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Electrical world 






FROn JANUARY 4 TO JUNE 28, 1902. 



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^OT^.—Entnesfrom the Digest of Cnn-eiit Ekctncal Literature are indicated by D. {Digest) ami D. R. {Digest Reference) . 

Illustrated articles are indicated by *. 

A CCELEROMETER. By Corey. (D.) 134, (D. 

RJ U7- By G. Rennerfelt, 776. 
Acheson, Edward G. Biographical sketch, with por- 
trait, 502. 
Acme Switch Co. Time switch, 921*. 
Aerial navigation, dub for Boston, 131. 
Air, electricity from, 1059. 

Electrification of. By Lehmann, (D.) 94. 

Liquid temperatures. Magnetization of steel at. 

By Trowbridge, (D.) 738. 
— — -Spontaneous ionization of. By Rutherford and 

Allen, (D.) 696. 
Compressed, in central station and railway serv- 
ice. By Weeks, (D. R.) 1060. 
Alcohol, dextrine, and glucose. Converting wood 

into. Maguier and Brangier patent, 556. 
Alkali, Caustic. Electrolytic production of, 514. 

and chlorine. I.D. R.), 174. 

and chlorine. Bell process for the production 

of. By J. B. C. Kershaw, (D.) 449*- 

Hypochlorites and chlorates of. By Eoerster 

and Mueller, (D.) 316. 
— process. Acker electrolytic. By C. P. Town- 
send. 585*. 
Alloys, Copper-cobalt. By Reichardt, (D.) 93. 

solutions. By Mathews, (D. R.) 137. 

Alternating Currents: 

Application of the electrometer to. By Hohage, 

(D.) 918*. 

calculating devices. Baum, 1167. 

curves. Deformation of. By Weber, (D.) 37. 

diagrams, Geometrical loci in. By Schenkel, 

(D.) 173- . ^ . ^ „ 

— — Direct-current armatures supplied with. By 
Fleiscbmann and Orgler, (D.) S23. 

electrolysis. By Wilson, (D.) 825*. 

engineering. By Behrend, (D. R.) 874. 

measurements. Cathode rays for. By Morris, 

(D.) 826. 

Measurement of lag angle. By Finzi. (D. K.) 


Measurement of power. By Goerner, (D.) 1104. 

Model for demonstrating. By Heilbrun, (D. R.) 

918. . . 

Polarization capacity and dissipation of energy 

of voltmeters carrying. By Franchetti, (D.) 
1 1 04. 

Rectifying, 274. 

Rectified. By Gershun, (D.) 780. 

Systems of distribution by. By Guilbert, (D. 

R.) 236- 
— — Summary of systems. By Rcist, (D. R.) 1061. 

terminology. (D.) 237. 

controllers, three-phase, (D.) 518*. 

Three-phase circuits. Ratio of transformation 

in, 674. By W. A. Del Mar, 68o*. 

Waves. Analyzing. By — Janet, (D. R.) 237. 

.•\rmagnat, (D. R.) 970. 
Alternators; (Sec also Dynamos, Generators). 

■ Application ot Oscillographs to the study of. 

Bv Blondel. Dobkcvitch, Duris, Farmer and 
Tchernosvitoff, (D. R.) 237. 

.Artificial loading of. By Goldschn 


Calculation of the 

Hinnen. (D.) . . 

characteristics. Determination of. 

1093. 1105. 

with commutator. By I.atour. (D. R.) 067. 

Compounding of. By TIeyland, (D.) 34*. 

Construction of. Bv L.nschc. (D. R.) 777. 

Design of large. By Rothert. (D, R.) 2.14. 

Determining the phase difference in revolving 

field. By Queisscr, fD.) 559. 

Inductor. Periodic variations in the exciting 

current of an. By Duddcll and Marehant, 
(D.) 35. 

in parallel By Franke. fD. R.) 172. fD. R.> 

234. Focpnl. CD.) .;i8. Seibt. (D. R.) 
■;59. Lincoln, fD.) 694. Delia Riccia, (D. 
R.) 777. Leake, (D.) 823, 9?8'. Klocnnc. 
D. R.) 967- 

at Paris exposition. By Guilbert, I'D. R.) 234. 

Self-exciting shunt. By Latour, CD.) 606. CD.) 

fi94*. 'D.) 736. (D.) 87.1. Hcyland, (D.) 
^ 873. 

Single-phase on polyphase circuits. 1093. By 

Mailloux, 1 142. 

Synchronizing. Woodbridge patent. 272. 

Three-phase. By Linsemann, fD. R.) s;9. 

Voltage, drop of. By Rothert, CD.) 349- 

Bv Rcselman, fD.) 149- By Kischer- 
rfinnen. (D.) 550. Banch. CD.) 539. 
Rothert. CD.) jso. Regelmann, Corsepcus. 
P.auch. Rothert, (D. R.) 915. 

oltage drop of. 

lidt, (D. R.) 
By Fischer- 
By Hardt, 

Aluminum. By Morris, (D.) 136. Wilson, (D. R.) 
136. Wilson and Morrison, (D. R.) 237. 
Langley, (D. R.) 918. 

Collisions at sea. Apparatus for preventing. Gher- 
assimoff patent, 445. 

Bronzes. Tests of. By Tetmayer, (D.) 237. 

Improvement in metallurgy of, 229. 

Manufacture of. By Haber and Geipert, (D.) 


Production of, 178. By Askenay, (D.) S26. 

Aluminum wire in transmission lines. (D. R.) 969. 

Amalgam, Nickel. By Wuensche, (D.) 448. 

American Association for advancement of science. 
Pittsburg programme, 775. 

American District Telegraph and Messenger Co. 
incorporation, 453. 

American electrical and automobile patents, month- 
ly. 775- 

American Electro-Chemical Society, inaugural meet- 
ing, 347, 479, 5>6. 556, 633- Convention re- 
port, 648, 963. 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Jan- 
uary meeting, 84*. On electric railway 
operation, 220. New membership, 
nual election, 296. 
New members, 
meeting, 822. 
May meeting, 
ing, 258, 444, 603, 


Reminiscences, 562. 
Nominations, 602. April 
al meeting, 871, 913. 
Great Barrington meet- 
1040, 1091, 1132, 

American Oil Filter Co. Oil Filter. 884*. 

American Push Button Telephone Co. Push Button 

Telephone, 6i6*. 
American Roller Bearing Company. Roller bear- 
ings. 664*. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Bos- 
ton meeting, 872, 1013. 

American Street Railway Association. Preliminary 
programme, 440. 

American Telephone and Telegraph Company. An- 
nual report of, 553. 

American Toll Telephone Company. Consecutive 
counter for pay stations, 703*. 

Amescope Company. Operating model of propul- 
sion system for electric railways, 698. 

Ammeter, Hot wire. By Kollert, (D. R.) 1104. 

Anodes, .-\rtificial graphite and platinum iridium for. 
By Foerster, (D.) 739. 

for electroplating work, (D.) 780, 

Arbitration, Electrical board of. By Jos. Wetzler, 

Arc, -Alternating current. Bv Ernst .Adier, 1083*. 

Cutting steel with, 516. (1).) 781. 

Musical and talking. By Duddell, CD.) 521. 

photographone. By Ruhmer. CD.) 1277. 

rays. Burning from. By C. K. Hines, 735*. 


Speaking. Measuring inductance by the. By 

Janet, CD.) 661. 

Speaking in wireless telegraphy. By Guthe, 

CD. R.) 826. 

Speaking and wireless telegraphy. By Simon, 

CD.) 876*. 

Therapeutics with. By Bavey, CD.) 451. 

Broca and Chatin, (D.) fi62. 

for treating skin diseases, CD.) .18. 

treatment of tuberculosis. By Kaiser, CD.) 610. 

Velocity of ions drawn from the. By Oiild. 

CD.) 48s. 

Arc Lamps: 

Bang, CD.) 33. Blondel, CD.) 234. (D. R.) 

313. Koerting. Rosemeycr, Stoeekhardt, 
CD. R.) 1159. 

"Applications and uses of," CD. R.) 400. 

Blue printing by. By Reist. CD. R.) 133. 

Bremer, 219*, (D.) 639. 766*, (D.) 967. 

carbide electrodes. Ijopfelt patent, 1017. 

control. Oxlcy patent, 692, 

Double. CD.) 968. 

— — enclosed. By Donath,- CD.) 695. 

enclosed. Fort Wayne, 920*. 

Heany enclosed. By E. Trier, 437*. 

for medical use, CD.) 778. 

Ncrnst lamps and, CD. R.) 518. 

Photometric values of, 63. 987. 

Rcgina, CD. R.) 400. 

Spectrum of enclosed. By Dr. Louis Bell, 

195*. By Wm. Lincoln Smith, 334*, 

system. Multiple. Ft. Wayne, 1164*. 


Arrangements of slots in. By Corsepius, (D. R.) 

Direct-current. By Arnold, CD. R.) 736. Eich- 

bcrg. CD.) 1060. 
Direct-current .Supplied with alternating current. 

By FIcischmann and Orgler, <D.) 823. 
Drum. CD. R.) 1019. 

Armature, Former-winding. By Davies, CD. R. ) 
967, 1019, IIOI. 

— ^interference and brush position. By Hobart 
. CD.) 558'. 658, CD.) 736. 

resistance of direct-current dynamos. Measur- 
ing the. By Wettler, (D. K.) 349. 

Arnold, B. J. Biographical sketch. By O'Hara. 
(D. R.) 487. 

Arnold Magnetic Clutch Co. organization, 1171. 

Auroral display. Atmospheric pressure and. By 
Stassano, (D.) 485. 

Austria-Hungary. Electricity in. By F Hor- 
schitz, 757*. 

Automatic Switch Co. Motor starter, 139*. Me- 
chanically operated reversing switch, 409'. 

.•\utomatic Water Purifying Co. water purifying 
apparatus, 782*. 


Automobile Club of America, 14, 215, 397 478 

Automobile. By Delasalle, CD.R.) 35, CD'. R) 

in Belgium, 231. 

brake tests, 974*. 

charging stations, 012. 

Combination electric. Fischer, 317*. 

efficiencies, 2. 

endurance test, 140', 480. 

Automobilism in England, 472. 

in France, 28, 90, 168, 269. 

hospital ambulance, 783*. 

London exhibition. (D.) 607. 

performance. Energy consumption and, 294. 

By H. W. Alden, 301 •. 

racing. Fatal, 985, ioi6*. 

show-, Indiana, 410. Chicago, 490. 

Storage battery, 223. 

Storage-battery in the commercial operation of 

By W. H. Palmer, Jr., 643*. 

Trade show for Washington, 100. 

Utilizing wasted energy for recharging. By 

Mueller. CD. R.) 519, (D.) 659. 

Waverly tonneau. 741*. 

Atmosphere, On the elevation of the electricallv 

conducting strata of the earth's. By A 

E. Kennelly, 473. 462. 

Ions in the. Bv Ebert. CD.) 1062. 

Atmospheric electricity. By Linke, CD.) 449. Gei 

tel, CD.) 696. 
pressure and auroral display. By Stassano 

CD.) 485. 
.Atomic sizes. Ionization, ionic velocities and. B\ 

Sutherland. (D.) 449. 
Attachment plug. Swiveling. Howes. 619*. 
Atwatcr-Kent Mfg. Works. Monoplex telephone 

Popular telephone outfits, 1112. 

B ARIUM. By Stansficid, CD.) 918. 
Compound. Manufacture of, in the electric fur- 
nace, 395- 
Barlow's wheel. By Carvallo, CD.) 236. 
Barron, Jas S. & Co. Conduit rods for underground 

work, I no*. 

Spinning jenny for line wires, 883*. 
Batteries. (See Primary. Storage.) 
Becquerel rays. By Bccqucrcl, CD.) 520. By Tom- 
masma CD. R.) 1062. 

Magnetic and electric deflection of. By Kauf- 

Bcnding rolls. Motor-driven plate, 742*. 

Besly, Chas. H. & Co. Improved oil cup, 244*, 

Biograph. Exhibition of machinery by, 138. 

Blast firing. CD. R.) 877. 

Bleach. Snda and. By Rhodin. (D.) 876. 

Bliss E. W. & Co. ^Ia^hurg electric pump, 88i». 

Block signaling .system. Kiniman, 306*. 

Blood. Alkalinity of. By Henri, CD. R.) 918. 

Boats. Electric. By Flanim. CD.) 916. 

Submarine "Plunger." 310. French, 912. 

Bogue. Chas. J. Naval projector, 921". 

Signal service search light. 663*. 

Boilers. CD. ^.) 916. 

American, CD. R.) 874. 

corrosion. By Lincoln. CD. R.) 778. 

fusible plugs. I.unkcnheimer Co., 884*. 

Sinclair. By Schmidt, CD. R.) 778. 

testing. By Hubbard, CD. R.) 778. 

Water tube. By Booth, CD.) 823. 

Book Reviews: 

— Annuaire pour I'an, 1902, 610. 

—Balancing of Engines. By W. E. Dalby. 11 63. 
— Central electrical stations. Their Design, Organiza- 
tion and Management. By C. ?I. Wording- 
ham, 404. 

- Compressed Air. By G. D. Iliscox. 4i;i. 


Book Reviews^ Continued. 

—Conduit Wiring and Erection. By L. M. Water 

house, 877. 
— Congres Internationale d'Electricite. By Hospit- 

alier, 698. 
— Contribution a I'Etude des Pertes d'Energie dans 

les Uielectriques. By P. L. Mercanton, 1064. 
— Das Elektrotechnische Institut zu Carlsrube. By 

Prof. E. Arnold, 1164. 
— Elektrische Kraftubertragund und Kraftverteilung. 

By C. Arldt, 278. 
— Elementary Electricity and Magnetism and Their 

Applications. By D. C and J. P. Jackson, 

— Elementary Treatise on Alternating-currents. By 

W. G. Rhoadcs. 1163. 
—Elements of Physical Chemistry. By H. C. Jones, 

— Elements of Alternating Currents. By W. S. 

Franklin and R. B. Williamson, 353. 
— Engineering Education, 1064. 
— Engineering Inde.x, 522. 
— Grundriss der Elektrotechnik. By Von Heinrich 

Kratzerk, 1163. 
— High School Physics. By H. S. Carhart, 1 163. 
— Hydraulic Power Engineering. By G. C. Marks, 

— Instruments et Methodes de Mesures Electriques 

Industrielles. By H. Armagnat, 278. 
— Kalender fur Elektrochemiker, 317. 
— Konsftruktionstafeln fur den Dynamobau. By 

Prof. E. Arnold. 1023. 
. — Laws of Radiation and Absorption, 827. 
— Les Decharges Electriques dans les Gaz. By J. J. 

Thomson, 740. 
. — Light, Heat and Power in Buildings. By A. D. 

Adams, 562. 
— Linear Drawing and Lettering. By J. C. L. 

Fish, 781. 
—Logarithmic Tables. By T. W. Marshall, 971. 
— Manual of Electrical Undertakings and Directory 

of Officials, 662. 
— Manual of Physical Measurements, 920. 
— Methode Practique pour Calculer les Moteurs 

Asynchrones polyphase. By Boy de la 

Tour. 827. 
— Municipal Engineering and Sanitation. By M. N. 

Baker, 562. 
— National Electric Light Association, 487. 
— Power and Power Transmission. By E. W. Kerr, 

— Practical Calculation of Dynamo-Electric Machines. 

By A. E. Wiener, 562. 
— Principles and Practice of Linear perspective. By 

H. D. C. Kraus, 781. 
— Recherches Experimentales sur les Spectres d'Etin- 

celles. By G. A. Hemsalech, 919. 
— Rontgen Rays in Medicine and Surgery. By F. H. 

Williams, 522. 
— School Chemistry. By J. Waddell, 741. 
^Tramways Electriques. By Henri Marechal, 487. 
— Transactions of Pacific Coast Electric Transmit 

. sion Association, 1023. 
.^Velocity Diagrams. By C. W. MacCord, 353. 
—Wireless telegraphy. By C. W. Tunzclman, 404. 
— VVireman's Pocket Book. Edited by F. C. Raphael, 

. — Wocrterbuch der Elektrotechnik. By Blaschke, 

Booster. Negative, 369. By Kapf (D.) 350*. (D.) 

824. Krogh, (D.) 559*. Sieber, (D.) 560. 

Ziehl, (D.) 606. 

Patents. Leonard, 130. 

Boring machine. Electrically driven, 98*. 

Boston Edison Co. Special meeting, 885. 

Bovey. Prof H. T. Honors for, 1016. 

Brain. Effect of electric waves on human. By A. 

F. Collins, 335*. iJoo. (D.) Mcintosh and 

J. Graham Wllmore, 932. 
Brakes. (D.) 314. 
—Air. (D. R.) 447. 

Dynamomctric. By Guillaume. (D. R.) 37. 

Fenders and. By Seefehlner, (D. R.) 7-78. 

Brinckerhoff, Henry M. Biographical sketch, with 

portrait. 258. 
Brine. Elcctroylsis of, 689. 
— ^Mercury cathode cell. Wilson patent, 398. 
Bristol Company. Recording water-level gauge 702*. 
British I. E. E. inaugural addresses, 368. 
National Physical Laboratory, (D.) 404. ^<{^. 

(D. R.) 608. ^ *' "^ 

Brown, C. E. L. Debt of electrical engineering to. 

By H. A. Behrend. 21*, 121*, 212*. 
Brush position. Armature interference and. By 

Hobart, (D.) 558*. (D.) 658. 
Brushes, fixed. Sparkless commutation with. By 

Hill, (D.). 313. 

Sparking at. By A. L. Rice, (D.) 694. 

Buffalo Forge Co. Tandem compound engine, 702*. 
Bulkhead doors. Automatically closing, 89. 
Bunnell, J. H. & Co. Automatic telegraph repeater, 

Burch. Edward P. Biographical sketch with por- 
trait, no. 
Bushing. Outlet. Condit, 743*. 

C-^BLE-clip. "Metropolitan," 49*. 

Deterioration of. By E. W. Stevenson, 33. By 

W. S. Brewster, 170. 

fault-testing instrument. Footc, Pierson & Co., 


French factory. By O'Gorman, (D.) 402*. 

head and protector terminal. Eureka, 343". 

industry in Germany. By O'Gorman, (D.) 351. 

— —laying in the bed of a river, (D.) 1061. 

laying plough, (D.) 1061. 

Lead-covered. Relative heating effect of alter- 
nating and direct current upon, 1017. 

for three-phase working, (D. R.) 276*. 

Underground. Cost of. By Cohn, (D.) 917. 

Telephone. Test of, with self-induction. By 

Breisig. (D.) 175. 

testing. By Savage, (D. R.) 3.^3. (D. R.) 404. 

tests and specifications for, 840. 

Cable, Submarine. By Mascart, CD. R.) 353. (D. 
R.) 404. 

breaks, 348. 

and coherer. By Guarini, (D.) 698. D. (539). 

cores. By Appleyard, (D.) 560. 

Covering of. By Bayol, (D. R.) 660. 

Kelvin on, 32. 

Locating faults in. Varley patents, 32. 

Modified Mance test for. By Stephens, (D.) 


Manufacture of, (D. R.) 402. 

Submarine relay. By Brown, (D.) 970*. (D.) 


ship. Launching of. 674. • 

steamer, "Colonia." (D. R.) 1023. 

^Waterproof, (D.) 520. 

Wireless telegraph;- versus. (D.) 317. (D.) 

404, 441. By Guarini, (D.) 561. 

.-Vtlantic, rates, 604. 

^Cape- Australia, 231. 

Constantinople, 205. 

Dutch, 548. 

German Dutch, 654, 730. 

Fanning Island station, 724. 

German-American, (D. R.) 95. (D.) 486. 

Germany-China, 603. 

Hawaiian, 87. 

Ireland-Azores. 90. 

Long Island Sound, 130. 

Pacific, 29, 129, 166, 230, 271, 344, 398, 601, 733, 

734. 1099. 1 140. 

Philippines, 10 1. 

United States-Germany, 1099. 

Calcium carbide and acetylene in Austria-Hungary, 
(D.) 37. 

Calorimetry. By Hubbard, (D. R.) 38. 

Camphor. Artificial manufacture of. Thurlow pat- 
ent. By I,. P. Townsend. 868*. 

Canal gates. Electrical gear for operating, CD. R.) 

power project. Lockport, 621. 

towage in Europe, 225. 

Canadian Electrical Association. Executive Com- 
mittee meeting, 131, 988, 1089. 

General Electric Co. Annual meeting, 492. 

Cannon. Birkeland electric, 913. 

Captains of Industry, 423. 

Carbides. Metallic. By Moissan, CD. R.) 95. 

Carbon bisulphide. Electric manufacture of. By 
Taylor. CD.) 403. 

Direct combustion of, with chlorine, CD. R.) 826. 

for electrodes, CD. R.) 316. 

electrodes for electrolvsis of chlorides of alka- 
lies. By Sproesser, CD.) 174. 

Carnegie laboratory at Stevens Institute of Tech- 
nology. Opening, 345*. 

Carnegie National Institute, 89, 108, 127, 397. 

Carty, John J. Biographical sketch, with portrait. 


Case Mfg. Co. 
Cathode drop a 

in vacuii 

Electric cranes, 41 
id current strength. 

By Stark, CD.) 

1 tubes. Distribution of current at 

the surface of. By Wehnelt, CD.) 696. 
Cathode rays. By Stark, CD.) 1103. 
for alternating current measurements. Ev 

Morris, CD.) 826. 

. (Themica! effect of. By Schmidt, CD.) 60S. 

Colored rings due to. By von Czudnochowski, 

CD. R.) 94. 

Magnetic action of. By Von CJeitler, CD.) 825. 

rays in a magnetic field. By Pellat, CD.) 917. 

Radio-activitv imparted to certain salts by. By 

McLennan, CD.) 520. 

Reflection of. By Stark, (D.) 485. 

Cement plant. Electrical. Durham, Canada, 792. 
Census. London electrical, 605. 

Central Stations: 

British regulations, CD. R.) 351. 

Commercial measurements of electrical energy, 

Costs and charges, CD.) 135. 

Day load of a moderate sized, 256. 

Developing a power service, 1055. 

Direct-current mains department of. By Moore, 

CD.) 917. 

Distribution from. By Snell, CD.) 236. 

Engineering. By Brown, cD.) 695. 

Engines and batteries for, CD.) 401. 

Four-wire system. Three-phase, 676. 

Future of. By Barstow, CD.) 173. 

Isolated plant versus the. 817. 

Load factors, liy J. G. Scott, CD.) 173. 

Losses. CD. R.) 696. 

Massachusetts, finances, 1901. By. A. D. Ad- 
ams, 1008. 

Municipal plants. By Louis Bell, 517. 

-Municipal. New York legislation. 169. 

and railway service. Compressed air in. By 

Weeks, CD. R.) 1060. 

Selector system for, CD.) I020*. 

iSingle-phase. German. CD.) 660. 

-Statistics. British, CD.) 275. CD. R.) 696. 

By Ross. CD.) 738- (D.) 82a. 

Statistics. French. By Soulier, CD.) 135. 

Sub-station enuipment. Influence of, on cost of 

electricity supply. By Stewart, CD.) 484. 

10,000-volt plants in Europe, 1059. 

Three-phase distribution for power and lighting. 

By Woodfield CD. R.) 276. 

Two recent English, 380*. 

Two. wire and tliree-wire systems, CD.) 135. 

Central Station. Bergen County, N. J. By W. J. 

Jones. 899". 

Bristol, CD.) 519, 853*. 

Chicago, 1012. By Junkersfeld, CD. R.) 135. 

Cincinnati, 843*. 

England. Crystal Pal.-iee District. CD. R.) 314. 

C.rcece. By J.ickson, CD. R.) 696. 

-^Greensboro. N. C. 1 1 15. 

-Hartford, ;i 10. 424. By A. D. Adams, 427*. 

Central Stations. 

Maiden. Mass. By A. D. Adams, 851. 

Manchester, Eng., (D. R.) 1160. 

Manchester, N. H., CD.) 275. 

Massachusetts, 714. 

Melbourne, Australia, CD.) 40Z, 763*. 

Memphis, 790. 

Metuchen, N. J., 434*. 

Montreal, 246. 

Nelson. Municipal plant, CD.) 696. 

Detroit. Municipal, 293-304. 

Nashville, Tenn., 1071. 

New York Edison Co., Waterside, 5*. 64*, in*, 

149, 191*. CD. R.) 270. 

Nicaragua, 270. 

Ottawa, Canada. By A. A. Dion. 989'. 

Partick, Scotland, 725*. 

Philadelphia, 178. 

Pressburg. Bv Ross, CD. R.) 520. 

Providence. ID. R.) 607. 

Rheydt and Gladbach. By Leisse, CD.) 351. 

Riva, Tyrol, CD.) 1021. 

Rochester, N. Y., 196*. 

Rosario, South America, 1171. 

Salford, England, CD.) 35. 

'J-.lon. France. By H. H. B.. CD.) 969. 

— — San Francisco Independent Co., 16*. CD. R.) 
520. CD. R.) 660. 

Savannah, 100. 

Seattle, 1071. 

Seoul, Corea. 24*. 

South London, CD.) 448. 

Spanish, CD.) 1103. 

St. Louis, 247. 

St. Louis municipal plant. 961*. 

bydney, 925. 1112. 

Syracuse, CD.) 314. 

— — Utica, 790. 

Venezuela. 1156. 

West Point, 1117. 

West Tampa, Fla., 1030. 

^Whitehall, 111. By Cravath. CD.) 1060. 

Chain transmission gear. Renold, 138*. 

Charleston Exposition. 788*. 

Chemical industries in 1899. Mineral production 
and, CD.) 237. 

Reactions, instantaneous, and the theory of elec- 
trolytic dissociation. By Kahlenberg, CD.) 

Child. Chas. T. Obituary Cwith portrait), 1138. 

Chicapo Edison Company report, 8.10. 

Chicago Electrical Association. Discussion, Isolated 

plant versus the central station, 817. 
Chlorates. Elcctrolytics, and hypochlorates, CD.) 

Electrolytic production of. By J. B. C. Kershaw, 

CD.) 37. CD. R.) 352. 

and Perchlorates, .^48. 

Chlorides of alkalies. Carbon electrodes for electro- 
lysis of. By Sproesser, CD.) 174. 
Chlorine and Alkalies, CD. R.) 174. 
and alkalies. Bell process. By J. B. C. Kershaw 

CD.) 449*. 
with carbon. Direct combination of. By Bol- 
ton. CD. R.) 826. 
Choking coils. Construction of, CD. R.) 825. 
Cincinnati Tool Co. Linemen's pliers, 787*. 
Circuit breaker attachment. Time element. By B. 

P. Ruckcr. iioS*. 

.\utomatic. 828*. 

Cutter, 1026*. 

Multiple voltage. Cutter. 243*. 

in railway system. Load factors and, CD. R.) 

Clark Automatic Telephone Switchboard Co. Tele- 
phone and switchboards. 6i8*. 
Clayton & Lambert Mfg. Co. Linemen's torch, 

I r II*. 
Clocks. Electric. By Dary. CD. R.) 06. 
Clouds. Potential of. By C. D. Child. 1018. 
Coal conveying plant. CD. R.) 35. 
Electric energy direct from. By T. Wright. CD.) 


Misuse of. By John Perry, CD.) 695. 

Cobalt-copper alloys. By Reichardt, CD.) 95. 
Coherer. Auto-decoherers. By Rochefort. CD.) 


Branley and Lodge claims, 231. 

Electrical resonance and the. By Kiebitz, CD.) 

And induced currents. By Muraoka and Tam- 

ura, CD.) 779*. 
— . — Sensitiveness of. By Wolcott, CD.) 11 62. 

Shoemaker patent, 1017. 

Submarine cables and. By Guarini, (D.) 698. 

CD.) 781. 
Collector rings. Properties of. By Poineare, CD. R.) 

313. Latour. 233. Poineare, CD. R.) 606. 
Girault. CD.) 777. 
Colliery. Winding gear. Electrically driven, CD. 

R.) 35. 
Collisions at sea. .\nparatus for preventing. 

Gherassiinoff patent. 44^. 
Colloids. Precipitation of by electrolvsis. Bv Whit- 
ney and Oher, (D.) 1103. 
Commercial Cable Co. Annual report, 453. 
Commutation. Sparkless. with fixed brushes. By 

Hill, CD.) 313- 

Theory of. By Punga and Wagner. CD. R.) 172. 

■ By Latoitr. CD. R.) 

Commutator. Alternators 

of direct-current dyna 

By Rothcrt. CD.) 

Condenser effects with rotating discs. A. G. Dell, 

Electrical. Manuf.aeture of. Thomson and 

Co.ites patent. 230. 
Condit, S. B. Jr. & Co., Boston, Mass. Outlet bush- 
.ing. 74.\,' 


Electrical. Vapor. Sterzing patent, 168. 
Role of water. vapor in. By Lewis, 



Germany, CD. R.) 1021 
rhoule, France, CD.) 276. 

Labria. Br.-izil, 831. 

London. CD.) 519. 

Louisville, 744. 

iductivity. Commercial measurement of electric. 

By Addicks. CD. R.) 780. 
-Electrical, produced in air by the motion of 

negative ions. By Kirkby. CD.) 520. 
of insulating liquids. l!y de Ciommo. CD.) 1 101. 
of mixtures of solutions. By Wolf, CD. R.) 521. 


Conductivity, molecular and fluidity. Temperature 
variations of specific. By Lyle and Hos- 

king, (D.) 1Q22. 

Conductors. Economical cross-section of. By Cahen, 

(D. R.) 1103. 
Insulation, of India. By Scott- Moncrieff, (D.) 


overhead. Calculation of. By Loppe, (D.) 236. 

Size and weight ot. By Appleyard, (D.) 278. 

Conduits. Asphalt. Howard Conduit Co., 43*, 

Cincinnati underground system, 179. 

electric. Gas explosions in, (D. R.) 969. 

rods for underground work. "Villard," iiio*. 

system in Troy. By Schermerhorn, (D, R.) 738. 

system of wiring. By Bathurst, (D.) 779. 

Consumption. Electrical cure for, 229. 
Continental Iron Works. Motor-driven plate-bending 

rolls, 742*. 
Contracts. Model of, (D. R.) 919. 
Controller, current. Simplified three-phase. By 

Klein, (D.) 51S*. 
handle. Restrictions on the. By Cravath, (D.) 

1 1 02. 

New type of motor, 700*. 

Convection, electric. Magnetic field due to. By Kighi. 

(D.) 969. 
Converter, rotary. Rushmore, CD. R.) 133. By 

Blondel, (D. R.) 234. 
— — damper. Berg patent, 734. 

E. M. F., regulation of. Lamme patent, zyz. 

Leblanc. By Vincent, (D. R.) 313. 

Rouge and Faget patent, 31. 

■ Stability of operation of. By Leblanc, (D.) 172. 

as voltage controller, 802. By M. Seidner, 814. 

Copper bars. Electro deposited. Sanders' patent, 601*. 

■ cobalt alloys. By Reichardt, (D.) 95. 

Electrolytic deposition of. By Sayer and Spiers, 

(D.) 277. 

Electrolytic production of. By Egli, (D.) 1103. 

nickel and iron. Thermo-electric force and elec- 
tric resistance of. By Harrison, (D.) 485. 

refining, (D.) 91S. 

tubes. Electrolytic process of making, (D. R.) 

Cornu, Prof. Life and work, (D. R.) 971. 
Corona. Solar, and comets. By Nordmann, (D.) 825. 
Cox, Frank P. Biographical sketch, with portrait, 4. 
Cranes, electric. Case. 41*. 
and hoists for steel works. Modern electric. By 

A. Krebs, 551*. 

electric traveling. Three-ton, (D.) 172. 

-Metallurgical. Blatr patent, 731*. 

■ motors, 782*. 

Cremieus experiments. By Potter and Poincare, (D.) 

Crocker-Wheeler Co. Crane motors, 782*. 

Motor dynaipo, 619*. 

Crystallization under electrostatic stress. By Heyl, 

(D.) 449. 
Currents, Superposed. Bedell patent, 555. 

Wattless. By Feldmann, (D. R.) 1062. 

Cutout. Street railway motor. Reichel patent, 311. 

■ Transformer. General Electric Co., 787*. 

Cutter Co. Circuit breakers, 1026*. 

"Multiple voltage" circuit breakers, 243. 

Cyanide val. Electrolytic. Irwin patent, 32. 

D. & W. Fuse Co. Telephone circuit protectors, 

Self-indicating fuses, 284*. 

Death by 200 volts alternating, (D.) 562. 

"De Magnete." Gilbert Club edition, 308-396. 

Dental Surgery, Electricity in. By Ragnier and 
Didsbury, (D.) 562. 

Dextrine, glucose and alcohol. Converting wood 
into. Magnier and Brangier patent. 556. 

Diamond Meter Co. Wattmeter for alternating and 
direct currents, 88i*. 

Diaphragm, Mercury. LeSueur patent, 348. 

Dielectric coristant of solutions. By DcForest 
Palmer, (D. R.) 352. 

Sparking in. By Bagart, (D.) 1276- 

strain. By More, (D.) 36. 

subjected to high potentials. By Shearer, (D.) 


Discharges from glowing platinum. By Rutherford 
(D. R.) 174- 

Disruptive. By Johnson, (D. R.) 970. 

potentials. By Tocplcr (D. R.) 876. 

Dissociation theory. Electrolytic. By Kahlenberg, 
(D.) 36. 

^—theory of electrolytic and its application to al- 
kalinity of blood. By Henri, (D. R.) 018, 

Docks, Electric equipment of railway, Midcfles- 
borough, Eng., 206*. 

Drills. Electric. By Ilenbach, (D. R.) 606. 

Solenoid, for hard stone. By Hcnbach, (D.) 


DvKAHo: fSec also Generator, Alternator.) 

■ as an adjunct to the blast furnace. By Allen, 

^ - (D.) 275. 

Dyramos. armature resistance of direct-current 
Measuring. By Wettler, (D. R.) 349. 

bipolar and multipolar "Standard," 700*. 

British, (D. R.) 349. 

Capacity limits of direct-current. By Adams, 

(D. R.) 274. 

commutation. By Boy dc la Tour, (D.) 777. 

Commutators of direct current. By Rothcrt, 

fD.) iioi. 

Croekcr-Wheeler machine in telephone ex- 
change, 619*. 

Design of <lirect-current. By Clayton, (D.) 

484. Kennedy. (D.) 777- (D.) 1 159. 

Direct-current tests, fD. R.) 349. 

■ Draught-driven fan, Woodell patent, ^^6. 

Eddy currents in the pole pieces of direct cur- 
rent, (D. R.) 172. 

machinery. Modern commutating. 109. 

Marine generating set. Holtzer-Cabot, 743*. 

Parallel operation. iJy Mccormick, (D. R.) 

Stray flux of. By Corsenius, (D. R.) iioi. 

Testing. By Bicnaime, (D.) 131'. 

Troubles with. By Schuiz, (D. R.) 484. 

Dynamo, 25-ooo-volt direct-current, 775. 
Uyr.amometric brakes. By (iuillaume, (D. R.) 37. 
Dynamometer. Rieter's electrical brake, 784*. 

E ARTH currents. By Jahr, (D.) 738. Guarini, (D.) 

faults. Localizing. By McDonall, (D. R.) 

■—-plate,. By Tanakadate, (D.j 353. 

tddy currents in pole pieces, (D. R.) 35. (D.) 

Electrical works in Germany, 690. By Hamburger, 

Electric Corapany of America, 1-85, 358, 705, 791- 
Electricity, Ether, matter and. By Gilbert, (D.) 
, 779- 

and life, 62. 

Theory of. By Duane, (D. R.) 696. 

Electric Controller & Supply Co. New type of con- 
troller, 700*. 
Electric Gas Lighting Co. Swiveling attachment 

plug, 619*. 
Lltctric Launch Co. Electric launch for hospital 

service, 878*. 
- — launch "Koola," 

I'-lectric Storage Battery Co., annual meeting, 56s. 
Electrochemical and electro-metallurgical industries. 

By J. B. C. Kershaw, (D.) 276. 

industries, 4^3. 

industry. Obscurantism in, 821. 

polarization. By Reed, (D.) 696. 

Electro-chemistry in 1901. By Krueger, (D. R.) 


Industrial. By J. B. C. Kershaw, (D.) 315. 

Recent developments in. By C. P. Townsend, 

86*, 819", pio*, 961*, 1057*, 1097*. 

in Spain, 480. 

Electrocution in Indiana, 1099. 
Electro-deposition, Bright Metallic, (D.) 739. 

-^; Tubes and cylinders by. Emerson patent, 556. 

Electrodes, Carbon, for electrolysis of chlorides of 

alkalies. By Sproesser, (D.) 174. 

Carbons for. By Harden, (D. R.) 316. 

Graphitizing. By C. P. Townsend, 1155*. 

Platinum iridium. By Denso, (D.) 739. 

Potentials of. By Haber, (D. R.) 237. 

Electrodynamic theory, Creraieu's experiments. By 

Poincare, (D.) 2^. 
Elcctrograph, (D. R.) 352. 
Electrolier. Competition for design. 872. 
Electrolysis. Alternating-current. By Wilson, (D.) 

of aqueous solutions. Spongy tin and tin crys- 
tals by. By Pfamhauser, (D.) 352. 

Animal membranes in determination of trans- 
port numbers, (D. R.) 316. 

Ions of. By Brown, (D. R.) 1103. 

Precipitation of colloids by. By Whitney and 

dber, (D.) 1103. 

from stray currents. By Moerk, (D.) 917. 

of water and industrial uses of oxygen and hy- 
drogen. By M. W. Schoop, (D.) 609. 

Electrolytes, Colors of. By Pauli, (D.) 876. 

Diffusion of. By Thovcrt, (D. R.) 918. 

Rotation of, in magnetic fields. By Drude, 

(D. R.) 450._ Urbasch, (D. R.) 826. 

Electrolytic cells, aluminum. Capacity of. By 
Franchetti, (D.) 174. 

destruction of pipes by railway currents. By 

Ulbricht, (D. R.) 738. 

dissociation. Instantaneous chemical reactions 

and the theory of. By Kahlenberg, (D.) 

estimation, (D. R.) 876. 

interrupter. Topham patent, 31. 

oxydation. By Labhardt and Zschoche, (D. R.) 


solutions. Conductivities of. By F. Kohl- 

rausch, (D.) 94. 

solutions Thermo-chemistry of very dilute. 

By Steinwehr, (D. R.) 95. 

Electromagnet. By Gray, (D. R.) 696. Wagner, 
(D. R.) 876. Varley, (D. R.) 1103. 

Construction of. By Conor, (D. R-) 94. 

Large. By Thornton. (D.) 917. 

Electromagnetic anomaly. By Blonnlot, (D.) 36*. 

gun. Birkeland invention, 399. 

theory. By Carvallo, (D.) 31S- 

Electroracters. By Duane, (D.) 136. 

Application of, to alternating currents. By 

Hohage, (D.) 918'. 

Capillary- By Boley, (D.) 609*. 

Quadrant. By Dolezalek, (D.) 403. 

Elcctrometallurgical industries of Germany. Depo- 
sition of zinc, <D.) 608. Hoeffner, (D. R.) 

Electrometallurgy of 

Electromotive force. 
R.) 825. 

Electrons. By O. Heaviside, (D. R.) 739 
kenzic, (D.) 1161. 

Ions and. By Garrard, (D. R.) 450. 

(D. R.) 661. 

Magnetic and electric deflection of Becqucrcl 

rays and apparent mass of. By Kaufmann, 
(D.) 660. 

Path of. By Rieeke, (D.) 320. 

Lord Kelvin, (D.) 560, 575. 
) 1161. 
tivity and. By Crookcs, (D.) 

ron and steel, (D. R.) 877. 
Magnetic induction of, (D, 


——Theory of. By Lord 

Fleming^ (D.) m6 

theory, Radio-activity 

Electroplating, Anodes of irregular form for, (D.) 

— — baths. Meurant patent, 480. 
— ■ — fabrics, 516. 

Electroscope. By Hurmuzeseu, (D.) 95. 
Gold leaf. Experiments. By J. S. Richmond, 

Electrostatics. By Pomey, (D. R.) 276. 

rotary field. Bv Von Lang, (D.) 825. 

stress. Crystallization under. By Heyl, (D.) 

Electro-therapeutics. By Mrs. Maurel, (D. ) 1023. 
— —Congress, Rcrne. Switzerland. 750. 

Elevators. By Cooper, (D. R.) 600 

car, Counterbalance for. By F 


Electric, (D. R.) 134- 

Electric grain, Galveston, 493. 

P-iliott Bros., London. Testing true! 
Engine Builders' Asociation, 732, 95 
Engineering education, growth^ of, 803 

-Presidential addr 



By Steinmctz, A. I. E. E., 
Biographical sketch, with por- 

l-.nsign, Orville 

trait, 636. 

Ericsson Telephone Co. Factory telephones, 47*. 

Breast plate transmitter, 699*. 

I'.ther, matter and electricity. By Gilbert, (D.) 

Eureka Electric Co. Flash light electric signal tele- 
phone switchboard, 242*. Cable head and 
protector terminal, 243*. Solid brass desk 
telephone, 789*. 

Everett-Moore affairs, 50, 85, 99, 2S5, 320, 365, 565, 

Expert, record of 1901 


F ANS, Fort Wayne, 525*. 

G. E., 336*. 

Hunter ceiling, 522*. 

Lundell, 523"- 

Paragon, 406*. 

Shedd oscillating, 241*. 

Sterling ceiling, iilo*. 

Water bracket. A. Rosenberg Co., 244'. 

Winter use for. By Herbert Clark, 273. 

Fault testing, (D.) 316*. 

Feed water purifier. Automatic, (D. R.), 916. 

Feeder regulators. By Gesing, (D.), 1103. 

Fenders. By Kosch, (D. R.) 560. By WolIT and 

Schirp, (D. R.) 560. 

and Brakes. By Seefehlner, (D. R.) 778. 

Ferranti, S. Z. Co. Direct-current meter, 1024*. 

Ferraris, Galileo, award, 1142. 

F'essenden, Reginald A. Biogr.iphical sketch and 

portrait, 64. 
Field-magnet construction. Improvement in, 1024*. 
Filter, oil. American, 884*. 
Fire alarms, Auxiliary, 499. 

losses and causes, 870. 

F'ischer Motor Vehicle Co. Combination electric 

automobile, 317*. 
Flame experiment. Sensitive. By L. De Forest, 652. 
Flasher, Solenoidal electric sign, Reynolds, 49, 

Fluorine, Production of. Meslans patent, 347. 
Fluxograph. By Blondel, (D.) 1063. 


angular variation. By Astrom, (D. 

Measuring the variation of speed of, during one 

revolution, 257. By E. W. Mix, 264*. 

Fort Wayne Electric Works. Enclosed arc lamps, 

Fan motors, 525*. 

. Multiple arc lighting system, 1164'. 

Suspension hook for transformers, 1027 . 

Foote, Pierson & Co. Cable fault-testing instru- 
ments. 789*. 

F'oreign Commerce of the United States, 394. 

French Engineering school in America 390. 

Frequency measurements. By K. E. F. Schmidt, 
(^•) 352. „ ^ ,,^ ^ 

Measuring instrument. By Loewy, (D.) 174- 

meter. By Manzetti, (D.) 37. 

Fritz, John, medal for, 963. 

Frost alarm. Automatic, 231. 

Frost & .-^dams Co. Cylindrical pocket slide rule, 

787'- ^ 
Fuel oil tests. Texas, 271. 

Waste of, 674. . 

Furnace, Blast. Motive power from. By Donkm, 

(D.) 172. 

Dynamo as an adjunct to. By .Mien, (D.) 275. 

Furnaces. Electric: 

Furnaces, Electric, (D. R.) 487- By Blount, 

(D.) 661, (D.) 697. (D.) 780, (D. R.) 918. 
Furnace, Arc, for making glass. By Du Welz, 

(D.) 404. 
combustion. Carr patent. By C. P. lownsend, 


Conley jiatent, 731*. 

Fusion of quartz in. By Ilatton, (D.) 608. 

in industrial chemistry, 438. 

Measuring tempcr,ature of. By Fery, (D.) 1022. 

Moissan. By Liebman, (D. R.) 609. 

Products. Bv C. P. Townsend, 599*- 

Resistance. By Vogel. (D.) 660. 

Separation of metals. By C. P. Townsend, 

— — Soluble barium compounds in, 305- 
Fuse in branched circuits. By Sengcl, (D.) 1061. 

High-tension. By Semenza, (D.) 402. 

M.ngazinc. Watson, 88o*. 

S. K. C. Protective, 318*. 

Sclf-indicatinK, D. & W., 284'. 

wires. By Murdock, (D.) 448, (D.) 485- 

GALVANOMETER. By Begot, (D. R.) 561- 
observations of thunderstorms. By Landcrcd, 

(D.) 610. 
Garton-Danicls Co. Trolley "pick-up, 243-4*. 
Gas Engine. By Sargeant, (D. R.) 134. 
Angular speed of. By Cornu and Blondin, (D. 

R.) 737- 

igniter. lloltzcr-Cabot Electric Co., 699*. 

and steam engines. fD. R.) 314. 

Starting. By Schindler, (D. R.) 737. 

Gas industry. Statistics of American, 477. 

Gases, Conductivity produced in, by the aid of 

ultra-violet light. By Townsend, (D.) 1161. 

Tons in. By McClung, (D.) 660. 

Spontaneous ionization of. By Wilson, (D.) 

General Electric Co. Annual meeting, 924. 


General Electric Co. Annual report, 358, 754, 767. 

Automatic circuit- breakers, 828'. 

directors' meeting, 1069. 

8o,ooo-volt iransiormer, 1067*. 

Fusible switches, 43*. Fan motors, 356*. Trans- 
former cutout, 787'. Charleston exhibit, 

new stock, 1115. 

Pendant push button switches, 6i8*. 

Push button dush pocket switch, 663*. 

Sewing machine motor, 975'- 

Small plant switchboards, 488*. 

General Incandescent Arc Light Co. Paragon fans 
for 1902, 406*. 

Generators: (See also Dynamos, Alternators). 

Alternating-current, for high and low frequen- 
cies. By Behrend. (D.) 447. i^-) 484. 

Armature reaction of an alternating current. 

By Arnold, (D.) 915- 

Direct steam-electric. By \V. A. Markey, 605. 

heating limits and the A. I. E. E. standard 

rules, 424. By Jas. L. Barr, 445. 

Hutin and Leblanc patents, 311. 

and motors. Efficiency tests of direct-current. 

By A. C. King. 33. 

and motors. Method of compounding. 

Baum, 776, 1091*. 

Niagara. 187. 

Polyphase. By Eborall, (D. R.) 823. 

Polyphase. Best degree of saturation for. By 

Korrodi, (D.) 400. 

secondary. Adams'. 664*. 

Small direct-connected, New England, 880.* 

Steam turbine, (D. R.) 967. 

Tramway. By Niethammer. (D. R.) 349. 

German Electrochemical Society. By Ostwald, 
(D.) 780. 

Gerry, M. H., Jr. Biographical sketch, with por- 
trait, 756. 

Glasgow Exhibition. By Bathurst, (D. R.) 137, 
(D. R.) 353. 

Glass, Arc furnace for making. By Du Welz, (D.) 

Glucose, dextrine and alcohol. Converting wood 
into. Magnier and Brangier patent, 556. 

Glycerine, Conductivity of solutions in. By. De 
Ciommo, (D. R.) 237. 

Gold, Electrolytic precipitation of, 7^3. 

ores, treatment of refractory. Cassel patent, 479. 

Graphite, Artificial. By Fitzgerald, (D.) 486, 1099. 

and platinum iridium for anodes. By Foerster, 




reduction by Acheson patent, 399. 

Gravitational matter. By Lord Kelvin, {U.) 315. 
Grounding of high potential circuits, 89. By J. D. 

secondary circuits. By C. T. Dashiell, 91, 1038, 

Gutta percha in the Philippines. By Maj. J. Orton 

Kerbcy, 210. 
Production of. By Hy. A. Reed, 735. 


HAINES & Noycs Co., Central Energy intercom- 
municating telephone, 242*, 

Hanscoro, W. W. Biographical sketch, with per* 
trait. S40. 

Harrison, Watson Co. Duplex steam and vacuum 
pump, 564. 

Harvard University, Engineering at, 1 157. 

Headlights, Electric railway, (D. R.) 518. 

Heat, Electricity and power direct from. By 
Asher, (D.) 697. 

Energy. By Swinburne, (D.) 448. 

Heater, Electric. By Lchfeldt, (D.) 826. 

Heaters and rheostats. New electric, 452. 

Heating, Electric, 151. 

Hertzian Exciters and resonators. By Poii 
(D. R.) 236. 

waves for controlling torpedoes. Gardner pat- 
ent, 397. 

Hcrtzography. By Ewing McLean, 33. 

High-frequency Currents. Physiologtcal effect of. 
By Bordicr and Lccomtc, (D.) 353, 

Hibbard, A. S. Biographical sketch, witn portrait, 

Hoists, Electric. C. W. Hunt Co., 48*. 

and Cranes for steel works. Modern electric. 

By Dr. A. Krebs, 'iSl'. 

Hoisting Machinery. By Horner. (D. R.) 330. 

Holtzer-Cabot Electric Co. Back-geared motor, 922*. 

Combination telephone ringer, 620'. 

Gas engine igniter. 699*. 

Launch motor, 354*. Generating set, 743*. 

Howard Conduit Co. Asphalt conduits, 43* 

Howell, John W. Biographical sketch, with por- 
trait, 804. 

Human body. Self-electrification of. By Heydweil- 
Icr, (D.) 1023. 

Hunt, A. M. Biographical sketch, with portrait, 

Hunt. C. W. Co. Electric hoists. 48*. 

Hunter Fan & Motor Co. Ceiling fan development. 

Hydrogen Peroxide. By D'Arey, (D. R.) 352. 

Stratification of. By Crookcs. (D. R.) 696. 

Hysteresis in iron, Bv Dina. fD.) 3<;i. 

Rotating. By Hieckc, (D. R.) soi- Dina, (D. 

K.) 561. 
Thermoelectric. By Pineiowcr, (D.) 1161. 


' LLU-MINANTS. Data or, 30. 

Improved, 257. 

Illumin.-ition. Electrical, 62. 8a. 

and electric lighting, (D.) 823. 

- — Tnterior. By Smith. (D.) 874. 

Illustrating apparatus, iioo. 

iNCANprscENT Lamps: 

Incnndcsccni l.imps. By Swenson, (D. R.) 134. 

Alternating current. By Leonard and Janet, (D.) 

_ ■'14. 
Decorative lighting. 1038. 

(D. R.) 1159. 

patent, 872. 

(D.) J33- 
Annual con- 

Incandescent lamps. High v 


Manufacture of, (D.) 967. 

Maxim, (D. R.) 874. 

Night. By Hopkins, (D. R.) 400. 

Power of, 462. 

Rating of, 1013. 

Regulating. Miller & Burrows. J] 

Regulating. Tri-light, ^24*. 

socket. \Vater-proof. Thaye 

tests. Recent, 755. 

Tests of 220-volt, (D.) 777*. 

Titanium. Crawford-Voelker, 4 

■220-volt, 948. 

Independent Telephone Association 

vention. 962, 1037, 1058, 1080, 113S, 1177. 
India rubber. By Wickham, (D. R.) 351- 
Indicators and meters. Lunt and Fleming patents, 

Induced currents. Coherers and. By Muraoka and 

Tamura, (D.) 779*. 
Inductance, distributed, in transmission lines. Wood- 
bridge patents, 691. 
Effect of, upon spark discharges. By Eginitis, 

(D.) 1061. 
Influence of, upon spectra. By De Gramont, 

(D.) 1062. 
Measuring by the speaking arc. By Janet, (D.) 

Induction. Ionic. By Hertha Ayrton, (D.) 696. 

mutual. Coefficient of. By Searle, (D. R.) 1162. 

Induction coil. By Lord Rayleigh, (D.) 36. Wm. 

B. Hodge, 273- Trowbridge, (D. R.) 876. 

Ives CD.) 1063. 
Induction from the secondary into the primary 

of an. By A. G. Dell, 170. 

Function of the condenser in the, i=,o. 

Mechanical break for. By Turner, (D.) 919. 

Modern, 802. 

for Rontgen-ray tubes. By Rollins, (D. R.) 660. 

Inductive circuit. Growth of currents in. By Mor- 
ris, (D.) 826. 

Notes on. By Brew, (D.) 825. 

Insulating materials. Loss when subjected to high 

potential stress. A. I. E. E. By Skinner, 

Insulation, of conductors. India, (D.) 485. 

15-000 volt lines, (D.) 1161. 

Measuring. By Carpenter, 

test. By Munroe. (D. R.) 

Wire. Thomson and Callar 

Insulator. Boch's "glaze-filled. 

Co., 615*. 

Crossings and section, 883*. 

■ Locke. Development of the. By Locke, (D.) 

International Engineering Congress, GlasgO' 

Electrical sections of, 109. 

International Motor Car Co. 

CD. R.) 661. 

patent, 516. 
Thomas, R. & Sons 

electric tonneaus. 

International Teleph( 

New telephone ap- 
k, 614*. Ringing 

CD.) 486*. 

By Turner, 

By Del 

i Mfg. Co, 

paratus, 44'. Switch h 

and listening key, 616*. 
Interrupter. Carbon electrolytic. 

Electrolytic. Topham patent, 31 

Mechanical. For induction coi! 

CD.) 919. 
Mercury. CD. R.) 561. CD. R.) 698. 

Mar. (D. R.) 1063. 
Mercury jet. By Max Levy, 482*. Cunningham, 

Modified Wchnelt. By Prof. A. L. Foley and R. 

E. Nyswander, 373*. 
Interstate Telephone Association, 555, 576, 655, 673, 

686, 703. 
Inventors. Rights of, to encouragement. By T, J. 

Johnson, 914. 
Ions in the atmosphere. By Ebert, (D.) 1062. 

Discharge potentials 01. By Coehn, (D.) 37. 

of electrolysis. By Brown, CD. R.) 1103. 

and electrons, CD. R.) 450. 

in gases. By McCIung. (U.) 660. 

as ionizers. Moving. By Stark CD.) 608. 

Measuring the mobility of. By Abegg, (D. R.) 

• — ■ — negative. Electrical conductivities produced in 

air by the motion of. By Kirkby, CD.) 520. 

Oscillation of. By Davis, (D.} 917. 

Recombination of. By Langevin, CD.) 696. 

Velocity of, drawn from the electric arc. By 

Child, CD.) 48s- 
Velocity of, from hot platinum wires. By Child, 

CD.) 876. CD.) 1062. 
Ionic induction. By Hertha Ayrton. CD.) 696. 

theory of self-discharge. By Stark, CD.) 969. 

Ionization. By Stark, CD. R.) 696. 

of air. Spontaneous. By Rutherford and Allen, 

CD.) 696. 
Ionic velocities and atomic sizes, 

land, (D.) 449. 

of liquids by radiation. By Curie 

Spontaneous, of ^ascs. By Wils 

Iowa Electrical Association. Annual 

Iowa Telephone Association 


By Suther- 

CD.) 660. 
1. (D.) 608. 
>nvention of, 

Annual meeting, 399, 

Iron alloys. Magnetic properties of, 539. 

New transformer iron. By Barrett and Brown, 

(D.) 483*. By Gumlich. CD. R.) 559- 

Electric resistivity of, 634. 

Magnetism induced in. by rapidly oscillating cur- 
rent fields. By Varley, (1). R.) 1062. 

nickel and copper. Thermo-electric torcc and 

electric resistance of. By Harrison, (D.) 

ore. Magnetic separation. Norway, 813. 

pigment. Production of. Ramagc patent, 138. 

-^and steel. Electrometallurgy of. CD. R.) 87. 

Magnetic expansion of. By Shaw and Laws, 

(D. R.) 561. CD.) 660. 

Isolated Plants: 

Isolated plants. Burke Temple of Music. Chicago. 
CD. R.) 1061. 
-versus central statit 

Economy of. By Parsons, CD.) 355. CD.) ao 

Great Northern grain elevators, West Supcno 

Wis.. CD.) 968. 


Isolated plants. Jeffrey Mfg. Co., Columbus, Ohio, 


Lynn Item, CD.) 1021. 

R. H. Macy's new store, 979. 

Natural food factory, Niagara Falls. By A. B. 

Weeks, 27S*. 

New York Lying-in Hospital, 240*. 

New York Shipbuilding Co., Camden. By 

0*Hara, CD.) 1101. 

Otis Elevator Co., Canada, 1069. 

Otis Elevator Co., Yonkers, (D. R.) 917- 

Peruna Drug Mfg. Co., 717*. 

Eagle-Shawmut iVlning Co., Chinese, Cal., 1071. 

Tremont Temple, Boston, 11 13. 

J EFFREY Mfg. Co. Power plant at Columbus, O., 

Johns Hopkins University jubilee, 330. 

Johns, H. W. Manville Co. Crossings and sec- 
tion insulator, 883*. 

Johnson & Morton. Improved heavy-current switches, 

KANSAS Telephone Association meeting, 30. 

Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Co. Buffalo switch- 
board. 617. Express switchboard, 620*. 

Rosin Solder, 526. 

Small multiple spring jack, 1166*. 

Telephone apparatus for hotels, 176*. 

Telephone receiver, 1114*. 

Kelvin. By Crocker, CD. R.) 1064. 

in America, 131, 481, 654, 689, 713, 729, 774, 

821, 839, 865, 870, 964. 

Portrait of, 716. 

Kennelly, Dr. A. E. Chair of electrical engineering. 
Harvard, 871. 

Kerr effect. By Schmidt, CD.) 449. 

Kinematograph, photographone, or electric arc. By 
Ruhmer, (D.) 277- 

Knapp Electric and Novelty Co. Battery motor, 884*. 

LABORATORIES. State electrical, 872. 

Lag angle. Measurement of the angle of. By Finzi, 
CD. R.) 1104. 

Lambert Mfg. Co. Dial needle point valves, 1027*. 

Lambert-Schmidt Telephone Mfg. Co. Telephone ap- 
paratus, 6i6*. 

Telephone service for Manhattan Railway, 1166*. 

Lathe. "Ideal," 408. 

**Star." Seneca Falls Mfjgf. Co., 410*. 

Launch. Electric, for hospital service. Electric 
Launch Co., 878*. 

■ "Koola." Electric Launch Co., 1110*. 

Motive power for. By Roberts, CD.) 1060. 

Lead. Electrolytic deposition of. By Linn, CD. R.) 

peroxide of. Electrolytic formation of from me- 
tallic. By Peters, (D.) 174. 

Radio-active. By Giesel. (D.) 660. 

Lewis Institute. Chicago. Methods of engineering 
instruction. 653- 

Light absorption. By Wood, CD. R.) 738. 

Mechanical equivalent of. By Angstroem, CD.) 

pressure. By Nicholas and Hull, CD. R.) 04. 

standard of. Present status of. By C. H. 

Sharp, 83. 

Velocity of, 949. 

Lightning, CD.) 918. 

data. 775. 

discharge. Effect of, on birds, 821. 

flashes photographed. By Walter, {D.) 487. 

protection of secondary circuits. S. K. C. sys- 
tem, 284*. 

rods. By Nccscn, CD. R.) 96, 656. 

Lightning arresters. By Klein, CD. R.) 236. CD. 

R.) 607. 
arresters. Function of shunt and series resist- 
ances in. By Thomas, 1094*- 

Gola patent, 1017. 

Line conductors. Economical cross-section of. By 

Teichmucllcr. CD.) 779. 
Liquid resistance. By Abegg. CD. R.) 316. 
Liquids, charged. Evaporation of. By Bcggcrow, 

CD.) 825. 
insulating. Conductivity of. 

CD.) 1 103. 
Locomotives. Electric, CD.) 235- 

English electric, 40*. 

Freight. (D.) 1102. 

Statistics on. CD. R.) 401. 

Switching, CD- R) 1160. 

Luminescence. Radio-activity and. 

CD.) 236. 

Luminosity, fatigue of. By Schmauss, (D.) 94. 
Lunkenhcimer Co. Blow-off valve, 44*. 
Fusible plugs, 884'. 


WIACHADO & ROLLER. Sage ohmmctcr, 11 u*. 

Machine tools. By Littlcdalc, (D. R.) 172. Bath- 
urst. CD.) 451. 

Elcctrically-drivcn, 526*. 

Electrically-driven, Nilcs-Bcmcnt-Pond. 789*. 

Magnesium. Polarization of. By Campetti, CD.) 

Magnets, permanent. Compensation for the weak- 
ening of, CD.) 1103*. 

Traction, for straight and circular movements. 

By Dictze, CD. R.) 561. 

Magnetic convection. Effect of electric, CD.) 315. 

-clutches and induction motors, 331. 

curves. Note on. By Pawling. CD. R.) 174. 

deflection of long steel wire plumb lines, 256. 

By Dr. W. Hallock. 263. 

effect of electrical convection. By Right, (D.) 

By Di Ciommo, 

De Hemptinne, 


Magnetic elements. By Beattie and Morrison, (D. 

R.) 1062. 

elements in France, (D.) 94. 

expansion of iron and steel. By Shaw and Laws, 

CD. R.) 561. (D.) 660. 
Magnetic field. Cathode rays in a. By Fellat, (D.) 

Change of the resistance of metals when placed 

in a. By Patterson, (D.) 1162. 

due to electric convection. By Rhigi, (D.) 969. 

Effect of, on resistance. By J. J. Thompson, 

(D.) 660. 
Energy dissipation in a weak. By Pupin, (D. R.) 

Faraday effect. By Du Bois, (D.) 102a. 

Production of, hy a flight of charged particles. 

By Wood. (D.) 1161. 

Resistance of a. By Pellat, (D.) 1062. 

Rotation of electrolytes in. By Drude, (D. R.) 

450. (D. R.) 826. 
Magnetic induction and magnetic force. By Muel- 

lendorf, (D. R.) 352. 
measurements. Zero method for. By Gold- 

schmidt, (D.) 1062*. 

needles. Volcanoes and, 964. 

obser\*ation. Nickel steel and. By C. Marriott, 

quantities in bulk. Permeameter for testing, (D.) 


separator, (D. R.) 971. 

shells. Circular filaments or. By Lyle, (D. R.) 


tubes of force. Visible, (D.) 608. 

Magnetism of electrolytic deposits. By Maurain, 

(D.) 174- 
induced in iron by rapidly oscillating currents. 

By Varley. (D. R.) 1062. 

Permanent. By Abt, (D.) 236. 

Terrestrial, (D. R.) 236. By Windmueller (D. 

R.) 237. (D. R.) 738. 
Magnetization of iron wires at high frequencies, 1079. 
Magnetostriction. By Sano, (D. R.) 6g6. 

Temporary set and. By Barns, (D.) 94. 

Mains, distribution. Direct-current. By Ward, (D.) 

Manganese. By Heraeus, (D.) 876. 
Marconi in Canada, 90, 515. 

and his critics. By Wilfrid Blaydes, 658, 693. 

Dinner to, 90, 107, 124. 

life insured, 347- 

— — returning to New York, 353. 399- 

and the scotters. By A. F. Collins, 33. 

McGuire Mfg. Co. New electric heaters and rheo- 
stats, 452. 
Measurement of conductivity. Commercial. By 

Addicks. (D. R.) 780. 

Electric. By Armagnat. < D. R.) 970. 1136. 

magnetic. Zero method for. By Goldschmidt, 

(D.) 1062*. 
Measuring instruments. By Armagnat. (D. R.) 237. 
large-phase differences. Method for accurately. 

By Breslauer. (D.) 521*. 

three-phase circuits. By S. L. Long, E. J. B., 

A. S. McAllister, Chas. Brandeis, 445-447". 

J. Taylor, 482. 
Medicine. Wave theory in, 399. 
Membranes. Preparation of semi-permeable. By 

Morse and Horn, fD. R.) 237. 
Mercury cathode cells. Reed patents. By C. P, 

Townsend, 869*. 

diaphragm. Le Sueur patent, 348. 

Metallic electro deposits. Bright, (D.) 739. 
Metals. Change 01 resistance of, when placed in a 

magnetic field. By Patterson, (D.) 1162. 
Dissolution of. By Auren and Palmaer, (D.) 

-^^Electrolytic recovery of. Frasch patent, 714. 
Separation of. Electric furnaces. By C. P. 

Townsend, 1014*. 
Meteorite, 50-ton, found near Colima, 1157. 
Meter frequency. By Manzetti, (D.) 37. 

and metering, 897. 

Wright electrolytic. 614*. 

Metering. Metaphysical, 132. 

Meters, indicators and, Lunt and Fleming patents, 

Metric system before Congress, 3. (D. R.) 278, 

204, 296. 500. 502, 602, 766. 

English versus the, 425. By Chas T. Porter, 441. 

Micrometer. Electric. By Shaw, (D.) 1063. 

Microphonograph in France, 776. 

Microphone. Hughes and the, 1078. 

Miller &- Burrows. Regulating incandescent lamp. 

Mines, coal. Electric haulage in. By W. B. Clarke, 

Electricity in. By Bcntom, (D.) 234. By Per- 
kins. (D. R.) 314. 

Lighting Corcan, 493. 

Mining plant in Austria-Hungary, 757. 

— — Durango. Mexico. 52. 

Moore light patents, 1153*. 

Moore Telephone Mfg. Co. Telephone and appara* 

tus, 282*. 
Morse estate, 774. 

Morton. Dr. Henry. Life and work, CD. R.) 971. 
Motor : 
Motor. Altcrn.itlng-currcnt. By Fischcr-Hinncn, 

(D. R.) 234. 
alternating current. Two-spccd. Lammc patent, 

-^—asynchronous. Mechanical slip counter for. By 

Zichl, (D.) 175. 

Back-geared. Holtzer-Cabot, 922*. 

battery. Knapp, 884"- 

■ boats. International exhibits of, 348. 

calculations. Synchronous. By r. G. Baum, 

Capacity limits of direct-current. By Adams, 

fD. R.) 274. 
circuits. Determining wire sizes for alternating 

current. (D. R. 1021. 

compensator. Steinmetz patent, 1017. 

controlling devices. Cutfcr-llammcr Mfg. Co., 

Crane, 782*. 

Motor cycle. Design of an electric. By Brocksmith, 
(D. R.) 777. 

Direct-current. By McCormack, (D. R.) 874. 

direct -cur rent. Speed regulation of. By Sckulz, 

(D.) 447- 
Direct-current, with variable speed. By Hundt, 

(D.) 736. 

Efliciency tests of direct-current generators and, 

By A. C. King, 33. 

in electrotyping plants, (D. R.) 778. 

elevator. Alternating current versus direct 

rent, 754. 
and generators. Compensation of. Baum pat 

ents, 776, 1091*. 

generator regulation. W^iiliams patent, 735. 

Gold dredging with, 879*. 

— Heyland. By Heyland, (D.) 1060. Brieslauer, 

(D.) 967. (U. R.) 349. 872. Osnos, (D.) 

1060. Fleischmann and Orgler, (D.) 1060. 

Latour, (D.) 1060. 

llutin and Leblanc patents, 311. 

Launch. Development of. Holtzer-Cabot Co., 

losses. Testing of. By Sumpner, (D.) 447*' 

• Multi-speed. Stow, 701*. 

Polyphase induction, (D. R.) iioi. 

Polyphase. Sales of, 871. 

Polyphase. Test of. 61. A. S. McAllister. 78*. 

Sewing machine. General Electric. 975*- 

Single-phase railway. Eickemeyer patent, 1017. 

Small three-phase. (D.) 9-'*- 

starter. Automatic. Automatic Switch Co., 139* 

— ^synchronizing. Device for. By Prof W. Duane, 

Testing and management of. Bv White, (D.) 

i.U. (D. R.) 274. 

Variable speed. (D. R.) 874. 

Motor. Induction. By Dr. Louis Bell. 119. Heyland, 

(D.) 171. Wiener, (D. R.) 349- Ziehl, 

(D. R.) 915. Berckenbrink, (D.) 1060. 
Characteristic performance of. By McAllister, 

(D. R.) 777- 

as a generator. Lamme patents, 604. 

without idle current. Danielson patent, 444- 

Magnetic clutches and. 331. 

Measuring the slip of an. By Siniek, (D.) 172. 

with power factor equal to unity. By Hey- 
land, (D.) 658*. 

Single-phase. By McAllister, (D. R.) 1019. 

starting apparatus. Lindstrom patent, 445,- 

tests of. Resonance phenomena. By Benischke, 

(D.) 558*. 

Testing three-phase. By M. G. Stratton, 348*. 

used as a synchronous motor. By Danielson, 

(D.) 171*. iiy Eichberg (D.) 349. 

with adjustable speed, (D.) 274. 

Wattmeter on, 462. 

Motor, Railway. By Siebert, (D. R.) 779- Dodd, 

CD.) 915. 

locking device. Potter patent, 734. 

Polyphase, 908*. 

Torque of. By Dodd, (D.) 1019- 

Motor. Synchronous. 896. 

synchronous. Induction motor used as 

Danielson, (D.) 171*. By Eichberg, 349- 
Synchronous, on grounded high-tension lines. 

By F. J. Greisberg. 399. 
synchronous. Single-phase, without excitation. 

By Boucherot, (D.) 234. 
synchronous. Stability of, 538. By F. G. 

Baum, 548*. 

synchronous. Theory of. By Steinmetz, 1029. 

Synchronous, as voltage controller, 802. By M. 

Seidner, 814. 
Municipal ownership, 633. 

central stations. By Louis Bell, 517. 

— —and government ownership in Canada, 123. 
in Great Britain. Governmental supervision and, 


in Worcester, Mass. Report against, 

plant, Detroit, 293. 304. 

Multivoltagc sy.-item. Lunt patent, 734. 


1053', 1077 


265, 872, 

National Carbon Co. Annual report, 411. 
National Electric Contractors' Association. 

meeting. 310, 1080. 
National Electric Light Association, 691, 753, 756, 

804, 830. 948, 988, 1058. 
Navy. Electricity in the. By VV. 




railway motormen, 1157. 

By Adams, (D.) 350, 

Nernst lamps, 131, (D. R.) 
(D.) 559*, <D. K 

and arc lamps, (D. R.) 518. 

Care of, 368. 

Efficiency of, (D.) 778. 

at l-'armimtton. Conn., 358. 

patent. German decision, 131. 

terminal, 556. 

Tests of "1902 model." By Hulsc, (D.) 736*. 

Nerve phenomena. Electricity and. 4. 

New York Electrical Society badge, 397. 

N. Y. State Meter Bureau, 774. 

Newton Electrical Works, Ltd. Rictcr's electrical 

brake dynamometer, 784*. 
Networks. Calculation of. By Soschinski, (D. R.) 


Small direct-connected 

„ crators, 88o-*. 
New Haven Novelty Machine Co. Telephone cable 

fittings, 1 1 13". 
Niagara Falls. Electric installation of the Natural 

Food factory at. By A. B. Weeks, 278*. 

power. By Barton, (D. R.) 134-256. 

Power Co. Inspection, 1012. 

plants. By Buck, 1092. 

power. Canadian, 195, 215, 255, 270, 323, 413, 

— — stock, 1028. 

nderground. Locating faults in. By Lohi 

561. By O. Steinmetz, (D.) 56 
England M " 

Niagara power in Toronto, 555, 1055. 

Nicaragua. Electrical development in, 746. 

Nickel amalgam. By W'uensche, CU.) 448. 

iron and copper. Thermo-electric force and 

electric resistance of. By Harrison, (D.) 

Refining and electro-deposition of, 4^6*. 

steel and magnetic observation. By C. Marriott, 


Niles Tool Works. Electrically driven machine tools, 

Nitric acid. By Veley and Manley, (D.) 352. 

Non-aqueous solutions. By Ciommo, Walden and 
Centnerszwer, Frankland and Farmer, 
Franklin and Kraus (D. R.) 237. 

Northwestern Electrical Association. Annual con- 
vention, 149, 159, 176. 

OHIO Telephone Association. February meeting, 

(>^bmmeter. Sage, 1114 . 

Ohm's law. Invalidity of. By Stark, (D.) 1022. 
Oil cup, improved. Besly & Co, 244-. 

fuel in power plants. By Reed, (D.) 1159. 

omnibus. Dresden trolley, (D. R.) 607. 

Ores, metal. Locating. Brown patent, 130. 

Reduction of complex sulphide. Swinburne and 

Ashcroft patent, 265". 
Oscillations. Electric, in coils. By Luedin, (D.) 


Damping of. By Zenneck, (D.) 918. 

of higher order. By Lamotte, (D. R.) 660. 

Oscillators, electrical. Skin effect of. By Chant, 

(D. R.) 236. (D. R.) 876. 
Oscillatory charging currents. By Andriessen, (D.) 

Oscillographs. By Blondel, (D. R.) 970. 
Application of, to the study of alternators. By 

Blondel, Dobkevitch. Duris, Farmer and 

TchernosvitofT, (D. R.) 237. 
Osmium lamp, 369. By Gabriel (D.) 313. (D.) 349*. 
Osmotic pressure observation. By Oker-Blom, (D.) 

O.xygen and hydroge 
dustrial use 

Electrolysis of water and in- 
if. By M. W. Schoop, (D.) 

I." Fielding moulding re- 
By Hehschka, (D.) 317. 

PAISTE, H. T. Co. "F 

ceptacle, 452'. 
Pan-American Exposition 

statistics, 32. 

Paraguay. Electrical development in, 745. 
Patents. Digest of, 913. 

A freak. Jahr, 130. 

in Germany, 691. 

U. S. Number issued, jyi. 

Peck, J. S. Biographical sketch, with portrait, 296. 
Pennsylvania Electric Vehicle Co. Annual meeting, 

Perchlorates, chlorates and, 348. 
Periodicity, Scale of. By Guillemin, (D.) 1063. 
Permeameter for testing magnetic quantities in bulk, 

(D.) 9S- 
Pcrmutator. Single-phase, with revolving brushes. 

By P. Letheule, 471*. 
Phase difference. Determining the, in alternators 

with revolving field. By Queisser, (D.) 559. 

Measuring, (D.) 521*. 

meter for three-phase circuits. By Arno, (D.) 

Photogranhone or electric arc kincmatograph. By 

Ruhmer, (U.) 277. 
I'hotometry, Simple, 131. 
Physiological effects of high frequency currents. By 

Bordica and Lecompte, (D.) 353. 
Pignolet, Louis M. Improved voIt-ammcter, 617*. 
Plant growth. Electricity and, CD.) 1023. 
Platform, Rolling. For Paris, 865'. 
Platinum, glowing. Discharge irom. By Ruther- 
ford, (D. R.) 174. 
iridium and artificial graphite for anodes. By 

Foerster, (D.) 739. 

iridium electrodes. By Dcnso, (D.) 739. 

Polarization capacity of. By Schoenherr, 



Velocity of ions from hot v 
Child, (D.) 876. (D.) 1062. 
Pliers, Linemen's, 177*, 410*, 787*. 
Plumb lines. Magnetic deflection of long steel wire, 

256. By Dr. W. Hallock, 263. 
Polarization capacity of platinum. By Schoenherr, 

(D.) 95. 

Electro-chemical. By Reed, (D.) 696. 

Pole lines, (D. R.) 738. 

Pole pieces. Eddy currents in, (D. R.) 35. 

Polyphase working. Practical. By Bell, (D. R.) 

Porter Battery Co. Storage batteries, 48. 
Power. Cost of. By Gray, (D. R.) 172. 
Power Distribution; 
Power Distribution. Aspen tunnel and power house, 

in buiV. By Earlc, (D.) 485. 

Colgate power house. By Barbour, fD. R.I 484. 

Consumers' installations. By Ruddle, (D.) 824. 

in cotton mills. (D. R.) 484- 

Economy of. By Marshall, (D.) 134. 

Factory, (D. R.) 520. 

German manufacturing plant. By E. K. Scott, 

(D.) 447. 
— — Lancashire County asylum, (D.) 402. 

Manufacturing works. By Aldrich, (D. R.) 134. 

Meat-packing plant. (D.) 94. 

in mills. By Walsh, (D. R.) 134- 

in mining. By Gibson, (D.) 484. 

Modern tendencies in, (D.) 275. 

Shipyard. (D. R.) 916. 

Smith & Wesson factory, Springfield, 886. 

— ' — South African brewery, loi. 

South Wales, 013. 

Three-phase system. By Woodficid, (D. R.) 276. 


Power distribution. 3500-voU limit for city. 948. 
Three-wire system. Single generator. Stein- 

metz patent. 691. 

Tom Boy gold mines. Pandora, CoTo., 11 71. 

United States Mint, Philadelphia. By C. \V. 

Pike, 201 •. 
University of Illinois. By Morgan Brooks, 

Priuary Battery: 
Primary batteries, (D. R.) 403, 1078. 
Copper-oxide dry-cell. I>c Dion and Bouton pat- 


ent, 230 

of the. By 



Temperature coefficient 
rr, (D.) 486. 

By C. F. Burgess, 156. 
Johnson patent, 347. 
resistance of. By Ayres, (D.) 352. 
Angular speed of. By Cornu and 
Blondin, (U. K.) -37. 
Projector, naval. Bogue, 921*. 

Siemens. 612*. 

Pumps. Duplex steam and vacuum. 564*. 

Electric feed. By Johnston, (D.) 313. 

Marburg electric. E. W. Bliss Co., 881 ♦. 

Pupin coils. Pupin and Balch patent, 735. 

Q UARTZ. Fusion of. in the electric furnace. By 
Hatton, (D.) 608. 

Queen & Co. Queen decade portable testing set, 

Queen's Engineering Works. English high-speed en- 
gine, 239. 

RADIO-ACTIVITY and the electron theory. By 

Crookes, (D.) 607. 
imparted to certain salts by cathode rays. Bv 

.McLennan, (D.) 520. 
Induced. By Curie and Debicnne, (D.) 236. 

Henning, (D.) 1825. 
and Luminescence. By De Hemptinne, (D.) 


Phenomena of, 295. 

surfaces. Preparation of. By Elster and Geitel, 

of thorium oxide. By Fehrle. (D.) 403. 

Transfer of. By Rutherfcrd, (U.) 607. 

Radiation Cures. (D.> 1023. 
Radium ejtperimcnts, (D. R.) 315. 

rays. Reflection of. By Tommasina, (D.) 403. 
Rails. Welding electric. By Hicks, (D. R.) 522. 
Rail bond, (D.) 1020. 
VAllwire," 785'- 
Rail-joint construction, (D. R.) 560. 

Resistance of, (D. R.) 739. 

Railroad car lighting, (D. R.) 874. 

Raii-ways. Electric; 

Railways, electric. By Dawson, (D.) 93. (D.) 

968. (D. R.) 401. 

accounting, (D. R.) 917. 

American, underground system in England, 

Analysis of operations in Germany. By Mat- 

tcrsdorf, (D. R.) 779. 

Arnold system. 1136-7. 

Austrian three-phase high-tension. By Golwig, 

fD-) 737- 

Automatic block signals on heavy, (D.) 875. 

Bchr monorail, 224. 

signals, block. By Kohlfucrst, (D. R.) 017. 

British, map of, (U. R.) 401. 

Calculating the feeders for. By Sengel, (D.) 

1060. Sicber. (D.) looo. 
car equipments and maintenance. By Wigram, 

(D. R.) 134. 

car houses. (D. R.) 824. 

Charlestown power station of Boston elevated. 


- —Cheatham switch, 969. 

- —Chicago problems. Mr. B. J. Arnold to report 

on, 950. 

Conditions of travel, 90. 

Conduit systems in England, (D.) 93. 

Consumption of energy. By Gcroult. (D. R) 

^ *35- 

Control of 


Controller attachment. Potter patent. 312. 

Dangers from trolley wires. By Jamieson, (D. 

R.) 401. 
-Design of »mall, (D.) 9,. 
—Determining traction resistance, (D.R.) ait. 

- —Discussion before A. 1. E. E.. 220. 
Double trolley, Cincinnati, (D.) 068. 

Earth currents derived from distributinK sys- 

terns. By Wedmore. (D.) 401. 
-Electrolysis l,v return currents. By Larscn and 
Fabcr. (D. R.) 172. Lubbcrgcr, Viggier, 
Micb.ilkc, (D.) 607. 
-Energy, mr.ior capacity and schedule speed in 
elcctnr.-illy jiropellcd cars, 189. 
r.rni'mci.i .(. i\l.) H24. 

car aceleration. By G. Rcnncrfelt, 

■f. .1. 

rt, (D. R.) 401 

' 1 wires in insullations, (D. R.) 351. 

n.iimg of motors. By Potter, 1143*. 

H.Khspccd, (D.) 93. By G. W. Me 
mond Schiller. (D.) 778, 963. 

Migh-snecd trains between Cleveland and To- 
ledo, (D.) I 103. 

Inertia of the rotating parts of a train. By N. 

ileyer, Ray- 

W. .Stn .. __ 
Lighling. By Ad 
i;i;Iilmg. R.-ii(road 

ims, (D.) 1021. 

station. By Jordan, (D. R.) 

\ ' f.ictors and circuit breakera in, (D.) 134. 
_; nery and equipment for traction systems. 

i ►rnriic traction device, 489. 
Mnn.igement in Texas. By Stuart, (D.) iioa. 

Railways, Electric, Mechanics of, (D. R.) 135. 

Model suburban station, 951*. 

Monrail road in Scotland, 344. 

motive power, cost ot, (D.) 607. 

Motor cut-out. Reichel patent, 311. 

Motor equipment. Selection of. By Jones, (D.) 


Motor troubles and trolleys, (D.) 1020. 

Multiple control system. Leonard patent, 605. 

Multiple unit system. Potter patent, 311. 

Multiple unit system, Sprague patent, 692. 

Multiple unit systems. By Blackstone, (D.R.) 

351- (D. R.) 738. (D. R.) 824. (D. R.) 

Municipal, 132. 

Negative boosters for alternating-current. By 

Ziehl, (D.) 606. 

N. Y. Central. By Arnold, 1094. 

Operating cost of. By Gueroult, (D. R.) 824. 

Overhead material, (D.) 968. 

Overhead and track construction for interurban, 

CD. R.) 1020. 

Paris Exposition. By Tripier. (D. R.) 607. 

Pension to employes. Metropolitan, 480. 

and population, 655. 

Polyphase currents for. By Galmoezi, (D.) 


Polyphase systems abroad, 986. 

Power consumption. Tests on Liverpool. (D.R.) 


Power in English shop. (D.) 400. 

Practice on the continent. By Vallguth, (D.) 

I 1 59- 

Present tendencies. By Bell. (D.) 275. 

Private branch telephone exchange work on. 

Problem of. By Swinburne, (D.) 659. (D.) 

695. Swinburne and Cooper, (D. R) 779. 
Rail-feeder construction, San Francisco. By 

Foster, (D.) 235. 

Refuse carts, 1090. 

Registering instruments on. By Tacquis, (D. 

R.) 352- 
Regulating the voltage for lamps. By Schuh, 

(D.) 1102. 

Repair shop, (D.) 1020. 

Repair shop methods. (D) 275. 

Return currents and electrolytic destruction of 

pipes. By Ulbrecht, (D. R.) 738. 

Safety in, 163. 

Sectional conductor system. Kintner patents, 91.^. 

Shallow underground. By Wordingham, (D.) 

„ 93- 

■ Shops in Denver, (D.R.) 607. 

Signal system. Acmescope Company, 698. 

Cutting sleet on third rail, (D.) 275. 

Special tests vs. commercial practice. By James 

(D.) 1 102. 

Speed curves. By MaiUoux, 1145. 

Station medical sen-ice, Germany. 603. 

and steam locomotives. Comparative acceleration 

tests. By Arnold and Potter, 1094. 

Storage battery for. (D. R.) 519. (D.R.) 779. 

Storage batteries in the Baltimore Belt Line 

tunnel power plant, 275*. 
Street car platforms. By Partridge, (D.R.) 

275- (D.R.) 401. 

- —Street cars for rural England, 311. 
Street cleaning trolley car, 398. 

Surface contact system. By Paul. (D.) 607. 

(D.) 1060. 
Lorain surface contact system. Potter. 311. 

(D.R.) 448. 

Switching locomotive, 1160. 

Telephones on cars, 602. 

Test of, Indiana system, 605. 

Third-rait installations. By Guarini, (D.) 447. 

Third-rail system, 575. 

-Three-cent fares, 515. 

Three-phase currents on city roads. By Fabrc, 

(D.) 560. 

Track construction at Scranton, Pa., (D.) 93. 

Track tools. (D.R.) 1160. 

Traction on. By Mordcy and Jenkin, (D.) 518. 

Traction on normal roads. By Hubcr, (D.) 


—Train control, (D.) 93. 

Trials on German main, 351. 

-Trolley wheel wear. Variations in, (D. R.) 1102. 

Truck for high-speed cars, (D. R.) lojo. 

Vibration causes and remedies. By Mallock. 

(I).) 1 160. 
- — ^Zossen, high-speed, (D.) 875. (D.) 1102. 
Railways. Electric. Adelaide, Australia. 025. 

Albany and Hudson reorganization, 665. 

Atlanta, consolidation, 744. 

Atlantic Coast Electric Railway Co., 143. 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago construction work. 

(D.) 401. 

Baltimore, (D. R.) 1020. 

—^Baltimore & Ohio third rail, 603. 

Berlin Elevated and Underground, 371*, 805*. 

Birmingham, Eng., (D. R.) io.:o. 

Birmingham, Ala., organization, 790. 

Boston elevated, 84 

-British statistics, (D.) 351. 

- —Buenos Ayrcs. project for. 1171. 

Burlington and Mt. Holly line, .\ .J., 691. 

-—^Brighton, England, 15'. (D.R.) 35. (D.R.) 

— -Brockton & Plymouth. (D.) 778. 
— Brooklyn. 566. 

Brooklyn merger, 1069. 

— • — Brooklyn subway, 1080, 1099. 

Camden and Trenton statistics, 454. 

Canada to Mexico, 964. 

Canton-Akron, 977. 

Cardiff, (D. RJ 1061. 

Chicago. By Ellicott, (D. R.) 484. 

.Chicago & Jolict interurban. By Kibbe, (D.R.) 

China, 230. 

Cleveland merger, 178, 411; consolidation, 491 

(D. R.) 695- 

Cologne, 231. 

Connecticut, .Syndicate buys, 357. 

Railways, electric. Denve 

Uetroit & Toledo Shoi 

— —Egyptian, 143. 

England, 228. 

English Midland Counties, 166. 

Fayet-Chamonix, (D.) 969. 

(jeneva, Switz., (D,) 1020. 

Georgia lines, 50. 

Germany, 733, (D.) 824. 

Glasgow power station, (D. R.) 314. 

—Grand Rapids, Holland & Lake Michigan Rapid. 
By Damon and Ray, 478. (D. R.) 660. 

Great Britain and Ireland, statistics, (U. R.) 

^ 738. 

— — Great Northern and City, (D. R.) 607. 

^—Hamburg. By Veltguth, (U.) 235. 

Hartford and Springfield, (D. R.) 401. 

Havana, 706. 

^Houghton County. By Parker, (D.) 1019. 

Hudson-Poughkeepsie, third-rail, 445. 

Indianapolis, car construction, (D.) 314. Con- 
solidation, 791. 

Italy. By S. \V. Hanauer, 33, 35S. (D.) 1020. 

Kansas City merger, S30. 

Lake Shore Electric, in receiver's hands, 141. 

Lansing, St. John & St. Louis, (D. R.) 519. 

Lisbon, (D. R.) 1020. 

Liverpool elevated disaster, 31. 

London, 30, 32, 210', 310, 311, 312, 398, 706, 

(D. R.) 695, 716, 821, 923. (D.) 1160. 

London to Paris, 604. 

Long Island, R. R., 766, 977. 

Lourenzo Marquez, Portugese East Africa, 886. 

Mahoning \'alley, incorporation, 977. 

Malaga, 1157. 

Manhattan Elevated, 76*, 117*, 153*, :68, 444, 


Massachusetts, 1018. 

Mexico, 320, 321, 413. 

■ Montgomery, Ala., 622. 

Montreal, subway for, 775. 

New Haven third rail, 31. 

Xew Jersey statistics, 790. 

New London, Conn., municipalizing, 271. 

— —Xew York Central and, 32. 

Metropolitan, K. Y., Interurban lease, 286, 566, 


New York and St. Louis, 31, 215. 

New Orleans, 141, 320, 924, 1169. 

New Zealand, 832. 

North Jersey annual report, 566. 

Norfolk, Va., 566, 885. 978. 

Northern Pacific project, 732. 

Ogdensburg, N. V., sale, 791. 

Ohio consolidation, 924. 

Ohio report, 89. 

— —Paris, 89. 310. By Lavalard, (D.) 314- De- 
troyat, (D.) 519. 

• Paris underground, 229, 398, 605, 1047, 1099. 

- — -Philadelphia, 90, 169, 320, 453, 692, 830, 978. 

Pittsburg improvements, 322*. 

— —Portsmouth, England, 15", (D. R.) 314. 

Providence consolidation, 492, 978. 

Providence. Warren & Bristol, (D.) 519. 

Pueblo, Mexico, 925. 

Queensland, 925. 

Richmond, Va., 169. 

Russia, 97^. 

Salford, England, Lighting and traction, (D.) 

San Trancisco, consolidation, 179, 453, 491. 

Shanghai. 359. 

South African S^fstem, (D.) 560. 

South London, Fire in Subway, 168. 

Spain, 963, 1059. 

St. Louis. 491- (D. R.) 695. 

St. Petersburg, 964. 

Staten Island in receivers' hands, 453. 

Sweden. 480. 

Switzerland, 396, 730. 

Syracuse. (D. R.) 969. 

Tokio, (D. R.) 519. 

Toledo. 666. 

Twin City financial statements, (D. R.) 519. 

Vevey-Mont Pelcrin road. By Bignami, (D. 

Vienna, municipalization. By Ziflfcr, (D. R. > 

Virginia consolidation, 790. 

Washington Capital, statistics, 744. 

Windsor, 399. 

Wisconsin proposed long-distance, 32. 

Worcester. Mass.. (D. R.) 275. 

Rates. By Wilkins, (D.) 173. By Esson, (D.) 235. 

Central station. By Esson. (D.) 448. 

Influence of lotid factor on. By Dick, (D.) 

Influence on electricity supply. By Baker, (D.) 


London. By Clark, (D.) 1061. 

— — Maximum demand system. By Wright. (D.) 

.173. (D.) 314. 
Maximum demand systems. Instrument for. Bv 

Hartmann, (D.) 609. 
Wright demand system, 839. By R. S. Hale. 

263, 822. In Chicago, 949. 
Rays. (Sec Cathode, Becqucrel, Radium, Rontgen. 

Rszor Sharpener, Mannct. Ncwhouse patent. 734. 
Reactance, Synchronous. 714-724. By Behrend, 822. 

Baum, ois. 
Rciding Gas & Electric Fixture Co., Knife switches. 

Receptacle. Fielding Moulding. 452*. 
Reflector, Electrical op.ique, 311. 
Regulators, Shunt. Bv Kahn, (D. R.) 606. Krause, 

(D. R.) 606.' (D. R.) uoi. 
Rcist, H. G. Biographical sketch, with portrait. 

Rcnim Specialty Co., Combination switch box, 490*. 

Universal switch box. 49*. 

Resistance, Bridge method for measuring insulation. 

By Eisler, (D.) 403V 
Effect of magnetic field on. By J. J. Thompson, 

(D.) 660. 


Resistance, Temperature variation of electric. Bv 

Williams, (D.) 738. (D. R.) 1062. 
Resonance, Electrical, and the coherer. By Kiebitz, 

(D.) 136. 
phenomena. Tests of induction motors. Bv 

Benischke, (D.) 558*. Trylski, Schlee, (D.) 

Reynolds Electric Co. Solenoidal electric sign 

flasher, 49, 564*. 
Rheostats and heaters, 452. 

Plug. By Knobloch. (D. R.) 561. 

Shunt regulating. By Krause, (D. R.) 518. 

Starting. By Ott, (jj.) 400. 

Rice, Calvin W. Biographical sketch, with portrait. 

Roller, F. W. Biographical sketch, with portrait. 

Rcller bearings. .American Roller Bearing Com- 

pany, 664*. 
Rontgen rays. Absorption of. By McChung and 

Mcintosh, (D. R.) 352. 
apparatus. By Elmer G. Willyoung. 47*. 

ter. (D.) 1063. 


e. 604. 

By F. 


Primary and secondary. By Allen, (D.) 403. 

tubes. Induction coils for. By Rollins, (D. R.) 

660. (D. R.) 876. 
Rosenberg. A. Co. Bracket style of water-fan motor, 

Rotarv converter. (See Converter.) 
Rotay Fields. By Chabot, (D.) 608. 

Electrostatic. By Von Lang, (D.) 825. 

Rotating Disks. Condenser effects with. Bv A. G. 

Dell. 300, 350*. 
Rowland, Prof. Cremated. 347- 
Rubber and gutta-percha in German New Guinea. 



element circuit breaker 

By Luther Stier- 

ST. LOUTS Exposition. 228. 379. 

ingcr, 510*. 525. 975*, 1112-. 
Safety Insulated Wire & Cable Company. 

ation, 744. 

Salts, fused. Electroylsis of. By Lorenz. (D.) 277. 
Sangamo Electric Co. Gutmann Wattmeter, 1026*. 
Science. Germany and, 1157. 
Scientific research. International, 713. 
Searchlights. Chas J. Bogue, 663*. 

Marine. Use of, 169- 

Parabolic reflectors. By Rost, (D. R.) 609. 

Selenium cells. By Ruhmer, CD. R.) 825. 
Seneca Falls Mfg. Co. New lathe, 410*. 
Shipyard tools. Electrically-driven, (D.) 400. 
Shaft, angular variation. Indicator for measuring. 

By J. W. Darley, Jr., 481. 
— — revolving. Determining the instantaneous angu- 
lar speed of. By Hospitaller, CD.) 609. 
Speed. Uniformity of during < 

Blondin, (D. R.) 237. 
Shedd Electric & Mfg. Co. Oscillating fan, 241*. 
Sheldon, Samuel, --.ographical sketch, with portrait, 

Ships' compasses. By Meldan, (D.) 970. 
Model basin. Experimental. At Washington 

Navy Yard. By J. A. McCrary, 807". 
Shock, electric, 500. By Trotter, Aspinwall, Web- 
ber, (D.) 521. 

Data on electric, 444. 

at 500 volts, (D.) 610. 

Death by electric, 150. By C. H. Hines, 170. 273. 

19-000-volt. By J. R. Cravath, 9:. By O. H. 

Ensign. 48 j. 
Siam. Electricity in, 321. 
Sidewalks, Moving, 479, 

ns Bros & Co. Projectors, 61 

olution. By 

By Kii 

Signal apparatus. By Hcnbach, (D.) 1063* 

block. By Kohlfuerst, (D. R.) 521. 

sey, (D. R.) 1064. 
^ — Time, with electric lights, iioo. 
Sign-lighting. Novel system of decorative and, 137'. 
Slide rule. Cylindrical pocket. Frost & Adams Co., 

Smith & Hcmenway Co. Side-cutting pliers, 177*. 

Linemen's pliers, 410*. Duster for telephone 

exchanges, 619". 
Soda and bleach. By Rhodin, (D.) 876. 

Electrolytic production of, (D. R.) 609. 

Hargreavcs-Bird clectroyltic process for produc- 
ing. By Walker, (D.) 970. 
Soda. Electrolytic production of. Hargreavcs-Bird 

process. By Walker, (D.) 697. 
Sodium, metallic. Manufacture of. By Darling, 

(D.) 136. 
Solder, rosin. Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Co., 526. 
South Africa. Copper fields in, 413. 
Southwestern Gas, IClcctric and Street Railway As- 
sociation. December meeting, 169. April 

meeting, 820. 
Spark, electric, in water. By Trowbridge, (D.) 608. 
— - — discharges. Effect of inductance upon. By 

Eginitis, (D.) lofii. 
in induction circuit at break. By Bcattie, (D.) 

Sparking in dielctctircs. By Bagart, (D.) 276. 
Spectra. Influence of inductance upon. By De 

Gramont, (D.) 1062. 
Speed, Uniformity of, during one revolution. By 

Blondin, <D. R.) 237. 
Spraguc Electric Co. Absorption of, by General 

Elictric Co., 071. 978. 

— New type of Lunclcll fan, 523*. 

Springfield Machine tool Co. Engii 

408 •. 

Spring-jack. Small multiple. Kellogg, ii66*. 
Standard Electric Company. Bipolar and multipolar 

machines, 700 . 
Standardization report, A. I. K. E., 1 1 50. 
Stanley Electric Co. stock, 11 69. 
Secondary circuit protectors, 284*. Protective 

fuses, 319*. 

lathe, "Ideal," 

Stanley Electric Mfg. Co. "Stab" switch, 407*- 
btanley Elec. Mfg. Co., work and products of the, 

1065*, 1105*. 
Stanley-Whitney deal, 1070. 

Static effect. Interesting. By C. H. Hines, 399. 
strains in high tension circuits. By Thomas, 

bteam engine. Buffalo tandem compound, 702*. 
English high-speed. Queens Engineering 

Works, 239*. 

and gas engines. By Witz, (D. R.) 314. 

Irregularity factors of. By Franke, (D. R.) 

^on-condensing versus 
bard, (D- R.) 1060. 
hafts. Breaking of, i 

(D-) „„ 
-shafts, high-speed. 
By Leake, (D.) 

ndensing. By Hub- 
direct-coupled units. 

Torsional oscillations in 
Lamb and Frith, (D.) 


specifications. By C. M. Bertram, 132. By F. 

H. Ball, 170. By E. Reynolds, A. D. Lundy, 
,. .J^- -■^- Merrill, E. J. Armstrong, 232-233. 
L niformity of speed of. and operation of alter- 

nators in parallel, (D. R.) 234. 
bteam generator. By Braby, CD.) 92. 
Steam-piping systems. By Robbins. (D. R.) 1019. 
Steam turbine. By Thurston, CD. R.) 134. 

installation. Hartford. By Percy, (D. R.) 1019. 

Steamer. _ Lighting lake, 61 7. 

Magnetic expansion of. By Shaw 

By C. 


and Laws, CD.) 660. 
mills. -Application of electricity 

Hines. 812. 
Magnetization of, at liquid air .. 

By Trowbridge, (D.) 73S, 1038. 

m.iking, electrically, 566. 

Stassano process. By Chiaraviglio, (D.) 317. 

works. Modern electric hoists and cranes for. 

By Dr. A. Krebs, 551*. 
Steering apparatus, electric. By Heubach, (D. R.) 

17-. Fiske patent, 733. 
Sterling Electric Co. Combined main distributing 

board and office protector, 617*. 
Stoker plant. Mechanical. Metropolitan, 785'. 
Stor.\ge Batteries: 
Storage batteries. By Reuterdahl. CD.) 697, 1084. 

Automatic swtich for. By Thieme, CD. R.) 609. 

"1 the B. & O. Baltimore tunnel, 207*. 

bo.xes, CD. R.) 1103. 

Capacity of. Influence of temperature on. By 

Hibbert. (D.) 1162. 

charging. Alternating current. Ball patent, 692. 

:n the commercial operation of electric automo- 
biles. By W. H. Palmer, Jr., 643*. 

consolidation, 527. 

\'ith constant electrolyte, CD.) 739. 

Design of a high-capacity. By Brocksmith, CD. 

R.) 1022. 
Dimensions of the end-cell leads. By Hunke. 

(D. R.) 174. 

Determining the size of. By Izart. CD. R.) 969. 

I'.dison patent, 311. 

Edison road. Test of, 963. 

finances, 491. 

formation of peroxide plates, CD.) 401. 

Lead. By Pfaff, (D. R.) 780. 

light-weight. Possibilities for. By A. L. Marsh 

996, 1038. 

locomotive, CD.) 235. 

.Manufacture of Porter. Porter Battery Co., 48. 

Max. CD. R.) 918. 

Pan-.Amcrican E.xposition. By Rabenalt. CD. R ^ 

Plant for Easton, Pa., 492. 

Ricks. CD.) 450. CD. R.) 521. 

Dr. Sheldon on, 346*. 

Theory of, CD. R.) 316. By Licg, CD.) 561. 

-Theory of the Edison nickel-iron cell. By W. 

McA. Johnson, 90. E. F. Roeber, 132, 312. 

W. Mc. A. Johnson, 232. 

-—traction (D.) 93. CD R.) 519. CD. R.) 779. 

Stow Mfg. Co. Multi-speed motor, 701*. 

Stromberg-Carlson Tel. .--g. Co. Switchboard in 

Westinghouse office, 1167*. 
Sturgess Governor Engineering Co. Water-wheel 

Governor, 882*. 
Subway for Montreal. 555. 
Sugar solutions. Purification of. Lavollay and Bour- 

goin patents. 398. 
Sulphuric acid process. Catalytic. CD.) 697. 
Swinburne. Jas. Biography, (D. R.) 919. 

automatic sign flasher. Solenoidal. Reynolds 

Electric Co., 564*. 

5000-ampere, CD.) 94. 

fusible. General Electric Co., 43*. 

Heavy current. Johnson & Morton, 244*. 

high-tension. Test of, i;44. 

Knife. Reading Gas & Electric Fixture Co., 778*. 

Mechanically-operated reversing, for electric 

motors, 409*. 

oil and switchgear. By Garrard, (D.) 779. 

operated by compressed air in U. S. House of 

Representatives, 267. 

pendant. General Electric Co., 6i8*. 

Pushbutton flush pocket. CJeneral Electric Co., 


Railway. Cheatham electric, CD. R.) 969. 

Reversing starting. By Levy. CD. R.) 518. 

Shunt motor. By Krause, CD. R.) 234. 

"Stab," 407*. 

Time "Acme," 921*. 

Switchboardsi. By Clothier, (D. R.) 520. By Ilurtz- 
bcrg, (D. R.) 520. 

Kellogg express, 620*. 

Lyons theater, 787. 

• Small plant. General Electric Co., 480*. 

Switch-box. Combination. Rcnim Specially Co., 

-Universal. Rcnim .Specialty Co., 49*. 
Switchgear and oil switches. Bv Garrard, (D.) 779. 
Synchrnnzing, 1070. By J. M. Roman. 1044*. 

alternators. Woodbridge patent, 272. 

- — device for motors. By Prof. W. Duane, 472*. 
Synchronous apparatus. Lighting and, 1058. 

T AMARACK mine. Divergence of long plumb-lines 

at the. By Prof. F. W. McNair, 721*. 
Tantalum. By Moissan, CD. R.) 521. 
Telautograph. By Gruhn, CD.) 561. 

experiments, 479. 

Ritchie test of, 692. 

Telegraph : 

Telegraph. Buckingham, page printing, 895. By 

Wm. Maver, Jr., 902*. 
Baudot multiple system. By Robichon, cD. R.) 


cables. Air-spaced. By Fletcher, (D.) 875. 

code for Africa, 231. 

CVehore and Squier system of, 774. 

Frogs and, 913. 

German statistics, CD. R.) 96. (D. R.) 662. 

Government, 28, 31, 64. 

Multiplex. By Anizan, CD. R.) 971. 

operators. British, 728. 

policies, 977. • 

Portable quadruplex for international yacht races. 

By J. F. Skirrow, 208. 

printing, CD. R.) 662. 

repeater. Automatic, Bunnell, 743''., 

statistics, CD. R.) 238, CD. K) 97J. 

Steamer, "Viking," CD- R.) 404. 

Stelje's type-printing, CD.) 698. 

Synchronizing device for. By Duane, (D.) 661. 

system. P. R. R., 1059. 

and telephone statistics, CD. R.) 826. 

and telephone tunnel, Chicago, 453". 

tournament, 426. 

Union. International, 130. 

wires. Destruction of, by storm, 424. By F. W. 

Jones, 538, 5S6. 

wires. Underground. Penn. R. R., 480. 

Telegraph. Brazil, 211. 

British-Honduras, 478. 

British colonies, 32. 

Cape Town-Cairo, 155. 

Corea, 229. 

Italy. Rowland system for, 247. 

Persian Gulf, 229. 

Postal and P. R. R.. 1139. 

Western Union changes, 801, iioo. 

Western Union contract and P. R. R., 898. 

Western Union finances, 527, 566, 1028. 

Telegraphers' demand. Canadian, 30. 

pension fund, 603. 

Telegraphy. Development of commercial, CD.) 237 
Hand versus machine, 896. By A. G. Dell, 873 

J. C. Barclay, 913. A. C. (Jrehore, 964. 

ric B. Delany, 965. Francis W. Jones, 

E. F. Northrup, 1018. P. B. Delany, i 

in 1901, (D. R.) 404. 

Railroad, 733. 

and Telephony, (D. R.) 662. 

Telegraphone. Multiplexing the. Pederson patent. 

Telephone Manufacturers Association of the United 

Slates. Chicago meeting, 880. 
Telephone apparatus for hotels. Kellogg, 176*. 

apparatus. Lambert-Schmidt. 6i6'. 

apparatus. New international, 44*. 

Automatic, in Berlin, 321. 

Buckingham Palace, 693. 

cables. By J. H. West, (D.) 1163*. 

cable fittings. New Haven Novelty Machine Co., 


:s. Submarine, with increased self-i 
tion. By Krarup. CD.) 919. 
tral enej-gy intprcommunlcating. Hai; 

ics & 

Noyes Co.', 242 
— distributing board and office protector. 

bined main. Sterling. 617'. 
—central energy system. By Clausen. CD. R.) 971. 
— Chicago restaurants, 27. 

"■ rk to San Francisco. By C. O. 



Fitch, 1060 

circuit protectors. D. & W 

on Colorado trains, 132. 

conductors. Non-uniform w 

over. By Pupin, 368-384*. 

cost and charges. Chicago, 555. 

on electric street cars, 602. 

engineering. By Dommerquc, CD. R.) 826. (D 

R.) 1023. 

F.ictory. Ericsson Telephone Co., 47'. 

Features of modern work, 341. 

■■- fire service. The, 654. 


orks, 602 
n statistics. CD. R.) 96. 
ling, -68 

-Influence of leakage on overhead long-distance 

lines of Pupin system. I!y Breisig, CD.) 175. 

Interior system for factories. Stromberg-Carl- 
son, 1167". 

lines. Long, 168. ' 

Long-distance for telegraph mes.ages, 232. 

Modern banking by, 1 138. 

money orders, 311. 

Monoplex. 829'. 

Moore system and apparatus, 282. 

New toll-line boarcis of the Chicago Co., 383. 

One cent a call, 499 . 

— — outfits. Popular, Atwater Kent, 1112. 

overhearing indicator, CD.) 780. 

over telegraph circuits, 479. 

ringing and listening key, 6i6*. 

patent. Carty bridging bell decision, 227. 

patents, 27', 87*, i29», 167*, 226*, 270*, 

346*. 396'. 443'. 474*. ; 
732 . 77I-. 820*, »6(,\ 
1056', 1098*, 1156*. 

pay station counter, 703*. 

plants. Cost of constructio 

of, 728. 



and maintenance 

- — rates, 574. 

■ ^ratcs in Washington, D 

receiver. Kellogg, 11 14 

ringer. Combinati 

Iloliier-Cabot, 620'. 


Telephone rules. French, 131. 
service. Evolution of the message rate. By H. 

L. Webb. 588*. 677*. 
ser\'icc for Manhattan Railway. Lambert, 

Schmidt, 11 66*. 

service on the Overland Limited, 603. 

Solid brass desk. Eureka, 789*. 

stations. Thcrmopyles in. By Tuch, (D.) 95. 

— —statistics, (D. R.) 238. (D. R.) 971- 

subways, Chicago, 516. 

subway. St. Paul and Minneapolis, 654. 

and switchboards. Clark, 61 8'. 

switchboard flashlight electric signal. Eureka 

Electric Co., 242*. 
switchboard system. Common battery multiple. 

By Evans. (D. R.) 826. 

switch hook. International, 614*. 

system. Party-line. iiii*. 

and telegraph statistics, (D. R.) 826. 

train service, 517. 

toll-line office. indei>endent central-energy and 

(D. R.) 826. 
transmitter. Breastplate. L. M. Ericsson Co., 

— ■ — underground conduits, 1077. 
— —wires.- Underground. (1). R.) 451- By Zappe. 

(D.) 1104. 
Telephone Com{>anics. American Telephone & Tele- 
*:<• graph Co. Uirectors' meeting, 1028. 

Bell Statement, 99. Annual report, 537-565. 

management, 492- Output, 1028. 

Empire State incorporation, 527. 

Canadian Hell. Annual meeting. 493. 

Erie reorganization, 28, 178. 

International organization, 320. 

New York and New Jersey. Annual meeting, 


Philadelphia Bell. Annual meeting, 414. 

Stromberg-Carlson incorporation, 622. 

Strowger telephones for Germany, 666. 

Southern consolidation, 179. 

Telephone Exchange, Battersea, (D. R.) 451. 

^Uubuquc, la., 1139*. 

^Johnstown independent, (D. R.) 137. 

^Kensington, (I).) 38, 376'. 

London, 577'- (U.) 739. 

Telephone Exchanges. By SV^ormull, (D. R.), 662. 

Duster for. Smith & Hemenway Co., 619*. 

Economic design and management of. By A. V. 

Abbott, 2o*, 157*, 266*, 390*, 511 , 681*, 
815*, 1086'. 

on electric railways. Private branch, 598*. 

Message rates in independent, 809. 

Modern central energy Bell, (D. R.) 826. 

Private branch. By Zopkc. (D. R.) 661. 

Telephone and telegraph combination. Rumors of, 

Telephony. A. I. E. E. meeting, 594*. 
Conditions of money order. By D. J. Monosmith, 

Earth. By Ducretet, (D.) 450. 

Effects of on operatives, 231. 

■ Independent. Needed improvements in. 

W. Stanton, 1180. 

opposition, 527. 

over telegraph wires, 308. 

Railroad, 231. 

Telephony in Arizona, 334- 

Baltimore, 850. 

I^Igium, 220. 

British Colonies, 32. 

Buffalo Independent, 617. 

Burlington R. R„ 765. 

Can.-ida, 479. 

Chicago, 265, 435'. 733- 

Detroit municipal, 130. 

Japan, 398. 

London. (D.) 38. 378. (D. R.) 662. 

Michigan. Indepenuent in, 584. 

Natal, 359. 

Paris, 229. 

-Philadelphia, 51. 

Philadelphia independent, 591*, 1081 *. 

Pittsburg, 357. 

Russia, 492. 

-Sweden, 604. 

Trans-Alpine line, 89. 

United States. (D. R.) 38. 

Utica, 399. 

Western independent, 230. 

Wisconsin inacpcndent, 228, 601. 

Telpherage. By Clift. (D. R.) 484. 754- 

Development of. 784*. 

plant. Cuba, 1109*. 

plants, 409*- 

Telctachomcler. New Electric. By Hospital 

By L. 


. (D.) 
the thermopile. By 

Temperature measuring w 

Becquercl, (D.) 36. 
variations of specific molecular conductivity and 

of fluidity. By Lylc and Ilosking, (D.) 1022. 
Terminology. Technical, fD.) 521. 
Tesia patent litigatinn. 7^.1. 871, 1017. 
TcHling materials. By Holitschcr, (D. R.) 661. 

set. Queen port.nble, io68'. 

Therapeutics with electric arc. By Broca and Chatin, 

(D.) 662. 
Tlierapi-uitcnl journal. New, 489. 
Theater .limmcr. Wirt, 3$^*- 
Thrrmochrmistry of very dilute solutions. By Stcin- 

wchr, (6. R.) 95. 
Thermn couples. Calibration of. By Bcrthelot, (D.) 

Thcrmf>clcctric force and electric resistance of nickel, 
ir.n HI 1 ...[.prr. By Harrison, (D.) 485. 

by f incrowcr, (O.) 1161. 

Therm '.tt temperature with the. By 

' ) .16. 

in ' ns. By Tuch. (DJ 95- 

Thcrmnm.t.r ll.rtric. By Mcslin, (D.) 661. 

Low temperature. By Pcllat, (D.) ia6. 

ThomaA, R. St Sons Co. Boch's "glaze-filled" insula- 
tor, 615*. 

— —Thorium oxide. Radio fclivity of. By Fchrlc. 
(O.) 403. 

Thrceohane circuit*. By Teichraucller, (D.) 351. 

R. R., 587. 

is. Davis, 
)odd. Bell. 

By Punga, 

Thunderstorms. Galvanometric observations of. By 
Landerer, (D.) 610. 

Registration of. By Fenyi, (D.) 610. 

in the United States, 896. 

• Waves emitted by. By Laroq^ie, (D.) 918. 

Tide indicator. By Schermerhorn, (D.) 451. 

Tin. Electrolytic separation of. Bergsoe patent, 169. 

-^Scrap. (D. R.) 352. 

Spongy, and tin crystals by electrolysis of aque- 
ous solutions. By Pfamhauser, 352. 

from waste tin cuttings. Electrical recovery of 

pure. By Gelstharp, (D.) 237. 

Torch. Lineman's. Clayton & Lambert, 11 11*. 

Traction service without track. Electric. By Schie- 
mann, (D. R.) 35. 

Train accidents. Prevention of, 131. 

Block system for control of. Kinsman 

-^ — lighting, 89, 272. (D. R.) 313. P. R 

resistance. By Aspinwall, (D.' 

(D.) 916. (D.) iioi. Lund 
Wille. (D.) 916. 


Transformer breakdown tests. loiS, ic 

Cooling of. By Sessions, (D.) i 

Core, with maximum efficiency. 

(D. R.) 234. 

cutout. General Electric Co.. 787*. 

devices for disconnecting. By Geist, (D.) 402. 

Early Thomson and Houston patent, 556. 

8o,ooo-volt. General Electric Co., 1067*. 

box explosion. By Kuebler, (D.) 173. Hell* 

iron alloys. By Barrett and Brown, (.D.) 483*. 

Gumlich (D. R.) 559. 

Paralleling of. By Hansard, (D.) 313. 

patent decision, 229. 

patent void. Gaulard-Gibbs, 871. 

patents, 754. " 

Suspension hook for. Fort Wayne, 1027*. 

testing. Practical, S40. By R. F. Schuchardt, 


Thomson patent, 775. 

sub-stations. By Winawer, (D. R.) 236. 

Westinghouse, 97*, 11 09'. 

Transmission of Power: 

Transmission of power. By W. C. L. Eglin, (D. R.) 


in agricultural districts. By Apt, (D.) 02. 

Calculation of E. M. F. of line. By Leblanc, 


Alternating-current lines. By Startsman, (D. R.) 

135. (D. R.) 874. CD- R-) 916. 

Developments in Europe. By Mahn, (D.) 274. 

Distributed inductance in transmission lines. 

VVoodbridge patent, 691. 

High tension. By Gibson, (D. R.) 695. 

High voltages in the Central Stales, 604. 

Perrine on, 167. 

Protection of long-distance lines, 949. 

Transmission of Power. Bombay, 248. 

British South Wales, (D.) 968. 

Butte, Mont., 50-ooo-volt plant, 480. 

California, 852. 

Chilean. By Raby, (D.) 1159. 

-^ Columbus, Ga., 453- 

Cornwall Canal, Canada, 388*, 479- 

Costa Rica mines, 92^. 

Dalles, Oregon. By A. Seufert, 333*. 

Feather River, Cal., 1070. 

Greenfield, Mass., 622. 

Guanajuato plant, 886. 

Indiana 32.000-voit line (D. R.) 917. 

: Ireland. By Latlow. (D. R.) 823. 

Italy, 31. 

Jalapa, Mexico, 1030. 

Kettle River, 395. 

Kern River, Cal., 413. 

Lewiston, Maine, 413. 

Los Angeles, Cal., 397. 

Massena, N. Y., 705, 885, 925*. 

Mexico, 707, 793, W06. 

Montreal, 1013. 

New Zealand. By Haes, (D.) 234. 

Pacific Coast, 25-188, 707. 

Plumas County. Cal., 774. 

Rhine navigation, 654. 

Sacramento, 623. 

San Francisco, CD.) 236. 

San Jose. Cal., (D.) 135. 

St. Joe River, Constantine. Mich, 11 71. 

St. Joseph, Mich., 413. 

San Ildefonso, City of Mexico, (D. R.) 35. By 

S. Q. Hayes. 465*, 501, 503*, 545. \V. G. 

McConnon, 998*. 

Sault Ste. Marie, (D.) 172, 603. 1018. 

^Shawinigan, Canada. By Frank C. Perkins, 

217*, 259*, 480, 1017. 

South Africa, 225. 

^-Spokane, Coeur D'Alenc, 860. 

— Susquehanna River, 1071. 
— Toluca, Mexico, 488*. 
— Toronto. Ont., 311. 

Utah. By Hardesty. (D.) 874. (D.) 915. 

^Valley Counties. Cal., 322. 

— Winnipeg, Canada, 51, 321. 

Yukon. 691. 

Transport numbers. Animal membranes in the deter- 
mination of. (D. R.) 316. 
Trcatlwell. Augustus, Jr. Biographical sketch, with 

portrait. 676. 
Tri-light Electric Co. New regulating incandescent 


New York and New 
426. 4512, 791 

Jersey Co., 246, 285, 


amn, 524'. 

Kick-up. Garton-D 


:ipo°l"is.'?fx) 738. 

■ -wires. Insulation resistance of. By Pomcy, (D. 

R.) 780. 
Truck, English testing. 407*. 
Tube service. Pneumatic, 130. 
Tubes of force. Electric. By Dc Nicholaicvc, (D.) 


• Tunnel. Brooklyn trolley. 231. 

New York Central. Electric power for, 61, 107. 

!!o, 131, 149. By Cyrus Prosch. 170. Bv 
Frank J. Spraguc. iqo. 216, 236, 306. By 
Lyndon. 312, 332. 461. 464, 654. 

— —Mersey. Westm^house equipment for, 1112. 
Turf coal manufacture. Electricity in. By Jebson, 

(D.) 562. 
Turkey. Electricity in, 477. 


U XIVERSE. Repulsive forces in the. By Deslan- 

dres, CD.) 1161. 
Utica Drop Forge and Tool Co. Linemen's pliers, 

United Telpherage Co. Two telpherage plants, 409. 

VACUA, high. Conductivity of. By Stark, (D.) 

Vacuum discharges. By Lehmann (D. R.) 449. 

phenomena. By Pellat (D.) 315. 

Sensitive. By Von Czudnochowski, (D.) 403. 

Vacuum tubes. By Goldstein (D.) 1062. 

apparatus. By Von Czudnochowsky, (D.) 1104. 

Distribution of current at the surface of cath- 
odes in. By Wehnelt, (D.) 696. 

tubes. Drops of potential at electrodes in. By 

Skinner, (D.) 94. 

Faults in. By Goldstein, (D.) 485. 

Stratifications in. By Crookes, (D.) 520. 

Valves, Blow-off. Lunkenheimer Co., 44*. 

Dial needle-point. Lambert, 1027*. 

gears. Modern practice in rocking valves and. 

By Schmidt. (D.) 1060. 

piston, Corliss and double-heat, CD. R.) 778. 

Vapor lamps. Cooper-Hewitt. By P. C. Hewitt, 80. 
126*, 167*. By von Recklinghausen, (D.) 
1 159. 

\ egetation. Electricity and the growth of. By He- 
ber, (D.) 238. 

Electric responses in. By Bose, (D.) 698. 

Vehicle Equipment Co. Hospital electric ambu- 
lance, 7S3*. 

\'oltage for standard navy equipment. Navy, service 
voltage, 986. 

regulation. Circuit, 1059. 

Voltameter. By Lehfeldt, (D. R.) 352. 

carrying alternating curents. Polarization 

capacity and dissipation of energy of. 
By Franchetti, (D.) 1104. 

\'oUmeters. Pignolet, 617*. 

for feeble, long-sustained currents. A, J078. 

Testing. By Laws and Coolidge, (D. R.) 919. 

Weston. By A. S.. (D. R.) 970. 




WAIT, H. H. Biographical sketch, with portrait, 

Wall paper, metallic. Electrolytic manufacture 

(D.) 826. 
Warships. Electricity on, 1007, 1048. 
Water level gauge. Bristol recording, 702*. 

powers of Ireland, 230. 

powers. North Carolina, 34S. 

purifying apparatus. Automatic, 782*. 

resistance. (D.) 317. 

vapor. The role of in gaseous conduction. 

Lewis, CD.) 1021. 
wheels, tangential, type. Testing of. 

Farmer and Henry, (D. R.) 659. 
Water-wheel governor. Lyndon patent. 516. ■ 

Sturgess Governor Engineering Co., 882*". 

Wattmeters. By Armagnat, (D. R.) 352. (D.) 1085. 

(D. R.) 661. 
alternating current. Schrottke and Stern pat- 
ents, 774. 
— — alternating current. Test coils for. By Bcattie, 

CD.) 661. 
for alternating and direct currents. Diamond 

Meter Co., 8Si*. 

Commercial measurements by, 222. 

losses. Distribution and. By C. D. Haskins, 

error calculator. Beauregard. 974*. 

Ferranti direct current, 1024*. 

Gutmann. Sangamo Electric Co., 1026*. 

Mordey-Fricker, (D.) 1022. 

on induction motors, 462. < 

patents. Duncan. 869. 

practice. American. By Reed. (D. R.) 826. 

Rating of, for three-phase systems. By C. Bran- 

dcis. 474*. <;t;5. 

shunt coil. Adjustable. Thomson, 879*. 

Waves. Electric. By Lord Rayleigh, (D.) 696. 
Effect of. on the human brain. A. F. Collins, 

1 100. 

Form factor arid peak factor, (D.) 825. 

Hertzian, from the sun. By Nordmann, (D.) 

607. Deslandres and Decombc. (D.) 825. 

Interference tubes for. By Becker. (D.) 1061, 

P. D. in three-phase systems. By Russell, (D.) 

in short- wire system. By Pollock and Von wilier, 

(D. R.) 1162. 
Electric, and wireless telegraphy. By Seibt. (D.) 

Wave-tracing instrument. By Owens. ii49*. 
Weighing and counting machine. Cortelyou patent* 

Western Electric Co. Increase of capital, 358. 
Western Electrical Supply Co. Adams secondary 

generator, 664*. 
Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. Standard trans- 
formers. 97*. 

Gold dredging motor. 879*. 

Nernst lamp. 972. 

Whcatstonc bridge. Bv Gott. (D.) 486. 

Wheeler. S. S. By Dunn. 137. 

Willyoung. Elmer G. Rontgenray apparatus, j-*. 

Winch, electric. (D. R.) 275. 

Wind. Chicago. Use for. 131. 


Wireless Telegr-a.phy: 

Wireless Telegrapdv. (D. R.) 95, 116. By Mavcr, 

CD. R.) 137. Ferrie, (D.) 353, (D. R.) 486. 

Tobler, (D. R.) 404. Braun, (D.) 450. 

Slaby, (D.) 609. Clark, 61 1*. 754, (D.) 781. 

By Lecher. (D.) 826, (D.) 1023. 

Telephone & Telegraph Co. research, 

apparatus. By Collins, (D. R.) 404. By Arco, 

(D. R.) s6i. 

Lieut. Beecher on, 1039. 

Book by Marconi, 481. 

Boston Transcript on, 822. 

Branley on transatlantic, 31. 

Braun patents in Germany, 1018. 

Braun and Siemens and Halske, By A. F. Col- 
lins, 1041*. 

Cables and, 441. 

Chess by. iioo. 

Coherer in, 151. 

conference, 603. 

contracts. U. S. Signal Corps, 871. 

Developments in, 540. 

Disadvantage of. By Sullivan, (D. R.) 521. 

Edison, some years ago, 39S. 

Electric waves and. By Seibt, (D.) 1104. 

experiments, 556. 

experiments in Germany. By Reyval, (D. R.) 


Fessenden system of, 770. 924. 

Field of force in. 841. By Lee De Forest, 858*. 

French criticism of, 225. 

General Greelv on. 88. 

Genesis of, 6^^. By C. L. Rainford, 735- By 

A. F. Collins, 809*. 

in high latitudes, 130. 

induction. By V. H. Emerson, 299. 

Intercepting "Marconigrams," 555. 

International conference. 733. 

Invention of, 271. 

Limitations of. (D.) 277. 

Lodge as original inventor. 655. 

Long-distance, and Hertzian waves. By E. P. 

Thompson. 1046*. 

■ Marconi Company organization, 527, 666, 700. 

Marconi on, 28. 387. 

Marconi's sensitive magnetic detector. 1099. 

short-distance work 
By W. Blaydes. 

By A. 

Wireless telegraphy. A 

in Europe and 


messages, 310. 

patents. 604. 

Paternity of, (D.) 521. 

Postal, 603. 

Preece on, 30. 

Prevention of Marconi system on German 

chantmen, 655. 

relay. 555. 

repeater. Guarini automatic. 


school, 310. 

^situation, 574. 

Slaby's reply to Marconi, 656, 

^Slaby-Arco apparatus. By A 

Slaby-Arco in Germany. 554. 

- spark. Scientific basis of. By Slaby 


Speaking arc in, (D. R.) 826. 

and submarine cables. By Guarini, 

Telephone in. By E. Guarini, 581 

Telephone receiver for, 913. 

Tesla's, 169, 310. 

Theory of. By Claude, (D.) 486. 

nedy, (D.) 971. 

between trains, 231. 

transatlantic signals, (D.) ^5, 13 

404. By W. Blaydes. 442*, 443. 
-- — -versus submarine cables, (D.) 31 
Wireless telegraphy. Alaska. 310, 604, 114 

Annapolis Naval Academy, 1157. 

Block Island, 860. 

British navy, 1157. 

Canada. 130, 399. By W. Blaydes, 543. 

Cape Cod coast station, 964, 1057. 

-English Channel, 14- 

Farallon Islands, 205. 

Germany. By Guarini, (D. R.) 826. 

Great Britain and Canada. 499. 

Havana. De Forest-Smythe system, 1099 

Korea, 30. 

-—on Kronprinz Wilhelm, 387. 

Lake Michigan, 964. 

Lo-don. 869. 

M'-xico. 481. 

Collins, 374*- 
(D. R.) 

(D.) 561 

152. (D.) 
(D.) 740. 
(D.) 404. 

Wireless Telegraphy. 

- — -Xavesink Highlands, 642. 

North Pole, 819. 

^Pacific coast, 654. 

in Paris, 47S. 

~ — ^Portugal, 77^. 

Sagaponack (L. I.) station, 1058. 

South Seas, ii57- 

Spain, 230. By Guarini. (D. R.) 826. 

steamers of International isavigation Co., 22c. 

Timbuctoo, 90. 

U. S. Navy, 30, 479. 865. 

Wireless telephony, 573. By Emile Guarini, 581*. 
By A. F. Collins, 584*- 

in France, (iJ.) 450. 

Present and future status of. By A. F. Col- 
lins, 1141. 

Speaking arc and. By Simon, (D.) 876'. 

Wires, insulated. Basis of prices. 179. 

—Broken trolley. (D.) 1102. 

line. Spinning-jenny for. Jas. S. Barron & 

Co.. 883*. 

Overhead, crusade in Manhattan, 555. 

Rubber-covered, for service connections, 1097. 

service. Twin conductors for, 1059. 

Underground. Omaha, 479- 

Wiring. Car (D.) 917- 

— — Conduit system of. By Bathurst, (D.) 779. 

New methods of. By Peschel. (D.) 738. 

Notes on. By Broadbent, (D.) S75. 

regulations. (D. R.) 35- 

Wirt Electric Co. Improved theater dimmer. 345*- 

Yonkers Specialty Co. Aerial cable clip, 49* 
Vosemite Park. Electric light in, 322. 

Z EEMAN effect. By Walker, (D. R.) 561. 

Zinc. Deposition of electro-metallurgical indu.Mrics 

of Germany, (D.) 608. 
electro-deposition of. Mond's process for the, 

(D.) 918. 
process. Hoepfner, (D.) 970. 


ABBOTT, Arthur V. Economic design and man- 
agement of telephone exchanges, 20, 157, 
266. 390, 511*. 681, 815. 1086. 

Adams, Alton D. Development of a great water 
power system at Hartford, Conn., 427*. 

■ Massachusetts electrical systems in 1901. Fi- 
nances, 1008. 

Successful suburban system, 851. 

Adier, Ernst. Alternating current-arc, 1083*. 

Alden, H. W. Energy consumption and electric 
automobile oeriormance, 301*. 

Armstrong, E. J. Engine specifications, 233. 

T3ALL, F. H. Engine specifi 

Barclay, }. C. Telegraph of to-day, 913. 
Barr, Jas. L. Generator heating limits and the A. 
I. £. £. standard, 445. 
-Sj-nchronous reactance. 822, 
Baum, F. G. Synchronous motor calculations, 86i*. 

Synchronous motor stability and overload 

capacity curves. 548*. 

• Synchronous reactance, 724*, 915. 

Behrend, B. A. Debt of electrical engineering to 
C, E. L. Brown, 21, 121, 212, 302. 339. 
Bell, Louis. Municipal electric plants, 517. 

Some pointers on induction motors, 119. 

Spectrum of the enclosed arc, 195*. 

Bertram, Chas. ^L Engine specifications, 132, 
Blaydes, Wilfred. Marconi wireless telegraph sys 
tern in Canada, 543. 
-Mr. Marconi and his critics, 656, 693. 
-Mr. Marconi's latest achievement in ocean- 
telegraphy, 442*. 
-Mr. Marconi's short-distance work in Eng- 
land and America, 589*. 
Brandcis, Charles, Measuring three-phase circuits, 
-Rating of wattmeters for three-phase systems. 
Brewster, W. S. Deterioration of insulated cables, 

Brooks, Morgan. New electric lighting at the Uni- 
■ ' "" ' ;, 1086'. 

cell. 156. 

versity of Illinois, io86V 
Burgess, C. F. The dry 

'OLLIXS, A. Frederick. The Braun and Si. 

-Genesis of wireless telegraphy. The. 8oo*. 

Guarini automatic wireless telegraph repeater. 


Marconi and the scoffers, 33. 

Present and future status of wirelcfis tele- 
phony. 1141. 

Slaby-Arco wireless telegraph apparatus, 374". 

• Effect of electric waves on the human brain, 


Wireless telephony. .«;84*. 

Child, C. D. Potential of the clouds. 1018. 

garke, W. B. Electric haulage in coal mines. 541'. 

Uark, Herbert. Winter use for fans, 273. 

Cravath, J. R. A i9.ouo-voit shock. 91. 
Crehore, Albert C. Telegraph of to-day, 964. 
Cunningham, R. H. Mercury jet interrupter, 517. 

■r\ARLEY, J. W., Jr. Indicator for measuring an- 

*^ gular variation, 481. 

Dashiell, Chas. T. Safety of consumers and ground- 
ing of secondaries, 91. 

De Forest, Lee. Field of force in wireless teleg- 
raphy, 858*. 

Sensitive-flame experiment. 652. 

Delany, Patrick B. Hand vs. machine telegraphv. 
rr, "57. 

The telegraph of to-day, 96!;. 

Dell, A. G. Condenser effect with rotating disks. 
^ 550*. 

Improvement of the telegraph, 873. 

Induction from the secondary into the pri- 
mary of an induction coil, 170. 

— — —Rotary disks, 300. 

Del Mar. Wm. A. Ratio of transformation in three- 
phase circuits, 680*. 

Dion, A. A. Electric lighting plant for Ottawa, 
• Canada, 989*. 

Duane, Prof. William. Device for synchronizing mo- 
tors, 472*. 

•L- 299. 

Ensign, O. H. 


Induction wireless telegraphy, 
),ooo-volt shock, 483. 

piTCII, C. O. The longest telephone circuit, 1060. 

Foley, A. L., and Nyswander. R. E. A modified 
Wehnclt interrupter, 373*. 

GRAIIAM-WILLMORE. J., and D. Mcintosh. Ef- 
fect of electric waves on the human brain. 

Guarini, En 

The telephone in 
aphy. 581, d^y"^. 


"LIALE, R. S. Wright demand system. 822. 

•'• * Wright maximum demand system, 263. 

Hallock, Dr. Wm. Magnetic deflection of long steel 
wirc_plumb-lin«. 26.-}. 

Hamburger. Dr. M; 

Electrical works : 



. Simon W. Italian 
trical work, 33. 
Carvl D. Distributit 

opportunities for etc 

I and meter losses, 272. 
Stepncn Q. Transmission system of the 
Compani.i Exniotadora De San Ildefonso 
of the City of Mexico. 465*. 503. 

Hewitt, Peter Cooper. Electric gas lamps and ga*" 
electrical resistance phenomena, 80. 

Heyland. A. The Heyland motor. 872. 

Hodge. Wm. B. Induction coils. 273. 

Hines. C. H. Death by electricity. ' 1 70, 273. 

.\ppIication of electricity in steel and iron 

mills. 8t2. 

— - Burning from arc rays. 735*. 

Hines, C. H. Burns from arc radiations, 776. 

Interesting static effect. 399. 

Holman, G. U. G. Submarine cable laying during 

a Canadian winter, 507*. 
Ilorschitz, F. Electricity in Austria-Hungary, 757' 

TOIIXSOX, T. J. Right of inventors to encourage- 

J mcnt, 914. 

Johnson, Woolsey, McA. Theory of the Edison 
nickel-iron cell. 90, 232. 

Jones, F. W. Destruction of wires by storm, 556. 

The telegraph of to-day, 966. 

Jones, W. J. Bergen County, N. J., lighting sys- 
tem. 899*. 

tr ENNELLY, A. E. On the elevation of the 

*»• electrically-conducting strata of the earth's 

atmosphere, 473. 

Kerbey, Major J. Orton. Gutta percha in the Phil- 
ippines, 210. 

King, A. C. Efficiency tests of direct-current gen- 
erators and motors, 33. 

Krebs, Dr. A. Modern electric hoists and cranes for 
steel works. 551*. 

LATOUR, Marius. Properties of collector rings. 


I.etheule, P. Single-phase permutator with revolving 
brushes, 47 1*. 

Levy, Max. Mercury jet interrupter, 482*. 

I-undy, A. D. Engine specifications, 232. 

Lyndon, Lamar. Electric traction in New York Cen- 
tral tunnel. 312. 

n/r c.VLI.ISTER, A. S. Complete commercial test 

*'^ of polyphase induction motors using one 

wattmeter and one voltmeter, 78*. 

McConnon, VV, G. 50,000-volt transmission plant of 
the Missouri River Power Company. 998". 

McCreary, J., Adgcr-Electrical equipment of the ex- 
ncrimenlal model basin at Washington Navy 
Yard, 807'. 

McFarland, W.alter M. Electricity in the navy. 100.?. 

Mcintosh, D. Graham-Willmore, J. Effect of Elec- 
tric waves on the human brain, 952. 

McLean, Ewing. Ilcrlzography, 33. 

McNair, Prof. F. W. Divergence of long plumb 
lines at the Tamarack Mine, 721*. 

Markey, W. A. Direct steam-electric conversion cell, 

Marriott. Crittenden. Nickel steel and magnetic ob- 
servation, 813*. 

Marsh, A. L. Possibilities for a light weight storage 

battery, 096. . 

Maver, William, Jr. The Buckingham long-distance ■^'• 
page-printing telegraph, 902. 

Merrill, E. A. Engine specifications. 232. 

Mix, E. W. New apparatus for measuring the vari- 
ation of speed of a flywheel during one 
revolution, 264*. 

Monosmith, David J. Conditions of money order 
telephony, 91. 


NIES. J. D. Grounding of high potential sys- 
tems. 630*. 
Nyswander. R. E., and A L. Foley. A modified 

tems. 639 
der. R. E . 
Wchnelt interrupter, 373. 

PALMER, \V. H., Jr. Storage battery in the com- 
mercial operation of electric automobiles, 

Perkins, Frank C. Shawinigan electric power plant, 

Stereoscpoic Rontgen ray pictures, 120*. 

Pike, Clayton W. Electric light and power plant of 

the new U. S. Mint, 201*. 
Porter, Chas. T. English versus the metric system, 

Prosch, Cyrus. New York tunnel accident, 170. 
Pupin, M. I. General problem of wave propagation 

over non-uniform conductors, 384*. 

RAINFORD, C. L. Genesis of wireless teleg- 
raphy, 73s. 
Reed, Hy. .\.. Production of gutta percha, 735. 
Rennerfdt. Gustaf. Control of car acceleration, 776. 
Reynolds. Edwin. Engine specifications, 232. 
Richmond, J. Stanley. Gold leaf electroscope exper- 
iments, 32. 

Roeber, E. F. Theory of the Edison nickel-iron 
cell, 132, 312. 

Roman. Joseph Martin. Some notes on synchron- 
izing, 1044*. 

Rucker, B. Parks. Time element circuit breaker at- 
tachment, 1108*. 

tral station companies, 85^ 

Scidner, M. Synchronous converter as voltage con- 
troller, 761*, 814. 

Seufert, .\rthur. Dalles, Oregon, transmission plant. 
333*- , . 

Sharp, Clayton H. Present status of the question 
of a standard of light. 83. 

Skirrovv, John F. Portable quad for the Inter- 
national Yacht Races, 208*. 

Smith, VVm. Lincoln. Spectrum of the enclosed arc, 

Sprague. Frank J. Electricity for the New York 

tunnel. 216. 
Stevenson, E. W. Deterioration of insulated cables, 

Stieringer, Luther. Problems of the St. Louis ex- 
position, 510*. 

Storer, Xorman Wilson. Consideration of the in- 
ertia of the rotating parts of a train, 221. 

Stratton, M. G. Testing three-phase induction mo- 
tors, 348*. 

THOMPSON. Edward P. Long-distance wireless 
telegraphy and Hertzian waves. 1046*. 
Townsend, Clinton Paul, .■\cker electrolytic alkali 
process. The, 585*. 

Separation of metals in the electric furnace, 


Some recent electric furnace products, 599*. 

Graphitizing electrodes, 1155*. 

Mercury cathode cells — Electric combustion 

furnace — Artificial camphor, 868*. 

Recent developments in electrochemistry, 819', 

910. 1057, 1097'. 
Trier, E. Heany enclosed arc tamp, 4:'7 . 

WEBB. Herbert Laws. Evolution of the message 
rate telephone service, 588, 677*. 
Weeks, .-Arthur B. Electric installation of the Nat- 
ural Food factory at Niagara Falls, N. Y., 
Wetzler, Joseph. Electrical board of arbitration, 

Electrical World and Engineer 


Vol. XXXIX. 


No. I. 




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Editorial i 

Nerve Phenomena and Electricity 4 

Electrical Engineers of the Day— XXVII — Frank P. Cox 4 

The Waterside Station of the New York Edison Company 5 

Regulation of Automobile Matters in America 14 

Two Recent British Electric Railways 15 

The Independent Electric Light and Power Company, San Francisco 16 

The Economic Design and Management of Telephone Exchanges — V. By 

Arthur V. Abbott, C. E 20 

The Debt of Electrical Engineering to C. E. L. Brown— VI. By B. A. 

Behrcnd 21 

Electric Generating Plant, at Seoul, Corca 24 

Transatlantic Wireless Telegraphy 24 

Scientific Meetings 25 

Electrical Transmission on the Pacific Coast 25 

New Telephone Patents 27 

American Electrical Trade Abroad 27 

Telephones in Chicago Restaurants 27 

Marconi on Wireless Telegraphy 28 

Government Telegraph Bills 28 

Reorganization of Eric Bell Telephone 28 

Automobilism in France 28 

Coming Lecture on Nernst Lamp in Chicago 29 

German Appliances in England 29 

Franchises m the Philippines _. 29 

Preparing for the Commercial Pacific Cable 29 

Illustrious Electrical People 29 

Current News and Notes 30 

Letters to the Editors; 

Gold Leaf Electroscope Experiment. By J. Stanley Richmond 32 

Marconi and the Scoffers. By A. Frederick Collins 33 

Eflicicncy Test of Direct-Current Generators and Motors. By A. C. 

King 33 

Hcrtzography, By Ewing McLean 33 

Deterioration of Insulated Cables. By E. W. Stevenson 33 

Italian Opportunities for Electrical Work. By Simon W. Hanauer 33 

Digest of Current Electrical Literature 34 

New Books 38 

English Electric Locomotives 40 

Electric Cranes 41 

Titanium Incandescent Lamp 42 

Asphalt Conduits 43 

New Fusible Switches 43 

Blow-off Valve 44 

New International Telephone Apparatus 44 

Electric Motor Controlling Devices 46 

Factory Telephones 47 

The Manufacture of Porter Storage Batteries 48 

Electric Hoists 48 

Universal Switch Box 49 

Aerial Cable Clip 49 

News of the Week 50 

Index to Volume XXXVIII. 

Owing to the large bulk of the present number, the Index for the 
volume just completed will be reserved for distribution in the issue 
of next week. 

Electric Lighting in New York. 

The city of New York will always be historical ground for the 
electric lighting art, not only on account of the early work done 
here in commercial arc lighting, but because here a great many of the 
fundamental problems in incandescent lighting were first worked out 
in connection with the old Edison Pearl Street Station. Thirty 
years nearly of arc lighting and almost a quarter of a century in in- 
candescent work have seen changes that can but be described as tre- 
mendous, yet as we describe this week the great Waterside station 
of the New York Edison Company, a continuity of influence and aim 
is felt and realized amid all the confusing technical, financial and in- 
dustrial developments that have been crowded into the period. We 
can personally look back over the whole evolution, revolution and 
growth, and see in it but the promise of even greater results in the 
future. Out of a welter of systems, competitions, methods, voltages, 
apparatus, companies, has emerged one splendid comprehensive plan, 
one ideal, one leadership, directed specifically to the purpose of af- 
fording uniform service throughout the Island of Manhattan. This 
result had to be — it had to come, whatever the difficulties and ob- 
stacles — and now that it is here every citizen of New York, with all 
who are interested in the progress of electric lighting, is deeply con- 
cerned in what has happened. 

This magnificent Waterside station represents a stage in the art. 
It is neither perfection nor finality, but it is a splendid realization of 
the best existing practice and the highest current theory, and de- 
serves intimate study for its own sake. We illustrate and describe the 
plant just as it goes into service, and yet the demands for electricity 
in New York for light, power and heat increase so rapidly, the com- 
plete station which began its career this Christmas will have all it 
can do next Christmas to meet the call, with every unit going. In 
such conditions it is easy to see not alone the great future for elec- 
trical applications but the onerous problems to be met by the engi- 
neers and capitalists who propose to serve three million people. 

Electrical Progress During 1901. 

Although the past year has not witnessed any startling electric 
novelty, yet it has fostered a remarkable development in many direc- 
tions. Particularly active departments of electric industry have been 
electric railways, water power transmission, telephony and wireless 
telegraphy. In electric railways there has been a steady develop- 
ment of new lines, and of improved electric schedule times upon ex- 
isting tracks. In water-power transmission systems there has been a 
steady increase in the powers utilized, and in the pressures employed, 
the existing limit being 60 kilovolts. Along with this development 
there is a greater confidence in the reliability and certainty of electric 
power transmssion under pressures that until recently have been con- 
sidered as very high. In telephony there has been a very consider- 
able extension of existing subscribers' systems, the gradual substitu- 
tion of the central battery at exchanges, for the scattered bat- 
teries at subscribers' stations, and considerable improvement in ex- 
change switchboard design and installation. By the principle of 
loading long aerial lines or cables with inductance at suitable inter- 
vals, the pre-existing limitations of long-distance telephony have been 


Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 

^greatly widened, and it would seem as though, eventually, commer- 
cial telephony might become possible across the length and breadth 
of the North American continent, and perhaps across the oceans. 

Wireless telegraphy has made considerable progress over the 
ocean, and a number of ships, as well as shore stations, have adopted 
it It seems to be only a question of time when every important 
lighthouse and signal station on the coast will be equipped with 
wireless apparatus, and every important vessel on the ocean will be 
likewise enabled to maintain communication for long distances at 
sea. Not only in the practical applications, but also in the knowl- 
■edge of the science of electricity, a steady development has been and 
is taking place. A mere glance at the articles of technical journals, 
on the one hand, shows the steady gain and improvement of tech- 
nical knowledge among specialists, while a glance at the nature and 
number of articles in semi-popular literature, shows how widespread 
is becoming the more general knowledge of the elements of elec- 
tricity and magnetism among the masses of the people by com- 
parison with the corresponding conditions a few years ago. 

The amount of capital invested in electric industries continues 
steadily to increase, on the one hand, while, on the other hand, the 
applications of electricity are becoming more widely understood and 
more intelligently handled. Whereas only a few years ago it was 
difficult to find a workman who could look after electric motors 
properly without a special course of training, it is now becoming more 
frequently the rule to find experience in the care and application of 
electric motors and generators among comparatively unskilled work- 
men. In every direction electricity is becoming year by year of 
greater value and importance to the world. 

Automobile Efficiencies. 

Although the electric automobile has apparently been getting the 
worst of it in some quarters during the past twelve months, and some 
reforms and improvements over former defective constructions are 
needed, the outlook is by no means discouraging. As we have said 
before, the electric vehicle will win out in the end for city use. 
Abundant support for this opinion can be found. But this consola- 
tion lies not so much in what these vehicles have done as in what 
they have not done. If the art of electric vehicle building had 
reached the point where it was not easy to see directions in which 
improvements could easily be made and the results were no better 
than the average attained to-day, it would be discouraging indeed. 
But with such evident defects as are to be noted on so many of the 
earlier vehicles, the only wonder has been that the results are as 
good as they have been. That improvement is at hand is evident. 

The shortcomings of the automobile storage battery have been too 
well debated to need recounting, the principal charges against it be- 
ing its uncertain mileage due to deterioration and its high main- 
tenance cost. It has commonly been assumed that the only weak 
point of the electric vehicle of whatever kind was in the battery, and 
that the electrical and mechanical efficiency left little room for im- 
provement. How far from the truth this latter statement is, only 
those know who are intimately connected in a technical way with 
the electric vehicle business. When vehicles of the same weight and 
speed vary so widely in electrical and mechanical efficiency that one 
will require 50 to 75 per cent more energy than another, something 
is wrong. And yet this, we are informed by engineers who are in 
a position to make accurate observation, is a common occurrence. A 
battery manufacturer with a reputation for batteries of great mileafje 
capacity per pound smiled knowingly the other day wjicn the sub- 
ject was broached, and remarked that batteries got both the blame 
and the credit for many things the battery maker has nothing to do 

with ; that automobile builders would do well to look into the ef- 
ficiencies of motors and running gears as well as search for better 
batteries. Coming from a battery maker, who might easily make 
temporary capital otit of ignorance on the part of automobile build- 
ers and users as to some of the secrets of big mileage tests, the state- 
ment is significant. 

This gentleman, however, took the broad-minded view that the 
more that is known about motor and running gear efficiencies, the 
better it will be for the battery maker in the end, even if he does have 
to divide the credit for large mileage on one charge with the vehicle 
maker. Hence we understand that he is about to proceed with a 
campaign of education and practical demonstration on efficiencies. 
It is, of course, true that the vehicle that will give the highest possi- 
ble efficiency between the battery terminals and driving wheels will 
not be commercially practical because of structural weakness, but 
that there is a great deal of room to improve the average efficiency 
of electric vehicles as they have been commercially turned out there 
is little doubt. So far in these remarks we have dealt with the situa- 
tion as it is, but obviously the availability of the Edison battery this 
year would in itself, while helping the art enormously, not cure 
any of the drawbacks due to the low efficiency of motors and gears. 

The Metric System of Weights and Measures. 

It will probably interest our readers to learn that two bills have 
been introduced within the last few weeks into the House of Repre- 
sentatives, for the adoption of the metric system of weights and 
measures in the United States. These bills are marked H. R. 123 
and 2054, respectively, and have been referred to the Committee on 
Coinage, Weights and Measures. The bills are alike remarkable both 
for their brevity and for their comprehensiveness. Both propose (l) 
that after a certain date all the Government departments of the 
United States shall be required to employ the metric system of 
weights and measures exclusively in all departmental work, except 
in the survey of public lands ; (2) that after a certain date the metric 
system of weights and measures shall be the legal standard of 
weights and measures in the United States. The only essential 
difference between the two bills is as regards the dates involved. One 
calls for the ist of January, 1903, as the date of Government adop- 
tion, and the ist of January, 1904, as the date of universal legaliza- 
tion. The other bill makes both these dates the 1st of July, 1902. 

All those connected with electrical industries are specially inter- 
ested in the general introduction of the metric system of weights 
and measures, for the reason that all the units employed in electrical 
engineering are based upon the metric system and are in conformity 
therewith. Electromagnetic units may be said to form an extension 
of the metric system in this direction. It is impossible to compare 
the barbarous and incoherent assortment of heterogeneous weights 
and measures in force in this country with the simple and connected 
system of metric weights and measures in force on the continent of 
Europe, without being impressed with the immense aggregate amount 
of unnecessary labor which is imposed upon the American people in 
learning to weigh, to measure, and to compare quantities ; as well as 
the large amount of impediment that the existing ridiculous system 
introduces in the way of attaining all quantitative knowledge. Every 
reasonable person will admit the great advantage which the money 
decimal system of this country possesses over the money non-decimal 
system of Great Britain. The advantages of the metric system of 
measures over the non-metric system of measures is, however, still 
greater than that which exists in the case of moneys. It is a scandal 
that this country, in establishing good government in Cuba, Puerto 
Rico and the Philippines, should be instrumental in so far subvert- 
ing the cause of education as comes through replacing in those 

January 4, 1901. 


countries the pre-existing simple metric system by tlie ponderous 
system still existing here. 

Consequently, while nearly every intelligent individual will nat- 
urally be in favor of introducing the metric system, which system is 
now in vogue through the entire scientific world, and in a large por- 
tion of the commercial world, the question arises as to how the 
change should be brought about, because the change necessarily in- 
volves labor and expense, and the injury inflicted upon the public 
by a sudden transition to the metric system might be much greater 
than the injury which exists in perpetuating the existing system. In 
the nature of things, a number of years must elapse before the ex- 
isting system of measures can be entirely superseded by the inter- 
national system. Under the new regime, however, education will be 
facilitated, statistics of all kinds simplified, foreign trade aided, and 
mental processes of all kinds abridged and clarified. It would seem 
that the first great step to be desired is the adoption of the metric 
system by all the United States Government departments. This 
change would involve a gradual adoption by the people without in- 
flicting injury upon any industry. All persons having dealings with 
the Government would speedily become acquainted with the value 
and use of the metric system, and would in turn act as teachers of 
that system to those within their own sphere of influence. At some 
date after the exclusive adoption of the metric system by the Gov- 
ernment, the system could be exclusively legalized, but it is more dif- 
ficult to decide as to when this latter step could be taken without in- 
volving heavy expenditure upon the makers of tools and machinery. 
The introduction of the new system should be carried out in the 
country in such a manner that all new tools as needed should be 
made with a view to the metric system, without necessarily causing 
the existing tools and machines to be immediately abandoned. 

The Future of the Electric Railway. 

The last two or three years have l)een rich in experience in elec- 
tric railroading, and the most striking thing about it all is the almost 
entire lack of sensational features such as might not unnaturally 
have been expected. All the startling developments, such as get 
widely heralded in the daily press and promise to turn things topsy- 
turvy if they materialize, have been initiated on the other side of 
the water. Meanwhile, the progress here has been one of steady 
growth, each new road working with a little freer hand and on a little 
larger scale than its predecessors. By far the most interesting line of 
advance has been among our interurban roads of the larger class. 
Starting out as tramway extensions, electric interurban roads have 
by almost imperceptible degrees grown into a place which is in great 
measure unique. They run long and heavy cars quite comparable 
with ordinary passenger coaches, at speeds similar to those cus- 
tomarily employed in ordinary railroading, with an approximation 
more or less near, to every-day railway methods. The modern in- 
terurban road, therefore, occupies a somewhat anomalous position. 
It practically deals with the passenger traffic of an ordinary steam 
railroad, while in most instances it is ostensibly still a tramway using 
public roads and streets to a certain extent, having grade crossings 
without material restrictions, and in general enjoying the privileges 
and immunities of street railways while doing the work of a steam 
road so far as public convenience is concerned. 

Utility is the strongest argument that can be brought to bear upon 
the public, and modifications in this simple but evidently temporary 
stage of growth have come spontaneously and from engineering 
considerations. It has not taken long to find out that when quick 
transit between two cities is established and long and heavy cars are 
operated, the track must be of a correspondingly solid and reliable 

character. So it has come to pass that the average new interurban 
line uses a heavier rail and a more substantial roadbed than is ordi- 
narily found on anything but important lines of steam railroads. By 
reason of this and of using wheels to match, the question of suitable 
arrangements within the urban termini has risen to great impor- 
tance. The situation has been widely discussed among the street 
railway men, and opinion seems to be divided as to whether Mahomet 
should come to the mountain or the mountain to Mahomet — whether 
urban roads should prepare for the extra strains of interurban roll- 
ing stock or whether a line should be drawn between urban and in- 
terurban traffic and a change of cars enforced at the city limits. 
On broad general principles a change of cars is always and every- 
where a nuisance to be averted; but while urban systems might rea- 
sonably be expected and required to permit cars similar to their own 
to use their tracks they can hardly be forced to change their rails and 
roadbeds because an outlying line happens to be running extra large 
cars that require such a change. Thus it happens that a natural 
process of differentiation is tending to separate the larger interurban 
roads from urban precedents, and when this becomes more complete 
we may fairly expect some developments in the line of speed that 
will be well worth seeing. Instead of getting the high speed electric 
road at a leap, as would have been the case had the late Dr. Adams 
succeeded in putting through his St. Louis-Chicago line, we are 
likely to get it by a process of evolution, perhaps with a hearty lift 
from our friends at Zossen. 

The requirements of heavier cars and larger traffic have called 
steadily for more power, and the outcome has been distribution by 
polyphase current and new methods of arranging the working con- 
ductors. The third rail, tried at first with some misgivings, has 
worked its way into considerable use, and its bearing upon future 
work is one of the open questions of electric railway engineering. 
On elevated lines it appears to give excellent service, but on surface 
roads its merits are certainly open to question when long distances 
are attempted. It is too early to forecast its fate. It may be, as in 
the case of the electric slotted conduit, merely a question of reasonable 
care and expense. The third rail has never been, to our knowledge, 
tried with anything like proper precautions to prevent leakage and 
to render the system safe. There is much to learn here as there was 
in the case of the conduits. An adequately drained roadbed, a suita- 
bly insulated rail, and, above all, proper protection for the rail so 
as to lessen the danger to life which is now altogether too consider- 
able — all these are necessary before the status of the third rail can 
be determined. 

The experiments now being tried at Zossen are likely to have a 
very important bearing on long-distance and high-speed work of 
every kind, and if the requisite energy can readily be taken from 
overhead conductors and the motor regulation proves successful, a 
long step will have been taken toward clearing up some existing dif- 
ficulties. If the interurban road were inseparable from the urban 
networks at the termini, then the engineering methods adapted for 
the one must be suitable for the other. When, however, interurban 
systems by the nature of their growth come to further and further 
separate themselves from tramway methods, they may thereby open 
the way for some very radical changes. The necessities of urban 
termini are as severe a drag on the full usefulness and development 
of fast interurban lines as the old scheme of pulling cars through 
the streets with mules was upon the early steam railroads. Both 
the steam and electric systems have escaped their difficulties by cut- 
ting loose from confining precedents. The interurban road is with 
us to stay, and it must, so to speak, stand upon its own legs. If we 
are to have fast electric intercommunication we must not try to 
compromise with ordinary street railway methods. 


Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 

Nerve Phenomena and Electricity. 

The newspapers of Jan. i contain a sensational account of some 
discoveries as to the phenomena of nerve action, alleged to have 
been made by two Chicago professors. In some of the accounts 
given, Dr. F. A. Mathews, of Chicago University, is stated to be the 
discoverer, and other accounts give the credit to Professor Jacques 
Loeb, of the same university. The name of Dr. Loeb appeared some 
months ago in connection with what was claimed to be a startling 
discovery concerning the physiological action of sodium, which dis- 
coverj' newspaper writers epitomized in the phrase "Sodium is Life." 

According to the present discovery, electricity is the controlling 
factor in nerve action. It is stated that nerves consist of a colloidal 
solution, the colloidal particles of which carry positive electrical 
charges. The nerve is stimulated by the action of ions defined as 
electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms, which bear negative 
charges— and the stimulating of any chemical compound depends upon 
these negative charges. Ions having one charge are less efficient than 
those having two or three charges. A one-charged ion, such as so- 
dium, is less poisonous than a three-charged ion, such as iron. The 
colloidal particles of nerves are held in solution by positively charged 
ions. These facts, it is stated, show that chemical stimulation is 
identical with electrical. When in any part of a nerve negative 
charges are in excess, the nerve is stimulated, the stimulus always 
arising at the cathode or negative electrode. All positively charged 
ions diminish irritability, and negative ones increase it. This is claimed 
to explain electrotonus, as the irritability of the nerve is increased 
near the cathode and reduced near the anode. 

The stimulating action of any ion or the poisonous action of any 
kation is stated to be a function, first, of the number of charges ro- 
tating about the atom ; second, of the rate of the rotation of these 
charges, and, third, of the circumference of their orbits. It is stated 
that the electron rotates about a fluorine atom about twice as fast 
as about a chlorine atom. In conclusion, it is said that chemical 
stimulation is, by the electromagnetic theory of light, shown to be 
identical with the stimulation of light waves. The stimulation of 
any anion increases as the spectrum of that anion approaches the 
ultra-violet. The common light waves and heat waves are in their 
action like those of the positively charged ion. 

It may be remarked that so far as the alleged discovery relates to 
electricity it rests upon a rather slender foundation. The ionic theory 
is so far from being established that it may be considered not much 
more than a working hypothesis, and the Chicago professors appear 
even to have taken unwarranted liberties with the hypothesis in their 
assumption as to charges rotating about atoms at different rates, of 
"one-charged" and multiple charged ions, and, in general, in assum- 
ing the existence of a definite ionic mechanism. Dr. H. P. Pratt, the 
X-ray expert, confirms the discovery, however, but claims that he 
also had been working along the same lines. Dr. Pratt further be- 
lieves that the twentieth century will prove that electricity and not 
sodium is the real life-giving principle. 

Electrical Engineers of the Day — XXVII. 

organized its meter manufacturing department. In July, 1890, Mr. 
Cox was employed to take charge of the meter-testing department 
of the Thomson-Houston Company. He continued to have charge 
of this department until the formation of the Genera! Electric Com- 
pany, and until 1894, when the business had grown to such an extent 
that another re-organization was necessitated on much broader lines. 
As a result of changes then made, Mr. Cox was appointed engineer 
of the meter department, and assumed, in a great measure, responsi- 
bility for the mechanical as well as for the electrical and magnetic 

A few years later the manufacture of instruments was begun by 
the General Electric Company, and a large portion of the engineering 
work in connection w-ith this was placed in Mr. Cox's hands. Mr. 
Cox has surrounded himself with a corps of efficient assistants, nearly 
all of whom have had their practical education under his training, and 
at the present time the details of the engineering work are largely in 
the hands of these assistants, thereby leaving Mr. Cox free to take 
a more active part in commercial engineering than he has heretofore 
been able to do. His position is a rather unique one, as such positions 
go, in that he has largely made it for himself and to suit himself. 

Aside from the general factory supervision over the designing, 
manufacturing and testing of motors and instruments, Mr. Cox de- 
votes a large amount of time in a semi-commercial and advisory ca- 

Frank p. Cox. 

Frank P. Cox was born Dec. 31, 1866, at Terre Haute, Ind. After 
completing the curriculum in the common schools of his native city 
he took a two years' preparatory course and entered the Rose Poly- 
technic Institute, whence he was graduated as a mechanical engineer 
in 1887. A post-graduate course in electrical subjects was afterward 
taken at Johns Hopkins University, of Baltimore, and in the latter 
part of 1888 Mr. Cox entered the employ of the Kester Electric Com- 
pany in his native city. He remained there about one year, during 
which time he was engaged in the design and manufacture of small 

In October, 1889, Mr. Cox entered the testing department of the 
Thomson Electric Welding Company, where he remained until June, 
1890. About this time the Thomson recording wattmeter, which 
heretofore had enjoyed only a rather limited sale, begun to be fully 
appreciated by central station managers, and orders commenced to 
flow in for them at a rapid rate. About 1000 had been built at this 
period, and the weekly production was from 50 to 75. ' 

With the advent of increased business, the Thomson-Houston Com- 
pany found it necessary to extend its facilities materially, and re- 

pacity, in connection with the installation of large instrument and 
meter groups in central power and lighting stations. 

Although Mr. Cox has contributed a few articles to the technical 
journals, and written one book on direct-current dynamos and mo- 
tors, he has found little time in the press of his routine duties, to 
contribute much of that which he is so well qualified to write upon 
to the use of electrical readers. He has been obliged to undertake 
many extensive studies in the solution of intricate problems which 
have confronted the General Electric Company's engineers in the 
design and improvement of instruments and meters, one of the most 
notable being the investigation of the manufacture of permanent mag- 
nets on a commercial scale. 

One of the fundamental necessities of the manufacture of the 
Thomson recording wattmeter is the maintenance of permanent and 
uniform damping magnets. To accomplish a means of attaining this 
end on a commercial scale required a vast amount of research, study 
and experimentation, all of which was successfully done, as is evi- 
denced by nearly 300,000 meters now in use. Mr. Cox has been al- 
lowed a number of patents relating to various phases of meter and in- 
strument design, and has introduced a great many methods of manu- 
facture and manipulation, which, for obvious reasons, are un- 

Mr. Cox is married, has one daughter, and lives in Lynn, Mass. 
Although of a rather retiring disposition, Mr. Cox has a very wide 
circle of friends and acquaintances. 

The Waterside Station of the New York 
Edison Company— I. 



HE happy lot falls to us about 
once in every five years to 
chronicle the development 
and growth in the interven- 
ing period of the New York 
Edison Company — the great- 
est central station organiza- 
tion and enterprise in the 
world. Many of our readers 
will doubtless recall the com- 
prehensive survey made in 
one of the constituent jour- 
nals of Electrical World 
AND Engineer, in 1896, and 
previous to that period our 
columns preserve the record 
of the technical and indus- 
trial advance which now 
finds its furthest present 
reach in the magnificent 
Waterside station to which 
this article will be more specifically devoted. It is a theme to which 
we return with more than usual pleasure, and from whose considera- 
tion more than ordinary instruction results. Around the career of 
the New York Edison Company cluster historical events, pioneer 
beginnings, daring experiments, personal anecdotes, continuous suc- 
cesses, technical evolutions, financial ex- 
pansions and steady broadening of rela- 
tionships of the most interesting character. 
full justice to which would demand not 
merely the occupation of a few score pages 
of this journal, but the compilation of a 
volume. We have in the growth of this 
great enterprise a review, not in miniature, 
but on the grand scale, of what the art of 
electric light and power has attempted and 
realized in America. 

It is not intended in these introductory 
remarks to summarize the details treated 
in each of the sections of this article, but 
so important a theme is not without its op- 
portunities for a more or less philosophical 
treatment. There is not much chance or 
need for "academic" discussion in the stern 
and sober record of the remarkable onward 
movement of this company, which grapples 
so closely with the necessities of a great 
modern city in matters of illumination, 
power and multitudinous conveniences, but 
it cannot be forgotten that the history of 
this company illustrates in itself at onc< 
the relation of electricity to modern life 
and all the other tendencies that are so pro 
foundly influencing our civilization. Hen 
is a system beginning with but one das- 
of work, and within a very limited area, bu' 
now furnishing current for every purpose 
to which it acn be applied, and covering th< 
whole of Manhattan Island. Here is a sys- 
tem founded when the storage battery was 
a byword and the alternating current a du- 
bious thing of deep suspicion, now using 
more batteries than any other plant in the 
world as reservoirs and equipping for alter- 
nating current generation the largest station that has ever been seen. 
Yet. on the other hand, as evidence of the persistence of methods that 
hav approved themselves arc still to be noted the practice of putting 

every wire underground, just as in the start nearly a quarter of a cen- 
tury ago, and, further, the steady maintenance at the consumption end 
of the system of direct-current methods, with low voltages. Such con- 
ditions in dealing with some of the most vital problems that can con- 
front an electrical engineer imply, to say the least, great courage on 
the part of those who have had to deal with these questions and a ca- 
pacity of intellectual grasp, which in turn promise a firm touch with 
all that the future can bring in the art. Last year, at the meeting and 
Congress in Paris, as this year before one of the most crowded 
gatherings the American Institute of Electrical Engineers has ever 
held, these very problems of transmission, distribution and utiliza- 
tion were the most pressing that could excite the interest of such 
bodies ; but even while the discussions were going on, the New York 
Edison Company, with its fellows in the field of central station work, 
was attacking the problems and solving them, even if not with final 
wisdom, at least with the satisfaction of marking genuine progress. It 
is one thing to play the game of war with mathematical theories and 
dummy squadrons, and quite another to present the brave front 
and adopt the shrewd tactics that ensure victory in a hard- fought 
campaign. "Settle it as you go," is an ancient bit of advice, but 
surely its most modern application lies in central station work, where 
every question solved with pains to-night opens up a broader prob- 
lem for swift determination on the morrow. 

Running side by side with this insistent requirement for high en- 
gineering ability in dealing with these matters, and not simply inci- 
dental to it. has been the financial problem. The original central 


Station idea was that of several main generating plants in any given 
city, each jealous of its own territory, but often limited sharply in 
its kind of service, and rarely able to give that service cheaply or 


Vol. XXXLX.. No. I. 


Fic. 3.— Plan of the Waterside Station of the New York Edison Company. 

January 4, 1901. 


efficiently. But that day has gone by, and with the development 
which has aimed at the generation of one universal type of current 
for use by apparatus of the widest individualization has had to come 
necessarily the welding together financially of the different interests 
concerned in the work. The tendency towards consolidation of pro- 
ductive and distributive agencies of all kinds is too much a common- 
place nowadays to need noting with any emphasis here, but we can- 
not neglect the chance to express our belief that electric light, power 
and traction have afforded some of the best examples of the carrying 
out of this line of industrial evolution. Possibly, and doubtless, 
mistakes have been made in the execution of this inevitable process, 
but our conviction is deep that in the long run the programme will 
have justified itself in most cities and with most people. In the 
New York Edison Company, with the marvelous network of service 
that has been gathered together under that name, the conspicuous 
exponent of this policy has been Mr. A. N. Brady, whose striking 
appreciation of the broad principles involved in electrical application 

sonal reference would not be complete without mention of the work 
of Mr. Thomas E. Murray, whose natural ability, tireless energy and 
sound engineering judgment have contributed so largely to the satis- 
factory carrying out on the practical side of this vast plan of con- 
solidation and concentration. 


The problem of furnishing light and power to a large city like 
New York involves the supplying of the densely populated business 
and southern district, and also requires that current be transmitted 
to a large outlying residence district covering many square miles in 
area and in the case of New York extending north 10 miles from the 
heart of the city. 

Numerous small stations distributed through this territory fur- 
nish a possible solution of the problem, but such a system lacks the 
well-known advantages and economy of a large central station. It 
being impossible to supply such an area with direct current from a 

has been admirably evidenced by some of his recent utterances in 
leading organs of public opinion. For a man popularly credited with 
merely the "Wall Street view" of these topics, Mr. Brady has shown 
an insight and foresight that perhaps some did not expect. So far 
as we are concerned, dealing, as we do less with the financial as- 
pects of the art than with its engineering side, we can only express 
our hearty admiration of the faith in electricity shown by such a bold- 
ness and vigor of financial enterprise as leads to the erection and 
equipment of plants like the Waterside station described below — 
enterprise based in turn upon the massing into one vast, compre- 
hensive network of all the scattered, heterogeneous and unrelated 
projected which not long since were all that New York had to de- 
pend upon for its electric light and power. The greatest credit is, 
therefore, due to Mr. Brady for having early recognized the stupen- 
dous possibilities of such a situation, and for the courage and broad 
statesmanship which he has shown in bringing such a vast undertak- 
ing to a successful consummation. In like manner, this pa.ssing per- 

single station it was decided to use a high-potential, alternating sys- 
tem of generation and transmission. 

The question next arose. Shall the customer be supplied with al- 
ternating or direct current? It would be much simpler to supply 
alternating current through step-down transformers, but the ques- 
tion can only be answered by a consideration of the service required. 

This is the supply of power for incandescent lights, arc lights and 
motors — the latter both for general power and elevator service. 

Incandescent lights operate equally well upon direct or alternating 
current, provided the frequency is over 30 cycles per second. They 
require, however, a close voltage regulation, and where heavy cur- 
rents are to be handled, as in the business district of a large city, this 
can be better secured by direct than by alternating current. 

The arc lamp may be used upon direct or alternating circuits pro- 
vided the frequency is not less than 40-50 cycles, and although 
the New York Edison Company has found that satisfactory com- 
mercial service can be obtained from alternating current arcs on 


Vol. XXXIX., No. I. 


ordinary circuits, direct-current lamps are, considered on the whole, 
somewhat more efficient and reliable. 

For general industrial use, the alternating-current motor, particu- 
larly that of the induction type, has reached a stage of perfection 
making it in every way the peer of the direct-current motor, the ab- 
sence of commutator and brushes constituting a prime element of 
simplicity and ready maintenance, although involving a higher first 

Though constant speed motors may be designed to operate with 
satisfaction on alternating currents, yet the direct current motor is 
decidedly superior where intermittent service or variable speed is 
required. As a considerable part of the power used in large cities 
is required for elevators, and machinery running at variable speed, it 
becomes almost obligatory to furnish direct current to satisfy this 

After a careful consideration, therefore, of all the local con- 
ditions — the character of the large existing stations, sub-stations 
and underground system, the territory to be covered, the present 
and prospective business, the broadening nature of the electrical in- 
dustry, and other features none the less perplexing, because less 
indefinite in engineering outline — it was decided to build a large 
central station generating high potential alternating current, trans- 
mission to sub-stations, and after passing through static transform- 
ers and rotary converters to be fed as direct current into the usual 
low-tension, three-wire network. 

In deciding upon the location of such a central station the general 
rule that it shall be located as nearly as possible at the center of 
gravity of the system is often modified by the cost of land, avail- 
ability of water supply, coaling facilities and various local considera- 
tions. The Waterside station of the New York Edison Company is 
admirably situated to satisfy all these requirements. 

When we look back to 1882 and compare the Pearl Street station 
of the New York Edison Company and its six 125-hp "Jumbo" 
generators, with the new Waterside station of the same company, 
operating sixteen 5500-8000-hp generators, we are enabled to form 
some conception of the enormous growth of the business in the ig 
years just past. 

Between these two extremes we have the Duane Street station, 
erected in 1891, with the system of sub-stations, by which the city of 
New York has been supplied. 

This station was erected before the era of high potential trans- 
mission in cities, and perforce was located near the "center of grav- 
ity" of the load. Real estate in the heart of the business center of 
New York City being very expensive, it was necessary to concentrate 
the power in the smallest space. This result was attained by the adop- 
tion of the vertical marine type of engine, which was modified to meet 
central station requirements by the company's engineering staflF, co- 
operating with the engine builders. 

The 2500-hp engines used in this station were the first vertical ma- 
rine engines of any considerable size used in this country for central 
station work. 

The form of switchboard, first installed in this station, and now in 
use there, and in the other sub-stations throughout the city, is re- 
markable for its space economy, and was also developed by the com- 
pany's technical staff. In the Van Vleck "edgewise" system all in- 
struments and regulating switches are read or handled on the edge 
of a quarter circle, instead of being moved around the face. 

Owing to the fact that in New York and other large cities the 
heaviest load in the business section occurs at a different time from 
the peak load in the theater and residence section, it would evidently 
be a most desirable and economical arrangement to have the stations 
in these districts so connected that each could help the other, util- 
izing the capacity of the generating equipment to the best advantage. 
This result was attained before the completion of the Waterside sta- 
tion by installing rotary converters and static transformers in Duane 
Street and the various sub-stations. A net efficiency of over 82 per 
cent from direct current to direct current is obtained, and now that 
Waterside station is in operation the apparatus already installed in 
the sub-stations is used to transform from high-tension alternating 
to low-tension direct. 

It became evident several years ago that even with this system of 
mutual help the time was soon coming when the full capacity of the 
various stations would be inadequate to supply the demands of a 
rapidly increasing number of consumers ; and the multiplication of 
generating stations being undesirable, plans were drawn for 
a new station where practically all the current used by the company 
could be generated, the various stations throughout the city being re- 
tained as rotarv converter sub-stations. 

January 4, 1901. 


The Waterside station, equipped with tlic most modern and eco- 
nomical plant, will generate the bulk of the current used on the sys- 
tem, the larger Edison stations, Duane, Tw^elfth and Twenty-sixth 
streets, being used as distributing stations, and as supplementary 
generating stations during the period of heavy load in the winter 

Some of the less important stations, Vandam, Thirtj'-ninth and 
Fifty-third streets, equipped with less economical generating appara- 
tus, will have their generating equipment removed and will serve as 
distributing centers. Storage batteries located at all the important 

to which the city is gaining territory along its eastern water front is 
realized. Such plants as the Waterside help in no small measure to 
what may be called the reclamation of this valuable waste territory. 

The foundations for both engine and building are of concrete and 
rest directly upon bed rock, giving an exceptionally solid construction. 

The building is of yellow brick, trimmed with red sandstone. The 
inside of the operating room is faced with pressed buff brick, with 
the exception of a wainscot of enamel faced brick, 14 ft. high, running 
around the entire room. The floor is of cast iron plates, and the 
roof, 116 ft. above, has a glass monitor giving abundant light. 

Fig. 6 — W.\terside Station of the New York Edison Company, from the East River. 

distributing centers, in addition to acting as a reserve, will also be 
used to eliminate the peaks from the local demand, so that the load 
on the Waterside station will be almost constant durmg the tw-enty- 
four hours. By utilizing the more important generating plants dur- 
ing the months of heavy demand, the larger generating apparatus al- 
ready installed is used to advantage, additional new investment being 
saved, which would otherwise be necessary to take care of this 


The Waterside station is located on First Avenue, covering the 
block between Thirty-eighth and Thirty-ninth streets, and running 
to the East River, an area of 272'^ ft. by 197^ ft. 

The bulkhead line will be 160 ft. distant from the east end of the 
station, and separated from it by a new marginal street 125 ft. wide, 
under which pass the condensing tunnels and coal conveyors. It is 
not tmtil one sees a colossal operation of this kind that the extent 

The boiler room floor, with the exception of the cast iron plates 
along the boiler fronts, is of granolithic material. 

The general layout of the building is shown in Fig. 3- The boiler 
room, a magnificent hall, is 76 ft. by 267 ft. 10 inches, separated by 
a massive brick wall from the main operating room, which is of the 
same length and no less than 115 ft. wide, presenting in its lofty 
pitch and harmonious porportions a strong resemblance to the main 
aisle of some grand and imposing cathedral. 

The 16 General Electric dynamo-Wcslinghouse engine generating 
sets, included in the complete plan, as shown on the diagram, are 
placed each on its separate foundation, and each with its imme- 
diate and switching appurtenances constitutes a "cellular" unit, 
as though it alone were the generating heart of the station. The 
features of this interesting and important arrangement will be dis- 
cussed later. The dynamos all face inward to the central passage- 
way, their right and left-handed revolution corresponding to their 


Vol. XXXIX., No. I. 

position on the north or south side. The storage battery room is in 
the basement on the Thirty-eighth Street side, south, as indicated. 
Locker rooms, lavatories, etc., are provided in liberal measure for 
the comfort of the employes. On the Thirty-eighth Street side, 
running the full length of the stately building, there are five gal- 
leries, the upper ones being used for storage, offices, etc., while the 
two lower ones afford ready access to the upper platforms of the 
engines. It is impossible not to be struck with the skillful manner 
in which the designers of this great station with its ultimate capacity 
of not less than 125,000 hp have pushed along practical lines, in these 
details, the analogy with marine engineering which underlies the 
ideal of modern central station work. A mere glance at the cross 
section view shows these galleries, just like the decks of a big steam- 
ship, surrounding the vast central well or hull within which the 
steam forces are at their work, while an inspection of the plant itself 
carries the parallel even further, for at the western end are the 
switchboard galleries, the full width of the dynamo room, corre- 
sponding in by no means a fanciful manner to the "quarter deck," 

will be received at the pier being built out into the river, 150 ft. be- 
yond the bulkhead line. On this pier w'ill be located the coal-receiv- 
ing tower. It carries a bucket with a capacity of i^S tons, which 
discharges into the hopper from which the coal descends into the 
crusher, passing thence into the bucket conveyor running along the 
pier and under the marginal street into a receiving vault at the north- 
east corner of the building. Here the coal is received into the weigh- 
ing hoppers, and is then discharged by the automatic fillers into the 
vertical conveyors which elevate the coal to the monitor, where a 
horizontal conveyor finally distributes it into the bunker. This, as 
shown in the sectional view, is of solid steel construction, and has 
a capacity of 10,000 tons, sufficient for two weeks' supply. Coal 
chutes descend from the bunker, each chute feeding the stoker hop- 
pers of two boilers, and each is equipped with a Clarke automatic 
coal weighing scale. The bunker is lined with concrete, no coal 
coming into contact with the iron, and a deflecting ridge along the 
bottom prevents the lodging of coal in dead pockets where it might 
take fire from spontaneous combustion. The entire coal-handling 

Fig. 7. — Elevation and Cross Section of Boilers and Stokers. 

whence command issues and through which all the functions of tlie 
system are set in motion and exercised. 

This western end is, as will have been understood, the front of 
the building, where is found the handsome entrance from which our 
initial letter has been drawn. An electric elevator, built by the Ma- 
rine Engnne & Machine Company, and located just within the en- 
trance lobby, gives quick access to all floors, supplementing the metal 
stairways which rise at both ends of the electrical galleries. The steel 
framework of the building was furnished by Milliken Brothers. Two 
electric cranes, one of 50 tons capacity, built by Pawling & Harnisch- 
fcgcr, of Milwaukee, and one of 25 tons, built by Alfred Box, of 
Philadelphia, span the engine room at the curve of the roof. The 
former has a high speed lift auxiliary hoist which enables the quick 
handlincr of light weights over the whole floor. 

coal-handling equipment. 

Going now from the front of the station to the rear, we encounter, 
and begin naturally with, the coal-handling equipment. The coal 

equipment was supplied under contract by the Exeter Machine 

the boilers. 

The boilers, whose construction and location are shown in Figs. 
3, 7 and II were made by the Aultman & Taylor Manufacturing Com- 
pany, of Mansfield, Ohio. They are arranged in two double- 
decked rows, one on each side of the boiler room, 14 in each row, 28 
on a side, or 56 in all. They are each 18 ft. long, with 6250 sq. ft. 
of heating surface, and arc rated at 650 hp each, on a 30-lb. basis ; 
but as the engines used will require only about 12 lbs. of steam per 
I.H.P., the boilers will actually develop about 1625 hp each. When 
operated with forced draught, they can develop a much greater ca- 

The boilers are designed for a working pressure of 225 lbs., al- 
though 175 lbs. will be the pressure usually carried. They are 
equipped with Roney stokers and furnaces supplied by Westinghouse, 
Church, Kerr & Co. Sixteen fan blowers of large capacity will fur- 
nish the forced draught, so that the maximum capacity may be ob- 

January 4, 1901. 


tained from the boilers, enabling also the use of steam sizes of an- 
thracite coal in connection with the Roney stokers. It should be 
added that the Roney stokers have the greatest possible depth of 


grate in the available space to give the greatest feasible grate area, 
in view of the desirability of burnmg anthracite coal. It must be 
mentioned here also that provision has been made for the installation 
of superheaters on the boilers, proper fittings having been provided 

header, from which steam pipes are taken to the northerly row of 
engines. Vertical risers drop from the engine room header and 
receive the steam supply from the headers of the lower tier of boil- 
ers, conveying the steam to separators in the basement, from which 
14-inch mains carry it thence to the throttles of the southerly line of 
engines. Special fittings are connected to the cross-over pipe to each 
.'■outherly engine, permitting their connection into a central tie 
header located under the center aisle. All joints are ground to a 
-team-tight fit, no gaskets being allowed in any of the high-pressure 
piping. The pipe, special fittings and flanges are of the maximum 
thickness specified for the highest class of high-pressure work. 
The feed water heaters are of the Wainwright type. 50-inch diam., 
iT) ft. long, containing 246 i^-inch tubes, giving a total heating sur- 
face in each heater of 1333 sq. ft. These heaters are inserted be- 
tween the feed pumps and boilers, and receive the exhaust steam from 
the boiler feed pumps, stoker engines, and other auxiliaries. The 
feed water will be supplied for the city service in the beginning, al- 
though it is expected later to use the condensed steam from the en- 
gines as boiler feed after being purified. To this end four special 
storage and separating tanks have been installed in the basement 
under the boilers, provision being made in each tank for cartridge 
filters for removing the greater quantity of oil from the condensed 
steam. The more complete elimination of suspended oil to be af- 
fected in special purifying apparatus. The boiler feed pumps are of 
the Worthington type, steam driven. 


The condensing water is brought from the river through an in- 
take tunnel, shown in Fig. 9, built by the General Tunnel Engineer- 

FiG, g.— CuNUEXSER Tlxxf.l .\t Elizabethport, axd on Its Way to the Station. 

for connecting them, as the engines have been designed with an eye 
to the ultimate use of superheated steam. 

Returning to the stokers, they in common with most of the other 
"auxiliaries" are driven by steam, these being operated in sections 
by sixteen s-hp Westinghouse engines, and connected to the driving 
shafts in such a manner that the breakdown of any engine will not 
cripple any stoker. The furnaces discharge the products of com- 
bustion into four steel stacks, each 17 ft. in diameter, and rising 132 
ft. above the roof, the tops being seen in our engravings and being 
plainly visible from a great distance along the river; the total height 
from the grates of the lower tier of boilers being very nearly 200 ft. 
The shell of the stacks is ^ inch thick for 44 ft., other sections of 
the same length being made up of yi and J^-inch plate. The stacks 
are lined with 8 inches of firebrick for one-third of their height, the 
remainder being lined with red brick. The lining is carried upon 
rings of angle iron in independent sections of 20 ft., and air space of 
4 inches being left between the lining and the stack. The ashes are 
discharged from the ash hoppers under the boilers into cars, which 
are to be hauled- with small electric locomotives to the dock and the 
contents dumped into barges. Space has been provided in the base- 
ment for economizers in case it may be deemed desirable to install 
these before the completion of the station. 


The steam is delivered from each boiler through a lO-inch pipe 
into a 14-inch boiler room header, of which eight enter the engine 
room through openings in the fire wall from each deck of boilers, 
as indicated in various views herewith. The headers from the upper 
deck drop into steam separators connected in the main engine room 

ing Company, under the Lande patents. This 
tunnel is composed of two J-^-inch steel shell: 

interesting intake 
, with a space of 

FIG. 10. — details of foundation. CONDENSER TINNELS AND CABLE 

15 inches between them filled with concrete. It was made in Eliza- 
bethport, and when finished was fitted with bow and stern and towed 


Vol. XXXIX.. No. 

to its present position. It extends from the east end of the station 
230 ft. diagonally under the proposed marginal street along the river 
front out into the East River. Provision is made for connecting an- 
other similar tunnel, should it ever become necessary. Just outside 
the building the intake tunnel enters the screen wells and divides into 
two parts, circular in section and 7 ft. in diameter, one running under 
each row of engines. The discharge water from the condenser is 
returned to the river through two tunnels of an oval section 8 ft. 
high, running out on a higher level. 


The engines, 16 in number, are the product of the Westinghouse 
Machine Company. They are of the Marine type, vertical, three 
crank, with one high and two low-pressure cylinders, direct connected 
to 16 Gcni-ral Electric three-phase generators. The high pressure 

ing on the bed plate. The crank shaft is of the Bethlehem make, 
built up in three sections, with a lo-inch hole extending from end to 
end. The 26-inch shaft is supported in four bearings, the three main 
bearings each 60 inches long and the outbound bearing 48 inches 
long. The engine, having three cranks, set at the angles loi degs., 
133 degs., 126 degs., so as to give a uniform turning moment, does 
not require a heavy flywheel, a weight of 90,000 lbs. in the rim with 
an outside diameter of 23 ft. being sufficient to give the required 
steadiness of motion for parallel operating and avoiding any evidence 
of "beat" or pulsation in the electrical system. 

The high-pressure cylinder is fitted with poppet valves, following 
European practice on engines of similar types using superheated 
steam. The low-pressure cylinders have valves of the double ported 
Corliss type. The valves are driven by eccentrics from a lay shaft 
receiving motion from the main engine <batt by means of helical 

Fic. II. — Cross Section Through Boiler and Dyn.\mo Room of \V.\terside, New York Edison, Station. 

cylinder is 43'/i inches in diameter, and each low-pressure cylinder 
75yi inches in diameter, with a stroke of 5 ft. The low-pressure 
cylinders only arc jacketed, and are provided with liners, the con- 
templated use of superheated steam rendering jackets for the high 
pressure cylinder unnecessary. With 17s lbs. steam pressure at the 
throttle and 27 inches vacuum, and while running at the normal 
speed of 75 r. p. m., the engines arc to indicate 5200-5500 hp at most 
economical load ; and will be capable of a sustained load of 8000 hp 
with an ultimate capacity at maximum cut-oflf {% of stroke) of over 
10,000 hp. The engine is guaranteed to develop its most economical 
load, 5200-5500 hp, at a steam consumption not to exceed I2j^ lbs. of 
dry steam per I.H.P. per hour, including the steam used in rehcater 
and jackets. 

The bed plate is made in three pieces with an extension for sup- 
porting the outboard bearing. The engine frames are of the A type 
of strong and massive yet graceful design, with a substantial bear- 

gears, European practice again being followed in this respect also, 
although quite unfamiliar here. The governor is driven from the 
lay shaft and controls both the high and low-pressure valves, the lat- 
ter being also detachable so as to be adjusted by hand. 

The engine speed can be controlled by mechanical adjustment of 
the governor weights while in motion. To facilitate synchronizing 
the speed of the engine can also be varied from the electrical gal- 
lery by a pilot switch operating an electrical motor which shifis the 
weight on the governor arm. 

An emergency steam-operated throttle is provided enabling steam 
to be shut off instantly, and this is connected to a centrifugal device 
in one of the crank cheeks, which in case the engine speed exceeds a 
certain limit engages a pawl admitting steam to the emergency 
throttle automatically, and cutting off steam. In passing from the 
high-pressure to the low-pressure cylinder the steam passes througb 
the rehcater with a capacity of 220 cubic feet. 




Vol. XXXIX, No. i. 

A complete oiling system is provided, the main bearings being 
fed with a gravity-pressure system, and the cylinders, cross-heads, 
etc., are lubricated from sight feed manifolds having pressure pumps 
driven from the valve motion. The oil is circulated by a special 


force pump, with a .system of tanks for its filtration. Each engine 
has an independent air and circulating pump driven by a separate 
engine with Corliss valve gear. The surface condensers are of the 
Worthington type, with a cooling surface of 9200 sq. ft. Each engine 
is provided with an automatic relief valve in the exhaust line, ad- 
mitting to the 30-inch atmospheric e.xhaust riser, extending from 

tions at Xew Haven, England, and Dieppe, France, the distance be- 
tween which places is 75 miles. The departure of boats will be 
signaled, with instructions as to the number of passengers, amount 
of luggage and other information. This service will also be a great 
convenience to the public, as the friends of passengers will not, as in 
the past, have to wait for hours at the other end when fog has de- 
layed a boat starting. 

Regulation of Automobile Matters in America. 

Important developments will probably occur within the next month 
in regard to the plan proposed recently by the -Automobile Club of 
.\merica. to make that club the national organization of .America, and 
ail other automobile clubs affiliated members of the national body. 
The rough draft of the plan has been sent to all the leading clubs in 
the country, but considerable opposition has been encountered. The 
Xew York Times has an interesting review of tlie situation. In Bos- 
ton and Chicago the idea has not been favorably received at all, the 
clubs there resenting the proposition to acknowledge the superiority 
of the Automobile Club of America in all law and racing matters. 
The Long Island .Automobile Club, at its recent meeting, did not view 
the proposition favorably. Automobile clubs throughout the coun- 
try generally recognize the importance of a national body, but no clear 
idea has yet been advanced as to how this will be formed or gov- 
erned. The affiliated clubs all feel that they should have some voice 
in the matter, and some plan may be evolved whereby the clubs in 
the national organization may have a vote in the councils, according 
to their membership. The Boston automobilists have been particu- 
larly agitated over the subject, and the Automobile Club of Massa- 

Fic. 14. — The Two Electric Cranes. 

each engine to the roof, where thc-riser is capped by an exhaust head. 

Very coraplcte platform.s at three different heights are provided, 
giving ready access to aU the working parts of the engine ; and the 
two upper platforms have \valkovers from engine to engine, facili- 
tating efficient and economical supervision and oiling. 

.\ living bridge, which can be moved by the cranes, will span the 
aisle liciwccn th.? north and south row of engines. To borrow a 
scriptural idea, the engineer can literally "pick up his bridge and 
walk" without leaving it, and be carried from one end of the long 
hall to the other, with instantaneous access to any generating unit 
in either row. At the same time, when not in use, the flying bridge 
docs not interfere in any way with the normal operation and em- 
ployment of the cranes. 

Wireless Telegraphy Across the Channel. 

I'he l-oiidon, Brighton & South Coast Railway has entered into an 
arrangement with the Marconi Company for wireless telegraph sta- 

chusetts. the leading one there, has practically refused to meet the 
request for affiliation with the New York club. It is said that the 
Boston men, as well as members of many other clubs, are willing to 
yield first place to the Automobile Club of America, in view of its 
priority in the field and the many good things it has accomplished 
for automobilisni, but that these members resent hotly every sugges- 
tion of a dictatorial policy. 

The Long Island Automobile Club plan for a national organiza- 
tion was to have it composed of delegates chosen from automobile 
clubs at large, and they would make rules binding on all of the clubs. 
The Automobile Club of America has advanced the idea that its rules 
should be accepted by all these other clubs without question, they 
being affiliated members and accepting nil rules in the broader field 
of automobile interests made by the main organization. This, there- 
fore, is where the hitch comes in. The Automobile Club of Bridge- 
port, which has 34 members, has accepted the plan of the Automobile 
Club of America to affiliate with it and be governed by its racing and 
other general rules. 

January 4, 1901. 


Two Recent British Electric Railways. 

In the history of electric traction, Brighton, England, stands out as 
having been the possessor of one of the first electric roads — the elec- 
tric marine railway of Magnus Volk. This road was discontinued 
many years ago, and it was not until November of last year that 
Brighton could again boast of an electric railway. 

The present road has been built in the most substantial manner, 
the road-bed being laid on concrete and the feeders in underground 
conduits. The power house contains three Peebles-Willans units, 
one of 325 kw capacity and two of 175 kw ; a motor-driven booster is 
provided for operation on the return circuit. Steam is furnished by 
Babcock & Wilcox boilers. The larger engine gives 467 brake horse- 
power at 320 r. p. m., and the other two engines each 250 brake horse- 
power at 350 r. p. ra. 

All of the engines are capable of giving 25 per cent overload for 
half an hour, and are fitted with automatic variable cut-off gear, and 
also by-pass valves, which enable the engines to give their full power 
with 150 lbs. steam pressure instead of the normal 175 lbs. The sets 
work without condensation. 

The dynamos, which have been manufactured and supplied by 
Messrs. D. Bruce Peebles & Co., of Edinburgh, are of the multipolar 
flywheel type, compound wound for a pressure of 500 volts at no 
load, and 600 volts at full load. They are also designed to give an 
output of 25 per cent overload for half an hour, and 50 per cent 
momentarily without injury. In each case the armatures are of the 
slot-wound drum type, with ventilated cores, so that they will be 
suitable for running at full load for long periods, and the machines 
will run absolutely sparklessly at all loads froin no load to over full 
load, without alteration in the position of the brushes. In the case of 
the small .sets, the engines and dynamos are mounted on one combina- 
tion base plate, whereas in the case of the larger dynamo, separate 
base plates for engine and dynamo are provided. 

The motor-driven return circuit booster consi.sts of two separate 
machines, direct-coupled end to end, and mounted on a combination 
base plate. The motor is a Bruce Peebles multipolar, shunt-wound. 

sure of 25 volts, varying down to 100 amperes at a pressure of 10 
volts. The machine is provided with a suitable shunt across the 
series fields, to enable this regulation to be effected. 

The switchboard comprises eight panels of polished white marble. 

• ♦ » • 



consisting of three machine, three feeder, one booster and one Board 
of Trade panel. 

Si.K and one-half miles of line have been laid, equivalent to liji 
miles of single track. Thirty cars are employed, all of which are 
equipped with British Westinghouse 49-B motors and No. 00 con- 

Fic. T. — General View of Engine Room, Ports.mouth, England. 

protected type, and is designed for an output of ao hp when running 
at a speed of 800 r. p. m. It is designed to run off a 500-volt to 550- 
volt circuit, and will also give an output of 25 per cent over full load 
when required, and will run sparklessly under these conditions. The 
booster consists of one Bruce Peebles series-wound, multipolar ma- 
chine, which is arranged to give an output of 1000 amperes at a pres- 

troliers. A system of electric signal bcfls has been provided in the 
cars, there being four pushes in the interior of the car and four on 
the roof for the convenience of outside passengers. In addition, a 
bell of distinct tone from the passengers' bell is employed on each 
platform for signaimg between the conductor and driver. 
The overhead construction was carried out by Robert W. Black- 



Vol. XXXIX.. No. i. 

well & Co. Brighton being a fashionable seaside resort, and as 
much of the route is through fashionable localities and along hand- 
some parks, as great a regard as possible was paid to the asthetic 
point of view in constructing the trolley line. The trolley poles are 
drawn tubular steel, with bracket arms of steel tubing ornamented 
with wrought iron scroll work of elegant design. The road was 


designed and installed under the supervision of Mr. Thomas B. 

Another recent English electric railway is that of Portsmouth, 
which is about being completed. The total length is approximately 
145^ miles, there being 14 miles of double track and crossings, and Yz 
mile of single track. 

The steam plant comprises three water-tube boilers and two hori- 
zontal cross-compound engines, each developing 640 hp under normal 
conditions, and having a capacity for a maximum of 900 hp Also, a 
third engine of the horizontal tandem-compound Corliss type, which 

equipped electrically by the English Electrical Manufacturing 

The generators, which are three in number, are of the type gen- 
erally supplied by Dick, Kerr & Co., and manufactured by the Eng- 
lish Electric Manufacturing Company, with whom they are asso- 
ciated, and of which Professor S. H. Short is technical director. 
The output of the two larger ones is 400 kw, and that of the smaller 
one 200 kw when running at the rated speed under normal condi- 
tions. Each is provided with a long bearing surface to the shaft of 
the engine, to which it is to be fitted. It is bored accurately to a gauge 
supplied by the engine builder, and is made slightly smaller than the 
diameter of the shaft, so that it requires about 100 tons pressure to- 
force it into position, it being then secured by means of two keys. 

The switchboard is of the usual traction type, and is divided into 
panels, which are carried on vertical angle irons secured together 
with bolts, a suitable means being provided for fixing the angle irons 
to the floor and stays to support the board about 3 ft. clear of the 
wall. Automatic circuit breakers are provided on both generator and 
feed panels ; all the instruments are of the usual type. There is a 
special panel provided to meet the requirements of the Board of Trade. 

Plant of the Independent Electric Light and Power 
Company, San Francisco. 

THE plant of the Independent Electric Light & Power Company, 
of San Francisco, is one recently built to compete with the com- 
pany which formerly controlled the electric lighting business- 
of that city. The engineers of the new company were given free 
hand to make the plant the very best possible for economical and re- 
liable production of electrical energy. Mr. .\. M. Hunt, consulting 
engineer, of San Francisco, and general manager of the company, has 
had full charge of the work. 

In order to get a good location for the power house it was built 
on the Bay of San Francisco, some distance from the center of the 
city, and power is transmitted at 11,000 volts initial pressure to five 
sub-stations. One of these sub-station.s supplies the San Francisco- 


develops 320 hp normally, and 450 hp overload, the revolutions in each 
case being from 90 to 100 at a pressure of 150 lbs. per square inch. 
There arc three surface condensers of the Worthington Admiralty 
type, two of which are capable of condensing under normal work- 
ing conditions, 12,000 lbs. of steam per hour, and the smaller 6000 lbs. 
of steam per hour. There are three sets of combined air and circulat- 
ing pumps with compound steam cylinders, the pumps being inde- 
pendent and each connected to one condenser. A Green economizer 
is employed, the scrapers of which are driven by a soo-*'olt Lundell 
The rolling stock will consist of 80 double-deck single-truck cars 

ill Wr^ 


111 ,„..,v„„ \\\ 


& San Mateo Electric Railway. Another sub-station is a combina- 
tion from which both soo-volt direct current for the railway and 2000- 
volt alternating current for residence lighting are distributed. One 
sub-station supplies a 440-volt direct-current three-wire system, an- 
other one side of a 440-volt, three-wire system, and another 2000 
volts alternating alone. The frequency is 60 cycles. The 440-volt, 
direct-current, three-wire system was selected for distribution in the 
downtown district, so that the company could bid for the busines»of 
many customers which had already purchased and installed 220-volt 
motors. In entering into a competition of this kind it was consid- 
ered desirable to be able to connect with the motors already in place 


Fig. 3. — One of the Units, San Francisco Plant. 



Vol. XXXIX.. No. i. 

on customers' premises. The distribution through the 
citj- is mainly by underground, lead-covered cables, with the three 
conductors in one sheath, though some of the outlying lines and the 
electric railway are supplied by overhead io,ooo-volt lines. 

Westinghouse electrical apparatus has been used almost entirely. 
The station has one 500-kw, two-phase Westinghouse generator and 
three 1 500-kw generators direct connected to Mcintosh & Seymour 
engines. These machines are the revolving armature type, with cop- 
per-sheathed pole tips. They generate at 550 volts, and each in ordi- 
nary operation is connected to its own pair of Scott-connectcd trans- 
formers for stepping up to 11,000 volts. The switchboard arrangement 
in this station has been the result of considerable study, and is worth 
noting. Fig. i shows the general plan of the station connections 
without going into unnecessary details, and without indicating the 

transformers. Then by closing the bus-bar switch connecting the 
generator with the bus-bars the generator can feed its neighbor's 
transformers by way of the bus-bars instead of feeding its own. 
There are five high-tension feeder panels, four of them for under- 
ground cables and one for the overhead circuits. These feeders are 
fused with long enclosed fuses mounted on a stick which can be re- 
moved to replace the fuse or to open the circuit by hand. 

To synchronize a generator which has just been started up a small 
motor is mounted on the engine governor weight in the governor 
flywheel, and is controlled from the generator board. This motor 
acts to move the weight back and forth, and change the speed of the 
engine to bring it into exact .synchronism with no load on. After 
synchronism has been attained and a new generator thrown in with 
those already working the motor is run back so as to move the gov- 

Fic. 4. — Genf.hal View of Gener.vting Pl.vnt, S.\n Fr.^ncisco. 

full number of feeders and generators. From this it will be seen that 
each generator is provided with two four-pole single-lhrow 
switches, one of which connects it to the low-tension bus-bars, and 
the other to its own bank of transformers. 

In ordinary operation the generator is connected to its bank of 
transformers, and feeds the high-tension bus-bars in this way. The 
high-lension side of each transformer bank can be connected with 
one or all of three sets of bus-bars. One of these sets of bus-bars 
is for the overhead high-tension lines. The other set is in duplicate 
for connecting to the underground high-tension lines. If it should 
ever become desirable to connect the bank of transformers belonging 
to one generator with some other generator, it can be done through 
the medium of the low-lcnsion bus-bars by raising the brushes on 
the generator which is not to be run, and closing both the switch con- 
necting it with the bus-bar and the switch connecting it with the 

ernor weights and make the engine take its own share of ihe load 
as shown by the generator wattmeter. Current is taken to the motor 
through collecting rings on the engine shaft. Each generator panel 
has two single-throw, four-pole knife switches, an indicating watt- 
meter, a Bristol recording voltmeter, an indicating ammeter and 
voltmeter, and a magnetic circuit breaker in one leg of each of the 
two circuits. 

The engines are cross-compound, vertical, condensing with over- 
hung cranks, as seen in Fig. 3. The three 1500-kw units have cylin- 
ders 28 and 58 inches in diameter by 48-inch stroke, and run at 116 
r. p. m. When operated condensing at 165 lbs. steam pressure they 
are rated at 2400 ihp. The soo-kw generator is connected to an en- 
gine 17 and 36 inches by 30 inches stroke, running at i(X) r. p. ni. The 
guides and main bearing shells are made hollow so that water circu- 
lation can be used if desired. There is a complete oiling system for 

January 4, 1901. 



each engine supplied from a tank located on the upper platform, from 
which a system of piping leads to each place requiring oil. The main 
bearings have an independent system, the waste oil being caught in 
basins at the base and from there taken by a pump on the valve gear 
and forced to the supply tank at each bearing. 

Each of the generating units is provided with a hand-turned gear 
operating against the flywheel for turning the engine while being 
overhauled or adjusted. This gear, of course, is thrown out of ac- 
tion when the engine is running. The four main engines have sepa- 
rate steam and exhaust valves of the gridiron type, driven by a main 
gear as usually furnished by Mcintosh & Seymour. Special care 
has been taken to reduce radiation. Besides the usual covering 
all steam chest covers and cylitider heads have been provided with 
non-conducting covering and false coverings. The high-pressure 
cylinders are steam jacketed, and there are reheaters between the 
high and low-pressure cylinders. A great deal of care has been taken 
to adapt the engines to the exacting requirements of operating alter- 
nating-current generators in parallel. The flywheels are very heavj' 
to bring the deviation from uniform rotation within the limits allow- 
able in such vi'ork. 

As mentioned before, the governors are of the centrifugal shaft 
type, with a speed changing device driven by a small electric motor 
on the governor weight. This not only allows the speed to be 
changed for synchronizing purposes, but the load can be shifted from 
one engine to another while leaving the engine under the control of 
the governor at all times. The dash pots of the governors are of 
sufficient sluggishness to prevent the governor responding to quick 
changes in speed due to electrical disturbances, such as hunting 
or pumping of the generators. The generators run well in parallel 
even with no load. One of the large units working at full load only 
rose 4.5 per cent upon sudden removal of this load. The ordinary 
rise in speed between full load and no load of this engine is only .46 
per cent. The two engines driving the exciters are the vertical posi- 
tive-valve high-speed type with cylinders II and 19 inches diameter by 
16 inches, and run at about 200 r. p. m. These engines are center 
crank, and each exciter is connected directly to the end of the en- 
gine shaft. A seven-hour economy test of one of the large units 
has shown the consumption of dry steam at 160 lbs. initial pressure, 
and at 26 inche? vacuum to be 12.75 lbs. The combined eflicicncy of 

The boilers are Babcock & Wilcox water tube, with Green fuel 
economizers, the arrangement of which can best be seen by the ac- 
companying engraving of a photograph taken during construction. 
They were furnished under contract by Charles C. Moore & Co., of 
San Francisco, who also supplied much other apparatus about this 
plant. There are eight boilers at present in full operation, and four 


more in course of erection. These are of the largest size regularly 
built by the Babcock & Wilcox Company, and are equivalent in ca- 
pacity to five return tubular boilers 6 ft. in diameter and 16 ft. long. 
The boilers are arranged in-batteries of two each, with a heavy di- 
vision wall separating the furnaces and passages on either side so 
that each boiler may be operated, inspected and cleaned entirely in- 
dependent of the other. The furnaces have 252 tubes 4 inches in 
diameter and 18 ft. long, connected to three main steam and water 



engine and generator or the ratio of electrical horse power at the 
switchboard to the ihp of the engine was 89.5 per cent at full load. 

The main steam and exhaust piping about the plant was made by 
the National Tube Company, and fitted with Chapman valves. A 
16-inch main is provided between the engines and boilers, and it is 
connected to the engines by large radius bends of extra heavy 12-inch 
pipe. This steam piping and all bends are tongued and grooved. 
Stratton receiver separators are placed in the steam branch of the 
engines close to the throttle valves. 

drums by sinuous forged steel headers. The headers when placed in 
position form sectional water legs at each end of the drum. 

The boilers can be run with the hot gases passing through the 
Green fuel economizers or directly to the stack. The boilers, econo- 
mizers and induced-draft fans are arranged symmetrically on either 
side of a self-supporting steel stack 125 ft. high and 10 ft. inside 
diameter. The economizers arc separated longitudinally by a division 
wall so that only half of the economizers on either side of the stack 
may be operated if desired. A pair of induced-draft fans is placed 


Vol. XXXLX.. No. i. 

on either side of the chimney at its base. Each of these fans is lo ft. 
in diameter, and operated by a horizontal direct-connected engine. 
Dampers and by-pass Hues are so arranged that the gases from the 
boilers may pass either directly through to stack or through the 
economizers and fans. Feed water is pumped by three 2 by 6 by 10 
Snow duple.x outside center-packed feed pumps. The water passes 
from these through two large Goubert auxiliary feed-water heaters 
into which the e.xhaust steam is carried from all the auxiliary pumps. 
From these heaters the feed water goes to the boilers through the 
economizers. Each of the main engines, and the exciter engines ex- 
haust into an independent condenser made by the Wheeler Condenser 
& Engineering Company. 

The main condensing outfits consist of Wheeler Admiralty surface 
condensers and Edwards vertical triplex air pumps. The circulating 
water is supplied by an independent pumping station located at some 
distance from the power house at the water's edge, which supplies 
condensing water through a 30-inch main to all the condensers. In- 
duction motors controlled from the power house drive centrifugal 
pumps for this purpose. Air pumps are also driven by 15-hp induc- 
tion motors direct-geared to the crank shafts, as shown in Fig. 7. 
These air pumps have only one-third the number of pump valves or- 
dinarily employed. From the fact that no induction valves are used 
either in suction connections or in pistons, this type is known as the 
"suction valveless" type. The only valves are in the discharge plates, 
which are easily accessible. A Quimby screw pump driven by direct- 
connected motors is used to pump the water for the transformer 
cooling. Part of the transformers, however, are oil cooled. The 
plant is operated by California fuel oil, the plentiful supply of which 
oil has caused it to be used almost exclusively for steam making pur- 
poses in the middle and southern portions of the State. 

between 2 and 3 and one from 1 to 3. At C there must be one be- 
tween I and 2, and one from 2 to 3, one between 3 and 4 ; also one 
each from i to 3, and from i to 4, and lastly one from 2 to 4. Con- 
tinuing this reasoning it is easy to see that if there are m subscribers 
in any territory, and supposing them to be numbered from I to m, 
consecutively, then there will be m — i lines from the first subscriber ; 
in — 2 from the second; tn — 3 from the third, etc., to one line be- 
tween the m — ith subscriber and the inth subscriber. The total 
number of lines will evidently be the sum of all these, or - m — I 
-{- m — 2 -|- »i + 3 -}- etc. -)- I. This is the sum of an arithmetical 
progression, of which the first term is m — i, the last term i and the 
common difference I. The familiar formula for the sum of a series 

S = 

ia + e). 


in which 5" is the desired sum ; n the number of terms ; 
term, and a the first term. In this case n ^ in — 1 ; a 
(• =: I. Therefore, 

the last 
- m — I ; 

.§■ = 

(w — I -I- 1) = 


In Table No. i the value of 5 is calculated for a few of the most 
commonly occurring groups of subscribers up to 5000, to illustrate 
the rapid increase in complexity that such a system would cause. 


Sltowing relation bctK'ccn number of subscribers and 
number of lines needed with no central office. 

Number of Subscribers 

Number of Lines. 

The Economic Design and Management of Telephone 
Exchanges — V. 

By Arthur V. ,\Bnorr, C. E. 


SLIGHT allusion has been made to the impossible complexity of 
a telephone plant devoid of a central office, but as even some 
telephonists rarely recognize the full significance of "Central," 
and as the general reader seldom thinks of it save to anathematize 
some unfortunate operator, it seems desirable to point out in detail 
the enormous economic value of this factor. 

Consider Fig. i, in which at A, B, C, D and E, five separate groups 
of sub-stations are shown as indicated by small circles. At A there 

OL G- 

S, ii s, 

,5 ( j)' (5^ 9 


are two subscribers, at B there are three subscribers, at C four, at D 
five, and at E six subscribers. Imagine in each case that between the 
subscribers, taken in pairs, a wire is strung in such a manner as to 
give Jhe least number of lines to enable each one to talk to all the 
others in^ both directions. Such wires arc represented by the full 
black lines joining the circles. A.I A a. single one joining i and 2 
will suffice. At B there must be one line between i and 2, and one 











Cases where there are a thousand subscribers or more grouped to- 
gether are numerous, needing, as shown by Table No. I, nearly 500,- 
000 lines. A 200-pair cable, the largest now commonly used, needs 
(including space for ducts) about 25 square inches, so the 500.000 
lines, should they pass a single point, would need 2500 200-pair cables 
occupying 435 sq. ft. space in the street, taking in its most compact 
form, at least 20 ft. square. Even the astonishing maze of pipes and 
other underground structures of New York streets would fade into 
utter insignificance beside such a scheme. Nor is the resort to an 
aerial line conceivable. A line with ten cross-arms carrying ten wires 
each is considered the largest justified by good practice, hence 5000- 
pole lines would be needed for a petty exchange of a thousand sub- 
scribers. By similar reasoning, it is easy to see that the first sub- 
scriber must have 999 lines, requiring five 200-pair cables or ten-pole 
lines to care for his wire plant only. The perplexities are not yet 
exhausted. Supposing one new subscriber to be added to an ex- 
change of a thousand, then a thousand new lines must be installed. 

A similar huge plant outlay, and corresponding space at each sub- 
station, is needed to enable connections to be made between sub- 
scribers. As subscriber No. i has 999 lines, he must have the same 
number of terminals so placed that any one can be connected to each 
of the others. At present, the jack with its connecting cord and 
plug is the most compact known form of switching apparatus, but a 
thousand jacks with their companion appliances would require a 
switchboard as large as a folding bed, costing at least $3,000. To 
be sure, but one pair of cords and plugs would be needed, and no su- 
pervisory signals, but all other switchboard apparatus would be es- 
sential. On each subscriber would fall the burden of doing all the 
switch work necessary to carry on his telephonic correspondence, no 
light task for people tclephonically busy, and then the switchboard 
and wire plant must be maintained and kept in good working condi- 
tion, a matter needing expert knowledge and unremitting attention. 
So, from all standpoints, "Central" is shown to be a great economic 
factor in telephony, saving not only a vast investment over any other 
conceivable method of attaining the same result, but relieving the 
subscriber of an otherwise impossible quantity of irksome labor, ac- 
complishing the desired end with, on the whole, wonderful speed, 
accuracy and economy, facts which it is well to bear in mind the next 
time the gentle "Hello Girl" is a second or two longer in getting a 

January 4, 1901. 


desired party, gives, percliance, a wrong number, or cuts off in the 
midst of an important sentence. 

If, then, the central office is admitted to be a necessity, the best 
situation therefor is an important consideration. UnHke other loca- 
tion problems in electrical engineering, there are no questions of 
fuel or water supply, and no attention need be devoted to electrical 
losses in the radiating lines, so consideration relieved of these details 
may be focused sharply on the pure cost of the necessary installation, 
including therein the factors of real estate (land and buildings) and 
electrical plant. 

If the operating company buys real estate (land and buildings), or 
if it purchases land and builds, it must treat itself as a landlord and 
charge against operating expense a sufficient annual sum to cover 
real estate maintenance, namely, interest on investment in land, in- 
terest and depreciation on buildings, expense or janitor service, light, 
heat, general building maintenance, etc., for the same. If the com- 
pany rents office quarters from other real estate owners, the annual 
rental therefor covers the same items, plus a probable profit to the 
owners, and must be charged against operating costs in the same man- 
ner. Thus, in so far as the actual annual operating expense is con- 
cerned, it matters little whether the company, or other parties, are 
the owners of the necessary real estate, except that if the company 
owns, it may save to itself the interest on the real estate investment, 
or any other expense in the nature of a profit on the real estate trans- 
action, and charge against operating only such a sum as is actually 
needed to perpetually maintain the buildings in proper condition, 
leaving the general profits of the business to care for any desired 
profit on the real estate portion of the investment. 

There are other and weightier reasons in favor of a telephone com- 
pany owning its own offices. A central office of any magnitude is 
a large, complicated and expensive installation. The nature of the 
wire plant renders a removal very difficult, costly and exceedingly 
detrimental to the service, even if conducted with the greatest skill 
and care, so permanence in location is of vital importance. Ordinary 
buildings are ill adapted to the uses of a central office, and if adapted 
it must be at considerable sacrifice of economy in plant installation 
cost, or at an increase in operating expense. Further, telephone ap- 
paratus is peculiarly sensitive to injury by fire, as the most insignifi- 
cant one may completely paralyze the service for a considerable 
period of time, so particular pains should be taken to protect there- 
from. Central offices, therefore, are preferably located in buildings 
more than ordinarily fireproof, thus even the presence of other oc- 
cupants courts a fire risk that it is well to avoid. It is, therefore, 
safe to assume that ownership by the telephone company of such real 
estate as shall be adequate for at least the more important offices, 
say, those of 800 lines or over, represents the best present practice. 

The design of the central office, including therein the choice of the 
necessary site, will affect the cost of four items in the telephone plant, 
namely, the investment in real estate, in buildings, in switchboard and 
in wire plant. So far as a discussion of the best location is con- 
cerned, two of these, namely, the type of switchboard and building, 
will remain essentially constant. For all kinds of switchboard need 
about the same space and other requirements, and the cost of build- 
ings at any given time will be essentially the same, whether placed 
on one site or another of a particular city, provided, of course, that 
there are no exceptional peculiarities in the locations considered. 
But it is very evident that the cost of land will vary very widely in 
the same town, sites in the business portion costing many fold the 
price of equivalent areas in the outskirts. It is also evident that 
there must be some point within every collection of subscribers, such 
as would be presented by the groups in every city or town, from 
which the expenditure of wire to reach all the subscribers will be a 
minimum. To locate the office at this point, generally called the 
"telephonic center," will certainly require the least wire plant invest- 
ment, and involve the smallest annual charge for depreciation and 
maintenance, because both the quantity of plant and investment 
therein is a minimum. As the office is moved away from the tele- 
phonic center, the investment in wire plant increases in a manner 
easy to calculate, but the cost of real estate will also change in some 
manner to be ascertained only by inquiry on the ground. The 
problem presented to the telephone engineer is then this : Given the 
location of the subscribers and cost of various central office sites, 
to determine, first, the telephonic center ; second, the rate of increase 
in investment and annual expense of the wire plant as the office re- 
cedes from the telephonic center, and, third, to select such a site as 
will make the sum of the investment in land and wire plant, and the 
"Jum of the annual charges on both these items, a minimum. 

The Debt of Electrical Engineering to C. E. 
Brown — VL 

By B. a. Behrend. 


THE great number of water powers in Switzerland of large vol- 
ume and small head had early induced Mr. Brown to design 
generators with vertical shaft for direct connection to the tur- 
bines. We have referred to his designs for the Aluminum Works at 
Neuhausen, and more briefly to the 300-hp, low-tension, three-phase 
generators for the power transmission Bulach-Oerlikon. The very 
low speeds at which some of the turbines were operating demanded 
large diameters for the generators, and these large diameters would 
have made a top-bearing a clumsy construction. To this difficulty 
the "umbrella" type generator, so characteristic and typical of the 


leading Swiss and French electric power stations, most of which are 
built by Mr. Brown, owed its origin. Never addicted to stereotyping 
designs, Mr. Brown deemed it better from an engineering and eco- 
nomical point of view to adapt the generator to the prime mover. 
The "umbrella" magnet wheel of one of the eight i200-hp, three- 
phase generators for Lyons, France, is well shown in Fig. 33, while 
a drawing of the machine, a performance curve of it, and a view of the 
station are shown in Figs. 30, 31 and 34. 

The cuts being very good, little comment on this construction is 
necessary. The normal output of these machines is 3500 volts, 200 
amperes, at 50 cycles and 120 revolutions. The power factor of the 
circuit is 75 per cent. The normal rating of these machines is, there- 
fore, 1210 kilovolt-ampercs. These machines were designed in 1897, 
and are very well proportioned. The rise in voltage is small, viz., 100 
volts, or less than 3 per cent on a non-inductive load of 150 amperes, 
and 500 volts, or 14.3 per cent on an inductive load of 200 amperes and 
power factor 75 per cent. 

The "umbrella" type is also used by Mr. Brown for high-speed 


Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 

l^ic. 32. — \V.\ri)F.NSWKiL Plant. 

January 4, 1901. 



generators direct connected to the waterwheels. An early and typical 
installation of this kind is the plant on the Sihl near Waedensweil. 
The plant was constructed between 1893 and 1895. The design of the 
generators is shown in Fig. 35. They are rated to be capable of mak- 


mg the turbines take in 400 hp at 360 revolutions and 42 cycles, either 
on a two-phase motor load, or on a single- phase lighting load. The 
pressure per phase is 5500 volts, the maximum current being 50 am- 
peres. Thus on a two-phase circuit the generators would be 5S0-kw 
generators, and they are very well capable of yielding 550 kw on 
a motor load. 

For the first time Mr. Brown used an extremely high surface speed 



ing to a peripheral speed of 12,500 ft, per minute without in the least 
injuring the generator. 

The poles are held to the steel rim in a very simple but strong way ; 
the winding consists of copper on edge, and thus the magnet wheel is 
in the truest sense of the word a part of the machine. The armature 
has four circular holes per pole, the conductors consisting of flexible 
cable, being threaded through insulating tubes made of mica and 
paper. It is a very simple and brief operation to re-wind an arma- 
ture coil in this machine, but it is very rarely necessary, as the ma- 
chine frame is carefully insulated from the earth, as shown in Fig. 
35 to protect the machine against lightning. The floor of the room 
is set on insulators to protect the attendants. 

There are at present four generators in the station, all alike. We 
say "all alike," and we have no doubt that electrical engineers fa- 
miliar with the work of the past ten years will understand the allu- 


sion. For it was not alloted to many designers of that time that 
they could make the second machine like the first. Nothing shows 
the real worth of the work of Brown so strikingly as the fact that 
with very few exceptions which we shall mention hereafter to disarm 
critics, he could make for one station all his machines alike, since 
the ones first installed had been designed rightly and required no 
changes. How many designers may say the same of their machines 
in the early half of the nineties? 

Fig. 32 shows the generators in position in the station. 

Cryptic " (Contact. " 

in these machines, viz., 7500 ft. per minute. Professor Wyssling, the 
manager of the plant, told the writer some years ago that by accident 
one of the turbines had raced and ran at 600 revolutions, correspond- 

The following cryptic, orphic dispatch of Dec. 24 hails from Lon- 
don : A new system of etheric telegraphy is being experimented with 
between Folkestone and Dungeness. The contact is said to be perfect. 


Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 

Electric Generating Plant at Seoul, Corea. 

Next to Thibet the most conservative country in the world has 
been Corea, which was only opened to the world in 1883. Up to that 
time but few Westerners, and then only at the risk of their lives, had 
seen the capital, Seoul. That Western ideas have been rapidly gain- 
ing ground, at least in the capital of the "Land of the Morning 
Calm," is made evident from the fact that the city now possesses an 
extensive electric railway system and an electric lighting plant. 

The electric railway runs through the east and south gales, and a 
branch line through the west gate. The total length of the road is 

Erie, Pa., and consist of two tandem compoimd engines of 230 hp 
running at 240 r. p. m. 


10 miles, 5 miles of which are inside the city walls, and 5 miles out- 
side. The terminus of the line outside the city is at the Han River, 
and recently an extension of 6 miles has been built to another point 
on the same river. 

The prejudice of the people against ihc road was very strong at 
first on account of a superstitious belief that the power house was 
the cause of a dry season, which prejudice, however, is rapidly dis- 
appearing. When the line was first started two of the cars were 
burned and several demolished by a mob, partly on account of the 

Transatlantic Wireless Telegraphy. 

Marconi has now made a thorough examination of the eastern por- 
tion of Cape Breton, and has decided to erect a station there fore 
transatlantic wireless telegraphy. It is stated that the erection of a sta- 
tion will be commenced within a few weeks, and that three months 
after the work has begun he will make practical tests in transatlantic 
wireless telegraphy from a fully equipped station. The electrical power 
employed at Cape Breton will be double that now used at Cornwall, 
and the power at the latter place will also be doubled. Instead of 
temporary expedients such as were employed in Newfoundland the 
installation will have a permanent character. A dispatch from Syd- 
ney, N. S., states that Marconi also contemplates erecting a station 
at Cape Cod, Mass. 

One objection applying to a station on Cape Breton is that the 
messages will have to pass over a part of Southern Newfoundland. 
Marconi stated, however, that the land distance can probably be over- 
come by increased power at the station. It is to be seen whether the 
Cable Company will make any protest on the score that the passage 
of electrical waves over Newfoundland will infringe its monopoly. 
Should the land prove an insuperable physical difficulty, Marconi 
says that he will place a way station on the Azores, the King of 
Portugal having invited him to do so. 

The Cape Breton Railway has offered to give Marconi the site 
and all land required for a station, and the Dominion Coal Company 
has made the same offer. The Commercial Cable Company is also 
understood to have offered him facilities at Canso. 

To a reporter of the New York Sun Marconi stated that a wire 
200 ft. high elevated by a pole or other contrivance, is sufficient for 
his purpose. After that all that is required is abundant electrical 
power for the generation of electric waves. The curvature of the 
earth, he says, does not injuriously affect the transmission. The 
contrary was one time believed, but the Newfoundland experiment 
has offered the necessary disproof. A more serious difficulty is the 
nature of the ground where the station is located. Some geological 
formations assist the apparatus, others minimize its eft'ect. It is 
possible in certain spots to communicate over 200 miles, and in others 


above-mentioned superstition, and partly on account of the accidental 
killing of a boy by one of the cars. 

The accompanying illustrations show one of the cars near the main 
city gate, and views in the generating house. The electrical genera- 
tors were furnished by the Wcstinghouse Company, there being two 
i20-kw double-current machines. The alternating-current side de- 
livers two-phase currents at fio cycles for lighting the city and pal- 
ace, and the direct-current side delivers current at 550 volts for rail- 
way service. The plant has also recently purchased a 75-kw Westing- 
house rotary converter. 

The engines were furnished by the Ball Engine Company, of 


only over 100 miles. The presence of iron deposits is injurious. 

Referring to the use of the letter "S" in the Newfoundland experi- 
ments, the manager of the Cornwall station said that the letter "v" 
is usually employed in test signaling, and it is used between certain 
of the European Marconi stations. For the transatlantic test, how- 
ever, this letter was avoided as a signal might have been received 
from another station. The test letter is changed from week to week, 
and when the transatlantic message was received at Newfoundland 
it happened to be the turn to telegraph "S." The manager of the 
Cornwall station said that he is in daily communication with a sta- 
tion in Ireland 220 miles off. 

January 4, igoi. 


Scientific Meetings. 

The American Physical Society meeting last week in New York 
City elected the following officers and trustees : President, Prof. A. A. 
Nicholson, of the University of Chicago ; vice-president. Prof. Arthur 
G. Webster, of Clark University; secretary, Prof. Ernest Merritt, of 
Cornell ; treasurer, Prof. William Hallock, of Columbia ; trustees. 
Prof. E. H. Hall, of Harvard; Prof. D. B. Brace, of the University 
of Nebraska, and Professor Carl Barus, of Brown. The officers 
were all re-elected. The American Mathematical Society, in session 
at Columbia University, elected the following officers for the en- 
suing year: Vice-presidents, Professor Maxine Bocher, of Harvard, 
and Professor Frank Morley, of Johns Hopkins; secretary. Profes- 
sor F. N. Cole, of Columbia ; treasurer. Dr. W. S. Bennett, of New 
York; librarian, Professor D. E. Smith, of Columbia; committee on 
publication, Professor F. N. Cole, of Columbia; Professor Alexan- 
der Ziwet, of the University of Michigan, and Professor F. Morley, 
of Johns Hopkins. The president. Professor E. H. Moore, of the 
University of Chicago, holds over until next year. Professor Pom- 
eroy Ladue, of New York University; Professor G. A. Miller, of 
Leland Stanford University; Professor P. F. Smith, of Yale, and 
Professor E. B. Van Zleck, of Wesleyan, were elected members of 
the council for three years. 

Electrical Transmission on the Pacific Coast. 

No better illustration of the great feats in electrical transmission 
on the Pacific Coast, of which so much has been heard of late, can be 
given than by the map on page 26. While the course of the Bay 
Counties Company system has been shown before, this, we believe, is 
the first adequate representation to appear in public prints of the ter- 
ritory traversed by the two great systems with proper regard to their 
relative geographical location. 

A review of some of the interesting features of the "California sit- 
uation," together with recent data, for which the Journal of Elec- 
tricity, Power and Gas, of San Francisco, as well as our own pages, 
are authority, makes interesting reading, with the map before the 
reader for reference. 

Through its connections with the system of the Standard Electric 
Company, power from the Colgate power house of the Bay Counties 
Power Company is now distributed in every day, hard, commercial 
service at a distance in excess of 200 miles from its point of genera- 
tion. The manager of the local company, which is making its dis- 
tribution — himself one of the most exacting electric lighting and 
power managers in the West — after having sufficient experience to 
satisfy himself, says: "I want no better power; it's good enough for 

There was a time, not so very many years ago, when a transmis- 
sion of 200 miles was considered beyond the pale of commercial 
feasibility, and there was also a time, not so very many months ago, 
seemingly, when it was said that such a transmission, if attained, 
would be beset with such technical and engineering difficulties as to 
relegate it into the category of experimentalism. Now, the fact has 
been demonstrated and all fears of either nature have been found 

Several years ago, before Californian transmission enterprises had 
struggled into eminence, a certain financier who had to do with a 
transmission project of moderate proportions, was so battle-doored- 
and-shuttle-cocked by the conflicting opinions thrust upon him, that 
finally he began to believe the possibilities of electrical transmission 
a myth. At last an agent of the Stanley interests came along, and 
without entering upon pros and cons gave satisfactory guarantees 
that his company would accomplish certain results at a stated cost 
under prescribed conditions. The sales agent got the contract, his 
company has fulfilled its agreement, and certain prophets against 
electricity have gone down in ignominy, while now far larger and 
bolder schemes have proved their feasibility. 

If it be regarded from an engineering standpoint only it is not an 
unmixed blessing that circumstances have compelled the temporary 
tying-in of the Bay Counties and Standard companies' systems. Let 
us, even at the risk of repetition, review the situation, which is giv- 
ing now a phenomenal transmission line of over 200 miles in 
length. From Colgate to Oakland, the distance, by way of the Bay 
Counties' line, is 152 miles. From Oakland to Redwood City, by way 
of the Standard Electric Company's line, is 49 miles, hence the dis- 
tance from Colgate to Redwood City is 191 miles. From Redwood 
City the Bay Counties' power is continued, by means of the secon- 

dary distribution of the Consolidated Light & Power Company, north- 
erly along the peninsular of San Francisco to Burlingame for a 
further distance of 11 miles, making the total length of line from 
Colgate to Burlingame to be 202 miles. During this present month 
the Standard Company's high-tension line will be completed into the 
Eighth Street sub-station of the Standard Electric Company in the 
city of San Francisco, some 20 miles further than Burlingame, and 
when this is done the Standard Electric Distribution Company will 
have at its disposal, for use in San Francisco, electric energy de- 
veloped on the Yuba River, 222 miles distant. This extraordinary 
long transmission will exist until early in the Spring of 1902, when 
it is stated that the Standard Company's great station at Electra, in 
Amador County, will be placed in service. 

From Oakland, where the Bay Counties' line ends, power is taken 
backward, so to speak, over the Standard Company's line to Mission 
San Jose, which is the Company's main switching station, 26J4 miles 
distant from Oakland. Back again over the Standard Company's 
line from Mission San Jose to Stoclcton is a further stretch of 49.6 
miles; hence the Standard line from Oakland to Stockton has a 
length of 75.85 miles, which added to the length of the Bay Counties' 
line from Colgate to Oakland gives a transmission that is 218 miles 
in length. This line has already been placed in commercial service, 
and is delivering 1000 hp to the Sperry Mills, the Stockton Gas & 
Electric Company and other industries of Stockton. 

The experience of the six months which have passed since the 
inauguration of the extreme long distance transmission service from 
Colgate was begun, is that no further question need be raised con- 
cerning the reliability of the service. This does not mean that trans- 
mission service is to be regarded as infallible, but it does mean that 
the experience of the last six months has demonstrated, in so far as 
six months' experience will demonstrate anything, that extremely 
long- distance, high-tension transmission is possessed of no materially 
great hazard because of its exceptionally long lines or because of its 
exceptionally high potential. In fact, there is room for the conten- 
tion that the qualifying adverb "materially" is unnecessary to the 
truthfulness of the statement, for with a power house as perfect as 
the central station of any city, and with every function of the equip- 
ment in duplicate even to the pole line, it seems justifiable to contend 
that such plants are surrounded with every safeguard known to the 
the highest class of electric service. 

With the advances made in electrical science, the distance of feasi- 
ble electrical transmission goes onward as the voltage values go up- 
w-ard. Eight years ago the lines of the old Pomona plant, which 
carried 10,000 volts, were viewed with awe and almost reverence. 
Now the use of 40,000 volts is becoming commonplace in California 
at least, and another six months will see hundreds of miles of trans- 
mission lines in the Golden State operated at a potential of 60,000 
volts. Indeed, the Standard Electric Company has already operated 
one of its lines experimentally in adverse weather for over two hours 
at the extreme potential of 80,000 volts, and this without experiencing 
any trouble whatever. 

Of the financial considerations attending the completion of the 
Bay Counties Power Company, concerning which there has been 
doubt and trepidation in ill-informed quarters, a few authentic fig- 
ures, taken from the balance sheets of the Bay Counties Power Com- 
pany, point out the moral in their own irrefutable way. The cost of 
the completed property of the Bay Counties Power Company was con- 
siderably in excess of the amount originally estimated, but as the 
demand for its power was also much larger than anticipated, the re- 
sult has not been displeasing to the owners. The assets of the com- 
pany on Oct. I, 1901, amounted to $6,339,442.05. Of this $2,250,000 
came from the sale of first mortgage 5 per cent, 30-year sinking fund 
bonds, and $750,000 from second mortgage 6 per cent bonds. Of the 
authorized issue of $5,000,000 of stock, 14,000 shares remain in the 
treasury of the company, hence 36,000 shares are outstanding, with a 
market value of $60. The monthly fixed charges for interest on the 
first mortgage bonds is $9,375, on the second $3,750. 

The earnings of the six months (up to September, 1901) show a 
steady increase : 

1901. Gross. Expenses. Net earnings. 

April $13,913.21 $4,466.35 $9,446.86 

May 16,195.76 4,590.86 11,604.90 

June 18,219.78 4,217.11 14,002.67 

July 20,903.46 6,674.15 14,229.31 

August 24,185.70 6,033.51 18,152.19 

September 25,463.52 6,864.59 18,598.93 

In addition to the above gross earnings, the Bay Counties Power 


Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 


Company has signed contracls to supply additional customers with penditure of not exceeding $9,000 for supplying such a service, 
power amounting to $15,000 per month. Further additional income Surely, then, no qualification whatever is necessary to the state- 
will be obtained by the sale of the remaining unsold horse-power in- ment that the commercial success of extremely long, high-voltage 
stalled, calculated to amount to $10,000 per month, making a total transmission is no longer undemonstratcd in California at 
gross monthly earning capacity of over $50,000, with an operating ex least. 

January 4, 1901. 


New Telephone Patents. 

Telephony contributes but two patents to the issue of Dec. 24, the 
inventions originating from points as far apart as Los Angeles, Calif., 
and Rome, Italy. Giving Marconi's countryman the place of honor, 
Commander Alfonso M. Massari patents a transmitter of the granu- 
lar carbon type, in which the principal novelty is a means of adjust- 
ing the transmitter w^ithout taking it apart. 

Referring to the diagram, A is a. plate of insulating material hav- 
ing a central opening therein and carrying sleeves a a\ B is the 
mouthpiece attached to sleeve a by screws b. C is a hollow metal 
cylinder having an annular groove c on its outer periphery, and an 
internal recess at one end, which fits over and is secured to insulat- 
ing sleeve a\ Z? is a tube having its free end threaded, d is a disk or 
flat ring having a central opening, to which one end of the tube D is 
attached, and d^ is a short hollow cylinder attached to the edge of d. 
The tube D, ring d and cylinder cP are of brass or other suitable metal, 
and may be integral. The tube D passes through the plate A and 
cylinder C and has its threaded end projecting beyond the latter. 6" 
is a coiled spring situated between the ring d and a shoulder formed 
by the recess in cylinder C. All these parts are mounted on the base- 
board P. On the free end of D is a nut d", secured by a lock-nut cf . 

The cylinder rf" contains a carbon block or cup E, situated opposite 
the central opebing in the ring or disk d, and held in position and 
insulated by chalk F ; f is a. piece of cotton or felt placed in the cup E, 
Z' is a ring of cotton and e is granulated carbon. H is the diaphragm 
of metal and / an elastic ring, which separates and insulates the dia- 
phragm from the mouthpiece. In tube D is fitted an insulated sleeve 

J^ S. 


a' having an annular flange a* at its outer end. .\ metal rod g g 
passes through the sleeve o^ and bears against carbon cup E; g can 
be regulated by nut g'. The transmitter is held in place by fork R 
which fits the groove in c and is secured by screws r^ and r" passing 
through the slot r. One line wire 7" is attached to R and the other 
T' to a contact piece t which bears on rod g. The circuit is thus 
through Ri Ci Di, ring d and cylinder d^, and through rod g, carbon 
cup E and granulated carbon e, the diaphragm completing the circuit. 

When the instrument is in use the diaphragm vibrates and so varies 
the pressure of contact with cylinder d^. The spring .9 normally 
tends to press the cylinder d', ring d and tube D toward the dia- 
phragm. The nut (P acts against this spring and bears against the 
free end of cylinder C. The transmission is regulated by adjusting 
the pressure on the diaphragm, and this is effected by screwing up 
or unscrewing the nut d' and its washer d", and thus decreasing on in- 
creasing the pressure on the diaphragm. By this means a very deli- 
cate adjustment can be effected. 

If the granular carbon becomes displaced, as sometimes happens in 
transmitters of this type, the mouthpiece and diaphragm can easily 
be removed by unscrewing screws b and the carbon can be replaced 
with little trouble. By drawing R into the position shown in dotted 
lines in Fig. 2 contact between the terminal wire T and cylinder C 
is broken, and the instrument can then be withdraw n from the base P. 

The construction of this transmitter is ingenious and the means 
devised for securing adjustment should be effective, but the multi- 
plicity of parts wpuld render it rather an expensive instrument to 
make and the absence of necessity for adjustment when once the in- 

strument has been properly assembled, has always been considered one 
of the best features of the granular carbon transmitter. 

Mr. Samuel Judson Ballard, of Los Angeles, patents an indicator 
for e-xtension or party lines intended to show at each station, by means 
of a dial and pointer, whether the line is "busy" or clear. The instru- 
ment is a simple mechanical movement actuated by an electromagnet. 
.\s the electromagnet of the indicator at each station must be perma- 
nently in circuit (Mr. Ballard shows them in series on one leg of the 
line) and as, to indicate "busy," a permanent current strong enough 
to energize all the magnets must be kept to line it is apparent that the 
Ballard indicator would introduce difificulties greater than those it is 
designed to obviate. 

American Electrical Trade Abroad. 

Our own pages show weekly the extent and scope of electrical 
export trade. The World's Work, in its January issue, presents the 
same data in a rather more spectacular and sensational manner, as 

Punta Arenas in Tierra del Fuego is the southernmost continental 
spot on the globe, but the modern lighthouse on that lonely coast is 
equipped with electrical machinery made in Schenectady, N. Y. The 
firm that manufactured it has also pushed electricity farthest north 
by installing dynamos at Hammerfest, in Norway, and, though it is a 
far cry from the deepest drifts of the Calumet and Hecla mine to 
Yanteles, in the Andes, 14,000 ft. above the sea, two consignments re- 
cently left Schenectady, one for the deep mine, the other for the 

By the very bedside of the Pope is placed every night an American 
apparatus in the form of a cylinder with an incandescent bulb in one 
end — in effect an electric candle. At Bagdad, Aladdin has been re- 
placed by a New York concern. Lamps of fanciful patterns are sent 
from New York to a point on the Persian Gulf, and thence conveyed 
over some 300 miles of desert on camel back. They are then placed 
on rafts and towed 100 miles up the Euphrates, and again loaded on 
camels and carried to their destination 200 miles from the river. 
These lamps decorate the palaces of the Sultan of Morocco, the 
Prince of Siam and several rajahs in British India, and they are 
also popular in Jerusalem. 

From the Falls of the Couvery, one of the sacred rivers of India, 
to Kolar in Mysore, American electrical engineers have recently 
set up an American transmission plant under somewhat remarkable 
circumstances. There are still wild elephants in Mysore, and there 
will always be white ants. But as a wjhite ant will venture not more 
than 5 or 6 ft. up a pole in search of edible wood, the steamer from 
New York carried out to India iron post-sockets 7 ft. high in which 
to set the poles — to the discomfiture of the ants. To disconcert the 
elephants and prevent grounding of the current through any behemoth 
that might venture to test the wires with his trunk, the engineers, 
after careful measurements, strung the wires just beyond reach of 
the biggest possible elephant standing on hind legs and groping. 

Telephones in Chicago Restaurants. 

The Chicago Telephone Company has inaugurated a novel class of 
service by placing telephone facilities within reach of the customers 
of several of the largest restaurants of that city. The restaurant is 
wired so that the telephone instrument can be plugged in at the vari- 
ous tables. It is then only necessary for a customer to ask for a tele- 
phone instrument if he wishes to carry on conversation with some 
outside party during mealtime. Kinsley's, the Bismarck, Mandels', 
Rector's and the Edelweiss have put in this service, and it is being 
extended to other restaurants. In the restaurants just named the 
charge per message is 10 cents, and is put on the customer's check 
along with the other items. In the Boston oyster house a different 
plan is employed. The telephone instrument in this case has a pre- 
payment coin apparatus attached so that payment is made by drop- 
ping money in the slot instead of having it charged on the customer's 
bill. The plan seems to be a popular one, as some restaurants have 
as much as 15 to 20 calls a day for a telephone instrument from cus- 
tomers, even though the service is not as yet well known. The fact 
that the service exists is announced by neat placards at various places 
around the restaurant. The wording varies according to the idea 
of the restaurant manager, but in all cases the announcement is made 
that the waiter will furnish telephone instruments upon request. 


Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 

Marconi on Wireless Telegraphy. 

The New York Journal prints in its issue of last Sunday an article 
signed by Marconi under the head "Wireless Telegraphy in 1901." 
The article was evidently written some time ago, for the following 
passage — curious, in the light of recent events — occurs in connection 
with transatlantic transmission : 

"I do not give any countenance to the suggestion of bridging over 
the Atlantic. The time for that is not ripe. At the present time it 
would necessitate the stationing of 10 ships. That would entail a 
very large expenditure. Then there is the question of the numerous 
re-transmissions which would be difficult in practice and be in no 
way an improvement either in cost or in time on the present cable 
system. I do not say that the idea is absurd, or unattainable, but its 
realization is out of the question for some time to come." 

As to land telegraphy, Marconi says that nothing has as yet been 
attempted in exclusively land wireless communication. In England 
he does not see that it would act very well. Apart from the question 
of getting a license to do so, which, under existing circumstances 
would in itself be rather difficult, the present system of telegraphing 
could not be materially improved upon except for very long distances, 
and, he says, that he does not know that for that alone it would be a 
paying business speculation. In America the possibilities are greater, 
because of the larger areas and more open country. It is a question 
for the future. Meantime sea telegraphy is the great thing, and 
progress in this direction is more to be desired. 

Referring to marine applications, he says that Great Britain has 
already 38 battleships fitted up with his system, Italy has 10, and 
Germany and France a dozen between them. But perhaps the great- 
est development that 1901 has witnessed in connection with wireless 
telegraphy has been its extension to the general shipping. There are 
at present four Cunard liners, four Norddeutscher liners, two Bel- 
gian Royal packet steamers carrying installation, and a number of 
other companies have fitted up the instruments as an experiment in 
one of their vessels. 

As to syntonic telegraphy, Marconi says it is now- possible to tune 
a message so that it shall go only to the ship or the object for which 
it is intended. This has been brought about by an alteration in the 
transmitters and receivers, and has resulted in a concentration of the 
electrical oscillations of each frequency. The improvement has been 
effected within the last year, but even yet when any reference is made 
to wireless telegraphy the erroneous impression, he says, is put 
abroad that the oscillations disturb other frequencies and so give 
to all the installations in the vicinity the message that was intended 
only for one. This new worl^ing has not j'et been generally applied 
because in the generality of cases the old arrangement answered well 
enough, but wherever concentration is necessary the old instruments 
can be adapted to the improvements with very little difficulty and in a 
very short time. In other directions changes that have been for the 
good of the system have been carried out. Originally a very much 
higher pole was necessary. Every 30 miles required a pole 100 ft. in 
height. Now the same distance may be covered with a lo-ft. pole. 

Government Telegraph Bills. 

Postmaster General Payne, in his letter to us, noted last week, has 
formally and positively denied the rumors as to administration meas- 
ures for securing control of the telegraph and his own share in them. 
But there arc plenty of "private" bills from Congressmen. Con- 
gressman Brownlow, one of the Republican members o( the Appro- 
priations Committee of the House, in an interview, says, regarding 
the purchase of the telegraph lines by the Government: "I think the 
question will come before Congress this winter, and it is my opinion 
that some measure looking toward the purchase of the existing tele- 
graph companies will pass the House by a pronounced majority. The 
telegraph is simply a quicker means than the mails for the transmis- 
sion of intelligence, and it should be a part of our postal system. I 
am thoroughly in favor of the plan." 

Representative W. A. Smith, of Michigan, who is the chairman of 
one of the important committees of the House, besides being a mem- 
ber of the Foreign Affairs Committee, is also strongly in favor of 
the purchase of the telegraphs, and says that it will probably be done 
through the issuance of 2 per cent bonds, which can be used by the 
national banks as a basis for their circulation. 

Representative Pearre, of Maryland, who is also a Republican of 
some influence in the House, is oreparing a bill, which he will in- 

troduce as soon as Congress reassembles, providing that the Gov- 
ernment shall purchase the stock of the two telegraph companies, 
paying therefor bonds to the par value of the property and placing 
the telegraph business under the control of the Post Office Depart- 

Congressman Jackson has received promise of support from many 
members of Congress to his proposition for the government owner- 
ship of telegraph lines. He believes that the cost of transmission 
would be greatly reduced, even a lO-cent or a 5-cent minimum being 

It may not be generally k-nown that every telegraph company that 
was in existence in 1866, and every telegraph company that has been 
organized since that time has filed with the Postmaster General of 
the United States its written acceptance under seal of the terms of 
the Act of Congress of July 24, 1866, agreeing thereby, in considera- 
tion of the right of way over post roads and through Government 
lands and under or across navigable waters, to transmit Government 
messages at rates to be fixed annually by the Postmaster General, 
and to sell its lines to the United States at a price to be fixed by 
arbitrators, one to be appointed by the Postmaster General, one by 
the company, and the third by these two. Mr. Payne's denial shows, 
however, that the Government has no intention of supporting any' of 
these schemes. 

Reorganization of Erie Bell Telephone. 

The reorganization plan of the Erie Telephone Company, just an- 
nounced officially, provides for the formation of a new company to 
acquire substantially all the assets of the Erie Telephone & Tele- 
graph Company, which new company is to have a capital of $16,000,- 
000 6 per cent preferred stock and $16,000,000 common stock, subject 
only to an indebtedness of $10,000,000 gold bonds. It has already 
been outlined in these pages. The $9,000,000 notes of the present Erie 
Company are to be paid. The 1928 and 1929 bondholders of the pres- 
ent Erie Company w^ill be offered $800 5 per cent bonds of the new 
companj', due in 1932, and two shares of preferred stock for each 
$1,000 bond. The 1909 and 1926 bondholders of the Erie Company 
are to be offered $1,050 5 per cent bonds of the new company due in 
1932 for each $1,000 bond. 

The holders of Erie Company stock will be given the opportunity 
to purchase the preferred and common stock of the new company 
upon the payment by them to Kidder, Peabody & Co., of $25 per share 
for each share of the present stock, each holder of four shares of 
Erie stock to be entitled to receive upon such payment one share of 
preferred stock, and three shares of common stock in the new com- 
pany. Kidder, Peabody & Co., from the balance of the securities of 
the new company, are to sell a majority of both preferred and com- 
mon stocks to the American Telephone & Telegraph Company, and 
are to buy and cancel the outstanding $9,000,000 notes of the present 
company and to pay into the treasury of the new company for the 
improvement of the plants of the subsidiary companies $6,000,000 in 
cash, which amount, it is estimated, it will be necessary to expend 
in the near future. 

The bonds of the new company will be secured by all the securities 
now behind the several issues of debenture bonds and behind the 
$9,000,000 of notes, except so far as there may be an exchange of stock 
for notes of the subsidiary companies and except the shares and 
notes of the Michigan company. The preferred stock of the new com- 
pany is to be 6 per cent, cumulative after two years from issue, and to 
have preference in liquidation. The portion of the stock issue of the 
new company which is to be offered the holders of the present Erie 
Telephone & Telegraph Company has been underwritten. 

Automobilism in France. 

It is announced from Paris that the .Automobile Show closed on 
Christmas night after 15 days of unprecedented success. The final 
scene was the drawing of tickets of the free lottery, for which the 
best prizes were two automobiles. The estimated profits are from 
80.000 to 100.000 francs, which will be evenly distributed between the 
exhibitors and the Automobile Club. A banquet to M. Rives, com- 
missioner general of the exhibition, was given at the Automobile 

Charron, Girardot and Voigt announce the formation of a Franco- 
.Amcrican automobile company, $1,000,000 being offered by American 

January 4, 1901. 


capitalists and about $500,000 by French ones. The plan is to manu- 
facture according to M. Charron's new models, which met with suc- 
cess at the Automobile show. 

Messrs. Robert and Walden Shaw, of Chicago, accompanied by 
their wives, are ready to start on their automobile tour of Europe. 
Mr. Walden Shaw has chosen a French machine for his trip. 

Coming Lecture on Nernst Lamp in Chicago. 

Alexander J. Wurts, manager of the Nernst Lamp Company, of 
Pittsburg, will give a lecture upon and demonstration of the Nernst 
lamp at the laboratory of the Lewis Institute. Chicago, Friday even- 
ing, Jan. 10, 1902. This lecture was to have been one of the regular 
Chicago Electrical Association lectures, but owing to the difficulty 
of arranging for the lecture at the regular place and time of the 
meetings of that organization. Professor Wood worth, of Lewis In- 
stitute, arranged for the lecture to be held where the laboratory fa- 
cilities of the Institute would be at command, and to invite the 
Chicago Electrical Association as a body to attend the lecture. Any 
other electrical men interested in the development of the Nernst 
lamp will also be welcome. This lecture will be the same as that 
already delivered by Mr. Wurts at Boston, Philadelphia and Cleve- 
land, but will embody in addition some interesting new experiments, 
and will no doubt be largely attended, as it will be the first public 
opportunity offered the electrical men of Chicago and vicinity to in- 
vestigate the Nernst lamp as a new factor in the lighting art. 

German Appliances in England. 

The New York Times is publishing with the London Times some 
very instructive articles on the industrial situation in England. In 
comments on foreign competition the following occurs : Though the 
foreign competition may not yet be extremely serious, it is undoubt- 
edly severe, and the manufacturer to-day must be content with a 
very small profit on individual articles, depending for his gain on the 
possibility of turning out very large quantities. In the trade in elec- 
trical accessories, for instance, prices are cut so fine that there is 
hardly any profit at all. The development of the electric light has 
attained to so much greater proportions in Germany than in Great 
Britain that the makers of accessories in the former country have a 
distinct advantage over those in the latter. The German manufacturer 
will buy English china, mount his own brass work thereon, and send 
the complete article here, beating the English maker in his own mar- 
ket. A leading manufacturer saj's that when he has told his men of 
such things as this and shown them the foreign-made articles, the 
men have simply given him an incredulous smile, without in any way 
realizing the gravity of the position. Then there is the case of the 
electric light lamp holder, which is to the electric light what the 
burner is to the gas bracket. At one time the manufacture was pro- 
tected in this country by a patent, and the holder sold for is. 8d. But 
the patent was not in force in Germany, and, as soon as it expired 
here, the German makers so flooded the English markets with their 
holders that the price was at once reduced from is. 8d. (40 cents) to 
4d. (8 cents). 

Franchises in the Philippines. 

Among the recommendations of the Philippines Commission to 
the President in its annual report are the following: 

7. That the commission be given power to grant street railway, 
electric light, telephone and other municipal franchises. 

II. That the commission be given power to pass a law for the con- 
ducting of legitimate business of corporations. 

There is nothing in the treaty between this country and Spain to 
prohibit the granting of franchises by the United States in the Philip- 
pines. Existing franchises are, however, protected by the following 
clause of the treaty : "The rights and property secured by copyrights 
and patents acquired by Spaniards in the Philippines and other ceded 
territories, at the time of the exchange of the ratifications of this 
treaty, shall continue to be respected." 

Congress, on Feb. 26 of the present year did, however, as an 
amendment to the then pending army appropriation bill, adopt strin- 
gent regulations against the granting of any franchises in those 
islands. The language of the amendment follows : "Provided, That 

no sale, or lease, or other disposition of the public lands or the tim- 
ber thereon, or the mining rights therein, shall be made; and, pro- 
vided further, that no franchise shall be granted which is not ap- 
proved by the President of the United States and is not in his judg- 
ment clearly necessary for the immediate government of the islands 
and indispensable for the interest of the people thereof, and which 
cannot, without great public mischief, be postponed until the estab- 
lishment of permanent civil government; and all such franchises shall 
terminate one year after the establishment of such permanent civil 

The Philippines Commission, of which Judge Taft is the head, in its 
report, now recommends that these restrictions upon the issuance of 
franchises be removed. Its recommendations have been approved 
by both the President and the Secretary of War, and it is confidently 
believed that Congress will adopt the necessary legislation asked for 
by the commission during the present session. 

Preparing for the Commercial Pacific Cable. 

Early during the present year Congress is expected to pay some 
attention to the question of an American Pacific cable, there being 
before it, as already noted in these pages, several bills proposing 
various schemes. !Mr. George G. Ward, vice-president of the Com- 
mercial Cable Company, intimates that these measures will make 
no difference in the plans of his corporation. In an interview last 
week he said : "It would be inadvisable for the Government to un- 
dertake to construct a cable. In the first place, there is the matter 
of expense, not only of laying the cable, but also of keeping it in re- 
pair. It is doubtful if the Government could make as complete 
working arrangements with connecting lines so as to give complete 
service, as could a private enterprise, for diplomatic and business 
difficulties would quite naturally surround such a project if under- 
taken by the Government. It should be borne in mind that the Pa- 
cific Cable Company will be obliged to make arrangements with ex- 
isting companies for business between various points in the Orient 
and Europe. This country could hardly expect to secure landing 
privileges or concessions where exclusive grants have already been 
given in foreign countries, notably Japan, to cable companies now in 
operation, and it is doubtful if a working arrangement could be made 
with such companies by this Government looking to any division of 
the business that these foreign companies now enjoy. No diploma- 
tic difficulties, however, would be in the way of a private corpora- 
tion making such arrangements. The Pacific Cable Company as- 
sumes all responsibility in the construction and maintenance of the 
new cable, thereby relieving the Government of any expense what- 
ever, either for construction or operation." 

The Silvertown Cable Manufacturing Company, of London, to 
which the contract for building and laying the Pacific cable was 
awarded a short time ago, has completed about 100 miles of the 
cable, and the remainder is expected to be finished in about eight 
months, when the cable \vill be shipped in special vessels around the 
Horn and the actual work of laying it begun. The section from 
San Francisco to the Hawaiian Islands is to be finished and in opera- 
tion in some 9 or 10 months. The company will then proceed at 
once to complete the cable to Manila. This section will require a 
much longer time before it is finished, both on account of the greater 
distance and also because of the fact that the company will have to 
take soundings fgr the route. All the necessary soundings on the 
route from the Pacific coast to Honolulu were made some time ago 
by the Government. The total length of the cable from San Francisco 
to Manila will be between 7000 and 8000 miles. 

Illustrious Electrical People. 

Note has been made recently by our English contemporaries of a 
volume entitled "Lives of the 'Lustrious," which contains biog- 
raphies of interest to Americans published in London. In Novem- 
ber last Lord Rosebery, in one of his speeches, called biography "by 
far the most fascinating form of literature that exists," but he de- 
plored the great abundance of bad biography. "It is in order to sup- 
ply good biography, whose lack Lord Rosebery thus deplored, that 
the present monumental work has been undertaken." It is edited 
by Sidney Stephen and Leslie Lee. "Each of the editors makes it a 
personal request that all celebrities with a grievance will call on the 
other." We give below two of the biographies, one of Mr. J. P. 



Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 

Morgan, and the other of Mr. Yerkes. We may premise that Mr. 
Morgan presented not long ago an electric lighting plant to St. 
Paul's Cathedral : 

"Morgan, John Pierpont, Electrician to St. Paul's Cathedral, was 
born in 1837, with a golden spoon in his mouth. For many years 
he worked at the tiresome routine of monopolist, and only in 1901 
reached his true vocation, the lighting of St. Paul's. Mr. Morgan 
has not yet decided whether to provide the motive power from 
Niagara Falls, or whether to buy up Buckingham Palace and place 
his engines there. In filling up a confession album in tlie house of 
one of our more affable Duchesses, Mr. Morgan stated Trust to 
be his favorite quality, and Steele his favorite author. Mr. Mor- 
gan's favorite game is Puss in the Corner, and his favorite song 
'Johnny Morgan Lit the Organ.' " 

"Yerkes, Edison Volta, Tubular Millionaire, was born in the Cata- 
combs in 1841, and has been described by an enthusiastic Irishman 
as a 'rail gintleman.' Mr. Yerkes, after squandering upon America 
his lusty youth, descended upon the shores of this island a little 
while since, and by raising Tubal Cain, gave our railway system 
shocks. By passing an electric current along the metals, he claims 
to be able to stimulate porters to civility, station masters to hu- 
mility, engine drivers to punctuality, and directors to decency. His 
name, which is usually pronounced as if it rhymed with that of his 
colleague, Mr. Perks, is rightfully a dissyllable, thus providing a 
much-needed rhyme to 'circus' and (at a very long distance) to 'work 
us.' Mr. Yerkes, who, as becomes one who has so many irons in the 
fire, is a great poker player, finds a Home from Ohm in the spacious 
hotel built on the Embankment by Lord Hugh Cecil, to accommodate 
the members of the Cabinet in consequence of their aversion to 
Downing Street. His motto : 'Tube be, or not tube be.' " 


\J WIRELESS IN KOREA.— The Japanese Minister at Seoul has 
notified the Korean Government that Japan has begun the erection 
of wireless telegraph stations along the Korean coast. 

LONDON — BRIGHTON.~A new electric railway project is an- 
nounced which is to have a line doing the 47 miles (we thought it was 
more) between London and Brighton in 30 minutes. Why not? 

CANADIAN TELEGRAPHERS.— The federated railway teleg- 
raphers of the Dominion are feeling their way to the making of a 
demand for higher wages from the three great railway systems of 
Canada — the Candian Pacific, the Grand Trunk and the Canada 
Atlantic systems. 

KANSAS TELEPHONY. —The Northern Kansas Telephone As- 
sociation will hold a meeting at Concordia, Kan., on Jan. 6, when 
a number of papers and questions dealing with the problems of tele- 
phone service will be presented and discussed. This is the second 
semi-annual meeting of the Association. The president is Mr. T. M. 
Dolan, of Clifton, and the secretary is Mr. F. A. Daugherty, of 

tween lightning and lager is rather remote, but the New York Even- 
ing Post notes it as follows: So serious has the drawback of beer- 
drinking workingmen in Germany become, and so thoroughly is it 
recognized, that a movement has been started to exclude the drink 
from the factory premises. It has been not uncommon for a man 
to consume 10 pints a day in his shop, while the average is put at 
not much below a gallon per day, excess being especially marked 
among moulders. Several experiments have already been made in 
educating workingmen to dispense with the morning and afternoon 
recesses for beer, and one firm making electrical apparatus in Ber- 
lin has found an increase of 10 per cent in product per man since 
the change was made. 

from London of Dec. 28 to the New York Times- sayi : There are 
signs that the district railways are about to push their contemplated 
improvements vigorously and intend, it is said, to oppose the pro- 

jected branch of the existing electric line of the Central London to 
Hammersmith. Statements have been published this week that Mr. 
Yerkes is now likely to gain control of the Metropolitan, but though 
this is not believed, there is no doubt that the Metropolitan will now 
work harmoniously with the District. A cock-and-bull story was 
floating around this week to the effect that a new American syndi- 
cate had been buying canals on the Continent and trying to buy 
them in England, intending to introduce a new system of electric 
propulsion. The story was not credited. 

DATA OF ILLUMINANTS.—ln a paper recently read by Mr. 
Douglass Burnett before the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 
the following comparative data of illuminants are given. The fol- 
lowing figures refer to the intrinsic brilliancy or candle-power per 
square centimeter of various sources of light : Argand gas burner, at 
1800 degs. C, 0.3 ; Siemens regenerative burner (one of the brightest 
gas lamps), 0.38 to 0.6; electric incandescent lamp, 40; Nernst elec- 
tric lamp, 100 ; crater of an open arc lamp, at 3500 degs. C, 6400. For 
ordinary cases a square inch of gas flame emits 4 cp, whereas for the 
crater of an arc lamp the pro rata figure is 42,600 cp. The figures 
below refer to the optical efficiency, or the ratio of the light energy 
to the entire energy supplied : Argand oil lamp, 2?/$ per cent ; naked 
gas flame, 5 per cent; electric incandescent lamp, 6}/} per cent at 3 
watts per candle ; Nernst electric lamp, 13 per cent at i watt per 
candle; burning magnesium, 15 per cent; 5000-cp arc lamp, 25 per 
cent ; sunlight, 25 per cent; the light of Geissler tubes, 33 per cent. 

partment has taken the initial steps toward the adoption of wireless 
telegraphy as a means of signaling between warships at sea. Ad- 
miral Bradford, of the Bureau of Equipment, has asked that the 
armored cruisers of the "Pennsylvania" class have their masts and 
rigging so arranged that the wireless system can be introduced. This 
will necessitate the lengthening of the masts of the ships and the 
insulation of the metal rigging by the use of hemp covering for 
halyards. It is intended to get test sets of instruments of the vari- 
ous wireless systems now being operated. These include the Mar- 
coni system. Thus far, however, the Navy Department has not 
adopted definitely any system, but the construction of the new ships 
is regarded as a preliminary to the adoption of a system whenever its 
practicability is established fully. The Navy Department has also de- 
cided to establish wireless telegraph plants at the Washington Navy 
Yard and at Annapolis. The plans for the necessary equipment of the 
two stations are being worked out under the direction of Admiral 
Bradford. Experiments will be under way soon. At each point a tall 
mast is to be erected for the purpose of receiving and transmitting 
signals. Small buildings are to be erected for the installation of the 
instruments, etc. 

SIR WILLIAM PREECE.— With regard to wireless telegraphy 
the New York Tribune has the following appreciative item : There 
was something rather exceptional in the encouragement given by 
Sir William Preece to Signor Marconi when the latter first arrived 
in England, his adopted home, in 1896. The young Italian had only 
attained his majority at that time, and was practically without friends. 
The experiments which he had previously tried on his father's es- 
tate near Bologna had satisfied him that the principle involved was 
sound, but they were of a rudimentary character. In order to de- 
velop the system sufficiently to interest capital, more elaborate and 
costly tests were requisite. Sir William, then at the head of the 
British telegraph service, soon heard of the newcomer. But he had 
himself been working for ten years on another scheme which dis- 
pensed with wires, and with a moderate degree of success. Under 
the circumstances it would have been only human to igfnore Mar- 
coni, if not to put obstacles in his way. Instead, he offered a help- 
ing hand, though he quickly discovered that the new system was su- 
perior to his own. Before the close of 1897 Marconi had shown 
that Hertz waves would penetrate the solid masonry of city buildings, 
and on an open plain like that of Salisbury travel for miles. A year 
later communication was opened up between the mainland and the 
East Goodwin Lightship, and also between the Isle of Wight and 
Bournemouth, and early in 1899 the English Channel was crossed. 
But it is doubtful whether any of these achievements would have 
been recorded so soon, if at all, had it not been for Sir William 
Preecc's generosity. 

January 4, 1901. 



held at Cabul recently the new Ameer, Habib Ullah Khan, address- 
ing the assembled chieftains, promised to maintain the policy of his 
father, the late Ameer, in guarding Afghanistan against foreign ag- 
gression, and in preventing the introduction of railroads, telegraphs, 
European trade and education by missionaries. 

NEW HAVEN THIRD RAIL.— Work is beginning on the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company's improvements 
of the third-rail system between Hartford and Bristol, about 19 
miles. Higher voltage alternating dynamos are to be placed in the 
Berlin power house, heavier copper wire installed, and at Hartford, 
New Britain and Bristol will be placed sub-stations with transform- 
ers. The third rail is to be improved, the outer rails rebonded, and 
the cars geared for higher speed. A uniform voltage for all service 
is to be established. A more frequent express service between Hart- 
ford and Bristol is another feature of the plan. 

THE LONGEST TROLLEY YET.— A report has been current 
in Indianapolis that Hugh J. McGowan, president of the Indianapolis 
Street Railway Company, is prominent among the men who are be- 
hind plans for a trolley system to connect New York and St. Louis. 
The scheme, it is reported, is even broader in scope than that of the 
great Everett-Moore syndicate, whose system is being e.Ktended to 
connect all of the principal cities on the Great Lakes. The Murdocks, 
of Lafayette, and Frank De Haas Robison, of Cleveland, are said to 
be associated with Mr. McGowan, and the plan is supposed to have 
been well developed during the recent visit of Mr. McGowan to 
New York. 

TRANSMISSION IN ITALY.— A newspaper correspondent 
who visited Italy recently writes : The industries of Italy show a re- 
markable advance. This is largely owing to the development of 
electricity as a motive power. I was lately in the valley of the Nerina, 
where are the Marmore Falls, formed by the plunge which the River 
Velino takes over a precipice, 600 ft. high, into the River Nera below. 
Around the falls manufactories of all kinds are springing up, while 
down the united streams as far as Terni there are nothing but huge 
factories at work or in process of construction. What has taken 
place at Terni and in the Valnerina has taken place on a smaller 
scale wherever good water power for the development of electricity 
exists. It is proposed to light Rome from the Marmore Falls, from 
which it is distant 70 miles. 

A COMMERCIAL CABLE DINNER.—So great a success was 
the first dinner of the New York staff of the Commercial Cable 
Company, which took place on Dec. 28, at the Pierrepont Assembly 
Rooms, Brooklyn, that a motion to make it an annual custom was 
carried by acclamation. Nearly 100 persons attended, and Mr. John 
Shea was chairman. Among those present were G. G. Ward, vice- 
president of the company ; George Clapperton, traffic manager ; J. H. 
Smart, superintendent; C. E. Merritt, assistant treasurer; Charles 
Cuttriss, electrician; S. F. Austin, assistant superintendent; F. H. 
Dennis, superintendent of the clearing house ; Albert Beck, secre- 
tary, and W. G. Wenman and T. E. Hurdus, supervisors. John W. 
Mackay, president, sent a congratulatory message from California. 
Musical and dramatic selections were contributed by the "talent" 
of the company. 

ous nature occurred on Dec. 23 on the Liverpool elevated electric 
road. A dispatch from Liverpool of Dec. 24 says : Six bodies have 
been recovered from the Dingle Station tunnel. These apparently 
represent the total number of deaths resulting from the burning of 
the electric train yesterday on the overhead railroad. An explosion 
in a fuse box set fire to a train on the electric railway at Dingle Sta- 
tion, Liverpool, last evening, and the burning train entered a tunnel 
containing stacks of creosoted railroad sleepers. These were also set 
on fire, and the tunnel became a blazing furnace. It was at first re- 
ported that many lives were lost, but it was subsequently ascertained 
that many of the passengers had got out at the preceding station, 
and the others had escaped by jumping from the train, or were 
dragged out by their fellow passengers. The persons who perished 
were all employes. 

Caldwell type. A glass jar is contained within a larger glass jar, 
the first-mentioned being submerged in a liquid. Near the bottom 
of the smaller glass jar are a number of equidistant holes of small 
caliber, and in the interior opposite each hole is a point, the several 
points being fixed to an inner electrode. The other electrode is on 
the exterior of the small jar, and consists of a rod with a sharp point 
located exactly opposite to one of the holes in the glass. Two or 
more of outer electrodes may be used. In action the liquid within 
the hole is vaporized, due to the heat generated by the current, and 
the small bubble of liquid thus formed breaks the current within the 
hole. As soon as the circuit is broken the source of heat is stopped 
and the surrounding body of cool liquid causes the bubble to be con- 
densed and the circuit is restored by the inflow of the liquid. 

Dec. 24 to Raymond Rouge and George Paget, of Paris, France, 
describes a rotary transformer in which only the brushes revolve. A 
comparison may be made with the ordinary type of transformer if 
we imagine the armature to be stationary, the fields supplied with 
alternating instead of direct current, and the brushes run at syn- 
chronous speed. In the actual machine it is necessary to provide 
arrangements for giving a definite polarity to the direct current pro- 
duced, as otherwise in starting up the polarity at a given binding post 
might be either plus or minus. The apparatus may be applied to 
the transformation of single or polyphase currents into direct current, 
or inversely. The specifications go into great detail as to the various 
kinds of windings and dispositions that may be employed, and means 
are described for obviating sparking at the brushes. Among the ad- 
vantages of the system are that the lead of the brushes is constant, no 
matter what may be the load on the working circuit supplied by the 
transformer ; and the apparatus, whether for single or polyphase 
current, is self-starting. 

GOVERNMENT TELEGRAPHS.— Senator W. E. Mason, the 
chairman of the Committee on Post Office and Post Roads of the 
Senate, before which committee the subject will have to be argued, is 
going to introduce a bill providing for the purchase of the existing 
telegraph lines by the Government and making them an adjunct of 
the Post Office Department. He says that there is a well-formulated 
plan in administration circles to effect the purchase, and he antici- 
pates that it will be favorably acted upon at this session of Congress. 
The fact that he, as chairman of the committee, has taken the matter 
up is indicative of a purpose to carry the plan to a successful conclu- 
sion. His bill will provide for the issuance of bonds by the Govern- 
ment, bearing 2 per cent interest, to an amount sufficient to purchase 
the stock of the two existing companies. He says that the earnings 
of the lines under government management, even with the reduced 
rates that will be charged, will be more than sufficient to meet the 
interest on the bonds and create a sinking fund that will enable the 
Government to own, practically free of charge, the lines at the end of 
20 or 25 years. Postmaster General Payne has specifically denied 
Senator Mason's statements as to the intentions of the Government, 
in our pages. 

ELECTROLYTIC INTERRUPTER.— A patent granted Dec. 24 
to Thomas W. Topham describes an electrolytic interrupter of the 

BRANLY ON MARC ON PS FEAT.— In an interview printed in 
the Paris Figaro, Professor Branly expresses surprise that Marconi 
should have at one stroke increased the distance of wireless teleg- 
raphy from 400 kilometers to 1800 miles. Such a feat, he said, how- 
ever, was entirely possible. Formerly the curvature of the earth ap- 
peared to enter as a serious obstacle,, but the Marconi experiments 
between Antibe and Calvi had disposed of this point, since the aerial 
wires there used were completely masked from each other by the 
earth's curvature. This experiment definitely established that the 
waves followed the surface of the earth, and what was possible for 
a distance of a few hundred miles is possible for a greater distance, 
the only factor being the power of the apparatus. Nothing was, 
therefore, opposed to the success of Mr. Marconi, who is an ingenious, 
persevering experimenter, possessing a fertile mind — three elements 
which united go to make up scientific genius. Professor Branly, 
however, says that before arriving at a definite opinion it will be 
necessary to know exactly the conditions of the Newfoundland ex- 
periment, and to know if it was conducted in a rigorously scientific 
manner. For example, it should be definitely determined that there 
was no influence from submarine cables, which might be inductively 
affected by the transmission waves and thus have a part in transmit- 
ting the signals to the receiving station. 



Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 

LONG WISCONSIN TROLLEY.— It is stated on reliable au- 
thority that there is on foot an electric railroad deal that is the most 
extensive ever contemplated in the State of Wisconsin, and which 
converges about the city of Oshkosh as a center. 

The proposed fare on the electric line uiil not be more than 50 cents, 
and perhaps considerably less. 

BRITISH COLONIES.— It is stated that the telegraph lines in 
the British colonies have grown from 115,000 miles in 1889 to over 
150,000 in 1899, and that the telephone lines in those colonies now 
aggregate more than 50,000 miles in length. The figures are those 
of the United States Treasury Bureau of Statistics, but it does not 
appear how many "colonies" are included. 

VERKES- LONDON PLANS.— A cable dispatch from London 
of Dec. 23 says : At a meeting of the District Railway this afternoon, 
the chairman, R. \V. Perks, announced that the electric power house 
to be erected by Charles T. Yerkes' syndicate would not only supply 
the underground railroads, but would also furnish power for the 
suburban services of several of the trunk lines, with which arrange- 
ments were now being made. 

PAN-AMERICAN. — Some interesting figures are made public 
by the Pan-American officials regarding the receipts of the vari- 
ous concessions at the Exposition. The total amount collected by 
the Exposition as its share, usually 25 per cent of the gross receipts, 
was $1,332,109. The total of the receipts was $4,78s,S27."27. There 
were 25 concessions, whose gross receipts exceeded $51,500. Chi- 
cago did four times the business, according to the gross receipts, 
that Buffalo's concessions did, but Buffalo's were four times larger 
than those of Omaha. The electric tower elevators netted $83,212. 

KELVIN AND CABLES.— The jubilee of the submarine cable, 
which occurred in igoi, recalls a little story of Lord Kelvin, whose 
inventions, the mirror galvanometer and siphon recorder, made 
"submarine telegraphy commercially practicable." At the time Pro- 
fessor Thomson, as he was then, was engaged on his deep-sea sound- 
ings work, he was one day discovered by a visitor experimenting 
with a long coil of wire. "What is that for?" inquired the visitor, 
pointing to the wire. "Making sounds," replied the professor. "Ah," 
said the guest jocularly, "what kind of note does it give off." "The 
deep C, of course," came the answer, like a shot, accompanied by the 
well-known twinkle in the professor's eye. 

from Roubaix, Dec. 4, 1901 : An international e.xposition will be held 
in Lille between the months of May and September, 1902. It will 
embrace the following classes : Instruction, works of art, liberal arts, 
general machinery, electricity, civil engineering, transportation, 
wheels, automobiles, sports, agriculture, horticulture, forestry, hunt- 
ing, fishing, food stuffs, mines and metallurgy, decoration, household 
furniture and accessories, yams, dress goods, clothing, varied indus- 
tries, chemicals, sound economy, hygiene, colonization, material and 
export products, special application of alcohol as a motive force and 
for lighting and heating. The office of the exposition is No. 35 rue 
National, Lille. 

N. y. CENTRAL AND TROLLEYS.— .\n item from Boston 
says that the New York Central Railroad Company views with 
some apprehension the increasing number of trolley lines being built 
or already operating between the towns which are also served by 
the Boston & Albany line. Vice-President Van Etten, now in 
charge of the Albany system, is said to have inspected all of the 
electric roads along the line of the Boston & Albany with a view 
to meeting their competition more effectively. The Milford, Hollis- 
ton & Framingham Street Railway seems to have been selected by 
the New York Central people as the first trolley road against which 
its new policy will be tried and a brisk war in rates is in progress. 
The trolley road's earnings have been cut about one-third as a con- 
sequence. When the through electric line from Boston to Worces- 
ter is once in operation, if the steam road does not earlier block its 
projects, a continuation, in severer form, of this struggle is to be 
anticipated. It is certain that the present fare of $1 will not be cut 
until the Boston & Worcester is practically completed. It is almost 
certain that at that time there will be a rate war between the two. 

LOCATING FAULTS IN CABLES.— Two patents issued Dec. 
17 to T. W. Varley relate to means and apparatus for locating faults 
fn cables, such as are used for lighting and power work. The method 
consists briefly in sending into the cable a direct current, which is 
interrupted for a definite period. For example, the current may 
flow during eight seconds and then be interrupted four seconds. As 
illustrated, one side of a source of direct current is connected to 
earth, and the other side connected through a choke coil to one leg 
of the cable circuit, which will usually be one carrying alternating 
currents. In the direct-current circuit there is also a rotating cir- 
cuit closer by means of which the current is allowed to pass during 
a definite interval and is then interrupted for a definite interval. The 
cable supposed to be grounded is then explored with a compass 
needle, which, during the time the direct current is flowing, will 
point in one direction on one side of the fault, and the opposite di- 
rection on the opposite side of the fault. The interruption of the 
current will indicate that the pointing is not due to a local field. The 
circuit closer has two brushes. When the brushes both rest upon one 
contact segment, the direct current will be shunted from the 
cable, thus obviating any spark at the break. By this means another 
path to ground is also provided for the normal charging alternating 
current, thus preventing any disturbance to the ground on the mains. 

ELECTROLYTIC CYANIDE VAT.— An apparatus designed to 
act in conjunction with a cyanide solution to continuously extract 
values from ores, patented recently to Albert I. Irwin, of Cripple 
Creek, Col., comprises a series of tanks to retain the solutions and 
provided with conveyors for passing the ores from end to end of 
the series. The several tanks are similar in form, shallow, and each 
formed with an inclined end from which it discharges into the ne.xt 
in series. The first tank contains a caustic soda solution, in trav- 
ersing which the ores absorb sufficient alkali to counteract their 
acidity and to increase the electrical conductivity of the cyanide so- 
lution in which they are subsequently immersed. The last is a filter 
through which the exhausted solution is drawn for regeneration and 
return. The intermediate tanks are electrolytic vats. In these the 
conveyor becomes the anode, formed of a pair of endless chains 
moving upon guide rods in the sides of the tank and connected by 
metal bars to whose lower faces are attached wooden blocks, op- 
positely inclined on alternate bars, and serving to stir the ores and 
move them from side to side of the tank. Two cathodes are used, 
one being a plate resting upon the bottom of the tank, and the sec- 
ond parallel to the first and to the anode, a similar plate supported 
between the upper and lower stretches of the endless belt. The 
novelty of the apparatus lies in the structural details, for the plan 
of causing the material to be dissolved to pass through the electro- 
lyte, and even of using the anode as a conveyor, dates from the early 
days of the art. In the present construction one of the cathodes is 
so placed as to be scoured by the moving sludge — a disposition most 
imfavorable to complete recovery of the precious metal. 

Letters to the Editors. 

Gold Leaf Electroscope Experiments. 

To the Editors of Electrical IVorld and Engineer: 

Sirs. — Some observations I recently made with a gold leaf elec- 
troscope may be of interest to your readers. The electroscope was 
made out of a half-gallon chemical boiling flask — round pattern — 
and the brass rod on which the leaf was hung, had a cap of about ll'i 
inches in diameter. The rod was insulated by means of a rubber cork, 
and the flask contained in the bottom some sulphuric acid and pumice 

On placing the electroscope on a window-sill and attaching to the 
rod below the cap a strip of tinfoil three-eighths of an inch wide and 
about 15 ft. long (the foil thickness was such that 7000 square inches 
weighed i lb.), soiue interesting effects were noticed under certain 

The experiments were made from about noon until 3 P. M. on a 
very cold day, the sun at times shining brightly. When the wind 

January 4, 1901. 


carried the foil out in a direction either west or east no effect was 
visible. When the sun was not shining brightly, whatever the direc- 
tion of the foil might be, there was a like absence of effect; but 
when the sun was shining brightly and the foil floated out towards it 
— north to south — then a divergence of the leaves took place equiva- 
lent to about 50 degs., if the foil was in vibration. 

With about 30 ft. of foil floating out in rapid vibrations and the 
conditions similar to those last mentioned, a divergence of about 120 
degs. resulted. 

New York, N, Y. J. Stanley Richmond. 

Efficiency Tests of Direct-Current Generators and 

Marconi and the Scoffers. 

To the Editors of Electrical World and Engineer: 

Sirs. — The feat that almost every experimenter in electricity since 
Lindsay's time dreamed of has been accomplished not by a dreamer 
but by that very matter-of-fact young man, William Marconi, and 
his statement that he has signaled across the Atlantic Ocean without 
metallic conductors has produced a profound and critical impression. 
The world^and this means the electrical expert as well as the lay- 
man — has not been so wrought up over a scientific achievement since 
the announcement by Professor Rontgen of his discovery of the X- 

From time immemorial there have been scoffers, but in the face of 
the fact of what is actually known of the new art and of the inventor 
of the system which bears his name, it seems to me an unprofessional 
procedure, to say the least, for those who are supposed to be versed 
on the subject to question the veracity of the statement that the 
signal was sent and received, and it should be stamped as absurd 
the inference that deciphering the signal was mere guesswork. At- 
mospheric disturbances are easily to be determined from the electric 
waves of an emitter by an expert, and Marconi would be, above all 
others, able to differentiate between them. 

Atlantic cableless telegraphy has followed the other epoch makers 
in electrical science, i. e., the Bell telephone, the Field oceanic cable 
and the Morse telegraph. Each of these suffered at the hands of the 
doubting Thomases, who, like the Missourian, must needs be shown. 
So it is with the recent test which will develop into cableless 

Another injustice, it seems to me, is the severe criticism Marconi 
has received in giving to the public at large the first news direct of 
the results instead of the nicer, perhaps more legitimate, method of 
reading a paper before some society. Had he done this the experi- 
ment would have remained unchanged. His word given to all men 
through the medium of the press is just as good as it would be to 
a chosen few from whom the information would have been dissemi- 
nated. The course he pursued gave us the news at least two months 
earlier than possible by the latter method, and again what would 
he have to say to a scientific society? He has read papers on his 
inventions as he made improvements from time to time, his system 
is well known, and in this instance, notwithstanding the tremendous 
distance involved, is there anything new to tell? Only that an in- 
crease of power was used, a supersensitive receiver and 1800 miles 
spanned. That is the story. 

It is hinted that the announcement was made from a purely com- 
mercial standpoint. There is no doubt that the price of Marconi 
stock will rise on the strength of it, but Marconi is a producer, and 
his company installs instruments, whereas stock-jobbing concerns 
are not capable of the former, and have no time for the latter. The 
cry has been loud and long about the letter "S" being chosen as the 
test signal instead of some other, but I am of the opinion that Mar- 
coni not only received the much-objected letter, but, what is more 
than likely, a complete message as well. The opposition of the Anglo- 
American Telegraph Company is well known in connection with the 
tests, and. while Marconi naturally would wish to announce as 
quickly as possible the first recorded signal without cable he would, 
knowing the attitude of the company, desire also to avoid trouble 
and so left the message out of the statements given to the press. In 
all events. Marconi has done what he has claimed he did. 

What the world calls for and admires are producers, and Marconi 
is one of them. The scoffers we have with us always, but it is only 
once in a decade we are permitted to witness such a striking inno- 
vation of evolutionary progress in electrical science as that of 
signaling without cables across the trackless waters of the great 

Narberth, Pa. A. Frederick Collins. 

To the Editors of Electrical World and Engineer: 

Sirs. — In an editorial in your issue of Dec. 14 on efficiency tests of 
direct-current generators and motors it is stated that the efficiency 
as found by testing two like machines simultaneously according to the 
Hopkinson method is more reliable than the efficiency computed from 
the losses. It seems quite evident to me that the reverse is the case 
and below are the reasons for my belief. 

First. — Unless the machines can be directly coupled there is a fac- 
tor of considerable uncertainty in the belt loss. In case the machine 
under test is a generator it is necessary to drive the combination by 
a separate motor, thus introducing more difficulties in the way of 
belt losses and efficiency of the auxiliary machines. 

Second. — In order to load up the machine under test the field of 
the other must be weakened or strengthened according as the former 
is a generator or motor. This change in field strength produces a 
change in core and field losses and thus leads to an error in the ef- 
ficiency obtained. 

The first objection is the more serious one, since the belt losses 
are practically unknown quantities. Moreover, there is liability of 
error due to measuring relatively larger quantities than are involved 
in the stray power measurements. The C"R losses in switches, in- 
struments, cables, etc., must also be negligible. The error due to 
change in core and field losses is not great, but is by no means negligi- 
ble. Usually it would not affect the result by one per cent. 

However, the stray power method has some objections. The most 
valid one is the error made by assuming the core losses the same at 
full load as at no load. It seems reasonable to suppose that the iron 
losses should increase somewhat with the load due to magnetization 
by the armature. The amount of increase could be readily found by 
experiment with a machine provided with Ryan balancing coils, tests 
being made for stray power without the coils, and with the coils in 
so as to give a field distortion such as would result when running the 
machine at full load without the coils. 

Madison, Wis. A. C. King. 


To the Editors of Electrical World and Engineer: 

Sirs. — Considering the great part which wireless telegraphy will 
probably play in the near future and the cumbrous and non-distinc- 
tive nature of the term, would it not be advantageous in the outset to 
give it short and distinguished name? I would beg to suggest the 
distinct appropriateness of the term "Hertzograph," "Hertzography" 
and "Hertzogram." The honor due to Hertz and the peculiar fitness 
and brevity of these terms will appeal to electricians the world over. 

Greencastle, Ind. Ewing McLean. 

Deterioration of Insulated Cables. 

To the Editors of Electrical World and Engineer: 

Sirs. — In your issue of Nov. 23d, under the heading of "Resistance 
of Dielectric" in the Digest, is a statement that the deterioration of 
the insulating quality of rubber cables is due to the chemical action 
between the rubber and gases produced by the alternating stress on 
the air. Last August, in a conversation I had with Mr. Paul Lincoln, 
that gentleman mentioned a case of a cable that tested at the factory 
70,000 volts, retested at Niagara power house at 50,000 volts, and 
which broke down at 17,000 volts after two weeks' service. He at- 
tributed the result to the ozone generated, and said he intended prose- 
cuting the experiments further. I should very much like to hear 
whether any of your readers could meantime throw some light on 
the subject. 

Wilkesbarke, Pa. E. W. Stevenson. 

Italian Opportunities for Electrical Work. 

To the Editors of Electrical World and Engineer: 

Sirs. — Of late great activity has shown itself in railroad develop- 
ment in Italy, mostly in extending or building of subsidiary and 
local lines. Quite a number of new roads — steam or electric traction 
— are projected. Some of these are: In the province of Emilia, a 
line from Ceuto to St. Giovanni; in the province Lombardy, a line 
to connect Milan with Moltena on the Brianza Railroad ; a line be- 



Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 

tween Cremona, Bongo, St. Domino ; in the Venetian province, a 
new line from Vicenza to Noveuta, and an electric road along the 
Garda Lake from Peschieva towards Riva ; in the province of Pied- 
mont, the line Turin to Torre Pellice is to be changed to electric 
traction, and a new steam railroad is projected to connect Turin 
with Oneglia via Ceva and Onmeo. 

The long-entertained project of connecting Mestre (Venice) with 
Primolano via Castelfranco and Bassano now appears to become 
realized. Other new short connections with the Simplon line are 

In this period of activity in railroad construction our great Ameri- 
can promoters and purveyors of railroad and electrical supplies 
ought to have able engineers and commercial representatives in 
Italy. Though business is good at home the manufacturers whose 
capacity for production is constantly increasing, should in time se- 
cure such foreign contracts and cultivate foreign fields, or they 
will find themselves idle and out of pocket later on when stagnation 
appears in the home market or home competition makes work 
profitless. Simon W. Hanauee. 

U. S. Ojnsulate, Geneva. 

Dynamos, Motors and transformers. 

Compounding of Alternators. — Heyland. — A long and very inter- 
esting article, illustrated by diagrams, in which he points out the 
great advantages which may be obtained with his "non-synchronous 
alternator," based upon the same principle as his induction motor 
with power factor equal to unity (Digest, Aug. 31, Oct. 19, Nov. 30, 
Dec. 14, 21 ; also Electrical World and Engineer, Sept. 28, p. 492). 
The first part of the present article deals with the compounding of 
the ordinary alternator. He thinks that the compounding devices 
of Leblanc and of Steinmetz are ingenious, but quite complicated, as 
they use a converter connected with the generator, and transforming 
a part of the armature current of the alternators into direct current, 
which is used for compounding. He describes the following method 
of compounding an ordinary alternator ("synchronous alternator"). 
Fig. 1 represents a two-pole synchronous alternator ; 5" is the stator, 

but not the motor. In this case, a partial compounding of the motor 
may be suitable, which is explained diagrammatically. From the 
foregoing it is seen that this method of compounding requires a spe- 
cial winding on the revolving field system. This is not necessary 
with the Heyland "non-s>Tichronous alternator," which is based upon 
the principle of his induction motor with a power factor equal to 
unity. All that is required in this case is another pair of brushes, 
through which the rotor is supplied with current from the armature. 
His non-compounded, non-synchronous alternator is shown in 
Fig. 2, while the same machine, when compounded, is illustrated in 
Fig. 3. The brushes b b are for excitation, the brushes B B for com- 
pounding. He treats this generator by the graphical methods and 
gets the important result that "the non-synchronous generator of the 
described form has no armature reaction for energy currents, but 
full armature reaction for wattless currents." This property of the 

Figs, i, 2 and 3. — Compounding of Alternators. 

the armature, in the windings of which the alternating current is 
generated. R is the rotor with two poles, in which a constant field is 
generated by direct current. This pole-wheel is also provided with 
a winding, uniformly distributed over the surface as in the Leblanc 
amortisseur, this winding is, however, not completely closed in 
itself, but is connected with a commutator, to which current is sup- 
plied through the brushes B B. If these brushes are connected in 
series with the main winding of the stator (the armature), the con- 
ditions can be arranged in such a way that this compound winding 
compounds the main winding of the stator. As this winding partici- 
pates in the rotation of the field, there is no induction of e. m. f.'s, 
and the voltage between the brushes depends only on the resistance 
of the winding and is very small. He gives diagrams which show 
that the compounding can easily be accomplished by properly arrang- 
ing the ratio of the compound windings to the armature windings 
and the position of the brushes. In designing, it is sufficient to cal- 
culate the conditions approximately. If the armature reaction or the 
straying should be smaller than had been expected, the exact com- 
pounding is obtained by a shunt in parallel to the compound winding, 
i. c., between the brushes B B. A single synchronous alternator 
should be compounded, when it supplies current to a network, but 
parallel operation of several compound alternators is not possible. 
With two machines in parallel, a "mutual" compounding may be used. 
When there are several alternators supplying a network, only one or 
two arc compounded, the others are not. When a synchronous al- 
ternator supplies current to a synchronous motor, the motor is 
compounded, the generator is not, or the generator is compounded, 

non-synchronous alternator may be called the "natural compounding 
for energy currents," as it occurs automatically, without the supply 
of a compounding current, in contrast with the artificial compounding 
described above. This property of the non-synchronous machine is 
of essential importance. On the one hand, the armature reaction for 
wattless currents is absolutely necessary for operation in parallel and 
for power transmission. On the other hand, the armature reaction 
for energy currents is a necessary evil of the synchronous machine 
which one tries to avoid by various means. Large air space, high 
saturation of iron, and even high excitation, are all objection- 
able. The armature reaction limits the overload capacity of syn- 
chronous generators. It causes the motor to lag behind the genera- 
tor by a certain angle, and when this angle gets to be 90 degs. (i. e., 
half the angle between two poles), the synchronous machine falls out 
of step. For the non-synchronous motor there is no such thing like 
this angle of lag. The load which causes the angle of lag for the 
synchronous machine, causes the slip in the non-synchronous ma- 
chine. But the slip is not deleterious, on the contrary it is an elastic 
link in the chain of the transmission of power. The result is that 
with non-synchronous alternators operating in parallel, the degree of 
non-uniformity of the prime mover during one revolution, may not 
be smaller than with direct-current machines. Even operation in 
parallel with directly connected gas engines should be possible. This 
exposition shows that the advantages of the described non-synchron- 
ous alternator or motor over the synchronous machine are not only 
inherent in the non-synchronism of the machine, but in all the 
mechanical and electrical properties. There seems to be practically 

January 4, 1901. 



no overload limit, the problem of the phase difference between cur- 
rent and e. m. f. iinds a much better solution than is even imaginable 
for the synchronous machine, and the problem of the degree of non- 
uniformity of the prime mover may, in fact, be of no greater im- 
portance than for direct-current machines. Especially for large multi- 
polar generators valuable practical success may be hoped for in this 
regard. — Elek. Zeit., Dec. 12. 

Periodic Variations in the Exciting Current of an Inductor Alter- 
nator. — DuDDELL and Marchant. — The last part of their illustrated 
paper. They reach the following conclusions. In any alternator in 
which the rotation of the moving part varies the number of lines of 
force threading the field coils, there is induced a periodic e. ni. f. in 
the field coil which causes a periodic variation in the exciting cur- 
rent, and this effect may be considerable in the case of inductor 
alternators. The exciting current may be considered to consist of 
two parts, namely, a constant current, and a superimposed alternating 
current of twice the frequency of the armature e. m. f. The added 
alternating current is not symmetrical. The amplitude of this cur- 
rent is, owing to the high self-induction of the field coil, to a large 
extent independent of the resistance of the field circuit. When 
the machine is on open circuit, the maximum value of the exciting 
current occurs approximately at the same time that the armature 
e. m. f. has its greatest positive or negative value. When the ma- 
chine is on open circuit, the amplitude of the exciting current wave is 
approximately proportional to the amplitude of the armature e. m. f. 
wave for constant speed. When the machine is on open circuit, the 
amplitude of the exciting current wave is practically independent of 
the speed for a constant mean exciting current. The amplitude of 
the superimposed alternating current in the field is reduced when the 
machine is loaded, and becomes very small when the machine is short- 
circuited. These variations in the exciting current tend to reduce the 
efficiency of the machine due to hysteresis and eddy current losses. 
The e. m. f. induced in the field coil may, under certain conditions, 
endanger its insulation and may produce disturbing effects in any 
other apparatus supplied with current coming from the same source 
as the field excitation, more especially if any of the apparatus behaves 
like a condenser. — Lond. Elec, Dec 13. 


Eddy Currents in Pole Pieces. — An anonymous communication 
giving some mathematical notes on special points in the recent article 
of Picou, on the eddy currents in the pole pieces of direct-current 
dynamos. — L'Ind. Elec, Nov. 25. 

Artificial Loading of Alternating-Current Machinery. — Gold- 
SCHMIDT. — A translation, with illustrations, of the German article, 
recently abstracted in the Digest. — Lond. Elec. Eng., Dec. 13. 

Lights and Lighting. 

Bang Electric Lamp. — A note on a new electric lamp constructed 
by the Danish physician Bang, which is likely to prove of great im- 
portance even outside of the field for which it is intended. In the 
ordinary arc lamp the carbons are heated to some 3000 degs. This is 
avoided in the new lamp by making the carbons hollow and letting 
a strong current of water run through them. The effect is that almost 
the whole of the energy of the electric current is removed to the 
light arc between the two electrodes, while the latter themselves re- 
main so cool that one can touch them with one's finger while the lamp 
is burning. Besides, the carbons are consumed so slowly that the 
usual automatic adjustment can be dispensed with. "In science the 
new lamp will no doubt be invaluable. Its cold light is able to kill 
bacteria in one-eighteenth of the time required with the light of the 
ordinary arc lamp." The electrodes can be made from different sub- 
stances, according to the use for which the lamp is intended. For 
medicinal purposes, carbon, silver and certain kinds of iron appear 
preferable.- — Lond. Eng'ing, Dec. 13. 

Electric Driving in Sibley College. — A reprint of the report of the 
committee consisting of Professors Ryan, Morris and Barr, with rec- 
ommendations upon the use of electric motors in the shops and labora- 
tories of Sibley College. They recommend in all cases standard 
makes of slow-speed direct current, 500-volt motors, and to drive 
the tools in the various laboratories with individual motors. An 
installation of a variable speed motor drive by means of the multiple 
pressure system is also recommended. As there is no supply of al- 
ternating current at present available, no alternating-current motors 
are recommended. — Sibley Jour, of Eng., Dec. 


Electrically-Driven Winding Gear. — An illustrated description of 
an electric winding gear, used in a British colliery for winding from 
a "staple" about 100 yards deep. The gear is driven by a four-pole 
open type motor, capable of working up to 50 efficient horse-power at 
a speed of about 600 r. p. m. — Lond. Elec, Dec. 13. 

Transmission Plant in Mexico. — An article on the gener;)tion and 
transmission of electrical energy by the San Ildefonso Company, 
which has installed two hydro-electric plants for transmitting about 
3600 hp to the City of Mexico, situated about isH miles distant. The 
voltage of the three-phase currents on the transmission line is 20,000. 
In the City of Mexico the current is transformed for distribution to 
2600 volts. — Eng. News, Dec. 12. 

Coal Conveying Plant. — ^An illustrated description of the automatic 
coal-conveyor plant at the Edinburgh electricity works. — Lond. Elec, 
Dec. 13. 

Train Resistance. — Aspinall. — An abstract of a paper read before 
the Brit. Inst, of Civil Eng. on experiments carried out with a dyna- 
mometer car on an English railway. Tests were made at speeds 
varying between 5 and 50 miles per hour on an almost straight line, 
having easy grade cuts. The mean result is embodied in the formula 

^ = 2.5 + 


50.8 -|- 0.0278 L 

in which R is the resistance in pounds per ton, V the velocity of the 
train in miles per hour, and L the length of the train, over coach 
bodies, in feet. — Lond. Elec, Dec. 6. 


Brighton. — An illustrated article on the Brighton Corporation elec- 
tric tramway. The trolley system is used. The power house con- 
tains three generators of together 675 kw. The line has a length of 
1 1.5 miles of single track. — Lond. Elec, Dec. 6. 

Electric Traction Service Without Track. — Schiemann. — A trans- 
lation with the illustrations, of the German article, recently abstracted 
in the Digest. — Lond. Elec. Eng., Dec. 13. 

Automobile. — Delasalle. — The first part of a detailed and well 
illustrated description of the electric automobile Electricia, made by 
Contal. — L'Elec, Nov. 30. 

Installations. Systems and Appliances. 

British Traction and Lighting Plant. — The first part of a well il- 
lustrated description of the municipal plant of Salford. There are 
eight steam-driven generators. They supply current not only for 
the tramways, but also for the general lighting of the borough. It 
was, therefore, necessary to design the dynamos so that they could 
be run as compound-wound machines, giving 525 volts in the former 
case, and as shunt-wound machines giving 480 volts in the latter. 
The output of each dynamo is 775 kw, but each will carry an over- • 
load of 25 per cent, this bringing the capacity up to 1000 kw. For 
balancing the two sides of the three-wire system, three-direct current 
balancing rotary transformers are used, each consisting of two inde- 
pendent four-pole machines. The peculiarity in their construction 
is that both independent armatures of each set are mounted upon one 
and the same axle, so that only two bearings per set are required. The 
commutators are mounted on an extension of the core, so that either 
armature can be readily withdrawn from the shaft for repairs. The 
field magnets are compound, the shunt windings being separately 
excited while the series windings are connected in parallel with one 
another in such a way that the current in the middle wire passes 
through them to the two armatures. In this way the machine, which 
acts as generator at any particular time, has its field strengthened by 
the current in the middle wire, w-hile the field of the motor is at the 
same time weakened. By this means a perfect balance of voltage is 
automatically obtained at all loads. Each balancer is capable of deal- 
ing with an out-of-balance current of 200 amperes in the middle wire. 
The efficiency of the balancer under full load is 80 per cent. — Lond- 
Eng'ing, Dec. 13. 

Wires, Wiring and Conduits. 


Regulations. — A full account of the regulations for wiring in elec- 
tric installations, as proposed by a committee appointed by the French 
Government. — L'Elcc, Nov. 23. 



Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 

Electro-Physics and Magnetism. 
An Electromagnetic Aiwtnaly. — Blondlot. — He recently showed 
that when a mass of air is made to move in a magnetic field at right 
angles to the lines of force, no electric displacement is produced in 
the mass of air. This fact implies another, viz., that a mass of air 
embodying an electric displacement does not undergo any action due 
to a magnetic field. The following experiment is considered : A 
rectangular open circuit A B C D (see the adjoining diagram) is 


connected at A and D with the two armatures A .4' and D £>' of an 
air condenser, both armatures being normal to the plane of the paper 
and enclosed in a box of insulating material. Let this apparatus be 
placed in a uniform magnetic field normal to the paper, and let it be 
displaced along A B. A current will be induced in B C, and the 
Joulean heat, together with the increase of energy of the condenser, 
will form the equivalent of the work done by the agent, which has 
overcome the force, acting upon B C. There is no other external 
work, and, therefore, there is no electromagnetic action of the field 
upon the displacement current in the air condenser. If the principle 
of the equality of action and reaction is now applied, it must be con- 
cluded that a displacement current in air does not exert any magnetic 
action, and that, therefore, from the magnetic point of view, the 
charging current of the condenser is an "open current." This seems 
to bring Maxwell's electromagnetic theory into conflict with the law 
of action and reaction. — Comptcs Rendus, Nov. 25 ; abstracted in 
Lond. Elec, Dec. 13. 

Induction Coil. — Lord Rayleigh. — A theoretical paper on the oper- 
ation of an induction coil operating by means of a break in the pri- 
mary circuit. The mathematical theory of the induction coil is 
given, and in the second part of the paper the action of the primary 
condenser is discussed. Theoretical arguments are advanced to show 
that the use of a condenser in the primary circuit should offer no 
advantage as compared with a sufficiently sudden simple break. He 
also describes some experiments which confirm this view and appear 
to show that the only use of a condenser, in conjunction with an ordi- 
nary break, is to quicken it by impeding the development of an arc, 
so that when a sufficient rapidity of break can be obtained by other 
means, the condenser is deleterious, operating, in fact, in the reverse 
direction, and prolonging the period of decay of the primary circuit. 
The first requirement of a well-designed induction coil is evidently 
the existence of sufficient energy at break, and this implies a con- 
siderable mass of iron, well magnetized, and not forming a circuit 
which is too nearly closed. The full utilization of this energy is im- 
peded by a want of suddenness in the break, by eddy currents in the 
iron, and (in respect to spark-length) by the capacity in the sec- 
ondary. It is to be presumed that in a well-designed coil these im- 
pediments should operate somewhat equally. It would be useless to 
sub-divide the iron, or to reduce the secondary capacity, below cer- 
tain limits, unless at the same time the break could be made more 
sudden. — Phil. Mag., Dec. 

Length of the Break Spark in an Induction Circuit. — Beattie. — An 
;iccount of a series of measurements of the length of the spark which 
appears on suddenly interrupting an inductive circuit. He investi- 
gated the influence of the current and of the material of the break 
poles upon the spark length. The results are given in diagrams ex- 
hibiting much diversity of shape, and indicating that the spark-length 
\aries with the current in different ways for different materials, so 
that the material which gives the longest .spark with a particular 
current does not necessarily give the longest spark with another cur- 
rent. Thus with a current of 15 amperes the spark is longest with 
carbon poles, shortest with platinum ; but on reducing the current to 
3 amperes the easily fusible metals, bismuth and lead, give the longest 
sparks. Perhaps the most interesting point brought out, however, is 
in connection with the behavior of different materials on reversal of 
ihc current. With the metals, iron, copper, tin, nickel, zinc, and with 

carbon, reversing the current produces no perceptible difference in 
the spark-length, but with lead, platinum and aluminum poles the 
tpark-length for the larger currents is notably greater when the fixed 
pole is negative than when it is poistive. — Phil. Mag., Dec. 

Dielectric Strain. — More. — A dielectric placed in an electric field 
is subjected to a tension along the lines of force and a pressure at 
right angles to them, and it is expected that it will show an elonga- 
tion in the direction of the force. Such an elongation has been found 
by Righi and Quincke, but it was much too large and probably not 
due to the dielectric stress at all. Cantone also obtained elongations, 
but they have been placed in doubt by the present author, who, with 
every precaution taken, obtained purely negative results. — Phil. Mag., 
Nov. ; abstracted in Lond. Elec, Dec. 6. 

Measuring Temperature with the Thermopile. — Becquerel. — The 
author's grandfather used the following methods for determining 
underground temperatures at the Natural History Museum of Paris : 
One terminal of an iron-copper couple was brought down to the level 
to be measured, the other was immersed in a bath whose temperature 
could be varried and accurately measured by means of the mercury 
thermometer; the temperature of the bath was so adjusted that the 
galvanometer deflection became zero ; the temperature of the bath 
was then the same as the underground temperature to be measured. 
The present author uses a different method which he calls that of 
the sliding scale. If the junction in the laboratory is kept in ice, a 
galvanometer, such as that of Deprez d'Arsonval, will indicate the 
temperature of the other junction by its deflection, which is prac- 
tically proportional to the difference of temperature. That being the 
case, he does not consider it necessary to keep the junction in ice. 
He simply leaves it at the ordinary temperature, and slides the scale 
of the galvanometer until the latter at its zero reading indicates the 
temperature of the room. On closing the circuit, the galvanometer 
gives directly the temperature of the other junction. A high re- 
sistance should be given to the galvanometer. — Comptcs Rendus, 
Nov. 18; abstracted in Lond. Elec, Dec. 6. 


Crcmicu's E.vperiments. — Poincare. — A long article on Cremieu's 
well-known experiments, which, if they should prove to be correct, 
v«ould revolutionize our electrodynamic theory. To show this would 
be the case, he gives a review of the theories of Ampere, Helmholtz, 
Ma.xwell and Lorentz, and of the contradicting experiments of Row- 
land and Cremieu. The criticisms against Cremieu's work are also 
noticed, and the great importance of the problem, which is at present 
?v\ open question, is pointed out. — Rcz: Gen. des Sc, Nov. 30. 


Electrolytic Dissociation Theory.' — Kahlenberg. — A long paper on 
"The theory of electrolytic dissociation as viewed in the light of 
facts recently ascertained." He gives an account of an experimental 
investigation made by him in co-operation with Koch and Hall. The 
paper is probably the strongest and ablest attack which has been 
mac'e in recent years on the dissociation theory. He first gives a 
historical introduction and a summary of many facts from which 
he concludes that the dissociation theory is untenable in the case of 
non-aqueous solutions. His experimental investigation, however, 
deals with aqueous solutions, the general plan being to determine the 
boiling points of aqueous solutions of typical, common, chemical 
compounds from low to very high concentrations, in order to see 
how the molecular weight changes with the concentration, and at 
the same time to measure the electrical conductivities of such solu- 
tions at or near their boiling points. From the results of both 
measurements he calculates the degree of dissociation, according to 
the theory, and compares the values found in both ways. He also 
measured the '.-onductivity at deg. and made at the same time mole- 
cular weight determinations by the cryoscopic method and compared 
the degrees of dissociation found according to the two methods. The 
results of the very extended investigation is given in tables and dia- 
grams. While in some cases the agreement between the rcsiilts of 
the two methods is good for dilute solutions, it is poor in others, and 
for somewhat stronger solutions there is in general no agreement at 
all. There are solutions which are excellent electrical conductors, 
and yet the molecular weight determinations show a normal mole- 
cular weight of the dissolved substances. While in some cases the 
molecular weight increases with the concentration, thus according 
at least qualitatively with the theory, in other cases the molecular 
weight decreases with the increase of the concentration, finally be- 

January 4, 1901. 



coming less than what it ought to be even on the assumption that elec- 
trolytic dissociation is complete. Again, in other cases the mole- 
cular weight at first increases with the concentration and then it di- 
minishes as the concentration increases. And these phenomena are 
observed in solutions the conductivity of which steadily increases 
with the increase of the dilution. The principal conclusion drawn 
from his experiments is that there is no connection between the freez- 
ing points and boiling points of solutions on the one hand and their 
electrical conductivity on the other, as is claimed by Arrhenius' 
theory. In numerous cases not even a qualitative agreement exists. 
A number of agreements which have been made in favor of the disso- 
ciation theory are briefly discussed. Special stress is laid on Ihe fact 
that "the attempts to harmonize the theory of electrolytic dissocia- 
tion with the law of mass action, have signally failed in the case of 
the electrolysis par excellence" (Ostwald's law for the relation be- 
tween conduction and dilution). The Thomson-Nernst rule for the 
relation between the dissociating power of a solvent, and the dielectric 
constant, is shown to be not generally correct. The dissociation 
theory is thought to be at present at its best in explaining the phe- 
nomena of actual electrolyis. But he claims that there are important 
phenomena of electrolysis which the theory does not explain satis- 
factorily. He says that in pressing the analogy between gases and 
solutions, it has often been forgotten that this is after all simply an 
analogy. The principal difificulty of the present theory of solution is 
said to be, that it neglects the all-important role of the solvent and 
that it fails to emphasize the fact that the process of solution takes 
place because of a mutual attraction between solvent and dissolved 
substance, and that this mutual attraction which is a function of the 
chemical nature of both solvent and dissolved substance, is the es- 
sence of the so-called osmotic pressure. "The dissociation theory has 
done much good in stimulating research in many lines. It has been 
fruitful in proportion to the amount of truth contained in it. Like 
other theories founded upon too narrow a basis of induction, it has 
gradually been outgrown — the facts are too much for it." The prob- 
lem of solutions is pre-eminently one for the chemist and should be- 
gin with the most concentrated solutions. The behavior of the most 
dilute solutions will then appear as a limiting case, and then the 
present theory of solutions will be seen in its true relation to the 
facts. — Jour. Phys. Chcm., June; Bull. Univ. of Wis., No. 47; Science 
Series, No. 5, p. 297. 

Discharge Potentials of Ions. — Coehn. — An abstract of a paper 
read before the Association of German Naturalists and Physicians. 
The discharge potential of metallic ions can be diminished when the 
metal which is being discharged, forms an alloy with the metallic 
cathode. The tendency of the different metals for forming amal- 
gams corresponds to the diminution of their discharge potential at 
a mercury cathode. The following series was found : Zinc, cadmium, 
silver, copper, iron. The discharge potential of hydrogen is di- 
minished only at a palladium cathode, as an alloy is there formed. 
At other electrodes the hydrogen ion. to be discharged, requires a 
certain survoltage for each metal, in agreement with Caspari's meas- 
urements. — Zeit. f. Elektrochemie, Oct. 31. 

Osmotic Pressure Observation. — Oker-Blo.m. — A copper ferrocyan- 
ide membrane is permeable to sodium chloride, although impermeable 
to copper sulphate. He finds that when dilute copper sulphate is placed 
on one side of such a membrane, and a concentrated sodium chloride 
solution on the other, the pressure on the copper sulphate side first 
falls, owing to water passing from it through the membrane. Sodium 
chloride, however, gradually permeates the membrane until the pres- 
sure due to it is the same on both side, so that an excess of pressure 
is produced on the copper sulphate side. — Zeit. f. Phys. Chcm., July 
12 ; abstracted in Science Abstracts, Nov. 

Electrolytic Production of Chlorates. — J. B. C Kershaw. — An il- 
lustrated article on the manufacture of chlorate of potash by the 
National Electrolytic Company, which has been carried on at Niagara 
Falls since 1898. The cell originally used was that patented by 
Franchot and Gibbs, its chief distinctive feature being the use of wire 
gauze cathodes covered with cuprous or cupric oxide. The cell 
yielded a good current efficiency, but the disadvantages attending 
the use of copper oxides as anode material, were found in practice to 
more than counterbalance the gains due to higher current efficiency, 
and the cell now used is a modification of the original form. Its 
construction is described from an English patent specification. The 
cathode is formed by a series of vertical copper wires. The anode is 
lead plate, covered with platinum foil. Some statements of the 
patent are criticised. It is said that it has been long known that 

working with a rapid flow minimizes losses, due to the fact that the 
chlorate formed participates in the electrolysis and is again decom- 
posed. The real difficulty is to find the point at which the highest 
economy is possible. Solutions containing 10 per cent chlorate of 
potash will chrystallize on cooling without artificial aid. Solutions 
containing only 3 per cent will not. Under certain conditions of 
manufacture it may be more paying to work with weak solutions and 
to adopt refrigeration. The chief feature of the cell is the use of 
copper wire cathodes, in place of flat cathodes of platinum or other 
metal. The hydrogen gas liberated at the surface of these wires 
quickly detaches itself, owing to their rounded surface, and there is 
less trouble experienced from coating of the cathode with a film or 
with bubbles of hydrogen than with other forms of cathode. It is 
questioned, however, whether the use of copper as cathode material 
in a cell which necessarily contains hypochlorite as intermediate 
product of the electrolysis is wise, and probably still more satisfactory 
results would be obtained, if platinum alloy were substituted as 
cathode material. The original supply of the National Electrolytic 
Company at Niagara was 5000 amperes direct current at 175 volts. 
Early in 1901 the capacity and output of the works have been doubled. 
— Lond. Elec, Dec. 13. 

Calciutn Carbide and Acetylene in Austria-Hungary. — A note 
stating that during the last year promising progress has been made in 
Austria-Hungary in the introduction of acetylene light. The State 
railways and other railway companies adopted it for their stations. 
Austria has five carbide plants. The aggregate power of these and 
others under construction being 80,000 hp. Three companies have 
formed a kind of trust, called the "cartell." Their carbide enjoys a 
good reputation and an acetylene generation of 280 liters per kilo- 
gram of carbide is guaranteed. Foreign competition is not feared in 
.\ustria, as there is a very high import duty on carbide.— Lond. 
Eng'iiig, Dec. 13. 


Prcquency Meter.—MAyszKTTi.—A description of an instrument 
which has a moving system consisting of a copper disk and a paral- 
lelopiped of laminated iron, rigidly connected, one above the other, 
and suspended by a silk fiber. Each is acted upon by an independent 
pair of coils. The two pairs of coils are connected in parallel across 
the circuit with an adjustable resistance in series with one pair. The 
torque exerted on the iron is independent of the frequency, while 
that on the copper being due to Foucault currents, is a function of it. 
If then the two pairs of coils be so adjusted that for any given fre- 
quency the torques exerted by them are equal and opposite, there will 
be no deflection, but for a dififerent value of the frequency a deflec- 
tion will be produced which can be annulled by adjusting the resis- 
tance in series with one pair. The measurement of the frequency is re- 
duced to a zero adjustment of the instrument, and a measurement of 
a resistance ratio. In tests made by the author the instrument proved 
correct within the limits of accuracy with which he was able to de- 
termine the frequency. The instrument can measure very low fre- 
quencies, but its readings might be falsified by self-induction at high 
ones.—Acc. Lincei Atti, 10, p. 157; abstracted in Science Abstracts, 

Deformation of Alternating Current Curves.— Wwm.—Kn illus- 
trated description of a new apparatus for exhibiting the deformations 
of the curves of alternating-current waves. It consists of a kind of 
combined telephone and sensitive flame apparatus. A polarized elec- 
tromagnet is made of a steel magnet 25 cm. long, and a straight elec- 
tromagnet in such a way that the wire of the latter overlaps the for- 
mer, with the two axes coinciding. Facing the core of the electro- 
magnet is a box, such as used by Koenig in his experiments on sound. 
The membrane which closes the box is provided with a small arma- 
ture of soft iron, and the outer surface of the box is provided with 
the usual gas jet. An alternating current passing through the elec- 
tromagnet produces vibrations of the armature and membrane, and 
makes the flame sing. The singing flame can be photographed in the 
ordinary manner, and the deformation of the current curve appear on 
the negative. He reproduces photographs obtained from currents 
with various capacities and inductances.— ^;i)i. dcr Physik., Nov. 11 ; 
abstracted in Lond. Elec, Nov. 29. 


Dynamometric flraAv.?.— Guillaume.— The conclusion of his illus- 
trated article in which the dynamometric brakes of Feussner and of 
Rieter are described. He gives some theoretical notes on the action 



Vol. XXXIX.. No. i. 

of djTiamometric and electromagnetic brakes. He notes that they can 
be used as hysteresis meters and describes the use of a Pasqualini 
brake for testing a dynamo. — L'Eclairage Elec, Nov. 23. 

Calorimetry. — Hubb.^rd. — A second article on this subject, the 
present one treating of the use of the separator calorimeter. — Am. 
Elec, Dec. 

Telegraphy. Telephony and Signals. 

London. — The first part of a well illustrated description of the cen- 
tral exchange of the London Post Office telephones. The main feat- 
ures of the new service are: The adoption of the Western Electric 
common battery system ; the use of underground conductors ; pro- 
vision for a toll rate of charging and intercommunication v^rith the 
truck lines to provincial towns and other exchanges. — LonJ. Elec. 
Rev., Dec. 6. 

Kensington. — The first part of an illustrated description of the 
new Kensington (England) exchange in the National Telephone Com- 
pany's metropolitan area. The exchange is equipped with a luminous 
signal switchboard, embodying all the most recent developments of 
the central battery system, and the e.xtremely simple method of oper- 
ating is identical with that of the new exchange of the post office in 
London, but the actual details of the exchange equipment differ from 
the latter, as the company, while employing the Western Electric 
Company's central battery switchboard and accessories, has profited 
by its own experience in such matters as leading-in and the wiring 
of the switchboard. — Lond. Elec, Dec. 6. 


Telephony in the United States. — A statistical article on the present 
conditions of the telephone industry in the United States ; an illus- 
trated description of some typical telephone exchanges ; also illus- 
trated description of new telephone apparatus and appliances made 
by American manufacturers. — Elec Rev., Dec. 14. 


Electric Arc Light for Treating Skin Diseases. — An illustrated 
article on the application in the London Hospital, of intensely actinic 
light to the cure of lupus and other skin diseases. The object at- 
tained is to enable the electric arc to be used within a short distance 
of the patient's skin. The effect is to increase the area treated and to 
shorten the time of application. Two different types of apparatus 
are described — the enclosed pattern and the open pattern. — Lond. 
Elec, Dec. 13. 

New Books. 

Die Theorie des Bleiaccumulatores. Von Dr. Friedrich Dolezalek. 

Halle: Wilhelm Knapp. 122 pages, 30 illustrations. Price, 6 

This is one of the most creditable books in the rapidly growing 
literature on theoretical electro-chemistry. From the first to the 
last page it is limited to the discussion of the one subject — the theory 
of the lead accumulator. But notwithstanding this apparent limita- 
tion, the book really contains much more, as there is no volume of 
equal size known to the reviewer which gives an equally original and 
thorough exposition and demonstration of apparently all the numer- 
ous methods and principles involved in modern electro-chemistry 
and physical chemistry. The book is indeed the work of a master. 
It is also of great didactic value to engineers. There arc several ways 
of learning a language, either by studying a grammar systematically, 
or through practice by listening and trying to speak, or by reading 
a good book and learning the grammatical rules while doing so, when- 
ever occasion is offered. It is similar in studying electro-chemistry. 
The reviewer has the highest respect for the thick volumes of Ost- 
wald's and Nernst's handbooks, and thinks that as reference books 
they have no equal ; but he has always regarded them with the same 
reverence as he did his voluminous Greek and Latin grammars years 
ago. The engineer who, in his short leisure hours, attempts to study 
them thoroughly, must be courageous. It is a different thing with 
Dolezalck's little book. The lead storage cells is a thing which in- 
terests the engineer in itself. He is more or less familiar with its 
practical behavior and is naturally interested in understanding its 
theory. By studying Dolezalek's book he is led, step by step, to the 
different principles of modern physical chemistry. He s_ees that they 
arc not only purely scientific speculations, but they can be applied to 
practical prriblcms. He sees how they arc applied, and gets in this 

way a working knowledge of the principles which may be of great 
value for him in the investigation of other problems. 

The first chapter deals with the chemical reaction during charge 
and discharge of the lead storage battery, which is assumed to be a 
completely reversible cell in the sense of the sulphate theory, first 
brought forward by Gladstone and Tribe. The equations of this 
theory are given, together with a detailed review of the various ex- 
perimental researches of different authors, which prove that the theory 
really accounts for the facts in so far as the consumption and for- 
mation of the materials in the cell during charge and discharge oc- 
cur strictly in accordance with the equations of the sulphate theory. 
The diverging theories of Darrieus and Elbs are noticed and the points 
are shown where they fail. On pages 8 to 10 of this chapter, Caspari's 
hypothesis of the over-pressure or sur-voltage (Ueberspannung) is 
applied to the lead accumulator. This application (made in a paper 
of Nernst and Dolezalek in 1900) has been severelj' criticized by Mr. 
C. J. Reed in a paper in the January, 1901, issue of the Journal of 
Physical Chemistry; his criticism seems convincing, or at least it has 
not yet been refuted in the current literature. 

The second chapter gives the thermodynamic proof of the sulphate 
theory. It is shown that the e. m. f. calculated on the basis of the 
sulphate theory by means of Helmholtz's formula (the modified 
Thomson rule) is in agreement with the facts. This proof is given 
for various densities of the acid. 

The third chapter deals with the application of Nernst's osmotic 
theory of galvanic cells to the lead accumulator. As is well known, 
this theory is based on the hypothesis of a solution tension which 
between a reversible electrode and the electrolyte, acts in a precisely 
similar way as the vapor tension does between a liquid and its vapor. 
There are two dift'erent osmotic theories of the lead cell, one by Le- 
blanc and the other by Liebenow. Both agree in the assumption that 
the lead electrode is reversible in regard to bivalent Pb ions, but they 
differ regarding the peroxide plate, which is assumed by Leblanc 
to be reversible in regard to four-valent positive Pb ions and by 
Liebenow in regard to bivalent negative lead peroxide ions. Both 
theories lead to the same final conclusions. The equations represent- 
ing these theories arc given and Nernst's formula for the e. m. f. at 
a reversible electrode is applied to Liebenow's theory. In the re- 
viewer's opinion both these theories are certainly ingenious, but they 
appear to him to be somewhat artificial, and have not yielded any re- 
sult which had not been obtained before in a different and less 
hypothetical way. Nevertheless, the theories are good examples to 
show how the Nernst theory can also be applied to cases where it 
does not seem to be applicable at first ; for here we have not simply a 
metal in the solution of one of its salts, as in the ordinary applica- 
tions of Nernst's formula. 

The fourth chapter deals with the variation of the e. m. f. with the 
acid concentration. A summary is given of the experimental re- 
searches on this point, which is followed by a very interesting and 
ingenious thermodynamic calculation. Two storage batteries filled 
with acid of different densities are connected in series, but one against 
the other. The combination of these two cells is a source of electrical 
energy. The total result of the discharge is the transport of sul- 
phuric acid from the more concentrated solution to the less concen- 
trated solution, and of water from the latter to the former. The 
e. m. f. of the combination of the two cells is directly proportoinal 
to the change of the free energy in the system, which can be calcu- 
lated in two different ways — either from the heat-toning of the 
transport of acid and water and from the temperature coefficient of 
the e. m. f. of the combination (Helmholtz's modification of Thom- 
son's rule) or by the process of isothermic distillation with the aid 
of a method formerly used by Helmholtz for an analogous calcula- 
tion. The e. m. f. of the combination of the two batteries can thus 
also be calculated in two different ways. It evidently represents the 
difference of the e' m. f.'s of the two cells with different acid concen- 
tration, or in other words, the variation of the e. m. f. with the acid 
concentration. The agreement between these calculations and meas- 
urements is excellent While the calculations are generally valid, 
they can be greatly simplified for the special case of dilute solutions. 
This is done, and it is also shown that the simplified fornuila can also 
be obtained from Liebenow's theory and also directly from the law 
of chemical mass action. This simpler formula is also examined ex- 
perimentally and found to be correct. 

The fifth chapter deals with the variation of the potential differences 
at each electrode separately, with the acid concentration. The varia- 
tion of the potential difference of each separate electrode against a 

January 4, 1901. 



normal electrode, is investigated; as a normal electrode, the hydrogen 
electrode is iisd first, and then the mercurous sulphate electrode ; but 
the author correctly remarks that in this way he does not get the 
variation of the e. m. f. at the accumulator plate alone, which is what 
is wanted, but he gets it in combination with the variation of the 
e. m. f. at th'. normal electrode, which is not wanted. A somewhat 
better insight into the variation of the e. m. f. at each accumulator 
plate separately is obtained by the study of certain concentration 
cells, which is made. Again the special case of dilute solutions is 
taken up and the simple formula representing the same is directly 
developed from Nernst's theory of concentration cells. All these in- 
vestigations are e.xperimentally e.xamined and confirmed. 

The sixth chapter deals with the temperature coefficient of the 
e. m. f. of the accumulator. The interesting result is brought out that 
the temperature coefficient is negative for dilute acid, below a con- 
centration of 0.7 grammolecule of acid per liter. At this concentra- 
tion the temperature coefficient is. zero, and above it positive, first in- 
creasing to a maximum and then decreasing again slowly. The seventh 
chapter deals with the influence of the pressure upon the e. ni. f. A 
simple calculation (similar to that in the fourth chapter) is given, 
which shows that this influence is very small, and that when 8.8 per 
cent acid is used, there is a decrease of the e. m. f. by 0.0012 volt for 
an increase of the pressure to 100 atmospheres, in agreement with 

The eighth and ninth chapters are of e.xtreme importance, as a 
general discussion is given there of the influences to which the char- 
acteristic forms of the charge and discharge curves are due, together 
with a discussion of the important question of the full reversibility 
of the electro-chemical action of the cell. The main question is, Win- 
is the average voltage at charging higher by several tenths of a volt 
than the average voltage at discharge? It is shown that it is impossi- 
ble to explain this difference of the charge and discharge voltages 
as being due to the voltage lost in overcoming the ohmic resistance. 
It is convincingly shown that this difference is due to concentration 
changes of the electrolyte. The electro-chemical action during 
charge causes an increase of the concentration in the pores of both 
plates. During discharge both these concentrations decrease. Now, 
it is a fact that the e. m. f. increases with the concentration of the 
acid. At the usual current densities the average e. m. f. at charging 
is about 0.08 volt higher than corresponds to the acid density. Dur- 
ing discharge it is lower by about the same amount. To explain this, 
it is only necessary to assume that the acid concentration in the pores 
of the plates during charge is higher by 10 per cent than in the space 
between the plates, and during discharge lower by the same amount ; 
in fact, there are here also e. m. f.'s between the differently dense 
parts of the electrolyte, but the author is justified in neglecting them, 
as they are negligible against the e. m. f.'s at the electrodes. A criti- 
cal analysis of the characteristic forms of the charge and discharge 
curves is given. Experimental facts are summed up which show that 
the electro-chemical action in the lead cell is fully reversible ; i. e., 
that the chemical process during charge is represented by exactly the 
same equation as that during discharge, but goes on in the opposite 
direction ; in fact, the lower the current density the more will the 
difference vanish between the e. m. f. of discharge and the counter 
e. m. f. of charge. It is shown that while both plates participate in 
the concentration changes causing the difference between the two 
e. m. f.'s, the pero.xide plate predominates. On page 68, in calculat- 
ing in detail the concentration change at the peroxide electrode, it is 
said that the increase by two molecules of water with a simultaneous 
decrease of 1.19 molecule of acid, is equivalent to a decrease of acid 
by 1.28 molecules of acid. It is evident that this cannot be a full 
equivalent. If it is meant that both changes would produce the same 
variation of concentration, it can be correct only for a certain amount 
of electrolyte in the pores of the plate, hence only for a special type 
and size of plate. The number 1.6, which the author derives, cannot, 
therefore, be used for general calculations. 

In the tenth chapter the processes in the cell on open circuit arc 
discussed — recovery, self-discharge at open circuit and sulphating 
The eleventh chapter deals with experimental researches on the in- 
ternal resistance, the twelfth with the ampere-hour capacity; various 
empirical formulas for the relation between capacity and current rate 
are noticed and a theoretical formula is developed which is at least 
correct for small currents. The influence of the thickness of the 
active mass of the plates, of the acid concentration, and of the tem- 
perature upon the capacity, is discussed. The last chapters deal with 
the efficiency, the processes in the cell during formation, and with 

methods of measurement. The book is concluded by Lunge and 
Isler's table of specific gravities and concentrations of aqueous solu- 
tions of sulphuric acid. 

Par.\llel Tables of and Squares. Feet, Inches and 
Fractions of a Foot Expressed in Decimals of a Foot and Ad- 
vancing by One-thirty-second of an Inch. By Constantine 
Smoley, C. E. Cleveland, Ohio : Constantine Smoley. 212 pages. 
Price, $3- 
This is a book of tables pure and simple, containing in parallel 
columns the square and the logarithms of dimensions from zero to 
50 ft. expressed in feet, inches and fractions of inches, advancing by 
steps of 1-32 of an inch each. A table of five-place logarithms of 
numbers is bound in with the tables as are also a few pages of ex- 
planation and practical examples. Naturally such a volume is of 
ittle value to an electrical engineer, but architects and more particu- 
hrly engineers engaged in structural problems should find it a great 
time saver. The author sets forth in his preface the method he has 
di vised and employed for calculating the squares. It is too long to 
abstract here, but most interesting. From the description of the 
double checking by two other methods that was applied, it would 
seem that in all human probability the tables are errorless. 

Outlines of Electro-Chemistrv. By Harry C. Jones. New York : 
Electrical Review Publishing Company. 106 pages, 13 illustra- 
tions. Price, $1.50. 

.\ more appropriate title for this book would be "Outlines of Theo- 
retical Electro-Chemistry," as the author refers briefly only once or 
twice to the application of electro-chemical methods in engineering 
practice. Nor does the book pretend to be a systematic treatise on 
theoretical electro-chemistry, as it deals only with several particu- 
larly interesting and important features but treats them more or less 
fully. After a brief historical introduction, the author discusses in 
the two first chapters the laws of the osmotic pressure and the theory 
of electrolytic dissociation. The first explanation of the term osmotic 
pressure is somewhat brief and could be extended to advantage, as 
the idea of osmotic pressure is really difficult to grasp by the be- 
ginner. In the description of the fundamental experiment proving 
the existence of osmotic pressure (page 7) it should have been ex- 
plained that the difference of the pressures on the two sides of a 
semi-permeable diaphragm, measures the partial pressure of the sub- 
tance to which the diaphragm is impermeable. The meaning of the 
experiment would thus become clearer. The significance of the 
analogy between osmotic pressure and gas pressure is well brought 
out by the author, as is also the line of argument which led Arr- 
henius to the dissociation theory. 

In the third chapter the dissociation theory is applied to some in- 
teresting problems of a chemical nature. The fourth chapter gives 
a brief account of Faraday's law, a short review of the electro- 
chemical theories of Davy, Berzelius and Grotthus. and a detailed 
and clear review of the present views of the theory of ions with ref- 
erence to the process of the elctrolysis of acids, bases and salts; the 
"primary" decomposition of water is explained according to Le- 
blanc ; the decomposition value of an electrolyte is discussed and a 
few notes are given on the electrolytic separation of metals. The 
fifth chapter deals with the determination of the relative and abso- 
lute velocities of the ions; the sixth and seventh with the conduc- 
tivity of solution; Kohlrausch's law is given; the conductivity of 
electrolytes is shown to be a measure of their dissociation ; the disso- 
ciating power of different solvents is discussed and the relation be- 
tween the degree of dissociation and dilution ; at the end of this 
chapter an instructive review is given of the different modes by 
which ions are formed. The last three chapters deal with the calcu- 
lation of the e. m. f. of galvanic cells, and especially Kcrnst's theory 
of solution-tension ; and outline his theory of concentration cells. 
It would have been better perhaps if in these three chapters less 
mathematics had been given, but it must be conceded that the author 
has endeavored to bring out the physical meaning of the equations. 

At some parts of the book the author seems to presuppose more 
knowledge than beginners generally have. On page 43. for instance, 
he uses the law of chemical mass action which he has not explained. 
On page 79 he remarks that the charge of a univalent gramion is 
96,540 coulombs ; where this very important number comes from, 
should be clearly explained in connection with Faraday's law. The 
author's statement of Faraday's law is too qualitative. It should be 



Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 

given in a strict numerical form, as it is in such a form that it is 
required in practice. But, on the whole, it must be said that the 
author understands how to treat his subject in an interesting and 
clear way. His book is easy reading, it is brief and covers only 
the principal points. These are properties which should recom- 
mend it especially to a busy electrical engineer. The author is right 
when he says in the preface that an engineer must be familiar with 
much which apparently belongs to pure science, in order to be able 
to see what can be put to practical use. 

Electric G.\s Lighting. By H. S. Norrie. New York: Spon & 
Chamberlain. loo pages, 57 illustrations. Price, cloth, 50 cents. 

This book consists primarily of descriptions of the different elec- 
tric gas lighting attachments and other apparatus used in connection 
therewith, such as spark coils, batteries, etc., with some very ele- 
mentary theoretical disquisitions. The descriptions are clear, and 
altogether the book is well written. The information, though ele- 
mentary, is of a practical kind, and would enable a person of reason- 
able intelligence, who was unfamiliar with the subject to install a 
system of electric gas lighting. 

There are six chapters in the book, entitled, respectively, 'Intro- 
ductory Remarks," "Multiple Gas Lighting," "Connections and Wir- 
ing," "Primary Coils and Safety Devices," "Lighting Large Build- 
ings," and "How to Select Batteries for Gas Lighting." 

A Manual of Laboratory Physics. By H. M. Tory, M. A., and 
F. H. Pitcher, M. Sc. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 288 
pages, 63 illustrations. Price, |2. 

Although there are a great number of standard works extant on 
the subject of laboratory physics, the book before us will prove ex- 
tremely useful, and will surely hold its own among its rivals. It is 
written in a terse, concise manner, illustrated by simple well-drawn 
diagrams, and it shows a wise discretion in the amount of mathe- 
matics used in its pages. 

The book is divided into five chapters, the briefest being devoted 
to sound, the longest to electricity. The three remaining chapters 
are devoted to light, heat and magnetism. References to standard 
works are freely given, and examples, with blanks to be filled in by 
the students, will prove extremely useful. This work can be heartily 

Practical Marine Engineering. By William F. Durand. New 
York: Marine Engineering. Incorporated. 706 pages, illustra- 
ted. Price, $5. 

The purpose of the author in the preparation of this book has been 
to serve operative marine engineers, especially those who have not 
had the advantages of higher engineering education. The work is 
hence, to a considerable extent, descriptive, although the greater part 
of it is devoted to the statement and explanation of the principles 
affecting the operation of marine machinery and of the problems 
which arise in its management, care and repair. The i^eld covered 
is, therefore, the middle ground between that of the advanced text- 
books used in technical schools and that of the handbooks which 
give information without explanation and leave the practical engi- 
neer, when his need does not fall exactly within their rules, adrift 
on a sea of uncertainty. 

Beginning with the composition, physical properties and tests of 
materials of engineering, the author elaborates his subject through 
successive chapters upon fuels, boilers, engines and auxiliaries, the 
operation and management of marine machinery, valves and valve 
gears, the steam engine indicator, special topics and problems re- 
lating to the preceding, propulsion and powering, refrigeration and 
electricity on shipboard. A section giving the methods of computa- 
tion in elementary problems in arithmetic, geometry, mensuration, 
physics and mechanics with a list of questions on the subject-mat- 
ter, completes the work. 

The treatment of this wide range of topics is marked by sim- 
plicity and directness, and, in not a few instances, by a fullness of 
information which would scarcely be expected in a work of this 
class. Thus, for example, the section relating to boilers is not only 
ample in description but gives much referring to design and to the 
cause and prevention of corrosion and scale. Again, under the 
heading of boiler and engine economy, much valuable information 
is given as to the economic regimen of marine machinery in service, 
with regard especially to evaporation, expansion, coal consumption 

and related problems. Under propulsion and powering the author 
handles topics which are unusual in text-books of a general charac- 
ter, such as the powering of ships, the reduction of power when tow- 
ing and trial trips and their lessons. 

Professor Durand's purpose in the preparation of this work has 
met, in its execution, a marked measure of success. He has given 
not only a fairly complete presentation of his subject from a prac- 
tical viewpoint, but has discussed also, in clear and simple language 
a number of somewhat difficult problems which have been handled 
heretofore only by mathematical processes. The book is well printed 
on fair paper, the illustrations are ample and effective, but the bind- 
ing is flimsy and unworthy. 

BOOK note. 
The second edition of Steinmetz's "Alternating-Current Phe- 
nomena" has been translated into French by M. Mouzet. A French 
translation of the same author's "Theoretical Elements of Electrical 
Engineering" is now being made by M. Letheule. A French transla- 
tion of Behrend's "Induction Motor" will also soon be issued. 

BOOKS received. 

Elektro-Ingenieur Kalender, 1902. By Arthur H. Hirsch and 
Franz Wilking. Berlin : Oscar Coblentz. 209 pages, illustrated. 
Price, 2.50 marks. 

Recherches Experimentales sur les Spectres D'Etincelles. By 
G. A. Hemsalech. Paris : A. Hermann. 138 pages, illustrated. 
Price, 6 francs. 

Les Theories Electriques de J. Clerk Maxwell. By M. P. 
Duhem. Paris : A. Hermann. 228 pages. Price, 8 francs. 

English Electric Locomotives. 

We show herewith two types of English electric locomotives, both 
for railroad siding service and one employing a storage battery. 

The locomotive shown in Fig. i was built by Thomas Parker, 
Limited, of Wolverhampton, and is similar in type to those made by 
the same company for the Waterloo & Baker Street underground 
line. It is of standard gauge, and will be employed for siding service. 
It has a capacity for hauling 45 tons on a grade of i per cent at about 
four or five miles per hour, and lighter loads up the same grade at 
speeds up to eight miles per hour. The motor can be lifted from its 
place for inspection or repair without resorting to the use of a crane. 
In tbo •■■■-•* •'^••••- 'J :■ ^■■"_r .':.-•, •- ..,.- of the supports, to which a 
set , itor is suspended by means 


of an eye-bolt on the top of the casing. When in its normal position 
the motor is below the footboard, and the whole is covered in with 
plates. The motor is of the four-pole, enclosed ironclad type, with 
carbon brushes. The armature winding is of the Eickemeyer type. 
The magnet yoke and the cover arc cast together, with the division on 
the horizontal diameter. The motor develops from 40 to 50 brake 
Iwrse-power when supplied with current at 200 volts. It is made 
X)th with water and dust-proof, but with lids arranged so that access 
may be obtained to the brushes. 

January 4, 1901. 



Tlie motor works through double reduction gear, with two counter- 
shafts, gearing at each end of the spindle into these countershafts, 
which are on the same horizontal line as the center line of the axles, 
so that the moving of the locomotive on the springs does not affect 
the teeth, which are in gear with the axle gear wheels. The controll- 
ing switches are placed in a box at one side and fastened to the hand 
railing. The starting, stopping, regulating and reversing switches are 
all operated by one handle. The brake handle is also w-ithin easy 
reach of the driver. The current is collected bv a trollev arm. which 


does not appear in our engraving. .\n ordinary tram car trolley 
base is fixed on the locomotive foot-plate, and rises through a hole 
in the roof. The complete weight of this locomotive is 125^2 tons. 

The locomotive shown in Fig. 2 was recently built at the works of 
Messrs. Tweedales & Smalley, of Castleton, near Manchester, to be 
used on their siding connected with the Lancashire & Yorkshire Rail- 
way. The locomotive is equipped with 60 Monobloc accumulators. 
These cells, for which Drake & Gorham, of London, are the selling 
agents, have a capacity of 525 ampere-hours, and are capable of charg- 
ing or discharging at 105 amperes for 5 hours, 125 amperes for 3''2 
hours, or 390 amperes for i hour. It is claimed for these cells that 
vibration does not dislodge the active material, and that there is no 
buckling or breaking of the plates. 

The block of the positive material is composed of punched sheets 
of lead, built up from the bottom of the cell, so as to form one homo- 
geneous mass, which is cross-tied at all points to give the maximum 
mechanical strength. The holes punched in these horizontal sheets 
also form a casing and receptacle for the negative electrodes, which 
are in the form of vertical pencils. The positive block is formed by 
a special variation of the Plante process, which insures a dense and 
closely adherent coating that has been shown in actual practice on a 
large scale to resist the disintegrating effects of rapid discharges. 
Free circulation for the acid is provided at all points throughout the 


cell, and the arrangement also insures the even distribution of the 
electric current throughout the mass, which is essential in every 
well-designed accumulator. 

The locomotive, which is capable of drawing 120 tons, is mounted 
on two axles, with four wheels 43 inches in diameter. Each axle 
is geared to an enclosed traction motor, supplied by the Electric Con- 
struction Company, of London & Wolverhampton, and geared to the 
axle by double-reduction, machine-cut spin gear, having a total ratio 
of 20 to I. Each motor gives a horizontal effort at the tread of the 
wheels of 2500 lbs. The motors also give 1000 lbs, horizontal effort 

at from 3 to 4 miles per hour, with 68 amperes and 120 volts. They 
are specially designed to operate in conjunction with storage batteries. 
The controller is of the series-parallel type, effecting these com- 
binations on the motors, and not by manipulation of the battery. The 
locomotive is complete with instruments for registering charge and 
discharge of the battery, and controlling the locomotive from either 
end for shunting operations. The total weight, in running order, is 
22 tons. At trials recently conducted, the locomotive started with 
ease under the maximum load required, and under perfect control. 
In shifting operations in connection with freight yards there is doubt- 
less a considerable field for the electric locomotive, for not only is the 
risk of fire among timber and other inflammable goods avoided, but 
actual economy should result from the fact that the ordmary locomo- 
tive has to be kept under steam for many hours in order to be avail- 
able for comparatively short periods of use. Apart from this, the 
labor required for the manipulation of an electric locomotive is con- 
siderably less than that which has to be provided for its rival, the 
steam locomotive. 

Electric Cranes. 

The accompanying illustrations refer to a type of electric crane re- 
cently placed on the market by the Case Manufacturing Company, 
of Columbus, Ohio. As will be seen, the girders are of the "fish- 
belly type," which lends grace to the appearance and reduces to a 
minimum the amount of unnecessary material to be moved back and 
forth, thus increasing the efficiency of the bridge movement. The 
girders are of bo.x-section, which alone is conducive to lateral 
rigidity, but in addition to this I-beams are used for top and bottom 
cover plates. This makes the girders most rigid and permits opera- 
tion if necessary at a high rate of speed. 

These girders rest on top of the end trucks, thus placing the strain 
on the plates and angles used in the make-up of the girders, instead 
of on rivets or bolts. The end trucks are constructed of two steel 
channels of heavy section, and these are held rigidly together by 
heavy bolts and are stiffened by cast iron separators and truck cast- 
ings, which in turn support the axles of the truck wheels. The wheel 
base is considerably wider than general practice, thus not only dis- 
trihuting the load econoinically on crane runways, but also reducing 
to a minimum the possibility of the girders getting out of square with 
the crane runways. The method of fastening girders to the end 
trucks also tends to eliminate this possibility, the results of which 
are occasionally noticed in the -breaking of flanges on bridge truck 


wheels or the necessity of frequently moving the crane to the end 
of the building in order to right it by running it against the buffers. 

The bridge and trolley truck wheels arc in all cases of cast steel. 
It has been found advisable to adopt this material for the reason that 
cast iron wheels with chilled treads are somewhat uncertain as far 
as the chill is concerned, this varying in thickness to such an ex- 
tent that it cannot be relied upon. The flanges of these wheels are 
heavy enough to permit of long service before they are worn to the 
point where it is necessary to renew them. 

The crane, as a whole, is driven by the application of power at the 



Vol. XXXIX.. No. i. 

center of the bridge, and the foot brake, which is controlled in the 
operator's cage, is applied at the same point. This prevents torsion 
of the propelling shafting, and the possibility of moving one end of 
the crane faster, or stopping it sooner, than the other. 

The chief point of interest in connection with the trolley is its 
short wheel base, which affords the maximum travel of the hook ; or, 
in other words, the near approach of the hook to the runway rails at 
either end of crane, in this way making the crane effectively cover a 
large area of floor space. The construction of the trolley further- 
more makes it possible to raise the hook to an unusual height with 
respect to the top of the runway rails. The trolley frames are cast 
iron box section, and bearings are equipped with removable caps, 
which reduces to a minimum the time required for making repairs 
or fitting new parts. 

The pinions are made of cast steel, and the gears of a superior 
quality of cast iron. They are of wide face and small pitch, which 
tend to eliminate noise during operation, and are machine-cut from 
the solid, with the exception of the main drum gear and its mating 
pinion. These latter are shrouded to the pitch line on both sides of 
the teeth, w-hich insures perfect centers and great strength. 

The mechanical brake, which is very generally conceded to be one 
of the most important points in design and construction of a travel- 
ing crane, is different from anything heretofore in use. The prin- 
ciple is similar to that of several brakes now on the market in so 
far as the method of application is concerned. The braking power 
or friction is obtained, however, by a quite radically different method. 
Where it is desired that the crane be equipped with an auxiliary 
hoist, this movement is, like the main hoist, equipped with both me- 
chanical and electrical brakes; and in no case are less than two strands 
of chain or cable used to the hook, which insures a vertical lift which 
cannot be obtained where but one strand is used. 

The motors used are of the scries wound, reversible type, especially 
designed for cranr <ervicc, and opcrnt.- n' cvr.'pti.inally ■ilnw speeds. 

tic. In a report of tests made with this lamp by Col. Holdcn, F. R. S.. 
superintendent of the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich, it is stated that 
the initial watts were 2.53 per candle. 2.84 watts at the end of 500 

1 11 - I .\.\I) 2, — BIFURC.\TKn I..\MI'. 

hours and 3.35 watts at the end of 1000 hours. Colonel Holden 
commends the lamp highly, and expresses the opinion that it has 
reached the commercial stage of development. With more recent 
lamps it is st.Tted that te't- lia\c showi: an ecdniiniy ranging from 

Fig. 2. — Electric Cr.vne. 

This latter feature adds greatly to ihe efficiency 

)f the crane as a 

Titanium Incandescent Lamp. 

An interesting type nl incandescent l;inip has recently been 
brought before the electrical public in England, known as the Craw- 
ford-Voelker lamp, the inventor of which, Mr. William Lawrence 
Voelkcr, is an American citizen. Not only is an entirely new fila- 
ment employed, but the bulb represents a distinct new departure. 

The material of the filament is carbide of titanium, and in its 
preparation the electric furnace is used. The inventor claims to 
have discovered a method of effecting a chemical union between sev- 
eral of the rare earths, thereby enabling him to produce for the first 
time a true carbide filament. In length the filament is miirh shorter 
than the corresponding carbon filament, and it is both tough and elas- 

i.6iS to 2.16 watts per cp. .'\s compared with the high economy 3. 1 
carbon filament lamp, these results will be recognized as of striking 
significance. Another point claimed for the lamp is that there is 
practically no discoloration of the bulb during the life of the 

A filament of this material has been perfected for 500 volts, which 
marks a highly important advance in the art. This led to the de- 
sign of a new type of bulb, which, however, has also important ad- 
vantages for use with lower voltages. Various attempts have pre- 
viously been made to do away with the danger of arcing or "wash- 
ing" at the joints of high-voltage filaments. Edison carried out a 
luimber of experiments establishing the fact that a considerable 
current flows across from one joint to another of the filament and 
even succeeded in measuring it, but until the present it is stated that 
no successful means of preventing this arcing has been devised .\t 
least 10 per cent of liiith-vollagc filniueuts unninled in the ordinary 

January 4. 1901. 


bulb are broken during the operation of pumping, owing to the cur- 
rent being turned on when there is still some air present in the 
bulb, the current thus being able to leap across from one joint to the 
other. This loss is stated to be entirely done away with by einploy- 
ing the bifurcated bulb illustrated herewith, in which the joints are 
separated by a double glass insulation. This involves a notable 
saving in manufacture, and in addition there is increased length of 
life o£ the filament due to the insulation of its joints. 

In the case of high voltage lamps it is not sufficient to insulate 
the joints within the bulb alone, for it is important to continue this 
insulation in the socket itself. For this purpose the high-voltage 
sockets of the Crawford- Voelker lamp are made of porcelain or 
some suitable insulating material of that nature, with a division 
across into which the bifurcated end of the bulb fits and is secured 
with the minimum of cement necessary to obtain the requisite 
strength and firmness. Thus all danger of a "short" in the socket 
is obviated, nor can the socket absorb moisture as in the case where 
plaster is used. The sockets of the highest voltage lamps may, it is 
stated, be handled while the current is flowing through the lamp, 
without the slightest risk of getting a shock. .As the sockets are in- 
destructible they may be used over and over again. 

Asphalt Conduits. 

The accompanying illustrations show a system of asphalt conduit 
and troughing manufactured by the Howard Conduit Company, Lim- 
ited, of Traft'ord Park, Manchester. Asphalt is particularly suitable 
for pipes or conduits, as it i:- impervious to water and air. resists 
wear and acids, is an electrical insulator and expels vermin. It is 
durable and easily repaired, and so ductile that it will yield to any 
ordinary pressure without cracking. It is unaffected by frost, and 
though softened by heat at about 125 degs. F. does not disintegrate 
even at 350 degs. F., and upon regaining its normal temperature has 
lost none of its desirable qualities. 

Difficulties of manufacture have hitherto prevented the use of as- 
phalt for pipes, but the Howard Company claims that it has over- 
come these. The process of manufacture consists in placing the hot 
asphalt in a sheet-iron pipe, which is revolved rapidly. Under the 
influence of the centrifugal force the asphalt spreads into a cylinder 
of uniform thickness, and is pressed into a solid mass. The heavier 
sediments are left on the outside of the pipe, forming a strong outer 
skin, and the lighter matter forms a --mooth inner surface. The 

ficiently warmed the two ends are pressed together firmly and left 
to cool, a thoroughly welded joint being thus produced. 

Asphalt troughing for use on the solid system is made on the 
same principle as the conduit, but without the spiral, and is pressed 
into rectangular shape. The cable is laid directly in the bottom of 
the trough without supporting clips ; a small quantity of bitumen is 
then flowed into the trough, which is sufficient to cover the cables. 
The remaining space is filled with asphalt rock, which can be arched, 
thus forming a cover sufficient to protect the cable from external 

In the accompanying illustration D represents an iron joint box 
lined with asphalt, connecting two lengths of lead-covered cable B 


laid in the asphalt trough A, the cable covering being connected to 
earth through the resistance G and the fuse F. In case of a failure 
of a cable causing a short circuit to the lead, and thus to the earth, 
the cable in the ordinary case is burned out, or the circuit breaker is 
opened, causing considerable trouble, especially in railway circuits. 
In the present system the fuse F in the section in which the fault 
occurs is blown and the lead covering is thus insulated from earth 
by the asphalt troughing. The cable can still be utilized until a 
convenient time for repairing the fault, the position of which is 
easily found by an inspection of the various fuse blocks. The resis- 
tance G is intended to prevent the flow of any electrolytic currents 
in sufficient strength to injure the lead. 

New Fusible Switches. 

A very satisfactory form of fused switch had been put on the mar- 
ket by the General Electric Company. It consists of a combination 
of the well-known punched clip spring switch with the Edison fuse 
plug, and is designed for 125 volts service. The use of this form of 
fuse has made the operation of re-fusing a switch a perfectly safe and 
simple matter which can be performed without tools. This feature 
combined with the protection which the Edison plug insures, makes 
this new switch desirable for ii'-c- in many places where other forms 


Fisir.i.K su I n in:.- 

pressure developed by centrifugal force in a 3-inch pipe revolving at 
300 r. p. m. amounts to 10.6 lbs. per pound of asphalt. To prevent 
alteration of shape there is combined with the asphalt a spiral of 
galvanized iron, iiubedded in the material and thus protected against 

The labor in making joints is naturally very slight. A cast 
iron block of suitable shape is heated in a portable fire and applied 
between the two ends to be joined. .As soon as the asphalt is suf- 

of switches could not well be installed. This device will be found 
very useful in connection with small motors, arc and incande--cent 
lighting circuits, etc. 

The parts are mounted on a porcelain base, the entire construc- 
tion being substantial and proportioned for severe usage. These are 
made with single-throw switches, either double or triple pole. The 
fuse plugs can be furnished with any capacity up to and including 30 


Vol. XXXIX., Xo. I. 

Blow-.Off Valve. 

Of all boiler fittings the blow-off valve is apt to give the most 
trouble, and necessarily so on account of being subjected to cutting 
action in passing scale and sediment, and the valve being forced to 
its seat with grit between. To overcome as far as possible trouble 
from these conditions, the Lunkenheinier Company has designed a 
new type of blow-off valve having a self-cleaning seat, and to which 
the trade name of "Duro" has been given. 

Referring to the illustrations herewith it will be seen that the 
general form of the new valve is quite similar to the iron body angle 
blow-off valve which has been so extensively used for some years 
past. Heretofore in blow-off valves the seat has been so located that 
as the disk approached the same there would be an accumulation of 
scale and sediment, the effect which has been to cut out the bear- 
ing surfaces. In the "Duro" valve the plug fits snugly in a separate 
and easily removable bronze casing, which can be readily replaced 
when worn, and any accumulation of scale on the scat is prevented 
by a jet of steam blowing over the same. 

It will be noticed, in referring to the illustrations, that there is a 
steam inlet. A, and on the sectional cut it will be seen that this con- 
nects with an annular passage C. The iron body of the valve has a 
brass casing, D, with circular slot, /, cut into the side of same just 
below the level of the seat, E. This casing, D, is held in place in the 
valve body by the seat ring, E, screwing over the same, both of which 
are removable at any time for repairs or replacement with new parts. 
The opening. A, is connected to the steam part of the boiler and a 
suitable valve interposed. The object of this steam inlet. A, is to ad- 
mit steam to C and /, and in discharging from the latter it blows 
across the seat, thus cleaning off any scale or sediment that may have 
accumulated on it, so that the disk and seat bearing when in contact 
will be perfectly clean. 

In operation, to close the valve the disk is screwed down in the 
usual manner. As it approaches the level of the inlet the edge of the 
disk passing the lower edge of the casing, D, cuts oft' a great deal of 
the flow of water, sediment, etc. .-^t this time the valve in the steam 
pipe leading to inlet. A, should be opened and the steam admitted to 
the annular space, C, from whence it passes through slot, /, and 
carries over the entire surface of the seat, E. In the meantime, the 
disk is being screwed home to the seat, which also cuts off the flow 
of steam from the inlet, A, as well as the blow-off from the boiler. 

ficiency of the valve considerably. These valve or seating faces in the 
disk consist of dovetailed slots, which are filled with Babbitt metal, 
and, when both are cut or worn out, the old Babbitt metal can be 
melted out and new metal poured into the slots, which, after facing 
off, renews this wearing part of the valve. The seat ring, E, and cas- 


ing, D, are easily removable, and, as these are interchangeable, new 
ones can be supplied at small cost. There is also provided a plug, B, 
opposite the inlet, so that, if desired, this can be taken off and a rod 
run through the blow-off pipe to clean it out. 

New International Telephone Apparatus. 

The InternatioiKil rdephone Manuiacturipg Company, of Chi- 
cago, is just entering the field with a complete new line of tele- 
phone apparatus, which is especially notable for its substantial 
mechanical construction. While there are now no marked lines of dif- 
ference, as a rule, between the telephone apparatus of the various 



The valve in the pipe leading to the inlet, A, can be left open at all 
times, as the disk of the blow-off valve keeps outlet closed. 

It will be seen that, by the time the seating is accomplished, all 
scale and sediment have been blown off the seat and the surface is 
clean ; hence there is nothing present to cut the bearihg surfaces. The 
disk, or plug, is reversible, ha- ing two valve or seating faces, which 
can be changed at will, thereby increasing the durability and ef- 

successful companies nianufacturing for the inikpondcnt telephone 
field, there is always considerable room for improvement in details, 
and it is in the perfection of details that the new apparatus here 
described is strong. 

In the transmitter (Fig. i) the cup, which holds the carbon, is a 
light metal receptacle, having its walls properly insulated and 
mounted on a small stud fastened securelv to the center of the 

January 4, 1901. 



diaphragm. This contains the front electrode and forms the cham- 
ber of the granular carbon. The back electrode is supported by a 
bridge and so mounted that it can be readily adjusted. When set 
in its proper position, it is firmly clamped and locked by a screw 
in the collar at the center of the bridge. The granular carbon is 
held in its chamber by a small mica ring between the back electrode 
and the walls of the cap to which it is clamped by a small set rim, 
thereby avoiding the use of felt or plush or other material which 
compresses in time. The diaphragm and front electrode is insulated 
from the frame of the transmitter. 

An insulated wire leading from the front electrode is terminated 
at a clip on a small rubber block mounted on one end of the bridge. 
A similar terminal is provided on the bridge for the back electrode. 
From these terminals the circuit is completed to the induction coil 
by a double conductor cord, thus avoiding the use of the transmit- 
ter arm and frame as one side of the circuit. The bridge and all 
working parts of the transmitter are mounted and securely fastened 


on a strongly built cast front piece and are enclosed with a heavy 
stamped brass bell-shaped back piece. 

The receiver, a cross section of which is shown in Fig. 2, is of 
the double-pole horseshoe magnet type, and is constructed so the 
magnets may be readily adjusted towards or from the diaphragm 
and so it can be conveniently locked or unlocked with a screwdriver 
at the set screws projecting through the side of the receiver head. 
The diaphragm is securely clamped to the head by a brass ring. 
This set ring is constructed with a disk or plate suspended in its 
center to form a protection to the diaphragm at the hole in the re- 
ceiver cap. All metal parts of the receiver are strongly built and 
self-contained, and are completely enclosed in a hard-rubber shell 
and cap. The cord enters the top of the shell and is fastened inside, 
leaving no metal parts exposed. 

Fig. 3 shows an individual generator call, local battery, toll line 
telephone. The transmitter arm is provided with a false base on 
which it is hinged, and is fastened with a lock and key. The induc- 

tion coil and all its terminals are mounted on the false base, leaving 
all parts readily accessible for testing when open, and when the arm 
is closed no screws, terminals or wires are exposed. The arm is 
hollow, and through it pass the two conductor cords from the trans- 
mitter. It is made with a large surface hinge on its base for lower- 
ing and raising the arm, and is held in position by a heavy nickel 
plated brass bolt and nut. of neat design. The magneto box is pro- 

fc | ? r--r 


vided with a false removable bottom, on which are mounted the 
generator, switch and terminals. The switch is self-contained, with 
all springs provided with platinum points and with the hook formnig 
no part of the circuit. The generator crank shaft is constructed 
with an insulated head, perfectly insulating the crank from the 
generator. The polarized ringer is provided with an adjustment 
for the armature and also the bell hammer. The yoke to which 
the armature is pivoted is permanently held on one side and fastened 
between two adjustable thumb nuts at the other post so the armature 
may be readily adjusted. The bell hammer pin is fastened at the 
armature in a threaded stud, so the pin can be lengthened or shortened 
to correspond with the thickness of the board on which the ringer 
is mounted, so the ball may be adjusted to strike the bells properly 
to give the clearest tone. 

The lightning arrester, a carbon disk protector with ground plate 
and the line terminals, is mounted at the top in the inside of the 
magneto box. The insulated line wires pass through the top of the 
magneto box and terminate at the line posts inside. In this tele- 
phone, as well as all of the company's wall and desk instruments 
for both generator call and central energy systems, there are no 
exposed metal parts that form any part of a circuit at any time. It 
is said that this feature has never before been so fully carried out. 

Fig. 4 shows the regular public exchange central energy wall in- 
strument. The carbon di^k lightning arrester and line terminals 


are mounted in a neat box at the top, which also serves as a holder 
for a card of directions and telephone number. The switch, ringer 
and condenser, are mounted under the shelf. This is so that when 
the shelf is raised the front with the ringer turns out on a pair of 
liinges and brings all parts in plain view for convenient inspection 
and testing. 

The desk telephone, shown in Fig. 5 is a strongly built instrument. 
Its pedestal and head is of heavily nickle-plated cast brass, making 



Vol. XXXIX.. No. i. 

it very rigid. The platinum contact switch springs are mounted in 
a hard rubber head, and with the hook-restoring spring are entirely 
enclosed. The induction coil and all connections are mounted in 
the base of the instrument. 

Fig. 6 shows a combined self-restoring drop and spring jack for 
generator call exchange switchboards. It is so constructed that the 
coil may be readily removed and replaced from the front of the 
board, being set into a socket forming a connection the same as a 

Electric Motor Controlling Devices. 


plug and jack. Burned out coils can thus be removed with greatest 
facilit}'. The night alarm springs are mounted on the rear of the 
drop and the circuit is closed when the shutter falls by a pin extend- 
ing from the restoring latch. The night alarm contacts are pro- 
vided with a point and plate connection, and form a slight sliding 
contact, making a good, reliable circuit. The drops are mounted 
singly from the front of the board in rows of 20. 

Fig. 7 shows a bank of 10 lamp signals. The lamps are placed in 
an opaque tube, thus confining the light to the one signal only. An 
opalescence (glass) jewel is mounted at the end of the tube. The 
tube with lamp is inserted into the lamp jack from the front. The 
lamp jack is provided with a point contact to prevent corroding be- 
tween the jack spring and lamp, and so the lamp may be easily re- 
moved without breaking. 

Fig. 8 shows a strip of multiple springs jacks. The multiple jacks 


are mounted }i inch centers (in strips of 20). The frame piece is 
of a veneer of a brass bar between two strips of insulating rubber, 
making the banks of jacks very strong and rigid. The brass bar is 
extended and forms a shoulder for fastening the banks to the iron 
switchboard frame. The springs are mounted flat upon a heavy 
rubber back piece, and are firmly clamped with the heavy rubber in- 
sulating bar between the tip and sleeve springs of each jack. The 
answering jacks for multiple boards and jacks for transfer switch- 
boards are mounted in a similar manner with 10 on a strip. 

The ringing and listening key, shown in Fig. 9, is constructed with 
one set of springs above the other, enabling the use of long springs 
and leaving the key short and compact. The cam lever is forked 
with one leg reaching to the first set of springs and arranged that 
the springs arc opened from the front and with the other leg pass- 


ing through to the second set of springs, which are so arranged that 
they are opened from the rear. The springs are of the best quality 
spring German silver, and are provided with platinum contact. The 
terminals of the springs arc all at one end of the key, so it requires 
but one key cable in its wiring. The springs arc mounled in a rubber 
block and firmly clamped to always hold them in their proper posi- 
tion. The block is securely fastened to a bra'ss base for mountinc 

A peculiar and indispensable feature ot the art of transmitting pow- 
er by means of electric motors is the absolute necessity of providing 
a device which shall constitute the connecting link between the elec- 
tric motor and the particular machine which this motor is to drive. 
These connecting links, known as motor-controlling devices, are, as 
might be expected from the wide use of the electric motor, an impor- 
tant article of manufacture. A large line of such devices is produced 
by the Cutler-Hammer Manufacturing Compan3-, of Milwaukee, the 
manufacture of which, indeed, constitutes its entire business. Below 
we give a brief account of the more interesting of the devices made 
by this company. 

Broadly speaking, every direct-current motor must be provided with 
a device for gradually admitting current to the motor and thus 
smoothly accelerating its speed. In order to effectually protect the 
motor from abnormal currents it is necessary to so arrange the start- 
ing device that it will automatically open the motor circuit on failure 
of the current supply. Such devices are known as automatic motor- 
starting bo.xes, and the manufacture of this appliance forms an im- 
portant part of the business of this company, as may be judged from 
their statement that during the year just ended approximately 25,000 
were produced. 

These automatic motor starters range in sizes from % to 50 hp 
of the sliding contact type, and from 50 to 500 hp using a system of 
interlocking switches. As indicating the diversity of requirements 
which arise in motor work, the following list of types is given : 

A line of reversible motor starters in capacities from '/i to 30 hp 
are arranged to start and operate a motor at full speed in either di- 
rection, and are adapted for the handling of motor-driven machine 
tools, etc., where speed regulation is not required. Starters provided 
with an overload attachment or circuit breaker range in sizes from 
% to 500 hp. Speed regulators for controlling the speed of motor- 
driven fans range from J4 to 5° hp. Motor speed regulators for 
controlling the speed of motors driving machinery, which necessitate 
practically a constant torque or turning effort at all speeds, and re- 
quire the resistance to be constructed acordingly, range in size from 
14 to so hp, and the same is the case with speed regulators arranged 
both to decrease and increase the normal speed of shunt or compound 
motors, these also being in sizes from % to 50 hp. For automatically 
operating motors driving bellows for supplying air for blowing 
church organs, a special regulator is made. For electric elevators 
there are reversible controllers, operated by a cable passing through 
the car and ranging from 5 to 50 hp. .-Mso, reversible controllers, 
operated by a small electric switch in the car and connected by means 
of a flexible electric cable to a number of solenoid controlled switches, 
which make the necessary changes in the electrical circuits, these 
ranging in size from s to 150 hp. 

Another long line consists of crane controllers with sliding con- 
tacts for controlling reversible series-woimd motors dri\'ing traveling 
cranes, jib cranes, hoists, swinging bridges, railroad turntables, etc. 
An important application is for small printing presses, the device 
being arranged to control the speed by means of armature resistance, 
or with the addition of shunt field regulation. For newspaper 
printing presses, the controllers are arranged to give maximum speed 
by introducing shunt field resistance, and slow printing speeds by in- 
troducing armature resistance ; very slow speeds are obtained by 
shunting resistance around the armature terminals, with all control 
from one handle and means for stopping a press controlled by push 
buttons. Another line of controllers, with or without push-button 
control, is necessary for very large newspaper presses utilizing two 
motors connected together with gearing and a c'utch. The small 
motor is about one-eighth the size of the larger, and drives the larger 
at about one-twentieth the speed of the smaller to start the press and 
obtain the slow feeding-in speeds. 

A type of reversible drum controllers is especially designed for 
heavy duty in controlling traveling cranes, rolling mill machinery, 
etc., as well as a similar smaller reversible type for printing presses. 
A line of self-starters ranging from I to 150 hp is adapted for start- 
ing a motor automatically from a distance, and are largely used in 
connection with motor-driven pumps, air compressors, electric ele- 
vators, etc. Finally, there are automatic pressure regulators and 
float switches for use in connection with self-starting devices con- 
trolling the starting and stopping of motor-driven pumps in accord- 
ance with variations in pressure or level, respectively. 

.V'; the result of a thorough system of standardization of the vari- 

January 4, 1901. 


ous parts which make up a complete controller, the Cutler-Hammer 
Company is enabled to make different combinations of standardized 
parts to produce the t3'pe of controller suitable for any requirements, 
thereby largely reducing the cost to the consumer. 

terference will be noticed between the different parties. Fig. i shows 
a type of instrument used on a system of this description. 

In large systems and also those that cover considerable territory, 
the central switchboard system i- preferable, as the e.xtra size of the 

Rontgen Ray Apparatus. 

The accompanying illustrations show details of a Rontgen ray 
apparatus manufactured by Elmer G. Willyoung, which has been 
adopted for use in a large number of hospitals. Fig. I shows a hos- 
pital and office machine, which is made in sizes from 8 inches to 18 
inches, inclusive. These machines are made for either battery or 
lio-volt circuits, and for direct or alternating currents. The same 
manufacturer makes a line of portable machines with extra short 
and very heav}- cores. These portables may be run from battery or 
power circuits, as desired. Fig. 2 shows a Caldwell liquid inter- 
rupter, which attracted so much attention when it was invented two 
or three years ago. This interrupter consists essentially, it may be 
remembered, of a porcelain cup having a very small hole through 
the bottom, and a lead electrode within and one without the cup, the 
whole being irrmiersed in dilute sulphuric acid. With voltages from 
40 to no the largest coils may be run with this interrupter, the fre- 
quencies being 500 to 1000 per second, and the energy of discharge 
being very large. 

In the illustration the curiously shaped jar is cf lead, and consti- 
tutes one electrode of the combination. The radial flanges are for 
the purpose of increasing the radiating surface and thus keeping the 
apparatus cool. The same firm makes the Caldwell stereoscopic fluor- 
oscope by means of which fluoroscopic images are seen in binocu- 
lar effect. Also, the Cunningham mercury jet interrupter, which in- 
terrupter is more perfectly under control and is attracting a great 
deal of attention. Dr. Cunningham and the manufacturers are ar- 
ranging this device to run with a synchronous motor, expecting to 
be able to clip off the tops of similarly directed alternating-current 
waves, and thus, for the first time, enable an induction coil to be 
satisfactorily run on such circuit. 

Factory Telephones. 

The accompanying illustrations show details of the intercommuni- 
cating telephone system of the Ericsson Telephone Com.pany, 296 
Broadway, New York. The Ericsson intercommunicating system 
is especially adapted for factory use, since it allows instant communi- 
cation between any two persons without the aid of a third party. 



cable and large quantity of wire necessary to connect the different 
telephones would cost a sum equal to the time of an operator for sev- 
eral years. This system is very similar to the one used in small local 
telephone e.xchanges, the connections between different parties being 
made by an operator using an ordinary switchboard. (Fig. 2.) 

The central call system is sometimes desirable. This system allows 
the central station to call the different stations and be called by them 
in return, but the several stations cannot call or convcric witli each 

This system is particularly applicable where 25 or 30 stations is to be 
the ultimate capacity of the plant, and where the buildings do not 
cover too much territory. A metallic circuit switch or plug board 
is employed, and each station is connected to the several plug boards 
by twisted pairs of wires. This allows any number of pairs of persons 
to converse at the same time, and if proper precautions arc taken 
when installing to avoid the effects of dampness, not the slightest in- 

other. The central calling instrument is equipped with either a 
lever switch (Fig. 3) or a button key of proper size. 

In many factories a bell of special design is placed near each tele- 
phone and the several bells are rung simultaneously by a button gen- 
erally located in the ofiice. By means of signals, the superintendent 
or manager can be notified to step to the nearest telephone and call 
up the office, thus saving time and trouble. 


Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 

The Manufacture of Porter Storage Batteries. 

Electric Hoists. 

The Porter Battery Company, of Chicago, has now put its factory 
at Waukegan in shape after the fire early in November, which de- 
stroyed a part of the building. It will have a more complete equip- 
ment than ever for turning out batteries. In this connection it is of 
interest to note that the Porter Battery Company is devoting all of 
its energy to the manufacture of automobile storage batteries, the de- 
mand for that class of battery being even greater than can be sup- 
plied, it is stated, though the output is in the neighborhood of 
$1,000 worth of batteries per day and 50 men are employed. 

In the factory building, which is 260 by 60 ft., all different classes 
of work are separated into different rooms, so that there is a room 
for each department and a center hall running through the middle of 
the factorj'. The process of manufacture of the Porter batteries is 
very simple so far as construction of the plates goes. Cast grids of 
a. lead antimony alloy are rapidly filled by hand with red lead mois- 
tened with sulphuric acid for the positive plates and litharge similarly 
moistened for the negative plates. This filling is done by laying the 
plates on a flat surface and rubbing the grooves full of active ma- 
terial with the aid of a putty knife. After the plates are dry they are 
assembled with three thicknesses of tar board between each plate 
and have a temporary cross connecting piece burned on with the aid 
of a oxy-hydrogen flame. They are then ready to put in the charg- 
ing tanks. The tar board between the plates is taken out and wide 
rubber separators put in in its place. The separation between the 
plates is much greater during formation than after the cells are as- 
sembled for actual use. The forming solution has about half the 
quantity of sulphuric acid used in making a solution of full strength 
for regular use. The plates are formed at a low charging rate, and 
are then taken to another room for testing purposes. The defective 
plates are weeded out. When finally assembled for shipment the 
temporary cross connecting piece is taken off and a permanent one 
burned on in its place. 

One notable thing in the policy of this company is the contract it 
makes for the maintenance of its batteries, which seems to be on a 
conservative and buj^iness-like basis. With each set of automobile 
batteries which it sells it is prepared to make a contract to maintain 
them for five years for 20 per cent of the first cost per annum. When 
such a contract is made the company insists on having the battery 
delivered at its factory or at one of its stations for overhauling and 
inspection every eight weeks, and, if desired, this maintenance charge 

The accompanying illustrations show several types of electric 
hoists made by the C. W. Hunt Company, West New Brighton, N. Y. 
The three essential parts of these hoists are the rope drum, the gear- 
ing and the electric motor. Each of these parts is made in a series 
of sizes. By a suitable combination of these parts, a hoist of any de- 
sired capacity and speed, within the limits of modem practice, may 
be built. 

There are four factors that materially affect the size and cost of 
the hoist, namely, the load, the speed, the height to which the load is 
hoisted and the frequency of the trips. These factors affect the size, 
operation and cost in the following manner : 

If the load is increased, the size, weight and strength of the mech- 
anism will be increased — that is, a larger size must be used. If the 
velocity of hoisting is increased, the size and power of the motor 
will be increased, the other parts remaining the same. If the height 
to which the load is hoisted is increased, the drum must be increased 
to hold a longer rope, the motor remaining the same. If the frequency 
of the trips is increased, the size of the motor will be increased, the 
other parts remaining the same. 

There are three methods of operating electric hoists : i. Running 
the motor continuously, hoisting the load by throwing in a friction 
clutch and lowering by a band brake. This method ii suitable either 
for alternating or direct-current motors. 2. Starting and stopping 
the motor for each lift, lowering by a band brake. This is better 
suited for direct current than alternating motors. 3. Running the 
motor forward to hoist and backward to lower. A direct-current 
motor with reversing switches is used for this work. 

The mechanism of the Hunt hoist is so arranged that any size or 
make of motor may be used. The motor is connected to the hoist 
by a flexible coupling. 

The great flexibility of electric transmission allows hoists to be 
installed to advantage in many situations where it is difficult or in- 
expedient to use steam-driven machinery. One of the great advan- 
tages is that the expense for power begins only when the hoist is 
started, and entirely ceases when the motor is stopped. The friction 
clutch for use on an electric hoist has far different w-ork from one 
used for starting shafting, w-hich is thrown in once or twice only each 

The rope drums used in the Hunt Company's hoist vary in diame- 
ter from 12 inches to 60 inches. The drum barrel is sheet steel with 

will include keeping a battery through the winter. The contract for 
maintenance docs not include damage due to accident to the vehicle 
nor disregard of instructions on the part of users. 

The company now has a New York store, where batteries sold in 
that city are maintained. It has a station in the city of Chicago at 
the present writing, but will probably open up a more extensive store 
and maintenance depot the coming season. The remarkable mileage 
records made by a Baker vehicle with Porter batteries on one charge 
of battery last summer in Chicago have been noted in these columns 
in the past. H. C. Porter, superintendent of the company, is in- 
clined to take the success of these batteries very mgdeslly and gives 
due credit to the efficiency of the vehicle as well as to the capacity 
of the batteries per pound. Indeed, he has made many valuable 
suggestions to builders of vehicles looking toward better efficiency. 

cast iron flanges on each end. A suitable fastening is provided to 
secure the rope and a hole is arranged in the drum, through which 
the surplus rope is passed and coiled on the interior of the drum. 

The necessary slipping of the friction surface generates heat thai 
must be as rapidly dissipated or the friction surfaces would soon 
be destroyed. This is accomplished in these drums by making the 
spokes in the form of propeller blades, so that whenever the drum 
revolves in hoisting or lowering, they force a current of air over the 
heated surfaces. The part of the friction generating the heat is ar- 
ranged to lie directly in the path of this current of air. A remarkable 
difference has been noticed in rapid w.ork between a friction clutch 
with this cooling device and the ordinary arrangement. 

One of the difficulties in applying electricity to hoisting machinery 
is the necessary reduction from the high rotative speed of the motor 

January 4, 1901. 



armature to the comparatively slow speed of the winding drum. 
With these hoists, machine cut spur tooth gears are employed. They 
are hydraulically pressed on shafts that are ground true on dead 
centers. The gears are completely enclosed in an oil-tight and dust- 
proof iron case, which forms a reservoir for a bath of oil in which the 
gears run. Powerful band brakes are applied to the end of the drum 


opposite to the friction clutch so that the heat generated in one may 
not aflfect the accurate working of the other. 

Improvements in Flashers. 

The Reynolds Electric Company, Chicago, announce some very 
important improvements which they have recently made on their 
"Original Reyonlds Flasher." which, in reality, is a rotary jack- 
knife switch, having from three up to any desired number of switches 
working automatically as one, for giving the flashing or changeable 
effect to electric signs, flags and electrical displays of all kinds. 

These latest improvements consist of a pin running through the 
spiral spring which raise the blades out of the fork contact, which 
acts as a guide and prevents the spring from bulging forward or to 
either side, making it impossible to break, and the blade cannot drop 
and cause short circuit or burn out. The contact forks are now made 
of phosphor bronze, shaped so that they are very flexible, and will 
take up all wear, thus insuring a perfect contact at all times. They 
are securely fastened to the bar which is bolted to. the base, making 
it impossible for them to get out of alignment or for the blades to 
stick or the forks to burn out. 

The segments are made with a groove in the center, which keeps 
the blade in exact line with the forks, always insuring an even and 
positive contact, and they are attached to the rim of the wheel with 
steel clamps, which prevents them from coming loose. 

These improvements make this device a most practical, efficient and 
simple flasher, and should be of special interest to electric sign build- 
ers, electrical construction firms and central station people. 

Universal Switch Box. 

We illustrate herewith a switch box made for use in connection 
with porcelain knob and tube work. Ever since the introduction of 
flush switches, iron boxes or pockets for their installation have been 
furnished by the manufacturer. As the distance between the holes 
in the attaching ears and also the dimensions generally of the dif- 
ferent makes of switches vary considerably, the box of one manu- 
facturer might not fit the switch of any other. Supply houses were 
thus obliged to carry in stock as many different styles of switch 
boxes as they had makes of switches. For the same reason it was 
necessary for the contractor at the time of wiring, to decide on the 
particular make of switch he proposed to use when the job was 
finished possibly six months or a year later. The switch box illus- 
trated, as the name implies, is made to take all the different makes of 
switches of the same style, equally well in the same box; that is, one 
style fitting all rotary flush switches and another style all push but- 
ton switches and flush receptacles. 

The adjustable feature is accomplished in a very ingenious and 
simple manner. The switches are attached to the box by means of 
long screws, the threaded po/tion of the screw hole being removed a 
considerable distance back from the front plane of the box. This 
arrangement allows ample adjustment in all directions and also af- 

fords a means of readily leveling the switch plate in case the switch 
box was not originally set plumb. 

The flexible conduit enters the box by means of peculiarly con- 
structed pockets instead of directly into the back or side of the box 


as has been the custom heretofore. This novel method of entering 
securely holds the flexible conduit, at the same time allowing the 
boxes to be used in much thinner partitions than would otherwise 
be possible and also effecting a considerable saving in both labor, 
conduit and wire. These boxes are being placed on the market by 
the Renim Specialty Company, Boston, Mass. 

Aerial Cable Clip. 

For many years a winding of marline was considered a proper 
method of suspending aerial cables from the supporting strand, but 
its rapid deterioration and unsightly appearance has created a de- 
mand for metallic clips for supporting the cable. We illustrate here- 
with a recent device of this sort, known as the Metropolitan clip. 
and manufactured by Yonkers Specialty Company, of Yonkers, N. Y. 
The clip is simple in construction, consisting of a strip of zinc with a 
galvanized wire loop at one end and a hook at the other, and can be 
quickly applied to the cable in the manner shown in the cut. This is 
usually done by a lineman from a chair, which runs trolly-fashion 
along the supporting strand, the cable having previously been run 
out on temporary hangers. 

Owing to the dangers of storm and accident to which an aerial 
cable is subjected, it is essential that the supporting clips be strong, 
that they should be securely held in place and that they should be 
durable. These conditions seem to have been well met in the de- 
sign of the Metropolitan clip. 

The standard clip has a tensile .strength of about 400 lbs., which 
should give an ample factor of safety for ordinary sizes of cable. 


The closed loop over the supporting wire is securely locked, and is 
detached with difficulty. The tendency towards longitudinal dis- 
placement which may occur on steep grades or when the cable is 
rim out with the clips permanently in place, is corrected by studs 
lightly impressed upon the portion of the zinc band encircling the 

The manufacturers claim that this clip will last as long as the sup- 
porting strand, and it has been adopted by several of the larger tele- 
phone companies, and experience has demonstrated their practicability. 


Financial Intelligence. 

THE WEEK IN WALL STREET.— Call money closed at 6 per 
cent; time monej-, 6 per cent for 30 to 60 days, and S@5K' for three, 
four, five and six months. In the stock market dullness and heavi- 
ness prevailed early in the week, which, however, gave way towards 
the end to activity and a better feeling. Amalgamated Copper had 
a sharp advance on more favorable views of the copper situation. 
United States Steel stocks closed strong on the expected favorable 
December quarterly earnings statement. Traction shares exhibited 
a firmer tone, and closed with slight net advances over the prices 
of the week previous. Brooklyn Rapid Transit closed at 6554. being 
a net advance of V2 point, the sales being 17,830 shares. Metropolitan 
Street Railway sales aggregated 14,410, the closing price being 162J4. 
ex-div., a net gain of 5^ point. Manhattan Elevated made a net gain 
of 8% points, closing at 137^. In the electric list Westinghouse, 
both common and preferred, made notable gains, the former 19 points 
and the latter 31J4 points net, the closing prices being 177 and 187. 
respectively. General Electric closed at 283, a net gain of 2 points ; 
Western L'nion Telegraph, 9114, a net gain of Yi ; American District 
Telegraph, 36^4 ; American Telegraph & Cable, 95, and Commercial 
Cable, 170. the latter representing a net loss of ioJ4 points. Fol- 
lowing are the closing quotations of Dec. 30 : 


Dec. 23 

Dec. 30 


c. 23. Dec. 30. 

American Tel. & Cable.. — 


General Electric 

281 283 M 

American Dist. Tel if>Yi 


General Carriage 

iJi iH 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit.. 64JS 


Hudson River Tel 

104 104 

Chcs. & Pot. Telephone.. 66 


Metropolitan Street Ry. . 

162J4 161 

Commercial Cable 1 70 


N. E. Elec. Veh. Tran. 

Electric Boat. 19 


N. y. Elec. Veh. Tran.. 

12 12 

Electric Boat pfd 40 


N. Y. & N. J. Tel 

167 167 

Electric Lead Reduc'n ... \Vi 


Tel. & Tel. Co. of Am... 

Electric Vehicle 2K 


Western Union Tel 

Electric Vehicle pfd 4 


West. E. & M. Co 

162^^ 177 

West. E. & M. Co.. pfd. 

— 182 


Dec. 23. 

Dec. 30. 


c. 23. Dec. 30. 

Am. Tel. & Tel i6ij^ 


Mexican Telephone 

2 2 

Cumberland Telephone. . . — 

New England Telephone. 
Westinghouse Elec 

— 133 

EMison Elec. Ilium 250 


80 85 

Erie Telephone 17 

General Electric pfd — 


Westinghouse Elec. pfd. 

— 90 


Dec. 23. 

Dec. 30. 

Dec. 23. Dec. 30. 

American Railways 43 J^ 

Electric Storage Battery. 61 

Elec. Storage Batt'jr pfd. 61 
Elec. Co. of America.... 6 

44J<2 Phila. Traction 97JI 97^^ 

62 Philadelphia Electric 45* 434 

62 Pa. Electric Vehicle jl S 

6 '4 Pa, Elec. Veh. pfd 2 2 


Central Unic 
Chicago Edi: 

Dec. 23. Dec. 30 
ne. — — 

...16a t6o 


Dec. 23. Dec. 30. 

National Carbon pfd 83^ 82"^ 

Northwest Elev. com.... ^-j 39 

Union Traction loj/^ lo^ 

Union Traction pfd 47 47 

was noted by a remarkable rise in Westinghouse Electric, gains of 
over 30 points being shown. Inquiry did not develop any particular 
reason, other than the large amount of profitable business being 
done. Then came rumors which crystallized into the following in 
the financial columns : "The rise of 30 points in the price of West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company stock in the last few 
weeks is said to be due to the fact that the General Electric Company 
has secured a large block of the Westinghouse slock. It is not 
thought that any change of control is contemplated. But it is be- 
lieved that the purchase will assure harmony between the two com- 
panies, and that hereafter they will work together in better under- 
standing." With respect to this, however, Mr. Arthur Warren, who 
is at the head of the publication department of the Westinghouse 
interests, has given out the following: "So far as I am aware, there 
is no foundation for the report published this morning to the effect 
that negotiations are pending for a merging of the interests of the 
Westinghouse Electric and General Electric companies. Such re- 
ports are easily originated and readily believed because the majority 
of financial people and others interested in industrial matters look 
upon such an arrangement as almost inevitable. The chief obstacles 
in the way of such an arrangement are probably the conservative 
views of those in control of the Westinghouse Company as to the 
capitalization, management and other details." 

DIVIDENDS.— The New York & New Jersey Tc'icphone direc- 
tors liavc declared a quarterly dividend of i^ per cent and an extra 

dividend of i per cent, payable Jan. 15. General Electric Company 
has declared a regular semi-annual dividend of 3;'2 per cent on pre- 
ferred stock, payable Jan. 31. Practically all the preferred stock has 
been exchanged for common, there being only 98 shares preferred 
outstanding and less than half a million of the debenture.';. Roches- 
ter Railway has declared a dividend of i per cent on its preferred 
stock, payable Dec. 20. The Central & South American Telegraph 
directors have declared a regular quarterly dividend of \\z per cent, 
payable Jan. 8, to stock of record Dec. 26. The following semi-annual 
dividends have been declared ; Norwich Street Railway Company, 
2 per cent, payable Jan. 2 ; Montville Street Railway Company, 3 per 
cent, payable Jan. 2 ; New London Street Railway Company, 2^ per 
cent, payable Jan. 2. 

EVERETT-MOORE TROUBLES.— The financial affairs of the 
Everett-Moore syndicate, owning or controlling several urban and 
interurban electric railways, and an extensive system of local and 
long-distance telephone lines in Ohio and Michigan, with a capital- 
ization of $130,000,000, passed into the control of a committee of 
seven prominent bankers of Cleveland this week, as the result of 
the financial embarrassment of the syndicate, which has for some 
time been affected by the stringency in the money market. It is 
one of the largest trolley syndicates in the world, and one which is 
also largely interested in independent telephony. The committee 
now in charge is composed of Messrs. H. R. Newcomb, Myron T. 
Herrick, Kaufman Hays, W. G. Mather, J. F. Sullivan. Calvary Mor- 
ris and E. G. Tillotson, all of whom are connected with leading 
banks. Acting for the Cleveland creditors — mainly banks which 
hold syndicate collateral — the committee has already instituted an 
investigation to determine the condition of the various properties. 
In the meantime, the Cleveland banks have granted an extension of 
18 months to the syndicate, and Messrs. Everett and Moore and their 
associates will go ahead with their projects, under the direction of 
the committee, which will act in an advisory capacity. 

EL PASO ELECTRIC— There was filed in the Register's office 
at Newark, N. J., a deed of trust for $1,000,000 executed by the El 
Paso Electric Company, a New Jersey corporation, to the State 
Trust Company, of Boston, Mass. The deed was put on record by 
James B. Dill, as counsel for the El Paso Company. The deed is 
given as security for a mortgage of like amount, and is described 
as covering "underlying securities" of certain corporations subsi- 
diary to the El Paso Company. The latter owns or controls all of 
the electric lighting and power plants centering in El Paso, Texas, 
and it is on the stocks of the companies operating these systems that 
the mortgage is given. That lien is held by the State Trust Com- 
pany as trustee. 

GEORGIA RAILWAY & ELECTRIC— An application for char- 
ter has been filed for the incorporation of an organization to be 
known as the Georgia Railway and Electric Company, with a capi- 
talization of $3,000,000. The application is for loi years, and includes 
a right of franchise in all the streets and roads in Fulton (jounty 
and Dekalb County on which the present companies are now oper- 
ating. The charter applied for would also give the right to own and 
operate electric plants, furnish electric power and steam heat. The 
applicants are all residents of Atlanta. 

MANHATTAN FIGURES.— Lee. Hij.ginson & Co., of Boston, 
issue a circular on Manhattan, in which they say : Manhattan's in- 
come available for dividends in the year ended June 30, 1901, was 
$2,322,336, or 4.84 per cent on the $48,000,000 capital stock. If the rate 
of increase in the four months to Oct. 31 — $318,000 in gross and 
$212,000 in net — be maintained ditring the remaining eight months, 
the company would earn this year about $950,000 (10 per cent) more 
gross and $636,000 more net. 

HUDSON RIVER ELECTRIC— A $3,000,000 mortgage on the 
Hudson River Electric Company to the Morton Trust Company, of 
New York, has been recorded in the Saratoga County Clerk's office. 
It is a first mortgage to secure the issue of 3000 5 per cent coupon 
gold bonds at $1,000 each, covering real estate, franchises, etc. 

ELECTRIC VEHICLE.— A deed of trust pledging all the real es- 
tate, stocks, patents, etc., of the Electric Vehicle Company to the Mor- 
ton Trust Company, in consideration of $2,500,000, has been filed at 
Hartford, Conn. 

BELL TELEPHONE BONDS.— It is understood that Messrs. 
Kidder. Peabody & Co. have purchased $10,000,000 American Tele- 
phone & Telegraph 4 per cent bonds, which will probably be issued 
for public subscription after Jan. i. 

January 4, 1901. 


ERIE TELEPHONE.— Minority stockholders of the Erie Tele- 
phone Company in Lowell have held a public meeting this week to 
discuss the rights of Erie stockholders under the reorganization 
plan, and voted to consent. 

and equipment the Richmond and Petersburg (Va.) Electric Rail- 
way has issued $1,000,000 5 per cent 30-year bonds. 

Commercial Intelligence. 

THE WEEK IN TR.\DE. — The mercantile agencies report an e.x- 
tremely satisfactory condition of trade. The retail holiday trade 
was a record breaker, but there was seasonable quiet in the leading 
wholesale lines. Iron and steel maintained activity at top prices. 
Continued complaints of car and motive power shortage and a gen- 
eral hardening of speculative markets for food products are the feat- 
ures of advices of the week. The year closed with a cheerfulness of 
feeling never exceeded, even in late years, and with sober expecta- 
tions of a new year as bright as any that have gone before. Railway 
earnings thus far reported for Deceniber show an increase of 4.5 per 
cent over those of 1900, and 17.6 per cent as compared with those of 
1899. Bradstrect's says : "The year in iron and steel closes with a 
burst of activity. Pig iron sales for the week have not been equaled 
this season. The outlook is for a production of 16,000,000 tons of 
pig iron, of 30,000,000 tons of ore and of 12,000,000 tons of steel in 
1902. In finished products the mills are crowded with business. 
Some foreign steel is coming in, but most of the German products 
are going to England at very low prices." A large Mexican rail order 
has been offered, but may go to Europe, as the domestic makers are 
unable to undertake any new deliveries for some time to come. The 
copper market, according to the Engineering and Mining Journal, is 
utterly demoralized and business remained at a standstill. The only 
reliable information that can be gathered as to values comes from 
abroad where, it was understood, American electrolytic copper has 
been sold at the parity of 12 cents. In New York transactions, how- 
ever, have been few and far between, as consumers prefer to await 
further developments. Following are the nominal quotations : 12J4 
@i234c. for Lake, Ii54@i2'4c. for electrolytic copper in cakes, wire- 
bars and ingots; ii^@i2c. in cathodes and casting copper. The 
business failures for the week, as compiled by Bradstrcet's, numbered 
219, against 262 the week previous and 213 the corresponding week 
last year. R. G. Dun & Co. compute the liabilities of the concerns 
failing for four weeks of December at $8,273,341, against $9,649,121 
the corresponding period of last year. 

CHINERY. — The following are the exports of electrical material, 
machinery, etc., from the port of New York for the week ended 
Dec. 25 : Antwerp — 36 pkgs. material, $3,855 ; 2 pkgs. wire, $go. 
Argentine Republic — 270 pkgs. material, $9,691 ; 3 pkgs'. wire, $162. 
British Possessions in Africa — 3 pkgs. material, $550; 40 pkgs. wire. 
$705. Brazil — 38 pkgs. material, $997. British East Indies — 38 pkgs. 
material, $2,747. British Australia — iS pkgs material, $867 ; 1000 
pkgs. wire, $2,495. Brussels — 6 pkgs. material, $874. British West 
Indies — 61 pkgs. material, $2,339 ; i V^S- wire, $18. Budapest — i pkg. 
material, $25. British Guiana — 29 pkgs. material, $1,603. Berlin — 4 
pkgs. material, $1,375. Bremen — 6 pkgs. material, $295. Central 
America — 25 pkgs. material, $699 ; l pkg. machinery, $129 ; 2 pkgs. 
copper goods, $305. Copenhagen — 5 pkgs. wire, $25. Chili — 20 pkgs. 
material, $784 ; 3 pkgs. machinery, $210. Cuba — 247 pkgs. material, 
$5.343 ; 9 pkgs. wire, $97 ; 18 pkgs. wire, $285. Dutch West Indies — 
I pkg. material, $12. Danish West Indies — 3 pkgs. material, $40. 
Ecuador — i pkg. material, $128. Frankfort — 9 pkgs. wire, $112. 
Gothenburg — i pkg. material, $110. Glasgow — 28 pkgs. material, 
$2.783 ; 7 pkgs. material, $468. Genoa — 3 pkgs. material, $200. Havre 
— I pkg. material, $15; i pkg. machinery, $45. Hayti — 3 pkgs. ma- 
terial, $125; 36 pkgs. copper wire, $392. Hamburg— € pkgs. machin- 
ery, $378 ; 88 pkgs. material, $3,275 ; I pkg. wire, $70. Peru — 16 pkgs. 
material, $291. Hong Hong — i pkg. material, $242. Halifax (Eng. ) 
— I pkg. machinery, $95. Japan — 23 pkgs. material, $1,494. Leghorn 
— 3 pkgs. material, $350. Liverpool — 34 pkgs. material, $1,441. Lon- 
don — 169 pkgs. material, $4,681; 151 pkgs. material, $8,696; I pkg. 
wire, $28. Liverpool — 13 pkgs. wire, $800. Leicester — 2 pkgs. wire. 
$220. Leeds — 20 pkgs. wire, $435. Mexico — 183 pkgs. material. 
$12,615 ; 6 pkgs. wire, $180 ; 30 pkgs. machinery, $2,023 I 74 pkgs. wire, 
$1,005; 2 pkgs. wire, $72. Manchester — 131 pkgs. machinery, $23,250. 
Milan — 167 pkgs. material, $2,993. Market Harborough — 2 pkgs. 
wire. $278. New Zealand — 5 pkgs. wire, $96; 8 pkgs. material, $149. 
New Castle — 11 pkgs. machinery, $1,750. Philippines — II pkgs. wire, 
$255. Rotterdam — 2 pkgs. material, $200. Southampton — i pkg. ma- 
chinery. $45 ; 4 pkgs. material, $210. Uruguay — 2 pkgs. material, $70. 
U. S. Colombia — 4 pkgs. material, $72. Venezuela — 22 pkgs. ma- 
terial, $52. 

1901, were valued at $30,154,895, as compared with a value of $32,- 
281,487 for November, 1900, a decrease of $2,126,592. As has been the 
case for every one of the recent months, this decrease is more than 
accounted for by the decrease in the exports of copper, which was 
$1,039,400, and of iron and steel, which was $1,932,500, the total of 
these two items being $2,971,900, or $845,300 more than the net de- 
crease in the exports of the products of manufactures. This dif- 
ference, in turn, is more than made up by increases of $990,000 in the 
exports of refined mineral oil, and of $353,09° in the exports of cot- 
ton goods. It follows that there were decreases in many other items, 
of more or less importance. Probably the most significant of these 
is a net decrease for the month of $189,449 in the exports of agricul- 
tural implements. The principal decreases were in the shipments 
to Great Britain, Germany, Cuba, Australia and Africa. Our ex- 
ports of agricultural implements increased to Canada and Mexico. 
-Another decrease is $493,941 in exports of electrical appliances. The 
largest falling off is in the exports of these to Great Britain, which 
is accounted for by the establishment there of branches of American 
factories. The lower price of copper is a small factor in the apparent 
decline in value. 

TELEPHONY' IN PHILADELPHIA.— The Keystone Telephone 
Company, the rival of the Bell in Philadelphia, goes into operation 
w ith the new year. Its central office is at Second and Sansom streets. 
While the company's system is by no means complete, it is possible 
to talk with subscribers in the central section of the city. Complete 
connections have been made between some of the principal office 
buildings, notably the Bourse, Drexel and Fidelity, and Broad Street 
above Arch Street. The work of extending the sj'stem, which has 
been going forward with such haste as to cause not a few citizens to 
complain because of the torn-up condition of the streets, will be 
pushed with unabated zeal, so that hundreds of telephones will within 
a few months be working. The Bell telephone rates have been cut 
about 20 per cent. Details of the Keystone system were given in our 
pages last year. 

THE CUTTER COMPANY, Nineteenth and Hamilton street:?, 
Philadelphia, and 120 Liberty Street, New York City, on Jan. i as- 
sumed the entire management of the sales of the Keystone electrical 
instruments. .\ number of itnportant changes and improvements 
have recently been made in this well-known line of instruments, whose 
users include some of the best engineers in the country. Under the 
well directed management of the Cutter Company the sales should 
show a very large increase during the coming year. The manufacture 
of the Keystone instruments and all electrical and mechanical details 
will, as heretofore, be under the direct management of Mr. J. Frank- 
lin Stevens. Requests for catalogues and literature and quotations 
should hereafter be forwarded to the Cutter Company. 

well-Bierce & Smith-Vaile Company, of Dayton, Ohio, report that 
they recently shipped to their London agent, Mr. Frederic Nell, one 
pair of 30-inch cylinder gate Victor turbines on horizontal shaft on 
steel center discharge end. They are also getting out for him one 
single 27-inch cylinder gate Victor turbine on vertical shaft, one 12- 
inch cylinder gate Victor turbine on horizontal shaft and a pair of 
27-inch cylinder gate Victor turbines on horizontal shaft. They now 
have about ready for dispatch a large shipment of Victor high-pres- 
sure turbines for the Ouiatchouan Pulp Company, Ouiatchouan. 
P. Q., Canada. The shipment will include two looo-hp, one 500-hp 
and one loo-hp turbines. « 

Bullock Electric Manufacturing Company, of Cincinnati, and the 
Wagner Electric Manufacturing Company, of St. Louis, will estab- 
lish a foreign sales department with headquarters at Cincinnati. 
Hereafter all foreign business, except in Mexico and Canada, for the 
two companies will be handled by this new department, which will be 
under the management of Frank G. BoUes. The work of the "Ad- 
vance Department," will continue under the direction of Mr. Bolles. 
under whose charge it has been for the past three years. 

hydraulic engineer, of New York, who has been at Winnipeg, Man., 
inspecting the water power facilities on the Winnipeg River for 
Messrs. Mackenzie & Mann, has gone to New York to order a large 
electric plant by which electric power will be furnished to Winnipeg. 
The work will be installed next spring at the confluence of the Win- 
nipeg and Whitemouth rivers, and will cost about $50,000. 

taken an order for a bridge across the Ohio River at Marietta, Ohio, 
made up of two 220 ft. spans, one 1380-ft. cantilever span and a via- 
duct approach of 645 ft. This structure is for highway and electric 
railway purposes. 

BALL ENGINES.— The Royal Bag Manufacturing Company, of 
Charleston, S. C, have recently installed an electric plant. The Gen- 
eral Electric Company furnish the generator and the Ball Engine 
Company, Erie, Pa., the engine. 



Vol. X.XXIX., No. i. 

■ on industrial combinations show a total authorized capitalization of 
?3.607,539,2O0 for the 183 corporations reported May 31, 1900. The 
capital stock issued was $3,085,200,868. Of this total the authorized 
capital includes $270,127,250 in bonds, $1,259,540,900 in preferred 
stock, and $2,077,871,050 in common stock. The capital stock com- 
prises $216,412,759 in bonds, $1,066,525,963 in preferred stock, and 
$1,802,262,146 common stock. The total value of all ihc products of 
the combinations is $1,661,295,364, and after subtracting the value of 
the products of the hand trades, or mechanical and neighborhood in- 
dustries, which amount to $1,216,165,160, the products of the indus- 
trial combinations in igoo is found equivalent to more than 20 per 
•cent of the total gross products of the manufacturing industries of 
the country as they existed in 1890. The 183 corporations reported 
employed an average of 399,192 wage earners, receiving $194,534,515 
in wages. Employment also was given to 24,585 salaried officials, re- 
ceiving a total of $32,653,628 in salaries. Miscellaneous expenses of 
the combinations aggregated $151,851,077, and the total cost of ma- 
terial used was $1,085,083,828. The gross value of products, less the 
Talue of material purchased in partly manufactured form, gives the 
■net or true value of products of these combinations as $1,051,981,586. 
This represents the increase in the value of the raw materials result- 
ting from the various processes of manufacture. Control of 2029 
plants that were active during the census year and 174 that were idle 
during that period were reported. The returns show an average of 11 
active plants to each corporation. The statistics exclude all corpora- 
tions manufacturing and distributing gas and electric light and 
power, as it is impossible to trace all of the latter, and they do not 
generally possess the same economic significance. The returns show 
that the iron and steel industry is at the head of the list, with a gross 
product of $508,626,482, which is more than double the value of the 
product of any other group, except food and kindred products, and 
represents nearly one-third of the total gross value of products of all 
the industrial combinations. 

MEXICO. — The Descubridora Mining & Smelting Company, of 
Descubridora, State of Durango, Mexico, which is controlled by 
American capital, has just let contracts through Albert A. Cary, con- 
sulting engineer, 95-97 Liberty Street, for the entire electrical equip- 
ment of its mining and smelting plants. The boiler equipment, con- 
sisting of two water tube boilers of 150 hp each, is to be manufac- 
tured by John L. Gill, of Philadelphia, Pa. The engines will be 
built by the American Ball Engine Company, whose offices are at 
95-97 Liberty Street. These machines are to be non-condensing 
compound type, 100 lbs. steam pressure, of 200 hp each. The gen- 
erator, having a capacity of 125 kw, 550 volts, direct connected, will 
be manufactured by the C & C Electric Company, of Garwood, N. J. 
Three electric hoisting equipments are to be supplied by the Lid- 
gerwood Manufacturing Company, of Brooklyn. One machine will 
have a capacity of raising 4000 lbs. 300 ft. per minute, and is to be 
direct connected to a 50-hp motor to be furnished by the General 
Electric Company. The other two hoists, each capable of handling 
2000 lbs 300 ft. a minute, will be operated by 25-hp G. E. motors. 
The Knowles branch of the International Pump Company, 120 Lib- 
erty Street, is to supply an 8 by 8 vertical triplex pumping equip- 
ment, which will be driven by a 2S-hp motor of C & C type. The 
Connellsville (Pa.) Blower Company is to furnish a large blowing 
outfit for the smelting plant, which will be operated by a loo-hp 
motor. The storehouse and office building will be installed with 12 
enclosed arc lamps. The light will be generated by a 6-kw, iio- 
volt machine. All above-mentioned equipment is to be shipped by 
Feb. I. The plant, it is staled, will be considerably enlafgcd in the 
near future. 

C & C DOMESTIC ORDERS.— Domestic contracts recently allot- 
ted to the C & C people call for a 75-kw generator for switchboard, 
and an engine to be built by the Ames Iron Works, of Oswego, N. Y., 
for installation for general power purposes in the Scranton, Pa., 
shops of the .-Mlis-Chalmers Company. The Daily Mews office, Ta- 
coma, Washington, is to be shipped a complete 30-hp series-parallel 
equipment to be utilized for driving a quadruple press to be manu- 
factured by R. Hoe & Co. F. C. Patten Company, of Sycamore, 111 , 
has ordered for general power purposes a 65-kw belted generator and 
switchboard. The National Meter Company, of Brooklyn, is to be 
furnished with an i8-kw generator, which is to be direct connected 
to a gas engine for lighting use. The K. D. Box & Label Com- 
pany, of Cleveland, Ohio, will be equipped with a 60-kw direct-con- 
nected generator switchboard, and witl; six motors, varying in ca- 
pacity from 3 to 15 hp fnr power. Joseph Bancroft & Co.. of Wil- 
mington, Del., have called for an 85-kw generator, also for power pur- 
poses, this being the fourth order from the same source, and a second 
order for a 60-hp motor has been secured from the Tietzjen & Lang 
Dry Dock Company, of Hoboken. This motor will be used in con- 
nection with pumping equipment. 

tric Company, of Garwood, N. J., whose local offices are in the Cen- 
tral Building, 143 Liberty Street, reports receipt of a number of 
orders for motors, etc., through its British representative, Mr. C. R. 
Heap, of 47 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S. W. Two 30- 
hp slow-speed motors and one slow-speed motor of 5 hp, also 19 
motors of from 5 hp to 10 hp have been requisitioned for by R. 
Waygood & Co., Limited, "lift" engineers, of Falmouth Road, Lon- 
don, S. E. A 6o-hp series-parallel equipment has been ordered by 
Harmsworth Brothers, proprietors of the London Evening News. 
This equipment is intended to be used for driving a Hoe printing 

announces recent orders for very large Cross oil filters from the 
Government Printing Office at Washington, from Mcintosh, Sey- 
mour & Co., Auburn, N. Y., the engine builders, and from the De 
Beers Consolidated Mining Company, Limited, of Kimberley, South 
Africa. It has also received a sixth order from the Calumet & Hecla 
Mining Company, for Cross oil filters, making 12 of its filters now in 
use in the different mines. In addition to the extended sale of its 
goods, which embraces the entire world, the Burt Company finds 
much satisfaction in a large number of "repeat" orders from the 
larger concerns. 

PRICES OF BRASS GOODS.— During this week the leading 
brass manufacturers are to meet in New York City to consider the 
trade situation. Just after the first reduction in the price of copper 
was announced, a fortnight ago, by the United Metals Selling Com- 
pany, the}' held a conference and decided not to reduce the price of 
their product. They have now reached the conclusion that it would 
be desirable for trade purposes to make some concessions in the 
price of brass, and it is expected that at this week's meeting they will 
make the cut. 

TROLLEY WIRE FOR ENGLAND.— The British electrical en- 
gineering and contracting firm of Macartney, McElroy & Co.. 
through their local offices, 26 Cortlandt Street, are about to award 
contracts for 44 miles of No. 00 trolley wire for various British 
orders, which the company have recently secured. The company will 
also shortly let contracts on this side for two electric sprinklers, to- 
gether with equipment and trucks. One sprinkler will have a ca- 
pacity of 3000 gallons of water, and the other 1800 gallons. They 
are intended for the Durban electric traction system. South Africa. 

properties heretofore owned by the Detroit Bridge & Iron Company, 
of Detroit, Mich., and the same will hereafter be known as the De- 
troit Plant of the American Bridge Company. Mr. Max J. L. Fowler 
has been appointed manager. The plant thus becomes a part of the 
Western division of the American Bridge Company, under the juris- 
diction of Mr. August Ziesing, Western manager. 

Harrisburg Foundry 5: Machine Works, through its New York 
manager, Mr. W. P. MacKcnzic, 203 Broadway, has just sold a 150- 
hp return tubular boiler for an electric light plant in Brazil, also a 
25-hp tandem compound belted Ideal engine for installation in one 
of the United States Government repair shops at Manila. 

POWER IN IDAHO.— The American Falls Water Power Com- 
pany has secured a franchise at Pocatello, Idaho, to put in a power 
and light plant for that locality. They bring their power in from the 
American Falls, 26 miles away from the city. Work has been already 
begun on the plant, which will be pushed through as rapidly as possi- 
ble. Mr. John A. Tupper is resident manager of the enterprise. 

of Georgia has granted a charter to the Savannah Electric Company, 
capitalized at $3,500,000. The charter consolidates all of the street 
car lines in Savannah. The incorporators, except G. C. Naglc, of 
Chicago, 111., are Savannah men. 

DISSOLUTION OF PARTNERSHIP.— The partnership of the 
Lawton-Beattie Electric Company, of Cincinnati, has been dissolved, 
Mr. Lawton retiring. Mr. A. C. Beattie has acquired all the assets 
and assumed all liabilities, and will continue the business under the 
title The Beattie Electric Company. 

HALL SIGNAL IN ENGLAND.— The JVi-stminslcr Gazette says 
the .American railway signal has entered the English field. The 
paper announces that the Northeastern Railway has contracted with 
the Hall Signal Company, of New York, to equip its system. 

RAILWAY MATERLM. WANTED.— Mr. M. V. Chccsni.ui, of 
Columbus, Ohio, writes us that in the near future he will be in the 
market for electric railway construction material. 

FERR.ANTI. LIMITED, is the new name of the former concern 
of S. 7.. de Fcrranti, Limited, of Hollinwood. Lancashire. England. 

January 4, ip"'. 



Special Covvesponbence- 


London Office, Electrical World and Engineer, Dec. 23, 1901. 

UNDERGROUND FOR BIRMINGHAM.— The busy city of Birmingham is 
going to make an attempt to follow London's example, a local leading firm of 
solicitors having signified that a London syndicate has empowere4 them to apply 
to Parliament for powers to construct a number of underground tubes for that 

SUNDAY CARS IN SCOTLAND.— The Edinburgh Tramways Company has 
violated some musty old traditions in the Scottish capital by commencing the 
regular running of cars on Sunday in the city. It is understood that the num- 
ber of cars running will not be so large as on week days, but much will depend 
on the amount of patronage offered by the public. In Glasgow, when the Cor- 
poration was taken to task for running Sunday cars, the promise was made 
that there would be only a modified service. Very soon, however, the service 
accommodated itself to the desires of the public, who overcrowded the cars, and 
led to others being put on the various routes. Such undoubtedly will also be the 
result of the Edinburgh innovation and in the meantime it is interesting to note 
that the men do not appear to have any objection to the extra day*s work as long 
as they get extra pay. 

LONDON DISTRICT RAILWAY.— It was announced some time ago that 
the whole of this equipment had gone to the British Westinghouse Company, 
and this is now confirmed, and, as already noted also in your columns, steam 
turbines will be used instead of engines of the ordinary reciprocating type. 
As the generators are to be 5000 kilowatt capacity, it will be at once seen that 
the experiment of using steam turbines will be a most interesting one, no tur- 
bines approaching that size having ever been constructed. It is stated that 
recent tests have proven that steam turbines will compare favorably in economy 
of steam consumption with the best types of compound condensing engines. 
The great power-house at Chelsea which will be thus equipped is doubtless in- 
tended to supply others of Mr. Yerkes' electric schemes, and it would appear 
as if London were about to see most important electric developments in railway 
work. Meantime the Metropolitan Company have issued their specifications for 
their power-house, and there appears to be a general impression that Ganz & 
Company, of Budapest, will succeed in carrying off this contract. Though noth- 
ing definite has yet been given out, it would appear that the great steam rail- 
ways who have running powers over the underground lines are already making 
preparation to equip such of their trains as require to run in the Inner Circle, 
so that the entering edge of the wedge of electric traction as applied to railway 
work in England will soon have been inserted with all the important applica- 
tions as to the future that such a movement involves. 

POWER PLANT FOR MANCHESTER.— A large electric railway and light- 
ing plant is now under construction for the city of Manchester. There will be 
six cross-compound engines of 3000 i. h. p., each direct coupled to three- 
phase generators at 6500 volts. The engines are by Messrs. Yates & Thom, of 
Blackburn, and all of the electrical equipment is being supplied by the Electrical 
Company, of London, which will use the apparatus of the AUgemeine Elektrici- 
tats-Gesellschaft, of Berlin. The engines are supplied with steam at 160 lbs. 
per square inch. The condensers are worked by continuous current motors, the 
power for which, and also for the necessary motors required for driving fans, 
coal carriers, etc., being supplied by three auxiliary generating sets, each of 
230-kw capacity. Each of these sets consists of a high-speed Willans engine, 
direct coupled to a continuous current shunt wound generator, generating current 
at 230 volts. The excitation of the three-phase generators is taken off the auxiliary 
plant bus-bars at starting up, and afterward from two motor generators, each 
of 75-kw capacity, consisting of an induction motor, driving a continuous cur- 
rent generator. Each of these motor generators is capable of supplying the 
full excitation current for three of the main generators. The main generators 
themselves are of the revolving field type. The sub-station plant comprises 
thirty motor-generators each of 250-kw capacity, eighteen of which will be used 
for traction and twelve for lighting purposes, and further, ten balancers. These 
motor-generators will be erected at ten sub-stations. The station as above 
described is already being extended by the addition of two 6000 1. h. p. engines 
and generators and the sub-stations by forty motor-generators, each of iso-kw 
capacity. This work is also being carried out by the Electrical Company of 

<3eneral 1Flew8. 


MOBILE, ALA. — The citizens of Paint Rock Valley in Alabama are building 
a co-operative telephone line up the valley from Paint Rock station. 

NEW DECATUR, ALA.— The City Council at a special meeting has con- 
sidered a proposition to put in a telephone system at an established rate of $1 
per month for residences and $2 for business houses. F. C. and W. E. Bell, of 
Chicago, made the proposition. 

FORT SMITH, ARK.— Poles are being erected for an extension of the tele- 
phone line from Poteau to Cameron. Later on the line will be run to Hackett 
City and Fort Smith. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. — The independent telephone system which con- 
nects the towns of Imperial, Iris, Flowingwell and Calexico, in San Diego 
County, Calif., has been improved and extended. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.— Mr. W. R. Hewitt, chief of the Department of 
Electricity of San Francisco, recently prepared estimates on the cost of install- 
ing a municipal inter-communicating telephone system in the City Hall. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. — The California Northwestern Railway Com- 
pany recently installed city and long-distance telephone apparatus for the con- 
venience of the passengers on each of the ferryboats, which ply between its 
Bay terminal and San Francisco. 

OXFORD, CONN.— Clayton C. Sears expects to soon begin the work of re- 
building the telephone line from Southbury to Woodbury. 

COLORADO SPRINGS. COLO.— The Colorado Telephone Company has ar- 
ranged to spend $1,200,000 on improvements next year. It has increased its 
capital stock from $3,000,000 to $5,000,000. Four new lines will be added be- 
tween Denver and Leadville. 

EAU GALLIE, FLA.— A telephone system has been put in here with five 
subscribers to begin with. 

OLIVER, GA. — The Oliver Telephone Company will soon have finished a new 
line from Halcyondale. The line will be extended to Hugginsville. 

MUSCATINE, lA.— The Wilton Telephone Company has been incorporated; 
etock, $3,000. J. M. Rider is president. 

CEDAR BLUFFS, lA.— The Lisbon Telephone Company will build a line 
from Cedar Bluffs to Morse next spring. 

MASSENA, lA. — An independent telephone company has been organized at 
this place. D. P. Hogan is interested. George Anstey is president and G. A. 
Hill secretary. 

NORTHBORO, lA. — The Coin & Northboro Telephone Company, capital stock 
$7,000, has been incorporated by J. P. Young, president; K. J. Herron, secretary, 
and E. F. Rose, treasurer. 

CLINTON, ILL.— The Clinton telephone system is to be modernized and 

DIXON, ILL. — A farmers' telephone line is being erected between Rock Falls 
and Tampico. 

PEKIN, ILL. — The Citizens* Telephone Company, capital stock $50,000, has 
been incorporated. 

BENTLEY, ILL.— The Hancock Coui^y Telephone Company is extending 
its line into Bentley. 

MARTINSVILLE, ILL.— The Martinsville Telephone Company has filed a 
certificate of dissolution. 

PITTSFIELD, ILL.— Pike County Telephone Company has increased its 
capital from $20,000 to $35,000. 

ASTORIA, ILL. — Robert Whitlock has sold the telephone exchange to Cyrus 
Bucher. Mr. Bucher is interested in the Farmers' Telephone Company. 

ABINGDON, ILL.— The Mutual Union Telephone Company has been in- 
corporated with a capital of $2,500. The incorporators are Leonard E. Cutler, 
William H. Beaver and Nellie A. Cutler. 

CARBONDALE, ILL. — The telephone exchanges of this city, Marion, Cen- 
terville and Murphysboro, have entered into an agreement with the Central Tele- 
phone Company for long distance service, A line will be extended to this city. 
CHICAGO, ILL. — An ordinance has been introduced in the Chicago City 
Council giving the United Telephone & Telegraph Company right to run wires 
all over the city. This company now only has a franchise in the Hyde Park 

JERSEYVILLE, ILL. — The Calhoun Telephone Company has secured fran- 
chises in Hardin, Hamburg, Brussels and Grafton, and will establish local ex- 
changes at once in the several places. The first line to be constructed will be 
that between Brussels and Grafton in Jersey County. 

JEFFERSONVILLE, IND.— The Cumberland Telephone & Telegraph Com- 
pany will establish exchanges at New Washington, Utica and HenryviUe. 

ROSSVILLE, IND. — A franchise was granted to the Rossville Home Tele- 
phone Company to construct and maintain a telephone line upon the public high- 
ways in Carroll County. 

PAOLI, IND. — The Orange County Telephone Company has completed its 
line between this city and Menengo and will further develop the field when 
suitable weather prevails. 

HUNTINGBURG, IND. — The farmers are anxious to have telephone con- 
nection and are making arrangements to have the Dubois County Telephone 
Company extend its lines. 

MARTINSVILLE, IND.— The Morgantown Independent Telephone line has 
been completed to this city and connections can now be had with Nashville and 
other points in Brown County. 

ELKHART, IND.— J. F. B. Kauffman, of Goshen, has bought of L. A. Neff 
the telephone system at Syracuse, and will reorganize the property under a stock 
company with a capital stock of $25,000. 

LA GRiVNGE, IND.— The Northern Indiana & Southern Michigan Telephone, 
Telegraph & Cable Company of La Grange, Ind., will increase its capital stock 
to $25,000, and will rebuild several of its lines to neighboring towns. 

PRINCETON, IND.— The Princeton Telephone Company, capital stock 
$25,000, has been incorporated by John W, Ewing, Henry J. Krizel, Chas. F. 
Stevens, L. W. Gudgcl, Steele F. Gilmore, Vincent W. S. Trippett and William 
E. Stilwell. 

HENRYVILLE, IND. — This town has only a population of 500, yet it enjoys 
the distinction of having four independent telephone lines. Recently repre- 
sentatives of the Cumberland Company, of Louisville, were here and secured 
22 subscribers for its service. 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND.— The annual contract for telephones which the city 
made last year for the fire and police departments will expire in a few days 
and the Central Union and New Telephone Companies have been requested to 
present sealed bids for 1902 service. 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND.— The Alamo Telephone Company, of Alamo, capi- 
tal stock $To,ooo, and the Princeton Telephone Company, of Princeton, capital 
stock $25,000, have filed articles of incorporation with the Secretary of State. 
Exchanges will be established at Alamo and at Princeton. 



Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND.— The New (independent) Telephone Company, of 
this city, shows a gratifying increase of business for November. The severe 
weather crippled the lines at places temporarily and put a stop to all construc- 
tion of new lines, but even with these interruptions December promises well. 
The year closes with a most gratifying record. 

SHELBYVILLE, IND.— The anxiety that has been felt because of the con- 
templated purchase of the local telephone plant by the Bell Corporation has 
been wholly dispelled by the purchase of the property by John A. Tindall, David 
B. Wilson and Daniel Deprez. The company has reorganized, with Mr. Tindall 
as president, J. C Deprez secretary and Mr. Wilson as general manager. 

MUNCIE, IND. — The City Council has introduced an ordinance to admit a 
new telephone company. The promoters are W. E. Hitchcock, of this city and 
Ft Wayne men, who propose to place the wires underground in the business 
section of the city and pay to the city 2 per cent, of the gross receipts annually 
for the term of the franchise, thirty-five years. More than 800 citizens have 
subscribed for the new service. 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. — There is a contest between Ohio and Indiana to 
become the banner independent telephone State in the Union. A map recently 
issued by the United States Telephone Company, of Cleveland, showing the 
independent development of the two States indicates that the race is a close 
one. The map forms a striking exhibit of the growth of independent lines 
in the two States, as no line owned or operated by the Bell Company is shown 
upon it. 

ANGOLA, IND. — The Town Board has refused permission for the Farmer's 
Telephone Company to extend its line into this city. This concern is generally 
regarded as the Bell Company in disguise, and Angola business men are ob- 
jecting. The Steuben County Telephone Company, an independent company, 
is giving the town and county excellent service. Business houses pay $18 a 
year and residences $12, with privilege of talking all over the county without 
toll charges. 

DUNKIRK, IND. — The citizens have arranged to put in an independent tele- 
phone system in opposition to the Central Union Telephone Company, which has 
225 telephones in operation. The nev» company has sold sufEcient stock to put 
in the plant, and from the business men alone has secured contracts for 150 
instruments. W. C. Porter and George Whitigar are the chief promoters and 
they announce that the work of installation will proceed immediately. With 
the installation of the Dunkirk plant nearly all the eastern part of the State 
will be supplied with independent service, and over these systems much of it 
already has communication with the State Capital. 

FRANKFORT, IND. — The telephone question is up again in this city. The 
present trouble is the result of the Bell Company announcing a coming in- 
crease in rates and the fact that the central energy plant (independent) will 
soon be sold by order of court to satisfy claims. The central energy plant was 
installed by John H. Murphy and other Indianapolis men. Under the terms of 
its franchise the maximum rates were fixed at 75 cents per month for resident 
telephones and $1.50 per month for business instruments. The company erected 
a fine plant and the people supported it. Then the Bell cut rates to 50 cents 
per month for residences and $1.25 for business houses. The people generally 
stayed with the independent company, but the latter's affairs got tangled, a 
receiver was appointed and the plant is to be sold. Everybody believes that the 
Bell will buy it. In the meantime the Bell announces a new rate of $1 and 
$2 per month for residences. 

PARIS, KY. — The City Council has granted the Fayette Telephone Company 
of Lexington a franchise for the purpose of maintaining and operating a tele- 
phone exchange in this city. 

OWENSBORO, KY. — The Southern Telephone Association, of Nashville, has 
purchased the plant of the Hancock County Telephone Company (independent), 
together with the toll lines extending from Waitman to Cloverport, Ky. The 
Nashville Company is friendly to the Cumberland Company of this city. The 
sale makes a break in the system of independent toll lines in process of con- 
struction between this city and Louisville. 

JENNINGS, LA. — Arrangements have been completed for a telephone line 
to the oil fields by the Cumberland Telephone Company. The companies drill- 
ing at the Jennings fields have arranged to make use of the service. 

BOSTON, MASS. — The new Bell Telephone Company to be formed to take 
over the Erie Telephone properties will start off Jan. i with 162,500 telephone 
subscribers distributed as follows; Arkansas and Texas, 48,000; Cleveland, Ohio, 
14,50a; Minnesota and Dakotas, 24,000; Michigan, 52,000; Wisconsin, 24,000. 
The estimated gross income for 1902 is placed as high as $6,500,000. 

AUGUSTA, ME. — The Dirigo Telephone Company has been granted its peti- 
tion to enter the city of Augusta. 

ALMA, MICH. — The Union Telephone Company, of Alma, has increased its 
capital stock from $200,000 to $250,000. 

GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. — The Citizens' Telephone Company, of Grand 
Rapids, will install an exchange at Bclding. 

KALAMAZOO, MICH., may have an independent telephone system. J. B. 
Ware, manager of the People's Telephone Company, Detroit, Mich., and D. L. 
Berry, of Jackson, have asked for a franchise. 

GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. — The Michigan Telephone Company has announced 
an advance in its rates in Detroit and Grand Rapids. Since the opening of the 
independent telephone company war, both here and in Detroit, the company's 
rates have been $12 for residences and $18 and upwards, according to distance, 
for business houses. The Citizens' Company in this city started out with a 
rate of $18 for residences and $24 for business houses which is limited by 
ordinance as the maximum. The Detroit rates for the independent telephones 
were similarly low. The announcement of the advance made by the Michigan 
company came as a surprise, and already the company has received a number 
of orders to take out telephones in this city. All business hOTises in this city 
are at present provided with both telephones, but an association of local business 
men is at present considering the question of abandoning the Erie Company 
ioatrumcnts on account of the advance. 

DARKSVILLE, MO. — B. W. Wright has purchased J. S. McCormick's inter- 
est in the telephone line from here to Huntsville. 

PIPESTONE, MINN. — The Southwestern Minnesota Telephone Company 
has filed amended articles of incorporation fixing its capital stock at $150,000. 

BLOOMING PRAIRIE, MINN.— At a recent meeting of the directors of the 
Steele County Telephone Company it was decided to make extensions, including 
lines to Waltham, Geneva and EUendale. 

PLAINVIEW, MINN.— The Greenwood Telephone Company, with an au- 
thorized capital, of $25,000, has been organized to build independent lines con- 
necting Plainview, Weaver, Thellraan, Kegan and Beaver. 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. — It is stated that the owners of the independent 
telephone lines in Wisconsin, Minnesota and northern Michigan will unite to 
form a long distance toll line service in the northwest to compete with the Erie 
system in this section. It is said that the Milwaukee Telephone & Telegraph 
Company, which is now seeking a franchise in Milwaukee, is a part of the pro- 
posed new company. It is also rumored, though denied by President Moulton, 
that the Twin City and the Rapid Service companies of this city are to be 
included in the amalgamation. A meeting of the owners of the independent 
lines will be held in Milwaukee in February. 

BUTTE, MONT.— Mr. Hatton, manager of the Rocky Mountain Bell Tele- 
phone Company at Butte, is at Deer Lodge for the purpose of installing a new 
pole line in that city. 

KANSAS CITY, MO. — The People's Telephone Company, with a capital of 
$50,000, all paid up, has been incorporated by Henry Wood, John Enoch, 
Charles B. Stark and others. 

OMAHA, NEB. — An order has been secured from the courts, restraining 
the Plattsmouth Telephone Company from erecting poles or lines in the city of 
South Omaha until a franchise is secured. 

OMAHA, NEB. — The Camp Dewey Telephone system, of which M. C. 
Thiesen is proprietor, has been pushing its lines quite extensively of late. The 
system now reaches all points and connects with the O'Neil Telephone Company 
on the west, the Interstate Telephone Company on the north, the Western 
Electric Telephone Company on the East and the Nebraska Telephone Company 
on the south, and includes 225 miles of toll lines. It has 135 local subscribers 
in Creighton, Neb. Quite a number of ranchmen's lines are connected, and 
others are building. Material is on the ground for an electric light plant here. 
Water power from the Verdigre River will be used for the generation of electric 

ATLANTIC CITY, N. J.— The Town Council of Absecom has granted the 
Interstate Telephone Company permission to erect poles and string wires through 
the tow'n, conditional upon rights of way being obtained from the property own- 
ers upon whose land the poles are to be erected. 

HALIFAX, N. S. — An increase in the rates has been announced by the Nova 
Scotia Telephone Company for the city of Halifax from $25 to $35 per year for 
residences. The City Council will take the matter up. 

ITHACA, N. Y. — A telephone line from South Worcester to Summit and 
Charlottesville is being built. 

ITHACA, N. Y. — Ithaca Telephone Company has been incorporated; capital 
stock, $75,000. Directors: E. C. Stewart, C. H. Blood and J. T. Newman, of 

UTICA, N. Y. — The Utica Home Telephone Company has been incorporated, 
with a capital stock of $200,000. Directors: Charles Poole, Henry F. Miller, 
Edgar B. Odell, Edward Bushinger, A. Benjamin Tyler, Herbert C. Sholes and 
T. Henry Ferris, of Utica. 

ALBANY, N. Y.— The Inter-Urban Telephone Company, of Utica, has been 
incorporated to operate a telephone system connecting New York City, Albany, 
Rochester, Syracuse, Buffalo, Utica, Binghamton, Ogdensburg and other large 
cities of the State. The capital is $250,000. The directors, all of whom arc 
residents of Utica, are D. Clinton Murray, John D. Kernan, Frank L. Jones, 
John J. Town, J. Francis Day, Hugh White and Charles I. Williams. 

VICKERY, OHIO. — A new telephone line is being built from Clyde to this 

CHASE, OHIO. — The Irwin Valley Telephone Company, capital stock $300, 
has been incorporated. 

MT. BETHEL, OHIO.— The People's Telephone Company will erect another 
new line in this vicinity. 

S.\LEM, OHIO. — The Salem Railway will build a private telephone line from 
Salem to Washingtonville. 

BATAV'IA OHIO. — The Citizens' Telephone Company will build a branch 
exchange at \\'illiamsburg. 

SALEM, OHIO. — The Columbiana County Telephone Company will estab- 
lish an exchange in Calcutta. 

FAIRVIEW, OHIO. — The Union Telephone Company has increased its capital 
stock from $10,000 to $25,000, 

HAMILTON, OHIO.— The Central Union Telephone Company is building a 
new line from Hamilton to Mason. 

WEST ELKTO.N, OHIO.— The Gratis Telephone Company will install an 
automatic exchange at West Elkton. 

FRANKLIN, OHIO. — The Miami Construction Company has made applica- 
tion for a franchise for a telephone line. 

ALLIANCE, OHIO. — Farmers of Beaver Township arc organizing a com- 
pany to build a system for their own use. 

WAUSEON, OHIO.— The Fayette Telephone Company is planning to build 
a number of extensions in Fulton County. 

WESTON, OHIO. — The local exchange will put in a new loodrop switch- 
board, which will accommodate 400 subscribers. 

CIRCLEVILLE OHIO.— The Circlcville Citizens' Telephone Company is 
building a toll line to New Holland and Washington C. H. 

HUDSON, OHIO.— The Central Union Telephone Company has announced 
a one-minute service rate between Hudson, Bedford and Cleveland. 

January 4, 1901. 



MILFORD, OHIO.— The Citizens" Telephone Company will build a toll line 
to Pleasant Hill, Elenor, Belfast, Boston, Newtonsvile and Goshen. 

TROY, OHIO.— The Progress Telephone Company is adding a new switch- 
board to its exchange at West Milton. About 230 lines are now connected. 

NEW LEXINGTON, OHIO.— The Hocking Valley Telephone Company has 
been granted a franchise for an e.xchange in this place. Work will start at 

MENTOR, OHIO. — The annual meeting of the Mentor Telephone Company 
will be held Jan. 20. New officers will be elected and improvements decided 

MASSILLON, OHIO.— The MassiUon Telephone Company is building lines 
to Canal Fulton giving the latter place direct communication with Manchester and 

FAIRVIEW, OHIO. — The Union Telephone Company has increased its capi- 
tal stock from $10,000 to $25,000. O. V. Wells is president and E. P. Shipley, 

MARYSVILLE, OHIO.— The Marysville Telephone Company is constructing 
a farmers' line to Pharisburg and Bonnette. A number of subscribers has been 
secured for the line. 

LUCAS, OHIO. — The Monroe Telephone Company has increased its capital 
stock from $500 to $5,000 to provide for improvements. E. E. Culler is presi- 
dent and J. F. Culler, secretary. 

BEREA, OHIO. — The Berea Telephone Company is meeting with good 
success in building up a farmers* system. The local exchange has 200 con- 
nections, Strong\'ille 43 and Columbia 35. 

CINCINNATI, OHIO.— The City & Suburban Telegraph Association has its 
solicitors out for subscribers under the new nickel-in-the-slot machine plan, and 
it is stated that they are taking many contracts. 

EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO.— The Columbiana County Telephone Company 
is stringing new wires from East Liverpool to Toronto. Work has been de- 
layed through the inability to secure copper wire. 

YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO.— The Beaver Township Independent Telephone 
Company has appointed a committee to sell stock and secure subscription for a 
farmers' community system which it proposes to build. 

WAPAKONETA, OHIO.— The Auglaize Telephone Company, which con- 
nects several towns in the county, will extend its lines to St. Johns, Westminster, 
West Newton, South Warsaw, Holden, Layton and other towns. 

LONE STAR, OHIO.— The Wellston, Mineral & Athens Telephone Company 
of Lone Star, has been incorporated; capital $2,000. Incorporators: R. M. 
McMangle, F. M. Wood, L. A. Rasson, B. D. Turner and S. J. Jeffers. 

KENTON, OHIO. — The directors of the Kenton Home Telephone Company 
have authorized improvements in the exchange. There will be a large increase 
in cable capacity and a new board and new instruments will be installed. 

BELLEVUE, OHIO.— The Flatrock Telephone Company has completed a 
farmers' line from Bellevue to Colby, connecting the exchange with Clyde and 
other large towns in this vicinity. The company is also building a line to Fire- 

GENEVA, OHIO. — The Madison Telephone Company has been given two 
weeks in which to remove old wires and poles and improve the service in other 
ways. The company has announced that it will thoroughly overhaul the Geneva 

IRONTON, OHIO. — The Central Union Telephone Company has a prosper- 
ous exchange here. The company has 600 subscribers in the city, and is pre- 
paring to connect up 50 farmers' lines and 60 in the neighboring town of 

MARIETTA, OHIO. — The West Virginia Western Telephone Company has 
completed the work of laying a cable under the Ohio River, connecting Parkers- 
burg and Marietta, giving Marietta connection with the numerous exchanges in 
West Virginia, 

FINDLAY, OHIO. — The Central Union Telephone Company has opened a 
general supply house at Findlay. A large amount of work is being done on the 
Findlay exchange. The company has about iioo subscribers in the city and 250 
on farmers* lines. 

MILLERSBURG, OHIO.— The Killbuck Telephone Company, which for six 
months has been endeavoring to secure a franchise in Millersburg, has taken its 
case to the Probate Court and secured the desired grant. The town will appeal 
from the decision. 

PAINESVILLE, OHIO. — The Painesville Telephone Company has issued 
an announcement that there is no truth in the report that rates are to be in- 
creased after the first of the year. The rates are: Party line, $12; residence, 
$10, and business, $24. 

CHILLICOTHE, OHIO.— The Chillicothe Home Telephone Company is 
planning to make extensive additions to its switchboard capacity. The Bell 
Company at Chillicothe has increased its rates, but the Home Company has an- 
nounced that it will make no change. 

CINCINNATI, OHIO.— The Fayette Home Telephone Company, of Lex- 
ington, Ky., has bought a franchise for a line between Maysville and Mt. Ster- 
ling which will connect a number of Kentucky towns with the Ohio system of 
the United States Telephone Company. 

NEWARK, OHIO.— At the annual meeting of the Newark Citizens' Telephone 
Company held Dec. 18, new directors were elected as follows: Edward Kibler, 
C. H. Spencer, J. K. Hammill, Henry Swisher, W. S. Weiant and J. C. Bren- 
nan. Another meeting will be held Jan. 6. 

KENT, OHIO. — The Kent Telephone Company is making excellent progress 
under the management of W. H. Butler. The service has recently been extended 
to Freedom, Freedom Station and Mantua, and next spring a line will be built 
to Windham. About 500 subscribers are served. 

MT. VERNON, OHIO.— The Mt. Vernon Citizens' Telephone Company re- 
cently built a farmers' system in the vicinity of Johnstown. At present there 
are 106 telephones in the system with 40 subscribers waiting to be connected. 

Subscribers are given connection with all parts of the county as well as with the 
main exchange. 

WOOSTER, OHIO. — The Central Union Telephone Company has applied to 
the Wayne County Probate Court to grant it a franchise in Wooster under the 
ruling of the Supreme Court, which says that the Probate Court may grant a 
telephone franchise where the company and city officials have been unable to 
come to terms. 

CLEVELAND, OHIO. — The Springfield Home Telephone Company has prac- 
tically completed its underground system. Construction work will start in the 
near future on an exchange building and headquarters. The company has se- 
cured about 1200 subscriptions thus far, and the exchange will be placed in 
operation about May i. 

FINDLAY, OHIO. — The Findlay Home Telephone Company is preparing 
plans for the installation of branch exchanges at Arlington, Rawson, and Ar- 
cadia in Hancock County. The company has placed an order for 400 additional 
pairs of cables for city use. It has 150 subscribers in the northern part of the 
city, on the waiting list. 

CRESTLINE, OHIO. — Considerable improvement has recently been made 
to the exchange of the Crestline Telephone Company. The exchange has been 
enlarged, giving a capacity of 400 telephones. The company has at present 
200 subscribers, but the number is increasing rapidly. A country line has been 
constructed six miles east. 

MANSFIELD, OHIO.— The new exchange of the Mansfield Telephone Com- 
pany will be placed in operation within a few days. The exchange has been 
equipped with switchboards of 2000 lines capacity. The company gives service 
to 500 subscribers outside of Mansfield. The rates for metallic individual lines 
are $iS for residences and $30 for business. 

MASSILLON, OHIO.— The Massillon Telephone Company is making exten- 
sive improvements to its system. A new switchboard has just been installed 
and another has been ordered. Since Jan. i last the company secured over 500 
subscribers, and the list at present numbers 850. At the first of the year the 
company is to be consolidated with the Stark County Telephone Company. 

CH.\GRIN FALLS, OHIO. — Farmers in Ford and Auburn Townships of 
Geauga County are organizing the Geauga Farmers' Telephone Company. The 
company will be managed exclusively by farmers on the co-operative basis and 
service will be furnished at actual cost. Connection will be made with the 
lines of the Geauga County Telephone Association making the service in that 
county the most complete of any county in the State. 

CINCINNATI, OHIO.— The City & Suburban Telegraph Association of this 
city has been made defendant in a suit to test the validity of its franchise. A 
local attorney, named John Rogers, brings the suit. He claims that the in- 
corporated name of the company was not in existence when permission was 
given to it by the Common Council to operate. This was March 12, 1873; the 
charter of the association is dated July 5, 1S73, four months later. 

CLEVELAND, OHIO.— It is reported that as a result of the purchase by 
the American Telephone & Telegraph Company of the controlling interest in the 
Erie Telephone & Telegraph Company, the Cleveland Telephone Company, one 
of the divisions of the Erie, will be operated in connection with the Central 
Union Telephone Company. It is said that such a change will result in the 
introduction of so-called Bell methods and fiercer competition than has been 
the rule in Cleveland under the present management. Manager Yensen claims 
to have no knowledge of any proposed changes. 

CLEVELAND, OHIO. — The Cincinnati Bell Company is just announcing 
the system of telephone toll charges which the Cleveland Bell Company is en- 
deavoring to abandon as undesirable and unprofitable. On Jan. i the City & 
Suburban Telegraph Company of Cincinnati will furnish nickel in the slot ma- 
chines to residences at the rate of $18 per year; at least one call per day is 
required. Business houses are required to have at least two calls per day at five 
cents each. This is for four party lines. The company will also furnish two 
party lines requiring at least four calls per day and individual lines requiring 
five calls per day. 

CINCINNATI, OHIO. — Judge Ferris has decided that a franchise granted 
by a city can not be transferred without the city's consent, accordingly he set 
aside the court entry transferring from Philip Fitzsimmons to the Fitzsimmona 
Telephone Company, the famous Fitzsimmons telephone franchise. The court 
intimated that under the recent Zanesville franchise decision by the Supreme 
Court, a city has no right to grant a franchise to an individual. On this 
ground the city will probably bring suit to test the validity of the Fitzsimmons 
franchise, which is for an independent system in Cincinnati. Prominent 
capitalists are endeavoring to use the franchise to build a new system, but the 
decision will probably disarrange their plans. 

CLEVELAND, OHIO.— The Springfield Home Telephone Company and the 
Xenia Citizens' Telephone Company have been consolidated as the Springfield- 
Xenia Telephone Company. The combined capital stock is $500,000, and officers 
are as follows: N. I. Dreyfoos, Cleveland, president; S. W. McGrew, Spring- 
field, vice-president; M. Shoup, Xenia, second vice-president; L. M. Blatt, 
Cleveland, secretary; L. M. Wolfe, Cleveland, treasurer. The above, with 
C. D. Juvenal, Upper Sandusky; P. E. Montanus, Springfield; John B. McGrew, 
Springfield; C. W. Collister, Cleveland, and E. E. McGarvey, Xenia, constitute 
the board of directors. The company has exchanges in operation in Jamestown, 
Xenia, and Yellow Springs, and is building a large exchange at Springfield, 
which will be the headquarters of the company. 

BATAVIA, OHIO.— A combination will be formed by the Batavia Telephone 
Company, the Citizens' Telephone Company and the Franklin Construction Com- 
pany, to compete with the City & Suburban Telegraph Association. The com- 
pany will be called the Citizens' Telephone Company, and will have headquarters 
at Batavia. New officers are as follows: B. W. GilfiUan, president; J. W. Ran- 
som, vice-president; W. H. Baum, secretary-treasurer. The Batavia exchange 
was opened Jan. i, 1901, with a list of about 40 subscribers. This exchange has 
made very satisfactory growth, as have the exchanges at Milford, Loveland and 
New Richmond, which were opened later. At present there are over 400 sub- 
scribers connected up, with toll stations at 36 places in this section. The 



Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 

farmers are asking for connection faster than they can be taken care of, and it 
is predicted that looo telephones will be installed in the county in due course 
of time. 

WOODWARD, OKLA.— The Home Enterprise Telephone Company has been 
incorporated, with a capital stock of $10,000 by C. R. Alexander, E. S. Wiggins, 
Geo. H. Brophy and others. 

HARRISBURG, PA,— The Common Council of the Borough of Montrose has 
granted a franchise to the People's Union Telephone Company to set poles etc., 
through the streets of the borough. The line will extend from Forest Lake to 
Montrose, thence to Franklin Forks. 

QUEBEC, QUE. — The St. Lawrence Telephone Company has been organized 
at St. Francois du Lac, in the province of Quebec, with a capital of $15,000. 
J. Allard, M. P. P., is interested. 

WOODRUFF, S. C. — The Bell Telephone Company in building its long-dis- 
tance line between Spartanburg and Columbia, S. C, will put in an office at 

BEAUFORT, S. C. — R. A. Long has completed arrangements for a new 
telephone system. The Sumpter Telephone Manufacturing Company, it is 
stated, has been given the contract for the necessary equipment. The Bell 
Company is already maintaining an exchange. 

ANDERSON, S. C— The Consolidated Telephone Company, of Columbia, 
S. C, has had recorded a charter preparatory to beginning business. The 
company has headquarters in Columbia and the capital stock is $500,000. The 
reason for recording this charter is said to be the company's purpose to build a 
long-distance line from Greenville, S. C, to Anderson and from Anderson to 

ABERDEEN, S. D.— The Dakota Central Telephone Company is extending 
its lines to Fort Yates." A line is also being constructed between Doland and 

HEMPSTEAD, TEX.— The Commercial Telephone Company is building a line 
from Houston to this place. 

ABILENE, TEX. — The Texas Telephone Company has increased its capital 
stock from $6,000 to $12,000. 

McMINNVILLE, TENN.— The Citizens' Telephone Company has elected offi' 
cers. W. S. Lively is general manager. The company has called for bids on 
poles. Over 100 citizens are pledged to use only this system. 

NASHVILLE, TENN.— The Cumberland Telegraph & Teltpbone Company 
will make a number of improvements during the coming year and an increase in 
capital has been authorized. The new issue will be 25 per cent of the present 
capital, making a total of nearly $2,000,000. 

NASHVILLE, TENN. — Parties representing the Tennessee Telephone & 
Telegraph Company have met a special committee of the City Council. Assur- 
ance was given that money was in readiness for building the plant. Also that 
if the contract desired by the president of the Nashville Telephone Company 
was legal, that the Tennessee Telephone Company would pay $150,000 for said 
contract. The meeting adjourned subject to the call of the president. 

SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH. — A local telephone exchange is being put in at 
Miles City, Calif. S. M. Farmer will be the proprietor. 

SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH.— H. D. Maiz and a party of Chicago capitalists 
have formed a company to purchase the Harrison Telephone Company, whose 
lines run through the Black Hills, in South Dakota. The new company will 
erect its own building in Deadwood and a $15,000 switchboard. 

SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH.— The Bell Telephone Company has completed 
its line into Billings, Mont., and Douglass, Wyo., and e-xchanges are being in- 
staHcd at Douglass, Casper, St. Anthony and Rexbury. The company is also 
arranging to string a line from Montpelier to Afton in Star Valley. The com- 
pany is closing up a very prosperous year, with a fine outlook for the coming 

HAMPTON, VA. — The leported offer to sell on the part of the Hampton 
Telephone Company to the Bell Company is denied by H. H. Carr, the largest 
stockholder in the Hampton Company. A fight has been on in Hampton since 
the Bell Company applied for a franchise, but the Ordinance Committee has 
decided to recommend to the Town Council that a francliisc shall not be granted 
either to the Bell Company or the Phoebus Company, another applicant. 

ST. ALBANS, VT. — At a meeting of the stockholders of the Franklin County 
Telephone Company the following named officers were elected for the ensuing 
year: President, J. II. Abbott; vice-president, S. W. Flinn; secretary and treas- 
urer, M. P. Abbott; auditor, V. P. Abbott; directors, J. H. Abbott, A. H. Abbott, 
M. P. Abbott and H. G. Morton. A dividend of 10 per cent was declared. 
It was also voted to increase the capital stock from $20,000 to $30,000. Mr. M. 
P. Abbott was reappointed manager of the company. The Franklin Company 
began business almost two years ago with 150 subscribers; it now has 450, and 
its business is constantly increasing. It uses the common battery system with 
lamp signal switchboard and Couch & Scclcy apparatus. 

SEATTLE, WASH. — The Sunset Telephone Company has taken out a per- 
mit for the construction of a three-story addition to its present building on Third 
Avenue. The addition will cost about $14,000. 

SUN PRAIRIE, WIS.— The Dane County Telephone Company has put in a 
telephone exchange at Waunakcc. 

STEVENS POINT, WIS.— The Stevens Point Telephone Company will soon 
put in an exchange. The company will start with 300 subscriucrs. 

MADISON, WIS. — The Farmers' Telephone Construction Company, of Mil- 
waukee, Wis., has reduced its capital stock from $500,000 to $250,000. 

OSHKOSII, WIS. — A. W. Bryant, electrical engineer and promoter of inde- 
pendent telephone companies of Oshkosh, has formed a slock company known 
as the Lake Superior Telephone Company, with $500,000 capital. A system 
will be built in Ashland, Washburn and Bayfield, Wis., and Irgn Mountain and 
Bessemer, Mich., with toll lines connecting all the above-mentioned cities. Work 
will begin immediately. 


PRESCOTT, ARIZ.-—The Arizona-Utah Light, Power & Canal Company has 
been incorporated, with a capital of $1,500,000. The officers are: J. F. Welsen, 
president; H. J. Allen, vice-president; Homer K. Wood, secretary and treas- 
urer; E. M. Gage, J, J. Fisher, J. A. C. Freund and Thomas B. Davis, directors. 

VANCOUVER, B. C.^The Vancouver Power Company, of Vancouver, has 
concluded arrangements with the civic authorities of New Westminster, whereby 
work may be commenced on the development of the power at Coquitlam Lake. 

SOUTH NORWALK, CONN.— The municipal lighting plant reports a clear 
gross profit of $7,496. It is under the efficient management of Mr. A. E. Win- 
chester. More business offers than the plant can carry and extensions may soon 
be in order. The city has 120 arcs, and there are i8i commercial customers 
for light and 33 for power. The plant also has attached to it the fire alarm 

ORLANDO, FLA.— The new electric light plant has been satisfactorily 

LEWISTON, IDAHO.— Mr. Vinson, proprietor of the Walla Walla Marble 
Works at this place, is organizing a granite works with a capital of $100,000. 
The carving, polishing and other special machinery will be driven by electric 

BOISE, IDAHO. — The stockholders of the local electric light company at 
Boise have given an option on their stock to the Boise-Payette River Electric 
Power Company. The terms of the sale have not been made public, but it is 
understood that the amount involved is close to $150,000. The capitalization 
of the company is $50,000. The Payette Company is establishing a power plant 
on the Payette River, below Horse Shoe Bend, to furnish power for all pur- 
poses, including the mines at Pearl. 

POCATELLO, IDAHO.— The American Falls Water Power Company has 
just secured a forty-year franchise to furnish light and power for the city of 
Pocatello. The power now comes from Port Neux Creek, which is getting less 
and less each year as the water is appropriated for irrigating purposes, and it is 
only a question of time when the city would be without light. The company 
will put in a isoo-hp plant and will go right to work to secure the business of 
the Oregon Short Line shops. The company has 10,000 horse-power at Amer- 
ican Falls for sale. The company has a capital of $300,000 and was organized 
last June. 

MOUNT STERLING, ILL. — The city has been in semi-darkness for some 
six weeks, owing to a disagreement between the City Council and the electric 
light company. * 

MOUNT VERNON, ILL.— In the Circuit Court the City of Mount Vernon 
confessed indebtedness to the Mount Vernon Electric Light Company, and 
judgment in favor of the latter was rendered in the sum of $1,847.98. 

RUSHVILLE, ILL.— The electric light plant has been hauling water for fif- 
teen weeks from an old coal mine. This supply having been exhausted, the 
company notified the City Council that it would discontinue the lights on the 

RICHMOND, IND., will try the experiment of municipal electric lighting, and 
now has under construction a $150,000 plant. 

COLON, MICH. — Work has been commenced upon two dams to be built 
across the St. Joseph River near this place by the Michigan Hydraulic & Elec- 
tric Company. Eastern capital is backing the company, which will invest $250,000 
in a plant to light Colon and surrounding towns and villages. R. Van Schoick, 
of Albany, N. Y. ; Dr. Stewart, of Coldwatcr, Mich., and Fred. Schurtz and 
D. L. Akey, of Colon, promoted the scheme and are interested in the company. 
The Coldwatcr-Battle Creek interurban line will probably be supplied with power 
from this plant. 

GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. — The new long-distance transmission plant of the 
Thornapple Electric Company, twenty miles from this city on the Thornapple 
River, commenced operations a couple of weeks ago and is supplying current 
for lighting purposes to Hastings and Middlevillc. A head of eighteen feet of 
water is available at Labarge. The dam is 160 feet wide and eighteen feet high 
at the centre. The wheel-pit is equipped with two 45-inch turbines, each capable 
of developing 300 horse-power. In the power station arc two 22o-kw, multi- 
polar, 2500-volt generators. Nashville, the farthest point to be supplied, is 25 
miles away. 

GRAND RAPIDS, MICH.— It is announced that the Ncw-aygo Portland Ce- 
ment Company, of Newaygo, Mich, has purchased the plant and interests of the 
Peninsular Light, Heat & Power Company at Lowell, whose plant furnishes a 
large share of the electricity used for local lighting purposes. The plant was a 
part of the estate of Fred. Church, of Lowell, and the matter of settling the 
estate has been in the hands of the Michigan Trust Company, of which L. H. 
Withey, one of the principal stockholders and the president of the Peninsular 
Company, is president. As nearly as can be learned the plan of the Newaygo 
Company is to erect a new dam in Flat River near Lowell to increase the 
amount of power developed from 300 to 1200 horse-power. The Newaygo Com- 
pany proposes to erect a new dam in the Muskegon River at Croton, where it 
is believed 15,000 horse-power may easily be developed at little expense. 

GLOSTER, MISS. — Proposals for erecting a waterworks and lighting sys- 
tem will be received until Jan. 7, 1903, all bids to be accompanied with solvent 
bonds to the amount of $15,000. 

MARSHALL, MO. — The citizens at a special election voted to bond the city 
for $70,000 for the purpose of erecting municipal water and electric light 

ST. LOUIS, MO.— It is again reported that the Citizens' Electric Light & 
Power Company lias been purchased by the North American Trust Company of 
New York, and that the deal is part of the plan of the trust company to con- 
solidate the electric light and power companies of this city. The North Amer- 
ican is the company which purchased the Imperial Electric Light, Heat & 
Power Company. 

January 4, 1901. 



NEWBERN, N. C. — At a second election matters have been reversed and 
$15,000 electric light bonds voted. 

ROCKINGHAM, N. C. — The new electric lighting system of Rockingham 
has- just been started up. 

CHARLOTTE, N. C— The Carolina Electric Company of Maxton, N. C. has 
been chartered to furnished light, power and heat. The capital stock is $50,000. 
W. S. McNair and others are the stockholders. 

ALBANY, N. Y.— The Hudson Valley Light & Power Company has been in- 
corporated; capital, $25,000. Incorporators: Harry M. Shon, Henry G. Willis, 
Peter C. Ackerman, Robert E. Farley, Curtis J. Harrington, Edward E. Shan and 
Francis F, Barrett. 

RAVENSWOOD, OHIO.— This place is now lighted electrically. The new 
plant has a capacity of 21 arc and 800 incandescents. 

CANTON, OHIO.— The Central Heat & Power Company has presented an 
ordinance for a franchise for a lighting and steam heating plant. 

EAST CLEVELAND, OHIO.— The village authorities are discussing the 
erection of a municipal lighting plant and a committee has been appointed to 
secure estimates. 

UPPER SANDUSKY, OHIO.— J. W. and J. M. Barber, of Columbus, have 
been granted a franchise in Upper Sandusky for an electric lighting and steam 
heating plant. They will commence at once on a plant to cost $100,000. 

WELLSVILLE, OHIO.— The City Council is dissatisfied with the service 
furnished by the local lighting company and a motion has been carried em- 
powering the city solicitor to go to court and seek the annulment of the com- 
pany's franchise. 

BROCKVILLE, ONT.— The light commissioners of the city of Brockvllle 
have decided to submit a by-law to the ratepayers to raise the sum of $25,000 
for improvements to the lighting plant of the city. 

OTTAWA, ONT.— Mr. John Knox, of Stayner, Ont., proposes to utilize the 
Nottawasaga River for the development of electric power. An electrical ex* 
pert will look over the ground with a view of preparing plans. 

MONTREAL, QUE. — It is estimated that the total cost of laying conduits in 
the city of Montreal, Que., for the use of the various electrical concerns doing 
business in the city, will be upwards of $7,500,000. 

MONTREAL, QUE.— The Royal Electric Company has signed the lighting 
contract with the city of Montreal, under which, after Jan. i, 1903, the com- 
pany will get a five-year extension of its present contract with the city at the 
price of $60 per arc lamp, instead of $120 per lamp under the old contract. 

SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH.— A. B. Frame, of Baker City, Ore., representing 
Eastern capital, has asked to be given a franchise to install and operate an elec- 
tric light plant at that place. 

HYRUM, UTAH.— The articles of incorporation of the Union Electric Light 
& Power Company, of Hyrum, have been filed. F. J. Wright, president; J. 
Howell, vice-president; M. Wright, G. F. Wright, secretary and treasurer; W. C. 
Parkinson, E. R. Owen. T. A. Kerr. 

PROVO, UTAH. — A communication was received from the local electric light 
company of Provo, offering to furnish electric lights to Dec. 31, 1902, for 50 
cents per month for each light, and $25 per month for the renewing and re- 
placing of lamps. The offer was accepted. 

SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH.— The Utah Light & Power Company during 
November expended nearly $10,000 in improving its plant, aside from cost of 
maintenance and labor. These improvements included new transformers, arc 
lamps, meters, etc. The company is in readiness to expend a large amount of 
money in further developments when the time arrives. 

LA CROSSE, WIS.— The transfers in the consolidation of the La Crosse 
Gas Company, the La Crosse Brush Electric Light Company and the La Crosse 
Edison Light & Power Company. The name of the consolidated concern is that 
of the La Crosse Gas & Electric Company, and the officers are: President, W. W. 
Cargill; vice-president and general manager, George McMillan; treasurer, W. S. 
Cargill; secretary, James B. Taylor. 


MOBILE, ALA. — Application has been made for a street railway franchise 
in this city by George S. Leatherburg, Jr., and associates. 

MOBILE, ALA. — The City Attorney has been instructed to determine what 
the city's rights are to annul one of the franchises of the Mobile Street Railway 
Company on the grounds of non-compliance. 

CHICAGO, ILL. — The item in a recent issue with reference to the destruction 
by fire of 200 trolley cars and the barn of the Chicago Union Traction Company 
was erroneous in one particular. From later reports it appears that they were 
not trolley cars, but cable cars. The loss is estimated at $165,000, covered by in- 
surance. This is one of the most important cable lines in the city. 

WARSAW, IND. — A $25,000 subsidy has been voted to the Logansport, Roch- 
ester & Northern Electric Traction Company, which is to build a line from 
Logansport to Kendallville. 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND.— The Fort Wayne Northern Traction Company 
and the Fort Wayne Southern Traction Company, each capitalized at $25,000, 
have been incorporated by W. B. McKinley, of Champaign, 111.; H. E. Davidson, 
John R. McCulloch, P. R. Stephens and R. S. Nelson, of Ft. Wayne. 

RICHMOND, IND. — Another electric line is promoted to make this city its 
western terminus. For the purpose the Richmond & Greenville Electric Railway 
Company has been organized. The road is said to be backed by the Henry 
Clews Banking Company, of New York. It is the purpose of the company to 
build in both directions from Greenville. 

LOUISVIILE. KY.— T. C. H. Vance has asked the City Council to grant a 
street railway franchise on all unoccupied streets. 

HOLLAND, MICH. — The town board of Holland Township has granted the 
Grand Rapids, Holland & Lake Michigan Railway Company a franchise to fur- 
nish energy for lighting in the township. The township of Laketown adjoin- 
ing has granted a similar franchise. This gives the company the right to do a 
lighting business in the various summer resorts on the lake branch of the Hol- 
land line. A plant will be erected at Virginia Park and will be in operation next 

GRAND RAPIDS, MICH.— If lines now being actively promoted and soundly 
backed to all appearances are completed, there will be a continuous interurban 
line around the base of Lake Michigan, from Grand Rapids to Chicago. It will 
be by way of St. Joseph, South Bend and Michigan City. The Grand Rapids, 
Kalamazoo & St. Joseph Traction Company is rapidly securing the necessary 
options for the extension of its lines from Holland to St. Joseph. The Indiana 
Railway Company has already begun the construction of a road between St. 
Joseph and South Bend, and this line is expected to be completed during the 
ne.xt summer. The Chicago & Indiana Air Line will make the last link in the 
chain of roads. Eastern capitalists have this road in mind, and it is projected 
by way of Hammond and Michigan City, between South Bend and Chicago. 
The Grand Rapids, Grand Haven & Muskegon road, which will be in operation 
within sixty days, would make still another link in the chain of electric roads 
from Chicago to the most important lakeport on this side of the lake. 

ALBANY, N. Y. — The Albion Electric Railway has been incorporated; capital, 

ASHTABULA, OHIO. — The directors of the Pennsylvania & Ohio Railway 
have decided to make the proposed extension to Jefferson. 

OTTAWA, OHIO. — The Ottawa Council has granted a franchise through 
town to the Toledo & Lima Traction Company. 

SEBRING, OHIO.— The Stark Electric Railway which is building between 
Canton and Alliance, has applied for a franchise in Sebring. 

NORWOOD, OHIO. — The Cincinnati & Columbus Traction Company has 
asked the Council for a franchise for a double track line through the town. 

NEW WASHINGTON, OHIO.— The Village Council has granted a 25-year 
franchise to the Buckeye Traction Company, to operate over a route established 
some months ago. 

CANTON, OHIO.— General Manager Currie, of the Northern Ohio Traction 
Company, is planning to make extensive improvements to the Canton-Massillon 
Railway, which has recently been acquired. 

GREENSPRING, OHIO.— The Village Council has granted a franchise to J. 
C. Parker for the Sandusky, Clyde, Tiffin & Southern Railway. The Clyde 
Council will grant a franchise at the next meeting. 

CLEVELAND, OHIO.— The attorneys of the Everett-Moore syndicate are 
preparing plans for the consolidation of the Cleveland & Eastern, the Cleveland 
& Chagrin Falls and the Chagrin Falls & Eastern Railways. 

Y'OUNGSTOWN, OHIO.— A new syndicate, said to be composed of New 
York and Chicago capitalists, has taken up the proposition for a line from 
Youngstown to East Liverpool, and is securing right of way. 

ADDISON, OHIO.— Citizens of Addison want the Dayton, Springfield & 
Urbana to build a branch line from Springfield to Piqua through Addison. A 
committee has been appointed and rights of way for the line are being secured. 

CLEVEL.\ND, OHIO.— The Cleveland City Railway Company will increase 
its capital stock $1,000,000. The annual and a special meeting of the stock- 
holders will be held Jan. 20, for the purpose of electing a board of directors; 
also of voting on a proposition to increase the capital stock from $8,000,000 to 

YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO. — The coke and coal situation which confronts 
manufacturers in this section is becoming more serious every day. Several 
times within the past ten days the Mahoning Valley Railway has been forced 
to resort to burning old ties, and it is feared that it may yet be necessary to 
shut down the power-house. 

DAYTON, OHIO. — The Dayton & Lebanon Railway has filed a mortgage for 
$2,000,000 in favor of the Cincinnati Trust Company. The company proposes 
to utilize the old Dayton, Lebanon & Cincinnati Railway for electric and steam 
propulsion, and an extension may be built from Lebanon to Cincinnati. The 
road is controlled by A. E. Appleyard, of Boston, who also controls the lines be- 
tween Dayton and Columbus. 

POMEROY, OHIO.— The- Ohio River Electric Railway & Power Company 
has purchased the entire plant and equipment of Jhe Pomeroy & Middleport 
Electric Company. It will be moved to the power-house of the purchasing 
company and new machinery added. The new company will at once arrange for 
the development of commercial and private lighting, and contemplates e.xtending 
the service to Minersville, Syracuse and Racine. 

CINCINNATI, OHIO. — The immense power-house of the Cincinnati & East- 
ern Traction Company, near California, is nearly completed and the equipment 
is being installed. The station will furnish current for three interurban lines 
now under construction by Cincinnati interests, which are largely identical. 
They are the Cincinnati & Eastern to Richmond, the Suburban Traction Com- 
pany to Bethel and the Rapid Railway Company ,to Lebanon. The Rich- 
mond and Bethel lines will be placed in operation about May i and the Lebanon 
line about Sept. i. 

CLEVELAND, OHIO.— The recently organized Central Ohio Traction Com- 
pany has closed a deal for the purchase of the property of the Electric Railway 
& Power Company of Tiffin and the right of way and property of the Toledo, 
Tiffin & Sandusky Railway. The properties will be merged and the new com- 
pany will have a capital stock of $600,000. The Tiffin-Fremont line will be com- 
pleted at once, and it is probable that the S.indusky extension may be built. The 
new company is headed by James B. McDonnell, of Fostoria, Ohio, and R. S. 
Vivian, of Chicago. 

CLEVELAND, OHIO.— The first car was run through from Cleveland to 
Detroit over the Evcrctt-Moore system Monday, Dec. 23. The special car 
"Alpha" left Cleveland at 9:30, having on board E. W. Moore, Barney Mahler, 
Ira McCormack and other officials of the road, with representatives of several 



Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 

Eastern bond houses. The party reached Toledo at 4 o'clock, and Detroit in 
the evening. Mr. Mahler stated that the actual running time from Cleveland 
to Toledo was sJ^ hours, which he considered very creditable in view of the 
fact that for 32 miles the car was obliged to go very slow, the bonding not 
having been completed. It was the first car to cross the Vermillion bridge; rails 
being laid temporarily for the occasion. Regular service will be instituted in a 
few days between Toledo and Detroit and Cleveland and Toledo. 

OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLA.— A franchise for a street railway has been 
granted to Herold R. Perry, Edmond Harrison, of New York, and A. H. Craney, 
of St. Louis. 

TOROXTO, ONT. — Application is to be made to the Ontario Legislature 
for the incorporation of the Toronto & Hamilton Electric Railway Company. 


THE ST. LOUIS TRANSFER COMPANY, St. Louis, Mo., may substitute 
automobiles for its drayage wagons and horses. The automobiles that would 
be required by the company would cost about $1,500 and nearly $400,000 would 
be invested in them, 

A TOY AUTOMOBILE.— George Jay Gould, Jr., nine years old, received 
from his mother a handsome Christmas present in the shape of a costly toy 
automobile. The tiny vehicle weighs 200 pounds. It is four feet long and its 
height from the ground to the seat is two feet. The body is three feet three 
inches by one foot seven inches. The wheels have pneumatic tires, twenty 
inches rear and sixteen inches front, with wire spokes. The tires are one and 
a half inches in diameter. The motive power is electric, obtained from cells 
weighing 100 lbs. On the right hand is a lever for three speeds, and in front 
a steering lever. The vehicle will travel from five to seven miles an hour and 
run twenty miles without recharging. The body is painted black, with the seat 
raised, double lazy-back, and hood behind in red. The wheels are red, with nar- 
row black stripes. The seat is upholstered in maroon leather. 


MR. JOSEPH B. CROCKETT has resigned the presidency of the San Fran- 
cisco Gas & Electric Company. 

MR. M. A. BEAL, secretary of the Rockford Edison Company, of Rockford, 
III., gave a banquet to the employes of the company the evening of Dec. 27, 

MR. W. A. ROSENBAUM announces that he has now moved his ofi5ces for 
patent soliciting to the Nassau-Beekman Building, 140 Nassau Street, New York 

MR. ROBERT DARLING, general manager of the United States Battery 
Company, has been elected vice-president of that concern, but will continue to 
hold his former office. 

MR. ARTHUR WARREN, who has been so successful a representative of the 
VVestinghouse interests in Europe, and who has been on a brief trip from Eng- 
land to this country, has sailed again for the other side. 

M. A. VERNER, of Pittsburg, who is associated with Sellars McKee, of the 
same Pennsylvania city, in a project looking to the construction of an extensive 
electric traction system in St. Petersburg, returned this week from Russia. 

REEL-PRESTON.— At Kingston, N. Y., on Dec. 28, Miss Charlotte Preston, 
daughter of Charles M. Preston, a banker of Kingston, was married to Charles 
Gordon Reel, superintendent of the Consolidated Street Railroads of Kingston. 

MR. EDWARD II. TYLER has been appointed chief engineer of the Brush 
Electrical Engineering Company, Ltd., of England, an old, large and very 
progressive electrical manufacturing corporation, with a large domestic and for- 
eign business. 

DR. M. I. PUPIN had in the New York World of December 29 a very clear 
and interesting discussion of wireless telegraphy, in popular language with 
diagrams. He holds, however, that "Wireless telegraphy is too slow for com- 
mercial use, as compared with the cable," and he shows why. 

SULLIVAN— MERCER.— Mr. Hazen P. Sullivan, superintendent of the Peru 
Electric Manufacturing Company, Peru, Ind., was married on Dec. 17 to Miss 
Venice E. Mercer. The event was of much social importance, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Sullivan received the congratulations and good wishes of a large number of 

GIBSON-JACKSON. — The marriage is announced, on Christmas Day, of 
Anna, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Luis Jackson, to Mr. George H. Gibson, of the 
publication department of the Westinghouse Companies at Pittsburg. Mr. and 
Mrs. Gibson will be at home after Feb. i, at 268 Shady Avenue, East End, 

MR. JOSEPH A. McELROY, of the British electrical engineering and con- 
tracting firm of Macartney, McElroy & Company, New York offices, 26 Cort- 
land Street, who has been on a visit to this country for the last four weeks, in- 
tends to return to Europe by the North German Lloyd liner Kronprins, which 
sails January 4. 

MR. A. L. RIKER, when in New York last week, confirmed the reports noted 
by us as to his resignation from the Electric Vehicle Company. It takes effect 
Jan. I. Mr. Rikcr has been a very active man during the past two or three 
years, and will take a brief but much needed rest. He will then pull himself 
together for new work in the automobile field. 

MR. HENRY C. PAYNE, the new Postmaster General, is credited in elec- 
trical circles with having begun his successful electrical career as a telegraph 
operator. We learn, however, that while Mr. Payne learned telegraphy and 
was an expert operator, he never worked at the key as a means of livelihood. 
When the telephone came along, he was quick to see its great utility and future. 

BOWKERMITCHELL.— A special dispatch from Bostpn of Jan. i says: 
"Richard Rogers Bowkcr, of New York, and Miss Alice Mitchell, of Cambridge, 
were married tod.iy at Brookline liy the Rev. Edward Everett Hulc. The cere- 
mony was a very quiet affair, but a notable alliance owing to the high standing 

of the contracting parties. Miss Mitchell is a niece of former Vice-President 
Morton, and a young lady of rare beauty. She has been a leader in Boston's 
society and prominent in much of the philanthropic work of this city. The 
bridegroom was for a long time vice-president of the Edison Electric Lighting 
Company, and is at present identified with the publishing business as pro- 
prietor of the Publishers' Weekly, etc., of New York City; the Library Journal, 
etc. He is also prominent in reform, social and political movements." 

MR. M.'\RSDEN J. PERRY.— The marriage of Mrs. Marion Lincoln Bogert, 
formerly of Hamilton Park, to Mr. Marsden J. Perry, of Providence, is noted, 
at the home of her mother, Mrs. Lincoln, at Worcester, Mass. Mr. and Mrs. 
Perry will live in Providence, and will occupy one of the handsomest colonial 
mansions in New England, bftilt in 1786, and recently purchased by Mr. Perry 
from the Brown and Ives estate. 

MR. W. R. MASON, who for the past six years has been acting as manu- 
facturers' agent in the St. Louis territory, for several prominent electrical ma- 
chinery builders has returned to Chicago and purchased an interest in the Wag- 
ner-Hatch Electric Company, 308 Dearborn Street, and has been elected secre- 
tary of the company. This company is agent for the dynamos and motors built 
by the Reliance Electric Company, of Milwaukee. 

DR. S. S. WHEELER, president of the Crocker-Wheeler Company, of Am- 
pere, N. J., had an agreeable surprise the day before Christmas. The growth 
of the business had led to the formation recently of a dining club at the works 
by the numerous heads of departments, and the club made this occasion a 
memorable one for Dr. Wheeler by presenting him with a handsome silver loving 
cup. Unknown to her husband, Mrs. Wheeler was invited over to luncheon, 
but even she did not know what was intended. A very neat presentation speech 
was made by Mr. H. L. Patterson, purchasing agent, while the response of the 
recipient was as hearty and feeling as it was undeniably extemporaneous. 

MR. E. P. THOMPSON, the patent lawyer, is out with a vigorous letter in 
the New York Times in defence of Admiral Schley. He says: "The result ob- 
tained by a great inventor, or warrior, or statesman, or artist, or the like is not 
to be judged by his little mistakes (mistakes in the opinion of a few), nor by 
anything whatever, except by the size of the achievement. No doubt that 
Marconi's, or Bell's, or Edison's, or Westinghouse's methods of making great 
inventions could be picked to pieces by a court of mechanical experts (who 
would, however, be inferiors, for the reason that they had not made g^eat in- 
ventions). Ought we not to prefer a charge for neglect of due dispatch against 
Rontgen for not discovering X-rays fifteen hours sooner than he did? Ought 
we not to bring a charge against Marconi for making a loop from Newfoundland 
to Nova Scotia, in spite of whatever private feelings may have been aroused 
in him by the Anglo- America Telegraph Company? Ought we not to enter a 
charge for retrograde movements against Pupin for not more quickly perfect- 
ing his non-inductive telephone system for talking across the ocean?" 

Urabe Botes* 

SEAMLESS STEEL.— The Standard Welding Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 
has issued a new price list of its seamless steel tubes, rims, cylinders and 
boiler flues for automobiles and other purposes. 

HART & HEGEMAN SWITCHES.—The Hart & Hegeman Manufacturing 
Company, Hartford, Conn., announces that all Hart rotary switches will here- 
after be supplied, should the purchaser so desire, with an "on" or "off" indica- 
tion free of charge. 

THE MARSHALL-SANDERS COMPANY, Boston, has at last caught up 
with the phenomenal demand for its midget plugs and receptacles, and is now 
prepared to deliver them in any quantity from stock, having quadrupled its 
capacity during the last two months. 

THE RENIM SPECIALTY COMPANY has removed its office to new and 
larger quarters in the Weld Building, 176 Federal Street, Boston, occupy- 
ing an entire floor running through from High to Purchase Street, with freight 
elevator and every facility for carrying a large stock of Rcnim specialties. 

THE BRISTOL COMPANY, Waterbury, Conn., has just issued its revised 
recording thermometer circular, which covers recording thermometers for all 
classes of temperature measurements up to maximum ranges of 800** F. The 
circular is fully illustrated with views of charts and recording thermometers of 
different classes. Copies may be obtained on application. 

WILLLAMS ENGINES. — In an attractive pamphlet the Quincy Engine 
Works, Quincy, III., gives tables of dimensions, speeds, etc., of the Williams 
engines built by them, and diagrams of the vertical engines with dimensions 
arc also presented. These engines are built in standard parts, largely inter- 
changeable, and represent the latest development in engine building. 

THE WIRT ELECTRIC COMPANY, Philadelphia. Pa., has bound together 
a number of its circulars in a handsome cover containing embossings of a rheo- 
stat. One of the circulars illustrates and describes field rheostats, another motor 
speed controllers, and the third is devoted to theatre dimmers. The latter con- 
tains much information of general interest on the application of dimmers. 

THE CENTRAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, of Chicago, is distributing a new 
bulletin on D. & W. telephone protectors. This protector, which embodies all 
the necessary elements of such a device, combines a high tension fuse, a zinc coil, 
and a lightning arrester all arranged on one block making an instrument of neat 
and comp.ict design. A descriptive bulletin of this material will be sent free to 
any one upon application. 

BRIGHTON GAS AND GASOLINE ENGINES.— In a 40-page catalogue the 
Picrcc-Crouch Engine Company, New Brighton, Pa., illustrates and describes the 
various types of the Brighton gas and gasoline engines. All of the types and 
the more important details of this engine are illustrated by excellent engravings 
and accompanied with full descriptions. The text, in fact, has more the char- 
acter of technical writing than of the usual trade literature. 

ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES.— The subject of a recent pamphlet issued by 
the C. W. Hunt Company is electric locomotives for manufacturing establish* 

January 4, 1901. 



ments. A number of views of such locomotives operating in manufacturing 
works are illustrated, and much data of general information concerning the same 
are given. A storage battery switch locomotive is also described. The final 
pages of the pamphlet are devoted to industrial railway cars and track. 

issued a pamphlet of unique design, containing a list of users of the Ness auto- 
matic telephone system, and a few testimonial letters. In the front cover an 
oval section is cut out of the centre so as to reveal a picture of a telephone set 
on the first inside page. The color combination of the green cover and buff 
inside page is very pleasing. The arrangement of the contents of the pamph- 
let is somewhat out of the ordinary. Most every State in the Union is repre- 
sented in the list, also Japan. 

THE ACME SWITCH COMPANY, Hartford. Conn., has recently increased 
its capital stock to $25,000, and removed its offices and works to 438 Asylum 
Street, near the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad station. Its floor 
space here is larger and its facilities are greater. Considerable new ma- 
chinery has also been purchased. All of this extension has been made necessary 
by the heavy demand for the time switches which this company manufactures. 
Two new types of time switches have just been added to the Acme line. 

Johnston & Dean, dealers in tools and materials for telephone, telegraph and 
electric companies, Wainwright Building, St. Louis, Mo., have just issued a 
neat pamphlet on the subject, "The Use of Aerial Cable." Considerable prac- 
tical and valuable information is given on this subject and illustrations show 
various pieces of apparatus used in connection with the installation of telephone 
aerial cables. All telephone men would be interested in the contents of this 

MR. WM. ROCHE, 42 Vesey Street, New York, reports the year just 
closed as the most successful in his business career, notwithstanding that fire 
almost destroyed his entire plant last summer. The "New Standard" dry bat- 
tery, Mr. Roche states, is enjoying a better sale now than ever before, and the 
new flashlight which he has recently put on the market is giving the best of 
satisfaction. A new field for this useful article was recently discovered in the 
police raids in New York city where each of the raiders was supplied with one 
of these flashlights. 

Chicago, is in position to show a full line of samples of its generator call ex- 
change and toll line, and central energy telephones, with combined self-restoring 
drop and jack for generator call switchboards and answering and multiple 
spring jacks, lamp signals and sockets, relays, ringing and listening keys and 
the various parts for a full multiple and trunking central energy exchange equip- 
ment. The apparatus contains many new features and its design and construc- 
tion is neat and of the very highest grade. 

GERMAN TRADE CATALOGUE.— The Gesellschaft fiir Elektrische In- 
dustrie of Karlsruhebaden has issued a handsome cloth-bound catalogue with a 
striking design on the cover page, and containing a large number of full-page 
cuts giving views of its factory and the various types of machinery manufactured 
by it. The cuts are on the left-hand page, and the descriptive matter on the 
right-hand page, is in three languages, there being one column for German, 
another column for French and a third column for English. A very consider- 
able portion of the space is occupied with illustrations and descriptions of elec- 
tric cranes and hoists. 

PULLEY AND CLUTCH TESTS.— Tests have been made at the Worcester 
Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Mass., of "Compo" clutches and pulleys for 

the Allston Foundry Company, Boston, Mass. The reports of these tests have 
been published in pamphlet form by the Allston Company. The object of the 
tests was to obtain the relative power transmitting properties of standard pulleys 
and a leather-faced clutch, and compare them with pulleys of iron and wood 
with cork insertions in the rim, and a cl,utch similarly treated. According to 
the reports upon the tests the cork-inserted pulley transmitted 51 per cent, 
more power at a slip of 2 per cent, than the others under test, and the cork- 
inserted clutch showed a corresponding increase in transmission. The Allston 
Foundry Company, 620 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass., does not itself manufac- 
ture clutches, but is introducing cork-inserts into every well-known make of 
friction clutches, and for friction driving or braking purposes generally. 

CALIFORNIA AGAIN. — The water powers of California have lately been a 
prominent theme in the pages of this journal. Now, the January Coun- 
try Life tn America is a California number with superb pictures, and 
wholly devoted to the outdoor world on the Pacific Coast. The special covers 
show big trees of the Sierras, and a magnificent frontispiece, the blooming 
orchards at the foot of snow-capped mountains. The leading article, by L. H. 
Bailey, tells of the diversified beauties and peculiarities of the land that flowers 
in winter and sleeps in summer, where thunderstorms are not, and where the 
sun shines everlastingly. Throughout, the unusual opportunities for illustrating 
California at its best have been well taken, but of particularly striking beauty 
are several series of photographs. Of these, "The Cypresses of Monterey" 
show a picturesque feature of the Southern coast; the Yucca palms and Gila 
monsters, the weird life in the Mojave desert; and the poppies and poppy-worts 
furnish the color that gives California its fame as a land of flowers. 

THE FRINK REFLECTORS, which have received awards in every exposi- 
tion in which they have been entered, more recently receiving the highest award 
at the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, where thirty-two of these reflectors 
were used in lighting the railway station and transportation building, have been 
adopted for use in lighting the art galleries of the Charleston Exposition, a 
species of lighting to which they are specially applicable, and in which they 
reach the highest results. This is an adaptation of their familiar show-window 
reflector, which hardly needs any introduction to our readers, as it is in use in 
60 many of the representative stores of the country. Mr. Frink is the pioneer 
of this reflector trade, being, it is said, the original patentee, and in business 
close to half a century. The name "Frink" has always stood for what is best 
in the reflector line. In addition to show case and window lighting, store in- 
teriors, etc., they make a specialty of church and building lighting, art galleries, 
etc., no problem in lighting being too difficult for them to solve successfully. 

tion to the artistic trade literature of the General Electric Company is a hand- 
some 64-page pamphlet on the subject of incandescent lamps for isolated plants. 
This particular branch of electric lighting gives special opportunities for the 
exercise of artistic skill, and many beautiful effects are illustrated in the pages 
of this catalogue. The text describes lamps of voltages from 90 to 125 and 200 
to 250, and gives much valuable and interesting information on the general sub- 
ject. A chapter is devoted to the importance of good regulation. It includes 
tables showing the effects of change in voltage on 3.1 and 3.5-watt lamps. Scat- 
tered throughout the pages are many half-tone views showing decorative lighting 
features in several of the most prominent hotels in New York City, Trinity 
Church New York, the Pan-American Exposition, and many other places of 
note. Views of many of the prominent office buildings in New York are also 
shown with high artistic eflfect, in connection with the general subject of the 


[Conducted by Wm. Rosenbaum, Patent Attorney, 140 Nassau St., New York.] 

689,096. ELECTRICAL APPARATUS; T. B. Kinraide, Boston, Mass. App. 

filed May 4, igoi. The apparatus comprises a plurality of intermittent high 

potential generating units and means for uniting them in a uni-directional 

discharge. (Issued Dec. 17.) 

689.378. MEANS FOR LIGHTING GAS; H. Borchardt, Berlin, Germany. 
App. filed Aug. 2, 1900. The invention relates chiefly to the construction 
of the valves for a pilot light and for the main light. The pilot light is 
first ignited by electricity, after which the main burner is lighted and the 
pilot is extinguished. 

689.379. MEANS FOR LIGHTING GAS; H. Borchardt, Berlin, Germany. 
App. filed March 30, 1901. A modification of the preceding. 

H. Borcha-dt, Berlin, Germany. App. filed May 28, 1901. A ratchet ar- 
rangement operated by an electro-magnet for turning on the gas and 
igniting it from a distance. 

Cal. App. filed April i, 1901, Branch* conductors k-ad from an electric 
belt to dumb bells or clubs, so that the circuit will include the arms and 
body of the person exercising. 

689.414. SWITCH AND OUTLET BOX; Miner Robinson, Newton, Mass. 
App. filed Oct. 23, 1901. Projections or pockets from the box receive the 
end of the conduits in a direction parallel to the face of the box, 

689.415. ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH; H. A. Rowland, Baltimore, Md. App. 
filed March 11, 1901. A method of transmitting intelligence over an alter- 
nating current circuit by selecting for each signal or character a predeter- 
mined number of the current impulses and modifying them by changing 
their polarity, but otherwise maintaining their form and characteristics. 

689,417- ELECTRIC TRUCK; T. F. Rowland, New York, N. Y, App. filed 
May 29, 1901. A truck upon which large welded cylinders can be rotated 

and also moved longitudinally to bring thcra into proper position with rela- 
tion to welding mechanism. 
689.426. PORTABLE TELEGRAPH KEY; C. Shirley, Brooklyn, N. Y. App. 

filed July II, igoi. A key which can be placed in any position on a table 

and be operated without being attached to the table. 
689,438. INTERRUPTER; T. W. Topham, Brooklyn, N. Y. App. filed July 

30, 1901. (See Current News and Notes.) 
689,445. RHEOSTAT; C Wirt, Philadelphia, Pa. App. filed Oct. 13, 1900. 

The resistance is in the form of a ribbon of decreasing width from one end 

to the other. 
689.450. VOLTAIC CELL; H. S. Amwake, Camden, N. J. App. filed Feb. 

9, 1901. Details. 

689.452. ELECTRIC CIRCUIT CONTROLLER; W. K. Bassford, Jr., Bound- 
brook, N. J. App. filed June 8, 1901. Controlling and reversing handles 
are each provided with certain projections so arranged that the projection 
on the controlling handle acts as a stop for the reverse handle in all of the 
"on" positions, but in the "off" position it is not a stop to the reverse 

689.453. LOCK FOR ELECTRIC CONTROLLERS; W. K, Bassford, Jr.. 
Bound Brook, N. J. App. filed June 8. 1901, A modification of the pre- 

689.483. MAGNETIC ENGINE OR MOTOR; R. R. Gilman, Melrose, Mass. 
App. filed May 23, 1901. A permanent magnet is mounted to be moved by 
hand or otherwise, so that its poles may alternately retract and repel the 
poles of another permanent magnet or magnets mounted on an axis to pro- 
duce motion. 

689,489. ELECTRICAL DEVICE; S. C. Harris, New York, N. Y. App. filed 
March 28, 1901. This device adapted for use as an indicator, clock, or 
cyclometer, embodies chiefly one or more stationary magnets, an oscillating 
magnet acting as an armature therefor and a superposed disk acting as an 
armature for the oscillating magnet and adapted to move therewith when 
the magnet is excited. 



Vol. XXXIX., No. i. 

Italy. App. filed Feb. j8, 1899. (See page 27.) 

ham, Wenham, Mass. App. filed Dec. 26, 1899. The conduit is composed 
of worn-out boiler tubing, the ends squared and embraced by straps. 

689,545. ELECTRIC RAILWAY; C. Hansel, New York, N. Y. App. filed 
Aug. 8, 1900. The third rail is mounted on supports which permit it to 
move relatively. 

App. filed Dec. 7, 1896. A magnet having pole pieces whose horizontal 

689,096. — Electrical Apparatus. 

cross section presents a concavity and whose central vertical cross section 
presents a convexity, in connection with which is used a circular rotary 
shell fitted to the pole pieces. 
RENTS AND INVERSELY; R. Rouge and G. Faget, Paris, France. 
App. filed April 6, 1900. (See Current News and Notes.) 

689,417.— Electric Truck. 

cago, 111. App. filed March 14, 1901. The apparatus consists of a car 
adapted to traverse a metallic floor in any direction whatever, the floor 
being one terminal of a circuit while the other is a ceiling against which 
a trolley rests. The car can thus be used to transfer goods to and from 
various locations on the floor. 

SAME; G. E. Heyl-Dia, Warrington, Eng. App. filed May 16, 1901. An in- 
sulated cable of low capacity in which the first insulating covering of each 
conductor is of greater thickness along one side where related conductors 
of a pair touch one another. 

TRACTION; G. E. Heyl-Dia, Warrington, Eng. Apir. filed June 3, 1901. 
The conductor consists of a steel flexible web-portion having a copper fac- 
ing on one or both edges. 

£89,631. TELEPHONE INDICATOR; S. J. Ballard, Los Angeles, Calif. 
App. filed April 11, 1900. (See page 27.) 

Glasgow, Scotland. App. filed Jan. n, 1901. An open slot conduit ar- 
ranged in the roadway parallel to the track rails and a return conductor 
that is supported within, but insulated from, the conduit and grounded at 
one point. 

9,670. CUT OUT FOR CRANES; G. A. Hassel, McKeesport, Pa. App. 
filed July 27, 1901. A tripping shaft for releasing the lock that controls 
the contact is moved intermittently at each rotation of the shafting, and 
after a certain number of rotations the lock is tripped and the circuit of the 
motor opened. 


689,601. — Merchandise Transfer Apparatus. 

win. Cripple Creek, Colo. App. filed Sept. 26, 1900. (See Current News 
and Notes.) 

,683. ELECTRIC ELEVATOR; J. W. Moore, Newton Highlands, Mass. 
App. filed June 17, 1901. The speed and power are controlled by cutting 
in one or more sections of the field winding of a shunt machine. 

,698. BURGLAR AND FIRE ALARM; L. H. Williams, New York, N. Y. 
App. filed April 20, 1899. Details. 

,706. ELECTRIC RAILWAY SYSTEM; B. Cruvellier, Paris, France. 
App. filed May 3, 1901. A plunger thrust into a bed of metal filings forms 
one terminal of the circuit; the plunger is lifted by a magnet on the car to 
close the working circuit without disconnection from the metal filings. 

York, N. Y. App. filed March i, 1901. Details. 

,753. MULTIPLEX PRINTING TELEGR.\PH; H. A. Rowland, Baltimore, 
Md. App. filed July 26, 1901. The invention is a complete system involv- 
ing the use of alternating or other periodically varying line current, both 
for transmitting signals and producing synchronous motion. 

,754. PAGE PRINTING MACHINE; H. A. Rowland, Baltimore, Md. 
App. filed Dec. 29, 1899. Covers the construction of the paper carriage and 
printing mechanism, and includes certain improvements upon the system 
described in the preceding patent. 

,776. ELECTRIC BATTERY; T. J. Bain, Cairo, 111. App. filed July 8, 
1901. The lower element is in the form of a cone, while the upper element 
has a downwardly projecting, non-conducting extension resting upon the 
top of the cone. 

,815. ELECTRIC RAILWAY; G. L. Fowler, New York, N. Y. App. aed 
July 18, 1900. Provides for the flexible mounting of a third rail. 

,816. ELECTRIC RAILWAY; G. L. Fowler, New York, N. Y. App. filed 
July 18, 1900. A modification of the preceding. 

1,817. FIRE ALARM; A. W. Hansen and S. C. W. Harrison, Evanston, 

689,754. — Page Printing Machine. 

III. App. filed March 25, 1901. A number of circuit closing rods are held 
under restraint by radiating cords; when a cord is burned the alarm circuit 
is closed. 

tagu, Oroville, Calif. App. filed Oct. 17, 1900. A reel adapted to be 
erected upon a dredge or boat, with which to take up and pay out electric 
conductors extending from the shore to the boat as the boat changes its 

Ralph J. Patterson, Woburn, Mass. App. filed Dee. 29, 1900. Means for 
causing lamps to flicker when a house circuit is taking more than a pre- 
determined amount of current. A magnet when operated upon by an ex- 
cessive current intermittently introduces resistance into a circuit at short 
interv.ils throughout the duration of the abnormal conditions, thereby caus- 
ing the lights to flicker. 

689,836. ELECTRIC CUT-OUT; A. D. Wheeler, Hyde Park, Mass. App. 
filed March 2, 1901. Details. 

Electrical World and Engineer 


Vol. XXXIX. 






Telephone Call: 4044 Cortlandt. Cable Address: Electrical, New York. 

J. M. Wakeman, 

President and General Manager. 

Chicago Office, 11 39 Monadnock Block. 

Philadelphia Office, 929 Chestnut Street, 

European Office, A. C. Shaw, Manager. 

Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, England. 

T. C. Martin and W. D. Weaver, Editors. 

T. R. Taltavalu Associate Editor. 



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The Government Telegraph Agitation 

Electrical Engineers of the Day — XXVIII. Reginald A. Fessendin 

The Waterside Station of the New York Edison Company — II 

Electrical Equipment of the Manhattan Elevated Railway — I 

Complete Commercial Test of Polyphase Induction Motors Using One Watt- 
meter and One Voltmeter. By A. S. McAllister 

Electric Gas Lamps and Gas Electrical Resistance Phenomena. By Peter 

Cooper Hewitt 

Illumination Discussion Before the Institute 

The Present Status of the Question of a Standard of Light. By Clayton H. 


American Institute of Electrical Engineers 

The Everett- Moore Trolley System 

Electro-Chemical Patents of the Week 

New Telephone Patents 

General Greely on Wireless Telegraphy 

Automatically Closing Bulkhead Doors 

Mr. Carnegie's National Institute 

The Grounding of High Potential Circuits 

Current News and Notes 

Letters to the Editors: 

Theory of the Edison Nickel-Iron Cell. By Woolsey McA. Johnson... 

Safety of Consumers and Grounding of Secondaries. By Chas. T. 

Conditions of Money Order Telephony. By David J. Monosmith 

A 19, 000- Volt Shock. By J. R. Cravath 

Digest of Current Electrical Literature 

New Books 

Westinghouse Standard Transformers 

Electrically-driven Boring Machine 


Financial Intelligence 

Commercial Intelligence 

General News 

Trade Notes 

Record of Electrical Patents 

Our Index. 

A good deal of trouble is always taken in the preparation of the 
Index to each volume of Electrical World and Engineer, but on 
the Inde.x to Vol. XXXVIII. unusual pains have been bestowed, with 
a closer attempt at classification. The growing magnitude and variety 
of electrical interests is well brought out by such a survey of the 
contents of this journal, and looking over it there seems to be 
hardly any topic of importance in regard to human affairs that is 
not in some way affected by electricity. We are inclined to believe 
that many of our readers refresh their memories with the Index, or 
are notified of things interesting to them by it, as there is always a 
call for back numbers after its appearance — a call which we are 
often unable to supply. 

Smoke in the Tunnel. 

.•\ terrible accident occurred on Wednesday morning in the Park 
Avenue tunnel, this city, of the New York Central Railroad, when 
IS people were killed outright and some two score injured by a 
collision, one fast train running into the rear car of another stand- 
ing in the tunnel. As we go to press, it looks as though signals 
were working perfectly, but that in the blur of smoke and steam the 
engineer at fault did not see that the lights were set against him. 
Be this as it may, there will undoubtedly be a great public renewal 
of the outcry for the abolition of steam traction in the tunnel and 
the adoption of electricity. The problem of the change is a serious 
one, but there is absolutely no good reason why the change should 
not be made. Electricity brings in its own dangers, as illustrated 
by the recent disastrous blowing of a fuse in a tunnel on the Liver- 
pool Elevated, but it cannot be denied that, broadly and largely con- 
sidered, electric locomotion for the tunnel is feasible and will re- 
deem it from its present low estate. We are glad to believe that the 
New York Central is already actively planning that way. This aw- 
ful disaster can but stimulate its exertions. 

Test of Polyphase Motors. 

The article by Mr. McAllister in this number is interesting as in- 
dicating what may be coinputed from the use of a single wattmeter 
in connection with a polyphase induction motor, supplied from con- 
stant-potential mains. The complete test of such a motor is 
scheduled upon the basis of the primary resistance between any pair 
of motor terminals, and also upon the secondary resistance, reduced 
to the primary circuit, from observations made with the secondary 
cleinent locked. The method cannot pretend to a high degree of ac- 
curacy, for it assumes uniform voltages in the different polyphase 
circui^, and it also ignores load losses in the motor, which are some- 
times considerable, owing to variations in the distribution of mag- 
netic flux under variations of load. But within these limitations the 
analysis is a straightforward calculation, based on the readings of a 
single wattmeter, and of a single voltmeter. 

The deduction of more particular interest is the fact that purely 
mechanical phenomena can often be measured with a greater degree 
of precision and convenience by electrical instruments than by the 
mechanical instruments that would otherwise be necessary. For ex- 
ample, the slip of a large induction motor is very difficult to niea'iure 
accurately by a speed counter. The amount of slip under full load 
in a large induction motor is often only about 2 per cent of the syn- 
chronous speed, and a very small error in the observation may intro- 
duce a large error into the computed slip. But assuming that the 
secondary is the revolving element of the motor, it is well known that 



Vol. XXXIX.. Xo. 

the slip is the ratio of the secondary copper loss to the secondary- 
circuit power, just as the percentage drop in speed in a direct-current 
motor at constant excitation is the ratio of the armature copper loss 
to the armature power. Since the secondary power and the secondary 
copper loss are each capable of being computed, their ratio — the slip 
—can be deduced with much less probable error than the ordinary 
mechanical method of observing slip will admit of, even allowing for 
the unknown load losses. 

Stroboscopic methods are, however, in use by which the slip of an 
induction motor can be measured by optically controlled mechanical 
means with a high degree of accuracy. Thus the Braun cathode-ray 
tube has recently been applied with apparent success to the accurate 
measurement of induction motor slips. The torque of an induction 
motor is another mechanical quantity that is capable of being com- 
puted from the secondary power, and the synchronous speed, being 
the ratio of these two quantities, just as in the direct-current motor 
at constant excitation, the torque is calculable, as the ratio of the 
total armature power to the synchronous speed. While, therefore, 
the analysis given in the article may be useful in many instances 
where only a wattmeter and voltmeter are at hand, the most reliable 
method of testing an induction motor is to couple it to a suitable 
direct-current motor and measure the output with the aid of instru- 
ments in the direct-current circuit, while measuring the input by an 
alternating wattmeter or wattmeters. 

Electricity and Life. 

The daily press has recently been paying considerable attention to 
the theories of Dr. A. F. Matthews, of Chicago University, upon the 
relation of electricity to nerve action. That there is a close connec- 
tion between the two sets of phenomena has been evident ever since 
the time of Galvani, but just what that relation is has never yet been 
cleared up. All that could be said until recently was that an electric 
action seems to accompany every nervous action, and that the one 
action cannot take place without the other. Dr. Matthews' theory, 
as briefly outlined in the Ne'w York Sun, endeavors to supply the 
connecting link between the electric phenomena, on the one hand, 
and the chemical phenomena of the nerve on the other, by means of 
what is virtually an electro-chemical explanation. Nerves are stated 
to contain an active substance which is essentially positive in its 
electrification. Negative electric ions entering the nerve substance 
under electric impulse bring about a partial or local neutralization 
and a partial or local chemical change in the nerve substance, which 
change is accompanied by a nerve action or nerve stimulus. The 
hypothesis on its chemical side is a means of accounting for the 
action of alcohol and ana:sthelics, while on the electrical side it is a 
means of accounting for electrotonus. 

In so far as the hypothesis creates working theories harmonizing 
the chemical and electrical phenomena of nerve operation, it is to be 
received with interest, but any physiological theory involving the ionic 
theory of electricity is a theory of the second degree, since the ionic 
theory is itself only a working hypothesis that has not yet been re- 
ceived as a matter of demonstration beyond the pale of doubt. More- 
over, it would seem from the outline given of Dr. Matthews' theory 
that the ionic theory might fall without necessarily implicating the 
essentials of the nervc-aclion theory here considered, so that in a cer- 
tain sense it would seem that the new theory docs not necessarily 
postulate ions in the definite sense contemplated by the modern ionic 
theory. Almost any of the more recent theories of electro-chemical 
action would, perhaps, answer the purpose of the new hypothesis 
equally well. 

It is only reasonable to expect that in time physiologists will dis- 
cover the fundamental laws — perhaps very simple in character, but 
no doubt very complex in superposition — which underlie nerve ac- 
tion, and the objective side of consciousness. There can be no doubt 
that electricity takes a share in this action, because all the phenomena 
of life are phenomena of difTerentiated liquids separated by thin septa, 
and it would be practically impossible to assemble such a mechanism 
witliout originating electric and electro-chemical actions. 


The meeting last week of the American Institute of Electrical En- 
gineers brought out a great variety of interesting bits of information 
upon practical lighting, past, present and future. It comprised a gen- 
eral discussion of modern illuminants followed by a group of papers 
taking up special topics along the same line. Incidentally, there were 
some notable exhibits. The open paper by Dr. Bell was a treatment 
of the status of modern illuminants from the physical and physiologi- 
cal standpoints. The essential facts broitght into prominence were 
the necessary limitations imposed on practical illuminants by the 
physiological requirements of color and intrinsic brilliancy, the im- 
portance of visual usefulness as distinguished from intensity of ra- 
diant or of the illumination, and the consequent importance of using 
the very brilliant modern lights in dififused and indirect lighting 
rather than in the common fashion. The fundamental point raised 
was that illumination as measured in any of the usual ways does not 
take account of the fact that visual usefulness depends not only on the 
light received but upon the intensity of the source if the latter is 
within the field of view, each increment in intrinsic brilliancy of the 
source implying lessened visual usefulness in the derived illumina- 
tion. Thus one may have illumination absolutely equal in amount 
so far as photometric measurements go from several sources, but 
unless these sources are of equal intrinsic brilliancy the visual value 
of the light will vary widely from its photometric value. This is a 
very important matter, brought out strongly by a later speaker in 
complaining bitterly and justly of the failure of arc lights as ordi- 
narily placed in giving a clear illumination upon the street. The 
difficulty of seeing across an arc light and the trouble occasioned 
pilots by glare have been long well known, but we do not remember 
before noting so sharp a distinction between physical and physiolog- 
ical values of illumination as Dr. Bell here drew. 

Mr. Ryan's interesting paper on some of the problems of street 
illumination specially brought out the value of enclosed arcs of moder- 
ate power in improving the distribution of light. It would have been 
interesting had there been included in this investigation incandescent 
lamps of large candle-power, or perhaps Nernst lamps. Of course, 
small radiants placed rather low and near together give a much more 
uniform light along the streets than powerful lights more widely 
spaced. But how far is this aflfected by the certainty of getting more 
intense light into the eye from the arcs themselves, and in how far 
are the conditions modified by the less light thrown upon nearby 
objects? President Steinmetz very aptly called attention to the fact 
that the street lighting situation in town and country did not present 
the same conditions. With high buildings to reflect the light a use- 
ful effect was produced that did not at all exist in the open fields. 
There seemed to be a consensus of opinion that the rather dim light 
from incandescents or even from oil lamps give a more serviceable 
illumination, i. e., greater visual usefulness, for those riding along 
the streets than arc lamps do. Incidentally, Mr. Ryan showed a 
rather interesting new form of luniinometer, based upon the old 
idea of visual acuteness and intended for measurements of street il- 
lumination. This instrument showed itself capable of giving remark- 
able results, so far at least as relative values are concerned, and 
should prove a useful addition to the instrumental means for testing 

January ii, igo2. 



illumination. But neither this nor any other form of portable lumino- 
meter quite duplicates practical conditions. For in such devices the 
eye looks into an eye-piece or hood, and is thus shielded from en- 
trance of extraneous light, which is the very thing that ought to be 
included if the efifect of the glare upon the visual usefulness of the 
illumination is to be taken into account. We hope that Mr. Ryan will 
later continue his interesting experiments with this point in view, 
and extend them to include much less powerful distribution lights 
than those with which he dealt in the present paper. 

The exhibit of vapor tube lamps by Mr. Peter Cooper-Hewitt was 
a most interesting one, the more so on account of Mr. Hewitt's mod- 
est and conservative report of his experiments. It is positively re- 
freshing to have an experimenter in a new field deal with his work in 
a scientific spirit, instead of playing to the galleries. The mercury 
arc is certainly enormously brilliant and efficient, the figure stated 
being 2 to 4 cp per watt, and the light, save in some of the tubes that 
were intentionally allowed to flame near the electrode, was remark- 
ably steady. If it were not for its disagreeable bluish green color, 
this lamp would, in our opinion, even now make for itself a consider- 
able place in the art. Just how far the color will prove a drawback 
in certain classes of work out of doors, experience only can show ; 
but for interior work the present color of the tubes is forbidding, the 
more so as the trouble comes from an almost entire absence of red 
in the spectrum rather than merely from a preponderance of blue 
and green. Therefore, a color screen which would bring the light to 
a normal color-tone would very greatly reduce its intensity. There is, 
of course, a possibility that added substances might give to the spec- 
trum its lacking rays, but whether this could be done without making 
the lamp harder to start or to operate is to be determined. One of 
the interesting matters in this connection is the possible effect on 
color vision of a discontinuous spectrum which visually seems to be 
satisfactory in color. It is possible to produce colored flames which 
can hardly be distinguished from each other by the eye, and yet have 
totally different spectra. One might thus very readily get an ap- 
parently good light which would still lack entirely certain useful rays. 
In this case it might fail to give the true color values of modern dyes. 
But, on the other hand, most of these show general absorption over a 
good part of the spectrum rather than in well defined bands, so that 
a fairly well distributed illumination spectrum should not distort the 
color effects much save in rare instances. 

A profoundly interesting incident of the meeting was Mr. Ham- 
mer's exhibition of a little tube containing the rare substance radium, 
which has been brought into much prominence of late by the investi- 
gations of Becquerel, Curie and others. A constant source of Ront- 
gen rays so powerful that it should be carried in a lead tube to avoid 
danger of burns, is a bit startling to say the least, and while its 
visible radiation was not strong, its extraordinary properties are 
enough to set one thinking strenuously. In point of fact, neither 
radium nor its ally, the so-called polonium, can be yet considered as 
a chemical element in good and regular standing. Their chemical 
status is not fairly determined, but whether they prove to be ele- 
ments in the ordinary sense or allotropic modifications of better- 
known substances, their behavior is truly most remarkable. There 
are, in fact, indications that the radio-activity that characterizes them 
extends in a minor degree to a considerable number of other sub- 
stances, but it is only fair to say that in many instances the experi- 
mentation on the subject is so difficult that consistent results are hard 
to obtain. The real nature of the radiation is, of course, involved in 
the same mystery that surrounds the Rontgen ray. In spite of the 
very large and valuable body of work that has been done upon this 
subject, the ultimate nature of the phenomena is still very far from 
a satisfactory explanation, since several hypotheses meet the facts 

fairly well, and no one of them can be verified without involving still 
further hypotheses as part of the argument. But the behavior of 
radium opens a beautiful vista of possibilities. What would happen 
in the art of illumination if some one should hit upon a luminous 
paint 50 times as brilliant and permanent as the ordinary calcium 
sulphide variety? If one had only to expose the light-giving body 
to sunlight or bright daylight for a few hours to obtain storage of 
energy for the evening, how the electrical arts w'ould get shaken up ! 
And yet such a discovery is far less improbable than some that have 
actually been made — like Moissan's diamonds, let us say. But dia- 
monds are no cheaper yet, and do not sparkle galore on every fair 

Photometric Values of Arc Lamps. 

The second Progress Report of the Committee of the National 
Electric Light Association for investigating the photometric prop- 
erties of arc lamps, an abstract of which appeared some months ago 
in these columns, has recently been published in full by the Asso- 
ciation, and contains much interesting matter. These results seem to 
be the first published concerning the spherical candle-power of arc 
lamps in continued service, and the first to show curves connecting 
the mean spherical candle-power of arc lamps, plotted in reference to 
their carbon lifetime. The characteristic life-intensity curve of an 
alternating-current arc lamp differs markedl)' from the correspond- 
ing curve of an alternating-current incandescent lamp. The latter 
may be roughly described as consisting of a hill-section with a sharp 
peak of maximum candle-power, about 75 hours from the start, and 
with a short straight-line ascent to the peak from the beginning, and 
a steady straight-line descent from the peak towards the end. The 
arc-lamp curve is a wavy line, or, at least, only a poor attempt at a 
straight line, with a slight general descent from the beginning to- 
wards the end. The descent is apparently due to the discoloration of 
the inner globe, and the absorption of light in this discoloration film. 
The minor fluctuations are apparently due to changes in the positions 
of the arc, following the consumption. 

.\ general conclusion to which the report points is that the light out- 
put of a pair of carbons in the alternating-current, constant-potential 
arc lamp does not depend so much ujion the lifetime of the carbons as 
upon the efficiency of the arc or of the lamp. If a given current 
strength or a given real power in the lamp produced the same amount 
of light, with all the ordinary brands of carbon, then the light output 
for a given pair of carbons would be simply in proportion to the dur- 
ation of life, or working lifetime of the carbons. These tests show, 
however, that while the lifetime of the carbon has an appreciable 
effect, the efficiency has a still greater effect. The efficiency, with 
a given lamp in a given state of adjustment, depends in some way 
upon the quality of the carbons, since the same current strength will 
produce a greater length of arc with some carbons than with others, 
and the light emitted is a function of this arc-length at constant 

The report is a very valuable and creditable record. It is, how- 
ever, a pity to see so important a piece of literature perpetuating the 
error in terminology appearing on page 38, where it is stated that 
"the efficiency" of a lamp is "1.78 watts per mean spherical Hefner 
unit." The fact that such errors in terminology are common, is no 
adequate defense. The quantity thus stated of watts per unit of 
luminous intensity is an inefficiency, not an efficiency, in the same 
way that nothing in the world can make "two hours per mile" a 
velocity. "Two hours per mile" must be a slowness, whereas "one- 
half of a mile per liour" is a velocity. Such inaccuracies may be ex- 
cusable in the multitude; but not in the reports of technical com- 
mittees, which form the reference literature of students. 


Vol. XXXIX., No. 2. 

The Government Telegraph Agitation. 

It is evident from what is transpiring lliat the scat of the agitation 
for government telegraphs is in Washington and not in New York. 
But nothing has yet come to light connecting the administration with 
it in any way. Senator Mason is quoted as saying that at the first 
meeting of the committee on post offices ,of which he is chairman, he 
will call up for consideration the proposition for the government 
purchase of the telegraph lines. The Senator has not yet prepared 
any bill on the subject, but he has been gathering information. Some 
of his figures arc as follows : The net earnings of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company for the year ending June 30, 1901, were $6,685,- 
248. Deducting from this the interest on bonds and the amount ap- 
plied to the sinking fund leaves a net sum applicable to dividends of 
$5,729,088. Similar figures for the Postal Telegraph Company indi- 
cate a net sum applicable to dividends of $2,300,000, or a total for 
the two companies of $8,029,088. The present valuation of the two 
companies is $171,400,000, divided as follows : Western Union stock, 
$92,000,000; leased lines, $11,000,000; bonds, $22,000,000. Postal 
stock, $24,000,000; bonds, $22,000,000. If the United States Govern- 
ment were authorized to buy the telegraph companies, giving to the 
stockholders a 2 per cent bond, the results would be as follows: Net 
earnings as above, $8,029,088; interest on $171,400,000 bonds at 2 per 
cent, $3,428,000, leaving a surplus of $4,601,088. This surplus at 
compound interest at 2 per cent would, in about 25 years, produce the 
price paid for the telegraph property, and the United States Govern- 
ment would then have free of charge the most valuable telegraph sys- 
tem in the world. He does not doubt that the cable companies would 
make an equally good showing. 

Senator Hale, pf Maine, chairman of the naval affairs committee 
of the Senate, has again introduced and had referred to his commit- 
tee his bill providing for the construction and laying by the Govern- 
ment of the Pacific cable to connect the United States with the 

Electrical Engineers of the Day — XXVIII. 

Reginald A. Fessenden. 

Professor Reginald A. Fessenden was born on Oct. 6, 1866, at Bol- 
ton, P. Q., Canada. His family left Canterbury, England, in the 
early part of the seventeenth century, simultaneously with the pro- 
genitor of the Ma.xim family in this country, and founded the town 
of Cambridge, Mass. His branch of the family crossed the Canadian 
border and settled in Bolton about 1850. Mr. Fessenden received his 
early education at the DeVau.x Military School, of Niagara Falls, 
N. Y., and subsequently at the Trinity College School of Port Hope, 
Canada, where he remained nearly four years. He early developed 
a talent for mathematics, and. on leaving school at the age of 16, was 
appointed senior mathematical master at the Bishops College School, 
Lennoxville, P. Q., Canada. 

In 1885, at the age of 19, he went to Bermuda as principal of the 
Whitney Institute on that island, and occupied this position for two 
years. He came to New York in 1887 and entered the employment 
of the Edison Machine Works, which had then recently settled in 
Schenectady, N. Y., as tester and inspector in laying underground 
Edison tubes in New York City, and assisted in laying a large quan- 
tity of underground mains in the Edison district between Twenty- 
third Street and Central Park. In the spring of 1888 he was sent by 
the Edison Machine Works on special duty to the Edison laboratory 
of Orange, N. J. Shortly afterwards he undertook chemical work 
for Mr. Edison in the laboratory, of which he was head chemist 
from 1889 until 1850, when he left to take a position as assistant 
electrician with the United States Electric Company in New York. 
In the same year he was married to Miss Helen Trout, a descendant 
of one of the first governors of Bermuda. In 1891 he joined the 
Stanley Laboratory Company, of Pittsfield, Mass., as chemist. In 
1892 he was appointed professor of physics and electrical engineering 
nt Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind., and the following year ac- 
cepted tite chair of electrical engineering at the Western University 
of Pennsylvania, Allegheny, Pa., which he occupied until April, 
1900, when he was appointed special agent for Jchc United States 
Weather Bureau to take up the subject of wireless telegraphy for that 
Bureau. He is at present busily engaged on this work, with head- 
quarters at Roanoke Island, N. C. 

Professor Fessenden has published in all about 70 papers on chem- 

ical, physical and electro-technical subjects. These papers have ap- 
peared mainly in these columns, in the Physical Rcznew, Chemical 
Nevjs, Nature, Science, and the Transactions of the American Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers. He is not only a theorist and mathema- 
tician, deeply interested in the more remote and recondite questions 
concerning the nature of electromagntism, but he is also very prac- 
tical and utilitarian, and has undertaken a large amount of purely 
experimental work. He is also an inventor and has taken out a 
number of patents for improvements in applied electricity. 

Prominent among his published papers are two on "The Electro- 
static Theory of Cohesion," published in these columns and in 
Science in 1891-1892. In these papers electrical charges were, for 
the first time, quantitatively considered as specific properties of 
atoms, and the forces due to these charges were analyzed. This 
paper was a forerunner of the existing ionic theory of matter, which 
has since been developed by a number of prominent physicists. A 
formula was also deduced in the paper, connecting the electric con- 
ductivity of metals with the size of their atoms, and these values 
liave since received experimental verification. 

Another important paper was "On the Nature of the Quantity 
Upon Which the Nature of Electricity and Magnetism Depends." 
published in these columns in 1894. In this paper the consequence 
was first deduced, prior to the experimental discoveries of Zeeman 

and Lenard, that ions placed in a magnetic field must rotate and in- 
fluence light passing through the medium. 

In his paper "On the Nature of Electric and Magnetic Quantities," 
published in the Physical Rcvictv in January, 1900, it was deduced 
that either a linear relation between magnetic force and reluctance 
as well as a second power relation between electric force and electric 
resistance or vice versa ; also that an experimental determination as 
to which of these alternatives exists is sufficient to determine the 
dimensions of electric and magnetic quantities in absolute measure. 
The linear relation between magnetic force and magnetic intensity 
was here first demonstrated as a necessary consequence of the theory, 
and it was also predicted for the first time that the capacity of a con- 
denser varied with increasing voltage by an amount depending upon 
the square of the voltage, a fact which has since been announced as 
having been experimentally observed in Europe. 

Professor Fessenden has invented a number of physical measuring 
instruments, which have been described from lime to time in these 
columns, such as frequency measurers, curve-tracers, permeamctcrs, 
balance thermopiles, acetylene standards of lights, etc. He has also 
worked out successfully various new methods of sending and receiv- 
ing signals in wireless telegraphy. Professor Fessenden is a member 
of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and a number of 
scientific bodies. Direct and earnest in all his work, he is equally 
direct and unassuming in his manner, and a universal favorite among 
those who know him. 

The Waterside Station of the New York 
Edison Company-II. 


IN the first section of this description of the new Waterside plant 
of the New York Edison Company, a comprehensive statement 
was given as to the general conditions and the problems of cur- 
rent generation and distribution which the station is intended to dis- 
pose of satisfactorily, and some details were also entered into with re- 

tendency and the unceasing cry is for a larger station, a larger operat- 
ing room, a large exchange, but at each remove the danger grows of a 
more complete shut down in case of trouble and disaster. How to 
deal with this contingency and circumvent the peril is one of the 
superadded elements of the problem of giving service, and the 


-New Waterside Station, New York Edison Company, from First Avenue and Tiiirty- 
EiGHTH Street, Showing Dynamo Room, Side and West Front. 

gard to the main engineering features. It will have been gathered 
that in such a plant and such a system mere figures in itself intro- 
duces new complexities and brings itno sight a new range of dif- 
ficulties. In electrical work that deals with the distribution of cur- 
rent, light, power, intelligence, etc., from a central source, the natural 

extent with which it necessitates heavier outlays on construct ion 
realized by the public. 

Central station work of late years growing into mechanical and 
electrical organisms that deal with huge volumes of current liable 
to incessant and wide fluctuation of demand, has been peculiarly 



January ii, 190J 



occupied with the burden of this vital problem of avoiding interrup- 
tion or shut-down. In New York City the Edison Company can cer- 
tainly "point with pride" to its maintenance of service, so smooth and 
regular that we hesitate to discuss even thus tentatively its possible in- 
terruption ; but the company in its wider, larger scope of operation 
has planned, as wise engineers should, to furnish everj' precaution for 
every lurking trouble, known or unknown, and has also had to evolve 
many novel ideas in practice to this end. We are dealing now with 
the power plant, but the map given in our last issue showed the ex- 
tent of the area and the number of the sub-stations to be kept in con- 

:Mfantime, let us note that in the Waterside station the principal 
aim in planning the electrical plant was to so design it that in case of 
any accident, burn-out or short circuit occurring on any cable, switch 
or piece of apparatus, it could be confined to the place in which it 
originated, so that it could not communicate in any way with or cause 
injury to any other part of the system. The underlying idea is, so to 
speak, that of cellular or compartmental construction, starting out 
with any given generating unit, so that it and its auxiliary apparatus 
might fairly be considered in each case as a separate complete station. 
There are thus 16 central stations in one. The same idea is indeed 

slant supply and touch, looking to Waterside as the mighty heart 
sending out to all its pulses of current. It may not be generally 
known that the direct-current generated directly or transformed from 
alternating by the scattered rotarics of the New York Edison Com- 
pany is fed by 76 stations and sub-stations at more than 200 points 
into one immense network of underground mains. This network 
is continuous, and, as will be seen by referring to the map we gave 
extends from the Battery on the south to 130th Street on the north, 
and from the Hudson to the East River. To this special feature, 
however, we shall return later. 

carried out in the subways and cables connecting with the various 
rotary stations, each station receiving its supply by at least two cables 
following entirely different routes from the Waterside bus to the 
switching panels at the rotary station. This important and interest- 
ing point being noted therefore and emphasized as it deserves, we 
may now take up the station electrical equipment, beginning with 
the generators. 


The 16 General Electric 4500-kw, three-phase generators deliver 
25-cyclc alternating current at 6600 volts. They are of the revolving 



Vol. XXXIX. .\o. 2. 

Fig. 19.— Sectional View of Hich-Tension Switchboard. 

A — Generator oilswiicli. n^ScIcctor oil-switches connecting gcncr.i 
p— Non-automatic feeder nil-swiicli. (D' and E' s.imc for another feeder., . — . 
Generator instrument panel. R— I'icld rheostat, controlled from generator pedestal 

cither main or auxiliary bus-bars. 
Feeder instrument panel. G — 

field, direct-connected type, and as 
they run at 75 r. p. ni. have 40 poles. 
The revolving field is keyed to the en- 
gine shaft and bolted to the hub of the 
flywheel, which is extended so as to 
form a heavy flange on the side to- 
ward the generator. The field mag- 
net cores are bolted to the outer sur- 
face of an iron ring, which is made 
m two semi-circular pieces fastened 
together by I links. This ring is 
supported by a spider having eight 
spokes, through each of which pass 
two bolts, securing the revolving ele- 
ment to the flywheel hub. 

The fields are wound with copper 
ribbon set on edge, and give full ex- 
citation at 220 volts, thus making it 
possible to take the exciting current 
either from the low-tension board or 
storage battery in case of failure of 
the exciter sets. The exciting cur- 
rent passes to the revolving field 
through two iron collector rings. Iron- 
rings were used because of their su- 
perior wearing qualities. Four car- 
bon brushes on the i!/<-inch face of 
each ring give ample current carrying 

The armature is built of laminated 
steel of the highest magnetic quality. 
The armature coils are secured by 
dove-tailed wedges in slots 4% inches 
deep and I'A inches wide. There are 
240 slots, 2 per phase per pole. The 
ends of the coils are so formed as to^ 
leave a space of at least an inch be- 
tween adjacent windings. These end 
extensions are protected from me- 
chanical injury by curved iron shields 
bolted to the armature frame. 

The revolving field weighs 130,000- 
lbs., the armature 125.000 lbs., and 
the foundation plates 20,000 lbs., mak- 
ing the total weight of each generator 
275,000 lbs. 

The design is such that all neces- 
sary repairs to field and armature 
windings may be made without re- 
moving the upper half of the arma- 
ture- By taking out the two bolts, 
securing it to the yoke, any field spool 
may be removed, and by taking out 
two poles the armature coils may be 
removed and replaced. The armature 
coils will carry a non-inductive load 
of 250 amperes per phase for 24 hours 
without the temperature of any part 
exceeding that of the air by more than- 
.^o degs. C. A non-inductive load of 
400 amperes per phase carried for 
three hours causes a temperature rise 
of less than 50 degs, C. In making 
the heating icsls the resistance meth- 
od of calculating the temperature was 
used in addition to thermometer read- 
ings. In all cases where the latter 
gave the higher reading th.e results 
as indicated by that method were 

The armatures arc designed to 
withstand a test of 15,000 volts alter- 
nating, applied for half an hour, and 
a puncture test of 25,000 volts alter- 
nating for one minute. The insula- 
tion between the field coils, collector 

January ii, 1902. 





Vol. XXXIX.. Xo. 2. 

rings and generator frame is such as to \vith.stand 25000 volts con- 
tinuously. The efficiency at full load and one-quarter overload is 97 
per cent; at three-quarter load, 96 per cent; at one-half load, 95 per 
cent, and one-quarter load, 91 per cent. The regulation is such that 
with the sudden throwing off of full load the rise in voltage does not, 
with constant excitation, exceed 8 per cent. 


There are three exciter sets installed, each consisting of a 225-hp, 
6600- volt, three-phase induction motor, direct connected to a 150-kw, 
direct-current, 4-pole generator, giving a potential of 200-280 volts. 
These exciter sets can be run continuously at full load with a rise of 
temperature not to exceed 40 degs. C. above the surrounding air, and 
will carry 33J^ per cent overload for three hours without injury. 

In order to insure absolute continuity of current for e.xciting the 
fields of the generators a storage battery was installed, having ca- 


Top liu. 

.Middle Bo/ ' 

Una Bat 

Middle Biu 


Lower Dub 




Weaterlj or .\uiiHarj 

8.1iiS.T. Seleetoi SwUcbc* 


(IVilh Special Reference to G. E. Oil Switches.) 

pacity sufficient to excite the fields of 16 generators for one hour. 
This battery is of the chloride type, built by the Electric Storage 
Battery Company, and similar to those used in all the annex stations, 
to be described later in detail. 


The high-tension controlling switchboard of this station diflFers 
from those in the two other large alternating-current generating 
stations in New York, in that each generator is controlled from an 
individual pedestal, and each feeder from an individual panel, in- 
stead of mounting the controlling devices of all the generators upon 
one bench board, and the controlling device for all the feeders upon 
another similar board. In this way the small wires which operate the 
switches, relays, instruments, etc., of one genera_tor are separated 
from the similar wires of all other generators. With this arrange- 
ment the pedestal containing the controlling apparatus for one gen- 
erator occupies the same lateral space as the panel containing the 

instruments of the same machine. There is, therefore, no opportunity 
for the operator to note the indication on the instruments of one 
generator and by mistake throw the switches of an adjacent machine. 

The generator pedestals are 26 inches by 15 inches by 32 inches- 
high, and have mounted on them a field break switch, the rheostat dial 
.switch, the switch for controlling the speed of the engine, the syn- 
chronizing plug and the three-pilot switches, which control the main 
and selector oil switches. 

The instrument panels for the generators are mounted directly over 
their respective pedestals upon girders carried upon three columns, 
as shown in the general cross-section. Upon each panel, which i< ^ 
ft. wide by 3 ft. 3 inches high, there are three ammeters, one volt- 
meter, one power factor indicator, one integrating wattmeter and the 
field ammeter. The current for operating these instruments is sup- 
plied by series and potential transformers connected in and across 
the generator cables ; one lead to each instrument being grounded for 
safety. The two center panels have each mounted on them eight am- 
meters, which are connected one to a phase of each of the eight genera- 
tors on that side of the aisle. This enables the operatof to see at a 
glance the load on each generator. 

The instruments for the feeders and the pilot switches, relays, etc., 
for controlling the feeder oil switches are mounted on panels di- 
rectly back of the generator pedestals. Each feeder occupies a space 
II inches wide upon this panel board. At the top are pilot lamps 
and below these is the indicating wattmeter, the power factor indica- 
tor, three ammeters, the pilot switches for controlling and the colored 
lamps for indicating the position of the oil switches and the time 
limit relays. The two center feeder panels have each mounted oi» 
them 20 ammeters, which indicate, at once the load on all the feeders. 

It may be added that the instruments described above are of the 
horizontal edgewise type, built by the General Electric Company. 

The generator cables are single conductor, 500,000 cm. copper, in- 
sulated with 12/32-inch paper and protected by j4-inch lead. The 
generator field cables are single conductor, 212,000 cm. insulated, with 
5/32-inch rubber and lead covered. These five cables, together with 
the seven conductor lead-covered cable for signaling purposes, are car- 
ried from each generator on iron brackets in the central cable runway 
to the cable vault under the switchboard. In the runway the six 
cables of one generator are separated from the cables of the adjacent 
generator by cast-iron septums. From the cable-vault the generator 
cables are carried up in individual brick ducts to the generator 
switch. This switch is of the General Electric motor controlled oil 
type. It is mounted in a cell structure built up of buff brick, fire- 
brick and soapstone. The two potential transformers are also mounted 
in this same structure and completely enclosed in the fire-resisting 
materials mentioned. The primaries of these transformers are con- 
nected to the same phase, one on the generator and the other on the 
bus side of the switch. These transformers are used for sjTichronizing 
and are so connected that when the potentials on the two sides of the 
generator switch are equal and are in phase with each other, the 
.synchronizing voltmeter indicates zero. In this way it is impossible 
to synchronize a generator with the auxiliary bus, and then throw it 
in on the main bus. These same transformers also furnish potential' 
for the voltmeter, power. factor indicator and the integrating watt- 
meter. .'Xbove the main switch the cables are carried up between 
brick barriers to the series transformers, which operate the instru- 
ments, and then on to the oil selector switches above the bus house. 
These switches are similar to the main switch, and allow a generator 
to be connected to either bus. The controlling switches .Tud wires for 
them are so arranged that it is impossible to close both the ni;iin :m<f 
auxiliary bus switch at the same time. 


The high-tension bus-bars are mounted in a bus house built of 
buff brick and firebrick directly behind the high-tension controlling 
switchboard. There are two sets of bus-bars, the main and an aux- 
iliary, to cither of which any feeder or any generator can be connected. 
The group bus-bar .system was not deemed advisable in this case, but 
it is possible, however, to divide each bus at the center of the station, 
thereby giving four sets. Each bus-bar is composed of four 
strips of three by one-eighth inch rolled copper supported on studs, 
which are enclosed in linen tubes and pass through porcelain 
insulators, as shown in the drawings. The bus-bars are spaced about 
3 ft. apart, and separated by 3-inch firebrick slabs, so that it is prac- 
tically impossible for a short circuit to occur between them. On the 
outer end of the studs supporting the bus is a plate to which arc at- 
tached three cable lugs, one for the generator cable coming from the 

January ii, 1902. 


floor above and two for the feeder cables running down through tlie 
floor below. The cables to the different busses are 12 inches apart, 
and separated by 4-inch brick barrier walls. These feeder cables 
pass through porcelain floor tubes to the feeder selector switches. 
These are of the knife-blade type, mounted on glass pillars on soap- 
stone bases, and efficiently protected by soapstone barriers. An in- 
terlocking device is provided for these switches so that it is impossible 

lays have a ratio of 70 to i, they can be set to operate when the cur- 
rent in the feeder is at any point between 140 and 455 amperes. 

The time limit relays in the Waterside station are set to open in 4 
seconds ; those in the sub-stations at points where feeders branch 
are set for 2 seconds, and the overload relays in the sub-stations at 
which the feeder terminates are set to open instantaneously. 

The cell structure of the oil switch on the lower feeder switch- 
gallery contains the series and potential transformers for operating 


to connect a feeder to both busses at the same time. Directly below 
the selector switches are the feeder oil switches. There are two of these 
in series on each feeder, the single conductor cables between them 
being recessed in brick ducts. The upper one is controlled only by 
the pilot switch on the feeder board, but the lower one in addition 
acts as a circuit breaker, and is opened automatically by the overload 
and time limit relay. 

This overload time limit relay is adjustable and can be set to open 
the automatic oil switch when the current in the feeder exceeds a 



the relays and feeder instruments. These, as will be seen by refer- 
ring to the cross-sections through the electrical galleries, are com- 
pletely enclosed by buff brick and firebrick cellular partitions. 

The three conductor lead-covered feeder cable coming from the 
street ends at a point directly below the lower feeder switch. A spe- 
cially designed right-angle bell, or terminal head, is placed on the 
cable, from which three single conductors are led into the bottom 

FIG. 23. — BUS-EAR PARTITIONS AND CORRJDUK BAl_ k mi inch m, |m\ 

given number of amperes for a given period of time. If before the 
expiration of the time limit the current again drops below the amount 
for which it is set, the oil switch does not operate, and the time 
limit relay resets itself automatiLally. The range of the time scale 
of this relay is from 2 to 6 seconds, and the range in current is from 
2 to 6;-< amperes. As the series transformers in use with these re- 


terminals of the switch. These single conductor ends are just long 
enough to permit any one of them being placed on any of the termi- 
nals of the oil switch directly above it, thus giving an opportunity to 
twist the conductors when necessary for multiple connection with 
other feeders. 

From the lower feeder switch to the manholes in front of the sta- 


Vol. XXXIX.. No. 2. 

tion, each three-conductor cable is separated from the one on either 
side of it by iron or brick septums. 


As will have been seen from the diagrammatic plans, the high- 
tension switchboard, which is placed at the west end of the building, 
occupies four galleries. The main operating board, as described 
above, is on the third gallery on practically the same level as the top 
engine platform. Resuming in detail the features referred to, the 
course of the current from a single generator can be traced by re- 
ferring to Fig. 19, which is a vertical cross-section through all four 
galleries. From the generator the current is carried in single con- 
ductor cables through the generator oil switch A on the first gallery, 
to the oil selector switch B on the top gallery. The object of these 
selector switches is to permit the generator to be connected to either 
the main or auxiliary bus-bars, both of which run along the rear of 
this gallery. From the bus-bars the current passes down through 
two-oil break switches, D and E, to the feeders. The object of having 
two switches in series is to make certain that one at least will operate 
to cut off the feeder when necessary. From the oil switches the feed- 
ers pass down to the basement and out into the subways, as shown 
in Fig. 20. 

The vertical section, 4 ft. wide through the switchboard galleries, 
thus contains all the high-tension connections of one generator, and 
is so thoroughly protected by the fireproof brick partitions that it is 
claimed that one section complete with cables, switches and trans- 
formers might be burned up without injury to any of the others. 


The oil switches used are of two types, one furnished by the Gen- 
eral Electric Company, and the other by the General Incandescent 
Arc Light Company, both being new types. In the oil switches sup- 
plied by the General Electric Company si.x simultaneous breaks are 
made by the raising of copper connecting U's fastened to a common 
yoke by wooden rods. Fig. 21 shows the connections for operating 
these switches. The heavy lines on the right indicate the course of 
the high-potential current from the bus-bars to the underground 
transmission lines. The lighter lines show the connections for op- 
erating the oil switches and indicating instruments. The switch 
designated "automatic" is so called because it is opened by an over- 
load relay; the non-automatic switches being controlled only from 
the switchboard. 

With the connections as shown the oil switches are open. They 
are closed as follows : The small controlling switch, marked 
S. P. D. T. is raised, thus making contact on the upper point. This 
closes the circuit through a yi-hp series motor and a solenoid slv»wn 
at the end of the shaft. The motor starts, and at the same time a 
worm and gear wheel is connected to it by the action of the solenoid. 
The gear wheel revolves and carries a crank-pin off a dead center, 
which pin is the middle point of a toggle. As soon as it is carried out 
of line, a powerful spring closes the oil switch, carrying the crank 
pin through nearly 180 dcgs. This motion is independent of the 
motor, which runs free, gaining speed as the spring closes the switch. 
There is a ratchet connection between the crank shaft and gear wheel 
which permits the former to be carried around by the switch mechan- 
ism free of the latter. The moment the action of the spring ceases 
the ratchet catches and the crank-pin is carried through the remainder 
of the 180 degs. by the motor, which then cuts itself off. The crank- 
pin is then again on a dead center, being now the lower point of a 
toggle. During the latter part of the closing action, the opening 
spring is compressed and four spiral springs are extended, all tend- 
ing to open the switch but unable to do so, because of the condition 
due to the dead center. The entire operation takes about one second. 

The main switch may now be opened by throwing the operating 
switch to the lower contact, closing the motor circuit through the 
finger 2. The toggle is thus upset and the switch flies open, actuated 
not only by the opening spring, which is similar to that which closes 
the switch, but also by the four extra springs. The opening is, there- 
fore, made even quicker and more certain than the closing action. 

The only difference between the automatic and non-aulomntic oil 
switches is that the controlling switch of the former, marked ".\ut. 
Switch" in the figure, in addition to being operated by hand, is opened 
by a tripping solenoid in case of overload. 

Guide rods arc provided, which prevent binding jgainst the soap- 
stone cover and insure the accurate alignment of (he contact parts. 
If it is desired to operate the compartment switch by hand a pair of 
rods with screw eyes at the ba<e are provided into which can be 

hooked into a handle for operating it manually. Air bumpers are sup- 
plied to take up the final rush of the solenoids, so that no jar is trans- 
mitted to the supporting structure. 

Fig. 30 shows the connections by which the main switch is oper- 
ated from the switchboard or by the lime limit relay. The cut shows 
the switch open ; to close it, close the operating switch, thus energiz- 
ing the right solenoid. The switch starts to move and almost in- 
stantly the blade A moves from point i to point 2, shutting the 
operating switch so that the motion of the main switch must continue 
until it is completely closed. At the moment of closing the blade A 
moves from point 2 to point 3, leaving the switch ready to be opened. 
In opening, the blade A jumps first to point 4, shunting the operating 
switch, and when the main switch is open, returns to i. completing 
the cycle and leaving the connections, as shown in the figure. 

The time limit relay is operated by current transformers in the 
feeder circuits. Should the current in the feeder exceed the amount 
for which the device is set, one of the small plungers shown is raised, 
and releases a disk, which revolves until it closes the circuit of a 
tripping solenoid which opens the operating switch. This opens the 
main switch in the manner already described. The relay may be set 
so as to take any desired amount of time after the contact disk 
starts before it finally opens the operating switch. The figure also 
shows the connections by which the pilot lamps indicate to the oper- 
ator the position of the main switch. The contacts for this are in- 
dependent of the position of the operating switch. 

The General Incandescent switch chamber is of brick, divided by 
soapstone partitions into three compartments, one for each phase, 
and has a removable soapstone front. In each compartment are two 
oil wells, consisting of seamless brass tubing, with insulating lining, 
mounted upon porcelain insulators and connected by an inverted cop- 
per U connector. A wooden rod, which, after heating to drive out 
the sap, has been boiled in paraffine for 24 hours, connects this i' 
to an iron rod at the top of the switch to which the U's in the other 
two phases are similarly joined. This iron rod has a motion of over 
14 inches, and when raised lifts the C's in the oil chambers so as to 
make two 12-inch breaks in each phase. The switch is actuated liy 
two solenoids, which operate a crank and connecting-rod movement 
so arranged that very little work is required of the solenoid at the be- 
ginning and end of its motion. The cores of the solenoids are con- 
nected by a steel tape passing over a wheel, which is turned 180 degs. 
to the right or left, as the right or left solenoid is excited. 


The low-tension selector switchboard (Fig. 33) on the first floor 
really consists of two distinct switchboards, each with three sets of 
bus-bars, which in case of emergency can be tied together. One of 
these is the exciter switchboard, from which is supplied current to 
the fields of the generators, and all the apparatus for operating the 
generator and feeder oil switches, relays, etc. The other switchboard 
is that of the local rotary converter sub-station, which supplies the 
low-tension feeders in the neighborhood, and also the crane, eleva- 
tor and other motors in the building. 

For the exciter bus-bars the current is furnished by the four ex- 
citer generators and exciter storage battery, which will be charged by 
a special booster. In general practice the exciters and generator 
fields will be connected to the lower set of bus-bars, which will be 
run at a potential of 240-250 volts. If it is necessary at the same time 
to carry the extreme overload w-ith low power factor on some of the 
generators, thereby requiring maximum field excitation, their fields 
will be connected to the upper bus-bars, which will be supplied with 
current via the booster, or by an exciter run at higher voltage. The 
middle bus-bar of the exciter switchboard will be connected by the 
tying-in switch to the same bus-bar on the local rotary switchboard, 
so that current from the rotaries can be used for field excitation in 
so that current from the rotaries or from the feeders connected to the 
general external low-tension network can be used for field excitation 
in case of emergency. 

The exciter generators will feed the bus through reverse current 
circuit breakers, so that in case of the high-tension circuit breaker 
opening on the alternating-current motor, the direct-current generator 
will be automatically disconnected from the bus as soon as it "motor- 
will be automatically disconnected from the bus as soon as it runs as 
a motor. For the local rotary station bus-bars the current will be 
.supplied by six rotaries of 500 kw capacity each, a local storage bat- 
tery and a local booster. To this bus arc connected eight low-tensinn 
feeders, which supply the section of the city between Fourth .\venne 
and East River and Thirtieth and Fiftieth streets. 

„,{■ . 

Figs. 26. 27, 28 and 29. — General Electric Oil Switches. 


Out® OLiBhtt^J 


" ^ 

■^ -1, 



■S'' _^ Eleme 

r'^ Reluy 

Citcuit Maker 




Figs, 30, .11, 32 and 3Ja — General Incandescent On, Switches. 

January ii, 1902 



At present there is but one batter}- and one booster installed, and 
the two switchboards are operated as one. This was rendered possi- 
ble by having the fields of the main generators, the fields of the ex- 
citer generators, the motors (or solenoids) on the oil switches, trip- 
ping coils of the time limit relays, crane motors, elevator motors, 
coal conveyor motors, etc., etc., all vi-ound to operate satisfactorily at 
from 240 to 250 volts. 

and a fuse are in series with the armature: when completely closed 
in its running position, the fuse and starting box are short circuited. 
Above this switch is the field rheostat dial, the field-break switch, 
receptacles for synchronizing and balancing plugs, and pilot switch 
for operating the magnetic switches which are placed between the 
static transformers and the rotary. 

On the booster pedestals is a combination starting and main 


The low tension selector switchboard was built by the General In- 
candescent Arc Light Company, on the specifications of the New 
York Edison Company. All the ammeters are of the Van Vleck 
edgewise pattern, manufactured by the Weston Electrical Instru- 
ment Company. They are of the shunt type. For the ammeters on 
the feeders, part of the conductor is used for the shunt. In all other 
cases special alloy shunts are used. 


The rheostat dials, switches, etc., for controlling the exciters, ro- 
taries and boosters are mounted upon pedestals, and directly above 
the pedestal of each machine is a marble panel containing the in- 

Fic. .^4- 

:ai!LF. vault. 

strunients. On each exciter pedestal there is a direct-current main 
switch, the field rheostat dials, field-break switch and the pilot switch 
and overload relay for controlling the oil switch. The work the 
exciters are doing is indicated by an alternating-current ammeter 
and power factor indicator for the motor, and a direct-current am- 
meter for the generator. On the rotary pedestal is a combination 
starting and main switch, by which the rotary is started as a direct- 
current motor. When this switch is in the starting position a rheostat 


switch for the booster motor and main switches for closing the cir- 
cuits of each of the booster dynamos. 

The bus from which current is to be taken and the bus to which it 
is to be fed are determined by the switches on the selector switch- 
board. Above these are the rheostat dials for each dynamo, field 
switches, etc. 

The apparatus for the control of the battery is mounted directly 
above the booster pedestal. This consists of four special reversing 
switches of the push-button type, furnished by the Electric Storage 


Battery Company. These switches control the motors operating the 
cell switches, which arc placed in a room in front of the battery 
room and separated from it by an "acid fume proof" partition. Above 
the push-button switches are the indicators, which show the number 
of cells in circuit, that is, the position of the end cell switches. 


The cables coming from the generators are carried on cable racks 



Vol. XXXIX., No. 2. 

through a cable vault running the full length of the operating room 
between the two rows of engine foundations. A view of this vault 
showing some of the cables in position is given in Fig. 36. Each 
rack contains three lead-covered, paper-insulated, single-conductor 
cables of 500,000 circ. mills cross-section, two lead-covered cables 
carrj'ing the field current, and smaller wires for the motor operating 
the engine governor, signaling, etc. Each rack contains the wiring 
for one generator, and is separated from its neighbors by fireproof 

From the cable vault the cables are fanned out and pass up through 
bricked-in cable ways to the oil-break switches on the first switch- 
board gallery. 

The cable vaults by which the cables leave the building are al- 
shown in Figs. 34 and 35. They are of most ample and solid con 
struction, there being in reality a fine large cable chamber extending 
out from under the west front of the station, with abundant duct ca- 
pacity for increase in service up to the full generating limit of the 

E lectrical Equipment of the Manhattan Elevated 
Railway — I. 

IN our first issue of last year a description was given of the gen 
erating plant and electrical equipment of the Manhattan Ele- 
vated Railway. During the past year the work on the plant 
proceeded rapidly, and it is announced that the first electric 
train for public conveyance will be run the present month ; in fact. 
an experimental train may be said to be already in successful opera- 
tion, and the addition of the road on an electrical basis to the rapid 
transit facilities of New York is eagerly awaited by the citizens, .^s 
already understood, it is proposed to start out electrical operation of 
the system with the Second Avenue line, and the other divisions will 
be taken up in regular order. An immense amount of work was 
necessarily done during 1901 in completing the initial equipments of 
the great power plant, as well as in securing rolling stock, complet- 
ing track work on the Second Avenue line and making the innumer- 
able investigations, tests, etc., that were necessary before an 
enterprise of this magnitude could be perfectly adapted to its des- 
tined work. Messrs. Skitt. Baker, Stillwell ,Stott and others, in 
fact, all the executive officials from President Gould down, have 
had their attention engrossed during the past twelve months by the 

the East River, this being the most centrally located site available. 
All the current is generated here, the plant having a maximum ca- 
pacity of 80,000 hp. The main building is divided by a longitudinal 
wall into two parts, the boiler plant and accessories occupying one- 
half and the engines and dynamos the other. The dimensions of the 


building are 204 ft. 4 inches wide, 395 ft. deep on Seventy-fourth 
Street and 413 ft. on Seventy-fifth Street. 

The unit plan was adopted for the general design of the power 
plant, the equipment being arranged in eight complete and practically 
independent units, each consisting of one engine and alternator, four 
batteries of boilers, one condenser and one boiler-feed pump, all con- 
nected by the necessary piping. The location of the plant on the 
river front affords an easy and economical means for handling coal 
and ashes. 

The boiler equipment comprises 64 Babcock & Wilcox horizontal 


heavy problems of this enterprise, and are, of course, still in the very 
thick of it. The data and the few views which are given in this and 
a succeeding article must, therefore, be considered as of merely a 
tentative nature pending fuller description and treatment of the 
various features of this most interesting and important work. 

The central generating station, an exterior view of which is given 
in Fig. I, is an imposing structure occupying the block bounded by 
Seventy-fourth, Seventy-fifth and Exterior streets, and fronting on 

I-IG. 3. — HKVOI.VrNU rilsl.l). 

water-tube boilers of 525 hp each, arranged in batteries of two each, 
and capable of sustaining safely 200 lbs. working steam pressure. 
Mechanical stokers of the Roney type are used, and it is estimated 
by the engineers for the Manhattan Company that while at least 270 
men would have been required to fire these boilers by hand, with the 
mechanical stokers, this force can be reduced to go men, a saving in 
labor alone of over $400 per day. Another important advantage 
thereby gained is that hard or soft coal may be used, either separately 

January it, 1902 


or mixed. For this no alteration is rcqiiirtd in the arrangement or 
construction of the stoker, merely a different adjustment of the feed 
and grate-actuating mechanism. The present installation will con- 
sist of 256 stokers under the 64 525-hp boilers, and they will be 
capable of developing 50 per cent above the rated capacity of the 
boilers. The total equipment when the plant is completed as designed 
will consist of 384 stokers attached to 96 525-hp boilers, or a total of 
50,400 hp, making this the largest boiler plant ever designed or in- 

Sixteen Green fuel economizers are employed, one for every two 
batteries of boilers. They are of the high-pressure type and aggregate 
8192 tubes. Huge stcks have been erected, which are of sufficient 
dimensions to furnish enough draft for ordinary requirements, but 
as a precautionary measure 16 Sturtevant blowers are installed to 
furnish forced draft when needed. These blowers will be operated 

the same crank pin. The dimensions are 44 inches and 88 inches and 
5 ft. stroke, the revolutions being 75 per minute. 

The capacity of the engines is from 7500 hp to 12,000 hp maximum. 
To get this capacity into a two-cylinder engine of the ordinary cross- 
compound type would require cylinders 62 and 124 inches in diame- 
ter. By the use of four cylinders each crank is given four instead 
of two impulses at each revolution, which makes the turning effort 
upon the shaft so uniform that the revolving field of the generator 
takes the place of the flywheel. The ordinary Reynolds-Corliss 
valve gear is employed, with a single eccentric on each high-pressure 
cylinder and separate eccentrics for the steam and exhaust valves 
of each low-pressure cylinder. The two sides of the engine are 
entirely distinct, and one can be run with the other uncoupled with- 
out affecting its steam efficiency. 

Each of the great Westinghouse generators delivers three-phase 

Fig. 4. — General View of Engine Room, Manhattan Railway Power House. 

by alternating-current motors. All of the feed pumps, eight in num- 
ber, of the Gould triplex, single-acting type, are driven by 500-volt 
direct-current motors. 

The generating machinery will comprise eight sooo-kw Westing- 
house alternators, directly connected to Allis-Corliss engines, of 
which two units are now ready for use, the others being in various 
stages of completion. A general view of the generating room is given 
in Fig. 4, and another view in Fig. 2. Each unit has a nominal rating 
of 5000 kw, but has a maximum capacity of 10,000 hp, and enjoy the 
distinction of being the largest electrical generators that have ever 
been erected. 

The steam engines were built after designs of Mr. Edwin Rey- 
nolds, and each consists of a pair of compound engines working upon 
the same shaft, the high-pressure cylinders being horizontal and the 
low pressures vertical, the high and low of each end taking hold of 

currents at 11,000 volts, which, if necessary, may be raised to 12,000 
volts. The wave-form generated is practically a true sine curve un- 
der all conditions of load and power factor, and the regulation from 
no-load to full load is guaranteed to be within 6 per cent. The rise 
in temperature above the surrounding air of any part of the machine 
under full load for 24 hours is not to exceed 35 degs. C, and at 50 
per cent overload, or 7500 kw, it is not to exceed 55 degs. C. The- 
efficiency at full load from engine to switchboard is 96.5 per cent. 

The revolving parts of the dynamos are particularly designed to 
secure very unusual strength and consequent ability to resist the ten- 
dency to burst and fly apart in case of temporary abnormal speed 
through accident of any kind. The hub of the revolving field, which 
is also the flywheel of the engines, is of cast steel, and the rim is car- 
ried not by the ordinary spokes, but by two webs of rolled steel. 

The angular velocity of the revolving field, as determined by the 



\'0L. XXXIX.. No. 2. 

relation of flywheel effect and torque or turning moment e.xerted 
upon the shaft by engine pistons, is uniform to an extraordinary de- 
gree. The revolving field, which is shown in Fig. 3, is 32 ft. in diame- 
ter, and in operation turns at 75 r. p. m., making its peripheral speed 
7540 ft., or more than a mile a minute. Its weight is 370,000 lbs. 

There are 40 field poles, built up of laminated steel. They are 
wound with copper strap on edge, one layer deep and the insulating 
material is cemented in place between the turns. The edges of the 
strap are exposed in order better to dissipate the heat developed. The 
normal exciting current for each alternator field is approximately 225 
amperes at 200 volts, and the winding is so designed that the excita- 
tion can be increased to care for an overload of 50 per cent and a 50 
per cent power factor. The field windings are held upon the poles by 
copper wedges driven between the pole tips. These wedges also serve 
to preserve constant the wave-form generated. 

The armature, of which a section is shown in Fig. 5, consists of si.x 
castings bolted together, to which is attached the armature core. The 
latter is a built-up ring composed of thin, soft steel plates with slots 
S)n the inner surface, in which are placed insulated coper bars, con- 

Complete Commercial Test of Polyphase Induction 
Motors Using One Wattmeter and One Voltmeter. 

By a. S. McAllister. 

THE ordinary factory or laboratory method of testing induction 
motors for performance and efficiency by direct measurement 
of the input, output, power factor, speed, etc., leaves little to be 
desired in cases where suitable testing apparatus is available. Even 
in such cases, however, the large number of instruments ordinarily 
required for testing is a source of objection, since each for accurate 
results must be properly calibrated and used without error in obser- 
vation during a test. Obviously the less the number of instruments 
used in a test the less the liability for errors, except in such cases 
where one instrument may be used as a check upon another. 

Outside of laboratories and the testing rooms of manufacturing 
establishments the number of instruments available for testing an in- 
duction motor is usually quite limited, in most cases including only 
ammeter.s, wattmeters and voltmeters, and seldom, indeed, any equip- 
ment for directly measuring the m.echanical output. The desirability 
of reducing the requisite apparatus for a complete test is recognized 
by all. The suggestions offered herein are such as tend towards the 
elimination of all imnecessary apparatus. 

The method of testing a transformer by separation of the losses is 
well known. Such a method, which by a few slight modifications 
can be applied to induction motors, is given below. Most of what is 


SKCrlO.N (II- THE Si.\lT().\AK\ .\l<.M.\lLKt. 

stituting with their end connectors the armature winding. The steel 
plates arc separated at intervals by ventilating spaces. 

In order to produce a wave-form free from irregularities and of 
the same shape at different loads, a distributed winding with four 
armature slots per phase per pole was adopted. This tends to avoid 
the production of harmonics, which is an especially important matter 
in view of the large capacity and self-induction of an extensive system 
of cables and transmitting apparatus, especially where a large num- 
ber of isoo-kw rotary converters are to be employed. Each slot con- 
tains three bars, which are securely fastened to the end connectors. 
The bars in any slot may be removed without disturbing the bars in 
the other slots and without moving the frame of the machine. The 
armature conductors are insulated to withstand a puncture test of 
25,000 volts alternating current for 30 minutes. 

The most important feature of the auxiliary plant at the power 
house is the exciter equipment. Current for exciting the fields of the 
alternators will be supplied by a battery of four 2S0-kw exciters, also 
furnished by the VVcstinghousc Company. These exciters are of the 
engine type, the armature and commutator of each machine being 
bolted together upon a ventilated cast-iron sleeve and pressed upon 
the engine shaft. 

It is proposed also to install rotary converters and transformers at 
the central power station for furnishing current for operating motors, 
and the lighting plant. Altogether the lights and nKitor service from 
this plant irrespective of the car equipments will require as much 
current as many central stations in fair-sized cities. 

In a following article the distribution system, including the rotary 
con\crters, will be described. 

stated in this connection is true for any induction motor under any 
condition of service, though the greatest simplicity in testing and 
the requisite use of the least number of instruments will be ob- 
tained only with polyphase motors operating on well balanced and 
regulated circuits. Each element of a test will below be treated 

Slip. — The determination of the slip of induction motor rotors by 
counting the r. p. m. of both generator and motor is open to many 
objections. If the two readings of speed be not taken simultaneously 
though the true value of each be correctly observed, when the speed 
of either is fluctuating the value of slips will be greatly in error. A 
slight proportional error in either speed introduces an enormous 
error in the slip. Where the generator is not at hand the above 
method obviously cannot be directly applied, and is applicable only 
when a synchronous motor is available for operation from the same 
supply system as the induction motor. 

When the secondary current can be measured and the secondary 
resistance is known, the most accurate and convenient method for de- 
termining the slip is from the ratio of copper loss of secondary to 
total secondary output. 

If we let /: be any observed value of secondary current. /?3 the 
secondary resistance and JVtt the output of the motor, then 

Slip = 6' = 

/,* /f. 

"•„-)- /,Jf, 

Copper loss of secondary 
total secondary output 

As a proof of this fact, consider the magnetism cut by the sec- 
ondary windings to be of a strength which would cause to be gener- 
ated E~ volts in the windings at 100 per cent slip. 

Let 5" be any given slip, "'' the total secondary watts. the angle 
of lag of secondary current, and As 11% the secondary reactance at lOO 
per cent slip, then 

January ii, igc2. 


S E., 

' R,'-\-L%_ U'^- S- 

/, E, cos o 

R; sec' o 

/.,- R, 

/.. £., 

/., E, R, cos sec 

Since neither £= nor L2 Wi appears in the above equation, the rela- 
tion is independent of the strength of field magnetism cut by the sec- 
ondary windings and of the secondary reactance. 

Torque— The rotor torque can be ascertained with the highest de- 
gree of accuracy and facility from the ratio of secondary input to the 
sjTichronous speed, that is, the torque is expressed in pounds at one- 
foot radius by the following equation : 

Torque = 7" = 7.04 

IVp — Lp 
syn. speed 

where \V p is the total primary input ; Lp the total primary energy 
losses, and the synchronous speed is in r. p. ni. 

If Lp includes the friction, T will equal the external rotor torque, 
while if Lp includes only the true primary iron and coper losses, T 
will be the total rotor torque. 

To prove the abcn-e expressed relation, let \Vs be total secondary 
input, \W the motor output, and .j the rotor slip. Then 

T = 7.04 


r. p. m. 

but rFu^IFj(i — s) and r. p. ni. ;= synchronous speed (i — s). 

7 = 7.04 . 

. _ syn. speea 

Therefore, for a given primary input and primary losses the rotor 
torque is independent of secondary speed or output, and any error in 
the determination of either of the latter quantities need not affect 
in the least the value obtained for the torque. 

If the total energy received by the secondary is used up in the sec- 
ondary resistance the equation for the torque will be 



7,-' R, 

syn. speed ' 

or starting torque, which, as is well recognized, iray be increased by 
any method which will increase the stationary secondary copper 

Resistance of Squirrel Cage Secondary. — Due to the inability to 
insert measuring instruments in the secondary of squirrel-cage in- 
duction motors, the ordinary direct-current method of determining 
the resistance cannot be used. 

If the rotor be clamped to prevent motion a wattmeter placed in 
the primary circuit will read the copper loss of both primary and 
secondary when the e. m. f. across the leads is reduced to give a fair 
operating value of primary current. If from the reading of watts 
thus obtained there be subtracted the known copper loss of the pri- 
mary for the current flowing, the value of the secondary copper loss 
will be secured. The resistance of the secondary (reduced to pri- 
mary) will be obtained by dividing this loss by the square of the 
primary current. 

Secondary Current. — When the motor has a squirrel cage secon- 
dary winding, measurement of the secondary current cannot be made 
directly, but the determination of its value must be by calculation. 
The variation in value and phase of the primary current may serve as 
an indication of the current flowing in the secondary winding.s, 
though the actual increase in primary current docs not represent the 
increase in secondary current. 

The difference between the power components of the primary cur- 
rent at no load and under a chosen load equals the equivalent increase 
in the power component of the secondary current under the same 
conditions, while the difference between the quadrature components 
of the primary current at the same time is a measure of the equivalent 
increase in the quadrature component of the secondary current. 

When the no-load value of secondary current is negligible the 
vector sum of the above-found components represents the secondary 
current for the chosen load in terms of the primary current. 



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Vol. XXXIX.. Xo. 2. 

Primary Power Factor. — For a single-phase motor the determina- 
tion of the primary power factor will usually involve the measure- 
ment of primary watts, volts and amperes. 

For two-phase motors with equal c. m. f.'s across the separate 
phases, one wattmeter alone may be used to obtain the power factor 
by simply transferring the pressure coil from one phase to the other, 
leaving the current coil always in one lead. The reading of the watt- 
meter in one case will be JFi =: / £ cos ^, and in the second case, 

py.^= / E sin ^; whence tan = jp' , from wliich may be obtained 

the power factor. 

For three-phase motors one wattmeter can similarly serve to indi- 
cate the power factor. The wattmeter readings will be W\ ^ I E cos 

li/^ IV. * 

(^_3o) ; W7 = I E (coso -f 30), whence tan o = 1/3 . ' ' 

Primary Current. — If the primary e. ni. f. watts and power factor 

Hoi-tH! POWCI- Output 


be known, the primary current can readily be calculated and, there- 
fore, need not be measured. 

It is evident from the above discussed facts that with two and three- 
phase induction motors operated from circuits having constant and 
equal e. m. f.'s across the separate phases, one wattmeter and one 
voltmeter can be used to determine primary watts, amperes and volts, 
and secondary amperes, and that when the primary resistance is 
known or can be measured the complete performance efficiency, etc., 
of the motoi^ can at once be calculated. 

Below there is given the log orithmic calculations and curves of 
such a test made upon a S-hp, eight-pole, 6o-cycle, three-phase induc- 
tion motor. The primary resistance between leads at running tem- 
perature was .155 ohms, equivalent to a secondary resistance of .56 

Since the copper loss of three-phase receiver is expressed by tin- 

/ 3~ , 
equation, \- l<I\ where R is the resistance between Inies and / is 

the current tlowing in each lead, for either star or delta-connected 
receiver no attention need be paid to the method by which the pri- 
mary coils are interconnected within the motor or, in fact, whether 
the secondary be wound delta, star or squirrel cage. 

Tests made upon this same motor by the output-input methods 
agree throughout the whole range of the test with the herewith 
recorded test within the limits of the inevitable errors of observation 
of the various instruments used in the tests. 

Electric Gas Lamps and Gas Electrical Resistance 

By Peter CooPfj« Hewitt. 

ON a former occasion I had the honor of showing to the mem- 
bers of the Institute lamps utilizing the conductivity of gas 
for illuminating purposes, including experiments illustrat- 
ing certain laws of conductivity of gases, and I also presented curves 
directing attention to various characteristics. It gives me pleasure 
to-night, while showing lamps in operation lighting this room, to 
describe some of the phenomena exhibited by the lamp and to indi- 
cate some of the difficulties encountered in determining the relative 
values of the resistances therein. 

The mercury gas lamps exhibited to-night are operated on the 
standard Edison ii8-volt direct-current circuit installed in this build- 
ing; lamps of this class consume amounts of current varying from 
I to 6 amperes, and the energy is approximately ]/> watt per spher- 
ical candle-power. Under better conditions as high an economy as 
J4 watt per spherical candle-power has been obtained, determined by 
careful and accurate measurements. Measurements were made by 
measuring sections of the lamp varying in length from ;4 of an inch 
to 3 inches, shielding the lamp and leaving a slot in the shield of the 
length mentioned and measuring the light transmitted through the 
slot. These measurements have been made with lamps of various 
diameters. Dr. Max von Recklinghausen has made independent 
measurements, comparing the illuminating value of the lamps with 
incandescent lamps of equivalent rated candle-power, and the results 
of such tests agreed remarkably well with the mesurements obtained 
upon photometers. 

I have made lamps with diameter of bore less than Va of an inch 
and as large as 3 inches, and from less than 3 inches in length up to 
over 10 ft., giving from less than 10 candles up to fully 3000. Lamps 
of very small bores give more trouble in manufacture and operation 
than those of moderate size. Lamps of innumerable shapes and di- 
mensions have been constructed and great variation of candle-power 
for various diameters obtained. There appears no reason why lamps 
may not be made of any size required and of any desired candle-power 
per inch within wide limits, the only limitation appearing being that 
imposed by .softening of the glass when too many candle-power per 
inch are produced. The general rules established regarding their 
operation hold good in so far as examined, and it is possible to pre- 
determine with almost absolute exactness the voltage, current con- 
sumption and candle-power of a lamp when the manufacture is 

The light produced by pure mercury gas comprises orange-yellow, 
lemon-yellow, green, blue, blue-violet and violet; and although all 
shades of these colors may not be present, their absence would not 
be so seriously felt were it not for the absence of the red. For some 
purposes the lack of red in the spectrum is objectionable, but for 
many uses it is a positive advantage. 

For shop work, draughting, reading and other work where the eye 
is called upon for continued strain, the absence of red is an advan- 
tage, for I have found light without the red is much less tiring to the 
eye than with it. It is possible to transform some waves of this 
light, especially the yellow light, into red light, and thus in a meas- 
ure to overcome this defect where required for general indoor il- 
lumination. .\ moderate amount of ordinary incandescent light in- 
terspersed with the mercury gas electric light serves to supply the 
deficiency, and the mixture may be made most satisfactory. For ordi- 
nary street lighting purposes the mercury light is available even 
without the red, and it should be noticed that this light has very great 
penetrating power and seems to be eflfeclive through greater distances 

'.Sec Electrical World and Kngineer, Nov. 23, 1901. 

*A paper read l)efore tlic A 
York and Chicago, January 3, IQ02 

Institute of Klodricul Engineers, Xew 

January ii, iyo2. 



than an equivalent amount of measured candle-power from the ordi- 
nary incandescent lamp. This may be due to the fact that the waves 
of the red light are less penetrating than those waves which are pres- 
ent in the mercury light, and hence the least valuable portion of the 
spectrum having such illuminating efifects is omitted and the energy 
is practically expended in the more useful portions of the spectrum. 

I have made lamps in which this color objection has been over- 
come, sacrificing on some occasions the extremely high light efficiency 
obtained in this particular lamp. Without doubt lamps of this type 
will be produced whose light will be even more beautiful than this 
light is objectionable; in fact, I have produced very beautiful and 
becoming light. Every gas gives its own particular spectrum when 
traversed by current,' only part of which is visible, and Ihat one hav- 
ing its spectrum richest in the visible portion is the most efficient for 
service as a lamp. Each develops its own color peculiarities and pre- 
sents its particular electrode phenomena, chemical and physical, but 
I am convinced it is only a matter of patient work to render many 
gases practically available as light-giving media. When it is con- 
sidered that this light, when obtained with mercury gas, has an ef- 
ficiency at least eight times as great as that obtained by the ordinary 
incandescent lamp, it will be appreciated that it has its use in places 
where lack of the red is not important, for the economy of operation 
will much more than compensate for the somewhat unnatural color 
given to illuminated objects. 

I would like to state some of the phenomena that had to be un- 
raveled before it was possible to establish the laws governing the 
operation of electric gas lamps. The conductivity of the gas of the 
lamp, which is the most important factor, is dependent upon the 
diameter of the gas column, the length of the gas column, the density 
of the gas in the column and the resistance factor of the particular 
gas; with these must be considered the resistance at and about the 
^ respective electrodes to obtain the total resistance presented by the 
lamp. In determining the relative values of these it was assumed that 
the resistance of the gas column would vary directly as the length ; 
this has so far proved to be true. From the results of a great number 
of experiments, and from some particular ones, I was able to demon- 
strate that the resistance varied inversely with the diameter; not as 
a square, as in metallic conductors, but very nearly as the first power. 
It is very difficult to obtain identical surroundings for lamps of dif- 
ferent diameters, and I am of the opinion that any discrepancy that 
occurs is due to difference of environment. I was able to demonstrate 
that the resistance varies inversely with the quantity of the current 
passed, which means that the lamp requires a constant voltage unless 
some change takes place. The voltage across the terminals of the 
lamp is modified by the density of the gas, a gas having a density of 
ma.ximum conductivity or a certain definite amount of matter and 
molecular movement best suited for conduction. Beyond the point 
of maximum conductivity the resistance appears to increase absolutely 
directly with the density, but I wish to state that my means of meas- 
uring at these low densities were not sufficiently accurate. The den- 
sity is an entirely controllable factor, and is one of the best means of 
controlling the voltage. The laws above stated appear to hold good 
as to gases, generally. 

The electrode resistance at the positive, providing there is no alter- 
ation of the chemical or physical condition of the electrodes, may, 
from a practical standpoint, be regarded as being very slight and will 
be neglected for the present. 

The negative electrode resistance offered very great difficulties and 
required long and patient experimental investigation. I found that it 
consisted of a variety of factors, and I will briefly direct attention to 
those which appear to have the more important bearing upon the 
operation of the lamp. There is a reluctance to the initial passage 
of current which appears as if self-created by the current — as if by 
induction. Upon increasing the voltage applied thereto, current passes 
to a very small extent and thereupon there is a fall in resistance. To 
increase this small amount of current the voltage must be still further 
increased. On further increase of current this resistance apparently 
ceases and there is an enormous decrease of voltage. This resistance 
apparently docs not exist when chemical or physical alteration occurs 
at the electrodes. 

When the last-named resistance is overcome by reason of passing 
current, a flame may be noticed proceeding from the negative elec- 
trode in a direction perpendicular to the surface from which it issues. 
If this flame meets the current in a right line, that is to say, projects 
in the direction of the flow of the current at the point of meeting, the 
total resistance of the lamp is materially greater than when the flame 
proceeds in a direction at an angle to the flow of the current. 

When the flame is proceeding from the negative electrode at an 
angle to the line of the current, then the resistance at the negative 
electrode, under the conditions which are established is reduced, and 
practically speaking, the principal and controlling resistance of the 
lamp is then located in the gas-path proper. 

The reluctance to starting is greatly modified by charging the sur- 
face of the lamp exterior to the negative electrode positively, and 
also in a less degree by dissipating the charge that collects there. It 
is for this reason that the lamps have a conducting band exterior to 
the negative. This resistance may also be modified by charging and 
discharging the lamp with a high-voltage current. 

I may here add that these initial resistances to the passage of cur- 
rent may be overcome by an impulse of high potential, as by the dis- 
charge of a reactive coil. 

Electrical relations, as well as chemical, exist between the various 
kinds of gases used and electrodes of different materials, so that the 
presence of some other matter, "foreign matter," may bring about a 
total change of conditions and phenomena which normally should 
exist at the negative electrode in a state of purity. These conditions 
give rise to new and unexpected phenomena, and phenomena of great 
importance are brought into existence at the positive electrode. In 
the practical manufacture of the lamp, when abnormal conditions 
arise, that is to say, when other phenomena than those above outlined 
appear, or those above outlined do not appear, it is customary to at- 
tribute them to the presence of "foreign matter." 

From what has been stated, it will be seen that the problems, which 
had to be solved to produce a lamp, comprised, among others, not 
only the determination of the conductivity of the gas column, in- 
volving the relations of the length and diameter, but determining the 
relative values of the other different factors of the electrical resis- 
tances, resistance at the electrode, etc. ; determining the conditions 
accompanying varying densities, the variations in the conductivity 
with respect to the amount of current flowing; also methods of find- 
ing a pure gas with stable chemical and physical conditions within 
the lamps, and also detenninng the relations of the electrodes and 
gas with respect to each other under operating conditions. 

In one experiment shown upon the former occasion referred to, the 
initial resistance to the passage of the current was illustrated and the 
electrical leak through this resistance was measured ; but at that 
time no attempt was made to point out the several resistances or fac- 
tors thereof which have been referred to above. 

In some particular forms of lamp the resistance at the negative 
electrodes has been availed of to render the negative electrode itself 
a source of light. Such conditions were established that no physical 
or chemical change took place at the negative electrode, and it de- 
veloped that the electrode could then be heated to any desired tem- 
■ perature. Iron electrodes imder these conditions may be maintained 
at a very high temperature and give off considerable light, the elec- 
trode itself being then the chief source of light. I even succeeded 
in melting platinum and maintained it in a molten puddle. 

I might mention an interesting negative electrode experiment 
where an ordinary lamp about 30 inches in length contained a rod 
of metal one-eighth inch in diameter, projecting from the mercury 
negative to an eighth of an inch of the positive electrode, which was 
located as usual, and a movable bridging piece permitted bringing this 
rod into electrical connection with the positive. On forming contact 
and breaking, the current shoots to the mercury negative, although the 
total resistance over the lamp requires 60 volts with about two am- 
peres passing, while that of the rod was negligible with respect to 

The presence of slight impurities in the lamp serves to vary the re- 
sistance to starling in a very marked degree. Under some condi- 
tions impurities or "foreign matter" facilitate conduction, whereas 
under other conditions "foreign matter" serves to greatly increase the 

Referring again to the flame occurring at the negative which is pres- 
ent while the lamp is in operation, it inay be stated that the direction 
of the flame is targely, if not entirely, independent of the direction of 
the current, and is determined by the plane of the surface receiving 
the current. The direction of the flow of the current to that surface 
is, generally speaking, through the shortest path from the positive 
electrode, so that if the entrance plane of the negative electrode sur- 
face be out of the perpendicular to the flow of the current, then the 
flame may be made to proceed in a direction out of the path of the 
current, and thus will not interpose its resistance to the current flow. 
In some of the types of lamps shown here to-night, the surface of the 
mercury constituting the negative electrode, as will be seen, does 


Vol. XXXIX,, No. 

occupy such a position with relation to the path of the current, and 
the flame proceeds in a line out of the path of the current. In some 
of the lamps, for the purpose of causing the position at which the 
current passes into the negative electrode to remain fi.xed and the 
flame regulated, the metal leading-in-wire is carried to a point at the 
surface of the mercury, and the path of the current once being fi.xed 
upon this point, remains there instead of wandering about the sur- 
face of the mercury, the current entering the meniscus. The flame 
may be deflected and its position controlled by the use of a magnet 
when so desired. Where no point is used there is a tendency for 
the current to wander and burrow, as it were, into the body of mer- 
cury. This results in temporary depressions, so that the' flame may 
proceed from the walls of these depressions in a direction at an angle 
to the direction taken by the current, but the wandering of the cur- 
rent about the surface of the mercury will necessarily cause a con- 
stant shifting of the direction of the flame and cause variation in the 
resistance of the lamp. 

I have used other gases than the vapor of mercury as the gas-path, 
but mercury is more convenient for general experimental investiga- 
tion for many reasons, among them the fact that as a negative elec- 
trode, its resistance is stable; the readiness with which the alteration 
of its condition may be brought about ; the high efficiency of a mer- 
cury gas as a light-giving medium, and also the fact that it can easily 
be obtained in a fairly pure state. 

ior lighting, a value of 5 is about as high as it is wise for hygienic 
reasons to go. With proper diffusion, the entire globe surface may 
be taken as radiant, and for a first approximation the radius of a 
spherical diffusing globe should be at least 

C. P. 

"Illumination" Discussion Before the Institute. 

"Illumination" furnished the topic for the meeting of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers held in New York and Chicago 
Jan. 3. This meeting, according to the regular schedule, would have 
been held the last Friday in December, but as this date fell in the 
holiday week it was deferred to Jan. 3. Six papers were read be- 
fore the meeting, of which we print two in full elsewhere in this 
issue — that by Mr. Peter Cooper Hewitt on mercury vapor lamps, 
and the paper by Mr. Clayton H. Sharp on the advantages of the 
•acetylene-oxygen flame for use as a primary photometric standard. 
The other papers, of which abstracts are given below, were presented 
by Dr. Louis Bell, Mr. John W. Howell, Mr. S. Everett Doane and 
Mr. W. D'A. Ryan. 

Dr. Bell discussed -the subject of illumination in its general and 
practical aspects rather than with relation to the technical details of 
electrical lighting. He considers that the three most important quali- 
ties for a practical illuminant are, in their order of importance, as 
follows: Steadiness, suitable intrinsic brilliancy and suitable color. 
The importance of steadiness cannot be overestimated, for without 
it in a rather high degree, an illuminant is both impracticable and 
dangerous to the eye. Eyes differ in sensitiveness, but a variation 
of ID per cent with some is annoying and trying. Assuming the con- 
stant or retinal persistence to be one-fiftieth second, a lo-per-cent 
falling off in brilliancy would correspond to about one-fiftieth sec- 
ond, and one is safe in saying that sudden flashes one-fiftieth second 
apart would cause trouble at once, and probably, owing to frequent 
recurrence, very serious trouble. An alternating arc worked with 
small current density gives such succession of flashes, and instead 
of a certain amount of thermal stability, would be quite impossible 
at a frequency of 25 cycles, and is bad even at a frequency of 100 
cycles per second. Since incandescent lamps have a greater thermal 
stability, they present smaller fluctuations due to frequency, but 
are very bad at 15 to 20 cycles, and show fluctuations troublesome 
to some eyes up to and even, about 35 cycles. In conclusion. Dr. 
Bell considers that any source of light subject to rapid and frequent 
variations as great as 5 per cent is unfit for use as an illuminant for 
work requiring steady use of the eyes. 

As to intrinsic brilliancy, the brightness of the radiant used in 
artificial lighting is a matter of great physiological moment. The 
fundamental rule of proper illumination is to keep brilliant radiants 
out of the field of vision. The real criterion of visual usefulness is 
not the illumination, but the product of this b> n factor dependent 
upon the effect of the aperture of the iris. A criterion to be applied 
is illumination divided by a constant referring to the intrinsic bril- 
liancy of the retina. The comparative values of this constant as given 
by L. Weber are as follows; Horizontal white card, brilliant sunlight, 
25: white sunlit cloud, 7; Argand burner, 6.25; horizontal white 
card, dull winter day, .26. Dr. Bell concludes that for radiants 
within the field of vision at the distance ordinarily met with in inter- 

5 -^ 

C. P. being the candle-power. 

As to color, it is the orange, yellow and green that make up the 
working luminosity of the spectrum formed by sunlight, to the ex- 
tent of about So per cent, and even were a brilliant deep blue or red 
light produced it would require far greater encrgv' for the same 
luminous effect than the yellow or greenish light. The ej'e unques- 
tionably does its best work by light approximately like that through 
which it has been evolved — sunlight. The ideal artificial light, from 
a purely utilitarian standpoint, should resemble average sunlight. 

Dr. Bell divides classes of illumination into general and directed, 
and draws a distinction between light intended to be generally dif- 
fused and light intended to facilitate particular operations at partic- 
ular points. By skilfully treating illumination, superior results may 
be produced with a saving of energy. There are two criteria for 
judging sources of light — illumination and intensity. The former is 
an extremely difficult thing to measure with precision, as there may 
be 10 per cent or more error, and the instruments are subject to pe- 
culiarly large personal errors. Dr. Bell considers that to judge com- 
mercial illuminants as far as quantitative relations are concerned, in- 
tensity measurements should be used, qualitative relations being left 
to consideration on their merits. 

Under the head of "Intensity of Illuminants" the several more im- 
portant sources of light are discussed. The Hefner-Alteneck lamp is * 
stated to be quite accurately reproducible and fairly steady, but is 
open to the objection that it is of very small intensity and of ex- 
tremely bad color. Dr. Bell considers that the' Vernon-Harcourt pen- 
tane standard is worthy of respectful consideration. 

As to units, that which has the greatest importance in a practical 
way is the imit of luminous flux called lumen. The conception of 
light outflowing from the center and of all available light as quantity, 
based upon this conception. Dr. Bell considers to be a most useful 
one. The total light given by any radiant must evidently be ex- 
pressed in some such way as this in order properly to take account 
of its sometimes very great variations in different directions. The 
total luminous radiation is an important scientific problem, and the 
main spherical intensity is the only ground in common upon which 
all can stand. Dr. Bell states that as chairman of the committee of 
the National Electric Light Association for the rating of incandescent 
lights, he has wrestled for the last five years with the intricate and 
annoying problem of finding for commercial convenience, if possible, 
some reliable and simple method of applying a common test to ra- 
diants differing even so little in distribution as do incandescent 
lamps ; after canvassing the whole question and examining a vast 
amount of data on the subject, and after struggling to escape all the 
details of the somewhat intricate mean spherical measurement, he is 
compelled to fall back upon it as the court of last resort in matters of 

The paper presented by Mr. W. T)'\. Ryan consisted mostly of an 
argument in favor of the alternating-current arc lamp for street il- 
lumination as against the open arc. incandescent lamp and the direct- 
current enclosed arc. The conclusions of Mr. Ryan are as follows: 

First. — Open arcs give a higher maximum candle-power than en- 
closed arcs of corresponding wattage, but the maximum candle-power 
is in an undesirable direction and the light fluctuates through wide 
limits. Enclosed arcs give a higher candle-power through the most 
useful angle from, say, 3 to 10 (legs, hclow^ the horizontal. The light 
from the enclosed arc is more uniform and steadier and generally 
superior from an illuminating point of view to open arcs. 

Second. — Direct-current enclosed arcs produce slightlt higher 
candle-power than alternating-enclosed arcs of corresponding watt- 
age, but .so far as the illuminating value is concerned the two lamps 
arc on a fair basis of equality, both being superior to the direcl-cur- 
rcnt open arc. 

Third— Small unit arcs w-ill illuminate proportionately greater dis- 
tances than large units for a given expenditure of energy. 

Fourth. — Incandescent lamps do not illuminate brilliantly to a suf- 
ficient height above the street surface to produce the effect of good 
lighting and are, therefore, not comparable with arc lights'. 

January ii, igo2. 



Mr. John W. Howell read a paper entitled "The Incandescent 
Lamp of To-day," in which he considered the subject in relation to 
the topic of the meeting. He referred to the adaptability of the in- 
candescent lamp to any system of electrical distribution, there being 
no difference in its operation on direct or alternating current, pro- 
vided the latter has a frequency of 25 cycles or more per second. 

Two kinds of carbon are used in making filaments, and the best 
results require the proper combination of the two kinds. The specific 
resistances of these two kinds of carbon limit the voltage of lamps of 
a given candle power and efficiency in which this proper combination 
can be made. Lamps for a higher voltage than will permit the proper 
combination of the two kinds of carbon may be made with less of 
the graphitic coating which has a low specific resistance, or entirely of 
the base carbon ; but in either case the lamp should be operated at 
lower temperature to give equally good life and candle-power results. 
The best results are obtained with lamps of not higher than 120 
volts; 250 volts are now regarded as the ma.ximum desirable voltage, 
and at this point there is an increase of about one-half a watt per 
candle for equally good results. 

The economy of an incandescent lamp depends upon the tempera- 
ture of the filament — the higher the temperature the better the ef- 
ficiency and the shorter the life. Lamp economies are usually stated 
in watts consumed per horizontal candle. The commercial limits 
are between 2J/2 and 4 watts per English candle, or about 120 per 
cent of these figures if spherical candle-power is considered, the 2^- 
watt lamps being used where electricity is expensive and regulation 
good, and the less efficient lamps where electricity is less expensive 
or regulation is not so good, or where other considerations demand 
a longer useful service from the lamps. 

The color of the light from an incandescent lamp depends entirely 
upon the temperature of the filament ; the higher the temperature the 
more nearly white the light becomes. The color of the light generally 
is yellow. Weber observed that the first visible radiations from a 
filament as it was heated came not in the red region of the spectrum, 
but in the yellow region, where the maximum radiation occurs when 
the lamp is at high temperature. Dr. Nichols observed that carbon 
has a selective radiation in the yellow region of the spectrum, the 
radiations there increasing faster than radiations in the other parts 
of the spectrum. 

The use of higher efficiency lamps is becoming quite general. Very 
few 4 w. p. c. are now used for multiple lighting, while a few years 
ago no lamps of less than 4 w. p. c. were sold. This is due to the im- 
provement in quality of the lainps and also to better regulation of 
current. High efficiency lamps are more satisfactory than low. The 
filament being smaller, the bulbs blacken less and being hotter they 
break before reaching very old age. Low candle-power lamps are 
also coming into more general use. The demand for these has in- 
creased very considerably in the last two or three years. The use 
of lamps for decorative elifects and for special work of various kinds 
has increased the usefulness of the lamp and added to its popularity. 

Mr. S. Everett Doane, in a paper entitled "Some Common Faults 
in Exterior Illumination," pointed out objectionable features in the 
use of high-intensity outdoor illuminants, such as high-power arc 
lamps, and make a plea for the use of the incandescent lamp for ex- 
terior illumination. 

In answer to the question. Why. with all its drawbacks, the arc 
light is u.sed almost universally and incandescent lamps to so limited 
an extent? Mr. Doane says he thinks there will be no discussion as 
to the reason. Incandescent lamps for street lighting have always 
been difficult to make and less satisfactory than other types of incan- 
descent lamp. The ordinary lOO-volt to 125-volt i6-cp, 3.1 watts per 
candle, incandescent lamp gives more candle-hours for a given input 
than any other incandescent lamp. Could this lamp be used for street 
lighting the cost of street lighting by incandescent lamps could be 
materially reduced and the service rendered be much more satisfac- 
tory to the user of the highway. 

There are many streets in which low-voltage mains run the length 
of the streets, and where these lamps could be used in multiple with 
no inconvenience. There arc many other streets where 10 or 20 could 
be used in series, each on a cut-out box. no more complicated than the 
Nernst lamp. These cut-out boxes would not be so complicated as the 
arc lamps, which operate with practically no attention. 

At present, the arc lamp lines are no longer the only wires on the 
poles. Probably one-half of the electric lighting poles carry alter- 
nating current mains also. Incandescent lamps are now universally 
fastened to their bases by a waterproof cement, and waterproof sock- 
ets are in stock everywhere. 

The arc lamp has its use in street lighting. There are places where 
it is wisest to use it. The public think they are getting more for their 
money with the brilliant arc lamp, but Mr. Doane believes that as the 
users of the highways come to appreciate how much safer and more 
satisfactory is well-placed incandescent illumination, we shall learn 
to light our streets as well as our homes. 

For a given expenditure of energy, more light can be actually de- 
livered tp a highway by incandescent lamps than by arc lamps, and 
it can be better distributed. Arc lamps are at their best in densely 
settled districts. The reflected light from buildings helps to econo- 
mize the distribution, and the great quantity of light from store win- 
dows also assists to so brighten the surroundings that the arc light is 
less blinding. Arc lights are also more closely spaced in these lo- 
calities, which is to their advantage. It is the opinion of Mr. Doane 
that incandescent lamps are much to be preferred for residential 
streets, side streets and outside the more congested portions of a 
town or city. 

The Present Status of the Question of a Standard 
of Light.* 

By Clayton H. Sharp. 

THE situation as regards a standard of luminous intensity has 
shown in recent years a marked tendency towards simplification 
and unification. A number of standards or would-be stand- 
ards, which were formerly taken seriously, have disappeared from 
practical use. Of the various candles, the British candle is the only 
one which survives, and the practical use of it is steadily decreasing. 
The Carcel lamp is held in much less esteem than formerly. Practice 
is settling down to the selection of one of two classes of standard, 
either the pentane standard in one of its forins, or the Hefner amyl- 
acetate lamp. 

The small i-cp and ij^-cp pentane lamp has proven itself worthy 
of confidence as a result of thorough investigation in the Reichsanstalt. 
The lo-cp pentane lamp is coming into very extensive use by the gas 
men here and in England, and coinmends. itself by its simplicity of 
operation, by its relatively high intensity and, as far as is known, by 
the constancy of its indications. Unfortunately, there is on record 
no such careful investigation of its properties in this particular as 
has been made for the smaller pentane lamp and the Hefner lamp. 

If gas practice is looking more and more to the pentane standard, 
electrical practice is looking towards the Hefner lamp. The careful 
study made in the Reichsanstalt, the adoption of it officially in Ger- 
many, the resolutions in its favor by this Institute and by the Geneva 
Congress of 1898 have served to popularize it and to intrench it 

While the facts enumerated show that great progress, it is not to 
be assumed that a satisfactory solution of the problem of a standard 
has been reached. A standard must be as nearly as possible a com- 
mon denominator of the sources of light in ordinary use. No one 
integrated source of light can be in all strictness a common denomi- 
nator for all, on account of the existing differences in quality or 
color. That light most nearly fulfils this condition which most nearly 
approaches in color the average color tone of the sources of light in 
use to-day. Now this is much higher than it was a few years ago, due 
to the extensive introduction of whiter hued sources of light. The 
standards referred to above stand, as far as color is concerned, about 
at the bottom of the list, and from this point of view are as bad as 
possible. Photometric comparisons with them of most modern lights 
are very uncertain and the results are misleading in that they do not 
give to the whiter sources credit for the greater visual acuity per 
candle-power which is their due. 

It follows that a standard of light of considerably whiter hue than 
the present ones would be intrinsically better if of equally good qual- 
ities in other respects, and it is towards the definition of such a stand- 
ard that efforts should be directed. 

Quite a good deal has already been done in this line. A notable 
advance has been made by Petavel' in his investigation of the Violle 
platinum unit. He has indicated the precautions which must be 
taken to secure good results, and has demonstrated that the limits 
of error may he made quite narrow. The color of this standard is 
quite good. Violle has stated that it is very similar to that of the 

*A pancr read before the A 
Vork and ChicoKO, January 3, 1902 
"Proc. Roy. Soc, Vol. LXV.. p. 

Institute of Electrical Engineers, New 



Vol XXXIX.. Xu 

acetylene flame, but this statement does not seem to be entirely con- 
sistent with the known fact that platinum can readily be fused in the 
acetylene flame. 

The studies by Paschen and by Lummer of the theoretically "black" 
body has indicated a method by which a perfectly definite radiating 
surface can be secured, and it needs only a sufficiently accurate 
method of defining the temperature of such a surface to give us a 
standard of light. Since, however, the luminous radiation from such 
a surface increases as a high power of the temperature, a sufficiently 
accurate method of temperature definition cannot easily be found. 

Among the ordinary sources of light, the acetylene flame prob- 
ably approaches most nearly in color to the average hue. The ease 
with which this gas can be produced in a good degree of purity and 
the steadiness and manageability of its flame also commend it for 
use as a standard. Violle," Fessenden^ and Fery' have made inde- 
pendent propositions to this end, but no definite standard has yet 
been the outcome. 

Fessenden showed how a stable flat flame can be produced with 
this gas employing the method of the converging jets now in common 
use. He found the flame to be very steadj' and moderately immune 
from outside influences. Such a flat flame, with the light from its 
edges screened off, has been used very successfully by Professor 
Nichols' in his spectro-photometric investigations of the radiation of 
carbon. The flame was controlled by measurements of the pressure 
of the gas. 

The proposition of Fery looked to the use of a long, slender flame. 
He used a bit of thermometer tubing of internal diameter of 0.5 mm. 
as a jet. With this he found that the luminous intensity of the flame 
was proportional to the flame height between the limits of i cm. and 
2.5 cm., that is, he substituted for control by pressure measurements, 
control by measurement of the flame height. 

What is now known of the properties of the acetylene flame indi- 
cates that a search for the best method of producing and defining an 
invariable acetylene flame would be fruitful of valuable results. 

It has been proposed to employ as a standard flame one in which a 
pure gas burns under standard conditions in a pure atmosphere, both 
of known chemical composition. A practical method of burning pure 
acetylene in an atmosphere of pure oxygen has been found, as well 
as direct and interchecking -methods for the control of such a flame, 
but the investigation has not led to any definite result. 

Until a more satisfactory standard is introduced, photometrists are 
practically limited to the choice of either a pcntane standard or the 
Hefner lamp as primary standards. An incandescent lamp carefully 
seasoned and measured furnishes for most purposes a thoroughly 
satisfactory secondary standard, and we are looking forward to the 
time when the National Standardizing Bureau will establish an au- 
thoritative standard and will measure and will certify to lamps sent 
to them for this purpose. 

Boston Elevated Railway Company. 

With regard to the plant of this company, which includes the West 
End surface system. President Bancroft states in his annual report 
that during the year the company increased its motive power by put- 
ting into service two new engines of large size, each of 4050 hp, operat- 
ing a 2700-kw generator, at the Lincoln power station. Provision has 
been made for two other engines and generators of corresponding 
size, one at the Lincoln power station and one at the Charlcstown 
power station. When these are installed, the company will have a 
motive power of 55,316 hp or 36,944 kw, at normal capacity, capable 
of sustaining an overload of 15 per cent for hours, of S542kw in addi- 
tion, so that under stress the generators ought to supply power to 
the amount of 63,612 hp. The use of horses as the motive power for 
street cars was given up by the company on Dec. 24, 1900. Horses 
had been used to draw cars for nearly 45 years. 

Municipalization at Worcester, Mass. 

The committee of the Worcester Common Council appointed to in- 
vestigate the purchase of the local lighting company has now re- 
ported adversely. A very thorough study of the question was made, 
and the committee quotes a number of plants to show that the city 
could not better the service, and prices it is now enjoying from the 
company, some 17 cities being taken into consideration. 

^Complex Rctidus, Vol. 122, p. 70. 1806. 
'Trans., A.I.E.E., Vol. XII.. p. 500, 1895. 
*Comptcs Rendus. Vol. 126, p. 1192, 1898. 
^Physical Review. Aug. and Oct., 1901. 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 

A MOST successful meeting 
of the Institute was held 
in New York City on 
Jan. 3, starting off the new 
year very auspiciously, the 
general subject for discussion 
being methods of illumina- 
tion and units of light. A 
number of papers were pre- 
sented, of which note is made 
elsewhere in this issue. At 
least 250 members were pres- 
ent during the evening, and 
great interest was aroused by 
tlic display of tube lighting 
l>y Mr. Peter Cooper Hewitt, 
who had on view and in op- 
i-ralion six of his ordinary 
mercury vapor lamps. One 
>t these suspended vertically 
Mvcr the main entrance, was 
.111 object of great curiosity 
10 the passers-by. its gleam- 
ing white light being visible 
at a great distance. We have 
endeavored to present a view 
• it being the incandesccnts on 

FIG. I. — TfBE .»,T noORW.AV. 

seen bekn 

of it here, the dim light 
each side of the steps. 

Within the building the main meeting room was lit with five of 
the mercury arc tubes, as shown in one of the cuts herewith, one 
being hung vertically and the other four being bracketed horizontally 
around the sides of the library gallery. At times these were burned 
in company with the regular incandesccnts, but they were also run 
separately, and were in continuous use throughout the evening from 
8 until II P. M.. and lonsrer. It will be remembered that Mr. D. Mc- 

(E.\[>osurc of about is seconds.) 

Farlan Moore also has illuminated the same large room with his 
vacuum tubes, so that it is becoming quite historic for experiments 
of this kind. The picture we show of the tubes themselves is vir- 
tually an instantaneous photograph. The fine portrait of President 
Steinmetz was taken in about 12 to 15 seconds' exposure, and the 
result is very striking, as to its sharpness of definition, the photo- 
graph showing clearly the little vibration of the presidential cheroot 
when Mr. Steinmetz took a new bite on it as he called the meeting 
to order. The view of the other end of the room was of about equal 

January ii, igc2. 



exposure, and is not less sharp in its outline. Our photographer, 
who takes many thousand views a year for this and other public 
prints, remarked that the light, while very deficient in red rays, was 
remarkably revelatory and seemed to him to "get in under the sur- 
face" like the Rontgen ray, and he could only compare it with day- 
light. The tubes w-ere run on the regular direct-current Edison sys- 
tem, with the starting devices grouped on the platform. Mr. W. J. 
Hammer used tlie same de\ices to show up one or two of Mr. Edi- 


{Practically liisranlaneoiu.) 

son's fluorescent tubes, and e.xhihitcd also the weird effects of 
"radium," of which he had an infinitesnial quantity in a tube. In the 
dark, unexcited, the radium showed with curious phosphorescent 
gleam, and when the tube was wrapped by Mr. Hammer in cotton 
wool the whole mass — tube, wool and all — took on the same firefly 

At the council meeting in tlic afternoon the following were duly 
elected to associate membership : 

Amstutz, Noah Steiner, .^nislutz Osborn Coiupany, 27 Hillside 
Avenue, Cleveland Ohio; .\rmstrong. Samuel George, i Kimberlev 

(Exl>osiirc of about 12 seconds.) 

Villa, Harrington Street, Cape Town, South Africa; Arnold, Ches- 
ter Hastings, Assistant Engineer New York Telephone Company, 18 
Cortlandt Street, residence 241 East Eighteenth Street, New York 
City; Averrett, Andrew E., engineer, General Electric Company, 
Schenectady. N. Y. ; Erwin, Frank Bennett, demonstrator, Federal 
Instrument Company, 293 Clinton .Avenue. Albany, N. Y. ; Estes. 

Orange A., Central Union Telephone Company, Akron, Ohio; Everit, 
Edward Hotchkiss, superintendent of equipment, The So. N. E. 
Telephone Company, 641 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Conn. ; Fer- 
guson, Samuel, engineer. General Electric Company, Schenectady, 
N. Y. ; Fitzgerald, Thomas, Jr., superintendent, F. C. E. R. R. Com- 
pany, Fairmount, W. Va. ; Gray, Edward Wyllys Taylor, manager, 
New York sales office, Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Com- 
pany, 120 Broadway, New York City, residence Montclair, N. J. ; 
Hanks, Marshall Wilfred, engineer, Nernst Lamp Company, resi- 
dence Amber Club, Pittsburg, Pa. ; Henry, George Clinton, assistant 
to president. The Johnson Law Company, 51 West Forsythe Street, 
Jacksonville, Fla. ; Herzog, Josef, chief of installations department, 
Ganz & Co., V. Elisabetplatz i, Budapest, Hungary; Hillman, Harry 
W., General Electric Company, Schenectady. N. Y. ; Hutchinson, 
Rolin William, Jr., student, Polytechnic Institute, residence 302 Clin- 
ton Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Kerr, Samuel Ross, foreman in testing 
department. Triumph Electric Company, 610 Baymiller Street, resi- 
dence 616 West Eighth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio ; Kershner, Jefferson 
E., consulting engineer. The Lancaster R. & L. Company, Lancaster, 
Pa. : Kline, James Joseph, engineering student, Stanley Electric 
Manufacturing Company, residence Beech Grove Inn, Pittsfield, 
Mass. ; Lamb, Francis Joseph, electrical engineer. Lamb & Co., corner 
Kent and Lyon streets. Grand Rapids, Mich.; Layton, Gordon, elec- 
trical engineer, British Westinghouse E. & M. Company; residence 
48 Lancaster Park, Richmond, England, 327 Pitt Street, Wilkins- 
burg. Pa. ; Maxim, Hiram Percy, engineer, vehicle motor department, 
Westinghouse E. & M. Company, Pittsburg, Pa. ; McCarthy, Albion 
I-"uller, inspector New York Edison Company, 23 Manhasset Place, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Newell, Frank Clarence, consulting electrical engi- 
neer, Westinghouse Air Brake Company, residence 526 Wallace Ave- 
nue, Wilkinsburg, Pa. ; Pratt, William Hemmenway, designing engi- 
neer, General Electric Company, residence 60 Eastern Avenue, Lynn, 
Mass. ; Ramson, Allen Edward, engineer and salesman, W. E. & 
Mfg. Company, 314 Occidental Avenue, Seattle, Wash. ; Reilly, Harry 
Winne, J. G. White & Co., Monroe, Mich.; Shuster, John Wesley, 
nistructor in electrical engineering. University of Wisconsin, resi- 
dence 18 East Dayton Street, Madison, Wis. ; Szuk, Geza, chief engi- 
neer, Ganz & Co., residence Csalogany utcza 52 Budepast II, Hungary ; 
Taylor, Frank H,. Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, 
residence 7422 Penn Avenue, Pittsburg. Pa. ; Treat, Robert Belden, 
electrical engineer, Crocker-Wheeler Company, Ampere, N. J., resi- 
dence 43 South Tenth Street, Newark, N. J. ; Vankirk, Edward 
Power, electrical engineer, Westinghouse Air Brake Company, Eliza- 
beth, Pa. ; Webster, Walter Coates, assistant to fourth vice-president, 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, 120 Broadway, 
New York City; Whittemore, George W., engineer, Bel! Telephone 
Company, residence 24 W. Seneca Street, Buffalo, N. Y. ; Zurfluh, 
William Nicholas, superintendent. Home, Light, Power & Heat Com- 
pany, Room II, Arcade Building, Springfield, Ohio. 

The Everett-Moore Trolley System. 

The recent financial embarrassments of the Everett-Moore Syndi- 
cate have directed .special attention to this organization, which is 
more or less well known to our readers through frequent references 
in these columns in the recent past to its development. Latterly the 
syndicate has become largely interested in independent telephone 
properties, but its original undertakings were in electric railway 
work, and this is yet its principal business. 

The extensive railway system now controlled by the syndicate is 
located in the northwestern section of Ohio and the southeastern 
corner of Michigan, and is known as the Lake Shore Electric Rail- 
way, although the various constituent properties have names of their 
own. The rapid growth of this combination of railways, and the 
wide scope of its plans, constitute one of the most remarkable feat- 
ures of electric railway enterprise development. Combinations of 
this character are developing in many sections of the country, but 
none has attracted more widespread attention than this one has. 
Enterprises of this nature are usually conducted in the East with more 
or less conservatism, but in the West they are carried forward with 
a vigor that is refreshing, if hazardous. This is particularly true of 
the Everett-Moore Syndicate, which has attained much prominence 
in the financial and electric railway worlds. 

The extent of the Lake Erie Electric Railway's system is shown in 
the accoinpanying map. The system embraces the Cleveland Elec- 



\oL. XXXIX.. Xo. 

trie Railway Co., which controls about two-thirds of the Cleveland 
street railway system ; the Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern Railroad 
Co., which operates a suburban line from Cleveland to Painesville ; the 
Cleveland & Eastern Railway Co., operating a line between Cleveland 
and Chardon, Burton and Middlefield ; the Cleveland & Chagrin Falls 
Electric Railway, running between Cleveland and Chagrin Falls ; 
the Detroit United Railway, which is a consolidation of the entire 
street railway system of Detroit, and suburban electric railways from 
Detroit to Pontiac, Wyandotte. Trenton. Flint. Rninco. Rochester 








L »."'"" "^ 

ffcWMMtTCW fll"^ a ^'i 


») .y^ 






■^ ~'7JM^ 







V^eo^ORo 1~=^' 







and Orchard Lake; Detroit & Port Huron South Shore Line Railway 
Company, operating suburban roads between Detroit, Port Huron 
and Mt. Clemens, also the city lines in Port Huron and Mt. Clemens; 
the Lorain & Cleveland Railway, a suburban line between Cleveland 
and Lorain ; the Northern Ohio Traction Company, which is a con- 
solidation of all the street railway lines in Akron, suburban lines to 
Ravenna, Kent, Barberton, Cuyahoga Falls, Bedford and Cleveland, 
also the electric lighting plants in Akron and Barberton, and the 
Toledo Railways & Light Company, which includes the entire street 
railway system and every public lighting plant in the city of Toledo. 
The companies above-named are integral parts of the system, and all 
together the roads form a practically continuous line of electric rail- 
way from Painesville, on the east, to Toledo and beyond, on the west, 
and northward through Detroit to Port Huron over one branch and 
to Flint over another. As shown on the map, extensions from the ex- 
treme termini are projected eastward from Painesville to Ashtabula, 
and westward from Flint to Bay City, Mich. 

The following table shows the miles of track of the above-named 
companies, and is compiled from a circular recently issued by the 
Everett-Moore Syndicate: 

Company. Miles of Track. 

Cleveland Electric Railway Company 136 

Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern Railway Company. . 41 

Cleveland & Eastern Railway Company 45 

Cleveland & Chagrin Falls Electric Railway Company. 15 

Detroit United Railway 365 

Detroit & Port Huron Shore Line Railway Company. 106^-2 

Lorain & Cleveland Railway 24 

London (Ont.) Street Railway Company 28 

Northern Ohio Traction Company 89 

Toledo Railways & Light Company loi 

Total 9SOj4 

The above table includes the system of London, Ont., which was 
not included in the first list of roads for the reason that it is not a 
part of the main system, although it is controlled by the syndicate. 

It is now possible to travel continuously from Painesville to Toledo, 
a distance of about 140 miles, on the electric railways of the Everett- 
Moore syndicate. 

The total capitalization of the component roads of the Lake Shore 
Electric Railway is $47,000,000. From end to end, nearly 360 miles, 
it draws from a population of from 4,000,000 to 5,000,000 people. 

In a recent banquet of the Toledo Chamber of Commerce, Mr. 
Albion E. Lang, president of the Toledo Railways & Light Company, 
gave some interesting facts concerning the interests of the Everett- 
Moore Syndicate. The effect of the electric railways in Cleveland, 
he said, was shown in the case of the Hollenden Hotel, which had to 
build two additional stories because of the growth of patronage due 
to electric roads. Traveling men now take the cars to the surround- 
ing small towns, transact their business and return to the city for the 
night. What is true in Cleveland is true elsewhere. He stated further 
that the company's engineers are now engaged in the preparation of 
the plans for what will be the largest power house in the world. It 
will be located in the coal belt of Ohio, and it will utilize refuse coal. 
Its energy will reach out 100 miles in several directions. Other 
power houses will then be dismantled, only central plants being re- 
tained, one each in Detroit, Toledo and Cleveland. It will be a zone 
system, the big houses feeding in a measure on the others. Economy 
in this way means reduced charges on passenger traffic. 

Electro-Chemical Patents of the Week. 

The final patent issue of the year comprises a number of interest- 
ing processes and devices relating to widely different branches of the 
general subject of electro-chemistry. 


Isaiah L. Roberts, of Brooklyn, proposes to form this compound 
by supporting a body of commingled lime and carbon in the angle 
between two plate electrodes, pivotally supported at their upper ends, 
and brought into arcing distance below by adjusting screws. The 
claims are restricted to a mode of manipulating the current whereby 
the carbide is fused as formed and caused to drop away from the 
electrodes. The application upon which this patent issued was filed 
early in i8g6, before the lack of economy and loss of efficiency by 
complete fusion of the carbide were fully established. 


Edward Leslie Graham, of Upper Warlingliam. England, suggests 
a method of elcctrolytically comminuting ores preparatory to mechan- 
ical concentration by known mean? — a method which seems to depend 

ELECTRIC .\.\1,\1 

largely on the i-rrl-.anical elTccl of the gases liberated al the electrodes. 
The solution u.'cd is dilute sulphuric acid, to which hydrofluoric acid 
or fluor-spar n-ay be added. The ores arc immersed in (he liquid and 
the current transmitted. A method practically identical with this 
save rs regards the specific electrolyte emplnycd has Ineu heretofore 
patented in England. While it is conceivable that the liberated gases 
and the heat devclopid by a heavy current might rapidly break down 
certain ores, and that the presence of hydrofluoric acid might .lid 
,thc process as applied to a siliceous gangue, it is evident that the 
method is by no means of general applicability. 

An electric amalgamator patented to Vicente Pazos y Sacio. of 
Peru, is in essential respects the device patented in England nearly 20 

January ii, 1902. 


years ago by Donkin, a device which was the precursor of the Castner 
alkali cell. Referring to the accompanying illustration, an electro- 
lytic cell I, containing an anode 4 and diaphragm 2, communicates 
through pipes 5, 6, with the amalgamating vat 7, mounted centrally 
within which is the agitator 9, 10, 11, with helical blades disposed to 
effect a circulation of the ore in the direction indicated by the ar- 
rows. A body of mercury fills the lower reduced portion of the vat 
and the bottom of the electrolytic cell, and is kept in circulation be- 
tween the two by the movement of the blades 10. In operation the 
vat 7 is filled, above the mercury, with ore pulp and dilute cyanide 
solution, and the porous cup 2 with a solution of sodium chloride. 
Under the action of the current sodium amalgam is formed in the 
smaller cell and at once transferred to contact with the ore, where it 
serves to amalgamate such free gold as may be present, and to reduce 
from its solution the metal which has been dissolved in the cyanide. 


The natural phosphates, as the mineral apatite, the coprolites, and 
the phosphate rocks, consist largely of the tri-basic phosphate of 
calcium, the immediate plant-food value of which is slight. By treat- 
ment by acids or acid salts this tri-basic salt passes into the mono and 
dibasic compounds, the former soluble in water, and the latter, to 

of this character, the electrolyte must be fed in with absolute imi- 
formity, and this is the object of the improvement now patented. It 
is accomplished by using an anode of such size and shape as nearly 
to fill the inverted bell, and feeding the electrolyte by means of a dis- 
tributor over its upper submerged surface. The fresh electrolyte, in 
passing downward through the narrow spaces around the anode and 
through perforations in the latter, meets the rising chlorine bubbles, 
and is thereby thoroughly commingled, yet with the minimum of agi- 
tation, with the exhausted liquor, maintaining the necessary uni- 
formity of its composition. Recent measurements have indicated a 
surprisingly high efficiency for cells of this character, and it is not 
beyond the range of probability that this or a similar cell may success- 
fully enter the commercial field. 

New Telephone Patents. 

To the last issue of the Patent Office of the year just closed tele- 
phony contributes four patents, all of them of substantial interest to 
the art of telephony, party line systems, freak receivers and telephonic 
relays for once being entirely absent. Mr. Francis W. Dunbar, of 
Chicago, patents and assigns to the Kellogg Switchboard & Supply 


r I 




Diagram of Circuits of the Dunbar Telephone Swijxhboard. 

some extent at least, in the soil moisture. Lewis Cheescman, of 
Alexandria, Va., proposes to acceler?te this conversion by the use of 
a strong electric current. The solvent used is acid sodium sulphate 
(nitre-cake), and there seems to be no doubt that the current very 
materially increases its solvent effect, probably owing to the concen- 
tration of the SOi ions in the neighborhood of the anode. The effect 
would probably be even more strongly marked were the phosphate 
confined to the anode compartment of the cell. 


Wilhelm Gintl, of Aussegg, Bohemia, patents an interesting modi- 
fication of the well-known Richardson-Holland electrolytic cell. The 
anodes are contained in inverted bells, which the cathodes surround. 
No diaphragm is used, but for preventing intermingling of the caustic 
and chlorinated solutjons dependance is placed upon their widely dif- 
fering specific gravities. It is clear that to maintain a stratification 

Coinpany a switchboard system in which the principal feature is a 
relay for switching the line from the line signal to the answering 
jack, and which is an improvement on his previous .system of the 
same order. This invention also provides an improved form of test 
for multiple switchboard systems, the additional contact usually pro- 
vided on the spring jack for testing purposes being dispensed with, 
and one of the line contacts being used for the test terminal. 

When the line is not in use, the line contact of the spring jack is 
disconnected from the portions of the limbs of the line extending to 
the sub-station, and is disconnected from the individual indi- 
cator and the central station circuits. The line contact of the spring 
jack is thus free from all extraneous currents or sources of electricity 
that might impart a difference of potential when not in use. Ac- 
cordingly, no false test can be given, and the line contact may be used 
as a test terminal. 

In the diagram Fig. i shows two subscribers' lines and the central 


Vol. XXXIX., No. 2. 

office connecting circuits. Fig. 2 shows the lest circuit. Fig. 3 shows 
the relay preferably employed, and Fig. 4 illustrates one end of the 
relay with the armature attracted. 

Referring to Fig. i the sub-station lines normally connect with the 
line signal and ground by reason of the springs o' a^ in which the 
lines terminate, being normally in contact with I and 2, and so con- 
nected through line signal c through battery r to ground on the one 
side, and to the common ground by wire 6 on the other. The two 
W'ircs, s' and f, of the calling plug o, are connected to a repeating 
coil w, having two coils, zif and w*, between which is inserted a bat- 
tery r^. The calling plug in the same way is connected to windings 
V.'' vf, with battery r. One pole of each battery is connected to 
ground. In the cord strands t and j are included, the windings /i' h' 
of a relay h, and in the strands t' and s^, the windings t' and k' of 
relay k are included. When the battery current for talking traverses 
the coils of these relays they neutralize each other and are inert; 
when a circuit is made from the ground through battery r" along 
strand ^, coil k', sleeve o" and line a' to ground at the sub-station (by 
the replacement of the receiver on the hook), the relay is energized 
and the disconnection signal r' is displayed. 

The relay b is constructed so that it will respond to alternating as 
well as to continuous currents, the armatures being mounted so that 
they are withdrawn from the relay poles by gravity. The withdrawal 
of the armatures is thus sluggish, and upon the passage of an alter- 
nating current a succeeding alternation will magnetize the core and 
cause it to grasp the armature before it has had time to be withdrawn. 
.As shown in Fig. 3 the armatures &' b' are pivoted at b^ V, respec- 
tively, so that the weight of the armatures serves to withdraw them 
from the core. The armatures are provided with arms 6° &', adapted 
to engage springs a' a^ When the relay is inert b^ holds a" in en- 
gagement with contact i, and b" holds a' in engagement with contact 
2. When the armatures are attracted fc^ and b" allow a" and a' to en- 
gage contacts 4 and 5. 

When a subscriber, say. A, lifts his receiver from the hook line 
signal c is energized by battery r". When the operator plugs in relay 
b is energized by battery r and the line is switched irom the line sig- 
nal contacts to the jack contacts by the closing of a^ 0^ on 4 and 5. 
The same occurs with the second line on the insertion of the calling 
plug o in the jack of the second line. During conversation the bat- 
tery r supplies subscriber A and the battery r^ subscriber B, talking 
currents being transmitted by the windings of repeating coil w. 
When the operator rings B the battery r" is cut off by the ringing 
key, but relay b is in bridge with the generator, and being responsive 
to alternating currents maintains the line in connection with the jack. 
In testing for "busy" the operator touches the tip of plu.g to the 
rim of the jack in the usual way; if the line is idle the jack is totally 
disconnected, and there can be no signal. If the line is engaged, as 
shown in Fig. 2, the line springs of all the jacks are charged to a dif- 
ference of potential relative to the ground. When the operator 
touches plug-tip 0' to jack-sleeve d' the current from battery r' finds 
a path through o', strand /' and winding jf' of repeating coil to ground. 
The closing and opening of the circuit caused by touching the tip 0' 
to the sleeve and the removal of the same therefrom causes a current 
of self-induction from winding w' to traverse the local circuit, in- 
cluding the windings v/' and w*, and the receiver of the operator's 
telephone, and the induced currents thus produce the click in the 
operator's receiver which indicates to her that the line is busy. 

Mr. James L. McQuarric, of Chicago, patents and assigns to the 
Western Electric Company an improved test circuit for multiple 
switchboards. This is designed to prevent th» production of a false 
busy test, which, under certain conditions, may occur in the com- 
mon battery system through current from the central source return- 
ing through the circuit of the calling line and changing the electrical 
condition of the testing plug. In such an event the operator would 
be supplying from within, as it were, what she ought only to get from 
without, and would herself be causing a line, which might be free, to 
test busy — a very annoying defect, and one most detrimental to good 
service. Mr. McQuarrie applies a remedy by so arranging listening 
key and repeating coil that the tip conductors of the two plugs are not 
continuous while the test is being made, consequently no false test 
can occur through one plug supplying the other with current. 

An interesting development of the use of ten-party lines is the in- 
vention of a time-regulated ringing key for mechanically sending 
signals over party lines where the call for each station is distinguished 
by the number of rings given. Since the use of these ten-party lines 
has been more largely developed in California than in any other part 

of the country, this invention most appropriately hails from San 
Francisco, and is due to the ingenuity of Mr. Frank W. Alston. As 
might be e.xpected, it is a fairly complicated device, and one, since it 
would be so constantly in use, that would have to be very strongly 
made to give the required performance without frequently getting 
out of order. It is difficult to do justice to such a complicated piece 
of mechanism in an abstract, but briefly put, the time-regulated ring- 
ing key consists of a plunging key, a selector which is set to give the 
required number of signals, and which releases the depressed key 
when the determined number of signals has been given, and a con- 
tact sector with a clockwork-driven contact brush that connects the 
generator to the connecting cord at fixed intervals as long as the 
plunger is depressed. 

In using the key the operator turns the plunger until the pointer 
shows that the selector has been set to allow of the proper number 
of rings being given and then depresses the key. If, say, 3 rings are 
required the selector pointer is set at 3, and this causes the plunger 
to; be released when three rings have been given by the contact brush 
coming in contact with a segment that has been connected by the 
selector for the purpose of energizing the releasing magnet. 

An ingeniously worked out telephone meter is patented by Mr. 
Henry A. Holdrege, of Chicago. One difficulty with a meter auto- 
matically operated by the action of inserting the answering plug in 
the answering jack is that the call so registered is so far merely a call 
and not a message. The call may never become a completed message 
because the second subscriber may be busy or may not answer. This 
occurs sufficiently often to render a meter operated by the answering 
plug practically useless. Mr. Holdrege's meter operates only when 
the connection is completed, the last step in the registration taking 
place when the connection is broken. 

The meter does not begin to register until the called subscriber 
takes down his receiver and does not complete the operation until the 
connection is taken down. Moreover, the meter will register a unit 
only without regard to the duration of the connection. The meter 
will not meet all points that arise in telephone traffic, but in post- 
poning registration until the two stations are in communication, Mr. 
Holdrege's has scored a distinct point. Whether the unbalanced cir- 
cuit that results from the insertion of a relay in one leg of the line 
will offer serious inconvenience is a question that experience will 

GeneralfGreely on Wireless Telegraph Matters. 

With regard to the adoption of wireless telegraphy by the United 
States Government services, General Greely says : "The system has its 
limitations, which are not entirely dependent on distance. For ex- 
ample, we wanted to lay a cable between a point on the Connecticut 
coast and Gardiners Island. I was asked by the members of the 
appropriations committee whether it would not be cheaper to establish 
a wireless system between these tw-o points. I showed that as far as 
simply establishing that plant was concerned it would be cheaper to 
put up the wireless systems than to lay the cable, but when it came 
to operating the systems. I showed that the cable was the cheaper of 
the two. In wireless telegraphy you have to have two experienced 
electricians, one at each station, and they must have assistants. With 
the cable you can put in two long-distance telephones, and anybody 
can use them who is able to turn the magneto crank. While it costs 
more to lay the cable, yet in this case we found that it would be 
cheaper in the end than the wireless system." 

General Greely has received recently a very interesting report from 
Signal Corps Sergeant F. E. Peters at San Francisco as follows, on 
the plant in the harbor there : 

"The stations in operation in this harbor have been working uni- 
formly and satisfactorily each day, thus proving that so far as the 
transmission of messages is concerned, the system is an absolute 
success. It lacks speed as compared with wire lines and is only 
capable of dispatching accurately 15 words per minute. There seems 
to be no limit in sending, but the speed is lost in the receiving in- 
strument. There are many conditions under which it could be used, 
but in nearly every case it would merely intrude upon a field which 
could be easily covered by telephone or telegraph lines. The following 
defects have come under my notice: First, the apparatus needs con- 
densing and simplifying; second, a lack of speed, compared with land 
lines ; third, the inability of an operator to break or interrupt another ; 
fourth, the lack of secrecy in regard to matter being handled ; fifth, 
the impossibility of operating more than one set of instruments in 

January ii, 1902. 



an office ; sixth, the impossibility of operating more than one system 
within the limits of its range. 

"The first three defects seem entirely within our ability to over- 
come. The fourth is that we cannot prevent our system from being 
tapped, except by the adoption of a secret code. The fifth and sycth 
objections, as far as I can see, must remain witli us unless our knowl- 
edge of syntonizing arrangements be advanced materially." 

Automatically Closing Bulkhead Doors. 

By invitation of President Schwab, of the North German Lloyd 
Steamship Company, a party was entertained on board the steamship 
"Kronprinz Wilhelm" on Friday, Jan. 3. The occasion was the first 
public exhibition of the Dorr system of safety doors in bulkheads of 
steamships, and after a thorough inspection of the apparatus the 
guests were entertained at luncheon. For a number of years, the 
steamship line has been investigating devices which would insure 
the greatest amount of safety to its vessels in case of collision, and 
after a number of most extensive and costly experiments it has in- 
troduced the present system on a few of its boats, and intends placing 
it on all of the rest. The doors slide in vertical ways, and are closed 
automatically by hydraulic pressure from an operating wheel on the 
bridge behind the pilot house, and the system is applied to the 19 or 
20 bulkhead doors below the water line. In order to operate the 
wheel on the bridge, a trip lever has to be elevated out of the way, and 
by an ingenious ratchet arrangement, it requires some 20 seconds be- 
fore the wheel is free to turn. While the lever is being moved elec- 
tric bells are sounded at every door, giving warning for about 20 
seconds before the doors begin to close slowly from the action of the 
hydraulic cylinder. The doors can be closed by hand, independently 
of the hydraulic apparatus, and a lever is provided at each door by 
which it can be made to drop into its closed position almost instantly. 
An ingenious system of electric signals has been adopted in connec- 
tion with the doors all over the ship. In the pilot house is a large 
diagram, showing all the decks, and at each point where there is a 
bulkhead door a small bull's-eye is placed. Behind these bull's-eyes 
are signal lamps connected to switches at the doors in such a manner 
that whenever a door is closed the lamp is lighted. In this way the 
oflScer on watch has the position of the bulkhead doors throughout 
the entire ship directly under his eye. A complete fire-alarm system 
is also included in the equipment of the "Kronprinz Wilhelm," with 
stations located in all parts of the steamer. The signal boxes are 
similar to those found on land, a glass pane having to be broken to 
set the alarm in action. An annunciator in the pilot house shows the 
location from which the alarm is sent in. 

Mr. Carnegie's National Institute. 

Some details have already been given in these pages as to the plans 
of Mr. Andrew Carnegie for founding a new educational institution 
at Washington. In accordance with the desires of Mr. Carnegie, a 
corporation known as the Carnegie Institution has been formed in 
Washington for the purpose of holding in trust the $10,000,000 
which he will give to found a national university. The certificate 
of incorporation, filed with the Recorder of Deeds, is signed by John 
Hay, Secretary of State ; Edwin D. White, Justice of the United 
States Supreme Court ; Daniel C. Oilman, former president of Johns 
Hopkins University ; Charles D. Walcott, superintendent of the 
United States Geological Survey ; John S. Billings, former Surgeon 
General of the United States Navy, and Carroll D. Wright, Commis- 
sioner of Labor. 

The certificate placed on record sets forth that the incorporators 
desire to establish in the city of Washington an institution for prose- 
cuting original research in science, literature and art. The corpora- 
tion is empowered to acquire, hold and convey real estate and other 
property, and to establish general and specific funds; to conduct, en- 
dow and assist investigation in any department of science, literature 
or art, and to this end to co-operate with governments, universities, 
colleges, technical schools, learned societies and individuals; to ap- 
point commissions of experts to direct special lines of research; to 
publish and distribute documents, to conduct lectures, to hold meet- 
ings and to acquire and maintain a library. 

The significance of the incorporation is that the government is re- 
lieved from becoming trustee of the Carnegie fund, whether it takes 
the form of steel bonds or Ur»'ted States securities. 

The Grounding of High Potential Circuits. 

At the joint meeting the Chicago Electrical Association and the 
-American Institute of Electrical Engineers held at Chicago Jan. 3, 
John D. Nies, instructor in electrical engineering at Lewis Institute, 
presented a short paper on the "Grounding of High- Voltage Cir- 
cuits." The paper was a mathematical discussion of the practice of 
grounding the neutral point of a three-phase transmission line when 
the transformers are connected Y fashion. The paper was sug- 
gested by calculations recently made by Mr. Nies to determine whether 
the practice of grounding the neutral point of certain transmission 
lines introduced any greater element of danger to insulation or to per- 
sons. The conclusions reached in the paper were that in the ma- 
jority of ordinary conditions where there is capacity in the lines to 
any appreciable amount, the grounding of the neutral point is a prac- 
tice which affords less danger from leaks to earth and from shocks 
than the practice of leaving the netitral not grounded. Each case 
must, of course, be calculated, but in the great majority of cases 
which come up in practice the condenser capacity of the transmis- 
sion lines is sufficient so that the danger from shocks and tendency 
to leak from one wire to the ground is greater with a non-grounded 
neutral. This is, of course, due to the capacity of the lines. Mr. 
Nies considered first a single-phase circuit with the middle point of 
the transformer grounded, and then a three-phase circuit with the Y 
connection of transformers. The relation between any two wires and 
ground is that of two condensers in series, the line wires forming 
two plates of the condenser and the ground the third plate. Mr. 
Nies' calculations on a number of cases showed that the current 
flowing through a person or other leak to ground would be greater 
and the effective voltage would be greater with the neutral point not 


TRANS-ALPINE TELEPHONE L/.V£.— The telephone systems 
of France and Italy are now connected by means of a trans-alpine tele- 
phone line, which was inaugurated on Jan. I. Signor Galimberti, 
Italian Minister of Posts and Telegraphs, exchanged greetings from 
Turin with President Loubet at Paris. 

PARIS METROPOLITAN.— A cable dispatch from Paris of Jan. 
4 says : The extension of the Metropolitan Underground Electric 
Road has encountered unexpected difficulties. A new section from 
the Etoile to the Place du Trone, passes under the catacombs. The 
line will have to be carried much lower down before a firm roofing 
can be safely built. Its completion will probably be retarded for an 
indefinite time. 

TRAIN LIGHTS. — A telegram from Chicago of Jan. 4 says : 
Train dispatchers of the country want all possibility of collisions re- 
moved by doing away with the present system of train orders that 
can be misinterpreted and signals that may be unseen. Instead of 
these methods it is proposed to substitute colored electric lights in 
the engine cab, signals that always can be seen and never can be 
misunderstood. This system of movable blocks or lights in engine 
cabs is being installed on the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad. 
The experiment will be watched with intertst by railroad men 
throughout the country. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAYS IN OHIO.—]. C. Morris, State Rail- 
road Commissioner, has filed with Governor Nash a complete report 
of the status of railroads in Ohio for the year ending Nov. 15. A 
portion of the report was devoted to electric railways. Mr. Morris 
states that the history of electric railways in Ohio began with the 
incorporation on July 30, 1889, of the Soldiers' Home Electric Rail- 
way, operating from Dayton to the National Soldiers' Home, near 
that city. During the year ending Nov. 15, lOOl, 96 electric railway 
companies were incorporated, with total capital stock of $24,361,000. 
On May 1 there were 63 operating companies in the state with 1,818.16 
miles of line, an amount equal to one-fifth of the total steam mileage 
of the State. For 1900 the Ohio roads reported to the State .A.uditot. 
total gross earnings of $11,301,172, while for igoi the figures were 
$13,582,851, a gain of 20.18 per cent. 



Vol. XXXIX., No. 2. 

Government proposes to connect Algiers and Timbuctoo by wireless 

DR. F. A. C. PERRINE will lecture before the New York Elec- 
trical Society, at the College of the City of New York, on Jan. 15, 
his subject being water power conditions and electric power trans- 
mission on the Pacific Coast. Dr. Perrine is an authority in this 
field, and has lately returned from a personal investigation of work 
in the Far West. His lecture will be freely illu.strated with lantern 
slides, and will doubtless be one of the best of the season. 

CONDITIONS OF RAILWAY TRAVEL.— .\s a result of the 
withdrawal of exchange passes by Eastern lines, traveling passenger 
agents on Western roads in New England are to use every effort to 
travel as little as possible over the railways and use the trolley lines 
whenever it is possible, in preference to the railroads. At a meeting 
in Chicago last week between General Manager Delano and the prin- 
cipal passenger officials of the Burlington system in the East, they 
were instructed to reduce traveling expenses to a minimum and to 
use the mails, telephones and telegraph whenever possible, if business 
can be secured, instead of paying railway fares from point to point. 

IRELAND-AZORES CABLE.— Consul Thackara reports from 
Havre, Dec. 5, 1901, that the Commercial Cable Company, of New 
York, has laid a new submarine cable between Horta, Island of 
Fayal, Azores, and Waterville, Ireland. The shore connections at 
the latter place were successfully made on Nov. 30. This cable, says 
the consul, is an extension of that laid by the same company in 1900, 
and increases to four the number of cables operated by the Commer- 
cial Company between Canso and Waterville. As Havre is connected 
by a submarine cable w-ith Waterville, the direct-telegraph service 
with New York will be benefited by the new cable. Note of this cable 
has already been made in our pages. 

FRENCH AUTOMOBILISM.—ll is stated from Paris that Mile. 
Chossegros, who left $400,000 to the Societe Protectrice des Animaux, 
made provision for ihe creation of an automobile van for removing 
injured horses from the street. The society has opened a competition 
among automobile constructors for the new ambulance, which is to 
cost $4,000, Baron dc Zuylen having the project in charge. The 
Automobile Club has inaugurated an auxiliary membership, consti- 
tuting a kind of annex for modest chaufifeurs whose wealth and sta- 
tion are not important enough to secure regular membership. The 
new members pay $4 a year, and will have a room reserved for their 
use in which lectures and technical conferences will be held. 

MARCONI IN CANADA.— Mr. Marconi has been at Ottawa, 
Canada, during the present week in conference with the officials of 
the Dominion Department of Marine. The negotiations appear to 
deal with the utilization for wireless telegraphy of Sable Island, 
known as the "graveyard of the Atlantic," on account of the number 
of wrecks that have occurred there. A dispatch from Ottawa of 
Jan. 5 says : "It need surprise nobody if, as a result of Signor Mar- 
coni's visit to the Department of Marine, Sable Island, the scene of 
.so many shipwrecks, is chosen as a Government station for trans- 
mitting warning signals to the throng of steamers that continually 
cross and recross the Atlantic within a comparatively short distance 
of its treacherous shores." 

from Philadelphia the announcement is made that work will soon 
begin on the construction of an elevated railway on Market Street, 
in that city, from the Delaware River to Sixty-third Street. It is 
expected to have the road in operation by the first of January next, 
if there is no delay in the delivery of structural steel. The road is 
to be of the modern construction, and will be operated on the third- 
rail system. It is further stated that elevated roads will be ultimately 
constructed on Woodlawn Avenue, Broad Street and. other ihnrough- 
farcs. It is the intention to connect the stations of the Philadelphia 
& Reading and the Pennsylvania Railway companies with the Market 
Street elevated. It is intimated that Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan is in- 
terested in the enterprise, and that he is financing the scheme. 

DINNER TO MR. MARCONI.— Learning that Mr. G. Marconi 
would pass through this city on his way to England within the next 
few days, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, with com- 
mendable energy and judgment, telegraphed to Canada, inviting him 
to be the Institute's guest at the annual dinner which usually takes 
place this month. Mr. Marconi has accepted this honor in a cordial 
response from Ottawa, where he has been in consultation with the 
Government. He arrives in New York Saturday to sail for Eng- 
land on Wednesday, and the dinner committee have, therefore, chosen 
Monday, Jan. 13, at 7 P. M., in the Astor Gallery of the Waldorf 
•Astoria. The price of tickets, which can now be obtained from 
Secretary Pope, is $4, without wine, and in response to the very 
general inquiry and request, ladies will also attend and participate. 
A large gathering is indicated for this most interesting occasion, and 
it is expected that President Steinmetz will preside, .\mong the 
speakers will be Professor Elihu Thomson, Dr. M. I. Pupin and other 
well-known gentlemen. 

Letters to the Editors. 

Theory of the Edison Nickel-Iron Cell. 

To the Editors of Electrical World and Engineer: 

Sirs. — I regret that other important work has precluded my doing 
the requisite experimental work to reply before this date to the 
article of Dr. Roeber in your issue of Dec. 7, in which Dr. Roeber 
criticises my brief discussion of the electro-chemical theory of the 
nickel-superoxide-caustic potash-spongy-iron accumulator, common- 
ly called the Edison storage battery. I read the article with interest 
and surprise, for I failed to comprehend how any one with such a 
knowledge of physical chemistry as Dr. Roeber shows he possesses 
in his able analysis of reversible electrodes should have misquoted 
and misunderstood any person in the manmr that he has misquoted 
and misunderstood me. 

I said in my article that />> and />: represent the "aqueous tension" 
of the solutions. Dr. Roeber says that "what is meant by 'aqueous 
tension' is not clear, but he evidently means osmotic pressure." 
Aqueous tension of a solution can only mean one thing, the "vapor- 
pressure" of the water, causing it to leave the solution in the gaseous 
form, with a resultant concentration of the solution. Any chemist 
can understand this and only this in the phrase "aqueous tension." 
( Dampfspannung. ) 

It is quite difTcrent from osinotic pressure ("Osmotischer druck"). 
This latter registers the tendency of the solute to leave the solution 
in the form of solid, or liquid, or gas, with a resultant diminution of 
the solution. Osmotic pressure and aqueous tension are. it is true, 
both pressures and both usually measured in millimeters of quick- 
silver, but they arc opposite in action and as different as the poles of 
a magnet. 

The formula for the difference of the e. m. f. of two cells of the 
type 3/ I M Ox I K O N j N.^ j P T\s derived as follows: 

The chemical reaction is kt -f-A/'-f — ,j — \- K O H=2M ■\- 



'Ph^."'^ P, 

K O H, where fio is the very small oxygen dissociation pressure of the 
oxide in millimeters ^.^,' ph the pressure of Hi, usually 760 milli- 
meters ; Hg, p the aqueous tension of the solution measured in milli- 
metres of Hg. Accordingly pa and ph are independent of the con- 
centration of the K O H, as can be seen readily. 

On passing 96,540 coulombs of electricity through two of these 
cells of different concentration connected positive to positive, the 
net change that takes place is the formation of 9 grams of water in 
the concentrated cell, and the disappearance of 9 grams in the cell with 
dilute electrolyte. The combination of the metal with the oxygen in 
the first cell and the dissociation of the oxide in the second cell as 
they take place at nearly the same pressures, balance each other and 
cannot evolve any electrical energy. 

We have merely transferred water from one pressure /■■ to water 
at another pressure p7, assuming that the cells are so large that the 
concentrations of their electrolytes are not affected materially by the 
change. As the cell is reversible, the energy given out in external 
work, ill overcoming the electrical resistance of the circuit (in other 
words, the free energy or potential of the system), is equal to the 
work which would be done in distilling at constant temperature 9 
grams of water from p^ to pi. 

January ii, igo2. 



Expressing the above mathematically in the proper units we have 
f 1 — '2 = 0.029 log ^2~ ■^°'ts. 

The above formula I have tested experimentally in the cases of 
cuprous oxide, cupric oxide, electrolytic cobalt peroxide and electro- 
lytic nickel peroxide, .^s the theoretical differences are in the milli- 
volts, the limits of experimental error are such that the verification 
was not as close as could be desired. 

The e. m. f. of cells of the type U;'K O H/M Ox, or "oxygen 
lifts," are also nearly independent of the concentration. The free 
energy of the process is the same because the solvent plays no part 
in the reaction. As was remarked in the previous article, the lead 
accumulator requires a different formula because both the electrodes 
react with the solvent. The free energy of the reaction Pb + Pb Oi 
+ 2H2S Oi — 2Pb S 0, + 2HM, varies greatly with the concentra- 
tion of the electrolyte, consequently the voltage varies considerably 
with the concentration of the electrolyte. This is brought out clearly 
in Dr. Dolezalek's book, "Die Theorie des Bleiaccumulators," p. 34 
ct seq. WooLSEY McA. Johnson. 

Hartford, Conn. 

Safety of Consumers and Grounding of Secondaries. 

To the Editors of Electrical World and Engineer: 

Sirs. — It appears to me that the attention of the electric lighting in- 
terests of this country should again be called to the recurrence at 
various intervals of serious accidents to electric light consumers in 
the way of shocks received from supposedly harmless low-tension in- 
candescent lighting circuits run as secondaries from transformers 
fed by high-tension alternating current. These shocks are due, of 
course, to leaks from the primary to the secondary coils of a trans- 
former or to crosses of high and low-tension overhead wires. There 
is undoubtedly considerable negligence in this respect in many quar- 
ters, when it is considered how easy it is to make low tension secon- 
dary circuits and lamp sockets connected thereto perfectly harmless 
to the lives of those handling them. The precaution of grounding the 
secondary circuits at some point or putting in some equivalent auto- 
matic device makes it impossible to have a dangerous potential be- 
tween any part of the circuit and ground. This is an absolute safe- 
guard against loss of life from contact with such low-tension circuits. 

The practice heretofore in this country has generally been not to 
ground the secondaries. This was formerly due partly to a harmful 
conservatism on the part of the underwriters, but mainly to the 
theory inherited from the early days of alternating-current distribu- 
tion that transformer primaries and secondaries never become crossed 
and that hence there could be no danger. Every one who operates 
an alternating-current lighting plant knows how far it is from true 
that transformers never become defective so that there is a leak be- 
tween coils. While it is true that this is not of frequent occurence 
that very fact makes it the more dangerous when it does occur, be- 
cause it is unlooked for. Furthermore, the general public has a 
right to expect and does e.xpect that all wires within reach will be 
absolutely harmless at all times. Safe they cannot be with a leak 
between primary and secondary transformer coils unless the secon- 
dary is grounded, because there is always sufficient leak between the 
primary distribution system and ground to make it uncomfortable for 
any one who puts himself between primary and ground. That more 
accidents do not occur from the numerous defective transformers 
that are taken down every year is due simply to the fact that no one 
happens to make a sufficiently low resistance path with his body be- 
tween secondary and ground in the majority of cases. In the re- 
maining minority of cases there is a call either for a doctor or a 
coroner, depending on the ohmic resistance of the path. 

While the decision of the courts in damage suits resulting from 
such cases may not entirely agree up to date, owing to a misty under- 
standing of technical matters in the judicial mind, it is manifest that 
in the end electric lighting companies will be held liable for damages 
from shocks received in this way in all cases, and the electric light- 
ing companies of the country will be wise to take cognizance of the 
possible dangers and apply the remedy. 

That there are some small objections to grounding the secondaries 
does not justify not doing so when it is a case of protection of hu- 
man life, especially when it is considered how frequently transformers 
have in.sulation punctured during lightning storms without any one's 
knowledge. One argument against grounding secondaries is that in 
■case the transformer becomes defective the fuses will blow and cut 

off the service. Wlien a transformer is leaky it is high time that the 
service be cut off before some one is hurt, and the only practical 
way to find out the dangerous condition immediately upon its occur- 
rence is to ground the secondary. Again it is argued that with the 
secondaries grounded the insulation in the transformer is put under 
greater strain. The answer to this is that when the primary insula- 
tion is so weak to groimd that it needs the help of the secondary in- 
sulation to help it out it is so near a point of breakdown that the 
small increased life gained by the absence of a ground on the sec- 
ondary is not worth the risk. Whatever objections may be urged, it 
can be taken for granted that they received due consideration from 
the committee of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers 
charged with the investigation of the subject, the report of which 
committee favoring grounding was adopted by the Institute, and, we 
believe, indorsed by the Underwriters' Association. 
Chicago, III. Chas. T. Dashiell. 

Conditions of Money Order Telephony. 

To the Editors of Electrical World and Engineer: 

Sirs. — I have read with much interest the opinions presented in 
your issues of Dec. 7 and 14 in regard to the telephone money order 
system. The great difficulty in such a system seems to be the proper 
identification of the persons sending the order, to insure the com- 
pany against loss. 

What I want to suggest is a little instrument that we might call 
an "identifier," that would identify the party sending the order be- 
yond any doubt. By the use of this little instrument we obviate all, 
or nearly all, of the difficulties connected with sending money by tele- 
phone, especially those difficulties pointed out in your editorial of 
Dec. 14. It would not be necessary to have a. special money order 
wire, as some suggested, nor would the publicity of the telephone be 
any disadvantage whatever, as only the proper parties could be 

This little instrument could very easily be made to give forth 
sounds into the transmitter of the sending telephone, that could be 
instantly recognized, but would be impossible to imitate without the 
little instrument itself. The sound-producing part of the instrument 
would best be made on the principle of the phonograph, or some other 
form of the talking machine, i. e., a record and a reproducing mech- 
anism or diaphragm. The sound-producing part or record should 
be made interchangeable, similar to the interchangeable record of the 
phonograph. It could be made to reproduce any combination of 
words, sentences, musical notes or any imaginable combination of 
sounds. As the record need contain only a few words or sounds, the 
whole machine could be made very small and compact. It could be 
made as a part of the telephone instrument or could be made very 
compact and portable to be carried in the pocket. 

The principal parts of the "identifier" are : An interchangeable 
record ; a speaking diaphragm ; a spring motor or some driving 
mechanism to insure uniform speed; a case or box to contain the 
mechanism, provided with a key or combination locking device. 

I believe an instrument as above described would have a much 
wider field of usefulness than just in the transmission of money. It 
could be used in a great variety of business transactions over the tele- 
phone, giving, as it would, a stamp of genuineness to the com- 

It would be a very easy matter to establish a reliable system of 
stations where money could be paid and transmitted by telephone. It 
certainly would be of immense value to the public, as well as increase 
the income of telephone companies to no small extent. 

I see clearly how an instrument of this kind could be made. I am 
a student in electricity, but have not the means to develop the idea. 
I would be very glad to correspond with any one who may be willing 
to aid me in perfecting this little instrument. I believe that an in- 
strument of this kind will have a great future. 

D.wiD J. Monusmith. 

Spencer, Ohio. 

A 19,000- Volt Shock. 

To the Editors of Electrical World and Engineer: 

Sirs. — In your issue of Dec. 28. 1901, I notice a comnumication 
from M. Henri Pieper regarding the survival of a man after receiv- 
ing a 10,000-volt shock. In this connection I would call attention to 



Vol. XXXIX., No. 

the circumstance related on page 1114 of your issue of June 29, 1901, 
which, for the benefit of those who have not the article at hand, I 
will briefly relate here. The Santa Ana-Los Angeles transmission 
line, owned now by the Edison Electric Company, of Los Angeles, is 
83 miles in length, and is operated at about 33,000 volts. The trans- 
formers are connected Y fashion, with the neutral point or center 
connection grounded at both ends of the transmission. This gives 
approximately 19,000 volts between each wire of the circuit and 
groimd. It is related that a workman one day while climbing up over 
a transformer case got near enough to one of the high-tension lines 
so that an arc struck between his skull and the wire. He was picked 
up for dead, with a hole burned in his skull and the skin burned off 

the soles of his feet. Fortunately, a gentleman was at hand who was- 
expert in effecting revival from shocks. He rescuscitated the man 
so that with proper medical attendance and the grafting on of skin 
to replace that lost he ultimately recovered. 

Of course, in none of these cases reported where a human being 
has inserted himself accidentally in some part of a very high-voltage 
circuit has he received as large a volume of current as would flow 
if he were placed directly between the conductors, as no man could 
do that and live. These acidents simply go to show that it is some- 
times possible to get mixed up with such circuits and receive shocks 
from them in such a way as not to receive the full potential. 

Chicago. J. R. Cr.wath. 


Small Three-Pliase Motors. — The three-phase induction motors of 
small capacity and with a short circuited armature, have generally too 
great an angular speed for most applications, and also a small starting 
torque. These disadvantages are claimed to be avoided in motors 
made by Prinetti and Stucchi, of Milan. To reduce the angular ve- 
locity to 100 or 200 r. p. m., they use a large number of poles of the 
inductor. To obtain a sufficient starting torque, the inductor is not 
fixed on the ground, but is mounted on the armature axle, around 
which it can turn, but a long pendulum A B, ending in a heavy disk, 
keeps it in a vertical position, when the motor is at rest, as shown in 
the adjoining figure. When the motor is started, the pendulum is 

mto synchronism and diminishing 
step.) — L'Ind. Elcc, Nov. 25. 

the risk of their pulling out of 


deviated in the direction of the rotation of the armature. The angle 
of deviation enables one to find the power given out by the motor; it is 
equal to the product of angular velocity, the weight of the pendulum, 
its theoretical length, and the sine of the angle which the pendulum 
makes with the vertical direction. As the power of the motor is 
thus always evident, overloads are at once apparent; and the arrange- 
ment may be made that for a certain overload the circuit is automati- 
cally broken by the pendulum. The motors are especially adapted to 
drive spinning and weaving looms. (A similar device was suggested 
by the compiler years ago, the only difference being that a coil spring 
was used instead of the weighted pendulum. This has the additional 
advantage that the inductor can then make a number of revolutions 
instead of less than half a revolution, as in the above. It was also 
suggested to use it in order to facilitate bringing synchronous motors 


Transmission Plant in Agricultural District. — Apt. — An illustra- 
ted description of the electric power transmission plant at Crottorf, 
Germany. The plant is in the center of a very fertile agricultural 
district. The water power of the Bode River is utilized to the extent 
of 500 hp; the balance of the power is generated by steam engines, 
coal mines being in the neighborhood. There are two 500-kilovolt- 
ampere, three-phase generators, the one driven by a steam engine, 
the other by steam and water power together. At low load the 
water power alone is sufficient. The voltage given by the machines 
and used for transmission is 7000. The area over which the power 
is transmitted, and in the center of which the generating station is 
situated, has a diameter of 18 miles and contains 27 towns, which 
are supplied with light and power. Most of the towns, i. e., all the 
smaller ones where there is no great use of power, contain each a 
transformer sub-station for supplying the current for lighting and 
power purposes. The larger towns which consume not only much 
light, but also much power at an irregularly varying load for agri- 
cultural purposes, have separate lighting and power circuits. The 
sub-stations in these towns contain storage batteries which are 
charged by motor-generators. During the day the batteries are 
charged and supply at the same time current to the few burning 
lamps. During the night the battery and motor-generator operate 
in parallel. Power is used especially for thrashing. The motor is 
placed on a carriage in order to connect it easily with any machine 
to be tiriven. To take current from the high-tension circuit on the 
open field, a portable transformer on a carriage is used. — Elek. Zeit., 
Nov. 28. 

Steam Generator. — Braby. — A communication in which he ex- 
plains the essential difference between his system of producing 
steam, and that of an ordinary boiler. Water is a bad conductor of 
heat, and heat can only be distributed in water by circulation. When 
circulation is perfect the steam bubbles are detached from the sur- 
faces as fast as they are formed, and the maximum economical effect 
is obtained from the fuel. He considers circulation to be defective and 
slow, when it depends only upon the convection currents due to 
gravity. A boiler of ordinary construction is considered as a shell 
of metal, which is a good heat conductor, partly filled with water, 
which is only capable of distributing heat by circulation, yet the only 
circulation made use of is that caused by gravity, which necessitates 
a more or less large quantity of water being used to give passage for 
the convection currents and to provide a surface for ebullition. His 
steam generator is described as one or more plates or blocks of cop- 
per or other good heat conductor, having waterways formed therein, 
through which water is forced to circulate rapidly while under the 
application of heat. The temperature is equalized throughout the 
blocks by the heat-conducting power of the mass of metal, through 
which the water circulates with sufficient rapidity to carry away the 
heat and to prevent corrosion. No more water is brought into con- 
tact with the heating surfaces in a given time than can be converted' 
into steam within that time, there is no surface for ebullition, prim- 

January ii, 1902. 



ing is an impossibility, and there can be no danger of explosion. 
He claims that his method of converting water into steam is scien- 
tifically correct ; that by it he has increased the evaporation ef- 
ficiency of a square foot of heating surface as 5 is to i, compared 
with the results obtainable from ordinary boilers, water tube and 
■otherwise. Economy of fuel is also assured, and perfect immunity 
from explosion. — Lond. Elcc, Dec. 13. 


High-Speed Railis.'ays. — An editorial note on the results of the 
•experiments of the German society for the study of electric high- 
speed railways. It is remarked that the speeds obtained thus far — 
ma.ximum 100 miles per hour — are not record breaking, as the same 
speed and even 102.8 miles has been obtained on American steam 
railways. In this comparison it must be borne in mind, that the 
American records were all made by regular passenger trains which 
could hardly be classed as light, while the German records were ob- 
tained with specially designed experimental cars. "If any one de- 
sires to operate a train schedule at speeds of 8c to 100 miles per 
hour or even more, and is willing to run such light cars as those 
which the German experimenters are using, there are plenty of 
American locomotive designers who can produce a machine to meet 
the requirements. — Eiig. Netvs, Dec. 26. (A criticism of the Zossen 
■experiments based only on the maximum speed actually obtained is 
unfair. The real value of the experiments lay in the test of a type of 
electrical equipment for traction service involving a great delivery of 
energy, and the result demonstrated the entire practicability of elec- 
tric power for any railroad service, and particularly for express 

Shallow Underground Tramways. — Wordingham. — An article on 
the report of Baker and Rider to the London County Council, on 
the Boston and New York shallow underground tramways, which 
has already been mentioned recently in the Digest. Some critical 
remarks are added on special points of the report. While the report 
points out the advantages of shallow subways over deep level tubes, 
the present writer says that the essential feature of the shallow sub- 
ways is that they provide a means of affording nearly all the advan- 
tages of a quick service of tram cars in crowded streets; i. e., they 
run at moderate average speed with very frequent stopping places, 
whereas the deep-level tubes afford rapid transit between extreme 
points with comparatively few stops on the way. There is no doubt 
that there is a great advantage of running the trams in subways in- 
stead of on the surface in crowded thoroughfares. The report ex- 
presses astonishment at the fact that no provisions has been made 
either at Boston or New York for the accommodation of pipes in 
the tram subways. The present writer denies that the subway is 
really a solution of the problem of placing pipes. It is true that it 
would be effectual so far as trunk gas mains, electric feeders, etc., 
are concerned, but there would always remain the danger of serious 
explosions in the event of the gas escaping. On the other hand, it 
is the distributing mains, whether of electric energy or gas, or of 
water, that present the real difficulty ; and it is difficult to see how a 
subway is to enable attachments to each system of mains to be made 
from every house on both sides of the street. — Lond. Elee. Rev., 
Dec. 13. 

Eleetrification of Raikvays. — Dawson. — .An article in which he 
says that the problem of the electrification of our railways is at 
present concerned, not with the high-speed main line trains, but only 
with the heavy suburban traffic. In this respect a large amount of 
experience has been obtained. A table is given with some data 
relative to the installation of several such railways in America and 
I'urope. In this case the most important point is to get as high an 
acceleration as possible with due regard to the comfort and safety 
of the passengers, because if the acceleration can be increased in 
•■hort distance runs the average speed of the train is increased, and 
with the same factor of safety as regards running, the number of 
trains can be increased. The maximum acceleration for traffic of 
this sort, which seems to be possible on steam railways, is 9 inches 
per second per second. Electrically, it is quite feasible, although not 
advisable, either economically or for reasons of safety, to exceed 
-in acceleration of 24 inches per second per second. Regarding the 
electrifying of our railways, he says that the conductors cannot be 
overhead as long as a combined steam and electric service is run 
-over the same lines, because the deposits formed on the wires would 

cause serious sparking. If the conductors are on the ground, they 
must be protected so as not to be easily accessible to the employes. 
At the same time the voltage used should be Such as not to be fatal 
should any one come in momentary contact with them. The ideal 
method of operating an electrical suburban service would be to have 
a light structure on which the electric train would run, elevated 
above the existing lines. At junctions, the lines would be run over 
or under each other in such a way as to totally avoid crossing on the 
level. At the termini, loops might be provided. This would enable 
the trains to follow each other continuously, and the danger of col- 
lisions could be greatly reduced. Should this "double story" line 
be impossible, which is the case as long as steam trains are run un- 
der it, separate lines should be provided for the electrically operated 
trains, so as to reduce the delays to a minimum. — Lond. Elec. Rev., 
Dec. 13. 

Storage Batteries in Traction Systems. — An article in which atten- 
tion is called to the fact that storage batteries are largely used for 
traction plants in the United States and Continental Europe, but 
are only beginning to make headway in Great Britain. The use of 
batteries in traction systems is discussed. It is said that the practice 
of connecting a battery of such a number of cells as will give the 
average voltage of the power circuit at the point where the battery 
is located, in parallel with the load, seems to be rapidly disappearing 
in favor of a smaller number of cells discharging through a booster. 
This enables a smaller size of battery to be installed. The fluctua- 
tions in load are taken up by the booster for charging the battery. 
The watt-hour efficiency of the battery is very considerably improved, 
being as high as 85 to 90 per cent when working under these condi- 
tions. This is due to the fact that, when working through a rever- 
sible booster on a traction load, the discharge is followed so rapidly 
by a charge that the average e. m. f. per cell is more than 2 volts, 
even on a heavy discharge. By this means the battery at the end of 
the day's run is practically fully charged and ready for the night 
load. Another advantage is the absence of any regulating cells. — 
Lond. Elec. Rev., Dec. 13. 

Conduit Systems in England.— A brief article stating that the con- 
duit system will be used by the Bournemouth municipality for a 
length of 3 miles, and by the London County Council for 16 miles. 
-At Bournemouth the side slot will be used, the width of the slot being 
inch and I'A inches, the latter occurring on the curves. There will 
be a combination of the conduit and overhead trolley construction, 
as about 14 miles of overhead structure are to be installed at the 
extremities of the conduit tracks. The London County Council will 
use the conduit system throughout for 16 miles, the center slot be- 
ing used, the width of the slot being 54 inch.— Lond. Elec. Rev., 
Dec. 13. 


Machinery and Equipment for Electric Traction Systems. — A very 
large number of illustrated trade notes of British manufacturers, 
filling 35 full pages, including the following: Willans-Lancashire 
steam sets for tramway power stations; car lifting jacks; Fcrranti- 
VVestinghouse generators for Manchester tramways; Browett-Lind- 
ley engines for traction; engines for the Sheffield tramway power 
station ; work wagons for heavy castings ; Willans engines for elec- 
tric traction ; Doulton conduits and troughs ; car heating, switchboard 
equipment, electric locomotives; storage batteries; instruments; 
traction accessories, etc. — Lond. Elec. Rev., Dec. 13. 

Train Control. — The first part of an illustrated article by Sprague 
on his multiple unit system, as applied* to the Boston elevated rail- 
way. An illustrated description of the master control system of the 
British Thomson-Houston Company, as used in the Great Northern 
& City Railway, and an illustrated article on the Westinghouse elec- 
tro-pneumatic system for the control of electric trains. — Lond. Elec. 
Rev., Dec. 13. 

Traction Plant. — ."Xn anonymous article on "Economy in plant for 
traction stations." As an example, the general design of a station is 
given, in which it is proposed lo run a service of 27 cars with a load 
factor of ^i per cent. Two different designs are given, one with 
and the other without a storage battery. The differences between 
the two schemes are shown.— Lond. Elec. Rev., Dec. 13. 

Track Construction. — An illustrated article on the substantial sys- 
tem of street railway track construction at Scranton, Pa. This 
track comprises a concrete base, T-rails, steel ties, and reinforced 
joints, with brick and asphalt paving. — Eng. News. Dec. 26. 



Vol. XXXIX., No. 2. 

Installations. Systems and Appliances. 

Installation of a Meat-Packing Plant. — An illustrated description 
of the electric installation of a large, new Chicago meat-packing 
plant. The power house contains two 250 generators, giving 
1000 amperes direct current at 250 volts. There are 16 lighting cir- 
cuits and 16 power circuits. Practically all the machines and ap- 
paratus throughout the plant are operated by means of 230-volt di- 
rect-current motors, there being altogether 50 motors with an ag- 
gregate capacity of 1023 hp. The lighting system is also operated 
at 230 volts, there being 2000 incandescent lamps of 16 cp and 100 
enclosed arc lamps of 6 amperes. — West. Elec, Dec. 21. 

Five Thousand-Ampere Switch. — An illustrated description of a 
great four-pole switch, installed in the power house at Willesden. It 
weighs about a couple of tons. It is used for joining up the bus- 
bars in the station and works on two phases. There are really four 
separate switches, and each is mounted on a marble base 30 inches 
by 13 inches by 3 inches. They are all operated simultaneously by 
worm gearing from a handwheel, the shaft being divided into sec- 
tions between which are inserted insulating couplings, each worm is, 
of course, also insulated from the switch that it actuates. Stencil 
copper brushes built up to give a sectional area of 16 square inches 
are used for contact. — Lond. Lightning, Dec. 12. 

Electro-Physics and Magnetism. 

Electrification of Air. — Lehmann. — .An account of an exhaustive 
study of the distribution of electrified air in a large room. He claims 
to show that the convection of electricity from a point, during glow 
discharge, cannot be attributed to a conductivity of the air itself. 
He reproduces a large number of diagrams showing the distribu- 
tion of the equipotential surfaces round the point, and this distribu- 
tion is essentially different from what it would be in the case of a 
bad conductor like water. A charged conductor brought into a cur- 
rent of electric wind does not lose its charge if the electrifications are 
of the same sign, even though its own potential be much higher than 
that of the electrified air. If the conductor is positively electrified, 
it w-ill lose its charge and assume the potential of the surrounding 
negatively electrified air. This fact is of vital importance in the use 
of probes generally, as they do not indicate the surrounding potential 
unless they are previously discharged. The electrification of air can- 
not be due to electrons, neither can it be due to dust particles — Ann 
dcr Physik, No. 12; abstracted in Lond. Elec, Dec. 20. 

Fatigue of Luminosity. — Schmauss. — The reversible cross, first 
exhibited by Crookes, has been explained on three distinct theories. 
One is heating, the other chemical change, and the third is precipita- 
tion of metallic particles which are detached from the cathode. 
While the first can only explain a temporary change, and the last 
only a permanent change, a chemical effect might either produce a 
permanent or a reversible change. lie made some experiments 
from which he concludes that the temporary fatigue observed in the 
case of most substances is due to heating under the influence of 
cathode rays. As regards the permanent fatigue he distinguishes 
two classes of substances ; in the first, to which Balmain's luminous 
paint belongs, the permanent fatigue is due to changes produced by 
heat. The substances turn brown, just as they do in heating above 
a certain temperature. The fatigue sets in in ten minutes in the case 
of luminous paint, but requires several hours in the case of chalk. 
This shows that the fatigue cannot be due to the deposition of metal- 
lic particles, since these would affect all bodies equally. The tem- 
perature of the maximum of luminescence lies at 70 degs. for Bal- 
main's luminous paint. Eggshells and glass shine the brighter the 
lower their temperature. — Phys. Zeit., Dec. i ; abstracted in Lond. 
Elec, Dec. 13. 

Drop of Potential at the Electrodes in Vacuum Tube Discharges. — 
Skinner. — A very high potential is required to force a discharge 
directly through a rarefied gas across the space between the elec- 
trodes, when these arc brought within a certain small distance of 
each other. This potential is due to a drop at the electrodes. He 
gives an account of a complete investigation of the conditions exist- 
ing at the two electrodes. A special result obtained by him is in- 
teresting. Of two metals in the same gas the one showing the 
greater drop of potential as cathode possesses the smaller drop of 
anode. — Phil. Mag., Dec. 

Magnetic Elements in France. — Mathias. — The law of variation 
of the horizontal component of the earth's force formulated by him 

for the Toulouse district, has since been shown to apply to the whole 
of France and to represent the observed elements within the limits 
of observation. He has tried to find similar laws for the distribution 
of declination and dip, but has not met with the same success.— 
Comptes Rendus, Nov. 25 ; abstracted in Lond. Elec, Dec. 13. 

Temporary Set and Magneto-Stnction. — Barus. — A long paper, 
illustrated by diagrams, on the "Temporary set, as associated with 
magneto-striction." He believes the phenomenon of magneto-stric- 
tion to be inherently associated with what he interprets as viscosity. 
In other words, if deformations evoked by physical charges of mole- 
cular configuration within the metal, be termed viscous, whether 
gradual or sudden, then viscosity enters essentially into magneto- 
striction. With each twist, however small, and within the elastic 
limits, the wire receives a certain amount of set, instantaneously. 
The whose of this set may be shaken out by the first magnetization, 
and it is thus called temporary, to distinguish it from the permanent 
set which conies much later, as a second phase lying beyond the 
limits of elasticity. On removing the magnetic field, therefore, the 
unmagnetic wire is molecularly different from the same unmagnetic 
wire before magnetization, and the new molecular arrangement is 
permanent so long as the twist is unchanged. He gives an account 
of a series of experiments which show the dependence of temporary 
set on the antecedent strain. He first experimented with succes- 
sively increasing alternating twists and then with successively in- 
creasing, asymmetrically alternating twists. Apart from its inherent 
importance as an introductory phase of permanent set, he believes 
temporary set to have the additional interest of being a clear cut 
instance of purely mechanical hysteresis, w'ithout necessary relation 
to magnetism. — Phys. Rev., Nov. 


Light Pressure. — Nicholas and Hull. — A preliminary communi- 
cation on the pressure of heat and light radiation. They give an ac- 
count of experiments which prove qualitatively the existence of a 
pressure, not due to gas molecules, of the nature and order of mag- 
nitude of radiation pressure. — Phys. Rev., Nov. 

Colored Rings Due to Cathode Rays. — Von Czudnochowski. — 
.■\n account of a continuation of his experiments on the colors pro- 
duced by cathode rays on plates of fluorspar. He tested the influ- 
ence of the geometrical form of the cathode. — Phys. Zeit., Dec. i ; 
abstracted in Lond. Elec, Dec. 13. 

Construction of Electromagnets. — Conor. — A symmetrical outline 
of the calculation of electromagnets for other purposes than in dy- 
namos and motors. — L'Elec, Nov. 30. 


Conductivities of Solutions. — F. Kohlrausch. — One of the funda- 
mental quantities in electrolysis is the temperature coefficient of 
ionic friction in water (the change, with the temperature, of the 
"mobilities" of the ions). He discovered some striking relations be- 
tween the figures hitherto accumulated, chiefly through the work of 
Deguisne, and these relations make the facts of electrolysis appear 
in a new and comprehensive light. The ratio of the conductivity of 
very dilute aqueous .solutions at the temperature i (deg. C. ) to the 
conductivity at 18 degs., is, according to Deguisne, equal to 

I +a (? — 18) +b (/ — 18)' 

In attempting to find the conductivities of infinitely dilute solutions, 
he encountered the difficulty that there is a considerable change be- 
tween dilutions of 0,001 and o.oooi gram equivalents. This change 
is due to the conductivity of pure water, and he himself, therefore, 
introduced a correction based upon his own experiments. He then 
found that the second coefficient, b, could be expressed in terms of 
the first, a, by the equation, 

t = 0.0163 (a — 0.0174). 

In this equation the two numerical values arc nearly equal, and no 
great error is introduced by making them equal. If this is done, a 
very important result is obtained by extcrpolation. It is found that 
for a certain temperature all the conductivities of aqueous solutions 
must be zero. This temperature is — 39 degs. C. He proposes to 
examine this result by testing under-cooled solutions. He believes 
that this temperature represents the "limit of the liquid state of 

January ii, 1902. 



water," apart from crystallization. Another conclusion which he 
arrives at is that the electrolytic mobility of monovalent ions in water 
is determined by their mobility at a single given temperature. — 
Sit::u>igsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Oct. 31 ; abstracted in Lond. Elec, 
Dec. 20. 

Copper-Cobalt Alloys. — Reichardt. — An account of an investiga- 
tion of the electrical properties of alloys of copper and cobalt. The 
electrical properties of copper are greatly influenced by the addition 
of small quantities of cobalt. For small additions of cobalt the in- 
fluence is about the same as that of manganese, and three times that 
of nickel. An addition of 3 to 5 per cent brings down the tempera- 
ture coeflScient of the alloy to a minimum at -)- 0.00077, and at the 
same time yields the maximum thermo-electric force against pure 
copper with 33 microvolts per deg. C. Meanwhile, "the specific re- 
sistance increases to 9.5 microhms," and is only slightly increased by 
farther additions of cobalt. On the other hand, a slight addition of 
copper to cobalt considerably modifies the electric porportions of the 
latter. At a point lying between o and 10 per cent of copper the 
specific resistance reaches a ma.ximum and the thermo-electric force 
a minimum. On the whole, the results do not show any discovery 
of great practical importance. But an alloy of copper with i or 2 
per cent of cobalt may possibly be useful for thermopiles, since it 
combines a high fusing point, a high thermo-electric force ,and a re- 
sistance only four times that of copper. — Ann. dcr Physik, No. 12; 
abstracted in Lond. Elec, Dec. 20. 

Polarisation Capacity of Platinum: — Schoenherr. — An account of 
an investigation of the polarization capacity of cells containing o.l 
normal sulphuric acid, as free from gas as possible, the electrodes 
being pieces of platinum foil of 6 sq. cm. area, kept at a distance of 
0-6 cm. apart by means of glass beads. After the cell is charged, the 
capacity is found to fall regularly from 77 to 44 microfarads after 
72 hours. At the same time the apparent resistance increases. When 
the cell is heated, the capacity rises from 41 microfarads at 20 degs. 
to 45 at 60 degs., and then falls to 40.5 at 79 degs.. while after cool- 
ing the value is 25.6 microfarads at 17.2 degs. Repetition of this 
treatment lowers the capacity still further to 22.2. These results are 
explained by the diminution of the gas content at the surface, be- 
tween the platinum and the electrolyte, brought about by the heating. 
By passing hydrogen over the surface of the electrolyte in the cell, 
and turning the latter, so that the platinum plates come into contact 
with the gas, the capacity is increased from 20 to 33.4. while treat- 
ment with oxygen in the same way has no effect. When by means of 
an auxiliary electrode placed in a beaker of the electrolyte surround- 
ing the cell, so that the liquids inside and outside the cell are in com- 
munication, electrolyte hydrogen or oxygen is evolved at the sur- 
face of the electrodes, the capacity rises to 73.8 microfarads, a num- 
ber almost equal to its initial value. The capacity of the cell with 
bright platinum electrodes is practically independent of the fre- 
quency of the alternating current, but when the electrodes are acted 
upon by a constant polarizing force, it is found that for different 
frequencies the capacity is approximately inversely- proportional to 
the square root of the frequency. About 20 hours after the removal 
of the polarizing force the cell returns to its original condition, in 
which the capacity is almost independent of the frequency. The re- 
moval of gas from the surface of platinum can be effected by ignit- 
ing the plates, and in this way results are obtained similar to those 
produced by heating the whole cell. — Ann. der Physik., Aug. ; ab- 
stracted in ,S"c. Abstr., Nov. 


Metallic Carbides. — Moissan. — An article in which, after an his- 
torical introduction, he gives as summary of the different metallic 
carbides, dividing them into those which are not soluble in water 
and those which are. — Rev. Gen. des Sc., Nov. 15. 

Thermo-Chemistry of Very Dilute Solutions. — Steinwehr. — An 
account of an experimental investigation of the heat evolved by the 
dissociation of various acids, and of the temperature coefficient of 
the heat of dissociation.— Z(?if. Phys. Chem., Aug. 23 ; abstracted in 
Science Abstracts, Nov. 


Permeameter for Testing Magnetic Quantities in Bulk. — An ab- 
stract of the discussion which followed Drysdale's paper, recently 
abstracted in the Digest. Generally the opinion was expressed that 
the instrument would supply a long-felt want in practice. But more 
experiments are needed concerning the accuracy of the instru- 

ment. Walker said that one had to rely upon the e. m. f. of the 
battery being absolutely constant. He suggested making a scale 
which gives different values for different values of the e. m. f. of 
the battery, then it would be a small matter to take the voltage of 
the battery before the test and read the values off the scale. Perry 
suggested to cut away the pin left by the drill and turn it up a little 
smaller, annealing it if necessary. By making a very slender pin it 
was possible to get over all sorts of difficulties as to joints. It would 
also entail less w^aste of material all over the casting. Drysdale, in 
his reply, agreed that there were difficulties still to be confronted. 
The apparatus did not give the same result as the older methods at 
low induction densities, yet so far as he could see. if there was an 
air-gap effect it was one which was most remarkably constant. He 
had found throughout his tests that he could put the plug in and take 
it out several times, and the results were remarkably consistent. If 
this were so, he did not think that it affected the use of the instru- 
ment from a commercial point of view. The whole point turns on 
the drilling, and this is a critical matter. — Lond. Elec, Dec. 20. 

Electroscope. — Hurmuzescu. — A description of an electroscope 
which has three metal sheets 2 mm. apart. On the outer two are 
hung two gold leaves. Beneath these three sheets, and in electrical 
communication with the case of the instrument, are two similar 
sheets, which can be moved up between the three sheets so as to 
form a condenser, or moved away from them. When the electro- 
scope is to be charged, the two sheets are moved up so that the ca- 
pacity of the electroscope is large, then if the voltage be too feeble 
to diverge the leaves, the two sheets are lowered, diminishing the 
capacity and increasing the pressure till the leaves diverge. — Ann. 
Sci. de I'Un. de lossy, March; abstracted in Science Abstracts, Nov. 

Telegraphy Telephony and Signals. 

Il'ireless Telegraphy Over the Ocean. — Some editorial notes on 
Marconi's achievement, which is said to be a germ that promises to 
develop into "abundantly fruitful maturity." but in another direction 
than is thought by the general public. "It is not in the interlinking 
of continents divided by an ocean, but rather in the overspreading 
of the ocean itself with telegraphic facilities that the power and 
fruitfulness of this latest achievement of Mr. Marconi is to be per- 
ceived. Submarine cables already link ocean-divided continents far 
better than wireless telegraphy can ever do." The true field of wire- 
less telegraphy is across comparatively short distances of water. "It 
is really a disadvantage to wireless telegraphy to be able to take in 
such a wide compass as an entire ocean. Indeed, when such immense 
areas are covered, the probabilities of confusion and clashing of 
signals is a thousand-fold increased." No serious competition with 
submarine telegraphy can ever take place on a commercial basis, at 
any rate until the Marconi system is evolved into something very 
different from what it is now. Wireless signals in the ether can never 
be secret; it will always be possible to intercept them. — Lond. Elec., 
Dec. 20. 

Thermopiles in Telephone Stations. — Tuch. — An article on the ex- 
periments made by the German Post Office with Guelcher thermo- 
piles as a substitute for primary or secondary batteries in telephone 
stations. Thermopiles of 50 junctions, giving 3 volts, and of 66- 
junctions, giving 4 volts, were tried. Curves are given showing the 
\ariation of volts, amperes and watts as the number of microphone 
circuits increased, for storage batteries, primary cells, and different 
arrangements of thermopiles. It was found that the thermopiles, 
owing to their high internal resistance did not furnish a correspond- 
ing amount of energy, as the number of microphone circuits was in- 
creased, and that their first cost, upkeep, and the cost of gas far ex- 
ceeded the cost of accumulators. The thermopiles are now relegated 
lo the Post Office Museum. — Archiv. Post. Tel, July; abstracted in 
Science Abstracts, Nov. 


Wireless Telegraphy. — An illustrated description of the Slaby- 
.^rco portable field equipment for wireless telegraphy. Their tuned 
system has been described before at length in the Digest. — Sc. Ainer., 
Dec. 28. 

German-American Cable. — An illustrated description of the con- 
struction of, and the instruments used, on the German-American 
cable between Emden, Fayal and New York, which has been in suc- 
cessful operation for one year. — Elek. Zeit., Dec. 5. 



Vol. XXXIX., Xo. 2. 

Statistical. — The first part of a long article on the telegraph and 
telephone cables of the German Empire; comparative statistical 
tables on telegraphy in various countries in 1900 (the United States 
not being included), and a statistical article on telegraphy and tele- 
phony in the colony of Victoria in 1900. — Jour. Tel., Nov. 25. 

Electric Clocks. — Dary. — An illustrated article on electric clocks, 
exhibited at the Glasgow Exhibition. — L'Elec, Oct. 23. 



Lightning Rods. — Xeesen.- — An article in which he describes sev- 
eral instructive cases of lightning flashes and gives conclusions re- 
garding the proper construction of lightning rods. — Elek. Zeit., 
Nov. 28. 

New Books. 

Die Neusten Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Funkentele- 
GRAPHiE. By Professor A. Slaby. Berlin : Julius Springer. 30 
pages, illustrated. Price, 80 pfennige. 
This is a somewhat elementary but interestingly written paper upon 
the principles of wireless telegraphy, or, as the author calls it, "Spark 
Telegraphy." The writer is of a somewhat imaginative disposition, 
to judge from the statements made in the opening paragraph con- 
cerning the faculties apparently possessed by Oriental races for be- 
coming acquainted with distant events in a time too short for the 
dispatch of news by the ordinary means of transmission. Thus it is 
stated "The death of General Gordon was known in the streets of 
■Cairo on the day of its occurrence, although the telegraph lines were 
•destroyed." The facts in connection with the elementary theory of 
wireless development are, however, set out in an interesting and thor- 
oughly scientific manner, together with some of the details through 
which the Slaby system of wireless signaling, now used to some ex- 
tent in Germany, has been developed. The pamphlet is well worthy 
of the attention of all readers interested in the subject of wireless 

Elektro I.vcenieur Kalendek lyoi. Von Arthur H. Hirsch und 
Franz Wilking. Berlin: Oscar Coblcntz. 173 pages, illustrated, 
with detachable note book. Price, 2.50 marks. 

This is the first edition of a new electrical "almanac," as the Ger- 
mans like to call a "pocketbook" which is published annually. It is 
smaller in size than Uppcnborn's, which has been well known among 
•German electrical engineers for many years. In its contents and 
.scope the new publication also differs distinctly from Uppenborn's, 
so that it may be expected to hold its place successfully by the side 
of the older one. 

The book is intended to give easily found, reliable information 
about all important questions of electrical engineering. This in- 
formation is given in condensed form, there being very many tables 
of useful practical data. The authors have especially endeavored to 
give such data which the engineer needs while away from his office. 
The reviewer has found, while using the book for a while, that the 
•data seein to be reliable and have been collected with care. 

After 20 pages of mathematical tables, a comparative table of the 
measures and weights of different countries is given, followed by a 
table of specific gravities. The following chapters deal with the 
building of electric stations ; the choice of power, such as water 
power, gas or steam ; choice of prime movers, gearings, electric gen- 
crating station, wiring, installation at the consumers' terminals, light 
and power, motors required for driving different machines, in sugar 
plants, in workshops, pumps, ventilators, elevators, brewery machines, 
in wood workshops, in brick kilns, on farms, in printing plants; 
electric traction. Some rules and regulations, issued by German au- 
thorities and societies, follow. 

The arrangement of the single chapters seems very practical. The 
engineer is thought to be called in to give his opinion regarding the 
installation, say, of electric pumps. On the four pages of the "al- 
manac," dealing with this subject, he finds the most important for- 
mulas for different kinds of pumps, several practical tables of nu- 
merical data, with a brief explanatory example, and a series of ques- 
tions which must be answered in order to give a cpmplele opinion 
and specification. The arrangement of the advertiscnuiils (40 
pages) is ingenious. They are made a part of the book, and are ar- 
ranged uniformly, as they give throughout standard sizes and prices 

of the manufacturer. Each chapter of the book has a little note, 

"for prices see advertisements, pages ," so that the engineer is 

at once enabled to find out quickly the cost of what he wants to in- 

Although much information, especially regarding prices, is based 
solely upon German conditions, and would not apply to the condi- 
tions of this country, there is no doubt that the American engineer 
will find in this little book much that is useful to him. The size of 
the book is such that one can easily carry it constantly in the pocket. 

Die Beleuchtuxg vo.v Eisenbahn-Personenwagen. Mit Beson- 
derer Berucksichtigung der Elektricitat. By Dr. Max Buttner. 
Berlin : Julius Springer. 134 pages, 60 illustrations. Price, 5 

This book gives a review of the methods of train lighting, and more 
especially of the various electrical systems which have been devised 
for this purpose. The author believes the public has a right to de- 
mand a system which will enable the passenger to read comfortably 
in the car, but the railroad companies do not seem to be in general 
of this opinion. Any oculist will say, however, that reading in a 
railroad car under the present conditions of lighting is unsafe, and 
it is certain that an improvement of these conditions will come from 
a general introduction of electric train lighting. 

The author gives first a brief historical introduction. Figuratively, 
he starts from Adam and Eve — that is, from an edict of the King of 
Prussia, issued in 1844, and ordering the railroad cars to be lighted 
during the night "for the sake of safety and decency." Before that 
time there had only been signal lamps at the front and rear ends of 
the train. The first two chapters of the book (17 pages) deal with 
the methods of lighting with candles, oil, petroleum and gas. The 
balance of the book (117 pages) deals with systems of electric light- 
ing of trains. As an introduction to this part of the book the author 
describes in the third chapter the construction and treatment of 
storage batteries. 

The fourth chapter deals with the lighting of a total train by 
dynamos and batteries. The following systems are described : 
Stroudley and Houghton, used on the London-Brighton & South 
Coast Railway; that of Langdon, tried on the Midland Railway in 
England; that of Dietrich, tried on the railways of Wuertemberg, 
and that of Dick. The Dick system is described in detail. The fifth 
chapter deals with the lighting of single railroad cars by means of 
dynamos and batteries. The systems of Stone, Dick, Moskowitz, 
Vicarino and Aubert being described. The sixth chapters deals at 
some length with those systems of train lighting in which no dynamo 
is on the train, but the lighting current is furnished by storage bat- 
teries alone. Many of the systems described in these three chapters 
are well illustrated by diagrams. 

In the seventh chapter the author gives some general notes on elec- 
tric train lighting, and discusses briefly the relative advantages of the 
different electric systems. He says 'hat the number of railroad cars 
at present lighted by electricity is 12 000, of which 5500 cars get the 
current from a combination of dynamo and storage battery, while 6500 
are provided with batteries alone. In Continental Europe the pure 
storage battery system is preferred, in other countries a combina- 
tion of dynamo and battery ; in England, for instance, the Stone 
system is much used. The author believes that the Nernst lamp will 
not be introduced in railroad cars, as it cannot be made for volt- 
ages below 70. He seems to hope much from the Welsbach osmium 
lamp, as it is well suited for low voltages. He remarks that the Ger- 
man Incandescent Gas Light Company, which owns the patents for 
Germany, expected to put the osmium lamp on the market in the 
autumn of 1901. In view of the fact that nothing has been heard of 
the osmium lamp for quite a while, one is tempted to ask, What has 
become of it ? 

In the eighth and last chapter the author discusses the advantages 
and disadvantages of the diflferent methods of train lighting, espe- 
cially of gas and electricity. He also gives an estimate of the first 
cost of installation and of the cost of operation for the different sys- 
tems. He concludes that the future of train lighting certainly be- 
longs to electrictiy. 

The book, as a whole, can well be recommended, especially to rail- 
road engineers who desire to be posted on the subject of train light- 
ing, which is certainly a subject of timely importance. While the 
author docs not seem to give much that is new, his book is a fair and 
plain review nf the subject. The descriptions are clear and concise. 
Print and illustrations are good. 

\XUARV II, igo2. 



Mesures Electriques. Lecons Professees a L'lnstitut Electro- 
technique Montefiore. By Eric Gerard. Second edition. Paris : 
Gauthier-Villars. 532 pages, 217 illustrations. Price, 12 francs. 
The first edition of this work was published in 1896 and attracted 
the attention of American readers who were already acquainted with 
the author's earlier book, Lecons siir L'Etectricite, which was sub- 
sequently translated and published in this country, with the addition 
of several chapters by American authors. The "Mesures Elect- 
triques," by Gerard, proved to be no mean successor to the classical 
volumes of Mascart and Jubert, and it confirms the reputation of 
French writers as distinctly e-xcellent in the elegance of their presen- 
tation of the theory of electricity and magnetism in its applications 
in measurements. 

To those not familiar with the former edition of this book, its 
character may largely be inferred from the statement in the preface: 
"The progress of applied electricity has been rapid because the elec- 
tricians trained in laboratory methods have applied in their subse- 
quent work the rigorous methods of investigation which character- 
ize physical research." An American reader receives a statement of 
this character with certain qualifications. The workshop and test- 
ing rooms of certain of our electrical manufactories have usually 
gone in advance of laboratory investigations and scholastic instruc- 
tion, and the gravity of the French professor's attitude toward his 
subject matter, seems to be ill warranted. 

In general this most excellent book is characterized by a lack of 
technical taste or judgment, though for a French electrician these 
strictures would have less weight. The book is evidently a compila- 
tion from materials used with schoolboys in their studies, and suf- 
fers somewhat from lack of sympathy with the needs of the prac- 
ticing engineer. Upon reading this second edition it is noticeable 
that the whole work has been conscientiously re-edited, and that 
many parts have been rewritten and considerable new matter has 
been added. These changes have generally resulted 
in added precision of statement (though this is a 
hobby gallantly ridden by many scientists) and 
symmetrical treatment. 

The introductory chapter on principles of meas- 
urement and the limits of error is one of the best 
discussions of the subject matter that has been pre- 
sented. The same is true of Chapter III., which 
deals with photometry, which, in this later edition, 
has been revised and brought fairly up to date. The 
subject of galvanometry is rather thoroughly dis- 
cussed, and the treatment is unusually clear, though 
at the present rate of elimination of the galvano- 
meter per se from applied electrical measurements, 
the subject is overtreated. In this same connection 
an illustrated description of many commercial forms 
of ammeters and voltmeters is given without any 
adequate analytical statement of the mechanics of 
their action. Noticeably again, in Chapter XVI., the 
same vague descriptive treatment is given to the va- 
rious integrating electricity and energy meters. These 
descriptions are aggravated cases of the infliction of 
catalogue matter within the dignity of book covers. 
It is surprising that the author has not availed of 
several very complete and elaborate articles in which 
these various types of instruments are analytically 
treated; the engineer would not object, and the 
schoolboy would be vastly profiled. 

The testing of iron for permeability and hysteresis 
receives a fairly good treatment, though it suffers by 
omission of recent developments in apparatus and 
methods. Following this, some three chapters are 
given to tests of motors and dynamos, of direct, al- 
ternating and polyphase types, and here the author is 
rather more successful, though much of his practice 
would not be followed in this country. Finally, a 
chapter is awarded to testing transformers, and 
through its 15 pages the discussion is so insufficient 
that the matter is practically valueless. 

The work of M. Gerard has two pronounced faults: One occurs 
through ignoring foreign methods, which in so many instances are 
in advance of the practice he describes, and the second happens 
through an almost total absence of references. 

For the physicist, the schoolman or the scholarly engineer Mesures 
Electriques will prove an unusually suggestive book from its clear- 

ness of presentation where analysis is used. Had the author con- 
fined himself to those academic mathematical subjects with which 
he has shown he is so vitally conversant, a symmetrical work would 
have resulted. But, unfortunately, through an endeavor to be prac- 
tical, he has ventured into subjects with which he evidently has only 
a tentative familiarity. 

Though the importance of this French work scarcely merits such 
an e.xtended review for American readers, its shortcomings are preg- 
nant with suggestion and they have been emphasized in detail. As 
we turn away in disappointment from one work after another on 
electrical measurements, each one in turn has shown no more clearly 
what its successor should be, and the net gain has been small. 

Westinghouse Standard Transformers. 

We illustrate herewith the Westinghouse O. D. type of transformer 
and give some curves showing its efficiency, and also some tempera- 
ture curves. This transformer is of the shell type, which type the 
manufacturers consider to be much superior to the core type, owing 
to the less voltage that exists between adjacent layers and the greater 
facilities offered for the conduction of heat from the core. In a com- 
parison made between these two types, the voltage betw^een the first 
turn of the first layer and the last turn of the last layer is stated in 
the core type to amount in a particular case to 500 volts, while in the 
shell type it is but 50 volts. A marked advantage of the lower tem- 
perature of the shell type is that there is less aging of the iron of the 

A feature that has been introduced into the design of these trans- 
formers is a system of connections whereby an unusually large num- 
ber of ratios of transformation may be obtained. For example, a 
lighting transformer for a 2100-volt primary circuit admits of the 


following secondary voltages: 52^/2 — 105 — 210; 55 — no — 220; 58 
— 116 — 232. The standard Westinghouse method of cross connect- 
ing the secondaries has been retained in these transformers. This 
is a method devised to overcome the large difference in voltage be- 
tween the two sids of the circuit when they are unequally loaded. 
When the rated primary voltages are 1050 or 2100, the transform- 



Vol. XXXIX.. Xo. 2. 

ers will operate satisfactorily at any e. m. f. from 950 to 1 150 volts, 

or from 1900 to 2300 volts. The 60-cycle transformer will operate at 







15 K. W.. 0. D. TRANSFORMER 

2100 VOLTS-7200 ALTS. 

FULL LOAD 97. 40* 

X •• 97.400 

a .. 97.05^ 

)< .. 95.03^ 

■Xo .' 39.70^ 



LOAD HAVING 90!^ P. F 2. 65;r 

.. so;; •' 4.20j; 

! 1 1 : 1 






i) 1 













1 K. 'H., 0. D. TRANSFORMER 

2100 VOLTS-7200 ALTS. 

FULL LOAD 94.70? 

X .. 94.40;i 

H •• 93.20j^ 

K " 88.75^ 

Vio '■ 77.00? 



' ' LOAD HAVING 90* P. F 3.40'. 

■ ■ ■• 60? " 3.45? 







the larger transformer is 97.4 at full load, and no less than 95.03 per 
cent at quarter load. In the case of a so-kw transformer these figures 
attain 98.05 and 96.85 per cent, respectively. In each of the above 
cases the frequency is 60 cycles. 

Fig. 6 gives a full load temperature test of a 5-kw, 60-cycle trans- 
former. It will be noted that these curves extend over 15 hours of 
test instead of 8 hours, as has been the general custom. As the curves 
show that the temperature for an 8-hour5' run is considerably below 
the maximum temperature attained, the advisability of using the 
longer period in transformer tests is obvious. 

In Fig. I the shell of an O. D. transformer is shown, and in Fig. 2 
the transformer is represented ready for casing. Fig. 3 shows a trans- 
former being lifted out of its case. The use of oil in this type of trans- 
former is recommended, though not obligatory. 

Electrically Driven Boring Machine. 

The accompanying illustration shows a boring machine, which is 
driven by an Onondaga motor geared thereto. The standards, or 
feet of this motor, are cast solid into the magnet frame, providing 
for adjustment to the base frame of the boring machine, as shown. 
These motors are applicable to other machine tools, such as lathes, 
drill presses, bending rolls, pumps, blowers, etc., and also to printing 
presses. They are intended for use only in cases where very slow 



5 K. W., 





















- - 












1 : 


1 1 

3 1 

i 1 

1 1 

5 1 


any frequency from 40 to 133 cycles, and the 2S-cyclc transformers 
will operate on circuits of a frequency up to 40 cycles. 

Of the efficiency curves shown, that of Fig. 4 is for a i-kw trans- 
former and that of Fig. 5 for a 15-kw transformer. It will be noted 
that the cfTicicncy of the small transformer is 94." at full load and 
drops to only 88.75 per cent at quarter load, while the efficiency of 


speed is required. The bearings are supported 
from the center of the magnet frame by cast iron 
brackets bolted to the frame. 

The cast iron magnet yoke is split horizontally 
to facilitate assembling. The armature of these 
motors is of the barrel type, and is well ventilated 
by means of openings from the inside of the spider, which allow the 
air to pass out through the core and circulate about the windings. 

These motors, which are manufactured by the Onondaga Dynamo 
Company, Syracuse, N. Y., are made in sizes ranging from I to 10 hp, 
and designed for use on direct-current circuits of no, 220 and 500 


Financial Intelligence. 

THE WEEK IN WALL STREET.— Money on call closed nomi- 
nally at 6 per cent; time money was inactive, due chiefly to the fact 
that borrowers are disposed to defer making time contracts, await- 
ing lower rates. The closing rates are s per cent for 30 to 60 days, 
5@5!4 per cent for three, four, five and six months. In the stock 
market there was a stronger tone as the result of large investment 
demands and renewed speculative buying. In the face of very firm 
money rates speculative interests seem inclined to discount the prob- 
ability of easier conditions as to loans and the continuance of invest- 
ment buying. Public participation in the market increased consider- 
ably. In the traction list Brooklyn Rapid Transit stock was a feature 
on Friday, and made a sudden manipulative advance, the closing 
price being 66>8, a net gain of i^i points. The range of prices dur- 
ing the week was from 6s->^ to 68)-^, the number of shares sold being 
57,710. Metropolitan Street Railway closed at 163, being a net gain 
of J4 point, the sales aggregating 16.100 shares. Manhattan Ele- 
vated lost % of a point on the week's trading of 58,950 shares, clos- 
ing at 137. General Electric closed at 280, ex-dividend, which is a 
net loss of i point as compared with the closing price of the previous 
week. Westinghouse Electric, common, made a net gain of 2 points, 
closing at 179, but first preferred lost 5 points, closing at 182. West- 
ern Union closed at 92j^, being a net gain of ^ point, the sales aggre- 
gating 17,325. Closing quotations of other electrical securities are : 
American District Telegraph, 38, a net gain of i34 points, and Com- 
mercial Cable. I(X), a net loss of 10 points. Following are the closing 
quotations of Jan. 7: 


Dec. 30. Jan. 7. Dec. 30. Jan. 7. 

American Tel. & Cable.. 96* 90 General Electric. ...... .283K 279 

American Dist. Tel 36 — General- Carriage i^^ i J4 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit. . 64^ 65?^ Hudson River Tel 104 100 

Ches. & Pot. Telephone.. 65 — Metropolitan Street Ry. .. 161 162.}^ 

Commercial Cable 170 155 N. E. Elec. Veh. Tran... — 14 

Electric Boat igyi 24K X- Y. Elec. Veh. Tran.. 12 12 

Electric Boat pfd 40 45 N. Y. & N. J. Tel 167 — 

Electric Lead Reduc'n... I'A iM Tel. & Tel. Co. of Am... — — 

Electric Vehicle z'A 2 Western Union Tel 92 3-5 91 

Electric Vehicle pfd 4 4 West. E. & M. Co 177 177 

West. E. & M. Co., pfd.. 182 — 


Dec. 30. Jan. 7. Dec. 30. Jan. 7. 

Am. Tel & Tel 164H 161 Mexican Telephone 3 2 

Cumberland Telephone... — — New England Telephone. 133 137 

Edison Elec. Ilium 242 — Westinghouse Elec 85 90 

Erie Telephone 15J/2 15^ Westinghouse Elec. pfd.. 90 89^ 

General Electric pfd. ... — — 


American Railwa; 

Electric Storage Battery. 62 

Elec. Storage Batt'y pfd. 6: 

Elec. Co. of America.... I 

Dec. ,50. Jan. 7. ... 

■ 44 ^^ 44V4 Phila. Traction 97^ 97J4 

Dec. 30. Jan. 7. 

97^ 97H 

Philadelphia Electric 4% 4V2 

— Pa. Electric Vehicle ^ — 

6!4 Pa. Elec. Veh. pfd 2 z^ 


Dec. 30. Jan. 7. Dec. 30. Jan. 7. 

Central Union Telephone. — — National Carbon pfd 82 ^^ 84 

Chicago Edison 160 — Northwest Elev. com 39 39?4 

Chicago City Ry 185 188 Union Traction. loH io!4 

Chicago Telep. Co 225* 230 L^nion Traction pfd 47 — 

National Carbon 19 19 


NEW YORK DISTRICT TELEGRAPH is the storm center of 
a big row, and a movement has been launched against the present 
management by a number of stockholders who have issued a circular 
against President T. T. Eckert and his following. As might have 
been expected, the doughty general joins issue. His circular re- 
quests the stockholders to give an expression of opinion on a plan 
to decrease the capital stock of the company from $4,000,000 to $2,000,- 
000. A resolution to this effect will be introduced at the annual 
meeting on Jan. 23, if, in the judgment of the directors, the stock- 
holders are willing that this shall be done. No reasons are given for 
cutting the capital of the company in two. The point i,'; made, how- 
ever, that during the last nine years, from 1892 to 1900, inclusive, 
dividends amounting to 19^ per cent have been declared upon a capi- 
tal of $4,000,000, or on an average of 2 1-6 per cent a year, which 
would have been 4'/} per cent on a capital of $2,000,000. The company 
has about 30.000 messenger call boxes in the city, and works closely 
with the Western Union. The business has undoubtedly suflfered 
sharply from the growth of the telephone, and the trouble appears 
to lie in the proposal to adjust the capital to newer conditions. 

severe decline at Cleveland in the shares of the Federal Telephone 

Company, independent, which has been backed by the Everett-Moore 
Syndicate. The shares have declined from $25 to $5. The Federal 
Company is a parent company controlling 20 sub-companies and 36 
exchanges. Its principal exchanges are in Cleveland and Detroit, 
where it has been in competition with Erie companies. It has been 
expanding rapidly, and is now engaged in building exchanges in To- 
ledo, Dayton and Springfield, Ohio, and extending into Michigan. 
Among the telephone properties owned outright or controlled by the 
syndicate are the Cuyahoga Telephone Company, of Cleveland, with 
upward of 10,000 subscribers ; the United States Telephone Com- 
pany, the Federal Telephone Company, the Stark County Telephone 
Company, the Columbian County Telephone Company,, the Peo- 
ple's Telephone Company, of Detroit; the Wood County Telephone 
Company, and several others in which the Federal Telephone Com- 
pany is the controlling factor. 

BELL TELEPHONE.— The American Telephone & Telegraph 
instrument statement for the month ended Dec. 20 shows : 

1901. 1900. Changes. 

Gross output 92,732 63,196 Inc. 29,536 

Returned 34.688 23,593 Inc. 11,095 

Net output 58,044 39.603 Inc. 18,441 

Since Dec. 20, 1900: 

Gross output 960,055 683,955 Inc. 276,100 

Returned 386,861 372,311 Inc. 14,550 

Net output 573,194 372,311 Inc. 200,883 

Total outstanding . ..2,526,010 1,952,816 Inc. 573,194 

This should mean about 1,100,000 subscribers, or about 200,000 to 
250,000 in the last year. No great hurt is shown from the indepen- 
dent movement. 

of the board of directors of the New York Consolidated Stock Ex- 
change last week was held to consider a proposition to establish a 
special wire system for the Exchange to Western cities. This is for 
the purpose of securing a large part of the trade that at present is 
going to bucket shops. President Wagar said that the plan was en- 
thusiastically approved of. The work of constructing this system 
will now be placed in the hands of a special committee. When the 
intention of the Exchange to inaugurate a service of this kind was 
made known, $1,000 was bid for a seat on the Exchange. The only 
seat offered was held at $1,100. 

EVERETT-MOORE TROLLEYS.— A special telegram of Jan. 4 
from Cleveland, Ohio, says : After a busy session lasting from early 
this morning until 9 o'clock to-night, the Cleveland Bankers' Com- 
mittee in charge of the Everett-Moore Syndicate's affairs announced 
that there would be a surplus of about $3,000,000 over all liabilities, 
providing the committee succeeds in bringing about a general ex- 
tension of credit. More than 50 per cent of the liabilities were rep- 
resented by the creditors the committee talked with, and not a single 
refusal had been received when the committee asked for an extension 
of time of 18 months. 

ford, Conn., of Jan. 2 says: The declaration of a semi-annual divi- 
dend of 3 per cent by the electric street railway between Norwich 
and New London is of interest as illustrating the profitableness and 
effectiveness of the trolley's competition with a steam line. This 
interurban trolley parallels the Central Vermont Railroad, and when 
it was built many observers predicted that the venture would not be 
financially profitable. The trolley has not only diverted a large 
amount of patronage from the steam road, but it has also developed 
a considerable volume of traffic that was previously dormant. 

DETROIT & TOLEDO SHORE.— The Ohio Savings Bank and 
D. B. Cunningham, Toledo, Ohio, have been appointed receivers for 
the Detroit & Toledo Shore Railroad. The Strange Contracting 
Company is the complainant with a claim of $158,000. This is an 
Everctt-Moore electric line, and the action is due to the troubles of 
the syndicate. 

Westinghouse Machine Company has been increased from $3,000.- 
000 to $5,000,000. The preferred rights will be relinquished and all 
stock will be the same. The company earned 20 per cent net for the 

listed in Philadelphia $8,355,000 first and refunding 45/^5 gold bonds 
of the Connecticut Railway & Lighting Company, due 1951, also 



\'oL. XXXIX.. Xo. 

S2,500,cxx) first mortgage ss gold bonds of Syracuse Rapid Transit 
Railway due 1946. 

electric light deal at Savannah, Ga., it is now announced that Lee, 
Higginson & Co. and Stone & Webster, of Boston, have organized 
the Savannah Electric Company, with $2,500,000 5-per-cent 50-year 
bonds, $1,000,000 6 per cent preferred stock and $2,500,000 common 
stock, to take over the entire street railway and lighting system of 
Savannah, Ga., which have perpetual franchises. The companies 
taken over comprise the Edison Electric Illuminating Company, 
which has an extensive underground .system of distribution and has 
been paying regular dividends at the rate of 6 per cent ; the City & 
Suburban Raihvay Company and the Savannah & Thunderbolt Line, 
which traction companies control the street railway facilities of the 
city. Of the $2,500,000 5 per cent bonds $1,000,000 will be reserved 
to retire $1,000,000 4 per cent bonds of the Savannah & Thunderbolt 
Company. The bond mortgage contains a provision allowing the 
further issue of $1,000,000 bonds for new equipment and construc- 
tion. The entire bond issue is subject to call at no. The railway 
system of Savannah comprises about 54 miles of track and the pres- 
ent plant, with some suburban extensions, should meet the needs 
of the city for some years to come. Messrs. Stone & Webster have 
managed the lighting company since Jan. i, 1899, and will be con- 
tinued as managers of the combined properties. Earnings are suf- 
ficient to make sure the 6 per cent dividends on the preferred stock. 
The securities will be listed on the Boston Stock Exchange, as Bos- 
ton capital is largely interested in the enterprise. 

PORTO RICO ELECTRICS.— The Ponce Electric Company and 
the Ponce Railway & Electric Light Company, capitalized at $415,- 
000 and $50,000, respectively, have been incorporated in Trenton to 
do business in Porto Rico. 

DIVIDENDS. — The regular quarterly dividend of ij4 per cent has 
been declared upon the preferred stock of the Bullock Electric Man- 
ufacturing Company, payable Jan. 2. 

Commercial Intelligence. 

THE WEEK IN TRADE.— Industrial, commercial and financial 
conditions are in every respect satisfactory, although during the past 
week there was some dullness as regards new busi-ness, due, to some 
extent, to stock-taking and preparing for the future. A conspicuous 
exception to the general quietness was the iron and steel situation, 
which was more active. The car shortage is still a disturbing ele- 
■ment in the situation, and continues to unsettle both production and 
consumption considerably. The only appearance of weakness in fin- 
ished products is in wire and nails, which are $2 per ton lower, ow- 
ing to increased competition. Heavy rail orders for Mexico are re- 
ported pending. An international competition promises to be begun 
in this respect. Floods in the mining regions have interfered with 
production, and the car shortage still accentuates the scarcity of 
coal, particularly bituminous, .'\nthracite supplies are smaller, not- 
withstanding the total production last year in excess of 53,000,000 
tons, a total 12 per cent larger than ever before produced. On Fri- 
day the United Metals Selling Company, the selling agent for the 
Amalgamated Copper Company, announced a further cut — the fourth 
— in the price of copper of % cent a pound for Lake. This brings 
the price of Lake practically 5 cents a pound under the 17-cent price 
at which the Amalgamated interests originally attempted to hold the 
metal. The quotations are now 12^ cents for Lake, 12 cents for 
electrolytic and 113/2 cents for casting. Still lower prices are looked 
for. It is stated that the last cut was forced by recent reductions in 
the prices of all grades made by independent producers. Brass has 
been lowered to meet the decline in copper as presaged in last issue. 
The business failures for the week, as reported by Bradstrect's, num- 
ber 270, as against 219 the week previous and 268 the corresponding 
week last year. Bradstrect's points out that the business failures 
were unusually small after the holidays, and failures were fewer in 
December than in the same month of the preceding year. For the 
year they number 10,657, with liabilities of $129,978,838, an increase 
of 7.5 per cent over 1900 as to number, and of 2.4 per cent as to lia- 
bilities. The percentage of assets to liabilities was only 46.9, the 
smallest proportion reported since 1885. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC TRADE.— Electrical machinery from 
the United States has a constantly augmenting representation in the 
.Argentine Republic. Wherever the electrical manufacturers of the 
United States have (as has been the case in the Argentine Republic) 
introducd their wares by means of intelligent, welWn formed and 
persistent resident agents, speaking the language and acquainted 
with the customs of the people, they have been successful in build- 
ing up a large and growing demand for supplies. The increase in 
the value of electric and scientific apparatus taken by the Argentine 

Republic from the United States is shown by the following statistics : 
Fiscal year 1899, $247,062; 1900, $259,608; 1901, $307,490. The con- 
nection between the national telegraph systems of Uruguay and the 
Argentine Republic has been completed by a cable crossing the 
Uruguay River, uniting Santa Rosa and Jilonte Caseos. The other 
three points of connection are at Martin Chico, on a direct line 
from Montevideo and Buenos Ayres. Salto to Concordia, and from 
the Uruguayan frontier at Paysandu to Concepcion. The latest 
connection, besides completing the unity of the two systems, will be 
of great importance in communication from both Republics to the 
Republic of Brazil. Before long the telegraph systems of all three 
of these South American countries will be united. 

Friday evening, Jan. 3, 1902, a meeting of the local dealers in auto- 
mobiles was held at Barton's Hotel, Washington, and resulted in 
forming the Washington Automobile Dealers' Association. The 
following were elected officers for the ensuing year : Frank Boyd, 
president ; Schuyler S. Old, Jr., secretary ; W. J. Foss, treasurer. 
The above-named constitute the e.xecutive committee. It was de- 
cided at this meeting to hold an automobile show in Washington 
during March, 1902, each dealer pledging to take space, and to con- 
tribute to the general e.xpenses of holding a show. .\ number of 
prominent manufacturers of automobiles and automobile acces- 
sories have also pledged their support, so that the show will be held 
in spite of failure to secure the sanction of the National .\utomobile 
Manufacturers' Association. The show will be held in the large 
armory of the Washington Light Infantry Corps. The automobile 
dealers are doing a good business, and feel the money spent on a 
show will be the best form of local advertising they can do. Mr. 
B. C. Washington, Jr., has been elected as general manager by the 
Dealers' Association. 

CRUDE RUBBER FAILURE.— The electrical trade generally is 
very much interested in the failure of the Crude R\ihber Company to 
meet its obligations, as it seems to involve much cheaper rubber for 
insulation purposes, etc. The failure has naturally unsettled the 
market, as with between $2,000,000 and $3,000,000 worth of rubber 
in the hands of the bankers it is somewhat difficult to say at what 
price it will be sold. Since the failure of the Crude Rubber Com- 
pany the price of Up-River Para has declined 2 cents per pound to 
82 cents. It is trade rumor that the United States Rubber Com- 
pany in purchasing $1,000,000 worth of crude from the Crude Rub- 
ber Company, paid 81 cents per pound for Up-River Para and 
'/'A cents for Island rubber, but this rumor lacks confirmation. 
It is thought not unlikely, however, that the elimination of the 
Crude Rubber Company from the field, with its stock of high- 
priced rubber, will be taken advantage of to form a crude rubber 
combination, as great economies could be introduced through such 
a combination and the importers and consumers of rubber alike 

PANY has added four new and important foreign agencies. Wm. 
M. McLean & Co., of Melbourne, .\ustralia, will have direct super- 
vision over Australia, New Zealand. Tasmania and Fiji. Arrange- 
ments have been perfected with the Bullock Company by Mr. O. L. 
Remington, of the firm, who has been visiting headquarters in Nor- 
wood. J. H. Newby, of the Bullock works, will also be identified 
with the Melbourne office. The new agency for Manchuria and 
Eastern Siberia will be in charge of E. L. Richardson & Co. Mr. 
Richardson will ultimately make his headquarters in New York. He 
will travel extensively in Russia for a few months. The new Japan- 
ese agency is at Tokio, and H. S. Tanaka & Co. will be in charge. 
The new agency for Porto Rico is at San Jose, with T. S. Allen in 
charge. Mr. F. G. Bolles, who has been in charge of the publicity 
department of the Bullock Company's business for several years, was 
promoted on the first of the year to be manager of foreign agencies. 

Drummond. who is one of the active directors of the British Electric 
Traction Company, Limited, of London, which concern is the largest 
company of its kind in the United Kingdom, is now in this city. Mr. 
Drummond devotes his attention principally to the management of 
the various traction enterprises in which the British Company is 
interested. He may be found at the offices in the Broad Exchange 
Building, 25 Broad Street, of Frederic B. Esler. 

VENTILATING FAN MOTORS —Scaled proposals will be re- 
ceived by the United States Engineer Office, Washington, until noon, 
Feb. 3, 1902, and then publicly opened for furnishing ventilating fans, 
with direct connected motors for the new building for the Govern- 
ment Printing Office. Information will be furnished on application 
by Captain John Stephen Scwell, of the United States Engineer Corps. 

ELECTRIC LIGHTING IN SUEZ.— Tenders are called for un- 
til Jan. 15 for the installation of an electric lighting system in Suez 
and Danianhour, including the overhead wires for distribution. 
Specifications for the work may be obtained of the Minister of Pub- 
lic Works. Cairo, Egypt, 

January ii, 1902. 


CHINERY.— The following are the exports of electrical material, 
machinery, etc., from the port of New York for the week ended 
Dec. 31: Antwerp— 2 pkgs. machinery, $317; 8 pkgs. material. $335. 
Bristol— 8 pkgs. machinery, $480; 40 pkgs. wire, $610; 62 pkgs. cop- 
per material, $3,500. Berlin — I pkg. material, $100. British Aus- 
tralia — 96 pkgs. wire, $2,287; 23 pkgs. material, $1,654; 259 pkgs. ma- 
chinery, $20,864. British Possessions in Africa — s pkgs. material, 
$466. British Possessions (all others) — i pkg. machinery, $35. Bol- 
ton- 4 pkgs. wire, $275. Brazil — 76 pkgs. material, $3,207. British 
East Indies — 302 pkgs. material, $5,680; 8 pkgs. machinery, $1,800. 
British Guiana — 26 pkgs. material, $400. British West Indies — 24 
pkgs. material, $566; 2 pkgs. wire, $59. Central America — 15 pkgs. 
material, $193 ; 2 pkgs. copper wire, $93. Cuba— 154 pkgs. material, 
$1,758; 18 pkgs. wire, $64. Chili — 74 pkgs. material, $3,260. Glasgow 
— 12 pkgs. machinery, $1,025. Genoa — i pkg. material, $113. Ham- 
burg — 14 pkgs. material, $2,222. Havre — 13 pkgs. material, $983 ; 18 
pkgs. machinery, $4,668. Leicester — 3 pkgs. wire, $322. Leeds — 15 
pkgs. material, $261. Liverpool — 86 pkgs. machinery, $6,761 ; 43 pkgs. 
material, $2,605; 674,123 lbs. copper, $113,095; 890 pkgs. material, 
$79,500; 120 pkgs. wire, $2,730; 6 pkgs. motors. $1,173. London — 173 
pkgs. machinery, $7,317; 163 pkgs. material, $8,857. Manchester — 
179 pkgs. machinery, $38,533; 3 pkgs. wire, $15. Mexico — 127 pkgs. 
material, $3,497 ; 41 pkgs. machinery, $5,040. Marseilles — I pkg. ma- 
terial, $75. Milan — 3 pkgs. material, $60. Nice — 2 pkgs. machinery, 
$500. Newcastle — 14 pkgs. machinery, $2,297. Oporto — 2 pkgs. ma- 
terial, $200. Peru — 8 pkgs. material, $338. Rotterdam — 8 pkgs. ma- 
terial, $131. Santo Domingo — 4 pkgs. material, $124. Southampton 
— 19 pkgs. material, $1,236; 10 pkgs. wire, $735. Sunderland — i pkg. 
material, $16. U. S. Colombia — 2 pkgs. machinery, $100. 

HARRISBURG ENGINE SALES.— Mr. W. P. Mackenzie, 203 
Broadway, New York, reports that the Harrisburg Engine domestic 
contracts recently secured through its local offices include one for 
high-speed engines, intended to displace others for lighting purposes, 
at the Hotel Netherland, New York City. The order calls for a 300- 
hp simple Harrisburg standard engine, also a 225-hi) machine of the 
same type. These engines are to be direct connected to generators of 
200 kw and 150 kw capacity, built by the Western Electric Company. 
Two 150-hp compound engines have been ordered by the Pennsyl- 
vania Steel Company for the equipment of its Steelton (Pa.) plant. 
The generators therewith are to be built by the Eddy Manufactur- 
ing Company. These machines will be 100 kw each. The Farrell 
Foundry & Machine Company, of Ansonia, Conn., has ordered a 220- 
hp tandem compound standard engine for direct connection to a 150- 
kw General Electric generator. This equipment will be used to run 
cranes. The Ashley & Bailey Mills, Paterson, N. J., are to be in- 
stalled with a 75-hp simple engine, direct connected to a so-hp gen- 
erator manufactured by the New England Electric Company, of 
Lowell, Mass. The Northport (L. I.) Electric Light Company has 
requisitioned for a loo-hp, also a 60-hp Harrisburg standard-belted 
engine for street railway work. Contracts recently secured through 
the Philadelphia offices of the Harrisburg Company include one for 
two tandem compound four-valve engines, of 600 hp each, for Read- 
ing (Pa.) street railway work, and a machine of similar description 
for the Wilmington (Del.) electric traction plant. 

VILTER ORDERS FOR ENGINES.— The Vilter Manufacturing 
Company, among their recent orders, including a large variety of re- 
frigerating plants, etc., report also the following sales of Corliss en- 
gines : Goetz & Brada Manufacturing Company, Chicago, 111., 12 by 
30; Sawyer & Austin Lumber Company, Pine Bluff, Ark., 24 by 42; 
Duluth Brewing & Malting Company, Duluth, Minn., 16 by 36; Al- 
lentown Shoe Manufacturing Company, Allentown, Pa.. 12 by 30; 
Ambrose West, Plymouth, Pa., 14 by 36; Deerbrook Milling & Mer- 
cantile Company, Deerbrook, Wis., 12 by 30; South Bend Chilled 
Plow Company, South Bend, Ind., 24 by 42 ; Wendnagel & Co., Chi- 
cago, 111., 16 by 36; Schiess y Cia., Torreon, Me.x., 14 by 36; Hess & 
Hopkins Leather Company, Rockford, III., 18 by 42; Binsfeld 
Brothers, Chilton, Wis., 14 by 30; O. F. Mayer & Brothers, Chicago, 
III., 12 by 30; Foster-Hafner Mills. Oshkosh, Wis., 24 by 48; Bloch 
Brothers Tobacco Company, Wheeling, W. Va., 18 by 36; T. G. 
Mandt Vehicle Company, Stoughton, Wis., 18 by 36; .American 
Hulled Bean Company, Battle Creek, Mich., 14 by 36; Moore-Cortes 
Canal Company, Crowley, La., 22 by 44 by 48 tandem compound Cor- 
liss engine ; Roller Canal Company, Crowley, La., 26 by 48 Corliss 

AFRIC.\. — .An American electrically equipped brewery is now un- 
der construction at Cape Town, South Africa, which will be the first 
electrical plant of its description on that continent. The brewery is 
being erected from plans executed by H. Steinmann, the brewery 
architect, of 66-68 New Street, New York City, and will be operated 
by the South African Breweries, Limited, a syndicate composed of 
some of the leading brewers in Great Britain. Everything, other- 
wise than the bricks and mortar, will be manufactured in the United 
States. The total cost of the establishment will be about $550,000. 

the equipment alone causing the expenditure of over a quarter of a 
million dollars. The plant is to have an annual capacity for turn- 
ing out 120,000 barrels of ale, 60,000 barrels of lager and 40,000 bar- 
rels of porter and stout. The electrical apparatus, etc., will consist 
of two 75-kw General Electric generators, direct connected to hori- 
zontal compound engines, to be supplied by the Payne Engineering 
Company. There are also to be one 35-hp, one 25-hp, four 15-hp, 
two 7H-hp and one 5-hp motors. The brewery is expected to begin 
active operations by May i. 

from Cleveland state that Judge Thomas is there working on a plan 
to take the Federal & United States Telephone properties off the 
hands of the Everett-Moore bankers and consolidate with the Tele- 
phone, Telegraph & Cable Company of America. It is alleged in 
New York and Boston financial organs that the difficulties met by 
the Everett-Moore Syndicate in raising further money were due 
to opposition stirred up by Bell telephone interests, who tried to buy 
their independent telephone properties at the panic prices so as to 
turn them over to the Central Union system, and that it was in this 
way rather than by opposition due to steam railroad financiers that 
the troubles really arose ; in fact, large amounts of the telephone 
stock are said to have been bought up with Bell capital, but these 
later dispatches would leave it to be inferred that the properties 
have not yet been "gathered in." If they were, it might make con- 
siderable difference to the independent telephone cause. Hence the 
interest attaching to these rumors about Judge Thomas and the 
T., T. & C. plans. 

Philadelphia, which has been doing business as a partnership, has 
recently incorporated with $100,000 paid in capital. This concern is 
likely to play a prominent part in the electrical field as manufacturers' 
agents, because of the extensive connections which it has with the 
buyer and the seller in the larger realm of electrical supplies and 
novelties. The multiplicity of electrical specialties, which are being 
put on the market to-day, and the increasingly large expense for 
marketing the same, opens up a productive field for the manufactur- 
er's agent. The Penn Manufacturing Supply Company has opened 
attractive offices in the Forest Building in Philadelphia, and is look- 
ing forward a little later in the year to establishing offices in New 
York, Boston, Pittsburg and Chicago, and has our best wishes for 
its success. 

LOWER COPPER. — One more cut in the price of Lake copper 
was announced last week — seven-eighths of a cent per poimd — mak- 
ing the price 121-^ cents per pound, or nearly 5 cents less than the 
early December prices. It was also annoimced that a reduction of 
seven-eighths of a cent had been made in electrolytic copper, making 
the price 12 cents; and in castings a i-cent reduction to iiH cents. 
There have been three previous reductions in the price of copper. 
The first, on Dec. 13, was from 17 to 15^-^ cents; the second, on Dec. 
18, from 15J/2 to 14 cents; the third, on Dec. 19, from 14 to 13 cents. 
It would seem that the latest quotations must be bed rock — possibly 
intended to shake out cheap independent producers. 

-American Vitrified Conduit Company, whose offices are in the Tay- 
lor Building, 39-41 Cortlandt Street, is anticipating the receipt, 
within the next week or two, of a substantial Russian contract for 
conduit. The material is intended to be utilized in connection with 
electric lighting, etc. Quotations have been asked on some 3,500,000 
ft. of conduit, which will represent the expenditure of some $250,000. 
The company is also said to be bidding on a large Belgian contract. 
In this instance the conduit is required for telephone wires. 

PHILIPPINES CABLE.— The United States Government is 
about to let a contract for the furnishing of some 250 miles of single 
conductor telegraph cable, which is to be used for military purposes 
in the Philippines. 

who own the Sumpter Light & Power Company, are building an elec- 
tric road, and have been in the market for direct-current generator, 
engine and boiler plant, etc. 

"THE GRANBY RUBBER COMPANY, Granby, Que., will build 
an industrial railway system in connection with its works, for which 
plans are now being prepared. The railway will be narrow gauge 
and motive power electricity. 

CATALOGUES WANTED.— The Patterson Tool & Supply Com- 
pany. Dayton, Ohio, is opening an electrical supply branch in con- 
nection with its business, and solicits catalogues and prices from 
manufacturers of electrical goods. 

BRASS PRICES.— The Brass Association announces the follow- 
ing cuts : Wire and rods from 30 to 37^ per cent, brass tubing from 
40 to 45 per cent. Like the cut in sheets, to 18 cents, these reductions 
put the product on a price equality with copper at 13 cents. 

EXCELSIOR IRON WORKS, Cleveland, Ohio, arc reported in 
the market for various electrical equipment. 


Vol. XXXIX., No. 2. 

General IFlews. 

THE Telephone. 

SADORUS, ILL. — It is reported that Sadorus is to have a new telephone 
line for the benefit of the grain merchants. 

ELGIN, ILL. — The Northwestern Telephone stockholders held a meeting at 
Aurora and voted to consolidate with the Interstate Telephone Company. 

MORRISON, ILL. — The Central Union Telephone Company is building a line 
from Garden Plain to Albany. The line will be continued on to Cordova in 
the spring. 

GREENFIELD, IND. — The Extra Telephone Company, capital stock $i6o, 
has been incorporated. Directors: J. C. Catt, A. L. Zimmerman, G. E. Lacy, 
N. S. Catt, Lena Walker, C A. Jackson and R. S. McClannon. 

HENRYVILLE, IND. — The Cumberland Telephone Company has announced 
that its telephone exchange in this place will be ready for business Feb. i. The 
exchange will include Memphis and Ostisco subscribers. This will make three 
telephone companies in this city. 

TERRE HAUTE, IXD.— The farmer lines of telephones are playing an im- 
portant part in the enforcement of the game law. A woman owning a farm in 
this county telephoned the game warden that hunters were on her farm without 
permission. The warden arrived on her farm in time to arrest the four hunt- 
ers, who had no idea an officer could be summoned without their being aware of 
the fact by seeing the messenger start to town. Each offender was fined. 

INDIANAPOLIS, lND.~The Board of Public Safety has awarded a contract 
to the Central Union Telephone Company to furnish the fire department with 
three business independent line connections, four business independent line con- 
nections for the police department and seven resident independent connections. 
The consideration is $490. The "big end" of the telephone contract — $1,310 — 
went to the New Company, and it is thought the board let the contract to the 
Central Union to "even up." 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND.— The following telephone companies have filed ar- 
ticles of incorporation: The College Corner & Southern Telephone Company, to 
operate a telephone system in Union and Franklin counties; directors, Charles 
Stout, J. C. Barkley, James James, L. B. Barkley and W. 'E. Bake. The New 
Ross Co-operative Telephone Company, of New Ross, Ind. ; directors, C. E. 
Johnson, F. J. Brooker, R. F. King, R. L. Brattan and D. \V. Lane. The Branch 
Independent Telephone Company, of Saratoga; capital, $io,oco; directors, P. A. 
Dailey, Cyrus Bousman, Eliza Dailey, M. Y. Bousman and Charles Skinner. 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND.— The New Telephone Company was the successful 
bidder and will furnish telephone service to the various city departments. The 
contract calls for two trunk lines from the exchange to the police headquarters 
and three trunk lines to fire headquarters. The contract for furnishing receivers 
and transmitters for the Gamewell police and fire alarm bo.xes at the rental rate 
of $150 per year for 105 boxes and transmitters and receivers was also awarded 
to the New Company. The city also agreed to purchase for the city the receivers 
and transmitters for $400, and if the purchase is made within six months the 
sum to be paid for rental will be applied on the purchase price. Free telephones 
and service will be given to the homes of the members of the Board of Public 
Safety, the clerk of the board and other officers of the department. 

WASHINGTON, lA.— A new ■telephone line is to be built from Bishop, near 
Lexington to Wellman. A line to Washington from the same starting point 
is talked of. 

ATCHISON, KAN.^Edward Foote, of Clyde, is trying to secure a franchise 
to build a telephone exchange in Effingham. 

PADUCAH, KY. — A new telephone line is to be built from Paducah, Ky., 
to Joppa, 111. 

MAYSVILLE, KY.- — The farmers of Mason County arc organizing a Home 
Telephone Company. The leaders of the enterprise are William Luttrell, Abner 
Hord, John T. Martin, W. L. Holton, W. H. Robb, William McLlelland and 

MOREAUVILLE, LA.— The Avoyelles Telephone Company, of which Mr. A. 
0. Boycr, of this town, is president, has completed its line from Bunkle to this 
place. The company will have in the near future lines from this town to 
Bordelonville, Plancheville, Mansura and Marksville. 

PORTLAND, ME. — The Dirigo Telephone Company has been granted per- 
mission to construct conduits and run its wires through them in many streets in 
this city. 

ONTONAGON, MICH.— The Ontonagon Telephone Company, capital stock 
$25,000, has been incorporated. 

MARQUETTE, MICH. — A company has been organized to construct a tele- 
phone line between Ironwood and other cities on the Gogebic range and those 
at the head of the lake. 

MARSHALL, MICH. — In compliance with the resolutions adopted at a citi- 
zens' meeting some time ago about 100 Michigan Telephone Company residence 
telephones were ordered taken out on Jan. i, as the subscribers refused to 
agree to the raise in rates. Two other telephone companies arc seeking fran- 

VIRGINIA CITY. MINN.— People's Telephone & Telegraph Company, capi- 
tal stock $50,000, has been incorporated by P. E. Bailey and A. C. Orborn, 
Evelctt; and P. A. Coffey, D. W. Freeman and R. B. Greedy. Virginia City. 

WINONA, MINN. — The Greenwood Telephone Company has been formed at 
Plainview with an authorized capital stock of $25,000. Plainview, Weaver, 
Thellman. Kcgan and Bcavc will be connected. The incorporators are Andrew 
French, Wm. Lea, F. D. Washburn, Lawrence Ryan, F. H. Hanncman, Frank 
Appel and Hey Grove. 

HAVRE, MONT.— The Town Council has decided to grant the electric light, 
waterworks, steam heat and telephone franchises petitioned for by E. V. 

HELENA. MONT. — Articles of incorporation have been filed by the Mon- 
tana & Wyoming Telephone Company, with a capital stock of $40,000. The pur- 
pose of the company is to connect Montana and Wyoming points by telephone. 
The present termini of the company's lines are Billings, Mont., and Basin*, 
Wyo. The principal places of business of the company are designated as Red 
Lodge and Billings. Incorporators: L. L. Moffett, Billings; C. C. Bowlen, Red 
Lodge; P. B. Moss, Billings; J. F. Trumbo. Bridge; B. E. Vaill, Carbondale; 
Charles M. Blair. Billings; R. L. Davis, W. A. Talmage, J. S. Robbins, Red 

KANSAS CITY, MO.— The People's Telephone Company, capital sto<i 
$50,000, has been incorporated by Henry Wood, W. H. Steele and others. 

JEFFERSON CITY, MO.— The De Kalb County Mutual Telephone Com- 
pany has filed a statement of increase of capital stock from $5,000 to $25,000. 

MEMPHIS, MO.— The telephone system here has passed into the hands of a 
new company composed of John M. JaAes, W. L. Scott, David Secor, J. J. Risk, 
G. E. Leslie, W. W. Eckman and J. J. Townsend. 

HASTINGS, NEB.— The American District Telegraph Company has asked the 
City Council of Hastings for a franchise. 

AURORA, NEB. — The Nebraska Telephone Company is at work on a plan to 
consolidate Aurora, Hampton, Marquette, Giltner and Phillips into one ex- 
change with the central station in Aurora. 

MANCHESTER, N. H.— At the annual meeting of the Northern Telegraph 
Company the following officers were re-elected: President, Marion C. Smyth; 
clerk, Arthur H. Hale; directors, Marion C. Smyth, Arthur E. Clarke, Charles 
H. Anderson. The treasurer, A. F. Emerson, holds over. A dividend of two 
and one-half per cent, was declared. 

ROCHESTER, N. Y.— The Rochester Telephone Company, of Rochester, has 
filed a certificate of increase of capital from $400,000 to $700,000. 

MINGOE JUNCTION, OHIO.— The Bell Telephone Company has opened a 
new exchange here. 

NORWALK, OHIO. — The Bankers' Telephone Company, capital stock $10,000, 
has been incorporated. 

ZANESVILLE, OHIO.— The board of education has called for bids for tele- 
phones in all school buildings. 

CALCUTTA, OHIO. — The Columbiana County Telephone Company is plan- 
ning to establish an exchange in this place with toll lines to East Liverpool. 

URBAN A, OHIO.— C. H. Marvin, of this city, has filed a petition asking 
for the appointment of a receiver for the Mechanicsburg Telephone Company. 

ORRVILLE, OHIO.— The Central Union Telephone Company has filed a 
petition in the Probate Court to have the mode of construction for its lines deter- 

EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO.— Operators at the Columbiana County Telephone 
Company's exchange went on strike a few days ago, but the difficulty was soon 

LIMA, OHIO. — The Lima Telephone & Telegraph Company has cut in its new 
exchange, which has just been completed. The company is securing many new 

GENEVA, OHIO. — The Madison Telephone Company is building several fann- 
ers' lines in the vicinity of this town, and is preparing to place metallic circuits 
on all lines. 

CADIZ, OHIO. — The Harrison County Telephone Company has just installed 
an addition to its switchboard, the increase being necessary to take care of a 
large number of new suscribers. 

ALLIANCE, OHIO.— The exchange of the Stark County Telephone Com- 
pany at Alliance is now in full operation, with 400 subscribers connected up. 
The list is increasing every day. 

COLUMBUS, OHIO.— The Central Union Telephone Company has appointed 
a subscribers* agent whose duty it will be to inspect telephone instruments and 
receive suggestions from subscribers. 

ORWELL, OHIO.— The directors of the Madison Telephone Company have 
declared a 3 per cent, dividend, payable Jan. 20. The company will make a 
number of improvements to its system. 

HAMILTON, OHIO.— The City & Suburban Telegraph Association of Cin- 
cinnati, has been granted a franchise by the Butler County Commissioners to 
build a number of pole lines in the county. 

UPPER SANDUSKY, OHIO.— The Upper Sandusky Home Telephone Com- 
pany is making rapid gains among the farmers in this vicinity. Over twenty- 
five subscribers were secured in the rural district within ten days recently. 

YELLOW SPRINGS, OHIO.— It is reported that the two separate telephone 
systems now being established in Clarke and Greene counties, will ultimately be 
merged under one management, to be known as the Home Telephone Company. 

MECHANICSBURG, OHIO.— C. II. Marvin, a former director of the Me- 
chanicsburg Telephone Comparty, has asked that a receiver be appointed for the 
company in order to protect him on certain notes which he signed as surety while 
he was a director. 

CONNEAUT, OHIO.— -The new exchange of the Conncaut Telephone Com- 
pany will be placed in operation in about two weeks. Cables have been laid for 
1500 lines and the switchboard has a capacity of 700. A number of lines have 
already been connected. 

PORTSMOUTH, OHIO.- During November, the Portsmouth Telephone Com- 
pany made a net gain of nearly 100 subscribers, which will necessitate the in- 
stallation of another switchboard and additional cable. The telephone business 
along the Ohio River is growing rapidly. 

CHILLICOTIIE. OHIO.— Because of an advance in rates by the Bell Com- 
pany the physicians of Chillicothc have signed an agreement dispensing with 
the use of Bell telephones after Jan. i. The Ross County Telephone Company 
made a proposition which was accepted by all the physicians. 

TOLEDO, OHIO.— The Toledo Home Telephone Company has opened an ex- 
change at Whitchousc with sixty subscribers, and another at Maumee with about 

January ii, 1902. 


the same number. The new exchange at Sylvania will be opened within a few 
days. Work on the main Toledo exchange is progressing rapidly. 

ST. CLAIRESVILLE, OHIO.— The Belmont Telephone Company has com- 
pleted its line to West Wheeling. At this point it was expected that the line 
would connect with the independent company at Bellaire, but there has been a 
hitch, and it is stated that the Belmont Company may build a line of its own 
through Bellaire. 

OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLA.— The Oklahoma Consolidated Railway Company 
will operate a telephone system in connection with its electric railways. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA.— A local telephone line will connect the villages of 
Worcester, Centre Square, West Point, Lansdale and Kulpsville. 

SIOUX FALLS, S. D.— For the third time Judge Jones, of this city, in the 
suit between the City of Bridgewater and the Bridgewater Telephone Company, 
has decided in favor of the company and against the town. His decision places 
all the costs and damages amounting to over $t,ooo, on the town, and gives the 
company the right to go ahead and establish its system if it so desires. 

MEMPHIS, TENN. — The Citizens' Telephone Company has been organized at 
McMinnville, Tenn. Orders have been placed for poles, and other necessary 
materials for constructing the plant and lines of the company and work will be 
pushed as rapidly as possible. Already more than loo patrons of the Cum- 
berland Telephone & Telegraph Company have signified their intention of using 
the lines of the independent concern. 

DENTON, TEXAS.— The City Council has granted to W. A. Armstrong, of 
Sherman, a franchise to install another telephone exchange in this city. 

SPOKANE, WASH.— It is announced that the Pacific States Telephone Com- 
pany is planning to build a new line from Wenatchee to Malaga and Rock 

EAST TROY, WIS.— The farmers' telephone line now in operation has no 
subscribers connected. 

GRAND RAPiDS, WIS.— The Wood County Telephone Company has in- 
creased its capital stock from $10,000 to $18,000. 

WAUKESHA, WIS. — The Bell Telephone Company is arranging to give 
the city of Waukesha better telephone service. The lines are to be entirely re- 


SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. — The Standard Electric Company, of California, 
recently won a suit for right of way for its long-distance transmission pole line 
from Blue Lakes to San Francisco. It fixed the damages for passing through 
the Corbitt ranch at Burlingame at $400. But one more suit will have to be 
decided to give entrance to San Francisco. 

SA.N FRANCISCO, CALIF.— Reno, Nevada, is now connected with the Truc- 
kee River General Electric Company's transmission lines. Both Virginia City 
and Reno are now liglited by this company, which is now able to pay dividends 
without depending upon the business of the Comstock Lode, although the mines 
of that district gave a bonus of $100,000 to secure the plant. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.— Santa Rosa now receives electricity for lighting 
and power purposes from the transmission lines of the Bay Counties Power Com- 
pany. An all-night street lighting service is now in operation. The California 
Gas & Electric Company, which distributes the current locally, also controls the 
local gas plant and is rebuilding it. A pipe line 16 miles in length will be laid to 
convey gas to Fetaluma for lighting purposes. 

CHICAGO, ILL.— The Litchfield Electric Light & Power Company, of Litch- 
field, has changed its name to Litchfield Gas & Electric Company, and its capital 
stock has been increased from $25,000 to $50,000. 

ALTON, ILL. — A petition is being circulated for signatures calling on the 
City Council to pass an ordinance regulating the ma.ximum price to be charged 
for electricity for illuminating purposes. The Alton Railway, Gas & Electric 
Company has the franchise for serving gas and electric light, and it is claimed 
by the company that it is operating under a franchise that will admit of no 
regulations being made for some time to come. The matter of regulating the 
electric light prices has not been looked into. It is alleged that the prices 
charged are unreasonable. 

I.XDIANAPOLIS, IND.— The Merchants' Light & Power Company has been 
organized here. The company has asked the Board of Public Works for a 

UNION CITY, IND.— An effort is being made by H. P. Lucas, owner of the 
electric plant here, to induce the City Council to extend his franchise, promising 
a first class plant if they will. The load at present is entirely too heavy for the 
present plant. 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND.— The State authorities have concluded to build a 
plant to furnish heat, water, light and power for the State House and Soldier's 
Monument in this city. The cost of the proposed plant will exceed $100,000. 
The Legislature will be asked for an appropriation. 

LAWRENCEBURG, IND.— The new electric light plant is now in operation. 
The company, which was incorporated by John N. Fox, T. J. McKim and W. T. 
Sortwell, has a 30-year franchise and a ten-year contract to furnish the city 63 
arc lights of 2000 nominal candle-power at $48.25 each per year. The company 
also provides commercial lighting. 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND.— The Board of Public Works is receiving numerous 
petitions for franchises for electric light and power plants. The petitioners are 
groups of merchants who propose to erect plants to supply light, heat and power 
to their buildings. In some instances the petitions include the same, or parts 
of the same territory, and the competition is growing spirited. The Board has 
not acted on the petitions, as it has not yet decided on its policy as to franchises 
for light and power companies, and is unwilling to grant such franchises indis- 

VAN HORNE, lA. — Mr. J. A. Wicke is putting in an electric light plant and 
is receiving bids for first and second-hand apparatus, consisting of a 30 to 40-hp 

engine, 30 to 50-hp boiler and a generator of 600 lamps of i6-cp capacity. He 
wants to get the plant running in 60 days. 

LEAVENWORTH, KAN.— The Leavenworth gas and electric light plants 
have been purchased by S. Reading Bertron and Richard S. Storrs, both of 
New York. The price paid was $250,000. 

NEWBERN, N. C. — The electric light bonds issued by the city have been sold 
to F. M. Stafford & Company, of Chattanooga, Tenn., at loS'/i. 

ST.ATESVILLE, N. C— The electric light plant at this place was partially 
destroyed by fire; loss estimated between $2,500 and $3,000. Dynamos, switch- 
board, etc., were ruined. 

GLENS FALLS, N. Y.— In regard to the rumor that the General Electric Com- 
pany had purchased the Palmer Mills plant of the International Paper Company, 
on the Hudson River above Glens Falls, for the power privileges, it is authorita- 
tively stated that the General Electric Company has made no such purchase, nor 
has it any intention of so doing. 

HUBBARD, OHIO.— The citizens of Hubbard are agitating for a lighting 
plant of some kind. The town has been without illumination for several 

OTTAWA, ONT.— It is reported that a company will build conduits for the 
electric light and power companies in Montreal. Senator Forget's idea is that 
the city should control the conduits and provide the means for their construction, 
charging the companies a rental. 

OTTAWA, ONT.— The Canadian Niagara Falls Power Company has acquired 
some 300 acres back of the high bluff at Niagara Falls. The property will be 
used for factory and industrial sites. The same plan is to be carried out on the 
Canadian side as has been adopted on the American side of the river, which is to 
provide sites and power for any company desiring to locate there. 

OTTAWA, ONT.— The directors of the Lachine Hydraulic & Land Company 
have declared a semi-annual dividend of 31-i per c^nt. This makes the sixth 
semi-annual dividend declared by this company, the first being 2 per cent. It is 
said that the company might have easily made the present dividend declared for 
4 per cent., or even more, but deemed it best to declare only 3V2 for the half- 

OTTAWA, ONT.— It is reported that the Chambly Manufacturing Company, 
of Montreal, is about to acquire the Lachine Hydraulic & Land Company, at a 
cost of $4,000,000. The Chambly Company is already under the control of the 
Montreal Light, Heat & Power Company, and this deal will give the Power 
Company a practical monopoly in Montreal, unless new opposition should be 
forthcoming. Since the organization of the latter concern, with its $17,000,000 
capitalization, less than a year ago, it has absorbed all the lighting and power 
concerns doing business in the city of Montreal, except the Lachine Hydraulic 
Company. Negotiations have been under way for some time, looking to the 
purchase of that company. The power combine will not be the direct purchaser 
of the Lachine Company's plant. It will pass into the hands of the Montreal & 
St. Lawrence Light & Power Company, formerly known as the Chambly Manu- 
facturing Company, which recently obtained authority to change its name and 
issue bonds. 

ANDERSON, S. C— On the night of Dec. 20 part of the dam of the Ander- 
son Water, Light & Power Company was washed away and the damage is esti- 
mated at $100,000. The dam was 700 feet long, 44 feet high, and 30 feet wide 
at the base. About 150 feet is missing in the centre. It is estimated that the 
cost of repairing will not be less than $60,000. In the meanwhile, many indus- 
tries in the city of Anderson will be compelled to remain idle. 

ELIZABETHTON, TENN.— Col. Chas. Toncray and Geo. E. Boren have re- 
turned from New York, where they have been closing negotiations for the 
erection of a modern steel plant at Elizabeth. An 8000 horse-power electric 
plant will be erected as soon as a location is decided upon. 

EVANSVILLE, WIS. — The city contemplates erecting a $51,000 electric light 
and waterworks plant. 


SAN FRANCISCO. C.'\LU-'.— It is reported on good authority that the Oak- 
land Transit Company has almost completed negotiations for the remaining 
half interest in the Macdonald and Henshaw franchise for an electric road from 
Martinez, via Richmond, to Oakland, Calif. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.— The Oakland Transit Company will construct 
an additional electric railway line giving North Berkeley, Calif., connection with 
the company's system. The new road will be in the form of a loop, running 
north of the grounds of the University of California and connecting with the 
West Berkeley lines. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.— The latest report on the prospective sale of the 
North Pacific Coast R.iilway, which terminates in Sausalito, Calif., is that the 
price has been set at $2,000,000, or about one-half the cost of the road. It is the 
intention of Messrs. Childs, Colgate and Martin, of the new California Electric 
Company, to extend the road to Sacramento and operate it by electricity. The 
deal my be consummated on Jan. 15. 

ATLANTA, GA.— The Georgia Railway & Electric Company has applied for a 
charter; capital stock, $3,000,000. H. M. Atkinson and others are interested. 

SAVANNAH, GA. — The Savannah Electric Company has been chartered, 
with a capital stock of $3,500,000, consolidating all of the street car lines in 
Savannah. Geo. Baldwin, J, R. Anderson and others arc interested. 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. — The Commissioners of this county have granted a 
franchise to M. I>. Whitney and others to build and operate an intcrurban rail- 
way line from the city limits northeast to the county line, along the Pleasant Run 



Vol. XXXIX,, No. 2. 

WABASH, IND.— Messrs. Drake, Breed & Company, o£ PhUadelphia, have 
taken the contract to build a 20-mile stretch of interurban electric railway con- 
necting this city with Marion, beginning work early in the spring. The pro- 
moters are G. A. H. Shiedler, R. E. Breed and C. S. King. The contractors 
have made a careful inspection of the route and say Philadelphia capital has been 
provided to construct the line. Terminal rights are now being arranged at 
Marion and this city. 

MOUNT STERLING, KY.— The Lexington Electric Railway Company has 
been granted the right of way from Winchester to Mt. Sterling. The line may 
also be extended to Maysville from Mt. Sterling. 

LOUISVILLE, KY.— President T. J. Minary, of the Louisville Street Rail- 
way Company, has addressed a letter to the Mayor outlining the plans of the 
company. The company will purchase for delivery during 1902 from 75 to 100 
electric cars. A new engine and generator have been installed representing a 
heavy expenditure. The lines of the company have also been extended, represent- 
ing an outlay of §105,000. 

DETROIT, MICH.— There is talk that the Everett-Moore syndicate will extend 
its Detroit-Pontiac line to Lj sing by way of Milford, Howell, and Will- 
iamson. -,, 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. — An electric railway line between Mankato and 
St. Cloud is projected, the distance between the two points being about 100 
miles. Col. Chase, of Cleveland, Ohio, is promoting the enterprise. 

SUMMIT, MISS. — The electric railway between this town, McComb and 
Magnolia in Pike County, is still being agitated, and is now said to be assuming 
something like tangible shape. 

ELIZABETH CITY, N. C. — A charter has been granted and the company 
incorporated to build the proposed electric railway to Norfolk, Va. 

• TRENTON, N. J. — Mayor Briggs vetoed the ordinances giving the Camden 
& Trenton Traction Company authority to extend its lines into the centre of the 
city of Trenton. The ordinances will probably be passed over the Mayor's veto. 
SCHENECTADY, N. Y.— The Schenectady Railway Company, of Schenectady, 
has filed a certificate of increase of capital from $300,000 to $600,000. 

SYDNEY, N. S.— The Cape Breton Electric Company, of Sydney, N. S., is 
about to commence the erection of a new power house. Engines of 1000 horse- 
power will be installed at the outset. 

TROY, OHIO. — Work has commenced on acquiring right of way for the 
Dayton-Kenton electric railway. 

WOODVILL|:, OHIO.— The Lake Shore Electric Railway has applied for a 
franchise to double track its line through the town. 

DOYLESTOWN, OHIO.— The Doylestown Council has granted a franchise 
through town to the Canton, Lodi & Medina Electric Railway. 

FINDLAY, OHIO.— The Findlay & Marion Railway Company, which is pro- 
moted by Hon. David Joy and others, has applied for a franchise in Findlay. 

DAYTON, OHIO. — The Dayton & Northern Traction Company is making 
preparations to extend its road to Muncie, Ind. Right of way is being secured. 

HAMILTON, OHIO. — The Miamisburg & Germantown Traction Company 
has issued $50,000 in bonds which have been taken by the Cincinnati Trust 

AKRON, OHIO.— The annual meeting of the stockholders of the Northern 
Ohio Traction Company will be held Jan. 18. It is stated that a number of 
important changes will be made. 

ATHENS, OHIO.— It is stated that the promoters of the Athens & Nelson- 
villc Traction Company will carry out their long-talked-about project of a line 
from Athens to Nelsonville and other places. 

DAYTON, OHIO.— The Dayton & Xenia Transit Company, controlling the 
two lines between Dayton and Xenia, has issued $800,000 in bonds, which have 
been taken by the Old Colony Trust Company. 

SPRINGFIELD, OHIO. — Harry Prey has secured a street railway franchise 
through Greene County from Clifton to Xenia. The line will be a spur of the 
road he proposes to build from Springfield to Wilmington. 

SPRINGFIELD, OHIO.— The Dayton. Springfield & Urbana Railway is re- 
ported to be buying up all the cordwood in sight, as it is almost impossible to 
secure enough coal to keep the power house in operation. 

CONNEAUT, OHIO.— The Conneaut & Eric Traction Company, of which J. 
S. Van Clcvc is president, and H. E. Fish, secretary, has secured nearly all of 
the right of way for its proposed line from Conneaut to Erie. 

WILMINGTON, OHIO. — Franchises are being secured for the proposed elec- 
tric railway from Springfield to Hillsboro. Right of way has been secured 
through Greene County. The road is to be built in the spring. 

PIQUA, OHIO. — A new line is proposed from Springfield to this place, pass- 
ing through Lawrenccville, North Hampton, Dilton, Addison, and Casstown. 
The company already has right of way from Springfield to Addison. 

TOLEDO. OHIO.— The Tiffin & Southern Railway Company has placed a con- 
tract with the Pennsylvania Contracting Company for the construction and 
equipment of the road from Tiffin to Kenton, a distance of 43 miles. 

ASHTABULA, OHIO.— The Ashtabula Rapid Transit Company has made a 
proposition for a franchise covering existing lines and proposed extensions. 
The company agrees to pay a portion of its gross receipts to the city. 

MARIETTA, OHIO.— The Marietta Electric Railway Company has formally 
transferred its property to the Marietta & Parkcrsburg Interurban Company. 
The Marietta*Parkersburg line will be placed in operation within a short time. 

GALION, OHIO. — The Ohio Central Traction Company commenced regular 
service Christmas day between Galion and Crestline. Cars arc now operated 
from Bucyrus to Crestline. Work on the line between Crestline and Mansfield 
is being pushed. 

SMITHFIELD, OHIO.—Local people are securing right of way for a line 

to extend from Adena through Smithfield, Dillonvale, Harriettville and Mt. 
Pleasant to Warrenton, where it would connect with the line between Steuben- 
ville and Wheeling. 

NORWALK, OHIO.— The Norwalk, Greenwich & Mansfield Railway Com- 
pany will shortly be organized. M. J. Roseboro, of Canton, and J. C. Laser, of 
Mansfield, are the pruiiioters, and they claim to have secured nearly all right 
of way and franchises. 

FINDLAY, OHIO.— D;-. U 'enbaugh, of Sandusky, one of the promoters of the 
Findlay & Southern Railway, ciaims that all right of way for the road has been 
secured and that construction work will start in the spring. R. Rosenstock & 
Company, Cleveland, are engineers fur the road. 

SPRINGFIELD, OHIO. — The scarcity of coal is proving a serious embarrass- 
ment to power-houses in Springfield and Dayton. The Dayton, Springfield & 
Urbana power-house burned wood part of the time recently, and several times 
there was danger that the road would be tied up. 

YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO.— The Youngstown Park & Falls Electric RaUway 
has declared a semi-annual dividend of 3 per cent., the highest ever paid. The 
old officers were re-elected. An appropriation of $15,000 was made to improve 
Idora Park, and other improvements were discussed. 

LIMA, OHIO.— D. J. Cable, president of the Lima, Delphos, Van Wert & 
Ft. Wayne Traction Company, states that all right of w^ay for the line has been 
secured, and that engineers will commence surveys within the next two weeks. 
The line will be 60 miles in length, and it is claimed it will be in operation by 
Dec. I, 190J. 

NEWARK, OHIO.— It is stated that L. C. Taylor and John S. Black, pro- 
moters of the line between Newark and Wheeling, have secured all the required 
right of way, and th^t they have completed arrangements with New York 
financiers to finance the project. The road if built will give Columbus direct 
electric connection with Wheeling. 

TOLEDO, OHIO. — C. A. Denman, heretofore general manager of the To- 
ledo & Mauniee Valley Railway, which has just been sold by the Detwiler-Griffin 
syndicate, has been appointed to a similar position with the Toledo & Lima 
Traction Company, a road being built by the same syndicate. Mr. Denman is 
one of the pioneer street railway men of Toledo. 

UPPER SANDUSKY, OHIO.— It is stated that the Tiffin & Southern Rail- 
way Company, which has recently secured Eastern financial backing and has 
placed a contract for the immediate construction of the road, has acquired the 
light of way and franchise secured last year by the Tiffin & Southwestern Railway, 
which was promoted by Samuel Bullock and others of Tiffin. The road will be 
built over the route proposed by the Bullock Company, extending from Tiffin to 
Kenton by way of Upper Sandusky, McCutchenville and Marseilles. 

TOLEDO, OHIO.— The Everett-Moore syndicate has closed the deal for the 
purchase of the Toledo & Maumee Valley Railway and the Toledo, Waterville & 
Southern Railway. Immediately after the transfer of the properties, special 
meetings were held and officers of the companies were elected as follows: To- 
ledo & Maumee Valley Railway: R. H. Baker, president; William H. McLellan, 
Jr., secretary; Barton Smith, Guy M. Walker, William R. Hodge, and Conrad 
Weil, directors. Toledo, Waterville & Southern Railway: Ernest J. Bechtel, 
president; W. W. Brown, secretary; C. N. Jackson, Guy M. Walker, Charles T. 
Munz and Josiah Scott, directors. L. E. Beilstein, of the Toledo Railways & 
Light Company, was made general manager of both properties. 

OTTAWA, ONT.— The franchise of the South Essex Electric Railway Com- 
pany, of Windsor, Ont., has been purchased by the Everett-Moore Company, of 
Cleveland, Ohio. The charter and franchise extend from the city of Windsor to 
Point Pelee and Leamington. 

ROSEBURG, ORE. — An electric railway between here and the coast would 
be well patronized, and there is a good field for such an enterprise. 

NORRISTOWN, PA.— The Trappe & Limerick Electric Railway and the 
Roxborough. Chestnut Hill & Norristown Railway have been leased to the 
Schuylkill Valley Traction Company for 950 years. This combines all the lines 
heretofore operated under the several names, with a centre of operations here. 
The new power house at Collegeville will furnish power for the entire line, from 
Pottstown to Chestnut Hill, Manayunk and Wissahickon. 

PITTSBURG, PA.— The Philadelphia company of this city on Jan. i absorbed 
all tiie street railway and electric lighting interests in and about Pittsburg. The 
interests which have been amalgamated are the Consolidated Traction, Pittsburg 
and Birmingham, Monongahcla Street Railway, Pittsburg & Charlcroi. Suburban 
Traction, Soutliern Traction, Tustin Street Railway, Monongahela Heat, Light 
& Power, Southern Heat, Light & Power Company, and a number of other elec- 
tric traction or lighting companies of minor importance. The bonded indebted- 
ness has been increased from $6,500,000 to $22,000,000, and the capital stock from 
$21,000,000 to $36,000,000. The Philadelphia company forms one of the largest 
corporations in the electrical business of this country. Mr. James D. Gallery 
is the president and Mr. John Murphy, the general superintendent. 

KNOXVILLE, TENN.— The promoters of the electric railway from Knox- 
ville to Scvierville, it is said, have about decided to make the line a third-rail 

MANITOWOC, WIS.— The ManitowocTwo Rivers interurban electric road 
now being constructed, will soon be opened for business. 

MILWAUKEE, WIS.— The Columbia Construction Company of this city, 
has charge of the construction of the electric railway to be built between Fond 
du Lac and Oshkosh. The line will cost about $12,000 a mile, or $144,000 for 
the entire system. 

OSHKOSH, WIS.— The proposed Ouiro-Oshkosh electric railway seems prac- 
tically assured. The franchises have all been secured between Ouiro and Osh- 
kosh. The line will be constructed to carry passengers, express, mail and 
freight. The proposed line will be extended through Eureka to Berlin in time, 
and may eventually follow the Fox River Valley through to Portage, connecting 
there with the proposed lines to Madison, Janesville and the Wisconsin River 

January ii, 1902. FLECTRICAL WORLD and ENGINEER. 


been incorporated with a capital stock of $50,000. 

capital $1,200, has been incorporated at Harrisburg, Pa. 

THE RANKIN ELECTRIC COMPANY, Rankin, Pa., has been incorporated; 
capital, $1,200. 

COMPANY has been incorporated at St. Louis, Mo. The capital stock is 
$15,000, all paid. A. D. Gratian, Chas. M. Wempner, Maurice W. Koenigsberg 
and Frank X. Chassaing are the stockholders. 

F.WY, recently incorporated in Milwaukee, Wis., by J. H. Green, T. J. Seely 
and Chas. Hemsing, is manufacturing a line of telephone apparatus containing 
some new ideas. The company, it is said, has a new transmitter and a novel 
scheme in an automatic intercommunicating switchboard. 


GLAZE FILLED INSULATOR PATENT.— Note has already been made in 
these pages of patent decisions in favor of the glazed filled insulator patent of 
Mr. John W. Boch, of the R. Thomas & Sons Company. The last action in the 
affair is a supplementary opinion from the United States Circuit Court of New 
Jersey, against the defendant's plea for reargument, and sustaining Boch as fol- 
lows: "Boch has conceived and perfected that which others had striven for in 
vain. Characterized in a phrase, his invention may be spoken of as a glaze- 
filled multi-part porcelain insulator. Its particular features have already been 
adverted to. The process he employs and has patented seems peculiarly fitted to 
accomplish the end desired, but the fact that there may be others, does not 
debar him from laying claim to the result attained, of which he seems to be the 


MR. GODFREY MORGAN, formerly general manager of the Niagara Gorge 
Railway, has been appointed general superintendent of the Youngstown & 
Sharon (Ohio) Electric Railway. 

MR. WALTER C. ALLEN, the electrical engineer to the Commissioners for 
the District of Columbia, has just issued through them the annual report of the 
work done and supervised in Washington. It constitutes a very interesting and 
instructive document. 

MR. T. AHEARN, president of the Ottawa, Can., Electric Company, which 
controls the lighting and street railway systems, has started oflf with his family 
for the Mediterranean. The Ahearns are great globe trotters, and are not long 
at home from a trip around the world. 

MR. GEORGE F. PORTER, secretary of the National Electric Light Asso- 
ciation, returned last week from Alaska, where he had been for some three 
months for the purpose of superintending the laying of the submarine cable 
between Skagway and Juneau, the contract for which was secured by his firm. 

MR. EDWARD HEITMANN contributed to our pages last year an interesting 
serial on the inductor alternator. We are glad to note that the articles have now 
been reprinted in a bulletin by the Stanley Electric Manufacturing Company, 
with whose engineering staff he is associated. 

MR. HENRY C PAYNE, the new Postmaster-General, will, it is said, resign 
his position as vice-president of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Com- 
pany, at the annual meeting in February. It is understood, however, that he 
will retain all his interests in that and other enterprises, such as the Wisconsin 
Telephone Company, with which he is much less actively connected. 

MR. D. F. HENRY, vice-president of the Central District Printing & Tele- 
graph Company, Pittsburg, which is the local branch of the Bell Telephone Com- 
pany, has resigned his position on account of the great demand made upon his 
time by his many other business interests. Mr. Henry is considered the father 
of the telephone in Pittsburg, as he introduced and installed the first one there 
in 1878. 

LIEUT. COMMANDER B. A. FISKE, U. S. N., well known for his elec- 
trical work, has just contributed to the United Service a most charming narra- 
tive of his share in, and observations made during, the famous battle of Manila, 
when he served as navigating officer of the U. S. S. "Petrel," under Dewey's 
orders. Commander Fiske is not only modest, but cool, and his notes show that 
all through the fight his sub-consciousness was also working at full efficiency. 

DR. S. S. WHEELER, president of the Crocker-Wheeler Company, of Am- 
pere, N. J., is the subject of a biographical sketch in Cassier's Magazine for 
January. The article is written with insight and appreciation, and does justice 
to Dr. Wheeler's technical work, while bringing out what is not so generally 
known, his skill in directing and organizing shop management and accounts. 
Reference is made to his recent gift of the Clark Library to the American Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers, and a fine portrait accompanies the article as frontis- 
piece to the magazine. 

MR. CHAS. S. DRUMMOND, of the Electric Traction Company of England, 
is visiting this country. The New York Times tells the following story of him: 
"Mr. Drummond arrived from London a couple of weeks ago and started for 
British Columbia. On the way he met with a railroad accident. As usual, the 
serious situation was not without its comedy. As the car in which Mr. Drum- 
mond was sleeping heeled over and rested upon its side, and Mr. Drummond 
was clinging to the edge of his berth, he heard a feminine voice from out the 
depths of the opposite berth — which was now below him, say: 'Please, Mr. 
Drummond, won't you take off mother? She is dreadfully heavy.* " 

. THE H. E. LINDSEY ELECTRICAL COMPANY, of St. Louis, Mo., has in- 
creased its capital stock from $5,000 to $10,000. 

THE MICHIGAN CARBON WORKS, Detroit, Mich., has been licensed to 
do business in Illinois; capital stock, $600,000; capital in Illinois, $2,500. 

THE ELECTRIC APPLIANCE COMPANY, Chicago, has brought out a 
special loud-ringing extension telephone bell, which is just what is needed for 
noisy places. 

FIRE DAMAGE.— The College City Electric Company, Galesburg, 111., manu- 
facturer of automatic time switches, suffered a disastrous fire on Dec. 11, but by 
two days before Christmas it succeeded in getting back to its office. 

BULLOCK CALENDARS.— The Bullock Electric Manufacturing Company's 
calendar for January, 1902, contains a vignette portrait of Benjamin Franklin. 
This is the first one of the series containing pictures of great men of science and 

SUPPLY HOUSE IN MANILA.— Messrs ellinger & Landon, electrical en- 
gineers and contractors, Manila, P. I., have opened an electrical supply house 
in that city and are arranging to execute electrical work in all parts of the 

THE FORT WAYNE ELECTRIC WORKS has, through its Cincinnati office. 
just sold to the village of Madisonville one loo-kw alternator and one 125-light 
arc machine for installation in the new power and lighting plant. The Tudor 
Boiler Works, of Cincinnati, furnished the boiler equipment. 

RELIANCE BULLETINS.— The Reliance Electric Company, Milwaukee, 
Wis., has issued three bulletins devoted to direct-current multipolar dynamos and 
motors for lighting and power, and motors especially adapted for crane, bridge, 
pumps and elevator work. They are illustrated, and briefly point out the feat- 
ures of these machines. 

FORGES.— The B. F. Sturtevant Company, Boston, Mass., has issued a 
pamphlet on its small forges, various styles of which are illustrated. These forges 
are designed for every use where portable forges are desired, and one is fitted 
with electric blower. The principal dimensions of the different sizes of each 
style, and a price list are also given. 

ELECTRIC AND STEAM HOISTS.— The C. W. Hunt Company has just 
issued a pamphlet on electric hoists of the type described and illustrated in our 
last issue. The pamphlet is fully illustrated. A catalogue has also been issued 
by the same company describing and illustrating its line of steam hoisting en- 
gines. Copies of the above can be obtained on application. 

ARTISTIC CALENDAR.— The twentieth century calendar of N. W. Ayer 
& Son, Philadelphia, Pa., keeps up its high artistic merit, and this year's is better 
than that of last year. The background and main sheet is a work of art, which 
is enhanced by some tasteful color work by the printer. Messrs. Ayer & Son 
charge 25 cents for these calendars, to cover the cost of their production, hand- 
ling, etc. 

GENERAL ELECTRIC BULLETINS.— Bulletins 4267, 4268, 4269, 4270 of 
the General Electric Company have for their respective subjects: Low-voltage 
arc lamps, Brush arc generators, direct-driven revolving-field alternators for elec- 
tric lighting, and feeder regulators. In each case the apparatus is excellently 
illustrated, diagrams of the connections and circuits being given where neces- 

SILENT DRIVING CHAIN.— "Renold High Speed Silent Driving Chain" is 
the title of pamphlet No. 203 (32 pages) issued by the Link-Belt Engineering Com- 
pany of Nicetown, Philadelphia, descriptive of this new device for transmitting 
power. It appears from a perusal of the booklet that the silent drive is sup- 
planting other means of transmission in many places, and that almost as soon 
as its properties are comprehended, engineers suggest innumerable applica- 
tions for its use. 

A NEW YEAR'S CHECK.— The American Electrical Heater Company, of 
Detroit, Mich., has done so well last year that it is remembering its friends by 
sending them a "check" upon the "National Bank of Prosperity" for 365 "pros- 
perous days." If the prosperity called for is realized the American Electrical 
Heater Company will have good reason to feel satisfied with the investment. 
The check is signed by B. H. Scranton, president, and countersigned by John 
Scudder, secretary-treasurer. The idea is a capital one. 

are to be congratulated on the very charming souvenir which is being sent out 
under their name. It is in the form of a large calendar, which surrounds a 
most pleasing portraiture of Shakespeare's Ophelia. The coloring is very beau- 
tiful. The artist has shown Ophelia in a character of gentleness, and has 
succeeded in producing an excellent piece of work, which the George F. Brunt 
Porcelain Works have honored themselves in presenting to their friends. 

bitious young men have received valuable assistance through correspondenct 
schools in their endeavor to attain better positions in their chosen vocations, and 
the standing of some of these schools has been recognized by leading educators. 
This system of teaching has just closed its tenth year of existence in Scranton, 
Pa., where the International Correspondence Schools are located. These schools 
began on Oct. 16, 1891, when the first student was enrolled. They began in 
a limited way under the name of "Correspondence School of Mines," and since 
that time the idea has been extended in its application to embrace many of the 
professions and trades, and thousands of scholars have been materially benefited 
by the instruction received in this way. The International Correspondence 
Schools was, some months ago, awarded a diploma and silver medal by the 
Philadelphia Export Exposition, through the Franklin Institute, for "a unique, 
thorough and comprehensive system of technical education by correspondence." 
The history of the growth of these schools is full of interest to any one who has 
ever given a thought to the subject of education. 



Vol. XXXIX., No. 2. 

Record of Electrical Patents 

IConducted by Wm. A. Rosenbaum, Patent Attorney 


St., X. Y.] 

ORES, MINERALS, ETC.; F. H. Brown, Chicago, III. App. Med Jan. 
24, 1900. 

689,877. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTOR AND ANODE; L. Hargreaves and VV. 
Stubts, Famworth in VVidnes, England. App. filed June 17, 1899. The 
head of the anode is sealed into the bottom of a pan which contains oil to 
prevent disintegration at the junction between the anode and its con- 

689,889. TRANSMITTER; O. L. Kleber, Pittsburg, Pa. App. filed Sept. 10, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. App. filed May 23, 1901. The elbow is provided with a 
hinged joint so that the conduit can assume any angle. 

TERIES WITH CHARGING LINES; N. H. Suren, Needham, Mass. 
App. filed June 19, 1899. A polarized relay inserted between the charging 
circuit and battery automatically opens the circuit in case the polarity of the 
charging current is not suited for charging. 

Needham, Mass. App. filed June 29, 1899. A modification of the preceding 
invention in which a cut-out magnet is used to automatically open the cir- 
cuit when the voltage of the charging current is too low or the counter cur- 
rent of the battery too high. 

CORD; E. E. Werner, Indianapolis, Ind. App. filed Aug. 13, 1900. A re- 
sistance conductor is incorporated with the main conductor in a flexible 

689,947. ADVERTISING DEVICE; E. M. Bantley. Lawrence, N. Y. App. 
filed Jan. 19, 1897. A slow-acting circuit closer is attached to a trolley wire 
so that as each car passes, a circuit to an advertising device along the road- 
way will be closed, and the advertisement for a short predetermined time 

ERALS OR ORES; E. L. Graham. Upper Warlingham, Eng. App. filed 
March 26, 1901. 

689.975- RAILWAY SIGNALING APPARATUS; F. A. Landee, Moline, 111. 
App. filed Sept. 29. 1900. A signal actuating instrument adapted also to 
prevent the actuation of the signal under certain conditions. 

689,976. RAILWAY SIGNALING APPARATUS; F. A. Landee. Moline. 111. 
App. filed Sept. 29. 1900. As an improvement on patent No. 467.570, means 
are provided by which more than one signal placed at different railroad 
crossings can be operated simultaneously by a train approaching in either 

690,040. ELECTRIC FIRE ALARM; O. B. Thompson and W. G. Midgley, 
Buffalo, N. Y. App. filed Feb. 23, 1901. A circuit closer operated by the 
fusing of a soft metal. 

man, Sr., Alexandria, Va. App. filed Feb. 16, 1901. 

690,060. ALTERNATING INDUCTOR DYNAMO; J. Jacoby, Elizabeth, N. 
J. App. filed May 13, 1901. A drum fixed on the shaft and having an 
integral exterior flange out of center lengthwise of the drum and a lami 
nated primary polar ring on the drum, the ring having polar projections 
and being fastened to the integral flange. 

690,105. ELECTRIC ARC LAMP; J. H. Hallberg, New York, N. Y. Api>. 
filed April 25, 1901. An impedance coil is automatically thrown into a cir- 
cuit around the lamp when the resistance of the arc exceeds a pre-detcr- 
mined amount. 

690,108. ELECTRIC CONTROLLER; G. H. Hill, Glen Ridge, N. J. App. 
filed Aug. 5, 1901. A solenoid automatically cuts resistance out of its own 
circuit as its core moves inward to thereby afford uniformity in the force 
acting upon the plunger in its various positions; means arc also provided 
to vary the value of the current in the solenoid in order to move or check 
the plunger at any position. 

690.110. TROLLEY RETRACTOR; A. J. Johnson, Cleveland. Ohio. App. 
filed Oct. 12, 1901. Details. 

Gintl. Ausscgg, Austria-Hungary. App. filed Nov. 17, 1900. (See page 

E. Jahr. Berlin. Germany. App. filed July 24, 1900. 

690.155- STAGE POCKET; J. I. C. King, New York. N. Y. App. filed Aug. 
20. 1 90 1. A pocket in the floor of a stage is provided with a hinged cover 
which in moving to its closed position closes electrical contacts for the 
branch circuit provided the plug has first been adjusted in position to be 
acted upon by the cover. 

690,181. ELECTRIC ACCUMULATOR; A. Pouteaux and A. Wolff, Dijon, 
France. App. filed April 9. 1901. (Sec Current News and Notes.) 

Sacio, Yauli. Peru. App. filed Nov. 8. 1900. (Sec page 86.) 

Zehdcn, Charlottenburg, Germany. App. filed July 14, 1900. An arrange- 
ment of automatic switching devices for charging and discharging a bat- 
tery and controlling a dynamo driven from the axle. 

690,248. SY.NXHROXIZING SYSTE.M; W. Duane, Boulder, Colo. App. filed 
March 19, 1901. Motors at different stations coupled to sun-flower con- 
tacts, are maintained at uniform speed by utilizing variations in the speed 
between the motors at different stations, to cause such a change in the cir- 
cuit of one or the other of the motors as will so far correct its movements 
as to bring the motors into synchronism with each other. 

New York, N. Y. App. filed April 26, 1901. Details of an electro-mag- 
netically controlled railway switch. • 

H. S. Esch, New York, N. Y. App. filed April 26, 1901. A construction 
affording a short insulated section in a trolley wire. 

690,268. PRIMER FOR ORDNANCE; C. Von Gortz, Vienna, Austria. App. 
filed Sept. 28, 1900. The primer is constructed so that in case the electric 
firing devices fail, it can be fired by percussion. 

690,2r.. ELECTRIC SIGNALING APPARATUS; F. B. Herzog and S. S. 
Wheeler, New York, N. Y. App. filed Jan. 25, 1886. A transmitter com- 
prising a rheotome and a step by step escapement, a motor-spring, and a 
magnet, all co-operating to rotate the wheel as a result of the operation of 
the rheotome, and circuit controlling elements co-operating with the wheel 
to produce predetermined signals. 

Dia, Manchester, Eng. App. filed July 11. 1900. A twin-wire conductor 

duits for Electric Wires. Sewing Machines. 

having a fillet of permeable material inserted centrally between the wires 
through which to drive nails to fasten the conductor in place. 

690,313. TROLLEY POLE ATTACHMENT; G. F. Nelson, Washington. D. C. 
App. filed May 16, 1901. Details. 

690,319. PROCESS OF PRODUCING CARBIDS; I. L. Roberts, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. App. filed April 6, 1896. (Sec page 86.) 

New York, N. Y. App. filed June 6, 1901. On the motor shaft is a fric- 
tion disk which bears against the sewing machine wheel : the motor is 
pivotally mounted so that by means of a treadle it can be bodily moved 
to change the speed and stop and start the motor by changing the relative 
positions of the friction gear. 

690.364. ELECTRIC SWITCH; J. J. Gaffncy, Newark, N. J. App. filed March 
2, 1901. A two-part spring, between the members of which a non-conduct- 
ing rod is thrust to open one circuit and close another. 

ALKALI CHLORIDS; W. Gintl, Aussegg, Austria-Hungary. App. filed 
Oct. 10, 1900. (See page 86.) 

Electrical World and Engineer 


Vol. XXXIX. 


No. 3. 




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European Office, A. C. Shaw. Manager 

Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand, London, England. 

T. C. Martin and W. D. Weaver, Editors. 

T. R. Taltavall. Associate Editor. 



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IClcctric Power for the New York Central 

Klcctrical Engineers of the Day— XXIX. Edward P. Burch 

The Waterside Station of the New York Edison Company — HI 

Electrical Equipment of the Manhattan Elevated Railway— II 

Some Pointers on Induction Motors. By Dr. Louis Bell 

Stereoscopic Rontgen Ray Pictures. By Frank C, .Perkins 

The Debt of Electrical Engineering to C. E. L. Brown — VII. By B. 


Municipal and Government Ownership in Canada 

The Institute Annual Dinner and Mr. Marconi 

Cooper Hewitt Vapor Lamp 

Important Telephone Decision in Chicago 

The Scope and Intent of the Carnegie Institution 

Xernst Lamp Lecture in Chicago 

.\cw Telephone Patents '. . . . 

Pacific Cable Before Congress Committee 

Current News and Notes 

Letters to the Editors; 

Theory of the Edison Nickel-Iron Cell. By E F. Roebcr 

Engine Specihcations. By Chas. M. Bertram 

Digest of Current Electrical Literature 

New Books 

Novel System of Decorative and Sign Lighting 

Rcnold "Silent Chain" Transmission Gear 

Automatic Motor Starter 

Automobile Endurance Test 

.American Exposition in London 


Financial Intelligence 

Commercial Intelligence .' 

General News 

Trade Notes 

Record of Electrical Patents 

The New York Central. 

It is ail important statement that is published in our issue thi.s week 
from the directors of the New York Central Railroad, as to their 
early use of electricity in the Park .Avenue tunnel for suburban traflfic. 
To what extent the recent sad accident has hastened this decision we 
cannot say, but it is a fact within our own knowledge, and one that 
we have already recorded in these columns, that the company has for 
months past been studying this problem with the aid of some of the 
best electrical engineering ability in this country. We have no doubt 
that the company in its slow and rather old-fashioned way will rein- 
force itself with the best advice as to. the general plans now said to 
be ready for adoption, for its own satisfaction equally with that of the 
public. There would be wisdotii in this, however, in more respects 
than one, and especially in view of the manner in which every act of 
the company is viewed in some quarters. 

The definite plan announced is that of operating the suburban trains 
by electricity through the existing side tunnels, "equipped with the 
most modern appliances for underground traction." This phrase does 
not commit the company to third-rail methods, and does not exclude 
an overhead contact. It would appear, however, to inxolve the use 
of electric locomotives. The phrase, "suburban trains," has a rather 
elastic meaning, but in the case of the New York Central would pre- 
sumably include all conniiuter service, although we have heard of 
daily commuters living as far out as Poughkeepsie. 

This first step towards the general adoption of electricity is cautious 
and tentative, but we think that once the start ismade, there will be 
no going back until the tunnel is wholly purged of steam and smoke, 
and the entire Central system is "electrified." The change may ex- 
tend over years, but if we can read the signs of the times aright it is 
coming. The expense involved in the preliminary installment is quite 
considerable, and the statement we publish is supplemented by the 
news that the company is to raise $35,000,000 from its present stock- 
holder;;, half of which will be subscribed immediately for the work. 
We are heartily glad that this conclusion has been reached, for even 
upon its surface it implies better service to the community and an in- 
crease of the facilities for travel and connection between lines with- 
out the city, and those within. We do not apprehend that the Legisla- 
ture will dare oppose measures necessary to enable the company to 
carry out its plans and adopt electricity. 

Marconi at the A. I.E. E. Annual Dinner 

One of the most successful occasions in the history of the -\meriean 
Institute of Electrical Engineers was the annual dinner of ihat body 
this week, at which Signer Marconi was the guest of Imnor. Though 
the committee in charge of the aflfair had but a few days in which to 
plan and complete all arrangements — and Ibesc in several respects 
were quite elaborate — the affair passed off without a hitch. It is worth 
noting that Institute functions are, as a rule, admirably conducted. 
This, however, is not so surprising when one considers that they are 
in charge of men who, as engineers, arc accustomed to dealing with 
matters not only involving great detail, but which have to be carried 
out with almost mathematical precision. 

In the extended accounts of the dinner which appeared the follow- 
ing day in the riewspaper press, the modesty of dcmtanof and speech 
of the guest of honor was much dwelt upon. Newspaper writers had 
apparently expected a grandiloquence of expression and generosity of 
prediction, such as have loo often characterized the public utterances 
of those whose names have become deservedly prominent in connec- 



Vol. XXXIX.. No. 3. 

tion with some subject that has attracted wide attention ; for some 
members of this class mistake natural interest in the subject of their 
work, for admiration of their personality, and then endeavor to 
heighten personal appreciation by sensational statements. Those pres- 
ent who had closely followed the career of Signor Marconi v/ere 
but confirmed in their opinion of his personal modesty by his bear- 
ing, and by his deliberation and care of statement, as manifested dur- 
ing the evening in his remarks. Though a very young man, he has 
the mental poise which usually is only associated with mature age, 
and the excellent form of his remarks is more characteristic of the 
savant than of the practical worker. 

It will be recalled that in the five years or more in which his name 
has been prominently before the world, Signor Marconi has at no 
time announced what he expected to accomplish, in every case the 
public having obtained knowledge of his plans only after they had 
been carried to successful completion. To this is largely due the con- 
fidence he has inspired and which caused his unsupported statement 
as to the reception of the famous signal at St. Johns to be accepted 
without question by all who knew of the man. At the dinner Profes- 
sor Elihu Thomson said that when asked by a newspaper reporter if 
he placed confidence in Marconi's statement, he replied, "If Marconi 
said he did it, I believe he did" — which is the same reply made to a 
newspaper reporter by Edison ; and Dr. Pupin, in his remarks at the 
dinner, said that he would not now believe that the signals had been 
received if he did not know Mr. Marconi personally. Surely this is a 
case of a virtue meeting with merited reward. 

In his remarks at the dinner Signor Marconi cleared up the misap- 
prehension as to his syntonic .system which had arisen from the fact 
that it has not as yet been put into commercial use. Thus far the 
commercial use of the wireless telegraph .system has been to com- 
municate with ships, and as pointed out by Signor Marconi, a syntonic 
system for this purpose would not only not be necessary, but would 
be disadvantageous. The statement of his belief in the practicability 
of syntonic telegraphy, and that he has proceeded far in the develop- 
ment of such a system, is perhaps the most important part in his ad- 
dress. It was doubtless due to his confidence in this system that he 
expressed a strong belief that wireless telegraphy eventually will be a 
real competitor of the submarine cable, though not necessarily super- 
seding it. Commenting upon this later in the evening. Dr. Pupin 
directed attention to the fact that even if wireless telegraphy were to 
be a competitor of submarine telegraphy, it did not signify that the 
latter industry would necessarily be endangered ; and, as an illus- 
tration, he pointed out how the competition of electric lighting has 
aided the gas industry and enhanced rather than decreased the value 
of investments in that industry. He instanced also telegraphy and 
telephony. It would, in fact, be hard to name one real beneficent in- 
vention that has been wiped out by another. 

The Carnegie Institution. 

Among many striking acts of benevolence Mr. Andrew Carnegie 
has done no finer or wiser thing than his recent gift founding a 
national institution for the promotion of research. We are heartily 
glad that he has not merely founded another university. Of such, 
doing sterling work up to the limitations of their equipment, we have 
have enough and to spare. There is no section of the country where 
a young man cannot obtain a sound collegiate or technical education, 
but collegiate institutions are of necessity devoted mainly to the 
fundamental and necessary work of instruction, and can undertake 
serious research work only in a fragmentary way. Of post-graduate 
institutions there are comparatively few, and, for the most part, their 
work is the higher work of educational training rather than pure 
research. The great achievements of German science are due to the 

body of trained investigators who, having already attained the doc- 
torate, devote their subsequent 3'ears to advancing the bounds of 
human knowledge. They are gathered about the various universities 
often in the position privat-doceiit, gradually working their way into 
prominence. In the English universities the Fellows form a similar 
body of enthusiastic workers in special lines. The great source of 
weakness in our own country so far as research is concerned is the 
lack of investigators holding this sort of relation to the universities. 
Unless a man is the lucky possessor of a private fortune he is com- 
pelled, as soon as he obtains his degree, to assume the position of in- 
structor in some institution overburdened with students, and thence- 
forth his time is so taken up with the routine of instruction that his 
usefulness as an investigator is seriously impaired. Even if he finds 
time for original work the resources of most American institutions 
are so absorbed by work of instruction that they have scant funds to 
apply to even the material of research. 

Hence, while we have plenty of places where proper instruction 
can be obtained, albeit insufficiently endowed, there are few oppor- 
tunities for those who would settle down to serious scientific work. 
Nor is there any proper co-ordination of resources such as enables 
scientific work tobe done with economy of effort. A brilliant young 
chemist, for example, has to take a place in some technical school 
that is struggling to build up a strong course in mathematical engi- 
neering, or a particularly clever astronomer finds himself marooned 
in a biological desert. We have in mind not a few unfortunate mis- 
fits of this kind that represent a real and great loss to science. Now 
the full plans of the splendid Carnegie Institution have not been 
made public, if, indeed, they have been completely formulated, but 
it is evident enough that they may include work of inestimable value 
to American science and arts. The location of the Institution at 
Washington, where the immense resources of the Government scien- 
tific departments can be co-ordinated with it for the maximum of mu- 
tual helpfulness, is a particularly wise step. We believe it is better 
out of direct government control, although the Government will as- 
suredly join forces with it in its noble work. But its usefulness will 
assuredly not be limited to gathering a body of advanced students 
and investigators in Washington. It will be in a position to stretch 
out a helping hand to promote investigation in pure or applied science 
elsewhere. Those who know what the Rumford and Bache funds 
have done with comparatively little to promote American science can 
realize something of the extra-mural power for good that the Car- 
negie Institution may have. It is within its scope, in fact, to organize 
American investigation into coherent lines, and in no small measure 
to direct its progress. Free from the necessity of caring for a great 
body of elementary students it can put its resources where they will 
do the most good and produce the most valuable results. 

To electrical science in particular it can be of immense service. 
There are many problems that require the most vigorous attacks on 
the part of trained and skillful investigators, but there was little pros- 
pect for their solution in this country. No work in electricity is 
merely of academic interest — the theory of yesterday and to-day is 
the practice of to-morrow. Yet much important work is apparently 
of so remote practical bearing that the great electrical manufacturers 
cannot see their way clear to undertaking it. and if done at all it must 
be attempted by hard working instructors in the crowded electrical 
departments of colleges and technical schools. The material of 
modern investigation is costly, and not a little important work has 
been blocked by insufficient appropriations. A foundation big enough 
and broad enough to undertake helpful development of great begin- 
nings can confer inestimable benefits. Obviously no institution could 
fairly undertake much in the direct line of promoting practical im- 

January i8, igo2. 



provements in the arts, nor is it necessary that it should do so, for 
in most cases they can take care of themselves if of real merit. But 
a wise and far-seeing outlook over the field of science can detect 
many a line of advance before the workers in the fields can recog- 
nize its true bearing. Both in theory and practice the Carnegie Insti- 
tution will have an almost unlimited field for good before it But 
to our minds its greatest opportunity is in the work of co-ordination, 
of strengthening American investigation where it is weak, of bring- 
ing united eflfort to bear where united effort will count, of reaching 
out to various points and attacking a pending problem from all 
sides. In endowing such an institution, Mr. Carnegie has earned the 
heartiest gratitude of his countrymen, and conferred a benefit, the 
greatness of which can hardly yet be realized. 

The Electrical Section of the International Engineering 
Congress, Glasgow, 1901. 
The December (1901) number of the Journal of the Institution of 
Electrical Engineers (London) contains six papers of considerable 
engineering interest, read before Section IX. of the Glasgow Inter- 
national Engineering Congress last September. Perhaps the most in- 
teresting was the paper describing the design and experimental pre- 
paratory work in connection with the construction of a 3000-horse- 
povver, high-speed railway car for the German military railway be- 
tween Berlin and Zossen. This paper is splendidly illustrated, and is 
a model of compactness with breadth of information. The general 
features of this experimental car are well known to our readers from 
the accounts that have been published from time to time. The car 
was equipped with four 750-horse-power triphase, 400-volt induction 
motors, their secondaries being wound two-phase to simplify rheo- 
stat connections. Transformers for stepping down from 12 kilovolts, 
are carried on the car, an arrangement which while having the dis- 
advantage of adding to the weight to be moved an amount equal to 
half the total weight of motors, yet has the advantage of permitting 
smaller trolley wires to be used throughout the system, and greatly 
diminishing the cost of conductors. Numerous difficulties are neces- 
sarily encountered in the first development of a speed of 200 kilo- 
meters per hour with a 3000-horse-power induction-motor equipment. 
One of the principal difficulties in design appears to have been the 
spring support of the induction motors. These were finally carried 
on sleeves covering the axles, and spring-connected with the wheels. 
Very interesting three-dimension diagrams in isometric projection are 
given graphically representing the experimentally observed tempera- 
ture elevation of the bearings, for different speeds of rotation, in 
association with different coefficients of friction. This type of dia- 
grams is evidently capable of being introduced with advantage into 
many engineering applications. 

The control of the motors is entirely by the aid of secondary resis- 
tance, using a very ingenious form of soda-water rheostat in which the 
electrodes are stationary, the liquid level being varied by a small 
electrically-driven pump, through which the electrolyte is kept con- 
stantly circulating. By this means the motorman is prevented from 
turning the current on too rapidly at starting. For stopping there are 
no less than three independent sets of brakes, the first being a hand- 
applied brake for shunting, the second a Westinghouse air-brake sys- 
tem, and the third an electric brake in which the line connection is 
shut off, and the stator of the motors excited by direct current from 
a storage battery on the car, while the rotor is gradually short cir- 
cuited. It is clear that the limitations of rheostatic control and brak- 
ing determine the commercial limits of this system. There can be no 
doubt of the great simplicity of the equipment and of its safety and 
readiness of control, which, in fact, were satisfactorily demon- 
strated in the recent Zossen trials. On the other hand, none 

of the energy of momentum is restored to the line when the 
car is stopped, and for all speeds below the maximum the rheo- 
stats must be kept in service with more or less attendant waste of 
energy. Such a system, while not so objectionable for long-distance 
passenger traffic at high speeds, does not appear to be adapted to 
short-distance running with frequent starting and stopping. If the 
speed control and braking of the car could be effected with a greater 
efficiency and saving of energy, not only would the generator installa- 
tion at the central station be greatly reduced, but the system would be 
much more likely to supersede the ordinary direct-current street rail- 
way system. For very high speeds and long distances, however, the 
triphase induction-motor car equipment seems to have special ad- 

Dangers from Trolley Wires and Their Prevention. 

This is the title of a paper read at the Glasgow Engineering Con- 
gress by Professor A. Jamieson. The paper points out the dangers 
which exist when telegraph, telephone and lighting wires overhang 
and cross trolley wires. In several British cities attempts have been 
made to protect overhanging wires against trolley-wire contacts in 
case of rupture by supporting a wooden strip on the upper side of 
the trolley wire. This method has, however, been found to be either 
ineffective, or at least incompletely effective. The British Post Office 
rules require two guard wires over each trolley wire, the guard wires 
being 16 inches apart, and on the same level 2 ft. above the trolley 
wire. These guard wires are usually about the size of No. 5 B. & S. 
gauge. It is advocated, very properly, that the only safe method of 
installing these guard wires is to keep them well and permanently 
grounded at suitable short intervals. After discussing the various 
methods of preventing accidents by crosses between trolley wires and 
other neighboring non-trolley wires, in cases of accidental rupture, 
the paper takes the position that the only safe and sure plan of pre- 
venting crosses is to have no non-trolley wires. In other words, it 
advocates burying all telegraph, telephone and lighting wires. This 
is, of course, the correct solution of the difficulty in large cities where 
the expense of underground wires can be met without serious dif- 
ficulty. It is no solution of the difficulty in villages and small towns 
where it is practically impossible to place the non-trolley wires under- 
ground. In such cases, however, not only is the danger of accident 
much reduced by reason of the reduced density of population, but it is 
possible to minimize the danger of accident by exercising ordinary care 
in construction. 

Modern Commutating Dynamo Machinery. 

This is the title of a third paper read at the Glasgow Congress by 
Mr. H. M. Hobart. This paper deals mainly with the little-investi- 
gated subject of the inductance and reactance of coils in a direct- 
current dynamo armature. The reactance of such coils is of impor- 
tance when considered with reference to the phenomena of commuta- 
tion. The experimental data upon which the paper relies for the de- 
termination of armature-coil inductances appear to be somewhat 
meagre, and an excellent field here exists for experimental measure- 
ments. The general conclusion is arrived at, however, that the re- 
actance voltage of the coils under commutation in a direct-current 
dynamo should not exceed 3 or 4 volts. The specifications of three 
direct-current generators of 400, 800 and 1600 kw capacity are care- 
fully tabulated, and in these the calculated reactance voltage is from 
2.8 to 3.9 volts. In these cases the flux density in the teeth is from 21 
to 23 kilomaxwells, and in the air-gap from 9 to 10 kilomaxwells. 
It is quite reasonable to expect that the true limits of sparking in 
dynamos depends among other quantities upon the reactance voltage. 
Moreover, it would seem that no accurate formula can be expected to 
express the sparking limits which docs not take this reactance voltage 
into account. 


Vol. XXXIX,, No. 3. 

Electric Power for the New York Central. 

The directors of the New York Central Railroad issued the follow- 
ing statement on Wednesday of this week, of which we give the 
substance below : 

The company now confirms the statements made from time to time 
in the public press that it has been preparing plans for changes in the 
methods of using the Park Avenue tunnel, so as to meet the demands 
of a constantly increasing traffic, and provide for the convenience of 
the traveling public. The best method of improvement, and one which 
the company desires, would be the abolition of the tunnel, and mak- 
ing in its place an open cut, siinilar to that south of Fifty-sixth Street, 
but this, on account of the opposition it has encountered, has been 
impossible of attainment up to the present time, and, therefore, after 
a thorough investigation of the subject, it was determined that the 
mos practicable plan for caring for the enormous passenger traffic 
concentrated in the Grand Central Station would be the construction 
of a loop station under the present terminal, so that the suburban 
trains could be operated by electricity through the existing side tun- 
nels, to be equipped with the most modern appliances for underground 
traction, and to the accomplishment of this plan the efforts of the 
company have for some time past been directed. In this way the pas- 
senger facilities of the present station would be nearly doubled, and, 
with the suburban business thus provided for, the through passenger 
and mail business can be moved through the center tunnel with 
promptness and regularity, which is very important to the traveling 
public, the city and the railroad. 

Before determining that electrical or some other power shall be 
substituted for steam on all trains entering the Grand Central Sta- 
tion, it must be demonstrated that the business can be safely and 
promptly handled in that way, therefore, it is contemplated to make 
the experiments in the side tunnels and the underground station. 

To carry out its plan, it will be necessary for the company to ob- 
tain from the Legislature and the city authority to use power other 
than steam (to which it is now expressly limited by statute) and to 
obtain changes in Park Avenue, so as to give use of that street south 
of the tunnel, in order to lengthen the approach to the station, also 
the right to construct a tunnel underneath portions of Forty-third, 
Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth streets, Park, Vanderbilt and Depew 

These changes necessitate the purchase of a large amount of prop- 
erty in order to provide a new location for Park Avenue. Consider- 
able of this property has already been acquired or contracted for, but 
more remains to be purchased, and this somewhat premature an- 
nouncement of the company's intentions may make the accomplish- 
ment more difficult. 

The company is prepared to proceed with the work substantially on 
the plan outlined above when the necessary legislation can be ob- 

Electrical Engineers of the Day— XXIX. 

Edward P. Burch. 

Edward P. Burch was born in VVi.iconsin in 1870. and obtained hi.s 
early education in the public schools at Menomonic, Wis. He be- 
gan to show marked interei-t in physics and electricity while in the 
High School, and after graduating therefrom in 1887 he entered the 
Uni\"ersity of Minnesota. Two summer vacations were spent in ac- 
tive electrical work as a wireman. and later as a draughtsman with 
the Chicago Edison Company, which practical work operated ad- 
vantageously to supplement his technical training. In i8gi Mr. 
Burch was appointed student instructor in electrical engineering at 
the university, under Professor F. S. Jones, now head of the de- 
partment of physics in that institution. His graduating thesis at the 
University was on "Electric Railway Motor Tests," and embraced 
experimental tests of the now obsolete Spragne commutated field, 
the Thomson-Houston double and single reduction motors, the old 
barrel, rheostat and J controllers then in use in street railway sys- 
tems ; also running tests on cars in regular service on the interurhan 
road between Minneapolis and St. Paul, and power house load dia- 
gram for 290 cars, all of which were then interesting. At the June. 
1892, meeting of the American Institute 6f Electrical Engineers, a 
paper was presented in conjunction with Professor George 1). 
Shepardson on the above subject. 

After graduation Mr. Burch entered the service of the Twin Cily 
Rapid Transit Company, of Minneapolis and St. Paul, then, as 

now, owning and operating one of the largest electric railway sys- 
tems in the country. During his more than seven years of service 
with this company, most important street railway progress took 
place. In 1892 he contributed largely to the development of a new 
series-parallel controller, which was used by the company until 1900, 
and worked on the re-design of the railway motors. He was ap- I 
pointed electrical engineer for the system in 1893. Soon after, he ' 
raised the voltage in the company's power station from 500 to 625 
volts. He argued that by proper design the motors would have less 
repairs at the higher voltage, and this was found to be true. The 
change also prevented additional investment in feeders for a period 
of five years, during which the car mileage and station output in- 
creased 50 per cent. The introduction of a system for equalizing the 
potential on railway feeders, which he developed in 1894, is now in 
common use. 

About this time Mr. Burch began the study in a most systematic 
way of power transmission. In 1895 he was engaged in laying plans 
for a central power station at St. Anthony Falls for the transit com- 
pany's system, which would utilize water power, direct-connected 
units, with 3500 and 12,000 volts alternating-current three-phase 
transmission, in underground cables, and rotary converter sub-sta- 
tions. This system, now becoming a standard for large railway sys- 
tems, was put in full service three years later for the entire street 
railway system of Minneapolis and St. Paul, embracing some 250 
miles of track. As early as 1898 six 600-kw railway rotary con- 
verters were in use. After having had charge of the operation of this 

new system and of the St. Anthony Falls water power sta- 
tion for two years, Mr. Burch resigned his position as electrical en- 
gineer for the company to engage in business for hiiuself, but was 
retained as its consulting engineer. During his service with the 
company the construction and equipment of its heavy interurban lines 
were successfully carried through. 

Since Jaji. i, 1900, Mr. Burch has acted as a consulting engineer, 
specializing on electric railways. Most of his work has been on inter- 
urban roads. He believes that street railway systems are not yet 
perfected, but that future development will be slow. That the per- 
fection of the loo-mile interurban road is the work of the next few 
years, and that the electrical equipment of the steam roads will 
follow immediately thereafter. With this m view, his specialization 
and study have related to standard steam railroad practice and the 
electrical problems involved. 

Mr. Burch has presented at colleges and before engineers' clubs 
numerous papers embracing such subjects as the economical cross 
section of railway feeders, an equalizer system for feeders, the syn- 
chronizing of alternators, and the utilization of water power for 
electric railway systems. His latest paper, "Electric Traction for 
Heavy Railway Service," has attracted much attention from steam 
railway engineers. 

Mr. Burch is an active member of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers, and of the Northwest Railway Club, and is secretary 
of the Engineers' Club, of Minneapolis, 

The Waterside Station of the New York 
Edison Company-Ill. 


Fig. 37. — Diagram of the High-Tension Feeder Lines. 

RESUMING our description of the New York Edison system 
and the new Waterside station, we come ne.\t to the high- 
tension feeders and subway system. The three-phase, 25- 
cycle current at 6600 volts generated at the Waterside station is dis- 
tributed to the various rotary converter sub-stations by underground 
cable feeders, leaving the high-tension cable vaults at the Waterside 
station and following four distinct trunk lines of subway ducts. West 
on Thirty-eighth Street and on Thirty-ninth Street, and north and 
south on First Avenue. These main trunk lines make connection 
with the general subway system of the Consolidated Telegraph & 
Electrical Subway Com- 
pany, at the intersection of 
the main avenues and with 
the east and west trunk 
lines on Twenty-ninth 
Street and Forty-second 
Street. The ducts of the 
Subway Company oper- 
ating the high-tension sub- 
ways cover practically all 
of the main avenues of the 
city, and many of the cross 
streets, and with the main 
and subsidiary connections 
represent a total length of 
about 1000 miles of duct. 
The ducts in which the 
cables are drawn are either 
made of iron pipe laid in 
concrete or glazed tile laid 
on a bed of concrete. Man- 
holes are provided at 
street intersections and at 
intervals of 250 ft. to per- 
mit the drawing in and 
splicing of cables, with in- 
termediate hand-holes in 
the distributing ducts for 

subsidiary connections to customers. In the manholes all cables are 
carefully racked and the manhole covers are ventilated to prevent 
accumulation of gas in the ducts and manholes. The Consolidated 
Subways, in addition to the high-tension cable of the New York 
Edison Company, are occupied by the cables for the lighting and 
power circuits for 60 cycle alternating current distribution and cables 
for the direct-current high-tension series arc light circuits. As a 
protection against mechanical injury and interference from other 
cables the high-tension, three-phase cables are protected in the man- 
holes by a wrapping of asbestos and steel tape In laying out the 

feeders for each sub-station, care was taken to have the feeders fol- 
low dififerent subway routes so as to ensure continuity of service in 
case of trouble in a manhole. The size of the cables used for feeders 
has been selected to secure the best utilization of a 3-inch duct, the 
size generally used by the Subway Company. The number of feeders 
to each sub-station was based on the most economical copper section 
for the observed station load factors, the maximum drop not to ex- 
ceed in any case 5 per cent, and the maximum carrying capacity for 
continuous load has been fixed at 250 amperes per phase. To fill 
these conditions the standard copper section was adopted of 250,000 

cm. sectional area for each 
of the three conductors. 

The first three-phase 
high-tension, 6600-volt ca- 
bles installed by the com- 
pany in 1898 were rubber 
insulated, and this type was 
used in the early exten- 
sions, but in the more re- 
cent additions to the high- 
tension cable system, paper 
insulation has been used 
exclusively. The company 
is now operating about 41 
miles of rubber insulated 
cables and 28 miles of 
paper insulated 6600-volt 
cables. The specifications 
for the high-tension feed- 
er cables call for a 250,000 
cm., three-conductor paper 
insulated, lead-covered ca- 
ble, each conductor made 
of 37 strands of copper 
wire, with a combined sec- 
tional area of 250,000 cm., 
when each wire is laid out 
straight. The paper insu- 
lation is s/32 inch around each conductor and 5/32 inch for the outside 
insulating jacket. The lead covering is 4/32 inch in thickness, and 
contains from 2 per cent to 3 per cent tin. The open spaces between 
conductors are filled with a dry jute filler, saturated with an insulating 
compound to exclude air or moisture. The test pressure between 
copper conductors and copper conductors and lead jacket is 15,000 
volts alternating current for one hour, an insulating resistance in 
subways, including joints of 30a megohms per mile at 60 degs. F. The 
insulation resistance of each high-tension feeder is tested every 
week; as required by the rules of the Subwny Company. In addition 


Vol. XXXIX., No. 3. 

to these periodic tests, electrostatic volt meters and ground detectors 
of the General Electric Company type are installed at the Waterside 
station, and at the several rotary converter sub-stations, furnishing 
instantaneous indication of any considerable lowering of the insula- 
tion of the system. 

In Fig. 37 is shown a diagram of the present layout of high-tension 
feeders. The heavy lines representing the routes followed, the num- 
ber of feeders in each route is not shown. 

The general principle followed in planning high-tension feeders 
has been to run direct lines from the Waterside station to each sub- 
station, but in some cases feeders are looped into an intermedite 
sub-station along the route. In such cases the looped feeder is con- 
nected to a high-tension tie feeder panel provided with suitable con- 
nection so that the tie feeder may also, if desired, be connected to the 
local station feeder panels which feed the rotary converters at the 
station, thus providing an additional feeder in case of an emergency. 

A feature of the high-tension feeder scheme is the general tie 
feeder connecting all stations and sub-stations from Duane to 124th 
Street. Along its route the general tie feeder is either looped in or 
teed in, to the sub-stations, and furnishes to them a valuable auxiliary 
feeder, which can be used to transmit high-tension current between 
sub-stations, independently of the Waterside station, as it has been 
extensively used in the past when inverted rotaries have been operated 
to supply current at night from the downtown steam generating sta- 
tions to the rotary converter sub-stations uptown. 


The company has now in operation 16 rotary converter sub-stations 
on Manhattan Island, as shown on the map in Fig. 5. In several 
of these sub-stations the rotary converters are operated in connection 
with existing steam plants ; in others rotary converters only are oper- 
ated. In all of the latter, as well as in several of the former, there 
is one or more storage batteries, of which mention will be made later. 

A brief description of the several stations will be given later, but to 

above Fifty-ninth Street is essentially of a residential character, with 
a loa<l curve having a peak lasting from 3 to 4 hours. 

The tliree citj* districts so described are for operating convenience, 
classified as the first, second and third district, respectively. The 
development of the company's business has progressed from the 
first district to the uptown districts in regular succession, and while 
at the present time the New York Edison direct-current, low-tension 
mains do not e.xtend above 130th Street, the company is continually ex- 
tending its territory northward to meet the rapid development of the 
city in the northern section of Manhattan Island. Fig. 37 shows the 
location of all distributing stations of the New York Edison 

In the first district there are five low-tension distributing stations 
— in the second district seven (including Waterside), and in the third 
district four (exclusive of the Eightieth Street station, which gen- 
erates high-tension current only). 

North of the Harlem River the Rider Avenue station supplies the 
Borough of the Bronx with two-phase alternating current and direct- 
current series arcs. This station is connected with a high-tension 
three-phase circuit to the Waterside station and a high-tension trans- 
mission line connects with Riverdale and the Yonkers Electric Light 

Of the existing generating stations only the Duane, Twelfth and 
Twenty-sixth Street stations will be operated as combined steam and 
rotary sub-stations, their existing steam plants being utilized as gen- 


illustrate the character of service in the different districts, it may be 
stated that the section of the city below Eighth Street is exclusively 
a business section, and has the characteristic load curve of a day load 
rising abruptly in the morning hours before 9 A. M., and continuing 
with a practical uniform load until about 5 P. M., with the exception 
of a heavy dip at the noon time, when the motor load goes off the 
system and a sharp evening peak between 4.30 and 5.30 o'clock in 
the winter months, when the motor and lighting loads overlap. After 
5.30 o'clock the load falls off very abruptly to a small fraction of the 
peak load. The district between Eighth Street and. Fifty-ninth Street 
is largely of a commercial character, and including retail stores, 
hotels, theaters and clubs, as well as some residences. The section 


crating stations supplementary to the Waterside station during the 
period of heavy loads in the winter months. 

All the other stations will finally be exclusively rotary converter 
sub-stations. The arrangement of the rotary converters, as installed 
in conjunction with the original steam plant, had to conform with 
the existing conditions of the building and the uses for which it was 
oripnally designed. In the new sub-stations, however, the buildings 
have been designed with the most suitable arrangement for this par- 
ticular service. The sub-stations of the company are built on one 
of three plans, shown in the full-page illustration (Fig. 41), of which 
the 83d Street and Elm Street stations represent the first type, 
Horatio Street. 84lh Street. liist Street and 124th Street the sec- 

Fio 41 —The New York Edison Company's Sub- Stations. 

G. E. Rotary. 
7. — Low 



Vol. XXXIX.. No. 3. 

ond, and the Twenty-sixth Street rotary converter annex — occupied 
also by tlie company's local offices — the latest type. In the sub-sta- 
tions of the first group the ground floor is the main operating room 
containing the rotary converters and static transformers. The high- 
tension feeder panels and the high-tension rotary converter panels 
are mounted on a gallery at the height of the first mezzanine floor 
and running lengthwise the whole length of the station above the 
static transformers. The floor above the operating room is occupied 
by a storage battery, and above this again are two sets of comfortable 
and well-equipped living apartments, occupied by men of the com- 
pany's operating force. 

In the plan of the second type of sub-station the main floor, raised 
lightly above the ground, constitutes the operating room, but the 

1. High-tension switchboard for high-tension feeders and rotary 

converter machine panels. 

2. Air-blast static transformers. 

3. Low-tension, alternating-current switchboard for the operat- 

ing of rotary converters. 

4. Rotary converter I. R. T. regulators. 

5. Rotary converters. 

6. Low-tension direct-current switchboard and busses, with in- 

struments and sjTichronizers. 

7. Storage battery and booster set. 

8. Compensator for balancing loads on three-wire system. 
9 Low-tension feeder panels. 

In Fig. 42 is given a diagram of the connection of this apparatus. 


low -tension rotary and feeder switchboard is placed lengthwise on 
both side of the station on the front of the main floor and the high- 
tension apparatus is mounted on the mezzanine floor. In some of 
these stations the battery is on the floor above the operating room, 
in others the battery is located in the basement, the top floor being 
used for living apartments by members of the operating force. 

In the new Twenty-sixth Street annex all the rotary equipment is 
erected in the basement of the building, and the low-tension and high- 
tension switchboards are located on the two mezzanine floors in the 
rear of the building. The floor above is occupied by the company's 
offices for the second district. 

The typical equipment of a rotary converter sub-station is: 

The course of the current through one of the sub-stations is as 
follows : Coming into the station on the high-tension, ihree-con- 
ductor cable feeder as 3-phase, 6600-volt, 25-cycle alternating current, 
it passes through the high-tension feeder panels equipped with suit- 
able switches, circuit breakers and transfer cable arrangements, with 
connections to the busses of the high-tension machine panels. From 
the high-tension machine panels connections are made by duplex 
cables to the high-tension primaries of the static transformers, the 
secondaries are connected through alternating current switches to an 
I. R. T. regulator and then to the alternating current collector rings of 
the rotary converter. The direct-current terminals of the rotary con- 
verter are wired to the positive and negative switches of the ma- 

January i8, 1902. 


chine, which can be connected to three sets of bus-bars supplying 
current to the low-tension direct-current feeders. The rotary con- 
verters are all built for a normal potential of 270 volts, which can 
be raised or lowered 30 volts by the I. R. T. regulators, and the un- 
balancing of the station load between the two sides of the system 
is supplied by the storage battery and a compensator. 


The three-conductor high-tension feeder cables are brought from 
the subway ducts to the high-tension gallery and the feeder ends 
spliced and equipped with cable terminals are connected to the high- 
tension feeder panel equipped with single blade quick break snap 
switches mounted on marble slabs and insulated by porcelain insu- 
lators and bushings. Receptacles and jumpers located above are 
used to make connections between different high-tension feeder 


The static transformers are all of the air blast type and are in sets 
of 3-200 and 3-400 kilowatts respectively for 500 and looo-kw rotary 
converters. They are mounted on a platform constituting the air 
duct for ventilation under an air pressure of y2 to fi ounce sup- 
plied by electric blowers installed at one or both ends of the plat- 
form. The primary and secondary transformers are wound for a 
ratio of transformation of 6300 to 170 volts, but other ratios may be 
obtained by connecting to intermediate taps to compensate for drop 
on feeders of different lengths and to facilitate adjustment of A. C. 
voltage to D. C. voltage required. In the later transformers a ther- 
mometer is mounted in a casing between transformer coils to give 
temperature indications. The transformers are designed to oper- 
ate at 25 per cent, overload for 3 hours after a 24 hours' full load run. 


Fig. 420. — General Diagram of Sub-Station Connections. 

panels by means of plugs and transfer cables. A set of expulsion 
air circuit breakers are located at the top, and a set of reverse cur- 
rent relays, overload and time limit relays at the bottom of the panels. 
The scries and potential transformers for the instruments and relays 
are mounted on the back of the panel. The machine panels are fur- 
nished with two sets of bus-bars and a double set of knife blade bus- 
selector switches, enabling each machine to be connected to either 
bus-bar, each fed by a high-tension feeder, as above explained. The 
high-tension machine panels have two sets of knife blade, quick- 
break bus-selector switches with barriers and si.x fuse blocks of the 
expulsion type. The high-tension panels were supplied by the Gen- 
eral Electric Company. 

or 50 per cent, overload for i one hour without undue heating. 
The efficiency of the transformers is 97J/2 per cent for the 200-kvv 
transformer and 98 per cent for the 400-kw, with a regulation of 
I'/i per cent and l per cent. They are wound with double secondary 
winding, connected in a double independent delta, the middle points 
of which are connected to the A. C. electrically operated switches. 
The static transformers were furnished by the General Electric 
Company and by the Westinghouse Company. 


The use of electrically-operated switches mounted on the trans- 
former platforms and controlled by small S. P. S. T. switches on 


Vol. XXXIX.. No. 3. 

the operating board, results in shortening of cables as well as space 
on the operating switchboard. Fig. .39 gives a view of a set of E. O. 
switches. On the same panels are also mounted synchronizing and 
pilot lamps used as indicators. 


The secondaries of the induction regulators are connected in series 
between the E. O. switches and the A. C. collector rings of the 


rotary. The potential or primary windings of the regulators are 
connected across the secondaries. The primary windings are wound 
on the rotor of the regulator, which can be turned through a fixed 
angle in either direction by a small D. C. motor or induction motor 
controlled from the operating switchboard. The I. R. T. regulators 
of General Electric and Westinghouse make have 65-kw capacity for 
500-kw rotaries and 130-kw capacity for the looo-kw rotaries. These 
regulators are of the air blast type and arc installed on the same 
platform with the static transformers, as shown in Cut 5 of Fig. 41. 


The rotaries arc si.x-phase and of two sizes, 1000 and 500 kilowatt 
rated capacity. The lOOO-kw rotaries arc 270-volt D.C., i87!/> r.p.m. ; the 

operated between the range of 240 to 360-volt D. C, the higher volt- 
age being required in the uptown sub-stations owing to the length 
of L. T. feeders. The overload capacity of the rotaries is liberal, they 
are designed to carry 25 per cent overload for three hours after carry- 
ing continuously full rated load or 50 per cent overload for one hour. 
The efficiency of the rotary converters is high. In the case of 
lOOo-kw converters an efficiency of 96J4 per cent, and in the soo-kw 
95J4 per cent has been obtained. The rotary converters were sup- 
plied by the General Electric Company and the Westinghouse Com- 


The D. C. switchboards of all New York Edison stations are 
divided into two independent sections for the positive and negative 
poles, the negative side being used for connecting the machines to 
the busses. The regulation and switching is usually done from the 
positive switchboard which is provided with a complete equipment 
of instruments. The negative switches used as selectors have three 
poles, one for each set of bus-bars. To economize space and avoid 
long runs of cables in some sub-stations, three-pole selector switches 
of the laminated toggle Brush type are used, having an arm pivoted 
at the center, and having a parallel motion to the base of the switch, 
•is shown in Fig. 43. In other sub-stations the negative cable con- 
nections of the rotary converters are brought to the negative switch- 
board proper, where they make connection to a three-pole switch of 
the type shown in Fig. 40, where three switches, mounted on a heavy 
cast copper frame, alive from the machine, enable one to make con- 
nection to either of the three bus-bars on the back of the switch- 
board. These switches are only 12 inches, or 18 inches wide, re- 
spectively, for the 500 and lOOo-kw rotaries. and reduce the width 
of the negative machine panel to a minimum. 

An outside pole field switch, mounted on the same panel with the 
negative bus-selector switch, connects to the main bus from which 
all rotaries are excited. 

The switchboard connections of the positive side of the rotary con- 
verter are made to a three-pole selector switch similar to the one 
last described and shown in Fig. 40. In this case, however, there 
are four switches mounted, the top one being a smaller starting 
switch for starting the rotary from the D. C. side. 

This switch makes connection with a starting bus provided with a 
starting rheostat and fuse, and a three-bus starting selector switch 
mounted at one end of the switchboard. Above the machine bus- 
selector switch is mounted a double dial rheostat frame holdmg edge- 
wise rheostat dials for two rotary converters. On the same frame 
are mounted two small S. P. S. T. switches operating the E. O. 
switches on the A. C. panels previously described, and a small double 
pole double throw switch operating the motor controlling the posi- 
tion of the I. R. T. regulator. Above the rheostat dials are the indi- 
cating instruments, consisting of one A. C. hot wire round type Stan- 
ley ammeter, one synchronizing lamp, one direct-current Van Vleck 
edgewise Weston ammeter and one hot wire alternating-current Stan- 
ley voltmeter for each station, this latter instrument being supplied 
with a sliding contact switch, by means of which it can be connected 
to anv machine. 


500-kw rotaries arc cither fix-phase, 270 volts D. C, 375 r. p. m., or 
six-phase, 300 volts D. C, 375 r. p. m. The latter type are equipped with 
130-kw I. R. T. regulators, by means of which the rotary can be 

Wireless Telegraphy. 

In a lecture recently delivered before the Royal Institution, 
London, Professor Fleming considered Marconi's recent Newfound- 
land experiments with reference to the curvature of the earth. He 
said that Marconi's transatlantic waves were about 1000 ft. long, 
which was not very small compared with the obstacles they had to 
encounter ; that is, the hill of water formed by the curvature of the 
earth, which he calculated was about no miles above a straight line 
joining the Lizard and Newfoundland. The bending required, there- 
fore, was not great compared with the distance, being comparable 
to a wave one-hundredth of an inch in length bending round an ob- 
stacle one-fifth of an inch high. It is an interesting question whether 
it was conceivably possible to send an electric wave around the world. 
He did not presume to answer the question, but he suggested that it 
was an interesting possibility. He had already shown that water is 
opaque to the Hertzian waves, and he believed it likely that the upper 
strata of air, being highly rarefied, were also opaque to these waves. 
He imagined that by reflection between these two opacities 
a beam of rays could always, as it were, be confined between them, 
and so, provided the impulse was strong enough, it could be made to 
pass any distance sandwiched between them independently of the 
curvature of the earth. 

January i8, 1902. 



Electrical Equipment of the Manhattan Elevated 
way — II. 


LAST week a formal run was made with the first train, equipped 
with the General Electric train control system, and consisting 
of six cars. These six-car trains will be run during rush 
hours in place of the five-car trains, thus increasing the carrying 
capacity of these lines at the rush hours 20 per cent. Each six-car 
train will consist of four motor cars and two trailers, each of the 
four motor cars being equipped with two motors of General Electric 
manufacture, which will easily develop, when starting the train. 
300 horse-power, the total weight of motors for each train being 
35,000 lbs. and the total horse-power per train 1200. One thousand 
eight hundred of the new motors have been ordered, aggregating in 
weight about 75,000 tons and 270,000 horse-power. These motors 
take the place of about 300 locomotives. A distinguished party par- 
ticipated in the trip and visited the power plant, going from the road 
to it in New York Electric Transportation stages. In our next is?uc 
we shall discuss the train equipment. 

The current generated in the central power plant is to be ^h 
tributed over the entire system of the Manhattan Railway, in- 
cluding 37 miles of road in the Boroughs of Manhattan and the 
Bronx. The potential at which it leaves the power plant is 11,000 
volts, and eight sub-stations have been erected at convenient point;- 
along the lines of the road where transforming apparatus is in- 
stalled to reduce the voltage to proper pressure for use in connec- 
tion with rotary converters. The uniformity of plans and methods 
in the Manhattan system is especially noticeable in the sub-stations. 
The general arrangement of these and the distribution of apparatus 
are similar, thus enabling an operator familiar with one station to 
perform duty at another when required without any special training. 
Fig. 2 is an interior view of sub-station No. 7, located at Third Ave- 
nue and Ninety-ninth Street. 

The switching arrangements in the sub-stations are similar to 
those in the power house. An idea of this arrangement may be ob 
tained from Fig. 3, though thi^ actually represents a section of a 
power-house board. The similar sub-station board is flanked on each 

converter a controlling switch with visual signals, the signals being 
operated automatically on the face of the bench-board. By manipu- 
lating these dummy switches, and by means of a low-tension direct- 
current controlling circuit, the main switches are operated, and the 
visual signals indicate the completion of an operation and the state 
of the circuit. 


The rotary converters are arranged in two parallel rows, and the 
transformers are located in groups of three upon galleries along the 
sides. There are 26 rotaries and 78 transformers in these eight sub- 
stations. Each rotary receives current from a group of three 550- 
kw step-down transformers, connected in delta, at a potential ap- 
proximately 390 volts. The sub-stations are located at unequal dis- 
tances from the power .station, and as all of the stations are to be 

ixTKic Train on Second Avenue Line. 

side by direct-current panels, and the illustration shows only the 
alternating current panels and the feeder bench board. On a panel 
rising above the back of the bench-board are located the alter- 
nating-current instruments. Each rotary has an incoming watt- 
meter with a scale reading up to 300 kilowatts, a powxr factor meter 
and a wattmeter, all of which instruments are of the end-on type. 

supplied with power from alternators operated in parallel, the effec- 
tive potentials delivered by the high-potential distributing cables to 
the several sub-stations will differ. In order that the potential of the 
direct-current delivered by the rotary converters shall be equal, pro- 
vision for the adjustment of the ratio of transformation of the step- 
down transformers is made by means of loops brought out from the 

On the bench-board there is for each incoming feeder and rotary primary windings. 



Vol. X.XXIX.. Xo. 3. 

The transformers, one of which is shown in Fig. ", are of the air- 
cooled Westinghouse type. Motor-driven blowers are installed in 
each sub-station for supplj'ing the necessary air. The guaranteed 
efficiency of the transformers for full load is 97.75 per cent. The 
overload rating of the transformers is proportioned to those of the 
rotary converters. 

ani-ing rings. The commutators are built of bars of hard copper 
insulated from each other with mica. The number of bars is such 
that with a potential of 625 volts across the direct-current terminals 
the average difference of potential between two bars will not exceed 
12 volts. The copper brushes are held in brush-holders of the sliding- 
shunt type. 


The rotary converters, one of which is shown in Fig 4, are larger 
than any that have heretofore been constructed, having a nominal 
rating of 1500 kvv and maximum capacity of 2250 kw, or 3000 hp. 
Each converter is a self-contained unit, the two bearings and the 
lower half of the field frame being mounted on a common base. The 
field frame is divided in a horizontal plane to permit access to the 
windings. The machine has 12 poles, and when supplied with an 
alternating current of 25 cycles per second will operate at a speed 
of 250 r. p. m The field is compound wound, the shimt winding 
being arranged for self-excitation. The output of the converter is 
delivered at a normal potential of 625 volts. The guaranteed ef- 
ficiency at full load is 05.75 per cent. The armature is of the slotted 


drum type, and the poles are built of laminated steel, forced upon 
a cast-iron spider. The armature winding consists of strap wound 
coils formed and insulated before being placed in the slots in which 
they are held by retaining wedges of hard fiber. The winding is of 
the parallel type, forming 12 circuits, and is cross-connected by bal- 


The collector to which the alternating currents are delivered from 
the step-down transformers is of the open type, and is clearly shown, 
together with other features of this side of the machine in Fig. 4. 
The armature is shown in Fig. 5. 

The field frame is of cast iron, and the pole pieces are of laminated 
steel. The faces of the latter are beveled at the edges to permit of the 
use of copper shields. The series field is designed to assist the shunt 
as the load comes on the rotary converter, and is sufficient to compound 
the latter from 575 volts at no load to 625 volts full load. The series 
winding consists of copper, strap-wound on edges. The wave form 
of these converters is practically the same as that of the alternators. 
The converters are guaranteed to stand an overload of 100 per cent 
without "hunting." and may be overloaded to several times the normal 
full load without falling out of step. In the construction of these 
converters the flywheel eflfect has been made relatively small, and 
the effect of the copper shields powerful enough to have the con- 
trolling effect upon the armatures of the converters. The total weight 
of each converter is 105,000 lbs., the height i3Vi ft., and the floor 
space occupied 13 ft. by 10 it. 

The converters are started by direct current. A motor-generator 
set (Fig. 6) is installed in each sub-station for furnishing the cur- 
rent for that purpose. The method of starting by direct current de- 
rived from these starting sets, rather than bv direct current taken 



from the main bus-bars of the sub-station, was determined upon to 
avoid undue magnetic and electrical strains in the converter, such as 
may easily result from i slight mistake of the operator, for example, 
in closing the synchronizing switches when the machines are not ex- 
actly in step. 

January i8, 1902. 


The plans of the Manhattan Cosiipany provide for handling 200,- 
000,000 passengers during the next year, and the new form of equip- 
ment will enable them to put on many more cars and run their trains 
oftener and at higher speed than could be done with steam locomo- 
tives. Another advantage is in eliminating smoke, dirt, cinders and 
the noise that are always attendant upon the operating of steam 
engines. Moreover, the company will enjoy many advantages, not 
the least of which will be the increased economy in operating ex- 

With the new equipment it is estimated that 2,000,000 passengers 
can be carried in a day. This represents the movement of over two 
hundred trains daily, requirnig an expenditure of energy varying 
from 5000 hp at the hours of minimum load to 60,000 hp, at the hours 
of ma.ximum load. 

To the engineer and the railroad expert the electrical equipment 
of the Manhattan Railway presents m.any points for consideration 
and study. The magnitude of the undertaking and the character of 
the work performed cannot fail to command universal attention. 
The fact that the conservative Manhattan management had sufficient 
confidence in the electrical equipment to substitute it for steam loco- 
motives upon all its lines indicates a marked change in the attitude 
of the company toward electricity. This change of itself is convinc- 
ing proof that great advancement has been made, and that the Man- 
hattan management believes that electrical engineering for heavy 
railroad work has at last passed the experimental stage. In this posi- 
tion it has been fully sustained. The equipment of the immense 
power station at Seventy-fourth Street has been accomplished with- 
out the least friction or drawback, and the great generators, although 

Some Pointers on Induction Motors. 

FIG. 7. 550-KW TRAiN.Sl'OK.Mt.U. 

the first of such magnitude ever attempted, were assembled, jrected 
and operated without the slightest hitch, and immediately pressed 
into commercial service. The designing and building of these ma- 
chines, it may be added, marks an important and distinctive advance- 
ment in electrical engineering, as did the construction of the original 
Niagara generators made by the same manufacturing company. 

By Dr. Louis Bell. 

AT the present time the induction motor needs no defence of its 
general properties, for it has amply proved its capabilities. To 
a certain extent, however, it does need to be saved from its 
friends, and brought to the point where the public will look at it as 
at any other motor and not regard it as in any way a freak surcharged 
with occult properties. The writer has always rather "had it in for" 
the rotary pole treatment of the induction motor, not because it did 
not substantially represent the facts, but merely by reason of its' put- 
ting a very unfamiliar face on a motor that is strictly comparable with 
other motors. 

The man who uses an electric motor does not worry himself over 
the permeability of the iron, the magnetic density in the armature 
teeth or the specific inductive capacity of the insulation. On the 
contrary, he does not want to be bored with such technical details, 
but much desires a good, strong, efficient machine that will do his 
work well and steadily with a minimum of attention and expense. 
Such a machine he can find in the induction motor w'hen polyphase 
current is available, but the average man does not know it in this 
simple fashion, and judges induction motors by canons that are alto- 
gether inscrutable. In the early days of induction motors there was, 
I am sorry to say, a tendency on the part of many of those who sold 
them to throw a veil of mystery about them, and to convey the idea 
that some mysterious hocus-pocus in virtue of a magnetic field whisk- 
ing around like a kitten chasing her tail, induction motors would do 
strange and wonderful things in an occult and incomprehensible 
fashion. Like most false impressions, this has eventually led to 
trouble, and the development of induction motors has thereby 

For example, take the question of starting current, an objection 
so often raised to induction motors. No rational man would expect 
to put an ordinary iio-volt, lo-hp shunt motor in his shop and then 
start it successfully by simply closing the main switch. He realizes 
perfectly well that he would probably blow the fuses or possibly burn 
out the motor, and, at all events, would get a tremendous current 
through it, and, so like a rational being, he puts in a starting box. But 
if an induction motor is in question he eyes it suspiciously, and hints 
that he understands that it takes an enormous starting current, and 
will knock out his lights when it is thrown on. If an auto converter 
is suggested as a means of easy starting, he intimates that it is a 
pretty mean sort of a motor that compels him to buy and operate 
that thing, and that if induction motors were any good they would not 
require it. A starting resistance in the armature circuit he regards 
as a thing of evil put there to make the best of a bad matter. The 
last thing that occurs to him is that if a motor did not permit a con- 
siderable rush of current when thrown on the circuit at full voltage, 
it would be a very bad motor indeed as regards efficiency. I have 
sometimes threatened to make and publish the current curve of a 
shunt motor trying to start under a load at full voltage, merely to 
impress this fundamental fact. 

In the matter of variation of speed under load the case against 
popular superstitions is even more amusing. One of the commonest 
demands on the part of users of induction motors, and smart little 
engineers who have learned the equations of the rotary field, is that 
an induction motor shall hold its speed within, say, I'/i per cent from 
no load to full load. Now, this is not an impossible requirement, and 
has many times been met, but what would happen if a demand Were 
made for a continuous current motor to fill this specification? The 
proposition would either be met by a more or less blunt refusal to 
supplj* the thing or by a price for special design that would be hair- 
raising. Moreover, such a requirement is in most cases simply foolish, 
inasmuch as only very rarely is such a regulation of the slightest im- 
portance. It can be provided more easily in an induction motor 
than in any other, but it always implies an extraordinary effort to get 
as much copper as possible upon the armature even at the expense 
of considerable inconvenience elsewhere. The customer may imagine 
that with such a specification he will obtain a motor of phenomenal ef- 
ficiency, since in both shunt and induction motors the fall in speed 
under load measures the loss in the armature; but unless price is no 
object he may rest assured that when a motor for any kind of cur- 
rent is fattened with respect to one property it will be pinched in 
others, and he will get about what he is willing to pay for, and no 
more. In point of fact, no requirement placed upon a designer pro- 
duces more trnuhle and expense with a less valuable result to show 


Vol. X.XXIX.. Xo. 3. 

for it than a very close speed regulation. Hence while the induction 
motor actually can give wonderful results in this direction, extreme 
requirements hinder the production of good standard all-round ma- 
chines at a moderate cost, and should never be made unless actually 

Another common exhibition of ignorance is in a demand for mo- 
tors of extraordinarily low speed. Whatever the character of the 
motor, low speeds means a larger and costlier motor than would serve 
at higher speed, and induction motors form no exception to the rule. 
In fact, they are .somewhat more troublesome to design for very low 
speed than are continuous current motors, since they require an ex- 
aggerated multipolar construction that makes it hard to retain a 
good power factor. In certain cases low-speed motors are highly 
desirable, but they should not be specified to carry out some fine- 
drawn theory, or for the fun of the thing, unless one is willing to pay 
for them. 

If one looks over the list of standard motors for continuous cur- 
rents as produced by any manufacturer he will very quickly perceive, 
by an examination of dimensions and w^eights, that a low-speed 
motor is generally merely the next larger size of standard speed 
motor differently wound. In the case of induction motors such an 
arrangement is not feasible, and the result is imusually an extreme 
multipolar design that demands a phenomenally small air-gap if the 
power factor is to be kept up. The only thoroughly bad induction 
motors, which the writer has ever of late years examined have been 
machines hoo-dood, so to speak, by the attempt to get abnormally 
low speeds in comparatively small motors. A similar attempt in 
continuous-current motors leads to costly machines of low efficiency, 
but for some occult reason the average man swallows a low, real ef- 
ficiency in continuous-current motors without making any fuss, but 
kicks like a mule at low apparent efficiency in an indication motor. 

A high-pow-er factor is very desirable in an induction motor, and 
should be helped and not hindered whenever possible. Within 
reasonable limits it is comparatively easy to obtain unless some ex- 
traordinary demand for unusual properties in other respects comes 
in the way. But it is as a matter of design interconnected with all 
the other features of the motor, and can be crowded out if pushed 
too hard. 

In some respects induction motor design is easy. The absence of 
the commutator and the elimination of all questions of sparking is an 
enormous advantage in modifying the machine to suit various re- 
quirements, but all design is a series of compromises, and when the 
property is exaggerated some of the others are necessarily curtailed. 

When a freak specification calls for a lo-hp motor of 360 r. p. m 
at 60 cycles, to vary 2 per cent in speed between no load and a .so 
per cent overload, and to have a power factor of not less than .90 at 
full load, the designer has his work cut out for him, and if he comes 
anywhere near to filling the requirements, the resulting motor will 
not be one, the building of which should be encouraged in point of 
quality or price. 

The loudest objection raised against induction motors at the pres- 
ent time is their cost. Built as they are of piles of high-grade lami- 
nated iron, they need all that can be gained by the abolition of the 
commutator, and the simplification of the armature windings to 
come out even with continuous-current machines, particularly since 
their field winding is difficult. 

But the largest factor in keeping up their price to-day is neither 
material nor intrinsic labor cost, nor monopoly, but the inherent 
foolishness of those who continually howl for all sorts of outrageous 
special designs — designs which imply great added expense. Special 
machines arc sometimes necessary, and can be readily obtained in in- 
duction motors, as elsewhere, but I know of no branch of electrical 
industry that has been so infected by a mania for freaks. 

Ordinary continuous-current motors have settled down into fairly 
regular lines of manufacture, and when anything far outside these 
lines is required it can be obtained, but as a special machine at a con- 
siderably increased cost. The same is true in general machine pro- 
duction. One can buy standard lathes, for example, to meet all ordi- 
nary requirements at reasonable prices. But if some long-haired and 
fussy old personage insists on having one a little different from any- 
thing that the mind of man has yet devised, he must have a long 
bank account. I have had occasion from time to time to get many 
quotations on special work, and I am bound to say that clectricn! 
manufacturers in general make less fuss about it aifd add less cost 
than those in most other lines. 

For the good of the art special machines should be used only when 

they confer some really material advantage. It is hard to see why the 
demand for alternating motors should be more diverse than that for 
continuous-current motors, but it certainly happens to be. and while 
this condition remains manufacture cannot settle down to the steady 
lines that ensure low art of production. Users of motors, and engi- 
neers as well, ought to realize that specialization is cheap only on a 
very large scale, that is, when special and regular work merge into 
each other. And in induction motors this condition is far from being 
realized, hence the average costs are undeniably high when judged 
by comparison with standardized continuous-current motors. 

Stereoscopic Rontgen Ray Pictures. 

By Fk.\xk C. Perki.n's. 

THE interesting Rontgen ray stereoscopic system of Mr. E. W. 
Caldwell, described in your issue of Dec. 21, is an indication 
of the great progress made in recent years in stereoscopic 
methods for locating foreign substances buried in the tissues of 
bodies, and a review of some of these methods may be of interest. 

In an article in the Electrical Engineer, in 1896. Professor Elihu 
Thomson pointed out the desirability of the stereoscopic method in 
Rontgen ray surgical examinations. M. Chabaud described an ap- 
paratus for stereoscopic radiography in a paper read before the 
Societe Francaise de Physique in i8q8. whereby a foreign substance 

Fli:. I. — KONTGEN lt.\V I'lLTfRE. 

may be located in the human body, and its distance from any given 
point of the skeleton definitely determined. He employs a vacuum 
tube which gives very rapid records, and utilizes a stand which en- 
ables the operator to take two radiographs of the same object from 
two different but precisely defined foci, and then after development 
they are examined in a special stereoscopic apparatus. 

The accompanying illustration is one of a pair of stereoscopic 
radiographs taken by Dr. G. P. Girdwoixl, of McGill College, and 
consulting surgeon to the Montreal general hospital. It will be 
noted that not only the bones are shown to perfection, but the skin 
as well. The pair of prints must be viewed with a reflecting stereo- 
scope, as devised by Whcatstone and described in "The Scientific 
Papers of Sir Charles Wheatstonc." published by the Physical So- 
ciety of London. This apparatus can- be made by putting two mirrors 
at right angles^ as shown in Fig. 2, and then holding the pictures 
vipriglit and facing each mirror, the observer's nose being at the angle 
of the two mirrors; then by looking straight into the two mirrors 

January i8, 1902. 


one picture will be seen with each eye, and if they are correctly placed 
the hand will be seen as it was taken, with the back to the observer. 
If, however, the right eye picture is put before the left eye and the 
left eye picture before the right, the appearance will be as if looking 
from the other side. 

Until recently it was extremely difficult to locate e.xactly metallic 
substances, such as bullets, needles, etc., in the hand, foot or other 
parts of the body, the relative depth being particularly hard to de- 
termine. The only evidence at h.ind was the sharpness of the 

Eye. Nose. Eye. 

shadow. The sharper the outline of the shadow the nearer the object 
was supposed to be to the surface, but this was not very satisfactory. 
By taking the intersection of lines from two radiographs taken at 
right angles, better results were obtained, but it was not ab- 
solutely certain that the rays which eniinated from the tube terminal 
were in direct lines at right angles to one another. Cross lines have 
also been used above the part to be radiographed, the shadows of 
the wires at right angles indicating the relative position of the for- 
eign substance. In taking the pictures the tube is moved a distance 
of 2>< inches to the right or left of the original position between the 
taking of the two radiographs, the subject remaining in the same 
place. The tube terminal is placed in each case so that a normal 
from the surface would strike the same spot ; the pictures will then 
present exactly the same differences as the images in the two eyes, 
the result being a true stereoscopic effect, every part of the picture 
being seen in proper relation to surrounding objects. Following is a 
description of the inethod by Dr. Girdwood : 

"In carrying out this idea, a piece of lead was fastened with a lit- 
tle gum on the back of the left hand over the metacarpal bone of the 
index finger. A second piece was placed and fastened also with 
gummed paper in the palm of the same hand opposite to the meta- 
carpal bone of the ring finger, and the palm placed down on a plate 
wrapped in yellow paper in the usual way. The plate was put in 
the bottom of a cardboard box without a lid, and with a slit cut in 
one side large enough to admit the wrist, a line of pencil marked on 
the wrist, so as to put the hand back in the same position and a 
pencil outline of the hand made on the yellow paper around the 
fingers. Then a plumb bob was suspended over the center of the 
hand, and the Crookes tube arranged so that the center of the 
platinum plate should be 1^4 inches to the right of the pendulum 
string, and 12 inches from the plate, and the tube was rotated in the 
clip until a normal from the platinum distributor should strike in 
the same point as the point of the pendulum bob. With the pendu- 
lum moved out of the way and one picture taken, another plate was 
placed in the same yellow paper, the pendulum bob replaced, and the 
tube so arranged that the center of the platinum plate was i;4 
inches to the left of the plumb bob line, and so inclined that the 
normal thereto would strike the same spot as before, and a second 
picture taken. The pictures developed in the usual way gave two 
full size, indeed, slightly magnified skiagraphs of my left hand, and 
when cut in pieces small enough to mount as stereoscopic pictures 
at once gave the true stereoscopic effect." 

Dr. James Mackenzie Davidson gave an account in a British pub- 
lication of his process for making ';tercoscopic radiographs, which 
differs from that of Dr. Girdwood, in not having the normals of the 
platinum distributor in the ray tube converge in the two positions. 
These are taken as though seen with two eyes, whose axes are 
parallel instead of converging on a point 12 inches distant, repre- 
senting the appearance presented to each eye, when the axis of vision 
is convergent. • 

Dr. Davidson used the Whcatstnne stereoscope for combining 
the stereoscopic pictures to get the perspective effect. He also pro- 
duced stereoscopic effects with the stereopticon, two of these pic- 
tures being projected by tlie lantern alternately upon the screen. 

with great rapidity, an operating shutter being used by the observer, 
which permitted only one eye to see the screen at a time. The pic- 
tures were in this way made to stand out in bold relief, showing depth 
and the true space relations of the objects. He also produced a 
stereo-fluoroscopic apparatus, using a stationary fluorescent screen, 
having two sight holes and an operating shutter, together with two 
Rontgen ray tubes, and one or two induction coils. When the appa- 
ratus was arranged with a single induction coil, a motor-driven switch 
was used to alternately excite first one and then the other tube, the 
shutter operating synchronously with tlie excitation of the two 
Rontgen ray tubes. 

The interesting Caldwell stereo-fiuoroscopic system differs from 
the above in employing a small double-focus tube having anti- 
cathodes separated by 2J/2 or 3 inches. The fluoroscope has an alter- 
nating-current induction-motor driven rotating shutter, which is 
operated by current from a rotary reversing interrupter, which 
breaks the current and reverses its direction through the coil twice in 
every revolution. A small rotary converter is used operating on a 
direct-current lighting circuit, and delivers two-phase or three-phase 
alternating currents from its collector rings for operating the shutter. 

The fluoroscope shutter may also be operated on an alternating 
lighting circuit of 60 periods, in which case a speed of 1200 revolu- 
tions is obtained, and there are six times this number of shadows on 
the fluorescent screen, or 7200, one-half of which are seen by one 
eye and the other half, or 3600 shadow pictures, by the other eye, 
which practically is continuous vision. The object is thus brought 
out in relief. 

The first stereoscopic radiographs were undoubtedly made by 
Elihu Thomson in 1896, and he has stated that at this time a num- 
ber of such pictures were mounted for use with the stereoscope, for 
locating the position of bones in fractures with entire success. 

The Debt of Electrical Engineering to C. E. L. 
Brown— VII. 

By B. a. Behrend. 

WE call attention to Figs. 36, Ti^ and 38, representing, respec- 
tively, Brown's stations at Peter.sburg, Russia, at Milan, 
Italy, and his Kander station, the latter supplying current to 
the Burgdorf-Thun three-phase railway. 

A very beautiful type of revolving fiel.l generator i'^ represented by 



Fig- 39. which shows a drawing of one of the five high-tension gen- 
erators in the Schwyz station. Like the Waedensweil generators, 
they have a very high surface speed, and they must be capable of giv- 
ing their full output on a single-phase circuit. They are three-phase 
generators running at 400 revolutions, giving 8000 volts, and 46 am- 
peres single-phase, and 33.2 amperes three-phase at 40 cycles. This 
makes them 460-kw generators. They were designed in 1896. 
Their performance curves arc given in Fig. 40. The rise in volt- 







January i8, 1902. 


age on a single-phase circuit for 46 amperes of power factor 100 per 
cent is 600 volts, or 7}^ per cent. On a three-phase circuit, if a load 
of 33.2 amperes is thrown ofif, power factor 80 per cent, the rise in 
voltage amounts to 13.7 per cent. 

The performance curves here published clearly show that Mr. 
Brown had worked his generators for the past ten years slightly be- 
yond the bend of the saturation curve, but it is a peculiar psychological 
fact that men, when they understand an important principle for the 
first time, only too often imagine that nobody else had known any- 


thing about it before, and that the principle must be as new to others 
as it was to them. 

An interesting type of generator is represented in Figs. 41 and 42. 
Every other pole has an exciting coil. This construction permits the 
use of round steel poles even for small diameters. It has been copied 
in Europe by some prominent engineers, which fact may be consid- 
ered a testimony to its usefulness. The rating of this machine is 130 

Municipal and Government Ownership in Canada. 

There are signs of a growing popularity in the Dominion of the 
proposition of public ownership and control of public utilities, and par- 
ticularly may this be said of telegraphs, telephones and electric light- 
ing, writes a Canadian correspondent. During the recent civic elec- 
tions held throughout Oontario, it is to be noted as a sign of the times 
that Ottawa voted to own and operate its own telephone service, and 
another city its electric lighting. .Another feature in this respect is 
the apparent trend of public sentiment 
in favor of public ownership and control 
of submarine cables and land telegraphs. 
Sir Sandford Fleming, of Ottawa, who 
has been foremost in the all-British 
Pacific cable project ever since its in- 
ception, is now actively promoting the 
establishment of two very important 
schemes : First, the desirability of a 
state-owned cable across the .Atlantic, 
and, secondly, the transfer to the Cana- 
dian Post Office Department of the land 
telegraphs of the Dominion. The con- 
tention in favor of the latter proposition 
is backed by the fact that, since 1870, 
every part of the British Empire, except 
Canada, has nationalized its telegraph 
service. It may be pointed out in this 
connection that the Dominion Govern- 
ment has had under consideration, for a 
year or more, the important project of 
establishing a government postal tele- 
graph system, to be operated by the post 
office department, as in England. It is 
quite likely that at the approaching ses- 
sion of the Dominion Parliament, Mr. 
Mulock, Postmaster General of Canada, will bring forward a bill 
to enable this policy to be carried into practical efifect. 

With regard to the proposed .Atlantic cable, Sir Sanford Fleming 
claims that a state-owned cable is necessary over this ocean in order 
to complete the all-British telegraph line from Australia to England. 
The cost of such a cable is estimated at about $2,000,000, and the in- 
terest, sinking fund, cost of operating and maintenance, would 

Figs. 42 a.nd 4211.— Revolving Field Generator with Alternately- Wound Poles. 

amperes, at 1200 volts, and 40 cycles and 400 revolutions. The bore 
of the armature is 129 cm., and the length of the core 34 cm. There 
are six oval-shaped holes per pole, of which four are wound. The 
shape of the segments is of interest, as the equal inside and outside 
curvatures reduce the scrap not immaterially by simplifying the die 
work, and permitting the use of shears. 

amount to $166,000 a year. It is calculated that the cable would have 
a capacity of 10,000,000 words a year. .At the extremely low rate 
of 2 cents per word, this amount of business would be sufficient to 
pay all working and other charges. The rate at present suggested, 
however, is 5 cents per word for ordinary messages and 25 cents for 
urgent ones. . . 


\"oL. XXXIX,. No. 3. 

The Institute Annual Dinner and Mr. Marconi. 

The annual dinner of the .•\merican Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers was held at the Waldorf-Astoria, in the Astor Gallery, on 
Monday evening, Jan. 13, when Mr. G. Marconi was the guest of 
honor. The affair had to be arranged at virtually forty-eight hours' 
notice, owing to the unavoidable uncertainty of Mr. Marconi's de- 
parture from Canada, and his intention of sailing almost imme- 
diately from New York after arrival here. In spite of this short- 
ness of time in which to issue notice to the members and make all 
the necessary preliminary arrangements, the dinner must be pro- 
nounced a brilliant, and even remarkable, success. It was attended 
by over 300 members and ladies, including the foremost men in the 
profession, and the hard working dinner committee, which knew 
little of sleep between Saturday and Monday, had the gratification 
of seeing every one of its hasty plans and preparations crowned with 
success. The dinner committee consisted of Messrs. Calvin W. Rice, 
chairman; T. C. Martin, toastmaster; Dr. S. Sheldon, C. A. Terry, 
and C. O. Mailloux, who were also assisted greatly by Messrs. R. T. 
Lozier, J. ^V. Lieb, Max Osterberg, and, of course. Secretary R. W. 
Pope, all of whom worked like automobiles to carry out the ar- 
rangements. The Astor Gallery was set out with quartette and octette 
tables, and along one wall under a huge American flag ran a long 
table upon a dais at which were seated President Steinmetz, Prof. 
Elihu Thomson, Prof. A. G. Bell, Sir Percy Sanderson, C. B., Brit- 
ish Consul General; Cav. Branchi, Italian Consul General; Dr. M. 
I. Pupin, Prof. F. B. Crocker, Frank J. Sprague, Wm. Stanley, C. 
W. Price, Carl Hering, Arthur Williams, president New York Elec- 
trical Society, and the toastmaster. Among the gathering also were 
Messrs. C. W. Hunt and Oberlin Smith, past presidents of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers; General Griffin and Mr. 
E. W. Rice, of the General Electric Company ; Messrs. Murray and 
Brady, of the New York Edison Company ; Messrs. Piatt, Cuttriss 
and Clapperton, of the Commercial Cable Company ; Messrs. W. H. 
Baker and F. W. Jones, of the Postal Telegraph Company; Messrs. 
Mallory, Upton and Hill, of the Edison Laboratory; Mr. J. C. 
Bayles, scientific editor. New York Times; Mr. Julian Ralph, the 
famous war correspondent, now of the Mail and Express; Messrs. 
Betts, Eugene Lewis and Ewing, of the legal profession: Messrs. D. 
McFarlan Moore, J. M. Wakeman. C. T. Child, J. F. McElroy ; Peter 
Cooper Hewitt; Gano S. Dunn, Captain S. Reber, U. S. N., repre- 
senting also General Nelson A. Miles ; John Bottomley, T. D. Lock- 
wood, W. D. Sargent, A. L. Rohrer, W. J. Hammer, W. D. Weaver, 
H. W. Blake, O. T. Crosby, W. Maver, J. Welzler, M. Osterbferg, P. 
Torchio, etc., etc. In fact, the company's names, if given in full, 
W'Ould be a roster of every w'cll-known member within a couple of 
hundred miles of New York City. Among the many ladies present 
were Mesdames Edison, Sprague, Sheldon. Lozier, Hastings, Terry, 
Martin, Grosvenor, Mailloux, Blake, Wakeman, Bottomley and Hill. 

The menu, printed in Italian olive ink on sea foam green card, bore 
outside a sketch representing an ocean scene, with the two coasts 
of the Atlantic, and a Marconi staff on two tall lighthouses signaling 
"ss" in three dots all the way across. In the middle was a medallion 
with Mr. Marconi's portrait, draped with the Italian flag; above it the 
Italian national coat of arms, and below it as a pendant the Institute 
badge. .'Kt one side on the left was the .American flag and on the 
right the English. It is stated that the whole thing was designed, 
sketched, engraved, printed and delivered within thirty-six work- 
ing hours. Around the room, the Elblight system of flexible con- 
ductors, and tablet, into which lamps can be stuck in any form or de- 
vice, was used by Mr. Spaulding with great effect. On the tables 
twined great coils of the conductor with small green lamps. At the 
two ends of the room were large tablets, one reading "Poldhu" in 
white lamps and the other "St. Johns,'' in letters about a foot long. 
Immediately opposite the speaker's table was a similar tablet bear- 
ing the name of "Marconi.'' Between the three signs were strung 
strands of the conductor, into which were inserted clusters of three 
lamps at frequent intervals, to represent the three dots, or "s," sent 
across the Atlantic from the Cornish coast to Newfoundland. At 
fitting times these were flashed or allowed to stay illuminated, and 
ihc success was great. Another feature was the procession of wait- 
(T< bringing in the ice creams which were incandescent lamps and 
electric vehicles grouped around wireless telegraph poles, and poles 
with snapped wires, between which came ships at sea — all in ice — 
suggestive in a way of the chilly reception that met Mr. Marconi 
at St Johns recently. It is needless to say that these tours dc force 
were quite heartily applauded. 

President Steinmetz greeted the gathering after dinner was over 
and expressed his pride in the occasion and the success of the 
annual dinner, extending a cordial welcome to Mr. Marconi. He 
then turned the conduct of affairs over to the toastmaster, who read 
the following communications. 

To T. C. M.\RTiN : 

I am sorry that I am prevented from attending your annual dinner 
to-night, especially as I should like to pay my respects to Marconi, 
the young man who had the monumental audacity to attempt, and 
succeed in, jumping an electric wave clear across the Atlantic Ocean. 

(Sigoed) Edison. 

46 and 48 East Houston Street, 

New York, Jan. 13, 1902. 
Mr. Calvin W. Rice, 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
57 Duane Street, New York City. 
Dear Mr. Rice. — Replying to your kind letter which was delivered 
during my absence from the city, I beg you to transmit to the In- 
stitute my thanks for the honor proffered. 

I feel that I could not rise to the occasion, and regret not being 
able to contribute to the pleasure of the evening, but I wish to join 
the members in heartily congratulating Mr. Marconi on his brilliant 
results. He is a splendid worker, full of rare and subtle energies. 
May he prove to be one of those whose powers increase and whose 
mind feelers reach out farther with advancing years for the good 
of the world and honor of his country. 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) N. Tesla. 

Newport, R. I., Jan. 13, 1902. 
Ralph W. Pope, 

Secretary American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
26 Cortlandt Street, New York. 
I greatly regret my inability to attend the dinner to-night in honor 
of Mr. Marconi. It would afford me sincerest pleasure to give my 
evidence of my esteem and regard for him. I know him well enough 
to know that his genius is equaled by a modesty and reticence of 
statement for which I have an equal admiration with the first. When 
he told me last spring of his hopes I knew that he would do more than 
he mentioned. The result has more than justified expectancy. 

(Signed) F. E. Chadwick. 

Captain U. S. N. 

Columbia University. 

President's Roq.m, Jan. 11. 1902. 
Mr. R. W. Pope, 

Secretary of American histitute of Electrical Engineers, 
26 Cortlandt Street, New York. 
My Dear Sir. — I deeply regret that a previous engagement for the 
evening of Monday will deprive me of the pleasure of accepting the 
invitation that I have received through Professor Sever, to be pres- 
ent at the dinner tendered by the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers to Signer Marconi. 

I greatly regret my enforced absence, for I should enjoy being 
able to join in your tribute to respect to the distinguished inventor, 
and in felicitating him upon having placed his name on the roll of 
the great discoverers and the great benefactors of the human race ; 
for there appears to be every reason to believe that the most im- 
portant practical results will follow in due time from Signor ^^ar- 
coni's successful experiments. 

Pray tender to your distinguished guest an expression of my 
sincerest congratulation and high regard, and believe me, 
Very truly yours, 
(Signed) Nicholas Murray Butler. 

city of new YORK, 

Office of the Mayor. 

January 13. 1902. 
R. W. Pope, Esq., 26 Cortlandt Street, New York. 

Dear Sir: I am sorry that it is not in my power to attend the dinner 
of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, to be given this 
evening, at which Mr. Marconi is to be the guest of honor. The re- 
sults already obtained by Mr. Marconi mark him as a man who has 
been a benefactor of the race, and his latest achievement seems to 
give promise of still greater services to mankind. I wish it were 

January i8, igo2 


possible for me to be present, to say to him in person, on behalf of 
the city of New York, how highly his scientific labors are appre- 
ciated here. Asking you to convey to him my regards and best 
wishes, I am. Respectfully, 

(Signed) Seth Low, Mayor. 

Commercial Cable Company of America. 

Geo. G. Ward, V. P. and Gen'l Mgr. 

Executive Offices : Postal Telegraph Building, 253 Broadway. 

New York, Jan. 13, 1902. 
Dear Mr. Martin : Y''our letter of January loth conveying the kind 
invitation of the Arnerican Institute of Electrical Engineers to dine 
with them on this, Monday evening, was delivered while I was away 
from the city. I regret to say that I am unable to accept the invita- 
tion. I am compelled to return to Washington this afternoon to 
attend to matters in connection with the Commercial Pacific Cable. 
I congratulate the Society on its distinguished guest. I am very sorry 
that I cannot be there to meet hiuL 

Yours very truly. 

(Signed I Geo. G. W.\rd. 

(Local Sec. British Instn. Elec. Engs.) 

Washington, D. C, Jan. 13, 1902, 
C.WALiERE Branchi Consul General OF Italy, New York City. 
Sir : Absent because of previous engagements of importance from 
the dinner of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers given in 
honor of Signor Marconi, I beg you to ofTer my assurance that I 
am present in spirit and rejoice in the sympathy shown for our illus- 
trious countryman, who adds his own to the other great Italian 
names of Volta, Galvani and Ferraris in the history of electrical 
science. The new invention of Signor Marconi, whose development 
will unite more and more firmly the new and the old world in all 
their relations, is really an inestimable victory of the human genius 
over the forces of nature, a noble conquest of civilization and man- 
kind. I salute my glorious coinpatriot and thank the worthy and 
highly honorable Association which so fraternally welcomes and 
lauds him and his achievement. 

Itali.\n Ambassador to the L'nited States of America. 

Messages of fraternal felicitation were also read by Mr. John W. 
Lieb, to be sent to the foreign societies to which Mr. Marconi be- 

The toastmaster then presented to the audience Mr. Marconi, who 
was received with three tremendous cheers. 

Mr. Marconi acknowledged in graceful terms his appreciation of 
the warm reception he had received during the evening, and of his 
entertainment by such an eminent body as the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers. It is, he said, well known all over the 
world that Americans stand first in applied electrical engineering, 
and he felt greatly honored to be in the midst of so many eminent 
men, whose names are household words in the whole civilized world. 

Mr. Marconi then proceeded to give a brief description of what 
his system has at present accomplished, especially in reference to 
use on ships, and what he hoped it will accomplish in the future. 
Wireless telegfaphy is now attracting very great attention all over 
the world, and its progress is not slow. Five years ago the system 
with which his name is identified was working over a distance of 
about two miles, but its range has been rapidly increased until a 
few months ago it was quite possible to communicate by means of 
an improved and attuned system over a distance of 200 miles. The 
commercial application of the system has been given serious consider- 
ation, and improvements have been made of importance. The com- 
mercial application of the system has been tried in Great Britain, its 
chief base being in England. There are now over 70 ships carrying 
permanent installations for wireless telegraphy. Of these 37 are in 
the British Navy, 12 in the Italian Navy, and the remainder are on 
the large liners, such as the Cunard Line, the North German Lloyd 
anil the Beaver Line. There are over 20 stations in operation on 
kind in Great Britain, and more are in course of construction. 

Mr. Marconi regretted the impossibility in a brief address to go 
into the scientific details and the scientific development of his sys- 
tem, but he wished to correct some of the popular opinions which 
prevail as to the subject of wireless telegraphy. 

It seems to be the general opinion, he said, that when a message 
is sent into space any one with a necessary apparatus can intercept 
that message and read it. Of course, this would be very awkward 
and would hurt the system from a commercial standpoint. No one 
would wish to have his private affairs made public in that way. For 
instance, stock quotations or other matters of secret could be found 
out. By experiments and improvements which have been made, mes- 
sages can only be read when the receiver and the transmitter are 
attuned. This perfected system is not, however, at present in use 
on the ships. It has been deemed necessary that each ship should 
be equipped with apparatus which will permit of its reading a mes- 
sage sent from any other ship, because of the possibility of aid be- 
ing required. Therefore, all ships are attuned so that one ship can 
call up any other ship, but it is practicable to have the apparatus so 
attuned that the messages transmitted can in no way be received by 
any other apparatus except that attuned to receive the message. 

Mr. Marconi then quoted from Dr. Fleming as to some of his early 
experiments in syntonic telegraphy. Communication was estab- 
lished between Portland and Portsmouth, a distance of about 60 
miles, with intervening hills of 800 ft. in height. Crossing these 
stations two other stations had been placed in operation, and it had 
been found that crossing messages did not in any way interfere with 
one another. Transmission of messages was also obtained between 
England and Ireland, two stations located a distance of 200 miles 
apart, and with the use of a very small amount of energy — about as 
much energy as is necessary to light a small incandescent lamp — 
messages were transmitted. 

Taking up the subject of his most recent work, Mr. Marconi stated 
that the first experiments on transatlantic wireless telegraphy were 
to have been conducted between Cornwall, England, and Cape Cod, 
Mass. Just as the station at the latter place was being completed, 
however, it was badly damaged by a storm, and not wishing to defer 
the experiments, it was decided to make the trial with Newfound- 
land as a base, the shorter distance being also desirable, owing to the 
intention to install only a temporary station there. It was necessary 
here to use kites and balloons, which gave a great deal of trouble in 
getting them at the proper height, because of the wintry gales. But 
on December 12, for the first time, the kites were raised in a proper 
position, and signals were received from Cornwall at the right time, 
and at the pre-arranged speed. 

Mr. Marconi said that experiments would have been continued, 
except for the bad weather conditions, and also the discovery of the 
fact that the Anglo-American Cable Company claimed to have the 
monopoly of all telegraphic communication in that colony — not only 
of all telegraphic communication, but of all experiments in any way 
connected with telegraphy. It claimed to have the right over the 
land and the sea. Mr. Marconi said these claims surprised him, and 
he contrasted the different treatment he received at the hands of 
the English Government. The British Government claims a mo- 
nopoly of the telegraph, but encouraged his experiments more than 
prevented them. Certainly, when it comes to commercial work in 
establishing communication between the English coast and ships, an 
arrangement has been effected with Lloyds and suggestions have been 
made for future plans. He added that the manager of the cable sta- 
tion at St. John's was pleased that during the three days he was there 
they sent 50,000 words over the wire for the press. 

Mr. Marconi then discussed the future of wireless telegraphy at 
length. He said he had not the slightest doubt that in the near 
future it would be possible to send many messages over the sea at 
the same time by instruments properly attuned. He said that he 
had been very greatly encouraged by the Government of Canada. 
It will be admitted, he thinks, that one of the greatest features of 
civilization in all the world is the facility with which people can 
communicate with each other, living long distances apart. His hope 
is that at no great distant date he shall bring his system to the point 
of perfection of allowing friends and relatives to communicate with 
each other across the ocean at a small expense. At present, by the 
existing cable system, the sending of messages across the seas is put 
out of the reach of people in moderate circumstances. The cost of 
laying the cables is so large that cable companies have to charge a 
high price for the service. Wireless telegraphy will cheapen the cost 
very greatly, and do away with all cables and the charge for their 

In conclusion, Mr. Marconi said that he had built very largely on 
the work of others, and mentioned Clerk Maxwell, Lord Kelvin, 
Professor Henry and Professor Hertz. He referred to the fact that 
the message received at St Johns was received through a telephone 



Vol. XXXIX., No. 3. 

receiver, and turning to its inventor on his right, added that with the 
telephone the name of Prof. Alexander Graham Bell is inseparable. 

Prof. Elihu Thomson prefaced his remarks by saying that he had 
received the news of Marconi's great feat from over the telephone 
from a reporter, who wished to know whether he believed that sig- 
nals had actually been received by Marconi across the Atlantic. 
Prof. Thomson asked the reporter if Marconi made such a state- 
ment, and upon being answered in the affirmative he said: "If Mar- 
coni says that he received the signals I believe they were received." 

He paid a glowing tribute to Marconi for the great ability which 
he had shown in building up his system of wireless telegraphy, which 
was none the less remarkable because the system as a whole was 
founded upon fundamental principles discovered by others. While 
it was true that Hertz had been the first to demonstrate the waves 
upon which wireless telegraphy is based, yet the utilization of this 
discovery in such a practical manner was a great achievement and 
placed Mr. Marconi among the first inventors of the world. It has 
become a modern habit to make immediate use of new discoveries, 
and he referred to the rapid manner in which Rontgen rays had been 
utilized in surgery and now also in the cure of certain skin diseases, 
with a probability that the great discovery of Rontgen would still 
yield further benefit to man. 

In the case of wireless telegraphy the leap w?.s a remarkable one 
from a few hundred miles to Transatlantic telegraphy, and the ut- 
most credit was due to the one who had made the bound. Prof. 
Thomson referred sarcastically to the action of the Anglo-American 
Cable Company in prohibiting further experiments in Newfoundland 
by Marconi, saying that the cable company was apparently not satis- 
fied with a monopoly of the sea and the earth, but wished to extend 
it to the ether which extended throughout all space. Speaking of 
ether, he said it was a singular fact that while we had no knowledge 
of It as an entity, yet the great part of modern science was predicated 
tipon its existence. Prof. Thomson concluded by prophesying a great 
future for wireless telegraphy. 

The remarks of Prof. Pupin took rather the form of a lecture, 
being illustrated by a large number of charts. He first met some of 
the criticisms that had been made on Marconi's work, and referring 
to one which insinuated that the cables landing in Newfoundland 
had an influence on transmitting the signals from Cornwall, he said 
that it would be a greater feat to transmit through a cable the waves 
which influenced the receiving apparatus than it would to transmit 
them through the ether. 

Referring to claims made that previous to Marconi wireless signals 
had been transmitted over short distances, he said that any .school- 
boy by means of an Hertzian oscillator could transmit such signals 
over a short distance, but that with this apparatus the limit was one 
mile. He considered that a phenomenon could be viewed from three 
standpoints— the mathematical, the physical and the engineering; 
and that while the work of the mathematician and physicist was un- 
doubtedly oi the highest importance, yet it required the engineer to 
make their work of avail to the world. He deprecated claims based 
upon general statements of what might be attained, and said that 
claims were only worthy of consideration as against work accom- 
plished if they were accompanied by engineering specifications where- 
by any one could test them. 

Prof. Pupin gave a lengthy exposition of the principles of wireless 
telegraphy, using as a first illustration an ordinary cable and then 
proceeding step by step until the Marconi system was reached. He 
showed that if in the middle of the submarine cable a condenser were 
placed, .signaling would still be possible. If the condenser was in- 
creased in size and the distance between its plates and the diameter 
of the insulating sheathing correspondingly increased, another pos- 
sible condition was reached, until finally the sheathing is increased to 
the size of the earth and the conductors merely entered each end. 
This he considered to be the ideal condition. The nearest approach 
to it was to consider that the surface of the earth corresponds to the 
sheathing, and the atrial conductors of Marconi to the conductor ter- 
minals. He said that this theory satisfies the telegraph circuit cri- 
terion laid down by Hcaviside and explains very satisfactorily the 
Marconi system. 

In conclusion, Dr. Pupin stated with emphasis that he did not con- 
sider wireless telegraphy would ever prove sufficient of a competitor 
to submarine telegraphy to endanger the present investments in that 

Cooper Hewitt Vapor Lamp. 

We give herewith two views showing types of Cooper Hewitt 
vapor lamps that were exhibited at the recent meeting of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Electrical Engineers. The photographs of the lamps 


were taken by the light of the lamps, which was then the only light in 
the room. The prints from which the engravings were made are poor, 
but the excellent character of the light for photographic purposes 


may be surmised from the reproduction of an excellent photograph 
taken of President Steinmetz, which appeared in our issue of last 
The candle-power of the horizontal type of lamp shown was 600. 

January i8. 1902. 


With the starting device in the line the lamp took .5 watt per candle- 
power, and with the operating device out of circuit the consumption 
was less than .4 watt per candle-power. The lamp exhibited over 
the doorway was of 700 cp, and consumed .5 watt per candle, with 
the operating device in circuit, and .4 watt without. A lamp similar 
to these after being run 400 hours and again tested showed an 
economy of .35 watt per candle and no decrease in efficiency. 

The device for putting the lamps in operation is shown in Fig. 3, 
which is one of a number of arrangements used by Mr. Hewitt and 




Time switch, 

iTiake and breal" , 

always off. 


lound satisfactory in practical operation. It consists of an induction 
coil which is thrown in circuit in starting, its function being to boost 
the line e. m. f. to a degree sufficient to start the vapor discharge. 
After the tube has attained a normal state, which occurs in a very 
short time, the coil may be cut out. In some of the arrangements this 
latter operation is performed automatically. 

Important Telephone Decision in Chicago. 

Judge Tuley has rendered a decision in Chicago in the case 
brought by the Illinois Manufacturers' Association, the city of 
Chicago and several individual complainants against the Chicago 
Telephone Company. This case involved the right of the telephone 
company to charge more than $125 a year to a subscriber for a tele- 
phone instrument. The charge under special service contract is now 
$175 per vear. Tudge Tuley granted a preliminary injunction against 
the collection of more than $125 per year, and further held that 
money which has been paid in the past in e.xcess of that sum by sub- 
scribers can be recovered. The suit was based on the ordinance 
under which the telephone company has been operated, which fixe- 
the nia.ximum rate for a subscriber's instrument at $125. 

The telephone company in its answer to the petitioners' bills set 
forth that the service now being given was a great improvement over 
that given at the time the ordinance was passed, and that although 
more than $125 per year was charged for this improved service, 
those who desired were still able to get the same kind of service 
which was afforded at the time the ordinance was passed, at the 
ordiance rate of $125. It was maintained that since the improvements 
of the art in recent years made possible the giving of a better service 
by putting in a complete metallic circuit and instruments suited to 
long distance service, the company had the privilege of giving its 
customers its improved service at an advanced price sufficient to 
cover the e.xtra cost of this service as long as it gave its customers 
the option of taking the old grounded circuit instruments at the 
ordinance rate. 

In the decision Judge Tuley said in part : "When a subscriber can- 
not obtain satisfactory service, except by entering into a contract by 
which he agrees to pay a greater rate than that fixed by the ordi- 
nance, the rate agreed to be paid so far as it is in excess of the rate 

prescribed by the ordinance nmst be held to be an illegal exaction, 
and not only illegal but forced, a forced agreement, by the company, 
exacted of the subscriber, and not a voluntary contract, which would 
stop him from disputing the same. The law does not require ob- 
jection or protest to be made to the payment of unjust charges for 
the reason that it would be in vain, being addressed to those who 
occupy the commanding power to enforce obedience to their require- 
ments. There is no contest made by the complainants as to the right 
of the company to charge extra for what is called extension service. 
With that exception, the service rendered under the special contract 
m question must be rendered by the defendant at the ordinance rate, 
$125 per annum. An order may be prepared in accordance with the 
views here expressed for a preliminary injunction as prayed for in 
the bill." 

The Judge has evidently hinged his decision in part on the question 
of whether the $125 service now offered could justly be called ade- 
quate in the light of recent improvements, and in this connection 
the contentions of the telephone company's lawyers seem to have 
been used in an unexpected manner against the company by the 
Judge, for he says: 

"The defendant's answer clearly shows the inadequacy and inef- 
ficiency of the old service for the changed condition of affairs." 
Various annual reports of the executive officers and stockholders 
were cited by the court in support of this statement. 

Continuing the court said: "It is admitted that the defendant 
telephone company is a public service corporation, and analogous in 
many respects to that of a common carrier; that it must treat all its 
patrons alike and without discrimination. In that respect it must 
also be held to resemble a street railway corporation, and an ordi- 
nance granting to a street railway corporation the privilege of using 
the streets of the city for street railway purposes on the condition 
that it should not charge to exceed a certain rate of fare would be 
exactly similar in principle to the ordinance in question granting a 
telephone company the use of the streets, etc., on condition that it 
should not increase its rates for telephone service above a certain 
amount. The two ordinances were passed in the exercise of the 
same power of the municipality. If one is the exercise of the govern- 
ing power, so is the other." 

Reference was then made to a large number of court decisions 
cited in the trial of the case, regarding which Judge Tuley says: 
"Under the decisions quoted it became the duty of the defendant 
as a quasi-public service corporation, by reason of the passage of 
the ordinance and its acceptance and enjoyment of the privileges 
conferred thereby, to furnish telephone service with all the improve- 
ments thereon to its subscribers at the ordinary rate of $125 per an- 
num, and no acts or acquiescence of its subscribers by signing or 
accepting telephone service under the special contract can be held 
to be an estoppal upon such subscribers or to confer upon the de- 
fendant a power which it has assumed to exercise in direct violation 
of the ordinance." 

The case will be appealed. If the decision is sustained claims 
may possibly be made for past charges in excess of $125 per year 
which have been collected of various subscribers. This would mean' 
according to the figures of M. B. Madden, president of the Illinois 
Manufacturers' Association, that it would cost the telephone com- 
pany $2,000,000 for the settlement of these claims. 

The Scope and Intent of the Carnegie Institution. 

The following official announcement of the purposes of Andrew 
Carnegie in endowing the Carnegie Institution at Washington was 
made last week by Dr. Charles D. Walcott, secretary of the incor- 
porators of the Institution : 

Mr. Carnegie's purpose, as stated by himself in requesting the 
various trustees to become members of (he board, is as follows: It is 
proposed to found in the city of Washington, in the spirit of Wash- 
ington, an institution which, with the co-operation of institutions 
now or hereafter established there or elsewhere, shall, in the broad- 
est and most liberal manner, encourage investigation, research and 
discovery ; encourage the application of knowledge to the improve- 
ment of mankind; provide such buildings, laboratories, books and 
apparatus as may be needed, and afford instruction of an advanced 
character to students whenever and wherever found, inside or out- 
side of schools, properly qualified to profit thereby. Among its aims 
are these: 

I. To increase the efficiency of the universities and other instilu- 


Vol. XXXIX.. No. 3. 

tions of learning throughout the country by utilizing and adding to 
their existing facilities, and by aiding teachers in the various institu- 
tions for experimental and other work in these institutions as far as 
may be advisable. 

2. To discover the exceptional man in every department of study, 
whenever and wherever found, and enable him by financial aid to 
make the work for which he seems specially designed his life work. 

3. ,To promote original research, paying great attention thereto, 
as being one of the chief purposes of this institution. 

4. To increase the facilities for higher education. 

5. To enable such students as may find Washington the best point 
for their special .'itudies to avail themselves of such advantages as 
may be open to them in the museums, libraries, laboratories, observa- 
tory, meteorological, piscicultural and forestry schools and kindred 
institutions of the several departments of the Government. 

6. To insure the prompt publication and distribution of the results 
of scientific investigation, a field considered to be highly important. 

These and kindred objects may be attained by providing the neces- 
sary apparatus for experimental work, by employing able teachers 
from the various institutions in Washington and elsewhere, and by 
enabling men fitted for special work to devote themselves to it. 
through salaried fellowships or scholarships, or through salaries 
with or without pensions in old age, or through aid in other forms 
to such men as continue their special work at seats of learnins; 
throughout the world. 

The board of trustees elected by the corporators to carry out the 
purposes of the institutions as indicated is as follows : Ex-ofiicio : 
The President of the United States, the president of the United 
States Senate, the speaker of the House of Representatives, the 
secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, the president of the Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences ; Grover Cleveland, New Jersey ; John S.. 
Billings, New York; William N. Frew, Pennsylvania; Lyman J. 
Gage, Illinois; Daniel C. Gilman, Maryland; John Hay, District of 
Columbia ; Abram S. Hewitt, New Jersey ; Henry L. Higginson. 
Massachusetts ; Henry Hitchcock, Missouri ; Charles L. Hutchinson, 
Illinois; William Lindsay, Kentucky; Seth Low, New York; Wayne 
MacVeagh, Pennsylvania; D. O. Mills, California; S. Weir Mitchell, 
Pennsylvania; W. W. Morrow, California; Elihu Root, New York; 
John C. Spooner, Wisconsin ; Andrew D. White, New York ; Ed- 
ward D. White, Louisiana; Charles D. Walcott, District of Colum- 
bia ; Carroll D. Wright, District of Columbia. 

It is understood to be the purpose of Mr. Carnegie to transfer $10.- 
000,000 in 5 per cent bonds to the board of trustees for the purposes 
above mentioned. The meeting for organization of the board of 
trustees and the election of officers has been called for Jan. 29, at 
the office of the Secretary of State, Washington. 

Nernst Lamp Lecture in Chicago. 

Probably the largest gathering of local electrical men ever assem- 
bled in Chicago was on hand to listen to a lecture by Mr. A. J. Wurts 
on the "Development of the Nernst Lamp in .\mcrica," delivered 
the evening of Jan. 10, in the large lecture hall of the Lewis Insti- 
tute laboratories. This being the first public exhibition of the 
Nernst lamp in Chicago, many were practically interested in seeing 
the latest types of lamps and in hearing from the lips of one who 
had taken part in the work, the difficulties that have been foimd and 
overcome in the development of a commercial lamp. 

This lecture covered much the same ground as the paper by Mr. 
Wurts before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at 
Buffalo last August, which was reprinted in Electkical World 
AND Engineer of Aug. 31, 1901. For the main points of the lecture 
readers arc referred to that paper. The lecture brought out some 
new points, however, and explained perhaps a little more fully the 
troublesome problems that came up and their solution. One state- 
ment made, to the effect that the life of the glowers varies almost 
directly as the frequency, was of considerable interest to the audi- 
ence. For example, a glower with a life of 800 hours at 60 cycles 
will last 1200 hours at 133 cycles. 

Much appreciation was shown by the audience as the speaker re- 
lated the way in which small but important practical troubles had 
I}een overcome, such for example as the substitution of aluminum 
plugs inserted with pliers in place of bindirtg posts for making 
connection with glower terminals, the embedding of the platinum 
terminal in the glower and the use of paste to make the removal of 
platinum black from the heater porcelain easy. The glower ter- 

minals, which are of platinum, get so hot that upon the expiration 
of the life of a glower it was found almost impossible to loosen the 
screw if the terminal was fastened in a binding post. As a sub- 
stitute for binding posts the glower terminals are pressed into 
aluminum tapered plugs which accurately fit holes in the connecting 
rods of the lamp, into which holes they are tightly wedged with 
pliers to make the connection. 

To illustrate the exact relation of the color of the Nernst lamp to 
the incandescent lamp, Nernst and incandescent lamps of equal 
candle power w'ere shown side by side in ground glass globes 
and also side by side behind screens made up of bars of various 
colored paper. The room was alternately lit with Nernst lamps 
and with high candle power incandescent lamps taking an equal 
amount of energy, making a practical demonstration of the relative 

New Telephone Patents. 

In the first issue of the Patent Office for this year telephony is 
represented by but two patents, one relating to our familiar friend, 
the party-line call-signal, the other to the more delicate problem of 
the service meter. Mr. Henry I. Hauxhurst, of Oakland, Calif., is 
the inventor of the latest device for supplying the party-line sub- 
scriber with one unmistakable ring on his bell when his attention is 
wanted instead of the confusing succession of rings customary on 
party lines not equipped with selective systems. Mr. Hauxhurst's 
device, which he terms a "telephone attachment," is literally such, as 
it is ararnged to be attached to the ordinary telephone set and to be 
actuated by the hammer of the telephone ringer, the gongs of the 
latter being transferred to the bell, which gives the signal when the 
step-by-step device or selector has done its work. Referring to the 
diagram, Fig. i is a vertical sectional view of the apparatus, ;md 


Fig. 2 a cross-section top plan, showing the attachment secured li> 
the box of an ordinary telephone bell. In Fig. I, P' is the hamnict 
of the telephone bell, adapted to vibrate when set in motion the two 
levers B B', and so cause them to close contact with springs K K'. 
The magnet C operates on lever C, to which is attached a hollow case 
/."', in which a steel ball E' rolls freely ; C is held away from th? 
magnet by spring /, and its rear end bears against a projection a 
on the end of sliding rod E, which carries a dog F, engaging in the 
teeth d on sliding rod /•'. A lever H pivotted to the lower frame /'" 
through which the sliding rods pass, has a tooth on its upper end. an<F 

January i8. igo2. 



being pressed forward by spring l6 holds f in position at any point 
to which it may have been raised. At right angles to H is attached ' 
a rod / carrying the armature /' of magnet /': an insulating block fP 
attached to the lower end of H carries a platinum pointed contact 
stud h, adapted to engage in the notch g of the insulating collar H' 
on connecting rod F' when /( and g arc opposite, and H is brought 
forward by magnet /' acting on armature P. When /•' is at its lowest 
point it causes spring G' to break contact at 4; when C is attracted 
it breaks contact at 5, interrupting the connection between wires 9 
and 6. Wires 10 and 11 go to the local battery, and 12 and 13 to the 
bell magnets. The operation of the instrument is as follows : Sup- 
pose three bells indicate the call for the subscriber, to whose telephone 
the device is to be attached. In such case block f/' is so adjusted, 
having a slot opening where it is screwed to H, that point Ii will be 
directly in line with notch g of collar H', when F' has been raised 
three teeth. When the central operator rings three bells in the ordi- 
nary way the hammer B' causes three contacts between B S' and 
A.' A.'\ the vibrations of the hammer being so rapid as to constitute 
practically a continuous pressure while the vibrations last. Circuit 
is thus closed at each contact of B B^ and K A'' through C and C 
is attracted, ball £' rolling down the case and aiding in depressing 
C ; the outer end of C raises E and the dog F raises F^, one tooth 
in which position it is held by the dog on the top of //. During the 
pause between signals C is released and E falls back one tooth, but 
C does not rise far enough to close contact again at 5 before the nexl 
signal comes, O is again attracted, and the operation of the sliding 
rods is repeated. When the third signal has been given C returns 
to its normal position and closes contact 5 ; F' then havmg been raised 
three teeth h is in line with g, and contact 4 having been closed by 
spring C, no longer held down by F\ magnet /' is energized, attracts 
its armature and so causes /; to engage in g, thus making contact with 
F', and so closing circuit between the local battery and the bell. When 
the circuit is broken by the removal of the receiver from the switch 
hook, /' releases /" and spring 16 acting oh H causes /; to be with- 
drawn from g, allowing F^ to drop to its normal position, breaking ■ 
contact at 4 by pressing down G\ The bell will not be rung by fewer 
than three signals, because F^ will not be lifted up enough for h to 
be brought opposite g, nor by more, because the pause between sig- 
nals is not long enough to allow C to return to its normal position 
and close contact 5 and so energize /'. In the case of stations not 
signaled where the signals are either too few or too many to effect 
the closing of the bell circuit /' acts as a restoring magnet after the 
completion of the signals by moving H so as to release F', which 
then depresses G^ and breaks the circuit through /'. The apparatus 
has been ingeniously worked out, and can claim the advantage of be- 
ing adaptable to the ordinary telephone set, and the ordinary method 
of party-line signaling. It has the disadvantage, however, of num- 
ber of moving parts, requiring very fine construction and careful 
adjustment to ensure regular performance. 

Mr. Frank R. McBerty, of Evanston, 111., assignor to the Western 
Electric Company, patents a service meter for multiple switchboards 
adapted for use in connection with common battery switchboards. 
It has been found in practice that a meter which registered a call only 
would be useless, if not worse than useless, since so much confusion 
would arise from the registry of calls not resulting in completed 
messages, the completed message or connection with the called sta- 
tion followed by an answer from that station being the unit of tele- 
phone charges. Consequently, a meter to be effective must register 
only when the called sub-station has responded to the call by taking 
the telephone receiver off the hook, the train of operations culminat- 
ing at this step constituting a "message," or completed connection 
as far as the work of the telephone company is concerned. Last 
week we described an invention which sought to accomplish the same 
object that Mr. McBerty's device aims at, but in the persent case the 
solution is arrived at in a simpler manner, with less auxiliary appara- 
tus, and with a delightfully ingenious arrangement of circuits. Briefly 
put, Mr. McBerty arranges his service meter in series with the cut-off 
relay of the calling line, and with the supervisory lamp of the an- 
swering line, and so fixes the resistance of the meter-magnet that it 
shall not become energized until, by the closing of the telephone 
circuit at the answering station the lamp is shunted and an increase 
of current is thereby produced in the meter circuit. As a safeguard 
against double registration of the meter, should the called station 
temporarily replace the receiver, a shunt is applied to the meter mag- 
net, which is broken when the meter magnet is sufficiently energized 
to attract its armature and thereafter the meter magnet remains 
energized until the answering plug is withdrawn and the circuit 

through the cut-off relay broken. The reciprocal arrangement of the 
answering and calling-plug circuits and their respective supervisory 
lamps is novel and highly ingenious, and a difficult problem is solved 
in a simple manner, which is one of the truest tests of inventive ability. 

Pacific Cable Before Congress Committee. 

At Washington, on Jan. 10, the House Committee on Commerce 
took up the subject of a Pacific cable. The main question is whether 
the cable shall be constructed by the Government or by individuals, 
and this hearing was devoted to a statement by Mr. George G. Ward, 
vice-president of the Commercial Pacific Cable Company, as to the 
plans of that organization. He said that contracts had been made 
for the manufacture and laying of a cable to Honolulu by Nov. i 
ne.xt, and that the company intended to extend the cable to Manila 
within two years thereafter. The manufacture of the cable was now 
proceeding, he explained, at the rate of 240 miles a month, and this 
rate would be increased to 630 miles a month. He said that the cost 
of the project was between $10,000,000 and $12,000,000. The cross- 
questioning by Chairman Hepburn (Rep., Iowa), and Messrs. Corliss 
(Rep., Mich.), and Mann (Rep., 111.), tended to develop the question^ 
whether or not the company, by having an exclusive field, would 
maintain high rates. Mr. Ward said he expected the rate to Manila: 
to be $1 and to Honolulu from 35 to 50 cents a word. The companj^ 
he represented would be able to make exclusive traffic arrangements 
from points beyond the Philippines and connecting with China and 
Japan. He also stated that there would be questions as to the right 
of the United States to land a cable on foreign shores. Representa- 
tive Stewart (Rep.), of New Jersey, interposed the statement that 
Germany's present course against Venezuela showed that the Ger- 
man Government made little distinction between public and private 
rights, so that a government cable station would have about the 
same status as a private station. 

Chairman Hepburn (Rep., Iowa) asked a series of questions as 
to the effect of wireless telegraphy on the submarine cable. Mr. 
Ward replied that the new system presented a serious question. He 
was not certain that the Pacific cable project would have been un- 
dertaken if the long-distance experiments had occurred earlier. As 
to the claims that wireless signals had been conveyed 2000 miles 
across the Atlantic, he said that if the claims were made good they 
would deter people from laying any more cables. When asked as 
to the effect thus far on the cable business, he replied that it had de- 
pressed cable interests. 

Mr. Stewart wanted to know if the cable companies had not 
chased Marconi out of Canada, to which Mr. Ward answered that 
he believed the cable companies had insisted upon certain exclusive 
rights they held. Mr. John Foord stated that the American Asiatic 
-Association, representing the firms doing business in the Orient, fa- 
vored a cable under private control. It was opposed to the Govern- 
ment entering the field of private enterprise. 

President Scrymser, of the South & Central American Cable Sys- 
tem, made an extended argument favorable to government control 
of the Pacific cable, citing incidents of the Spanish-American war, 
showing the importance of governmental control of the cable. In 
one case cited the Spanish Minister of Marine called Admiral Cer- 
vera to leave Santiago. If this dispatch had not been intercepted. 
Mr. Scrymser said, the battle of Santiago Bay would not have been 
fought and the conduct of the war might have been changed. 

Thomas E. Hughes, representing an American company, slated 
that as good cable could be made in the United States as in any 
other part of the world. He asked that American labor and capital 
have the advantage of doing this work. Chairman Hepburn asked 
if this American company was prepared to make a definite business 
proposition to the United States Government, and Mr. Hughes re- 
plied that such a proposition would be submitted in due form within 
the next two days. Mr. Hepburn asked that the formal proposition 
be in alternative form — first, for delivering a cable of American 
make at San Francisco; second, for making and laying the cable to 
Hawaii, Guam and Manila. Mr. Hughes thought tlie Government 
better able to do its own cable laying, using the army transports. 
As indicating the general character of the forthcoming proposition 
Mr. Hughes said the cost would be within 10 per cent of the stated 
cost of the Commercial Pacific Company's cable. The additional 10 
per cent, he said, was for the protection of American industry. 

Francis B. Thurber, president of the United States Export Asso- 



Vol. XXXIX,, No. 3. 

ciation, favored private construction as most likely to give the earliest 
cable advantages to the business world. 

William W. Cook, of New York, a director of the Pacific Com- 
mercial Cable Company, said that the company, after laying the 
cable across the Pacific, stood ready to sell it at any time to the 
United States Government at an appraised valuation. 

Mr. Ira W. Henry, civil engineer for an American cable manufac- 
turing company (the Safety), said his concern would furnish the 
Government a cable at $1,000 a mile, which, to Hawaii, would amount 
to about $2,200,000, or considerably less than the cost of a foreign- 
made cable. 

The hearings will be continued this week on Friday, when Goi^- 
ernment officials will be heard on the Government project. 


patch from Copenhagen, Denmark, states that Iceland, Greenland, 
the Faroe Islands and Canada may soon be in communication with 
•one another by the Marconi system of wireless telegraphy. Iceland, 
.It IS said, will spend $45,000 for this purpose, and is already negotiat- 
ing with Mr. Marconi for the installation of the system between Ice- 
land and the Shetland Islands 

tawa for New York last week Mr. Marconi said he had decided to 
establish his wireless telegraphic station for this side of the Atlantic 
at a point in Cape Breton to be decided upon later. It is also an- 
nounced that the Dominion Government will give a very handsome 
grant toward the initial expense. The Canadian Government will 
also test wireless telegraphy stations on the St. Lawrence Gulf. 

LONG ISLAND SOUND CABLES.— A new cable two miles long 
is soon to be laid across Fisher's Island Sound. A telephone station 
is to be established at North Hummock Island, east of New London, 
which will be a new point for communicating news affecting shipping 
interests. This will be the fifth point of the kind on the Connecticut 
shore of the Sound, and a sixth will probably soon be added by lay- 
ing a cable from Stratford Point to Middle Ground Shoal lighthouse. 

LOCATING METAL ORES.— A patent issued Dec. 31 to Fred. 
H. Brown describes an application of the Wheatstcne "bridge prin- 
ciple in the location of metallic ore?, minerals, etc. The source of 
current for the bridge arrangement is an induction coil, and a tele- 
phone is utilized in obtaining a balance. Two terminals from ends 
of one arm of the bridge are inserted in the earth at various distances 
apart, the earth thus becoming the imknown resistance in this arm 
of the bridge; the value of this resistance is then measured in the 
usual way. 

vance in telephone rentals by the Michigan Telephone Company, the 
Merchants' and Manufacturers' Exchange has been investigating, 
through a committee, the desirability of establishing an independent 
company. The committee has just met and decided upon a report in 
favor of buying a co-operative telephone plant, but not the People's 
Telephone Company, which would ultimately be taken over by the 
municipality as soon as an act could be passed by the Legislature 
authorizing municipal ownership. 

PNEUMATIC TUBE SERVICE.— A telegram from Washing- 
ton, of Jan. ID, says : Representative Roberts, of Massachusetts, to- 
day introduced a bill for the re-establishment of the pneumatic tube 
service in the leading cities of the country. Its distinguishing feat- 
ure is its taking away from the Post Office Department discretion 
in the matter, and the express stipulation by Congress of the places 
where the service is to be installed and the amounts to be severally 
paid for it. It is hoped that, as an offset for the rural free.delivcry 
appropriations for the benefit of the country districts, the tube ser- 
vice may be granted to the larger cities, as recommended by the 
Postmaster General. 

G. T. Wood and relating to the control of e. m. f. upon the ter- 
minals of a translating device by means of a controllable auxiliary 
e. m. f. The claims of one of the patents also relate to the form of 
motor control known as the "teazer system," the application for this 
patent having been filed a number of years before the commercial in- 
troduction of this system. Among the claims of this patent are 
several which refer to the use of the rotary transformer on an elec- 
trically propelled vehicle. The applications for these patents were in 
interference with the claims of some twelve other patent applications 
while they were in the Patent Office, which explains the long interval 
between their date of application and their date of issue. 

United States with her neighbors, and especially with those of 
Europe, is illustrated by some statements made by the London Daily 
Mail Yi-iir Book for 1902, a copy of which has just reached the Treas- 
ury Bureau of Statistics. In its various chapters it discusses various 
features of conditions in the United States. Under the head of 
Wealth it places the United States at the head of the list of great 
nations, the figures of wealth being: United States, £16,350,000,000; 
United Kingdom, £11,806.000,000; France, £9,690,000,000; Germany, 
£8,052,000,000, and Russia, £6,425,000,000. While the United States 
heads this list of countries in its wealth, it shows the smallest na- 
tional indebtedness, the figures being: United States, £221,000,000; 
Germany, £651,000,000; United Kingdom. £706,000,000; Russia, £711,- 
000,000; France, £1,239,000,000. The percentage of debt to wealth is 
given as : United States, 1.4 per cent ; United Kingdom, 6 per cent ; 
Germany, 8.1 per cent; Russia, 11. i per cent; France, 12.8 per cent. 

A FREAK PATENT.— PvedicAtrng the fact that electric currents 
flow through the earth and are now wasted, Emil Jahr, of Berlin, 
in a patent issued last week, describes a method for utilizing such 
currents. He claims that the existence of such earth currents 
is shown by thrusting two metal plates at a certain distance 
from each other into the ground in the direction of the mag- 
netic meridian and connecting them above the ground by means of a 
wire, including a galvanometer. He says that the stronger currents 
of this kind have been shown to flow from north to south. Not- 
withstanding that these facts have been known, the earth current has 
never, he says, been utiiized, and he proposes to take advantage of 
this source of energy. He claims to have discovered that the cur- 
rent produced is at the highest tension when tlie two metals are most 
widely separated from each other in the electrical potential series: 
that which is nearer to the zinc end of the series is thrust into earth 
or water at the more northerly point, while that which is nearer the 
negative end of the series is thrust into the earth at the southerly 
point. In such an arrangement the metals are not, he says, appre- 
ciably corroded even when they are in earth saturated with water and 
are connected together for a long time. The invention consists in 
using electrodes of this character, the line connecting the same being