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Full text of "Electrical news and engineering"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/electricalnewsen25donm 



w 



Jainiary 1, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 




t 1 1^1 17 



Published Semi-Monthly By 

HUGH G. MACLEAN, LIMITED 

HUGH C. MacLEAN, Winnipeg, President. 

THOMAS S. YOUNG, General Manager. 

W. R. CARR, PH.D., Editor. 
HEAD OFFICE - 347 Adelaide Street West, TORONTO 

Telephone A. 2700 
MONTREAL - Tel. Main 2299 - Room 119, Board of Trade 
WINNIPEG - Telephone Garry 856 - 302 Travellers' Bldg. 
VANCOUVER - Tel. Seymour 2013 - Hutchison Block 
NEW YORK - Tel. 3108 Beekman - 1226 Tribune Building 
CHICAGO - Tel. Harrison 5351 - 1413 Gt. Northern Bldg. 
LONDON, ENG. 16 Regent St. S.W. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 

Orders for advertising sliould reach tlie offici 
than the 5th and 2nth of the month. Changes i 
made whenever desired, without cost to the advertiser. 

SUBSCRIBERS 

The "Eiectrical News" will be mailed to suhscrihers in CaTiada and 
Great Britain, post free, for $2.00 per annum. United States and foreign, 
$2.50. Remit by currency, registered letter, or postal order payable to 
Hugh C. MacLean, Limited. 

Subscribers are requested to promptly notify the publishers of failuie 
or delay in delivery of paper. 

Authorized by the Postmaster General for Canada, for transmission as 
second class matter. 

Entered as second class matter July IStli, 1914, at the Postoffice at 
Buffalo, N.Y.. under the Act of Congress of March 3, 1S79. 



Vol. 25 



Toronto, January i, 1916 



Ontario's Big Construction Projects 

In this issue we print articles covering the two very 
considerable electric railway projects at present demanding 
the study, more or less intimately, of the people of the pro- 
vince of Ontario. One of these is a section of the general 
plan of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario 
involving, at the moment, some fourteen million dollars; the 
other, the report to the Toronto city council on the best 
means of solving the terminal facility problems of that city. 
and estimated to cost something over eighteen millions. 

Both these schemes are evidently being placed before the 
public, for their consideration, in good faith. That the 
Hydro Commission docs not let the grass grow under their 
feet when they once have the mandate of the people is amply 
evidenced by the tremendous amount of construction work 
that has been completed by the Commission's engineers dur- 
ing the past few years. It may also surely be taken for 
granted that the Council of the city of Toronto would scarce- 
ly incur an expenditure of some fifty thousand dollars on a 
semi-rapid transit and central terminal report unless they 
were convinced of the necessity of such a report ami pre- 
pared to act on it. 

It would appear, therefore, that the province of Ontario 
has good prospect of becoming a theatre of gigantic electric 
transportation construction operations in the very near 
future. Nor must we overlook the fact that the Hydro 
scheme as at present outlined is merely one small section 
of an undertaking ultimately destined to cover the whole 
province, wliib- llie Harris-Gaby-Cousiiis riport also pro- 



vides for further heavy expenditures as the conditions war- 
rant. 

If one adds to the above the development plans for 
.-ome half-million horse-power of hydro-electric energy which 
the Provincial Commission have reported favorably upon to 
the local Government, it makes "electricity" stand out pretty 
prominently among the immediate construction possibilities. 
If other lines of the building trades can show anything like 
tlie good prospects of the electrical industry, there is little 
to encourage the pessimist in the future of the l)uilding opera- 
tions in the province of Ontario. Given a suflicient amount 
of money to proceed with this work — of which, so far as 
Ihe layman can judge, there will be an ample supply — the 
danger of a trade reaction when the war is over appears to 
be very remote. The only condition that might be feared 
would appear to be that same old one of unpreparedness, 
and we would urge on the various authorities concerned that 
they stand ready to proceed with the various works as soon 
as the men shall be released from serving the Empire in 
Europe. 



Six Million Plant for Edmonton 

On November 22 the electors of Edmonton approved 
an agreement between the city and the Edmonton Power 
Company whereby the company is to supply electrical energy 
to the city for a period of thirty years on a kw.h. basis, the 
cost varying from 1.3 cents per kw.h. down to .8,5 cents, 
depending on the quantity taken, at the bus bar in the sub- 
station located in the centre of the city. 

The Edmonton Power Company control the water rights 
on the Saskatchewan River at Rocky Rapids, but on account 
of the proverbially poor regulation in this district dams will 
liave to be built further up the river. One of these will be 
placed some ten miles back from the power house. 

The scheme of development at this point has been under 
consideration for some three years by the firm of Sir John 
Jackson. Litnitcd. who have spent some $150,000 already in 
gathering their data. Records over this period show that 
the winter flow of the river is in the neighborhood of 1,000 
cubic feet per second, and a flow of 800 cubic foot seconds 
has been measured. The importance of adequate storage 
facilities is therefore evident. The choice of the site has 
been determined largely, it is understood, by the location 
immediately north of it of a large low-lying tract some sixty 
square miles in area. This has been surveyed and will be 
cleared and prepared lor an artificial lake to impound the 
necessary storage. 

The estimated cost of the whole proposition is in the 
neighborhood of six million dollars. This includes an electric 
railway from Edmonton to the power site, which is placed 
at one and a half million dollars. The work will take prob- 
ably four or five years, but that the city may profit immedi- 
ately by the new agreement the company consents to take 
over and operate the present steam plant and sell energy 
at a price of 1.3 cents per kw.h., the city, however, to be re- 
sponsible for the capital charges. This looks like a consider- 
able saving to the municipality, however, as it has been 
estimated that the cost of power in Edmonton is approxi- 
mately, at the switchl)oard, 2.75 cents per kw.h. ' 

It will be recalled that five offers in all were made to 
the city of Edmonton to supply the necessary power require- 
ments, and these were reported on by Mr. Willis Chipman. 
of Chipman & Power, Toronto. The closest competitor was 
a coal proposition, which suggested that a plant be located 
at a point near Wabamun, some forty miles west of Edmon- 
ton. The final agreement as accepted by the city and the 
company was drawn up by Mr. W. E. Skinner, consulting 
engineer, of Winnipeg. 



'J-HK ELECTRICAL NEWS 



lamuirv 1. lyii 



Separate Manholes for Different Companies 

'riu- nucl)i'0 I'ublic Utilities (;oiiimissi()ii, witli the Du- 
iniiiimi k'^ilway Commission, sitting in Montreal on De- 
cember 20, heard further arguments on the question of pro- 
viding separate manholes for signal companies and for light- 
ing and power companies in the underground conduits be- 
ing constructed by the Electrical Commission. This is the 
first lime that the Railway Commissioners have sat jointly 
with the Oucbec Public Utilities Commissioners, the reason 
f,,r this innovation being that as some of the companies 
affected hold Dominion charters, the question of jurisdiction 
may not be raised later in the courts. The Electrical Com- 
missioners asked for sanction of plans for sections 6 and 7 
in the linsiness sections. 

•|'1h- Montreal Public Service Corporation, Bell Tele- 
phone, G. N. W. and C. P. R. telegraph companies, and others, 
asked that separate manholes be constructed, contending that 
iherc was danger of damage where only one manhole was 
made; on the other hand, the Electrical Commissioners 
argued that the present system was safe and that the danger 
was exaggerated. 

Professor L. Herdt, chairman of the Electrical Com- 
mission, expressed the bpinion that the best protection for 
the cables was to protect the cables themselves. 

Sir Henry Drayton asked Professor Herdt if he bad ever 
known a system of insulation that did not break down. The 
answer was "No." The chairman responded that if they 
had not an insulation that would not break down they could 
not say it was safe to put high potential wires near low po- 
tential wires. If the Electrical Commission were willing, 
however, to take the responsibility for any accident, he did 
not sec why they should not be given an opportunity. 

The question also arose as to the provisions of the pro- 
vincial statute governing the construction of conduits. It 
was argued that the statute required double conduits, and 
Prof. Herdt retorted to this that the requirements of the 
statute were "absolutely obsolete to-day." 

The joint commissions ordered their engineers to meet 
the engineers of the different companies affected and ex- 
amine their plans. If the terms of the provincial statute 
needed amendment for safety, application could be made to 
tlie Legislature for that purpose. 



Smith, tlie vice-president of the 
1)1 the Ottawa Car Manufacluri: 
Ijurcau, and others. 



mpany; Mr. 
Company; 



W. ; 
Ihin 



. .S..pcr, 
Jae.iu. 



I 



60,000 Kw. Units Contemplated 



President E. M. ilerr of the \\estinghcju.-,e Electric & 
Mfg. Company, in a recent address before the Railway Club 
of Pittsburgh, said, "Due largely to the wonderful develop- 
ment in the steam turbine and its direct-connected electric 
generator, and the remarkably flexible, efficient and easy 
distribution of electricity, we are on the eve of notable 
advances in the utilization of electric power. 

"First — the modern steam turbo-generator makes il 
possible to concentrate enormous amounts of power gen- 
eration in one place. 

"Second — this makes possible and advantageous very 
large individual generating units. The growth in the capa- 
city of generators has really been enormous, made possible 
by the steam turbine. 

"Third — Electricity can be transmitted long distances 
in large or small quantities and its characteristics changed 
at will all with small losses and at comparatively low cost." 

The speaker then proceeded to trace the development 
of large generating units as exemplified by certain notable 
installations of central stations, industrial, and railway 
plants, and then discussed the efTect of the concentration of 
such a large amount of power in one station. Mr. Herr 
said the building of units as large as 50,000 and 00,000 kw., 
was contemplated. 



New Electric Railway in Three Rivers 

With a fair amount of ceremony, the Three Rivers 
Traclinn Company, a subsidiary of the Shawinigan Water 
and Power Company, on Decemlier 11 inaugurated their 
electric tramway service. The line, of single track, is 
about three miles long, and runs in the form of a circle 
around the city, starting at the Canadian Pacific Railway 
station, taking in the residential district, along the river 
front, and returning to the station via the chief business 
llioroughfare. It has been decided to extend the system by 
building a line to Cap Madeleine, (a popular pilgrimage 
centre I. which will also connect the Wayagamack pulp and 
paper plant and other industries with Three Rivers. Power 
is supplied by the North Shore Power Company, two Can- 
adian VVestinghouse 250 k.v.a. 550v. d. c. motor-generator sets 
having been installed for the purpose of the line. The poles 
arc of steel in the residential and business sections and of 
wiind in other districts. A car barn to hold ten cars, with 
repair shop, has been constructed. The six cars, manu- 
faelurc<l by the Ottawa Car Manufacturing Company, are 
of the pay-as-you-enter type, each car being in charge of 
one man only who acts as motorman and also regvlates the 
entrance and exit of the passengers. At the inauguration, 
speeches were made by the Hon, J, .A, Tessier. the Mayor of 
the city and Minister of Roads for Quebec; Mr. Julian C. 



Oakville's White Way 

The formal opening of the new street lighting system of 
Oakville. Ont., occurred on Monday evening, December Gth, 
when about forty new 1,000-candle-power nitrogen lamps 
were placed in operation. These lamps are series type 
6.6 ampere. This event was also made the occasion of a trip 
of inspection over some seven miles of the new highway 
which is being constructed between Toronto and Hamilton, 
and a dinner which was later given by the town council 
was attended by members of the Good Roads Commission. 
Mr. Robert S. Wilson is superintendent of the municipal 
plant, and to him is due the credit of this very modern and 
well-equipped street lighting system. We understand that 
approximately twenty-four more lights will be installed in the 
near future. Current is supplied to this municipality by the 
Dominion Power and Transmission Company, of Hamilton 



Alberta University has Isolated Plant 

Good progress is being made in the installation of the 
isolated plant in the Arts Building of the University of Al- 
berta. When completed this plant will furnish electric light 
and power to the various University buildings, which at pre- 
sent derive their supply from the city of Edmonton. This 
lilant comprises six Babcock & Wilcox water tube boilers 
and two Howden vertical high-speed compound engines di- 
rect connected to a Canadian Westinghonse alternator, 240 
volts, 00 cycle, 3 phase. This installation has several novel 
features not found in any other installation in .\lberta. as 
it is going to be used to furnish power to the laboratory. 
ICleelric power is used for operating the fans in connection 
with the heating and ventilation of these buildings. 



.\t the convention of nnmieiiial managers and engineers 
of the various municipalities interested in the Hydro-Electric 
Distribution System of the Province of Ontario in Toronto 
the resolution was adopted favoring the elimination of the 
word Hydro from the title of llie Provincial Electrical In- 
spection Department, The motion was moved and seconded 
by two of the most prominent engineers in the hydro system. 



January 1. 191G 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 







The British Empire, and Canada its most important unit, faces the new year with unimpaired 
vigor, uncountable resources, unshaken confidence and redoubled determination. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January 1, 1910 



Uses of Electricity in Construction 

and building operations— Indispensable in many operations and growing in 
popularity with others — Practical and economical 

By J. E. Van Hoosear* 



A nation, race, or an individual docs not stand still, 
tliey either advance or fall behind their neighbors. Know 
more" has been the means of every advance. Wc are be- 
hind the level which has been reached by our competitors 
if we do not avail ourselves of the advances made in any 
line connected with our business, and it is my aim at tliis 
lime to point out progressive methods on the power end 
cif the construction game. 

The service to which electricity can l)c applied in tlie 
construction of buildings, both small and large, and of any 
material, is increasing and will be found indispensable when 
the builders fully appreciate the worth of tlie electric motor- 
driven devices that are now placed at their disposal. It 
is the aim of the writer at this time to bring out the uses 
to which electricity is being applied through the motor 
and otherwise in building construction work, to the profit 
of anyone connected with the erection of buildings. 

Work that can be done by means of electricity is 
limited only by the desires of the individual, and can be 
applied from the first operation of clearing a lot to the 
last operation of polishing the floors. 

Starting with the pioneer work of clearing a heavily 
wooded site that is frequently encountered, a motor-driven 
wood saw is set up to work into cord wood any timber 
that may be standing on the premises; next, electricity is 
used to explode powder in removing stumps or racks from 
the site; the excavation is accomplished by means of a mo- 
tor-driven excavator which deposits the dirt into trucks 
that haul it to the dumps and in return deliver the rock, 
sand and cement that is used in the construction of founda- 
tion and walls. In a great number of places where the ex- 
cavation is deep, large quantities of water accumulate, and 
it is necessary that this water should be removed in order 
to proceed with the foundation work; this is easily accomp- 
lished by means of a motor-driven pump, which needs very 
little attention, as it can be equipped with an automatic 
float switch, which will keep the water out night and day. 
From this stage on, a motor-driven saw will be found very 
serviceable to do all the rough sawing necessary in the 
construction of the concrete forms and the building frame. 
Motor-driven Mixers 
The concrete used for foundation walls, floors and walks 
is mixed in a motor-driven mixer, and hoisted to different 
levels for distribution by means of a motor-driven lift sup- 
plied with a special dumping bucket. The bricks and other 
materials are also hoisted to the several floors by means 
of electric hoists, thereby saving time and adding to the 
efficiency. 

Some little data has lieen gathered in connection with 
concrete work in regard to the quantity of power required 
in mixing and other work directly connected with it. In 
a reinforced concrete loft building of three storeys, ;i.000 
yards of material were used. A one-yard mixer driven by 
means of a 15 h.p. motor handled the material, a saw driven 
by a 5 h.p. motor cut all the lumber used in making the 
forms; these two motors consumed a total of 2,000 kilowatt 
hours, or about 1.5 yards per kilowatt hour. In a steel 
structure concrete building of eighteen storeys, using 1,782 
yards of material, 829 kilowatt hours of electric current 
were used, showing a consumption of 1 kilowatt hour for 
each 2.15 yards mixed. The last named job was done 



by 



Before Builders' Congress, San Francisco. 



a contractor who owned several gas engine driven mixers, 
which he had been using for a number of years. He set 
one of them up to do this work, and after running a couple 
of days it developed troubles, causing delay and expense. 
An electric motor was then secured to complete the work. 
which it did in the usual satisfactory manner. Now, he. 
like many others who have taken the interest to look into 
the merits of electric-driven machines, will have no othe.- 
mode of operation. 

The plumber has not been left behind, and if the job 
is large, he will have motor-driven pipe and thread cutting- 
machines on it to help him with his work. 

Plastering Machine 
If the outside walls are to be plastered, this can be 
speedili' accomplished by means of a motor-driven com- 
pressed air plastering machine which will lay on a coat of 
cement plaster to any thickness desired. If the building is 
of steel structure, the beams can be hoisted and placed by 
means of an electric-driven hoist. In connection with the 
placing of steel, it has been the opinion of a large majority 
of those directly interested in this work that the operation 
can only be accomplished with satisfaction by means of the 
steam donkey engine; precedent, like a rut in a road, is one 
of the easiest things to follow, and one of the most difficult 
to get away from, and I presume is the solution for this. 
Upon a close study of the matter it is found that the rea- 
son for this contention is they either own engine-driven 
hoists, or have tried to do their work with improvised elec- 
tric-driven apparatus which was found unsuited to the task, 
and being dissatisfied with results, would not listen to any- 
one regarding the up-to-date motor-driven appliances that 
have speed and control equal to the best of engine-driven 
hoists; it would be well for anyone who is contemplating 
getting new equipment to investigate the merits of the elec- 
tric hoist. 

After erecting the steel, the rivets that hold it together 
are driven home and headed by means of hammers oper- 
ated with compressed air which is supplied by a motor- 
driven compressor. 

The plaster which finishes the walls is mixed with 
motor-driven machinery that has been found to give a more 
thorough mix than was obtained by the old method. 

In marble work, motor power is found necessary from 
start to finish, even to the chiseling and drilling that is 
necessary in the process of setting it in place. 

In fine interior hardwood finish, the electric glue pot 
is found indispensable and is not a fire hazard. 

Electric Sign During Construction 

.V unique use has been found for electricity by one of 
our local builders, in the placing of an electric sign on a 
large building he was erecting, thereby availing himself of 
a modern way of advertising night and day the class of 
building erected, and in an up-to-date manner. 

In the polishing of a great number of large floors of 
ball rooms, halls, etc., portable scraping and sanding mach- 
ines have been built, and are operated by motors that form 
a part of the apparatus. No other mode of drive would serve 
the purpose, because of the necessity of cleanliness which 
could not be obtained if coal or gas were used for the pur- 
pose of motive power. 

What may be of interest to this body is a unique method 



laiuiary 1, I'.HC. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



25 



of mixing and delivering concrete, differing considerably 
from the old way, and can be used to advantage in cases 
where very heavy walls are to be built, or in places where 
the forms cannot be reached from above, and is accomplished 
by means of compressed air. There arc two quite distinct 
patented ways of doing it. The first requires the usual 
motor-driven mixer, which in turn deposits the mix of about 
.'30 cubic feet into the upper end of a cylinder shaped tank 
4 ft. in diameter and 8 ft. long, cone shaped at the lower 
end and connected with an 8-in. pipe line that delivers the 
charge to the forms that may be located a considerable dis- 
tance away, in some cases as far as 2,000 ft. The charge 
is driven from tlie receiver by means of compressed air un- 
der 100 lbs. pressure to the square inch at a rate of one 
charge per minute where the distance is around ;i00 feet, or 
about three minutes where the distance is 1,.')00 feet, and 
requires a 200 h.p. motor to drive a 1,200 ft. air compressor 
ilclivering at 125 lbs. pressure per square inch. The other 
method uses a smaller tank with 5-in. delivery pipe; the 



charge of about 10 cu. ft. of sand, rock, cement and water 
is delivered direct into the tank, no mixing machine being 
used. The cover is then closed and the compressed air 
turned into the tank and forces the charge up to the desired 
location. In passing through the pipe line the material be- 
comes thoroughly mixed. Both of these machines have been 
used on large tunnel jobs in San Francisco with satisfactory 
results in cost of delivery of material and quality of work, 
and there is no reason why they should not be used in build- 
ing construction as satisfactorily. 

Aid of Central Stations 
There are many other applications of electricity that 
could be mentioned, as there are special appliances driven by 
means of electricity for any piece of work that has to be 
done in the construction of a building, and it is the policy 
of the central station companies to aid any party who is 
looking for information along this line with the object in 
view of further assisting their consumers in the use of their 
product. 



Ontario's Hydro-radia! Development 

Provincial Commission have outlined plans for Toronto to London trunk line and 
by-laws are being submitted covering fourteen million dollars 



In the map herewith the first section of the extensive 
hydro radial network, which the Hydro-Electric Power Com- 
mission of Ontario propose to construct, is shown. At the 
coming" January elections by-laws will be submitted in prac- 
tically all the municipalities concerned covering their share 
of the expenditure. The total amount of bonds to be issued 
in connection with this section of the road is placed at 
.$13,734,155. This is for a total length of approximately 
137J4 miles, which works out to a bond issue of about .$100,- 
000 per mile. While this looks high, it may be pointed out 
that the type of construction would be the best obtainaiile; 
also an expensive Toronto terminal would be included. 



While the exact route of the road has not yet been de- 
termined, the following schedule is pretty close to what the 
Commission will likely finally adopt. 

Toronto Terminal-Humber River Section: — From the 
passenger terminal located near the foot of Vonge Street 
the line will run westerly to Sunnyside, using Harbor Board 
property and private right-of-way wherever possible; thence 
to the Humber River the line will parallel the G. T. R., as 
at present constructed. 

Humber River-Port Credit Section: — From the west lim- 
its of the city of Toronto at the Humber River, the line runs 
westerly parallel to the G. T. R. main line. It crosses the 




..\ / \ - \ »^L. 

The Toronto-London section of the Proposed Hydro Radial Scheme. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January 1, 1916 



Credit River at a point between the Lake Shore Road and 
the G. T. R. 

Port Credit-Milton Section:— Leaving Port Credit the 
line crosses the G. T. R. al)out one mile west, running thence 
to a point north of Sheridan P. O., and from there directly 
to Milton. 

Milton-Guelph Section:— Crossing the C. P. R. west of 
the C. P. R. station at Milton, location runs to To-nship of 
Es(iuesing, thence to Township of Nassagaweya, thence to 
Township of Puslinch, and thence in the general direction 
of the Eramosa River to Guelph. 

Guelph-Berlin Section: — From Guelph the line continues 
to Berlin, leaving Guelph in a westerly direction and enter- 
ing Berlin from the north-east. The location lies north of 
the present G. T. R. between Guelph and Berlin. 

Berlin-Stratford Section: — From Berlin the line runs to 
the G. T. R. main line, which it parallels to a point near 
Baden, and thence south of the G. T. R. to a point east of 
Stratford, where it will cross the G. T. R. and enter the city. 

Stratford-St. Mary's Section:— From Stratford the line 



runs in a westerly direction parallel to the old main line of 
tlie G. T. R. to a point north of St. Mary's. 

St. Mary's-London Section; — The line runs in a south- 
westerly direction through St. Mary's and thence westerly, 
crossing the Canadian Pacific Railway at grade, and over 
the Thames River, running thence parallel to the old main 
line of the Grand Trunk Railway to a point near Granton; 
thence in a southerly direction through Biddulph Township 
to the northern boundary of London Township; thence in a 
south-easterly direction from concessions 14 to 10, inclusive, 
in London Township. From this point tlie line runs in a 
southerly direction through concessions 9 to 4, inclusive; 
thence following the Thames River through concessions 3 to 
1, inclusive, in London Township, to a point between the 
Sarnia Road and the Thames River, a short distance west of 
tlie VVarncliffe Road outside the north-westerly boundary line 
of the city of London. Thence the line runs in a south- 
easterly direction over private property and city streets, 
crossing over the Thames River in the city of London, to 
a point on Bathurst Street; thence easterly along Bathurst 
Street to the London & Port Stanley Railway, which at pre- 
sent terminates on Bathurst Street, immediately east of 
Richmond Street. 



Semi-rapid Transit Scheme for Toronto 



Report just handed into City Council 
dollars— Toronto not ready 

As a deliberate discussion of traffic conditions and re- 
quirements in the city of Toronto based on authoritative 
data gathered with apparently infinite care, no previous re- 
port approaches in value that just handed in to the City 
Council by Commissioner of Works R. C. Harris, F. A. 
Gaby, Chief Engineer Hydro-electric Power Commission ot 
Ontario, and E. L. Cousins, Chief Engineer Toronto Harbor 
Commission. The report takes cognizance of general con- 
ditions covering a very wide range such as growth of 
population; location of factories; congested traffic points; 
vehicular traffic; Toronto Railway System; municipal car 
lines; Hydro Radial possibilities and many other minor 
factors which may influence the transportation requirements 
of the city of Toronto during the next quarter of a century. 
.\ rapid transit tchtme, in the strict meaning of the term, 
is not recommended, but three trunk radial entrance lines 
with the necessary yards and terminal as shown in tlie ac- 
companying drawing. This recommendation is Ijased on the 
supposition (1) that the city of Toronto acquire the prop- 
erty of the Toronto Street Railway in 1921 and (2) that the 
waterfront viaduct will be constructed by the Grand Trunk 
and Canadian Pacific Railways. 

Tht recommendations in the report are as follows: 
1. The City of Toronto acquire the Toronto Railway 
Company at the expiration of the franchise in 1921, and 
thereafter operate same as a municipal railway. 

S. The City should at once make a definite declaration 
of policy in this regard. 

3. If the decision be to municipalize the service, prepara- 
tory steps should immediately be taken, in order that upon 
the date of franchise expiry, the City may enter into occupa- 
tion and operation, without overholding tenure complica- 
tions. 

4. .A, Transportation Commission be at once appointed, 
consisting of representatives from the City, the Toronto 
Harbor Commission, and the Ontario Hydro Electric Povi'er 
Commission, so constituted as to aflford the City majorit ; 
representation. This Commission should be vested with all 



advises expenditure of eighteen million 
for complete subway system 

necessary power to plan, control and direct all transporta- 
tion and terminal facilities of every kind whatsoever, (ex- 
clusive of existing steam railways), including present or 
projected municipal lines within the corporate limits of the 
municipality, and to prepare and arrange for the acquisition 
and operation of the Toronto Railway Company as a muni- 
cipal utility, upon expiry of the franchise rights of said 
Company; the powers of this Commission to be sufficiently 
inclusive to embrace all railway transportation facilities as 
aforesaid, and to be implemented from time to time in order 
to accomplish the full intent of this recommendation. The 
Harbor Board and the Ontario Hydro Electric Power Com- 
mission, should be represented upon this Commission in ex- 
tension of the policy of Council already expressed in the 
appointment of the Board charged with the duty of making 
this report, and for the same reasons which guided that 
body in the constitution of such Board, viz.: — That the 
future transportation facilities within Toronto should be co- 
ordinated with regard to the services, rights and holdings of 
the bodies aforementioned, with particular reference to 
rjidial entrance and railways, the operations of the Harbor 
Commission as Trustees for the City, and local street rail- 
way service within the City Limits. The Ontario Hydro 
Electric Power Commission, through their Municipal Radial 
Railway project, is at present undertaking the construction 
and development of some 1,000 miles of radial railways, with 
I'oronto as a main terminal focal point; the Harbor Com- 
mission as Trustees for the City, control the proposed east 
and west trunk radial railway entrances, together with the 
lu-oposed terminal site, contemplated team track delivery 
yards and general sorting yard, while the City has jurisdic- 
tion over all public streets, embracing surface, elevated and 
imderground rights. Even cursory consideration, will de- 
monstrate the necessity of harmonizing all these interests. 
if transportation problems are to receive adequate and ef- 
fective treatment. This can best be accomplished by the 
creation of a Commission constituted as recommended. 

."i. The construction of the three radial entrance lines, 
with necessary yards and terminal, as shown on Drawing 



January 1, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



27 



No. 18 be proceeded with when conditions warrant and 
linance permits. 

fi, A rapid transit system in tlie strict meaning of the 
Urm be not adopted. 

T. TIic radial railway trunk line entrances be used for a 
.semi-rapid transit service, as conditions warrant, to serve the 
population in the districts lying at present without and 
adjacent to the existing City Limits. 

8. It may be necessary to procure legislation amending 
existing Acts, in order to give effect to the foregoing. 

9. The use of any of the lines, yards, terminals and any- 



l^6£ND 



Conclusions 
After detailed consideration of the various factors, en- 
tering into and affecting the problem as hereinbefore re- 
cited, we have concluded that: 

1. Additional civic car lines laid between now and 1921. 
without the limits of 1891, but within the limits of 1915, 
will, after acquisition by the City, of the Toronto Railway 
Company in 1921, adequately serve all sections within the 
present City limits; the maximum time necessary to reach 
extreme destination being thirty-five minutes. 

2. The existing surface system of the Toronto Railway 
Company, if provided with improved equipment and oper- 



Tor a/7/0 /?t7//ivoj' Cas S^s/e/77 
C/y/c Cc/r Z J/ye s 
t5(/^</fi> o/v L/nes 
Afc//7/c/pa/ Soi//7iyt7rj/ /89/ 
Mumc/pa/ Hocndary /d/5' 
/^(7^/a/ /?a//tv<3y £In/>-ofrce 5 




thiuK whatsoever, in any way relating or appertaining there- 
to, by any other railway than those of the Hydro Electric 
l^ailway Union and the City, shall not at any time be per- 
mitted, until such railway shall have obtained the consent 
ol the Hydro Electric Power Commission thereto. 

10. We do not make suggestion as to finance and re- 
imbursement, feeling that this does not lie within our juris- 
diction, hut is for each to take up with his respective prin- 
ciples. 

These recommendations are based on certam conclu- 
sions drawn by the members of this Advisory Committee as 
a result of their researches and deliberations. These con- 
clusions, in part, are to the effect that there is no conges- 
tion on Toronto's streets that cannot be relieved by a proper 
utilization of existing surface lines; that an up-town term- 
inal is not feasible; that ample provision must be made for 
future expansion and for co-ordination of rail and water 
transportation; also that the present gauge on the Toronto 
Street Railway tracks must, for a proper traffic unification, 
be reduced to standard. The following are the conclusions 
in full; 



ated at higher service efficiency can be made to adequately 
serve the City within the limits of 1891. 

3. As traffic officers become more efficient in direction 
and citizens better appreciate the functions of such officials, 
the movement of rail, vehicular and pedestrian traffic will be 
greatly facilitated, with consequent saving of time and added 
safety to all. 

4. If a sufficient number of cars of modern type were 
provided, thereby minimizing overcrowding and the public 
educated to embark and debark with reasonable speed, it 
would result in more rapid operation of the railway system, 
and the facilitation of other classes of traffic. 

5. There is comparatively little congestion in Toronto 
streets. This may be further minimized by regulation of 
standing vehicles on. and diversion of slow-moving, heavily 
laden traffic from, main Iwavily-trafficked thoroughfares in 
the central area. 

Radial Railway Entrance 
1. That the following railways entering the outlying 
portions of Toronto, viz: — 

(a) The Toronto & York Radial Railway embracing the 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January 1, 1916 



Metropolitan, running north on Yongc Street; tlie Kingston 
Road line from the Woodbine; the Port Credit line from 
Sunnyside; (b) The Toronto Suburban to Lambton, Weston 
and Woodbridge, from Keele and Dundas Streets, cannot be 
considered rapid transit interurban lines, as in all cases they 
operate mainly on the highway, at low speeds. The people 
of Toronto and the Province have not had the advantages 
of modern rapid interurban service, such as is operated m 
many parts of the United States. When the Hydro Radial 
project becomes an accomplished fact, the system of which 
the section operating between London and Port Stanley is 
a happy augury, the entire population of the Province will 
derive therefrom, tangible benefits, which result to a com- 
munity from a modern, high speed, properly equipped and 
efficiently operated system. 

:J. That the most feasible entrances from the east and 
west lie along the waterfront route. The entrance from the 
north may be readily effected by subway construction. The 
foregoing conclusions were arrived at after careful recon- 
naissance of the possible routes of entrance for radial rail- 
ways, in the City and its environs, and detailed survey of one 
hundred and fifty miles of line. 

It. From the viewpoint of economy of operation and 
utility, it is essential that the terminal be located on the 
a.xis of maximum movement. Having regard for the past 
suggestions for an up-town terminal, we thoroughly in- 
vestigated this possibility, with the result, that aside from 
operating considerations, the additional cost of $8,000,000 
embracing a four track subway from the waterfront to Col- 
lege Street, and the erection of a terminal at the latter point, 
liroved it unfeasible. 

The foregoing indicates the necessity for location on 
waterfront route. 

The same consideration applies also to the location of 
yards nn the waterfront property, in view of its natural 
advantages. 

4. It is prudent to make present provision for future 



expansion covering trackage for trunk line entrances and 
terminal facilities, therefore the necessary sites should now 
be provided for ultimate development. 

J. That it is necessary to make ample provision for the 
co-ordination of rail and water transportation and the proper 
interchange of all traffic. 

6. The radial railway trunk lines sliould. as tlie luture 
demands, and the City extends, provide for the operation o' 
semi-rapid transit lines to serve outlying districts. 

Rapid Transit Lines 

1. The streets in the central area are sutticient to cart 
for future traction and vehicular demands, provided reason- 
able regulations are enacted, and enforced, governing; 
vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 

2. Traffic may be much facilitated by an increase in 
speed of the existing Toronto Railway units. This entails 
improved equipment, track, routing and operation, together 
with the adoption of up-to-date loading and unloading facili- 
ties, and the much needed education of the public to embark 
and debark speedily. The accomplishment of this, together 
with adequate extension of surface lines, will make it possible 
to travel from the centre of the present city limits within a 
thirty-five minute period. 

We have been assisted to the foregoing conclusions by 
the study of Drawings, Nos. 8 to 15 inclusive, showing pre- 
sent volume of traffic with origin and destination, lines of 
heaviest movement, and street traffic counts. 

:> In relation to the matter of change of gauge, not- 
withstanding that almost every economic consideration de- 
clares against it. the dominant factor is that of future 
traffic unification, between radial, semi-rapid, and city sur- 
face lines, and this is impossible without the reduction of the 
present gauge from four feet ten and seven eighths to four 
feet eight and one-half inches. 

4. As hereinbefore indicated, there is no justification 
whatever for the construction, in the City of Toronto, of a 
rapid transit system in the strict sense of the term. 



How to Put on a Slogan Sign Campaign 



A slogan is a terse, yet complete expression of the good- 
ness, excellence or opportunity-giving qualities of a com- 
munity. It is a high standard, up to which the people 
should strive hard to live. 

Slogans have been used by progressive and hustling 
communities as far back as history records. The very fact 
that a slogan openly avows something makes it necessary 
that those living in the community live up to what it ex- 
presses. There are hundreds of towns which enjoy greater 
prosperity and greater life and promise since the adoption 
of a battle-cry for progress. 

Keep It Before the People 

A sloga'' is a most valuable asset to any community. 
But to realize its fullest value, its powers for good, the 
slogan must be eflfectively advertised. It must be made 
known, not only to residents of the place, but also to 
strangers and to travelers; for all these, directly or in- 
directly, influence the prosperity of the community. 

How, then, can this be done? The transient visitor, 
passing through the town by boat or train, rarely reads 
the town's local papers — the mere expression of a slogan 
by word of mouth means little to him. 

Electric Signs Best Medium 

But picture to yourself the cfTect of a brilliant, scintill- 
ating, electric sign, dominating the business section of the 
town, bearing the slogan, the highest mark the people of 



the communit)' have set for themselves. It is so vivid, so 
attention-compelling, that the impression is lasting. It lit- 
erally "shouts it from the house-tops." 

The Slogan Sign carries a message stronger than pure 
commercialism. It is an advertised declaration of the "good- 
ness" of the place. It stands not only for improvement in 
business conditions, but for a definite moral duty, which 
each association of individual is called upon to obey. Some- 
how, the very nature of the slogan implies progress — an 
"I Will!" spirit — a desire lor better living and better times. 

What is more in keeping with this spirit than electricity 
— ever synonymous with light, progress, prosperity? 

How to Obtain a Suitable Slogan 
.\ slogan is really a public asset. It primarily owes 
its existence to the growing-pains of the town. Therefore, 
the entire community should lend a helping hand to create 
a slogan typical, representative, symbolical of the ideals of 
the place. The electrical interests of the community should 
hold a meeting, to form plans for stimulating interest in the 
project. Usually the best plan is to work through the most 
prominent civic body, which may be the Chamber of Com- 
merce, the Board of Trade, Business Men's League or some 
similar organization. A campaign for suggestions for the 
slogan may be inaugurated by that body, leaving the de- 
cision in the contest to such a committee as they may select. 
The central station or the electrical organization should 



laiuiary 1, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



29 



take an active interest in tlie contest for the selection of a 
slogan, advertise it in the local newspapers, by circular- 
izing, by postal cards, or all of these mediums. In connec- 
tion with this advertising, attention should be called to 
the benefits to the city of a Great White Way. A premium 
or prize should be offered to the contestant whose motto 
or slogan is adopted. Partisanship should not be allowed 
to influence the selection of the slogan. Strict "neutrality" 
should prevail. The bars should be down for all. 

Advertising in the papers, street-car cards, and otlier 
forms of publicity insure plenty of slogans coming in for 
criticism. It is important to stipulate in the conditions 
governing the giving of the prize that the judges will not 
necessarily accept one of the slogans submitted, for it is 
possible that, at the first trial, none may he found sufticiently 
attractive. 

A "Slogan Committee," composed of representative 
business men, should be the judge. Selecting a slogan is 
much like selecting a wife: it is for all time; therefore, too 
mucli care can not be exercised in adopting a slogan. 1 he 
slogan may be selected according to the dominant industry 
of the community, the facilities afforded, the population, or 
the number of homes. For example, Danbury, Conn., is one 
of the greatest hat-producing centers of the country. The 
slogan — "Danbury Crowns Them AH" — can easily be under- 
stood when we remember that all men are "crowned" by 
a hat, and most hats are made in Danbury. In every case 
where a slogan has been selected, the newspapers have, on 
account of the general interest, kept the public well informed 
regarding the progress of the slogan sign, and this insures 
considerable publicity before the sign is completed. As 
the slogans come in, an eliminating process should weed 
out the "unfit." The surviving slogans can be sifted down 
further and finiher until final selection is made. 

Keep the Community Interested 

To really make the slogan sign popularly-known and 
profit-making, it is necessary that wide publicity be given to 
it through the newspapers and other mediums. The adver- 
tisements calling for public participation in the slogan cam- 
paign should contain pertinent facts regarding the commun- 
ity. Why the town is a good place to live in, to root for. 
to boost and to strive to make still better. Why the growth 
of the town, its future progress, depends on what is beint; 
done now. Articles and stories regarding the slogan cam- 
paign, the purposes of the slogan, the p.irticipants, the 
winner of the prize, and otlier items of interest, should be 
given to the papers. They will help make the slogan the 
most lalked-of thing tliat ivir happened in the town. 

As a climax of appeal for public interest in the town's 
acquisition, a bi.g celebration should be planned and given 
plenty of publicity in the newspapers. Make sure that every- 
body know-s the nature of the celebration, when the sign 
will be lighted, and who will be present at the occasion. 
The leading men of the town, committees from neighboring 
cities, and others whose presence would add |)ublic interest 
to the event should be secured as speakers. A band should 
be provided. In reality, it should be a great "get-together" 
for the citizens of the community. This function should be 
put into the hands of the representatives of the city at large; 
it should not be made simply an "electrical" affair, .^fter 
the dedication, the honor of flashing the slogan sign for 
the first time should be given to the most prominent man 
present. 

Proper Location for a Slogan Sign 

The slogan sign should absolutely dominate the town. 
It should be set in appropriate surroundings, and where it 
will be seen by the greatest number of ])eople. The roof 
of a high building in the right section of the city is gen- 
erally the best location for the sign. 



It should be visible from trains or boats or other tran- 
sportation lines, that even those who do not stop may see 
the slogan. It must be remembered, however, that if the 
sign is not backed up by something, but faces the town 
from both sides, a two-sided sign is necessary. 

What Does a Slogan Sign Cost? 

It is impossible to set down the cost-figures of a slogan 
sign which will be anywhere near correct lor all communi- 
ties. The size of the sign, its structure, its mechanism, and 
other factors will govern. The contractor, sign man and 
central station have full facts on the cost of slogan signs. 
Any one of them can give complete cost data, and will be 
glad to show photographs of successful slogan signs adopted 
l)y other progressive cities. 

Electric Sign Campaign 

The electric sign is always the forerunner of many other 
electric signs. In the first place, the wide publicity given 
the slogan sign turns people's minds towards things elec- 
trical. The brilliant slogan sign is a practical demonstration 
to the business man of how an electric sign would help his 
business. Naturally, the central station and the sign man 
will not let this wonderful opportunity for placing more 
and more signs go by. Advertising, canvassing and other 
sales methods are pushed with a vim so as to profit most 
while the subject is hot. The merchants are told of the 
wonderful success electric sign advertising has always been. 
They are told why a light town means a bright and pros- 
perous town; that electric signs enhance the value of real 
estate; that they even increase the earning power of the 
town itself? 

Still, the electric sign is economical. It tells its mes- 
sage in letters of light in the evening — when the day's work 
is done and the people are in the most receptive mood. 
Electric signs electrify a community! "Dead" towns are 
lightless, signless towns — poor places to live in. "Live" 
towns are always judged by their after-dark brilliancy — their 
povifer to attract people from neighboring, unlighted. unpro- 
gressive tow-ns. "Live" towns get the lion's share of the 
buyer's money — at the expense of the "dead" town. 

Successful "Slogan" Towns 
In the United States hundreds of towns have been 
literally placed on the map as the result of adopting a good 
slogan. Examples are: "Topeka Kan., Topeka Will"; "In 
Kalamazoo ^Ve Do"; "The City of Smokestacks and Oppor- 
tunities," for Everett, Wash.; "Fort Wayne with Might 
and Main," and so on. .\ slogan for a town, like a trade 
mark for a manufactured product, is a \alual)le asset. 



The town of Grand'Mere, P. Q., is about to install a 
duplicate unit in their power house at Shawinigan Falls in 
order to provide additional current for power and lighting 
purposes. Accordingly bids have been called for a 500 h.p. 
turbine, working under a head of !t6 feet; a ;W0 kv.a., 3-phase. 
()0 cycle, 2200 volt, 600 r.p.ni. generator; and six transformers. 
Three of the latter will step up the current fre>m 2200 volts 
to 11,000 volts, and the other three will step it down from 
11,000 volts to 2200 volts. Two sets of switchboards will 
be installed, one at Shawinigan Falls and the other at the 
distribution jioint in Grand'Mere. The tenders will close on 
January .5th. 

The Board of Public Utilities of Nova Scotia have re- 
fused the application of the Nova Scotia Light and Power 
Company to increase their capital from six million to twelve 
million dollars. This latter amount, it is now stated, will 
be required to finance the development of the Gaspereaux 
waterfall and the |>urehase of the Halifax Electric Tramway 
Company. 




THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Jamiary I, 1916 



A budget of comment presented in the interest of public welfare. 
independent of party politics and with malice toward no one. 



Right here at the start let me say that this criticizing of 
the Government i^ no pleasant task. I am well aware that 
the publishers of this paper will get little credit for honesty 
of purpose. So accustomed is the public to the harpings 
of the party and corporation press that it has become case- 
hardened. It has learned to look through the printed articles 
for the self, party or corporation interest that prompted it. 
Let it be known then, once for all, that I prefer the Borden 
administration, with all its sins, to a Government controlled 
l)y a party that sought to tie us up to the United States 
with a reciprocity treaty. But this paper represents a con- 
stituency of business men. It realizes that they are tired 
of seeing politics practised where business methods should 
be applied. They know that honest criticism is the best 
medicine for any government — even if you have to hold its 
nose while you administer the dose. As I have said before, 
the publishers are not in a position to handle a war contract 
and do not care to farm one out. I myself have no desire 
to swagger around in an honorary colonel's uniform. Fur- 
thermore, none of the stafi want to break into society. We 
have no fish to fry, soap to boil or peanuts to peddle. We 
simply want to show that petty politics are no satisfactory 
substitute for patriotism and that party machines cannot 
do the work of factory lathes. And permit nie to say fur- 
ther, that we believe that things would have been just as 
bad and probably much worse if a Liberal government had 
happened to be in power when the war broke out. 

Despatches from Ottawa indicate that the Government 
is lirmly fixed in its resolution to side-step any and all en- 
(piiry into the "educative" work of the late lamented shell 
committee. It is evidently hoping that its work will be so 
covered by the improved methods under which the Imperial 
Munitions Board is working that it will be forgotten. But 
the charge that the sufiferings of heroes have been capital- 
ized and made to yield fortunes is one that refuses to die. 
The Ottawa Citizen, which was early in action against the 
"profiteers," returns to the charge with a statement that for 
machining 4.5 inch shells the Motherland has been forced to 
pay as high as $6.70 per shell, when the work could be pro- 
fitably done for .$3.2.5 per shell. It also gives figures to 
show that profits on other sizes of shells were proportionately 
large. What the public wants to know is how true these 
figures arc. 

The public demand an investigation. They look not 
to the Conservative political machine but to Sir Robert Bor- 
den for that investigation. They feel that the Premier who 
is a gentleman rather than a politician, has been sinned 
against. They know that when next Sir Robert Borden 
visits England he will not want to be pointed out as the 
sponsor for a Committee that scattered its contracts liki? 
so much political graft, while our soldiers cried from the 
trenches for the munitions they so sorely needed. Sir Robert 
Borden may be deluded by the men he has trusted but he 
is not the man likely to stand idly by while the good name 
of the Dominion is dragged through the dirt and grime of 
a war scandal. Sir Robert Borden will act. Sir Robert 



Borden must act to save the reputation of tlic country he 
represents and his own political honor. 

* * * 

According to the Boston Transcript, Bridgeport, Conn., 
had only 5,000 employees in its factories when the war broke 
out. Nearly 40,000 operatives are now employed and in an- 
other month 20,000 more will be at work in new factories. 
The population has risen from 102,000 to 140,000 and wotdd 
be more if homes could be found. The reason: Bridgeport 
has $175,000,000 in direct war orders besides $100,000,000 in 
other orders, many of which are war accessories. Has any- 
body heard of any Canadian city emulating the Connecticut 
town in orders or growth? Are Canadians asleep? Or did 
the dear departed Shell Committee shoo the orders across 
the line? 

It begins to look as if the United States could not be 
much worse off if she were really at war with Germany. 
The hyphenated by-products of the Teutonic nations have 
violated her neutrality, blown up her factories and punched 
holes in her self-respect. The only recompense they can 
offer is the German vote. And who knows but by the time 
the presidential election is on it may be too tiiuch of a 
handicap for either party to carry. 

* * * 

When the Canadian Government commandeered 15.- 
000,000 bushels of Canadian wheat it caused a sensation 
more than commensurate with the size of the undertaking. 
That amount of wheat is only about 5^ per cent, of the 
Canadian crop and the immediate efifect of the coup was 
simply to entangle the wheat business for a few days so 
that dealers did not know where they were at. The move 
on the whole appears to have been political rather than 
business. It was meant as an answer to the "free wheat" 
cry in the west — a cry that needs no answer. But as usual, 
where politics and business are mixed, results were not as 
expected. It was found that the wheat commandeered was 
required by millers who had flour to make and dealers who 
had contracts to fill. To get the tangle straightened out the 
Government has been busy releasing the wheat to the deal- 
ers and millers. It is ever thus when politicians attempt 
plain everyday business. And yet we entrust the entire 
business of this trusting young country to the politicians. 
It is a habit. 

* * * 

France is enquiring, it is reported, in the L'nited State-i 
for 2,000,000 nickel disks and is informed that she can secure 
them. Of course Canadian nickel will be used in their manu- 
facture. Nothing strange about that. W^e're used to it. But 
the well-known United States writer Richard Harding Davis 
was candid enough the other day to tell his fellow coimtry- 
men that the French as a nation had a quiet contempt for 
people "too proud to fight." So figure it out for yourself: 
France buys from a people for whom she has contempt goods 
made from the raw material of a country whose sons helped 
keep the Huns out of Calais. Doesn't it appear to be about 
time the Government did something? 



The suggestion that Canada should give credit to the 
Empire comes from the London Times and should receive 
immediate consideration. The Thunderer calculates that in 
the present year Canada's exports will exceed imports by two 
luindred million dollars and points out that this balance will 
be at her disposal for any credits that may be arranged for 
supplies to Britain in lieu of cash payments. That the sug- 
gestion is timely everyone will admit. Canadians are of one 
mind in re.gard to the war. It is not Britain's war or Can- 
ada's war but a war that involves the freedom of the world. 



miiary 1, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



No sacrifice is too great to secure that freedom without 
which material prosperity would be merely an aggravation. 
Canada must do everything in her power to help bring the 
war to a successful close. Every bushel of grain, every dollar 
and every man capable of bearing arms must be at the Em- 
pire's disposal till freedom is assured, Belgium has been 
avenged and the German war machine is in the scrap heap. 
It is Canada's part not only to offer every assistance to the 
Motherland but to grasp every suggestion as to how that 
assistance may best be given. Giving Britain a line of credit 
will provide this young Dominion with a new sensation, :ir 
rather two sensations — pride in being classed amon.sf ;he 
creditor nations and pleasure that she is able to financially 
aid the Old Land in her hour of need. It is whispered that 
the Minister of I^'inance will insist on our banks loosening 
up. 

* * * 

Recruiting has now reached the stage wliere men must 
be asked to leave good positions to take tlieir places in the 
ranks. It is a critical stage. When England reached it 
she made changes in her rules to make the ranks more at- 
tractive. Companies of chums were assured that they would 
be kept together after enlistment and other promises were 
given. A Canadian who is enjoying a fair salary hardly feels 
like taking the plunge until he is assured that he will not be 
asked to act as batman to some young officer who never 
earned $10 a week. 

* * * 

The Government has everything to gain and nothing to 
lose by being open and above-board in this matter. So 
many stories have been whispered, so many charges have 
been flung broadcast that to remain silent must simply be 
taken as an admission of guilt — an admission that the worst 
has not been told. Never since Confederation have so many 
stories of trickery, trafficking and grafting been afloat. They 
come to this office by the score. All cannot be given be- 
cause all cannot be investigated. It would take a big staff 
working overtime to get into them all. But they pass from 
mouth to mouth, growing with each telling. Probably most 
of them have not yet reached Sir Robert Borden. His "ma- 
chine men" probably see that such as do reach him are fumi- 
gated, sugar-coated and otherwise specially prepared for his 
consumption. Rut even his own [larty organs are liintin.g 
that makers of munitions "have striven to get large jjrofits 
out of their contracts." The Toronto News (Conservative) 
charges it all to "stock market booming," but closes its 
article with the rather ominous sentences: "As in previous 
crazes a reckoning is coming. It may be close at hand 
and some verj' prominent men may be involved in the in- 
evitable disclosures." 

Just one more instance of how the Shell Committee 
handled contracts. This story has been investigated and can 
be vouched for, as can the others that have from time to 
time found place in this colunm. The owner of a jilaning 
mill in an Ontario town went out after a sliell-box contract. 
His application brought the usual answer tliat all contracts 
had been let. Imagine his surprise when a shipping clerk 
in a dry goods house in his own town secured a contract, 
put up a building, completed his contract and got a renewal. 
The shipping clerk had no plant, no experience and no busi- 
ness rating. But he knew a man wlio knew something about 
how contracts were got. Pretty wise man, wasn't lie? 
Thrifty, too. For he still retains his job as shipping clerk, 
though he occasionally finds a few moments to run over to 
the shell-box plant and figure his profits. 
♦ + * 

These be pessimistic times. What with criticisms of war 
mcthpds in England, war contracts in Canada, and hyphen- 



ated Germans in the United States, it seems that there is 
a lot to holler about, and mighty little to holler for. But 
there is one thing that we can always look to and let our 
lungs loose in one loud and long hurrah. And that is the 
British navy. The "hearts of oak" have been modernized 
into hearts of steel. It has stood between civilization and 
the iron hand of Prussian militarism. And when the last 
battle of this war is fought and won — by the British, for 
some wise man has said "Britain wins only one battle every 
war, and that the last" — the credit and giory must go not 
to British arms or British gold, but to the grand old British 
navy. 

A prominent grain man, in telling why Canada should 
lie prosperous, states that Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Al- 
berta this year produced 700,000,000 bushels of grain, of 
which 300,000,000 bushels was wheat. He gives $450,000,000 
as a conservative estimate of its value. Is it any wonder 
that the other week Winnipeg had larger bank clearings 
than Montreal, and that the Prairie City is entering on a new 
era of prosperity? And with millions of acres of this grain- 
producing land still waiting for the settler's plow why should 
Canada worry about the future? 

* * * 

That all patriotic funds sliould lie controlled and ad- 
ministered by the Government is amply evidenced in Toronto. 
A recruiting fund having been obtained by a "tag day" and 
other begging methods which tax the liberal and allow the 
penurious to go untouched, a quarrel is now under way as In 
its distribution. In England arrests have been made of people 
who sought to profit by the epidemic of giving for patriotic 
purposes. How much of this sort of thing is going on in 
Canada there is no way of finding out, but I hear of one 
entertainment for the good cause where the expenses amount- 
ed to $625 and the amount turned over to the cause was $25. 
There is but one remedy. The government should control 
all such funds. And it should also replenish them by a tax 
that would make everyone bear his share of the burden. 

* * * 

Down New York way they're still sending out circulars 
that tell of desirable investments created by filling war or- 
ders in Canada. One of the latest comes from Gilbert Elliott 
and Company. It advises clients to invest in Canada Found- 
ries and Forgings Company, which has shops at Brockvillc 
and Welland. Here are the reasons given: 

"We are advised from sources upon wliicli we 
can rely, that earnings for the past ten months end- 
ing November 1, 1915, are over $900,000, and that 
the monthly earnings are now running at the rate 
of $150,000, or equal to $1,800,000 per year, which, 
after taking care of fixed charges, will amount to 
over 150 per cent, per annum on the outstanding 
common stock." 

The circular also stated that the company has within 
the past year filled large orders for shells for the British 
Government, in adch'lion to its commercial business, 

* * * 

Why did tlie Gnvernnient lease tlie Transcona car shojis 
to a private company for the manufacture of shells? Well, 
perhaps you had better ask D. A. Thomas. The Shell Com- 
mittee was the part of the Dominion Government with whicli 
lie came in contact. So when the Government proposed to 
start in to manufacture shells without saying anything about 
price you can imagine him throwing up his hands and ex- 
claiming "Heaven forliid!" However, what he said to the 
Government was, "put in a tender." Well, you know that 
Shell Committee never did care for tenders, any way. It 
just shied off and the Governnu-nt with it. 

"SEARCHLIGHT" 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January 1, I'Jltj 



New "Beii" Building in St. Catharines 



On Saturday, October 16tli, the Bell Telephone Com- 
pany took possession of its new building, No. 39 King Street, 
St. Catharines, Ont. The building is of three storeys, with 
a frontage of 35 feet by a depth of 70 feet, and provision is 
made for a futur-e additional storey. -A. prime consideration 
in the building and equipping of telephone exchanges, that 
of tire protection and resistance, was a special feature adhered 
to, wood being principally eliminated throughout the con- 
struction. Structural floors, beams, columns, exterior walls 
and interior main partition are of reinforced concrete, Inick. 
stone, cement or terra cotta. 

One very special feature of the building is what is termed 
its flexibility. Should more office accommodation be re- 
quired on the first fioor it is only necessary to extend this 
floor backwards, and when the telephone service grows to 
such an extent that the present operating room will not 
accommodate sufficient switchboard it will mean that it and 
the second floor beneath will have to be extended backwards 
to provide additional floor space. This can be done at one 
time or from time to time as required without disturbing 
the existing service or business conditions. 

On the first floor are commodious public offices, with 
direct access to the manager, business offices and telephone 
booths. Special provision has been made in the entrance 
vestibule so that it can be used by the public to telephone 
after business hours. Plant department is situated in the 
rear of the public office and terminal and battery rooms are 
arranged across the front of the second storey, the oper- 
ators' retiring rooms being at the rear. The entire floor is 
iiscd for the operating mom, at the rear of which to the yard 
level is a fire escape cuninninicating with cacli floor. 

Capacity for 5,600 Subscribers 

'rile switchboard is located on the third floor and is of 
the Northern Electric Company's No. 1 common battery type 
equipped with No. 4'.l jacks and arranged to give two party 
service. Capacity of the switchboard is .'j.600 subscribers' 
lines, its present equipment consisting of 3,100 lines. A total 
of six sections has been installed and in them there are six 
toll positions, seven subscribers' positions, one position for 
plugging up cords for lines in trouble and one position for 
testing. In this room there is also the usual chief operator's 
desk-. 

In llu- terminal rcMini on the second floor there are llic 
usual main, intermediate and relay frames, repeating coil 
racks, power plant and test board. The testboard is a fea- 
ture of the equipment, being the installation of the first one 
of the new type. This board was designed by the telephone 
company's engineering department, and has all the latest 
equipment for testing subscribers and long distance lines. 

Tlir power plant for this equipment is designed to supply 
the required electrical energy for the transmission of speech 
and signalling purjjoses in connection with the telephone 
equipment, and consists of various apparatus as follows: — 

Machine equipment: two motor-generator outfits, each 
made up of a S.IO volt, 3 phase, 25 cycle alternating current 
induction motor direct connected to and mounted on a com- 
mon sub-base with a telephone generator of 5,350 watts. 30 
volts cai)acity. I'"ach motor is supplied with a special (jil 
immersed starting switch and automatic push button no 
voltage release. The generator portion of this outfit is 
specially designed for telephone work, being equipped with 
a large number of segments on its commutator and specially 
designed pole pieces, with the object of reducing to a mini- 
mum any unevenness produced during commutation of the 



current generated and thus eliminate the introduction of 
foreign noise on the telephone system. These machines are 
supplied in duplicate to provide an emergency outfit, in the 
event of a possible breakdown of one of the charging sets, 
thus safeguarding against a breakdown of the telephone ser- 
vice from this source and are also used for charging two 
groups of storage batteries, one main battery consisting of 
11 cells of E. S. B. Co.'s type G-21, in lead lined wooden 
tanks which are supported and insulated from the floor by 
special oil type insulators mounted on glazed earthenware 
pedestals. In addition a second battery used to re-inforce 
the main battery for work in connection with long distance 
transmission consisting of II cells of E. S. B. Co.'s type 
E-11 batteries in glass containing jars set on glass and trays 
and mounted on a wooden rack. 

The capacities of these batteries are such that in tlie 
event of the charging current failing for any reason the 
batteries will be able to furnish all the power required on 
the telephone switchboard for two days without being re- 
charged. 

Two additional machines are furnished for supplying 
alternating current for signalling purposes, one set being 
operated from an outside source of power and the other 
from the main central office battery. These machines are 
also equipped with a special attachment of interrupted rings 
arranged to produce visual and audible signals for particular 
work in connection with the telephone system. 

The control and measuring apparatus for the above 
equipment is assembled on a main switchboard consisting 
of three separate Monson Maine slate panels for the control 
of the motors, charging generators and ringing machines 
respectively. A separate slate panel is also provided for 
distributing and fusing the various discharge leads carrying 
the current drain from the storage batteries to the telephone 
switchboard. 

The main power leads entering the building are brought 
to a power protection switchboard panel installed in the 
basement of the building at a point as near as practicable 
to the point of entrance. This panel is equipped with main 
fuses, main switch, retardation coils and lightning arresters, 
and is specially designed to protect the building and the 
telephone equipment from hi.gh tension lightning discharges 
from the main power leads entering the building from an 
outside source. 

The power plant charging ai;d ringing outfits are as- 
sembled in the main terminal and rack room; the storage 
batteries are located in a separate room arranged for this 
purpose, the floor of this room being specially treated with 
three coats of acid resisting paint to withstand the corrod- 
ing action of the acid used in connection with the storage 
l)atteries. The room is also provided with a ventilating shaft 
arranged to carry away acid fumes formed during the opeti- 
tion of charging the batteries. 



During the past year the gross earnings of the Kamin- 
istiqua Power Company increased $20,610, bringing the total 
up to $340,128, while the net earnings of $204,434 show a 
gain of $33,103, equal to !i,;i per cent, on the capital stock. 
The working expenses were reduced by $9,150, but fixed 
charges were. $6,600 higher. The sum of $35,000 was put 
to depreciation and contingencies; the dividend of six per 
cent, absorbed $131.7C.O, leaving $.36,674 to be carried to 
surplus account. 



January I. I91( 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 




Oxy-acetylene gas flame for rail bonding— Gang 
of three men place ten to twelve bonds per hour. 

By J. Rowland Brown" 

Kail bonds have been welded to rails by the use of 
the oxy-acetylene flame for years, but only recently have 
the obstacles to the general use of the process been re- 
moved. These obstacles consisted in the lack of an easily 
procurable supply of pure gases at a reasonable price and 
of readily portable tanks, in the use of torches not adapted 
to the particular job. and of copper wire, with its great 
power of absorbing gases when melted, for the welding 
material, and in the absence of a properly designed bond. 
These obstacles have now been overcome, and in the accom- 
panying view is shown a modern welding equipment at w'ork 
installing a bond. 

The gases required for welding are iiure, dry oxygen 
and acetylene, compressed or dissolved. These can be easily 
and safely handled in cylinders. 

The oxygen is obtained either by the electrolytic de- 
composition lit water or by liquefying air and removing the 
oxygen by fractional distillation. It is compressed in cylin- 
ders to about 1,800 lbs. per square inch pressure. .\ tank 
containing 100 cu. ft. of free air is generally used in bond- 
ing work as it weighs only between 100 lbs. and 125 lbs. 

.\cetylenc gas compressed in a tank above :tO llis. per 
square inch pressure is liighly explosive, and between l-') 
lbs. and .'iO Ills, its action is doubtful. To prevent any pos- 
sibility of explosion the tanks are packed with asbestos bbrc 
having a porosity not greater than about 7.5 per cent. The 
asbestos-filled tank is then charged with liquid acetone to 
about 40 per cent, of the volume of the tank. .Acetone lias 
the property of dissolving twenty-five times its own volume 
of acetylene for each atmosphere of pressure, and as the 
tanks are charged to 22.5 lbs., or l."> atmospheres (iressure. 
the tank contains about 1.50 times its own volume of acety- 
lene gas under perfectly safe conditions. A tank of 100 cu. 
ft. capacity, weighing about 85 lbs., is generally used. 

A fitting is connected to each gas tank consisting of 
a pressure gauge, a reducing valve and a gauge for indi 
eating the pressure in the hose and at the tank. There is 
a great variety of torches on the market, but they all con- 
sist of a tij) having an orifice that controls the size of the 
flame and the rate of consumption of gas, and a mixing 
chamber with a shut-off valve for each gas. The best torches 
arc simple and light in construction. The tips used for bond- 
ing consume gas at the rate of about .30 cu. ft. per hour each, 
with the pressure in each hose from 12 lbs. to 15 lbs. per 
square inch. Regulation to the correct flame is done by 
adjusting the shut-off valves on the torch and not by adjust- 
ing the reducing valves. The acetylene is ignited llrst and 
then the oxygen is turned on. As the oxygen is gradually 
turned on the flame will show an excess of acetylene. This 
is a reducing flame. Increasing the oxygen will soon pro- 
duce a distinctlv lined bead. This is the neutral flame of 



approximately equal parts of the gases and is the flame 
desired for bonding. Increasing the oxygen reduces the 
size of the head slightly, and produces an undesirable oxi- 
dizing flame which consumes an excess of oxygen. 

The proper design of bond for use with this process 
has only recently received the necessary consideration. In 
the first place, the weld should be made either to the head 
or the base of the rail. On account of the intense heat 
of the flame it is necessary to have a suflicient body of 
copper in the terminal to conduct the heat and to prevcTit 
burning or melting away of the terminal while the rail is 
being brought to the welding point. It is impracticable to 
weld the rail and the surface of the original terminal which 
is adjacent to it because the surfaces cannot be properly 
heated to the welding point. Therefore the welding wire is 
built up on top of the initial terminal, forming a new tapered 
bond terminal. The bond now has a tapered terminal which 
prevents traflic from exerting a destructive shearing action, 
but causes all wheels or other destructive forces to glance 






r 



Bond Installed 



Bonding Kquipmunt 



off. .\nother feature of design is the provision of means 
for keeping the initial terminal about 1/16 in. away from 
the rail to allow the gases of the flame to escape and not 
form a pocket when welding into the corner. The cable or 
ribbons of the flexible portion of the bond must also be 
protected for a sufficient distance I)y a sleeve to prevent 
burning by the flame. 

Until recently annealed copper wire has been used for 
the welding wire or filling-in material, but as copper oxi- 
dizes and absorbs gases rapidly when melted it is impos- 
sible to produce even a fairly non-porous structure for the 
built-on part of the terminal with pure copper. .\ flux wire 
of non-oxidizing alloy containing a high percentage of cop- 
per has, therefore, been developed. This produces a more 
perfect weld free from porous spots, and is much easier to 
manipulate than copper. 

It is not necessary to prepare the surface of the rail for 
the v.'cld, but by some operators it is considered best to 
grind the surface. Grinding is an extra precaution In in- 
sure a uniform contact with the rail :iiid docs Mot deniaiul 



34 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January 1, 1916 



as careful work on the part of the operator. On exposed 
rail, one end of the bond is clamped in position while the 
other end is being welded, and then the clamp is removed 
wliilc the other end is welded. 

Bonding in Paved Streets 

In bonding in paved streets one or two paving blocks 
arc removed and the bond is located by embedding Ihe 
,trand in some loose sand. When the rail is not *o be 
-round the operator first coats the surface of the rail with 
flux metal, as by this method it is easy to see, from Ihe 
manner in which the metal spreads over the rail, whether 
or not the oxide has been burned ofif. The flux melal is 
then built in between this coating and the initial bond term- 
inal, producing the beveled terminals. A little practice will 
enable an average track man to control the flame and make 
a good weld by this method. 

It is customary for a man doing welding of this kind 
to wear a pair of blue glasses, but there is no danger to 
a spectator and no such eye trouble develops as that experi- 
enced when working with or looking at the electric arc. 

The connection between the terminal and the rail is 
very strong mechanically and will resist the shearing strains 
produced by traffic. In fact, it is impossible to tear the 
terminal from the rail contact and failure only occurs by 
fracture through the copper structure. The electrical re- 
sistance of the terminal contact is approximately 3.5 mi- 
crohms, which is slightly more than has been attained by 
other terminals. This difference is due to the resistivity 
of the flux metal forming the terminal, which is greater 
than of pure copper. This difference, however, is negligible 
and, as there is no depreciation of the contact, it is electric- 
ally very efficient. 

During welding the terminals of the bond are heated 
to a bright red and sometimes the strand becomes a dull 
red for a short distance from the sleeve. This heating does 
not injure the bond in any way, as the mass of cold metal 
in the rail acts as a chill and anneals the copper. A series 
of vibration tests, comparing new bonds with welded bonds 
that had been cut from the rail, showed that in no case did 
Ihe welded bonds break down before the unwelded ones. 

No Bad Effects on Rails 

.\ htudy of the eft'ect of heat on the structure of the 
sUel rail has proved very interesting, and after very careful 
tests and investigations it can be safely stated that the weld- 
ing process does not have any detrimental effect. It is 
found that the welding changes the structure of the steel 
lo a depth of ^ in. The affected zone does not extend 
longitudinally beyond the welded terminal of the bond. A 
dividing line is formed between the fine structure produced 
liy the welding process and the normal structure of the rail. 
On the lower side of the line the normal structure consists 
of large pearlitic areas and patches of ferrite characteristic 
of open-hearth steel. On the upper side of the line the 
grain is finer, showing a fine pearlitic structure, which is 
Ihe average Structure of the area affected by the welding 
process. 

The rail in the samples was open hearth with carbon 
0.74 per cent., silicon 0.174 per cent., sulphur 0.035 per cent., 
phosphorus 0.030 per cent, and manganese 1.07 per cent., 
hence the effect of the heating would show up more prom- 
inently than in a steel of lower carbon content. Seleroscope 
readings for hardness checked by tests with a Brinnell ma- 
chine show the affected areas to- be slightly harder than 
the rest of the rail. 

The investigation showed that the areas affected and 
having a fine pearlitic structure have been heated to the 
critical point and were rapidly cooled by the mass of sur- 
rounding cold metal. The welding had refined the structure 
for ^ in. from the corner and had increased the hardness. 



but it had not detrimentally affected the steel. It is in- 
conceivable that it could have affected the wearing proper- 
ties of the rail or caused fractures or flaking. 

A complete welding outfit, exclusive of the truck, which 
can be home-made, can be purchased for from $50 to .$125, 
depending on the make of the torch and the extra acces- 
sories required for shop welding. The oxygen and acety- 
lene consumed per bond cost approximately 10 cents, wjiich 
cost varies with the distance to gas-charging stations. The 
flux wire used per bond will cost approximately 8 cents, the 
price varying with the copper market. The cost of labor 
with grinding of rail will average f)>^ cents per bond on 
straight work and iyi cents when no grinding is done. 

Where rail grinding is done with an electric grinder, 
three men are required in a gang, while without grinding 
only two men are necessary. A gang should average ten 
to twelve bonds per hour on straight work under average 
traftic conditions. An average cost of installation, there- 
fore, exclusive of cost of bond but including depreciation 
and interest on investment, is 35J^ cents per bond with grind- 
ing and 2354 cents without grinding. 

Sutnraary of Advantages 

The advantages of this process of welding are as follows: 
The investment in apparatus is small, resulting in low 
interest and depreciation charges. The utility of the appar- 
atus in shop repair work makes it a 365-day-in-the-year ma- 
chine. The entire equipment is compact and easy to handle 
and does not necessitate interference with traffic. No elec- 
tric current is required, a matter of considerable importance 
in construction work and in a.c, or high-voltage d.c. instal- 
lations. The welded contact has a high electrical efficiency 
and is permanent. The bonded joint is moderate in cost 
and easily inspected. When a length of rail is to be replaced 
one end of the bond can be cut loose from the old rail and 
rewelded to the new rail, thus saving the bonds. 



Meters on Brandon Municipal Cars Effecting 

Large Savings— Pay for Themselves 

in Five Weeks 

The Municipal Electric Railway System of the city of 
Brandon, Man., is an interesting example of the savings 
that may be effected in current consumption through the 
installation of electric meters on the cars. Mr. T. Boden. 
superintendent of the Brandon system, writes of their ex- 
perience with these meters as follows: — 

"We purchased ten Ferranti meters in September, 1914. 
These meters are the mercury type and have not caused us 
a moment's trouble. For the first five weeks after the meters 
were installed, the power consumption was checked daily, and 
compared with the previous year, our mileage was increased 
a little. At the same time a saving was made in this five- 
week period sufficient to pay for the meters. The saving 
for the year is approximately 30 per cent., and if such a 
saving can be made on a small system, I don't know what 
is going to hinder the same savings on a large system. For 
the first six months a bulletin was issued daily; also one 
every month, showing total mileage, power consumption and 
average kw.h. per car mile. Now we only issue the monthly 
bulletin. The meter record form herewith. Fig. 1, is that 
used by the motormen daily. Four of the lines for meter 
readings are used every day; two extra lines are provided 
in case of a car being changed. The mileage is filled in 
by the car-barn foreman, he having a list of mileage per 
trip on all routes. The motormen have needed very little 
coaching. Before the meters were installed every endeavor 
had been made to get the motormen to use as little power 
as possible, and while some motormen tried their best to 
do so, others seemed to get apathetic. 

"The chief complaint one hears against the mercury type 



January 1, 191G 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



of meter is that it is continually getting out of order. In 
my opinion the chief cause of this is that too many men 
are allowed to tamper with them. On this system the car- 
harn foreman is the only man 1 allow to touch them. Should 
he at any time have any doubts as to the nature of a fault 
of a meter his instructions arc not to tamper with it. How- 
ever, this has not occurred yet. as the meters have given 
US every satisfaction." 

BRANDON MUNICIPAL RAILWAY 

.MKTRR RKCORD 



Xt 



Car No Working; Meter j^"''- . 

Hours I Reading when lef, , ^^^f^H ^«f 

Meter ' — ' 

Reading when taken .. . 



1 left 



Meter 

Reading whe 

Meter 

Reading when taken 

Meter 

Reading when left , , . 

Meter 

Reading when taken 



Route. . 
Date^. 



N'{>TE — Loss of mileage through any ca 



nust be reported on back of sheet 



The following table gives comparative figures for the 
last two years, with and without meters installed. 

Power consumed, kw.h 007.990 491,900 

Car miles 268.244 278,044 



Average kw.h. per car mile ... . 

Total cost of power for year . . . 

Savings over 1914 

(Power costs 2c. per kw.h.l 
(."ost of meters 



2.600 
..$12.1o9.82 



2,321.82 
200.00 



1.769 
$9,8.18.00 



Three Rivers Traction Company gets under 

way Best of equipment — Power supplied 

from Shawinigan Falls 

Tlie Three Rivers Traction Company have just inaugur- 
ated a tramway service in the city, of Three Rivers, Quebec. 
The Ottawa Car Manufacturing Company supplied the roll- 
ing stock — six single end. single truck, one-man nearside 
cars, also one single truck combination sweeper and tower 
car, a general description of which is given below. 

The car bodies are of semi-convertible type, wood con- 
struction, built specially for one-man nearside operation. 




and single end control. Sides are straight and sheeted ver- 
tically with narrow tongue and groove poplar sheeting. 
There are eight double sash windows on each side of the 
body. Top sash made stationary and bottom sash made to 
raise to open. 

The roof is of arch type with Brill ventilators in each 
side, also one in front vestibule. The underframe is of 
composite construction, having wood sills reinforced with 
steel plates, which are riveted together to form a cotnplete 
steel frame. The flooring is % in. thick tongue and groove, 
hard yellow pine, covered with hardwood floor matting laid 
lengthwise in the aisle. The interior trimming is red cherry. 
The front vestibule is made extra long and step opening 
extra wide, so that entrance and exit can be made by same. 
Each opening has an individual folding dnnr and step of 




Fig 1 -Extcriorviewone-mancar— Three Rivers Traction Co. 



Fig. 2 -Interior view typical car— Three Rivers Traction Co. 

the builder's standard construction, so arranged thai when 
the motorman opens the door the step drops, and when he 
closes the door the step folds up. The doors are so arran,ged 
that the motorman can operate them singly or both together. 

The front vestibule is equipped with brass p.a.y.e. rails, 
folding curtain behind motorman, and Coleman No. 4 Type 
fare boxes. 

The rear vestibule is circular in shape with an emer- 
gency exit door controlled by the motorman from his posi- 
tion in the front vestibule. There is a circular seat which 
accommodates five passengers running around the rear vesti- 
bule. The seats are the builder's standard stationary type, 
covered with twill weave rattan and with brass grab handle 
on back. The curtains are pantasote mounted on Edward's 
metal rollers. 

The car is also equipped with the builders' standard push 
buttons and buzzers, the current procured from batteries. 
The cars are heated with Consolidated Car Heating Com- 
pany's type 118 \\"-S cross seat heaters with ten heaters 
per car. 

The general dimensions are as follows: length of body, 
21 ft.; length of front vestibule, G ft. 2 ins.; length of rear 
vestibule, 4 ft.; length over all, 32 ft. 2 ins.; width over all. 
8 ft. in.; seating capacity, 36 persons. 

The cars are mounted on Brill Radiax trucks, 12 ft. wheel 
base with 33 in. cast iron wheels and -I'/j in. hot rolled axles. 
Each car is equipped with two Westinghouse 121-B-2 mo- 
tors, with one K/10 controller; also Westinghouse schedule 
S-M-1 straight air brake equipment; also equipped with H-B 
life guards, and an Ideal trolley catcher. 

The accompanying photographs illustrate the general 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



inuarv 1. Uiir, 



appearance of the cars. The bodies arc painted olive green 
with 'jold lettering and striping. 

The Sweeper and Tower Car 

■| he coniliiiiation sweeper and tower car i.s the builder s 
.standard single truck sweeper with a tower built on one 
end The body or cab is of wood construction, built on a 
heavy wood underfranie which is reinforced with heavy 
steel plates. The roof is of the turtle back type suppo- :cd 
on steel carlines. The interior „f the body is finished m 
ash. natural finish. 

The truck is the builder's standard design, which is 
e.xtra heavy. The brooms and broom operating machinery 
arc of the builders' standard construction. The brooms are 
mounted on a heavy shaft which runs in bearings which slide 
up and down in heavy malleable iron guides. They are 
driven by a heavy chain and sprocket drive from a main 
driving shaft, which is directly connected to the motor by 
a gear and pinion drive, having the. same gear ratio as the 
tnick motors. Each set of brooms can be cut in or out by 
clutches on the main driving shaft. The brooms are raised 
and lowered by hand winches in the cab; a separate winch is 
provided for each set of brooms. 

The tower is of the builder's standard construction, hav- 
ing a working platform about ti ft. long by .5 ft. wide with 
a folding fence all around it. The tower is raised and 
l.iwered by a heavy winch inside the cab. 

The brooms are driven by a Westiughouse lOl-B-2 mn- 



Neely Steam Expansion Rotary Engine 

A new rotary engine has recently been designed and 
put on the market by the Neely Rotary Engine Company, 
Limited, of Toronto. This engine is unique in type and 
an entirely new invention, and, although a radical departure 
from established practice in engineering, has stood up sat- 
isfactorily under very severe tests. The engine is simple in 
design, and entirely free from numerous complicated parts. 
There are no springs, rings, or packings used, and it has no 
dead centre. It is claimed it will start at any point and has 
steam expansion for three-quarters of a revolution. It con- 
sists mainly of a steam cylinder enclosing the rotary part, 
with a steam chest on top of the cylinder, all molded in one 
piece, as shown in cut. This steam chest follows somewhat 




FlK. i C.Miibiiied Sweeper and Tower Car-Three Rivers Traction Co. 

icir. The truck is equipped with a Westinghouse lOl-B-2 
two motor double end equipment with K-11 controllers on 
the truck motor circuit and a R-2S controller on the broom 
motor circuit. 

The body is painted olive green with gold numbers, the 
tower is finished natural, and the truck is painted black. The 
accompanying piiotograph gives a good idea of its general 
a])pearance. 



The Montreal Tramways Company have continued their 
programme of improving the tracks, and have spent about 
$500,000 during the past season. Many intersections have 
been renewed, with a view of facilitating the clearance 
curves. The system of constructing the roadbed, commenced 
three years ago, has proved a great success, the use of French 
tile carrying off the water, thus preventing freezing and the 
unhcaval of the track in the spring. The company have now 
a total mileage of 270 miles. 




Neely Rotary Engine—Side and End Views 

the idea of the slide valve; it has two steam and two exhaust 
ports. A sliding valve connected to a lever allows steam to 
enter one port or the other according to position. The rotar 
consists of a cylinder of smaller diameter than the steam 
cylinder, with centre oflfset so as to bring the rotar in con- 
tact with the steam ports in the steam chest. This rotar 
contains two pockets with two adjustable nickel blades, as 
shown, one pocket and one blade each for forward and 
reverse. The pin used to hold the blade cushions the l)lade 
out steam-tight against the inside of the cylinder, by means 
of steam, so that there is no leakage. Steam enters the chest 
directly, and passes through the ports and into the pocket, 
impinging on one of the nickel blades for one-fourth of a 
revolution. The expansive power of the steam is used for 
the remaining three-quarters of the cycle. 

The unique feature about this engine, apart from its 
saving in space and fuel and the absence of complicated 
parts, is the fact that when running at a speed of over 2,000 
r.pim. in either direction it may be brought to rest and driven 
to the same speed in the opposite direction almost instantly. 
This is accomplished by simply moving the valve in the steam 
chest, by means of a hand lever, to the other end, allowing 
steam to enter the opposite ports and so reversing the direc- 
tion of rotation. When the valve is centred both ports are 
cut ofT, bringing the engine to rest. A few of the features of 
this engine which assure its success and efficiency are its 
simplicity, power, economy of operation, durability, and cer- 
tainty of action and control. The same lever is used for 
starting, stopping, reversing and controlling the speed. The 
engine is free from vibration when travellin.g at high or low 
speeds. 



The Lachinc Electri 
have registered. 



Repair Company, Lachine, Que 



General manager Brown, of the (,)ttawa Municipal Sys- 
tem, working with waterworks engineer Haycock, has made 
a report on the conversion of the Queen Street pump house 
into an electric generating station, which would sujiply 
power for the operation of the Leniieux Island pumps of the 
overland pipe system. 



Jiinuary 1, 1016 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



31 







A Code of Lighting Applicable to Factories, 
Mills and other work places — Valuable Infor- 
mation for Engineers, Central Stations 
and Electrical Contractors (Con.i 

Requirements. — The following requirements may now 
1)C listed lor natural lighting: 

1. The light should he adequate for each employee. 

2. The windows should he so spaced and located lliat 
daylight conditions are fairly uniform over the working 
area. 

.1. The intensities of daylight should he such that arti- 
licial light will he required only during those portions of 
the day when it would naturally he considered necessary. 

4. The windows should provide a quality of daylight 
which will avoid a glare due to the sun's rays and light 
from the sky shining directly into the eye, or where this 
does not prove to lie the case at all parts of the day, win- 
dow shades or other means should be available to make 
this end possible. 

5. Ceilings and upper ])ortions of walls should be main- 
tained a light color to increase the effectiveness of the light- 
ing facilities from window areas. The lower portions oi 
walls should be somewhat darker in tone to render . the 
lighting restful for tlie eye. Factory green or other medium 
colors may be used to good effect. 

Classification. — Means for natural lighting may be 
classed under three broad divisions as follows: 

(a) That case in which the windows are located on tlie 
sides of the buihlint; or in the framework of saw-tooth con- 
struction, where diffused light from the sky reaches the 
work during a large portion of the day. 

( b) That case in which windows are located overhead 
on a horizontal or nearly horizontal plane in the form of 
skylights, thus furnishing direct li.ght from the sky during 
a large portion of the day. 

(c) That case in which ])rismatic glass takes up the 
direct light from the sky anil redirects it into the working 
space. 

Method (a) is. of course, the most common of the three, 
and it may be noted that the saw-tooth or other roof light- 
ing constructions have become very popular and result in 
an excellent quality and quantity of light for given window 
areas provided the size and location of windows are in 
;ircord with modern practice. 

Increasing the Value of Floor Space. — .\de(|uate and 
well distributed natural light means that certain portions of 
the floor space which ordinarily would not be available for 
work, are converted into valuable manufacturing space. In 
a general way, therefore, the average factory, mill or other 
work place, if properly designed, should possess natural 
lighting facilities which produce the best practicable dis- 
iritnitirm of daylight illumination. 

Wide Aisles. — With low ceilings and very wide aisles, 
workmen located at the central portion of (he building 
must sometimes depend for their natural light on windows 



I. .rated at .i c.,ii,-,Kler.ilde dKNtaiiLV uua\ Ir.jiii lluir w. .iking 
position. In these cases it may be possible, in general, to 
depend altogether on daylight over an entire floor space, 
even a4 those times of the day when daylight conditions 
would be entirely adequate under other circumstances. This 
statement applies to si<le windows rather than to skylights 
..r to saw-tni^ili ciinstruction. Fig. 1 illustrates this feature. 
Varying Con.ditions. — In a case of this kind, employees 
located next to tlie windows are furnished with suitable 
daylight in the early morning and towards the latter part 
of the afternoon, the upper portions of the windows being 
particularly serviceable in lighting areas at some distance 
away from the windows. A southern exposure, however, 
results in such excessive light from the sky during the 
middle of the day, that heavy shades are nearly always 
pulled down so as to cover the entire window area. This 
plan makes it necessary to use artificial light throughout 
the larger part of the office during the brightest portion of 
the day, and reduces the daylight at those points where it 
would supposedly be the best, namely, near the windows. 
Here the location of the windows is a large factor in the 
excellence of the daylight conditions, but the manipulation 
of the shades is perhaps even more important. To avoid 
such a difficulty, adjustable translucent upper window shades 
with adjustable opaque lower shades might be employed. 

Upper Portions of Windows. — It should be further noted 
in this illustration that the upper portions of the w'indows 
give a reduced illumination in proportion to their areas, to 
the floor space near them. In rooms of moderate size, 
therefore, the windows should be placed as near the ceiling 
as practicable. When the sun shines through windows so 
located, the direct light must be reduced or diffused. This 
may be accomplished by the use of ribbed glass in ordinary 
factory and mill buildings, and in offices liy the use of 
translucent sun shades or awnings. 

Tempering the Light. — The light due to the sunshine on 
such shades and awnings will be as bright as ordinary sky- 
light if the shade is well chosen, and the ribbed glass will 
be still brighter. If the windows are large, the illumination 
is likely to be too great near the windows as previously 
i)ointed out and it must be reduced. This should not be 
done, however, by pulling down an opaque shade over the 
top of the windows because the lop portion of the window 
is the part that is particularly needed to give light to tlie 
interior of the room. The better scheme is to employ an 
opaque shade which should be raised from the bottom of 
the window. This will reduce the illumination near the 
window without affecting it over the interior of the room 
to any marked degree. 

Bench Locations. — Fig. 2 shows how benclies are com- 
monly located with respect to windows, so that the light 
received on the work may be most satisfactory. This sets 
a certain limitation upon the possible arrangement of the 
work over the floor space, depending on the way the day- 
light is furnished to the floor area. This limitation can be 
eliminated almost completely in the case of artificial liglil 
through a uniform distribution of lamps overhead. This 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January 1, 191C 



statement applies to those cases where natural light is trans- 
mitted through side windows, and includes a feature spec- 
ially noticeable in buildings of more than one story. In 
contrast, the work may be arranged almost independently 
of the natural light in buildings where the natural light is 
furnished by overhead windows or tlirongh the means of 
saw-tooth construction. 

Window Glasses.— Roth translucent and clear glass arc 
employed for factory and mill windows. There is " slight 
reduction in the transmitted light through ordinary trans- 
lucent wire glass, but it is often required by insurance 
regulations for a reduction in the fire risk where a given 
building is located in close proximity to other buildings. 
Wire glass is also used quite generally with steel window 
frames, there being an added protection from the stand- 
point of fire risk. Wire glass may be obtained in clear 
form, but its expense in contrast to the translucent form 
is such as ordinarily to prohibit its use for industrial pur- 
poses. 

Wire Glass.— Wire glass, also known as ribbed glass, 
should be used and is advocated, for practically all factory 
and mill windows where prisms are not required. Wires 
of rather open mesh cause so little reduction in light as to 
warrant no mention of this feature. Special care should be 
taken to get such glass as is smooth both on the flat side 
and on the ribbed side to facilitate cleaning. Wire or ribbed 
glass gives better diffusion than plain glass. 

Prism Glass.— Where the sky outside of the windows is 
obstructed by buildings, prism glass is recommended if the 
room is deep. Different kinds of prisms cannot be used 
to advantage interchangeably. The amount of prism glass 
required in any case depends much upon the surroundings 
and to obtain excellent results, of which such glass is cap- 
able, it must be used intelligently. 

Skylights. — Skylights are sometimes installed in long 
narrow continuous strips in a sloping roof. The ribs of 
the ribbed glass are generally so arranged that it is con- 
venient to make them at right angles to the length of ihc 
strips. The result is that the sunshine is diffused by the lilis 
over a narrow area parallel to the strip of skylight, Ihus 
lighting one part of ihe room much more brilliantly than 
the remainder. If tlie ribs are installed to run parallel !<■ 
the strips, they will give a much more general distril)ution 
of the sunlight. In the foregoing, the word strip refer.-: lo 
the long belt of skylight and not to the individual sheet .1 
glass. Ribbed glass in vertical windows should generally 
he placed with the rilis horizontal. They thus roughly fulfill 
some of the functions of prisms. 

Dirt Accumulations. — While translucent wire or ril'h-d 
glass reduces the amount of light transmitted througli the 
windows, the roughness of the outside surface of such glass 
often causes accumulations of dust and dirt, which are r.Kjre 
to blame for the reduction of transmitted light in some cases 
than the translucent nature of the glass itself. Ivcnedies of 
this difficulty are to secure smooth glass and to resort to 
frequent cle-.nin.g. 

Wire Glass as a Safeguard.— Wire glass for skylights is. 
of course, a iiractical necessity as a safeguard against acci- 
dents due to accidental l>reakage of the glass or due to 
objects falling on top of the glass. 

Calculations for Natural Light. — Jn certain typical local- 
ities, the average brightness of the sky during business 
hours is about 250 candles per square foot This is prob- 
ably a fair average value for th.e entire United States. The 
lower or minimum value of sky brightness, excluding par- 
ticularly stormy days, may be taken as about 100 candles 
per square foot. Allowing for a reduction of 2") per cent, 
for losses in the windows themselves, the brightness of the 
sky as seen through a window becomes equal to a minimum 
of say 75 candles per square foot in any directions from 



which the sky can be seen through the windows. This 
brightness value if multiplied by the part of the window 
area through which sky is visible from a given point in the 
work space gives the available candlepower through the 
window in question, and this candlepower is then divided by 
the squ'are of the distance between the given point and the 
window to obtain the foot-candle intensity of the illumina- 
tion at the given point. 

Method illustrated. — To illustrate this method, consider 
a hallway 40 ft long, lighted by a window 5 ft. by 5 ft. at 
one end, with the sky visible from the darker end of the 
hall through the upper half of the window only. The illum- 
ination at the dark end of the hall will then be equal to: 






X 0.5 X 



0.58 fiiot-candles 



under the assumed window brightness of 75 candles per 
square foot. The 1,G00 in this calculation results from the 
square of 40 ft., the length of the hall, or in other words 
the distance from the point considered to the window; and 
the factor 0.5 takes into account the fact that the sky is 
visible through only one half of the window area from the 
point considered. 

Checking the Intensity. — The intensity is not sufficient 
at this darkest part of the hall since the requirements of 
Article I of the Code proper call for three times the min- 
imum values given in .Article V and the minimum value 
given ir. Article V for passageways is 0.25. Three times 
this value is 0.75 which is somewhat greater than the value 
found in this calculation. The window area must therefore 
be increased in size by about 50 per cent., or if this is im- 
possible or impracticable, the hallway must be provided 
with artificial light at those points where the natural light 
falls below the requirement. 

Calculation for a Skylight. — .As another illustration, 
assume that fine manufacturing work is to be performed 
under a skylight 20 ft. above the work. If the brightness 
is assumed to be 75 candles per square foot as before, the 
minimum intensity must be :5 X :i.5 foot-candles, tliat is. 
10.5 foot-candles, based on tlie requirements of -Article 1 
of the Code. The window area must then equal: 
400 
10.5 y = 5(; sq. ft. 

Part of Window Area to Consider. — It is important in 
estimatin.g the illumination i>f any work room to consider 
only that portion of the window area through whicli clear 
sky is visible, provided tlie window is equipped with ordin- 
ary clear glass. 

Sunshine Not Desirable. — In all the work of providing 
natural light, it should be kept in mind that direct sunshine 
in itself, from the illumination standpoint but irrespective 
of sanitary conditions, is not wanted. The idea that sun- 
shine is the important item is a common but an erroneous 
impression. For example, in saw-tooth construction, the 
windows do not face the south to get all the sunshine pos- 
sible, but they face the north to exclude the sunshine. 
Ordinary windows, on the other hand, face all directions 
because not enough light can be distributed to interiors 
from north windows alone Windows on the other than 
north fronts admit sunshine to be sure, and this makes sun 
shades and awnings necessary to exclude the excessive 
brightness. 

(To be continued! 



The Grand Trunk Pacific is considering the erection of a 
power plant of their own in Fort William for the operation 
of elevators and other purposes. The railway company have 
been purchasing power from the Kaministiquia Power Com- 
l>any, but claim the load basis of payment is unsatisfactory. 



laiiiKirv I. mil 



THF. ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Hydro-Electric 
been distributed in 

(ir npon any Imilding 
ml and after tbe date 
to the following Rules 



Rules and Regulations re Gas-filled Lamps 

Tlie followinj; Rules and Regulations for installation of 
gas-fdlcd lamps were recently adopted by tbe 
Power Coniiiiission of Ontario, and bavc 
pamphlet form: 

All gas-tilled lamps installed in or 
or structure in this province, must, cni 
of this issue conform in all respe 
and Regulations. 

Owing to the danger from defective gas-fillcd lamps 
whicli may have been installe<l previous to the issuing of 
this notice, the Commission may require such changes as 
may be warranted in any installation, if in their opinion 
there is any danger to life or property. 

1. Must be so grouped that not more than (JOO watts 
(nor more than IG sockets or receptacles) arc to be depend- 
ent on one cutout except that in cases where wiring equal 
in size to No. 14 B. & S. gauge is carried directly into key- 
less sockets or receptacles, the location of which is such 
as to render unlikely the attachment of flexible cords there- 
to, the circuits may be so arranged that not more than 1,320 
watts (or 32 sockets or receptacles) will be dependent on 
the final cutout. Where a single socket or receptacle is 
tised on a circuit the limitation of watts permissible on the 
final cutout shall be the maximum capacity for which such 
socket or receptacle is approved. 

3. Must not be used in show windows or in other loca- 
tions where inflammable material is liable to come in contact 
with lamp equipment except where used in connection with 
approved fixtures where temperature of any exposed por- 
tion of same does not exceed 200 degrees Fahr. (93 degrees 
Centigrade). 

.'I. Must not be used in connection with medium-base 
sockets or receptacles if of above 250 watts nominal capa- 
city nor with Mogul base sockets or receptacles if of above 
l,riOO watts capacity. If of above 100 watts, must not, if 
provided with a shade, reflector, fixture or other enclosure 
above the socket, be used in either medium or Mogul base 
types of sockets or receptacles having fibre or paper linings. 

4. Fixtures within buildings must be wired with con- 
ductors of approved slow-burning or asbestos covering 
wdiere the temperature to which wire is subjected at any 
point exceeds 120 degrees Fahr. (40 degrees Centigrade). 
Where fixtures are placed outside of buildings approved 
rubber insulated wire is required. 



William A. Conner Expires Suddenly 

William Andrew Conner, of Plainfield, N. J., died sud- 
denly Monday, December 6th, at his office in Perth Amboy. 
N. J. He was born in Baltimore in 1859. He began his 
business career in 1876, in Pittsburgh, in the oil refining 
business, in which he reached the position of assistant man- 
ager for the Standard Oil Company. In 1885 he took charge 
of the first plant built by the Standard Underground Cable 
Company in Pittsburgh, and from then to the time of his 
death he was the head of the manufacturing business of that 
company, including large plants planned and built by him in 
Pittsburgh, Pa.; Perth Amboy, N. J.; Oakland, Cal.; and 
Hamilton, Ont. He was a director for ten years and first 
vice-president since 1909. He was vice-president of the Perth 
Amboy Trust Company, in the inception of which he had 
ap active part. He was also a vice-president and director 
of the Standard Underground Cable Company of Canada, 
Kimited, wdiosc factories were planned and built I)y him in 
Hamilton, Out., in 1011-12. He was a 32 dcg. Scottish Rite 
Mason, and a Knight Templar; a member of the Duquesnc 
Cljib of Pittsburgh, the Hamilton Club of Hamilton, Canada, 
arid the Plainfield Country Club. He has resided in Plain- 
field since 1904. He leaves his widow, who was Miss Tupper, 
of Michigan; a brother, Edward Conner, of Orange, N. J., 



and a sister, Mrs. Koak, of Brooklyn, N. Y. He was a cousin 
to Mr. O. T. Waring, of the Standard Oil Company, Mr. E. J. 
Waring, of Standard Underground Cable Company, and the 
late Richard S. Waring, who was the founder of the Standard 
Underground Cable Company and inventor of "Waring" 
Cables. 



Judgment Favors Canadian L. H. & P. Co. 

Judgment has been rendered in the Court of Review 
modifying the previous judgment of Mr. Justice Archibald 
in the Superior Court, in which judgment was given for 
$65,330 in favor of the Fraser Brace Company against the 
Canadian Light, Heat and Power Company. This amount 
was due, according to the judgment, on construction work 
in connection with the plant at St. Timothee. The later 
judgment reduces this amount to $33,275, and releases the 
contractors from the obligation of obtaining a final certi- 
ficate from the J. G. White Company. 



The Croaker 

Once on the aidge of a pleasant pool. 
Under the bank where 'twas dark and cool, 
Where bushes over the water hung. 
And rushes nodded, and grasses swung. 
Jest where the crick flowed outer the bog. 
There lived a grumpy and mean ole frog. 
Who'd set all day in the mud and soak 
And jest do nothin' but croak and croak. 
Till a blackbird hollered, "I say, yer know. 
What is the matter down there below? 
Are you in trouble, er pain, er what?" 
The frog sez, "Mine is a orful lot; 
Nothin' but mud and dirt and slime 
For me ter look at jest all the time. 
It's a dirty world!" so the old fool spoke, 
"Croakity-croakity-croakity-croak!" 

"But yer lookin' down!" the blackbird said; 
"Look at the blossoms overhead. 
Look at the lovely summer skies. 
Look at the bees and butterflies; 
Look up, old feller. Why, bless yer soul, 
Yer lookin' down in a muskrat hole!" 
But still with a gurglin' sob and choke 
The blame ole critter would only croak. 
And a wise old turtle, who boarded near, 
Sez to the blackbird, "Friend, see here: 
Don't shed no tears over him, fer he 
Is low-down, jest 'cause he likes ter be; 
He's one er them kind er chumps that's glad 
Ter be so mis-rable-like and sad; 
I'll lell yer somethin' that ain't no joke. 
Don't waste yer sorrcr on folks that croak." 
— From "New 



The Commission of Conservation of the Dominion of 
Canada have issued a report of their sixth annual meeting 
held at Ottawa, January 20, 1915. .\niong other interesting 
jKipers on conservation topics are two by Mr. A. B. White 
and Mr. L. G. Denis on the subjects "Water and Water- 
power Problems" and "Activities of the Committee on Water 
Powers." 



The People's Telephone Company are negotiating with the 
Bell Telephone Company to buy out the interests of the 
latter company in Forest. The dual system at present in 
operation is not satisfactory. 



THE ELF.CTR1CAI, NEWS 



.lamiary I, 191(i 



Western Canada Power Financing 

Owing to the refusal of the British (loveriiiiiLiU to 
sanction the raising in Great Britain of an additional $1,- 
ooo.ooO first mortgage bonds, sanctioned by the present 
holders, the Western Canada Power Company notifies that 
it is unable to raise money to pay the half-yearly interest 
on the first mortgage bonds due January 1st. Meanwhile a 
committee representing holders of the three year notes, — 
due in March next, have tentatively agreed to conver. these 
notes at par into seven per cent, preference shares, provided 
that holders of first mortgage bonds will agree to convert 
the next two years' interest coupons into preference shares 
of the same issue. The agreement involves the raising of 
.f:i.jO,000 in cash within a period of two years, for the pur- 
pose of completing the construction of the third generatiu',; 
unit, and providing for other necessary expenditures, and to 
this sum the holders of the ordinary shares of the company 
will be asked to contribute by subscriptions to preferred 
shares at par. 

• 

Electric Furnace Plant in Montreal 
The Canadian Electric Products Company, Limited, with 
a capital of $500,000, are organizing an electric furnace plant, 
for the manufacture of high grade steel, in Montreal. The 
plant will be on a two-unit basis, each with a capacity of 2.) 
tons per day. The company will include in its directors Mr. 
Julian C. Smith, vice-president of the Shawinigan Water and 
Power Company, and Mr. J. S. Norris, manager of the 
Montreal Light, Heat and Power Company, which concerns 
will supply the requisite power. The company, however, is 
distinct from either of the two companies above mentioned. 
The Canada Cement Company is installing an electric 
furnace in connection with the making of shells. 



J. A. Gauthier & Frcre, electricians, Montreal, Que., 
have dissolved partnership. 



Proper Factory Illumination 

The Electrical Manufacturers' Association, 1227 I'ort 
Dearborn Bank Building, Chicago, are distributing invita- 
tions and descriptive circulars of a dinner to be held in the 
near future at which the question of proper factory illum- 
ination will be discussed from a number of different angles, 
as for example: Factory lighting by incandescent lamps; 
Factory lighting with Cooper-Hewitt lamps; Theory of 
factory lighting. The invitations are addressed principally 
to men interested in some phase of manufacturing work and. 
so, concerned with good lighting in their factories. 



Gres Falls Changes Hands 

Under the arrangement by which the Shawinigan Water 
and Power Company have purchased the Gres Falls de- 
velopment from th€ Union Bag and Paper Company, the 
Shawinigan Company will furnish the plants of the Union 
Bag and Paper Company with all the power that the lattci 
require. This undeveloped water power is located 13 miles 
north west of Three Rivers on the St. Maurice river. 

Mr. E. S. Cook representing the firm of Moncur & 
Cook has been granted two weeks vacation to visit Cin- 
cinnati and Lexington, Kentucky, Upon his return he will 
cover Western Ontario and tlic Niagara Peninsula for 
Moncur & Cook. 



The Railway and Industrial Engineering Company, Pitts- 
Ijurgh, have issued a copy of their "Progressive Manager" 
series treating on Burke High Noltage Horn Gap Switches, 
which are fully described and illustrated. 



The Victoria Electric Supply Company, 42:! V'onge Street. 
Toronto, announce that they are moving, on January l.jth, 
into larger quarters at 414 Yonge Street, where they will 
make use of the entire two-storey building for stock and 
show-rooms for their full line of electrical supplies and 
fixtures. 



One frequently hears it stated by financial au- 
thorities that railway earnings are the best gauge 
of a country's commercial prosperity. Here are 
the earnings of our three big railways for the first 
week of December, as compared with a year ago: 
Canadian Pacific Railway 

1915 1914 Increase 

$3,046,000 $1,766,000 -|- $1,280,000 

Grand Trunk Railway 

$1,012,326 $ 865,052 + $ 147,274 

Canadian Northern Railway 

$ 830,600 $ 502,700 + $ 327,900 



Personal 
Mr. Ray Rumpall has been appointed manager of the 
Bell Telephone office at Goderich, Ont. Mr. Rumpall was 
formerly in Clinton. 



The Canadian Ivlectric Products Company. Limitc-1. 
Montreal, Que., have been incorporated. 



Trade Publications 
Fuse Guard Products — Catalogue No. 1, issued by the 
Electric Fuseguard Company of Newark, N. J., describing en- 
closed fuses, cut-outs, and boxes of this company. Mr. 
Irving Smith, 809 Unity Building, Montreal, is sole Can- 
adian representative for this equipment. 

Outdoor Sub-stations — The Delta-Star Electric Company. 
017-31 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, are issuing in 
pamphlet form, under the heading "Proposal for Delta-Star 
Equipment," leaflets Nos. 730, 740, 750, 760, 900 and 910, illus- 
trating and describing a complete line of high tension out- 
door steel tower sub-stations, pole top switches, wooden 
pole sub-stations, carbon tetrachloride fuses, bus bar sup- 
[lorts, disconnecting switches and surge arresters. 

Meters for Automobile Testing — Folder No. 4321, just 
issued by the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Company. 

Small Motors — Issue No. 24, published by the Small 
Motor Department of the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company, shows a number of illustrations of the 
fractional horsepower motor and some of its numerous ap- 
plications. .\ picture of the large building devoted entirely 
to the manufacture of this type of motor is also shown. 

Wiring Devices — 1916 catalogue by the Bryant Electric 
Company, Bridgeport, Conn. This is a splendidly illustrated. 
well printed catalogue, fulTy covering the equipment manu- 
factured by this company and containing besides a quantity 
of interesting and valuable information for the electrical 
contractor and dealer. 

"Canadian" Turbines — Catalogue No. 15, issued liy 
Charles Barber & Sons, Meaford, Ont., describing, with 
illustrations, the manufacture, operation, and performance 
of the Canadian turbine water wheel manufactured by this 
company. 

RefiUable Fuses — Bulletin issued by .\. F. Dauni. Pitts- 
burgh. Pa., describing their refillable cartridge fuse shells 
for electric light and power. 



lamiarv 1, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



What is New in Electrical Equipment 



Efficient Pipe Bender 
We illustrate herewith a new pipe bending device in- 
vented by Mr. G. E. Phillips, of tlie MacKenzie Electric 
Company, engineers and electricians, Sarnia. Ont. The 
basic principle on which this bender works is that the pipe 
is pulled around a grooved form, of the radius required, and 
not forced into shape with wheels or cams. The machine 
is very simple in construction and arranged to take the pipe 




HO tOHT?.KtT0R ChM XfTOKB TO SI, VJITV 



New pipe bending device— the invention of G. E. Phillips, Sarnia, Ont. 

from the side, which can be inserted or removed in an 
instant. With this bender it is possible to make a number 
ol bends on one piece of pipe — bends and offsets beintr 
absolutely perfect. 

The inventor claims a very considerable saving by the 
use of this equipment. On one job alone, which required 
all bends to be 4 inches radius, it saved 3.5 per cent, of the 
lime and paid for Itself just twice over. On any job where 
the contractor's time rims to as much as Sl.'iO the price of 



ihe machine can be saved in time gained. There is no 
yuess-work about it. Pipes up to 1 inch can be bent cold 
and single groove machines for work up to Zyi inches will 
also be covered by this line, but the pipe will have to be 
heated before placing in the groove. This, however, will 
,E;ivc a perfect bend without any flats or kinks whatever. 

The proper way to rig up one of these machines is to 
have a 12 foot 2 inch plank 12 inches wide on a collapsible 
pipe frame. Put the bender on one end and the pipe vise 
on the otlier. The supply of conduit to be worked goes on 
tlie cross-bars of the frame under the bench. This helps to 
keep the bench down steady and the material is within reach. 
One-half inch to 1 inch bender weighs To pounds and. of 
course, cannot be used otherwise than on a plank. 

If the saving on small jobs is so considerable it may 
easily be seen how efficient this machine would be on a job 
such as, for example, the new Union Station, where the 
amount of bending required is so considerable. Two or 
three of these machines would save hundreds of dollars in 
time and in addition every bend and ofTset would be perfect. 



Pelton Water Wheel 

The Pelton Water Wheel Company, San Francisco, in 
a recent publication give, in sufficient detail, data by which 
the owner of any small water power may determine whether 
it is of sufficient size to be worthy of development. This 
lirm encourage development from one-quarter horse-power 
ui>. The suggested procedure is as follows: — 

First, the amount of water available. — The best method 
of measuring the water in \-our stream is l)y a weir of simple 
construction. .\t some point where the stream is of 
uniform section, place a board across it. This board should 
have a notch cut in it with both sides and the bottom beveled 
sharply upstream as shown. The bottom of the notch, which 
is called the crest of the weir, should be perfectly level, and 
the sides vertical. In the pond which forms, and a few feet 
l)ack from the weir, in line with one edge of the notch, drive 
a stake until its top is exactly level with the crest. Mea- 




sure the depth of the water over the stake when the stream 
is flowing, using an ordinary rule for this purpose. The 
simplest way is to use a stake on which is painted mea- 
suring divisions the same as carried by a rule, the bcginnin.e: 
point of this measure being placed exactly level with the 
crest of the weir. By means of a stake thus arranged, it is 
comparatively easy to make the necessary measurements 
— the depth of the water, the width of the notch 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January 1, 1916 



through which it flows, and the total width of the weir. In 
building a weir, care should be taken that the width of the 
notch shall not be less than four times nor more tlian eight 
times the depth 'of the water flowing through it; nor should 
the notch be more than two-thirds the width of the stream. 

Second, head or vertical fall from the ditch, flume, or 
other source of supply, to where the wheel is to be placed.— 
This should be determined carefully, and can easily be done 
by using a surveyor's level or an ordinarj farmer's level, of 
the type widely used in building drainage ditches. Full in- 
structions for using these instruments are furnished by the 
manufacturer, so that this phase of the work will not be 
further described here. If you have not available a level 
of this type, any land surveyor can quickly give you the 
desired information. 

Third, length of pipe required to secure this head. — If 
your pipe is already laid, note the diameter and length, and 
if more than one size of pipe is included in the pipe line, 
note the length of each size. 

Fourth, type of machinery you expect to drive. — If you 
intend driving an electric generator, note ihe capacity, speed 
and whether it is to be used for power, li.y:hts or both. 



Electricity for Everybody 

Electricity need no longer be classed as a luxury obtain- 
able only by those living in thickly settled communities 
reached by central station circuits. The little generating 
plant illustrated here makes it possible for anyone to enjoy 
the conveniences of electricity for lighting, heating and 
power purposes, no matter how far removed from power 
lines he may live. They are useful in country homes, on 
farms, and in small manufacturing establishments in rural 
districts where they furnish power for lights, for operating 
fans, vacuum cleaners, sewing machines, washers, heating 
appliances, and motors driving pumps and small farm ma- 
chinery. The plant consists of a Westinghouse low-voltage 
generator and control panel and an Hyray exide storage 
Ijattery, all of which are mounted on skids, rendering the 
outfit portable. The generator may be driven by any ordin- 
ary oil, gas, or gasoline engine or, if water power is avail- 
ahle. i( can be used and the electricity will cost practically 




nothing. Tiie operation is simple. The generator is driven 
by an engine and the current is either usefully expended or 
else accumulated in the storage battery for use at some 
future time. The engine can be run when it is most con- 
venient during the day and the current stored up for use in 
the evening. An automatic switch on tlie control panel 



tiiaintains a steady voltage on the battery when charging, 
and an^ ampere-hour meter shows at all times the exact 
ainount of reserve energy in the storage battery and indi- 
cates when to start and stop the charge. The outfits are 
sold c'omplete without the engine by the Westingtiouse 
Company. 



The Electric Tire Pump 

Among the many new devices that are constantly l)ein^; 
L'xploited for use in the garage, the tire pump shown in the 




illustration is worthy of mention on account of several unique 
features. The entire outfit is a self-contained unit, mounted 
as shown in the illustration. A handle is supplied, allowing 
it to be easily carried, or it can be mounted on a small 
carriage if desired. The air pump, which is mounted on 
the motor, has four cylinders, insuring a steady flow of air. 
The corrugations on the cylinders assist in dissipating the 
heat generated by the compression of the air and keep the 
operating temperature low. Metal pistons, each fitted with 
two compression rings, are used. The connecting rods and 
inain bearings are made of bronze. The motor used is the 
well-known ]4 horsepower standard Westinghouse type C.\ 
or CD, depending on the nature of the circuit. This pump 
is called the "Guco" and is manufactured by the General 
Itility Company. Philadelphia. The complete equipment 
consists of a motor-driven pump, a pressure gauge, an air 
hose, an acorn connection and a snap switch for starting 
and stopping the motor. 



Electrical supply houses report an improved demand for 
.goods, the better feeling in general commerce helping the 
situation. The Duncan Electrical Compan\'. Limited, state 
that trade is reviving, and that their turnover during the 
closing months of the year was exceptionally large. Many 
dealers made very large displays of electrical apparatus dur- 
in.nr the Christmas week, and some departmental stores also 
featured electrical domestic equipment. 



Mr. G. H. Forster. manager of the Lindc 
frigeration Company, Montreal, has been givei 
commission in the 148th Battalion, 



Canadian Re 
a lieutenant' 



an nary I. I'Jlfi 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



UNDERGROUND 
CABLES 



HIGH OR LOW TENSION 

For 

Lighting, Power, Street Railway, 
Telephone or Telegraph Transmission 



ARMOURED CABLES 

for street lighting 

PAPER INSULATED CABLES 

of all descriptions 

RUBBER INSULATED CABLES 

to every specification 

BARE AND WEATHERPROOF 
WIRES AND CABLES 

GALVANIZED IRON WIRE 
AND STRAND 

MAGNET WIRE, FLEXIBLE 
CORD, Etc. 



PHILLIPS' Wires and Cables are made in Canada. 
But we do not appeal to the "Made in Canada" senti- 
ment in offering our products, because we feel that 
there is a much better reason why you should buy 
from us, and that is because no firm — in any country — 
is making wires or cables that are superior to ours. 
The reasons for this are : 

1 — Our experience of over a quarter of a century. 

2 — Our careful selection of skilled workmen, many of 
them sons of our older employees. 

3 — Our well-organized chemistry department, which 
closely co-operates with a skilled purchasing agent 
and permits no material, except the very jjest, to 
enter our works. We use the best of pure new 
lead, the finest of Sea Island yarns and Italian 
silks, the highest grades of asbestos, etc. 

4 — Our modern machinery, which includes every 
known mechanical device needed to produce per- 
fect wires and cables of every kind. 



Prices, etc., on request. 



EUGENE F. PHILLIPS 

ELECTRICAL WORKS, LIMITED 

Head Office and Factory MONTREAL 
Branches Toronto Winnipeg Calgary Vancouver 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January 1, 1916 




^'TiylS^as submitted on December .Tth author,zmg 
the installation of an electric lighting system to cost $-,000. 

^" ReTe'nf rTports mdicate tbat the earnings of the Brandon 
Street Railway System are picking up. Figures for Novem- 
ber show a gratifying improvement over the same penod a 
year ago. 

Bureessville, Ont. . . 

\ by-law was carried on December 21st authonzmg an 
expenditure of $3,500 on a hydro-electric distrd,ut> ng system. 

Cobden, Ont. . . 

\ by-law will be submitted at the January election author- 
izing the municipality to spend $20,000 in equipping a plant 
and distribution system for the village of Cobden. 

Hull, P.Q. , 

The municipality of the city of Hull, Que., are changmg 
over their present system of street lighting (d.c. arcs) to 
series nitrogen-felled tungstens. This means the replacmg of 
137 arcs by 300 6.6-ampere, 500-watt, high-efficiency lamps. 
The line has already been rebuilt. The city are also buddmg 
a new hydro-electric plant with a capacity of 600 kw., which 
will supply the necessary power for the street lighting and 
also for the operation of eight one-million-gallon electrically- 
driven centrifugal pumps. 

Kingston, Ont. 

The power committee of the city of Kingston has re- 
commended that the Seymour Power Company, a subsidiary 
of the Electric Power Company, be asked to submit terms 
and rates for a supply of power for the city of Kingston. 

Mr. Folger, of the local distributing system, is pur- 
chasing the necessary material to supply 250 h.p. of energy 
to the Canadian Locomotive Company. 

London, Ont. 

A by-law authorizing an expenditure of $101,0U0 tor ex- 
tensions to the London and Port Stanley System will be 
voted on at the January elections. 

Newcastle, N.B. 

The town council decided at a recent meeting to inaugu- 
rate an all-day service. It was also decided that Engineer 
lackson be authorized to purchase an electric pump for 
ihe waterworks system. 

New Westminster, B.C. 

Mr. Fletcher Shaw, for twenty-five years in the employ 
of the city's electrical department, and later with the B.C.E.R. 
Company, died recently at his home in this city. 

Norwich, Ont. 

A by-law was submitted in the township of North Nor- 
wich on December 17th authorizing an expenditure of $3,500 
on an electrical distributing system; power to be obtained 
from the Hydro Electric Power Commission. 

Quebec City, Que. 

The Public Service Corporation have commenced work 
on their transformer station in this city. Foundation work 
has been let to the Sharp Construction Company, and it is 
understood that the Public Service Corporation will itself 
complete the work. 



Richmond, Que. 

The Dominion Railway Commission, sitting in Montreal 
on December 30, ordered the removal of certain poles erect- 
ed in Richmond, P. Q., by the Bell Telephone Company 
and the Great Northwestern Telegraph Company on the 
ground that they obstructed the approach to the railway 
station. 

Sarnia, Ont. 

A by-law will be submitted on January 3 authorizing the 
expenditure of $120,000 for the purchase of the plant of the 
Sarnia Gas and Electric Company. 

Saskatoon, Sask. 

According to the report for November of the city elec- 
trical engineer of Saskatoon, that month was the best in the 
history of the company so far as power consumption was 
concerned. The surplus for the month amounts to $6,000. 



Springfield, Ont. 

A by-law was submitted on December 9 authorizing an 
expenditure of $5,000 on an electric distributing plant. 

Staynor, Ont. 

A by-law will be submitted authorizing the expenditure 
of $5,000 to extend and improve the hydro-electric plant and 
waterworks. 

St. Hugues, Que. 

The Auer Light Company, Limited, IS Notre Dame 
Street West, Montreal, has been awarded the contract to 
supply the electrical fixtures for the parish church at St. 
Hugues, Que. These fixtures will be manufactured by the 
Tallman Brass & Metal Company, Hamilton. Ont., and are 
of Romanesque Period. They consist of six main fixtures, 
36 semi-indirects, 16 brackets, and two three-light posts, also 
special ornaments for the altar. 

St. Thomas, Ont. 

Tenders are received up to January 15 for the construc- 
tion of a municipal transforming station. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The local Hydro-electric Commission have asked the 
Board of Control to submit a by-law asking for an addi- 
tional $1,375,000 for extensions and improvements to the 
system. 

At the recent annual meeting of the Ontario Municipal 
Electrical Association held in Toronto, Mayor T. L. Church, 
of that city, was elected president. 

The city council unanimously adopted a recommendation 
of the Board of Control that the Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission of Ontario be requested to negotiate with the 
Toronto and York Radial Railway Company for the pur- 
chase of the Metropolitan line on Yonge Street. Sir Adam 
Beck has since stated that negotiations will commence im- 
mediately. 

Whitby, Ont. 

The Whitby Water and Light Commissioners have put 
into efifect a new schedule of rates based on the system of 
the Hydro-electric Power Commission of Ontario. 

Windsor, Ont. 

A by-law was recently passed in Windsor, Ont., author- 
izing extensions to the hydro-electric system amounting to 
$50,000. 



Jaiuiary I.">. 1!)|( 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 




New and amended rates in the Hydro area 

UdinestiL- Commercial Powe 



Published Semi-Monthly By 

HUGH G. MACLEAN, LIMITED 

HUGH C. MacLEAN, Winnipeg, President. 

THOMAS S. YOUNG, General Manager. 

W. R. CARR, Ph.D., Editor. 
HEAD OFFICE - 347 Adelaide Street West, TORONTO 

Telephone A. 2700 
MONTREAL - Tel. Main 2299 - Room 119, Board of Trade 
WINNIPEG - Telephone Garry 856 - 302 Travellers' Bldg. 
VANCOUVER - Tel. Seymour 2013 - Hutchison Block 
NEW YORK - Tel. 3108 Beekman - 1226 Tribune Building 
CHICAGO - Tel. Harrison 5351 - 1413 Gt. Northern Bldg. 
LONDON, ENG. 16 Regent St. S.W. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 
Orders for advertising should reach the office of publication not later 
tlian the 5th and 2()th of the month. Changes in advertisements will be 
made whenever desired, without cost to the advertiser. 

SUBSCRIBERS 

The "Electrical News" ».ill be mailed to subscribers in Canada and 
Great Britain, post free, for $2.00 per annum. United States and foreign, 
$'J.50. Keniit by currency, registered letter, or postal order payable to 
Hugh C. Macl.ean, Limited, 

Subsciibers aie requested to promptly notify the publishers of failuie 
or delay in delivery of paper. 



Authorized by th 
second class matter. 

Entered as secon 
Buffalo. N.Y., under 



Postmaster General for Canada, for tr 



class matter July ISth, 1914, at the Postofiice at 
; Act of Congress of March 3, 1879. 



Vol. 25 



Toronto, January 15, 1916 



No. 2 



Ontario's Challenge! 

A large portion of that section of the prr)vince of C)n- 
lario supplied with electric energy from Niagara Falls liy 
the Hydro-clcctric Power Commission of Ontario have just 
received a very real New Year's remembrance in the shape 
of a considerable reduction of their light and power rates. 
It is indeed something to l)e prciud of to he able to say that 
certain Canadian rates are the lowest on the continent and. 
so far as we can judge, we believe this distinction applies 
under the new rates to a number of municipalities in the 
province of Ontario. The schedule of new rates is printed 
below, where it will be noticed that in several localities the 
final household rate is 1 cent per kw.h.. which, with 10 per 
cent, discount, brings the figure down to .9 cent. Lnlikc 
many apparently low houseiiohl rates, too. tliere is no very 
formidable joker in the shape of a minimum charge if tlie 
consumer uses a reasonable amount of current. These rates 
are particularly attractive to householders who use electric 
appliances fairly freely, and particularly lo those who cook 
with electrical ranges. 

The basis of the Hydro rates as lias been outlined in 
tlic Electrical News, l)ut may bear repetition, is as follows: 
.\ floor rate of :i cents per luimlred sfinare feet is charged 
whether or not current is consumed. Tlic minimum floor 
space is 1,000 feet and the maximum 3,000 feet, so that every 
consumer must pay somewhere between 30 and 90 cents 
(discount 10 per cent.) whether he uses the current or not. 
The first meter rate is now reduced in a number of muiii- 
cipalities to 2 cents per kw.h. for the first 3 kw.h. per hundred 



g"^ .1 i§ g= I^S I i c 

c*iw --^ -"S ■"£ 0& S ^ C 

■^o -o^ t-^ dtr :=:^ *- 'C .5 

.Municipality. „S <u: 6.a2a<3 J5 t5 < 

Acton 4.0 2.0 S 4.0 0.8 3.9 2.() 0.15 

.Ayr 4.5 2.25 9 4.5 0.9 3.9 2.0 0.15 

.Ailsa Craig.. 6.5 3.25 13 6.5 1.3 

Baden 3.5 1.75 7 3.5 0.7 3.2 2.1 0.t5 

Reachville .. . 4.0 2.0 8 4.0 O.S 2.2 1.4 0.15 

licrlin 2.0 1.0 5 2.0 0.5 2.0 1.4 0.15 

Brampton .. . 2.0 1.0 5 2.0 0.5 2.2 1.4 0.15 

Brantford . .. 2.5 1.25 5 2.5 0.15 ... 

Caledonia .. . 3.5 1.75 7 3.5 1.75 2.5 1.7 0.15 

Clinton 4.7 3.1 0.15 

Doon 4.0 2.0 S 4.0 0.8 

Dorchester .. 5.0 2.5 10 5.0 1.0 5.2 3.5 0.15 

Drumbo 4.7 3.1 0.15 

Oundas .. .. 2.0 1.0 5 2.0 0.15 2.1 1.4 0.15 

Elora 4.0 2.0 8 4.0 0.8 

Kmbro 4.2 2.8 0.15 

F.lmira 4.0 2.0 8 4.0 0.8 4.2 2.8 0.15 

F.-Xeter 5.5 2.75 11 5.5 1.1 4.2 2.8 0.15 

Fergus 4.0 2.0 S 4.0 0.8 

Gait 2.0 1.0 5 2.0 0.5 2.0 1.3 0.15 

Georgetown . . 3.5 1.75 7 3.5 0.7 3.3 2.1 0.15 

filen Williams 3.6 2.4 0.15 

Goderich 3.9 2.6 0.15 

Guelph 2.0 1.0 5 2.0 0.5 1.5 1.0 0.15 

Harriston . . . 6.0 3.0 12 6.0 1.2 4.8 3.2 0.15 

Hagersville .. 4.0 2.0 8 4.0 0.8 3.6 2.4 0.15 

Hamilton .. . 2.0 1.0 4 1.5 0.15 1.5 1.0 0.13 

Hespeler .... 3.5 1.75 7 3.5 0.7 2.3 1.6 0.15 

Ingcrsoll .... 3.0 1.5 6 3.0 0.6 2.1 1.4 0.15 

London .. .. 2.0 1.0 4 2.0 0.4 2.0 1.3 0.15 

Listowel .... 5.0 2.5 10 5.0 1.0 3.9 2.6 0.15 

Mimico .. .. 3.0 1.5 6 3.0 0.6 2.8 1.8 0.15 

Milverton .. . 5.0 2.5 10 3.0 1.0 3.9 2.6 0.15 

New Hamburg. 3 1.5 6 3.0 0.6 3.2 2.1 0.15 

Niagara Falls. 2.0 1.0 4 2.0 0.4 1.5 1.0 0.1 

New Toronto. 3.5 1.75 7 3.5 0.7 2.8 1.8 0.!5 

Norwich .... 3.0 1.5 6 3.0 0.6 2.9 1.9 0.15 

Otterville .. . 5.5 2.75 11 5.5 1.1 

Petrolia .. .. 4.5 2.25 9 4.5 0.9 3.6 2.4 0.15 

Port Credit .. 3.0 1.5 6 3.0 O.G 2.8 l.S 0.15 

Ft. Dalhousie 2.3 1.5 0.15 

Fort Stanley. 4.0 2.0 8 4.0 0.8 

Flattsville 5.4 3.6 0.15 

Preston .. .. 2.5 1.25 5 2.5 0.5 1.6 1.1 0.15 

Palmerston .. 5.5 2.75 11 5.5 1.1 4.7 3.1 0.15 

Rockwood .. 4.0 2.0 8 4.0 0.8 3.» 2.6 0.15 

.Seaforth 4.2 2.8 0.15 

.Sel)ringville 3.9 2.6 0.15 

.Simcoe 4.0 2.0 '.) 4.5 0.9 3.9 2.6 0.15 

.Strathroy .. . 4.0 2.0 8 4.0 O.S 3.6 2.4 0.15 

Stratford .. . 2.5 1.25 5 2.5 0.5 3.1 2.0 0.15 

St. Catharines. 2.0 1.0 5 2.0 0.15 1.6 l.o 0.11; 

St. Mary's ... 3.0 1.5 fi 3.0 0.6 3.1 2.1 0.15 

St. Thomas .. 2.0 1.0 4 2.0 0.5 1.6 1.1 0.15 

Thainesford 5.2 3.5 0.15 

Thorndale ... 5.0 2.5 10 5.0 1.0 5.2 3.5 0.15 

Tillsonburg .. 3.0 1.5 6 3.0 0.6 3.5 2.3 0.15 

Tilbury 4.3 2.9 0.15 

Tiu-onto .. .. 2.0 1.0 5 2.5 0.5 1.5 0.5 0.15 

Woodbridge . 4.0 2.0 8 4.0 0.8 

Waterdown ., 4.0 2.0 8 4.0 0.8 3.3 2.2 0.15 

Wallaceburg 3.9 2.6 0.15 

Weston 2.9 1.9 0.15 

Waterloo ... 2.0 1.0 5 2.5 0.5 

Welland .... 2.0 1.0 4 2.0 0.15 1.7 1.1 0.15 

Woodstock .. 2.0 1.0 5 2.0 0.5 1.8 1.2 0.15 

square feet of floor area, the area being estimated as above. 
I'"or all extra consumption the rate is one cent per kw.h.; 
iO ))er cent, discount being allowed on the whole bill. 

It will be noted, too, that the commercial lighting rale 
.111(1 the power rates have been considerably lowered. T'le 
pr)wer rate is based on a service charge of $1.00 per h.]). 
of installed capacity (Toronto $1.35 for first 10 h.p. and 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January 15, 191G 



$1.00 in excess of tliat aniounl). To this is added a primary 
meter rate as low as 1.5 cents per kw.h. in certain cases, a 
secondary rate of 1 cent per kw.h. in a number of municipal- 
ities with an almost nominal tertiary rate. In the city of 
Toronto the secondary rate is .5 cent. 

The citizens of Toronto who use Toronto Electric Light 
service also have cause for rejoicing. The residence rate 
has been reduced approximately 25 per cent. T.E.L. house- 
hold rates differ from Hydro rates in that the pr.'aiary charge 
is based on the number of rooms. To begin with there is 
no service charge, so that if no current is used none is 
paid for. The primary charge is 4 cents for the first 4 kw.h. 
per room of the consumer's residence; secondary charge is 

2 cents per kw.h. for the next 4 kw.h. per room and the 
final charge is 1 cent per kw.h. with 10 per cent, discount. 
Added to this the T. E. L. Company supply lamps of 60 watt 
and over free of charge. 

The outstanding feature of these new rates is that elec- 
trical cooking, as far as cost is concerned, is within the reach 
of all municipalities affected by the reduced schedule. Tak^'. 
for example, a nine room house using 300 kw.h. per month. 
On the supposition that the floor area is reckoned at 1,800 
sq. ft., the Toronto Hydro bill would be: (1) Service charge of 

3 X 18 equals 54 cents; (2) primary meter charge of 2 x 3 x IS 
equals $1.08, and (3) secondary meter charge of 1 x 144 equals 
144 cents. Total account equals $3.06 less 10 per cent, equals 
$2.76. The T. E. L. Co. rate works out only slightly larger, 
as follows: (1) first meter charge 4x4x9 equals $1.44; (2) 
2x4x9 equals 72 cents, and (3) 1 x 128 equals $1.28. Total 
account, $3.44, less 10 per cent, equals $3.10. Under certain 
conditions, however, the competing rates are practically the 
same, and in a few cases the T. E. L. works out lower. Then, 
too, the discrepancy of 34 cents as sliowti above may easily 
be more than accounted for in lamp renewals given by the 
private company. Either rate, however, is highly satisfactory 
from the standpoint of the consumer, the manufacturer, the 
jobber and the electrical contractor. The complete schedule 
of Toronto Hydro and T. E. L. rates are also printed here- 
with. 

The discount rate for domestic and commercial lightin.c 
over the Hydro area is uniform, namely 10 per cent. The 
power discount is generally 10 per cent, but local conditions 
have necessitated certain variations. For example, Berlin, 
Brantford, Preston, London, New Hambourg, Port Dalhousie, 
St. Thomas, and Woodstock give 10 and 10. Toronto gives 
a straight discount of 30 per cent, and the following towns 
35 and 10: Dundas. Gait, Guelph, Hamilton, Niagara Falls, 
St. Catharines, A\'aterIoo and ^^'elland. 

T. E. L. Rates 

Residential Lighting: — 1st 4 kw.h. per room per month. 
4c.; 2nd 4 kw.h. per room per month, 2c.; balance monthly 
consumption, Ic; less 10 per cent.; lamp renewal schedule 
imchanged. 

Commercial Lighting (Meter rate): — 1st 30 hours month- 
ly use of demand, 5c.; next 70 hours monthly use of demand, 
3c.; balance monthly consumption, Ic; 20 per cent, discount; 
plus He. per kw.h. for lamps, if desired; lamp renewal 
schedule unchanged. 

Commercial Lighting (Flat Rate): — Up to 1,000 watts 
connected, 4c. per watt; balance, 3c. per watt; 10 per cent, 
discount; no lamp renewals. 

A. C. Power (550 volt,- 3 phase): — $1.25 per h.p. for first 
15 h.p. of monthly demand; $1.00 per h.p. for balance of 
monthly demand; l^c. per kw.h. for first fifty hours use of 
demand; .2c. per kw.h. for balance of monthly consumption. 
Twenty per cent, discount. 

D. C. Power (230 volt and 500 volt):— $1.25 per h.p. for 
first 15 h.p. of monthly demand; $1.00 per h.p. for balance of 



monthly demand; 2>^.c. per kw.h. for first fifty hours use 
of demand; yic. per kw.h. for balance of monthly consump- 
tion; 20 per cent, discount. 

Toronto City Rates 

The city of Toronto has announced reduced rates for 
I'JIB which will mean reductions anywhere from 10 to 25 per 
cent., depending on conditions. These rates are as follows: 

Domestic — Three cents per 100 sq. ft. of floor area per 
month, plus 2c per kw.h. for all consumption per month up 
to 3 kw.h. for each 100 sq. ft. of floor area charged; plus Ic 
per kw.h. for all additional consumption per month, P.P. 
discount, 10 per cent. 

Commercial — 5c per kw.h. for the first 30 hours' use of 
load per month; 2.5c per kw.h. for the next 70 hours' use of 
load; 0.5c per kw.h. for all additional consumption per month. 
P.P. discount, 10 per cent. 

Power — $1.35 per h.p. per month of load for first 10 h.p.; 
$1 per h.p, per month of load for all over 10 h.p.; 1.5c per 
kw.h. for first 50 hours' use of load per month: 0.5c per kw.h. 
for second 50 hours' use of load per month: 0.15c per kw.h. 
for all additional consumption per month. P.P. discmnt, 20 
per cent. 

Street Lighting— $8.00 per 100-watt lamp per year. 
(Unchanged). 



Montreal Council Rejects Advice 

By a vote of 7 to 23, the Montreal Council has declined 
to accede to the request of the Council of the Canadian 
Society of Civil Engineers to appoint an independent board 
of engineers to report on the aqueduct scheme, particularly 
the portion dealing with the proposed hydro-electric de- 
velopment of 10,000 horse power for pumping and lighting 
purposes. The discussion centred on the economic value of 
this proposition. Alderman L. A. Lapointe, who proposed 
the appointment of engineers to make a report on the whole 
scheme with instructions to make whatever suggestions 
might be deemed advisable, contended that power could be 
obtained at a lower cost from private companies than was 
possible under the proposed scheme. Controller Cote de- 
fended the plan; he argued that the objections were too late, 
and that the scheme had been approved by competent en- 
.gineers, with the exception of the power house plans, which. 
he said, will be laid before qualified engineers at a later date. 
Controller Cote declared, and the Mayor agreed, it was im- 
perative that the city should be prepared to do its own 
lighting in view of the possible formation of a big trust by 
the lighting and power companies of the city. It was easy 
to understand, added the Mayor, why these companies were 
opposed to the scheme. The Council authorized a loan of 
$1,500,000, a portion of which will be used for the hydro- 
electric development. The plans for this are being pre- 
pared. 

The Council of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers 
base their opposition to the scheme as it exists today on the 
ground that it has not been reported on by independent 
engineers, although portions have been examined from time 
to time. Criticism is directed by members of the Society 
particularly to the hydro-electric section, as being very ex- 
travagant, several times the cost of developments in the 
neighborhood, and entailing very heavy annual charges on 
the citizens, while the amount of power to be generated is 
problematical. In the issue of the Electrical News of 
September 1st last, a Montreal engineer criticized the scheme 
in detail, and gave figures to show that Controller Cote has 
under-estimated the cost of operation, that there is no 
justification for installing a plant in preference to taking 
current from private companies, and that the scheme is 
financially unsound. 



January 15, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



British Industries Fair 

In view of the great success of the British Industries 
Fair, held at the Agricultural Hall, London, England, from 
May 10th to 21st, 1914, the Imperial Board of Trade have 
decided to hold the second British Industries Fair at the 
Victoria and Albert Muesum, Kensington, London, on Feb- 
ruary 21st, 1916. The Fair will be open for 12 days. 

The Fair will be conducted on the same lines as that of 
1915, and is intended to extend to British Manufacturers the 
same advantages as have been derived by continental manu- 
facturers from the Trade Fairs held in their respective coun- 
tries. Buyers from the United Kingdom and from all parts 
of the world are invited to the Fair, and as it is intended for 
the trade only (the general public not being admitted), 
buyers will have an exceptional opportunity of transacting 
their business in a minimum of time. 

Manufacturers only will be allowed to exhibit, and their 
exhibits will be strictly confined to goods of their own make. 
The Trades exhibiting will be: — Toys; Glassware; Fancy 
Goods; Earthenware and China; Printing; Stationery. 

Admission to the Fair will be by invitation of His 
Majesty's Board of Trade only, and will be restricted to 
bona fide buyers for L'nited Kingdom and Overseas Markets. 
Buyers from the Dominion of Canada visiting the United 
Kingdom during the course of the Fair, i.e., February 21st to 
March 4th, and interested in the above mentioned trades, 
should not fail to communicate immediately on arrival in the 
United Kingdom with the director, British Industries Fair, 
32 Cheapside, London, E.C. It will also be to their advantage 
to notify the Trade Commissioner's office. 3 Beaver Hall 
Square, Montreal, giving particulars of the firms they re- 
present, and their addresses in the United Kingdom. Any 
further information may be obtained from C. R. Woods, 
assistant to H. M. Trade Commissioner in Canada and New- 
foundland. 



Laurentide Power Co. 

The Laurentide hjdro-electric development at Grand'- 
Mere, P.Q., has been formally handed over to the Laurentide 
Power Companj', bonds of which have been sold in New 
York. The price paid to the Laurentide Company for the 
property is 70 per cent, of the $10,000,000 stock. Two con- 
tracts for the sale of power have been made, 25,000 horse 
power to the Laurentide Company, and 50,000 horse power 
to the Shawinigan Water and Power Company, and on this 
basis it is estimated that the earnings for 1916 will be about 
.$500,000, leaving a surplus of $135,000. When the full out- 
put of 125,000 h.p. is sold the company's gross income is 
placed at $1,250,000. Fixed charges, etc., will take about 
$450,000, leaving a surplus of $800,000, or 8 per cent, on the 
stock. The demand for power in the district served by the 
Shawinigan Company, the prospectus issued in New York 
states, "is so great that it is expected that the company will 
anticipate the dates on which it is provided it shall take 
additional power, and it is fully expected that not less than 
75,000 h.p. will be in use in the second year of the Lauren- 
tide Power Co.'s operations." The bonded debt of the com- 
pany, which is less than $00 per horse power, is stated to be 
less than that of any similar hydro-electric development of 
the present day. 



Winnipeg Sleet Storm Brings Down Towers 

A sleet storm in Winnipeg, Man., early last month, re- 
sulted in the breaking down of one tower on the lines of the 
city's municipal transmission system, about 30 miles from 
the city, and caused about 2 miles of wire to be thrown off 
the towers of this system. The transmission line of the 
Winnipeg Electric Railway Company was broken in two 




Sleet storm doubles up one of WinnipejJ municipal towers. 

places, but the damage, which was not so serious, was re- 
paired by night time. The weather conditions were excep- 
tional for that region, the sleet being of such thickness on 
the wires that the over-all diameter exceeded 'Zyi in. The 
cables of the municipal system have a total area of 278,600 
circ. mils and are strung on towers such as the one shown 
in the accompanying illustration alternating with braced 
structures, spaced 600 ft. apart. The insulators are of the 
pin type and the wires are spaced on 6 ft. centres, six con- 
ductors per tower. The damage to the municipal system was 
such as to take twenty-three hours to repair it and place it 
in service. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 

Montreal, January 3rd, 1916. 
Electrical News, Toronto, Ont. 

Gentlemen: — We noticed on page 21 of the January 
issue of the Electrical News that the statement is made that 
Mr. W. E. Skinner, Consulting Engineer of Winnipeg, pre- 
pared the final agreement as accepted by the City and this 
Company for a thirty year power contract, and we would 
be glad to have you correct this statement, inasmuch as the 
facts are that the agreement between the Edmonton Power 
Company and the City of Edmonton is an agreement sub- 
mitted by the Edmonton Power Company two years ago 
with modifications made at joint meetings by the represen- 
tatives of the City, who were Mr. W. E. Skinner and Mr. 
Bown, the City's Solicitor, on behalf of the City of Edmon- 
ton, and Mr. H. H. Hyndman, Solicitor, and Mr. R. S. 
Kelsch, Consulting Engineer, of the Edmonton Power Com- 
pany, with further modifications as made by the special power 
committee from time to time. 

Yours truly, 
EDMONTON POWER COMPANY, Limited. 



At the annual meeting of the Kaministiquia Power Com- 
pany held in Montreal on January 4, the following directors 
were re-elected: Sir H. S. Holt, president; Messrs. C. R. 
Ilosmer, vice-president; W. A. Black, managing director: 
and J. E. AUlred, F. H. Phippen, K.C., and J. S. Norris. 
Earnings for November, the first month of the current 
fiscal year, amounted to $23,955, as compared with $18,085 
for the corresponding month last year. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January 15, I'JIO 



Construction Features of Mexico Plant 



Described by Mr. R. F. Hayward before Vancouver branch of C. S. C. E. 
Fortunately little interfered with by revolutionists. 



Xearlj' all of the prominent men connected with the 
formation and development of the Mexican Ligh' & Power 
Company's enterprise have passed away in the last few 
years. Don Porfirio Diaz, President of Mexico, hy whose 
ijovernment the enterprise was made possible, died last 
year. Sir George Drummond, Sir Edward Cloiiston and 
James Ross, directors from the inception of the undcriak- 
ing, and J. D. Schuyler, consulting engineer for the Xecaxa 
Dam, have also passed away. And now but a few iionihs 
ago Dr. F. S. Pearson, the engineer to whose fertile brain 
and energy was due the conception, planning and comple- 
tion of the undertaking, went down with the Lusitania. It 
therefore seems a fitting time to call to mind some of the 
features of the Necaxa development, whicli. for variety of 
new problems and difficulties met and worked out, is still 
<iuite unique in the history of water power development 

Mexico City is situated on a plateau nearly 8,0u0 feet 
above sea level, surrounded by a rim of mountains rising 
from an elevation of from 10.000 to 17.000 feet anj including 
three extinct volcanoes. Popocatepl. Ixtaccihaati. and 'J'he 
Peak of Orizaba. 

.\ traveller journeying 100 mlKs in a ii jrtheasterly 
direction from the City of Mexico comes to the rim of a 
l)lateau and finds himself suddenly entering a wild moun- 
tain region as if from the clouds. These are the slopes 
from the plateau to the Gulf of Mexico, along which tlie 
warm moist air from the gulf, condensed by the cold drift 
from the plateau above, produces a rainfall which amounts 
to as much as 150 inches in a year, giving a run-oflf whicii. 
thoiigh it varies greatly from month to month, is sufKcicnt 
to produce large quantities of power from comparatively 
small watersheds. 

The valley of the Necaxa is formed by two limestone 
ridges and has been filled by successive flows of lava, to a 
depth of some 1,500 feet. Between the limestone mountains 
and the lava on each side of this valley the water has cut a 
channel forming the Xecaxa River on the one hand, and its 
tributary, the Tcnango. on the other. .\t a point some 
twelve miles below tlie rim of the plateau tliis river has cut 
out a gorge in tlie basalt 1500 feet deep, and arrives at the 
bottom in two vertical leaps called Salto Chico and Salto 



Grande, the upper fall being MO feet, while the lower one is 
740 feet. 

The problem presented to Dr. Pearson was to utilize 
the power of the river going to waste over these falls and 
to bring machinery for the plant and all that was required 
for construction into a wild mountain country, where the 
sole means of communication was a mule trail, and the 
nearest railway was thirty miles away. 

A three-foot gauge railway, thirty miles long, had first 
to be constructed, and this, owing to the nature of the 
country, had to be built with curves of the smallest radius 
possible for Shay locomotives, and with grades as high as S 
per cent. 

In order to make use of the mean annual run-otif of the 
watershed of the Xecaxa River, four reservoirs were con- 
structed, and later, when it was found necessary to develop 
more power to meet the rapidly increasing demand, two 
other reservoirs were built while a series of tunnels, one of 
which was two miles long, were built to tap adjacent water- 
sheds. 

The construction of these reservoirs involved the build- 
ing of seven earth dams all of them important structures as 
compared with other earth dams, and two of them, at least, 
higher than any earth dam that had previously been built. 
Some of these dams were built entirely by the hydraulic 
fill method; the others were a combination of core wall, rock 
lill, clay and earth fill, placed by hand labor, mules and 
steam shovels, with some hydraulic fill in the centre. 

A description of all of these would be bej-ond the scope 
of this article, and there is space to refer only to the largest, 
or the Xecaxa Dam. This dam was built entirely by the 
hydraulic fill method. It was 200 feet high from the bottom 
of the core trench to the crest of the dam, about 1,200 feet 
along the crest, and over 1,000 feet on the base from up- 
stream toe to down-stream toe. The slope of the up- 
stream face w-as three to one. and the down-stream face two 
to one. The lower toe was a heavy rock fill faced with 
three feet of rubble masonry laid in cement. The up- 
stream face consisted of the lighter rock fill rip-rapped 
with stone, and tlie centre was fine sluiced clay. The 
total quantities in the dam were about 2.000,000 cubic yards, 
and in the preparation of the foundations 200,000 cubic yards 




First Neca.xa Falls, showing teniporar>' plant. 



Second NecaNa Falls, 740 ft. high, 






Power House and Constructii 



iiniai'y I'l, I'.llS 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



19 



of loll sui'faci- hail lo be removed. 'Ilurc were three core 
Irenclies, one of wliie-h was 43 feet (lee)>, and these were 
built with concrete core walls brought up to a considerable 
height above the foundation of the dam. i\ll the material 
was liydraulically filled, and for this purpose a canal twelve 
miles long was built along the nioiuitain siile, hrin.yin" a 




Necaxa dam (rom upstream toe showing sluicing trestles. 

How of 3J cubic feet per second under a head of 4.")() feet, 
which was used in 0-inch monitors for bringing down the 
clay and rock. 

The material was carried to the dam in wooden \'- 
sliaped flumes placed on trestles, which were built up as the 
work progressed. The material was discharged along the 
edges of the upstream and the downstream slopes, the rocks 
and heavier material remaining where they were discharged. 
and the lighter silts and clays being deposited in the pond in 
the centre. By this means rocks as big as a man's body 
were carried through the flumes and deposited in the toes of 
the dam. 

This was tlic first really large hydraulic fill' dam that had 
ever been built, and as in so many engineering enterprises, 
when very large undertakings are carried out upon the ex- 
perience of much smaller works, it was found that the 
methods previously used had to be materially modified. 

While there was a heavy mass of rock fill on the lower 
toe, the rock fill on the upper toe was comparatively li.sjht. 




Relief valves of ti-8000 h.p. wheels discliarging under head of l.ino fl. 

and the fine clay that had settled in the centre luU only 
filled a bigger space than had been originally intended, bui 
it never solidified, and consetiucntly. shortly before the dam 
had reached its ma.ximum height, the hydraulic pressure due 
to the head of semi-liquid clay became greater than the 
light rock toe on the upstream side could stand, and 500,000 



cubic yards of material slid out of the dam early one morn- 
ing. The work was repaired by sluicing a large quantity of 
rock into, the up-stream toe, increasing the rock fill on the 
lower toe, and then finally filling the greatly reduced space 
in the centre with sluiced material. The dam, which has 
been completed for over three years, is absolutely tight and 
in every way satisfactory. 

From a concrete intake tower, built on the upstream toe 
of the dam, two 6-foot steel pipes about three-quarters of a 
mile long conveyed the water to the top of the falls. Trom 
tliis point two inclined tunnels each, half a mile long, were 
built on a slope of about 40 degrees, and inside each of 
these tunnels was laid, on concrete saddles, three ;iO-inch 
welded steel pipes. These pipes, which had to stand a head 
of 1,500 feet, or over 600 lbs., pressure at the lower end. 
were flanged and welded, and the joints were made by bolt- 
ing- each length of pipe together with loose flanges and a 
special rubber gasket. The pipes were laid and started 
practically without a leak, and have been in satisfactory 
operation ever since. Later, when an extension of ilu- 




Necaxa dam. lower rocklilled toe with masonry face. 

power house was decided on, a third S-foot pipe was laid 
from the dam to the head of tlie tunnels, and a thiril in- 
clined tunnel, with two additional pipes, was built. 

The power house was located close to the foot of the 
lower falls. The only access to the site of the power house 
was by means of a tortuous mule trail down the precipitous 
sides of the gorge. All the materials for the power house 
were brought down by means of two 15-ton I.idgerwood 
inclined cableways, stretched from the top to the botton* of 
each of the two falls. With these two ways the greatest 
weight of materials and machinery that could be carried 
down in a day was about 50 tons, consequently the work of 
construction of the power house and erection of the 
machinery W'as necessarily slow. 

Tlie i>ower house consists of a massive concrete steel 
frame building, in which are installed six 8,000 h. p. water- 
wheels, driving 5,000 kw. generators, together with an equip- 
ment of switchboards and transformers for transmitting the 
I'ower at ()0,000 volts. The wheels are of the impulse type 
on a vertical axis, so arranged that the high pressure water 
and the whole of the water wheel is entirely below the 
generator floor, and are provided with relief valves so that 
the pressure pipes could discharge in a horizontal direction 
over the tail race of the power house whenever the pressure 
exceeded a certain predetermined amount. One of the ac- 
companying photographs shows six of these relief valves 
discharging at one time under a pressure of 600 lbs. 

When it became necessary to enlarge the power house 
these six water wheels were increased in capacity by en- 
larging the nozzles, as there was sufficient margin in the 



■iO 



THl' ELECTRICAL NEWS 



lanuary 15, lOlfi 



generators to produce additional power. But besides this, 
two 1G,000 h. p. units of approximately similar design were 
added. 

The whole design and construction of this plant is of 
the greatest interest, even though it is not today the newest 
hydro-electric plant, and when a government in Mexico is 



formed that compares in any way with the strong effective 
government of General Diaz, this plant will be of tremendous 
benefit to the future development of this section of Mexico. 
It is a remarkable thing that, in spite of all the disturbances 
in that unfortunate country, the Necaxa plant has never 
been interfered with to any serious extent. 



Diesel Installation in Duncan, B.C. 



Latest type of this machine operating continuously for many months- 
efificiency at all loads Low rotative speed 

By W. Poole Dryer 



High 



I'arlicular attention attaches to the new municipal elec- 
tric power plant at Duncan. It marks a further advance in 
Diesel engine design and construction. The installation con- 
sists of two Morley-Guldner Improved Diesel engines, each 
of 100 h.p., direct connected to three-phase alternators. 
Since tlie plant started operation several months ago, it 
has carried the entire town load and is giving twenty-four 
hours' service. It is satisfactory to record that the engines 
liave given continuous service without stoppage, showing 
that Diesel engine power plant is absolutely reliable and 
free from mechanical troubles. 

The city of Duncan when contemplating building its 
electric power plant seriously considered generating Ijy 
water power. However, on making detailed estimates of the 
cost of the hydraulic installation, it was found, as is frequent 
with this type of plant, that an excessive initial expenditure 
would have to lie made: and that a very large proportion of 



Toronto and Vancouver, to supplj- and erect the complete 
machinery for a two-unit Diesel electric power plant, in- 
cluding engines, alternators, exciters and switchboards. 

Morley-Guldner Improved Diesels 
As these engines represent an innovation in Diesel de- 
sign as far as Canada is concerned, it will be of interest to 
describe their features, showing the radical modifications 
large Diesel engines have undergone in Europe during the 
last three or four years. They were built at Bradford, Eng- 
land, by Messrs. Cole, Marchent & Morley, Limited, who 
are represented in Canada by the contractors of the Duncan 
plant. 

The Morley-Guldner engine was evolved from the stand- 
ard desi,gn of Diesels by Mr. H. Guldner, who was previously 
chief engineer and constructor of the original Diesel firm. 
His long exiierience in the position of a leading Continental 




Wiring diagram of Duncan's Diesel power house-Two lOO h.p. engines direct connected to 60 kw. generators. 



the ultimate capitalization would have to be incurrc'd at the 
beginning, when only a fraction of utilizable power was re- 
quired. Comparative estimates show that during the early 
years, while load is building up, the burden of interest cliarges 
on a large part of non-earning capital invested in a water 
power plant are often heavier than the cost of fuel for a 
Diesel plant; for these oil engines need only be large enough 
for present requirements, new units I)eing added as load in- 
creases. The economic advantage of the Diesel engine is 
further increased by the fortunate fact that the efficiency 
of small units is very little less indeed than that of large 
units. The city council of Duncan therefore placed the 
contract with the W. Poole Dryer Company, Limited, of 



authority on internal combustion engines, showed Mr. Guld- 
ner two things: first, that the Diesel principle, by its superior 
economy, was the ultimate solution of the oil engine; sec- 
ond, that owing to faulty mechanical design the Diesel en- 
gine had so far been excluded from its full inheritance of 
wide adoption. He considered anew the whole mechanical 
construction of the engine, and proceeded to design and con- 
struct an improved Diesel engine, which would not only re- 
tain the high efficiency of the older engines, but even in- 
crease it, and which at the same time could be depended on 
in operation for freedom from mechanical troubles. Engines 
made to these designs have been installed during the last 
few years in remote places all over the world; their reliable 



aiuiary Ij. liild 



THE I'LECTRICAL NEWS 



by i 



aliim wlu-rr .sUillfd attention is nnl olilainablc lia.s jusli- 
tlic nindilicatinns made to older Diesel practice. 
I'lie true Diesel 4 cycle principle is retained. The eleva- 
nf ctHciency and the elimination of troubles are obtained 
oldly adopting low rotative speeds — none of these, en- 
s run at more than 212 r.p.m. This twofold result of 
siieeds is well worth the change, for nothing so retarded 
.L;eneral adoption of Diesels for years as the attempt to 
e the engines r\in at high speeds for which they are 




Forced lubrication is adopted, the oil going first to the 
piston, and then to the gudgeon pin. 

Air Compressor 
The air compressor is situated at the end of the crank 
shaft, and is direct driven by it. This position gives access- 
ibility and allows the compressor to be designed according 
to the best practice. Flat disc valves are used, which, be- 
sides eliminating "sticking up" troubles, give a high volu- 
metric efficiency resulting in a small power being required to 
drive the compressor. The air is compressed in two stages 
witli inter-cooling, and is delivered to the running bottle, 
where it is throttled by hand at the outlet; this regulation 
of the blast determines the quantity of oil blown into the 
cylinders proportioning it to the load demand. In addition 
to the running bottle two very long starting bottles are 
attached to each engine; and the reserve capacity of these 
bottles is so large that the Duncan plant can be started up 
a dozen times without recharging them. No trouble need 
ever be feared from loss of pressure, nor need provision 
be made for independent means of recharging the bottles. 
.\s the engines never fail to star-t with the first blast from 
the bottles, the excessive reserve of starling power is merely 
a safeguard against inexpert handling. 

Alternators 

The two alternators are each rated at liO kv.a., and gen- 
erate ;220n volts, :i-pliase. (10 cycles. The engine shaft is 
directly connected to the alternator shaft, which carries tlie 



Interior Diesel power plant, Duncan, B.C. 

not inherently suited — most of the mechanical troubles were 
due solely to that cause. The low speeds slightly increase 
the size of tlie engine, but ensure great reliability in opera- 
tion; lower fuel consuitiption is a necessary concomitant of 
low speed. 

Valve Mechanism 
A radical change is introduced into the valve operating 
mechanism, as will be observed on the accompanying illus- 
tration; the cam shaft is fixed low dowti on the frames, not 
as in the older Diesels up among the congestion of valve 
levers at the top of the cylinders. By lowering the cam shaft 
to this new position, the valves and levers are left very ac- 
cessible and can easily be removed — a point all operators will 
appreciate; and the cam shaft itself is now in a very con- 
venient position, being just at the hand of the operator stand- 
ing on the floor. A further important innovation is that the 
cam shaft runs in an enclosed oil bath which ensures per- 
fect lubrication and silent operation — the usual Diesel click 
of the cam shaft is absent. The vertical rods seen in the 
illustration arc the valve connecting rods which arc moved 
up and down by the cams at their lower ends. 

Governing 

.\ separate fuel oil pump is used for each cylinder, there- 
by ensuring an equal distribution of w^ork between the cylin- 
ders. The speed of the engine is regulated and controlled 
by a spring loaded governor which proportions the amount 
f)f fuel oil used in each power stroke to the momentary 
load of the engine. This is effected by the governor auto- 
matically adjusting the opening of the fuel oil suction valve, 
holding it more or less open as the speed varies, and so 
allowing the excess oil to be pumped back into the suction 
pipe instead of being forced to the cylinder. 

The governor itself is located on the top of the vertical 
shaft which drives the cam shaft, and it has a speed-adjust 
ing device attached to it by means of which the speed of the 
engine can be altered while running. 




A neat switchboard arranrieiniint. Duncan. B.C. 

exciter armature also. The synchronizing of the two units 
has proved to be an easy matter; a very heavy Hywheel on 
the engine smooths out the two-cylinder impulses, and damp- 
ing windings on the alternator eflfectively prevent hunting 



22 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January )."), I'JH") 



troubles arising from interchange of current l)ctwccn tlie 
two machines. 

Switching Arrangements 

The switchboard consists of three Wcstinghouse panels, 
one for each unit and the other for the outgoing line. Low 
tension connections only are made to the board, all the 2200 
vnlt switches being foxed on the wall four feet behind. Par- 
ticular care has been taken to give all the wir'ng behind 
the board great mechanical strength so that the position 
of each wire is fixed for all time; attention of this kind as- 
sures immunity from short circuits later on and at all times 
makes the tracing out of connections an easy matter. All 
leads running from the switchboard to generators are of lead 
covered wire pulled into conduit. 

General Operation 

For the series tungsten street lighting system of the 



town a separate Canadian General Electric panel detached 
from the main switchboard is installed and works in con- 
junction with a constant current transformer just behind it. . 

For the operation of the plant one man per shift suffices; 
and it will be of interest to mention that the operators in this 
plant were previously quite unacquainted with the running 
of Diesel engines. Yet so simple and reliable is the Diesel 
electric station now, that in its ten months of continuous 
operation no trouble or mishap has occurred in this plant. 
Overshading even the great saving of labor and maintenance 
is the economy of fuel costs compared with steam plants, 
the actual fuel cost in the Duncan plant being approximately 
one-third of a cent per kw. hour. 

It might be added that the successful operation of the 
Duncan installation is in no small way responsible to the 
enthusiastic interest taken in it by the City Engineer, Mr. 
M. Leighton Wade. 



Easy Payment Plan in Appliance Sales 

The instalment plan is a well recognized system in general retailing, why 
not in ours?^Must meet people half way 

By Earl E. Whitehorne in Electrical World 



If you could go to-day before 500 of the livest central- 
station managers in the country and should ask all those who 
(Um't believe in "easy payments" to stand up, what do you 
think would happen? A big majority would climb up on 
their feet and register against it— and yet, if you should ask 
their reasons one by one, you would find about two answers 
and no more. A few would tell you stories that would 
show a trial foreordained to failure because the principle 
was unintelligently applied and because the proposition was 
inadequately presented and worse handled. But the rest 
would say they don't believe in it because— well, just "be- 
cause"— because they are prejudiced against it and have 
never tried it or had eagerness enough really to find out 
what experience in other cities has developed. Yet those 
other men who held their seats could tell them stories and 
cite figures that would settle every reasonable doubt. 

New to Us, but Old to Others 

The principle of installment payments is still new to us 
perhaps, but it is old and well established in the big broad 
world of retail business. Pianos have been sold that way for 
years. Cash registers are sold that way. Good books are 
sold that way. And so is furniture and real estate, and so 
are typewriters and phonographs, electric washing machines 
and vacuum cleaners, and so are other things that cost too 
much for most of us to buy conveniently for cash or ordin- 
ary credit. This generation has adopted this arrangement to 
facilitate the purchase of those luxuries and comforts that 
our gr;indfathers would have continually sacrificed for fear 
of debt. We want them, and we consider that our families 
arc entitled to them if a way can be found to buy them 
without risk or worry, and so the "easy-payment" plan lias 
been devised and universally accepted as a proper and com- 
mendable expedient. 

This is the way it strikes us individually, but as an in- 
dustry we face it from the other angle. 

"Here are these goods," we say. "They cost a lot of 
money, and it's hard to sell them outright to the average 
home. Now, what has been the experience of other manu- 
facturers and merchants in such situations?" And we find 
that other industries have most successfully adopted the 
easy-payment plan, and there is our answer. Again, on 
looking deeper we discover that this plan is better suited to 
the central station than to any other business that employs 



it, for tlic central station is already well equipped with full 
machinery for collecting monthly payments, because easy 
payments just become an added item on the bill — and there 
you are! There is no reason why the central station should 
not do it, but there is prejudice against it, and such pre- 
judice dies hard. 

A Few Notable Examples 

In Pittsburgh, for instance, the Duquesne Light Com- 
pany did not believe in easy payments and sold electric 
washing machines for years for cash. It never averaged 
l)etter than ten or twelve sales a month in all its territory. 
Then it offered these machines on a basis of 20 per cent., or 
$18, cash down, and right away its sales increased to an aver- 
age of twenty a month. It cut the price to $10 down, and 
sales increased again to thirty a month. Again it reduced 
the amount of the initial payment to .$5, and the monthly 
average ran right up to over sixty, and the company is con- 
fident that with a little harder pushing it can reach a scale 
of 75 to 100 machines sold every thirty days. In the month 
of October this company sold 275 vacuum cleaners of one 
make alone, this being the machine it featured on an easy- 
pa3mient proposition. 

In Cleveland a prominent dealer sold about six washing 
machines a month until quite recently an installment offer 
was made. Already sales have jumped up to thirty or forty 
a month, and as soon as the campaign develops further this 
city should be good for a greatly increased output. 

Again, in Bloomington, 111., a good example of a smaller 
town of 25,000 people, the central station formerly was sell- 
ing only about ten machines a year until it offered easy pay- 
ments with $10 as the cash down with the order. In a verj' 
short time the average was raised to about ten sales each 
month, twelve times as much as had been done before, with 
no more work. 

There are unlimited examples of just such experience. 
I talked the other afternoon with one of the biggest manu- 
facturers of washing machines, and he reeled the cases off 
too fast to make notes, of, though there vvould be small point 
in such repetition here. For the thought I want to make is 
this: that the whole thing boils right down to principle and 
policy and prejudice. There is no use in citing figures to a 
man whose prejudice refuses to believe that such good evid- 
ence applies to him; and anyone who thoughtfully will turn 



Jaiuiary 15, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



the matter over in his mind and see the facts and what they 
offer him can find at hand a wealth of data ready for his 
use and all the personal testimony he could wish in con- 
firmation. No matter who takes the trouble to inquire and 
consider can question for one moment in his own mind that 
the easy-payment plan sells big appliances a hundred times 
more quickly than the old ways. It has been proved so 
clearly by so many companies which he knows are just as 
wise as he is in the operating of a central station that it is 
no longer a matter for argument where the facts are re- 
cognized. His "local conditions" cannot be so "diflferent" 
that among the many companies large and small where big 
results have been achieved by easy-payment selling there 
is not a clear case of appropriate example to guide him. The 
whole thing simmers down to a simple matter of attitude. 
Are you willing to adopt a new plan of progressive merch- 
andising in order tremendously to increase your sales, not 
only of ranges, fireless cookers, washing machines and 
vacuum cleaners, but of all appliances? For if the principle 
is good for one it is certainly good for all. Or are you 
"agin it" just because it is new and strange to you and sounds 
like trouble? 

Why We Need the Easy Payment 

"Why should it be necessary?" asks Mr. Skeptic. But 
as individuals you know just as well as I do. As this manu- 
facturer expressed it: "People can't afford to put down $100 
in cash to buy a high-priced washing machine, no matter 
how much money they have. A woman usually has an al- 
lowance for running the house, but she can't squeeze that 
much money out of any one month's allowance, so she must 
buy b}- installments or not at all. We have people who we 
know could buy out our whole company come in and pur- 
chase on the easy plan. Then take the fellow who earns 
.$125 a month — he can't afford to pay down $25 or $50 for a 
household labor-saving appliance, no matter how much he 
wants it. He is glad to buy on small payments, however, 
and his account is just as good on your books as Rocke- 
feller's; and, after all, these are the people who buy the bulk 
of the machines. It is the man whose wife is doing her own 
work, or the household with one overloaded servant, that 
you must adapt your proposition to." 

In other words, the people arc anxious to buy. Are 
you willing to meet them half way? 

The greatest obstacle to the general immediate adoption 
of the easy-payment plan, the manufacturers say, is difficulty 
in convincing the "man higher up." The central-station 
salesman is "for it," for he knows that it will open up a 
wonderful amount of business. The commercial manager 
is not slow to appreciate the opportunity. Yet upstairs sits 
the Big Chief, and too often the Big Chief says: "I don't 
mind carrying a good customer if he needs accommodation 
in the buying of a range. If be comes in and asks for it, 
we'll sell him on the installment plan, but I don't think we 
want to advertise broadcast." Yet the salesman knows that 
the public won't come asking easy payment as a favor. Nat- 
ural pride won't let it. The central station must either oflfer 
easy payment as a special inducement free to all or just give 
up the thought of doing any worth-while business in the big 
appliances. 

Why should you fear to advertise this policy? Your 
liookkeepers are making bills out every month to every 
customer. Another item on the bill adds no appreciable 
expense to you per bill. Your bills are sent out regularly to 
every customer. Your regular collectors are available to 
bring the money in just as they do at present. You are 
equipped and ready to take on this easy-payment Inisiness 
with a minimum of cost and troiil)le. To cover £ost you 
can add an item of 5 per cent, to the selling price. (This 
5 per cent you can offer as a cash discount too.) Keep the 
title to the appliance till the final payment is made and you 



are perfectly secure. For there are ample facts to prove all 
this. One company, for instance, that now has $80,000 on 
its books in these accounts finds that it averages less than 
five appliances taken back each month because of failure to 
pay, and most of these are soon restored again. Moreover, 
if manufacturers can sell on easy payments, and if local 
dealers can make money at it, why should central stations 
hesitate when really it means just a slight extension in the 
present scheme of doing business? For it is but a short step 
from selling energy by the month and selling energy-con- 
suming appliances to the same good customers on the same 
safe plan. 

The Broader Aspect 

Some men hang back and say: "Why bother with the 
washing machine? It brings only an income of about 25 
cents a month." I am not talking about one washing 
machine. I am thinking about the thousand washing 
machines that you can sell between now and this day next 
year — and all the suction sweepers and the jiercolators and 
the toasters and the rest of the appliances that you can 
market just as soon as you will make it easy for the public 
to acquire them. A single washing machine may mean but 
25 cents a month, but a thousand of them will bring you an 
annual income close to $,'i.000. and that's the way to calculate 
the power of the easy payment. How many of the gas 
ranges that are gayly cooking dinners in your town right now 
would have remained unsold if the people could not have 
bought by easj' payments? 

It is time for every central-station manager who has 
not tried the selling power of the easy payment to rub his 
eyes and look about him. Is he working day by day just 
to perpetuate a set of traditional policies, or is he striving to 
manufacture needed income for his stock-holders, to "make 
good" on the capital he operates for them in trust? There 
is no place for personal prejudices in a matter so important 
in its possibilities. 



New Telephone Line in Fraser Valley 

For several years the B. C. Telephone Co.. ^'ancouvcr. 
has given long distance connection to Chilliwack along a 
route north of the Fraser river to Nicomen Island, thence 
across the river through a submarine cable to the south side 
and along the .Sumas road to Chilliwack. Almost every 
3'ear at the time of high water this cable has been damaged 
by floating snags, and it was decided to find some other way 
of crossing the river. Three plans were suggested — plac- 
ing another submarine cable, building towers and making a 
long span, or crossing b)- means of the C. P. R. bridge 
south of Mission and building a new pole line along the 
south shore of the Fraser, The last mentioned plan was 
adopted. The work was conii)letcd some time ago and the 
results from the new lead are very satisfactory. 

About nine miles of new pole line was constructed and 
about fifty miles of 172-lb. copper wire strung. Of the nine 
miles of pole line built, eight were distant from any wagon 
road and all material had to be distributed from the C. N. P. 
railway, which parallels the lead for this distance. 

The special features are the short-span crossing of the 
Western Canada Power Company's 12,000 volt line about 
one mile south of Mission, and two long spans, one near 
Miller's Landing and the other at the Sumas River. While 
the wire generally used was 172 lbs. to the mile, the long 
spans required a weight of 435 lbs. 

Special attention was given this construction in view of 
the fact that it will form part of the company's line to the 
Kootenay. The aim of the B. C. Telephone Company is to 
have an all-provincial line connecting up the different parts 
(if its system. an<l to that end toll line construction during 
the past year or two between Vancouver and New West- 
minster and to the east has been of the very highest grade. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January 1."), IDIO 




London and Port Stanley Electrification First 

Unit of Ontario's Hydro Radials Operating 

Successtully— Description of 

Main Features 

After several months of operation by electricity the Lon- 
don & I'ort Stanley railway system appears to be fully justify- 
ing the hopes of the promoters of this scheme and gives 
promise of working out so successfully from an engineering 
and I'lnancial standpoint that the dream of a network of 
hydro radials. covering the whole of the province of Ontario, 
may now begin, with good reason, to take definite shape. 
Though, as yet, a separate unit in itself and as such, it is 
believed, able to show a balance of proht over operating and 
fixed charges, there is no doubt that this road would lind 
its greatest usefulness as the nucleus of a larger system of 
radiating lines, which would act as feeders and distributers 
throughout considerable areas in south-western Ontario. 
Indeed it is the expressed policy of the engineers of the 
Hydro-electric Power Commission of Ontario that in seek- 
ing to standardize their equipments and system of opera- 
tion they had prominently in mind the conditions that 
would liave to be met in the years to come when Hydro 
radials shall be as common as Hydro transmission lines 
are today. For this reason practice that would naturally 
liave been followed on a 25 mile line as a separate unit has, 
in many cases, been departed fripm. and plans substituted 
having in view a network of possibly ten times that aniuunf 
of road in the near future. 

The essential diiTerence between the London & Port 
Stanley electrification and tliat of the earlier systems in 
Canada whicli have 1)een crmsidercd tlu> standard u]! to the 



present time is tliat the operating voltage is 1,.500 d.c. in- 
stead of OOO. This change of course has demanded higher 
factors of safety at every point and the variations in design 
liave been worked out and undertaken largely on this ac- 
count. It is of particular interest to note that the increase'! 
voltage, as such, is causing no greater operating difficulties 
than were experienced with the lower voltages. 

Though this road is spoken of in general as an electrifi- 
cation of a steam line, it is. in effect, a new road from the 
bottom up. For many years the line has been leased to 
various steam railway companies and when it reverted to 
its owners, the city of London, in 1914, and it was decided 
to electrify, it was found necessary to overhaul the road- 
way from one end of the line to the other. To this end 
the old 56 pound rails were i-eplaced by 80 pound standard 
steel, ties were replaced by new untreated cedar and the 
track was reballastcd throughout. Fortunately the bridges 
were found, for the most part, to be in good condition liut 
a considerable amount of concrete curbing had to be built 
along various parts of the line. 

The Rolling Stock 

Up to the present time the rolling stock acquired con- 
sists of three 60 ton electric locomotives, five 61 foot steel 
motor cars, three 61 foot trailers and one 61 foot express 
car with motor equipment. This latter car is well adapted 
to give a rapid delivery of farm produce into St. Thomas 
and London. Further equipment includes five 36 foot 
steam road box cars, four 26 foot steam road flat cars and 
three ;i4 foot steam road cabooses. Details of special 
features in the design of the locomotives and motor cars 
liave been described in earlier issues of the Electrical News 
and these arc supplemented by a number nf line drawings 





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Fig. 1. — Standard cross-span construction -Direct suspension for yards and sidings— London & Port Stanley Railway. 



ramiarv 15, I'JIfi 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 





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THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



laiuiarv l.'i. r.lUJ 



herewith. Tlic specilkations of the various cars are also 
given below in detail. 

The locomotives are of the type 404 G. E. and are 
carried on two swivel trucks, bringing all tlie weight on the 
drivers. Equipment is housed in steel box type cab ex- 
lending over practically the entire length of the locomotive. 
Each locomotive is provided with four G. E. 351, 750/l."i()0 
volt motors, designed for 7.J0 volts across each armature 
but insulated for 1,500 volts. Two motors arc connected 
permanently in series and the two motor groups thus formed 
are capable of connection in series or parallel for speed 
control as desired. 

The cab is divided into three compartments, one at each 
end fur accommodating the operator, with an intervening 
compartment to house the control equipment and access- 
ories. 1,500 V. electric radiators are used for heating. 

Each of the motors has an hourly rating of 254 h.p. with 
1,500 volts on the trolley. At this rating the locomotives 
exert a tractive effort of 21,500 pounds. Control is by 
double-end Type M. standard equipment, a master con- 
troller at each operating position actuating the main 1,500 
volt contactors by means of a 600 volt circuit supplied from 
a dynamotor. Multiple-unit train operation is arranged for 
so that the simultaneous control of all three locomotives 
coupled together can be accomplished from any master 
controller. The equipment is designed that the locomotive 
may haul a train of passenger trailer cars and provide 
illumination for them. 

Current is collected by pantograph slider trolleys having 
two contact pans pressing against the trolley conductor. 
Both ends of the locomotives are provided with panto- 
graphs. The pantographs are electro-pneumatically con- 
trolled from any operating position with 1, 2 or 3 loco- 







\vi<it 
of tr 



Fig. 4. — Standard steel pole footing 

ves hauling a train. The pantograph eciuiimients on 
luofor-cars and express car are identical witli those on 
locomotives. 

Express Car 
P.ody — Length of liody, 59 ft. G in.; length over-all, i;i ft.; 
h over-all, !) ft. %:y^ in.; height from top of rail t(j toj) 
oiley board, lii ft.; truck base, 40 ft. 
I'ruck— Tyiie, National Steel Car Co.; wheel base, T ft.; 
. of wheel, ;iO in.; tread of wheel, 4 11-32 in.; type of 



wheel, steel tread; size of journal, 5 in. by 9 in.; diam. of 
axle, 6 in. 

Electrical equipment — Motors, type G. E., 225 B. 750/ 
1,500 v.; motors, 4-135 h.p.; control system, Sprague, type 
M.; controller, hand control; gear, number of teeth, 57; 
pinion, solid teeth, 21; type of air compressor, G. E., C. P., 
;37--\.; size of air compressor, 35 ft.; size of brake cylinder. 
14 in.; type of governor, M. L., Form A., G. E. Co.: type 




-T„/^Ra,l,5SB0«,3.«.^-8^ ^"'^"TT,;^ 



NOTE- To-r c.\cttraf\ce of poles on 
side opposite s,tai\lard cot\iVr*cf ion 
see d™«\^"l6ij-'i» 



Fig. 5.- Standard steel pole. 

of car heater, 1,500 volt Consolidated Car Heater Co.; type 
of pantograph, G. E. slider trolley; type of pilot, steam 
locomotive type; type of snow scraper, H. E. P. Comm ; 
type of headlight, U. S. Incandescent: type of hand-brake. 
Peacock. 

General — Weight of body, 32,000 lbs.; weight of trucks 
with wheels and axles only. 21,800 lbs.; weight of electric 
and air-brake equipment. 28,000 lbs.; total weight of car 
complete, 81,800 lbs. 

Motor Cars 

Body — Length of body, 59 ft. 6 in.; length over-all, 61 
ft.; width over-all, 9 ft. 6 in.; height from top of rail to top 
of trolley board, 13 ft. 5.'4 in.; seating capacity, 56: truck 
base. 34 ft. 4 in. 

Truck — Type, Baldwin Locomotive Co., M. C. B.; wheel 
base, 7 ft.: diameter of wheel, 36 in.: tread of wheel. 4 11-32 
in.; type of wheel, steel tread, M. C. B.; size of journal. 
5 in. by 9 in.; diam. of axle, 6 in. 

Electrical equipment — Motors, type G. E. 225 B. 750/ 
1.500 \'.; motors, 4-125 h.p.; Control system, Sprague, Type 
M.: controller, hand control: gear, number of teeth. 57; 
pinion, solid teeth, 21; type of air compressor, G. E., C. P.. 
27 A; size of air compressor, 35 ft.: size of brake cylinder. 
14 in.; type of governor. M. L., Form A., G. E. Co.; type of 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



car liL-atiT. 1,500 volt Consolidated Car Heater Co.; type of 
pantograph, G. E. slider trolley; type of car seats, Hey- 
wood Bro. & Wakefield Co.; tj'pe of pilot, steam locomotive; 
type of snow scraper, H. E. P. Comm. design; type of head- 
li.sfht, U. S. Incandescent; type of hand brake, Peacock. 

General — \\'eight of body. 40,000 lbs.; weight of trucks 
with wheels and axles only. 24,000 lbs.; weight of electric 
and air brake equipment, 28.000 lbs.; total weight of car 
complete, 94,800 lbs. 

Trailer Cars 

Body — Length of body, 5i) ft. 6 in.; length over-all, Gl ft.; 
width over-all, 9 ft. 6 in.; height from top of rail to top of 
trolley board, 13 ft. 5!;J in.; seating capacity, 60; truck base, 
34 ft. G in. 

Truck — Type, National Steel Car Company; wheel base, 
G ft.; diam. of wheel, 34 in.; tread of wheel. 4 11-32 in.; type 
of wheel, cast iron; size of journal, .") in. by 9 in.; diam. of 
axle, 5^^in. 

Equipment — Control sy.stcm, Sprague. itypo M; con- 



multiple unit; controller, type C. 107 A; gear, number of 
teeth, 70; pinion, solid teeth, 16; type of air compressor, 
2-C. P. 30; size of air compressor, 35 C. F. per M.; size 
of brake cylinder, 16x12; type of governor, G. K. 3; type of 
car heater, 1,500 v. Consolidated Car Heater Co.; type of 
pantograph, slider trolley; type of pilot, G. E. design; type of 
headlight, U. S. Incandescent; type of hand brake, rachet 
and drop lever type. 

General — Weight of electrical equipment, 38,950 lbs.; 
total weight of car complete, 120,000 lbs. 

Car Construction 

Fig. 2 shows the general floor plan and also exterior side 
and end views of one of the three compartment steel 
passenger cars. The car is built of steel, with wood trim; 
the entire bottom is structural steel, diagonally braced; the 
end and vestibule framing has special provision against the 
destructive effects of collision; corner posts and side posts 
arc of channel construction; side sheathing and roof, steel 




STMIIMlRM 
SKE-TCM SHOWINO 



SECTlOn^UlmG SWITCH 
HYORO-EutcTRic powtR connis 

OF OttTARm 



^^ .DU ia*»t. 



Fig. 6.~Sectionalization switch and equipment— London & Port Stanley Railway. 



troUer, hand control; size of brake cylinder, 14 in.; type of 
car seats, Preston Car & Coach Co.; type of pilot, steam 
locomotive; type of snow scraper, H. E. P. Comm. design; 
type of headlight, U. S. Incandescent; type of hand brake, 
Peacock. 

General — Weight of body, 40,000 lbs.; weight of trucks 
with wheels and axles only, 20,000 lbs.; weight of electric 
and air-brake equipment, 2,661 lbs.; total weight of car com- 
plete, 62,661 lbs. 

Locomotives 

Body — Length of body, 28 ft.; lengtli over-all, 37 ft. 4 
in.; width over-all, 9 ft. 7'4 in.; height from top of rail to 
top of trolley board, 12 ft. lOJs in.; truck base, 17 ft. G in. 

Truck — Type, G. E., M. C. B.; wheel base. 7 ft. 2 in.; 
diam. of wheel, 36 in.; tread of wheel, 4 11-32 in.; type of 
wheel, solid steel; size of journal, 5J^ x 10; diam. of axle. 



l'"lectrical 
50/ 1500 v.; 



equipment — Mcjtors, type G. K. 251 R 
notors h.p. 250; control system, Type M, 



plate; inside trim of car is solid mahogany inlaid in quarter- 
cut finish; the vestibule is finished in steel with ash trim 
with the exception of the doors and windows, which are 
mahogany. Each vestibule has two drop windows, a 26-in. 
end door, and two 29-in. side swinging doors. 

The interior finish is green, with plush seats of high- 
back design in the main compartment, and pantasote imita- 
tion leather, high-backed seats for the smoking compart- 
ment. Solid bronze metal trimmings are used in the main 
compartments. The toilet rooms are of white sheet steel 
with white enamel and white steel fittings. The exterior 
linish of the car ig black. 

At each end of the car is placed a steam locomotive 
type iron pilot, on the top of which is a steel plate snow 
I)low controlled In- levers from the operating platfijrni. 
Lighting and Heating Circuits for Cars 

The voltage for the lighting and healing circuits is cut 
down from 1,500 to 600 volts d. c. by means of a dynamotor. 
The lighting arrangement consists of five three-cluster semi- 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January 15, I'JIG 



indirect ceiling- fixtures in the main compartment, one light 
in each cluster being in series with the corresponding light 
in the next cluster; also there is a sixth three-cluster semi- 
indirect ceiling light near the toilet room with its three 
lights in series with the two lights in the toilet rooms. The 
haggage room and vestibule lighting consists of two series 
circuits of five lights each, these circuits being controlled 
by two three-way switches, one in the baggage room, the 
nlliev in the vestibule. All lights are controlled from a 




Fig. 7. -Lighting plan'.of passenger cars, 
switchboard in the baggage room. All circuits are 600 
volts d.c. grounded, with five lights in series. 

The car is heated by means of thirty-six electric 
heaters, placed on the walls, two in the vestibule, one in 
each toilet, twenty-eight in the main compartments, and 
four in the baggage room. The heaters are connected in 
two circuits of 18 each in series, and are supplied from tlie 
switchboard in the baggage room. 

Lighting Arrangement in Passenger Cars 

One of the figures shows the complete wiring diagram 
of the passenger cars. The lighting arrangement consists 
of six three-lamp semi-indirect ceiling clusters in the main 
compartments, five lights in the baggage room, four lights 
in the toilet rooms, and three lights in the vestibule. The 
lighting arrangement is to operate five 120-volt lamps in 
series on the 600-volt service. To obtain this number one 
lamp in each of the first five main clusters is connected in 




Fig. 8.— Type of semi-indirect unit used on passenger cars. 

series with the corresponding lamp in the next cluster. This 
makes three complete circuits, but if any one of the circuits 
becomes dead only one lamp in each cluster goes out. The 
three lamps in the sixth cluster arc all in series, together 
with two lights in the toilets. P'or the vestibule and baggage 
room lights a unique scheme has been worked out whfreby 
the motorman may light the vestibule or the baggage room 
at his convenience for the accommodation of passengers en- 



tering or leaving the car. By means of two three-way 
switches, one in the vestibule and the other in the baggage 
room, the motorman can, from whichever end he happens to 
be operating from, turn out the lights in that end without 
interfering with the lights at the other end, and can, during 
stops, illuminate both ends. 

Control System 

The system of control is the non-automatic type M, 
two-speed multiple unit, arranged to operate the motors in 
series and series parallel. The two pairs of motors, with 
their resistances, are all in series on the first point of the 
controller, the resistances being varied through the first nine 
points on the controller and short-circuited on the tenth or 
running point. An electro-pneumatic operated change-over 
switch is used to make the transition between series and 
series parallel. Either pair of motors may be cut out by 
means of a separate handle on this switch. The control 
system is so arranged that at least six motor cars can be 
operated as a unit from either end of any car. 

The Pantograph 

The current collectors are the sliding pantograph type 
of trolley, two pantographs per motor car. These panto- 
graphs are pneumatically raised and automatically low^er 
themselves when the pressure is released. Each panto- 




Fig. 9.— Standard steel polecarrying trolley, leedandsignals>stem wires, 
graph calf be raised or lowered from any operating position 
in either the motor or trailer car. Each is provided with a 
cut-out plug to render it inoperative without interfering with 
the other pantographs. The design of the pantograph is 
practically standard, with the exception that the legs extend 
downward through the common hinge. This construction 
permits of a greater vertical range. 

The Source of Supply 
The supply of electric energj- is taken from the lines of 
the Hydro-electric Pow-er Commission of Ontario at London 
and St. Thomas. At these two points arrangements were 
made for housing the converting equipment in sub-stations 
already built, so that no new sub-stations were required for 
the railway system. In London the equipment was installed 
in one of the sub-stations of the local hydro commission and 
in St. Thomas space was available in the high tension station 
of the Ontario Commission. In each of these two stations 
two 500 kw. rotary converters 13,200 a.c. to 1.500 d.c. were 
installed. Feed wires are 500.000 cm. aluminium. 

The Overhead Line 

The overhead work is carried on triangular steel poles 
which are utilized for the combined purpose of supporting 



January 15, H)tC 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



29 



llie fccil wires, the trollcj' wire and llu- wire's of the dis- 
luitcliing system. A pole drawing with cross-arm and 
showing relative location of the various circuits is shown 
herewith. Specifications of poles are as follows: — Weight, 
800 lbs.; material, galvanized structural steel angles; heiglit, 
35 feet; base, concrete, 7 feet in depth, one foot exposed 
above surface, I'ii.;. 10; cross-arms. 4 in, channel; heielit of 




Fig. 10.— Special design trolley 



■ hange 



cross-arm. 215 ft. above rail; distance apart of poles, 140 to 
ISO ft.; strain test at top of poles, 3,500 lbs. In yards 
wooden poles are used with span wires, the standard spacing 
bein.t; (10 feet. 

Anchoring and Sectionalization 

The details of the overhead are shown for the most part 
in the accompanying line drawings and photographs. The 
line is anchored every three-quarters of a mile by steel poles. 
One of these is placed on the other side of the track opposite 
a standard pole and connected by anchored wire to the next 
adjoining standard pole. 

The trolley and the supply system arc sectionalized 
about every four miles; the sectionalization arrangement is 
as indicated in one of the illustrations herewith. 

Contact System and Type of Suspension 

On all main line work catenary suspension is used. The 
catenary wire is 300,000 cm. copper, and the trolley is 4/0 
grooved. A special design for the trolley wire suspension 



was developed by the C'ommission for this contract. A 
clip with a lip, see ligure, lits into a groove on each side of 
the trolley wire, and is clamped into place and suspended by 
a hanger to the catenary. These suspension clips are placed 
every 30 ft. on the main line. In yards, where the poles are 
most closely spaced, direct suspension is employed as shown. 

Rail Bonding 

Bonds are of 4/0 copper, welded to the outer side of 
the rail heads. The oxy-acetylene process was used. In 
practice, the bonds together with a tank each of oxygen and 
acetylene gas were carried on a light hand car, the whole 
outfit being operated by one man. Both rails are bonded. 

Operating records of such equipment and apparatus are 
interesting, and it might be pointed out that during the last 
live months since this road was placed in operation, interrup- 
tions to service have been negligible. 



Winnipeg Grade Separation 

The figure herewith shows Main Street .urade separation. 
Winnipeg, Man., where the tracks of the Winnipeg Electric 
Railway Company pass under the steam car tracks. This is 
one of a large number of subways necessary for the separa- 
tion of grades in this city which will probaI)ly be proceeded 
with in the not distant future. 

Every intersection of a highway with a railroad has 
erected thereon some device by which the public travelling 
on the highway is protected in a more or less efficient way, 
depending on the nature of that device. These devices or 
constructions vary in their effectiveness from the ordinary 
[•ainted crossboard. which depends for its efficiency on the 
individual's cyesi.ght, to some form of structure by which 
the railroad traffic crosses over or under the highway traffic, 
thereby eliminating any opportunity for an accident. 

On account of the flat nature of the site on which Win- 
nipe.g is built, grade separation is nearly all done by sub- 
ways. All subways built, or to be built, are, or will be, 
such that railroad tracks need be raised only moderately, 
and street depression allowed. 

It is general practice in Winnipeg to place the mainten- 
ance of the structure, retaining walls, and foundations in the 
hands of the railway companies, and for the city to maintain 
the sidewalks, jiavenients. and underground utilities and 
drainage svstcm. 




Main Street .Suhway. Winnipeg. Ma 




THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January 15, I'Jifl 



A budget of comment presented in the interest of public welfare, 
independent of party politics and with malice toward no one. 



Mr. McAvity, manager of the Buffalo Forge Company 
of Berlin, who has been engaged by the Imperial Munitions 
Board to act in an advisory capacity looks to me like the 
right man in the right place. He not only has expert know- 
ledge of the manufacture of shells, but is a man of good 
judgment and wide business experience. He should give 
valuable assistance to the Committee. The latter evidently 
means well and if it were built on a somewhat broader gauge 
could do much to repair the damage done by the Shell 
Committee. Anyway it is deserving of a chance to show 
what it can do. 

Huron county struck a new note in the giving line 
when it refused to make a grant to the recruiting fund. Two 
reasons are given by the county council for its action. The 
first is that the Government should pay the cost of recruit- 
ing. The second is that there are hundreds of men in the 
towns and cities who can be much better spared than those 
who till the soil and raise the food for the men who fight. 
And both reasons have a certain amount of appeal. Recruit- 
ing is just as much government work as clothing and drill- 
ing the men who have been recruited. As for the hired man 
on the farm, he always has been and always will be a scarce 
commodity. His work is so incessant and such a deadly 
routine that even camp life is lively compared to it. It is a 
good guess that if the Canadian army lists were analyzed 
there would be found a greater proportion of "hired men" 
and bank clerks than any other calling. You can't blame 
the farmers of Huron for refusing to further a movement 
calculated to make them do the hired man's work and "the 
chores" as well. In all fairness to the Huron council it 
must be added that it was no spirit of parsimony that prompt- 
ed their protest. They voted $6,000 a month to the Patriotic 
Fund — the largest amount voted by any Ontario county 

council. 

* * * 

"Gott strafe England" is the cry of baffled rage that 
comes out of Germany. And well may the Huns ask God to 
punijih Britain, for after more than a year of war it is more 
than ever evident that the Kaiser can't. Germany, by her 
"preparedness," has been able to brutalize Belgium, seize the 
richest part of France, put the steam roller over poor little 
Servia, and drive the Russians out of Warsaw. But to-day, 
with the possible exception of one or two small posts in 
East Africa, she does not hold one foot of British soil. The 
Empire on which the sun never sets is, by reason of its far- 
flung dominions, the most vulnerable to attack of any of 
the allies. But though Germany tiiay sing her hymn of 
hate she cannot touch even one of Britain's scattered island 
possessions! On the other hand, the blundering Britisher 
has swept German commerce from the seas and seized her 
Pacific islands and most of her African colonies. And in 
the meantime Britain's "contemptible little army" has grown 
to a quite respectable gathering of gentlemen in Khaki num- 
bering in the neighborhood of four millions. Even if our 
politicians and generals do make an occasional blunder it is 
good to be a Britisher. 

* » * 

The Minister of Finance hints at another War Loan of 



$300,000,000. Bring it along, Mr. Minister. The Canadians 
will take care of it provided it is for the benefit of the Em- 
pire. In the words of the song — 

"We didn't want to fight, but by Jingo! now we do 
We've got the men, we've got the guns, and got the 
money too." 

One of our subscribers writes us that it is not the duty 
of trade papers to discuss politics or matters outside of the 
trade. He may be right. It is true that politics and 
politicians put the rules of trade carefully to one side before 
starting to run the biggest business in the country — the 
country's own business. It is true that no business man 
would think of running his business on the lines the coun- 
try's business is run on. He would never think of putting 
a college professor in charge of a department he knew noth- 
ing about simply because he could make a good speech. He 
would never engage his employees for the simple reason 
that they had a pull with certain ward politicians. Con- 
sequently politics may be a trade apart. But the public have 
to pay the mechanics who work at this particular trade. 
Don't you think the said public is entitled to an occasional 
glance at what its workmen are doing? And how is it going 
to get it if some paper not "in the game" doesn't break 
loose occasionally? If a Grit paper criticizes, a Tory paper 
rushes to the rescue, and the issue is soon lost in the cloud 
of recrimination that is raised. So sometimes a trade paper 
stops to wonder why a Government cannot be run along 
honest business lines, and how long you or I would remain in 
business if we treated our customers the way the Government 
treats the public. It is our turn to furnish the public with its 
"look," and if our readers will bear with us yet a little 
longer they will discover that they are gazing on the bod)' 
politic and seeing things, not as they are painted by a Gov- 
ernment organ or the opposition critics, but exactly as they 

are. 

* * * 

When the cry went forth that this was a war of muni- 
tions Australia promptlj' began to mobolize its state-owned 
shops for munitions work. Did Canada do likewise? No; 
Canada — or rather the Canadian Government — promptly side- 
stepped by handing over the Transcona shops to a private 
syndicate which is doubtless doing a nice business at a nice 
profit. Had the Government been big enough to seize an 
opportunity it could have fitted up the Transcona shops with 
shell-making machinery at a cost of about $100,000, hired 
the best mechanics in the country, and turned out at least 
5,000 shells per day. Moreover, it would then have been in 
a position to judge from its own experience just what price 
should be paid for shells. It would have had at first hand 
information which would have ended profiteering before it 
started. But probably the entire cabinet were busy making 
speeches when the opportunity offered. High-explosive 
speeches had to take the place of high-explosive shells. 

* * * 

Britain is said to have black-listed certain United States 
firms suspected of being affiliated with the Empire's enemies. 
And from the way the Kaiser's friends in the republic across 
the way have acted since the war began you would naturally 
expect the old land to be a bit careful as to whom she deals 
with. Canadians should follow suit. We have no quarrel 
with the United States. But within her borders arc large 
numbers of the hyphenated, who are all the more dangerous 
that they are allowed at large among civilized people. Can- 
adians should be careful that no business of any kind should 
be placed with them, either now or after the war. 

The protection of the new industries created by the war 
and its consequent shell orders is to be made the subject of 
a report from the Economic and Development Commission. 



laniKiry \'>. I'.ilC. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



And llial report will require the closest scrutiny when it is 
presented. Even in official Ottawa it is admitted that prices 
obtained by some manufacturers have been sufficiently high 
to permit of the scrapping of their plants when the war is 
over. Of course if these plants can be kept going as 
Inisincss propositions, right and good. But the public will 
liardly stand for their being fed on Government pap. 
They've heard so much about munition profits that they'll 
want to know when the war is over that every Government 
dollar goes to the man who has fought for his country or 
those he has left behind him. He who has stayed home 
and made money will receive scant consideration. 

Sir Robert Borden's New Year's message to the Empire 
carries with it the hearty endorsement of every Canadian 
worthy of the name. There may be dififerences of opinion 
as to whctlier the Dominion can raise half a million troops 
williout resorting to conscription, but all are of one mind as 
regards her intention to try. Everybody is agreed that the 
war is as much our war as it is the Mother Country's; that 
our freedom is involved just as hers is. After more than 
a year of fighting Canadians realize how big is the task that 
has been undertaken. They also realize that the magnitude 
of that task proves more than ever how great was our 
danger. Sir Robert Borden has voiced our unalterable de- 
termination to pursue the war to a victorious finish whether 
it takes half a million or a whole million of our sons and 
the last dollar that we as Canadians can. raise or borrow. 

The report of Sir Alexander Bertram's resignation ap- 
pears to have been grossly exaggerated. Still there are 
those who believe that the noble knight will never find his 
health sufficiently restored to permit of his return to liis 
arduous duties. He has issued two valedictories and re- 
ceived one title. He has explained his position to Sir Sam 
Hughes and the Toronto Globe. He has not laid down the 
burdens and cares of office, but he has gone out from among 
us carrying them with him. It is to be hoped, however, 
that he will be sufficiently recovered to attend the investiga- 
tion into the affairs of the Shell Committee which the pre- 
sent session of Parliament can hardly fail to provide. 



guns, the Montreal Star was one of the first to appeal for 
funds for the good cause. You'll remember the money 
came with a rush. Then one sad day it was announced that 
the machine guns were not needed, or could not be bought 
—or something. Since that time the Star has been busy 
refunding money to all applying subscribers. At the close of 
the j^ear it was obliged to confess that there was still $8,000 
m the bank, all ready for some one to prove property and 
take the animal away. By the way what has happened to 
tlie money the Government received for this purpose? 

* * * 

Is Canada to receive no more shell contracts? This idea 
prevails in certain quarters. Still it was only the other 
day that Lloyd George was appealing to the patriotism of 
Glasgow workmen. And that appeal surely carried a con- 
viction that the Empire needs all the munitions her factories 
can make. Does it all mean that so far as munitions and 
munition contractors go Canada is not looked on as part 
of the Empire but rather as a neutral country? Are our con- 
tractors put in the "cold business" class occupied largely by 
our Yankee cousins? Has Britain refused to forget that 
when men cried from the trenches for shells the Canadian 
manufacturer came forward with a dollar's worth of shell 
m one hand while the other hand was held out for $5.00? 
Are we to give our sons to the Empire by the half-million 
and yet to have a cold, hard, commercial rating that belies 
our loyalty? Is Canada as a wliole to suffer tliat a few may 
become rich? These are questions we are not to ask. The 
answers might harm some of our alleged leaders. And we 
must be loyal to. our leaders rather than to the Empire and 
the freedom the continuance of that Empire assures us. 

* * * 

And now it is claimed that the Allies are placing orders 
in the dominions for forty million dollars worth of lumber. 
Tremendous quantities of it are being destroyed on all 
fronts every day. Norway and Sweden are being swept 
clean and the Allies now have to go further afield for their 
supplies. Add to this the amount necessary to rebuild tlic 
various war zones and you'll be prepared to admit that the 
man who has a timber limit is almost as well off as he who 
rejoices in a shell contract. 



Of the $13,000,000 advanced by the Government to west- 
ern grain growers last spring it is claimed not $1,000,000 
has been repaid, and according to the Winnipeg Telegram 
the farmers are evading payment in the hope that the debt 
will eventually be cancelled. This, coming on top of the 
greatest crop in the history of the West, is not encouraging. 
When the farmer was in need the Government went to his 
aid; now the Government is in need — of every dollar it can 
raise or borrow for the purpose of carrying on the war — 
and the farmer refuses to do his duty. Truly the farmer 
does not appear in a patriotic or grateful light. Of course 
the government is secured, but out of a ripe experience the 
farmer probably figures that a close election might induce a 
certain leniency. Then again there arc stories that shell 
manufacturers are making enough out of their shell con- 
tracts to be able to scrap their plants when the war is over. 
Does the farmer argue that a Government that buys plants 
for contractors should also buy seed for farmers? Maybe 
so. Still, a cry for "free wheat" comes with very poor 
grace from men who in the hour of need got financial aid 
from the Government and now in time of their plenty 
try to evade payment of the money received. And yet if a 
Government will play practical politics with its people it is 
not surprising if said people occasionally give the Govern- 
ment a dose of its own medicine. 
* * * 

When somebody blundered at Ottawa and the patriotic 
public was led to believe that our boys needed niacliinc 



There have been several additions to the select circle of 
Canada's aristocracy during the last week or two. I haven't 
the slightest objection to offer but what with honorary 
colonels, honorary generals, knights, barons, etc., the upper 
tiers of this young country are becoming a bit crowded. 
That chap who said there was plenty of room at the top 
evidently lived before the present war got in its deadly work. 

We 'are informed from Ottawa that the work of the 
Davidson investigating commission is almost finished. To 
criticize that work would probably be considered contempt 
of court and I would hate to be the only one to receive 
punishment at its hands. But I fain would ask a question 
or two. Surely one may venture that far. And my first 
query would naturally be: "In the Hopkins investigation was 
i: Mr. Hopkins or Mr. Acton who was being investigated?" 
.\nd following this would it be unwise or unkindly to ask why 
Mr. Hopkins was not called to the stand? Mr. Hopkins' 
home is in Toronto, but he is taking most of his meals at 
the Biltmore Hotel in New York City. I believe he 
prefers the New York climate and if he does spend 
an occasional Sunday in Toronto it is because his 
family still resides in the Queen City. Of course he 
might have gone to Ottawa as a witness but those attorneys 
have a way of talking to mere witnesses that does not make 
tiicir position in the box an attractive one. 

SEARCHLIGHT. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January l.J, 191 C 



ava LoT?iracior 



A Code of Lighting Applicable to Factories, 
Mills and other work places— Valuable Infor- 
mation for Engineers, Central Stations 
and Electrical Contractors (Con.) 

Section II. Value of Adequate Illumination 

Factory and mill owners are concerned in the niaucr 
of securing the largest output for a given manufacturing 
expense. An improved machine tool capable of increasing 
the product for given labor costs is most attractive, pro- 
vided its first cost is vi'ithin returnable limits out of the 
larger profits. Improved small tools, better methods of 
handling material, adequate crane service, fire protection, 
good shop floors, accurate and efiicient time-keeping 
methods, and similar items, vitally concern the shop man- 
ager; money is expended to realize excellence in these fea- 
tures because they afiford increased economies and protec- 
tion, thus resulting in a liigher efficiency of the plant. 

Energy Consumption a Minor Item. — Many arguments 
leading to the sale of gas and electric lamps for use in fac- 
tory and mill buildings are based on reducing the lamp 
operation cost by substituting a new for an older system. 
Arguments of this kind are of value, however, only when 
such a reduction in operation cost can be effected without 
sacrifice in the adequacy of the illumination. It would be a 
poor policy, in the extreme, to argue a saving in energy 
consumption by the substitution of one type of lamp for 
another on a basis of equal candlepower in both old and 
new systems. 

Effect of Good Light on Production. — Arguments of a 
convincing nature, which insure to the factory or mill man- 
ager an increased output through improved illumination 
service, are of importance and even greater at times than 
reductions in the cost of illumination for the same quanti- 
ties of light. In view of the fact that resulting advantages 
of superior illumination on increased output are apt greatly 
to exceed economies in operation cost as regards the light- 
ing system, it is a distinct advantage to direct and hold the 
attention on the former rather than on the latftr. This 
statement will be more apparent when interpreted into 
definite items as follows: 

Advantages of Good Light. — While the necessity of 
good natural and artificial light is so evident that a list of 
its effects may seem commonplace, these same effects are 
of such great importance in their relation to factory and 
mill management, that they are well worth careful atten- 
tion. The effects of good light, both natural and artificial, 
and of bright and cheerful interior surroundings, include 
the following items: 

1. Reduction of accidents. 

3. Greater accuracy in workmanship. 

3. Increased production for the same laljor cost 

4. Less eye strain. 

5. Promote better working and living condition.-^. 
G. Greater contentment of the workmen. 

7. More order and neatness in the plant. 

8. Supervision of the men made easier. 



In lhi^ ll^t it will be noted lliat item.-. -4. .">. H. 7 and .1 all 
liave a bearing on accident prevention. 

Interpreting the Advantages of Good Light. — W bile the 
major consideration in the eyes of the factory or mill 
(jwner is undoubtedly and quite naturally the money value 
of good light in the larger return of both quantity and 
quality of work which may result from the installation of 
a superior as compared with an inferior lighting system, it 
should be noted that it is very diificult to interpret into 
dollars and cents the value of good light made possible by 
such returns. This difficulty is due to the necessity of 
keeping all conditions in a factory or mill section abso- 
lutely constant while varying the amount of illumination 
from poor to good conditions, in an effort to determine the 
output and its dependency on the lighting facilities. As 
accurate data becomes available, giving the increases it) 
production for certain specific improvements in artificial 



J REGIONOFCOM- THESE 0E5KSRECflVE,,,'f' ] 
'PARITIVE ABSENa ADEQUATE DAYLIGHT,- ' 



IrC^^^^^X 






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a 


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1 



PLAN 

Fig. 1— Large office, window on one side only. 

lighting, it will doubtless prove helpful to a proper inter- 
pretation of adequate light and its worth to any plant. 

The eight foregoing points are emphasized as forming 
the most important features in the problem of good light- 
ing. Although difficult to interpret into monej' values, and 
somewhat intangible, they are indisputable arguments in 
favor of the best available illuminafTon from the standpoint 
of the factory or mill owner. 

Practical Example. — Continuing from the manufacturer's 
point of view, it may be said that certain assumptions as 
to energy cost, cleaning, interest and depreciation, show 
that the annual operation and maintenance cost for the 
illumination of a typical shop bay of 640 sq ft. area, may 
be taken at $50.00 If five workmen are employed in such 
a bay at an average wage of say 25 cents ^jer hour, the 
gross wages of the men in such a bay. plus the cost of 



January 15, iDld 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



33 



superintendence and indirect shop expense, may ecinal 
from $5,000, to $7,000 per annum. In a ca>e oi tliis kind, 
tlierefore, the lighting will cost from 7/10 to 1 per cent, of 
the wages, or the equivalent of less than 4 to 6 minutes per 
day. Wc may roughly say that a poor lighting system will 
cost at least one half this amount (sometimes even more 
through the use of inefficient lamps and a poor arrangement 
of lamps), or the equivalent of say 2 to .3 minutes per day. 
Nearly all factories and mills have at least some artificial 
light, hence, in general, if good light enables a man to do 
Ijetter or more work to the extent of from 2 to 3 minutes 
per day, the installation of good lighting will easily pay for 
the difference between good and bad light, through the 
time saved for the workmen. 

Actual Losses. — Superintendents have stated in actual 
instances, that due to poor light their workmen have lost 
much time, sometimes as much as from one to two hours 
per day or certain days. If good light will add an average 
of say one-half an hour per day to the output, these :!0 



iwing manner 




VTTTT-rrTTTTT: 



Fig. 2— Benches located advantageously with respect to windows 

additional effective minutes represent an increase in output 
of ,'j per cent., brought about through an expenditure equal 
to Yz of 1 per cent, of the wages for improved lighting, or a 
saving equal to ten times the expense. 

Safety. — While these features are of special interest in 
(lie eyes of the manufacturer, the principal item to consider, 
perhaps, from the legislative side of the question, is the 
necessity of an act or acts to provide employees of work- 
shops with proper and sufficient illumination from the stand- 
point of safety. The legal aspect of the safety question in 
its relation to illumination in factory and mill buildings is 
a topic of unusual importance. 

Section III. Old and New Lamps 

The inadequate means available for illumination by arti- 
ficial methods in the past have contributed to the slowness 
of an appreciation of the features of artificial li.ght which 
inlluence the working efficiency of the eye. Open flame gas 
burners, carbon incandescent and arc lamps, practically the 
only illuminants available ten years or so ago, play but a 
small part in the present approved methods of factory and 
mill lighting. 

New Lamps. — The large variety of comparatively new 
lamps available for factory and mill lighting includes the 
mercury vapor, metallized filament, tungsten, gas filled tung- 
stiii, metallic flame or magnetic arc, the flame carbon arc. 
the quartz mercury vapor, and various types of gas arc 
lamps. Remarkable improvements have thus been made in 
both the electric and gas lighting fields, the same general 
rules of applying the lamps covering both of these fields. 
I'ossibilitics in factory and mill lighting are now attainable 
which, before the introduction of these new lamps, were 
cither unthought of or impossible. Consideration of the 
eye as a delicate organ, together with the new ideas of the 
items which affect its comfort and efficiency, have resulted 



in cstablishin.s,' certain principles in illumination work, and 

have directed attention naturally and in a .tjrn 

ti> the piciper use and application of these new lamps. 

Section IV. Effects on Factory and Mill Lighting Pro- 
duced by Modern Lamps 

With tlie introduction of these new gas and electric 
lamps, broader possibilities have been presented in factory 
and mill lighting. The use of units of sizes adapted to the 
IHirposes, allows' results which it has been hitherto impos- 
sible to obtain satisfactorily, either by the arc lamp, carbon 
filament or open flame gas burner, formerly available. 

New Possibilities.— It is evident that the introduction 
of the many new lamps has made possible what may be 
termed a new era in industrial illumination, a distinctive 
feature of which is the scientific installation of the lighting 
units, suiting each to the location and class of work for 
which it is best adapted. Before the availability in recent 
years of medium sized gas and electric units the choice of 
the size of unit for a given location was often no choice at 
all. In many cases, due to small clearance between cranes 
and ceilings, or other conditions making it necessary to 
mount the lamps very high above the floor, but one size 
or type of unit was available, the carbon filament or open 
flame gas burner in the former, and the arc lamp in the 
laller case. 

Low Ceilings.— For low ceilings, up to 18 ft., the use 
eitlier of carbon filament, open flame gas burner, or arc 
lamps resulted usually in anything but uniform light over 
ihe working plane, and often produced merely a low general 
light which was practically useless for the individual ma- 
chine. In such instances, individual lamps had to be placed 
over and close to the machines. With this arrangement, 
relatively small areas are lighted by each lamp, and the 
metal shades usually employed, serve only to accentuate 
tlic "spot lighting" effect. Such a form of illumination for 
factory and mill work is unsatisfactory and ineflicient, but 
as stated, was in the past, in many cases, the only available 
scheme. The absence of lamps of the proper size is no 
longer an excuse for the existence of such conditions in 
industrial plants. 

C.mtinue.i in next issue.) 

Divorce the Inspection Dept. 

In usin.£> their influence to discourage the attempt ol' 
the Simcoe Hydro-electric Commission to carry out their 
advertised intention of installing house, store and factory 
wiring at the bare cost of time and material, the Hydro- 
electric Power Commission of Ontario have taken a course 
which will commend itself favorably to every Ontario citizen 
who has any appreciation of the situation. As in almost 
hundreds of other Ontario municipalities, the success of the 
Hydro scheme in Simcoe depends on the united co-operation 
of its citizens with the local commission. This necessarily 
would have been rendered quite impossible had the local 
committee persisted in its intention of competing with one of 
the legitimate lines of trade, and in so doing, indirectly 
antagonized every member of every branch of the retail 
trade in Simcoe. What is true of Simcoe town is true of 
every other town and municipality throughout the province, 
and we are pleased indeed that this precedent has been 
established, as it will give the electrical contractors the 
assurance that they are free to go ahead and impmve ilie 
conditions surrounding their trade without fear of undue 
interference. As we pointed out in a former issue, the 
reasonable course in Simcoe or any other town is a co- 
operative working agreement between the local commission 
and the local contractors such as, we understand, has now 
been established. The contractors are as necessary to the 



THJ-: ELl'XTRlCyVL N]-:WS 



January l.j, I'Jli; 



cuinmission as the commission is to the contractors, and we 
take it for granted that the precedent established in this town 
indicates the policy that will doubtless be pursued throughout 
the whole province by the Hydro-Electric Power Commission 
of Ontario. 

There is no denying that the Hydro-Electric system of 
this province has been a wonderful success — due in a very 
considerable measure to the ability and unceasinc activity of 
the Hon. Adam Beck and his co-workers- on the Hydro- 
electric Commission. But the part played by the citizens of 
the province must not be overlooked. The success of this 
scheme was impossible without their co-operation, and its 
continued success will be very greatly endangered if any 
considerable part of our population is, for any reason what- 
ever, antagonized. That the support given the Commission 
by the very great majority of the electrical contractors of 
the province has been most hearty there is no reason to 
doubt. The bonds which bind these two elements together 
have undoubtedly been strengthened by the reasonable atti- 
tude assumed in the Simcoe matter by the Ontario Commis- 
sion, and there is every reason to believe that the loyal sup- 
port of the entire electrical contracting fraternity will now be 
more surely and cheerfully given in the future than it ever 
has been in the past. 

The "Hydro" Inspection Department 

There is one phase of this question yet, however, which 
is a thorn in the side of every contractor, every central sta- 
tion, and every municipality engaged in the wiring and in- 
sUillation Inisiness. It is this — the inspection of electrical 
installation work is under the control of the Hydro- Electric 
l^ower Commission of Ontario. Under such a system of in- 
spection friction is inevitable. What would the citizens in 
any municipality say if one of the most prominent hotel- 
keepers were made license inspector for that district? What 
would the citizens of Toronto say if no independent inspec- 
tion were allowed of the great work being carried on in the 
harbor improvement scheme? And what would have hap- 
pened? Why should not the control of the Provincial In- 
spection Department be placed in the hands of a staflf ap- 
pointed by Sir William Mackenzie, for example, who has 
such wide interests in the electrical business in Ontario? 
Yet the very ridiculousness of these suggestions makes an 
answer unnecessary. It is well within the range of possi- 
bility that in every one of these suggestions no harm may 
have come to the public. The work may be carried on 
honestly and efficiently. In certain cases, however, it would 
not be so, and in the cases were honesty and efficiency only 
prevailed the public wovdd not believe it, and even a Gov- 
ernment investigation commission would be unable to con- 
vince them that somewhere or other there had not been 
leaks and poor workmanship and favoritism. 

And that is just how it works out with the Hydro Com- 
mission in control of the Ontario Inspection Department. If 
Sir Adam Beck wants assurance of this fact he has only to 
make inquiry of practically any and every inspector attached 
to the Ontario Hydro Department, of every manager of every 
local system, of every electrical contractor, and of every 
central station throughout the length and breadth of On- 
tario. We have talked with many of these men on the sub- 
ject of inspection, and we have yet to hear one single ap- 
proval of its connection in any way whatever with the 
Hydro Commission. 

Should be Independent 

The management of the electrical inspection depart- 
ment of the province should be as absolutely segregated from 
the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario as it is 
from the Toronto Electric Light Company, the Dominion 
Power and Transmission Company, the London Electric 
Company, and a dozen others which have no voice whatever 



in the framing of the inspection law or its enforcement. The 
principle is wrong. it is not according to British ideals of 
fair play. It is deliberately placing in the hands of one 
party a weapon which he might use to the disadvantage of 
another party who has not any weapon whatever to defend 
liimself with. It is only because, in the multiplicitj' of 
events that have taken place in connection with the in- 
auguration and carrying out of this great Hydro scheme the 
people of Ontario have not yet come to realize the situation 
regarding the organization of the inspection department that 
this condition has been allowed so long to go unchallenged. 
.'Vt the present time, not only is this scheme proving un- 
workable — not only is it the cause of deep resentment on 
the part of competitors of the Hydro Commission — not only 
is it the cause of endless trouble to contractors and inspcc 
tors, who are unable to convince the customers of the un- 
biased attitude of an inspection department which carries 
the name Hydro — but the average man is beginning to size up 
the situation as unreasonable and unfair and unworkable. 

Just as the Commission has shown itself capable and 
willing to anticipate and satisfy the demands of fairplaj' in 
this Simcoe matter, so we think it would not only be a wise, 
but a gracious, course for them to pursue, to divorce their 
inspection department and use their influence to have it 
separated entirely from anything associated with the name 
Hydro and made a separate Government department or a 
sub-department answerable to one of the Ministers. We 
have no reason to doubt that the machinery and the men in 
the inspection department are entirely capable of carrj'ing on 
the work of inspection throughout the province. They do 
need, however, a little more freeedom. This thc\' wovild 
get under another department. What does Sir .Adam i'eck 



Earle Electric, Limited, 72 iVclson Street, Toronto, dis- 
tributed an attractive little Christmas and New Year's card 
to the trade this year. This is an excellent idea for the 
contractor, who is thus enabled to bring his name promin- 
ently before his customers and prospective customers at a 
time when such recollections are likely to be favorable and 
friendly. 



The Railway and Industrial Engineering Company, 
manufacturers of Burke Horn Gap switching and protective 
apparatus and outdoor sub-stations, have moved their sales 
office to the People's Bank Building in Pittsburgh. Mr. L. C. 
Hart, sales manager of the company, has arranged an ex- 
hibit of Burke Horn gap apparatus at their new offices, as 
well as a very complete file of blue-prints, photographs and 
data on the application of outdoor equipment. 



Application will be itiade to the Quebec Legislature bj^ 
the Vercheres, Chambly and Laprairie Tramways Company 
to construct an electric railway on the south shore of the 
St. Lawrence, with the right to enter Montreal. It is pro- 
posed to conduct operations between Saint Roch and Cha- 
teaguay, and from Laprairie to Chambly. with loop lines 
and connection branches to other places in the counties of 
Chateauguay, Laprairie, Chambly, Vercheres and Richelieu, 
and across the St. Lawrence River to Montreal. 



An extension to the plant of the Tallman Brass and 
Metal Company, which will be completed early in the year. 
will add about ten thousand square feet of floor-space to the 
electrical department of this company. The building will 
be equipped with the latest improved machinery, and every 
known facility for the turning out of fixtures and fixture 
parts. The rapid growth in the business of this company 
indicates the progress being made in the illumination field, 
and the increasing appreciation of the close relation between 
illumination and art. 



iiuiarv 15. I'JIG 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



35 



Splicer for Fixture Work 

A new device of interest to electrical contractors has 
just been placed on the market by the Canadian Drill & 
(luick Company. Torouto, and approved by the Inspection 
Department of the Hydro-electric Power Commission of 
Ontario. It is illustrated herewith. This is to facilitate the 



Pl 




Simple device for installing fi.\tures 

making of connections in electric fixture installation and 
similar work, doing away with the old-time solder and tape 
and at the some time effecting a very considerable saving in 
time. The splicer is made of hard ruliber. Its design is 
evident from the accompanying cut. 



A Paint Unaffected by Gases 
Grifiiths Brothers, manufacturers of the well-known Fer- 
rodor rust-proof paint, anti-sulphuric enamel, and similar 
products, recently received an order from the Dritish War 
Office for one thousand gallons of a special paint which has 
been prepared to meet the present difficult and novel con- 
ditions imposed by the war. Tests made with Griffith 
"armour" paint showed that alter a thousand rounds had 
been fired the paint was still in perfect condition. The 
armour paint is also quite unaffected by asphyxiating gases, 
which destroy ordinary paint. It is stated that contracts 
f.jr quantities of this paint are also being closed with the 
principal manufacturers of heavy artillery. Spielniann 
Urothers, Reg'd, Montreal, are Canadian a,L;ents for (jritfiths 
Bros." products. 



Electric Welding 

The Electric Welding ComiKiny of Toronto, Limited, 
has been formed to carry on t'le business of manufacturing 
and repairing by electrical process, welding and otherwise, 
machinery and mechanical apparatus generally. 'Ihe provi- 
sional directors are \V. H. Irving, Henry II. I)a\is and John 
R. Runiball; capital stock $40,000. 



Mr. I-rank V. Vaughan, manager of the \auglian Electric 
Company Limited. St. John, X. B., was elected a member of 
The American Institute of Electrical Engineers at a meeting 
of the board of directors held at Xew York, December 10th. 



Trade Inquiry 

Xame and address of inquirer may be obtained on ap- 
itiim to the Department of Trade and Commerce. Ottawa. 
8. Electric pocket lamps and torches, and also electric 
pipe lighters. — .\ London company seeks supplies of electric 
pocket lamps and torches, and also of electric pipe lighters, 
and wishes to get into touch with Canadian manufacturers in 
a position to supply these specialties. 



Personals 
Mr. F. J. Allen has been appointed manager of the 
I'.enjamin Electric Manufacturing Company of Canada, suc- 
ceeding Mr. George C. Knott, resigned. Mr. .Mien has been 
connected with the Benjamin company for several years, and 
is thus in intimate touch with the various phases of their 
organization. Under his management we anticipate the 
business of this company will be carried on no less vigorously 
than in past years. 

Mr. George C. Knott is leaving the Benjamin Electric 
Manufacturing Company. Toronto, to return to the United 
.States and associate himself with the Wirt Electric Specialty 
Company, Philadelphia. Under Mr. Knott's managemenl 
the Benjamin business in Canada has grown to big propor- 
tions. .\ host of friends on this side of the border wish 
him success in his new undertaking, and hope that the wheel 
of fortune will carry him north again at no very distant 
date. 

Mr. James J. Martindcde, whose name has been so 
closely associated with Tuec Stationary Vacuum Cleaners in 
Ontario, is returning to the United States. The agency for 
Ontario has been purchased by Mr. C. B. Owens, who will 
carry the Tuec line of cleaners in addition to his present line 
of Powers temperature regulators. 

Mr. L. A. Campbell has been appointed Minister of 
Mines in the new Government just slated for the province of 
British Columbia. Though Mr. Campbell is only 4-1 years 
of age, and the youngest man in the new Cabinet, he is re- 
garded as one of the best business men in \\'estcrn Canada. 




Hon. L. A. Campbell. 

lie is probably best known as the general manager of the 
West Kootcnay Power and Light Company, which has had 
a vcr3' satisfactory financial career. He was first elected to 
the Legislature in ]!)12. defeating Mayor Tayhir of \'an- 
couvcr. Mr, Campbell was born in Perth, On I. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 

Current News and Notes 



January 15, 191G 



Abbotsford, B. C. 

The town of Abbotsford, Frascr Valley, B. C, has in- 
stalled a street lighting system, the current being furnished 
by the British Columbia Electric Railway Co. Twenty 
lamps are in use and citizens arc agitating for the number 
to be increased. 

Arthur, Ont. 

Negotiations are proceeding between Mr. Philips, the 
owner of the local lighting plant, and the councils of Grand 
Valley and Arthur, looking to the purchase of Mr. Philips' 
property and its operation as a municipal enterprise in con- 
nection Niagara current. 

Brantford, Ont. 

A by-law was carried' on January 3 authorizing the sale 
of the Gait-Paris portion of the Brantford-to-Galt municipal 
railway to the Lake Erie and Northern Railway Company. 

Calgary, Alta. 

Commissioner A. G. Graves has stated that expenditures 
to the extent of $2,000 will be made in minor equipment for 
the light and power distributing systems. 

Fort William, Ont. 

The Ontario Railway Board recently heard arguments 
between J. C. Murray and the Kaministiquia Power Com- 
pany regarding a supply of power direct by the company 
to Mr. Murray, for his theatre. The company claimed that 
their agreement with the city prohibited them from supply- 
ing power direct, and Mr. Murray sought to enierce the 
supply. The dispute has evidently arisen out of an unsuc- 
cessful attempt by Mr. Murray to coerce the city into giving 
him cheaper rates. 

Fredericton, N. B. 

The Fredericton Electric Company, Limited, lias been 
incorporated to take over the assets and business of the 
Fredericton Gas Light Compaiiy. The new company will 
issue bonds to the extent of .«t30,(l0(). and it is the present in- 
tention to make consider;Uile extensions. 

Gravenhurst, Ont. 

The by-law autliorizin.y extensions tn the lighting sys- 
tem, costing $3, .500. was carried on January 3. 

Haileybury, Ont. 

A by-law was passed at the January 3 elections giving 
the Northern Ontario Light and Power Company a franchise 
in Haileybury, Ont. 

Hamilton, Ont. 

The 'contract for wiring the new hospital has been let 
to Culley & Breay, King Street West. 

Iberville, P. Q. 

By a majority of 14.5, the taxpayers of Iberville, P. Q.. 
have passed a by-law for the sale of their electric plant to 
the Southern Canada Power Company. The latter has 
entered into a 15 year contract to supply electrical energy 
for the public lighting, for operating the waterworks, and 
for private lighting and power purposes. The same com- 
pany is now supplying current for the public lighting of St. 
Hyacinthe, P. Q., and also for the municipal pumping plant. 

Kamloops, B. C. 

Superintendent Wain, in charge of Kamloops' electric 



lighting system, has received authority from the city coun- 
cil to make extensive repairs and additions to the street 

lighting system. 

Kingston, Ont. 

Mr. J. M. Campbell has declined to sign the agreement 
under which he is to supply power to the city of Kingston 
at a J^c rate. Mr. Campbell takes exception to the agree- 
ment on the ground that it is unfair and does not even men- 
tion the minimum amount of power which the city must 
take. 

Medicine Hat, Alta. 

.\ prciminent officer of the Lake of the Woods Milling 
Company is reported to have stated that the power plant of 
the company at this point is already taxed beyond capacity, 
and that additions will have to be made in the immediate 

future. 

Montreal, P. Q. 

Application will be made at the next session of the 
Quebec Legislature to incorporate the Vercheres, Chambly 
and Laprairie Tramways Company, which proposes to con- 
struct an electric railway between Saint Roch and Chateau- 
guay, and from Laprairie to Chambly, with connection 
Ijranches and loop lines to other places in the counties of 
Chateauguay, Laprairie, Chambly, Vercheres and Richelieu, 
and to cross the St. Lawrence River and enter the Cit3' of 
Montreal. 

A cornmittee has been formed by the Royal Securities 
Corporation, Montreal, to oppose the scheme of the Western 
Canada Power Company by which holders of first mortgage 
bonds are asked to convert the next two years' interest 
coupons into preference shares. It is claimed that the 
earnings are sufficient to meet the interest, and with the in- 
stallation of additional machinery there ought to be a sur- 
plus after paying interest on further cash needed to pay off 
the present floating debt and the cost of new machinery. It 
is also contended that the note holders and ordinary share- 
holders should bear the burden of further financing and thai 
they should arrange a plan of re-organization which the 
Royal Securities is prepared to finance if necessary. 

According to a report from New York, the Southern 
Electro-Chemical Company is about to put on to the market 
nitric acid obtained from extracting nitrogen from the air. 
Mr. James B. Duke, who is an official of the company, is 
president of the Quebec Development Company, Limited, 
which has obtained control of water rights in the Lake St. 
John district, and whioh is reported to be contemplating the 
erection of large works there for the production of nitrates. 

Mr. E. Laurie, of the E. Laurie Company, Montreal, 
agents of the DeLaval Steam Turbine Company, is now in 
England, having joined the Aviation Corps there. Mr. 
Laurie received a portion of his training in aviation in Can- 
ada. The agency of the DeLaval Company will be con- 
tinued by the E. Laurie Company in Montreal. 

The Probate Court. Montreal, has presumed the death 
of Captain W. C. Brotherhood, of the firm of Archibald and 
Brotherhood, electrical engineers, Montreal. There was no 
direct evidence of his death at the batttle of Langemarck. 
but the affidavits of two men who were with him in the 
trench, and which were filed with the will, state that after 
he was severely bounded he wrote despatches in the trench, 



January 15, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



UNDERGROUND 
CABLES 

HIGH OR LOW TENSION 

For 

Lighting, Power, Street Railway, 
Telephone or Telegraph Transmission 



ARMOURED CABLES 

for street lighting 

PAPER INSULATED CABLES 

of all descriptions 

RUBBER INSULATED CABLES 

to every specification 

BARE AND WEATHERPROOF 
WIRES AND CABLES 

GALVANIZED IRON WIRE 
AND STRAND 

MAGNET WIRE, FLEXIBLE 
CORD, Etc. 



PHILLIPS' Wires and Cables are made in Canada. 
But \ve do not appeal to the "Made in Canada" senti- 
ment in offering our products, because we feel that 
there is a much better reason why you should buy 
from us, and that is because no firm — in any country — 
is making wires or cables that are superior to ours. 
The reasons for this are : 

1 — Our experience of over a quarter of a century. 

2 — Our careful selection of skilled workmen, many of 
them sons of our older employees. 

3 — Our well-organized chemistry department, which 
closely co-operates with a skilled purchasing agent 
and permits no material, except the very best, to 
enter our works. We use the best of pure new 
lead, the finest of Sea Island yarns and ItaHan 
silks, the highest grades of asbestos, etc. 

4 — Our modern machinery, which includes every 
known mechanical device needed to produce per- 
fect wires and cables of every kind. 

Prices, etc., on request. 



EUGENE F. PHILLIPS 

ELECTRICAL WORKS, LIMITED 

Head Office and Factory MONTREAL 
Branches Toronto Winnipeg Calgary Vancouver 



:!8 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



January 15. lillC, 



and llial lie was afterwards Iniricd ];>' a slicdl wliicli struck 
the iroiieli. 

The Montreal Tramways Company are enlarging the 
present steam plant from 10.000 horse power to 50,000 horse 
power, while the Montreal Public Service Corporation, which 
is allied with the Montreal Tramways Company, propose to 
instal a steam plant in the city witli an ultimate capacity of 
(iO.OOO horse power. The lirst unit will be ol 15,000 horse 
power. 

Nelson, B. C. 

Mr. II. I'. Thomas, city electrical engineer uf Xelsoii, 
has been granted a substantial increase in salary as a re- 
cognition of his splendid work in connection with the I-i,ghl 
and Power Department of the municipally-owned plant. Mr. 
Thomas has also been given full charge of the Xelson street 
railway system. 

New Liskeard, Ont. 

.\ by-law was passed at the January :! elections giving 
the Northern Ontario Light and I'ower Company a franchise 
in New Liskeard, Ont. 

Orillia, Ont. 

r.eginning witli the new year, tlie light and power rates 
of tlie town of Orillia have been readjusted and reductions 
made varying from 10 per cent, upwards. The domestic 
meter rates, which formerly were 8, 4 and 2 cents, have been 
reduced to 7.2, 3.6 and .9 cents — the latter to encourage the 
use of electricity for cooking. At this rate the market for 
electric ranges in Orillia should be very considerable. 

The municipality of the town of Orillia now have 20,300 
lamps connected and 1,524 h.p. in motor load sold. The 
town gets its power from its own plant, situated on the 
Severn River nineteen miles distant, over a 23,000-volt trans- 
mission line, and obtains auxiliary service from the hydro- 
electric plant of the Ontario Commission at Big Chute. This 
latter power is also used for peak and emergency purposes. 
The town of Orillia also supplies the village of Longford 
with light and power, the power amounting to 150 h.p., 
which is. used chiefly hy the .Standard Iron, Chemical and 
Lumber Company. 

Ottawa, Ont. 

The Ottawa Electric Company have found it necessary 
to institute police court proceedings against two citizens of 
Ottawa who are charged with theft of electricity. 

Paris, Ont. 

The town council recently passed a resolution transfer- 
ring their share of the ownership of the water power privil- 
eges on the Nith River to the Paris Wincey Mills Compau}- 
for a payment of $500. 

Sackville, N. B. 

Mr. J. H. Waterman is making an appraisal of the prop- 
erty Ol the Eastern Electric and Development t,'(jnipany. 
Limited, lookin.g to a readjustment of rates. 

Sarnia, Ont. 

.\ by-law was carried on January '.', authorizing a con- 
tract with the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario 
for a supply of Niagara power. 

Sherbrooke, Que. 

The Eastern Townships Telephone Company have .given 
notice of a considerable advance in their telephone rates. 

The City of Sherbrooke, P. Q., is carrying out additions 
to the equipment of the Rock Forest plant for the purpose 
of increasing the power by about 750 horse power. This 
is to meet the very large demand for current for comiiiercial 
purposes. A contract has been let to the Jenckes Machine 



Co. Ltd.. Sherbrooke. for part of the work. The new e<iuip- 
nient includes a water turbine and three 750 k.v.a. water 
cooled transformers. h'urther extensions to the second 
municipal plant, situated within the limits of the city, arc 
under consideration. Mr. M. A. Sammett, of Montreal, is 
the consultin.g engineer. 

Three Rivers, Que. 

The Three Rivers Traction Company |)roposes to seek 
autliority from the Quebec Legislature to run its cars within 
the limits of the \illage of Cap de la Madeleine. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The Hydro Radial Ijy-laws carried in practically every 
municipality between Toronto and London. This author- 
izes the Hydro- Electric Power Commission of Ontario to 
proceed with their fourteen-million-dollar expenditure on a 
trunk line between these two cities, following the course out- 
lined in a recent issue of the Electrical News. For the 
most part the majorities in favor of the by-law were very 
large. 

Estimates prepared by the Toronto Harbor Board for 
their work of the coming summer indicate a proposed outlay 
of $2,700,000. Very fair progress was made during 1015 on 
the reclamation part of the scheme, and work will be re- 
sumed as soon as the spring opens. 

The Bell Telephone Company has opened a new e.x- 
chan.qe. known as Belmont, at Eglinton Avenue. North Tor- 
onto. A new building has been erected for the purpose. 
The Company are making an extension to the Brantford 
E.xchange, and in March will commence the addition of two 
stories to the head exchange in Montreal, necessitating a re- 
arrangement of certain equipment. 

Truro, N. S. 

The Nova Scotia Board of Commissioners of Public 
Utilities, after considering the matter of power rates charged 
by the Chambers Electric Light and Power Company in 
Truro, N. S., have decided that the tariff must be slightly in- 
creased to meet the increased cost of operating. It is esti- 
mated that the deficiency can be met by increasing the pre- 
sent 12 cent rate to 13 cents and the 9 cent rate to 10 cents. 

Vancouver. B. C. 

^\^ II. Eraser, electrical superintendent of the British 
Columbia Electric Railway, delivered an address on "The 
Electric Vehicle and the Central Station" at a recent meeting 
of the Vancouver branch of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers. Various classes of electrically propelled 
vehicles were illustrated by means of slides, together with a 
table giving operating costs under varying conditions. Mr. 
\V. Dalton, of the Mainland Transfer ConlpanJ^ compared 
the cost of upkeep of electric motors — for short hauls only- 
he believed horses were the cheaper. The computations 
made by Mr. Eraser applied to the newest type of electric 
\ehicle. which were easier on power. 

Watford, Ont. 

The Brooke Municipal Telephone Ctnipany arc planning 
to extend their lines into Warwick Township, and will re- 
quire a quantity of general supplies. 

Welland, Ont. 

The new lire alarm S3'stem of tlie town of Welland is 
now in operation. 

Westmount, Que. 

The City of Westmount, P. Q.. has reduced the price of 
domestic lighting from (ic to 5c per kilowatt hour. Eleven 
years a.go. when the municipal lighting department was in- 
augurated, the charge was Ic per kilowatt hour. 



iH-liriuirv 1, I'Jir, 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 




Published Semi-Monthly By 

HUGH G. MACLEAN, LIMITED 

HUGH C. MacLEAN, Winnipeg, President. 

THOMAS S. YOUNG, General Manager. 

W. R. CARR, Ph.D., Editor. 
HEAD OFFICE - 347 Adelaide Street West, TORONTO 

Telephone A. 2700 
MONTREAL - Tel. Main 2299 - Room 119, Board of Trade 
WINNIPEG - Telephone Garr;^ 856 - 302 Travellers' Bldg. 
VANCOUVER - Tel. Seymour 2013 - Hutchison Block 
NEW YORK - Tel. 3108 Beeknian - 1226 Tribune Building 
CHICAGO - Tel. Harrison .5351 - 1413 Gt. Northern Bldg. 
LONDON, ENG. ------ i6 Regent St. S.W. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 
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Authorized by the Postmaster General for Canada, for transmission as 
second class matter. 

Entered as second class matter July 18th, 1914, at the Postoffice at 
Buffalo. N.Y., under the Act of Congress of March 3, 1879. 



Vol. 25 



Toronto, February i, 1916 



No. 3 



After all, is Sir Robert the leader ? 

Do we understand from Sir Robert Borden's attitude 
in the House that he refuses to hold an investigation into 
the charges that have been made in connection with the 
letting of Canadian munition contracts? 

If he knows that the charges are false, would one not 
expect he would jump at the chance of clearing the reputa- 
tion of his friends? What is the inference if he refuses? 

If he persists in sidestepping the issue we believe .Sir 
Robert has missed the chance of a lifetime to show himself 
a really big man. Will he prove to be what men are sayiiTg 
of him to-day. or will he measure up to the standard of his 
opportunities? 

The .\ttorney General seeks to draw a herring across 
the trail in placing responsibility on the British Govern- 
ment. That's not the issue. The Canadian people want to 
know whether the men holding executive positions have 
conducted themselves as becomes appointees of a party 
holding a great public trust, in accord with the honor of 
citizens of our great Empire and in the best interests of 
the efficient conduct of our war. 

The original Shell Committee undoubtedly deserves 
credit for the despatch with which they placed orders among 
manufacturers, who were naturally shy of accepting the 
responsibilities of big and uncertain capital expenditure? 
Rut what conceivable excuse is there for refusing these 
same nianufncturers further orders — even to the extent of 
turning down an ofYer to furnish at cost? 

Before the public press became aware of the e.\i--iling 



conditions, rumors of what was transpiring reached this 
paper, and we felt it was our duty to bring certain matters 
to the attention of our readers. Under the caption "In the 
Public Eye" we have touched upon, possibly, no more than 
ten per cent, of the information that has reached us. much 
of which at the present time is unprintable. It has been 
our endeavor to cover only such points as would further 
the common cause, and interfere as little as possible with 
our national military operations. 

As we expected, even in this we have found the path 
of the pioneer proverbially unpaved. We have the satis- 
faction, however, of having started a protest that is now 
being taken up by the independent press even of the Con- 
servative party, and that is ringing from coast to coast among 
our citizens of influence and power who love honor and 
efficiency more than money or party. We have the satis- 
faction of hundreds of friendly assurances that our course 
has been right, and believe we are backed by thousands more 
who have read and silently approve our stand. 

.Vnd now. let us get along with our share in this big 
war. We have placed ourselves on record, and for the pre- 
sent will let matters rest there. No matter how badly we 
are led. Canada is in it to our last man. our last dollar, and 
to our last shirt. 



Montreal Tramways Extensions 

The directors of tlie Montreal Tramways Couip.my re- 
cently decided to make some considerable additions to its 
steam generating plants in the city of Montreal, and plans 
have been prepared providing for an ultimate capacity at 
the Hochelaga plant of the company of about 60.000 horse- 
power. It has been decided that the company will install 
large sized turbo-generator units, and the first order has been 
placed with the Canadian General Electric Company for 
one Curtis turljine of 12..">no k\v. capacity at 80 per cent, 
power factor, or l.-).i)30 kv.a. This turbine will lie the largest 
machine of its kind in the Dominion of Canada. Orders have 
also been placed with the Babcock & Wilcox Company for 
additional boiler capacity, these boilers being of the steel- 
cased marine type, with superposed economizer, and equip- 
ped with superheaters and chain grate stokers. 

Further plans call for the linking up of the Hochelaga 
power house with all the sub-stations of the Montreal Tram- 
ways Company by means of 12.000 volt, high tension feeders. 
Other elaborate extensions are proposed at the sub-stations 
of the company, the intent being that every effort will be 
made to preclude interruption to the company's power sup- 
ply, which it is now receiving under lease from hydro-electric 
sources and also to make provision for the increased require- 
ments which it is anticipated will develop immediately after 
the close of the war. 

The Montreal Public Service Corporation also contemp- 
late the construction of a large steam plant within the city 
limits, entirely independent of the plant referred to above. 
Plans are now in course of preparation. The plant will be 
equipped with a turbo generator of large capacity. 



Power Plant Costs 

In the industrial world to-day. power is manufactured, 
sold and bought just like any other marketed commodity. 
The cost of production depends on numerous factors — cost 
of fuel, cost of generators, labor cost, amount produced — 
and this cost is the chief criterion on which the market price 
depends. Of interest to the power consumer is { 1 ) what his 
I)Ower costs him. (2) what it should cost. (3) where and why 
the loss has occurred. .\t a meeting (if tlie .American Sociely 
of Mechanical Engineers, in the Engineering Societies Build- 
ing, on Tuesday, January 11, at 8.15 p.m., Mr. Walter N. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 1, 1016 



Polakov, Superintendent of Power of the New York, New 
Haven and Hartford Railway, discussed the question of 
standardization and predetermination of the cost of power. 
He demonstrated a simple method by which the owner of 
a power plant of any kind can, without the necessity of study 
of technical details, determine just how close the cost of 
his own plant is to the possible minimum cost of such a plant 
— in other words, how much more he is paying for power 
than he should pay. Mr. Polakov has spent several years 
in cost standardization work. At one time he was expert 
consulting engineer to the Board of Estimate and Apportion- 
ment of the City of New York. He has been in charge of 
reorganization work and introduction of scientific manage- 
ment in several large industrial plants in this country. 



although the load on the mill motors will vary from several 
thousand horsepower in the opposite direction several times 
a minute. The energy for the auxiliaries, most of which 
are direct current motor drives, is supplied from the two 
1,000 kw. synchronous motor-generator sets. 



Electrical Equipment for a Steel Company 

The addition to the plant of the Inland Steel Company 
at Indiana Harbor. Ind., now in course of erection will in- 
clude all the advantages of electric drive throughout, includ- 
ing the main rolls. It will be practically a complete steel 
plant in itself. The addition will consist of open hearth 
furnaces, blooming and finishing mills. About two years 
a.yi). tlic Inland Steel Company installed electrical apparatus 
in il.-^ plate and sheet mills, the operation of which was so 
successful that when the decision was made to erect a new 
mill, electric drive was the only form of motive power con- 
sidered. Accordingly, a contract was awarded the West- 
inghouse Electric & Mfg. Company for the complete elec- 
trical equipment of the mill including two 5,000 kw. 25-cycle, 
:3.400-volt turbo-generators complete with surface conden- 
sers, exciters, and switchboards; two 1.000 kw. synchronous 
motor-,generator sets; one 15,000 horsepower direct-current 
motor equipment; two 8,000 horsepower motor equipments, 
and several thousand horsepower of auxiliary apparatus. 

This installation will doubtless be watched with con- 
siderable interest by steel plant engineers &nd operators on 
account of the many new and novel features. The con- 
tract |)ractically doubles in value anj' one ever given by a 
steel company for electrical equipment and is exceeded in 
total horsepower, but not in size of units, only by one other 
installation. The 15.000 horsepower direct-current motor 
will be direct connected to a 40-inch reversing blooming mill, 
receiving its power from the generator of a flywheel motor- 
generator set. The direction of rotation of the mill motor 
is obtained by means of voltage control of the generator 
supplying it with current. 

The structural mill consists of one n3-inch reversing 
roughing mill, and one 38-inch finishing mill of three 3-high 
iiiills. Each mill is driven by an 8,000 horsepower (maxi- 
mum) direct connected direct-current motor and the scheme 
of control is the same as given for the blooming mill. One 
flywheel motor-generator set with a generator unit for each 
motor supplies the power for the mills, and by a special 
system of control and design of apparatus, the power taken 
from the line is equalized to practically a constant load with 
variations of not more than 10 per cent, plus or minus 



Letter to the Editor 

Montreal. January «. I'.iHi. 
Editor, 
Electrical News: 

I have always been an admirer of the Canadian Elec- 
trical News, not only for the information contained therein. 
l)ut for its physical appearance. That admiration has been 
.greatly heightened after reading in the last few issues of the 
Journal the articles by "Searchlight." I do not know who 
Searchlight is, but if he is an engineer, he has a facility of 
expression and a commonsensc way of looking at things that 
is altogether admirable, and he seems to have a point of view 
which sliould be that of the engineer — efficiency in public 
service. 

I recently heard of an Ottawa man, not a politician, who 
is very conversant with Government methods, and who made 
the following statement: "The lawyers and politicians in the 
Dominion of Canada are going to get a jolt in the next ten 
years, and it is going to come from the engineers." This 
was before the war. 

When this war is concluded. Canada will be saddled with 
a tremendous debt for railways and other utilities with more 
or less earning power, and with a war debt which will be a 
dead burden upon the community, and government simply 
cannot be carried on under the inefficient direction of lawyer 
politicians, and broad business men and engineers as repre- 
senting the highest efficiency must do the work. 

Articles such as those of "Searchlight" indicate the trend 
of the mind of the engineer away from the technical and 
toward the public service, and the more journals, such as 
yours hammer this question into the technical men, the 
sooner engineers as a body will come into their own. 

In the past, the ^majority of engineers have regarded 
themselves as purely technical men, and rightly so, in many 
cases, these having their place in a corner of the draftin.g 
room with a slide-rule; but, out of this ruck of purely tech- 
nical experts there will arise men with broader ideas who 
will grasp the fact that the machines they have to design and 
operate are those of the civilized community, and when this 
occurs. I believe that the lawyer politician we have is going 
to be even more rapidly discredited than in the past, and 
that commissions and governments will be carried on largely 
under the direction of men with engineering minds. 

My congratulations to "Searchlight" with the expression 
of a hope that in the interest of engineering he may not 
suffer eclipse. 

Yours very truly. 
R. .A. Ross. 



Comparative figures of our three 


chief rail- 


ways for the first two weeks of the present year | 


and the first two weeks of 1915 show 


the follow- 


ing very remarkable increases: — 




1916 


1915 


Can. Pacific Railway $3,737,000 


$2,637,000 


Grand Trunk Railway . . . 1.847,003 


1,533,267 


Can. Northern Railway.. 1,010,400 


665,000 



Beauty in Engineering 

Mr. G. R. G. Cimway. M. Can. 5oc. C. E.. consulting 
engineer. Toronto, and late chief engineer of the British 
Columbia Electric Railwaj' Company, of \'ancouver. de- 
livered an address before the Ottawa branch of the Can- 
adian Society of Civil Engineers on Fridaj' evening. January 
31. Mr. Conway's subject was "The Engineer and Standards 
of Beauty." in which he urges a freer co-operation between 
engineers and architects in the desi.gn of engineering struc- 
tures, particularly in great public works such as bridges, 
railway terminals, dams, aqueducts, power houses, highways, 
etc. The paper was fully illustrated with lantern slides 
giving examples of engineering structures where this co- 
operation had been attempted. 



FehriKiry 1, I'.MC. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Electrical Developments During 1915 

Outstanding features are increase in size of generating units, higher voltages in 
railway work and big reductions in cost of Ontario current 



The year just closed, in a wave of returning prosperity 
along industrial lines, has seen the electrical industry more 
than keeping apace with the times. It is safe to say that 
never before in the history of the industry have the people 
had brought before them, as has been done in the past year, 
in a more convincing and attractive manner, the manifold 
uses of electricity. No startling innovations have been made 
in the electrical field unless it may be the reported vironder- 
ful advances of wireless telephony resulting in the hearing 
of the human voice 5,000 miles distant without the aid of 
wires, and the almost equally wonderful feat of telephone 
conversation by wire across the continent. However, pro- 
gress in the way of further refinements has been made along 
various lines in a systematic manner, the principal of which 
arc detailed below. 

Steam Turbo-Generators 

I'robably the most striking feature of the year is the 
tendency to gradually increase the size of steam turbirte 
driven generators. This is a logical steady growth caused by 
the rapidly increasing use of electricity in the home, factory, 
office and farm, as well as to the growth of population in 
large centres. Also the reduction in the rates secured through 
improved economies in generating and transmitting devices, 
has resulted in increased load, thus making still larger gen- 
erating units possible. 

Last year the installation of a 30,000-kv.a. turbo-generat- 
or in New York was reported; a few weeks ago a contract 
was awarded for a 35,000-kv.a. unit for the Commonwealth 
Edison Co., Chicago; and, still more recently, the Duqueane 
Light Company of Pittsburgh have awarded a contract for 
a 40,000-kv.a. unit. It is said that units as large as 50,000 
and even 60,000 kv.a. are contemplated. 

Due largely to the wonderful development in the steam 
turbine and its direct connected electric generator, and the 
remarkably flexible, efficient and easy distribution of elec- 
tricity we are possibly on the eve of a notable change in the 
manufacture and utilization of electric power. The modern 
steam turbo-generator makes it possible to concentrate en- 
ormous amounts of power generation in one place, and this 
makes possible and advantageous very large individual gen- 
erating units. The growth in die capacity of generators has 
really been enormous, made possible by the steam turbine. 

Water Turbo-Generators 

Alternators have recently been installed of 30,000 kw. 
capacity, and in the contemplated development at Niagara 
Falls 50,000 kw. watcrwheel-driven units arc proposed, and 
tlie electrical companies state their entire willingness to 
develop and manufacture such machines. In fact, in the 
next few years, a machine of double this size is said to be not 
beyond the bounds of possibilitj'. 

Rotary Converters 

Small size GO-cycle rotary converters, bulh for industrial 
and railway service, have been designed, using commutating 
poles and bracket type bearings instead of the usual pedestal 
type bearings. 

Larger motor-generators liavc been built of considerably 
higher s|)eed than formerly used, which has been possible 
by compensating the generators. This is a generator design 
feature (hat previously has not been used to any great extent, 
but whicli is now coming into favor primarily on account 



of its use, making it possible to produce a better machine 
at a higher speed. 

Switchboard, Etc. 

A change from asbestos-covered Underwriters' wire to 
rubber-insulated instrument and control wiring has resulted 
in certain changes and marked improvements in switch- 
board wiring details, particularly as affects standard boards 
of large dimensions, towards increased simplicity and effi- 
ciency. Another development of considerable interest is the 
increasing use of metering and switching equipments for out- 
door service in connection with other outdoor equipments, 
such as transformers, lightning arresters, etc. By combining 
series tripping self-contained inverse time element oil circuit- 
breakers with necessary integrating, and, where required, in- 
dicating meters, in one weather-proof box, complete low 
tension control is available and with it the elimination of 
the charge involved in a complete building for this equip- 
ment. These equipments are available for either ground, 
pole, tower or wall mounting. They are furnished with all 
internal connections complete so that installation simply pre- 
sents the problem of connecting into the power lines, placing 
oil in the circuit breaker tank, and mounting the meter on 
its panel. 

Protective Apparatus 

In static protective apparatus, a new electrolyte has 
been developed for the electrolytic form of arrester. This 
electrolyte maintains the arrester in operating conditions 
under temperatures as high as 135 degs. F.; it maintains the 
film at a higher critical voltage, and provides increased dis- 
charge capacity. 

Circuit- Breakers 

A new line of small and medium size oil circuit-breakers 
has been put on the market. This line is very extensive, in- 
cluding switchboard mounted, wall mounted and pipe mount- 
ed, remote control hand operated and remote control elec- 
trically operated; weatherproof and subway forms. Capa- 
cities are obtained in individual breakers up to 800 amperes 
by connecting all contacts of a multiple breaker in multiple; 
for use as a single pole, capacities up to 3,000 amperes are 
obtained. The voltages run as high as 13,300. The imique 
and most important feature of these breakers is the finger 
contacts, which represent a great advancement. The fingers, 
flexible in all directions, are separated by a stop and pro- 
tected from all arcing by separate butt type arcing tips. 

Oil breakers have been developed to meet the demand 
for a high voltage breaker of moderate breaking capacity 
and price. They are supplied for voltages from 35,000 up 
to 70,000, and in breaking capacities of about 20,000 to 
30,000 kv.a. The tanks are of the floor mounting elliptical 
form, but may also be mounted on parallel pipe framework, 
so as to allow the tanks to be removed for inspection of con- 
tacts. The terminals arc of the condenser type, which have 
proven so satisfactory in the higher voltage breakers. 

Street Lighting 

During the last year great strides have been made in 
the matter of street lighting. The nitrogen-filled lamp has 
been greatly improved by increasing its efficiency and length 
of life, and has practically displaced all other means of street 
lighting. It is not only more efficient and less costly than 
other sources of high intensity illumination, but also lends 



•THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Feliniarv 1. I'lHl 



itself to a neat appearing fixture, appealing largely lo the 
aesthetic tastes of the general public. 

The increasing popularity of the incandescent sysloni, 
due to the use of high efficiency Mazda C. lamps, has result- 
ed in improvement and development of apparatus used in 
connection therewith. Briefly, these improvements and de- 
velopments are as follows: a new line of 60-cycle constant 
current regulators has been placed on the market; these 
regulators embody many improvements over the superseded 
type and have been designed with a view to the close regula- 
tion necessary to the satisfactory operation of a series m- 
candescent system. A stationary coil contact current trans- 
former has also been placed on the market; this transformer 
has been designed for controlling certain classes of series 
street lighting when it is desirable to mount the transformer 
out on a pole and operate it from a time switch. As this 
transformer has no moving parts, it is well adapted to fill 
this condition. In operating the high efficiency Mazda lamps, 
it will allow a smaller variation between full load and short 
circuit tliaii any other device on tlie market except the mov- 
ing coil constant current regulator. It is available in capa- 
cities of from t to 10 kw. and for any primary voltage below 
a,300 volts, and any secondary below 7.5 amperes, 25 to 60 
cycles. 

The high efficiency of the 15 and 20-amp. Mazda series 
lamps has made them particularly popular for street illum- 
ination. To operate them from standard G.G or 7.5 amp. con- 
stant current series circuit individual auto-transformers have 
been employed. Recently, however, due to a number of 
inherent advantages, there has been a considerable demand 
for a small series transformer to operate a single lamp 
by stepping up the line current to the higher current re- 
<|uired by the lamp. Accordingly, there has been developed 
an individual series transformer which can also be made to 
operate a number of small units, insulating them from rhc 
high voltage series circuit. 

Among the advantages of this individual series trans- 
former for ornamental street lighting may be mentioned that, 
as they insulate the pole and lamp from the high tension 
circuit, the use of series lamps is permitted in municipalities 
where ordinances are in force which prohibit high tension 
wires being carried on poles in the business district. They 
save the expense of high-voltage conductors, heavy insula- 
tion and high tension absolute cutouts in the pole. On ac- 
count of the low secondary voltage of these transformers 
the lamps are as safe to handle as if they were on a multiple 
circuit. No film cutout is required as each lamp is inde- 
pendent of the others in the circuit; in case of an accident 
to one or more, the remainder of the lamps on the circuit 
burn without interruption. 

Elevators 
During the last twelve months a gearless traction ele- 
vator equipment, which is specially designed for high-speed 
passenger service has been developed. The equipment con- 
sists of a full automatic, magnetic controller and a slow 
_speed direct current motor, on the shaft of which is mounted 
the sheave for driving the elevator. All gearing is eliminated. 

Coal Mine Service 

It is interesting to note the favorable impression created 
Ijy the new commutating-pole rotary converter in coal-min- 
ing. The chief trouble in mining work has been commuta- 
tion, because the mining load varies anywhere from ten per 
cent, full load to one hundred per cent, overload in a very 
short space of time. In the old machines it was necessary 
to shift the brushes to prevent sparkin,g and damage to the 
commutator. Realizing these conditions, this new si)ecial 
rotary C( inverter was developed. 

For use in mining where the gathering reel miu'; loco- 
motive is not especially adapted, a combination trolley and 
storage battery gathering reel locomotive has been used. 



which has the advantage of being able to operate on trolley 
when this is available, and then obtain energy from the 
storage battery in the mines and other places where trolley 
construction is not available. The particular advantage of 
this locomotive is that it can continue to pull cars to and 
from the rooms if for any reason the trolley voltage fails 
and can always be operated independent of the trolley volt- 
age. 

Motors 
There has been a development in the steel industry dur- 
ing the past six months, and in the majority of cases the 
mills added are driven by motors instead of steam engine. 
Among the list of drives supplied are several important 
items, including in particular, several equipments for revers- 
ing blooming mills, two 12.000 horsepower units, being the 
largest electric motor-driven steel mills in the world. The 
efficiency and many incidental advantages offered by motor 
drive have gained much prominence for it in the steel in- 
dustry, and it is now adopted as a rule, rather than the ex- 
ception. Undoubtedly in tin- near future there will be a 
very large increase in the amount of horsepower installed 
in steel mills for large roll drives. The Bethlehem Steel 
Company are at present installing in their works a 1.500 
horsepower alternating-current motor which will have un- 
usual characteristics in that it has a special type of control, 
making the motor adjustable speed, independent of load, 
through about 80 per cent, speed reduction range. The 
equipment is so arranged that the driving unit will deliver 
constant horsepower to the rolls through this wide speed 
range. The efficiencies of the equipment will be very much 
on a par with a direct current motor using field control, and 
is quite in contrast with the older methods of obtaining 
speed regulation with wound rotor alternatin.g current mo- 
tors where resistance is inserted in the secondary circuit of 
the motor. 

In the field of small motors there has been a general 
increase in the use of motors for household, office and shop 
devices. This holds true particularly in the following spe- 
cialized industries: small motors for use in garages and 
automobile service stations, small ventilating units, motor 
equipment for moving picture shows. The motor-driven 
washing machine and vacuum cleaner continue to be the 
most popular small motor-driven devices. 

In the battery charging field, there have been develop- 
ments in motor-generator and switchboard equipment for 
large battery charging stations, and also particularly small 
motor-generator sets for charging, lighting, starting and igni- 
tion batteries used on gasoline cars. 

Railways 

The demand for Hydro-Radials in the Province of On- 
tario has been very insistent, as will be seen by the support 
given the project at the recent elections. They will open 
up immense possibilities for the development of Ontario, 
although the full extent of the economic benefits to be de- 
rived from the building of these roads cannot altogether 
be foreseen. There is, however, little doubt that they will 
be of great benefit. 

The greatest step yet taken in steam railroad electrifica- 
tion is the work being done by the Chicago. Milw?iukee & 
St. Paul Railroad in electrifying four complete engine divi- 
sions of 440 route miles through the mountains from Har- 
lowton. Montana, to Avery. Idaho. These engine divisions 
include the heaviest .grades on the sj'stem. The electrical 
equipment includes thirty locomotives geared for freight 
service and twelve locomotives geared for passenger ser- 
vice, all wei.uliin.L; :.'Sr) tmis each, exclusive of steam heating 
and lighting etiuipnunt. The locoiiKitives are also equipped 
for regeneailive control in descending grades. 

There are fourteen sub-stations spaced approximately 
32 miles apart, containing 32 motor-generator sets, aggregat- 



February 1, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



21 



ing 59,o00 kw. capacity, with transformers, switchboards and 
accessories. The selection of 3,000 volts d.c. was based on 
the eminently successful operation of The Butte, Anaconda 
and Pacific Railway at 2400 volts d.c. This latter road l)e- 
gan electrical operation in 1913 and the comparative figures 
indicate an annual saving in operating cost of 30 per cent, on 
the initial investment by the substitution of electric for steam 
haulage. 

The Micliigan Railway between Kalamazoo and Grand 
Rapids is the only road in the world to take power from a 
3400 volt third rail, and is also unique in that 1200 v(dt 
synchronous converters connected two in series are used in 
the sub-stations. 

In Canada we are rapidly advancing in the use of high 
voltage d.c. The Montreal Tunnel &; Terminal electrifica- 
tion is progressing with 2400 volt d.c. supply for both loco- 
motives and passenger coaches, The locomotives are being 
built complete here. The London & Port Stanley Railway 
was opened in July and operates locomotives and passenger 
coaches on l.'JOO volt d.c. The Lake Erie & Northern Rail- 
way is also operating on 1500 volts d.c. and in addition has 
tlie first 1500 volt portable sub-station in operation in Canada. 
Tlie Toronto Suburban Railway is also electrifying with 
1500 volts d.c. Sub-stations are now being equipped and 
cars built. The 1000 kw. rotary converters with automatic 
booster control and three-wire features for the Toronto 
Hydro Electric System, are an entirely new development 
and the first of their kind ever built. 

One Man Cars 

A noteworthy development of the year was the intro- 
duction of one-man operated cars in a great many .\mericau 
and a few Canadian cities. The jitney service which attained 
such popular prominence during the summer of 1915 has 
declined almost as rapidly as it developed, and in some cities 
has entirely disappeared. Short and spasmodic as it was, 
however, it has served in many cases as a means of urging 
railway companies toward greater economies and efficiencies, 
enabling tliem to provide better and more continuous accom- 
modation for the travelling public. In order to successfully 
meet the jitney competition one of the developments has 
been the use of one-man cars as the means of reducin,^ 
maintenance cost due to the extra service demanded, and 
the development of an extremely ' light-weight and inex- 
pensive, yet reliable, motor with the rating of l"'/2 h.p. and 
,'J4 h.p. These motors weigh approximately 850 lbs. 

Sub-stations 

Among the general advances noted is tlic increasing use 
of outdoor or semi-outdoor types of sub-stations. The 
marked development in the size of oil insulated, self-cooled 
transformers has no doubt largely contributed to their in- 
troduction, due to tiie elimination of cooling water troubles. 
Along these lines we might also mention the fact that the 
use of automatic sub-stations in connection with electric 
railways has been advocated, and in at least one instance 
has been successfully used. 

Transformers 

There has been very little done in the way of hydro- 
electric development or other large single developments 
which would call for any marked increase in either voltage 
or size of transformer over the preceding year. 5,000 kv.a. 
O.l.S.C. radiator type transformers have been installed and 
are operating successfully. Several orders for large O.l.S.C. 
radiator type transformers have been received and the trans- 
formers put into operation, and considerable activity along 
Ibis line is anticipated in tlic future. 

In America all large high-tension transformers have up 
to the present time been of the shell type, although in 
Europe the core type has been used extensively. During 
tlie last year the manufacturing companies have developed 



the core type in larger sizes, which advance should be wel- 
comed by the operating companies, since the core type has 
some distinct advantages. The use of the large electric 
furnace in Canada has developed a new field for transform- 
ers, especially designed for this purpose, with very high re- 
actance values. The electric furnace in its various applica- 
tions oiTers, in fact, a very large field for development in 
Canada. 

Abating the Smoke Nuisance 

During the year interest has been aroused in the matter 
of electrical precipitation of smoke, dust and fumes in vari- 
ous industrial operations, such as smelting. This application 
calls for transformers of small capacity and high voltage in 
the neighborhood of 100,000 to 150,000 volts or higher, and 
capacities from 5 to 75 kv.a. This has required the develop- 
ment of small high voltage transformers at a reasonable 
cost. Quite a number of such transformers have been built 
and put in service. 

Meters 

Minor improvements have been made in small apparatus 
and meters, and the use of electricity for domestic appli- 
ances has greatly increased; this was considerably augmented 
by the "Electrical Prosperity" Campaign. 

Increased Use of Electrical Appliances 

Due to keen competition, the increased efficiency in gen- 
erating and transmitting devices by which power can be gen- 
erated and transmitted long distances in large or small 
quantities, its characteristics changed at will with small 
losses and at comparatively small cost, the reduction in the 
price of power in the province of Ontario has been so great 
that certain of the rates are now the lowest on the con- 
tinent. This schedule of new rates afifords some municipali- 
ties a final household rate of one cent per kw.h., with ten 
per cent, discount, that brings the cost down to .9 cents. 
These rates are particularly attractive to householders who 
use electrical appliances rather freely, and especially so to 
those who cook with electricity, so that as far as cost is 
concerned, electric cooking is well within the range of all 
municipalities affected by the reduced rates. In Ontario 
during the last year the increased use of heating and cook- 
ing appliances has been very noticeable, due partly to the 
increased efficiency, utility, and the appreciation of the merits 
by the public of such apparatus, but largely also to the 
reduced price of power mentioned above. 

The number of towns in Ontario desiring hydro-electric 
service has been steadily increasing. During the past year 
the number of municipalities supplied increased from 66 iii 
December, 1914, to 104 in December, 1915. and during the 
coming year the nunilier is expected to increase to 160. 

New High-Efficiency Incandescent Lamp 
In incandescent lamps the year has seen the development 
of an entirely new high-efficiency incandescent lamp with the 
characteristics of the ordinary incandescent lamp, but hav- 
ing as a source of light an arc with electrodes of tungsten 
or other refractory conductor, burning in an inert gas such 
as nitrogen or argon. Working on the principle that the 
filament of an incandescent lamp gives off a strong negative 
discharge, this lamp was designed with an additional elec- 
trode seated adjacent to the filament, and charged from a 
positive potential. This sets up a current between the fila- 
ment and the electrode and acts as an ionising agent on 
the arc gap, making it conducting. This ionising circuit is 
connected in parallel with the arc, through a single pole 
switch and resistance. To put the lamp in operation the 
ionising circuit is completed for a few seconds and then 
broken by means of the switch; the result is a momentary 
arc between one of the electrodes and the filament, followed 
by an arc between both electrodes. .'\s a result of con- 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 1, 1916 



tiiuicd experiments a satisfactory filament haviiiK powerful 
ionisation properties has been evolved. 

The parts of the lamp are concealed in an ordinary in- 
candescent lamp bulb, which, after being exhausted of air, 
is filled with nitrogen at a pressure of approximately two- 
thirds of an atmosphere. As compared with the carbon-arc 
lamp the new lamp is very simple, no regulating mechanism 



is necessary, and there is therefore a saving in the cost of 
production. The loss of light caused by the obstruction of 
the electrodes is ^mall compared with that in the carbon 
lamp, and there is no trouble from flickering or arc wander- 
ing. Moreover, as the arc is completely enclosed, there is 
no danger from fire, no recarboning is required, and the 
lamp needs no attention while in use. 



High Efficiency Incandescent Lamp 

New type of incandescent lamp, with characteristics of ordinary lamp, but having as a 
source of light an arc, burning in an inert gas between tungsten electrodes 



A new type of high efficiency incandescent electric lamp 
is described in a paper presented to the Institution of Elec- 
trical Engineers by Messrs. E. A. Gimingham and S. R. Mil- 
lard. In 1913 experiments were started in the lamp research 
laboratory of the Edison and Swan United Electric Light 
Company with a view to making a lamp having the usual 
characteristics of the ordinary incandescent lamp, but hav- 
ing as the source of light an arc having electrodes of tung- 
sten or other refractory conductor burning in an inert gas 



approximately, two-thirds of an atmosphere. When con- 
nected to a continuous-current circuit through a resistance 
the current passing through the coil A produced sufficient 
heat to cause the expansion strip B to warp, thus separat- 
ing the electrodes E E' and striking an arc between them. 
The temperature of the heating coil then dropped to a very 
dull red heat, due to the resistance introduced by the arc 
itself. The heat from the arc was more than sufficient to 
keep the expansion strip hard against the stop F, and thus 




-^^c-AA/WyW--;: 




Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



such as nitrogen or argon. The first lamps constructed were 
made with the electrodes in contact, one being connected 
to an >;xpansion strip of copper or other material having 
about the same coefficient of expansion. A spiral filament of 
tungsten, or molybdenum, was mounted close to the strip and 
connected in series with the arc circuit. To prevent the 
strip moving too far and the arc breaking, a thick wire was 
sealed into the glass support, this wire acting as a stop 
and maintaining the correct gap. For alternating current 
lamps the electrodes were constructed of fused tungsten, 
and were of equal size. In the case of one of the continu- 
ous-current lamps the positive electrode was made of a glob- 
ule of fused tungsten and the negative electrode consisted 
of a number of tungsten wires or filaments mounted in the 
form of a brush. 

The parts were assembled as shown in Fig. 1, anc' sealed 
in an ordinary incandescent lamp bulb, which, after being 
exhausted of air, was filled with nitrogen at a pressure of. 



Fig. 3. 

to maintain the requisite length of gap. The arc burned 
steadily, and the electrodes emitted an intense white heat. 
But the lamp was unsatisfactory. One trouble was that the 
electrodes tended to stick together, with the result that the 
expansion strip failed to separate them. Moreover, a con- 
siderable amount of sputtering took place, thus shortening 
the length of the lamp's life. Ultimately, however, a lamp 
was developed which had a life of over 100 hours. 

An Additional Electrode 

Later the problem was attacked in a totally diflferent 
way. It is well known from experiments made by Sir J. J. 
Thomson. Dr. Fleming, and others that the filament in an 
incandescent lamp gives oflf a strong negative discharge, and 
if an additional electrode seated adjacent to the filament be 
charged to a positive potential a current passes between the 
filament and this electrode. This principle was applied in 
developing the new lamp. The first attempts were made 



February ], I'.iKi 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



with a view to constructing an alternating-current lamp, con- 
sisting of two small globules of tungsten fixed a definite 
distance apart. In order to break down the resistance within 
the arc gap a filament was mounted adjacent to the electrode, 
this filament, when made to glow brightly for a few seconds, 
acting as an ionising agent, thus making the arc gap con- 
ducting. This ionising circuit was connected in parallel with 
the arc through a single pole switch and resistance. To put 
the lamp into operation the ionising circuit was completed 
for a few seconds, and then broken by means of the switch, 
the result being that an arc was momentarily struck between 
one of the electrodes and the filament, this being followed 
by an arc between both electrodes, the filament acting as the 
ioniser being then entirely cut out of the circuit. This lamp 
proved to be a great improvement upon the previous one. 
Attempts were then made to construct a lamp for continuous- 
current circuits. 

At first the construction was similar to that of the alter- 
nating current lamp, with the exception that the negative 
electrode was smaller. To put the lamp into operation the 
filament acting as the ioniser was brought to a high state 
of incandescence and then cut out of circuit by means of a 
switch in the positive lead. Difficulties, however, were ex- 
perienced in inducing the arc to leave the tungsten filament 
ioniser and pass to the negative electrode. This trouble, it 
seems, was due to the difficulty of bringing the negative 
electrode to a temperature high enough, to form an arc. In 
the alternating-current arc the electrode which momentarily 
formed the arc with the ioniser helped to form the arc pro- 
per, but with the continuous-current lamp the arc persisted 
in passing between the positive electrode and the ioniser. 
Later negative electrodes were made which the arc would 
strike, but it was considered necessary to provide thoroughly 
for the protection of the ioniser. It is well known that sev- 
eral refractory oxides possess to a very high degree the 
jiroperty of emitting electrons, and experiments were there- 
fore made with mixtures and combinations of tungsten with 
zirconia, yttria and other oxides of the refractory class. 

Evolution of a Satisfactory Filament 
As a result of continued experiments a satisfactory fila- 
ment having powerful ionisation properties was evolved. 
it was found that if filaments were carefully made they were 
not destroyed by the action of the arc, and that they lasted 
considerably longer than a filament of pure tungsten, this 
being, no doul)t, due to the difference in the physical state 
of the two filaments. Difticulties, however, still remained. 
'I"he action of the arc naturally destroyed, after a time, the 
ionising properties, and in some cases difficulties have been 
experienced in re-striking after the lamp lias been in use 
for 200 hours. This deterioration of the ionising properties 
of the filament, however, was only local, being merely around 
a short length directlj' opposite the anode. To overcome this 
a short length of expansion strip similar to that used in 
the lamp shown in Fig. 1 was linked between the anode and 
stem lead. A lamp constructed in this manner is shown in 
Fig. 2, which is a lamp suitable for working with continuous 
current. 'J'hrce leads, it will be noticed, pass through the 
lamp stem. On one is mounted the electrode E, wdiile the 
other two hold the filament acting as an ioniser B B'. The 
positive main lead is divided into two circuits, one of which, 
A, i)asscs through a resistance, and the contacts of the elec- 
tro-magnetic switch C to one pole of the ioniser B, the other 
being taken through a resistance, and the coil on the electro- 
magnetic switch to the positive electrode of the arc circuit 
li. The negative main load is connected to the remaining 
ioniser lead B'. When the lamp is in operation the current 
lirst passes through the ioniser circuit, causing the filament 
to incandesce at a temperature sufficient to ionise the gas 
between it and the i)ositive electrode E. At first a small cur- 



rent flows in the arc circuit, this current rapidly increasing 
until the cut-out is operated. This breaks the ioniser cir- 
cuit until the arc is struck, the striking being assisted by the 
removal of the ioniser circuit which previously shunted the 
arc circuit. The heat rising from the arc causes the expansion 
F to warp, and this moves the arc to another position on tlie 
ioniser. 

Source of Light 

On switching off the current the electrode returns to 
the original position, having left the inactive part and coming 
to rest opposite the still active portion ot the ioniser. By 
this means the lamp may be restarted at any period of its 
life without difficulty. In this lamp practically the w^hole of 
the intense white heat emanates from a small globule of 
fused tungsten 1/lO-in. in diameter. Any size or shape of 
electrode may be made, the construction of the higher candle- 
power lamps being as shown in Fig. 3. Here the expansion 
strip is disRensed with, for with a powerful arc there is a 
great tendency for the arc to pass across the shortest gap. 
In this case, after striking from the filament to the edge of 
the electrode the arc rises to the thickened portion immedi- 
ately opposite. As compared with the carbon arc lamp the 
new^ lamp is very simple. No regulating mechanism is nec-es- 




40 50 60 70 80 so loo uo I20 130 I40 150 

Rercentage of normal current 

Fig. 4. 

sary, and there is, therefore, a saving in the cost of produc- 
tion. The loss of light caused by the obstruction of the elec- 
trodes is small compared with that in the carbon lamp, and 
there is no trouble from flickering or arc wandering. More- 
over, as the arc is completely enclosed, there is no danger 
from fire. No re-carboning is required, and the lamp needs 
no attention while it is in use. 

The curve A, Fig. 4, shows the percentage variation of 
pressure with current, and it will be seen that the curve is. 
similar to that of an ordinary arc, though it indicates that 
the stability is greater. The pressure across the arc steadily 
decreases with an increase of current, and if continued until 
the sputtering point is reached the pressure suddenly drops. 
.\ representative efficiency curve is shown at B, which shows 
the efficiency for the normal working current to be 0..'> watt 
per international candle-power, or two candle-power per 
watt. The current may be increased until the tungsten 
reaches the sputtering point, at which the efficiency is .:{ 
watt per candle-power, or 3..'J3 candle-power per watt. Curve 
C, in Fig. 4, shows the variation of candle-power with cur- 
rent. — -Engineer. 



Do Not Constitute a Hazard 

The city of Woodstock recently applied to the Dominion 
Railway Commission for an order to force the G. N. W. 
Telegraph Company to place their wires underground in 
that city. The Commission has replied that they have no 
power to make such an order unless it can be shown that 
the present conditions create a fire or life hazard. The argu- 
ment of an aesthetic betterment is not sufficient. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 1, 1916 




A budget of comment presented in the interest of public welfare, 
independent of party politics and with malice toward no one. 



The real test of sacrifice is now at hand. It comes not 
in the call for half a million men, but in the answering of 
that call. It comes when men who love not war but peace, 
not the blare of truinpets but the quiet fireside, are asked 
to prove that they love their country more than all else 
they hold dear in life. It comes when men are asked to 
give up good positions with the ease and comfort that ac- 
company them, to serve as privates in the ranks— to face 
hardship and death, not for glory or love of excitement, but 
as their duty to that Empire that has guaranteed them liberty 
and the pursuit of a certain amount of happiness. 

By the way. it looks from here as if Mr. Acton made an 
awful mess of that Hopkins clothing charge. He made his 
charge as bold as any lion and then when he got in front of 
Sir Charles Davidson he wanted to apologize so hard that 
he hired a lawyer to help him do it. He was evidently so 
unused to court procedure that he became nervous and en- 
gaged a lawyer even more nervous than himself. It never 
occurred to either of them to ask to have Hopkins' Toronto 
partner called for examination. To be sure he is a silent 
partner, but who knows but that the commission might have 
induced him to break his silence. There was Hopkins' bank 
account. Might that not have thrown some light on what 
happened to Hopkins in connection with one or more con- 
tracts that seem to have got tangled up with his real estate 
business. It might have shown where the money came from 
that is keeping Mr. Hopkins in New York. Or, if Mr. Hop- 
kins' silent partner had been called might he not have been 
able to explain just why Mr. Hopkins had at this somewhat 
inconvenient season ceased to bother about clothing con- 
tracts and taken such an extended vacation. Mr. Acton either 
went too far or not far enough. He should never have put 
his charge in print unless he intended to fight it all the 
way through. The sudden fright he (levelo|u-(l reflects credit 
neither nn himself nor on tlie trade press. 

* * ♦ 

For, you know, even if the Purchasing Committee never 
gave a contract to a real estate man, there is ample evidence 
that the Shell Committee was not too proud to give a shell- 
box contract to a shipping clerk or to a general storekeeper. 
The latter instance occurred down in Victoria County — at 
Fenelon Falls, to be more exact. The man who got the 
contract was C. W. Burgoyne, who with his father, forms 
the firm of W. Burgoyne and Company, which carries on a 
general store business. Now you can't very well make shell- 
boxes in a general store, you know, so Mr. Burgoyne looked 
around for somebody to do the work, and finally sublet to 
Alfred Tiers, who conducts a small planing mill in Fenelon 
Falls. The latter couldn't do all the work but by purchasing 
parts from a third party he was able to complete the contract. 

* * * 

Before its completion Mr. Burgoyne secured a second 
contract for an additional 25,000 boxes. This one was handled 
more scientifically, as Burgoyne and Tiers formed a partner- 
ship which did the work under the name of C. W. Burgoyne 
& Co. Now if the governtnent was anxious to prove that 
the Purchasing Committee did not let a clothing contract 
to a real estate dealer shouldn't it be just as anxious to 



disprove that the Shell Committee let a shell-box contract 
to a general storekeeper? Isn't it really more necessary that 
the shell-box matters be cleared up because the Shell Com- 
mittee was a creature of the Canadian Government handling 
money in trust for the Imperial Government? The Domin- 
ion Government has a sort of right to do as it pleases with 
its own money, but it owes it to Canada and to the British 
taxpayer as well, to show that every cent of Imperial funds 
placed with the Shell Committee was placed properly and to 
the best advantage. It is up to the Dominion Government 
to show that the shell-box contract let to a general store- 
keeper in Victoria County was not placed to relieve either 
political or "commercial depression brought on by the war." 
» * * 
One shell manufacturer is credited with the statement 
that at the end of the year he will ascertain his profit and 
pay over to the Patriotic Fund every cent in excess of his 
average usual profits for the last five years. I don't doubt it 
for a moment. Every man who has received a shell con- 
tract is not necessarily a highwayman with a gun held to 
the Empire's head. Many a shell contractor has taken the 
work for the joint purpose of giving his workmen employ- 
ment and furnishing the Empire with the munitions she 
needs. He neither sought nor received the tremendous pro- 
fits some others have boasted of making. But with the air 
full of rumors of tremendous war profits only an investiga- 
tion will clear the air and let in the light on the vexed 
question, "Are there profiteers? If so how did they get their 
contracts?" There must be a reason. 

The Minister of Militia has asked that "men of stand- 
ing in business, professional or mechanical life, will send 
their names to him." He conveys the idea he wants them 
as officers for he is further quoted as saying "We want to 
know who is who before we make appointments or permit 
the raising of any new regiments under new auspices." But 
naturally the question arises as to whether the Minister 
means what he says or is simply making a bluff to cover 
some of the practices that have hitherto governed the ap- 
pointment of otKcers. Let me cite an example. A well- 
to-do financial man of Toronto was anxious to do liis bit. 
His years and experience did not exactly fit him for too 
heavy work, but in this hour when every man is needed, he 
thought he might act as paymaster, thus relieving some 
husky young officer for more active work. He wrote to 
Ottawa for an appointment and was referred to the officer 
commanding Xo. 2 Division. The latter told him his applica- 
tion would receive consideration. Some days later a friend 
called him aside and told him he would get the appointment 
but he had first to secure the influence of two Toronto men. 
local members of the Provincial Parliament. He told tlie 
whole bunch to go to Hades — wherever that is. 
* * * 

Now if Sir Sam was as frank as he is loquacious would 
he not have wound up his statement with "only those hav- 
ing political influence need appl}-." For the past has shown 
that numbers of officers have been chosen not because of 
their fitness or capacity but for the amount of political puli 
they can develop. There are hundreds of incapable Can- 
radian officers now stalled in England, so I am told. They 
may easily be found around the Savoy Hotel in London, 
having a good time at the expense of the Canadian taxpayer. 
With rare exceptions the efficient have reached the front. 



The following from the Ottawa Evening Journal of the 
lOtli inst. speaks for itself: 

"In talking over the matter, Sir Sain Hughes mentioned 
that his chief intelligence officer was a Canadian of German 
liirth, whose father was now an officer in the German army. 
whose inother was the daughter of an .'\ustrian general, and 
whose brothers were officers in the German army. This 



February 1, 19ir, 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



nliliccr is described by General Hughes as one of the very 
best in the Canadian army." 

* * * 

The dignified and talented president of the Bank of 
Commerce has paused for a moment to hand us a little more 
advice. He tells us we should economize. He doesn't go 
a step further and tell us to put the money we save by our 
economy in the bank. Why should he? Any fool knows 
that the only way to start saving is to open a savings ac- 
count. And when the bank gets it of course it will help to 
carry on the war to a successful issue or help to move the 
crop. Of course it will — or at least that part of it that 
isn't sent on to New York to be put out on call loans to 
Yankee stock speculators and stock brokers. Or maybe 
it is needed to be loaned to Canadian promoters for invest- 
ment in Brazil and Mexico. When hard times strike this 
country our banks immediately proceed to economize by 
refusing business men the necessary funds to carry on legi- 
timate trade. Does the money they refuse lie idle for that 
reason? Well, not according to the annual bank reports. 

* * * 

The same government which pays 5J-^ per cent, interest 
on war bonds keeps the rate of interest on post office savings 
at 3 per cent. Does said government wish to convey the 
impression that its bonds are twice as great a risk as money 
in the post office, or is it merely trying to create a market 
by offering bonds at bargain prices? Surely the govern- 
ment wants the people to save. Why not pay them a 
more attractive rate of interest till they have saved enough 
to invest in bonds? Why not encourage thrift among our 
people? 

* * * 

"One-Iialf this country's daily papers are edited by Sir 
Robert Borden, the other half by Sir Wilfrid Laurier. The 
editors are so many liveried office boys to the Premier and 
leader of the Opposition." — Toronto Telegram. 

Will the Minister of Militia deny that lie is directly or in- 
directly financially interested in the Ross Rifle Company? 

* * * 

The Shell Committee, its alleged crimes and self-as- 
serted virtues, has been brought before Parliament by Dr. 
Pugsley, a Liberal statesman who has probably been taught 
that he who is witliout sin should throw the first stone. It 
is to be regretted that what should be only a business pro- 
position is thus being made more and more of a political 
question. It is unfortunate that Sir Robert Borden failed 
to listen to the voice of the more independent of the Con- 
servative press and order a full and free investigation into 
the workings of that committee. If there was nothing to 
hide he had nothing to lose. If there was something to 
liide a full investigation ordered by himself would free him 
from all blame and responsibility. Dr. Pugsley has made 
so many charges, though insignificant in comparison to the 
real facts, that an investigation should follow and if any or all 
of the charges are sustained the Government must share re- 
sponsibility with the Shell Committee and the profiteers. I 
have felt from tlie first that such an investigation was ne- 
cessary for the protection of the manufacturing interests of 
Canada and with me those interests come before the politi- 
cal welfare of Sir Robert Borden, whom in many ways I 
admire. 

* * * 

In a recent issue, concerning shell coiiiniittee charges, 
the Mr)ntreal Star, (Con.) says: 

"In any case, the Government cannot permit these shock- 
ing and humilitating charges to remain uninvestigated." 

That the indiscriminate handling of support for soldiers' 
families is working out badly in both directions is shown in 
jiumerous instances. A private in .3 certain platoon in the 



— ■ battalion boasts that he is at present drawing $160 per 
month whereas he never before drew more than $50 per 
month. He is an employe of the T. Eaton Company, which 
generously allows him full pay and he gets in on all the 
funds. On the other hand an acting-sergeant informs me 
that although he has been at the Exhibition camp for nearly 
a month his dependents have not received a cent from any 
source and that even part of his pay has been held back for 
fear he'll elope with his uniform. Some kinds of patriotism 
are too profusely fertilized and some are simply starved. But 
then no British people ever did develop a government that 
was big enough to handle a war. 



To all appearances the British people have awakened and 
decided to "get on" with the work. The British papers are 
warning, mildly as yet, the world not to tread on the lion's 
tail. The London Standard puts it: 

"Germany is now clothed in a white sheet. She and 
America are joining hands in the noble task of bullying the 
nation that has respected every law of humanity and has 
persistently interpreted the law of nations to her own dis- 
advantage. 

"Poor England. No moral crime can be laid at our 
doors, but we are interfering with the war profits, of Ameri- 
can manufacturers, so we must raise our blockade and thus 
prolong the war, and this is asked for in the name of hum- 
anity. 

"There is one comfort for us miserable sinners: Pre- 
sident Wilson and Count von Bernstorff will knock at our 
door in vain." 

* * * 

The attitude of our Australian cousins towards the 
munition-making business is in humiliating contrast to the 
conditions under which this work has been carried on in 
Canada. Over in Australia, Government and private factor- 
ies scorn to accept exorbitant "blood" profits at the ex- 
pense of the lives of their sons and brothers at the front. 
As an example we may quote the West Australia War Com- 
missions Company, Limited, organized when the war broke 
out under state supervision by leading public and business 
men of the state. The whole capital was furnished by 
public supscription on the understanding that there should 
be no dividends and that the price of the manufactured 
articles should be as nearly as could be fixed the actual cost 
of those articles. It was further stipulated that any pro- 
fits remaining after the repayment of the paid-up capital 
after the war should be devoted to patriotic or charitable 
purposes incidental to the war. The same spirit evidently 
animates private companies, who have undertaken contracts 
from the Government at certain named prices on the un- 
derstanding that if these arc greater than the actual cost of 
production of the article the balance shall be refunded. 

In comparison with this truly patriotic attitude Canada 
merely offers examples of the operations of our late shell 
committee such as the original letting of contracts at $6.70 
per unit which have later been reduced to $1.85; the boasts 
of our financial magnates of huge war profits; and the 
scandals attaching to other purchases. 

If these men, our leaders, represent Canadian culture, is 
not the world saying that it at least compares "favorably" 
with the German type? 

* * * 

When are we going to get some information concerning 
the Ross Rifle? Rumors suggest that after the disastrous 
fight at Langeinarck the British Government made a report 
to Ottawa concerning the rifle. If so, why is this report 

not made public? 

* ♦ ♦ 

.\nd then again — but oh, what's the damn use? 

SEARCHLIGHT, 



THR ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 1, 1916 




Rapid Transit in Toronto - 

solution of the city's needs- 

and west, east lines 



An independent 
Subways north 
elevated. 



By Ernest V. Pannell, A. M. I. E, E. 

Since the Arnold report on the rapid transit |)roblem in 
Toronto was presented in 1011 the demand for transportation 
facilities has still further exceeded the accommodation there- 
for. Congestion in the business districts is particularly pro- 
nounced, owing to theconcentration of the transitory popula- 
tion induced by large office buildings in a circumscribed area 
and to the necessarily slow speeds afforded by a surface car 
system in such a section. The provision of faster transit 
would tend to open out both the business and residential 
areas and enhance the taxable value of property contiguous 
to the railway system. It is not to be supposed that a 
costly proposition such as a true rapid transit scheme can, 
during the first few years of its life, offer good service and, 
at the same time, make an adequate return upon the capital 
invested. From the viewpoint of civic betterment, however, 
as exemplified by increased property values, better residen- 
tial conditions and wider distribution of the community, its 
value can hardly be capitalized. Where such an urban rail- 
way ofifers facilities for the ingress of interurban lines from 
the outlying townships to the heart of the city its value is 
still further enhanced and a definite increase of population 



may be expected to fellow, 'l'., riii,,tc from one of the 
Municipal Reference Bulletins issued by the city of Chicago; 
"Free and easy intra urban transportation is as important to 
the inhabitants of cities as the circulatory system is to the 
human body. The question in large cities 'is to provide for 
sustained growth without congestion . Where density and 
intense concentration of population obtain at the expense of 
proper sanitary conditions, wholesome tenements and de- 
cency; cheap, adequate and rapid transit from the outlying 
zones of the city is one of the solutions of the problem." 

That the necessity for rapid transit is not confined to 
cities of over one million population may be .gauged from 
the fact that in Melbourne, Australia, with its 600,000 inhab- 
itants, the sum of $14,000,000 is being expended by the Vic- 
torian Railway Commissioners for a comprehensive electric 
railway project to serve the city and suburbs. Similarly, 
Sydney, New South Wales, with a population of 050,000, is 
embarking upon urban railway improvements involving inter 
alia a bridge across the harbor wdiich will cost some $15,- 
000,000. Boston, Mass., with little more than 700,000 people, 
has one of the best rapid transit systems in the world, com- 
prising subway, elevated and surface railways. Coming still 
nearer home, the city of Montreal has under consideration 
the equipment of a subway system to relieve the street con- 
gestion, which scheme in its entirety is estimated to cost 
$20,000,000. 

In view of the extremely heavy capital outlay involved 




ELEvnTEDUneS ~— ^— — 



Fig. l.-Plan of the City of Toronto stiovving the main streets upon which car iracl^s are situated and the location of the Rapid TransitlLincs. 



Fcliruarv 1. I'JIG 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 




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Fig. 2. Grade Profile of Subway— Vonge Street Division 



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FEET 



ill urban rapid transit undertakings, therefore, it is only to 
1)0 expected that where engineered solely by private enter- 
prise and on the basis of a more or less limited franchise, 
such projects will afiford barely sufficient service to satisfy 
the demands. The fact that the city so largely benefits 
from the presence of tjie railway suggests that the lines 
should be built under civic auspices and operated by a lessee 
company subject to a citj- Rapid Transit Commission. That 
the commission be composed mainly of practical electric 
railway men goes without saying. 

True rapid transit facilities can never be aflforded on 
the streets of a crowded city; the railway system must there- 
fore be sunk below or elevated above the street surface. In 
most large cities at the present day a compromise of both 
forms of construction is used, it being usual to employ sub- 
ways only where narrow streets, residential property or other 
good reasons preclude the erection of elevated lines. 



cannot be denied that the streets of Toronto are not, as a 
rule, adaptable for the construction of elevated roads. The 
constructional work proposed in the present article is sum- 
marized in Table 2, and the routing is shown in the plan. 
Fig. 1. 

TABLE II. 

Routes of Rapid Transit Lines 

1. Subway, Yonge Street, Front to St. Clair, 2.70 miles. 

2. Subway, Queen Street, Sherbournc to Sunnyside, 4.30 
miles. 

3. Elevated, Eastern .\vc., Yonge Street to Kingston 
Road, 3.60 miles. 

The whole of the above is, of course, double-track, the 
total track-mileage, equipped for 600 volt d.c. working, is 
therefore 21.20. It would be proposed to construct the 
system in the order given above, a two-year interval being 



3 



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Fig. 3.— Motor Car for Subway and Elevated Divisions 



TABLE I. 
Forms of Construction Adopted for Urban Transit 

Subways. — Paris, Buenos Aires, Budapest. 

Elevated.- — Chicago, Liverpool. 

Combined Subway and Elevated. — London, New York, 
Brooklyn, Boston, Philadelphia, Berlin, Hamburg. 

.\ modern elevated railway is far in advance of the 
earlier types of construction common in Chicago and Man- 
hattan. By the use of a solid floor and track ballast, noise is 
reduced to the minimum and a permanent and not unsightly 
form of structure is obtained. The advantages in point of 
cost, hygiene and convenience to tfce travelling community 
are all with the elevated system, Unfortunately, however, it 



allowed to elapse before commencing the construction of the 
several divisions. It is believed that Division 1 is the most 
important, as regards the relief of congestion and provision 
of transit to the northerly sections of the city. This subway 
would accelerate traffic along the main artery of Toronto 
and coming to the surface at St. Clair Avenue would effect 
a physical junction with hydro-electric or other interurban 
lines running north out of the city. The southern terminal 
would be contiguous to the new Union Station, and covered 
ways would be erected to communicate with the steamship 
landings. Periodic service of through cars to points as far 
north as Lake Simcoe could, of course, be provided through 
the tunnel. The stations in the subway would average one- 
half mile apart and be located at Front, Queen, CxiUege and 



28 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 1, 1916 



Bloor Streets, North Toronto, and St. Clair Avenue. The 
station arrangement at the south end of the line, as will 
be seen, would tend to relieve the street congestion at King 
and Yonge Streets, besides minimizing the amount of exca- 
vation in the vicinhy of the city's tallest buildings. 

The main east and west subway running from Sunny- 
side would follow Queen Street to Sherbourne Street, a spur 
down Sherbourne to Front being opened up at the same 
time as Division 3. The total length, includinp the spur, is 
4.30 miles of double track, and opjiortunities for the through 




Fig. 4.— Section Ihroutih Subway 

running of radial cars would be provided, as in the case of 
Division 1. The Yonge Street station on this line will afford 
passengers an opportunity of exchanging with the Yonge 
Street subway, whilst the carrying of the line through to 
Sherbourne Street will again assist in keeping the main street 
free from unnecessary foot passengers. 

Division 3 consists of an elevated railroad extending east 
from the Front Street station along Front Street and Eastern 
Avenue to the junction of the Kingston Road and Queen 
Street. The line would be carried over the River Don by 
a truss bridge and another bridge would be necessary to 
cross Queen Street at the Woodbine, several changes of 
alignment would also occur in this line and a down grade 
of five per cent, would bring the tracks to the level of the 
Kingston Road at the eastern terminal. Through running 
with the eastern lines would be effected just as with the other 
divisions. The district covered is expected to become in the 
near future one of the city's busiest manufacturing areas; 
little or no depreciation of property need therefore be feared 
as a result of the railway; indeed, the value of the factory 
sites would be enhanced by the advent of rapid transit for 
the factory help. 

The summarized particulars of the cars proposed for 
use on the three different lines are as follows: — 

TABLE III. 
Motor Cars for Rapid Transit System 

Construction Semi-steel 

Length over Bumpers ' 51 ft. in. 

Height from Rail 12 ft. 6 in. 

Width, overall 8 ft. G in. 

Capacity, seated 50 

Capacity, maximum 100 

Motors per Car 3 

Motors, type GE-233 

Motors, rating kw 105 

Truck wheelbasc 7 ft. in. 

Truck centres 32 ft. in. 

Weight, body 30,000 lbs. 

Weight, trucks 33.000 lbs. 

Weight, equipment 13,000 ibs. 

Weight, total 05,000 lbs, 



As will be noted, a light form of car is proposed in 
order to reduce the energy consumption consequent ujion 
the type of service. It is not considered desirable to run 
street cars over the rapid transit tracks, the schedule speed 
and acceleration together with the high traffic density render 
it necessary if full use is to be made of the subway to 
confine the operation to one type of car of approximate 
design. 

Summarized particulars of the three rapid transit routes 
with their respective operation characteristics are given in 
Table 4. 

TABLE IV. 
Particulars of Rapid Transit Routes 

Division 1. 11. 111. 

Route Yonge St. Queen St. Eastern Ave. 

Length, miles 3.70 4.30 3.60 

Construction Subway Subway Elevated 

Number of Stations ... li '.i 7 

Average Run, feet ... 2S40 2S.")0 31(10 

Operation 

Schedule Speed, m.p.h 15 15 15 

Acceleration Rate 1.50 1.50 1..50 

Braking Rate 2.00 2.00 2.00 

Normal 

Headway minutes 4 4 4 

Cars per Train 2 2 2 

Trains per Hour 15 15 15 

Passengers per Train 100 100 100 

Passengers per Hour 1500 1500 1500 

Cars in Service 12 18 10 

Rush 

Headway minutes 1.5 1.5 2.0 

Cars per Train 2 2 2 

Trains per Hour 40 40 30 

Passengers per Train 200 300 200 

Passengers per Hour 8000 8000 6000 

Cars in Service 33 48 30 

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Fig. 5.— Urban travel of the population of Toronto. 

Typical speed-time and power-time curves have been 
plotted (Figs. 6 and 7) for the regular two-car train fully 
loaded. As will be seen, the chief physical factor which 
modifies the operating characteristics is the average grade 



February 1. Ill Hi THE ELECT 

up Yongc Street of 1.5 per cent., which calls for heavy cur- 
rent inputs on the uptown trip hut permits the trains to 
coast almost the whole distance downtown. The energy 
consumption expressed in watt-hours per ton-mile amount 
to 85 for the uptown journey but only to 20 for running in 
the southward direction, as in tlu- latter case the motors 
are not taken past the series ixisiticin. The cast and west 
lines are practically level throughout. 

The pi.wer requirements are estimated as follows: 
TABLE V. 
Power Consumption 

far miles per day 1^ ,,(11) 

Ton-miles per day 7:>o.{ini) 

Watt-hours per ton-mile 70 

Total watt-hours 50..'>()().()ri() 

Hours of operation 20 

Average load, kw 2,520 

Ma.ximum load, kw G 310 

Sub-station capacity, kw 7,500 

It is assumed that the railway would purchase high 
tension current delivered to the sub-station busbars where 
it would be converted to 650 volt continuous current and 
distributed through feeders in the tunnel to the third rail. 
The plan (Fig. 1) shows the principal streets of the 
city and their relation to the Rapid Transit System. The 
natural criticism is that little or no service is provided for 
the north-west and north-east corners of the civic area; it is 
assumed, however, that the street railways in conjunction 
with the subways will serve these districts. It will be noted 
that on the east and west route particularly every station is 
situated at the foot of one of the avenues extending north. 
Where surface tracks are installed upon these avenues the 
mterchange of rapid transit passengers to the street cars 
will be provided for; the ultimate arrangement will, of 
course, be for the street railway tracks to connect the sub- 
way and elevated lines in the south with St. Clair Avenue 
in the north. Similarly, the Yonge Street line will afford 
connections of the utmost importance at College and Bloor 
Streets and St. Clair Avenue. The opening of the Bloor 
Street Viaduct will afford means for a crosstown surface 
car system extending from the Humber to the Scarboro' 
town line; on such a line as this an average speed of ten 
miles per hour cmild I,c maintained, and, indeed, the relief 



RICAL NEWS 



29 



transit and surface lines, but in view of the demonstrated 
wdlmgness of the public to pay for rapid travel this is not 
expected to act as a deterrent to traffic. Nothing is more 
detrimental to the ultimate success of a railway enterprise 
than the initial adoption of cheap fares and privileges which 
It may afterwards be found necessary to withdraw with 
consequent ill effect upon the goodwill of the community 
An uniform fare of live cents would be suggested for the 























































1 


























Vi 




" — 




~-_ 


















/\ 
















\ 








/ 




V 
















\ 






/ 




















\ 






/ 






















^ 


- 



300 i_ 



Fig. 7. 



-Speed-time and energy curves for a run between Yonge and Siierbour 
Streets— Distance 2640 - Grade level. 



whole subway and elevated lines, good for transfer over the 
three divisions. 

TABLE VI. 

Estimated Cost of Construction of Rapid Transit Scheme 



























, 
















— ^ 
















^^ 






,^'- 




\ 














^ 




^*-^,,^^^ 


*■■ 






\ 












/ 






^■^ 




>~-, 




\ 












A 


-'' 










"^ 


^ 








/ 


















\ 






-J 




















\ 






/ 




















\ 






/ 


"1 


















\ 


^ 


I 



Construction work, includ- 
ing subway excavation, 
concrete, steel, track and 
third rail, stations, and 
signal equipment 

Construction work, includ- 
ing erection of elevated 
structure, concrete foot- 
ings, track fully floored 
and ballasted, third rail, 
stations and signal 
equipment 

Cars, 50 ft., semi-steel 
construction, each equip- 
ped with two 105 kw. 
motors, control and air 
brakes 

Sub-stations, total capa- 
city 7,500 kw 

Feeders, lead covered. ])a- 
per laid on brackets in- 
subway and along ele- 
vated structure 

Car Houses, offices and 
buildings 



Division 
I. 



Division 
II. 



Divisi,. 
III. 



$0,750,000 $10,750,000 



00,000 



::o,ooo 
so.ooo 



-10,000 



O JO so 3D 40 50 €o 70 So 90 lOO ^\0 'SO 

^Hme in Seconcis 

Fig. 6.— Speed-lime and energy curves for typical runs between Front and Queen 
Streets.- Distance 2640' Grade IM' 

of congestion effected by the suljway lines will divert more 
of the street car services to the uptown tracks, where more 
rapid service can be given. The Yonge Street subway ser- 
vice will bring St. Clair Avenue within twelve minutes of 
Front Street and a fast crosstown schedule maintained on 
the surface tracks will bring every part of the city within 
thirty minutes' ride of the business section. It is not pos- 
sible to issue free transfer? available between the rapid 



I'"nginceriiig and contin- 
gencies, 10 per cent. .. 



$7,370,000 $11,605,000 $2,740,000 
7:!7,000 1,100,000 274,000 



$8,107,000 $12,765,000 $3,014,000 
The estimated tirst cost of construction and equipment 
will be found in Table 0. This exemplifies the extremely 
heavy costs pertaining to rapid transit construction, particu- 
larly of the subway type. Nevertheless, the problem has 
t" be faced in every city when the industrial and business 
i Continued on page 32) 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 1, 1916 



ava Coiytrdctor 




■■■iiiliiiii iiuiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiHit 1111 mill 11 



A Code of Lighting Applicable to Factories, 
Mills and other work places— Valuable Infor- 
mation for Engineers, Central Stations 
and Electrical Contractors icon) 

Section V. General Requirements of Artificial Lighting 

The following requirements for factory and mill liglit- 
ing are made all the more important by the peculiar limita- 
tions and the wide variety of conditions to be found in fac- 
tory and mill buildings and in factory and mill work: 

1. Sufficient illumination should usually be provided for 
each workman irrespective of his position on the lloor 
space. 

3. The lamps should be installed and selected so as to 
avoid eye strain to the workmen. 

3. The lamps should be operated from sources of supply 
which will insure reliable illumination results, particularly 
on account of the demoralizing effect produced by inter- 
mittent service, just when the light may be most needed. 

4, Adequate illumination should be provided from over- 
head lamps so that sharp shadows may be prevented as 
much as possible, and in such measure that individual lamps 
close to the work may be unnecessary e.xcept in special 
cases. 

.5. The type and size of lamp should be adapted to the 
particular ceiling height and class of work in question. 

G. In addition to the illumination provided by overhead 
lamjjs. individual lamps should be placed close to the work 
if they are absolutely necessary in the eyes of a lighting 
expert, and in such cases the lamps should be provided with 
suitable opaque reflectors. 

These requirements may now be met by means of the 



new types of gas and electric lanip.>, one type of which can 
usually be found for practically each factory and mill loca- 
tion, specially adapted to the general physical conditions 
of the location as typified by the clearance between cranes 
and ceiling and other similar items. 

Section VI. Overhead and Specific Methods of Artificial 
Lighting 

Factory and mill lighting may be classified under two 
general divisions: first, distributed illumination furnished 
from lamps mounted overhead; and second, specific illumin- 
ation furnished by individual lamps located close to the 
work. For practical purposes this classification is suffi- 
cient. In numerous cases a combination of these two meth- 
ods becomes necessary. 

Mounting the Lamps High. — Where the lamps are high 
enough to be out of the line of ordinary vision, and are 
of a size and so spaced as to furnish illumination at anj' 
position of the floor where work may be carried on. the 
system is referred to as the overhead method of lighting. 
This method has many advantages. Its general adoption, 
which has been somewhat slow, has increased with the 
appearance of the many new types of lamps and with the 
growing appreciation of the value of good lighting. 

Where a small amount of general or overhead lighting 
is coupled with specific lighting from individual lamps, a 
large part of the floor space in many shops is in relative 
darkness, and much dependence must be placed on the hand 
lamps close to the work. The small number of overhead 
lamps generally used in such cases, furnishes merely a 
small amount of additional illumination over the floor space 
which is not sufficient to be of much value. How-ever, 
where sufticient intensity is provided by general illumina- 




o '~ LOW POWER -' 
'i UNITS 



HISH 

'power 

:UNIT 



PLAN 

Fig. 3.^ — Diagram showing alternate 
schemes for Hghting a low factory sec- 
lion. This contrasts the use of large 
and small lamps for mounting height 
of 12 feet. 



T r<--i2-o-->i f^\^ 

OPOWER^V^J' 1^ 

'^'^'^ VvERTlCALl' 

l ,-LOW POWER UNITS-, TANKS%^ 



Fig. 4. — Diagram contrasting the use 
large and medium-sized lamps for moun 
ing heigh; of 20 feet. 



ELEVATION 
^o'-o" -- 



l2'-0"-->l 



1^ 4--. t 4 

'-LOW POWER UNlT-4 , A 



J HIGH POWER UNIT ^ 



PLAN 

Fig. 5. — Dia^am of same factory space 
shown in Fig. 4, but with a different 
class of work. This view contrasts the 
use of large and medium-sized lamps for 
a 20-ft. mounting. 



F(.-1>ruarv 1, t'.ilfi 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



tiun, Ihis is ol'lcn :i very c-ITcclivc im-aiis uf li.u;liliny a large 
work-i'ooiii. 

Low Ceilings. — Locations with low ceilings, until re- 
cently, have been lighted by the individual hand lamp 
method, because the old carbon lilamcnt lamps, being of 
low candlepower. could not well be used close to the ceil- 
ing, while the old type of arc lamp was often impracticable. 
due to its large physical size, as well as its relatively high 
candlepower. This statement is subject to some modifica- 
tion, because low candlepower units have sometimes been 
used in clusters for low ceilings as a compromise between 
a single small or a single large unit, this scheme being, how- 




Fig. C- 

foi- a 



-Diagram showing tin 
mounting height of 50 feet. 



f large lamps 



cvi r. usually insufficient and unsatisfactory in comparison 
widi modern methods of lighting. In a particular manner, 
therefore, suitable illumination has been diflicnlt with low- 
ceilings. 

New types of gas and electric lamps have a range of 
candlepower from very low to very high values, and the 
overhead system with the elimination of individual lamps 
is thus possible; in other words, a size of gas or electric 
lamp may now be selected from a large available list ot 
sizes for nearly every factory or mill condition. 

Section VII. 

Various Locations Illustrated. — There are two main items 
to consider in deciding for or against high candlepower 
lamps for the factory or mill. First, how high are the 
lamps to be mounted; and second, will the light at any given 
point on the machines or other operations be satisfactory 
if it comes from a few lamps or should it come from many 
sources? If the ceiling or overhead construction is under 
16 feet, lamps of high candlepower can hardly be used in 
sufficient numbers to produce uniform illumination over the 
floor space. If they are to be mounted at a height between 
If. and 25 feet, it is largely a question of whether light from 
a relatively few lamps will produce satisfactory results. For 
mounting heights over 2.i feet, lamps of high candlepower 
possess some advantages, chief of which is their large volume 
of light for given energy consumed, always provided the 
light is cflfectively directed towards the floor. 

Three Groupings. — These three groupings by mounting 
heights are conveniently shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6. In 



Fig. :i a single simp bay with a ceiling height of 12 ft. is 
shown as typical of the first grouping. The single high 
candlepower lamp furnishes apjiro.ximately the same amount 
of light to the machines as do the eight small lamps. Note, 
however, that the illumination from the large lamp is not 
nearly as uniform as that from the small lamps, although the 
spacing of both the small and the large lamps as represented 
in this illustration is typical of many actual installations. 
Note also, that the shadows cast by the large lamp at cer- 
tain portions of the floor space must be so marked as to 
make the ilhimination it furnishes very inferior in this re- 
spect to the illumination from the smaller lamps, because 
of their larger number. 

Here, if the number of large lamps for the given floor 
area be increased in an endeavor to make the illumination 
more uniform and to reduce the shadows, the expense, as 
compared with that for smaller lamps, makes the large lamps 
a very unfavorable proposition. These two features arc the 
basis for stating that in general large lamps are not desirable 
for mounting under IG feet, and an analysis of conditions, 
together with a careful and unbiased comparison with the 
illumination produced by smaller lamps, will nearly always 
liear out this conclusion. 

Second Grouping.— In Fig. 4. a 20 ft. ceiling has been 
selected as typical of the second grouping, a single shop 
bay being shown. Here the work is assumed to be rough 
assembly, mostly on horizontal surfaces, and the single high 
candlepower lamp. Ijesides giving more nearly uniform illum- 
ination, because the light is distributed more broadly due 
to the increased height, is correspondingly more satisfactory 
as to shadows produced by the large lamp in the preceding 
illustration (Fig. 3). on account of the improved direction 
in which much of the light reaches the work. In this case, 
the arrangement of both large and small lamps is typical 
of many existing installations. 

In Fig. 5, however, although the height is the same as in 
Fig. 4, the work is quite different, being conducted on the 
inside of large vertical tanks. It would obviously be impos- 
sible to- perform this work by the light from the single large 
lamp as well as with that from the larger number of medium 
sized lamps, even if the actual amount of light from each 
was the same, on account of the poor direction of the light 
at certain positions of the work from a single unit in sucli 
a case. The medium sized lamps furnish approximately the 
same quantity of light and yet no matter where the tanks 




■i ~ •J.BENCrt;: 



PLAN PLAN 

Fig. T. — .\ very poor arrangement l-'ij;. S. — Illustrntes an improveil 

of artificial lighting by means of scheme over that shown in Fig. 7. 

large lamps moimted too close to made possible by the use of 

the floor. Compare with improved smaller lamps, 
plan in Fig. 8. 

may be placed, they will receive considerable light from the 
medium sized lamps directly over or nearly over them, at 
least far more than is apt to reach them from a single unit 
in every other bay (the assumed arrangement of the large 
lamps). 

For this second grouping of mounting heights, then, 



32 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 1, 1916 



llic large lamp may or may not be adaptid, depciidinK on 
vvlictlier the reduction of shadows is of nuuli importance, 
as is the case in Fig. 5. The large lamp is, however, more 
likely to be satisfactory here than in the first case (Fig. :i), 
because of the better distribution of the light due to the 
higher mounting, a fact made evident in Figs. .'5 and 5 on 
account of the decreased number of small lamps and llic 
increase in their size made possible in Fig. 5 as compared 
with Fig. 3, where the mounting is lower. By the same line 
of argument, it can be shown that for higher mountings, 
large lamps arc still more likely to prove satisfactory, in 
Fig. 5, the number of large lamps might have been increased 
for the given floor area, but to have done so would mean 
that the cost for the lamps themselves and for the energy 
and upkeep to maintain them would be excessive in com- 
parison with the smaller types of lamps. 

Third Grouping. — In Fig. 6 the third grouping of mount- 
ing heights is shown with the lamps about 50 feet above the 
floor. In this illustration the distribution of the light from 



Constant Voltage. — In addition to the superior illumina- 
tion resulting from lamps supplied from constant voltage 
mains, some types operate with longer life or very much 
better mechanically when supplied with constant volta.ge 
than otherwise. These features will therefore generally 
more than offset the somewhat greater cost of maintaining 
separate circuits for each class of service. In like manner and 
for similar reasons, it is advisable to place gas lamps on 
supply lines separate from those delivering gas for power 
purposes. 

(To be Continued) 

Rapid Transit in Toronto 

(Continued from page 29) 
districts are concentrated and llic population passes the 
half million mark. As already mentioned, it is not to be 
supposed that plans for the whole of such a scheme could 
be put into hand at once, but rather that the three divisions 




ELEVATION 

, 40'-0"--- - 

HIGH POWER UNlTja^-^ 




HIGH POWER UNITJg^ 
PLAN 



Tliese three illustrations show various ways in 
woik performed. Fig. 9 is fairly satisfactory for 
tiiring. Fig. 11 is to be preferred where the clas 




which a factory space with Ifi-ft. girde 
storage spaces, and either Fig. 10 or 
i of work consists of the handling of 



clearance can be handled, depending on the class of 
1 can be employed for bench assembling or manufac- 
nall machinery parts. 



the large lamps will be far more satisfactory both for flat 
and tall work than in the two preceding cases. It will be 
noted further that the increased height of the lamp causes 
the light to fall in such directions as to evenly distril)Ute it 
over the entire floor space taken care of by this one lamp 
in much better shape than for the lower mounting heights. 
(See also Figs. 7 to 9). 

Section VIII. 
Lighting Circuits for Electric Lamps and Supply Mains for 
Gas Lamps 
The question of lighting circuits is mentioned here with 
particular reference to factory and mill conditions, where 
motor loads are apt to be large in comparison to the ener.gy 
consumption of electric lamps which are in service. In 
some cases, the proportion of motor load to lighting load 
is in the ratio of 10 to 1, in others 7 to 1, and so on, and 
the varying demands on the circuits by motors may greatly 
affect the lamps. Hence it is important to tnaintain strictly 
separate supply circuits for the lamps in order to avoid vary- 
ing voltage which is apt to result if the motors are con- 
nected to the same circuits with the lamps. 



be commenced upon at two-year intervals, or, if thought 
desirable, that the work be still further subdivided. The 
substitution of elevated railroads for the subway divisions 
would greatly reduce the initial costs, but a new routing 
would in this case have to be adopted, which w-ould con- 
siderably modify the service offered by a line cutting through 
the heart of the city. The subway construction costs have 
been based upon the cut and cover system being employed, 
which entails the roadway being opened up and excavation 
proceeding as for an open cut. Although involving tem- 
porary inconvenience, this avoids the heavy cost, and no 
small danger involved in timbering the roadway and mining 
beneath it. 

For the main cast and west route the possibility of an 
elevated or surface road routed along the water front has 
been considered, but the conclusion is that such a line would 
be situated too far south of its tributary population. The 
Eastern Avenue line is, indeed, open to the same objection 
in a lesser degree, but is believed to be justified in view of 
the development of the .\shbridges Bay district for industrial 
purposes. 



February 1, 191G 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



33 



Are You A Member of the 0. E. C. A. ? 

Join the O. E. C. A., the Ontario Electrical Contractors Association Then, get behind 
it with your brains, your experience and your enthusiasm 



The very generally accepted idea of organizations and 
associations of various sorts is that they are formed for pro- 
tective or defensive purposes. This is only true within cer- 
tain limits. It is easily understandable, however, liow this 
conception has arisen, because of the circumstances sur- 
rounding the organization of many such associations. Jn 
a vast majority of cases they have been called into being- 
only when the rights of some particular class appeared to be 
threatened by encroachments on what they conceived to be 
their rights. The crisis over, the average association either 
disbands or drags along a lingering existence until some fresh 
upheaval again threatens the rtghts of the members and so 
spurs them once more to action. 

Tliis is not the right idea. 

The operations of the commercial world are divided 
into fairly clearly-defined sections, the different elements of 



each section being so closely inter-related that the failure of 
any single element to do its share in the general scheme of 
co-operation interferes adversely with the common ultimate 
aim of the whole section. Such a section is that composed 
of men associated, in whatever capacity, with the electrical 
trade — manufacturer, central station, dealer, jobber, and con- 
tractor — all are vitally interested in the rapid development 
of the electrical industry. 

It follows that an association of any element in the elec- 
trical trade should not consider itself on the defensive as 
regards any other element in the same trade. The aim 
should be a closer working arrangement with all the other 
elements. An electrical contractors' organization has it in 
its power to help the central station organization. Both of 
these can help the manufacturer, and so on. The "vice 
versa" is equally true, of course. There is no room for war 
among these various elements, no reason, no possibility of 




Acknowledgements to National KIcclrlcal Cc 
A snail or an automobile, alone or with the "boys" -Which? 



34 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 1, 1916 



gain in it. The success of each is inseparably bound up 
with the success of all the others. 

And this brings us back to the starting point — don't wait 
till you imagine your rights are being trampled on by some- 
one before you begin to take an interest in your association. 
Take hold now. Your association is an organization for 
constructive purposes. It is one of only four or five cogs 
iti the electrical wheel. One missing cog, therefore, means 
terrible inefficiency in the operation of that wheel, and con- 
tinually threatens to wreck the whole machine. Don't wait. 
Get in and carry your share of the load so as to guarantee 
the smooth operation of the whole machinery of the elec- 
trical business. 

The electrical contractors of the province of Ontario 
recently formed an enthusiastic association of their mem- 
bers. Possibly it was fear of some encroachment that 
brought them together. But the ideal of this association 
has been raised. Officered by enthusiastic men, the vision 
of this organization has rapidly grown broader, until they 
now see themselves as an important responsible section of 
the whole electrical industry. Their organization is no 
longer a necessity — it is a duty. 

Are you as an individual, then, doing your duty by the 



industry with which you are associated and from which you 
make a living? 

We take the liberty of urging upon every electrical 
contractor in this province that he consider seriously and 
with an open mind the question of his relation to the On- 
tario Electrical Contractors' Association. Are you a mem- 
ber? If not, why? Don't let the argument that you "can't 
get anything from it" carry any weight with you. Ask your- 
self, rather, "Couldn't I help?" Think of tlie influence for 
good that a united association of electrical contractors can 
wield — how you can further the development of the industry 
— liow you can help to smooth over little misunderstandings, 
as in the recent Simcoe matter — how you can lenj your 
weight to needed legislation. 

If you are a unit in the electrical contracting business, 
get up and acknowledge it. Don't be a dead one. Don't 
be a clog on other men's progress as well as your own. 
Join your association, and, after you have joined it, take an 
interest in it, and give it the benefit of your own ideas and 
experiences. The possibilities of development in the elec- 
trical business are beyond imagination. Are you going to 
sit idly by and watch the other fellow do your work, or are 
you going to put your shoulder behind the wheel and push? 



Relation of Jobber to Contractor 



The relation of the jobber to the contractor and the 
protection given by the jobber is one of the most important 
points at issue at the present time in the electrical con- 
tracting business. Mr. Arthur J. Newell read an interest- 
ing paper recently before the New England Electrical Con- 
tractors' Convention in .Springfield, in which he outlined a 
number of instances where the co-operation of the jobl)er, 
to say the least, is not apparent. These are quoted beloiv. 
Mr. Newell makes a strong appeal to the electrical contrac- 
tors to stand together and assert their rights. He asks them 
to remember that the electrical contracting business is no 
longer in its infancy but is a legitimate, dignified and well- 
established business, filling an important place in the com- 
mercial world. He urges the contractors to stand up like 
men for their rights and if it is shown that they are being 
used unfairl}' by any part of the business world, to "show 
their teeth" and insist that they receive proper treatment. 

1. A concern in t!ie dry goods business was in the 
market for a quantity of wiring material. A schedule of 
the material required was drawn up and sent to the jobbers. 
A contractor of A-1 standing also sent the schedule to the 
jobbers, and when the prices were received by the dry goods 
house the contractor was shown the jobber's quotations, he 
being a friend of the buyer, and in every case the dry goods 
concern had been quoted as good prices and in some cases 
better than these same jobbers had given to the contractor. 
This is the way the trade is protected. 

2. A contractor received an order for reflectors and sent 
the order to a jobber with instructions to ship direct to the 
customer in order to save expense. The shipment was made 
direct and also the bill was sent direct to the customer. The 
prices given the customer by the jobber were as good as had 
been previously quoted the contractor by this same jobber. 
If this was not a mistake, then the jobber was trying to show 
the customer that they had better deal direct. If it was a 
mistake, it shows that this jobber was in the habit of selling 
direct to this class of customers and making them as good 
prices as he made the contractor. 

;!. Certain electrical material handled l:y u jobber was 
required for a new building. The electrical contractor on 



the building (jbtained a quotation from the jobber and after- 
wards found tliat tliis jobber had given to the general con- 
tractor the same quotations that he had sent to the electrical 
contractor. This electrical contractor had good credit. 

4. Special lighting fixtures were required for a building. 
These special fixtures were controlled by one jobber. A 
quotation was made to the owners, in which 10 per cent. 
was reserved for the electrical contractor on the building. 
The owner goes to the jobber and asks him how much 
profit there is in the quotation for the contractor, and he 
is frankly told 10 per cent. The owner then states that ho 
will give the jobber the order if he will give him the 10 
per cent. The jobber accepts the offer and tlie contractor 
is ignored. 

5. An electrical contractor does a job on a stock and 
time basis. The concern for whom he did tlie work sent 
his bill to a jobbing house, and they marked on the bill 
against each item the price at which they would have sold 
the material, and these prices were those regularly given to 
the trade. Fine co-operation! 

6. At a meeting of the electrical contractors a jobber 
boldly asserts that he never sends his catalogues and dis- 
count sheets to men who are just started in business, and 
that he always looks out for the established contractor. The 
very next day his catalogue with full discount sheets was 
received by two workmen just starting in business. You 
will find the catalogue and discount sheet of almost all 
jobbers in the hands of all classes of customers, and the 
net prices give little protection to the contractor and not 
near enough for the contracting business. 

7. At one time a jobber sent out a salesman who called 
on the electrical contractors only, and this salesman would 
solemnly place his hand over his heart, raise his eyes to 
heaven and affirm that he never called on the contractor's 
customers, and he told the truth; but his house sent out 
another salesman equipped with gum shoes who called on 
the contractor's customers only, and I understand this gum 
shoe artist was reprimanded one time because he happened 
to make a social call on an electrical contractor who was his 
personal friend. Is tliere any wonder that we contractors 



February 1, I'.ilfi 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



35 



place a lot of interrogation points alter statements made lay 
some of the jobbers? 

8. A young man who has worked as a helper for about 
two years goes into business, and although he was not even 
a journeyman and witliout any business experience, yet he 
iigured and sccureil some large contracts at very low 
prices. A jobber gives him extended credit, and carries his 
account for a long time. At last he failed and the jobber 
was the heaviest creditor. Now all such losses have to be 
liorne eventually by the electrical business. During all the 
time that the young man was in business the other legitimate 
contractors had to meet ignorant competition that was being 
subsidized by a jobber. 

In concluding Mr. Newell made the following sugges- 
tions to his electrical contractor hearers: — 

"That you pay your bills promptly and not lie under 
obligations to the jobbers for extended credit. 

To give nrore study to the art of selling goods and to 
keep your place of business and stock in better condition. 

To refuse to purchase goods from any jobber who sells 
to the contractor's customers in any place, even though he 
is "good" in your own town. Also favor those manufac- 
turers who will sell to us direct. 

To have a committee to whom cases of improiicr treat- 
ment can be referred and who can negotiate with the manu- 
facturers and try and break down the special privileges now 
accorded the jol)bcr unless they discontinue selling our 
customers. 

To learn to use the mails and make unnecessary the 
sending out of expensive salesmen. Also, let us discourage 
being entertained by our creditors. 

That wc will work together and stand up for our rights 
like men, and while according fair and generous treatment 
to all, let us remember that we are in a legitimate, dignified 
and important business and are entitled to. ami can com- 
mand, fair treatment from everj'one." 



Finding re Economy Fuses 

As a result of a permanent arrangement between the 
X.'nderwriters' Laboratories, Inc., of Chicago and the Bureau 
of Standards that any matters in dispute between the manu- 
facturer of a device and the Underwriters' Laboratories 
should be submitted to the Bureau of Standards for decision, 
the following question was recently submitted to the Bureau. 
This was a joint appeal of the Underwriters' Laboratories 
and the Economy I'use and Manufacturing Company of 
Chicago: 

"Has it been shown that the use of the fuses manu- 
factured by the Economy h'use and Manufacturing Company 
results in no greater fire or accident hazard than the use of 
other cartridge enclosed fuses at present listed as standard 
l)y Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.?" 

A considerable amount of evidence was submitted by 
both parties to the Bureau of Standards, and in addition the 
Bureau made many tests of fuses both in their own labora- 
tories and in operating power plants. Some of these tests 
were made in accordance with the specifications of the 
Underwriters' Laboratories, but some were also made under 
conditions prescribed by the Bureau or suggested by fuse 
manufacturers. The objects of these tests were, largely, 
to determine the relative performance on heavy overloads of 
Economy fuse and standard enclosed cartridge fuses, and 
further, to determine to what extent the performance of 
such fuses might lie adversely afTected by protracted service 
under nf)rnial conditions. The question was carefully con- 
sidered in its \aricius aspects by a committee of technical 
men connected with the Bureau. A report of some Iwenly- 
live lypewrillcn pages has been submilti-tl, followed liy a 



Conclusion and Finding, botli of which we reproduce here- 
with: 

Conclusion 

"It appears from the foregoing resume of the Ijureau's 
investigation tliat llie Economy fuse, when new and prop- 
erly filled or rcfdicd, operates satisfactorily under the most 
common working conditions of, overload and moderate 
short-circuits when in circuits with low inductance, and 
posessses some marked advantages over the approved fuses 
with which it has been compared. This fuse is. however, 
distinctly inferior to most of these approved fuses under 
severe short-circuit conditions. It has not yet been estab- 
lished that it will not introduce hazards peculiar to refillable 
fuses, owing to deterioration from repeated blowing of the 
fuse elements in the same casing and possiblj' from long- 
continued subjection of the fuse to the working current. The 
approval of the present type of Economy fuse for unrestricted 
use would therefore result in a lowering of the standard of 
fuse performance under severe test conditions, and might 
introduce hazards in actual use the importance of which it is 
difficult to estimate at this time. The experience with the 
present type has not yet been sufficient to determine whether 
the total hazard is greater or less than it is with approved 
fuses as they are actually used in practice. The investiga- 
tion therefore leads to the following finding: 

Finding 

"It has not been shown that the use of the fuses man- 
ufactured by the Economy Fuse & Manufacturing Company 
vvill result in no greater fire or accident hazard than the use 
of inclosed Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. 

"On the other hand, the evidence in the case does not 
show that the use of Economy fuses has on the whole re- 
sulted in any greater fire or accident hazard than is in- 
volved in the use of standard enclosed cartridge fuses. 

"In comparison with fuses listed as standard by Uniler- 
writers' Laboratories, the fuses at present manufactured by 
the Economy Fuse & Manufacturing Company have been 
shown to possess certain features which tend to increase the 
hazards involved in the use of fuses and other features which 
tend to reduce such hazards. The relative importance of 
these features can be determined only liy extended exper- 
ience under working conditions. 

"It is therefore recommended that Economy fusis be 
not approved at present for general use on the same basis 
as fuses now listed as standard by llic I'ndvrwriters' Labor- 
atories, Inc., but that a continuation and extension of their 
use be permitted by municiiial and underwriters' inspection 
departments under conditions where their performance can 
lie observed by each inspection department until sufficient 
experience regarding their performance under service con- 
ditions can be obtained to justify ,-in nnqualiiie<l :ipproval or 
refusal to approve." 



Sliawinigan Laboratories Limited 

Shawinigan Laboratories, Limited, have secured letters 
patent incorporating Howard Murray and William S. Hart, 
managers, Julian C. Smith, Jesse C. King, Frederick T. Kae- 
lin, engineers, Howard W. Matheson and Theophilus H. 
Wardleworth, chemists, all of the city of Montreal (a) "to 
carry on the business of chemical, electro-cheniical, mech- 
anical, electrical, metallurgical and electro-metallurgical en- 
gineering in all branches; (b) to make tests, investigations, 
as.says and analyses and reports of all kinds and to advise 
upon processes, operations, patents, etc." Capital stock 
$2.'->,000; head oflfice Montreal. 



The Athabasca Power Company, Limited, h 
formed with a capital slock of .$100,000 and luad ( 
Winnipeg. 



36 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 1, 1916 



Toronto Contractors Elect Officers 

The annual meeting of the Toronto Section of the On- 
tario Electrical Contractors' Association was held on Wed- 
nesday evening, January 19, at their rooms at 2 College 
Street. The following officers were elected: president, 
George T. Dale, manager Electrical Maintenance and Repairs 
Company; first vice-president, G. D. Earle; second vice- 
president, Alfred S. Prout; treasurer, A. Wales; secretary, E. 
A. Drury; executive, Messrs. Leslie, W. H. Lodge, and M. 
Nealon; auditors, Messrs. Dolson and R. D. Earle. 

At this meeting discussion chiefly centred about the 
drafting of a by-law which it is the intention to distribute 
in a few days among the electrical contractors of the pro- 
vince for discussion and suggestions. An admirable by-law 
has been prepared by a committee of which Mr. W. H. Lodge 
is convenor, and it is hoped that the .\ssociation will have 
something tangible to bring before the members of the local 
legislature at the next session. 



I. E. S. Mid-winter Convention 

Tlie mid-winter convention of the Illuminating Engineer- 
ing Society, will be held in New York city Thursday and 
Friday, February 10th and 11th. 1916, at tiic Engineering 
Societies' Building, 29 West 39th Street. 

Among the papers which will be presented at the con- 
vention are: "Lighting and the Panama-Pacific Exposition," 
by D'Arcy Ryan; "Theatre Lighting" by Bassett Jones; 
"Colored Glass in Illuminating Engineering" by Dr. H. P. 
Gage; "Illuminating Engineering Photographs" by B. H. 
Norris; "Lighting of Public Service Buildings in New York" 
by C. L. Law and Thomas Scofield; "Gas Lighting of a 
Prominent Building in Philadelphia" by J. D. Lee; "Candle- 
power Measurements of Series Gas F'illed Incandescent 
Lamps" by Ralph C. Robertson; "An Interlaboratory Pho- 
tometric Comparison of Glass Screens and of Tungsten 
Lamps in Modern Color Differences" by G. W. Middlekauff 
and J. F. Skogland; "An Average Eye for Heterochromatic 
Photometry and a Comparison of a Flicker and an Equality- 
of-Brightness Photometer" by F". K. Richtmyer and E. C. 
Crittenden; "An Integrating Sphere" by E. B. Rosa and A. 
H. Taylor. 



Winnipeg Jovians Holding Bonspiel 

Members of the Winnipeg Jovian League are holding 
their annual Bonspiel at the Granite Curling Rink, Winni- 
peg. Eighteen rinks have entered which are skipped by 
the following: W. G. Chace, F. W. Brownell, L. B. Dick- 
son, A. W. Lamont, A. H. Steventon, L. J. Papineau, R. F. 
Howard, J. H. Schumacher, H. M. Fenley. W. P. Brereton, 
J. Bloomer, J. G. Glassco, J. Garrett, F. E. Filer, R. H. 
Mainer, J. H. S. Madden, G. L. Guy, and L. Conrad. Play 
started on December 19 and the competition will wind up 
January 19. Games are only played in the evening. There 
are two cups which will be presented to the winning rinks 
at the first regular luncheon held after the termination of 
the Bonspiel. The regular luncheon of the Jovian League, 
which was to have been held on January .'>, has been post- 
poned until January 19. It is interestin.g to note that no 
less than 18 Jovians from Winnipeg have gone to the war. 



Trade Inquiries 
-t.^. Aluminium collector bows. — A Yorkshire manufac- 
turing company asks to be placed in touch with actual Ca.i- 
adian manufacturers of aluminium collector bows for tram- 
way work. Sketch of same tnay be seen at the Department 
of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa. 



Persoruds 

Mr. A. J. Carroll has been appointed Montreal district 
manager of the Eugene F. Phillips Electrical Works, Lim- 
ited, Montreal. Mr. Carroll has been with the company for 
many years. 

Mr. C. F. Down, manager of the Canadian Tungsten 
Lamp Company at Winnipeg, recently attended a conven- 
tion of branch managers held in Hamilton from the 17th to 
the 22nd of January. In Mr. Down's absence Mr. F. K. 
TuUy had charge of the Winnipeg office. 

Mr. H. N. Keifer, sales engineer of the Northern Elec- 
tric Company, Vancouver, who has taken a very active in- 
terest in the aflfairs of the Vancouver section of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Electrical Engineers since locating in Van- 
couver, has been recently elected secretary of the local sec- 
tion. 



Spencer & Aspinall Ltd., electrical and mechanical en- 
gineers and electrical jobbers, have removed from the New 
Birks Bldg., Montreal, to 340 University Street. 



Lyman and Lyman Limited 
Mr. Frank D. Lyman has purchased the stock, assets and 
goodwill of the railway and supply department of John Mil- 
ieu and Son, Limited, Montreal, and is now carrying on 
business at 323 St. James Street, Montreal, with a branch 
at 90 Adelaide Street West, Toronto. Stocks are carried at 
both the Montreal and Toronto warehouses. As soon as a 
Dominion charter has been granted to a new company now 
formed, the business will be conducted under the name of 
Lyman and Lyman, Limited. Mr. Lyman has been manager 
of. the department now acquired by him since it was started 
some nine years ago by John Millen and Son, Limited. The 
new firm holds a large number of import English, French 
and United States agencies. 



Trade Publications 

Starting, Lighting and Ignition Equipment — circular 
1533-B, by tlie Automobile Equipment Department of the 
Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, de- 
scribing the different details of the electrical equipment of 
an automobile. Diagrams are given on the mountings, and 
views are also shown of the equipment mounted on several 
different types of automobile engine. 

Brush Switches — bulletin No. 61, being distributed by 
the Canadian Krantz Electric and Manufacturing Company, 
Limited, Toronto, describing, with illustrations, their safety 
brush switches. 

Motor Starting Switch Condulets— Imlletin l.(H)il-D, dis- 
tributed by the Crouse-llinds Co. of Canada, Ltd., Toronto, 
supplementing their catalog No. 1,000; illustrating and de- 
scribing motor starting switch condulets. 

Trolley Guards — Folder issued by the Ohio Brass Com- 
pany, Mansfield, Ohio, describing, with illustrations, the 
"National" Trolley Guard, manufactured by this company. 

Westinghouse Publications — Leaflet 3765. describing No. 
307-\' railway motor, 41 and 34 kw.; leaflet 3849 on type E A 
switchboards; leaflet 3551-.\ on alternating current magnet 
switches type F; leaflet 3833 on No. 306-V railway motor, 
50 and 41 kw.; leaflet 3837 on No. 333- V motor, 90 kw.; leaflet 
3835 on No. 547-A railway motor, 60 kw. 

Electric Fans — Catalogue 8-.\, by the Westinghouse 
Electric and Manufacturing Company, describing the electric 
fans of this company for the season of 1916; well illustrated. 

Measuring Instruments — Catalogue No. 15, issued by L. 
M. Pignolet, 78 Cortlandt Street, New York, describing elec- 
trical measuring instruments manufactured by this company. 



Kcliriuuy 1, 1910 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



What is New in Electrical Equipment 



Northern Junior Low Voltage Lighting Outfit 

To nu-L-t tlie demand for a low prictd farm lighting oiU- 
lil, llic Xortlicrn Electric Company, has developed their 
"Xorthern Junior" :!2 volt outfit. This outfit has been 
placed on the market. i)rimarily to meet the needs of an 
equipment which will take care of the simple process of 
charging a storage battery with a .generator, and then dis- 





1 


^^^^^H~ r^^^B- 


-l+x 


1 


i 




WT^- ^TTJPWB 






1 






i 


1 



arging. to liglit or use the energy for other .■-mall power 
rposes. IScforc the "Xorthern Junior" outllt was brought 
t. the cnmi)any conlined their sales to tlic "Xorthern 
leeial" outfit. W'itli the "Special" the semi-automatic 
iture of using the generator as a motor to turn over the 
soline eu.gine was available, and energy could also be 
ken from the battery, for lighting or other purposes, while 
was bein.g charged. Tlie new outfit complete, consists 
a storage battery, in either glass or rubber without C. E. 
!•". cells, charging generator, controlling switchboard, 
sidine engine, and skids for holding generator and engine, 
bile tlie switchboard for this outfit will not permit the 
Iterator to be used as a motor to assist in turning over 
L- en,gine. tlie engine starts very easily by hand, and. on 
at account, there are many owners who would prefer the 
caper "Junior" outlil, Tlic "Junior" switcliboard is 




■ The ' Junior" Switchbiianl. 




muuiited \iv means of wall braces, wliic 


1 give it a some- 


wliat iiealer appearance, tlian the use of 


supports reaching 


to the ground. .An aut(uiiatic switch 


s furnislied witli 


"Northern Junior" svvitchl)oards. whicli 


is connected be- 


twecn the generator and liattery. Wl 


en the generator 



properly, after the operator establishes the proper value of 
charging current by means of the generator field rheostat. 
If, for any reason, the voltage should fail, the automatic 
switch will operate on reverse current and open to disconnect 
the generator from the battery. These outfits can be 
furnished for any number of lights, and of sufficient capacity 
to take care of the operation of household current consuming 
devices, where the ovviier wishes to enjoy tile ■•onvenience 
of citv service. 



The Dominionlite 

The illustration lierewith represents the most recent crea- 
tion of the Jelterson Glass Coinpany, Toronto. This unit 
is known as the "Dominionlite," and is specially adapted 
for store lighting, offices, schools, libraries, public buildings, 
railroad stations, warehouses, etc. The unit consists of two 
parts — a lower semi-translueent bowl and an upper semi- 




translucent larger bowl which serves the purpose of a false 
reflecting ceiling. The bowl is suspended by three rigid 
rods attached to a point above the socket. This unit is 
designed for 350 watt tungsten lamps or 300 watt nitrogen- 
filled lamps. 



Moved to Larger Quarters 

The \'olt Electric Company. Limited, Toronto, have 
moved their quarters from 41 Britain Street to larger and 
more attractive premises at .iT Queen Street East. An ex- 
cellent ground floor showroom and more tlian a tliousand 
feet additional floor space will be available. 



tnc 



Tlie Hydro I-:l 
)f (Jntario arc calling 
.-.xtension to tlie S(nitl 



Power Commission of tlie Province 
for tenders for tlie construction of an 
Falls power liouse. .\ T.'iO kv.a. unit 



voltage reaches a predetermined amount, the switch autonia 
tically connects the two together, so that charging goes on 



will be added to this phuil. together with transforming and 
switeliing equi])ment for transmission at 22,000 volts to 
Gravenhurst and other municipalities in that vicinity. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 1, l'J16 



Canadian Eveready in New Quarters 

The expiration of the old lease, and the necessity for 
more space due to the increasing demands of a growing busi- 
ness, has resulted in the Canadian Ever Ready Works moving 
to new quarters in the new Purman Building, Adelaide Street 
West, Toronto. 

The new quarters are about twice as large as the old 
ones, and occupy the whole top flat, with floor space of 
about 12,000 square feet. This space is equall" divided, one- 
half on either side of the lightwell, the two being connected 
by a covered-in steel causeway for the passage of loaded 
trucks from one department to the other. In the west wing 
is the general office, the superintendent's office, a small office 
for salesmen, the warehouse or storage rooms, and the ship- 
ping department. The east wing is the factory, where the 
Ever Ready products are manufactured. This factory is mo- 
tor-driven and is scientifically and systematically laid out so 
that the articles in the process of manufacture may go as 
directly as possible from one operation to the other. Batteries 
are manufactured, tested and packed in their cartons ready for 
the warehouse, before leaving the factory. A special fire- 
proof chamber has been provided, according to the rules of 
the Fire Underwriters, for the cauldrons for melting wax 
required in scaling the batteries. 

While not completely settled in the new quarters, the 
Ever IJeady Works are already turning out from 2,500 to 
3,000 complete batteries daily. The works employ at present 
about eighteen men in the factory, which force will shortly 




be enlarged to thirty, and ultimately to about fifty. A con- 
stant force of five men is required in the warehouse and ship- 
ping department. The present stock, consisting of miniature 
lamps and automobile lamps, both regular and type C nitro- 
gen-filled mazda, flashlights and small batteries, to the value 
of upwards of $100,000, is systematically stored so that on 
the shortest notice shipments can be made quickly and ac- 
curately. Orders are filled complete before being passed to 
the shipping department, thereby eliminating any chance 
of error. 

The Ever Ready works will, it is claimed, when finally 
completed, have the most up-to-date and efficient factory 
for such products in Canada. Complete list of articles manu- 
factured by them include: flashlights, flashlight batteries, 
standard type dry cells, fireproof battery boxes, multiple live 
spark batteries arranged in waterproof boxes for out-of-doors 
and marine work, miniature auto lamps, non-sulphating stor- 
age batteries, testing instruments and pocket meters. They 
are also about to place on the market an electric starter for 
Ford cars. The cuts shown are two of the latest additions 
to the Ever Ready flashlight family. They have been manu- 
factured to meet the popular demand, and arc proving a valu- 
able addition. 



New R & M Motor 

The new motor shown herewith is a special design de- 
veloped by the Robbins & Myers Company, Springfield, Ohio, 
for washing machine service. 

The end heads are cast in a special form which gives 
absolute protection from water which may splash on the 
motor, while at the same time they are open and permit a 
free circulation of air through the motor. The ventilation 
is assisted further by a fan on the shaft. 

The base is provided with four holes for fastening the 
motor machine. It is cast separately from the motor frame 
and is attached to tlic frame bv four screws. It can be 




attached to the top of the motor, permitting of overhead 
mounting when this is desired, without making it necessary 
to turn the motor over and invert the end heads. 

The motor terminals are protected by an iron box which 
fits over the M, and is held in place by two screws. The 
cord enters this box through a hole which is provided with 
a rubber bushing. The motor is furnished complete with 
ten feet of reinforced cord and a separable plug. It is also 
fitted with a V-groove pulley. 

The bearings are made of phosphor bronze and are 
lubricated by wick oilers. The lubricating system is con- 
structed as to prevent any leakage of lubricant which might 
soil the clothing. 

The motor can be furnished for direct current of all 
standard voltages and for alternating current of all standard 
frequencies and voltages. The speed on direct current and 
GO cycle alternating current is 1750 r.p.m. 



Obituary 

Thomas Kennedy, president of the Sarnia Ga 
trie Light Company, Ltd., is dead. 



and Elcc- 



Mr. Robert Archer recently died at his home. S06 Sher- 
brooke Street West, Montreal. Mr. Archer was one of that 
city's best-known business men and was a director of the 
Bell Telephone Company and of the Northern Electric Co. 



Cie (La) de T< 
registered. 



['jdione de ^'alcourt, Ely. Qu°., have 



Central station men all over Canada will learn with deep 
regret of the death of S. G. Chambers, manager and owner 
of the Chambers Electric Light and Power Company, Truro, 
N. S. Mr. Chambers has been supplying light and power to 
the town of Truro for nearly thirty years, being one of the 
pioneers in the electric business. Mr. Chambers will also 
be greatly missed by the Canadian Electrical .Association, 
in which he has always taken a keen interest, and at whose 
conventions he has frequently been a prominent figure. 



Fcl)niary 1, lUlG 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



w^^M^y^^:- 



Phillips Factory 
at Monireal 




High Tension Cable 



Photo 

Actual 

Size 




13,200 

Volts 

Pressure 



No. 3/0 B. & S. three-conductor, paper-insulated and plain-lead- 
covered cable, for a working pressure of 1 3,200 volts. Supplied and 
installed to specifications of Engineering Department, Toronto Hydro- 
Electric System. 

ACTUAL DIMENSIONS 

Conductors — 3/0 B. & S., composed of 19 strands, each .094"dia. 
Thickness of dialectric on each conductor .210 

" " in belt 2io;; 

"lead sheath 150' 

Overall diameter 2.640 



Eugene F. Phillips Electrical Works 

Head Office and Factory, Montreal 

Branches al Toronto, Winnipeg, Calgary and Vancouver 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Current News and Notes 



Amherstburg, Ont. 

The Town Council of Amhcrstl)iir,u:. Ont.. arc planninji 
extensions to their present lighting system. 

Bassano, Alta. 

The Trusts and Guarantee Company, Calgary, announce 
that tenders will be received up to January 38 for the pur- 
chase of the assets of the Alberta Electric Company, which 
controls the lighting system in the town of Bassano. Alta. 

Calgary, Alta. 

Commissioner A. G. Graves, at a recent banquet of the 
Calgary branch of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, 
outlined the power situation in the city of Calgary and 
pointed out that power rates in that city compared more than 
favorably with Winnipeg. Toronto, and Montreal. Mr. 
Graves gave a number of interesting examples, and showed 
by diagrams a number of cases where these costs were con- 
siderably less. He further stated that the city's present con- 
tract with the Calgary Powder Company was a favorable one 
for the city. 

Cobden, Ont. 

A by-law recently carried authorizing an expemliUire nf 
$30,000 on an electric plant. 

Forest, Ont. 

A by-law recently carried authorizing the introduction 
of Nia.gara power through the Hydro-electric Tower Couv 
mission of Ontario. 

Granby, Que. 

The Electric Light Committee have been instructed by 
the village council to employ an electrical cngmeer to make 
a report on a supply of electric power to this corporation. 

Hamilton, Ont. 

An automatic telephone department has been' installed 
in the local hydro offices. At present about twenty-five tele- 
phones connecting the various departments are in operation, 
though central equipment for a considerably larger system 
has been installed. 

Hensall, Ont. 

The hydro by-law submitted on January -tth authorizing 
an agreement with the Hydro-electric Power Commission 
of Ontario was carried. 

Highgate, Ont. 

A by-law passed authorizing an expenditure of $7,000 on 
an electric system; power to be obtained from the Ontario 
Commission. 

Kilsyth, Ont. 

The Derby Telephone Company, Limited, Kilsyth, Ont., 
have been granted a charter. 

Lenore, Man. 

The electric light plant at Lenore, Man., was damaged 
by fire recently. This plant is owned by Messrs. H. W. 
Pline and H. M. McKay. 

Lethbridge, Alta. 

Mr. Grace, of the Grace Coal Mine, is negotiating willi 
the municipal power plant for the supply of a block of power 
for mining operations. The mine is situated about one 
mile from the power house. 
Montreal, P.Q. 

Preliminary contracts have been awarded in connection 
with the power plant extensions of the Montreal Tramways 



Company. It is announced that the contract for boilers 
has been let to Babcock & Wilcox. Limited, and for a turbo- 
generator to the Canadian General Electric Company. 

The Federal Government will build a wireless station 
at Cote St. Michel. Montreal. The present site at Tarte 
Pier, Maisonneuve, is to be abandoned. The new station 
will be of a more powerful type, and will complete the chain 
of stations from Cape Race and Glace Bay to the Great Lakes. 

I^ieut. H. M. Scott, for many years associated with Mr. 
Henry Holgatc. consulting electrical engineer, has joined 
the 14Sth Battalion, of which Mr. Paul F. Sise. vice-president 
and general manager of the Northern Electric Company, is 
adjutant. Lieut. Scott is an associate member of the C:'ii- 
adian Society of Civil Engineers. 

Judgment has just been rendered in the Supreme Court 
by Mr. Justice Maclennan awarding the Nova Scotia Con- 
struction Company the sum of $175,;!33 for work done under 
various contracts in connection with the power company's 
hydraulic developments at St. Timothy. It is stated by the 
power company's attorneys that an appeal against this judg- 
ment will be entered. 

Nelson, B.C. 

The annual statement nf the electric liglit department 
recently made public by the city electrician. H. P. Thomas. 
showed a net profit of $10.r)i:! on the year's operations. 

Park Hill, Ont. 

The by-law recently su)>mitted to the electors re Niagara 
jiower to be supplied by tlie Ontario Commission, carried. 

Sherbrooke, Que. 

The contract for a new turbine to be installed by the 
cit3' has been awarded tn the Jenckes Machine Company. 

Three Rivers, Que. 

Notice has been given by the North Shore Power Com- 
pan)' that they will apply to the ne.xt session of the pro- 
vincial legislature for authority to extend their operations 
beyond the limits of the district of Three Rivers, and more 
especially in the munici]ialities of Portneuf and Lotbiniere. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The "Belmont" exchange of the Bell Telephone Com- 
pany's system was opened for service on Tuesday. January 
11. This includes all of the old district of North Toronto 
north of Rosehill Avenue and will supply approximately 
1,500 customers. Bell Telephone rates are now uniform with- 
in the municipal boundaries of the city. 

Wellesley, Ont. 

A by-law carried authorizing the expenditure of $7,500 
on an electric distributing system; power to be obtained from 
the Ontario Commission. 

Windsor, Ont. 

It is announced that formal permission has been granted 
by the United States Government to a Detroit corporation, 
the Federal Light and Power Company, to transmit hydro 
power from Windsor to Detroit. 

Wyoming, Ont. 

.\ by-law carried authorizing an expenditure of $6,000 
on an electric distributing system. Power will be obtained 
from the Ontario Commission. 

Zurich, Ont. 

.\ Hydro-electric by-law authorizing the introduction of 
Niagara Falls power was recently carried. 



Ki'hnKirv ir., l;iH 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 




rublishud Semi-Monthly By 

HUGH G. MACLEAN, LIMITED 

HUGH C. MacLEAN, Winnipeg, President. 

THOMAS S. YOUNG, General Manager. 

W. R. CARR, Ph.D., Editor. 
HEAD OFFICE - 347 Adelaide Street West, TORONTO 

Telephone A. 3700 
MONTREAL - Tel. Main 2299 - Room 119, Board of Trade 
WINNIPEG - Telephone Garry 856 - 302 Travellers' Bldg. 
VANCOUVER - Tel. Seymour 2013 - Winch Building 
NEW YORK - Tel. 3108 Beekman - 1226 Tribune Building 
CHICAGO - Tel. Harrison 5351 - 1413 Great Northern Bldg. 
LONDON, ENG. -------- 16 Regent Street S.W. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 

Orders for advertising should reacli tlie office of publication not later 
than the 5th and 20th of the month. Changes in advertisements will he 
made whenever desired, without cost to the advertiser. 
SUBSCRIBERS 

The "Electrical News" will be mailed to subscribers in Canada and 
(".reat Britain, post free, for $2.00 per annum. United States and foreign, 
.$2.50. Remit by currency, registered letter, or postal order payable to 
Hugh C. MacLean, Limited. 

Subscribers are requested to promptly notify the publishers of faihtre 
or delay in delivery of paper. 

Authorized by the Postmaster General for Canada, for transmission 
as second class matter. 

Entered as second class matter Tuly ISth, 1914. at the Postoffice at 
Buffalo, N.Y., under the Act of Congress of March .•!, 1879. 



Vol. 25 



Toronto, February 15, 1916 



No. 4 



A Record in Continuity of Service 

For completeness of installation and continuity of ser- 
vice the Kaministiquia Power Company has few equals, in 
hydro-electric power developing stations in Canada to-day. 
The plant is situated at Kakabeka Falls, and delivers its entire 
output to the twin cities of Port Arthur and Fort William. 
These cities, at the head of Lake Superior, occupy a strate- 
gical position in the commerce of Canada, being the transfer 
point between the east and west. West-bound merchandise 
is here transferred from boat to rail, or stored for delivery 
during the winter months, and east-bound grain, forest and 
mineral raw products forming the return cargo are transfer- 
red from rail to boat. The transfer facilities required to 
handle this immense traffic must necessarily be the most 
reliable obtainable. Electricity has been almost totally used; 
power being obtained from the Kaministiquia Power Com- 
pany. '. 

The plant, which is now complete, has a total develop- 
ment of approximately 30,000 h.p. The original installation 
was commenced in 1905. was enlarged in 1911. and completed 
in 1915. The details of additions, which consist of a rein- 
forced concrete aqueduct one and a quarter miles long; the 
installation of butterfly valves as hcadgates to penstocks, 
with their control apparatus; erection of a steel penstock, a 
13,500 h.p. turbine, and a 9.375 kv.a. generator with the neces- 
sary transformers, switching apparatus, etc.. are explained in 
detail elsewliere in I his issue. 

.\fter nine years of operation the company shows a 
record for service continuity that, we believe, is not sur- 
passed by any hydro-electric plant in tlie world. Trouble, 



inconvenience, or delay from ice, backwater, or water short- 
age, are unknown, and from all causes the total interruptions 
to the system have not exceeded twenty minutes in any 
one year. For the past year this record was cut to four 
minutes. Whether it is the design of this plant, the favor- 
able local and climatic conditions, the vigilance of its officers, 
or a combination of all these, this is a record that proves 
the ability of a hydro-electric plant to give what is to all 
intents and purposes a perfect service. We take our hats 
off to Mr. W. L. Bird and his staflf. 

After studying the operating records of this company, 
the advocate of standby steam plants as auxiliaries to hyd- 
raulic plants will find many of his pet arguments vanish. 
And what is already an accomplished fact at Kakabeka Falls 
is without a doubt the standard to which other hydro-electric 
plants are approaching. The line along which greatest pro- 
gress has been made during the past few years, in operation, 
is probably in the way of increased continuity. The "emer- 
gency" argument of the "standby" advocate is thus gradu- 
ally losing its force. The value of such an auxiliary in cer- 
tain cases for peak load requirements is, of course, another 
matter. 



Systematic Water-power Researches 

"Substantial progress has been made by the various or- 
ganizations of the Dominion and Provincial Governments in 
investigating the water resources of the Dominion. The 
only province that is not now provided with some form of 
water resources investigation is New Brunswick, but nego- 
tiations, now under way. will probably lead to some satis- 
factory arrangement in the near future. Manitoba, Sas- 
katchewan, Alberta and British Columbia have permanent 
systematic hydrographic organizations under the direction 
of the Minister of the Interior. Ontario is gradually being 
covered by the hydraulic division of the Ontario Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission. Quebec is being looked after 
by the Quebec Streams Commission and the chief engineer 
of Hydraulic Forces. In Nova Scotia there is a co-operat- 
ive agreement between the Dominion Water Power Branch 
of the Department of the Interior and the Nova Scotia Water 
Power Commission. The field investigations of these or- 
ganizations are being published in a very satisfactory form, 
although there has been some delay in publishing the data 
promptly, following the completion of the calendar or water 
year, as the case may be. The chief engineers of the above 
organizations have had several informal conferences with a 
view ta co-ordinating, systematizing and standardizing their 
work, and also to facilitate the publication of the data in a 
uniform way and promptly. The net result of these informal 
discussions will be that in the near future, Canada will he 
completely covered by efficient and eflFective organizations 
charged with the responsibility for investigating, in the most 
complete and comprehensive manner consistent with the 
dictates of economy the water resources of the Dominion." 
—Mr. James White before C. S. C. E., annual meeting. 



The latest statement of Dominion finances, 
covering the period from April 1, 1915, to Feb- 
ruary 1, 1916. shows an increase in revenue from 
all sources of approximately $30,000,000 as com- 
pared with the same period a year ago. Also, 
expenditures have been reduced by $18,500,000. 
Our revenue position for 10 months is therefore 
improved to the extent of $48,500,000 as compared 
with the same period of 1915, or at the rate of 
$58,200,000 a year. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Fchruarv Ij. 1010 



How to Overcome the Jitney Problem 

SMiiiTintciKliiU Mceaulcy ..f e'alj^ary's strt-cl railway 
system, believes that he can save the city at least onc-lhird 
of the cost of operating certain lines of its street railway sys- 
tem by putting into force one-man cars on these lines. The 
first car thus operated is now being tried out. On the one- 
man cars the motorman acts both as motorman and con- 
ductor. Entry is made through the front of the car, and 
the back vestibule is set aside for a smoking compartment. 
Practically no time is lost by the motorman in stopping to 
take on or let off passengers and collect fares, the box for 
this purpose being set immediately at the door. Mr. Mc- 
Cauley has declared his intention of extending the service to 
ether lines if it proves satisfactory. 

Several other cities throughout Canada have announced 
their intention of trying out this method of street car opera- 
tion, the cities of Port Arthur and Fort William having 
taken the matter up seriously. At Brandon, Man., one-man 
cars have been in operation now for two years and are said 
by the municipal authorities of that city to be furnishing an 
altogether satisfactory service at minimum cost. These cars 
are operated on the pay-as-you-enter system, and it has been 
found that the motorman can not only attend to his car, but 
atso supply transfers when needed, open and close the door, 
and still maintain prompt and efficient service. The most 
recent installation of one-man cars in Canada is on the lines 
of the Three Rivers Traction Co.. described in a recent 



Vancouver Companies Asked to Lower Rates 

\\ ilh ;i \ie\v to affonling relief to citizens in the matter 
of telephone, gas and electric light rates the General Util- 
ities committee of Vancouver City Council recently inter- 
viewed the British Columbia Telephone Company and the 
British Columbia Electric Railway Company officials rela- 
tive to the possibility of securing reductions in the present 
rates being charged citizens for the respective services above 
enumerated. 

Mr. Halse. commercial superintendent of the Telephone 
Company, met the committee with a very frank explanation 
of the company's finances and earnings, which he claimed to 
be irrefutable evidence that it was utterly impossible fof 
the company at the present time to grant a reduction in the 
cliarge for anj' of their services. 

General Manager George Kidd, of the B.C.E.R., was 
icpially emphatic in explaining that his company was not 
ill a position financially to grant any concessions to the 
citizens. Tlie electric light and gas departments were the 
only ones making profits, and these were being applied to 
hell) offset the losses on the railway. A reduction in the 
rates would aflfect the company's general revenue and would 
only hasten the end. How long they could go on losing was 
a question, but they could not add to the burden now being 
carried. General Manager Kidd likewise reluctantly turned 
a deaf ear to suggestions that the price of lighting be re- 
duced for two months as an experiment, or if the latter could 
not be granted, that the monthly charge for meter rent be 
eliminated. 



Edmonton's Power Problems 

The power question in Edmonton does not appear to 
l)e settled yet. In November, 101."). the electors approved 
a contract with the Edmonton Power Company, subject to 
the ratification of the Provincial Legislature. The Legis- 
lature has not passed on it yet. as it only meets some time 
this month. Meanwhile, other interests are making offers 
of cheaper power to the i.-ily. C)ne of these is Mr. H. W. 



.\dcock, of the Athabasca Power Company, Winnipeg, for 
whom Kerry & Chace, Limited, of Toronto, are acting as 
consulting engineers. 

The Alliance Trust Company, of Calgary, representing 
R. B. Bennett, Senator Lougheed, and others connected with 
the Calgary Gas Company, have also made an offer to take 
over the present power house and sell power to the city 
at a rate approximately 20 per cent, lower than that called 
for under the present contract with the Edmonton Power 
Company. This offer is under consideration by the city 
council at the present time. 



A Conundrum of the Day 

"Should the chief intelligence officer of the war depart- 
rnent of Canada be a German, with brothers in the German 
army? 

"Should there be other Germans in the Government ser- 
vice here? A number there are. 

"Is Canada at W'ar with Germany or playing marbles?" — 
Ottawa Journal. 

Good! and for heaven's sake will Ottawa cease playing 
politics? 



Weekly Electrical Luncheon 

A luncheon, under the name of the "Wednesday Elcc- 
tiical Luncheon," is held every week at Cooper's Restaurant, 
Montreal. The object is of a social character, to devise a 
means by which men engaged in the various electrical 
branches can meet and informally discuss between themselves 
questions of common interest and to get better acquainted. 
The luncheons so far have been well attended. The com- 
mittee, of which Mr. W. H. Winter, of the Bell Telephone 
Company, is chairman, is representative of the different sec- 
tions of the industry. It is composed of Messrs. W. J.ICamp, 
C. P. R. Telegraphs; A. C. Towne, Tohns-Manville Com- 
pany, Limited; H. Hulatt, Grand Trunk Telegraphs; A. J. 
Carroll, Eugene F. Phillips Electrical Works. Limited; R. H. 
Hyde, Northern Electric Company, Limited; S. W. Smith, 
Electrical Equipment Com])any, Limited; P. T. Davics, 
Montreal Light, Heat and Power C ompany; and I'. B. Ellis, 
Xortbern Electric Company. 



Letter to the Editor 

The Editor, 
Electrical New~s: 

"Wireless telegraphy is causing the deaths of 
hundreds of birds. T. E. B. Pope, of the Milwau- 
kee Museum, told a class to-day. 'Recentlj-, in 
San Francisco, pelicans were seen dropping dead 
from the air into the ocean, having been killed by 
wireless waves,' said the speaker." 

The enclosed clipping from a Chicago daily speaks for 
itself. Why such men, who understand nothing about elec- 
trical discharges, are believed and given considerable pub- 
licity when the}' utter statements regarding the so-called 
mysteries of electricity, is more than I can understand. 
Evidently the honorable T. E. B. P. never read that high 
frequency currents rarely kill and that the potential gradient 
at only a small distance from a radio mast is insufficient to 
kill the most sensitive form of life. 

Hoping that you will spread the news and warn against 
lielieving everything the dailies print. I am. 
\'ery truly yours, 

H. E. Weightman. 
Chicago, January ~7, 191G. 



February 15, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



England's Malady— The Party System 



By Cosmo Hamilton 



One night, with tlic memory of the South-African War 
still stamped upon his leonine face, a little old man whose 
small eyes were charged with a kind of prophetism went in- 
to his study, threw down the notes of a speech that he hail 
just delivered in the House of Lords, sank rather feebly into 
a chair, and burst into tears. 

There were two younger men in the quiet room, tall, 
wiry men on whose faces and figures discipline had laid its 
restraining hand — soldiers both. Their sympathy was in- 
articulate. And then the old man spoke. 

"Curse those fools!" he cried. "Curse them! They 
won't listen to mc. I am a mere damn' soldier. I am talk- 
ing facts, and they know it; but the system, that unique 
and criminal system of party politics, renders them abso- 
lutely impotent even it they desired to take advantage of 
the evidence that 1 have flung at their heads. I told them 
that the British army has only just escaped being whipped 
liy a pack of farmers, that the flower of English manhood, 
unready because of these little clever people who sit at 
Westminster, has manured the wide stretches of the veldt, 
where their gravestones are meaningless. Will they take 
a lesson from this two-years' national disgrace? Will they 
organize the whole Empire by a form of compulsory ser- 
vice to meet the menace of the great Teuton machine which 
every day is being perfected for its inevitable use? No; 
I tell you, no. And yet, by God! there are a few men sitting 
in the House of Commons not yet so warped and twisted 
by the dishonesty of tlie party system that deep down in 
what remains of their souls they know that my stammering 
words are true. 'Compulsory service? Yes, that is the solu- 
tion,' they say; 'but what kind of fools shall we be con- 
sidered by our friends if we sacrifice our political careers 
for the sake of patriotism?' No, it's no use. Stop me ever 
from getting on my feet again. I am hurling my old body 
up against the brick wall of a political system that one of 
these days will place England under the feet of a determined, 
self-sacrificing, industrious and brutal enemy." 

That little old man was Field-Marshal Earl Roberts of 
Kandahar. 

* * * 

Dinner was over; the servants had left. The thin smoke 
of cigars and cigarettes rose up to the gilt ceiling of the 
large, dignified room when the laughter and conversation 
of the men whose faces and figures formed the subject of 
caricatures in the English papers suddenly died away. The 
host, a bearded man with a high forehead and heavy bovine 
eyes, leaned forward. In his rather fine white hand he 
held a thick amber cigar-holder, which he used as a sort of 
baton to enforce his words. 

"Gentlemen," he said in the peculiar guttural voice which 
was known and loved in many strange parts, "look out! 1 
liave asked you here on my return from Germany to say 
to you, look out! A colossus is stretching himself. Every 
great muscle of his arms is taut and hard. Every lillle 
cell of his great brain reverberates with two words only, 
'Der Tag." .... We live in a false security here. We arc 
a democracy which tolerates a monarch. You, gentlenum. 
are our autocrats. Each one of you is the king of England. 
What are your majesties going to do? .\re you going lo 
continue to play Canute and hold up your hands to the 
waves and say, 'Back!'? .'\rc you going to continue to sil 
within the apparently impregnable walls of your party sys- 
tem? Because, if so, the security of this kingdom and your 



'In Centun' Magrazine. 



little crowns is not marketable. There arc no bidders. I 
say lo you again, look out!" 

That man was King Edward VII. of Great Britain and 
Ireland. 

* * * 

There was only one policeman outside that little, dull, 
unpretentious house in Downing Street in which much re- 
grettable history has been made, and from which one genera- 
tion after another has been misgoverned and misled by pre- 
miers and their satellites. On his chest were the ribbons 
of medals won in India and South Africa, and in his eyes 
there was the look of a man who fears that he is about to 
face unutterable disgrace. 

He has watched one member after another of the British 
cabinet scamper up with white lips. From where he stands 
he can see the complicated system of wireless telegraphy 
on the roof of the Admiralty. He knows well, like every 
other man of the nation to which he belongs, that a message 
has been framed to be despatched from those wires to the 
great ships that lie waiting off the coast. He knows also 
that the hands of the army and navy are held by the grip 
of the party system, and that the agreements of his country 
with her allies may be broken, to her everlasting shame, by 
those frightened, panic-stricken men who have rushed up 
from their country houses to attend the cabinet meeting 
within. 

There sat Mr. Asquith, the prime minister, with ashen 
face and hands shaking like a man with palsy. All round 
the table were seated the men who had trifled with their 
trust. Their teeth were chattering. They were face to face 
at last with the truth which they had dodged and refused to 
recognize. 

"Why should we fight?" they stammered. "We are a 
peace-loving nation, unready for bloodshed. Let the others 
fly at one another's throats, and while they kill and devastate 
we will grow rich. Are we not a nation of shopkeepers?" 

"Listen!" said Mr. Asquith. 

From all parts of Great Britain and Ireland— yes, Ire- 
land—there rose an ever-increasing rumble of passionate pro- 
test, like the breaking of huge waves upon rocks. Bugles 
seemed to ring out, and from every town and hamlet there 
appeared to rise up millions of hands. Near by a bell was 
tolling. 

Mr. Asquith looked up and all round, catching the 
troubled eyes of his henchmen. 

"Oh> my God!" he said, "our servants have become our 
masters. They demand that we shall fight. Gentlemen, the 
party system is dead." 

* * * 

The party system! The House of Commons is divided 
into two bodies. On one side of it sits the party in the 
majority, on the other side the party in the minority, and 
over them both the Irish. The House of Commons pur- 
ports to represent a great country whose history gleams with 
the heroic results of individual effort. The constitution of 
all the men under the roof of that House is the same. 
Whether they call themselves Conservatives or Liberals, they 
are not there for reasons of patriotism. They have entered 
politics for the same reason that takes men to the stock- 
exchange and upon the stage- for money and for advertise- 
ment. On both sides there are men who own newspapers, 
run simply for the purpose of grinding their little axes, in 
which they may hurl sham invective at their fellow-con- 
spirators and write columns of self-praise. On both sides 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February l", 1916 



there are lawyers who have tacked on politics to their pro- 
fession so that they may stand in the lim<«light, pick up 
the plums, and manipulate commerce to their own benefit. 
On both sides there are bankers and publicans, journalists 
and company-promoters, city merchants and the poverty- 
stricken relatives of the great political leaders, who will 
obey orders, answer the party whip, and sell their souls for 
a mess of pottage. On both sides there are little creatures 
from the back alleys who have been educated to politics as 
a means of livelihood, and who are perfectly willing to assert 
that black is white or vice versa whenever they can gain by 
doing so. The majority are, ipso facto, the enemy of the 
minority, and the Irish hate them both; but the minority, 
majority, and Irish are all working together for their own 
ends. They may call themselves Conservatives, Unionists, 
Radicals, Liberals, Nationalists, Fenians, Anti-Vivisectionists, 
Little Englanders, or any one of the dozen meaningless names 
which have grown into the English language, but they remain 
mercenaries and parasites, the manipulators of a party sys- 
tem which is a cunningly built-up conspiracy to mislead the 
country, misrepresent its voters, and provide places for the 
incapable sons of peers and yearly incomes for specially 
chosen men whose integrity has been proved to be easily 
bought, and whose eloquence, like that of a criminal lawyer, 
is as ready to be used in defense as in prosecution. 

In a word, the party system of British politics is the 
one corrupt thing in the constitution of that nation. The 
House of Commons has become the happy hunting-ground 
of a dozen great families whose members pass into it from 
time to time by the same right that men pass into the business 
firms of their fathers. They are all partners in a great 
swindle, and their clerks and henchmen, hired from the law. 
the universities, the factories, and the streets, vary only as 
their masters see fit. Those masters, nearly equally divided 
on both sides of the House, agree from time to time to take 
the reins of office, paying themselves large salaries, large 
pensions, giving places only to those men who have been 
most obsequious and most eagerly dishonest. They juggle 
with the votes of the country, with their tongues in their 
cheeks. They are past-masters in card-sharping and the 
three-card trick. There is not one man among them with 
the faintest gleam of imagination, patriotism, or understand- 
ing of the characteristics and spirit of the race whom they 
bluflf by inheritance. Yes, there is one— the Mark Antony 
of the House of Commons, the little Celtic man whose name 
is Lloyd-George, who possesses the three gifts that go to 
the making of a great charlatan— a pair of wonderful eyes, 
a sense of impish humor, and that touch of exaltation which 
stirs men to hysteria. He is the Pied Piper of politics, the 
man whose little flute can draw from their <lark places the 
laboring parties of the United Kingdom. He is the groat 
democrat who has organized a bureaucracy more autocratic 
than anything in Russia. He is the king of charlatans. 

England is a free country, a democracy which tolerates 
a monarch, and is governed by a royal family of hereditary 
politicians supported by a nation of slaves. 

Let a young man enter Parliament big with a desire lo 
get things done, imbued with honesty of purpose, honest 
enthusiasms, honest patriotism, and a great wish to devote 
his energies, abilities, and all his time to the amelioration of 
one or other of the evils which have been left coldly alone 
by the party system, and he goes into a mausoleum of broken 
lives over the portals of which is written the terrible legend, 
"Give up hope, all ye who enter here." The result of his 
temerity is inevitable. He has either immediately to sacrifice 
honesty to selfishness or to rush back into the world once 
more to breathe uncontaminated air and to hurl invective, 
unnoticed, uncared-for, at the men who year after year de- 
liberately stand in the way of progress and with the utmost 
cunning lay stone after stone upon the great dam which holds 



back the waters of improvement and incloses in wonderful 
secui-ity the confidence-men who live upon the credulity of 
the British public. 

The party system of Great Britain is responsible for the 
degeneracy of a great nation. It is responsible for the un- 
employment of its working-classes, for the tyranny of its 
trades-unions, for the sense of injustice which, but for 
Germany, would have seen insurrection in Ireland. Finally, 
it is responsible for the unforgivable devastation of Belgium 
and for all the bloodshed, for all the hideous waste of life. 
money, material, and for the chaos of civilization under 
which, in pitiful attitudes, the fathers of the next generation 
lie crumpled and dead. 

Every widow, every orphan, every maimed man in 
Europe to-day; all those poor boys from Canada, Australia, 
and New Zealand; every Frenchman, Belgian, Indian, Rus- 
sian, Italian, African; every man who has sprung to arms, 
left his civil work, his little patch, his (juiet haven where 
the patter of children's feet has been the music of his life, 
has to thank the English party system for this war. Coun- 
tries as crippled as their sons, who have crept back like 
whipped dogs to a kind of life, will for ten, twenty, maybe 
a hundred, years hence have to thank the English party sys- 
tem for this hideous, unnecessary, preventable war. If there 
is yet one spark of remorse in the little souls of the men 
who have sat so long at Westminster greedily taking their 
salaries for the non-performance of their duties, then the 
quiet lunatic asylums which stand among the silent poplars 
of English country-sides must soon be full. If not, if their 
long service to dishonesty has eaten into them, if they see 
no shame in having permitted their country to slip into un- 
readiness and inefticiency, these little, petty harpies, these 
liypocritical self-advertisers, may have the satisfaction of 
wallowing in a sort of triumphant pool of exaltation; may 
congratulate themselves on having achieved an act of in- 
cendiarism so frightful that the bloody glow of its flames 
lights up every corner of Europe. 

Mr. Balfour, the theorist, the gentle, gentlemanlike uni- 
versity professor, upon whose gravestone will be carved ihe 
words, "Nothing have I ever achieved"; Mr. Asquith, his 
own worst enemy, whose famous, "Wait and see," will be 
forgotten and forgiven only when the beautiful towns of 
Belgium shall have risen once more; Mr. Winston Churchill, 
tlie inefficient hustler, who breaks, like a bull in a china 
shop, through the work of experts, and who will be remem- 
bered by posterity only for his comic hats; Sir Edward Grey, 
the imitation sphinx, who has never yet in all his political 
life understood the very rudiments of diplomacy; Lord Hal- 
dane, whose vanity is like that of the toad and whose cred- 
ulity is no less than that of the bumpkin who goes to the 
race-course and falls an instant victim to the confidence-man, 
— these men, and all their satellites without one exception, 
have quietly, steadily, and persistently made it possible for 
German militarism, German chemistry, and German effront- 
ery to cause England to be the one country on earth whose 
name can never be mentioned again throughout the ages 
without raising the bitter ire of her friends. Oh, my God! 
to think that the little old man, scarred and battered with 
the wars of his country, left alive surely by an all-pitying 
Diety so that his magic voice might sink into the hearts and 
brains of his countrymen to prevent the sacrilege of civiliza- 
tion, should have lived in vain! His warnings and his appeals, 
which stirred the English nation from coast to coast, were 
scoffed at or ignored by the English politicians. The month- 
ly reports of the secret services, all proving the criminal 
folly of the policy of laisser-faire, have been docketed away. 
The facts which have been plain to all the world, and caused 
France to strengthen her army and cut the terrible figures, 
1S70, on every one of her bullets, have been scorned by the 
English politicians. Instead of taking advantage of the anxi- 



February l"., 1016 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



ous readiness of the country to subscribe to a system of com- 
pulsory service, they have steadily weakened the army and 
would have scuttled the navy had not their rudimentary 
knowledge of the nation's temper told them that such an 
act would have brought about a revolution. They knew 
of Germany's settled intention of declaring war when armed 
to the teeth. They knew that the day was drawing ever 
nearer when the peace of Europe would be broken by the 
roar of artillery. Every conceivable piece of evidence that 
daily accumulated on their desks made that fact plain and 
unanswerable. HoWj then, did they intend to act when over- 
taken by the inevitable? Take one look at the journal sub- 
sidized by them and find the answer. Not caring for or ap- 
preciating the country's sense of honor and pride, they in- 
tended to break their treaties and stand aside. They were 
going to say: "Let them fight who care to; we are unready, 
unwarlikc. We will provide the loans at a high rate of in- 
terest and the ammunition at a price." Therefore I cry out 
aloud the sentiments of all true Englishmen when I say 
that the English party system is responsible for the war; be- 
cause, had we been able to place a great army in Belgium 
to resist the German assault, there would have been no war. 
It was only because Germany knew of England's unreadiness, 
and was in the counsels of England's politicians, that she 
sprang at Belgium's throat. 

The mills of God grind slowly, yet they grind 
exceedingly small. 
The germ of suicide would grow and grow in the brain 
of the thinking man did he not passionately believe that God 
does not intend this war to be just a hideous fracas, a blood- 
drunken orgy. The day will cnmc when the warring coun- 



tries, flung at one another by the leading villians of greed 
and selfishness and dishonesty, will flick the blood out of their 
eyes and ask one another the meaning of it all. The maimed 
and broken of all sides will look to see, in compensation for 
their lost limbs, the improving hand of the Master upon the 
churned-up earth. Out of her ruins France will rise with 
prayer upon her lips; Belgium, with her arms bared for the 
rebuilding of her smashed cities; and Russia with tears in 
her heart and brotherhood in her hands. In what manner 
Germany will be touched who can say? As for England, she, 
like a creature miraculously risen from the operating-table, 
will look out on the future with humbler eyes and a thankful 
heart. The cancer of the party system will have been cut 
out forever. 

Looking through the smoke, I can see the House of 
Commons occupied by a small committee of unpaid men — 
business men, honest men. They would shudder to be called 
politicians. Their ambition is to earn the title of patriots. 
They belong to no party. They are the servants of the 
nation. They will not govern the country; they will guide 
it. They will pursue the same principles and methods for 
the restoration of her commercial strength as are employed 
by a committee of liquidation appointed by the court of bank- 
ruptcy to a broken business concern. They will run Great 
Britain in the simple way in which a great railway company 
is run, and their shareholders, the nation, will be content to 
read their statements of progress and receive their dividends. 
Phoenix-like from the ruins there will have risen honest men, 
and there will be no comfortable corner on this earth for 
those outcasts who once gambled with a nation's soul for 
monej'. 



Illuminating Glassware Supply as Affected 
by War Conditions 



By J. F. 

Very shortly after this greatest of all wars began a 
great many manufacturers on this continent discovered that 
their customary source of supply of essential and minor 
ingredients necessary for tlie i)roduction of their products 
had been cut off. 

At first it was difficult to realize that the German and 
Austrian nations had. during the years of peace preceding 
the war, specialized in so many commodities which are in 
many instances absolutely necessary if certain manufac- 
turers are to carry on their l)usiness of production. 

Never before in the annals of history has the realiza- 
tion been forced upon the world as it is being forced upon 
us at the present time the extent to which nations have 
specialized in certain lines and how because of this special- 
ization they have, in a sense, like individuals, become de- 
pendent upon each other for certain things. 

The tinu' the trade of nations was very limited in ex- 
tent and when we never went outside the town, city, or 
country in which we lived to purchase those things which 
are required by civilized peoples, is from all proncnt indica- 
tions forever past. 

This condition has come about l)ecause of llie fact (hat 
applied science through its wonderful achievements has made 
the manufacture, the rapid and relatively cheap and efficient 
transportation of commodities over long distances, a simple 
and easy matter — and is also due to the fact that many 
groups of people in the world have specialized in one thing 
— and because of their inclination and ability they are speci- 
ally able to produce cheaply and extensively certain com- 
modities. 

To properly api)reciate the problem before us it will 



Heffron 

be necessary for us to note that the volume of commerce 
controlled liy the Germanic powers prior to the war was 
fast approaching that of Britain herself. The merchant 
marine of the German Empire, like that of Britain, carried 
unimaginable quantities of material to all parts of the world. 

It is now a matter of history, however, how the allied 
lUct, when war was declared, swept this growing enterprise 
of the enemy from the seas, and this, of course, is the prim- 
ary cause of the difficulties which the manufacturers of this 
continent are now facing. 

.\ short time after this stringency first appeared a num- 
ber of large manufacturing concerns were forced to close 
down either wholly or partially. .-\t the time this occurred 
the markets of the world had become badly demoralized be- 
cause the declaration of hostilities and a number of these 
shut-downs were due. no doubt, tn .mneral business condi- 
tions then prevailing. 

But it has since been ascertained that not a few con- 
cerns were forced to close down because of lack of certain 
raw materials. At present this situation has become very 
acute, and is being felt more widely each day. 

It is not our intention, nor do we believe it possible, 
in this short article to even attempt to l)rin,g forward facts 
and instances to show just how the ramifications of this 
shortage have reached into almost every industry in the land. 

It will be sufficient, we believe, to mention a few of 
the ditlicultics that have presented themselves in the manu- 
facture of one commodity — namely, glassware. This will 
give us an idea of the difficulties the rest have to contend 
with. The writer is to some extent acquainted with the 
difficulties which have presented themselves to glassware 



rHE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 15, 1916 



manufacturers— i.e., electrical and lamp glassware, glassware 
of all kinds for illuminating purposes. We will therefore 
not go outside the limits of the problem now confrontmg 
manufacturers in this line. 

A serious difficulty presents itself to manufacturers m 
this line because of their inability to secure potash. This is 
one of the commodities in which Germany has speciahzed, 
and practically the entire world's supply came from Germany 
before the war. This is an essential ingred:ent in the manu- 
facture of a great deal of the glassware in use. 

There are various other ingredients used in the manu- 
facture of glassware which are difficult to secure, the de- 
mand in all cases being many times greater than the supply. 
In addition to potash, we might mention oxide of antimony, 
oxide of zinc, and oxide of manganese. Arsenic is also a 
minor ingredient. It might also be mentioned that each 
glass manufacturer uses chemicals which are secrets with 
him in the mixture of the glass batch. These, of course, I 
am unable to mention. But all of the above articles have 
doubled and tripled in price, and some of them are not pro- 
curable at any price. 

Then, too, the war has presented another phase to this 
already difficult problem which is now being seriously felt 
by the glassware manufacturers. This is the tremendous 
demand for certain materials used in the manufacture of 
glass which are now also in great demand by the allies. 

The principal material is soda-ash, which is a very im- 
portant factor in glass-making. This particular material, 
made on this continent by several concerns, is now becom- 
ing very scarce indeed, the reason being that the allies have 
purchased almost every pound in sight. From this material 
caustic-soda is made, and from caustic-soda picric-acid is 
produced— picric-acid being the essential ingredient in high- 
explosive powder. 

The price of these materials is continually advancing — 
some articles have advanced as much as ten times their nor- 
mal price. 

It has become necessary, therefore, with some manu- 
facturers to discontinue entirely the manufacture of certain 
((ualities of glass they have been in the habit of producing, 
simply because of the absolute lack of materials for pro- 
ducing it. 

An Unprecedented Demand 
A further problem then presents itself: this is the un- 
precedented demand by the people, not only of this con- 
tinent, but of the world, for the product of the glass manu- 
facturer. 

Before the war commenced, huge quantities of glass- 
ware, and especially illuminating glassware, were imported 
from Germany by Canada and the United States. These im- 
ports being entirely cut off by the allies, the additional de- 
mand for goods manufactured here which before had been 
imported was immediately felt. These demands for supply- 
ing domestic use increased with leaps and bounds. But en 
top of this came the additional demands for unprecedented 
and undreamed-of quantities of glassware by countries form- 
erly supplied with glass by Germany. Orders for quantities 
of material never before heard of in the glass business came 
flowing in. In a great many cases a price was not asked; 
contracts were willingly signed and all sorts of agreements 
were made with manufacturers if they would only supply 
the goods requested. Germany, until the outbreak of the 
war the centre of the world's supply of glassware, hemmed 
in on all sides by the. Allies, ceased to be a factor in the 
business. The world's markets in this commodity moved to 
this continent, so that the glass manufacturers on this con- 
tinent are now exporting glassware in quantities never be- 
fore dreamed of to many parts of the world. 

Salesmen were notified that they must not ^ell certain 
articles manufactured by the various companies they hap- 
pened to be working for, or that certain articles could not 



be shipped for a number of months, or that certain other 
articles had been discontinued entirely. Additions were ad- 
ded to factories and plants, the wideawake concerns manu- 
facturing this commodity provided increased capacity wher- 
ever possible. 

In less than a year the glass manufacturing business rm 
this continent has exceeded all preconceived notions of iis 
possible expansion. 

Both the foreign and domestic business in this and other 
lines is still growing. This becomes more and more notice- 
able as stocks of goods which had been drawn on up to 
this time are being exhausted. The latest development to 
be felt in connection with the export business is the embargo 
now being placed by different railroads on cars to haul ex- 
port goods. Cars in some cases can only be had for ship- 
ment of goods intended for domestic use. If this inability 
of the railroads to handle freight increases, its effects will 
be seriously felt in many quarters. 

The demand increases, while the materials that are 
necessary for the manufacturing of articles to supply the 
demand continually decrease in volume or advance enormous- 
ly in price. The manufacturers are doing their best to cope 
with the situation by giving domestic orders every possible 
consideration and giving to the orders for export secondary 
consideration. The jobber and the dealer can help out also 
if he will wherever possible appreciate his needs as far 
ahead as possible. 



Electrification of Harbor Terminals 

For some three years the Montreal Harbor Commis- 
sioners have had under consideration the electrification of 
the harbor railway terminals, and during the past year steps 
have been taken towards this end. In the annual report, just 
issued, the Commissioners state: 

"The increase in the railway traffic of the Port and the 
mileage of trackage in operation makes it important to pro- 
ceed with the utmost despatch in establishing facilities which 
will not only retain Canadian trade, but which, by their 
superiority over those provided at competitive ports, will 
attract additional business. 

"With this object in view the Commissioners have, dur- 
ing the past year, devoted much time and thought to a study 
of a scheme for the complete electrification of the harbor 
railway terminals, visiting and inspecting in the meantime 
the electric freight terminals of the New York Central, 
Pennsylvania, and New York, New Haven & Hartford Rail- 
roads at New York, Oak Point, New Rochelle, etc., where 
the application of electricity had proved successful in the 
movement of freight at the various terminals. 

"It was also ascertained that, in addition to the primary 
object of overcoming the smoke nuisance, the application of 
electricity had proved that it had, among manj- others, the 
following advantages over steam for railroad terminal trac- 
tion: — 

"Economy in operation and maintenance; flexibility of 
control; availability for immediate service; fewer units re- 
quired for equal service; elimination of corrosion of steel 
and galvanized iron by acid gases; :ire danger reduced; and 
standby losses much lowered. 

"As a result of this investigation, an expert electrical 
engineer has, for some time past, been engaged in studying 
on the ground the railway conditions of the port, and pre- 
paring a report as to designs, types and estimates, upon re- 
ceipt of which it is proposed, should the report confirm the 
conclusions arrived at by the Commissioners, to proceed at 
once with the work of completely electrifying the Montreal 
Harbor terminals, upon the consummation of which Mont- 
real will have the distinction of being the first port in the 
world possessing a complete system of electrified freight 
terminals." 



February 15, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



The Kaministiquia Power Company 

The Rapid Development of the Canadian Twin Cities Due Largely to Ample Supply of 
Dependable Power Description of Latest Installation Work at Kakabeka Falls 



By P. R. 

Tlif Canadinn twin cities of Fort William and Port 
Arthur, at the head of Lake Superior, occupy a strategical 
position in the commerce of Canada. During the seasons 
of navigation west-bound merchandise is carried largely by 
boat, on account of the low freight rates, and there trans- 
ferred to rail, or stored for delivery during the succeeding 
winter months. East-bound grain, forest and mineral raw 
products are also transferred here, forming return cargo. 
The great bulk of the coal for the Middle West is brought 
up by boat during the summer from BufTalo and Cleveland, 
and transferred or stored, at immense electrically-operated 
coal docks. 

.■\t Port Arthur and Fort William are situated some of 
the largest and most modern coal docks on the contiiUMit. 
Upwards of 3,000,000 tons of coal are shipped through this 
port every year. The transfer facilities to liandle this traffic 
must necessarily be of the very best, and electric power has 
liere proven itself a most dependable and efficient servant. 
.-Ml the coal docks, of which there are five, are operated 
liy electric power. 

Grain Facilities 
In the transfer and storage of grain these ports excel 
all other ports in the world. The storage capacity of the 
port is now over 45,000,000 bushels, and is being increased 
yearly. During the fall rush, grain is delivered day after day 
into the elevators at the rate of 2,000,000 bushels per day. 
It is then graded and transferred to boats for delivery at 
Georgian Bay, Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence ports. 

Here again electric power performs a most important 
service, on account of its adaptability, efficiency, reliability 
and convenience. As new storage units are added to the 
elevator, the simple electric motor readily adapts itself to 
suit any location and meet any service, and yet can be cen- 
tralized and controlled from one point. 

On account of the location of these twin cities as a bnlk- 
l)reaking and storage point for raw and finished products, 
it was obvious that they were destined to become large 
manufacturing and milling centres. The cities are now 
served by three transcontinental roads, and have a popula- 
tion of about 45,000. 

The one other element necessary to complete the chain 
of facilities was introduced in 1906, when the Kaministiquia 
Power Company began delivery of electric power from their 
hydro-electric development at Kakabeka Falls. .'Xfter nine 
years of operation this company can point to a record which 
for continuous and uninterrupted service has probably not 
been excelled by any other plant in Canada. Trouble, incon- 
venience or delay from ice, backwater or water shortage, 
is unknown, and from all causes the aggregate interruptions 
to the system have not exceeded twenty minutes in any 
one year. During the past year this record has been re- 
duced to less than four minutes and the company have fur- 
ther plans and improvements under consideration by which 
they hope to reduce their service interruptions to the vanish- 
ing point. 

'J"he details of llie electric power plant arc covered 
in considerable detail IjcIow. The plant is located at Kaka- 
beka Falls — a beautiful falls with a sheer drop of 110 feel, 
located some twenty miles northwest from F'ort William, 
on the line of the Canadian Northern Railway. The water 



' Vnv 



House Superintendent. 



Farrow* 

is brought overland for a distance of one and one-quarter 
miles in reinforced concrete aqueducts, of which three are 
now completed. At the brow of the hill, just above the power 
house, the aqueducts empty into a regulating reservoir or 
forebay, in which are located the recently installed auto- 
matic controlling gates for each of four steel penstocks, 
through which the water is carried to the power house tur- 
bines. The turbines operate under a net head of 180 feet. 
The power is generated at 4000 volts, transmitted at 25,000 
volts to Fort William and Port Arthur, and there distributed 
at 35,000 volts and 3,300 volts. 

The original installation was commenced in 1905, and 
in the fall of 1906 the first two units of 4,400 kv.a. each 
were completed and placed in operation. In 1911 the busi- 
ness of the company had expanded at such a rate as to 
justify the installation of a third unit. In 1913, taking ad- 
vantage of the temporary trade depression, with its resultant 
low costs for equipment and installation of plant, the com- 
pany commenced the installation of a third concrete aque- 
duct, and a fourth unit of 9,375 kv.a. This was completed 
and placed in operation in the fall of 1914. 

While there has been a temporary falling off in manu- 
facturing in the twin cities, as elsewhere, this has been 
largely counterbalanced by the manufacture of war muni- 
tions, and by the abnormally heavy grain movement. The 
1915 grain crop exceeded all anticipations, and has been 
phenomenal in the history of the country. Ordinarily the 
bulk of the grain rush is over in December. It is estimated 
that it will keep all available rolling stock busy all winter, 
and all the railroads and boats busy all next summer, to get 
the grain out of the country before the next grain crop 
comes in. The railroads are the greatest distributors of 
the wealth of the country we have. This great movement 
of grain cannot but have a very beneficial and sustaining 
eflfect on the trade of the country throughout the coming 
year. 

Summary 

The following data covers the additions to the plant of 
the Kaministiquia Power Company, Limited, at Kakabeka 
Falls, during the period between June, 1913, and September, 
1914, which consist of a reinforced concrete aqueduct, one 
and one-quarter miles long between the intake and forebay 
reservoirs; the installation of steel butterfly gates as head 
gates of the penstocks, in the forebay; the erection of a 
steel penstock, 740 feet long, eleven feet diameter, between 
the forebay and the power house, with a concrete covering; 
extensions to workshops and valve house; erection of a spe- 
cial battery house near the forebay to control the steel 
gates therein; erection of a 13,500 h.p turbine and 4,000 volt 
generator; five stop-up transformers, with necessary switch- 
ing and indicating switchboard apparatus; two storage bat- 
teries with their switchboards; the installation of an im- 
proved lighting system in the power house and various in- 
cidental work in connection with the above. 

Aqueducts 
The centres of the inside and outside of this pipe, which 
is an equivalent area to a 10-ft. diameter circle, are vertically 
offset one and one-half feet. The interior cross section of 
the pipe is that of a circle 10 ft. in. diameter, with a seg- 
ment cut from the bottom four feet from the centre, form- 
ing a flattened base. The bottom slab thus formed, is ten 



24 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 15, 1916 



inches thick and is carried out until a line sloping at eight 
degrees with the vertical approaches eight inches minimum 
to the interior. At the top the concrete is six inches thick 
and an arc with radius 6 ft. 1 in. meets the sloping sides 
and completes the section of the pipe. 

Grade and Ground. — The formation of the surface upon 
which the pipe lies is very varied over its length of 6,500 feet, 
running from solid rock near the intake, through clay, bould- 
ers, swamp, quicksand, hardpan and gravel with boulders, 
to the forebay. For the first 500 feet from the intake, the 
pipe practically follows the river bank and at two places 




Inner form in place, outer form and pouring platform in background. 

the bank had to be filled in with rock and a concrete re- 
taining wall built on the bank to form a support for the 
base, one of these fills was 30 feet, maximum depth. At the 
intake the pipe runs below the level of the river bed and 
a retaining wall, to deflect ice and otherwise protect the pipe, 
was built up from rock from the aqueduct base level. A 
drain was also built from the intake to a point in the river 
450 feet below to obtain the proper fall and to drain all 
aqueducts when necessary, for inspection. For 2,000 feet 
the aqueduct runs level from the intake over a rock bed, 
it then dips gradually to 4.5 feet below grade through a 
rock fill overlying clay and boulders for 1,000 feet, then for 
900 feet it rises to 3.5 feet above the preceding level, pass- 
ing through an excavation of hardpan and gravel; for the 
next 500 feet the level falls again through a fill over a quick- 
sand. This portion of the grade was sheet-piled by double 
2-inch planking driven four feet outside the base of the pipe 
and provided with drainage to take ofif water, but so ar- 
ranged as to prevent the sand working out from under the 
base of the pipe. The pipe then passes over gravel, which 
was levelled for 900 feet, and into a deep cut of gravel and 
boulders, varying from six to nine feet deep and fourteen 
feet wide, which runs practically level to the forebay. 

Concrete and Reinforcement. — The concrete aggregatr 
consisted of one part of cement, two parts of washed sail ' 
screened to pass through a l4-in. sieve, and four parts •-•: 
gravel screened between 54-'n. and 1-in. sieves. The ce- 
ment, purchased on acceptance tests from the Canada Ce- 
ment Company, was from one mill, and of a uniform quality, 
was required to pass the C. S. C. E. tests for Port- 
land Cement, and to be of slow setting quality. The 
quantity of concrete used for the pipe amounted to 1.2 cu. 
yds. per lineal foot. The reinforcement was composed of 
one-half inch circular steel bars of standard specifications, 
spaced longitudinally from 12 in. to 15 in. apart and trans- 
versely from 5J4 ill- to 6 in. apart, tied with No. 14 gauge 
annealed iron wire at all joints and lapped 12 ins. at ends 
of bars and firmly tied. No expansion joints were provided 
but it was hoped that sufficient hair cracks would develop 
to allow for contraction and prevent excessive leakage. 



Forms and Centres. — The forms for moulding the pipe 
consisted of fifty-foot sections of steel framework, divided 
into three parts, running on wheels on special tracks along 
the pipe line, supporting a galvanized iron lined wood frame- 
work properly braced upon the steel frame, but collapsible 
by reiuoving a few bolts. Over all was placed a wooden 
platform with central openings to allow the concrete to be 
deposited from carts directly into the form. The interior 
forms were wood, steel braced, and solid for the upper 
quarter section of the arc. To these were hinged side seg- 
iTients braced laterally when the forms were erected. The 
whole of the interior form was collapsible and was carried 
upon a track and a special carriage along the floor or 
l"ittom slab of the pipe, after it had been constructed. The 
iMfms for the bottom slab consisted merely of sides to sup- 
li'jrt the concrete from the outside, lengthened to hold the 
transverse reinforcement in place, and a special interior 
I 'rm to bring the sides up 10 inches above the base be- 
fore setting the upper forms. 

Concrete Plant.— Two No. 2,'X Smith concrete mixers. 
a 1/3 cu. yd. clam shell bucket, a two-stage. 25 h.p. centri- 
fugal pump, one duplex pump, all electrically operated by 
three-phase, 550 volt alternating current, an electrically 
operated hoist, and a tower for washing and screening gravel 
and sand, formed the plant necessary to construct the atiiie- 
duct. .\ three-foot gauge railway, with eleven wood and 
steel contractors' dump cars was used to deliver material, 
and finally to cover the pipe, after completion, with three 
feet of earth covering as a protection from frost. 

Method of Construction. — .\fter grading and filling had 
been completed, in 1913, and allowed to settle all winter, 
the bottom slab, a simple slab 10 ins. thick, was laid after 
placing side forms. .Ml reinforcement were bent at the 
works, from proper lengths of rod supplied, on a special 
bending machine. .\ centre form was placed and the sides 
brought up ten inches to form a support for the large forms 




Transverse and Longitudinal reinforcing in concrete aqueduct — 
Kaministiquia Power Co., Kakabeka Falls. 

of the superstructure. After the whole bottom slab had set 
for eighteen hours the forms were removed and the track 
laid for the upper forms, on the interior, directly upon the 
concrete slab and on the exterior upon a thin slab of concrete 
brought to the correct grade. The interior forms were then 
set for a distance of fifty feet, braced to the lower slab at 
the correct height and the longitudinal and transverse rein- 
forcement applied and tied in place, with properly staggered 
and overlapped joints. The side and top form was then 
brought up, the sides cleaned and closed for concreting, set 
in place and braced on the lower section to prevent springing, 
t'oncrcte was then placed on each side equally through small 



Fibniary 15, 191C 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



doors in the upper curve. When full to the level of the 
doors they were closed, and concrete poured from the top, 
through a four-foot opening, until full. The top was then 
finished off over the open section by trowels. The whole 
operation of concreting took from S'A to :! hours for each 
50-ft. section. The forms were ready for removal twenty- 
one hours after the concreting was finished. Three sections 
of fifty feet of forms were built, with an extra interior sec- 
tion enabling, even under the most difficult circumstances, 
one hundred lineal feet of pipe to be completed per working 
day. after all preliminarj- work had been completed. The 
pipe was finished by plastering all defective work and ap- 
plying three coats of cement wash to the interior surface. 

\'ents and Drains. — 14-in. drain valves were placed at 
each end of, and at two low points along the length of, the 
aqueduct, serving to empty the pipe, when closed off at 
each end, for inspection. Wooden stop logs form a barrier 
l)oth at the intake and forebay ends when it is necessary to 
inspect the interior. Air vents are placed at three high points 
and serve to discharge accumulations of air carried by the 
moving water and- to admit air freely when the water level 
falls. These consist of S-in. diameter pipes screwed into 
cast nipples attached to the reinforcement. The whole is 
surrounded by a wooden framework to protect from injury 
and prevent early freezing in winter. .\rtificial heat is 
applied in winter to keep the pipes free of ice. The drain 
valves are protected by concrete walls with a wooden hous- 
ing at the top, and are operated by long handles from the 
level of the earth covering on top of the pipe; sufficient 
room is provided at the bottom of the concrete pit to remove 
ihe valve for repairs when necessary. 

Materials. — The gravel and sand for the concrete was 
obtained from pits on the company's property and separated 
and washed in one operation b)- dumping the excavated ma- 
terial into chutes, where water carried it over properly ad- 
justed screens. Fruni tlicnce the gravel and sand was 
carried to bunkers and the water and waste material allowed 
to settle, the remanaTit being used for covering tlie completed 
pipe. 

-\ special Covering i.f three feet of earth was placed 




First completed section of aqueduct— Buggies used for conveying concrete 
from the mixers on pouring platform — Forebay in background. 

over the pilie as sodii a^ completed, to protect the concrete 
while setting, from the sun. and to prevent frost in the winter 
from penetrating the pipe. The cover has been seeded to 
grass to hold snow in the winter. The necessary forms were 
l)uilt at the work, a sawmill witli a circular saw, planer and 
liand saw being provided to make the necessary material. 

riie reinformiii-nt w;i>^ piovidc-d in proper lengths by the 




Invert completed and track laid for inner forms. Outer forms being placed 
—Note reinforcing rods to join the invert to tlie superstructure. 

mill, and bending machines in the field shaped all transverse 
bars. 

Organization. — The whole work was in charge of Mr. 
Geo. Lewis, with an engineer for laying out the grades and 
levels, a general foreman, and a gang foreman on each 
section of the work; a timekeeper and storekeeper completed 
the staf¥. Inspection and testing was conducted by the en- 
gineer and writer, the company's superintendent. 

Penstock Gates 

Two heavy wooden flap gates, built of 10 in. x 10 in. 
limbers, having proved unsatisfactory owing to their groat 
weight and difficulty in handling, a set of five steel gates, 
with 10-ft. diameter openings, were installed in front of the 
bellmouths leading to each penstock, each of which supplies 
its own generating unit with water through an iron pipe. 

These gates, with their operating mechanism, weigh 
just over twenty tons each, and were supplied by Messrs. 
J. M. \'oith, and erected under the supervision of their mech- 
anic. The heaviest part of the shipment weighed "■/< tons 
and consisted of the 10-ft. diameter gate, which was shipped 
in one piece. The outer casing, in four parts, was bolted 
together in place and concreted solidly into the walls of 
the building and fastened with bolts into the vertical wall. 
Owing to the outbreak of the European war the operating 
mechanism was not received and temporary expedients have 
been adopted to open and close the gates. 

It was the intention that the gates when normally i)pen 
might be closed by an operator in the power house press- 
ing a button or by an excessive increase in the velocity of 
water in the penstock. A storage battery placed near the 
forebay, in a specially designed house, supplies current to 
an electric motor mechanically connected to each gate. 
Switching equipment automatically starts the motor for 
closing the gate only when required; a clutch and a hand- 
wheel serves to open Ihe gates. .\n attendant is necessary 
to fill the pipes in order to provide against over rapid filling 
for the penstocks. 

Penstock No. 4 

The dimensions of this steel pipe are: length 740 feel, 
diameter 11 ft., thickness of top plates 's in., thickness of 
bottom plates Ili/IG in. Two 7 ft. (> in. diameter bcllmoutli 
pipes from the forcI)ay wall, feed into the common 11 ft 
iliamcler ])ipe about fio fi. from llie forebay. The pipe then 
slopes at 23 degrees for ri.'iO icet and changes to a slope 
of fl degrees for IS."! fl. an<l then forms a curve on a 202-ft. 
radius, 305 feet long, with large concrele bulkheads at each 
end to prevent movcmenl. .V sharp slope and a bend brings 
it to a nine-foot dianuler buttertly valve which terminates 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 15, 1916 




General View of the Kaministiquia Power Company's Hydro-electric Station at Kalsabeka Falls-Sliows Forebay and Spillway to lc( 



the penstuck. A drain discharges the water into the power 
house tail race, when it becomes necessary to empty the pipe. 
The joints in the steel work consist of double riveted lap 
joints near the forebay, gradually changing to triple-riveted 
butt joints at the power house. 

From the forebay to the commencement of tlie curve 
the pipe is carried on concrete saddles placed about 25 feet 
apart and two feet wide. Around the curve steel saddles 
are used, resting upon a steel base so that expansion or 
contraction may be absorbed by changes in the length of 
the curve. 

Cover. — Over tlic penstock a concrete cover has been 



built with a clearance of 18 ins. between the pipe and steel 
work. Angle iron ribs, curved to radius and projecting into 
a light concrete wall foundation are spaced three feet apart 
by iron bars punched and riveted to them. These 
bars in turn serve to hold poultry netting and tar paper 
which forms a backing for the lJ/2-in. thick concrete cover- 
ing, which was reinforced with triangle mesh wire. The 
covering was placed by a cement gun to the required thick- 
ness and is of the usual 1:2:4 mixture. It serves to pro- 
tect the iron pipe against excessive temperature changes, 
and prevents the water on the interior freezing in winter 
time. 







Forebay and Penstocks— No. 4. to left. 740 (t. lonu, 11 ft. Llianiete 



February 15, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



27 




«, Reinforced Concrete Power House and Tail Race— Kaministiquia River in Foreground and Transmission Line to the Right. 



Doors are provided in the side so that inspection may 
be made at proper intervals to prevent rusting. 

Messrs. John Inglis Company, of Toronto, provided an<I 
erected the penstock. All excavation and concrete work in 
connection with erecting saddles, bulkheads and foundations 
was done bj' the company. Shop and field inspection of 
the steel work was in the hands of the R. \V. Hunt Inspection 
Company, of Montreal. 

Valve House 

Over the butterfly valve at tlic lower termination of 
the penstock, a concrete buildins' with drains was con- 
structed, the floor of which has licen made into a workshoi) 
for repairs to machinery, etc. .\ small lathe and emery 
grinder and an electric drill have been furnished. This 
1)uilding lia.s a concrete saw tooth roof, in two spans, which 
gives good lighting, although the building is on the north 
side of the power house proper, and lies so low that wall 
lighting is practically impossible. Light is also admitted to 
the power house from this building, through clear glass 
windows. In this same building is a watef motor with gear- 
ing for operating the large butterfly valve of the penstock 
and turbine. It is reversible and controlled by hand wheels 
in the power house. The water supply to drive this motor 
is obtained from an independent source, making the whole 
installation reliable for use in emergency. The joint be- 
tween the butterfly valve and turbine inlet pipe is a special 
type consisting of a groove on the interior of the pipe into 
which j4-in. lead packing is caulked. Short steel fillers on 
the outside, against which the flan.ge bolts are drawn tight. 
leaves the lead to be forced into all small openings 1)y the 
pressure of the water on the interior side and will also allow 
the large valve to be removed in llie future, should any repairs 
become necessary. 

Turbine 

This unit, supplied liy Messrs. J. M. \'oith, is a twin 
spiral, inward flow, Francis tj |)0 wheel with a ma.ximum 
B.h.p. of 13,500. Tlie supply pipe frinu the 0-ft. ilianteter 
inlet valve is a tapered steel pipe enil)edded in concrete and 
is furnished with a drain to take away leakage from the inlet 
valve, and empty the turbine when the latter is closed down. 
Water is distributed around tlic two cast iron wheel cases, 
with arm inspection covers, through balanced steel gates, 
the openings through the same being adjusted by the gov- 
ernor in accordance with the load on the unit. From the 
gales it passes to enamelled bronze runners attached to the 



steel shaft, which is directly coupled at one end of the gen- 
erating unit. The water then discharges into a central pipe 
or draft tube gradually increasing in size until it reaches 
the tailrace. This draft tube is steel for st;ven feet and then 
concrete to the outlet and is curved to discharge the water 
horizontally. It is seven feet in diameter at the point of dis- 
charge from the turbine, and is rectangular in form at the 
point of discharge, being nine by sixteen feet. The surface 
was carefully smoothed to obtain proper discharge with a 
maximum efficiency in the turbine. 

A relief valve 5 feet in diameter serves to discharge 
the water when the load is suddenly thrown off the unit, and 
prevents excessive rise in pressure in the penstock, or water 
hammer. This valve is kept closed normally by oil pres- 
sure from the governor pump, but open by means of a 
piston valve, which relieves the pressure when the governor 
gates close rapidly. The time and distance of opening and 
closing are capable of adjustment by means of dash-pots. 

The governor is of the fly-ball and relay type, operated 
liy oil pressure from a belt-driven rotary pump, at a pressure 
of 280 lbs. per square inch. It serves, by means of mech- 
anical connections to a cylinder and piston, to keep the tur- 
bine gates at the proper opening to supply water for any 
load which may be applied to the turbine, and to keep the 
speed constant at all loads and within set Ifmits under load 
variations. A relay valve connection from the fly balls, 
controlled through dashpots and a special regulating mech- 
anism, admits and discharges oil from each side of the piston 
ill the main cylinder as required, thus adjusting the cylinder 
and the gates as the load changes. 

Foundations.^The foundations lor .such a heavy unit, 
which weighs nearly 400 tons, are necessarily very massive. 
The generator, situated nearest the tailrace end of the power 
house, is carried on a massive arch. 38 ft. span and semi- 
circular, rising from the bottom of the excavation for the 
discharge water, ,'!1 feet below the level of the power house 
Moor and runnin.g 30 feet back from the wall of the building. 
Tlie remaining :!7 ft. width of the building is taken up witli 
the various pits connected v\'ith the turl)ine inlets^ outlets 
and drains. The excavation runs from i:i to :t1 feet below 
floor level. -An arch 10 ft. in diameter allows the petistock 
to enter the building at the fnmt of tlie building. 

The forms and centres for the arches, draft tubes, relief 
valve, etc., entaileil much special work. Those for the curved 
draft tubes were built on wooden ribs of 2-in. plankin.g 



28 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 15, 191G 



si)aced about 2 ft. apart and properly braced with l/z-in. x 3-in. 
poplar strips nailed thereon to give the proper form to the 
tube. Openings with small clearances were left for parts 
of the machinery below floor level, which, after being placed 
and secured in position were grouted in place in the usual 
manner. 

Generator 

This machine, directly coupled to the turbine described, 
was built and installed by the Canadian General Electric 
Company, of Peterborough and Toronto. It is capable of 
generating 9,375 kv.a. at 2oT r.p.m. and 4.000 volts, with a 
continuous overload capacity of ~.J per cent. or. 50 per cent, 
for one hour. The total weight of the machine is :i98.000 
lbs., and the revolving field weighs 15:5,000 lbs. The armature 
is wound in two separate circuits entirely independent of 
each other, each connected to a bank of air blast trans- 
formers. The unit is of the horizontal sliaft type; the shaft 
diameter beitig 13 inches. 

Tin- field is supplied uitli direct ciirreiil Itimu exciter.- 



formers and wiring at the back; the latter, for all high ten- 
sion work at 25,000 volts, is bare No. 4-0 copper on porcelain 
insulators. Over-load, time limit relays guard the transform- 
ers and generator against excessive short circuits. .\ motor 
controlled generator rheostat adjusts the field, with a control 
switch on the generator panel. 

Battery 
In view of the fluctuating voltage of the exciter 
'circuit, due to operation of the Tirrill regulator, a 
small 80 amp. hour battery has been installed to connect to 
the control circuit of the switchboard and provide a few lights 
in the power house in case of short circuits or other trouble 
cutting the generator and exciter supply down. This is 
charged from a small motor generator set with a panel near 
the main switchboard, so that the usual attendant may oper- 
ate it. The same set also serves to charge the battery situ- 
ated at the forebay, through a special overhead line. Push 
buttons and indicating devices on one panel of the switch- 
board indicate the position of the butterfly gates at the 




Interior of F'ower House showing 2 exciters. 3-5,000 h.p. direct connected units, and new 12.500 h. p. unit in background 
-Oparating room to left, transformer gallery in foreground. 



which were already installed, at 110 volts, and is regulated, 
for constant voltage at terminus of transmission lines, by 
means of a Tirrill regulator in the exciter circuit. The trans- 
formers are of the air blast type and consist of three single 
phase units installed over an air chamber, each of 1,475 kw. 
capacity, interconnected between generator and transform- 
ers are selector switches, with connections to a common 
4,000 volt busl)ar, which enables the generator to supply cur- 
rent to other banks of transformers in case of trouble. 

Switchboard 

Tlie usual recording, indicating, and switching apparatus 
is installed in the generator circuits, being connected to the 
switchboard through current and potential transformers to 
eliminate high voltage on the switchljoard. .\n ammeter 
is installed in one phase of each bank of three )iigh tension 
transformers, to indicate the proper equalized loads upon 
each. The switching apparatus is installed in reinforced con- 
crete compartment, with switches in front and current trans- 



forebay and control the closing of each gate. The power 
house lighting, which previously had been from unshaded 
carbon lamps in lines along the walls, was changed to ceil- 
ing tungsten lights with concentrating reflectors, with si.x 
150 watt tungsten units in a space 28 ft. x 50 ft.; this gives 
a more even distribution of light and, although at a height 
from the floor of 32 ft., gives sufticient light for all ordinary 
work. 

Stafl 

The entire work was carried out under the direction of 
Messrs. R. S. Kelsch, of Montreal, Consulting Engineer to 
the company, and W. L. Bird, manager. Mr. Geo. Lewis 
was construction superintendent for all concrete work. The 
writer was responsible for all preliminary engineering data 
on aqueduct, penstock, generator foundations, etc., and for 
designs for aqueduct forms, forebay battery house, valve 
house anil workshop and details of all small work, with in- 
spection of electrical equipment and hydraulic work. 



February 15, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Personals 

Mr. T. Rodger lia;, bicii aiipoiiitud supcriiuciidfiil of Iclc- 
gruphs of tlic (jraiul Trunk system. He was forniorl)' super- 
visor of plant. 

Mr. P. T. Bowler, cily olcctriciau. .\t\v \\ csluiiusUr. lia.s 
rcsignc-d. It is i)rol)abk' the position will be filled by his 
assistant, Mr. John Digby. 

Mr. Frank Harris, publicity agent for the British Col- 
umbia Electric Railway Company, Iius resigned. We luuler- 
stand he will go into business on his own account. 



Mr. Wilford Phillips, manager of the \\ innipe.L; b;iectric 
Railway Couipauy, has .gone south on leave of absence, it is 
said, of several months on account of ill luallh. Durin.t^ 
Mr. Phillips' absence Mr. Henry Hartwell will be acting 
mana,2er. 



Mr. A. B. Smith, who recently retired from the position 
of manager of telegraphs of Ihc Grand Trunk and Grand 
Trunk Pacific companies, was presented with a Victrola and 

a sujiidy of records by the staff throughout the system. Mrs. 
.Smith was presented with ;i boU(|uet of roses. 

Mr. J. B. McCarthy has been appointed electrical engi- 
neer of the (.anadian Copper (. ouii)any and will be located 
at Copper (.'lift. Out. Mr. McCarthy is well known in To- 
ronto, where he has been connected with the Canadian 
W'estinghouse Com])auy for several years. The work to be 
undertaken includes, we imderstand, supervision over the 
several .generalin,g plants of the Canadian Cupper Company, 
as well as their transuiissii m lines and the utilization of 
tin- cuneni in minin.g operations. 



Mr. Paul F. Sise, vice-president and general manager of 
the .\ortlieru Electric Company, has been appointed adjutant 
• •i the 14Sth. a battalion organized in Montreal by Lieut. - 
I ol. Ma.gee for overseas service. Mr. .Sise was formerly 
captain in the \ ictoria Rifles, and when the war broke out 
joined the Canadian < )liieers' Training (orps. which is aflili- 



thing of the responsibilities which such, a position entails, it 
is impossible to underestimate the effect such a splendid 
example will have on his fellow Canadians. It typifies ^he 
calibre of the man and the loyal motives which are inducing 
our best citizens to answer the call of their country, and 
gives us certain confidences in the ultimate outcome of this 
great struggle. 

Capt. Sise is only M years old. He was educated at 
Bishop's College School, Eenno.xville, and at McGill Uni- 
versity, from which he graduated with B.Sc. degree. He 
was one of the organizers of the University Club, Montreal, 
and is also a member of St. James Club and a Governor of 
the Western Hospital. 



The many Canadian friends of Mr. John K. Ward will 
learn with regret that he is leaving the Northern Electric 
Company to become supply manager of the North-western 
Electric Equipment Company, of St. Paul, Minn. Mr. Ward 
has been district sales manager of the .\orthern Electric 
Company of Toronto for the past five years, during wdiich 





Capt. P. F. Sise 



ated with Met nil Cniversily 


. Later. 


wlun 


tlie .Mr 


(,ill Aux^ 


iliary Battalion was formed. 


Capl. Si 


se wa 


s in iiii 


nmaud ol 


' T)" ("ompaiiy, and aflerwar( 


Is of "V 


Comp 


any. Mi 


•(Jill Con- 


lingent, Canadian (Jlllcers' '1 


'raininn (. 


orps. 


( onsn 


lering th. 


important executive posilim 


1 held by 


Capt. 


Sise, t 


o say no- 



Mr. J. F. Ward 

time he has established himself as one of the most highly 
respected men in the electrical business. Among other 
activities, he has always been deeply interested in the Jovian 
Order. He is a past statesman, and is reigning Chiron in 
the 14th Jovian Congress. The members of his sales de- 
partment presented him with a handsome club bag, well 
fitted up. on the occasion of his leaving the Northern Electric 
Company on February 1. Mr. Wood was also entertained at 
luncheon at the National Club by a number of his more in- 
timate friends who t<iok this opportunity of wishing him 
God-speed. 



Mr. W. J. Bell, well known in the electrical construction 
field throughout Ontario, has just accepted a lieutenant's 
commission in the Royal Canadian l-'ngineers and will im- 
mediately undertake a course of instruction in Ottawa. Mr. 
Bell was formerly with the Toronto Electric Light Company 
and later was foreman of construction for the Toronto Power 
Company in the erection of their second transmission line 
between Niagara Falls an<l Toronto. On the completion 
of this work he was engaged on high tension transmission 
line construction for the Hydro-electric Power Commission 
of Ontario and was afterwards with the Toronto Hydro- 
electric System. Latterly he has held the position of super- 
intendent of the Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 15, 1916 



* ^±eo.,r.c^or 




A Code of Lighting Applicable to Factories, 
Mills and other work places— Valuable Infor- 
mation for Engineers, Central Stations 
and Electrical Contractors (Con.) 

Section IX. 
Control of Lamps and Arrangement of Switches 

'1"1k- control of lamps in factory and mill lighting is im- 
portant in all cases, bnt specially so where a large number 
of lamps is used in preference to a small number for a given 
floor area. For example, where an overhead system of tung- 
sten lamps of small size is used, a large number will, of 
course, be necessary for a given floor area, and in such cases 
the number of control circuits may at times seem excessive 
when planned out for sufficient flexibility of operation. 
.Such circuits, however, in rendering the system more flexible, 
will be more than paid for by the saving in energy and 
maintenance due to the turning out of lamps not needed in 
certain sections of the factory or mill, provided the number 
of hours per day during which the lamps are used on the 
average is relatively large, and tlie differences in daylight 
intensities over the floor area is also relatively large. 

Control Parallel to Windows. — The lamps most distant 
from the windows will usually be required at times when 
the natural light near the windows is entirely a:dequate, thus 
making it an advantage to arrange the groups of lamps in 
circuits parallel to the windows. The advantage of this 
method is further apparent vyhen Jt is considered that if 
the lamps are controlled in rows perpendicular to the win- 
dows, all lamps in a row will necessarily be on at one time, 
while a portion only may be required. 

Practical Case. — The foregoing statement may be de- 
veloped into a definite proposition. Thus, to install a single 
switch may involve say $5.00 as its first cost. If ten lamps 
are to be controlled from a single switch, these ten lamps 
must obviously either all be turned off at a time or all turned 
on at a time. An additional switch at a cost of $5.00 will 
permit either half of these ten lamps being turned off, if 
not required at certain times when the remaining five are 
needed. This extra switch may or may not be an economy. 
Consider, for example, the case where these five lamps are 
of the OO-watt tungsten type, and that they are turned nff 
Iiy the extra switch on an average of one-half an hour 
per day while the others are needed, or vice versa. In a 
year's time, the energy saved at 1 cent per kilowatt-hour, 
will amount to perhaps 50 cents. At this rate it will require 
ten years for the energy saved to pay for the first cost of 
the extra switch. This would not be considered a distinct 
economy. If, however, the energy cost be greater, and more 
nearly the average under actual conditions, or if the nuni- 
lier of hours per day during which a portion only of tlie 
lamps will not be used, be greater, then these values will 
be correspondingly modified. 

Locating .Switches and Controls. — In locating switches 
or controls in factory and mill aisles, care should lie exercised 
lo arrange them systematically, that is, on columns situated 
on the same side of the aisle and on the same relative side 



of eacli column. This plan materially simplifies the finding 
of switches or controls, by those responsible for turning on 
and off the lamps, and is particularly important where a given 
floor space is illuminated by a large number of small or 
medium sized lamps distributed uniformly over the ceiling 
area, a feature which is usually accompanied by the use of a 
relatively large number of switches or controls. 

Section X. 
Systematic Procedure Should be Followed in Changing a 
Poor Lighting System Over to an Improved Arrangement 

When undertaking the change from an old to a new 
lighting system, the various forms of illumination which are 
adapted to factory and mill spaces should be studied, and 
an investigation made of the various types of gas and electric 
lamps on the market which arc available for the purpose. 

Time should be allowed for a study of the given loca- 
tions to be lighted; for preparing the plans of procedure in 
tlie installation of the gas or electric lamps and au.xiliaries; 
and for customary delays in the receipt of the necessary sup- 
plies and accessories to the work in hand. Altogether, there- 
fore, work of this kind requires considerable time for its 
completion. 

Using the Shop Force. — In large factories or mills, a 
wiring or gas fitting force is sometimes a part of the main- 
tenance division. The work of the wiremen or fitters is 
likely to be heaviest in the winter due to the dark days. 
Where this condition exists, there is all the more reason to 
apportion out new work so as to accomplish it during the 
months of least wiring and piping repair activity, and further, 
at that time of the year when employees will be compara- 
tively unaffected by the disturbances usually associated with 
a change from an old to a new lighting system through pos- 
sible irregularities in the illumination service while the wire- 
men or fitters are at work. 

Distribution of Expense. — Another feature different from 
the foregoing viewpoint, is in the distribution of the installa- 
tion cost over a relatively long interval. If, for example, the 
system is desired for the approaching winter, the complete 
wiring or piping plans may be drawn up and blocked out 
into three, four or even more sections, thus spreading the 
expense over as many months. 

Yearly .\ppropriation. — In some shops a given appropria- 
tion may be allotted each year for building equipment. From 
the standpoint of finance plans, it may thus be desirable to 
distribute outlays of this nature over the year, rather than to 
concentrate them at any one time. An important considera- 
tion in this method of installing lamps, however, is to pre- 
pare in as far as possible the complete plans in advance, at 
least as regards given factory or mill sections, so as to in- 
sure a uniform and symmetrical installation as a whole when 
the component parts are finished. 

Section XL 
Reflectors and Their Effect on Efficiency 

.\ leflector or shade is used in conjunction with a lamp 
for the purpose of reducing the glare otherwise caused by 



February 15, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



looking directly into the bare lamp, as well as for the pur- 
pose of redirecting the light most effectively to the work. 

Reflectors and shades are now obtainable so designed 
as to be specially adapted to give sizes and types of the 
smaller and medium sized line of lamps, and hence care 
should be used to lie sure that liritli reflectors and lam))S 
are of the correct size in their relation to each other. This 
is of the utmost importance in securing uniform illumination 
for a given spacing distance and mounting height of the 
lamps. For a certain ratio between the spacing and the 
height of the lamps, a reflector can nearly always be selected 
which will furnish uniform illumination over the working 
surface. (These remarks concerning reflectors apply parti- 
cularly to lamps of the tungsten tj'pe and to small gas units). 

Function of Reflector. — Owing to the direction of the 
light from the lamp, nearly all types of lamps, in addition 
to the downward light, furnish some rays which go upwards 
and away in other directions from the objects to ])e illum- 
inated, and are therefore relatively not useful. Furthermore, 
a bright source in the field of vision causes an involuntary 
contraction of the pupil of the eye, which is equivalent to 
a decrease in illumination in so far as the eye is concerned. 
Hence, while reflectors or shades may at first seem to re- 
duce the amount of light in the upper part of the room, their 
use actually increases the amount of light in a downward 
useful direction, and improves the "seeing" due to the better 
conditions which surround the eyes. The economic function 
of the reflector, as contrasted with the easier conditions it 
affords the eyes, is to intercept the otherwise useless or com- 
paratively useless rays which do not ordinarily reach the 
work, and to reflect them in a useful direction. In perform- 
ing this function, there is a choice through the design of 
the reflector, in the manner of distributing the light so as 
to make the illumination on the floor space uniform with 
certain spacing distances and mounting heights as previously 
mentioned. 

Avoiding Dark Spots. — With the use of lamps for which 
a large variety of reflectors is available, the proper reflector ^ 
should -therefore be chosen so as to give the desired distri- 
bution of light. In other cases, as in the use of the gas or 
electric arc lamps, where the globe or reflector is usually 
a fixed part of the lamp, care must be exercised to space the 
lamps at sufficiently close intervals to insure uniformity of 
the illumination, that is, a freedom from the relatively dark 
spaces which exist between lamps when spaced too far apart. 

Light Interiors. — With a light ceiling, the reflection of 
that part of the light which passes through a glass reflector 
to the ceiling, and which is added to the light thrown down- 
ward from the under surface of the reflector, is a factor in 
building up the intensity of the illumination on the working 
surface. Great importance is therefore attached to light in- 
terior colors, especially on ceilings and the upper portions 
of walls, both in reinforcing the direct illumination, and in 
giving diffusion, which in turn adds to the amount of light 
received on the side of a piece of work. It should also be 
stated that the intensity of the light from bare overhead lamps 
when measured on the working surface may be increased by 
as much as sixty per cent, through the use of efficient re- 
flectors. This is due to the utilization of tlu- liorizontal rays 
of light as previously stated, which predominate in the bare 
lamp, whereas the most effective light in factory and mill 
work is apt to be that which is directed downward. 

Glass and Metal Reflectors Compared.— The question is 
sometimes raised as to the use of glass reflectors in connec- 
tion with lamps for factory and mil! lighting. This question 
is largely one of economy and maintenance, and it may be 
answered either in an oflf hand way or on a basis of practical 
experience with both types. In large installations of small 
units there has been an effort to establish the merits of 
glass and of metal reflectors, by equipping lamps in adjacent 



bays with glass reflectors in one case and with metal re- 
flectors in the other. It has been found almost invariably 
that if the choice is left to the workmen and superintendents, 
glass reflectors will be given preference over metal, mainly 
on account of the added cheerfulness they produce. If, 
therefore, the first cost and maintenance expense of the glass 
reflectors is practically the same as with metal, then glass 
may be employed to advantage. 

Reflector Efliciency. — Glass reflectors on the market are 
capable of producing an amount of illumination equal and 
even greater in some cases than that produced by the best 
metal reflectors, and even if the first cost is somewhat 
higher, the added advantage of glass as opposed to metal 
is usually sufticient to make the small dift'erence in cost a 
negligible item. This factor is all the more noticeable when 
one considers that the reflector itself is a small part of the 
total cost connected witli llic wiring or i>iping of the lamp 
and its reflector. 

Pierced metal reflectors are also available. These are 
designed with small openings at tlie upper portion of the 
metal, so that the reflector may give the same distribution 
characteristics as a given glass reflector, thus affording a 
suitable metal reflector for use where glass may be objection- 
able. Some of the advantages of the pierced metal reflector 
are that it is unbreakalilc and that accumulations of dust 
on the outer surface do not decrease the efficiency. It is 
also true that the light which passes through the openings 
in this reflector to the ceiling cannot be diminished by dust 
on the outer surface as in the case of glass reflectors. 

Reflector Maintenance. — Regarding the maintenance of 
glass reflectors under rough factory and mill conditions, it 
may be stated that glass reflectors are used quite widely with 
almost a negligible increase due to breakage. Thus, out of 
the total maintenance cost in one representative installation, 
it was found that the charges were proportioned as follows: — 

Renewals, cost of lamps (tungsten) 75 per cent. 

Renewals, broken glass reflectors .■! per cent. 

Labor, making renewals and changing reflec- 
tors for washing 16 per cent. 

Labor, reflector washing 2 per cent. 

Additional indirect charges 4 per cent. 

Total 100 per cent 

Points to Consider. — Reflectors will not be classified here 
from the commercial standpoint, but the following items 
should be given consideration in the selection of the type 
of reflector for factory or mill use: — 

1. Utilization efficiency: how much does the nfU-clor 
contribute to the effective illumination on the work? 

2. The effect in reducing glare. 

3. Natural deterioration with age through accunmlations 
of dust and dirt. 

4. Ease in handling .iiid uniformity of manufacture. 

5. Physical strength and the absence of projections wliicli 
may increase the breakage in case of glass reflectors. 

A study of the various reflectors on the market with the 
aid of these items as a basis, will determine what reflectors 
are best adapted to given conditions. Regarding the third 
item in the foregoing list, it may be stated that under com- 
parative tests in service, the accumulations of dust and dirt 
on glass reflectors do not seem to be any .greater than the 
coating of dirt which accumulates on the inside of a metal 
reflector in the same length of time. 

ICtMicliKlcd in Marih 1 IssnrI 



Trade Publications 
Graphic Meters — Bullcliii Xo. .'1(15. describing Type G. H. 



Graphic meters; issued by the Hsterline Compan> 
apolis, Ind. The bulletin is well illustrated. 



Indian- 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 15, 1916 



The Concentric Wiring Situation as it Affects 
the Electrical Contractor 

By Terrell Croft • 

It does not appear to be generally appreciated that the 
so-called "concentric" wiring systems are merely wiring sys- 
tems having ground returns. It so happens that it is often 
convenient to arrange the grounded-return conductor as a 
i-oncentric sheath around, but separated from, the conductor 
of the circuit which is insulated from ground. Hence the 
name "concentric." Considered in this light, there is no- 
thing particularly new or novel about "concentric" wirin;?. 

To the writer it appears as if the situation may l)c profit- 
ably considered from two view points: 

First conies the general broad-gauge survey, that is, 
will ground return wiring systems, if generally adopted, be 
a good or a bad thing for the community in general? Will 
they, or will they not, increase fire hazard? 

Second, the proposition may be viewed from a scllish 
standpoint, that is, what will be the effect upon my pocket- 
book and income as a contractor if ground-rtlurn wiring 
systems are generally adopted? 

Examine some of the features relating to the first pro- 
position given above. If concentric wiring is to be gen- 
erally adopted, it is obvious that it must be. 

(1) cheaper tlian the methods now in use. and 

(2) safe from a fire hazard standpoint. 

If it does not satisfy these two requirements it will not 
be used generally. It is usually conceded that concentric 
wiring is cheaper, for the service for which it is adapted, 
than any of the now^ accepted methods of weiring which can 
be applied under similar conditions. We do not now know 
just how much cheaper the concentric wiring will be, be- 
cause this is a thing that can be determined only through 
extended experience. It appears, however, to be generally 
believed by those who have made a study of the situation 
that the concentric method of wiring will be enough cheaper 
than any of the existing methods to result in a very ma- . 
terially increased demand for house wiring and for electric 
light. The extensive application of ground-return wiring 
systems in houses occupied by the poorer classes of people 
in Europe appears to justify, in a measure at least, this 
opinion. 

It is altogether probable, then, that concentric wiring, 
if adopted in this country, will extend to people who cannot 
now afford it the advantages of electric illumination, and, 
furthermore, will indirectly create an additional demand 
which does not now exist for electric wiring and for do- 
mestic electrical appliances of all sorts. In a general broad- 
gauge way, then, concentric wiring, if it can accomplish what 
its advocates claim for it, will be a good thing for the com- 
munity in general. 

A Matter of Insulation 
.\s to the safety of ground-return wiring systems from 
a fire haz.ird standpoint; this appears to the writer to be 
largely a question of insulation. We all know that electric 
wiring systems with grounded returns will give satisfactory 
service if the "live" conductor is adequately insulated from 
the ground return. For example, consider the street rail- 
way systems which in our cities operate with a pressure of 
approximately 600 volts between line and ground. These 
now give wholly satisfactory service with the current being 
fed out over the trolley wire and returning via the earth. 
Experience and research has indicated the character of the 
insulation that must be interposed between the trolley wire 
and earth so that service will be satisfactory. Anyone will 
admit that the ground-return traction system is now a 
complete success from every standpoint. In some of the 

" In National Electrical Contractor. 



trunk line electric railway systems the pressures between the 
contact wire and earth are 1,500, 3,000 and even 11,000 volts, 
and yet these systems show entirely satisfactory perform- 
ances because the live conductor is adequately insulated from 
the earth, which in each case forms the ground return. 

Two overhead wire trolley systems were once used to 
a considerable extent, in which both the positive and the 
negative contact wires were insulated from ground and from 
each other, but these are now practically obsolete,' because 
experience has shown that single contact wire systems with 
earth returns will, when properly laid out, give more satis- 
factory service than the two contact wire systems and they 
are more economical and simpler to install. 

The writer ventures the prophecy that a similar evolu- 
tion will occur with house wiring systems; that is, he antici- 
pates that ultimately house wiring systems in general will 
have one live conductor insulated from ground and a con- 
tinuous, positive grounded return, because wiring of this 
character will be cheaper and as safe and as satisfactory as 
the systems now in use. which involve two conductors in- 
sulated from ground. 

It is, of course, appreciated that wiring for a traction 
system should not be compared directly with a house wir- 
ing system. However, the underlying principles arc similar 
in both cases. 

The Important Problems 
The important problems are. then, in a ground return 
interior wiring system to: 

,1) insulate the live conductor thoroughly from earth. 

and 
(2) provide a continuous, rugged grounded return. 
That these things can be accoinplished there does not 
seem to be much doubt. It is believed, then, that the fire 
hazard will not be increased by properly designed concentric 
wiring. 

Furthermore, we know from experience in Europe with 
ground return electric lighting wiring systems, and from 
our experience in this country with ground return electric 
railway systems, that a ground return system will, if pro- 
perly designed and installed, give service as reliable as that 
afforded by systems having both of their conductors in- 
sulated from ground. 

Now, to consider the situation from the selfish stand- 
point, every man in the industry will remember that many 
of the central stations groaned when the tungsten lamp was 
announced as a device that would give approximately three 
times as much light as the existing lamps with the same 
energy consumption. The central stations in many cases did 
all that they could to prevent the introduction of the tung- 
sten lamp because they felt that their revenues would be 
decreased by 60 per cent, and that the result would be a 
receivership. Some of the central stations, however, looked 
at the situation from another point of view and did all they 
could to accelerate the use of the high efficiency lamps. 
What has been the result? 

The central stations are selling much more energy than 
they ever did and there is probably not one of them that 
would consider for an instant a proposition involving the 
substitution of the old carbon and metallized lamps for the 
tungsten lamps now in use. The tungsten lamp decreased 
the cost of electric light and enabled the central stations to 
secure customers who couUl not afford electric illumination 
at the cost involved with carbon lamps. The tungsten lamp 
has been a good thing for the contractor because more houses 
are being wired now than before its advent and more out- 
lets are being placed in each house that is wired. 

It is altogether likely that the concentric wiring sj'stem 
will, if it is adopted, have an effect on the industry somewhat 
similar to that which was due to the introduction of tlie 
tungsten lamp. As a general proposition, any economic ad- 



February 15, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



vance in any branch nf work ultimately results to the ad- 
vantage of that branch. It is likely that if concentric wiring 
is as cheap as its advocates claim it will be, that very much 
more wiring will be done than is being done at present and 
that there will bo nioro nutlets installed in every Ijuilding 
that is wired. 

The writer docs not lake much stock in the argument 
advanced from certain sources that concentric wiring will 
aflEord a great field for curlistonc and high school boy "con- 
tractors." Much of the concentric wiring will, if it is adopt- 
ed, probably lie exposed, and it will require the manipulation 
of a skilled workman to afford a neat job. 

It seems likely, tlu-ii. lluit if concentric: wiring is adopt- 
ed that it will lend to give the contractor more work to do 
and that it will benefit him in about the same way that the 
tungsten lamp has benefited the central station. 

To summarize, then, it is the writer's personal opinion 
that concentric wiring is bound to come, because it repre- 
sents an economic advance, and it does not appear by any 
means to offer insulation or mechanical problems that can- 
not be, or have not been, solved. .V suggestion to the con- 
tractor is, then, to keep poste<l and to be ready when the 
system is finally acce]ited by the National Board of Five 
Underwriters. 

In the meantime llie contractor should, possibly in his 
own shop and alwaj's subject to the approval of the local 
fire inspection bureau, erect a ground return wiring instal- 
lation or two in order to obtain some personal experience 
so that he will not have to depend wholly on hearsay and 
on the opinions of others as to the performance of the sys- 
tem. Let him acquire his information first hand. He can 
do this readily without using the so-called "concentric" wire. 
He can run his sin,gle live conductor in wrought iron con- 
duit using the conduit system for the ground return. 

Electric Piano Makers Organize 

To lurther the commercial exploitation of ihe electric- 
ally-driven player-piano and the electrically-operated talking- 
machine, the National Electric Piano Makers' Organization 
Committee has been formed in New York City. The new 
body will hold its initial meeting in Room 90:i of the Build- 
ing of the Engineering .Societies. No. :!() West :!9th Street, 
Thursday, February 10. The principal piano and talking 
machine manufacturers that produce electrically-driven in- 
struments and the manufacturers of small motors and other 
electrical apparatus entering into such instruments will 
compose the membership of the committee. A delegation 
of three members of the National Electric I-ight .'\ssocialion 
will attend the opening and subsequent meetings, to receive 
such suggestions and recommendations as may be made by 
the committee members for reference and report back 1o 
their association and to advise upon all questions of elec- 
trical technique that may arise. The purpose of the com- 
mittee is set forth as "solely to work out the related com 
mercial and technical problems of the clectrically-dri\ en 
musical instrument makers and the allied electric li.ght and 
power and nianufaclnring interests, and to bring the former 
factor before the latter in the status of a producer of eb-r- 
Irical current-consuming devices." 



took part with them in the great charge at Messines on 
October ;!1. 1914, being wounded. On recovering he was 
given a commTlsion in the Royal Engineers and went to 
France last September. 



Pro Patria 

Lieut. J. M. Th(U-nton. of ilu- Koyal I'.ngimers. who was 
killed in action at Frelingliien on January 19. has two brothers 
in Montreal, Kenneth Thornton, chief engineer of the Mont- 
real Public Service Corporation, and David Thornton, trea- 
surer of the St. I^awrence Flour Mills. He was ihc youngest 
son of the late Rev. Dr. Thornton, of F^ondon, Eng., and 
formerly of Montreal, and was an engineer l)y profession. 
He was formerly in the ranks of the London Scottish and 



Mr. Mack Lectures on "Condulets" 

-Vt a meeting of the Toronto Branch of the Ontario- 
Electrical Contractors' .Association, held in the association 
rooms on Wednesday evening. February :i, Mr. Ed. Mack, 
of the Crouse-Hinds Company of Canada delivered an ad 
dress on his company's products. Mr. Mack illustrated his 
remarks from the very complete catalogues published by 
his company and also from an extensive line of samples of 
the Crouse-Hinds condulets. He described in detail the pro- 
cess of manufacture, pointing out the care taken at every 
stage in order to insure perfect workmanship so as to avoid 
dilViculties when the material reaches the job. He also fully 
explained the original system of catalogue numbers adopted 
by his company, whereby a numeral is selected for each 
size from }< in. to in., pointing out where this system 
worked to good advantage when ordering condulets with a 
multiple of outlets, such as T or X. Mr. Mack also pointed 
out that in view of the fad ihat they carried at all times 
three separate and distinct slocks— two at different stages 
of manufacture and one of the completed article — they were 
m a position to fill any order from either of these stocks, 
stating that if the fittings required were not found in their 
completed stock it would only take a few hours to finisli 
Irom the rough state and make delivery. Mr. Mack also 
explained that the keynote of his company's policy was "Ser- 
vice to the Trade." and they stood at all times ready to make 
delivery of any special fittings or special drilling of fittings 
or covers to meet any particular requirement. 

Mr. Mack's address occupied about an hour and a half 
■ind was followed by the members with keen interest. .\r- 
rangements were made for a party to visit the Crouse-Hinds 
factory, at some date in the future, where, as Mr. Mack stated, 
they would be shown every step in the manufacturing process. 



New Books 



Electric Railway Engineering — by t_ . !•". Harding, E. E., 
and D. D. Kwing, E. E., M. E. McGraw-Hill Book Com- 
pany, Inc., New York, publishers; price $;!; second edition, 
revised, enlarged, and re-set. This work is planned primarily 
for a senior elective course in a technical university, and 
so does not involve higher mathematics, and should be easily 
read by those who understand the fundamental principles 
of electrical engineering. The new edition contains an extra 
chapter, "Locomotive Train Haulage." and the other chap- 
ters have been considerably enlarged. Tabulated data re- 
presenting actual operating conditions in railway practice 
have been increased by about fifty per cent., and another 
fifty illustrations have been added. 410 pages; size, about 
i; by 9 inches; in the standard binding of the Mcfiraw-Hill 
I'loidv t oiiipany. 

The Telephone and Telephone Exchanges— by J. E. 
Kingsbury, M.I.E.E., Longmans, Green & Company, Lon- 
don and New York, publishers; price .$4.00 net. A history, in 
abreviatcd form, of the inventions and developments in the 
telephone field. The principal inventions have been de- 
scribed and the circumstances leading up to them; the de- 
velopments resulting from ihem, and the infiuenccs bearing 
upon them, with such detail as the space permitted. Tech- 
nical, commercial and political thread.s, as they compose the 
fabric of the telephone industry, are all interwoven in the 
record. .Xn invaluable book for the Iclephone student. -140 
l>ages, in. by 9 in.; well illusl rated. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 15, 1916 



What is New in Electrical Equipment 



Electrically Operated Ticket Vender and Cash Register 
The machine illustrated is made for selling tickets in 
motion picture theatres, amusenicnl resorts, etc. In addi- 
tion to passing the tickets nut to the purchaser, it also 
registers the tickets sold. The machine ca-, he furnished 
to handle from one to four kinds of tickets. Five buttons 
are arranged opposite each class of tickets. By pressing No. 
1 button, one ticket is ejected and registered by pressing 
No. 3 two tickets are ejected, and so on. By pressing one 
of the buttons by which either 1, 2. 3. 4 or ."; tickets are is- 
sued, it sets the motor in motion. This actuates the "spider" 
or a wheel with pins placed upon it at designated lengths, 
and this in turn forces the ticket strip through the slot 
or opening in the top plate of the machine. When one or 
more tickets are desired, as indicated liy pressing one of 
the buttons above referred to, and tlic ticket passes through 
the slot at the top plate, the knife immediately cuts the 
ticket or tickets, at the same time automatically registering 
the number of the tickets issued, and after which operation 




the machine returns to its normal position, and the current 
is cut off. The motor is connected with the ticket issuing 
mechanism by means of a series of gears. The motor has 
a rating of 1/50 horse-power and is made by the Robbins & 
Myers Company, Springfield Ohio. It is the series type and 
will operate either on direct or alternating current. The 
ticket selling machine is manufactured by the .\utomatic 
Ticket Selling and Cash Register Company, St. I-ouis, Mo. 



That Spring House-Wiring Campaign 

.\i the annual meeting of the board of directors of the 
Society for Electrical Development held in New York on 
January 24 it was decided to hold a 1916 Prosperity Week. 
This is the direct result of the universal evidence of the suc- 
cess of the big 1915 campaign. The coming year calls for 
an expenditure of $150,000, $50,000 of which is provided for 
the 1916 Electrical Week campaign. An appropriation was 
also made for use in a spring house-wiring campaign. Sev- 
eral leading electrical manufacturers have advanced the sug- 
gestion of a nation-wide house-wiring cainpaign, with this 
society as the central organization to handle the movement. 



FJectrical interests everywhere have regular individual spring 
house-wiring campaigns, and it is thought that more effective 
results can be obtained if the manufacturers will work to- 
gether in a centralized movement through the society's offices. 
Plans were also formulated for regular co-operative work 
by the society, with the object of bringing about more in- 
tensive work in communities where commercial development 
is slow, to which end it is suggested that a special committee 
be appointed to co-operate with the National Electric Light 
Association, the council of the Associated Manufacturers of 
Electrical Supplies, the National Electrical Contractors, the 
Electrical Supply Jobbers' .\ssociation, and the trade press. 
It was further decided to attempt a more effective co-opera- 
tion with tlic Inviaii Order. 



Modern Outdoor Sub-Stations 

Progress in high tension distribution made during the 
past four years has demonstrated the fact that it is no longer 
a question of whether outdoor sub-stations should be used, 
but rather how many can be advantageously installed in a 
given territory. The outdoor sub-station now occupies a 
very definite place in high tension distribution, and the gen- 
eral tendency is to employ the steel tower type. The sub- 
station illustrated herewith occupies a ground space of 6 ft. 
X 6 ft., and is designed for a maximum capacity of 150 kw. at 
.13.000 volts. The .'i-polc switch is controlled by a locking 




type handle which c.ai It located either near the ground 
or approximately twelve feet above, as in this particular in- 
stallation. A unique feature of this construction is in the 
use of a steel housing 4 ft. x 4 ft. x 7 ft., at the base of the 
tower. In this house is located the various metering equip- 
ments, distribution panels, feeder regulators, etc. — space also 
being provided for storage of spare parts. This equipment, 
which is shipped complete ready for installation, is manu- 
factured by the Delta-Star Electric Company, Chicago. 



i'l>riiaiv l."i. I'JUl 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Current News and Notes 



Brantford, Ont. 

Tlic city of Branlt'urd i.s niakiny appliiatiun {,, J'arliaiiRiit 
tor authority to take over tlic Grantl \ alley Railway anil 
operate it as part of the Brantford Municipal Railway Sys- 
tem. It is also the intention to extend the road to the vil- 
lage of Cainsville and to place the wh(de system under the 
management of a commission, 
Chatham, Ont. 

The Chatham electric system are inslalle<l in their luw 
(iFtices. one of the finest suites of office rooms in the city. 
Calgary, Alta. 

According to the last annual report of the Province of 
.\lbcrta, this province now owns and operates 10.") telephone 
exchanges with 3T,514 subscribers' stations. During the last 
year there was an increase of 1,565 rural subscribers. In 
addition to the Government system the city of Edmonton 
owns its own system with 8,650 subscribers, and there is a 
lirivate company operating at Red Deer with 500 subscribers, 
making a total of over lili.noo subscribers' stations in (he 
province. 
Dashwood, Ont. 

By-laws will be submitted on February 14 uuthorizin.g 
the expenditure of some .$3.-100 on a distribution plant in the 
village of Dashwood. 
Dutton, Ont. 

The Dunwich Rural Telephone Company are contemplat- 
ing improvements to their telephone equipment in the spring. 
Fort Frances, Ont. 

The Ontario and Minnesota Power tompany have been 
refused leave to appeal the assessment of $400,000 on pro- 
|ierty in Fort Frances. This decision would appear to iie 
the final act in a strenuous fight which lasted for many years 
between the city and this company. 

Gait, Ont. 

The Lake Erie and Northern Railway Company has com- 
menced the operation of electric cars on the Gait to Brant- 
ford line The .general manager of this line is Mr. M. N. 
Todd, also president of the Gait. Preston and Hespeler lir.e. 
The rolling stock was supplied by the Preston (,"ar and Coach 
Company. It is said that an hourly service will be juil on 
between Gait and Brantford. 
Granby, Que. 

Operations will commence on the extension to Granby 
of the Montreal and Southern Counties Railway System some 
time during the month of March, according to a recently 
reported statement of Mr. W. B. Powell, general manager. 
Halifax, N.S. 

Dr. Geo. B. Cutten, president of Acadia University, re- 
cently addressed the Commercial Club of Halifax on the 
power available by the utilization of tide movements in the 
Bay of Fundy. Dr. Cutten estimated the amount of |>owcr 
at two million h.p. 
Hensall, Ont. 

The Hydro by-law was carried on January ;;4th by a 
,u;iiod majority. 
Hamilton, Ont. 

The Bell Telephone Company have agreed to pay liie 
city .$.S,000 for franchi.se rights during the coming year, wiiich 
is to be considered as payment for the privilege of erecting 
its poles on the city right of way. The Bell Company have 
gradualii' discontinued their former practice of |)aying con- 



siderable sums for the privilege of operating in \arious cities 
throughout Ontario, Hamilton and Ottawa being the only 
two cities at present receiving any revenue from this company. 
Holmesville, Ont. 

The Goderich Township Telephone Company are re- 
ported to be planning to make improvements and extensions 
to tlieir system in the early spring. 
Halifax, N.S. 

The Halilax Power Company have closed a contract 
with the council of the city of Halifax to supply municipal 
bgliling for a period of twenty-five years at approximately 
$:!0,000 a year. The contract calls for lights within the luxt 
eighteen months. The new company will also provide light 
and power for domestic purposes and promise a reduction 
of at least 25 i)er cent, from existing rates. Up .to the present 
time the Halifax Electric Tramway Comjiany liave had a 
monopoly of power supply in this city. 
Inwood, Ont. 

The Inwood village council are planning to make ar- 
rangements with the Hydro-electric Power Commission of 
Ontario for a supply of Niagara current. 
Lethbridge, Alta. 

The municipal street railway system of Lethbridge. .Vita., 
showed a surplus of $:i,G77 for the year 1915 over all expenses. 
London, Ont. 

It is reported that the Bell Telephone Company are pre- 
])armg plans and will commence work in the near future on 
placing a number of their lines underground in London, Out. 
The London Hydro Commissioners are planning to spend 
some .$.'!5,000 on line equipment, meters, etc. 
Montreal, Que. 

A. St, Jean & Company, electricians and dealers in elec- 
trical supplies, Montreal, Que., have registered, 
Madawaska, Ont. 

The Madawaska Telephone Association, Limited, have 
been granted a charter, 
Moncton, N.B. 

.\n interesting judgment has just been handed down by 
Judge Stewart in the county court by which the Prince Ed- 
ward Island Telcphoiu' Ccpmijany is required to pay dama.ges 
to a Mr, H, Swan for cuttin.g ornamental trees growing in 
the garden of Mr, Swan and overhanging the highway where 
the telephone lines were run. 
Melbourne, Ont. 

The Caradoc Ekfrid Telephone Company, Melbourne, 
Ont., are contemplating extensions and improvements to 
their telephone equipment this year, 
Niagara Falls, Ont. 

The Privy Council of England has decided in favor 
of Stamford Township and against the power companies at 
Niagara Falls in the matter of taxation for school purposes. 
This means that the revenue of the township will be largely 
increased from this source. 
New Liskeard, Ont. 

The electric light rates have been reduced from ten 
cents to eight cents per kilowatt-hour, and the :.'5c, meter 
rental charge has been done away with. 
North Vancouver, B.C. 

Chief Findlay. of the h'ire 1 )epartiiient, Xorlh \an- 
coiiver, B.C., has recommended the installation of an .ilarni 
system consisting of ihirly-llve alarm boxes. 



36 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



February 15, 1916 



Ottawa, Ont. 

Tlic amiual meeting of the shareholders of the Morris- 
burg and Ottawa Electric Railway Company was held at 
the head ofllcc of the company, Union Bank Building, Otta- 
wa, on February 8. 
Port Arthur, Ont. 

Mr. M. M. Inglis, of Winnipeg, lias been appointed man- 
ager of the Port Arthur Electric Railway system and entered 
upon his new duties on February 1st. Mr. IngHs was form- 
erly superintendent of the electric light plant at Yorkton, 
Sask. He was educated at Sterling, Scotland, and before 
coming to Canada was on the stafif of Johnson and Phillips, 
of London, and also for a time was with the Brush Electric 
Company at Loughboro. 
Rainy River. 

It is reported tliat the Clemenston Falls, near the mouth 
of the Rapid River, has been purchased by a number of 
Rainy River business men, and will be developed in con- 
nection with a pulp mill and box factory to be erected later. 
Regina, Sask. 

At the present session of the Saskatchewan Legislature 
a recommendation may be submitted calling for the appoint- 
ment of a Provincial Commission to investigate the water 
powers of the northern half of the province. It has been 
suggested that the Commission be somewhat similar to the 
Hydro-electric Power Commission of Ontario. 

Red Deer, Alta. 

It is said that the council of the city of Red Deer will 
ask the Public Utilities Commission of the province for a 
reduction in the rates now charged by the Western General 
Electric Company. This company has a franchise which ex- 
pires in 1929. Recently an unsuccessful attempt was made 
by the city to purchase the plant of the company. 
Richmond, Ont. 

The Malahide and Bayham Telephone Company are 
planning extensions to connect with the Aylmer and Till- 
sojiburg system. 
Semans, Sask. 

The Semans Electric Light Company, Limited, have been 
incorporated. 
Saskatoon, Sask. 

As a result of the establishment of a soldiers' camp at 
the Exhibition grounds, daily average receipts of the electrical 
railway line have increased to $539, as compared with about 
$360 a year ago. This means that there is a profit of about 
$40 daily over all expenses and fixed charges. 
Seaforth, Ont. 

The McKillop Telephone Company, Seaforth, Ont., are 
planning improvements and extensions to their line system. 
Southend, Ont. 

The township council of Stamford township are con 



DIRECT READING OHMMETERS 




Thompson-Levering Co., Philadelphia, Pa , U.S.A. 



sidering the purchase of the electric plant of the Ontario 
Distributing Company and the erection of a sub-station, at a 
total cost of some $25,000, A by-law will be submitted in 
the near future. 

South Porcupine, Ont. 

The Tisdale township council have passed a by-law au- 
thorizing the purchase of an electrically driven fire pump to 

cost $4,370. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The annual report of the Toronto Railway Company 
shows gross earnings for the year 1915 as $5,694,136, a de- 
crease of $432,960 from the previous yean Operating charges 
were 57.9 per cent, of gross, representing a slight decrease, 
and leaving the net earnings $2,243,524, only less than 1914 
by $154,026. The total assets of the company are now placed 
at $19,932,856. 

Tlve city council have given the bill ratifying an agree- 
ment between the city and the Provincial Hydro Electric 
Commission re the construction of an electric railway from 
Toronto to London, its final reading. 

The offices of the Hydro Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario have been moved from the Continental Life Build- 
ing, Toronto, to their new building on University Avenue. 

The township of Toronto will vote on February 12 on 
a by-law authorizin,g $345,355 for their part of the Hydro 
radial line to run between London and Toronto. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

The purchase is announced by the Consolidated Mining 
and .Smelting Company of the West Kootenay Light and 
Power Company, which operates a number of hydro-electric 
plants in the neighborhood of Rossland, B.C. 

On January 1, 1916, the B. C. E. R. Company discon- 
tinued the sale of the eight-for-25c. non-transfer tickets. It 
is stated that the competition from the jitneys in Vancouver 
is decreasing. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

According to the annual report of the Manitoba Govern- 
ment Telephones Department the total revenue for the past 
year was $1,769,589, against expenses of $1,328,545, leaving a 
net balance of ,$441,044. Interest charges to the amount of 
$418,502 have to be deducted from this amount, however, 
leaving a surplus of $22,543. The total revenue is a decrease 
compared with the previous year of $54,525 and the surplus 
is a decrease of $33,526. The balance sheet shows assets of 
$11,892,782. The number of urban exchange stations shows 
a reduction of 1,658 from the previous year, this number 
now standing at 24,880. This was partly offset by a gain in 
the number of rural stations from 11,993 to 12,272. The city 
of Winnipeg has 33,950 subscribers other than rural. 



W^ 




R Munition Factories, 

Garages, etc., have constant use for 

••^ SIMPLEX 

<^ Electric 

j' jiin. Soldering Irons 

\iI.il.SED !IE.\TIXG ELEMENT makes Ihcm invaUiablc 
where there is danger from inflammable materia!. 
Connect to any Lamp Socket and are Portable 

llandy and economical for light or intermittent work of Repaii 
Sliops. Glaziers, for telephone workers jointing wires in out of llie 
way places, etc. 

inlier Factory devices for wliich there is active demand, include 
I'lt.li Kt-lllcs.' Chic and .'^>:ilii.a-\Vax Toi^. 

Simplex Electric Heating Co. 

Manufaclurers of Kverythinc; for ICIcclric Hcalin.i< and Cookinj;. 
Ihicai;.. C.mbridse. Mats. .San Francisco 



E 



i\hirili I, I'.ik; 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 




Published Senii-Montlily By 

HUGH G. MACLEAN, LIMITED 

HUGH C. MacLEAN, Winnipeg, President. 

THOMAS S. YOUNG, General Manager. 

W. R. CARR, Ph.D., Editor. 
HEAD OFFICE - ,■547 Adelaide Street West, TORONTO 

Telephone A. 2700 
MONTREAL - Tel. Main 3299 - Room 119, Board of Trade 
WINNIPEG - Telephone Garry 856 - 302 Travellers' Bldg. 
VANCOUVER - Tel. Seymour 2013 - Winch Building 
NEW YORK - Tel. 3108 Beekman - 1226 Tribune Building 
CHICAGO - Tel. Harrison 5351 - 1413 Great Northern B.ld.g. 
LONDON, ENG. -------- 16 Regent Street S.W. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 

Orders for advertising should reacli llie office of publication not later 
than the 5th and 20th of the month. Changes in advertisements will he 
made whenever tiesired, without cost to the advertiser. 
SUBSCRIBERS 

The "Electrical News" will he mailed to snhscrihers in Canada and 
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,?2.50. Remit by currency, registered letter, or postal order payable to 
Ilngli C. MacLeau, Limited. 

.^Subscribers are requested to promptly notify tlie publishers of failure 
or delay in delivery of paper. 

Authorized by the Postmastei General lor Canada, for transmissi-jii 
as second class matter. 

Entered as second class matter luly ISth, 1914, at the Postoffice at 
lUiffalo, N.V., under the Act of Congress of March 3, 1S70. 



Vol. 25 



Toronto, March i, 191 6 



No. 5 



Defying the Protests of the PubHc 

Still the Chief ]iUtlli.^ence Othcer of the Canadian mil- 
itary or.!ranizalion — a German, with brothers fighting in the 
(icrman army — continues to hold office. 

Still men of Genuau birth and close German relation- 
ships — and c.inscijuctitly close German sympathies — continue 
to hold important Canadian governmental positions. 

Still certain aliens of Waterloo County continue to in- 
terfere at will with the jirosecution of Canada's war, and 
continue to jibe at Canada's soldiers. 

How long will our Ottawa Government defy the in- 
dignant protests of the electors? WHY i> it necessary to 
defy these protests? 

The British Empire, nf which Canada is an important part, 
is in a death-grapple witli (iermany. There is no possilde 
reason for doubting that this same Germany will, if she can, 
destroy llie power of England. The destruction of British 
power almost inevitably means that Canada falls under the 
control of siinic othrr nalinn. L'ltiinalcly. if not immediately, 
that nation wmihl be Germany — for, if Germany wins this 
war and cripples ICngland. there will not be sufficient fighting 
power left to withstand her aggressions. Neither is there 
any doubt that in slartitig this war the ultimate ambition of 
the present German military authorities was to subdue the 
whole world. 

This war has developed into a much bigger business 
than Germany dreamed when she willed it on Europe. She 
hoped to achieve her .ambitions step by ste]), but the Allies 
have unexpectedly forced her hand and declared it a fight 
lo a finish. Germany therefore fights to-day a fight f"r verv 



existence — the fight of a hungry, maddened jungle-beast 
thwarted of its prey and driven to bay. To military Ger- 
many this war has now become a matter of life with power 
or death with shame. 

Can we Canadians, as sane beings, fighting with such 
ail opponent — clever, powerful, resourceful, unscrupulous, 
beastlike— can we, I urge, aflFord to take any chances? I 
don't say that any man of German blood in the employ of 
our Government is disloyal to Canada— I don't know. But 
I do say— it's possible. I do say that in the breasts of these 
men love of their native land would be merely human. I 
do say that, even with good intentions, these men of Ger- 
man extraction are more likely to be the medium through 
which important information might leak out. I am quite 
ready to admit that the vast majority of Canadian citizens 
of German extraction are entirely loyal to the British Empire, 
but I also say that Germany's methods in the conduct of 
this war justify us in keeping a watchful eye on the actions 
of even our closest friends who may have German blood in 
their veins. 

The continuance of any men of German birth or close 
German connection in any position of trust in Canada is 
entirely indefensible. Remove them at once. Treat them 
with all courtesy, pay their salaries if you will, reinstate thcni 



The value 


of Canada's exports 


for the 


month 


of January, 


1916 


was $85,000,000 


as compared 


with $30,000,000 


in January last 


year. 


Total 


exports for 


10 


months $630,000,000 


against 


$385,000,000 a 


year ago. 







i\luii we've won tlie war. but now — remove tluin. Make it 
as impossible for them to do us harm as if we believed them 
guilty of the desire. 

And why should the loyal citizens of Waterloo County 
be singled out for the humiliations of the past few weeks? 
What is our Government afraid of? The loyal citizens of 
Waterloo County, of whatever nationality, can be depended 
upon to support any action that may be taken. Does our 
Government truckle to the opinion of the disloyal clement? 

I know that I express, the sentiments of more than ninety- 
nine per cent, of the people of Canada in demanding that our 
(iovcrnment, on the instant, remove these men from office 
in Ottawa or elsewhere, inmiediately provide adequate mil- 
itary protection for our public buildings, and iinmediately 
segregate any small element in our population which may 
give indication of German sympathies and in so doing may 
interfere in any possible way with recruiting or may hinder 
the progress of the war in the smaUest measure whatsoever. 



Rules and Regulations re Water Power Rentals 

■The Rides and Kegulatiuns of the I'roviiicc of British 
( iphimbia relating to Annual Rental Fees of Water Powers," 
was the subject of a paper by Mr. E. Davis, Water Rights 
branch. Department of Lands, Victoria, B. C, read at the 
meeting of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, Mon- 
treal, on Feb. 17. The purpose of the paper, said Mr. Davis, 
was to outline in a general way the metho4s which should 
be adopted by the Board of Investigation of the provincial 
Water Rights Branch in securing information which was ne- 
cessary under the Water Act regulations for the appraisal 
and classification of the various water power plants of the 
province. Mr. Davis quoted the regulations on this point, 
the preliminary paragraph stating "the amount of the an- 
nual rental fee shall be based on the reasonable station out- 
j.ni f..r (he year, which shall be the Comptrollers estimate of 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



March 1, 1916 



the net amount of energy, expressed in horse power, availabk: 
for transmission and utilisation by a reasonable and diligent 
use of the privilege. The said estimate shall be based on all 
data available for the preceding year, and shall be the con- 
tinued product of the following factors, as derived from the 
said data." Having detailed the factors, the author said 
that the principle of a portion of the regulations relating to 
annual rentals v^as that the water power company should pay 
a fee to the province based on the "economic value of the site." 
No two sites were of the same value, as each power was pe- 
culiar to itseM, whereas the market value for power was prac- 
tically the same, hence to attempt to place the rentals to be 
paid by each on the same basis would probably mean that a 
tax which would be fair in one case would be unreasonable 
in another. 

The rules and regulations which were in force in British 
Columbia prior to 13th January, 1914, required that the an- 
nual rentals be based on the quantity of water the holder of 
the record or license had the right to use. The question of 
the power actually developed and the amount of energy used 
was not taken into account. Under the present regula- 
tions those factors were considered, and consequently the 
annual rentals would vary in relation to the amount of power 
actually produced and to what was considered to be the 
value of the output to the user. The authority which was 
called upon to set the rates at which the rentals were to be 
charged was the Board of Investigation; it was a non-politi- 
cal body of four members, two lawyers and two engineers. 

It should be the aim of every government which con- 
trolled the water of rivers and streams to try and bring about 
the develoment of every available site, as although at pre- 
sent there was no apparent shortage of coal, there could not 
be any doubt that it was a wilful waste that so much energy 
in the falls of our rivers was not utilised. If we did not 
make use of this falling water the useful work it was cap- 
able of doing was lost for ever. 

Hydro-electric properties had not as a class returned to 
the investor swollen dividends as the value of water powers 
had been generally very largely over-estimated. A pro- 
ject required special consideration during the early years of 
its development; a surprisingly large number either failed to 
pay dividends or became bankrupt during the first decades of 
their existence. These failures might generally be attri- 
buted to one or more of the following causes: 1. Projects 
based on insufficient information as to the incidence of 
stream flow especially in the case of plants without storage, 
and lack of data as to correct flows with a consequent un- 
expected expense for auxiliary plants: ;J. under-estimated de- 
velopment costs, especially in the matter of accessibility of 
sites, depth of foundation for dams, etc.; :!, failure to provide 
for the loss or expense entailed during the first few years 
in the building up of the power market; 4. over-estimating 
the economic value of the power devclupnient from the waler 
as compared with fuel. 

Mr. Davis then referred to the question of appraising 
each plant every five years and the conditions under which 
this appraisal should be made. He gave details of the var- 
ious items which should be taken in account, and also the cost 
and appraisal of a supplementary fuel plant, further'referring 
to the question of ascertaining tlic yearlj' cost per kilowatt 
hour of running a water power plant and its supplementary 
plant. 

On the question of depreciatif)n of plants in V>. C. lie 
quoted the following fig-ures as giving the approximate use- 
ful life of water power apparatus: concrete structure, .'ni 
years; steel line pipes, 30 to 50 years; building, 50 years; water 
wheels, 30 years; generators, 30 years; transmission line 
(steel towers) 50 years; transmission lines (wood poles") 15 
years; telephone lines, 15 years; transformers and distribution 
stations, 14 years; conduits and cables, 18 years; steel flumes. 



15 to 20 years; wood llunies, 10 years; wood stave \>\\>c lines, 
:iO years. 

The concluding ptirtions uf the paper dealt with esti- 
mates of the cost of oil, steam and gas engine plants in com- 
parison with water power plants, in relation to the produc- 
tion of power, Mr. Davis stating that electric power plants 
using the oil engine as a motive power were becoming com- 
mon in British Columbia, and the small water power plants, 
which were so numerous in the province, would likely find 
serious competition from this class of plant. 



Electric Cooking Costs Less than Lighting 

One of the most promising developments of the present 
time is the increasing use of electric ranges in our homes, 
and nowhere is this development more marked than at vari- 
ous points in Canada, where the rates are now so attractive 
as to make cooking by electricity decidedly more economical 
than with any other form of heat energy. 

It is very generally argued that electricity at three cents 
will compete with gas at $1. Yet gas at $1, unless it is 
natural gas, is a rare product in Canada, where the prices 
range more generally from $1.25 to $1.75 per 1000 cubic feet. 
On the other hand, however, electric current costs very much 
less than three cents in many of our cities, towns, and muni- 
cipalities, in very many cases averaging less than two cents, 
and in certain cases less than one and a half cents per kw. 
hour. Which all goes to show that if electric li.ght con- 
sumers appreciated not only the advantages but also the 
cheapness of cooking by electricity our central stations would 
be flooded with orders for stoves and current that would 
swamp their construction department. 

Of course, the one fly in the ointment is the cost of 
installation. We have been so near-sighted in this matter 
that we have allowed all our buildings, private and public, 
to be installed with electric wiring which is generally inade- 
quate to meet the needs of the present day. Thus it is that 
the first operation when a demand is made by a private con- 
sumer for the installation of an electric range is the tearing 
out of the old wiring and its replacement by an installation 
of considerably greater capacity. This work often costs an 
amount comparable with the cost of the range itself, which 
doubling of the initial expenditure often is the determining 
point with the purchaser — deciding him against the purchase. 

.A.t many points in Canada, where the ultimate cost of 
current is down to one cent, or even less, the monthly bills 
have becoine a comparatively minor consideration. Thus, 
if we take the average consumption of one kw'. per person 
per day, a family of five, which is about the average, will 
consume 155 kw. per month, which would cost at many points 
in the Dominion around $3.70. If we consider that tlie light- 
ing ])ill alone, wliich this includes, would run from $1.20 
to $1.50, this means that a family of five operates an electric 
range for one month for no more than the lighting of the 
home would cost by itself. 

And not only have advances been made in the way of 
reductions in the cost of current. The operation of an elec- 
tric range is' coming to be recognized as worthy of a con- 
siderable amount of study and research. One of the best 
sources of information on this subject was a paper printed 
in our August 15 and September 1 issues. 1915, by Mr. P. W. 
Gumaer, who had made a very large number of experiments 
and. in this paper, descriljcd the findings of those experi- 
ments. Mr. Gumaer presented this paper before the Ameri- 
can Society of Electrical Engineers, and in due course the 
discussion is now published, which we are reproducing here- 
with. Not the least iioliceaI)le item in connection with this 
discussion is the encouraging tone regarding the outlook 
of electric ranges at various points in the United States where 
the cost of electric current is very much greater than it is 
at many points in Canada. 



Marcli 1. 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Economic Use of Electric Ovens 

Discussion on " Economic Operation of Electric Ovens," 

before the A. I. E. E. The original article was 

printed in the Electrical News of 

August 15, 1915. 

Dwight F. Henderson: I think this paper has opened up 
a subject that will in the future be given a great deal of 
attention and study. The manufacturers spend a great deal 
of time in study and investigation and money in building 
ctTicient ovens, and then little attention is given to the opera- 
tion of these ovens, ranges and other devices after they have 
been installed in the households. Our company in Spokane 
has been very active lately in pushing the sale of electric 
ranges and kindred devices. The greatest difficulty that our 
commercial men have found is in convincing the prospective 
users of this apparatus that the cost of operation is not 
going to be excessive. If this apparatus is used intelligently 
the cost in most cases is not excessive. We find that it 
closely approximates the cost of gas for a small family. I 
do not know how that would apply to a large family. I find, 
too, that the cost of heating water is the one great draw- 
back with the electric ranges, if it is not done in some sys- 
tematic manner. We have arranged a scheme for putting on 
a fiat-rate water heater which has solved the problem as far 
as we are concerned, very nicely. We have developed a 
double snap switch interlocked so that when the range is 
turned on the water heater is oflf, and when the range is not 
in use the water heater is on. That gives an eighteen or 
twenty-hour use of the water heater and will give continu- 
ous hot water when connected to the ordinary water tank. 

Ralph W. Pope: I can see the coming of the scientific 
domestic engineer when, as prophesied by the author of 
the paper, we can have a definite degree of heat indicated 
at which the food should be cooked, and also temperatures 
to which the oven should be heated, and any changes which 
may be necessary, may be brought about very readily. That 
appears to me a great advance. 

There has been one serious drawback to tlie introduction 
of electrical apparatus in the kitchen, and that is the com- 
paratively high initial price. It appears to mc that tltat 
initial price might be made lower, when we consider that tlie 
revenue eventually is to be <lerived from the current con- 
sumed. Then, again, the hiylier cost of operation is not 
such a material objection. Tlie cost is more than offset by 
convenience; frequently we pay more for cooking by gas 
than by coal, and still it is so advantageous, that the gas 
bill does not always trouble the kitchen. It is convenience 
we are looking for. .'Vs we all know, we have a great many 
conveniences which greatly increase the cost of living com- 
|)arcd with our former more simple life. 

S. N. Clarkson: The electric iron is ciuitc a good revenue 
producer for the central station, and now that the manu- 
facturers have given us satisfactory electric stoves, it opens 
up another and a much larger field for central station service 
to replace its competitors. The cooking load is a very de- 
sirable one because a great deal can be added to existing sys- 
tems without appreciably increasing the demand, due to the 
diversity factor of the cooking load. 

The human element enters into the cooking so greatly 
that it is impossible to give any accurate cost data to fit all 
cases. It would seem that with proper care in the operation 
of the stoves, a rate of ;i cents per kw.-hr. will about equal 
the cost with gas at 90 cents, and for rough computation, the 
current consumption of one kw-hr. per day per person is a 
fair average. 

H. W. Flashman: I would ask the gentleman from 
Spokane if lie will complete the discussion 1>y telling us the 



rates of charge for gas and electricity. He stated he felt 
they broke even on electric cooking. 

Dwight F. Henderson: Our rates for current are 8 cents 
for the first twenty kw.-hr., 6 cents for the next ten kw.-hr. 
and all in excess of that 3 cents per kw.-hr. Our stoves are 
put on the same meter which supplies the general lighting of 
the house. We figure that about the first thirty kw.-hr. 
will be used for lighting for an ordinary residence. That 
will leave most of the cooking to be done at the 3-cent rate, 
and our gas at Spokane is $1.40 per thousand feet, with cer- 
tain discounts. I do not know just what the discounts are. 
but the convenience and other features of electric cooking 
ofTset the considerable diflference in price between gas and the 
electric equipment. We have made approximately one hun- 
dred installations now, and our experience has been different 
from the report from St. Louis. The ranges for electric 
cooking, while they are not by any means perfected yet to 
the degree to which they will be, have met with general 
satisfaction. We have had only one or two cases where 
the installation was returned. The first cost has been a great 
handicap in the installation of electric cooking. We have 
to sell the average range laid down to us at from $65 to 
$90, and there is usually $15 to $20 expense incurred in wiring 
the house. We think that a large percentage of the people 
would be willing to stand the first cost if they were sure 
that the expense of operation would not be too high. 

H. L. Wallau: Mention was made of the diversity factor 
of the cooking load. I do not happen to recall the figures, 
but quite a few experiments were made some years ago in 
Cleveland, and these figures were presented to the Associa- 
tion of Edison Illuminating Companies in the report of the 
Committee on Electric Cooking about two or three years 
ago. I merely bring this point up, so that if any of the 
gentlemen present desire to get some data on that diversity, 
tliey can look the matter up in the report. 

I will add further that in Cleveland we found that ih.c 
cost of cooking by electricity usually ranged from $1.50 to 
$3 a month per head, with current at 5 cents, and it was 
proportionately less than that with current at ;) cents. We 
had a 3-cent rate for what was known as the "four-hour load 
factor stove," that is, any stove the use of the connected load 
of which reached four hours a day, or more, received a 
3-cent rate. If the use was less than four hours a day, the 
rate was 5 cents. 

M. G. Lloyd: I am very glad to see going into our re- 
cords some definite data on this subject. Most of the figures 
which have been available heretofore arc of such an in- 
definite character or were obtained under conditions not very 
precisely stated, that it is hard to tell just where we stand on 
the subject of electric cooking. I think it is of great value 
to us to have these definite experiments available. One 
thing that is worthy of note in this connection is this: I 
think there is a very definite tendency in this country to 
recognize the advantage of cooking at low temperatures, 
so that more of the nutritive value of the food is retained, 
that is recognized as a desirable element. These tests indi- 
cate that cooking under the best engineering condition falls 
into line with that dietetic condition, that is to say, the most 
economical rate of temperature for cooking is the low tem- 
perature, at least in most of the cases specilicd. 

In regard to the suggestions made by the author as to 
what is required, it may not be known to everyone that there 
arc ranges on the market which meet some of these condi- 
tions, that is to say, the electric stove has already been com- 
bined in apparatus designed for the fireless cooker principle, 
and there are also ranges on the market which have been 
provided with automatic switches and time switches so the 
food can be put in the oven and the person in charge of the 
cooking go out of the house, and the cooking will go on for 
the proper time and at I he proper teinperattirc. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



March 1. 101 fi 



Cedars Rapids Electrical Development 

Mr. R. M. Wilson Describes the Details of Installation and Operation of the Electrical 

Equipment, before the Can. Soc. C. E.— Nine Units of 10,000 kv.a., Each 

Already Running at Capacity with Load Factor over 90 per cent. 



This paper, which is the third and linal one on the 
Cedars Development, will treat of the general electrical de- 
sign, construction, tests, costs and results of operation to 
date. 

Before going into the general design a brief description 
of the present installation will be useful in following the 
details contained in the paper. 

The generating plant consists of nine 10,000 kv.a., flCOO 
volt, 3 phase, 60 cycles, vertical water wheel driven units, 
and three 1,350 kv.a., 2300 volt, 3 phase vertical exciter units, 
with necessary switchboards and accessories. The excita- 
tion for the large units is obtained from individual motor 
generator sets of 150 kw. capacity, driven from the 1250 kv.a. 
exciter units. In order to provide proper voltage regulation 
on the main bus bars automatic voltage regulators have been 
installed on each unit, maintaining a steady voltage and pre- 
venting cross currents between the units. The main gener- 
ator bus bars are not located in the power house, but have 
been installed in the same building as the step-up transform- 
ers for Massena and Montreal systems. The power house 
and transformer house are separated at present by a dis- 
tance of approximately 800 feet, and are electrically con- 
nected by a system of feeder cables. 

Size of Units 

The design and layout of the general in.i.; and excitation 



system was the main point of consideration in the electrical 
layout, and had to be worked out in conjunction with the 
water wheel design. Mr. Smith has explained in his paper 
why the vertical type of unit was adopted. The next step 
was to determine the most appropriate size of unit, having 
in mind our contract obligations for the supply of energy, 
which are most onerous as regards continuity of service. 
Two sizes of units were considered, viz.: 15,000 kv.a. and 
10,000 kv.a. The smaller capacity of unit was finally decided 
upon. Some of the principal reasons govefning our deci- 
sion were: 

1 With imits of 15,000 kv.a. size, too great a per- 
centage of plant capacity would be put out of commis- 
sion in the event of a failure of a single unit. 

2_. Units of this capacity and of vertical type had 
not been constructed and we did not feel justified in 
installing a unit which would be to a certain extent in 
the nature of an experiment. 

3. The cost of other apparatus such as cranes, gen- 
erator decks, bearings, etc., would have been materially 
increased as well as the cost of repairs in the event of 
failures, owing to the excessive weight of the larger 
size unit. As a matter of information the following 
comparative weights are given: 

10,000 kv.a. unit 15.000 kv.a. unit 

Rotor 213,000 lbs. 425,000 lbs. 

Stator 146,000 lbs .300.000 lbs. 

When the size of the generating unit had been decided 




Showing nine 111,000 kv.a. units at present operating to capacity at Cedars Rapids. 



Man-li I. I'.tin 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



25 



ciii, tlic design (if llu- unil was discussi-d in detail with the 
manufacturing companies' engineers previous to our sending 
out specifications. One of the main objects of the discussion 
was to impress upon the desisjning engineers the importance 
of having tlie most economical ratio hctwecn the diameter 
of the unit and its height. The result was that the design 
which was finally adopted saved something like seven feet 
in the height of the power house over its entire length as 
well as keeping down the initial cost of the hydraulic in- 
stallation. 

As a matter of information the following are the most 
important points covered in the generator specifications up- 
on which tenders were asked. 

Generator Specifications 

1. The generator to he of such design that the stator 
he divided into four sections, any one of which could 
he removed by raising the bridge frame carrying the 
thrust bearing and disconnecting the necessary arma- 
ture coils. Our reasons for calling for this design was 
to permit of our having to rebuild only one-quarter 
of the stator in the event of the iron being damaged 
by short circuit in the armature winding. 

2. The generator to be designed for ?.'> per cent, 
power factor and 2.5 per cent, overload for two hours, 
and the revolving clement of such construction as to 
provide a braking curface with sufficient face to pre- 
vent undue heating. The air brakes having been fur- 
nished by tlie water wheel contractors, the frame of 
the stator had also to be designed to carry a load of 
.V'lO.OOO pounds. 

3. The generators had to be designed to deliver 
their full rated capacity at a normal potential of (i(!00 
volts, and all tests and guarantees were based on this 
voltage. The generator has also to carry full load rat- 
ing in amperes at a voltage of 7200 volts for several 
hours without in any way sustainin.g damage. 

4. The inherent regulation between zero load and 
full rated load to be: — 

10.000 kv.a., 100 per cent. p. I., 14 \>e\: cent. 

10,000 kv.a., '.10 per cent, p.f., 24 per- cent. 

10,000 kv.a., I'l per cent, p.f., 27 per cent. 
with field excitation for 10,000 kv.a., 7.> per cent. p.f. 
The sustained short circuit current not to be more than 
three times full load current, and the instantaneous 
short circuit current not more than eight times' full 
load current, and with these current conditions the 
generator was not to sustain any damage. 

,'). The generator to be of such design that the wave 
form will be as near a true sign wave as possible. 

6. The temperature rise of the generator on con- 
tinuous full load run at 7.5 per cent, power factor was 
not to exceed 45 degrees Centigrade at the end of a 
48-hour run. This temperature refers to all parts of 
the generator except the collector rings, the tempera- 
ture of which shall not exceed that of the generator 
frame or winding by more than .5 degrees Centigrade. 

The temperature guarantees being based on a room 
temperature of 25 degrees C, and the method of mea- 
surement of the temperature being made by means of 
either exploring coils or thermometers, located at the 
hottest part of the machine. 

In order to make absolutely certain that abnormal 
temperatures do not exist, the guarantees are for a 
period of two years. At expiration of the two years' 
guarantee, at the expense of the contractor, one coil 
from each of the four sections of the armature of any 
generator will be removed for the purpose of inspec- 
tion, in order to demonstrate that the insulation on the 
armature coils has not been injured. 

7. The efficiency guaranteed to be as follows: — 

.\t 75 per cent. p. f.: IVi load. 95 per cent.; full b'ad, 
'.14.5 ]ier cent.: 'j load. ".i:i.7 per cent.: '/■ load, !M 7 per 
cent. 

At '.10 per cent. p. f.: 1J4 l'>a<l. !>.5.8 per cent.; full 
load, 95.5 per cent.; ij load. 94.0 per cent.; 'A load, 03.S 
I)cr cent. 

At 100 per cent. p. f.: \yi load. 90.4 per cent.; full 
load, Ofi.l per cent.; f^ load. 95.4 per cent.; '/• load, 
9:1.5 per cent. 

All losses are included in these efficiencies except 
bearing friction and windage, for which an allowance 
of 50 kw. has been provided for in the above figures. 



s. The design of the generator is such that the ends 
of the armature coils are carefully braced preventing 
niovement due to short circuits; also various parts of 
the coils in the slot are firmly held together prevent- 
ing conductors spreading out. 

'.). The iron losses must not increase after two years' 
operation more than five per cent. 

10. In order to provide proper ventilation, special 
care to be taken in the design of vanes and the methods 
of fastening same to rotating parts so as to avoid 
the danger of bolts or other fastenings becoming loose, 
due to vibration or short circuits. All vanes must be 
such that they will be housed in behind a smooth sur- 
face to prevent the operators from getting hurt by 
coming in contact with same. 
The 10,000 kv.a. units, which w-ere furnished and in- 
stalled in accordance with our requirements, have met onr 
most sanguine expectations. They contain many important 
features which have considerable to do with the splendid 
results obtained. 

It may be of interest to note that the outside diameter 
of the stator is :i~ ft. 4 ins., and the internal diameter of the 
stator is :il ft. 11 ins., and that the unit is the largest in 
diameter which has been installed to date. The height of 
the stator frame from the floor line is only :i:i inches. The 
armature iron is built up in such a manner as to give proper 
and efficient ventilation, insuring low temperature. The ven- 
tilation ducts are constructed with small eye beams spot 
welded to spacing punchings, which permits of at least twenty 
per cent, better air circulation than the old method previously 
used on large units. These units are the first ones installed 
with this system of ventilation. 

The armature coils are insulated with a composite in- 
sulation mica next to the conductor and varnished cloth 
outside of the mica. The approximate thickness of insula- 
tion is :! /16 inches. A tinfoil tape, wound one-half lap, mak- 
ing a total thickness of .0,35 in., covers the varnished clntli. 
It is wound very carefully to prevent the entrance of any 
air, particularly at the ends just outside of the slot. The tin 
foil covering is w'ell grounded to the armature punchin.gs. 
This construction equalizes the stress in the coil and pre- 
vents corona. The number of slots per pole per phase is 
one and one-half. The windin.g is w'hat is commonly known 
as the barrel type. 

The rotor consists of i:i(i poles and has a W K" equal 
lo 31,000,000 lbs. at one foot radius. 

The approximate net weights of the unit are as follows: — 
rotor, 21 :^, 000 lbs.; stator, 14ii,000 lbs.; misc., ;i2,000_ lbs. 

Determining the Temperature 

It is now recognized that certain internal parts of the 
generator attain a much higher temperature than that indi- 
cated by thermometers placed on accessible i)arts. or than 
the average temperature indicated by the resistance rise of 
the entire winding. 

In order to determine the actual temperature of the hot- 
test parts of the winding, copper temperature coils of cer- 
tain known resistance are i)laced so as to record the teni- 
[lerature in de.grees centigrade on indicators placed on the 
switchboard. 

In each generator six temperature coils arc placed be- 
tween the upper and lower armature coils at equal distances 
around the generator. 

In providing the cxcitati<in I'or the lar.ge units we de- 
l)arted from the usual practice of installing large d.c. units 
water-wheel driven. In their place has been installed three 
a.c. 1250 kv.a.. 2:i00 volt, three phase units excited by an 
IS kw., d.c. generator on same shaft and turbine driven, also 
a bank of three 1000 kv.a. transformers which permits of 
one of the large units being used for excitation purposes 
in case of emergency. 

These a.c. generators furnish the necessary energy for 
driving the individual motor generator sets for exciting (he 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



March 1, 1910 



large units. Some of the reasons governing the adoption of 
this method of excitation are here given. 

1. In case of trouble on an individual exciter set 
only one main unit would be affected. 

2. .^11 auxiliary machinery would be a.c. motor- 
driven with low operating costs. 

3. It was easier to obtain proper automatic voltage 
control with individual generator exciter sets. 

4. The investment in cables, switches, etc., for sup- 
plying individual sets for a.c. power lower than for 
d.c. power. 

5. The cost of spare apparatus kept at a mniimum. 

6. In the event of emergency conditions one of the 
large units could be used. 

The specifications for the 1250 kv.a. units are similar in 
nearly every detail to the large units. 

To provide for proper voltage regulation, each gener- 
ator has its individual exciter and regulator; the exciter or 
motor-generator set being connected to the main generator 
field through a remote controlled solenoid operated switch 
and a motor operated rheostat. Cross currents between gen- 



conditions at Cedars was one in which one motor would 
operate two fan units, each unit being known as a double 
Keith fan. Five sets of these units were installed and so 
arranged that the air supply to them could be obtained 
either from the tail-race or generator room. The installa- 
tion of fans being so arranged as to provide a spare unit. 

No air washing system was installed, as it was not found 
necessary, due to the location of the fans. 

Each unit consists of two fans driven by a 00 h.p., 2200 
volt, 3 phase motor. The combined air capacity of the unit 
is 105,000 cubic feet per minute at ^ oz. pressure. 

Switchboards and Low Tension Switchgear 

In the design and layout of the most suitable system of 
switchboards and accessories, the following important point 
consistent with minimum initial cost and continuity of ser- 
vice. The double bus bar arrangement was finally adopted 
and designed in such a manner that a failure on any one 
section would not cripple the next unit. The double system 
of switches insures operation against interruptions due to 




Oil Switches- Cedars Rapids Manufacturing and Power Co. 



erators operating in parallel are prevented by a current wind- 
ing on the a.c. control magnet of the regulator; the phase of 
the current in the current winding being 90 degrees from 
the current in the potential winding. In other words, if the 
potential winding is connected across phase 1 and :i, the 
current winding is taken from phase 2. 

Each regulator is equipped with a regulating rheostat 
which is placed in series with the a.c. control magnet. This 
rheostat has a resistance of 10 ohms total in thirty-six steps, 
each step changing the voltage held by the regulator approxi- 
mately • me-half volt on 110 volts normal. 

With this system of control voltage variation can be 
obtained on the main units without effecting automatic regu- 
lation between the limits of 5S00 volts and 7200 volts. 

Ventilation 

For the purpose of insuring proper ventilation of the 
main generators during the summer season it was thought 
advisable to install a suitable system of blowers, capable of 
furnishing to each generatoi" pit 35,000 cubic feet of air per 
minute at one-half ounce pressure. 

It was found after careful investigation that low speed 
fans were more efficient; also the initial cost was lower, as 
well as the operating costs. 

The system of fans found to be the most suitable for 
was closely followed. We desired the most flexible system 



failures, provides an easy means for constant inspection, and 
permits testing and meeting any load conditions being 
handled easily. 

For the purpose of control, one main control and instru- 
ment board has been installed in the power house. This 
board controls the main generator circuits right up to the 
0000 volt bus bars in the transformer house. In the same 
control room in the power house is installed the 2300 volt 
board for controlling the exciter units and auxiliary appar- 
atus — all switching apparatus being remote control. 

In the transformer house a control desk and instrument 
board have been installed for controlling the step-up trans- 
formers and out-going lines. 

All switching apparatus and accessories have been in- 
stalled in such a manner that extension to the plant can be 
made without in any way interfering with the operation of 
the present apparatus. 

Each main generator is controlled by two switches, one 
located in the power house and the other in the transformer 
house. The switches are not automatic except when a re- 
versal in power occurs, then the generator in trouble is im- 
mediately removed from the system. 

It was thought advisable in the design of our switch- 
gear and accessories to use a large factor of safety, and with 
this condition in mind all switches installed for the main 



March 1, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



27 



0000 volt units are standard 13,200 volt oil switches, and the 
current carrying capacity of same are fifty per cent, greater 
than the normal current output of the generators. The 2300 
volt switch gear is for 7500 volt operation with a margin 
of safety in current carrying capacity of fifty per cent, more 
than normal requirements. 

Switchboards and Switchgear 

Some of the other important points in cnnneclion with 
the switchboards and switch gear are: — 

All instrument panels are provided with testing studs 
so that standard instruments for check purposes can easily 
be installed. 

Duplicate synchroscopes have been provided on both 
the 6600 volt and 2300 boards. 

Control current for all switches furnished at 220 volts 
from motor generator set with an au.xiliary storage battery. 

All rheostats, switches, etc., remote electrically con- 
trolled. 

All graphic meters on step-up transformers synchronized. 

Complete system of signals electrically operated installed 
in power house, permitting switchboard operator handling 
any portion of the plant from control desk in operating 
room in power house. 

All oil switches are electrically interlocked. 

Signal lamps from all centre disconnecting switches 
mounted on control board in view of operator. 

All bus bar insulators rigid and strong and spaced so 
as to prevent any distortion of bus bars under the most 
severe short circuit conditions. 

Synchronizing of all main generators is done with 
switches in power house, so as to protect system against 
improper handling of main units. 

The contact current densities used in tlie design of the 
switchgear was as follows: — 05 amperes per sq. in. for clip 
contacts; 100 amperes per sq. in. for Ijoltcd terminals; 200 
amperes per sq. in. for sweated terminals. All disconnecting 
switches locked Ij'pe. 

Four per cent, reactance coils based on the capacity of 
one generator installed between every group of three gen- 
erators. With this protection and operating 18 units in 
multiple; which will be the complete installation of the 
plant, the maximum possible instantaneous short circuit cur- 
rent with an inherent reactance of the generators of 31 per 
cent, will not exceed 34'^ times the capacity of one unit. 

All generator panels are provided with the following in- 
struments: a.c. ammeter; a.c. voltmeter; indicating polyphase 
wattmeter; recording polyphase wattmeter; indicating fre- 
quency wattmeter; power factor meter; d.c. field voltmeter; 
d.c. field ammeter; temperature indicator; signal system. 

.\!1 bus bar and switch structures are of reinforced con- 
crete. Reinforced concrete was adopted in place of brick 
for structures for the following reasons: (1) barrier work 
could be made thinner; (2) loading on floors much less; (3) 
easier to obtain greater clearances for live parts to ground 
in same space. 

Cables 

All cables used on the main generators operating at 
6600 volts were installed for 13,200 volt operation. Cables 
used for 2300 volt operation were installed for 4400 volts. 

It was considered that the increased cost due to the 
added installation was more than offset against failures. 
Lead covered, paper insulated cables were used in all places 
where they were subjected to moisture. All cables designed 
with cross sectional area of sufficient size to carry fifty per 
cent, over normal current continuously. All large single 
conductor cables on a.c. circuits have rope cores to minimize 
skin effect. In designing cables 1200 cm. per ampere was 
generally used. 

The most important part of the cable design was the 



size and kind to use on the main units connecting power 
house and transformer house. 

The final adoption being four 3-conductor, 300,000 cm. 
lead covered, paper insulated cables per unit. 

Some of the reasons governing our decision were: — 

1. Increase in apparent resistance of single con- 
ductor lead covered cables, carrying heavy currents at 
GO cycles was found to be abnormally high. 

2. The three conductor cable slightly cheaper in 
initial cost. 

3. In the event of failure of one of the four cables 
partial service could be obtained during repairs. 

Where the cable runs were comparatively short, single 
conductor cable was used to facilitate handling, and on 
account of the fact the outside diameter was less, thus taking 
up less room. 

Conduit System 

In connection with the conduit system, there were two 
main parts, interior conduit for control system, lighting and 
heating, and feeder conduits for carrying generator feeder 
cables in power house and between power house and trans- 
former house. 

The interior conduits were of galvanized iron pipe, the 
majority of which were embedded in concrete and the rest 
suspended from the ceilings of the galleries. 

The feeder conduits, where permanent, as in the power 
house, are of vitrified clay, and where temporary, such as 
in the connection between power house and transformer 
house, fibre duct laid in concrete was used. 

Battery Installation 

To provide for auxiliary service for switch control and 
emergency lighting a storage battery has been installed hav- 
ing a capacity of 75 amperes for eight hours, 125 amperes 
for four hours and 315 amperes for one hour, with automatic 
switches, etc., to make the battery complete in every detail. 

Lighting System 

Tlie main object in the layout of our lighting system 
was to get a good even illumination without shadows over 
every important part of the building. In general the plane 
of illumination was taken at 3 feet above floor level. The 
following intensities were adopted: — 

Power house — generator room and .gate house, 3 ft. 
candles; control room, 3J/ ft. candles. 

Transformer house — control room, 3 ft. candles; switch 
room, lyi ft. candles; transformer chambers, 1 ft. candles. 

The size of tungstens used in main part of power house 
was 500 watts, equipped with steel dome reflectors, dis- 
tributed evenly over the roof girders, and in order to obtain 
the illumination desired 45 kw. of illumination was required. 
A similar method was adopted in the transformer house only 
smaller tungstens were used. 

The amount of energy used for power house illumina- 
tion per sq. ft. in the generator room and gate house is .63 
watts. With this amount of energy the illumination obtained 
is perfect for operating conditions. 

(To be continued. 1 



Rigaud vs North River Power Company 

The Quebec Public Utilities Commission has passed 
judgment in the case of the Town of Rigaud against the 
North River Electric Company. It was complained that 
the company was in illegal possession of the streets, but 
the commission held that a franchise had been granted. The 
company had not, however, fulfilled its obligations in the 
matter of supplying light, and the commission granted a cer- 
tain time for the necessary work to be done; an expert would 
then investigate the system and report. There was no 
obligation on the part of th? company to supply power. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



March 1. lUlG 



The Practical Value of Curves 

The Application of Curves, Charts and Graphs to Facilitate the 
Analysis of Engineering Problems and Statistical Information 

By F. H. Martin* 



Tlio talk this evening can hardly be Icrnicd a paper — 
it is more in the nature of a resume or collection of curves 
and diagrams that have been found helpful, especially in pre- 
liminary design work, and they arc described in the hope 
that they may be of value to some of you. 

It was the intention originally to analyse the mathe- 
matical side of the art of curve plotting, but mathematical 
discussions are usually rather dry, so this phase has been 
omitted and may be taken up later in the season if desired. 

The talk this evening will be confined to the practical 
values of the curves which will be shown after a few intro- 
ductory remarks: 

Graphs are statements of results presented by means of 



TRANSMISSION LINE 

REGULATION DIAGRAM 

datat 

7tmile5 0f 270,600 c-m. aluminium cable. 

6 FOOT, TRIANGULAR 5PAClNa, 
56.aOOVOLTS BET^VEEN WIRES CONSTANT 
MSTICS. 



By reducing tile value of facts lo properly proportioned 
pictures or symbolic drawings, and arranging these geomet- 
rical diagrams in such a position that their relationship is 
apparent, their relative values, are instinctively appraised by 
the eye, and the lesson they are intended to teach, promptly 
and easily grasped. 

Statistics are a collection of facts tabulated numerically, 
or, a group of facts brought out by collecting numbers; in 
other words, it is the science of measurements of the social 
organism. 

Each year thousands of dollars are spent in collecting 
all kinds of data, which is usually arranged in a tabulated 
form, and anyone who has ever had an occasion to analyze 
V 




diagrams, geometrical figures, or pictures to delineate or 
convey information in a vivid, forcible, and instructive man- 
ner; to put it tersely, it might lie leniicd a picturization of 
facts. 

Charts are maps of results or facts, similar to, but slight- 
ly more comple-x, than graphs. 

•Designing Engineer. Winnipeg River Power Company, before ths Elec- 
trical Section of the Manitoba Branch of the Canadian Society of Civil Engin- 
eers. 



Transmission line regulation diagram. 

this enormous mass of information will have felt the need 
of a more coherent and concise means of arranging the 
same, in order to enable the average individual to recognize 
the salient features of these facts, and, to serve as a guide 
in making correct deductions therefrom, instead of accept- 
ing ready-made conclusions handed to him. 

If the average citizen, and, especially the business man 
wlio usually dodges the simplest charts, obsessed with the 



March 1. Iftlii 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



^:^[£ 




'^'JJ////A 




Unit speed— Specific 



Power— R.P.M.— No. of poles— Frequency diagram for liydraulic turbine— Generator units. 



idea that they involve higher mathematics, or, some other 
mysterious agency, knew how to interpret charts and curves, 
it would be feasible to elucidate to him in effective form 
those facts, relating to broad social and public improvements, 
public-service operations, and international, state or muni- 
cipal affairs. 

To the ordinary person this does not seem to be a mat- 
ter of great importance, and at first sight we cannot see its 
relationship to engineering, but when we consider that dur- 
ing the five years that the French engineers labored on the 
Panama Canal, they lost 32,189 men, while America has lost 
5,000 in twice that time, and has also succeeded in trans- 
forming the region from one of the most deadly to one 
of the most healthy localities on this continent, due largely 
to the praiseworthy efforts of Surgeon-General Gorgas, who 
recognized how potent in the reductions of the cause of 
those losses are sanitary environments and the separation 
of the infected from the sound, we see how essential it is 
to standardize all the facts that would influence an engineer- 
ing project in such a manner as to permit just comparison 
being made and then analyze the results graphically so that 
correct deductions can be made. Then there will no longer 
be any excuse for acting in ignorance since the curves will 
show exactly what is happening so that all conscientious 
workers for social, sanitary and other reforms will be able 
to discover at once the direction in which it is most desirable 
to concentrate attention 

The two principal methods of elementary statistics which 
ought to be understood by all students or officials who 
handle figures, and, which are easily within the grasp of all 



independent of mathematical training, but which are gen- 
erally misunderstood, or ignored by the uninterested or un- 
initiated, are, the method of averages, and the method of 
diagrams, or the graphic method. 

When we deal with large and complex masses of figures, 
we are unable to grasp them in their entirety, however clear- 
ly tliey may be tabulated. A list of figures, as for instance, 
the population of different cities, the wages of numerous 
individuals, etc., becomes less comprehensive as its length 
increases. A list of ten numbers can easily be grasped, of 
twenty, only with an effort, even b)' the highly skilled reader, 
while a series of figures for one hundred successive years 
leaves hardly any impression on the mind at all — we cannot 
see the wood for the trees — and we find that this also holds 
true in all fields of endeavor. 

As civilization advances there is being brought to the 
attention of the average individual a constantly increasing 
volume of comparative figures and general data of a scientific, 
technical, and statistical nature. The graphical method per- 
mits the presentation of such figures and data with a great 
saving of time, and also with more clearness than would 
otherwise be obtained. 

If simple and convenient standards can be found and 
made generally known, and adhered to, there will be possible 
a more universal use of graphic methods, with a consequent 
.nain to mankind, because of the greater speed and accuracy 
with which complex information may be imparted and in- 
terpreted. 

The graphic method is also used in solving problems 
in every branch of engineering (which otherwise would in- 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



March 1, I'JlO 



volve very complicated or laborious mathematical computa- 
tion) by drawing vectors to scale, and estimating slopes 
and arears under curves. This method not only gives the 
student a mental picture of the operation, but compels him 
to think of the relation between the various quantities in- 
volved, instead of merely performing operation by fixed 
rules, and the principles so illustratecl are more deeply im- 
pressed. 

Much of the work of calculation done by engineers or 
designers is in the repeated application of a lii lited number 
of formulas to a variety of diflfercnt conditions, which in- 
volves merely the substitution of different variables in iden- 
tical equations. Any mechanical means for performing this 
operation expeditiously will not- only lead to a saving of 
time and mental wear and tear, but will also minimize the 
chances of error. Such a device is the calculating chart, or 
monogram, and the increasing frequency with which it is 
employed in the more recent publications, is a good evi- 
dence of the growing recognition of its value. 

Many excellent examples of these charts have appeared 



WHERE THE NICKEL GOES 



Believing that this subject should be particularly useful 
to the practical engineer, who is often a trifle rusty in some 
parts of his mathematics, an efifort has been made to sim- 
plify the mathematical treatment, and a series of problems 
has been worked out in detail, illustrating the application of 
all the chart forms herein explained. 

It is thought that a study of these would afford a 
clearer insight into the methods employed, and a better un- 
derstanding of the difficulties likely to be encountered, than 
would be possible from a purely theoretical analysis. 

It will be observed that the corresponding metric di- 
mensions have been added to the scales of some of the dia- 
grams shown, this practically makes the charts international 
in character and like music, they may be arranged and in- 
terpreted in any language. This feature is greatly appreci- 
ated by engineering organizations whose scope is internation- 
al and frequently saves considerable time in translating and 
converting from one system to the other. 

The great advantage of the graphic method is that all 
of mankind's observations and calculations may be arranged 




Diagram showing distribution of 



DIA6RAM OF 5TRENSTH OF ROUND SHAFTS, COMBINED TWlSTlNq AND BENDIN5 MOMENTS 



of late years and are available for use. but it is evident that. 
to realize their full value as useful instruments, the engineer 
should have a sufficient acquaintance with their underlying 
principles to construct charts suited to his individual needs. 

Some of the chart forms employed to-day have been 
known and used for many years, but it is only within recent 
times tliat any systematic study has been made of the sub- 
ject as a whole, or any attempt to properly classify and cor- 
relate the different types. 

In this work the French have been pioneers, and, it is 
to one of them, Maurice D'Ocagne, that we owe what is 
probably the most thorough and comprehensive text on the 
subject, his "traite de Nomographic." Soreau and others have 
also produced very creditable work on this subject. 

Although books on Nomography have been published in 
many foreign languages, there does not appear to have been 
anything written on the subject in English, outside of a few 
scattered magazine articles, which have covered only re- 
stricted portions of the field. 

Books in English on graphical calculus are by no means 
uncommon, but this is generally looked upon as something 
different from Nomography, although a strict line of de- 
marcation between the two subjects would be somewhat 
difficult to trace. 



or cliarled on co-ordinate paper, just as the hj-drographcr 
charts the position of the coasts, islands, rocks, channels, 
etc., on a chart, which is used to guide the mariner on his 
voyage, so the graphic method may be emploj'ed as a guide, 
especially for preliminary designs and estimates. 

The prevailing tendency in engineering design is towards 
projects of greater magnitude containing a minimum number 
of units of maximum output, in making the initial layouts 
the approximate dimensions of the various apparatus must 
often be guessed at, and the uncertainty as to the e.xact re- 
quirements to be fulfilled by the work when completed is 
also a disadvantage, which cannot be escaped; but the more 
difficult it is to reach absolute correctness, the greater need 
we have of some guide which shall reduce the unavoidable 
guess-work to its lowest terms, and to save us from manifold 
hazards which result from not only guessing at facts, but 
at the effects of those facts. 

Whatever care we use we can never attempt with suc- 
cess to fix the exact point where economy ends and ex- 
travagance begins, but the graphic method helps us to es- 
tablish certain narrow limits in citlier direction, somewhere 
within which lies the truth, and anywhere outside of which 
lies a certainty of error. 

The final results must, of course, always be modified ac- 



March 1, 191G 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



cording to the results desired, conditions of working, the 
personal elements, etc., and accurate computations made for 
each particular case. The whole value of the charts shown 
this evening lies in their suggestive possibilities, as no at- 
tempt has been made to apply them to any specific case. 

The continuation of this article, which will appear in a 
subsequent issue, covers the mathematical phase, starting 
from the simple geometric definition of a point in space 
moving in the shortest direction between two points gen- 
erating a line, or one dimensional unit, movement of the 
line generating a plane or two dimensional unit, motion of 
the plane in a direction not contained within itself, generat- 
ing a cube of three dimensions, and so on. 

There will be explained more fully the tw^o dimensional 
planes, containing the X and Y axis, which divides the plane 
into four quadrants, also positive and negative numbers, 
rectangular and polar co-ordinates, complex quantities in- 
volving the quadratic or square root of minus one quantities, 
which are so helpful in solving alternating current compu- 
tations, and the equations for the straight line, circle, para- 
bola, hyperbola and higher curves; graphical calculus; in- 
cluding integration and differentiation. 

The graphical analysis of all of these gives a much 
clearer insight into their value, and allows the average in- 
dividual to apply them daily to the solution of what would 
otherwise appear very complex problems. Until recent years 




MOMTHO. 

Daylighttemperatureprecipitation chart for Winnipeg. 

it was regarded as a very advanced and difficult branch of 
pure mathematics, its knowledge being the possession of a 
privileged few and especially endowed mathematicians. 

The study of graphics is a common one, and no branch 
of mathematics knowledge has a more practical application. 
This is as it should be, for the fundamental ideas of graphics 
are common possessions. 



CHART 


FOR ASSIGNING VACATION PE.RIOD3 
YEAR 1312 


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New Books. 
Kidder's Architects' and Builders' Pocket Book — a hand- 
book for architects, structural engineers, builders, and 
draughtsmen, by the bte Frank E. Kidder, C. E., Ph.D., 
Thomas Nolan, Editor-in-Chief; sixteenth edition; John 
Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, publishers; price $5 net. 



' l« Jl ea 5 12 19 ES E 9 
APR.L MAY JU 

Ctiart for assigning vacation periods in an office. 
The present edition is the result of an entire re-writing and 
resetting of the earlier editions. This book should prove 
particularly valuable as a reference, as its very broad scope 
may be gathered from the following brief review of the con- 
tents. Part I. deals with practical arithmetic, geometrj', and 
trigonometry. Part II. deals with the strength of materials 
and the stability of structures, under the following chapter 
headings: (1) Explanation of terms used in architectural 
engineering; (2) Foundations; (3) Masonry walls, footings 
for light buildings, cements, and concretes; (4) Retaining- 
walls, and vault-walls; (5) Strength of brick, stone, mass- 
concrete, and masonry; (6) Forces and moments; (7) Sta- 
bility of piers and buttresses; (8) The stability of masonry 
arches; (9) Reactions and bending moments for beams; (10^ 
Properties of structural shapes, moment of inertia, moment of 
resistance, section-modulus, and radius of gyration; (11) Re- 
sistance to tension, properties of iron and steel; (12) Resist- 
ance to shear, riveted joints, pins and bolts; (13) Bearing- 
plates and bases for columns, beams and girders. Brackets 
on cast-iron columns; (14) Strength of columns, posts and 
struts; (15) Strength of beams and beam girders. Framing 
and connecting steel beams; (16) Strength of cast-iron lintels 
and wooden beams; (17) Strength of built-up, flitched and 
trussed wooden girders; (18) Stiffness of continuous girders; 
(20 Riveted steel plate and box girders; (21) Strength and 
stiffness of wooden floors; (23) Wooden mill and warehouse 
construction; (33) Fireproofing of buildings; (34) Reinforced- 
concrete construction; (25) Reinforced-concrete factory and 
mill construction; (26) Types of roof-trusses; (27) Stresses 
in roof-trusses; (28) Design and construction of roof-trusses; 
139) Wind-bracing for tall buildings. Part II. contains use- 
ful information for architects, builders, and superintendents, 
under the following chapter headings: (1) Heating and ven- 
tilation, heat, fuel, gas and gas-piping; (3) Lighting and 
illumination of buildings; (4) Electric work for buildings: 
(5) Architectural acoustics; (6) Miscellaneous data. 1816 
pages; flexible covers; well illustrated; 4^ by 7 ins. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



March 1, I'Jlb 



Review of the Electric Vehicle Industry and Forecasts 

for the Coming Year 



By A. Jackson Marshall 

inent 



The yeai- I'Jl.') saw many chaiigts and improve 
in the electric vehicle industry, all of which point to an un- 
usually bright future both for the electric in the commercial 
field and as a passenger car. There has been no sudden, 
illusory spurts of popularity in the progress of the electric 
vehicle, rather it has been a gradual, steady growth, forming 
a good, strong foundation upon which to build up its ever- 
increasing business. Ever since the transportation world has 
recognized the value of the motor truck in the larger cities 
where there are opportunities of testing the various forms of 
trucks, that while the gasoline motor truck is especially 
adapted for long" uninterrupted hauls, the electric vehicle 
is the desirable and economical vehicle for city and sub- 
urban work. 

The Boston Institute of Technology, employing the best 
authorities in an unbiased study of transportation problems 
bears out this statement of the electric's adaptability to city 
traffic after four years of observation, and statistical study. 
Indeed, all we need do is to observe the large fleets of 
electrics in our city streets which have been adopted by our 
largest and most conservative business houses. The Am- 
erican Express Company has been a consistent buyer of 
all forms of electric trucks for the past seven years. It 
has now about 300 electrics in use in two cities alone, and 
the additions to its various fleets during the fall and winter 
of 1915-16 are practically all of the electric type. The Adams 
Express Company operates 336 electrics in two large cities 
and has just received the final shipment of an increase in 
one fleet of 4a electrics. The Ward Baking Company is now 
using 610 electric delivery wagons. The Jacob Ruppert 
Brewing Company has 145 electrics, many of which are five 
ton capacity units; the George Ehret Brewery 136; the New 
York Edison Company 130. A number of large fleets of 
electric coal trucks varying from the light 2-ton capacity to 
5 and 6-ton trucks, are used in and around Boston, where 
they are operated IS hours a day, hauling coal to the business 
houses and office buildings at night, thus avoiding the difll- 
culty and delay of operating in the sections where' traflic 
is more congested during the day. In the lighter class of 
delivery wagons the department stores have shown a strong 
preference for the electric. Gimbel Brothers operate 11!); 
Lord & Taylor, B. Altman & Company, R. H. Macy & Com- 
pany, Bonwit-Tcller Company, Stern Brothers, the Tiflfany 
Company, the Franklin Simon Company, all of New York, 
have adopted electric delivery service. In Chicago the 
Marshall Field Company operates no less than 330; Wood- 
ward and Lathrop, of Washington, Houghton & Button 
Company, of Boston, and the Bullock Company, of Los 
Angeles, are also representative department stores all using 
large fleets of electric vehicles. It is significant that in 
nearly every case where a coiueni has adopted the electric, 
large repeat orders have Ijceii the result, evincing a certain 
confidence in the substantial solidity of the electric veliicle 
for city and suburban transportation service. 

While nearly all of the largest fleets of electric vehicles 
have been installed primarily through the eflforts of the ve- 
hicle manufacturers, the electricity supply companies (central 
stations) of the country have exercised considerable influence 
ill the promotion of the electric vehicle. However, there 
are comparatively few that appreciate the tremendous oppor- 
tunities attending its furtlier development. In New York 

'Secretary Electric Vehicle Association of America. 



City, for example, there is a minimum of something over 
$10,000,000 annually to be derived from the sale of current 
for electric vehicles in place of horses. Of 10,000,000 horses 
that are in use in the cities and towns of this country prob- 
ably all could be successfully displaced by electric vehicles. 
This would mean an additional income to some six thousand 
electricity supply companies of about one million dollars. 
This is all the more significant when we consider that the 
combined income of all these Central Stations from all 
sources last year was approximately $450,000,000, of which 
but a very small percentage was derived from the sale of 
current for electric vehicle charging. Even if only a small 
fraction of the business in sight were obtained, it would 
represent a tremendous increase in the total incomes to the 
electricity supply companies. 

That the horse and wagon is gradually being displaced 
by the light electric delivery wagon has been demonstrated 
by the very successful campaign recently carried on by a 
well-known manufacturer of vehicles of that type. Within 
its capacity rating the small 750-lb. electric delivery wagon 
costs less to operate than a single horse wagon and can per- 
form a far greater amount of work. Where conditions are 
such as to demand mileage ranges of 30, 40 or 50 miles per 
day, the saving obtained by the use of this car may actually 
cover its cost in less than two years, and this after all other 
running expenses have been paid for. It costs less to keep 
this car in tires than it does to keep a single horse in shoes 
for the same work done. For equal service the cost of cur- 
rent at 5c. per kilowatt-hour amounts to but half the cost 
of hay and oats alone. In New York City more than fifty 
livery stables have expressed a willingness to store and wash 
this car for $10 a month. These same stables get from $37 
to $30 a month for stabling and otherwise caring for a single 
horse and wagon, there is profit in the former and almost 
inevitable loss in tlie latter. 

The Electric in Municipal Work 

.\iiotlier inipurtant dcvelupmeiit of the electric vehicle 
during the past year in a special field is its adoption for muni- 
cipal service by many of our most progressive cities in one 
form or another. It is with considerable interest that fire 
chiefs throughout the country are watching the results and 
performances of electrically propelled fire trucks and en- 
gines in the cities where they have been adopted. This 
should prove an especially fertile field for the exploitation 
of the electric because of its inherent qualities of absolute 
dependability, its ease of operation, immediate response to 
driver's touch, and great simplicity of working parts, all of 
which are vastly important in operating fire apparatus. 
Philadelphia has adopted electrically propelled fire apparatus, 
and especially high commendation has been given it by the 
Fire Chiefs of the following cities, all of which have adopted 
the electric vehicle: Springfield, Mass.; Baltimore, 'Md.; Bos 
ton, Mass.; .\kron. Ohio; Worcester, Mass.; L'niontown, Pa.; 
Camden. N. J.; Paterson, N. J.; Hartford, Conn., and several 
other cities too numerous to mention. A recent demonstra- 
tion of electrically driven fire apparatus was held on '.he 
steep grades in and around Paterson. N. J., during November. 
at the time of its initial installation in that city. The tests 
showed the remarkable power of a combination chemical 
engine and hose wagon fully equipped with twenty lengths 
of hose and a crew of fourteen men weighing in all 18,330 
lbs., and a second piece of apparatus consisting of 65-ft. 



Manli 1. I'Jli 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



33 



aerial ladder carrying a crew of twenty-two men with total 
weight of 20,000 lbs. These two pieces negotiated a 18.23 
per cent, grade, having an uneven cobble stone paving, in 
1 niiiuitc, 13 seconds, starting at the foot of the hill from a 
(lead stop. This hill had always been used as a test hill for 
every piece of apparatus used by tlie I'aterson Fire Depart- 
ment, and the previous fastest time had been 1 minute, 10 
seconds, made by a gasoline combination. It is interesting 
that these pieces of electrically driven apparatus made the 
run from Philadelphia to Paterson, approximately 125 miles, 
in fourteen hours elapsed time, including stops at Trenton. 
New Brunswick and Newark. 

Electrics are now being used in large numbers for tlie 
collection of refuse in our cities, two of the most recent 
installations being in Boston, where two five-ton trucks have 
been purchased by the city, and in New York, where two 
gas-electric tractors are being used for the same purpose. 
Several cities of the south have adopted electrics for refuse 
collection, notably Miami. Fla.. which has operated electric 
refuse vans for some time. Electric street sprinklers, snow 
plows, steam rollers, police patrol wagons, and ambulances, 
are all being gradually adopted by progressive municipalities, 
which recognize the economy of operating cost and efficiency 
of the modern electric commercial vehicle. 

The very latest development, and one which will play 
an important part in further jiopularizing the passenger elec- 
tric, is the electrically driven ta.xicab. The present gasoline 
taxicab service in. many of our larger cities, and especially 
in New York, is inefficient, in many instances unsafe and 
costly to operate. An electric taxicab has been develope<l 
liy a company in Detroit, wliere there is now a fleet of 47 
in operation, which has all the exclusive refinement of a 
privately owned limousine in appearance, and is operated 
with far greater case and safety than the very best of the 
gasoline taxicabs. Plans are now under way whereby a 
company will be formed to introduce electric taxicab ser- 
vice in New York and other large cities in this country. 
Mr. I. S. Scrimger, General Manager of the Detroit Taxicab 
& Transfer Company, has been in New York for several days 
demonstrating one of the electric taxicabs. Mr. Scrimger 
in relating the experience which his company has had with 
electrics in Detroit, states: 

"The public in Detroit have taken very kindly to our 
electric equipment; so much so that we have had people 
wait from a half hour to three-quarters of an hour for an 
electric cab when we had gas cabs standing which they 
might have used. All of our cabs now in service are being 
operated 2t hours a day with two shifts of drivers; each man 
working 13 hours a day. To enable us to operate our cabs 
34 hours a day we have had wayside charging boxes in- 
stalled on the curb at the various hotels, and our cabs while 
standing idle arc on charge. The Edison Illuminating Com- 
liany, of Detroit, has co-operated with us in every way pos- 
-sible, and has .given us power wherever it was possible to 

Electric Taxicabs 

"W'e feel that wc have constructed for our service a 
thoroughly up-to-date, practical electric taxicab. Some eight 
years' experience with the gasoline car taught us the weak 
points of the gas car and we have tried to overcome them 
with out new construction. 

"Our cab has a 131-inch wheel base, and the interior of 
the cab body proper has a space about 68 inches long and 
about 50 inches wide, which you will see enables us to carry 
from four to five passengers very comfortably. Our experi- 
ence taught us the limousine type of body was preferable lo 
the landaulet type and could be operated with less expense. 
We are using pneumatic tires, and have already made a won- 
derful mileage showing with them." 



The Battery Rental plan for commercial vehicles, which 
has been in existence for a number of years in Hartford. 
Conn., is just beginning to force recognition in other cities, 
and will, without doubt, become extensively employed 
throughout the country during the coming year. The aim 
of the Battery Rental System is to widen the scope of the 
electric truck, increase its mileage, and reduce the initial cost. 
The truck user buys a truck with chassis and body adapted 
to his particular requirements without the battery. The 
electricity supply companies or charging stations of the vari- 
ous cities where this system is used keep him supplied with 
charged batteries to run his truck. In other words, he buys 
from the electricity supply company not energy at so much 
per kilowatt-hour, but transportation service. He pays a 
flat charge for garaging and battery maintenance, depending 
on the size of his truck. In addition he pays so much per 
mile for the total mileage traveled as indicated by the odo- 
meter on the truck. When one set of batteries are nearly ex- 
hausted he receives a freshly charged set from the nearest 
charging station, taking from two to four minutes for the 
exchange, less time than it takes to refill a gasoline tank. 
This system is already in practical use in Hartford, Conn., 
Boston, Worcester, Baltimore, Salt Lake City, Fall River. 
Spokane and San Francisco, and as its success becomes re- 
cognized by other electricity supply companies, it will within 
a comparatively short time become practically universal, thus 
increasing the mileage radius of the electric truck and ex- 
tending its usefulness to fields not always considered prac- 
tical for the electric. 

Battery Exchange System 

The Battery Rental and Exchange System is also bcinj, 
developed successfully for the passenger car type. Coupled 
with this project will be a very substantial reduction in the 
price of electric vehicles. Already one large manufacturer of 
passenger electrics in Chicago is selling a vehicle minus bat- 
teries for nearly $1,000 less than last year, the purchaser 
renting the batteries from the various service stations 
throughout the city. In this way the user can estimate his 
maintenance costs without difficulty and he will know be- 
forehand exactly what his operating expenses will be. In 
some figures recently compiled by this company it is shown 
that in the comparative costs of operating an electric and 
a gasoline car of the same valuation, the difference in up- 
keep expenses mounts as high as 1S5 per cent, in favor of 
the electric in cases where the owner employs a chauffeur 
to run his gas car. In instances where no chauffeur is em- 
ployed the electric shows a saving of from 3() to 5.5 per 
cent, in operating costs over the gasoline type. 

Other phenomenal price reductions in electric passenger 
vehicles have been due to quantity production and an un- 
precedented increase in sales. A decrease of $875 was an- 
nounced by one company which has been carrying on an 
extensive sales campaign, and other manufacturers have of- 
fered reductions of from $300 to $800. All of this augurs 
well for future popularity of the electric, and already its 
recognition as the most satisfactory car for city and sub- 
urban use is evidenced in the greatly increased numbers 
which we see daily in the streets. 

The past year has been marked by a number of success- 
ful long runs organized by several of the leading manufac- 
turers. Fifteen hundred miles in fourteen days, using but a 
single charge of the batteries per day. was the record made 
by the Beardsley Electric Company, of Los Angeles, Cal. 
Recently a Detroit Electric made a run of 180 miles in less 
than ten hours, and the same make of car also accomplished 
a :i75 mile run from Hartford to Washington in an actual 
running time of 31 hours. The trip cost $5.65, or less than 
i'A cents per mile. A Waverley Electric made the trip from 
Buflfalo to New York this fall in three days, and at the time 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Mar.li 1. I'.in 



of the Convention of the Electric Vehicle Association of 
America, at Cleveland, a Chicago Electric made a record run 
of 434 miles between Chicago and Cleveland in a running 
time of 38 hours. The Milburn Light Electric has been mak- 
ing some phenomenal long distance runs on the Pacihc 
Coast, and has shown remarkably excellent hill climbing 
ability and mileage radius in the hilly sections around Port- 
land, Oregon. One hundred and forty, and even one hun- 
dred' and sixty miles on a single charge of the batteries 
has been accomplished by several dififerent makes of electrics, 
showing that batteries are constantly l>cing improved and 
their mileage capacity increased. 

Manufacturers of electrics have begun to realize during 
the past year that there is a growing demand for electrics 
built along more masculine lines. This type of automobile 
has so long been recognized as the ideal car for a woman 
that they have lost sight of the fact that certain features 
of the electric have an especial appeal to business and profes- 
sional men with whom destination on time is of vital import- 
ance. An electric is absolutely dependable, and in traffic con- 
gested streets it winds its way in and out more easily than any 
other type of car, saving time by stopping and starting in 
immediate response to the driver's touch. There are no 
blow-outs, no stalling of the engine, and no changing of 
gears to be reckoned with when every minute counts. Sturdy 
appearing roadsters, built on more masculine lines, have 
therefore been developed to meet popular demand, and the 
electric is fast establishing itself as a favorite with men for 
city and suburban use. 

During the summer the new co-operative electric garage 
of the New York Electric Vehicle Association, located at 
Central Park West and 62nd Street, was thrown open to 
the public, and is housing its full quota of 100 electric pas- 
senger cars. The charging equipment of this electric gar- 
age, which is the largest in New York, is unusually complete, 
having facilities to charge from 100 to 300 cars per day and 
to care for the various sizes of batteries. Finely equipped 
electric garages are springing up in greater numbers all over 
the country, offering excellent facilities, and in some instances 
giving a unique parking service free of charge. The electric 
garages of Chicago ofifer a parking service in the Loop dis- 
trict which has proven a boon to shoppers and theatre pat- 
rons. Owing to the strict enforcement of the "half-hour 
law" for motor vehicles which prohibits a car from standing 
in any one place for more than a half hour, the owners of 
electrics who rarely employ a chauffeur were especially in- 
convenienced. Recognizing this, the electric garages or- 
ganized the free parking service and the cars are brought 
to a centrally located garage by the owner and parked 
by a reliable and competent chauffeur who returns the car 
when needed again. 

This is but one instance of the excellent service offered 
to users of electric vehicles, both commercial and passenger. 
Manufacturers, electricity supply companies, and electric gar- 
ages are all co-operating to further electric vehicle develop- 
ment and to give the best service under all conditions to their 
patrons. 



Montreal Talking to Vancouver 

The Bell Telephone Company of Canada gave an inter- 
esting demonstration at the Ritz Carlton Hotel, Montreal, 
on Monday evening, February 14th. Through the co-opera- 
tion of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, 
Montreal was connected with Vancouver and about two hun- 
dred leading citizens of the Eastern Metropolis listened to 
conversations carried on with prominent men in Vancouver. 

Lord Shaughnessy spoke to F. W. Peters, Supt. of the 
C. P. R. at Vancouver; Sir Frederic Williams-Taylor spoke 
to D. R. Clarke, of the Bank of Montreal in Varcouver; 



tJL.A^^ 


m 


■L ^.^v'^^fii^^pMiltviSM^)^ 



Scene in the ballroom of the Ritz Carlton Hotel, Montreal, showing 
guests of the Bell Telephone Company listening to voices from far-away 
Vancouver. At the head table, reading from left to right, are : A. J. 
Dawes, Hugh Paton, R. B. Angus, Lord Shaughnessy, P. F. Sise, Jr., 
R. W. Hicks (N'ew York), L. B. McFarlane. Sir Frederick Williams- 
Taylor, P. F. Sise, E. J. Chamberlain, F .W. Molson. 

Alderman Leslie Boyd spoke to the Mayor of Vancouver, 
and President L. B. McFarlane, of the Bell Telephone Com- 
pany, spoke to President Farrcll, of the British Columbia 
Telephone Company. 

The circuit which was routed via Buffalo, Chicago, 
Omaha, Salt Lake City, Portland and Seattle, was 4,227 
miles long — one of the longest over-land talking circuits 
ever arranged — and yet the transmission was excellent. Each 
of the guests was provided with a watch-case receiver, and 
besides following the conversations, each was enabled to 
listen to musical selections rendered at the Pacific end of 
the line as well as to the roar of the surf on the rocks out- 
side San Francisco. Moving pictures were shown illustrat- 
ing the building of the line and scenes in the various ex- 
changes along the route. 

A most interesting evening was brought to a close by 
the rendering of "God Save the King" in far away San Fran- 
cisco, which had been connected with Montreal when the 
Vancouver conversations were ended. The listening guests 
in Montreal rose to their feet amid great enthusiasm as the 
familiar strains came clear and strong over the wire. 



Overhead Ground Wires 

Editor, Electrical News: — 

What arc the advantages and disadvantages of installing 
an overhead groundwire over si.x 060,000 .circular mills alum- 
inium feeder cables? The cables are run on poles a distance 
of 300 yards. The supply is 00 cycle, three phase, 600 volt, 
2,000 h.p. 

Small gap arresters are at present installed at each end 
of each feeder. These, however, have many times proved 
themselves not to be sufficient protection. The ground 
wires to same are of am])le capacity and in each case lead 
directly to running water. Bends in the ground wires have 
been avoided as much as possible, and the length of wire 
varies between 15 ft. and 50 ft. 

Choke coils are inserted on eacli feeder between arrester 
and apparatus to be protected. 

The writer has been thinking of installing an overhead 
ground line running the full length of the feeder, cables, say 
4 ft. higher than the feeders and grounding this line ai 
every pole, the object being that any direct stroke or other 
charges will take the ground wire patli in preference to the 
feeder lines. 

There may be points which condemn this practice, with 
which the writer is not fainiliar, and he would, therefore, 
very much appreciate the views of other engineers who may 
possibly have tried this system. 

Yours truly, 

"Hydro Electric." 



March 1, 1916 



THE ELFXTRICAL iNEWS 



35 



Personals 

Mr. W. L. Bird, manager of the Kaministiquia Power 
("ompany, has been elected, by acclamation, president of the 
Fort William Board of Trade for the year 191G. 

Mr. A. Grant, wlio recently returned to Englan<l on the 
voluntary liquidation of the Canadian British Insulated Com- 
pany, Limited, of which he was manager, has been appointed 
manager for India of the British Insulated S: Helsby Cables 
Limited, England. 

Mr. E. S. Cook, formerly representing the Canadian Tung- 
sten Lamp Company, Limited, in the province of Ontario, 
and late of the firm of Moncur & Cook. Hamilton, is again 
associated with the Canadian Tungsten Lamp Company, and 
wilt act in the capacity of district sales manager of the On- 
tario division, with office and warehouse at Ifiii King Street 
West, Toronto. 

Mr. P. A. Macdonald, the recent appointee as Manitoba 
Public Utilities Commissioner, who succeeds Mr. H. A. Rob- 
son, K.C., was born in Gananoque, Ont., in 1857, and edu- 
cated at Queen's University, graduating in 1876. Following 
his graduation he studied law in Toronto and began practis- 




Commissioner MacdonalJ. 

ing in Winnipeg in 1880. In 1888 he was appointed Master 
and Referee in the Court of King's Bench, which position he 
held until 1011, when he resigned to open an office for pri- 
vate practice. The new Commissioner thus brings to his 
work qualifications and experience which eminently fit him 
for the position. His many j-ears of service as Referee and 
Master in the Court of King's Bench brought him in touch 
with law and business of various kinds. His appointment 
on numerous boards of arbitration — notably the labor dispute 
between the C. P. R. Company and its employees in 1908, of 
which board Mr. Macdonald was chairman — also shows a 
widely-recognized public appreciation of his sound judg- 
ment. 

Commissioner Macdonald will be assisted in his work 
by an engineering staff, who will not only be at the service 
of the Commission in aiding investigations and settling 
technical disputes, but will also be available for the purpose 
of conferring with and advising upon the operation of tele- 
phone, gas, electric, and water supply systems, whether pri- 
vate or municipal, in any matters arising in the course of 
business. By the aid of these engineers the Commissioner 
will be relieved of the hearing of conferences between per- 



sons interested in purely technical matters, and will thus be 
relieved of certain burdens of office and left freer to devote 
his time to larger administrative work. 

Mr. Malcolm M. Inglis, who has recently been appointed 
manager of the Port Arthur and Municipal Electric Railway. 
is a Scotchman, and was educated at the High School in 
Stirling and the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical 
College. He commenced his practical career in 1901, with 
Mavor & Coulson, Limited, engineers and electricians, Glas- 
gow, serving a regular apprenticeship in their various de- 
partments, and in addition completing two years in the de- 
signing department for electrical machinery. In 1908 he 
severed his connection with the Mavor. & Coulson firm and 
accepted a staff appointment with Johnson & Phillips, Lim- 
ited, London, England, as chief tester and outside erector, 
and in 1909 became assistant designer to Professor Kahn. of 
the Brush Electrical Engineering Company, Loughborough, 
England. In 1901 he accepted the position of chief electrical 
engineer to W. J. Craig & Sons at their Brynkinalt collieries. 
North Wales, which position he resigned in 1911 to come to 
Canada. From 1911 to 1915 Mr. Inglis was electrical en- 
gineer to the town of Yorkton, Sask., in charge of the elec- 
tric light and power departments, during which time he acted 
as consultant supervisor of their new power house and Die- 
sel electric plant, recently described by Mr. Inglis in the 
Electrical News. Mr. Inglis is an associate member of the 
Institution of Electric Engineers. 

Mr. De Gaspe Beaubien, electrical engineer, of Montreal, 
has prepared plans for a hydro-electric development near St. 
Albans on the St. Anne's River, Portneuf County, P. Q. The 
project is for La Compagnie Hydraulique de Portneuf. It is 
proposed to instal machinery for a 500 horse power unit to 
be ultimately increased to 3,000 horse power. A dam has 
alread}' been constructed, and the plans provide for a con- 
crete power house, a 500 kw. generator direct connected to 
a vertical water wheel, flume, and the other necessary equip- 
ment. The head is 48 feet. The current is required for 
lighting and power purposes and it is proposed to distribute 
this in the adjoining districts. Tenders are now being called 
for the machinery. 



Lieut. Reginald T. Smith 

The many electrical friends of Reginald T. Smith will 
note with pleasure that he has been promoted to a lieuten- 
ancy in the Canadian Artillery. Lieut. Smith enlisted at the 
outbreak of the war as a gunner, and while in training at 
Valcartier was made sergeant. He went overseas with the 
first contingent, and served for a year at the front, taking 
part in every engagement from Neuve Chappelle to Lons. 
He is now in England. 

Lieut. Smith formerly served three years with the \'ic- 
loria Rifles, and later with the Westmount 21st Field Bat- 
tery. He is a son of Mr. Henry Smith, of 96 Bellevue Ave- 
nue, Toronto, and a brother of Mr. Irving Smith, Electrical 
.Apparatus and Specialties, Montreal. Lieut. Smith is well 
known in the electrical business ,and particularly throughout 
the North-West, where he represented the Canadian British 
Engineering Company as their Western traveller. At an 
earlier date he was with the R. E. T. Pringle Company. We 
congratulate Lieut. Smith on the good account he is giving 
of himself. 



The Private Bills Committee of the Quebec Legislature 
have passed an amendment to the Montreal charter relating 
t" the construction of underground conduits. This amend- 
ment empowers the Quebec Public Utilities Commission to 
allow, on the application of the Electrical Commission, a de- 
viation from the types of construction previously authorised. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



March 1, 1910 




1200 volt, direct current, third rail installation 

on English tramway— Track system 

of unique design 

Tlic Tramway and Railway World devotes some Iweiity- 
nine pages to a description of a recently equipped section 
of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway electrification, with 
direct current at 1200 volts. This same company have had 
experience with 3500-volt d.c. operation between Bury and 
Holcombe Brook, the diflference being that the 3500-volt feed 
lines are overhead, while the 12n0-volt feed is by third rail. 



|irc-VH.iii> practicu in llial u i.- a .^idc-runniny cuiitact iii.--u-aii 
of an over or under-running. This was determined as the 
result of 1200 volts necessitating more adequate protection. 
The form of the rail finally adopted is claimed to be ad- 
mirable for guarding, and the small clearance available made 
this type preferable to the under-running type. 

The live rail and its .guarding, as also its relative posi- 
tion to the track rails, shown in Figs. 1 and 2. are the 
invention of Mr. J. A. F. Aspinall. the general manager of 
the company. It is very compact, lies close to the running 
rail, and gives a maximum of space to plate-layers and other 




Fig. 1. — Cross section of permanent way tracks in relation to the structure. 



Power is supplied by two 5000 kw. Dick Kerr turbo- 
alternator sets, 1500 r.p.m., and generating at 6600 volts, 25 
cycle. At the sub-stations rotary converters are used. 

The part of the line of chief interest is the track. 
Though the system adopted is the third or live rail, with 
track return, augmented by a fourth rail jilaced in tlie middle 
of the track, consideraljle variation has been made from 



workmen in the six feet where the rails are normally fixed. 
The guard is of Jarrah — adopted on account of its non- 
combustible qualities, and held in position by clips secured 
by ordinary chair keys. 

.■\ section of the rail has been designed so that its 
centre of .gravity is well within the liase line. The arrange- 
ment is such that a projection of the upper portion of the 



a.rr ttio, 0,r,^/,j 




//•. S..->..„,r.,.„,A.'!. /^ 



-March I, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NI-:\VS 



insulator acts in conjuncliun with the guard as a key. whicli 
keeps the rail in position. The insulators on which the rail 
rests are kept in position by three small brackets on each. 
The rail does not rest directly on the porcelain insulator, 
there being a wooden packin.cr inserted between to act as a 
buffer. The normal spacin.E? of the insulators is approxi- 
mately 1;; feet. The live rail is anchored every hundred 
yards by a specially designed anchor insulator. These live 
rail insulators are of white porcelain completely vitrified 




Fig. 3.— Cross section througii conductor rail showing contact slioe 
and car trolley connection. 

throughout and glazed all over, and arc si.K and onc-cighlli 
mchcs high. The cross-sectional area of tin- rail is S.:!.", 
square inches, and the weight S.". pounds per yard. The re- 
sistance of the rail ranges l)ctwcen (l..'i and T times that of 
copper of equal area. The rails are bonded witli two bonds, 
each having an effective cross-sectional area of .4 sq. ins. 
The bonds are strip copper, flexible type. 

The fourth or return rail is of square section with 



rounded corners, as shown i„ Fig. 1, with a cross-sectional 
area ot 8.84 sq. ms.. and weighing 88.5 pounds per yard 
Tins section was adopted on account of the small surface 
exposed over a given volume of rail. This return rail rests 
on wooden pads one inch thick secured to the sleepers by 
iron dogs, and is anchored at intervals of 100 yards There 
are two bonds per joint, having an effective cross-sectional 
area of .335 sq. ins. per bond. The fourth rail is also cross- 
bonded every 100 yards to the track rails, with cable bonds 
"t 3,/l., S. W. G. copper. The track rails are also bonded 
with cable bonds. 

The track is fed from the sub-stations through short 
leeders which take the shortest course from the sub-stations 
to the track rail. No supplementary feeders are used The 
live rail is divided up into sections, which are connected 
through section switches placed alongside the live rail and 
"['crated as ordinary hook switches. 

The .general arrangement of the shoe is shown in Fig •> 
;nid IIS connection of the trolley cable in Fin. .;. 



Operating Methods 

By E. M. Raver ^ 

Watching the Schedules 

The public does not care so much about riding fast, as 
long as the car is running; as soon as the car stops the 
passenger begins to wonder why it stopped, and if it stands 
still a minute he begins to criticize the schedules. The good 
motorman watches traffic conditions and times the runnin- 
nl his car so as to prevent laying at end of line or on 
switches. And the good road officer or inspector watches 
the movements of motormen and conductors and encoura-es 
ibem to keep on the schedule, while the good superintendent 
uatches the movements of both classes of operators to sec 
tbat the maxim, 'Cars make no money standing still." is 
adopted and followed as closely as possible. 

Watching For Passengers 

In cities of 40,000 to 60.000 where the 10 and ij-min. 
headway is, more common than the more frequent headway, 
the good motorman and conductor will watch for the patron 
who is making reasonable effort to "get the car." Many a 
nickel is lost to the company because the motorman was not 
watching for patrons who were running for the car, and 
went on while the would-be passenger walks to town rather 
' than wait for the next car. As a rule the latter does some- 
thing else also; he "cusses" the company for keeping motor- 
men and conductors who are so indifferent. 

The good crew also watches for patrons who wish to 
transfer at junction points. Many times I have seen pa- 
trons leaving a car who desired to transfer to a car on an- 
other line, and when they were about half way to it the con- 
ductor, without looking around, gave the "go-ahead" signal 
and the car pulled away leaving them standing on the corner 
10 or 15 min. to wait for the next car and voice their opinion 
of the company for tolerating such "bum" service. The good 
conductor always looks around just before startin.g his car 
at such places, and if passengers are making reasonable ef- 
forts to "get the car," they "get" it. 

There is a vast difference in opcratin,!- cars in cities of 
the sizes I have mentioned, and those o' from 100,000 to 
1,000.000. In the small city the patrons learn to know the 
men operating the cars and also the schedule on which the 
cars are operated. In cities of the larger class, cars are run 
at such frequency that patrons do not think anything of 
missing a car. as another is usually in sight, but in small 
places it is necessary to "watch" for passengers all the time 
and get them if possible. — Electric Traction. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



March 1, 1916 




ava COTytractor 



« 



A Code of Lighting Applicable to Factories, 
Mills and other work places— Valuable Infor- 
mation for Engineers, Central Stations 
and Electrical Contractors (Con) 

Section XII. 
Side Light Important in Some Factory and Mill Operations 
It has been customary in many cases to measure the 
ffectiveness of illumination in terms of the vertically down 
ard component of the light. This method has ignored the 
value of side components in relation to vertical surfaces and 
openings in the side of the work. It is sometimes more 
necessary to light the side of the machine or the side of a 
piece of work than the horizontal surface. If, then, in de- 
signing a factory or mill lighting system, the prime object 
is the production of the greatest amount of downward illum- 
ination, it may happen that the side component is so small 
that the sides of machinery or of work are inadequately 
lighted. 

Two Ways to Secure Side Light. — Experience indicates 
that there are two general ways in which to secure adequate 
side lighting. One of these methods is to lower the lamps, 
and the other is to use broader distributing reflectors than 
are called for by the rules which consider uniformity of the 
downward illumination only. Side walls or other reflecting 
surfaces will modify the results. Thus, after the determina- 
tion of a certain type of reflector for producing uniform ver- 
tically downward illumination, it may be found "that more 
side light is necessary, and this extra side component may, 
as stated, usually be secured by selecting a somewhat more 
distributing reflector. Broader distributing reflectors are .ipt 



SUN i,10N. TUCS WED THUR5. FRI 
Fig. 12 
to result in less downward illumination and will sometimes 
call for larger lamps than found necessary by preliminary cal- 
culations. 

Practical Case. — As an illustration, in a certain lighting- 
system a vertically downward intensity of about 3 foot- 
candles was deemed sufllcient for the work involved. Mea- 
surements and observations showed that the side light was 
insufficient. In this particular installation it was found neces- 
sary to produce a vertically downward intensity of <ibout 
5 foot-candles on the average in order to secure an intensity 
of about 2 foot-candles on the side of the work, and also to 



use a somewhat liroader distributing reflector than at lir.>t 
chosen. Two foot-candles on the sides of the work were 
sufficient in this where bench work and work in the vise 
on small machine parts were conducted. 

Keeping the Lamps High. — It is recommended that the 
lamps be mounted near the ceiling in all reasonable cases 
where side light is necessary, and that the side light be in- 
creased, not by lowering the lamps, but through the medium 
of broader distributing reflectors and large lamps, if required. 




Fig. 13 
This attitude is taken on account of the glare which results 
when lamps are mounted too close to the work, a feature 
most noticeable in the aljsence of a reflector or where glass 
reflectors are used. 

Section XIII. Maintenance 

The importance of system in the upkeep of natural ami 
artificial lighting equipment may not appeal to every reader 
at the outset, but a consideration of the points involved will 
indicate that neglect of such work is apt to result in excessive 
losses of otherwise useful light. 

Windows. — Factory and mill windows become covered 
in lime with dirt, and produce greatly decreased values of 
natural light in consequence. These losses may easily be 
great enough to afifect the workmen seriously, and to necessi- 
tate the use of artificial light at times when otherwise it 
would not be required. Dark surroundings also increase the 
likelihood of accidents. Regular window cleaning should 
therefore be a part of the routine of every factory and n;ill 
building or group of buildings. 

Lamps. — Carbon filament, mercury-vapor, gas mantle and 
tungsten lamps burn out or break, globes and reflectors be- 
come soiled, and the various other items C'f deterioration take 
place so gradually that in many cases they are given no 
special concern in the practical economy of the shop. More- 
over, it is hardly necessary to mention the fact that often 
lighting systems are allowed to deteriorate to an extreme 
point and nothing is done unless complaints come in from 
employees after the lighting facilities here and there through- 
out the shop have become so poor that work has to be dis- 
continued temporarily. The losses of time from such cir- 
cumstances, when added up throughout a year, are more 
than likely to exceed the expense of systematic attention tn 
sucli maintenance items in advance. 

Overhead System. — Furthermore, with modern methods 



March I, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



where the lamps are usually mounted overhead rather than 
close to each machine, the importance of relieving the work- 
men from any care of the lamps and placing it in the hands 
of a maintenance department is even greater than has been 
the case in the past, particularly in large plants. To indicate 
the wisdom of a daily renewal of electric lamps. Fig. 12, has 
been worked up from the experiences in one large factorv. 
In this factory all burned-out lamps are renewed each day 
except Saturday and Sunday, these renewals being based 
on a daily inspection of every lamp to ascertain whether or 
not it is in working condition. 

Lamp Renewals. — A reference to the diagram shows that 
the renewals are considerably greater on Monday than on 
any other day of the week, this increase being due to re- 
newals not given attention on the two preceding days. Ob- 
viously, therefore, a continued neglect of the inspection and 
renewal of these lamps would soon result not only in inferior 
lighting conditions, but to large losses of time for the em- 
ployees, not to speak of the annoyance involved. 

Reflector Cleaning. — The serious loss of light wh;:n 
globes and reflectors are allowed to go for long periods 
without cleaning, is shown in Fig. Vi. This set of curves re- 
sulted from a test on a glass reflector used with a tungsten 
lamji. The one curve shows the value of the light given 
l)y the lamp at different angles when the lamp and reflector 
are clean, while the smaller curve shows the enormous reduc- 
tion of light after the lamp and reflector has been in service 
for al)0ut four months without being cleaned. 

In this particular case, which is a typical one, the loss 
of light at the end of the four month interval, amounted to 
about fifty per cent. The cost of electrical energy in this 
shop was such that the loss of light during the four months 
amounted to about 12 cents, while the total cost of taking 
down, washing and replacing this reflector amounted to about 
;! cents. The economy of a fairly frequent attention to clean- 
ing of such reflectors is at once apparent, even if the im 
proved condition of the light in itself be ignored. 

The examples just given, in the one case associated with 
the renewals of the lamps, in the other with the washing 
of the reflectors, will serve to illustrate the class of upkeep 
problems which are involved in shop lighting. The most 
forcible emphasis is applicable to the idea that system maj- 
properly be called a first step towards success in this line 
of maintenance work. 

A Method of Inspection and Maintenance. — In one large 
factory a regularly developed method of inspection and re- 
newals is emploj-ed. As an example, the method as applied 
to several thousand tungsten lamps, which are in service in 
the various buildings, will be described. -Ml the lamps arf 
inspected once per day, except Saturday and Sunday. A 
regular route is followed by the inspector, and all burned 
out lamps, broken switches, loose fuses, and similar items 
are noted. Careful observation is also made of reflectors 
which appear to need washing and any other points which 
might affect the efficiency of the system, after which a report 
is made up about noon and promptly sent to the maintenance 
department to permit all renewals and repairs to be made 
before night. In this manner the lamps are well maintained 
from day to day. 

Marking Columns. — To facilitate this renewal work, il 
has been found advantageous to mark all columns through 
this shop. The inspector is thus enal)led to indicate clearly 
the location of each burned out lamp and the renewal n\an 
to locate it without delay. It is helpful now and then in 
like manner to have the inspector note the unnecessary lamps 
found burning when artificial light is not required. If lamps 
are found burning at such times, a note sent to the head of 
the department calling attention to the matter is usually 
sufficient to remedy the difficulty. 

Noting Soiled Reflectors.— .\s a check on a regular clean- 



ing schedule, the inspector should note all reflectors in need 
of cleaning. The frequency of each cleaning will depend 
on the rate of deterioration due to the settlement of dirt on 
the surface of the glass or metal and also on the surface of 
lamps, and the fact should be kept in mind that the amount 
of dirt on a reflector is nearly always deceptive, that is, 
reflectors which have suffered a large deterioration in effici- 
ency due to dirt often appear fairly clean, and for this rea- 
son it is best to increase the frequency of cleaning some- 
what over that which seems sufficient from observation, par- 
ticularly in view of the fact that tests indicate large reduc- 
tions of light from api)arcntly small accumulations of dust 
and dirt. 

A Method of Washing. — In the factory just referred to, 
all reflectors are removed to a central washing point. Where 
the number of reflectors to be hauled is large, a truck is used. 
Often, however, where only a small number of reflectors is 
to be transported, small hand racks, devised for the purpose, 
are employed. When an installation is in need of washing, 
the scheme is to haul sufficient clean reflectors to the location 
in question. The soiled reflectors are then taken down and 
clean ones immediately put into place, after which the soiled 
reflectors are removed to the central washing point, washed 
and put into stock for tiie next location. 

Section XIV. 
Expert Assistance Suggested 
The advantages of securing assistance in dealing with 
illumination is strongly emphasized. The points which come 
up for solution are complex and require, in many cases, the 
judgment of one who has had wide experience in the lighting 
field. In particular, anyone who undertakes to adopt any 
part or all of these suggestions will do well to secure the 
co-operation of a lighting expert capable of interpreting the 
legislative articles and of advising in a constructive manner. 

Section XV. 
Other Features of Eye Protection 
Care is urged on the part of those responsible for the 
health and welfare of emidoyccs to see that adequate eye 
protection is afforded in all operations which arc apt to cause 
injury to eyesight, if such protection is neglected. \s typical 
of such other causes of danger to eyesight, arc welding may 
be mentioned, where the operator, according to accepted 
practise, must wear a helmet serving as an eye shield as 
well as a shield for the face and head in mncr.-il. Protective 
glasses for this purpose should not be judged as to their 
protective properties by mere visual inspection. They should, 
however, be analyzed for their spectral transmission of in- 
visible radiation. Protective measures should also 1)e taken 
to prevent onlookers from being unduly exposed to such eye 
dangers, by enclosing the weldin.g operations with suitable 
partitions. These general remarks apply with equal force 
from the standpoint of those handling the operations to 
such other cases as the testing of arc lamps, inspection of 
hot metal and similar cases. 

Section XVI. 
Auxiliary Systems for Safety 
The auxiliary system ot li.ghling callcil Inr in Arlule .\l. 
(if the Code, is a safety first precaution which is insisted upon 
in a large proportion of the 1,200 buildings coming under 
the control of the Bureau of Water Supply, Gas and ICIcc- 
tricity in New York City, particularly such buildings as are 
occupied by large numbers of people. The same precaution 
is now observed by the Bell Telephone Company's offices 
fairly generally throughout the country, also by a large num- 
ber of private manufacturers and by local ordinances com- 
pelling all types of amusement places to take this prec;uilion 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS March i, lyio 



Electrical Inspectors for Province 

Names Given Below of Inspectors of the Hydro-Comm. of Ontario with Towns under 
Jurisdiction of Each.— Information Frequently asked for by Contractors 

No. District. Jnspectur. 'i'ovvu in District 

1 Windsor E. C Weldrick W'alkervillc, Ford, Gordon, Tcciimseli, Sandwich, Essex, Obijway, Canard 

River, Maidstone, Aniherstburg, Harrow, Kingsville, Cottam, Ruthven, Leam- 
ington, \Vheatley, Stoney Point and Belle River. 



3. Chatliaui 



W. H. Soniers Wallaceburg, Dresden, Comber, lillniry. niiiilieim, Kidgetown. Thamesville. 

Bothwcll. Glencoe. 



4. ^-t. 1 liomas 



., i;y,-„ja All". Winder Courtright, Oil Springs, Wyoming, Thcdlord, I'orest. Ahinslon. Arkona, 

I'etrolia, Brigdcn and Pt. Edward. 

Geo. !■". Howse Aylmer, Dutton, I't. Stanley, Tillsonburg, Springfield, Brownsville. Talbots- 

ville, Corinth, Shedden, West Lome, Rodney, Muncey Union. 

- ] ,,,ni,|„ W. B. Legate Lambeth, Dele ware. Komoka, Mount Brydges, Strathroy, Ailsa Craig, Lucan. 

liyron, Thamesford, Westminster Gardens, Springbank, Broughdale, Thorn- 
dale, Dorchester, Belmont and Exeter. 

(i Woodstock 11. Webster Beachvillc, IngersoU, Embro, Ayr, Princeton and Drumbo. 

- Brantford V\'- H. Mowat I'aris. Burford, St. George, Lynden, and Plattsville. 

S Hamilton V. K. Stalford Burlington, Port Nelson, Clappison Cor.. Dundas, Aldersliot, W aterdown. 

West Flamboro, Greensville, Grimsby, Ik-amsvillc. Bartonville, Ancaster, 
Chedoke, Winona, Stoney Creek, Grimsby Beach, Vineland, Freeman's Corner 
and North Grimsby. 



!i. St. Calh 



ir.'. Berlin 
i:i Stratford 



14. .Xurora 



.\ T. Smith I'urt W'eller, Niagara-on-lake, Port Dalhousic, Grantham Twp., Thorold. Mer- 

ritton, Allenburg, Vic., Louth Twp., Fonthill. Ridgeville, Fenwick, Electric 
Park, Port Colborne, Jordan, Jordan Station, Decow Falls. 

10 Toronto iL F. Strickland Mt. Denis, Weston, Woodbridge, Lambton, Cooksville, Clarkson, Strcctsville, 

(diiel Inspector Swansea, Mimico, New Toronto. Long Branch, Lome Park, Port Credit, 

H.E.P.C.) Agincourt. 

11 (luelpli Jas. M. Gass Rockwood, Acton, Fergus. Elora and Elmira. 

H. C. F'ischer \Vaterloo, Preston. Gait. Baden, Hespeler, Brcalau and Bridgeport. 

Geo. F. Heideman Shakespeare, New Flamburg, Clinton, Tavistock. St. Mary's, Mitchell, Seb- 

tingville, Seaforth, Egmondville, Goderich, Milverton. 

I\. R. Matson Barrie. Allandale. Orillia, Coldwater, Waubaushenc, Victoria Harbor, Port 

McNicoU. Midland, Penetang, Elmvale, Richmond Hill, Thornhill, New- 
market, Sutton, Roaches Pt., Orchard Beach, Keswick, Sharon and Queens- 
ville. 

,- lY-torboro II. .\. Fife Lindsay, Omcmce. Milllirook, Hastings. Norwood. Ilavclock. Lakefield. 

Iti Belleville K. A Thompson Trenton, Brighton. Colbornc, Cobourg, Cauniltnn, Corbyxille, Madoc. Stirl- 

ing. Hoard's Station, Campbellford, iMankfurd, XN'ellington. Picton, Mar- 
mora. Port Hope. 

|- |<j„,,^ton T. .\. Hanley Kingston Jet., Findlay. Tweed, Gananoque. Collins Bay, Napanee, Deserotito. 

Newburgh, Strathcona, Camden East, Yarker, Tamworth, Marlbank, Larkins, 
Stoco, Sydenham, Portsmouth, Bai-riefield. 

,„ .Siincoc K. H. Crappcr Waterford, Pt. Dover, Jarvis, Ha.gersville, Caledonia, Delhi, Tillsonburg, Nor- 

wich, Otterville. 

,,, lirnckville T A Johnston I'rescott, (/ardinal. Iroquois, Morrisburg, Cornwall, Perth, Cheslervdie, Win- 

clicsler, Kemptville. Merrickville. Smith h'alls, Williamsburg, Westport, 
AullsviUe, I'arren's Point, Wales. Moulinette. Mille Roches, Lynedoch, Delta. 

o.) Ottawa Norman E. Bell Almonte, Carleton Place, Egansvillc, Pembroke, .'\rnprior, Renfrew. 

•^[. Cobalt 

,,., Ni-i"ari balls C. E. Dilsc St. David's, . Stamford, Port Robinson, Welland, Crowland, Bridgeburg, Ft. 

■'•"'' ' ' Eric, Ridgeway, Crystal Beach, Erie Beach, Crescent Beach, Thunder Bay or 

Prospect Bay. 

•'•! I'almerston W. H. Croydon Durham, Dundalk, Shelburne, Markdalc, Flesherton, Mildmay, Chatsworth, 

Chesley, Hanover, Walkerton. Harriston, Listowel, Mt. Forest. 

•M. Thunder Bay W. S. Jaffray i'ort .\nliur and Fort William. 

o,-, Oshawa \V. F.. Mitchell ( )shawa and Vicinity. 

31). Collingwood E. J. Stapleton Meaford, Thombury. Stayner, Crcemore. Clarksburg. 

37. Cannint;ton J. C. Burns Beaverton, Sunderland. Uxbridge, Stouffville, Markham. Woodville and 

Brechin. 

28. Brampton Geo. Ostrander Brampton and (ieorgetown. 

30. Bobcaygeon Sidney H. Cluxton I'.obcaygeon and surrounding Twp. 



Marcli I. r.Ui 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



41 



Cheap Wiring Becomes an Obstacle to Future 
Development 

The Society Idr Ekctrical I)eveIcii)iiK-m liave j\isl issiu-d 
a little booklet entitled "Sueces^ful House Wiring I'lans." 
which it is distributing in connection with a campaign to 
))e known as "Wire your home" month, from Marcli 15 to 
April 13, 19U). This booklet contains descriptions of the 
methods adopted by many of the central stations in the 
T.'nited States to induce citizens to have their liouses wired 
for electric light. 

So far as it goes this is an admirable scheme, but u e 
hope the Society for Electrical Development will not over- 
look the fact that the house which is wired for electric light- 
ing only is only half wired — perhaps not half. 

They must also not overlook the fact that the installa- 
tion of too small service wires is going to be an obstacle 
rather than an inducement in the way of further develop- 
ments in the electrical industry, such as the more general 
use of household appliances, electric ranges, and — a little 
later — electric heating, will demand. 

It may be that the men who are behind this movement 
of an aggressive house wiring campaign argue that the wir- 
ing of a house for electric lighting is the thin edge of the 
wedge which once started will be more easily driven home. 
It is not any too evident that this is the case. One of the 
biggest difficulties in the way of domestic electric cooking 
--the line along which development in the electrical in- 
dustry is bound to take place, and the line along which the 
greatest development seems reasemable — is the necessity, in 
almost every case, of replacing the service wires by others 
that will carrj' a sufficient volume of current to supply the 
range. This adds so materially to the cost as to constitute 
an almost insurmountable difficulty. It is this difficulty cen- 
tral stations are struggling with at the present time. We 
believe, therefore, that the^ociety for flectrical Development 
and central stations in general will be well advised in con- 
sidering this matter very carefully from the point of view 
of certain future developments. It is quite possible that a 
very large percenta.ge of those who will avail themselves of 
a cheap wiring plan could not lie induced to go a step far- 
ther and have it done as it ought to be done, but there will 
be an appreciable percentage of these people who. if the mat- 
ter were placed before them in its proper light, would sec 
it as a good business proposition to have their houses wired 
properly in the first instance. Let us never lose sight of the 
fact that we have passed the stage in the electrical industry 
when the cost of current is the biggest consideration. It 
is cither the cost of the ai)pliance itself or the cost of in- 
stalling the appliance. Future developments must be along 
the line of removing these two obstacles, and we should 
lose no opportunity of workin.g to that end. 



Electric Radiators Heat Office Building While Being Moved 

The Boslon Elevated Kailway Company, owners of a 
brick office buildin,g occupied by the Bay Stale Street Railway 
(..'ompany as headquarters of its electric freight business, re- 
cently moved the buildin.g about l."i() feet to a new location, 
on .\tlantic .Avenue, Boston. During the process of moving, 
heating for the offices, which continued to be occupied with- 
out interruption, was provided by means of about 50 electric 
radiators, which were connected to the Elevated Company's 
circuits by means of temporary wiring. .\s the moving took 
place during mid-winter, the need of artificial heat presented 
a problem which could only be successfully ni'i U\ \\u- elec- 
tric healihg installation. 



on July IT, 18, la, 20, 21 and 22 — five months in the future. 
^'et this enterprising association already has its ])rogranime 
planned and printed. It is also announced that in view of 
repeated requests arrangements have been made with the 
Hotel Mc.\lpine whereby those manufacturers who arc in- 
terested may obtain space to display such goods as they de- 
sire. It is believed that this proposition will prove attractive 
to many manufacturers. Further information regarding the 
convention may be obtained from Mr. George H. Dufficld, 
41 Martin Building, Utica, N. Y. 



Haddin & Miles, Limited 
It is announced that the name of the John Gait Engineer- 
ing Companj', Limited, has been changed to Haddin & Miles. 
Limited. The company have offices in Winnipeg and Cal- 
gary, the Winnipeg address being the Curry Building. They 
will specialize in the design and construction of waterworks, 
sewerage, sewage purification works, electric lighting and 
general municipal engineering. Mr. John Haddin, M. Can. 
Soc. C. E., A. M. I. C. E., well known throughout the Do- 
minion in connection with his work in the John Gait En- 
gineering Company, Limited, is the chief member of the firm. 



Branston Violet Ray Apparatus 
The Chas. A. Branston Company. :;,">;) "^'ongc Street, To- 
ronto, have issued catalogue No. 10. describing the Branston 
\'iolet Ray High Fre<iuency apparatus. This company are 
the first to manufacture these goods in Canada and their 
products are the result of careful experiment and progress, 
which have resulted, it is claimed, in the most efficient and 
durable portable equipment of this nature on the market. 
The catalogue is well illustrated. 



The city of Montreal has inscribed in appeal to the 
Quebec Public Utilities Commission the decision of the 
Montreal Electrical Commission of 1st June. 1915, with re- 
gard to the annual rentals and charges chargeable to the 
different companies for duct space provided for the various 
users in the civic underground system. Districts Nos. 1, 2. 
:i.\ and 3. Notice of the appeal has been given to the Mont- 
real Light, Heat & Power Company. Montreal Public Ser- 
vice Corporation. Montreal Tramways Company, and the Do- 
minion Gresham Guarantee and Casualty Company. 



The Canadian Tungsten Lamp Coiniiauy. Limited. Ham- 
ilton, Ont.. announce the opening of a branch warehouse 
and office at IGO King Street West. 'J'oronto. The company 
will carry a complete line of tungsten and carbon lamps in 
stock at the above address, and will transact their Ontario 
business through the Toronto branch, with Mr. E. S. Cook in 
charge. 



Program Five Months in Advance 

The National l.lectrical Contractors' .\ssociation of the 
I'niled Slates will meet in convention in New York City 



Trade Publications 

Lamp Guards — .\ loKler is being distributed by Harvey 
Hubbell, Inc.. describing, with illustrations, the economy of 
installing guards on lamps at unprotected points. 

Private Telephone Systems — booklet issued by the Nor- 
ton Telephone Cojiipany, I'.IS King Street West, Toronto, 
describing their various types of telephone systems and tele- 
phone instruments for private installations; illustrateil. 

Deltabeston Wire— booklet by the D & W Fuse Com- 
pany, describing, with illustrations, recent developments made 
by this company in the manufacture of fireproof wire. In 
this catalogue are listed and described asbestos covered wire 
for practically every kind of work and condition of service. 

Hubbell Equipment — Bulletin No. 15-17. describing Hub- 
bell direct threading shade holders, and Bulletin No. 15-15, 
describing side onllct current taps; by Harvey Hubbell, Inc., 
Bridgeport, Conn. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



March 1. i;iir 



What is New in Electrical Equipment 



Automatically Controlled Electric Driven Air Compressor 
Plant 

The pluiit illustrated herewith has recently been de- 
veloped by the United States Air Compressor Co., Cleve- 
land, for garages, factories, air drill service, etc. The two 
stage compressor is belt connected to a J4 h.p. single phase 
or direct current motor made by The Robbins & Myers Co., 
Springfield. The tension is maintained on the belt by an 
automatic belt tightener. The cylinders of the compressor 
are opposed and are provided with rings to increase the 
heat radiating surface. The connection between the two 
cylinders is also similarly equipped. The outfit is self-oil- 
ing and it is necessary to replenish the oil about once in 
two months. Every working part runs in oil and no oil 
cups are used. Tlie bearings are bronze with Ijabbitt lin- 




ing. .\11 working parts are enclosed to keep out dust. 
There are no stuffing boxes to cause leakage or requiring 
repacking. The body is cast in one piece to insure align- 
ment of the pistons. Tlie valves are steel balls in bronze 
seats and each pump is equipped with a safety valve to pre- 
vent accident from too much pressure. The cylinders are 3 
and lyii inch by 3 inch stroke and the pump has a capacity of 
.5,000 cu. inches per minute. The shipping weight is 140 
pounds and the floor space required is 14 x 24 inches. The 
outlit is supplied complete with 30 gallon seamless tank, 
automatic controller, gauge, valves, compressor d.c. or a.c. 
motor, oil trop, safety valve, automatic belt tightener and 
belt with all necessary piping as shown, all mounted on a 
large metal sub-base. In addition to the size shown, a 
larger outfit with a capacity of 15.000 cu. in. per minute can 
be furnished. 



Cab Tyre Cable 
The St. Helens patent cab tyre sluathcd cable, recently 
introduced into Canada, is the product of a famous British 
firm, the St. Helens Cable and Rubber Company, Limited, 
Warrington, represented in Canada by J. D. Lachapelle and 
Company, 317 St. James Street, Montreal. Cab tyre sheath- 
ing is a rubber protection for all sizes of electric cables, and 
many strong claims are made for it. The company supply 
the sheathing and wires complete, and it is now in use by 
several of the largest companies in Canada. It is absolutely 
waterproof, resists the action of steam nils, acids, etc^^is 
flexible, will not kink, is light, easily repaired, not affected by 



\ibration, if cut the cut does not extend, and will stand very 
rough usage. Its chief uses are: in manufacturing establish- 
ments, for portable tools, clusters; on railways, for signal, 
lighting, and tunnel cables, and train lighting; in generating 
stations, for battery rooms, portables, boiler houses, and ser- 
vice cables; for tramways, for wire and trolley feeds; for 
general wiring work, damp places and portables; and in all 
places where severe conditions are met with. In Great Bri- 
tain it is used by the Admiralty. It is more expensive than 
the ordinary braided cable, but it is claimed that the life of 
the cab tyre sheathed cable is several times as long as that 
of the ordinary description, that it does not require any ex- 
tensive repairing, and that it i.s in fact more economical than 
any cable not protected in the manner of the product of the 
St. Helens Company. 



New Hubbell Socket 

In addition to the Hubbell mogul porcelain sockets re- 
cently shown in these pages this company have just brought 
out another type of this socket fitted with a cast iron yoke 
tapped for 5'^ in., Yz in. or J^ in. pipe or rod as desired. 
These are recommended for general outside illumination re- 
quiring a socket which can be threaded directly t(j the end 
of a solid arm or bracket. The design of the yoke permits 




ample room for the cuuduclors to be strung from the socket 
to the feed wires instead of drawing them through conduit or 
tile supporting arm of the fixture. Conductors are easily 
attached to large head binding screws and lead through an 
opening in the top of the porcelain thence diverging to either 
side of the iron bracket for attachment to the feeder. New 
socket illustrated herewith. 



Mogul Shurlok Sockets 

For a long tittle the trade have demanded a mogul 
base socket from which it is impossible for an unauthorized 
l)crson to remove the lamp, and this demand, it is claimed, 
has been met by Pass & .Seymoui, Inc.. by their No. 5'.)7 
Shurlok. This socket is fitted with the double shurlok 




device which holds the lamp base rigidly without in any 
way distorting the base of the lamp; thus the lamp remains 
straight. The ease with which the lamp may be locked or 
removed by the proper person is the talking point in favor 
of the installation of these sockets wherever a high effici- 
ent unit is desired to be permanently located. 



Marcli I. IMIC1 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



UNDERGROUND 
CABLES 

HIGH OR LOW TENSION 

For 

Lighting, Power, Street Railway, 
Telephone or Telegraph Transmission 



ARMOURED CABLES 

for street lighting 



PAPER INSULATED CABLES 

of all descriptions 



RUBBER INSULATED CABLES 

to every specification 



BARE AND WEATHERPROOF 
WIRES AND CABLES 

GALVANIZED IRON WIRE 
AND STRAND 



MAGNET WIRE, FLEXIBLE 
CORD, Etc. 



PHILLIPS' Wires and Cables are made in Canada. 
Rut we do not appeal to the "Made in Canada" senti- 
ment in offering our products, because we feel that 
there is a much better reason why you should buy 
from us, and that is because no firm — in any country — 
is making wires or cables that are superior to ours. 
The reasons for this are : 

1 — Our experience of over a quarter of a century. 

2 — Our careful selection of skilled workmen, many of 
them sons of our older emp]o3-ecs. 

3 — Our well-organized chemistry department, which 
closely co-operates with a skilled purchasing agent 
and permits no material, except the very best, to 
enter our works. We use the best of pure new 
lead, the finest of Sea Island yarns and Italian 
silks, the highest grades of asbestos, etc. 

4 — Our modern machinery, which includes every 
known mechanical device needed to produce per- 
fect wires and cables of every kind. 

Prices, etc., on request 



EUGENE F. PHILLIPS 

ELECTRICAL WORKS, LIMITED 

Head Office and Factory MONTREAL 
Branches Toronto Winnipeg Calgary Vancouver 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Marcli 1, 191C 



Current News and Notes 



Fredericton, N.B. 

The control of the Fredtricton Gas Light Coi.>pany has 
passed to the Maritime Corporation Trust Company of Hali- 
fax. The formal transfer was announced at the recent annual 
meeting of tlii> company. 

Kingston, Ont. 

Power was delivered for the first time on Fehruary 16 
to the Kin.ijston Millin.? Company over the lines owned by 
Mr. J. M. Campbell, who has a power development plant 
at Kin.H'ston Mills. 

Kirkland Lake, Ont. 

K is re]iorted that the Northern Ontario LiRht and 
I'dwer Company will extend their lines from Cobalt to 
Kirkland Lake, some seventy miles, and that contracts have 
already been signed up to supply power at this latter point. 

Mission City, B.C. 

Mr. Hubert Sweeny, foreman of the Mission City Tele- 
phone Company, has enlisted for overseas service with the 
KUst Battalion at New Westminster. 

Montreal, Que. 

Mr. .\rthur T. Scott died in the General Hospital, Mont- 
real, on February IT, of pneumonia. Mr. Scott was a son 
of the Rev. Dr. E. Scott, and a graduate of McGill University 
in both arts and science. Among the University honors re- 
ceived by Mr. Scott were tli« Logan Gold Medal and the 
British Association Medal. Following his graduation he 
was engaged first as a demonstrator in the University, but 
later joined the staflf of the Dominion Iron and Steel Com- 
pany, and also spent three years with the Westinghouse 
Company at Pittsburgh. For the past year he had been 
with the Chicago Electric Furnace Company, 

Ottawra, Ont. 

It is announce<l that Capt. F. D. Burpee, superintendent 
of the Ottawa Electric Railway, will be Major of the 30rtli 
Battalion recently authorized to be recruited in Ottawa. 

According to the annual statement of the Morrisburg 
and Ottawa Electric Railway Company, work will be com- 
menced on the construction of this line in May of the pre- 
sent year. Mr. J. G. Kilt is president and managini.; di- 
rector, and Mr. R. A. Bishop secretary-treasurer. 

Perth, Ont. 

The resignation of Mr. Evart .\dams, superintendent of 
the I'crlh lighting system, has been accepted, and Mr. Carl 
.\dams will be temporarily in charge. Mr. Evart Adams has 
enlisted for overseas service. 

Petrolea, Ont. 

The Canadian Westinghouse Company have been award- 
ed a contract for transformers to be installed at Petrolea, 
Ont. 
Orangeville, Ont. 

The Clerk of the Dufferin County Council has been 
authorized to call for tenders for the re-wiring of the Court 
House and Registry Office. 

Saskatoon, Sask. 

The Western Lighting Agencies. Limited, have been in- 
corporated. 

The annual report of Commissioner Vorath, Saskatoon, 
shows that the net profit on the electric light and ijower 
<lepartmcnt for the jiast year was $S,(ll',l. The street rail- 



way system showed a deficit of $:!0.07r! as compared with 
.$33,477 loss in 191+. 
St. Marys, Ont. 

The town council defeated the Hydro Radial by-law at 
its third reading. The vigorous opposition of Councillor 
Dale, who had obtained legal advice to the effect that the 
by-law was illegal, was largely responsible for the vote. 

Toronto, Ont. 

The Bedford Park Ratepayers' .Vssociation have rc- 
(|uested the York Township Council to install Hj-drn light- 
iii.g on Wcyburn and Bedford Park .\venues. 

The Ontario Legislature will approve the plans of the 
engineers of the Hydro-electric Power Commission of Ontario 
for a large power development in the Niagara Peninsula. It 
is said the immediate development will be 100,000 h.p., and 
there are visions of an ultimate capacity of 900,000 h.p. 

.Sir Adam Beck was tendered a complimentary banquet 
on February l."> in Toronto by the Hydro Radial Union of 
Municipalities. 
Weyburn, Sask. 

The council of Weyburn, Sask., has passed a by-law au- 
thorizing the expenditure of .$35,000 in purchasing another 
generating unit. 
Wingham, Ont. 

Mr. E. Merkley is jilanning to install electric drive and 
lighting in his choppin.g mill. 



Wise Dealers Sell- 
Good Contractors Install 



THORDARSON 



Bell- 
Ringing 
Trans- 
formers 




They give satisfaction that lasts. 

In liglit, strong case — fire- foot- ami moisture-proof. 

Current consnniert will not rc.l;i^u■r on an ordinary meter. 

Wilt never wear out or weaken. Perfect insulation. 

.Xpproved l>y Un<lerwriters. Unconditionally guaranteed. 
Write TODAY for liberal dealer's 
discounts on the complete line of 
THORDARSON Transformers 

Thordarson Electric Mfg. Co. 

503 South Jefferson St. CHICAGO, III. 



Maicli i:., I'JIG 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



17 




Published Scmi-Monthly By 

HUGH G. MACLEAN, LIMITED 

HUGH C. MacLEAN, Winnipeg, President. 

THOMAS S. YOUNG, General Manager. 

W. R. CARR, Ph.D., Editor. 
HEAD OFFICE - 347 Adelaide Street West. TORONTO 

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ADVERTISEMENTS 

Orders for advertising should reach the office of publication not later 
than the 5th and 20th of the month. Changes in advertisements will be 
made whenever desired, without cost to the advertiser. 

SUBSCRIBERS 

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as second class matter. 

Entered as second class matter Tuly ISth, 1914, at the Postoffice at 
nufTalo, N.V., under tlie .\ct of Congress of March 3, 1S79. 



Vol. 25 



Toronto, March 15, 1916 



No. 6 



The War's Effects on Trade Policy of 
British Empire. 

OXE of the most revolutionary results of the war, so 
far as the British Empire is concerned, will be the 
utter up-rooting of the old ideals of free trade which 
have been so great a factor in the political and in- 
dustrial life of Great Britain. Already the chief exponents of 
tree trade in Great Britain have thrown their former beliefs 
to the winds and come out definitely in favor of radical 
changes of fiscal policy, so as to enable the Empire, after 
the war, to maintain the objects for which it has been fight- 
ing and to make it impossible for Germany ever again to 
obtain that international industrial and commercial prepond- 
erance that has cnalilcd her to plunge the world into war. 

There is now no room for doubt that Great Britain will 
never again return to the position she occupied before the 
was as an isolated free trade nation. Her eyes have been 
opened to the danger of free trade so long as there are, among 
others, nations like Germany that will take advantage of it to 
increase their strength and preparedness f^r war. 1 lie 
rulers of England today are working out the details ol this 
l)r()bleni and getting ready for the changed conditions which 
will follow the war. Even now. these changes are to sonic 
e.xlent in effect. liy the time the war is over England will 
lia\-c much of the necessary machinery in operation, a good 
deal of the legislation worked out. and the public mind well 
pri pared for the new fiscal policy. 

In many ways these changes will work uul to the ad- 
i;iiitagc of Canada and the other overseas parts "f the Em- 



pire. For Canadians the duly is to consider what this 
change will mean to us, and to see to how great an extent we 
can co-operate so as to produce, under the new conditions, 
the greatest advantage both to ourselves and to the Empire. 
The outstanding business features of the period following 
tlie war will be reconstruction and readjustment; reconstruc- 
tion of the countries whicli have been devastated and read- 
justment of the business relationships and industrial activi- 
ties which have been shattered by the war. A great deal 
of consideration has been given to the reconstruction prob- 
lem. Readjustment of the business and industrial situation, 
liriwever, has not been considered by the press in general to 
anything like the extent that it warrants. 



In connection with Great Britain and Canada and to a 
large extent also in connection w-ith the allied countries and 
Canada, the readjustment of business relationships will be of 
great and vital importance. No single country in the whole 
world will be in the same advantageous position as Canada. 
When the war is over, having borne her share of the struggle 
she will be favored by the allied countries whenever there is 
a possibility of conducting trade with her. In the markets 
of Great Britain and France this will be a great advantage to 
Canadian manufacturers. It will give them the whip hand 
in all transactions in which Canadian goods can stand any 
chance at all. 

Even when one looks at this question in a broad and 
general way he cannot fail to be convinced that of all the 
countries in the world, the one which will develop most 
rapidly and most substantially after the w-ar will be Canada. 
Our agricultural and manufacturing products are nearly all of 
a class that will be in demand in Great Britain, France, Bel- 
gium and other European countries. Our manufacturing 
and producing capacity will be strained to the utmost, and 
those who have foreseen the situation and placed their affairs 
in such shape as to take part in Canada's great expansion will 
reap a greater harvest of business prosperity than they ever 
dreamed of in the days before the war. 



To put the matter in as brief and simple a form as pos- 
sible, Canada will, more than ever before, be the Land of 
Promise and the Land of Fulfilment. Her plants will be 
running night and day, her merchants will be busy from morn 
till night. Her farmers will be able to sell at good prices 
everything that they produce, and this prosperity will attract 
to the shores of Canada a great tide of immigration. From 
all parts of the world people will set out for Canada to share 
in its expansion. The iminigration from the United States 
to Canada which started on an extensive scale only a com- 
paratively few years ago will be renewed and greatly in- 
creased. Moreover, from the United States we will then 
draw not only farmers in large numbers, but a far greater 
number of merchants and manufacturers than we formerly 
drew. Manufacturers in the United States will be quick to 
realize that, if they want to share in the- trade of Great Bri- 
tain and the allied countries to the fullest extent, they must 
establish plants in Canada so as to be entitled to the prefer- 
ential treatment which Canada will then obtain. 



These are no idle dreams dictated by desire and un- 
fotmded on fact. Anyone who reads what is appearing daily 
in the press of Great Britain regarding the fiscal problem, 
knows that these views are warranted by the trend of public 
opinion in Great Britain. Free trade has been killed. The 
Manchester Chamber of Commerce, the historic hot-bed of 
free trade has voted against it by 9U8 to 527. The greatest 
exponents of free trade in Great Britain have thrown it over- 



THE ELFXTRICAL NEWS 



March 15. 1916 



board. From now on, every man who thinks about the 
fiscal problem in the Old Country will think of it in terms of 
tarifif protection. The working out of protection will in- 
volve many differences of opinion, but the great change has 
come about. The war has made protection the only logical 
policy for Great Britain. After the war, and to a consider- 
able extent during the war. protective tariffs will come into 
effect and they will unquestionably include preferential treat- 
ment for the Overseas Dominions and recip'ocity between 
the Allied Nations. 



Overhead Ground Wires 

The following Mif;gcstions are offered to "Hydro-Elec- 
tr!c" in reply to his inquiry in our March 1 number re 
"Overhead Ground Wires." If the information contained 
in the inquiry had been more complete, more definite a.s- 
sistance could have Iieen given. 

Toronto, March 6, 1916. 
Editor, Electrical News: 

Re inquiry of "Hydroelectric" in Electrical News. 

There is no objection to the installation of an overhead 
ground wire in the described installation as long as a secure 
construction can be made, which will exclude any possible 
chance of the ground wire breaking under the most severe 
weather conditions or getting into touch with the live wires, 
should whipping occur. 

It must not be expected, however, that the ground wire 
will offer full protection against lightning. Practice has 
pretty well established the fact that the overhead ground 
wire is only able to minimize but not eliminate lightning 
troubles. How great the protecting quality actually is, has 
so far not been established. 

Where the overhead ground wire can easily be installed 
and at a low cost, it is worth installing it. Its installation, 
however, is not always warranted where it involves a con- 
siderable expenditure. 

Yours truly. 
P. .^ckerman. 



Montreal. March 1, 1916. 
Editor Electrical News; 

I have noticed in the Electrical News of March 1st, a 
letter headed "Overhead ground wires" and am at a loss to 
understand the situation. 

If I understand the letter aright a transmission extend- 
ing only for 300 yards has been repeatedly struck by lightn- 
ing, for the lightning protection is referred to as having 
"many times proved not to be sufficient." 

The writer would not install either lightning protection 
or overhead ground wires on such a short transmission, be- 
lieving that the expense and complication is not warranted 
by the risk. As. however, the writer states that the ar- 
restors have acted many times, it would seem likely that the 
trouble was due to surges from some cause or other rather 
than lightning, such as by switching or possiblj- sudden 
shifts of load. 

Yours truly. 

Engineer. 



limit the maximum size of our cables to, preferably, 1/0 
B & S copper, or equivalent, or 2/0 at the outside. 

Am inclined to think H. E. must have some in- 
herent weakness in his equipment, the type of arrester or 
method of connection to ground. Avoid arcing grounds, or 
arresters in metal cases. Try arrester on each phase, each 
to a separate ground, on three consecutive poles. Make good 
connection to galvanized pipe, driven seven feet into moist 
ground. Salt, in and around each ground pipe, will improve 
ground, but decrease life of ground pipe. 

Insert an ordinary transformer cut-out fused at 13 am- 
peres in each ground wire, to interrupt dynamic current, un- 
til trouble located. Fuse should never blow if arrester work- 
ing properly. 

Yours truly, 

W. L. Bird. 



Fort William, March 3, 1916. 
Editor, Electrical News: 

Re "Hydro-Electric" query, as to benefits of overhead 
ground wires. AVhile we use overhead ground wires on our 
long distance transmission lines, and consider them beneficial, 
we have never found them necessary on our 2200 or 600 volt 
feeders. 

I note H. E. uses 960,000 cm. cable. Owing 
to the skin effect, and as a matter of eflSciency. we practically 



Winnipeg. March i.th. 191t;. 
Editor Electrical News: — 

It is quite possible that the installation of a ground wire. 
as suggested, would be of some benefit. It is, of course, im- 
possible to state what would be the best protection and what 
is the probable cause of the trouble complained of unless 
further information is given as to the location of the line and 
its exposure to atmospheric conditions. It may generally be 
stated that some gap-arrestors on a high power circuit and 
adjacent to the source of supply, are seldom satisfactory ow- 
ing to their discharge capacity being altogether too small. I 
note that it is stated that the ground wire is of ample capa- 
city and leads in each case directly to running w-ater. From 
this it does not follow that the ground connection is satis- 
factory, as the resistance of water in different localities varies 
so much that it is quite possible that the fact of immersing 
the ground plate or wire in the water may give a very high 
resistance to ground. 

A far better method of grounding would be to connect, 
if possible, to some system of water piping, or if this is not 
possible to install properly designed grounds which give 
ample surface. 

It is also possible that some other tj'pe of arrestors 
might give better service. There can be no objection to in- 
stalling a ground wire provided that it is mechanically sound 
and that the ground connections are properly made. 

Yours trulj', 

J. G. Glassco. 



Electric Power Co. Sells Out to Government 

Hon. G. Howard Ferguson. Minister of Lands, Forests 
and Mines, has announced that an agreement has been signed 
with the Electric Power Company by which the Government 
buys outright the various water power and electric interests 
in the Trent Valley District, paying for them in Ontario 
Government 4 per cent, bonds to the amount of $S.350.000. 
It is understood that this system will be operated along 
lines similar to those followed in southwestern Ontario by 
the present Hydro-electric power commission of Ontario 
and that the eastern section of the province will now enjoy 
the privileges of light and power at cost as in the Niagara 
district. 



Who are the true patriots in time of nee>d — 
those who venerate the land, owning its wood, 
and stream and earth, and all they produce, or 
those who love their country, boasting not a foot 
of ground in all its wide domain? 

Old Curosity Shop. 



.Ntarcli l.'i. iniri 



Tin-; f-:lkctrical news 



id 



Vancouver's Development 

l;\ w R. Bonnycastlf 

Thi: physical and climatic advantages of \'ancouvcr ovir 
the Eastern or Middle West cities are so well known that 
it is unnecessary to spend space or time in discussing these 
advantages. The disadvantages of \'ancouver in the past have 
been its situation on the Pacific Coast, a small population 
of its own, and great mountain ranges between the city and 
the larger population on the other side. The consequence 
of these conditions has been to prevent \'ancouver from 
being able to compete in the markets of the Middle West 
with the manufacturing cities of the East, in spite of the 
much greater distance of transportation from the eastern 
manufacturing centres. 

There have been other reasons besides a limited market 
for the slow development of Vancouver as a manufacturing 
city. 

Vancouver for some years has been a fools' paradise, and 
its population has included a lot of gamblers and speculators. 
Labor has been high-priced, inefficient and independent; 
capital has not been obtainable for legitimate development, 
but has been used for high finance and wildcat promotion; 
fair concessions and bonuses could not be obtained by pros- 
pective manufacturers, and the prices of sites and power 
have been e.xorbitant. 

It is useless to dwell on the folly of the past — the live 
members of the population of \'ancouver realize conditions 
and are adjusting themselves to meet the new demands, but, 
unfortunately, the live ones are only a very small proportion 
of the total population. Some of the electorate will ulti- 
mately see the new light; a large portion still dream of a 
returned prosperity, but are doing nothing to help push. 

What N'ancouver needs is new blood. Business men who 
can see not only the present necessities, but can look ahea>l 
and prepare for the time when Vancouver has become a 
large city. The time to meet the various problems which 
arise in the growth of a city is not when that problem is 
clamoring for solution and must be solved, but each prob- 
lem should have been forseen and prepared for, as much as 
possible, years before. 

City Needs New Blood 

The old-timers in Vancouver have been too much in 
evidence; they have been sticking together and controlling 
the policy of the district and it is not reasonable to suppose 
that men growing up with a small to%vn and knowing nothinii 
of the problems of a large city would be able to look far 
ahead and provide for future expansion without grave mis- 
lakes. 

The parting of the ways is here for Vancouver and the 
people must make their choice; even the most narrow- 
minded, ignorant, hide-bound policy cannot prevent Van- 
couver from growing, but it can seriously hamper its growth 
and prosperity and prevent it from taking its rightful place 
as one of the largest and most prosperous cities of Canada. 
.\n awakening of the people and a grasp of the problems 
which even now confront the future of the district is neces- 
sary — not ten or even five years hence but — now. 

Several of the disadvantages which confronted the dis- 
trict have been reduced or have entirely disappeared. New- 
railroads have lately been put into operation, opening up 
new districts and reducing the grades over the mountain 
ranges between Vancouver and the Middle West, so that 
competition with eastern cities might be successful through- 
out the prairie towns. The Panama Canal has brought \'an- 
couver much closer to European and South American mar- 
kets. The great industrial awakening of the far East has 
opened up a new field of great possibilities. 



The mining and lumbering industries of British Columbia 
.irc still in their infancy. Foreign capital must be obtained 
lo develop these industries, but the people of Vancouver 
can help to bring in this capital and develop industries lo 
supply the necessary equipment, labor and material required 
for their operation. 

There are other requirements, too, for a great manufac- 
turing city, and one of the most important necessities is a 
large supply of cheap electric power. There is a fairly large 
supply of power available in Vancouver at present, but is 
this power cheap enough to encourage the establishment of 
manufacturing interests, to overcome the many advantages 
of a manufacturing point in the east near the centre of 
population with transportation facilities in every direction? 
It is not enough to offer power as cheap as it is in the East; 
it must be available in large quantities at a considerably 
cheaper rate. Electric power is one of the few commodities 
that is constantly growing cheaper. 

The installation charges of the average plant, either for 
steam or water power, are growing less, while the efficiency 
of operation is growing greater. Consequently, the rates for 
electric service are being reduced all over the world. 

Are \'ancouver and vicinity getting their share in these 
reductions? 

Lower Current Cost 

New inventions and improvements are being made every 
day in electric appliances for heating and cooking. The 
efficiency of these appliances is steadily increasing and the 
cost decreasing. If a proper rate were obtainable for the 
electric energy necessary to operate these appliances every 
home in Vancouver could be so equipped that a considerable 
saving could be made in the present gas and coal bill and a 
degree of cleanliness and satisfaction obtained which is im- 
possible under present circumstances. 

Would Vancouver use more electric energy if the pre- 
sent rates were cut in half? Electric energy will some day 
be so cheap that it will be used as freely as water in your 
home. Will the people in \'ancouver be the first or the 
last to realize these conditions? 

The solving of the problem lies within the hands of the 
people of Vancouver and the surrounding municipalities. 
There is no city on this continent better situated for a large 
supply of cheap power. To-day the clouds are very black, 
but to-morrow or next day the sun will shine. Will the 
people of Vancouver prepare to-day to take advantage of 
the sunshine to-morrow, or will they wait until the sun is 
shining, thereby losing the first bright hours — the best part 
of the day? 

There is several hundred thousand horse power of hydro- 
electric energy within a reasonable distance of Vancouver 
waiting to be developed, and with proper economy this 
power can be delivered to Vancouver and vicinity at a cost 
not to exceed $10 per horse power per annum. The con- 
struction cost of this power, delivered to a distributing sta- 
tion in \'ancouver, would not exceed $75 per horse power 
of continuous power, which compares favorably with the 
construction cost of any other power development on the 
continent. 

With a strong business administration and economical 
engineering the present rates for power and light could 
be cut in half as soon as the plants could be put in opera- 
tion, and the rates could be further reduced as the demand 
for service increased and the power plants increased their 
capacity. 

There are financial reasons why no new power com- 
pany will enter \'ancouver, but if the people of this district 
want a progressive policy in the supply of an unlimited 
quantity of cheap electric energy they must organize and 
act energetically to take advantage of their golden oppor- 



20 THE ELECTR 

tunit)-. There is said to be over twenty million dollars 
in the savings banks of N'ancouver, and I know of no better 
investment for a portion of this money. An examination of 
the stocks of the various power companies of the world will, 
with very few exceptions, show a very healthy condition 
of affairs, and Mr. F. A. Vanderlip, President of the National 
City Bank of New York, says: "Four hundred millions a 
year, eight millions a week of fresh capital, can profitably 
be used in the development of the whole brjad field of the 
electrical industry in the United .States during the next five 
years." 

Are the people of Vancouver going to allow one of 
the greatest of their natural resources to pass into the hands 
of private companies, as they surely will within the next few 
years? 

The development of these water powers by private com- 
panies will, it is true, be of great assistance to the growth 
and prosperity of Vancouver, but not nearly as much so 
as if the people themselves should retain under their con- 
trol the great powers which lie at their doorsteps. 

Do not content yourselves Ijy saying that \ancouver 
has no money at this time for such undertakings; there is 
plenty of money to be obtained, and now is the time to make 
a start so as to be ready when the demand conies. Wake up, 
Vancouver! 



Electricity in a Modern Hotel 

By Arthur J. Cantin 

Tlie Macdonald Hotel, the new Grand Trunk Pacific 
hotel at Edmonton, which was formally opened to the pub- 
lic on July 6, 1915, is quite the latest word in hotel equip- 
ment, being noted for its modern electrical fixtures and do- 
mestic appliances. The hotel management have installed 
their own generating system, and completely operate the 
hotel by electricity. With a connected load of nearly 350 
h.p. in motors, and about 3.000 tungsten lamps ranging from 
15 to 200 watts, the Macdonald Hotel represents an electrical 
load which would be attractive to any electrical service com- 
pany. Typical load charts show the average maximum de- 
mand for energy for the entire establishment to be about 
170 kw. The peak load occurs about 6 p.m. and the mini- 
mum load generally during the early morning hours, when 
the use of general lighting is a minimum and the demand 
on the various pumps is light. An average of the monthly 
reading of the totalizing watt-hour meter shows that the 
hotel uses approximately 40,000 kw.h. per month. 

The hotel management could not see their way clear 
to connect the load to the municipal plant, on account of a 
city by-law by which no contract for lighting can be entered 
into for a period longer than one year, because of the un- 
certain valuation of the power rates. The hotel manage- 
ment therefore built their own generating plant. 

There are four horizontal return tubular boilers of 150 
h.p. operating under 125 lbs. pressure. These boilers were 
manufactured by the Goldie McCulloch Company, and are 
located in a boiler room in the basement, with the engines, 
generators and switchboard in a separate room. The prime 
movers consist of two 100-h.p., one 125-h.p.. and one 75-h.p. 
Ideal engines manufactured by Goldie & McCulloch, with 
Ritis inertia regulators with a guaranteed variation of speed 
not to exceed two per cent. The engines are direct con- 
nected to Triumph Electric, three-wire, direct current 110-220 
volt, 250 r.p.ni. generators. 

To secure a pleasing illumination effect in the lobbies, 
dining rooms, ball rooms, corridors and other public places, 
elaborate chandeliers and concealed lighting fixtures have 
.been employed. An especially handsome effect has Tseen ob- 
tained in the dining room by concealing lamps in reflectors 



I C A L NEWS March is, 1916 

behind frosted glass. In order to obtain long life in these 
lamps. 120-volt units are used on a 110-volt circuit. In addi- 
tion to the general illumination of this room, portable lamps 
harmonizing with the decorative scheme of the room are 
placed on some of the tables. 

In the main lobby, massive but graceful fixtures hung 
at various points diffuse light from one hundred 40-watt 
lamps, thus supplying a soft and even illumination which is 
supplemented in the alcoves by smaller diffusing units of 
similar design. Additional light for the clerks' desks and 
hotel register is afforded by small lamps. These lamps also 
prominently display signs directing patrons to the proper 
clerk to apply to for, "Information," "Rooms," etc. 

Another type of hanging fixture has been used in ihe 
ball-room. The lamps in these fixtures supply but a part 
of the lighting for the room, the remainder coming from 
concealed units. Twenty-watt tungsten lamps are used in 
the wall candelabra fixtures. 

There are about 30 electric motors in the building. To 
supply ice and artificial refrigeration, two motor-driven Linde 
Canadian refrigerating machines have been installed. They 
are ten-ton machines, and are operated alternately. There 
are twenty-three small refrigerators distributed in the 
kitchen, various dining rooms and the bar. 

The control apparatus for the two refrigerating mach- 
ines is grouped on a marble board. Leads enter and leave 
this panel board from the top, so that all live connections, 
rheostats and starters are concealed. There is also a small 
panel which controls the operation of the vacuum pumps 
working on the steam-heating system. These pumps pro- 
duce a vacuum of 12 ins. to 14 ins. mercury column. Steam 
enters the heating system from the engine at about 1 pound 
pressure, but a Jay-pass is provided so that when the weather 
is cold live steam from the boiler may be admitted directly 
to the heating system. Two steam pumps lift water from 
the city mains to a tank situated on the top floor of the hotel. 
Water for house service is then fed by gravity to the various 
parts of the hotel. Washing, drying and ironing is per- 
formed electrically in the hotel's laundry. 

The following is a list of the principal motors and the 
machines they operate: — 

Machine Motor r.p.m. 

1 6 Poll., 120-in.. flat work ironer. 1 — 4 h.p., 220 v., 1870 

1 body ironer 1 — IH h-P- " 600 

1 collar and cuff starcher 1—1/6 h.p. " 1200 

1 dry room 1 — V2 h.p. " 900 

1 collar and cuff dampener 1 — 1/6 h.p. " 100 

1 collar and cuff ironer 1 — 2M h.p. " 1100 

1 finishing table 1—1/12 h.p. ■ 1125 

1 sleeve ironer 1 — J4 h-P- ' "^"O 

1 sewing machine 1 — 1/7 h.p. " 600 

1 washing machine 1 — 254 h.p. " 1000 

2 washing machines 3 — 2 h.p. " 1100 

1 tumbler 1 — 2^4 h.p. 

2 30-in. extractors 2 — 5 h.p. " 1200 

1 20-in. starch extractor 1 — 1 h.p. "' 1200 

1 drying tumbler 1 — 2 h.p. " 1200 

1 fan 1—2 h.p. 1000 

1 coffee mill 1— ^ h.p. ■ IG.'iO 

1 sump pump 1 — \Ya h.p. ' 1500 

1 carbonating machine 1 — 1/8 h.p. 1800 

1 knife cleaner . . . _ 1—1 1/3 h.p. - 2300 

The main switchboard consists of eight panels of uni- 
form size, 66 in. by 24 in., with sub-panels 24 in. by 24 in., 
or a total dimension of 16 ft. by 7J4 ft. The material used 
is the best quality of slate, 2 inches in thickness, and painted 
with Egyptian lacquer to present a lasting black finish in 
harmony with the copper appliances mounted thereon and 
free from attacks of oil and dirt. The board rests on a 
six-inch channel iron base partly embedded in the cement 
floor, and is supported by a two-inch angle iron frame, sup- 
ported from the wall by material of a like character. The 



March l."i. l".n() 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



board was designed witli llie view of locating the instru- 
ments and switches in tlic most natural position lor the 
convenience of the operator. The instruments are on a level 
with the eye and the switches at the proper height for the 
average person. Beginning at the left, the first four panels 
are generator panels, connected to their respective gener- 
ators according to their location. Following these are the 
:J20-volt power panel, two o-wire and two-wire lighting and 
no-volt power panels. The last panel provides connection 
willi the city power in case of accident to the hotel plant. 
The circuit breakers on the generators are located be- 
tween the generator and the main switch. A three-wire 
copper busbar is connected to all panels, with the main 
equalizer bus connected to all generator panels. The gen- 
erator rheostats are mounted on angle iron frames firmly 
bracUeled to tlic framework of the switchboard. .Ml cables 
are run under.grduud in conduits, and arc carried from the 
conduit ends to their terminals on cleats. The intervening 
space between tlie floor and switchboard foundation is left 
open to permit tile passage of cables leading to and from 
I hi board. Openings are provided in the pit wall to the rear 
of tlie meter board for the passage of cables in connection 
with Iho board. 



The main elevator feeders run direct from the switch- 
board to the distributing board located in the penthouse 
close to the roof. The elevator and dumb waiters are of the 
Otis-Fensom type and consist of the following: two pas- 
senger elevators of the traction type, having a speed of .300 
feet per minute, operated by a 25 h.p. motor; one service 
elevator operated by a 20 h.p. motor and one baggage ele- 
vator controlled by push buttons located near the baggage 
or trunk room. 

An elaborate system of ventilation has been installed 
which continuously supplies pure air tempered to suit the 
prevailing atmospheric conditions and simultaneously re- 
moves impure and obnoxious odors. The main ventilating 
fans are located in the basement, fresh air being drawn in 
from the areaway through enormous air washers. Tem- 
pering coils have been distributed throughout the building. 
A central telephone exchange connects every room and de- 
partment in the hotel through numerous trunk lines with 
the main exchange of the city. Extensive telegraphic accom- 
modations have been provided. A signal system on every 
floor enables a guest to locate an attendant at all times. 
Fire alarm signals and fire escape indicators are located in 
the hallway of each floor. 



Steel Conductors for Transmission Lines 



By H. B. 

During the [last jear the price of copper has doubled. 
\\ bile the same wide fluctuation in price has occurred at 
other periods in recent years, the rapidity of the present in- 
crease forcibly suggests that changes in the methods of 
using copper conductors riiight be profitable at the present 
time or in the near future. Although steel cannot replace 
copper on transmission lines in the majority of applications, 
there are well-defined cases where steel conductors may be 
used with good economy. Accordingly, a short comparison 
is given in this article of the characteristics of steel and 
copper conductors for overhead electric power lines. 

The chief characteristic of steel wire that must be taken 
into account when considering its advisability as an over- 
head electric conductor is that it has from 7 to 14 times as 
much resistance to alternating current as the same weight 
of copper, depending on the kind of steel and the current 
density. The choice between steel and copper depends on 
the ratio between the effective resistance of the two metals, 
the ratio of their cost, and upon mechanical characteristics 
such as the greater strength of steel. 

In the past, even with copper at a low price, it has been 
found advisable to use steel conductors for overhead lines 
for two main classes of work. First, on account of their 
greater tensile strength, steel cables can be used for long 
spans fif half a mile or more, where the use of copper 
would be inipractical)le. In certain cases, with comparat- 
ively heavy current, the steel cable has been used merely to 
support a copper conductor, but in many insl.nices tlie steel 
cable has carried the current. 

The other class of work is in branch lines to comparat- 
ively small isolated customers. It is not usual to employ in 
overhead work a smaller copper conductor than Xo. (5 B. & S. 
because a conductor of at least that size is required for 
mechanical strength. However, it frequently happens that 
as far as electrical reasons go, a smaller size than No. 
copper would be suflicicnl to supply a certain load, and in 
such cases it has often proved profitable to use a steel con- 
ductor which would have just enough conductivity to carry 
I lie current, and would have ample mechanical strength. 

Examples of cases where the above practice has been 



Dwight. 

considered economical have been recently described. A No. 8 
copper clad steel line about 10 miles long was built in the 
State of Washington to supply a 50 h.p. motor load at 6,600 
volts. This line afterward carried 110 h.p. for some time, 
and was later changed to No. 6 copper in order to carry a 
still greater load. It is also stated that on the same system 
a considerable quantity of No. 8 iron wire for short tap-offs 
and lightly loaded branch lines on 6,600 volt circuits is used, 
without serious trouble resulting from voltage drop.* 

In Minnesota a 40,000 volt branch line 20 miles long is 
being built with No. 4 galvanized steel cable. This will 
have only 7 per cent, drop at the estimated load of 400 kva., 
when calculated according to the data of Fig. 1. A No. 6 
copper line would carry 2,500 kva. with the same drop, so 
that there is evidently a considerable margin for the use of 
steel conductors for small branch lines of a high voltage 
system of this kind. 

In the above manner, a power company in its efforts to 
build up new loads can send out several inexpensive branch 
lines using steel conductors. Where these prove success- 
ful and the load grows, the lines may be re-wired with cop- 
per, possibly at lower than present prices. An alternative 
method of delivering an increased load would be to install 
an induction regulator to overcome the excessive voltage 
drop and voltage variation. 

It is evident that when copper is unusually high in price, 
the opportunities for using steel conductors with profit are 
increased. In order to make an approximate determination 
wiiethcr steel conductors may be suitable for a given case, 
certain resistance and reactance data are given in Figs, t 
and 2. 

This has been compiled from the results of tests published by 
the Bureau of Standards.! Xo attempt has been made to 
give the characteristics of all the kinds of iron and steel 
conductors which might be used. However, the grade of 
wire with the lowest resistance to direct current should not 
necessarily be chosen, for it sometimes liappens that 

■Tlie Electrical World, p. 469, Aufir. 28. 1916- 

tEffectlvc resistance and Inductance of Iron and Bimetallic Wires, by 
J. M. Miller. Scientific Paper No. 2Si, nureau of Standards. Wnshinnton. D. 
C".. AuitMst. 1915. 



32 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



March 15, lul6 



cumiucrcial steel wire, whose characteristics are given 
in Figs. 1 and 3, has a lower impedance to the comparatively 
heavy alternating currents used in power transmission, than 
a purer and more expensive grade of iron or steel designed 
for telephone and telegraph work. 

The information in Figs. 1 and 2 is easily used. Since 
the impedance of the transmission line changes with the load, 
the resistance and reactance must be taken for the current 
to be considered. The reactance is made up of the in- 
ternal reactance plus the external reactance. The latter 
may be obtained from ordinary transmission line tables. The 
calculations for voltage drop and power loss are then made 
in the same way as for copper transmission lines. 

The higher price of copper may have already enabled 
steel to supersede copper for another class of work, namely, 
for bare conductors in direct current circuits. Certain grades 
of common commercial steel have a resistance to direct cur- 
rent circuits about 8 times that of a copper conductor of 
the same size, and therefore 7 times that of a copper 
conductor of the same weight (copper being more dense 
than steel). It follows that when the price per pound 
of steel cable is less than 1/7 that of copper, steel will be 
more economical with direct current, if the large size of the 
steel cable is not a disadvantage. But direct current con- 
ductors are nearly always covered with insulation, so that a 
small conductor is an advantage, and steel can only be con- 
sidered for the rare cases where bare conductors are used 
for direct current, as possibly for feeders for interurban 
railroads. 

For the main lines of alternating-current power systems, 
steel cables may not have an opening as yet, though it is 
nearer than would at first thought be supposed. For 25 
cycles the d. c. resistance is increased about 30 per cent., 




Fig. 1. — Resistance and Reactance of Steel Conductors at 60 cycles. 

and for 60 cycles, as much as 100 per cent, with conductors 
less than about 50,000 c. m. and with average loads. If 
one assumes the usual limitation, that the line must be de- 
signed so that the steel cable can be replaced by a copper 
one when desired, steel will probably not be found as 
economical as copper, even for 25 cycles. However, if 
the line be specially designed for the permanent use of steel 
conductors, with higher voltage than would otherwise be 
used and with extra long spans to reduce the number of 
towers, it might prove to be a surprisingly close competitor 
of the usual type of copper transmission line. 

Summary. — (l) The most common use of steel conduc- 



tors is for lightly-loaded branches and extensions of trans- 
mission lines. Steel should be used with greater freedom 
in such work wlien copper is higher in price. 

(2) When a certain load is to be transmitted, the voltage 
to be chosen should be higher if the conductors are of steel, 
than it normally would be if they were of copper. 

(3) Long spans are possible with steel conductors, and 
economies can be made by reducing the number of towers 
and sometimes by shortening the distance of transmission. 




Fig. 2. — Resistance and Reactance of Steel Conductors at 2.S cycles. 

(4) Steel cables are better conductors for 25-cycle than 
fi>r 60-cycle current. 

(5) Steel cables are better conductors for direct than for 
alternating current. For bare direct-current conductors 
steel is more economical than copper when the price per 
pound of steel cable is less than 1/7 that of copper cable. 

(6) In order that the economies to be obtained from the 
use of iron and steel conductors for power transmission may 
be taken advantage of more generally, the resistance and re- 
actance of various grades and strandings of cables should be 

measured and published. Such information is very incom- 
I)lete at present. 



Winnipeg Jovians Present Prizes 

At the regular luncheon of the Jovian Order held on 
March 1 the usual program was dispensed with, and instead, 
the prizes were presented to the successful players who took 
part in the recent Jovian Bonspiel. The Rev. J. B. Hindley 
presented the prizes. 

The premier event was won by R. H. Howard whose rink 
included J. Pratt, third, E. J. Brown second, and J. R. Stien- 
hoff lead. 

Mr. Howard played off against J. F. S. Madden, of the 
Canadian General Electric Company. Mr. Madden is pre- 
sident of the Jovian Order and his rink included: F. E. Gar- 
rett, lead, F. W. Blythe, second, and J. B. Minns, third. 

The league cup was won by James Bloomer, skip, who 
played against F. E. Filer, skip, in the final event. 

A feature of the meeting was that about fifteen minutes 
was taken up with one minute speeches in which each un- 
successful skip showed exactly how he did not win the cup. 
This grand oratorical cup was won by R. H. Mainer. 

There were 60 members and guests present. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Montrears New Street Lighting System 

Modern underground distribution system displacing dangerous street 
poles and wires. Inverted magnetites on special standards 



.\ii (iniaiiRiital lighting system, — the cables for which 
arc installed in the municipal conduits, — has lately been put 
■ into operation in Montreal. The streets lighted by the new 
system are St. Catherine Street, between Atwater and Papin- 
eau Avenue, a distance of 21^ miles. Bleury Street and Park 
.Vvenue. between Craig Street and Pine Avenue, a distance 
of one mile. The system is now being extended down town 
to include Craig, St. James and Notre Dame Streets and For- 
tification Lane between Victoria Square and St. Lawrence 
Street, the square being included. The light is furnished by 
ornamental inverted ma.gnctitc CO ampere arc lamps mounted 
on cast iron standards of special design. 

On St. Catherine Street there are 141 of the new lamps, 
replacing 57 aerial arcs, while on Bleury Street and Park 
Avenue 41 of the new lamps replace 18 aerial arcs. These 
183 lamps are divided into four circuits, so interconnected in 
])airs that should one circuit be interrupted some of the 
lamps on the end of the circuit can be thrown on the other 
circuit by changing the connection of the four point cut- 
outs in these lamps. The down-town system will have 91 
new lamps to replace the 43 aerial arcs now in service. These 
;u lamps will be divided into two circuits. The lamps are 
spaced at an average distance of 185 feet on alternate sides 
of the street, there being one standard at every intersection 
and two standards at important intersections and transfer 
points. 

The cable carrying the current to the lamps is No. 6, 
twin-conductor, paper-insulated, lead-covered, 7500 volt cable, 
and is installed in a special duct of the Municipal Conduit 
System which loops in and out of each standard. The cut- 
outs arc of the absolute type, and were especially designed 
to meet the requirements of the Light Department, having 
lour accessible terminals. The location of faults in the cable 
is thus greatly facilitated, as all four conductors can be ex- 
posed in every standard. The leads from the cut-outs to the 
lamps are No, C, single conductor, varnished cambric in- 
sulated and braided cable. The cables and leads were sub- 
jected to a factory test of 30,000 volts for 30 minutes and a 
test of 10.000 volts for a minutes after installation. 

The cost of the erection now in operation was approxi- 
mately $42,000 — and the cost of the erection now being in- 
stalled will be approximately .$25,000. 

The contracts for the supply and installation of the stand- 
ards, which included the construction of the concrete bases, 
were let to G. M. Gest, Limited, of Montreal, Winnipeg and 
X'ancouver, for both sections. The contracts for the supply 
and installation of the lamps (the glassware for which was 
manufactured by the Jefferson Glass Company, Limited) 
were let to the Canadian General Electric Company for both 
sections, while the order for the supply and installation of 
the cable and cut-outs was given to the Eugene F. Phillips 
Electrical Works, Limited, for the system now in opera- 
tion, and to the Northern Electric Company for the section 
at present being installed. The cut-outs arc manufactured 
by the Northern Electric Company. 

The current for the lamps is supplied by the Montreal 
Light, Heat & Power Company, under a ten years' contract, 
at $72.70 per annum per lamp, this price including the sup- 
ply of station apparatus and the general care and maintenance 
of the whole system. 

The putting into operation of the municipal conduits and 
the new lighting system on St. Catherine and Bleury .Streets, 
and Park .\venuc has enabled the city to remove a consider- 



able part of the unsightly poles and overhead wires from 
tliese streets, and the remainder will be removed as soon 
as conditions permit. The clearing away of this aerial equip- 
ment, of which there was a great quantity, has greatly im- 
proved the appearance of the streets — especially when seen 
at night under the brilliant illumination of the new lights. 
The clean and uncongested appearance of St. Catherine Street 
as compared with that of former days is especially notice- 
al)le. 

.A.S soon as the Municipal Conduit System is extended 
over other districts the new lighting system will also be 
extended. The districts now under consideration are the sec- 
tion of the city bounded by Commissioners, Notre Dame, 
McGill and St. Lawrence Streets, and the district comprising 
St. Lawrence Boulevard from Craig Street to Sherbrooke 
Street. The work of preparing the estimates, plans and 
specifications for the new system and the general supervision 
of the installation was under the direct charge of Mr. Arthur 
Parent, superintendent of the Light Department, and Mr. 
P. S. Gregory, his assistant. 

The removal of the poles and wires above referred to 




Design of Montreal's new lighting standards. 

was only possible owing to the construction of underground 
conduits. In the spring of 191,i tenders were first called by 
the Electrical Commission for the installation of the con- 
duits. Contractors from many sections bid on this work, 
G. M. Gest, Limited, being the successful tenderers. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



March 15. 1910 



The first installation was made on St. Catherine Street 
from Guy Street to Papineau Avenue, conduit being placed 
in the sidewalks on both sides of the street with runs at each 
intersecting street, while at very important corners these 
runs were placed at each side of the intersecting street. Later 
in the same year the ducts were extended on St. Catherine 
Street from Guy Street to Atwater Avenue, and a system 
was also installed on Bleury Street from Craig to Sherbrooke 
Streets, on both sides of the streets, and on Park Avenue 
from Sherbrooke Street to Pine Avenue, but on the west 
side of the street only. 

The following year the downtown section was construct- 
ed on Notre Dame, St. James and Craig Streets from St. 
Lawrence Boulevard to McGill Street and Victoria Square, 
including all intersecting streets within these limits, and For- 
tification Lane. G. M. Gest, Limited, made this installation, 
as well as that on the two preceding contracts, and in the 
meantime completed another contract on St. Lawrence Boule- 
vard from Notre Dame, southward. 

It was during the construction of the downtown section 
that the war started, and the work was ordered closed, but 
through the negotiations of G. M. Gest. Limited, with the 
city of Montreal, the former carried on their work success- 
fully, thereby giving employment to many men. 

In all the conduit contracts the same general type of 
constructicin has been used. Tlirev and (inc-rialf square bore 




15 duct run showing concrete encasement. 



tile duct has been used for all light and power cables, except- 
ing that for the services into the buildings, which are of 
iiyi-in. fibre. The top ducts for the police and fire alarm sig- 
nal wires, street lighting, Gresham Guarantee Company, are 
syi-in. fibre, and are separated by a concrete fill from the 
balance of the system. The dpcts are all enclosed in a three- 
inch concrete encasement, and graded to drain through the 
manholes at each end. 

Main and service manholes are of concrete of octagonal 
shape, the ft. x 8 ft. holes occurring at street intersections, 
with service holes 4 ft. x C ft. located between street corners, 



providing for services into all buildings. Each hole is drained 
through a trap and connected to the street sewer, thereby 
aflfording perfect drainage through the whole system. Ven- 
tilated covers are provided and these are of such design as 
to give sufficient strength without being unduly heavy. 

Each of the operating power companies is provided with 
its own transformer manholes, which in general arc about 
10 ft. X 13 ft. with 8 ft. headroom. These are located in the 
side streets and are connected with the main manholes by 
fibre pipes. They have covers made in three sections of 
ample size to admit of transformers being placed. These 
holes are also of concrete and are connected to the sewer 
through a trap. 

Owing to sub-surface conditions of many of the streets. 




St. Catherine Street. Montreal. 

it seemed at times almost impossible to place some of the 
intersecting runs and manholes, as the streets were already 
filled with the sewer, gas and water pipes on each side, the 
duct systems of the Montreal Light, Heat & Power Company, 
and the Bell Telephone Company. However, the past ex- 
perience of the conduit contractors was of great service in 
overcoming these obstacles, and in no instance was it found 
impossible to make an installation as required. 

The Bleury Street and Park Avenue section differed from 
that of the other streets in that a portion of the system was 
made jointly with the Bell Telephone Company, having sep- 
arate ducts and manholes. These joint holes had a common 
wall, but with enough offset on each side to allow ducts" to 
take care of the distribution in intersecting streets. 

The telephone ducts are of multiple tile, and at all points 
are separated from the power ducts by at least six inches 
of concrete and gradually fanning out to reach the manholes. 
In addition to the power company having cables in the muni- 
cipal ducts, the street lighting occupies a duct as also the 
fire alarm system. Ample space is provided so that future 
electrical needs can be taken care of without undue crowding. 

It is the plan of the Electrical CDmmission to gradually 
extend the conduit system over the entire city of Montreal, 
removing all overhead wires and poles, thereby making Mont- 
real entirely free from delay and danger to which it had been 
subjected in the past. 



The Toronto & York Radial Railway Comiiany have com- 
pleted the electrification of their Schomberg line, which runs 
between Schomberg and Schomberg Junction. This work 
has been under construction for some months and according 
to recent announcements is now completed. For a number 
of years this branch has been operated as a steain road. 



Ahirch ir,. I'.iKi 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Cedars Rapids Electrical Development 

Mr. R. M. Wilson Describes the Details of Installation and Operation of the Electrical 

Equipment, before the Can. Soc. C. E.— Nine Units of 10,000 kv.a., Each 

Already Running at Capacity with Load Factor over 90 per cent. 



'Concluded fro 

Heating System 

The healing system in power house and transformer 
liouse were designed for electric heating. The question of 
steam heat was gone into very carefully, but due to the 
nature of the load on the plant it was found that consider- 
able lieat would be obtained from the units themselves. This 
was one of the reasons for adopting electric heat as well 
as the Iiigh initial cost of the steam installation and the 
difficulty of getting cheap fuel. 

It was found upon investigation that approximately 
7.100,000 B.t.u.'s per hour were required in the coldest wea- 
ther. This is equivalent to 2100 kw. per hour. Our load con- 
ditions on the plant at present provide in losses given ofif 
in heat 1100 kw. and in order to provide the balance of 1000 
kw.. a number of heaters were installed in suitable locations. 

The number of heat units required for transformer house 
is 1,600,000 B.t.u.'s per hour, and is furnished from electric 
lieaters consuming 500 kw. per hour. 

The lighting and heating systems are i>rovided witli the 
necessary energy from transformer Ijanks connected in delta. 
Iioth power, light and heat are taken from the same trans- 
formers. The power and heat at 220 volts and tlic li.gliting 
at 110 volts. 

Transformer House 

The transformer house is a reinforced concrete struc- 
ture built on the unit principle, and contains approximately 
1,835 units; its size is 228 ft. long, 130 ft. wide, and 90 ft. 
high from basement floor to roof. In this building is in- 
stalled a double system of 6600 volt generator busbars, witli 
necessary oil switches, disconnecting switches, control pan- 
els, meters, etc.; also a double system of 110,000 and 66,000 
high tension busbars, switches, etc., as well as the step-up 
transformers for the Massena and Montreal systems. The 
load per sq. ft. on all footing is 2,500 lbs. This loading may 
appear small, but owing to the nature of the soil on which 
the building rests it was not considered advisable to adopt 
a greater loading. The building is equipped with electric 
crane, turn-table and transfer table, for handling the appar- 
atus quickly in case of repairs. There were several reasons 
for having the step-up transformers removed from the 
power house, principal among which was the desire not to 
have large quantities of oil in too close proximity to our 
generating apparatus. It permitted much easier construction 
arrangement in the exits for the transmission lines. There 
was also consideraljle saving eflfected in the rock excavation 
of the power house. 

The tests carried out on the generating apparatus con- 
sisted of the following: efficiency, field characteristics, regu- 
lation, heat runs, over speed, high potential, oscillograph, 
test on Kingslniry bearings. 

Efficiency 

In making the tests to determine the efficiency of the 
unit a test was made to obtain the friction, windage and core 
losses Ijy running the unit as a synchronous motor at the 
proper frequency and rated voltage. Owing to the design 
of the ai)paratus it was difficult to obtain steady enough read- 
ings on tlie instruments, and it therefore became necessary 
to determine the losses in question by another method. .-\ 
nietlu>il known as tlie "Decelleration Core Loss Test" was 
llu.ii employed, and a brief descriplinn nf the results ob- 
taineil by tliis test are as follows: 



m March 1) 

The unit under test is driven as a synchronous motor 
slightly above normal speed, having its fields excited with 
a constant current value. The driving force is then sud- 
denly cut ofif and the unit allowed to decellerate. This pro- 
cess is gone through with dififerent field current values, and 
finally one set of readings is taken with no field current. 
In the first series of tests the decelleration is due to the 
friction, windage and core loss, and in the final test the de- 
celleration is due to friction and windage only. 

Readings were taken at frequent intervals of speed and 
time and curves plotted for each value of field current hav- 
ing speeds as the ordinates and time as the abscissae. With 
the aid of these curves and the kinetic energy of the rotat- 
ing parts a determination of the core loss, friction and wind- 
age losses is easily made. 

To get the load loss a decelleration test is made with 
tlie armature leads short circuited and the field excited so 
as to create full load current to circulate through the arma- 
ture windings. The decelleration curve is plotted under these 
conditions and the loss calculated in accordance with formula. 

The friction windage losses as determined contained 
losses due to wheel and generator as they are direct con- 
nected. In order to divide up the losses between wheel and 
generator they were calculated in proportion to their re- 
spective weights. 

When making tests for efficiency all water was drained 
out of turbine casing and manhole in draft tube opened 
to prevent turbine becoming air bound. 

Field Characteristics 

The field characteristics at different power-factors were 
determined by means of the no-load saturation and the short 
circuit impedance curve. It being assumed that the voltage 
generated under short circuit conditions was entirely con- 
sumed by the synchronous impedance and armature copper 
loss. With this assumption the normal volts were calculated 
for different values of load, and the corresponding values of 
field current on the no-load saturation curve was taken as 
the correct field current for that particular load. 

The regulation was taken as the drop in voltage ex- 
l)ressed as a percentage of no-load volts. 

The values of terminal volts under different loads and 
power factors were taken from the same calculation that 
figured in the field characteristics and curves plotted hav- 
ing terminal volts as ordinates and loads as abscissae. 

A line was drawn from the point on the baseline cor- 
responding to 10,000 kv.a. cutting each of the curves. Where 
tliis line cut the curves the value of terminal volts were 
noted and regulation calculated. 

Heat runs were made with various power factors and 
loads with different degrees of ventilation. The tempera- 
tures were indicated by the temperature coils installed in 
the units, and the air temperature surrounding the unit under 
test was determined from the average of several thermo- 
meters placed at different locations around the unit. 

The over speed test was made liy throwing the water 
wheel gates wide open and unit allowed to rotate without 
load or brake. 

.\ high potential test of l.VOOO volts was made on arma- 
ture windings, and 2200 volts on field coils for one minute. 

Oscillograph tests were made uncbr all conditions of 
short circuits, including single pliasc and three phase, as well 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



March IT). r.iH 




Power House Switchboard— Cedars Rapids Manufacturing and Power Co. 




Transformer House Switchboard— Cedars Rapids Manufacturing and I'ower Co. 



March l.i. i;ti6 



THE ELECTRICAL N'EWS 



as tests lor wave form under different power factor condi- 
tions. 

One interesting lest was made by short circuit under 
normal load. It was performed as follows: — the unit was 
loaded by means of a water rheostat, located in the gate 
house, and the unit short circuited by means of a special 
oil switch. 

At the moment of short circuit the field current jumped 
from 305 amperes to 500 amperes, and the armature current 
to approximately eight times normal current, the speed of 
the unit raising from 50 r.p.m. to 66 r.p.m., then back to 
53 r.p.m., and finally settled down to 56 r.p.m. The wheel 
gate opening as a result went through a large variation, caus- 
ing considerable water surge 
in the gate house. 

Test on Kingsbury Thrust 
Bearing 

Size of Machines Tested — 
10.000 kv.a. machine, main 
unit; and 1,250 kv.a. mach- 
ine, exciter unit. 

Object of test — A complete 
series of tests were run in 
order to determine: (1) fric- 
tion losses in bearing at 
normal speed; (2) tempera- 
ture rise of oil in thrust 
bearing casing with oil sup- 
ply shut off for 30 minutes; 
(3) bearing brought to rest 
without application of brakes; 
(i) bearing running at 10 
r.p.m. for one hour. 

Preparation before test — 
Before the above tests were 
run care was taken to supply 
the proper amount of oil to 
the bearing, namely, 15 gal- 
lons per minute to the main 
unit and 5 gallons per minute 
to the exciter unit; also all 
oil meters and thermometers 
were calibrated. 

Description of Tests 
I 1 ) Friction Loss — The oil 
supply to the Ijearing in gal- 
lons per minute and the teni- •^''■- ^■ 
pcrature of the oil in the in- 
let and outlet pipes was 

Muasured. These measurements were (hen corrected accord- 
ing to the above calibration results and the net supply of oil 
delivered and the rise of temperature determined. 

(2) Oil supply shut off for 30 minutes — This consisted 
of measuring the rise in temperature of the oil in the thrust 
bearing casing over a period of 30 minutes. A recording 
thermometer was used. 

(3") Stopping without brakes — Guide vanes were closed 
and unit allowed to slow down. Observations taken of time 
and manner in which unit comes to rest. Special notice taken 
of the number of r.p.m. at which unit commences to vibrate 
before coming to rest. 

(4) Low speed test — Unit brought up to normal speed 
and then allowed to slow down to about 10 r.p.m.. this low 
speed being maintained for' approximately one hour. Mea- 
surements were taken of oil supply in gallons per minute and 
the rise of temperature in the oil. 

Resume 

The friction loss in the bearing at normal speed was in 
every case found to be less than guaranteed (12 h.p.) the 
highest friction loss being 10.25 h.p. for main unit No. 8. 

The units can undoubtedly run for several hours without 
oil supply, as far as the thrust bearing is concerned. The 




maximum rise in temperature of the oil was 4.1 deg. C, and 
in most cases not more than about 3 degs. 

Test \o. 3, stopping without brakes, is the most severe 
condition this type of bearing can be put under. The critical 
speed seems to be about 5 r.p.m. At this speed the oil film 
breaks down and the unit commences to vibrate. If the 
vibration starts before the speed gets down to 5 r.p.m., it 
usually means that one can look for trouble when starting 
up next time. 

Test No. 4 was usually run after test 3, that is, after the 
unit was shut down without the application of brakes. 
The unit was brought up to full speed and kept there for 
a few minutes. If the temperature rose the unit was 
immediately shut down and 
the shoes and the runner in- 
spected. If temperature was 
normal the speed was slowly 
reduced down as close to 10 
r.p.m. as possible, and kept 
there for one hour. No 
trouble was experienced when 
running this test at 10 r.p.m.; 
the trouble always occurred 
when starting up. 

The slow speed test for 

the exciter units was run bc- 

tween 18 and 30 r.p.m., as 

^f it w-as found impossible to 

<' keep the unit running at 10 

r.p.m. 

Radiation Losses 

In order to get the total 
heat generated in the thrust 
bearing, losses due to radia- 
tion must be added to losses 
specified in the above table. 
By looking through the" re- 
cording thermometer charts 
lor the main units it was 
possible to pick out a num- 
ber of occasions when units 
had been shut down. Curves 
were then plotted giving the 
drop in the oil temperature 
per hour. From these curves 
new curves were plotted giv- 
.Nl. Wilson '"S ^^^ radiation losses in 

horsepower. These losses 
were found to be fairly con- 
.slant for the first three or four hours after the unit was shut 
down and then slightly decreased. The maximum radiation 
loss was 0.9 h.p., the minimum 0.3 h.p., giving an average of 
0.6 h.p. 400 U. S. gallons of oil was assumed in the housing. 

Total Horse Power Loss, Etc. 

Total loads on bearing, pounds 550.1)00 

Area of shoes, square inches 1.090 

I'nit pressure per square inch, iiounds 325 

Revolutions per minute 56 

Mean surface speed, feet per minute 715 

Frictional loss in bearing h.p 8.6 

Co-efficient of friction 0.00072 

Reactance Coils 
It has been stated that reactance coils have been in- 
stalled in the bus bars for limiting the current at times of 
short circuit. In order to fully appreciate their value the 
following may be useful, the data furnished being for full 
plant capacity, Fig. 1. 

Generator reactance equals 21 per cent.; bus reactance 
equals 4 per cent., based on capacity of one generator. The 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



March 15, 1910 



most severe short can exist when it takes phice in section 
"C" or "D." 

Three generators in section "A" have a combined re- 
actance of 7 per cent., and will give 14.31) times normal cur- 
rent on dead short circuit on bus in section "A." 

A sliiirt in scction"B." — The reactance in the bus com- 



Storage battery installation 

Lighting system 

Heating system 

.Miscellaneous 




Fig. 1. Reactance coils between bus-bars. 

bines witli the reactance of the generators and section "A" 
will deliver to section "B" 100/(7+4) = 0.11 times normal 
current. Section "B" delivers 14.20 times normal current, 
making 33.4 times normal current. 

A short in section "C." — The equivalent reactance of 
sections "A" and "B" with bus reactance is 100/33.4 = 4.38 
per cent. This can also be obtained by combining reactance 

1 

of '"B" with ".\" and bus reactance = = 4.38 per 

1/11 + 1/7 
cent. 4.3S per cent. + 4 per cent. Inis reactance =: 8.38 per 
cent. 100/8.38 =: 13.1 times normal current flow from sec- 
tions "B" to "C" 

By the same method sections "D." "M" and "F" supply 
13.83 times normal current to section "C" and the two gen- 
erators not affected supply 9.5 times normal current, making 
a total of 13.1 plus 13.85 plus 9.5 equals 34.45 times normal 
current most severe short circuit. • 

Costs 

The following" sunimar)- contains the costs of the elec- 
trical installation for the tirst development of 100,000 h.p. 




Kig. 2.— One of the exciter units. 

These costs include engineering, supervision and interest 
during construction: 

Per Kw. 

Generators, exciters and blower equiptiient $10.04 

Switchboards and H. T. switch gear 2.18 

Switch cells and bus structures .26 

Control cables and conduits .54 

Main cables and ducts in P.H. and T.H .33 

Feeder cables, ducts and trestle 1.40 

Auxiliary power cables and conduits .38 

.Vuxiliary transformers .22 

Auxiliary switchboards .37 



$16.25 

The total cost of the transformer house, including crane, 
turntable, transfer truck, etc., was $3.02 per kw.; the cost 
per cu. ft. was 9 8/10 cents; the cost per sq. ft. of floor, 
:;.j 1/10 cents; number of sq. ft. of floor per kw., 1.2. 

It might be of interest to note the following; — 

335,000 ft. galvanized conduit was used for control light- 
ing and heating circuits. 

54,000 ft. 4-in. fibre duct used for main cables. 

33,000 ft. 3}4-in. square bore tile duct was used. 

277 cubic yards of reinforced concrete for switch cells 
and bus-bar structures at an average cost of $58.70 per cu. yd. 

The following were the contractors for the various ap- 
paratus: — Generators, exciters, switchboards. General Electric 
Company; cables, Northern Electric Company; blower equip- 
ment, Sheldons, Limited, Gait, Ont.; auxiliary transformers, 
Canadian Westinghouse Company; conduit installation, G. M. 
Gest: cranes, Whiting Foundrj- Company; storage battery 




Fig. 3.— Section of high tension room. 
. quipment, Hart Accumulator Company; lighting and heat- 
ing switchboards. Monarch Electric Company. 

Operation 

The plant was first placed in commercial operation on 
December 37th, 1914. Since this date the load has been 
gradually built up, until at the present time the plant is 
operating at its maximum output with a daily load factor of 
over ninety per cent. 

During the present year's operation everything has 
worked out smoothly, and very little trouble has been ex- 
perienced. 

The number of men forming the complete operating 
stafi for power house and transformer house is 24 in three 
shifts of 8 men, each working on an eight-hour shift, with one 
operating superintendent. 

The excellent results obtained in operation to date are 
in no small degree due to our superintendent, Mr. W. G. 
Hullett. 

Mr. Smith, in his paper, has given the personnel of the 
staff engaged on the Cedars Development, and in concluding 
this paper I desire to express my thanks to my associates 
who have assisted me in its preparation, particularly Mr. A. 
Gall, Mr. Svenningson, Mr. Alex. Wilson and Mr. George 
Hawley. 



Ahiicli :."., I'.ih; 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 




A budget of comment presented in the interest of public welfare, 
independent of party politics and witfi malice toward no one. 



I wonder what Premier Hearst and liis friends think 
now of J. R. Fallis, and at the same time I would like to 
know wliclher Sir Robert Borden has seen the handwriting 
upon llie wall. Fallis is the man who used to represent 
I'lt'I county, Ontario, in the local legislature. Tlie David- 
son Coniinission show'ed him up in connection with profits 
lie is said to have made in purchasing horses for the Gov- 
ernment. Many a man has disappeared from public life for 
ilealin.ys of this kind, but I'allis <lid not see it tliis way; 
neitlicr (bd Premier Hearst. I'albs simply resigned and 
sought vindication by the re-election route. Peel county 
electors took a different view of it. however, and turned 
Fallis' former majority of 627 into a I^iberal majority of over 
:iOO; a turn over of about 1,000 votes. They have given the 
lirst public reply to profiteering methods. 

I'allis' defeat is a lesson for Fallis, and a inelty clear an- 
nouncement of the downfall of any others who follow bis 
ideals. If Fallis had made his commission honestly on Ibc 
liorsc deals he should have kept it. Handing it over for a 
patriotic purpose and then seeking re-election was too much 
for independent Conservatives to stomach. They simply 
felt that a member of the Government, in his own interest 
even, should keep his skirts clear, and they went out and 
voted against Fallis. 

When will political leaders in Canada realize that hon- 
esty is the best policy and that clean Government would re- 
main in power indefinitely? That is what I have been trying 
liard to hammer in, but the task grows more and more diffi- 
cult, and the Government, instead of taking my good inten- 
tions at their face value, has been misconstruing them and 
classing me with its enemies. If Sir Robert Borden would 
rise above party politics he would realize that behind these 
criticisms there lies the best friend the Government could 
have — the independent citizen wlio would .gladly see him 
measure u\> to the stature of a clean and a .great political 
leader. 

If Sir Robert liorden fails to see the Peel result in the 
light of a warning closely related to the Shell Committee 
situation, he ought at least to recognize it as a public as- 
surance that the people will stand behind him if he tries to 
stamp out the profiteering business. The defeat of Fallis 
cannot be taken as a Conservative defeat or as a Liberal vic- 
tory. It is an announcement of the public temper about 
profiteering and wliat it means to any party which fails to 
stamp it out. 

Here is the opinion of a strong Conservative paper (The 
Montreal Star) on the events in Peel County: — 

The electors of Peel County, Ont., are worthy of public 
congratulations and universal gratitude from the entire peo- 
ple of Canada. 

* * * 

When Colonel J. Wesley Allison gave evidence some 
time ago before the Davidson Commission he stated that he 
"was not the agent of any company which sold pistols to the 
Government" and did not profit "in any way, directly or in- 
directly," by such safe. Major General Sir Sam Hughes, 



liowever, now classes him as his special confidential agent in 
securing munition supplies in the United States, and in cut- 
ting down war combine prices charged there. The latest 
evidence about this special confidential agent was read before 
the commission a few days ago. Samuel M. Stone, vice- 
president of the Colt Patent Fire Arms Company of Hart- 
ford, Conn., tells of an order for 5,000 pistols given to (he 
company, after a conference between the chairman of the 
company's board, Colonel Allison, and General Hughes at 
Moira, N. Y. He states that the Canadian Government paid 
$18.50 for each pistol, while the U. S. Government has for 
years been able to buy them for .$14.50, and that dealers 
could buy them nearly 20 per cent, cheaper. Mr. Stone 
adds that the company gave Col. Allison a "present," a very 
small one indeed considering his services, but a "present" 
for all that, and that he "would not like to consider Colonel 
Allison one of our regular staff." 

At present Colonel Allison is in Florida for his health. 
VVlicn he comes back we are told he will be called upon to 
give more information. Perhaps we will then get at the 
facts — learn how much he got for a "present" and just what 
he considered his duties to be, as Major-General Sir Sam 
Hughes' special confidential agent for keeping down war 
combine prices. Perhaps too, we shall be given an inside 
account of the conference at Moira between Colonel Allison, 
General Hughes and the chairman of the Colt Company's 
Board. 

* * ♦ 

And, by the way. it is decidedly encouraging to note the 
evidences of independence being shown in our western pro- 
vinces. In Manitoba and Saskatchewan the honest electors 
arc beginning to make themselves heard. In British Colum- 
bia, two ministers in one week is a fine record against the 
"corrupt combination," as Sir Hibbert Tupper puts it. Sir 
Hibbert's active participation in this campaign is all the more 
significant when we recall that the name Tupper has stood 
for many years in Canada for staunch Conservatism and 
rugged honesty. 

The handwriting on the wall is becoming crowded. Does 
Sir Robert Borden still persist in closing his eyes to it? 

—SEARCHLIGHT. 



Electrical Contractors Losing Two Good Men 

The Ontario Electrical Contractors' .\ssoeiation are los- 
ing, through resignation, two of their most useful and en- 
ergetic officers — Mr. J. \V. Commeford, president, and Mr. 
R. D. Earle. secretary. Becoming effective, as they do, al- 
most simultaneously, it is impossible that this organization 
should not feel the loss somewhat keenly, but it is fortunate 
that tliere are on the executive aide men who are willing, 
under tlie circumstances, to step in and ,«ive their services 
that the trade my not suffer. We understand the offices 
have already been filled by Mr. G. D. Earle. who has con- 
sented to act as president, and Mr. M. Soules, of Oshawa, 
who takes the office of secretary-treasurer. Under the 
management of these new officers the members of the Asso- 
ciation may rest assured their interests will be carefully safe- 
guarded. 

Mr. Commeford. we understand, has been appointed to 
an important Government position which w-ould conflict with 
the duties he was performing for the .Association, and so has 
lieen reluctantly obliged to relinquish office at a time when 
everything was going along smoothly and vigorously. Mr. 
Earle leaves to serve his country in Lieut. -Col. Sharp's Bat- 
talion, the 116th, and is now stationed at Oshawa. If Mr. 
Earle is as good a soldier as he was a secretary, and we have 
no doubt on that point, the linih is to be congratulated that 
he threw in his lot with them. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 




ava COT?trdctor 



Legislation and the Electrical Contractor 

By Paul H. Jaehnig 
111 view of the great interest now being taken in the On- 
tario License Bill which it is proposed to introduce at the 
present session of the local House, the following paper will 
be of keen interest to the electrical contractors of the prov- 
ince. There does not seem to be any doubt, either in the 
minds of the contractors themselves or of the legislators who 
have made a study of this question, that a certain amount of 
legal protection is necessary, not only in the interests of the 
contractor, but equally in the interests of the general public. 
This matter is very nicely brought out in the following 
paper:— 

The need of legislation lor the electrical contractor ha.- 
been apparent for some time in the industry; a need to cor- 
rect well known abuses and weaknesses i;i the trade, to make 
untenable the position of the incompetent contractor, and 
make restrictions in the interests of public safety. 

Legislation as it affects the electrical contractor may be 
divided into two classes — (a) corrective, which is intended 
to over-come abuses and weaknesses which are apparent, 
and (b) protective, which makes impossible the incom 
pctent and ignorant contractor, assures protection to the 
public of life and property, and establishes the resixmsibil- 
ity of the electrical contractor for his work. 

One of the abuses most frequently met with is tlie mat- 
ter of sub-contracts. You, as an electrical contractor, know 
from your own experiences how you arc apparently taken 
into confidence by the general contractor and led to believe 
you are the favored son; that if you can reduce your bid 
just a little you are "it," and you delude yourself with the 
prospects of a fat sub-contract, only to wake up and find 
that you had been played against by your competitors or 
fellow contractors, and the other fellow, who was a more 
reckless gambler than you, got the contract. This pro- 
cedure, which is common throughout our country, simply 
diverts the profits on the job from the electrical contractor, 
to whom they rightfully belong, to the general contractor, 
who did not earn them. This explains why you never hear 
of an electrical contractor retiring from business after he 
has accumulated a competence, as that time never conies; 
but yoi: probably all know of several general contractors 
who are now enjoying their hearts desire. 

This abuse can be, and has been, partly corrected l>y 
proper legislation, which provides for the segretion of the 
electrical work from the general building contract, and 
which must be let as separate contract. Such laws applying 
to public work are now in force in three or four States and 
are working to the decided advantage of the electrical con- 
tractor. If these laws could be applied to private work as 
well there would be some hope of the electrical contractor 
attaining the status of the general contractor. Speaking 
seriously, this same condition may be brought about on pri- 
vate work if the electrical contractor will co-oporato In ihal 
end. 



' Before the Virginia Electrical Contractors' Association. 



The architects, 1 believe, would welcome sucli a plan. 
provided the electrical contractor could satisfy them of their 
competency and responsibility and thus gain their confidence. 

Legislation which provides protection to the public as 
well as the electrical contractor is highly desirable. Yon 
all realize that you are at a decided disadvantage in trying 
to compete with those in the industry, who, through lack of 
knowledge of the correct principles, lack of experience and 
a disregard of the safety of the work, secure the work 
largely because they do not know how to intelligently esti- 
mate the cost. His sole aim is, therefore, the immediate 
profit, and all principles are sacrificed to this end. This 
condition works to the decided disadvantage of the respon- 
sible contractor, as it tends to discredit the electrical con- 
tracting business and also keeps him from securing work to 
which he is justly entitled by virtue of his knowledge, experi- 
ence and desire to elevate the business in general. 

The responsibility of the electrical contractor for all of 
h.is work should be definitely established. It should be 
practicable to identify the responsible party as well as to 
specify how and by whom electric work should be done. 
There should also be a suitable penalty or" fine for failure to 
comply with these requirements. 

Adequate License Laws 

Such conditions can only be met and corrected by ade- 
quate license laws which at the same time will afford the 
greatest measure of protection to the public. Such laws, if 
carefully drawn, enacted and wisely administered, will not 
only dignify the business, but greatly improve the status of 
the electrical contractor. 

In considering the desirable provisions of a license law, 
it is well to take advantage of the experience of the states 
and cities having legislation in force. It is essential to 
know the experience of others to profit thereby. With 
these experiences at your command, together with copies of 
existing laws and ordinances, it is not such a difficult task to 
secure the much needed legislation in all communities. 

While your association can render this service in con- 
nection with legislation in your locality, do not think for 
one moment that all you have to do is frame and present the 
bill and the thing is done. Legislatures and councils are 
unknown quantities, which must be taken into consideration. 
Earnest, whole-hearted effort on the part of every individual 
interested, together with hard, persisterit work, are abso- 
lutely necessary to bring the matter to a successful conclu- 
sion. 

The results will more than justify the cost. If your 
first eflFort is not rewarded by satisfactory results, do not 
give up; keep on trying; it is worth while. Laws are use- 
less unless rig-idly enforced. In order to obtain the full 
benefits of the law it is essential that a rigid enforcement 
be insisted upon. This requires not only officials with 
power to enforce the laws, but also the co-operation of the 
responsible contractors. You owe it to yourself and your 
business to see that laws affecting your business arc strictly 



March I.". 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



unforci-d. so that you arc all on iIk- same fciciing and no oiut 
has an advantage over the other fellow. 

In considering legislation it would seem thai the best 
protection for both the public and tlie contractor requires 
an examination of the applicant before a properly constituted 
examining board as to knowledge, experience and ability to 
undertake the installation of electrical work in accordance 
with modern standards of safety. Tbe law should also es- 
tablish responsibility for installations, making it a misde- 
meanor to do irresponsible work. The law should penalize 
by fine or imprisonment, or both; it should revoke a license 
lor cause. 

Laws should be framed carefully in order to secure mu- 
tual benefits and protection. The benefits of a good license 
law accrue not only to the public, but to the contractor, the 
workman, the suiiply dealer and. in fact, to all interested in 
the industry. 

If the old saying, "The workman is worthy of his hire," 
is true, so is equally true the new saying, "The electrical con- 
tractor is worthy of a fair profit on his work." 

When you stop to consider the status of the electrical 
contractor as compared with the workman it seems, in many 
cases, the workman has the advantage. He has but one 
commodity o sell, namely, labor, with no capital invested, 
and no risk involved, yet his returns are sure. 

The electrical contractor, on the other hand, is required 
to invest more or less capital, buy and sell quantities of 
material, assume a risk on every contract he undertakes, as- 
sume responsibility for all the work he does, and, in general, 
takes chances on his work being completed somewhere near 
his estimate. 

For all of this his returns are, at best, problematical. If 
things go smoothly he may have a small profit to show for 
all his efforts and responsibility; if they go otherwise, he has 
the do\ibtfu! pleasure of computing the losses in his busi- 
ness. 

It is time the electrical contractor came into his own, as 
he certainly is entitled to a profit commensurate with the 
capital invested and the risk involved. 



Best Business Getting Methods 

The National Electrical Contractor recently offered three 
prizes, 1st, 2nd and ;'>rd, for the best business getting ideas 
sent in that could be published. These suggestions had to 
be of a practical nature so that contractors or dealers could 
apply the methods advocated to their businesses and make 
money. The following contribution was awarded first prize. 
It lias reference to the policy followed by an electric supply 
company in connection with Electrical Prosperity Week: 

Electrical Prosperity Week Cash Dividends 

It Could not help l)Ut succeed, but none of us anticipated 
such gratifying results as obtained from our campaign during 
Electrical Prosperity Week. 

It was all \ery well to take advantage of the many good 
suggestions and material furnished by the Society for Elec- 
trical Development, and we enclosed fliers in each envelope, 
used stickers galore, posters in our windows and throughout 
the store and banners on the machines, but what we wanted 
was to identify our store in the prospective customer's mind. 

Our newspaper advertisements stated that we would give 
three cash prizes of .$3.'>.00, $10.00 and .$5.00 for the three best 
essays on the comforts, conveniences and economy of using 
electrical appliances in the home. Suggestive cuts of useful 
devices were arranged to run with the copy. Of course we 
had an attractive window display, all articles being plainly 
priced. The great number of replies, not only from the 
city, but throughout the State, was conclusive proof of the 
interest shown and the appreciation, particularly of the 
women writers on the good points and advantages of Domes- 
tic Electricity, was a revelation. 



We wrote each contestant, giving the names and ad- 
dresses of the winners. Enclosed in each letter went a small 
bulletin with cuts and prices of standard electrical house- 
hold appliances. We are still receiving results in the way of 
sales. 

Our motor department advertised a free inspection of 
motors during Electrical Prosperity Week to any concern 
who would just call us up. In a great number of cases we 
were able to make valuable suggestions, and unquestionably 
this feature was a factor in securing new and promising cus- 
tomers. 

We are still cashing in and receiving dividend results 
from our prosperity week. 



Cheap Wiring 

Editor Electrical Xews: 

Your article "Cheap Wiring Becomes an Obstacle to 
Euture Development" in the last i.ssue of the Electrical Xews 
IS timely. Surely the electrical business has been exploited 
enough along bargain-counter, cut-rate lines! With all the 
cheap current, cheap lamps, cheap fixtures, cheap irons, toast- 
ers, etc., ad lib., what chance is there that the public will 
ever learn to take quality into consideration? 

There is, no doubt, a lot to be laid at the door of the 
cheap contractor, but low-priced campaigns play into the 
hands of the cheap manufacturer and. jobber just as well as 
the cheap contractor. They are not in the true interests 
of the public, nor, in the last analysis, in the interests of any 
one— central station, manufacturer, jobber, or contractor. 
Should not the public be given a chance to educate them- 
selves up to an appreciation of the essentials which are vital 
to the elimination of lire and shock hazard— that is. insula- 
tion, copper, and workmanship? 

If the Electrical Development Society want a big job, is 
not that a big enough one, and which would in the end 
benefit everybody — except perhaps the cheap "guy"? 

It is a pity, too, that our "Hydro" seems to lend itself 
to the low-price campaign policy — which, by the way, is not 
carried into its inspection department. This brings up the 
point covered in your January l.j number in the article en- 
titled "Divorce the Inspection Department," where you 
point out the iniquitous policy of having the Inspection Bur- 
eau subsidiary to the Commission. The fact of this tend- 
ency of the Hydro to ignore the education of the public 
along the lines of quality — the lines essential to public safety 
— is another strong argument in favor of there being an in- 
dependent inspection bureau. Added to this there is the 
political, and other, discrimination, which in itself, one would 
think, would be sufficiently convincing. 

Yours very truly. 
II Sorauren Ave., Thomas Jackson. 

Toronto. March !). 1916. 



Mr. R. H. Mainer Answers Call of Duty 

K. H. Mainer, well known throughout the Canadian elec- 
trical fraternity, and past vice-president and general manager 
of the Mainer Electric Company, Limited, Winnipeg, Man., 
has resigned his position with that company, the resignation 
taking effect on March 1. Mr. Mainer feels it his duty at 
the present time to go into active service and has attached 
himself to one of the regiments being formed in the city of 
Winnipeg. Anyone who knows the very large amount of 
business this company has been handling and the prominent 
position it has achieved in the electrical trade will appreci- 
ate the sacrifice Mr. Mainer is making. We trust his re- 
entry into the Canadian electrical business will not be long 
delayed. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



March m. I'JU; 



What is New in Electrical Equipment 



Renold Silent Driving Chains 

A particularly interesting arrangement in the driving 
of Roots blowers from electric motors in a large C anadian 
plant has just come to our attention. There are four of these 
blowers, which require from 150 h.p. to 300 h.p. to operate 
them. By adopting the Renold Silent Chain Drive, instead 
of the leather belts previously used, it has been possible to 
place the motor.s quite close to the driving shafts. It is 
stated that due to the great saving of space thus obtained the 
management were able to arrange the four units in less space 
than was originally occupied by \he tlircc which were belt 
driven. It will lu- miUd fnun the ilhistraliuns lu-rtwith luiu 




.\ I'll! h p. Renold Chain Drive on double-ended Blower. 

smoothly the chain runs in each case. This is partly due to 
the characteristics of the chain and also to the special spring 
boss used on the driving wheel, which absorbs all the fluctu- 
ations of the load before they reach the motor. The result 
is that the motor is relieved of practically all the shock 
inseparable from the driving of large blowers by spur gears, 
etc. At the same time, the wear on the bearings of both 
shafts is reduced to a minimum, due to the fact that no in- 
itial tension is required in the chain, owing to the very posi- 
tive nature of the drive. 

These Renold drives, on the continuous opeiation of 
which the whole plant is dependent linvr locn running, we 



are advised, for over two years, day and night, r.nd are .giv- 
ing every satisfaction. 

The motors are of the squirrel-cage induction type vvitli 
full load speeds of .570, 490 and 430 r.p.m., according to their 
horse power. The 200 h.p. and 300 h.p. motors are furnished 
with outboard bearings, while the 1.50 h.p. motors are equip- 
ped with merely the two bearings for the reason mentioned 
above. We are indebted to Messrs. Jones & Glassco, Mont- 
real, for the illustrations shown. 



The Lobee Pump 

A compact centrifugal pumping outfit shown in the ac- 
companying illustration is manufactured by the Lobee Pump 
■."v Machinery Cotnpany, of Buffalo, N. Y. This is a small 
iron centrifugal pump fitted with bronze runners to resist 
the chemical action of the water. It has a IJ/^-incli suction 
inlet, a 1-inch dischar;jc outlet, and a capacity of 25 gallons 




jier minute against a head of 35 feet. When pumping against 
this head a Westinghouse 1 h.p. motor is used. The pump 
is designed for heads up to 90 feet, but of course, in such 
cases, requires correspondingly larger motors. The pump is 
designed for use on buildings where the pressure is low or 
for the circulation of brine in coolers, and for other purposes 
of a similar nature. 



A portion of the hydro-electric development of the 
Lanrentide Power Company, Limited, Grand'Mere, P. Q., is 
now in operation, current being delivered to the Shawinigan 
Water and Power Company over a new transmission line 
from Grand'Mere to Shawinigan Falls. 




300-h.p. Renold Chain driving a No. 9'j Roots Blower 



200 h.p. Renold Chain Drive itop half of gearcase remove Jl. 



Maroli 1.-., liUr. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



:« 



Choke Coils and Disconnecting Switches 

The choke coils, disconnecting switches and fittings illus- 
trated herewith are typical of the new and more complete 
line of such apparatus recently brought out by the Electric 
Service Supplies Company, and shown in a new edition of 
their catalog on Garton-Daniels Lightning Arresters. The 
fittings which accompany this line arc all of new design and 



Choke coil- 
Regular 
mounting. 



notcworth}-. Garlnn-Daniels choke coils and disconnecting 
switches are made for Ijoth regular and underhung mount- 
ing for voltages up to 3.5,000 and for all standard ampere 
capacities. They are made with a base of channel iron, 
either 3 or 4 inch, depending on siEe of coil or switch. Iron 
pins are riveted into this channel, and insulators cemented 
to these pins support iron caps, which in turn support tlie 
terminal blocks, terminals and coil or switch proper. All 




t&fer^ 





<Jfe 



Disconnecting "— r 
switch— Under- / 

hung. 



m 



channel bases are drilled with 9/1 ti inch holes in each end 
and may be so mounted on any flat supporting member by 
bolts or lags. It is claimed that these coils and switches 
are very rugged in construction and possess great electrical 
and mechanical strength. The switches are designed for 
disconnecting and controlling high voltage lines, branch 
feeders, etc., as well as for lightning arrester disconnecting 




switches to disconnect arresters from the line for the pur- 
pose of inspection, repair, etc. The manufacturers claim 
that these choke coils and disconnecting switches as well as 
the fittings are so designed that, when used in conjunction 
with Garton-Daniels lightning arresters maximum protection 
may be expected. The line of fittings referred to consist 
of malleable iron pipe clamps for mounting switches or 
coils on cither parallel nr transverse piping; disconnecting 




switch locks for use particularly ..n underhung types as as- 
surance against any tendency lor the blade to be blown open: 
disconnecting switch stops which when installed prevent the 
blade being opened beyond a given angle; switch blade oper- 
ating attachment which provides an extra large hole in the 



switch blade to facilitate the (|uick opening of the switch 
in an emergency, and disconnecting switch hooks of lengths 
from 4 to 12 feet to operate the switches. 



Pyrene for Electric Fires 

The Ontario May-Oatway Fire Alarms, Limited, 92 .Ade- 
laide Street West, Toronto, are asking special attention of 
electrical men to their Pyrene fire extinguisher, which, it is 
claimed, is particularly adapted for extinguishing electric arcs 
or any form of fire associated with electric machinery. The 
extinguisher consists of a liquid which evaporates to a heavy 
gas at a temperature of 200 degs. Fahrenheit. It is a fair 




electric insulator itself and does not cause any deterioration 
in the insulating properties of electric dynamos or motors. 
The device in which Pyrene is used is a double-acting pump 
of one quart -capacity, and weighs complete only 6 lbs. In 
size it is 3 ins. in diameter and 14 ins. long. For the liquid 
it is claimed that it will not deteriorate with age, that it 
will not freeze above CO degs. F. below zero, and that it con- 
tains nothing that will stain or injure any fabric. Particular 
attention is drawn to the convenient size and light weight, 
one quart of this extinguishing material being contained in 
a vessel which will fit easily into a man's coat pocket. 



New Water and Weather Proof Batteries 

The princilial objections t.;i dry baltencs .iic the ditti- 
culties encountered incident to atmospheric and temperature 
influences upon them. To overcome such difficulties the 
Canadian Carbon Company has succeeded in insulating the 
active part of the battery, namely, the zinc electrode, in such 
manner as to minimize the retarding effect upon the elec- 
trolyte, due to low temperature, and to restrain the violent 
chemical action caused by extremely high temperature. It 
is well known that dry batteries decrease in efficiency 
through age and it is mostly due to the excitation caused 




Perspective view of cell. 

by the transference of energy between the negative and posi- 
tive poles, this being principally due to superflous moisture 
in the atmosphere effecting the zinc container. 

The Canadian Carbon Company have provided a novel 
formation of the cell and arranged for a covering thereon, 
whereby the cell is insulated against the effect of changes 
in atmospheric conditions. It will be noted on the illustra- 
tion showing a sectional perspective view of the cell, that the 
zinc cup is formed with an outwardly flaring upper edge. 
This flaring edge engages the upper edge of the outside con- 



34 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Marcli 15, I'Jlii 



tainer and as the inner member is spaced centrally within 
the outer container, a surrounding dead air space is provided 
for. The cell itself is being coated with a special adhesive 
varnish which is impervious to moisture, thus forming an 
insulating coating. A jacket formed of a sheet of asbestos 
or some similar heat insulating material is placed around the 
zinc container, while the varnish coat is still sticky, thu.s 
providing a protecting covering which is a poor conductor 
of heat, consequently the cell retains a compaidtively uni- 
form temperature, outside changes of temperature effecting 
it but slowly. The electrolytic paste and the depolarizing 
compound inside of the cell are also protected to a very 
great extent against atmospheric changes. 

The outer carton is made up with a water resisting ma- 
terial or is lined with paraffin or coated inside with sonu- 
other waterproof material. When the cell is now placed 
within the external cover tlie top is sealed so that the seal- 
ingwax extends over the top of the flanged zinc container, 
effectively closing the air space surrounding the cell and con- 
sequently forming an insulating jacket very effective against 




changes in temperature. The seal extending beyond the 
top edge of the inner container effectively secures the outer 
carton to the cell and this forms a unit from which the 
outer carton cannot lie removed and replaced in a fraudul- 
ent manner. 



Estate Stove Company 



The illustration herewith represents a type of range now 
being placed on the market by the Estate Stove Company, 
of Hamilton, Ohio. The conservation-of-heat principle, 
which has been so successfully applied in the manufacture 
of fireless cookers, is the foundation of the efficiency of the 
liake-oven of the Estate electric range. The walls of the 
oven are two inches thick and so thoroughly insulated that 
radiation of heat is reduced to a minimum. Tlie oven door 
is just as heavily insulated as the walls. It is claimed that 
the temperature inside the oven may be 500 degrees while 
the outside of the wall is not more than 50 degrees above the 
room temperature; this means that a kitchen may bje kept 
practically as cool as any other room in the house. To 
show the temperature of the oven a mercurial tliermometer 



is installed in the oven door. Heating plates are installed 
in the top and bottom of the oven, these plates being con- 
trolled by a single three-heat switch. The heating plates are 
of the enclosed, iron-clad type, which give complete pro- 
tection to the heating coils and afford a perfectly smooth 
surface for contact with the cooking vessels. .'Ml heating 




plates are supplied with three-heat switches. The illustration 
is only one of a large number of designs manufactured by 

this company. 



Holtzer-Cabot New Factory 

On February 22nd the Holtzt-r-Cabot Electric Company 
opened their new and handsome plant to the inspection of 
their customers and friends, when large numbers of inter- 
ested guests were conducted through the building. This 
structure is the most modern type of a reinforced concrete, 
flat slab, mushroom column building. 300 feet long with a 
depth of 60 feet, and containing one ell iio x r.O feet. New 




ells may be added as the growth of the business demands 
or new floors may be added on the top. The floor area of 
the factory comprises 148,000 square feet, representing six 
storeys. The land area is over four acres. The company have 
moved most of their effects into the new plant, but the old 
plant in Brookline is still retained for the manufacture of 
certain products. 



March 15, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Current News and Notes 



Brantford, Ont. 

A very favorabk' report was presented by the Coinniis- 
sioners of the I'.rantford Municipal Railway System at their 
recent annual meeting. A small deliicit was the result of the 
year's operations but the Commissioners stated that the sur- 
plus of profits for January were sufficient to wipe out the 
clelicit of the iireviiius year. 'Iliey are also conridcut thai 
the (lay of dellcits has passed. 

Campbellford, Ont. 

Tlie local imniicipal plaiU which has been supplying a 
certain amount of power to the Seymour Power Company in- 
terests in Campbellford will continue to do so for another 
ten years, according- to a recent contract renewal between 
the company and the nninicipality. 

Fmerson, Man. 

The town council, I'^merson, Man., are consideriuy ihe 
iiLstallatfon of an electric lighting plant. 

Fort William. 

Tlie January gross earnings of the Kaministiquia Tower 
Company were .$30,745, as compared with $27,656 a year ago. 
The first three months' gross of the company's fiscal year is 
$!)9,C58, as compared with $84,974 in 1915. 

Halifax, N. S. 

The Bay of h'undy Tide Power Company, Limited, has 
been incorporated with a capital stock of $50,000 and head 
office Wolfville, N. S. 

Kenton, Man. 

Best & Kerr, electricians, Kenton, Man., have registered. 

London, Ont. 

The London Public Utilities Commission will confer with 
the ('ommissioncr of Industries and General Manager P>uch- 
anan on the advisability of installing a municii)al telepliiMu- 
system under the management of the local hydro electric 
commission. 

The Utility Electric Mnufactnring Company. Limited, 
has been incorporated: capital $4().0()l): head oflice London, 
Ontario. 

Montreal, Que. 

The contract beUveen the Quebec Railway, Light and 
Power Company and the town of Levis for the street liglil- 
ing has been renewed for a period of ten years. The con 
tract is for 370 lamps of 60 candle power. The comi)any 
will also supply current for lighting for the residents at a 
rale of 7 cents per kilowatt hour, for bills of not less than 
75 cents per month. 

The "Wednesday Electrical Luncheon" at Cooper's Res- 
taurant, Montreal, has proved a .great success, the attend- 
ance being on one occasion as high as ninety, although the 
average is less than this. Tlie proceedings are of an infor- 
mal character, the luncheons fullilling the principal object oi 
making men in all branches of the electrical industry bellei 
acquainted. 

On Thurs(Uiy. January 13lh, the Electrical Section of Ihe 
Board held a luncheon meeting in the .\ssembly Room. .\ 
full attendance of the entire mcmbcrsliip of the section lis- 
tened to a very interesting talk by Mr. Burnett, of the Sun- 
beam Lamp Company, on the subject of "The Making of 
Electrical Lamps," his remarks being illustrated by an ex- 



hibit showing lamps in the various stages of manufacture 
Mr. C. H. Wilson, Chairman of the Section, presided. 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Hydro Kadial interests from various points in .viutii- 
western Ontario opposed the application of Mackenzie a- 
Mann interests when they appeared in t)ttawa recently f..'- 
an extension of their radial franchises in the Niagara Penin- 
sula. 

Portneuf, Que. 

Ihe Portneuf Hydro Electric Company, I'orlneuf, One., 
are calling tenders for an electric plant, the ultimate cap.a' 
eily of which is to he 3,000 h.p. 
Peterboro, Ont. 

The L'tilities Commission of the city of Peterboro is an 
Ihorizcd to negotiate with the Otonabee Power Company for 
the purchase of their transmission lines in that city where 
they do not parallel the Hydro system. 

Regina, Sask. 

New provincial regulations respecting the construction 
and maintenance of electric plants have been printed and are 
being distributed throughout the provice of Saskatchewan. 
Sarnia, Ont. 

Ihe city council are considering the installation of an i'.\- 
lensive street illumination system. The Ontario Hydro 
Commission's engineers recommend the use of si.x limulicd 
100 watt lights and seventy ornamental standards attached 
to the railway poles, carrying one 1,000 c.p. unit each. The 
estimated cost of operation is placed at $45 per lanij) for tlie 
larger unit and $15 for the smaller one per annum. 
St. Johns, Nfld. 

An electrically operated copper smelter has just been 
placed in operation in St. Johns, and will operate under llie 
name of the Hydro-Electric Smelting Company, in whieli 
Mr. W. A. Mackay is largely interested. 
Vancouver, B. C. 

Smith's Electrical Company, Limited, has been incorpor- 
aled "to carry on business, either wholesale or retail, for all 
sorts of electrical fixtures, supplies and apparatus, and other 
furnishings of an electrical nature; to carry on the business 
of electrical engineers or contractors, etc." Capital $10,000; 
head office Vancouver, P.. C. 
Winnipeg, Man. 

The annual report of the Winnipeg Electric Railway 
Company for the year 1915 shows earnings of $1,331,737, com- 
l>ared with $1,769,114 in 1914, the decrease in earnings being 
attributed to general depression and the active competition 
of the jitney. The directors state, however, that they anti- 
cipate increased earnings in the coming year as l^ecember 
and Jaiuiary compared favorably with a similar period in am 
previous year. 

'J'he British North .\niericaii Hydro-electric Power Com- 
pany of Manitoba will ask for incorporation as a $5,000,000 
organization at the present session of the Manitoba Legisl.i- 
iiire. It is understood the plans of the company include Ihe 
construction of a transmission line from Winnipeg to Bran- 
<|on and possibly farther west, with branch lines north and 
south to supply such points as Minnedosa. Dauphin, Deloraine, 
Killarney, and so on. The company propose to purchase 
power from the municipal system operaled by the city of 
Winnipeg. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



March 15, 1916 




The Duncan Electrical Co., Limited 

86 Grey Nun Street, MONTREAL 

Minufacturers of 

Brass and Porcelain Sockets, CutOuts, 
Receptacles, Rosettes, Attachment Plugs, 
Tumbler Switches, etc. 



TELKPHONES 




Desk Sets 

Wall Sets 

Annunciators 

Bells 

Gong's 

Fire Alarm Stations 

Magneto Time Clocks 

Apartment House, 
Hotel, Office and Resi- 
dence Equipment. 

Electric Clocks 

Master Clocks 

Secondary Clocks 

Programme Clocks 

A complete line to choose 
from. Ask for Catalogues 

CANADA SALES 
COMPANY 

165 Church St., TORONTO 



W 




AR Munition Factories, 

Garages, etc., have constant use for 

-^^ SIMPLEX 

<^ Electric 

^1^ Soldering Irons 

EXCI.OSED HE.\TIXG ELEMENT makes tlu-m invaUnlile 
where tl;eie is danger from inflammable material. 
Connect to any Lamp Socket and are Porleble. 

llanJy and economical for light or intermittent work of Repair 
SInips, C.Iaziers, for telephone workers jointing wires in out of the 
way I'laces, etc. 

Oilier Factory devices for which there is active dinian.l incli;de 
Pitch Kettles. Glue anil Sealing-Wax I'ols. 

Simplex Electric Heating Co. 

Manufacturers of Everything for Electric Heating and Cooking. 
Chicago Cambridge, Mass. San Francisco 



Personals 

Mr. R. D. Earle, .sicrctary since it.s organization ot llu- 
(Jntario Electrical foiitractor.s' .\ssociation, has resigned that 
position to attach liimself t<> the lliith hattalion. at present 
located in Oshawa. 

Mr. J. D. McArthur, the wcll-hiiowii railway contractor, 
has been appointed to the Bt.ard of the Winnipeg Electric 
l.'ailway Company. Mr. Mc.\rthur lakes the place of the 
l;t, .'^ir William Whyte. 

Mr. J. W. Commeford, who has .so acceplahly hlled the 
(iflice of president of the Ontario Electrical Contractors' As- 
sociation since its organization, has resigned to accept an im- 
l)ortant government position. 

Mr. P. D. Ross has heen appointed by the provincial 
Hydro-electric commission as their representative on the 
Ottawa Hydro-electric commission. The other two mem- 
bers are Mr. J. A. Ellis, ex-M. P. P., and the Mayor of 
Ottawa. 

Mr. A. P. Ross, district chief of the \\'indsor section of 
the l>ell Telephone Company, headquarters at Chathatn. has 
resigned to take an officer's training course in London. On- 
tario. Mr. Ross 'was presented with a handsome wrist- 
watch by tlie staff of the Chathatn local branch. 

Mr. Ernest Lane, who has been acting local manager for 
tlie West Kootenay Light and Power Company lor some 
time, has assumed a similar position at Trail, where the 
smelting and refining plant of the Consolidated Mining and 
.Smelting Company is situated. Mr. Lane was formerly 
chief electrician at the Granby smelter, Grand Forks. 

Mr. Thomas Henry, chief engineer of the Interurban 
IClectric Company, has resigned that position and associated 
himself with the sales departhient of the Toronto Electric 
Light Company. Mr. Henry was the guest of honor at a 
banquet given by the staff and employes of his old company 
at which he was presented with a gold watch and a flatter- 
ing address. 



Renfrew Electric & Mfg. Co. 

The Renfrew Electric and Manufacturing Company have 
recently engaged as their superintendent Mr. George W. 
Nock. M.E., E.E., of New York. Mr. Nock was formerly 
chief mechanical engineer for the Westinghouse Electric 
Company of Pittsburgh, Pa., and was for three years assist- 
ant superintendent of the General Electric Company at Pitts- 
field, Mass. Latterly his headquarters have been in New 
York, where he has carried on business as a consulting 
mechanical and electrical engineer. Mr. Nock has had a 
very wide experience and has travelled extensively over the 
North American Continent and Europe, doing electrical re- 
search work. The Renfrew Electric Company are to be con- 
gratulated on securing a man of Mr. Nock's experience and 
ability at a time like the present, when Canada is going 
ahead so rapidly in electrical manufacturing lines. 



Owing to a fire which completely destroyed their former 
premises at 19-21 Richmond Street West, Weiss and Biheller 
(Canada) Limited, have taken new offices at 115 Bay Street, 
Toronto. 



The Canadian sales of Pass & Seymour, Inc., will be 
conducted by Mr. Geo. L. Hatheway. from their Boston 
office, of which he is in charge. This office is located at 
l.")S Purchase Street, and all commimications will receive 

prompt attention from this address. 



Ain-i! 1. I'.Mi 



'I" H 1', I', T . F. C T R I C A L N K W S 




riiblishcd Scini-Monthly By 

HUGH C. MACLEAN, LIMITED 

HUGH C. MacLEAN, Winnipc- Prcsideiit. 

THOMAS S. YOUNG, General Manager. 

W. R. CARR, Ph.D., Editor. 
HEAD OFFICE - 347 Adelaide Street West. TORONTO 

Telephone A. 2700 
MONTREAL - Tel. Main 2299 - Room 119, Board of Trade 
WINNIPEG - Telephone Garry 856 - 303 Travellers' Bldg. 
\'ANCOUVER - Tel. Seymour 3013 - Winch Building 
NEW YORK - Tel. 3108 Beekman - 1120 Tribune Building 
CHICAGO - Tel. Harrison 5351 - 1413 Great Northern Bldg. 
LONDON, ENG. -------- i6 Regent Street S.W. 

ADVERTISEMENTS 
Orders for advertising should reach the office of publication not later 
than the 5th and 20th of the month. Changes in advertisements will he 
made whenever desired, without cost to the advertiser. 

SUBSCRIBERS 

The "F.icctrical News" will be mailed to subscribers in Canada and 
(neat Britain, post free, for .$2.00 per annum. United Slates and foreign, 
.$2.50. Remit by currency, registered letter, or postal order payable to 
Hugh C. MacT.ean, Limited. 

Subscribers are requested to promptly notify the publishers of failure 
or delay in delivery of paper. 

Authorized by the Postmaster General for Canada, for transmi>-si»jn 
as second class matter. 

Entered as second class matter Tuly 18th, 1914, at the Postoffice at 
I'.ufTalo, N.Y., under tlie Act of Congress of March 3, 1870. 



Vol. 25 



Toronto, April i, 1916 



No. 7 



Keep the Home Fires Burning 

The all-important work of the British Empire to-day is 
a vigorous, systematic, well-organized prosecution of our war. 
This ap|)lies equally to Canada, as the most important colony 
■ if the Empire. Yet Lord Shaughnessy says he is not satis- 
lied of the wisdom of raising a half-million men at the [ircsent 
time and by the present methods. 

Xow, people are apt to listen when Lord Shaughnessy 
talks. Some way or other we Canadians have got into the 
Iiabit of believing in this big man who does' things. So, 
when he makes a public statement (which isn't often) we 
have felt that it carries the weight of a treincndously wide 
and ripe experience backed by sound common sense. If 
there is any one outstanding figure in this Dominion to whom 
ihe weird "can't" is a stranger, it is surely Lord Shaii.yhnessy. 
He is Canada's big man — big through hard work, undoubted 
.iliility, unconquerable determination, unlimited conlidence in 
Canada and in Canada's resources. 

And now along comes Lord Shaughnessy 's stateimiil tliai 
lie is not satisfied of the wisdom of raising half a milliun men 
in Canada for military service under the present system. Tin- 
press is saying, and some of our politicians — mere opportun- 
ists by comparison — that Lord Shaughnessy is all wrong. 

Are two soldiers poorly equipped and badly trained of 
more value on the fighting line than one properly equipped 
and sufficiently trained? If so. Lord Shaughnessy is wrong. 
Arc two soldiers without munitions better than one with 
plenty? If so. Lord Shaughnessy is wrong. Is a half-million 
soldiers, weakly supported by a country of crippled indus- 



tries, better than hall that number vigorously backed by the 
money and the ample products of a country whose industries 
are healthy, vigorous and thoroughly organized? If so, then 
Lord Shaughnessy is wrong. 

But, we believe Lord Shaughnessy is right. Is it not 
possible, indeed is it not apparent, that undue pressure is 
lieing brought to bear to take our valuable men from their 
regular avocations before they are actually needed? We 
have many men ready for overseas who have not been called. 
Why not, at least, divide their time, meanwhile, between in- 
dustrial and military work? We have actually reached the 
Iioint where our wheels of commerce are beginning to slow 
up for lack of man-power — much of which, apparently, is go- 
ing to waste right around us every day. On all hands we 
hear the industrial cry for more men. "We can't get suffi- 
cient men to fill our orders," they are all saying. And if 
this is true to-day, what will it be like in another six months 
or a year, if recruiting goes on under the present haphazard 
auspices? The answer is all too plain. Our factories will 
be crippled, our farms will be depleted, our industries of every 
kind — the backbone of our strength, wdiether in peace or war 
— will be driven to the wall. 

We shall have a big, unwieldy fighting machine without 
any "punch." 

We believe Lord Shaughnessy is right, and we believe 
just as strongly that present recruiting methods are wrong. 
It is a systeiTi that no man defends, a system that no one ap- 
proves. It evidently exists simply because it existed, and 
because our Government is so conservative, so unbusinesslike, 
so evidently unwilling (whether incapable or not, we cannot 
say) of taking a man's grasp of a man's job. Under the pre- 
sent system of recruiting, the men who answer the call of 
duty are of course the men who recognize their duty. They 
are thus the men who count for most at home — the men who 
can least be spared — the men whose removal causes the 
biggest rift in our industrial life. 



And our Government sits quietly by. Young men with 
no ties and no responsibilities, and in many cases occupying 
positions from which they could readily be spared, stand 
back and allow the ranks to be filled by our artisans, our 
captains of industry and our professional men. It is this 
the Governinent is defending. It is this also Lord Shaugh- 
nessy, no doubt, has in mind when he criticizes. 

Of course we are going to win this war— why shouldn't 
we? We are immensely richer both in men and money. But 
are our enemies going to force us to use all our men and all 
our money just because we arc badly organized? It begins 
to look that way. Will it then be a victory in which we can 
lake pride in after years — a victory of mere weight of men 
and superior wealth? Will it even be a victory which we can 
follow up to advantage? Are we going to allow Germany to 
issue from this war, as she entered it, the best-organized na- 
tion in the world? Will we be ready to meet her competi- 
tion? Or are we actually going to be too weak from lack of 
present organization to count in the commercial war that is 
only just beginning, and which will be fiercer and more pro- 
longed by many times ihan tlio present war of men? 



What Canada cries out for to-day is organization — for 
war, i)rcsenl and future. What business man goes on year 
after year, for example, without taking an inventory? Yet 
our Government takes no inventory, knows nothing about the 
stock ill Ii.iiul. Is Ibis Iiusiness? What Canada needs most 
urgentl.N al tlie moment is nn inventory of her inan resources 
— the capacity, the responsibilities, the experience, the fitness 
for this or that work, the tics — of every one of her citizens. 
Next we need an organization that can say to each man, 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 1. lUlH 



"Your place is— there." What Canada needs is, if you like, 
moral conscription, which does not curtail the liberties of the 
citizen in any way, but simply points out in an authoritative 
way the path of duty. No one would oppose it; few would 
fail to answer such a call. It would mean the highest con- 
servation of all our resources. It would mean preparedness, 
not only for this year and next, but for the years which fol- 
low. It would mean winning this war without the feeling 
that Germany, even though crushed, will laugi. up her sleeve 
at the tremendous sacrifices she has forced us to make and 
at the exhausted condition she has left us in. 

Lord Shaughnessy is right when he warns us against im- 
pairing our industrial strength.' It is a vitally important 
question — scarcely less important than the war itself, because 
the two are so closely inter-related. Whatever the outcome 
of this struggle may be, if we come out of it badly organized, 
industrially weak, bereft of our most useful men, overcrowded 
with slackers and incapables, even when we reach Berlin — 
we've lost. 



High Priced Gasoline the Electric's Opportunity 

Little by little the electric range has been overcoming 
the lead of its strongest competitor, the gas stove, until it 
now stands, in many localities, in undisputed possession of 
the cooking field as regards both efficiency and cost of opera- 
tion. And now, just appearing over the horizon, comes the 
electric automobile. Like the electric range, the two big 
obstacles have been the initial cost and the popular fallacy 
that electricity is too slow. The cost of ranges has gradu- 
ally been reduced, and their speed has been improved, until 
they now compare favorably with their best competitors. 
Cost of operation is no longer a bugbear — it has become an 
asset. So with the gas car— a little more slowly, but just 
as surely, the electric is taking its place. It is being cheap- 
ened in first cost; it is improving its speed; for some time 
it has cost less to operate and maintain. 

Generally speaking, the trend of prices of the things that 
enter into our daily needs has been upwards, without any 
cessation, during the past few years. The one big out- 
standing exception is the cost of electric current. At many 
points in Canada rates are anywhere from 10 to 20 per cent, 
of what they were ten years ago. It is not infrequent that 
a rate of less than one cent is obtainable by the householder. 
Still lower rates are available for power, especially at oflE- 
peak load. The small cost of electricity has become almost 
as wonderful as electricity itself. 

The electric automobile has had an uphill fight with its 
gas competitor. Sentiment has been a considerable factor 
in this competition. The gas car is faster, and has a wider 
range of operations. The popular idea with regard to high 
speed is, we believe, entirely wrong, but it is, nevertheless, 
difficult to overcome. A few years, no doubt, will teach the 
average motorist the folly of maintaining a 60 h.p. motor for 
a fifteen to twenty mile rate of speed when a half or third 
as much power will do the work. The average gas car 
actually travels no faster than an electric around the city 
streets. We believe it is inevitable that when the thirst for 
high speed which seems to have taken possession of the 
modern motorist has been satisfied he will come to recognize 
that the electric car is fast enough for all reasonable and 
sane purposes. 

And now comes a real boost for the electric in the rap- 
idly-increasing price of gasoline. The lower cost of operat- 
ing the electric car has always been a talking point, and now 
it is more than that — it's an unanswerable argument. The 
difference should now be sufficient to convince, where form- 
erly it served only to interest. For example, we are just in 
receipt of figures covering the operation of a five-ton com- 
mercial gasoline truck which, operating under usual condi- 
tions made three and a half miles on a gallon of gasoline. 



Assuming 15 cents for gas, this would represent a cost of 
about 4 cents per mile, and if the truck operated thirty-five 
miles a day gasoline would figure out $1.40. Compared with 
this, figures for the operation of a five-ton truck by electri- 
city show the cost of operation four and one-tenth cents per 
mile, or $1.43 for the thirty-five miles. These figures are 
pretty close, though the advantage is with the electric on 
account of lower maintenance. But suppose we figure 
gasoline at 40 cents — then the cost per mile of operating the 
gas truck becomes 11 cents, and the total cost .$3.8.5. Thus 
the use of the electric represents a saving per day of $2.42, 
which in 300 days amounts to $726. 

It would certainly appear that the present moment is op- 
portune for central station men to look very carefully into 
this question of electric vehicle load. The charging of elec- 
tric vehicle batteries can be attended to entirely at oflf-peak 
hours. This means that in a hydro-electric plant the re- 
venue obtainable from the vehicle load is pure velvet; and 
even with a steam plant it is almost entirely so. We re- 
produce a very interesting curve on another page in this 
issue showing the value of the electric vehicle load in filling 
up the valleys of the central station curve. This curve re- 
presents the load in a city of 100,000 where a hundred com- 
mercial electric vehicles have been installed. It is worthy 
the attention of every supply station in the Dominion. 



Ontario Hydro to Have Government Audit 

For the first time since the Ilydro-Elcctric Power 
Commission of Ontario have been in existence, a Govern- 
ment audit of the operations of the Commission has been 
made. This is contained in a report recently issued by 
Mr. James Clancy, provincial auditor, in which he criticizes 
in somewhat severe terms the attitude of the Commission 
in assuming authority not conferred upon them by the 
Hydro Electric Act. The Audit shows that while the 
province has authorized to the end of 1915 an expenditure 
of $13,169,000, the Commission have actually expended 
$17,359,000, or an excess over the amount authorized by 
the province of slightly over four million dollars. 

It is not suggested that this money has been misused 
in any way, but Hon. T. W. McGarry has introduced a 
Bill enlarging the powers of the Commission. At the 
same time Mr. McGarry took occasion to explain that the 
extra monies had been used chiefly to finance smaller 
municipalities, which were under obligation to repay these 
sums over a fixed term of years. The Commission had 
tliought well to adopt this policy of advancing money to 
municipalities. The present amendment to the Act would 
merely legalize this course in future. 

From the brief discussion in the House over this mat- ■ 
ter it would appear that the Hydro-Electric Commission 
have left themselves open to a charge of arbitrary dealing 
in this case. Mr. McGarry practically admitted that 
the Government auditor had been unable to obtain the ne- 
cessary information from the Commission's auditing de- 
partment to make a complete audit of accounts until the 
present year, when the Government had insisted that these 
figures be placed at their disposal. 



Electrical Precipitations 

A paper, illustrated witli lantern slides, on the "Electrical 
Precipitation of Solids from Gases" was read by Mr. Linn 
Bradley, of the Research Corporation, New York, before the 
electrical section of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, 
held in the Engineering Building. McGill University, Mon- 
treal, on March 16. Mr. Bradley gave a history of the ex- 
periments made on this subject, which commenced in 1837 
in England. He remarked upon the importance of the 
losses by gases, which in later years, owing to commercial 



April I, r.llll 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



ilfvcliipiiu-nls. had slimulalcd rescarclirs. ami liad rvsultod in 
new nuliiods of cleaning. The manulacture of hiyh tension 
equipment had been a very important factor in electrical 
precipitation, which was obtained in its simplest form by two 
sets of electrodes, one for discharging and the other for col- 
lecting. In high tension work one problem was to eliminate 
corona, while in electrical precipitations a problem was to 
produce corona, negative corona being more effective than 
positive corona. In the early days a much lower voltage 
was used than is now the practice; 75,000 v. to 90,000 v. were 
now used, and experiments had been made with voltages up 
to 300,000. Insulation difficulties and the costs made the 
extremely liigh voltages impossible at present. 

Electrical precipitation was used for three main pur- 
poses; 1, in which the principal object was to collect dust 
and gases; 2, where nuisances had to be eliminated; and. 
;i, where it was desired to improve the plant and to lower the 
cost. Mr. Bradley dealt in detail with sucli of these pur- 
poses, describing plants where gold and silver; tin, lead, cop- 
per, etc., were controlled from gases and dust, by means of 
the electrical processes. In some instances the saving 
:imounted to thousands of dollars per annum. Under the 
head of abating nuisances, the operations were directed to 
do away with sulpliuric acid and other acid mists, dust from 
sand blasting", slate dust, and black smoke. Speaking on the 
third portion of his subject, Mr. Bradley enumerated instances 
where large sums had been saved by saving tar from illumin- 
ating gas, economics in blast furnaces liy saving the gas, se- 
curing zinc oxide, etc. 



Holding Company for Montreal Power 
Companies 

.Mlhough not officially confirmed, there are reports of an 
inii)ending amalgamation between tlie Montreal Light, Heat 
and Power Company and the Cedars Rapids Manufacturing 
and Power Companj-. The two concerns are now to a large 
extent interlaced so far as direction and working arc con- 
cerned. Directors of the Power Company are on the boar<l 
of the Cedars Rapids Company, while Mr. R. M. Wilson, the 
electrical engineer of the Power Company, was responsible 
for the electrical design of the Cedars Rapids plant and is 
operating engineer of the plant. Moreover, the latter com- 
pany is under contract to supply the Power Company with a 
large amount of current. It is understood that the merger 
will be effected 1)y an exchange of shares on tlie l>asis of 
three shares for one in the case of the Power Company and 
one for one in the case of Cedars Rapids. 

The Civic Investment and Industrial Company is the 
name of a new concern, just incorporated, through which 
the deal, it is stated, will be effected. This company has a 
capital of only $100,000, but wide powers are taken which will 
enable it to increase the capital. The company may amal- 
gamate and consolidate with any company whose assets or 
shares it may acquire, and "may exercise its borrowing power 
nr increase its capital, and maj' carry on the business of any 
such company on terms approved of by sliareholders repre- 
senting a majority of tlie shares of lioth companies, and set 
out in a notarial deed to be deposited in the office of tlie 
provincial secretary, and for that purpose the amalgamated 
company shall enjoy and may exercise the charter powers ol 
both crmipanies, under the name of either, and shall assume 
their obligations." Power is also taken to invest its capital 
in the stocks, bonds, or debentures of any corporation having 
for its object the exploitation of telephones or tramways, or 
llie supplying of heat, water, light or i>ower within the 
Province of Quebec. 



The Bedford Mills Klectric Comiiany arc reported as 
ilanning to install a 00 kw. dynamo to be water wheel 
Iriven. 



Overhead Ground Wires 

Toronto, Ont.. March i:i. IfllO. 
Editor, Electrical News: — 

Regarding overhead ground wires for 300 yards, 600 volt 
transmission in "Hydro-Electric's" letter in your March 1st 
issue, it is impossible to express a final opinion in a case like 
this without going thoroughly into the local conditions. 
The following information and suggestions, however, may 
be helpful: 

Present lightning arresters may not be suitable. 

Lightning arrester grounds may not be satisfactory. 

If the running water is pure it may form a very poor 
.ground. 

The best ground would be connection to a water supply 
system. If this cannot be secured the next best scheme is 
a ground formed by piping driven into permanently wet 
ground. Salt brine occasionally poured into the earth around 
pipe may improve a poor ground. 

In many cases overhead ground wires have provided 
very effective protection against lightning. In this case the 
line is so short that it would not be an expensive experiment 
and would possibly be beneficial. 

.■\ J'^-inch galvanized stranded steel cable suspended 4 ft. 
above line wires could be easily installed at small cost. If 
it is substantially supported, so that there is no chance of 
its coining down and grounding the line wires, there is no 
disadvantage in its use. The overhead stranded cable should 
be grounded at every pole. Two or three overhead ground- 
ed cables might be more effective than one cable. 

Trusting that the above notes may be of assistance to 
your correspondent. 

Yours very truly, 

"Electra." 



Winnipeg. March 1,"i, IDlii. 
I'-ditor Electrical News: — 

"I would recommend placing lightning arresters on only 
one leg of each three phase circuit, making sure to connect to 
corresponding legs, as per enclosed diagram. This scheme 
has the advantage of allowing discharges to ground without 
causing a short through the arresters, and will give equally 



<B6QPOO CM 



r 



SOOYbrds 




^9eO,0OO CM 



X^ 




/f B C. 

good protection. Clioke coils give no protection against 
lightning, their use being to limit the amount of current in 
case of short circuit. Do not approve of ground wires over 
transmission line." 

Yours truly, 

K. II. I.D.N'G, 
Elcc. Supl, W. I'".. K. Co. 



24 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 1, inif. 



Vancouver, B.C., March filli, 1016. 
Editor, Electrical News: — 

To protect overhead cables from the effect of atmos- 
pheric electricity, the most effective thing to do is to sur- 
round them with a complete network of grounded wire, so 
as to put them, in effect, in the same position with reference 
to atmospheric changes as if they were underground. 

Just how much or how little screening of this nature 
is necessary depends upon the location and arrangement of 
the cables. For low voltage circuits, where the cables are 
not spread far apart, one grounded wire about four or five 
feet above the circuit may be sufficient, but if the atmos- 
pheric conditions are severe, and the line a very important 
one, it may be well worth while to put up three overhead 
wires, spread out to occupy a rather wider space horizontally, 
than the circuit. 

The ground wires should be grounded at every possible 
point, that is to say, at every pole. 

Yours truly, 

R. F. Hayward. 



Battery Charging and Load Factor 

Trucking and delivering is done by day. Let these 
trucking and delivery vehicles be "electric" and they can be 
worked by day and charged by night. Charged by night 
when that station of yours is running way down on the low 
spots, but with the interest charges humming right along 
at full speed. Glance at the curve and observe the night 
valley. The shaded portion indicates how much a modern 
electric vehicle load would tend to fill up this valley. 

The diagram shown, by courtesy of the General Vehicle 
Company, Long Island, N. Y., is an actual curve taken from 
a central station in a manufacturing city of 100,000. In ad- 
dition to this city population, about 2.5.000 people in the sub- 



urbs are served. The vehicle load as shown is made up o: 
100 commercial electrics distributed by sizes as follows: — 

40 1,000 pound 

24 . .• 2,000 pound 

12 4,000 pound 

12 T.OOO pound 

12 10,000 pound 

It will be observed that this is but one vehicle to each 
1,000 inhabitants, and does not include any pleasure cars. 

Consider what this load means in kilowatt hours. The 
original load on this station was 41,500 kw.h. This vehicle 
load of 2,557 kw.h. added to the present output raised the 
load factor from 59.6 per cent, to G3.2 per cent., an increase 
of 3.6 per cent. What other load do you get that is as 
favorable as this? Suppose your rate is 3j4c. per kw.h., then 
this vehicle load would mean a revenue of about .$27,000 for 
a 300-day year, or an income greater than would be obtained 
from 500 residences. Furthermore, the residence load would 
require additional investment coming, as it does, on the peak, 
while the charging load, with its valley characteristics, would 
require no new generating equipment. 



Operating Expenses Seven Per Cent, of Gross 
The first annual report of the Cedars Rapids Manufac- 
turing and Power Company for the year ending December 
31, 1915, is a decidedly favorable one, showing earnings of 
almost three per cent, on the capital stock issued. The 
gross revenue for the year is placed at $685,593, and operat- 
ing expenses at $48,295. That is, the ratio of operation to 
gross revenue is approximately seven per cent. — the lowest, 
we believe, that has ever been recorded by a hydro-electric 
company. The assets of the company are placed at slightly 
over twenty million dollars. 



The Beckwith township council are planning to build 
some twenty miles of telephone line during the summer n,- 
19115. 



New York a Gilded Tragedy 

(Sydney Brooks in North American Review) 



To come from England to Manhattan Island, from 
a country strung up as never before in its annals to 
the heroic pitch, full of the spirit of sacrifice and en- 
durance and in daily touch with the grimmest facts of 
life and death — to come from such a country and to 
land in New York is to make a change indeed. For 
New York, always a feverish and pleasure-loving city, 
is to-day simply drunk with money. Even during the 
height of the steel boom of twelve or thirteen years 
ago, when every train from the west seemed to brin.g 
fresh carloads of brand new millionaires, the metropolis 
was not so openly reeling with dollars as it is at this 
moment, when the gayest "season" of its liistory is 
drawing to a close. 

It almost appals an Englishman to find there in full 
swing the old rotten life that we in England have put 
completely behind us. And it appals him still more 
to reflect that a bare two years ago he was leading, if 
one allows for the extra intensity that New York 
throws into all its activities, very much the same life 
himself. One despairs of ever being able to convey 
to one's American friends how completely the war and 
its conditions and consequences has become not merely 
a part of, or a side issue to, but literally the whole 
British existence. " They are so dominant, have so 
utterly swallowed up everything else, that no other 
form of life, least of all the trivial carelessness of 
peace, seems normal or even credible. 

I catch myself in New York, if I enter a lighted 
room, instinctively reaching out to draw down the 



blinds lest a Zeppelin raider should note the glare; 
and of all the sights that crowd in upon me. that of 
multitudes of young men who are not in khaki strikes 
me as the strangest and the most repellent. It may 
be one more proof of our demented state, but it is 
the bare fact that not for anything would we in Eng- 
land change places with you in America or part with 
the waste and misery of the war to receive in return 
the "blessings" of such a peace as yours. Stay-at- 
home Americans simply cannot enter into or even con- 
ceive the atmosphere of the belligerent nations in this 
struggle; and conversely, so long as it lasts, a visitor 
from any one of the countries at war will continue to 
be shocked by the atmosphere of .America as something 
unnatural to the point of being grotesque. 

In New York the fact and the vastness of this 
chasm of sentiment assail the visitor with the sharp 
finality of a bayonet thrust. Louv?in and Rheims are 
among the stricken victims of the war, but New York 
is its supreme and gilded tragedy, and has, I fear, 
neither the sense nor the soul to know it. Americans 
must by now have heard of the English charwoman 
whose husband was at the front and who was drawing 
her weekly separation allowance. She was asked 
what she thought of the war. 

"What!" she replied. "A pound a week and no 
'usband! Why, it's 'eaven! It's too good to last!" 

There is something in New York's attitude towards 
the war which reminds one of this simple soul. 



April 1. lini 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 




I'M 

a. ? 

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3 < H 2 Z 

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SXJ.VAA- 01IM 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 1. I'.llH 



Reg ulation of Transmission Lines 

The Application of Synchronous Condensers— Favorable Results of Operation 
on the Winnipeg Municipal System 

By F. H. Farmer, and E. V. Caton* 



The subject of line regulation through Jic use of syn- 
chronous condensers is one which is claiming a considerable 
amount of attention at the present time, and the introduc- 
tion of capacity into a transmission line or feeder circuit in 
the form of synchronous motors is, in many cases, attended 
with such valuable results that the writers have thought 
this would be an interesting subject for discussion. This 
paper has particular reference to the installation recently 
made at the terminal station of the city of Winnipeg's sys- 
tem, and the installation may be regarded as typical of the 
general case where it is desired to correct the power factor 
of a load by means of the introduction of synchronous con- 
densers at tlie far end of the line. 

The writers wish to draw attention to the e.xcellent 
paper by Prof. L. A. Herdt and Mr. E. J. Burr read before 
the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers in March, 1915 en- 
titled "Constant Voltage Operation of the High Voltage 
Transmission System," which treats with the city of Win- 
nipeg's installation, and they have no desire to trespass on 
the ground which Prof. Herdt and his associate have so 
ably covered. They propose, rather, to bring out the salient 
points in connection with the effect of power factor on the 
regulation of a transmission line, and to indicate the way 
in which these effects can be utilized so as to control line 
drop. The installation itself will be described in rather more 
detail than has been possible within the scope of Prof. 
Herdt's p'aper, and some further information will be pre- 
sented as to results obtained in actual operation. It is not 
proposed to deal with the mathematical analysis of lines in 
connection with synchronous motors, and those wishing to 
go more fully into this phase are referred to the above paper 
and also one by Mr. H. B. Dwight, read before the Can- 
adian Society of Civil Engineers in 1913, in which the sub- 
ject is fully covered. There are also available for reference 
many articles in the technical journals and other publica- 
tions dealing with this phase of the subject. It is interesting 
to note that in this case line regulation is to some extent a 
by-product. The main consideration was to increase the 
capacity of the lines to meet the growing load, and this 
could be done either by putting up additional transmission 
lines, or else by increasing the capacity of existing lines — 
which was limited by consideration of voltage regulation. 
It was found that by adding synchronous condensers to 
increase the power factor the regulation would be so far 
improved as to greatly increase the available line capacity. 
The installation of new transmission lines is, of course, 
a very costly undertaking, and in this case the cost of syn- 
chronous condensers with their necessary equipment was 
only a fraction of the cost of additional transmission lines to 
produce the same increase of line capacity. This method 
of increasing line capacity is a feature which is now bciuH 
very generally recognized, and is bound to have an import- 
ant bearing not only where it is required to increase the 
load on an existing transmission line, but also upon the 
design of new lines. It means that instead of the inductive 
drop in a line imposing a comparatively low limit upon its 
capacity, the inductive drop can be eliminated. From this 
it will naturally follow that the spacing of cables on the 
towers may be increased, if desired, without hurting the 
regulation at the receiving end, and also heavier copper may 

• Before Winnipeg Branch C. S. C. E. 



lie used, thus reducing ohniic losses in the line. It is a mat- 
ter of common knowledge that on an ordinary transmission 
line there is very little object in increasing the size of copper 
beyond a certain point, because the total drop being com- 
pounded of ohmic and inductive drop is scarcely influenced 
at all by a decrease in line resistance. (See Fig. 1). From 
an operating standpoint a system of this kind has the very 
important advantage that it admits of regulation at the re- 
ceiving end instead of only at the power house. In the case 
of a long transmission line where the drop at full load is 
considerable, and depends upon both load conditions and 
power factor conditions, it is a difficult matter for the station 
operator to maintain the bus-bar voltage at the receiver end 
at the right point at all times. The operator at the receiv- 
ing end is conversant with load conditions at all times, and 
if instead of communicating with the power house, he has 
the voltage control in liis own hands he can readily adjust 




Figl- 



f:9V/y/)LE/VT SCU/IATER/IL &PACIN6 IN r££r 



Curve showing resistance, reactance and impedance per mile of 
line for 250,000 and 500.000 c. m. Copper at 60 cycles. 



the voltage so as to exactly meet load conditions. The use 
of synchronous condensers at the receiving station provides 
such a means of regulation by simply varying the power 
factor of the load. 

In passing it may lie of interest to note tliat while the 
term "synchronous condenser" is in .{encral use as applying 
to the use of synchronous motors for the purpose of power 
factor correction, it is only correct when the motor is sup- 
plying a leading current. Since it is often necessary to sup- 
ply lagging current to olitain tlie necessary regulation the 
term "synchronous reactors" has been suggested as the more 
correct term to apply. The term "i)hase com])ensators" has 
also been used, but it is liable to lead to confusion, as this 
term is applied to an apparatus sometimes used in connec- 
tion with large wound rotor induction motors to improve 
their individual power factor. Throughout this paper the 
term "synchronous condenser" will be used as applying to 



April 1. I'.Ufi 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



synclironous motors running without mechanical load and 
supplying the necessary wattless leading or lagging current 
required for power factor correction. Having indicated in 
a general way the advantage which may be gained from the 
use of synchronous condensers, we will now consider the 
problem of drop in alternating current transmission lines, 
and the effect of imposing a synchronous condenser load on 
the system. 

Line Regulation of Synchronous Motors 

The regulation (or variation in voltage between no load 
and the required load) under various conditions of load is, 
in practically all long distance transmission lines, the factor 
which limits the amount of power which can be transuitted 
over any line. For this reason anything which tends to 
reduce the voltage drop under load conditions, that is, im- 
prove the regulation, will increase the amount of power which 
it is practicable to transmit over a given line, and is therefore 
much to be desired. 

In ordinary d.c. transmission lines, the only variable for 
a given line, which causes a drop in voltage, is the current, 
the drop being given by the simple Ohm's Law: 

E = IR 
where E equals voltage drop, I equals current, R equals 
resistance of line in ohms. With alternating current, how- 
ever, we find an entirely different set of conditions, as in ad- 
dition to the simple IR drop we have the drop due to the 
self induction of the line which is given by PLI. where P 
= 3 T X frequency, L = self induction of the circuit in 




Fig. 2 

henrys, I ^ current. To obtain the total drop it is neces- 
sary to add these two values together vectorially when we 
obtain the formula: 

E = I V (R= + P' L') 
the value V (R^ + P' U) being known as the impedance of 
the circuit. The above, however, only holds good for a 
non-inductive load on a transinission line, and it is necessary 
to make other corrections when the load is inductive. 

.\s is well known, any alternating current can be split 
up into two components at right angles to each other; these 
two components being known as the power or in-phase and 
the wattless or out-of-phase components; the angle between 
the power component and total current being the angle of 
phase difference, the cosine of this angle being what is known 
as the power-factor of the circuit. This is shown graphic- 
ally in Fig. 2. In this figure BC is the total current; AC 
the power component; AB the wattless component; and " 
the angle of phase difference. 

By inspection it can be seen that the following rela- 
tions obtain: AC = BC cos 9; AB = BC sin ». and 
Wattless current .VB 

Ratio = = = tan ". 

Power current .\(" 

It is thus seen that the actual power of the current is 
prop<jrtiona! to the length AC and that any increase in the 
angle 9 with AC remaining constant, i.e., constant power, 
will increase BC and R.A, or in other words, the total cur- 
rent will increase with an increase of 9 without any increase 
in the power. Since the total current in a circuit may be 
resolved into its two components, the in-phase and the out- 



phase respectively, it follows that the total voltage in a 
circuit may be similarly resolved and the triangle in Fig. 2 
may equally well represent a triangle of voltage as of current. 
Fig. 3 shows the simple diagram for the graphical deter- 
mination of the voltage drop in an a.c. circuit for varying 
conditions of load and power factor, and is the simple well- 
known Mershon diagram. In this figure E,. =: voltage at 
receiver end; Es = voltage at supply end; I =: current at 
receiver end; 6 = angle of phase difference at receiver end. 




Fig. 3 

The triangle ABC is the triangle of voltage drop and is iden- 
tical to the triangle shown in Fi.g. 2. AB is the drop due to 
the resistance of the line. BC is the drop due to the react- 
ance of the line, and AC is the total impedance drop. The 
total drop is equal to xy measured on the same scale as E,. 
and is the difference between the length of the vectors F,^ 
and E,.. 

Fig. 4 shows this same diagram further extended. In 
this figure the triangle ABC has each of its individual com- 
ponents resolved into their "in-phase" and "out-phase" com- 
ponents, with reference to voltage at the receiver end. 

That is — AB is resolved into two components: BD (re- 
sistance drop of out of phase current) and AD (resistance 
drop of in-phase current). BC is resolved into two com- 
ponents: EC (reactance drop of out of phase current) and 
EB (reactance drop of in-phase current). 

The total xy equals AD + DF+ FG 

= IR cos9 -f IX sin 9 + Es (1 — cos a) 
\\'herf a is the angle of phase difference between voltage 




Fig, 4 

at transmitting end and voltage at receiving end. This angle 
is usually so small that the last expression may be neglected, 
thus giving a convenient approximate result, 
drop = IR cos 9 + IX sin 0. 

From the above it will be noted that the total drop now 
depends upon four factors: (I) the current = 1; (2) resist- 
ance = R; (3) reactance = X; (-i) angle of phase difference 
9 or power factor. 

Since R and X arc fixed for any line the only way in 
which the drop may be altered is by alteration of cither the 
current or the power factor. Since an increase in the current 
will obviously increase the drop by lengthening both AB 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 1. 1!I16 



and BC and therefore xy, it will be seen that to improve the 
regulation without decreasing the power we must decrease 
the angle *, thereby making the angle between AC and E,. 
less obtuse and so reducing xy. In otiier words, we must 
improve the power factor. 

Methods of improving the power factor are well known, 
the most popular being to encourage the installation of syn- 
chronous motors instead of induction motors, and by en- 
couraging the individual consumer, by means of bonuses or 
penalties in the form of rate adjustment, to maintain his 
power factor 'as high as possible. This method, although 
tending to improve the general power factor of the load, 
fails, in so far as it does not leave the control of the power 
factor of the load in the supply company's hands. 

For this reason it had recently been found advisable in 
some cases for the supply company to instal large syn- 
chronous motors running light and, by means of their field 
control, to control the power-factor of the system on which 
they operate. 

Although the fact, that by the control of the field current 
the current taken by a synchronous motor may be made 
to vary in both quantity and phase displacement, is well 
known, it might be advisable to briefly explain how this 
happens. 

This is shown by simple vectors in Fig. .5. In the case 
(a) the machine is supposed to be excited to below its 
normal value. Then applied voltage = OEs; generated mote 
voltage = OEb and lags slightly behind the true opposition 
value by an angle = <P which depends upon the mechanical 
load on the machine and is constant for constant loads. This 
is actually the angle of displacement of a pole from the 
centre of polarity of the armature winding at any instant, 
due to the torque imposed by a mechanical load tending to 




pull the machine out of step. The resultant of OEs and OEb 
is OE^ and this is the voltage available for forcing current 
through the winding. Now OE,. may be resolved into its 
two components OC, the in-phase voltage and CE,, the out- 
phase, the angle f being such that 

Resistance of motor armature 

tan 4/ = , 

Reactance of motor armature 
The current will thus be along the line OC and will in this 



case lag the impressed voltage E^. Its value will be equal to 
E,./z when z = impedance of the windings. 
In case (b) the excitation is increased above the normal 
and the resultant OE,. is obtained, and the current 01, which 
in this case leads the impressed c.m.f., the angle f being a 
constant for any one machine. 

We thus see that by varying the excitation of a syn- 
chronous motor we obtain various values of current and thai 
above a certain value of excitation these currents lead the 



300 
/OO 

700 



v~.. 









i4 



I I 
"TT 






Fig. 6 

impressed c.m.f. and below the value lag the impressed e.m.f 
This is shown in the well-known \' curve of synchronous 
motors. Fig. 6. 

(Continued in April 15 Issue! 



Great Lakes Power Company 

It is understood that a company capitalized at $2,000,000 
has been formed to take over the present power interests of 
the Algoma Steel Corporation and that the water rights held 
by this latter company will be developed. 

It is publicly announced that the Great Lakes Power 
Company, Limited, representing financial interests in Chicago 
and Boston, have signed an agreement with the Algoma Steel 
Corporation to take over the street car and ferry business of 
this corporation as well as their power interests, both de- 
veloped and undeveloped. The new company had a bond 
issue of $2,200,000. 

The present water power development of the Algoma 
Steel Corporation is in the neighbourhood of 15,000 horse- 
power, and it is understood to be the intention of the new 
company to overhaul this plant and double its capacity at a 
cost in the neighbourhood of two million aollars. The 
30,000 h.p. will be utilized by the Lake Superior Paper Com- 
pany, the Algoma Steel Corporation, and for light and power 
for various industries at the Soo. It is understood that ne- 
gotiations are already under way to induce new industries to 
locate at this point, where, it is claimed, low power rates will 
be a special inducement. 



The American Telephone and Telegraph Company's an- 
nual statement shows an increase in gross earnings of ap- 
proximately $14,000,000 over the previous year, the amount 
being $240,000,000. Net earnings were $41,117,487, of which 
the dividend requirements take $29,100,000. 



April 1. I'.ili 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Fire Alarm and Police Telegraph System 

Mr. F. A. Cambridge, City Electrician, Winnipeg, describes the situation in 
that City, before the local branch of the C.S.C.E. 



From luinihlc beginnings a system lias been evolved that 
today presents facilities to the public for giving an alarm in 
the tVansniission of a signal and in the calling out of the fire 
apparatus. This has meant not only a tremendous amount 
of work on the part of manufacturers in the design of ap- 
paratus but considerable engineering talent has been ex- 
pended on the transmission circuit from the (dd house top 
wiring to a modern system such as is instalKil tuday in any 
of the large cities. 

As far as Winnipeg is concerned the present fire alarm 
system is the outgrowth of a system installed a considerable 
time before the advent of the telephone and which consisted 
of a few alarm boxes connected to bare iron wire circuits 
mostly supported on roofs of buildings and connected to a 
fire station and the old pumping plant at Armstrongs Point 
and supplied with current furnished by gravity cells. On the 
advent of the telephone an arrangement was made by the 
council whereby the Bell Telephone Co., undertook to place 
the wires on its poles and to operate the system. Xo im- 
provement was made in the character of the circuits, storage 
cells were however substituted for gravity cells. 

The system was at this time operated on what is known 
as the automatic principle in which a given number ot 
"breaks" originating in the circuit are repeated upon one or 
more additional circuits by means of what is termed an 
"automatic repeater.'' The city in l'J02 decided against en- 
tering into a renewal of the expiring contract with the Bell 
Telephone Co., and decided to construct a new system and 
take over the operation. A system was built and ultimately 
a considerable number of improvements were introduced — 
such as the use of insulated wire for the street lines, — sub- 
dividing the circuits, modern switchboards, protection fea- 
tures at the central office and the operation of the system 
"manually" instead of automatically, trained ..[lerators being 
on duty at all hours. 

The rapid growth of the city however Ijrought about not 
only a corresponding extension of the fire alarm system but 
with the corresponding growth of the electric light railway 
and power system of the Winnipeg Electric Railway Co., fol- 
lowed by the duplicating of that company's system by the 
rival municipal system, elements of danger were in- 
troduced that called for drastic and thorough treatment if 
the efficiency of the fire department and the safety of the 
public were to be held paramount. In other words a thor- 
oughly modern and efficient system had to be designed, con- 
structed and financed. 

Functions Defined 

The electrical department functions were ultimately de- 
fined by the city council in relation to services as follows; 
to- have charge of the construction, operation and mainten- 
ance, of the fire alarm system and to have charge of the 
construction, and maintenance of the police telegraph sys- 
tem. While this is not a thoroughly ideal plan for the rea- 
son that a common staff of operators, trained to operate both 
systems would be preferable to two distinct sets of men 
under two difTerent authorities, the present arrangement 
however is sufficiently idealistic to secure the maximum efli- 
ciency in construction and maintenance of the underground 
and overhead systems ^hich after all are the largest items. 

The problem of financing was the first that required at- 
tention and considerable preparation had to be made before 
any actual advance could be made. Hitherto any appro- 
priations n)ade for llu; lire alarm system were taken from the 



ordinary tax levy. Now the council naturally are always 
desirous that the taxation rate should be as low as possible, 
hence it is difficult to obtain in any one year sufficient funds 
from that source to warrant the laying down of any expen- 
sive piece of work — moreover one council cannot bind its 
successors to continue to appropriate funds for a given ob- 
ject. The situation first of all necessitated an application 
to the Provincial Legislature for increased borrowing powers 
so that the council could, without a vote of the people, issue 
long term debentures for the purpose of financing the outlay 
contemplated. This is the basis of the legislative powers 
now in force and enabled the city to finance the matter in 
the most economical manner. Appropriations were pro- 
vided in the stock issue from time to time until the sys- 
tem's requireiTients were met. The police telegraph system 
was also financed in a similar manner. The financial ob- 
stacles being surmounted plans for the system took place. 
These involved four fundamentals without which no system 
of this character can be termed "modern." 

First, the central office equipment must be housed in n 
fireproof building conveniently located in relation to the 
centre of underground cable area. Second, underground con- 
duit runs must be secured sufficient to at least comply with 
the underground wiring law and if rendered possible by fin- 
ancial appropriations, extend beyond the limits of the area 
specified in that law. Third, a cable and wiring system must 
be evolved capable of providing satisfactory telephonic as 
well as telegraphic service, with, in the case of the police 
alarm system, an alternating current power supply for the 
flash lamp and bell systems. Fourth, a modern receiving- 
transmitting, and power system at the central office with 
modern receiving facilities at each fire hall, police station, 
and pump house, for receiving and recording messages trans- 
mitted. 

Continuity of Service 

.\ow there should lie in laying out a system of this kind 
one cardinal point borne in mind, and that is, to secure as 
far as is humanly possible absolute continuity of service. In 
any other public service shut downs are regrettable and may 
occasion loss but in these services the lives and property 
of citizens may be sacriliced through the failure of the lines 
of communication between tlie citizen or fire or police officer 
at the alarm box, and tlic lire or iiolice force at the various 
stations. Hcjwevcr thorou.yIily the fire department is 
equipped, and in this connection Winnipeg is well to the fore 
in comparison with other cities, we must get our alarm in 
to the fire department with the highest degree of speed, and 
the lowest degree of possibility of error or interruption. 

The fundamental idea being continuity of service it was 
decided to run trunk lines from the central ofiicc to as many 
lire and police stations as could be reached underground 
constituting these local distribution centres. With our 
generous provision of underground ducts this was subse- 
quently carried out so that use is made of six fire stations 
and two police substations as distribution centres. 

.At each fire station the cables are brought into a terminal 
cabinet in basement where facilities arc provided for testing 
and for manipulation of circuits into groups. In police 
signal work it is desirable to keep the number of boxes per 
circuit down to ten or twelve to avoid clashing, but on fire 
alarm work good practice permits of twenty to twenty-five 
boxes per circuit. 

In the Winnipeg system the lire alarm box circuits ex- 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 1, HUG 



cept those in the centre of the city, radiate from the district 
fire stations and while the above rule is observed on the cir- 
cuits proper these arc really further subdivided into groups 
of circuits at the distributing points thus allowing in case of 
trouble of cutting out a faulty branch circuit and maintaining 
service on the balance of lines on that group while trouble 
is being hunted on faulty branch. From the district I'lre 
stations the fire and ijolice alarm wires are carried out un- 
derground tci cable terminal poles located at various dist- 
ances in different dislricls dependent upon .imount of un- 
derground ducts available. 

At the terminal poles substantial cal)!e terminal bo.xcs 
are placed in which each wire is separately fused at three 
amperes with an enclosed fuse designed for 3000 volt service, 
and also connected to a vacuum lightning arrester. The 
police wires are then carried out to the aerial cables which 
are all composed of two No. IG B. & S. wire for the series 
lines and two twisted pairs No. Ill (one pair in reserve) for 
the telephone lines all saturated paper insulation and a 3/32 
in, lead sheath. The fire alarm signal circuits to the re- 
maining fire stations are in every case carried from the un- 
derground cable terminals in 10 conductor aerial cables. 

The Seven Call Box 

The police signal bo.xes arc of the type l<nown as the 
seven call box. There are two distinct circuits brought to 
each box. One tlie signal or telegraph circuit, and the other 
a telephone circuit. Included in the signal circuit and 
within the box is an electro mechanical mechanism actuated 
cither by turning a key in a special keyhole in the outer door 
or (after opening the outer door) by pulling a lever, either 
operation automatically transmits a number of impulses giv- 
ing the number of the box and tlic patrol wagon signal. As 
this is the most urgent signal no other act is necessary to 
turn this in than that recited. There is also a movable 
pointer, normally set at waggon position and automatically 
returning to that position after having been used at any other 
position, by means of which it is possible to transmit auto- 
matically a fire or ambulance call or the patrolmen's report 
signals three of wliich are separately designated. There is 
also wired into tliis circuit but not exposed to the patrolman, 
a single stroke bell enabling the officer to know whether the 
line is already in use; a telegraph key for inspectors trouble 
signals and automatic cut-outs that operate upon the closing 
of the outer door. The telephone instrument is an ordin- 
ary common battery — bridging set, the transmitter being 
mounted on the inner door. There are 158 signal boxes on 
the circuits at present; 85 of which are mounted on poles and 
73 on iron pedestals. 

Switchboard Equipment 

The main line switchboard for the police system is made 
up of five sections and is arranged for handling 34 series 
telegraph box circuits, and six substation circuits. There is 
also a telephone terminal board for fifty circuits. .Ml lines 
are protected by vacuum type lightning arresters sensitive 
high tension fuses, choke coils and emergency air gap ar- 
resters are also used for protection. Each telegraph circuit 
is then taken through a centre zero milliampere meter and 
two line relays and also through various switches for testing 
and other purposes, a telegraph key and an adjustable resist- 
ance. 

There are also provided on each panel a line test circuit 
with centre 2ero volt meter specially calibrated for accurate 
ground testing purposes. On the centre panel on this board 
is mounted the manual transmitter used by the operator to 
repeat the emergency signals received on the box lines to 
the various substations. It is also possible by manipulation 
of box circuit switches to send out by means of the trans- 
mitter, code signals on the flash and bell system. The var- 
ious lines are taken from the above to a three panel storage 
battery switchboard upon whicli arc mounted a full line of 



instruments switches, and upon tlie rear a standard mercury 
are rectifier, its supply at 220 volts being connected to either 
the lines of the Winnipeg Electric Railway or the city sys- 
tem. All the above switchboards are of impregnated Ijlack 
marble mounted on angle iron frames. 

The entire equipment of time stamps as well as second- 
ary clocks of both fire and iiolice systems are electrically 
actuated by a master clock on the police system so that a 
uniform time system is insured not only in the central ofiice 
but throu.uhont the system. 

Illuminated Signals 

An ingenious system of illuminated signals lias been 
worked out in this system whereby on the transmission of an 
"emergency" signal a red lamp on the register affected is 
automatically switched on and the number of the circuit on 
the board is illuminated. There is also a series of illumin- 
ated signal discs on the various switchboards to remind op- 
erators to restore switches to normal positions and to auto- 
matically warn operators of trouble on lines. As the tele- 
phone is largely used as a medium of communication between 
department officials and constables a fully equipped central 
energy switchboard is provided having lines to all offices in 
police headquarters and to all signal boxes. 

Incoming alarms are in every case recorded on punching 
registers, and all outgoing alarms are likewise recorded on 
registers on both fast and slow time circuits. The individual 
box circuit records are not time stamped but a master register 
common to all box circuits is actuated and the record is 
time stamped as likewise in the records of the outgoing sig- 
nals. These stamps are actuated by the master clock. In 
addition to sending the alarm out on the fast time circuits 
every alarm is also repeated on the slow time circuits so that 
all stations receive the alarm over two separate circuits. 
There are two reasons for this; first to gain time and second 
to guard against error or failure to receive alarms. 

In the fast time service the speed of the signal is only 
limited by the speed of the box (and they are speeded up to 
the maximum) and the registers on which the alarm is re- 
corded in the fire stations. This speed is however far too 
high to actuate the large gongs which are elcctro-mechani- 
cally driven; therefore the speed of the other circuits has to 
be adapted to them. Moreover in case a register record was 
not absolutely intelligible to a fireman or a pump house at- 
tendant we have the second alarm following immediately be- 
Iiind the first, recorded upon the large single stroke gong 
that any novice can count. It is further to be noticed that 
means must be provided so, that these large gongs shall not 
be sounded unnecessarily, for instance any superfluous sound- 
ing of these at night not only wakens men who, are not re- 
quired to turn out, but at the same time opens all the stable 
doors and turns on all fire station lights resulting in needless 
disturbance and loss of sleep. 

Fast Time Service 
Unlike the ordinary brancli exchange, the branch lines 
on this board cannot be cut through to central telephone ex- 
change, the branch lines being used for fire department busi- 
ness only. In addition to the regular telephone service pro- 
vided as mentioned above the department has private lines to 
pumping plants so that fire department officers may through 
the medium of police signal box phones communicate with 
engineers of pumping plants, etc. This plan is especially 
useful when using the high pressure water service. It will 
also be possible shortly to obtain phone connection with the 
fire alarm operators by switching in a portalilc sot into a jack 
in a fire alarm box. 



liccause the city council has cut the wage of the electri- 
cal workers employed by the city of New Westminster to 
$4.10 a day, the men went out on strike. 



April 1, 1',I16 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 




Modern Methods in Street Railway Track Con- 
struction^ Concrete Base the Only 
Permanent Form 

By R. K. Compton" 

Importance of Construction. — One of the most difficult 
problems which a municipal engineer faces in street improve- 
ment of today is the premanency of the street railway track 
construction. On this point hinges the durability and in- 
tegrity of that portion of the pavement immediately in the 
railway area and adjacent thereto. Even in outlying suburban 
sections, pavements on streets where railway tracks exist arc 
more difficult to construct and maintain than on streets where 
no tracks exist. The situation is intensified when similar 
streets are to be improved in heavy traffic sections of l>usy 
cities. 

Early History. — The speaker takes the liberty of introduc- 
ing into this subject his experience in the City of Baltimore, 
where this matter has been given most careful attention, both 
by the municipal authorities and the street railway officials. 
In collecting data on this subject from the principal cities 
of this country we find that other cities have passed tlirough 
similar experiences. Some lifteen years ago it was the prac- 
tice of street railway companies to lay the ties directly on the 
original earth foundation of the street, tamping up with 
whatever local material was convenient. Consequently track- 
structures had absolutely no stability other than that given 
by the natural earth foundation existing in the street, so 
that within a few months after the street ivas improved and 
opened to traffic the rails would vibrate under the movement 
of cars and heavy trucks, with the result that cracks would 
develop in the paving adjacent to and for several feet on 
either side of the rails, causing rapid disintegration of the 
paving, particularly in the case of sheet asphalt. If the pave- 
ment were of stone or vitrified block, cracks would develop 
and the paving blocks would soon begin to "work" and loosen 
up. Within twelve months the paving in the railway area 
would be in such condition as to seriously impair the use- 
fulness of the street. This disintegration did not confine 
itself to the railway area, but would ^''-'idually encroach upon 
the city area. 

The next dcvelopnicnt in this construction was the installa- 
tion of gravel ballast. This was somewhat of an improvement 
over the original construction, the only dififerencc being that 
the development of cracks and disintegration was somewhat 
postponed. Gravel, being round and smooth, would shift 
under the strain of passing traffic, with results most damag- 
ing to the paving. 

The crushed stone ballast was then used. On suburban 
streets with light car and vehicular traffic this was a de- 
cided improvement, and in some instances the results ob- 
tained, both as to track construction and maintenance of pav- 
ing, were most desirable. Care, however, had to be taken by 
the track gangs to see that most careful tamping was done. 

• Cliairman and Consulting Engineer. Paving Commission. Baltimore. 
t>efore American Good Roads Congress, Pittsburgh. 



1 he rock ballast construction, however, in heavy traffic 
downtown streets, did not give the results desired, so that in 
the past few years many cities have been installing a con- 
crete slab, from 6 to 8 ins. in depth, under the ties, then 
l)rought up and completely enveloping the ties in concrete, 
and the concrete foundation for the paving installed on top 
of this. 

Right here it may be well to note the following list of cities 
which have used or are using concrete as a foundation for 
track construction, in whole or in part. Most municipalities 
do not use it exclusive!}', but use concrete in the heavy traf- 
fic sections, and rock ballast in the suburban sections where 
car and vehicular traffic is light, or where the paving of 
streets may not be regarded as permanent on account of the 
surrounding property being undeveloped. This information 
was obtained in 1913 and 1914 through correspondence with 
municipal officials in the respective cities. These cities are 
as follows: New Orleans, La., Chicago, III., Buffalo, N. Y.. 
St. Louis, Mo., Norfolk, Va.. Boston, Mass., Detroit, Mich., 
New York (Brooklyn), Cleveland, O., Nashville, Tenn., 
Memphis, Tenn., Springfield, Mo.. Birmingham, Ala.. Dayton, 
O., Cincinnati, O., Baltimore, Md. 

It is a fact that traction engineers as a rule object to 
concrete under the ties, claiming three distinct disadvantages: 

Objections of Traction Officials. — First, that concrete 
under the ties makes the track construction entirely too 
rigid, and that rock ballast gives equally good results and 
overcomes this rigidity in that it allows a certain amount of 
resiliency, and that such resiliency is necessary, otherwise un- 
due wear will take place on the rails from passing cars, and 
that rigid track construction is hard on the equipment. 

Second, that in case of reconstruction the railway com- 
pany is put to an unnecessary expense removing the con- 
crete so as to replace defective or disintegrated ties with 
new ones. 

Statistics show that there is no real ground for the lirsi 
objection, and even if there were, this can be overcome by 
keeping the concertc base an inch or so low and bedding the 
ties in a thin bed of loamy sand on top of the concrete slab, 
t are should be taken, however, to bring the concrete up on 
the ends of the ties so as to confine the sand and prevent its 
shifting. 

Replacing Ties 

The second objection can be overruled by the fact that in 
replacing worn-out or disintegrated ties, the railway com- 
pany docs not have to remove any more concrete than it 
would otherwise remove were the pavement only on a con- 
crete foundation of the usual thickness, as will be hereafter 
shown by the method of construction followed by the City 
of Baltimore. Furthermore, statistics compiled by the Board 
of Supervising Engineers in the City of Chicago, who have 
been giving this matter most thorough study for the past 
eight years, show that sound yellow pine ties, thoroughly 
embedded in concrete, arc almost indestructible. 

Another and third objection made by the traction officials 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 1, I'.ili; 



is that the car lines have to be diverted, either by means of 
laying a third and temporary track on the street to be im- 
proved, or if the street is so narrow as to prohibit this, there 
has to be an entire re-routing of the cars, causing by either 
method serious inconvenience to the public and disorganiza- 
tion of the car company's traffic schedule. This claim can 
also be overruled by a method which the speaker will outline 
to you later, as followed by the City of Baltimore. 

The experience of all municipal engineers along this line 
has probably been the same. 

Baltimore Work.— Owing to the flat refusal of the trac- 
tion authorities to install permanent construction, many of us 
have had to resort to legislative bodies for relief. In the 
beginning of the year 1014 the situation in the City of Bal- 
timore was thoroughly studied, both by the municipal en- 
gineers and the traction officials, with the result that the 
State Legislature of Maryland was appealed to by the muni- 
cipality and a law was passed putting the character of foun- 
dation under the ties of the several street railway companies 
and steam railroads under the jurisdiction of the Pavmg 
Commission, with power to decide whether sucli foundation 
should be of plain ballast or concrete. The commission de- 
cided that in heavy traffic downtown streets concrete con- 
struction, 6 ins. thick, under and around the ties, was neces- 
sary, but that in the outlying suburban section where the 
traffic was light and street development more or less of an 
uncertainty, awaiting property development, rock ballast 
could be used. 

The traction officials were informed that they could in- 
stall the ties immediately on top of the concrete or install a 
cushion between the top of the concrete and the bottom of 
the ties. They chose the former. 

It may be interesting to note here that in the down- 
town business section of Baltimore the streets are exceed- 
ingly narrow, not over 40 ft. in width between curbs, and 
there is no room for a temporary third track. Furthermore, 
the gauge is of odd dimension, namely 5 ft. 4J4 ins., so that 
the track area takes up more space than in most cities. It 
was also impossible, owing to congestion, to divert the cars 
to other streets. In order, therefore, to meet this, the 
third objection of the traction officials, it became necessary to 
install the concrete without interruption to car traffic. It 
was at first thought that this could be done by blocking up 
the tracks an inch or so above the exact grade, installing the 
concrete, allowing it to set and lowering the tracks to the 
proper and exact grade. The conclusion was reached, how- 
ever, that this would not only be very expensive, but hardly 
feasible, so that it was then determined to pursue the pene- 
tration method. This was done by bringing the tracks to the 
exact grade and ballasting with crushed stone from V/i to 
2J/2 ins. in size, free of dust and small particles, and tamping 
the same thoroughly as in ballasting ordinary track, care 
being taken to thoroughly tamp the ballast and make the 
same carry the strain of passing cars, then applying a thin 
cement grout. 

In improving streets containing railway tracks the forces 
of the railway company and that of the paving contractor 
have to work in conjunction. The railway area is first graded 
out to the subgrade of the paving by the paving contractor. 
The railway company then takes charge and grades out to a 
point 6 ins. below the bottom of the ties. New rails and 
ties are then installed where necessary, together with any 
new special work. The ballast, of the size and depth pre- 
viously noted, is then placed and thoroughly tamped under 
the ties and up to a point 2 ins. above the bottom of the 
ties, the rails broiight to the proper grade and line, and when 
the entire construction is "tight" the penetration begins. 

The grouting mixture is composed of 1 part cei.fent to 2 
parts sand, and is about the consistency of thin cream. 



The operation is readily done without interruption to car 
traffic by the use of a small continuous mixer (known as the 
Coltrin mixer) placed just outside of and parallel with the 
railway tracks, with a flexible chute, in two sections, to con- 
vey the grout from the mixer to the ballast. Starting on the 
down-grade end and working up-grade, the thin grout is pen- 
etrated into the stone ballast, which, as previously noted, has 
already been securely tamped and made to carry the strain 
of the passing cars. As already noted, the chute is flexible 
and in two sections. When a car comes along the first sec- 
tion is thrown out of service and the second section is low- 
ered to the ballast at about the ends of the ties and the mixer 
kept in service. After the car passes the first section is 
thrown back in service. 

It is true that during this operation some movement oc- 
casionally occurs in the tracks, but there is a city inspector 
on the work at all times who hunts for and locates loose ties 
and they are immediately tamped up with green concrete. 

The natural supposition is that sufficient movement of 
the ties and track would occur to injure the concrete while 
setting, but this is not true if the work is carefully handled 
and executed. On one street in Baltimore this work was 
successfully handled with five different lines of cars passing 
up and down the street with but 20 seconds headway at times 
during the day; while on another piece of work it was suc- 
cessfully installed with eleven different lines of cars passing 
over the special work with less than 20 seconds headway at 
."ihort intervals during the day. The resultant mixture is 
about 1 of cement, 2 of sand and 5J^ of stone, with the con- 
crete very dense, as the ballast has been thoroughly tamped 
and voids reduced to a minimum. 

This ends the work of the railway company, as after this 
section of concrete is installed, the paving contractor again 
takes charge, installing the concrete base for the pavement 
immediately on top of the railway base, and then the paving. 

Bond Between Slab and Base 

As a rule, there is no bond between the paving slab in- 
stalled by the railway company and the paving base installed 
by the paving contractor, because generally the former is 
several blocks ahead of the latter, and in the meantime the 
concrete slab has set. This therefore overrules the second 
claim of the traction officials, and the penetration method 
pursued meets the third claim. 

One of the principal points gained by this form of con- 
struction is that it shows up very clearly every weak place 
during the progress of the work. All loose or poorly tamped 
ties are made apparent by the bubbling or oozing up of the 
grout as a car passes over. Failures in finished pavement 
are avoided by immediately tamping such ties, which in 
many cases would otherwise have been overlooked. It has 
been found by careful cuts made in the finished work that 
this grout when properly applied penetrates the ballast to 
the subgrade, forming excellent concrete, and insures solid 
track construction, free from vibration, upon wliich the life 
of any pavement in the railway area depends. 

From records kept and compiled by the I'aving Com- 
mission it has been found that the total e.xtra cost of this 
construction over plain ballast, including labor and material, 
is about 52 cts. per lin. ft. of single track. 

In the last two years about 10 miles (single track) of 
such construction has been installed in the City of Baltimore 
by this process, in the busiest streets of the city, and car 
traffic interfered with to such a limited extent that you hear 
no complaint whatever from the traveling public during th? 
course of the work. Included in the 10 miles of single track 
will be found all classes of paving within the railway area — 
sheet asphalt, wood block, granite block, vitrified block and 
scoria block. 

Type of Pavement. — It has been suggested that this sub- 



A|iril 1. I'.Mi 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



jfct could properly include a discussion as to the type of 
pavement between and adjacent to the rails which has been 
found most satisfactory. The most satisfactory type of 
pavement in the railway tracks on heavy traffic streets is 
granite block, with a cement filler. E.\cellent results have 
been obtained in Baltimore with the rccut granite. The 
eld blocks are from 8 to 14 ins. in length. The 8-in. blocks 
are re-headed, while the 14-in. ones are split, making alto- 
gether, blocks smaller and much more uniform in size than 
the standard new block. The result is a very uniform, even 
suriace, an excellent pavement for track areas. 

On streets which may be half business and half resi- 
dential, or in tlie retail districts, vitrified blocks should be 
used. 

.Ml block pavements should be laid on a cement-sand 
cushion. 

On strictly residential streets of very light traffic sheet 
asphalt has been used, but the speaker rather deplores the 
use of this material within the track areas. 

The block pavements are usually laid between the ex- 
treme outer rails, including the dummy, with two rows of 
liners on the outside of each outer rail. Selected granite 
block, on a mortar bed, is most desirable as liners on heavy 
traffic streets. On streets of lighter traffic and residential 
streets, wood block, 4J^ ins. deep, thoroughly embedded in 
the concrete and on a mortar bed. give most excellent re- 
sults as liners and an excellent finish to the street, particul- 
arly where sheet asphalt is laid from the rails to the gutters. 

In order to cheapen the cost of track paving our policy 
the latter part of last year was to install sheet asphalt in 
the dummy strip, where there is very little traffic, and which 
will give good results if the track work is stable. We will 
follow this policy almost exclusively this year, as a modifi- 
cation of our former standard, where asphalt is used be- 
tween the rails and curb. 

Track Details. — The rails are usually of the Trilby type, 
10.5 lbs. to the yard, 7 ins. deep, with a slight bevel on the 
outer paving edge. With this rail, and the use of steel tie 
plates and screw spikes, tierods may be eliminated, and by 
the elimination of the rods better results from a paving 
point of view are obtained. Tierods are a nuisance in track 
paving, causing a great amount of cutting if a block pave- 
ment is used, and usually have to be placed below the center 
of the rail in case sheet asphalt is used in order to have them 
in the concrete instead of in the binder. 

Comparison of Mixing and Penetration Methods. — Good 
construction could unquestionably be obtained by the re- 
routing of the cars, either by means of a third track and 
cross-overs or by diverting the cars to other streets, thereby 
allowing the concrete to be placed by the ordinary mixing 
method and at the same time allowing time for the concrete 
slab to set before car traffic is again restored. While this 
method is a safer way, it is much more expensive than the 
penetration method. Unquestionably excellent results have 
been obtained by the latter method such as has been de- 
scribed, its attractiveness being that it is cheaper as to first 
cost, owing, principally, to the economical manner in whicli 
the materials can be handled, and it overcomes the principal 
objection of traction officials, namely interruption to car 
traffic, which is of course a serious objection. 

In order to obtain good results with the penetration 
method, every detail must be carefully looked after by the 
inspectors, such as the quality and size of the stone com- 
posing the ballast, the tamping, and the mixing and placing 
of the grout. Frequent test holes should be cut in order 
to see that thorough penetration is secured, and wherever 
possible the penetration should be started at the down-grade 
end of a block and proceeded witli up-grade. 

Conclusions. — Under the old system of earth foundation 
or ballast, failures and troubles were nunurous. Under the 



new system of concrete under the ties, installed as has been 
described, the percentage of trouble is infinitesimal, the 
principal defects being at crossings and around special work. 
If proves conclusively that for strictly up-to-date permanent 
construction, both for the street railway system and the 
pavement, the ties should be laid on a concrete base, from 
to 8 ins. in thickness, and completely enveloped in the 
same. 



Taking the Public Into Your Confidence 

The Twin City Rapid Transit Company, one of the 
largest electric railway systems in the world, periodically 
advertises to the public the general policy of the company 
regarding their endeavors to serve their patrons in a satis- 
factory manner. The following is an example. It was pub- 
lished as a Christmas message, though its wording is suitable 
to any season: — 

"It is the intention of the Twin City Lines to serve the 
communities they reach in the best possible way by furnish- 
ing first class dependable electric car service at all times; 
smooth tracks, clean, comfortable, well-lighted, ventilated 
and heated cars, manned by civil-spoken, courteous, con- 
siderate employees who shall be watchful of the passenger's 
safety and comfort first, last and all the time. 

"We welcome constructive criticism with an open mind 
and endeavor to remedy defects in our service whenever 
they are brought to our attention. We do not wish to im- 
pose any arbitrary or unjust regulations upon our patrons, 
but, on the other hand, we hope they will recognize that it 
is necessary to adopt some rigid rules, but this is always 
with the idea of being reasonable, and just to both the com- 
pany and its passengers. 

"Our conductors deal with more persons every day thar 
the average man encounters in many weeks. In all weathers 
and at all hours, they meet every fashion of folk, the well 
and the sick, the pleasant and disagreeable, the worst and 
the best. Do they fail sometimes? \'ery probably. They 
are only men after all. with their own individual characters. 
But when they do fail, they have l)roken the rule, the rea- 
sonable rule for which we stand. If a man is unfit, sooner 
or later he is dismissed from our employ. We keep only 
the best of them in our service and we want all of them to 
l)e efficient in their duties as well as civil and courteous in 
tlieir manners. 

"In the same way that the manager of a large store 
or hotel does not know how his employees are treating cus- 
tomers or guests unless the employees arc reported, so it 
is with us, although the store or hotel manager has the great 
advantage over us in usually having all his employees be- 
neath one roof and under his own observation. 

"W'hen it is considered tliat we carry an average of 
nearly 700,000 passengers every day in the year (a number 
equivalent to the population of Minneapolis, St. Paul, Still- 
water, and the suburbs of these cities), each passenger re- 
presenting a separate business transaction, and that wc oper- 
ate approximately 1,000 cars over 440 miles of track, each 
car in charge of two men, and far away from close super- 
vision, would it not be surprising if all those men were 
conducting themselves exactly as we expect them to. and 
waiting on each of those 700.000 customers as they should 
be waited upon, and as we desire that they should be served? 
"We prize very highly tlie good-will of the people of 
tlie 'I win Cities, as it is constantly being shown us. and wc 
wish to assure them, in return, that we will strive harder 
than ever during the year to come to merit their friendli- 
ness and confidence." 



The London Street Railway Company arc planning to 
double track a section on Dundas Street East during tlie 
early summer. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 1, 1916 




avci Coiytrdctor 




Good Light is One of the Best Investments an 
Employer of Labor Can Make 

By J. F. Heffron 

Manufacturers throughout the country, in constantly in- 
creasing numhers, realize that a very considerable propor- 
tion of our industrial accidents are due to poor lighting. 
The illuminating engineer had knowledge of this relation 
years ago and has constantly endeavored to draw the 
manufacturers attention to it. but only of late have his ef- 
forts in this direction received any measure of the attention 
tliat is undoubtedly their just due. There still remains, how- 
ever, much to be done in the way of enlightenment of the 
manufacturer in this connection, but the new lield has been 
opened, and with proper attention and the right line of argu- 
ment when approaching a prospective customer, tlic enter- 
prising and progressive electrical contractor will lind con- 
siderable new business in tliis field, whicli heretofore, he has. 
in most cases, overlooked. 

Every factory, shop or mill, is equipped with a lighting 
installation of some kind. Upon investigation, it will be 
found that most of these installations are far below the 
standard now considered necessary. Many manufacturers 
are difficult to approach on this subject; they do not realize 
that they have any ]iroblem to solve, and so it is difficult 
to make them realize that the solution may mean a cutting 
down of waste, and, as such, money in their pockets. It is 
necessary therefore to arouse the interest of your prospect, 
so that he may give consideration to the problem you desire 
to lay before him. 

.A. good opening for your wedge can often be secured 
by pointing out to the party you are interviewing the fact 
that years ago it was considered unnecessary to protect the 
employee by the installation of safety devices which are now 
considered an absolutely essential part of industrial equip- 
ment, and which are in many cases even required by law for 
the protection of the employee. The employer has also of 
his own volition installed safety devices, which years ago 
were considered unnecessary, because he realizes that he can 
in this way protect himself from payment of damages aris- 
ing out of possible injuries to his employees — for instance, 
the installation of guards around cog-wheels and other 
dangerous moving parts of machinery. If it can be shown 
that good light also plays an important part in the evidence 
of possible accidents, you can be sure of gaining your pros- 
I)ecfs attention, and very often you are able to land a con- 
tract, which could not be obtained by other niellioils. 

It is a well known fact, that industrial accidents increase 
in direct ratio to gloom and darkness, that the greatest num- 
ber of accidents in industrial establishments occur during 
the months of December and January, the months havin.g 
the least daylight. It has been shown by illuminating en- 
gineers, that the number of accidents caused is twice as high 
in the winter months as in the summer months. It is of 
course during the winter months that artificial light must be 
depended on to a greater extent than in the summer months. 

Mr. R. E. Simpson in a paper presented at the ninth 



annual convention of the Illuminating Engineering .society. 
Washington, D. C, tells how the conclusion was reached 
some years ago, by many of the largest coal mine operators, 
that undoubtedly the darkness of a coal mine, broken only 
by the feeble light of a miner's lamp, is in great measure 
responsible for many coal mine accidents. It is worth our 
while to note, that the introduction of electrical power for 
haulage purposes has provided the coal operators with an 
efficient means of lighting the more important switching 
points in the mines. The use of steel and concrete for 
roof support, and the application of white-wash to the roof 
and sides at the turn-outs, switching points, and shaft bot- 
toms, materially increase the illumination, we are told, and. 
as a result, the motorman can see, easily and surely, that 
switches are properly set and that no standing cars block 
his way. which of course enables him to avoid derailments 
and collisions. Other employees, at these points, which 
arc the busiest parts of the mine, can also perform their 
duties much more efficiently and safely because of the bet- 
ter illumination. 

In the Illustrated World. Chicago. Dec. 11)15. John A. 
White tells us that according to a United States Senate re- 
port on a large steel plant, during a period of five years, in 
all its various departments, the accidents at night outnum- 
bered those of the day. in some cases by as much as one 
hundred per cent. Undoubtedly other factors must here 
also be taken into consideration, yet unquestionably this 
tremendous discrepancy between day and night accidents 
can be due in large measure only to the difference in degree 
of illumination. 

We know that from the view point of every-daj' good 
health, a building flooded with sunlight is much more desir- 
able to work in than a place which is dark and gloomy. 
Leaving out of the question the possibility of disease-germs, 
the workman can no more be happy and contented in a 
gloomy place than the housewife in a gloomy kitchen. Good 
illumination means less irritabilit.v, better nerves and. as a 
result, a surer, steadier hand in directing dangerous mach- 
inery, greater staying power, and an ability to turn out a 
.greater amount of work in a day. 

Light and Health Go Together 

We have heard on various occasions how eye strain fre- 
quently results from poor illumination. This is due as 
often to harsh glaring light as to poor or insufficient light. 
The Societ)' for the Conservation of Vision. Xew York City, 
numbering among its members some o( the most illus- 
trious names on the continent both m-:dically and otherwise. 
have found, as a result of their investigations into the mat- 
ter of poor light and its eflfect on the eye, especially among 
.school children and factory employees, that much harm is 
undoubtedly caused by factors entering into the matter of 
poor lighting, which factors are in themselves so subtle that 
their effect is frequently unnoticed or not realized untiT too 
late and the eye has been impaired beyond repair. 

Mr. White in the article mentioned, tells us that it ap- 
pears rather odd that in all the agitation for safety-devices 



Ap 



THE ELECTRICAL NEW:^ 



aiuiuiil machinery, ihc importance of lighting lias not liccn 
sullicicnlly cmpliasized or insisted upon; very often where 
proper precautions have been taken to illuminate the mach- 
inery, little heed has been given to lighting the lloor space 
of the passages. A man cannot come from a glare of light 
and step into semi-gloom without having; his eyes so dazzled 
that for the moment he is blinded. Employees temporarily 
blinded in this manner are frequently injured by stumbling- 
over boxes or other obstacles that have been placed on 
the Ho.,r. 

.\ t\|)ical case of poor passage lighting and its result, is 
mentioned in Mr. Simpson's article already noted. He lells 
us (jf a certain shop having widely spaced lighting units and 
supi)orting columns, one of which cast a shadow which hid 
a flat two inch metal bar lying at an angle across the pass- 
age-way on the Hoor. When one of the front wheels of a 
truck encountered the bar, the truck axle, swerving sharply 
to the right, jerked the handle out of the laborer's hand and 
struck tlie right foot of a workman standing at the side to 
let tlie truck pass. The blow broke one of the small bones 
in his foot. The sudden stopping of the truck also caused 
one of the heavy pipes on it to roll off, the truck handle 
acted as a skid, guided the pipe against the workman's left 
leg, breaking both bones below the knee. It is evident, Mr. 
Simpson tells us, that neither man saw the bar of iron on 
the floor, a fact which is easily understood when one con- 
siders that the floor and the bar were both dark-colored, 
and further obliterated by the shadow. It is fair to assume 
that had adequate light been provided, one of the workmen 
would have seen the bar and would have removed it instead 
of attempting to pull a heavy truck over it. 

Mr. Simpson tells us further of a paper mill employee, 
who, while feeding a conveyor with small pieces of pulp 
wood, noticed that the chute at the other end of the con- 
veyor had become clogged. No light was provided at the 
chute, but the man, after stopping the conveyor, attempted 
to clear the way. While thus engaged a block of wood 
slipped out and, falling, broke his ankle. There was no oc- 
casion for any of the workmen to use this part of the mill 
unless the conveyor or the material caused trouble. This, 
however, was just the tinu* light was needed and none had 
been provided. 

Reducing Cost of Doing Business 

The amount of money required to maintain proper 
lighting units, affording ample illumination in both cases just 
cited, would have been negligible compared with the amount 
of the claim paid the injured workmen. It is a fact that 
such units could have been kept burning day and night for 
a number of years and still the owner would have realized 
a handsome profit. Undoubtedly also tlie employees would 
have been saved from injury and its attendant troubles. 

Mr. Simpson mentions other incidents of like nature, 
which are especially interesting to us, in that, the accidents 
resulting are directly traceable to poor lighting. In the first 
one, we find that an employee missing his footing, fell into 
a tank containing hot water and acid, and was fatally burned. 
In this case a number of tanks were placed close together, 
with narrow walks between them at the top. Guard rails 
and light were not provided. In another instance, we are 
tidd how tlie lack of light in a hohl of a vessel was, without 
a (hiiibl the cause of a crushed fool, .A workman was piling 
pig iron there, in the semi-darkness, the open hatch, far 
above, admitting so little light that he could not see the 
pile was uneven. While he was still at work the pile top- 
lilcd over and he was injured. Almost exactly similar was 
the accident which crushed a workman's shoulder, because 
he could not see ill Mie ill-light of the ship's liottom that a 
hook be had fastened int.. a bale of cotton was insecure. 
.After the liale liad bieii hoisted part way out of the hatch 



the Ik. ok slipped and the bale tell on the woikmau badly 
injuring his shoulder and back. 

.\ case wherein light had been provided but was poorlv 
located, is illustrated by the accident which occurred caus- 
ing serious injuries to a workman running a machine with 
four saws on one shaft. The saws were well guarded but 
the drop light was so badly arranged that one of the guards 
cast a deceiving shadow. The workman thought he was 
placing his hand on the guard, but instead he placed it on the 
shadow, and as a result was badly injured. This was inirely 
a case of improper lighting, and as it appears that the work- 
man arranged the light himself, it points out the hazard 
m the practice of permitting workmen to adjust lighting 
units to suit their own convenience, instead of having them 
placed by a lighting engineer who has studied the safety 
problem carefully. 

The records of workmen's compensation and accident in- 
surance companies, we are told by Mr. Simpson, ofifer a 
fruitful field for study of accidents, particularly when special 
attention is given to details in the investigalTons. The 
Travelers Insurance Company in the United States has over 
200 men who are specialists in accident prevention work. A 
record is kept of all industrial accidents happening in the 
factories, shops, and mills, carrying insurance with the 
Travelers; all itnportant ones are investigated by the in- 
spectors, who ascertain the conditions prevailing at the time 
the accidents occur. The reports of these men are of great 
interest in the relation they bear to causation and preven- 
tion of industrial accidents. It is found that very often the 
lighting question plays an important part. Figures com- 
piled from these sources indicate that one lialf a million 
avoidable accidents occur each year in the United States, of 
which number it is estimated that aliout one ([uarter are 
due directly or indirectly to poor lighting facilities. The 
number above mentioned is merely approximate, but returns 
from actual accidents investigated bear out the approxima- 
tion very well indeed. .Actual accidents investigated during- 
a period of one year, and listed as avoidable, are given as 
being 91,000 in number. The Travelers Insurance Com- 
pany's record show that 23.8 per cent., were due. directly or 
indirectly to lack of proper illumination. 

Twenty-four Per Cent, of All Accidents 
We are tohl that a further analysis of the records show 
that 10 per cent, of the total number of industrial accidents 
for the year were due primarily to inadequate illumination, 
and in the remaining 13.8 per cent., the lack of proper light- 
ing facilities was a contributory cause. 

Mr. D. R. Wilson, special inspector in the Factory Ser- 
vice in Great Britain made an investigation of lighting con- 
ditions in British textile industries and in foundries during 
the years 1911 and 1012 but in his reports there is not con- 
tained sufificient data to enable one to ascertain the percent- 
age of accidents due to the inadequate lighting conditions 
described. But it is interesting to learn that Great Britain 
and other European countries are giving this matter serious 
consideration. Their action in .giving attention to this 
problem helps to assure us that it is indeed a gra\e and 
serious one. 

The conditions existing in the greater number of our in- 
dustries are without doubt inexcusable whether we look at 
iheiii from the point of view of the workman or of the em- 
ployer. From Mr. White's article we learu Ihal it is 
roughly estimated that the cost of injuries to workmen 
amounts within a year to a quarter of a billion dollars; half 
of which accidents are preventable. Think of this enormous 
loss to manufacturers. And still more should we try to 
realize what these accidents cause in misery and suffering, 
|)erliaps for life, to the workmen and their families. 

It was the custom a few years ago for many plants, both 
large and small, to shorten the working-day during the mid- 



36 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 1, UilG 



winter months because proper illumination was lacking. But 
manufacturers have since realized that this is very short- 
sighted business policy. And each day in greater numbers 
are they also realizing that it is short-sighted policy to com- 
pel employees to work under any but the best possible con- 
ditions that can be provided. 

Essentials in Industrial Lighting 

Mr. White points out some of the principal things that 
should be borne in mind, and that should be given special 
attention when considering the matter of securing good light 
in an industrial plant. He first draws our attention to the 
manner in which manufacturers are giving this matter care- 
ful thought by constructing buildings in a manner entirely 
different from that followed a few years ago. As a result 
we find their construction has been radically changed until 
they are now almost as well lighted as the photographer's 
studio, brick and concrete walls seeming hardly to exist, the 
sides being a mass of glass. He tells us that: 

"Four factors may be taken into consideration witli 
regard to the proper illumination of industrial plants. 
The first is the question of how best to introduce day- 
light into a building; the second concerns the use of 
artificial illumination; the third, employment of methods 
for properly diffusing light; and lastly, the question of 
selecting the right sort of artificial illuminant, and so 
protecting it as to avoid fires and explosions." 
He mentions further how the realization of these new 
problems have brought into existence and created a demand 
for the illuminating engineer. He points out also, how the 
casualty companies, who, for a special premium take over 
the legal hazard involved in the employing of men in fac- 
tories, and who for this reason are held responsible for all 
preventable accidents to employees, greet the rise of this 
new profession with enthusiasm. 

We find in summing up the entire matter, that many 
employers and manufacturers now find good illumination a 
profitable investment. A great many of them, it is true 
also, have either not had the facts in the case pointed out 
to them, or only realize their need in a dim and incomplete 
way, because these facts have not lieen presented to them in 
a proper and convincing manner. If this is properly done 
by the man engaged in selling and installing good light, and 
if the electrical contractor who feels that he is incapable of 
doing this will call upon, — for instance — the different large 
illuminating glass manufacturers for the assistance of their 
staff of illuminating engineers, who extend their services in 
this connection gratis, these engineers will assist him in con- 
veying this knowledge to the manufacturer, and as a result a 
much larger field, and undoubtedly a profitable one, will be 
opened to the contractor, who will then not find it necessary, 
as did .Mexander. to sigh for more worlds to conquer. 



New Dual Power Automobile — An Economical 

Combination of Gasoline Engine and 

Electric Motor 

.\fter two years of experimenting and engineering, 
coupled with months of severe road tests, one of the oldest 
and most conservative of electric vehicle manufacturers is 
•about to place on the market a dual-power electric car, the 
most recent development of its kind. The principle of the 
new car, it is reported, is entirely novel, combining the best 
features of the gasoline car with those of the electric. Any- 
one familiar with an electric vehicle knows that if the bat- 
tery could 1)C charged every few miles or every time it 
needed it, or if it could be continuously charged, a battery 
only half as large would be necessary. Suppose then that 
half the Ijattery has lieen discharged, and in its place has 
lieen installed a small gasoline engine and dynamo to charge 
the remaining battery. The next nlivimis step is to elimin- 



ate tlie dynamo and to use the vehicle motor driven by the 
engine as a dynamo. Thus the engine and motor dynamo 
are placed on the same driving shaft with only a magnetic 
clutch between them, the controllers arranged so that the 
car may be driven by either the engine or the motor, and 
the engine when driving the car also drives the dynamo and 
charges the battery. 

From the point of view of the gasoline car, the modern 
automobile already has as part of its equipment a small 
storage battery and a dynamo motor which charges the 
battery and starts the engine. Suppose then that the dyna- 
mo motor is increased in size until it is large enough to 
run the car, and also suppose the storage battery corres- 
pondingly enlarged. The gasoline engine could then be 
made very much smaller because it would not be used for 
starting and accelerating — the things that are responsible 
for all the excess power requirement in the regular gasoline 
car. The control mechanism of this car exactly resembles 
the control meclianism of a gasoline car. It consists in its 
visible parts of a sector with two finger levers mounted above 
the steering wheel. The outer lever is the electrical con- 
troller, and the inner one controls the gasoline engine. The 
outer lever works directly through a rod in the steering 
shaft, on an electrical rheostat controller which governs all 
the necessary electrical connections. The inner lever also 
has (me electrical function; as soon as it is moved up from 
the neutral or dead position it actuates the magnetic clutch 
and connects the motor and engine. 

The motor turns over the engine and starts it in the 
usual gas car manner. As soon as the engine is running at 
speed it turns the motor into a generator and charges the 
liattery, the engine at the same time driving the car. How- 
ever, when both levers are up, the engine and motor to- 
gether drive the car giving sufficient power and speed for 
any occasion. The motor can drive the car alone, while the 
engine is still. The engine, however, cannot drive the car 
without also running the motor-dynamo and charging the 
battery. Coasting either down liill or on the level charges 
the liattery. 

.Assuming the car to be standing still, the driver moves 
the outer or electrical finger lever, and the car starts as a 
pure electric, motor driven from the batteries. It quickly 
attains l^i or 20 miles an hour, or whatever the desired speed 
may be. The driver may then continue to drive electrically 
or he may move the inner lever, and so start his engine. 
Both motor and engine are now driving the car. If road 
conditions are severe, or there is hill climbing to do, the 
dual may be continued, otherwise the driver next moves the 
iiulcr or electrical lever back to neutral. The engine is 
now driving the car and running the motor as a generator 
charging the battery. If tlie driver wishes to stop, he presses 
nn the single foot lever which operates the brake. If the 
niotiir is driving, the first movement of the foot lever shuts 
off tlie current; in any case, it short circuits the motor 
through a resistance making a magnetic brake. Further 
movement of the brake lever acts on a regular band brake 
on the rear wheels and stops the car. If desired, the action 
of the car may be largely controlled with the foot lever. 
There is. of course, no clutch lever, because there is no 
clutch in the ordinary sense of the word, and as there are no 
gears, there is no lever corresponding to the gear shift lever 
on a gas car. Even the braking for most stops is amply 
provided for by the reverse magnetic effect of the short cir- 
cuited motor when the finger lever is moved back. Reverse, 
which is purely electrical, is operated with a short heel lever 
just l)ack of the driver's foot. It simply reverses the 
electrical motor without changing any shaft or gear connec- 
tion. 

Every gasoline car operator knows tliat only a small 
portion of the high power of his engine is used in simply 
driving the car. Even the big heavy car with the 60 horse 



Aprfl 1, 1010 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



power engine uses not over 10 horse power for straiglit 
driving. The rest is merely on hand for emergencies, and 
the excessive demands for starting and accelerating. How- 
ever, the consumption of gasoline naturally corresponds to 
the size of the engine, and not to the amount of power that 
is actually used. It is reported that the test models which 
have been driven into the country for hundreds of miles in 
all sorts of weather and road conditions, have been making 
about thirty miles per gallon of gasoline wliile running on tlic 
engine alone and at the same time charging the battery for 
an additional fifteen miles on the same gallon, thus making 
a possible mileage of 45 on one gallon of gasoline — a most 
remarkable showing. This extraordinary economy seems 
almost incredible, but it will be. understood by anyone who 
is familiar with the regular gas car's extravagance. 

This duel-power electric can attain a speed of 40 miles 
per hour on the dual drive, or can maintain a speed of 30 
miles per hour when run as a pure electric. Another feat- 
ure claimed to lie a distinct advantage, is the ability to set 
the speed at a certain rate, say thirty miles per hour, and 
immediately as tlie car "picks up." it will maintain this 
speed until the driver wishes to change it. 



Electrical Contractors' Convention and Show in 
Massey Hall, Toronto, June 6, 7, 8. 

Plans have now been finally arranged for the annual 
convention of the Electrical Dealers and Contractors .Associa- 
tion of Ontario, which will be held in the basement of Massey 
Hall on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, June 6, 7 and 8, 
1916. At the same time the Association are putting on a big 
electric show, which is, in reality, the first electrical show ever 
attempted in Canada. Present indications are that the space 
will be very quickly taken up as manufacturers and dealers 
will appreciate the value of displaying their products for three 
days right in the view of the contractor delegates who will 
attend this convention from every city and town in Ontario, 
as well as from many points in our other provinces. 

When we say that this is really the first electrical show 
that has ever been put on in Canada we do not overlook the 
efforts that have been made from time to time to interest the 
electrical trade in cosmopolitan shows of various kinds. In 
this particular show, however, nothing outside of piirely elec- 
trical equipment will be allowed on exiiibition. The inten- 
tion is to interest only tliose people who are interested in 
electrical matters. l'"(U- ibis reason it is all the more im- 
portant that every section of the trade should stand behind 
this exhibition so as to make it a marked success. 

We believe that no electrical contractor can afford to 
miss the opportunity of being present at this convention and 
exhibition any more than any manufacturer or dealer can 
afford to overlook the advantages of meeting these contrac- 
tors. We understand that many interesting and special 
features will be shown including models of ideal construction 
work under different conditions, samples of concentric wir- 
ing, about which there has been very much discussion re- 
cently, and other matters of equal interest and importance. 
A number of recent devices just ready to place on the market 
will be shown for the first time. 

Keep the dates in mind — Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday. 
June 0, 7 and S. The location is an ideal one — Massey Hall, 
corner Yonge and Shuter Streets, in the very heart of the 
city. A copy of the announcement being sent out by the 
secretary of the show convention is shown on the next page. 



Personals 

Lieut. Alec Wilson, distribution engineer, Montreal Light. 
Heat and Power Company, is taking a course at Halifax to 
qualify for a captaincy in the Mctoria Rifles, Montreal 

Mr. H. R. Mallison, of the Nova Scotia Tramways 
and Power Company, recently delivered an address on the 
development of the water power at (iaspereaux before the 
Rotary Club of Halifax, N. S. 

Mr. Ernest V. Pannell, .Assoc. Mem. I. E. E., recently 
prepared a paper on Continuous Current Railway Motors, 
which was presented before the Institution of Electrical En- 
gineers, and is now published in pamphlet form. 

Mr. R. L. Wilson, manager of the Railway Division o: 
the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Company, East Pittsburgh 
works, has been appointed assistant general superintendent, 
looking directly after trades apprentices, employment, work- 
ing conditions and other matters of a similar nature. 

Mr. J. E. Richards, general auditor of the London and 
Port Stanley Railway system, has been appointed mana.ger 
and treasurer of the road, succeeding F. T. Leversuch. Mr. 
Richards was formerly with the Chatham, Wallaceburg ami 
Lake Erie Electric Railwa3-. 

Mr. L. V. Webber, sales manager of the Metropcditan 
Engineering Company of Canada, has resigned his connec- 
tion with that company to become Montreal manager for the 
Jefferson Glass Company of Canada. Mr. Webber is one of 
the best known men in the Canadian electrical trade, where 
he made the acquaintance of practically every central station 




Toronto Hydro Extending Underground Work 

The Toronto II ydrcj- [■"It itric Commis.sioners are calling 
lenders for a quantity of imderground conduit work, The 
work of the Commission for the present year also includes 
considerable extension and conslruclion work f)n a number 
■ •f sub-stations. 



Mr. I.. V. Webber 

man in the Dominion in the early days through his intimate 
associations with, and active work in the Canadian Electric 
Association. At that time he was with the Toronto Elec- 
tric Light Company where he was head of the meter depart- 
ment for a number of years. The Montreal showrooms and 
Mr. Webber's offices are in the Roval Trust liuilding. 



The Shawinigan Water and Power Company is now de- 
livering power to its subsidiary, the Public Service Corpora- 
tion, Quebec, over a new transmission line from Shawinigan, 
It will be remembered that the Shawinigan Company ac- 
quired a controlling interest in the Dorchester Electric Com- 
pany, and incorporated a new company with the name of 
the I'ublic Service Corporation. The steam plant of the 
Dorchester concern is being used as an auxiliary. 



38 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 1, 1916 



The Electrical Dealers and Contractors 
Association of Ontario 



will hold a 



Public Electric Show 



in connection with their Second Annual Convention at Massey 
Hall, Toronto, on June 6-7-8, 1916 

The Electric Show will be open to the trade, only, from 9 a. m. to 4 p. m. 
daily; the general public will be admitted from 4.30 to 11 p. m. 

The band of the Queen's Own Rifles will be in attendance each evening from 
7.30 to 10.30. 

Complete information may be obtained from the Secretary of the Show Com- 
mittee, Mr. E. A. Drury, 45 Moutray Street, Toronto. Telephone Parkdale 4413. 




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Plan of Massey Hall basement, Yonge and Shuter Sts., Toronto, where Electric Show will be held. 



April 1, mifi 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



What is New in Electrical Equipment 



Tlircc new HublK-lI rcllcctors have just been placed 
on llie market. They are classified as Focusing, Distribut- 
ing and Intensive. Fig. 1 illustrates the focusing type fur 
(>0 watt lamps. T-'iy. r." illustrates the distributing type for 





Fig. 1— Focusing Type Reflector wit 
corresponding Distribution Curve. 



lito watt lamps. Fig. 3 illustrates the intensive type for 
11)0 watt lamps. 

The f<ieusing type is recommended for localized illum- 
ination of high intensity over a small area. The smaller 
units are particularly adapted for bench work where small 
articles are assctiibled or where vises arc used. The dis- 




Distributing Type and Distribution Curve. 



tributing lyi)0, as its name implies, is intended for general 
illumination in factories or warehouses. Intensive reflec- 
tors are primarily designed for the lighting of large areas 
though they may be used to advantage in illuminating a 
group of machines by centrally suspending them from drop 
cords, thus reducing the distance between the unit and the 
floor and intensifying the light within the required area. 
All of these reflectors arc equipped with the standard 



€S 




Hubbell contractile collar holder making the use of a sep- 
arate shade holder unnecessary. These reflectors are made 
of a sturdy, uniformly spun steel, finished green outside 
and aluminum inside. Various types arc available for use 
with lamps ranging in capacity from 10 to 100 watts. 



Jumbo X-Ray Reflector 

The Jumbo is a big reflector designed for big type "C" 
lamps, and it is one of' the latest additions to the direct 
lighting line of reflectors manufactured by the National 
X-Ray Reflector Company, Chicago. This reflector was de- 
signed to illuminate interiors of considerable height and floor 
area, such as erecting shops, armories, coliseums, etc. A 
general shape was selected for this reflector that would give 




the desired distribution of light an-l ' : m i illy conceal the 
brilliant filament of the light source. The reflector itself 
is leyi inches in diameter and 13J^ inches high. It can be 
used with 500, 750, or 1,000-watt type C lamps. The special 
holder which is supplied with it has an adjustable feature 
which makes it possible to obtain two or three degrees of 
spread to the light from this unit. 



Fig. 3— Intensive Type and Dlstrihulion Curve 



Robbins & Myers New Line of Desk and Oscillating Fans 
For the 1916 season the Robbins & Myers Company have 
brought out a complete new line of desk and oscillating fans 
in the drawn steel frame construction. In this line two new 
sizes have been developed — the six-inch desk fan and the 
nine-inch oscillator. All sizes except the six and nine inch 
are furnished with six blades, regularly. The six-inch size 
has four blades and the nine-inch size has five blades. The 
advantages claimed for six blades over four blades is lower 
speed for a given volume of air, with less air hum. The steel 
shells of this new line are made from extra heavy metal — 
3/32 in. in thickness. The bronze bearings are pressed into 
cast iron hubs which are attached to the steel frames by 
screws. This permits the bushings to be replaced easily and 
quickly without dismantling the fan or destroying the align- 
ment. The oscillating mechanism is the gear type the same 
as is used in Robbins & Myers cast iron frame fans. 

The six-inch desk fan. Fig. 1, has a universal a.c.-d.c. 
motor, and will operate on direct current of any voltage from 
100 to 130 volts and on alternating current of any frequency 
from 25 to 60 cycles, and any voltage from 100 to 120 volts. 
As it is small and light it can be carried by the traveler in 



HI', F.l.F.CTRirAl, NRWS 



April ], UlIO 



Iiis hand bag, and as it will operate on the majority of com- 
mercial circuits, he can use it in almost any hotel. A switch 
ill llu- base jirovides two speeds. The base is provided with 
a fell iiad to prevent the fan from marring any surface upon 
wliicb it is i)laccd. The base and motor are handsomely fm- 
i.shcd in gloss black enamel and the blades are polished brass. 
The motor is large in proportion to the blade diameter and 
the fan will give a good breeze. Ten feet of cord and sep- 
arable plug arc supplied with the fan. 

The nine-inch oscillator fan, Fig. 3, has five blades, and 
is an excellent type for all household services. It is made 



their lines in the future and pay the cost, which was accepted. 
In addition to a large number of spectators in the court room 
were several picture men from the surrounding towns. 





Fig. 1 



Fig. 2-Nine Inch Dcsl< Fan. 



for alternating current, Model 36, and direct current Model 
37. The gear type oscillating mechanism is the same as is 
used in the larger fans. The motor is the series type and 
the speeds for direct current and alternating current are the 
same. A three-speed switch is provided. The fan is pro- 
vided with a felt pad on the base and is equipped with ton 
feet of cord and a separable plug. In addition to the 110 and 
330 volt types, the direct current fans can be furnished in 
low voltages for operation from storage batteries. 

The twelve and sixteen-inch desk fans have blades in 
liolh types. The motor is the induction type in the alternat- 
ing current model. This fan has a three-speed switch. The 
twelve and sixteen-inch oscillator is supplied with either a.c. 
or d.c. motor. The fan has an induction type motor and no 
centrifugal or automatic starting switch is required. It is 
regularly furnished with six blades in both the twelve and 
sixteen-inch sizes. 



The Packard Electric Co. 

j'he Packard Electric Co. Limited, have recently engaged 
as their chief engineer Mr. Frank T. Wyman, formerly chief 
engineer of the Pittsburgh Transformer Co. Mr. Wyman 
is a graduate of the University of Vermont. After gradua- 
tion he taught electrical engineering in the Drexel Institute, 
Philadelphia, for two years, and in the University of Pitts- 
burgh for two years. He has been with the Pittsburgh 
Transformer Co. for the past seven years, the last four as 
chief engineer. The Packard Electric Co. are to be con- 
gratulated in securing a man of Mr. Wynian's experience and 
ability. 



From the Dufferin "Post" 
Mr. VVm. Stewart is a moving picture man and ventrilo- 
quist, who hails from Toronto, and says he has been touring 
this country giving concerts for the past eighteen years. 
In operating his picture machine he connected his lantern 
leads onto the electric mains of the Cataract Electric Com- 
pany. Limited, in the towns of Erin and ;\lton, which re- 
sulted in the Electric Company laying a charge for the theft 
of electricity. The case was heard by Magistrates Limebeer 
and Harris, of Caledon, at that village last week, and owing 
to many complications developing which caused th->>case to 
be postponed the plaintiff was able to settle the ditificulty by 
giving the Electric Company a guarantee he would keep ofT 



Trade Publications 
Watch the Way the Wind Blows — booklet issued by the 
Westinghousc Electric and Manufacturing Company, Pitts- 
burgh, illustrating and'descriljing their various types of elec- 
tric fans. 

Lightning Arresters — new catalogue by the Electric Ser- 
vice Supplies Company, describing Garton-Daniels lightning 
arresters, with illustrations. This catalogue supersedes all 
similar catalogues and bulletins previously issued; well illus- 
trated 

Sherarduct — booklet by the National Metal Moulding 
Company, Pittsburgh, describing Sherarduct rigid steel con- 
duit. The booklet explains that this conduit is rust-proof 
and acid-proof, and illustrates a number of large buildings 
where it has been installed exclusively. 

Electric Radiators — folder issued by the Lee Electric 
Radiator Company, Chicago, describing a little 300-watt radi- 
ator suitable for electric cars. This radiator is operated oflf 
the battery, and, it is claimed, involves no additional ex- 
pense where this battery is charged according to a monthly 
rate. 

Fans — booklets No. 1083 and 1084, by Robbins & Myers 
Company, Springfield, Ohio, describing respectively cast- 
iron frame and drawn steel frame fans for a.c. and d.c. cir- 
cuits. The R. & M. Company are also distributing a folder 
for dealers which gives ,a number of interesting publicity 
suggestions for newspaper and other advertisements. 

Westinghouse Publications — The ."V B C of Automobile 

Battery Charging, describing the Westinghouse Cooper- 
Hewitt Rectifier Charging Outfit. Bulletin 3763; describing 
Westinghouse No. 533-B railway motor. Leaflet 3823; com- 
mutating-pole rotary converters. Leaflet 3818; type C push- 
button stations. Catalogue 3002; describing type CW slip- 
ring induction motors for constant and varying-speed con- 
tinuous duty service and No. 1 of Vol. 3 "Data Exchange." 



The Electric ^'ehicle .Association will affiliate with the 
National Electric Light Association and will be known in 
future as the Electric Vehicle Section of the National Elec- 
tric Light Association. The Electric Vehicle Association 
was formed in 1910 and has grown so rapidly that its pre- 
sent membership is approximately 1.200. This figure may be 
taken as indicative, within rough limits, of the growth of the 
electric vehicle industrj' during that period. 



Apparently "Electric Week" is to be made an annual af- 
fair in the Lhiited States as it is now announced that a na- 
tion-wide campaign similar to that carried out last year in 
connection with Electrical Prosperity Week will be under- 
taken under the name "America's Electrical Week" culmin- 
ating in a series of displays and demonstrations during t!ie 
week December 2-1), 1U16. .Xs was the case in last year's 
campaign the Society for Electrical Development, ^9 West 
:!9th Street, New York City, is conducting the c?'.npaign. 



Fraser & Chalmers of Canada Limited, Montreal, have 
recently been awarded the contract by the City of Regina. 
covering the delivery and erection of a 300 h.p. steam tur- 
bine direct connected to two centrifugal pumps having a to- 
tal capacity of seven million Imperial gallons per twenty-four 
hours. 



April I, lOin 



THK F. F.KC-TRICA I. NEWS 



HIGH TENSION CABLE 

Made in Canada — Unsurpassed Anywhere 

'I'Ik- lnll^l ini|)|-n\ c(l ami iip-ld-datc nicclianical dcxiccs knuwii. 
skilk-(l wiukmcii and tiic \ci-y i)est niatcrials, all i,(iiitiil)iitL' td achieve 
fipi- (Mir ]iiiKliict, a reputation for reliabilit_v and all niuiid cxcolleiu'c. 
iinsiu"])as>ed in Canada ny elscwhei'e. 

250.0(JO C..\[. Three (."Dnduetdr. Taper hiMdated. and plain Lead 
('nxered cable fur 13,20(_) xdlts, which we are at ])resent snjjplyinL; and 
inslallini^ lor the Torontu ihdro IClcctric S\stein. 



Photo 

Actual 

Size 




13,200 

Volts 

Pressure 



SPECIFICATIONS 

Cunductur.s cunii)osed ot 37 strands each .().S2 in. diameter. 
'Jdiickness nf dielectric on each Cdndnctor .210 in. 
'I'hickness in belt .210 in. 
Thickness of lead sheath .160 in. 
Overall diameter 2.61 in. 

Write us for prices on this and our other lines of 
wires and cables 

Eugene F. Phillips Electrical Works 

Head Office and Factory, Montreal 

— Winnipeg Calgary 



Branches : Toronto 



Limited 
Vancouver 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 1, 1916 



Current News and Notes 



Arnprior, Ont. 

The McNali Tclciilionc Company have Ijccii granted a 
rliartcr. 

Belle River, Ont. 

The Rochcsler Telephone Company are planning to 
extend tlieir trunk line from Pleasant Park to Belle River. 

Blenheim, Ont. 

The Blenlieim and Soutli Kent Telephone Company 
are planning line extensions. 

Calgary, Alta. 

Contracts to the amount of $9,773 were recently 
awarded the Canadian W'estinghouse Company for electrical 
apparatus. 

Castleton, Ont. 

The Cramalie Municipal Telephone Company propose 
building a system during the summer. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

The city council are extending their electric transmis- 
sion and telephone lines to the town of Beverly. 

Grand Valley, Ont. 

A liy-law authorizing the expenditure of .$11.(1(1(1 for an 
electric distributing system was recently carried by tlie elec- 
tors. 

Guelph, Ont. 

The annual report of the Guelph Radial Railway System 
recently submitted by A. H. Foster, manager, shows gross 
earnings of .$45,143. This is a slight decrease over the pre- 
vious year, but still sufficient to pay the annual dividend of 6 
per cent. 

Halifax, N. S. 

The city council have adopted the recommendation of 
the Board of Control of the city of Halifax that the draft 
agreement for the lighting of the city streets by the Halifax 
Power Company for twenty-five years be ratified. 

London, Ont. 

The Board of Commissioners are considering the installa- 
tion of a municipal lighting system along the west London 
breakwater. 

Mount Forest, Ont. 

The Mount Forest, Wellington & Grey Telephone Com- 
pany are planning to extend their lines from Pike Lake to 
Gleneden. 

Port Arthur, Ont. 

Mr. Richard Fox, for many years superintendent of the 
electric light system in Port Arthur, died recently at his home 
in this city. 

Portneuf, Que. 

The Portneuf Hydro Electric Company have awarded 
the contract for water turbine equipment to the William 
Hamilton Company, Peterborough. De Gaspe Beaubein, 
Montreal, is engineer in charge of this installation. 

St. John, N. B. 

The St. John Street Railway carried 7,782,979 passengers 
last year. Much of this increase in car travel was due to 
the extension of the railway tracks to East St. John and Glen 
Falls and to the completion of connection at the R'»versing 
Falls. 



Toronto, Ont. 

The annual statement of the Canadian General Electric 
Company for the year ending December 31, 1915, showed 
gross profits of .$1,219,513, compared with $914,528 the pre- 
vious year The unusually large sum of $416,222 is set aside 
for depreciation of buildings, machinery, patterns, etc., leav- 
ing a net profit of $764,378. After payment of the regular 
7 per cent, dividend there is a surplus of $66,356. One of 
the most interesting items in the report is "Interest on 
loans," which this year amounts to only $38,912, as com- 
pared with $190,957 a year ago. 

Vancouver, B. C. 

The B. C. Telephone Company have decided to erect a 
long-distance copper circuit between Xew Denver, Kaslo and 
Nelson. A certain amount of line work will also be put up 
between Nelson, Rossland and Penticton. 

Weyburn, Sask. 

A by-law was submitted to the electors on March 27 au- 
thorizing the expenditure of some $35,000 on the installation 
of a 500 kw. turbo-generator unit. 

Yamachiche, Que. 

The Brunclle I'"urnacc and Boiler Company arc consid- 
ering the installation of motor drive for a quantity of their 
machinery. 



Power Company Will Appeal 
Judgment has just been rendered in the Supreme Court 
by Mr. Justice Maclennan awarding the Nova Scotia Con- 
struction Company the sum of $175,332 for work done under 
various contracts in connection with the power company's 
hydraulic development at St. Timothy. It is stated by the 
power company's attorneys that an appeal against this 
iudgment will be entered. 



Employees Honor Memory of Geo. Westinghouse 

The ^'ctcran Employees' Association of the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, at its Third Annual 
Banquet, held Saturday evening, January 29th, in the Fort 
Pitt Hotel, Pittsburgh, presented to the company a hand- 
some bronze memorial tablet of the late George Westing- 
house. founder of the numerous industries bearint; his name. 



"Honest to Goodness" 

there is only one frosting for Nitrogen Lamps that 
will not strip or peel off under any test, that will 
remain white and outlast the lamp itself. 

"JACKFROST" 

Put up only in one pound bottles $3.50 C.O.D. ; 
also colorings of every kind. $2.00 pint bottles. 

JACKFROST COMPANY 



P.O. Drawer 735 



VANCOUVER, B.C. 



April l."j, Htir, 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



19 




Published Semi-Monthly By 

HUGH C. MACLEAN, LIMITED 

HUGH C. MacLEAN, Winnipeg, President. 
THOMAS S. YOUNG, General Manager. 
\V. R. CARR, Ph.D., Editor. 

HEAD OFFICE - :i47 Adelaide Street West, TORONTO 

Telephone A. 2700 
MONTREAL - Tel. Main 2299 - Room 119, Board of Trade 
WINNIPEG - Telephone Garry 856 - :i03 Travellers' Bldg. 
\ANCOUVER - Tel. Seymour 2013 - Winch Building 
NEW YORK - Tel. 3108 Beekman - 1136 Tribune Building 
CHICAGO - Tel. Harrison .53.51 ^ 1413 Great Northern Bldg. 
LONDON, ENG. -------- 16 Regent Street S.W. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 
Orders for advertising sliould reacli the office of publication not later 
tlian the 5th and 20th of the month. Changes in advertisements will he 
made whenever desired, without cost to the advertiser. 

SUBSCRIBERS 

The ■•Electrical News" will be mailed to subscribers in Canada and 
Creat Britain, post free, for $2.00 per annum. United States and foreign, 
.$2.50. Remit by currency, registered letter, or postal order payable to 
Hugh C, MacLean, Limited. 

Subscribers are requested to promptly notify the publislicis of failuie 
or delay in delivery of paper. 



ral for Canada, for lransnii.=sioii 



Entered as second class matter July ISth, 1914, at the Poslofficc at 
liuffalo, N.Y., under the Agt of Congress of March 3, 1879. 



Vol. 25 



Toronto, April 15, 1916 



An Amendment (?) to the Railway Act 

Notwithstanding anything in this Act or any 
other Act of the Legislative Assembly of the 
Province of Ontario, or any custom or usage to 
the contrary in cities of over 200,000 inhabitants, 
every electric railway company or street railway 
company operating a railw.iy therein shall fur- 
nish free transportation over all the lines so 
operated by the said companies, for all officers, 
non-commissioned officers and privates of His 
Majesty's regular Army or Navy, including those 
in course of training. 

This is the text of an amciuliiienl to the Oiitariu Railway 
\ot which Mr. Irish asks His Majesty, by and with tln' 
:i'lvicc and consent of the Le.i{islatii'e Assembly of the I'ro- 
vince of Ontario, tn enact at the present session. 

Some way or other wc don't liclicvc His Majesty will 
lb] it. His Majesty is British— not (jerman. That being the 
case \vc cannot conceive of his conscntini^ to any act which 
is so manifestly unreasonable and unfair. Some way or 
other we do not believe the Legislative .Assembly will ever 
uo so far as (o make the mistake "f asking His Majesty to 
'I'l siicli a thing. 

Mr. Irish evidently is unfortunate in the choice of his 
amendments. His recent atteni))! to help out the li(|tior 
interests was stillborn, though even among the most ardent 



supporters (if the proposed liquor legish.tioii there are many 
who will admit the justice of the arguments in favor of com- 
pensation. Mr. Irish's bill, however, had to be sacrificed 
on the altar of public opinion. Now, having learned his 
lesson, he has resolved to make no mare such mistakes. 
This time, knowing the present antagonistic attitude of a 
large percentage of the electors towards the Toronto Rail- 
way Company (against wliich the amendment is, of course, 
directly aimed) he no doubt feels safe in counting on pub- 
lic opinion to back him in treating this corporation witli as 
little consideration as if they were a lot 01" criminals. 

But we believe again Mr. Irish has miscalculated. Many 
citizens of Toronto may have no love for the Toronto Street 
Railway Company, may feel that in more than one stand-up 
fight the company has got the better of the city — but that 
is an entirely different thing frotn deliberately hitting below 
the belt as this amendment aims lo do. It is entirely a 
c|iiestion of the company's charter rights— not what the 
company ouglit to do, or might d<i if it were so philan- 
tliropically inclined — though, for the matter of that, what 
right has this company to give the soldiers free rides any 
more than the Hydro or the T. E. L. have to give them 
free light, or some other group of citizens to give thctii 
free meals, someone else clothes, someone else cigarettes, 
etc. It is an amendment without one shred of justice or 
cotiimon sense to commend it. 



Should We Stop Recruiting in Ontario? 

To tlte Britisher, in the (^anadian. there is something 
repulsive about the word "conscription." Voluntary service 
has been so long recognized throughout the British Empire 
as the ideal form of military law that we do not take kindly 
to the thought of being compelled to shoulder arms. But 
in the face of what is happening in Canada, if we look right 
at the facts we cannot but foel that there is much to be said 
in favor of conscription. 

What is the situation in (Jntario? Recruiting has been 
carried on to such an extent and in such a haphazard manner 
that our industries arc crippled, production is at low ebb, 
labor for the factory unobtainable, and contracts which right- 
ly belong to us are going to the United States. Ontario is 
suffering as the result of her activity in recruiting, a state- 
ment which cannot be made of certain other provinces of 
the Dominion. Conscription would remedy this inequality. 

This war is a business and should be conducted in a 
business-like way. Have we not recruited beyond the re- 
i|uirements? If we have not, why are battalions which 
were in camp at Niagara last year preparing to return there 
this summer? The time necessary to train a soldier is surely 
not a satisfactory answer — and all the time our industries 
crying for men. 

Sir Robert Piorden olftrcil to send .500,000 meti if re- 
liiiired. but it would seem tliat the Minister of Militia's call 
fcir the second 350,000 has not yet been justified. 

If we are recruiting more men than are required, it 
means loss to the country and to the Empire. Every man's 
time should, in this crisis, lie employed where it will be 
mcist effective. 

The scarcity of labor is serious. The suggestiiui has 
been made that women take the place of men in the lianks 
and oflices and cither business places, and that the men thus 
replaced whn do not join the colors go to the farms. Yet, in 
the face of this situation, we find the Government appropri- 
ating $100,000 for a campaign in the daily newspapers to cn- 
cotiragc iticrcased production and thrift on the farm, where 
the Btipply of labor is already totally inadequate. 

There are grave economic problems before us. Can 
they be satisfactorily worked out under the present system 
of recruiting? What arc the opinions of our readers? 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 15. 1910 



Special Contractors' Number of E. N. 

The ckctrical contractors of the province of Ontario 
liave shown an entirely commendable confidence in the 
immediate future of the electrical business in announcing 
so early the date of their convention and in prosecuting so 
vigorously their campaign for a real Electric Show which 
is to be held in connection with the convention. That the 
Show Committee is meeting with splendid success is grati- 
fying assurance that their confidence was not misplaced. It 
is very possible that a much more pretentious program could 
have been carried forward with equal success, but we un- 
derstand it was the feeling of the association members gen- 
erally that it would be better policy to make haste slowly. 
At present writing, however, it looks as if the annual Elec- 
tric Show has now established itself, and we look to set 
it grow in size and representative value year by year. 

The Electrical News from the inception of this organ 
ization has been only too pleased to render every assist- 
ance in its power to further the aims of the contractor mem- 
bers. This (1) because we had faith in the personnel o) 
the association and of its officers, and (3) because we haf" 
long been convinced of the necessity of such an association 
to round out the organization of the Ontario electrical trade. 
.\t no distant date we hope to see similar associations in 
every province of the Dominion — British Columbia is the 
last to fall into line— and. a little later, perhaps, a Dominion- 
wide association, with possibly the provinces as branches; 
or, the Dominion association may be merely executive, com- 
posed of elected delegates from each province. The main 
thing, however, is that we have started. It is quite worth 
while to be on the way even if we are not quite sure where 
we are going. There is a lot of missionary work to be done 
yet and, as we see it at the moment, these provincial asso- 
ciations are doing splendid missionary work. 

So, let us keep the ball rolling along. The Electrical 
News wants to do its share and we believe we can best 
serve the interests of the contractors, as well as the manu- 
facturers and jobbers, by getting out a Special Contractors' 
Number on June 1. No pains will be spared to make this 
issue interesting and useful to the electrical contractors of 
Canada. If wc succeed in arousing them to take a deeper 
interest in one another and to realize that by working to- 
gether many of the present unsatisfactory conditions may 
be removed, we shall consider ourselves amply repaid. 

And now, everybody, let iis get behind and boost for a 
Big and Successful Convention and an Electric Show that 
will be talked about till next year this time. The officers 
of the Association can be depended upon to do their share 
but the real success must depend on the rank and file. That 
means you. Don't wait for the other fellow to do all the 
work and show all the enthusiasm. Get your shoulder to 
the wheel. 



must be thrust into the damp earth or in water. Contact 
with the line wire is niade possible by removal of the in- 
sulation from a few inches of the emergency wire. 

The Adams instrument docs not ring the bell of the 
receiving telephone, but instead causes a screeching sound 
from a small megaphone-shaped apparatus descriptively 
known as a "howler." This instrument is installed at the 
ranger station telephone and is said to give effective notice 
that some one is on the wire. If the field man needs to 
talk with some one elsewhere on the line, the ranger station 
instrument can be used to ring up the person wanted, when 
the conversation can be carried on. 

Forest officers say that these portable phones are especi- 
ally valuable in reporting fires and other emergencies with 
the least possible delay, and also in sending instructions to 
field men and keeping the district rangers informed as to 
the progress of work going on in the field, thus supplement- 
ing the regular telephone sets installed at lookout points, 
ranger stations, and at convenient intervals along Forest 
Service roads and trails. 



Rangers Carry Two-and-a-Half Pound Telephone 

A ]HjrtaliK- teleplione, made of aluminum and weighing 
2J/2 pounds, the invention of a forest officer, R. B. Adams, of 
Missoula, Montana, will be part of the regular equipment of 
patrolmen on the National Forests the coming field season. 
This instrument is regarded as a great improvement over the 
set formerly used, which weighed ten pounds. 

It is said that a field man equipped with this telephone, 
a few yards of light emergency wire, and a short piece of 
heavy wire to make the ground connection can cut in any- 
where along the more than 20,000 miles of Forest Service 
telephone lines and get in touch with the headquarters of 
a supervisor or district ranger. To talk, one end of the 
emergency wire is thrown over the telephone line, the two 
ends are connected to the portable instrument, ai:^ the in- 
strument is connected to the ground wire, the end of which 



Hydro-Electric Smelting Company 

A syndicate backed by Newfoundland capital and or- 
ganized by Mr. W. A. MacKaj', has been formed and incor- 
porated at St. John's with a capital of $100,000.00. It is called 
the Hydro-Electric Smelting Co., Ltd. This Company has 
taken over property at Little Bay. known as the Little Bay 
Mines, and have installed an electric smelter of the Wile 
type, at St. John's with a capacity of ten tons per day. This 
smelter is situated on the property of the Reid Newfound- 
land Co. near tidewater, the current being purchased from 
this company, who have a generating plant twelve milt? 
from the city. 

It is proposed with this plant to treat galenas, coppers 
and other valuable ores from different parts of the island. 
with a view to encouraging individual claim holders to work 
their properties until such a time as a permanent supply of 
about 300 tons per day will be available, when the com- 
pany will erect a concentrating plant and smelter to handle 
this quantity at some convenient point in Green Bay, where 
there are numerous deposits of ores at tidewater. 

The property at Little Bay consists of a square mile 
owned outright. This property has been idle for the past 
two decades. It had been worked very extensively by an 
English Company and in 1881 shipped 22.000 tons of ore. 
averaging 10 per cent, copper. At that time the company 
did not find it remunerative to ship any ores under the above 
percentage, consequentlj- there are dumps, estimated to con- 
tain 500,000 tons, on the property, running from 2 to 7 per 
cent, copper. There is also a lake on the property with an 
estimated capacity of 26 million gallons which is rich in 
copper being leached from the mines and dumps. Tin 
scrap deposited in this lake precipitates copper very rapidly. 
as. in three to four weeks, when taken from the water it 
assaj's from 32 to 35 per cent, copper. 

The company has acquired a water power from the 
Newfoundland Government, and contemplates erecting a 
hydro-electric plant for the concentration of these dumps, 
and for electric smelting on the spoi. Mr. P. L. Simpson, 
Pittsburgh, is consulting engineer and chemist of the com- 
pany. 

Copper mining in Newfoundland has not been vigorously 
exploited during the past twenty years, when several mines 
were closed down owing to the gxtremely low price then ex- 
isting. Newfoundland was once the sixth copper producing 
countrv of the world. 



It is reported that the Madoc Mining Company will 
construct a hydro-electric development plant at Big Stoney 
Rapids to operate their Goudreau mines. 



April 15, 1910 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Electric Vehicle Day at N. E. L. A. 

An important feature nf the fortlicuniing convention of 
the National Electric Light Association at the Congress 
Hotel, Chicago, May 22nd to 26th, will be Electric Vehicle 
Day under the auspices of the Electric Vehicle Section of 
that organization. A partial list of papers arranged for pre- 
sentation on Electric Vehicle Day at the convention follows: 

"Central Station Assistance in Promoting Electric 
Vehicle Use," by W. P. Kennedy, Consulting Transportation 
Engineer, 1790 Broadway, New York City. 

•Exchange Battery Systems" by P. D. Wagoner, Pre- 
sident, General Vehicle Co., Long Island City, N. Y. 

"i'assenger Vehicle Problems and Activities" by E. P. 
Chall'ant, Eastern Representative, Anderson Electric Car Cu, 
2 Columbus Circle, N. Y. C. 

"Greater Garage Service" by Harry Salvat, Proprietor, 
P'ashion Auto Garage, .-ilst Si. and Cottage Grove Ave., Chi- 
cago, 111. 

"The relation of tires Id Electric \'ehicle Efficiency" by 
S. V. Norton, Manager Truck Tire Sales Dept. B. F. Good- 
rich Co., Akron, Ohio. 

"Electric Truck Troubles and I low lu Miuiniize Them" 
by 1'". E. Whitney, (ieneral Manager, t'oininercial Truck Co. 
of America, 27th and Brown Streets. Philadelphia, Pa. 

"Industrial Truck Applications" by (i. \V. Squires, Jr., 
Sales Manager, General Vehicle C... l.,,ii- Island City, N. V. 



Recovery in Industrial Life 

The annual report i.f tlio t'anadian Westinghouse Com- 
pany, head offices Hamilton, Out., shows net earnings for 
the year 191.5 amounting to .$860,628.00; property and plant 
account takes .$150,000 and $2in,285 is carried forward. The 
total surplus of the company is now $1,823,775 and the total 
assets $8,:^:i0,757. Regarding business conditions the annual 
report has this to say: 

"The industrial life of Canada <lurin,g the year just closed 
experienced a remarkable recovery from the suspended act- 
ivity of the preceding year. Many plants which had with 
difficulty kept together an irreducible minimum of their op- 
erating organization found themselves early in 1915 strained 
to their utmost capacity under night and day operation. In 
addition, numerous new industries have been brought into 
being, the changed conditions in these respects being the 
direct result of lar,!?c purchases in Canada by the British 
and Allied Governments of various supplies and munitions 
of war." 



Montreal's Electrical Luncheons 

At the Wednesday Electrical Luncheon, held in Mon- 
treal, on April 5, Mr. W. H. Camp, of the C. P. R. tele- 
graphs, mentioned that during a sleet storm in the Sudbury 
district the copper wires were broken; in adjoining districts 
the storm did not aflfect the wires, and the superintendent of 
the Sudbury section suggested that the cause of the breaks 
was disintegration due to the flames from roasting minerals. 
Mr. Camp requested information on this point from any of 
those present. Mr. W. J. Winter, of the Bell Telephone 
Company, stated that the company had had considerable 
trouble with their wires, of phosphor bronze, in that district; 
they crystalized owing to the fumes, and had to be laid in 
conduit. The company also found that copper wires in 
Montreal subjected to fmnes from locomotives had a com- 
paratively short life. Mr. A. C, Towne told of his exper- 
ience with copper wire in round houses stating that the 
fumes eat away the wire, leaving a mere filament. 



Meter Testing Board in the City 
of Edmonton 

By Stanley Clothier and Arthur J. Cantin 

Like many other western cities, the City of Edmonton 
had a phenomenal growth during the boom years of 1911 to 

1914, and many of the departments were re-modelled sev- 
eral times during this period. In three years the electric 
light warehouse was moved three times to larger quarters, 
and each time an opportunity was given to remodel the 
meter testing board. 

The present board has been in operation since June. 

1915, and a description, together with a schematic diagram of 
connections, may prove interesting and useful to readers of 
the Electrical News. Each time the test-board was re- 
modelled an effort was made to improve and simplify it, not 




The Ottawa Electric Railway Company have supplied 
a gun crew of ten men for the 51st Battalion, C. E. F., 
Kingston. 



forgetting th;ci sufuty lust is an essential, both for the per- 
son operating, and for the meters themselves. 

The board, as can be seen from Fig. 1 is a double board, 
each half being entirely independent, so that two men can 
work at the same time without interfering with one another. 
The left side is used for single-phase, two-wire meters only, 
it having a simple connection as shown in the sketch. The 
right side is more fully equipped, and is used for single-phase 
two and three-wire meters, also for polyphase 110, 220 and 
■110 volt meters, and any power factor desired. 

The supply is taken from the regular 220 volt three 
phase power mains. The voltage fluctuation is perhaps 
greater on the power mains than on the lighting mains, but 
by the use of a Rotating Standard ordinary voltage fluctua- 
tions arc not noticed. The phase shifter was supplied by 
(he States Co. and is indispensable where a large number of 
polyphase meters are repaired and tested, making i)ossible 
an accurate power factor adjustment. It also acts as a 
potential transformer and delivers 110, 320, and 440 volts. 

The three pole double-throw switch is one of the main 



32 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 15, 191 (i 




Iszpy 



J/O)^ 



m 



'&T.SP5 






■/^o/ary 
6/ontfarc/ 



^n'fe iS*v//t/>es 



< _ r 



on 



N\N\\ 



rrr"": 




/^o/eoAa/ Co// 

Hnife 6tf//c/)es 



^ST5 



?/7^ 



lamp 3a/?A 
//Ok- 



lomp da/7 A 



Fig. 3— Schematic diagram of connections, Edn 



neter test-boartl. 



features of the board and tlie throwing over of this switch 
is the only action needed to change from two-wire to three 
wire. The switch is seen in Fig. 2 close to the phase shifter. 
When in the upper position the board is ready for two wire 
and polyphase meters, and only leads 1, 3 and 5 are alive, 
making accidental short circuit impossible. When in the 
lower position leads 1, 2, -4, and 5 are used, and the line volt- 
age is put on the shunt terminals of the Rotating Standard. 

The rheostat used on this side of the board is made of 
33 c.p, carbon filament 330 volt lamps. This lamp bank is 
located in the basement immediately below, wliero the light 
and heat are out of the way. 

The cost of the board as it now stands, not including the 
Rotating Standard, is less than $100.00 and is complete cn- 
oug"!! to serve all the requirements of a department the size 
of Edmonton. 

It may be stated that the 330 volt lead was selected after 
careful consideration. Extra switching gear could have 
been provided to give a 110 volt load when testing 110 volt 
meters, but with the present arrangement there is no danger 
of burning out lamps, as might be possible with 110 volt 
lamp load and the current consumption is really a small 
item. 

About 500 meters are handled per month on the test 
board with an average of 30 kw.h. 

The meter leads are made of No. 14 flexible heater cord 
and will carry 40 amps, without overheating. Spring con- 
nections are fitted on the leads so that they can be inserted 
in the meter terminals without the use of a screw driver. The 
l)oard is made of 3 in. fir plank mounted on a frame of 2 in. 
iron pipe. A portable lamp is provided and is useful for 
examination of meters. On top of the board are three test 
lamps connected to either 330 or 440 volt an<l used for de- 
tecting ground or open circuit. 



To Buy Out Chambers Plant 

The Board of Trade of the town of Truro recently unani- 
mously adopted the following resolution: — "Resolved that 
the Truro Board of Trade is of the opinion that the Town 
of Truro should purchase the Chambers Electric Light & 
Power Company, Limited, undertaking and franchise, pro- 
vided a satisfactory purchase price can be arranged, with a 
view to extending the same and operating an Electric^ Light 
& Power Plant as a public utility for the town." 



To Confer on Underground Plans 



W ith a view to an amicable arrangement, the Quebec 
Public Utilities Commission asked the Montreal Electrical 
Commissioners and the power and other companies to con- 
fer on the subject of agreeing on a mutually satisfactory sys- 
tem of manholes for ihe underground conduit system. The 
Public Utilities Commission have, on several occasions, heard 
evidence and arguments by the companies which object to 
tlic single system of manholes, and since then the law lias 
been amended giving the commission authority to approve 
the use of common manholes for low and liigh tension wires. 
The Commission, in a communication to the various parties, 
state that "the whole question resolves itself into whether 
there should be separate or cominon manholes, and upon 
this question the interested parties seem to be thoroughly 
divided in their views. The ultimate cost of the work will 
have to be borne by the interested companies, and with this 
common interest it seems to us not impossible that they 
should so far reconcile their dififerences as to agree upon a 
conduit system reasonably safe without costing undue out- 
lay. We appreciate the fact that the proper officers of 
the companies interested are the best persons to determine 
what their requirements are, and how far they can be modi- 
fied to obtain agreement upon a system that can be fairly 
used by all. We therefore propose to give these companies 
an opportunity to get together and solve the matter for 
themselves if they can. The only observation we would 
offer is that it may be quite necessary at certain places to 
have separate manholes, without establishing any general 
rule, and that it is quite obvious, to a greater extent, that a 
systein of common manholes is reasonably safe and much 
more economical." 

The various companies and the Electrical Commissioners 
are therefore requested to meet and see if an agreement can- 
not be arrived at to eliminate separate manholes as much as 
possible, and get on with a system that will be reasonablj' 
safe and avoid unnecessary expense. Any agreements are 
to be filed and, failing agreements, written submissions are to 
be made showing what the parties contend for in the way of 
joint or separate manholes. These subinissions will come 
before the Commission and the Railway Board. 



Electric Supplies, (H. Norman Howlett and H. Miller), 
Miiulreal, Que., have registered. 



April 15, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Regulation of Transmission Lines 

The Application of Synchronous Condensers— Favorable Results of Operation 
on the Winnipeg Municipal System (Con.) 



By F. H. Farmer and E. V. Caton 



\\'c have already seen that any alternating current may 
be resolved into two components — its in-phase component 
given by I cos * and its out of phase component given by 
I sin 9. Now from the simple diagram as shown in Fig. 2, 
we note that by reducing the out-of-phase component the 
power factor may be increased, and it is obvious that by 
supplying to the circuit a current equal in Value to the out- 
of-phase component, but 180 degs. different in phase, the 
wattless component may be eliminated and the power factor 
brought to unity. That is, loading the circuit with a leading 
current equal to the out-of- phase component AB = I sin 9 
the power factor may be made unit}'. 

To find the kv.a. of synchronous motor required to raise 
the power factor of a given load to another power factor it 
is only necessary to supply a leading current equal to the 
difference of the wattless component in the two cases. 

Thus, to raise 100 kw. at 80 per cent, power factor to 
100 per cent, power factor, 

kv.a. = 12.5 

Therefore watt component =; 125 cos = 125 X .8 = 100 
kw., and wattless component ^ 125 sin 9 = 125 X .6 = 75 kv.a., 
or to bring up the power factor of a load to 100 kw. at 80 
per cent, power factor to unity power factor would require 
a synchronous motor capacity of 75 kv.a. leading. 

Another method of calculation may be used in that ratio 
wattless 

:= tan ". Therefore wattless component = 100 

power 
tan 9 = 75 kv.a. .\ simple diagram for the performance of 
(his calculation is given in Fig. 7. 

It is thus seen that the power factor, and therefore the 
regulation of a line may be controlled by the use of syn- 
chronous motors and the practical application of this is found 
where the voltage at the power house is kept constant and 
the power-factor of the load varied to give the required volt- 
age at the receiver end. During light load the synchronous 
motor is made to give a lagging current and thus decrease 
the power factor and increase the drop, and on heavy loads 
the synchronous motor is made to give a leading current, 
thus increasing the power factor and decreasing the drop. 
By suitable adjustment of the synchronous motor excitation 
the power house voltage may be held constant over 
a wide range of load and the voltage at the receiver end 
adjusted to the load conditions. It will be noted that this 
method of control differs essentially from the method more 
generally in use up to the present time, viz., adjusting the 
synchronous load to maintain the power factor as high as 
possible, in that, during light load periods it will be neces- 
sary to decrease the power-factor of the load considerably 
to obtain the required voltage at the receiver end without 
lowering the power-house voltage. 

This method of operation may be open to objections on 
the score of efficiency when the power is supplied by a steam 
plant, but in the case of an hydro-electric plant supplying 
power over a lon.g line has obvious advantages. 

The question may be asked what is the limit to which 
this method of line regulation may be applied. In the case 
of the ordinary transmission line as at present designed the 
theoretical limit of constant voltage regulation is so much 
larger than the load for which the line is designed that it is 
of little importance, the efficiency being the limiting value. 
In the case of lines having conductors of large size, how- 



ever, since the efiiciency is high, right up to the theoretical 
limit of constant voltage regulation, it becomes of import- 
ance. In practice the theoretical limit is felt with very heavy 
lines by a rapid increase in the condenser capacity required 
as this limit is approached. 

At the time it was decided to instal synchronous con- 
densers, the city of Winnipeg's plant consisted of five 3.000 
kw. generators and three additional 5,000 kw. sets were be- 
ing installed, making the total normal capacity of the station 




3O0 ^OO SOO iOO 

Fig. 7 



700 BOO 300 /ooo 



equal to 30,000 kw. without considering the overload capacity 
of the machines. The design of the plant is such that an 
ultimate capacity of 81,600 kw. may be installed. The present 
transmission line consists of two circuits carried on one set of 
steel towers. The particulars of the line are as follows: length, 
77 miles; frequency, 60 cycles; cables, 278,600 cm. aluminum; 
average conductivity, G1.15 per cent.; overall diam., .653 in.; 
wires carried at corners of an equilateral triangle of 6 ft. 
sides; resistance per wire at degs. C, 22.7 ohms; reactance 
per wire, 53.8 ohms; capacity susceptance per wire to neutral, 
.000462. The lines were desi.gned for a ma.ximum load of 
11,250 kw. each. The present right of way will allow another 
set of lowers with two more lines to be installed. It will 
thus be seen that under the then existing conditions the 
maximum capacity of the existing right of way was 45,000 kw. 
The load in 1'.I13 had risen to over 14,000 kw. and with 
this increasing rapidly it was necessary to provide additional 



24 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 15. liliG 



line capacity. Various methods were discussed, viz., the 
building of an additional line and the increasing of the pre- 
sent line voltage. After full consideration, and particularly 
in view of the expense involved in either of the above schemes, 
the installation of synchronous condensers at the terminal 
station was decided upon . The various schemes considered 
and the final decision are fully gone into in the paper by 
Prof. Herdt, to which reference is made. It may be noted 
in passing that the power-factor of the load at that time 
varied from about 78 per cent, on light load to SS per cent, 
on full load. 

Equipment 

At the city of Winnipeg's terminal station the electrical 
energy transmitted from Point du Bois at 60,000 volts is 
transformed to 12,000 volts on bus-bars, at which voltage 
it is transmitted to the various sub-stations of the system 
and to the city pumping system to the north. The con- 
densers are arranged to operate from the 12,000 volt Inis- 
bars, and so maintain the load on the power transformers at 
the desired power-factor. The bus-bars are in duplicate, 
main and auxiliary, and feeders may be supplied from either 
set. Both sets are also cut into two sections. No. 1 and 
No. 2, tied together by tie switches, and the two con- 
densers operate respectively from main bus No. 1 and main 
bus No. 2. There did not seem to be any particular ad- 
vantage to be gained by duplicating switching arrangement 
so as to operate from auxiliary buses as well as main buses. 

The transformers, condensers and other equipment are 
housed in an dnnex to the terminal station which is arranged 
so as to admit of extension when it becomes necessary to 
add still more condenser capacity. On a gallery above the 
transformers are placed the oil switches controlling the 
machines. An overhead crane is provided to facilitate the 
handling of the machinery, and the transformers are on rails 
so as to render them easily removable if necessary. The 
building is well lighted by five large windows, and arrange- 
ments are made for ample ventilation as described below. 

The transformers are rated 6,300 kv.a. capacity, with 
primary 13,000 volts, and secondary 6,600 volts. They are 
star-connected on both high tension and low tension, with 
suitable taps on the high tension side to take care of changes 
in bus-bar voltage, and with three sets of terminals brought 
out on the low tension side, giving 1,150 volts, 3,300 volts and 
0,600 volts respectively. The first two are for starting pur- 
poses only. The transformers are water cooled, and of the 
usual shell type of construction. 

The two condensers are each 6,000 kv.a. capacity, at 
degs. leading power-factor, 6,600 volts, 60 cycles, 600 r.p.m. 
This rating is a maximum rating and is based on a tem- 
perature rise of 50 degs. C. at continuous full load. On 
account of the high speed they do not, occupy much floor 
space, the bedplate being only 12 ft. 1 in. by 9 ft. 6 in. The 
construction of the stator follows standard methods and has 
large air ducts for ventilation. The end bell is solid so as to 
constrain the air to be forced past the armature winding. 
The rotor, which is a solid steel casting, has interior ven- 
tilating ducts through which air can circulate into the inner 
part of the machine. Fan blades are attached to the rotor 
near the centre to force the air into these ducts and blades 
are also attached near the periphery which produces a power- 
ful draft inside the housing. 

The machines have to dissipate the heat losses on a 
capacity of 6,000 kv.a., and since they are of comparatively 
small dimensions, owin,g to the high speed, it will be seen 
that the air must be passed through rapidly to dissipate the 
heat generated. Each machine passes about twenty thous- 
and cubic feet of air per minute, and in order to prevent the 
air in the room becoming too hot a disc fan has been placed 
in the wall as high as possible. The air enters the.building 
through a large door communicating with an open craneway. 



and it therefore is as cool as outside conditions will admit. 
Under these conditions even with the hottest summer weather 
the circulating air is kept reasonably cool. In the tips of 
the poles is inserted a damping winding which consists of 
a number of bars inserted in slots in the faces of the pole 
pieces, these being connected by copper straps on either 
side of the rotor. The function of this winding is to make 
the machine self starting and acts in the same way as the 
short-circuited winding of an ordinary induction motor. It 
further has a powerful damping effect opposing any tendency 
of the machine to hunt backwards and forwards off the syn- 
chronous position. The exciter, which is of 40 kw. capacity, 
is direct connected on the rotor shaft. 

It is essential in a machine of this sort whose capacity 
is a considerable percentage of the capacity of the whole 
system, that the starting should make as little line disturb- 
ance as possible. There is considerable friction in a journal 
when a shaft is just starting up and before the oil film has 
formed between the shaft and bearing surface, and in order 
to eliminate this effect when starting up the machines an 
electrically-driven plunger pump supplies oil through ports 
in the bottom of the bearings, thus actually lifting the shaft 
from direct contact with the bearin.g and allowing it to float 
on a film of oil under pressure. The oil gauges on this 
pump show that a pressure of about 600 to 900 pounds per 
square inch is necessary to lift the rotor, after which the 
pressure remains constant, the oil flowing away over the 
surface of the bearing. When the machine is well under 
way and the oil rings in the bearings are supplying the 
necessary lubrication, the pump is shut down and the valves- 
closed. 

To determine the extent to which the starting effort is 
improved by the use of oil pumped into the bearings, a test 
was made recently on one of these machines at the station. 
A lever was attached to the shaft, and a pull exerted at a 
measured distance from the centre at right angles to the 
lever, the force applied being measured on a dynamometer. 
After the machine has been at rest for twelve hours, and the 
bearings were consequently pretty dry, the turning moment 
necessary to start the rotor was 4650 foot pounds. On start- 
ing up the oil pumps, with the pressure held steady at 600 
pounds per square inch, the turning moment necessary to 
start the rotor was 104 foot pounds only, or about 2 per 
cent, of the former. 

Minimum Line Disturbance 

A consideration of the theory of starting characteriza- 
tion of self-starting synchronous motors is not within the 
scope of this paper; but in actual practice the ability of a 
condenser to start up with a minimum line disturbance is a 
most important consideration, especially when the units are 
large in comparison with the total line capacity. The point 
is, therefore, discussed briefly. The actual initial starting 
torque will vary with the position of the field poles relative 
to the armature coils from a maximum to a minimum, de- 
pending on whether the field poles are directly between, or 
directly central with the armature poles. If the motor fields 
be short-circuited at starting an induced current will flow 
through them in quadrature with the impressed voltage which 
will have a powerful demagnetizing eflfect on the stator and 
result in a decrease of torque. If, however, the fields are 
left open an induced voltage may be set up high enough 
to cause a breakdown of the field winding. It is usual 
to short-circuit the field through a resistance when starting, 
except in special cases where high torque is necessary. After 
the motor has started up its speed will rise until it reaches 
synchronous speed, and locks itself in, the pole pieces on 
the rotor assuming a definite polarity induced by the polarity 
of the stator winding. This may or may not be the polaritj' 
for which the fields are connected to the exciter. If it is 



April ir,, iiiio 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



25 



opposite polarity, then on applying a field current the poles 
will be demagnetized, and a heavy current will flow into, the 
armature stater owing to the rotor having to slip one pole 
to come into synchronism: this is the cause of the heavy 
kick frequently noticed on closing the field switch of a syn- 
ilironous nuilcjr. This may be obviated by closing the field 
circuit with a very weak field current, which ensures that the 
pnlarily will be correct. Then, as the field current is in- 
creased, the machine remains in step, and the field may be 
adjusted to the most desirable point for switching full volt- 
age onto the stator. The theory of self-starting synchronous 
motors is fully dealt with by Fcchcimer, Vol. XXXI, Part 1, 
A.I.E.E., and by Newbury, Vol. XXXIT, Part 3, A.I.E.E. 

In starting the machines under discussion, a voltage of 
1,1. 'iO volts is first applied to the terminals, and this brings 
it up to synchronous speed in 80 seconds under normal con- 
ditions. During this process the field switch is open, and a 
lield discharge resistance is inserted in the machine field by 
means of auxiliary contacts on the field switches, thereby 
obviating anj' high induced volta,ge in the field winding. The 
voltage is next raised to 3, .100 volts, and after the machine 
steadies down a weak field current is applied. The machine 
is then in synchronism, and as the field strength is increased 
llic currciil taken decreases its la.g and later becomes a lead- 
ing current. At a certain point of field strength which has 
been found liy experiment to .give the best results as regards 
minimum disturbance of the line, the voltage is changed from 
:!,300 volts to 6, GOO volts, when the machine is fully on the 
line. The process of starting up is indicated by the chart 
shown herevv'ith, which shows an actual case. In this in- 
stance the machine was on the line in ?, mins. 15 sees, from 
the time of closing the first switch. 

The Control System 

The control system is quite interesting since all starting 
and manipulation of the machines is done by remote elec- 
trical control from the switchboard gallery, which is in the 
main building of the terminal station, and therefore out of 
sight of the condensers. The oil switches controlling the 
transformers are operated in the usual way. There are three 
3-pole oil switches connected to the 1,1.50, 3,300 and 6,600 volt 
taps respectively of each transformer. It is essential that 
these should be so arranged that it is impossible to close 
one oil switch in before the preceding one has fallen out, 
otherwise part of the transformer winding would be short 
circuited. The double throw controllers are used with the 
three oil switches. The first position of No. 1 controller 
closes the 1,150 volt switches. The second position of No. 1 
controller operates the trip coil of the 1,150 volt switch 
and at the same time energizes the closing coil at the 3,300 
volt switch. The closing current for this switch has to pass 
through a small pilot switch on the 1,150 switch which is 
only closed when that switch opens, and thus the closing of 
the 3,300 volt switch does not commence until the 1,150 volt 
switch is open. The first position of No. 2 controller opens 
the 3,300 volt switch and closes the 6,600 volt switch through 
a similar interlock which prevents the switch closing until 
the 3,300 volt switch is open. The second position of No. 3 
controller simply trips the 6,600 volt switch. Bulls-eye lamps 
on the control panel, adjacent to the control switches, indi- 
cates which switch is closed at any time. 

The main field rheostats and field switches are placed in 
the machine room, and these are also operated electrically 
from the control board. Each machine is supplied with the 
following instruments, which are mounte<l on an instrument 
board behind the switchboard: — voltmeter on 12,000 volt bus; 
ammeter on 12,000 volt side of transformers with plugs, to 
be read on each phase; wattless kv.a. meter; field ammeter; 
exciter vnhnuter. In the case of the voltmeters, only one 
meter is used for the two machines, with voltage plugs to 
connect up to cither as required. The wattless kv.a. meter 



is an interesting application of the polyphase wattmeters. 
It is a centre zero wattmeter free to move in either direction 
from the zero point. The voltage windings are interchanged, 
The effect of this connection is plainly to put the voltage in 
quadrature with the current, so the meter will register watt- 
less kv.a. in one direction if the current is lagging and in 
the other direction if the current is leading. The value of 
such a meter is quite evident. It affords an immediate indi- 
cation of the amount of reactive kv.a. the machine is impos- 
ing on the system and whether this is lagging or leading. 

Voltage Regulation 

The method of line control by varying the fields of 
condensers and thus changing the power-factor must not be 
confused with the maintenance of high power-factor. When 
the load is light a condition may arise and in fact 
does arise, where we will actually impose a lagging current 
on the system and so increase the voltage drop in the line. 
."supposing that it is desired to maintain a constant voltage 
at the terminal station with a constant voltage at the power 
house. There will be a certain load condition that will give 
the required drop without any aid from the condensers. If 
the load falls below this point voltage at the receiving end 
will tend to rise, but can be kept at the required point by 
introducing the necessary amount of lagging current — or by 
weakening the field of a synchronous condenser or reactor. 
ff the load increases beyond this point the voltage at the 
receiving end will tend to drop but can be maintained by 
introducing the proper amount of leading current, that is, by 
strengthening the field of the condenser. The voltage can 
lie maintained absolutely by proper manipulation of the con- 
denser field strength. This at once suggests the use of a 
voltage regulator of the Tirrill type, operating upon the 
exciter, and such a system as this is in use at Winnipe.g 
and in several other places. 

The old type of Tirrill regulator is only capable of 
taking care of a field variation of 8 to 1 usually 140 to 70 
volts, and while this is entirely satisfactory for generator 
regulation, it does not meet synchronous condenser condi- 
tions where there is a very wide variation of field strength. 
In the case of the machines imder consideration, the field 
at 6,000 kv.a. lagging is 13 amperes, and at 6,000 kv.a. lead- 
ing is 280 amperes, requiring a similar ratio of voltage varia- 
tion so as to operate without movin.g the main rheostat. The 
way in which the excitation varies with the load is well illus- 
trated by the saturation or V curve for the machine. (See 
Fig. 6). A newer development of voltage re.gulator is not 
limited to the 2 to 1 voltage range, but is able to operate 
over a very wide range, and is therefore particularly applic- 
able for use with synchronous condensers. The regulator 
uses the same basic principle of short circuiting the exciter 
rheostat rapidly for short intervals of time, thereby hold- 
ing the exciter voltage at some point intermediate between 
the "all in" and the "all out" rheostat position, but the 
method by which this result is obtained is essentially dif- 
ferent from the older regulator. One important difference 
is that the control magnet, as well as the vibrating magnet, 
are both operated from alternating current derived from 
potential transformers, and thus the operation is unaffected 
by low values of the exciter voltage. It is not within the 
scope of this paper to describe in full the details of this 
regulator. 

Rheostat in Series 

There is in scries with Iho potential winding of the main 
control magnets a rheostat wlicreby the potential across the 
winding can be varied by a small percentage. This admits 
of scttin.g the regulator to bold voltages at a slightly higher 
or lower point accordin.g to load condition, and this opera- 
tion is readily done by a rheostat hand wheel on the face 
of the liench board. /Xn equalizing rheostat is used in series 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 15, 1916 



with the main exciter rheostat and the regulator short cir- 
cuits the main rheostat only. The position of the equaliz- 
ing rheostat sets the upper limit to which the voltage on the 
exciter can rise when the regulator contacts are closed, and 
the correct action of the regulator depends to a great extent 
on the proper setting of both main and equalizing rheostats. 
Both these rheostats, as well as voltage adjusting rheostat, 
are situated close to the bench board and arc operated by 
hand wheels on the face of the bench 1)oard. 

In actual operation the regulator takes care of voltage 
changes in a very satisfactory manner. A sudden change of 
load causes a motnentary swing in voltage which is immedi- 
ately corrected. An entirely automatic system of voltage 
regulation is thus obtained, and since the regulation is effect- 
ed through the raising of the power-factor as heavy loads 
come on, the old limits to the line capacity are removed and 
it is possible to very greatly increase the load which can 
he carried on each transmission line. 

Operation 

The present method of operation is to run one machine 
constantly, the other machine being run during the peak load 
period. The power house voltage is maintained practically 
constant during the day and the operator at the terminal 
station regulates the voltage to suit the load conditions, en- 
tirely independent of the power house operator. On start- 
ing up the machine the only attention necessary is to have 
a man start up the oil pressure pump for the bearings, after 
which the whole control is in the hands of the operator on 
the main control board. During the time of peak load which 
comes on in the evening the voltage at the terminal station 
is raised by means of the voltage regulating rheostat on the 
regulator from 12,000 to about 12,500, and this is gradually 
reduced as load conditions necessitate. 

The regulator is always in use except during lightning- 
storms, when it is usual to disconnect it and do the regulat- 
ing by hand. The nature of the load is such that hand regu- 
lation is fairly satisfactory. This would seem to be good 
operating practice from the fact that in the event of a flash- 
over on the line, due to lightning, the regulators attempt 
to hold up the voltage. It is probable that this will tend to 
prolong the arc unduly, and that it is better practice to allow 
the voltage to take a dip, which will generally result in the 
arc clearing itself. When starting up one machine it is very 
desirable to have the other machine on the regulator, as this 
reduces the line disturbance to a minimum. The addition 
of the condensers to the terminal station equipment has not 
necessitated any increase in the operating force required to 
operate the station. 

Results Obtained in Practice 

The results actually obtained under operating conditions 
are in every way satisfactory. Chief among these is the 
greatly increased line capacity. Even if we neglect the in- 
creased capacity of the line obtained with the use of the 
condensers, the improvement and convenience of this method 
of regulation is of great value to the operating department, 
as there is no necessity for continual telephonic communica- 
tion between the operators at each end of the line to adjust 
the voltage. Further, the regulation throughout the whole 
sj'stem is greatly improved, and the flywheel effect of the 
motors has a beneficial effect. Owing to the improved regu- 
lation the arrester gaps may be more closely set, thus afford- 
ing better protection. 

The condenser equipment was put into operation in 
October, 1914, and has therefore handled load conditions 
through one complete yearly cycle, and the performance fully 
justifies the decision of Prof. Herdt and the engineers asso- 
ciated with him as to this method of overcoming lack of line 
capacity. While the writers have dealt mainly with fhis in- 
dividual case, the system is evidently one with a wide range 



of usefulness under different conditions, and no doubt in 
the future we shall see the principle more generally recog- 
nized as a factor in overcoming the difficulties inherent in 
the design of long distance transmission lines, as well as 
setting a new and higher limit upon the capacity of existing 
lines. 



Driver's Speed Increased by Using Efficient 
Motor Equipment 

By A. Jackson Marshall- 

.\ proprietor of a large laundry which now operates 2(> 
electric vehicles stated to a representative of the Electric 
Vehicle Association of America, that one of the most notice- 
able things in the change from horse drawn to electric 
vehicles, was the increased efficiency of the drivers them- 
selves. 

"With one exception, all of our drivers welcomed the 
change and, due to the very simple operation of electrics, 
they experienced no difficulty in learning to drive them in a 
remarkably short time. The exception of whom I speak 
was a driver who had been with us longer than the others 
and he was very skeptical about the new equipment. A 
couple of weeks after he had been driving one of the new 
electrics, I asked him if he wanted to go back to the old 
method. He just grinned and said, "Nothin' doin'." 

"Of course the appearance of immaculate cleanliness 
which our whole delivery outfit now has, is a very great 
asset to a laundry. Our drivers wear white uniforms during 
the summer months and we find that the good appearance of 
our delivery tleet is the Ijest advertiser we can have. Any 
woman will place greater confidence in a laundry whose de- 
livery men give a favorable impression in their fresh, clean 
uniforms, than one whose drivers always carry with them the 
disagreeable odor of horses and stables, or are begrimed 
with dirt and grease and are saturated with the penetrating 
smell of gasoline. 

"Another point is the effect which tlic increase in the 
speed and efficiency of the new equipment over the old has 
upon the drivers. Unconsciously they speed up their work 
and show a very noticeable increase in 'pep'." 

There is a certain psychological effect upon the operator 
uf an efficient motor delivery equipment that spurs him on 
to more speed in his end of the delivery work. The efii- 
ciency germ unconsciously gets into his system and he sees 
himself accomplishing many times more work than he did 
with the slow horse and wagon. It has been observed by 
tlie Electric Vehicle Association that when a man is driving 
a horse-drawn vehicle he recognizes that the horse means 
comparatively slow transportation and he falls into the men- 
tal habit of doing everything- in connection with his work 
slowly. He excuses himself by thinking or saying that he 
is easy on the horses and that he must treat his animals in a 
humane manner. The psychology of the thing works botli 
ways. With delivery equipment that is slow, the driver be- 
comes slow and plodding. On the other hand, if a driver 
is given a delivery equipment with which speed is easily 
maintained, it reflects on his own manner of working and he 
becomes a faster, better worker. Th; improvement in the 
attitude of the driver to his work when delivery with good 
dependable electrics, is a valuable asset to any business try- 
ing to solve the delivery and transportation problem. 



The Court of Appeal has upheld the claim of the muni- 
cipality of North Vancouver for power to expropriate the 
electric distributing system within their borders. This is 
part of the system of the British Columbia Electric Railway 
Company. 

*Secretar>' Electric Vehicle Section N. E. L. A. 



April 15, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



City of Kamloops Hydro - Electric Plant 

Detailed Description of Engineering and Economic Features of Power Generating 
and Pumping Systems of this Growing Western Centre 



By H. K. Dutcher, 

It is tlic purpose of this paper to refer to some of 
the engineering and economic features in connection with 
the design and construction of the Municipal power plant and 
pumping systems of the city of Kamloops, which have been 
recently completed and placed in service. 

These systems include a steam turbine power plant and 
pumping system, a new reservoir and a hydro-electric power 
plant and sub-station. 

The steam power plant and pumping system, together 
with the sub-station of the hydro-electric plant are included 
in the one building, and located near the eastern limits of 
the city, while the generating station of the hydro-electric 
plant is located on the Barriere River, which flows into the 
North Thompson, the distance of this plant from Kamloops 
being about forty miles almost due north. 

To properly appreciate the relation of these systems 
one to the other and their importance in the general scheme 
upon which the plans of development were based, it is neces- 
sary to refer to some of the economic conditions aflfecting 
the growth of the city and the development of the sur- 
rounding districts. 

The city of Kamloops is located on the main line of 
the Canadian Pacific Railway at the junction of the North 
and South Thompson Rivers, and for some years it Iias 
maintained the normal growth of a railway divisional point, 
and centre of a considerable ranching district. Very little 
attention has been paid to mixed farming in this district, 
due partly to the fact that most of the settlers were cattle 
ranchers, and also to the limited supply of water available 
from the streams for gravity irrigation systems. 

When the richness of the lands in the "Dry Beit" had 
been more thoroughly appreciated, greater efforts were then 
made towards intensive cultivation, and many of the lands 
were divided into small areas for fruit trees, but as the pre- 
cipitation on the district varies from ten to fifteen inches per 
year, the dependence upon limited sources for gravity irriga- 
tion systems, imparted a certain feeling of timidity with re- 
spect to the planting of crops and intensive farming. Con- 
sequently Kamloops has been obliged to import butter, eggs 
and other farming products which should have been supplied 
locally. 

This condition would tend to affect the cost of living 
and the discouragement of much desired local industries, 
but when the plans of the Canadian Northern Railway in- 
cluded a rciutc from Vancouver to Edmonton by way of Kam- 
loops and the North Thompson River, the location of tlic 
city as a centre of some importance for future growth was 
more fully realized. Therefore, when the increasing demand 
for power, both for the municipal electric light and power 
service and for the ])uniping plant, was rapidly passing be- 
yond the capacity of the old steam plant, it was decided to 
invcsligate Ihe possibilities for an ample supply of cheaper 
power, with particular regard to hydro-elcclric developrneni, 
in order that, if possible, electric power might be available 
to irrigate by pumping, the rich lands along the North and 
South Thdiiipson Rivers. 

During the course of examination of the several streams 
available for power within practical range of the city, there 
appeared to be some prospect that a company holding the 
power rights on the Adams River might develop power from 
this source, in which case the lands along the South Thomp- 
son River would be looked after. 



M. Can. Soc. C. E. 

Attention was directed, therefore, mainly to an examina- 
tion of the streams flowing into the North Thompson River, 
and of these the Barriere River appeared to answer the re- 
quirements for power development most satisfactorily, especi- 
ally in view of the two large lakes available for storage, the 
heavy grade of the stream and the convenience of the trans- 
mission line passing down the valley of the North Thomp- 
son through comparatively open country with a prospect of 
a power market along the entire route. 

It was estimated, however, that winter conditions of the 
Barriere River would aflfect the operation of the hydro-electric 
plant for probably an average of six weeks per year, and in 
view of the importance of the prospective power loads it 
was considered advisable to plan the auxiliary steam plant 
system with a capacity equal to the hydro-electric plant, and 
to estimate the period of operation of the steam plant both 
as an auxiliary and reserve system for an average of six 
hours per day throughout the year, and the estimated cost 
of the combined system was, therefore, based on this con- 
dition. 

The capacity of the old plant was about 500 h.p. and 
included three 150 h.p. return tubular boilers, two tandem 
compound steam engines, one belt connected and the other 
direct connected to generators, and for the waterworks ser- 
vice there were two steam-driven plunger pumps, one with 
capacity of 1,000 gallons per minute and the other 700 gallons 
per minute. Both pumps, however, were in poor condition 
and were continually breaking down. 

Moreover, it was impossible to keep a reserve supply 
of water in the reservoir for fire protection, as the capacity 
of this reservoir was only 150,000 gallons, and during the 
summer months the demand for water in the city exceeded 
ten times this amount. 

The water for the city system was pumped in from a 
well located under the power house which was fed by two 
intake pipe lines carried out into the river about 100 feet, 
and the rapid growth of the city along the river above the 
location of the intake created a danger to the sanitary con- 
(htions of the water supply which required immediate atten- 
tion. 

After some study of these different factors aflfecting the 
immediate and future requirements, the city finally decided 
to proceed upon the follo-\ving scheme of construction:— 

(a) The development of a hydro-electric power plant on 
I lie Barriere River with a capacity of at least 5,000 h.p., of 
which the first installation would provide for 2,000 h.p. 

(b) The construction of a new steam plant and pump- 
ing station in the city, the steam plant to provide for cither 
oil or coal fuel, and lo have the first installation up to 3,000 
h.p. capacity. The pumping plant to include two motor- 
driven ccnlrifugal pumps to deliver 1,200 Imperial gallons 
per nn'nnte each, and one steam turbine pump of equal 
capacily. 

(c) The conslruclion of a covered concrete reservoir of 
1,500,000 gallon capacity but designed for an extension to 
:!, 000,000 gallons by the construction of a second section. 

Barriere Hydro-Electric Power System 
Barriere River 

The Barriere River rises in the mountains near Adams 
Lake, flows in a westerly direction for a course of about 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 15. ini6 



thirty-two miles and empties into the North Thompson 
River at a point about forty miles north of Kamloops. 

On the main branch there is the North Barriere Lake, 
which is located about nineteen miles from the mouth of the 
river and receives the flow of numerous streams from the 
mountains. It has an elevation of over 2.100 feet above sea 
level, and an area at low water of 1,200 acres with excellent 
conditions for storage of 30,000 acre feet of water by the 
construction of a dam at the outlet. 

.\t the distance of eight miles from the outlet of the 
North Lake the main branch is joined by the east branch, 
which empties from the East Barriere I^ake, located about 
four miles from the forks and having almost the same eleva- 
tion above sea level and an area of about 1,500 acres. 

The total drainage area of the Barriere River is about 
230 square miles, with an average precipitation of probably 
about 35 inches. The mean flow during a normal year would 
be about 550 cubic ^eet per second with extremes of about 
3,600 cubic feet per second as a maxituum in the early sum- 



give an effective head of 192 feet at the generating station 
by 17,800 feet of flume system. 

While the plans provide for the ultimate development of 
5,000 h.p. from the present intake, the first installation pro- 
vides for 2,000 h.p. by two 1,000 h.p. units, which, with the 
installation of 2,000 h.p. in the auxiliary steam plant would 
give the city a maximum of 4,000 h.p. to start with. 

The location of the generating station of the Barriere 
hydro-electric plant was made, however, with the view to 
the abandonment of the present intake when the demand for 
power exceeds the economical maximum capacity of the 
combined Barriere and steam plant systems as developed, 
and the development of from 15,000 h.p. to 20,000 h.p. by 
constructing about ten miles of conduit system direct from 
the North Lake to the generating station to obtain an 
effective head of 600 feet. 

Flume System 

The construction of the flume system, including the intake 



C GENE.RAL PLAN F-F 




aRLANE-E 



Fig. 1— General Plan of City of Kamloops Municipal Hydro-electric Plant. 



nier period, and 220 cubic feet per second in the low water 
season of the winter months. 

Of the total flow about 80 per cent, comes from the 
North Barriere Lake, and with the provision of storage for 
30,000 acre feet in the East Lake, there should be no dififi- 
culty in maintaining a flow of from 300 to 350 cubic feet per 
second for power development. 

Power Development 

,A.s the elevation of the North Lake is about 2,100 feet 
above sea level and the elevation at the outlet of the river is 
about 1,150 feet, there is therefore an average grade of about 
50 feet per mile. The plan of power development provided 
for the location of a generating plant at a point about five 
miles up from the mouth of the river. 

For a distance of about 3J4 miles above the site of the 
generating station the grade of the river averages*65 feet 
per mile, and a suitable site for an intake dam was located to 



dam, forebay, and wasteways, was started in February, 1912, 
the work having been let in one contract, to William Green- 
lees, of Vancouver. 

It was planned to have the entire hydro-electric plant 
completed, if possible, by the end of the year, and it was 
therefore important to complete the construction of the intake 
before the high water flow of the river in May or June. 

A mill was located near the site of the dam and the lum- 
ber required for both the dam and the flume was obtained 
from the timber limits close by the mill, some of the logs 
being brought down the river and others from the hillside 
above. f "'^' 

Intake. — The intake dam is a standard rock fill crib type 
set with a pile foundation to ensure greater stabilitj'. The 
site chosen enabled a suitable intake to be obtained by rais- 
ing the level of the water ten feet from the normal level of 
the stream to the crest of the spillway, the grade of the 



April 15. 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



river above Ihis point being snob that tlic flood level ex- 
tended about 1,600 feet up stream. 

The accompanying plan shows the general details of 
construction, from which it may be noted that the length of 
the crest is 240 feet, the spillway 110 feet and of sufficient 
depth to take care of a maximum flow of 7,000 cubic feet 
per second. 

The intake for the flume i.^ located on the north side, 
and a logway and a fishway arc placed on the other side of 
the spillway, the logway being 13 feet wide and the fishway 
built in accordance with the requirements of the Provincial 
Ciovernment. 

The beds of the stream at (be site chosen consisted of 
a top layer of boulders, underlaid with alternate laj'ers of 
quicksand and blue clay, but a satisfactory degree of water- 
tightness was secured by carrying the toe sheeting down to 
a depth of 12 feet, with the filling of mastic and puddled 
clay, an earth fill being made over this and carried to a 
height near the spillway by an easy slope. 

The foot of the spillway was carried well down stream 
on piling, to take care of logs and roots which might get 
past the boom above the dam. The work was completed 
without difficulty by the middle of .\pril. and passed sat- 
isfactorily the severe test of the high water flow of the fol- 
lowing months. 

Flume 

The flume is designed for an ultimate capacity of 320 
cubic feet per second and is 3.4 miles in length from the 
intake to the forebay. In design it is the standard type of 
timber flume. 8 ft. wide by 514 ft. high, built up of 2 x 10 in. 
lir lumber, supported every four feet, and resting on trestle 
or cedar sills. 

The quality of the lumber available was good, but a 
better quality of coast fir was used for battens and flooring 
at those sections where water-tightness was especially de- 
sirable. Probably the only section which required special 
attention in this re.spect was a length of about 1,000 feet. 



two miles from the intake, where the flume was carried past 
a steep bank at a horseshoe bend of the river. There ap- 
peared some danger of a slide occurring at this section, either 
from undercutting of the banks of the river or from water 
running down from the melting snow or leakage of the flume. 

It was desirable, however, to continue the flume, if pos- 
sible, along this section, in view of the necessity of getting 
timber down from the mill for the construction of the sys- 
tem, and to avoid the heavier expense of carrying a syphon 
across the river, the cost per foot of the syphon being about 
four times the cost of the flume for an equal capacity. 

The flume S3'stem. including wasteways and forebay for 
penstocks, were completed in the fall, and unfortunately the 
city was then obliged to shut down on all work on the hydro- 
electric plant on account of the failure to sell the balance 
of the hydro-electric bonds due to the financial stringency. 

The system as completed was tested out. however, and 
found to be in satisfactory condition for service, but when 
the completion of the plant was carried out, two years later, 
it was found necessary to build the syphon at the section 
above referred to. on account of a slide occurring which 
carried away about six hundred feet of the flume. This 
syphon is built with capacity for half the ultimate capacity 
of the system. It is wood stave pipe construction. 66 inches 
in diameter, 3,100 feet long and designed for varying head 
to a maximum of 120 feet. 

The advisability of covering the flume as a protection 
against snow was considered, but as the design provided for 
a velocitj- varying from 6'< to 7'/ feet per second, and care- 
ful inspection was required during the first winters' opera- 
tion, it was decided to leave the system open until the need 
of a cover could be better determined from actual experience. 

Forebay 

The forebay is of timber construction and located in a 
small depression, so that a hogsback lies between the fore- 
bay and the power house as a protection against accident 
to the water system. Its general dimensions are 18 ft. by 



7-oo/er^ioijTfMo 




Fig. 2— Cross Section Kamloops Municipal Hydro-Electric Gcneralins Plant. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 15, 1916 



:i6 ft. long and 12 ft. deep, with ample provision for overflow 
lo a wasteway down a small ravine to the river. 

Penstocks 

There arc two 42-inch penstocks from the forcbay to 
the power bouse, each 490 feet in length. They were built 
hy the Vancouver Wood Pipe and Tank Company and arc 
of wood stave pipe construction with staves 2^ inches thick 
and stcci Ijands of Yz in. to J^ in. diameter, spaced for pres- 
sure head from 30 ft. to 210 ft. Each penstock was con- 
nected up with its turbine by 28 feet of steel riveted pipe, 
anchored in concrete and connection between the wood stave 
and steel pipes was made by an expansion joint. 

Generating Station Building 

As already noted, the location of the generating station 
was governed not only by the plans for the present develop- 
ment, which can be brought up to at least 5,000 h.p., but 
the prospect of a future development of from 15,000 h.p. to 
20,000 h.p. by a conduit system direct from the North Barriere 
Lake was also considered. 

At the site chosen, the sub-surface conditions of alternate 
layers of gravel, quicksand and blue clay, required that the 
entire foundations of the building should rest on piles, and 
these were driven to an average depth of about 30 feet to 
secure a firm support. 

The entire structure was built of reinforced concrete, 
the details for the tailrace and supporting walls, and beams 
for the units requiring considerable form W'Ork. The sand 
and gravel for the concrete was obtained close by the plant, 
and there were no unusual features of construction worthy 
(if special mention. 

The accompanying plan and elevation of the building 
show the general arrangement and some details of con- 
struction. The building as completed is intended to form 
half of the final structure, the construction of the other half 
will be carried out when other units are required. 

The present dimensions are 45 feet by 48 feet, making 
the structure, when extended, 45 ft. by 96 ft. It will be 
noted on referring to the plans that the arrangement for the 
installation of the equipment is fairly compact, although the 
high tension equipment is well separated from the other sec- 
tion. The construcTion of the generating station was carried 
out by Wm. Greenlees, of Vancouver. 

Turbines 

There are installed two horizontal turbine units of 1,100 
h.p. each, manufactured by the Piatt Iron Works, of Dayton, 
Ohio, and installed by the C. C. Moore Company. They 
are the single discharge, inward flow type, mounted in scroll 
casings divided horizontally, and were designed to operate 
for 190 feet head at 600 r.p.m. 

The runners are of bronze, 28 in. diameter, with a pump- 
head speed of 66 per cent, of the spouting velocity. The 
installation of each unit included a cast steel flywheel 5 ft. 
in? diameter, a 42-in. butterfly valve hand operated, and a 
10,000 ft. pound direct connected oil pressure type Lombard 
governor. 

The guaranteed efliciency of the turbines was 81 per cent, 
at full load and 84 per cent, at 80 per cent, full load; regula- 
tion 3 per cent, with 250 h.p. thrown oflf to 10 per cent, by 
800 h.p. oflf, and 20 per cent, by 1,100 h.p. oflf, under two sec- 
ond movement of governor. 

Generators 

The generators were supplied by the Canadian Westing- 
house Company. They are direct connected to the turbines 
and are designed for 750 kw. at 3 phase, 60 cycle, 2200 volts. 
On the same bed plate and direct connected to each gen- 
erator is a 40 kw., 125 volt, 600 r.p.m. exciter, eacS exciter 
capable of exciting both generators when necessary. 



There were two banks at three 500 kv.a. transformers 
wound for 2,200 to 44,000 volts, oil insulated and water cooled. 
One bank for the generating station and the other for the 
sub-station at Kamloops. 

Switchboard 

The switchliiiard includes at present seven panels of 
natural black slate. They are mounted on a gallery com- 
manding a full view of the units and have the usual standard 
switchboard equipment for low and high tension control. 
The panels arc placed with a view to e.xtension, so that on 
final completion of the building the switchboard will con- 
sist of about twelve panels centrally located. 

The 44,000 volt wiring was done by 15/16 in. diameter 
bare copper; mounted on post type insulators, with copper 
bends, sleeves and T connectors, with pipe supports. 

From the switchboard to the low tension delta at the 
transformers 500,000 cm. varnished cambric, lead covered 
three conductor cable in conduit, was used, and 300,000 cm. 
lead covered three conductor, 3,000 volt cable, from the gen- 
erator to the switchboard. The transformers and switch- 
board equipment, including lightning arresters, was supplied 
by the Canadian General Electric Company. 

Transportation 

.Ml of the power plant equipment was brought from Kam- 
loops to the Barriere by the C. N. P. Railway, and was 




Fig. 3— Interior Kamloops Hydro Generating Station. 

luuiled in lo the plant over a government road a distance 
of about five miles. 

Transmission Line 

The length of the transmission line from the Barriere 
generating station to the sub-station at Kamloops is 43 miles, 
and with the exception of two stretches of about eight miles 
each, the line passes through a comparatively open country 
parallel to the C. N. P. Railway line with overhead crossings. 

It follows as much as possible on the river side of the 
railway to avoid future crossings when supplying power for 
irrigation. The poles are of cedar, varying in length from 
40 to 50 feet generally, and are fitted with wooden cross arms 
designed with the view to a two-circuit line at some future 
time. These poles were obtained near the line of the C. N. P. 
Railway, about thirty miles north of the Barriere. 

-At a difticult section of the line along the Canyon 60 
ft. and 70 ft. poles were used, and 80 ft. poles were used for 
the 640 ft. crossings of the South Thompson River at Kam- 
loops. The standard spacing of the poles along the line 
is 200 feet. 

((To be continued! 



April ir., 1916 



HF. F.T.FXTRTCAT. NEWS 




"Safety First" Campaign of the Quebec Railway, 

Light & Power Company — Noticeable 

Decrease in Accidents 

Aniong tlie cleclrical railway companies Ihat have 
spared neither time nor money to advance the "Safety First" 
movement, and reduce the number of accidents to a mini- 
innm. is the Quebec Railway, Light, Heat and Poiver Com- 
pany, of Quebec. The management of this company have 
not Ikcii satisfied nicrily to set the movement sroinp;. but 



BE CAREFUL AT CURVES 
ATTENTION EN TOURNANT 



Fig. 1.— Caution to the motorman. 

I hey have been p:u"tieularly aggressive in keeping the neces- 
sity for caution and safety continually before their men and 
hefore the pul)lic. A quantity of interesting literature has 
licen distributed, and striking signs have been displ.^yed at 
points where they are most likely to attract the attention 
of the avera.ge citizen. 

In starting this movement the Quebec Railway Com- 
pany l)egan with their own employees, opening up with 
monthly lectures on accidents and their prevention, cour- 
tesy to passengers, etc., their object being to get their own 
men interested along these lines first, before they com- 
menced operations on the public by distributing literature 



NE PARLEZ PAS AU 
GARDE- MOTEUR 



DO NOT TALK TO THE 
MOTORMAN 



Fig. 2.— Don't take the motormans attention off his work. 

and through various forms of advertising. These lectures 
have become a regular institution with this company, and it 
is found that they help to keep the men constantly inter- 
ested in this subject. At these monthly meetings accidents 
that have occurred during the month previous are gone 
over in detail, and the men are shown, by means of black- 



board drawings, how some of them, at least, miyht have 
l)ccn avoided. 

Early in the campaign the company posted large "Safety 
First" cards in all their cars. These cards were placed in 
the back vestibule of all p.a.y.e. cars, facing passengers as 
they boarded the car. They were also placed in the upper 
side window close to the front door exit. A number of 
these cards are reproduced herewith. They were printed in 
both English and French, and were of such a size and 
color that it was practically impossible that passengers should 
pass w-ithout observing them. For example, the circular 
card shown is white on a garnet-red background; the two 
larger cards shown were bright red on white background; 
the other three were white on royal blue background. Most 




of these cards were painted on oil paper, so that when 
placed on the window the effect was very agreeable and 
noticeable. 

Accident Talks 

Tile lectures were followed by a series of accident 
talks. One of these series, consisting of five different talks, 
was distributed monthly by tying them in bundles of fifty 
and hanging them up in the cars on the hand-strap rail in 
easy reach of the passengers. Another series, consisting of 
ten different talks, was issued in the same way, only every 
two weeks instead of monthly. Five thousand copies of 
each talk were printed in this scheme. As typifying the in- 
formation given in these talks, wc reproduce talk No. 1 and 
talk No. 3 of the latter series. These talks arc printed in 
English on one side and in French on the other. 

Another series inaugurated by the Quebec Railway Com- 
pany is the distribution of small blotters, 4 by inches, to 
the difTerent scholars attending the various schools in Que- 
luT. with short accident talks printed thereon. To date the 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April i:., Uiir, 




AFETT FIRST 



ATTENDEZ 



QUE LE CHAR 
80IT ARRETE 



Fig. 4. - Wait till the car 
stops - Displayed on the back 
vestibule and at the exit where 
the passenger can see it as he 



goes out. 



Quebec Street Mtstilixrsty 



V\)i,. 5 II ne laut pas 
iter sur un char en marche. 



OAFETY FIRST 



DON'T 



GRAB AT A 
MOVING CAR 



Qiielree Street JRstilvira,y 



company have <listribiited fifty thousand of these blotters. 

We arc indebted to Mr. H. G. Matthews, general man- 
ager, and to Mr. R. M. Reade, superintendent of the Quebec 
Railway, Light, Heat and Power Company, for the excel- 
lent information contained in this article. The officers of 
this company believe that to make a success of the "Safety 
First" movement — and success means a steady reduction of 
accidents — it is imperative that the subject be constantly 
kept before the employees as well as before the public. 
They find that if the subject is dropped for only a short 
period, interest begins to wane, people become careless 
again, and many go back to the old habit of taking chances. 
They emphasize very distinctly the necessity of keeping the 
public and employees continually interested in this subject. 

This material cam-e in response to our request for in- 
formation as to what this company had been doing recently 
in aid of the "Safety First" movement. Our idea in send- 



ing out this and a number of similar letters was that we 
could assist in an interchange of ideas between companies, 
and, incidentally, re-arouse some of the companies to the 
importance of this work, which appears, in certain cases, 
to have languished during the last few months. We be- 
lieve the Quebec Railway Company are right when they 
emphasize the importance of continually hammering at this 
.subject — "everlastingly keeping at" this campaign of care- 
fulness and watchfulness. In time, no doubt, we may hope 
that it will become just as much a habit of the people to 
be careful as it now appears to be their habit of being care- 
less and thoughtless. This, however, is a millennium of 
affairs that cannot be looked for without a vast amount 
of missionary work to begin with, and a gradual and per- 
sistent development and schooling to which we must all 
subject ourselves. 

In response to our letters we have a number of replies 



SAFETY FIRST = SAFETY LAST = SAFETY ALWAYS 



HELP US PREVENT ACCIDENTS " 



do so SAFELY. 



NEVER cross the streets cxcei.l at street cr. 
NEVER cross tin- car tracks unless sure Yf 
NEVER cross in front of a moving car. 

there might In- anothi 

front of a car when driving a lioise 
r riding a bicycle. 

NEVER gel on or off a moving car. W.MT TII.I. THE 

NEVER lean out of car windows. 

NEVER get of? a car backwards. FACE THE FRONT. 

NEVER touch any loose wires that inay be hanging or lying on tin 

ground. THEY ARE DANGEROUS. 
NEVER iday, skate or sled ride on streets where there is a car track 

NEVER take chances. LOOK OUT FOR THE CARS. 
And LOOK BOTH WAYS before crossing the track. 



running an 
AR STOPS. 



NE 
NE 

NE 
NE 

NE 

NE 

NE 

NE 

NE 
NE 



JAMAIS traverser les rues ailleure 
.TAMAIS traverser la voie ferrec a 
vous pouvez le faire sans danger. 
.TAMAIS traverser en avant d'un cl 
.L'KMATS traverser directenient en arriere d'u 
se troviver un char sur I'autre voie. 
.JAMAIS traverser en avant d'un char lorsque 
cheval, un automobile, ou un bicycle. 
JAMAIS monter sur un char en mouvement, r 



ntersections. 

de vous assurer que 



mouvement. 



atte 



idre que le char 



lar. II pourra 
s conduisez un 
descendre. II 



rete. 



s du Char 
eculons. 



JAMAIS avancer le tete c 

JAMAIS descendre du ch 

devant du char. 

JAMAIS toucher un fil clectriquc, del 

Ces tils sent dangereux. 

JAMAIS jouer, patiner ou glisser sur 

culent. 

TAMAIS s'exposer au danger. FAITES ATTENTION aux chars. 

REGARDEZ DES DEUX COTES avant de traverser la voie. 



-suspendu ou par terre. 
s rues ou les chars cir- 



READ THE ABOVE CAREFULLY 
AND TALK IT OVER WITH 
YOUR PARENTS 



QUEBEC RAILWAY LIGHT & POWER CO. ^,,3 -"- -- bldg- 

"Safety First Campaign" Phone 4750 



Fig. 6.— The Qaebec Railway Company has distributed 50,000 of these blotters to the school, children. 



April 15, 19l6 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



3^ 



from other companies, but either none of tlie otiier com- 
panies have gone into this matter quite so fully as the 
Quebec Railway Company have clone, or they have not sent 
in as complete information. We trust the attitude of the 
Quebec Railway Company in putting themselves out of their 
way to give us this information to pass along to others 
will be appreciated at its full value, and be accepted as a 
model on which other companies may base their operations. 
We shall be very pleased in future issues of the Elec- 
trical News to give this matter of "Safety First" all possible 
prominence, and shall be grateful to any railway company 
that may see its way to send us, as the Quebec Railway 
Company has done, a complete description of tlieir sy,«;lem 
of campaign. 

Accident Talk No. 1 

Talking to Motorman 

At a trial in a nearby city it recently (Icveloped that a 
passenger on the front platform, wlio had diverted the atten- 
tion of the motorman by talking to him. was very largely re- 
sponsible for the accident, but of course the Company, and 
not the passenger, paid the bill. "Please do not talk to the 
Motorman" is just another way of saying "Please help us to 
avoid accidents." The passenger who stands on the front 
platform and engages in conversation with the motorman 
would probably never think of deliberately causing an in- 
jury, yet by taking the attention of the motorman from his 
work he greatly increases the likelihood of accidents. 

A motorman cannot attend to his duties properly and en- 
gage in conversation. The Company's rules require motor- 
men to refrain from entering into any unnecessary conver- 
sation and a passenger who draws a motorman into a conver- 
sation not only contributes to accidents, l)ut may be the 
cause of an employee losing his position. 

These remarks apply with equal force to conductors. 
Neither can render j'ou satisfactory and safe service without 
having their whole attention on their work. 

Platform Doors 

The Conductors and Motormen are requested to keep 
platform doors closed at all times when cars are in motion. 
Please do not ask them to open doors or let you get off before 
cars are at an absolute standstill. This is against the rule, 
and this rule was made entirely to prevent injury to YOU. 
Don't jump on a car between stops. This practice is dang- 
erous — you may be hit by a team, or you may fall. Don't 
lake chances. 

Suits and Witnesses 

This Company has been sued for running by a passenger 
a few feet, for alleged discourteous conduct of an employee, 
and for accidents which never happened. From the frivol- 
ous nature of these claims, the necessity of conductors obtain- 
ing the names of witnesses in all cases of accidents, argu- 
ments, etc., is apparent. A conductor's devotion to the 
Company's interests is judged largely by his work in securing 
the names and addresses of witnesses, and we ask that you 
assist him and the cause of FAIR PLAY, by giving your 
name and address when requested to do so. Refusal in- 
directly encourages unjust claims and directly affects the 
ability of this Company to make the system one of the best 
of its size in the country. 

Ideas 

WE WANT YOUR IDEAS ON ACCIDENT PRE- 
vention. Oftentimes an outsider has splendid ideas which 
never occur to one engaged in railway work. We believe 
that many of our passengers who are interested in Accident 
Prevention can make practical suggestions which will be of 
real benefit and we ask that you give these freely and call our 
attention to any condition which might be the cause of accid- 
ents. Communications should be addressed to the Com- 
pany. 

The Quebec Railway, Light & Power Co. 



and stopped over a train to give us the facts. That is all 
we ask of any witness — just facts, whether they are for or 
against us. 

The Company is not trying to evade responsibility for 
accidents and will never ask a witness to distort the facts in 
such a way as to favor the Company. The Motormen and Con- 
ductors are cautioned to operate their cars so carefully that 
if an accident occurs, it will be the other fellow's fault, and 
not theirs. At the same time, we ask YOU to be very 
careful of your own safety. STOP. LOOK AND LISTEN. 
If the public and the Company both try to e.xercise such care 
that when an accident occurs "it will be the other fellow's 
fault," we will all witness a big reduction of accidents. 

A Good Citizen 

The Company is one of the best friends Quebec lias. It 
has spent thousands of dollars for street pavement, snow re- 
moval, new equipment, improved facilities and in increased 
wages. At the present time it is building new cars in its 
shops, has a carload of copper on the way for the improve- 
ment of its lines. It employs regularly nearly 500 men who 
are spending their wages right here in Quebec, and is doing 
iither real things which mean something for the city. Quebec 
citizens, on the other hand, are the best frieinls the Com- 
pany has. 

Growth of Quebec 

We all want Quebec to lie a fine, big city — right up to the 
iiiiiuite in progressiveness. A great majority of the citizens 
cif this place are inteiested in real estate and other invest- 
iiients which will increase in value with the growth of the 
city. Is there any one thing of greater importance to the 
growth of any city than the Street Car facilities? The street 
railway system cannot grow unless it is prosperous, and it 
cannot be prosperous unless its expenses can be kept down 
to a proper percentage of its receipts. Money now paid out 
for accident damages can. with much greater advantage to 
this community, be put into the property of the railway and 
into its service. It is just Ibis thing we arc asking you to 
iielp us to do. 

Don't Pass Directly Ahead the Cars 

Drive your auto or carriage out of side streets with 
great caution. HOLD BACK, LOC^K, AND DON'T DRIVE 
ONTO TRACKS UNTIL YOU KNOW THERE IS NO 
t .\R COMING. Don't cut in directly ahead of a car. It is 
much safer to pass behind. 

A serious accident was narrowly averted on St. John 
.Street recently through the quickness of the motorman. A 
little boy ran directly in front of^ car. Have you told the 
youngsters not to do this? Repeat this word of caution to 
them every day until they have the danger of this practice 
thoroughly instilled in their minds. Tell them to wait, 
WAIT. WAIT. 

The Quebec Railway, Light & Power Co. 



Accident Talk No. 2 

A Word About Witnesses 

An eye witness of a street accident which occurred in this 

city about three months ago recently read in a Montreal 

paper that the injured parties had sued the Company. That 

man in going East made it a point to pass through Quebec 



New Books 

Central Station Management — by H. C. Cushing, Jr., and 
Newton Harrison, E. E. ; D. Van Nostrand Company, New 
York, publishers; price $3 net. It is the purpose of this 
volume to set forth clearly and simply the principles today 
adopted by the successful electric light and power stations 
of the United States. It is pointed out in the preface that 
it is the attention to these details in central station manage- 
ment that marks the dividing line between profitable and 
unprofitable generations, transmission, and sale of current. 
It is also noted that it is the fair and cordial relations be- 
tween the public service company and the public that es- 
tablish the permanency of the central station. The book 
will interest every central station man who is anxious to 
improve his methods and increase the efficiency of his plant, 
■too pages; 5 x Tyi ins.; bound in red cloth. 

Lighting Connections— fourth edition, by W. Perren May- 
cock, ALI.E.E.; a book dealing with the subject of electrical 
switching which will be found of interest to the consulting 
engineer, station engineer, the architect, the contractor and 
the wirenian; contains 180 diagrams and illustrations; A. P. 
Lundberg & Sons, 477 Liverpool Road, London N., pub- 
lishers; price 7d. 



34 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 15, 1916 



ava Coi?tracior 




The Lighting of the Timothy Eaton Memorial 
Church, Toronto, with the Indirect System 

By George J. Beattie 

'rho Tiniotliy Eaton Memorial Cliurcli, of Toronto, On- 
tario, recently completed, is probably the finest church build- 
ing of its kind in the Dominion. Very careful attention has 
been given to every detail of its construction, including both 
the erection of the building, and its interior furnishings. 

The main auditorium is of strictly gothic architecture, 
with elaborate memorial windows, heavy ceiling beams, and 
long, sweeping side arches, all following gothic lines. The 
auditorium consists of a long central nave, flanked on either 
side by transepts, thereby producing tlie shape of a cross. 

When the problem of supplying an adequate artificial 
lighting system for this beautiful auditorium arose, it was 
decided that some system of lighting must be employed 
which would not only give the proper illumination from the 
utilitarian standpoint, Init which would also correctly dis- 
triljute the light over the ceiling and side walls, so as to 
bring out the beauty of tlie interior in all its splendor. A 
system of lighting has, therefore, been installed, in which 
the illumination is provided from entirely concealed sources. 
I^arge gothic fixtures are suspended from various portions or 
the ccilin.y, :md these fixtures conceal lamps and reflecturs. 




Corridor Lightinji. Katon Memorial Cliiiri-li, Toronto. 

which diffuse the light "over the ceiling, and produce uni- 
form and practically shadowless illumination in the church, 
which can only be secured by indirect lighting. When it is 
considered that all the woodwork in the building, including 

the pews, side wall paneling, ceiling paneling, and beams is a 

^^% 

'Illuminating Engineer, Toronto. 



ii^li. lliL n.\^uhuig ilUuninution 
)f current is (|uite rcmarkalile. 
.• nave of tliis auditorium is 



cl for the cxpen- 



4.-, feet 



IIS feet 




^: 



MALF MAfN FLOOR HALF BALCONY FLOOR 
PLAN PLAN 

long, and 57 feet from the floor to the apex of the ceiling. 
The side transepts are 36 feet wide, and 38 feet long, and 
measure from the floor to the balcony ceiling 11 feet in 
height, and from the balcony floor to the upper ceiling 3:; 
feet in height. The ceilings throughout are finished in a 
very light cream, wliereas the walls are finished in a darker 
tone of brown, as partially shown in the photographs. 

The nave is illuminated by means of four large indirect 
fixtures, each of which is supplied with eight 3O0-watl 
Mazda "C" lamps. The transepts under the balcony are 
illuminated by means of four indirect fixtures, each equipped 
with tliree lOO-watt Mazda "C" lamps, and over the balcony 
by means of one indirect lixture, equipped with six 300-walt 
Mazda "t" lamps. I'he total wattage consumption, there- 
fore, for tlie main auditorium is 17.4 kw., which operates to 
illuminate a floor area aggregating 0,370 scpiarc feet. 

It is estimated that a uniform intensity of light, averag- 
ing 4 foot candles, is secured on a 30 inch working plane in 
this installation. This intensity of light is ample for easy 
reading of the closest print, without any strain nu the eye 
whatsoever. 

Throughout this installation each lamp in each fixture is 
equipped with an individual X-Ray reflector, a one-piece 
crystal glass unit, plated with pure silver, thus forming a 
high initial reflecting surface. These reflectors are de- 



April 15, 1916 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



ih 




Church lighting from concealed sources— Timothy Eaton Me 



al Church. Toronto. 



"Pyright 



Signed with .special corrvigations, used exclusively fur in- 
direct lighting purposes. 

The indirect fi.xtures employed in this installation arc of 
special design, following strictly gothic lines, to be in keep- 
ing with the interior architecture. The bowls are suspended 
from the ceiling by means of cast bronze hangers, and are 
supplied with cathedral white glass panels. These panels 
are softly illuminated to give an added decorative and artis- 
tic effect to the lighting unit. Such a fixture, with its har- 
monious design and finish, naturally fits in as a necessary 
part of the completed interior decorations, and is in strong 
contrast therefore to many similar installations where the 
fixtures seem to have been added as an afterthought. 

Owing to the excellent way in which the interior design 
of the auditorium is displayed by means of the concealed 
artificial lighting system employed, many observers have 
given it as their opinion the auditorium appears at its best 
at night. 

Particular attention has been paid to the lighting of the 
memorial window, shown in the larger photograph here- 
with. In most churches the beautiful colors of the art glass 
ikcorations arc lost through lack of proper lighting, as it is 
only in a bright light that these appear at their best. Many 
church windows arc practically useless as decorations at the 
evening service. This has been overcome in the Eaton 
Memorial by illuminating the vvin<l<iw artificially so that it 
shows up even more prominently in the evening than dur- 



ing the daytime. This illumination is produced by a pow- 
erful searchlight mounted some distance from the window on 
a steel tower. A large amount of experimental work was 
necessary before the proper height, distance, and intensity of 
the light source was determined, but it is believed the result 
is an ample justification of the labor and expense incurred. 



The Underwriters' Laboratories have just issued their 
March number of Electrical Data, containing a quantity of 
interesting information for the central station, engineer and 
contractor. The following topics are discussed: New York 
Testing Station; An Electric Toaster for Ten Cents; Mo- 
tion Picture Equipment and the Labeling of Slow-Burning 
Films; Dental Panelboards; Electrically Heated Pads, Foot- 
Warmers and Blankets; Steel or Brass-Coated Iron in Elec- 
trical Fittings; Fires and Accidents. 



The new hydro electric development at Stave Falls, 
P. Q-, owned by the Laurentian Power Company, is now sup- 
plying about 2,000 horse power to the Quebec Railway, Light, 
Ifeat and Power Company. The latter concern is now build- 
ing its own cars in the workshops at Ste. Anne de Beaupro. 



Buffalo Mines, of Cobalt, will purchase in the near 
future the motors required for the operation of a lOO-lon 
mill and compressor. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 15, 1016 



Licensing Electrical Contractors in Manitoba- 
Action by the Can. Soc. Civil Engineers 

In January last the electrical section of the Manitoba 
Branch of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers appointed 
a committee of five tti consider the question of licensing 
electricians in the province of Manitoba. The following re- 
port has just been submitted, and is being discussed at an 
early meeting of the section. This is along the line of an 
Act which it was hoped would be introduced at the present 
Session of the Ontario Legislature, but whicli (Intarin con- 
tractors have decided to temporarily abandon; — 

Report to the Members of the Winnipeg Electrical Section, 
Canadian Society of Civil Engineers re Motion submitted 
at the meeting held in January, 1916. 
In complying with your resolution of January 2iUli deal- 
ing with the motion presented by Mr. Wilson that a commit- 
tee of five be selected from the members of the Section for 
the purpose of enquiring into the present status of the Elec- 
trical Worker in Manitoba, to formulate a scheme from 
which legislation might be framed for the object of licensing 
such workers, llie cnmniiltee beg leave tn re]ji.rl as follows: 

Main Report 

Tlie Committee has held three meetings, all members be- 
ing present at each meeting. Mr. Leamy was elected chair- 
man and Mr. Wilson, secretary. 

Consideration of the original motion at once brought out 
the fact that the want of status of the electrical worker was 
due to the present unregulated conditions of electrical work 
in general. In support of this a quotation from Mr. Cam- 
bridge's original report is herewith given: 

"Under present regulations of the City of Winnipeg as 
contained in By-law Tfi.J7, two classes of permits are recog- 
nized. First, a permit that is required for each, individual 
job, and second, a General Permit the use of which is re- 
stricted to railways or other large industries having com- 
petent electricians in their own employ. 

In regard to the latter form of permit it has been the 
practice to issue this, good for one year, and to renew the 
same. 

All work done under a general permit has to complj' 
with the rules of the city and is subject to inspection. The 
work under such a permit is restricted to buildings owned 
<ir occupied bi' the holder. 

In regard to the ordinary or individual permit any per- 
son may take out such a permit, whether competent to do 
electrical work or otherwise, and this is the weakness of the 
system. The only power to refuse a permit is contained in 
section u of the above by-law, which provided that an appli- 
cant for a permit having previousli' comiiiitted a breach of 
this by-law, and such breach continuing after due notice, may 
be refused a permit until such breach has been remedied. 

Under practical everj' day conditions we find that all 
kinds of people take out permits and attempt to do all kinds 
of electrical work." 

The Committee concur in the views of Mr. Cambridge 
and believe these conditions exist throughout the province. 
The status of the electrical worker cannot be considered by 
itself. Six prime interests, the owner, the architect, the 
contractor, the employee, the union and the general public 
are involved. In order to present a scheme to improve ex- 
isting conditions, the enquiry would therefore have to he 
broadened to include these interests. 

Supplementary Report 

The various subheadings enumerated in the main report 
of your committee were referred to the individual members 
and further discussion led to the development of the follow- 
ing suggestions: ^ 

It would be expedient to have four grades of licenses 
somewhat as follows: 



.\. A contractor's license entitling the holder to engage 
in the business or calling of an electrical contractor. 

B. A certificated electrician's license enabling the 
holder after having passed successfully the examination of 
an examining board, to superintend or be in charge of the 
work of installing electrical conductors and apparatus. 

C. A special license issuable to corporations or in- 
terests authorizing the installation or inaintainance of elec- 
trical wiring or apparatus on premises owned or controlled 
])y such. 

n. A special permit entitling the holder to install a par- 
ticular job but not to apply to any other work. 

That an examining board be considered to pass upon the 
qualifications of applicants for any of the licenses hereto- 
fore mentioned. 

Xo one but a licensed contractor with a certificate "A" 
should be allowed to undertake electrical work in the prov- 
ince. He would be compelled to employ one or more certi- 
ficated electricians liolding license "B". 

He, the contractor, could hold both certificates "A" and 
"B" if he wished to undertake the supervision of the work 
himself, but he need not necessarily be an electrical man if 
Ik- employed a man with certificate "B" to supervise the in- 
.-.tallations. 

The qualilications for certilicale "A" would be: 

(a I That tlie contractor put up a bon<l. 

(b) That he have a telephone address. 

( c ) That he have a regular place of business. 
Tlie qualifications for certificate "B" would be: 

(a) That he has spent say five years at the trade. 

(b) That he possess certain limited technical qualifica- 
tions. 

(c) That he successfully pass the examination set by the 
examining board. 

Details of the aljove scheme would require to be thrashed 
out, for example, (,11 the qualifications of the men forming 
the examining body so that it could not claim the same 
abuses that are at present said to occur in connection with 
th^ Steam Engineer's license, (2) the nature of the qualifi- 
cations of certificate "B", (3) the number of men ^nd appren- 
tices working under one certificated electrician. 

Central station authorities dealing with work on their 
own premises^ and for the public, up to and including the 
meter installation should not be included. in the scheme. It 
would be necessary however to define the boundary line. 

The Committee suggest that a special general meeting of 
the section be called to discuss the report in detail as it feels 
that the opinion of the section should be expressed. 



A. H. Winter Joyner, Limited, of Toronto, have opened 
an eastern branch office at Room 1001 Lewis Building, 17 St. 
John Street, Montreal. Mr. S. E. File, who has been with 
the head office at Toronto for several 5'ears and who is 
thoroughly conversant with the methods for which this firm 
have become well known throughout Canada, will be in 
charge. The three main specialties — street lighting equip- 
ment, indicating and recording instruments and detail equip- 
ment for generating and distributing systems — will be car- 
ried on from this office. Among other products tliat will be 
handled in Montreal may be mentioned those of the Bristol 
Co., General Devices and Fittings Co., G. & W. Electric Spe- 
cialty Co., Philadelphia Electrical and Manufacturing Com- 
pany. 



The Interstate Electric Novelty Company of Canada, 
Limited, Toronto, announce that they have concluded ar- 
rangemeiits with the Harland Engineering Company, of 102 
St. Antoine Street, Montreal, to handle their line of Gold 
Medal flashlights, radio batteries, radio lamps, and miscel- 
laneous material in the province of Quebec and the city of 
Montreal. The above concern will carry a complete stock 
at all times. 



April i:i, liMfi 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



We'll Wire Your House at (Whose?) Cost 

The National Electrical Contractor shows its disapprov- 
al of the "Wire your house at cost" cry in the accompanying 
sketch. We do not get anything for nothing in these days 
of strenuous competition — or, to put it in another way. we 
get exactly what we pay for. It is possible, however, that 
the distribution (if i)ayiiK-nts mui\ be unfair, and this is evi- 



WtLL WfRE YQgtoiri^ 




dcntly the case where, as portrayed in this sketch, the con- 
sumer is made to pay a higher rate per kilowatt hour as a 
result of a certain section of the central station business 
being carried on in a method which is in opposition to busi- 
ness ])rinciples. The poor consumer shown here is plainly 
one of those who are paying the higher rate so that some 
other consumer may have his house wired "at cost." 



Hydro Rules and Regulations 

Mr. H. F. Strickland, chief electrical inspector uf llie 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, acting under 
instructions from the Commission, is sending out notices 
to all contractors, jobbers, manufacturers, and others who 
may be interested, requesting thcni to meet on Tuesday, 
April 2."), to discuss proposed amendments to the Rules and 
Regulations of the Commission By an open discussion it 
is hoped that any section of the rules which may have shown 
themselves weak or to have met the conditions imperfectly 
may be remedied and the rules amended forthwith. We con- 
sider this a matter of very great importance, and trust that 
the various interests concerned will take full advantage of 
the opportunity now furnished by the Commission to present 
their views. It is expected the meeting will be held in the 
rooms of the Retail Merchants' Association at 2 College 
Street, Toronto. 



Vancouver Electrical Contractors Form Association 

The electrical contractors and dealers of \ancuuver. 
B. C, have had several meetings recently to consider the 
question of forming an Association to assist those engaged 
in the business. These meetings have been fully attended, 
with the result that on Tuesday, March 21st, the British 
Columbia Association of Electrical Contractors and Dealers 
was duly formed. It is hoped to bring all interested in the 
business into this association, which has the support of all 
the large wholesale houses in the district. 

By a unanimous vote Mr. C. H. E. \\'illiams was eUctc.l 
the first president of the association, his address beini; 
Xorth-West Trust Building. Vancouver, B. C; Mr. E. Bret- 
tell, of the Electric Supply Company, Ltd., 781 Granvilh- 
street, Vancouver, is the secretary-treasurer. 

As a new association which has for its object "Co-opera 
tion," the British Columbia Association of Electrical Con- 
tractors and Dealers invites correspondence from similar 
associations, and will be glad to welcome any members of 
other associations, when thej- visit the Coast. 



Success of the Electric Show Assured 

The Ontario Electrical Contractors' Association are dis- 
tributing an attractive blotter which calls attention to their 
Second Annual Convention and Electric Show to be held in 
Massey Hall, Toronto, June 6, 7 and 8. The secretary of 
the Show Committee. Mr. E. A. Drury, advises that to date 
out of 27 booths for sale, according to the plan of the 
Electric Show published in our last issue. 21 booths have 
already been signed for. This would indicate that the Show 
Committee will have no difficulty \ihatevcr in filling the 
space and that it will merely be a matter of selecting tlie 
most suitable applications. 



Jakfrosst for Nitros 

The principal claim made by the manufacturers of a new 
frosting for Nitrogen Lamps is that it is an adequate substi- 
tute for the sand blast. In other words, the frosting is in- 
grained into the glass so that no heat or acid or any other 
test can peel it off. The process of frosting is easy and 
expeditious, as more than two dips into the liquid are sel- 
dom necessary, the time involved being thirty seconds at 
the outside. "Jakfrosst" has just recently been put on the 
market, and already, to use the w^ords of the manufacturers, 
the response has been such that the trade seems to have been 
aching for it. The "Jakfrosst" iieople also specialize in water- 
proof colorings, which include ruby red, blue. pink, ground 
glass, opal white, yellow, green, purple ami amber. 



Mainer Electric Changes Management 

The well known lirm of the Mainer Electric Comp; 
at Winnipeg, has made several changes during the last 
weeks. Mr. J. (i. Smith has been appointed manager 
Mr. T. J. E. Papineau sales manager. These appointmi 
date from March 1st. 

I'ormerly this I nnipany did both a wholesale anil n 
business at Gl .\lliert Street. Winnipeg, but at March li 
new policj' was put into effect — to sell wholesale only, 
change, we understand, has worked very satisfactorily 
there seems to be no doubt but that the firm will make r: 
strides under the able management of Mr. .Smith. 



Messrs. Weiss & Bihellcr (Canada), Limited, 115 Bay 
Street, have been appointed Canadian selling agents for the 
Hocking Glass Company. Lancaster, Ohio, manufacturers of 
lighting glassware. This line is new to the Canadian trade, 
but, we understand, is a very comprehensive one. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 15, 1916 



Electrical Matters in New Brunswick 

A Bill lias bc-cii iiUi-odiKi:d in the local legislatuii' ..{ tlu- 
province of New Brunswick incorporating the St. Croix 
Power Company. The object of the incorporation is to per- 
mit the development of light, power, and heat from the St. 
Croix River. The application is opposed by the St. Stephen 
Electric Company, who claim that they are properly serv- 
ing the interests of this district. 

.\ttorney-General Ba.Kter has introduced a I'ill into tlic 
local legislature calculated to facilitate the organization of 
rural telephone companies. Under the Bill any live or more 
people may become incorporated as a rural telephone com- 
pany, having their signatures verified by a justice of the 
peace. This memorandum will then be sent to the pro- 
vincial secretary, passed upon by the Attorney General, and 
a charter will immediately issue. The fees will only be 
$;J0 where the capital of the company is .$.">, 01)0 or les.s. 



N. E. L. A. Committee in Toronto 

The Accident Prevention Committee of tlie National 
Electric Light -Association recently met in Toronto. We 
believe this is the first conmiittee meeting of the N. E, L. A. 
ever held in Canada. Mr. Wills Maclachlan, who has be- 
come so closely associated v\ilh accident prevention worI< 
among the central station companies in Canada, is a memljer 
of this commitlee. and was chiefly instrumental in bringing 
them to Toronlci lor Ibis meeting. 



Tlie I'erraiiti I'-lectrical Cimipany. ipf (.'anada. Ltd.. hca 
ortice Toronto, (.)nt., have been awarded the contract for 
fiOO kw. motor converter and switch gear for the city 
Saskatoon, Sask., amounting to $i:{,000. 



ot 



L. (.'. Barbeau and Company, electrical jobbers, have 
opened offices and showrooms at 70 Victoria Square, Mon- 
treal. Mr. L. C. Barbeau is manager. 



W. H. Spencer, Limited, electrical engineers and con- 
tractors, 340 University Street, Montreal, have just received 
their charter of incorporation. The company have ac- 
quired the business of Spencer and .Vspinall, Limited. 



Vincent & Say, (Henry Vincent and Conrad Say), have 
registered to carry on an electrical contracting business in 
Montreal. 



(jagnon. Dubeau & St. Amour, electricians, Montreal, 
'Jne., have registered. 



Obituary 

William (, hisliolni, superintendent of the Windsor. Essex 
and Lake Shore Railway Company, was electrocuted on 
March 32nd while coupling cars at a gravel pit in Essex. 

W. R. Waghorne. manager of the hydro-electric system 
in Wallaceburg. died in the General Hospital, Chatham. 
March 2:i, following an operation. 



Personal 

Mr. M. H. Williams, of Montreal, has Iieen appointed 
publicity manager of the Montreal Light. Heat and Power 
Company. 

Mr. A. N. Wilson, for many years manager of the C. P. R. 
Grain Exchange telegraph office, Winnipeg, and later of 



Brandon, has resigned to go over seas with the l«lsl Bat- 
talion. 

Mr. J. S. Rickard, formerly connected with the Metro- 
politan Engineering Company of New York City, has joined 
the sales force of the Philadelphia Electrical & Mfg. Com- 
l>any, and will devote his time to the sale of Penico Pro- 
ducts. 

Mr. Lawford Grant, sales manager of the Eugene E. Phil- 
lips Electrical Works Limited. Montreal, has just returned 
from a trip to the Pacific Coast. He reports that business 
in tht West is reviving, and he is verj' optimistic as to gen 
eral conditions. 

Mr. W. J. Curie, Toronto, has been appointed general 
manager of the Chatham, Wallaceburg & Lake Erie Rail- 
way, to succeed the late William Norris. Mr. Curie was 
formerlj' connected with the Canadian Pacific Railway and 
the Canadian Northern Railway. 

Mr. F. P. Holliday, formerly of the Swedish General 
IJectric Company, Toronto, has been gazetted in England 
1st Lieutenant in the Royal Elying Corps. Mr. Holliday en- 
listed during the iirst week of the w^r as a sapper in the 
:.'nd Eield Company Canadian Engineers, under Major T. C. 
Irving, Jr., and has done excellent work for his unit. He 
is a former contributor to the "Electrical News." 

Major A. G. L. McNaughton, of Montreal, has been ap- 
Ijiiiiited to a command, according to a London cable. Major 
McNaughton, who was seriously wounded at Ypres, was in 
practice as an electrical engineer in Montreal before joining 
the overseas forces. He graduated from McGill Univer- 
sity, where he was for some time a demonstrator in the elec- 
trical course. At the battle of Langemarck, despite a ser- 
ious wound in the arm, he stayed with his battery for twelve 
hours and directed its operations. He had two orderlies 
hold his maps in front of him. and he kept two telephones 
.going in despatching orders. 

Mr. H. L. Lissfelt, who has made many friends for him- 
self and the Macbeth-Evans Glass Company during the few 
years he has acted as manager of that company in Toronto, 
has been transferred to the management of the company's 
Philadelphia office. We understand Mr. Lissfelt will have 
charge of the section of L'nited States territory lying to the 




Mr. H. L. Lissfelt. 

southeast of that city. He is succeeded in the management 
of the Canadian Company by Mr. I. F. Hcflfron, who has been 
with this office for some time, and is thoroughly conversant 
with the requirements of the t'anadian trade. 



April 15, I'.iic 



THE EiECTRICAL NEWS 



Electrically Operated Baker's Machinery 

'J'lic ck'iiiiliiK-Sj of cleclric drive adapts it admirably for 
service in the bakery and a complete line ol electricallv 
driven baker's machinery has recently been developed by 
The American Bakers Machinery Co., St. Louis, Mo. Two 




Fig. 1- Rounder. 



the 



dough diviiler, and rounder 



of these maohini 
shown herewith. 

Tlie dough is ijlaced in the hopiier at the tipp of the 
divider, and falls into a square box. It is tlien forced into 
a cylinder where a knife blade cuts it into loaves. This 
machine can be set to cut loaves of any size. After the 
cutting operation the cylinder revolves through a half turn 
and when in the downward position the loaves fall onto an 




Kig. 2-Oough D 



automatic conveyor which carries them to the rounde", 
where the loaves are shaped up ready for the oven. 

The divider is made in capacities of 1,80(1, 3,700 and 
::,G0O loaves per hour. I'.dili machines are ei|uiiiped wit!i 
Iv'obbins S: Myers Motors wiiich arc connected througli 



years. Both the divider and rounder are so constructed 
that all parts which come in contact with the d,. 
easily removed for cleaning. 



h may b 



The Wagner Electric Manufacturing Company of Saint 
Louis announces the removal of its Pittsburgh office to 947 
Penn Avenue, to continue in charge of Mr. Ludwig Hommel. 
Ihe new lelei)lione numi)er will be Grant .j637. 



Ihc .Kcme Lighting Company, (Rodolphe Levesque and 
Charles H. Milot), electrical contractors and dealers in elec- 
trical supplies. Montreal, have registered. 



The Holtzer-Cabot Electric Company, Boston, have is- 
sued a little booklet describing their progress and develop- 
ment during the forty years of their existence. 



Trade Inquiries 



Xame and address of incpiirer may be ol)tained from 
Ucpt. of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa 

:.'S4. Presspahn for electric insulation. — .\ .Manchester 
importing hrm wishes to be placed in touch with Canadian 
manufacturers of presspahn in the following sizes: Sheets 
about 3:i'..; inches by 31 K> inches or larger, in thickness from 
0.3 iii/m up to 4.0 m/m. Quotations are requested per ton of 
assorted thickness. Sample may be inspected at the De- 
partment ol Trade and Commerce. (Refer I'ile .\-7(>'.). ) 



Trade Publications 

Conduline— pamphlet issued by the Mica Insulator Co., 
New \ork and Chicago, describing "an ideal compound for 
lining the joints of cables." 

Regulator— Bulletin Xo. 4.-i.-,00-A. issued by the Canadian 
Ceneral Electric Company, describing, with illustrations, 
automatic generator voltage regulators. 

Protective Apparatus— two bulletins issued by Schweitzer 
o: Conrad, Chicago, describing with illustrations, this high- 
capacity, primary cutouts and their type "H" automatic re- 
sistance horn arresters. 

Dictionary of Altitudes— by James White, I'.K.S.C. 
l-.K.G.S.. Deputy Head and Assistant to Chairman, Commis- 
sion of Conservation This is a dictionary of altitudes in the 
Dominion of Canada, covering the various provinces. 

Conducell — pamphlet issued by the Mica Insulator Com- 
pany. Xew York and Chicago, describing a method of in- 
sulating cable joints in underground transmission system. 
This pamphlet is illnstrateil. showing the progressive stages 
of installation work. 

Water Wheel Generator Sets — .\ \ery attractively illus- 
trated art circular has just been issued jointly by the Pel- 
li>n Water Wheel Company of San hrancisco, Xew V(>rk. 
and the W'estinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 
of East Pittsburgh. Pa., describing the Pelton-W'estingliouse 
waterwhccl generator sets and their applications. 

Architects and Engineers— The Canada Sales Company. 
IGo Church Street. Toronto, factory represcniativcs of a 
number of large electric manufacturers and well-known 
specialists in the highest grade goods, are distributing a 
little booklet specially addressed to architects and engineers. 
This folder illustrates a number of pieces of equipment 
handled by the Canada Sales Company, including panel- 
boards, knife switches, telephone apparatus, automobile lime 
control devices, lighting lixtures, etc. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



April 15. i;il6 



Current News and Notes 



Appin, Ont. 

The village council arc coiisidcriiif; llic .iislallaliun (if 
an electric lighting system. Power will lie supi^licd from 
the lines of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario. 

Bedford, Que. 

.\ group of citizens of Bedford, Que., have made a pro- 
position to the town council to purchase the stock anil 
shares of the Bedford Light Company and to undertake to 
supply the town with a complete system of lightin.y and 
waterworks. 

Calgary, Alta. 

Under llie daylight saving i>lan, by which the clocks 
will ])c advanced one hour during certain months of the 
^summer in Calgary, .\lta., the Electric Light Department 
fear a reduction of their surplus. 

The city of Calgary has given a contract lo the Eugene 
F. Phillips Electrical Works, Limited, Montreal, for a iiuan- 
tity of one million cm. single conductpr, paper insulated, 
lead covered, 2300 volt cable and for 300,000 cm. three con- 
ductor cable. 

Edmonton, Alta. 

The .Alliance Power Company, Limited, has been in- 
corporale<l with head office Edmonton an<l capital $350,000. 

Glencoe, Ont. 

The town council will secure estimates on the cost of 
introducing Hydro light and power. 

Halifax, N.S. 

A Bill has been introduced in the House of Assemldy 
of the Province of Nova Scotia incorporating the \alley 
Electric Compan>', with a capital of $49,000. The company 
has power to acquire water powers on the Paradise Brook 
and other streams, and to build electric railways in Digby, 
.Annapolis, and other counties of the province. 

Kenora, Ont. 

The Keewatin Power Company has issued an injunction 
restraining the town of Kenora from holding back the flood 
waters of the Lake of the Woods. The town of Kenora 
have an impounding dam across the east branch of the 
Winnipeg River at Kenora. 

Martintown, Ont. 

The Martintown Rural 'J'elephone Company, Limited, 
have been granted a cliartcr. 

Mono Mills, Ont. 

The Independent Telephone Association, Limited, Mono 
Mills, Ont., have obtained a charter. 

Montreal, Que. 

The .1. (;. White (.'(juipany have entered suit against 
the Canadian Light, Heat & Power Company, claiming $300,- 
oiMl due for services rendered in supervising the work of 
construction of the power plant of tliis eomiiany at St. 
Timothee. 

John Fornian & Sons, dealers in electric supplies, Mont- 
real, Que., have registered. 

Faure & Diochon (Paul Faure and Georges Diochon), 
dealers in electrical supplies, Montreal, have registered. 

Nelson, B.C. 

TJie B. C. Telephone Company promise to establish a 
central energy system in the immediate future. 



New Westminster, B.C. 

The city council are unwilling lo arbitrate the question 
of electricians' wages with their striking employees. It is 
stated that the strikers have been replaced by competent 
men, and that tlie city is satisfied everything is going along 
safely and smoothly. 

Port Elgin, Ont. 

-At the annual meeting of the Bruce Municipal Telephone 
System, Messrs. D. McNaughton, A. McLean, and J. J. 
Hunter were re-elected commissioners. Mr. McNaughton 
was also appointed president for the year. The question of 
connecting up with the Bell Telephone System was dis- 
cussed, and it was decided to close an agreement with this 
company if their terms were not too severe. 

Rodney, Ont. 

A by-law will be submitted some time during April 
authorizing an expenditure of $7,000 on an electric distribut- 
in.g system, power to be obtained from the Hydro-Electric 
Power Commission of Ontario. 

St. Genevieve de Pierrefonds, Que. 

The Pierrefonds Electric Company, Limited. St. Gene- 
vieve dc Pierrefonds, Que, has been incorporated. 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

The Steelton Sign Shop is the name given a new in- 
dustry which is locating in the Soo for the manufacture of 
electric signs. 

The Great Lakes Power Company, Limited, Sault Ste. 
Marie, Ont., have obtained a charter. 

Stoke, Que. 

The Stoke Telephone Company (J. O. Lemire, J. A. 
Malenfant and Geor.ge Mace), Stoke, Que, have registered. 

Toronto, Ont. 

/\s a result of certain alleged discrepancies in the finan- 
cial accounts of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario, the Public Accounts Committee of the Ontario 
Legislature recently decided to have an independent audit 
of the Commission's books, and have appointed Mr. E. R. C. 
Clarkson for the work. 

Vernon, B.C. 

TIic city council are considerin.g llie installation of a 
lire alarm system to cost some $0,000. 

Winnipeg, Man. 

Tenders are received up lo April 17 by the City Council 
of the city of Winnipeg for the supply and installation of 
three 1,000 kv.a. transformers with switching apparatus; 
also for one year's supply of watt-hour meters. 

The original announcement that the Winnipeg Electric 
Railway Company had passed their dividend for the current 
quarter appears to have been premature. A director of the 
company has stated that it is merely the intention to pay 
the dividends half-yearly instead of quarterly, and expresses 
confidence that at the end of the half-year a dividend will 
be forthcoming. 



The Department of Public Works of the province of Al- 
lierta have included in their estimates for the year 1910. 
$:.;.i(i,0()U for telephone construction. 



May ], i'Jie, 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



21 




Publislicd Semi-Moiitlily By 

HUGH G. MACLEAN, LIMITED 

HUGH C. MacLEAN, Winnipeg, President. 
THOMAS S. YOUNG, General Manager. 
W. R. CARR, Ph.D., Editor. 

HEAD OFFICE - 347 Adelaide Street West, TORONTO 

Telephone A. 3700 
MONTREAL - Tel. Main 3299 - Room 119, Board of Trade 
WINNIPEG - Telephone Garry 85G - 303 Travellers' Bldg. 
VANCOUVER - Tel. Seymour 3013 - Winch Building 
NEW YORK - Tel. 3108 Beekman - 1136 Tribune Building 
CHICAGO - Tel. Harrison 5S51 - 1413 Great Northern Bldg. 
LONDON, ENG. -------- 16 Regent Street S.W. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 
Oideis for advertising should reach the office of publication not later 
tlian the 5lh and 20th of the month. Changes in advertisements will he. 
made wlicnevcr desired, without cost to tlie advertiser. 



SUBSCRIBERS 

■Jhc "Electrical News" will be mailed to subscribers in Canada and 
rireat Britain, post free, for $2.00 per annum. United .States and foreign. 
.^2.50. Remit by currency, registered letter, or postal order payable to 
Hugh C. MacI.ean, Limited. 

Subscribers are requested to promptly notify llie publishers of faihnc 
or delay in delivery of paper. 



Subscribers are requested I 
or delay in delivery of paper. 



ral for Canada, for tr, 



Entered as second class matter July ISlh. 1014, at the Poslofficc at 
Buffalo, N.Y., under the Act of Congress of Marcli 3, 1S79. 



Vol. 25 



Toronto, May i, 1916 



No. 9 



The Engineers' Opportunity 

Every live Canadian has a gruwing fecliii.g of unrest 
antl dissatisfaction at the methods adopted in the manage- 
ment of our various public aflfairs. Charges of graft are 1)e- 
coming everyday matters: evidences of incompetence 111 mir 
administrators arc availalile on all sides; proof, unmistakable 
in its directness, that tlic public good is being placed in a 
secondary position to the demands of party politics or per- 
Honal gain, daily confronts us. Our citizens are asking them- 
selves— Where is it going to stop? Does the honor of the 
nation not demand that we lay aside our regular daily tasks 
for a little and "house-clean"? In the interests of self- 
preservation, even, must wc not act soon? 

Wc do not lay claim to any originality in pointing out 
the cause of the trouble — the men who hold power simply 
do not have the necessary qualifications to carry on the busi- 
ness with which they are entrusted. They frequently have 
no training and little adaptability. What private individual 
i.r corporation would appoint men of so slender experience 
and training to positions of such important engineering and 
financial trust? Yet this is the very foundation on which 
our government organization is based — that the men holding 
the most impf)rtant positions are simply the men who possess 
ihc keenest instincts for securing those positions. 

We allow all due rcsjiect to the politician's ((ualilications, 
but they do not fit iiiiii for a business career or for con- 
ducting the affairs of tlie nation. It seems to be the failure 
to realize that the nation's business at Ottuvva could be niti 



as efficiently, for example, as any manufacturing concern, 
that keeps us from making progress. Surely though, we have 
looked upon politics and politicians long enough as necessary 
evils. Surely we are about through with being humbugged 
by a lot of people whose prime qualification is the ability to 
humbug us. Surely we are due for a house-cleaning and a 
ic organization of our business methods, when men shall 
be appointed to positions of trust because they can be trusted, 
and to positions requiring organizing and constructive ability 
because they have special training and fitness for this work. 
Surely the people are realizing that we are living in a dif- 
feient age— an age of efficiency. Inefficient governments like 
inefficient business must give way to the competition of 
better methods and if we hope to continue in this race here 
in Canada, we must re-organize soon and thoroughly. 

* * * 

.\ good letter comes within the last few days from otic 
of our readers, a consulting engineer of international repu- 
tation and respect, which puts the matter, we believe, in the 
same light as viewed by the vast majority of independent 
thinking men to-day. An extract from the letter says:— 

"Herewith something which might be of interest — a re- 
port of the speech of the Honourable Sir George Foster, 
Minister, of Trade and Comtiierce, delivered some time ago. 
The outstanding quotation to my mind is this: 

" 'My view is that every application for public 
work should come before a competent board of 
engineers and business men and should be re- 
ported upon by them for the information of the 
government, and that every application would 
have to show some cause of necessity or pub- 
lic benefit, or future usefulness, before it would 
be passed and put into the estimates. 

"'I do not believe that we shall get down to 
a proper systctii of husbandin,g our resources or 
of confinin.g ourselves to useful and necessary 
public works until wc get some machinery of 
that kind.' " 
"C"an you imagine any politician makin.g a statement of 
this kind concerning his own government and his own class 
five years ago? It seems to .ine that 'Searchlight' might find 
this a pretty good text to preach from, not so much to the 
public as to the engineers themselves, and get them to boost 
this thing along and stand up to the public for that position 
ill the community which is their due. 

"Engineers are non-political, and owing to their meth- 
ods of training and disposition of mind never will make 
partizan politicians, but the force of economic .necessity is 
:roing to place them, practically in spite of thenii^'lvcs, virtu- 
ally in control of llie machinery of the government." 

* * * 

Here at least is one rciiuily fiu- the ills from which we 
suffer. The engineer is a trained man, an able man, and an 
honest man. Unfortunately, as our correspondent infers, he 
is not attracted by political life. Why? Because political 
methods, as wc know them to-day, arc so diametrically op- 
posed to his ideas of the way things ought to be done. Is it 
the duty of the engineer to hold back because he disapproves, 
or to take hold and apply the remedy? When our govern- 
ment plant fails to give efficient service, is it not his duty 
and his right to apply the same methods of argument and 
action ;is he would apply to a broken down bridge or a 
'lisablcd transmission line? 

Wc believe this question of public service should no 
longer be side-tracked by the engineering profession. They 
must realize the dire necessity for greater efficiency in our 
Roverninent business. They must also realize, if their tradi- 
tional modesty will allow them, that as trained men their 
services would be valuable in bringing about the greater 
eflicieiicy desired. 



THE ELECTRICAL NEWS 



Ma 



Decent Consideration 

Dean Cappmi, of Oucfu's llnivrr;.ily. voices the scnli- 
mciits of a very large percentage of the Canadian people 
when he says: "Let there be decent consideration for those 
who think they liave good enough reasons not to go, at 
least as yet, to the war." 

Possibly, if Dean Cappon spoke all that is in his mind, 
he would put it more strongly. Doubtless he has seen the 
ill-advised tnethods of recruiting that arc being utilized from 
day to day by the rank and file of various battalions. Doubt- 
less he realizes that the present system of semi-coercion has 
little to commend it, and in a very large number of cases 
does more harm than good. Its biggest weakness, perhaps, 
is that it fails to discriminate between the man who holds 
back because he is a coward and the man who delays be- 
cause his intelligence tells him that his proper place, as yet, 
is where he is. 

The methods of recruiting as practised in Canada, ii 
Toronto may be taken as a criterion, lack nothing so much 
as intelligence and good sound horse-sense. There is ample 
and laudable enthusiasm — but misdirected. Khaki enthusi- 
asts fail to see, or refuse to see, that the business of the 
country is next in importance to the war, and as such de- 
mands fair consideration. They fail, or refuse, to see that 
many a young man, however desirable as a member of their 
unit, may be, by comparisc n, still more useful as a civilian 
in this present time of stress. They fail, or refuse, to grant 
to the intelligent individual the right to use his own judg- 
ment as to when is the proper time for him to give up the 
one and take hold of the other. In other words, the pre- 
sent system of recruiting is specially designed for the dil- 
ettante, the indifferent, the man lacking in moral and mental 
(ibre; it is a reflection on llic man who does his duty as he 
sees it. 

All of this, and more, no doubt. Dean Cappon has prom- 
inently in mind when he makes a plea for merely "decent 
consideration" for the men who do their own thinking. If 
these men had followed the line of least resistance many of 
them would have been in uniform months ago. Fortunate 
it is, as we see it, that, in the absence of the slightest ap- 
l)arent effort on the part of our Government to cope with 
this problem of filling u]) the ranks of the numerous bat- 
talions they have authorized, there are men strong enough 
to brave the jibes and insinuations of these miscellaneous, 
misguided recruiting agents. They arc simply making juve- 
nile attempts at a man's job! How can we combat effici- 
ency except with efficiency? 

The men who are strong enough to "think" to-day, men 
who are strong enough to resist following the lines of least 
resistance, cry out for some movement on the part of our 
Government which will enable us, as a nation, to carry on 
our share of this war in such a way as to conserve in the 
best possible manner our fighting resources — present and 
future. There is not a man of these who is not ready to go 
when and where he is told — if the authority who gives the 
order knows. Why doesn't our Government find out? Why 
hasn't it an inventory of every citizen of Canada, that it 
could say to him, "Here is your place!" ? But instead of 
acting, our Government delegates this authority to the illit- 
erate private in the ranks, and, indirectly at least, authorizes 
the man of small intelligence to badger and coerce the man 
who sees his duty clearly and is doing it. Why cannot our 
Government move in this matter? WlUy cannot they give 
sii imporl.int a (jucstion at least "ilccont consideration"? 



;i1 years, for a minimum annual supply rt( electric energy of 
:i.'i,(ino,()()0 kilowatts at the rate of Ic. per kilowatt hour dur- 
ing the life of the contract, the price to decrease on a sliding 
scale until the consumption of the city reaches 11 0,000, 000, 
when the rate becomes '/^c. per kw. hour. As those inter- 
ested in the proposition required legislative assent, a bill 
was introduced into the Alberta I^egislature to ratify and 
validate the agreement, which bill has now received its third 
reading. 

.'\bout three years ago the Federal authorities granteil 
to Mr. G. VV. Farrell, Edmonton, water rights with a view 
to developing power for Edmonton, .Associated with him 
was Sir John Jackson, of Sir John Jackson, Limited, Lon- 
don, England. Sir John Jackson, Limited, it is understood, 
has been awarded a contract for the dam and power house. 
An electric railway is also to be constructed to the site of the 
dam. The charter for the railway was granted by the Fed- 
eral House this session to the Edmonton & Southwestern 
Railroad. The power line from the generating source will 
be brought down to the south side of the Saskatchewan River. 



Telephone Progress in 1915 

The Department of Railways and Canals have just issued 
their annual report on telephone statistics of the Dominion 
of Canada for the year ended June 30, 191.'). The statistics 
show that reports were received from 1,396 units during the 
past year, as compared with 1,136 in 1914, and in every re- 
spect the returns disclose marked growth in the telephone 
interests of the Dominion. The number and character of the 
various organizations which made returns for the year are 
shown in Table I. 

The total capitalization of tlie lelephone business in 
1915 reached a total of .$74,^84,991, including the Bell Tele-' 
phone Company, which accounts for very nearly half of this 
amount. There were .')33.(190 telephones reported as being 

Table i 



• Province. 


Govern- 


Muni- 
cipal. 


Slock. 


(■<M>i>cr- 


Partoc