The Lincoln Electric Co.
General Offices and Plan I
1 Hi' oln Motor
o| ■'-i.iinrj under water,
New York Citj
Branch Offn . s at
Philad) Iphia I hi< ago
I Detroit ( harlotte, X. C
( 'olumbus I ■ 11 1 into
Pittsburgh Monti eal
M inn< apolis
Agencies in other principal
No. HU \
Copyright. 1918, by The Lincoln Electric Cr,
ate \3 wo
.1 () 7 8 A !t
: I ■ J : ii
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
in in ■>■ mil mil
nmr ii i < 1 1 1 rn 1 1
ELDING in the modern sense of
the word, covers a number of dis-
tinct operations. In order to thor-
oughly understand the subject it is
to divide welding into two classes
1st. forge or pressure welding, 2nd,
Forge or Pressure Welding
This term, for want of a better one, is ap-
plied to welding processes where two pieces
of metal are heated to the plastic state, then
forced together by pressure or hammering to
thoroughly unite them, and complete the weld.
The familiar example of this is the weld which
the blacksmith makes by heating two piece- of
steel or iron in the forge fire, then hammering
the ends together on his anvil.
A weld similar to this has been made for some
time by the use of electricity, where two pieces
of metal are heated by an electric current, then
forced together to complete the weld. This
process is known as butt or spot welding and is
not the process under discussion in this book.
I hi> term is applied to welds winch are made
by heating metals to such temperature that they
will fuse together on contact, without any pres-
sure being applied. The difference between
autogenous welds and those formerly described
is mainly the difference in temperature of the
metal. In the autogenous weld, the metal is
heated to a state of fluidity and the two pieces
flow t< igether.
The use of the autogenous process, however,
i- not confined to the uniting of two pieces of
metal. It is used to even a greater extent for
adding molten metal to other metal pieces or
parts, thus building them up or filling defects.
Electric Arc Welding
Electric Arc Welding is an autogenous
process. It is used both for joining metal
parts and also for adding or building metal
on such parts. In fact, when two pieces
ire welded together by this process, it is
done by filling in molten metal, between the
two pieces, rather than by melting the two
so that they will join.
The Electric Arc
The Electric Arc is formed when electric cur-
rent is made to jump or arc from one electric
conductor to another, through the air or some
other substance, which is not a good conductor
\ familiar example of this is the sparking
which occurs when you touch together two wires
connected with an ordinary electric door bell
battery. Another familiar example is the spark
which passes between two wire terminals on the
spark plug in the automobile engine and serves
ti i ignite the gas.
The arc or spark is produced because the elec-
tric current is forced through a medium which
offers great resistance to its passage and hence
The object, or the conductor, from which the
current come 1 - is called the positive electrode,
the object to which it passes is called the nega-
In arc welding, one wire of an electric circuit
is attached to or laid upon the steel which is to
be welded, the other wire is attached to a piece
of carbon or metal which the welder holds and
which is called the negative electrode. The cur-
rent passes or arcs from the piece which is to be
welded to the electrode which the operator holds.
In doing so it creates such great heat on the
1 ig 1 In aic welding, one wire (the positive) from the weldii g
apparatus is attached or laid upon the steel which is to be
welded, the other wire (the negative) is attached to the electrodi
of carbon or metal which the operator hold?
Ill i! ■:
'..ii. ii.'.. ■ ;u
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
11 minium ill ii '
piece, thai the portion of the piece around the
are actually melts and turns into vapor and the
arc is continuously passing through this vapor.
The only purpose of the electric arc in weld-
ing is t" produce the heat fur melting tiie metal.
Advantages of the Arc
The electric arc has no mysterious qualities
which make it especially adapted for welding
purposes. It is simply the most efficient means
known for producing welding heat.
Heat for welding purposes may he supplied
by the blacksmith's forge lire, by chemical com-
bination of materials such as thermit or by the
burning of a gas such as acetylene in the pres-
ence of oxygen. The heat produced by any of
these agencies is the same in every particular as
that produced by the electric arc; the only advan-
tages of the arc are :
1st — Production of a Higher Temperature.
2nd — Convenience in Application.
3rd — 1 j i\\ ( '.i ist.
Arc Produces Great Heat
It is a well known fact that the highest obtain-
able temperature can lie produced in the electric
arc. In fact, a temperature can he reached which
is so high that it cannot lie measured with any
instruments developed up to the present time.
The reason an electric arc produces such a high
temperature is that a large amount of heat is
produced in a very small area. This in itself
suggests why the arc is the most efficient means
of heating metals for welding.
Fig. J. Photograph of Electric Arc in operation. A large
amount of heat is produced in a very small area, which makes
the arc a most efficient means of heating metal-. .<.,." v.v
THE WELDING ENGINEER.)
Adaptability of Different Processes
\s stated above, any of the other methods of
producing heat will serve for welding work, but
the difficulty comes in applying them in just the
The forge lire, for instance. K'lves very well
where two pieces of metal can lie placed in it,
heated and then put together as they are on (he
anvil. This application is. of course, very limited
In fact, most welding is now done by the addi
tion of new- metal between the welder) pie
It was the necessity of adding new metal in
certain welds which led to the development oi
the Thermit process of welding. This process
depends upon the chemical combination of cer
tain substances which produce a great heat antl
release molten iron from the combination. Ibis
process has been wonderfully successful. lis
advantages can be readily seen in case oi two
pieces such as a broken locomotive frame, which
could not be convenienth welded by the forge
process. By building up a mold around the two
ends and by pouring in the molten steel gener-
ated by the Thermit process, new metal could be
added between the ends and they could be thor-
Thermit welding is in fact a casting proce
and always requires the mold built up around
the parts to be joined and usually requires pre
heating of those parts in a charcoal fire or bv
gas torches. While applicable to quite a range
-'t repair work, it is not usable in the great field
of welding, recently developed.
Oxy Acetylene Weld
l II O"
Oxy-Acetylene Welding has the- advantage
over both forge welding and thermil welding
in that this process can be applied to any surface.
The lie.it is produced by burning acetylene gas
in oxvgen gas
1 i •. \ -acetylene has gradually widened the use
of welding and has made it a common manufac-
turing process. Even the small garage, the
blacksmith, anil the jeweler can now use oxy-
acetylene welding and make great savings over
fi inner methods.
llimillilllllilillllliiitiiiiiiiiimiiiii m d niiiimin id :uiiiiii diiiiii "nun id n niinii! 11. i i iiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiii
mill nun .urn \ i inn ' '' i:iiiimiiiiiimiu
COMPARED WITH OTHER PROCESSES
A rail wl
s and is as solid as a new rail
The cutting of metals by oxy-acetylene is an-
other field which has been very widely developed.
It is used for cutting up scrap, for wrecking steel
structures, bridges, vessels, etc.. and is without
any rival as far as speed is concerned in this
field of work.
There are many places, however, where even
acetylene welding cannot be conveniently or suc-
cessfully applied. In the first place, the heat of
the acetylene torch is spread over a relatively
wide area. The greatest heat in the acetylene
lurch is produced at a point in the inside of the
flame proper, and in order to get this point down
to the metal, it is necessary to hold the flame
very close so that it spreads out over the surface
of the metal to a considerable degree.
In welding steel sheets or plates, for instance,
this causes a great deal of difficulty, owing to
the buckling and bulging of the sheets, produced
h\ the wide heating.
At a recent convention of the Railway Master
Blacksmiths Association, Joseph Grine, of the
New York Central Railroad, in discussing this
point says, "In welding boiler sheets the electric
process is superior to oxy-acetylene because the
latter generates too much heat and causes the
sheets to buckle."
In another discussion of this same subject at
a General Foreman's Convention, J. M. Kerwin
of the Chicago, Rock Island Railroad, says, "We
use the electric and oxy-acetylene processes, and
have found that the electric is the best for weld-
ing patches and cracks, and oxy-acetylene is best
I ig t A rail which has been welded together by the oxy-
acetylene process but owing to the severe contraction
of the metal on cooling the rail has broken,
Still another expression of opinion is given
b\ the Committee < )n Design, of The American
Railway .Master Mechanics Association, who
state, in their report, "From the reports received
from different roads, they indicate that consider-
able difficulty is experienced from welding flues
with oxy-acetylene process, while roads using
the electric process report very satisfactory
These opinions from railway men. are given
at length, because of their very wide experi-
ence with welding processes.
Another factor which enters into considera-
tion of the acetylene process is the matter of
safety. It is not to be denied that there is a
great element of danger in the oxy-acetylene
welding process, particularly where a generat-
ing plant is used.
At the meeting of the West Coast Safety En-
gineers Association, in San Francisco, January.
1917, R. L. Hemingway, of the Industrial Acci-
dent Commission of California, called particular
attention to the possible small amounts of hydro-
gen existing in the oxygen gas and this commis-
sion has issued a warning to the public not to
use oxygen gas, for acetylene welding, unless
absolutely assured that ii does not contain more
than 2' i of hydrogen gas.
These matters are not brought up in any effort
to discredit acetylene welding, but because they
are necessary to any intelligent practical con-
sideration of the subject.
'; I ' t. mi: .
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
Arc Welding is Convenient and
\"o\v let us compare arc welding with the
other processes, as in convenience and safety.
Arc welding can be applied anywhere that
electric current is available or can be generated,
and where an electric cable can be carried. It
i all forms ol wi
can be used inside boilers and fire boxes, in ship
lipids, perhaps the most inaccessible location that
can be imagined, Owing to the action of the
arc. seams, etc., can be welded over tic head oi
the operator with no great difficulty.
Electric arc welding can be used for joining
parts, for building in molten metal or fur build
With apparatus of the proper design, arc well-
ing is the simplest welding process m exist
It requires a minimum of preparation. Preheat-
ing' "i the part- to he welded is necessar) only
in the case of high carbon steel or cast iron.
The heat is applied on a \cr\ small area, so that
there is no buckling or undue expansion of
sheets or plates.
The steel for filling in or building on is pro-
duced bv the melting of the electrode which the
operator holds in his right hand, thus the left
hand is always free for placing of parts and
adjustments, making the process practically con-
There is absolutely no danger in the operation
of properlv constructed electric arc welding
The voltage employed is very low, in fact
lower than that of a residence lighting system,
and cannot by any possibility injure the operator.
Comparative Cost of Arc Welding
.Did Acetylene Welding
It is not necessarx to discuss the forge weld-
ing process or thermit welding, as to cost. In
each of these processes the o >st of preparing the
parts for welding is vcr\ high and neither "i the
processes are usable except in certain limited
'|'],e 1 1 nest i, ,n of cost res. ih es itself int" a com-
parison of electric arc welding with oxy-acety-
lene. The simple fact that the electric arc pro-
duces a higher temperature than the acetylene
gives the arc a decided advantage.
Perhaps the best comparison can he obtained
b\ giving actual figures on such operations. One
large manufacturer of tanks and similar prod-
nets, employs both oxy-acetylene and are proi
esses and has made careful comparisons oi o I
The report from one particular test made on
identically the same work is summarized below
and shows conclusively that the arc will weld
this tank at less than one-half the cosl of the
acety lene pn icess.
Objects Welded —Six 215 gallon tanks. •■."
shell, ;," heads with one 3" and _'" and l 1 :"
standard o mplings.
LOHG SEAM 6.69" EOUOL TO 31.SFT
CI(?CUL(!R SEAM XZ + VW • " 9S>.
COUPLING S 6 « 2" 0" » •• 12.
t-ii-iPE coupling. TOTAL FOR SIX TANKS 110 .5 FT
J-3 PlPf COUPLING, £-2 PIPE COUPL'MG
215 dflLLOrl TflMK
■1' SHELL\ j£ HEAPS
I ig ' Gallon Tank comparative cost test was made.
iMiiiiJinmniifi mi in i'i>
Acetylene If elding
Welding Outfit: — Stationary Generator, No.
2, Welding torch number 7 and 8 tip.
Time of welding, 18' 4 hrs. Ca 30c per hr $ 578
< Ixygen consumed. 371 cu. ft. at .0135c 5.0085
Acetylene consumed, 325 cu. ft. at .008c cu. ft - 2.60
Filling material. 15^ lbs. at 12c per 11. 1.89
Total cost for 6 tanks $15.2785
Cost of welding I tank 2.S-4
Welding Outfit — Transportable type for one operator,
manufactured by The Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland.
Time of welding. 14 hrs. (8 30c per hr $4.20
Kilowatts consumed. 60 kilowatts (S 2c per 1.20
Filling rod used. 27 lbs. (S 7 3-10c 1.97
Total cost for 6 tanks §7.37
Cost of welding I tank / .23
The Railway Electrical Engineers Association
have made a very careful investigation of this
subject, since the railroads use welding to an
enormous extent. Their committee on this sub-
ject reporting at their 1916 Convention, states,
"Three kilowatt hours of electric energy (cosl
6 cents) will produce the same amount of heat
as mav be produced by approximately 6-6,. 10
cubic feet of acetylene (cost 1 1 y _■ cents) and
7-5 10 cubic feet of oxygen (cost 15 cents)."
The parentheses in the above quotation are
our own and they indicate the normal prices of
electric current, acetylene and oxygen. It will
he seen that 6 cents expended in electric energy
will do the same amount of welding work as
26 J / 2 cents spent for oxy-acetylene gas, on the
assumption that the two processes make equally
effective use of the heat produced.
This assumption, however, is not in accord-
ance with the facts, since it can be shown that
nil any welding operation, the heat produced by
the electric arc will be at least three times as
effective; that is, three times as much welding
can be accomplished with it as can be done by
the same amount of heat produced by the oxy-
I'ig. 7 tias tank mail.' by the Boom Boiler & Welder Co.,
Cleveland This tank has been made both by arc welding and
bj acetylene welding. The an welding cost '4 to '. .0 mm I.
as gas welding. The tank is tested at 150 lbs water pressure
Fig, 8. A radiator welded by the Standard 1 Ml Co., of Indiana
Comparative costs by Acetylene and Arc Welding were as follows:
Cost af Acetylene Weld on Radiators
40 cu. ft. acetylene at
48 cu. ft. oxygen at
2 hrs. time at
Cost Of Sil'liC
16.6 K. W. H. at
2 hrs. time at
with Electric Weld
.006 per K. W. II. $ .10
45 per hr. .90
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
mi .11,1 n i:
The same committee submitted to the Conven-
tion, a chart which i- reproduced on page 7,
showing the oust comparison between gas and
electric welding", based on the amount of beat
The table on page 6 shows a complete com-
parison of cost~ compiled by an engineer, who
has made a special subject of welding, in a mini
bet" of different fields
Gordon Fox, writing in the Railway Mechani-
cal Engineer, November. 1916, sums the whole
matter up as f< >lli i\vs :
"For work "ii brass, bronze or aluminum the
oxy-acetylene flame has no competition. 1 he
main point of superiority of the arc method is
its economy, as tin- electric arc produces the
necessary heat at a much lower cost than does
the oxy-acetylene flame. In its field, the arc
also produces results as good, if ii"t better, than
can be obtained with gas, i. e., flue welding, < i
To avoid excessive cost, predicating is almost
ahvavs necessary in gas welding, but may often
be dispensed with in arc welding. The cost oi
electric power for a welding job will only be
from 15 to 25 per cent of the cost of oxygen and
acetylene for the same job."
It will be seen from a careful stud) "t the
above authorities that arc welding is beyond
question far more economical than acetylene
welding, where a large amount of work is to
In a -mall shop, such as a garage or black-
mail, or in any place where welding i- onl\ done
at long intervals, such as repair work in ma-
chine shops, the acetylene process lias the advan-
tage because of the low firs! cost of equipment.
Wherever there is work enough in a com-
mercial welding shop to keep two or three opera-
tors continually busy, arc welding will show a
saving great enough to pa\ for the additional
cost of equipment in a ver\ short time.
In ,! niaiin fai 1 in ing plain w here tile w i irk
can be done with the arc, it will sometimes pa\
to install an arc welder when there is only
enough work to keep an operator bus) with the
gas torch five In airs per day.
While some -aving may be made in acetylene
welding, by generating the acetylene at the plant.
a g 1 generator for this purpose will cost quite
as much as arc welding apparatus, and acetylene
welding will still cost twice as much as the arc
TABLE OF COMPARATIVE WELDING COSTS— METAL SHEETS AND PLATES
BASED ON FIGURES IN YEAR 1916
Cu it p,
i . i
l "ost per
'i : ,
. 1 134
41.'' 1 '
5 . 75
Above data based en following
Call irific \ alue i if
Acetylene 2c per cu. ft. Cb
Power 2i pi i K. \V. Hr Lab , r Hr.
:etylene is 1555 B. T. U. per cu. ft. One K. \\\ Hr, i? equivalent to 5415 B. T. U.
Iilimuiliiliiiiiii I iililiillltlilllllli
CARBON AxND METAL ELECTRODES
iii'uu minimum , i i mini! M n i;ii'"i mm ■■ mn mi minimum m
mil i i [minimum m n
urn inn, urn ■ ■
1 1 1 1 1 II 1 1 1 1
Acetylene Gas. If per cu. ft.
Oxygen Qas 24 - » «
Power, liper KWH from
75 Voll Line
to ZO 30 40 SO 60 70 &0 90 fOO
Heaf units Per Hour- B.T.U. +/0OO.
Fig. 9 Curves showing the comparison between cost of gas and
electric welding based on the number of heat units per hour.
Taken from Association of Railwaj Electrical Engineers Report.
- Carbon and Metal Electrode
In electric arc welding there are two distinct
processes. In one, the electrode manipulated
by the operator is a carbon pencil, from '4 inch
to l'j inch in diameter, and 6 to 12 inches in
length, pointed to bring the arc into as small
a space as possible. The carbon arc is simply
used to supply the heat and the operator feeds
in the filling metal from a melt bar held in his
In the other process, known as the metal elec-
trode process, the electrode is a metal wire of
comparatively small diameter and this wire grad-
ually melts itself away, furnishing the metal for
The carbon electrode process is only used
where it is desired to do fast melting and to
heat over a large area. Such work would be
found in the filling in of large holes in castings,
The carbon arc demands from 300 to 600 am-
peres of current and the beat produced is 50
intense and the glare so blinding that the opera-
tor must wear gauntlet gloves and a shield com-
pletely covering the head and shoulders.
The metal electrode process is used for 90 per
cent of all welding work. The heat is only
spread over a very small area, enabling the
operator to deposit the metal very accurately on
edges of sheets, plates, etc. This process re-
quires only 50 to 175 amperes current and since
the heat is not so intense the head and shoulder
Fig. 10, Cart. mi Electrode Welding. The operator holds the
carl electrode with the right hand and feeds the filling metal
into the weld from a rod held in his left hand.
Fig. 11. Metal Electrode Welding, The electrode in tins i lsi
a metal wire of small diameter and this wire gradually
itself away, furnishing metal for the weld
1111111111(11 Ill ■ I
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
shield is not necessary but a fact- shield with
colored glasses can be worn instead.
The question of which process to use is de-
termined entirely by the work to be done and
a good idea can be obtained by studying the
various applications of welding presented later
in this b< » ik.
Operation of Electric Arc
Generally speaking, no greater skill is required
in the operation of the electric arc than would
be necessary in any other modern manufacturing
process. An intelligent man can learn to do
simple welding work in from two days to .
week's time, depending on the nature of the
work. Great skill is of course acquired by prac-
tice. Electrical knowledge is not necessary.
The apparatus now available for this use prac-
tically never needs attention and can be operated
with less care than almost any machine tool used
in the modern sin >p.
Fig I This woman h.is learned to use the electric arc weldci
■ 55 than .1 week and lias replaced the man who formerly did
this work, allowing him to enter military service.
Characteristics of the If eld
h should never be overlooked in considering
welding that the new metal in a weld is simply
metal which has been melted and cm. led again,
and il partakes of the properties of a cast metal
rather than of rolled or wrought metal
For instance, in welding two pieces oi boiler
plate the weld will have just as great tensile
strength as the original plate, but being cast steel
it cannot have the ductility which rolled steel
stock possesses. The cast steel in the weld may
have tin- properties oi ingol steel so tar as duc-
tility is concerned.
ii used i" be common opinion thai a weld
could not be made which could be readily ma-
chined, but this mistaken impression lias long
since been corrected. The weld, when properly
made, can be machined as readily as any steel
casting i >r flange steel.
Welding has been used to such an extent for
ring breakage and defects that unless thor-
oughly po-ted, the e man is apt to look
upon it as a "patching" or "doctoring" process,
whereas it is accepted in the most advanced engi-
neering practice and is used to a wonderful ex-
tent in automobile, locomotive and other con
sti action of the highest charai ter.
'''s' 13. An Arc V . as , ... , i This
' ,! " u ~ ■"' armatun been worn in service, then
l,ullt «P b J welding on new teel I - i g turned
CHARACTERISTICS OF WELDING
Applications of Arc Welding
It is beyond the power of any one man and certainly beyond the limits
of this book to give an adequate idea of the applications of electric arc
Within the last few years the apparatus for this purpose has been
highly perfected. Such enormous strides have been made in its applica-
tion and use, that it is difficult to see any limits to its adaptability.
The following pages are intended as an outline of work which has
actually been done. To any one interested in applying the process to his
product, the best advice is to consult an expert in this line of work as to
the feasibility of the particular job he has in mind.
What Metals Can be Welded
Electric arc welding is most successful on
Steel, iron and the various alloys of these metals.
It has been applied with great success to the
welding" of cast iron in various forms but cannot,
because of the great heat produced, be used on
cast iron where the sections are thinner than
Ilie arc is not practicable for welding alumi-
num. Acetylene is the best process thus far dis-
covered for this work.
Wherever steel or iron parts are to be joined
or breakage and wear of such parts repaired,
there should at least be a careful investigation
of the possibilities of arc welding. It can be
stated with certainty that any job of this char-
acter which can be done with acetylene can be
done at lower cost and at greater speed with
the electric arc.
While the following pages do not represent
one per cent of the total possible applications of
this process, they will serve as suggestions t<>
manufacturers and others interested in the high
development of iron and steel fabrication.
Fig. 14. Electric Arc Welder used by tin- Standard Oil Co.,
to caulk leaks in vapur lines an, I Mil stills, Tin- vapors are very
inflammable and every joint must be absolutely tight, hence
welding is used in addition to riveting. (See Fig. 73.)
in: ■ .-...: ,! ,.■ ' ,.
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
I jg 15 [-"illing blow holi in ;i casl st< el tnotoi 11 ui U ■■■ heel. These '
strain, wen approved foi use in militar) m '"i trucks when ciefeel wen repaired with the electi
I i- if. r.lmv holes in steel casting whii epaired in .
f< \\ minutes h\ i li welding.
Fig, 17. Tin- lol -i castings showed defects which would have
delayed delivi i customer one oi two days. Willi i
Wcldei thej perfect an. I delivered on scheduh tinu
I he first large cunimercial 1 1 - • oi an weld-
ing was in the repairing of defects in steel cast
nigs Tin- manufacture of these castings i- a
must difficult process owing t<> the high melting
point and ilif difficulties of pouring molten steel
Even in pouring the straight steel ingot, it
i- difficult enough in secure a sound ingot, owing
in the gases which air given off, causing blow
holes in the castings. In tin- more complicated
shapes in which steel '-a-tmu- arc made, it is
almost impossible to produce a large run of
iiiL's without sand spots, caused 1>\ the washing
awa\ nf parts of the mold, or blow holes caused
by tin- formation nf ^.'ims. Even where the cast-
ing is otherwise sound, the excessive shrinkage
i a' tin- steel frequently causes shrinkage cracks
to appear or causes undue -tram- to be set up
in the inside of tin- casting itself. A few years
ago, automobile construction and refinement in
agricultural implements and other lines greatly
increased the demand fur steel casting? I .
numbers of these castings had small defects
which did not serioush affect their strength, but
did impair their appearance. The high cosl
tin- steel castings and the percentage nf waste
Illll mum niii.;
miillillliliijiiiimini' ■ I n imi >. mil
led sonic one to hit upon the electric arc as a
method of repairing these minor defects. They
reproduced on a small scale the conditions of the
electric furnace. It was a perfectly logical run-
elusion that if steel was melted and poured into
these defects, the defect would he filled with
cast steel which would be in every way as good
as the rest of the casting.
It was not long before the steel foundry-man
and all users of steel castings became convinced
of the merits of this process and castings with
defects repaired in this manner were accepted
and used without question, as being in every way
equal to castings which came perfect from the
This use of the electric arc has not only saved
great sums of money for the steel foundryman,
but it has greatly improved deliveries of eastings.
Formerly, the foundryman could not absolutely
assure his customer that all of any given days'
production could be counted upon, but with the
introduction of the electric are, defects are quick-
ly repaired and delivery schedules can thus be
Manufacturers who use steel castings fre-
quently find it advisable to install their own weld-
ing outfits thus saving the return of the castings
to the foundry when small defects are discovered
in machining or in testing.
In face of the traffic conditions recently exist-
ing one firm found it very profitable to install
the arc welder rather than to ship the castings
hack to the foundry thirty miles away.
The use of the arc welder saved
Less Skilled Liib
Electric arc welding has also relieved the labor
situation in the foundry. It has become harder
and harder to secure skilled labor, especially
molders, for this work. The supply of such men
di es not keep 'pace with the increase in demand.
Under former conditions it was useless to put
an apprentice on such work, as the material he
would spoil and the floor space he would occupy
would lose for the foundryman far more than
it would gain for him.
Fig. is. Steel Pulley 1. ' . t ■- 1 1 1 l ljl on which .1 defective boss has been
repaired by building up with the are welder. A shrinkage crack
in the rim has also been repaired h\ arc welding.
Fig 19. Large Steel Geai showing shrinkagt
would have made it necessary to scrap the casting
In 1 11 f'H .in welding.
iad it m
] ig 20 Ali't-H Bracket Steel Casting from which a riser has
been cut with the arc welder This cut was through about 3
inches of steel and took approximately six minutes.
iiiimiiiliiiniiilliiiiiiiniiimiiiiiiimiiiimiiiiiii i i h i i him nm mi i in minim miiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimi
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
I n An Wi M I
I'oundi ; Co., i !hii ago, 111
With the electric arc, however, the mistake?
which the heginners make cm in nine cases out
of ten he remedied and one or two welders can
take care of the work for a fairly large foundry,
even where the proportion of cheap help is quite
\s has been stated, arc welding is not in am
sense a "patching" or "doctoring" process. 1 he
defective parts of the casting are melted and i
i in solid steel. These welded parts are just
as strong a- any other portion of the casting
ami when the work is carefulh done the) ma
chine and finish perfectly. Mam steel foundries
where welders are in use arrange to take hack
castings which have shown defects in the machine
-In i]i ami alter welding them return them to the
Operation <>f Arc
M i- eas\ t<> prevent the usual troubli
to tin- so called "chilled" or hard weld. I>\ apply-
ing the arc for some minutes to the pari m 1"'
welded, thus thoroughly preheating the surround
ing metal. When the weld i^ made the whole
mass then cools off slowly and the sudden chill
ing of the new metal is avoided.
The ,nc can he used i"i' pre heating the cast
ings m exacth the same manner as the
acetylene flame is used.
Sometimes a slag covering i- provided to ex-
clude the air from the molten metal and thus
prevent the presence of oxide in the finished
weld. This i^ only necessan in special ca i
With these simple precautions anj steel foun-
dry can use the arc welder successfull} and
many castings that would otherwise be a dead
Co . Easton, I'.i
23A. Defective pulley casting Re]
I. iiu ciln Arc Welder saved 5 I" 2 1 inute?
iiiiniiiiiiiiiniiim muni ' i ' i ni: « m " iiitiiiiiiiiiini!
Welds Easily Machined
The weld in the casting is as soft and is as
readily machined as any other portion of the
work. The blow holes or shrinkage cracks, sand
holes, etc., are first pre-heated by playing the
arc over the surface, holding the casting in such
a position that sand and foreign matter will he
Hushed out. This work is done with the carbon
electrode. The filling material can be obtained
from steel wire, especially made for the purpose
or even from steel scraps or bars <>| suitable
analysis. Burning out sand spots with the oxy-
acetylene flame is impractical, because the re-
flected heat burns off the end of the tip. \\ here
the oxy-acetylene flame is used, it is necessary to
chip out sand spots with a pneumatic tool, which
makes the cost of the operation very high.
Electric Steel Foundry
The electric steel foundry can use electric
arc welding to particular advantage. In these
castings, the metal electrode process will ordi-
narily be best suited. The defects can be chipped
out with a pneumatic hammer and since they
are nut large, can lie readily repaired with the
I ig, 24. Lincoln Arc Weldei 400 ampere capacity installed in
Hi,, plant of 'I'lu Standard Steel Castings Co., Cleveland. O.
I ti tin background i^ space i ■ i ■ ■ ^ ni- 'I foi tl stall •' of
Sizes of Welders
The size of welder adapted for certain work is
a matter which should he passed on by the manu-
facturer of the apparatus. However, certain
general sizes can be suggested.
For steel foundries using the metal electrode
or very light carbon electrodes on small work,
a welder supplying 20(1 amperes will usually be
sufficient. This is an ideal size for the electric
For the foundry making castings up to Unto
pounds, a welder should be used which has a 300
ampere capacity. For the very large foundry,
where large work is produced a 400 ampere
welder is the ideal size, and is arranged so that
two or more machines can he connected together
in parallel, thus giving the current for heavy
carbon electrode cutting.
See pages 50-54 for illustration
suitable for steel foundries.
Filling in a lil
n ,i -till casting bj tin i
. IIIIIIIIIKII Ill
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
■ ... . .
■ I = : 1 1 1 - - - . 1 1 ! . =" : : ■ ■
Grey Iron and Malleable Foundries
I i -• ' .. '■ .. ' ' I part ol Hi.
. . I i nut by u rM
The use of electric arc welding has recentl)
been extended to grey iron and malleable cast-
ings to a very large extent. There are man\
minor defects in both grey iron and malleable
castings, which mar the appearance of the cast-
ing Inn do not seriously affeel its strength.
I he-e can be repaired and Idled to good advan-
tage with the arc welder, unless the casting? are
The . Imcrican Machinist says: "The arc elec-
tric welder is used on malleable iron castings for
two purposes: First, for adding material that
has been either swept away in the mold or is lack-
ing because of a mistake in the design, and sec-
ond, in save castings that have blow holes or
sand holes. It" metal could not be added to make
a sound repair, castings would often have to be
scrapped : a i rK patched casting would be con-
demned for appearance sake, and one with un
sound joints would be weak and tend to frac
The difficult} encountered in welding cast iron
arises from the expansion and contraction of the
local area heated by the arc and the tendency
of the wel<l to become hard when the casting has
ed. With the proper equipmenl for pre
heating furnaces and with skilled operators it is
probable that 809! of all grey iron castings can
he welded using the carbon electrode process.
The metal electrode process i- very difficult to
use on cast iron because of the extremely small
heated by the an Tins, of course, would
be .hi advantage in welding any other material
than cast iron.
The Welding Engineer says in a recent article:
"Welding cast iron with the electric arc process
will become a very common practice within a
The grey iron or malleable foundry contem-
plating the use of arc welding should call a
welding engineer and consult with him as to the
possibilities of the process on the particular class
• k which tllev de-ire to di i.
- shown 11. I ,11, -i welding II..
.... .1 nil j
Malleable Iron Switch stand showing .i defe* i which
i. nt t.i reject it for appearance sake, but which was
readilj remedied by \rc Welding.
: ■■ ii ii 111 Nimimniii
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
■i"'. 'Mi, .in iiiiiiiiii ■ -..i . nun .1 iiiiiiiii
ii ■ 'i
] motive side frame using a portable Lincoln Arc Welder. The same week that this photo
was taken $6,000 were saved through arc welding done on tins welder.
Xext to the steel foundry, the railroad has
probably made the widest use of electric are
The use of welding in the railroad shop has
become of especial importance since the United
States entered the World War.
It is impossible to build locomotives fast
enough to meet the traffic demands and the only
possible solution to the problem is to make re-
pairs more quickly and to keep more engines in
Mr. E. Wanamaker, Electrical Engineer of
the Rock Island R. R.. recently in a very inter-
esting article in the Railway Electrical Engineer.
among other things, says: "Our figures show
that the saving effected by the electric arc weld-
ing system is being made at the rate of approxi-
mated $200,000 a year with our present equip-
ment. This figure includes a direct saving as
compared with other methods of about $13(3.000.
There is also a saving arising from the fact that
we keep engines in service a greater portion
of the time, which makes up the balance of the
$200,000. Our figures show that we are saving
about 1400 engine days per year. We have ob-
tained, in other words, service of four additional
engines without any expenditure beyond that
required U> install the welding system.
"The net returns secured mi the electric weld-
ing investment amounts t>> approximately 500%
per vear. These figures show that the installa-
tion of the electric welding system on the Rock
Island Lines has been a very profitable invest-
"There is still a totally unexplored field in the
maintenance of freight and passenger cars, which
promises to eclipse in importance maintenance of
motive power. The present indications are very
strong that when we go fully into the electric
welding process in the fire box, boiler, locomo-
tive, machinery, steel tanks, car work, track
work, etc.. we can well use 150 units and effect
a net saving of approximately one million dol-
lars a year.
"We could with this equipment in operation
show a saving of around 7000 engine days a year
'. iiniiii ii 111 mm... mill! i i mm n iilillllllllllllllillilllllllllimnil
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
iiiiiiiiiimiiiiiniiiniiiiiim in mi iii'ii urn
I : 1 1. 1- repaii .il by elect mi
■ t these rods w ere badl \ \v ■ : : ,1 was
iitult m by the use "t tin .hi nn,- of them I:
the othei shows onlj tin rough weld, b itty was the
in t hat it is difficult to t- 11 w hich is w
I iiln urn i epaii ed 1>\ Klectrii \ti W
Tin- lii de hi tin- fulci inn \\ as had j ■
pei band oi ferrule of the right size in the hob and bu
up around ii the ferrule could hi knocked out aftei thi
ing u a: a pei fectly sni hob .
which needed no machining
I ii 1 13. An eccentric sheave repaired !>v electrii welding show-
ing how it is possible to wild both malleable and grey iron. The
l -.i\ in the driving wheel shaft lias also been built up and
milled .nit, -.hums tin scrapping of tin- entire shaft
which means that we would be able to secuu
from our present engines a mileage that will
equal that which could otherwise only be secured
b} the purchase of 23 additional engines."
The figures on the work dune mi the Rod
Island R. R. are reproduced on page 24 and are
worthy of very careful study.
Even day that the locomotive is laid up in
the repair shop, means a loss of a large sum of
money for tin- road. Tbe use of th< electrii
arc has made it possible t<> repair a great num-
ber nf cases hi' breakage and wear without dis-
mantling the locomotive, thus putting it back into
service within a day or two. instead of keeping
it in tin- shop a week or ten days.
The importance of reclaiming broken and
worn parts of rolling stock lias become a sub-
ject ol vital importance with the railroads in
the past few years. Greater attention than evei
before has been given to these smaller economies
with a view to building up the earning capacity
of the road. In fact, the motive power depart
meiit has assumed a very large part in putting
the roads on a dividend paying basis.
The chief uses of the electric arc in the rad-
ii .id shi >p are :
1. Welding flues in back flue-sheet.
2. Building up worn surfaces on die steel
castings of the locomotive.
3. Repairing broken frames and other st,-,- :
4. Fire-box welding.
.". Repairing of shop tools.
(i. Welding in side sheets, tube -beets and rlooi
Metal Electrode I hed
In practically all railroad work, the metal elec-
le is used. The Railway Mechanical Engi-
neer in the issue of November, 1916, savs ■
"The metal process usually gives a more re-
liable weld, gives finer texture to the metal,
es it less porous, can be more neatly executed
and finished, requires less power and may be
easier controlled. The carbon process is well
suited for filling holes in large castings and
similar work, but the metal process is best for
building up metal on surfaces since the additioi
of metal is largely automatic and the confinement
RAILROAD SHOP REPAIRS
llinill ; Ill
of the heat avoids flowing- and run-off tenden-
cies ; in other words the added metal stays where
it is put. With suitable control provisions it is
possible to combine methods, heating' the work-
ing zone by the use of the carbon arc, and build-
ing up the new metal with the metal electrode,
the procedure depending upon the character of
the work and the ability to reach the molten
condition simultaneously upon object and elec-
The carbon process can only be used effec-
tively where the work can be placed upright on
a table and where the casting can be subsequently
annealed, which practically eliminates its use
from the Railroad Shops.
In repairing broken and worn parts, the prep-
aration consists mainly in cleaning the piece of
all traces of oil. rust, etc., before welding is
begun. Where two pieces are to be joined, the
edges of the sections are chipped out with a chip-
ping hammer to provide a "v" shaped gn><>\<'
at their junction, thereby insuring that the joint
is completely filled with metal. Where thick
sections are to be joined, it is often advisable
to provide a groove in each side, in any event
the groove should extend entirely through the
junction of the two pieces.
In beginning, the arc must reach the bottom
of the groove. Liquefy the metal at that point
first. For this reason, the groove between the
pieces must have an angle sufficiently large to
allow the operator to get to the bottom. On
boiler plates, the angle is usually 45 degrees,
while on large steel castings the angle may be
from 45 to 60 degrees.
J 3f ™*
34. Weld in Locomotive Side Frame.
Droken Engine Frame with break cut
pri pari -I 1< ir welding,
Fig. 35. AFTER. The Completed Weld. A piece of boiler
plate is placed around the bottom of the gap as shown in the
illustration, in order to hold the new metal in place.
gine Frame repaired by the I. it
tile Rock Island Shops,
i tun i ninmiiiii iiiiuill i n iiiiiuiiiiiiiiiinimuiiiimiiimimii iniiiiimiiii liiiiliiiiimiiniliii mimiii 1
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
Fig BEFI IRE. I chipped out
> ith the hamni
s A Locoi Sidi Fi ante wit It
in it. A patch on the mud i
i'i \ e separate wi Ids
(in most work, it is necessary that the two
pieces first be aligned, and clamped together or
clamped to a third puce. If a one sided heat
occurs, some allowance must lie made for unequal
contraction. This part of the work calls for
experienced men. If it is desired to build up
metal of an) height with the carbon arc process
a mold of asbestos, lire clay or carbon must be
made to retain the molten material. The work
of welding should if possible be dime in one con
tinuous heat. ' >ne g 1 example is given by The
Railwa) Mechanical Engineer, drawings for the
job being reproduced on page 18 i big. 39).
The\ sav regarding this job, "The frame at
crack is first v'd oul on both sides with the ox)
acetylene cutting flame, and chipped out with an
air hammer and chisel to get a clean surface as
shown at \ in Fig. 39. \ inch plate, about
1 inch wider than the frame, is then fastened
to the bottom. From tlii-. as a basis the electric
welder builds up the full width of the frame
first mi one side ami then on the other as shown
at I'.. After the v is filled mi both sides, 8 " ll h
round bars about 2 inches longer than the full
width of the v are welded on the outside as i
ement, starting at the bottom and building
hi ' i see C, Fig. 39) The very fact that these bars
round enables the operator to easily and sui
cessfully weld them in by being able to get in
around them. The completed weld is shown
The cost table i in page 24 compiled in one of
the largest locomotive --hops in the country, shows
the variety of work and the saving over a period
ven months. The cost of electric current is
figured at _' cents per kilowatt hour.
£' Round Bcr Bcve'ed at Ends
Drawing showing mrlln.il of repairing engine i
„ v. fi III WA\ VI i HANICAL EXGW1 I
WELDING CRACKS AND PATCHES
llllllllllllll :'"i:|i|l|r.'l!liMli!'!lill"lilli-Uiil: !!!■:
Illlllllllllll Illlllllll illlllllllll
Welding the tines and hack flue-sheet, if prop-
erly done, will enable a set of tines to go the
three-year limit without attention in a "good
water" district. The old practice of rolling a
few leaky flues after the engine comes in from
a run, is entirely eliminated by welding. Weld-
ing flues, however, will not entirely cure the flue
trouble, which arises from bad water.
The Welding Committee of the Railway
Electrical Engineers Association makes the fol-
lowing recommendations for flue welding with
the electric arc: "The ideal preparation of a set
of flues for welding is as fellows:
1. Put flues in exactly as if the\ were not to
2. hire the boiler, or, better still, send the
engine out for a run. The object is to burn the
oil out from under the beads of the flues and
allow the flues to take a permanent set.
3. The flue sheet should then be brushed off
with a stiff wire brush or sand blasted. The
object is to eliminate, so far as possible, the
scale of oxide on the flue sheet and flues. Iron
oxide is not a good conductor of electricity and
causes difficulties with the arc which in turn may
produce a poor weld.
The welding of 2-inch flues is done best with
' s-inch electrode. On sand blasted flue sheets
90 to 100 amperes is enough current. Flue
sheets that have a thick coat of oxide require
from 120 to 130 amperes on this size wire. Five-
Fig. 40. A weld on the calking edge of locomotive boiler outside
of mud ring.
• 0- »■■ „ 9 9 „
> » *
# " * » # . *' 9
V* *>* '•" 0* 0* r* t'
..»»«►**> t * *
<• » * * '.*.*,'
a»^» a. m r r r f
il! 41. Flues welded in the back flue sheet of Locomotive
Boiler by Electric Arc Welding. Flues tr<<|uentlv
give three years' service, without attention
when welded in tins manm r
Fig. 43. Locomotive in the Big Four Shops at Linndale, ' '.
Leakage in this locomotive has been repaired by welding around
the steam chest pipe and in the smoke box so that the locomo-
tive is practically as good as new.
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
Hum mi .inn, ifiimtiiimttm ii
, ■ eptioi al I ■- g of this
"1 'A illk.
Fig 45. Welded in locomotive fire box showing two
patches made wil Ord j tins weld would
been made but the fire box was
t.il- en ■ >u1 I
inch flues should be welded with -/'..-inch elec-
trode with 120 to 140 amperes depending upon
the condition of the flue sheet."
The American Railway Master Mechanics
Association is very favorably disposed toward
the use of electric welding and as long ago as
1912, had recommended its use. Even at that
time, <>ne road had 200 engines running with
lines welded in and it was found unnecessary to
remove tines when engines came in for repairs
It was found that maintenance cost was almost
entirely eliminated, engine failures were avoided
and engines could be kepi in service a greater
length of time.
See "Suggestive Applications." Page 49.
Welding Cracks and Patches
The welding of cracks and patching of seams
offer the most difficult problems to the welding
operator. The Association of Railway Electrical
Engineers, offers the following directions for
this class of work: "A crack should be located
and at least twi i inches bey< ind each end a ' 2-inch
hole drilled. The edges of the crack should then
be beveled so that the operator can get at them
to make the weld. On horizontal cracks, the
lower edge does not need to be beveled but
should be chipped to give a square edge. The
upper edge should be beveled al least 45 degrees.
Vertical cracks should be beveled from 30 de-
grees to 45 degrees on each .side. The less ma-
terial removed from the crack the better. All
welds should he made with the least possible
amount of metal between the edges of the orig-
lg for expansion in side sheets by making the
weld in the alternate sections
Leaky Rivets in mud ring repaired by building up pad
around the head of the rivets as shown.
STANDARD RAILROAD PRACTICE
"If the crack or seam is a long one, the metal
>hould be put in alternate sections 4-inches to
6-inches long. The operator should put one
layer of metal in each of these alternate sections
starting near the center of the seam or crack.
The open sections can then be filled, starting at
the coolest point. Successive layers of metal
can then be applied until the seam is completed.
Wherever possible, at least 30 percent of rein-
forcing should be applied so that the cross -sec-
tion through the weld is 30 percent greater than
the section of the original plate. After each layer
of metal is welded into the seam, it should be
thoroughly brushed with a stiff wire brush to
remove as much of the oxide as possible. Where
the sand blast is available and can be used on
the job the results will justify the expenditure of
time necessary to clean the metal between layers.
The same general care should be taken in the
welding of locomotive frames as in the case of
the boiler plate of the fire box.
"Aside from the use of judgment in the appli-
cation of the electric arc welding process, there
are three rules which the operator must observe
to get the best results in welding: 1. Hold a
short arc. 2. I'se a low current. 3. Always work
on clean metal."
Provision for Expansion
■'Where long seams are to be welded, as fin-
example, in welding in a half side sheet, prac
tice again differs as to the best method of tak-
ing care of expansion. Some operators prefer
Fig. 48 A patch built up around a locomotive mud ring. This
l-atrb is nearly 8 feet long and made a saving in cost of over
$2,1100. besides the saving of a month's delay in m.'ik
ing the repair.
s •/ I
Fig. 49. Worn Engine Cross head repaired by welding on piece
of boiler plate at the top and welding crack a* shown.
Fig. 50. Arc Welding as used in making smoke box for
ip worn surface by arc welding.
ELECTRIC ARC WFI.DIM;
R. R n I
to allow for expansion by widening the gap
between the sheet, this being done by setting
the new sheet away at a slight angle; the allow-
ance usually made by these operators is about
! -.-inch to ' [-inch per foot of length. Then
when the weld is begun at one end and the work
is carried on, the two edges will gradually draw
together, due to the contraction in the weld at
cooling. Other operators prefer to place the
two edges in final relation to each other, holding
them at the proper distance apart by mean- ol
'tacks' at intervals of 12-inches to 18 inches.
The weld is then begun at either end and as it
approaches a 'tack' the tack itself is cut out by
use of a chisel and solid metal welded in. the
tack simply serving the purpose of holding the
sheets in proper relation until the weld is made.
When tacking is used, it has often been found
advisable to weld a short space, say six or eight
inches from one end to the seam, then go to the
other end of the seam .and weld a like distance,
thus keeping heating and expansion at a mini-
Standard Welding Practice
Fig ] i:< prompt repan oi broken shop tools is ofti
great ii in tlu railroad repaii shop. *1> A brok<
drill socket for 1" diametei drill. A new socket would lo
$1 80, i an impoi tanl e same
drill - Lincoln Arc Welder Cost
pair, including preparation of weld, was
pipe wrench for 3" pipe, repaired by the Lincoln Arc Welder.
A new wrench would havi ccst about I lir cost
20 cents, including preparation, welding and grinding off super-
fluous metal .a weld.
Hie Association of Railway Electrical Eng
neei i ommended the following with refer
to standardization and shop organization
based upon the experience of their various mem-
bers on different r< >ads.
"The importance of the wadding operations in
a locomotive shop or engine house is so great
that it is necessary for the work to be done under
the direction of a competent and responsible
member of the radio, id organization. \ very
i sful solution to this problem has been made
on several systems by the appointment of a Su-
pervisor of Electric Welding who is responsible
directl) to the general superintendent of motive
power, ddie Supervisor of Electric Welding
makes the practice of the several shops uniform
so that the failure of one shop to get results from
a process can he traced to its origin. The Super-
visor i if Electric Welding must find a successful
way of doing each job and require every dun.
to perform the operation according to his instruc-
"Operators are obtained in most cases from
a shop organization. On roads where an ap-
prenticeship training is provided most of the
STANDARD RAILROAD PRACTICE
iiiiiMiini!! 111 i i' minimi ■ i i ii ■ ' i
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiii i mi ' iimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiimiiii
m ■ ■ mi ■ mm '
Fig. 54. Lincoln Arc Welder (Portable Type) with canvas hous-
ing as used m engine house on Eastern Railroad. The canvas
keeps out the dust and dirt prevalent around the engine li aise
Lincoln Arc Welder (Stationary Type) installed
engine house on large railroad.
operators are men who have just completed the
apprentice work. It is desirable to have opera-
tors who have had general experience in a rail-
road shop. In shops which have a local elec-
trician the care of the electric arc welding equip-
ment is handled by the chief electrician. In
engine houses the operator of the equipment is
usually trained to give the equipment whatever
care is necessary. "
Standardization of Operati
The tendency at the present time is to stand-
ardize the welding operations in the same manner
that the machine shop and other operations have
been standardized. Where welding operations
are thoroughly standardized the work can be paid
for on a piece work basis. The standardization
of welding operations is comparatively simple on
systems which employ a Supervisor of Electric
Welding. On other roads it is more difficult to
standardize the operations, but the necessity for
having them standardized is greater. Ninety-
five per cent of the electric arc welding done in
railroad shops is on operations which can be
standardized. The following factors should be
determined for. each job of this nature: 1 — Size
of electrode, 2 — Kind of electrode. 3 — Current
in the arc, and -I — Time required for the opera-
A thorough discussion of the equipment avail-
able for electric welding in railroad shops will
be found on pages 50-56.
Fig. 56. Lincoln Arc Welder in Rock Island R. R shops, Silvis,
111., showing the black canvas screen with which the Welder is
surrounded, thus protecting the eyes of other workmen from glare.
Fig. 57. Lincoln Arc Welder (Portable Type). This is oni ol
twenty-three Arc Welders in use on the Rock Island R. R.
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
i (nil n iininminin
i i i ' minium ■ i inn inn mi in mini .nnin nun n mnnnnni
Miscellaneous Kiiitkio Welding
Bumper Beam 1
Brake Shoe Heads 102
Brake Hanger Bracket 1
Crossheads — Piston 1/
Crossheads — Valve 22
i 'rosshead Pins 3
Deck Castings 7
Driving Boxes 4
Driving Box Lugs. 10
Frame Cross Brace 1
Eccentric Blades 5
Eccentric ( rank 1
Guide Hay-. 69
Guide Yoke ... 1
I .r\ ii- ( omhinatii m 17
Link Hangers 12
Miscellanei ius 6
Quadrants Teetli 3
Rods Main 9
Rods— Side- -Grease Plug Holes 106
Rods- Side Spade I'm Holes 1
Reverse Lever Heels
Kc\ it-c I ,<-\ ei I - 1 1 1 hes
Spring Saddles ...
Spokes -I )ri\ ing Wheel
•shop I in 1 . and Machinery
Tumbling Shall .
Pender Truck Equalizers
Net saving foi month. .$1,375 IN
Locomotive Shop — Name Withheld -One
I an ua i .
\1 .ii i I
. i oi s Jobs.
1 ,abi ir
$175.52 $464.36 $1,839.54 $1,375.18
Total ei ,-t
7 7 1
$371.64 $1,163.39 $2,966.75 $10,906.20 $7,939.45
1 m:i i I Statement of Work Performed with Electric Weldi k ai I motivi Shops.
Pwtal for 2 in flue; -47
Total f'T VIII flues l'»i.
Tola] for -in. 'I- ii-ii, ii. ,
lir. and mln.
hr. and mln.
cost to •>*<. per
s. : -17
illlHIMIItHI 111:1111. !|IIIINIi:< ■ ■' .:lli.;:,'
COSTS AND SAVINGS
... . ..
iniiiiiriiiiiiii niiiimiiiiiiiiiiin .1
111 inn 1111 mm 1111 1111 mini
-Comparison of Electric Weldini; vs. Old Methods and <
l >• scription of parts Cost old
\ alvt steins $16.28
Eccentric straps 1 7.95
Cylinder cocks 1.36
Cross heads 355 40
Piston heads 47.93
Motion saddles g.32
Frame braces 99.50
Crank arms IS.s ]
Rocker box castings 4 59
Transmission bar 2.80
Reach rod [.25
Rocker arms 20.75
Eng. truck equalizers 7.70
Truck frame 15.70
Trailer jaws ' ~,t.
Extension piston cross head 6.30
Brake beams 1 ,59
I '.rake hangers 5.10
Smoke arch brace 3.511
Air pump valves 2,50
Lugs on valve yoke : 32.45
Push car wheels 6.Q0
Stilson wrench 1 ,60
Drill chuck 15 mi
Driver brake fulcrum 5.52
Wheel spokes 1 ,276.80
Main rod blocks ._, 15.88
Triple valve gage 20.00
Link blocks 72.24
Lift shafts 23.98
Chafing castings g 30
Plugging and building up holes J49.69
Tire rim keys 3.22
Throttle stem I 50
Reverse lever support 3.38
Smoke box 61.38
Hub liners I J 5 1
Strip on cross heads 2'~> $2
Fire door handle 1.75
Boiler casings 63.21
Frame buckle 4.90
Trailer yokes 5.25
Motion frame 9.10
Combination lever 1.03
Lugs nn trailer bub 4.50
Center castings 76.81
Spring bli icks 1.15
Guide blocks 5 52
Steam pipes 3.79
I lat Spots on tires 99.86
Cylinder bushings 35.65
Building up side rods 93.48
* irease cups 1 1.79
Stationary fire door 8.00
Cracks iii tanks 372 69
Petticoat pipes 140.52
Filling worn spots 2,677.80
Reverse lever parts 103.02
Ias Welding Made on Ro< k
( ost gas
^ ..M . lei .
2 7 i
2. 348 20
2 3. '14
Table II. — Comparison of Elei rRic Welding vs. Other
( '..St of Cost of
Description of parts other methods elec. weld
Pedestals $645.00 $45.24
Tank frames 9.03 1.36
Shop tools 14 36 3 4ii
Piston rods 78.64 16.37
Sharp flange drivers 165.40 20.28
Truck side 194.00 10.20
Building up dr. axles.... 121.50 4.90
Steel car underframe. . . . 11.34 1.71
Building up car axles 515.00 25 24
Hushing stavholt holes... 294.96 73.74
Welding flues 2,607.65 521.53
Frames 931.00 133 28
Cracks in fire boxes 2,431.27 297 17
1 16 60
-. i ] n
Table III. Summary.
ists and Savings Per Month
in. tit. ids
$2,7 55 74
3, (.'17. 42'
.' 143 00*
$14,575 2 5
i 'osts am
1 1 068 84
Sazings — P
$1 1,059 S2
$4,377 1 <
•Figures show cost of gas weld if work could have been weWed
nil iiiMinii ii i i i) i! ii i .i in : iiiimiiiiiiiiiwiimii
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
I iiMimini iimiiiii fn
Ship Building and Repairing
Kig. 58. Electric . I motor tru ["his F The Boom Roller & We
Clevi Ohio, and is doing limit worl the largesl steamer on I
equipmi H. P Novo Engine hell connecti I Lincoln A Weldei ["hi engine also
atcs ,,, hammer. I carries the welding
entei i ip through tl : in the sid:
Closely allied to it^ use in railroad shops is
the use of arc welding in shipbuilding and
Here again tremendous developments have
taken place in the year since the United States
entered the war. Very wide use is now being
made of electric welding in the actual construc-
tion of >liips, where it not only costs less than
riveting, but makes a very vital saving in time
Unfortunately censorship rules will not permit
the photographing of this work or the givii
detailed information concerning it. Ship build-
ers who are interested, however, can obtain all
the data from the Emergency Fleet Corporation,
ami the wonderful possibilities of this process in
ship building will be substantiated by any one
who takes the pains to thoroughly investigate it.
At the present time the insurance rules do not
permit the welding of any strength members on
the vessel, that is, the welding of plates ,,,- ribs.
or the welding of the plates to the ribs.
Regarding this use of electric welding, James
G, Dudley, Research Engineer, has the follow-
ing to say, in a recent issue of International
Marine Engineering: "bur more than five years
past, railways of the United State- have
employing metallic electrode welding in largely
increasing amounts and with astonishing tech-
nical and economic gains in securing practicall)
leakless conditions of tubes and furnace sheets
i if the 1< ii omi 'live In liters.
" ['lie technical literature of railways and weld-
in- demonstrates beyond successful controver-
sion that jointures of mure than 100 percent effi-
ciency can be readily and commercially secured
by electric welding means. Even the truly re
markable results secured under the punishing
conditions of steam locomotive service have not
as yet overcome the friction and inertia of
"standard practice" in so far as the design and
fabrication of a complete locomotive is con-
cerned, but eventually the insurance and inspec-
tion interests must voluntarily "approve" or be
compelled by the march of events to "permit"
the fullest possible use of electric welding in this
field of transportation.
SHIP BUILDING AND REPAIRING
mil : minimi
"Passing to marine practice, it is more or less
common knowledge in marine circles that elec-
tric welding has been successfully and economic-
ally employed for main- years past in man) ports
of many countries in repairing of parts of ships,
winch otherwise must have been tied up for
At present the rules permit the welding of the
following parts, and these after all are of very
great importance because they are the parts on
which riveting takes the must time and on which
the greatest saving can be made:
The classification societies have so far con-
sidered and approved the application of electric
welding to the following parts of vessels:
Deck Rail Stanchions to plating.
Clips for Detachable Rail Stanchions.
Continuous Railing Rods (Joints).
Attaching Deck Collars (1,. Kings i around ven-
Attaching Deck Collars (L Rings) smoke stack.
Attaching cape rings, smoke stack pipes, etc.
Attaching Galley Fixtures to Plating.
Attaching Bath and other Fixtures in officers'
Attaching Cowl Supporting Rings to Ventilators.
Bulwark Top Splicing and End Fitting.
Skylight^ over I ialley.
(a) Engine Room Stairs and Gratings.
(b) Boiler Room Stairs and Gratings.
Attaching (A) and (B) to Plating Grab Rods
All Stairs and Ladders including Rail Attach-
Door Frames to Casing, Hinges, Catches lh>ld
Clips f"r attaching Interior Wood Finish to '• S
Entire Screen Ubd.
Butts of W. T. and O. T. Boundary Bars on
Bhds. or floors in double bottom.
Ventilator ( owls.
Stacks and Uptakes.
Bulkheads (that are not structural parts of the
ship), partition bulkheads in accommodations.
Framing and Supports for Engine and Boiler
Room Flooring or Gratings.
Cargo Batten Cleats.
Pig. 59, The sketches show pieces which can he made with the
i lectric arc in ship yards. No 1 is a very difficult and expen-
sive job for the angle smith, but can he made for a few cents
with the electric arc weider, No. 2 is a boat davit made from
an 8 inch I beam split and rewelded. The cost of this from
the angle smith would be $6.00 or $7.00. whereas it can be
,1- , li i, «< 1 . 1, . 1 for $1-00.
Fig. 60. Welding a sky light on a steel vessel.
Tic 61 Sky light c pli ti Ij v i Ided.
urn u urn' ■linn: mil .iM ■ ■ '■ - ■ i !
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
i m iiii ,
Fig. 62. Model -i I- li < trie Weld, d K
I I il-- ...lih i .1 t : •
Tanks (that arc not structural parts).
Shaft Alley Escapes.
Steel Skylights over accommodation spaces.
Engine Room Skylights.
Grab Rods on exterior anil interior of Deck
Deck Houses noi covering unprotected openings
through weather decks.
Reinforcing and protecting angles round man-
[oints of \Y. T. \ngle Collars at frames in wav
of W T Flats.
< >ther parts of a vessel in which electric welding
is proposed must be submitted for considers
March 2^, 1918, Llo\d's Register of Shippin
i j Battery Place. .V. Y. ('.
It i- the < >i >mi> 'ii hi' experts on the "Electric
Welding ( ommittee of the Emergency Fleet
Corporation." thai four welded ships can be
built for the cost of three riveted ships and tin-
welded ship will require about half the time for
complete fabricate »n.
The British Admiralty have already launched
a channel barge of some 200 tons dead weight
built completely by the electric welding process.
Plans have been submitted to the Fleet Cor-
poration for a 7500 ton electrically welded mer
chant ship of standard construction which would
make use of the steels already on order and
would he built in a yard designed especially for
the construction of electrically welded ship-
It is estimated that on continuous welding —
side and down welding, an average speed of 4
feet per hour could he maintained and that on
overhead or intermittent welding a speed ot 2
feet per hour could he averaged.
To give an idea of the work involved, a ship
of this character would require the equivalent
of about 186,000 lineal feet of welding in half
inch plate, and the number of rivets to lie driven
in the yards and on the ways would he reduced
to about 17, (hh). Tin's i- an extremely important
development in view of the difficulty ot obtaining
riveters and the unusually high wages paid for
this class of work. Hue to the saving in steel
weight resulting from a re-distrihutioii ot mate
rial and a substitution of welding lor riveting
joints, it is estimated that a welded vessel would
have 500 ions more cargo capacity than a riveted
ship of the same dimensions.
According to the best available information
the cost of welding on such a ship Would he
,-ihi >ut $41.00 per ton of steel. Figuring the high-
est possible prices for labor, material, etc., and
that this figure might fairly be expected to he
reduced to $29.50 per ton. added to ibis would
he the o >st of shop preparation for welding, erect
ing and fitting the plates in place, which would
give a total cost of $87.00 per ton t not including
steel), at a maximum, with a fair chance ni
average- cost as low as $75.50 pel ton
Inasmuch as there are only 2300 ton- o! steel
in the welded ship as compared with 2800 tons
for the riveted ship, the total cost of all work-
should he considered in making comparisons and
not the Ci ist tier ton.
\ recent issue of the Welding Kngineci
tains some valuable suggestions for arc welding
mi ship building work. Especial mention is
made of the fact that steel foundries are now
working at full capacity and that the linn- c m
sumed in sending hack defective castings to them
is wasted. Electric welding equipment for im-
mediate repair of these castings should he in-
stalled in the ship yards and the transportation
A number of pieces which can be welded •-
g 1 advantage are shown in the sketch here-
with, reproduced by the courtesy of the Welding
Engineer. All of these pieces can be welded and
are bein' r welded in some vards. Such welds an
iiiiliimwiiitiiimiini, iiinnmmiiuii mini
uiiiihuin, :: . in in iiMiiiniiii nun in, Miiinj'iiiimiiin
inn; :n ■ . mi miiiiii
SHIP BUILDING AND REPAIRING
mm vim'. in milium
perfectly reliable, providing the operator is care-
ful and good material is used, precautions which
must be observed on any kind of mechanical
work. The metal electrode is the only suitable
method for welds of this character.
The most important work done bj the arc
welding process on board ships is in the reoair
of the ship's boiler. Owing to the strain which
is brought to bear upon the shell and fire box
of the boiler, due to the heaving, rolling and
pitching of the ship, there is a greater tendency
for the riveted joints and stay bolts to leak than
in the case of a stationary boiler. Also, as a
general proposition marine boilers work harder
for their nominal rating than stationary boilers.
This means greater corrosion and more rapid
In general, the two classes of defects which
occur are cracks in the furnace and leaks in the
riveted seams and stav holts. The United States
government has very strict rules regarding the
application of the process to the welding of
marine boilers, but the defects just named can
be repaired by the arc welding process. Tn the
case of a riveted seam which leaks due to the
fact that the caulked edge has worked away from
the plate a reinforcing strip is usually put on
the seam, extending from the extreme edge of
the caulked edge to a point beyond the heads of
the rivets. This will effectively stop all leaks
either around the rivets or at the caulking edge.
Where the edge beyond the line of rivets has
been eaten away by the corroding action of leak-
ing steam a whole new edge is built up. all work-
being done by the metal electrode process
Leaky stay bolts are repaired by reinforcing
and welding clear over the top of the stay bolts.
Cracks in the fire box are first located and holes
drilled in the shell at each end of the crack to be
sure that the end of the crack has been reached.
Then the intermediate space is chipped out giv-
ing two beveled edges.
The electric arc process is used almost ex-
clusively for this work, for the reason that it
is almost impossible to do the work with the
oxy-acetylene, and a good many United States
Fig. 63. Repair Tug, Carrie A Ryerson, property of A. F
Mitchell & Son, Chicago This tug carries a 200 ampere Lincoln
Arc Welding outfit in the small housi on the deck. This Welder
is driven by a Novo Gasoline Engine and by actual test it
performed th< same amount of wink on 6 gallons of gasoline
as a constant voltage type of welder owned by t Fie same
company, driven by a strain turbine and consuming 2 tons of
coal. (See page 50 52 for description of Constant and V i
Voltage Welders, >
I ig. 64. Broken stern post on S. S. Cygnus before weld-
Note that the break has been chipped out to a "V"
shape for welding.
Pig. 65. Stern post on S. S, Cygnus (set Fig, 64) The weld
was made with a Lincoln Arc Welder and was practically com-
pleted when this photograph was taken.
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
in iiiii mini nil in
Government steamboat inspectors refuse to pass
the work of the oxy-acetylene operator for this
purpose. Tin- trouble arises from the wide dis-
tribution of the heat i if the oxy-acetylene flame
which causes contraction difficulties in the plate
i if the hoiler. \nother serious defect < if the oxy-
acetylene process is that it is almost impossible
to weld overhead with the use of the gas flame.
Vbout one operator out of fifty can do success-
ful work in the overhead position. Since a large
part of the boiler work encountered in marine
practice is overhead, this practically eliminates
the oxy-acetylene process. The fire rule- pro-
hibit it-- use in mi ist instances.
A great deal of welding is done on the 'leeks
and deck houses of boats. Most of this work
at the present cine is in the nature of repair
work rather than new construction. On board
the ship- of the Great I .tikes a great deal of
welding is done about the hatches which become
damaged from loading and unloading. Miscel-
laneous small jobs are done about a boat when it
is laid up f"t repairs, winch mean a great saving
of time and money. While at the present time
there is very little welding' done on the outer
shell of the hull there is considerable work being
done about the engine room, .ami on the arches
and tank tops. < hie of the latter applications is
in burning off rivets where certain plates are to
be taken off and new plates put on. Where a
rivet is to be driven it is necessan to gel one
head of the ri before it can be taken out.
Burning off the head of the rivel and then driv-
ing it through is the quickest iv; i ed up to
the present time for doing this job. Another
application of arc welding when the boat 1- in
drydock is the repairing of what is known as
the rudder shoe. This 1- the heavj steel casting
which extends from the -tern end oi the keel
of the ship to support the rudder post. It is
ther frequent occurrence for this -hoe to be-
come broken and it is necessary to drydock the
ship m order to repair it. This job was formerly
done with the thermit process, but has been done
successfully a number of times with the carbon
arc process. The rudder frame is usually a steel
casting with boiler plate riveted on it. In col-
lision- and wrecks the rudder frequently sutlers
and repair- are made using the arc welding
While a great many applications of the arc
welding process have been made up to the pres-
ent time in shipbuilding and repair practice, there
1- no doubt but that only a few of the possible
applicatii ins have been made.
Up to the present time the equipment used
for arc welding purposes in marine practice has
Keen n! three types The engine driven unit.
direct connected to a reciprocating engine: the
belt driven engine type unit, and the turbine
driven engine type unit. The equipment is
usually mounted on a boat which is self-pro
pelled by its own -team engine. The boat must
carry a licensed engineer in addition to one or
more boiler makers and one or more operatoi
the arc welding plant. The charge for the
ervices of the repair boat varies somewhat in
different localities. ( >n the Great Lakes a great
deal of contract work is done, that is, a price is
given on each proposed job, and there really is
Hi 1 standard price.
The arc process is used rather than the oxy-
acetylene process for marine work because the
most important part of the work — boiler repairs
— can be done only by the arc process. The cost
of producing the heat for welding is certainly
igh with most electric outfits now in opera-
tion as it would be if the gas could be used. This
high cost of producing the electric power is due
to the high investment in the repair boat, the
emergency character of the service rendered,
which mean- that the boat lies idle a good per-
centage of tin- time, and the practice of using
m driven equipment on a -elf-propelling boat.
But "wing to the fact that boiler repairs cannot
be successfully done by the gas process and the
enormous saving resulting from the application
of welding in repair work, the electric welding
outfit ha- become a recognized ami indispensable
part of the ship repair company's equipment.
The actual cosl per hour per operator mi a -team
driven outfit which include- air tool equipment
varies of course with the continuity of the work.
( )n the Great Lakes the actual cost per operator
SHIP BUILDING AND REPAIRING
■ li 1 ■ iiimi::i mmm 1 :■
: [hum si ■ i' ■ in! 1 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ n ■ ! i 111 ii mum minim i in minimum iiiiiiiiiiiiimiiminm
Fig, 66. Welding a coal shovel in the Great Lakes district. Arc
Welding can be (lone at any point where an electric cable
can be carried.
Fig. 67. Lincoln Arc Welder direct geared to a 10 H. P. Novo
Gasoline Engine, making an ideal outfit for ship building and
repair work, where a portable outfit is required
per hour, considering investment and the varia-
tion in the amount of work dune is probably
not less than $2.50 per operator (1916). The
cost of operating the air compressor is an addi-
tion to this figure. The cost of operation in
harbors on the sea coast probably does not ex-
ceed one half the above figure on the average,
due to the greater amount of work. Gasoline
or oil driven equipment can he operated at a
figure in the neighborhood of $1.00 per operator
per hour, owing 1" the fact that a licensed engi-
neer is not required. Tins type of equipment
is to be recommended for small welding repair
companies in all eases. The steam equipment is
economical however, for large ship repair com-
panies i in the sea coast.
Regarding what to specify for marine work,
it is recommended that in all cases individual
units he used; that is, an individual unit for
each operator. Unless the individual units are
used, a machine of considerably greater capacity
must he installed in order that there will be no
interference of one operator with another. Since
a large part of the work done on board ships
is done with the metal electrode process, 150
ampere capacity represents the unit capacity
A description of the various types of arc
welder adapted to shipbuilding and repair will be
found i in pages 5' l-5< i.
II I..IM..-.MM. -in: .-:■■■ - ■•■■: -in Mil Mlliili II mil
■■ M '■ IN ■ ■■:
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
■ '! ri '■ : :. 'Hi 'Hi ■ llllimilll II I .:■ ■ J IIIIIIUHIH ■
Boiler Plate Work
Welder at I
Ohio. This Coi
In locomotive shops of the large railway sys-
tems of the country, the arc welding process has
been used for a period of from six to eight years
and in many shops the process is used not onI\
in the repairing of old boilers, but in the manu-
facturing of new "ins. The work in repairing
"Id boilers may be grouped under the head of
welding in lines, welding in tube sheel and •
ing cracks in the fire 1» ex.
See "Suggestive Applications," Page 49.
It lias also been widely used for general tank
i - ork The American Machinist, in a recent
issue, presents quite a discussion on this use of
arc welding, stating: "Nowhere is the saving
of are welding exemplified to a greater e?
than in tin- manufacture "i steel tanks. Not
only have the actual manufacturing operations
been simplified and cheapened hv the elimination
hi riveting and caulking, hut the resistance of
the finished weld to leakage or rupture is much
greater than that of the riveted joint."
At a recent meeting of the Boiler Code Com-
mittee of The American Society of -Mechanical
Engineers, the following fact- were presented
li\ speakers before thai committee bearing par-
ticularly on the use (if welding for boiler and
similar high pressure vessels.
"The recent improvements in the an uf weld-
ing in the apparatus and in methods of testing"
the product, notably in the electric are pro*
have made it possible t<i make welded joints
which are stronger and more reliable than riveted
joints and that the formerly accepted idea that
Fig. 69 An Compressoi with resi made liy The Leader
1m. ii Works, Decatur, 111. Ever) - im in (lie link ^ welded
with i \ , w , :. :. VVeldei is uj
theii work with great success.
: I i ■-■■!< Vessel made by Arc Welding, at ■'
the Leader Iron Works, Decatur, 111.
'""" ' ' ' '" '"" ««""« »'» i i i»» Mil »»i UIIMIIH II Illlll I , ,1, i ,,„„ , .„„ i „,„„„„ ,„„„
BOILER PLATE WELDING
iiinmniimii "' mm " ' i' iiiiiiii i mini i i illinium
| ' i mil rn
the welded joint is an "unknown quantity" has
been disproved by present day practice. ( In this
connection, photo-micrographs show that the
thermal disturbance in the metal adjacent to the
weld is negligible in the arc process and that the
crystalline structure of the metal in the weld is
that of normal cast steel).
"The autogenous welding processes are being
used extensively in all kinds of high pressure
"A manufacturer of such vessels has more
than 2,500.000 in service to show that the per-
centage of failures on welded vessels is actually
lower than on riveted vessels. The period cov-
ered by this manufacturer's experience is fifteen
years and both electric arc and oxy-acetylene
processes were used.
"The demand fur large high pressure drums
has reached the point where the thickness of the
metal required to withstand the pressure is too
great to be riveted owing to the excessive thick-
ness of the metal obtained in the joint and the
consequent difficulties encountered in exposing
such a joint to the fire. The obsolete forge weld-
ing process does not offer a solution to this prob-
lem because of the unreliability of welds and the
impracticability of welding vessels of such size-
in this manner. The autogenous welding proc-
esses offer a reliable and entirely practicable
means of welding such vessels regardless of the
thickness of the plate or size of drum."
The boiler shop does nut, of course, confine
itself to making of boilers and pressure vessels.
In a great deal of the other work the boiler simp
does, the electric are is especially adapted. This
includes the manufacture of the following class
of articles :
Vats for breweries
Tanks, vats and Hues
Oil refinery equipment
Sugar refinery equipment
Cotton mill equipment
Special bodies for automo-
Steel box cars
Feed water beater-.
Fan and blower cases
Fig. 71. Rotary Cement Kiln ni.uk- of 1 : 4 nut
w-uli the Lincoln Arc Welder. The weld 1-- only
plcted and the "V" shaped joint before welding
at the right.
mi tialh corn-
eal! bt 1 -
Fig. 7}. Tup nf oil still showing wilding, which makes these
slills vapor tight. The .Standard Oil Co. use tin- Lincoln Arc
Welder on all their stills.
Ill, III II Illl . II !. ■ ' ill' ■ ■ Ill'
■ HMIIH'ilil ■ I!' c: i: ■
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
Tn thi> work, electric arc welding comes into
direct competition with riveting and for that
reason a comparative cost of the two processes
i- of interest
Cost of Welding and Riveting
In order to compare the cost of riveting with
the cost of welding we max lake the amount of
ivork accomplished under given conditions bv
the riveting gang, analyze the cost of the work
and compare it with the cost of doing the
work with the arc welding process. Taking the
thicki the plate as ,',, -inch, spacing the
rixcts at l'j-iiicli. the size of the rivets at
ii li in diameter, we can safely estimate that the
riveting gang will put in 60 of these rixcts in
ne hour, under ordinary shop conditions. The
analysis of the a >st is as f< ill i\x - :
' es base 1 i >n o inditii ms in 1' '16.
maker's time, ■ $ .45
ne In mi ,.<5
Mix et heater's nine i me hi mi .21 1
( Ine lax '"" man's I ime, hi mi .2 !
|)unchmen's i ime, ' j In nir .17
r 1 1 " ii i .20
i >)11 men's timi . . hi mi .20
Total Labor $2.03
I ength ' if rix eted seam, 7 ft 6 in.
I 'i mn I ets i equin i
■ rivets, 1
Power required to drive pneumatic hammer and
ioI, appri iximately In K. VV. Imurs.
Investment per riveting gang, in air compressors,
motor drive, storage tanks, distributing
svstem, air hammers, and other rna-
U i Ming.
ncoln \rc Weldei a .ii the shop of Tin
* leveland. In the foreground are stiffening
mil;-- for boilei work made with the Lincoln Arc Wi
ised in this ^hop for a wide varietj of work
COMPARED WITH RIVETING
urn [ I ' .1. iimiiiiimiiiii
i ' i mi
Iii order to get a comparative cost of the arc
welding process, we will analyze the cost of
doing the same work, namely making a seam
7 feet 6 inches long, which is a lap joint, welded
inside and out. The following is an analysis of
the cost, also on 1916 conditions.
One operator at 45c per hour for l'.j hours $ .56
No bucker required
Xo heater required.
One man with a chipping hammer, ' _■ hour 2.3
i )ne layout man. '.J hour 11
Two punchers, % hour. 08
Two erectors, ',, hour .Ill
T\\ i 1 p ill men : j hi iur Jn
Total Labor $1.28
Pounds of electrode required. 2.S.
Cost of electrode, 12.5c.
Kilowatt hours required to run the welder, ap-
Investment in welding machine for one man. .. .$860.00
Labor has advanced considerably since this
time but riveting gangs wages have gone up
far more than welders' waives so thai the com-
parison is very fair.
It is to be noted from the above analysis that
the labor cost item in the manufacture of boiler
plate construction by riveting is approximately
75% greater than in the case of the welded con-
The amount of power required fur riveting is
double the amount required for welding. The
investment required by the arc welding appara-
Fig. 78. Annealing Pot made with the Electric Arc Welde
Fig 79 Storage tank made complete bj elect rii arc welding.
The flanged end is welded into the sides by melting its edges
tog« thei « ith ill-- < dgi - of the side sheets
'* .*> k« v j
I ig\ 80. This conical sheet was welded at the point shown, in
order to avoid a double lap at the edge of tin work which
would have been difficult to rivet
Fig. 81. Cylindrical Tank in process of welding, Tins shows
an ingenious method of mounting the tank on a "horse" and
clamping the. edges of the sheets by m ans of two plates secured
together by bolts.
iL. i unit!]
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
mini nun ii
i - < i ■ ■■ .. -., l a ck nf i
h &*?£ &}£
1 1 S uga 1 l '
-< am- and i
lilei apparatus. This
. ■ ample
with riveting. Wt
ensh c Banging work.
tus is somewhat higher than in case of the rivet-
ing machinery, but this of course is offsel b) the
lower operating" cost,
Strength of Weld
The above analysis has been made with refer-
ence tn jobs which can be either riveted or welded
and it shows rather conclusively that it is con-
siderably mi ne expensive to rivet a joint than
it is to weld it.
The strength and durability of the welded joint
is greater than the same properties of the riveted
joint in the ease analyzed above. The welded
joint ma\ be lOOjt efficient or as strong as the
original plate which is a strength impossible in a
i n eted ji lint.
In addition to the actual work outlined above,
reinforcing of boiler plate with steel angles offers
a further opportunity for the arc.
Frequently a vessel must be manufactured in
which one of the plate- is larger than any of the
standard sizes of plate. Two plates can then
he butt w elded t< igether for this purpose ; this has
been done with perfect satisfaction in a number
ises in strainers, driers, water heater-, etc.
In the substitution of the welded joint for the
riveted joint, it is recommended that in plate of
,■;, inch in thickness and over, wherever possible
a joint be made as a lap joint rather than a butt
joint. The amount of lapping should be at least
four times the thickness of the plate. The work
can be held together preparatory to welding by
the use of hults and after the job is welded the
bolt holes can be filled up and chipped off. The
use of a hammer for the purpose of hammering
the metal welded on after the weld is completed
Kig. 85. Section of smoke-stack made by the New York Edison
Company by electric arc welding.
BOILER PLATE WELDING
in order to "pack the metal in" should be dis-
couraged . This is of no benefit and a positive
harm may come to the metal from this practice.
The chipping tool can be used, however, to dress
the welded joint up to make it neat in appear-
and'. In case the welded joint is to be subjected
to a pressure test and it is found that there are
small pin hole leaks, these leaks can be satisfac-
torily repaired either by chipping out a small
amount of metal at that joint and filling' in new
metal or by a small amount of peening with a
center punch at the point at which the leak
Where heavy plate is being welded and more
than one layer of metal is put into the joint the
operator should always be required to brush the
thick layer of oxide from the metal with a stiff
brush commonly known as a casting brush or a
painter's wire brush. This is done so that the
metal throughout the whole weld will be as free
from slag and oxide as possible. Neglect of
this important practice may mean a leaking or
spongy weld. On pressure tank work where a
homogeneous weld free from blow holes 1 1 - an
absolute necessity, the operator should hold as
close an arc as possible and the speed of the
work should be sacrificed in order to use a com-
paratively low current and consequently get the
metal into the weld in the best possible condition.
Most of the welding in boiler shops should be
done with the metal electrode, although on vcr\
heavv plate above ^-inch the carbon arc may
be used to speed up the operation.
With the metal electrode 150 amperes current
for each operator represents the capacity re-
quired in the welding machine. In the general
practice of the boiler shop, the majority of the
work would be done with y^-inch metal electrode
and 150 to 175 amperes current.
A discussion of the various types of equipment
available for boiler shop work will be found on
I ig 86. Part of "heater" made by electric arc welding a dish
shaped steel head into a cylindrical shell and welding in piece
of pipe. Heads are made of ', inch plate, and the cylinder is
' s inch material. The cost of tins operation was 50c per head
'., i . welding, against $1.50 per llead by tin- acetylene process
Pressure test of 1800 pounds per square inch did not show the
slightest sign of leakage or failure.
Fig. 87. Lincoln Arc Welder in the plant
Oil Co., Cleveland, Ohio.
if The Standard
iiiiiiiumi iiniim inn
.1 ... ■ ■ ii
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
i ■■ ■ ""ni'iiiii i
nun ii ».■■ Hi' ■
Electric Railroads and Shops
The use of electric arc welding on the electric
railroad is divided into two distinct classes oi
1 Track Repairs.
_' Repairing broken or worn equipment.
The welding on track work consist oi the
filling of cupped joints, tin- repair <>i switches
ami hard centers at cross-overs, reclaiming worn
joint plates, building compromise joints, cutting
orn -<■. : i> ins, cutting ■ iff bi 'lis.
Cupped J units
Fig. 89. Guard for trai
Welder I his was foi
dotted lines in the ski ■■
The necessity for repairing a joint b\ the
process arises from the fact that on track where
the cars pass in one direction only the wheels, in
from one rail to the adjacent rail, pound
nut a cup mi the second rail. This comes about
as a result of a breaking down of the road bed
which makes the joint rest on an insecure f
dation. The constant pounding loosens the bolts
which hold the fish plates so that in time the jar
in passing from one rail to the next becomes
noticeable to passengers. Once such a cup has
been formed there are only two way- in which
the difficulty can he eliminated; either the rail
..in be taken uin and a new rail put in. or it can
In- repaired 1>\ the arc process. The former
method cannot always he used, because it' the
i rack i- ill bad condition ami all of the rails are
pretty well worn, the introduction of a new rail.
which is mil worn, will make conditions a- bad
a- they were before. The usual procedure where
the arc process is nut used, is to take up all of
the track where the trouble occurs and relax
rails Tlie expense of doing tin-, of course, is
Then Lre man) cases on reci >nl where
line- (if track have been kept m service by the
use of the arc welder fur three or four years in
addition to the ordinary life of the track. The
saving in cases of this kind runs into thousands
of dollars and the cost of the equipment is a
negligible fact' r.
I ig 91
; built up b>
stood 1 1
Another defect which occurs mi the electric-
railway track is known as corrugation. The
causes assigned for this difficulty are numerous.
inn it iiinmiii!! i
....I. MMI I... I Mill It 1:1111111111111. ,i
STREET RAILWAY WELDING
but the corrugated rail looks as if the metal on
the top of the rail had Keen slipped into cor-
rugations. A car passing over a corrugated rail
makes considerably more noise than when passing
over a perfect rail and a distinct vibration and
jar is felt by the passengers. < )nce a rail begins
to show corrugation, the deterioration is rapid.
In the case of corrugated rails and cupped joints,
the metal electrode process is used to fill in the
low spots. After the metal has been filled in
the excessively high spots may be ground off
with a grinder.
Grind i /is*
There is some variation in the practice oi
grinding off the excess metal. Some companies
use the reciprocating grinder only, while others
use both the hand grinder and the reciprocating
grinder. The latter process seems to be prefer-
able because it is undoubtedly the most eco-
nomical. The rate of grinding with a hand
grimier is rather low, and where the filled in sec-
tion is considerably higher than necessary, an
unreasonable length of time is required to bring
it down to the proper surface.
Coin promise Joints
Where "T" rail section joins girder rail a
compromise joint can lie made getting a g 1
body of steel at the rail ends by building up with
the electric arc.
The kind of electrode used depends a great
deal upon the work. So far as actual resultsgo,
the basic steel electrode or even Swedish iron
will give results which are entirely satisfactory
on ordinary rail section. The ordinary rail sec-
tion may contain as much as .-Ml',' carbon while
the basic steel electrode usually does not contain
any more than .12',.' carbon. It would seem
that the metal in the welded section therefore.
would be considerably softer than the rail. This
however, does not seem to be the case
The cast steel which is put on the rail by die
metal electrode process is not a normal cast steel
due to the oxidation and sudden cooling at the
instant it is deposited on the rail. It has been
found that by forging metal so deposited, or in
other words giving it a mechanical treatment,
when cold, increases its hardness to a consider-
able degree, so that after the repaired rail has
Lincoln Arc Welder mounted
repaii si n ice
iu 93. Truck Side Frame repaired by Electric Arc Welding.
Breaks in the- frami 01 worn boll holes can he repaired m this
way. The holes are till..! in with new material then re-drilled.
Fig, 94. A badly worn armature shaft h
n c w elder. This i-. aftenvai ds mai hined
ilt up with
[own to pro
Broken parts <>f truck frame repaired by arc weMiti]
iHiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiniii mil ■
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
pei bar, •■
Fig. 99. This worn gear case was repaired by using a dis-
et car gong, and welding it over the portion of th<
fhe case was made as good as new at a cost of about 4?c.
been in service fur a short time, the action of the
wheels in giving the metal this mechanical treat-
ment probably renders the metal considerably
er than the metal of the original rail. For
high carbon rails, that is rails which contain as
high as .90% carbon, and for manganese center
special work the special slag coated electrode
should be used. < Ine street railway company buys
ordinary spring steel for this purpose which pos-
sesses about 1',' carbon. The results they obtain
b) the use of this steel on manganese center and
high carbon rails are perfectly satisfactory. The
building up of broken tongues in switch con-
struction is also a frequent application. The
— metal here, of course, is ground "ft' bv
tin- use i if the hand grin
The application of arc welding in the electric
railway repair shop has not proceeded with the
same rapidity as the application on track work
has proceeded, although the saving which can be
nplished is quite as great.
The operation of electric car- over the track
produces excessive wear on practically every part
of the truck and under-framing. The wear and
tear on electric car- i- probabl) greater in pro-
portion to the value of the equipment than is the
wear On a -team I . c, resulting from it-
travel over the rails The sudden starting and
ping with the consequent reversal of -trains
in all the members, mean- that at every point
where the car is fastened together with rivets
:r occurs. Where one part
rubs over another, the deterioration i- extremely
rapid. When a part becomes worn there are
only two things that can be done; either new
metal can be added and the part repaired, or it
must be scrapped and a new part put on the car.
!t is obvious that the repair of the part by adding
new metal produces a large saving.
Where a part can be repaired without taking
ar apart or taking the truck out from under
the car. by the use of the welding process, an
additional saving is made. Owing to the ease of
application of the arc process, this can frequently
be done and in this case the Master Mechanic
can credit himself with saving the price of a new
part, le-s the cost of welding — the saving in labor
represented by the amount of time saved by not
taking the car apart, and the additional saving
'" wniwiiiMHHi mi limn ' Hiiiuiiin I mum iiiniiinirii ninri mini m n i n | „ , mm,, minin tililliri iiiiiimmiiiiiin mmiiii muni
iiiiEimiiiL :: . niiimiiiiiiiiimiiiin
STREET RAILWAY SHOPS
resulting from keeping the car in service rather
than having it lying idle in the repair shop.
The following parts are some of the principal
cue-, which are repaired :
1 )raxv heads
Channel iron underframins
Arc Welding vs. Oxy-Aceytlene
The only way in which the metal can be filled
in the worn parts is by the oxy-acetylene welding
process, or by the arc process. The relative cost
of the two processes is much the same as in
other applications. The cost of operating an
oxy-acetylene torch for repair work of this na-
varies from 60 cents to $1.50 per hour. An aver-
age cost of operation per hour is probably in the
neighborhood of $1.00. This takes into account
a considerable amount of preheating on steel
work by the use of kerosene torch of a preheat-
ing furnace. Without the preheating arrange-
ment the average cost per hour of operating the
torch is probably in the neighborhood of SI. 50
per hour. The following table shows some com-
parative costs on typical miscellaneous jobs en-
countered in an electric railway repair shop.
Cost Based on Conditions of 1916
Descriptii ■ Cost of
:>t Job Replace ment
made of cast steel.
Repair job $ 8.60
Axle cap. Renewing
dowel pin holes. . 11.15
shaft, pinion seats
and Key way 55.00
Journal boxes re-
paired by use of
chafing plate .... 6.90
Truck Frame 60.00
Typical repair job 3.00
Reducing bore of
gear. This job
duction too small
for use of bushing 30.00
ls nt- Torch
Fig. 100. Miscellaneous repair jobs on street railway work
maile with the Lincoln Arc Welder by The Harrisburg Rail-
ways Co.. Harrisburg, Pa.
The metals encountered in the repair of cars
include cast steel, cast iron, wrought iron, and
mild steel. All of these metals can be success-
fully handled in the railway repair shop. A large
percentage of the work can be "bench work"
and preheating furnaces and torches can be used
to a good advantage.
There is one peculiarity to the application ot
the process for the repair of cars that does not
exist on many other arc welding applications.
There are many jobs of exactly the same nature
since the car equipment is standardized to a
large extent. This justifies a considerable amount
of time spent in the solution of a given problem
since that it is certain that a number of similar
jobs will re-occur from day to day.
The capacity of the equipment required for
each operator is 200 to 300 amperes. This per-
mits the use of the machine for either carbon
or metal electrode on any kind of a job that will
arise. There are few cases where it would be
necessary to couple two of the units together to
get a higher capacity.
Equipment for Arc Welding
Complete description of arc welding equip-
ment for use on Electric Railroads will he found
on page 57.
. 111 : : .
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
Drop Forge Shops
bv R. I'". Kinkead, before \n
The arc welding process is being used sue
fully a) the present tunc in the repair ol de
in drop forgings before the forging leaves the
shop. Tin- work is done to improve the ap]
ance of the forging rather than in improve its
strength, although the correction of certain de
ili ics increase the strength i if the pii
I he must important class of forgings which
quire the correction of small defects is aut
bile forgings The defect- corrected are low
spots, parts not properly filled out, an
kinds of o >1<I shuts.
The defect is simply filled in by the metal elec
trode process and the excess metal ground ofl
with an emery wheel. It is not often i
to re-anneal the forging after the welding proc-
ess owing ti> the very great localization of the
heat, although if the piece is annealed after weld
ing, the pi lint at \\ hich the o n 1 1 ■■. as made
cannot be located. The work can be done very
rapidly owing to tin fact that the instant the
operator strikes the arc. he can start filling in
the metal. \*o preheating is necessary. The
lowest priced man in the shop can do the weld
The designation of the forgings to be o n re< ted
by welding should be dune by a competent fore-
man or the superintendent of the shop. Know-
ing that the metal to be added will have a certain
tensile strength and ability to resist shearing
stress and that it will have a very small degree
of elasticity due to the fact that it is cast steel,
there is little room for difference of opinion as
to where to apply the welding process. fhe
on the forging at which the defect occurs,
has an important bearing on the question of
whether or not it can he corrected. The service
ected of a forging also affects the application
of the welding process. It is evident that a defect
of certain dimensions can be corrected if it
occurs on an automobile lamp bracket which
ould not be safelv corrected if it occurred on
cvlindei crank shaft The fun-man of the
shop, or the superintendent knows what to weld,
it should not be left to the welding operator.
■since there are only two welding proo
applicable to the correction oi flaws in drop t
ings, electric arc and oxy acetylene, a comparison
may be interesting. The cost of producing a
unit of heat by the gas process is approximately
six times the cost of producing a unit of heat
b\ the arc process I Kving to the great loi ili
tion of the heat in the arc process, approximately
three times the welding can be done with a given
amount of heat as can be done with the same
tint of heat produced by the gas process. l', v
actual test, the co t of gas for general work on
automobile front axles runs from twenty i M
twenty-five times the cost of electric power to
dn the same work. < )ne operator with the elec
trie- arc can do at least twice as much work in a
da\ as an oxv-acetylene operator.
The advantage has been claimed for the oxy
icetvlene process that it enables the operator to
hum down to the bottom of a cold shut and thus
till in the whole defect. This practice is also
possible using the carbon arc process, but the
practice is dangerous. A forging which shows
evidence of having a deep cold shut in a part
ected to heavy stress should not be welded.
\ forging which has .1 cold shut which will not
materially affect the usefulness of the forging
will actually be in poorer condition after the
defect has been burned out and filled in than if
the defect were not corrected tit all. The appli-
cation of the gas flame in such a case will over
heat a large amount of metal around the •!-
while the burning out is being done. After the
irea is sufficiently burned out. a comparatively
large amount of cast metal will be filled in which
is known to be inferior to the metal of the orig-
inal forging. There is no heat treatment which
will bring the forging hack to a condition equal
iiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniii i i /mi.- mi .' i i iin i ' ' ' ■■ '. mi minimi
DROP FORGE SHOPS
" minium iiiiiiiiiiiiii
i II mi minium
I.. its condition before the welding was done.
It is much better to simply till the defect in a
depth uf approximately a sixteenth of an inch
with the metal electrode process which will nut
materially affect the metal surrounding the
Overheating the metal in a drop forging is
always undesirable, particularly in the case of
the allo-\ steels used fur certain automobile drop
forgings. The high temperature reached in the
gas flame and the electric arc affect the structure
uf the steel to such an extent that it can never
he made identical to the structure which has not
been affected by the welding process. It i- evi-
dent therefore, that the heat used fur welding
should he localized as much as possible. The
oxy-acetylene flame will heat from three to five
time- the volume of metal in performing a given
welding operation that will be heated when the
arc process is used. The arc produces heat in
the metal at exactly the point where it i- needed,
while the gas flame produces the heat external to
the metal ami blows it over a large area
The welding uf defects on drop forgings is a
delicate matter among some manufacturers at
the present time. This condition of affairs
appear- In he <\uv to the fact that the process
is new rather than that it is immoral. When
the -teel foundries first started to correcting de-
fects in important locomotive castings there was
the same feeling prevalent. In tact must uf the
welding was done in the dead uf night and behind
carefully guarded doors, 'fin's was only five or
six years ago. \'<>w practically every steel foun-
dry has one or more arc welders, and every kind
of a steel casting is welded in the presence of
the inspectors. Defects in gun carriages fur the
Yaw Department are corrected in and out uf
the Navy Yards.
The responsibility fur a drop forging rests
with the manufacturer. If he can make forgings
at a price at which they can be sold at a profit
and the forgings stand the service he can stay-
in business. If the manufacturer sends out bad
forgings, he loses his business. As long as a
manufacturer must scrap forgings with insignifi-
cant defects on them which his competitor can
save, his price on the product will be high or his
profit low. The present tendency uf prices of
automobiles dues nut permit the quotation of
fancy prices on drop forgings. The welding of
small defects on drop forgings therefore is a
matter of business economics, and will undoubt-
edly lie solved in exactly the same manner as it
has been solved in the case of the steel foundries.
^^fewi n "
l'u; 102, Lincoln Arc Wi
i gi Drop Forging plant.
i! .i.ii! ii iinii'. in dliiilli iiiniiiiiiiii
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
III!; ■ ::■---- I ■ 1 1 1 ■ ■ s - -S ■ I ■ I r
i i iwiii i w mil ■ ii ■ IIIIIIIIIIHIII
Commercial or Job Welding
Every city of am size has a number of small
shops where welding of all sorts is done.
For a long time acetyleiu weldin
chief process in use in these shops. l"he\ were
started, mostly, b\ men who had done acetvlene
welding in various manufacturing plants until
the) had become very expert in its application to
all sorts of work.
< > 1 1 starting business for themselves, they nat-
urally adopted the process with which they were
familiar. They were prompted not only by this,
but by the fact that it required only a very small
capital to buy the necessary equipment for acety-
fhese early shops have grown in number and
have increased in size remarkably in the past
ten years. Hie larger ones have now come to
the point where there is a continuous stream of
work passing through their plants and they have
been obliged to look very carefully into methods
of reducing production cost. ( ompetition has
grown keen in proportion to the success which
the early shops made of their business.
' Iwing to tin- condition, main- of the shops
have carefully investigated and have been [Hit-
ting in arc welding apparatus t<i take care of
a great deal oi their work. An investigation lias
shown thai from 30 to 60 per cent of the work
which is welded b\ oxy-acetylene can be done
equalh well with the arc process, and what is
nil. re important, it can be done usually for less
than half the cost of acetylene work.
There are undoubtedly case- in which oxy-
acetylene must lie used in preference to the arc.
such as the case of welding automobile cylinders,
but this class of jobs form only a small percent-
age of the work done by a large commercial
plant. Many such plants employ ten to fifteen
operators and in a plant of this size, there is
always work enough to keep two or three arc
welding operators busy using the arc.
The tables given on page 6 are authentic, and
will give the commercial welder a basis on which
an compare his present costs with tho
The importance of doing this work at the
lowest possible cost need not be emphasized for
every welder knows that every cent he saves on
any given welding job goes into his pockel
that much extra profit or in other cases it enables
him to bid lower on desirable work and secure
it at a good profit against competition from
-mallei- shops who are figuring work fi r acet)
I lie best possible basis for comparison is the
actual installation of an arc welding outfit in
ommercial shop and a thorough trial cover-
ing a period of two or three months' time. This
sort of a trial can be arranged at a slight expense
and ha- proven a means of cost cutting to com-
mercial weldin- shops in Detroit, Pittsburgh,
Providence, R. I.. Cleveland, and other places
where it has been tried
i ine -..nice of profit to the commercial shop
is that class of work which cannot be brought
to the welder, but which operators must go out
:. . do. For tin- purpose the Pi irtable Arc \\ eld
ing ( lutlits are made which can be operated con-
veniently and at very low cost.
The commercial welding shop needs a welder
of at least 200 amperes capacity. This will be
suitable for any metal electrode work or light
carb. .n electn ide welding.
Two or more 150 ampere welder- are of
course to be preferred to one of 200 ampere out-
fit, as this will allow a larger number of opera
tors to work at the same time.
Illustration and complete description of weld-
ing equipment suited for commercial work will
be found on pages 50-57.
The use of welding in repair work lias per-
haps been over emphasized by all manufacturers
of welding apparatus. Opportunities for this
work are most easily found and it is verv easy
to demonstrate the saving made.
The field for this class of work does not com-
pare, however, with the field for general manu-
facturing work, where welding can be used to
take the place of riveting and other methods
of joining metal parts.
There are hundreds of such applications of
welding now being made. In these cases the
work has either been accidentally discovered by
the manufacturer himself, or some welding engi-
neer has carefully sought out this application
and demonstrated it to the manufacturer.
Tt is exceedingly difficult to obtain data or
photographs on this class of work. The manu-
facturer who has successfully applied it, is nat-
urally averse to giving out the fact, since he is
usually making savings which are important to
him in meeting competition. Strictest secrecy
is often maintained regarding this work.
Each manufacturer is therefore obliged to find
his own application for arc welding to a great
We have endeavored to present on page 49 cer-
tain typical illustrations which show not any par-
ticular manufacturing process, but the genera!
application of welding so that each manufacturer
can apply the principles shown in these samples
to bis own particular problem.
Fig. 103. Laminations for magnetos and electric starting appa-
ratus welded together by electric arc welder, eliminating two
rivets and preventing the laminations from spreading.
Fig. 104 Welding steel sheets together to form gear ca^es The
Insrs on the inside rf tl'< ca e an also welded on Jobs -imilar
tu this can In- found in hundreds of manufacturing plants
iing replaces brazing and save? itioiie; on
-I,: I automobile t'i ames,
Fig 106 \ bolster made by welding together 3 16 inch steel
plate. The holes in the side of the bolster were also made by
the arc welder and afterwards smoothed up.
Fig. 107. BEFORE GRIND
ING. Steel Wheel made by
welding a steel plate rim and
bolting it to steel spokes.
AFTER GRINDING. Steel
Wheel after the weld in the
rim had been ground down to
give smooth surface
II ■ ■ II ■
. i . mi mini miiiii in . ■ ;.:. mil : n mi i n inn! I mini n
in;, i i .in. '. ii
ELECTRIC ARC WELDINC
ii' ninn m ni ■ mil
Sheet and Plate Welding
II i < • application of welding to this class of
material lias been covered in boiler plate work.
The range oi work is so wide here that there is
no possibility of giving definite rules covering
the subject. The best that ran be done is define
the limits within which welding can be succi s
full) perfi irined i m sheel - and plates.
< ienerally speaking, arc welding cannoi be sue
Fully applied to steel sheets ni less than 20
gauge In certain instances where sheets are
welded to reinforced angles or are backed up
h\ some heavier material, it i- possible \>< weld
thinner material successfully.
Reinforcing of sheets or plates by angles, rims,
presents another possibility fot arc welding.
It has been successfully applied fur welding angle
supports on tank wagons, reinforcing rims
in large storage tanks and other worl< of this
The advantages of welding for pipe construc-
tion have been a subject of careful investigation
by The Xational lube Co., ami others interested
in this sub
It has been found that welding gives a more
permanent joint in pipe than the couplings ordi
narily used, that n gives a strength equal to that
of the solid pipe and reduces the tendency to
leakage at joints by eliminating couplings, the
whole being practically one unbroken length of
sen 5 made I
Fig 111. Welding door hang* I firepi tee] doors. The
square tubes on the horse arc also arc welded on the -..tin-.
liiimmiiiimiiiMiiii. "i .mm nin :imi ■ i
mi i inn in inn
in mi i . . ; mi
These advantages are of special importance in
the construction of superheaters and similar ma-
terial made from pipe products. An especially
good instance of superheater welding is illus-
A development of this process is the welding of
flues in locomotive boilers which has been very
widely practiced in railroad shops and locomo-
tive manufacturing plants.
It is the present theory that welded pipe lines
reduces electrolytic action and corrosion. The
welded pipe presents a continuous conductor in
which the resistance is lower than in coupling
pipe thus reducing the tendency of the current
to jump joints and set up electrolytic action.
This use of welding is applicable not only in
shop manufacturing work, but in laying of pipe
lines and can be taken care of to good advantage
by a portable arc welding set, which either takes
current from the trolley or electric supply line.
A Portable Welding set, driven by a gasoline
engine or mounted on a truck and driven by a
truck engine will accomplish the same result.
Kig. 11? Lincoln Arc Welders in the plant of The Standard
I'nrts Co., large manufacturers of automobile parts.
Fig. 113. Steam Superheater. Every joint made by electric arc
Lincoln Arc Welder.
Hilliiillllliiilllllillillim .inn. miiiiiiiiiiiiuniiii ' .:,;.. .::. i mini miiimillllmiiiiini
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
1 ig 117, I incoln Arc Welder in plant of Aultman & Tayloi
M Co., Mansfield, Ohio, used foi general manui
and repair work on agricultural implemi
Ilk' repair oi defects in manufactured pieces
has already been discussed under the subject of
steel castings and forgings, where arc welding
lias thus far bad its greatesl application.
There is undoubtedly another wide field in
building up of pressed metal parts which come
mperfeel from the dies and which have cracks,
"short sides" or similar minor defects, which
could be readily repaired b) adding new metal.
The repair of broken machinery or parts can
be made quickly and at low cost b) the arc weld
ing process. Unless the plant is a large one and
would have a considerable amount of this work,
acetylene would be cheaper than arc welding, but
where there is enough such work to keep an
operator busy a great portion of the time, the
arc welding would be found most economical.
The general nature of such repair work, fol-
lows under several headings. Rolt holes often
become worn and necessitate replacing the worn
puce with a new casting. This can be avoided
by filling the worn hole with new metal then
redrilling it. Bearing surfaces on slides, cams,
eti . are repaired by somewhat similar processes.
Patches are applied on ladles, tanks, and ve
used in different manufacturing processes.
Steel mills have found it economical to install
arc welders for the purpose of repairing wobbler
in the rolling mill. The ends of these wobblers
are built up with new steel to original shape, sav-
ing the cost of a new roll casting, which is much
i expensive than the ordinary casting steel.
Work is also being done successfully on the
w i irking surface of the roll.
Steel shafts are built Up ill somewhat the same
manner, new material being welded on to the
worn end, and the shaft then being put into the
lathe and then turned d' >w n.
Fig us. Steel parts incorrectl) machined built up 1> the aic
weldei and ifterwards re-machined to pi pi
iiiiiiiimiiirminmi:ii ..:. , mi
, i) i. ii in minim is ■.
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
Fig. 118A. FLUE WELDING 2" Flue
Locomotive Back Flue Sheet. Actual Time:
2 minutts 2" Flu..-; 7 minutes 5" Flui
Electrode 2" Flue— V— 00-100 Amp. 5"
Flue — 5/32" — 120-130 Amp. The total
time U) weld a complete set of flues de-
pends on the condition of the flues and
flue sheet. A fair average may he calcu-
lated from the above figures by adding
50% to the total time for rest periods.
Fig ] 1811. FLUE WELDING 1. Pul flue in as
it" ii were nol to be welded. 2 Send the engine
out fnr a few trips to lit the tubes take their set.
::. Sand blast the flue sheet. 4. Weld flues A
heavj bead of welded metal around the flue is nm
. ,i put on the smallest bead that can be
thorough!? welded to both flue and sheet
Fig. 118D FLANGED HEAD
BACKED INTO SHELL.
ill I LANGED HEADS-
%" Plate— Speed— 7 Ft, per hour. 5/32" Electrode L30 Amperes. Fnr
High Pressure, joints should be welded inside and out.
Kig. use. PIPE wi LDING See "Build-
ing I'ji Operation" for speed of work. The
Welded ioint is stronger than the threaded
iotnt. Steel or wrought iron pipe onls mas
p ( i T 1 r Electrode
Bgures include straight welding time
Loss of time in handling the job must
taken into account on each job. Vertical
<>r overhead welding speeds are at least 50%
l>elow speeds given above.
-V wire Is used to fill in bottom of seam.
1 ig ] 18.1 WELDING IN PLACE 01
CALKING speed of work depends on
amount of metal added. Strength of joint
may be raised 25 doing the work at three
times the welding speed given in table,
page 6, for any thickness plate above *4".
This makes a single riveted joint equivalent
to a double riveted joint and makes a
double riveted ioint as strong as the
original plate. Joints welded in this man-
ner stand nun-It abuse without leaking.
Fig. 118K. BUILDING UP OPER VTIONS (Note
that the weld Is oasil) machined! 5 32" Electrode, 1 10
Amp.. 20 Volts will deposit one pound of metal in ap-
proximately 30 minutes. 3/16" Electrode, 1T5 Amp., 22
Volts will deposit one pound of metal in approximately
20 minutes I ' ' Electrode, one cubic inch of
stool may be deposited In about 7% minutes. The
metal when deposited on mild steel bj the metal elec-
trode process will always be sofl and easily machined,
The carbon electrode process should be used for build-
ing up operations only when the built up piece can be
later annealed to take out contraction -.train.
ii iii mill
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
* * Current for Electric Arc Welding
The successful commercial use of electric arc
welding on the scale indicated in this book re-
quires direct current. Alternating currenl does
not produce an arc which can be controlled to a
sufficient degree for such welding. The voltage
id the current must be from IS to 30 volts
metal electrode welding and from 30 to 45 volts
for carbon electrode welding. These voltages
are lower than are supplied by any power com-
pany and are lower than those used for almost
any other manufacturing process. The current
most universally used in manufacturing estab-
lishments is alternating current because it is
easily transmitted and can be produced at lower
cost. For these reasons electric arc welding al-
ways demands a special equipment to produce
suitable direct current at the proper voltage for
Equipment for Electric Arc Welding
There are several distinct types of electric arc
welding equipment now manufactured. A thor-
ough understanding of each of these i, necessary
before an intelligent application of the process
can be made.
When electric arc welding was ti i^t used direct
current was more common than it is i The
first welding was done by inserting a heavy re-
sistance in the regular direct current supply line
in the shop. This line usualh supplied current
at 110 to 220 volts. The resistance served to
cut tin's \ , iltage d< >wn t< < fn >m 15 to 20 v< 'Its, thus
making it adapted for welding purposes.
The extra power used in overcoming this
resistance was of course wasted The saving
elicited however in repairing steel castings and
in making repairs in railroad shops was so great
compared to former methods that the waste of
electric current was a minor matter. This re-
sistance was usually made either by passing the
current through a barrel of water or by passing
it through a cast iron grid resistance. This
resistance served two purposes, first to cut down
the voltage, second to prevent a great rush of
current when the electrode was first touched to
the piece to lie welded.
Motor Generator Sets
This type of equipment was made necessary
by the fact that alternating current is now in such
wide use. Some means had to he devised to
transform alternating current into direct. In
the motor generator set a motor is used which
is arranged to be driven by the electric current
supplied to the shop. This motor in turn drives
a generator which delivers direct current for
welding purpi ises.
economj of tlii- method over the resist-
ance method is at once apparent because the cur-
rent taken from the supply line is not wasted but
used directly in driving the generator. Even in
plants where direct current is available, a motor
generator set is used, the motor, of course, being
a direct current machine.
In the gradual refinement of the motor gen-
erator for welding purposes, two distinct types
quipment were produced. For want of a
better term, these have been called constant
voltage welders and variable voltage welders
Constant Voltage If ciders
This type of motor generator set has a gen-
erator which delivers current at a constant VOlt-
N'ote; In plants where no electric current at all is available.
it l- still possible to do welding work by means of a
generator belted to the engine or line shaft. Such an
- qui pment is shown mi page 54.
ARC WELDING EQUIPMENT
age of about 75 volts. This voltage, however,
is still too high for welding purposes and has
to be reduced by introducing a resistance in the
circuit. The power consumed in this resistance
is of course wasted just as it was in the old type
of resistance welder, the only difference is that
in the constant voltage welder, the waste is con-
Variable Voltage Welder
It should be understood that in arc welding
the voltage of the current actually used is con-
tinually changing. For instance, when starting
the weld, the operator touches the welded piece
with the electrode, then as the current begins to
flow, he draws it away a short distance establish-
ing the arc between the electrode and the welded
At the moment he touches the electrode to the
piece, the voltage in the circuit is nearly zero
and as he draws the electrode away, the voltage
constantly increases as the arc lengthens.
For this reason, an arc welder cannot be truly
economical in use of current unless it gives ex-
actly the right voltage for the work at every
instant of operation.
To produce this result a generator has been
designed which always delivers the exact volt-
age required at the arc at any particular moment.
This is the chief characteristic of the Welder
manufactured by The Lincoln Electric Co., of
Cleveland, and this principle is responsible for
the remarkable success this welder has made in
Engineers in industries where welding is
widely used have made a very thorough investi-
gation of these two types of welder, realizing
the importance of choosing the right one for their
The Railway Mechanical Engineer in an
editorial in their November. 1916 issue have the
following to say in reference to these two types
of equipment :
"Two distinct types of motor generator sers
are available for arc welding, different manufac-
turers championing differenl systems. In one
type the current is delivered at an approximately
constant pressure of 75 volts and an adjustable
resistance is used in series with the arc to vary
the arc voltage to suit the work in hand.
"The second type of motor generator set is
so-called constant current or variable voltage
equipment. In this system the generator de-
livers a variable voltage, maintaining an approxi-
mately constant current flow. Tt is therefore
effective in affording constancy and uniformity
of the arc and inasmuch as no ballast resistance
is required, this system is more efficient than
the previous one."
The Association of Railway Electrical En-
gineers appointed a special committee on the
subject of arc welding and their report of Octo-
ber 31, 1916, gives a valuable comparison on
"There are two types of equipment in the
market which may be described as constant
voltage type and variable voltage type.
"The constant voltage type is a motor gen-
erator set which takes power from the shop
mains and delivers on the generator end a prac-
tically constant low voltage. A resistance ballast
is used between the generator and the welding-
arc to limit the current at short circuit. The
power used in the resistance ballast is of
course wasted. The low voltage direct current
power is carried over the shop on heavy cable-
to the welding outlets.
"The variable voltage type is a motor gener-
ator set which takes power from the shop mains
and delivers on the generator end the voltage
required for welding without the use of re-
sistance ballast. The inherent characteristic of
the generator is such that the short circuit is
limited without the use of resistance ballast.
Inductive ballast is used to stabilize the arc. This
ii' i. ■ :i i ■■ mi . iiimm:i nin .
. mini mi i iiii ■ . . nil
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
ii ;n i
:, Ill " I
i\ pe of equipment is made only in single opei
units. Willi this type of equipment the low
voltage distribution system may he elimi-
nated, riie mol • : fed directh from the -Imp
Com partitive Costs
The question again resolves itself hum 01
the comparative cost of the two types of equip-
ment, llourh co system can he readily
hor this ]
\ . iltage aetuall
Cost < if cun cut per K. \\ . hi iir . .
I 'nder these condit ider fii
• if electi i by the i >ld resistant i
of welding. Second the cost n 75 volt
constant voltage motor generator. Hiird the
cost with a variable voltage
In using .1 ;enei at< >r set, it is neci
-nine a J? per cent loss owing to power
required to run the machine. We then havi
] 50 Amp
1 ; ii Anip
llOUl S pel
I'l i \M I
I |i I 111 HI
7 ; cents
\ 'i i uli re-
Motoi gi neratoi -
\ lilt- I
Motoi ' Var-
fi gu res a n on
■imislv. As a matter of fact it would not
he usi half of the time I
the same r< pet ation fai tor.
Ease of Operation
I he difference in operation oi the two tvpes
of machine is equalh a- important as the cost,
characteristic of the variable voltage welder
is the ease with which the arc is controlled thus
preventing the frequent make and break of the
arc which results in imperfect work.
\11 complicated switches and solenoids are
eliminated on this type of apparatus and one
simple knife switch, together with a small rheo-
stat handle for regulating the current, is all that
Importance of Equipment
I lu- selection of the right equipment for arc
welding work is of the utmost importance. The
consideration given to the subject b\ the two
authorities quoted above indicates this.
Both the results obtained and the cost of op-
eration depend entirely upon the type of equip-
LINCOLN ARC WELDERS
i»i "in" mi mi ii ■ iiiiii mini i ii i ■ ii
tiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiimiiimit iiiiii n Minimum
liiiimiiiiiiiiniii in i
I ig I 19. Line
nating ( hi rent
i Weld, i foi
In Arc Welde
Suppl} . This i
Ik a\ \ stei 1 f.
a 400 \ui
1 1 I h \
Lincoln Arc Welders
The Lincoln Electric Co. have been engaged
in the manufacture of arc welding apparatus
ever since its first successful application in this
country. Welders manufactured by this Com-
pany, at that time, are still in daily use in spite
of the improvements effected by the long study
of the subject.
Lincoln engineers are not only thoroughly
familiar with the proper design and construction
of welding equipment, but what is more impor-
tant to the prospective user, they are skilled in
the application of the work in every field where
it has been used.
Variable Voltage Equipment
The Lincoln Arc Welder is a variable voltage
equipment — the type referred to by the Railway
Electrical Engineers Association in their report,
part of which is reproduced on page 51.
This welder will do welding work at lower
cost than any other method or process. This
assertion The Lincoln Electric Co. are ready to
pmve by direct comparative test on any class
Examination of the illustration itself is suffi-
cient to convince any prospective buyer of the
simplicity of Lincoln equipment. There is an
entire absence of the complicated clapper
switches, solenoids, circuit breakers and other
devices, which add to the cost and which are
bound to require considerable expert attention.
The reliability of Lincoln equipment is di-
rectly due to its simple construction and to the
high grade materials used.
■ ■ Him in .i mini' in n : mini i . : m n
LINCOLN ARC WELDERS
■ nun mum
mi i i Miinii mil linn i mmii n li miiiuiiililllllim Ill
■ Su ppl y
I li 8
Fig. 121. Lincoln Arc
Weldei 1""' Vlti i nal
Cm rent Supplj
Individual I nits
The standard Lincoln Welder is intended to
supply current for one operator only. The ad-
vantages of this plan are obvious. The user of
arc welding can in this way begin with the small-
est possible initial investment and can add to it
whenever he requires and in any amount to suit
his needs. The investment is always propor-
tional to the aim mnt of work done.
Another advantage of this arrangement is that
it allows each operator to be independent of
the others and to use current only when he is
engaged in actual welding work. In case of
trouble with the welding plant, only one man
would be affected.
Adjustable for Heavy Work
In most cases, the single unit is amply large
for any work that occurs. In large steel foun-
dries or railroad simps, where an occasional large
job of carbon electrode welding is necessary.
two or more Lincoln Welders can be connected
in parallel to do the work, furnishing ample
power for any welding purpose whatever. This
connection can be made in five minutes' time
by any welding operator and the plants can be
separated again with even le-.s work.
C .mi il
i icne rato i
The Lincoln Arc Welder as illustrated above is
adapted for use everywhere, where electric cur-
rent supply is available.
An exception might be made of the railroad
shop and street railway service for which special
types of electric welder have been designed.
This Welder consists of four simple units:
1. — A Standard Lincoln Motor arranged to
be driven by the regular shop current supply.
Fig. 122. Lincoln Arc Wilder, Belt Driven foi usi
where no electric power is available.
LINCOLN ARC VVKLDFRS
Arc Welder direct -
2. — A Variable Voltage Generator delivering
current of the proper kind for welding purposes.
3. — A Control Panel mounting simple knife
switches and connections together with a wheel
switch for regulating current and a small am-
meter and volt meter for measuring same.
4. — The Lincoln Arc Stabilizer.
This is practically an electro magnet which
acts as a reservoir in which power accumulates
exactly as it would in a reservoir on a water line.
Whenever any extraordinary demand for power
is made, the stabilizer supplies the extra power,
without disturbance of the line.
Two types of Lincoln Arc Welders, one for
direct and the other for alternating current sup-
ply mains, are shown in Figs. 120 and 121.
Arc welding can be also used where electric-
current supply is not available. In this case,
the motor is not supplied and the generator is
belted or direct connected to a gasoline engine,
steam turbine or line shaft. This equipment
can be supplied with a horizontal panel switch
which makes it convenient for mounting on auto
truck. (See Figs. 122 and 123.)
This type of arc welding set is intended for
use in places where neither mechanical nor elec-
trical means are available for driving the welding
It consists of the generator of a standard Lin-
coln Arc Welder direct coupled to a gasoline en-
gine designed especially for driving electrical ma-
It is equipped with control board and stabil-
izer, the entire apparatus being mounted on a
light but substantial lied plate which may be
readily placed upon a flat railroad freight car, an
automobile truck, a ship or wherever may be
most convenient for the work in hand.
Numerous uses for this type of arc welding
machine readily suggest themselves, among them
are shipyard and boiler work, the welding of
pipe-lines in oil districts, steam railroad repairs,
.1 ■ . i ■ iin
iiiiiiiii ■ ■ ii r
LINCOLN ARC WELDERS
i i i ' i i miimiinn
Lincoln Arc Welder for Railroad Shops
This equipment is the same m all respects a^
the standard welding outfits described in page
54. For convenience in railroad shop operation,
however, it is mounted on especially designed
trucks which permit it to be moved readily about
Special . idvantages of Lincoln
This outfit is intended to take care of one
ator and can be placed at any point in the
shop where the regular electric wiring is installed.
The Lincoln Welder can be plugged in on any
power socket anywhere where a five horse-power
motor will operate, [n other words there need
be no special provision for the welding outfit and
no special wiring and re arrangement ol the
Other types of welder are designed to take
care of several operators from one machine. The
disadvantage of this system is that it requires
a low tension distributing system carried from
the welding machine to any station where weld-
ing is to be done. Such a system requires large
copper wire and i- a eery expensive installation
tn make, and it does not offer any advantage
The Lincoln Arc Welder can always be taken
to the place where the locomotive is standing
and welding work can go on at the same time
with other repairs. With other systems, the loco-
motives all have to be brought to special stations
for welding work or a low tension wiring system
lias to be carried over the entire shop.
Instead of moving the heavy locomotive about,
the Lincoln Arc Welder, on its light truck can
he taken anywhere even for a few minutes work.
This is an important advantage of the Lincoln
n i ie of equipment.
With the Lincoln Arc Welder any number
of operators desired can work on the same engine
without interference, something which should not
Should occasion arise to use carbon arc weld-
ing, needing a welder of greater capacity, this
can be provided by connecting two or three indi-
vidual units as described on page 54. Occasion
for this will practically never arise in the railroad
WELDERS FOR STREET RAILROAD USE
i Portable Lincoln
\rc Welder for Streel Kai
Lincoln Arc Welder for Street Railroads
This Welder has a motor designed to be oper
ated by the power direct from the trolley line
and this motor in turn drives the generator, de-
livering the electric current at the proper voltage
The type of welder formerly used for this
work, consisted simply of a cast iron resistance.
The current was taken directly from the trolley
line, the resistance being used to reduce it to the
proper voltage for welding purposes. This
method was neither economical nor safe ami is
rapidly being replaced by the Lincoln special
The Lincoln Arc Welder for street railway
work takes only from 6 to 8 kilowatts from the
trolley line and' gives 150 to 200 amperes weld-
ing current. The resistance welder takes from
80 to 100 kilowatts to do the same work.
With the resistance welder the large amount
of power taken from the line frequently results
in burning of the trolley wire, in such a way that
it either breaks or is weakened so that it breaks
down in the first heavy storm.
With the resistance type of welder, the elec-
trode in the operators hand carries the full volt-
age of the trolley line. The slightest carelessness
in handling may result in his getting the full
current through his body, which would almost
certainly result in death. Many serious accidents
of this kind have occurred.
Rail is Always Hot
With the Lincoln Arc Welder, the rail is made
the positive electrode of the system and the elec-
trode which the operator holds is the negative.
This insures that the rail will always be hot at
the point where welding is done. The melted
metal from the electrode will adhere to it readily.
In the resistance type of welder, the rail is the
negative electrode and there is frequently trouble
in getting the metal to adhere properly.
The Lincoln Arc Welder above is especially
adapted for shop repairs on broken or worn parts,
as it is exactly the same type of machine as is
used for that purpose in other plants.
Power For Grinder
The motor on the Lincoln Welder is provided
when desired, with an extended shaft to which
a portable hand grinder can be connected by
means of a flexible shaft. This provides motor
drive for the grinder, when the operator is not
nun :i mi
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
The following sections '>n Design of Welded
Joints and "Ten Lessons in Electric Welding"
are offered a< an aid in acquiring the knowledge
and skill necessary to make successful applica-
tions of the electric arc welding process. It would
be impossible to write an) text book on this sub-
ject which would include all of the things which
n is necessary fi ir an i gineer t( i
know in order to always make a successful ap
plication of the process. The application of the
process is a new science that has been explored
in only a few of the directions in which it will
eventually prove successful The arl of welding
with an electric are is like any other mechanical
art which may profitably be studied, but which
only experience can perfect.
The manual training idea has been foil
out in the lessons on welding to a certain extent
so that the operator may learn to weld by weld-
ing according to definite instructions. The op-
erator should follow the instructions to the best
of his ability. It has been found by actual ex
perience that if the operator merely "plays" with
(he apparatus ami follows no definite plan dur-
ing bis training period, little is accomplished so
far as the learning of the fundamental princi
pies involved is concerned. The operator must
trv to make the samples required in the ievin-
as g< " id as possible l'\ so doing, he will acquire
a knowledge of the fundamental principles in-
volved in any welding application. It is impor
taut that tin- operator cut the welds as required
in tbi' lessens and criticise his own workmanship
and allow other competent workmen to criticise
it for him. so that in the end he will know beyond
question whether or not he is making t weld
while he is i iperating the arc.
It will be found much cheaper in the long run
to have the operator spend enough time to be-
come thoroughly familiar with the fundamental
principles of welding during bis training period
than to put him on commercial work and allow
him to get his experience there. It should be
thoroughly understood that the operator will not
he an expert by any means when he has com
pleted the samples required in these lessons. It
requires a large amount of experience to become
an expert operator and owing to the rapidity
with which the process and apparatus are being
developed, it is impossible for one man to know
all there is to be known about electric arc weld-
ing. The operator should continually study ways
of improving his practice and if possible study
the practice which has been developed by other
Design of Welded Joints
From an engineering point of view, even
metallic joint whether it he riveted, bolted or
welded, is designed to withstand a perfectly
definite kind and amount of stress. \ n example
of this is the longitudinal seam in the shell of
a horizontal tire tube riveted boiler. This joint
is designed for tension and steam tightness only
and will not stand even a small amount of trans-
verse bending stress without failure by leaking.
If a joint performs the function for which it
was designed and no more, its designer has ful-
filled his responsibilities and it is a good joint
economically. Regardless of how the joint is
made the design of joint which costs the least
to make and which at the same time performs
the functions required of it. with a reasonable
factor of safety, is the perfect joint.
The limitations ,,f the several kinds of me-
chanical and welded joints should be thoroughly
A bolted joint is expensive, is difficult to
make steam or water pressure tight, but has the
distinguishing advantage that it can be disas-
sembled without destruction. Bolted joints
which are as strong as the pieces bolted together
are usually impracticable, owing to their bulk.
Riveted joints are less expensive to make than
bolted joints but cannot be disassembled without
destruction to the rivets. A riveted joint, sub-
ject to bending stress sufficient to produce ap-
preciable deformation, will not remain steam or
water pressure tight. Riveted joints can never
lie made as strong as the original sections be-
I MINI 1 1- fill
III .11 .11 III Ill III ■
ii in .iiiii' .' ' ■ ' .mm: mi. .
DESIGN OF WELDED JOINTS
I : MM -HI- .Mill II
II MM .ii MII'IIM NINNl ■ Hill
cause of the metal punched out to form the rivet
There is no elasticity in either riveted, holted
or autogenously welded joints which must re-
main steam or water pressure tight. Excess
material is required in the jointed sections of
bolted or riveted joints, owing to the weakness
of the joints.
Autogenously welded joints have as a limit of
tensile strength the tensile strength of cast metal
of a composition identical to that of the joined
pieces. The limit of the allowable bending stress
is also set by the properties of cast metal of the
same composition as that of the joined pieces.
The reason for this limitation is that on the
margin of an autogenous weld adjacent to the
pieces joined, the metal of the pieces was heated
and cooled without change of composition.
Whatever properties the original metal had, due
to heat or mechanical treatment, are removed by
this action, which invariably occurs in an auto-
genous welding process. Regardless of what
physical properties of the metal used to form the
joint may be, the strength or ability to resist
bending of the joint, as a whole, cannot exceed
the corresponding properties of this metal in the
margin of the weld. Thus assuming that an
autogenous weld be made in boiler plate, having
a tensile strength of 62,000 lbs. Assume that
nickel steel, having a tensile strength of 85,000
lbs. be used to build up the joint. No advantage
was gained by the excess 23,000 lbs. tensile
strength of the nickel steel of the joint since the
joint will fail at a point close to 62,000 lbs. If
appreciable bending stress be applied to the joint
it will fail in the margin referred to above.
The elastic limit of the built-in metal is the
same as its ultimate strength for all practical pur-
poses but the ultimate strength is above the elas-
tic limit of the joined sections in commercial
In spite (if the limitations of the autogenously
welded joint referred to above it is possible and
practicable to build up a joint in commercial steel
which will successfully resist any stress which
will be encountered in commercial work. 1 he
advantage lies in the built up structure and the
inherent steam and water pressure tightness oi
a welded joint.
The fundamental factor in the strength of a
welded joint is the strength of the material
added by the welding process. This factor de-
pends upon the nature of the stress applied. The
metal added by the welding process, when sub-
ject to tension, can be relied on in commercial
practice to give a tensile strength of 45,000 lbs.
per square inch. This is an average condition;
assuming that the metal added was mild steel
and that the operation was properly done, the
metal will have approximately the same strength
in compression as in tension. When a torsional
stress is applied to a welded joint the resultant
stress is produced by a combination of bending,
tension and compression, as well as shear. The
resistance of the metal to shear may be figured
at 8/10 its resistance to tensile stress. The
metal added by the welding process, with the
present development in the art of welding,
will stand very little bending stress. An auto-
genously welded joint made by the electric arc
process must be made stiffer than the adjacent
sections in order that the 1 lending stress shall
not come in the joint. An electric weld, when
properly made, will Lie steam and water pressure
tight so lens as bending of members of the
structure dues not produce failure of the welded
Little is known at the present time in regard
to the resistance of an electrically welded joint
to dynamic stress, but there is reason to believe
that the resistance to this kind of stress is low.
However, owing to the fact that in most struc-
tures there is an opportunity for the members
of the structure to flex and reduce the strain
upon the weld, this inherent weakness of the
welded joint docs nut interfere seriously with
A few tests have been made of high frequency
alternating stresses and it has been found that
using the ordinary wire electrode the welded
joint fails at a comparatively small number of
iiiiini: i! nil ..n.
Ill i!l ■ !
' .1 Hill ' .1-
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
alternations. This is of little importance in most
structures since high frequency alternating stress
is not often encountered.
Stresses in Joints
The drawings reproduced on pages 60, 61, 62
show several typical metallic joints and the
stresses which are brought to bear on them. The
method of welding is indicated.
In Figure 126 it will be noted that a re-enforc-
ing plate is welded to the joint to make the joint
sufficiently stiff to threw the bending outside the
Figure 127 shows a joint in straight tension.
Since ii" transverse stress occurs the heavy re-
enforcing of Figure 126 is not required. Just
enough re-enforcing is given the joint to make
up for the deficient in tensile strength, of the
metal of the weld.
Figure 128 show another method of building
up a joint that is in straight tension. It should
be noted that in both Figure 127 and Figure 128
as much re-enforcing is placed on one side ol a
center line thru the plates as is placed on the
129 shows the original form of lap joint
such as is used in riveting. The method shown
for welding this joint is the only method which
can be used. It cannot be recommended because
such a joint, when in straight tension, tends to
bring the center line of the plate into coincidence
with the center line of the stress. In so doing an
vsive stress is placed on the welded material.
Figure 130 shows the construction iwd in cer-
tain tanks where a flanged head is backed into
a cylindrical shell. The principal stress to
•<■,] by the welded joint is that tending to
push the head out of the shell. The .velding
process indicated in the figure will successfully
do this. Owing to the friction between the weld
and the shell, the outer weld would be sufficient
to hold the weld in place for ordinary pressure.
■ : ■ INI" ■ IIMM ■' IIHIIM
DESIGN OF WELDED JOINTS
III Illlllllllllllllillll run: llllllllllllllllllllllllll
I'll Mill' Illl
For higher pressures the inside weld should be
made in addition.
Figures 131 and 132 show another method of
welding a flanged head to the cylindrical shell.
These methods are preferable t<> the method in-
dicated in Figure 130. Figure 132 represents the
reci immended practice.
Figure 133 shows a plate and angle structure
which might he used in ship construction. The
particular feature to notice in the welding prac-
tice indicated, is that the vertical plates do not
reach, the entire distance between the horizontal
plates. This is merely a method of eliminating
difficulties in welding the plates to the angle.
Figures 134A, 1341'.. 134C and 1341* show a
method of welding a crack in a locomotive
frame. Hie object in this practice is to reduce
the amount of metal deposited by the electric
welding process. The metal of the plate lami-
nated structure is of better quality than the weld-
ing process will deposit. And also a large
amount of time is saved by this practice.
The plates should lie \s or > _. inch in thickness.
/;; making any weld, the smallest amount of
metal should he added by the welding process
which is possible to add with perfect fin
i 1 niiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiinmimim ■ nun n
r. hi i mi n .in
mi in i ii ■ n mi ■ 'v i [i.iiimilliiiii
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
i II iiiiiiiii I nil ' iiiili : ;: i mi mi: mi
Figure 135 shows a method of welding a head
into a cylindrical pipe. The thickness of the
head should lie approximately twice the thick-
ness of the wall of the pipe. The extra thickness
plate is to gain sufficient stiffness in the head
to make the stress on the welded material purely
shear. The pressure from the inside tends to
make the head assume a hemispherical shape.
This would place a bending stress on die welded
material if the head were thin enough to give at
the proper pressure
Figure 136 shows a method of welding a crack-
in a tire In >x sheet. The thin plate backing in-
troduced at the weld makes the operation very
much easier for the operator and produces the
re-enforcing of the water side of the tire box
sheet w hich is most desirable.
Data for Calculations
i cu. inch of steel weighs .28 pounds.
3.57 cu. inch of steel weighs i pound.
One pound of 5 32 inch electrode may he de-
posited in 27 minutes with 130 amp., 16 volts.
25 to 30'' of all electrode is wasted in "ends."
15 ft. of 5 32 inch electrode weigh one pound.
One K. \Y. II. of electric power will produce
3413 B. T. U. of heat.
On straight-awav welding the ordinary operator
with helper will actually weld 75'' of the time.
nun mm: i i 'mm I i i i mil' I ' II iMIIIh miiliil mm mm nihil i m M miiiiiniiiiiiil 1,1
Dust Cap. Inner
I lust Cap, i lutei
Tube, Brush 1 [older
Commutator Bar, M
Bra. k. 1
Brush Holder, Motor End
Commutator ' ap
Frame Rivet Tubes
Pole Coils, Motor End
Field Coils, General. u End
DIRECT CURRENT SUPPLY
Brush Holder, Welder
Lock Nut Spring
Dust Cap, Generator End
Spring. Brush Holder
I ing< :
Commutati i! Cap
S K F Bearing
I lust Cap, I lut. '.
Lock Xut Spring
I >ust ( ap, Inn. r
i lamping Washer
Insulating Wash, i
End Tlate. We
Ai mature Ci
138. ALTERNATING CURRENT SUPPLY
Frame Bolt, \\ - Id
I y, Bolt
End Plate, M.
Si. nor Coils
I- 1. mi, Bolt,
Frame Rit . I
Rotor End Ri
Shrink Collar, Motor End
Bracket. Motor End
ting Ring, Excite]
Armature Ci iils I
Mi, a Ring Exciter
Commutator E ■ ■ itei
Brush Holder Exciter
Insulating Washei -
Tube, Brush Holdei
Bracket Exciter End
Rocker Exciter End
S.K.F. Be.iiiug Exciter
Dust in' Ex. iter End
Exc iter Shaft
Terminal Block I ■■ ■ it. I
Pig I ol Clip
1 lust . .us Motni End
Connecting I ' i i i
l.,.ck Washer. Motor End
S K F Bearing
lin^t Cap, Inner, Motor
Spring. Brush Holder
TEX LESSONS IN ARC WELDING
. inn mum niiiiimimimiiiiiiit : mm ■■ iiiiiimiiiiimmiimmmiiiimimm n miimmimm in iiiimii
' ii ■ ii
','. , 1,1.
(A) I- lectrodi II i i I ■ ? mil I'it-ld
K , Kin
l \\ 1 \\ I
'The .Ire Welding Machine
the arc fi >i «
reproduced showing the names of parts oi the welder
set. It is not nei
the names of the detail parts except that he should
understand tin !• » atii m and f the es
parts as folli i\vs : I >nish, Brushln ilder, i
Exciter Commutator. Field Coils, Motor, I-
( Ireas e i 'up, Ball 1 leai ing s, Shal < . ! '■
Poll I See [, , . \ny elect riciai
thesi part; is inl-
aid, to do so.
The arc welding electrical!;, separati
from the motm which drives n \ welding generatoi
maj be driven b_\ eithei
altei n >r or hy a I - asoline
engine. Tin source of power to drivi tin welding
generator liing whatever to do with tin
havior of the weldi provided
it is furnished in sufficient quantity and turns the ■
ing generatoi al the propel speed. Hie motor end of
the welding machine is like am other motor of the same
Tlu- principle of operation of the welding generator
i~ very simple to the man who has had some experi-
,,\ it ii direct current generators but is difficult
else to understand For the benefit oi
man who has had electrical experience, ii is sufficient
, that the welding generator is merely a spe< II
ateh excited generator with a differen-
tia] compound winding and that an inductivt ballast is
used in the arc circuit Ii is desirable for the operator
to understand the principle ol operation of the welding
-, t as well as tin electrician understands it but it is not
itely necessan The accompanying cut shows the
ill ampere characteristic and the wiring diagram ol
, elding g< nei at >r.
Iding outfit should alwaj s be install* d
electrician. All cables are labeled and the direction of
rked so that m i difficult} w ill : " ■
enced in installing the outfit without the use of a wir-
The Stabilize! is made up of coils of wire
a laminated steel core and it- purpose is to make the
.ml r.iM t, , ,pei
\u electrician should explain to the operator the
method .if starting the < mtfil
The control panel contains the apparatus with which
the operator controls the behavior of the welding gen-
erator, adjusting it to give the proper amount of heat
for welding. Two cuts are shown showing two types
TEN LESSONS IN ARC WELDING
ill, I Hull ii ' llll '
• •I control panel used. The portable type accomplishes
the same thing as the stationary type. The voltmeter
and ammeter are left off the portable type on account
"f the fact that they arc too fragile to stand the rough
use to which lhej would lie subjected on portable
Fig. 142 shows the ordinary equipment used by tin
operator, and welding table. Referring to Fig. 154. the
proper clothing for an operator is shown, — it consists
of black cap. unionalls, cotton gauntlet gloves, split
Adjustment of Machine
1. I (pen main switch and control switch on panel.
2. Start welding set.
3. Turn rheostat as far as it will go to the left.
4. Close control switch into position marked 100.
(In this position the current in the arc will be approxi-
mately 100 amperes, i
5. Put a piece of .-:/' welding wire in the metal elec-
tn ide holder.
i). Place a piece of boiler plate scrap or. welding
table ti i practice on.
7. Close main switch on panel.
8. Sit down on stool in front of welding table.
Take band shield in left hand, metal electrode holder
in right hand. With shield held in front of face touch
boiler plate with end of welding wire. The result will
be a spark and the welding wire will stick to the boiler
plate. Let go of electrode holder and open main switch
9 With a new piece of welding wire and face shield
in front of face, scratch welding wire sidewisi on
boiler plate to get spark, then draw welding wire about
an eighth of an inch away from the plate. Hold weld
ing wire vertical to boiler plate, otherwise arc will
be difficult to start.
Repeat the above operatii n until an arc can be main-
tained as long as desirable. The beginner should burn
from 75 to IOC pieces of welding wire at this practice,
observing through the shield what happens in the arc.
\s the operator becomes mure skillful he should try
to held a shorter arc. The proper length is about an
eighth of an inch. The operator should spend about
15 hours on this kind of practice. The amount of
current or ampere- required for welding depends prin-
cipally upon the sixe welding wire used. Three-six-
teenths inch welding wire requires about 150 amperes.
(Turn rheostat as far to left as it will go and close
control switch into 150 ampere position.) For points in
between ltxi and 150 amperes turn rheostat to right with
control switch in 150 ampere position.
t'ig I tO, Statiunan Panel
Fist. 142. Operator's To
TEN LESSONS IN ARC WELDING
ii inn inn in nun in :■ .;i
■ II! ■
iiiiiiiiiiiiii il Ulim limiiil mil in Miimi ii
Starting the Arc
This exercise deals with the proper method of
starting and stopping an electric arc. The beginner
usually draw- an arc and starts to weld at whatever
poinl the arc happens to starl operating properly. In
other words, the beginner usually wilds where it is
possible for him i" weld rather than welding in a pre-
determined place The purpose of tin- exercise is to
give the operator sufficient control of the arc t" en
able him to weld at any place be may decide
1. Place a piece of scrap hoiler plate on the welding
table. With a piece of soap stone marls a line
the plate. Now weld a bead as nearly as possibl.
to the right of this line. Make the bead as stl
as possible. Repeal this operation until a perl
gilt l'e. id * " from the pri an be
2. In tlii- exercise the nperatoi should print bis
initials on a piece id scrap boiler plate and weld a
bead i >\ er the lines I [a\ ing pi
initials in this manner lake annthei piece ol
boiler plate and make the initials the san iz< with
out previously printing them with soap ston<\ This
ild be t . peated until tin i can
reproduce bis initials without following the lines. The
purpose of tins cxi -or to
control an air and had it in a predetermined dip
It also invob i 5 [be ii aining of th
see where be is leading the arc. I In- will be di
at firs! owing to tli,- fact that the operator ran see
nothing but the are itself tin ^lass
i ator should n and chisel
and i ■ of several beads w hii
It will lie found that the beginning of the
I- usually not -| ],;,
is dn.' to the t'.i, i thai I
-: .it. : |"hi . ipei ition of
is m.i. the head.
A- The end of the head is quite a- important
beginning. In referring to beads which the beginner
ha- previously made it will he found tl sider-
ahle crater has been left al the point at which th.
was broken. The objection to this crater is that it is
-tat! welding at this point when it is de-
le t.i Continue the head er may be filled
: i the are i- finally bi i >ki n by mi wding
down the are until the desired amount of metal is
added, and breaking the are suddenly by pulling the
harply to one side. The operator should practice
this operation until be is able to finish a bead leaving
a crater of not to exceed Pc of an inch in diameter.
5. Thi .loo,, outlined in the preceding four
aphs should occupy at least tin hours of tin-
nine The following sample is to be made
a- to the record of the operator's ability to start and
sti ip an arc pn iperly :
Material re. pined: one 12"xl2"xj4" piece of boiler
plate; three si es ol electrode are required /<;". ■■'2",
\o marking ip stone is to he done 011 the
plate. Referring to the photograph reproduced here
with, the first three rows of heads are to be made
wire using approximately 150 amperes. Each
head should be one inch long. ITie beads should be
quarters of an inch apart. They should be
straight and parallel, Each head should have a per-
i.ii weld at it- start and a very small crater at the
finish. The next five head- are to he made using
-nd the next two. electrode with
about 125 and 100 amperi pectively. < hie side ol
lit. should he completely welded in accordance
the above instructions. The plate should then
he turned over and 1 leraticn repeated am! pei
on the oilier side of 'he plate.
mm run: mi m : \ inn
nun i if i in'
n .1 .:.. mm m mill 1 nllih mil i mil
TEN LESSONS IN ARC WELDINCI
Illlllll ■ ■ I! 1
Building Up Operation
The purpose of this exercise is to show the operator
the proper method of building up several layers of
welded material. It is assumed that in Lesson II the
operator has learned to deposit metal from the welding
wire on a piece of boiler plate and have it entirely
welded along the line of fusion. Until the operations
outlined in Lesson II are completely mastered, it is
useless to proceed with the exercise of building-up
Material required: One 10".\12"\ ' .." piece of boiler
plate. One size of electrode, h of an inch, is re-
quired. The current should be about 125 amperes.
Referring to the photograph reproduced herewith.
three pads are to he built up on the face of the plate.
These pads are to be 6" long. 2" wide. 1" high. The
first pad starting from the left hand side of the plate
is to be built up without any particular design or pat-
tern, and without brushing or cleaning of the oxide-
The next pad is to be built up following the definite
pattern. First, brush the spot on which the second pad
is to be built very thoroughly with a wire brush.
Second, build up a single layer of metal the width of
the pad using a series of beads laid along the 6"
dimension, always starting at one end and finishing at
the other end. Having deposited the first laser, the
oxide covered surfaces must be brushed thoroughly
with a wire brush. Each layer should be brushed at
least three minutes. The second layer of the pad should
be built up so that the beads run at right angles to the
beads of the first layer, i. c, the heads are parallel
to the 2" dimension of the pad. This practice is com-
monly called "lacing." The second layer to be as
thoroughly brushed as is required upon finishing the
first layer. Each succeeding layer should be thoroughly
The third pad is to be built up in exactly the same
manner as the second pad with the exception that in
place of brushing the work with the wire brush onlj
between each layer, the oxide must be entirely cleaned
off by the use of the hammer and chisel. It will be
noted that the oxide may be removed bj comparatively
light blows on the chisel. It is not necessary to cut
away am metal to knock the oxide from the top of
the layer with a chisel. The wire brush may be used
to brush the oxide off the metal after it has been cut
away with a chisel.
The operator has now completed three pads. The
first pad illustrates how- welding should not be done.
The second pad illustrates a fairly satisfactory practice.
The third pad illustrates the best practice. If possible
the operator should have this sample sawed diagonally
through the three pads. It should then be set up on a
grinding machine and a fine surface ground on the
cut section of the pads. This can be done in a tool
room The ground surface should then he painted
with diluted sulphuric acid or tincture of iodine. It
will then be easy to compare the quality of the metal
in the three pads. The operator should also observe
carefully the line of fusion between the pads and the
original plate. This fusion must be perfect if the weld
is of any value. The photograph reproduced herewith
illustrates the appearance of a good line of fusion.
iii. i<- ii i i i.iiiiiiiiiiimiiiiitiinmi.
TEN LESSONS IN ARC WELDING
lln- exercise is one oi the rtmsl important of the
scries Inf. him- the welding of plate is tin most frequent
application "t the electric arc welding process Phe
welds which must he made in le ot
plate, sue h .1 - tanks, ire in it alw a\
the operator must K irn to weld not onh in the hori
. iin.il posh ion bul ei tical and
positions. Three samples are to be made as the n
of the operator's abilih to weld in the horizontal posi
nd the vertical and straight o >
il required Six II
plate hex eled 45 di i me 12"
125 t" 150 amp
i sin mid spend appi - iximati I
In mi- in ptili mi i i.i t \ prai i ice. Si \ eral neci
boiler plate should be beveled and
sin >\\ n in the .ii ' i impam it
lid then be set up vei ticallj and w i ldi
ttom and weldit hould
i, own r in arrivin best
■ . make li w eld in this position,
different methods and observing the following p hits
Does the weld extend completelj from the inm
the < uii-i edges o| tin plate Doi i i oi the
■i e> pan 'ii I 1
affect tin characti i ot the weld ? Does the exp n
and 1 1 inti ai tion i aused by I
produce wai ping oi bin kling \ i tet H
satisfied himself on these points two pi crap
boiler plate should be bevi Ii .1 and pi. i i dtion
,,,],■ . peratoi
,i trj to weld them together in this position.
« elding from the un I lie i 'pei at
.in iii. pieces approximated} one sixteenth ot an
fi it this exi .i !-•' I of weldii
nsiderable amount of practio
to masti i It will be found that the operation « ill I"
some" Ii: t i' i-H r ii 150 amperes i
trodi rsl In welding be' i Ii -1 ratot
should remember that the welding wire >r eleel
should be held as nearh perpendiculai
welded as possible, and that
nly he <n - ointlisht a lined.
I)i, operator should pa\ particular attention to the
dift'i : : mul between a long arc and a sin >rt one
.\ I,,,,- an a distinct hissing sound.
It is impo I weld with such an arc A
arc has a rapid lire metallii click which ma\
guished. The operat' i sh mid maintain a
1 classes of welding. Where possible an
trii i.in should be asked to connect a low reading volt
meter across the arc so thai tin eoltagi ma In read
while the operator is welding. The coll metei should
read from 15 to 18 volts while the are is in open
The greatest amount of beat is obtained on the work
whin the electrode holde is negative. This is the
proper connection for both metal and carbon electrode
While the arc is in operation there will be a circular
pot oi molten metal upon the work. The operator
should concentrate bis attention upon the sun- of this
molten spot i i metal which is in the direction of
motion of the electrode This may also be described
a- the forward edge of the circular spot. Tin
should be directed on this point, since it is at this
poinl that tin greatest amount of heat is desirable. //
in/ elei trii weld only win
/ from the welding iWn is
l-'iy. 147. Horizontal, Vertical and Overhead S
"'in"!- i ; ' ii i i 11 linn minim mi
inn ■ ' ...i.
iiWHi : ■ - "' . m mil
TEN LESSONS IN ARC WELDING
mil iiihiiiiiiihiiiiiuii iiiiiiin [nun
throicn into molten metal on the piece being welded.
If the globule of metal drops on metal which is not
molten it may stick but it will not be welded. The
operator should study the action of the metal in the
heat of the arc very carefully. The operator should
begin to realize at this point that merely holding an
arc is not necessarily welding but that the art of weld-
ing is ninety per cent brain work and ten per cent
2. Place the horizontal sample of welding in posi-
tion on the welding table. Put a ,<Y' electrode under
each plate in a position parallel to the beveled edges
and ibout _■" from the lower edge of the bevel. This
will raise the beveled edges higher than the square
and give the -ample a ridge through the center.
The object of this practice is to allow for the warping
of the plates by the heating of the arc. After the
sample is welded it should be straight with the two
plates squarelj in line. Place the edges l s of an inch
apart all the w,<\ across. Tack the pieces together as
shown in Fig. 146. Now with 14(1 amperes and a 3V
electro. le. weld one layer in the bottom of the bevel
in about 3" sections. B\ this is meant that the operator
should weld three inches, skip three inches, weld three
inches, skip, etc., until he has gone all of the way across
the plate, then go across the plate again, filling the
three-inch gaps. This is to minimize the effect of the
heating. The plate will then be welded with one layer
all the way across. The operator must manipulate the
arc in such a manner as to weld the lower edges of the
plate completely together, 1. c., the metal from the
electrode must run clear through the plates and be
firtnh welded >n the edges. The operator should then
take hammer and chisel and clean the oxide from the
surface of the welded metal very thoroughly. The
second layer may now he welded into the bevel start-
ing at one end and finishing at the other end. This
layer should lie thin and should not extend higher
than the upper surface of the plates. Chip oxide from
surface of welded material and put the third and fin-
ishing layer on the weld. The third layer should ex-
tend about o. of an inch beyond the edge of the bevel
on each plate, and ' s " above the upper plate surfaces
The plate should now he turned over and a re-enforce
ment of equal width anil thickness put on the other
side. The purpose of this practice is to make the sec-
tion of the weld equal on both sides of a center line
through the metal of the plate. If the weld were re-
enforced on one side and not on the other the stress
would be concentrated on the side which was not re-en-
forced when the weld is put in tension
3. The two plates should be tacked together as in
first exercise but in this case the beveled edges are to
be set vertical, as shown in Fig. 148. The weld is
to he made according to a definite pattern start-
ing at the bottom and finishing at the top. This
pattern is triangular. The operator should start on
the right hand plate at a point of about ;';■. of an
inch to tht right of the beveled edge, holding the
welding wire as nearly perpendicular as possihle to the
surface being welded. The movement should be along
the beveled edge of the right hand plate toward the
farther edge, then along the beveled edge of the left
hand plate toward the nearer edge, extending to a
point 1% of an inch to the left of the bevel on the left
hand plate, then across to the starting point. Five-
thirty-second electrode with about 125 amperes is to
he used. The operator must pay particular attention
to see that the farther edges of the plates are securely
welded together \ considerable amount of metal
should he run through the edges to make this certain.
4. For the sample of overhead welding, the plates
may he tacked together as shown previousl} except
that the opening should be approximately ', of an
inch. The two plates are to he welded in the overhead
position after they have been tacked. Several pieces oi
plate ' s of an inch thick, l'j" wide and 6" long are
to be cut, and a ■.'_■" electrode should he stuck on ex-
treme edge of one of the corners so that the electrode
stands out perpendicular to the piece. The purpose oi
the electrode is to serve as a handle. This A" piece
is to he pushed through quarter inch opening between
the plates front the under side and to he brought
into position so that it wall form a backing for
'.he weld. Fig. 147 shows the position of this
plate. After the plate has been placed in position
it may be tacked. The Use of this plate makes the
overhead welding somewhat easier than welding with-
out its use. Si. hi the overhead weld at the center of
the job and weld toward one end. A definite pattern
should he followed. Start at the lower edge of the
right hand plate at a point ,;. of an inch to the right
of the bevel. Continue along the beveled edge of the
right hand plate up to the backing plate, across the
backing plate and down the beveled edge of the left
hand plate to a point ; of an inch to the left of the
bevel. This will form the first head. Xou start the
second bead at the beveled edge of the right hand
plate and on top of the first head, and till in. as far
as possihle, the opening formed by the beveled edges of
the plates. A third head will he required to complete
this operation. The operator now litis two surfaces
to weld on, the surface formed by the welding ma-
terial, which should he approximately vertical, .and the
surfaces of the plates to he welded". Idle pattern of
the first pad should he followed out from this point
on welding at the junction of the previous!} welded
material, and the surface- of the plates being welded
together so far as tins is possihle. This make; thi
weld more a vertical weld than an overhead weld and
considerabl} simplifies the operation. The operator
should use about 150 amperes to start with, cutting
it down to 125 or less a s the [date warms up. Having
completed one end of the weld in this manner the other
end may be welded in exactly the same way. It will
be found that the backing plate will warp and tend to
get out of contact with tin- beveled plates. This will
not interfere with the welding and will enable the
operator to re-enforce the weld 011 the top side, which
is verv desirable.
. lill'll! Ill
mum miiutii i: ii
TEX LESSONS IN ARC WELDING
Thin Plate Welding
This exercise is to give the operator some experience
on thin plate welding. The difficulties encountered in
thin plate welding are comparatively simple of solution,
and the operator is lett to use his own resources I" a
considerable extent in making the sample. The great
difficulty in welding thin plate arises from tin tendencj
of the arc to burn through the thin plate owing to the
great intensity of heat. Practically all thin plate is
covered with a heavy scale of blue oxide, and it is
necessary to get this oxide cleaned off in order to
make a good weld. This may be done with hammer
and chisel or a sand blast The operator has already
found that it is neces ave clean metal in
to make a good weld. The quickest and best wa> of
getting clean metal is to sandblast the surfaces to be
welded. This applies to metal of all thicknesses. The
reason blue oxide gives tin operator trouble is that it
is a verj | i conductor of electricity, and it is hard
to get the arc started on an oxide-covered surface and
also that the oxide gets into the metal of the weld
Material required: One piece of 24"x30" sheet steel
approximately fa ot an inch in thickness i .node
with ''II to HKt amperes.
1. The operator should study the drawing i
duced i ippi >site i f ig. 151 i and lay out the pieces to be cut
mi order to make the sand blast pot shown. This will
leave some scrap material around the edges which
should lie cut with a hack saw into pieces approximated
_'"x4". The operator should practice welding these
scrap pieces In laying them down on the welding table
and welding a straight seam. One sample should also
lie welded with the two pieces perpendicular to each
other as shown in accompanying cut. (Fig. 149.) Ap-
proximately two hours should be spent on this practice.
_'. The op( i ati ii should iv »
cut the plates necessary to form
the -and blast pot and weld them
together. It is suggested that the
heads be made smaller than the
shell so that the) fit on the inside.
They should set hack from tin
of the shell about ' ,". ( hie
small hole should be burned
i at the location of one of
the fittings in order to allow tin
heated air to escape while the
welding is being done. The fitting
can he put on the sand Mast pi it at
some later tune b) the operator [,-;„ 14 ,,
This exercise is in the nature of a test of the ability
of the operator to make a solid homogeneous weld
which is properlj and thoroughl) done. A great null)
electric welds are subjected to steam or watei pressure
and unless they arc properly ni.uk the) will show leaks.
and will fail at a point below the pressure for which
they were designed It is very important that the op
eratoi should know when he is making weld.
If he does not know this Ins work is entirely worth-
less, He is as i r a workman as the jeweler who
must smash an expensive watch in order to find out
how it was made \ skillful operator, who has a
reasonable degree of judgment and intelligence, knows
when he is making a good weld. If he has made a
section of a weld which is not good, he should eithei
cut that section out and reweld it or inform the man
responsible fur the job of the fact that a particular
section is faulty. A man who will lie to himself in
regard to the quality of his work, will he to the man
wdto is responsible for its quality, and is worse than
worthless as a skilled operatoi
Material required: (hie 18" section of 8" wrought
iron pipe or seamless steel tubing, two
plate heads to fit mi tin inside of the pipe or tube.
These heads should be beveled 45 degrees on the cir-
cumference, o puces ,,i 1" black wrought iron pipe 6"
long, one puce of m" or 1" pipe according to the size
watei pipe used in the shop where the welding is done.
This pipe is to be connected to the water system so
that the completed sample may be tested under pres-
sure. Six holes are to be drilled at intervals of 2"
into the 8" pipe to take the six 1" pipes. One hole is
to be cut to take the V or 1" pipe.
1. The heads are to he welded into tl i
shown in the accompanying cut. (Fig. 150.) The op-
erator must be careful to hold a short arc and so far as
possible keep the electrode perpendicular to the surface
being welded. The surfaces which are to be welded must
an and tin oxide must he removed from each
layer of metal before the next layer is welded, h> the
use of sand blast or hammer and chisel. The 1" pipes
are spaced close enough together so that .some diffi-
culty will he experienced in making a good weld be-
tween pipes. This is done purposel) because it is a
difficulty frequently encountered in pi. nine The up
erator should mark with chalk the spots where he
believes, owing r • ■ the manner in which he welded the
sample, that the leaks will occur Weld the ends of
the -ix 1" pipes shut.
2. The operator should connect the sample to the
Haln system of the shop and test it fur leakage i It is
advisable to pour the sample full of water before the
connection is made so that it will be entirely tilled with
water when under pressure. I If leak- are found the
operator should cut out that part of the weld, examini
the weld and find if possible the cause ,i the leak.
The defective spots should be rew elded and the test
m i i mum i J I ; i : c : h 1 1 1 r ■ 1 1 1 1 1 : j mum „ jiiii : minium" iiiiiumilii : mi i
i i : i mm
TEN LESSONS IN ARC WELDING
'llllimilllHllllMllll ■ ^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ c e ■■ 1 1 1 1 ■ .' ■ - ■ i i r . 1 1 1 1 1 ■ :,.,
ii. mi in nun ' i mum i mil
NORSE Z TAPER
% PIPE NIPPLE
- d Blast Pot Made by Arc Welding.
■ mill Hi". 1 ■ II Minimi! 'i mi: mm' !
■ muim ! mi mi mi n - :
TEN LESSONS IN ARC WELDING
mi mini "I 1 I nun
The object of this exercise is i - give the opcratoi
in idi Few "I tin manj different kinds of ap-
plications of thi proce \ gn it deal depends upon
ieral t's natural n Iness in planning a
job One of the difficulties is in knowing how l
about i that it maj be di 'tie u ith tin
ire highl\ skilled tl
is. the easier will be tin waj which he chooses to pel
form the operation, This involves careful planning ol
irted. Tl ■ ■• who
(Mini- a he is going I
the job will have little success in doing it. V has
in welding depends
the usi rain than upon the use
I In- - - .In mid In- able to l
- ,i i ei tain job and explain tin
■ - dn ilu- job in that particul;
Mati i ial i * quii '-'1 ' me i i\ eti d
Fig. I ' 153
not conform I
ilei plate, and tacl
-ilu of a lap joint. I In liould
then I" -it up in the vertii
xvi Idi underside of the lap, similar t<
Tins operation should be repeated until the
Mr • gi H .1 weld and the fillet has a ui
uld i ali ulate 1 1
i if fi - - rk he can do. 1 his work
eld i mly oni form
Hit 14m to 150 amperi The
.Mi and e>
2. Witl in the
sin mill i\
i t| ljj" it
\ f t e r 8 " l 1 o f t h e s e c i r i
liould cle; tin -m tin -in
.-mil v. around the tirst bead This
similar to that oi welding iround the
i tne i 't these circles sin iuld be cut
tin.- ,' mined to see that it has been properly
i -.-,-, nul bead is fused thoi
plate and t' i the tirst bead This is an opei
which must ' on ntghl\ mastei ed hi fore pri >c< -
si consist* oi welding two pieces oi
■ without beveling. If possible two
pieces oi ' thickness boiler plate should be obtained
for the exercise. Each edgi which is to be welded
should be set in a horizontal position and a bead
welded along the center of the plate. The second
bead should then be welded in top of the first, remo\
lie oxide from the first before the second is ap
plied. When both edge are thus prepared and put
her the operator will have what amounts to
beveled edges to weld together, but it will be neces-
sar\ to weld from both sides in order to complete tin*
job. One weld ol this nature should be made and cut
I the operator maj examine it to sec that fusion
has taken place mi the entire weld.
is the one shown in the cut
152 1 and consists ol w elding the caulking
riveted joint and welding around the rivet
head. The method of welding the caulking edge has
plained. In welding around tin
rivet head it is advisable to heat the rivet before weld-
ead Witl the plate in a \ ertical
the caulking edge i . draw an at c
"ii the head of the first rivet, allowing the metal from
tin- electrode to fall clear of the rivet head. Tins
should be continued for about two ninutes or until
I ' ■ I Iflllll I
-: nn 'in. >'
iiiiitiiiniiiiiiiiii .' i [iiiiiiimiiiiiiinii
TEN LESSONS IN ARC WELDING
the rivet is thoroughly heated, then the fillet should be
welded around the rivet. The operator should then
skip two rivets and repeat the operation on the fourth
The idea of skipping rivets is to keep the heat
distributed so that contraction in the metal will nol
set up shearing stresses in the rivets. By following
the above practice a very tight joint will result when
the metal of the rivets and plates cools. The result is
similar to the result obtained by putting in a hot rivet
and peening ii over. When such a rivet cools it con-
tracts and pulls the plates tightly together. The op
erator may turn the sample over and repeat the opera-
tion on the nther side, perfecting it if possible.
5. The exercise of welding an angle iron section is
one which illustrates a type of job which is quite com-
mon. The angle may he cut from a straight angle
section ami the triangular shape cut out with a hack
saw. The triangle is cut out so that the angle may-
be bent at right angles. The tip of the triangular.
however, must he cut square oft in order to allow a
right angle to be bent without the edges coming en
tirely together. The distance between the edges after
the angle has been benl through 90 degrees should be
equal to the thickness of the angle. The operator may
then bridge cross the i w o edges from one side allowing
as little metal to drop down between the edges as pos-
sible. Then the angle should be turned over and the
space between the edges completely filled b\ welding
in one or more layers.
Flue If eld in a
This exercise deals with the welding oi lines into
the due sheet of a boiler This work is encountered
in fire tube hollers of all kinds. The operation re-
quires ;i considerable amount of skill in handling the
arc. A preparation of the flue sheet for welding in
actual practice is usually what makes the job a su
or failure. In practice the proper way of preparing a
line sheet for welding is to put the hues in exactly as
if they were not to he welded Idle boiler should
then be fired at least once to allow the tubes to take
their permanent set, [Tie line sheet should then be
sand blasted to dean the surfaces to he welded. If
no s.md blast is available the pneumatic tool should
he used to knock the oxide off the surfaces, after
which the surfaces should he thoroughly brushed with
a wire brush, then the welding may lie done. If the
work is prepared in this manner and properly welded
the results will he uniformly successful.
Material required: Section of _." boiler plate with
four 1" flues rolled in as shown in cut; s" electrode
with 11.1(1 amperes should he used.
1. Set the sample as shown in the photograph. Use
head shield and hold the electrode holder in both hands
as shown in the cut. The first flue at the top should
be welded starting at the point shown in the cut and
welding one-half wa\ around, moving from right to
left. Then the other one-half wadded starting at the
original point and moving downward to the left. The
second flue should then be welded starting at the bot-
tom and welding in two halves so that they meet at the
top. The operator may then weld the other two tines
by either of the two methods illustrated, depending
upon which the operator likes the better. One of the
lines should then be sawed in half to show the quality
of the workmanship.
mini en wiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiimiimiiiiiiimiiiiiniiiiimiiinmiii
TEN LESSONS IN ARC WELDING
II elding Steel Castings with Carbon Arc
Thi~ exercise illustrates the kind of work dune in a
steel foundry and in certain n hops. The car-
bon arc is used in the same manner as the tl.-.mc of an
oxy-acetylene torch. From .->i » ■ to 600 amperes are
required for carbon electrode work of this nature.
The operator must use both I therefon
shield is required The carbon electrode holder
is held in the right hand and the welding i id if held
in the left hand Carbon electrode welding is usually
considered easier than metal electrode welding but
there is considerable skill required to handle a .
Material required: One small steel casting(Fig 1 55 1
carbon electrode holder, carbon electrode '/' in di-
ameter sharpened to a point
welding capacity in I iere unit is not available,
two ISO-ampere units maj be connected i:
1. For preliminat c practice tin 1 ' use
the 300 unpen carbon are and cut into small pieces
several pieces i i. For this \\ > irk the
arc should he held approximately a quarter
long. After the operator lias pi . .
this wi Tk to be able ti i make a cl
determined line, he should try welding
d boiler plate si rap usii d the
d to till in with. It will
cult to control the arc ami lead it in any di
2. If . " carbon electrodes are available one should
be sharpened and placed in the metal electrode holder
and some cutting of " plate done using 150 amperes
1'hi rator should be able to cut a straight, clean
cut upon completing this exercise.
3. Using the riveted sample which was used in
ii VII the operator should use the 300 amperes
carbon are to cut out a section of the upper plati
tween two rivets. To perform this operation the plate
should he set up in the same position in which it was
welded s, , thai when the metal is melted by the carhop
arc it can run down out of the cut. The sample should
then later be welded flush, using the metal electrode
process. After working with the carbon are and before
working with the metallic arc on this job it will be
xide i iff tlii' siirfaei '
lion arc forms a very thick coating
4. This exen with the correction of a flaw
m the steel casting due to a sand spot. This .1
■ii th" steel casting is caused by the crumbling of the
ry to burn the sand spi i| ■ iul with
are and till in new material from the weld-
ere is no sand spot on the casting avail-
able ii will be sufficient for the iperator to heat spol
ximately r " in diatnetei to the molten state, then
quickly break the are and strike the molten metal a
alow with a ball-pein hammer. If tin- operator
ei ition on a sand spot he would
■ most of tin- sand by the heat of the
harp Mow with the hammer throws the
of the weld. The next
the defect with new material
The operation must he per-
possible, otherwise the metal
added ...- nil as the metal of the easting in the vicinity
weld will he ruined hy the extreme heat. The
Quid be ined ' short pieces of the weld-
tould he melted and
puddled in the proper place. In case the arc breaks
during aid he started again on
•h.t is net molten and the arc brought over into
Liickly. If the arc is started bj
touching the molten metal with the carbon elect!
is very likely that the weld will be hard owing to the
n from the electrode has gotten into
the weld. \~ soon as the added material has been
weld the arc must he broken. There
is alw. dency on tin part of a beginner to play
the are too long completed weld in an attempt
ih finished appearance; thi=
• in burning of the metal. In steel casting work
a! hard spots two points must he observed: (1>
isl I i done around the point at
which the weld is 10 Si made with the arc so that it
u ill not ' too fuddenly. (2> The carbon
electrode must not lie brought in contact with the
molten metal a- explained he:
Tin- opei iuld he p si i
by the operator until ! < can pi iduci a weld which is
. to him.
and si ag
■ II) as
.i..i !■ mi' ■■..:
'i iiiiniiii; :;ii ii i
TEN LESSONS IN ARC WELDING
: iillllillllllllllll niiiiimiiiii
Cast Iron Welding
The purpose of this exercise is to give the operator
an idea of what can be accomplished with the electric
arc on cast iron. The operator will frequently hear
amazing statements as to what some particular operator
has done along the line of welding cast iron but it is
a fact that there are only a few commercial applica-
tions of the process in the welding of cast iron. The
difficulty in welding cast iron with the electric arc is
not due to the fact that the metal cannot be properly
fused, but is due to the fact that the sudden intense heat
of the arc over ? local area results in the production of
a hard weld and the introduction of contraction stresses
which often result in cracking. Using the carbon
welding process, cast iron welding rods may be fused
into a cast iron piece. Using the metal electrode
process and a soft iron or steel electrode, it is impos-
sible to make a reliable weld between the added ma-
terial and the cast iron. Using the metal electrode
process certain work can be done by the introduction
of steel studs in the cast iron pieces to be welded to-
gether so that a certain amount of strength is obtained
by the bond formed between the steel studs by the
Material required: 300 amperes welding capacity.
ft" cast iron welding rod. One small gray iron cast-
ing ( Fig. 156).
A small gray iron casting should be broken and the
edges beveled, using the carbon arc for cutting. The
pieces should then be placed in a carbon mold so that
the molten iron when it is added will not run away
from the joint. This is illustrated in Fig. 156. The
carbon arc should be used to preheat the casting.
It is not necessary to heat the piece to a red
heat. The carbon arc and cast iron welding rod
should then lie used to fuse tlie added material to the
piece. As in Lesson IX, care should be exercised not to
play the arc upon the weld any longer than is neces-
sar\ to -ue complete fusion. In case the metal gets
too hot and runs badly the arc must be broken and an
interval of time allowed for it to cool slightly to
eliminate the trouble. After the weld is completed the
piece should be wrapped up securely in asbestos paper
and allowed to cool slowly for 6 or 8 hours (larger
pieces require from IS to 24 hours to cool). As an
alternative to wrapping in asbestos paper, the piece
may be covered in previously heated slacked lime.
The idea of the lime is the same as the asbestos, to
cool the casting slowly. If the work is properly pre-
heated and welded rapidly and very slowly cooled the
material in the weld will be as readily machineable as
the balance of the piece. No flux of any kind is re-
quired, although borax may be used.
fhese motors are noted for the extreme rug-
gedness and simplicity of their construction.
They are insulated with a special compound
which resists the destructive action of dust, dirt,
chemical fumes, water, heal and cold.
i in account of these features the\ arc particu-
larly suitable for operating in foundries, steel
mills, chemical plants, cotton mills, brick and tile
plant-, ship-yards and other places where the
working conditions are exceptional^ severe.
Standard voltages II 11 to 2300 \< 'It-.
I Uglier voltages can he obtained on special order.
Phases- Two and three phase alternating cur-
( yclcs 01 /' ' equal I M I, 10, , ; i I and ( ii •
c\ cles per seci md. < >ther
to 500 H. 1'.
Temperature Ratings Lincoln Motors are
guaranteed to operate at a temperature rise of
not over 40 degrees ( . on continuous full load
and 5? degrees C. on a 25'i overload for two
Ci uaraiitce I .mo >ln Motoi ai anteed
tor a period of six months against all defect- of
material or workmanship and we agree to replace
free of charge f. o. b. Cleveland, parts which
prove defective within that time, providing the
detective part is returned to us in Cleveland.
charm-- prepaid, and that inspection proves the
rices and n application.
ithout damage to '1" winclinj
i i of tin reliability of Un<
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016 091 716 7