 

Crompton-Howell Accumulators at Kensington, 864 

Crompton-Howell Storage Company, Work of the 
Year, 88 

Crompton, R. K B., his First Connection with Elec- 
trical Engineering, 106 

Crookes, William, Portrait of. 6 

Croaaley's "Otto" Gas Engines, Instructions for 
Working, 160 

Crowner's Quest, 516 

Croydon, List of Installations at, Perren Maycock, 

Crystal Palace Central Station (tee Stdinuam) 

Oryital Palace Kzhlbltlon : 

Acme Works Exhibits, 109 

Acme Works Stand, The, 196 

Admissions to, 241, 246 

American Specialities Stand, Sketch of, 612 

Anders Elliot and Chetham-Strode's Exhibits, 271 

A. P. Lundberg's Exhibits, 286 

Armstrong Glass Company's Exhibits, 298 

Bagnold's Bell-pull and Repeater, 158 

Benham and Frond's Lamp Fittings, 80, 272 

Bishop Telephone Cable, 618 

Blackman ventilating Company's Exhibit, 844 

Brush Company's ExhibiU, 55,246 

Carpenter Electric Heating System, 618 

Catalogue of, 54, 222 

Cathcart, Peto, and Radford's Exhibits, 569 

Cheap Trips to, 338 

Churchill and Co.'s Exhibits at, 584 

Comparison of 1882 and 1892, S. F. Walker. 369 

Consolidated Telephone Company's Exhibits, 294 

Correspondence rt, 133. 205. 229, 258, 801, 826, 349 

Croggon and Co.'s Stand, 150 

Crompton and Co.'s Exhibits, 58, 105, 125, 246, 866 

Dan Ryland's Exhibits, 296 

Davey, Paxman, and Co.'s Exhibits. 69, 222. 869 

Deputations and VisiU to, 169, 172, 193, 218, 241, 

242, 266, 289. 837, 886, 606, 507 
Direct-Current Dynamos at, 296, 818, 342, 866, 414, 

488 462 
Dorman and Smith's Exhibits, 203 
Easton and Anderson's Exhibit, 462 
Edison-Swan Screen and Exhibits, 176. 534 
Electric Construction Corporation's Exhibits, 199, 

Electric Stores Co^t^fn BxMbit, 510 * • • % : 
EntertainmeLt Coast; Tne, 227 •• , <•.« I •- 
Epstein Accumulsltois 82* * " 
Explanations at, 171  . , , - . ' • • • ' • 

Faraday and Son's Exhibi^,-223 • 

Fire Precautions, 174 • '•:,•!••••' 

Fountain and Grotto, The, 127 « ... • 

Fowler- Waring Cable Oonipf fiy'a £9LhlLit, oSi i 



General Electric Company's •fiam|b{U;i26Hn6, 21 

391 •^'**'* •-"' • 

Glover, W. T., and Co.'s E3chibit, 318 
Goolden's Dynamo, 487 
Gordon and Co.'s Work at, 174 
Hammer, W. J., American Exhibits, 611 
High-Tension Experiments at, 243, 366, 893, 400 
Historic Retrospect, 1887-1802, 54 
HIstonr of the Palace, 6 
H. and J. Cooper's Rooms at, 78 
International Electric Company's Exhibit, 317 
Joel and Co.'s Exhibits, 153 
Johnson and PhllUps's Exhibits, 82, 222, 860 
J. Spencer's Exhibit, 380 
Jury for. 267, 400 

Laing, Wharton, and Down's Exhibits, 200, 891, 487 
Lighting of. 39 

List of Exhibitors. 9 ; Erratum, 25 
and Local Authorities, 106 
Lloyd and Lloyd's Exhibits, 390 
Mains and Transformers at, 174 
Maquay Syndicate's Exhibits, 558 
Media)val Court, The. 272 
Mining and Oenerai Electric Lamp Company's 

Exhibits. 54, 107 
Municipal Engineers' Visit to, 278 
Napier and Son's " Showspeed," 127 
National Telephone Company's Exhibits, 317 
Opening of, 1 
Osier's SUnd. 128 
Pantomime Fairy Lights, 107 
Pilkington- White Meter, W. J. Hammer, 486 
Post Office Exhibit, 54 
Progress of, 7. 81, 54 
and Railway Rates, 91 
Rashleigh Phiops and Dawson's Stand, 246 
Ries and Henaerson System of Riveting, 344 
Ries Regulating Lamp Socket, W. J. Hammer, 249 
Sargeant's Electric Launches, 151 
Sea Serpent at last, 97 
Sectional Standards Company's Exhibit, 513 
Siemens Bros.' Exhibits, 80. 128, 154 
Smith and Son's Exhibits, 272 
Smith. S., and Son's Exhlbito, 227 
Smoking Concert at, 290, 813 
Smythe and Payne. Wiring at, 278 
Swinburne and Co.^s Exhibits, 511 
Swinburne and Co.'s Transformers, 88, 866,398,511 
Thomson, Sir William, his Measuring instrumenU, 

Various Telephonic Exhibits, 318 
Visitors to National Telephone Company's Room, 

Ward Leonard System of Motors, 613 
Western Electric Company's ExhibiU, 58, 270 
Weston Ammeters and Voltmeters, 878, 400 
Weston Electrical Instruments, 618 
White's Exhibits, 108 
Wiggins and Sons' Mica Exhibits, 88 
WilM's Ship's Course Indicator. 137 
Woodhouse and Rawson's Exhibits, 105, 161, 199 

Crystal Palace Pantomime, 107 

Crystal Palace Pantomime Fairy Lanu>s, 2 

Crystal Palace Supply Conwany, Work of the Tear. 88 

Cuba Submarine Telegraph Company, Meetings, etc. 
148 167 

Cut-outs and Ceiling Roses, General Electric Com- 
pany's, 178 

Cut-out, Cunyns^ame's Magnetic, 106; Electric 
Secret Service Company's, 242 ; Charging, 316 

Cyclometer, Ransome's, 128 

Dan Rylands's Exhibits at Crystal Palace, 
Darlington, Electrical Engineering Lectures at, 08 
Davey, Paxman, and Co.'s Exhibits at Crystal Palace 

Exhibition, 59, 222. 860 
Davis, J., and Son, Use of Electricity at Derby, 631 
Deaths from Lightning, 108, 520 
Deaths («M Obituaet Notices) 
Deptford Station, Accident at, 208 
Deputations at the Palace, 204 
Derby, Church Struck l^ Lifi^tning at, 506 
Design and Construction of Dynamos, T. Rooke, 281 
Dewar, Prof., Oxygen and Ether, 244 
Dewsbury, Deputation from, to Crystal Palace, 606 
Dinner to Prof. W. E. Ayrton, 467, 498 
Directory, the Electrical Brunnura^ U 
Direct Spanish Telegraph Company, Meetings, etc., 

Direct United States Cable Company, Meetings, etc, 

47, 71, 96 
Distribution, Electrical, Cantor Lectures by Prof. 

Forbes, 100. 188 
Distribution and Measurement of niuminaUon, A. P. 

Trotter, 490 
Distribution and Transmission, R. Kennedy, 423, 440 
Dorman and Smith's Exhibits at Crystal Palace, 203 
Dorman and Smith's Triple-Pole Main Switch, 4tf 
D.P. Accumulators, 62 
Drake and Gorham, Work of the Year, 88 
Drehstrom Apparatus, 37. 77 ; Stratum, 106 
Drills, Sautter, Harlejand Co.'s Electric, 67 
Dublin, Tenders for Wiring Civic Buildings, 508 
Duckett, J. B., Distribution of Electricity, 241, 820 
Dundee, New Post Office for. 193 
Dundee, Tenders for, 629, 5K> 
Dynamo-Electric Machinery, Hopkinson and Wibon, 

"Dynamo-Electric Machinery," B. P. Thompson, 210 


Brush and Mordey at Crystal Palace Exhibition, 56, 

Buyers of, 173 
Calibrating, 433 

Crompton's at Crystal Palace, 867 
Design and Construction of, T. Rooke, 281 
Direct-Current at Crystal Palace, R. W. Weekes, 

296. 818, 842, 366, 414, 488. 462 
Easton and Anderson's at Crystal Palace, 468 
Efficiency of, G. Kapp 87, 102 
Electric Construction Corporation's at Cryatal 

Palace. 866, 488 
and Engine Combined, 422 
at Finsbury College, 241 
Goolden'% at Crystal Palace, 487 
for Gordon's CoUeffe, Aberaeen, 630 
Heating of, Rechniewski, 854 
Hdios Alternator, 122 
Holmes's at Crystal Palace, 414 
Iron for, 678 
Joel's Slow-Speed, 153 

Johnson and Phillips's at Crystal Palace, 369, 439 
for Manchester Central Station, 816 
as Motors. W. B. Sayers, 346, 876. 898 
Parsons Steam Turbine. 34, 63, 86, 110 
Pyke and Harris Inductor. 467, 466 
Bioper Company at Crystal Palace, 489, 462 
Rotary Current, 37, 77 ; Erratum, 106 
Scott, L.. and Co. at Crystal Palace. 440 
Scott ana Mountain's at Crystal Palace, 438 
Scott's, R. A., at Crystal Palace, 415 
Siemens at Crystal Palace, 128, 416 
Taunton at Crystal Palace, 415 
Woodhouse and Rawson's at Crystal Palace, 468 


" Earth " 348 

Earth's 'Magnetism, Theory of, H. WUd. 202 
Eastbourne, Reduction of Price per Unit at, 630 
Eastern Extension Telegraph Company, Meetings, 

etc., 463 
Eastern Telegraph Company, Meetings, etc., 71 
Edinburgh Electric Supply Corporation, Meetings, 

etc., 46 
Edinburgh Exhibition, 313, 347 
Sdinbmgh Tramways, 170, 103 
Edison, 252 

Edison and the News Agencies, 84 
Edison-Sims Torpedo, 123, 170 
Edison's Fee, 601 

Edison's Latest Electric Railway, 76, 90 
Edison-Swan Company, Director Appointed, 217 
Edison-Swan Company, Meetings. ^., 148 
Edison-Swan Screen and Exhibits at Crystal Palace, 

175, 534 
Edison and Thomson-Houston Companies, 677 
Edison and Thomson-Houston, the Proposed Amal* 

gamation, 256 
Edison and Thomson-Houston Trust, 170 
Electric and Cable RaUways, 469, 562 
Electric Carriage, 338 
Electric Construction Corporation, Meetings, etc., 3, 

Electric Construction Corporation's Exhibits at 

Crystal Palace, 109, 366 
Electric Construction Corporation, Work of the 

Year, 13 
Electric Fans, 482 ; at Vienna, 483 
Electric Fire Engine, 194 
Electric Float, 194 

Electric and General Investment Company, Meet- 
ings, etc, 575, 596 
Electric Heaters for Tramcars. 103 
Electric Instruments, Bottone s Book on, 337 
Electric Lamp Ladder Pillars, 515 


In ADtwop, in, 160 

In Anpattori Cinon ud Ca.'i Wool WinbonH, 

lOf AilMdou, ih 

Ut, MO, 3M, US, 

m b«tntetot, ut 
m ummm Boolatj'i SoMiu, G7T 
lorObartM]'. Ill 
Isr CbMtaTLM, Tfi, US, m 
m GhkMn Wocld'a fklr, B7, 1», ITO 
Hr OUnrlek, in, 180, HI, tSS, NB, MI 
for atf UMt MirtaLlM 
In OlaadMiton Tnwn Hall, TB 

atdoHrti Hall, PoMoIh, MS, iT! 

for CnHbdils*, BSS 

In calll«rlMj41 

atCobign*, 380 

lot Oolonibo, US 

GomnarlMii <ri Coat of, Hi 


atCoittit Oiidcn ttaej Drm Bill, S 

for Ommtrj, leV, Wl, WB, US 

■t Cnlulda, Llaniladno, 661 

atC^Mdf, Amerioa, UB 

M Croydon, MS 

for Croldon Unntdpal BondlDfi, IH, iS8 

fot Cmlal PalttM rartrlot, W, fti n. IS 

of tba OrMal Palao* BiUtnUou Suodi, m 

■t tba Grjital Palace Fantomlina, S, in 

of Li. " Dada,'' •■• nndar Orar, f 
In thaDaafOHViitU OOam, 7> 

tnbWi, 1£1 

for Dvb7ril& *3*, UT. UO, EAl, &M 
lor Derby, Dopniatlan to Bitb, SD 

lorJMny, jiMmiitmmt of Kniln*er, 411, Wl 

lort Doekyird, W 

irr, 7S, ItT 

a, Ilia of Han, Itl 

at Daronport Doekyird, W 
In DBwabarr, 7S, ItT 
lor Doulai, Iila of Han, It 
la Dom, n, at, ns, wi 

tor Dnadan, *■" 

t, 3SS, (10, 181, 601, BOS, fiOt, US, 


Lonaon, llf 

for Sail Uolaiav, US 

In XdlnbDnb, tit, Kl, S3T 

Bnqnlrlaaaa In tlu Houa of ' 

■t batra. no, Ut, 4ai, W5, SM 

KiblUHon tn Inlanil, 6 

Kiparieaoe irlth Asenmnlaton at EanilnttoB, n 

In ncaham, 73, ttt 

niM HoOM Lifted. IM 


for norauee, 3ST 

In Floar HUb, <W, UT 

In Fnuea, 1, sn 

and Fnlhani Voatir, lU, sn 

and Ou, AdTanUfaa of Compatltlan, U 

ud Oaa, Hr. Orwall Fhllllpa^ 4^ilnlon, n 

on Oenoas BaOmvi, 49 

ol Olbnllar, lU, tn, HB, SM, UE 

In aUnw, £, tW, Mt, 4St, 4C7, MB, NX 

In Ooddmlu, IM 


tor Qrand Theatre, Blnnlngham, HT 

fOrOrauntown, t6T, 606 

' Ircaatto, Italy, »l 


f, n^ ««p, *oi 

t, Indo-Chlna, sn 

tat a 

In HalllBi, N, n^ U6, ISl 

tor Halbom, M 

for Hare, SoMn, Us 

at HorUenHonl ExhlMlton, HI 

Jar tndlw Ballway Carrlagn, 6t 

Id iSntMn, SM«K IWi, F^f • 

krt<l»mw,7f. , 

In JD((nn4bfii«HtC)lI 

for Klllamay, 606 ' *'■• 
fnr KloiberlBT EihlbJtlon, sM 
At KlnoBwcxid, 313 
- " '-■n, Balop, 3L^ 


In Lane, US.ULISl 

at Lawnbont, 133 

Laakace of Wlraa thriHiah Bnow C 

aod Leanilnctan Town OoudoII, U 

Lectnr«by(T. BUchle, N 

Lactare by B. J. SUoock, U7 


for Lsedi, ITS, !8B, «3I, lET, 606 

for Laadi PnbUo Ubraiy, na 

of Laedi Town Halt, B8, MS 

for Leioaaler, IBl 

tor Lalth ttookh <B, 1i 

In una, »> 

for Llaiarlck, tS 

In L(t— --■ - - ~ ■" -- -' 

lorUTaiwal Ti , _. 

lor Llaaallr, 14 Ml 

Id LoDdoD, A. a W. Seiuwdy, Ut, Ul 

of London Caobal Uaat Hutata, i, UVm 

m loDdon (City), 17, TO, ns, >», 111 

In London Ooon^ OonnoU Ofloaa, Be 

In london ffotaliL «S7 

for London School Board Ofltoaa, IIS 

forLonna, Pranoe, Ufi 

at Ladbnr, M, 386, «U 

for I^bridga, BN 

Inl^nton andCynmonth, 71, tM, us 

lor Lytham Pkr, ns, US 


libbay, I 

Jta, 14i 

for Ualbonma, SB, 170, III 

for Uollat, 7S,iU 

at Hoy Han, invaruaaa, nS 

tn Mr. Cbambanl raetOTy, Haldatona, IB 

□I Hr J. Ballon') Hodh, 1H 

In Mr, Wblte'i HauiloDi Orartami, near Dmubar 

ton, IB 
for NalKm, UT, W 

tor Nawlnaton, MS 


In NIddatd Ja Twlno Uilla, 7. 

In NoHlianinton, fU, US 

lor KotHngbam, nS, 369 

tar NotUnfham Cade Uniai 

tor NniieatOD, MS 

tor Oldhain, tCB 

In OmnlbiUBa. 167, Ul. 623, t 

In Oar Homea, A. 9^1e, SL_ 
tOitoid, K, I16, US, 603, 6», SSt 

for Pontypridd rVe, IZi, zes 
for Portaea WorthouM, t«6 
tor PortBoaath, SB, It2, 1«. U), IBS, I 

MS, 3S7 
381, 66«, 677 

ot Seadlnc'Town RdL IS 

-. --"— ^ ij(»B(Hith Walea, I 

Utary Toomantant, 606 
at B<val ranting Work*, Vienna, 67S 
forSualey, 601 
torStTOeoisa'i, Brlitol, (S 
at St. Heleni, G7T 
In St. Halan* Town Hall, 71, IM 

at at HIdiaUa Cole AUwy Chnrob, London. Ml 
at St. PaoOTi, «, 76, n7, Ui. XU, IM, WT, 606 
at St. Patecabmg, 3S6 
tor BaUoid, n, a«, US 

Sheer beat «, 4!% W 

for Sbarboma, MB 

on Shipa, la, B7, 196, IBS, 180,168, Ut,Ul,BiO,M 

of ahlpa. Pint Vaaael Lighted, laa nndar Otiay, « 


— •-- Plar, 181, 61 

Ji. a 

or Bonth Shlelda, U 
lorSonthwart, Ul 
of SpirlDEfleld, S««, IH 

tor GtaltDrd, SDl 

for StaflonUhtre IndutHal Bcbool, 131 

at SUmtom, Sll 

for Sloorbrldsa, 60 

at Stnttfart, UB 


tor Soiaban, India. 69} 

for Sottoo CotdOeld, ai7. Hi 

at Smuuea, 116 

in Bwadau, 111 

lor Swindcn. US 

Sydenham Centnl Button, ID, IB, SB. tSt 

tor nmwortli, 61 

b,», UE 
^y, m, Ki 

tor TeiSSabS 

In Tbeatrei, 1,^607 

forToloaa, Spain, 167 

for Torqaay, IM 

00 Tralna, 111, 116, nt, 631 

onTramoan, 631 

for Tnnbrldga Walli. 133, 167 

tor Tnnatall, 386 

and Vagrtatlon, OS 
tor Varvlan Theatre, 1 

.1, JIB 

lor WaitlDgton, 133 

In Watarford, 71, M6, SST, 608, 6S0 

torWaatCowM. n? 

in the Waatan Oonntlei, 167 

tor Wattoo^aper-Uu's, 188 

It Wallay Abbey, Btokfron-Trant, 630 

tor Waybitdse, 619 

tor WUtabiTaD, Ml, 6», 668, 67S 

tor Winn, KB, 606 

tor WJS^hall, MB, 606 

for vmetim, 438, us 

Mr Wlndmini, 606 

and Whtd Power, Prof. Blyth, 113 

for WolnduunpEon. isi 

at Woodhatch, Selgata, 801 

 "• olwich, 7! 

_. ._naater, — 

Worit ofth«l__,. 

at Wrexham, 311, 663 

on the Yaoht " Tyoho Brahe, " B7 

for Yannonth. 73, 603 

tor Voric, US, MO, Ul 

nnady, M 

SnppieiiMiit to " The Blecfrical Engineer/n 
June 24, 1802. J 


rVot. tx. 

LNcw 8eri«. 

Electric Saflwajs Deferred, 194 

Beotrlo Sailing Olg, 655 

Eleotric Spark Fhoiography, 241, 268 

Electric Stampen, 419 

Electric Standardiiliig Inatitntion Dinner, 816 ; Fees 
for Testing, 579 

Electric Stores Company's ^chiUt at Crystal Palace, 

Electric Stores, Limited. 4 

Electric Submarine Boat, 680 

Electric Supply, Carious Circumstance, 266 

Electric Traction, Cost of, 166. 375 

Electric Traction in fiance, 121 

Electric Traction, Various Systems of, 105 

Electric Traction, Work of the Year, 87, 89 

Electric Tram Chronograph, F. J. Smith, 556 

Electrical Distribution at Newcastle, A. W. Heayiside 
and R. C. Jacksoa, 686, 678 

Electrical Engineering Ck>mpany of Ireland, Exhibi- 
tion by. 5 

Electri<»i Engineering Problems, T. Held, 487 

Electrical Engineering aad Sydney UnlTersity, 98 

XleetriOAl Engineers, Infltitatloii of : 

Conversazione, 553 

Gladstone, J. H., Changes of E.M.F. in Secondary 

Batteries, 488 
Gladstone, J. H., and Hibbert, W., Changes of 

E.M.F. ui Secondary Batteries, 499. 888 
Heariside, A. W.. and Jackson, B. C, Electrical 

DistribuUon at Newcastle, 686, 572 
Hughes. Prot D. K, Oil as an Insulator, 267 
Jwamai of, 888^ 601 
Ordinary General Meetixig of, 618 
Presidential Address by ItoL W. E. Ayrton, 112 
Seekenzaun, A., Load Diagrams of Tramways and 

Cost of TracUon, 806, m, 881 
Siemens, AUemate-Current luYestigatious, 188, 209 
Sketch of Annual Dinner, Supplement to issue of 

1st January 
Tesla, N., Htgh-Tension Experiments, 401, 417, 448, 

470, 496. n!r048. 666, 60S, 608 
Trotter, A. P., Light of Electric Arc, 886, 486, 471 

Electrical Exhibition for Manchester, 267 

** Electrical PUnt." 24 

Electrical Quackery and the Newspapen. 84 

Electrical Standardising Institution, Work of the 

MUetrieaX ITorM, Change of Editorship, 241 
Electridtj up to Date, 288 
Electriei^ in Gas Works, 217 
Electric!^, History of, £. C. Cracknell, 42 
** Electricity," lU isditorial Staff, 145 
Electricity and Magnetism, D. O. S. Davies. 461 
Electricity, Measurement of, M. Sutherlana, 265, 363 
Electricity and the Navy, F. T. Hamilton, 442, 460 
Electricity, RiTeting by, 508 
Electrici^ and Rheumatism, 208 
Electricity at Royal Cornwall Exhibition, 538 
Electricity and Sanitation, 468 
Electricity, Tempering Gun Springs by, 506 
Electricity in the Woricshop, 184 
Electrocution at Abattoirs. 194 
Electro-force Boots, 889, 641 

Electro-Harmonic Society, UO, 211, 217, 309, 313, 4U0 
Electro-Metallurgy. J. W. Swan. 458, 670 
Electrolytic luTentions, Kellners, 2 
viecnoiync jlaw of Least Energy. 109 ; Erratum. 133 
Electromotive Force, Clait Cell as a Standard of, 

R. T. Glasebrook and S. Skinner, 374 
Electrostatic Instrument, Swinburne's, 19 
Electroteohnics, Prol W. E. Ayrton, 112 
Elmore in Austria, 169 
Elmore Process, Tne. 289 
Elmore's Copper Depositing Company, Meetings, 

etc, 21 
Elmore's French Company, Meetings, etc., 406, 480, 

Bbnore's German and AnstrD*Hungarian Metal 
Company. 600 

Elmore's Wire Company, Meetings, etc., 19 

Emeraon, G. E., Inyentlons, 554 

Engineer, Consulting, for Londonderry, 265 

Engineers' Exchange, Suggested Establishment, R. 
Bolton, 241, 888 ; Opening of, 409 ; Dinner and Con- 
cert, 481, 580 

Engineers, Municipal, Visit to London, 218 ; VUit to 
Crystal Palace, 278 

Engineers, Society of, 219 

Engineers for Spain, 602 

Epstein Accumulator, The, 83 

Eason, W. a. Portrait of, 126, 147 

Esson, W. B., ResignaUon of. 553 

Ewing, Prot, Parsons's Steam Turbine Dynamo, 34 

Exeter Liehttng, City Surveyor's Report on, 886 

Expert's Opinion, Amusing Case, 608 


Fahie, J. E. and Son, Wiring Houses, 897 

Fahle and Son, J. K., Work of the Year, 88 

Faraday and Son's Exhibits at Crystal Palace, 223 

Faure Patent in Germany, The, 506 

Ferranti's Automatic Transformers, 529 

Fsrrantl's Automatic Transformer Switches, 51 

Ferranti's Meters, 50 

Flnsbury CoUege Lectures, 27 

Fire Alarm, Electric, in Boston, U.S., 25 

Fire Alarms for Chelmsford, 338, 409 

Fire Alarms at Chiswlck, 75 

fire Alarms at Poplar, 268 

Fire Engine, Electric, 194 

Fire at Messrs. Hodges and Todd's, 195 

Fire Precautions at Crystal Palace, 174 

Fire at Scott's Supper Rooms, 516, 626 

Fireworks. Electric, at Chicago, 25 

FitUngs, Decorative, S. F. WiOker, 41 

Fittings, Laing, Wharton, and Down's, at Crystal 

Palace, 490 
FltUngs, Lamp, Benham and Frond's, 80 
Fittings, Osier's, 126 
Fison, A. H., The Compass Needle, 458 
FltaGerald's Llthanode AccnmnUtors, 64 
Flexible Metallio TnUng, 66 
Float, Electric, 194 
Flying Machine, Moore's, 109, 194 

Fog Annihilator, Electric, J. W. Swan, 364 

Fog and Electric Light, 116 

Fogbell, An Electric, 76 

Fog Signals, Electric, 24 

Forbes, G., Cantor Lectures on Distribution, 109, 

183, 187, 181 ; Visit to America. 885, 481 
Forbes, Prof. G., Transmission of Power at Niagara, 

Forbes, J. 8., Elected President National Telephone 

Company, 96 
Force, Lines of, and I'nit Magnetic Pole, 77 
Fortress, Edison's New Method of Defending, 84 
Fort Salisbury Telegraph Line Completed, 160 
Fowler- Waring Cable Company's Exhibits at Crystal 

Palace ExhibiUon, 66 
Ftankfort Exhibition Finances, 51 
Frankfort*Lauffen Transmission Plant, % 87, 74 
Franklin, Benjamin, Portrait of, 26 
Free Trade in Telephones, 387 
French Customs Tariff, 89 
French Elmore Company, The, 397, 406 
French Physical Society, 385, 413 
Fulton, T. a. Electricity on Ships, 260 


Galvanometers, W. E. Ayrton and T. Mather, 896,618 
Galvanometers, Siemens, at Crystal Palace, 129 
Garcke, E., Appointment, 361 
Garcke, Mr., Resigns Managing Directorship Brush 

Company, 97 
Gamett, Prof. Wm., and Portsmouth Lighting, 69, 

Gas and Electric Lighting, Mr. Orwell Phillips's 

Opinion, 28 
Gas Engines in Central Stations, 290 
Gas Engines, Mansgement of, 134, 160 
Gas Engines for Working Tramcars, 50 
Gas Explosion at Paris, 602 
G<u JcumdCB Challenge, 146 
GkM Lighting Journal v. Electric Lighting, 180 
Geipel, Mr., Appointed Superintending Engineer, 

Brush Company, 97 
General Electric Company's Exhibits at Crystal 

Palace, 126, 176, 391 
General Electric Company, Work of the Year, 89 
General Electric Power and Traction Company, 

Resignation of Manager, 337 
General Electric Traction Company, Work of the 

Year, 89 
Giant's Causeway Accident, The, SIS 
Giant's Causeway Electric Railway Company, 

Meetings, etc., 131 
Gill, J. C, Eleotric Lighting, 137 
Gilgit, Proposed Tel^a>sphic Extension to, 194 
Glasgow Technical College, Presentation to, 485 
Glasgow, Tenders for Central Station at, 506 
Glasgow Tramways and Electric Traction, 69, 74, 

166, 173, 196, 243 
Globe Telegraph Company. Meetings, etc., 72 
Glow Lamps, Test of, at Paris, 609 
Gold-Leaf Electroscope, Sir William Thomson's, 518 
Gold Salts, Electrolysis of. A. Watt, 15, 32 
Goolden and Co., Work of the Year, Q. 
Gordon and Co., J. E. H., Meetings, etc., 120. 
Gordon and Co. s Work at Crystal Palace, 174 
Gordon, J. E. H., Portrait of, 64 
Gordon, J. E. H., and Tesla's Experiments, 193 
Gramme Winding, 629 
Gray, R. K.. Portrait of, 64 
Gray, T., Measurement of the Magnetic Properties 

of Iron, 093 
Gray's Telautograph, 2 

Greenwood's Caustic Soda and Chlorine Process, 86 
Grindle, J. A., Portrait of, 126 
Groth Patents, The, 678 
Guttaline, 316 


Halifax lechnical School, 217 

HamUton, F. T., Electricity and the Navy, 442, 460 

Hammer, W. J., American Exhibits at Ciystal 
Palace, 611 

Hammer, W. J., Pilkington- White Meter, 486 

Hammer, W. J., Ries Regulating Lamp Socket, 249 

Hammer, W. J., Visit to London, 145 

Hammond. R., Portrait of, 196 

Hampstead and Charing Cross Railway, 66, 146, 147, 

Hastings Electric Light Company, Meetings, etc, 123 

Hay, A., Appointed to University College, Notting- 
ham, 26 

Heaters, Electric, for Tramcars, 193 

Heating, Electric, 26, 127. 172, 241, 206 

Hedgeh(MB and Snakes, MO 

Hedges, K., '< Continental Electric Light Stations," 

Hellesen's Hn Batteries, 180 

Henley, W. T., Biography of, 507 

Hering, C, Ampere-Centimetre — A Measure of 

Electromagnetism, 636 
High-Tenslou Experiments at Crystal Palace, 243, 

High-Tension Experiments, N. Tesla, 401, 427, 448, 

470, 496. 619, 643, 666, 698, 608 
High-Tension Experiments at Society of Arts, L. 

Fyke, 579 
Hindrance, 121 

History of Electrici^ E. C. Cracknell, 42 
Hodges and Todd's Works Burnt, 170, 195 
Hoists and Pumps, Electric, 313 
Holden, Captain H. C. L., Portrait of, 198 
Holmes and Co., J. H., Annual Dinner, 28 
Holmes, G. C. V., Electricity Applied to Metallnrg}', 

Holmes, J. H., and Ca, Shiplighting Contracts, 685 
Hopkinson, Dr., Report on Chester Lighting, 696 
Hopkinson, J., and Wilson, £., Dynamo - Electric 

Machinery, 900 
HorUcultural Exhibition, The, 436 
House of Commons Signal Light, 459 
House-to-House Electric Light Company, Meetings, 

etc, 384, 368 
Houston, E. J., Early Conception of Magnetic Field, 


Huddersfleld, System of Lighting to be Introduced, 

Hughes, Prof. D. E., New Use for the Microphone, 

Hughes, Prof. D. B., OQ as an Insulator, 287 


InooBdesoent Lamps : 

Average Hours of Lighting in Germany, 78 

Benham and Frond's FiUings for, 80 

Davis, J., and Son's, New fittings, 483 

Edison-Swan, Discount on, 838 

Edison-Swan Patents, 219 

Life of, 206 

for Omnibuses, 218 

Osier's Fittings for, 126 

Portable, for Theatres, 577 

for Sigoalling at Sea, 90 

Tests of, at Paris, 500 

Theft of, 26 

with Transformer for Street Use, 19, 83 

Increasing Revenue, 389 

Increasing the Supply. 872, tfl 

India, Development or, 361 

Indian Railway Carriages, Lighting of, 564 

Indian Telegraphs, 66, 217 

India Rubber, etc., Company, Meetings, etc., 190 

India Rubber, etc. Company, Work of the Year, 

Indisrubber, Discovery of, 601 

Indiarubber Factory in Paris, 1 

Indicator for Railway Stations, 195 

Indo-European Telegraph Company, Meetings, etc 

Insulating Material, Behaviour of, H. B. and W. F 

Bourne, 279 
Insulating Material, Grifilths's. 122 
Internal Illumination of Buildings, W. H. Preeoe, 

International Electric Subway Company, Meetings 

etc, 834 
Inventions, G. E. Emerson, 554 
Ipswich, Conversazione atJ* 458 
Ireland, Private Lighting Exhibition in, 6 
Iron for Dynamos, 678 
Iron, Measurement of Magnetic Properties of. T. 

Gray, 698 
Isle df Man Exhibition, 410, 488 
Islington Electric Light Company, 26, 248, 628 


JackSvin, Colonel R. R., Portrait of, 198 

Jarman Electric Cars at Croydon, 3 

Joel and <*o.'s Exhibits at Crystal Palace, 158 

Joel, H. F., and Co., Lane Fox Patents, 849 

Johannesburg Electric Company and the Transvaal 

Government, 263 
Johnson and Phillips, Dynamo Department Dinner, 

Johnson and Phillips's ExhibitB at Crystal Palace, 82, 

Johnstone's Underground Conduits. 26, 182 
Joule's Thermometers, Prof. Schuster on, 49 
JwimaiqfOas Liffhting v. Electric Lighting, 180 
Journals, New, 25, 172 
Junior Engineering Society, Holmes on Electricity 

and Metallurgy, 92, 136, 166 


Kapp, G., Efficiency of Dynamos. 87 

Kapp, Gisbert, Portrait of, 64, 102 

Kapp, G., Report on Taunton Installation, 474, 681 

Kellner's Kectrc^ytic Processes, 2 

Kelvin. The Board of Trade Unit. 433, 446, 469 

Kennedy, A. B. W., Electric Lighting in London, 

162, 186, 289. 288 
Kennedy, A. W. B., Report on Dundee Lighting, 602 
Kennedy, R., Distribution anl Transmission, 482, 

Kensington and Knightsbridge Company's Experi- 
ence of Accumulators, 88 ; Meetinn, etc, 262, 287 
Keswick Electric Light Company, Meetings, etc, 

Keyed Casing and Cover for Wires, 606 
Kilgour, M. H., Alternating Currents, 11, 41 
KQowatt Balance, Sir William Thomson's, 618 
Kimberley Exhibition. 170, 664 
King's College Prize Winner, 601 
King's College, Siemens Laboratory at, 193 

Lahore, Electrical Lecture at, 656 

Laing, Wharton, and Down, 101 

Lalnff, Wharton, and Down's Exhibits at Crystal 

Palace, 299, 391, 487 
Lambeth Provisional Order Revoked, 146 
Lamp Pillars. Electric, for London, 816 
Lane Fox v. Kensington and Knightsbridge Company, 

800 834 
Lane 'Fox Patents, The, 338, 349 
Largest Expert's Fee on Record, 601 
Lame Lidblting, 149, 166 
Lathe Attachment. Rogers's, 19 
Lauffen-Frankfort Transmission Plant, 2, 37, 74 
Launch, Electric, New, Series of Trials on the Clyde, 

Launches, Electric, at Crystal Palace, 161, 435 
Launches, Electric, General Electric Company's, 97. 

266, 338, 862, 386 
Launches, Electric, General Power and Traction 

Company, 316 
Launches, Electric, in the Italian Na^, 49 
Launches, Electric, on the Thames. 579 
Launches, Electric, Woodhouse and Rawson's, 607 
Launches, Electric, Work of the Year, 89 
Launches, Electric, at the World's Fair, 886 
Launches, Electric, W. B. Sargeant's, 361, 410, 460, 

Lawrence-Hamilton, J., Coast Communication, 197 
Lead-Covered Conductors, 889 



rsniipiameiit to " The ElecMcal BngioMtv 
L June 24, 1898. 

Leading ArtlelMi : 

Alteraate-Carrent Motors, 877 

Bradford Tnunwayi, M4 « 

'Btu LightiDg. 640 

Chatham Accident, The, 8S8 

Crowner't QaesLSlS 

C^tal Palace Exhibition and Local Authoritiee, 

Deputations at the Palace, 804 
" Earth," 348 
Edison, 888 

Electric and Cable Railways, 469 
Electricity and Sanitation, 468 
Forbes, Prof., on Distribution, 109, 133, 1S7, 181 
French Elmore Company, The, 397 
Increasing the Supply, 3TB, 481 
Journal qf Gas Lxgkting 0. Electric Lighting, 180 
Keep Outside, 301 
Lane Fox v. Kensington and Knightsbridge, 300, 

Lame Lighting, 156 

Metropolitan Company, The, 445 

Mr. Preeoe at the British Architects, 493 

New Telephone Company, The, 481 

Niagara, 065 

Netting Hill, 349 

Oil Insulation, 876 

Pacific Cable, The, 396 

Pains and Penalties, 641 

Projected Electric Railways, The, 517 

Reriew of the Year, 18, 36, 60. 84 

Royal Agricultural Show at Warwick, 610 

8t James's Electric Light Company, 109 

St Pancras, 480 

South American Cable Company, 481 

Taunton, 8T7, 517 

Telephone Problem, The, 888 

Telephony, 445 

Telephony and the Post Office, 384 

Tesla, 138 

Threepence, 564 

Traction, 588 

Western Counties, eto., Telephone Amalgamation, 

Work in View, 498 

Leeds, Extonsion of Provisional Order for, 193 

Barnet Arbitration Case, 433, 481, 506, 529 

Brush Corporation v. King, Brown, and Co., 337, 

Clough and Co. v. National Electric Supply Com- 
pany, 551 

English and Scottish luTestment Company 0. 
Brunton, 480 

Lane Fox Case, The. 861, 389, 361 

Pink V. Electricity Supply Company of Spain, 602 

Savory and Moore v. London Electric Supply Cor- 
poration, 356 

Western Counties Telephone Company v. Bourne- 
mouth Electric Supply Company, 574 

Leonard, H. W., New System of Electric Propulsion, 

Liege University Prospectus, 291 

Life-belt Cushions, 122 

Life in Motion, Prof. McKendrick's Lectures on, 

Lifts, Electric, for RaUways, 123 
Lighthouse Beams. 436 
Lighthouses and Electric Light, 146, 4S4 
Lighthouses and Ships, Communication with, 29, 51, 

145, 172, 103 
Lightliouses and Ships, Royal Commission on, 6U1 
Lightning, Accidents from, 100 
Limtoing Arresters and Non- Arcing Metals, A. J. 

Wurts, 341 
Lightning, Death from, 193 
Li^t Standard Committee, 109 

Idteratnre : 

Alabaster, Gatehouse, and Co., Berly's Universal 

Electrical Directory, 566 
Hedges, K., Continental Electric Light Stations, 611 
Russell, S. A., Electric Light Cables, 133 
Sicaepanski, F. von, BibUotbeca Elcctrotechnlca, 


Lithanode Miners' Lamp. 54 

Liverpool College, F. G. Bailey Appointed Lecturer 

to, 818 
Liverpool Electric Football Club, 123 
Liverpool Electric Supply Company, Meetings, eto.. 

I4verpool Lighting, Report of City Engineer, 883 
Liverpool Overhead Railway, Meetings, eto., 1, 27, 

Liverpool Supply Company and the Corporation, 74, 

08, 122, 147, 173, 194 
Liverpool Tramway Company and Electric Traction, 

100, 193 
Uvesey, H., Weaving by Electricity, 643 
Lloyd and Lloyd's Exhibits at Crystal Palace, 390 
Local Authorities and the CrysUl Palace Exhibition, 

lA>oomotive, Electric, The Largest, 361 
Locomotive, Electric, Thomson- Houston, 1 
Locomotives, Electric, S. P. Thompson, 548, 668 
London Chamber of Commerce, 89, 97, 818, 218, 508 
London Chamber of Commerce, Annual Meeting, 648 

London Connty ConnoU: 
By-laws as to Overhead Wires, 89 
and Deptford Tramways, 001 
Electric Lighting of Offices, 98 
and Electric Vehicles, 147 
General Powers BUI, 170 
and Hospital Lighting, 433 
UghtDii^ Conductors, Mr. Handson, 171 
Main-Laying Sanctioned by, 100, 148, 169 
Model Order, Amendmento to, 330 
and Proposed Electric Railways, 146, E32, 547 
and Provisional Orders, 124 
Report of Parliamentary Committee on Electric 

and Cable Railways, 474 
and Subways, 292, 314. 339, 5U6 
M Tachnloal Educatlou, 533 

London Conntj ConnoU {pontinued) : 
and the Telephone Bills, 169 
and Theatres, 219 
and Tramways, 219 

London Electric Supply Corporation, Meetings, ^e., 

3U. 831 

London, Methods of Electric Lighting in, A. B. W. 

Kennedv, 168. 186, 889, 853 
London, New Electric Railways for, 18, 60, 146, 171 
London-Paris Telephone, 97 
London Subways, 292, 314, 606 
London Tramway Company and Electric Traction, 

London University Examinershlp, 217 
Lundberg's Exhibits at the Crystel Palace, 886 
Lundy Island Cable, 123 
Lundy Island, Wreck at, 193 

Machinery, Taxation of, 41 

Maclntyre and Co., Work of the Year, 61 

Madras Tramways, 1, 170, 267 

Madras, Utilisation of Water Power at, 811 

Magnetic Boot, The. 666 

Magnetic Field, Early Conception of, E. J. Houston, 

Magnetic Pole, Unit, 77 
Magnetic Properties of Iron, Measurement of, T. 

Gray, 693 
Magnetisation, Changes Produced by. In Iron Wires, 

S. Bldwell, 581 
Magnetism of Iron, Prize for Best Work on, 400 
Magneto, Influence of Steam on, 106 
Mail Car, Electric, In St Louis, 291 

Blalno. Kleotrio Light : 

at Bath, Expansion and Contraction of 74, 109 

Crompton's at Crystal Palace, 846 

at Derby, 218 

at Exeter, 363 

at Goole, 195 

Grounding the Neutral Wire, 409 

for Hull, 338,482 

Johnstone's System of, 26, 188 

in Liverpool, 289 

at Ludlow, 385 

at Manchester, 337 

in Paris, Alteration of, 193, 409 

Review of Russell's Book on, 133 

in St. Paiionu, 861 

Systems of. Cantor Lectures, by Prof. Forbes, 109 

and Transformers for Supplying Energy to Crystal 

Palace ExhibiUon, 174 
Woric Sanctioned by London County Council, 100 


Manchester Central Station, Dynamos for, 316 ; Clerk 

of Works for. 530 
Manchester, Electrical Exhibition for, 266 
Manchester Ship Canal, Launches for, 266. 337 
Manchester Town Hall, Tenders Wanted for Wiring, 

Manganln, 221 

Mansfield, Price of Public Lamp» at, 193 
Manual for Ofllce Use, 103 

Maquay Syndicate's Exhibits at Crjrstel Palace, 568 
Marson Primary Battery Company, 90 
Measuring Instruments, Electrical, Nlblett and 

Ewen, 17, 66, 169, 806, 301 
Measuring Instrumento, Electrical, J. Swinburne, 

Measuring Instruments, Sir William Thomson's, 518 
Medical Electricity, 481 

Medical Electricity and Mr. H. N. Lawrence, 75, 110 
Medical Electricity, D. Rodan, 665 
Messenger Call-Box, Automatic, 219 
Metallic Tubing, Flexible, 66 
Metallurgy and Electricity, G. C. V. Holmes, 98, 136, 

Metals, Non- Arcing, 341 
Meteorological Society's Exhibition, 241, 267 

Brillle's, 566 
DonnLson's, 179 
Ferranti's, 50, 529 
Recording Electrical Energ>, C. H. Wordlugham, 

569, 689, 604 
Thomson's, Prof., at Paris, 506 
Thomson's, Sir Wm., at Cirystal Palace, 103 

Metropolitan Company, The, 445 

Metropolitan Electric and Cable Railways, Joint 
Select Committee's Report on, 686 

Metropolitan Electric Supply Company's Balance- 
sheet, 641 

Metropolitan Electric Supply Company, Meetings, 
etc 463. 477 

Mica, Wiggins and Sons' Exhibit at Crystal Palace, 82 

Microphone, New Use for, Prof. D. E. Hughes, 196 

Milan Exhibition, 409 

Milk Ivory, 122 

Milk, TesUng by Electricity. 433 

Miners' Lamps,D. Tommakl. 338 

Miners' Lamp. The Lithanode, 54 

Mining and General Company's Fairy Lamps, 2, 107 

Mining and General £iectric Lamp Company's 
Exhibito at Crystal Palace ExhibiUon, 64. 107 

Mining and Electricity, D. S. Blgoe, 188 

Mining Engineers, Proposed London Institute, 75 

Mix and Genest Company, Meetings, eto., 839 

Moore's Flying Machine, 109, 194 

Moral Electricity, 411 

Morse Line. The First, 25 

Moscow, Electrical Company for, 410 

Moscow ExhibiUon, 97 


Alternate-Current, W. Stanley, jun., 880 

at Baltimore, 438 

First Patent for, 3 

for Flying Machines, 337 

Joel's, 158 

Kennedy Alternate-Current, 201 

Modem, W. B. Sayers, 345, 376, 398 

Motors iponiinued) : 
for Ploughing, 26 

Rotary Current, 37. 77. 106 ; Erratum, 171 
Single-ReducUon, O. K. Wheeler, 418 
Tesla's, 293 
Time Cut-outs for, 241 
for Tramways, Graff Baker, 557 
in the Workshop, 184 

Mr. Preece at Uie British Architects, 493 

Multiphase Patents, Bradley's, 494 

Municipal Engineers : Vlslte to London, 218 ; Meet- 
ing of, 878 ; Visit to Crystal Palace, 879 

Mutual Telephone Company, Meetings, eto., 46, 50, 
73, 196 


Napier's Speed Indicator, 187 

National Klootrlo Light Assoolation: 

Alternate-Current Motors, W. Stanley, Jun., 880 

Boiler Firing, R. Hammond, 874 

Changing of Badge, 500 

High-Tenslon Currents Underground, £. A. Leslie, 

MeeUng at Buffalo, 873 ' 
Overhead Construction, E. F. Peck, 875 
Papers Read at, 875 
Reports of Committees, 875 
Size and Efficiency in Transformers, L. B. SUlwell, 

Transmission of Energy, H. Ward Leonard. 873 
Transmission of Power from Niagara, C. Hering, 


NaUonal Electric Supply Company, Preston, Supper, 

NaUonal Telephone Bill, Opposition to, 217 

NaUonal Telephone Company and Sheffield Ex- 
change, 265 

National Telephone Company, Liverpool Employees' 
Dinner, 145 

NaUonal Telephone Company, the Presidency, 27, 96 

NaUonal Telephone Company's Bill, 27, 75, 07, 145, 

NaUonal Telephone Company, Meetings, eto . 680 

NaUonal Telephone Service and the London Chamber 
of Commerce, 818 

NewcasUe and District Electric Lighting Company, 
Meetlngs^to., 188 

NewcasUe Electric Supply Company, MeeUngs, eto., 

180 143 
NewcasUe, Electrical Distribution at, A. W. Heavi- 

side and R. C. Jackson. 536, 678 
New Electric Launch, 514 
New Firm, 680 
New Journal, 198 
New South Wales Electrical Club, Presidential 

Address. 42 
Newspapers and Quacks, 84 
New Telephone Company, 481, 520 
New Telephone Company's BUI, 27, 97, 160, 217, 218 
Newton Electrical Engineering Works, Year's Busi- 
ness, 40 
New Zealand Engineering Company, 145 
Niagara, 865 

Niagara, UtUlsaUon of. 73, 481, 663 
Nlblett's Book on Secondary Batterim, 07 
Nlblett and Ewen, Practical Electrical Measuring 

Instruments, 17, 66, 169. 806, 301 
Nlckel-Phitlng, 609 
Northampton Electric Light Company, MeeUngs, 

etc 230 
North', Barker, Introduction to Qualitative Chemical 

Analysis. 160, 866. 386, 363, 394 
Northern Electric Wire Company, Meetings, eto., 168 
NoteUon, M. Hospitaller and, 172 
Netting Hill Electric Light Company, Meetings, eto., 

Nott, Prof. C. G., Resistance of Cobalt, 104 


Obitnary Notioos : 

Alexander, General R., 171 
Leyland, F. R., 27 
Prime, T., 517 
Watt, A., 86 
Willans, P., 617, 529 

Objectionable Features in Telephone Bills, 105 

Occlusion of Hydrogen, 399 

Oil as an Insulator, Prof. D. E. Hughes, 257 

Oil Insulation and David Brooks, 167, 876 

Old Students' AssociaUon, Concert, 265 

Oliver, E. E., Lecture at Lahore, 555 

Omnibus LlghUng, 457, 484. 529, 640 

Organ, Electric, 275. 533, 555 

Organs, Electrical, Control of, 5 

Oriental Telephone Company, Meetings, eto., 383, 

Original Morse Exhibit at the World's Fair. 554 
Osier's SUnd at Crystal Palace, 126 
OUey, Electric Bells and Firem n at, 553 
Oxford Central Stotlon, 506 ; Opening of, GUI 
Oxford Lighting, 38 
Oxide of uopper. Poisoning by, 242 
Oxygen and Ether, Prof. Dewar, 244 
Ozone Inhaler, 361 


Pacific Cable, Proposed, 170. 217, 396 

Paddlngton Central StaUon, 217 

Pains and PenalUes. 641 

Pamphleto Received. 195, 3S6 

Paper-making by Electricity, 386, 434 

Paris Exhibition, 26 

Paris, Gas Explosion at, 602 

Paris-London Telephone, 97 

Paris Mains, 193 

Parsons Steam Turbine Dynamo, 34, 63, 86, 110 

Partington, Mr., Killed by Lightning at Salford, 529 

Patent Ofllce Library, 25 

Patente lists, see eacn issue 

SmmlnMDt to ** Hw Eleetrlcal Engineer,"! 
June M, mOi. J 



New Seriet. 

Ffttenon and Cooper, a Dliolaimer. 147 

Patenou and Cooper, Work of the Year, It 

Paul, R. W., Ayrton and Mather's Oalvanometer, OS 

Paxman't BoUen at Crvttal Palace Exhibition, M 

Pazman's and Plane's Joint for Boilers, 69 

Perpetual Syphons, 600, 570 

Personal, 1, 2JI7, 73, 145 

PhUippopoUs Exhibition, 1 

Fhonopore, The, 289 

Phonoporic Telephony, The Timet on, 371, 885 

Fhysieal Soel«ty: 

Akeroyd, W., Law of Colour in Relation to Chemi- 
cal ConstituUon, 406 
Annual Meeting, ill 
Ayrton, W. E., and Mather, T., Ballistic and other 

Oalrsnometers, 696 
Baily, W., Construction of a Colour Map, 406 
Ednr, £., and Stansfleld, H., Instrument for 

Measuring Magnetic Fields. 645 
Gladstone, J. U., and Hibbert,W., Change of E.M.F. 

in Secondary Batteries jm, 500 
Oleed, W., A Mnemonic Table, 406 
Kilgonr, M. U., Alternating Currents, 11, 41 
Nalder, F. H. , Some Electrical Instruments, 645 
Paul, B. W., Some Electrical Instruments, 289, 387 
Thompson, S P., E.M.F., Representation of, in 

Diagrams, 304 
Thompson, 8 P., Supplementary Colours, 212 

Pink, E. O., Experiments with Alternators in Parallel 

at Madrid, 58i), flOl 
PlanU and Electric Ught, 98 
Plant, Electric, Sales of, 409, 460 
Pliers. Unirersal, 217 
Ploughing by Electric Motors, 20 
Pocket Lamps for Omnibuses, 218 
Poisoning by Oxide of Copper, 242 
Polytechnic, London, and the World's Fair, 001 
Popp System in Paris, 2 
Portelectric System, 2 

Portrmlts of Kleotiioal Bni^eers : 

Albright, J. F., 64 

Ayrton, Prof., 6 

Baker, Sir B., 125 

Binsiranger, Oustav, 126 

Crookes, William, 6 

Bsson, W. B., 125 

Gordon, J. E. U., 04 

Gray, R. K . 04 

Orindle, O. A.. 126 

Hammond, R., 196 

Holden, CapUin H. C. L., 196 

Introduction to Publication of, 12 

Jackson, Col. R. Raynsford, 196 

Kapp, Gilbert, 04 

Preece, W. fl., 6 

Reckenzaun, Anthony, 04 

Salomons, SUr David, 

Stuart, Captain A. M., 196 

Taylor, Colonel Du Plat, 198 

Wallace, R. W., 126 

Webb. F. H., 

Webber, General, 

PorUmouth Lighting, 09, 122, 100, 193 
Power, Electric, for the City, 97 

Power Transmissloii : 

at Aachtthal, Germany, 170 

Award of Prize in France for Best Project for. 577 

at Bern, 861 

Bigge. 1>. 8., at Newcastle, 506 

at Ce} Ion, 315 

Development of, 241 

in France, 840 

at Beilbronu, 532 

in luly, 361 

at Lauffen, 2, 37. 74, 363 

at Lyons, France, 578 

at Madrid, 4.'i7 

at Mergelstettin, 289 

at Newcastle, 301 

at Niagara, 529 

at Niagara, Prof. Forbes, 481, 063 

Present Condition of, J. A. G. Ross, 387 

in South Africa, 410 

on St. Louis River, 361 

from Vyrnwy to Liverpool, 433 

Preece, W. H., HU Book on the Telephone Trans- 
lated into Fpanish. 2r> 
Preete, W. H., Internal Illumination of Buildings, 

Preece, W. H., Portrait of, 6 

Preece, W. H. , Report on Worcester Lighting:. 323 

PresenUUou to Mr. 0. Wilson. 387 

Press, llie, and Quacks, 84 

Preston National Electric Supply Company's Supper, 

Prime, Thos., ITie Late. 517 
PrinUng by AltcmateCurrent Motors, 217 
Pritchett Bros., 47 

Proctor, F. E., Prize Winner at Kings College, 001 
Projected Electric Railways, The, 517 
Projectors, Electric Light, for the Navy, 481 
PropuUlon, Electric, New System of, H. W Leonard, 

Provisional Orders for London, 124 
Purchase of the Telephone System, 193, 581 
Pm^due, Indiana, New Electrical Laboratory, 507 
iy*f. and Harris Alternate-Current Dynamo, 406 


Quacks snU the Newspapers, 84 


Railway Clearing House, Tenders for, 200 

RaUwayo. Klootrlo : 

Bjkker slrtet and Waterloo, 18, 05. 140, 148, 170 

at Berlin, 313 

Bills, I'arliamentary Committee on, 243, 681 

Ballwurs, Sleotrte (eorUinued): 
at Brixton, 1 

CentnOLondon, 18, 05, 146, 170, 581, 602 
City and South London, 50. 78, 146, 108, 170 
City and South London and Spurgeon's Orphanage, 

and the Commissioners of Sewers, 197 
Deferred in Chicago, 194 
for the East End, Proposed, 532 
Edison's Latest, 75, 99 
in France, 78 

Great Northern and City, 18. 05, 98, 170, 681 
Hampstead and Charing Cros*, 06, l^M^?, 170 
High-Speed in Amerlea and France, 460 
High-Speed between St Louis and Chicago, 680 
High-Speed between Vienna and Budapest, 172 
I^ngton Extension, 18, 05, 73, 146, 166. 170, 195 
Joint Committee of Lords and Commons on, 220 
Joint Select Committee's Report on, 526 
at Kansas, 467 

for London, New, 18, 65. 171, 547 
at Marseilles, Accident on, 385 
Motion In the House on, 291 
for Naples, 886, 410 
Overhead at Liverpool, 1, 27, 107 
for Paris, 73, 361, 412, 577 
Parliamentary Committee on, 361 
for Poland, 386 
Portelectric System, 2 
Portrush and Giant's Causeway, 131 
Prolected, The, 617 
at Pueblo, Colorado, 121 
Royal Exchange and Waterloo, 18, 05, 73 
between St. Louis and Chicago, 90 
at Sessach-Gelterklnden, 388 
Underground in Berlin, 130 
ITnicycle at Chicago, 1 
in the United SUtes, 409 
Waterloo and City, 116, 148, 169, 555 

Railway Station Indicator, 195, 483 

Railway Train-Lighting Plant, Brush Company's, 

613. 531 
Ransomes' Cyclometer, 122 
Ransomes, Slni9, and Jefferies, Year's Work, 41 
Raphael, R.. The Editor Requested to Retract, 641 
Raworth and Sellon, Appointed Managers, Brush 

Company, 97 
Rayleigh, Lord, Appointed Lord - Lieutenant of 

Essex, iS 
Reading Ughtlng, 70 
Rechniewski, Heating of Dynamos, 364 
Reckenzaun, A., Load Diagrams of Tramways nnd 

Cost of Traction, 306, 328, 382 
Reckenzaun, A., Portrait of, 04 
Recorders 265 

Recovering Gold from the Sea, 409 
Refuse Destnictor, Contract for, at Leicester, 290 
Registered Electrical Contractors, 193 
Resistance of Cobalt, 194 

Reuter's Telegram Company, Meetings, etc., 651 
Reriews of Books {ge^ LiteraturK) 
Review of the Year, 12. 36, 60, 84 
Ries and Henderson's System of RlvetinK, 344 
Ries Regulating Lamp Socket, W. .1. Hammer. 249 
Ritchie. C, Electric Light Supply, 89 
Rival Illuminant, A, 484 
Riveting by Electricity, 508 
Riveting, Ries and Henderson's System of, 344 
Robev and Co., Work of the Year, 14 
Rockhampton, Queensland, Lighting, 149 
Rogers's Lathe Attachment. 19 
Rooke, T., Design and Construction of Dynamos, 231 
Rotary-Cturent Apparatus, 37, 77; Erratum, 106; 

Arrangement for Demonstrating, 289 
Rotary CurrenU, Tesla and, 74, 111 
Royal Agricultural Show at Warwick, 610 
Royal Cornwall Exhibition, 533 
Royal Institution Lectures, 25, 49, 52, 121, 3.17, 409, 

433. 458, 570 
Royal Militanr Tournament, Lighting at, 506 
Royal Society, Conversazione, 437 ; Candidates for, 

Royal Society, Pipers Read at, 73, 265, 313, 521, 693 
Rubber Trust, American, 337 
Russell's Book on Cables, Review of, 183 


St. Elmo's Fire, 25 

St. Helens and Electric Lighting, 194 

St James's Electric Light Company, Meetings, etc.. 

94, 109. UO, 143 
St Pancras, 420 

St Pancras Lighting SUtion, View of, 467 
St. Pancras, New Technical Institute for, 601 
St Pancras Vestry and Electric Lighting, 26, 75 
St Petersburg Exhibition, 97, 121, 170 
Salisbury, Test of Electrical Apparatus at, 553 
Salomons, Sir David, Portrait of, 6 
Sandwell's Electric Travelling Cranes, 399 
Sargeant's Electric Launches at Crystal Palace. 161 
Saving Power on Tramways, 193 
Sawmill, Electric, 314 

Sayers, W. B., Dynamos as Motors, 346, 376, 398 
Scarborough, Provisional Order for, 217 
Schanschiefr s Battery, 100, 122 
School of Electrical Engineering Certificates, 315 
Science Conferences at ToynbT e Hall, 337, 387 
Scott and Mountain's Combinea Engine and Dynamo, 

ScoU and Mountain, Work of the Year, 40 

Scott's Supper Rooms, Fire at, 610, 020 

Search-Lights in Battleships, 435 

Search-Lights for the French Army, 99 

Sea Serpent at Last, 97 

Secretaries' Institute, 169 

Sectional Standards Company, Exhibit at Crystal 

Palace, 513 
Sellon, J., His Experience of Electric Lighting, 124 
Sellon. S., Traction, lU Financial Aspect, 269, 315 
Serpollet Steam Engine, 290 
Shaftesbury and its Lighting, 553 
Sheffield, Meeting of Engineers at, 409 
Shetland. Telmrniphic Communication with, 241 
Shiels-EliioU Electric Train Signals, S8 
ShipUghUng, 26, 196, 196, 269, 468, 481, 482, 530, 665 

Ship Machinery, Catalogue of, 244 

Ship's Course Indicator, Wflea's, 12T 

Bhoolbred, J. N., Bradford Electricity Supply, 400, 

Sidewalk, Electric, 99 
Siemens, A., Alternate-Current Investigations, 186i 

Siemens Bros.' Exhibits at Crystal Palace Exhibition, 

Siemens Cable Transformer, 278 
Siemens and HaUke in America, 315 
Siemens Laboratory at King's College. 193 
Siemens's Works. Visit to, 301 ; Deseription of, 461 
Signalling with Incandescent Lamps at Sea, 99 
Sifcock, E. J^ Lecture on Electric Lighting, 167 
Sims-Edison Lifeboat, 243 
Sims-Edison Torpedo, 123, 170, 243 
Sky Timepiece. 107 
Smeeton and Page, 47 

Smith, F. J., Electric Tram Chronograph, 556 
Smith, F.. and Sons' Exhibits at Crystal Palace. 272 
Smith, G., and Co.'s Electric Lamp Ladder Pillars, 

Smith and Sons' Exhibits at Crystal Palace, 227 
Smoke Preventer. 314 
Smoke and Profits in Paris, 411 
Smythe and Payne, Wiring at Crystal Palace, 273 
Snow Causes Electric Light Wires to Leak, 74 
Snowstorms, 885 
Societe Internationale des Electriciens, Change of 

Address. 601 
Society of Arte Medal, 507 
Sofia. Canalisation of, 121 
South African Cables, 1 
South American Cable Company, 421 
Southend Marine Lake, 25 
Southend Pier Tramway, 147 
South Staffs. Tramway and Electric Traction, 62 
Spalding. Additional Gas Mains for, 601 
Spanish Telegraphs, 218 ; Strike of Operators, 601 
Speed Indicator, Napier's, 127 
Spencer, J.. Exhibit at Crystal Palace, 390 
Sprague, J. T., Electrolytic Law of Least Energy, 

109; Erratum. 133 
Spurgeon's Orphanage and City and South London 

Railway, 194 
Staffs. County Council and Technical Instruction, 

State Telephones, 602 
Steam, Influence of, on Magnets, 196 
Steam Turbine, Parsons, Economy of, 34, 68, 86, 110 
Steatite Insulators, 289 
Stone- Jarving by Electricity, 220 
Storage Battery Traction, J. K. Pumpelly, 461 
Stoves, Thermo-electric, 148 
Strand Electricity Supply Company, The, 607 
Street Lamp, Swinburne's Transformer, 19, 83 
Strike on the Tyne, 146 
Stuart, Capt. A. M., Portrait of, 196 
Stuart's Sea Telephone, 16 
Submarine Boat, Electric, 580 
Submarine Cables Trust, Meetings, etc., 478 
Sunderland, New Post Office for, 577 
Swan, J. W., Electro- VIeUIlurgy, 458. 670 
Swinburne and Co.'s Exhiiilt at Crystal Palace, 611 
Swinburne and Co.'s Trjinafirmers at (>ystal Palace 

83, 365, 393 
Swiubunie and Co., Work of the Year, 61 
Swinburne, J., Electrical Measuring Instruments, 

Swinburne's Electrostatic Instrument, 19 
Swinburne's Transformer Street Lamp, 19. 83 
Switchboard for Glasgow, Tender a Invited for, 482 
Switchboards for Hull, Tenders Invited for, 505 
Switches and the Chatham Accident, 278 
Switches, General Electric Company's, 176 
Switches, Joel's, 153 

Switches for Transformers, Ferranti's Automatic, 51 
Sydenham Central Station, 30.39.89, 165; Assess- 
ment of, 433 
Sydney Technical College, Lecturer Appointed, 289 
Sydney University and Electrical Engineering, 98 
Syphon, Perpetual, 509, 579 
Systems of Traction, 195 


Talbot, H., Appointed to Nottingham, 481 

Tangier, Cable-Laying at, 210 

Tanning, Electric, 73, 267 

Taunton, 277, 617 

Taunton Central SUtion, Purchaie of, 1, 74, 171, 242, 

284, 313. 38.'>, 435, 458, 531, 580, 001 
Taunton Installation, <}. Kapp's Report on, 474, 531 
Taunton Lighting. Report on by Committee, 284 
Taylor, Col. Du Plat, Portrait of, 196 
Technical Education, by Prof. W. E. Ayrton, 112 
Technical Instruction, Organiser Wanted, 409 
Technical School for Hartlepool, 457 
Telautograph, Grny's, 2 

Telegraph Apparatus, Tenders Wanted for, 530 
Telegraph Construction Company, Meetings, etc. ,108, 

Telegraphic Comnm •Ication between Lighthouses. 

Telegraphic Service for Nicaragua, 337 
Telegraphing without Wirev, 100 
Telegraph Posts and tlie Norfolk County Council, 

Telegraph, Proposed Extension to Gilgit, 194 
Telegraph Rates to Australia, 386 
Telegraph Stores, Tenders Inrited for, 529 
Telegraphs Bill, New, 602 

Tetophone : 

in Adelphi Hotel, Liverpool, 11, 06 

In the Army, 411 

Anders Elliot and Clietham-Strode's Exhibit! at 

Crystal Palace, 271 
Band Music by, 219 
Belgian System, The, 280 
in Belgium, SUte Control of, 1, 385 
Bishop Cable at Crystal Palace, 618 
in BrindUi, 121 
in Bulgaria, 98 
Charges in Sheffield. 483 
in Chichester, 145 



to " Tba SmMmI Englne«r," 
Jmie M, taw. 

In-BeilMt, IbB, Opcolng at. ti 
M N*w HOQlUl, Kt 

Owanl ZlasMo Oompuir'i XxhlblM aC CrjiUI 

Id  OUaitaw Chonb, 146 

»t OUisoir nn Briuda SMIloni, 881 

OloTsr, W. T., uid &.'( Exhibit at (Irrital PiUm, 

>nd tha OonrnmHt, 3M 
ftt HonM and lu Uie Fluid, IM 
InUniBtiaoil Blmtilo Campuy'i KihlUt at 

Omial PdHW, IIT 
Intcnuban, SIS 
to Iralud, Its 
LoDdoD'BotdeWu, IBI 
Loni-Stotuwa Amantiu, Na*, (B 
Lout DUIUM In rmim, Kn 
Inm IHitinnn ID Saw Totk, HI 
lidt, 606, 677 

id PaHa, 1!1 

N«» OompuiT'a BUI, ST, BT, IW, tlT, 
Kaw Coopuv In Londoa, 4W, 6«B 
In tba Kortb, Ml 
Paila-nrMiali Una, Tha, ISB 

and BnomtoniA BIS 

atBtaoklialm.NiimlMri . — 

T«at at Knr Oompanr'i tnitnunnili Id 


TnanuT Hinala OD tba Sjiatcnt, Hi 

Varloni Kxblbtt* at Ciribd Palaoa, tU 

In tba Wt^a, MI, MB, (63 

WMtara BmMc Cofapiaft avltiihboanl, St ; 

TnWihnTH Bllla, Objacdonabla rwloraa In, 1S6 
TalapbOM Bnii, Tba, ttaualtlon to, Ul 

TabpbaaaCaninMjof*' — ' "— " '~ •" 

Talwbooa PniHaia, Tl 

aBntam, Fn^ 
lo Tlwamt, «l 

I ; National Campanj'i Vlaw ol, MS, 

Tds^UHV, Ricai<<iwrlc, The Timn uii, m, tSi 
Tal^boiv and tba FoM Office, SM 
Tanwarad Coppv, SST 

la Appanlna, tvt 

la'abpMlmanU, 14. Ul, 131, 167, leB, Hi, 611 
TaiU'l ExparlmaDta and J. E. H. Goraim, IBS 
TsiU, v.. Bldl-Tanilon El[»riii>eiiU, 4n, IIT, HI, 


Te^ the InTtotci ol Rotuy-Umrmt Holor, ITl 

Taatlng Feai at BinnlnghBin, 313 

TeaUns Inatmuanla, Naldet'a, IBS 

Taitbui, Sola of Fea tor. at Electrics] ItandanliilDg 

TbnMt, Oai KagbMa (or, lie 
Ibaatntupa lor Cental FaUoa Ballat, sn 
Tbaaba Uibtbu, 1 
marin^oDa^lbe Opan, Ul 
Ibamu-BaoMB Btorai, 113 
nmapanoa Mt Vnit at Bt. Pauoraa, HI 
TbaniBOn, 8. P., " Dinamo-Klaotilo M*chlnan,'HB 
Xbompam, B. P., Daotrlo LaoomoUTta, Stt, MB 
Tbonmaoa, 8. P., Portnlt at, T3 
TbomaaB Baotrto Waldlat Froeaaa. W 
-*- — -wHouatOP Elaetrte Tramwja, ill 

m ol, 117, 

m'Honaion am Baiaon xnut. ij' 
m-Hooaton Eleolzla Locomotlva, 
"-- """un, Hli " '— 

nuHnaan, BIr WUlbun, Hti Uaten at 
IbomMO, 8li muiam, Hla Tllto, IBS 
namaoD, BIr W., a Paann (or, M 
Tbna-Pbaaa Onncnta M HallbMnn, C 

Toipado, Tha Blni-BdlMin, IB, ITO 

tba FaUce, im 

Tractlaa, Laetnra on, at buttotd, SB 


Bonn'i LatlH AtUohmaBt, U 
Sidbbania'i Electroitatlo Imtraa 
Swlnbnnia't Btreat Lamp, IS 

Tntmw»r* or 0*n> 
Aold Fumaa bom, Ids 
tor Adrlanopolla, SST 
in Anilda, «7 

tor Balclan Slata TramvaTi, 
In Blrmlngbam, 170, 17S, Ul 
at Blackpool, 4SS 
for Blackpool, 117, 
tor Bradford, 6!, 1 
InBnjoklm, - — 

314, 301, 468, IGl, SOI 

for Ctiamnltc, K 

tor Cork, in, IBS, MS 

Comapoudanca n, MB, lit 

at Corantrj, 678 

■tCroTdOD, S, HO 

■I Daptfonl, and London Conntr Coancll, 6 

tor Bdbbnri^ 170, IBS, aW 

tor OliKOw, m, 14, Ul, 17S, IW, 143, 630 

GkirdOD cnoMd>Cond>it, IBl 

HI, S* 

tor UTarpool, 100 

at Lltarpool, Sitculon oi 

1, 170, II 
r. oibaou Ci 

Motora to ^ . . 

Onrbaad, w. oibaou Carur, IM, 1 
Or^iaad in tha Truaraal, 106 
at Panama, US 
tor Partb, 146, MS, ns, 467 

at BL Lonla, 411, 6W 
" -WPowe--- — 
-  Plar, 

Tramwu Cdmpan] 

. i-Honiton In AoMli^ II 

at Waliall, 61 
at WolTWlwmptoo, MB 
Workad b* Oaa Engloaa, 60 
Work ot Om Taar, IT, tS 

Farraatl'i Antamatlii, 6W 
riMthroocb, ISO 
Slamani Cable, M, »J 
SwlDbnme and CoTa, 33 

Traainrr Ulnata an tha Telephone Srit«m, M 
Trl^'Ala Ualn Bwllah, Dorman and Bmlth'i, Ht 
Trollen In Brooklm, 16, 73 
Trollai Tiamwaji W. Olbaon Carar. IM, MT, MS 
TroUar, A. P., Dlitilbatlon and Uaamraineat ot 

iUnmtaaUoD, MD 
TMttar, A. R, Nolaa on the U^tof tha Blaotrta 

Bg, nailUa M 

Turbtoe, Paraoni Bt 

n, £ronomJot,H,a.M,110 

Telagrwhi, U 
tan In Poat 01 

nlU and Newapasar Elactrl 

Unlramal Offloa Hannal," I 
unlTsruIFllen, m 
Up to Data, Eleotrloltr, OB 
Um ot Blactrlclty, W. P. Maicock, 313 


Varler llaniorU, The, eo! 
VweUtion and XlMitrIc Usht,|B8 
Vahldai, Blecldo, 3, 141 

Vibratot; Cnrrenti, 1 

(. E. Tbomaon, 36S; IT. 0. 

Walkar, & F., Compariion at Cryrtal Palaca Eibtbt 

tlODB rf 1381 and ISBt, IM 
Walkar, 8. ¥., DaoonUta HUloci, a 
Walkar, B. r. Work of (be Year, Bs 
Wallaoa, K. W., Portrait of, lit 
WaUaaaj Uihdns, Baport on, bjr Bnglnear, M 
WalaaU U^UnB, Bpadflaatlon of , rfl 
Wud Blootrloa] Car Company 'i BDI, 147 
WaidlMDardSralamot Uoton at Crntal Pataoa, 

Warlboroogh, Damn, and It* LWitlDg, 653 

Waita Frodnola, Ml 

Wetmoo and Sakar-itreat BallwaT. IS, «B, IM, 148, 

Welarloo and Cltjr Banwar, 116, 148. 166 
Watar aa a Uoani ol Defending a Vort, M 
Watar Power, UtUlaatlon at, i, 48, 73, Ul, 170, tU 
Water Stonwa, Pnt Forbaa, 193 
Watt, A., XlaMnMa at Gold Salta, U, H 
Watt, A., OUtDar; HoUoa <^, SI 
WsarliH tre BleobiiH^, MS 
WoBTliur br BlactrioltT, H. LlTeaar, S43 
WebbTf . A. Portrait of, f 
Wabber, Oenatal, Portrait ot, t 
Wabater, A. 0., on Tada'a Ki — 
Welding, Electalo. Btnardoa 

WekUug, Electrlo, Thomaoa'i Prooaat, 9B, 186 
Waetom and Bratillan Talagrapb Company, Haat- 

Ingi, etc., WB. SOt 
Wariani Onintiaa aod Bontb Walaa Ttiephmia 
Coranani. Haatbua, ate, n4, BN, BU 

tlet, eto.,Tala[4ionaAmalnmatloii, (11 
"' ~ "  " mpanj', Yaar'i Work, 

Palaoe Exhibition, SB 
Weat India and Panama TaloKfUh CoaxatBj, Haat- 

Ingi, ate, an 
Weaainfaoiua Blactrlo Company and tha WorU*a 

Weatmlnatar ElacBric Sapplr Corporation, Meellngi, 

elc, 191, tU 
Waaton Animetan and Voltmetara at Crrital Palaoa, 

— -*U 
- M*vu jOjwtHflkl Iiut 

WbltahJ ^. 

Whitehall Clnbbl 

While, J., Hla ExblUta at Omtd Palaoa, 101 


Winani and B , 

niuau, P^ Tha Lata, SIT, 

WUllami, -i. H. , Inoreaalng Uie Bnpplj, a 

Wlmifaorrt lUehlna, The, S3B 

Windmill UghUng, 606 

Wind Power for daienting Blaotlidtr, 113 

Wlrea, Changea Pmdnoad by UagneUiotlon in, R. 

Wlno, Kerad Gating and Carer tor, tW 

WlrMi, OraAoad ; 

at Chelmiford, and Fire, 10 

at Kendal, IT 

London Conn^ Council Br-Uwi, SB 

Longeit Span b England, MS 

Patent Pale lor, tsi 

Wlrea, Talapbone, Aaaaaamant of, 141 

Wire*, UttOwgronnd (t« a^ Mums) : 
Johutone'i Condnlta for. It 

Wiring, Andrawa'i Conoentrlc, BM 

Wiring Sonaea In the CItj, 170 

Wiring Honaeo. J. K. Fabla and Bon, SB7 

Wiring Uancbeatar Town Ilall, Tenden Wantad lor, 

at Cryital Falnoe, 

iVD, MMl, m ', nflHbKUl, HD _ 

Wordlptfiam, C, B., Mateti lor Kaconllng Kloiv 

Irloal Energy, "" 

Work m Vlaw, « 

lOB, in. 1*9 : Erratum, MB 
Vordlptfiam, C, B "' 

Irloal Energy, IM, 
-  '-iyiaw,4n 

I Fair, ^^ 49. M, 07, 08, 

ur, za, 9V, BO, VI, uOf lai, i«, iiv, irj, i,« 

337, 386, 380, 406, 434, 4TB, 601, OM, 001 

Veer, Berlaw ol, 11 SB. BO, H 

Yorkihlro Collene Free Leeturai 



No. 1, Vol. IX. 


Price 3d. 


Crystal Palace Szhlbitlon. — The opening of the 
Electrical Exhibition, which was fixed for January 1, has 
been put off until January 9. 

Blarennes. — The town of Marennes, France, has made 
the jump from oil to electiicity without passing through 
the intermediate stage of gas. 

Paris Uffhtliiff. — The Continental Edison Company's 
gross receipts for electric lighting during the month of 
November, 1891, amounted to 245,61 3f. 

Unioyde Sleotrio RoacL — It is said that Chicago is 
to have an electric unicycle railroad, to run from Lake- 
street to Jackson Park, on which the cars are to run at the 
rate of 40 mUes an hour. 

Aberdeen Tramways. — A movement is on foot at 
Aberdeen to extend the tramway to the Links, and the sea 
beach. The electric traction engineers should put in a 
word as to their systems. 

Factery in Paris. — A factory for manufacture of 
^ indiarubber is to be sold by tender in Paris, January 3rd. 
Apply M. Navarre, 61, rue des Petits-Champs, or M. 
Fauchey, 3, rue de Louvre. 

Budapest. — M. Victor Popp has withdrawn his tender 
for the supply of compressed air to Budapest on the 
ground that as he has no electric light concession, com- 
pressed air alone would not pay. 

Verviers. — Tenders will be received till 9th February 
' for an electric installation for the theatre at Verviers. The 
specification will be sent for 2f. and plans for 40f. on 
application to M. Ch. Thirion, rue Francb^e, Verviers. 

Briffhten Electric Railway. — At the last meeting 
of the Brighton Town Council the question of entering into 
an agreement for the use of a portion of the foreshore for 
the electric railway was brought up, but was adjourned. 

Tannten. — The matter of purchase of the Taunton 
electric station by the Town Council is still under the 
consideration of the Lighting Committee, and nothing 
definite will be settled till after the Council meeting in 

A Large Ammeter. — The Weston Electrical Instru 
ment Company, of Newark, New Jersey, are constructing 
which is sup|M)se(l to be the largest ammeter yet made, 
to indicate 5,000 amperes, for the Willson Aluminium 

Philippopelis. — An exhibition will be held at Philip- 
popolis in September, 1892, and is announced as an excellent 
opportunity of introducing new machinery into the Balkan 
territory. M. A. Gk)biet, Prague-Karolienthal, Austria, 
will furnish particulars. 

Personal. — Mr. M'Clean, who used to have charge at 
the Grosvenor Gallery and afterwards went to Deptford, 

has now sole charge at the Oxford central station. He is 
also superintending the exhibit of Elwell-Parker dynamos 
at the Crystal Palace Exhibition. 

State Control of Belgian Telephones. — The 

Belgian Government, states a Renter's telegram of Dec. 30, 
has informed the Belgian telephone companies of its 
intention to resume from January 1, 1893, the working of 
all the telephone lines in Belgium. 

ConsnltinflT Engineers.— Mr. Fiank J. Sprague, Dr. 
Louis Duncan, and Dr. Cary T. Hutchinson have united to 
form a limited company, having offices at 15, Wall-street, 
New York, as consulting electrical engineers, to advise and 
report upon electrical engineering enterprises. 

Liverpool Overhead Railway. — We understand 
that, in deference to an agitation amongst the inhabitants 
of Princes Park, the promoters of the Liverpool Overhead 
Railway have decided to abandon that part of the project 
which would bring the railway within the limits of the 

Madras Tramways. — At a recent meeting of the 
Madras Municipal Commission it was decided that a tram- 
way concession be granted to Hutchinson and Co., of 
Craven-street, Strand, W.C, on the conditions submitted 
by them, subject to a security of Rs. 10,000 being deposited 
in the bank. 

South African Cables. — ^The Eastern and South 
African Telegraph Company, Limited, notifies the restora- 
tion of its Aden-Zanzibttur cable, thus re-establishing 
telegraphic communication with South Africa by the east 
coast. Both the east and west coast routes are now in 
working order. 

Manchester. — The invitations for sending in tenders 
for the Manchester central station are at last issued, and 
can be seen in our advertisement columns. The conditions 
of tender can be obtained from Mr. C. Nickson, Town Hall, 
Manchester, by application in writing, enclosing two 
guineas, and the tenders must be received by January 20. 

Electric Locomotive. — The Thomson-Houston Com- 
pany, not content with the large locomotive we mentioned 
the other week, are building another and larger, which is 
to draw a train at 40 miles an hour. The pull is to be 
6,0001b., and the locomotive will weigh 16 tons, and 
develop 250 h.p. Electric railway traction is stepping 

Electricity in Mining. — Prof. W. Robinson delivered 
last week, at Nottingham University College, one of a 
series of lectures arranged by the National Associa^'on 
of Colliery Managers. The subject was " Electricity in 
Mining." The lecturer dealt technically with the produc- 
tion of currents and the application to mines in hauling and 

Electric Bicycle Trainer. — The |)artner of a well- 
known Coventry bicycle rider, who ia an electrician, has 
invented an ole^tric ]^^m^<&t^ \)\x\» c;d.\vcv^\» \^<^?&8^ \^^ 


friend to try it. It is an electric arrangement which will 
stick a pin into the rider when his pace falls below a 2*40 
pace, though a switch would be required while getting up 
speed or stopping. 

PontsrpooL — At the last meeting of the Pontypool 
Local Board an extensiyely-signed petition, asking the 
Board to adopt some sy&tem of lighting other than that of 
gas, respecting which serioiis complaints were made, was 
presented. After a discussion, Mr. 6. H. David gave 
notice that he would propose a resolution dealing with the 
subject at the next meeting. 

Popp System at Paris. — The third Popp generating 
station at the Quai de la Gare, Paris, was opened on the 
3rd ult. This station for electric lighting makes the third 
the system, which now has plant capable of giving 
20,000 h.p. The three services of pneumatic clocks, distri- 
bution of power, and distribution of electric light consume 
at the present moment 6,000 h.p. 

Porteleotrio System. — This system, which dispenses 
with motors on its cars by shooting a suitably arranged 
trolley through a series of solenoids, has been thoroughly 
tested for over a year in one of the suburbs of Boston. 
The system is now to be tried on a much larger scale, and 
will be tested in actual commercial . service. A company 
with 5,000,000dols. has been formed. 

Aoten Hill Works. — Mr. Eonald A. Scott, of Acton 
Hill Electrical Works, issues a fifth edition of his catalogue, 
which illustrates the " Actwell " dynamos and motors, and 
more particularly search-light projectors of the Admiralty 
pattern, in which department Mr. Scott has had much 
success. Details of mirrors and of Admiralty pattern 
switchboards of solid type are also given. 

Christmas Presents. — We beg to acknowledge, with 
thanks, the receipt of blotting pads and almanacks for the 
year 1892 from Messrs. Crompton and Co., Limited, 
Mansion House-buildings, and from the Electrical Power 
Storage Company, of 4, Great Winchester-street. We have 
also received a calendar fiom Messrs. T. Fletcher and Co., 
the well-known gas-heating appliance manufacturers, of 

New Firm. — We are informed by Sir Frederick Bram- 
well that from January 1, 1892, Mr. H. Graham Harris, 
who has for so many years been his principal assistant, will 
become his partner, and that the business heretofore 
practised at 5, Great George-street, Westminster, will be 
continued under the style of " Bramwell and Harris," to 
whom it is requested all letters on matters of business 
should be addressed. 

Bradford Tramways. — The Local Government Board 
have sanctioned the proposal that the North Bierley Local 
Board borrow £10,000 for the purpose of constructing a 
tramway from Bradford to Wyke. A draft lease is to be 
prepared for the letting of the Bradford and Sheffield 
Tramway Company. It is to be hoped that the example 
of Leeds, with regard to new tramways, will have a fair 
chance of imitation on this line. 

Baonp. — ^A sub-committee of the Bacup Town Council 
has been appointed to obtain estimates for the laying on of 
the electric light, of the probable number of persons who 
would become consumers in the event of such light being 
provided, and the following constitute that sub-committee : 
The Mayor (Mr. Councillor Salmon), Aldermen Greenwood, 
Hardman, and Shepherd ; Councillors Barrowclough, 
Priestley, Smith, and Stockdale. 

GlasfiTOW. — At the meeting of Glasgow Police Commis- 
sioners last week. Councillor Gray reported the proposal to 
light the principal streets by electricity would be practically 
iaken up. The streets proposed to be lighted were Argyle- 

street, Jamaica-street, Buchanan-street, Sauciehall-street, and 
St George's-square. If they should carry out this scheme 
it would make the city more attractive after darkness set 
in, and also be a preventative of crime. 

Bosphoms. — M. Charles Georgi, who already has the 
concession for lighting by gas of Cadikeng and other 
Asiatic villages of the Bosphorus, has now petitioned for a 
60 years' concession for the lighting by gas or electricity of 
Pera and Bechiletach. M. Georgi stipulates to construct a 
station, at the expense of £8,000, capable of giving 
42,000 cubic metres of gas for 24 hours, or equivalent, and 
to pay a royalty of 15 per cent, to the Government 

Eleotrioity in Chemioal Industry. — A large inter- 
national company is now, we are told, in process of forma- 
tion in England to put to practical proof the inventions in 
electrolysis made by Mr. C. Kellner, factory director, of 
Vienna. This discovery appears to be a new method of 
production of chlorate of chalk and soda, which has proved 
extremely cheap compared with present methods. The 
names of well-known heads of large German industries are 
stated to be on the books. 

Utilisation of Water Power.— The United States 
Consul-General in Frankfort, in a recent report, describes 
the Lauffen transmission plant as the most momentous 
experiment in technical electricity ever made since elec- 
tricity has been rendered serviceable to mankind. After a 
lengthened description of the details, Mr. Mason concludes: 
'* The way is now open for Americans to harness the wasted 
energy of Niagara and a thousand smaller cascades and 
rapids in every part of our great country to the varied 
purposes of daily life." 

Harwioh. — The bringing forward of the memorial to 
the Board of Trade for a provisional order at Harwich was 
the cause of a considerable scene, several of the councillors 
denouncing the expenditure of £50 for this purpose as 
dead loss, one member remarking that he had had some 
conversation with a gas director, and that if the memorial 
were dropped the gas company would meet them fairly. 
It was, however, resolved to seal the memorial, but, never- 
theless, negotiations are to be opened up again with the 
gas company. 

Cork Tramways. —A scheme has taken definite shape 
in Cork, we learn, for the introduction of a new and 
improved tramway system. The project id the outcome of 
local enterprise. The centre of the city is first to be 
served, and afterwards the line will be extended to the 
suburbs. The present would seem to be a favourable time, 
therefore, for submitting fullest information to the pro 
moters of the advantages of electric traction, which are 
more apparent for a new scheme even than for adaptation 
of an old line. 

Fairy Lamps* — Some rather smart work in stage 
lighting was done last week by the Mining and General 
Electric Lamp Company. On Wednesday afternoon, at 
three o'clock, the order was received^by telegram from Mr. 
Oscar Barrett for a set of jewel lamps for the Crystal 
Palace Boxing Day pantomime of " Forty Thieves. '' The 
batteries were ready, but all the fittings had to be made and 
fixed, and by the next afternoon the ballet were fitted up 
with 32 brilliant lamps, which shone and sparkled above the 
limelight like stars. 

Telaategrraph. — We read that a large factory is being 
erected in America for the manufacture and equipment of 
the writing telegraph, or telautograph, of Prof. Elisha 
Gray. This seems to indicate considerable proposed 
activity in the near future. It will be remembered that 
the writing telegraph was shown in operation in England, 
and amongst other places at Mr. J. W. Swan's heuse, but 


nothing further has been heard of it, principally from the 
refusal, we believe, of the Postmaster-General to license 
thia invention for victual use in England. 

Uverpool. — At the meeting of the Liverpool Watch 
Committee on Saturday a resolution was adopted that the 
town clerk inform the Board of Trade that the Council 
object to the provisional order applied for by the Liverpool 
Electric Supply Company, Limited, and also a resolution 
that the consideration of the memorial signed by consumers 
of electricity in Liverpool, requesting the Corporation to 
give their consent to the application of the Liverpool 
Electric Supply Company, Limited, for a provisional order, 
be postponed until the second meeting in January. 

Primary Battery Idghtinflr. — The ever-fascinating 
subject of lighting a small private house with a primary 
battery is treated in Cosmos by M. de Contades in a some- 
what novel way, illustrated in detail. The writer describes, 
apparently from an existing installation, an arrangement 
for charging secondary batteries from two large sulphate of 
eopper cells with an automatic switch for cutting the 
secondaries into series. These light 10 lami)s, each of '5 
amperes, at 50 volts, for seven hours a day. The capacity 
of the charging cell, working for the other 17 hours, is 
1»020 ampere-hours. 

Motor Patents. — ^The publication has already been 
made of the contents of an Italian patent granted some 
time before the construction of the first industrial dynamo, 
for the utilisation of current from one machine to set in 
motion a second. The BvUetin International announces 
that another and earlier patent has been discovered, 
granted June 30, 1866, to Signor Felice Marco, of 
Florence, for the utilisation of waterialls for driving 
electric machines whose current carried by metallic wires 
should put in motion other receiving electric machines, 
installed where the power is required. 

Beetrio Carriasres. — An electric carriage has been 
fitted up by Mr. William Morrison, of Des Moines, Indiana, 
and is illustrated in the Electrical World for Dec. 19. It 
is a handsome waggonette, with light wheels and cushioned 
seats, with a rotary wheel for steering. The motive power 
is obtained from 24 accumulator cells placed under the 
seats, and the motor is connected to the rear axle by 
reducing cog gearing. The winding is arranged so that 
reversal of the current reverses the movement of the car. 
This carriage has been in practical operation in Des Moines 
for some time, and will soon be shown in Chicago. 

Heokmondwike. — A meeting of the Heckmondwike 
Electric Lighting Committee was held last week. Mr. 
Hutchinson, C.K, attended, and produced and explained 
the plan and scheme prepared by him for the proposed 
lighting of the district by electricity, when it was resolved 
that the scheme set out on the plan be approved. Mr. 
Hutchinson also produced and explained the draft specifi- 
cation for the proposed electric lighting from the proposed 
station in Oldfield-lane, and a resolution was approved 
authorising the completion of the specification, and that 
a copy of the same be supplied to each member of the com- 
mittee. The minutes were approved. 

Blargam Abbey. — The residence of Miss Talbot in 
Wales, Margam Abbey, has been fitted up with combined 
steam and turbine plant. The turbine is of 25 b.p., and 
the steam engine, of the same power, drives on the same 
oountershafting. Accumulators for 100 lamps are placed 
in the Abbey, and there are 400 lamps of 16 c.p. in all. 
The pipes for the conveyance of water power are 18in. 
diameter, and weigh in all 90 tons. The cables are laid 
from the engine-house in cast-iron pipes, which also carry 
six telephone wires for a private exchange. The whole of 

the work has been carried out by Messrs. Drake and 
Gorham,Mr. Campbell Swinton being called in as consulting 

Typewriter and Telegraph. — In our note last week 
upon the use of typewriters in telegraph offices of the 
United States, it was mentioned that the only objection 
seems to be the extra noise, the Remington and Caligraph 
being most used. We are informed by the Typewriter 
Company that the sale of the Bar Lock typewriter is also 
very large amongst telegraph companies, for the reason, it 
is claimed, that the noise in working this machine is less 
than others. The economy and efficiency accomplished by 
the typewriters is very suggestive, and the lare^e field here 
opened will evidently cause keen competition amongst 
the various makers, as it cannot be very long before their 
use is introduced almost universally. 

Croydon Eleotrio Cars. — Another trial trip of the 
Jarman electric cars, which are to be run in Croydon, took 
place on the lines of the Croydon Tramway Company 
last week. The first journey was made to Thornton 
Heath quite successfully and smoothly. On returning 
a slight mishap occurred by running the cars too close 
together, and a jar occurred which broke a window. The 
fully-loaded cars were easily stopped, started, or backed. 
After the trial a luncheon was taken, at which Mr. Archer, 
of the Electric Tramcar Syndicate, and Mr. Carruthers 
Wain spoke as to the future of electric tramcars. Mr. 
Lintilhac, chairman of the syndicate, presided, and there 
were present several of the directors of the Croydon Tram- 
way Company and members of the Town Council. 

Eleotrioal Apparatus. — Messrs. Dorman and Smith, 
in the new issue of their catalogue which is before us, 
insist rightly upon their position as first-hand manufac- 
turers of electrical apparatus. They do not undertake 
bell, telephone, or telegraph work, or installation contracts, 
but are the more busily engaged in turning out all kinds of 
switches, roses, fuses, switchboards, brackets, and pendants 
which are in such large and continuous demand. This 
demand, indeed, is increasing so fast that Messrs. Dorman 
and Smith have been compelled to take new works in 
Salford, and these will soon be in full swing. Besides the 
very large selection of ordinary fittings for house and ship 
lighting, special attention is given in the catalogue to 
Sunbeam lamp fittings, a department that is evidently 

Eleotrio Conetmotion Corporation. — An " Ac- 
countant " writing to the Financial News says that he was 
so disappointed at the result of the year's work of the 
above company that he sold out his holding. His reason 
for so doing was that the profit of £160,036 was gained at 
an expense of £162,434 (expenses and cost of produc- 
tion, £129,890 ; depreciation of machinery, etc., £3,099 ; 
head office expenses, etc., £11,423; auditors' fees, £105; 
interest on debentures, etc., £3,949 ; other expenses, 
advertising, etc., £13,968), or a loss of £2,400 |on the 
year's legitimate business, and had it not been for the sale 
of part of the patents for £64,000 no dividend could have 
been paid. This is exceptional, and he thinks it does not 
reflect much credit that in spite of the large turn-over the 
expenses were in excess. 

Ipewioh. — At the last meeting of the Ipswich Lighting 
Committee a letter was read from the Board of Trade 
inviting observations upon a letter from Messrs. Water- 
house, Winterbotham, and Harrison, 1, New-court, Carey- 
street, in which that firm wrote with reference to the 
Ipswich electric lighting order : " We are instructed by our 
clients, Messrs. Laurence, Scott, and Co., to request that 
this order may be revoked. Our clientA i^l \Jba^» S&» Sa^ \>s^ 



possible to work two electric lighting undettakings with 
profit in Ipswich, and they have therefore arranged with 
the Ipswich Electricity Company that the order granted to 
that company only shall be acted upon. Under these 
circumstances we trust that the Board of Trade will consent 
to the revocation of our clients* order." It was resolved to 
offer no opposition to the revocation of the order. 

London Moat Markots. — Mr. William Malthouse, 
writing from the Central Meat Market to the City Press, 
says : '* The tenants of the Central Meat, Poultry, Provi- 
sion, and Fish Markets have petitioned the Grand Markets 
Committee of the Corporation to give them the electric 
light. I should like the members of that committee to 
have been here these last six mornings, when nearly 10,000 
tons of meat were delivered into the market, and carted 
away to all parts of the metropolis and the country. The 
superintendent (Mr. Stephens) and his staff must have had 
a gigantic task, and have done it well, under circumstances 
of fearful difficulty and danger. What a mighty boon the 
electric light would have been to us all. A few market 
tenants on the committee would, by their practical 
experience, have rendered great service in this matter." 

Canada. — The Dominion of Canada is among England's 
largest colonial possessions, and yet is very little worked 
by British enterprise. It has an area of 3,382,000 square 
miles, which represents one-sixteenth of the entire land 
surface of the globe, considerably more than the whole of 
the United States. Yet it only has a population of five 
millions, or about that of London. In electrical fields it 
might be better supplied, and its resources developed, 
as by reason of its long winter it offers considerable 
opening in this department. The Toronto Construction 
and Electrical Supply Company have recently canvassed 
the whole country for electrical goods, and have represen- 
tatives 4,000 miles apart, in British Columbia, and in 
Halifax, Nova Scotia. The latter town has a climate much 
like that of England, and is worthy of more support from 
the old country. 

Slootrlo StoroB, Umitod. — A private company was 
formed in the early part of the year which is past under 
the name of Electric Stores, Limited, having offices at 51, 
Cannon-street, and lately a showroom has been opened at 
10, Bow-lane, £.C. The company, as its name implies, is 
formed for the supply of stores and electric apparatus of 
all kinds. The chairman is Mr. Albert Hoster, who 
is the director of the large incandescent lamp 
factory at St Nicolas, near Dieppe. These works cover 
about an acre of ground, and are carried ouc upon 
English principles, having cost about £25,000 to erect, 
English electricians having been taken out for training the 
workpeople. The Electric Stores have as manager 
Mr. Tumber, late of one of the telephone companies. The 
Company are putting up a large exhibit in the Crystal 
Palace Exhibition. 

Cost of Elootrio Uffhting. — In a letter to the 
Financial News^ with reference to a recent article on the 
cost of electric lighting, Messrs. Crompton and Co. say 
that as engineers and contractors they are prepared to prove 
under penalty that what is termed the " sheer cost " of 
producing the electric light is not greater than that of gas, 
and that this cost has already been reduced to the low figure 
of 2d. per Board of Trade unit supplied. The discrepancy 
between this and the figure charged is due simply to the 
cost of the large plant bnd the general expenses, which 
until the load is high bear a large proportion to the sheer 
cost. Mr. Harston, writing next day, states that whatever 
the actual cost may be, from the House-to-House Company 
(with whom, however, he wrongly associates Mr. Crompton) 
iiAe coat is ihrea times that of gas, and he adds that three 

8-c.p. lamps are not equal in light to three 5ft. Peeble's 

Roadinff. — The question of the public lighting of Beading 
is being pressed for immediate settlement, and it is to be 
hoped that an arrangement can be come to for lighting the 
principal streets and the muncipal and other offices by 
electricity. The Lighting Committee have presented a 
report in which they detailed the terms on which the 
Laing, Wharton, and Down Construction Syndicate under- 
took to light the central business area under an alternative 
arrangement of a five or seven years' contract. The 
expense would be half as much again as the present charge 
for gas, and the light would be about 15 times as much as 
that now in use, besides which the electric light would 
be kept alight the whole night, whereas the gas is shut off 
or cut down part of the night. An amended estimate, by 
which the arc lights can be shut off at eleven o'clock, sub- 
stituting incandescent lamps after this hour, is also 
prepared, and this arrangement being less expensive would 
probably be favoured by the Council.' 

Loods Elootrio Tramway. — The combination of 
Christmas and fog has brought about conditions in Leeds 
which have tested, as well as anything could possibly do, the 
capacity of the Roundhay Park electric railway. The dense 
fog was the worst ever known at Leeds, but in spite of the 
weather the cars have been crowded at every journeyi 
running 500 car miles a day. Through all this no trouble 
whatever has been found in the electrical part of the work. 
The engine-room has been running as smoothly as clock- 
work, the only accident being a little collision between two 
of the company's own cars, due partly to the dense fog, but 
also to carelessness of the driver, who was dismissed. The 
holiday traffic has been very heavy, and it is indeed mar- 
vellous, considering both the conditions we recorded, of 
quick work needed for first installation and the subsequent 
bad weather, that the Thomson-Houston Company have at 
once made such a success of their line. The line will very 
shortly be run down into the centre of the town. 

Holston (Cornwall). — On the 14th of October, the 
Helston Town Council, at a special meeting, passed a reso- 
lution that application be made forthwith to the Board of 
Trade for a provisional order. Since that time the 
municipal elections have been held, and were fought to 
some extent upon the lighting question. At the last 
meeting of the Town Council a resolution was brought 
forward to rescind the above. Mr. Taylor moved an 
amendment that all action should be left pending negotia- 
tions with the gas company. He said that the reason the 
burgesses were opposed to the electric light was that all 
sorts of stories had been told them at election time, that 
the rates would be raised 4s. or 5s. in the pound, and so 
forth. He objected to throwing themselves into the hands 
of the gas company, with gas at 5s. lOd. per 1,000ft. The 
Mayor thought it would be wrong to introduce the electric 
light on the terms which had been mentioned by Mr. Veale, 
and said the gas company would deal fairly with the 
Corporation. After further discussion the resolution was 
rescinded, the Mayor giving a casting vote. 

Dondoo. — A meeting of the Property Committee of the 
Town Council was held last week, when it was explained 
obstacles had arisen in the way of the Gras Commission 
acquiring the Ward-road site as a station for the electric 
lighting works, and it was agreed, at the request of ex- 
Provost Brownlee, to take about 60 poles of the ground 
belonging to the town at the Old Cattle Market at £2 per 
pole, with a view to the Gas Commissioners securing that 
as a site for their electric light station. The ground at 
present is partly leased to Messrs. Livermore Brothers, and 
partly occupied as a yard by the Water Commissioners at 


a rent of about £60 per annum. The Electric Lighting 
Committee has thus practically adopted the alternative 
proposal which was originally defeated at the meeting. 
About six weeks, however, must elapse before the ground 
can be obtained. As it is beyond the compulsory area, 
way leave for the cables is necessary, and on Monday 
Councillor R. D. B. Ritchie brought the matter up at a 
meeting of the Works Committee of the Police Commission, 
at which it was agreed to grant the way-leave. 

Private Szhibition in Ireland. — The Electrical 
Engineering Company of Ireland entertained their friends 
the other day with an exhibition of electric light illumina- 
tion for indoor decoration, comprising early tea, a com- 
bination much enjoyed by the fair sex. The novel 
arrangements on the tables and throughout the rooms 
wet*e particularly admired. On the tea-table some of 
the incandescent lamps of various colours were entirely 
enclosed within a light Persian drapery — a striking method 
of decoration which is only possible where the electric 
light is available. The general illumination of the 
room was effected by means of a central electrolier, 
artistically decorated with festoons of prepared seaweed, and 
from the ceiling depended a number of pearl shells, similarly 
decorated, and through which a charming iridescent light 
was diffused. The visitors were shown over the establish- 
ment, the working of the gas engine, dynamo, and storage 
batteries being explained. A device constructed of small 
incandescent lamps, arranged in the form of the initial 
letters of the company, " E.E.C./' brilliantly illuminated 
the window and footpath. 

Covent Garden Carnival Ball.— The Covent Garden 
Theatre was a brilliant scene on Wednesday night, when 
the first of Sir Augustus Harris's carnival fancy dress balls 
was held. The floor had been raised to the level of the 
stage, and the immense horseshoe shape was covered with 
a prepared canvas for dancing. Above the stage, raised 
on fluted white and gold columns, was the orchestra, 
comprising some hundreds of performers. The music, 
as may be imagined, was Ihe finest that dancers could 
wish. The house, in gold and crimson, was bril- 
liantly lighted up with hundreds of incandescent 
lamps turned on for the first time on this occasion. 
The sides and balconies wore a mass of lovely cut flowers, 
and the numerous stalls were all decorated with magnificent 
bouquets. At half-past eleven dancing commenced, and 
soon after twelve the whole floor was a maze of moving 
figures, most of them in fancy costumes, making a most 
imposing and gay assemblage. Dancing was kept up till 
five or six. We should mention that the electric light was 
fitted up by Mr. Forrester, their own gas engineer, and the 
current was supplied by the Metropolitan Electric Light 

Bemardds Welding Prooees. — A large party in- 
spected on December 21st the installation of the improved 
Bemardos electric welding system at the works of Messrs. 
Lloyd and Lloyd, Halesowen, proprietors of the patents in 
this country. The Bernardos process, as distinct from the 
Thomson process, uses an arc for the purpose of fusing 
the metal. In actual use a continuous-current dynamo 
is connected to a set of accumulators, and at the 
moment of welding both are used in parallel. The work, 
inch as an iron tube, is laid on a metal table which 
forms one pole. The other cable is connected to a 
large carbon rod much like soldering-iron, and the arc is 
struck between the carbon and the tube, the arc 
being sometimes as much as 6in. long, and of one or 
two square inches in sectional area. The current used is 
varied from 10 amperes to 400 amperes. Demonstrations 
wore made of the welding of tubes, wheels, and rods, and 

of the cutting up of thick iron plates to shape with great 
success. The later improvements consist in an arrangement 
for rotating and vibrating the arc to distribute the heat, 
and an electric power hammer is used to finish the 
welds. Amongst those present were Sir Redvers 
Buller, Sir Frederick Abel, Sir Douglas Galton, 
Prof. Forbes, Mr. McFarlane Gray (Board of Trade), 
Mr. J. Spencer (Newcastle-on-Tyne), Mr. W. H. White 
(Admiralty), and Mr. J. Howard, M.P.j representing the 
firm. The firm have granted licenses for the use of 
the system to Messrs. John Spencer and Sons, Limited, 
of the Newburn Steel Works, Newcastleon-Tyne, and 
other firms. 

Electric Organs. — The subject of electricity as applied 
to large organs is occupying a great deal of the attention 
of professional organists and organ builders, and Mr. 
R. Hope Jones, of Birkenhead, who has made a speciality 
of the question, in his address on '' Electrical Control of 
Organs," on December 19th, before the Yorkshire division 
of the National Society of Professional Musicians at Leeds, 
gave some interesting details of his work. Mr. Jones first 
glanced at the forms of organ action — mechanical, pneumatic, 
tubular-pneumatic, and electro-pneumatic. With the latter 
all tubes were removed for a small electric cable, and the 
pneumatic part was much simplified. He expressed the 
conviction that the electric would shortly be the only form 
that organ builders would use in constructing large or 
moderate -sized organs. Sufficient current to work a 
large four-manual could be supplied by a single dry 
coll, and a few shillings would supply a new cell. 
The organist then became simply a toucher of wires. 
Noticing the advantages which made the electric action 
irresistible from an organist's point of view, Mr. Jones 
mentioned light and adjustable touch. The rapidity m 
response and repetition secured was really wonderful, 
mechanical tests proving this action to be capable of no 
less than 1,300 clear repetitions per minute. In connection 
with the details of his own system there was one feature 
which he published for the first time that afternoon. He 
referred to what he termed the " second touch," the object 
of which was to give, as far as possible, to the organ keys the 
individual expressiveness of the pianoforte. He applied 
this second touch to each of the manuals and to the pedals. 
Among the other advantages which electricity offered he 
enumerated the following : Movable console ; stop keys, 
saving the organist labour and giving better control of the 
registers ; the stop-switch, by which combination of stops 
might be arranged beforehand and brought into use at the 
moment required ; unlimited combination touches ; keys or 
studs for the automatic control of the pedal registers; 
suitable accompaniment; unlimited couplers; increased 
control of the swell shutters ; and the transposition switch. 
The only single disadvantage that could be named was the 
need for a supply of electric current, but as they could obtain 
all that they required from a single cell, they need not fear 
inconvenience from this. Mr. Jones said that he had always 
felt that but for the enterprise of Messrs. Abbott and Smith 
his attempts in regard to electrical organ control would 
never have led to any greater results than the experimental 
organ in St. John's Church, Birkenhead. A year ago that 
instrument was of little interest to anyone but himself and 
the choristers, who helped him to build it. The organ had, 
however, during the year been visited by nearly 1,500 musical 
gentlemen, and 23 London and provincial organ builders 
were now duly licensed and engaged in the introduction of 
the system. The meeting passed a hearty vote of thanks 
to Mr. Jones for his address. The company then visited 
the factory of Messrs. Abbott and Smith, and inspected the 
model of an electric organ which the firm ia oic^^tvcv^. 



Crookes, William. r.R.S., P.P.C.S., President of the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1891. Born in London 
in 1833 ; entered Rojal College of Cbemiatry in 1648 aa a 
pupil of Dr. Hofmann, and gained the Ashburton Scholar- 
ship in 1849. In 1850 he became junior, then senior, 
assistant to Dr. Hofmaon, which position he retained till 
1854, when he obtained the appointment of Biiporintendent 
of the Meteorolc^ical Department of the Radcliffe College, 
Oxford. Elected a Fellow of the Eoyal Society in 1863. 
Mr, Crookes founded the Chemical News in 1859, of which 
paper he is still the proprietor and editor. Mr. Crookes 
has been president of the Chemical Society and of the 
Chemical Section of the British Association.. He is an 
indefatigable investigator and writer, and hii researches 
upon high vacua stamp him as one of the foremost of the 
scientific men of the nineteenth century. 

Ayrton, Prof. W. E., F.R.S., President of the Institu- 
tion, was educated at University College School, where he 
gained numerous prizes, and entering subsequently into the 
college, gained the Andrews Exhibition in 1865 and the 
Andrews Scholarship in 1866. Subsequently Mr. Ayrbon 
entered the Indian Telegraph Department, first studying 
under Sir W. Thomson at Glasi^w. In India Mr. Ayrton 
did good and lasting work with the late Mr. Schwendler. 
From 1873 to 1879, Prof. Ayrton was Professor of Natural 
Philosophy and Telegraphs in Japan. Since hia return to 
England his name, often in conjunction with that of his 
colleague. Prof. Perry, has been constantly before scientific 
circles. The number of papers he has individually, or in con- 
junction with others, contributed to the learned societies is 
very great. His career at the Finabury College, and subse- 
quently at the Central Institution, is well known to most of 
our readers, who, if they require an example of extra- 
ordinary energy, coupled with great abilities, cannot do 
better than emulate the President of the Institution for 

Wabber, Hajo^Oeneral Charles Xdmnnd, C.B., 
R.S. (retired), Past- President of the Institution, and 
one of the two founders, his colleague founder being the 
late Sir Francis BoUon. Born in Dublin, 6th Sept., 1838. 
Educated at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, and 
obtained his first commission in the Royal Engineers in 
April, 1655. Major-General Webber's war services com- 
prise the Indian Mutiny, 1857 to 1859, and he was attached 
to the headquarters of the Prussian army in the Austro- 
Pruastan War of 1866. He was employed in Asia Minor 
in collecting transport for the Abyssinian Expedition. In 
1879 and 1880 he was in Zululand, Natal, and latterly in 
the Transvaal, with the Egyptian Expedition of 1882, 
employed as staff-officer for telegraphs ; present at the 
battle of Tol-elKebir, A. -A. and Q.-M.-General and Director 
of Army Telegraphs with the Nile Expedition of 1884-5, 
until invalided in May, 1665, retired from the aervice with 
the honorary rank of major-general in 1885. Of late 
years Gierieral Webber has been closely connected with 
electrical engineering, and especially with the Brush Com- 
pany and the Chelsea central station ; also with the 
system of main-laying known as the Oallender-Webber 

Preeoe, W. H., F.R.S., PastrPresident of the Institu- 
tion. Born 1834, near Carnarvon. Educated at King's 
College, London. Entered Mr, Edwin Clark's (M.LC.E.) 
office in 1852. Appointed to the E. and L T. Co. 1853. 
Superintendent of the southern district of E. and I. T. Co. 
1856, and of L. and S. W. Railway Co. in 1860; also 
engineer Channel Islands Telegraph Co. 1858 ; transferred 
to P.O. as divisional engineer 1870; appointed electrician 
1877. If we aay little more of Mr. Preece'a career, it ia 
not from lack of material but from lack of space. In fact, 
it seems almost a work of supererogation to attempt to 
make more prominent one of the most prominent figures of 
the age in electrical and telegraphic circles. Like other 
eminent men, the list of his contributions to the scientific 
literature of to-day is very extensive, and we only regret 
that he has not found time to add further to it by a contri- 
bution to our columns. If the idiosyncrasies of Mr. Preoce 
were sought out, they would probably be found to consutt 

of a thorough groundwork of strong common-seDse, and a 
special ability to popularise his subject. More power to 
his elbow. 

Webb, F. H., secretary to the Institution, was educat«d 
at the Ecole Normale, at Brussels, and University College, 
London. He afterwards went to Germany to stndvforthepro- 
fession of an engineer. Then for six years he helii the post of 
resident-secretary and librarian to the Royal Institute of 
British Architects. He was in the engineer's office of che first 
telegraph company, and for 10 years was private secretary to 
the Tate J. L. Ricardo, M.P., founder of that company. Mr. 
Webb subsequently held secretaryships to several companies, 
and amongst others that of aasistant secretary to the London 
and Brighton Railway. Upon the resignation of Mr. 
Langdon in 1S7S, he was appointed editor of the Institution 
of Electrical Engineers' Jminuil, and secretary to the 
Institution, which latter position be has held up to the 
present time. The great interest he takes in all that 
concerns the Institution ia well known to members. It is 
by no means an easy task to steer a great institution 
through the quicksands of public criticism, and we venture 
to think that Mr. Webb has by his constant and unwearied 
courtesy done much to raise the Institution to its present 
pitch of prosperity. 

SalomoDH, Sir David L., Bart., one of the Vica- 
Presidenta of che Institution, was born in 1661, and 
educated by private tuition, and at Caius College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated in the Natural Science 'Tripoe. 
Sir D. Salomons has done excellent work of recent years in 
assisting forward electrical engineering in several depart- 
ments. A great debt of gratitude is due to him by the 
profession by his thoroughly exhaustive test, under private 
and unbiased auspices, of electric lighting at hia resi- 
dence near Tonbridge, where also he was one of the 
first, if not the first user on a practical scale of secon- 
dary batteries, and of motors applied to actuate his 
various lathes and aimilar machines. The results of hie 
experience have been given to the world in the shape of a 
book, which has run through several editions, and is justly 
esteemed as giving practical experience instead of theoretic 
ideas. Sir D. Salomons has done good scientific work 
in other directiona, but to us hia personality and his tastee 
tend more to electrical matters than elsewhere. We trust 
that the Institution will recognise ail he has done for 
electrical progress by electing him in due order to the 
presidential chair. 


A generation has come and gone since the Crystal Palace 
became one of the institutions of England. Of the hundreds 
of thousands who annually enter its doorways but a small 
percentage know aught of the history of the edifice. In 
prosjiect, therefore, of the interesting exhibition now about 
to be held within its portals, a brief history of the building 
may not come amiss. England owes far more to the Society 
of Arts than is generally credited. Its work, as a society, 
commenced in 1754, but its first exhibition of arts and 
useful inventions was not held until 1761. The interval 
between 1761 and 1651 saw a variety of exhibitions 
initiated by the society, and other societies, mainly agricul- 
tural. Probably, however, the various exhibitions hold 
in Paris from 1797 to 1849, gave rise to the idea 
of an international exhibition in 1851, to be held in 
London. In 1848 the Council of the Society of Arts made 
a suggestion, which, through its then president, the Prince 
Consort, ultimately led to the 1851 exhibition in Hyde 
Park. A Royal Commission was appointed, and among 
Its work was the selection of plana for the building. Early 
in 1850 the Building Committee advertised for plans, and 
in reply received 233 plans. Out of this number only 18 
could be found worthy of commendation, and not one for 
selection. The committee then prepared a hybrid compo- 
sition according with their own view, which elicited a storm 
of disapprobation. However, the executive were in a 
corner — time was passing, and something had to be 
done. Si)ecifications were being prepared, when a 
fortnight before they were issued Mr. (afterwards 


Sir) Joseph Paxton offered to send another plan if 
it would be received. Suffice to say it was received, and 
in the end adopted, giving rise to a building which silenced 
critics and stamped the author as a constructive genius of 
the highest rank. The plans when published gave universal 
satisfaction, but the building itself elicited enthusiastic 
admiration. It looked like the palace of some genii, so 
ethereal was its appearance. Only iron, wood, and glass was 
used in its construction. In form a vast parallelogram 
1,851ft. long and generally 408ft. wide, but 456ft. wide in 
the widest part To this structure the name Crystal 
Palace was given by common consent. In it the 
1851 exhibition was successfully held, and at its 
eloee there was a general desire that the Crystal 
Palace should not be destroyed. Many wished it to 
become a permanent building in Hyde Park, but that 
was not to be. A company was formed to purchase the 
materials of the building, remove, and re-erect it elsewhere. 
This company obtained 171 acres of land from Mr. Leo 
Schuster at Penge Park, and 178 acres additional whereon 
to erect the building and lay out adjoining grounds. A 
part of this land was not required, and was sold. On the 
Bite selected the first column of the building was raised on 
August 5th, 1852, and the building was publicly opened on 
the lOth June, 1854. The Crystal Palace at Sydenham, 
as we know it, is not an exact reproduction of the 
exhibition of 1851, but a more perfected build- 
ing. Unfortunately, at the present day it is 
pitftly shorn of its pristine glory, a part having some 
years ago been destroyed by fire. It was originally in 
form a parallelogram running nearly north and south, 
the length being l,60dfU ; with two wings extending to 
the east, each 574ft. long ; and a railway colonnade, 
running from the station to the south wing, 720ft. long. 
The entire length of the buildins;, therefore, is 3,476ft, — 
nearly three-quarters of a mile. The greatest breadth is 
384ft. The palace is now terminated at each end by a 
" ciystal tower," 284ft. high ; erected for the purpose of 
raising water to the tanks from which the high jets of the 
great fountains in the lower basins in the grounds are 
supplied. They were not in the original plan ; but 
they add to the symmetry of the structure, when viewed 
from the grounds. The elevation on that side (the east 
is further improved by the necessity for the erection of a 
lower storey, to give the building the necessary width. 
This necessity arose from the ground sloping down to the 
east ; and Sir Joseph Paxton suggested that a basement 
storev should be formed, the roof of which should support 
the floor of that side of the main building. This storey is 
entered from the front or grand terrace in the grounds, or 
from the railway corridor, and access to the main building 
is gained by staircases at the north and south ends, and in 
the centre. The main building, above this basement, 
consists of a grand central nave, two side aisles, three 
transepts, and the north and south wings. The dimensions 
of these various parts will be seen in the following table : 

Kai7o South Central North wiwca 

"*^®" Transept. Transept. Transept. ^^^^S»' 

Length 1,608ft. ... 336ft. ... 384ft. ... 336ft. ... 574ft. 

Breadth 72ft. ... 72ft. ... 120ft. ... 72ft. ... — 

Height from the 

floor to the 

springing of the 

arch ., 68ft. ... 68ft. ... 108ft. ... 68ft. ... 68ft. 

Height to the 

crownofthearch llO^ft... llO^ft.... 174ift... llO^ft.... llO^ft. 
Height from the 

basement. M — ... — ... 202ft. ... — ... — 

The entire roof of both the nave and transepts is a 
vaulted arch, that of the Central Transept being 120ft. span. 
Between each end, and the North and South Transepts, the 
distance is 144ft. ; and between each of those transepts and 
the Central Transept is 528ft. The general width of the 
body of the building between the transepts is 312ft. The 
difference between that and 384ft. is made up with glazed 
and open corridors. In the garden fronts of each of the 
three transepts are recesses 24ft. deep. '* These throw fine 
shadows and take away from the continuous surface of 
plain glass walls ; while the whole general arrangement of 
the exterior, the roofs of the side aisles rising step-like to 
tbe circular roof of the nave, the interposition of low 

square towers at the junction of the nave and transepts, the 
open galleries towards the garden front, and the long 
wings stretching forth on either side, produce a play of 
light and shade, and break the building into parts, which, 
without in any way detracting from the grandeur and 
simplicity of the whole construction, or causing the parts 
themselves to appear mean or small, present a variety of 
surface that charms and fully satisfies the eye." 

The Crystal Palace, then, is par excellence the home of 
exhibitions, and no better building could have been selected 
for an electrical exhibition. During the 10 years since the 
last was held in this building great progress has been made, 
and it is to be hoped the forthcoming exhibits will suffi- 
ciently illustrate the present position of the industry. 


We give below a list of the exhibitors at the Crystal 
Palace Electrical Exhibition, and some preliminary notice 
may be welcome of how the work of installing the 
machinery is progressing, with some little foretaste of what 
visitors may expect to see. 

In the first place, we must state that the opening, origi- 
nally fixed for the 1st of January, has been put off until the 
9th, and indeed it is hard to see that the exhibition will be 
ready to open even upon that date, though a week or ten 
days makes a wonderful difference in the appearance of an 
exhibition at the time of opening. At our visit on 
Wednesday we found hundreds of workmen engaged in 
putting down machinery and erecting stalls, yet so vast is 
the interior of the Crystal Palace that no very great inpon* 
venience is noticeable to the promenaders. 

The exhibits may be divided into four large sections : 
First, the main building, down the centre of which from 
fountain to fountain run a row of large stalls by the great 
firms — Crompton, Brush, Johnson and Phillips, Siemens, 
Laing- Wharton, National Telephone Company, General 
Post Office, Edison-Swan — flanked by numerous smaller 
exhibits. Second, we have the Machinery Hall, with a 
magnificent collection of machinery in motion, by some of 
the same firms, together with Messrs. Davey, Paxman, and 
Co., and gas engine makers, with Crossley's, of course, con- 
spicuous. Thirdly, there are the galleries, in which a 
number of rooms are being fitted up with art furniture, 
and luxuriously furnished with electric light in all artistic 
shapes — here Messrs. Sashleigh, Phipps, and Dawson are 
intending to show something astonishing, and Messrs. 
Cooper and other art decorators are spending large sums in 
providing beautiful interiors. Lastly, there is a special 
court in which the railway companies show the signalling 
systems. There will doubtless be other divisions of the 
principal features as the exhibition gets into shape, but 
these seem to be the general features as at present being 

Coming into the Centre Transept, a large stand of Messrs. 
Johnson and Phillips will first be seen divided into two 
departments — telegraph and electric light. Huge cable 
buoys, some crushed from the weight of water at the 
bottom of the sea, together with grapnels and paying-out 
apparatus, illustrate cable laying, while the dynamos and 
Brockie-Pell arc lamps are being rapidly got into place. The 
handsome lampposts erected at St. Pancras will be shown. 
Very noticeable will be the two systems of mast for groups 
of arc lamps shown respectively by Messrs. Siemens and the 
Brush Company, the former a lattice mast and the latter 
an immense riveted tube-mast. The Brush Company have 
a series of dynamos and engines, baby to giant machines, 
in place. The General Electric Company will be very 
popular, for besides their switches and general fittings, they 
will show motors in work and electric heaters for sauce- 
pans, curling-tongs, and flatirons. Messrs. Crompton and 
Co. are well represented, and have several exhibits. Indeed, 
one seems to see Crompton, Brush, and Siemens every- 
where about the place. Messrs. Crompton have one stand 
for dynamos and motors and arc lamps, with another for 
a travelling electric crane, to be shown in operation, 
besides their machinery exhibit. The Electric Stores, 
Limited, have a large centre stand. 

Coming back to the centre of the Transept, Messrs. 
Bashleigh, Phipps, and Dawson have a large kiosk to b^ 



fitted up as living-rooms, which will make a good show. 
This exhibit, we hear, is constructed so that it can be after- 
wards sent over to Chicago. The National Telephone Com- 
pany are evidently laying themselves out to amuse and 
instruct; a handsome building is fitted up as a working 
telephone exchange, with subscribers in the Palace, an 
immense group of roof insulators overshadowing it. To 
one side are fitted up half-a-dozen public call-boxes, by 
which anyone will be able to talk to subscribers in London, 
while, perhaps, the feature of this branch of the exhibition 
will be a telephonic concert-room to hold 50 people, where 
concerts in Manchester, Liverpool, or Birmingham can be 
heard at charges of 3d. or 6d. for 10 minutes. The Western 
Electric Company are also fitting up a comprehensive 
telephone exhibit, being something out of the usual 

A fine stand will be that of Woodhouse and Rawson, 
Limited. Already the Kingdon dynamo is in place ; Midget 
arc lamps are being fitted up, and a novelty in the 
shape of an electro-hydraulic rivetter will attract 
attention. One of the most prominent exhibits is 
a church built quarter size, fitted with lightning con- 
ductors — whether the disastrous effects of lightning strokes 
to unprotected buildings will be illustrated does not yet 

The most noticeable feature of this exhibition will most 
certainly be the exhibit of the Edison-Swan Company, who 
have devised a novel and striking form of drawing attention 
to the lamps. High from the roof of the Palace hangs an 
immense number of wires, forming a kind of screen across 
the space. This screen is wired for electric lamps, and the 
whole will be covered with incandescent lamps in different 
sizes and colours, and in varied designs. The screen is to 
contain 5,000 lamps, half of which are to be used for 
lighting, and by means of a commutator the various devices 
will be shown forth in light. As much as 200 h.p. will some- 
times be used to light this screen. Below this exhibit 
are long tables of H.M. Post Office, on which telegraphs of 
various sorts will be shown in operation. 

Down the side arcade we notice the stalls of the Mining 
and General Electric Lamp Company, Lacombe's carbons, 
Areas plating already in operation, Pyke and Harris's high- 
tension apparatus, Davis and Timmins's nuts and screws, 
Mr. J. Pitkin's instruments. Mosses and Mitchell vulcanised 
fibre, Dorman and Smith for switches, Mr. H. Sharpe, of 
Theobald's-road, with fittings, Blackman's air propellers, 
besides many others rapidly coming into shape. We should 
not forget to mention an electric lift, which is being 
arranged to raise persons from the floor to the gallery. 

One of the unfortunate results of the recent fire at 
Messrs. Laing, Wharton, and Down's has been to throw them 
all behind with their exhibit Switchboards and artistic 
fittings, to the extent of many hundreds of pounds, were 
prepared, and they were congratulating themselves, upon 
being one of the earliest ut>on the scene, when the fire 
occurred, and the whole had to be prepared over again. 
Messrs. liaing, Wharton, and Down have the whole of what 
is known as the Entertainment Court. They will remove 
the stage and fit the room up as a self-contained plant, 
working together with Messrs. Crossley Bros., who have 
two Otto gas engines already fixed. 

In the Machinerv Hall, which lies just behind the 
Entertainment, whole groups of men are at work till late 
every night. Messrs. Siemens are perhai)s the most 
forward. They have two huge dynamos, apparently those 
used in the Naval Exhibition, with switchboards ready 
fixed. The Brush Company have a series of vertical engines, 
made at their Falcon Works, being erected to drive alter- 
nators and arc machines. Messrs. Crompton have also a 
large space in the Machinery Hall for engines and dynamos 
running, the foundations for which are laid. Besides this, 
Messrs. Davey, Paxman, and Co. are erecting some largo 
engines to drive Crompton dynamos. The firm of Easton 
and Anderson, who have recently joined the ranks of 
electrical engineers, are preparing an exhibit hero. The 
Electric Construction Company have not much ready as 
yet, but no doubt their show will be prominent. 

There will be a larger installation of gas engines than 
has been hitherto seen at exhibitions — the makers evidently 
laying themselves out to catch such contracts as are thought 

of for Leicester and elsewhere, where the interests of the 
electric light company and the local gas company will be 
united by driving the dynamos by gas. Besides the 
noticeable display of Crosslev Bros., the National Gas 
Engine Company have a set of plant practically complete. 
There is an immense Wells gas engine, which will 
attract notice, and a whole series of Griffin gas 
engines, Stockport gas engines, and other makes. In the 
boiler-house Messrs. Davey-Paxman have seven large loco- 
motive boilers in place. As to the rest of .the machinery, 
the Gulcher Company, who, as is well known, now light 
the Crystal Palace, are taking out all the old machinery 
and installing new plant, which is to serve as their exhibit 
at the same time as lighting the Palace. They will have 
two 40unit dynamos supplying incandescent and arc 
lamps on the low-tension parallel circuit, and a 30-ttnil 
alternator of the newly-desisned Fricker type. These will 
be driven by the Galloway boilers and the Crystal Fklace 

Upstairs in the galleries by far the most noticeable 
exhibit will be that of Messrs. Kashleigh, Phipps, and 
Dawson, who have probably the largest space in the exhibi- 
tion. The firm are working in conjunction with the well- 
known decorators, Godfrey Giles, and Co., of Old Cavendish- 
street, and the exhibit is being fitted up in very handsome 
style as living-rooms and conservatory, a small army of men 
being constantly at work on it. The first room will be a 
conservatory, built up in a new kind of patent glass hollow 
bricks. The rockery is being carried out by Mr. Dick 
Radclyfie, with real rock from Robinson Crusoe's Island. 
The second room is an Old English hall, and the third an 
Italian dining-room, while the last is a Japanese drawing- 
loom. Some novel and striking electric light effects will be 
introduced, and it can be confidently prophesied that this 
exhibit will be exceedingly popular. 

Other beautiful art furniture exhibits 'with electric light 
effects will be those of Messrs. H. and J. Cooper, of Great 
Pulteney-street ; Messrs. Allen and Menooch, of Brook- 
street ; and Messrs. W. Wallace and Co. An exhibit of a 
new kind of underground creosoted wood conduit is already 
in place by the Macdonald Electric Subway Company, 
evidently of America ; and Messrs. F. Wiggins and Co. 
will have their mica in full view. Electrical engineers 
who think that the exhibition will be devoted to their 
interests will probably be somewhat astonished to find our 
advertising electropath, Mr. C. B. Harness, very much to 
the front, intent on riding into the credulity of the 
public upon the crest of the electrical wave. A 
whole set of " electropathic treatment rooms" will be 
in active operation, and a very handsome set of 
rooms they promise to be. While so little is known 
about electricity, and all its ways are as " caviare to the 
general," the " general " will no doubt believe their petty 
ailments can be cured by the wagging of a needle or the 
sparks from a huge induction machine, especially if driven 
by an electric motor. The last exhibit we must now 
mention is that of the theatre, where the Christmas 
pantomime is being produced. The stage is being lighted 
by 300 lamps by Messrs. Eashleigh, Phipps, and Dawson, 
and the fairy lamps are supplied by the Mining and General 
Electric Lamp Company. 

The public are now becoming rapidly educated in 
things electrical, and better able to appreciate the uses of 
the mysterious force. Exhibitions such as this to be opened 
at the Crystal Palace, serve continually to bring the actual 
a[)plicationsof electrical science closer and closer home to both 
private customers who desire the latest refinements of 
comfort for their houses, and those, such as engineers, who 
are constantly on the look-out for means of increasing the 
efficiency of their manufactures. There is a final point we 
should like to insist u))on hero. Exhibitions too often 
suffer from a want of sufficient description by cards or 
labels in full and explicit terms attached to the exhibits 
themselves. Stall-keepers cannot be on the ground all the 
time ; people, moreover, are modest and do not like to 
intrude too much, and yet are ever avid for information. 
If this is plainly and prominently set before them, with 
explanatory details as to theory and application and so 
forth upon each machine, the exhibition can be made of 
far greater usefulness all round. 



A. Stand No. 

ApptetOD, BnrW, and WillUinson . 17, 70 

AndrawB, J. E. H., and Co. 6*, 162 

Acme Electric 110, 170 

Anbert, M 125 

AlUop and Co. I3J 

AoderBOD, R 188 

Archer Pipe Companj' 207a 

Briuh El«cbrical Engtiwering CompKny 

Bortiag and Ca 

Barclay and Son 26, 1 

Blackmaji Veatilating Comptuiy 

British Electric _ 

Browett and Lindley SI, 52 

British Oae Eneine Company 73, 75 

Boome, J., 


n and EVoudn 

BriflUil, L 

Birmingham Telegraph Company .. 

Bewron, G 

BUhop, W. J. 

^ritiali Stone Company 


Crompton and Co 1, 11, U, 43, 220 

Csthcari,, Pobo, tJtd Radford 27 

Conradty and Co 31 

Cnmley Broe. M 

Campbell Gas- Engine Company 60a, 69 

0)urehill and Co - 79 

Croggon and Co. 107 

C«D«oUd&ted Telerjtone Company 106, 218 

Chubb ai 

Catting, Douglaa, and Co... 

Cooper, Rftnd J. S. 


Coxetwand Son 

Cash and Co 



Day and Co 19,58,78 

Dormanand Smith 22 

Davey, Paiman, and Co 80, 61 

Dick Kerr and Co 67,68, 201 

Drury, W 153 

Davis and Timmins 189 

DentandCo 3S 

EoatoQ and Anderson 

Electric Coiutmction Corporation 

Evered and Co 

Ediaon and Swmi United Electric Light Company 
Electric Installation and Maintenance Company 


Faraday and Son 

Freeman, W. S 

Fielding and Plait 

Fowler, Lancaeter, and Co, 


Fowler- Waring Ckbles Company 

Foi, K. 

Gulcher (Xew) Electric Light Coni()any ., 

General Electric Company 

Gill and Co 

Graham and Biddle » . ., 

Glover, W. T., and Co 

Orotb, L. E 


Groonbtidge and Soath 

Qilea, F.. andCo 

Ureen and Son 

Gordon, J. E. H , 

Hartnell, WiUon 

Hindley, E. S 

Hodgw and Todd 

Homaoonslio Co 

Harria, J 

H.U. Post Office 

Hateood W 

Bookham, T., and Co 

Henlejr's, W. T.. and Co... 


Joel and Co 

Johnson and PhUlipa . 

JosUn, P. 

Joel. A 

Kelway, C. E „.,.„ 120 

Laiae. Wharton, and Down Syndicate 

London Metalliirgioat Company 

Lacombe and Co 

Lundberg.A. P 

L. C. and D. Railway 

L and N. W. Railway 

L. B. andS. C. RaUway 

Levi, S. H 


Masses and Mitobell » 

McKinnel and Co 

Moeser, F 

Maquay Electric light Company 

MtDing and CieneraT Kleotiic L«nip Company... 

Morgan 'Granville 

Moore, A. F 

Medical Batt«ry Company 

Marryat and Co. 

National Telephoni 
Ns pier and Sons... 

Nalder Bros 

Newton, F. M. ... 

Company 191. 101 

Richard Fr^roB 163 

Richards, J. M 3* 

Rylanda, 1). 36 

Renahaw and Mackie 02 

Itopers C-ompany 63 

Rashleigh, Philips, and Dawfon 101, 202 

Rawlins and Walker 1S6 

Swinburne and Co 

Siemens Broe 

Shirley and Co 

Spencer, J 

South of England Electric Company . 

Scott, R. A 

SuRden, J  

Sidoey and Bamett 

Scientific Alliance 

S.C.n. Electrical Company 

Suter, F 

South-Eastern Railway Company 

Stegman, G 

Smith, Newton 

Shippey Bros 

Saxby and Farmer 


Todman, J. T. 

Thompson, H. 

Trent Gas Engine Compuiy 

Tel^raph Manufacturing Company .. 
Thatcherand Dovereui 

Vaughnn and Brown 

Vogol, C. C 

Victor Battery Company 


Woodley, B 

Waygood and Co 

Wells Bros 

Woodhouse and Eawson United ., 
Weymarsch Battery Company ... 

Waterlow and Sons 

Warbey, J. L 

White, J 

Wake and Saunders 

Walker, W 

Wiggins, F 









• I 




Stand No. 

Crompton and Co., Mansion House-baildings, E.C 1 S.N. 

Swinburne and Co. , Broomhall Works, Teddington 2 „ 

Siemens Bros., 12, Queen Anne's-gate, Westminster .. 3 „ 

Richards, J. M., 146, Holborn-vii^uct 3a „ 

Brush Electrical Engineering Company, Albert- 
buildings, Queen Victoria-street 4 

Osier and Co., 100, Oxford-street, W 5 

Gulcher (New) Electric Light Company, Battersea 

Foundnr, S.W 6 

General Electric Co., 71, Queen Victoria-street, E.C. 7 
Electrical Power and Storage Company, 4, Great Win- 
chester street, E.C 8 

Epstein Accumulator Company, Limited, 34, Cannon- 
street 9 

Johnson and Phillips, 14, Union -court. Old Broad-street 10 

Crompton and Co., Mansion House- buildings, E.C 11 

Faraaay and Son, 3, Bemers-street, W 12 

Electric Stores, Limited, 51, Cannon -street, E.C 13 

Crompton and Co., Mansion House-buildings, E.C 14 

Day and Co. , 60, Queen Victoria-street, E. C. 16 

Appleton, Burbey, and Williamson, 98, Queen Victoria- 
street 17 „ 

Shirley and Co., 45, Rathbone-place, W 18 

Todman, J. T., Queen-street-chambers 19 

Mosses and Mitchell, 68, Chiswell-street, E.C 20 

Thompson, H., 59 Theobalds-road, W.C 21 

Dorman and Smith , Brazenose-street, Manchester 22 

Green and Son, W., 98, Albany-road, S.E 23 

Spencer, J. , Globe Tube Works, Wednesbury 24 

Borting, J., and Co., 30, Berners-street, Leicester 25 

Barclay and Son, 178, R^ent-street, W 26 

Cathcart, Peto, and Radford, 57b, Hatton -garden, E.C. 27 

Gill, A. B., and Co. , 36, Parliament-street, Westminster 28 
South of England Electrical Manufacturing Company, 

Pump Point, Croydon 29 

Hartnell, Wilson, Volt Works, Basinghall-street. Leeds 30 
Conradty, C, c/o. H. Mayes, 21, St. Paul's-buildings, 

E.C 31 

Blackman Ventilating Company, 63, Fore-street, E.C.. 32 

Scott, Ronald A, Acton Hill, W 33 

Woodley, R., Clemence-street, Burdett-road, E 34 

Joslin, P., Westow-street, Upper Norwood 35 

Rylands, Dan, Limited, Hope Glass Works, Stairfoot, 

Barnsley 36 

Way good and Co., Falmouth-road, Great Dover-street.. 37 

Dent and Co., 61, Strand, W.C 38 

Laing, Wharton, and Down Syndicate, 82a, New Bond- 
street, W 41 E.C. &45M.R. 

Easton and Anderson, 3,, S.W 42 „ 

Crompton and Co., Mansion House-buildings, E.C 43 S.N. 

Crosajey Bros., St. Bride-street. E.C 44 M R. 

Brush Electrical Engineering Company, Albert- 
buildings, Queen Victoria-street 46 

Scott, Ronald A., Acton HUl, W 47 

Siemens Bros. , 12, Queen Anne's-gate, S. W 48 

Electric Construction Corporation, Wolverhampton 49 

Freeman, W. S., Otford, Kent 49a ,, 

Woodley, R., Clemence-street, Burdett-road, E 50 

Browett and Lindlev, Salf ord , Manchester 61 & 52 

South of England Manufacturing Company, Croydon... 54 

Gill, A. B., and Co., 36, Parliament-street 56 

Newton, F. M., Taunton, Somerset 57 

Day and Co., 60, Queen Victoria-street 58 & 76 

Davey, Paxman, and Co., Colchester 60 & 61 

Johnson and Phillips, 14, Union-court, Old Broad-street 60 „ 

Renshaw and Mackie, 77, Tummill-street, E.C 62 „ 

McKinnel and Co., Dumfries 62a „ 

Ropers Electrical Engineering Company, Trafalgar 

Works, Bradford 63 „ 

Andrew, J. E. H., and Co., 20, Queen Victoria-street 64 ,, 

Campbell Gas Engine Company, 1 14, Tooley -street 69a , , 

Barclay and Son, 138, Regent-street, W 66 

Dick Kerr and Co., 76, Queen Victoria-street, E.C. .67 & 68 

Campbell Gas Engine Company, 114, Tooley-street 69 

Appleton, Burbey, and Williamson, 91, Queen Victoria- 
street ., 70 „ 

Wells Bros., Sandiacre, near Nottingham 71 „ 

British Gas Engine Company, Mansfield-road, Gospel 

Oak 73&75 

Trent Gas Engine Company, New Basford, Nottingham 73 

Fielding and Piatt, Atlas Works, Gloucester 74 

Hlndley , E. S. , 1 1 , Queen Victoria-street, E.C 77 

Bourne, J., and Son, New St. Pancras Station, Euston- 

road. N.W 78 

Churchill, C, and Co., 21, Cross-street, Finsbury, E.C. 79 

Rashleigh, Phipps, and Dawson, 53, Berners-street, W. 101 N.N. 

Woodhouse and Kawson, 88, Queen Victoria-street, E.C. 103 „ 
National Telephone Company, Limited, Oxford -court. 

Cannon-street 104 „ 

Hodges and Todd, 12, Verulam-street, Gray's Inn-road. 105 ,, 

Mosser, F., 105, Regent-street. W 105a „ 

Consolidated Telephone Company, 109, Farringdon-road 106 ,, 

Sugden, J., 99, Wyndham-road, Camberweli 106a „ 

Croggon and Co., 16, Upper Thames street, E.C 107 

Berg, E.,29, Link-street, Berlin, Germany 108 

London Metallurgical Company, 80, Tummill-street, 

Ma 109 












1 1 




f I 







stand No. 
Acme Electric Works, Ferdinand street, Chalk Farm, 

N.W 110 N.N. 

Chubb and Sons, 128, Queen Victoria-street, E.C Ill 

Homacoustic Company, 52, St. Stephen's-chambers, 

Telegraph-street, E.C 112 

Weymersch Electric Battery Company, 2, Victoria- 
mansions 113 

Laoombe and Co., 7, Carteret-street, Queen Anne^s- 

gate, S.W 114 „ 

Maquay Electric Light Company, 9, Frith-street, Soho 115 „ 
Waterlow and Sons, Limited, Finsbury Stationery 

Works, E.C 116 

Benham and Froude, 40, Chandos-street, W.C 117 

Fowler, Lancaster, and Co., Graham-street, Birmingham 117a 

Graham and Biddle, 463, Oxford-street, W 118 

Lundberg, A. P., Bradbury -street, Kingsland-road 119 

Joel, A., Kohlen-in-Stuttgart, Wurtemberg 120 

EveredandCo., 58, Drury-lane, W.C 121 

Sidney and Barnet, 30, Walham-green, S.W 123 

Scientific Alliance, 7 & 8, Dyers-buildings, Holbom 124 

Aubert, M., Lausaune, Switzerland 125 

Ingersol Serjeant Drill Company, 114a, Queen Victoria- 
street, E.C 126 

S.C.G. Electrical Company, 48, Broad-street-avenue, 

rj rj J27 

Gordon, J.' E. H.',* 1 1 ,* Paii'-maii! * s! W." .V.V.V V.V.V.V. .V.V.V.V. 128 

Kelway, C. E , 71. Shardiloes-road, New Cross 129 

Nalder Bros, and Co., 16, Red Lionstreet, E.C 130 

Lewis, J., 5, Great Winchester-street, E.C 131 

Allsop, F. C, and Co., 165, Queen Victoria-street, E.C. 132 „ 

H.M. PostOffice 133 ,. 

Floyd, E. M., 32, Prothben-road, Fulham 135 

Bristol, L , Park End, Bromley, Kent 136 

Edison and Swan United Electric Light Company, 100, 

Victoria-street, S.W 138 

Electric Installation and Maintenance Company, 

Limited, Great Winchester-street 139 

Napier, D. , and Sons, Vine-street, York-road , Lambeth . . . 139a 
Telegraph Manufacturing Company, Limited, Helsby, 

(yheshire . 140 

Glover, W\ f/,and Co!i'39i v'ict^^^^^ 141 

Jenner, T., Mill-lane, Taunton 142 

Vaughan and Brown, 16, Purdey-street, Hatton- 

garden, E.C 148 

Groth, L. E., 3. Tokenhouse-buildings, E.C 144 

Warbey, J. L., 51, Sutton- buildings. Little Sutton- 

street, E.C 145 

Groves, W., 89, Bolsover-street, Portland -place 146 

Mining and General Electric Lamp Compiany, 64, Mill- 

bank-street, S.W 147 

Economic Electric Supply Company, 397, Edgware-road 149 

Groombridge and South, 40, New Bond -street, W 150 

White, J., 16, Cambridge-street, Glasgow 151 

Drury, W., 39, Lytherstone-road, HolToway, N 152 

Richard Freres, 43, London-wall, E.C 153 

Suter, F., and Co., 66, Bemers-street, W 154 

Jennings, 6., Lambeth Palace-road 154a 

Birmingham Telegraph Factory, Birmingham 155 

Rawlins and Walker, High-street, Lymington, Hants ... 156 
Joel, H. F., and Co., 31, Wilson-street, Finsbury-square 157 

Habgood, W., 19, Cbandos-road, Buckingham 158 

Henley's, W. T., Telegraph Works Company, Limited, 

27, Martin's-lane 159 

b owler- Waring Cables Company, Limited, 32, Victoria- 
street 160 „ 

Cutling, R. C, Douglas, and Co., Wardrobe-chambers, 

Queen Victoria-street 161 

Andrews, J. D. F., and Co., 41, Parliament-street 162 

International Electric Company, 34, Aldermanbury 164 

Vogel, C. C, Berlin 68, Ritterstrasse 39 156 

Anderson, R., and Co., 101, Leadenhall-street 166 

Pyke-Harris, 34, New Tothill-street, S.W 167 

Elliott, A., and Strode, C, Limited, 10, Bush-lane, 

Cannon-street 168 ,, 

Davis and Timmins, 24, Charles-street, Hatton -garden 189 
Acme Electric Works, Ferdinand-street, Chalk Farm... 170 

Bowron, G., 93, Praed-street, W 171 

Victor Primary Battery Company, 11, Wormwood -street 172 
£ipfltein Accumulator Company, 34, Cannon-etreet, E.C. 173 
M^organ-Grenville, Captain S., Maids Moreton, Bucks .. 174 

Pitkin, J., 56, Red Lion-street, Clerkenwell, E.C 175 

Harris, Colonel Josiah, Moraston Lodge, Jews-walk, 

Sydenham 176 

Moore, A. F., Longwood, Bexley, Kent 177 

Exchange Telegraph Company, Limited, 17« Cornhill... 177a 

L. C. and D. Railway Company, Pimlico, S.W 178 E.C. 

L. and N. W. Railway Company, Euston, N.W 179 

Saxby and Farmer, Canteibury Iron Works, Kilburn... 180 

L. B and S. C. Railway Company, London Bridge 181-2 

S. E. Railway Company, London Bridge 183 

National Telephone Company, Oxford-court, Cannon- 
street 191 E.V. 

Siemens Bros, and Co., Limited, Queen Anne's (^ate, 

S.W 192 P.C. 

Dick Kerr and Co , 76, Queen Victoria-street, E.C 201 G. 

Riedel, Unterpolaun, Bohemia .. 201a 

Rashleigh, Phipps, and Dawson, 53, Berners-street, W. 202 

Cooper, H. and J., 8, Great Puiteney-street, W 203 

Barclay and Son, 138. Regent-street, W 204 , 





















f I 









• f 





• I 




Stand No. 

Giles, F., and Co., SO, High-street, KeD^fu^ton, W 209 G. 

Wake and Saoden, 6, Fowkee- buildings, Groat Towor- 

itroet. E,C. 206* „ 

St^nan. G., BB, St. John's-raad, Clapham Janction ... 207 ,, 
Archer Pipe Company, Avenne-raanBion, Shaftetbury- 

•venue 207* „ 

CroftH. A., 8, St. Jttm»-Btreot. Dover 308 „ 

Thalcber and Devareux, 15, Chiveley-road, Battersea 

R>-8 209 „ 

Wallier, W., George-street, Croydon 210 „ 

Bishop, W. J., 7*. George-Btreot, Croydoo 211 „ 

Smith, Newton, 17, Victoria-street, 8.W 212 „ 

Electropathic and Turkish Baths, Limited, 24, 

Railway-approach, London Bridge 213 „ 

Modical Battery Company, 62, Oxford -street, W 214 ,, 

Foi, E., M, GreBham-street, E.G. 2Ha ,, 

Coieterand Son, 4, Grafton -street, Gower-atreet, N.W. 215 ,, 
Consolidated Telephone Company, Limited, 109, 

Farrins^on-road 216 „ 

Shippey Bros., 13, King-street. Cheapaide, E C 217 „ 

Levi, 8 H., 43, London-wall, E.C 218 „ 

Marryat, H., and Co., ChiBhoIm-rood, Richmond 219 „ 

Crompton and Co., Mansion House-buildings, EC 220 „ 

Cash, N., and Co, , Bower road. Victoria Park, N E 221 ., 

Hookham, T., and Co., 4, Tarn pin -lane, Greenwich 222 „ 

Wiggins. F., and Sons, 10, Tower-bUl. E.C 223 „ 

British Stone and Marble Company, Limited, Yeoman- 
street, Rotherhithe 224 ,, 

Becke and Co., 2, Gertrude- street, Kiog's-road, Chelsea 226 „ 

Britaooia Rubber Works, 32, Cannon-Btreet, E.C 227 „ 

N.N., North Nave. S.N., South Nave. M.R., Machine-Room. 
EC, Egyptian Court. E.V., Egyptian VeeCibnle. P.C.,PompeiiaD 
Court. G., Gallery. 


Mr. Liinf4(taD, the telegraph superiiileiideDt of the Mid- 
land Railway Company, has lately installed a complete 
telephone system at The Adelphi Hotel, Liverpool. The 
installation compriaeB three floors, and on each floor is a 
switchboard for 70 directions — making a total number ol 
210 stations. Each room is fitted with a call-box and a 
double " Ader " instrument (magnetic transmitter), n 
separate call-bell and a three-contact pear-push, which is 
suspended near the bed, so that the visitors can ring in the 
luual way or communicate through the telephone. The 
visitors are able to communicate with one another and with 
the staff of the hotel, this eflectiu^ considerable saving of 
time both for visitors and staff. This instuUation has given 

nt satisfaction, as it is simple and thoroughly reliable. 
I eimilar to the large installation at The Terminus 
Hotel, Paris, where 360 rooms are connected, the only 
difference being that in the latter " Ader " microphones 
were used instead of magnetic transmitters. The instru 
ments and appliances for the above instalUtion were 
supplied by La Suci^t^ G(intirale des T616phoneB. 

PHYSICAL SOCIETY. -Dec. 18, 1891. 

Prof. W. E. Atrton, F.R.S., president, in the chwr. 

Mr. R. W. Mond, F.R.S-E., was elected a member of the society. 

The FreBldvnt announced that it bad been found neoessary to 
alt«r the dates of the meetings to be held after ChristmoB from 
those already published to the following : January 22nd, February 
12th and 26th, March lltb and 25th, April 8th, May l^th and 
27th, June 10th and 24th. 

A "Nota on Intarftronoe with AltAmatlnK CnrrenU " was 
communicated by BIr. K. B. XUsonr. Whilst studying Dr. 
Fleming's paper od "Some Effects of Alternate- Current Flow in 
Circuits having Capacity and Self-induction,' the author con 
structed some additional curves. He was thereby led to investigate 
whether the seriooa rises of pressure produced by adding capacity 
would occur over oonsiderable ranjies of capacity, or whether they 
would only take place when the capacity was nearly equal to n 

rrtlcnlar value. Taking the caa3 of a condenser of capacity 
Eaiads, in series with a circuit of reBlBtance R ohms, and induct 
anoa L heniys, be showed that the maximum value of X (the ratio 
of the pressure acrow the condenser terminals to that across 
Um otudenser sjid inductive resiHtancs) is obtained when 

C= ^5 — (I), where p = 2 » times the frequency. The 

matimam of X produced by this capacity being given by the 

•spcvwon A = ^^' R ^ ^' '^'- ''^'^"8 R = 10 and p = 2 IT. 

I,U0O QorvM plotted from eqaations (1) audi (2) betweao 

and L, and between A and L had been drawn. The 
C L curve rises to a very sharp peak at L = '0015 and falls 
rapidly. That iMitwesn A and L starts horizontal and bends 
upwanls, and approximates to an inclined straight lino for 
values of L greater than 0*002, when L = 01, A = 63. Con- 
jidering the question of the range of capacity with which a given 
rise of pressure can occur, it was pointed ouc that when the values 
of L, R, and p are such as to make a large rise possible, a rise exceed- 
ing B. moderate i-alue can only be obtained for values of differing 
little from that given by equation (1). On the other hand, when 
Che circuit is such that the maximum rise possible is not large, 
then s rise exceeding a given moderate value can be obtained over 
a much wider range of capacity. Hence, the author conoludee 
that the Uu^^ the possible rise the smaller Is the probability of a 
seriouB rise occurring. The effect of shunting the condenser by a 
circuit of resistance, r, and inductance, I, is next dealt with in the 
paper, and the values of C which make X a maximum determined, 
SB well as the maximum value X can have. Subsequently the 
author examines whether the practical case of an alternator 
feeding a transformer through a concentric cable may be simpli- 
fied without introducing serious error by assuming the capacity 
concentrated at either end of the cable, and conctudeo that in 
ordinary casee little error will be thus made. In an experiment 
made with a 100-kilowatt alternator, three-quarters of a mile of 
"jit concentric cable, and an 18-kilonratt transformer, a rise of 
i per cent, was found to occur at the terminals of the alternator 
when the cable was connected. Putting on the transformer 
unloaded or loaded produced little change in the rise of pres- 
sure ; this in all coses being between 0'2 and 0'3 per cent. 
Dr. Smmpner asked whether the condaaions as to the range of 
capacity with which a given rise of pressure was poesibls, was true 
for small rises such as occur in practice Cases where the 
maximum possible rise was of the order 6.^ were not likely to 
occur at ordinary frequencies. The highest rise he had ever 
known was 11. He thought the time-constant of the inductive 
coil chosen— i-iz., ijj of a second— was very large. In circuits 
containing iron it was practically impossible to get such large time- 
constants, for the power spent in the iron increased the effective 
resistance. Referring to the narrow range of capacity within 
which large rises were possible, be poinC^ out that such cases 
were found in Hertz's resonators, where the rises were immense, 
but Co obtain tbem the adjustments bad to be very accurately 
made. Dr. H, P. TIiampeoB said ho regretted that Prof. Fleming 
was not present, for he had recently investigated Hertx's experi- 
ments and )iad obtained curves very gimilar to that got for the 
Deptford maina. The Curve between A and L waa very interesting. 
It was, in fact, a curve between the secant of the angle of Ibk and 
L, as could be seen from formula (2). In practice one would be 
working on the lower portion, and hence the rises would be small. 
■fr. Kllgenr explained that in the paper bis first object was to 
show that the product of the range of capacity between which a 
rise greater than a given value would occur and the maximum 
possible rise, was approximately constant for diOerent circuite. 
Secondly, he wished to prove that the capacity, of concentric 
cabltH could be aHBumed to be localised at either end without 
introducing much erior in the riaea of progsurea calculated 
therefrom. Dr. ikompaoo, speaking of nomenclature, rei^retted 
that the word inductance should be used sometimes for L, 
and at otlier times for L p, and thought its meaning should 
be restricted to the latter. Frof. Ferry said a Dame was needed 
forcoelfioient of self-induction. Resistance was practically inde- 
pendent oE freiiuency, and " inductance " should have no reference 
to frequency. Dr. Snmpner thought it important to have a name 
for L p, for that quantity comes into calculation most frequently. 
He would have preferred that " inductance" should mean L p, but 
Mr. 0- Heaviaide, who introduced the term, had used it for L. 
The President remarked that some time ago Dr. Sumpner and 
himself felt the noed of a name tor L />, and thought of using 
" inductance," but on referring to Mr. Ileariside's articles found 
it used for L, Dr. C. V. Borton asked whether the word " self- 
induction " could not be used as an abbreviation for " coelficientof 
self-induction." Dr. Thonpeon jrainted out that this word 
already had a meaning — viz., L multiplied by current- Dr. Barton 
then suggested that iiiductivity might b 
Thompaen said the word " im[)edance wai 
oualy, for the tense in which I)r. Lodge uset 
Views of Electricity " ' 

also used ambigu- 
it in his '' Modem 

of Rai 

" had been 

1 said this definition v 

_ Prof. Parry recalled the fact that "impedance 

defined by the committee of the British Association a 
effective voltage _^ 
eltcictive current 
applicable to periodic currents, and not to intermittent or transient 
ones. The President said be understood the first object of Mr. 
Kilgour's paper was to enquire whether the dread of rise of voltage 
occurring when concentric mains were used, need exist. When 
Dr. Fleming's paper was read, the general idea was that concentric 
cables were dangerous. In the discussion on it, he, amongst 
others, had pointed out that the chance of a large rise of pressura 
was not a serious one. Mr. Kilgour had now shown that the 
range of capacity over which a particular rise could oocur, is 
inversely proinrtional to the maximum rise possible in the 
particular circuit. When the circuit was such that a large rise 
was possible, tbe probability of any serious rise taking place was 
ven' small, hence the fears of large rises were mora or leas 
unfounded. The second part of the paper was to show that 
ordinary problems on concentric cables could, in practical caws, 
be treated with aufhcient accuracy by assuming the capacity 
localised at either end of the oable, inelMd of distnbated aIaa%itA 





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With this copy of the Paper is issued a Supplement cont aining 
a sketch of the scene at the Institution dinner, by W. M. 
Bowles, with six portraits, taken from photographs, of Fro£ 
W. Crotfkes, F.R.S., Prof. W. S. Ayrton, F.R.S., Oeneiml 
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To All Beaders, a Happy and Prosperous 


Egoism is an article as common as jingoism, 
hence we may be permitted to claim a little of it, 
and in the first place speak of ourselves. We claim 
to pay attention principally to business matters, 
leaving our contemporaries to discourse on trans- 
cendental questions about which no one knows 
anything in particular, though it pleases them to 
consider otherwise. 

The Directory.— The new feature of a weekly 
trades' directory, introduced to-day, may or may not 
be of service. At any rate, correspondents from 
widely different quarters are continually asking for 
names of firms and men, and it seems to us that 
while an annual directory well done may be valuable, 
a weekly directory equally well done will be in- 
valuable. The large directories are limited in 
circulation, and are partially out of date even at the 
time of issue. The weekly directory can be corrected 
every seven days, and must in a short time be fairly 
trustworthy. The directory we issue to-day is not 
put forth as perfect — it is tentative only ; and we ask 
our readers' assistance to make it more complete. 
Utility is required, not mere lists of names and 
addresses. This is how the matter strikes us as 
business men. Take one example — electrical engi- 
neering. It is extending, installations are increasing. 
By and by each installation will require periodically 
a replenishing of stores. The oil merchant, the wire 
manufacturer, the carbon-rod manufacturer, the 
incandescent lamp manufacturer, and so on through 
the whole gamut of trades, send representatives to 
call upon the officers in charge of installations for 
"orders." It may suit some of the big makers to 
fancy they will hold the trade because now they are 
going on swimmingly. They will have to take the 
small with the large, and remember '' many a mickle 
makes a muckle," or competition will ultimately leave 
them without the mickle. In another direction, 
again, we may urge the benefit of a weekly directory. 
Readers in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa — 
aye, even in England, Scotland, and Ireland — ^have 
never seen, and are not likely to see, the more pre- 
tentious works, yet require certain information. This 
information they get from the paper, communicate 
with one or more firms, and business results. 
Wherever the paper is seen — and it is astonishing 
where papers are seen — ^the name on the list gets 
publicity. It would be altogether too much of the 
confidence trick to insinuate that our views are 
entirely for the benefit of our patrons. Not so ; we 
believe in mutual advantage, and have no reason to 
fear but the effort to do something for the benefit 
of readers will also redound to our own benefit. 

Portraits. — From time to time, yn a more or less 
desultory manner, portraits have been given in 
various papers, but hitherto nothing has been done 
in a systematic manner. We venture, then, to 
commence systematically what has hitherto been 



done sporadically. With this issue we give 
half-a-dozen portraits obtained from photographs, 
and we have another twenty or so ready for insertion 
at convenient opportunities. One of the great aims 
of telegraphists is to find a good way of sending 
plans, portraits, and pictures telegraphically. We 
cannot hope to emulate inventors, but follow behind : 
call in the photographer, engraver, and printer to 
assist to distribute as widely as our paper is read the 
representative features of representative men. To 
obtain a favourable result we require a good, bright 
photograph, and hope by these means to enable 
readers who may never be acquainted with pro- 
minent men in the flesh to have some idea of what 
they look like. Had similar views held in the time 
of Sturgeon and similar means been ready to do the 
work, we should not now be deploring the loss of 
his portrait. 

The Past Year. — Several important qaestions 
are raised by the work of the past year, but our 
usual general comments thereon must be reserved 
for the present. The old year has only just fled, that 
many who usually favour us with their views have 
not yet — or too late, owing to the holiday season — 
placed them in our hands. Meanwhile, we com- 
mence to give a resume of the work of individual 

Electric Construction Corporation, Wolver- 
hampton. — In addition to a large and continually 
increasing amount of business in the supply of 
machines, switchboards, etc., for private installa- 
tions, this corporation has carried out some large 
contracts for continuous-current machines for central 
lighting stations in London, etc., also some excep- 
tionally large copper depositing plants. They have 
built a number of the Elwell-Parker alternating- 
current machines, and supplied large numbers of 
transformers. They supplied the switchboards and 
accumulators for the St. Pancras Vestry installation, 
which has been at work since November last. A 
somewhat new feature of the past year has been the 
rapid development of continuous-current trans- 
formers. Large central station plants on this system 
are at the present time being supplied to Messrs. J. B. 
H. Gordon and Co. for the Installation and Mainten- 
ance Company's station at Sydenham, and also for the 
Oxford Electric Light Company. In addition to 
these they have supplied continuous-current trans- 
formers to other stations. The corporation had 
completed the electric transmission of power plant 
in its new works, at Wolverhampton, where all the 
machine tools, cranes, etc., are driven by means of 
motors. In addition, they have supplied a number 
of motors for various purposes, including a set of 
60-h.p. hauling plant, and some machines for driving 
pumps, etc., in collieries. Amongst other important 
work in hand for the coming year is the contract for 
supply of generating plant, rolling-stock, and con- 
ductors for the Liverpool Overhead Eailway. 

Electrical Standardising, Testing, and Train- 
ing Institution. — During the earlier part of the 
year some time had to be spent fitting up the new 
premises, Faraday House, Charing Cross-road, under 
the superintendence of the heads of the various 
sections. The standardising and testing depart- 
ments have had continuous work since they were 
opened, and as manufacturers and others are getting 
to find that their instruments can be standardised 

and calibrated more efliciently at the institution 
than at their own works, this branch of the business 
steadily increases, though some firms prefer hiring 
a private room and doing their own work, the 
institution supplying apparatus and current. A 
good deal of work has also been done by ex- 
perimenters who rent the private rooms, and 
borrow the apparatus as they require it. Much 
has been done m the direction of inspecting and 
reporting upon private installations, testing meters, 
etc., in cases where disputes have arisen between 
householders and their contractors or supply com- 
panies. Dynamo machines, steam engines, and 
apparatus generally have also been inspected at the 
manufacturers to see if they fulfil the specifications, 
but this work has been chiefly done for agents who 
are sending plant abroad. Indeed, the necessity for 
the new departure made when the institution was 
founded has been clearly shown by the connection 
already made. In the training department some 50 
names are on the books, and it is satisfactory to 
learn that the companies and firms in affiliation 
with the institution have already drawn upon it for 
assistant engineers, the companies usually keeping 
those apprentices who have been sent them for the 
purpose of being practically trained and who have 
shown themselves specially apt for their work. The 
forthcoming competition for the scholarships and 
exhibitions seems likely to be large. 

India Kubker Company, Silvertoa\tj. — This 
company has been fairly busy in every branch 
throughout the year, and in the electrical depart- 
ments some important orders have been carried out. 
The cable department laid along the West Coast of 
South America 1,750 knots of submarine cable for the 
Central and South American Telegraph Company. 
Over 1,600 knots of cable have been made and laid 
along the coast of Brazil for the Western and 
Brazilian Telegraph Company. Orders have also 
been executed for cable for the Post Oflice, the 
India Office, and various foreign Governments, and 
about 1,100 knots of a cable to be laid next year 
between West Africa and Brazil have already been 
manufactured. The cable department has, in addi- 
tion, delivered a large quantity of torpedo and 
electric light cable for shipping orders. For low- 
tension house-lighting cables and wires the demand 
still increases, and for high-tension distribution con- 
siderable lengths have been manufactured for the 
Metropolitan Electric Supply Company, the House- 
to-House Electric Supply Company, the City of 
London Electric Company. Newcastle-on-Tyne and 
other towns in England have been large consumers. 
The company's French factory has filled several 
orders for the lighting of Paris, Madrid, Barcelona, 
Tours, Havre, etc. The Admiralty, as a result of 
past experience, has decided to again adopt india- 
rubber insulation, and the Silvertown Company, in 
addition to the Government contract for the year, 
have obtained a number of orders from the various 
firms carrying out Admiralty contracts. The instru- 
ment department, besides railway, Post Office, and 
Admiralty work, have executed a number of shipping 
orders for telegraph and torpedo instruments, and 
has supplied the whole of the new station switch gear 
for the London Electric Corporation. The battery 
department has throughout the year been full of 
orders, especially for Leclanche cells, which have 
been supplied in large numbers to Government, and 
to railway and supply companies. In the electric 
Ught department a fair amount of work has been 
done, including the supply of dynamos and the 
fitting up of electric light and signal gear on a number 
of H.M. ships, amoii|,%t o\>[i€t% \5ckfc ^^ ^B^^\i5ckSsasiV 




"Blake," ''Royal Sovereign," "Grafton,"" Theseus," 
"Eepulse," and " Empress of India. Installations 
of electric light in factories, mills, mines, and private 
houses have also been carried out, and large number 
of complete sets of dynamos, cables, fittings, etc., 
for installation abroad have been delivered. In 
transmission of power an important order has been 
executed for a tramway on the Continent, comprising 
eight cars, which have been in operation for the 
whole of the summer season. The results obtained 
are so satisfactory that an additional order has been 
received for equipment of six 25-h.p. cars, and for 
the supply of necessary machinery at the station for 
this extension. In the smaller electrical branches 
there has also been a good demand. 

Paterson and Cooper. — Messrs. Paterson and 
Cooper have been well employed during the whole 
of the year, and exceedingly busy during the latter 
part. As in previous years, shiplighting has fur- 
nished a considerable portion of the business, and 
among the vessels fitted up in 1891 have been the 
"Nottingham," " Staveley," "Leicester," and 
" Lutterworth," new steamers of the Manchester, 
Sheflield, and Lincolnshire Railway Company ; the 
"City of London," "City of Agra," "City of 
Khios," "City of Edinburgh," and " City of Dublin," 
belonging to G. Smith and Sons* City Line ; " St. 
Nicholas " and " St. Sunniva," belonging to the 
North of Scotland, Orkney, and Shetland Company ; 
also the "America," "Berlin," "Furnessia," 
"Killarney," "Empress of the East," and several 
others, including the steam yachts " May," 
" Pathfinder," and " Hermione." The firm has 
presently on hand the lighting of steamers 
for the Allan Line, for the General Steam 
Navigation Company, and for the Clyde Shipping 
Company. In all manufacturing departments the 
business has been good. The dynamos have 
averaged much larger sizes than in previous years, 
mahily on account of a large immber being directly 
coupled to the driving engines. For machines of 
large output coupled to double-acting engines the 
multipolar design is adopted, both Gramme and 
drum windings being used for the armatures accord- 
ing to circumstances. In arc lamps a good business 
has been done, a large number having been sold for 
use on alternating as well as on direct current circuits. 
The sales in measuring instruments have been well 
kept up, and the trade in switchboards, fittings, 
and accessories has considerably increased. During 
the year complete installations have been erected at 
the Lancaster Waggon Company's Works, at Bullion- 
fields Paper Mills, Invergowrie ; at the residence of 
G. Peters, Esq., High Elms, Watford; and at Corona, 
Broughty Ferry, the residence of R. A. Mudie, Esq., 
the well-known shipowner. Installations of arc lamps 
have also been completed at the shops of Mr. Lipton, 
in Dublin, Birmingham, Southampton. Deptford, 
and London (Edgware-road). Of the wiring of 
private houses for supply from the various supply 
companies' mains the firm has had a good share, 
while among the large establishments wired and 
fitted may be mentioned Messrs. Combe's Brewery, 
Messrs. Lambert and Butler's Warehouse, and 
the St. George's Club, Hanover-square. The 
firm has several contracts still in hand, the 
largest being the lighting of the Daily Chronicle 
and Lloyd's News oflices in Fleet-street, and the 
refrigerating stores and wharf of Messrs. Nelson and 
Co. at Lambeth. The former is being wired for 800 
l6-c.p. and the latter for 1,600 16-c.p. lamps, and both 
installations will include direct-coupled dynamos and 
^ngines complete. For the Daily Chronicle offices 
^ djrnamos are two in number, with 24in. Gramme 

armatures, running at 300 revolutions in a four-pole 
field, and directly coupled to vertical engines 13Jin, 
cylinder and lOin. stroKe, made by J. and H. Gwynne. 
For Nelson's wharf the dynamos, two in number, 
are also four-pole, and have '25in. drum armatures, 
running at 200 revolutions, directly coupled to 
double-crank compound engines. The engines are 
made by Messrs. J. and H. Gwynne, for whom the 
installation is being carried out, and have 8|^in. and 
16in. cylinders with a stroke of 14in. 

EoBEY AND Co., LINCOLN. — During the year there 
has been an active demand for engines for electric 
lighting purposes, not only for isolated installations, 
but for large central stations. Electricity seems 
dividing itself now sharply into two classes — viz., 
independent installations of moderate extent for 
individual consumers just needing the care of one 
man to look after them, and in many cases worked 
by gas engines ; on the other hand, large central 
stations of great extent, taking in an entire town or 
district. The medium installation worked for a 
number of customers in a comparatively small 
district seems, so far as the experience of this 
firm goes, to be undergoing the process of elimina- 
tion. Dynamos are increasing in size, as con- 
sidered by output, and the class of engine most 
successfully used are those from 200 h.p. to 500 h.p, 
indicated, which work an independent dynamo. Of 
this class this firm has made large numbers. Where 
space is available, and even where it had to be paid 
for dearly, it is found most economical to use long- 
stroke horizontal engines worked at high piston 
speed, but a moderate number of revolutions, and 
each driving its own dynamo through rope gear. Li 
the Newcastle Electric Light Supply Company's 
installation (which is one of the largest in England) 
there are three engines which work to about 200 h.p., 
duplicates of each other, and Messrs. Eobey have 
just supplied a fourth which will work to about 
500 h.p. The size is thought to be one 
which will be largely used in the future, and 
will, perhaps, be the most economical for driving 
a single machine. The reason for suggesting 
this as a maximum power, is because in cases 
of accident to either dynamo or engine it is as large 
a unit in an installation as ought to be thrown out 
of gear at once, even if it be not too large. For 
confined situations high-speed vertical compound 
engines are now being extensively used, and four 
of these have recently been supplied for the street 
lighting in London, the two smaller ones being 
about 100 h.p. and the two larger 200 h.p. each. 
These larger engines will work easily up to 170 
revolutions per minute, and dynamos might be built 
to couple direct and run at that speed. Li the 
London installation, however, they are being driven 
by belt, but as there is not a large difference between 
the size of the driving wheel on engine and the pulley 
on the dynamo, the belt centres can be kept shorter, 
and the whole space occupied is very much reduced. 
Eeplying to a definite question relating to central 
station work, Messrs. Eobey and Co. say : " The 
important points, we think, which should be taken 
into consideration in central station work are the 
size of the unit of distributing machinery and the 
method of distribution. As above stated, we think 
each engine should drive its own independent 
dynamo, and that all countershafting and gearing 
connecting one with the other should be dispensed 
with, and that, with the exception of one smaller 
engine for nmning a few lights during the daytime 
or the small hours of the morning, the engine and 
machines should be duplicates of each other, with at 
least one spare one of each. The method of dis- 



tribation which seems growing in favour is that of 
high-tension alternating-current, with transformers. 
Instead of transformers in every establishment 
where the light is used, what will probably be 
found more economical and convenient will be 
to have transforming stations for a large district. 
Another matter upon which much has yet to be 
learned is the construction, insulation, and especially 
the laying of the cables.'' Special attention is called 
to the Newcastle Electric Supply distribution, where 
Messrs. Robey*s engines are used in connection with 
Mordey alternating-current machines, where the 
current is being supplied at what is believed to be 
the lowest price in the kingdom, and probably in 
the world — ^viz., at 4id. per Board of Trade unit. 
An installation which can do this and make a com- 
mercial success of it is one worthy of attention, and 
the method adopted therein is worthy the study of 
all parties interested in electric distribution. This 
firm, it is well known, still continues to supply large 
numbers of engines both for private and central 
station installations for the Continent and other parts 
of the world. 


" One man's word is no man's word 
Juiiice needs that both he heard.' 



Sir, — I would suggest that the late Mr. Stuart's *' sea 
telephone" (see p. 579 of your last volume) was nothing 
more than a method of conveying signals at sea by the 
agency of sound. In January, 1828, a M. Sudr6 presented 
to the Academy of Fine Arts in Paris a system of trans- 
mitting words by means of musical sounds, which he 
called "telephony." It was the subject of extensive 
experiments, both in the French navy and elsewhere, an 
account of which may be found in the Mechanics' Magazine 
for July, 1835, p. 269. The inventor visited England in 
that year, and he explained his method at a meeting of the 
Royal Society. As an illustration, it may be stated that 
the word "age" would be transmitted by playing on a 
trumpet or other instrument the notes la (a), sol (g), 
and mi (e). In July, 1884, Captain J. N. Tayler, R.N., 
showed a foghorn, which he called a "telephone," at the 
Admiralty. The following extract from a newspaper of 
the day shows what this "telephone" was : 

"At an Admiralty levSe^ last week. Captain J. N. 
Taylor's telephone instrument was exhibited to the Lords 
Commissioners. The chief object of this powerful wind 
instrument is to convey signals during foggy weather, when 
no other means presents itself, by sounds produced by 
means of compressed air forced through trumpets, which 
can be heard at a distance of six miles. This important 
instrument will tend to prevent collision at sea and on 
railways, and will lessen the horrors of shipwreck and 
eapture, and give notice of fire. Vessels in the offing will 
be by it directed into harbour, and the time to enter tide 
barbours made known from the pier-head. Four notes are 
played by opening the valves of the recipient, and the 
intensity of sound is proportioned to the compression of 
the internal air. The small-sized telephone instrument, 
which is portable, was tried on the river, and the signal 
notes were distinctly heard four miles off." 

The word was used in another sense by Prof. Wheatstone, 
who says, in his reply to Cooke (W. F. Cooke, the Electric 
Telegraph, 1857, p. 114): "When I made in 1823 my 
important discovery that sounds of all kinds might be 
transmitted perfectly and powerfully through solid wires, 
and reproduced in distant places, I thought that I had the 
most efficient and economical means of establishing a 
telegraphic (or rather a telephonic) communication between 
two remote points that could be thought of. My ideas 
respecting a communication of this kind between London 
iM Edinburgh you will find io the Journal of the Royal 

Institution for 1828. Experiments on a larger scale, 
however, showed that the velocity of sound was not 
sufficient to overcome the resistance and enable it to be 
transmitted efficiently through long lengths of wire." 

I cannot find the paper referred to in the Journal for 
1828. That for 1831 is the volume in which the paper 

In his answer to the above, Cooke says, at p. 260 : " In 
the meantime, the failure at Portsmouth left his [Wheat- 
stone's] submarine conception (with his telephone) in 

Perhaps some of your American readers will make 
enquiries about Mr. Stuart's " telephone " and communicate 
the result to the Electiical Engineer, — Yours, etc., 

R. B. P. 



In pursuing a series of experiments in the electrolysis 
of solutions of salts of gold, it was resolved not alone to 
determine the behaviour of various gold salts under the 
influence of the electric current, which had received but little 
attention in an electro-chemical sense, but also to ascertain 
whether certain other saline substances when subjected to 
electrolysis in the presence of a gold anode could cause the 
metal to become dissolved and to enter into the solution. 
It was the writer's desire, moreover, to see if a solution of 
gold could be formed in which articles could be electro-gilt 
of a good deep gold colour when worked at the 
ordinary temperature of the atmosphere, and thus obviate 
the necessity of using hot solutions for certain classes of 
work. It was also deemed desirable to see what modifications 
in the colour of the deposited gold could be obtained that 
might prove useful to electro-gilders for producing varied 
effects upon ornamental work of various kinds. In this 
connection it was hoped that some of the substances used 
as precipitants of gold from its solutions would aid the 
results aimed at. It should be mentioned that all the 
electrolytes produced by the methods described were tried 
in their cold state, except where otherwise specified. The 
current employed was obtained from one-quart Daniell 
cells, and if two or more cells were required they were 
coupled in series. 

1. Iodide of Gold and Potassium. — A solution of this 
double salt was prepared by gradually adding a solution of 
iodide of potassium to a neutral solution of terchloride of 
e;old, until the whole of the metal was thrown down in the 
form of a yellow precipitate of iodide of gold. After 
allowing the precipitate to subside, the supernatant 
liquor was poured off, and distilled water added to 
wash the precipitate, the washing being repeated 
several times. The last washing water being removed 
by decantation, a strong solution of iodide of potassium 
was next gradually poured on to the precipitate, 
with constant stirring after each addition, until the 
whole of the iodide of gold was dissolved. The solution, 
after being filtered, was diluted with about four volumes of 
distilled water, and was then electrolysed with the current 
from two Daniells in series, a gold plate being used as the 
anode and a strip of platinum foil as the cathode. The 
current proving insufficient, a third cell was connected, and 
soon after a grey deposit formed upon the platinum surface 
which in no degree resembled gold ; when plunged into 
cold nitro- hydrochloric acid, however, it tardily dissolved, 
and its solution indicated the presence of gold, when a 
drop or two of a solution of protochloride of tin was added, 
the purple of Cassius being at once produced. A strip of 
silver was next used as the cathode, the same current being 
employed, and soon after its immersion it was noticed that 
a salt of a pink colour formed at that electrode, passing 
quickly in the direction of the positive plate, and even- 
tually settling at the bottom of the vessel in the 
form of a red powder. On examining the silver plate, after 
some minutes' immersion, it was found that a greater portion 
of the de|>osit was of a dark grey colour and firmly adherent, 
while on both sides of the plate there appeared patches of a 
pretty pink colour, interspersed with the grey film referred 
to \ the only tint ot j^Vlovr ^otVi v^^«n^ ^ >^^ m>^^\ 



surface of the back of the plate. That portion of the plate 
upon which the film referred to appeared was heated over 
a spirit lamp, when the grey part of the deposit speedily 
turned a rich deep blue colour, but the pink-coloured 
patches remained unaltered. On examining the anode the 
immersed surface was found to be coated with a film of 
iodine, which readily dispersed when the plate was held 
over the flames of a spirit lamp. It was subsequently found 
that when a silver cathode was kept constantly moved about 
in the solution, while the current was passing, the deposit 
assumed the characteristic appearance of gold, but not of a 
good colour. 

2. Iodide of Gold in Cyanide of Potassium. — A quantity of 
moist protiodide of gold, prepared as above, was next dis- 
solved in a moderately strong solution of good cyanide of 
potassium, and the solution after being filtered was diluted 
with about four volumes of distilled water. With the 
current from two Daniells, gold of a deep yellow colour 
deposited somewhat slowly upon a silver plate. The 
solution was next heated to about lOOdeg. F., when a fresh 
silver plate was immersed, which became instantly coated 
with gold of a fine deep yellow colour much resembling 
jewellers' " wet colour " gold in tone. With three cells, 
and the cathode kept briskly in motion, a very rifth and 
bright deposit was obtained. 

3. Gold Protiodide in Svlphocyanide of Potassium, — Moist 
iodide of gold was digested in a moderately strong solution 
of sulphocyanide of potassium, a*.d after filtering and 
diluting with about three volumes of water the solution 
was tried with the current from two cells, when gold of a 
deep yellow colour formed upon a silver plate. A similar 
result was obtained when the solution was warmed, but the 
cathode required to be kept gently in motion to ensure a 
uniform film, when the metal deposited was of a very fine 

4. Svlphocyanide of Gold by Electrolysis, — A rather strong 
solution of sulphocyanide of potassium was electrolysed 
with the current from four Daniells in series, a gold anode 
and silver cathode being used as the electrodes. The action 
was somewhat slow, but in the course of a quarter of an 
hour or so a slight film of gold formed u|}on the silver 
plate, which assumed an indifferent colour as the deposit 
became thicker. An improvement, however, took place 
when the solution was warmed and the cathode kept gently 
in motion. 

5. Auroteriodide of Gold and Potassium. — A solution was 
prepared by gradually adding a neutral solution of ter- 
chloride of gold to one of iodide of potassium, and the dark 
green solution formed was then diluted with water and 
electrolysed with the current from three cells. A deposit 
of gold, of a somewhat indifferent colour, slowly formed 
upon a silver cathode, and the anode was coated with a 
film of iodine ; when this film was rubbed with the finger 
and white paper smeared with it, an intense blue colour 
immediately appeared, which was due to the formation of 
iodide of starch, the latter substance being used as a 
stiffening material in the manufacture of paper. 

5. Teriodide of Gold in Cyanide of Potassium. — As in experi- 
ments 2 and 3, the present combination was devised in the 
hope that a solution would be obtained which would yield 
deposits of gold of good colour without heating the 
solution. A quantity of teriodide of gold being prepared 
by gradually adding a solution of the terchloride of gold to 
one of iodide of potassium, a strong solution of cyanide was 
then added, and the resulting liquid, after filtration and 
dilution with about four volumes of water, was electrolysed 
with the current from two Daniells in series, a silver 
cathode being used as before. The solution was at first 
used in its cold state, when a film of gold of a good rich 
colour was obtained. A third cell was next put into 
circuit, and the silver plate kept gently in motion, under 
which condition gold of a good deep tone of colour was 
obtained which fully equalled in appearance the gilding 
produced in warm cyanide solutions. A gilding bath of 
the composition given might be found useful in the plater's 

6. Gold Protiodide in Hyposulphite of Soda, — A solution 
was prepared by dissolving recently precipitated and moist 
protiodide of gold in a strong solution of hy{)0sulphite of 

^tk&j and Hie eolation waa then moderately dilated with 

water, and the cold solution then electrolysed with the 
current from two cells. A deposit of gold, of good colour, 
soon formed upon the silver plate, and much resembled in 
tone the deposits obtained in warm cyanide baths. 

7. Auroterfluoride of Potassium by Electrolysis. — A strong 
solution of fluoride of potassium was electrolysed with the 
current from three Daniells in series; gas was freely 
liberated at both electrodes, and in about 15 minutes after 
immersion of the plates a deposit of gold began slowly to 
form upon the silver cathode. On examining the anoae it 
was found that a dark orange-coloured film had formed on 
the immersed portion of the plate, which strongly emitted 
the vapour of fluorine. 

8. Auroterbromide of Potassium by Electrolysis. — A solution 
of bromide of potassium was prepared by dissolving 60 grains 
of the salt in one ounce of distilled water. A gold anode 
and platinum cathode, connected with three Daniells, were 
then immersed in the liquid, when it was noticed that gas 
was freely given off at each electrode, and that a deep 
orange-coloured and very dense solution of terbromide of 
gold formed at the anode, and flowed from the plate in a 
continuous stream, causing the liquid to assume at first a 
pale yellow, and after a time a deep orange colour similar 
to the analogous chlorine, salt of gold. In the course of 
two or three minutes from the commencement, a film of 
gold appeared on the surface of the platinum plate, but a 
few minutes after the deposit acquired the dark green non- 
reguline character, which this metal often assumes when 
deposited from some of its solutions by electrolysis, and 
indeed, not unfrequently when precipitated from some of 
its solutions by chemical reaction. Respecting this green 
form of gold, to which reference may have to be made 
somewhat frequently, it is clear that although its 
colour and non-metallic appearance give no indication 
of its real metallic character, that it is, in fact, metallic 
gold in a highly comminuted condition, and in this state 
bears a close resemblance to a form of iron which the 
writer has frequently obtained when electrolysing solutions 
of persalts of that metal. The electrodes were next left 
undisturbed in the bath, under the action of the same 
current, for about four or ^ve hours, at the end of which 
time it was found that a profuse spongy mass of gold had 
formed at the cathode and spread out until it reached the 
anode, when, of course, the current was stopped — the 
spongy mass, which was of a nut-brown colour, similar to 
the gold obtained in making a parting assay of the metal. 
Finding the solution to be too strong in metal for a gold 
bath, it was next diluted with about three volumes of 
water and was tried again with the same curient as before, 
when a silver cathode became coated with a film of gold a 
few seconds after immersion, but the colour of the deposit 
varied considerably during the immersion of the plate. 
Although gilding of a very fair colour may be obtained 
from this solution, with care, there is some uncertainty as 
to the working of baths prepared with this salt, and it 
cannot on this account be recommended as a reliable mate- 
rial for making up gilding solutions to be used for practical 

9. Auroteriodide of Potassium by Electrolysis. — A mode- 
rately strong solution of iodide of potassium was electrolysed 
with the current from three cells in series, a gold anode 
and silver cathode being immersed in the liquid. The 
electrolytic action was very prompt, the solution nearest 
the anode assuming a deep orange colour almost imme- 
diately, causing the bulk of the liquid to acquire a pale 
yellow colour, which deepened into a full orange tint in a 
very short time. In about 15 minutes from the commence- 
ment, the silver cathode was found to be coated with a film 
of gold of a good colour. It may be said that in nearly 
all respects the results obtained in this experiment re- 
sembled the preceding, except that of the two solutions 
the latter yielded the better coloured deposit. 

10. Auroterbromide of Ammonium by Electrolysis. — ^A 
solution of bromide oi ammonium being prepared, this 
was electrolysed with the current from two cells in series, 
when it was found that the anode, as before, became rapidly 
dissolved, and an orange-yellow solution produced, at whicn 
point the silver cathode began slowly to receive a 
coating of gold, which deepened in colour as the deposit 
thickened. In all respects, however, the results obtained 



in this experimeut closely resembled those noted in experi- 
mont 8. 

11. AurocfUoride of Ammonium by Electrolysis, — A strong 
solution of chloride of ammonium was electrolysed with 
the current from three cells, when it was found that a light 
brown powder of fulminate of gold formed at the anode 
and accumulated at the bottom of the vessel. In less than 
half a minute from the commencement a film of gold 
appeared upon the silver cathode, but in about one minute 
after the deposit appeared of a dense black colour. The 
solution was next diluted considerably, and a freshly- 
prepared silver plate immersed^ when the deposit became 
more reguline, but iridescetit in parts. The current was 
now reduced by disconnecting two of the cells, when the 
metal deposited in a much better condition. The solution 
being a very good conductor, the current from one cell was 
found to be fully sufficient for the reduction of the metal, 
a very small anode surface being also necessary to secure a 
good-coloured film. 

fTo be continued.) 



I. — Introductory. 

It is only within the last few years that in this country 
the twin subjects of Electricity and Magnetism have been 
really promoted to the dignity of a science. Formerly the 
crude results obtained from electrical and magnetic experi- 
ments were to a ^reat extent dependent upon a rude system 
of arbitrary and ill-defined units, which, being but imper- 
fectly understood, were often the cause of much i)erplexity to 
the uninitiated investigator. As a result of the brilliant 
labours of the British Association's Electrical Standards 
Committee, a rational set of units was at length elaborated, 
and this had the effect of placing electrical investigation on 
a firm and sound basis. The former chaotic state of 
electrical nomenclature, and its correspondingly complicated 
system of measurement, have now passed away, and 
electricity, freed from the trammels which for so many 
years liave hampered and impeded its progress, has at length 
entered into the region of an exact science. With our 
modern system of standards and units, differences of 
potential or electrical pressure, rate of flow or density of 
current, resistance to flow of current, and work performed 
in overcoming this resistance, may now be stated with the 
utmost degree of i>recision. 

Coincident with this precise definition of the electrical 
units, appliances of gi*eat delicacy were constructed for their 
practical realisation and reproduction, and at the i)resent 
time copies of all the standard electrical units may be 
obtained at a comparatively low cost, and of even greater 
accuracy than the units of mass or dimensions. 

Witlun the last few years enonnous strides have been 
made in the production of sensitive and reliable electricity- 
measuring instruments. The antiquated and troublesome 
galvanometers on the sine and tangent systems are rapidly 
being superseded by the more convenient direct-reading, and 
in many cases dead-beat, instruments. By the employment 
of simple and easily-managed current and potential measurers, 
the merest electrical tyro is now enabled to read off at a glance 
the amount of current and electrical pressure being develoi)ed 
by a dynamo, or the energy being consumed by one or more 
lamps, and to tell, by a simple arithmetical calculation, the 
amount of electrical energy stored in an accuuudator, or 
involved in the transformation of a current of high intensity 
into one of lower and more useful electromotive force. 

The aim of these articles is to describe the theoretical 
considerations involved in the construction of the various 
electricity measuring instruments, the methods employed in 
their manufacture, and their conunercial applications. 

We hold that an electrical engineer who thoroughly 
understands the construction of the apparatus he is using 
is far more likely to detect and localt^e any errors arising 
from imperfect workmanship or bad design than one who 
merely takes everything for granted, and who relies abso- I 

lutely for his results upon a given constant or a tablt of 
equivalents. This applies to the use not only of commercial 
instruments, but also to those employed for purposes of 
calibration, and to standards. 

We shall begin by defining and explaining the most 
commonly used electrical units, and their practical realisation 
and reproduction ; and shall then go on to describe the 
various instruments to be obtained for measurements in 
terms of these units. Considerable attention will be devoted 
to the technicalities of construction of these instruments, 
and to the different characteristics which must be kept in 
view when it has been decided whether they are intended 
for measuring direct or alternate currents, or both. The 
various methods of calibration will be considered, and some 
special attention will be bestowed on the standardisation 
and re-calibration of standard instruments. 

We will divide the subject of Electricity-Measuring Instru- 
ments into the different classes under which the instruments 
seem naturally to ari-ange 'themselves. Thus, in the first 
place, we have the two great classes — Non-Recording 
and Recording Instruments. These again subdivide into— 
Resistance, Potential, Current, Energy, and Capacity Mea- 
surers ; and these still further into — Instruments for Direct 
Currents, for Alternate Currents, and for both. 

In our treatment of the subject we shall endeavour, as 
far as possible, to confine ourselves to the essential and 
desirable characteristics of good and theoretically sound 
instruments, leaving the consideration of highly-polished 
metal work and aesthetically-designed outside cases — too 
often, alas ! the only recommendation which certain classes 
of instruments possess — to take care of itself. 


The three principal units iLsed in electrical measurements 
are the Ohm, the unit of Resistance ; the Volt, the unit of 
Electromotive Force ; and the Ampere, the unit of Current ; 
and to these may be add<'d the H^att, the unit of Power or 
Hate of doing Work. Other units not so commonly in use 
are the Coulmi^, the unit of Quantity ; and the Farad, the 
unit of Electrostatic Cajmcity. The Coulomb was formerly 
termed the JVchcr, and in the Indian Telegraph Department 
the Ampere used to be known as the CErstedt. 

Ohm, — The unit of Electrical Resistance, the Ohm, is 
usually defined as the resi-^tance offered by a column of pure 
mercury of a given section and length, and at a certain fixed 
temperature, to the flow of an electrical current. Unfortu- 
nately some little difliculty has arisen in assigning a definite 
value to the unit of Resistance, and many suggestions have 
been made as to what the real value of the Ohm should be. 
From these may be cited the Siemens Ohm, the British 
Association Ohm (usually written the B.A. Ohm), the 
Kohlrausch Ohm, the Legal Ohm, the True or Rayleigh Ohm, 
and the Ohm jiroposed by Messrs. Duncan, Wilkes, and 
Hutchinson, as the result of an investigation made at the 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, U.S.A. The British 
Association Ohm, however, is now the one generally adopted, 
and, in this country at least, when the term " Ohm " is used 
without qualification, the B.A. Ohm is always understood. 

In the second column of the following table are given the 
various lengths of a uniform column of pure mercury of one 
square millimetre in sectional area and at a temperature of 
Odeg. centigrade, whose electrical resistances are stated as 
representing the respective values of the Ohm, and in the 
three succeeding columns these values are given expressed in 
terms of (3) the B.A. Ohm ; (4) the Legal Ohm ; and (5) the 
True Ohm. 

Table 1. — Relative Values ok tue VARiors "Ohms." 


Length of 


column 1 iq. 

mm. section 

and at O'' C. 

Values expressed in terms of 

•' Ohm." 

RA. Ohm. 

Legal Ohm. 

True Ohm. 

Siemens Ohm 


104 82 





B.A. Ohm 


KohlrauBch Ohm ... 
Leeral Ohm 



True Ohm 


•♦Baltimore "Ohm.. 


(To be cofUinued,) 




The comparative success of the existing electric railway 
in London has evidently given an impetus to the movement 
for providing still further means of locomotion of a similar 
kind. For consideration during the forthcoming session of 
Parliament there are no fewer than five Bills which propose 
either the construction of new electric railways or the 
extension of lines already authorised. 

Great Northern a'sd City Railway. 

Among the most important of these is the Groat 
Northern and City Railway Bill, which is a proposal for 
the incorporation of a new company with powers to 
construct a line of railway from the Canonbury branch of 
the Great Northern line near Finsbury Park to the City. 
The capital of the proposed company is fixed at £1,500,000, 
in shares of £10 each, and the works which it is proposed 
to execute are (1) a railway five furlongs 5 70 chains in 
length in the parish of St. Mary, Islington, commencing by 
a junction with the up-line of the Finsbury Park and 
Canonbury branch of the Great Northern Railway and 
terminating at Drayton-park, Holloway ; (2) a railway one 
furlong one chain in length commencing by a junction 
with the downline of the Great Northern Railway and 
terminating at the same point as Railway No. 1 ; 
(3) a railway two miles five furlongs 1*40 chains in 
length, commencing by a junction with the terminus of 
Nos. 1 and 2 railways and terminating in the parish 
of St. Stephen, Colemanstreet, at Finsbury-pavement, 
opposite the north side of West street. The method 
of construction proposed is similar to that adopted 
on the City and South London line, the greater portion 
being constructed in two tunnels for separate up and down 
traffic. The railway will be approached by means of stairs 
or inclines, and hydraulic or other lifts. The tunnels are 
to be constructed by means of steel or other sufficient metal 
ehields, driven forward by hydraulic pressure as the work 
proceeds, the shields being of sufficient length to protect 
the whole of the soil for a reasonable distance both in front 
and behind the working faces. The Bill provides that the 
exits and entrances of the station buildings and the waiting 
accommodation for passengers shall be so designed and of 
such an extent as to secure the least practicable inconveni 
ence to the public traffic in the adjoining streets, and plans 
of the stations outside the City are to be submitted to the 
London County Council. The period for the completion of 
the works is limited to five years, and provision is made 
for cheap fares for the labouring classes, the proposal being 
to run two trains each morning and evening at fares not 
exceeding a penny for each journey. Power is given to enter 
into an arrangement with the Great Northern Company to 
construct the line. 


The City and South London Railway Company have 
brought in a Bill repeating their proposal of last year for 
the construction of a line extending their system to The 
Angel, at Islington. Last session the Bill was thrown out 
mainly because of the fact that no physical junction was 
provided in the City with the existing line. It is now 
proposed to construct a line from near the St. George's 
Church, in the Borough, to the northern end of the City- 
road, Islington, near The Angel — a distance of two miles 
five furlongs three chains and 50 links — and, in addition, 
two subways for foot passengers ; the first, under the 
High-street, Borough, to afford an access from the under- 
ground electric railway to the London and Brighton 
and South-Eastern Railway stations at London Bridge; 
the other, under Arthur-street East, which will give 
access to the present electric railway at its terminus at 
Fish-street-hill. The mode of construction is the same 
as that described above, and the period named for 
the completion of the works is five years. Provision is 
made for agreements with the Metropolitan, the Metro- 
politan District, the Joint Committee of those railways, 
the London, Brighton, and South Coast, the Great Northern, 
and the Central London Railway for the purposes of con- 
struction, working, traffic, etc., and the City and South 
Xondou Company is to be authorised to raise an additional 

capital of £810,000, with further borrowing powers of 

Central London Railway. 

The Central London Railway Company, who were em- 
powered last session to construct a line from Shepherd's 
Bush to the City, are proposing this session to extend their 
powers by the making of a line from under Mansion House- 
street, near the junction with Queen Victoria street, to the 
Liverpool-street Station of the Great Eastern Railway Com- 
pany. In respect of this scheme they propose to raise an addi- 
tional capital not exceeding £150,000, in shares of £10 each, 
and to take additional borrowing powers to the extent of 
£50,000. The time proposed for the carrying out of the 
work is limited to five years, and the rates and charges are 
to be the same as were authorised in the Act of last session. 
Power is proposed to be taken to enter into agreements 
with the Great Eastern Railway Company, the London and 
North-Western Railway Compaiiy, the North London 
Railway Company, and the Metropolitan Railway Company 
for the interchange, transmission, and delivery of traffic on 
the respective railways, as well as for the construction, use, 
management, and maintenance of the stations, subways, 
lifts, etc., of the company. 

Baker-street and Waterloo. 

There are no less than three new railways projected from 
and to Waterloo, one of which is an underground railway 
to be worked by electricity, commencing at the western end 
of New-street, Upper Baker-street, in the vicinity of Dorset- 
square, running thence by the southern end of Langham- 
place at its junction with Regent-street, the Quadrant in 
Regent-street, opposite the County Fire Office, to James- 
street, Lambeth, about 90 yards from its junction with 
Lower-marsh. The first directors of the new company 
would be Colonel the Hon. Henry Walter Campbell, 
Major-General Charles Taylor Du Plat, Colonel 
Ambrose Humphrys Bircham, Lieutenant-Colonel Francis 
Douglas Grey, Mr. Arthur Ralph Ricardo, and one 
other person to be nominated by the foregoing. The 
capital would be £1,250,000, consisting of 125,000 £10 
shares, with power to subdivide the same into preferred 
and deferred half shares. It is sought to enter into 
working agreements with the Metropolitan, South-Eastern, 
Metropolitan District, Central London, and London and 
South- Western Railway Companies. Cheap fares, not 
exceeding Id. for each journey, would be charged to the 
labouring classes up to seven o'clock in the morning and 
after six o'clock in the evening. The Bill also contains 
clauses saving the rights of the Crown, the Thames Con- 
servancy, under whose direction the works under the 
Thames would be executed, and the London County 
Council, and general provisions for the protection of water, 
gas, hydraulic power, and electric companies ; and the time 
fixed for the completion of the works is five years. 

Royal Exchange and Waterloo. 

In addition to the intended Waterloo and City Electric 
Railway, it is also proposed to extend the London and 
South- Western and London, Brighton, and South Coast 
Railways to a terminus in the City, for which purpose it is 
sought to incorporate a new company, consisting, among 
others, of the Hon. F. S. A. Hanbury-Tracy, Major John 
Eustace Jameson, Mr. Campbell Praed, and Mr. James 
Cholmeley Russell, with a capital of £2,700,000, divided into 
270,000 £10 shares. Junctions would be formed with 
the main, Windsor, and other lines of the London and 
South-Western Company at W9,terloo Station, and with 
the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway in the 
parish of St. John, Horseleydown, where it crosses Ber- 
mondsey-street by means of a bridge ; and the new lines 
would run by way of South ivark-street to a point in the 
City close to the junction of Crooked-lane with Arthur- 
street, crossing the Thames by means of a bridge, in con- 
nection with which a free public footway would be con- 
structed. Three years is the time fixed for the compulsory 
acquirement of land, and five years for the completion of 
the works. It is also sought to enter into working agree- 
ments with the London and South-Western and the London, 
Brighton, and South Coast Companies, and to pay interest 
out of capital during construction. 

Me electrical engineer. January i, i89-2. 



A modified form of ahapiDg attachment is ahown in our 
Uloatntion, designed by Mr. F. M. Rogers, of 21, Finebury- 
parement, KC, to meet the demand for a toot of this clus 
op&ble of working on ligbt-built BiDgle-geared treadle 
lawee, inch m ftra used by amateurs and other lieiht metal- 
workui. The stroke is fixed, and is determined by the 
throw of the eccentric sheave, shown in Fig. 2, which is 
screwed direct to the nose of the mandrel, and travels in the 
grooved path upon the sliding face-plate, thereby imparting 
B noiseless reciprocating motion to it. The stroke in the sise 
shown, which is that adapted to a 4in. centre lathe, is about 
Sin., wbich enables as many as 120 strokes per minute to 
be taken with ease in soft metal, such as brass or gunmetal. 

New Form of Laths Attaclmient, 

The V-shaped packing blocks are of guumetil, and an 
adjustment is provided fur taking up we^ir. When fitted 
witli a parallel vice, this little tool will rapidly shape odd 
pieces of metal wbich would otherwise have to be filed up. 
larger work is bolted to the grooved face-plate. The 
slide rest is operated by hand or by a self-acting motion. 
The price, which is moderate, should place it within the 
reach of every metal-worker. 


The accompanying illustration sbnws an electrostatic 
initniment recently brought out by Messrs. Swinburne 

and Co. for experimental work in coRnecUoa with alternate 
corrents. Instead of quadrants there arc two pair of half 
discs, BO that the angle of deflection can be large. The 
needle consists of two half discs fastened on a metallic 

arbor. It is held by top and bottom metallic suspensions. 
One disc is in the npper box and the oUier in the lower. 
The boxes are connected, not to ordinary terminals, hut to 
highly-insulated flexibles ; as the ordinary terminals are 
not suitable for high pressures. The instrument can be 
used as a voltmeter ; or it may be connected up to measure 
power by any of the various methods involving two 
readings. It can also be connected up as a direct-reading 
wattmeter. The electromagnet below the boxes acts on a 
copper drum, and renders the instrument dead-beat. This 
magnet is excited by a cell For large readings the torsion 
head and pointer on top of the instrument are used, but 
for small readings the mirror is employed. Four of these 
instruments have been lent to Dr. Fleming to carry out 
experiments on the measurement of power by various 
di&erent methods. 

Street lighting by alternate currents has for some time 
past presented considerable difficulties. In moat cases 
transformers are arranged in the houses, and the stations 
have high-pressure leads only. To run incandescent lamps 
it is therefore necessary to employ transformers and a 
system of low-pressure leads. Messrs. Swinburne and Co. 
have brought out a lamp wbich contains a small trans- 
former, and is connected direct to the high-pressure system 
without any low-pressure loads. A 32-cp. lamp, with pro- 
tector, is arranged under a large enamelled iron shade, 
which is secured to the base case of a small transformer. 
The efficiency of the transformer is high, considering how 
small it is, being, according to the makers, just nnder 90 
per cent. 



Directors : J. Jepeoa AtkinsoD, Esq. ; Edward J. Canon, Eaq. ; 
John T, Cooper, EtKL; John MacfsrUn, Esq. ; Sir John H. Moms, 
K.C.8.I. ; William Elmore, Esq. (msnagintt director). Secretorjr : 
Mr. J. Shurmer. 

Report of the Directors preMDted at the first ordinary Koneral 
meetiDg of the Company, held at the Cannon-street Hotel, E.G., 
on Wednesday last 

The Directors have the pleasure to sabtnit their report, and the 
aocomponytiig stat«ment of the Company's audited acoounte, for 
the period commencing with the incorporation of the Company on 
March 15, 1890, and ending on October 'i\, 1891. The period in 
question has been devoted entirely to the erection of the Coakpany's 
works upon 13 acres of freehold land purchased from the parent 
company, and immediately adjoining that company's works. The 
main building consists of a series of Days, each 40Uft, long by 35ft. 
wide, ha^'ing a total width of 350ft., under one roof, ana covering 
a space of about 3^ acres. These buildings have been designed with a 
view to an output of 140 tons per week. There are also offices for 
the staff and Managing Director complete in every reepect, together 
with convenient store and packine-shed, with sidings from the 
Midland and Great Northern Rauways already connected up 
therewith. The actual pro|^reaa made at the works, h reported 
by the Managing Director, is as follows ; Buildinge, comprising 
shop, engine-house, depositing -sheds, boiler-houee, dynamo and 
engine house, and machine shop, for an output of 140 tons per week ; 
chimney shaft, 240ft. high, for 280 tons ; railway sidii^s ; over- 
head crsjiee throughout, and melting furnaces and flues for 140 
tons ; boilers, generalinK engines, dynamos, and electrical 
switches for 44 Urns ; fuel economisers, tanks, and tank gearing 
for 35 tons ; engine and dynamo for the electric lighting of the 
whole works inside and out ; shop engine, shafting, and aiUitlon^ 
gearing ; slitting, Battening, straitening, and other machinery for 
70 tons a week. From this enumeration It will be seen that the 
works will make a start with on output of about 35 tons a week. 
This can be readily increased up to 70 tons a week with little 
additional expenditure above that already Incurred. The Company 
baa also acquired from the parent company, upon a moderate 
royalty, the sole license outside the requirements of the parent 
company for the manufacture of copper sheet under a patent 

pany was formed and the buildings oommenced, the Directoia 
have teamed with satisfaction that the whole of the proposed 
output can be readily disposed of in the form of ribbon or tape. 
and planished sheet, at a (>iofit considerably in excess of that 
estimated from the sale of wire spirals. The Company will there- 
fore neither erect wire-drawing plant on a large scale for the 
present, nor dispose of its copper spirals to wire-drawera, thus 
adding to thegroes earnings of the Company one manufacturing 
profit. Mr. E^ore, managing director, reports that early in the 


THE ELECTWCAL engineer, JANUARY 1, 189^. 

year 1892 the Company will be in a position to commence 
with an output of 35 tons per week. In regard to the 
accounts, these are exceedingly simple ; inasmuch as no 
trading account having yet been opened, the only outeoingp beyond 
capitiJ expenditure are those occurring under administration 
expenses, which, howerer, have been reduced by one-half, largely 
in consequence of the satisfactory profit derived from a judicious 
investment last year in Consols and Bank of England stock. The 
auditors, Messrs. Deloitte, Dover, Griffith, and Co., offer them- 
selves for re-election, and the Directors recommend a payment to 
them of 35 guineas for their services. 

Balance-sheet, 31st October, 1891. 

Dr. £ 8. d. 

Nominal capital — 
150,000 ordinary shares of £2 

each 300,000 

10 founders* shares of £2 each . 20 

s. d. 

Share capital issued — 

67,385 ordinary shares of £2 each 134,770 

1,360 less shares forfeited 2,720 


Less calls in arrear 

Add amount received on 
forfeited shares 

10 founders' shares of £2 each 

Premium on shares issued — 

£1 per share on 66,025 shares ... 
Less in arrear 

Add premiums received in respect 
of lorfeited shares 


12,751 5 

119,298 15 


119,688 15 





62 10 

119,708 15 

62,847 10 
Of which one-half credited to vendors in part con- 
sideration of purchase price 

Reserve fund — one-half of premiums received to 


Sundry creditors 


Cost of licenses 

Cost of land at Leeds 

Investment account 

BuUdings £25,891 5 6 

Plant and machinery 15,391 5 9 

31,423 15 

31,423 15 
8,301 19 11 

£190,858 4 11 

£ s. d. 




Stock of raw copper 

Furniture, fixtures, and fittings 

Administration expenses, viz. : 

Rents, rates, and insurance 

Stationery, printing, and adver- 

Travelung expenses 

Law charges, etc. 



Directors' fees to Sept. 30, 1891 

Office expenses, postages, etc. ... 


Interest and dis- 
count received ...£1,725 3 5 

Profits on invest- 
ments 891 18 7 

Transfer fees 76 18 6 

41,282 11 3 

5,314 17 10 

329 14 10 

£427 18 8 

210 3 10 

78 6 11 

190 8 3 

102 7 6 

1,812 6 


196 14 3 

5,268 5 5 

2,694 6 

Sundry debtors 

Cash at bankers and in hand : 

In London 7,315 17 10 

At Leeds 850 11 10 

2,574 4 11 
485 6 5 

8,166 9 8 
£190,858 4 11 

The first annual ordinary general meeting of the shareholders of 
Elmore's Wire Manufacturing Company, Limited, was held on 
Wednesday at the Cannon-street Hotel, under the presidency of 
Mr. J. Jepson Atkinson. 

The Seoretary (Mr. J. Shurmer) having read the notice con- 
vening the meeting, 

The Chairman said : (lentlemen, the report speaks for itself, and 
is so exceedingly simple that in addressing you I can have very 
little to say. \Vhat will strike you first is that a company calling 
ilself a wire manufacturing companv should propose to you, its 
shareholders, after you have subacribed your capital, not even to 

put down plant to draw wire at all. This admits of an easy expla- 
nation. Gentlemen connected with the wire-drawing trade, and 
having large capital invested in drawing plant, approacned us some 
time previous to your last general meeting, and having thoroughly 
testea the quality of the copper to be proiduced b}r us offerea to 
take our entire output at a price which, while satisfying us, did 
not interfere with tneir own business of drawing. Your Directors 
considered that this arrangement was better than entering into 
competition with the whole trade. This was explained to you at 
the last general meeting. Since then we have ascertained the 
fact that by depositing our large copper tubes up to about 
;^in. and over, and* then cutting them up into a wide spiral 
of, say, 2in., which can be done very easily indeed, we nave 
a form of copper-ribbon or tape used for electric lighting 
and transmission of power. While the demand for this copper- 
tape exceeds our entire output, the price is much in excess of 
the best price we could obtain for wire spirals such as the wire- 
drawers would have taken ; so that, even before the whole of our 
works are complete, we shall have a better market for our produce 
than was contemplated when the prospectus was issued. The 
electric lighting ox a town like Leecis would keep us busy for a 
length of time, and I am informed chat for the electric lighting of 
London alone over 100,000 tons of this kind of strip will be used. 
A second very simple invention is likely to fonn an important 
source of revenue tx> us. It was found that by exposing the mandrel 
to the oxidising action of the atmosphere for a few minutes when a 
certain thickness of copper was deposited upon it, and then continu- 
ing the operation till a similar thickness of copper was deposited.and 
by a continual repetition of this process, a series of tubes could be 
formed entirely separate and distinct from one another. One cut 
down the length of these superimposed tubes gave, when opened 
out, a number of beautifully-burnished sheets of perfectly even 
surface and thickness, and equal in every way to those known in 
the trade as planished sheets. These, of the size furnished by us, 
cannot be procured at the present time in the market, and conse- 
quently they will command a high price. All I have to say in 
addition to this is that this meeting was put off to the last 
minute in the hope that I should be able to announce to vou that 
the 35-ton plant was at work. The fog and the Christmas 
holidays have prevented it, but there is steam in our boilers 
and very little more to do at the plant, and we hope within three 
weeks or so to be at work. Our business being a mere repetition 
of the same process over and over again, and the fact that we have 
no customers to seek or market to create, make it evident that as 
soon as ever we get a start our dividend-earning will commence. 
Some of you have seen the works, and know from what you have seen 
(hat a great deal has been done, and the drawing on the table will 
give those who have not been down an idea of the &ize of our 
promises, which, I am told, comprise the largest shed in York- 
shire. To give you an idea of riiow largo a place it is, I may say 
that I took the managing director of the largest coal company in 
the North of England to see Mr. Elmore, and as wo walked through 
the buildings ho said to mo : ^* I supjioso you are going to employ 
5,000 hands here." I took him to Mr. Elmore, who, after showing 
the labour-saving apparatus and the process, was able to tell him 
that we should not employ 5,000, or 1,000, or even 100 hands, but 
less than 30. That will give you some idea of the advantages of 
the process. I have nothing further to say to you, gentlemen ; 
but Mr. Elmore or I will bo very glad to answer any questions 
that may be put to us. 

Mr. William Xlmore (managing director) : The drawings on 
the table will give you some idea of the magnitude of the building 
and of the 0(>erationH carried on. We have one building which 
will cover something like 3^ acres under one i*oof— one of the most 
magnificent buildings in Yorkshire. It is all complete now, and 
one-third of the plant will certainly be ready for oi)eration in the 
course of a fortnight ; that is eiiusA to .^ tons per week. I may 
say that we have been impeded very much indeed by the very 
serious delays of the various contractors who are supplying the 
manufacturing plant and some of the buildings. The contractors 
who put the roof on the large building to which I have just referred 
were something like five months behind with their contract ; but 
everything about the building is now completed, and the plant is 
capable of turning out 35 tons per week. We have got steam in 
the boilers now, and the engines are actually working, therefore 
there is not the slightest doubt that in a fortnight from now we 
shall be commencing the output I have mentioned. As soon as the 
first 35-ton plant is in operation we shall commence upon the next 
portion of 35 tons, and so on until we fill the whole of this building, 
which is capable of an output of 140 tons per week. There is a 
demand upon us even at the present moment for far more than we 
can produce, which is exceedingly satisfactory, and at a very 
handsome price, which will leave a very large profit. I shall he 
very glad to answer any questions any gentleman may wish to put. 

Mr. Guarraoiao said Mr. Elmore had stated that with the 
present plant there would be an output of 35 tons per week. He 
wished to ask if it was simply a question of multiplying the tanks, 
etc., to increase the output to 140 tons, or whether they would 
require further motive power. 

Mr. KImore, in reply, said this was fully explained in the report. 
Buildings, comprising shop, engine-house, depositing-sheds, 
boiler-house, dynamo and engine house, and machine shop, had 
been completed for an output of 140 tons per week. The chimney 
shaft, which was 240ft. nigh (a magnihcent piece of work), was 

good for an output of 280 tons. The railway sidings on the 
lidland and Great Northern Railways had been completed. The 
overhead cranes had also been completed, as well as the melting 
furnaces and flues for 140 tons ; the boilers, generating engines, 
dynamos, and electrical switches for 44 tons, and the fuel 
economisers, tanks, and tank gearing for 35 tons. The engine 



Bod dynamo for the electric lighting of the whole works, inside and 
out, had likewise been completed, and also the shopengine, shafting, 
and additional gearing and slitting, flattening, straightening, and 
other machinery for 70 tons a week. Therexore, with very little 
additional expense they would have an output of 70 tons per week, 
but they intended to commence with 35 tons. 

The duilrman then moved : ** That the Directors* report and 
etatemont of accounts for the period ending October 31 last be 
passed and adopted.'' 

Mr. Xdward J. Carson seconded the resolution, which was put 
and carried unanimously. 

Mr. Semtton proposed the re-eleccion of Messrs. IXeloitte, 
Dover, Griffiths, and Co., as auditors for the ensuing year. 
\ Wlilta seconded the motion, which was agreed to. 
r. Blomer moved : ** That the best thanks of the meeting be 

given to the Chairman for presiding on this occasion, and also to 
the Directors and officers tor their efficient management of the 
affairs of the Company." 

This was seconded by Mr. White, and passed with acclamation. 

Mr. Gnarraolno said he did not think the shareholders should 
separate without according a special vote of thanks to Mr. William 

r. John T. Cooper seconded the resolution, which was adopted. 
\ Xlmore, in acknowledging the compliment, expressea the 
hope that no effort on his part would be wanting to make the 
boainess a thorough success, as he intended it shoulabe. 

The [Koceeding^ then terminated. 



Directors: J. Jepson Atkinson, Esq.; Edward J. Carson, Esq.; 
John T. Cooper, Esq. ; G. C. V. Holmes, Esq. ; John Macfarlan, 
Eea.; Sir John H. Morris, K.C.S.I ; Frederick L. Rawson, Esq., 
M.LE.E. ; William Elmore, Esq. (managing director). Secretary: 
Mr. J. Shurmer. 

Report of the Directors presented to the second ordinary general 
meeting of the Company, held at the Cannon-street Hotel on 
Wednesday last. 

Your Directors have pleasure in submitting to the shareholders 
their report, and in congratulating them on the satisfactory 
technical and commercial prospects of the Company. They also 
submit the accompanying statement of the accounts for the year 
ending Jane 30th, 1891, which shows a credit balance at the end 
of the preceding year of £77,825. Is. 4d , from which two 
dividends of lOs. each, making £1 on each £2 share, were paid. 
It will be seen that the accounts show credit balances on the 30th 
June last of £14,261. 17s. lOd., made up of £5,000 royalties on 
copper sheets received in advance, £8,558. 7s. premiums and 
profit on land, and balance of profit and loss of £703. 10s. lOd., 
a satisfactory result considering that the Company had only been 
able to manufacture small quantities of articles at the date of the 
making up of the accounts— work on a large commercial scale not 
having been then commenced. The Directors have much satis- 
faction in announcing the successful completion of the 20-ton 
plant, and thus the programme of work set forth in the prospectus 
nas been carried out. The cost of manufacture has also now 
been found to be only about ^d. per pound weight of 
finished goods (see re|>ort below)— that is to say, about one-half 
the cost that the iMrectors estimated in the prospectus — 
whilst the statements as to the technical features of the 
process have been entirely proved. The Directors are the more 
gratified in being able to refer to these results, as, though the 
application of the essential part of the Messrs. Elmore's invention 
has remained unchanged, various difficulties connected with the 
mechanical details of the process, Inseparable from the commercial 
development of all important inventions, were encountered These 
caused some considerable delay. The Managing Director reports 
that all these difficulties have now not only been successfully 
overcome, but that they have led to the taking out of additional 
patents of great value, which will have the important practical 
effect of prolonging the monopoly of the invention. Foremost 
amongst tnese may be mentioned the patent for the manufacture 
of sheet copper, the license to work which on a royalty, which 
will prove a valuable source of income to this Company, has been 
granted to Elmore^s Wire Manufacturing Company. The Directors 
desire specially to draw the attention of the shareholders to the 
purchase of the Haigh Park Estate, Leeds, consisting of 127 acres 
of freehold land, on a portion of which site the Company's works 
have been erected. The purchase of this property was rendered 
advisable by the impossibility of acquiring portions of it required 
for the purposes of the Company and its future extensions, 
except at the price of £2,000 per acre, whereas the price 
actually paid for the whole estate was only £534 per acre, in- 
cluding all expenses. The land is within half a mile of the 
borou^ of Leeds, connected by sidings with the Midland and 
Great x^orthem Railways, and has a wharf on the Aire and Calder 
Canal, which latter bounds the estate for three-quarters of a mile. 
It has an extensive frontage to the Pontefract high road, and is in 
cloee proximity to cheap ^>al supplies. The new line of the South 
Leeds Junction Railway, for wnich a Bill has been lodged in 
Parliament, is planned to run through the estate. These advan- 
tages and improvements have resulted in what the Directors 
foresaw — viz., a great increase in the value of the land, which 
moat make the purchase a valuable acquisition for the Company. 
Negotiations have already t€kken place for the sale of portions at a 
conuderably higher price than that paid. A plot of 13 acres has 
been disposed of at £1,000 per acre to Elmore's Wire (^/ompany, 
and this price, whilst yielding an excellent profit to your Company, 

is nevertheless 50 per cent, below the price demanded for this plot 
by the former owner, and the Directors are advised that they will 
be enabled to dispose of the whole of the land not required for the 
purposes of the Company at a similar profit. The completion of 
the 20- ton plant was lately marked by an invitation to the larger 
shareholders to tee it at work, and over lOU, from various parts of 
the country, availed themselves of tliis invitation, and they 
expressed the greatest satisfaction at what they saw. The 
Messrs. Elmore have made a joint report to the Board as to the 
earning powers of the works. This re{K)rt is of a most important 
character and is enclosed herewith. By this re[)ort it will be seen 
that the profits of the works as now completed are put at over 
£45,000 per annum, being 30 per cent, upon the present capital of 
the Company, whilst when the time comes for doubling the output 
to 40 tons per week the profits will be increased to over £95,000 
per annum, equal to nearly 50 per cent, upon the increased capital 
that will then be required. These returns, extraordinary as they 
may seem, Mr. Elmore fully believes will be exceeded by 
actual results ; and considering that the report takes no account 
of important sources of profit, such as sales of licenses, 
recovery of precious metals, and special kinds of work, the 
Directors see no reason to doubt the cone usions therein contained. 
From the numerous testimonials from important firms, copies of 
some of which have already been despatch^ to the shareholders, 
it has been shown that the goods supplied to customers have given 
complete satisfaction, and of this the numerous repeat orders, and 
the offers of a very large additional business at remunerative 
prices, are a still better smd more practical proof. The Directors 
desire, in conclusion, to record their belief that now that the Company 
may be considered to have entered upon its legitimate manufac- 
turing business on a commercial scale, the shareholders will find 
that in the Elmore invention they possess a process that will be a 
continued source of profit, increasing from year to year, as the 
quality of the goods produced becomes more and more known. 
The Directors who retire are Sir John Morris, Mr. Atkinson, and 
Mr. Carson ; the former, owing to ill-health, does not seek re- 
election ; the latter two are eligible and offer themselves for 
re-election. The auditors, Messrs. Price, Waterhouse, and Co., 
also retire and offer themselves for re-election. 

Since the Direct^A' report was made out, the result has been 
received from Leeds of an important competitive trial that has 
just taken place of an Elmore tube 9in. in diameter and ^in. thick 
against the best brazed tube obtainable, of similar size, made by 
the ordinary system. The tests showed that the brazed tuble 
burst in an uneven manner at 4481b. pressure. The Elmore tube 
stood 1,4561b. pressure, being over three times as strong, and then 
gave way gradually and evenly. Some idea may be formed of 
the strength of the Elmore tube when it is mentioned that the 
testing machinery had to be specially prepared, owing to the 
enormous resisting power of the Elmore tubes. 

Rei'Ort of Manaoing Director. 

To the Directors, Elmore^a Patent Copper Depositing Company ^ 


Pontefract-road, Leeds, Nov. 30th, 1891. 

Gentlemen, — As requested, I beg to hand you my estimate of 
the approximate annual profits to be earned by the 20-ton per 
week plant, now complete and in operation at the above works, as 
follows : 
Proceeds of 20 tons of copper tubes and other articles, 

per week, which, })er annum (of 50 weeks) is 1,000 tons, 

e(jual to 2,240,000 [x>und8 weight, at Is. per pound ... £112,000 
(Is. l|d. per pound weight of copper being the average 

selling price calculated upon the total of the orders now 

on the Company's books being executed). 
It is important to note that for every Id. per pound over 

Is. added to the selling price of tubes manufactured by 

this Company, on a basis of 20 tons per week, over 

£9,000 per annum will be added to the profits. 

Less cost of production. 
Deduct cost of 1,081 tons rough copper bars, at £50 per 

ton (market price of Chili bar to-day is £44. 10s. ) ...... 54,050 

*Coal consumed, 80 tons per week, say 4,0(X) 

tons for 50 weeks at lOs. per ton £2,(X)0 

*Labour £40 per week is per annum of 50 weeks... 2, OCX) 
*Oil, chemicals, and sunaries, say £10 per week, 

is per annum of 50 weeks 500 

'Contingencies, at £10 per week 500 


Allow for depreciation of plant 2,500 

Net profit £60,450 

* Equal to about ^. per pound weight for cost of manufacture. 

Upon the basis of actual cost at these works, and experienoe 
gained on the practical scale to date, I have added to every item 
from 25 per cent, to 50 per cent, for the purpose of meeting any 
contingency and being perfectly safe. You will be pleased to note 
that the cost of manufacture is about ^d. per pound, my original 
estimate bein^ Id. per pound. I have made a deduction for wear 
and depreciation at the rate of 50 per cent, of the total working 
expenses. Without taking credit for gold and silver recovered 
from the raw copper, or for the large extra profit to be derived 
from special kinds of work which the Company's process enables it 
to take at fiom 2s. fid. to 5s. per pound (superseaine haul Va]iy^<«93^ 
at a much groatec CQ«\t\t V^^ ii^\> ^t]&\> w^ajlia V9«c ^ \«t t«D^K ^sok. 


£160,000, the iisued capital of the ContpoDy, Owing to the high 
(luality of the Companr'a muiufacturei, tuid the demand for tbem 
indicated by the largely- increasing number of appUcatione for 
quotations and offers of work, it wiU be necessary to increase the 
existing plant, to doeble the present plant of 20 tons per week and 
make it equal to 40 tons per week. 
The profile will then be, on the above basis, for 20-ton 

per week plant ... £50,450 

Add fordouDle the production 50,450 

There will be required for this eitra production £20,000 for plant 
and £30,000 for working capital ; this will make the total capital 
LBSaed £200,000, on which, on the above basis of profit, the return 
would be over 50 per cent, per annum. Moreover, there is no 
reason for taking 40 tons per week as the limit of production. 
For instance, the French Elmore Company's works, which are 
nearly completed, are upon a scale of production of 80 bo 100 tons 
per week, and the general maoager, M. Secretan, writes that 
already he sees that the demand will enable the Company to 
double or even treble the plant within a. abort period. From the 
above facts it will be seen that in the Elmore invention the 
Company poBsesBOS a property not paralleled in the whole range of 
industrial investments, and now that the delay in getting the 
20-ton per week plant at work— delay incidental to all new dis- 
coveries— has been overcome, the extraordinary earning power of 
the Company will be appreciated. ^-I am. Gentlemen, yours 
respectfully, William EuaoRE, Managing Director. 

P.8-— I have not included in the above estimates the cost of the 
London and Leeds office expenses, salariea, and Directors' fees, 
amounting in all to, say, £o,lKX) per annum, although up to the 
[>reBent time theee expenses have only slightly exceeded one-half 


E 30, 1S91. 
£ 8. d. 



Nominal capital— 
100,000 shares of £2 each 200,000 

Of which there have been issued 

7e,000shares 150,000 

Lees colls not yet due 6,500 

143,600 I 

Mortgages on land and intereet to June 30, 

1891 43,371 16 . 

Sundry creditors 4,744 17 : 

Royalties received in advance on 

copper sheet license 5,000 

Reserve account— 
Premiums receivid on new shares 

issued and £7. 10s. received on 

forfeited shares 2,507 10 

Profit on 13 acres of land sold, 

being amount received after de' 

dactmg proportion of cost of land 

and expenses, interest on original 

purchase- money and cost of 

mortgages 6,050 17 

Profit and loes— 8,5o8 7 

Balance as per account 703 10 10 

£205,878 11 8 
Cr. £ a. d. £ B. d. 

Purohase of 127 acres of land at 
Haigh Park, Leeds, including in- 
terest and cosU 67,887 16 8 

Less proportion of cost and ex- 
penses of 13 acres sold 6,949 3 

60,933 13 8 

Buildings, sidings, and wharf, as 

at June 30, 1S9U 8,011 IS 8 

Additions during the year ending 

June 30, 1891 3,512 16 10 

Plant, machinery, etc., as at June 
30,1890 11,339 1 1 

Additions during the year ending 

30th June, 1891 11,110 15 10 

22,449 16 11 

Patents as at 30tb June, 1800 80,000 

Additions and expenses during the 

year ending 30th June, 1891 702 17 6 

80,702 17 6 

Sundry debtors 1,899 14 5 

Ordinary and founders' shares in 
Elmore's Wire Manufacturing 
Company, Limited, at cost 11,053 9 

13,853 3 5 

Stock in trade— viz.: 

Raw material 6,421 4 S 

Manufactured goods 803 2 9 

Snndrystores 582 13 1 

7.807 6 

Fixtures, furniture, and fittings 947 8 5 

Cash at bankers and in hand _ 7,654 15 9 

£206,878 11 8 


) Loss AOCOtTHT FOR TUB Ybab b 

[oSOth Jcthk, 1891. 
£ s. d. 

Advertising and exhibition expenses 168 14 9 

Travelling expenses and general chances 251 12 9 

Bent, rails, and insurant 349 4 4 

Balance of inoome tax 103 12 3 

Stationery, printing, and postages 306 10 6 

Maintenance of patents, legal and professional 

chaiges 358 14 9 

Maintenance of plant and repairs 643 9 8 

Directors" fees 1.452 19 6 

Sahiries 2,317 17 5 

Balance curied to balance-sheet 703 10 10 

£6,556 6 9 
Or. £ s. d. £ B. d. 

Balance, 30th June, 1890 77,825 1 4 

Lees appropriated as under interim 
dividend of lOs. per share (leas tax) 
paid April 18, 1890, £34,125; 2nd 
di\'idend of 10s. per share (less tax) 
poid July 29, 1890, £34,125 ; income 
tax on the latter, £876 ; preliminary 
expenses, £1,850 ; Directors' percen- 
tage of profits to 30th June, 1890, 

£3.930. 13a. Id. 74,905 13 I 

2,919 8 3 

Balance of factory account, including amount re- 
ceived from Elmore's Foreign and Colonial Patent 
Copper Depositing Company, limited, for labora- 
tory and experiment expenses 1,398 17 6 

Soles of lioenses 1,581 

Interest and discount ,' 417 14 7 

Transfer fees, etc 239 6 5 

£6,666 6 9 

The second annual ordinary general meeting of Elmore's Patent 
Copper Depositing Company, Limited, took ^ace on Wednesday 

at the Cannon-street Hotel, Mr. J. Jepson Atlcinson presiding. 

The Becretary (Mr. J. Shurmer) having read the notice calUng 
the meeting, 

The CbAlrmaa said : Gentlemen, there is on old saying, " Good 
wine needs no bush," and I think that after the report we have 
been able to send you you will not think it necessary for me f> 
address you at any great length. You wUl see by the report that 
all the preliminary difEcultiee have been entirely overcome, and 
that we are now ready to go forward and earn money for yon, 
and pay you handsome dividends. When we double, treble, 
and even quadruple our present plant, which we shall, in dne 
course, have to do, those dividends will be so increased that I 
honestly believe you will have a chance of getting retoma 
of cent, per cent, upon your investment in the capital of 
the Company. You will be glad to hear that our difficulty is not 
to take orders, but to know what orders to refuse out of the great 
number on offer, Aa you know, there is a French Elmore Company, 
formed to work the process in France, and lost week I had the 
honour of being invited to see their works. These works are now 
in operation, and though designed for an output of 90 tons a week, 
already their manager reports that he can sell double their pre- 
posed output. From these remarks, and the figures which 
Mr. Elmore will give yon, you will see there is not the slightest 

3ueetion about our getting a sufficiency of orders, i have uo 
ividend to declare, but I can state to you, gentlemen, that we are 
to-day actually earning a considerable one — there is £500 profit in 
our tanks for this week — and I myself expect that before very long 
we aliall be able to send each of you a nice tittle cheque as the 
result of what we are earning. I should like to say a tew words 
about our investment in land, referred to in the report. Aa you are 
aware, we are not a land company, and in the ordinary course 
we should only have bought sufficient land for our own immo- 
diate reiiuiremonts : but oeing myself an adjacent landowner, 
and knowing well its value in the neiehbourhood of the rising town 
of Leeds, and finding that we should have to pay something like 
£'2,000 an acre for any extension of our works, and then be exposed 
later on, if we wished to further increase them, to still larger 
demands, I strongly ut^ed the Board to make the purctaaae of the 
whole estate at Eaigh Pork. This the Company did not see its 
way to do at the time, and Mr. William Elmore very pluckily 
stepped in and bought the property, Lateron. when the land had 
increased in value, and we saw the bargain that Mr, Elmore bad, 
we readily accepted his generous offer to let the Company take 
over the purohase at the original price. Since that time, as we 
have mentioned, the value oithe land has greatly increased, and I 
will read you a letter from a gentleman who is acknowlec^;ed in 
Leeds to be the greatest authority on the value of land in that 
neighbourhood. He writes aa follows ; 

" Aire and Colder Navigation, Leeds, December 26, 1891. 
" My dear Atkinson. — You ask me my views in 
Uaigh Park Estate, lately belonging to Lord Stoi 
acquired by a company with which I believe you i 
It is a valuable property, and in the near future must Oecome 
exceedingly so, aa any considerable extension in the manufacturing 
industries of Leeds must necessarily be in that direction, for there 
is no land so suitable or now available. I do not know whether 
^ou are aware of the fact that the proposed South Leeds Juoction 

1 regard to the 

Railway of the coming s 

9 through the aetata on fta 



WMtern idde. Tbis, U pMwd by P&rUamBDt, will enhance the 
valttB of the eatate, Blthou^h it ia already eiceptianally aituated by 
tuving Uie Aire and Caldsr Navigation, with its eaa; oonnection, 
ott one iide, and a junction with the Midland Railway on the south 

" Altogether, 1 think the Company have done well to acquire 
the eatata, and aapocially if they can afford to wait a while before 
reaMng.—Youra sincerely, W. H. Bartholomew." 

In addition to thia and the other advant^gea aet out in the 
report, the Midland Railway Company have not only agreed to 
spend a conaiderable aum in improving the means of communica- 
tion with the aatate, but have aha arranged, later on, to build a 
paBsenger station contiguous to our nrapeity. In juatioe to Mr. 
£lmore I must say that he has worked like a Trojan, and, even if 
he has been alow in getting our Company to its present proaperona 
position, he has nevertheleaa given one of the greateat possible 
|iroofs of bia zeal for the Company, and bia interest therein, by 
giving up bia purchase preciaeiy on the same Cerma aa he had 
pTocared it If be had Oeen a stranger, there would have been 
nothing wrong in bis asking £25,000 proUt on the price, and Chen 
we should have had a bargain ; in fact, if at the end of a year or 
two the Company do not find that they have mode a splendid 
bar(>ain, I shail be very glad to take it off their hands. 1 think, 
therefore, that our thanks are very much due to Mr. 
Elmore for the excellent position he has put oa into in 
that respect, and I have no doubt that, before we part, 
you will favour him with a vote of thanka instead of a 
cheque for the profit he might otherwise have made. Three 
meinbeis of the Board retire. Sir John Morris is not allowed by 
bia physician to offer himself for re-election, but possibly he may 
be able to join us again later on. With regard to the other two 
memberB, Mr. Carson and myself. I may say that Mr. Carsoii, from 
his knowledge aa a director of the Cape Copper Company, of which 

confidence in the great value of thia invention, and have liad ever 
aince it was only an idea in the mind of the inventor. I bold over 
8,000 shares in the Company, and have upwards of £40,000 in the 
various Elmore companies, and have never sold a single ahare, 
even when they ware at £8 each, which figure I believe they will 
•oon be at again. On the contrary, 1 have neen steadily increasing 
my holdinff, In fact, I may say the Directors of your Company 
are by far the largest holders in the Companv, holding. I believe, 
nearly a third of the issued capital The Chairman then read a 
report from Mr. Elmore, confirmatory of his statements, to the 
following eSect : 

" I beg to confirm my report of November 30 last, and the 
gratifying results I was then able to foreshadow, and to state that 
onr experience since more than bears out my figures. Since my 
previous report of June 1, lS9t, the new copper mandrel has 
proved to be all that I then claimed for it, and it even exceeds 
my expectationa, simplifying the process immensely. 1 send you 
the two tubM recently tested by an independent expert, one 
made by our eleotro-bumiehing process and the other one a 
brazed tube of the best ordinary make. The result of the trial 

C. already know of — viz., that the Elmore tube turned out to 
not only more than three times as strong aa the beat brazed 
lube, but of such high uniform quality that, although the 
testing machine had to be specially niade, the machinery actually 

Kve way two or three times in the course of the teste, and had to 
strengthened to meet the great resisting power of the Elmore 
tube- From this it will be seen that the Company will practi- 
cally have the monopoly of steam-pipes of Ur^e diameter, and 
that marine engineers will at once abandon the use of brazed 
copper pipes, which have given them so much trouble of late by 
borating under the high steam pressures used in the triple and 
quadruple expansion engines, some 60 or 60 lives having been 
loat during the present year from thia cause ; and I may state 
that we have already received some important communications 
and assurances to tliis end. The difference in the two kinds of 
tubes cannot be better expressed than in the words of the eminent 
engineer who made the test, aa follows : ' I beg to inform 
you that I have to-day witnessed the bursting of two experi- 
mental copper pipes, one made by your electro-burniahing 
proceaa, the other an ordinary brased tube, made by a first- 
class coppersmitli in Leeds. The first pipe ia 5ft. 6in. long, 
9 Jin. in diameter inside, and iia. thick. The pressure was 
applied to the inside of this pipe by means of a three-throw 
hydraulic pump driven from the shoft in the shop. Up to a 
prcsaure of l,0OOIb. per square inch the pipe showed no signs of 
distress. At a pressure of 1,1761b. to the square inch the pipe 
commenced to expand in the middle uniform^, until thia part of 
it became |in. larger in diameter than tlie other part, and water 
commenced to pasa from four separate points almost opposite to 
each other, showing that the metal was stretching uniformly, and 
that the pipe was almosc^ on the point of bursting The pressure 
was again mcreaiied until 1,4561b. to the square inch was reached, 
when the pipe stretched at this part from 9jin, outside diameter 
to II in., ana at this pressure it burst, opening out in the centre of 
the pipe for a distance of about lOin., the fracture being l^in. wide. 
The pipe was afterwards measured, and it was found that although 
at the moment of fracture ita diameter was llin., and the metal tiad 
stretched uniformly to that extent, stilt when the preaaure was 
released the pipe returned to a diameter of login. Theneit pipe — 
that ia, the braeed one— was 9in. diameter, also 6ft. Gio. in length 
and iin. thick. At a pressure of 1201b. to the square inch, one end 
of the |Hpe swelled to the extent of ^in. in diameter for a distance 
of about 12in, from the flange, and aa the pressure was increased 
to 300U>. the oppoeile ends swelled in like manner, which clearly 

proves that in heating the copper to flange it at each end its ulti- 
mate strength had been greatly reduced. The pressure was again 
increased to 44Blh. to the square inch, when the pipe burst at one 
end, atwut I2in from the flange, through the brazed joint, thus 
demonstrating tliot the electro-burnished pipe, although }in. 
larger in diameter than the brazed pipe, was 31 times stronger, 
and further demonatratea that owing to the great ductile proper- 
ties possessed by the electro-bumiahed copper, which admits of its 
being flanged without being heated, enables pipes of this descrip- 
tion to be constructed of a uniform strength throughouL' 
It is important to notice tliat the Elmore tube waa flanged (in 
the ordinary way by an ordinary workman] without annealing, 
thua preaerving to the metal its whole original strength, and 
avoiding all poaaible chance of deterioration of the metal by 
overheating owing to want of skill or carelesancsa on the part 
of the workmen. As showing the rapidity of the growth of our 
trade, and the favour in which our goods are held Oy those who 
have tried them, I would state that we have already, during the 
last two months, added no less than 130 customers to our list, com- 
prising some of the best firms in the country. We have executed 
342 orders, and have to-day more ordersofferod than wecan possibly 
execute. Further, one largo buyer has given 16 repeat orders ; 
one has repeated orders 14 times ; two have repeated orders 12 
times each ; three have repeated orders 11 times each i two have 
repeated ortJers nine times each ; five have repeated orders seven 
timea each ; three have repeated ordera five times each ; seven 
have repeated orders four timea each ; 10 have repeated orders 
three timea each, and on aggregate of 224 repeat ordera have 
been received from a number of our customers, representing 
about 40 per cent, of the total names upon our books. We 
have on hand orders and offers of orders at pricee above 
those that I estimated in my lost report, which will far more 
than fill our capacity for a long time to come. In addition, since 
the 20'ton plant was started we have received specifications and 
sent out quotations In reply to enquiries for 1,581,6691b. , or over 
TOO tons, of copper tulMs for various purposes, besidea a large 
amount of capper to be deposited upon rams and other eipenaive 
articles, from which to draw our orders and keep our tanks con- 
stantly employed. I further have pleasure to omcially Inform you 
that another stage in the realisation of the promiaea that I have 
made has been reached, which, with the exception of the delay in 
actual completion, have been more than borne out in every case. 
This important step ia the satisfactory production of a copper 
cartridge case, the value of which may be gathered from the 
fact that it means the successful application of the Elmore 
process to pans for brevers and distillers, and other articles not 
of tubular form, but having a bottom. From the samples I send 
it will be seen that not only ia the copper cylinder closed at one 
end. but the thickness of the copper can be regulated at will, to 
be thick at one part and thin at another, as desired, whilst the 



which I made out on November 30 last, no allowance whateoever 
was made for such special articles, the extra profit upon which will 
all be in addition to what was there set out ; and the fact that I am 
at present negotiating for making arrangements for the granting 
of a license for the manufacture of a minimum of 10 tona of these 
cases per week, on a royalty that will be most remunerative to 
this Company, will show that I have erred on the safe side ii 

consider it unnecessary to refer to the fact that our process is 
equally applicable to the deposition of other metals, and the 
manufacture of heavy ordnance, of a quality hitherto unknown, 
and I think you will find, as in the past, that every statement 
ever mode by mo as to the various appUcationa of the proceas will 
be as fully borne out as those regarding the turn-out of copper 
tubes and such-like articles ; this I have oeen able to prove to you 

"" then moi'ed the adoption of the report and 

Dnded the resolution, which « 

« agreed t( 

Hr. Pilotier said be had given the Company an cvder for two 
i-pipes for marine purposes to stand 1651b., but they were 
^ of tr 

stand 1851b., but they 
laminated throughout. He would like to know the rt 
also how the cost would compare with that Qf the ordinary pipes 
for marine purposes. 

Bir. Umore said that at the commencement they unfortunately 
started with a defective engine, which, although constructed by 
one of the best engineering firms in the world, had broken down 
cootinnally. The breaking down of the engine caused the opera- 
tions to oease in the tanks, the proceaa being essentially a oon- 
tiouous one. That was the cause of the lamination, and when he 
became the managing director at the works he found that some of 
the tubes had been sent out which were made during that early 
time, amounting to six in all. If Mr. Pilcher would favour the 
Company with another order ho believed they wonld be able to 
satisfy him. An official test was about to he made in conformity 
with the Board of Trade specifications, which he believed would be 
in every way aatiafoctory. 

Kt. Plloliar : Will you guarantee them, and put in the ordinary 
tubes if youra are a failure ! 

Xr. Xlmore : Ves ; with pleasure. 

Hr. Plleber : Then I will undertake to give you an order. 

Mr. Bawaen : I will send you a cheque for £500 if the tube 
proves in any way defective. 

Messrs. Atkinson and Carson were re-elected directors, and 
Messrs. Prioe, Waterhouse, and Co. were re-appointed auditors. 



Dr. Cantrell next moved a vote of thanks to Mr. Elmore and 
the Company's staff. 

Kr. Oiuunlolno seconded the resolution, which was agreed to. 

The meeting closed with a vote of thanks to the Chairman and 


CallfomlA Gas, Water, and Kleetrlo Lighting ComiMuiy 
Syndteate, Limited. — This Company has been registered with a 
capital of £2,000, in £1 shares, to purchase or otherwise acquire, 
work, manage, and turn to account gas works, electric light 
plants and water works in the U.S.A., Canada, or the British 
Colonies. Roistered office, 20, Bucklersbury, E.C. 

Chloride Xleetrloal Storage Syndieato, Limited. —Formed, 
with a capital of £262,500^ to acquire certain patents and 
propertv, to carrv on business as ironmasters, copper smelters, 
steelmakers, ironiounders, engineers, boilermakers, metallurgists, 
electricians, electrical contractors, electrical and mechanical 
engineers, and suppliers of electricity, and to carry on the 
business of an electric Uehting company. The subscribers are : 
Messrs. J. E. Yeates, 9, ^lent-crescent. West Hampstead ; W. J. 
Tornev, 24, Granard-road, Wandsworth Common ; S. S. P. Cooke. 
53, Chadwick-road, Peckham ; R. J. Rumball, 46. Ruvigny- 

fardens, Putn^ ; F. B. Liley, 58, Sandmere-road, Clapham ; §. S. 
ludlow, 34, Werter-road, Putney ; and £. J. Newball, 57, 
Cowley-road, North Brixton. 

Liverpool Metal and Hardware Company, Llmlt,ed. — Regis- 
tered by J. and R. Gole, 4, Lime-street, E.C., with a capitiU of 
£12,000 in £10 shares. Object : to acquire the undertaking of 
P. C. Mclntyre and Co., Limited (of Hanover-street, Liverpool), 
in accordance with an aeieemont made between J. Huntington of 
the one part and this Company of the other part, and generally 
to carry on business as eeneraJ metal and hardware merchants, 
mechanioal and electrical engineers, etc., in all their respective 
branches. There shall not be less than three nor more than eight 
Directors. The first are J. Baker, J. Huntington, C. Coward, W. 
Heaton, J. G. Russell, P. B. Coward, and J. W. Baker. Qualifi- 
cation, £500. Remuneration, £150, divisible. 



Dkcembek 14. 

Improrements tn Ineaadeeoent lamps. Carl Schubel, 
45, Lawford-road, Kentish Town, London. 
Improved method of reduotng the thermlo loss by 
radiation from the sides of thermo-dynamlo motors. 

Benjamin Howarth Thwaite, 37, Victoria-street, Liverpool. 

21849. Improvements in armatures for dynamo- eleotrie 
m ao bin es. Buchanan Stewart Paterson and John Broken- 
shire Fumeaux, 46, Lincoln*s-inn-fields, London. 

21854. Improvements in or relating to the iasnlation of 
eleotrioal eonduotors. Alfred Julius Boult, 323, High 
Holbom, London. (Emile Louis Montgolfier and Charles 
Valery Montgolfier, France.) 

December 15. 

21870. Improvements in voltaio oells or batteries. Henry 
Harris Lake, 45, Southampton-buildings, London. (Edward 
A. Clark, United States.) (Complete specification.) 

21923. An improved eleotrioal apparatus for driving olook- 
work. Frederick Herbert Berry, 186, Fleet-street, 

21941. Improvements in eleotrio motor mechanism for v eh ioles. 

William Gumbley, 53, Chancery-lane, London. 

21961. Improvements in variable resistanoe devices for relays, 
telephones, and the like. Henry Harris Lake, 45, 
Southampton-buildings, London. (Charles Cuttriss, United 
States.) (Complete specification.) 

21963. Improvements in converter systems for electric 
railways. Mark Wesley Dewey, 45, Southampton - 
buildings, London. ((Complete specification.) 

December 16. 

21987. Improvements in suspending telegraph and telephone 
wires and attachments on open-air supports of same 
and telephonio switchboards. George Rodenhurst Stokes, 
67, Piccadilly, Hanley, Stafibrd. 

22025. Improvements • in fittings for oleotric lights, John 
Smallwood, 33, Southampton-buildings, London. 

22027* Improvements in gallery holders or supports for the 
globes or shades for electric lights and gas lamps, also 
applicable to holders for inoandescent lamps. Victor 
Silberberg, 226, High Holbom, London. 

22030. Improvements in the electrolytio treatment of copper 
and silver ores. Carl Hoepfner, 45, Southampton- 
buildings, London. 

22037. Improvements in printing telegraph receiving instrn- 
ments. Henry Harris Lake, 45, Southampton -buildings, 
London. (John Edward Wright, United States). (Com- 
plete specification.) 

December 17. 

22126. An improvement in secondary batteries. Alfred Ernest 
Porter, 48, Richmond-road, Paddington, London. 

22109. Improvements in systems of eleetrieal distrtbatlon 
espeoially adapted fbr supplying electric motors. 

Benjamin Joseph Barnard Mills, 23, Southampton- 
buildings, London. (Harry Ward Leonard, United States.) 

22120. Improvements in telegraph repeaters. Albert Carlos 
Booth and William Percy Ward, 106, Victoria-chambers, 
Chancery-lane, London. 

22122. An improved eleotrio switch. Maurice Hoopes, 106, 
Victoria-chambers, Chancery-lane, London. 

December 18. 
22145. Improved Jar or cell for galvanio batteries. William 

Phillips Thompson, 6, Lord-street, Liverpool. (Otto 

Hirsch, Germany.) 
22178. Improvementa in eleotrio accnmalators or s e co n d a r y 

battertes. Frederic Morin, 45, Southampton-buildings, 

22181. Improvements in packet* or pads for electric cells. 

Lewis Hopkins Rogers, 18, Buckingham-street, Strand, 

London. (Complete specification.) 
22184. Improvementa in or relating to telephones and micro- 
phones. Adolf Rettig, 18, Buckingham-street, Strand, 


December 19. 

22255. Improvementa in eleotrio telephone transmitters. Alan 
Archibald Campbell Swinton, 66, Victoria-street, West- 
minster, London. 

22265. Improvementa relating to simnltaneons telephony and 
telegraphy. Johnston Stephen and Charles Davis, 45, 
Southampton -buildings, Lonaon. 


19740. Colnmn printing telegraph reeeivers. Higgins. Ud. 


184. Dynamo maohinea Crompton 8d. 

185. Dynamo machines. Crompton. 8d. 
284. Telephone transmitter. Mayer. 6d. 
899. Kleetrlo oells. Eagar and Milburn. 4d. 

1176. Dynamo-eleotric machines, ete. Newton and Hawkins. 8d. 
1318. XleotHc distHbnUon. Cutler, lid. 
.3664. Kleotrioal switehes. Binswanger. 8d. 
17399. Dynamo-eleotrio machines. Gilliland. 8d. 
17733. Xleotrio drilling, ete. , machines. Linders. 6d. 
18522. Welding metals electrioaUy. Thompson (Coffin). 6d. 


Fog Signala — We understand that a syndicate is being formed 
for £25,000 to purchase half of the patents of the fog-signal system 
we described last year, and negotiations are proceeding. 

Commercial Cable Company. — The numbers are published of 
1,200 mortgage debentures of £100 each of the Commercial Cable 
Company, which have been drawn for payment at par on January 
15 next. 

City and South I«ondon Railway. — The receipts for the week 
ending December 27, 1891, were £871, as against £785 for the 
corresponding week in 1890, showing an increase of £86. The 
aggregate receipts for half year to date were £19,221. 

*' Kleotrioal Plant."— Mr. E. R. Dolby retires from .the editor- 
ship of the monthly journal Electrical Plant, after editin|^ the 
spedial " central station " number and the ordinary January issue. 
1892. and will devote his entire attention to his consulting practice 
at 8, Princes-street, Westminster. The proprietors of ElectricaX 
Plant have turned the business into a limited company, and owing 
to increase in size, the work will now require the whole time and 
attention of an editor. Mr. H. Cuthbert Hall, who has acted as 
assistant for the special number, will undertake the work, the 
offices of the journal being at 52, Queen Victoria-street, E.C. 




Brush Co 

— Pref. 

India Rubber, Gutta Percha k Telegraph Co 

House-to- House 

Metropolitan Electric Supply 

Londou Electric Supply » 

Swan United 

St. James' 

National Telephone 

Electric Gonstructiou 

Westminster Electric 

Liverpool Electric Supply i 





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Btqtpletneni to the "Electbicai. Enginbeb," January 1, 1892. 

SnpphmtM to the " EuotBuuL BirGunEB," /oMuory ;, ISM. 


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XflUnKton. — We underetand that Colonel Gouraud is 
organieing a company, with a Urge capital, for furnishing 
the eleclric light to the Islington diatrict. 

South Ameriean Cables- — The Western and Brazilian 
Telegraph Company, Limited, notify that direct com- 
munication by their cables with Monte Video and Buenos 
Ayres is now restored. 

Patent OlBoe Ubrair- — It is hoped that a technical 
library wJU be established on the ground floor of the new 
Patent Office extensions. The alteration, if carried out, 
will be greatly appreciated. 

Eleotrio Fireworks at Chicago. —The Committee 
on Ceremonies has appropriated SS.OOOdoU. for electric 
(ireworka at the time of the dedication of the exposition 
buildings in October, 1892. 

Hlalnff Plant.— At the meeting of the Chesterfield 
and Midland Counties' Institution of Engineers on Saturday, 
Mr. M. Deacon will read a paper entitled " Notes on a 
Small Electric Pumping Plant." 

ratal Aoddent in Italy.— -A faUl electric lighting 
accident occurred on Saturday night at the Theatre Mati- 
gano at Palermo. One of the men inadvertently took hold 
of both connecting wires, and fell dead. 

Coireotion of Address. — Messrs. Vaugban and 
Brown inform us that their address is IG, Kirby-etreet, 
E.C., and not Purdey street, Hatton- garden, as given in 
the list of exhibitors at the Crystal Palace. 

Presidential Address — The lirst meeting of the 
lastitution of Electrical Engineers for the coming year will 
be held on the Hth inst, when the president, Frot. W. E. 
Ayrton, will deliver his inaugural addreaa. 

Shrewsbury. — Mr. Richard Hanway has written a 
letter to the Shrmahury Chronkh giving a considerable 
amount of useful information to intending usots of this 
illuminant, in a clear and straightforward style. The 
int«reEt in the neighbourhood on this subject seems to be 

Horse Wires. — One of the exhibits that the Baltimore 
and Ohio road expects to show in the Electricity Building 
is a model of tbe first telegraph wire strung along that 
line by Morse. The line was nine miles long and extended 
from Baltimore to Relay Station. The line was laid in a 
lead pipe. 

Salford. — At the Salford Town Council on Wednesday, 
in aoEwer to a question by Alderman Dickins, the deputy- 
chairman of tbe Gas Committee (Mr. Philips) said that a 
sub-committee had been apjminted to consider the subject 
of electric lighting in the borough, and their report would 
be submitted in due time to the Council. 

French Jonmul.^ L'liuiuslrU Eltctrvpit, the new 
French technical journal, is to be issued with tbe beginning 
of the year. The editor, as we have already stated, is M. 
E. Iloipitalier, who we were glad to welcome recently on a 
visit to England with reference to tbe recent progress in 
electric undei^ound railways and other matters. 

Appointment. — Mr. Alfred Hay has been appointed 
demonstrator of electrical engineering at the University 
Collie, Nottingham. Mr. Hay served his apprenticeship 
at the Faraday Electrical Works, Govan, and studied elec- 
trical engineering at the Glasgow Technical College, under 
Prof. Jamieson, thereafter taking the Edinburgh University 
B.Sc. degree. 

Eleotrio Beating^. — The M^loja Kursaal on the 
e is to be heated electrical!)' during tbe winter bjr 

power derived frcm tbe Mera river in Aaeima. There ta 
no doubt that considerable uu will be made of electric 
heaters in those cases where natural power is abundant, and 
it is probable that this department of electrical engineering 
will become exceedingly important in sach cases. 

Overhead TroUoys. — The Common Couneil of 
Brooklyn, U.S., has given permission to the tramway 
companies to change their motive power to the electric 
overhead trolley system. This decision, which is expected 
to be at once confirmed by the State Baiiroad Commis- 
sioners, will mean the expenditure of £2,400,000 during 
the next two years on the Brooklyn tramways. 

Slectile Fire Alarm. — A development of the electric 
fire-alarm sysiam has been put into practice at Boston, 
U.S.A., by tbe application of the eall system to a cab- 
driver's stand. On an alarm being given, the cabman 
wakes, the horse is hameaaed, and word is given of the 
address of the owoer of tbe threatened premises, who when 
fetched is usually able to afford helpful information. 

Chicago Xxhlbltlsn. — From an advertisement in 
another column it will be seen that applications for space 
in tbe British section may now be addressed to the secre- 
bary of the Royal Commission for the Chicago Exhibition, 
at tbe offices of the Society of Arts, John-street, Adelphi, 
W.C., where prospectuses and forms of application can be 
obtained. The date previous to which applications must 
be received is February 29 next. 

St. Elmo's Fire. — A correspondent of tbe Olasgoto 
Htrald state that oti the 28th ult., when he and anothw 
gentleman were walking in a driving shower of hail, tbe 
tips of their umbrellas had a glow of fire similar to that 
from a frictional machine. Was it, he enquires, due to tJie 
state of the atmosphere, tbe charge given by the hailstonee, 
or the friction of these latter on the silk T It is, at least, 
an interesting occurrence to record. 

Electric Condnits.^ — The Johnstone patents for the 
protection and preservation of electric wires underground, 
says the Ftwmciid Nftos, have been acquired by an English 
syndicate, and will be brought before the public shortly. 
Mr. Johnstone hails from Philadelphia, and at a Clover 
Club dinner was once christened " Lightning," in contra- 
distinction to Mr. Johnstone, the lawyer, whose deep baai 
voice acquired for him tbe sobriquet of " Thunder." 

SleotrMty and Ufe.— Prof. M'Kendrick, F.R^., of 
the University of Glasgow, has been giving an exceedingly 
interesting set of Christmas lectures at the Royal Institu- 
tion upon "Life and Motion," dealing principally upon 
tbe part played by electricity upon muscular activity. Prof. 
M'Kendrick's lectures cannot fail to bring home to many 
minds interested in physiology and biology the great share 
that electrical action has in the still unsettled problems of 
life, muscle, and nervous energy. 

Works mi the Telephone. — Messrs. Whittaker and 
Co. have made arrangements with tbe editor of 
El Telegrafista Espand for the translation into Spanish of 
Hr. Preece's work ui»on "The Telephone." The book 
already has been translated into both French and German. 
Tbe same firm will publish shortly, in a cheap form, Mr. 
A. R. Bennett's pa[ierB on tbe *' Telephoning of Great 
Cities " and tbe " Electrical Parcel Exchange System," 
which attracted considerable attention at hut year's British 
Association meeting. 

Marino Lake at Southend. — In order that visitors 
to Soutbend may be able to indulge in boating and other 
amusements on the water at all hours of the day without 
having to go a distance of a mile or more along the pier, a 
company is asking for incorporation with the object of 
constructing, m wnivrnt^Ai^ VvC& >Je* \**«a\ "^RaA^ *. 



marine lake, forty acres in extent, on which miniature 
steamboats, yachts, and pleasure boats would be let on 
hire. Here is a chance ior the General Electric Traction 
Company and their launches. 

Preston. — ^The staff of the National Electric Supply 
Company, Limited, Preston, and a few friends, held their 
first annual supper on New Year's eve, to celebrate one 
year's work of the electric lighting of Preston. The chair 
was taken by F. F. Bennett, Esq., M.I.E.E., supported by 
the committee — viz., S. F. Emerson, T. Cross, S. Powell, 
and C. Gillin. Toasts were proposed to the " Queen," the 
" Directors," the ** Managers," and the " Guests '' ; after 
which music and singing were indulged in to an early 
hour, and altogether a very enjoyable time was spent. 

Sleotrio Ploaghinfir. — Mr. A. A. Denton, of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, is seriously 
advocating the use of electric motors instead of horses in 
the great plains of the West for ploughing, sowing, reaping, 
harrowing, and thrashing. The problem involves the back- 
ward and forward movement of a machine in a straight 
line of half a mile, passing to and fro until the field is 
covered. " We shall wonder," says Mr. Denton, " a few 
years hen^how man produced food by means of the whip. 
There iSM^nt demand in agriculture for electrical engi- 

ShlpliffhtlBfiT at Devonport. — Arrangements have 
just been completed at Devon port for lighting the ships 
under construction by electricity. The system has been in 
use for some years at Portsmouth, but has never pre- 
viously been introduced at Devonport, whilst at Chatham 
it was tried and abandoned, owing, it is stated, to the 
expense. On board the " Edgar," at Devonport, a portable 
dynamo, engine, and boiler has been placed, which is 
capable of lighting 360 lamps. The cost of such lighting 
is estimated at £2 a day. Three vessels on the building 
slips have also been similarly illuminated, with good 

An Bleotrlo Ziamp Tbiefi — A thief who has for a 
long time, in all probability, been stealing incandescent 
electric lamps at the Paris theatres, has just been arrested 
by a clever device of the management of the Porte St. 
Martin. As it was found that a great many lamps had 
disappeared at the house the electrical engineer so arranged 
the fittings that immediately a lamp was removed the 
electiic current sounded an alarm. The man was thus 
caught as he was making away with a lamp in his pocket, 
and, as he refuses his name and address to the police, it 
is believed that he has a large store somewhere of the stolen 

St. Pajioras Uffhtinir- — The St. Pancras Vestry have 
deposited a Bill, which will be introduced into Parliament 
next session, under which powers are sought to raise 
£60,000 for the electric lighting of the whole of the 
parish, in addition to any sum that may be required for 
paying the costs of obtaining this Act. The period for the 
redemption of the loan is fixed at 42 years. The Vestry 
also seek power by this Bill to appropriate for electric 
lighting purposes the pneumatic tubes laid by the 
Pneumatic Despatch Company, but now abandoned, in 
Tottenham Court-road, Euston-road, Hampstead-road, and 

Idmeriok. — Indications seem to show that electric 
lighting is progressing in Ireland, if not more rapidly than 
in England, yet with rapid strides. Amongst others, the 
city of Limerick has now decided to apply at once for a 
provisional order, the speciU meeting of the Corporation 
adopting a resolution to that effect proposed by Mr. BernaL 
Mr. Conolly, the law adviser to the Corporation, stated 
^0^ iibe cotit, Fould be about £{{00, Mr. Clune said that 

the cost of gas was greater in Limerick than in any other 
town of its size, whereat Mr. Conolly stated that when the 
debt of £4,000 odd was paid, which was being done, the 
price would be put down. 

PontypooL — A company having for its object the 
lighting of the town of Pontypool by electricity is being 
formed, and an influential meeting of tradesmen and others 
interested will be held at once. As the Local Board cannot 
obtain the necessary powers for nearly two years, the 
company will at first be a private one, to be eventually 
transferred to the Board at the original cost, and the profits 
made will then be spent on improvements in the town. 
The directors, it is stated by the Scndh, Wales Daily News, 
are in a position to guarantee a dividend of not less than 
10 per cent., the project having been most warmly received, 
and the promises of support already given more than 
sufficient to ensure this desirable result. 

Overhead Wires at Chelmsford. — ^The Fire Brigade 
Committee reported to the Chelmsford Town Council at 
their last meeting with reference to the communication 
from Messrs. Crompton and Co. as to the cutting of the 
electric light wires in case of an outbreak of fire in 
proximity thereto. A representative of Messrs. Crompton 
and Co., who attended the meeting of the committee, stated 
that the lighting of the town was divided into four sections, 
and that in case of fire the light could, if necessary, be cut 
off in one section only. The committee recommended that 
Messrs. Crompton and Co. be asked to take such steps as 
they thought necessary to prevent any danger from the 
wires in case of fire. The report was adopted. 

Teignmonth. — The Teignmouth Local Board finding 
that the increasing demand for gas is likely to necessitate 
extensive alterations at their works, are considering the 
desirability of introducing electric light, and have asked 
Mr. H. D. Massingham, the well-known electrical engineer, 
who has bad considerable experience of public lighting 
by electricity, for an estimate of the cost of an installa- 
tion. The matter was considered at a special meeting on 
Saturday, Rev. Anson Cartwright presiding, when the 
Board had a consultation with Mr. Massingham. The esti- 
mate was discussed at length, but no definite details of the 
scheme can yet be given. It is thought fairly certain, 
however, that electric lighting will be adopted. 

Paris Ezhibitioii. — A detailed analysis of the accounts 
of the great Paris Exhibition has been published, from 
which it appears there is a balance of £400,000 to the 
good ; £90,000 was received for concessions for caf6s and 
restaurants, and £2,000,000 were received for admissions, 
or £280,000 more than expected. On the other hand, the 
expenditure, which had been estimated at £1,860,000, was 
only £1,600,000. In other words, while the 1889 exhibi 
tion left a profit of £400,000, that of 1867 gave one of 
only £112,000, and that of 1878, organised at the cost of 
the State, left a deficit of £1,268,000. It should be pointed 
out, however, that in 1878 there was no subsidy from the 
State, whisreasin 1889 the State contributed £680,000, and 
in 1867 £240,000. 

Portrait of Benjamin Franklin. — Mr. David 
Murray, 169, West Gleorge-street, Glasgow, writing to the 
Glasgow Herald, asks if anyone can tell him of the where- 
abouts of a reph'^ « of the celebrated portrait of Benjamin 
Franklin, painted by the French artist Chamberlin, which 
is said to be in Scotland. The Hon. Bobert C. Winthrop, 
of Boston, late pr» ^dut of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, says (Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, 
XV., pp. 160-161) that it is in the possession of a member of 
the William Penn family in Scotland. Who this is, or 
where the portrait is, he has not been able to ascertain. 
T)ie information is sought for the memorial volun^e on tl|e 



centennial of Greorge Washington's inauguration, now being 
completed in New York. 

Kendal. — ^The Town Council of Kendal are exercised 
upon the question of overhead wires. Councillor Har- 
greaves, at the last meeting, said he understood that certain 
parties were supplying customers with electric light, and he 
wanted to know the rights of the case. The town clerk 
said that if anyone wished to establish themselves under the 
Electric Lighting Acts they would have to get the permission 
of the Board. Later, the application of Mr. Gilkea for 
permission to erect poles leading from the Canal Iron 
Works to his house came before the Council. It was 
mentioned that permission had been asked only after the 
posts were erected, and to this objection was taken. 
Councillor Jeffreys stated that there was not the least 
danger from Mr. Giikes's wire, and the matter was passed. 

Bfanohester. — It will be remembered that the proposal 
of the engineers at Manchester, with reference to electric 
lighting, was that the electric plant should be established 
on the same site and in the same engine-house as the 
hydraulic power plant. The Gas Committee, at their last 
meeting, arrived at a decision electrical engineers will 
approve, that having regard to future developments and the 
probabilities of extension of both electric light and hydraulic 
power, the site at Dickinson-street be allotted entirely to 
the electric central station, and that in Gloucester-street to 
hydraulic power. The tenders for boilers and engines have 
already been advertised for, and with this practical and 
sensible attitude, we doubt not that Manchester will 
achieve a successful result from both public and electrical 
points of view. 

IdTerpool Overhead Railway. — Among the Bills 
which have been deposited in Parliament for the coming 
session is one which proposes to carry out a line of over- 
head railway similar to that adopted in New York. In 
previous years Parliament has authorised such a line in 
connection with the Mersey Dock at Liverpool, which is 
now in course of construction by the Liverpool Overhead 
Railway Company, and application is now to be made to 
extend the time for the execution of the works already 
authorised, and, in addition, to extend the line both north- 
wards and southwards. The company is to be empowered 
to work the railways either by electricity or steam, and 
there is also a provision authorising the Corporation of 
Liverpool to contribute to the capital of the company for 
the purpose of carrying out the scheme. 

Bombay Docks. — The electric light has now been 
installed at the Prince's and Victoria Docks, Bombay. Three 
lights are run up at an average height of about 70ft. ; one 
light for each dock, and a central one between both, erected 
on a gigantic overtopping mast. It is constructed of iron 
as far as the crosstree and of timber upwards. The engine- 
house is not yet finished, but the erection of the lights was 
considered of so much importance that the light was 
started before the completion of the premises. The success 
of the installation is due in a large measure to the inde- 
fatigable exertions of Mr. A. M. Taylor, engineer to Messrs. 
Siemens Brothers, of London, who have supplied the plant. 
Preliminary experiments had been opj^ducted to the satis- 
faction of the Dock Committee under .|.he immediate super- 
vision of Mr. Taylor before the final installation was 
commenced. *.,,. ^^ 

Ylnsbnry Spooial Leotnres. — On January 20, 1892, 
Mr. A. Reckenzaun begins a course of six lectures on 
*' Electric Locomotion," dealing with electric tramways and 
railways. These will be given on Wednesdays at half-past 
•even. Through the spring, also on Wednesdays, Mr. 
Booaseaa's practical classes will be held in the new electro- 
phting laboratory, in connection with which Prof. Thompson 

will give three special lectures on dates to be announced. 
On February 9 and succeeding Tuesdays, Mr.W. C. Clinton 
will give a short course on vector methods of calculation 
in relation to electrical problems, being an introduction to 
the writings of Mr. Oliver Heaviside; Prof. Perry is 
continuing his course on the application of the differential 
and integral calculus, and will conclude by an exposition of 
Fourier's theorem in relation to alternate currents and the 
use of the electro-dynamometer in harmonic analysis. Prof. 
Silvanus Thom|>son continues his ordinary course of 
Monday lectures, the topics until Easter being transformers, 
alternate-current motors and the design of continuous- 
current dynamos. 

City Liffhtinfir. — The abominable Christmas weather 
has led business men in the City to see the advantages 
likely to accrue to users of the electric light. " It can but 
be admitted,'' says the City Press, " that while the lighting 
of the streets is vastly improved, the illumination of 
private establishments, such as shops, offices, and ware- 
houses, by the electric light will contribute vastly to a 
general improvement. The wholesale miseries from which 
the citizens suffered during Christmas week — to say nothing 
of the damage to property, and increased expense, by 
reason of the filthy and suffocating fog which enshrouded 
everything — must have convinced all that the present means 
of combating the fog-fiend are utterly inadequate, while at 
the same time the use of gas does not tend to improve 
matters. It is probable that the contracts held by the City 
of London Electric Lighting Company may not be actually 
completed by February, although an honest attempt is 
being made to do so ; but in the event of the work being 
unfinished a small extension of time would facilitate 
matters." We are glad to see such a helpful attitude. 

^Telephonio Facilities. — The National Telephone 
Company will introduce a Bill into Parliament next 
session by which they seek to obtain additional facilities 
for conducting the business of telephonic communication. 
The Bill, subject to certain provisions as to the consent of 
road authorities and the repair and reinstatement of roads, 
gives the company power to place and maintain telephone 
wires under any public road and to alter or remove the 
same; to place and maintain a telephone wire over any 
public road or over any land or any estuary or branch of the 
sea, and to attach a telephone wire to any land, and to 
maintain posts on any land, and alter or remove the same, 
giving compensation to all bodies and persons who sustain 
damage by reason of their action. In the case of attaching 
wires to private property, it is provided that where the 
owner and occupier are not the same person, the consent of 
the occupier shall bo sufficient during the term of his occu- 
pation, but no longer. The New Telephone Company, 
Limited, have also introduced a Bill for the purpose of 
reincorporating the company and defining its capital, 
objects, and powers. 

Deatli. — Mr. Frederick B. Leyland, president of the 
National Telephone Company, died suddenly on Monday 
night in a train on the underground railway between the 
Mansion House and Blackfriars Stations. Soon after 
leaving the former station he was seized with a fainting 
fit, and Colonel E. Jackson, who was riding with him, 
called the guard's attention to him at Blackfriars Station. 
He was at once carried into the waiting-room. Dr. Green 
was quickly on the scene, but upon examination Mr. 
Leyland was found to be dead. Mr. Leylaad was formerly 
connected with the steamshipping house of Messrs. Bibby, 
Son, and Co. Mr. Leyland, in 1873, established the line 
of steamships connected with his name, which now com- 
prises 23 vessels. He lived for the greater part of the time 
at his London residence, 49, Prince's-gate, his Liver^ol 



residence being Woolton HalL He was an accomplished 
linguist, a connoisseur in fine arts, and possessed a collec- 
tion of fine paintings. He was an expert in shipping 
matters, and besides holding the position of president 
of the National Telephone Company, was one of the 
directors of the £dison-Swan Company. His death was 
very sudden, heart disease being thoufi;ht the cause 
of death. His London residence was a most hand- 
some mansion, his dream being to live the life 
of an old Venetian merchant in London. The walls 
are adorned with paintings by Millais, Bossetti, Bume- 
Jones, Watts, and others of the best English artists, besides 
examples of Bellini, Botticelli, and Raphael. He was 61 
years of age and leaves a son and two daughters, one of 
the latter being married to Mr. Val Prinsep, R.A. 

Gas ▼. Blectrioity. — There is an interesting interview 
in the Daily News of Monday with Mr. Orwell Phillips, of 
the gas works at Horseferry-road. Mr. Phillips metaphori- 
cally snaps his fingers at electricity, but trembles at the 
fourpenny petroleum lamp. With regard to electricity he 
says, what is to a large extent true, that the West-end man- 
sions are not filched from the gas companies, but from the 
sellers of wax candles. The occupiers of the best houses will 
not use gas — ^it is too disagreeable, hot, dusty, evil-smelling 
a light to suit them. Candles were their resource until 
electricity came upon the field. An interesting fact, 
however, comes out with regard to the consumption 
of gas in Bond-street. Everyone who has visited 
this street knows that from end to end at least 
half the shops now use electric light. " Only 
as an advertisement," says Mr. Phillips — " look at 
the back shops and you will still find gas." And 
he has had the curiosity to compare the returns of gas 
consumption before Sir Coutts Lindsay put up his 
machines, and with the receipts four years later. He 
found that at the earlier period the receipts from Bond- 
street were ^£7,200, and at the later period £7,800. 
Perhaps, however, there lurks a mystery in the words 
" four years." If he examines five or six years 
later — what then ? Does this represent the year that 
is past or not ? But, at any rate, the increase, in spite 
of the substitution of some electric light, is interesting, and 
bears out what has been noticed in other parts. Will it 
continue — we shall see ; but it is necessary for gas 
managers to put a good face on it, and will be still more 
necessary for them to set about introducing large gas 
engines for producing electric light. This will be of use, 
and electrical engineers will then work with them. 

Cost of Eleotric Energy. — The discussion in the 
Financial News upon the " sheer *' cost of the production 
of electrical energy still continues, and promises to lead 
to interesting and important results. We shall have 
more to say upon the subject when the correspondence 
is complete ; meanwhile we will content ourselves 
in advising practical men to read the correspondence, 
and, if possible, give their experience in advocating the 
usefulness of electrical distribution to financial men. 
Mr. E. F. B. Harston apologises to Mr. Crompton for 
mixing him up with another company, but at the same 
time maintains that with any company charging 8d. a unit 
the bills will be three times that of gas. Mr. John W. 
Stringfellow, mechanical engineer and specialist, makes an 
offer to act alone, or in conjunction with others, as stake- 
holder of, say, £500 for a practical test of gas against elec- 
tricity of 10 low-power and 10 high-power lamps, the installa- 
tion to embrace complete plant in itself, and the fixed cost of 
working to be taken. He suggested the Thames Embank- 
ment as the best site for the proposed test. Mr. Albert Gay, 
manager of the House-to-House Company, objects to the 

statement that Crompton is a rival of their company, 
the districts being separate. He asks what is meant 
by sheer cost, and gives six heads : raw material, wear 
and tear, wages of men, salaries of officers, rent, etc., and 
general expenses, of which only the first and third he sup- 
poses to be included in " sheer cost." Mr. Harston returns 
to the charge, and asks, " Cannot the cost be reduced f 
and wished to know whether the companies cannot charge 
4d. instead of 8d. a unit. Messrs. Crompton, answering 
Mr. Oay, admits the first three of the divisions of expen- 
diture as included in '' sheer " cost. They reiterate that 
they are prepared to prove to a committee that if gas and 
electricity were produced on a sufficient scale — say enough 
to supply two square miles of London — the cost of elec- 
tricity would be as low, if not lower, than that of gas. 

J. H, Holmes and Co.— Though late in the day, we 
venture to record the fourth annual dinner of the employes 
of Messrs. J. H. Holmes and Co., held on Saturday, the 
26th ult , at The Crown Hotel, Newcastle-on-Tyne. About 
50 persons sat down to dinner. After dinner a most enjoy- 
able programme of music, vocal and instrumental, was 
listened to, and, in response to the toast, Mr. J. H. Holmes 
gave a very interesting account of the evolution of the 
firm of J. H. Holmes and Co. The firm was established 
in 1883, and made their first dynamo in June, 1885. This, 
they have recently heard, is still working very well. The 
first ship lighted on the Tyne was lighted by this firm, as 
was also the first ship hailing from the Tyne — viz., the 
" Tynesider." The fame of the Castle dynamo really com- 
menced at the Newcastle Exhibition in 1887, and the same 
year the firm entered their present premises, which were 
doubled in less than two years. At the present time over 
500 dynamos bearing this name are at work, and the six 
hundred and twenty- fourth machine is now being built. 
Mr. Holmes commented upon the good feeling which 
existed between the firm and its employes, and expressed 
the wish that this might long continue. Mr. Holmes 
was frequently applauded during the course of his 
remarks, and at the conclusion the whole company 
joined in the customary goodfellowship chorus. The 
toast to the firm's "Electrical Engineers" was responded 
to by Mr. Broadbent (the outside manager), who gave a 
brief summary of the year's work. He remarked that 
during the year the firm had completed over 90 installa- 
tions, including ships, collieries, hotels, houses, etc., and 
had fixed over 11,500 lamps. The total number of dynamos 
erected on these installations was 95, having an output of 
13,605 lamps of 60 watts each, or 816,300 watts. The 
number of dynamos made up to date during the year was 
125, having an output of 2,650,000 watts. The meeting 
broke up after a very enjoyable evening had been spent. 

Electric Comiminlcation on Trains, — We have 
often wondered why more British trains are not furnished 
with electric safety communication with the guard and 
driver, instead of the ancient and often useless outside 
cord, for electric signals are common enough on the conti- 
nental trains. We notice that a trial was made last week 
on the " Dandie " train running between Glasgow and 
Helensburgh, of a new system of electric communication 
introduced by Messrs. Shiels and Elliott, of Glasgow, which 
promises well. In the continental signals the handle is 
kept in place by a cord with lead plug attached, which can 
be broken by a forcible movement, which seems to us 
probably rather preferable to the necessity of breaking a 
glass and pushing a button. The latter is the method 
adopted on the Shiels-EUiott system, which embodies 
besides signal bells on engine and guard's van, and a 
red semaphore which protrudes from above the carriage when 
the signal is rung. This, of course, renders possible the 


uriv&l of aid in the shortest time. The bells are connected 
by two trunk wires, which aie carried throughout the 
length of the train, while two branch wires — one from each 
tnink wire — are led into each compartment, and terminate 
in an electric push placed under the parcel rack, and pro- 
tected hy a metal cap with a small circular pane of glass in 
the front of it, which the passenger breaks in order 
to fn-eea the alarm push, the glass being specially pre- 
pared so as not to injure the band of the person breaking it. 
The connections are made by having at each end of the 
vehicle a tubular bracket carrying a flexible hose-pipe with 
a half-coupling at its end. These half-couplings are so 
arranged that when the carriages are brought together they 
can be interlocked by a simple movement similar in action 
to the coupling of the Westinghouse air-brake. The contact- 
pieces of the coupling are made on the double-wedge 
principle, pressing firmly on each other when the coupling 
is locked, and ensuring a good electrical connection, The 
eonpling is also so constructed that should it have been 
omitted to unloosen it during shuoUng operations, it 
unlocks itself automatically, thus avoiding any damage 
being done to the electric system. The trial was con, 
sidered entirely successful. 

Newbury. — A correspondent, writing to the Newbury 
fFetkly News, goes with some detail into the cost of pro- 
posed electric lighting in that town. After dealing with the 
question of using Dowson gas (a question we should tike 
to see further discussed) he goes on to give "figures for- 
warded by one of the largest electric lighting companies in 
London, who are prepared to deliver and erect the various 
machines required at the undermentioned prices — viz., 
dymimo £500, storage batteries £500, transformer £550 — 
the machines to be equal to the supply of an installation of 
3,000 lights; and, furiiher, these prices are subject to a 
discount of 30 per cent, for cash, so that the total cost of the 
machines wilt be about £1,000 net. The cost of the mains 
for the area designated in the order applied for by the Cor- 
poration will not amount to £2,000, including casing, break- 
ing up the streets, and making good, and that sum will be 
considerably reduced if the mains are laid in the trenches 
opened for the sewers, so that the total cost of the requisite 
machinery and mains will not amount to more than £3,000, 
leaving £3,600 for alterations to mill, compensation for 
tenants' rights and contingencies ; probably about double 
the amount that will be required. With regard to repairs 
and renewals," he continues, " provided the dynamos are of 
good manufacture and properly fixed, almost any electric 
lighting company will contract to keep them in repair for 
5 per cent per annum, and would make a good profit by so 
doing, as many of the recent pattern dynamos are not costing 
2 per cent for repairs. The accumulators will probably not 
require to be used more than 20 days throughout the year, 
and 1^ to 3 per cent, will amply cover their repairs and 
renewals. The transformer will not cost more than 1 per 
cent, to keep in repair; one that has been working at 
ft very lat^ installation in Iiondon has only cost 17b. 
for repairs during the 2J years that it has been running. 
I puTpoeely left out of my account the cost of repairs to 
mains as I knew that such enormous strides had been 
made in the improvement of the casing and other important 
detftile, that the figures of repairs of even two years 
ago would be fallacious, and I am now informed that 
many of the large companies will lay the mains and then 
keep them in repair at from 1^ to 2 per cent, per annum ; 
■o now we can total up the cost of repairs and renewals. 
Dynanios 5 per ceQton,Bay,£^50, £17. lOs.; accumulators, 
•ay 2 per cent on £350, £7 ; transformers, say 2 per cent, 
on £400, £6 ; mains, say 2^ per cent, on £2,000, £50 ; 
total, £83. lOe." As to estimate of receipts, he adds, lOs. 

per lamp supplied is an exceedingly low revenue, probably 
lower than any known. Mr, Preece's well-known estimate 
was based upon every hunp connected witb the mains, and 
some had only been so connected a very short time. 

Coast CommoniOAtion. — Letters have again appeared 
in the Times upon that all-important subject to Qreat 
Britain as a kingdom — as a naval and commercial power — 
the safe coast communication by telegraph or telephone. 
Mr. A. Pendarves Vivian, in a letter dated January 1, 1892, 
points out that as to difficulty of connection to isolated 
lighthouses, we know that in the case of submarine cables, 
the cable has even now often to be protected by a channel 
cut in the rocks, cemented over afterwards. It would be 
possible also, be suggests, to protect it by cast-iron pipes. 
(We have before us at this moment a new flexible steel 
casing for cables, which it is possible might be used.) The 
difficulties, as Mr. Vivian states, are not new, for they have 
to be contended with, more or less, in submarine cables 
leaving a rocky coast, as at the South of Cornwall — 
near Penzance. " With regard to lightehips," he rightly 
says, "there is more novelty in the difficulties to 
be overcome, but not for one moment would I believe 
that the same skill and ingenuity which are now so con- 
tinuously shown by our electrical engineers would not 
speedily surmount them. I feel confident that any injury 
to the cable, such as would occur by the constant motion 
and the swinging of the ship, would be provided against, 
and that, if necessary, a movable joint would be forth- 
coming which would secure a perfect metallic contract, 
which w9 all know is a necessity. The whole matter resolves 
itself into a question of expenditure, and that it will be 
costly no one can doubt ; but so are lifeboats, lighthouses, 
and lightships, all of which have the same object in view — 
namely, the protectiouand safety of valuablelives and cargoes." 
Mr. Kobert Bayly, of Plymouth, writing on the same date 
points out that communication of the " Sunk " Lightship 
by telegraph and telephone to Walton- on -Naze when he 
visited it in 1889 was perfect, the telephone especially being 
preferred even in the worst weather. The experiments 
there extended over five years, and were apparently per- 
fectly successful. Really, this question of coast commu- 
nication is becoming intolerable, Mr. Preece has 
pointed out — and we have emphasised the fact — 
that the matter does not lie within the business 
of the General Post Office, which is a commer- 
cial agency for carrying messages and letters, and not 
for the saving of ships. This latter is a national afiair, 
and all that is required is to introduce a short Sill 
next session for an appropriation of, say, £100,000, and 
then authorise the Post Office to carry out this work, which 
they are perfectly competent and willing to do. The thing 
would then be done, and a standing disgrace to England as 
the first naval Power of the world, which yet cannot tako 
the simplest telegraphic precautions for safety of her ships, 
would be removed. We should like to ask what are the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers doing in this matter. At 
one time they were all telegraph engineers, with an energy 
to overcome all difficulties — technical and financial. What, 
we may ask, is the organ of the telegraph and submarine 
cables doing to stir up the authorities to tackle this 
problem, and that not less important, the establishment uf 
underground land lines. Let the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers, the London Chamber of Commerce, and the 
Plymouth Chamber of Commerce put their heads together and 
bring in r. Bill for the purpose so defined and so thoroughly 
needed. This should command the sympathies of everyone — 
Press and members of Parliament, alike with men of 
business the kingdom over, and no timo should be lost in 
putting the matter into practical form. 






According to our usual practice, we visited the majority 
of stands on Wednesday in order to ascertain the prospects 
of readiness for the private Press view, held to-day (Friday). 
lu many instances the exhibits will be quite ready, iu 
others partially ready, but alas ! in many, the unprepared- 
ness must lead to considerable delay before the stands are 
complete. No doubt a vast amount of final preparation 
will be got through between the time of our visit and the 
actual opening. The Machinery Annexe seems to be the 
most backward, yet there will be plenty of material for the 
visitor to examine from the momeut of opening. Com- 
mencing a rapid survey from the north end, it was 
seen that the elaborate screen of incandescent lamps 
erected by the Edison-Swan Company, and which will be 
one of the greatest attractions of the exhibition, was in a 
forward state. Just below this screen is the large and 
varied exhibit of the Postmaster-General, comprising the 
historical and present-day apparatus used in telegraphy. 
Almost the whole of the exhibits are now in position. Close 
by is the exceedingly pretty stand of the Mining and 
General Company — a study in black and red — the exhibits 
upon which we understand will be quite ready. Mr. 
White, of Glasgow, has a splendid display of Sir W. 
Thomson's measuring instruments, fully complete. 
Messrs. Nalder Bros.' stand in the same quarter is ready, 
but not fully equipped. Still, the show of their make of 
instruments should be a good one. Messrs. Evered, of 
renown in the production of artistic fittings, have nearly 
completed their exhibit, as have Messrs. Joel and Co. ; 
while the W. T. Henley Company and the Fowler- Waring 
Cables Company, exhibit cables and wires of varied descrip- 

One of the most interesting features of this exhibition as 
showing the development of telephone enterprise, will be 
the concert-room of the National Telephone Company, 
where on payment of a small fee the public will have the 
opportunity of listening to the music which is being 
performed at theatres in London, Birmingham, Manchester, 
and Liverpool. 

It must be allowed that the National Telephone Com- 
pany and the Western Electric Company adjacent have 
two of the best-arranged stands, and should be quite ready 
at the opening ceremony. Of the large engineering firms, 
Woodhouse and Rawson, Crompton, the Brush Company, 
Siemens Bros., and Messrs. Johnson and Phillips, come 
one after the other, and each of these stands will have 
sufficient apparatus of interest to make a good show, though 
it is perfectly evident some of them will not be completely 
ready at the opening. The General Electric Company 
will have some very effective exhibits, but we deem it 
preferable not to enter upon detailed description till the 
exhibition is fairly opened. Our readers require a little 
more information than a mere catalogue list. Many of the 
smaUor stands at the sides of the Central Nave will be 
quite ready, and will fully exhibit the specialities of the 
various manufacturers. Altogether the exhibitors may be 
congratulated upon the vast amount of excellent work put 
in since the commencement of the New Year, but even the 
extra week's grace has not brought about that completeness 
which the public look for and expect. 

A visit to the galleries on Wednesday last showed that 
considerable progress has been made since last week, and 
that, though a good deal still remains to be done, some 
of the stands will be in a fair way to completeness by 
next week. We doubt, however, that several weeks must 
elapse before the odour of paste and polish tones down. 
The idea of exhibiting examples of living-rooms, con- 
servatories, and so on, furnished and decorated in various 
styles is excellent, and marks the advance that has 
been made in practical electric lighting since the 1881 
exhibition. It also shows that decorators and upholsterers 
are fully aware of the advantages offered by the incan- 
descent lamp, for here we find two such firms combining to 
exhibit their wares under its light. We are afraid, how- 
ever, that the desire for more light, which has been 
growing steadily during the last decade consequent 
upon the introduction of electric lighting, is likely to lead 

to error. Whilst it is perfectly true that we want more 
light in our streets, stations, and large buildings — and 
since electric lighting led the way and educated the public, 
have, to a certain extent, got it at the hands of the electrical 
or gas engineers — it does not follow that the object of 
introducing incandescent lamps into our houses is to 
obtain more light. It has been repeatedly pointed 
out that to have too much light in a room is almost 
worse than not to have enough. The reasons why we 
use electric lights are because they are cleanly, and do 
not injure costly decorations, because they do not vitiate 
the air, and because they can be placed exactly where we 
want them. There is a flexibility about the incandescent 
light which is wanting in all other systems of illumina- 
tion. Now, this being so, we think it will be a 
pity if the various firms who are exhibiting interiors 
go in for demonstrating the illuminating power of 
the electric light rather than its flexibility and adapt- 
ability. We don't want to see floods of light in these 
model rooms, but we want to see them really well lighted — 
that is, to find the light just where it is required. For 
instance, we very mueh fear that one of the dining-rooms 
exhibited is to have a lamp depending from every square 
yard of the ceiling, the wires coming through certain pro- 
jections in the decoration. If this is the intention we 
think it will be a mistake. True, the room will be 
flooded with light reflected downwards by the white 
ceiling, but there will be too much of it, and the method 
of its introduction is not to be commended. Every room 
requires to be lighted in a different way, because each is 
used for a different purpose, and we hope this fact will be 
fully recognised at the Palace, and, as we have said above, 
the beautiful adaptability rather than the illuminating 
power of the incandescent lamp brought before the public 
with marked emphasis. But to chronicle the progress made 
since our last visit. The stand of Messrs. Rashleigh 
Phipps, and Dawson is rapidly nearing completion, and 
one can get a fair idea of the appearance which the rooms 
will have when the finishing touches have been put to 
them. In the conservatory the rockwork is in evidence, 
and this should prove quite a favourite spot for visitors, 
as it will command a kaleidoscopic view of the main floor 
below. The Old English hall, Italian dining-room, and 
Japanese drawing-room have all taken on form and colour, 
and a few days now will make a wonderful difference in 
their appearance. 

Messrs. H. and J. Cooper, of Great Pulteney-street, 
are also well forward with their dining-room, bedroom, and 
boudoir. The latter should afford many opportunities of 
showing what can be done with the incandescent lamp. 
Many ladies are halting between two opinions in the matter 
of electric lighting. They are weighing the disagreables 
of " wiring," which they, and especially their sterner halves, 
place in the same category with " spring cleaning,'' " paper- 
ing and plastering,'' etc., against the advantages which will 
accrue from turning out the gasman and bringing in the 
electrical engineer. Nothing will give the balance a kick 
in the right direction more quickly than the sight of a 
well lighted and cosy boudoir. This, no doubt, Messrs. 
Cooper will take care to provide them with. 

Messrs. Allen and Mannooch, of Mount-street, 
Berkeley-square, W., are working hard to complete their 
exhibit, which includes a dining-room, with dark oak 
furnishing and panelling, a bedroom and a boudoir. 
These rooms will no doubt attract considerable attention 
when they are finished We hope, however, that the firm 
will not try to overdo the lighting. Too many lamps, like 
too many cooks, sometimes spoil the best of — intentions. 

Mr. Giles, of High-street, Kensington, has a lar^e 
stand which is in a fairly forward condition. It will 
comprise a suite of rooms designed to show what he can 
do in the way of decorating and furnishing. 

Mr. C. B. Harness's gorgeous temple, wherein he will 
'tice the B.P. after the manner of the nursery rhyme, was 
filled with paperhangers and decorators at the time of our 
visit, and will no doubt subsequently be crammed with the 
believing. A huge signboard close at hand indicates that 
this is the way to the camera obscura. Mr. Harness's 
temple has been designed, and excellently well designed too, 
by Messrs. Benison and Bargman, architects, of 16, Craven- 



street, Strand, and has been put up by Mr. E. Triggs, 
builder, of 95, The Chase. Clapham, S.W. 

In close proximity to this stand is a suite of rooms which 
are being decorated and furnished by Mr. W. Poolk, 
Church-road, Upper Norwood, and Mr. Eldridge, of 
Westwood-street, Upper Norwood, the two, although 
trading separately, having, we understand, combined to 
exhibit their different wares undei the soft rays of the 
electric light. The suite will be very complete, and will 
comprise hall, dining-room, drawing-room, bedroom, 
bouaoir, and bathroom. 

Close at hand, Messrs. Shippby Bros, are making a 
special feature of American goods, and will show lamps and 
motors in a hundred and one different shapes and sizes, 
whilst giving practical illustrations of the many uses of the 
latter. We are also promised something novel in the shape 
of devices for attracting the public, but of these we shall 
be able to say more when the promise has been fulfilled, as 
no doubt it will. 



(Continued from page 17.) 

It should be mentioned that many of the solutions of 
gold salts prepared for use in these experiments were of an 
exceedingly unstable character, some of them being very 
readily decomposed by light, in some cases being reduced 
to the metallic state, often in a more or less crystalline 
form ; while from some of the solutions prepared from the 
teroxide the metal deposited in the form of protoxide soon 
after the solutions of the persalt had been effected. This 
separation of the protoxide occurred in some instances 
when the solution of the persalt had been obtained without 
the aid of beat, but more readily so when the respective 
liquids were heated. In such cases, therefore, it was found 
necessary to electrolyse the solutions of the unstable salts 
referred to almost immediately after their preparation — that 
is, during the brief period that the metal remained in 

12. Aurochlmide of Sodium by Electrolysis, — A strong solu- 
tion of chloride of sodium was electrolysed with the current 
from three cells, a gold anode and silver cathode being used 
as before. Chloride of gold at once formed at the anode, 
and in a few minutes after a deposit of gold was received 
upon the silver plate. 

13. Aurochlatide of Potassium. — A solution of chloride of 
potassium, being electrolysed with the same current as 
above, yielded a deposit of gold .upon a silver cathode in a 
few minutes after immersion. 

14. AuroMoride of Magnesium. — A solution of chloride 
of magnesium uuder the same conditions as above 'rapidly 
dissolved the gold anode, and a deposit of the metal was 
received upon a silver cathode in two or three minutes after 
the electrodes were immersed in the liquid. 

15. AuroMoride of Banum. — A solution of chloride of 
barium, being electrolysed with the current from three 
Daniells, dissolved the anode freely at once, and a deposit 
of gold formed on a silver cathode in a few minutes after. 

16. Aurochloride of Strontium. — A solution of chloride of 
strontium, electrolysed under the same conditions as before, 
yield a solution of gold, from which the metal became 
deposited upon a silver cathode in a few minutes after 
immersion of the electrodes. 

17. Teracetate of Gold. — A solution of this salt was 
formed by digesting moist hydrated teroxide of gold in 
ordinary commercial acetic acid ; a small portion only of 
the oxide became dissolved. The solution, after being 
moderately diluted with water, was electrolysed with the 
current from four Daniell cells, when a deposit of gold 
slowly formed upon a silver cathode. After a few 
minutes, green non-reguline metal formed upon the film 
first deposited. 

Id. Ter sulphate of Gold. — Hydrated teroxfde was digested 
'? dilute sulphuric acid, and the resulting solution was 

electrolysed with the current from three cells in series. 
After a rather long immersion, a film of gold gradually 
formed upon a cathode of silver ; the amount of gold in 
solution was, however, small, and there appeared to be no 
action upon the gold anode. 

19. Terlactate of Gold. — In some former experiments in 
the electrolysis of metallic salts the writer had found that 
lactic acid exhibited a higher solvent power for metallic 
oxides and carbonates, and even upon some metals, under 
electrolysis, than could have been expected from so com- 
paratively weak an acid. This fact induced him to ascer- 
tain the behaviour of this acid in respect of gold. A 
strong solution of lactic acid being prepared, a portion 
of this was added to a quantity of moist hydrated 
teroxide of gold, and the mixture repeatedly stitred 
for a few minutes. The mixture was then placed on a 
filter, and a portion of the clear liquid, which had a purple 
tint, was afterwards tested with a solution of chloride of 
tin, when the purple of Cassius at once formed, indicating 
the presence of gold in the solution. The clear solution 
was then electrolysed with the current from three Daniell 
cells in series, a gold anode and strip of platinum foil being 
used as the electrodes. Soon after the circuit was com- 
pleted, a dark green film appeared upon the platinum, 
while the anode, which at first presented a rather dull 
surface, became somewhat brighter. The green deposit, 
which, as before stated, represented gold in a finely-divided 
(and non-reguline) state, was next heated by holding the 
platinum foil on which it was deposited over the flame of a 
spirit lamp, when after a few moments the gold film assumed 
the more perfectly metallic state, but apparently in two 
different conditions — one part of the film assuming the 
characteristic colour of fine gold, but the remaining 
portion (at the lower part of the cathode) was of a deep 
orange-red colour. The gilt portion of the platinum was 
next dipped into warm nitro-hydrochloric acid, when the 
yellow part of the film readily dissolved, but the orange- 
red portion was very tardily acted upon, and fell from the 
plate in small grains of a deep red colour. 

20. Lactate of Gold by Electrolysis. — ^An attempt was next 
made to determine whether lactic acid, under the influence 
of the current, would act upon the gold anode, forming a 
solution of gold from which the metal could be deposited. 
For this purpose, a strong solution of lactic acid was 
electrolysed with the current from four cells, when in 
about a quarter of an hour or so a green film appeared on 
the silver cathode as before, proving that the anode had 
been somewhat speedily acted upon by the acid. A 
platinum cathode was next used, which received a yellow 
film of gold shortly after immersion. 

21. Purple of Cassius by Electrolysis. — A rather weak solu- 
tion of pretochloride of tin was electrolysed with the current 
from two cells, a gold anode and silver cathode being used. 
Almost immediately after immersion of the plates, the 
purple of Cassius formed at the anode, and gradually 
deposited somewhat copiously at the bottom of the vessel. 
This method of producing the purple salt might be found 

22. Terchlmide of Gold in Hydrochloric Acid. — A solution 
was prepared by dissolving gold in aqua regia and care- 
fully evaporating the terchloride to dryness. A portion of 
the dry gold and salt was then dissolved in hydrochloric 
acid. The resulting solution was afterwards considerably 
diluted and electrolysed with the current from a single 
Daniell cell. A silver cathode immersed in the liquid received 
a deposit of gold of very good colour very promptly, the 
film being firmly adherent. It is not improbable that a 
solution thus composed might be found useful for some 
purposes, if worked with care. The liquid, however, must 
be weak and the current low. 

23. Ter&xide of Gold in Nitric Acid. — Teroxide of gold 
was digested in dilute nitric acid, and the solution, after 
being diluted, was electrolysed with the current from three 
cells. Gras was given off at both electrodes, and metallic gold 
deposited upon the silver cathode. 

24. Saccharate of Gold by Electrolysis. — A strong solution 
of saccharic acid was electrolysed with the current from 
four cells, when the gold anode became very slowly 



dissolved, and in about half an hour a film of gold of a 
grey colour formed upon a platinum cathode, which readily 
dissolved in aqua regia. A silver cathode was next auo- 
stiluted, upon which the metal depoHited of the charac- 
teristic yellow colour of gold at first, but after a time the 
film acquired a somewhat dirty colour, indicating the 
pressure of non-reguline metal— probably the ip-tij condition 
before noticed. 

25. Electrolysis of Bisidpkate of PotasHuvi. — A solution of 
the biaulphate was electrolysed with the current from four 
cells, a gold anode and silver cathode being used. Gas was 
liberated at both electrodes, and in the course of abont 
half an hour, or somewhat less, a slight film of gold 
appeared upon the silver surface. 

36. AvrtUe of Amm-mia in Lactic Acid. — A solution was 
{irepared by dissolving aurate of ammonia in a strong solu- 
tion of lactic acid. The solution, after being moderately 
diluted, was electrolysed with the current from a single 
cell, when gold of good colour at once became deposited 
upon a silver cathode. 

27. Odd TeroxUif, in Tartaric .4etd.— Hydrated teroxide 
of gold was digested in a strong solution of tartaric acid 
for some time, and the liquid, after being moderately 
diluted, was tried with the current from three colls. Gae 
was evolved at both poles, and a slight film of gold slowly 
formed upon a cathode of silver. 

28. EUctrdysii of Phospliaric Add.^h. strong solution of 
pbosphoric acid was electi-olysed with the current from four 
Daniells. In about faalf-anhour after immersion of the 
plates it was found that a deep orange-red salt had formed 
on the anode, which fell from the plates in transjtarent 
flakes. A slight film of metAllic gold deposited on the 
silver cathode. 

29. EUdrolym of I'ajiadiale of Ammonia, — A strong 
solution of vanadiate of ammonia was electrolysed with the 
current from three cells, when after a short time the (colour- 
less) solution acquired a rich yellow colour. At the bottom 
of the vessel minute crystals of a deep red colour appeared, 
and gold of a green colour and non-adherent formed upon 
a platinum plate. This deposit when moderately heated 
assumed a yellow colour. A silver cathode being substi- 
tuted, this slowly received a slight film of reguline gold of 
the usual colour. 

30. Tefc«idc of Gold ij* fl^spboroui ^d<i.— Teroxide o! 
gold was digested in a strong solution of phosphorous acid, 
and the solution, after being filtered, was electrolysed with 
the current from four cells. A very slight deposit of gold 
formed on the cathode, but a long immersion failed to yield 
a film of any thickness. 

31. Eleetrolysis of Phosplmwie Aad.—A. strong solution of 
phosphorous acid was electrolysed with the same current 
as the last, and after a rather long immersion, a silver 
cathode became slightly coated with a 61m of gold. On 
examining the anode the immerced surface was found to be 
coat«d with a deep orange-coloured salt, which separated 
in transparent flakes, much resembling both in colour and 
appearance the flaky film referred to in experiment 28, and 
in several other experiments. 

32. Elfclrolysin of Chlorate of Fijiasm.—&. moderately 
strong solution of chlorate of potash was electrolysed with 
the current from three cells. Gas was given off at both 
electrodes, but otherwise there was no apparent action for 
some time ; after a few minutes, however, it was observed 
that a profuse quantity of flat scaly crystals floated on the 
surface of the solution. On examining the anode at this 
time, it was found to be coated with a bright blue film, 
which was insoluble in the liquid. 

33. Eltclrolyins of Hydriodic Acid. — A solution of hydriodic 
acid being prepared, it was determined to ascertain if it 
would dissolve gold from the anode by electrolysis. For 
this pur{>ose the current from two Daniells was first tried, 
when the liquid nearest the anode at once assumed a yellow 
colour, but as there was no deposit of gold upon the silver 
cathode a third cell was put in series, soon after which 
black flakes fell from the anode and deposited at the 
bottom of the vessel, On examining the cathode at this 

time it was found to be coated with pale straw-coloured 


3i. Gdd Teroxvle in Hydriudic Acid. — Moist hydrated 
teroxide of gold — obtained by adding a solution of potash 
to the terchloride — was digested in a strong solution of 
hydriodric acid, in which it dissolved rather freely. The 
solution thus obtained was electrolysed with the current 
from three cells, when a deposit of green, non-reguline gold 
formed ujton the silver cathode at once ; when this loose 
deposit was wiped ofl with the finger, a film of yellow 
reguline metal was found beneath, as is frequently the case 
when the green form of gold is deposited. To prevent thd 
formation of this variety of the metal, and to obtain a fully 
reguline film, the solution wss diluted and ooe cell discon- 
nected from the series, when the metal deposited in better 
condition, but more especially when the cathode wa* 
iiently moved about in the solution. 

3.1. Eleclr'iysis of Iodide of Sodiwn. — A solution of 
iodide of sodium was electrolysed with the current from 
three cells, when the liquid nearest the anode immediately 
acquired a yellow colour. The operation was then left 
undisturbed for about 10 minutes, at the end of which 
time the cathode was examined, when it was found to bd 
coated with a film of gold in the green, non-reguline 

36. Eleclrdysii of Iodide if Amvtimium. — A solution of 
this salt, electrolysed under precisely the same conditions 
as in the last ex[>eriment, soon acquired a yellow colour, 
and the cathode, as before, was coated with a film of green, 
nonreguline metal. When the solutions in this and thfl 
last trial were diluted and the current reduced, the 
gold deposited, thoueh somewhat slowly, in tbe yellow, 
reguline state. 

37. Gold Taiodide in IlyposidphUe of Swia.— Hydrated 
teroxide of gold, precipitated by potash from the ter- 
chloride, was digested in a solution of hyposulphite of 
soda, and the resulting liquid electrolysed with the cun'ent 
from three cells. A film of gold, of a good rich colour, 
and firm'y adherent, was promptly deposited upon a silver 

38. CI<Ad Tfi-oiidt in Citiic Add.—Wy&nXaA teroxide of 
gold was digested in a strong solution of citric acid, and 
the liquid, after filtration, was electrolysed with the cur- 
rent from three cells. Gas was freely given off at both elec- 
trodes, and after a few minutes' immersion a slight film of 
gold appeared upon a silver cathode. The amount of metal 
in solution was, however, very slight, and there was no 
apjiannt solvent action upon the anode. 

39. Gdd Pivtiodide in PyrophosphaU of Soda. — Iodide of 
gold was digested in a strong solution of pyrophosphate of 
soda. The current from four cells was found necessary to 
obtain a deposit upon a silver plate, and this only assumed 
the form of an iridescent film. Gas was given otT at both 
electrodes. On heating the plate to near redness the film 
still retained its iridescent character, but the colourations 
were rendered more vivid and brilliant by the boat to which 
they had been snbjectrd. 

40. Teruxide of Gdd in Bemidc Acid. — The precipitate 
thrown down by carbonate of potassa from a solution of 
gold terchloride, and the mixture afterwards boiled, was 
digested in a hot solution of benzoic acid, and the still warm 
solution was then electrolysed with the current from four 
cells. Gas was evolved at both poles, and a slikiht film of 
gold, of a yellow colour, was deposited u^Mn a silver plate. 
A fifth cell was afterwards added to tbe series, when the 
deposited gold assumed a dark colour. 

41. Teroxiiie of Gold in Malic Acid. — The teroxide pre- 
cipitated by carbonate of potash, and treated as before, 
was digested in a strong and warm solution of malic acid. 
The solution was then tried with the current from three 
cells, but there being no apparent action, a fourth cell was 
added, when g^ was liberated at each electrode, and a 
dark — almost black— film formed u|K)n the silver cathode, 
which was very adherent. When heated over the flime of a 
spirit lamp, the film became iridescent, but when the sur- 
face was rubbed yellow gold appeared attached to the 
silver beneath. 

{To be amiinued.^ 





The machine tested in December last ia, I am informed, 

the first condensing steam turbine that Mr. Parsona hi 
built. Its shaft was designed to carry six small and or 
lar^e ptate or disc, each fitted with a series of rings of 
turbine blades, the large plate being specially designe " 
deal with low-pressure steam. After passing it, the steam 
was exhausted into a jet condenser of novel design, the 
pump of which was driven by a separate donkey engine. 
The turbine linga were of the outward flow type. 

The turbine was (iesigoed to work with steam at an 
initial pressure of HOlh, per square inch, hut on the 
occasion of the trials it was not practicable, for want of 
suitable boiler, to use a pressure of more than 95Ib. per 
square inch. The 6rt-t and second plates with their turbine 
blades were accordingly removed, and the testa were made 
with the remaining four small and one large plate. The 
effect of this was to make the results of the trials less 
favourable, aa to economy in steam consumption, than they 
would have been had the full initial pressure of 1401K 
been available. 

In line with the turbine shaft, and directly coupled to it, 
was the armatnre of an alternate current dynamo capable 
of yielding 100 kilowatts, or 100 Board of Trade units of 
electrical energy |>er hour, and wound for a potential of 
2,000 volts. The exciter was a distinct small dynamo of 
the continue lis -current Gramme type, which was also 
mounted on a prolongation of the turbine shaft. 

The turbine ran at a speed of about 4,800 revolutiona 
per mitint«, and the armature was wound with a single 
coil, so that the frequency of the alternations was about 80 
complete periods per second. 

The whole machine, comprising the turbine, dynamo, 
and exciter, weighed about four tons ; its length was about 
Uft, and its greatest breadth barely 3ft. It stood on 
three castiron pedestals resting on an ordinary concrete 
floor. There were no holding-down bolts or special founda- 
tions, and none seemed to be required. The machine ran 
almost without vibration. 

In the trials the cun'ent generated was spent on a Itank 
of resistance coils consisting of open spirals of iron wire 
strung on wooden framea, The output was varied, in 
successive trials, from about 20 units per hour, or, say, 
one-fifth load, to 100 uniU per hour or full load. The loads 
spoken of are the amounts of electrical power spent in the 
external circuit, and do not include the work done by the 
exciter in supplying current to the field magnets of the 
main dynamo. (The output of the exciter was about 3J 
units per hours.) 

In two additional trials there was no external load 
beyond what was necessary for measuring the {Mtenlial. 

The experiments were arranged to give complete informa- 
tion of the amount of steam used by the turbine under all 
grades of output from full load to zero. 

The electrical output was taken to be the product of the 
effective volu at the dynamo terminals into the effective The volts were measured by aid of a 2-h,p. 
transformer, which tianaformed down in the ratio of 1 
to 10, and a pair of Cardew voltmeters. To test the 
accuracy of the professed ratio of transformation, the volta 
e on one occasion read by applying a Cardew voltmeter 
to racc«Bsive portions of the hank of resistance coils (then 
grouped in aeries), so that the |x)tential was directly deter- 
mined by summing up the readings. This determination 

I found to agree exactly with that obtained by means 
""e tTkniformer. 
t Cudew voltmeters were themselves tested by com- 
an with a third Cardew, which in its turn had been 

idanliHd liy help of one of Sir William Thomson's 

SM. They were found to be correct 

I current was measured by (l)an Evershed gravity 

l«r, and (2) a Siemens electro-dynamometer. 

B coftnected in series in several of the trials, and 

 found to be in perfect agreement The Kvershei 

Bonl bttd been tested against a Thomson balance. 

The consumption of eteam in the turbine was measured by 

passing the feed-water through a measuring tank, th« 
capacity of whijh I cheeked. Steam was supplied from an 
old boiler of the locomotive type at a pressure of 901b. to 
96Ib, per square inch. The steam-pipe was too small, and 
the loss of pressure between the boiler and the turbine 
must have been considerable, especially in the full-power 

In the full-power trials this boiler was insufficient to 
supply all the steam, and another boiler was joined to it. 
It was then impracticable to measure the feed, and the 
amount of steam passing through the turbine was esti- 
mated in theae trials by measuring the rise in temiwrature 
of the water discharged from the condenser, in conjunction 
with the amount oE the water, as gauged by means of a 
weir. This rise in temperature and the head over the weir 
were noted in all the trials, so that when the feed was 
directly measured a constant wae determined which could 
be ap;ilied in cusen where a direct measurement of the feed 
was impracticable. 

The boiler was old and leaky, but the amount of waUr 
which fell to be deducted from the whole feed on this 
account was repeatedly determined. The allowances made 
for leakage are certainly not excessive, and do not in any 
case affect the full-power trials materially. 

The steam required for (1) the feed-pump, (2) the air- 
pump, was supplied by a separate boiler, and is not included 
in the quantities that are stated below. 

The vacuum ranged from 28Mn. at light loads to 2G{in. 
at full load. The temperature of the cold well varied from 
5deg. C. to ISdeg. C. 

The trials extended over three days — December 12tb. 
14th, and loth, 1891. The turbine was kept running, 
without change of load, long enough in each case to secure 
a uniform regime, and to prevent any material error from 
being caused by an inexact reading of the water-gauge 
glass on the boiler. The machine ran without any hitch 
throughout all the ttials. 

The following are the obaerred results. The trials dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk are those in which the consump 
tion of steam was inferred from the rise of temperature in 
the injection- water. In the other trials it was measured 
di recti]', as toed -water. 

Electrical output in units Stenni used in the turbine 

KeneratG<l per hour. in pounds per hour. 

03 S"*\«92 ,~_.i 

0-3 i-SJ**" imma) 

20'8 I,12U ,, 

31-2 1.350 'I 

48-5 1,875 ^^1 

86-9 2.4a0' ^H 

G6'5 3,580 ^^M 

93 3.630' ^^B 

100 3.800* ^^ 

These results are also shown graphically in the accom- 
panying curve, which shows the relation of the number of 
pounds of steam used by the turbine per hour to ihs 

number of electrical units generated per hour. 

It is convenient also to express the results in anotber 
way, by stating the number of pounds of steam used per 
unit generated, at various rates of output from full load 
downwards. These quantities, obtained by meaaurement 
from the curve, are given in the following table : 

Output in units Number of pounds of •(«■■ 

per hour. used per anit. i^^H 

10 771 ^H 

20 63 ^^1 

30 45 ^^M 

40 41 ^H 

SO 39 ^^1 

60 38 ^H 

70 m ^H 

80 37 ^H 

90 37 ^H 

100 37 ^M 

It will be seen from these figures that the consunptioK^^I 
of steam by this condensing turbine was 371b. par electriad^H 
unit generated, when the machine was giving ita gr«atett 
output ; that the output might be reduced to, eay, tbraw- 
fourths of its greatest value without causing any sensible 
tion in the consumption of steam per unit; and that at 
half load the consumption was 391b per unit Wbon iIm 
load is further reduced the consumption [wr unit ii 


< ^ 


as it does in all engines, on account of the work which is 
expended within the machine itself. 

The consumption of 371b. per unit at full load corre- 
sponds to 27 "Gib. per electrical horse-power per hourj and the 
consumption of 391b. per unit, at half load, corresponds to 
291b. per electrical horse-power per hour. 

For the sake of comparison it may be added that in a good 
ordinary compound condensing engine of corresponding 
power the consumption of steam is usually about 201b. per 
indicated horse-power per hour, which corresponds (allowing 
for necessary loss in transmission to the dynamo) to, say, 
361b. per unit In the special type of single-acting high-speed 
engines made by Mr. Willans, and successfully used in 
many electric light stations, the consumption of steam at 
full load and at moderately full load is somewhat less. The 
best results in trials published by him show (with high 
pressure and triple expansion) a consumption equivalent 
to about 30^1b. per unit in a non-condensing engine and 
251b. per unit in a condensing engine, worked at full load ; 
while at half load the luimbers are about 431b. per unit and 
321b. per unit respectively. 

I have no doubt that if it had been practicable in 
the turbine tests to use the full pressure of 1401b. per 
square inch for which the turbine was designed (in place of 
a pressure of 951b.) that the consumption of steam per unit 
would have been considerably reduced. 

As they stand, however, the results must be admitted to 
demonstrate a very remarkable performance. They show 
that in respect of economy of steam, and therefore of fuel, 
at full or moderately full load, the Parsons turbine of the 
type and size tested now challenges comparison with good 
engines of the usual kind, while its comparative freedom 
from friction gives it an exceptionally high efficiency when 
lightly loaded. 

Apart from the question of steam economy, the lightness 
and compactness of the turbine dynamo, its small first cost, 
the perfect ease with which it is started, its freedom from 
vibration, and the absence of any need for heavy founda- 
tions, are points much in its favour as a generator for 
centnd station work. 

Mr. Parsons has been good enough to give me every 
facility for examining the construction of his turbines and 
dynamos. I see no reason to anticipate that the charges 
for maintenance, for oil, and for attendance will be larger 
than in the case of other engines I should rather expect 
them to be lighter, and this appears to be borne out by the 
experience of the Newcastle and District Electric Lighting 
Company, where turbine generators have been in use for 
about two years. 

I had the advantage of seeing the plant at that company's 
station and of obtaining particulars in regard to wages and 
other items of current outlay from the superintending 
engineer and the secretary of the company, who were most 
willing to supply information. 

In regard to first cost, the turbine generator is probably 
cheaper, in large sizes, than any combination of ordinary 
engine and dynamo giving equal output. 

The machine tested had an electrical governor which 
regulated by causing intermittent admission of steam. 
The action of this governor was not entirely satisfactory, 
and Mr. Parsons informed me that he meant to substitute 
for it a modified form of a type of governor which has been 
found to work well at the Newcastle and district electric 
light station and elsewhere. 

The turbine worked at its full load of 100 electrical 
units per hour without any sign of distress, and so far 
as could be judged was capable of giving a greater output 
without difficulty. The dynamo armature became hotter 
than is, in my opinion, desirable. This might be avoided 
by an alteration in the winding of the armature. 

With a dynamo wound to give continuous currents, the 
consumption of steam in the turbine per electrical unit 
generated may be confidently expected not to exceed the 
consumption observed in these experiments. 

introduced by the Caustic Soda and Chlorine Syndicate, Limited, 
of 58, Lombard -street, E.C. It has this week been inspected in 
operation by a number of gentlemen at the works of Messrs. Bowes 
Scott and Weston, PhcBuix Wharf, Battersea. The passing of an 
electric current throup^h a solution of common salt divides the 
latter into caustic soda and chlorine, but the principal difficulty 
hitherto encountered in plaoinc^ any method of this kind on a com- 
mercial footing has been to prevent the recombination of the elec- 
trolysed products. It is claimed, however, that the inventor of 
the process in question has surmounted this obstacle by the use 
of a patent diaphragm and a compound anode. 

Mr. W. H. Preece,whohas made experiments with the plant, states 
that the commercial efficiency of the process is 75 per cent., and he 
is certain that in actualjpractice, and with further experience, even 
better results can be obtained. As far as the expense of producing 
electrical energy is concerned, he says that in the coal districts, 
with triple-expansion modern engines and dynamos, working con> 
tinually at full load, the cost would amount to ^. per kilowatt 
hour. The total cost of producing caustic soda and bleaching 
powder and liquor would, according to Mr. Preece, be little more 
than one- third of their present market value. 

Dr. Gore, F.R.S., has drawn up two reports. He states that he 
is convinced of the scientifically practicable character of the 
method, and that nearly all the chief engineerinfn; chemical diffi- 
culties of the process appear to him to have been overcome. He 
also expresses the opinion that the amount of labour and the 
number of workmen necessarv in the process, when carried out on 
a large scale, would probably be small in comparison with that 
required for producing the same quantities of the same produote 
by the usual methods, because the entire process would be laigely 

Messrs. Cross and Bevan, of the laboratory, 4, New-court, 
W.C, find that the efficiency of the process has advanced to 80 
per cent., as compared with 70 per cent, when preliminarily 
examined by them some months a^i^o. 

The plant laid down consists of five electrolytic tanks arranged 
in the form of a flight of steps, whilst the vessel containing the 
supply of brine is erected on a higher level than the top tank. 
This arrangement ensures an automatic circulation of the solutions. 
Each tank contains five compound anodes and six cathodes placed 
alternately, these being separated by diaphragms. The anode is 
formed of carbon plates having a metal core so as to increase the 
conductivity ; it is specially treated so as to render it non -porous 
and unattackable by the chlorine gas which, it may be mentioned, 
is evolved on its surface. The cathode, on which is formed the 
caustic soda, is an iron plate. The patent diaphragm is of peculiar 
construction, being composed of stripe of slate arranged in a 
longitudinal frame. These strips are placed at an angle of about 
45(ieg., one above the other and on each side of the frame, an 
intermediate packing of asbestos fibre beinff used. The diaphragm 
and the anode constitute the two principal features of the process. 
Each tank is divided into 10 anode or chlorine sections, and 10 
cathode or caustic soda sections. The anodes and cathodes in 
each tank are arranged in parallel, and the ^\e tanks in series. 
An E M.F. of 4*4 volts, witn a current of 10 amperes per square 
foot of electrode surface, is required to overcome the resistance of 
each tank. Vulcanite tubes are employed to connect the 50 anode 
sections, the inlet bein&r at the bottom and the outlet at the top of 
each section. The cathode sections are similarly connected. 

The working of the process is, briefly, as follows : The tanks are 
charged with a solution of common salt, and on a current being 
passed the solution is decomposed or divided into its constituents, 
chlorine and sodium. A secondary action occurs in the separation 
of the sodium, and this converts it into caustic soda. After 
passing out of the lowest tank the salt solution and the caustic 
soda are pumped back to their respective charging vessels, the 
former to be further decomposed and the latter to be further con- 
centrated. The chlorine gas ^iven off in the anode sections passes 
by means of branch and mam pipes into four absorbing tanks. 
These contain lime and water kept in a state of agitation and 
which takes up the chlorine and transforms it into bleaching or 
chlorate liquor as required. The caustic soda formed in the anode 
sections is rendered more or less concentrated according to the 
particular purpose for which it is required. 

The company state that the process will be of great importance 
to the paper, soap, and bleaching industries, and that it is also 
applicable to the production of sodium amalgam and chlorine for 
extracting gold and other metals from their ores, and caustic and 
chlorate of potash and other chemicals. This brief description of 
Mr. Greenwood's process is given, as the lawyers say, ** with- 
out prejudice." So maoy processes have from time to time 
been put forward, and have failed, even when reported upon by 
the highest authorities, that a considerable amount of caution 
must w used. A process may be theoretically perfect, and seem 
commercial upon an experimental scale, though, when tried upon 
a large scale, it proves to be less successful. 


A new process for the direct production of caustic soda and 
eUorioa hiaa been devised by Mr. J. Greenwood, and is now being 

Tndor Aoonmolatora. — The Tudor Accumulator 
Company have issued an illustrated catalogue of some pre- 
tension. Besides information as to size and prices, 
chapters are given, one containing the reports on these 
accumulators by MM. Uppenborn, Rohlrausch, and 
Monnier, and others, and the other dealing with best 
methods of mounting accumulators. Directions for the 
care and management of the cells are given in a special 





Published every Friday. 
Priee Threepenee ; Post Free, Threepenee Halfpenny . 

Editorial and Pablishingr Offlees : 


Notei 25 

Sydenham Electric Light 

Station 30 

The Crystal Palace Exhibi- 
tion 31 

ElectrolysiB of Gold Salts ... 32 
Report on Trialsof a lOOUnit 
rarsons Steam Turbine 
Dynamo at HeatonWorks, 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 34 

Greenwood's Electro-Chemi- 
cal Process 35 

1892 36 

Correspondence 41 

Electno Light Decorative 

Fittings 41 

New South Wales Electrical 

Club — Inaugnral Address 42 

Companies' Meetings 46 

New Companies Kegistered 47 

Business Kotes 47 

Pronsional Patents 47 

Companies' Stock and Share 

List 48 


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are invited to furnish notice of Meetings, Issue of New 
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any account of their inventions submitted to us will 
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London, E,C, Anonymous communicatunui toUl not be 


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It is usual at the commencement of each new 
year for the Queen to honour those in her realm to 
whom the Prime Minister for the time being believes 
honour to be due. Such honours are conferred 
for various reasons — mostly political. At times, 
however, other claims are held to be paramount, 
and the scientific world contributes its quota to 
those who receive these honours. 

Few announcements will give more pleasure to 
the scientific world in general, and the electrical 
world in particular than, the announcement that a 
peerage is to be conferred on Sir William Thomson. 
In his person no one can complain that scientific 
pre-eminence is not rewarded, though it would 
indeed be difficult to add distinction to that he has 
himself achieved by his numerous practically 
useful inventions and deep mathematical researches. 
Elected President of the Boyal Society last year, the 
highest purely scientific honour a native of the United 
Kingdom can receive, his elevation to the peerage is 
only a further step in his distinguished career. We 
have no need to allude to Sir William Thom- 
son's achievements in science — they are too well 
known to our readers to require iterated 
mention, but we do not think his kindness 
and interest iu struggling students, of whom he 
must have had an enormous number under his 
charge, has been brought to light. We remember 
one interesting example which will bear mention at 
this juncture, and illustrates the kindness of two 
men and the influence a little help will have upon a 
young man's life. The late Dr. Boyston Piggott, 
who died recently at Eastbourne in the fulness of 
ripe age, was in early years Sir William's mathe- 
matical tutor, and kept his interest in his dis- 
tinguished scholar. Dr. Piggott was always 
interested in promising young students, and one of 
his proteges was the son of a policeman who had 
taken to amateur electrical experiments. The doctor 
learnt of this, gave the lad lessons, and then asked 
the father whether he wished his son to be made an 
electrician. The father did not seem anxious for 
honours, but the mother was, and, armed with a 
letter of introduction to Sir William Thomson, she 
posted to Glasgow with the boy and a heap of 
electrical instruments. Sir William was not at 
home, but visiting at a country house in the 
neighbouhood. Not to be daunted, the hopeful 
mother took a cab, and, with the seat crowded with 
instruments, called at the house, and asked for 
Sir William, who came down from the billiard- 
room with a cue in his hand. With much amuse- 
ment and interest he interrogated the couple, and 
finally made an appointment at the college in 
Glasgow, and found the boy a place. It is many 
years ago now, but this young man, we believe, 
soon after received an appointment as superinten- 
dent of telegraphs in one of the colonies, at a salary 
of some £600 a year — ^rather better than he might 
have hoped for in his native town. Numerous 
other cases might be quoted to show that 



Sir William feels an interest in human as well as 
scientific problems. Nor have we probably heard 
the last of his contributions to the latter. It is 
possible, we hear, though not yet decided, that the 
title which Sir William will take will be that of 
Lord Kelvin, firom the name of the once beautiful river 
which flows past the foot of the college grounds at 
Glasfjow, and on which his windows' look out. 
May he live long to enjoy his honours ! 

In our next issue we shall give a further series of 
portraits similar in style to those given in our last 
number. As far as possible our publisher will 
refuse to supply single copies of these special issues 
to casual purchasers. We do not cater for those 
who pick up an odd number of the paper now and 
again, but desire to do the best to provide suitable 
pabulum for those who are regular readers. 

If in our issue of January 2, 1891, we felt con> 
strained to say " the business problems that await 
solution to-day . . . are very similar to those 
awaiting solution a year ago," we should not be far 
from correct in restating that view. Yet there is a 
great difference in January, 1892, over January, 
1891. Financiers were still very shy in 1891; 
they are still shy, but less so, because month 
by month electrical engineers are demonstrating 
the certainty and the suitability of electric lighting 
for general work. Then the great experiment of 
Lauffen-Frankfort — whatever may be the econo- 
mical figures connected therewith— the great experi- 
mental departure of the year, has forced attention 
from those still inclined to scoff at the probabilities 
of electrical applications. English electricians have 
sadly attempted to belittle the adoption of polyphase 
apparatus. In public and in private they have 
denied there was anything good in the idea, but they 
find their continental and American confreres refus- 
ing to see in the same light. Let us admit that we 
have still much to learn about poljrphase apparatus, 
and await further experimental and theoretic study 
before condemning the departure. 

Financial. — Whether the future will see rotary- 
current apparatus pass into oblivion or develop into 
greater prominence, there can be no doubt it has 
proved the grandest advertisement for electrical engi- 
neering that the past year brought forth. It has 
helped other and more modest work in the eyes of 
the financiers, so that at the present time more than 
one energetic firm or company finds it less difficult to 
finance its new schemes than was found twelve months 
ago. It would not be right, however, to hint without 
quahfication that " finance " was now easy, and 
would continue so. There are troubles looming 
ahead connected with companies whose prospects 
are thought to be bright. Long ago we suggested 
investment in low-priced shares — such as the Brush 
were then quoted — to some higher-priced ones. The 
market quotation is not always an indication of real 
value ; there is such a thing known as making a 
price. We again reiterate in the strongest possible 
manner, avoid the highest prices and be content 
with the lower. With the exception that it makes 

financing difficult, we care little what the public 
gains or loses in its buying and selling shares. The 
public has no sympathy with those who correctly 
advise, and, on the other hand, the adviser often cuts 
his own throat by making enemies of those who are 
willing to pay for silence. The smash up of a big 
company, however, is harmful to the industry 
generally — hence our warning. There are few or 
none of the existing concerns past recall, and most 
of them with a moderate amount of care will prove 
good investments. 

Traction. — The event of the year, so far as 
England is concerned, has been the installation of 
the Thomson-Houston overhead system of trams at 
Leeds. We gave a very completsi description of this 
line at the time of the opening, and the experience 
of our friends living in the district is altogether in 
favour of the line. At the time of the opening 
ceremony we attempted to get the views of 
residents on the route, but, like most Yorkshiremen, 
they refused to commit themselves. A few days 
since, testimony unasked for was forthcoming, and, 
as we say, altogether in favour of the line. No doubt 
Mr. Graff Baker has had similar testimony from a 
number of people, but this outside praise cannot be 
unacceptable. The consensus of opinion being thus 
favourable, should lead to a rapid extension towards 
the centre of the town ; and the success at Leeds, we 
trust, will induce other places to go forward. The 
City and South London, while it may not have 
fulfilled all the expectations of its promoters during 
its first year of existence, is undoubtedly gradually 
winning its way to success, and the experience 
gained thereon will be invaluable in the exten- 
sions to be undertaken in other quarters of 
London. The earliest of our electric trams — 
that of Mr. Volk's at Brighton — after under- 
going vicissitudes of no ordinary kind, is still 
running satisfactorily, and is about to be greatly 
improved. The widening of the roadway has made 
it difficult to keep the rails clean enough to use one 
rail as a lead and the other as a return, so a third 
rail is to be added. Two new cars are being built 
by Messrs. Kerr, Stuart, and Co., which Mr. 
Reckenzaun will fit with motors. The other lines 
are much as they were. Mr. Holroyd Smith is to 
carry out an experiment at Halifax, and we have no 
doubt he will be as successful there as at Blackpool. 
What promises to be the great feature of the present 
year is the Liverpool overhead railway, the apparatus 
for which is being constructed at Wolverhampton. 

The Acme Electric Works inform us that the 
past season has been the most successful that the 
firm has experienced, and the works have been fully 
occupied throughout the year, and, in fact, for the 
last four months it has been necessary to keep them 
going on overtime regularly. They have been 
favoured with a succession ot orders from Govern- 
ment departments for heavv switchboard and other 
work, and have substantial current orders in hand. 
The present year has opened out in a very promising 
manner. With reference to the Teague patent 
electricity meter, this has now been developed into 
a commercial instrument, and the labours upon it 


tHE fiLfiCfRlCAL ENGINteEH, JAi^lTARY S, 1892 

have been rewarded by important orders. The firm 
has considerably extended its plant in the instru- 
ment department, which enables rapidly-increasing 
demands to be met with faciUty. The new Acme 
patent ampere and voltmeter has turned out most 
successful, and has been received with much favour, 
and the demand for the same is steadily on the increase. 
The firm's well-known switches and fuses still main- 
tain the prestige they have so long enjoyed, and 
business in this department is increasing rapidly. 

Benham and Froud say, generally, that they have 
been very busily engaged in the manufacture of 
electric fittings of the highest class of art metal 
work throughout the whole year. 

Drake and Gorham. — A review of the work done 
by Messrs. Drake and Gorham shows that country 
house lighting is on the increase, this firm having 
carried out about 50 installations, notably Wynyard 
Park, for the Marquis of Londonderry, 1,000 lights ; 
Margam Castle, for Miss Talbot ;^ Ehinefield, for 
Lieut. Munro ; Hoddam Castle, Ecclefechan ; 
Felstead Schools ; Clatford Mills, Andover, for Mr. 
Forster ; Adhurst St. Mary, for Mr. Bonham Carter ; 
Shendish, for Mr. Longman ; Leonardslee, Horsham, 
for Sir E. G. Loder ; Ardoe, for Mr. Ogston ; The 
Lodge, for Mr. de la Rue, etc. A number of houses 
have been wired for the supply from a central 
station, and the firm are carrying out work for 

Crompton-Howell Electrical Storage Co. — 
We give the contribution of this company to theyear's 
information re work done in their own words : 
''As so much has been said about the inevitable 
losses which the use of accumulator storage entails 
on an electric supply system, we think this is a 
fitting opportunity to enclose the annual report we 
have just received from the engineer of the 
Kensington and Knightsbridge Company, which has 
been our oldest customer, and has continuously used 
our accumulators for nearly seven years. We give 
you the figures exactly as received, although they 
show a low efliciency during last January and 
February, due to the fact that owing to the excep- 
tionally severe weather the temperature was so 
low that they were working in an exceptionally 
unfavourable manner. As soon as means were 
provided for maintaining the battery-rooms at 
a regular temperature, the efficiency at once 
rose to the average of the year — viz., about 79 per 
cent. These efficiencies are the actual commercial 
efficiencies taken at the recording meters. The 
losses include not only the losses in the batteries 
themselves, but those due to the resistance of the 
charging leads, which connect the distant accumu- 
lator station with the generating station. The losses 
shown, therefore, are accurately representative of 
the total losses due to the use of accumulators for 
that part of the output which passes through them. 


Kensington Court and Qc7££N*s Gate Batteries. 

Kensington Court only. 


Charge in Discharge in 
ampere^ours. ampere-hours. 



Charge in 

Discharge in 

Per cent, 

Per cent, 






113174 1 77-592 
96 603 ' 74 005 
82-977 1 73-2,30 

101 021 90-487 
89-257 82 274 
95-603 88 •0-28 

68 6 































31 -265 










September ... 


November . 
December . . . 

104 114 






1,144-036 1,002-137 



Rkmarks. — During January no provision had been made at the Queen's Gate battel y station for heating so that the efficiency fell 
very low. During March improvements were made in the system of charging the batteries, hence the increased efficiency. The 
efficiency in watts cannot be calculated directly from the figures given for ampere-hours, as the results depend upon the proportion of 
work done by the batteries at each station. Owing to the fall of potential in the charging mains to Queen's Gate, the watt emciency at 
that station must be lower than at Kensington Court; also it depends on the amount of cnarging done separately or in connection with the 
lighting. A few readings are given showmg the efficiency of the Kensington Court home battery taken by themselves, in order to show 
how considerably the loss in the charging mains reduces the total average efficiency for the year. 

the London County Council at the weights and 
measures testing station, Newington. The wiring 
of the Eoyal Colonial Institute has also been carried 
out by them. The Cardew patents have been 
further developed, and the earthmg device has been 
formally approved and sealed by the Board of Trade. 
There is a considerable demand for the D.P. battery, 
both from the trade and private users. 

J. K. Fahib AND Son, of Dublin, have been fairly 
busy during the year, especially in the capacity of 
consulting electrical engineers. Numerous inspec- 
tions of suitable water power in the country districts 
for driving dynamos have been made, and various 
reports prepared. The firm have now under their 
superintendence several installations, the most im- 
portant carried out during the year being that of 
the suburban residence of the well-known Southern 
brewer, J. J. Murphy, Esq., J.P., on the banks of 
the Lee. The firm expect to have a good share of 
electrical work on hand during the present year. 

This at Kensington is one-eighth part of the whole 
output, so that the use of accumulators in this station 
during the past year has only entailed the loss of 2^ per 
cent, in the entire output. Mr. MiUer's remarks are 
interesting in showing that the efficiency obtained 
from the home batteries, which does not include 
losses in charging mains, is practically in excess of 
85 per cent." 

Crystal Palace District Electric Supply 
Company.— The business of this company has been 
entirely reorganised during the last year. The 
principal works with which the company was con- 
nected were the provisional orders for the Crystal 
Palace and district, and for the city of Oxford ; also 
the small central station in Walbrook. All business, 
except that connected with the Crystal Palace and 
district, was transferred, the name of the com- 
pany having been altered to that of the Crystal 
Palace District Electric Supply Company, 
Limited, carrying on solely the ousiness under 



the provisional order for that locality. The pro- 
visional order for Oxford is being carried out 
by a local company entitled the Oxford Electric 
Company, Limited, who have contracted with 
the Electric Construction Corporation for a 
complete plant comprising central station for the 
supply of a continuous current of moderate high 
tension, with subsidiary transformer and accumu- 
lator stations, and an application is now before the 
Board of Trade for the transfer of the provisional 
order to the local company in question. The Wal- 
brook station has been transferred to the Electric 
Construction Corporation. The generating station 
at Sydenham is ready for the supply of current to 
the exhibitors at the Crystal Palace. The works 
have been carried out with extraordinary energy by 
Messrs. J. E. H. Gordon and Co., whose contract 
was signed on the 13th August last, and the works 
are now practically completed, as already described 
in this journal. A large number of the exhibitors 
at the Crystal Palace have contracted with 
the company for the supply of current, including, 
among others, the following : Edison-Swan United, 
Wm. S. Freeman, Shirley and Co., James Pitkin, 
the Mining and General Electric Lamp Company, 
Woodhouse and Eawson United, the Medical Battery 
Company, the Electric Construction Corporation, 
Consolidated Telephone Constiuction, and Main- 
tenance Company, Thomas Jenner, Eashleigh 
Phipps and Dawson, the Fowler- Waring Cables 
Company, Swinburne and Co., Frank Suter and Co., 
Marryat, Lilly white, and Co., the Electrical Power 
Storage Company, the Telegraph Manufacturing 
Company, Evered and Co., Anders Elliott and 
Chetham-Strode, the Western Electric Company, 
etc. At Oxford the building of the generatincr station 
at Cannon Wharf, on the banks of the Eiver Thames, 
and which will occupy 100ft. frontage to the river, is 
being rapidly pushed forward, and it is expected that 
the supply of electricity will be ready early in the 
spring. The demand in Oxford promises to be very 
large, as the project has been very favourably received 
by the heads of colleges and public institutions, the 
Corporation, private residents, traders, etc. 

The General Electric Company can again 

report considerable expansion in their works at 

Manchester during the year 1891. They have 

taken three more buildings, and increased the 

number of hands from about 400 to nearly 600. 

The demand for electric light fittings, such as 

switchboards, switches, cut-outs, ceiling roses, 

lampholders, has been very large, and at the 

beginning of the winter stocks were thoroughly 

exhausted, and the company had to make great 

efforts to cope with the demand. They have 

largely increased the factory for making meters, both 

current and volt or ammeters, and the facilities for 

calibrating and testing are now such that they can 

fill any orders at early dates. It was natural that 

the department for electric signalling should be 

increased considerably during the last year, as then 

the telephone patents expired, and immediately after 

the expiry the company was extremely busy and fall 

with orders for transmitters, receivers, and all kinds 

of switches. The Johnson microphone, of which 

they are the sole makers, has especially taken 

extremely quickly, and has found its way already 

into several large and important central stations. 

As for the general supply business, the home 

trade has been increasing very considerably 

during the year, both in London and most 

of the country towns, but it is unfortunately 

fi>and that the prices are being cut down in all 

Itfticles, leaving a margin of profit which seems 

ridiculous, considering the newness and risks of the 
electrical trade, which leaves only one consolation — 
that it is impossible to continue. The trade to the 
Continent and to the Colonies, however, has not 
only increased in volume, but has also been more 
profitable, and the company finds that some of the 
most outlandish and uncivilised countries are be- 
coming their best customers. The endeavour for 
the new year is to again improve all china fittings to 
a degree of perfection to which they have never 
attained, and to keep large stocks in advance so 
that contractors may draw from stocks in future 
without the expense and risk of keeping stock for 

General Electric Power and Traction Com- 
pany. — The close of 1891 sees the end of the first 
financial year of this c jmpany. It will be gathered 
from the directors' report, which was published on 
the 18th of December, that electric traction has 
been almost entirely stopped by legislative and local 
obstacles of so stringent a character as to practically 
prohibit business ; in spite of this, however, con- 
siderable progress has been made. The service of elec- 
tric cars at Barking has been improved, and advantage 
has been taken of the experience there gained m 
estimating for maintenance contracts on a large and 
commercial scale. Indeed, as was foreshadowed by 
the chairman's speech to the shareholders, the 
company have reason to expect traction orders to the 
extent of ±150,000 during the coming year. With the 
knowledge they have gained there is but little doubt 
of a satisfactory result. The sub-contract with the 
E.P.S. Company for the maintenance of the 
accumulators at a fixed mileage rate removes the 
only doubt which capitalists may have had for 
the success of this form of electric traction, for it is 
needless to say that the combined companies, with 
their unrivalled opportunities of gaining experience, 
are quite capable of carrying out contracts entrusted 
to them. Apart from Barking, considerable progress 
has been made in other places. For some months a 
self-contained car was run over the tramway system 
at Liverpool, carrying ordinary loads and keeping 
schedule time, thus proving the practicability 
of this class of car over steep grades. A 
smaller accumulator car is now being built for 
use on the Birmingham lines, so as to make com- 
parison with the cost of the larger double-bogie 
trams running there at present. It is firmly believed 
by the company that these small accumulator cars, 
carrying about 36 passengers, will satisfactorily solve 
the problem of tramcar propulsion in our crowded 
thoroughfares. In mining work the company has 
been very busy, and has lully doubled the quantity 
of work done in this department in the preceding 
year. Electricity has been used for lighting, pump- 
ing, hauling, fan driving, and coal- getting with 
unvarying success. In launch work the company 
stands practically alone, and during the busy 
periods of last season controlled the pleasure traffic 
of the Thames. During week-ends the whole of their 
available boats were usually let, and in some cases 
could have been let two or three times over. In 
spite of the bad season this department has been a 
distinct success, and should the weather be at all 
favourable next year a very handsome dividend may 
be evidently looked forward to from this department. 
Viewing the rapid extension of launch work, the 
company have acquired land near Chertsey, and are 
now building hulls for their clients and for future 
extensions of the Thames fleet. During the Naval 
Exhibition a special feature was made of this branch 
of the company's business, and an electric pinnace 
of the man-of-war type was shown ecjui^^ed t^^^ 



for slin^ng in davits. This led to some impor- 
tant business with foreign Governments, and three 
sea-goin^ boats, 50ft. in length, were dispatched 
to Russia. On Lake Windermere the company's 
launches were usefully employed during the whole 
of the season, and derived their power K>r charging 
solely from a turbine, the first instance of the kind 
known when water power was used for charging 
boat accumulators. Arrangements have been con- 
cluded with the Manchester Ship Canal Syndicate 
by which a fleet of electric launches will run on part 
of the Ship Canal early in the spring. The company 
are about to erect an extensive electric copper-refining 
plant on the bank of the Thames, whicn they hope 
to have in fall operation about April next. The 
company have given considerable attention to 
electric lighting both in London and the provinces, 
and have had a very satisfactory amount of work 
for this department. The sale of djmamos and 
motors for general purposes has largely increased, 
and the company are confidently looking forward to 
a further extension of the motor trade, with both 
direct and alternating current, as the use of elec- 
tricity from central stations becomes more largely 

Ernest Scott and Mountain, Close Works, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, have been extremely busy 
during the whole of the past year in their 
electrical department, which has very largely 
developed since the firm commenced the manufac- 
ture of electrical machinery and the supplying of 
electric light installations. During the year the 
firm have supplied for their various installations and 
to trade customers at home and abroad over 150 
dynamos of various sizes, most of them being of 
large size, and amongst the important installations 
which they have supplied are the following : The 
large flour mills at Dunston-on-Tyne, which have 
recently been erected by the Co-operative Wholesale 
Society, have been lighted throughout by electricity, 
the installation consisting of two Tyne compound 
wound dynamos, each capable of running as a maxi- 
mum 600 16-c.p. lamps, one Tyne compound-wound 
dynamo capable of running 15 2,000-c.p. arc lamps, and 
one Tyne compound-wound dynamo for the pilot 
installation capable of running 100 16-c.p. lamps. 
Throughout the mill there are installed about 600 
16-c.p. lamps, this being the largest electric light 
installation in any flour mill in the United Kingdom. 
Since the starting of the installation in February 
the plant has run without the slightest hitch of any 
kind, and has given great satisfaction to the society. 
Messrs. Arthur and Co.'s factory, at Anderston, 
Glasgow, has also been lighted by the same firm, 
this installation consisting of two Tyne compound- 
wound dynamos capable of running 600 16-c.p. lamps 
each, and 700 lamps and fittings fixed throughout 
their new works. Messrs. Jones Bros, and Co.'s 
mills at Leigh and Bedford, near Manchester, have 
also been lighted. This installation consists of 
two 600-light Tyne compound-wound dynamos and 
800 16-c.p. lamps. The firm have lighted several 
frozen meat stores in England and abroad ; amongst 
these may be mentioned Messrs. J. Nelson and 
Sons' stores at Bristol, the Northern Counties Ice 
Company's stores, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and a large 
cold meat store in Brazil. Amongst smaller 
installations that the firm have carried out is the 
lighting of Messrs. H. S. Edwards and Sons' dry 
docks at North Shields; this installation was 
specially designed to suit the firm's requirements, 
and has been arranged so that petroleum oil 
stesbmers can be repaired by means of the light, 
^he lampB being lowered into the holds by means of 

flexible cables strongly armoured. For Messrs. 
Edwards's Shipbuilding Company several electric light 
installations have been supplied for steamers, all of 
these having given great satisfaction. An installation 
has also just been completed for the Armagh Spinning 
Company, Armagh, Ireland, this installation con- 
sisting of one 400-light dynamo and 400 lamps and 
fittings, and has given the Armagh Company every 
satisfaction ; in fact, they are anticipating a con- 
siderable extension amongst their other mills. 
Amongst other work in hand, the firm advise us that 
they are lighting the Fustian Machine Cutting 
Companv's mills in Manchester, this company 
having been formed to cut velvet by machinery, 
instead of by hand as previously. The electric light 
installation will consist of two 40-unit dynamos, each 
capable of running 650 16-c.p. lamps, and a pilot 
dynamo to run 100 16-c.p. lamps, about 1,000 incan- 
descent lamps and fittings being installed throughout 
the mill. Lord Ellesmere has also placed his 
contract with the firm for the lighting of a 
large private house and training establishment 
he is building at Newmarket. A large installation 
for Mr. Walter Jones, Cheshire, for the lighting 
of his private house is just upon completion, 
and a large installation for the Bolton Technical 
School will be completed early next year. The 
contract was placed with Messrs. Ernest Scott and 
Mountain, Limited, for the technical school chiefly 
on account of the great success of their installation 
at the Bolton Evening News Printing Works, the 
latter installation having been completed early in 
the year. The firm inform us that they have 
supplied a large number of dynamos and complete 
installations for South Africa, where they have an 
established office, and they anticipate doing a large 
business in the future with this country as things 
improve. The firm inform us that they are now 
bringing out several new designs of electrical 
pumping and mining plant for which there will 
undoubtedly be a very large demand in this district, 
and they expect to settle several important contracts 
for this description of machinery. Amongst private 
local installations completed during the past year 
may be mentioned the lighting of the Union Club, 
and, amongst others, the private houses of Messrs. 
B. J. Sutherland, E. H. Haggie, W. Sharp, C. D. 
Hill, J. Cameron Swan, C. M. Forster, E. B. 
Duncan. Installations have also been completed 
for G. and J. Stubley, Batley ; S. Knowles and Co., 
Bury; Henderson and Co., Durham; Paterson, 
Elder, and Co. ; and Crann and Co., Leith ; Scott 
and Co., Greenock ; Broadbent and Sons, Shires 
and Co., Slaithwaite Spinning Company, Wood, 
Sons, and North, Vickermau and Co., Eayner 
and Co., Huddersfield ; Amos and Smith, Hull ; 
Hutchinson and Co., Kirkcaldy ; Hennochsberg and 
Ellis, Liverpool ; Manchester Ship Canal, Baxendale 
and Co., Manchester; Eossendale and Co., Eawten- 
stall ; Fairbrother and Co., Sheffield; A. and J. 
Macnab, Edinburgh ; Eiver Wear Commissioners, 
Sunderland; Arnold, Perrett, and Co., Gloucester ; 
and the Argentine Meat Company, Brazil. 

Newton Electrical Enginbehing Works. — 
This firm commenced business in 1890. The 
business has increased very rapidly, and as the firm 
lays itself out to work for the trade, the rapid 
increase has necessitated the building of much 
larger works. During the past year orders for 
automatic switches and transformers have come 
freely to hand. An order has just been received for 
a high-pressure continuous-current plant, consisting 
of generator and transformer, to go to ItsJy. Among 
other work, installations of lighting plant have been 



executed for Major E. G. Godson, Wesfcwood Park, 
Droitwich ; Kev. G. E. Hermon, Doublebois House, 
Doublebois, Cornwall ; and in the factories of Messrs. 
Candy and Co., Heathfield ; Mr. J. A. Sherrin, 
Weymouth ; and Messrs. Simpson, Strickland, and 
Co., Dartmouth. Mr. Newton was, if we remember 
rightly, an exhibitor at the Bath and West of 
England Show, and is one at the Crystal Palace 

Ransombs, Sims, and Jbffbries. — During the 
past year Messrs. Bansomes, Sims, and Jefferies, 
Liimited, of Ipswich, have been very busy in sup- 
plying motors for electric light plants, many of 
which have been for installations in Great Britain, 
Prance, Spain, Germany, etc., as also for Australia, 
India, and the East. 

Joint-Stock Companies Wound Up in 1891. — 
The following is a list of electrical companies which 
were wound up during last year : 

Voluntarily Wound up. 

Jan. 1. — Woodhouse and Rawson Electric Manufacturing Com- 

Feb. 13. — Cadoean Electric Light Company. 
Mar. 16.— The South of England Telephone Company. 
Mar. 20. -Woodhouse and Rawson Electric Supply Com|»any of 

Great Britain. 
Apiil 17. — Electro-MetaUurgical Company. 
April 22.— Simplex Electri(»d Syndicate. 
April 23. — Electrical Engineering Corporation. 
July 3. — Corinthian Electro-Meoical Battery Company. 
Sept. 15. — Institute of Medical Electricity. 
Sept. 30.— City cf London Electric Lighting (Pioneer) Company. 

The winding up of the Cadogan Electric Light Company, 
be^pin voluntarily, was ordered to be continued under the super- 
vision of the Court. 


" One man's word U no man's word, 
Justice needs that both be heard." 


Sir, — My committee, in conjunction with a large number 
of public and representative bodies, have arranged to hold 
a conference to consider the terms of the Bill proposed to 
be introduced into the House of Commons in the ensuing 
session to declare the law as to this question, and the 
Council of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce have 
kindly granted the use of their board-room on the 26th 
January for the purpose. 

If those of your readers who desire the success of this 
Bill will communicate with me, I will forward them a draft 
of the proposed Bill and any further information required. 

The attendance is particularly desired of delegates from 
the associations representing the various interests of users 
of machinery. — Yours, etc., 

G. Humphreys Davies, Secretary. 

National Society for the Exemption of Machinery from 
Rating, 8, Laurence Pountney-hill, £. C, Jan. 5, 1892. 



Sir, — In the abstract of my paper before the Physical 
Society on the 18th ult., printed in your last number, there 
is an error I should like to correct. 

It is stated with regard to the experiment described — 
on the 100-kilowatt alternator, three-quarter mile of con- 
centric cable, and 18-kilowatt transformer — that switching 
on the concentric cable produced the same rise of pressure 
at the alternator terminals whether the transformer at the 
far end of the cable was loaded or not. The facts of the 
case are as follows : The same rise of pressure was observed 
at the alternator terminals on switching on the cable, 
whether the transformer at the far end was connected to 
the caUe or not, when the transformer secondary was 

open or loaded only with about a dozen 60- watt lamps (a 
very small load for an 18-kilowatt transformer). — Yours, 
etc., Hamilton Kilgouu. 

January 7th, 1892. 



Mrs. J. K H. Gordon has done good service by her 
article in the Fortnightly Review a short time since dealing 
with this subject. 

Decoration is essentially the province of the artist, and 
every lady is, or should bo, an artist in her own home. 
Now, too, that it may fairly be claimed that electric house 
lighting has come to stay, and that town after town is 
laying down plant, tearing up its streets, and preparing a 
hearty welcome for the new illuminant, surely it is time that 
a new departure was made in the matter of the decorations 
which form part of the fittings that carry the lights, what- 
ever they may be. Has not the time arrived when the 
electrical engineer and the artist should collaborate, to 
produce something different from the stiff gas pendants and 
brackets that have pained our eyes for so long 1 

Of course there is still a good deal to be said for the old 
forms of fittings, with their more or less concealed pipesi 
and their ugly burners. As long as gas was the illuminant, 
and gas-pipes were necessary, they must be worked into 
the fittings of gas brackets and pendants. You might have 
flying Cupids, or Grecian statuary, but you must have a pipe 
concealed inside them, and the pipe must be visible, in some 
form or other, where the outlet for the gas was placed. 
Usually, too, the gas flame required shading, and the 
globe that was used for the purpose must be supported in 
some way. 

As the gas burnt best, or at least gave the best light, 
when escaping upwards, nearly all gas-fittings were so 
arranged that the burners provided for the egress of the 
gas, were pointing in a vertical direction. 

The early typ>es of electrolietrs naturally took the form of 
gas chandeliers and gas brackets, but with the burners 
turned downwards. Now the question arises, can all this 
be changed ? It is no longer necessary that the burner 
shall point in any particular direction. The burner itself 
is light, and therefore does not require the massive 
apparatus for its support that are often found in use with 
large gas chandeliers. Can the pipes be dispensed with, or 
is it wise to retain them in all their hideousness as a 
protection for the wires that are passed through them ? 

It is certainly convenient to conceal the wires inside the 
tubes of a chandelier, or electrolier, if the term be pre- 
ferred ; but it would be better to have no pipes and no 
chandeliers at alL Every time you thread a covered wire 
through a pipe, especially when it is curved, as most of 
them are, you run a great risk of damaging the insulation 
of your wire j and it therefore becomes necessary to pay 
for an increased cost of the wire to provide for this possi- 
bility, as well as to pay for the expensive electrolier which 
you no longer require. Flexible cords, well insulated in 
the process of manufacture, run less risk of damage to 
their insulation, and of consequent short circuits, when 
hanging freely in air than when confined in a tube. 

If this is correct, then the whole of our electric lighting 
arrangements require remodelling. 

But there is another point in which domestic lighting by 
means of electricity differs very much from that by means 
of gas. With the latter, except for street lighting, only 
one power could be obtained from any single burner, unless 
special arrangements were made, so that increased light was 
always obtained by grouping a number of these burners 
together in one chandelier, which was generally placed in 
the centre of the room. Of late years, under the pressure 
of the probable competition of the new illuminant, some- 
thing has been done in the matter of distributing gas 
burners round the walls of the room to be lighted ; but even 
now, in large halls, illumination ^is usually by means of 
a huge cluster of burners near the centre, supported by a 
few smaller clusters in other parts. The brackets placed 
round the rooms of private houses, too, perhaps do not 
appear very ugly to us, because we are accustomed to them, 



vitb other decorations they are certainly not 

but viewed 

With electricity, we are under no obligation to multiply 
our btmpi. If we require the light of more than one in any 

CLiticular place, we may have the light given by two 
mps, or a hundred if we wish, concentrated in one lamp, 
requiring only one set of fittings. Or we may have the 
light distributed about the room, on its walla, or suspended 
from the ceiling at various points, without the necesalty of 
destroying any artistic effect that may have been designed. 

Should not, therefore, a new line be struck out in this 
matter, gradually absorbing tbe full adaptability of the 
electric light to its surroundingsl Gras-burnere are in the 
room, but they and tbeir supports are rarely of the room — 
they are excrescences. May not electric lamps be arranged 
to M of the room, to form part of its decorations, whether 
the room be devoted to eating, to lounging, or to gossip ? 
But there is another point that should be noticed, and that 
is, placing the lamps where they can be of moat service. 
With gas this is often a difficult matter, owing to the 
necessity of providing for the harmless combustion of the 
iUuminant. With electricity this necessity does not exist. 

Mrs. Gordon gives a useful hint, amongst others, that 
the lamp should not be placed so that it is reflected in a 
mirror right into the eyes of whoever may be in front of it. 
With gas it has often been very difficult to avoid this ; in 
fact, candles by the side of a dressing-table or cbeval-glass 
are almost a necessity where gae is employed. With the 
electric light it should be a simple matter to accomplish 
the usually awkward operation of viewing one's back hair — 
a point that moat men will not trouble about, and that 
designers of electric light fittings may be excused if they 
do not fully appreciate, but which is of great import- 
ance to ladies. Then what form shall the new style of 
decorations Utke t Already something has been done in the 
right direction. Lamps are shaded by leaves moulded in 
thin metal of various hues, and are made to peep out of 
ghelta and so on. But hero again,- tbe lamps are in the 
leaves but not of them. The leaves are in the room but 
not of the room. Leaves that could spring from no living 
tree, and that appear to grow out of a brass tube, or from 
nothing, are hardly artistic in the real sense of the term. 
Why should not the lining, shall it be called, of a lady's 
boudoir he composed of the spreading branches of a tree, 
and the lamps either be the fruit of the tree in shape and 
colour, or be concealed by its leaves 1 How deliciously 
cool and soft to the eyes such an arrangement would be. 
English plants offer numbers of subjects which, properly 
wonced up, would lend themselves to this idea ; and in 
tropical plants would be found more than every artist of 
every nation could possibly utilise for centuries. 

But the artist is by no means confined to the vegetable 
world for subjects that will help him in this matter. The 
uiimal world, in its various forms, offers an abundance. 
What could he prettier, for instance, for a staircase light 
than a kitten seated on the lower balustrade playing with 
a ball, the ball being the lamp and the kitten one of those 
wonderful creations in china that are to be seen in the 
pott«ries. Classical and historical subjects also would lend 
themselves very readily to the same object For a corner 
light, for instance, or for some nook in a cosy drawing- 
room, such a group as that of Eve and the serpent, with 
our common mother in the act of plucking the forbidden 
fruit, the fruit, of course, being the lamp, would be far 
fihaster than anything to be seen in any drawingroom at 
the present day. Kemembering, too, that the lamp may 
take any form, it being merely a question of manufacture 
to arrange the details, such a group as the death of Ciesar 
at the hand of Brutus, the lamp in this case being the 
dagger ; the death of Harold at the Battle of Hastings, the 
lamp being the arrow, and numerous others, would well 
adorn a library or a study. Flying Cupids would come in 
well in certain cases, but they should be of china, and 
should either form the lamps themselves, or be semi- 
transparent shades for tbe lamps. 

Doubtless the whole of the above sounds revolutionary, 
but surely electricity is nothing if not revolutionary. It is 
the miasion of tbe youngest of the sciences to ease the lot 
of mankind, and to beautify the world, and every home in 
fcbft world. 



A meeting of the above society «hs held at the rooms of the 
Engineering Asaociation uf New South Wales on Thursday 
evening, the 12th November, 1891. Aft«r the usual prelimi- 
ii»rj buainesB, tbe president, Mr. E. C. Cracknell, delivered his 
inaugural address as folluwa : 

Aa I have no doubt nearly all of you have read the early 
history and prugress of magnetisiu and electricity, I propose 
only tu deal with the earl; discoveries, the inventions, which 
were the uutcome oS these discoveries, and the developments 
which have reaultod from both, for the comfort and enjoyment 
of the present generation. Little did the early luvailtt know 
what their energy nod zeal in the cause of science, when they 
were toiling with their aleiider nienns and more slender 
resources, would bring about for the bcnelit of mankind. Tbe 
names of theao illustriouB pioiiuui-s I shall allude to from time 
tu time during this addresa, and I hiu aure you will endorse 
every sentiment as welLmerited pmise for their eiertton and, 
in most instances, poorly- reijuited labour*. You will find that the 
world ia indebted tu the Chinese nut only for the diacovery, but 
for utilising tbe n-.ugnet. It ia stated in Chinese history that 
2,637 years b.c. Ho«n"-ti constructed a chariot upon which stood 
a prominent female figure which indicated the four cardinal 
points, which always turned to the aouth, no matter the direction 
taken by the chariot, by which means he succeeded in capturing 
tlie rebellious Prince Techi-yeou, the Emperor's troops who 
were pursuing the Prince having loat their way through 
heavy fogs on the plains of Tchou-tou, in Tartary, This, 
nu doubt, was the first discovery of the magnetic needle, or 
mariner's compass. TJie Greeka alao took credit that 1,000 
years b.c. a Greek shepherd observed the attractive power of 
the loadatoiie at Magnesia, in Lydia, his metallic crook having 
been attracted by a rock now known iia native loadatone. 
Shakespeare says in " Midsummer Night's Dream," "You draw 
me, you hard-hearted adamant, and yet you draw not iron, for 
my head is true ss stcol." Agamemnon, B.C. 1084, employed 
A line of optical signals to advise his Queen of the fall of Troy. 
So far 1 have merely alluded to the discovery of magnetism in 
thf! early days and its application by the ancients, but I must 
now refer to the first observation made by Thaiea, of Miletus, 
that electricity was very strongly developed by friction in amber, 
which very soon after astonished the Romans as well as the 
(■rceka by its attractive power over light bodies, such as paper, 
straw, and leaves, in the same way as the magnet attracts iron. 
As Eghtning existed long before any of the dates mentioned, it 
would not be fair to exclude such a powerful and subtle agent 
from a paaaing remark. It haa t>cen stated that the Temple of 
.Jerusalem was never atruck by lightning during a thousand 
years, for the simple reason that a forest of gulden points 
covered its roof, and that the roof was connected wiui the 
caverns in an adjacent hill, in consequence of which the points 
would act as conductors. This might be a new idea fur Prof. 
Oliver Lodge, who would find that his bird-cage protection to 
buildings from lightning vas as old as Moses, who iraa 
bom 1,570 years b.c. A paaain}; allusion to ancient medical 
treatment in a primitive way by electricity may not be 
out of place. In the year .\.n. 20 it is recowed that 
a freedman of Tiberius was cured of gout by shocks re- 
ceived from the electric eel, and Fahie states that along the 
banks of the Calabar River, in Africa, the natives employed 
the electrical properties of the gymnotus for the cure of their 
sick children. Yet it is within the recollection of most of us 
that the whole medical profession, backed up by their leading 
journals, scouted electricity ss u cunktive agent, as quackery 
amounting to fraud, lion very different are their opinions at 
the present day, since there is nu medical man amongst us who 
would dare to tell his patients that he does not believe in elec- 
tricity aa A curative agent 1 But to continue these early dis- 
cuveries. Gure tells us that theRuiuans, a.ii. 410, were acquainted 
with electric separation of metats~-that is, that metals acquire a 
coat of copper on being immersed in a copper solution. That 
most interesting little experiment known to us as " De la Rive's 
battery" appears to date back as tar as a,d. 425, the only 
difference being that a magnetic needle was attached to a piece 
of cork floating in a vessel of water, which Bishop Severus 
found would direct its polarity by placing a magnet under a 
thick wooden table upim which the vessel was placed. As late 
as 1260 Brunetto Latiul speaks of the mariner's compass as 
likely to bo useful at sea ; but he adds, "No master mariner 
dares bo use it, leat he should fall under the supposition that he is 
a magician, iiur would sailors venture tu sea under his command if 
he carried with him auch su instrument. " It waa not until 1269 
that the variation, or the declination, of the compass was 
understood. Marco Polo was evidently aware of the compass, as 
during his voyage of discovery when he set out from Acre, 
in 1271, and returned to Venice, in 1295, he was provided with 
and understood the use of the magnetic needle, as on his 
journey South he left the North Star out of sight, which in 



northern latitudes was previouB to this time considered the 
mariners' guidins star. We have been for many years under 
the impression that Oersted was the first to give us the founda- 
tion for the needle telegraph, but Mr. Mottelay, in his ** Chrono- 
logical History of Electricity, Galvanism, Magnetism, etc.," has 
turned up from the *' Encyclopaedia Britannica," under an 
article on "Optics," by Prof. Stanley Jevons, that as far 
back as a.d. 426 in '* Speculum Lapadium " there is the following 
allusion : '* I donot fear ; with a long-absent friend, even though 
he be confined in prison walls, we can communicate what wo 
wish by means of two compass needles circumscribed with an 
alphabet. " In the reign of Queen Elizabeth it appears that our 
own oountnrman, Dr. Gilberte, of Colchester, physician to the 
Queen, published a groat work for that date, in which he 
enumerates all the substances which are susceptible to 
electrical excitation, and makes use of the words electric 
force, electric connection, and electric attraction. Now we 
make a jump of about 60 years, and find that Otto Van 
Gnericke, of Magdebuig, was the first to construct a practical 
electrical machine, consisting of a globe of sulphur cast in a 
glass sphere, which, when excited by its being revolved against 
a rubber, emitted both sound and light. In 1720, to Stephen 
Grey, a pensioner in the Charterhouse, is attributed the first 
discovery of the principles of electric conduction, and its 
insulation, as well as to the fact, but not to the principle, of 
induction. Thus to Grey is due the credit of having laid the 
foundation of electricity as a science. In 1729, Grey and 
Wheeler succeeded in transmitting electricity through pack- 
thread, supported by silken cords, a distance of 765ft., and 
through wires a distance of 886ft. To Dufoy, in 1733, is 
due the discovery of two kinds of electricity — viz., known as 
the phenomenon of attraction and repulsion. Dufoy says there 
are two kinds of electricity very different from one another — 
vitreous or positive, and the other resinous or negative. The 
first is that of glass, rock, precious stones, etc., and the other 
that of amber, copal, gum lac, silk, thread, paper, and other 
substances ; thus those which are vitreous repel all those that 
are vitreous, and attract all those that are resinous. Dufoy 
also observed that by repeating Grey's experiment, by 
wetting the packthread he was enabled to convey a 
current through 1,256ft. instead of 675ft. when dry. In 
1746, the discovery of the Leyden jar was made. But it 
appears rather doubtful whether, from an experiment made a 
year earlier at Dantzic, that the latter place should not be 
credited with the invention; but Sir William Watson, the 
English scientist, is entitled to the credit of the double coating 
of the jar, as well as the plus and minus of electricity. In the 
same year the first glass-plate and cylinder machines were con- 
structed. The next work in the early history of electricity was 
Franklin's famous kite experiment, in 1752, in which he proved 
that the lightning's flash was identical with the spark from a 
Leyden jar. Galvani's classical experiment with the frog's leg, 
in 1786, closely followed, in 1800, by Volta's publication at the 
Royal Institution of his discovery of the voltaic battery, formed 
on a basis on which was founded Oersted's important discovery, 
in 1819, of the effect produced on a suspended magnet by an 
adjacent current wire. Ampere's theory of electric dynamics, 
Schweigger's invention of the galvanometer, and Seebeck's 
discovery of thermo-electric currents, 1822 ; Ohm's law, laid 
down, in 1827, and Arago's publication of his researches on the 
rotaiy effect of adjacent current-carrying conductors, culmi- 
nated in the magnificent researches and improvements of 
Humphry Davy, and that truly great man Michael Faraday, 
who in 1832 discovered the principle of electromagnetic induc- 
tion, and who has laid down for us the law of electrostatics, 
induction, electrolysis, and diamagnetism, and whose book on 
** Experimental Research " is still a mine of wealth for the 
inventor, and is only equalled in value by the works of 
James Clerk Maxwell, of the value of which we are compara- 
tively still ignorant, and in which many a clever man has 
found his own discoveries clearly laid down, and worked 
out mathematically many years previously by this wonderful 
man. From this era electrical history may be said to have 
ended and electrical science to have commenced, and I propose 
now to go more deeply into the development of these branches 
of the latter which are now in ordinary commercial and domestic 
use. I will now ask you to follow me in a rapid glance at the 
development of electricity as applied to telegraphy. In Holy 
Writ we have a prophetic allusion to the telegraph in the thirty- 
eighth chapter of Job, *' Canst thou send lightnings that they 
may go and say unto thee * Here we are.' " In the family the 
electric telegraph has become a '* household word," bringing 
absent members into sympathetic contact of heart and mind in the 
same instant of time. Of commerce it has become the very life- 
blood ; it has gathered the civilised world together into instant 
and direct intercourse ; a network of sympathetic intelligence 
encircles the earth, and we feel it difficult to imagine it had not 
always existed. Imagine it removed ! There is an ebb of 
centories in the life of civilisation, and yet it is but little more 
than 50 yoftrs since the first practical telegraph commenced to 
work. The names of those who have from time to time essayed 
to solve the problem of conveying information by means of 

electricity are almost legion. Philosophers from very early 
days had tried, and some met with a certain measure of 
success. Amongst others in 1786, Sir William Watson passed 
electricity through G, 000ft. of earth and water across the 
Thames, and through 18,000ft. of wire suspended upon poles, 
at Shooter's Hill. In the following year Franklin repeated 
like experiments at Philadelphia. In 1774, Lesage, at 
Geneva, reduced to practice a plan of telegraphing by static 
electricity and pith balls, using 24 wires, one for each letter of 
the alphabet. Lomond, in 1786, combined the signals of the 
pith balls so as to diminish the number of wires, and in 1794 
Betancourt worked a pith-ball telegraph from Madrid to 
Aranjuez. In the same year Reusser proposed to make the 
elecnc spark illuminate a letter formed of separate pieces of 
tinfoil placed in the path of the discharge, using a separate wire 
for eacn letter. We are now come to the present century, 
when, in 1816, Ronalds worked his system of pith balls and 
dials through eight miles of wire at Hammersmith. This was 
the first and -last successful application of static electricity to 
a telegraph. In 1830 Schelling invented his telegraph with 
five needles, which up to that time was the most perfect 
plan of a telegraph yet produced, and in 1835 he reduced it to a 
single-needle arrangement, and exhibited the system at Bonn. 
The history of the subject so far shows us that no single 
individual can lav claim to the distinction of being the inventor 
of the electric telegraph ; 1837 is the year of the first practical 
electric telegraph, and it remained for Cooke and Wheatstone 
in that year to first demonstrate the practicability of telegraphy 
being worked on a commercial basis. It was once a popular 
fallacy in England and elsewhere, that Cooke and Wheatstone 
were the original inventors of the electric telegraph. It will 
be seen, however, that the telegraph grew up little by little, 
each inventor adding his little to advance it towards perfection. 
Messrs. Cooke and Wheatstone were the first to establish a tele- 
graph for practical purposes on a comparatively large scale, and 
in which the public were more nearly concerned than in those 
experiments in which the ends of wires were brought into labora- 
tories and observatories. Morse and Steinheil have also been 
thought by many to be the fathers of the telej^ph, but 
whilst in 1837 a line had been built and was m working 
order between London and Slough, it was not until 1844 
that the first wire was built from Washington to Baltimore, 
and a message, dictated by a Miss Ebs worth— which is still 
preserved in the Hartford Museum — announced the existence 
of a practical telegraph on the American continent. Wheat- 
stone s first instruments had five needles, and as many lines 
were required between each station to work the system. It 
was, however, rapidly improved upon, and the number of 
needles reduced to two and then to one. A return wire was, 
however, required to complete the circuit. It is to Steinheil 
that we are indebted for the discovery that the earth could be 
utilised for the return circuit, a discovery which was of the 
greatest service in further developing telegraphy. Bain, the 
inventor of the chemical telegraph, also independently dis- 
covered the principle somewhat later. From this time the 
strides made in the science were marvellous. In America, 
England, and the whole of Europe, inventors were busy at work, 
and almost every year saw improvements and new systems 
brought into use. To enumerate the different systems would 
comprise an extensive catalogue, and it would take up too much 
of our time to trace the electric telegraph through its many sub- 
sequent stages of development. Printing, automatic, chemical, 
harmonic, sound, and visual telegraphs followed each other in 
bewildering confusion, each and all equally well adapted for the 
special purpose for which they were designed. Indeed, perhaps 
in no otner invention of modem times have so many different 
methods been devised to obtain the same result, the amount of 
ingenuity displayed by the different inventors of the many 
systems of telegraphs, together with the manner in which well- 
known scientific laws have been brought to bear in their con- 
struction, will render the electric telegraph one of the greatest 
monuments of the inventive genius of the present century. 
Like most other branches of electrical science, telegraphy even 
now can hardly be considered to be much more than in its 
infancy. When it is remembered that a httle more than 50 
years ago telegraphy was merely a scientific toy requiring many 
wires to transmit a single wox^d, that the use of the earth as a 
return circuit was not made use of practically, it will be seen 
what strides have been made when one wire is now made to do 
the work of two, four, six, and even more ; and when so much 
has been done in so comparatively short a time, one begins to 
think it quite within the bounds of possibility that the day will 
yet come when no wire at all will be required, but the earth itself 
will be made the means of communication from one end of the 
world to the other. The first line of telegraph in Australia was 
established in Victoria between Melbourne and Williamstown 
in the year 1854 ; in South Australia, between Adelaide and 
Port Adelaide and the Semaphore in the early part of 1856 ; in 
New South Wales, between Sydney and Liverpool, and Sydney 
and South Head in January, 1858. The first line opened for 
intercolonial traffic between Sydney and Melbourne was in 
November, 1858 ; these were speedily followed by linAs B^dsaAi^ 



to Bathurst and Sydney to Newcastle ; other lines soon became 
necessary, and now we have in this colony alone no less than 
23,500 miles of line in actual work. (The progress made in the 
four principal colonies from 1860 to 1890 was demonstrated at 
this stage by a tabulated statement, which showed the length 
of line in use in each succeeding decade, the number of messages 
transmitted, and the revenue received. Some details of the 
amount of telegraphic business transacted in the United 
Kingdom, France, and New South Wales were also given in a 
form which admitted of ready comparison). I cannot pass from 
this portion of my subject without referring especially to the 
wonders of submarine telegraphy, and of the signal services 
rendered to that particular branch by both Wheatstone and 
Sir William Thomson. The greatest achievement of the 
electric telegraph is unquestionaoly the instantaneous trans- 
mission of intelligence across seas. The first cable of any 
length was laid in 1850 between Dover and Calais, but it only 
lasted one hour before breaking down. Several small cables 
were laid during the next few years with more or less 
success, until on August 5, 1858, the first Atlantic cable 
was successfully laid, and congratulatory messages were for 
the first time fiashed from the Old to the New VVorld. This 
cable was faulty when laid, and gradually got worse, till three 
weeks after its submersion it completely broke down. Sufiicient 
success had, however, been achieved to warrant commercial men 
taking the matter up, and when this is the case the ultimate 
success of the undertaking may, I think, be generally looked 
upon as moderately secure, for these gentlemen usually re<[uire 
pretty good reasons before they ^* plank che dollar down," as 
our American friends would say. Several Atlantic cables 
followed, each showing a marked improvement both in electrical 
and mechanical construction, till at the present day 11 cables 
connect the American continent with Europe and England, 
and there is hardly a corner of the globe which is not in direct 
communication with the great centres of population. The 
earlier instruments used for the working of the cables, as you 
are no doubt aware, consisted of Thomson's reflecting galvano- 
meter, the movement of the beam of light to the right or left of 
zero indicating the dot and dash of the Morse code ; but very 
soon Sir William Thomson brought out his syphon recorder, by 
which means the nignals were recorded on an endless tape in 
Morse characters. This instrument is alone a monument to its 
inventor and a marvel of ingenuity. But great as have been 
the wonders wrought by the telegraph, it remained for Bell 
to astound the world by announcing the advent of the 
telephone, for there is no doubt that to Bell must be 
created the honour of first devising a telephone fitted 
for practical use. As far back as 1667 we find sound 
was transmitted to a distance by the aid of a wire or tight- 
drawn string, but it was not till 1877 that electrical reproduc- 
tion of speeches was rendered practicable. Page's discovery of 
the emission of sounds by an electromagnet when subject to a 
rapid succession of currents, which was termed the *' magnetic 
tick," led to further experimenting on the part of Boursel, De 
la Rive, and others, till in 1861 Philip Reis, of Fredrichsdorf, 
invented an apparatus which reproduced musical sounds, but 
was only able to convoy speech to a very limited extent. Reis 
was well aware of the importance of his invention, which at the 
time was treated as toy, and on one occasion remarked ** that 
he had shown to the world a road to a great discovery, but left 
it to others to follow it up. " Bell's first telephone consisted of 
a stave harmonica fastened to the poles of a permanent magnet 
with an electromagnet placed in front. The expense of such 
an apparatus prevented Bell from developing and perfecting 
the idea. HLb second telephone was the next instrument 
brought out, and for which a patent was taken out early in 
1876. About the same time Elisha Gray also requested a patent 
for his telephone. A dispute arose between Bell and Gray 
about the patent of the vibrating membrane, which was decided 
in favour of Bell. The third telephone of Bell's was the 
form exhibited at the Philadelphia Exhibition in 1876, 
and this was the instrument which so much astonished 
Sir W. Thomson when he first saw it. The first 
practical magnetic telephone was exhibited early in 1877 
m Salem, Massachusetts, by Bell, when a speech delivered 
in Boston was heard by an audience in Salem. Before 
the telephone could be brought to the commercial importance 
that it at present enjoys there was still a problem to be solved, 
the solution of which was effected by Hughes's discovery of the 
microphone ; for although the principle involved in the micro- 
phone had been announced years before by Du Moncel, Hughes 
was the first to systematical y investigate the subject, but 
Edison appears to have been the first to construct a carbon 
transmitter in 1878. The difference between Edison's carbon 
transmitters and Hughes's microphone, in its simple form, 
was very slight, the object of both being to amplify 
the currents. "The effect of the discovery of the micro- 
phone upon telephony was incalculable, and in the same 
wa^ as all the numerous magnetic telephones are, more or less, 
imitations of Bell's original telephone, so all carbon transmitters 
are modifications of Hughes's invention. The number of these 
' nitations is legion ; many of them are without practical value, 

whilst others have given in practice superior results to the 
inventor's apparatus by enabling the listener to hear the words 
more distinctly. I will not inflict you with anything like an 
enumeration of the many different patterns of telephones which 
have been offered to the public since Bell's first discovery, 
or attempt to describe even the more salient points of 
difference between them. The principle involved in one and 
all is the same. The theory of the telephone has given rise to 
much controversy, and it will probably continue to be an inte- 
resting subject for discussion. Several explanations have 
been given to account for the actions and reactions which take 
place Detweon the diaphragms of the transmitter and receiver. 
Some hold that the currents developed in a Bell telephone 
are much too feeble to account for the effects produced 
in the diaphragms of the receiver, if these effects are to be 
attributed to attraction pure and simple, and that molecular dis- 
turbances in the mass of the bar bear an important part in 
causing the vibration in the diaphragm. Whether this be so, 
or whatever the cause of the action may be, the instrument 
remains marvellous in its simplicity and astounding in its 
results. One of the latest applications of the telephone is that 
in which it is used as a telegraph receiver — in Mr. Langdon 
Da vies 's system, and to which he has given the name of *^ The 
Phonophore. " Unlike in principle as are telephone and the ordi- 
nary Morse systems of telegraphy, yet by means of this ingenious 
instrument Mr. Davies has devised a means whereby both the 
telephone and the Morse are worked simultaneously on the one 
wire. The arrangement is likely to be largely used, and this 
is another instance of the inventive genius of the age. With 
the introduction of the telephone a world of research has been 
opened up, of the existence of which we were previously 
unaware. Hughes's induction balance has applied the telephone 
to a field of investigation of which we have hitherto been 
ignorant. Does it not seem wonderful, for instance, that we 
should be able to detect internal flaws in the mass of an iron rail, 
or in the case of a steel shell? And yet by an ingenious applica- 
tion of Hughes's induction balance in an instrument to which has 
been given the name of the ^^Schiseophone," it is now possible to 
pick out, by the aid of the telephone, flaws in a mass of metal 
which defy detection by any other means. Another appliance 
which depends for its action upon the principle of the induction 
balance is Captain M'Evoy's torpedo detector. As its name 
implies, it is designed for use in searching for submarine mines 
in harbours and channels. One portion of the balance, enclosed 
in a metal sinker, is attached to a small cable which is in con- 
nection with the telephonic portion of the apparatus in a boat. 
The sinker is dragged along the bottom of the channel where 
mines are suspected to have been laid. No sound is audible 
until the sinker reaches the vicinity of a mine, when a buzzing 
noise is heard in the telephone, which gradually increases as 
the mine is approached, and is loudest when it is touched. 
Medical science has also made use of the balance, and, as you 
will well remember, such an instrument was used in the case 
of the late President Garfield, by Prof. Graham Bell, to dis- 
cover the position of the bullet. It is not to be wondered at that 
an instrument of such marvellous sensitiveness as the telephone 
should have been made use of to enable the faintest pulsation of 
the heart, of the pulse, and the arteries to be heard, and even 
to detect the normal muscular sound, and the characteristic 
rumbling noise when contraction of the muscles take place. I 
cannot leave this portion of my subject without alluding to the 
phenomenal commercial development of the telephone that has 
taken place within the last few years. In the arrangement of 
a telephone exchange every minute detail has been carefully 
thought out and provided for, and the general public have little 
idea of the mechanism ret^uired to enable *^ Smith " to ring up 
and talk to** Jones." The distance limit of telephonic com- 
munication is gradually being extended. New York has spoken 
to Chicago over 1,000 miles of wire, and the recent connection 
of London to Paris brings to mind Proctor's prediction ** that a 
whisper would ere long pass beneath the Atlantic Ocean which 
none of the waves would drown." W^e are still as far from this 
imaginary consummation, bur a beginning has been made. The 
rapid development of the telephone since its discovery is 
unique in the annals of science ; it shows the increasing 
importance of science for the progress of civilisation and 
the immense import of Prof. Graham Bell's discovery. 
Every day witnesses new experiments, new problems for the 
solution of which the telephone affords a means of investiga- 
tion. But new difficulties also arise from its application, the 
most serious of which is the well-known induction trouble — a 
difficulty of so serious a nature as at one time to threaten the 
development of the system. This trouble has been to a certain 
extent overcome by different means, but not in an altogether 
satisfactory manner ; and as the spread of cables and leads 
carrying powerful currents required for motive power and 
lighting purposes increases, so does the necessity for united 
action become more apparent, if the greattsst amount of good 
is to be obtained from each and all of the different modern 
applications of electricity. The natural sequence to the dis- 
covery of an instrument enabling us to detect sounds otherwise 
inaudible, was an instrument to enable us to record those 

tHE EL^CtiltClAL ENGlNfiEU, JaWARY 8, 18§2. 


Bomids* Such an apparatus was supplied by Edison when, in 
1877, he introduced the phonograph, which created considerable 
aeusation at the time. I mention the phonograph because of 
ita close relationship to the telephone, not that electricity is 
concerned in its action, except in so far as the motive power is 
concerned, but also because it proves that the oscillations of a 
tympanum, like the disc of a telephone, are capable of pro- 
ducing all the effects of sound. There are something like 8,000 
of these instruments at present in use in America, and it has 
even reached the "penny-in-the-slot" stage of existence, when 
music, song, and speech may be laid on tap, and, like a ** Joe 
Miller*' jest-book, tell the latest as well as the oldest good 
Btory. We have now to turn our attention to a branch of 
electrical engineering which has been even more rapid 
in its development and more universal in its use than 
almost any other. I refer, of course, to electric lighting 
and the use of electricity as a motive power. In this, as 
in other branches, there are many claimants for the honour of 
having been the first to make electric lighting a commercial 
success, and in this also we must finally come to the conclusion 
that the whole edifice has been built up, each inventor and 
discoverer depending for his ultimate result upon an experi- 
ment performed by some earlier investigator. 1 think we may 
fairly consider Faraday's discovery in 1§32 of the principle of 
electromagnetic induction as being the foundation of modem 
commercial electric lighting, followed so quickly in 1833 by 
Pixii's magneto machine, which again was rapidly improved 
upon by Clarke, whose machine is still in common use for 
medical coils. The next notable incident was the invention by 
Dr. Werner Siemens, in 1857, of the well-known **H" arma- 
ture, which was constructed of this shape so that the coils might 
revolve in the most powerful part of the magnetic field — a con- 
siderable advance on the instruments of Pixii and Clarke, in 
which the coils merely moved in front of the poles of the 
magnet. Next we have Wilde's machine, in which a small 
auxiliary magneto machine was used to produce a current for 
the purpose of exciting the fixed magnets of a larger machine 
with electromagnets mstead of permanent magnets. And 
finally, we come to the true dynamo-electric principle. Hjorth 
in 18bB4 took out a patent for a machine which was near 
in principle to the modem machine ; in it he had both perma- 
nent magnets and electromagnets and one armature. About 
the end of the year 1866 and the beginning of 1867 we find 
three claimants for the invention of the modern dynamo. Mr. 
S. A. Varley, who filed his provisional specification on December 
24, 1866 ; and in February, 1867, Dr. C. W. Siemens and 
Sir Charles Wheatstone both annoimced the discovery indepen- 
dently at the same meeting of the Royal Society. In 18i60 a 
further advance was made by Dr. Pacinotti, of the University 
of Pisa, who invented the ring tjrpe of armature. Curiously 
enough, his original machine, whicn was invented as a motor, 
had electromagnets for field magnets ; and in his description 
Pacinotti states that the machine may be used to generate a 
current by substituting permanent magnets for electromagnets 
for the field. It was not until 1871 that Gramme invented his 
well-known ring form of armature, which still is used, with slight 
modifications, in most modern dynamos, such as the Manchester, 
Crompton, Paterson and Cooper, Brush-Victoria, and Hoc- 
hausen. The drum armature, which with various modifications 
we see used in the Siemens, Edison, and Weston machines, was 
invented by Von Hefner-Alteneck in the following year. 
Having followed the discovery of the dynamo-electric machine, 
we must retrace our steps to the year 1810, when Davy showed 
an arc light at the Royal Institution, using a battery of some 
2,000 cells for the purpose. From this time until the discovery 
of the dynamo but little development took place owing to the 
excesnye cost of producing sufficient current by means of 
batteries. In 1857 Serrin, and in 1858 Foucault, produced arc 
lamps in which the adjustment of the carbons was brought 
about automatically ; but no real advance appears to have been 
made until 1876, when the Jablochkoff candle was invented, and 
with the help of the dynamo came into fairly extensive use for 
a time, though in 1858 an arc light driven by a Holmes magneto 
machine was installed in the South Foreland, and in 1862 in 
the Dunseness lighthouses. The Jablochkoff candle was soon 
discarded for the self -regulating arc lamp, of which those in most 
extensive use at present are the Brockie-Pell and Thomson- 
Houston. Useful as the arc lamp is for lighting streets, open 
spaces, and large buildings, it is entirely unfit for general 
domestic illumination, and consequently the attention of many 
inventors was drawn to the necessity of what at that time was 
termed **the subdivision of the electric light." At a very 
early period it was p^eived that for this purpose the most 
promising method was the heating to incandescence of a con- 
tinuous conductor, and platinum, and similar metals having a 
high melting point, were the first substances to be experimented 
with. We find, in 1845, an American named Starr took out a 
patent for a carbon lamp sealed into the vacuum chamber of a 
barometer tube. Then, in 1848, W. E. Staite took out a patent 
for making electric lamps of iridium, shaped in a horseshoe 
form. Up to 1878 very little improvement was made. In that 
year Sawyer and Man made their first lamp of carbonised 

paper. Edison, who in the following year took out patents, 
not only for an incandescent lamp, but for a system of electric 
lighting, is generally credited with having made electric lighting 
commercially successful. But I think that you will agree with 
me that due credit should be giveti to the other investi^tors in 
the same line of research — such as Sawyer and Man, Swan, 
Maxim, and Lane Fox, more especially to Swan, and 
Sawyer and Man. In 1883 a great advance was made by 
Gaulard and Gibbs, in the invention uf their high-tension 
alternate-current transformer, which enabled electricity to be 
transmitted to much greater distances than could ever be achieved 
by continuous currents, a notable instance of which is the 
present experiment of transmitting power from Lauffen to 
Frankfort, a distance of over 100 miles, by means of high- 
tension alternating currents. The transformer is a direct 
descendant of the induction coil as first used by Faraday, and 
afterwards improved by Rhumkorff. As in former cases, 
Gaulard and Gibb's transformer has received many improve- 
ments at the hands of such men as Mordey, Zipernowski, 
Ferranti, Kapp, and others. The first central station in 
London, known as the Grosvenor Gallety Station, used 
Gaulard and Gibbs's transformers in 1885, and was the fore- 
runner of the now famous Deptford station, constructed to 
use a pressure of 10,000 volts. For another important 
discovery in connection with electrical engineering, we must 
go back again to Plant^'s discovery, in 1859, and Faure's 
subsequent improvement, in 1880, of tne secondary battery. In 
1888, there were in England but eight central stations, 
with a total of 27,000 incandescent lamps in use. At 
the end of 1890 there were 48 stations, with a total of about 
530,000 incandescent lamps in use, and a total ultimate pro- 
vision for over a million. In America we find a more wide- 
spread use of electricity as an illuminant, as at the end of 1888 
we find some 204 towns using an aggregate of over 5,000 arc 
lamps and 250,000 incandescent ; in January of the present 
year there were 1,674 central stations at work, with an aggregate 
of over a million incandescent and over 30,000 arc lamps in use. 
I do not see that we are going ahead quite so fast in either 
Great Britain, Europe, or Australia. Still another modern 
development is the use of electricity as a motive power. As 
far back as 1830 Prof. Negro, of Padua, constructed an 
electric motor, using permanent and electro magnets ; Jacobi, 
in 1834, used an electromotor, consisting entirely of electro- 
magnets, to propel a boat on the Neva ; in 1835 Stratingh and 
Becker, of Gruningen, and Botto, of Turin, constructed primi 
tive electric cars, and Thomas Davenport, of Brandon, U.S.A., 
built a small circular railway at Springfield, Massachusetts ; 
and amongst these early pioneers we must also mention 
Davidson, a Scotchman, who in 1838 built an electric car 
weighing five tons, with which he obtained a speed of four 
miles an hour. Elias in 1842 constructed a motor, having a 
Pacinotti ring for its armature, and we find various forms of 
motors invented by Froment, Hjorth, Page, Farmer, and 
others, with very little commercial advance, mitil the invention 
of the dynamo and the discovery of its reversibility. The first 
successful experiment was made with the electric railway 
exhibited by Siemens at the Berlin Exhibition in 1879. In 
England there is the underground City and South London Rail- 
way ; and several others, besides the extension from Stockwell 
to Clapham underground, and the Liverpool Overhead, and 
others in progress ; also many on the Continent of Europe. 
The present period has been, I think, very properly termed 
the '* electric age." Incandescent and arc lamps greet us 
at every turn ; no business ofiice is now complete without 
its telephone, the sending of telegrams or cablegrams is 
of no more import nowadays than posting a letter, electric 
bells are in every modern-built house, a ride on a car driven by 
electricity is no longer an event to be remembered, and we see 
and hear of electric motors being used for all manner of 
purposes in many different trades ; for driving lathes, sewing 
machines, printing presses, fans, pumps, lawn-mowers, for 
blowing organs, heating railway carriages, for mining drills and 
coal-cutters, riveting machines, welding, and a host of other 
purposes far too numerous for me to mention here. The recent 
legalisation in the United Kingdom of the volt, ohm, and 
ampere is in itself a distinct proof of the familiarity with 
which electrical matters are treated in modem times. I have 
spoken of the past and present ; I feel that I shall have 
hardly completed my task without taking a peep into the future. 
We read of the phonograph, telephone, telegraph, etc., 
having been foretold or prophesied long ago ; without, perhaps, 
going so far as to make such distinct prophetic utterance, 
we can at least imagine a time not very far distant when the 
telephone will become universal, not only commerciallv but 
domestically, when there will be intercolonial and even mter- 
national exchanges, and the telegram and cablegram a thing of 
the past ; when at the same we are speaking through the 
telephone from here, perhaps to London, we shall at the same 
time see the form and face of the listener at the other end. Do 
not laugh, gentlemen ; you would have laughed 100 years ago 
if you had been told what we should possess in the way of 
scientific inventions now. When we smdl have air and water 



ships propelled by electricity generated by a thermo-batteiy, 
burning coal instead of decomposing ssinc ; a time when electri- 
city is the only motive power in existence ; and when, by the 
development of Tesla's experiments, instead of lighting our rooms 
by points of light we sh^ have the whole of the atmosphere in 
a state of luminosity ; when, instead of suffering from idtemate 
droughts and floods, we shall be able to regulate and control 
the rainfall by means of the electric discharge — a period in 
which fogs will be dispersed electrically immediately on forma- 
tion, and in which we shall be able to cure all disease by the 
aid of this potent agent, when electricity has been applied to 
such an extent in warfare that war without annihilation becomes 
impossible, and we have obtained the millennium of peace. In 
this address I have endeavoured to place before you some of the 
more remarkable developments of electrical science from the 
early philosophical experiments to the practical realisation of 
those experunents by modem inventors, who have adapted 
them to the requirements and comfort of the present age, and I 
have even attempted to see even the further developments 
which have yet to be made. This I have endeavoured to do 
without going into those minor details which are familiar to 
most of you, and which would extend this paper to a weari- 
some length. The world has seldom seen such a period of 
scientific unrest as the last 20 years, both in America and Europe, 
but of the multitude of discoveries and inventions which have 
been the product of that period, there are few which have been 
made by mathematical leaders. Most of them may be regarded 
as the results of investigation not of the learned few, but of the 
fortunate few of the comparatively unlearned many. 

At the conclusion of the speech a vote of thanks was accorded 
to Mr. Cracknell, on the motion of Mr. H. H. Kingsbury, 
seconded by Captain F. C. Rowan, and the proceedings closed. 



The second annual general meeting of the shareholders of this 
Corporation was held recently in 17, St. Andrew-square, Edin- 
banrh. Mr. Walter Berry, of Glenstriven, chairman, presided. 

The report stated that there were now 206 shareholders enrolled 
on the uat, amongst whom were a large number of prominent 
citizens of Edinburgh and Leith, representing a privately sub- 
scribed capital of £31,175, which places the Corporation in a very 
strong position locally, and the share Ust was daily becoming 
more influential. Reference was made to the negotiations 
entered into by the Directors with the Town Councu, setting 
forth the position of the Company and the advantages that 
would result to the city were an arrangement arrived at 
whereby the lighting of the compulsory area comprised in 
the provisional order should be undertaken bv it. The 
subject, the report continued, must shortly be considered by the 
Councillors, as they obtained the Royal assent to their provisional 
order in the beginning of last July, from which date they had only 
three years to complete this work within the compulsory area. 
Meantime, the Directors had collected a large mass of information 
and statistics connected with similar works, finished and in 
progress, throughout the United Kingdom and elsewhere, which 
would enable them to tender for the electric lighting of the city, 
should the Town Council decide on delegating Sieir powers to the 
Company. In the meantime the shareholders had incurred no 
liability with regard to the expenses, nor would they do so unless 
the desired contract was obtained from the Council, when the 
shares would be issued to the public, and the business of the 
Corporation be at once proceeded with. 

The diAlrman, in moving the adoption of the report, said he 
had to express the regret the Directors felt in being still unable to 
intimate any progress towards the definite fulfilment of the object 
for which tne Company was formed, but no one was to blame for 
that. Without being too pressing, the Directors had not failed to 
urge their claims on the Town Cx>uncil, and he could not doubt 
that these would be favourably considered when the Council was 
in a position to come to a decision. They must, of course, recognise 
that their representatives in the Council might decide that in the 
public interest it would be preferable for them to undertake 
the work themselves, and he had no doubt that should they so 
decide, their decision would be arrived at on sufficient grounds. In 
that case the existence of their Corporation would terminate, and the 

ftreliminary subscriptions of the shareholders would be returned in 
nil. As they wore aware, the reasons why this Company was 
or^inally formed were— first, that it was deemed that there was 
sufficient business capacity in Edinburgh to carry out the electric 
lighting of our city, and that there was sufficient public spirit to 
form a local company for that object ; secondly, that they objected 
very strongly to be tied to any one system. They knew that the 
Company against which they appeared as competitors was limited 
to its own special method, against which he had not one word to say. 
It mieht still prove the best, but they thought it well worth the 
trouble involved to attempt to keep the city tree to adopt the best 
obtainable. Therefore, if the city entrusted the electric lighting 
of Edinburgh to their Compomr, they should do their best to keep 
in the front rank, both scientin<»dly and practically. Great strides 
had been made within the last year in electric lighting. The 
"•^eoent Frankfort Exhibition had brought many useful adaptations 

and inventions before the public, and although it would be foolish 
not to recognise that many more would be aiscovered, they could 
not wait indefinitely for that. They had, at any rate, the advan- 
tage of studying many failures and mistakes, and would profit by 
them. He felt confident that if the Company were entrusted with 
the work it would be done as well as the present position of the 
science would admit. They were naturally anxious to have the 
business, but the shareholders might rest assured that although 
their Directors would not be gr^dy for profit, they would not 
undertake any contract which did not in their view leave a good 
margin for interest and risk. 

Mr. George Barolay said be had great pleasure in seconding 
the adoption of the report, because he thought both the report 
and the Chairman's remarks indicated that the Directors had been 
proceeding on wise and prudent lines, and that being so there was 
good reason to believe that should the Corporation eventually 
succeed in getting the concession from the city on fair and reason- 
able terms, the same Directors would carry out the enterprise to a 
successful termination. 

The report was adopted unanimously, and on the motion of Sir 
Thomas Clark a vote of thanks was ptassed to the Chairman. 


Directors: A. D. Provand, M.P., London, chairman; H. T. 
Gaddum, J. P., Manchester; W. M. Mollison, Manchester; 
Councillor J. \V. Southern, J. P., Manchester ; John Blyth, Liver- 
pool ; James R. Paton, Liverpool. A. R. Bennett, M.I.E.E., 
general mana«;er. J. Vincent Swindells, secretary. 

Report of the Directors for the period ending 31st October, 1891, 
presented to the shareholders at an ordinary general meeting of 
the Company, held at the Memorial Hall, ^bert-square, Man- 
chester, on Thursday, the 31st ult. 

The Directors have the pleasure of submitting to the share- 
holders their first report and statement of accounts, made up to 
the 31st day of October, 1891. The accounts do not represent an 
ordinary working period, but must be submitted in order to con- 
form to the requirements of the articles of association. The capital 
account shows that from the formation of the Company to the 31st 
October, 1891, the sum of £21,539. 28. fid. has been expended on 
the construction of the Company's exchange system in Manchester, 
and that £1,574. 16s. 8d. has been expended in other places where 
it is proposed to open exchanges. The revenue account represents 
only a working period of four months — viz., from July 1st to 
October 31st, 1891, the former being the date from which, with 
the exeception of £191. 15s. previously charged, the Company 
commenced to earn revenue. This account shows a gross rental 
of £3,906. 5s., of which £1,145. Is. is applicable to this period, 
and £2,761. 4s. has been carried forward to next account as repre- 
senting rentals received in advance for periods extending beyond 
31st October, 1891. The amount at the credit of the account is 
£378. lis. 7d., which the Directors propose to carry forward. The 
business of the Company is proceeding in a very satisfactory 
manner. At the date of this report, 840 instruments are in 
connection with the Company's exchange. This leaves a large 
number of applicants still to be join^ up, while additional 
applications are being received daily. Attention is also being 
given to the work of connecting bv trunk wires the various 
manufacturing centres around Mancnester, and your Directors 
hope before long to offer to the subscribers these facilities. 
Arrangements have been made to open call-boxes on the main 
boards of the Royal Exchange, and these will shortly be ready for 
the use of subscribers to the Companv's system The Directors 
feel that they may congratulate the shareholders upon the 
Company having already proved itself an accomplished success, 
both in respect of the advantage of the metallic circuit (t.e., the 
double wiie), as affording clearness of speech, and as confirming 
the views held by the promoters of the Company that a telephone 
service, worked with the most modern improvements, can be 
supplied at rates much below those hitherto charged. The retiring 
Directors are Messrs. Provand and Southern, who. being eligible, 
offer themselves for re-election. The auditors, Messrs. Thomas, 
Wade, Guthrie, and Co. , also retire, and are eligible for re-election, 


Revenue Account, covering the working period of four 
MONTHS ending October 31 ST, 1891. 

Dr. £ s. d 

Rents, rates, insurance, and wayleaves 202 4 11 

Working expenses — 
Including expenses of management, ofiice salaries 

and expenses, and operators' wages 474 10 7 

Repairs to lines and instruments 42 14 7 

Balance carried forward 378 11 7 

£1,098 1 8 

Cr. £ s. d. £ R. d. 

Rentals — 

Received and outstanding 3,906 5 

Less proportion in respect of periods 
extending beyond October 31, 
1891 2,761 4 

£1,145 1 
Deduct — 

Post Office royalties 107 18 6 

1,037 2 6 

Bank interest 60 19 2 

£1,098 I 8 



Baulncs-shset, October 31, 1891. 

Dr. £ 8. d. £ B. d. 

CoDBtruction account — 

Amotint expended since the com« 

mencement of the Company on 

the construction of the exchange 

and private lines and other capi^ 

chai^ 20,359 16 9 

Preliminary and formation ex- 
penses 1,179 6 9 

21,539 2 6 

Amount in suspense for legal and professional 

charges 636 19 8 

Preliminary expenses in districts where it is pro- 
posed to open exchanges 1,574 16 8 

Stores, apparatus, tools, etc ... 6,105 6 1 

Office furniture . 300 12 11 

Sundry debtors (for outstanding rentals) 538 12 6 

Poet OfBce royalties and other payments in advance 329 8 10 
Cash in bank and in hand 948 6 8 

£31,973 5 10 

Cr. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

Capital, £350.000— 

Present issue 4,092 shares of £10 

each with £6 per share paid 24,552 

Less arrears of calls 1,332 

Add amount paid in advance of 

calls 556 


Sundry creditors 5,057 10 3 

Proportion of rentals for periods beyond October 31, 

1891, as per revenue account 2,761 4 

Balance at credit of revenue account «S78 11 7 

£31,973 5 10 

The ordinary meeting of the Company was held at Manchester 
on the 3l8t ult. , Mr. Provand occupying the chair. 

The CluUmuui, in a few words, referred to the work they had 
accomplished in the short period since they began operations, and 
proposisd the adoption of the report and accounts. 

This was duly seconded, and carried unanimously, Beveral 
shareholders expressing gratification at the satisfactory state of 
the Company. 

The retiring directors, Messrs. Provand and Southern, as well 
as the auditors, Messrs. Wade, Guthrie, and Co., having been 
re-elected, the proceedings closed with a hearty vote of thanks to 
the Chairman and Board. 


Central Sleetrloal Company, Limited.— Registered by T. T. 
Hull, 22, Chancery-hine, W.C, with a capital of £50,000 in £1 
shares — 5,000 preference and 45,000 ordinary. Object : to carry 
into effect an agreement expressed to be made between Knud 
Sande of the one part and this Company of the other part, and 
generally to carry on business as electricians, mechanical engi- 
neers, suppliers of electricity for the purposes of heat, lignt, 
motive power, or otherwise, and manufacturers of and dealers in 
all apparatus and things required for or capable of being used in 
connection with the generation, distribution, supply, accumula- 
tion, and employment of electricity ; to construct, lay down, 
establish, fix, ana carrv out ^1 necessary cables, wires, lines, accu- 
mulators, dynamos, batteries, lamps, meters, works, and to 
generate, accumulate, distribute, and supply electricity, and to 
light streets, markets, houses, buildings, and places, both public 
and private. The first subscribers are : 


P. H. H. Nickson, 221, Gipsy-road, West Norwood 1 

H. W. Britt, Boumeside, Weybridge 1 

T. Hallamore, 340. Old Broad-street, E.C 1 

J. P. O'Donnell, 2, Great George-street, London 1 

K. Sande, 47 and 48, Broad-street-avenue, E.C 1 

W. Woodhead, 4, Station-buildings, West-green, Tottenham... 1 
H. B. Thurston, 50, Norwood-road, Heme Hill 1 

There shall not be less than three nor more than seven Directors ; 
the first are to be appointed by the signatories to the memorandum 
of association. Qualification, £100. Remuneration, £100 per 
annum each, with an additional 10 per cent, of the net profits, 
divisible as to the Utter. 

Xelgldtty Beetrienl Engineering Company, Limited.— Regis- 
tered by Ullathome, Currey, and Villiers 1, Field-court, Gray's- 
inn, W.C, with a capiUl of £10,000 in £1 shares. Object : to 
ado^ and carry into enect an agreement, made October 27, between 
H. Boardman of the first part, I. Ickringill of the second part, C. 
J. Oamett of the third part, A. Moore of the fourth part, C. H. 
Seed of the fifth part, and S. Hey of the sixth part, for the acquisi- 
tion of the business of C. J. Gamett, now carried on at South- 
itreet, Kei^hlev, and generally to carry on business as electrical 
engineera m all its branches. Registered without articles of 


Great Nortliem Telegmpli Company. — The receipts for the 
month of December were £22,400. 

Xastem Tetegraph Company. — The receipts for December 
were £55 830, as against £58,058 for the same period of 1890, a 
decrease of £2,228. 

Bastem Bztenaion Telegraph Company.— The receipts for 
December amounted to £38,898, as against £43,482 in the corre- 
sponding period, showing a decrease of £4,584. 

City and Sonth IfOndon Railway. — The receipts for the week 
ending January 3, 1892, were £878, as against £805 for the 
corresponding week last year, showing an increase of £73, and 
an increase of £7 as compared with the receipts for the week 
ending December 27, 1891. 

The Direct United States Cable Company recommend an 
interim dividend of 3s. fid. per share, tax free, being at the rate of 
Si per cent, per annum, for the quarter ending December 31st, 
1891, payable on the 23rd inst. £5,000 has been placed to the 
reserve fund, and £4,982 carried forward. 

Partnership. — Mr. Smeeton and Mr. Page have entered into 
partnership, trading as Messrs. Smeeton and Page, at 63, Queen 
Victoria-street, E.C. Mr. Smeeton was a pupil of Messrs. Goolden 
and Trotter's, and has since acted as engineer to the General 
Electric Company on their foreign installations. Mr. Page was 
manager of the same firm's supply department. 

Change of Address. — Mr. G. E. B. Pritchett, of 1, Hanway- 
place, Oxford -street. W., informs us that he has removed to 31, 
Sobo'Square, W., and that he has taken his brother, Mr. T. W. 
Pritchett, late of the Metropolitan Electric Supply Company, into 
partnership. In future the business will be carried on at the 
above address under the title of Pritchett Bros. 

Companies Registered daring December.— The following 
electrical companies were registered during the past month : 

California Gas, Water, and Electric Light Syndicate, 

Limited. £1 shares £2,000 

Chloride Electrical Storage Syndicate, Limited, £1 shares 262,500 

Central Electrical Company, Limited , £ 1 shares 50,000 

Keighley Electrical Engineering Company, Limited, £1 

shares 10,000 

Lightning^ Limited, £1 shares 3,000 

Mountain's Wire Manufacturing Company, Limited, £5 

shares 25,000 


Deckmbek 21. 

22,284. An improved devioe for suspending electric oaUes or 

oonduotors. Henry Edmunds, 47, Lincoln's-inn-fields, 

22,301. An improved method of lighting railway oarriages bgr 

eleotrioity. Sarah Jane Rollason, 50, Goldhurst- terrace, 

South Hampstead, London. 

22,304. Improvements in means of eleotrio transmission for 
telegraphio, telephonio, and other purposes. SUvanus 
Phillips Thompson, the Technical College, Leonard-street, 
Finsbury, London. 

22,316. Improvements in eleotrioal distribution and trans* 
formers therefor. Joseph Devonport Finney Andrews^ 
28, Southampton-buildings, London. 

22,326. Improvements in Wheatstono bridge apparatus and in 
the adaptation of the same to the measurement of 
temperatures, eleotrio, potential, and ourrent. Hugh 
Longbourne Callendar, 24, Southampton-buildings, 

22,339 Improvements in primary and secondary batteries. 

Nicholas Wiadimiroff, 4, South-street, Finsbury, London. 

December 22. 

22,.352. Improvements in eleotrio switohes. Gwynne Ernest 
Painter, 11, Wellington-street, Strand, London. (Com- 
plete specification. ) 

22,360. An arrangement for securing good oontaet in eleotrio 
switohes, and for avoiding dead stops in their action. 

Joseph Jackson, 21, Fernhead-road, Paddington, London. 
22,370. Improvements in nautioal signals or sea telephones. 

Ernest Huber, Frederick Jacob Kneuper, and James 
Robert Da vies, 321, High Holborn, London. (Complete 

22.375. Improvements in shades for gas, eleotrio, and other 
lights, and in the mode of manufacturing the same. 

Am^d6e Bidron and William Isaiah George Lewis, 38, 
Chancery-lane, London. 

22.376. Improvements in switches for eleotrioal purposes. 

Charles Scott Snell, and Woodhouse and Rawson, United, 
Limited, 88, Queen Victoria-street, London. 

22,404. Improvements in the coupling of eleotrio mains. Henrv 
White Bowden, Albert Gay, and Robert EEammona, 
46, Lincoln's-inn-fields, London. 

Decxmbkb 23. 

22,473. Improvements in eloetrioal heating apparatus. Carl 
Drevs, 323, High Holborn, London. (Complete speoifi- 



22,478. ImproTemoBts in tlio eoaatmetioa mad worU&s of 
eleotrlo aoeumnlAtora. Illius Aagustus Timmis, 2, Great 
George-street, Westminster, London. 

22,482. ImproTemoBts in Toltalo oella. Henry Harris Lake, 
45, Southampton-baildings, London. (Edward Weston. 
United States. ) (Complete specification. ) 

December 24. 

22,507. IminroTemoBts in supports for tolophone roeeivlng 
iastrnments. Robert Atkins Eraser and George Frederick 
Rowland Kelson, 4, Clayton-sqaare, Liverpool. 

22,533. Gomliinod portable elootrio lamp and battery, whioh 
may also be applied to aot as a burglar alarm. Thomas 
Jenner, 77, Chancery-lane, London. 

22,542. ImproTomonts in devioes for eoaduoting eleotrloity to 
lamps or tbo like on dining-tables or on other plaoes 
^iHiere it is desirable to employ eo n oealed conduotors. 
George Fhillipe, and George Fitzhardinge Rose, 47, 
Lincoln*s-inn-nelds, London. 

22.554. Improvements in batteries and aooumulators. Henry 
Harrington Leigh, 22, Southampton -buildings, London. 
(Johann Franz Weyde and Ferdinand CIbm, Austria ; and 
Jules Eisner, France. ) 

22.555. Improvements in dsmamo-elootrio maohines. Alexander 
Piemstein, 4, South -street, Fiosbury, London. 

December 28. 

22,575. Improvements in dynamo-eleotrio maohines. Rankin 
Kennedy, Camtyne Electric Works, Shettleston, (vlasgow. 

"22,576. Improvements in altemating-eurrent generators and 
electromotors. Rankin Kennedy, Carntyne Electric 
Works, Shettleston. Glasgow. 

22,582. Improvements in oeillns Joints for eleotroliers and the 

like. George Frederick Sanders, 37, Chancery-lane, 

22,593. A combined telephone and telegraph. Frederick Harvey 
Brown and Wilbur F. Melbourne, 7, High -street. Haver- 

22,605. Improvements la oonduits for eloetrioal oonduot rs 
partieularly suitable for eloetrioal traetton. Charles 
Frederick Parkinson, South Regent-street, Lancaster. 

22,609. Improvements in incandescent elcctrio lamps. Richard 
Ballard, 2, Clifford 's-inn, London. 

22,627. Improvements in elcctrio Iccomotivcc or elcetrio-motor 
cars. Sidney Pierce HoUingsworth, 24, Southampton - 
buildings, London. 

22,636. Improvements in eloetrioal conducting wires. Henry 
Harris Lake, 45, Southampton-buildings, London. 
(Madame Veuve Hannetelle, n^ HortenseChapuis, France ) 

22,640. Improvements in electric aro lamps. William Brooke 
Sayers, 46, Lincoln's-inn-fields, London. 

Drokmbek 29. 

22.686. Improvements in electric forges. Edwin Elliott Angell, 
52, Chancery-lane, Londoti. (Complete specification.) 

22.687. Improvements ia electric blank heaters for forging 
machines. Edwin Elliott Angell, 62, Chancery-lane, 
London. (Complete siiecifioalion.) 

22,695. Improvements in apparatus for relieving electrical 
circuits from static charges of electricity. Oliver 
Imray, 28, Southampton-buildmgs, London. (The 
Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing" Company, 
United States.) 

22,708. Improvements in the maaufhcture of porous carbon for 
galvanic batteries and for flUors. Wilhelm Hellesen, 
4, South-street, Finsbury, London. 

22,718. Improvements in machines for treating metals by elec- 
tricity. George Dexter Burton and Edwin Elliott Angell, 
45, Southampton-buildings, London. (Complete niiecifi- 

22,720. Improved methods of and apparatus fur heating metal 
articles by eleotricity. Edwin Elliott Angell, 45, South- 
ampton-buildings, London. (Complete specification.) 

22,725. A new or improved method of making and breaking 
dsctric circuits and apparatus therefor William 
Henry Dinffle and John Mackenzie Urquhart, Norfolk 
House, Norfolk -street, London. 

December 30. 
22,773. Improvements in and relating te electric bells and 
indicators. Charles Fletcher Ennis, 31, Haselrigge-road, 
Clapham, Surrey. 

22,782. Improvements in electric arc lamps. (iuv Carey 
Frioker, 46, Lincoln's-inn-fields, London. (Complete 

22,785. Improvements in the field magnets of dynamo-electric 
wachlues. Lazarus Pike and Edward Stephen Harris, 
433, Strand, London. (Complete specification. ) 

December 31. 

22,817> Improvements la dsmamo-eleotric machines. John Hall 
Rider, Northern Telegraph Works, Halifax. 

22,820. Improvements in connection with telephones. Ernest 
Frank Furtado, Anders Elliott, and Chetham-Strode, Ld., 
4, Moorfields, London. (Complete specification. ) 

*V||S87* Improvements la electric arc lamps. Hubert Hallam 
jBJt^lMod sod John Bums, 6, Lord-street, Liverpool 

electric SMters. 

22,852. Improvements in and relating to 

Francis Teague, 433, Strand, London. 

22.854. Improvements relating to the electrolysis of metals. 

Emile Placet and Joseph Bonnet, 6, Bream's-buildings, 
London. (Date applied for under Patents Act, 18.33, sec. 
103, 17th July, 1891, being date of application in France.) 

22.855. A method of oztracting chromium by the aid of elec- 
trolytic baths with a base of salts of chromium Emile 
Placet and Joseph Bonnet, 6, Bream's-buildings, London. 
(Date applied for under Patents Act, 1883, sec. ia3, 17th 
July, 1891, being date of application in France.) 

22.856. A method of eztraotlng chromium by the aid of elec- 
trolytic baths with chromic add base. Emile Placet 
and tloseph Bonnet, 6, Bream's-buildings, London. (Date 
applied for under PatenU Act, 1883, sec. 103, 17th July, 
1891, being date of application in France.) 

22,858. Improvementa In or connected with electrical 
measuring and indiimtlfsg apparatus. Erhard Ludwig 
Mayer, Norfolk House, Norfolk -street, London. 

22.87 1 . Improvementa relating to the employment of Electricity 
when carrying out certain surcical operations. John 
Jones Attwood, 20, High Holborn, London. 

22.872. Bietti system of elootrio tubing. Charle William 
Clement Rietti, 14, Glasshouse-street, Regent-street, 

Jam AKY 1, 1892. 

37. Improvementa in electric tricycles and cars actuated by 
eleotricity. William Walter Gerald Webb, 9, Coppenhall- 
terrace, Crewe. 

43. Improvementa in apparatus for electric li ght i n g of railway 
trains. Edward John Houghton and William White, 28, 
Southampton-buildings, London. 

January 2. 

86. Improvementa in electrical railways and methods of and 
means for driving cars and transmitting electrical 
energy thereto. Francis' Beatus Badt, 1, Quality-court 

97. Improvementa applicable to the production of electric 
light in walking-stieks and other similar articles 

Samuel Harris Levi, 115, Cannon-street, ]/)ndon. 


19,811. Propelling vessels by eleotricity. Wynne. 8d. 
20,175. Klectric meters. Frager. 8d. 
20,360. Klectric motors. Electric Meter Company and Parker. 



105. Klectric conductors. Haselwander. 8d. 

285. Telephonic transmission. Mayer. 8d. 

1,779. Klectric meters, etc. Hartnell. 8d. 

2,067. Klectrical transformers. Baur and Dieselhorst. 4d. 

3,262. Klectrical glow lamps. Gimingham. 6d. 

3,398. Klectrical burglar alarm. Spencer. 6d. 

4,583. Klectric supply meters. Perry. 8d. 

10,840. Klectric docks. Vander Ploeg. 6d. 

14.911. Telephone receiver supporta. Marcus. 6d. 

14.912. TOlephono mouth-piece. Marcus. 6d. 

16,767. Klectric cooking and heating. Schindler Jenny. 8d. 

17,107. Klectric arc lamps. Rider. 6d. 

17,734. Klectric switches. Linders. 6d. 

18,431. Secondary batteries. Waddell and others. 8d. 

18,641. Dynamo-electric machines. Kelly. 6d. 

18,902. Klectric conductors. Redfern. (Bergmann.) 6d. 

18-916 Kleetric car troUles. Nuttall. 6d. 

19,458. Kleetric accumulators. Thompson. (Edgerton). 6d. 

19,469. Telephones (]rrove and Lehr. 6d. 



Bmsh Go 

— Pref. 

India Rubber, Gutta Percha k Telegraph Co 


Metropolitan Electric Supply 

London Electric Supply 

Swan United 

St. James' 

National Telephone 

Electric OoDstmction 

Westminster Electric 

LlTerpool Electric Supply | 










' 5 


— — 



















Jobanaesberg is now lighted by electricity. 

London Tramway Company. — A motion for the 
use of electric cars was prepared at the meeting of this 
comp^iny, but was not put, as the directors were all averse 
to the change. 

Railway Lightlngr in Oermany.— The Gteneral 
Electricity Company of Berlin has been asked to contract 
for the electric lighting of the Berlin-Anhalt Railway, at a 
cost of Home X30,000, 

raotory Lifirlitinar.— Mr. R. Dann, of High-street, 
Maidstone, has executed the laying down of the plant for 
the use of the electric light in the jam factory of Mr. 
Chambers, at Maidstone. 

Dover Telepliones, — The town clerk of Dover reports 
that two telephone compaoies are seeking powers of the 
district, and he suggests that the Town Council should take 
action to secure their rights. 

Xiong-Dlstanoe Telephones. — A Boston newspaper 
announces that the Bell Company has secured possession 
of an improved telephone which will transmit whispers 
distinctly a distance of 500 miles. 

Book Reoeived.— Messrs. Whittaker and Co. send us 
■' Electric Light Cables and the Distribution of Electricity," 
by Stuart A. Russell, A.M.I.C.E., 107 illustrations, as the 
last addition to their " Specialists' Series." 

Royal Inatltatlon.— The arst of a course of three 
lectures will be given at the Royal Institution by Prof. 
J. A. Fleming on "The Induction Coil and Alternate- 
Current Tiansformer," on Saturday, January 23. 

Hamilton (N.B.).— At the meeting of the Hamilton 
Town Council held last week, the further consideration of 
the question of extending tbe gas works was delayed, and 
enquiries were ordered to be made as to the introduction 
of electric light. 

Leith. — At the monthly meeting of the Leith Dock 
Commission, the Finance Committee reported that they 
liad instructed the superintendent to report as to the cost 
of the introduction of a complete system of electric 
lighting and the probable annual cost of maintenance. 

BlectriD Boats. — The report of the French naval 
attacb6 in Italy states that aa Italian inspector, Signor 
Futltni, has devised a launch driven by electricity, which 
irns been adopted by the Italian Navy, and the construc- 
tion is to be begun immediately at the works at Spezzia. 

Blaokpool. — The Electric Lighting Committee of the 
Blackpool Town Council have recommended that all the 
members of the committee, the town clerk, and the 
borough surveyor be desired to inspect the electric lighting 
in towns recommended by the sub-committee to be visited, 
and to make enquiries thereon. 

Dover XJgbtiag. — The town clerk reported at the last 
meeting of the Dover Town Council that he had received 
tbedraft agreement from the Brush Electric Light Company, 
which required some rather extensive alterations and addi- 
tions before being placed before the Council. It was agreed 
to submit the alterations to the Council. 

Bleotrio Uffhtinfl: In Ross shire. — ^By tbe utilisation 
of tbe water power of a small mountain stream, a mansion 
in Rosa-shire is being lighted up by electricity. Tbe stream 
is only 12in. wide and 4in. deep, but is made to provide 
current for 292 incandescent lamps, and for producing 
warmth through a series of electric stoves. 

CbloaBO Exhibition. — Great progress is being made 
in the construction of the works and buildings for 
the World's Cobimbinn Exposition, and it is confi- 

dently expected that all will be ready for the inetallation of 
exhibits by October 1, 1892 — seven months before the 
exposition will open its gates to the public. 

Reading Oonnty Ball — At the last meeting of the 
Reading Town Council, the surveyor having reported, at 
to the feasibility of lighting the large Town Hall by incan- 
descent lamps on the night of the County Ball, that the 
Reading Electric Lighting Company had ofiered to pvth 
vide, fix, and light 15 50-c.p. lamps for £10, thia offer 
was accepted. 

Rochester. — In June hut the Rochester, Chatham, 
etc., Electric LighUnt; Company had to take up new 
premisei in Chatham, their land at Rochester being given 
up to the South-Eastern Railway Company. Water wa» 
wanted, and, after some considerable difficulty, on Saturday 
last Councillor B. D. Batchelor tapped the phenomenal 
supply of 30,000 galloni an hour. 

Liverpool Town Hall. — Attention has been called to 
tbe fact that although in moat large towns the electric 
light is the illuminating power uied in the town hall, an 
im[>ortant city like Liverpool has not adopted the syatem. 
An offer has been made by the Liverpool Electric Light 
Supply Company to light the town hall on certain specified 
terms, but the Finance Committee have postponed the 
consideration of the subject. 

Eleotzio Light firom a DnmbartouBhlre Water- 
fall. — Mr. J. C. White, a wealthy Glasgow chemical 
manufacturer, is about to introduce the electric light into 
bis mansion of Orertaun, near Dumbarton. A waterfall at 
Spardie Linn, in the Kilpatrick Hills, a short distance 
away, is to furnish the motive power. It is said that 
sufficient power could be generated at the same place to 
light the whole of Dumbarton by electricity. 

Abdnllab's Falaee. — The variations in tenders for 
the Mansion House and the Council-chamber are as 
nothing to those found in the 20 tenders received recently 
for Abdullah's Palace at Alexandria, which varied from 
192,0O0f. up to 600,000f. It is said that the tender of a 
German firm for the smaller amount has been accepted, 
and a considerable amouut of vituperation has been 
going on in the Alexandria press with reference to this 

Advantages of Competition. — In his report to St. 
Luke's Vestry, the surveyor, Mr, M. C. Meaby, remarks, 
under the head of public lighting, that "the keen com- 
petition which continues between the various gas and 
electric lighting companies is not without its advantage 
in the public interest, as may be seen by the activity dis- 
played, and the large sums of money which are being 
expended by the various local authorities in rearranging 
and improving the lighting of the thoroughfares of their 
respective districts.' 

Dr. Jonle. — Prof. Schuster made an interesting com- 
munication at Tuesday's meeting of the Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society with reference to the 
iate Dr. Joule's thermometers, which he has lately had the 
opportunity of inspecting and testing. Amongst them are 
two which there is good reason to believe are those with 
which Dr. Joule's most delicate heat experiments were 
made, and which have considerable scientific as well as 
historical interest owing to the change of value still observ- 
able in these thermometers. 

Fontypool. — An influential meeting of tradesmen and 
others was held at The Crown Hotel last week for the 
purpose of considering the advisability of adopting electric 
lighting in the town instead of gas, as hitherto. Mr. Edwin 
Fowler presided. After hearing a statement from Mr. J. C. 
Howell, of the Crompton- Howell Company, Llanelly, as to 
the uost of the electric system, the meeting^»fa9&^ 



decided in favour of the Bcbetne, a. commiltee being 
appointed to canvaaa the town with a view of ascertaining 
the probable uuotber of lights required. 

Stoarbridge. — There is an opportunity at present for 
bringing the advantages of the electric light to the Stour- 
bridge authorities. After March next the contract for public 
lighting will be revised, and the Board intend to advertise 
lor tenders. They are now in the hands of the gaa company, 
and there is do competition. The annual amount is £266 
for 79 lamps, including lighting and cleaning. The question 
of oil was mentioned, and the gas company are understood 
to be able to offer advantages nest year. A committee, 
consisting of Messrs. Collens, Worth, and Shepherd, was 
appointed to go into the matter and report. 

Dublin. — In the Dublin Town Council on New Year's 
Day, the Lord Mayor, in reviewing the work of the past 
year, referred to the progress of the electric installation, 
and intimated that the building for the central station 
would be complete in a fortnight. His Lordship also 
ttated that the principal streets would be lighted in May, 
and that the Corporation would he prepared to supply 
current to private consumers in July. The work of laying 
the street mains is being actively carried on by the Irish 
House-to- Ho use Company, while the generating plant is 
being pushed forward by the Electrical Engineering 
Company of Ireland. 

Tramways laatltate. — On Friday evening the 
members of the Tramways Institute, which held its 
toeeting at Bradford, visited the Eoundhay Park electric 
tramway and the generating station in Beckett-street, in 
which, naturally, they were greatly interested. Some good 
results should come of this visit. Several pa^iers were read 
during the meeting, one referring to electric traction, which 
we mention elsewhere. Another paper, by Mr. H. Nott 
Knight, described a system of driving tramoars by gas 
engines, by which it was claimed the cost of traction could 
be reduced to l^d. per car mile, as against fid. by steam 
and 6d. by horse traction. 

Sleotrioal Apparatas. — We have received the cata- 
logue of electrical apparatus just issued by Messrs. Dollond 
and Co., of 35, Ludgate-hill. We understand that this de- 
partment has been-opened under the management of W. F. 
Berrett, late manager to Messrs. Dale and Co. Added to 
the world-celebrated optical instruments of Dollond, their 
electrical apparatus will be very wall worth inspection both 
by private students and authorities of electrical laboratories 
The catalogue contains description and illustrations of induc- 
tion machines, magnetic apparatus, batteries, coils, tele- 
phones, besides apparatus for use in research or for lecture 
purposes. The firm also construct special apparatus for 

Eleotrie Meters. — Messrs. Ferranti have made some 
further improvements in their meters, principally to meet 
tbe requirements of the Board of Trade, A cover is 
arranged over the works of the meter, the screw holes of 
which can be sealed after testing arid certificate ; the meter 
counectiona have a further cover which can also be sealed 
when the meter is placed upon the customer's premises. 
These meters are very delicate, starting at less than \ 
ampere in a meter registering 100 amperes — iOO per cent. 
range. They are made for alternating and for direct 
current readings, and in some coses are arranged with 
vertical dials, though this, necessitating a worm gearing, is 
not BO simple as the direct rotating vanes. 

London Electric Railway.— The convenience of the 
City and South London Electric Railway seems to be put 
beyond a doubt, paradoxical as it may seem, by its incon- 
renience. Complaints are often received of the trains being 

overcrowded, plainly showing th^t the convenience of the 
line is felt by more passengers than can always be accom- 
modated. No wonder the other railways are being pushed 
forward with rapidity. With an economical construction 
in the first place, and a rush for places in the second, which 
must bo met by quicker and quicker services, it Keems 
probable that underground electric traction will convince 
company promoters of its advantages before the overhead 
electric tramway has had much more than a chance to show 
its capabilities. 

Durban. — The contract open for tender for the supply 
of electric light to the town of Durban, Natal, will be a 
good chance for tbe introduction of larger business in 
South Africa, and as such is worthy of careful attention. 
The conditions of tender are plain and straightforward, 
though, unfortunately, there does not appear to have been 
an attempt to give the esact requirements in an engineering 
specification previously determined upon, usually the best 
and most satisfactory way of obtaining tenders. Tbe 
Council is prepared to grant rights for supply of current at 
prices to be named by the contractors, and the town will 
also pay an annual sum for the public lighting, the amount 
of subsidy to be stated by tenderers. The town is not 
large— 24,000— of which halt only are white people. The 
tenders must leacb tbe town clerk, Durban, by April 30. 

Electric Light for Chester. — A deputation of 
Chester Town Council, consisting of Alderman Gilbert, 
Councillor Stevenson, and the city surveyor (Mr. J. M. 
Jones), having inspected the central electric stations at 
Brighton, St, Pancras, Eastbourne, and Brompton, have 
reported to the Watch Cominittee, who recommend the 
Council " to vote a sum not exceeding £20,000 for carrying 
out the recommendations of the deputation, and to refer 
the report to this committee, with power to take such 
measures as in their judgment may be proper for giving 
efiect to such recommendations, and to adopt and carry 
out such arrangements as may in their opinion be necessary 
or desirable in carrying out the electric lighting order of 
1690, tbe scheme and estimates, when prepared, to be sub- 
mitted to the Council before a contract for providing an 
installation is entered into." 

Mntnal Telephone Company. — The first annua 
gathering of tbe employes of the Mutual Telephone 
Company was held at the offices, Portland street, Man- 
chester, on January 8. Mr. A, R, Bennett, M.LE.E., 
general manager, presided, and there was a large attend- 
ance. In the course of a short address, Mr. Bennett said 
they had 900 subscribers already connected; the number 
of messages per week was nearly 30,000, and the length of 
wire, if put end to end, would reach half-way between 
Manchester and New York. It was intended to connect 
the exchange with Bolton, Liverpool, and other towns in 
Lancashire, and they had up to the present reached forward 
as far as Farnworth. The success of their efforts was due 
in a large measure to the excellence of the staff, which had 
been specially recruited from all parts of the United 
Kingdom. "The evening finished with music. 

Wallasey (Cheshire). — At the monthly meeting of 
the Local Board of Wallasey, held last Friday, the minutes 
of the Gas and Wnter Committee were brought forward, 
recommending that Mr. A. B. Holmes, Liverpool, should 
be engaged to make a report as to the practicability and 
of lighting the district with electricity, and also as to 
how far tbe pro|>osed new gas works can be utilised for both 
gaa and electrical works. Mr. Heap said it was desirable 
that the public should know that every effort would be 
made to obtain all the information that was required on the 
question of electric lighting, and with which to guide the 
Board with regard to their itction in extending the gaa 

Sappletaeal Co Iht "ELE(niuo.\L EsaiNEEU," January ISth, 1893. 




J. & 11. llUKlfUli. 

Supplement to the "Eleptihcal Enoisekk," Janttari/ IS'h, ISSi. 



works. Mr. Hawkins remarked it was hardly a question 
of providing the whole parish with the electric light, but 
more in the way of introducing a supplementary light 
supply which would perhaps save the proposed extension. 
The proceedings were confirmed. 

AbergaTenny. — ^Electric Ughting is sometimes used as 
a stalking horse for forcing the gas companies to reduce 
their rates. Whether this is the case at Abergavenny with 
reference to the County Asylum, or whether there is a 
distinct intention to use the electric light, does not 
appear; but at the last Local Board meeting the Gas 
Committee reported the consideration of a letter from the 
asylum, asking for a reply to a request for reduction of the 
price of gas to 2s. 9d. "before the asylum authorities 
decided as to the use of electric light." This veiled menace, 
however, did not produce the effect desired, and the Gas 
Committee, remarking the price paid by the asylum was 
only 2s. Ud., refused the reduction, and the chairman 
pointed out that the asylum was under contract to take gas 
or pay for a minimum quantity for another six years. 
Possibly the asylum authorities will now decide that all light 
above that minimum shall be supplied by electricity. 

Large Ammeters. — In a recent issue we mentioned 
an ammeter constructed by the Weston Electrical Instru- 
ment Company, U.S., to measure up to 5,000 amperes as 
being the largest instrument yet made. Mr. James White, 
of Glasgow, maker of Sir William Thomson's measuring 
instruments, writes to point out that he is now supplying 
Thomson standard balances to measure up to 10,000 
amperes. Besides this he has supplied Thomson ampere 
gauges to measure up to 6,000 amperes for use in electro- 
lytic processes, and also for use with electric furnaces. It 
is interesting also to learn that he has recently submitted 
estimates to the Edison Illuminating Company, of New 
York, for two instruments to be used on the omnibus bars 
of their three-wire system, one of which is to measure up 
to 15,000 amperes and the other up to 100,000 amperes on 
each side of the neutral wire. It is evident, therefore, that 
we can claim the manufacture of the largest ammeters for 
Great Britain. 

Frankfort Ezhibitlon Finances. — At a meeting 
of the Managing Committee of the Frankfort Electrical 
Exhibition, held on December 28, 1891, Mr. Sonnemann, 
the president of the committee, submitted a preliminary 
report on the financial results of the exhibition. The total 
expenditure amounted to 1,362,000 marks, while the total 
receipts were 1,514,000 marks, showing a clear profit of 
152,000 marks. It is proposed to dispose of this surplus 
in the following manner : Gratifications and salaries to 
officials still employed ; publication of the official report on 
the exhibition and of the report of the testing commission ; 
a bonus of 15 per cent., previously stipulated by contract, 
to Herr Oscar von Miller, to whose efforts the success is 
partly due; repayment of the grant of 50,000 marks 
made by the municipality of Frankfort and of the grants 
made by the Frankfort Chamber of Commerce and two 
private persons ; and, finally, repayment of part of the 
payments made by exhibitors for hire of space and supply 
of motive power. 

Cumberland. — ^The following from the Carlisle Journal 
speaks for itself : " Electric lighting does not make such 
rapid progress as might have been expected ; but local 
authorities are doubtless holding their hands for a while 
until they can satisfy themselves as to the best method to 
adopt and feel assured about the cost. If we except the 
experiments in public lighting at Cockermouth, Keswick 
has led the way in providing the public with the means of 
supplying themselves with the electric light; but other 
towns are on the look out. Whitehaven is pondering over 

the subject, and at the last meeting of the trustees an offer 
of a London firm to take over the provisional order granted 
to the Board for electric lighting purposes was under con- 
sideration. At the meeting of the Workington Town 
Council a committee was appointed to make enquiries and 
report to the Gas Committee upon the feasibility of intro- 
ducing the electric light for street lighting at Workington. 
Whatever the result of the enquiries of the committee 
should be it is evidently not expected that the gas works 
will be materially affected, because at the same meeting 
sanction was given to a loan of £545 for gas extensions." 

Coast Commnnioation. — The discussion as to 
electric communication with lighthouses and lightships is 
continued in the Times this week by a letter from Mr. 
R. S. Culley, who, with reference to the experiments on 
board the '* Sunk " lightship, says that on enquiry he finds 
that this ship was chosen because of its sheltered position, 
yet the telegraph frequently broke down, and the experi- 
ment was abandoned nearly three years ago. In this case 
the ship's mooring chain was made to form a flexible tube, 
which did not, however, prevent chafing. Mr. Edward 
Stallibrass, A.M.I.C.E., writing from 25, Great George- 
street, says he has no hesitation in saying that should 
the money be forthcoming for the most important work of 
establishing communication with our isolated rock light- 
houses, there would be no lack of engineers competent to 
successfully utilise it. But one attempt has been made up 
to now, but because that was a failure we need not assume 
the thing is impossible. He advises the laying down of 
three or four cables, securing each separately, and bringing 
them to one main cable at the first favourable spot above 
the rocks. It is unlikely all would be broken at once. 
The main cable would be no more likely to break than other 
submarine cables. 

Antomatio Transformer Switehes. — The need for 
some method of reducing the waste in current in alter- 
nating-current distributing systems, caused by the absorp- 
tion of magnetising current in the transformer, has long 
suggested itself to electrical engineers working with the 
high-tension current. Mr. Ferranti has just constructed an 
ingenious piece of apparatus for this purpose, which is 
found to answer well. For a large building, the trans- 
former sufficient for maximum supply, say, for instance, 
25-h.p. transformer, is surmounted by a smaller one, say, 
2^ h.p. The circuits are led to a double-pole tipping -f- 
automatic switch, which when pulled over puts in the 
larger transformer. The low-tension lamp circuit is 
brought down and connected to contacts which float 
in a bath of oil — two plates being arranged to be 
of the same polarity. Their repulsion is balanced by 
the tension of a long spring until it rises sufficiently, 
when the repuldion is made to actuate a magnetic 
contact The current is shunted, and pulls over the 
switch, putting in the larger transformer. The reverse 
action takes place when the lights are turned out, the day 
supply being furnished by the smaller transformer. Some 
of these devices have been already supplied for central 
station use. 

Tamworth. — ^Very few towns in England pay for their 
public gas lighting at the rate of 5s. per 1,000 cubic feet 
Yet this is the rate charged at Tamworth, and it is there- 
fore not very surprising that enquiries are being made with 
reference to electric lighting. Mr. Henry J. Clarson, C.E., 
in his annual report says that one of the most important 
matters which will be brought before the Council during 
the ensuing year will be this question of lighting the 
borough by electricity. He states : " The Corporation is 
now paying nearly £300 per annum for lighting the 
public lamps, the gas being charged at the. rate of 5s. per 



thousand cubic feet, less 10 per cent, allowed for cash 
discount, and at the same time another large consumer is 
charged at the rate of 3s. 9d. per thousand. This is an 
injustice which no longer should be tolerated, especially 
when it is known there are towns similarly situated to 
Tamworth at the present time supplied with gas at half 
the price; and there are also other towns lighted with 
electricity under similar conditions to those that would be 
required for Tamworth, where the electricity is satisfac- 
torily supplied and sold profitably at a price equal to gas 
at 3s. 6d. per thousand cubic feet." From the above it 
will be seen that electrical engineers would have an ardent 
advocate in the Tamworth borough surveyor. 

Junior Engineering Sooiety. — ^At the next meeting 
of this society, to be held on Friday, January 15, at the 
Westminster Palace Hotel, Victoria-street, the chair being 
taken at 8 p.m. by Mr. Sidney Boulding, M.I.M.E., a paper 
will be read on " Modern Applications of Electricity to 
Metallurgy " by Mr. George 0. V. Holmes, sec. I.N.A., 
hon. member. The paper will deal with the refining of 
copper ; electrolysis of sulphate of copper solution with an 
insoluble anode ; electrolysis of sulphate of copper solution 
with a pure copper anode, and the resulting deposition of 
pure copper on the cathode; electrolysis of sulphate of 
copper solution with an impure copper anode; how the 
impurities are c^ot rid of during the process so as to allow 
of pure copper being deposited on the cathode. A descrip- 
tion and details of cost of the electrolytic methods adopted 
in practice for refining copper will also be given. The 
paper will also deal with the manufacture of finished 
copper articles during the process of refining, and how the 
metal can be deposited in a dense and tough form. Elmore's 
system of burnishing during deposition will be described, 
and its advantages pointed out. Finally, the manufacture 
and cost by this process of tubes, rollers, hydraulic rams, 
sheet copper, wire, and tape for electric lighting will be 
gone into. The paper promises to be interesting and 

Cambridge. — An enquiry has been held at Cambridge 
bj the Local Government Board into the application to 
borrow money for purposes of electric lighting. It was 
proposed to borrow £35,000. Prof. Garnett gave details sUt- 
ing thtfy intended to use the Parsons steam turbine, driving 
alternators at 2,000 volts. He expected the actual cost to 
be £24,300, but he recommended the larger sum in view of 
extension of mains. The Master of Peterhouse spoke in 
opposition to the scheme, thinking a separate company 
would be best He thought, however, that if the applica- 
tion were granted, opportunity should be given to consider 
whether direct current would not be best to adopt Prof. 
Ewing, in reference to this, said it appeared from figures 
published by the companies that the consumption of coal 
for continuous was not much more than half that required 
for the alternate-current system. Prof. Garnett admitted 
that for the compulsory area with a proper supply, the 
continuous current might be cheaper, but thought on the 
whole alternate currents would be best Alderman 
Balls, chairman of the Gas Committee, referred to the 
scheme as an unlimited company using the money of the 
ratepayers. He would prefer to see a private company, 
strongly objecting to the money of that town being used 
for speculating. The enquiry was concluded, though, of 
course, the result is not known. 

Animal flectricity. — The series of lectures given by 
Prof. M'Kendrick, at the Eoyal Institution, on " Life in 
Motion," came to a close on Saturday. Though not 
trenching on the domains of practical electrical work, 
investigations into the electrical action of the living body, 
such as brought forward by these lectures, have not only 

immediate scientific interest, but may possibly lead to 
useful results in modifying our knowledge and use of con- 
densers, and in stimulating the search for a means of 
economic generation of electricity by direct consumption of 
carbon. That there was in reality a distinct electrical 
action of the human body, Prof. M'Kendrick seemed to take 
as proved, and showed the effect of animal electrical currents 
by means of a very sensitive galvanometer. Current from 
animals such as the torpedo fish had long been known, but 
it was much disputed whether there was such a thing 
as an electric current from man. This man-current he 
demonstrated by putting his hands into a three-quarter 
per cent solution of common salt contained in two 
flat vulcanite dishes. The effect upon the galvanometer 
was greater as the number of fingers inserted was increased, 
and was greatest when the muscles of the arm were con- 
tracted. There were no fewer than 50 species of animal 
that were living electric batteries, though only five or six 
were generally known. In concluding the lecture, he 
warned his hearers not to suppose that the final settlement 
of these questions had been reached. Many problems 
awaited solution, and ho urged that everyone should keep 
an open mind for the reception of the truth, from whatever 
quarter it might come. The lecture and the experiments 
were heartily applauded by a large audience, which included 
the Lord Chancellor, Sir F. Bramwell, and a number of 
well-known scientific men. 

Walsall. — At the meeting of the Walsall Town Council 
on Monday the recommendations of the General Purposes 
Committee, with reference to electric lighting and traction, 
came before the Council. These recommendations were, 
that the Council provide an electric lighting plant on the 
lines suggested in the report of Mr. F. Brown, A.I.E.K, 
at an estimated cost of £21,450, and that the common 
seal be affixed to an agreement with the South Staf- 
fordshire Tramways Company for the erection of iron 
poles in the public streets for the working of the 
lines of tramways within the borough by means of 
overhead wires. With regard to the electrical scheme, 
the Mayor said Mr. Brown's estimate was that, 
supposing 2,000 lights, of 16 candles each, were taken, there 
would be a profit of £1,266 a year. That result might not 
be attained, but at all events there would be a great 
improvement in lighting, and they had sufficient reason to 
believe that 2,000 lights would be taken. In Birmingham 
light could not be produced sufficiently fast to meet 
the demands of customers, and he thought the authori- 
ties of the city had made a mistake in not taking 
the electric lighting into their own hands. The area, 
ho explained, in answer to questions, included the 
streets in the centre of the town, and the scheme would 
eventually be extended to the whole of the borough. 
Alderman Lindop, as a member of the committee, added 
that he should do his best to get the scheme ready in six or 
eight months — certainly for next winter. As to the agree- 
ment with the tramways company, the town clerk and the 
mayor explained that the feeder wires, except in cases where 
special permission was given, would all be underground, 
and the trolley wires overhead. Every seven years the 
Council would be entitled to revise the agreement with the 
company. The cars would be much improved. The right 
had been reserved for the use of the poles for electrical or 
gas lamps, and the use of the poles for advertising was 
absolutely prohibited. 

Steam or Eleetrieity for Tramways.— The incur- 
sion of the electric tramway at Leeds has roused up the 
tramway companies of the North, and some pretty little 
discussions are likely to result, from which we hope elec- 
tricity will come out victorious. The subject has been 


taken up by Mr. Vaux, manager of the Bradford Tramway 
Company, who la evidently willing to be converted by 
sdvocatea of electricity, but is not yet converted. The 
question is not between horses and electricity, or even 
between cable and electricity, with Mr, Vaux, but with 
electricity as against steam — steam meaning in his case 
compound tramway engines. He does not refer to the 
convenience or cleanliness, questions in which the public 
are more interested than the company perhaps ; but 
diacussea simply the item of cost of hauling and 
management. The engine most auitable for tramway 
work, according to the experience of the manager 
of the Bradford tramways, is one approaching the 
good engine with surface condensera. The Bradford com- 
pany have now seven such engines, which show a saving of 
25 to 33 per cent, over other engines. The following 
figures are given : The engine was twice the weight of the 
car it had to carry ; the weight of the rails had been 
increased from 501b. per yard to 1061b. per yard, the beat 
form being girder rails laid in concrete Gin. to 9in. thick. 
The tramway engines have a tractive force of 4,5361b. on 
the drawbar, and wore calculated to haul 17 tons up uii 
incline 1 in 17, or 112 tons on the level. The cost of the 
Bradford tramways is 9-38d. per mile, including running, 
management, and maintenance. With reference to electricity, 
Mr. Vaux remarks that it had been stated that electricity 
would save 3d. a mile, but he scarcely saw how it 
waa possible. The mere coat of hauling at Bradford 
was only 4Jd., and a saving of 3d. would leave only Ud. 
a mile, barely sufficient to pay men. Bepairs, he thought, 
would be increased, and possible rent and cost of licenses. 
He failed to see how an economy can be effected. It will 
be for electrical engineers with these details before them to 
convince Mr. Vaux to the contrary. The item of ijd. is 
low, much lower than usually taken as the coat of steam 
hauling, but it seems probable that depreciation, a heavy 
item in steam tramways, is not therein taken into account. 

InvemesB. — At a meeting of the Police Commissioners 
in committee on Jan. 6th, a report by two engineers on the 
practicability of introducing the electric li^ht into Inver- 
ness was discussed in connection with a proposal to extend 
the gas works at a cost of £10,000. The report described 
a number of schemes for obtaining water power for turbines, 
and recommended one whereby the necessary power could 
be got from the Caledonian Caniil at the Muirtown Locks, 
Inverness. The report stated that " on the Muirtown or 
north side of the canal a working fall of 28ft. can be arranged 
from the top of the locks to the basin, according to designs 
which we have sketched and estimated for. This fall gives 
300 b. p. with a discharge of 4,722 cubic feet of water per 
minute, 600 b.p, with a discharge of 14,240 cubic feet, and 
1,108 h.p. with a discharge of 26,180 cubic feet. A supply 
for 600 h.p. would cause an average velocity of leas than 
one-eeventh part of a mile per hour in the canal, and for 
1,108 h.p. an averse velocity of one-fourth of a mile per 
hour, the central surface velocity being slightly more. 
Por this place we have designed an arrangement for 
turbines, each yielding 260 h.p. when using 6,140 cubic 
feet of water each per minute ; or, with both at work, 
520 h.p, with 12,280 cubic feet of water per minute. 
The cost of the two turbines complete, with the 
necessary shafting, pulleys, governors, sluice gates, and 
grating, erected and ready for belting on to the dynamos, 
would be about £1,650. The lead, tail race, and by-wash 
would cost about £3,050, and the turbine and dynamo 
house with foundations for four dynamos and space and 
foundations for two engines if required, and with tail race 
undemeatb and with lead, about .£1,400. The by-wash 
K nd alaice gates required at Docbgarroch Locks would oott 

about £1,080, and an overflow for the canal basin about 
£120. This makes the total cost of the complete works 
and turbines for 520 h.p., £7,200. The cost of a smaller or 
greater power of the same design can be given if required. 
The electric cable can be taken across under the canal 
at the end of the stone invert below the awing bridge." 
It is understood that this scheme is 'the one that would 
best suit the Canal Com misai oners, because the dis- 
charge from the turbines could be used for raising the level 
of the canal basin when required for deeply-loaded ships, 
for which the noiiaal depth of the basin is not sufficient, 
Along with this scheme a fall of 16ft, with the same 
amount of water, might be worked from the overflow of the 
canal basin at the end of the sea embankment. With the 
discharge of 12,280 cubic feet per minute it would yield 
297 h.p. It was resolved to have the report printed before 
it is finally disposed of, and in the meantime it was agreed 
to recommend that, whatever may be done with the electric 
light, it is essential to extend the gas works, 

Annnal Dinner. — On Saturday last the dynamo 
department of Messrs, Johnson and Phillips held their 
second annual dinner at East Ureenvrich. The dinner was 
highly successful, over 80 sitting down to a substantial 
repast, under the presidency of Mr. S. Sudworth, chief 
foreman of the dynamo department, who was ably seconded 
by Mr. Chennery, foreman of the engineering department, 
and Mr. Lawrence, of the submarine department. There 
were also a number of engineers of other firms present — 
Mr. Jones, engineer to Messrs. Drake and Gorham ; Mr, 
Miller, electrical engineer to the Bank of Australasia ; Mr. 
A, J. Upton, engineer to the Union Bank of London j 
Mr, J. N. Cooper, of the Edison-Swan Company ; Mr. 
Evered, electrical engineer at St. Pancras, and others. 
Mr. Sudworth, in giving the health of the firm of 
Messrs. Johnson and Phillips, said that the business 
was going up by leaps and bounds. Their dynamos were 
growing larger, while more of them were turned out, and 
the manufacture of the D.P. accumulator, he thought, 
promised to become almost more important than that of 
dynamos. The firm's products now went throughout the 
glolie, and in Africa, China, as well as the European 
nations, the dynamos and lamps made by the men then at 
dinner were used for electric light. He paid a great tribute 
to the kind and considerate way in which the firm treated 
their men. No one, he thought, could ever wish to be 
better treated than they were. Every consideration was 
shown for their comfort and intellectual aid, as the beautiful 
library lately established served to show. The toast waa 
responded to by Mr. Chennery, who was evidently, from 
his reception, as much liked for his good nature as 
respected for hia good discipline. " Harmony between 
men and employes " was his watchword. The health 
of Mr. Gi short Kapp was proposed by Mr. Evered 
(lately with Messrs. Johnson and Phillips, but now in 
charge of the Kapp machines at the St. Pancras central 
station) in very sympathetic language. He had worked 
for many years under Mr. Kapp, who remained to work- 
men as well as others the same kindly, courteous gentleman 
be always had been. Mr. Pierce also spoke in answer to 
enthusiastic calls. Mr. Lawrence, as the oldest employ^, 
and at one time timekeeper and only foreman, spoke of the 
growth of the works, and hoped they would all long 
continue in the same firm. The evening waa finished ia 
fine style with songa, of which those with a line rousing 
chorus were best appreciated. Mr, William Davis, who 
acted as pianist, was to be complimented on his performance. 
The general good feeling, and enthusiasm seems to augur 
well for Messrs. Johnson and Phillips, and the men will 
doubtless look forwaitl to many equally auecesaful dinners 




"Will LbeExbibition be a euccess T' waa the question 
asked by a gentlemaQ upon getlinf; out of the train at the 
Palace on the opening day. Such a question, too, will 
often be asked during the next few months, and to it time 
alone can give a definite anawev. 

The Exhibition was opened without ceremony on Satur- 
day, but we understand that in about another week there 
will be a formal visit of inspection, and possibly some 
specifying. It is expected by that time the laggards in 
love — no, in preparation will have put in their time, com- 
pleted their exhibits, be ready for giviiig information and 
for receiving congratulations, and— orders. 

The first edition of an exhibition oatalogne is rarely 
complete, and we should perhaps defer our remarks, but 
an excellent plan has been followed in preparing a series of 
short essays of a popular character to introduce the separate 
departments to the visitor. This work has been left in the 
able hands of Mr. H. J, Dowsing, who undoubtedly must 
have felt himself heavily handicapped in attempting to cram 
a mass of iiiterestiug information into the small space of 
two 01 three pages. We believe the general public will 
rightly appreciate this endeavour to give them trustworthy 
information in a simple manner. 

The backwardness of many of the exhibits, and especially 
those in the machinery department, makes it difficult to 
adopt what by many would be thought the best method to 
describe the exhibits. The scheme we propose to adopt, 
however, will need little or no alteration. It will be 
admitted at once by experts that there vrill necessarily be 
comparatively little that is new from a technologist's point 
of view. It will be also admitted that the main object of 
an exhibit is to let the world of visitors and the world of 
readers learn the specialities of the exhibitor's manufacture. 
The technical journal, then, should, in our estimation, 
become rather more of a go-between from the exhibitor to 
the general public — the ultimate buyer — than from the 
technologist to the technologist. 

When and how to begin is the difficult point to decide. 
However, as every eye will nightly be turned towards the 
brilliant screen of incandescent lamps exhibited by the 
Edison-Swan Company at the end of the North Nave, let 
UB turn thitherward. At the time of writing the screen is 
incomplete, but sufficient lamps are wired thereon to show 
what a gorgeous Hood of light there will be when fully 
complete. Underneath the screen is the stand of the 
company, which contains a fine assortment of the 
manufactures of the company. When finished we wilt 
visit it again. Next, in the centre of the nave, is the large, 
varied, and excellent display of the Post Office. Here we 
have the historic apparatus of telegraphy on four long 
counters. A day — nay,a week — might be spent around these 
exhibits in tracing the gradual development of telegraphy, 
as telegraphy is understanded of the people who do not 
usually place telephony under the same it'gis. But tele- 
phony, as we shall see by-and-by is well represented 
further along. The extreme jwints in the telegraphic 
display of the Post Office are to be seen in the various 
(1837) instruments of Cook and Wbeatstone, in tbe first of 
which five needles and five line wires were required, and 
the other extreme in the beautiful multiplex apparatus of 
today, by means of which half-a-dozen messages, or rather 
half-a-dozen instruments, are in communication with 
only one line wire. Men who are approaching the 
age of threescore years and ten can, or ought, to 
well remember the introduction of telegraphy, and, of 
course, the astounding development of all things elec- 
trical since that time. Their starting point at this 
exhibition should be the Post Office exhibit, and then 
passing around the aisles and galleries of the Palace they 
would have presented to them an epitomised history of 
their lifetime so far as electrical developments are con- 
cerned. Commencing with telegraphy, what are the great 
departures t Electro -deposition was soon born, and now 
claims thousands of labourers. The electric light in the 
forties had a kind of will-o'-the-wisp existence. Its turn 
bad not come, but men prophesied, and had no honour. In 
the beginning of the fifties came submarine work, and for 
many years cJaimed great attention, till, iifter herculeui 

efforts, it was proved a success. Meanwhile, that will-o'- 
the-wisp would dance backwards and forwards, and 
throw a glamour over men's minds, but its time was 
not yet. The seventies were to inaugurate a new era- — a 
new development of telegraphy — a development to enable 
us not only to convey signals but sounds of speech, was 
ushered in, and is now enjoying a flourishing manhood. 
And the electric light came also to stay. Gramme, Siemens, 
and JablochkofT in 1878 paved the way. Then came a 
hurricane, and the 18S1 Exbibition at Paris and the 1383 
at the Crystal Palace took the world by storm. The success 
of electric light was demonstrated. Incessant activity gave 
us the Plante secondary battery and its successors. Inventors 
followed Gramme and Siemens by the hundred, and through 
tbe eighties we have witnessed a feverish excitement 
whicb is carrying electrical matters forward by leaps 
!ind bounds. This is but a slight indication of what 
the old man might think in hia wanderings among 
the stands. But we must be more precise. Opposite the 
Post Office exhibit is stand No, 117, belonging to The 
Mining: and General Eleotrio Lanip Co., a repre- 
sentation of which our artist has enabled us to produce. 
This company appeals to us metaphorically for considera- 
tion. Previous toa visit to the 1881 Paris Exhibition, Mr. 
Desmond FitzUerald had shown us ex^jeriments he was 
making and investigations he was carrying on to attempt to 
make more perfect secondary batteries than were public 

Mining Lamp. 

property at that time. We reminded Mr. FitzGerald that 
he and others had worked in this direction as far back as 
18G3. While at Paris a conversation with Mr. Crompton 
ended in a promise to bring him into communication 
with Mr. Desmond FitzGerald. Subsequently they met, 
but afterwards drifted apart — ^Mr. Crompton to develop 
his business into the gigantic concern it has become, 
Mr, FitzGerald to the laboratory to perfect hia " lithanode," 
the name be has given to the material he uses in his 
secondary battery. After many vicissitudes the Mining 
and General Company was formed to exploit Mr. Fitz- 
Gerald's, Prof, Frankland's, and other methods of maiuifac- 
turing secondary batteries, and to carry on the business of 
electrical engineering generally. For some time there was 
lacking a good business bead, but it seems these difficulties 
are being surmounted, and under the energetic and capable 
management of Mr, J. T. Niblett the company is rapidly 
assuming its right position, and placing its specialities 
on the market, The stand comprises a dark room, 
wherein to show moi-e effectively the capabilities of 
the small hand lamps and miner's lamps, in which 
direction particular attention is being given. Mr, N. Story- 
Maskelyne, M.P., as many of our readers know, has paid 
great attention to all that concerns the safety of miners, 
and no doubt it is due to his initiative that the company of 
which he is the chairman should specially examine into the 
merits of secondary batteries for lighting purposes in mines. 
Thus we iisd, as we should uaturaSy expect, the company's 



axhibit compriMs, among other things, a good display of the 
metal-cued safety electric band lamp, which hu been 
specially constructed for use in such places as coal mines. 
In designing it every precaution has been taken to ensure 
perfect reliability. It will be found to withstand with- 
out injury all ordinary usage and the accidental rough 
treatment incidental to employment in coal mines. 
The lamp consists of a small two-cell battery of the 
tithanode type, mounted in an outer steel protecting case. 
A circular switch serves to throw the lamp in and out of 
action. Insulating charging terminals are placed above the 
lantern bezel, and these are covered by projecting lugs 
attached to the cover, so that when the lamp is in action 
the cells cannot be short-circuited, and therefore all possi- 
bility of sparking is avoided. When the lamp is used in 
coal mines the bezel carrying the glass glow-lamp protector 
may be secured against removal by means of a laid locking- 
pin. The ordinary full-size lamp weighs about 4^1b., and 
when fully charged it will run a 1-c.p. glow lamp for a 
period of 12 hours. Tbeactual cost of the electrical energy 
consumed is about one-tentb of a penny per shift of 12 
houn. The company's miner's lamps have now withstood 

To other ozhibite of the company we shall refer in another 

A little further down the nave we come to one of the 
most prominent exhibits, that of the Fowler-Waxliiff 
Cable Ooiapaoy, and it had the almost unique 
peculiarity of being quite ready on the opening day. lliiB 
stand. No. 90, which we illustrate on next page, is devoted to 
wires, which, like the rate of the poem, are of all kinds, 
from the smallest to the largest in common use. Here we 
find concentric wires, lead-covered wires, armoured wires, 
wires and cablea for electric lighting, and for telegraph and 
telephone work. A p]rramid 26ft. high is formed of 
lengths which have been cut from representative cables 
manufactured at their North Woolwich works for our own 
Qovemment, for the French Ministry of Fosta and Tele- 
graphs, and for the Giovemment of Queensland. There are 
also specimens of the cablea used for connecting the London 
telephonic centres to the Paris tolephone cable ; and among 
the more important electric lighting cables are sections of 
the high-tension distributing mains which are employed 
extensively by the London Electric Supply Corporation. 
A large number of cable joints, jointing tools, and junction- 

the test of time, and from the very satisfactory manner 
in which they have passed through some most severe 
practical triJs they may be relied upon to fulfil all the 
requirements of a nearly periect electnc safety hand lamp. 
Tbii lamp is known in France, where it is much appreciated, 
fts the " Stella " safety lamp. Other forms of miners' 
lamps are also shown. Lithanode batteries of a portable 
natnn, and mounted in fancy wood cases, are to be seen. 
S<»ne of these are adapted for use in gas works, petroleum 
•hips, gunpowder mUla, and similar places where an 
ftbwilately safe illuminant is required. Four, six, eight, 
and ten-cell batteries, suitable lor carriage lighting, or 
domaetie requirements, are shown in action. A case con- 
taininff electrical measuring instruments, automatic cut 
oota, hydrometers, and other secondary battery accessories 
may m seen. Batteries for house lighting, traction 
pnrpoaea, military and naval use, medical and dental 
purpoeea, are also shown. Some specially constructed 
cells as4^ for actuating telegrapfas and telephones are to 
be Men. Borne of the batteries have been under trial at 
the danend Poet Office, and are giving every satisfaction. 
A Ttrie^ ol lithanode-rinc cells are shown. This combina- 
tion giTM tka higheat known E.M.F. of any practical cell. 

boxes are also exhibited, together with the diplomas and 
medals which had been awarded to the company. 

It is perhaps a little invidious until all are complete to 
indicate any one exhibit as the best, but we certainly feel 
inclined to mention that of the Brasli Xleotoioal 
Enfflaeeiing Company as one of the most important 
and imposing of the whole Exhibition. Their ezhibite are 
divided into two — one in the Main Transept, and the other 
in the Machinery Hall. The one includes what is termed 
stationary exhibits, and the other moving machinery, 
though, in fact, much of the former will be driven by electnc 
transmission of power from the Machinery Boom and shown 
in motion. Standing in the centre of the transept, just 
opposite the entrance to the Palace from the railway 
station, the Brush Company could hardly wish for a 
better position for the exhibition of the products— dynamos, 
arc lights, motors, tramcars — and the very handsome manner 
in which they have been mounted serve the better to show 
them off; while in the Machinery Boom the fact that the 
Brush Company can label their machines "exactly the 
aame as used for lighting the City of London " will cause the 
attention of private persons, engineers, and members of 
local authorities to be turned with great interest upon their 



exhibit. ThiB Brush exhibit in the Machinery Room will 
certainly be a fine sight when all ii ip working order, and 
additional intereat it given by the fact that all the plant — 
engine, dynamo, and Sttinga — were made by the company 
either at their works in Lambeth or at Loa^hborough. There 
are five seta of engines and dynamos, ranging from the large 
aize ased at the City of London Electric Light Company's 
station at Bankside, down to the natty little combined plant 
of 10 h.p. to light a private house— and even smaller sizes 
still of combined plant are shown in their stationary 
exhibit. We give an illustration of the specially designed 
Itaworth engines, nude by the Brush Company at their 
Falcon Works, and used either for driving by betting or 
for driving direct by " Raworth " flexible coupling. The 
first exhibit is the central station plant above mentioned, as 
used for the City lighting. This comprises a vertical engine 
of 260 Lh.p., driving a Moidey alt^nate-current dynamo, 
giving 100,000 watts (100 units), capable of supplying 
3,000 to 4,000 8-c.p. lampe. The following are the 

type, capable of supplying current for 65 Brush arc lampe 
in series for town lighting. This dynamo is also driven by 
endless rope gearing with eight grooved piilloys. the rope 
passing over a jockey pulley for tightening. The dynamo 
will not work at its full load, at any rate at present. The 
current will be led to the six lampe on the Brush Com- 
pany's masthead light in the centre of the transept, and 
will also supply lamps at each comer, on the specimen 
City lamppost, and four or five in the Machinery 
^11. The third set of machinery is a 50-i.h.p. 
vertical engine, driving one of the Brush Company's 
Victoria incandescent dynamos. The engine has cyUndera 
of 7Jin. and 131in. by 8in. stroke, working at 250 revo- 
lutions. The dynamo is such as used generally for lighting 
institutions or uu^e private mansions, and is of a capacity 
of 36,000 watt« — equal to about 1,000 8-c.p. incandescent 
lamps. The fourth set is particularly interesting to intending 
purchasers of electric lighting apparatus, being a combined 
plant in which the Raworth vertical engine is connected 

particulars of the engine: hi^h-prossare, compound, 
working at UOlb. pressure, cyhnders 16in. and 25in. 
by 16in. stroke, running at 168 revolutions a minute. This 
engine drives the alternator by means of an endless rope 
gearing, running in eight grooves and over a ''jockey " 
pulley. This dynamo is not the largest the Brush dompany 
make, the largest at present made being of 200 units 
capacity, or double the capacity of the one shown. The 
current from this dynamo will be led from the Machinery 
Hall to a similar alternator at the other stand. This second 
Mordey alternator will be run as a motor, demonstrating 
the utility and efficiency of these machines for the electric 
transmission of power, either for the utilisation of water 
power to light a town from a distance, or for driving a 
factory engine or such purpose. 
The second engine and dynamo shown by the Brush Com- 

Sny is only of 75 i.h.p., driving one of the famous Brush arc 
^ht dynamos. The details of the engine are these : 
cylinders 9iD. and 15in. bv lOin. stroke, 217 revolutions, 
I40Ib. steam pressure. The dynamo is one of the "8L" 

direct to the Victoria incandescent dynamo by means of 
Raworth's patent flexible friction grip coupling, mounted 
upon a combined bed-plate. These sets of combined 
engine and dynamo make exceedingly compact and useful 
electric light plants, and are much used for shipiightina 
and other places where the question of space is one of 
importance. The engine in this case is of 16 i.h.p., single 
cylinder, siie 8in. by 6in. stroke, driving an 18-unit 
dynamo. We give an illustration of this set. A sensitive 

fovemor is driven from the engine shaft, and above the 
ynamo is mounted a tachometer, or speed indicator, driven 
from the dynamo shaft. A fifth exhibit, comprising another 
combined plant of 10-i.h,p. engine, coupled by flexible 
coupling to a small Victoria incandescent dynamo, is used 
to supply the current for exciting the field magnets oE the 
lai^e altei-nator. 

Returning nowto the Main Transept, we will mention what 
the Brush Company show here ; but we intend later on to 
refer again to these more in detail In the first plaoe, an enor- 
mouB mast Umppoet, built up of tutmlar plates, will be sure to 


ftttrMtaU«iition,reubJnga8itdoeanearly totheheightof the i while at each corner other Bruth )ampi will be liehted. Id 
roof of thePftUce, and carrying six arc lamps. A apecimen the cODtre of the stand is a heautiful specimen of tmncar, 
Umppoi^ M used ia the City, will shed light upon Uie slall, to be used for electric traction, made at the company's 



Falcon Works, Loughborough. In the front of the stall is 
a 50-unit Mordey alternator. This we have already men- 
tioned as intended to be shown ruuniuf; aa a motor. Down 
one side of the stand are a series of combined plants of 
engine and dynamo, of 6 b.p., 10 b.p., 16 h.p., and 30 h.p., 
for house and shiplighting. Hieso will be shown in 
motion, the dynamos acting as motors. On the other 
side is an equally interesting set of Brush arc light 
dynamos for 2, 4, 10, 16, 20, and 05 lights each. In 
the centre is an enormous Black man air-propeller, 
aa used for ventilating mines or breweries, or for forced 
draught. An important exhibit is also that of a 24-h.p. 
electric motor driving a quartz crusher for mining purposes. 
The crusher is made by the Sandy Croft Foundry and 
Engine Company, of Chester, the motor being one of the 
Brush Company's Victoria machines. We must not forget 
to mention also that in front of the exhibit we see a 
pyramid of the Brush Company's transformers used for 
town lighting on the alternate- current system. In this 
company's exhibits we thus find almost the whole range of 
electrical engineering covered. From small installations of 
two arc liehte, or 20 incandeEcents, up to the large 
engines ana dynamos, with their switchboards and tamps, 
used for central supply stations for town lighting, 

given every satisfaction. We believe it is a fact that Mr. 
Hermann's place has been burned down twice, and great 
diflSculty was experienced in getting the insurance com- 
panies to cover it, and then only at the high rate of 25b. 
per cent. Immediately on the introduction of the electric 
crane, and the consequent abolition of a boiler needing tire, 
Mr. Hermaun's premium was reduced to 12b. 6d. per cent., 
and thison an insurance of £40,000. The crane boistfl, travels, 
and slews at the same time. The attendant having no fires 
to stoke, Dor smoke to prevent him seeing what he is about, 
can perform his work with very much more ease than with 
a steam crane, and at a far more rapid rate. In Mr, 
Hermann's case a large dynamo is used for lighting the 
works, and leads are taken- from this machine to run the 
crane — no extra attendance is therefore required for driving 
the generating machinery. In this connection we may 
mention that, owing to the satisfactorv working of the 
crane at the above timber-yard, Messrs. Crompton 
have received orders not only for similar plant, but 
also for electric capstans and haulage plant generally. 
The crane shown at the Exhibition is driven by a five-unit 
motor taking 46 amperes and 110 volts. It will hoist, we 
understand, a weight of two tons, at the rate of SOft. 
per second. The motor ia connected by a friction 


























^ . 



Crompton'i Electric Crane. 

seta of electric light plant for ships, ventilating fans, 
transmission of power for mines, for quarts crushing, I 
for electric tramcars, the lighting of docks, of city streets, 

Eroj'ectors for naval and military use, dynamos for colliery 
ghting, motors for hauling are all shown ; and when it is 
remembered that the company not only supply but have 
manufactured the whole of the machinery they now 
exhibit, the commanding position of the Brush Electrical 
Engineering Company can be thoroughly appreciated. 

The exhibits of UesBra. Cronpton and Co., Ziimited, 
are conspicuous all through the Palace. At one stand we 
see a projector ready to throw its vivid rays in a stream of 
light wherever directed, while all around are dynamos made 
by this company. A little further down is a brge crane 
worked electrically, and it is this item of their exhibit we 
choose for description in this issue. The crane shown is 
the original model made in the early part of 1686, and is i 
claimed to be the first one constructed in this country. 
It was the outcome of a large number of experiments, 
and the cranes that have been turned out by the firm 
since the above date have been made on the same 
principle, and have in every case worked very satisfactorily. 
The first crane made by Messrs. Crompton was supplied 
to Mr. Hermann, of Dodd-etreet, Dmebouse, for work 
in a timber-^ard, and is still employed there, having 

wheel to an intermediate shaft, which is connected by 
a spur wheel to the drum-shaft. This latter con- 
tains a clutch to throw the drum in or out of 
gear. A powerful band brake is provided on the drum 
and is worked by a treadle. The slewing is done by inter- 
mediate gearing from the intermediate shaft, and is con- 
trolled by a hand lover conveniently placed. The crane is 
made to travel by the movement of a hand wheel in a 
manner simitar to that by which the operation of slewing is 
carried out. It is fitted with Crompton's patent sight-feed 
lubricators, and all the latest improvements. Current is 
supplied to the crane by two rails, along which are laid 
copper strips. The rails are carried on Crompton insula- 
tors similar to those used in his underground mains, and 
are laid between the travelling rails. The current is taken 
ofT by an improved form of collector gearing with carbon 
brushes. A double-pole switch and fuse are interpolated in 
the circuit. The crane will be exhibited at work at certain 
stated times during the Exhibition, due notice of which will 
be given. 

Close by is another early complete and excellent exhibit, 
Stand 173, This is the exhibit of the Western Electric 
Company, and, as we remarked last week, have a compre- 
hensive exhibit covering the whole field of telephonic 
requirements, of which we hope to give full particutan in 



the coiiTM of our review of the Exhibition. We select for 
illustration this week one of the smaller switchboards 
showD by tham. It differs from their well-known Standard 
model in having no clearing-out drops, one of the sub- 
scriber's drops being left in circuit for clearing, as in a 
Bingle-cord board. 

It will, perhaps, be advisable to say little of the machinery 
department for the moment, except the boiler-room, which 
is practically complete. Davey, Faxman, and Go. 

WeeMrn Elecuic Company's Telephi 

ragD here supreme, and, under the indefatigable activity 
of Mr. H. D. Wilkinson, this firm seems destined to add 
■till farther to the high esteem in which its productions 
are held. On the left-band of the boiler-room is a 
battery ef eight steel locomotive type boilers used for 
•nppljring steam for driving the engines during the 
Eibibition. The boilera contain about a total heating 
mrfaoe of C,610 square feet ; they are provided with steel 
finbtKcas, and are made in the best known and most modern 
ar, being well stayed and tested by hydraulic pressure 

to 2501b. per square inch for a working pressurs of 1401b. 
per square inch. A steel steam receiver runs the entire 
leni^th of the boilers, connected to each by a separate stop- 
valve, so that either or any of the boilera can be shut 
off immediately if necessary. The object of the receiver 
is to give dry steam to the engines, and to turn 
back to the boilers any condensed steam, The pumps 
feeding the boilers are provided by Mr. A. G. Mumfoni, 
of Colchester, and the injectors are of Messrs. Oresham and 
Craven's manufacture. The boiler fittings are asbestos- 
packed, and the water-gauges are fitted with protecting 
shields. Un the right is one of Poxman's patent new type 
water-tube boilers, in boiler-house, used for supplying steam 
for driving engines during the Exhibition. The boiler 
contains about 1,572 square feet of heating surface. This 
boiler is made on a new principle, in wbich it automatically 
separates any water in the steam. The joints are made on 
Paxmau and Plane's patent metallic principle, and are a 
very great advance in this direction. This is the first 
time this boiler has been exhibited to the public. It 
contains several new features, principally as to the 
circulation and separation of steam from water. Further- 

more, it is made in 

are very readily 
removable and 
are much more 
handy for re- 
pairs than is 
common to 
many of the 
types of these 
boilers. The 
joint for the 
headers for 
getting at the 
tubes are of 
Pax man and 
Plane's patent 
above referred 
to (see annexed 
sketch), a pat- 
tern of which 

at their stand. 
This is a very 
simple, but at 
the same time 
joint, and will, 
into general 
use, not only 
in this type of 
boiler, but for 
manholes and 
mndboles, etc., in other kinds of boilers. The sketch shows 
the plan as being round, but the joint can be made any shape. 
The way to break the joint is by unscrewing the nut and 
pushing the small door inwards. The metallic ring is made 
of pliable metal, so that it is quite easy to spring and alter its 
shape to enable it to draw through the opening. After thering 
has been removed,then,thBdoor can be easily drawn through, 
as will be seen from the sketch that the door is smaller than 
the opening made in the plate. The hole is made conical 
or taper, with the largest taper on the inside, and the 
metallic ring is made precisely the same taper as the hole 
so as to fit the bole. The door is made with a slightly less 
taper, so that the joint is mode on the outside edge of the 
door. The joint possesses the following advautages : It can 
be quickly broken and remade, and when made it is per- 
fecUy tight. The greater the pressure inside the tighter 
the joint, as the pressure assists in keepine; the joint tight 
It is very lasting, and the metallic cover is almost inde- 
structible and wiU last for many years. It is very cheap 
and always reliable, and being so easily and readily made, 
as above described, it enables the boiler to be taken to 
pieces for examination with a minimum loss of time. This 
is an advantage not hereto obtained, and we believe this 
joint will become that of the future and have a great sale, 
aa Davey, Pazman, and Co. are willing to grant licenses to 
all makers of tuhular boilers. The other e^blts hftnabcK. 

j' ' 










' 1 


FaxmaD and Plane's Joint— Section. 


tH£ ELDCI'lllCAL ENGlMfiH, JANUARY 15, 1892. 



Published every Friday. 
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We have made some endeavours to gather opinions 
as to the most important points needing elucidation 
in central station work. Well, we have obtained 
opinions, but for practical use they can hardly be 
classified to advantage. Most electrical engineers 
with whom we are brought into contact have 
sufficient faith in their own powers to say. Give us 
the opportunity to instal a central station, and we 
will show that it can be done satisfactorily. In 
fact, we are more convinced than ever that there 
must be some diversity in practice, and that the 
system followed in one district with the best results 
may not be so suitable to another district. In the 
majority of cases the consensus of opinion is in favour 
of sub-stations. Though it might be thought other- 
wise, there seems to be a growing feeling in favour 
of accumulator sub-stations. No doubt the future 
will make several points clearer, and as regards 
systems of mains will show how far maintenance 
must enter into consideration in designing the 
original system. The survival of the fittest involves 
time, and as yet deterioration has played little or 
no part in our thoughts. 

A not very inviting discussion has recently taken 
place relating to the " sheer " cost, whatever that 
may mean, of electrical energy. There are two views 
regarding cost put forward by controversialists, and 
both these views may bo taken as correct. One side 
argues that the cost per unit of electrical energy 
generated is all important, contending that all other 
portions of the charge to the consumer are of the 
nature of constant charges, and fluctuate but little 
with the number of units supplied. Thus, if the 
charge to the consumer is 8d. per unit, the prime 
cost of the unit is 2d., and incidental charges 6d. 
Now it costs 6d. to distribute one unit,but it only costs 
6d. to distribute one himdred units, so that with the 
increased demand for units the profits should increase 
according to the prime cost per unit,andnot according 
to outcharge per unit. On the other hand, the con- 
sumer and the shareholder deride the fature, and 
prefer a certain advantage in the present. They 
look simply at the balance-sheet, which shows a 
certain expenditure and a certain income. This 
expenditure has been increased by the production 
and the distribution of a certain number of units. 
According to these views, dividing the total expen- 
diture by the number of units sold gives the prime 
cost per unit. As we say, both people are right. 
We are among those, however, who contend that the 
electrical engineer is not concerned with the considera- 
tion of the prime cost from the shareholders' point 
of view. His chief object is to keep the cost of 
generation at the lowest possible point, and to dis- 
tribute to the consumers as great a percentage of the 
energy generated as possible. The other part of 
the business lies with the management. It will be 
seen, then, our view is that the engineer's respon- 
sibility ends at the house terminalSy not at the 
dynamo terminals ; and, if we mistake not, . some 
engineers prefer to argue as if their responsibility 



ended at the dynamo terminals. A misfortune in 
connection with cost is the per&istent iteration of 
comparative figures of electricity v. gas. Many 
electrical engineers promise their customers or lead 
them to expect the electric light shall be maintained 
as cheaply as gas. It may be so in the millennium, 
but not now, ouless there be a mental reservation 
as to the prices of gas meant. There is usually 
another reservation that, unlike gas — which the 
servants light and leave burning all the evening — 
the electric light is to be switched on and off just 
when and where wanted. We have pointed out 
again and again that if what the popular mind takes 
as meaning as "cheap as gas" is so in reality, 
electricity wonld really be about half the price. 
That is, if gas and its eqnivalent in electricity cost 
4s., the real cost of the electricity to the consumer 
would be far less than the real cost of gas. There 
is no getting out of the fact that the indirect expen- 
diture due to gas lighting often costs as much, if not 
more, than the gas itself, so that the cost of gas does 
not end with the payment of the gas bill. With 
the electric light it is different. The indirect pay- 
ments are absent. And if these payments are not 
taken into consideration by business men, it is 
the faolt of the exploiters of electric lighting. 

Thos, Babhaclough and Co., Limited, Globe 
Works, Rocbdale-road, Manchester, rejwrt a large 
and increasing amonnt of business during 1891 in 
the manafacture of their specialities. In the past 
year they had a larger turnover than in any pre- 
ceding, and although they worked overtime the whole 
year, and for a portion of it worked day and night, 
they were not able to keep pace with the increasing 
demand for machinery. They have added materially 
to the number of their tools, and are now completing 
a new erecting shop with an additional 10-ton 
travelhug crane, in order to facilitate the manufac- 
ture of heavy machines. Last year they completed 
the installation of the large submarine cable ^ctory 
in Calais, consisting of six machines for making 
deejHsea cables, one machine for making inter- 
mediate cables, and one machine for making 
shore-end cables of the heaviest description. The 
two latter machines are each driven by a pair of 
independent steam engines. In addition to this 
they mode the whole of the core-serving and 
accessory machinery. The company is now 
engaged in executing a large order for a new sub- 
marine cable works in process of erection in the 
South of France. They report having executed a 
large number of orders for electnc stranding 
machines, electric cable machines, indiarubber 
and gntta-percba machinery, wire-covering ma- 
chinery, for the United States, Germany, Italy, 
and the Continent generally. They have in- 
troduced in the manufacture of their machinery 
a number of improvements with the view of 
enabling the machines to be run at a very high 
speed with the minimum amount of attendant 
labour ; this involves the making of the machines in 
the best possible manner. They are now receiving 
orders and enquiries for machinery from a much 
wider area than they formerly did. Russia, Spain, 
Portugal, the Australian colonies, and even China 
ore now manufacturing electric wire and cables, and 
there is a prospect of the trade spreading yet further. 
They nndertake the fitting up of cable factories with 
every requisite from the motorto the largest machine 

made. As a proof of the heavy character of some 
of the work recently done, they inform us that they 
have made several machines weighing each from 48 
tons to 50 tons. 

W. T. GooLDEN ADD Co. — The progress of 
business in the past year has been favourable, the 
firm having experienced considerable activity in all 
branches of work, including the supply of dynamos, 
instruments, and accessories for central station 
work, and the supply and fitting up of electric 
installations in private houses and mansions, 
worked by steam and water power. They have also 
been very busy with the electric mining work, 
including plants for pumping, hauling, winding, 
rock drilling, and coalcutting. Motor work for 
workshops, bunches, etc., has also been fairly good. 
The prospects for the coming year appear to be 
fairly good. 

Jaues Macintybe AMD Co. are makers of porce- 
lain only for the use of electrical engineers. The 
trade is undoubtedly increasing as far as this firm is 
concerned, and they find it difficult, particularly at 
this time of the year, to keep pace with the demand 
for switches, ceiling roses, and the like. Much more 
care and consideration is being given to the decora- 
tion of these articles, many of which are now of an 
elaborate and artistic character. Perhaps the greatest 
improvement in porcelain is the tapping of holes to 
take British Association threads ; by this means the 
small brass attachments are screwed direct into the 
porcelain, thus avoiding the nut at the back, and 
therefore improving insulation considerably. 

SwiNBnBNE AND Co. — This firm reports that their 
business in transformers has largely increased during 
tlie past year. They find the demand for their type 
of transformer gradually growing both at home and 
abroad. During the year they have also brought out 
alternating-current condensers, as many engineers 
thought the exciting currents of their transformers 
would give trouble. Except with station engineers, 
who stilt think an idle cnrrent means power, the 
trouble has never come up in practice ; but there 
has been some demand for condensers, as there is 
a great deal of experimental work on motors and 
other apparatus involving them. They have also 
brought ont alternating-current gear for testing 
cables under high pressures. They are now making 
a plant to give 40,000 volts and three amperes for the 
Suvertown Company, who wish to test cables by 
the mile under high pressures. Messrs. Swinburne 
and Co, are now bringing out sneciahties in instru- 
ments for central station work — their wattmeter 
for transformer testing having been already des- 
cribed in this journal. They have introduced a 
Eractice which should not be new in transformer 
usiness, hnt is novel — keeping a large stock ready 
for delivery. They say that more of their increased 
business is due to this than to theoretical efficiencies 
of the highest order. 

Westebn Counties and Sodth Wales Tele- 
phone Company, Limited ; head office, 16, Higb- 
street, Bristol. Under the energetic and able manage- 
ment of Mr. H. F. Lewis, this company continues 
to make good progress in its district. How large 
this is and how far it has been exploited will be seen 
from the accompanying map showing the lines com- 
pleted, in course of construction, and proposed. In 
December, 1891, the number of exchanges was 46, 
and the number of exchange private and trunk 
renters, 4,066. The following is a hst of the exchanges 
open : Bristol and Clifton, Bath, Weston-super-Mare, 
Gloucester, Cheltenham, Tewkesbury, Newport, 
Cardiff (two exchanges, connected by local trimkft\t 



Barry, Penarth, Pontypool, Pontypridd, Aberdare, 
Merthyr, Tredegar, Swansea, Neath,, Briton Ferry, 
Port Talbot, Morriston, Llanelly, Shrewsbury, 
Worcester, Plymouth, Devonport, Mutley, Torquay, 

ampton, Winchester, Weymouth. The company has 
313 employes. It has an extensive trunk line system 
at present in three groups — viz. : (1) Bristol, Bath, 
Weston-super-Mare, Gloucester, Cheltenham, Wor- 

Newtoo Abbot, Pai^ton, Totnes, Brixham, Dart- 
mouth, Buckfastteigh, AJshhurton, Exeter, Ports- 
mouth (two exchanges, connected by local trunks), 
3oK)Dmbe,,Chriatchuicb,BouineiBOath, Poole, South- 

cester, Newport, Pontypool, Cardiff, Penarth, 
Barry, Pontypridd, Aberdare, Merthyr, Tredegar, 
BritoD Ferry, Fort Talbot, Momaton, Neath, 
Swansea and Llanelly with each other, and also 



with Birmingham and Wolverhampton, and other 
Midland towns of the National Company's district. 
(2) Pljrmouth, Plympton, Ivybridge, Totnes, Paign- 
ton, Torquay, Newton Abbot, Brixham, Dartmouth, 
Buckfastleigh, and Ashburton. (3) Portsmouth, 
Southampton, Winchester, Bournemouth, and Poole. 
The above comprises 500 route miles, and 2,330 miles 
of wire. Exeter is on the eve of being included in No. 2 
group. The lines to that city from Torquay will be 
completed this month. The number of communica- 
tions on the company's trunk lines have increased 
from 284,886 in 1888 to 650.500 in 1891, and, taking 
tbe latter year as an instance, the trunk communi- 
cation between towns only averaged l^d. eacb. 
From Weston-super-Mare to Worcester, all within 
the company's district, is 150 miles by the route 
taken. The following statistics will be interesting : 










Local 1,193,834 1,942,044 2,811,426 8,909,866 4,963,944 6,046,168 6,606,000* 

^^■^^^^■^^^^■w ^^^^^^^m^^^^mm ^^^^^^^^^t^^^m ^^^^^^^^^m ^^ ^^^^^^^^^^a^^ ^^l^a^^^^^^i^^^ mwm^^t^^^mm^m^^^ 

Total .... 1,108,384 1,942,044 £,866,102 4.194.742 6,333,462 6,643,488 7,166,600* 

^iSSIPj^^ £8,780t £9,014 £16,660 £21.846 £26,803 £82,837 t 

« Month of Deotmber, 1801, Mtimated. 1 16 monihs. t Accounts not completed. 

Wire mQeage on Slat December, 1800.— Exchange and private lines, 2,836. 
Tnmk lines, 2,182. Total, 6,018 mUes. 

The company has erected a signal station at 
Bame Head, which is a prominent point seven 
miles from Plymouth, and is the nearest land to the 
Eddystone Lighthouse. This they have connected 
*with their Pljrmouth and Devonport exchange 
system, and they hope to open this signal station 
for signalling to and from ships passing up and 
down Channel, or entering or leaving the port of 
Plymouth, this month. The Plymouth exchange is 
connected with the post office in that town by 
telephone, and arrangements are being made with 
the Fost Office by which telegrams can be received 
at Plymouth and telephoned to Eame Head and 
thence signalled to ships or vice versa. The station 
will be open continuously day and night and 

Sydney F. Walker. — Mr. Walker writes a 
characteristic letter, which contains much that 
some people think but are afraid to say. We give 
the following extracts : ** With regard to work, I 
have been fairly busy during the year — not 
as busy as I should have liked — but it has been in 
my own specialities. London firms, and young 
firms hailing from nowhere, have been so anxious to 
secure contracts at something less than cost, if the 
work was to be carried out properly, that as I could 
not afford to lose money, nor to do bad work, 
I am waiting till the clouds roll by for the 
showy part of the business. So far as I can under- 
stand, tne present problem in electrical engineering is, 
not to ^et work, but to make a satisfactory profit, 
considering the amount of labour and skill required. 
What with having to stand by your work, no matter 
what comes against it, to stand tbe loss involved by 
slips of — some other fellow — the little eccentricities 
Qsiially adopted by electrical engineers when they 
get a chance to put a spoke in the wheel of a rival, 
and the cost of tendering, the Ufe of an electrical 
enf^ijieer on his own hook '* is not a happy one." 
With regard to the matter of tenders, I have 
partly carried out the plan sketched in the article 
1 contributed to your columns. Where a tender 
involves expense, I do not tender unless within 
a certain radius of Cardiff, imless I am paid 
for it, except, of course, in special cases 
where there is a reasonable hope of return. 
As a result, the tenders I have given during the 
year have been much reduced, and my business is 

considerably healthier in consequence. The cool 
enquiries one gets at times tinder the pretence of 
asking for tenders are exasperating in the extreme. 
In some cases, it is not too much to say that they 
are on a level with some of the swindles that are 
frequently exposed in the papers. A man out of pure 
curiosity wants to know what it would cost to light 
his town or village. Another has water power a little 
way off, steam here, something else there. He is 
not sure what he wants — doesn't know the power of 
his fall, what steam he has, or, in fact, anything ; but 
he will condescend to let contractors spend time and 
money coaching him up in their views, finding out 
all that he ought to pay an expert for, and finally 
perhaps he will — think of it another tinie. It never 
occurs to him that if you asked him and several 
others to give you, say, a truck load or 1,000 tons 
of the material he sells, on the chance of your 
buying some later on, that he would open his eyes 
very wide indeed. So far as I am concerned, except 
under the conditions I have named, or in special 
cases, some other fellow will do the tendering. 


" One num's word 1b do man's word, 
Juitloe needs that both be heard." 


Sir, — It is said by one of your contemporaries in last 
week's issue, that in a report to the Portsmouth Town 
Council Prof. Garnett has stated that the Parsons turbo- 
generator is now " as efficient as the best compound engine 
of the marine type, and that for light loads it stands un- 
equalled." The authority for these statements is said to 
be the report by Prof. Ewing, F.R.S., published in your 
paper for last week. 

Those interested in the " best compound engines of the 
marine type " (as electric light engines) will no doubt take 
care of their own credit, but the continental users of direct- 
coupled condensing engines of this pattern will perhaps be 
surprised to hear that a plant which uses 27 '61b. of water 
per electrical horsepower per hour, when working con- 
densing, is formally stated in a report by the electrical 
expert of one of the most imjiortant English towns to be as 
efficient as their own. 

Our concern is with the statement that " for light loads 
it (the turbo-generator) stands unequalled." We beg to 
assure Prof. Garnett that there are no figures in Prof. 
Ewing's report which bear this out. At low temperatures 
the turbo-generator is, for obvious reasons, relatively a more 
efficient machine than an expansive steam engine ; but at 
no power quoted (not even at no electrical load, at which 
even an alternating station can hardly want to run) is the 
consumption nearly so low as that in the best Willans 
engines with direct-driven dynamos — of course, when the 
latter were working condensing. At full load the consump- 
tion of the turbo-generator reaches, as above stated, to 
27 '61b. per electrical horse-power, a figure usually surpassed 
by the Willans n<m-condensing engine. In many recent 
trials of a Willans condensing engine (of much smaller 
power than the turbo-generator tried at Newcastle ; in fact, 
indicating only from 30 h.p. to 40 h.p.) the consumption 
per indicated horse-power per hour has been about 12 '81b. 
of steam. With a combined efficiency of 80 per cent, 
which is the lowest we are accustomed to get with good 
dynamos, this corresponds with 161b. per electrical horse- 
power per hour. 

These figiu'es, which are recent, are probably not known 
to Prof. Garnett, but Prof. Ewing's report speaks of pub- 
lished trials with a Willans engine, in which tbe consumption 
was about 251b. per unit, or, say, 18'61b. per electrical horse- 
power. Yet Prof. Gkirnett totally ignores these figures from 
an actual engine (compared with which those of the turbo- 
generator are aJtmd hdf as large again), and makes compari- 
son with nothing but an engine of a kind which no one in 
this country would be likdy to use, whereas the Willaaa 



ei^ine is lued in England (for oontral atatioiu} to the extent 
probably of 2 h.p. for 6r«ty 1 h.p. of all other kinds of 
engines put togeuier. Thus in the comparative eetimatea 
stated to have been drawn up for the guidance of the town 
councillors, the cost of an installation of turbo-generators 
is compared with that — not of Willana engines, or of any 
other form of direct-driven plant — but with an absurdly 
obsolete plant, consisting of engines " making not more 
than 90 revolutions per minute, coupled by endless rope 
gearing to dynamos making 300 revolutions per minute." — 
Yours, etc., WiLLANS and Kobinson, Limited. 

Jan. 13, 1892. C. S. Essex (Secretary). 


Kapp, QistMrt, H.I.O.E., BI,I.E.E. Born at Mauer, 
near Vienna, in 1852 ; erlucated at the Polytechnic School 
n Zurich, where he studied under Zeuner and Kohlrauach, 
and gained his diploma of mechanical engineer. For some 
years Mr. Kapp was engaged in purely engineering work, 
coming into contact with electrical work at the Vienna 
Exhibition. It was not till 1882 he made bis 6xed resi- 
dence in England, having been travelling on the Continent 
and in North Africa for some years. In 1882, however, 
we find him engaged with Messrs. Crompton and Co., 
and he soon began to make his name known in the pro- 
fession. Since then Mr. Kapp has been connected either 
in conjunction with others or individually in taking out a 
number of patents. His name is intimately connected with 
the development of the dynamo, with compound winding, 
and with electromagnetic measuring instruments. A large 
number of exceedingly practical papers have come from his 
pen, and his work on " Transmission of Power," published 
by Whittaker and Co., has passed through several editions, 
and is acknowledged as the text-book on the subject. At 
the present time Mr. Kapp is completing a monograph on 
" Dynamos, Alternators, and Motors," to be published 
shortly by Messrs. Biggs and Go. In 1665, Mr. Kapp 
severed his connection with Messrs. Crompton and Co, 
and for a period undertook the London editorship of 
Induslriei. When, however, the principal office was 
removed from Manchester to London he left the paper, 
and has since devoted his whole attention to the business 
of a consulting electrical engineer. 

Albrlgiit, J. r,, C.E., H,I.E.B. Born in Birming- 
ham, 1S57; was educated as an engineer, partly at the 
Crystal Palace Engineering School, and subsequently three 
yean as pupil with the late Sir J. Bazalf;ette. In the year 
1880 Mr. Albright entered into electrical work with the 
Swan Companv at Newcastle-on-Tyne. His fint employ- 
ment was on tne " Servia," and afterwards he took charge 
of the company's exhibits at the 1S82 exhibition at the 
Crystal Palace. For a time Mr. Albright was with the 
amalgamated Edison-Swan Company, and ultimately took 
chai^ of this company's contracting department, a position 
held till the spring of 1884, when he entered as a partner 
into the firm of Messrs. R. £. Crompton and Co. When 
this firm became a limited company, Mr. Albright became 
managing director. Our acquaintance with Vh. AlbrighL 
dates back to a time previous to his entering the 
ranks of the industry, and each step in his career 
has shown him to possess the true instincts that combine 
to maks a first-rate man of business. We fancy be 
would be the first to repudiate the view that electrical 
work necessitated too great a deference to mere theory,but 
would maintain that practical considerations more often 
regulate commercial production than do theoretic ones. 
Quite recently Mr. Albright made wbat may be called a 
tour of the world, with a view of opening up new fields for 
the company's productions, and of extending the branches 
already existing. Besides his connection with the parent 
company, he is chairman of the Crompton-Howell Storage 
Battery Company, and a director oE the Crompton Supply 
Company of Australia. 

Gordon, J. Z. H., U.I.C.B., M.LX.X., born in 1852, is 
the son of thelatoDr.J.A.Gordon.F.RS. He waseducated 
at Eton, King's College, London, and (Wibridge, where be 

took his B.A. degree in mathematics, subsequently working 
under Clerk Maxwell in the physical hboratory. In 1878 
Mr. Gordon accepted the appointment of assistant secretary 
ti) the British Auociation, an appointment, however, which 
he held only two years, for he soon became interested in 
the construction of dynamos. The outcome of this work 
H'aa bis dynamo constructed by the Telegraph Construction 
und Maintenance Company at Greenwich, which paved the 
way for the Paddington installation, under Mr. Gordon's 
system. The plant at Paddington was started on April 
alst, 1886, and is still at work. It was. however, 
decided by the company with which Mr. Gordon had been 
working not to continue electric lighting work, so he 
made arrangements to form the Whitehall Company, 
an installation which subsequently formed the nucleus of 
bhs Metropolitan Company s undertaking. Mr. Gordon 
was elected a director of the Metropolitan Comjiany at its 
formation, afterwards retiring and throwing all his energies 
into consulting and contracting work. Mr. Rivington 
joined Mr. GoMon, and the firm registered the business as 
a company in 1890. Of late Messrs. J. E; H. Gordon and 
Co. have been very active in installation work. A descrip- 
tion of their Carlow (Ireland) installation has been given in 
this paper, and their latest work at Sydenham, wbere a fine 
central station has been built and equipped in a very short 
space of time for the Electric Installation Company, 

Rookeiuaim, Anthony, Za.I.X.E. Bom, and educated, 
at Gratz in 1852. Like most successful electrical engineers, 
Mr. Beckenzaun was originally trained as a mechanical 
engineer. Coming to England in 1872, he entered the 
employ of Messrs. Ravenhill and Miller, afterwards Messrs. 
Easton and Anderson. While with Messrs. Easton and 
Anderson he qualified as a teacher under the Science and 
Art Department, and established evening classes for the 
employes. Subsequently he attended lectures at the 
School of Mines, and at Finsbury. Feeling a great 
interest in electrical matters, Mr. Reckenzaun made a 
thorough study of the apparatus at the Paris Exhi- 
bition in 1881, then joined the Faure Company, but 
soon after accepted the position of electrical engineer 
to the Electrical Power Storage Company. Here he 
turned his attention to traction, a oranch of the 
industry with which his name has since been inti- 
mately connected. Storage batteries have also been care- 
fully studied, and their capabilities investigated. In 
fact, Mr. Beckeuzaun has perhaps done more than anyone 
to show, by his practical work, and by various papers, the 
value he piaces upon storage batteries in all kinds of elec- 
trical work. He spent a year or so in America, successfully 
Bghting the fight of such batteries. More recently he has 
been closely allied with Mr. Binswanger, with the Keys' Com- 
pany, and, lastly, with Messrs. Greenwood and Batley. Mr. 
Reckenzaun has reached his acknowledged position as one 
of our foremost experts in batteries and traction, because 
of the painstaking industry and skill with which he investi- 
gates every problem connected therewith. 

Gray, Robert Kayo. Born 1651, in Glasgow. 
Educated at the Greenock Academy, University School 
and College, London, and in Paris. In 1S69 Mr. Gray waa 
on the staff of the late Sir Charles Bright in the capacity 
of a telegraph engineer, and was employed in the West 
Indies. In 1871 he transferred his services to the India 
Rubber, Gutta Percha, and Telegraph Works Company, 
acting as engineer and electrician. He has remained 
with the company ever since, gradually rising to the 
post of engineer-in-cbief. Since he has been with 
the company i/tr. Gray has taken part in a number of 
cable- laying and repairing expeditions in the West 
Indies, and on the coasts of North and South 
America, In this connection we may mention that the 
" Dacia," one of the India Rubber Company's cable ships, 
was fitted throughout with electric light so far back 
as 1879. We believe that she was the first ship to be 
completely lighted in this way. Of late years, Mr. Gray 
has not been so intimately connected with the engineering 
branch of cable enterprise, or, in fact, any electrical work, 
as with the management of the business operations con- 
nected with the direction o! cable and other companies of 
the boards of which he is a member. 




The accompany in;; ina[i 
will show our roaders the 
magnitude of the proposed 
work, and the diatrict it is 
iatended to aerro. There is 
no donbt that the traffic in 
London is of vast magnitude, 
and that the openinB up of 
new routes gives little or no 
relief to the old ones. In 
fact, the traffic seems to in- 
crease quite as fast as new 
routes are opened. The 
Exploration Company, which 
has taken the initiative in 
this proposed work, baa en- 
deavoured to educate the 
public and to explain its 
views by isaning an admirable 
map with deecriptions of the 
railway. From their map the 
one given by ua has been 
prepared. An examination 
of It will show the propoeed 
dep6t at Shepherd's Bush, 
and the various stations, 
taking them in order from 
the depAt, show the direction 
the line will take. Thus we 
have Shepherd's Bush, Lans- 
downe-road, Notting Hill 
Gate, Queen 's-road, Weat- 
bourne, Marble Arch, Davies- 
street, Oxford-circus, Totten- 
ham Court-road, Bloomsbury, 
Chancery - lane, Newgate- 
street, Cornbill, with an ex- 
tension to the Liverpool-street 
Station of the Great Eastern 
Railway. There is a vast 
population to be served by 
such a line, and we cannot 
see any reason, if the matter 
be managed with a due regard 
to economy in construction, 
why this line should not be 
eminently satisfactory. It is 
proposed to work it electri- 
cally, thus obviating many of 
the troubles which arise from 
the use of steam. But ws 
shall have much more to say 
on the scheme at a future 
date. Meanwhile, the map, as 
we say, will tend to show what 
is the intention of the pro- 
moters. It also indicates the 
route proposed to be taken 
by the other underground 
railways for which Bills have 
been deposited in Parliament. 
Thus we have the Baker- 
Street to Waterloo line ; that 
which is to run between 
Hampstead and Charing 
Cross ; the Waterloo and 
City line; and the City and 
South London extension to 
The Angel, Islington. It 
la for from likelv that all 
these schemes will be passed 
doring the ensuing session, 
bat that most of them will 
beootne accomplished facts in 

the course of a few years is more than probable. A 
nilmy between North and South London is badly wanted, 

I so is a line between the West and the City, i 
I from Waterloo to the Mansion House. 




From the Grovernment resolution on the report on 
Indian telegraphs during the (mst year, it appears 
that the additions to the system were 1,791 miles of 
line, 7,373 miles of wire, and 21 miles of cable. At 
the close of the year there were in operation 37,070 
miles, 113,512 miles, and 251 miles of line, wire, and cable 
respectively ; 168 new offices had been opened during the 
year, bringing the number to 3,103. The gross receipts 
for the year, including State-paid messages, amounted 
to 68,28,855 rupees, and working expenses to 46,88,802 
rupees, showing a profit equal to 4-126 per cent, on 
the capital outlay. The receipts from telegraphic money 
order advices have steadily risen from 46,000 rupees in 
1888 to 84,000 rupees in 1891. During the year excellent 
work was done by the Department in laying field telegraph 
lines. The Sikkim line was maintained, as also that in the 
Chin country. A new line in the Assam section of the 
Chin-Lushai country was laid for a distance of 59 miles, 
through a most difficult and unheahhy country. The 
working parties suffered severely from sickness, one 
officer losing his life and another being invalided. 
For the Hazara expedition 182 miles of extra wire had 
to be laid to connect Hussan Abdul and Abbottabad with 
the bases of operation at Derband and Oghi, and from 
those points onwards 103 miles of field wire were laid and 
15 offices opened. The receipts of the telephone companies 
at Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Kurrachee, Moulmein, and 
Bangoon show a small increase of 10,657 rupees, while the 
number of subscribers is now 1,004 against 961 in the pre- 
vious year. The charges per word between India and the 
Straits Settlements have been reduced, partly by reductions 
in the Indian terminal and transit rates, and partly by reduc- 
tions in the Eastern Extension Company's rates. The transit 
rate claimed by India for messages passing between Europe 
and the Far Elast was largely reduced. By the connection 
of the French lines in Tonquin with China, a new and 
cheap route for messages to the latter country vid Siam has 
been opened. — Times, 


A new kind of tubing, of interest to steam power users 
and electrical engineers, is being manufactured by the 
Flexible Metallic Tubing Company, of 48, Parker-street, 
Holborn, W.C. 

The tubing is flexible, and is made in a machine from 
metal strips of the necessary length, width, and thickness, 
according to the purpose for which it is required. In 
passing through the machine the strips, which are of steel, 
galvanised steel, or otherwise, have formed upon one side 
two corrugations in a longitudinal direction, one being large 
and the other small. The corrugated strip is then coiled in the 
form of a spiral round a mandrel, this operation being so per- 
formed that the small corrugation enters the large corruga- 
tion and interlocks with it. This forms what is known as a 
piston joint. The tubing, which is unaffected by ordinary 
liquids or gases, has been tested both at high and low 
pressures — steam up to 601b. and hydraulic up to 1,0001b. 
to the square inch. The tubes are made from Ain. to 3in. 
internal diameter, and plant is now being laid down for the 
manufacture of tubes up to 12in. diameter. This kind 
of tubing is now in use for a variety of purposes, 
including for gas and steam pipes, compressed air, 
speaking tubes, and also as sheathing for electric light 
cables, whilst it can likewise be used for running ordinary 
house leads. A special type of coupling, which will not 
give way under the pressures mentioned, is used for joining 
lengths of tubing. 

A Chance for Amatonrs. — An idea that is worth 
consideration and imitation has been started at Chicago to 
induce all the amateur electrical societies to combine in 
making a united exhibit at the exposition. It is quite 
possible that among much " tinpot electrical inventions 
Bomething really go^ and useful might be discovered. 




(Continued from page 17,) 

Units, continued, 

OhUy continued. — In addition to the foregoing recognised 
values of the unit of resistance, a new value has recently 
been proposed by the Electrical Standards Committee 
appointed by the Board of Ti-ade,* Its value is equal 
to the resistance of a uniform coluum of pure mercury of 
1 square millimetre section, and 100 30 centimetres long, 
at a temperature of Odcg. C\, this being taken by the Com- 
mittee as most nearly approaching the absolute theoretical 
value of the unit. It will i>robably be known as the Board 
of Trade or the Imperial Ohm, and is likely to be made 
the legal unit of electrical resistance for this country by an 
Order in Council under the Weights and Measures Act. 
In order to show the relation of this unit to the various 
others given in Table 1, page 17, of the issue of 1st 
January, we reproduce this table below, with the Board 
of Trade Ohm included in it. 

Table 1.— Relative Values of the VARiors **Ohms." 



Leogth of 


column 1 aq. 

mm. section 

and at O^' C. 

Values expressed in terms of 


B.A. Ohm. 

Legal Ohm. 

True Ohm. 

Siemens Ohm 

100 00 

106 00 

! 106-34 






B A Ohm 


KohlrauRch Ohm ... 
Legal Ohm 


True Ohm 


Board of Trade Ohm 
"Baltimore "Ohm.. 


Volt, — The fundamental definition of the unit of Elec- 
trical " Pressure," Diflference of Potential, or Electromotive 
Force (usually written E.M.F.), the Volt, is the Electro- 
motive Force which is generated in a conductor when it 
is made to cut across magnetic lines of force at the rate 
of one hundred million (10^) per second. 

Unit Electromotive Force can also be defined in terms 
of the units of Resistance and Current, thus : One Volt 
is that Difierence of Potential which must be maintained 
between the two ends of a conductor whose resistance is 
one Ohm, in order to keep a current of one Ampere 
flowing steadily through it. 

The E.M.F. of a newly made-up Daniell cell is about 
1*1 Volt, and that of a Latimer Clark standard cell 
varies from 1*471 to 1'435 Volt with a range of tem- 
perature of Odeg. C. to 32deg. C. 

Ampere. — The unit of Bate of Flow of an electric 
current, the Ampere, is that current which will flow 
through a wire having a Resirtance of one Ohm, when a 
Diflference of Potential or Electrical " Pressure " of one 
Volt is maintained between its two ends. 

A current of one Ampere will deposit in one hour 
1174 grammes or 18116 grains of Copper in a copper 
electrolytic cell, and 4*074 grammes or 60*52 grains of 
Silver in a silver electrolytic cell ; and will decompose 
0*3357 grammes or 5*180 grains of slightly acidulated 
water in the same period. 

Ohm's Laic. — It will be observed that the second defini- 
tion of the Volt, and the definition of the Ampere are 
merely two different statements of the same thing ; and 
the Ohm could also be defined in precisely the same terms. 
All these are simply statements from different points of 
view of the well-known Ohm's Law, which in its simplest 
form may be shortly stated as follows : 

The current in Amperes flowing through any conductor 
is equal to the difference of potential in Volts between 
any two points in this conductor, divided by the resistance 
in Ohms between these two points. 

* See Electrical Engineer, September 11th, 1891, page 262. 



Thus, if C be the current in Amperes flowing through 

any circuit ; 
E the difference of potential in Volts between 
any two points in it ; 
and R the resistance in Ohms between these two 
points; then 


and R = ?. 

This law was originally enunciated by Ohm in the year 
1827 as the result of a series of experiments carried out 
by him, and it has since been verified by investigations 
made at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge. 

Wait. — The electrical unit of Power, or rate of doing 
Work, the Watt, is the electrical unit which corresponds 
to the mechanical term Horse-power, of which it is simply 
a sub-multiple. The power transmitted by the current, or 
the energy developed in the circuit, when a current of one 
ampere flows through a conductor whose resistance is one 
ohm, is termed one Watt. 

1 watt is numerically equal to 1 ampere x 1 volt ; 
or if C represents the current in amperes, 

E „ 

„ electromotive force in volts. 

R „ 

„ resistance in ohms. 

and W 

„ power in watts. 

in any circuit ; then 

W = C X E ; and from Ohm's law 

we may write 

W = f X E = f , 

R R 


and W = C X CR = C-R. 

Expressed in terms of the mechanical unit, one watt 
»^ riir*'^ ^^ * horse-power, 

= ~J-T-x— = 44 25 . foot-lbs. per minute. 

Thus, if a current of C amperes is flowing through a 
circuit whose resistance is R ohms, the total diflerence of 
potential being E volts, then the power developed in that 
circuit is = 

fl! I Watts ; 



J<nde, — The electrical unit of Work or Energy, the JovlVy 
expresses the work performed, or the heat liberated, in 
one second when a current of one ampere is forced through 
a conductor whose resistance is one ohm ; or, in other words, 
one Joule represents the work done per second in a circuit 
in which a power of one Watt is being developed. 

Thus, if in addition to the quantities represented in last 

J represents the energy in joules, 

and T 


„ time in seconds, 


J «.WT, 

= CET, 

" R' 

= C2RT. 


mt to ^ ^^'^^^ - 0-7373 foot-lbs. 

746 X 60 

Coulomb. — The unit of Quantity of Electricity, the Coulomb, 
is the quantity of electricity carried in one second past 
any cross-section of a conductor through which a current 
of one ampere is flowing. An ampere is therefore equal 
to a coulomb per second, or a coulomb is equal to an 

Thus, writing Q for the quantity of electricity in coulombs, 
and taking the other values as in the last two paragraphs, 
we have Q = T, 

= ET 

The coulomb is chiefly used in connection with electro- 

(To be continued.) 


The portable electric drills with flexible driving shafts, 
made by MM. Sautter, Harl^, and Cie., illustrated here- 
with, have been used in considerable numbers in ship- 
building yards, arsenals, and boiler works. They are 
equally serviceable in large works for the construction and 
erection of bridges, mining work, the construction of 
railway lines, and so forth. It may be said that their use 
is advisable in any case where it is easier to mount the 
tool on the work than to take the work to the tool. 
Further, this machine tool is capable of being used not 
only for wood and metal drills, but with other machine 
tools and polishing brushes. 

MM. Sautter, Harl6, and Cie. have made these electric 
drills part of their regular manufacture. The following are 
particulars of these tools given in the Revue Industridle. 

Every installation of this kind comprises essentially a 
dynamo, one or several electromotors to which the tools 
are adapted by means of flexible shaftingj and the necessary 
conductors leading from dynamo to the motors. The con- 
ductors are generally supported by porcelain insulators 
fixed on poles at distances of 30 to 50 yards. The dynamo 
is fixed at the centre of distribution, though sometimes the 
dynamo used for lighting is used concurrently for the trans- 
mission of power. The electric pressure varies according to 
circumstances, usually between 50 and 120 volts ; that of 
70 volts is most ordinarily used. Connections which are 
easy to make and unmake lead the current by means of 
insulated twin wires to electromotors which drive the 
machine drills by the intermediary of flexible shafting. 

Figs. 2 and 4 represent the arrangement adopted by 

MM. Sautter, Harl^, and Cie. These are of two types. 

The dimensions of the smaller model are shown in the 

illustration. The following are the further details of this 

type, and of the larger one : 

No. of revolutionB per minute of the motor 2,000 2,000 

„ „ „ of the shafting 475 450 

Power in watts absorbed 700 1,100 

Weight 681b. 1031b. 

As is seen, the angular velocity in revolutions per minute 
of the motor is very greatly reduced in the tool itself by 
spur gearing. 

In the special case of the application of electric drills to 
shipbuilding, MM. Sautter, Harl6, and Cie. have worked out 
a convenient system of conductors by means of copper 
strips, F, fixed on boards run the length of the ship in 
construction; drums or posts, E, capable of carrying a 
certain length of twin conductor, D (Fig. 1), are fixed ta 
supports with double contacts pressing on the copper 
strips, from which the current is drawn as desired. 

In the usual case where overhead conductors are used, or 
in special cases for shipbuilding, the twin conductors, D, of 
12 or 15 yards length, are terminated by a connecting 
plug, which can be inserted in one of two holes arranged 
for this purpose in a regulating resistance-box, R, which is 
furnished with a hand commutator. In the second plug- 
hole is inserted the plug attached to one end of the twin 
wire, G, four or five yards long, the other end of which 
is attached to the terminals of the motor. 

The resistance is used to regulate the difference of poten- 
tial necessary at the terminals of the motor according to 
the work in hand. It is also used to prevent the motor 
overrunning when running light 

The conductors are furnished with fuses at the dynamo 
end, and at each branch. This avoids the burning of insu- 
lation, or fear of the belt coming ofi in cases of accidental 
contact of the conductors. Near the dynamo is usually a 
switchboard with ampere-meter, voltmeter, cut-outs, and 
field-magnet resistance, etc. Certain of the aAoontfy^v^x 


such as cutouts, field-magnet reaistances, mDaaiiring 
instruments, and so forth, are not indispensable, but are 
always advisable in an installation of any importance. 

A clamp suitable to each special case serves to fasten 
the toolcairier, P, on the piece of work to be drilled, B. 
The connection of motor to tool is easily made by means 
of the flexible shafting, the motor standing on the floor or 
in any convenient position. The feeding of the drill is 
brought about by hand by the movement of the wheel, C, 

In actual work the flexible is kept from too sudden 
curves, more particularly in the vertical direction, as the 
weight of the flexible tends to loosen coupling-piece at the 
motor, and to separate the leather sheath from the threaded 
socket. It sometimes happens that the cores of the flexible 
shafting break at the extremities, near the sockets to 
which they are welded. These breakages occur generally 
at the moment the hole is pierced through, or when in 
piercing sevwal sheeta of iron superposed, the tool bitea. 

mounted on a threaded axle. A movable resistance stand, 
with a wheel handle switch, gives complete control of the 
gradual starting and stopping of the motor, and to some 
extent of its speed. 

The difference of potential (constant at the dynamo) and 
the strength of current vary with the size of drill, depth 
of working, nature of the metal, and pressure exerted on 
the tool. The rheostat contacts are numbered to 4, and 
the various movements can be made with surety and the 
avoidance of arcing at the contacts. 

For iron and soft steel the tangential velocity of the drill 
may be regulated by means of the rheostat at about 10 cm. 
(3}in.) per second, and the pressure exerted by means of 
the screw should be such that the feed is about ^ mm. per 
revolution of the tool. For drills above 28 mm. to 30 mm. 
(14in.) it is well to substitute worm gearing for spur gearing. 
The core of the flexible shafting and the worm gear should be 
preferably lubricated with thick grease from mineral oil. 

Such drilling should be carefully done by screwing the 
feed very gradually. The core is repaired in the following 
way : The portion of the metallic core remaining in the 
socket is first detached ; the broken steel wires are then 
neatly cut with a metal saw, after having bound them 
together of the section required, and the end of the core is 
then strongly brazed ; this is then filed up to a conical 
shape, fitting the inside of the socket. The faces 
of both are carefully washed and wiped several 
times to remove all trace of dirt or acid The core 
is then tin-soldered firmly to the socket, having taken 
care ^ain to remove all acid to avoid oxidation of the 
wires. If a breakage occurs at any other part than at the 
ends, repair is impossible. With workmen used to the 
management of the testa breakages become rsre. 

The following table gives the results of several testa 
made upon an electric drill in the service of the Control of 
the Marine. 

It is best to use helicnidal lata or drills with very wide It is well to add that the pressures on the tool may be 
edges, and to take care not to put too much pressure on notably increased when the drill is working intermittently — 

the progresB is then much more rapid. 

the feed. 

The following table gives so 
shafting and the tool carriers. 

6 particulars of the flexible 

Flexible Shafting. 


Haifmam diam- 
eter of holes 


lODgth of 

revs, of 

AveraftB nomber of revs, 
of tool. 

Spar gear. 

Worm gear. 

10 to 20 mm. 
20 to 30 „ 
8Dto40 „ 
40to6S „ 


6fL Qin. 
6ft. 9in. 
Bft. Sin. 






These flezihie shafting are of the type employed in the 
French navy, and are of FVeocb manufacture, M. Fonreau 
having introduced them from America. The details of the 
construction were given Revue IndMstrieUe, Oct. II, 1890. 

Natnre of metal .. .. 
Preranre in pounds 

the toot 

State of bit 

Time retjaired to drill 

holes Im. deep 

Volts at terminals of 

Cm-r«iit in amperes 

Boergy eipeoded in 

soft SiemeDB.Martiti steel 

Speaking generally, the figures given in this table show 
that the energy expended and the duration of the work 
vary according to the sharpening of the hit and the 
pressure exerted upon it These differences may become 



more accentuated when working upon different metals, the 
other conditions remaining the same. 

Ordinary workmen, ana even labourers, very rapidly are 
able to make good use of the electric drills. Practice has 
shown that the relation between the two sets of tools one 
working by band with ratchet brace, and the other with 
electric drill, is as one to five or six ; the quality of the 
work is at least equal to that of handwork. These 
observations, made many times by the managers of 
workshops, serve to indicate the usefulness of these kinds 
of machine tools. 


At the meeting of the[Conncil last week the question of the 
working of the tramways by the Corporation arose for discussion, 
about which the following information may be found interesting 
as giving some idea of the views being taken by the Council. One 
minute of the Tramway Committee reads that : " A sub-committee 
met with a deputation from the directors of the tramway company, 
consisting of Messrs. Young, Reid, Faill. and Pettigrew, witn Mr. 
Duncan, secretary and manager, and Mr. Boyd Anderson, law 
agent. The chairman explained at once to tne deputation that 
the sub-committee had had the compan3r'8 letter before them, but 
that the sub-committee have no power to do anything further than 
to endeavour to make arrangements with the present lessees for 
the acquisition of their stables and plant, or such portions 
thereof as may be necessary for carrying on the working of 
the tramways on the expiry of the lease. The deputation 
urged that they should be informed what lines the Corpora- 
tion propose to commence to work on the expiry of the lease 
by mechanical haulage. The sub-committee, in reply, informed 
the deputation that tney were of opinion that the subject of the 
request has no relevancy to the matter which the sub-committee 
are now prepared to discuss with the deputation, but that in any 
case the sub-committee are not in a position to give the informa- 
tion, as no resolution on the subject has yet been come to. The 
deputation thereafter urged that till this is arranged the question 
of the transfer of the company's stabling and plant should be left 
over. They were informed, however, in reply, that any arrange- 
ment on this latter point must be come to without delay, so that 
the Corporation may know what stabling, car-sheds, and other 
working plant they will require to provide themselves. After con- 
siderable conversation, the deputation agreed that they would 
consider what portions of their stabling and plant they would be 
wiUing to sell to the Corporation, and would submit an offer of it 
to the committee for their consideration. " 

Another and subsequent minute reads: '*The sub-committee 
appointed to prepare a statement showing the comparative cost of 
working tramways by the various methods of haulage, reported 
that they had considered the remit and the offers submitted by 
the General Electric Power and Traction Company, Limited, and 
by the Electric Storage Company, for working cars on the accu- 
mulator system, ana that addin? thereto such other items as 
seemed necessary to bring the whole cost of working by that 
system on a parity with the cost of working by animal power, they 
found there would be a saving of about Id. per car mile run on the 
former as compared with the latter svstem. There was submitted a 
communication, dated 22nd inst., from the Tramway Company, 
making proposals whereby the Corporation might, if so desired, 
acquire the whole of the properties and plant u^ by the company 
in conducting the tramway portion of their business, or only certain 
specified portions thereof. These proposals were remitted to a sub- 
committee, consisting of Bailies Paton and M'Farlane, Councillors 
Colquhoun, Stevenson, and Wallace, for consideration and report. 
The sub-committee having considered the remit made to them by 
the Tramways Committee on 22nd inst., and ha vine heard the town 
clerk on the report by Messrs. Johnstone and Rankine on the con- 
dition of the tramway lines, and as to what and when further 
renewals will probably be required, resolved to recommend that 
he be instructed to intimate to the company that the Corporation 
hold them liable to implement the obligation imposed on them by 
the lease, to hand over the tramways to the Corporation at the end 
of the lease in as good working condition as when they were given 
over to them, or otherwise to pay such sum as will enable the Cor- 
poration to put the tramways in that condition. That sum is 
estimated in Messrs. Johnstone and Rankine's report at £77,759." 

Bailie Paton, in moving the approval of the minutes, said 
there were various matters of great importance in them. First of 
all, they had the report from a sub-committee in regard to the use of 
electricity as a motor in place of horses. They had eone very 
carefully into that matter, and with the assistance ot the City 
Chamberlain they had prepared a careful statement, the result of 
which was that practically they found the offer they had from the 
General Electric and Traction Company enabled them to do the 
working of the cars at Id. per car mile less than the cost in Glasgow 
at the prosent time, ana l^d. less than the cost to the largest 
company in London at the present time. One penny per mile on the 
mileage run meant about £18,000 per annum, if they took into 
coDsideration, also, that the receipts per mile would be greater, as 
it bad been proved by experience where cars were work^ by elec- 
tricity or cable they were always larger than where cars were 
wOTked by horses, they would see there was considerable 
room for saving in the future working of the tramwajre. 

The committee would probably, in a short space of time, 
recommend the Council to adopt, at least on a portion of the lines, 
the working of the tramways by accumulator motors. The com- 
mittee had had a meeting with the tramway company in regard to 
the acquiring of the stables. They had a long ana very interesting 
meeting with the company, the result ot which was that the 
company had now submitted an offer to sell the whole or portions 
of their plant and stabling. Which of these offers or an^ of them 
would be entertained was a matter for future consideration. 
They had remitted to a sub-committee to look carefully into this 
matter, and submit a recommendation whether they snould buy 
the whole or only certain portions, either of which proposals the 
company seemed perfectly willing to entertain. Another matter 
of vast importance was one with which the Town Council probably 
had not hitherto been familiar— that was the report which had been 
submitted by their engineer (Mr. Rankine) regarding the condition 
of the lines at the termination of the lease. They Knew that Mr. 
Rankine was an extremely fair man, and in the reports, with his 
usual fairness, he had not attempted to make the lines either better 
or worse than he bad good reason to believe they would be two 
and a half years hence, at the termination of the lease. If the report 
was correct, the tramway company would have a very consider- 
able sum of money to pay the Town Council at the termination of 
the lease. The committee had considered this matter very fully. 
They had taken the advice of their law agent in the matter, and 
they had no hesitation in recommending the Town Council to take 
their stand on the report which they had received from Mr. 

Hr. Talt seconded. 

Questions were asked as to the exact position of parties at the 
expiration of the lease, and it was explained that the *' lines " had 
to DC handed over in as good a condition as when they were taken 
over. The minutes were then agreed to. 


According to the Hampshire Telegraph, in accordance with the 
instructions of the Electric Lighting Committee, Prof. William 
Garnett has submitted to the Portsmouth Town Council an esti- 
mate of capital and current expenditure and receipts for the 
lighting of the district specified in Schedule B of their provisional 
onler, and of the esplanade between the two piers. The estimate 
LB based upon the assumption that in accordance with the recom- 
mendations contained in his report of October 14th last, alternating 
currents at a pressure of 2,000 volts will be employed for the trans- 
mission of energy through the main leads, and that turbo-electric 
generators, with surface condensers, will be employed. The 
grammar school has been selected as the point from which the 
tines of high-tension mains should diverge, and it has been 
assumed that the distance of the central station from this point 
will not exceed 500 yards. Prof. Garnett states that if it is impos- 
sible to fulfil this condition, the extra cost of mains will be at the 
rate of £2,700 per mile for the distance between the central station 
and the grammar school. Concentric mains will be laid from the 
central station to the grammar school capable of carrying sufficient 
current for twice the number of lamps for which it is intended at 
present to provide. These conductors together will serve all the 
requirements of the station until lamps have been installed equiva- 
lent to about 17,(K)0 lamps of 16 c.p. Concentric high-tmision 
mains will be laid from the grammar school along the principal 
thoroughfares mentioned in Schedule B of the provisional order 
and Alexandra-road. Along the Commercial-road route as far 
the comer of Lake-road, and to Southsea as far as the 
corner of Osborne-road and Palmerston-road, high-tension 
means will be laid capable of carrying about twice the 
current for which provision is at present to be made at the 
generating station. This will provide for the increased demand 
which will occur when the system of mains is extended to North 
End and the Beach Mansions. The cost of extending the Ughting 
system in these directions, including high and low tension mains 
and transformers, will be at the rate of about £2,600 per mile. For 
the purpose of public lighting in the streets, instead of arc lamps, 
placed at distances of 50 yards or more. Prof. Garnett prefers to 
employ '* high efficiency " incandescent lamps of 150 c.p., fixed at 
distances of about 30 yards. These lamps would be supplied directly 
from thelow-tension conductors, and twoof them would requireabout 
the same power as a single arc lamp. They would need to be more 
frequently renewed than ordinary incandescent lamps, and this 
has been taken into account in the estimate of annual expenditure. 
If incandescent lamps are adopted, only very light columns will be 
required for their support, and they will need no attention until 
they require renewal, while the present lamp columns may be used 
in most cases. Arc Lamps require expensive standairds, and cost 
about £4 each per annum for carbons and trimming, if burning 
until midnight only. As the conductors along tne Clarence 
Esplanade will be used for public tighting only, so that all the 
lamps connected with them will be switched on and off together, 
and as no small lamps are required in this situation during the 
whole night, it will be convenient to switch the whole of the Qghte 
on and off simultaneously by means of a high-tension switch at the 
point at which the esplanade conductors branch from the mains near 
the Pier Hotel. On a public promenade the lighting up simultane- 
ously of 90 powerful lights will be effective. For tne lights along 
the Clarence Esplanade arc lamps are less unsuitable than in the 
streets, but high-power incandescent lamps would meet the 
requirements ot the situation. Though the capital required for 
the installation of 8,800 private lamps and 200 public Um.^ \a 



BBtimaled at little more than £38,000, tha profenor reminds the 
committee that it is dsairable that borrowing powers ihould be 
obtained for a much larger sum, in order to enable extensiODH 
to be mode to the ajiBtem from time to time, aa the pablio 
may demand, without renewed application to the Local 
Government Board. The cost of the site is on it«m not 
included in the capital estimate, and no allowance has been 
mads for the renewal of Umpe nsed for lighting the central 
station, ioasmuch aa tke blackened lamps taken down from 
the street columna ma; be used in the engine-room nntil 
they are broken op. So long aa the number of private lamps 
wired a less than the equivalent of 8,800 60-watt lamps, the 
income will be lesa than the amount estimated, and the eipensoa 
will also be lass, but not in the same proportion. There appears, 
however, to be a reasonable margin to meet this differenoe, and if 
the public lighting is undertaken at once tbe installation may be 
expected to pay its working expenses and interest on capital 
actnally invested aa aoon as the number of private lamps wired 
exceeds 5,000. Prof. Garnett's estimate of the capital required 
for high-Bpeed generating plant and incandescent lamps for 
public lighting is £38,285. Ha ptacea the annaal receipta for 

Eirivate and public lighting at £10,800, and the expenditure, 
ncluding interest on £40,000 at Hi per cenL, at £7,572. 

In presenting the scheme summarised above, the Electric 
Lighting Committee reported at Tuesday's meeting of the Council 
that they hod had reason to reconsider the acbeme prepared by 
Mr. Sjboolbred for an electric lighting inBtallalion in tbe borough 
and the recommendation based upon it, and they had obtained a 
further report on the subject from Prof. Gamett, which they now 
eubmitteo for tbe consideration of the Council. The committee 
recommended that tha resolntion of tbe Council passed on 
September 8 last, so far as it referred to the adoption of Mr. 
Shoolbred's scheme, be rescinded, but that this should not apply 
to so much of such resolution aa referred to the borrowing of 
£60,000. They further recommended that the scheme and report 
of Prof. Gamett be adopted, and Chat he be appointed as con- 
sulting engineer, and that Messrs. Waller and Manville be 
appointed as aoperintendent engineers ; the fee for the consulting 
en^neer and the so peri n ten dent enKineers to be £1,500 together. 
With tbe view of carrying out tbe scheme embodisd in Prof. 
Oamett's report, the committee recommended that tbey be autho- 
rised to acquire a sufBcient sit« for the central station. 

Aldarman Kills moved the adoption of tha report and briefly 
related the circumstances under which the committee abandoned 
the plan submitted by Mr. Shoolbred for that now sabmitted to 
the Council for consideration. He stated that Mr. Shoolbred 
hod estimated the annual income to be derived from the electric 
light and the expenditure at £8,939, lea^'ing a fair margin for 
profit. Before a definite arrangement had been arrived at a 
donbt arose as to whether Mr. Shoolbred had not over- 
sstimated the revenue, and the committee invited him to 
meet them and prove that his figures were correct. He 
failed to satisfy them, and they h^ no alternative than to 
dispense with his services, it being clear that he had not token 
into consideration tha nature of the town he bad been called upon 
to light. Prof. Gamett was called in tor consultation, and he ex- 
pressed an opinion that Mr. Shoolbred's estimate of £10,000 was 
£2,300 more than could be reasonably anticipated, it being 
unlikely that they could earn more than £1 for each lamp wired. 
Uoreover, it would be impossible to extend the light beyond the 
area contained in the provisional order without ruinous cost. 

Mr. B— In seconded the resolution. 

Mr. Miliar observed that Prof. Gamett had been called in to sit 
in judgmenb on bis rival's scheme. 

AldannMi ■lUa : I object to that. 

Mr. MlUar : You may object, but I shall say it If I happened 
to be a professor I should do the same thing. 

Mr. Baala : Right or wrong? 

Mr. Millar : Yes ; I should try to crab my rivaL Continuing, 
Mr. Miller said that the matter was of considerable importance, 
for it involved the expenditure of £60,000. Only four months ago 
the Electric Lighting Committee assured the Council that in 
•electing Mr. Shoolbred's system they were perfectly right and 
perfectly safe, and ha asked what justification had they now in 
making a similar representation with regard to Prof, Garnett's 
plan 1 He desired to know whether Prof. Gamett had had 
experience in tbe matter of electric lighting, and whether he could 
point to a town in which his system had been adopted in prefer- 
ence to others. Undoubtedly electricity would furnish the light 
of the future, but he thought that Portsmouth could afford to wait 
and see what other towns were doing. He moved as an amend- 
ment that the consideration of tha report be deferred to an 
adjourned meeting of the Council a fortnight hence. 

Mr. fnlljama* seconded the amendment, and said that when 
Mr. Shoolbred's scheme was recommended for adoption be 
seconded Mr. Miller's amendment that the matter be deferred for 
three months. Tbey stood alone then, but events bad proved that 
they were not wrong. Possibly, if thay adopted the new scheme 
hurriedly, tbey might be led astray by Prof. Oamett, as they had 
been somewhat ted astray by Mr. Shoolbred. 

Mr. Usht asked what previous experiencA in tbe installation of 
tbe electric tight waa poaaessed by Prof. Gamett. 

The Marsr said tbe two men engaged with Prof. Gamett were 
DOW effecting a public installation at Dublin. 

Mr. Millar : Ah ! the man engaged with him. 

The Mayor said tbe committee had adoptod Mr. Shoolbrad's 
scheme on the strength of a report received from adeputetionwho 
viaited Bradford. The deputation, of whom he was one, ware 
delighted with what they saw of Mr. Shoolbred's scheme in 
openUon then, but they ovarlooked the fact that Bradford waa a 

compact town, with all its business honaes in one centre, whereas 
Portemonth was a scattered borough, for which the low-t«nMon 
system was wholly unfitted. 

Ald*ruan XUla asked that before tbe amendment was voted 
upon the Council wonld empower the committee to purchase a 
site for the central station. It was necessary that the site should 
be close to the sea, and In the neighbourhood that the committee 
had selected there was hut one available site without a license 
upon it, and that site must be purchased liefore the day waa out, 
or it would be sold the next morning. 

Tbe amendment was, however, pnt to the vote, when it was 
carried by 16 to 12. 


The following report has been submitted t« tha CoudcU 
by tbe Highways Committee on the question of electric 
lighting : 

The borough surveyor reported that it was suggested by the 
Reading Electric Lighting Company that 30 l,2W)-c.p. lamps be 
used. These lamps would take the place of 236 5ft. flat flame 
burners, tha cost of which is as follows : Lamps lighted by 
Corporation, £323. 15s. lid.; by Simeon's Trustees, £26; by Gas 
Company (at their own expense, £5*. lOs. Sd. ; or a total cost of 
£403. 6s. 5d. per annum for gas lighting, producing 3,776 c.p 
before It p.m. and 1,408 c.p. after ifp.m. 

The cost of lighting, cleaning, and maintaining 30 electric lamps 

of lighting, c 

£27. 15s. each, or £832. lOs. for 30. ' 

The cost of lighting cleaning, and maintaining 30 alectrio 
lompe (seven years' contract), each giving 1,200 c.p. until II p.m., 
reduced te 16 c.p. after It p.m., or a total of 36,000 c.p. until 
11 p.m., and 480 c.p. after 11 p.m., would be £22. 15e. each, or 
£682. 10s. for 30 lamps. 

Prom the above figures it will be seen that if electric lamps at 
1,200 c.p. all night he adopted, the total cost of lighting the 
streets sbowD would be about doubled, whilst the illumination of 
the streets would be nearly 10 times greater than at present. 

II tha scheme for 1,200-c.p. lamps, reduced 16-c.p. lamps at 
he illuminating powe" ' " '■' ' 
times greater than at present before II p.m 
of what it is at present after 11 p.m. 

It must, however, be borne in mind that the electric tamps 
would be three times farther apart, on the average, than the gaa 
lamps, and, aa tha intensity of tbe light diminishes much more 
rapidly thau the distance from it increases, the average lighting 
of tbe streets would, with 1,200-c.p. lamps, be atrantfive times 
greater than at present. The lighting at uie mtd-spacee between 
the lamps would be slightly greater than at present. 

With the 16-c,p. lamps the lighting of the mid -spaces between 
the lamps would be much less than it is at present ^Mr 11 p.m. 

I am of opinion that it would be much mora aoonomioal to 
maintain the lamps at 1,200 c.p. all night than te reduce them to 
16 c.p at 11 p.m. 

I think, however, that a saving might be effected in another 
way. The whole of the street lighting current for tbe 1,200-c.p. 
lamps would, in any case, be carried by a set of oonducters used 
for no other purpose, and as the lamps will be illuminated or 
extinguished by uie turning on or off of the current at the gene- 
rating station, it appears to me that full advantage could be taken 
of all times of brilliant moonlight, thus saving electric current. 

With regard to the quotations mode by tbe electric tight com- 
pany, I find that for tbe St. Pancros electric lighting it has been 
estimated that the cost of lighting and mainteining a 1,200-cp. 
lamp would be 2d, per tamp per hour, or a coat per annum for 
3,000 hours of £32. 10s. 

This estimate of cost is borne out by the experience of place* in 
which electric lighting has been carried out in a thoroughly 
efficient manner. 

A letter was read from the soticiter to ttie electric lighting 
company submitting an alternative scheme and an estimate for 
public lighting for the same area. The principal feature of the 
scheme is a combination of the arc and mcandeecent systeme of 
lighting; each lamppost will support one arc and one iocandeaoent 
l^ht. Up till about II o'clock tbe arc lamps will be ligbt«d, 
aod at that hour the incandescent lamps will M lighted and the 
arc lamps shut off. This proposal appears to offer Uw advaotagaa 
of a largely increased amount of lighting during tha earllar honra 
of night, and during tha remainder of uie night nearly the same 
as the lamps at ' present In use afford. 'The following is the 
estimate for public lighting aa an alternative scheme to the 
estimate already sent in to the Highways Committee : 

Price per lamp per annum for 1,200-c.p. lamps burning up tilt 
It p.nL, from II p.m. 16-c.p. lamps — 3,900 hours' lighting nr 
annum if contract la given now, so that the public lighting mains 
con be put in at the same time aj tbe private mains ; 

If Corporation U .company 

find lampposU. find lamppoals. 

£ s. d. £ a. d. 





Report of the Directors for the half-year ended September 30, 
1891, presented to the thirty-ninth half-yearly ordinary general 
meeting held at Winchester House on Thursday. 

The Directors snbmit the accounts and balance-sheet for the six 
months ended September 30, 1891. The revenue for the period 
amounted to £354,939. 58. 4d., from which are deducted £97,130. 
ISs. Id. for the ordinary expenses, and £47,047. ISs. Id. for expen- 
diture relating to repairs and renewals of cables, etc., d urines the 
half-year. After providing £4,816. 5s. for income tax, there 
remains a balance of £205,944. 7s. 2d., to which is added £313. 
15s. 9d. brought from the preceding half-year, making a total 
available balance of £206,258. 2s. lid. From this balance there 
have been paid : 

Interest on debentures and debenture stock £28,274 12 10 

Dividend on preference shares 20,474 3 

Two interim dividends of 2s. 6d. per share each on 

ordinary shares 100,000 

£148,748 15 10 

leaving a bahuce of £57,509. 7s. Id., which is carried forward 
to the next account. The revenue includes £33,398. 18s. 5d., 
dividends for tho half-year upon the Company's shares in the 
Eastern and South African, the Black Sea, the Direct Spanish, 
and the African Direct Telegraph Companies. The tramc over 
oar whole system is satisfactory, and the revenue derived from 
Australian telegrams since the reduction of tariff is developing 
favourably. In accordance with the provisions of the articles (3 
aseociation, two of the directors. Sir A. J. Leppoc Cappel, K.C.I E., 
and Lord Sackville A. Cecil, retire by rotation at this meeting, 
and, being eligible, offer themselves for re-election. The auditors, 
Mr. Henry Dover, and Messrs. Welton, Jones, and Co., retire, and 
offer themselves for re-election. 

Sir John Pender, K.C.M.G., chairman, presided at the meeting. 

Before proceeding to the business before the meeting, the 
CShalrmaii referred in sympathetic terms to the dark snadow 
which had fallen on the Royal Family through the death of the 
Duke of Clarence, and said that the news had been rapidly com- 
municated to the vast Empire owned by this country through the 
medium of that Company's lines. Turning to the accounts, he said 
that their message receipts for the half-year ended September 31 
last amounted to £321,135, as against £318,728 for the corre- 
sponding period of the previous year, an increase of £2,407. Divi- 
dends from their investments showed a decrease of £56. Interest 
and transfer fees had fallen off £285. The gross revenue was 
£354,939, as against £352,875, an increase of £2,066. The reduc- 
tion of rates for European tel^rams, which came into operation 
on July 1st last, he was glad to say had nearly been recouped, 
thus showing that there was considerable vitality in their business. 
Included in the accounts was the loss on five months' reduced 
tariflfs to Australia. The reduction was still in force, and they 
had only had eight months' experience of it. At the end of the 12 
months he thought they would be able to make a very satisfactory 
report on this head. They had already recouped some of the 
sinaller losses by increased traffics in other directions than 
Australia. They were, on the whole, verv well satisfied with the 
result of the conference which was hela about 12 months ago. 
He was hopeful that a considerable portion of the loss on the Aus- 
tralian traffic up to the end of September, would be made up by 
increased receipts before the end of the financial year. The total 
expenditure for the half-year under review amounted to £97,130, 
as against £91,793, an increase of £5,407. Included in these figures 
was, however, the item for special repairs at Alexandria and Port 
Said. The amount carriea to maintenance and ships' reserve 
fund was £4,000, as against £2,500. The working expenses 
showed an increase of £4,062. The amount paid Tor use of 
{latents showed a decrease of £661, which was a permanent reduc- 
tion, owing to some of the patents used by them having expired. 
Cable renewals and repairs showed an increase of £15,570. 
In 1890 this amount was exceptionally light, owing to their 
flhipe being hired by other companies. Thev had laid in 129 knots 
of new cable, the cost of which was included in the figures for the 
half-year. They carried forward £57,509, against £78,196, or a 
decrease of £20,666, but it must be remembered that the half- 
year ended September, 1890, was, as regarded ships' expenditure, an 
exceptionally favourable one. He would call their attention to 
the important fact that notwithstanding the large additions to 
their cable svstem during the last six years, the capital expendi- 
ture under this head had remained since 1885 at practically the 
same figure, in spite of the fact that they had laid over 7,000 miles 
of new cable durmg that period. This half-year they had applied 
from the reserve fund the sum of £105,110 in reduction of 
capital expenditure. About 11 years ago shareholders were good 
enough to sanction what was then calld an insurance fund. A 
few months ago when he was addressing the Eastern Extension 
Telegraph Company, he drew the attention of the shareholders to 
an amended system which the Board were desirous of introducing, 
and which at the present time was in the hands of the actuaries. 
Probably youths were,- as far as fingers were concerned, better 
for telegraphic work than older men. If they were to get good 
people, they mast hold oat to them some UtUe bwefit ftt the end 

of their arduous life. Thev thought to encourage thrift and 
economy on the part of their employes by meeting them and 
adding to the sum they might save, so that they might 
retire with a competency at the end of their service. Great 
confidence had to be placed in the men who worked their business, 
and they must be ratner above the ordinary class, well-educated^ 
well-connected men, who had some feeling of respect for their 
name and petition. They had also to bear in mind that a great 
deal of tneir business was conducted in distant countries and 
tropical climates, and never in very pleasant places, because they 
had to have the bulk of their staff near to the place where the 
cables were landed. Consequently, their employes led an isolated 
life, and one which did not, lie thought, tend very much to health. 
Therefore, they should be just and generous to these young 
fellows who embarked with them, and were in touch with 
them through the course of their working life. These 
remarks having been received with evident approval, the 
Chairman said he was glad they approved of the scheme, of which 
he could not give them the details, as these were being worked 
out most carefully. Their business was thriving. It was carrying 
out what he always told them, that every day that they lived 
telegraphy became a greater necessity. The world could not move 
without it, and as the world grew so must telegraphy. That 
Company was at the head of it. They still had some cables to 
duplicate, and some money yet to expend, but they took care 
before they spent the money to see where it would oome from. 
Above all things, they were most desirous not to overburden 
themselves with capital. When they took into consideration 
the reduced value of money, and the fact that they 
still maintained their high rate of dividend, he thought the 
shareholders would be satisfied that their investment was good 
and sound. It was believed to be so by the whole commercial com- 
munity of this and other countries. Taking the last two years 
and looking at the convulsions which had shaken the proudest 
houses to their foundations, when they saw the great depression 
that had followed in commerce, and when they saw the stock of 
the Eastern and Eastern Extension Companies standing higher 
than at any period of their existence, he could not offer better 
evidence of belief in their property. Moreover, when they found 
that their 4 per cent, debentures were at the present moment at 
108 to 109— tnat was further evidence, that as debentures and as 
an investment their property ranked probably in the first class of 
investments. He moved the adoption of the report and acoounts. 

The Blarqiiia of Tweeddale seconded. 

Several shareholders spoke with pleasure of the scheme for an 
employes' superannuation fund, and hoped the older men would 
not be forgotten. In reply to questions. 

The Chairman said that they were not forgetting the old men. 
As to all their cables being in working order, they were above the 
average in this respect. The Company was rarely without a 
broken cable, but owing to their system being duplicated, the 
public knew very little about such matters. A very important 
break had taken place in the South African cable the other day, 
and had they not had their ships in order to attend to it at 
once the work might have taken two months — as it was, the 
cable was repaired in five days. They repaired their own cables, 
and some of other people's too. They never allowed their shipe 
to lie idle if they could help it, and they never lost an opportunity 
of making them earn the nimble penny. Last half-year (1890) they 
earned outside of their own companies, by means of their shipe, 
£22,000, and the year before, £15,000. 

The resolution was then put, and carried unanimously ; as also 
were motions re-electing Sir A. J. Leppoc Cappel and Lord Sack- 
ville A. Cecil, directors, and Messrs. Henry Dover, and Welton, 
Jones, and Co., auditors. 

A vote of thanks to the Chairman closed the proceedings. 



The report of the Company for the six months ended Dec. 31 
shows that the half-year's revenue, after deducting out payments, 
amounted to £45,402, against £43,346. The working and other 
expenses for the same period, including income tax, but exclusive 
of cost of repairs of cable, amounted to £17,672, leaving a balance 
of £27,729 as the net profit, making, with £3,502 brought forward, 
a total of £31,231 For the corresponding period of 1890 the 
working expenses and other payments amounted to £17,555. 
Interim dividends of 3s. fid. per share for the quarter ended 
September 30, 1891 (paid October 24, 1891), and of 3s. 6d. per 
share for the quarter ended December 31, 1891 (payable Jan. 23, 
1892), together amounting to £21,248, have been declared, and 
after setting aside £5,000 to the reserve fund account, the balance 
of £4,982 on the revenue account has been carried forward. 


Xleotrlo FittlBgs, Hiring, mad MalntenaBoa CoiDpaaj, 

Limited.— Roistered by Messrs. Ashurst, Morris, Crisp, and 
Co., 17> Throgmorton-avenue, E.C., with a capital of £200,500, 
divided int^ 40,000 ordinary shares and 500 founders' shares 
of £5 and £1 respectively. The holders of the founders 
shares may, at any Ume after such shares are fully paid. 



by a resolution pasaed at a meeting of snob holders, deter- 
mine that each founders' share shall be subdiyided into 
founders' shares of such smaller amount as the meeting may 
determine, and thereupon the founders' shares shall be subaiyided 
accordingly. As to the sum set apart out of the net profits of the 
company as a reserve fund, one-half thereof shall belong to the 
holders of the founders' shares, the other half to the holders of the 
ordinary shares, and the balance of the net profits shall be divided 
into two equal parts, one of which shall belong to the holders 
of the founders' snares, and the other half to the holders of the 
ordinary shares, and shall be divided among them in proportion to 
the amounts paid upon the ordinary and founders' shares respec- 
tively. The objects of the Company are to establish and maintain 
cables, wires, tines, accumulators, lamps, works, and fittings of 
every debcription for the generation, distribution, supply, accumu- 
lation, and employment of electricity ; and to carry on business 
as electricians, generators and suppliers of electricity, mechanical 
engineers, manufacturers of and dealers in all kinds of apparatus 
therefor, as iron, brass, and other metal founders and fitters and 
metal workers ; to effect insurances against fire or accidents 
arising from the employment of electricity. The first subscribers 


A. Armstrong, The Albany, Piccadilly, W 1 

B. H. Martindale, Bickley, Kent 1 

W. Crookes, F.R.S., 7, Kensington Park-gardens, W 1 

F. R. Reeves, Settle-heath, Potter's Bar 1 

A. Palliser, jun., 21, Lime-street 1 

H. Fleet, 4, Hayworth-road, Clapton... 1 

J. W. Fricker, 14, Addison-grove, Croydon 1 

There shall not be less than three nor more than seven Directors ; 
the first are to be nominated by the signatories to the memorandum 
of association. Qualification : £200. Remuneration : Chairman, 
£400 ; deputy-chairman, £300 ; and ordinary directors, £200 per 
annum each. An additional sum, equal to 5 per cent, on the net 
profits of the Company after payment of 7 per cent, dividend, 
shall be divided amongst them as they shall determine. 


Dividend. — The Globe Telegraph and Trust Company announce 
interim dividends of Ss. per preference share and Is. fid. per 
ordinary share. 

Catile Repaired.— The Eastern Extension Telegraph Company 
announce that their Hong Kong-Bolinao cable is now repaired, and 
telegrams can therefore be accepted for transmission to Manilla as 

City and South London Railway. — The receipts for the week 
ending 10th inst. were £858, against £748 for the corresponding 
period of last year, showing an increase of £110, and a decrease of 
£20 as compared with the week ending Jan. 3. 






Januabt 4. 
ImproTomonta in elootrlo awitobea. Wilson Henry Sturge, 
12, Cherry-street, Birmingham. (Complete specification.) 

Improvementa in telephone ezohange systenu. Abner 
Mulholland Rosebrugh, 107, Mutual-street, Toronto, 

ImproTementa in generating and dlatrilmting eleotrioal 

enericy. Rankin Kennedy, Carntyne Electric Works, 
Shettleston, Glasgow. 

HI, Improvementa in diatribnting and converting alternating 
eloctrio onrrents, and in apparatna therefor. Rankin 
Kennedy, Carntyne Electric Works, Shettleston, Glasgow. 

Improvements in vnloaniaing the Inenlating covering of 
elootrio oondnotora. George Gatton Melhuish Harding- 
ham, 191, Fleet-street, London. (John Joseph Charles 
Smith, United States.) 

January 5. 

improvements in electric drop light. Gwynne Ernest 
Painter, 11, Wellington -street. Strand, London. (Com- 
plete specification. ) 

An aleotrio regnlator. Edwin John Houghton and William 
White, 28, Southampton-buildings, London. 

Januabt 6. 
Improvementa in magnetio apparatna. Walter Thomas 
Goolden and Sydney Evershed, Woodfield Works, Harrow- 
road, London. 

A method of utilising eleotrioal energy for the heating of 
water and otlier liqnida. Arnold Beaumont Woakes, 78, 
Harley-street, rx>ndon. 

A wall oontaot and ping fbr eleotrioal oondnotora. 

William White and Edwin Percival AUam, 28, South- 
ampton-buildings, London. (Complete specification.) 

improvementa in or relating to joints and attaehmenta 
for oonoontrio armonrad aleetrio oondnotora, and the 
metiioda of making the same. Joseph Devon port Finney 
Andrews, 41, Parliament-street, Westminster, London. 







Januaby 7. 

334. Improved fbrm of a dry galvanie element. Henry 
Nehmer, 4, Graf ton-street, Gower-street, London. 

355. Improvementa in or relating to the eleotro-deposition of 
tin npon metala. Edwin Charles Furby, 19, Southampton- 
buildings, London. 

359. An Improvement in dynamo-eleetrio maohinea. Siemens 

Bros, and Co., Limited, John Nebel, and William 
Abraham Colling^, 28, Southampton -buildings, London. 

360. Appliance for equalising the loada of the aeveral oon- 

dnotora of rotary-phaee onrrent inatallationa. Siemens 
Bros, and Co., Limited, 28, Southampton-buildings, 
London. (Messrs. Siemens and Halske, Germany.) 
372. Improvementa in aoldering, melting, and coating metala 
by the aid of eleotrioity. Nicholas Benardos, 24, South- 
ampton-buildings, London. 

January 8. 

406. Improvements oonneoted with eleetrio motora and aleotrio 

elevator apparatna. The American Elevator Company 
(Incorporated), 55, Chancery -lane, London. (Otis Bros, 
and 0>., United States.) (Complete specification.) 

407. Improvements in liquid eleotrodea. Edmond Savary 

d'Odiardi, 55, Cornwall-gardens, London. 

408. Improvementa in eleetro-inhalara. Edmond Savary 

d'Odiardi, 55, Cornwall-gardens, London. 

409. Improvementa in the eleetrio atatio epraya. Edmond 

Savary d'Odiardi, 55, Cornwall-gardens, London. 

410. Improvements in pnenmo-dynamometera. Edmond Savary 

d'Gdiardi, 55, Cornwall-gardens, London. 

411. Hagneto-voltaie eleetrode. Edmond Savary d'Odiardi, 55, 

Cornwall-gardens, London. 

January 9. 

475. Improvements in apparatna for teating inanlatioa eleetrio 
metera and altemating^onrrent motora. James Swin- 
burne, Broom Hall Works, Teddington, Middlesex. 

486. Improved variable reeietanoea for eleetrieal pnrpoaee. 

Rookes Evelyn Bell Crompton, 55, Chancery-lane, London. 

487. Improvements in meana or apparatus for producing 

decorative, advertlaing, or other efltoots hy the aid of 
eleotrioity. Rookes Evelyn Bell Crompton, 55, Chancery- 
lane, London. 

491. Improvements in and relating to undergronnd condnita 
for electric wirea. Carl Axel Wilhelm Hultman, 18, 
Buckingham-street, Strand, London. 

495. An improved electric battery eleotrolyte. George Henry 
Robertson, 47) Lincoln 's-inn -fields, London. 

499. A new or improved dynamotor or oontlnnona-onrrent 
tranaformer, and method of winding the field magneta 
of snoh. Francis Murray Newton and Tom Hawkins, 
Norfolk House, Norfolk-street, London. 



12984* Working metala by eleetrio eorrenta. Do Benardos and 
Olszewski. (Amended.) Is. 3d. 


pnrpooea. Birkbeck. 

20838. Dry element for 

(Henrichsen. ) fid. 
21031. Secondary battoHaa. Davies. Is. fid. 


1046. Prepaid telephonio meaeagea. Gould and Gottscbalk. 8d. 

1639. Oondenaera for elootrio onrrents. Swinburne. 4d. 

1680. Tranamitting elootrio eorrenta. Tavern ier. 8d. 

4554. Armatnrea fbr eleotrioal machinery. Redfern. (Lahmeyer 
and Co.) 8d. 

4579. Kleotrio cigar lighten, eto. Binswanger and Smeeton. 6d« 

19901. W«lding metala eleotrioally. Thompson. (Coffin.) 6d. 


Brush Co « 

— Pref. 

India Rubber, Gutta Percha k Telegraph Co. 


Metropolitan Electric Supply 

London Electric Supply 

Swan United 

St. James* 

National Telephone 

Electric Construction 

Westminster Electric , 

Liverpool Electric Supply 














Leith Dooks. — A committee are considering the pro- 
posal to introduce electric light at Leith Docks. « 

Hawiok. — ^Messrs. Mayor and Coulson are lighting a 
portion of the town of Hawick on contract as an experi- 

Far^ham.— The Fareham Local Board have decided not 
to oppose the local company's application for a provisional 

Leeds Xleotrio Tramway. — Over 100,000 persons 
have been carried on the Boandhay Park-road since the 

DessaiL — At the Dessau central station a 120-h.p. Otto 
gas engine driving a Fritsche dynamo is used, running at 
150 revolutions a minute. 

Weelwloh. — The undertakers under the Woolwich 
electric lighting order have applied for six months exten- 
sion of time for depositing the £1,000 required. 

Mewepaper Idghtinc-— The DaUy Chranide have 
now their offices lighted by electric light The installation 
was carried out by Messrs. Paterson and Cooper. 

Awerage Hours of Ughtiiiff. — ^At Darmstadt the 
average duration of lighting for an incandescent lamp is 
300 hours, at Elberfeld 700 hours, at Berlin 1,000 hours a 

■leotrical Portraits. — A speaking likeness of Dr. 
Silvanus P. Thompson appears in the Eleeirieal World, 
N.Y., for Jan. 9, with a very appreciatory account of his 
scientific work. 

Yorkshire College. — ^The first of a series of free lec- 
tures in the People's EUdl connected with the Yorkshire 
Ck>llege, Leeds, has been given by Prof. Stroud, D.Sc, on 
•• The Telephone." 

Sleotrlo-Ckiloiired Boy. — During a thunderstorm in 
Maine, says a recent paragraph, the skin of a boy who was 
struck by lightning turned to a dark purple, and has 
remained so ever since ! 

yetolng the Trolley.— The Mayor of Brooklyn, U.S., 
has vetoed the proposed scheme for the introduction of the 
trolley into that fashionable suburb of New York. It is 
hoped to get his veto upset 

PersonaL — ^The Queen has been pleased to approve the 
appointment of Lord Bayleigh to be Lord-Lieutenant and 
Gustos Botulorum of the county of Essex, in the room of 
Lord Garlingford, resigned. 

■leotrle Railways In Fraaoe. — The contract for 
establishment of an electric railway between Veyrier and 
Monnetier-Momex (Haute Savoy) has been entrusted to 
MM. de Meuron et Cu6nod. 

UttHsfng Niagara. — It is expected that the first 
contract to be entered into by the company which is to 
utilise the water power of Niagara, will be for the delivery 
of power to light the city of Buffalo. 

Xleotrio Taanlnsr. — We have received a pamphlet 
with opinions of various authorities on the Worms et Bal6 
process of electric tanning, published by M. A. Zwierz- 
chowski, 32, rue Etienne-Marcel, Paris. 

Instltntloii. — The inaugural address by Prof. Ayrton, 
F.RS., president of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, 
has, by reason of the lamented death of the Duke of 
Clarence, been postponed till the 28th inst 

Yarmoath. — ^Upon the statement by Mr. J. Harry 
Palmer at the Yarmouth Town Council, that electric light 

would cost twice as much as gas for the public lighttng, the 
question was referred back to the committee. 

Hammersmith. — ^The Hammersmith Vestry, after two 
hours' debate, have given their consent to the provisional 
order for the electric lighting of the district by the Putney 
and Hammersmith Electric Lighting Company. 

City and South London. — We understand that a 
meeting of the shareholders of the South London Electric 
Railway will be held shortly to consider the question of 
the immediate extension of the railway to Islington. 

Cleokheaton Town Hall. — The formal opening of 
Cleckheaton Town Hall will take place on February lOth, 
and the electric light, obtained from a 14-h.p. gas enginOt 
has been installed, and will be used on the occasion. 

Battersea. — A^ special committee of the Battersea 
Vestry is considering the question of electric lighting, and 
the Board of Trade has been asked to defer decision on 
applications for provisional orders until the matter has been 
dealt with by the Vestry. 

Mntnal Teleiihones. — We have received the January 
list of subscribers to the Mutual Telephone Company, of 
Manchester, which indicates the continued energy and 
increasing prosperity of the company. The list already 
contains about 900 names. 

Royal Soolety. — At the Boyal Society on Thursday 
papers were read by Major Cardew, " On a Difierential 
Electrostatic Method of Measuring High Electrical Resist- 
ances " ; Prof. Schuster, F.liS., and A. W. Crossley, '• On 
the Electrolysis of Silver Nitrate in Vacuo." 

Moffat (N.B.)— The Moffat Municipal Authority had 
the question of lighting the town by electricity before 
them at their last meeting. The clerk was directed 
to enquire upon what terms Mr. J. J. Hope-Johnstone, of 
Annandale, will grant the dyemill water power for that 

Whitehall Glnb. — A dinner of the electrical engineers 
who are members of the Whitehall Club is to be held on 
Friday, the 29th inst, at the club. It is hoped that Mr. 
Tesla will be present, unless the postponement of his 
lecture from the 28th inst. to February 3 delays his arrival 
in London. 

Dewsbi ir y. — At the meeting of the Dewsbury Town 
Council held on Friday, the Gas Committee reported that 
they had sent out circulars to 221 persons and firms, en- 
quiring if they would take the electric light in case the 
Corporation laid down a public installation, and only nine 
had given assent 

Jarrow. — At the monthly meeting of the Jarrow Town 
Council on the 13th inst, it was recommended that the 
town clerk be instructed to communicate with three or four 
of the principal electric lighting companies in the district 
inviting them to apply for permission to supply the 
borough with the electric light 

Proposed Kleotrio Railway In Paris.— The Prefect 
of the Seine, says Dalziel, has received a proposal from a 
firm in London for a concession to construct an under- 
ground electnc railway in Paris on an entirely new system. 
The subway would extend over 25 kilometres, and have 
five branches, connecting all the chief points of the capital. 

London Kleetrlo Railways. — Among the private 
Bills which passed the eicaminers last week was one for the 
extension of the City and South London Electric Railway 
to Islington. In respect to the proposed Waterloo and 
Boyal Exchange Railway there was no appearance on 
behalf of the promoters, and the Bill was struck out of 
the list 



Tamnton.-— At the monthly meeting of the Taunton 
Town Council on the 13th inst., the proposed acquirement 
of the properties of the gas and electric light companies 
was discussed at some length, and ultimately the matter 
was referred to the Streets and Highways Committee and 
the Finance Committee, who will be merged for the con- 
sideration of the subject. 

Nottlnflrham. — ^The celebrated Castle Museum at 
Nottingham is to be lighted by electric light. Mr. G. H. 
Wallis, the curator, will show the rooms. Persons desirous 
of tendering may send in sealed tenders and specifications, 
to be opened at the next meeting of the Castle Museum 
Committee. Further particulars of the curator, or of Mr. 
Samuel O. Johnson, town clerk. 

Lsrnton and Lynmonth. — The electric light is rapidly 
becoming appreciated in Lynton and Lynmouth. Mr. 
H. H. Benn, the proprietor of the works, has just installed 
the light in the Devon and Cornwall Bank, as well as the 
manager's residence — the first private house in the neigh- 
bourhood in which the electric light has been adopted, and 
the result is found very satisfactory. 

Bt. Helens. — A Local Oovernment Board enquiry has 
been conducted here by General Phipps Carey, partly 
relative to the electric lighting of the Town Hall, which is 
greatly desired. The town clerk explained that there will 
be 335 16 c.p. lamps throughout the building, the engines 
and dynamos being regarded as a temporary arrangement 
until the whole town has the electric light. 

LlTerpool.— The Watch Committee of the Liverpool 
Corporation on Monday considered a memorial from 448 
commercial firms in the city using the electric light, praying 
the Corporation to consent to the application of the Liver- 
Dool Electric Supply Company to extend the term of 
purchase in the city to 42 years. The committee decided 
that they could not grant the application in its present 

Lanfton-Frankfort Plant. — Recent statistics of the 
figures obtained with the Frankfort transmission plant 
show that the commercial efficiency was over 72 per cent. 
The cost per effective horse-power was about £56. 10s., the 
distance of transmission being, as will be remembered, 110 
miles. It was half expected that there might be extra- 
ordinary losses not deducible from Ohm's law, but the 
results show that this was not the case. 

Sherediteh. — A communication from the Gas Light 
and Coke Company was read at the last meeting of the 
Shoreditch Guardian Board, stating that the price of gas 
would be raised to 3s. Id. per 1,000ft., an increase of 4d. 
per 1,000ft. It was suggested that Mr. Joyce, the engi- 
neer, should be consulted as to the employment of electric 
light. The question was referred to committee in order 
that they might consult with the engineer. 

Waterford. — Tenders are required for the public 
lighting of part of the city at present lighted by electricity, 
and also in the alternative for the public lighting of the 
entire city, either by gas or electricity, for periods of two, 
five, or ten years, from September 1, for the Public Lighting 
Committee. Tenders to be sent to Mr. Joseph W. Howard, 
town clerk, by February 1. All information can be obtained 
at the office of Mr. M. J. Fleming, borough surveyor. The 
Mall, Waterford. 

Tesla's Kzperlments. — During the past six months 
Mr. Tesla has been hard at work developing the experi- 
ments he gave before the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, in the direction of important practical applica- 
tions. Some of the points of his work are already 
embodied in patents on incandescent lighting and on con- 
deasen, MADy of the practical difficulties have already 

been overcome, and it is hoped that ere long the results 
may be seen in commercial use. 

** £vil (Telephonic) Communications Coimpt." — 

At Dundee the National Telephone Company sued John 
Milne and Son for £8. lOs., rental of telephone. Mr. 
Urquhart, for bis clients, stated that inefficient service was 
given at the time of the day most required, and urged that 
half the profanity amonst the Cowgate merchants was due 
to the bad telephone service. It was by no means 
improving to their morals. The case is being continued. 

The Old Stndents' Association. — In accordance with 
the announcement made at the last annual dinner Mr. 
Reginald J. Jones has been obliged, owing to pressure of 
professional work, to resign the hon. secretaryship of the 
Old Students' Association. Mr. E. B. Yignoles has been 
appointed as hon. secretary and hon. treasurer, and Mr. A. 
E. Euddock as assistant hon. secretary. All correspondence 
and subscriptions should therefore in future be sent to Mr. 
E. B. Yignoles, 28, Lanhill-road, Elgin-avenue, W. 

Kleotrio Leakage throngh Snow Contact. — Snow 
has fallen so heavily in the districts of Oex, Nantua, and 
Bugey, says DalzieFs correspondent at Lyons, that tele- 
graphic communication has been suspended. Curious 
phenomena have occurred at Culos, where electric light 
wires have been so heavily covered with snow that a kind 
of partial contact has been established, and a series of 
lightning flashes between the diflerent wires has been 
going on for some time, to the great delight of admiring 

Cantor Lectores. — ^Before the Society of Arts, on 
Monday next, January 25, Prof. Forbes, F.R.S., will 
deliver the first of his series of the Cantor lectures on 
*< Developments of Electrical Distribution." Lecture I. will 
deal with low-pressure supply ; comparison between 1885 
and 1892 ; central station v. isolated plants ; electricity i;. 
gas ; cost of feeders and mains ; management of feeders ; 
use of recording apparatus ; house wiring ; three and five, 
wire systems ; use of motor-dynamos as compensators ; and 
use of batteries. 

Contraction of Copper Mains. — A new cause of 
interference of the electrie light supply has been found in 
the action of frost. A drop of some 20deg. took place a 
little while ago, it will be remembered, and at Bath the 
light failed at this time, due, Mr. Massingham states, to 
contraction and expansion in the joints of the main. The 
Electric Light Committee of the Bath Town Council is to 
make an exhaustive report upon the subject. It would be 
interesting to hear if any other companies have experienced 
difficulties from the same cause. 

Klectric Canal Boats. — Electric motors for canal 
boat propulsion has been often proposed with many 
variants in design. A likely scheme is that described in 
the N. Y. Electrical Engineer^ as proposed by Mr. Otto 
Biisser. A stationary cable is laid along the bottom of the 
canal. This cable passes over sheaves in the canal boat, 
driven by a motor, the current for which is supplied by 
trolley wires in the usual way. A peculiar feature is that 
the installation is transportable, being fitted on the gun- 
wales of the boat as it enters the canal, and removed at 
the further end. 

Glasgow Tramways. — At last week's Glasgow Town 
Council meeting, Bailie Paton intimated that the Tramway 
Committee had found that the offer of the General Electric 
Traction Company would enable the Corporation to work 
the tramways at Id. per mile less than it could be done 
by animal power. This would be a saving of X18,000 a 
year. It was proposed at the end of the lease, two and a 
half years hence, to be^n to use electricity for some por- 



tiona of the lina. The committee were negotiating with 
the tramway company for the whole or part of the stabling 
and plant. 

Faotorr Lighting.— The New York Milla, in Nidder- 
Qale, which about three years ago were puichased by 
Messrs. Thomas Gill and Sons, twine manufacturers, and 
have since been rebuilt, are now lighted by the electric 
light, the dynamo being worked by a turbine placed 
Specially for the purpose, so that the mill machinery and 
the electric light may be worked independently of each 
other. The installation has been carried out by the Roper 
Engineering Company, of Bradford, This is the first 
instance of the electric light being brought into practical 
Use in the district. 

lire Alarms at Chiswiok.— The Cfaiswick Local 
Board met last week to consider and, if thought expedient, 
to accept tenders for the erection and maintenance of fire 
ftlarm posts, calls, etc. Tenders were opened as follows ; 
Koxburgh and Co., with telphonas £330, without X290; 
Messrs. Blenheim and Co., with, £379 ; Messrs. Spagnoletti 
and Crookes, with £415, without £365 ; Mr. F. E. Stuart, 
\rilh£438. 17s,, without £368. 17s.; and the Home Tele- 
phone Company, with £300, without £265. The Board 
decided that Dr. Diplock, as captain of the fire brigade, 
should consult with the surveyor on the tenders and report 
to the Board. 

St. Fanoras. — The arc lights at St. Pancras have 
been turned on in Tottenham Court-road to the satisfac- 
tion of the inhabitants and the members of the St. Pancras 
Vestry, The turning on took place on Friday, and on Satur- 
day in thesmall hours, the Electricity Committee, attended 
by Prof. Robinson and Mr. Eccleston Gibb, made some 
experiments as to the comparative intensity of lighting of 
the electric light and the gas. The 12 Brockie-Pell arc 
lamps were found to give considerably more light than the 
85 gas lamps, besides rendering unnecessary some of the 
gu lamps down the side streets. Euston-road, from Trinity 
Church to Euston-square, haa been similarly lighted since 

Chester. — At the monthly meeting of the Chaster Town 
Council, on the 13th inst.. Alderman William Johnson 
moved, and Mr. J. J. Cunnah seconded, the adoption of a 
recommendation of the Watch Committee that a sum not 
exceeding £20,000 be voted for providing a iirst installa- 
tion of the electric light for Chester. Alderman H. T. 
Brown opposed the motion, on the ground that if the 
matter were taken up by the Cor[K>ration all the risk and 
lo68 would fall upon the citizens, and they should be taxing 
the whole town for the purpose of making up the deSciency 
in the working expenses for the beneBt of a few individuals. 
This was evidently not the feeling of the Council, as after 
considerable discussion the motion was carried by a Urge 

Mining Engineers. — It is proposed to establish a 
Londoi] Institute of Mining Engineers, having for its 
objects the advancement and encouragement of the sciences 
of mining, metallurgy, engineering, and their allied 
industries, the interchange of opinions by the reading of 
oommunications from members and others, and by discus- 
Bions at general meetings, upon improvements in mining, 
metallurgy, engineering, atid their allied industries, and the 
publication of original communications, discussions, and 
other papers connected with the objects of the institution. 
It ia suggested that the institute should be lodged in suit- 
able ofBcea, which might also be jointly occupied by the 
Federated Institution of Mining Engineers. A S|>acious hall 
for meetings and for the formation of a mining library is 
aiao contemplated. 

Uedlcal Bleotrloltr,— The Institute of Medical Elec 
tricity has done useful work in introducing scientific 
electricity to the medical profession, and the earnest work 
of Mr. H. Newman Lawrence and Dr, Harries will certainly 
not be lost. But we suppose the institution did not pay as 
well as was expected, for it has lately been wound up 
voluntarily. Mr. H. Newman Lawrence is carrying on the 
same work upon his own account, and haa opened rooms at 
36, St. Martin's-lane, where he is intending to continue to 
treat patients by electricity and massage. Mr. Lawrence 
has our best wishes, as although the subject is difficult 
ground, his long work in attempting to apply electricity 
scientifically to the relief of paralysis, the " cataphorie 
medication," or dosing by electro-deposition of drugs, and 
other matters, have helped to pave the way to better use 
of electricity in medicine. 

Edison Eieotrio Ri^way. — The announcement of 
a novel and practical system of electric railway without 
overhead trolley wires by Mr. Edison some time back 
stopped, it appears, very many contracts for the trolley 
system being compleleil, the street railway comjianies in 
many instances preferring to wait until the value of the 
Edison system was demonstrated. Mr. Edison has issued a 
proclamation which will at any rate allay the fears of some 
of the other street railway engineers. He has authorised 
the statement that the new system is designed exclusively 
for roads of heavy trafhc, in large cities, where the expense 
of a fresh line is warranteil by the traffic, and where the 
overhead trolley is not admitted. " The new system," the 
statement continues, " will not be applicable, in a commer- 
cial sense, to long roads running less than 50 cars simul- 
taneously. It must, therefore, be understood that outside 
of the large cities the best system that can be advocated it 
the trolley," 

Inverness. — A committee meeting of Police Commis- 
sioners was held on Monday to consider the question of 
introducing electricity or extending the gas works by an 
expenditure of £10,000. The gas manager recommended 
that his scheme be modified to the extent of £2,300, bat 
the convener of the Lighting Committee moved that the 
original scheme be a<lhered to in view of the improbability 
of the electric light being introduced. A motion in favour 
of delay to allow further discussion of the electric light 
scheme was moved by Mr. James Cook, Mr, Wm. Smith 
read a letter from a firm of London electric lighting engi- 
neers to the effect that the idea of generating the light at 
the Falls of Foyers was out of the question for a town of 
the size of Inverness, as it would lead to an expense of 
about £50,000 ; and Mr. Smith argued that this was th« 
only scheme which could be entertained, as the taking of 
water from the Caledonian Canal would lessen the volume 
of the River Ness, and lead to litigation with fishing pro- 
prietors. After discussion, it was finally agreed to proceed 
at once with the extension of the gas works, provided the 
Police Commissioners are agreeable, 

National Telephooes. — A meeting of the Executive 
Council of the County Councils Association waa held on 
the 13th inst. at the Guildhall, Westminster, Lord Thring 
in the chair. Among those present were Lord Baring, 
Baron Dimsdale, M.P., Sir John Dorington, M.P., Mr. 
Littler, Q.C., C.B., and representatives from Bedfordshire, 
Lancashire, Middlesex, Hertfordshire, Hampshire, Essex, 
Surrey, Monmouthshire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, 
Gloucestershire, and Westmoreland. The Executive 
Council considered the private Bill which has been 
deposited in the Private Bill Office of the House -of 
Commons for the purpose of affording "to the National 
Telephone Company, Limited, additional facilities for con- 
ducting the business of telejfhoiuc communication," and 



reaolved "That the attention of the Local Gk>yerament 
Board and of the Board of Trade be called to the highly 
objectionable provisiona contained in the National Tele- 
phone Company's Bill, and that it be suggested that the 
subjects contained in it ought to be provided for in a Bill 
introduced by a Gk>vernment Department.'' It was 
arranged that the annual meeting should be held on the 
17th of next month at the Ouildhall, Westminster. 

An Xleotrloal Wog BelL — ^The port of Kavenna in the 
Adriatic has recently^ says the Times, been provided with a 
fog bell, the invention of the Abb^ Ravaglia, worked by 
electricity. It is situated at the end of the mole leading 
into the harbour, and the current is conveyed to it from a 
battery in the Ughthouse about a kilometre distant. The 
apparatus for striking the bell consists of a magneto- 
electric motor planted in the bell tower, and connected to 
a mechanical puller. When the current from the battery 
passes through the armature of the motor, the motion of 
the armature is caused to turn a disc having pins 
projecting from its border. These pins catch on the 
end of a pivoted lever as the disc revolves, and by 
raising one end of the lever depress the other, thereby 
pulling the bell chain and making the hammer strike the 
outer rim of the belL A rapid series of strokes is the 
result, and the loud continuous note is heard for a long 
way. The battery employed is the constant form of 
Daniell, and a galvanometer is kept in the circuit to show 
that the current is of proper strength. A telephone circuit 
also enables the attendant at the lighthouse to hear the 
" drone " of the motor and thus know whether it is working 
at its proper speed. Such an apparatus is, under certain 
circumstances, cheaper, simpler, and more convenient than 
a steam sjrren or a bell actuated by the waves. 

Pontypridd, — A deputation from the Pontypridd 
Chamber of Trade waited upon the Pontypridd Local 
Board last week for the purpose of bringing before the 
notice of the Board the lighting of the town, and urging 
upon them either to purchase the present gas works or to 
undertake the lighting of the town by electricity or some 
other illuminant. The deputation was introduced by Mr. 
H.S.Davie8 (president of the Chamber of Trade), who.stated 
that in view of the ineffective lighting it would be desirable 
to take over the lighting themselves. Mr. Leyshon, chair- 
man of the Board, said he was glad the deputation had 
waited upon them, as this would strengthen their hands. 
It was understood that the gas company intended to spend 
£2,000 on extensions. Councillor Roberts thought that [lar- 
tial lighting by gas and partial lighting by electricity would 
lead to difficulties. He agreed with the purchase of the 
gas works. Mr. Snape said the capital of the present com- 
pany was not sufficient to meet the requirements of the 
district by properly enlarging the works. It was ultimately 
decided that the gas company should be written to and 
asked if they were prepared to treat with the Board for 
the sale of the works, and it was further decided to engage 
an expert to value the gas works. Perhaps, with further 
information before them, the Board woiild not be opposed 
to the introductiop of electric light as well as gas. At any 
rate the present would seem a favourable opportunity for 
bring forward the subject. 

Sunderland. — A special meeting of the Highways 
Committee of the Sunderland Corporation has been held 
to consider offers for lighting with electricity that part of 
the town comprised in the provisional order which was 
obtained by the Corporation in 1891. Applications had 
been invited by the Corporation from companies prepared 
Co take over the powers, and two were received — viz., 
from the Brush Electric Supply Company and Messrs. 
Andrews and Co., London. The former proposed to 

take over the order with all its obligations on con- 
dition that the Corporation assisted them to form 
a local company, with arrangement for repurchase; 
that the public l^hting should be given at such price 
as should be arranged hereafter ; and that no concession of 
any kind be granted to any other comi)any. Messrs. 
Andrews proposed to take over the area mentioned in the 
provisional order, to supply it with electricity for lighting 
purposes on the alternating-current high-pressure system at 
a uniform charge of 3|d. per Board of Trade unit, and to 
pay the Corporation a rental of £100, together with a 
royalty according to the consumption. They required pay- 
ment for the goodwill if at the end of 21 years the Corpora- 
tion wished to acquire the concern. The terms of both 
offers were discussed, and it was ultimately agreed to 
submit the same to Mr. Shoolbred, who had previously 
been consulted by the committee with regard to the pro- 
visional order, and to await his report 

WalsalL — ^At the monthly meeting of the Walsall 
Town Council on Monday, a resolution was proposed by 
the Mayor, " That the Council carry out themselves their 
electric lighting order of 1890, and that they proce^ to 
provide an electric lighting plant on the lines suggested in 
the report of Mr. Frederick Brown, A.I.E.K, at an esti- 
mated cost of £21,450, and that the Electric Lighting 
Sub-Committee be authorised to prepare and present for 
consideration plans and specifications of the proposed 
work, and a detailed estimate of the cost of the same." He 
said that they had to establish the light in the town, and 
the only question was whether it would pay. Mr. Brown 
held that with 2,000 lights of 16 c.p. each, they 
would realise £1,266 a year profit on the expenditure 
of £21,000. He felt sure that this would be a step 
in the right direction, and that it was wise to keep 
the matter in their own hands. Birmingham certainly had 
not done their own elentric lighting ; but Birmingham did 
not always set a perfect example. Alderman Evans 
seconded. The Mayor stated that the streets at present 
proposed to supply were Digbeth, and Park, Bradford, 
Bridge, High, Darwall, Lester, and Gk>odall streets. 
Councillor Dean asked whether they would not at once 
include the centre of Bloxwich ? Councillor Bowen sug- 
gested the centre of the Fleck as well, while the Mayor 
said that they thought it would be wise to deal with the 
centre of Walsall first Alderman Lindop, in reply to 
Councillor Powell, said that the plant might be completed 
in about eight months. 

City Llghtlnflr.-:-The directors of the City of London 
Electric Lighting Company, in announcing the issue of 
9,848 ordinary shares at 5s. premium, give some informa- 
tion as to the progress of the City lighting. The two 
generating stations at Meredith's Wharf, Bankside, and at 
Wool Quay, Lower Thames-street, are both working. The 
supply of current has been commenced from each, and the 
erection of additional generating plant is being actively 
proceeded with. Queen Victoria-street, Gracechurch-street, 
King William-street, and Cornhill are ahready lighted, and 
the work is so far advanced that the lighting in many other 
of the main thoroughfares of the City will be commenced 
in a few weeks. In consequence of the exceptional facilities 
granted by the Commissioners of Sewers since their meeting 
of December 1 last, the opening up of the main thoroughfares 
has proceeded very rapidly, and the present rate of progress 
isabout a mile a week. This will enable thecompany to reach 
the best paying districts of the City at an early date, and the 
earning of a substantial revenue will consequently be mate- 
rially hastened. With reference to private lighting, they state 
that since the lighting of the Mansion House from the 
company's mains in December last the engineering staff has 



been continuoualy employed in connecting the premisea of 
further customers. Signed applicatioiiB for about 13,000 
lamps have been already receiveH, and are being added to 
al the rate of 1,500 a week. Informal applicatione for a 
large additional number have alao been made. With 
reference to revenue, an encouraging statement is made. 
For obvious reasons, they aay, it is necessary when estab- 
lishing an electric supply station to provide a staff OMt of 
pro^tortion to the amount of current at first delivered. 
In spite of this drawback, however. Mi. David Cook, the 
company's recently -appointed manager, reports the revenue 
already being earned to be in excess of the current expendi 
ture at the generating stations. 

Aooiington. — The Corporation of Accrington having 
obtained their provisional order for thesupplyof electric light, 
a scheme for the erection of a central station, with the laying 
of mains in the principal business thoroughfares, is now under 
consideration. The Council have issued a circular mean- 
while to the inhabitants, in which they say : " Before 
establishing the central generating station, the Corporation 
IB anxious to carefully ascertain what demand for the 
supply of electricity can be depended upon in the district 
in which the first mains are proposed to be laid, au'i as 
yoar premises are within that district will you please 
inform the Corporation whether you propose making use 
of the light and to what extent. The Corporation being 
desirous of affording information as to the probable cost of 
rning the light, has consulted Mr, J. N. Sboolbred as to the 
price of the electric light in Accrington, as compared to the 
present price of gas. The price of the electricity to be 
supplied by the Corporation is limited by the provisional 
order not to exceed 8d. per unit The illuminating value 
of a unit of electrical energy is about equal to that of 100 
cubic feet of gas, so 10 units, with incandescent lamps 
of 16 c.p. each, will produce an amount of illumination 
about equal to 1,000 cubic feet of gas supplied by the 
company. This electrical energy, if supplied at 6d. per unit, 
is equivalent to gas at 5s. per thousand cubic feet. The 
cost of supply will, of course, vary with the demand — the 
greater the demand the less the CoqKiration will be able 
to supply the light at. To add to the cost of the light will 
be the meter rent at 10 per cent., as with gas meters, 
unless the consumer supplies his own meter. The consumer 
will, of course, provide his own internal fittings and lamps, 
and as regards these he is advised to make bis own 
enquiries, the cost of same vurying very much in the 
character of the fittings, the position and number of lights, 
and the internal arrangement of the premises to be lighted. 
It may, however, he stated that in the case of new build- 
ings the internal fittings for the light have been found to 
coet about one-half that of gasfittings." 

tTtiit Pole, — Mr. Chsis. E. Emery made some sensible 
remarks with reference to unit |iole and lines of force in 
the discussion on the recent paper on " Magnetic Reluct- 
ance," by Mr. A. E. Kennelly. "In investigating the 
formula! for the construction of motors and dynamos," 
says Mr, Emery, " it becomes quite evident that 4 ir is 
nothing more or less than a simple arithmetical coefficient 
which, in this connection, has nothing to do with its 
customary significance as expressing the surface of a sphere 
of unit radius. It is thought that this should be empha- 
sised by writing the figures instead of the symbol, or, for 
convenience of calculation, substituting a single special 
character, for iostance 11, for it, and stating its numerical 
value. The artificial conception that a line of forco 
radiates froni a unit of surface of a sphere of unit I'adius 
may be comprehended so far as the unit is concerned, 
bat has not the slightest applicability in practical 
work. The conception causes great difficulties in the 

minds of students " — as well it may. The conception 
which we should like to see adopted, that unit pole is that 
produced by one line of force, on the other band though 
interfering with the balanced theorisings of mathematicians, 
would lead at once to simple explanations of most of the 
ordinary phenomena of magnetism and induction. Thtf 
metre itself, as Mr. Emery remarks, and we should do well 
to remember in these discussions, "is nothing more or lest 
than the distance between two marks on gold plugs on A 
platinum bar," even as our own yard. He adds, " It must 
not be thought that the use of absolute measure in electrical 
formulae for proportioning dynamos and motors securs 
absolute accuracy. There is apparently no numerical 
coefGcient at the beginning of such formal» which can be 
modified to suit the conditions, but allowances are neces- 
sarily made at another stage of the calculation, as tbs 
number of lines of exciting force must he 20 to 40 per 
cent, in 'excess of those used across the armature." Ha 
recommends the factor which Towle, engineer to the 
" Great Eastern," said should be embodied in every 
formula — K • common sense, There is a great deal in 
this, as every practical designer of dynamos well knows. 

Botary-Cnrrent Plant.^A complete " Drehstrom " 

plant is now being installed for experimental testing at 
Messrs. Greenwood and Batley's rooms in Albany- 
mansions, Victoria -street, and has already been visited by 
many electrical engineers. The plant has been brought 
over from the Allpemeine Company, of Berlin, by Mr. 
Henry Edmunds and Mr. Keckenzaun, and installed in tho 
rooms plac cl at their dis[)05at by Mr. Black we II, of 
Messrs. Greenwood and Batley, It has already undergone 
some interesting tests at the hands of Mr. Kapp, and 
has been shown by him at his lecture to the Royal 
Engineers at Woolwich. The plant consisis first of an 
ordinary continuous-current dynamo, driven as motor 
from the Westminster mains at 105 volts, tho current after 
having entered the armature of this motor being taken oS 
to ring collectors connected at points ISOdeg. from each 
other in the segments, this giving a three-phase currenL 
The field magnets are excited by a separate wiie from the 
mains, but the total current used, about 50 amperes, 
passes through a single ammeter. Both field and 
armature currents are controlled by resistances. The 
three-phase current is led first to a reversing switch) 
 passing through the ammeter which registers one-third of 
the total current. This ammeter, when wo visited the 
plant, showed 29 amperes. The voltage between any two 
of the three wires remains the same, and lamps can be 
lighted on any two of the wires. The pressure was 5'J volts. 
The three-phase current passes to a small rotary -current 
dynamo having three collectors. In this jtarticular 
S|>ecimen the current generates a rotating magnetic 
field in the armature, which, reacting on a laminated iron 
case surrounding it, rotates, and so drives another ordinary 
dynamo connected to the motor abaft. This dynamo 
lights 29 100-volt lamps. We understand that Mr. Kapp'a 
tests showed the efBciency of the motor to be about 80 per 
cent In the new form of motor which is being prepared, 
the rotating field will be induced in the stationary field 
magnet, and the armature will be a solid core dragged round 
by tho rotary field. This form of rotary -current motor 
has the advantage of doing away with the need of collectors 
and brushes, the wires being connected direct to the 
motor. The motor staits under full load. The B]>eed 
of rotation at full speed is not quite synchionous U> 
that of the supply motor, but lees a certain lag duo to 
the mechanical friction. The plant is extremely interest- 
ing, as being the first installatiou of the "Drehstrom" 
motors in England. 




The Exhibition it gradually approaching completion. 
Chaos IB giving place to order, and in the machine depart- 
ment especially a vast amount of work has been done since 
our last issue. Almost all the stands have now machines 
in running order, and the variety of gas engines will 
prove a characteristic of the Exhibition. While, however, 
we may admire the diversity of this class of engines, and 
the eagerness to produce them shown since certain patents 
lapsed, the engineer will turn with greater admiration 
to some of the examples of steam engines at work. 
Messrs. Davey, Pazman, and Co. have finished the 
erection of the 260-h.p. engine driving Rapp's dynamo, 
and at the time of our visit it was running with great 
■moothness and without noise. Messrs. Easton and 

showing ready-fitted suites of rooms than by showing 
dynamos ; and it must also be remembered that the adop- 
tion of .the liebt means the adoption of the dynamo. Hence 
we should all support the enterprise of those firms who 
have gone to the expense and trouble of showing how apt 
a means of illuminating handsomely- furnished and costly- 
decorated rooms is afibrded by the incandescent lamp. 

Wo have already referred more than once to the well- 
arranged exhibit of BleBBra. H. and J. Coop«r, designers 
and decorators, of 8 and 9, Great Pnlteney -street, W., 
which will be found at Stand 203 in the South Gallery. 
Owing to the fact that the suite of rooms shown by this firm 
was complete down to the smallest detail on the opening 
day, we are able to give a description of them in our present 
issue. Later on we shall hope to publish some sketches, 
which will give an idea of the design and decoration of the 
different rooms. 

The Dining Room.— Messrs. Cooper's Exhibit. 

Anderson, too, are drivine Prentice's dynamos with their 
engine. Crompton and Co. have a splendid specimen of 
Crossley's gas engine going. Siemena's are using Willana 
and Robinson's engines, and so on. Probably the Machine 
Boom will be complete by the end of the month, when it 
will be well worth a careful examination. In the body of 
the building several stands are yet bare, some not even 
commenced, and in the galleries much still remains to be 
done by the art furnishers and decorators. 

One of the characteristic features of this Exhibition will 
be found in the upholstering department. A variety of 
firms have furnished rooms with a special view to tneir 
being lighted by means of incandescent lamps. It has been 
remarked that visitors will probably prefer to wander among 
these luxuriously-furnished roonu rather than among 
the moving machinery in the Machine Boom. It must be 
remembered, however, that if householders are to be in- 
faeedtopatRHuae tbe electrio Ught, more will be done by 

Though the suite has been erected with great care and 
completeness of detail, the exigencies of space and position 
have, as in the case of a theatrical stage, made it necessary 
to play some tricks with actualities. So we enter through a 
handsome grilled screen of wrought iron, which is worthy 
of more than a cursory glance, and make our exit at the 
other end of the suite, through a draped archway, whose 
existence is easily blotted out by a slight effort of the 
imagination. The suite consists of a dining-room, boudoir 
and bedroom, each decorated and furnished in a different 
style. We will begin with the dining-room, the dimensions 
of which are 22ft by 15ft. It is a handsomely furnished 
room with two delicately-draped windows overlooking the 
Winter Garden. The table in the centre is laid and 
looks provoktngly tempting. At the end by which we 
have entered is the fireplace, arranged as an ingle- 
noolE, of carved oak in the Early Renaissance style, 
In the recees of this nook are cosy seats covered with 



G«iioese velvet in Venetian design. Incandescent lamp> 
in the oomen give a mellow light, and with a bright lire 
on the hearth this would be just the place for building 
castlw in the air, or for a tH«-ii-Ule with some congenial 
spirit The walla are panelled with pictures of the 
Flemish school, whilst the windows are flanked on either 
side by armoor, which has a novel and striking effect. 
Near the ingle-nook is an old-faahioned armchair, a repro- 
duction of tbe eighteenth-century stvle, and marvellously 
Gonifortable for bones of all ages. Tne chairs placed round 
the dining-table owe their design to the times of good 
Queen Anne, and are light and graceful in appearance. 
Opposite the fireplace are massive carved oak entrance 
doors, surmounted by a pediment carved with much spirit. 
The floor, of patent removable parquet, is covered 
with a fine Anatolian carpet The table, which, as we 
have intimated above, is laid for dinner, is furnished 
with Venetian glass, and seasonably decorated with 
mistletoe. The centre-piece consists of a frosted branch 
of hawthorn with binl and, if we mistake not, nest 
also — which is not quite in accordance with the 
Dsual course of things natural. The table is lighted by 
cwidleaticlu fitted with imitation candles carrying incan- 
deaceot lamps, and by other lamps ranged round the room 

candlesticks of pierced bruswork, standing some 4ft. high. 
Near the canopied divan stands a coffee-table with a top 
consisting of one large circular Persian tile, the colouring 
of which is lovely. A second coffee-table of Damascus work, 
inlaid with mother-of-pearl and silver, stands in another- 
comer of the room near the Mecca niche. The Gairene 
apron-piece of the room has a tented roof, in keeping with 
the Eastern character of the furniture and decorations. 
The boudoir ia lighted from reproductions of antique 
Arabian vases hanging from the apion piece. The floor is 
covered with matting, over which are laid rugs and mats. 
In truth 'tis a room wherein to listen to the 1,001 nights, 
or whisper into sympathetic ears those soft nothings which 
mean so much — a room full of rich colour, and yet a room 
in which a tired mind and aching eyes might well find rest 
From the boudoir, a doorway, the soffits of which are 
supported by beautifully carved stalactite brackets, the 
whole being draped with gold silk gauze, leads to a 
bedroom, which may be termed an English rendering 
of the Louis Quinze style. From the exclamations 
escaping visitors of the fair sax on entering this 
room, we may take it that " lovely " and " exquisite " 
are the proper terms to apply to it The prinoipal 
decorations are in salmon and white. The ceibng 

A Corner of the Boudoir and Bedroom.- 

'MeBiTB. Cooper's Exhibit. 

•o u to light the pictnree. Taken as a whole, when lighted, 
this room nai an appearance of cosiness and warmth which 
dnwa frequent exclamations of delight from visitors. 
Everything is tasteful and harmonious, and the lights are 
judiciously placed so as to give a good effect without 
intrnding themselves on the eye. 

Yvoa the dining-room we pass into an Oriental boudoir, 
which will assuredly excite covetous feelings in the breast 
of many s fair visitor to the exhibition. Exactly 
opposite us as we enter is a plaster cast reproduc- 
tion of an Arabian niche, euch as is usually placed 
in Eastern mosques to denote the position of Mecca. This 
niche, with its gorgeous gilding, surmounts panels of rare 
old Persian tiles of antique colouring. To the left of the 
niche ia a specially designed window in the Arabian style, 
the powerful colouring of which has been most harmoniously 
blended. In another comer are divan seats with a canopy 
of rich silk, upheld by inlaid Persian spears. The seats are 
covered with fine embroidery and provided with embroidered 
eoahions. In the wall close by is a beautifully designed 
Arabian panel of very fine lattice work. A large wall panel 
of plate glass, overlaid with gilt palm fret, adds much to 
the beauty of the room. Beneath it is a seat in embroidered 
Hooriih work, which is flanked by a pair of very fins Persian 

consists of a large oval centre, hand-painted with cupidi, 
after Boucher. From this centre-piece falls a silk draping 
which reaches to the top of the Trails, somewhat after the 
manner of a tented roof in the French style. The bed- 
stead is white with carton pterre decoration, the centre 
panel at the foot bearing hand-painted cupids in the same 
style OS the ceiling centre-piece. The head is surmounted 
by a canopy nearly reaching to the ceiling, of salmon silk 
with overdraperr of white muslin, This canopy is caught 
up by two cupids, while a third tiny fellow flying in mid- 
air holds an incandescent lamp. The coverlet consists of 
a handsome piece of embroidery, bordered with plain 
figured silk. By the side of the bed stands a compact 
little writing-screen, available for the composition of 
those mysterious missives usually known aa billeli doux. 
When not used for writing it folds up into a screen. 
Messrs. Cooper have submitted one of these screens to the 
Princess of Wales. The dressing-table is of a novel and 
very elegant design, with bevelled mirror, also of uncommon 
design. The draperies of the windows consist of salmon 
silk, the valances of which are embellished by gold darts. 
The fireplace is in mahegany, with Bartolozzi engravings 
let into the panels, and fitted with a handsome pierced and 
chased brass fender. On the otberside of theroom is a special 



fitment introduced bv Messrs. Cooper, with the idea of 
doing away with muGh movable and bulky furniture in the 
shape of wardrobes, chests of drawers, and so on. The fit- 
ment contains wardrobe, drawers, shelves for books, etc. 
The frieze over the wardrobe is ornamented with hand- 
painted lunettes in the same style as the ceiling and^^he 
bedstead. The door leading out' of the room is of ma- 
hogany, the two upper panels having Bartolozzi engravings 
with gilt mounts, and is surmounted by an overdoor with 
(Mrton pierre decoration and more engravings. The door 
furniture is of pierced brass. In one corner stands an 
elegant easel, which the designers have named the 
** Princess Christian," after her Boyal Highness. Messrs. 
Cooper have supplied these easels to members of the Boyal 
Family. The floor is covered with a Moquette carpet 
in Louis Quinze style, with blue centre and cream border. 
Finally, the lighting of the room has been carried out with 
considerable l£ought and care, as, indeed, is the case with 
the other apartments we have described. 

Comparisons are notoriously odious, but we are relieved 
of any necessity for making them by the fact that Messrs. 
Cooper had their exhibit complete in every detail on the 
opening day, and were alone in this respect Therefore no 
^mparison with other exhibits could be made, if we were 
inclined to institute one. Of this, however, we are 
assured — ^viz., that electrical engineers should be grateful 
to this enterprising firm for showing how beautifully the 
incandescent light is adapted to the lighting of rooms 
furnished and decorated with all the taste and skill which 
has been lavished on the suite we have described. We 
trust that Messrs. Cooper may reap the substantial reward 
they so well deserve. 

One of the largest and most important exhibits in both 
Machinery Department and Main Transept is that of 
Siemens Bros., Limited, and it will, we think, be not 
only intensely interesting to electrical engineers, but also 
one in which public interest will be most largely kept 
up. This will accrue from the exhibition of the model 
electrically-lighted tiieatre, which was shown in Frank- 
fort; the daily demonstration is to be given of tele- 
phonic curves and tones and an analysis of the in- 
terior working of the telephone; the manipulation of a 
50,000-volt current, strong enough to pierce ebonite 17 mm. 
or glass ^in. thick, or give an arc of 12in. across water, 
or light 500 100-volt lamps in series ; a new type of 
transformer in the form of a length of thick cable; 
an electric winch, electric passenger and dinner lift 
in working order, to say nothing of the ordinary 
sight of Siemens dynamos in working, motor-dynamos, 
electric tools, a new system of automatic block signalling 
for railways, automatic electric mine exploders, besides 
telegraph and cable instruments in profusion. It is 
perfectly evident all this cannot be described in one article. 
We must begin with a cursory review of the salient 
features in their order. In the first place — the dynamos. At 
the Machinery Hall we see one of the large Siemens con- 
^nuous-current dynamos, designed for 120 volts and 1,600 
amperes at 350 revolutions, the ordinary standard type of 
dynamo for central station work, as shown at the Naval 
lixhibition. Three of these were there used, and all of 
them have been since sold to the St. James's and Pall Mall 
Company. This dynamo is not shown running. Of the 
working plants we see an H B Siemens bar armature 
dynamo, continuous current, for 120 volts and 450 amperes, 
at 420 revolutions, as used for shiplighting, driven by a 
Willans and Robinson closed type of engine, of 75 i.h.p. 
Another dynamo of the same type, working in parallel, giving 
120 volts and 200 amperes, at slower speed, 320 revolutions. 
This is driven by an open-ty|>e Scott, Willans, and 
Robinson engine. A fourth dynamo is a Siemens alter- 
nator, not running, shown coupled direct to a Tangye 
engine, making a '* ship set," as supplied to the P. and O. 
boats, giving 105 volts 200 amperes at 200 revolutions. A 
fifth dynamo is an alternator, which will be used for sup- 

E lying current for the high-tension experiments ; these are to 
e ready at the end of the month. The dynamo supplies 80 
volts 500 amperes, driven at 420 revolutions by a Willans 
O G engine. The current will be transformed up first 80 to 
2,500 volts by the new " cable " transformer, and then again 
by the large Siemens 50,000-volt transformer. This is the 

highest ever attempted by a dry transformer — ie,, not 
immersed in oil — and is five times that of the Deptford 
transformers. It will give a spark of 2in. in dry air. The 
capacity of the transformer is two amperes and 50,000 
volts, or 180 h.p. In one corner of the exhibit is 
an electric winch, which will lift five tons 90ft. a 
minute. The motor is so arranged that the load 
can be suddenly arrested without affecting the armature. 
The efficiency is 93 per cent Specimens will be shown of 
electric drills intended for piercing the sides of ships, the 
frame of the drill holding on to Uie ship by its own mag- 
netism. This will be shown in action, as also ventilators, 
brushes, and other electric tools. A passenger lift to carry 
10 persons, made by Way good, has been fitted with com- 
plete electric gear, and will be working, raising visitors to 
the jniUery. A dinner-lift will be in operation close beside 
it. The transmission of power will be also shown by a motor- 
dynamo, or continuous-current transformer, 100 to 800 volts, 
lliis will supply current to the block system signals. 
These will be of great interest to railway engineers. They 
consist of cast-iron sleepers carrjring the rail, containing 
contacts depressed by the weight of the engine ; the engine 
thus automatically blocks its own line. Another applica- 
tion of the motor is that of an electric fire engine of 30 h.p., 
Messrs. Siemens's own design. It will throw water by 
electricity instead of steam, by being connected to the street 
electric mains through contacts fixed near the standpipe. 
The show in the Transept contains several arc lampposts, 
a tall lattice mast carrying six arcs for lighting large areas, 
and four posts for street lighting. Messrs. Siemens have 
also six large arc lamps outside the turnstiles. Two large 
showcases contain some magnificent s|)ecimens of their 
electric cables, concentnc and single conductor. One of the 
latter contains 1,000 square millimetres. The "cable" trans- 
former mentioned is a novel piece of electrical apparatus. 
It consists of a huge piece of cable about 5in. diameter and 
10 yards long, like agreat hosepipe. This is the transformer; 
it has a flexible iron core and two copper windings. The 
length regulates the voltage, and they can be cut ofl* in 
lengths to requirements. The one shown is to transform 
2,500 to 80 volts, and of great capacity — 500 amperes. 
Smaller ones, for house lighting could be inserted in the 
main or hung up in a cellar. The model theatre is arranged 
in the Pompeian Court. Here miniature stage eflects will 
be shown — ^sunset, Alpine glow, moon eflects, sunrise, 
lightning, and so forth — all electrically produced by incan- 
descent lamps and electric motors, and controlled by one 
man at one switchboard, placed on full view in front of the 
stage. We have said enough to show the interesting 
nature of Messrs. Siemens's exhibits ; further details must 
be left for future description. 

Conspicuous in the North Nave is the stand (No. 117) of 
Messrs. Benham and Frond, of the Chandos Metal 
Works, Chandos-street, Strand, W.C. Here are shown 
specimens of very high-class metal work in the shape of elec- 
tric light fittings, both for public buildings and private houses. 
Among the examples exhibited are : A large nine-light 
brass electrolier, the arms of which are repetitions of brackets 
recently made for the ballroom. Government House, Ran- 
goon ; an electrolier, with corresponding wall lights, mirror 
bracket, etc., in finely-chased mercury-gilt work ; an elec- 
trolier, silver-plated in the style of Henry IV. of France ; 
a silver-plated bracket, a replica of those made for the 
Royal room. Lyric Theatre ; two ceiling lights in copper 
and brass, representing (1) a bouquet of flowers, (2) a group 
of fan palms ; a bracket as now in use on the stage at 
Terry's Theatre in " The Times " ; a wall light of quaintly- 
embossed copper, in the form of an owl, the lamps being 
introduced within the repouss^ work ; a number of ceiling 
lights, electroliers, brackets, table pillars, girandoles, floor 
lamps in gilt, silver-plated, copper, brass, hammered iron, 
etc., the whole of which have been designed for, 
and manufactured at, the Chandos Metal Works. 
A model is shown of the ball and cross on St Paul's 
Cathedral, made at these works, A.D. 1821, and adopted as 
the company's trade-mark. Above the stand are examples 
of weather vanes with lightning conductors attached. 

In the Mediaaval Court, Messrs. Benham and Froud 
have fitted up a representation of the east end of a verv 
modern church, which is lighted electrically, We shall 


8pMim«ni of MeMra. B«DliHm and Fraud's Electric Fltitinf*. 



deacribe tbia exhibit fully in another issue. Meanwhile, 
we give illustrations of some of theChaados fittingB. 

Tile SpBtein Aoonmolator Gompanr, Sund 9, are 
ezbibiting their make of secondary batteries. It may be 
remembered that this is a modified Plants batter; ; the 
formation of the plates is obtained by placing them in a 
1 per cent, solution of nitric acid and water. We remember 
having tried this method of formntion in 1882, but failed 
to obtain satisfactory results ; hence credit is due to those 
who have overcome the difficulties which haunted the 
earlier experimenters. If we remember lightly, one 
insuperable difficulty to us was that using Hat plates we 
got an excellent formation, but in a very short time the 
formed surface stripped from the unattached lead backing. 
Mr. Epstein uses a slotted plate, and contends he obtains 
by hie process a firmly adherent coating. His forming 
solution is heated till it boils, and the boiling continued 
till the plates [>resent a dull grey appearance. After which 
they are dried in the air. Lead treated in this manner is 
made to serve for both positive and negative plates. In 
the process of forming positive electrizes, the former 
grejrish-yellow colour changes into a deep dark brown, 
almost a bluish-black hue, and the process is completed as 
•con aa the elements have attained that colour and an 
abondant development of oxygen has taken place. The 
oxygen of tbe peroxide of lead produced on Che positive 
elements which are to be changed to negative is absorbed 
by the effect of tbe electric eurrent, and the bodies are 

The normal maximum rate of discharge is given as 30 
amperes per positive plate, and for short periods this rate 
may safely be doubled. The capacity at the above rate of 
discharge is about 120 to ISO ampere-hours per positive 
plate; at half this rate the capacity is about 140 to 170 
ampere-hours per positive plate. The liquid used is a 10 
per cent, solution of sulphuric acid and *ater. 

Our illustration shows one of the E 31 type, as shown 
at the Palace. Other lighter and cheapei cells are manu- 
factured, as will be seen by an examination of the lists of 
the company. 

MssBTS. W. WlggbiB and Sons, mica merchants, of 
10, Tower-hill, and the Minories, K.C, have in the South 
Qallery one of, perhaps, the finest exhibits of mica that has 
ever been shown. It is evident that the firm have spared 
no pains in preparing and arranging their stand, and, to 
their credit, be it said, they were ready from tbe first. Here 
will be seen some magnificent mica slabs, both in size, 
colour, and geographical origin. They are from all quarters 
of the world — viz., Bengal, Madras, Ceylon, Brazil, North 
America, Canada, North Carolina, Labrador, Guatemala, 
etc. The colours of the slabs comprise what are technically 
known as ruby, pale green, amber, and black spotted, of 
which ruby is the most valuable. The firm also show mica 
worked up for different purposes, such as strips for dynamo 
armatures and commutators, a use for which it has been 
much employed of late ; alio turned washers, bushes, 
compass cards, lightning protector strips, &nd lamp 

Bpataln's Elemont, 

reduced on their surface to porous metallic lead. The 
prooew of forming negative elements is finished when the 
deep dark brown, or bluish-bUck colour of the positive 
element used for the purpose has changed into a bluish- 
grer hue. It is said that only a few hours are necessary 
to form a plate by this method. 

In Epetein's form of electrode, which exposes a large 
sorface, and which, when treated by his process, is said to 
quickly acquire a considerable electrical capacity, the 
increase in surface is obtained by deeply grooving both 
ndes of the plate, as shown in elevation and section in our 
illustration. The soft active material, after being " formed" 
ia said to key itself between the ledges, and it does not 
appear to fall off even if the bittery is roughly used. From 
figures supplied by the manufacturers, Messrs. Woodhouse 
ud Bawson, the following table has been compiled : 




Working rate. 


of box. 
















R 3 

02 lb. 



I to 30 

1 to 30 

120 to 150 

HI lb. 


1 » S( 

1 „ ao 

240 „ 300ll55„ 


1 „ fl( 

1 „ BO 

^60 ,. 450 22S,. 


^, i> I 


1 „ 130 

1 „ ISO 

600 I 750 


Epstein's Secondary Battery, R 31 Type. 

chimneys. In a corner of the showcase a column of 
turned mica may be seen. Being composed of several 
different varieties, on looking through it the various 
colours are seen the reverse way of the layers, and very 
beautiful tbey look. This is a novel and interesting exhibit. 
We advise our readers not to leave the Palace without 
having a look at Messrs. Wiggins's stand in the South 

Messrs. Jolinson and Ptaillips' exhibit will excite 
considerable attention. Conspicuous among the many con- 
spicuous objects at this Exhibition are the buoys shown by 
this firm. It must, however, be with the less prominent 
objects that we commence our examination of this stand. 
One of the best known ai'c lamps of the day is that of 
Brockie-Fell, manufactured by this firm. Specimens of these 
lamps hang all round the stand, and ezteroally have the 
appearance shown in tbe accompanying illustration. From 
the point of view of the purchaser, this lamp ia 
recognised as burning steadily, and giving a minimum of 
trouble. One of the most recent departures of this firm is 
in the manufacture of secondary batteries, they being the 
manufacturers of the D.P. cells for Messrs. Drake and 
Gorham. These cells are illustrated herewith. The pUtea 
are formed on the Dujardin process, and ore rendered 
active by a combined depositing and oxidising action per- 
formed by electrolysis in an alkaline bath of nitrates 
composed as follows : Ten kilogrammes of water, two 
kilgrammes of sulphuric acid, one kilogramme of alkaline 
nitrate (of soda, ammonia, potash, or other suitable alkali). 

THE Electrical eIigineer, januart 22, 1892. 


By the passage of an electric current nitrate of lead U 
formed, and hy the acid of the bath this is converted in a 
continuous manner into sulphate of lead and afterwards 
into peroxide of lead. In soma hours, without discharging 
or revarsingthe current, the positive plates became covered 
with an adherent layer of crystalline peroxide of lead, 
which may be over a millimetre thick, and of great elec- 
trical capacity. In order to increase and regulate the 
formation of the salts of lead, it has been found that it is 
useful to introduce lai^e volumes of air into the liquid. 
This may be effected either by forcing the air into the bath, 
by raising and lowering the plates, or by other convenient 
means ; the reaction being thereby doubled whatever may 
be the composition of the bath. In order to facilitate the 
adhesion of the peroxide upon the plates, the latter 
are constructed of laminated lead. In a few hours the 
peroxide, which is formed at the expense of the lead, 
fills the interstices in the laminated plate. A syste- 
matic description of the exhibits will naturally group 
around three heads — cable apparatus, which includes buoys, 
grapnels, hauling gear, etc ; electric light generating appa- 
ratus, into which come prominentty the various Kapp 
'c light apparatus generally, including 

; and electric 

closed-circuit transformers engineers have neglected the 
loss of power in the iron, and that as the loss in the iron 
goes on all day and all night it is really very serious. They, 
therefore, make a transformer which has very little iron, 
for which they claim a much higher all-day efficiency. This 
advantage cannot be obtained without some drawback. The 
drawbacK generally urged in this case is the idle current 
taken on open circuit. This does not represent power, 
but it may be in some other respect troublesome. 
Though the makers have never found this idle cuirent 
give any trouble in central stations, they have foreseen 
that there may some day be difficulties, and have therefora 
sat to work to bring out commercial alternate- current con- 
densers, which will be described separately. The ordinary 
transformer, with its case, is illustrated herewith. In 
addition to the ordinary transformer for housework, 
special designs for other purposes are shown. Two forms 
of street lighters are exhibited. One is the ordiniry 
form with the stoneware case replaced by a light cover 
made of roofing material. This is arranged to fix 
on posts for town lighting, as at Chelmsford, or to 
attach to walls as is usual in America. Each transformer 
feeds into a low-pressure circuit which supplies a number of 

Brockie-Pcli Arc Lamp. 

storage batteries, transformers, m.itn8, switches, etc. Of 
all these more anon. 

At Sund No. 2 we find the exhibits of Messrs. 3win- 
tmme and Co. The name of Mr. Swinburne is well 
known to all electrical engineers, and his all-round experi- 
ence is pretty extensive. Cradled in the works of Mr. 
Swan, at Newcastle, his knowledge of all that concerns 
lamps was obtained at first hand. Afterwards, in this field, 
he attempted to walk alone, but found it better to associate 
himself with the firm of Crompton and Co., where he neces- 
sarily gained large experience in dynamo work. Mr. Swin- 
burne paid special attention to transformers and measuring 
instruments. Commencing business himself, he made a 
speciality of the form of transformer which has been 
Darned the " Hedgehog," because of the loose wires at the 
ends, which remind one of the bristles upon the back of 
one of the innocent denizens of our hedgerows. 

As might be expected, then, this firm exhibits a number 
of Hedoenog transformers. These transformers have been 
the aubjsct (A so much discussion that little need now be 
■aid abont them. The makers clum that in designing 

1). P, Storago Cells. 

lamps. This form is also used for arc lighting. In this 
case constant- current transformers are used. These take 
2,000 or 100 volts on the primary, and give 10 amperes on 
the secondary. The trouble and expense of secondary leads 
is entirely done away with. It is needless to say that an 
arc lamj) will always burn more steadily with a constant 
current than under constant pressure, and this condition is 
much more easily obtained with alternate than direct 
currents. In direct-current work it is usual to run special 
arc circuits, or else to couple arc lamps in pairs in series 
with resistance. In alternating-current systems, one high- 
pressure parallel circuit can supply everything. 

For incandescent street lighting, Messrs. Swinburne and 
Co. exhibit a fitting which consists of a small transformer 
with case, shade, and lampholder complete. This takes 
2,000 or 1,000 volts, and has a 50-volt 32-cp. tamp. 
The object oi this arrangement is to admit of street 
lighting with incandescent lamps without special secondary 
leads. In fact, it is very much as if Messrs. Swinburne 
and Co. had brought out incandescent lamps for 1,000 oe 
2,000 volts. 





Pnblished every Friday. 
Priee Threepenee ; Post Free, Threepenee Halft>eiiny, 

Editorial and Pablishing Offices : 


Notes 78 

The Crystal Palace Exhibi- 
tion 78 

1892 84 

Correspondence 86 

The Late Alexander Watt. . . 86 
The Determination of the 

Efficiency of Dynamos ... 87 
Sydenham Electric Light 

SUtion 89 

Lecture on Electric Light 

Sapply 89 

London Chamber of Com- 
merce. Overhead Wires, 
French Customs ^Tariff, 

Palace Exhibition 89 

Modem Applications of 
'Electricity to Metallurgy 92 

Companies' Keports 94 

Companies' Meetings 96 

New Companies Registered 96 

Business Notes 96 

Companies' Stock and Share 
List 96 


AU Rights Reserved, Seoreiafies and Managers of Companies 
• are inmied to famish notice of Meetings^ Issue of New 
ShareSf InsiaUaHans^ Contracts^ and any infomuUion 
connected with Electrical Engineering which may he 
interesting to our readers. Inventors are informed that 
any account of their inventions submitted to us wiU 
receive our best consideration, 

ytU communications intended for the Editor should be addressed 
C. H. W. Biggs, 189-140, Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, 
London, E,C, Anonymous communications will not be 


Advertisements should be addressed to the Publisher, 139-140, 
Sali^mry Court, Fleet Street, E.C., and should reach him 
not later than noon of Thursday, Special Terms for 
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neatt wlU be eharged at THRBB WORDS for ONR PRNNT 
vith a UNIMUM eharge of 8IXPRN0B. 


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8 month! 

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(Post Frfte Payable in Advance.) 

Cheques, Post Office and Postal Orders for Subser^tions 
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Street, London, and be crossed " Union Bank." 


yds. 1. to VIII, indusiw, new series, of **Thx Eubot&ical 
EifOiKBBK " are now ready, and can be had boutid in blue doth, 
giU lettered, price 8e, 6d. Subscribers can have their own copies 
bo^i9hd for 2s. 6d., or covers for binditty can be obtaitted, price ts 

We had intended to conclude the review of the 
past year with our last issue, but space was required 
for more pressing matter, hence one or two questions 
upon which it is desired to comment remain till now. 
A sane man reading the ephemeral literature of the 
day, as represented by the great London dailies and 
the metropolitan and provincial weeklies, can hardly 
realise that this is a time forming part of a civilised 
era. At a moderate computation, one-half the papers 
are dependent for existence upon quack advertise- 
ments, plus those emanating from swindling com- 
pany promoters. Of the latter we have often spoken, 
of the former we have still to speak. There is a 
tale told of two men walking down a street, 
one a qualified medical practitioner, the other a 
quack doctor. The former asked the latter why the 
public deserted him with all his learning and experi- 
ence to patronise the disciple of nostrums. Said 
the latter : '' Your question may be best answered 
through another, How many men possessing a 
fjGkir share of common sense should you imagine to 
exist ? Say per cent ?'* " About 5 per cent.," replied 
the qualified practitioner. " Well, those five are your 
patrons, the rest mine," said the quack ; and this, no 
doubt, is pretty near the truth of the case. The 
nostrums advertised find purchasers — ^yea, and pur- 
chasers in large numbers, otherwise the quantity 
of advertising would be lessened. For many years 
quacks have sought to qualify their productions by 
the adjective " electrical." Every ailment under the 
sun is, according to them, to be cured by something 
" electrical," or something " magnetic," which terms 
for the nonce may be taken as identical. Those who 
possess a rudimentary knowledge of electrical science 
know that nine-tenths of the statements made by 
these advertisers are altogether inaccurate. For the 
moment let us refer tp another subject which runs 
on parallel lines to the above. The editors and the 
news purveyors to the papers are supposed to be 
men of light and learning, to be men who desire to 
leave the world in a better and a happier state than 
they found it. Of course we assume that the 
first object is to make their pile. Well, what 
is the position of these learned purveyors of 
mental pabulum ? Just this — that the most 
atrocious statements are propagated with regard to 
matters electrical, that a lie about such matters is 
more likely to be believed than the truth. Men are 
led to expect what they ought never to have been led 
to expect, making it necessary in the interests of 
progress to first eradicate the false before a lodgment 
can be given to the true. The most mendacious 
statements come over here, for example,' ticketed with 
the labels of news agencies, from America. The 
senders of the telegrams ought to be electrocuted ; 
in fact, that punishment is too good for them — it 
would require a Dante to suggest a suitable one. 
Talk about a lying spirit being abroad ; that 
is but a mild expression. Here is a sample 
of the latest. Edison — and, mind you, these 
purveyors always imagine their " copy " must 
be taken if they can bring in the name " Edison " — 
is said to have discovered a way by means of which a 
" score or so of men '' can defend a {corloess against an 

^ •*; li 



anny by osing a jet of water. That - statement has 
been read by tens — even by houdredB— of thooBaodB 
of scientifically ignorant readers, and, like all 
nostrams, eagerly swallowed. One would think it 
was a difficult task to ordinarily fill a newspaper 
with reading matter, instead of the difficnlty being 
how to deal with too mach matter. Every electrical 
engineer knows what peculiar pranks yonng electri- 
cians have played, and how men have danced and 
ejaculated with amusing verbosity when undergoing 
these practical jokes, but there is not one man 
amongst them but knows the absurdity of such a 
statement as the above. We wonder at the die- 
semination of snch silly tales firom a politician's point 
of view. If defensive works are necessary, say 
those who read these items, why not employ the 
cheap and efficient method "we are told a celebrated 
electrician has discovered"? Why spend money 
upon hoge works, upon guns, and upon a standing 
army? By the bye, reader, did you ever try to 
disabuse anyone's mind of the untruthfulness of 
BQcb statements ? If not, pray try it. 

Here, then, ore two directions in which the efforts 
of the technical press are neutralised by the crass 
stupidity of those who arrogate to themselves the sole 
right of belonging to the "journalistic profession." 
They permit quacks to entice the public to buy and 
use nostrums, and they carelessly or wilfully permit 
their columns to be the vehicles for the propaga- 
tion of the most astonnding electrical paragraphs 
that the mind of man can invent. One of our 
contemporaries in England has made, and often 
repeated, attacks against electrical quackery, 
but its efforts must fail, because its readers are not 
those to be easily caught, and those easily caught 
ore not among its readers. What is the use of a 
parson declaiming to those present forming his con- 
gregation about non-attendance ? It is the editors 
of the dailies and weeklies who hold in their hands 
the power to suppress quackery, bat they won't use 
it because the quacks Eidvertise more than oU other 
people combined. Hinc ilia lacrima. 

Having said this much, we will add to the list of 
firms noticed that of — 

J. D. F. Andbbws ahd Co., which, during the past 
year, had made rapid progress with the system of 
concentric wiring, and has carried out many im- 
portant installatione on this system in London and 
the country, the most important of which are the 
Waterloo grain warehouses, with 200 50-c.p. lamps, 
and the Fork-hill petroleum stores, with about 100 
16-c.p. lamps, and three of 300 c.p., the dynamo 
being about one-third of a mile distant. Another 
important installation is that of the Tyne Theatre, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, where there are 200 16-c.p. 
lamps, and sis of 200 c.p. As a proof of the great 
success of this system, Messrs. Andrews and Co. nave 
already concluded three contracts for the Mersey 
Cock Board, Liverpool. The system may be ex- 
amined at the firm's offices at 41, Parliament-street, 
where they have an installation of 100 lights con- 
nected to the mains uf the London Electric Supply 
Corporation. The majority of the insurance com- 
pames have had the system under their consideration, 
and have drawn up a set of rules which give latitude 
for its introduction. 

Blakby, Ehhott, and Co. state that it is not 
gener^y known that during the laat twelve mouths 

the electric light has been installed in many of the 
public buildings, shops, and residences in Preston, 
A temporary generating station was fixed twelve 
months ago for the purpose of ascertaining what 
incUuation the people of Preston had for the electric 
light. The National Electric Supply Company, 
Limited, which company obtained a provisional order 
for lighting the town for a term of forty-two years, 
intended that the maximum output for this station 
was to be only 1,000 8-c.p. lamps, bat long before 
the plant was working the amount of lamps was 
greedily taken up on a basis of 12s. per lamp per 
annum. The company, to meet additional orders, 
were compelled to fix another machine, bringing the 
capacity up to considerably over 2,000 lights, 
which are now actually working, and orders for 
more daily coming in ; but with the before- 
mentioned plant it is impossible to execute the 
farther orders. They are, therefore, being filed 
for future connection from the central gene- 
rating station which the company have now com- 
menced to erect. The outside wiring has been 
overhead, there being four circuits firom the central 
station in Corporation-street, two along pole routes 
through the most important thoroagnfares in the 
town, and two over house tops, telephone fashion. 
The whole of the wires and cables for this under- 
taking have been manufactured by the Northern 
Electric Wire and Cable Manufacturing Company, 
Limited, Halifax. The present plant supplied by 
Messrs. Blakey, Emmott, and Co., Limited, of 
Halifax, consists of three dynamo machines of 
18,000 watts ; and a dynamo of 30 kilowatts has 
been specially designed for this station. It gives an 
output of 140 volts and 430 amperes, at 350 revo- 
lutions per minute. The magnetic system is 
octagonal in shape, with four internally-pointing 
poles. The yoke is of the best cast iron, and the 
magnet bars of wrought iron. The four magaet 
coils are wound upon four metal formers with brass 
cheeks, and can be readily removed or pnt in 

Elace. The armature is the cylinder type, and is 
uilt up of thin charcoal iron washers, carefully insu- 
lated from each other and mounted on a gunmetal 
spider. The diameter of the armature core is 21in. 
It is insulated with mica before being wound. The 
windings are laid on Grramme fashion, and consist of 
200 turns of copper tape in 100 sections of two turns 
each. Nine driving horns of stiff vulcanised fibre 
are provided, which run the whole length of the 
armature. 'The windings are securely held in place 
by bindings of phosphor bronze wire. The com- 
mutator is made up of hard-drawn copper bars 
insulated with mica, and is carried upon the shaft 
by means of brass rings and fibre insmation. The 
armature connections are soldered to spokes pro- 
jecting from the commutator segments. These 
spokes are afterwards covered by a cusc of thin fibre, 
which not only prevents dust from lodging, but also 
promotes a strong draught through the armature 
&om the pulley end and expels it at the commutator. 
Four sets of three brushes each are used, mounted 
on an adjuetable rocking frame. The brushes are 
connected by four separate connections to the 
terminal-boards. The brushes are of gauze. 
The shaft is of Bessemer steel, and runs in 
long bearings of gunmetal. Sight-feed lubricators 
and oil-draming arrangements ore provided. The 
magnet yokes divide in a horizontal line, and by 
raising the top half of the magnets the armature can 
be examined m place. This dynamo runs entirely 
without sparking or overheating, and not with* 
standing the magnets are only shunt-wound, the 
lead given to the bruBhes has only to be altered a 
flaw degrees for any output &om no load, ta &iU.V:»&.. 



The machine is the asual 90-kilowatt, of 3,000 lamps 
of 8 c,p., run at its ordioary speed of 500 revolutions, 
at which output it has an electncaJ efficiency of 
97 pec cent., and a commercial efficiency of over 
9'i per cent. For this outpnt the armature ia drmn- 
wound with special end connections. The National 
Electric Snpply Company, Limited, now propose to 
pat down a plant on uie low-tension system similar 
to that now working so successfully in the St. 
James's district in London, which Messrs. Latimer 
Clarke, Muirbead, and Co. have pioneered. 
The first portion of the town to be served from 
this station will be the compnlsory area with 
the adjoining streets, in which it is sanguinely 
anticipated that a demand for at least 20,000 8-c.p. 
lamps will be made. Distributing-boxes will be laid 
in such positions as to ensure an even potential over 
the mains. A large nnmber of meters have been 
successfully introdaced, and it is the intention of 
the company to continue the supply. The amount 
charged to consumers is 8d. per Board of Trade 
unit, with a diacount of IS per cent, if paid within 
twenty-one days. The firm find by experience that 
this compares very favourably indeed with the cost 
of Preston gas, which, by the bye, is 28. 9d. net, 
and of very bad quality. Preston, with its numeroas 
mills, is favourably placed for a snccessful adoption 
of the electric light, and the way in which the present 
engineer and manager, Mr. F. F. Bennett, has worked 
up the present installation augurs well for the fatore. 
Tbe Halifax Mutual Electric Light and Power 
Company, Limited, are continuing to do good work 
in the way of pablic lighting in tbe town of Hahfas. 
It is nearly two years since this company was 
formed by taking over tbe central station then being 
worked by Messrs. Blakey, Emmott, and Co., 
Limited, and also that of an opposition company, 
which has since ceased to exist. The wires, by per- 
mission of the Halifax Corporation, are all overhead, 
and the company is snpplying current for about 
sixty arc lights of ten amperes, and 1,000 incan- 
descent lights of 8 c.p. Two systems of charging 
are adopted in the town — viz., one at the rate of 
12s. per 8-c.p. lamp per annum, and £12 per ten- 
ampere lamp per annum, and at 8d. per Board of 
Trade unit. The furthest point served from the 
central station is about 1,700 yards. The low-tension 
system is adopted throughout. It has been found 
during the past two months that the company could 
notkeep pace with tbe large demandfor current at their 
present premises, therefore negotiations have been 
entered mto with the Halifax Corporation for leasing 
hoxn them a convenient site, and very shortly it is 
hoped that the company will have a capacity of at 
least 20,000 8-c.p. lamps. Two systems of engines 
are used for driving — viz., Armington-Sims's high- 
speed, and Tangye's. The dynamos and all other 
electrical fittings in connection with the installation 
are of the well-known Blakey-Emmott type, and 
Mr. Walter Emmott,' of Blakey, Emmott, and Co., 
Limited, Halifax, is the managing director. The 
meters adopted up to the present have been the 
Aron, whitm appear to be giving general satis- 
faction, both to the Emmott Company and to the 
consumers. The price per 1,000 cubic feet of gas 
in Hali&.x is 2s. net, and judging from the weekly 
reports of the expert who tests tbe illuminating 
power on behalf of the ratepayers the average 
lUuminating power is about seventeen candles. 
Taking into account this very low figure with high 
efficiency of gas, it speaks venr well for the prospects 
of the electric hght for tbe mtore when the present 
output and very large demand for current is con- 
sidered. The whole of the wires and cables for this 
' ■*i»D»tion have been manu&ctored by theMorthem 

Electric Wire and Cable Mano&ctnring Company, 
Limited, Hali&x. 



Sir, — We were interested in Prof. Swing's report on the 
above. Some years ago we put up a large resistance (40 
ohmB)of very open iron wire spirals, for the purpose of test- 
ing altematinK-current dyQamoB. From careful experiments 
we found that the current passing, as measured by a 
Siemen's electro-dynamometer, multiplied by tbe £.M.F., 
measured by a Cardew voltmeter, did not represent the 
electrical horse -power being given out Indicator diagrams 
taken from engine showed that less horse-power was indi- 
cated in tbe cylinders than that in tbe external circuit, 
calculated as above. — Youra, etc., 

Thk Elkctric Construction Corporation, Limitbd. 
(T. Parker, Chief Engineer and Head Manager.) 

January 19, 1892. 

Sir, — lu reference to the letter of Messrs. Willaoa and 
Robinson in your columns of last week, we would wish to 
state that it was not our intention to challenge record 
runs, and therefore in the tests made by Prof. Ewing no 
arrangements were made conducive to exceptionally high 
economies. These are the use of very high boiler pressure, 
and a separator or other means for obtaining very dry 

In tbe present tests the pressure at tbe engine never 
exceeded 761b., and the steam was not dried. 

It would be interesting to know with what steam 
pressure and engine Mr. WiUans obtained the results stated 
by him at the meeting of the Institute of Civil Engineers 
last spring, for we are unable to find any mention of these 
two important factors in tbe Proceedings of the Institute. — 
Yours, etc., 0. A Parsons and Co. 

Heaton Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 


We regret to have to record the death, on the 15th 
January, of Mr. Alexander Watt. The late Mr. Watt waa 
the tbiid son of Mr. Charles Watt, and was bom in 1823. 
He was educated at Camden Town with a view to entering 
the medical profession, but in 1839 took up definitely the 
study of electro-metallurgy and electro-chemistry. From that 
time to the date of bis death Mr. Walt was an indefati- 
gable worker and writer. His books have been widely 
read, and his contributions on ekctro-metallurgic and 
electitKihemical subjects to the technical papers have been 
very numerous. His latest contribution, on the " Elec- 
trolysis of Gold Sails," was in course of publication in our 
columns. The late Mr. Watt cannot be said to have 
rankest aa a pure scientist ; indeed, the purely scientific was 
a phase of work which he scouted. His aim was always to 
get at something which could be put at once to a practical 
use, and for which he could obtain a practical recognition. 
A mere investigation with no practical end in view was to 
him a sheer waste of time and energy, hence his books and 
papers rather appeal to the working than to a highly- 
trained Bcientific circle. In all his work be was extremwy 
cautious and painstaking, nor should one trait in his 
character be left unrecognised — his great and intense deure 
to see justice done to the labours of his brother. 

Telegraph to OUna.— The Times correspondent in 
Burmah announces that the telegraph line is now almost 
completed between Bhamo and Nampoung Creek. The wires 
will then extend to within less than 100 miles of the 
terminus of the Chinese telegraph line in Momein. The 
Chinese authorities will be asked to continue their line and 
connect it with ours. An alternative telegraph Une between 
England and China woukl be thus establuhed. 





The power given out b; a continuoiu-cuirent dynamo, 
ID tha shape of current and pressure, caa be measured with 
a very fair dt^ee of accuracy. The ordinary commercial 
ampere and Toltmeteni now obtainable from good makers 
may be relied on to be accurate within a few per cent., and 
JD some cases within a fraction of 1 per cent. In any case 
there is no difBculty in recalibrating the instruments 
■nfSciently accurately to make sure that the error shall not 
exceed ^ per cenL, so that the maximum possible error in 
computing the power need not exceed 1 per cant., and the 
probable error will be | per cent. Within these limits, 
then, we are able to tell what the output of any 
given machine is, and if we could determine with 
equal certainty the power mechanically supplied to 
the machine, the determination of the efficiency — that 
ie, the ratio of electrical power given out to mechanical 
power supplied — could be mads with a high degree of 
accuracy. But, unfortunately, the determination of power 
mechanically is not an easy matter, and is especially difS- 
cult when tne power must not be absorbed by, but must be 
transmitted through the meaeuring instrument. Hence 
electrical engineers have very early in the development of 
their industry begun to cast about for some method 
whereby the efficiency of dynamos might be determined 
without making a mechanical measurement of power at 

Probably the first to devise such a me thod was Major 
Cardew somesiz years ago, and his method was prescribed for 
dynamos supplied under hie specifications to the War Office. 
To make an efficiency test three machines were required, 
preferably difi'ering in output by the amount of power lost 
m each. The largest machine was arranged to supply 
current to the medium-sized machine, and that again was 
arranged to supply mechanical power by belting or direct 
coupling to the sraallest machine. In order to work each 
machine at normal load their sizes must obviously differ. 
Thus, if A, B, and C be the three machines, and if B is 
rated as a 50-kilowatt dynamo, then it will work as a 
motor fully loaded if 50 kilowatts is supplied to it electri- 
cally. Its mechanical output, or the power it supplies 
to C, must be less than 50 kilowatts, because some 
power is lost in the machine itself. Say the net power 
available in the spindle of B is 42 kilowatts. We supply, 
then, 42 kilowatts to the spindle of C, and obtain from 
it '■saiD less power electrically, say 36 kilowatts. The 
mubines will, therefore, be all working under full 
nwinal load if they are designed for an output of 50, 42 
and 36 kilowatts respectively. Should B and G happen 
to ba machines of equal size the test can still be applied, 
only B will be slightly overloaded and C will be slightly 
anaerloaded. This does not materially influence the 
Menraoy of the test, since the effidencj' of a machine is , 

nearly constant for loads anywhere near the normal. The 
power supplied to A need not be measured ; all we measure 
is the electrical power supplied to B and tha electrical 
power obtained from C. The ratio between the two is the 
combined efficiency of B and C, and the square root of this 
ratio is the efficiency of each machine taken singly. 

Another method for testing efficiency was devised soma 
years ago by Dr. Hopkinson and shown to several 
engineers at the works of Messrs, Mather and Piatt, Man- 
chester. The improvement consisted in supplying not the 
whole of the power required by B (as in Cardew's test), 
but only the power lost in B and C, the current given by C 
being used to work B as a motor. In Hopkinson'a metood 
the two machines are mechanically connected, preferably 
by joining their spindles by a coupling. Over this coupling 
is placed a pulley, which takes the belt through which 
the waste power is supplied. In the arrangement adopted 
at Manchester the driving belt was passed through a 
Hefener von Alteneck transmission dynamometer, by which , 
the power required to keep the whole system going was 
measured mechanically. The accuracy of this method it 
certainly greater than that of the direct method, where the 
whole of the power is measured mechanically, because an 
error in the reading of the dynamometer only affects the deter- 
mination of the waste power, but some slight error may still 
occur. Say, for instance, that the efficiency of the two 
machines combined is 80 per cent Then 20 per cent of 
the power of one machine has to be supplied by the belt, 
and must be measured on the dynamometer. An error of 

10 per cent, in this kind of power measurement may easily 
occur, and in this case the power supplied would be esti- 
mated at either 18 or 22 per cent., accordingly as the erra 
is positive or nwative, causing an error of about 1 per cent, 
in the final result. Apart from the inconvenience m having 
to rig up a dynamometer, there is the further objection 
that we must make tha test by means of two totally different 
sets of measuring instruments which are not directly com- 
parable with each other, and that it is therefore not possible 
to compensate the errors in the calibration of one set of 
instruments by those in the other sek. 

In this respect Cardow's test has an advantage. Not 
only do we use the same kind of instruments when testing 
Che power supplied and the power obtained, but we can by 
a suitable arrangement of switches use absolutely the same 
instruments for both circuits, and then any calibratioa 
errors in one set of readings can be partially or wholly 
compensated by the errors in the other sat of readings. 

The objection to Cardew's method is that it requires the 
use of an engine and dynamo more powerful than any of 
the machines to be tested, and such plant is not always at 
hand or easily procurable. It is, however, possible to so alter 
the original arrangement that a comparatively small engine 
and dynamo will suffice for the testing of large dynamos. 
Using again the notation previously employed, if, instead of 
feeding glow lamps or resistance coils from the machine, C, 



we let its current pass through 6, and thus help working 
it as motor, then the machine, A, need only supply the 
difference between the power absorbed by 6, and that 
delivered by C. We have, in fact, the electrical analogue 
to Hopkinson's mechanical method; and just as in uiis 
methoa a small belt suffices to keep a couple of bie; 
machines in motion at full load, so will here a small 
dynamo, A, suffice to keep a couple of large machines, 
B and C, working at full load. It is obvious that the 
connections between the three machines may be arranged 
in one of two ways. We may either pot all the machines 
in series, in which case A must be a machine of low voltage 
and large current — i.e., the same current as that for which 
the two big machines, 6 and C, are built ; or we can 
place the three machines into parallel connections, in 
which case the small machine, A, must be of the same 
voltage as the two large machines, but need only give a 
smAll current Theoretically, either method is equally 
good, but, as will be shown later on, there are some 
practical reasons which generally make in favour of the 
second or parallel arrangement of machines. Before 
entering upon a detailed explanation of either method it 
will be useful to anticipate and answer a question which 
naturally presents itself in connection with this subject The 
question is the following : Why should we go to the trouble 
of running three machmes if we want to know only the 
efficiency of one ; and would it not be equally good to deter- 
mine the efficiency of this one machine by running it idle as 
a motor and measuring the power required to drive itself ? 
This would, in fact, correspond to the usual practice with 
steam engines of taking so-called " light running " or 
" friction " diagrams. The indicated power required by the 
engine to drive itself is thus determined, and the brake 
power may be computed in a rough and ready way by 
subtracting from the full indicated power that which was 
indicated when running light. The ratio of brake horse- 
power to indicated horse-power is then the efficiency of 
the engine. Why should we not do something similar 
with dynamos ? Say we have a machine designed to give 
an output of 100 kilowatts. Leaving aside for a moment 
the power required for field excitations, which can be 
easily measured when the machine is in regular work, we 
wish to determine the efficiency of the armature as an 
implement for converting mechanical into electrical power. 
We run the machine light as a motor, and adjust the field 
strength so as to get the normal speed. The power required 
to drive the armature can now be exactly computed from 
the readings of an ampere-meter and a voltmeter. Say we 
find eight kilowatts is required. Following the analogue of 
the steam engine, we would conclude that, apart from the 
loss through armature resistance, 1004-8 = 108 kilowatts 
must be mechanically supplied to the shaft of this machine 
if 100 kilowatts are to be taken off at the brushes. If we 
further find that the field requires three kilowatts for 
excitation, and that two kilowatts are lost in armature 
resistance (both of which losses can be accurately measured), 
we would compute the total efficiency of this machine at 
100/(108 4- 3 4- 2) = 88^ per cent 

Whether this computation is correct or not depends 
entirely on the question whether we are justified in 
assuming that the waste of power (other than that caused 
by armature resistance) is the same at all loads ; in other 
words, whether our eight kilowatts required for light 
running means a constant addition for any load. Theory 
and experiment both show that this is not so, but that the 
power lost increases with the load. The reasons for this 
increase are not far to seek. Consider what are the causes 
of this loss. Firstly, we have mechanical friction and air 
resistance ; secondly, magnetic friction, or hysteresis ; and, 
thirdly, eddy currents. The air resistance is unimportant 
and does not depend on the load ; the mechanical friction, 
although it may be expected to increase with the load, is in 
itsdf so small that even if it were to increase by 20 or 30 
per cent at full load it would not materially affect the 
efficiency. As regards hysteresis the case is different. 
Generally speaking, the loss of power caused by it is of 
importance, and it is conceivable tnat this loss may increase 
with the load, not only by reason of an increase in the 
strength of the field, but also owine to distortion of the 
field. Both of these causes affect uso the eddy currents, 

so that we may certainly expect the loss caused by them 
to increase with the load. Eddy currents occur in the 
core and in the armature bars only when the intensity of 
the field changes — ^that is, under or near the edges of the 
pole-pieces. When the machine is running Tight the 
strength of the field at the leaving edge of the pole-piece is 
practically the same as that at the entering edge, and, in 
fact, the same over the whole extent of pouir surface, but 
when a considerable current flows through the armature 
bars the field becomes distorted by cross-induction. It 
becomes weakened at the entering edge and strengthened 
at the leaving edge, so that every bar whilst travelling from 
one edge to the other is passing through a gra^lually 
increasing field. In addition to the eddy currents pro- 
duced at entry and exit only, as is the case when the 
machine is working light, there are now also eddy 
currents produced at the intermediate points. The eddy 
currents at the entering edge have decreased because 
there the field has been weakened, but those at the 
leaving edge have increased because there the field has 
been strengthened ; and since the loss of power through 
eddy currents may be roughly said to be proportional to 
the square of the field strength, the gain in one place will 
not suffice to mi^e up for the increased loss in the other, 
so that, on the whole, we may expect to find the loss by 
eddy currents increase with the cross-induction — ^that is, 
with the load on the machine. What has here been 
explained applies equally to drum and cylinder armatures, 
but in the latter there is another source of loss, absent from 
the former — namely, the influence of the internal winding. 
The current passing throng the internal wires of a Oramme 
armature produces a field the lines of which are more or less , 
parallel to the diameter of commutation. This field is 
stationary in space, and its lines are therefore continuously 
being cut by the spindle, hub, arms, and other metal parts 
within the armature core. The larger the current passing 
through the armature, the stronger is this field, and the 
stronger are the eddy currents produced in these metal 
parts. The power thus wasted must therefore increase with 
the load. These theoretical considerations are completely 
verified by experiment, but to make such experiments it is, 
of course, necessary to determine the losses through eddy 
currents and mechanical and magnetic friction separately. 
Various methods exist for making this determination. 
According to one of them the fiehl of the machine is 
separately excited, and the armature is supplied with 
current at various £.M.F.'s. It will therefore run at various 
speeds. If we plot speeds on the horizontal and currents on 
the vertical, we find that all the points lie on a straight 
line, and prolonging this line backwards we obtain by 
its intersections with the axis of ordinates that current 
which will just suffice to keep the armature moving imper 
ceptibly. Call this Co , the current corresponding to speed, 
0, Let C and £ be current and E.M.F. at the normal 
speed, n, then the total power wasted in running the arma- 
ture light is Ws-CE, and this consists of two parts — 
namely, the power wasted in friction and hysteresis, which 

isWA^W ^, 

and that wasted in eddy currents, 

which is W< «W 


We neglect, of course, the power lost in armature resist- 
ance, ^ich, with a machine running light, is insignificant. 
Now, imagine two machines of the same type mechani- 
caUy coupled and electrically so connected that one acts as 
motor and the other as generator. We supply current to 
keep the system in motion, and adjust the KM.F. so as to 
get different speeds. By making the proper allowance for 
armature resistance, we can, from the observed values of 
speed, armature current, supply current, and KM.F., 
separately calculate the power lost in eddy currents and 
hysteresis. It is not necessary to enter into the theory of 
such tests here ; suffice it to say that the value for W/ thus 
found is always greater than the W^ determined when 
running light, and that with Wj^ this is generally also the 

(To be continued.) 



Contmaiiig the account of this installation, deiigQed 
And eooatructed for the Installation Company by Mesara. 
J. E. H. Gordon and Co., we give on this and two following 
pages iUtutrations of the details of the engine and dynamo 

foWMUtiona, which sufficiently explain themselves without 
deecription on our part. 


At the thiid ordinary meeting uf the Dundee Institute of 
Ardiiteotnre, Science, and Art, on 14th inst., Hr. C. Ritchie, 

of the Electric Construction Oorporation, delivered a lecture 
on "Electric Light Supply." Mr. William Mackison, C.E., 

Hr. BircHiB b^an by Temarking that but a comparatively 
few number of persoiiB knew anything about the practicd 
queationE of generating eleotric current on a commercial scale 
until about IS years ago, and statinK that gas oompaniee had 
been spurred on to provide better light since becoming aware 
of the advantages of electrici^. Hr. Ritchie afterwards 
said that the question of the distribution of electric 
energy had always hem a difficult one, but the alternating- 
current systeBi had survived to the present day. The syatenu 
employed for the distribution of electric current over large areas 
might be divided into two classes— low-tension and high-tension. 
The low-tension systems of distribution were in practice always 
applied by continuous ourront. The umplest form was tlut 
wherein two copper conductors were carried through the streets 
of the area of supply, one beiug the lead, or positive, and the 
other the return, or negative. Ine advantages of this system were 
itssimplicityandtheadiaptabtlityofthecurrenttotheuseof motors 
and accumulators, but its great diBadvantage was the enormous 
cost of the copper required to cover any ordinary area of public 
supply. To overcome this objection there waa in use the three- 
wire system, the third wire being for the purpoae of balancing. 
While a great saving was effected under this system, it was 
not sufficient to meet the necessities of an area of supply 
when the lamps were widely distributed. The high-tension 
system might be either alternating or continuous, but as the 

Eressure in the houses could not practically be more than 
00 volts on aooount of the lamps, a transformer of some sort 
must intervene between the high pressure of the generating station 
and the low pressure of the houses. The most generally adopted 

3 stem for the utilisation of high pressure was by means of 
ternating current, the pressure of the generating ststion being 
limited by the consideration of the insulation of the wires 
of the machines and transformers and of the conductors. This 
system was very simple in its elements, but it had several serious 
disadvantages, and there were heavy losses under it. Two 
methods of utilising the high pressure at the generating station 
were in use, the one by the employment of accumulators, and 
the other of motor-generators either alone or with accumulators. 
The advantages obtained from the accumulators were that 
the generating station need only be runnuig for a comparatively 
short time each day, and might be shut down for lengthy 
periods during the summer months, when little currentwas being 
consumed. In order, however, to meet with the difficulty of 
the large eipeuditure necessary for the accumulators, the motor- 
generator system had been developed. Mr. Ritchie afterwards 
explained the working of this system in detail, remarking that 
as the demand increased the transformers in the sub-stations 
were put on the one after the other, and as the demand decreased 
an inverse operation waa required to put the transformers 
out cf circuit. By a comparatively small outlay it was a 
simple matter to adapt this system to any eiisting low- 
tension circuit or network of maius without dispensing with the 
present machinery and mains. It was necessary, he proceeded, 
to treat high-pressure mains in a different manner from luw- 

firessure mains, just in the same way as with meter pipes. The 
ecturer afterwards explained the Callender- Webber system of 
bitumen, remarking that it consisted of a number of 
conduits formed by bituminous concrete, which were usually 
about 6ft. long, and said that iu this system, as in the 
preceding, service-hoses were put in at certain intervals 
lor drawing in the necessary cables. Another distinct 
system of high-tension mains was that in which the lead 
and return were concentric one with tte other, two special forma 
of these being the Ferranti and the Siemens, under which a 
special formuf service-box was used for joining up. The lecturer 
concluded by referring to the sites foi ' 
designing and building of machinery. 



Thefolluwing communications emanating from the London 
Chamber of Commerce are interesting to electrical engineers. 
"County Council By- laws on Ovkbhbad Wires, 
" Dear Sir, — I beg to send you herewith copy of a letter 
which waa recently sent to the County Council by thia 
Chamber on the aiibject of the bv-lawB issued by that body 
in regard to overhead wires ana also a copy of the reply. 
This letter was written on the representations of one or 
two of the members of the aection that it was impossible 
to carry on their buainesa if the reguhitions in question 
were atricUy enforced. I would therefore be ^bd if yqul 



would carefully peniM the corrMpondence and forward me 
any represenUtiona yon may bare to make on the eubject, 
and especially as to whether you consider it necessary to 
hold a meeting to consider the matter.— Yours faithfully, 
" Kknric B. Murray, Secretary. 
"January 15th. 1892.'' 


" London Chamber of Commerce, January 7tfa, 1892. 

" H. de la Uooke, Esq., clerk to the London County Council, 

" Spring-gardens, S.W. 

"By-laws — Overhkad Wibks. 

"Sir, — The attention of this Chamber has been recently 

directed by several of its members to certain by-laws made 

by the London County Council in pursuance of the London 
Overhead Wires Act of 1891, ana we are informed that 
your Council, before instituting these by-laws, made 
enquiries at several of the leading electrical firms, and that 
no objection was offered to working under these regula- 
tions. We are informed, however, that many, if not all of 
the firms consulted, are not directly affected by these by- 
laws, and that another and equally important section of the 
electrical industry were not consulted, and they, as members 
of the Electrical Trade Section of this Chamber, propose that 
a meeting should be held for the purpose of making repre- 
sentations on the subject. My Council^ however, recog- 
nising the courtesy which we have experienced from you 
in other matters, as well as in endeavouring to ascertain 

TBt ftLECThlOAL fiNtJlNfiER, JAKUARY 22, 1892. 


th« viewB of many of the le&ding BrmB whom it may have 
been supposed were principally concerned, direct mo, in tha 
meantime, to aak you to be good enough to lat ua know 
how the matter now stands. 

" I am directed at the same tjme to suggest that it might 
be well if you could furward for our information a short 
statement setting forth the reasons which have induced 
your Council to enforce these by-laws. — I am. Sir, yours 
faithfully, KsNRic B. Murray, Secretaiy." 

French Customs Tariff. 
" To the members of the Electiical Trade SecUon : 
"The following extracts from the new French Custonu 
tariff as definitely passed, to come into operation on the 
let February, 1892, show the duties applicable on the 
articles mentioned, under the general and minimum 
tariff.. It is understood that the latter tariff will apply to 
British goods : 

Engine and Dynamo FouodslioDB— Sydenham Central Station. Elevation, 

"London County Council, 8th January, 1892, 

"Sir, — I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of the 7th inst. on the subject of the by-laws made by the 
Council for the regulation of overhead wires, 

" The information which you say has been given to the 
Chamber of Commerce is not quite accurate. The Council 
did not before making the by-kws make enquiries of the 
leading electrical firms and ascertain that there was no 
objection to working under the proposed regulations. The 
by-laws were made by the Council after careful considera- 
tion and consultation with its professional advisers as to 
what regulations appeared to be necessary for securing the 
public from accidents which might arise from overhead 

" Having made the by-laws, the Council submitted them to 
the Board of Trade as reiiuired by the statute, and at the re- 
quest of the Board they were advertised at length in the Times 
newspaper, and a copy of them was sent to every company 
or person in London who appeared likely to be affected by 
tho by-laws. If there are any persons directly concerned 
who have not received them it has been through want of 
knowledge, but inasmuch as they were, as I have stated, 
advertised at length in the Tijnes, it was open to everyone 
to see them. 

" The preeent position of the matter is this : That the 
Council, before making a formal application to the Board 
of Trade for confirmation of tho by-laws, is prepared, as 
also is the Board of Trade, to consider any objections or 
observations which may be offered with regard to them by 
any persons interested. If, therefore, the members of your 
Chamber have any representations to make, they should be 
sent to the Council and the Board of Trade some time 
before the end of the month, 

" With reference to your suggestion that a short state- 
ment should be sent to you of the reasons which have led 
the Council to make these by-laws, the best thing I can do 
i* to refer yon to the report of the Select Committee of the 
House of Commons on the subject in 1885, where legisla- 
tion was recommended. It is upon this report that the 
action of the Council has been based. — I am, Sir, your 
obedient servant, 

" H. OE LA HOOKE, clerk of the Council. 

" The Secretaiy of the London Chamber of Commerce," 


o. Articlea. 

,. LampM electriques ii incandeecencB 

muDiea do leur moDbDre 400 

,. Lampea electriquei fiincandBBcenoe 

noD muniei de leur montnre 800 

,. Macbmea dfname-electriqae : 

de 1,000 kUoe, Ob plas 30 

dB50kiloa.\ 1,000 kilos 4» 

de 10 kiloB et pu plus de 50 kilos 100 

,. Induita de machine dynamo-elM- 
trique et pieces deUch^ telles 
que : bobinas pleinee ou vldei en 
mital entourtes de cuirra itole ; 
pieces travaillee en cuivre, pesant 
moine de 1 kilo, numerotes et 
marquees, ajustee enaemble ou de- 
monUes, pour appareils elec- 
triqaeB, Uunpes a arc dites r^u- 
lateuTB 100 

. Accumulatours ulectriquea 17 

General Minimum 
tariff per tariff per 
lOOkibs. lOOkifoe. 


" Note.— The complete official text of the tariff law may be seen 
in the reading-room oF the London Chamber of Commeroe. 
"January 19th, ISO-2." 

" Crystal Palace Exhibition and Railway Rates. 

"Dear Sir, — This Chamber recently approached theLondon 
Brighton, and South Coast and the London, Chatham, and 
Dover Railway Companies with a view of securing a reduced 
rate on exhibits intended for the Electrical Exhibition at 
the Crystal PaUce. The companies did not see their way, 
however, to grant reduced rates ; but I am now in receipt 
of two letters, copies of which I enclose, from which you 
will see that the companies have agreed to convey the unsold 
exhibits, on the return journey, free of charge to any station 
on either of these lines of railway, provided that the 
exhibits remain the pr^terty of the exhibitors. —Yonn 
faithfully, KsNRic B. MuREAT, Secretary. 

"January 13th, 1892." 

" London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway, 
" London Bridge, S.E., 

"Ilth January, 1892. 
'•Electrical Exhibition at Crystal Palace, 1SB2. 
" Dear Sir, — Adverting to my letter to you of tlie 28th 
ulto., I have the pleasure to inform you that, although we do 



not see our way to meet your wishes with regard to making 
a reduction in the rail-charge for .the conveyance of the 
exhibits to the Crystal Palace, we shall nevertheless be 
willing to assist the exhibitors in this respect by conveying 
the unsold exhibits on the return journey from the Crystal 
Palace back to the station whence they were sent free of 
charge at owners' risk. 

*' This concession relates, of course, to traffic from and to 
our own stations only, and does not in any way affect or 
disturb the terms and arrangements concerning traffic to 
places on other companies' lines. 

" I should be glad if you would be good enough to notify 
your Council accordingly. — I am, dear Sir, yours faithfully, 

" N. Sarlb, Secretary and General Manager." 

" London, Chatham, and Dover Railway Company, 

" Manager's Office, Victoria Station, 
" 9th January, 1892. 

" Dear Sir, — In reply to your letter of the 15th ulto., I 
have the pleasure to inform you that, after due considera- 
tion, it has been arranged by this company and by the 
L. B. and S. C. Company for exhibits which were 
originally sent from stations on our respective systems 
to be conveyed on the return journey free of charge 
at owners' risk, providing they remain the property 
of the exhibitors. — I am, dear Sir, yours truly, 

" John S. Bates." 




During the last few years the application of electricity to 
lighting and to motive power has received the greatest 
attention from the engineering profession, bat comparatively 
little notice has been taken of the equally important application 
of this force to metallurgy and the n^Duiacture of metal goods. 
At the present moment, however, the manufacture of copper 
goods by electrical methods is beginning to excite considerable 
attention in the engineering world because of the extraordinary 
facility with which such articles as sheets, tubes, rollers, wire 
and tape for electric lighting and telegraphic purposes, etc., can 
be produced in one operation and of qualities hitherto unattain- 
able. The author hopes, therefore, that a paper on this subject 
will prove of interest to the society, and as it will probably be 
considered more satisfactory, instead of giving a mere descrip- 
tion of the methods and apparatus actually used in producing 
the results which have been attained, he proposes to commence 
by referring briefly to the electro-chemical principles of the 
subject, then to go on to show how these principles have been 
applied to that large and important industry — the electric 
refining of copper — and finally give an account of the methods 
by which, during the process of the refining of the copper, 
finished goods, such as those above enumerated, can be auto- 
matically produced of absolutely pure metal. 

Electro- Chemical Principlea. — It was discovered in the first 
year of the present century that water could be decomposed 
mto its chemical con3tituent8 by passing through it an electrical 
current of sufficient tension. The process is known as 
electrolysis ; the ends of the conductors are called electrodes, 
that by which the current enters the waters is called the anode, 
and the end of the other conductor by which the current passes 
out again is called the cathode. At the surface of the anode, 
oxygen gas is separated from the water, while at the surface of 
the cathode hydrogen is formed, each gas being separated 
exactly in the proportions required to form water. The atoms 
which are decomposed, or electrolysed, are called in electro- 
technical language, ions ; those which appear at the anode and 
cathode being named respectively, anions and kathions. 

There are three principal laws which express the quantity of 
action which takes place during the electrolytic process. These 
laws are of the utmost practical iinportance to enable the cost of 
the operation to be ascertained. They are as follows : 

I. — The amount of chemical action is equal at all points of a 
circuit. For instance, if the current were passed through a 
series of vessels, connected by a series of conductors, the ends 
of each of which were immersed in the water of two adjacent 
vessels, the first and last conductors being connected respec- 
tively with the positive and negative poles of the source of 
electricity, so that the whole formed one continuous circuit, 
then the amount of water decomposed in each vessel in the 
circuit would be equal. 

n. — The amount of the chemical action which takes place in 
a given time is exactly proportional to the quantity of the 

* Paper read before the Junior Engineerhig Society, Jan. 15. 

current which passes through the vessel. For instance, a 
current of six amperes would decompose three times the 
quantity of water in each vessel which a current of two amperes 
would separate in the same time. 

ni. — The amount of hydrogen liberated by the passage of a 
current of one atxipere through water during one second is 
'000015 gramme. This quanti^ is called the electro-chemical 
equivalent of hydrogen. The amount of any other chemical 
element liberated at an electrode by the passage of a current of 
electricity of one ampere during one second through any other 
solution, containing the chemical element in a form in which it 
can be electrolysed, is exactly equal to the electro-chemical 
equivalent of hydrogen multiplied by the chemical equivalent 
of the element in question. Thus the chemical equivalent of 
oxygen is 8, and the weight of oxygen liberated by the above- 
mentioned current in a vessel of water would be '0000105 x 8^ 
'0000840, which number is therefore its electro-chemical 
equivalent. Below is given a table of the atomic weights and 
electro-chemical equivalents of the principal elements which 
have to be considered in electrolytic work. 

me of element. 


















14 00 

Table I. 


• 1-0 .. .. 

equivalent in 
grammes per 
.... -0000105 


.... -0004105 






... -0006875 











. .. -0010500 

.... -0003097 



... -0001470 








.... -0010867 




.... -0000840 


.... -0003727 



... -0000490 

Nothing has yet been said regarduig the energy required to 
effect the decomposition. Taking, again, the case of water. . As 
soon as the smallest quantities of oxygen and hydrogen appear 
at the anode nnd cathode respectively, the apparatus is con- 
verted into a secondary battery, the elements of which — viz., the 
two above-named gases — tend to combine, and in so doing 
dovelope an E.M.F. of 1-45 volts. The current employed to 
effect the decomposition must therefore possess at least an equal 
E.M.F., and iii addition whatever E.M.F. is necessary in order 
to overcome the electrical resistance of the generator of elec- 
tricity, the conductors, and the liquid between the aiKxie and 

If Q be the quantity of electricity passing through the circuit, 
E the back E.M.F., E* the E.M.F. necessary to convey the 
current through the above-named resistances, then the work 
done by the current = Q (E-hE*). 

The E.M.F. of any particular chemical reaction is equal to 
the product of the electro-chemical equivalent of the separated 
ion into its heat of combination when entering into the combina- 
tion in question expressed in dynamical units. For explanation 
of this reference is made to the work on '* Electricity and 
Magnetism," written by our distinguished past-president. Prof. 
Silvanus Thompson, F.R.S. 

The above law is expressed as a formula as follows : Let E be 
the E.M.F. in volts ; Z, the electro-chemical equivalent of the 
separated ion ; H, the number of units of heat evolved by a 
gramme of the substance when entering into the combination ; 
and J, Joule's equivalent (42 x 10^), then E = Z H J. 

Taking as an illustration the case of copper dissolving into 
sulphuric acid, from the above table Z = 003307, H = 881, 
J = 42 X 10», then E = -003307 x 881 x 42 x 10« = l-223x 10« 
** absolute " units of E.M.F. = 1*223 volts. 

To consider next the case of the electrolysis of sulphate of 
copper solution with an insoluble anode such as platinum. The 
chemical expression of this combination of copper, sulphur, and 
oxygen is CUSO4, which differs from sulphuric acid (±12^04) in 
that the two atoms of hydrogen are replaced by one atom of 

When the current of sufficient E.M.F. is passed through a 
solution of this salt in water the CUSO4 is split up into Cu, or 
metallic copper, which is deposited on the cathode, and SO4, 
which decomposes the water of the solution, forming sulphuric 
acid and free oxygen. 

Thus : CUSO4 = Cu -»• SO^ 

SO4 + up = H2SO4 + O. 

The result is in the end the same if it is supposed that the 
current in the first instance decomposes the water of the solu- 
tion. In this case, as before, oxygen appearo at the anode and 
hydrogen at the cathode. The free hydrogen, however, at once 
decomposes tlie sulphate of copper, replacmg the copper, which 
latter is deposited in the metaluc form on the cathode. If the 
current is passed for a sufficiently long time through the solu- 



taon, thm whole of the copper will be extracted from the salt 
and will be deposited, and the solution itself will be converted 
into dilute sulphuric acid. The minimum work done in effect- 
ing the decomposition expressed in watts is equal to the current 
expressed in amperes multiplied by the back E.M.F. in volts of 
copper entering into combination wich sulphuric acid. This 
E.M.F. has been shown above to be 1*223 volts, and if Q 
amperes be the quantity of electricity passing per minute, then 
Q X 1*223 watts per minute is the minimum energy required to 
effect the decomposition, to which has to bo added the energy 
required to overcome the resistances of the generator of elec- 
tricity, the conductors, and the electrolyte. 

The author lays stress upon these elementary facts in order 
to pave the way, in a systematic manner, to ascertaining 
the commercial cost of refining rough copper. 

Coming next to the case of electrolysing the same sulphate of 
copper solution, but employing an anode of pure copper instead 
of the insoluble anode of platinum taken in the last instance. 
In this case we may suppose, as before, that copper is deposited 
on the cathodo and oxyeen liberated at the anode, while part 
of the solution is turned into sulphuric acid. The nascent 
oxygen, however, combines with the copper of the anode, 
forming oxide of copper, which latter immediately dissolves 
into the sulphuric acid present, re-forming sulphate of copper 
and liberating an equivsdent amount of water. Thus, every- 
thing is restored to its first condition, and the process 
goes on continuously ; copper being deposited from the 
■olation on to the cathode, while it is dissolved in precisely 
equal qoantities from the anode, and the solution, instead of 
being converted into dilute sulphuric acid, as in the first 
case, is constantly replenished with copper, and is maintained as 
a solution of the sulphate of that metal, and serves, in fact, as 
the medium for transmitting the metal of the anode to the 
cathode. Thus we see that whatever chemical changes occur 
at one part of the combination precisely opposite changes occur 
at another part, and consequently no work whatever is done in 
the purely chemical part of the operation ; and if the solution, 
the conductors, and the electric generator had no resistance — 
that is, were of perfect conductivi^ — ^then an electric current of 
infinitely small E.M.F. would effect the deposition. The same 
tBciU may be put in another way by stating that there is no 
back E.M.F. m the bath, because the nascent oxygen liberated 
at the anode, instead of tending to combine with the deposited 
copper on the opposite cathode — thus forming an electric 
ooople--combines at once with the copper of the anode with 
which it is in contact, while the energy of the combination is 
balanced bjjr the simultaneous absorption of energy due to the 
decomposition of the metal at the cathode. 

This elementary fact, which is perfectly well known to those 
who have conducted the simplest experiment in copper plating, 
is the sole secret of the extraordinary cheapness of the process 
of the electro-refining of copper. In practice, of course, the 
generator, the conductors, the electrodes, and the solution offer 
a definite, even if veiy small, resistance to the passage of the 
current, and the current must have a corresponding E.M.F. 
in order to overcome these resistances, but it must be definitely 
understood that in electroplating copper from a pure copper 
anode the overcoming of this imperfect conductivity is the sole 
work done by the current, the energy employed in doing chemical 
work being nil. 

It may here be mentioned that in order to promote free 
action, and in order to improve the conductivity of the elec- 
trolyte, a certain amount of free sulphuric acid is always put into 
the bath along with the water and the copper salt, and conse- 
quently, if there is a considerable inequality between the areas 
of anode and cathode, more or less copper may be dissolved into 
the solution than is deposited on the anode, according to which 
area predominates, and consequently the liquid may vary in 
richness of salt during the time the current is passing. 

The case of depositing the metal from an impure copper 
anode introduces at once the metallurgical industry of refining 
raw copper. The rough copper of commerce is usually alloyed 
or mixed with various other metals, and there is no immediate 
apparent reason why they should not be dissolved by the action 
of the current into the free sulphuric acid present in the solu- 
tion in the bath and deposited together with the copper on the 
cathode. It will be presently seen, however, that with ordinary 
precautions such action does not take place, but that the copper 
18 deposited in a pure state. 

When an anode is composed of a mixture or an alloy of 
several metals, and the electric current passed through, the 
various component metals are not oxidised and dissolved simul- 
taneously. They are, on the contrary, attacked in a certain 
order depending upon the energy which they develop when com- 
bining with oxygen and dissolving into the acid of the solution. 
The metal which is attacked first ii that which by its oxidation 
developes the greatest energy, or which, if used as one of the 
elements of a primary battery, would develop the highest 
E.M.F. ; and so on in regular order. Vice versa. When several 
metala are simultaneously in solution in the bath the order of 
dapoaition is the reverse of the order of dissolution — that is to 
•ay, Uiat metal will be first deposited the separation of which 

from the solution requires the least amount of energy. This 
law, the author believes, was first stated by Dr. Kiliani, of 
Munich, and was published in the German '* Bergen Hiitteu 
Miinnische Zeitung " in the year 1885. 

The subject-matter of this law is a very large one, and 
whether its application to all the metals found in combination 
with rough copper has been fully studied is a matter uf very much 
doubt. Concerning a few of the metals, such as silver, lead, 
iron, copper, and zinc, however, when dissolved into and 
deposited from a few electrolytes, pretty extensive researches 
have been made. The following are some of the principal 
metals found in combination with copper : Man^nese, zinc, 
iron, tin, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, lead, arsenic, bismuth, 
antimony, copper, silver, gold. They are given in the order of 
the heats of combination developed by them when undergoing 
oxidation. The list therefore fdso gives the order in which 
they would be dissolved according to Dr. Kiliani's law ; while 
if in solution they would be deposited in the inverse order. 

It will be noted that copper comes almost at the bottom of 
the list, having only the precious metals silver and gold below 
it. It is largely to this circumstance that is due the facility 
with which copper can be refined, for under the ordinary 
circumstance of deposition neither the gold nor the silver 
oxidise and dissolve into the electrolyte at all, but fall to the 
bottom of the bath in the shape of metallic powder when the 
surrounding metals in which they are embedded dissolve away ; 
hence the copper is left as the metal most easily separated from 
the solution, and in accordance with the law previoudy stated it is 
deposited on the cathode before any of the other metals, all of 
which are oxidised and some dissolved into the solution before 
it. It must, however, be acknowledged that the above state- 
ments are only true and the law applicable so long as certain 
conditions relating to the strength and E.M.F. of the current, 
the composition of the electrocute, and the proportion of the 
foreign metals in the anode are observed. 

As an instance of some of the variations that occur, it may be 
stated that if the KM.F. of the current exceed a certain 
degree several of the metals may be dissolved and deposited 
simultaneously. This peculiarity is obviously due to the fact 
that, when they dissolve into the solution, each metal can be 
electrolysed by a current having an E.M.F. somewhat higher 
than the natural E.M.F. due to the combination of the 
metal with the acid of the bath. (See the case of the 
electrolysis of sulphate of copper between insoluble anodes.) 
If, then, the electrolyte contained several metals in solution 
and the E.M.F. of the current were gradually increased, each 
of them would, in turn, be separated from the solution and 
deposited. If, on the other hand, the E.M.F. at the outset 
were higher than the highest natural E.M.F. which could be 
developed by any metal present entering into the combination 
in question, then all of them would simultaneously be separated 
and deposited. Tf the current density per unit of area of 
cathode exceed a certain amount (approximately five amperes 
per square foot of surface) the copper will not be deposited in 
the metallic form at all, but will fiul to the bottom of the bath 
in the shape of poiider. The composition of the electrolyte — 
i.e., the proportions of free acid, copper sulphate, and water — 
exercises an important influence on the character of the deposit, 
as also does the temperature. The more neutral and the poorer 
in dissolved copper the electrolyte, the more easily will the metals 
low down in the above list be dissolved, and the more easily 
also will those high up in it be deposited. The precise reasons 
for some of the above peculiarities have never been exactly 
ascertained, and hence it comes that the practice of the electro- 
lytic refining of copper, though reposing in the main on well- 
ascertained scientific principles, involves the knowledge and use 
of so many expedients and precautions that it is by no means 
the easv and straightforward work which might be supposed. 

In addition to the metals themselves, the oxides and sulphides 
of some of them may be present hi the anedes, and some oxides 
which cause difficulties are formed by the action of the current. 
Those, for instance, of lead and tin are insoluble in sulphuric 
acid. Others dissolve but slowly, and while Uiey remain on the 
surface of the anodes they will act precisely as the lead peroxide 
does in a secondary battery — that is to say, they wiU form 
with the copper on the cathode a more or less powerful electric 
couple, the E.M.F. of which acts in the opposite direction to that 
of the current. Hence, the current must in such circumstances 
have an E.M. F. sufficient to overcome this back force, in addition 
to being able to overcome the resistances of the generator, con* 
ductors, and electrolyte, and the cost of the deposition will be 
proportionately increased. In practice, however, with anode 
of the degree of purity generally used for electrofining thia 
back E.M.F. is not considerable, as the whole E.M.F. 
required to overcome all the conductive resistances and the 
back force varies according to the current density used, between 
a quarter and half a volt per tank. It should, however, be 
mentioned that the oxides being relatively non-conductors, if 
the position of the anode in the bftth be such that they accumu- 
late on the surface of the latter and cannot escape, the con- 
ductive resistance may be considerably increased. This is a 
point of oonsideFable importance for two reasons : first, thA 



iucreue in the reiiatance increoBea the coat of the electric 
current; and, neond, owing to the inoreaaed E.M.F. Deoea- 
■arj to move n giTeii current through the cirouit, the deposition 
of the other metaU which may hfive been diuolved into the 
electrolyte is facilitated and the refining Mition of the current 
correspondinnly diminiahed. 

Oopper-refimnti Apparatus. — The pmctic&l appamtua required 
to refine ruugh copper elBotrolylioally is of the simplest Kind. 
A boiler, ateam engine, and dynamo are of course indupensable. 
What the electrical output of the latter shall be is of course 
detenniDed by the surface of anodes which it is intended t« 
expose in any one tank or bath, the usual allowance being a 
current of between four and five amperes per square foot of 
surface. The E.M.F. of the current depends upon the 
nnmber of tanks which it is intended to work in series— i.e.. 
through which it is intended to diive the current — and also on 
the average of the combined Teaistanoea per tank. With a well- 
artanged plant the difference of potential between the anode and 
the cathode of each tank should be considerably less than half a 
volt. The tanks are genersllT made of wood and measure 
about 3ft. in each direction. Tbey are rendered acid-ptoof by 
being lined with lead, or some composition into wtucli pitch 
enters largely. It is of the utmost importance that the tanks 
should be perfectly acid-proof, not only in order to avoid loss 
of the electrolyte by leakage, but also to ensure the elec- 
trical insulation ; for the sulpnate of copper solution, containing 
as it does free sulphuric acid, is a very good conductor, and a 
the floors in the neighbourhood of the tanks got to be saturated 
with it a oonsiderable proportion of the current would be lost 
to earth. On the tops of the sides of the tanks at front and 
back are placed stripe of copper, which serve aa conductors, and 
which are alternately connected. The anodes are square p&tes 
of cast rough copper, the tops of which are in contact with rods 
of the same metal, which rest on the two conductors, that end 
which rests on the conductor which conveys the current to the 
next tank being, of course, insulated. The cathodes are sheets 
of thin copper similarly resting on the conductors, only in this 
case the ends reposing on the other conductors are insulated. 
Several anodes and cathodes are hung parallel to each other in 
each tank, and when a sufficient thickness of electrolytic copper 
is deposited on the cathodes they are removed from the bath 
and ute deposited layer is easily split away from the original 
cathode, which remains intact and ready for fresh use. The 
thickness of the deposited copper on the cathode is a matter 
principally affected by the capital at the disposal of the firm 
for locking up in raw material. The electrolyte is formed by 
dissolving 21b. of sulphate of copper to each gallon of water 
and adding 8oz. of concentrated sulphuric acid. The aim of 
the refiner is to procure a supplj' of rough copper containing a 
good proportion of gold and silver. Many brands of copper 
are exceedingly rich in the precious motals, and it is usual to 
allow a certain proportion of the assay value free to customers. 

Coit of tht Procesi.— The cost of the yieratioii of refining 
copper is determined mainly by the difference of potentiid 
between the anodes and cathodes in each tank. The 
lower the latter, of course the less cost. It has been 
shown that with a pure anode only sufficient E.M.F. haa 
to be provided to overcome the ordina^ resistances, while 
with an impure anode an additional difference in potential 
is required to overcome the back E.M.F. due to the 
accumulation of oxides on the anode, and a portion of the 
energy of the current is of course absorbed in oxidising the 
foreign metals present. It so happens that while it is easy by 
the old methods to refine rough copper up to, say, 98 per cent., 
it is very difficult by these methods to get it still purer. By 
the electrolytic methods, on the contrary, it is much easier to 
take the last impurities out than it is to refine a really rough 
copper. Thus, the two methods may be said to be complimen- 
tary to each other, and in practice it is desirahle to bring the 
metals by the older methods up to such a state that only about 
2 to 3 per cent, of impurities remain in it. The princiiHil 
resistance to conductivity is in the electrolyte itself. This 
resistance can be diminished by reducing the length of liquid 
which the current has to traverse and by increasing its cross- 
section— that is to say, by bringing anode and cath^Me as close 
together as is found to be practicable and by exposing aa Large 
an area aa possible. 

iTa be eotitintted.) 



Directors: Eustace J. A. Balfour, Esq. (chairman), H. Wood- 
bum Kirbv, E«. (vice-chairman), Latimer Clark, Esq , F.R.S., 
Egerton H. CLarVe, Esq., Sir John H. MorrU, K.C.S.L, Charles 
Sbowell, Esq. General manager and secretary : Frederic J. 
Walker. Chief engineer : S. T. Dobson, A.M.I.C.E., M.LB.E. 

Report of the Directors and statement of acoounte for the year 
«odi^g 31st December, 11991, to bepreewted to the shareholders at 

the ordinary genvral meeting to be held at the St. Jamea's Hall 
Bestanrant on Tuesday next, at 3 p.m. 

The Directors in snbmittins their annual report for 1391, with 
acoount< as certified by the Company's auditors, congratulate the 
shareholders on the eatisfactory progress made bv the Company 
during the past year. Early in 1S91 the capital ef the Company 
was increased from £100,000 to £200,000 by special reeolutioo of 
the shareholders, creating 20,000 7 per cent, preference shares 
of £5 each. Of these shares 10,000 wera iseced to the share- 
holders at par, and fully subscribed for by them in March. The 
balance of 10,000 shares was issued in December last at 
30s. per share premium, and duly allotted to the fhareholders. 
This last issue of shores placed £15,000 at the disposal of the 
Directors as a capital reserve fund. The £15,000 has since been 
invested in 2^ per cent, annuities, and is shown in the accounts 
annexed hereto. The attention of the Directors has been largely 
directed during the year Co the purchase of land for, and the erec- 
tion of, a northern station. Owing to the congested condition of 
the parish and the extreme scarcity of avi^ble ground this proved 
to be a difficult matter. The Directors, however, are plecweo to be 
able to report that they have secured a suitable freehold site in 
Camaby-street, Regent- street, and have entered into'a contract 
for the erection of the building on designs prepared by Mr. C. 
Stanley Peach, F.R.I. B. A. A considerable portion of the machinery 
and boilers required tor this station have a^ been C0DStnict«d, and 
it is hoped that during the summer of this year the station will 
be Gnisned and in working order. There are certain compulsory 
mains which have to be laid in the parish before August next. 
These, with other mains which the Board deem necessary to com- 
plete the system, will be proceeded with without loss of time, and 
there seems every reasonable probability of the whole of the work 
being completed without any further capital being required. It 
may be of mtereat to the shareholders to know that the two stations 
will be connected by a (rrand trunk main, about half of which is 
already completed and laid. This will be a means of enabling 
the northern station to support the southern in case M 
necessity, and viee vtrsd. The system adopted by the 
Company has worked tbocoughly well during the whole 
of the year, and the Directors are satisfied that it is the best 
that could be selected having regard to present knowledge. 
The experience gained at the Company's works enables the 
Company's officiau to make improvemente from time to tune, and 
no precaution is n^lected to maintain the exeellent reenlte 
hitherto obtained. The net earnings of the Company during the 

rt vear have amounted to £10,39.1. 12*. 5d. Of this sum £3,010. 
4d. was distributed in July last in payment of an interim divi- 
dend at the rate of T per cent per annum for the half-year ending 
June 30. 1891. on the ordinary shares, and on the instalments pa^ 
on the first issue of preference shares. The iMlance of £6,7SS. 
On. Id,, added to £315. 12a. 9d. (the undivided profit from last 
year's account), leaves £7,100. ISs, lOd. now to bedealt with. The 
Directors propose to divide this amount as follows — viz. : 

(A) Kj payment of a dividend at the rate of 7 per 
cent, per annum calculated on the instalmente 
paid on the first issue of 10,000 preference shares 

for the second half of the year £1,333 tt 8 

(B) By payment of a dividend at the rate of 10 per 
cent, per annum for the second half-year on the 
ordinary shares, making, with the interim dividend 
paid in July last, a total distribution of Bj per cent. 

for the year 4,670 

(C) By paying a dividend of £10. 15a, per share on 

the founders' shares 1,075 

(D) Amount to be carried forward to ordinary share- 
holders' undivided profit account B 2 6 

(E) Amount to l>e carried forward to lenders' 
undivided profit accoant 16 9 8 

£7,100 18 10 
The Directors have carried £1,000 to redemption account to com- 
mence a fund, to accumulate by annual additions, to represent loss 
of capital at the expiration of the term covered by the provisional 
order. The Directors are advised that ^e amounts provided in 
the accounts for depreciation are sufficient and ample for all 
purposes. Two of the directors— namely, Messrs. Egerton H. 
Clarke and U. Woodburn Kirby retire under Clause 7S of the 
articles of association, and, being eligible, offer themselves for 
re-election. The auditors, Messrs. Deloitte, Dever, Griffiths, and 
Co., also retire, and, being eligible, offer themselves for re-election. 

Net Revkkcb Accovnv fok tmk Ybab endinu Slar Dbcbmbeb, 


Dr. £ s. d. £ e. d. 

Interest on debentures 3SS 

Interest on calls In advance 71 IS 8 

456 18 8 

Balance, being net profits applicable to dividends 
on shares 10,711 5 2 

£ll,tes 3 10 
Cr. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

Balance from last account 2,666 12 9 

Less dividend (5 per cent, paid on 
ordinary aharee, free of inoome tax) 2,260 

316 12 9 

Balance from revenue account No. IV 10,662 6 10 

Interest on money at depcmt .,. 290 4 3 

£11,168 3 10 



Statement of Share Capital on 31st Deoembeb, 1891. 

Description of capital. 

£99,900, divided into 
19.980 ordinary eharee 
of £5 each 

£100,000, divided into 
20,000 preference shares 
of £5 each 

£100, divided into 100 
founders' shares of £1 

Authorised by. 

1 Memorandum of asso- 
I oiation 

I Special resolution, 
20th March, 1891... 



Memorandum of asso- 


of shares 






of share. 



Called up 
per share. 

£5 on 10,000 
10s. on 10,000 


paid up. 







paid up. 

















Statement of Loan Capital on 31st December, 1891. 

Description of loan. 

Amount borrowed. 

Remaining bor- 
rowing powers. 

Total amount of borrowing powers. 

At 6 per cent. 


Six per cent, mortgage debentures. 6,500 



One-half the nominal capital of the C/ompany 
for the time being. 

To share capital paid up. see No. I., £148,500. Total loan capital borrowed, see No. II., £6,500. Total capital received, £155,000. 

Capital Account for the Year ending 31st December, 1891. 

Expenditure up Expended Total expendi- 
to 31st Dec. , during the ture up to 3l8t 

Dr. 1890. year. Dec., 1891. 

Land (including law £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. 
charges incidental to 

acquisition) 9,598 8 20,297 7 8 29,895 8 4 

BnUdings and paving. 11,186 7 1,958 14 11 13,144 15 6 

Machinery and plant.. 27,905 6 4 12,056 11 11 39,961 18 3 

Accumulators 1,596 5 5 

Mains, including cost 

of laying 28.631 11 1 

Meters £Gced on in- 
stallations 1,578 19 

Switches fixed on in- 
stallations 700 3 

Stores and labour used 

on installations 1,172 19 7 

Electrical instru- 

256 6 

23 7 11 1,619 13 4 
9,531 10 7 38,163 1 8 
1,271 18 2 2,850 17 2 

544 2 
883 9 1 

1,244 2 3 
2,056 8 8 

ments, etc 

Patent rights 

Cost of Ucense and 
provisional order ... 

Sinking artesian well 

Office and other furni- 
ture and fittings ... 


Expenses connected 
with Board of Trade 

Preliminary expenses 

Expenses of debenture 

Law and parliamen- 
tary expenses 

Management, general 
expenses and in- 
terest to 3l8t De- 
cember, 1889, less 
receipts 5,337 9 6 

705 10 2 
668 2 6 

510 1 5 
392 13 10 

152 8 7 
920 1 11 

275 7 4 

539 19 6 

106 9 1 

286 17 6 
207 3 2 

105 10 

28 1 9 

362 9 7 

705 10 2 

717 4 7 
392 13 10 

152 8 7 

1,025 11 11 

275 7 4 

568 1 3 

Revenue Account for the Year ending 31st December, 1891. 

A. — To Generation and Distribution of Electricity. 

Dr. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

Coal and other fuel, including dues, 

carriage, etc 4,668 8 3 

Oil, waste, water, and engine-room 

stores 77117 2 

Salaries of engineers and officers 609 12 6 

Wage8 at generating and distributing 

stations 2,835 2 

Repairs, maintenance, and renewals, 

as follows : 

1. Buildings £562 8 2 

2. Engine and boilers 669 3 8 

3. Dynamos 186 14 2 

4. Other machinery, 

instruments, and 

tools 145 6 

5. Accumulators 4 13 10 

6. Lamps (at station) 134 4 1 

Repairs, maintenance, and renewals 

of mains 

Miscellaneous expenses 

1,702 4 5 

527 15 6 
72 13 4 

5,337 9 6 

£92,126 18 2 47,331 3 9 139,458 1 11 
Balance of capital accoant 15,541 18 1 


Receipts up to Received dur-Total receipts 
Dec. 31, 1890. ing the year. toDec.31,1891 
£ s. d. £ 8. d. £ 8. d. 


Ordinary shares, 18,680 

of £5 each 44,880 48,520 93,400 

Preference shares 

10,000 of £5 each, 

fully paid 

Preference shares 

10,000 of £5 each, 

lOs. paid 

Founders' shares, 100 


6 per cent, mortg^e 

debentures 60,000 

converted into 

oniinary shares dur- 

ing 1891 43,500 


50,000 50,000 

5,000 5,000 
— 100 

B. — To Rents, Rates, and Taxes. 

Rents payable 419 2 9 

Rates and taxes 360 14 10 

11,187 13 2 

C. — To Management Expenses. 

Directors' remuneration 1,155 1 5 

Salaries of general manager and secre- 
tary, engineer, clerks, etc 1,816 3 

Stationery, printing, and advertising 353 6 

General establishment charges 247 2 5 

Auditors of Company 52 10 

D. — To Law and Parliamentary Charges. 

Law expenses 

E. — To Special Charges. 

Insurance 158 13 8 

Brokerage on shares 14 1 

779 17 7 

F. — To Depreciation. 

Depreciation on buUdings 285 8 10 

Depreciation on plant, machinery, etc. 3,727 19 1 

G.—To Redemption Fund. 
Provision for recoupment of capital expenditure ... 

3,624 1 
558 14 7 

172 14 

4,013 7 11 

21,336 8 
Balance carried to net revenue account ..^ 10,562 6 10 


£31,898 14 10 
£ B. d. 


Sale of current, after deducting provision for bad 

and doubtful debts 30,934 14 4 

Sale of current under contracts 215 3 6 

Rental of meters on consumers' premises 362 2 11 

Rents receivable 100 

Transfer fees 117 9 6 

Discounts on purchases 134 14 9 

Sale of old materials, stores, etc 34 9 10 




Dr. Capital Reserve Fui^d. £ s. d. 

Balance 15,000 

Cr. £ 8. d. 
Premium of £1. 10b per share on iflsae of 10,000 

preference shares in Deoember, 1891 15,000 

Dr. Depreciation Fund. £ s. d. 

Balance 5,819 19 6 

£5,819 19 5 

Cr. h 8. d. 

Balance from last aoooant, December 31, 1890 1,806 11 6 

Amount brouj^ht from revenae account No. IV 4,013 7 11 

£5,819 19 5 

Dr. Redemption Fund. £ s. d. 

Balance 1,000 

Cr. £ 8. d. 

Amount brought from revenue account No. IV 1,000 

General Balance-sheet, 31st December, 1891. 

Dr. £ 8. d. 

Capital account — 

Amount received as per account No. Ill 155,000 

Sundry tradesmen and others, due on construction 

of plant and machinery, fuel, stores, etc 902 10 2 

Snndury creditors on open accounts 1,065 5 11 

Shareholders— for calls paid in advance^(due Ist 

January, 1892) 9,451 16 8 

Unclaimed dividends 11 2 

Capital reserve fund 15,000 

Depreciation fund 5,819 19 5 

Redemption fund 1,000 

Net revenue account — 

Balance at credit thereof £10,711 5 2 

Less interim dividends paid on 
ordinary and preference shares. 3,610 6 4 

7,100 18 10 


Capital account— amount expended for works, as 
per account No. Ill 

Stores on hand- 
Coal £724 

Lamps 32 15 7 

Meters and switches 103 19 8 

General, including oil, waste, etc. 1,360 9 

Sundry debtors for current supplied 9,852 13 3 
Otherdebtors 54 6 

£195,341 2 2 
£ 8. d. 

139,458 1 11 

Cash at bankers (Lloyd's Bank, 

Limited), including deposit of 

£27,000 28,726 8 1 

Cash in hand 29 2 5 

2,220 16 
9,906 13 9 

28,755 10 6 
Capital reserve fund investments, 2^ per cent, 
annuities 15,(K)0 

£195,341 2 2 



The twenty-ninth ordinary general meeting of this Company 
was held at Winchester House on Friday, the chairman, Sir John 
Pender, K.C.M.G., presiding. 

Having referred in sympathetic terms to the death of the Duke 
of Clarence, the dudrmaa said that the revenue for the half • vear 
ended the 31st ult., after deducting the out-payments, had been 
£45,402, while the working and oUier expenses, including income 
tax, but excluding the cost of repairs, had absorbed £17,673, 
leaving a balance of £27,729 as the net profit of the half-year, 
which was increased by the amount brought forward to £31,231. 
Interim dividends of &. 6d. a share had been paid for the quarter 
ended September 30 last, and for the quarter ended the 31st ult., 
£5,000 had been added to the reserve fund, and a balance of 
£4,983 had been carried forward. The revenue showed an increase 
of £2,055 compared with thatof the corresponding period of last year. 
The M'Kinley tariff had no doubt restricted trade m many quarters, 
and but for the large operations in erain owing to the deficient 
harvest in Europe, the revenue of the Company would prob- 
ably have shown a falling off. The reserve f una account had oeen 
charged with £4,478 for the cost of repairs of cable, but it had 
been credited with £4,303 interest on investments, and with £5,000 
from the revenue account, increasing the balance of the reserve 
account to £259,680. There was no doubt that the preparations 
for next year's great exhibition would benefit their revenue, but 
until such a growth of telegraphy came as to fully employ all the 
cables in the Atlantic they did not think they could look forward 
to anv very large increase in their returns. During the past six 
months they had had to effect one repair In their cables, and in 
oarrying out this work they took up a portion of the cable, which 
i9JVAb«ooDdition«B to satisfy them that although it was 

17 years old, it had a considerable number of years of life in it yet. 
He moved the adoption of the report. 
This was seconded by Kr. Wm. Ford, and carried unanimously. 


MetropoUtaB Uglit ComiMuiy, Limited.— Re«6tered by J. 
Hands, 15, Old Jewry-chambers, with a capital of £5,000 in £1 
shares. Object : to acquire the undertaking of D. C. Defries, now 
carried on at 43 and 44, Holbom-viaduct, under the style of the 
Metropolitan Light Company, in accordance with an agreement 
made between D. C. Defnes of the one part and this Company of 
the other part, and generally to carry on business as gas, electncal, 
and general engineers. There shall not be less than three nor 
more than five Directors. The first to be appointed by D. C. 
Defries. Qualification: D. C. Defries, as managing oirector, 
£1,000 ; ordinary Directors, £500. 


West Indi* and Panama Telegrapli Compaajr. — The receipts 
for the half-month ended January 15 were £2,331, against £2,791. 

St. Jamee*a and Pall Hall Company.— The Directors recom- 
mend a dividend at the rate of 10 per cent, per annum on the 
ordinary shares for the half-year ended December 31, 1891. 

National Telephone Company. — The Directors have unani- 
mously elected Mr. James Staats Forbes, one of the vice-presidents, 
as president of the Company, in succession to the late Mr. Frederick 
Richards Leyland. 

City and flonth London Ballwajr. — The receipts for the week 
ending 17th inst. were £836, against £765 for the oorrespondinff 
week of last year, showing an increase of £71. As comparad with 
the week endmg Jan. 10th, the receipts show a decrease of £22. 

Xloetrlo Contraetors. — An electrical department has been 
added to the business of Messrs. H. Turner and Son, ironmongers 
and cutlers, 28, Villiers-street, Strand, W.C. Messrs. H. Turner 
and Son announce themselves prepaiiDd to submit estimates for 
electrical work of every description, especially electric lighting and 

Bnuh Sloetrloal Xnglnoorlng Company. — The Directors have 
declared an interim dividend upon both the ordinary and prefer- 
ence shares of the Company at the rate of 6 per cent, per annum 
for the six months ended 3 Ist December last, payable en the 15tb 
February next. The transfer-books of the Company will be closed 
from the 20th to the 27th inst. 

Lalng, Wbnrton, and Down. — With regard to the recent 
removal of the offices of the Laing, Wharton, and Down Construc- 
tion Syndicate, Ijimited, to 38, Parliament-street, Westminster, this 
change in no way relates to the old-established firm of Messrs. 
Lainff, Wharton, and Down, whose address remains 82a, New 
Bond-street, W., with the addition of branch and City offices at 
17, Gracechurch-street. 

The Anglo-Amerloan Tolograpli Company recommend a 
balance, dividend of 16s. per cent, on the ordinary consolidated 
stock for the year onding December 31, and balance dividend of 
£1. 12b. per cent, upon the preferred stock .for the year ending 
December 31. both payable on January 30, less income tax, to the 
stockholders registered on the books on the 12th inst. After 
paying the foregoing dividends there will be a balance of £864 to 
DO carried forward. The above dividends, together with those 
already paid, will amount to £2. 12b. 6d. per cent, on the ordinary 
and £5. os. per cent, on the preferred stocks for the year 1891. 

City of London Xloetrlo Mglittng Company.— In fulfilment of 
the pledge given at the statutory meeting, that shareholders 
should have tne first offer of the unissued 9,sS8 ordinary shares in 
the Company, the Directors have decided to allot the whole of 
these pro rata to shareholders on the register on January 14th. A 
circular has therefore been issued by Mr. J. Cecil Bull, secretary, 
offering shareholders shares at the rate of as nearly as possible one 
for every three held, at 5s. premium. The first payment of £3. 5s. 
per share will be due to-morrow (Saturday), ind if not paid by 
then the allotment will be forfeited. After the second payment of 
£3 per share on February Ist next, the shares now allotted will 
rank pari jxumt in all respects with existing shares. 



Brush Co 

— Pref. 

India Rubber, Gutta Peroha k Telegraph Co 


Metropolitan Electric Supply 

London Slectric Supply 

Swan United 

St. James' 

National Telephone 

Electric Constmotion 

Westminster Electric 

Liverpool Veotrio Supply | 































Chnroli Ughtiiiff.— The electric light has been installed 
at All Saints' Church, Southampton. 

Anstiiai. — ^An electrical tramway is contemplated in 
Austria between Mahuish-Oshan and Prziwos. 

Crystal Palaoe.— The visit of the Lord Mayor and 
Lady Mayoress to the Electrical Exhibition will take place 
on 6th February. 

St. Petenbnrg.— The electrical exhibition at St. 
Petersburg was formally opened on Saturday by the Russian 
Minister of Finance. 

Station Burnt.— The central station at Ferdinand- 
street, Boston, U.S. was burnt to the ground last Saturday, 
and one man lost his life in the ruins. 

Mnniolpal Ughtlnflr. — One of the Paris municipal 
councillors, it is stated, is preparing a work on the electric 
lighting of towns, with full and interesting figures. 

Santa Fe.— The electric light, it is stated, in Santa F^ 
has proved a failure, and the municipality has returned to 
kerosene. There must be reasons for this, and it would be 
well to know these. 

National Tolephonos.— On Wednesday the Exami- 
ners on Standing Orders passed the National Telephone 
Company and New Telephone Company's Bills for 
obtaining further telephone facilities. 

Old Stndonts' Danoo.— A Cinderella dance will be 
held by the Old Students' Association on Friday, February 
19, at the Westminster Town Hall. Tickets, 3s. 6d. each, 
of the Hon. Sec., 28, Lanhill-road, Elgin-avenue, W. 

Anglo-Fronoh Tolophono.— The French Chamber 
has adopted the convention concluded with Great Britain 
defining tha conditions, workine;, and use of the telephone 
communications between the two countries. 

Taoht UffhtinfiT. — The yacht '* Tycho Brahe," 
belonging to Mr. " Bonne-Chance " Wells — Uie gentleman 
who broke the bank at Monte Carlo — has been luxuriously 
lighted with electric light by Messrs. Laing, Wharton, and 

Portsmonth. — ^At the meeting of the Portsmouth 
Town Council last week the question of the report from 
the Electric Lighting Committee was brought forward by 
the Mayor, but was adjourned until the next monthly 

Blootrlo BzhlUtlon at Mosoow. — An electric exhi- 
bition is to be held at Moscow, from April 14 to October 14, 
1892. It will comprise 12 divisions of electric engineering. 
New inventions shown will not lose the right to be patented 
in Bussia. 

Tondors I6r Manohostor.^As will be seen by their 
advertisements, the Manchester Cas Committee are now 
open to receive tenders for the supply of dynamos and for 
the supply and laying of culverts and electric light mains. 
These must be sent in by Feb. 23rd. 

Bmssols. — The result of the tenders for Brussels is not 
yet announced. The six firms tendering have been invited 
to furnish graphical diagrams of working. It is expected 
that a central station to light 10,000 lamps in winter and 
5,000 in summer will be first erected. 

Spain. — Three additional towns in Spain, states 
Industries, are endeavouring to obtain permission to erect 
central electric light stations. One is Linares, the lead- 
producing centre ; the next is Baesa, a small town in 
Andalusia ; and, lastly, Alcaniz, in Aragon. 

Chloago Exhibition. — The est'**iifl«:Q8 of the electric 
light to be used in the World's Fa: . Obicago show that 
twice as many electric lights will be used as there are at 

present in the whole of Chicago. The plans call for 10 
times the capacity of all the plant used in the Paris 

Sooloty of Arts. — In consequence of the illness of 
Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., the Howard lectures on *• The 
Development and Transmission of Power from Central 
Stations," which he was announced to deliver on the 
5th February and five following Friday evenings, has been 

Tho Bmsh Ck>mpany. — Mr. Oarcke has resigned 
the position of managing director of the Brush Electrical 
Engineering Company, but he retains his seat at the board 
of directors. Mr. Raworth and Mr. Sellon have been 
appointed joint managers, and Mr. (}eipel has been 
appointed superintending engineer of the company. 

Tntbnry. — A movement is on foot to provide Tutbury 
with the electric light. It appears that motive power 
exists at the mill occupied by Messrs. Staton, and with 
little outlay sufficient light could be obtained. A circular 
has been issued to the parishioners, and the reply to this 
will determine whether the new light will be adopted. 

Mr. Tosla's Lootnro. — An extraordinary general 
meeting of the Institution of Electrical Engineers is to be 
held, by kind permission of the managers, at the Boyal Insti- 
tution, Albemarle-street, on Wednesday, 3rd February, at 
8 p.m., when Mr. Nikola Tesla will give his paper upon 
" Experiments with Alternate Currents of High Potential 
and High Frequency." 

Blootrlo Boats. — The General Electric Traction Com* 
pany have recently taken the shipbuilding yard lately 
occupied by Des Yignes, and are now engaged in building 
the hulls of their electric launches, which are fitted with 
gearing at the works at Piatt's Island. They have three 
boats now in hand — one of these, a 25ft. boat, is a second 
order from a private gentleman for use on the Thames. 

Tho Soa Sorpont at Last. — ^In the Machinery 
Department of the Electrical Exhibition at the Crystal 
Palace may be seen a fine specimen of the *' Gymnotus 
electricus,'' or sea serpent. This animal having swallowed 
a portion of the shore end of the Atlantic cable of 1859, 
became transformed into a powerful electrical machine. In 
the process of grappling for the fault the body was brought to 
the surface, and will be the subject of some interesting 
experiments ! 

Sooondary Battorlos. — ^The work upon " Sesondary 
Batteries : being a Description of the Modern Apparatus for 
the Storage of Electrical Energy," by Mr. J. T. Niblett, 
illustrated, is now published (Biggs and Co., 3s. 6d.). The 
work is not a theoretical disquisition on the action of 
secondary batteries, but rather a careful description of all 
the recent commercial developments of Plant^'s discovery, 
and one which it is hoped will be of great service to elec- 
trical engineers. 

" Toaj>Book of Conunoroo." — We have received the 
third year's issue of the "Year-Book of Commerce," 
being a statistical volume of reference for business-men, 
compiled by Kenric B. Murray, of the London Chamber of 
Commerce, assisted by members of numerous statistical 
societies ; published by Cassell's ; price 5s. For those who 
have to do with foreign trade, the state of the labour 
market, agriculture, exports, and so forth, the book must 
prove one of great value. 

Blootrlo Powor for tho City. — The Streets Com- 
mittee of the City Commissioners of Sewers reported on 
Tuesday relative to a communication from the Board of 
Trade asking for the Commission's opinion on the systems 
by means of which electrical energy was to be supplied 
under the City electric lighting orders. They stated tha^t^ 



Uiey aseertuned from Mr. W. H. Praece, F.RS., that no 
objections could be r&isad to the proposed modes of dis- 
tributing electrical energy. 

Cantor Leotnrea — Prof. Forbes will continae his 
Cantor lectures at the Society of Arts on Monday, 
February let, at 8 p.m., on " Developments of Electrical 
Distribution," dealing with high-pressure supply ; old 
attempts ; alternate currents ; transformers ; feeders ; sub- 
statjons ; overhead and underground conductors ; genera- 
tion of electricity by power obtained from a distance, from 
electricity, gas, compressed air, and water under pressure ; 
load factors ; waste products. 

Kleetrioltr in Affrioaltnm. — Prof. Warner, of 
Amherst Agricultural College, Massachusetts, has been 
making a series of investigations upon the influence of 
electricity in agriculture. The results of the research will 
be published. Mr. W. W. Rawson, market gardener, of 
Arlington, whose experiments we have already mentioned, 
has found that the use of electric light has increased his 
profits from the growth and sale of lettuces, etc., by more 
than 26 per cent — a practical enough effect. 

Telephones In Hotela. — An indication of the ex- 
tending use of the telephone for private use is shown in 
the fact that The Adelphi Hotel, Liverpool, has been fitted 
with a complete interior telephonic installation. Each 
room on the three principal floors of the building is fitted 
with a call-box and magnetic transmitter, by means of 
which visitors may communicate with each other or with 
the hotel staff at any moment. The work was carried out 
by Mr. G. A. Nusbaum, of 29, Ludgate-bill, E.C. 

Xleotrlcal XnglneeTiuff as a ProffBition.— The 
University of Sydney have recognised the claims of elec- 
trical engineering by adopting a proposal by Prof, Threlfall 
at the last meeting of the senate, "that the faculty cordially 
approves of Prof. Threlfall's proposal for the establishment 
of a curriculum in electrical engineering, and recommends 
that it be carried out by the senate, including the sugges- 
tion of a grant of £300 for the necessary apparatus." It 
was also decided that the curriculum should lead up to the 
degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical Engi- 

Where the Proat Ooes.— The London County 
Council have found that, in order to supervise efficiently 
the work of installing the electric light in the central 
ofBoes, it has been found necessary to employ an assistant 
inspector {Mr. J. J, Thornton) at £2 a week. Inasmuch 
as the extra assistance has been necessitated by the con- 
tractor'a request to be allowed to work until 11.30 p.m,, 
they think it would be reasonable to charge half the cost to 
Messrs. Andrews, the contractors, and have accordingly 
authorised the employment of the assistant inspector on 
that understanding. 

Telephone Service in Bnlsarla.— The new tele- 
phone service between Sofia and Philippopolis, a distance 
of 100 miles, was inaugurated with considerable ceremony 
on the 24th inst by Prince Ferdinand in person. All the 
arrangements, which had been organised with great care by 
M. Matheff, Director-General of Posts and Telegraphs, were 
most successfully carried out. Amongst the distinguished 
personages present were M. Stambuloff {the Premier), M. 
Grecoff {Minister for Foreign Affairs), several members of 
the diplomatic body, and a number of civil and military 
officials of high rank. 

Technical Xnstraotlon at Darlington. — The 
Technical Instruction Committee appointed by the Dar- 
lington Town Council have, with the grants from the County 
Council for technical education, made a good beginning by 
Arranging with Principal Garnett, of the College of Science, 

of Newcastle, for the course of 12 lectures en electrical 
engineering. The charge for the course is nominal. The 
first lecture was given at the Kend row-street Board Schools, 
and was well attended, the new departure being regarded 
with great interest by the leaders of education in the town, 
who are represented on the committee. 

Cltr and North Ztondon Ridlwiv- — Amongst the 
private Bills which have passed the initiatory stage of the 
Standing Orders is that of the Great Northern and City 
RaOway Company, which, by the creation of a now com- 
pany with capital powers to the extent of £1,500,000 and 
£500,000 borrowing powers, proposes to construct a new 
line of electric railway from the Great Northern line near 
Finsbury Park to Finsbury -pavement, upon the same 
principle and by the assistance of the same engineer, Mr. 
Greathead, as that which has been adopted by the already 
existing line of the City and Sooth London Railway. 

London County Conneil Offices. — The installation 
about which some comment was recently made, that 
for the London County Council's offices, is now nearly 
ready, and will be open for inspection and use shortly. 
The contract was let, it will be remembered, to Messrs. 
J. D. F. Andrews end Co., of 41, Parliament-street, for 
£1,490, the highest tender being nearly double this. It 
must not be supposed, however, that this was due to the use 
of Mr. Andrews's concentric wire system, as it was specially 
specified to have the two-wire conductors in casing. There 
are nearly 400 incandescent lamps, including fittings, all 
separately specified. 

Chlcasro KxhlbiUon Committee. — The first meeting 
of the Electricity Committee was held on Tuesday after- 
noon, 26th inst. Present : W. H. Preece, F.R.S., in the 
chair ; Sir Frederick Abel, K.C.B., D.CL., F.R.S., Colonel 
E. T. Armstrong, C.B., K.E., R. E. B. Crompton, Prof, 
James Dewar, M.A., F.R.S,, Major-General E. R. Festing, 
F.RS., Prof. George Forbes, M.A., F.R.S., Prof. G. Carey 
Foster, F.R.S., Edward Graves, Prof. D. E. Hughes, 
F.R.a..Gi8bert Kapp, J, C. Lamb. C.M.G., W. M. Mordey, 
J. Fletcher Moulton, M.A., Q.C., F.R.S.. Prof. John Perry, 
D.Sc., F.R.S., Alexander Siemens, Prof. Silvanus P. 
Thompson, D.Sc, F.R.S., with Sir Henry T, Wood, 
secretary of the Royal Commission. 

Uverpool. — At the weekly meeting of the Liverpool 
Watch Committee, on Monday, the application by the 
Liverpool Electric Supply Company, Limited, for the 
Corporation to consent to a provisional order whereby the 
power of compulsory purchase should be fixed at 42 years, 
and the charge for electricity be made 8d, per unit all 
round, was not granted, the feeling of the committee being 
that to do so would not be desirable from their point of 
view. The matter had been reported upon by the city 
engineer, and last week a memorial was presented to the 
committee signed by 448 commercial firms in the centre of 
the city, using 13,379 lamps, askingjthe Corporation to 
grant the request of the company. 

Leeds. — At a meeting of the Property Committee of 
the Leeds Corporation held last week, the committee had 
before them various matters affecting the electric lighting 
of the Municipal Buildings and Town Hall. It was resolved 
to recommend the Council to put a fresh installation in the 
Free Library, and overhaul the existing installation in the 
rest of the building and the Town Hall. It was stated that 
the installation in the library was put in when the buildings 
were erected, and it was now found that the wires were too 
small to carry the current. All the other parts were in 
good order. Mr. Nichol, of the borough engineer's office, 
was appointed to superintend the work, subject to the con- 
firmation of the Council. The cost is estimated at about 



Searoh-Iiights for the French Army.— The first 
of a series of experiments for the purpose of testing the 
qualities of a new electric light for use in the French Army 
has been made on the exercise ground at Satory, and a 
satisfactory result has been obtained. The object of the 
lamp, which resembles the search-lights used in the navy, 
is to facilitate night attacks, by rendering the movements 
of the enemy perfectly visible while concealing those of the 
o£Fensive side. If adopted, the new light will enable troops 
to fire at the enemy without furnishing their opponents 
with any indication to guide their return fire but the flash 
of the rifles. In order that the lamp may be transported 
easily from place to place, it is mounted on a light carriage 
with high wheels, which will enable it to be used on any 
kind of ground. 

Battersea. — The Electric Lighting Committee of the 
Battersea Vestry reported at the last meeting that they had 
considered as to the application to the Board of Trade by 
the Putney and Hammersmith Electric Light and Power 
Supply Company for a provisional order, and had conferred 
with the representatives of the company. The committee 
recommended that the Board of Trade be informed that 
the subject of electric lighting of the whole of the parish is 
at the present moment under the careful consideration of a 
committee specially appointed by the Vestry for the 
purpose, and that the Board of Trade be asked to defer 
their final decision upon the application for a short time 
to enable the Vestry to receive and consider the committee's 
report upon the subject and to come to a conclusion thereon. 
The recommendations were adopted. 

Prtmary Batteries. — Offices have been opened at 29, 
Lloyd's-row, Clerkenwell, by the Maison Battery Company 
for a new form of primary battery for domestic lighting. 
When they have had some installations running success- 
fully for a few months we hope they will send us particu- 
lars, especially as to cost and trouble of maintenance, as 
given by the users. We notice that it is claimed — nay, 
guaranteed — that an output of 1,000 watt hours can be 
obtained at a cost of 8^d., and they defy any other battery 
to come near this. We should think so ! They give 2^ 
amperes for 17 hours on short circuit without attention : all 
that is needful is a " fresh charge of exhitant " — a new 
name, we suppose, for '' secret solution." There are many 
other advantages claimed, all of which we hope are 
possible of demonstration — but we doubt it. 

Electric Light Siffnalling. — Experiments are being 
carried out on board the Torpedo School ship " Defiance " 
at Devonport under the direction of the torpedo officers 
and officers of the Royal Engineers with arrangements for 
night signalling by means of electric lights placed at the 
masthead. The experiment has frequently been tried, but 
hitherto with only partial success, owing to the difficulty of 
rendering the flashes distinct from each other, the lamps 
continuing to exhibit a faint glow for some time after the 
electric current has been shut off. Owing to this disad- 
vantage, signalling by electric lamps can at present only be 
carried out at the rate of less than 50 words per minute, 
which is not found to be sufficiently rapid. Incandescent 
lamps are used, and the connection is made and cut ofi" 
from the deck. It has been suggested that greater rapidity 
could be assured by using two sets of lamps. 

Electric Sidewalk.— At the World's Fair, Chicago, 
the electric sidewalk is now in operation. It consists of 
an endless elevated track, elliptical in shape, 900ft. long, 
on which two continuous tracks move, a portion at three 
miles an hour, and a further portion at six miles an hour, 
the latter being furnished with seats. A passenger can 
easily step off the stationary part to the slower track and 
again to the quicker moving track. It thus forms a con- 

tinuous tramcar, on which the passenger can step off when 
desired. The system is patented, and this track has been 
put down to demonstrate the practicability of the system 
by a company of which Mr. Arnold P. Gilmour is presi- 
dent. It is thought to be a valuable system for moving 
large masses of people over moderate distances, and will be 
used for this purpose at the exhibition. It is driven by a 
107-h.p. Thomson-Houston motor, and is practically noise- 
less in operation. 

Tenders fcr Sydney and Melbourne. — ^Advices 
from these Australian cities state that both are acting 
simultaneously as regards electric lighting. It is decided 
to give time enough in asking for tenders to allow of some 
of the great European firms to send in tenders for the 
necessary work. It is almost needless to point out that the 
firm obtaining either Sydney or Melbourne, or both, or the 
firms obtaining these contracts will be put into a most 
favourable position with regard to Australian business. 
Strenuous efforts will therefore be made to get the con- 
tracts, and our large firms must not rest satisfied with 
mere compliance with the letter of the specification, but 
must strain every nerve to obtain the work and make it 
successful. Many of the firms to which we refer have 
agents in Australia, and ought to be well acquainted with 
every move of the authorities, hence there ought to be no 
delay when the time comes to take action. 

Thomson Electric Welding, — The Electric Welding 
Company, who purchased the Thomson electric welding 
patents at a high figure, have taken offices at 6, Groat 
George-street, where they have photographs of an immense 
variety of electric welding machines for all purposes, from 
watchchains up to sheet anchors. The managing director 
is Mr. M. F. Armstrong ; the secretary is Mr. G. Ensor 
Mount ; and the manager Mr. William Parker. Machines 
have been installed in several parts of the county, besides 
Birmingham and Newcastle, and specimens are shown, 
amongst other things, of axes, of which the steel cutting 
edge is welded to an iron body. Numerous specimens of 
cannon shell welded by this process were lately on view 
from the U.S. Navy department. Electrical engineers will 
await with interest the details of the company's work, 
which it is probably too early yet to comment upon. The 
field is large ^d, it is to be hoped the success will be 
coincident. O ;^ ij U \) 

Rival Lighting Companies in Holhom. — Mr. 
Claremont, of the Metropolitan Electric Supply Corpora* 
tion, waited on the Holborn Board of Works at their 
meeting last week to ask them not to consent to the appli- 
cation of another company to supply Holborn with electric 
light. There was not sufficient demand in Holborn, he 
maintained, to warrant the establishment of another 
company in the district. His corporation had endeavoured 
in every way possible to give satisfaction, and had never 
had a complaint or a breakdown ; and, besides, their price 
was cheaper by fd. a unit than that of any other company 
in London. In reply to a member, Mr. Claremont said 
that the company's station was capable of supplying far 
more light than they had application for. Mr. Moss, on 
behalf of the County of London Electric Company, Limited, 
asked the Board to assent to the application of his company. 
The Vestries of Clerkenwell and St. Luke had already 
given, he added, their consent to the application to the 
Board of Trade. The Board decided to grant the applica- 
tion of the County of London Electric Company, Limited. 

A Great Electric Railway Scheme. — A telegram 
from DalzieFs correspondent at St. Louis, Michagan, says 
that a company has been incorporated at Springfield, 
Illinois, for the purpose of constructing an electric railroad 
from St. Louis to Chicago. The company proposes to lay 


straight as an arrow, upon which it 
electric cars, which will travel at the 
rate of 100 miles an hour, and thus compass the distance in 
two hours and a half instead of eight hours, as now. The 
power station will be at Clinton, Illinois, where the company 
will work a coal mine of its own, using electric drills and 
mining machinery. In time, it is added, the line is 
expected to become a boulevard of farmers' houses, standing 
on city lots, while behind them will stretch wheat fields. 
The houses will be lighted and heated by electricity, and 
reapers, mowers, and thrashers will be driven by electric 
power. Among the directors is Dr. Wellington Adams, 
termed the inventor of the first electric motor. Nearly the 
entire right of way has been secured, and within a few 
weeks the contracts will all be let out. The company will 
endeavour to have the line in operation in time for the 
World's Fair. Another telegram states that the capital is 
one million dollars, and that Edison's system is to be used. 

London Elootrio Mains. — The London County 
Council have sanctioned the laying of mains by the London 
Electric Supply Company in Stamford-street, Waterloo 
Bridge-road, and Westminster Bridge-road, on condition 
that the works in Westminster Bridge-road when once 
oommenced be carried on continuously by day and by night 
until completed ; that the mains be laid under the foot- 
ways, and be kept 9in. below the under side of the paving 
wherever it is found practicable to do so ; that where the 
mains cross the carriageways they be kept at the same depth 
below the concrete or the road material as the case may be ; 
that the positions of the street boxes, and the mode of 
construction of them, shall be submitted to and approved 
by the Council's chief engineer ; that all pipes or openings 
from or into the boxes shall be of such shape as to remove 
all risk of injury to the covering of the cables ; that all 
cables crossing the boxes shall be supported from below in 
the boxes ; that all service lines or small cables shall be 
protected, where leaving the boxes, by an extra lead 
covering or by wooden stoppers, and shall also have a 
copper wire of sufficient size carried from the service to the 
main cable, in good connection with the lead or iron outer 
casing ; and that the ends of all mains terminating else- 
where than in a box shall be securely protected by iron 
caps, in addition to any other covering. 

Eleotrio Traotion at Liverpool. — In moving the 
report of the Liverpool Tramway Company, the chairman 
referred to mechanical haulage, which they were anxious to 
see introduced on the line. Compressed air was expensive, 
and cables necessitated breaking up the streets. "Elec- 
tricity," he said, " has been tried, and it answers well as a 
haulage power, but commercially the price is far more than 
horses. We had an offer for electrical haulage at 7d. 
per mile, with an additional charge of £1,600 for 
each car with its electrical machinery attached. The 
7d. per mile is much more relatively than the cost 
of horse haulage, exclusive of the capital outlay of £1,600 
for each car, and as we have 234 cars the total outlay would 
amount to £374,400. The company who made this offer 
of 7d. a mile, after making a long trial on our streets, 
offered the Glasgow Corporation the same service at 
3^. per mile, or just one-half the price offered to 
us. In explanation of this enormous difference they 
urged the physical difficulties of Liverpool by reason 
of the hilly streets in comparison with Glasgow. 
The latter city is considered to have streets with very 
steep gradients, but that the difficulties of our streets are 
infinitely greater appears to be quite true, because we have 
a written statement to that effect from the eminent com- 
pany who made the trial on our lines during the last two 

Telegraphing \l^thoat Wires. — ^Among the recent 
American patents is an interesting one by Edison for 
transmitting signals electrically without the interposition 
of connecting wires. In his specification he states he has 
discovered that, if sufficient elevation be obtained to over- 
come the curvature of the earth's surface and to reduce to 
the minimum the earth's absorption, electric telegraphing 
or signalling between distant points can be carried on by 
induction without the use of wires connecting the distant 
points. This discovery is especially applicable to tele- 
graphing across bodies of water, or for communicating 
between ships at sea or between ships at sea and points on 
land, it being necessary, however, on land to increase 
the elevation, and the use of stationary balloons is 
mentioned. At sea, from an elevation of 100ft., com- 
munication can be made to a great distance, and the masts 
of the vessel, fitted with suitable metal plates, are suitable 
Connection is made to earth, and the high-resistance 
secondary circuit of an induction coil is placed in circuit 
between the condensing surface and the ground. The 
primary circuit includes a battery and a device for making 
the signals. Completion of the circuit produces impulses 
in the secondary, producing electrostatic impulses at the 
condenser ; these are transmitted inductively through the 
air, and are made audible by the electromotograph in the 
distant condenser. By repeating the signals from ship to 
ship communication is to be established over the largest 
seas, or even oceans, while collisions between ships in fogs 
would be prevented. It is a very pretty idea worked out 
from his previous experiments in the induction telegraph, 
and we hope it may prove successful in practice. 

Llangollen. — An installation has been just completed 
by Mr. William Sillery, of Wrexham, for R. Graisser, Esq., 
of Argoed Hall, near Llangollen, the proprietor of the 
Ruabon Chemical Works. The generating plant is placed 
at the chemical works, and consists of a Crompton 
dynamo, 110 volts, and a set of 60 accumulators used for 
lighting the works ; arc lamps are also used. During the day 
the dynamo is run to charge 40 accumulators, 1^ miles away, 
at Mr. Graisser's residence. The accumulators used here 
throughout were patented by Mr. Sillery in April last 
year, manufactured by Messrs. Walker Parker, Limited, 
Chester. It is interesting to mention in connection with 
this installation that a third wire for telephone has been 
successfully erected upon the same poles as the electric 
leads communicating with the chief offices at Argoed Hall, 
near Llangollen. The leads cross the River Dee directly, 
and pass underneath the famous canal aqueduct built 100 
years ago, then the wonder of the age. Mr. Sillery has 
also been directed by Mr. Graisser to devise a scheme to 
drive his works by electricity, obtaining the necessary power 
from the River Dee, where there is an abundant supply of 
water. — An installation has further just been completed at 
the mansion of K S. Clark, Esq., proprietor of Llay Hall 
Colliery, driven from a Crompton dynamo, three quarters of 
a mile distant, at the colliery, into 43 accumulators, KP.S. 
type, 31-plate cells, and giving entire satisfaction. Mr. Sillery 
is also now placing the electric light down the pit, for which 
purpose four dynamos are being installed, with engine and 
house on suriace to act as reserves for the Llay Hall 
Colliery, to which colliery he is electrical engineer. The 
cables and wires used throughout, also insulators, were 
supplied by the Telegraph Manufacturing Company, Helsby, 
near Warrington. 

Sohanaohieir Batteries. — We were shown the draft 
prospectus of a new company the other day, with the 
imposing title of the Central Electric Company, with some 
well-known names as directors ; capital J&50,000. Thinking 
it was possibly a new railway or electric light company, we 


looked at it with interest, and with some surprise saw — 
Schanschiefif battery again. Now we have no wish what- 
ever to prevent the Schanschiefif battery being put on the 
market. It is a good and useful battery, if the price is not 
considered. It might possibly be of use to some instru- 
ment maker to take up this battery and make a special depart- 
ment for its supply for philosophical or lecture purposes, 
and 80 forth. But a company for £50,000 can only attempt 
work on false pretensions. It may be worth while to 
mention a few facts with reference to previous attempts 
and their results. The Schanschieff battery was the object 
of reports by high authorities, who accepted the statement 
of cost of material from the inventor. A syndicate was 
formed, and afterwards an enormous company, with a 
quarter of a million capital, if we remember rightly. But 
facts as to cost leaking out, this company returned the 
money subscribed, and the whole thing fell through. It 
has apparently now got into other hands, and attempts 
made to revive the company. Do these persons know what 
the cost of a unit of electricity by the Schanschiefif battery 
really amounts to ? Is it 7s. 6d. a unit, and, if so, how can 
they expect to get the battery taken up on any 
scale to justify thousands being subscribed ? Do they know 
whether the cost of Schanschiefif liquid for a few hand 
lamps at the Greenwich Observatory last year came 
to something like £30, while the present cost of bichro- 
mate cells and accumulators only cost about one-tenth of 
this for liquid ? Anyone who knows the facts could hardly 
dream of using batteries causing so much expense, and we 
have not yet heard that anything has been done to reduce 
the cost to within even barely practicable limits. The 
Central Electric had better use dynamos and send round 
charged cells. There might possibly be use and profit in 
that proceeding. 

Board of Trade Laboratory. — Captain Cardew and 
Mr. Bennie have been working; hard to get the Board of 
Trade testing laboratory into complete order, so that the 
legal units of electrical supply to be adopted by Govern- 
ment may be determined ready for adoption at the forth- 
coming parliamentary session. The aim in these new 
tests has not been at all to make now determinations 
of the units, but to so accurately measure correlatively 
the ampere, the volt, and the ohm, by certain resistances 
and balances, that real uqits for comparison can be placed 
in the Board of Trade laboratory, and these can be certified 
and acknowledged as the legal units for the sale of elec- 
trical energy in Great Britain. For one thing, delay has 
arisen because they have not yet obtained the definite 
form of current-measuring apparatus from the Cambridge 
Instrument Company. A specimen balance is now in the 
laboratory, but does not entirely embody the needed 
mechanical construction. Primarily, the units required are 
first a distinct length of metal to be known as the legal 
ohm. This will be obtained from makers exact to the 
nearest degree possible to that of the true ohm as 
now known, and three copies will also be kept 
for comparison. Then careful experiments with Clark's 
standard cells, and with the voltameter test, will determine 
the strength of current of a legal ampere, and this again 
combined with the resistance will give the legal volt. The 
peculiarity of the instruments will be that the magnetism 
of iron does not enter into the tests ; the attraction and 
repulsion of the currents will be weighed or balanced by 
actual weights, and these weights, under stipulated con- 
ditions, will represent the legal units. The laboratory has 
now an alternator driven by a motor supplying four to 1,000 
volts alternating current, a Brush machine, specially made, 
giving up to 2,000 volts continuous. A 10,000-volt Ferranti 
tnasformer has been recently added, and a 50,000-volt 

transformer will also shortly be in use. The only actual 
work of the laboratory at present has been in testing 
meters, of which may be mentioned Schallenberger's, 
the Thomson-Houston, Ferranti, Teague, Frager, Desruelles 
et Chauvin, and others. These are tested for the range 
of their capacity, for length of run, for standing idle, for 
alternations of temperature, and so forth. The laboratory 
cannot fail to be one of the most important factors in 
British electrical engineering. The electrical profession 
may well be thankful to the energy and patience of the 
gentlemen who have it in charge. 

Laing, Wharton, and Down. — A paragraph has 
recently ap)>eared that Messrs. Laing, Wharton, and Down 
have removed from Bond-street and taken ofiSces at 38, 
Parliament-street, and again a statement appears that 
Messrs. Laing, Wharton, and Down have not left Bond- 
street, and continue their work there. To those who know 
the position these statements are perfectly clear, but as 
there are probably many who do not know, we will explain 
the matter a little. Messrs. Laing, Wharton, and Down — 
of whom the partners are now Mr. Wharton, Mr. Down, 
and Mr. Davies — ^are a private firm carrying on the 
business of electrical contractors, manufacturers, and 
artistic fitting suppliers at 82a, New Bond-street, and City 
ofiSces at 17, Gracechurchstreei. They are open to supply 
and contract for all house work, mansions, fittings, and the 
G;eneral work of a high-class electrical contracting firm 
Besides this, there is the Laing, Wharton, and Down 
Construction Syndicate, Limited — a perfectly distinct 
afifair — a limited company with the capital of 
£100,000. This company has really no connec- 
tion with the first, except that it is managed by the 
three members of the first-mentioned firm, though we 
believe Mr. Wharton is principally occupied in its manage- 
ment. The Construction Syndicate undertakes large finan- 
cial and company work in electric lighting; it owns the 
Thomson-Houston patents, and is proprietor of the works 
at Waterford, Beading, and Weybridge, besides having 
sold the plant to, or helped to form, the companies at 
Exeter, Bath, Taunton, and Fareham, besides the City of 
London. A similar operation is being carried out at 
Keading. The directorate of the Construction Syndicate 
is a peculiarly strong and interesting one. The chairman 
is Colonel Martindale, C.B., R.£. (retired), who takes 
great interest in electric distribution problems, and is one 
of the directors of the City of London Company. Next, 
Mr. Percy Westmacott, who was one of the founders, with 
Lord Armstrong, of Armstrong, Mitchell, and Co., at one 
time managing director of that company, but now an 
ordinary director, his great wealth evidently allowing his 
previously busy life to be taken more easily. The third 
director is Mr. Wilson Crewdson, connected to the Crewd- 
son, Waterhouse, Barclay, and other banking interests, an 
influential man to have on any board. The last is Dr. 
Merz, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, chemical manufacturer, one of 
the founders, with Mr. J. W. Swan, of the original Swan 
Company, and an accomplished chemist and engineer, with 
great organising powers and knowledge of business. The 
Laing, Wharton, and Down Construction Syndicate, though 
a private limited company, is, of course, public to the extent 
of publishing its accounts in the usual way, and has paid a 
5 per cent, dividend for the last three years. They also have, 
besides the Thomson-Houston patents, the rights in the 
Elihu Thomson high-rate alternator, which will probably 
be shown at the Crystal Palace Exhibition, lighting lamps 
from a single wire ; with new motors, the Van Depoele 
pulsating-current rock drill, electric cranes, pumps, and 
other novelties, which cannot fail to create great interest 
at the Exhibition. 




(Concluded from page S8.) 

This expfflimental evidence, then, dispoaeB of the quea- 
tioQ why the efficiency of a mtchine should nob be deter 
mined in the manner above indicated. The answer is that 
if t«Bted in this manner the efficiency comes out too high, 
and if we wish to determine the efficiency accurately we 
must either test two machines together, or, if only one 
machine is available, we must from a previous test knoir 
the rate at which the losses increase with the load. 

Fig. 1 shows the arrangement for an efficiency test when 
all the three machines are coupled in saries. B and G arc 
the armatures of the machines to be tested, and A is that 
of the machine supplying the current. The fields of the 
three machines are separately excited by a machine, D, 
and are indicated by the coils Fa , F^ , Fg , Fd- Ampere 
meters and voltmeters would be applied to the field circuits, 
Fft and F^ , to determine the exciting energy, but these in- 
atruments are not shown in the diagram in order to avoid 
useless complication. A rheostat, B, is inserted into the field 
of dynamo B so that it may be weakened, and the current 
passing through the machines B and C is read on ac 
ampere-meter, a. A voltmeter, V, is also connected up, a^ 
shown, so that by switching it on to contact b, 
we get the brush voltage of B, and by Bwitching 
it on to contact e we get the brush voltage of C. 

Since B and C are mechanically coupled they revolve at 
the same speed, and the voltan of B is therefore lower 
than that of C, the difference between the two readings 
being the voltage of the machine A, which supplies the 
power to keep the whole system going. The machine C 
works as a motor and B works as a F^enerator. Calling 
e, and e^ the respective brush volts, and C the current, we 
have the following relations : 

Power supplied by A '* C («« - % ) 
Power supplied to G — G ^ 
Power obtained from B = C et 
We neglect here the resistance of the connecting cables, 
since this can be nude as small as desired. Now the ratio 
between the power obtained from B and that supplied 
to G is obviously the efficiency of the two armatures con- 
sidered as one system, and since the current is the same 
(or can be made to be the same by taking the two volt 
readings in quick succeeaioa) we find that the efficiency is 
simply given by the ratio of the two voltages. The efficiency 
of each armature by itself is then given by the square root 
of this ratio, or 


All we have therefore to do to get the efficiency is to adjust 
the rheostat, R, and the power supplied to dynamo A in 
such way as to obtain the normal current as indicated on 
the ampere-meter, a, and the normal speed of the machines 

B and C. Then by shifting the voltmeter contact several 
times between 6 and c we obtain with great accuracy the 
two voltages, and the square root of their ratio gives the 
efficiency. It is important to observe that neither 
the ampere-meter nor the voltmeter need be correctly 
calibrated. As far as the ampere-meter is concerned, 
all we have to do is to take care that it shall indicate 
the same current during the whole time that volt readings 
are taken, or that we reject those readings which happen 
to have been taken while the current was difierent. The 
voltmeter need not indicate true volts, but it must have 
the same percentage error within the range of readings 
required. Thus, if it is wrong by 5 per cent, at 100 volts, 
it must also bo wrong by 5 per cent, at 90 volts and 110 
volts. These limits suffice in practice, since with modern 
machines an armatute efficiency of less than 90 per cent. 
need hardly be expected, and between such narrow limits 
even an ordinary commercial voltmeter may be relied upon 
to have nearly the same percentage error. A slight differ- 
ence in the percentage error of the two readings will afi'ect 
the result, but not to the full extent of this dif^rence, since 
the efficiency is not the voltage ratio itself, but its square 
root. Say, for instanee, that the indicated voltage ratio is 
•8H, but that there is a variation in the percentage error at 
the lower reading of 2^ per cent Then the true ratio 
would be -86. The square root of -88 is -938, and that of 
-86 is -927. In estimating tbe efficiency we would then 
have an error of Tl per cent., although the voltmeter was 
wrong by 2'25 per cent. But even this error can be 


Fig. 2. 

eliminated by making a second test, in which the rheostat 
is placed in the field circuit of G, so that B becomes the 
motor and C the generator, and than taking the mean 
between the two determinations. 

It will be seen that the method here described is 
eminently suitable to give accurato results, even if our 
instruments are not absolutely reliable, but in practice 
there arise certain difficulties which sorely tax the skill 
^nd patience of the experimenter. Tbe difierent adjust- 
ments which have to be made react on each other in a most 
bewildering way, and it is not always easy to see what 
should be done to get the system running under normal 
conditions. One difficulty the writer found was the tendency 
of the armatures B and G eitbei to stop running altogether 
or else start offat racing pace. This difficulty was overcome 
by driving the dynamo A by an engine without a governor. 
In this way the engine itself took care to deliver a nearly 
constant current to the system, and the adjustment of the 
rheostat did not affect the current, but only the speed and 
voltage. Another difficulty is due to the fact that Uie total 
amount of power required to keep the system going is 
small in comparison with the work which may be stored in 
the revolving mass of the armatures, so that the effect of 
an adjustment at either the rheostat or any of the brushes 
is not immediately seen. The cure for tbis evil is, of 
uourse, to make all adjustments very gradually and not to 
iiurry the test, but work patiently. Observing these and 
other precautions, which it would take too long to detail. 



it u quite possible to make a very reliable eEBciency teat, 
but trie pUnt required is rather elaborate. We must have 
two auxiliary dTnamoe and two steam eogiues, one without 
a f;overnor, aod giving exactly the torque corresponding to 
the current, and the machine driven by it must be of low 
voltage and large current, all of which requirements ore 
not easily fulfilleil. 

In these and other respects the method of parallel 
working is preferable. We require only one auxiliary 
dynamo of normal volt^e, and giving a small current, and 
the engine may be of any convenient size, provided it is 
governed for constant speed. Fig. 2 shows the arrange- 
ment for this method of testing. B and are again the 
two armatures mechanically coupled, F^ and Fg are their 
field coils, and in the latter is inserted the rheostat, R, by 
which the magnetisation of C may be sufficiently weakened 
to cause this machine to work as a motor. St, and So are 
switches, which for the moment we suppose to be both closed. 
The voltage on both armatures is indicated on the voltmetoi, 
T, and r is a rheostat chiefly used for starting, but also 
available if it be desired to work the machinos to be tested 
at a lower voltage than that of the supply machine, A. 
This machine only i^ves the current required for excitation. 


One of the exhibits that will least attract attention from 
the thousands who go to see tight and colour — who go with 
the intention perhaps of seeing how the light would suit 
their rooms — ought to receive the greatest possible atten- 
tion from electrical engineers. We refer to Stand 161, of 
Ur. J. Whlt«, of Glasgow, who shows, amongst other 
things, a complete set of Sir W. Thomson's standard 
measuring instruments. While we agree that for practical 
usein central stations such instruments would be out of place, 
they are absolutely essential for all laboratory work. This 
; stand was complete in time for the opening of the Exhi- 
bition. It ia admitted b^ all who know aught of the subject 
I that the greatest attention has been paid by Sir W. Thomson 
to electrical measurement The outcome of this attention 
is the magnificent set of apparatus shown. In our issue of 
; August 29, 1890, p. 173, and subsequent issues in thesame 
I volume, sea pages 211, 237, 281, and 332, we illustrated 
I and described most of these instruments. The value, how- 
I ever, of such instnimenta to the profession will be sufficient 
' excuse for this further reference. 

and the difference between the current absorbed by C and 
given out by B. Suppose, now, everything to be properly 
adjusted, and the system to be at won. If we open switcQ 
Sc the auxiliary current will flow through switch Sa, and 
after being joined by the current coming from B will flow 
through the ampere-meter, a, and through the armature C. 
By opening the switch Si, we therefore measure on the 
ampere-meter the current which G abeorbe when working 
as motor. Similarly, if we close Ss and open S», we measure 
on the same ampere-meter the current which the generator 
B is delivering, and it is important to note tiiat in both 
casea the current passes through the ampere-meter in the 
aame direction, so that we need not fear the disturbing 
effect of residual magneUsm, if any. If during the two 
readings the voltage remains the same, then the ratio of 
the two currents gives the efficiency of the two armatures 
considered as one system, and the square root of this ratio 
gives the efficiency of each armature, or 


It is again obvieus that the instrument need not indicate 
true ampereB as long aa the percentage error within the 
limite of the two readings is constant, and if we have a 
saspioion that the percentage error is not constant we need 
only put the rheostat into the field circuit of B and repeat 
the test, taking the mean of the two teste. One advantage 
o( ^e method shown in Fig. 2 is that by it racing of the 
machines, or indeed any considerable variation of speed, 
becomes impossible, so tnat our adjustments are not liable 
to be disturbed by the inertia of the armatures. We need 
(«ily adjust for current by shifting the contact on R until a 
Uttle more than the normal current passes through 0, and 
a little less than the normal currant passes through B. 
If the etepc on R give too coarse an adjustment, we can 
fgH the fine tdjustmiuit by moving the brushea on C. 

The standard direct-reading electric balances are founded 
on the mutual forces, discovered by Amp^, between 
movable and fixed portions of an eleetric circuit Tht 
shape chosen for tne mutually-influencing prartions is 
circular, and each such port is called for brevity ai 
ampere ring ; or sometimes simply a ring, whether it 
consists of only one turn or of any number ol turns of 
the conductor. 

BUfBgtUDfl'l UaffTK 

In each oE the balance instruments, except the kilo- 
ampere bah ;Cb, each movable ring is actuated by two fixed 
rings — all three approximately horizontal. There are two 
sucn groups of three rings — two movable rings atl&ched to 
the two ends of a horieontal balance arm pulled, one of 
them up and the other down, by a pair of fixed rings in it« 



Dflighbourhood. The current is in opposite directions 
through the tiro movshle rings to practicalljr annul disturb- 
ance due to horizontal components of terrestrial or local 
magnetic forces. In the kilo ampere balance the whole 
current passes through a single fixed rine and divides 
through two halves uf a movable ring, which are ur^ed 
one up and the other down by the resulting ampenan 

In all the instruments the balance arm is supported by 
two trunnions, each hung by an Mastic Ugament of fine 
wire, through which the current passea into and out of the 
circuit of the movable rings or ring. 

In all the balance instruments, in which the movable 
rine is between two fixed rings, the mid-range position of 
eacn movable ring is in the horizontal plane nearly midway 
between the two fixed rings which act on it. The current 
goes in opposite directions through the two fixed rings so 

slides on an approximately horizontal graduated arm 
attacbed to the baunce ; and there ia a trough fixed on the 
right-hand end of the balance into which a proper counter- 
poise weight is placed, according to the particular one of 
the sliding weignts in use at any time. For the fine adjust- 
ment of the zero a small metal flag is provided, as in an 
ordinary chemical balance. This flag is actuated by a fork, 
having a handle below the case outside, as shown in the 
illustration. To set the zero, the left-hand weight is 
placed with its pointer at the zero of the scale, and the flag 
is turned to one aide or the other until it is found that, 
with no current going through the rings, the balance rests 
in its sighted position. 

To measure a current, the weight ia slipped along the 
scale until the balance rests in its sighted position. The 
strength of the current is then read off approximately on 
the fixed scale (called the inspectional scale), with aid of 

Cnimptou  Fro]«tar— HUnd Ni 

that the moraUe ring ia attracted by one of the fixed rings 
and repelled by the other. Hie position of the movable 
ring equi-distant from the two fixed rings is a poaition of 
minimum force, and the sighted poaition, for the sake of 
stability, is above it at one end of the beam uid below it 
at the other, in each case being nearer to the repelling than 
to the attracting ring by such an amount as to give about 
^ per cent, more than the minimum force. 

In the balance instruments to measure alternate currents 
(which may be also used for direct currente) of from one 
unpere to 600 amperes the main current through each 
circle, whether of one turn or of more than one turn, ia 
carried by a wire rope of which each component wire is 
insulated by silk covering, or otherwise, from ita neighbour, 
in order to prevent the inductive action from altering the 
distribution of the current across Uie transverse section of 
the conductor. 

The balancing is performed by means of a weight which 

tbe finely-divided scale for more minute accuracy, 
number on the inepectiorul scale is twice the square root of 
the corresponding number on the fine scale of equal divi- 

The slipping of the weight into'its proper position is 
performed by means of a self-releasing pendant, hanging 
from a hook carried by a sliding platform, which is puUed 
in the two directions by two silk threads passing through 
holes to the outside of tne glass case. 

Four pairs of weights (sliding and counterpoise), of which 
the sledge and its counterpoise constitute the first pair, are 
suppliea with each instrument These weights are adjusted 
in the ratios of 1 : 4 16 : 64, so that each pair gives a round 
number of amperes, or half-amperes, or quarter-amperes, or 
of decimal suMivisions or multiples of these magnitudee of 
current on the inapectional scale. 

The useful range of each instrument ia from 1 to 100 of 
the smallest current for which its sensibility suffices. The 


noges of the difiiareBt typea of tfuB instrument regularly 
nude are — 
I. Oenti-unpere balancs ; From 1 to 100 centi-amperes. 
n. Deoi-anpere „ „ 1 to 100 deci-amperea. 

UL Dekiraiiipere „ „ 1 to 100 amperu 

IV. Hebto«mpere „ „ 6 to 600 „ 

T. KiltMmpere „ „ 25 to 2,600 „ 

TL ComponU „ „ 02 to 600 

and from 100 to 2S,000 watte (at 
100 voll«^ 
Beeidea the balaneea, the etand contains othar instru- 
menU, which will be referred to later on. 

becomes too great for the position at which it ii seL In 
the old form alteration in toe current at which the cut-ont 
was to act could only be obtained b^ shifting the c«re of 
the solenoid, and as the ends dip mto the mercury, this 
ofton deteriorates the contact considerably. In the improrad 
form, embodied in Bryan's patent, the current passed 
round a pivoted solenoid, whose ends dip into mercury, 
the solenoid being drawn back on a curved core when the 
current exceeds a certain strength. The core is held 
by a set screw and made adjustable, and by altera 
iLg its position the strength of cnrr«nt at which 
the cut-out is to act can be accurately determined. 
A nnmber of these instruments, of various sues, are shown 

The exhibit of MMarm Woodlioiuw and Bawaon 

Vnltad is very inttteating from several points of view. 
One of Kingdon's alternating dynamos, as used at Woking, 
is the moat important exhibit here, and will be a source of 
intereat — the oi^y other time it has been exhibited being at 
Frankfort It is probable, however, that the attontian of 
ordinary visitors will be most given to the ilashing of 
inoandeaoent lampa above the stand. The well-known 
diamond-shaped patterns, with the initials " W. & R." — 
thnr trade-mark — are formed in incandescent lamps, 
and will alternately be kept flashing on red and Uue, after 
the method adopted with conspicuous success as a sign at 
the Trocadero, in Piccadilly. Switches in icreat variety are 
shown — dngle and double pole, quick-break. Amongst 
the ent-outs ia a new and improved type of the Gunyiu- 
hame magnetic cut-out, which we illustrate herewith. 
"nua entont acts, as ia wall known, by breaking a mercury 
cootaet likan the magnetic effect of the current in the coil 

at the Crystal Pahue Exhibition, having ranges of 1 to 40 
amperes, 30 to 100 amperes, 100 to 350 amperes, 260 to 
600 amperes, 600 to 1,000 amperes, thus forming a series 
of reliable current bresking instruments. 

Perhaps it was injudicious to take this sketch of Messrs. 
Crompton's Stand No. 1, but it will serve to show that 
they are exhibiting at least two projectors. We remember 
Mark Twain has a funny way of telling what certain marks 
in his sketches represent. It will be necessary to do this 
as regards the remarkable- looking things depicted as resting 
upon the table. They do not represent flat wires, but 
instruments of some kind. The fact is that when 
Iilr. Bowles was making his sketch, this stand was 
hardly ready, whatever may be its condition now; 
and having on two separate oceasions made up bis 
mind to take the sketeh, he would not be baulked 
at the second attempt. There is no mistaking the 
apparatus at the top of the wooden structure, which some- 



one hu called a " conning tower." It represents a conning 
tower about as much as a broomfltick would, but tbero ie 
no accounting for such mistakes. Manufacturers of 
electrical apparatus are always ready with a blessing for 
everything connected with projectors, for was it not the 
value of projectors in naval work that in the dull, dreary 
period of waiting for orders to inatal lieht and power 
brought orders which kept the worka agoing 1 The per 
mission for ships carrying projectora to go through the Suez 
Canal by night brought orders from private firms ; the use 
of projectors in warships brought orders from the Admiralty. 
The use of projectors, too, meant the use of dynamos, 
of engines, und, if we mistake not, had very much to do 
with the general adoption of electric light on board ship. 
At any rate, Messrs. Crompton, Mesara. Siemens, the 
Brush Company and others, have done a lot of work in 
this direction. The number of men who know the whole 

history of electrical development during the last 15 years 
is com^iratively small. Few of the telegraphists troubled 
about tne interloper about which so great a fusa was being 
wade 15 years ago, and many of the prominent names of 
t(>day are of those who entered the industry after the 
stir had been made. Mr. Crompton, however, was interested 
in the work from the beginning. Our recollection may 
not be verbally accurate, but wa imagine it will be 
generally so. In the very early days of the electrical era 
Mr. Crompton was managing director of the Stanton 
Iron Worn, and a partner in a small manufacturing busi- 
new at Chelmsford principally connected with hot-water 
apparatus. Well, at one particular period some urgent 
work was required for the Stanton Company, and Mr. 
Crompton wanted men to continue the work night and 
day. But to work at night means light, and necessity led 
to the designing of his first arc tamps. They were successful, 
and were made in the small works at Chelmsford. Mr. 
Crompton soon saw there was money in electrical work, and, 
pitching cares to the winds, he went for it in a lump. Hq 

got it, urn, as anyone will see who visits the Chelmsford 
and the Lillie Bridge Works of to-day and con^nres them 
with the old works of Dennis and Crompton. T^ie Gramme 
patents controlled the make of one type of dynamo, the 
Siemens's patente controlled another type, but Mr. 
Crompton managed to get a type which interfered with 
none of these patents. He produced a thoroughly good 
knockabout machine. Of this we can speak with some 
degree of authority, as for the space of one or two years we 
had such a machine running under all conceivable conditions 
at our own house, and from first to last never had any trouble 
with it, yet as soon as the Qramme patents lapsed that type 
of armature superseded almost all others, and the Crompton- 
Burgin is now ancient history. As we say, Mr. Crompton's 
first experiments were in the direction of arc lighting, 
30 that when the need for projectors was made clear, it is 
easily understood how he would give great attention to the 
matter. The outcome of this experience can be seen in the 
apparatus shown at the Palace. The projectors carry self- 
reguhitin^ arc lamps of 30,000 c.p. ; and that their mechanical 
construction is excellent can be ascertained by examination. 

Kite Chird  the F»iry Queen— CruUI Piitxe Puttomlma. 

Each projector has a horizontal movement and a vertical 
movement The horizontal movement can be all round 
the circle, but any one position can be rotaiued by a 
clamping arrangement. Similarly, a large vertical range 
can be obtained. The lamp can be properly focussed by 
means of a screw ; all the parts are simple — the gear 
strong and well made and of the best material. One 
of the projectors shown will be supplied with current from 
a battery of Crompton-Howell secondary batteries to be 
seen in the Machine Department. It seems almost a pity 
that some enterprising exhibitor did not think of putting 
a couple of projectors on the top of the Crystal Palace 
towers. It might have been a somewhat costly exhibit, 
but it certainly would have been an effective one. A novel 
departure at Stand No. 1 is that electrical measurements 
are to be taken, so that he who runs may read. It is to he 
hoped that one of those charming parrots at the end of the 
North Nave, or some equally eloquent speaker, will be 
pressed to explain simply to the audiences what is being 
done and why it is being done — but of this by-and-by. 


It Ib not our province to discuia the merits or demerits of 
the Crystal Palaoe Pantomime. We have, however, 
to confess to a weakneai for spectacular displsya and tales 
from tlie Arabian Nights. We have usually found, too, 
that many of thoae who talk loudly about the degeneracy 
of paatomime manage eoou after Boxing Night to 
familiarise themselves with the various pantomimes 
^oJDg. But the elder folk have no business to pass 
judgment upon this class of entertainment ; it is 
sufficient if the younger generation are delighted. The 
first object of every caterer for public amusement is to 
make it pay, and whenever the amusement is of a healthy 
and innocent character it is the duty of the scribblers of 
the Press to assist in this end, for " All work and no play 
makes Jack a dull boy." 

From year to year the Crystal Palace authorities produce 
a pantomime. This year Mr. Horace Lennard and Mr. 
Oscar Barrett have revived our old friend, " The Forty 
Thieves." As is usual, Mr. Barrett has called to his aid 
the moflt popular ditties of the day, and they most unmis- 
takably give life and go to the performance. Of course 
the greatest attention has been paid to the spectacular part 
of the business, and gorgeous dresses, the sheen of polished 
metal, the flashing of colour from cut and tinted glass, 
with appropriate scenery, welds together an entertainment 
which for brightness, light, and colour has never been 
eurpassed on these boards. We believe Mr. Barrett, j'un., 

S. Wilklnion H CoaU-CryaUl Pilmce rsiitomlme, 

has painted the scenes. To this gentleman, too, we are 
indebted for many courtesies and much information. 
Electricity has been called in to play a moderate part in 
the spectacle. It was originally intended to use it to a 
much greater degree. Of the pantomime itself, we may 
eum it up in four lines from Calderon, as consisting of : 
In a word, delicioua joys, 
Raptures, ravishments, entrancenieDte, 
Pleuurea, bllraes, fondest favours. 
Sports and plays, and songs and daDCea. 
These harmoniously intermingled, the eye and the ear 
enchanted, with the genuine flavour of clown and pantaloon 
thrown in, give some four hours of absorbing delight to the 
youngstera, and they view a scene 

Which comes . . . with soogs and music, 

And a syren train to chum them. 

But to WIT more prosaic task. How is the electric light 

used 1 Imagine the scene, which, of course, must include 

the beautiful Fairy Queen (Kate Chard), the Demon King 

(Deane Brand), and their attendants. In the "Forty Thieves ' 

Ct^ia (S. Wilkinson) must be represented. Then we have 
the procession, and the ballet, and the transformation 
scene. The Fairy Queen, whose wand is more powerful for 
good than the demon's machinations are for eril, carries a 
brilliant lamp above her forehead, the current for which ii 
obtained from a small secondary battery. Similarly the 
Demon King is provided with a lamp, while Cogia has 
three — one on the crown and two at the termination of 
long ringlets. In these cases the battery and connections 
are hidden within the folds of the dresses of the artietas. 
Two groups of attendants in the procession carry spears 
with decorative coloured atreamera, and from just below 
the spear head appears a twinkling point of fire, as if 
the spear had a diamond setting. The effect is very good. 
The batteries supplying current to the spear head lights are 
carried in asmall metal pocket on thespearehaft, hidden by Hie 
streamers. The secondary batteries have been supplied and 

i~CryiUI rkluM Futodilms. 

are maintained by the Mining and General Electric Lamp 
Company, whose stand we illustrated in our issue of Jan. 
15th, p. 55. The current for charging the batteries is obtained 
from the Sydenham central station, just erected for the 
Electric Installation and Maintenance Company, by Messrs. 
J. £. H. Gordon and Co. In the transformation scene a 
number of camels are depicted, each carrying a lady, above 
whose bead is a corona of incandescent lamps. These lampa 
are fed by means of flexible connections, easily connected to 
appropriate terminals in the stage fioor and on the camels. 
The effect obtained is brilliant, and the audience see — 

Those who wear the rainbow's drasa. 

Who within the car triumphal 

Abova the busy throng are seaMd 

'Neath a canopy, wherein 

Purple, pearl, aid gold are blended. 

Again the prosaic. The stage connections and fittings 
have been, we believe, done by Messrs. Bashlaigh Phipps 
and Dawson, the current being from the ordiuary Palace 
supply, by the Oulcher Company, 




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Editorial and Publishinir Offices : 


Not6B 97 

The Determinafcion of the 
Effidenoy of Dynamos ... 102 

The Crystal Palace Exhibi- 
tion 105 

The Crystal Palace Exhibi- 
tion and Local Aathorities 108 

The Pall Mall Company 109 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S., on 
Distribntion 109 

Mr. Tesla and (Rotary 
Currents Ill 

Correspondence 109 

Institution of Electri(»l 

Engineers 112 

Electro-Harmonic Society. . . 1 16 
Cardiff and Electric Lighting 116 

Companies' Meetings 116 

Companies' Reports 119 

Provisional Patents, 1892 ... 120 
New Companies Registered 120 

Easiness Notes 120 

Companies* Stock and Share 

List 120 


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(xmneeted with Electrical Engineering which may be 
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any acoovnt of their inventions submitted to us will 
receive our best consideration. 

All communications intended for the Editor should be addressed 
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Rotary-Gmrent Plant. — Oumg to the inaccurate know- 
ledge of our eorre^[Kmdent, the statements given in our 
note last week relating to the above apparatus in this 
country were incorrect. Mr. Henry Edmunds is the 
only rqfresentative of the Drehstrom interests here, and 
we regrd the error of having connected the names of other 
gentlemen herewith. 



It may be sapposed that as this Exhibition 
approaches completion many of the exhibitors are 
thinking over the best way to make it pay. The 
various exhibits are of diverse character, and 
pm:chasers of one class of goods are only indirectly 
pm:chasers of another class. Thus, the wealthy 
owner of a comitry house may be directly interested 
both in generating plant, and in fittings, but the 
resident of a London mansion has little concern 
with the generating plant ; his examination begins 
and ends with the fittings. Others there are who, 
passing by the fittings,' care only for the generating 
plant. It must not be expected, however, that a great 
amount of business will be the direct outcome of the 
Exhibition : in most cases the ground will be merely 
laid for future approach and negotiation. It is well 
known that a number of local authorities have 
already made arrangements for the supply of elec- 
trical energy, either by erecting their own stations 
or backing up private companies. Many more 
authorities are considering the question, and it is 
absolutely certain most of the remainder will join 
the rolling ball of progress. The great manuEeus- 
turing companies exhibiting at the Palace are more 
concerned with what the local authorities do and 
think than with any other class of visitor. Each, no 
doubt, would prefer to see all the local authorities 
one after the other coming to their private 
place of business or fiEK^tory, and being there con- 
vinced that that firm or company was really the 
very best to carry out proposed work. That is a 
natural want — ^hesids of firms and managers of com- 
panies may want, but cannot always obtain. The 
probability is that many of the local authorities will 
organise deputations to investigate the lighting 
apparatus at the Palace, and when no such deputa- 
tion is sent to represent the authority, the engineer 
of the authority will be instructed to report thereon. 
If this should be the case, the exhibitors at the 
Palace ought to take care to be well represented. The 
ordinary stand representative is not what is reijuired, 
but men of the world, men of business tact and 
ability, not eloquent scientific talkers. While the 
members of the deputations may not be conversant 
with matters electrical, and wUl certainly want to 
know more about interference with streets. Board of 
Trade requirements, obtaining of money, repayments 
of loans, mechanical construction and strength, they 
will, of course, require to know generally about 
dynamo, motor, and lamp efficiencies. They will 
also be interested to learn as much as possible about 
the ** meters " proposed to be used to record the 
amount of electric energy oonsomed. There need be 


no labottkred explanation, but it would be advisable 
for the larger exhibitors to have meters at work, and 
be ready to] explain their action. Depend upon it, 
there is instilled into men's minds a liking to return 
a compliment^ and a clear explanation of appa- 
ratus to visitors will enable them to enlighten their 
colleagues and others upon points not usually well 
understood — will most likely bring them back to 
obtain further information when the progress of the 
work demands it. We have gone again and again 
to half-a-dozen exhibits to find no one at hand to 
explain anything, and no doubt visitors have done 
so likewise. The visit of formal deputations may 
usually be known beforehand, and it will no doubt 
be easy to arrange for these field days, but, at the 
same time, the unknown and the casual visitor ought 
not to be neglected. 


A long, but not altogether harmonious, meeting of 
this company was held on Tuesday last, and is fully 
reported in our present issue. The report is so full 
of pleasant, or unpleasant, surprises that it will prove 
interesting reading. There is, however, only one 
point to which we would now draw attention — 
founders' shares. This class of share is, in the 
majority of cases, merely a means to an end. The 
end is the delusion of shareholders. One of the 
directors of the Pall Mall Company failed to 
secure re-election at the meeting, and his co- 
directors demanded a poll, which takes place 
next week. The reason assigned for opposing 
such election was dabbling in founders' shares 
on the Stock Exchange, and a peculiarly rapid 
depreciation of the quotation for such securities. 
A dozen or so very pertinent questions were asked 
at the meeting, but in the end the report of the 
directors was adopted, so that whatever they may 
be thought to have done amiss is thus condoned. 
We suppose it must be granted that a man can sell 
his shares when and how he pleases, so that no 
reason exists for not selling founders' shares. We 
do not object to the selling — we object to their 


From year to year we have to acknowledge 
indebtedness to the Society of Arts for arranging 
at least one series of Cantor lectures upon electrical 
subjects. It will be remembered that last year 
Mr. G. Eapp gave an excellent series of lectures 
upon the transmission of power. The course of 
lectures commenced last Monday by Prof. G. 
Forbes, F.B.S., under the auspices of the society, 
is on electrical distribution— one of the most 
important subjects for the consideration of 
electrical engineers^ and one to which Prof. 
Forbes has paid great attention. Eight years 
ago he gave a series of Cantor lectures upon 
the same subject, hence the comparisons he is 
able to make during the present course cannot but 
be valuable. It is well known that the society 
publishes these lectures in its Journal^ and it has 

always been our custom to await this official publi- 
cation before giving the lectures in our columns, 
because the lecturers, as a rule, merely indicate certain 
portions of their subject, giving the complete figures, 
details, and illustrations in the printed text. Of 
necessity, the first lecture in the present course was 
general rather than particular. The lecturer called 
attention to his work of eight years ago, and pointed 
out that then the tendency of practical men was 
wholly in favour of direct low-pressure systems. 
Since then, however, great advances have been made 
in alternate-current high-pressure systems, and, 
above all, in that useful accessory to central station 
work — the secondary battery. Eight years ago 
distribution rested with direct, multiple, and 
multiple series work. Now we have developed the 
three-wire and even the w-wire system. Prof. 
Forbes described at considerable length the system 
of distribution which required multi-feeding points, 
and gave some statistics as to the proportion between 
weight of feeders and weight of distributors in 
special installations, also the cost per yard run of 
several typical installations — such as the Kensington 
and Enigbtsbridge, the Berlin, and CUchy secteur in 
Paris. One point brought out by the lecturer during 
the course of the evening appeals to financiers. 
Many himdreds of tons of copper are used in mains, 
and it is by no means difficult to obtain advances of 
money upon the security of this copper. 



One niMi'i word It no nuui'i word, 
Joitloe needi that both be heard. 



Sir, — Mv attention has been called to a notice in your 
paper in which it Is stated that the interruption of the light 
to certain lamps in Bath was due to contraction and expan- 
sion in the joints of the main. 

No such thing has ever happened. Certain lamps have 
been extinguished for a short time on two occasions 
lately, but in each case the fault has been caused bv 
bad workmanship on the part of the Bath Company s 
men, who have recently carried out alterations to Uie 

There has been no contraction or expansion on the mains 
at their joints or elsewhere, and the Bath Company have 
had no trouble whatever arising from them. 

As I have been called in to repair the defective wiring 
in the lampposts, I can speak on this subject with absolute 
knowledge of the facts. — ^Yours, etc., 

T. 0. Callkndbr, Manager. 

Callender's Company, 101, Leadenhall-street, KC, 

January 26th, 1892. 


Sir, — In a paper kj Mr. G. C. V. Holmes, pass 92, on 
the " Modern Anplications of Electricity to MetaUurgv," I 
note this remarlk, that metal will be first deposited trom 
the solution which " requires the least amount of energy. 
This law was first stated by Dr. Kiliani, of Munich, etc., m 
the year 1885. The subject-matter of Uus law is a very 
lai^e one." 

I am not unused to seeing ideas which I have spread broad- 
cast attributed to others, but this, as the French say, is 
un peu trap fort. The law, " Dr. Kiliani's law," is of my 
own formulation, and may be seen referred to at times as 
'" Sprague's law." 

i cannot say at what time it was conceived in my mind, 


nor does it much matter ; bat in vol. xz.^ p. 2, of that 
paper of world-wide circulation, the English Mechanic, 
m September, 1874, it was first published in these words : 
" Let us substitute for the idea of secondary chemical action, 
this new definition of the action at the electrodes which will 
embrace all the facts. Ai the electrodes those ions are set free 
which absorb, in hecoming fru, specific energy." 

Under the head of " General Law of Electrolysis," that 
statement has appeared in two editions, each 2,000 copies, 
of my " Electricity ; its Theory, Sources, and Applica- 
tions, both published before the date of Dr. Kiliani's paper, 
and in both I point out the resemblance of this law to the 
effects of destructive distillation. I may add that my 
definition was published years before even Berthelot formu- 
lated his chemical law of '' maximum work," and in my 
second edition I said : " It is evident that M. Berthelot s 
law of " maximum work " is the converse of the general 
law of electrolysis which I have formulated." — ^Yours, etc., 

John T. Spragub. 


Sir, — My attention has been called to the note on this 
subject in your issue of the 22nd inst., in which you 
observe that Mr. H. Newman Lawrence is attempting to 
apply electricity scientifically to the relief of paralysis. 
May I be permitted to state that Mr. Grigg, the world- 
famed medical electrician of Eastbourne-terrace — who has 
been in practice for nearly 50 years — many years ago 
invented and patented an electromagnetic machine which 
gives a beautiful and steady current without any shocks. 
By its aid he has been able to cure not only paralysis, but 
also diabetes, Bright's disease, typhoid fever, and all the 
worst cases of disease which ha^ teiffled the skill of the 
most eminent medical men. 

Mr. Heriord, the coroner for Manchester, in his letter to 
you of 24th August, 1888, says : " I could say much of my 
well-known (almost perfect) cure from complete prostration 
by paralysis, and of cures similarly effected from varied 
ailments amongst my friends. You will, perhaps, permit 
me to mention, from my own knowledge, what seems 
almost a miraculous case of a gentleman suffering three or 
four years ago from chronic rheumatic gout, progressive 
paralysis, enervation, etc. He was entirely helpless — 
hands and fingers drawn out of shape, legs and feet power- 
less. His physicians said his case was utterly hopeless ; 
but his friends applied to Mr. Grigg, by whom he was 
treated twice a day for nine months, and recovered perfect 
use of his limbs and powers. He was married soon after, 
and has now a son and heir." 

Mr. Thomas Helsby, an eminent writer, who has a 
practical knowledge of, and has written on, the subject, 
observes that *' Mr. Grigg's patented machines are the best 
yet invented for medical purposes, and that he is the only 
man living who knows the proper and scientific mode of 
application for the cure of all diseases.'' 

Mr. Grigg ridicules the idea of attempting to apply 
electricity successfully to the relief of paralysis in the way 
indicated in your note, and says, according to his experi- 
ence, that either drugs or stimulants in any shape or form 
retard (in place of facilitate) the cure of diseases. — Yours, 
etc., David Bodan. 

13, Upper Montague-street, W., 
Jan. 27, 1892. 


Sir, — In reply to Messrs. Parsons's letter in your last 
week's issue, we are sorry to think that the figures upon 
which Mr. Willans based his remarks and his diagrams 
in the discussion on Mr. Crompton's paper should have been 
thought to be in any sense record figures. So far from this 
being the case, they were obtained from an engine which 
had not run very many hours. The rings had not, there- 
fore, had time to come up to a face, and the engine was 
certainly not in a state to give the best possible results. It 
was a triple engine made for non-oondensine work also, as 
all our engines have been up to now, and the best results 
could not be obtained from it when working condensing ; 

moreover, in plotting the diagrams illustrating Mr. Willans's 

/F HP \ 
remarks, an efficiency ( T^'p ) of 80 per cent only was 

vI.H.P. / 

taken, as he stated at the time. This is less than we often 

reach with new engines, and is certainly less than is 

usually reached after a few weeks' work with direct-current 

dynamos, working under the conditions which are present 

in electric lighting stations in this country. 

At the low loads it was assumed thiftt there were no 
reducing losses, which, even with the best dynamos, is not, 
strictly speaking, the case. The mean admission pressure 
in the cylinder at the highest observation taken in the con- 
densing trial curve was 1321b. We have not a note of the 
pressure in the steam-chest, but it would be probably some 
51b. or 61b. higher. The figures were used for the purpose 
of illustrating Mr. Willans's straight-line diagram, and in 
order to show (as was stated in his remarks) the gain which 
could be obtained, especially at light loads, even in the 
case of the very best possible non-condensing engine, by 
the use of a condenser. They were not intended in the 
case of the condensing trials to show by any means the best 
result obtainable. An engine which is to be used both 
condensing and non-condensing is at best a compromise. 

The steam used in the trials was not tested at the time, 
but it probablv contained 1 per cent, of moisture at t^e 
high loads, and was almost certainly dry, or even slightly 
superheated, at the lightest loads on account of throttling. 
The steam was taken through a separator in the ordinary 
way, but our trial boiler gives steam with about 2 per cent, 
of moisture in it, and this is not entirely removed by the 
separator so far as we have been able to ascertain. 

Prof. Ewing did not give in his leport the source from 
which he obtained the figures quoted. The figure 18 '61b. 
has been several times almost exactly obtained by us, and 
we did not know, until he mentioned the matter to Mr. 
Willans, that he was quoting from the Proceedings of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers. We should not have named 
that figure as an exceptionally good one, as we expect to 
do better. 

In conclusion, we must heartily congratulate Messrs. 
Parsons on the results that they have obtained ; we should 
not have written to the papers at all if these results had 
not been compared with our own. 

Although we are quite sure that neither Messrs, Parsons 
nor Prof. Ewing had the least intention of saying anything 
which was not perfectly fair to us, there are many people 
who might make use of their report in a different manner 
if we had not written as we did. 

The method, we believe, adopted by Messrs. Parsons of 
varying the power of the engine by admitting steam inter- 
mittently is a most interesting one, and, so far as we know, 
it is the first time that it has been applied to a steam 
engine. Undoubtedly, this method of reducing the power 
should tend in the direction of economy. — Yours, etc., 

Willans and Robinson, Limited, 
(C. S. Essex, Secretary), 

Thames Ditton, Jan. 26, 1892. 


The following letter from Principal Garnett, of the 
Durham College of Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, dated 
25th January, 1892, addressed to Prof. Ewing, F.R.S., of 
Cambridge, has been forwarded to us for publication : 

'*My dear Ewing, — My attention has been called to 
some questions which have been raised respecting the 
effect of retardation of currents phase upon the output of 
the steam turbine, which you tested in Newcastle a few 
weeks ago. To determine the magnitude of the error thus 
caused, two sets of experiments were made, the former by 
Mr. Parsons and Mr. Stoney, the latter by Mr. Stoney and 
myself. In these experiments the coils used by you were 
compared with the water in a section of the cooling pond. 
The 1,000-volt armature was used, and iron pipes were 
thrust into the cooling pond to serve as electrodes, so that 
in comparison with the 1,000 volts the E.M.F. due to elec- 
trolysis was quite neglidble, as was also any change of 
phase which it could produce. 


" Id order to Mcare tlie same number of tnie iratts m 
the output of the alternator, the valve which gives the 
intflrmittent ateam admiuion wai blocked open and the 
•team was throttled by hand. In the second set of experi- 
ments the steam pressure at the point of admission to the 
cylinder was kept constant at 621b., and the resistanca vas 
■0 arranged as to keep the volte the lame with the coils 
as with the water resistance. A variation of pressure of 
lib. corresponds to about IJ units per hour in the output. 
The volts being the same, and the resistance of the 
armature practically negligible, il follows that the speed 
must have been the same, and the speed and steam pressure 
being Uie same, its steam consumption, and therefore the 
output, must have been the same, unless the steam had the 
intelligence to know what was going on in the external 
dreuit and the perversity to modify its conduct for the 
purpose of leading us astray. The result of this test was 
that with the same speed and the same steam pressure the 
product of Siemens and Cardew gave 49'6 for the water 
and 52 for the iron, showing an error of 5 per cent, due to 
the Isf; in the iron. 

"In the other sat of experiments the volts were kept the 
aame, but the steam pressure as well as the amperes were 
allowed to vary, two sets of observations being mmle upon 
the coils, one with a greater and the other with a less 
output than in the case of the water. Repeated observhticns 
of the relation between the steam pressure and the load 
have enabled the law of variation of the one with the other 
to be accurately known, and it was therefore easy to inter' 
polate between the two observations with the coils and to 
determine the apparent watte which would have been 
Festered with the coils at the pressure used in the water 
experiment. The result of this interpolation showed that 
the product of Siemens and Cardew was 47 per cent, 
greater than the tnie watts. 

" I hope that before long it will be possible to make a 
teat of the turbine at the full working pressure of 1401b., 
and with a boiler of sufficient capacity to give fairly dry 
steam at full load. It was scarcely fair to the turbine to 
remove it« high-pressure rings. — Very sincerely your^, 

" (Signed) Wm. Garnbtt. 

" To Prof. J. A. Ewing, M.A., F.R.S., etc." 


Hr. Nikola Teala is now in London, and electrical 
engineers will he pleased to learn is busy preparing his 
paper and his apparatus for the promised lecture to the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers upon alternating 
currents. This will appropriately take place at the Royal 
Institution, Albemarle-etreet, on Wednesday next, by the 
kind permission of the governors of the celebrated institu- 
tion which the world-famous experiments of Faraday have 
rendered such classic ground to all scientific men. The 
occasion cannot but mark an important era in both 
theoretical and practical science, for the continuous atten- 
tion, the experimental skill, and the keen insight of Mr. 
Tasla into the hitherto little explored ground of rapidly- 
alternating currents of high potential, with the astonish- 
ing results in demonstrating the possibility of lighting incan- 
descent lamps without wires, have raised the ex[iectationa of 
scientific men to a high pitch. Mr. Teela may well feel a 
little nervousness in coming before the scientific world in 
the capacity of apostle of a new and unexplored field, 
arising out of those opened up by Faraday s immortal 
experiments themselves ; but the extreme boautv of the 
research, the importance, and apparently unlimited scope of 
the new experiments fitly carry forward the applications of 
electrical science whose basis was laid so thoroughly by 
Faraday in 1831. 

For the moment, however, we will leave the fascinating 
question of high -potential electric illumination, and turn to 
that field in whicn Mr. Teela has done, if possible, even more 
important work — that of the rotary currant. The question 
of rotary current has taken a very different position in the 
eyes of English electrical engineers during the past year, 
due, to a very oonaiderable extent, to the experiment on 

such a large scale at the recent Frankfort Exhilution, 
where the transmission of several hundred horaa-power 
over a distance of 110 miles very forcibly brought the 
attention of the whole world to the importance of the 
rotary current. Before this time the knowledge upon the 
question was exceedingly vague, and, curiously enough, a 
long battle has raged around the very discovery of the 
rotary magnetic field and the rotary-current motor at a time 
when, in reality, there seems to have been not even a sha<low 
of a doubt that the credit of the discovery and practical appli- 
cation of the system belonged to Mr. Tesla, who years ago 
had both patented and shown in workiuK actual motors of 
the descriptions ajnce shown in various other parts of the 

The return of Mr. TssLi to Europe, together with the 
fuller details of his work, which will now ia before us, will 
serve to creato an entire rovolutiun in the minds of a great 
many of those who are at present occupied, tentatively or 
practically, with this absorbingly interesting problem, and 
will put the whole question upon its proper basis. Until 
the publication in our columns a few months ago 
(September llth, 1891, p. 246) of deUils and dates which 
were authoritatively given in America upon Mr. TeaU's 
experimenta, the European electrical world was in doubt 
upon the whole question, or more probably gave the credit 
of the first discovery to Prof. Ferraris — whose work in thia 
field certainly deserves the highest recognition — and the 
credit of the construction of the rotary -current motor, either 
singly or conjointly, to Herr Dobrowolsky, Herr Haset- 
wander, or others. 

It may be well to recall the dates given in the article 
above-mentioned. Prof, Ferraria's paper was given in 
March, 1888, and published shortlv aftfrwards. Five 
months before thia Mr. Tesla had filed his patents, and 
motors were run experimentally. On May 1, 1888, the 
patents were issued, and in the aame month these motors 
wera shown befon the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, while it was not till May 18th that the work of 
Prof- Ferraris was published in England. Aa meotioned 
in our article on July 31st, 1891, it appears that Hasel- 
wander's rotary-current dynamo was constructed in the 
summer of 1889, and first set to work on 12th October 
of the same year; on July, 21, 1888, Haselwander applied 
for his Oerman patents, which wera accepted in 1890, and 
issued in June, 1890. Prof. Ferraria's experiments wera 
undertaken in 1885, but Mr. Tesla claims to have been 
earlier afield. It seems, however, perfectly clear that men 
in widely separate localities were working independently, 
though contemporaneously, in the same direction and for 
similar objects. 

On hearing that Mr. Tesla had arrived in London, we 
thought it welt to take an early opportunity of calling upon 
faim to obtain from him some particulars of the pn^reos 
of the application of the rotary current in America, and to 
hear his views upon the question. 

In the first place, it is interesting to learn that Mr. 
Teala's discovery was due originallv, not to direct experi- 
ment, but to ahatract reasoning and mathematical calcula- 
tion. A native of Montenegro, Mr. Taaki later came to 
PariS) and in the couru of his lectures »nd atudjr 


was more particularly interested in the fascinating study of 
mathematical maxima and minima. Watching the action 
of the reversed dynamo running as a motor wiUi segmented 
commutator, he suggested the desirability and the possi- 
bility of constructing a motor without commutator, which 
suggestion was scouted at the time. The march of his iileas, 
however, may be gauged from the mention of the maxima 
and minima theorem. Granted a rising and falling of 
E.M.F. in the commutator of a dynamo due to revolving 
position of the coils as now run, it was easy to jump to the 
conclusion that if waxing and waning currents could be sent 
into the coils in propw order, rotation should be at once 
obtained. Mr. Tesla is one of those gifted men who have 
that remarkable property, present in iQl men of high talent 
or genius, of an extraordinarily strong imaginative or concep- 
tive faculty, by which material combinations are represented 
in the mind before they are constructed either on paper 
or in material substances. • His motor was constructed 
and the results deliberately worked out in his mind 
before ever experiments were made ; and he knew abso- 
lutely boUi that his motor would run, and which way it 
would run upon joining up the wires, and the result 
accrued exactly as expected. Unable to obtain sufficient 

•^— ^^— ^^« 



•^— ^^— ^^« 

Fig 3 

support in Europe, Mr. Tesla went to America, and there 
constructed and patented his motors. He constructed 
motors with the simple two-phase mentioned by Ferraris, 
in which the armature is wound at right angles, as indi- 
cated in Fig. 1. He constructed the three-phase motor 
since rendered famous as "Drehstrom" in Oermany, in which 
the coils are distributed at an angle of ISOdeg. round the 
armature, as indicated in Fig. 2. He, further, long and 
exhaustively experimented with multiphase currents, both 
with split coils and with numerous separate currents, 
up to a dozen or more currents. The split multiphase 
current indicated in Fig. 3 is a simple modification of 
^g* ^1 ^y morely winding the three coils each in two coils 
disposed at a little distance from each other, thus pro- 
ducing a multiphase field ; and he arrived conclusively at 
Uiis result, that for practical purposes there is little to be 
gained in efficiency m>m the use of greatly-divided fields — 
not more, he finds, than of the nature of | per cent gain. 
Motors were constructed, tested, and shown at the dates 
already mentioned, with efficiencies of over 90 per cent, 
and of great capacity for the weight — for instance, a 
10-h.p. motor of 90 per cent efficiency weighing only 
8501b., half the weight of any of the same power since con- 
structed in Europe. Besulta so prombing, not to say revo- 

lutionary, could not but receive support, but his financial 
IMirtners advised against publication of the full details and 
results, or European engineers would have long been in pos- 
session of the facts of the case Mr Tesla's inventions, aiter 
being broadly protected in America, England, and (Germany, 
amongst other countries, were taken up by Mr. Westing- 
house, who proposed at once to put down large works 
capable of turning out 1,000 motors a week. Unfortunately, 
just at this moment occurred the financial panic which, it 
will be remembered, was suffered by the Westinghouse comj 
panics, and the matter had to be left However, this has 
now been got over, and the motors are being made, 
and applied as fast as made. Mr. Tesla informs us — a 
fact that will astonish European electrical engineers con- 
siderably — ^that before he left he had seen running a 
1,000 h.p. Tesla alternate-current motor, one of a number 
now being constructed at the Westinghouse Works in 
IMttsburgh for transmission of power. These are motors 
with revolving armature and three collector rings. Large 
numbers of the smaller motors have been in application 
for some time principally for mining purposes at high 
efficiencies and without needing repair. These motors 
start under load with strong torque : as an illustration, one 
experiment, with a small motor, was tried with a fixed rope 
over a 12in. pulley on the axle of the motor — the rope 
being previously tested to withstand 1,0001b. pull. Un 
starting from rest the rope snapped immediately — a tangible 
demonstration of the strength of torque. Mr. Tesla states 
that his system of winding the alternate-current motors has 
now been brought to such a state of perfection, that for a 
three-wire circuit he can guarantee to build motors of large 
size to give 1 h.p. for every 201b. of weight of an efficiency 
of 97^ per cent What result better than this could be 
desir^ it is certainly difficult to imagine. It is 
evident, as we have said, that Mr. Tesla's appearance upon 
the scene will change the attitude of scientific men and 
engineers very considerably, both as regards the utilisation 
of rotary-current motors and as to the credit which should 
be given to this most interesting discovery. 



I beg to thank you for the great honour you have done me in 
electing me yoar president for this year — ^a year which the need 
for a new complete index of this Society's Journal marks oat as 
closing the second decade of its life ; a year which sees the second 
thousand added to our roll of members ; and a year which the Elec- 
trical Exhibition at the Crystal Palace distinguishes as inaugu- 
rating the second decade of electric lighting in Great Britain. 

It has gradually become the custom for your incoming president 
to select as the subject of his address some investigation that has 
been engaging his attention. Following this custom, I purpose 
to-night to discuss an experiment in which for the last 19 years I 
have taken some part— an experiment which of all others has been 
the one I have haa most at heart— and that is, how best to train 
the young electrical engineer. To some it mav appear that I am 
treading on well-worn ground ; but as the problem is one that is 
as yet bv no means solved, and as it involves the preparation of 
the machine that is daily used alike by the dynamo oonstructor, 
the cable manufacturer, the central station engineer, and the 
lamp maker— viz., the human machine— the problem of 
fashioning this tool, so that it may possess sharpness, an even 
temper, moral strength, and a mental grain capable of 
taking a high polish, is one that in truth deeply concerns 
every member, every associate, every student of this society. It is 
only 15 years ago sinoe I wrote from Japan to mv old ana valued 
master Dr. Hirst, then the principal of the Royal Naval College, 
Greenwich, asking whether he thought that the time had oome for 
starting in this country a course of applied physics somewhat on 
the lines of that given at the Imperial College of Engineering in 
Japan. He repued that* England was not yet ripe for such an 
innovation — an opinion which appeared to be borne out by the fact 
that after the authorities at University College, London, had in 
1878 actually advertised for applications for a new chair of 
" Technology," they decided that it would be premature to take the 
responsibility of creating such a professorship. But matters were 
advancing more rapidly than was imagined by coUegii^ bodies, 
for in tiiat same vear this most valuable report on technical educa- 
tion which I hold in my hand was issued by a committee of the 
Liv^ Companies of London, based on the opinions expressed by 
Sir W. (now Lord) Armstrong, Mr. G. C. T. i^rtley, Colonel (now 
General) Donelly, Captain (now Sir Douglas) Gal ton. Prof. Huxley, 

* Deliver^ on Thursday evening, January 28th, 


and Mr. (now Sir H. Traeman) Wood. And although it is 12 
years since this book was published, I can recommend it to year 
notice, for it snpp lea most interesting reading even at the present 

Under the guidance of the three joint honorary secretaries, Mr. 
John Watney, Mr. Sawyer, and Mr. (now Sir Owen) Roberts, the 
City and Guilds of London Institute for the Advancement of 
Tedinical Education started with a name that was very long, but 
in a way that was very modest, to develop a " trades school " in 
aooordanoe with this report. They borrowed some rooms, but for 
use in the evening onlv, from the Middle-Class Schools in Cowper- 
street, Finsbury, ana decided to erect ultimately a chemical 
laboratory in that neighbourhood. But neither the building 
of a physical nor even of a mechanical laboratory formed 
any part of the scheme for this "local trades school." For 
at that time the teaching of the practical applications of 
physics to industry hardfy existed, and certainly not its 
application to any electrical industry other than telegraphv. To 
make a start, however, in such teaching was most desirable, and 
tber^ore Dr. Wormell, the enlightened head master of the 
C>>wper-street Schools, consented to give up the use of some rooms 
not merely during the evening, but sJso during the day, to enable 
Dr. Armstrong and myself to carry out our plan of fitting up 
students' laboratories with a small amount of apparatus kept 
permanently ready in position. For the devotion of these rooms 
to the carrying out of this new experiment we must always 
feel grateful to Dr. Wormell, for it was necessarily accompanied 
by a reduction in the size of his school, and consequently by a 
pecuniary loss to himself. The first laboratory course of the 
City and Guilds Institute was then advertised, and on January 9, 
1880, three students presented themselves — a little boy, a grey- 
haired lame man, and a middle-a^^ed workman with emphatic but 
hazy notions about the electric fluid. 

In order to further utilise these rooms the institute sanctioned 
laboratory teaching during the day, and one of the cellars of the 
Cowper-street Schools was borrowed in 1880 in order to fit up a 
gms engnne, coned shafting, and a transmission dynamometer, 
obtainM out of the funds of the institute ; an A Gramme dynamo, 
lent by Mr. Sennett, then one of the students ; and two arc-light 
dynamos for transmission of power experiments, lent by the 
Anglo- American Brush Corporation, whose cordial interest m the 
wonc of the City and Guilds Institute has been marked throushout. 
And as these dynamos were used, not for electric lighting, out as 
laboratory instruments for educational purposes, England can 
claim to have been one of the first in the field of teaching electro- 
technics. Rapidly grew these electro-technical classes ; soon the 
temporary laooratories in Cowper-street were overcrowded, 
especially as applied mathematics and mechanics, under Prof. 
Perry, were added to the subjects taught ; the £3,000 which had 
been set aside for the building of this "local trades school" 
grew into £35,000, thanks to the combined donations of the 
Drapers' Company and of the institute, and in 1881 was laid the 
foundation-stone of the present Finsbury College. During the 
many years that Prof. Perry and I were linked together, the work 
of either was the work of both ; but now I wish to take this 
opportunitv of acknowledging my personal debt of gratitude for 
the fund of suggestion which he put forth regarding the teaching 
of soienoe throueh its practical applications — the keynote of true 
technical education. The value of these suggestions you will fully 
appreciate, for they form the basis of those characteristic and 
attractive lectures familiar to so many of you who have been his 

As we have seen, then, the present Finsbury Ck>llege grew out 
of the "local trades school," and formed no part of the original 
scheme of the institute. And it was because London was really 
in want of practical laboratory teaching about dynamos, motors, 
electric lamps, and engines, and because that want was supplied 
in a form suitable to the comprehension and to the pockets of 
workmen in the basement and cellars of the Cowper-street 
Schools, and last, but by no means least, because one of the 
executive committee of the institute, Mr. Robins, strenuously 
exerted himself to further technical education in Finsbury, 
that the various electrical, physical, and mechanical lat>ora- 
tories now in Leonard-street, Finsbury, came into existence. 
But the establishment of a central technical institution " for 
training technical teachers, and providing instruction for 
advanced students in applied art and science," had been 
recommended in all the reports sent in to the committee of the 
livery Companies by the six authorities to whom I have referred. 
So that in the same year that the foundation-stone of the Finsbury 
College was laid by the late Duke of Albany that of the Central 
Technical Institution was laid by the Prince of Wales. And, if 
yon will allow me to say so, the success of the latter institution 
nas been no less marked than that of the former, for, in spite of 
the rather stiff entrance examination, the number of students who 
attend all four of the departments at the Central Institution is 
more tlum threefold what it was five years ago. In fact, in the 
mechanical and electrical engineering departments there are 
already about as many students undez instruction as classroom 
and laboratory accommodation will admit. Hence this year will 
see a considerable increase in the amount of apparatus and 
machinery, as well as in the space devoted to dynamos and motors, 
in Exhibition-road. 

While, on the one hand, the rapid growth of the work of the 
Guilds Institute is no little due to tne fact that the latter end of 
fcbia century has ushered in the electric age of the world ; the 
electrical industry of our country, on the other hand, is no little 
indebted to the aid so generously given by our City companies to 
the teadiing of electroteohnioe. For the students who during 
the Ust 11 years have, for an almost nominal fee* worked in 

the electrical laboratories at Cowper-street, at the Finsbury 
Collide, and at the CTentral Institution, number several thousands, 
and nearly every electrical works, every place giving electro- 
technical instruction throughout this country, employs some of 
them. The success which these students have thus achieved 
through their own ability and exertions is, I think, in no small 
measure due to the institute having so wisely left the teaching it 
gave untrammelled by any outside examining body, so that it was 
possible for this teaching to be directed solely to the professional 
needs of the students, and to be modified from time to time as it 
seemed necessary. My hearty thanks are indeed due to the 
Japanese Government and the City and Guilds Institute, my 
masters during the last 19 years, for having left my colleagues and 
myself unfettered liberty to carry on this experiment of finding 
out better and better ways of teachin? the applications of science 
to industry. And there need be no fear that with this freedom 
the teaching will become stereotyped, and ^raduidly cease to deal 
with the living science of the factory, for bemg bound by no code 
we are able to vary our methods, our experiments, and our appa- 
ratus according to the continually-changing conditions of the 
profession. In order that the Gu&ds Institute should fulfil its 
aim, it is absolutely necessary that its teaching should keep pace 
with industrial progress. Now, even if it were possible for outside 
examiners, with fixed scholastic notions, to aid in securing this 
result, would not their efforts be superfiuous, for are there not 
you, the employers of labour, to ultimately decide whether 
the human tool we fashion is, or is not, adapted to your require- 

Leaving now the consideration of the direct work of the City 
and Guilas Institute, including their extended system of techno- 
logical examinations, at which last year 7,322 candidates were 
examined in 53 different subjects at 245 different places in Great 
Britain and the Colonies, the indirect results tnat have pro- 
ceeded from the initiative of this institute are even greater. 
For while 12 years ago education'in applied science in this country 
was a tender little infant, requiring much watehing and support, 
combined with constant encouragement, to-day Technicsi 
Education — with a capital T and a capital E, bear in mind — is 
a stalwart athlete, the strong man on the political platform, 
exercising the minds of county councillors, ana actually regarded 
as of more importance than the vested interests of the publican. 
Until quite recently it was the technical education of the 
young engineer that had to be considered, but now the problem 
has become a far wider one, for the education of the British 
workman is being vigorously pushed forward, and I think that it 
has become incumbent on you — the representatives of the electrical 
profession — to express your decided opinion as to what this educa- 
tion of the electrical artisan ought to be. The technical education 
snowball set in motion 12 years ago by the City companies has 
been rolling — nay, bounding forwara— so swiftly during the last 
year or two, that probably some of you have haraly followed it in 
its rapid growth both in size and speed. £30,000 has been spent 
on the Polytechnic in the Borough-road, the Charity Commis- 
sioners have already endowed this school with an income of £2,500 
a year, and it is hoped that before the building is opened, this 
income will have been doubled. £50,000 has been already 
promised for the Battersea Polytechnic, the Charity Commis- 
sioners having also undertaken to provide this technical school 
with an income of £2,500 a year as soon as the subscription 
reaches £60,000 ; and for the establishment of a pol3rtechnic 
in the City £50,000 has been set aside out of the funds 
of the Charity Commissioners, as well as a yearly grant of 
£5,350. Finally, not to speak of poljrtechnics m North, South, 
East, and West London, Mr. Quintin Hogg has himself spent 
£100,000 on the Regent-street Polytechnic ; while the Drapers' 
Company have alone given £55,000 to the technical department of 
the People's Palace at Stepney, and endowed it with an income of 
£7,000 a year. And, most recently of all, the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany have put on one side nearly a quarter of a million sterling 
for the land, the buildings, and for an endowment of £5,000 a year 
in perpetuity, for their Technical and Recreative Institute recently 
openea at New Cross. The following table gives an idea of the 
sort of sums that are being spent on polytechnic education in 
London, but it does not profess to eive the entire amounte that 
have been devoted to capital expenmture and yearly maintenance, 
even for the six pol3rtecbnlcs named in the table : 

Capital Expenditure, Yearly EndowmentM, 


Already spent £30,000 Charity Commissioners 

alone £2,500 

(Endowment expected to be 
doubled before opening.) 
Battkrsea Poltteounio. 
Already subscribed ... £50,000 Charity Commissioners 

alone £2,500 

City Polytbchnio. 

Charity Commissioners 
alone to spend £50,000 

Charity Commissioners 
alone £5,360 

Reoent-strket POLTTEOHinO. 

Spent by Mr. Quintin 
Hoge £100,000 

Spent by Charity Com- 
missioners 11,750 

People's Palace, Mile End. 

Charity Commissioners 
alone £3,500 

Given by Drapers' 

Company alone £55,000 

Given by Charity 

Commissioners alone 6,760 

Drapers' Company alone £7,00 
Charity Commiwioners 
akme 3,600 



TcoHNioAi. AND Rbobeatite Institutb, New Cross. 
Givan by GoIdHmitha' I Goldimitbs' Company.. £5,000 

Comp»ny £70,000 ] 

(RepreMnting & total expeaditare of nearly £260,000. ) 

Other contributionB t 
polytochnica in Lon- 
don by Charity Com- 


Yearly endowments of 
Cfaarit; Commie- 
■ionera bo other tech- 

London ... £3,200 

Totals fkoh the above sources ajlohk ; 

£379,S0O I £32,500 

Large aa are these earns tbey are, however, even «ma]l compared 
with uie amount nused by Mr. Uoschen's beer and spirit tax, which 
it has been decided shall be need for the public benefit, and not 
for the benefit of the publican- The oountiee and county borouehs 
of England now receive nearlv three-quarters of a million sterling 
per annum, of which the whole may be devoted to technical educa- 
tion. The majority of the counties and county boroughs propose 
to utilise this ntagnificenb opportunity and devote to technical 
education the entire sum allocated to them, while the re<iiainder 
nse at leul a part for this purpose. Middlesex and London, 
however, stand alone, and employ their whole yearly f^rant of 
£163,000 for the relief of the rates, on the plea that they consider 
that the City oompanies are well able to look after the technical 
•dncatioo ol London. Besides this spirit duty, 106 towns are 
levying rates in aid of technical education under the Technical 
Instmction Acta of 1860 and 1891, the number of these towns 
having; increased by 20 in ihe last seven months, showing how 
tapidljr is this desire for technical education spreading throughout 
Great Britain. 

In addition to the sums contributed for tecbnical education by 
the City companies, coll^iate bodies, and private persons who 
have the practical education of the nation at heart, the following 
represent, as far as I have been able to ascertain, the amounts 
that it has been already decided shall be actually spent, yearly, on 
technical education in England alone, exclusive of Scotland, 
Ireland, and Wales : 

Received from the Customs and Excise duties ... £^00,000 

„ „ rates 18,046 

Given by the Charity Commissioners 20,550 

The yearly amount that will be actually raised under the Technical 
Instruction Acts will be far larger than the £18,046 stated above, 
for this represents only the sum of the amounts raised in the very 
few towns who have already made returns. 

Hence the total sum to be spent in England atone on so-called 
technical education amounts to certainly over £6')U,000 per annum. 

As the teaching of electrical technology has been atarl«d, in 
■ome form or other, in nearly every important town in Great 
Britain, there is no occasion for me to advocate, as I did in this 
room 10 years ^o, tliat a student of electrical engineering should 
have an education in applied science ; bnt what I desire to most 
strongly urge on you to-night is, that it is your bounden duty 
to see that some portion of tne vast sum that is about to be spent 
on the education of the people is ased to give such a training to 
your workmen as shall really benefit your industry. For otherwise 
there is a great fear that most of the money devoted to electrical 
teaching will either be frittered away on the natural loadstone, 
rubbed amber order of instruction so dear to the hearts of the 
soboolmen, or on semi-popular lectures describing in a bewildering, 
sketchy fasblon the whole vast field of electrical engineering. 

The workmen you employ are of two claases- In the one class 
w the man who is all day long, say, stamping out iron discs for 
Minature cores, and the boy who, say, feeds the screw-making 
machine with its proper meals of brass rod. For such work no 
twhnioal education is necessary ; the workers are mere adjuncts 
to the machines, t« be dispensed with as the machines become 
more and more perfect. Henoe, unless the machine-minder has 
the ambition and the ability to rise to some Ines mechanical 
oocupation, his activity, if any be left him after a bard day's work, 
bad probably better be spent in effort of a li|;hter and more 

-ive character than would alone be necessary to make him 

IT class of artisan- For him the polytechnic variety course 
raction is an inestimable blessing, for he can do a little 
typewriting, learn violin playing and modelling in clay, attend 
an ambulance class, recite a poem, and devote the remainder of 
bis leisnre to the piano botany, sanitary science, reading books 
and learning how to keep them. His general interests will be 
roused, the human side of his nature developed, and during the 
evening, at any rate, he may forget that he is the slave oI the 
Gramme ring or the slave of the electric lamp. No wonder, then, 
that within two months of the opening of the Goldsmiths' 
Institute at Kew Cross 4,000 members were enrolled, 

But your workmen of the other class must, or at an^ rate ought 
to, think. Take, for example, the man engaged in wu'mg houses, 
whose work is continually changing, and oifiring small problems 
to be solved. Here common sense, or uncommon sense, if you 

§ refer it— is of great value, and the work, to be good, must be 
one by a man with a knowledge of principles, and not by a mere 
machine- minder. Many joints— bad joints— in wires laid in cement 
nnder mosaic, which cannot be replaced except at vast expense, 
even althengh the insulation has rotted away ; )iarquetry floors 
nailed to insulated wire ; switchboards screwed on to damp walls ; 
lampholdera that only moke contact when the lamps are twisted 
askew ; high-class insulated mains Mrminating in snake-like coils 
of flexible wire rubbing against metal in shop windows, under shop 
fronts ; heavy Oriental metal lamps hanging from lightly- inaulated 

cord ; all this would be avoided, if the workmen had been taoght 

to nse tbeir brains as well as their hands. 

Now, do yon think that the teaching necessary for this parpoae 
is likely to be given at the ordinal? English polytechnic school T 
In the case of the Ooldsmiths' Institute the electro- technical 
department has been put under the charge of Messrs. Dykes and 
Thornton, two diploma students of the Central Institntion ; and 
the fact that these men are, in addition, both employed in Messrs. 
Siemens's work at Charlton leads one to hope that their teaching, 
at any rate, will breathe the spirit of the factory. And, therefore, 
if ample funds be forthcoming for keeping the apparatus at New 
Cross always up to date, so that the meters, the models, the 
dynamos— not merely now at the start, but three years hence, six 

SOTS hence — are tmly representative of the industry, there will 
a fair prospect that the electrical deportment of the (ioldsmiths' 
Institute, although but a fraction of the whole undertaking, 
may really ben^t the electrical workmen in the South-East of 
London. But my colleagues and I view with considerable appre- 
hension the way in which the present wide demand for teachers in 
technical schools is being supplied. Several of our own students, 
for exaimile, tempted by the comparatively high remuneration 
that is ofiered, have become teachers in technical schools imme- 
diately on leaving the Central Institution. In many respects they 
are undoubtedly well qualified ; but if they had fi^t spent some 
time in works before attempting to teach techoical subjects they 
would have better understood the wants of the persons whom they 
have undertaken to instruct. No greater mistake can be made 
than to think that a student who has distinguished himself at a 
technical college can dispense with the training of the factory, 
unless it be the opposite mistake of imagining that the factory 
training is equivalent to, or even something better than that 
given at a modem school of engineering. It is the province 
of the manufacturer to turn out apparatus and machmery as 
cheaply, quickly, and as well made as is possible. It is the 

Srovince of the technical teacher to prepare the human tool 
ir subsequent grinding and polishing in the works. And 
this necessity for the teacher having himself passed through 
the shops has especial weight when we are dealing with the 
technical instruction of workmen, for in such a case there are 
three requirements absolutely necessary— first, knowing how to 
teach ; second, possessing a fair knowledge of scientific pdnciplee; 
and thirdly— and this is perhaps the most important of all — 
knowing exactly what it is that the particular workman ought to 
learn in order to help him in his particular trade. Schoolmastem 
may have the first two re<|uiBitoa, and so may do valoable work in 
connection with the variety teaching at a polytechnic ; but they 
are not in touch with the workshop, and therefore, no matter 
what may be their scholastic attainments, no matter what the 
extent of their experience in training the young, they are not the 
persons to give the real technical education to workmen. 

In addition, then, Lo the polytechnics, we must have special 
schools for special industries, where workmen are taught the 
application of science to their special trades ; and everything 
taught in such a school must be taughtas bearing on the particQiar 
industry which the school is intended to benefit. A teacher of 
physics, for instance, must remember tliat he is not training 

Shyaicists, but workmen whose use of physical principles will be 
lunded by their application to their special trade. For the great 
danger of such teachers is that, carried away with enthusiasm for 
their own subject, they will not subordinate it properly to the end 
in view— viz. , helping the workman to know what will be useful to 
him in his work. Indeed, as Prof, Huxley pointed out in his 
original report to the Livery Companies' committee, " succeas in any 
form of practical life is not an affair of mere knowledge. Even in 
the learned professions, knowledge per *e is of less oonsequence than 
people are apt to suppose- ... A system of technical educa- 
tion may be so arranged as to help the scholar to use his intelli- 
gence, to acquire a fair store of elementary knowledge which shall 
be thorough as far aa it goes, and to learn to employ his hands, 
while leaving him fresh, vigorous, and content ; and such a system 
will render an invaluable service lo all those who come under its 
infiuence- But if, on the other hand, education lends to the 
enoouragement of bookishnees, if it sets the goal of youthful 
ambition, not in knowing, but in being able to pass an examina- 
tion, eepecially if it foaters the delusion that Drain work is in 
itself a nobler or more respectable kind of occupation than handi. 
work, and leads to the sacrifice of health and strength in the 
t of mere learning, then such a system may do incalculable 
and lead to the rapid ruin of the industries it is intended to 
serve." And I ventnre to think that not merely at technical 
schools for workmen, but at technical collies for engineers, it 
should be ever remembered that the main objeot of the training ia 
not the cultivation of mental gymnastics, but to enable the student 
to acquire knowledge and habits which shall be professionally 
useful to him in after life. 

" Useful learning nsefull; taught" would be no bad motto for 
technical institutions, seeing that thoae who favour the oompalsory 
teaching of Greek are apparently willing to accept the converse  
the motto for the university. For example, Mr. Butcher, in his 
address delivered at the end of last session at University Collie, 
Bangor, said, " We claim it as a distinction that in the seate of 
academic learning little or nothing useful ia taught " ; and in ao 
article in last month's Forlnightly AefMW, congratulating Cam- 
bridge on its recent victory over the barbarian, Mr. Bury saye, 
quite candidly, " Greek ia useless, but its uselessneas is the very 
strongest reason for its being a compulsory subject in the univer- 
sity course." And he add, in italics, " For Ihe (rue fimeiion of a 
tauitriiii/ u Ike Iraehing oftutlttt Uarmrtg." 

A few of the oounty councils have realised that the real teaching 
of the application of science to a speoiol industry, which ia what 



the British workman ia so much in need of, cannot be given, as 
well as a host of other sabjecte, out of limited fundB. For example, 
Bedfordshire has decided to spend its grant of £4,343 mainly on 
agricnltare, market gardening, the straw trade, domestic economy, 
and industries for women ; Cambridgeshire and Cheshire devote 
themselves largely to the teaching of agricultural pursuits. But 
other places aim at issuing vast comprehensive programmes 
and turning out yearly a mighty array of students, knowing, 
it may be, the something of everything, but who certainly 
will not know the everything of something. For example, 
the Holland division of Lincolnshire has decided, out of only 
£2,000 a year, to make grants for daily schools, university exten- 
sion and art schools, agricultural science, domestic economy, 
mechanics, commercial subjects, and ambulance teaching ; while 
Bootle, with a yearly expenditure of only the same amount, main- 
tains classes in five commercial subjects, in 16 science and art 
subjects, in cookery, wood -working tools, as well as four courses 
of university extension lectures. Because a certain building in 
Regent-street, famed for its ghost and its diving bell, was years 
ago named ** The Polytechnic," the majority of the new technical 
institutions which are being establishea in London at such vast 
cost are also called " iwly technics," and will, I fear, give only an 
English polytechnic course. Now, such recreative education, 
although admirable for those who seek relief from work in the use 
of their minds, is not generally sufficient for those of your work- 
men who use their minds in their daily occupation. 

It ought, then, to be thoroughly recognised that there is an 
entirely new problem to be solved, and that the solution of this 
problem, in so far as it has been worked out at the Finsbury 
College and at other places giving practical teaching in the 
evening, must, in the language of the mathematician, be regarded 
simply as " the singular solution," and not the general solution, of 
the problem of technically educating the British workman. Let 
us gratefully accept the English polytechnics, for they will 
undoubtedly confer benefit on our country, and all credit be to 
those who hiave so generously established them. But do not let us 
be misled by the similarity between their generic name and that of 
the Cj^rman ** polytechnicum " into fancying that the recreative 
courses of the one are equivalent to the serious education given by 
the other. Like Oliver Twist, let us ask for more, for, on behalf of 
the large number of minds already employed in the electrical 
industry, and on behalf of the still larger number that will in 
tbe future be so employed, it is our duty to secure that ample 
provision be made in this country for the practical teaching of 
electroteohnics on a scale comparable with tnat afforded in the- 
technical high schools of Germany and the institutes of technology 
of the United States. On the screen you see projected a photo- 
graph of the fa9ade of the Technical High School at Charlotten- 
burg (Berlin), which appears extensive and grand ; and yet, as 
you will see from the next photograph, it was only a small portion 
of the whole building that you were looking at on the first 
photc^raph. This is but one of the many technical high schools 
m dinerent towns of Germany, and yet it covers an area more 
than five times as large as that occupied by the Central Technical 
Institution in Exhibition-road, Lonoon, cost four times as much to 
erect, and has more than four times as much spent on its yearly 
maintenance. The next photograph shows a ouilding devoted 
wholly to the training of electrical engineers, being that of the 
Electro-Technical Institution Montefiore at Li^ge, which Prof. 
Cierard kindly took me over this last summer, ana which has since 
been opened. When I tell you that there are rooms for small 
direct-current dynamos, separate rooms for large direct-current 
dynamos, separate rooms for alternators, and tnat every three 
students have a separate little laboratory, with the necessary 
measuring instruments, all to themselves, your educational mouth 
will water, as mine did. 

We now cross the Atlantic to the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, Boston, which, as you see, consist of several distinct 
buildings, the centre one being that which contains the electrical 
laboratories. The dynamo-room, now seen on the screen, has 
many small and large dynamos in it, and yet there is ample room 
to walk about, for this dynamo-room occupies a space many times 
as large as that devoted to dynamos at theCentral Technicallnstitu- 
tion 01 London. Prof. Cross was so good as to mention in a letter 
that was shown me some two years ago, that several of the 
devices that had been worked out for the electrical laboratories 
of the City and Guilds Institute had been reproduced at Massa- 
chusetts ; but there is one device that Prof. Cross has succeeded 
in working out, and which I should be most glad to see copied by 
the City and Guilds Institute, and that is,naving one assistant 
for every five students working in the physical laboratories. 
Franklin Hall, presided over by Prof. Nichols, is devoted solely 
to the department of pure ana applied physics at the Cornell 
University, Ithaca. You see how large this four-storeyed building 
must be, tor look huw small the four-wheeled waggon standing in 
front of it appears. The next three photographs show some 
of the provisions made for teaching electrotechnics in Franklin 
Hall ; the electrical laboratory, under Prof. Moler ; and 
the dynamo-room under Prof. Ryan, whose analysis of 
alternate-current curves are well known to you all. I 
might show you photographs of the electrical laboratories in 
Prof. Weber's new building for physics at Zurich, on which 
£100,000 has been already expended. In fact, my choice of mag- 
nificent continental and American laboratories has been so great 
that I have hardly known which to select as specimens. But 
there is one thin^ I cannot show you—and it must remain for the 
exercise of your mfluence as repiresentatives of the electrical pro- 
fession to xnake that possible — the British electro-technical labora- 
tories for education and research which are truly worthy of 
LondoD, the capital of the world. 

The training of such students as those at the Central Institu- 
tion must, of course, differ essentially from that of the electrical 
artisan, not because we or the students expect that on entering a 
factory at the conclusion of their college course they will start, as 
a rule, much above the bottom of the ladder, but because they 
hope in time to be able to mount higher. They are, therefore, 
taught not merely to construct meters and motors, use dynamos 
and engines, build a chimney and lay a street main, but, as they 
are not to spend all their lives wiring houses or watching a 
central station voltmeter, they are well practised in calculatmg 
and designing, and they further obtain sufficient acquaintance 
with the methods of attacking new problems not to be daunted 
when they meet with them in after life. But so strong is 
becoming our belief in the value of science to the manufacturer, 
so anti-classical are some of us growing, that there is 
great risk that the literary side of the ^ucation of an electrical 
engineer will soon be wholly neglected. Now, important 
as it no doubt is for him to be quite at home with electrical 
apparatus and machinery, it is no less important, if he is to 
take advantage quickly of the progress made abroad, that 
he should be able to read a German or a French newspaper. 
I do not merely mean that with a grammar and dictionary, 
and plenty of leisure, he should be able to translate the newspaper, 
sentence by sentence, like a schoolboy preparing to-morrow's lesson, 
but that he should have the power to glance down the columns, 
gather the gist of the articles, and quickly see whether there be 
anything new that especially concerns him. How many electricians 
are there in this country who can, for example, take up the 
Ztiischrifl fUr Instrumentenkunde or the Electrotechnische Zeitschrt/t 
and look through their pages as they do those of the E/ectriciaii, the 
Electrical Rtvieic^ and the Electrical Engineer, during breakfast on 
Friday morning. There are, I know, a few — I wish I were one of 
them. And yet examples are not wanting of the scientific isolation 
that is caused by not possessing that familiarity with foreign 
languages which is such a characteristic of diplomatists and hotel 
waiters. Take, for instance, the fact that whereas manganin was 
manufactured on a commercial scale in Germany, and German 
resistance coils have for the last throe years been constructed of 
this material with a temperature coefficient of nearly zero, the 
very existence of this alloy was unknown to many English elec- 
trical instrument makers a few weeks ago ; and even now many of 
them are still unacquainted with the composition of manganin, 
and its peculiar properties, as well as with the results of the 
extensive and striking experiments that have been carried out at 
the Reichsanstalt at Charlottenburg on the temperature coefficient 
and specific resistance of all sorts of mauganin-copper-zinc-nickel- 
iron alloys. This Physikalisch-Technischen Reichsanstalt, I may 
mention, is an establishment totally distinct from the Technical 
High School in Charlottenburg, some photographs of which I 
showed you this evening. The Reichsanstalt is not an institution 
with students, but a vast series of Imperial laboratories, presided 
over by Prof, von Helmholtz, solely used for carrying out researches 
in pure and technical physics. The investigations are conducted 
under the direction ox Dr. Loewenherz, aided by 46 assistants. 
We have no establishment in Great Britain at all comparable 
with this Reichsanstalt. The original work turned out tnere in 
electrotechnics alone is considerable. Here are some of the 
published accounts of researches immediately bearing on your 
profession which Dr. St. Lindeck has been so kind as to send me : 
** Hardening Steel Magnets," '* Standard Resistance Coils for 
Large Currents," •* Tests of Commercial Ammeters and Volt- 
meters," "Mercury Standard of Resistance," ** Photometric 
Investigations," '* Compensation Apparatus for Use in P.D. 
Measurements," ** Alloys for Resistance Coils," and so on. Surely 
it is part of the technical education of the electrical engineer to 
be taught how to read such pamphlets as these with comparative 

A working knowledge of French and German can be obtained 
without the necessity of learning to express oneself fluently in 
epigrammatic French, or to imitate with facility the word-building 
of a native German ; and with such a working knowledge the 
average technical student may rest content. But as regards 
his own language he should aim at something higher, and 
therefore the e&ctrical engineering students of our country 
should be, I would urge, practised in writing — yes, and also 
speaking — vigorous English. Only the other day, Prof. Nichols, 
of the Cornell University, was deploring with me the rarity of 
finding a student of electrotechnics who could write a decent 
report. The experimental methods employed in the student's 
investigation might have been good, the mathematical analysis 
suitable, and the calculations exact ; but the description of the 
apparatus and of the results obtained would bo scattered pell-mell 
over the paper, as if the writer were quite ignorant of the fact 
that the style in which a dish is servea up is nearly as 
important as the goodness of its ingredients. Why do yon 
suppose that Huxley's portrait has nearly as much prominence 
given it in the photc^iiniupher's window as that of a duke 
or a ballet dancer? Quite as much because he knows how to 
express himself in terse and forcible English as on account 
of his wide scientific knowledge ; because even when writing about 
dry bones the flow of his language clothes them with rounded 
forms. But, you will ask, how are we to find the time for all this 
linguistic and literary polish ? Has the electrical student of to-day 
so many spare hours that fresh subjects of study must be sought 
for to fill up his leisure moments ? At present much time has to 
be wasted at technical and other colleges teaching students 16 
years or older elementary mathematics and science, which ought 
to have been mastered before that age. When the education of 
childhood is improved, when the higher education of women is 
properly carried out, there will be no need for male experts to 


troabte aboat ((eneriil training, for then children will spend leBs 
time at sohoal and Isarn more : boys and girls will oo h matter 
of couree ncqoiro the foundation of modern laQKOELgei Hiid general 
education : and Htudentx at a college wUl be able to devot« t>beir 
whole time to the special training— acientifio, manual, Unguiatic, 
and literary— which parlainH to the particular proleBsion which 
their special tastes will generally have led them to select before 
the age of 1 Q. 

And just aa methods of tenching applied ecienoe have been 
developed during the past few years, so I look forward to the 
growth of new methods of teaching what may be called applied 
Mteraturo, for it seems to me that there is a want of breadth 
in the view that because the study of Greek voree would be 
DnproStahle for a student of eleotrotechnics, and because he has 
neither the taste nor the time to enter into the Intricacies of 
etymology and grammar, therefore the study of modem laneuages 
and literature, even aa directly applicable to bis profession, 
should form no part oi his regular training. As well miglit it be 
thought (ancl 1 am sorry to say this view is no' yet quite 
exploded) that because a student has neither the teste nor 
the time for the study of abstract mathematics, therefore he 
elionld bo debarred from sJl work in a physical laboratory. Well, 
if it be generally accepted t^at altliough a young electrical 
engineer has no chance of becoming a Cayley or a Maxwell, still 
be ought to be taught such portions of mathematics and physics 
as will be directly useful to him in his profession, why should 
the certainty that he will neither become a Jebb nor a. Dickens 
lead us to tolerate an inability on his part to speak Quently and 
write tersely his own language, surpassed only by his entire 
Ignorance of every other ! Habits of scientific thought are highly 
necessary for electrical students : M be maators of their own 
longuBge, and to know something of one or two others, are, 1 venture 
to think, no less so ; bub the main result to be achieved, the main 
object Co be aimed at, with every system of education, is moral 
thoroughness, For until every workman, foreman, engineer, and 
manufacturer feels regret and pain at seeing work inetficiently 
performed our national system of education will he incomplete. 
All the labour now expended in watching work in progress, 
and in testing it when completed to see that it has not been 
acam|:>ed, is so much withdrawn from the re^l business of produc- 
tion. Every rise, therefore, in the standard o! thoroughness of a 
cximmunity moans the saving of waste labour. But lar greater 
than this will be the actual increase in the productive power when 
each gives hia best endeavours to his share of the world's work. 
And greatest of all will be the gain in the nation's happioess, 
aince lie who works with his whole soul knows no drudgery. The 
ieason to bo taught is no new one— it was set many centuries ago ; 
BJid hundreds of thousands a year will be well spent if the county 
eounciU can succeed in bringing home to the hearts of us all this — 
" Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might." 


A smoking concert will be held on Friday, February 5th, 1892, 
at the St, James's Hail Restaurant (Banquet* room). Regent -street, 
W., at eight o'clock. 

Artistes : Mr. Schartau's I'arb Singers, Mr. H. Scharbau, Mr. E. 
"Dal!»ll, Mr. W. Bradford, Mr. C. T. Johnson ; claruiet, Mr. L. 
Beddome : violin, Mr. T, E, Gatehouse ; solo pianist, Mr, Alfred 
E. Izard. Musical directors : Mr. T. E. Gatehouse and Mr. Alfred 
Izard. A Broadwood piano will ba used. The following is tbe 
programme : 

Pabt I. 

Flantotion Chorue "Dinah Doe" 

Mr. Scfaarbau'a Part Slagera. 

Clarinet Solo "Adelaida" Beethoven. 

Mr. Leonard Beddome. 

Song " By the Fountain " Adams. 

Mr. E, Dalzell, 

(a) Part Song " The Soldier's Farewell" MS. 

(b) Hnmorous Quartette..." The Franklyn's Dogge " 

Dr. A. C. Mackenzie. 
Mr. Sohartau's Part Singers. 

Pianoforte Solo " Variations Stfrieuses" Op. 57, Mendelssohn. 

Mr. Alfred Izard. 

Plantation Melody " Poor old Joe" Speoially arranged, 

Mr, Sohartau's Part Singers. 

Humorous Song "The General Election" MS. 

Mr. H. Schartau. 



,. German. 

Voool Polka "Trip, Trip" 

Mr, Sohartau's Part Stngets. 

Clarionet Solo "Lo I here the gentle lark " Bishop. 

Mr, L. Beddome. 

Song " Tbe Diver" Loder. 

Mr, W. Bradford. 

Mr, &hartau'a Part Singers, 

/ (a) " Largo " T Handet. 

\ (b) "Saltarella" } Fapini, 

Mr. T. E. Gatehouse. 

" The Pilgrim of Love." Bishop. 

Mr- E. UalwlL 

Mr, Scbaitau'B Part Slogen, 


The Cardiff authorities have been collocting information aa to 
electric lighting in other towns, and a report upon the subject wu 
before the Council at its last meeting. It appears that over 50 
towns have taken no steps whatever in the matter of lighting by 
electricity. Of the 16 boroughs whose replies are detailed, 
Accrington, Bradford, Brighton, Cambridge, Dover, Glasgow, 
Hastings, Huddersfield, Hull, Manchester, Richmond (Surrey), 
WalflolT, and WorceaWr, hav-e obtained provisional electric 
lighting orders, that of Brighton, though obtained in 
IS83, not being put in force till IH90. Neither Bognor, 
Eastbourne, nor Leamington has obtained suoh orders, Bognor is 
to be supplied by the Electric Trust Company, whose order pro- 
vides for supply of public lamps by agreement, for a charge ot 
l.'^s. 4d, per quarter for any amount up to 20 units, and 8d. 

Cer unit over that number. Eastbourne parades are lit 
y the Eastbourne Electric Lighting Company, whose ore 
and incandescent lamps are placed 1(KI yards apart, tbe ebaree 
both for public and private supply being lOd, per unit. T^e 
light, it is said, given every satisfaction, but it is admitted to 
be costlier than gas. At Leamington a private, and not a public, 
supply is provideil by a private company at a charge ot Sd. 
per unit. At Bradford the scheme is nob in operation as Ear ae 
regards street lighting. The erection of works cost £.^,213 ; 
mains, £3,361 ; machinery, etc., £24,354 ; and boilers and fittings, 
£3,IT4, making a total of £30,102. The sum borrowed total&d 
£34,342, the period allowed for repayment being 30 years. 
The light is also not used for street illumination at Brigbton, 
where the cost is estimated at £35,000, in addition to £2,600 for 
land. 'ThesystemadoptediE that of low-tension continuoug current, 
supplemented by storage batteries. The charge is 7d. per Board of 
Trade unit, the same charge being made fortho supply formotive 
purposes. Cambridge has juBtappIied for power to borrow £35,000 ; 
whilst at Dover the powers obtained by the Corporation 
are about to be transferred to the Brush Company. No 
works have yet been constructed, and no streets are yet lighted at 

>ntmeted with a focal company for lighting 15 
lamps on the parade at £30 per lamp per annum. The Hudders- 
lield CorporatioD has entered into a contract for the erection 
of plant, and are applying for power to borrow £50,000. The 
Lighting Committeo of the Hull Corporation are only about to take 
the initiative. They do not intend to light the streets at present, 
'"'"''"'' lUs been 

but only to supply private customers. Thesuro of £22,000 hi 
granted by the Council. Thesystom is the low-pressure cont 
current, and the price Td. per unit. At Manchester a consulting 
engineer has been appointed, a site for a central station obtainedj 
and plans and speciGcationE ore now being prepared. Richmond 
has entered into a contract with a comfiany who have laid the 
wires. At Walsall a committee has reported in favour of carrying 
out the pi'ovisional order nt once, at a total estimated cost m 
£21,450, Thosystem has not yet been settled. The Worcester 
Corjioration is also about to ostablish the necessary works to pub 
their provisional oi'der into force, and at the beginning of this 
month advertised for tenders for constructing works for tbe 
central portion of the city. These tenders are to be in by 
February 14. 



The annual ordinary meeting of this Company was held at the 
St. .James's Hall Eoataurant, Piccadilly, VV., on Tuesday after- 
noon, 26th inst, , the chairman, Mr. Eustace J. A, Balfour, 

The Seorstarr, Mr. F, J. Walker, having read the notice con- 
vening the meeting, and tbe Directors' report ha\ing been taken 

The Cluttman said : The next business of the meeting is the 
proposal that the report and accounts for the year ending 
December 31st, IS91, aa submitted by the Directors, bo received 
and adopted, and that the dividends recommended therein be 
declared and paid on the 1st February, 

This was seconded by Hr, Latimer Clark. 

then said : 1 don't think it is very necessary for 

the whole gives such information as it is desirable should bo 
placed in the hands of the public Perhaps the most important 
event of the year was the raising of the £10U,00U of additional 
capital in the form of preference shares for tho completion of the 
northern station. The lust £50,000 of this was largely over- 
subscribed at a premium of 30e., a fact wbioh, t think, indicates 
that both tho shareholders and the public in Keneral show ereat 
conBdence in the soundness of the business of the Company, This 
sum of £100,000 will, as yon are aware, be chieSy, and has been 
portly, devoted to the purchase of the site for, and the erection of, 
our northern station. We expect this station when erected 
to be probably the beet of ite kind in the world, as it will 

We electrical engineer, januarV 29, 1892. il7 

contftLD all the aooumulAted expeiieDce that we have gained in the 
erection of oar present station, as well as that which other com- 
panies have gained in similar work. The machinery sufficient 
to famish about 20,000 8-c.p. lamps is already nearly completed 
for that station, and will be placed in position as soon as the 
building is ready to receive it. It mav be of interest to the share- 
holders to know that a large part of this machinery was running 
and supplying light at the Naval Exhibition, and that we have 
therefore this flwdvantage in purchasing it — I may sa^ it was 
purchased before it went there, and belonged to us while it was 
there — it has been running for this time without hitch or flaw, and 
we took it over, not as new experimental material, but as having 
been actually tried and found entirely satisfactory. A great feature 
in the system which we are now developing is what we call the 
g^reat trunk main, which is already partially made, and which 
will connect the northern station with the existing station 
in Mason's-yard. It has a section of eight square inches, 
and is probably the largest main ever made. It is capable 
of carrying a current sufficient to supply 25,000 lamps. 
The importance of this cannot be over-estimated, because, well as 
our present station has worked up to the present time, and well as 
we expect it to work, it is impossible to suppose that it will not or 
niav not be necessary to carry out repairs in it which mav involve 
its being shut down for a short time. When this main nas been 
constructed, and when the northern station is in working order, 
we shall be in a position during the slack months of the year to 
shut down either one station or the other for any repairs that may 
be desirable, and bo work entirely from the one that is not shut 
down, and that without any alteration in the supply of the light 
in the consumers' houses. An eminent electrician connected with 
electric lighting told me some months ago that he thought that 
all new electric light stations should be buUt with two chimney 
shafts. Whether he is right or not in his opinion I do not venture 
to say, but the system that we propose to adopt combines all the 
conditions of his proposal and a number of others besides, in 
addition to being much more economicaL I don't think I need 
add anything more on the particular subject of the working of the 
Company during the past year, but I should like before I sit down 
to touch upon a matter which I regard as of very great importance, 
not only to this Company but to all electric lighting companies, and 
to the whole question of the electric lighting of the Metropolis — I 
refer to the legislation under which we have obtained our pro- 
visional order. When legislation was first of all started with 
respect to electric lighting, in the year 1882, the term fixed for 
the expiry of a license W€ks seven years. That is to say, licenses 
could oe terminated by a local authority or the Board of Trade in 
seven years. This legislation seems to have been passed under 
a sort of morbid terror that electric light companies were 
going to become enormous corporations with great powers 
. of monopoly. A provisional oraer under the same Act was 
limited to 21 years. The result of this extraordinary Act 
was that everyliody who had invested their money in electric 
lighting concerns, lost it, and that the public was kept out of 
electric lighting for several years, London thereby becoming far 
behind any other capital in Europe in this matter, and far behind 
many towns and villages in the west of America. Under the 
present Act we have our provisional order lasting for 42 years, 
out that provisional order, and all provisional orders, are subject 
to two conditions : Firstly, that tne Board of Trade can revise 
rates at the end of every seven years. That is to say, the Board of 
Trade can step in and say to us, *' You are charging too 
much " at the end of every seven years of our tenure l^^inning 
from 1889 ; and secondly, that the Boird of Trade has 
arranged to put into every parish, or district, or area in London 
at least two electric light companies. Now, if you will 
consider these points for a moment, I think you will see 
that they act first of all against the consumer indirectlv, and also 
against the electric light companies. As we have only a termi- 
nable lease of life of & years, it is absolutely necessary for us to 
put by what we have termed a redemption fund, calculated to be 
sufficient to replace the deficit in the capital account, which we 
anticipate at the end of 42 years, when we shall or may be obliged 
to hand over our business at a valuation to the local authority, 
which has the option of purchasing. If our tenure were perma- 
nent, after paying to our shareholders a reasonable dividend, we 
could use the amount of this redemption fund in reducing the 
cost of the light. In the present year, I think, making a rough 
calculation, I may say that even if we paid to our present 
shareholders the same dividend as we propose to pay, we 
should have been able to reduce the cost of the light to the 
consumers about one penny out of every seven. Consequently, the 
power of septennial revision introduces an element of uncertainty 
into the business, which must be injurious to all the interests con- 
cerned. Nor IS it likely that this revision can be made to work in 
a practical manner. Had the Board of Trade seen fit to grant 
oompleto monopolies in every district — tiiat is, one company in 
eveiy district — subject to some scheme of revision on a previously 
defined sliding scale, such a systom might, I think, have been 
foand to work. But as it is, on what basis are they going to 
revise T Supposing we have a casein one district, say a London 
parish, of two oompanies, one of which has paid on an average for 
the seven years a cuvidend of 20 per cent., and the other during 
the same period a dividend of 2 per cent. Is the Board of Trade 
going to insist upon the reduction of the cost of electric lighting 
becaose one company is paying and the other is not ? In 
that case you might find the shareholders of the company 
that had paid a small dividend absolutely ruined. In 
fact, th^ (the Board of Trade) cannot get out of this, 
they will either be hard or unfair upon one of the companies, or 
upon the oonsamers in the dtstriot. In fact, I may say with 

respect to this, it is quito clear that the two systoms which they 
have adopted of what they torm limited competition and of revision 
of rates, are absolutoly inconsistent. Now, lastly, the systom of 
limited competition is injurious alike to consumer and producer, 
in that it makes it necessary to earn a dividend on a much larger 
capital than would be necessary to supply a district. Supposing 
you have two electric light stations ana two sets of mains m one 
district, instead of one. The amount supplied in the district is 
the same, but the dividends have to be earned on a capital 
which, I think, I am not overstating to be at least half 
as much again as is required. You have, in addition 
to that, the disadvantage that the streets are pulled up 
twice .for every time they ought to be, and you have also to 
consider that the initial expenses of a company have to be twice 
incurred, and these, gentlemen, are items which are very much 
larger than those who are not in the middle of the business are apt 
to think. I have no more to say, but I hope that if shareholders 
have any remarks to make or questions to put they will kindly 
do so. 

Colonel Franola said he had some remarks to make as to the 
accounts, and some questions to ask, which he considered he was 
entitled to have answered in bis own interest, and in that of large 
shareholders who had become interested in the Company on his 
recommendation. As to that paragraph of the report in which the 
net earnings of the Company during the past year were stated to 
be £10,395, be said that the net earnings of the Company for 
that period had been £15,409, and that part of the law 
charges item, £558, which included any expenses incurred 
in 1890, ought not to come out of the revenue of 1891. 
He had added to the net earnings, as stated in the paragraph, 
the total amount of the depreciation and redemption funds. 
His reason being as follows : He found that the very 
large sum of £1,702 had been charged during the year to the 
repair of machinery. When he was a director of the Company he 
consulted the makers of the machinery, and they informed him 
that if it were kept in perfect repair the depreciation was very 
slight. He (the speaker) held that a sum of 6 per cent, on the 
whole of the machinery would be ample for the purpose of 
depreciation. At all events he asked on what calculations the 
enormous sum of £4,013 (depreciation on buildings and machinery) 
had been worked out, if the sum of £1,702 had been spent on 
repairs? Had the original articles of association remamed in 
force and not been altered, it would have been impossible 
to introduce such a charge as the redemption fund. They 
would see by referring to tbem that a reserve fund could 
only be applied for purpose.^ indicated by a resolution of the 
Company in general meeting. This was article 76, old form, 
which had now been cut adrift. The painful impression of last 
year still remained, he believed, in the minds of shareholders. It 
was represented to them in the concluding paragraph of the report 
for 1890 that, in order to obtain a quotation on the Stock Exchange, 
it was necessary to remodel the articles of association. It was 
then discovered that the omission of the words ** not to exceed 
£1,500 " placed the shareholders at the mercy of the Directors. 
He wi<«hea to know the grounds on which the Directors said that 
there would be loss of capital at the expiration of the term covered 
by the 'provisional order. He had compared Section A, revenue 
account (cost of generation and distribution of electricity), for 
1890 and 1891. The difiference was more than double. He 
thought there would be no reason for surprise at this if 
there had been a large increase in the items of coal 
and labour. But he found that the enormous increase in 
this matter of expenses was otherwise carried out, the coal 
and labour charges only counting for £3,200. Turning to the 
capital account, he found that the sum of £20,297 had been paid 
for the new site of the northern station. They would remember 
that Mason's-yard cost £9,500, and that a site within 50 yards of 
the present one was obtained while he was a director of the 
Company for £1,100 and £100 a year, in Canton-street, which was 
nearly as lar^e and as suitable. He had had the present site 
(northern station) valued by the most experienced surveyor of the 
parish, and he placed its value at £8,000. The offices of the St. 
James's Company were small in size, and, so far as he had observed, 
plain in appearance. There were three small rooms. However, 
the Directors had managed to spend £715 on furniture. Machinery 
and plant were spoken of as costing £12,000. Was that machinery 
in the new station or had it been supplied for the original one T 
Could not the capital accounts of the two stations be kept separate, so 
that shareholders might know exactly what each one was to coet ? 
Now as to the financial arrangements of the Company ;|£100,000 had 
been obtained from shareholders for preference shares, paying 
interest at 7 per cent. At the time that tnis was proposed there was 
considerable opposition to it, for it was perfectly well known that 
the money coula have been raised at 5 per cent. In fact, an offer 
of £50,000 at that rate had been made to the Directors and was 
spoken of at the last meeting. However, it was urged that if the 
sum was large, at any rate the original shareholders would benefit 
by the transaction. The original debenture holders who had 
power to convert did benefit, and in his opinion this transaction 
was executed for their benefit. Of this amount, it appeared that 
£27,000 were on deposit at Messrs. Lloyd's bank. He would 
like to know at what interest? The £15,000 premium that 
had been obtained by the issue of the second lot of shares 
was placed at 2^ per cent. He thought it was absolutely 
necessary in any case that the shareholders should obtain 
information of what was going on more than once a year. 
£353 had been spent for printing and adverUslng. He might 
be unfortunate, but he had never seen any advertisement of 
the Company's in any paper. Neither he nor anv other share- 
holder had r«oeived any commanioation as to what had been going 


on in the Company since the last meeting. They were in absolute 
ignorance, and remained in the Directors' hands. He did not 
tnink it ought to last. He would ask, upon what scale had the 
Directors gone in forming their estimates of depreciation on 
machinery and buildings? Had the whole of the sura of £558 
become due for law char^^ in 1891 ? On what j^rounds did the 
Directors represent that there would be loss of capital at the 
expiration of the term covered by the general order? What 
course did the Directors intend to pursue in relation to their fees ? 
Did they intend to replace the words '* not to exceed £1,500 " in 
the paragraph of the articles of association bearing on this matter ? 
As printing was charged at the rate of £350 a year, would the 
Directors see that a fuU report of each meeting was sent to the 
shareholders? He thought those gentlemen who lived in the 
country and sent in proxies to the Directors, should have a fair 
and distinct report of that meeting. Would the Directors arrange 
that a meeting be held twice each year, in January and July ? 
What amount was paid for the new site (of the northern station) ? 
Who was the venaor? What surveyor acted on behalf of the 
Company, and recommended that sum to be paid ? What sum 
was to be paid under the contract for building the new station ? 
What sum would be spent on machinery? Could not the capital 
account of the two stations be kept separate ? And then came 
the old question of the 18 founders' shares which were, as he firmly 
believed, most improperly and illegally handed over to the 
Debenture Corporation by its trustees ? He had been to great 
expense about this matter, and had consulted counsel, who said 
all that he had got to do was to bring an action, and that no judge 
or jury could by any possibility sanction the proceeding. What 
did the Directors intend to do on that point ? 

• Ur. MnlrlieAd objected to their meeting in a public- house in 
the West-end instead of in the City, which would be much more 
convenient. He observed that it had deprived them of the attend- 
ance of two Directors (Mr. Kirby and Mr. Clarke). (It was 
explained that Mr. Kirby was detained in the Law Courts as a 
witness). He did not think the accounts were at all an exhibition 
of economy or management. He particularly pointed out the items 
for repairs and depreciation, and what he termed the " ridiculous " 
redemption fund. For this latter he could see no reason, 
because he presumed that Company was bound by Section 
2 of the Electric Lighting Act of 1888. In that Act it 
was provided that should the property of the Company be 
taken over by the local authority tne price to be paia was a 
fair market value at the time of purchase. He thought 
this value would be par at least. He observed that at compound 
interest the amount put by would rise beyond the requirements of 
the case — £95,000, he was understood to say. The law charges 
were preposterous. He thought the Chairman had taken an 
altogether pessimistic view, though he could quite understand 
that he dia not want to make the best of the case, because the 
Board of Trade might be down on him. It was no use their 
knocking their heads against the Board of Trade ; the Company 
were bound to conform with their requirements. It was to be 
regpretted that they had the power to revise the Company's rates 
in seven years, but they would have to face that when it came. 
He didn't think the Board of Trade would be hoodwinked by 

Mr. George Freenuui thought their meetings ought to be held 
in the City, and that a verbatim report should be sent to the 
shareholders. He asked a question as to the interest on founders' 
shares, and the undivided profit account for founders' and ordinary 

Mr. Boraie wanted to know from the solicitor to whom the 
redemption fund would belong at the end of the concession — would 
it belong equally to founders and ordinary shares ? 

The Chalmuui said if there were no other €|uestions he would 
go through those asked, as far as might be, sertaim. One or two 
of them, however, required a little reference to figures and the 
articles, so that he would have to consult his co- Directors as to 
the answers. First, on what scale was the estimate of depreciation 
formed ? The matter was discussed with extreme care, and the 
scale adopted was the ordinary one in businesses of this character — 
viz t 1 per cent, on mains, 2^ per cent, on dynamos, general 
machinery, and plant ; lOpercent. on accumulators, etc. ; 15 percent, 
on boilers, and & per cent, on meters. Secondly, had the whole sum 
of £558 for law charges become due on the face of the accounts ? 
This was not so. On what grounds did the Directors represent loss 
of capital ? The Directors^ground was that it was notorious that 
it would be so, and they had taken it up under the best advice. 
They had discussed the matter for a very lonj^ time, and had come 
to that conclusion. Next, as to what course the Directors intended 
to pursue as to their fees ? The answer to that question was given 
to Mr. Muirhead at the end of the last special meeting. 

The BoUoitor then answered Mr. Muirhead's objection to 
patting aside money in a redemption fund, because the 1888 Act pro- 
vided tor the purchase of the Company's business at a fair market 
value, arguing that it was the *' then " value, and that the section 
should be re^ as a whole. Mr. Mnlrliead, however, reiterated 
his conviction that their property would be worth par at the end 
of the term, and might be at 100 per cent, premium. This dis- 
cussion having terminated. 

The Cbalrman said the next question was, did the Directors 
intend to replace the words in the articles, " not to exceed 
£1,500"? The Directors had no such intention. As to the 
printing charges, the Directors would consider the question 
of sendmg out a full report to shareholders. But, having regard 
to the fact that the printing expenses were high, they would 
hesitate to add to them. Would the Directors arrange for a 
meeting twice a year ? They were quite prepared to consider that 
question. But, of coarse, having those meetings added enormously 

to the labour of the clerical staff and took up time. (A 
holder : We pay for extra labour. Are we not to know what we 
are doing every half-year?) The Directors would consider the 
matter. The Cfhairman, returning to the list of Questions, What 
was the amount paid for the new site ? How lonjg nad the vendors 
held the property, and who was the surveyor? The amount paid 
was about £^,000. He did not know how long the vendors had 
held, but they were old holders, and there was a large number of 
them. The surveyor was Mr. Wilkinson, of 7, Poultry, E.C. 
The sum paid for the building contract was about £ 19,(X)0. He could 
not say at that moment what sum had been spent on machinery, 
because they had not decided upon how much machinery was 
to be put in. That would depend upon the demand. 
As to the capital accounts of the two stations, the accounts were 
all kept in acdOriance with Board of Trade rules, and were audited 
by that Board. Answering the question. Why did they meet 
there (in the St. James's Restaurant) ? the Chairman said it was 
because they were inside their own district, because the owner of 
the premises was a good customer, because it was close to the 
station, and because the Board thought it desirable to do so. The 
meeting, he remarked, was divided on the point whether they met 
there or in the City. If, however, the majority of shareholders 
would let the Board know that they preferred the meeting held 
elsewhere, they would meet them in the matter. As to what 
would happen at the end of the term of 42 years, supposing they 
were bought up by the local authority, to the surplus, if any, that 
accumulated, it would be divided in the proportion of 25 per cent, 
to the holders of vendors' share6,after paying back all capital to all 
shareholders. Having answered all the questions, with one 
exception, as he said, the Chairman put the resolution adopting 
the report and accounts, and declarea it carried. So far as we 
could ascertain, there were 24 in favour and three against. 

The CtaAlrman next proposed the re-election of the retiring 
directors, Messrs. Egerton H. Clarke and H. Woodburn Kirbv, 
but at the request ofa shareholder, put the names separately. On 
his moving the reelection of Mr. Clarke, 

Mr. Homan moved as an amendment that Mr. E. Clarke be not 
re-elected on the Board. Two of the Directors, he said, were not 
there (Mr. Clarke and Mr. Kirby), and they ought to have been. 
(The CtaAlrman here interposed, by reading a letter from Mr. 
Kirby stating his regret that he did not think he would be able to 
be present, as he was summoned as a witness at the Law Courts.) 
Whereupon Mr. Homan said he was perfectly satisfied with that 
explanation. Had the Chairman a similar letter from Mr. 
Egerton Clarke? (The Chatrmaii said he had not.) Continuing, 
the speaker said that last Friday week, the 15th inst., being the 
day on which the Directors met to discuss the question of a 
dividend, Mr. Egerton Clarke actually sold on the Stock 
Exchange one founder's share, and having done so, came to the 
Board meeting to decide what the dividend on the founders' shares 
should be. Was that fair, equitable, or straightforward ? ^ That 
was not a speculative company, but one in which they considered 
they could put their money safely, and believed that when all 
differences of opinion were removed they would settle down into a 
steady dividena-paying concern. He thought, however, thev had 
a right to expect that they had men on their Board who would not 
use the information they received as a means of jobbing in founders' 
or any other shares. Mr. Clarke sold the share at £355 ; the 
speaker was the buyer, so he knew something about it, though it 
was not bought for himself. Immediately afterwards the price 
went down to £270. He could not account for this, except that 
Mr. Clarke was about the Stock Exchange, he believeci, as a 
buyer. He most strongly opposed Mr. Egerton Clarke's re-election 
to the Board. 

This was seconded by Mr. Miilrlie»d with the greatest possible 
pain and r^ret, because he would have liked to see Mr. Clarke 
present to answer or himself. At the same time there were 
certain facts concerning that Company which would not bear the 
lieht of day. 

The CtaAlrman said he was extremely sorry that question should 
have arisen, and was still more sorry that Mr. Clarke was not 
there to answer the allegations. He (the Chairman) had not the 
faintest notion that he was not coming. Of course he knew abso- 
lutely nothing of what went on on the Stock Exchange. He 
never went near it. But he could say that Mr. Clarke did not 
know what the resolution of the Board was going to be when he 
came into the room on that day (January 15). Was any notioe 
given to him that it was intended to oppose his re-election ? 

Mr. Honuui : No ! Why should notice be given ? His duty is 
to be here. 

Mr. Davids asked whether the Board had at any previous 
meeting had any idea how the accounts were going to turn out. 

The Chalmuui said the accounts were made up that very 
morning, and it was impossible for any Director to have a notion 
how they would turn out. 

Mr. Davids : But the probable result had been discussed ? 

The Clialrmaa : No. The auditor, who was there, would tell 
them when the accounts were made up. Not one of the points as 
to dividends, etc., were settled until the afternoon of the above- 
mentioned day. (Several shareholders : Were they discussed ?) 

Mr. Bomaa said his point was that Mr. Clarke thought it 
advisable to sell his share. They had some reason to presume 
that he had a reason for selling it. Why did he do so ? This ought 
to be explained by him in person. 

Sir Jobn Morris asked whether Mr. Clarke did not offer to buy 
back the bhare after selling it. 

Mr. Homaa said he could not tell. 

The Clialmuuft said he could safely say that the amount of the 
redemption fund was never discussed by any member of the Board 
before that afternoon, nor the amount of the dividend. 



OtaamM FMaola Mked who Haggerted the redemption fund if it 
wa* oerar diaoiuoed ! He did not wuh to Imply that the Chairman 
was not stating what wu Dot the case. 

The Clwlrauui said that be said the amounf bad not been 
diacoased. Aa a matter of fact, the queBtlon of putting by that 
Bam of money was dircuraed when he (Colonel Franeii) vm on the 

Colout rt«nol« stated that when he was a director it was said, 
What ve will do it this ; we mnM not give too Ut^e dividends to 
■hareholders. Ws can give ourselves, aa Directors, larca fees— 
that, on my honour, is what occurred— it is easy enough to 
manafre it. 

The OhBinww asked if Colonel Francis was speaking to any 
particular motion, to which the Colenel replied. " No ; I am only 
Answering queattonB." 

The Chairman then put the amendment that Mr. Clarke be not 
re-elact«d a director, which was carried, there being apparentW 
20 in favour and thrse agningt it. He then, after a pause, staWd 
that the Board thouBht it necessary to demand a poll. In ansirer 
to a Shareholder, who asked it the Directors were going to use 
their proxies in favour of Mr. Clarke, he said that the Directors 
wouta consider tbat point. Subsequently, he said they would 
not use their nroniea for votinj; on this question. In order to 
Kive time to all parties to consider the matter, they had decided 
tjut the poll should take place that day week between the hours 
of three and half-past. (On the suggeabion of a shareholder this 
was altered to between three and four), ab the Company's offices. 
He hoped this would close the unpleasant incident for the time at 
any rato. He would be glad to appoint Mr. Homan scrutineer on 
one side, and the auditor on the other. This was agreed to. 

The OlutlrDuui then proposed tbe re-election of Mr, Kirby as a 
director, which was seconded and carried unanimously, as also 
was the re-election of tbe auditors. This, he said, concluded the 
bosinesB of the mtetii^. There was one thing he would 
like to say, and that was tbat the thanks of tbe shareholders 
wera due to their manager and secretary, Mr. Walker : their 
engineer, Mr. Dobson, and also to the staff for the energy and 
ability they had displayed. Night aftor night the staff had had 
to work up till 12 o'clock, becaase they could not get mare people 
into the room at their disposal, Mr- Dobson, who bad charge of 
the machinery and so on, had produced results which were shown 
by the report. He thought cretlit was often given to the Chairman 
and Directors when a large p«rt of it ought to fall to the staff. 
This was carried by acclamation, and the proceedings torminat«d 
with a unanimous vote of thanks to the Chairman. 



The report of tbe Directors, which is to be presented to the 
half-yeau-ly meeting of the proprietors held to-day (Friday), states 
that tbe total receipts from the IsC JalytotheSIst December, 
ISQl, including the balance of £527 brought forward from the last 
account, amounted to £164,121. This sum, however, is subject to 
revision, as tbe lawsuit between this Company and the Paris and 
New York Telegraph Company is still pending before tbe Coart of 
AppftoL The traffic receipts show on increase of £6,157 as com- 
pat^ with the corresponding period of Ust year, but this sum 
includee the adjustment of bnlances to 30tb June lost. The total 
expenses of the half-year, including repair of cables, etc., as shown 
by ths revenue account, amount to £63,507. Interim dividends of 
12s. 6d, per cent, on tbe ordinary stock, and £1. Ss, per cent, on tbe 
preferred stock, were paid on tbe 3lBb October last, aiisorbing 
£43,750, leaving a balance of £56,864, out of which the Directors 
recommend the proprietors to declare Hnal dividends of 16s. per 
eent. on the ordinary stock, and £1. 12s. per cent, on the preferred 
stock, amounting to £66,000, making a total distribution for tbe 
year ended the Slst December, 1801, of £2. 12s. 6d, per cent, on 
the ordina^ stock, and £5. 5s. per cent, on the preferred stock, 
leaving £864 to be carried forward to tbe nextaccount. The Com- 
pany's repairing steamship " Minia " has been engaged during the 
post half-year in the repair of tbe 1880 cable, the Bresb-St. Pierre 
cable, tbe North and South Placentia cables, and the Duxbury 
cable. Tbe "Minia" has also been employed in laying a 
cable from North Sydney, Cape Breton, to Canso, Nova Scotia, 
ooonecting this Company's systom with the Westorn Union 
Company's cables between Canso and New York, thus proriding 
ao additional and altornalive routo, which, in the event of sudden 
pressure of business, or breakdown on the land lines, will be of 
great value, Tbe new linecompletes through cable communicatioo 
between England and New York City, The cost of Che new cable 
has been charged to renewal fund. The Company's cables and land 
lines are in good working order, with bbe exception of the Brest- 
St. Pierre cable, which was again broken on t^e ISth November 
last, at about 27'i miles from Brest, It is expected thab bbe law- 
suit still pending bebween the Anglo Company and the Paris 
and New York Telegraph Company will be argued before the 
Appeal Court of Paris during ths course of Cbe coming month. 


Report of the Directors for tbe half-year ending December Slsb, 

1891, to be submitted to tbe Bfteentb ordinary genenil meeting of 

the Company, to be held at Wincheetor House, on Tuesday next, 

February Snd, at 12 o'clock. 

IHrectore ■. Messrs, Charles Orey Matt (churman), Harrow 
Weald Lodge, Stanmore ; Charles Seymour Grenfell, Elibank, 
Taplow ; Sampson Hanbury, L&ngford Park, Maldon, " 

- „ - period _, 

£15,516. 98. Sd., leaving a net proBt of £4.727. 5s, 8d, Including 
the amount brought forward from last half-year, the net revenue 
account shows a balance of £G,3'26, Os. 9d, ; of this amount the 
debenture interest absorbs £4,Ii04. 10s., leaving a balance available 
for dividend of £1,021. lOs, 9d., out of which it is recommended 
that the full dividend of 5 per cent, be paid on the perpetual 
preference shares, and although the balance remaining would 
allow of a very small dividend on the ordinary shams, it is recom- 
mended that it be carried forward to tbe next account Tbe 
number of passengers carried by the railway in the past hotf-yeoi 
was 2,749,055, showing an increase over the previous six months 

3, after I 

I the 

consideration, found it necessary to vary the fares e 
static ns between stated hours, with a result advantageous to the 
Company and to the comfort of bbe travelling public. To meet 
the convenience of residents along the line, a system of season 
tickets bos been in operation since the Ist November lost. Not- 
withstanding a considerable increase in the rates and toxes and 
other items over wliich your Directors have no control, they have 
sabisfocbion in reporting that the total expendituie shows a small 
decrease over Chat of the previous halF-year, and it is hoped that 
some further reductions may stilt be maide. The rolliug-stock has 
recently been increased by the addition of the two new locomotives 
referred to in the last report, which it is hoped will give 
greator power and speed in working ths trains, and the six 
addibioniLl carriages have also been delivered, Tbe fourth 
engine and dynamo are now in course of erection for the 
generating station. During the past three months the 
traffic of the railway bos shown a marked and satisfactory 
increase, which there is every reason to hope will continue and be 
still further augmented. To meet this growing traffic, arrange- 
ments ore in progress for providing a more frequent train servioe 
during the busiest hours of the day. Aftor the experience of the past 
year, there is every reason to be satisfied with bbe useof electricity 
as a motive power for tbe working of this railway, and for a coo- 
fidenb belief that when all bbe details are Cully perfected it will be 
found to be at once safe, convenient, and economical. The diffi- 
culties which have been experienced in dealing with the increasine 
traffic at the King William-street Station, owing to its confined 
dimensions and tbe steep incline leading to it, have induced your 
Directors to deposit a Bill by which they seek parliamentary 

Ewers to make a foot subway connecting the torminus of the 
ndon, Brighton, and South-Coast Railway Company at London 
Bridge with the station already authorised to be constructed 
at the corner of Denman- street, and also to construct two 
additional tunnels under the river with easy inclines to a central 
station at the comer of Lombard- Street, and tbence under MoorgaU- 
Bbreet to The Angel at Islington, where ample siding room can 
be obtained at a small cost. These proposals meet with the 
approval of the Directors of the London, Brighton, and South 
Coaat Railway, and will bring upon the line a very large and 
proHtable braibc, and ab tbe same time reduce oonsiderably the 
cost of working tbe existing railway. It is also proposed to 
construct an inclined footway connection between this Company's 
station and the Monument Stotion of the Metropolitan aj^ the 
Metropolitan District Railways, and powers for that purpose are 
included in tbe Bill. Tbe Bill will be submitted for your approv^ 
at the conclusion of the half-yearly meeting. Owing to obher 
engagements, Mr. Alexander Hubbaid has resigned bis seat ab 
tbe Board, and the vacancy thus caused has been filled by the 
election of Mr. Edwin Tato, of 21, Mincing-lane, London. The 
director retiring it Mr. Charles Cirey MotC, who is eligible for 
re-election. The auditors retire and areaisoeligible for re-election. 

The stotoment of capital shows tbe total authorised capital to be 
£1,025,000— vU, : £800,000 in sbaros, and £226,000 in loons. 
£629,902 has been received in ordinary shares, leaving £20,000 
unissued, and £0,216 in preference shores, leoving £140,380 
unissued, the total share capital received being £639,118, and the 
amount unissued £160,380, An amount of £171, tnO has been 
raised by loans, leaving available borrowing powers at December 
31 lost to tbe extont or£S3,400. The total expenditure on capital 
account to December 31, 1891, was as follows : On linee open for 
traffic, £306,301 ; lines iu course of construction, £7,942 ; and 
working stock, £34,100, a totol of £846,344. Of this sum £825,828 
was spent in the half-year ended June 30, 1991, and £22,516 in 
tbe half-year to December last. The total estimated expenditure 
on capital account during the ensuing half-yeor is £19,500, mada 
up as follows: Lines open, £10,000 ; lines in course of construction, 
£5,000 1 rolling-stock, £4,500. Subsequent half-years are debited 
with an esbimoted capital expenditure on lines under construction 
of £145,000. To meet Chis further expenditure the oooounts show 
capital powers and other ovailable assets to the sxtont of £178,505. 
Maintonance of way and works, eto., during the fa^-year cost 
£491, of which £359was for wages and £75 for materials. Loco- 
mobive and generating power cost £6,199, of which £100 was for 
salaries, £5,879 for running expenses (Including £3,258 for WBMa 
and £1,985 for coal and coke), and £219 for repairs and renswSs. 
Carriage repairs and renewals cost £.165. Traffic expenses absorbed 
£8,369, of which £.1,950 was for salaries, wages, etc, and £I,S69 
for hydraallce. General charges ocoount for £1,522, of which 


£650 went to Directors, £434 to salaries, and £272 to ofiBce ex- 
penses. We give below in detail the revenue account and the 
general balance-sheet. 

Revenxte Acxx>unt fob tub Half-Ybab ending Dec. 31st, 1891. 

Dr. £ s. d. 

Maintenance of way, works, and stations , 491 4 7 

Locomotive and generating power 6,199 12 11 

-  ' 365 10 

6,369 8 

1,522 3 6 

66 12 4 

91 18 6 

410 9 

Carriage and waggon repairs 

Traffic expenses 

General charges. 

Law charges .... 


Rates and taxes. 

Balance carried to net revenue account 

Cr. £ s. d. 

Passengers — 

2,749,055 19,550 2 10 

323 season tickets 248 13 8 

Parcels, etc 5 5 11 

15,516 9 8 
4,727 5 8 

£20,243 15 4 
£ B. d. 

Transfer fees 

Rent of property, etc., net 

19,804 2 5 

3 17 6 

435 15 5 

£20,243 15 4 

Dr. Genebal Balance-sheet. £ s. d. 

Balance from revenue account 1,021 10 9 

Unpaid interest 154 1 10 

Literest payable or accruing and provided for 2,116 5 11 

Sundry outstanding accounts 34.893 15 7 

Lloyd's bonds 8,000 

Construction reserve 3,314 3 9 



£ s. d. 
Cash at bankers— current account ... 2,236 19 11 

„ in hand 166 4 5 

General stores — stock of materials on hand 

Sundry outstanding accounts 

Islington extensions, parliamentary expenses paid 

Parliamentary deposit, 1890 Act 7,071 13 

Balance from capital fliccount 35,776 16 

£49,499 17 10 
£ s. d. 
2,403 4 4 
1,922 12 1 


8 11 

3 2 


£49,499 17 10 












Januaby 11. 
Immroremeats la holders for laoand— cent electric lamps. 

Edwin Percival AUam, 8, Fountayne-road, Stoke Newing- 
ton, London. 

Januabt 12. 

ItailiroTeaioiits la eleetric laeaadeeeent lamps. Godfrey 
Bamberg, 17, Westonroad, Southeod-on-Sea. 

A aew or improved automatio elootrio heat alarm. Hugh 
Donald Fitzpatrick, 70, Wellington-street, Gla^ow. (The 
Electric Heat Alarm Company, United States.) (Com- 
plete specification.) 

Zmprovtunsats la tslej^oale switohiag appltsnoes, Pamell 
Rabbidge, 10, Southampton-buildings, London. (Ck>mplete 

Improvsmeats rslatiac to elootrio weldiag. Peter 
Gendron, 45, Southampton-buildings, London. (Complete 

January 13. 

Improremeats la methods of operating altematiagHmrrent 
eleetro-motors, and in apparatus therefor. Rankin 
Kennedy, Camtyne Electric Works, Shettleston, Glasgow. 

January 14. 

Xleotrlo shade holder. James Clerk Swanne, 53, Albyn- 
road, St. John's, London. 

Zmprorements in regulating sookets or flztnres for inoan- 
desoent elootrio lamps and other translating devloes, 
and in methods of regnlating the flow of onrrent to 
snoh lamps and other deriees. Elias Elkin Ries, 430, 
S. Broadway, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. (Date 
applied for under Patents Act 1883, Section 103, July 6, 
1891, bein^ dace of application in the United States). (Com- 
plete specification.) 

Improvements Inlaying and insulating eleotrieal wires. 

J. B. Hamond, 1, Quality-court, London. 
Improvements in eleotrieal oondnotors. Siemens Bros, 
and Co., Limited, 28, Southampton-buildings, London. 
(Messrs. Siemens and Halske, Germany). (Complete speci- 
fication. ) 

January 15. 

Improvements in elootrio oables. Wallace Fair weather, 
62, St. Vincent-street, GUsgow. (Eugene Francis Phillips, 
Unites States. ) (Complete specification. ) 

Improvements in fixed or movable eleotrieal switoh for 
laeMiAMoeBt lamps. Clones Qunter, Leith, Scotland, 

843. Improvements in and oonneeted with monnting inoan- 
desoent lamps for safety purposes partieularly appll* 
oahle to eleotrio miners' safisty lamps. Theophilus Coad, 
1, Quality-court, Chancery-lane, London. 

871. Improvements in eleotrio oables. Henry Harris Lake, 45, 
Southampton- buildings, London. (David Brooks, jun.. 
United States.) 

873. Improvements in eleotrio lighting, and for other like pur- 
poses. Robert James Rae, 79, Valentine-road, Waltham- 
Btow, Essex. 

January 16. 

!)25. Improvements in telephonio reeeivera Alexander Marr, 
70, Market-street, Manchester. 



Ueetrioal switehes. E. and W. Atkins. 8d. 

Leolanehe oells. Rylands. 6d. 

Xleetrio oondnits. Raworth and others. 6d. 

Meohanioal telephones. Dunlap. 6d. 

Oynamo-eleetrio machines. Kingdon. 8d. 

Xleetrio alarm apparatus. Whitehead. 6d. 

deotrio meters. Abel. (La Compagnie Anonyme Conti- 
nentales pour la Fabrication dee Compteus h, Gaz et Autres 
Appareils.) 8d. 

Xleotrioal measnring instmments. Fell. (Weston.) 6d. 

Are lamp. Hays. 6d. 

Welding metals eleetrioally. Thompson. (Ck>ffin.) 6d. 

Xleotrioal maohines. Harness. 8d. 

20257. Xleetrio lamps. Thompson. (La Compagnie do I'lndus- 
trie Electrique.) 6d. 




Reading Xleetrio Supply Company, Limited.— Registered by 
H. F. Kite, 11, Queen Victoria-street, E.C. (for S. Ck)llins, 
Reading), with a capital of £75,000 in 15,000 shares of £5 each. 
Object : to acquire, as a going concern, the business now carried 
on bv the Laing, Wharton, and Down Construction Syndicate at 
Reading, Berkshire, under the style of the Reading Electric Light 
Depot, and generally to carry on the business of an electric supply 
company in all its branches, as electricians and mechanical engi- 
neers, the promotion and financing of companies, and the general 
business oi a financial agency. l%e first subscribers are : 


J. Wharton, 30, Parliament-street, S.W 1 

J. Ireland, 1.3, Minch-avenue, Harlesden 1 

H. Lee, 27, Garfield-road, Lavender-hill 1 

W. Jones, 87, Balfour-road, Highbury New-park, N 1 

E. Carpenter, Johnson Villa, Gleneagle-road, Streatham 1 

E. W. Piper, 37, Vernon-road, Bow, E 1 

G. H. Wise, 14, SUverton-road, East Dulwich 1 

Registered without special articles of association. 


City and South London Railway. — The receipts for the week 
ending 24th inst. were £811, against £743 in the corresponding 
period of 1891, being an increase of £68. As compared with the 
week ending Jan. 17th, the receipts for last week show a decrease 
of £25. 

Neweaatle Xleetrio Supply Company. — The annual general 
meeting of this Company was held on Monday at Newcastle. The 
report and balance-sheet were adopted, and a dividend at the rate 
of 4 per cent, per annum was declared for the year ending 3l8t 
December, 1891. 

A Big Dividend. — At the annual meeting of Messrs. J. E. H. 
Gordon and Co., Limited, electrical engineers and contractors, 11, 
Pall-mall, held on 25th inst., a dividend of 30 per cent, was 
declared on the paid-up capital of £50,000, and a balance of d^,535 
was carried to reserve. 


Brash Ck> 

— Pref. 

India Rubber, Outta Percha k Telegraph Co 


Metropolitan Electric Supply 

London Electric Supply 

Swan United 

St. James' 

National Telephone 

Eleotrio Oonstraotion 

Westminster Electric 

Liverpool Electric Supply < 
































BrindisL — ^A telephone exchange has just been opened 
at this celebrated seaport town. 

Badapasit. — ^The trandformer system only is to be used 
for the electric lighting of Budapest. 

Dalton (Laiios.). — The Dalton Local Board have 
terminated their contract with the Gras Company. 

Cleotro-Harmonio. — ^A smoking concert . is held to- 
night (Friday) at the St. James's Restaurant, Begent-street. 

World's Fair.— The Thomson-Houston Company will 
spend half a million dollars on their exhibit at the World's 

Almanac k. — ^We have received a handsome coloured 
perpetual almanack from Messrs. Woodhouse and Rawson, 

Rapid Transit. — Pueblo, Colorado, has a complete 
system of electric railways — length 22 miles — which cost 

St. Petembnrg.— The electrical exhibition at St. 
Petersburg, which opened last week, was attended by 
Mr. Edison. 

Ipswioh. — The Board of Trade have revoked the 
electric lighting order, 1891, of Messrs. Laurence, Scott, 
and Co., as asked by the promoters. 

Xlootrio Traction. — ^A large combination is being 
formed for the introduction of electric traction in Paris 
and the other large towns of France. 

ThomsNm-Hooston Lines. — The Thomson-Houston 
Company has installed 63 new electric roads, says the N. Y. 
Electrical Beview^ this year — rather quick work ! 

Royal Institution. — ^The Right Hon. Lord Bayleigh, 
F.RS., will, on Saturday, February 13, begin a course of 
six lectures on ** Matter : at Rest and in Motion." 

Walton-on-Nasc. — The Walton-on-Naze Sanitary 
Committee have the question of the purchase of gas works 
or other settlement of the lighting question before them. 

Royal Institution. — ^Prof . Fleming will give the third 
of his lectures on '* The Induction Coil and the Trans- 
former " on Saturday, at 3 p.m., at the Royal Institution. 

Train lAglMng, — The Simplon Railway Company 
have arranged to light 50 of their carriages by electric 
light, the current to be obtained from Huber accumulators. 

Slcctric Tcrminoloffy. — ^The last electrical term, says 
Industries, is ''hindrance." It amusingly suggests that 
perhaps hindrance, like other electric terms, is, in reality, 
a velocity ! 

Sofia. — ^The Mayor of Sofia has decided that the 
tenders for canalisation of Sofia are to bear mottoes or 
devices only, and the time for sending in has been extended 
to March 3. 

Tannton. — Local opinion as regards the proposed 
purchase of the town seems to be in favour of letting the 
Taunton electric works continue yet awhile, and further 
demonstrate their success. 

Qas Bngincs.. — ^The next meeting of the Junior 
Engineering Society will be held on Friday, February 12, 
at the Westminster Palace Hotel, at 8 p.m., when a paper 
will be read on " The Gas Engine," by Mr. K O. Walker. 

Italian Tdophonc Unca — A telephone line, the 
first that unites two Italian cities, has been opened at 
Milan, establishing telephonic communication between that 
city and Pavia. It is more than 30 miles long, and acts 

Bath. — ^During three months the lamps at Bath were 
out 244 hours, and the amount at Ij^. an honr,£l. lOs. 6d., 
was deducted from the public lighting bill. The oom- 
mittee have sanctioned the expenditure of £28 in testing 

Bormondsoy. — At the meeting of the Bermondsey 
Vestry last week, the Greneral Purposes Committee reported 
that they had instructed the surveyor to obtain terms for 
lighting the streets from March 25th next^ which course 
was approved. 

Physioal Sooioty. — ^At the Science Schools, South 
Kensington, Uniay (Friday), at 5 p.m., Prof. O. F. 
FitzG^rald will read a paper before the Physical Society 
on '* The Driving of Electromagnetic Vibrations by Electro- 
magnetic and Electrostatic Engines." 

Antworp. — ^The contract recently concluded by the 
Antwerp Corporation with MM. Moris et Von Bysselberghe 
for public lighting on the '' hydro-electric " system, requires 
a guarantee fund of £40,000. The light is to be supplied 
at less than the present price of gas. 

nanohostor. — The Manchester shopkeepers are 
becoming anxious to get the light at once, and Mr. BrookSi 
at the last City Council meeting, had to assure a ques- 
tioner that no time was being lost, some of the oontraets 
being already in hand, including those for engines and 

Slioroditoh.— The Shoreditch Board of Guardians have 
appointed a committee of five members to act with Mr. 
Smith, their architect, who has had several establishments 
fitted with electric light under his charge, to visit these 
installations and report upon the best scheme for lighting 
the workhouse. 

loo CamivaL — ^At the Theatre Scribe, Turin, on 
Wednesday, a white ball was given, the whole house being 
decorated with wintry scenery — ice, snow, glaciers, and all 
the picturesque accompaniments of the season. Moonlight 
was imitated by the electric light All the ladies were 
dressed in pure white. 

Utilisation of Wator Powor. — The Mulhouse 
Industrial Society, Alsace, have offered a premium of £100 
for the best scheme of utilising natural water power, 
specially applicable to the needs of Upper Alsace. Projects, 
accompanied by sealed envelope containing namei, most 
reach the society by May 15th. 

Chioago Applioations. — Intending exhibitors must 
not tarry if they mean to obtain space at the World's Fair. 
The date fixed for receipt of applications is the 29th of 
February, and after that date applications can only be 
received subject to space being avulable. The London 
oflSce is at the Society of Arts, Adelphi. 

Institution. — On Thursday next, Feb. 11, a paper will 
be given before the Institution of Electrical Engineers by 
Alexander Siemens, vice president, on " Some Experimental 
Investigations of Alternate Currents." The discussion on 
the above and Mr. Preece's paper on the " Specification of 
Conductors," will be held on the same evening. 

Donbish*— The Town Council of Denbigh have had the 
question of the purchase of the gas works brought before 
ihem. Mr. Howel Gee thinks Denbigh well situated for 
lighting by electricity, and it is to be hoped he will be 
supported. The Mayor is to draw up a report of the cost 
of Uie scheme for public control of the lighting. 

Towkosbnry. — The Tewkesbury Urban Authority 
have before them the question of applying for a provisional 
order for the supply of electric light, and the clerk has 
been instructed to make euq|avdta« T^«c%^^sq^\s^ ^^^ 




possibility of utilising the power of the Avon or Severn, 
we fancy, for generating o! light for Tewkesbury. 

EJeetrjo Welding.— Mr. Coffin, of Detroit, proposes 
to weld electrieally by a combination of arc and incandes- 
cent systems, first muking his joint hot by contact with a 
conductor, and simultaneously springing an arc between 
the said conductor and another near the point of contact, 
welding the metal when at the desired temperature, 

A New Alternator.— The Helios Company have 
recently patented a peculiar dynamo, having a long 
armature and two sets of field magnets. At one end of 
the armature these are placed above and below, and at the 
other end at the sides. The dynamo is apparently to be 
used for generating alternating currents varying in phase 
for transmission of power. 

Portsmouth, — The Portsmouth Town Council on 
Tuesday revoked its previous decision to light the town 
with electricity on the low-tension principle, and adopted 
a new high-tension scheme, estimated to cost £38,000. An 
amendment for deferring the scheme until the (|uestion of 
using tidal power for machinery was considered was lost 
by the Mayor's casting vote. 

Llanelly. — At the meeting of the Llanelly Local Board 
held on Monday, the question of electric lighting of the 
town arose out of the minutes of the previous meeting. It 
was remarked that if the Board intended to take advantage 
of the provisional order, something should be done at 
once. The clerk staled that the Board had already deter- 
mined to advertise for tenders. 

Cork Tramways. — The Cork Corporation have 
adopted the recommendation of the Standing Committee 
that, subject to plans being approved and other conditions 
deemed advisable, the Corporation give general approval 
of the proposed scheme of street tramways. We believe 
there is some idea of running these trams by electric 
traction if suitable arrangements can be made. 

Society of Arts.— The third of Prof. Forbes'a Cantor 
lecture, on "Electrical Distribution," will take place on 
Monday next, at 8 p.m., at the Society of Arts, when the 
following will be dealt with : Transmission and distribution 
of electricity derived from lighting circuits ; effect on load 
factor ; separate circuits for power ; distribution for street 
and other railways ; utilisation of water power by electric 
transmission to a distance, 

Pontypridd. — The proposal is before the Pontypridd 
Local Board to jiurchase the gas works, the gas company 
being willing to sell or extend their works as the case may 
be. The Pontypridd Electric Lighting Comjrany have 
offered to tight the centre of the town by electric light, and 
the clerk was instructed to obtain particulars of the 
success or otherwise of Taunton. We hope the result will 
be a central station for Pontypridd. 

Schansohififf Batteries. — A correspond etit writes 
that, instead of coating 7s. 6d. per unit, these batteries can 
produce electrical energy at 2s. 6d. per unit, " and hopes 
with careful experiment and better management " to reduce 
the price still further. The same correspondent points out 
that the proposed capital of £50,000 consists of £5,000 
cash and £45,000 [taper — ^tbe latter going to the vendor, 
who receives nothing till 10 per cent, has been paid on the 

Hllk Ivory. — According to a recent note in the Chemical 
Trades Journal, it appears that a substance termed 
" lactitis," much like ivory, is now made out of milk. 
Curds are taken, mixed with borax and a mineral salt, such 
u sugar of lead, blue vitriol or other, and pressed with 
great force. The resulting mass is hard and resisting, 
empaWe of replacing ivory, celluloid, and eboaJte, though 

being an animal substance its electrical resistance will 
probably be low. 

Cyclometer.— Ean some's cyclometer for showing the 
variations of speed in the motors used for electric lighting 
is made by Messrs, Manlove, Alliott, and Co., of Notting- 
ham. It is capable of representing the fluctuations of speed 
during a single revolution of the motor-shaft, and hence of 
indicating whether or not the flywheel is heavy enough. 
The intervals of time are measured by a vibrating tuning' 
fork, which by means of a stylus describes a wavy line on 
a revolving barrel of smoked paper. 

Sea Telephone. — The question of telephoning between 
ships at sea is evidently one which is exercising the brains 
of inventors. We mentioned Edison's plan last week, and 
we notice that an elaborate patent has been taken out by 
Ernst Huber and Fred. J. Kneupor, of New York, for an 
instrument similar in its aims, but which, apparently by — i 
means of " sound -interceptors," is to register sound vibra- / 
tions transmitted through the water, part of the apparatus 
dipping into the sea below the ship. 

Sprinefleld (Essex). ^A public meeting was held 
recently with reference to the public lighting oE Springfield 
by electricity, and Mr. T. H. Dennis undertook to see 
Messrs. Crompton and Co. with a view to obtaining an 
installation. Messrs. Crompton wrote that they could not 
undertake the public lighting alone, but if there were 
private consumers they might make an offer. A canvass 
has been made, and it is thought there is a fair chance of 
the light being adopted. Messrs. Christy and Norris have 
also made a canvass. 

Life Belt Cushions.— The " Combinare " cushions, 
made by Mr. T. Stoward, at 32, Gray'a-inn-road, are worth 
attention by all interested in naval matters. They are 
suitable for boats and ships of every description, and in 
case of need form most efficient life buoys. They are 
lighter than cork, and impervious to damp. They are being 
taken up largely by the British and also foreign Govern- 
ments, and we understand that the General Electric Trac- 
tion Company will replace all their boat cushions with this 
" Combinare " cushion. 

New Insulating Material. — A novel and permanent 
insulating material for electric wires and cables forms the 
subject of a patent by Mr. Thomson Griffiths, F.C.S., of 
Dashwood House, City, the well-known authority on 
pigments. By this invention, it is said, a saving is effected 
of about 50 per cent, over those in use. It i^ stated to be 
not only of a most durable and permanent character, but 
that the insulating power of the cables and wires is 
greatly increased, while the mode of application is 
extremely simple and inexpensive. 

Liverpool. — A numerously signed memorial was read 
at the Liverpool City Council requesting the Council to 
give their consent to the application by the Liverpool 
Electric Supply Company for a provisional order whereby 
the company would be bound to reduce the price to 8d. 
per unit, Mr. Hornby stated that the Council were deter- 
mined to oppose the application, as under the 1889 orde 
they had power to buy up the most important part of the 
undertaking in 19 years, and they would not give up this 
power without some considerable concession. 

Camberwell.— At the last meeting of the Oamberwell 
Veati'y the General Purposes Committee, through Mr, 
Wallace, reported the receipt of a letter from the engiueer 
of the Camberwell and Islington Electric Light and Power 
Supply, Limited, formally acquainting the Vestry with the 
information that their Bill passed both Houses of Parlia- 
ment last session, and received the Royal assent; also that 
the company had made the deposit of £2,000 required by 
the Beard of Trade, iind that it waa anticipated Ibat the 



now lystem of lighting would bo inaugurated early this 

Cable to Londy Island.— Public attention has lately 
been called to Lundy by H.M.S. "Banterer," and much 
aurprise bu been expresaed that a much-frequented harbour 
of refuge should have no telegraphic communication. A 
cable was laid in 1884, but did not receive aufBcient 
support, and the cable waa sold to Mr. Bogera, the maker 
of it, who has removed it to London. If a new cable ia 
laid, it is thought better to lay it to Braunton, seven miles 
extra, when the Chamber of Commerce would subsidise 
the company. The old cable is still available, and could 
bo ralaid at small cost. 

Hastings Company.— At the annual meeting of the 
Hastings and St. Leonard Electric Light Company, recently 
held, the chairman said the reapectable dividend of 7^ per 
cent, was declared in the report, this leaving a balance of 
£330 over. He reminded them that last year the directors 
had not only given their aervices, but made themaelvea 
reaponsible for debta. He thought £200 was not too much 
to be given to the directors, leaving £120 to be carried 
forward. He pasaed a word of aympathy for nervous 
shareholders who had aold their £10 ahares for 25s. after 
what was said in the pai>erB. The report and the chair- 
man's recommendation was adopted. 

■lootrio Lifts for Railwajs.— The uae of electric 
motors for lifts and drawbridges has achieved sufficient 
success for there to be any doubt of the poesibility of their 
use in moving large weights when so required. In the 
City and South London Railway, as will be remembered, 
the lifta which carry the passengers to and from the ground 
level are hydraulic lifta, but we have reason to believe that 
on the newer ventures, such as the Central London electric 
road, electric lifu will be used. This will, of course, do 
away with the neceeaity for separate generating plant and 
distributing mains, and will simplify the station arrange- 
ments considerably. 

Xleotrioity from Wind Power.— At the last meeting 
of the Eoyal Scottiah Society of Aria, Prof. Blyth, of the 
Anderaon College, Glasgow, read a paper on the " Utilisa- 
tion of Wind Power for the Generation of Electric Light." 
After alluding to his previous experimenta, Prof. Blyth 
stated that last summer he had used a machine on the 
principle of the Kobiuaon anemometer, with hollow cups, 
rotating horizontally. It worked satisfactorily, and in a 
fair wind gave out 4 e.h.p. Even in a gale it ran aatiafac- 
torily. Prof. Blyth is an ardent supporter of the use of 
wind power for electric light, and his example should 
stimulate others to follow his and Mr. C. F. Brush's 
example. It will be remembered that Mr. Brush baa a 
" wind turbine" in bis garden for supplying hia electric light. 

Bndapest Eleotrlo Tramway. — The success that has 
attended the introduction of electric traction into the 
streets of Budapest ia a good augury for the extension of 
eleetric railways in Europe. It will be remembered that 
this line is upon the open-slotted conduit system, more 
particularly advocated in this country by Mr. Edward 
Hanvilte. The Budapest railway was equipped by Messra. 
Siemens and Halske, who deserve great credit for the 
anooesa achieved. The mileage has lately been increased 
from 5^ to seven miles, most of which is double track. They 
now have 62 cars in use, and the mileage last year attained 
24,000 miles, double that of the previous year. The 
power of the generating station now amounta to 700 h.p. 
The number of passengers carried last year ia given aa 
8,619.316, as against 4,459,334 in 1890. 

Ohiswlok. — At the last meeting of the Chiawick Local 
Boud, Mr. Harry Smith moved, in accordance with notice. 

" That fnstructions be given to the surveyor to enquire and 
report as to the persona desiring a supply of electric light 
in this pariab." Mr. Smith pointed out that there was a 
company willing to introduce electric light into the parish 
providing they could obtain a sufficient number of con- 
Bumers, He thought that a majority of the inhabitants 
were in favour of the electric light, and he would propose 
that a memorial be drafted and the ratepayers canvassed. 
Mr. Adaroson sngneated that they might draft a circular 
and ask the ratepayers to aign it. In reply to the chair- 
man, Mr. Smith said that the cost of the electric light would 
be about one-third more than that of gas. The arrange- 
ments for canvassing were left in the hands of the clerk. 

Ventilation and UBTbtlnsT' — Besides electrical con- 
tractors and the householder himself there is one class of 
professional man to whom a good knowledge of the advan- 
tages of electric light is worth money — and this is the 
sanitary engineers, who have often to advise upon the 
internal arrangements of high-class dwellings. We are 
pleased to see that at one of the lectures for sanitary 
officers held at the Parkes Museum in connection with the 
Sanitary Institute, the question of electric lighting was 
dealt with by Sir W. Douglas Galton, his subject being 
ventilation, warming, and lighting. After describing 
methods for chan^ng the air in rooms, the question of 
impurities from illuminante was gone into, oil being 
recommended as preferable to gas both as regards products 
of combustion and amount of heat. But the only really 
hygienic light waa the electric light. Sanitary engineers 
are rapidly recognising this fact, and Sir Douglas Oalton'a 
lecture will probably turn still greater attention to the 
necessity of considering hygienics as well as light in house- 
bold illuminants. 

Uverpool Eleotrio Football CInb. — The above 
football club held their second annual dinner at The E^le 
Restaurant, Liverpool, on Saturday last Tlie dinner waa 
preceded in the afternoon by a football match between 
the married and single members of the club, which the 
benedicts won by four goals to one, reversing last year's 
verdict, when the single men won by five goals to nil. 
In the evening the party, numbering about 80, included 
Mr. A, B. Holmes, managing engineer of the Liverpool 
Electric Supply Company, Limited, Mr. B. H. Cotlius, 
secretary, Mr. A. Clough, worka manager, and Mr. Naftel, 
chief electrician. The dinner was followed by a miacel- 
laneoua entertainment. The proceedings commenced with 
a pianoforte solo and banjo aong, after which Mr. Collins 
proposed tbo toast of " Success to the Liverpool Electric 
Supply Company, Limited," to which Mr. Holmes responded, 
referring to the progress of the company since its forma- 
tion and its present satisfactory condition. Songs and 
instrumental music interspersed with toasts occupied the 
remainder of the evening, which waa brought to a close by 
the singing of " Auld Lang Syne " and " God save the 

Slms-Bdison Torpedo. — On Wednesday an official 
trial of the Sims-Edison torpedo by the military authorities 
took place at Portsmouth before the Duke of Connaugbt, 
Major-Gen eral Geary, and others, who went out to the 
" Drudge," a steam vessel lent for the purpose of the test 
by the Elswick Company. Mr. Sims, Captain Hamilton, 
and Major Palliser, directors of the Sims-Edison Company, ^ 
attended. The torpedo, it will be remembered, ia driven 
and controlled by two electric wires from a dynamo, 
the body is submerged, and two flagstafis show the