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ELECTRICITY up to DATE 



LIGHT, POWER, AND TRACTION 



BV 



JOHN B. VERITY 



M. INST. E.E. 




LONDON 
FREDERICK WARNE AND CO. 

AND NEW YORK 
1896 



E>v^H00%.^4 



(ThM. . J xowViAxi-*?- 



PREFACE 

TO THE FIFTH EDITION. 

AS some 20,000 copies of this little work have now fonnd 
^ their way into circulation, the Author has reason 
to hope that it meets the demand for a popular book on 
a subject of increasing general interest. 

In the present Edition the work has once more been 
enlarged, and many illustrations have been added, while, 
to justify its title, the contents have again been revised. 

Since the chapter on Electro-therapeutics was added, 
attention has been called in a public manner to the 
extravagant nature of the virtues claimed for Electro- 
pathic Belts. Still, the value of Electricity in the treat- 
ment of disease cannot be over-estimated, but it must be 
at the hands of only duly qualified medical scientists. 

Electricity has already done much to alter the whole 
condition of our daily life, and in the chapter on Electric 
Cooking and Heating it will be seen how admirably it 
lends itself to improved methods of cooking our food and 
warming our houses. 

J. B. V. 

31 King Street, 

CovBNT Garden, London, 

January 1896. 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER I. 
Blbotbioity and How it is Pboduoed. 

PAOB 

Early knowledge of Electricity— Vitreous and Resinous or Posi- 
tive and Negative Electricity — Its abstract nature not yet 
determined — The Conservation of Energy — Electricity pro- 
daced by Friction, by Chemical Action, by Heat, by 
Indaction 1-18 

CHAPTER II. 

The Dynamo and How it is Driven. ' 

The principle of the Dynamo — The Magneto-Machine — The 
Electro-magnet — The Continuous Current Dynamo — The 
Alternate Current and the Multiphase Current Dynamos — 
Action of the different Currents — Famous Inventors— Motive 
Power : the turbine, water-wheel, steam-engine, gas-engine, 
and oil-engine 14-28 

CHAPTER III. 

Blbctbic Lighting by Arc Lamps. 

The Electric Arc — The Electric Furnace — Arc lamps and their 
principle — The Jablochkofif candle — The colour and candle- 
power of the Arc light — Its suitableness for Photography — 
Street lighting— The Suez Canal traffic — The Arc lamp for 
Street lighting 29-89 

CHAPTER IV. 

Electric Lighting by the Incandescent Lamp. 

Early experiments — Edison's Invention — Swan— Description of 
the Ediswan Incandescent Lamp — Hygienic advantages of 
incandescent Electric lighting — Cheap lamps often ineffi- 
cient — " Sunbeam " lamps 40-61 

7ii 



VUl CONTENTS 

CHAPTER V. 
The Storage of Electricity. 

PAGES 

The discovery of the Accumulator by Faure and Plants — The 
distinction between Primary and Secondary Batteries — 
Description of the Accumulator and the Principle of its 
Action — Mistaken notion of Accumulators sometimes enter- 
tained 62-59 

CHAPTER VI. 

The Wiring op a House. 

Importance of good work — Conductors and Insulators — The 
insulation of Electric wires and cables — Casings — The 
Arrangement of Electric Circuits — " Earth " and " Short- 
Circuits"— The Safety-fuse— The Switch— The Wall Attach- 
ment— Lamp-holders — The "P.I." system— Costs of Wiring 
— Fire Insurance notes 60-75 

CHAPTER VII. 

The Arrangement and Working op a Private Installation. 

Cases in which Private Installations are to be recommended — The 
Choice of Engine and Engine-room— A Model Engine-room 
— The Addition of Accumulators — The Engine-room Atten- 
dant — Hints for working a Private Installation . , 76-83 

CHAPTER VIII. 

The Public Supply op Electricity. 

Mr. Edison first in the field— The Electric Lighting Acts of 1882 
and 1888 — Electrical Pressure— The Volt — Supply by Low 
Pressure Direct, and the Three-wire System — Low Pressure 
with Accumulators — Supply by Medium and High Pressure 
Systems — The Alternate Current Transformer — The Con- 
tinuous Current Transformer or Motor-Generator . . 84-96 

CHAPTER IX. 

The Public Supply Companies. 

Provisional Orders Granted by the Board of Trade — Discretion 
exercised in granting applications — The London Public 
Electric Supply Companies 97-109 



CONTENTS IX 



CHAPTER X. 

PAGES 

The Provincial Electric Supply Companies .... 110-134 

CHAPTER XI. 

Tbansmission op Power by Electbicity. 

The Transformation of Energy — The Transmission of Power: 
Mechanical, Hydraulic, Pneumatic, Electrical — The Electric- 
Motor — The advantages of Electrical Transmission of 
Power 136-142 

CHAPTER XIL 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The Public Supply of Electric Energy for Power— Great progress 
in America — The Electric- Motor for Factory work — For 
Mines and Collieries — For Ventilation work and other pur- 
poses 143-151 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Electric Traction. 

Tramways worked by horses, cables, steam, and Electric-Motors 
— Accumulator Systems — Conductor Systems — Electric 
Railways — Lightning Express Trains — Canal Traffic — Tel- 
pherage or Electric Transportation — Electric Omnibuses 
and Tricycles — Electric Launches, Torpedoes, and Sub- 
marine Boats 162-167 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Board of Trade Charges for Public Supply. 
Electric Lighting v. Gas. 

Official Inquiry re Electric Lighting — The Board of Trade Unit 
— Meters and their Accuracy— The arrangement of Lamps 
for obtaining the best effect — Erroneous views as to cost 
of Electric Light — Table of Costs for the supply of Elec- 
tricity when employed for different lighting purposes— The 
number of Electric Lamps at present in use in London . 168-179 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XV. 
Electeo-thebapeutics. Electrocution. 

PAoea 
Curative powers of Electricity — Electropathic Belts — The "Faith 
Cure" — Electricity rationally administered — The Milliam- 
p^re — Treatment by Continuous, Interrupted, and Alternat- 
ing Currents— Electric Baths — Electro-Surgical Apparatus 
— The Current that Kills — Electrocution ahumane metliod 180-191 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Electric Cooking and Heating. 

Heatiug eifects of Electricity — How the heat is conveyed — 
Electric Griddles and other apparatus— The Electric Oven 
— Electric Skewers — Automatic regulation of the heat — 
The Cookery Book of the future— Waste of heat in kitchen 
grates — Economical application of heat by Electric 
methods 192-209 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Electrical Engineering as a Calling, and Glossary of 
Electrical Terms. 

Electrical Engineering regarded as an unworked lode — A 
" Decided Taste " for Electricity — The necessity for a good 
mechanical training — Electrical Engineering already over- 
crowded—List of Electrical Journals and Books . . 210-214 

Glossary op Electrical Terms 215-221 

Phcenix Fire Office Rules 222-232 

Index 233-238 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Liverpool Overhead Railway Car Frontispiece 

PAOK 

Positive and Negative Dust Figures 6 

Magneto- Electric Machine 15 

The Edison-Hopkinson Continuous Current Dynamo ... 17 

The Elwell-Parker Alternate Current Dynamo . . . .19 

The Victor Turbine 24 

Oil Engine and Dynamo for Electric Lighting .... 27 

The Electric Arc 30 

The Novel Arrangement of Carbons for Electric Arc ... 34 

The Brockie-Pell Arc Lamp 35 

Indirect Illumination by Arc Lamps .'.... 38 

The Ediswan Lamp and Switch-socket 44 

Special Forms of Incandescent Lamps 48-49 

Surgical Incandescent Lamp 50 

The Electrical Power Storage Company's Accumulator CeUs . 55 

Pocket Electric Accumulator 58 

Electric Cycle Lamp and Accumulator . 59 

« Electric Hand Lamp and Accumulator ...... 59 

Section of Casing showing Wires 64 

Joint in Conductors 66 

** Tumbler " Switch with Cover removed 70 

" Shoe " and Plug for Portable Lamp 71 

Plan of Installation for 150 Lights 78 

xi 



Xli LIST OF ILLUSTllATIONS 

. PAGE 

The Writer's 50-light Plant 80 

The Transformer 90 

Map showing Districts of various London Electric Supply Co.'s . 96 

The Electric-Motor , . . .138 

Continuous Current Electric-Motor 139 

Electric Mangle ' . . 144 

Electric Butter Churn 144 

Electric Motor and Pump 145 

Mining Tramways, Light, and Ventilation worked by Electricity 149 

Electric Motor and Fan 150 

Overhead Conductor System 156 

Electric " Plow " attached to bottom of Tramcar .... 158 

Section of Underground Conduit "Plow" System . 158 

Telpherage 165 

Electric Griddle .197 

Electric Coifee-heater ......... 197 

Electric Kettle 197 

Electric Curling Irons . . 198 

Electric Foot-Warmer 198 

Electric Shaving-Pot 198 

Ornamental Electric Radiator .199 

Electric Warming Stove or Radiator . , . . . . 200 

Electric Cigar Lighter 201 

Ornamental Kettle and Hot Plate 202 



ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



FOR 



LIGHT, POWER, AND TRACTION. 

CHAPTER I. 
ELECTRICITY AND HOW IT IS PRODUCED. 

ALTHOUGH the study of Electricity has only been 
developed within the last century, there is no doubt 
that its existence was known to the civilised world of 
2000 years ago. It may well be, that Electricity was the 
magic of the Ancients, and that Tullus Hostilius, who, 
according to the Roman myth, incurred the wrath of Jove 
for practising magical arts and was struck dead with a 
thunderbolt, may have met a more prosaic end through 
receiving a fatal shock while experimenting with a high- 
pressure current. Whether the ancient mysteries of the 
Egyptians, and the magic arts practised by the wise men 
of the East, were due to their knowledge of Electric 
phenomena or not, must remain conjectural; but it is 
certain that modem scientists would be deemed by our 
forefathers, wizards and sorcerers in league with the Evil 
One. 

The wider range of ideas which a more intimate know- 
ledge of physical science has brought about, enables the 
magic of the telegraph, telephone, and phonograph to be 



2 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

accepted without hesitation, although a century or so ago 
such realities were almost unthinkable. In the same way 
many of the higher phenemeAA Associated with ethereal 
vibrations, of which we at present know little or nothing, 
reveal bewildering possibilities of transmitting thought, 
light, and colour, which many now would regard as in- 
conceivable. 

At the present time it seems difficult to understand 
how the acute thinkers of Ancient Greece did not chance 
upon some of the simple inventions that have revolu- 
tionised modem life, so in years to come it will be won- 
dered why a scientific generation like the present appeared 
to wilfully shut their eyes to other wonderful and equally 
simple discoveries. 

Never before has the knowledge of the few so rapidly 
become the knowledge of the many. In the Middle Ages, 
philosophers and wise men shut themselves oS. from a 
world ignorant and incapable of realising the conception 
of thinkers in advance of their age. Thus science, exor- 
cised by the priests and menaced by the unlettered, slum- 
bered on through the ages. Of what nvail was it that 
Pliny in 77 a.d. had described the Electrical properties of 
amber? that the early Chinese, 121 A.D., were acquainted 
with the directing properties of the magnet ? Science for 
several centuries was under the ban of the Church, and it 
was only those phantoms, the Philosopher's Stone and the 
Elixir of life, that induced the alchemists to brave it. 

Now how all has changed. More and more of the time 
in our schools and colleges is being absorbed by scientific 
teaching. No sooner has some research been accomplished, 
some discovery or new application of principle been made, 
than through the pages of the scientific journals it becomes 
the property of the many, and an advance all along the 
line is made. The student of to-day thus starts equipped 



BLECTMCITy AND HOW IT IS PRODUCED 3 

with all the knowledge of the past. Assisted by works 
of reference, directed by the leading scientists of the 
day, he is enabled to eadly undertake investigations, any 
one of which would have been a life's work some few 
years ago. 

To those — and there are many — who view this rapid 
progress with disquiet it may give some comfort to recall 
the beneficial results of such changes in the past, and 
how by railways, steamships, telegraphs, and hundreds of 
other useful applications of scientific knowledge, our lives 
have been rendered happier and more enjoyable. The 
practical man of the past, so-called because he worked 
with his hands, is a thousand times more practical to- 
day, when his manual labour is controlled by his head. 
Technical schools for artisans and the spread of education 
must inevitably tend to hasten the advent of further bene- 
ficial changes, and in whatever direction those may be. 
Electricity is certain to be a leading agent. 

Gleams of future progress shine forth from time to time 
at the meetings of our scientific societies, or through the 
columns of the technical papers. An expectant world is 
ready to receive the invention by which the letter telegraph 
shall convey our actual writing as the telephone conveys 
our speech, and is awaiting the instrument by which our 
speech shall be conveyed to a distance without any con- 
necting wire. The advance is ever forward, until the 
marvellous doings in the Eastern stories will become 
everyday events. 

Magic after all is but the art of producing wonderful 
results by the hidden forces of Nature. What was the 
magic of yesterday becomes the commonplace of to-day, 
and so great is the leavening influence of scientific truth, 
that, as higher conceptions of the material universe are 
anfolded, our mental development unconsciously respond? 



4 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

and accepts the most complex of natural phenomena as 
simple and obvions facts. 

Thales of Miletus (b.c. 600), one of the seven Sages of 
Greece, is the first who refers in his writings to the power 
amber possesses, when rubbed, of attracting small bodies. 
It is thus from the Greek word, elektron amber j that the word 
Electricity has been derived. Without further evidence, 
it must be assumed that the knowledge of the Ancients 
was confined to the fact that amber, when rubbed with silk 
or other soft material, becomes capable of attracting smaU 
particles of pith or any light non-conducting substances. 

History does not record any further knowledge of the 
science until about the year 1590, when Dr. Gilbert, whose 
position as private physician to Queen Elizabeth gained 
him the favour and means of carrying out his scientific 
experiments, made a series of further discoveries. He 
found that glass, sulphur, and other bodies as well as amber 
could be Electrified by friction, that the production of 
Electricity was effected by moisture, and that heated bodies 
lost all Electricity. 

Little advance was made during the next hundred and 
fifty years, until a French scientist, Du Fay, found that 
Electricity was of two different kinds. His investigations 
showed that the Electrical effect produced by rubbing glass 
which he termed vitreous Electricity, repelled a pith ball 
which was attracted by the Electrical effect of rubbing 
resin or amber, and which he termed resinotos Electricity. 
The common terms of Electrical science have since grown 
up from these older theories, vitreous and resinous being 
now known as positive and negative Electricity. 

These ideas later found further support by the dis- 
covery that dust, as shown in the illustration, assumed 
different shapes when shaken out from a muslin bag over 
BurfaC'CS positively or negatively charged by Electricity. 



ELECTRICITY AND HOW IT IS PRODUCED 



5 



The interest thus awakened in Electrical phenomena 
also caused more attention to be given to apparatus for 
conveniently rubbing glass, sulphur, and other such bodies 
until the Frictional Machine enabled Electrical effects to 
be produced on a larger scale. Since that time it has 
been found that Electricity may be obtained in other 
ways, and the science has been so far developed that 
Electricity is now as completely under man's control as 




POSITIVE DUST FIQURB. 



NEQATIVB DUST FIGURE. 



steam, while its action may be governed and its results 
predicted with an equal degree of accuracy. 

The nature of Electricity in all its innumerable aspects 
has still to be investigated. What is Electricity? may 
be termed the question of the physical worid at the 
present time, and its determination will long continue to 
be of absorbing interest to all great scientists. 

In that fascinating work, "Modern Views of Elec- 
tricity," Professor Oliver Lodge expounds the doctrine of 
the ethereal nature of Electricity as it is now understood 
by the leading thinkers. He divides the whole subject of 
Electricity into four great branches : — 

1. Electricity at rest, or Static Electricity. This 



6 BLECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

embraces all the phenomena capable of being set np in 
insulating, or what are often called non-condncting, bodies 
by the neighbourhood of Electric charges. 

2. Electricity in locomotion, or Current Electricity, 
which includes the modes of setting Electricity in motion, 
or what is generally .termed producing Electricity, the 
laws of its flow and the effects produced by its passage 
through conductors. 

3. Electricity in rotation, or Magnetism, which treats 
of the phenomena belonging to Electricity in whirling or 
vortex motion and the various properties of what is 
usually termed Magnetism ; and 

4. Electricity in vibration, or Radiation, wherein is 
shown the identity of Electrical vibrations with light and 
colour and the multitude of phenomena studied for a long 
time under the heading of " Light." 

These pages will only be concerned with the second of 
these four great divisions. Electricity in locomotion, or 
Cwrrent Electricity^ and as such it may best be defined as 
a form of Energy. By the word Energy is understood 
the power of doing work — ^no matter by what means the 
work may be done ; and just as heat, mechanical power, 
chemical action, &a, are forms of energy, so is Current 
Electricity. 

It has been pointed out that Electricity is not some 
recently discovered addition, to man's power of doing 
work in the world, but another mode of utilising energy 
that already exists, and a mode which in many in- 
stances presents distinct advantages over the use of 
other forms. 

When energy in any one form seems to disappear, it is 
really only changed into some other form. Thus, when 
the ancient philosophers rubbed pieces of amber and silk 
together, they simply expended potential energy of the 



ELECTRICITY Alfc HOW IT IS PRODUCED J 

body, and which reiyppeared in the form of Electric 
Energy. The foundation Of this principle, known as 
"The Conservation of Energy," one of the grandest of 
known physical laws, was laid down by Newton, and it 
was afterwards shown by Jonle that the disappearance of 
a given amount of one kind of energy always gives rise to 
the appearance of a perfectly definite amount of energy 
in another form. 

To obtain Electricity, therefore, energy in some other 
form must be expended, whether it be the energy of 
chemical combustion as in a battery, or the potential 
energy of coal used in the mechanical working of dynamo 
machines. 

There may be said to be four methods of obtaining or 
exciting a flow of Electricity — ^in other words, of pro- 
ducing it : — 

1. By friction, as in the Prictional Machine. 

2. By chemical action, as in Primary Batteries. 

3. By heat, as in the Thermo-Pile. 

4. By magnetic induction, as in the Dynamo. 

Atmospheric Electricity, so well known in the form of 
lightning, is produced by one or more of the above-named 
means, some attributing it to chemical action and heat, 
others to the friction of clouds passing over one another. 
But although Franklin, with his experimental kite, was 
able to obtain Electricity from the clouds, its causation 
is not so readily determinable. 

Assuming, therefore, that Electricity for present pur- 
poses must be generated by one or other of the four 
methods mentioned, it is desirable to carefully consider 
each one separately. 



8 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

By Friction. 

Electricity is produced from the frictional machine by 
expending energy in the form of mecha- 

^-^™ nical power, and, as already pointed out, 
this method is the outcome of the dis- 
covery made by the ancient Greeks. 

At first the Electrical effects were obtained by rubbing 
the various substances with the hand, but the result thus 
produced was very small indeed. The earliest form of 
frictional machine was a sulphur ball, which could be spun 
on an axle, but in later forms of apparatus a glass plate 
was employed, with rubbers held in position by springs. 
On revolving this machine the glass became positively 
charged, while an equal quantity of negative Electricity 
is produced on the rubbers. 

Electricity can be collected oflf these frictional machines 
so long as the glass plate is rotated, and many interesting 
experiments are performed with them. The modifications 
that such apparatus have more recently undergone, as well 
as descriptions of the Leyden Jar for collecting charges 
of Electricity, the Electrophorous, &c., are to be found 
in all students' manuals of Electricity. 

The frictional method of producing Electricity, however, 
will never be of much service. The current that can be 
obtained is but small, while the moisture of the air often 
causes experiments with them to fail. 

By Chemical Action. 

It was towards the close of the last century that Galvani 
and Volta made their important experi- 

B tt^te nients, which resulted in Electricity being 

produced by chemical means. Hence, 

currents excited in this way are often called Voltaic or 

Oalvamc Electricity. 



ELECTRICITY AND HOW IT IS PRODUCED 9 

The convulsive contraction of a frog's leg when acci- 
dentally in contact with a f notional machine was first 
noticed by Dr. Galvani, a celebrated anatomist of Bologna. 
As the apparatus was not in use, he was led by his inves- 
tigations to the view (published in his " Eesearches," 
1791) that the effects were due to Animal Electricity. 
In the following year Volta, a professor of natural philo- 
sophy at Pavia, opposed this idea, and laid down the 
opposite theory, that the effects were rather caused by 
some Electric force produced through contact with the 
metals themselves. Poverty and ill -health prevented 
Galvani from following up his discoveries, but Volta, after 
a long series of experiments, was able to obtain Electricity 
by means of chemical action between metals, and finally 
he invented the Voltaic Pile. This apparatus, which he 
described in a communication to the Royal Institution in 
1800, consists of metal discs of zinc and copper immersed 
in acidulated water. On connecting the metals externally 
by a wire. Electric currents can be obtained, and in its 
various modifications, this is what is now known as a 
Primary Battery. 

Since the time of Volta innumerable batteries have 
been invented, as their construction is capable of almost 
indefinite variation. In the first place, any combination 
of two different metals may (theoretically) be used ; then, 
again, the solution in which they are immersed may con- 
sist of almost any acid or salt ; nor are we confined to one 
chemical, for in many batteries there are practically two 
solutions totally distinct in character, one being separated 
from the other by a porous partition. With restrictions 
so undefined, and so extensive a scope for variation, it is 
by no means surprising that numbers of different types of 
batteries exist. 

For telegraph work, telephones, electric bells, &c.. 



lO ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

where the pressure and quantity pf Electricity required is 
but small, primary batteries will always be most service- 
able. But for Electric lighting or any purpose for which 
a large amount of Electric Energy is required, it is im- 
possible for any primary battery, no matter how efficient 
for small work, to be used with any degree of success. 
The idea is, however, so fascinating (especially for com- 
pany promotion) of obtaining even a few Electric lights 
for a country house by means of chemicals, that new 
primary batteries are continually making their appearance. 
Even in our most important journals wonderful accounts 
have been published from time to time of some new 
combination at last triumphing over all difficulties, and 
public belief in them is artificially maintained in this 
way. 

As many are thus induced to believe that important 
discoveries may be going on behind the scenes, it is 
desirable to point out a few of the many reasons why 
primary batteries, although useful for some purposes, are 
not serviceable for Electric lighting. 

In the first place, chemical action necessarily implies a 
using up of the elements in the battery, and as this takes 
place the currents given ofiF become gradually weaker. 
Where the currents required are small or are only used 
occasionally this causes little inconvenience, but when the 
chemical action is a rapid and continuous one, the effect 
is soon noticeable. Now, it is essential for Electric light- 
ing that an even flow of Electricity should be maintained, 
otherwise the incandescent lamps at first glowing brightly 
will gradually become dim, until at last nothing remains 
of the light but a dull, red glow. 

Again, a single cell produces such a very small pressure 
of Electricity that a large number of them would be 
required to supply even a few Electric lamps, and to keep 



ELBCTRIOiry AND HOW IT IS PRODUCED II 

SO many cells in good order and properly charged with 
the requisite chemicals, constant and careful attention 
would be needed. 

Finally, it is as well to point out that the Energy 
acquired from all primary batteries, no matter of what 
type, must necessarily be obtained by the destruction of 
some element, usually zinc. As Electricity is generated 
the zinc is consumed, and has to be continually renewed. 
The cost of fresh supplies of zinc would be very great for 
a large number of batteries, where, as for Electric lighting* 
the chemical action is a rapid one. The price of a pound 
of zinc is. twenty times as much as the price of a pound of 
coal, and if the full equivalent in the form of energy could 
be obtained from each, coal would yield six times as great 
a result. 

Prom the foregoing it will be seen that the primary 
battery can only be effectively employed when small or 
intermittent currents of Electricity are used. Although 
admirably suited for working telegraph instruments, elec- 
tric bells, telephones, &c., some other means must be 
sought for economically and conveniently generating 
Electricity on a larger scale, suitable for lighting and 
power purposes. 



By Heat — Thermal. 

The possibility of producing Electricity by the direct 
application of heat was first demonstrated 
Thermo-Pile. ^^ Seebeck, in Berlin, in 1821. The ap- 
paratus thus formed is termed a Thermo- 
Pile. From the fact that the pressure of the current is 
proportional to the difference of temperature of the heated 
metals, the Thermo-Pile becomes of great service for 
measuring all minute differences of temperature. Thermo- 



r2 BLECTRIOITY UP TO DATE 

Piles, however, as at present constructed, easily get out 
of order and break down, while as yet no thermal com- 
bination is practicable by which Electric currents can be 
produced on a scale large enough for light or power. 

To produce Thermal Electric currents, the ends of two 
strips of different metals are connected or soldered to- 
gether, and heated where they join. When their free ends 
are connected by a wire. Electric currents will continue to 
pass through the wire as long as the heat is maintained. 
Electricity can thus be produced by the combination of 
many substances; bismuth and antimony give the best 
results, but owing to their cost, iron and German silver are 
more commonly employed. 

Although much has been learned of the principles under- 
lying these Thermo Electric phenomena, very little other 
progress has been made, as there are many difficulties in the 
way of producing currents of any magnitude by them. The 
subject has the earnest attention of Mr. Edison and other 
eminent scientists, and it is generally considered that 
sooner or later a great development of Thermal Electricity 
will take place. It is conceivable that by its means a 
method might be devised for producing Electricity on a 
small scale far cheaper than is obtainable from small 
dynamos. Electricity produced by the dynamo — at pre- 
sent the most economical mode — is at the expense of a 
double conversion of Energy, for though it is directly 
obtained at the expense of the mechanical power which 
the steam-engine exerts on the dynamo, that mechanical 
power was originally obtained from heat applied to the 
boiler. So that if Electricity can be produced from heat 
applied direct, the services of the middle agent — ^mecha- 
nical power — will be dispensed with, and an economy 
eflFected. 



BLECTRIOITY AND HOW IT 18 PRODUCED 1 3 

By Induction. 

The dynamo is the sonrce with which Electricity has 

.^ ^ been principally associated of late years, 

The Dynamo. , ./ \^ J^ j j -x i u 

and if ever it be superseded it can only be 

by an advance in our knowledge entitled to rank as a 
great scientific discovery. 

The currents produced by its means are scientifically 
known as Inductional Electricity, since they are mag- 
netically induced. But as the dynamo affords the most 
economical means of producing Electricity for light, 
power, or traction, and will probably long continue to 
do so, it is proposed to reserve a separate chapter to its 
description and method of working. 



14 BLECTRICrrY UP TO DATE 



CHAPTER IL 
THE DYNAMO, AND HOW IT IS DRIVEN. 

WHILE experimenting with a primary battery 
current in 1831, Faraday discovered the dose 
relationship of Electricity and Magnetism — a discovery 
which led to the invention of the dynamo. He showed as 
the result of his experimenting, that when a coil of insu- 
lated wire is revolved between the poles of a magnet, Electric 
currents are excited or " induced " in the coil of wire. 

A dynamo is merely a machine in which such a coil 
of wire, termed an armature, is revolved by mechanical 
means, between the poles of one or more magnets. 

After Faraday had found by his experiments that 
Magneto- Electricity could be obtained from magnets, 

Electric it was not long before the construction 

Machines. q£ ^ ^^^ form of electric generator was 

attempted. Pixii of Paris in 1832 first succeeded in 
doing this practically, and historic interest attaches to his 
machine, as, although rough and imperfect, it carried gut 
the essential principle of the discovery. The apparatus 
was termed a Magneto-Electric Machine, and was the 
forerunner of many similar devices. 

In all such Magneto-Electric Machines the electric 
currents were developed in the armature by means of 
magnetism provided by permanent steel magnets, and 
the accompanying diagram shows an armature. A, be- 
tween the north and south poles of such a magnet, M, M. 



THE DYNAMO, AND HOW IT IS DRIVEN 



IS 



In these early eflforts there was no attempt to make the 
machine excite its own magnetism, and it was not until 
some years after, that the use of electro-magnets in place 
of permanent magnets paved the way for the suggestion 
of the present self-exciting dynamo. 




In the dynamo the magnet employed is not the ordi- 
Dynamo ^^.ry horse-shoe or jpermanent steel magnet^ 

Electric but an electro-magnet. This is formed by 

Machines. sending an Electric current through a coil of 

insulated wire encircling a piece of ordinary soft iron, which 
is thus rendered temporarily magnetic. Such a magnet 
has similar properties to the ordinary steel magnet, but its 
magnetism, although not permanent, can be rendered more 
intense. On account of this and other specific advantages, 
it is always now used in preference to a permanent magnet, 
and machines so made are termed Dynamos. 



1 6 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

At first, as in the combined machine constructed by 
Wilde in 1867, a small magneto-electric machine was 
constructed to supply Electricity for the electro-magnets 
of the larger machines. Further experimental work, how- 
ever, showed that the electro-magnets could be made to 
magnetise themselves, and the dynamo thus made self- 
exciting. The method by which this result is obtained 
can best be understood by explaining the action of the 
machine more fully. 

When the armature revolves between the two poles 
of the electro-magnet. Electricity becomes magnetically 
induced in the wires forming the armature. Until this 
is revolved no Electric current is produced, but immedi- 
ately it is put in motion the slight amount of residual 
magnetism which exists in all soft iron causes the electro- 
magnets to excite an Electric current, at first very small, 
in the coils of the armature. This current is collected 
by the brushes, and allowed to pass through the coils 
encircling the soft iron electro-magnets. The latter 
straightway become electro-magnetic, and each turn of 
the armature increases the electro-magnetic power, until, 
in a very short time, the normal strength is reached. All 
further current then produced, with the exception of a 
fractional quantity to maintain the electro-magnet, passes 
into the cables and is available for use. 

The action of the dynamo has often been compared with 
that of the water-pump, where, by setting the plunger 
in motion, a flow of water is caused in the water-pipes, 
and in the same way, by rotating the armature of the 
dynamo, a flow of Electricity is excited in the conducting 
wires. 

The amount and strength of the Electric currents gene- 
rated are almost exactly proportional to the amount of 
power expended in revolving the armature, and in this 



THE DYNAMO, AND HOW IT IS DRIVEN 



17 



respect the dynamo may be considered as an apparatus _for 
converting mechanical power into Electrical Energy. 
The accompanying illustration shows the well-known 




Edison-Hopkinson continuous current dynamo, which may 
Continuous ^® taken as a good representative type. By 
Current comparing the illustration with the diagram 

Dynamos. Qf ^he magneto machine, the relative ar- 
rangements of the armature A, A, and, in this instance. 



1 8 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

t he electro- magnet M, M, will be seen. The latter consists 
of two columns of soft iron encircled by coils of insulated 
copper wire, and which are iinited together at the top by 
M I, a heavy yoke of iron, thus together forming a magnet 
of the so-called horse-shoe shape. Between the ends or 
poles of this magnet revolves the armature A, A, which 
consists of a number of coils of insulated wire wound round 
an iron core. The ends of each coil are connected to copper 
strips or bars placed side by side forming a cylinder known 
as the Commutator 0, from which the current is collected. 
Two sets of so-called brushes or collectors, B, B, are fixed 
upon the rocker D, an attachment which remains stationary 
unless it is necessary to adjust the position of the brushes. 
Attached to these brushes (one set being positive and the 
other negative) are E, E, cables conveying the current gene- 
rated to the switch at top, by means of which connection 
can be made with the main supply cables ; F, P shows the 
attachments by which current is conveyed to the electro- 
magnet, and G is the pulley attached to the armature shaft, 
which is thus revolved by the driving belt from the engine. 

Those who desire to clearly understand how it is that 
the action of revolving an armature between the poles of 
a magnet (in other words, of moving a wire so as to cut 
magnetic lines of force) generates a current of Electricity, 
cannot do better than consult Professor Silvanus Thomp- 
son's work on Dynamo Electric Machinery. The prin- 
ciples and construction of the dynamo are here clearly and 
exhaustively set forth, and a description given of all the 
principal machines that have hitherto been designed. 

There is as great a scope for variety of type in the 
Alternate dynamo as there is in the primary battery, 

Cuxrent but existing types of dynamos may be 

Dynamos. roughly divided into those which furnish 
Continuous and those which furnish Alternate currents. 



THE DYNAMO, AND HOW IT IS DRIVEN 



T9 



Many difficulties occur in the construction of continuous 
current dynamos to excite currents of over 2000 volts 
pressure (volt the unit of pressure), and when high-pressure 
currents are desired (see pages 21 and 91) dynamos con- 




THB ELWELL-PABKBB ALTERNATE CURRENT DYNAMO. 

structed to excite what are called alternating currents are 
especially jiseful. Alternate currents are produced in 
practically the same way as continuous currents, but the 
dynamo is constructed with a number of magnets so con- 



20 KLECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

nected up as to generate waves of current, first in one 
direction and then in the opposite, the alternations or 
waves taking place many thousands of times in a minute* 
So rapid in fact are they that the current generated is 
practically a steady and continuous flow. 

In the Elwell-Parker alternate current dynamo shown 
in the illustration there are eighteen magnets. The 
waves of current excited in the armature coils as they 
rotate are thus varied or alternated from positive to nega- 
tive, every time they spin by the north and south pole of 
each of the eighteen magnets. There are thus thirty-six 
alternations every revolution, and as the machine revolves 
at a speed of three hundred and fifty revolutions per 
minute, 36 x 350 = 12,600 are the waves or alternations 
of the Electric currents generated by such a dynamo. 

An '* Alternation " is said to occur each time the current 
waves from the north to the south pole of the magnet, or 
from the south to the north, so that the complete change 
requires two alternations, and this is termed the "Fre- 
quency" of change, or sometimes the "Periodicity" of 
the current, there being so many periods of complete 
change per minute. 

The "Periodicity" or "Frequency" of an alternating 
current is thus always half the number of the alternations. 

Among the quite recent developments of the dynamo 
Multiphase i^B,ye been the use of multiphase alternate 
Current currents, which for transmission of power 

Dynamos. purposes especially have been shown to be 
of very considerable value, while their possibilities in 
other respects are only now being explored. (See 
page 141.) 

In a machine constructed for two-phase or three-phase 
(multiphase) currents, the armature coils are so arranged 
in two or three separate circuits that as they spin by, 



THE DYNAMO, AND HOW IT IS DRIVKN ^ 21 

magnetic waves of cnrrent are successively excited in each 
coil. Thus in a two-phase current, the crest of the posi- 
tive wave may be said to be at its height when the crest 
of the negative wave in the other phase is in the same 
position at the same moment. 

The currents thus generated, whether two-phase or 
multiphase, are thus independent of and yet correlated to 
each other, and as the alternations occur several thousand 
times a minute, the Electric currents, as far as visible 
effects are concerned, form one steady and even flow of 
Electricity. 

Multiphase current dynamos are constructed with a 
number of magnets similar to the simple alternate current 
dynamo, in fact certain alternate current machines, by 
winding in another series of armature coils between those 
at present used, can be readily arranged to excite two- 
phase currents. 

It has been pointed out that the three classes of cur- 
Action of rents may be illustrated by the action of a 
Different magnetic needle surrounded by the conduct- 
Currents, uig circuit. With a continuous current the 
needle assumes . fixed position, with an alternating 
current it swings from side to side, with a multiphase 
current it rotates on its axis. 

Alternating or multiphase currents can be increased in 
pressure by what are called " step up " transformers, by 
which currents are transformed up from low pressure to 
high, or from a high pressure of say 5000 volts, up to 
extra high pressure of say 20,000 volts. Such " step up" 
transformers have converse action to the usual transformer 
described on page 90, by which high pressure currents 
are reduced to low pressure. 

It is thus seen that by means of the dynamo, currents 
of any desired magnitude and of almost any desired pres- 



22 KLECTRICITY DP TO DATE 

snre can be efl&ciently generated, and that for whatever 
purpose dynamos may now be required, they can be 
scientifically constructed on well-defined lines. Ninety- 
six per cent, efficiency has been obtained, and consider- 
ing that a small amount of power must always be lost in 
working any machine, it is not likely that the theoretical 
maximum will be further approached. • 

Many well-known names are associated with the evolu- 
tion and development of the dynamo, and will be handed 
down to future generations of scientists as pioneers among 
Electrical inventors. After Faraday may be mentioned 
Siemens, Gramme, Edison, and Hopkinson, all of whom 
have done great service in bringing the dynamo to its 
present state of perfection, while Ferranti, Kapp, and 
Parker are mainly responsible for the present alternate 
current machine. 

Motive Power. 

The question is often asked, why is a steam-engine 
necessary for working a dynamo? and the reply is, that 
properly speaking the dynamo is only an agent for con- 
verting mechanical power into Electrical Energy. 

It has already been shown that some energy must be 
expended in producing Electricity, and the dynamo is 
really only the intermediary. It does not in itself con- 
tain the power of producing electricity like a primary 
battery in which the zinc in the battery is consumed, but 
as in the thermo-pile heat has to be applied, and as in the 
frictional machine mechanical power is used for turning 
it, so until mechanical power is expended in revolving the 
dynamo armature no Electricity can be generated. 

If Electricity is to be reliably and steadily generated by 
means of the dynamo, the arrangements for revolving the 



THE DYKAMO, AND HOW IT IS DRIVEN 2^ 

armature— or, as it is termed, driving the dynamo— must 
be of first consideration. Indeed tlie failures in connec- 
tion with Electric lighting have arisen not, as a rule, 
from the dynamo which has only one moving part, and is 
not liable to get out of order, but rather from defective 
arrangements in connection with the motive power. 

The motive power employed must therefore be steady 
and constant. 

Although many efforts have been made to utilise the 
windmill as a source of power for driving 
small dynamos, so far they have not met 
with material success. Professor Blyth recently described 
a new form of windmill he had constructed on the American 
plan with a number of arms and blades of sheet-iron, and 
which had so far given gratifying results. He suggested 
that such an arrangement might be made serviceable for 
lighthouses, which are always in exposed situations, where 
wind is plentiful, and where a supply of coal for generating 
the Electric light could only be sent with difficulty. 

A dynamo worked in this way by wind might be 
arranged to charge sets of accumulators, so that with 
adequate storage capacity a constant supply of Electri- 
city could be depended upon. Lighthouses would then 
be dependent on nothing but the energy of the fierce 
winds surrounding them to furnish the light to warn 
the seamen from the rocks. 

Where water power is available, the cost of producing 

,^ ^ ^ Electrictity is reduced to a minimum. The 

^Xr ator Pow6r. 

' heaviest item in the maintenance of all 

engines is the cost of fuel, whether it be coal, gas, or 
oil. K, therefore, it is possible to replace fuel by falling 
water costing nothing, or only a small rental, the applica- 
tion of this power cannot be too highly commended. 
Even where water power is situated some distance off. 



24 



ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



and the cost of cable from the dynamo to the point of 
consumption may appear great, it should always be re- 
membered that after the erection of a turbine plant the 
only outlay to be considered is a small amount for attend- 
ance and depreciation. 

The annexed illustration shows a well-known and very 
efficient turbine, with its cover removed, which will give 
a general idea of the principle of water turbines. The 




THB VICTOR TURBINE. 



falling water forces its way through the chute-case. A, 
on to a screw-bladed wheel inside, which is thus revolved, 
and in turn imparts its movement to the shaft carrying 
the pulley wheel, C. The water after being used passes 
away by the tail-waste, B. The best manner to describe 
the action of a turbine is to compare it to that of the 
propeller of a steamship. But in the turbine the action 
is exactly opposite, as it is the water which moves, im- 
parting its power to the wheel of the turbine. 



THB DYNAMO, AND HOW IT IS DRIVEN 25 

In the United States, where water power is abundant, 
many forms of turbines are made, vying with each other 
in economy of water, simplicity of construction, regularity 
of speed, and the readiness with which they can be ad- 
justed to varying quantities of water. 

The old-fashioned water-wheel, too, is often used for 
dynamo driving, and is quite suitable for the work, 
although the turbine, from the more efficient results 
obtained, is of course preferable. 

Efforts are being made to utilise the energy of flowing 
water, and several forms of water motors have recently 
been experimented with. On such quick running streams 
as the Bhine or the Danube, excellent opportunities exist 
for obtaining power at present running to waste. 

Where natural power is out of the question, some form 
of engine must be employed, and the next 
p,^ . ' most economical method of driving a 

dynamo is by means of the steam-engine. 
The invention of steam as a motive power has caused 
such a revolution in industries of all kinds, and its advan- 
tages are now so thoroughly appreciated throughout the 
civilised world, that no words are needed here on this 
score. Suffice it to say that the extreme steadiness of the 
steam-engine, and the fact that steam is consumed only 
in proportion to the work done, enables Electricity to be 
produced by steam-driven dynamos on a commercial scale 
otherwise unattainable. 

The usual method of connecting the engine with the 
dynamo is by means of a belt from the engine fly-wheel to 
a pulley fixed on the dynamo armature spindle. 

With certain forms of steam-engines working at a high 
speed it becomes possible to couple them direct on to the 
armature of slow-running dynamos, thus doing away with 
any belting. Although the cost of such dynamos is greater, 



26 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

and the advocacy of high-speed engines by no means 
general, such a combination presents distinct advantages, 
such as economy of space, steadiness of running, &c., and 
most of the large Central Electric Supply stations are 
thus equipped. On shipboard the use of a combined 
engine and dynamo is very general. 

For small installations it is preferable to use a slow- 
working engine, driving the dynamo from a belt, as it is 
more suitable to unskilled attendants, while the first cost 
is considerably less. 

A variety of steam-engines, both vertical and horizontal, 
are now made by leading engine makers, where particular 
features desirable for dynamo driving, such as absence of 
parts requiring frequent adjustment, unvarying speed by 
automatic steam regulation, and so forth, are given special 
prominence. 

In cases, however, where a small amount of power is 

^ « . required for the dynamo, the ffas-enffine is 

Ghas-Engrines. «. - t . - ° , ° 

often found more satisfactory than steam. 

Though the gas consumed in a gas-engine may be more 
costly than the fuel consumed in working a steam-engine 
to produce the same amount of power, still a gas-engine 
needs no stoking, and only requires to be started and 
stopped, and occasionally oiled. These services can always 
be performed by some one about the place, as it requires 
no special knowledge. For dynamos, however, requiring 
a large amount of power, steam is in many respects more 
suitable, and has hitherto been regarded as the more 
economical method. Recently, however, much attention 
has been directed to certain forms of gas as an economi- 
cal power-producer, and the advent of large gas-engines 
competing with steam in economy and convenience for 
some purposes is certainly near at hand. 

Many are prejudiced against gas-engines on account of 



THE DYNAMO, AND HOW IT IS DRIVEN 



27 



the nuisance sometimes caused by noise and vibration. 
Troubles of tliis kind may be avoided if the engine be 
properly fixed upon solid foundations well isolated from 
the surrounding buildings, and attention paid to certain 
other points which experience has shown to be of impor- 
tance. Many important improvements have also been 
effected in gas-engines during the last two years, notably 




ENGINE AND DYNAMO FOR ELECTRIC LIGHTINQ. 



automatic gear for insuring regularity of speed under the 
varying loads caused by switching lights on and oflf, 
and gas-engines as now constructed may be considered a 
most efficient and economical motive power. 

Although oil-engines have only lately come into use, 

. they must not be overlooked as power- 

^^ * producers. In places where coal and gas 

are expensive, such engines merit consideration, and in 



28 BLECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

the illnstration a very compact arrangement of an oil- 
engine and dynamo is shown. 

Briefly stated, the motive-power is obtained from mineral 
oil, which, having been mixed with air. under pressure, is 
drawn into the cylinder and ignited usually by an Electric 
spark from a small ordinary battery supplied with the 
engine. 

As with small gas-engines the attention required is not 
great, for should the oil become exhausted the engine only 
ceases to run. 



ELECTRIC LIGHTING BY THE ARC LAMP 29 



CHAPTER III. 
ELECTRIC LIGHTING BY THE ARC LAMP. 

THERE are at present two methods of utilising Elec- 
tricity for lighting purposes, the Arc and the Incan- 
descent Lamp. 

In both systems light is obtained from carbon heated to 
a white glow by the passage of the Electric current, the 
carbon in the Incandescent Lamp consisting of a fine 
thread which forms a continuous path for the Electricity, 
while in the Arc Lamp the carbon is thick, and broken at 
a particular point across which the Electric sparks leap, 
producing a brilliantly luminous effect. 

Sir Humphry Davy, in 1800, mentions an experiment 
by which he then obtained sparks between two carbon 
points when connected up to a Voltaic Pile, and in 
1810 he showed the Arc Light for the first tima This 
historic event took place at the Royal Institution, and it 
was only by means of some 2000 voltaic cells of a crude 
type that current suflScient for the purpose could be ob- 
tained. In this experiment, Sir Humphry Davy made 
use of two pieces of charcoal wood, which, on being brought 
near each other and connected to the battery, produced so 
bright a spark that the charcoal became ignited to white- 
ness. On withdrawing the points up to a distance of 
four inches apart, the current continued to pass through 
the heated air between, showing a most brilliant arch or 
arc of light. The arched form thus taken by the luminous 



30 



ELECTKICITY UP TO DATE 



particles of carbon resulted from the upward rush of heated 
but the term "Electric Arch," or in its abbreviated 



air, 



form " Arc," is still retained as the name of the luminous 
space that is formed between the carbons. 

Great as recent experiments appear to be, they have 



IfiHW 



A ^ 



'^<^}.-.h.. 






THB ELBOIBIO ABO. 



only consisted in devising means for the better carrying 
out of Davys original experiment. The heavy cost and 
inconvenience of obtaining sufficient Electricity from a 
large number of voltaic cells, for a long time deprived the 



BLECTRIC LIGHTING BY THE ARC LAMP 3 1 

Electric Arc light of any valne as a means of illumination, 
and until the invention of the dynamo furnished powerful 
Electric currents at a comparatively moderate cost, it re- 
mained a laboratory experiment and nothing more. 

The luminous effect produced by the Electric arc is of 
an intensely brilliant nature. The points of the carbon 
rods become highly incandescent, and in addition the 
space between them is filled by a sort of flame or cloud of 
particles of white hot carbon. Of this dazzling mass of 
brilliancy some 85 per cent, of the light is emitted from 
the positive carbon, 10 per cent, from the negative carbon,, 
and 5 per cent, by the flame of the arc between the points. 

The heat, also, is so intense in the arc that the most 
refractory substances, such as platinum, sapphire, granite, 
&a, when introduced into it, fuse up and volatilise. On 
a large scale, it can be made use of as an Electrical fur- 
nace, and becomes the most powerful instrument yet 
known for chemical analysis, as mineral ores can be 
readily disassociated by its intense heat, and reduced to 
their elementary condition. 

The carbons forming the Electric arc, being exposed to 
air, gradually bum away. This is due to volatilisation in 
the case of the positive carbon, which is consumed with 
twice the rapidity of the negative, where the waste, which 
seems to be caused by mere combustion, is also retarded 
by particles from the positive becoming deposited on the 
negative carbon. In this way the negative becomes 
slightly pointed, and a crater-like hole forms on the end 
of the positive. As the carbons waste away, the arc 
lengthens, and were not the rods brought nearer together 
the Electric arc would cease, from the current being un- 
able to leap the intervening space. Should this occur, the 
arc can be again started by first bringing the rods into 
contact, and then drawing them a short distance apart. 



32 ELECTRICITY CJP TO DATE 

" Arc lamps " are devices for holding the carbon rods so 
that they are first brought into contact and drawn apart 
to establish or " strike " the arc and then " fed " together, 
either continuously or at short intervals, to prevent the 
distance between the points becoming too great. 

Various contrivances have been devised for automati- 
cally regulating the position of the two carbons. As early 
as 1847, a lamp was patented by Staite, in which the carbon 
rods were fed together by clockwork, the latter coming into 
gear whenever the current across the arc became reduced 
in strength on account of the lengthening of the distance 
between the carbons. Similar devices were produced by 
Foucault and others, but the first really successful arc 
lamp was Serrin's, patented in 1857, which has not only 
itself survived until the present day, but has had its main 
features reproduced in many other lamps.* 

Arc lamps can be worked by either continuous or 
alternating currents, and, in some instances, such as for 
the Jablochkoff candle, the alternating system has been of 
distinct advantage. It has been already pointed out that 
the positive carbon is consumed with twice the rapidity of 
the negative, but where alternating currents of Electricity 
are employed this is not the case, as each carbon in 
turn rapidly becomes positive and negative, so that both 

* No commercial use was found for the arc lamp until the year 1858, 
when the foundations of Westminster Bridge were being laid, and as the 
work could only be carried on at a low tide, it was necessary to work at 
night. A contemporary journal, in alluding to the fact, remarks : — ** To 
effect this an electric light equal in intensity to twenty-two argand jets, 
was produced on shore by an electro-galvanic apparatus. The light was 
about two hundred feet distant from a stage or platform on which a number 
of men were employed in pile-driving, and was augmented by the use of 
a pair of Ohappuis' reflectors. The light was rather flickering, but was 
sufficient for the purpose, being likened by the men to that of the full 
moon." This is probably the first instance of the Electric light being put 
to any practical oie. 



ELECTRIC LIGHTING BY THE ARC LAMP 33 

carbons are consumed in equal proportions. This has the 
result of diffusing the light more uniformly in all direc- 
tions, as the top, which is usually the positive carbon, no 
longer having a crater-like form, does not direct so many 
of the light rays downwards. It is found, however, in 
practice that for general purposes the continuous currents 
are undoubtedly to be preferred for the steady working of 
arc lamps. 

The development of the dynamo, a means of producing 
Electricity on a large scale economically, caused atten- 
tion to be again directed to the commercial value of arc 
lighting. The Jablochkoff system in 1876 was in this 
respect especially serviceable, as it brought Electric light 
before the public in the simplest form yet introduced. 

The Jablochkoff candle was devised to do away with the 
necessity of regulating the carbon by mechanism. In it 
the two carbons were placed side by side, separated by a 
thin strip of non-conducting material, thus uniting the 
pair of carbons into the form of a " candle." By using an 
alternating Electric current the carbons were uniformly 
consumed, the insulating material burning away at the 
same rate. Each candle lasted about 1| hours, and it was 
customary to fix four sets to each laipp. The Avenue de 
rOpera Paris in 1878, and later the Thames Embankment 
in London, were illuminated by their means. The light, 
however, is far more unsteady than with the ordinary I 
modem arc lamp, and the Jablochkoff candle is now never 
employed except, possibly, in some of the Indian palaces, ', 
where the simplicity of the lamp permits of its use in the 
harems, where skilled labour cannot be admitted. 

The attention that was directed to arc lighting, especi- 
aliy by the illumination of the Avenue de TOpera, resulted 
in the invention of a large number of arc lamps with 
varying methods for gripping the carbons and feeding 

C 



34 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

them towards one another as they became consumed. 
Brush, Siemens, and many others brought out lamps 
which did much to hasten a more extensive use of this 
system for lighting public thoroughfares and open spaces. 
Others again, departing from the generally adopted 
methods of placing the carbons, devised various ingenious 




THE NOVEL ABRANOEMBNT OF CARBONS FOR 
ELECTRIC ARC. 

contrivances by which carbon points might be brought 
together to form the Electric arc. None of these have 
survived, as the practice of the present day prefers the 
simpler methods. The illustration of the " Gerard" lamp, 
however, is interesting as showing the carbons brought 
together in the form of a pyramid, mechanism being 



ELECTRIC LIGHTING BY THE ARC LAMP 



35 



arranged at the top by which the carbons are all fed to- 
gether as they become burned up. 

The construction of an arc lamp does 
not require so much inventive capacity 
as ingenuity and good mechanical know- 
ledge, and all the improvements that 
have been made consist more in the 
simplification of the feeding and regu- 
lating arrangements than in any altera- 
tion of principle. 

To be thoroughly efficient an arc 
lamp must be self-adjusting in all 
respects, with the carbons regulated 
slowly by steady and continuous 
motion. 

As modem arc lamps vary but little 
in external appearance, the Brockie- 
Pell lamp shown in the illustration 
may be taken as a typical representa- 
tive. The adjusting mechanism is 
contained in the cylindrical box above, 
which is made damp-proof for out-door 
use. 

The chief object in any such lamp 
is to keep the light uniform in quan- 
tity. It would appear, however, that 
some fluctuation is inevitable from the 
irregularities in the structure of all 
carbon rods. 

The hissing, for instance, that is 
sometimes heard in arc lamps, is due 
to the use of carbons with too coarse 
a grain, or, again, to the arc or space 
between the carbons being too short. 



36 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

Too Ipng an arc, on the other hand, causes flaming and 
sputtering, which again may arise from impurities in the 
carbons. Although the steadiness of burning thus largely 
depends on the quality and homogeneity of the carbons 
used, there is little or no difference in the light-giving 
power of carbons of good quality. 

Several efforts have been made to improve the quality 
of the light by adding volatile substances and by intro- 
ducing gas through hollow carbons, but such experiments 
have not hitherto proved of much value. 

It is a difficult matter to accurately measure the amount 
of light given from an arc lamp, both from the fact of the 
rays not being uniformly emitted in all directions, and 
from such rays having little in common with those of a 
candle. The light given depends upon the amount of 
current used and the size of the carbons. Mr. A. P. 
Trotter, in a valuable paper recently contributed to the 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, not only dealt thoroughly 
with value of light given from the Electric arc, but also 
gave some indications of the experiments he is conducting 
in the manufacture of coloured glass shades, with a view 
of obtaining artificial illumination similar to that of real 
daylight. 

It has been pointed out that daylight in itself is an 
indefinite quality varying from the sunlight of the early 
morning to the uncertain tones of the midday sky, and 
while direct sunlight is yellowish, a dear blue sky gives a 
distinctly blue light. Many are accustomed to declare that 
the light given from the arc is a bluish light, whereas in 
the daytime, compared with the light given off from white 
clouds, it appears distinctly red. At night, on the other 
hand, the arc lamp naturally seems bluish as compared 
with the false standard of white light the eye has been 
attuned to, by the surrounding gas or candle illumination. 



BLECTMO LIGHTINa BY THE ARC LAMP yj 

These defects may perhaps be corrected by the use of 
tinted glasses, where certain rays given off from the arc 
are intercepted and the harsh white appearance given a 
more pleasing tinge, so that a light is reflected at all times 
pleasing to the eye. 

The lamps most generally used are 1000 to 2000 
nominal candle-power, but during the past year much 
progress has been made in devising arc lights of small 
candle-power. There are now two or three very serviceable 
and efficient lamps constructed to give a light of some 
200 candle-power, but the current used in working the 
regulating apparatus for the carbons is almost as much 
in these small lamps as in the far larger ones. Search 
lights of 10,000 candles and upwards are also manu- 
factured for lighthouses and naval purposea Ships fitted 
with arc lamps are now permitted to work through the 
Suez Canal at night, and a profitable business is done at 
Suez and Port Said by lending a complete apparatus to 
ehips not provided with them. 

Undoubtedly the proper sphere of the arc lamp is either 
out of doors or in buildings large enough to allow its rays 
to be dispersed without an unpleasantly dazzling effect. 
It is not suitable for reading-rooms from the slight fluctu- 
ations that occur from time to time, and the unpleasant 
effect the intense whiteness of the light has on the eye. 
The large amount of violet rays in the Electric arc make 
it especially serviceable for photographic purposes, while 
the vividness with which colours are brought out renders 
its use advantageous in weaving and calico printing mills. 

The method of arc lighting shown in the illustration 
(p. 38) attracted considerable attention at the Paris Ex- 
hibition of 1879, and it is rather surprising that this 
highly effective arrangement has not since been more 
often employed. The arc lamp is placed in a cylinder 



38 



ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



open at the top, and the light projected on to a large 
reflector. Any unpleasant effect of the arc light on the 
eye is in this way avoided, and the light given off from 
the whitened reflector is mellow and uniform. 

For street lighting, railway stations, &c., and where a 
general illumination is required over a large area, the arc 
light is admirably suited. In America, arc lighting is more 




INDIRECT ILLUMINATION BY ARC LAMPS. 



1 extensively employed than in this country, and the streets 
of almost every city and town of importance are there 
lighted by this means. 

The best effect for lighting broad thoroughfares is 
obtained by placing the arc lamp in the middle of the 
roadway. The St. Pancras Vestry have carried out the 
lighting of Tottenham Court Boad in this manner, and it 
has many advantages over tfce plan of arc lamps used 



ELECTRIC LIGHTING BT THE ARC LAMP 39 

alternately on either side of the roadway as with gas. 
For narrower thoroughfares, arc lamps could be suspended 
in the middle of the roadway by steel cables slung from 
each side of the street, and this plan» as carried out in 
many cities in the United States, presents a far from 
objectionable appearance. 

The diflSculty in the way of general street lighting has 
hitherto been the impossibility of obtaining efficient arc 
lamps of small candle-power suitable for lighting side 
streets. Again, as lights must not be fixed more than 
a certain space apart, especially in winding roads, a 100 
candle-power arc lamp would only replace some two or 
three gas lamps, each giving 12 candles of light. As much 
more light than this would be given by the arc, the cost 
is proportionately greater, and this, when applied to an 
area containing a large number of small streets, makes 
the cost for arc lighting at present much greater for 
general street lighting than the cost for gas. 



40 BLECTRICITT UP TO DATS 



CHAPTER IV. 
ELECTRIC LIGHTING BY THE INCANDESCENT LAMP, 

ELECTRIC lighting would never have achieved the 
popularity and success which it at present enjoys 
if it had been confined to the arc lamp. As a matter of 
fact, the arc light did much in the earlier days to render 
Electric lighting unpopular. People felt that so glaring a 
light could never displace the soft and mellow glow of gas 
or candles to which they were accustomed, and that un- 
less some form of Electric lamp could be devised to satis* 
f actorily replace these. Electricity would never be generally 
adopted for domestic lighting, 

The incandescent lamp, however, solved all the diffi- 
culties, and it may be best described as an arrangement 
by which a carbon filament is heated by Electricity to a 
white glow or incandescence. 

The resistance which any bad conductor offers to the 
passage of the Electric current produces heat, and when 
the substance is of high resisting power the intense heat 
causes the substance to glow and give forth light. If the 
process be continued a white heat is obtained, until finally 
the substance, being exposed to the air, is either melted 
or burned up. By enclosing it, however, in an air-tight 
globe, the vacuum surrounding the glowing substance 
prevents any combustion, and the substance is thus not 
consumed. 

All this was well known to scientists for many years, 



ELECTRIC LIGHTING BY THE INCANDESCENT LAMP 4 1 

and from tim« to time experiments were made with 
certain substances that would not readily melt or bum 
up. Platinum and carbon were found especially suitable. 
In 1845 a patent was taken out for the incandescence 
of carbon in a vacuum, and again in 1858 a lamp was 
patented where the illuminating current was sent through 
a glowing platinum spiral. The idea throughout these 
early inventions was to produce light by concentrating 
resistance to the passage of the Electric current at a given 
spot. 

Although in these laboratory experiments a perfectly 
steady light could be produced, much had to be done in 
other directions before any really successful result could 
be attained. As in the case of the earlier attempts with 
arc lighting, the means of obtaining electric currents were' 
limited to the Voltaic Battery, while the devices for ex- 
hausting the globes and producing a vacuum were still 
very primitive. 

The incandescent lamp, indeed, is another of many in- 
stances where inventions have been made possible by 
other and independent scientific work. The construction 
of dynamos enabled Electric currents to be eflSciently 
generated either on a large or small scale, while Professor 
Orookes by his researches on the vacuum, and Dr. Spren- 
gel by his development of the air-pump for producing a 
good vacuum, did much to assist the experiments on the 
present incandescent lamp being brought to a successful 
conclusion. 

It was in 1879 that the world was startled by the 
rumour that Edison had discovered the subdivision of 
the Electric light. Looking back now, it becomes difficult 
to appreciate all that this implied at the day when the 
only subdivision then known was that of the Jablochkoff 
system mentioned in the previous chapter. 



42 KLBCTRICITY UP TO DATE 

The abiqnitons newspaper correspondents had long had 
their curiosity aroused by wonderful doings at Menlo 
Park, where Mr. Edison at that day had his laboratory, 
and it was due to the indiscreet interviewer that the world 
was thus prematurely informed of the great work Mr. 
Edison was engaged on. A platinum wire was first used 
by Mr. Edison, who trod in the footsteps of the earlier 
experimenters doubtless in the hope of improving and 
perfecting their early attempts. Laboratory experiments, 
however, soon showed that the glowing platinum wire 
would not long withstand such high temperaturea No 
sooner was Edison aware of the defects of his Platinum 
Lamp than, taking up carbon, he with inexhaustible per- 
severance examined every carbon-producing substance, 
including Chinaman's hair, until finally he fixed upon 
strips of carbonised bamboo as the best filament for his 
lamp. Several experienced assistants were at once de- 
spatched to Japan and different parts of America in search 
of varieties of bamboo, while Edison himself was perfect- 
ing the processes, in the laboratory, by which the filament 
should be enclosed in an air-tight globe with a view of pre- 
venting combustion. At last, after much arduous work and 
many disheartening failures, the Edison Carbon Incandes- 
cent Lamp became a commercial reality. The writer has 
often heard him tell the tale of the excitement of these early 
days : how, when on the verge of success, some unforeseen 
catastrophe would destroy the work of days, and the whole 
process had to be repeated again and again until finally, as 
hour after hour went on and the experimental lamps still 
burned brightly, it was joyfully recognised that a filament 
had now been obtained that would last, and the tired 
workers could go back to their beds. 

Mr. Swan, of this country, had also been working on an 
incandescent lamp so early as i860, using a filament of 



ELECTRIC LIGHTINQ BY THE INCA^' DESCENT LAMP 43 

carbonised paper. Debarred then by the same difficultieB 
of obtaining a, good vacuum and an efficient supply of 
Electricity as others had experienced, he once again set 
to work in 1877, and succeeded in producing almost con- 
currently with Edison an efficient lamp with a filament of 
carbonised cotton. Other workers, too, were quickly fol- 
lowing in their footsteps, and Maxim, Siemen, and others 
invented lamps, all having the same general characteristics 
of a carbon filament heated in a vacuum by Electricity to 
a state of glowing incandescenca 

Such, shortly, is the history of the incandescent lamp, 
and although Mr. Edison was not the first man to produce 
an Incandescent Electric Lamp, he was undoubtedly the 
first who made one that was a practical and commercial 
success. 

Mr. Edison, however, was not content with inventing 
an incandescent lamp, but completed the whole system for 
the generation Mid distribution of Electricity in connection 
with it. This system, the completeness of which was 
characteristic of the man, comprised switches, safety 
fuses, key-lamp holders, swing brackets, and all the other 
appliances that the public had long been familiar with in 
the use of gas. When the Edison system was shown thus 
complete at the Paris Exhibition of 1880, it was at once 
recognised that the era of incandescent Electric lighting 
had arrived. 

In England the best features of both the Edison and Swan 
lamps have been utilised in the manufacture of the well- 
known "Ediswan" lamp. It consists of a glass bulb, 
from which the air has been extracted, rendering it as 
nearly as possible a perfect vacuum. Inside the bulb 
a carbon filament, F, is fixed, its two ends being con- 
nected to platinum wires passed through the glass when 
hot, and hermetically sealed. These two platinums are 



44 



ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



connected up, the one to the screwed brass band, B, the 
other, to the brass cap, A. A and B are kept apart by 

the plaster-of-Paris divi- 
sion, 0. The lamp is 
connected up by simply 
screwing it into a socket 
as shown, where there 
are corresponding sur- 
face contacts, to which 
the Electric supply wires 
are connected. 

The filament of the 
" Ediswan" lamp is made 
of carbonised cotton or 
thread, a modification of 
Mr. Swan's method, and 
which, in this country, 
is now considered pre- 
ferable to carbonised 
bamboo. The Electricity 
finding its way through 
the contact pieces, A and 
B, is expended in over- 
coming the resistance of 
the filament to its pass- 
age through it. In this 
process the filament is 
raised to a yellowish- 
white glow. Although 
intense heat is produced 
by the process and a 
bright light is given, the 
filament, being in an air-tight space, is not consumed, nor 
is any appreciable heat given forth from the globe. 




THE BDISWAN LAMP AND SWITCH 
SOCKET. 



ELECTRIC LIGHTING BY THE INCANDESCENT LAMP 45 

Every one is familiar with the pleasant, mellow light 
of the Ediswan lamp. It gives a brighter and clearer 
light than gas, but without the glare of the arc lamp. 
Enclosed in its little air-tight globe, it is impossible for 
good air to be consumed or bad air given off. The vital 
importance of this fact cannot be too fully appreciated. 
The harm done to health and property by gas and most 
other illuminants is well known, but the following figures, 
which have been often quoted elsewhere, deserve to appear 
in these pages : — 



SANITARY ADVANTAGES OF BLECTRIC LIGHT. 



Hsteriaf equal to 12 
Standard Candles. 


Cubic feet 

Oxygen 
Consumed. 


Cubic feet 

Air 
Consumed. 


Cubic feet 

Carbonic 

Acid 


Cubic feet 

Air 
Vitiated. 


Heat-lbs. 
of Water 
raised 10 

deg.Fahr. 


Cannel Gas 

Common Gas 

Sperm Oil . 

Benzole 

Para£Sn 

Sperm Candles . 

Tallow' ; ; 

Electric Light 


330 
6-46 
475 
4-46 
6-81 
7-67 
8-41 
12-00 
None. 


16-60 
17-26 
23-76 
22-30 
34-05 
37-85 
42-05 
6000 
None. 


2-01 
3-21 
3-33 
3-64 
4-60 
5-77 
5-90 
873 
None. 


217-50 
348-25 
366-75 
376-30 
484-05 
614-85 
632-25 
933 00 
None. 


195-0 
278-6 
233-5 
232-6 
861-9 
3517 
3831 
505-4 
13 8 



The above figures are taken from Dr. Meymott Tidy's well-known 
work on Modem Chemistry. 

It is almost unnecessary nowadays to detail the many 
advantages Electric light has in comparison with gas, oil, 
or other illuminants. The latter blacken ceilings and 
paintings, destroy decorations and books, and at the same 
time are always a source of danger from fire and explosion. 
The incandescent light has none of these disadvantages, 
and when a few ordinary precautions are taken all risk of 
fire is reduced to a minimum. The incandescent lamp 
cannot explode, flare up, or be blown out, and the mere 
fact that matches are dispensed with is in itself a great 



46 BILECTRICITY UP TO DATB 

safeguard. In the event of a lamp being accidentally 
broken when alight, the carbon is consumed on exposure 
to the air, and the light becomes at. once extinguished. 
All that is then required is a new lamp, which can be 
readily screwed into the socket by any one. 

Incandescent lamps are made to bum at different pres- 
sures or " voltage " (from the volt the unit of pressure), 
but few durable lamps are at present made capable of 
withstanding a higher pressure than 110 volts. It will 
be seen in Chapter VIII. what an important bearing this 
fact has on the distribution and supply of Electricity. 

The cost of incandescent lamps has hitherto formed a 
considerable item in Electric lighting, owing to the price 
charged by the Edison & Swan Company, who expended 
large sums in acquiring and maintaining the patent rights 
giving them the monopoly of manufacture. This monopoly 
has now terminated. What is known as the " Flashing " 
patent, by which the filament is rendered uniform in size 
and quality, expired on November 28, 1892, while the 
famous Edison master patent of November 10, 1879, which 
has been held by the English courts to cover all lamps 
consisting of an exhausted glass globe with leading-in 
wires and a carbon filament, ceased on November 10, 1893. 

The competition in the manufacture and sale of incan- 
descent lamps has already reduced the price to Is. 9d., 
and lamps in use on the Continent are being offered at 
considerably less than this. 

Cheap lamps are already coming over in shoals from 
abroad, and it is only experts who are in a position to say 
what lamps are good and can be used without infringing 
the various minor patents that the Edison & Swan Com- 
pany still hold. A few words of warning also against the 
indiscriminate purchase of incandescent lamps may not 
be out of place even now, as with free trade in incan,^ 



ELECTRIC UGHTING BY THE JNCANDESCENT LAMP 47 

descent lamps, rival manufacturers will for some time 
bewilder the unfortunate consumer with the merits of 
their respective manufactures. 

Much of the cost in making incandescent lamps arises 
from the process for thoroughly extracting the air, and if 
the vacuum of an incandescent lamp is at all faulty the 
lamp itself becomes e^rtremely hot. Again, the slightest 
flaw or irregularity in the filament materially affects the life 
and eflSciency of the lamp, so that the false economy of 
many of the cheap foreign lamps can be easily appreciated. 

Even with the best incandescent lamps there is a notice- , 
able decrease of candle-power after a more or less lengthy 
period of use. This is due not so much to the blackening 
film formed on the glass bulb* as to the change which takes 
place in the nature of the carbon filament itself. It has 
been shown by experiments on certain incandescent lamps 
of foreign manufacture, that this change and consequent 
falling off in the candle-power of the lamp frequently 
occurs at a very early stage of their life. 

An incandescent lamp which deteriorates thus rapidly, 
and while absorbing more Electric Energy gives out less 
light, is not a serviceable or economical lamp for the 
consumer. A lamp of low price will not by any means 
necessarily be a cheap lamp, as the gradual change in its 
candle-power might be such that it would be better to 
throw it away than to continue to bi^im it at a low efficiency. 

It will be found that a lamp of careful manufacture in 
which the efficiency is high, and the standard and quality 
of the light maintained towards the end of its life as at 
the beginning, is well worth an additional few pence. 

Although lower priced lamps will sensibly affect the 
cost of Electric lighting, the great improvement to be 

* Caused probably by the condensation of carbon vapour volatilised from 
the substance of the filament. 



48 



ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



looked for in this direction is a lamp which, with the 
qualities named above, will give the same light, although 
consuming a smaller amount of current, which, of course, 
means Electric light at a lower cost. Hitherto, many of 





SPECIAL FORMS OF INCANDESCENT LAMPS. 



the efforts to improve the economy of the lamp have 
resulted in shortening its life, and owing to the high price 
formerly charged, consumers naturallydesired that the lamp 
should last its full eight hundred or a thousand hours. 
With an incandescent lamp costing a shilling or so. 



ELECTRIC LIGHTING BY THE INCANDESCENT LAMP 49 

length of life will not be so much sought after as the 
desire to obtain as much light of a uniform quality as is 
possible with the smallest consumption of Electricity, 
even if the lamp last only four hundred hours. This will 
be far better for the consumer, as he will then perhaps 
get two 8 candle-power lights from the current now 
absorbed by one, and although the lamps themselves may 




SPECIAL FORM OP INCANDBSCBNT LAMP. 



last half the time, the cost of lamp renewals even then 
for double the number of lights throughout the year will 
be no greater than at present. In any case, the efifect of 
competition in the manufacture of incandescent lamps 
must be to make the Electric light a still more formidable 
opponent to gas than even at the present moment. 

The illustrations show special forms of incandescent 




50 BLECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

lamps made for decorative purposes, and a variety of 
elegantly shaped pearline and opalescent glow lamps may 
soon be expected. 

A type of lamp made by the Edison & Swan Company 
is also shown, where the fila- 
ment is projected forward in 
the bnlb, which is sometimes 
also made with a flat or oval 
side. For surgical purposes, or 
where it is desirable to have 
the source of light in a given 
plane or close to the point of 
application, there is no method 
equal to Electrical lighting, 
i^jjp which so admirably lends itself 

to every requirement. 
The incandescent lamps in general use are of 8 or 16 
candle-power, but lamps of 32 and 50 candle-power are 
made for use where a more powerful light is required. It 
may be taken as a general rule that the higher the candle- 
power of the lamp the more economical it is as regards 
consumption of current. Thus it is found that one 16 
candle-power lamp will not require quite so much current 
as two of 8 candle-power. On the other hand, of course, 
one large lamp does not distribute the light so well as a 
number of smaller ones. 

High candle-power incandescent lamps, often termed 
"Sunbeam" lamps, have recently come 

unbeam xn^ch into use, and bid fair to successfully 
Lamps. . 1 1. 1 i. « 1 

rival arc lights for some purposes. Such 

lamps are now made from 100 to 500 and even 1000 

candle-power. Their light is steadier and less dazzling 

than that of the arc, but the relatively large amount of 

Electric Energy they consume, and the expense of the 



ELECTRIC LIGHTING BT THE INCANDE8CENT LAMP 5 1 

lamp renewals (from 12s. upwards) have hitherto acted 
against their extensive use. 

Now that the protective barrier of patent rights has been 
broken away, the improvements in manufacture that com- 
petition is bringing about, together with the lower price 
of some 5s. for the lamp, will cause a rapid development 
in the use of high candle-power incandescent lights during 
the next year or so. 



52 BLECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



CHAPTER V. 
THE STORAGE OP ELECTRICITY. 

OF all facts relating to Electrical science, perhaps the 
greatest stumbling-block to the uninitiated is the 
conception of how such an almost incomprehensible 

, ^ force as Electricity can be stored away in 
AocumulatorB. , , , . , , , 

commonplace-looking glass or wooden boxes, 

and put aside on a shelf to be used when required. And 
yet, when the truth is explained, and this apparently in- 
explicable phenomenon is found to be entirely the result 
of simple chemical processes, the action of which can be 
accurately analysed and the causes accounted for with 
unerring certainty, the whole seems quite clear. 

Electricity is stored in what are called accumulator cells 
or secondary batteries. The principle upon which they 
work, discovered as long ago as the year 1859, by Gaston 
Plants, was not developed into anything like a practical 
form until 1881, when Sir William Thompson published a 
letter in the Times, announcing the receipt of " a mar- 
vellous box of Electricity " which had been sent to him in 
Glasgow from M. Faure in Paris. The host of "inventions" 
following on this publicity, although leaving consider- 
able scope for further improvements, helped to make the 
storage of Electricity a commercial reality, and accumu- 
lators are now, in many branches of Electrical work, 
almost indispensable. 

The accumulator is called a secondary battery, to dis- 



THE STORAGE OF BLECTBICITY 53 

tingnish it from the primary battery, the diflEerence being 
that whereas the latter produces current at the expense 
of its own elements, and continues to do so until those 
elements are exhausted, the accumulator, though not itself 
able to generate Electricity, has the power of storing tip 
for future use Electrical Energy produced from other 
sources. The elements of the accumulator do not con- 
sume and require replenishing, as is the case with the 
primary battery. Although certain chemical changes take 
place when Electricity is used from an accumulator, on 
being recharged the former condition is acquired, all the 
changes that have taken place being reversed, and the 
chemicals reformed in their old combinations. 

The function of the accumulator will be readily under- 
stood by comparing it to a gasometer. After this has 
been filled the gas may be drawn off at any time as 
wanted, until the gasometer is empty; it then requires 
refilling from the retort. An analogous process takes 
place with the accumulator. In this case the dynamo 
corresponds to the retort and supplies current to fill or 
" charge " the accumulator. When fully charged the 
latter will retain the Electrical Energy for any reasonable 
time, or will, when called upon, give out any quantity 
desired until its charge is exhausted. Then, like the gaso- 
meter, it requires recharging. 

Now, the advantage in many cases of this system of 
storage as an adjunct to the dynamo is at once apparent. 
Let us take the case of a dynamo used for the production 
of Electric light. It is not always convenient to run the 
machinery whenever the light is required, and with a set 
of accumulators this is not necessary. By driving the 
dynamo for a few hours every day and allowing the cur- 
rent to store itself in the accumulators. Electricity is 
always available, whether the dynamo is at work or not ; 



54 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

and it will readily be seen that this method does away 
with the need for working machinery at night. In a 
private installation it would be impracticable and absurd 
to keep the machinery running all night to supply a few 
lamps; therefore the Electric light must either be dis- 
pensed with in the bedrooms, for which it is so eminently 
suited, or accumulators must be employed. 

It has often been urged against the use of accumulators, 
that a considerable percentage of energy is lost in the 
process of charging and discharging them. This is true ; 
but if an engine and dynamo have to be continually at 
work, no matter whether ten or a hundred lamps be alight, 
there must also be a great waste of energy, for although an 
engine when worked up to its full power is very eflScient, 
the loss in coal and labour when running with a light load 
is a more considerable item than any waste of power 
involved by the use of an accumulator. 

The illustration on the next page shows three cells of 
the most approved type, and the method of connection. 
The enclosing case or box is usually made of glass, though 
formerly teak was employed; glass, however, allows the 
interior of the cell to be inspected without the removal of 
its contents. The cell contains a solution of dilute sulphu- 
t ric acid, and immersed in this are two sets of lead plates, 
those of each set being severally connected together by 
a bar of lead at the top. As will be observed in the illus- 
tration, the two systems of plates intersect each other, 
alternate plates being connected to opposite bars ; of these 
one is positive, and is in connection with the positive cable 
from the charging dynamo ; the other is negative, and to 
this the negative cable is attached. Each plate is kept 
apart from its neighbour by " separators " of an insulating 
material. The plates are perforated like a honeycomb 
and the interstices filled, the negative with a preparation 



THE STORAGE OF ELECTRICITY 



SS 



of oxide of lead called litharge and the positive with red 
lead called minium. 




THE ELECTBIOAL POWER STORAGE CO.'S ACCUMULATOR CELLS. 



To account for the construction of the accumulator and 
the action of its elements, perhaps the best way is to detail 



$6 KLBC3TRICITY UP TO DATE 

the circumstances which led to the discovery of its prin- 
ciples. It was known that when two wires were immersed 
in water, and a current of Electricity caused to pass 
through the liquid from one to the other, the water was 
decomposed, and its elements, oxygen and hydrogen, given 
off as gases at the positive and negative poles respectively. 
But when, in further experimenting, lead plates were sub- 
stituted for the wires and the water slightly acidulated by 
the addition of sulphuric add, it was found that a deposit 
of oxide of lead was formed on the positive lead plate. 
On the Electric current being discontinued and the lead 
plates connected to a galvanometer, a small current of 
Electricity was observed to pass through the instrument, 
and its appearance was rightly accounted for by the expla- 
nation that a reaction had set in — the chemicals forced 
apart by the decomposing agency of the Electric current 
were finding their old combinations, and the current then 
observed was an evidence of the internal work going on. 
This indeed was the modem accumulator in embryo. 

Instead, however, of using plain lead plates and "form- 
ing " them by charge and discharge in the manner just 
described, they are now artificially formed by loading the 
apertures of the lead with the required preparations of 
red lead and litharge. The effect is just the same, and 
much trouble and expense is saved by not forming them 
electrically. The multiplication in modem accumulators 
of the original single plate enables a larger quantity of 
current to be dealt with, and when a dynamo is connected 
to an accumulator for charging purposes, its cables are 
attached to the connecting bars of the positive and nega- 
tive sets of plates. 

The state of things in the charged accumulator may 
be described in simple language by saying that certain 
chemical elements have been forcibly separated from their 



THB STORAGE OP KLBOTBIOITY 57 

original combinations by the passage of an Electric 
current ; they are at present compelled to remain — so to 
speak — ^in unwonted positions, and are naturally anxious 
to regain their former state. It is like pulling out a 
piece of elastic : as long as it remains stretched out the 
power that was used to stretch it remains latent, but the 
moment the ends are released the elastic springs back to 
its original state, and the power first used is evinced in 
the recoil. So with the accumulator : for the moment its 
positive and negative poles are connected by a wire, the 
transformed elements' hasten to regain their former condi- 
tions, and in so doing produce an Electric current. 

In the best accumulators energy may be stored with a 
loss on discharge of only about 20 per cent. — that is to 
say, if a battery be charged for 10 hours it will give out a 
current equal to that of the charging current for a period 
or 8 hours. But it is sometimes required to draw current 
out of accumulators at a faster rate than it was put in — 
say, for instance, to consume in 4 hours a current which, 
in the ordinary course, should last 8 hours. Until recently 
this was impracticable, owing to the fact that the plates 
buckled together under the increased vigour of the chemi- 
cal action. Now, accumulators have been devised in 
which the current may be very rapidly discharged in the 
event of sudden demand for a large supply. 

There is one point that perhaps requires elucidation in 
order to prevent a mistaken notion being entertained 
regarding accumulators. People may say that if 50 cells 
are necessary for 50 lights, then only 1 cell should be 
uecessary for 1 light. This is logic, on the face of it, but 
it is not Electricity. As before mentioned, lamps are 
constructed for different pressures of current, and the 
number of cells must be decided by whatever pressure is 
most suitable and economical for the installation. There- 



58 



ELECTKICITY UP TO DATE 



fore a greater or less number of lights entails larger or 
smaller sized accumulators, but does not necessarily influ- 
ence the nuTThber of cells. 

Take for example two houses, one fitted up with 50 
16 candle-power lamps, and the other with 100 lamps of 
similar candle-power, the lamps in each case being con- 
structed for the same pressure of current ; then the number 
of cells in each house will be identical, but those in the 
latter house must be double the size of those in the 
former. 

Several forms of small portable or pocket accumulators 
are now made, and such arrangements are very useful 
where a safe and convenient form of hand-lamp is sought 
for. Miners especially would find 
such lamps a great boon, but the 
weight of pocket accumulators 
where the light is required con- 
tinuously for some eight hours 
or more without recharging has 
hitherto been against its general 
adoption in mines. For small 
reading lamps, surgical lamps, 
and fairy lights for stage eflEects, 
where the Electric current is only 
required for intermittent periods 
of half-an-hour or an hour, com- 
paratively light accumulators are made, and being curved 
as shown, are easily carried in the pocket. 

The charming eflEects now so general at the spectacular 
theatres are all obtained by means of such portable accu- 
mulators, and many different forms of Electric jewellery, 
such as tiaras, brooches, &c., are now manufactured. 

The recharging of these small accumulators is easily 
effected from the house supply mains, unless the supply 




POCKET ELBCTRIC ACCUMU- 
LATOR. 



THE STORAGE OF ELECTRICITY 



59 



be from a company using the alternate current system, 
which, as explained on page 93, is not serviceable for 
charging accumulators of any kind. 

Body-belts for holding three or four pocket accumulators 
are made, and portable hand lamps and cycle lamps work 





BLECTBIC CYCLE LAMP AND 
ACCUMULATOR. 



ELECTMO HAND LAMP AND 
ACCUMULATOR. 



very well with a small accumulator attached. A charged 
accumulator for all such purposes is far preferable to a 
primary battery. 



60 BLBCTRICITY UP TO DATE 



CHAPTER VI. 
THE WIRING OF A HOUSE, 

NOT the least important branch of Electrical work is 
the fitting up of buildings with properly arranged 
systems of cables and wires, to serve as conductors for the 
Electric current when used for illuminating purposes. It 
is a branch which should be carefully distinguished from 
the fixing of the Electrical installation, that is to say, the 
dynamo, engines, accumulator, &c., for it is work of an 
entirely different nature. So different, in fact, that it is 
usual to employ separate workmen for the two branches, 
each man haying a special knowledge of his own business. 

The quality of the wiring work in a house is a great 
deal more important than many people imagine, and the 
few accidents that have occurred in connection with Elec- 
tricity have all been traceable to sheer carelessness or the 
use of bad materials. 

The public, as yet, knows so little about it« technical 
details, that any one contemplating the adoption of Electric 
lighting would do well to think twice before accepting the 
lowest tender for the work. In the case of gas or water 
pipes, if the work be badly doue faults soon become 
noticeable, but with Electricity detection is not so simple 
a matter, although the results of bad work are equally 
serious. 

To those conversant with the small problems involved 
in maintaining good insulation of Electric light house- 



THE WIRING OF A HOUSE 6l 

wiring, it seems incomprehensible how owners and tenants 
can complacently employ their decorator, their builder, 
their jobbing plumber, or, of course, any one who can fix 
an Electric bell, to install wires and cables for Electric 
light purposes. True, it is simple work, there is nothing 
in it but putting a few india-rubber coated wires into wood 
casing, but, unfortunately, if it is not properly and well 
done, uncomfortable consequences will inevitably ensue. 

Electricity, when employed for artificial lighting in 
houses, must hare a well-insulated metallic circuit to 
flow in, and this can only be obtained by careful work- 
manship, good material, and attention to such details as 
joints, switches, safety fuses, Ac. 

As copper wire is always employed for Electric lighting 
_ work, it may be wondered why wire of 

sonie cheaper material is not used. The 
reason is a very simple one. 

The substances ^at can be employed for conveying 
Electricity vary very considerably in their conducting 
qualities, and to convey Electric currents for lighting 
purposes the conductors must be of ** high conductivity," 
i.e., capable of conveying the Electricity with as little loss 
as possible. The following is a list of the best conductors, 
placed in the order of their conductivity: silver, copper, 
gold^ zinc, platinvm, iron, tin, lead, &e., &c. 

The precious metals, silver, gold, and platinum, may be 
at once excluded from the list, though the last mentioned 
is used in the Ediswan lamp, on account of its expanding 
equally with the glass when the lamp warms. Zinc, apart 
from other objections, is not sufiiciently ductile to be 
drawn into wire ; tin is expensive and inferior to copper ; 
thus the list is reduced to copper, iron, and lead. These 
are all employed, more or less, for Electrical purposes. 
Iron wire is extensively used for telegraphy, but like lead, 



62 KLBOTRICITY UP TO DATE 

is not of sufficient conductivity for conveying large quan- 
tities of Electricity. An iron wire would be much cheaper 
than the same sized copper wire, but to carry the same 
quantity of Electricity (at the same percentage of loss) 
the iron wire would require to be nearly six times the 
size of the copper wire. 

Copper, which practically ranks highest in the list, is 
moreover a most suitable material. It combines all the 
desirable qualities, being readily, procurable, ductile, 
pliable, &c. The purer the copper the better the conduc- 
tivity of the wire, so that a wire in which a considerable 
percentage of impurities occur is as much to be avoided 
as one that is too small. Some of the best cable is guar- 
anteed as high as 99 per cent, pure copper, and nothing 
less than 96 per cent, should be employed. In Electric 
work it is usual for all the larger wires and cables to be 
constructed of a number of strands of small wires, as this 
gives increased flexibility to the cable, and allows joints 
to be more readily made. 

Bare copper Electrical conductors are of course imprac- 
inani ti ticable for house-wiring, although they are 

employed by some companies for street 
mains, as mentioned on page 107. 

For house-wiring, and all kindred work, every conductor 
should be thoroughly and carefully insulated. 

The best insulators are,, of course, those substances that 
offer the greatest resistance to the passage of Electricity. 
Dry rarefied air stands highest on the list ; and after this, 
the best are glass^ ebonite, paraffin, shellac, indiarvUber, 
gvita-percha, svlphwr, silk, porcelain, &e. 

All these are more or less used for Electrical purposes, 
but of course are not all suitable for covering wires and 
cables. Gutta-percha, which has been so largely used for 
telegraphic and submarine work, is not serviceable for 



THB WIRING OF A HOUSE 63 

Electric light work, on account of its yielding so readily 
to the influence of heat. Oil has recently been again 
attracting attention, especially as a cheap means of insu- 
lating cables for underground systems of Electric distri- 
bution. It has certain disadvantages, and may be at once 
dismissed as unsuitable for house-wiring. 

Electric light wires are now principally insulated either 
with indiarubber, or a fibrous material such as jute, 
steeped in a resinous or bituminous compound. India- 
rubber is usually vulcanised, i.e., treated with sulphur, to 
make it harder and more durable, and good vulcanised 
indiarubber insulation is generally considered the best. 
This, however, like most other things nowadays, is 
frequently adulterated, and cheap rubber insulation is 
seldom good.* 

Again, the amount of insiUation on a wire is of import- 
ance, and to show the extent to which the quality and 
amount of the insulation affect the cost, it may be re- 
marked that so-called indiarubber insulated wires vary as 
much as 200 per cent, in price. Sooner or later, inferior 
insulation and indifferent work in Electric lighting are 
bound to show themselves, but if well-insulated wires 
properly portioned to the Electric current they have to 
carry are once carefully fixed, they do not wear out with 
the passage of the current, and the insulation should last 
for many years. 

In the illustration, the wires are represented with their 
insulation partly removed, in order to show its composi- 
tion in wires of the best make. A, the copper wire, is 

* In a paper read by the writer in April 1889, at the Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, on Underground Conduits and Electrical Conduc- 
tors, the relative advantages of different insulating materials for high- 
pressure currents were discussed, and there seems no reason to doubt that 
for this purpose at any rate a homogeneous insulation like indiarubber is 
preferable to any fibrous insulation at present made. 



64 



ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



usually coated with a thin layer of tin, to prevent decom- 
position of the rubber by the copper, and to enable joints 
to be soldered with greater convenience. B is a coating 
of indiambber. is vulcanised indiarubber. D is a 




SECTION OP CASINO SHOWING WIRES. 



layer of indiarubber-coated tape, and after the whole has 
been vulcanised together the outer covering, B, consist- 
ing of braided tarred flax and preservative compound, is 
applied. 

It will be observed that the wires are mechanically 
. protected by wood-casing, and laid into 

grooves. Sometimes metal pipes are em- 
ployed, and they or the casings are fixed under floors, 
between partitions, &a 

As a rule, there is far too much anxiety displayed to 
bury the wires away in the most un-get-at-able placea 
A neat casing is by no means unsightly in bedrooms, 



THE WIKING OF A HOUSK 6$ 

passages, &c., and if placed on the surface allows of 
ready access in the case, say, of more lights being added, 
or alterations being carried out. Two wires should be 
employed for every lamp, in order that the current may 
flow in a complete insulated circuit, and these wires are 
called respectively the positive and negative, or the flow 
and return. 

The arrangement of circuits in a building requires great 
care and skill, and it is here if anywhere 
Qf^j^^Q^ that an inexperienced engineer or an ama- 
teur will come to grief. 

Electric wiring when properly carried out should be 
arranged in such a manner that the Electric current 
flows in a number of small circuits, as in this way 
faults, should they occur, are more readily found, and are 
less serious, as only a few lights are affected. Starting 
with the mains from the dynamo, or from the public 
supply, as the case may be, the current is conveyed to a 
central distribution-bosurd. From this, small circuits are 
taken to the lamps, or in a large building cables are run 
to other branch distribution-boards, where the circuits are 
again subdivided. The value of such a system of dis- 
tribution is well worth the slight additional cost involved 
over other systems employed. It is far safer, far simpler, 
and allows of a more equal distribution of current. 

Troubles are often caused in house-wiring by using 
wires of too small a size for the current they are intended 
to convey, as, although a saving in copper is effected, it 
is with a loss of light and at a certain risk. When the 
wire is too small for the current it has to convey, it be- 
comes heated Tmd is a source of danger. Needless to say, 
the Eire Insurance inspectors aire exceedingly particular 
on this point. The fault, however, is not always inten- 
tional, and it may be the result of ignorance or careless 

S 



66 ELECTRiciry up to date 

workmanship — which emphasises the necessity of having 

the work carried out under experienced and competent 

engineers. 

Bad jointing of the conductors has been the most fruit- 

. f ul source of trouble and danger in Electric 

work. The illustration shows how a joint 

should be made so that the carrying capacity is as good as 




in any other part of the conductor. The strands of the 
copper are first cleaned, then interlapped or scarfed, and 
finally, in the case of large cables, bound over with 
another copper wire. The insulation is then carefully 
made good, first with indiarubber solution, and then with 
indiarubber tape, bound tightly together to form a homo- 
geneous and watertight connection with existing insula- 
tion. It is indeed well worth paying more for the Electric 
wiring of a house if, by employment of careful workmen, 
the proper jointing of the wires and cables will be 
attended to. 

Damp is the great enemy of the Electrical engineer. 
All the long length of his wires, every joint and every 
connection, must be thoroughly damp-proof, or leakage 
and deterioration will ensue. 

The dryest possible positions for the wires and cables 
must be selected, and, moreover, it must be borne in 
mind that a place dry at the time of fixing the cable may 
not always be in that condition. The contingency of a 
pipe bursting, a cistern overflowing, and a hundred other 
chances must be provided against. The reason for all 



THE WIRING OP A HOUSE 6^ 

this caution is that water, or in fact liquid of almost any 
description, is a good conductor of Electricity (not so 
good a conductor as copper wire, of course, but still a 
conductor), and so, if the Electric wires become weti the 
current leaks through and finds its way to the earth. 

Sometimes troubles arise from what is technically called 
«E th» "earth," that is leakage (caused by damp- 

ness or faulty insulation) from one or both 
wires, passing by means of damp walls or other conduct- 
ing substances to the earth. Some amusement has at 
times been caused by people taking this word literally, 
and in one instance the question was asked, " Why was 
not the earth removed from the house before the wires 
were put in ? " 

In the early days of Electrical science earth meant 
" earth " and nothing else, and it seemed natural to refer 
to "Mother Earth " as the great reservoir of Electricity. 
Although ideas in this respect have undergone consider- 
able change, it is important in Electric lighting work to 
get as far away from " earth " as possible. Every effort, 
therefore, is made by means of good insulation to prevent 
the Electric Energy going to **^ earth," which may mean 
water or gas pipes, damp walls or plaster, which, by 
reason of the moisture in the brick, wood, or stone, be- 
come conductors. 

Another fruitful source of trouble is what is termed " a 
short circuit." This is the result of leakage, by which 
current gets direct from one wire to the other by a short 
cut, instead of completing its circuit through the lamp. 
The natural tendency of Electricity is to take the shortest 
and easiest path. It has been well said, in connection 
with the Atlantic cable, that Electricity finds it easier to 
travel from England to America, through the thousands 
of miles of copper wire, than through the half-inch of 



68 ELaCTRICITY UP TO DATE 

insnlation encircling it. Bat once a short cut is made a 
rush of Electricity ensues through the weak spot, and in 
the case of currents ujsed for Electric lighting the wires 
become heated, and a fire is liable to occur. 

The foregoing, of course, sounds dangerous, and so 
indeed it would be, were it not for the pre- 
ventive action of Mr. Edison's ingenious 
contrivance, the safety -fuse or cut-out. Such safety- 
fuses are now made of various types, but they all essenti- 
ally consist in the insertion at some point in the Electrical 
circuit of a short length of fusible lead or tin wire, the 
size of which is determined by the maximum amount of 
current required. 

The safety-fuse thus forms a weak point in the wire, 
so that should a short circuit or other accidental overload- 
ing of the wire take place, the lead fuse will be first 
affected, and at once melt without allowing the copper 
wire conductors to become overheated. Continuity is 
thus broken, and no more current can pass through the 
damaged circuit until the repair has been effected, and a 
new fuse, at the cost of a few pence, inserted. 

In using gas we have no such safeguard as this ; a leak 
is often quickly followed by a fire or an explosion. If 
there were some such contrivance as the safety-fuse, to at 
once automatically shut off the gas supply in that part of 
the house where a leak occurred, the Fire Brigade would 
have considerably less work to do.* 

* FiBES m One Year in New Yobk City, caused by 
Paraffin, Kerosene, &a . 259 fires . loss | 94,657 



Gas 

Matches, used for gas 
Candles . 

Arc Electric Light . 
Incandescent Electric Light 



110 

35 

88 

7 

1 



{Prom Official RepwrL] 



,^ 128,174 
22,570 
80,667 
550 

, insignificant. 



tHB WiKma OF A flOtJSfi 69 

A honse fitted with properly regulated safety cnt-outs 
is perfectly safe— provided, of course, that all the other 
work is well carried out — and as far as the Electric light 
is concerned the Insurance Policy might be discontinued. 
Care, however, must always be taken not to use a fuse of a 
larger size than is actually required ; for instance, a 20-light 
fuse would be of very little use to protect a 5-light circuit 
But safety-fuses are now so constructed that it is impos- 
sible for a careless attendant to tise a larger fuse than the 
correct one^ eadi fuse being so made that it will only fit 
into a properly proportioned slot of the required capacity, 
and only such fuses should be employed if real safety is 
desired. 

It is a great mistake to put safety-fuses on or near the 
ceiling, or on the skirting-boards, as is sometimes done. 
The best place for them is on the distribution-boards, 
^here the small circuits leave the mains. The fuses are 
thus readily accessible, and by taking any of them out the 
different circuits of the house can be totally disconnected. 

Switches are another indispensable it.em in Electric 

. lighting. The switch is the key or tap used 

for turning the lights on or off, and corre- 
sponds to the gas tap ; but with this important difference 
— ^no matches are required, for the moment the switch is 
turned on the lamp is alight. It is merely a contrivance 
for completing or breaking the continuity of the Electric 
circuit. 

As switches are constantly in use for lighting or ex- 
tinguishing lamps, and are almost the only part of the 
Electric apparatus that the consumer directly handles, it 
is very desirable that switches should be of good design 
and construction, as well as^easyin their working. Some- 
times people, curious to know "how the Electric light 
looks when it is going out," will foolishly hold the handle 



;o 



ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



SO that the contact pieces are kept at the separating-point 
In a good switch it should, therefore, be impossible to hold 
the contact pieces partly on or off, as a partial contact 
will cause the switch to heat and fire. 

There are several excellent designs of switch now sold, 
in which good rubbing contact and efficient quick-break 
action are combined. The illustration shows the interior 
of the well-known Tumbler type of switch, which can 

be fitted with either a 
plain or an ornamental 
cover. Cheap and in- 
ferior forms of this 
switch are now being 
imported from Ger- 
many; but to ensure 
that a good make of 
it has been selected 
by the contractors, it is 
only necessary to exa- 
mine the trade mark 
which leading English 
manufacturers affix at 
the back. These should 
be insisted upon, as by 
the use of a cheap and too often inefficient form of switch 
a substantial difference may be made in the cost of the 
wiring. 

Another useful device for the detachment of portable 
lights is here represented, and its connec- 

or **Shoea" *^^^ explains itself. 

The convenience of such sockets fixed on 
the skirting-board in various parts of a room cannot be 




• TUMBLER " SWITCH WITH OOVBK 
REMOVED. 



THE WIRING OF A HOUSE 



71 



over-estimated. By their use it is possible without trouble 
to connect up a portable light 
which can be moved about 
almost as freely as a candle- 
stick. It is not necessary 
to have a separate lamp to 
each shoe-socket, as the plugs 
are all interchangeable, and 
when once the shoe has been 
fixed a connection can be 
made instantly. 

There are two forms of 
_ ^ ,^ lamp-holders 

or sockets in 
general use. The one shown 
in the illustration on page 
44 is the Screw Switch Soc- 
ket, and connection is made 
by simply screwing the 
lamp into the socket. The 
"Bayonet" Lamp Socket, is 
also now largely used in this 

country. In the latest form the terminals and other 
metal parts conveying the current are so thoroughly sur- 
rounded by the insulating china that a short circuit or 
other accident is rendered impossible. 

It is in the smaller matters that troubles usually 
<<P"erfeot arise, and experience has shown that good 
«I»nsulation insulation depends largely on well-made 
Sy»tem. lamp-holders, safety-fuses, and such like 

accessories. China is now almost exclusively used as an 
insulator in all these minor fittings, as it far surpasses 
slate or ebonite both as regards its fire-proof and its 
insulating qualities. Among recent improvements may 




AND PLUa FOR PORTABLE 
LAMP. 



72 ELKCTRICITY UP TO DATB 

be mentioned an important alteration in the method of 
fixing the conducting parts of switches, safety-fuses, 
&a, into the china cases. It was found that such acces- 
sories, when fixed on damp walls, were liable to convey 
the damp into the wiring circuit through the metal parts 
piercing the china backs. As a good insulation is incom- 
patible with damp or ** earths," low insulation frequently 
resulted from this cause, although every precaution had 
othennse been taken with the wiring work. In the 
Perfect Insulation System this defect has been overcome 
by arranging the conducting metal parts so that they 
do not pierce the china bases, which have only holes 
through them for the fixing screws, and these are not 
in contact with any of the parts conveying the current. 
Where the Perfect Insulation System is employed, damp 
cannot be thus introduced into the wiring drcuit, nor 
does leakage of current so readily take place " to earth." 

All such details as these, which the trained engineer 
thoroughly acquainted with his subject fully appredates, 
do not appeal to the decorator, who readily undertakes 
wiring work so as to increase the total sum of his contract 
in a house ; or to the plumber, unwilling to acknowledge 
that vdring for Electric lighting is different from tacking 
up wires for Electric bells. Much of the faulty Electrical 
work, however, has also been done by Electrical engineers, 
who should and often do know better. Estimating vdth- 
out knowledge, undertaking work at prices which it must 
be known the work cannot be properly carried out for, 
naturally result in the cheapest and commonest material 
being employed. Safety-fuses, switches, and other Elec- 
trical sundries that are out of date, and which makers 
are almost ready to give away, are usually in this way 
worked in. 

As a rule the householder does not feel disposed to 



THE wntlNG Of A HOUSS 73 

employ a consulting engineer for what is after all a small 
work, bnt at the same time he is anadoas that snch work, 
involving more or less disturbance to the honse, shall be 
skilfully performed and of a lasting nature. His proper 
and only course, therefore, is to entrust it to some firm--of 
whom tiiere are several — ^whose experience, reputation, and 
integrity will ensure the work being done in as efficient a 
manner as is possible. 

With regard to the cost of wiring, much must depend 
upon the nature of the building, as the 
cost of labour is almost double where par- 
quet floors, stone landings or concrete constructions are 
encountered. In some instances, where in addition to 
these difficulties the runs of the wire are long, the cost for 
labour alone has worked out at over 228. per light. Even 
where ordinary floors or joists are found, the item for 
men's time, if good class and experienced labour be 
employed, is seldom under 12a per light, and more if 
superintendence be added. 

Where a large number of single lights are used, and 
there are long runs for the distributing cables, the value 
of the wires and cables is proportionately affected. The 
cost for cables and wires of high insulation for the lighting 
of an average house of say 50 to 100 lights may, however, 
be taken at 8s. to 10s. per light, for the copper conductors 
themselves Grouping lamps in clusters reduces both the 
item for labour and the cost of the wire, while in the same 
way wall-plugs or lamps in inaccessible positions increase 
the respective charges. 

The cost of good whitewood casings averages Is. 3d. to 
Is. 9d. per light, while for mahogany, walnut or special 
casings these are somewhere about treble the cost per 
foot run of ordinary casing. If the casings are painted 
with three coats of paint, Is. to 1& 6d. per light must 



74 BLBCTRICITY UP TO DATB 

be added acoordiDg to drcamstances. With regard to 
switches, the prices average from Ss. to Ss. 6d., but as a 
separate switch is not required to every light in the house, 
a sum of 28. 6d. per light is sufficient to cover this item ; 
while safety-f ases, distribnting-boards, and other sundries 
may add another 3s. to the total cost per light if the best 
material be used. 

From these figures it will be seen that the cost for 
average wiring may be said to vary from 238. to 28s. per 
light. Where there are special difficulties in construction, 
and where on account of the decoration and other reasons 
it is desirable that the best class of labour only is to be 
employed, or again where the wires are desired of a larger 
sectional area than the size usually installed in accordance 
with the Fire Insurance Company's rules, this cost is 
liable to be increased to as much as 35s. to 40s. per light. 
In large buildings where the number of lights are great 
and the runs are long, necessitating special allowances 
for the main cable, the cost varies from 30s. to 36b. per 
light on the average, and it may be noted that for wiring 
the Langham Hotel, some 14*50 lights in the best manner, 
the price in competition was 34s. per light. 

Electric lighting when well done is the safest of all 

illuminants, and in this respect differs 
IzuBurance. * 

essentially from oil or gas where, however 

excellent may be the construction of the apparatus, or 

however carefully the fittings may be arranged, danger is 

always inherent to such processes of combustion. 

The Fire Insurance Companies have formulated a care- 
fully devised code of regulations with regard to placing 
and fixing Electric light wires, with other important 
details. 

In an introductory note to these rules Mr. Heaphy, who 
has had great experience in the subject of Electric wiring. 



THE WIRING OF A HOUSE 75 

says, " Remember this, that any firm by arrauging to place 
inferior quality of work in your premises can easily under- 
price other firms that are more conscientious; and ex- 
perience proves that inferior work is nearly certain to 
result in* a fire breaking out sooner or later — ^perhaps 
between floors and ceilings, or under roofs. Be careful, 
therefore, previous to accepting a low tender, to make your- 
self certain that the same quality work has been estimated 
for and intended to be done as that of the higher tender." 
Although this has been often quoted, such truth will 
readily bear mentioning again, as it is essentially in the 
interest of Electric lighting that the standard of wiring 
work should be maintained as high as possible. 



ELBCtBICITY tJ^ tO tktlt 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE ARRANGEMENT AND WORKING OF A PRIVATE 
INSTALLATION. 

THE subject of house-wiring for the Electric light 
having been dealt with in the preceding chapter, 
a few remarks will not be ont of place here with regard 
to the engine-room part of the installation. 

Perhaps it would be as well to discuss those cases in 
which private installations may prove of advantage. 

In the country with gas over 3s. per 1000 feet, or where 
oil has to be used, entailing as this does the daily clean- 
ing of numbers of oil lamps, separate machinery for 
producing anything over fifty lights will usually prove 
advantageous. 

Again, even in towns where a public supply is obtain- 
able, it frequently pays to produce one's own Electricity. 
This is especially so where machinery is already at work, 
as in printing offices, hotels, factories, &c. Even where 
machinery is not fixed, provided large numbers of lights 
are continually in use, a separate installation is often 
more economical. 

It is sometimes desirable in such cases to have the 
option of obtaining current from the Public Supply Com- 
pany as well. This particularly applies where the hours 
of working are so long that a double shift of men would 
be necessary to work the Electric machinery. For in- 
stance, as in the case of some of the large London clubs, 



WORKING OF A PRIVATE INSTALLATION JJ 

after the private machinery has done its day's (or rather 
its night's) work, the current from the Supply Company 
is switched on, and any few lights that may be required 
during the ensuing twelve hours are so supplied. 

When Public Electric Supply Companies were first 
established, it was generally supposed that all separate 
installations in their districts would be done away with. 
This is far from being the case, and in some instances, 
where the many advantages of Electric lighting have 
been proved by daily use from a Public Supply Company, 
separate instaiiations have afterwards been set up. The 
Public Supply Companies, however, have nothing really 
to fear in this respect. A large portion of their income 
is derived from the small consumer with forty lamps or 
less, and usually large consumers, even if space could 
be found for machinery, would rather take current by 
meter than lay out capital on a private installation. 
Private installations can be of course of any size, from a 
compact little plant of fifty lights, worked by a gas- 
engine, to the 3000-light installation at the Savoy Hotel, 
and which almost ranks as a central station. 

When a private installation has once been decided 
upon, if it be properly arranged and well carried out, 
the outlay is seldom regretted. The most important 
consideration is, of course, the question of power. How 
is the dynamo to be driven ? 

Gas-engines, of course, have obvious advantages in 
many cases, more particularly for town houses, as a cellar 
may often be used for an engine-room. Recent improve- 
ments made in the construction of gas-engines render 
them now capable of driving dynamos for direct supply 
without any flickering of the light. The interesting 
calculation given on page 177 shows that a much greater 
amount of light can be obtained by passing gas through 



^cLBcraoiTY tfp to tm 



CHAPTEB VII. 

THE ARRANGEMENT AND WORKING OF A PRI 
INSTALLATION. 

THE subject of house-wiring for the Electric 
having been dealt with in the preceding el 
a few remarks wfll not be out of place here with 
to the engine-room part of the installation. 

Perhai>s it would be as well to discuss those c 

which private installationB may prove of advantage 

In the oomitry with gas over 3s. per 1000 feet, o 

oil has to be used, entsdling as this does the dail^ 

ing o£ numbers of oil lanips, separate maciJiL 

producing anything over ^^ lights will TLaua^lr 

ati vantag*eoTi b . 

Again, even in towr-^ 
able, it frequently p 



This 



IS eapeci^illj so 



^ 1^ printitit* offioe^ 




public supply ^ 
>i one'e own Iv 
aery is aire ail , 
umes, &c. Ev 
' number? 
tallatiou 



STALLATION 



79 



use of a room ander 

' ongine-room should 

M)lid foundation, and 

use. The illustration 

1 <^ the electrical plant, 

! 23 feet by 11 feet, 

-bunker, and ash-pit. 

ired to satisfactorily 

tlio whole number of 

• quired to be burning 

ill, troubles will very 

IKss consumption of 

r v., on the subject 
ibly agree that no 
is complete without 
ble and convenient, 



(^ accumulators are 

from engine and 

\y because the slight 

•liarging would rust 

t and dirt from the 

•f the cells. It will 

'55 that each cell is 

')le batteira^^g^ged 

is to 

the 




78 



ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



an engine to produce Electricity from a dynamo than by 
consuming it direct in gas burners; as a general rule, 
however, it will be found that steam is the most suitable 
and economical power for driving the dynamo. Steam 
power is already employed in most factories, and some- 
times also on country estates for pumping, cutting chafF, 
sawing wood, &c., and in the latter case, where it is not 




y////y//////////777-//7//777Z^/. 




Dl 



"1 



rsffO FVMF 



I 



%//////y/J>/;^ ^J^7^///^i^^77m 



PLAN OP INSTALLATION FOR 150 LIGHTS. 



already in use, it will always be found acceptable for 
such purposes. In the annexed illustration an engine- 
room is shown, fitted with steam-engine and dynamo for 
the supply of 150 lights. 

Steam power having been decided upon, the next 
matter is the choice of an engine-room. An outbuilding 
or stable -can often be found, and where possible such a 



WORKING OF A PRIVATE INSTALLATION 79 

position is more desirable than the nse of a room ander 
or in the main building. A good engine-room should 
be thoroughly dry and clean, with a solid foundation, and 
at not too great distance from the house. The illustration 
given shows a good method of arranging the electrical plant, 
and includes engine and boiler-room 23 feet by 11 feet, 
battery-room 23 feet by 6 feet,* coal-bunker, and ash-pit. 

Considerable experience is required to satisfactorily 
plan out a private installation, as the whole number of 
lights in a house are seldom if ever required to be burning 
at once. When the engine is too small, troubles will very 
soon arise, and when too large a needless consumption of 
coal is entailed. 

After the remarks made in Chapter V., on the subject 
of accumulators, readers will probably agree that no 
country installation, at all events, is complete without 
them. In fact, they are so serviceable and convenient, 
that they can rarely be dispensed w^ith. 

As shown in the illustration, the accumulators are 
usually placed in a separate room from engine and 
dynamo. The reason of this is, partly because the slight 
acid fumes given off during their charging would rust 
the machinery, and partly because dust and dirt from the 
coal would interfere with the action of the cells. It will 
be observed in the illustration on page 55 that each cell is 
placed on glass insulators, and the whole battery arranged 
on isolated wooden supports. This is to prevent any 
leakage to earth of the current from the cells, and also 
to guard against what is called " creeping," i,e., a surface 
leakage from cell to cell, by which a slight but wasteful 
discharge of current will take place. 

People often grumble at accumulators and say they are 

* It is not at all necessary that the battery-room be of the shape shown, 
bnt about an equal amount of floor space is required. 



80 ELBOTBICITy UP TO DATE 

of no use, when, as a matter of fact, the poor accumulator 




THE WEITBE*8 50-LIQHT INSTALLATION AT WETBBIDGE. 




is being overworked and undercharged. It is false 



WORKING OF A PRIVATE INSTALLATIOK 8l 

economy to have accnmnlators too small for the work 
they have to perform, and it is much cheaper to have a 
battery too large than too small. 

The dynamo is nsually placed in the same straight line 
with the engine, and is driven by a belt. In the illus- 
tration of the writer's plant, which has been working 
for several years, a very compact arrangement is shown, 
the dynamo being connected up direct with the engine 
and no belt used. In a country installation, when 
accumulators are employed, the best plan of working 
usually is to charge them in the afternoon for a few 
hours, and then continue the working of the engine 
during part of the evening, when most of the lights are 
required, so as to supply them direct from the dynamo. 
Later on, when less lights are used, the engine may be 
shut down, and the accumulators give off the supply of 
current required during the rest of the evening and tiU 
the next day. 

If the plant be properly managed and the accumulators 
are left well charged, they should be sufficient to supply all 
the current that is wanted on Sunday. On special occa- 
sions, when it may be required to use the whole number 
of lights for a considerable time — with perhaps even a few 
extra lights as well — ^by keeping the dynamo running and 
discharging the accumulators at the same time, the current- 
producing power of the installation is largely increased. 

The engine-room switch-board should consist of a main- 
switch for controlling the whole number of lights, and 
separate switches for either sending the current (a) from 
the dynamo to the lamps, (6) from the dynamo to the 
accumulators, or (c) from the accumulators to the lamps. 
If these switches be distinctly labelled, any one strange to 
the engine-room may readily control the current in the 
absence of the attendant. The main safety-fuses and two 

9 



82 ELECtRIClUr tJl> to DATE 

instruments, the ammeter and the voltmeter, complete 
the arrangement. The former meter is for measuring the 
amourU of current passing, the latter its strength or pres- 
sure; and each instrument should have a 'Hwo-way" 
switch, so that readings can be taken from either the 
dynamo or the accumulators. 

With regard to the working of such an installation, it 
is not of so much importance that the man looking after 
it should have any special knowledge of Electricity or 
mechanics, as that he should be careful and painstaking. 
Experience has proved that after being shown a few times 
how to work the machinery and attend to the accumula- 
tors, any man with an interest in his work will be able to 
manage it. A gardener, stable or handy man about an 
estate is quite capable of doing all that is necessary with- 
out retaining a man specially for the work. A few simple, 
plain instructions should always be kept in the engine- 
room for his guidance. 

For those already possessing Electric light plants or 
contemplating their erection, the following brief rules for 
working may prove useful : — 

DYNAMO. 

The commutator should be kept quite clean and bright by wiping 
Gommntator ^* occasionally with rag when working. If neces- 
sary it may be cleaned with emery doth before 
starting, the brushes being off. 

The brushes must be set firmly in their holders, and rest lightly 
^^^^ on the commutator so as to make good clean contact. 

They must be set exactly opposite each other, and 
no wires left straggling. 

The rocker holding the brushes should be moved up or down, so 
Snarkinff ^ ^ adjust them to the neutral point, according to 

parKin^. ^^^ amount of work the dynamo is doing. When 

fffroperly adjutUd there should he no gparhing. 



WORKING OP A PRIVATE INSTALLATION 83 

In disconnecting the dynamo after it has been used for charging 
the accumulators or supplying the lights direct^ the 

^cj^ectlngr engine should be eased down, dynamo switch turned 
off, the engine stopped, and then the brushes taken 

off the commutator. 



ACCUMULATORS. 

The dynamo must be run at full speed, the brushes on, and the 
Cliarslnff P^°* lamp lit to its full candle-power, before the 

accumulator charging switch is put on. Oare should 
be taken not to allow the speed to drop while charging, or the 
accumulator will rapidly discharge its current through the dynamo. 
When the cells are charged the solution will assume a clouded 
appearance, great numbers of small bubbles continually arising to 
the surface. It is often thought when the cells gas in this manner 
that the accumulator must be full, but this effect can be produced 
by too rapid charging, and it is not until the ceUs gas freely for 
some time that the accumulator may be considered fully cluurged. 
When in good order, the positive plates should be dark chocolate, 
and the negative a clear slate colour. Before shutting down the 
engine, turn off the charging switch. 

If any cell does not gas so freely as the others, it is probably 
Faulty Cells ^<»ii8© a connection has been formed in some way 
between one or more of the positive and negative 
plates, as for instance by " buckling." Such a cell should be dis- 
connected and examined, the cells on either side of it being con- 
nected together by a short piece of cable. A thin piece of wood 
should be used to scrape off scales that may have formed on the 
plates of faulty cells. 

The acid solution is in the proportion of five of water to one of 
^^^ acid, the specific gravity being 1*200. The plates 

should always he covered over the top with the solution, 
and when the battery is fully charged the specific gravity should 
be 1'215. This is measured by means of an acidometer (or hydro- 
meter), supplied with every set of accumulators. 

If the accumulators are not in use for any considerable time, they 
When not should be left fully charged, and a further charge 
In use. given them every two or three weeks. 



84 fiLBOTRICITY tJP TO DATfi 



CHAPTER VIII. 
THE PUBLIC SUPPLY OF ELECTRICITY, 

IT was the invention of the Incandescent Lamp that 
opened the field of domestic lighting to Electricity, but 
the problem of economically distributing Electric current 
over large areas in the same way as gas, presented, how- 
ever, many practical difficulties. 

It is an illustration of the distance that Mr. Edison was 
in advance of other Electricians, that while they were still 
considering how a public supply of Electricity should be 
brought about, he had already thought out the whole 
matter and devised a scheme of Electrical distribution by 
means of special mains, regulating switches and safety- 
fuses, all complete in their way. While every one was 
learning what Electric lighting meant at the Exhibition 
in Paris, 1879, Mr. Edison was even then arranging the 
erection of his first central supply station in New York, 
and although improvl&ments were carried out from time to 
time. Electricity was supplied from it continuously until 
the station was burnt down in 1888. 

Undoubtedly the Electric Lighting Act of 1882 pre- 
vented similar stations being erected in England; but, 
perhaps, on the whole it is as well that it was so, for 
much had still to be learned and experience gained before 
the problem could really be economically dealt with. In 
America, town after town fitted up central supply stations, 
80 that the general adoption of the Electric light in public 



THE PUBLIC SUPPLY OF KLECTRICITY 85 

bnildings and private houses was soon brought about. 
As long ago as 1887, over one hundred central stations 
were at work in the United States, supplying in all close 
upon half a million lights, and since that time much pro- 
gress has been made. 

America has indeed been our pioneer in the matter of 
Electric supply. But by patiently watching and waiting 
we have had all the experience with little of the expense. 
The result is that to-day we are actually in a more for- 
ward condition than they are in America. Benefiting by 
their evil experience of fixing the supply-cables overhead, 
we have generally adopted underground systems; and 
now, when the Americans are beginning to see their mis- 
take, we have the greater portion of London and several 
provincial towns fitted with complete underground systems 
of Electric supply. 

The Electric Lighting Amendment Act of 1888 at last 
permitted the advance of Electrical enterprise all through 
the country. Many who could afford to do so had already 
adopted the light and fitted up their own separate instal- 
lations, and in London the Grosvenor Gallery Company 
were supplying a few customers with current by means of 
overhead cables, which it was alleged did not come under 
the Act of 1882. During the last five years much has 
been done ; i)owers have been granted to a number of 
public companies both in London and the provinces, 
and experience, together with keen competition, has 
brought about several different systems for Electric 
supply. 

Before mentioning the various Supply Companies, the 
means by which Electricity may be distributed must first 
be considered. For this purpose the systems may be 
conveniently classified under the heads of High, Medium, 
and Low Pressure. 



86 ELEGTBIGITT UP TO DATB 

Electricity is so different to steam, water, or gas, that it 
is at all times difficult to comprehend. But 
Pressure ^^ order to explain its phenomena coherently 

it often becomes necessary to liken them to 
effects produced by some other body of a more determin- 
able nature. Thus the "head" or pressure of water 
flowing in a pipe, forms some analogy to the pressure of 
Electricity passing through a conductor. Again, water 
encounters resistance from friction in its flow through the 
pipe, and the passage of a current of Electricity through 
a conductor implies also a certain amount of resistance 
overcome. This resistance can be diminished by increas- 
ing the size of the conductor, but in the problem of the 
economical distribution of Electricity, the size and cost of 
the copper conductors is always an important factor. On 
the other hand, by increasing the pressn/re of Electricity, 
smaller cables can be used, in the same way that water at 
a high pressure does not require such a large pipe to 
convey it as does water at a low pressure. 

As it will be necessary to refer frequently in this chapter 
Th V It ^ *^® pressure of Electricity — ^that is, its 

Electro-Motive Force (written for short 
E.M.P.) — it may be well to note that the unit of pressure 
is called a volt. Many people ask what a volt is, how, 
much it is, and so on ; but an exact scientific definition 
(see Glossary) conveys but little meaning to many. How 
many people know exactly what a pound or a pint is? 
although no doubt they can form a pretty accurate mental 
picture of their respective amounts. But it is found in 
all cases that a frequent use of a term conveys in the 
course of time a very real meaning. So it will be with 
the volt — the unit of pressure in Electricity. At the 
same time it should be remembered that the system of 
Electrical units is based on thorough scientific principles, 



THE PUBLIC SUPPLY OF ELECTRICITY 87 

which enable the standardfi of pressure, current, and re- 
sistance to be reproduced when required, irrespective of 
such standards of measurement as three barley-corns to 
the inch, or the length of the king's foot. 

As was mentioned in Chapter IV., the Incandescent 
Lamp is constructed to bum at various 
Direct '^^^^^ pressures, but as yet few durable lamps are 
manufactured to withstand a higher pres- 
sure than 110 volts. The Electrical pressure, therefore, 
on the lamp mains must not exceed this. 

In the system of distribution first devised by Mr. Edi- I 
son he used a current of 110 volts, so that the lamps I 
might be supplied "Direct" from the dynamo. Low ' 
pressure such as this requires large copper cables, and 
such a current can only be economically distributed within 
a short^distance from the supply station, otherwise the 
cost of the copper cables would be very great. 

A modification, however, of the original system was 
afterwards invented independently by Dr. J. Hopkinson f 
in this country and Mr. Edison in America, and is now j 
known as the " Three- Wire System." This has proved of 
great value in Electrical distribution, and is now also being 
largely adopted in connection with high-pressure systems 
as a means of distributing current at a low pressure for 
small areas. 

The Three-Wire System consists of a method of con- 
necting up dynamos in pairs, so that double the pressure 
is produced to that given off by one machine. Three main 
cables are used in this form of distribution, and are so 
connected up to the pair of dynamos that, although they 
may be conveying Electrical energy of a pressure of 200 
volts, the pressure between the central cable and either 
of the outside cables still remains at 100 volts, suitable 
for the house supply direct to the lamp. 



88 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

The higher pressare of 200 volts, however, permits of 
smaller sized cables being used, thus effecting a saving in 
their cost which, in an extensive system of snpply, would 
amount to a very large sum. 

The success of this method of distribution has caused a 
further development of it, and at Manchester a five-wire 
system is in use, where four dynamos are so connected 
together that Electricity can be distributed through the 
five mains at a pressure of 400 volts, and yet the required 
low pressure of 100 volts is obtained by the house mains 
being connected up to different pairs of the five cables 
employed in the system. The methods of connection 
and regulation, however, in this system being more com- 
plicated, render it less likely to meet with the same 
favour and success the three-wire system of distribution 
has attained. 

Another variation of the low-pressure system of dis- 
tribution is that in which accumulators are 
Low Pres- employed as an adjunct. These are usually 
Acxnunulators P^*^®^ ** *^® station, to act not only as a 
sponge which can be squeezed when the 
engines require assistance, but als<j as regulators, and in 
addition by supplying the total en /rent when there is least 
demand for light, they enable the machinery to be shut 
down and the working expenses of the station to be 
reduced. 

Whether the use of accumulators affords a more reliable 
public supply of Electricity has always been a debatable 
point, and the question is whether the reserve at a central 
station should be in the shape of accumulators, or should 
depend rather upon a proper arrangement of the machinery, 
so that in the event of a breakdown only one machine 
is affected. Many engineers affirm their preference for 
a mechanical and Electrical reserve^ suqh as duplicate 



THB PUBLIC SUPPLY OF BLBCTBICITY 89 

machinery, rather than a chemical reserve in the form of 
accumulators. 

But it is not proposed, either here or elsewhere, to 
enter into the economic aspects of the varipus systems, 
as this is more a question for the directors to justify to 
their shareholders. 

A serious objection to a low-pressure system is that the 
central station must be approximately in the centre of the 
district to be supplied, a position which it is not always 
possible to obtain ; while there are many other objections 
to so erecting a large central station, with its accompany- 
ing noise and nuisance to the neighbourhood. One such 
station would be required to at least every square mile of 
the town, for it is impossible to give an economical supply 
of low-pressure Electricity beyond a certain distance from 
the station. 

Again, it will easily be understood that the cost of long 
lengths of thick copper cables laid in the streets is one of 
the chief items in the expenditure of an Electric Supply 
Company, and if these cables can be diminished in size 
by employing currents of a higher pressure, a great saving 
results. This is the keystone to all questions of Elec- 
trical distribution* 

The longer the cable, the more resistance there is to 
the passage of the current, and the thicker 
Medium and ^he copper needs to be. By usinff Elec- 
fi^tems. tncity at a medium pressure — say at 1000 

volts — Electric currents can be conveyed 
by small mains for some two or three miles, and with only 
a slight loss. In many cases much higher pressures than 
this are employed. Mr. Ferranti devised a high-pressure 
system for the London Electric Supply Corporation, 
whereby Electric currents of 10,000 volts pressure are 
brought all the way from Deptford to Central London, 



90 



ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



The Trans 
former. 



and high-pressure systems of 5000 volts are employed for 
lighting Eome and many other cities on the Continent 
The use of medium or high-pressure currents thus enables 
Electricity to be economically conveyed a long distance 
by small copper conductors. But it has been already 
pointed out that few durable incandescent lamps are at 
present made to withstand a higher pressure than 110 
volts. Therefore, when medium or high-pressure currents 
are used, there must be some device for reducing the 
pressure before the current enters the house, and for this 
reason they are known as "transformer systems." 

The question is often asked, " What is a transformer ? " 
and as it will be a matter of interest to many 
during the next few years, it is desirable to 
reply at some little length. It has been 
already explained in Chapter II. that dynamos can be 

designed to give off either con- 
tinuous or what is termed ** alter- 
nating " Electric currents. It is 
in connection with transformers 
that the latter currents have 
hitherto been found so useful. 

The illustration shows a trans- 
former or converter. The mains 
from the street are connected to 
the top or high-pressure termi- 
nals, while the lamp-wires to the 
house are attached to the bottom 
side. Although the two sets of 
wires within the transformer do 
not come into Electrical contact, 
the moment a high-pressure alternating current is passed 
through the high-pressure Primary wires a current of low- 
pressure is "induced " in the Secondary or lamp wires. 




THE TBANSFOBMER. 



THE PUBUO SUPPLY OF ELECTRICITY 9 1 

At each alternation of the high-pressure current the flow 
of Electricity assumes the form of a wave. Every time 
these high-pressure alternations or waves take place, 
Electric waves or currents are " induced " in the neigh- 
bouring low-pressure coils. The occurrence of these 
changes is so rapid that the series of induced currents 
of Electricity produced in the secondary mains has, as 
far as Electric lighting is concerned, exactly the same 
effect as a continuous current. So long as the high- 
pressure alternating wave current remains steady, the 
incandescent lamp preserves a constant brilliancy, never 
for a moment flickering or decreasing its light. It must 
be remembered, however, that Electric currents are 
only thus " induced " when the high-pressure current 
alternates or tuaves and changes its form, so that a am- 
timums current is not applicable for such induction 
purposes. 

It will be understood that before the transformer system 
was brought to its present perfection, a great amount of 
experience had to be gained in the use of transformers 
to enable them to be designed so that the right pressure 
of current is economically induced in the secondary or 
house^ wires, and so that it could be properly regulated. 
Nothing, however, can be simpler than the apparatus as 
it now is ; the high-pressure mains from the street are 
simply connected to one side of the transformer, while 
the wires from the house are connected to the other. 
There is no moving mechanism, and the two sets of wires 
do not come into Electrical contact, yet Electricity of the 
desired low pressure is obtained. When one reads of 
this, it almost seems that with Electricity one has simply 
to order, and however difficult, and whatever the require- 
ments may be, it is immediately found they can be carried 
out! 



92 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

One of the chief reasons for the success the transfonner 
system has achieved is, that it enables a company to light 
a large area economically nnder conditions which would 
be impossible with any other system. The station can 
be erected at a distance from this district to be lighted, 
for at a comparatively low cost it is possible to convey 
Electricity economically any reasonable distance from the 
station. It is not necessary to wait for a number of 
people in a street to agree to use the light before the 
expense of heavy cables is incurred Small mains can be 
run to feed only a few transformers, and thus custom for 
the Electricity is quickly obtained, working expenses paid, 
and a dividend earned. 

The method of supply generally adopted at first, is to 
place transformers in the consumer's house, and as the 
demand for light becomes more general, groups of trans- 
formers can be placed in sub- centres for distributing 
low-pressure currents to several streets around it. This 
method enables a supply company to ascertain the streets 
or districts in which the demand for light will justify the 
capital outlay on low-pressure supply mains. 

When a very high pressure is employed, such as the 
10,000 volts current of the London Electric Supply Cor- 
poration, it was considered desirable to transform it down 
twice — first, to 2500 volts at transformer stations, and 
finally at each house to the lamp pressure used, 100 volts. 
This double conversion necessarily means more loss, but 
it is urged by the advocates of this system that all 
such loss is amply outweighed by the advantages gained. 
The supply station can be erected well out of the city, 
where noise and nuisance are not objections, where rent 
is low, a large site obtainable, and where coal can be 
transported direct from the collier-boats. 

Distribution by means of high and medium pressure 



THE PtBLIC SUPI»LY OF ELKCTlUCITY 93 

currents has proved most serviceable in many districts 
where Electric lighting has hitherto been in demand. 
It can therefore be qnite understood that every effort has 
been made to devise a system by which high-pressure 
eontinwms currents, as well as high-pressure alternating 
currents, can be transformed down to the low pressure 
required for the incandescent lamps. It is only recently 
that any real advance has been made in this direction. 

It is obvious that alternate currents cannot be used 
High Pres- ^ charge accumulators, for an accumulator 
sure with requires a steady and continuous flow of 

Accumulators, current from one plate to another,' in order 
to produce the required chemical changes. If the current 
were alternating, the work done by the flow of current in 
one direction would be at once undone at the next alter- 
nation by the flow in the opposite direction. An arrange- 
ment of accumulators has been, however, devised by which 
several sets are coupled up together and charged by high- 
pressure continuous currents, and then each set discharged 
separately to the low-pressure mains. In this way high- 
pressure continuous currents have been in some instances 
made available for low-pressure supply. 

However, a more satisfactory solution of the diflSculty 
High Pros- ^^ using high-pressure continuous currents 
sure with the has been arrived at by the invention of the 
Motorgener- Motor-generator. Graphically speaking, the 

'" high-pressure current works an Electric- 

motor, which in its turn drives a dynamo, the latter pro- 
ducing the low-pressure current. The combination can 
be made most compact, one armature only being utilised 
and constructed so as to have a commutator at each end 
for the high and low pressure currents respectively. 

To the ordinary observer it would appear that high- 
pressure Electricity is sent in at one commutator and by 



94 KLKCTKIOITY UP TO DATE 

the amiatnre rotating low-pressure Electricity is delivered 
at the other, and this is practically what does occur, so 
simple and yet so complex are the ways of Electric 
currents. 

Although these Motor-generators are unsuited to be 
fixed in each house like the alternate current transformer, 
they may be advantageously used in sub-stations from 
which current at low pressure can then be distributed to 
the streets around. 

It has been now explained how high-pressure alternating 
High PresBiiTe currents can be converted to low-pressure 
Multiphase currents by means of the '* Transformer/' 
Ourrents. and how the same^ result can be obtained 

with high-pressure contimLom currents by means of the 
** Motor-generator." 

Each of these systems has, of course, its special advan- 
tages and disadvantages The exceptional simplicity and 
the efficiency of the " Transformer " method of conversion 
renders the alternate current by far the better system for 
transmitting and distributing Electric Energy at a high 
pressure. Unfortunately a serviceable and efficient alter- 
I nate current Electric motor has not yet been constructed. 
Again, accumulators cannot be charged by such currents, 
and continuous currents are also better for the steady 
working of arc lamps. 

It seems, however, probable that the practicable advan- 
tages of both may be combined in the future, through the 
developments now taking place in connection with multi- 
phase currents. (See page 20.) 

Such two-phase or multiphase alternate currents have 
all the advantages of the simple alternate current, and 
conversion from high to low pressure (or vice versa) is 
effected by the transformer in the same simple and efficient 
manner. 



THE PUBLIC SUPPLY OF ELECTRICITY 95 

Recent experimental work has also shown that such 
two-phase currents can be so arranged in relation to one 
another on suitable commutators that in a machine anal- 
ogous to the motor-generator just described, continuous 
currents of any desired pressure can be excited by them. 

With such a machine, multiphase alternating currents 
might be used for high-pressure transmission and distri- 
bution, and for which in many respects they are so 
admirably adapted, and at suitable sub-stations they could 
be transformed down to either simple alternate low-pres- 
sure or continuous low-pressure currents at will. 

These developments belong to quite recent eixperimental 
work ; but if such a system could be really practicable, 
the advantages of high-pressure would be combined with 
all those of the low-pressure system. 

By such a plan Electricity would be generated at one 
or more large stations some distance away and brought 
to the sub-stations, from whence the low-pressure supply 
would be distributed by means of either alternate or con- 
tinuous currents to the different parts of a city or town. 
Many Electricians look upon this as likely to be the ulti- 
mate solution of the problem of distribution in the future, 
when nearly every house in a street demands current for 
light, power, or other purposes, and when the time comes 
for the erection of large Electric supply stations on the 
same scale as the huge gas-works around London and 
provincial towns. 

Much has been said and written of the danger of high 
pressure, but Mr. W. H. Preece, the chief Electrician of 
the General Post- Office, has remarked that "Electrical 
engineers are far more able to protect the public from even 
50,000 volts tEan gas engineers are to protect the public 
from explosions^ or ordinary steam engineers from burst- 
ing boilers." 



96 ELECTEICITY UP TO DATE 

The different systems of supply have been thus explained 
with as little technical detail as is possible for the proper 
understanding of the subject, and it will be understood 
that a Battle of the Systems has been going on somewhat 
similar to the Battle of the Gauges in the early days of 
railways. In ten years' time considerable alterations will 
probably have been made in all the systems now employed 
for distributing Electricity. But it must not be thought 
from this that the money now being spent by the com- 
panies on central supply stations is likely to be lost, or 
that the undertakings are premature. Many of the altera- 
tions that will be made in the systems of supply cannot 
be undertaken until there is a very general demand for 
current in a district. And whatever the altered arrange- 
ments may be in the future, in some instances they can 
be carried out at comparatively little expense, and without 
depreciating the capital value of the work already done. 

As to the pressure of Electrical supply most suitable for 
existing demands, doubtless many will agree with the 
writer that avoiding the low pressure on the one side and 
the very high pressure on the other, a medium pressure, 
such as is extensively distributed in London by the Metro- 
politan Electric Supply Company, may be considered the 
wisest course to adopt. 



I 




MAP 

Shewing AWASAuoTTEB 

^TO VARIOUS ELECTBJC 
SUPPLY COMPANIES 
'N LONDON. 

January, i^gg 



A, 



1 



THE PUBLIC SUPPLY COMPANIES 97 



CHAPTEB TX. 
THE PUBLIC SUPPLY COMPANIES. 

THE passing of the Electric Light Amendment Act 
of 1888 was the signal for nnmberless applications 
for Provisional Orders for the supply of Electricity. The 
issues involved were of such importance that the Board of 
Trade appointed Major Marindin to hold a public inquiry 
into the different applications and the various systems 
proposed to be employed. 

In the more favoured London districts, for which several 
applications had been made, the Board of Trade decided 
to grant concurrent powers to two companies, but working 
opposing systems, so that in St. James', Piccadilly, for 
instance, the consumer has the choice between a low and 
a high-pressure system of supply. 

Where there is a large demand for Electricity two 
companies can profitably work side by side, and such 
competition is for the public benefit. Such a plan would, 
however, defeat its object in the less favoured districts, as, 
even if capital could be obtained for companies to work 
under such conditions, only one could succeed, and sooner 
or later the other would go to the wall. In London the 
Board of Trade permit a maximum of 8d. per unit (see 
page 169) to be charged for Electrical Energy. Where a 
company with sole powers for a district does its work well, 
and charges less than the maximum (say 7^), the local 
authority and the Board of Trade should seriously consider 

G 



98 KLKOTRICITY UP TO DATE 

what, if any, advantage could be gained by admitttng 
another and speculative company. 

Continual interference with our roads and streets, 
which are already crowded with pipes, would be a serious 
public inconvenience, and certainly investors would do 
well to carefully inquire into the conditions of working 
and especially the competition to be anticipated, before 
they support the promotion of any new competitive 
Electric Supply Companies. 

It is now proposed to briefly summarise the companise 
engaged in the public supply of Electricity under Parlia- 
mentary Powers in London and the Provincial towns. 
The figures given are in all cases up to November 1895, 
and these, as well as the statements made, have been 
verified by application, so far as possible, to the companies 
themselves. The prices for Electrical Energy are per 
Board of Trade Unit (B.T.U.) 

HIGH-PRESSURE SYSTEM. 

The Metropolitan Electrie Supply Company, Ltd. 

Secretary's Office, Winchester House, E.O. 

CAPrTAL, £600,000, consisting of 

49,900 £10 Ordinary ; all subscribed. 

100 £10 Founders' ; all subscribed. 

£260,000 4^ per cent. First Mortgage Debenture Stock ; 

£150,000 issued. 

Quotations since January 1, 1895 — Higheet. Lowest. 

£10 Ordinary 12J-13 l^Hl 

£10 Founders' 276 

£4i per cent Debenture Stock . 118-120 115-117 

Dividends paid— 1891, 1 per cent. ; 1892, 2 per cent. ; 
1893, 2^ per cent. ; 1894, 3 per cent. 
Chairman . . .Sir JOHN PENDER, G.C.M.G., M.P. 
Engineer-in-Chief . Mr. F. BAILEY. 
(Sir John Pender is already well known in connection with Electrical 
matters, from the prominent part he has taken in the successful 
development of submarine telegraphy throughout the world.) 



THE PUBLIC SUPPLY COMPANIES 99 

The important and extensive areas originally granted to this 
Company were farther increased by the addition in 1890 of the 
Paddington district. It has at present sole powers in Holborn, 
Bloomsbury, St. Giles', Lincoln's-Inn-Fields, Marylebone, Padding- 
ton, and the Strand district ; and concwrent powers with the 
Charing Cross and Strand Electricity Supply Corporation over part 
of St Martin-in-the-Pields. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 7Jd. per B.T.U., subject to sliding 
scale. A reduced rate is offered for Electric cooking purposes. 

Length of Mains laid, 250 miles in 100 miles of pipe. 

Lamps connected, 264,600. 

The Metropolitan Electric Supply Company has the dis- 
tinction of being the largest supplier of Electric Energy 
in the kingdom. The plan of operation at present embraces 
five central stations, one of which, at Whitehall, is on 
the low-pressure system, the supply from it being mainly 
taken up by the large buildings in its immediate neigh- 
bourhood. . The four large stations are at Sardinia Street, 
Lincoln's -Inn -Fields; Rathbone Place, Oxford Street; 
South Street, Manchester Square ; and St. Peter's Wharf, 
Paddington. The capacity of each one of these stations 
is alone equal to the total capacity of some of the other 
London Supply Companies. All four stations are con- 
nected together by trunk mains, so that one station can 
at any time assist another in the event of partial disable- 
ment; or can furnish the whole supply of two stations 
during the hours of least demand. 

This is considered preferable to one central under- 
taking, and by establishing a number of self-contained 
stations the Metropolitan Electric Supply Company are 
able to use alternating currents of comparatively low pres- 
sure, viz., 1000 volts. This is reduced by transformers 
fixed in the houses of consumers or in sub-stations. 
Mains, highly insulated with vulcanised rubber, are laid 
in cast-iron pipes, with brick manholes at intervals, into 



lOO KLECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

which Dew cables can be drawn or repairs done withont 
the expense of interfering with the roads. The Metro- 
politan Electric Supply Company, which has a lamp con- 
nection greatly in excess of any other supply company, 
has been very regular in the supply of current to its 
consumers, and undoubtedly has a great future before it. 



City of London Electric Ligrhtingr Company. 

Capital, £800,000, consisting of 
40,000 £10 Ordinary ; all subscribed. 
40,000 £10 Cumulative Preference 6 per cent; all subscribed. 
There is also an authorised Debenture Stock, 5 per cent, amount- 
ing to £400,000, of which £300,000 is subscribed, and £100,000 is 
about to be issued. 

Quotations since January 1895 — Highest. Lowest. 

£10 Ordinary 13-13^ Hf-Hf 

£10 Cumulative Preference . . 16|-16| 14^-14^ 

Dividends paid — 

1894, £10 Ordinary . . . 2^ per cent 
„ £10 Cumulative Preference, 6 „ 

Chairman .Sir DAVID SALOMONS, Bart. 

Engineer and Manager . Mr. FRANK BAILEY. 

This Company has at present sole powers over the entire City 
proper from Temple Bar to Tower Hill, and from Smithfield Market 
to the Thames, and also the district of St Saviour's, South wall. 
The system employed is a medium-pressure distribution at 2000 
volts, the current being continuous in the case of the street Arc 
lamps, and alternating with transformer stations for the supply of 
Incandescent lamps. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 8d. per B.T.U., subject to a sliding 
scale in accordance with the agreement made with the City autho- 
rities. A reduced rate of 4d. is offered for cooking or motive power. 

Length of Mains laid, about 90 miles. 

Lamps connected equivalent to 190,000 8 c.-p. and 490 Arc lamps 
for the public lighting of the City. 



THB PUBLIC SUPPLY COMPANIES lOI 

HIGH-PRESSURE SYSTEM. 

The London Electric Supply Corporation, Ltd. 

Offices, 25a Cockspur Street, S.W. 

Capital, £1,250,000, consisting of 

200,000 £5 Ordinary ; £655,000 subscribed. 

50,000 £5 6 per cent Preference; all subscribed. 

£80,000 5 per cent. Debentures. 

Quotations since January 1, 1893 — Highest. Lowett 

£6 Ordinary Ij-lf H 

£5 Preference 2^-2} 1J-1| 

Dividend paid — 1890, 6 per cent. 

Receiver and Mcmager . . Mr. R. STEWART BAIN, O.A. 

This Corporation has at present sole powers in the Parishes of 
Rotherhithe, Bermondsey, Clerkenwell, St Mary's, Newington, Cam- 
berwell, St George the Martyr, St Olave's and parts of Southwark, 
Greenwich, and Lambeth : concwrent powers with the Westminster 
E. S. Co. in the Parishes of St Margaret's and St John's, West- 
minster, and St George's, Hanover Square ; with the Chelsea E. S. 
Co. over part of the Parish of Chelsea ; with the St James' and Pall 
Mall E. S. Co. in the Parish of St James', Westminster, and with 
the Charing Cross and Strand Electricity Supply Corporation in 
part of St Martin-in-the-Fields. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U. 

Length of Mains laid, 70 miles. 

Lamps connected, 80,000 Incandescent and 95 Ara 

The L. E. S. Corporation has the distinction of being the 
pioneer in the public supply of Electricity, as it is the 
successor of a company originally formed for supplying 
Electric light to the Grosvenor Picture Gallery and Library 
in Bond Street by means of a station in the basement of 
that building. After a time, the light being found to 
work satisfactorily, a number of buildings in the neigh- 
bourhood had connections made by means of overhead 
cables, and the Grosvenor Gallery Company soon became 



I02 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

the centre of a small system of Electric supply. The 
demand for light continually increased, and a number of 
large houses about Mayfair and Hyde Park were included, 
until in 1888 — ^the year of the Amendment of the Electric 
Lighting Act — it was found impossible to supply more 
lights, the machinery being already overloaded. 

The encouragement accorded to their early efiEorts in- 
duced the Directors to undertake the supply of Electricity 
on a larger scale. The old company was converted into 
the London Electric Supply Corporation, and a new station 
of colossal dimensions was erected at Deptford. 

High-pressure alternating currents of 10,000 volts are 
conveyed from the Deptford station by underground trunk 
mains to what are called " transformer stations," one of 
which is at the Grosvenor Gallery, and others at Adelphi 
Terrace, Trafalgar Square, Belgrave Mansions, Blackfriars 
Road, and Deptford. Here transformers are fixed, by 
which the current is converted from 10,000 to 2500 volts, 
and the latter pressure on reaching the house transformer 
is in its turn converted to 100 volts pressure for the lamp 
supply. 

The House-to-House ElectFic Supply Company Ltd. 

Office, EiCHHOND Road, Kensington. 

Capital, £350,000, consisting of 

67,900 £6 Ordinary ; £41,610 subscribed. 

25,000 £67 per cent. Cumulative Preference ; all subscribed. 

100 £5 Founders' ; all subscribed. 
500 4^ per cent. Mortgage Debenture Stock ; all subscribed. 
Quotation since January 1, 1896— 

Ordinary £6 shares 4jt~4i 

7 per cent. Convert. Pref. .... 8-8f 
4i per cent. Debentures .... 97-102 97-100 
Dividends paid — 1891, 7 per cent. ; 1892, 7 per cent ; 

1893, 7 per cent. ; 1894, 7 per cent. 
Chairman , , Mr. H. R. BEETON. 



THE PUBLIC SUPPLY COMPANIES IO3 

At present sole powers are possessed over various portions of the 
large Parish of St. Mary Abbotts, Kensington. 

The station is in Eichmond Road, and the alternating current 
generated is of 2000 volts pressure, reduced by transformers fixed 
in consumers' houses. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 8d. per B.T.n., subject to discounts. 

Lamps connected, 41,635. 

The Hampstead Vestry. 

Electricity Department, Lithos Boad, Findelet Road, N.W. 
Electrical Engineer . . Mr. G. H. COTTAM. 

High-pressure alternating currents of 2000 volts are employed 
with transformers at sub-stations, from which a low-pressure supply 
of 100 volts is distributed by the three- wire system. The street 
lighting is by means of 23 Arc lamps, supplied from high-pressure 
continuous currents, the lamps being worked in series. 

Charge for Electric Eneigy, 6d. per B.T.U., with sliding scale. 

Lamps connected, 18,000 8 c-p. and 23 Arcs. 

The Chelsea Electricity Supply Company, Ltd. 

Secretary's Office, 19 Cadogak Gardens, Chelsea, S.W. 

Capital, £100,500, consisting of 

14,000 £5 Ordinary ; all subscribed. 

6000 £6 6 per cent. Preference ; all subscribed. 

600 £1 Founders' ; all subscribed. 

600 £4| per cent Debenture Stock ; all subscribed. 

Dividends paid — 1892, ^ per cent, on Ordinary Shares. 
1893, 5 „ „ „ „ 

1894, 5 „ „ „ „ 

1894, 6 „ „ Preference Shares. 

Chamnan . . Mr. J. IRVING COURTENAY. 

This Company has concwrretU powers with the L. E. S. Corpora- 
tion over the whole of the Parish of Chelsea (but the L. E. S. 
Corporation are prevented by an agreement from seeking to supply 
a portion of the Parish). 

The Chelsea E. S. Co. has been included under the medium- 



104 ELBOTRICITY UP TO DATE 

pressure diyision, although its system is in its way unique. The 
generating stations are in Draycott Place and Manor Street, and the 
continuous currents of 500 or 1000 volts are reduced by means of a 
motor-generator (see page 93), in connection with accumulators, at 
sub-stations, the current being distributed to consumers on a network 
of mains at low pressure. 

At first this reduction of pressure to the house-supply of 100 volts 
was accomplished entirely by means of sets of accumulators coupled 
up as mentioned in the last chapter, and erected at three sub- 
stations. Now the motor-generator, as a simpler and more econo- 
mical method, is used during the period of maximum demand for 
current, the accumulators being employed as usual for the remainder 
of the twenty-four hours ; and during the period of least demand the 
machinery is entirely shut down. It is desirable to add that this 
system, the economy of which has often been viewed with doubt, 
has proved commercially successful 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U., with sliding scale. 

Length of streets in which Mains are laid, about 9 miles. 

Lamps connected, about 55,000 Incandescent and 4 Arcs. 



LOW-PRESSURE SYSTEM. 

The Westminster Electric Supply Corporation, Ltd. 

Offices, EcxTLBSTON Place, Belgbayia, S.W. 

Capital, £400,000, consisting of 

80,000 £5 Ordinary ; 68,000 issued. 

294 £100 5 per cent Debentures ; all subscribed. 

706 £100 4^ per cent Debentures ; all subscribed. 

Quotations since January 1, 1895 — Highest. Lowest 

£5 Ordinary 8|-9J 7^-8 

Dividends paid — 1892, 3^ per cent ; 1893, 3 per cent ; 
1894, 6 per cent ; 1896, 5 per cent 

Chairmcm .... Lord SUFFIELD, K.C.B. 
General Manager . . . Captain E. I. BAX. 

This Corporation has sole powers over part of Westminster, and 
concv/rrent powers with the L. E. S. Corporation over the greater 
portion of Westminster, and part of St George's, Hanover Square. 



THE PUBLIC SUPPLY COMPANIES IO5 

The central stations are Eccleston Place, S.W., Millbank Street, 
S.W., and Davies Street, W. lliis Corporation is now the second 
largest supplier of Electric Energy in London. Its mains extend 
throughout the whole of the area for which it has Parliamentary 
powers, and it is responsible for the major portion of the lighting of 
the high-class residential district c^ Mayfair. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.IJ. for lighting, and 4d. 
per B.T.U. for motive power. 

Lamps connected, 204,000 8 c-p. 



The St. James' and Pall Hall Eleetrie Ught 
Company, Ltd. 

Office, Oabnabt Street, Golden Square, W. 

Capital, £200,000, consisting of 

19,980 £6 Ordinary ; all subscribed. 

20,000 £5 7 per cent. Preference ; all subscribed. 

100 £1 Founders' ; all subscribed. 

Quotations since January 1, 1894 — Highest Lowest 

£6 Ordinary 8J-8i 6-6^ 

£5 Preference 9i-9i YJ-^J 

Founders' 200-260 150-200 

Dividends paid — 
Ordinary £5, 1890, 6 per cent. ; 1891, 8J per cent. ; 1892, 7J per 

cent. ; 1893, 4^ per cent. ; 1894, 6^ per cent. 
Preference £5, 1891, 7 per cent. ; 1892, 7 per cent ; 1893, 7 per 
cent ; 1894, 7 per cent. 

Founders', 1891, £10 ISs. ; 1892, £3, 3s. 

Chairmcm . . . Mr. E. J. A. BALFOUR. 

This Company has concurrent powers with the London E. S. 
Corporation, Ltd., for St James', Westminster 

The station at Mason's Yard, St. James*, has now been in opera- 
tion nearly seven years, and a second station has been completed in 
Camaby Street, Golden Square, the two stations being connected 
together by means of a trunk main. 



I06 KLECTRICITT UP TO DATE 

This Company'B ai«a of supply, comprising that province recog- 
nised as " ClublttDd," and including Regent Street, Piccadilly, and 
a portion of the southern side of Oxford Street, possesses unique 
advantages for the profitable supply of Electrical Energy. 

As the area supplied is not an extensive one, although the 
demand for current is very great, the district may be termed 
extremely suitable for the low-pressure three- wire system which is 
employed. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U. 

Length of Mains, 10 miles. 

Lamps connected, 90,000 Incandescent and 80 Arcs. 



The Kensington and Enlghtsbridgre Electrle Ligrht 
Company, Ltd. 

Office, 148 Brompton Road, S.W. 

Capital, £350,000, consisting of 

60,000 £5 Ordinary ; £76,000 subscribed. 

10,000 £5 6 per cent. First Preference ; all subscribed. 

10,000 £5 5 per cent Second Preference ; 2500 issued. 

600 £4 4 per cent Debenture Stock. 

Quotations on November 1, 1896 — 

£5 Ordinary 8-8^ 

6 per cent First Preference . . 7-7J 

5 per cent Second Preference . . ^i-^i 

4 per cent Debenture Stock . 102-104 

Dividends paid — £6 Ordinary, 1891, 2 per cent ; 1892, 4 per 
cent ; 1893, 5 per cent ; 1894, 6 per cent 

Chairman .Mr. GRANVILLE RYDER. 

This Company has at present sole powers in part of the large 
Parish of St. Mary Abbotts, Kensington, and part of St Margaret's, 
Westminster. 

Originally known as the Kensington Court E. L. Co., it was one 
of the earliest to supply Electricity (1887) to houses on the estate 
from which it took its name. The Company now have two stations 



THE PUBLIC SUPPLY COMPANIES I07 

— at KenBington Court, and Chapel Place, Enightsbridge— and a 
new battery station near Qaeen's Gate. The distributing mains 
consist partly of hare copper strips supported on insulators, and 
chiefly placed in biick conduits under the pavement, and partly 
of cables in iron pipes. The former system, although at one time 
severely criticised, has proved satisfactory, and several miles are 
laid in this maimer throughout the district. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U. 

Length of Mains laid, 19^ miles. 

Lamps connected, 90,750. 



The Charing: Cross and Strand Eleetrieity Supply 
Corporation, Ltd. 

Office, 12 Maiden Lane, W.C. 

Capital, £260,000, consisting of 

60,000 £5 Ordinary ; £30,000 subscribed. 

100,000 £6 per cent. Debentures ; £67,600 issued. 

Quotations since January 1, 1893 — Highest. Lowest 

£6 Ordinary 5-6^^^ 4|--6J 

Debentures (1900) .... 100-103 100-101 

Diyidends paid — 1892, 6 per cent. ; 1893, 4^ per cent ; 
1894, 4i per cent 

This Company bas concurrent powers with the L. E. S. Corpora- 
tion, and the M. E. S. Co. over the Parish of St Martin-in-the-Fields. 
The station in Maiden Lane was originally erected by Messrs. Qatti 
to light their Adelphi Theatre and Adelaide Eestaurant, but in 
1889 Parliamentary powers were obtained, the station considerably 
enlaiged, and the supply extended to the Parish of St Martin-in- 
the-Fields. The three -wire system has been adopted by the 
Corporation. 

. Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U., sliding scale to 6d. 
per B.T.U. 

Length of Mains laid, about 28 miles. 

Lamps connected, 48,000 8 c-p. Incandescent and 62 Arcs. 



I08 ELIEOTMCITY UP TO DATB 

The Notting Hill Electrie Lightingr Company, Ltd. 

Offices, BuLMEB Place, Hiqh Street, Nottinq Hill, 

London, W. 

Capital, £100,000, consifltdng of 

6452 £10 Ordinary ; all subBcribed. 

2998 Ordinary Preference 6 per cent cumulative ; 

£18,600 subscribed. 

560 £10 Founders' ; all subscribed. 

Quotations since January 1, 1894 — Highest. Lowest. 

£10 Ordinary 9^ 6^ 

6 per cent. Cumulatiye Preference . 10-12 

Founders' 10-20 

Chairman . . . Professor CROOKES, F.RS. 

The Company has at present sole powers for part of St Mary 
Abbotts, Kensington, including the districts of Holland Park, 
Campden Hill, and Kensington Park. The system employed is 
the same as the Kensington and Knightsbridge. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 8d. per B.T.U. 

Length of Mains laid, about 15 miles. 

Lamps connected, 19,000 Incandescent and 6 Area. 

The Islington Vestry. 

This Vestry, following the example of the St Pancras Vestry, is 
about to undertake the supply of Electricity for certain portions 
of its area. 

An Electricity supply station is now in course of erection, but 
no official information can be obtained. 

The St. Pancras Vestry. 

Electricity and Public Lighting Department, 

Offices, 67 Pratt Street, N.W. 

Electrical Engineer . . . Mr. S. W. BAYNES. 

The Regent's Park station, near the junction of Euston Road and 
Hampstead Road, is now complete, and is the first of four that will 



THE PUBLIC SUPPLY COMPANIES - IO9 

be ultimately required for this Parish. The three- wire system is 
employed, and current thus distributed direct to consumers' houses. 
The public supply commenced on 9th November 1891. 

A second station in connection with a Refuse Destructor Works 
is now in operation at King's ttoad, and the mains from this 
station are laid on the five- wire system. 

In the future, all gas, water, and kindred undertakings will 
doubtless be owned and worked by Municipal Corporations, but 
in this respect London, from its huge and varied area, will always 
present problems different from smaller cities. Although the supply 
given is excellent, St. Pancras can hardly be termed a self-contained 
parish, as its boundaries run in and out of other parishes. If, 
therefore, each local authority, as London is at present constituted, 
were to set up its own public undertakings, the metropolis of the 
world would soon present a very anomalous state of affairs. 

The charge for Electric Energy is 6d. per B.T.U., and a reduced 
rate, viz., 3d. per B.T.U., for Electricity used for motive power 
during the day-time. 

The length of mains laid for public lighting is about 8 mUes, 
supplying the 97 Arc lamps now erected for the lighting of Totten- 
ham Court Road, Euston Road, Hampstead Road, High Street, 
Camden Road, Park Street, and Gordge Street ; and for the private 
lighting 6^ miles, to which are already connected nearly 19,600 
16 c-p. Incandescent lamps. Twenty-seven motors, aggregating 
about 104 h.-p., are also in use. 



no ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



CHAPTER X. 

PROVINCIAL ELECTRIC SUPPLY COMPANIES. 

During the past year the supply of Electric Energy has 
been undertaken by a large number of the Provincial 
Corporations, until now there are few towns where a 
public supply of Electric Energy is not being afforded, 
either by the Corporation themselves or a Company 
acting under Parliamentary Powera 

Aberdeen Electric Ligrhting. 

CfUy Electrical Efigineer . . . Mb. A. S. BLAGKMAN. 

The Corporation have established a central Electricity works for 
the supply of current for lightmg and power, under Provisional 
Order, at a cost of £29,260. 

The system employed for private lighting is the low-pressure 
continuous current system. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U. for lighting, and 4d. 
for motive power. Price of gas, Ss. 4d. per 1000 cubic feet. 

Number of lamps connected, 13,500 8 c-p. 

City of Bath Electric Lighting and Engineering 
Company, Ltd. 

Offices, DoBCHBSTBB Stbsbt, Bath. 
Dividend paid — Ordinary, 1891, 4 per cent 

This Company commenced lighting in June 1890, and in 1891 
ohtained a contract for a period of seven years. The high-pressure 
system is used, and 2000 volts alternating currents are employed, with 
transformers to reduce this pressure to 100 volts for the lamp circuits. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U., with rebate to large 
consumers. Gas is 2s. 6d. per 1000 cubic feet. 

Laynps connected, 10,600 8 c-p. and 84 Arcs for street lighting. 



PROVINCIAL ELECTRIC SUPPLF COMPANIES III 

Bedford Electric Lighting. 

B(yrough Electrical Engineer . Mr. W. J. HOPE- JOHNSTONE. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Enei^ under a Pro- 
visional Order, and have erected a central supply station at a cost 
of ^4,000 on the high-pressure system. Alternating currents of 
2000 volts are used, this pressure being reduced at transformer 
stations, and distributed by means of the three-wire system for 
the lamp circuits of 100 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U. Gas is 3s. 3d. per 
1000 cubic feet 

Lamps connected, 4500 8 c-p. 

Burnley Electric Lighting. 

Borough Electric Engineer . . Mr. F. THURSFIELD. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Pro- 
visional Order, and have erected a central supply station at a cost 
of £21,000 on the low-pressure three-wire system, with accumulators 
(see page 88). 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U., and 3d. per B.T.U. 
for motive power. 

Lamps connected, 9000 8 c-p. 

The Birmingham Electric Supply Company, Ltd. 

Offices, 14 Dale End, Birmingham. 

Capital, £200,000, consisting of 

20,000 £5 Ordinary ; fully subscribed. 

10,000 £6 Ordinary ; £10,000 subscribed. 

Quotation since January 1, 1895, 6-6 j^. 

Dividends paid — 1892, 3^ per cent ; 1893, 4 per cent. ; 
1894, 4 per cent. 

Managing Engineer . . Mr. J. C. VAUDREY, M.LC.E. 

This Company has at present eole powers in Birmingham. The 
low-pressure system is employed, but outlying districts are supplied 



112 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

from the central generating station by means of high-pressure (1000 
volts), direct current motor transformers distributing at 110 volts. 

The supply of Electric light given by this Company has afforded 
general satisfaction, and towards the latter end of 1894 this Ck>mpany, 
under an extension of their Provisional Order, acquired powers over 
the residential district of Edgbaston and also the Jewellers' Quarter. 
Edgbaston is the wealthy residential suburb of Birmingham, and 
lines of mains have been laid through the principal roads, while in 
the Jewellers' Quarter, where there are some six or seven hundred 
manufacturing jewellers, employing from half-a-dozen to two hun- 
dred men, the Company in extending their system to this district 
hope to do a considerable business in the supply of cuiTent for 
small motors, &c. 

Charge for Electrical Energy is 7d. per B.T.U., with a sliding 
scale to 5d. ; a rate of 4d. per unit is charged for current when used 
for lighting basement premises or for manufacturing purposes. Gas 
is 2s. 7d. per 1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, equivalent to 35,000 8 c-p. lamps. 



Blackpool Electrie Ugrhtingr. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . . Mb. JOHN HESEETH. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Provi- 
sional Order, and have erected a central supply station at a cost 
of £58,000 on the high-pressure system. Alternating currents of 
2000 volts are used, this pressure being reduced by transformers 
for the lamp circuits of 100 volts. 

The Arc lighting system is by high-pressure continuous currents. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U., with a sliding scale. 
Gas is 2s. 4d. per 1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, 24,000 8 c-p. and 161 Arc for street and pri- 
vate lighting. 

Bolton Eleetrie Lightingr. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . . Ma. J. H. RIDER, M.LE.K 

The Corporation are supplying Electiic Energy under a Provi- 
sional Order, and in 1894 erected, at a cost of £23,000, a central 
supply station on the high-pressure system. Alternating currents 
of 2000 volts are used, this pressure being reduced at transformer 



PROVINCIAL ELECTRIC SUPPLY COMPANIES II 3 

stations, and distributed by means of the three-wire system, with 
lamp circuits of 100 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U., with a sliding scale. 
Price of gas, 2s. 6d. per 1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, 8000 8 c-p. 

Bournemouth and District Electric Supply 
Company, Ltd. 

Offices, Albert Road, Bournemouth. 
Capital, £60,000, consisting of 
10,000 £5 Ordinary ; £28,625 subscribed. 
Dividends paid — 1891, 6 per cent (for seven months) ; 1892, 6 per 
cent. ; 1893, 6 per cent ; 1894, 6 per cent for first six months, 
lliere is also an issue of £10,000 6 per cent First 
Mortgage Debentures. 
The system employed is the high-tension alternating with trans- 
formers. The cost of the station is £50,708. 
Lamps connected, 18,800 8 c-p. 

Bradford Electric Lighting. 

Barouyh Electrical Engineer . . . Mr. S. W. BAYNES. 

The Bradford Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under 
a Provisional Order, and have erected a central supply station on 
the low-pressure system upon a site owned by the Coi'poration near 
the centre of the town. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 5d. per B.'I'.U. for lighting, and Sjd. 
per B.T.U. for motive power. Gas is 2s. 3d. per 1000 cubic feet 

Lamps connected, equivalent to 36,057 8 c-p. 

Bray Electric Ligrhtingr. 

The Town Commissioners have now taken over this undertaking. 
The high-pressure system is used, and alternating cun-ents of 1000 
volts are reduced at transformer sub-stations for the lamp circuits 
of 100 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 8d. per B.T.U. Price of gas, 48. 9d. 
per 1000 cubic feet 

Lamps connected, equivalent to 1060 8 c-p. and 30 Arcs for street 
lighting. 

H 



114 ELECTRIOTTT UP TO DATE 

Brigrhton Eleetric Lighting. 

Borough Electrical Engijieer . . . Mb. A, WRIGHT. 

The Brighton Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under 
a Provisional Order, and have erected a central supply station in 
North Boad, Brighton, on the high-pressure system. Alternating 
currents of 2000 volts are used, this pressure being reduced at 
transformer stations, and distributed by means of three- wire system 
for the lamp circuits of 100 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 7d. per B.T.XJ. for the first turn per 
day, 3d. per B.T.U. after. Gas is 2s. lid. per 1000 cubic feet 

Lamps connected, 47,000 8 c-p. and 160 Arcs for street lighting. 
(See also Hove Electric Lighting Company, Ltd.) 

Bristol Eleetrie Ligrhtingr. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . . Mr. H. F. PROCTOR. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Pro- 
visional Order, and have erected a central supply station on the 
high-pressure system. Alternating currents of 2000 volts are used, 
this pressure being reduced at transformer stations for the lamp 
circuits of 100 volts. The Arc lighting is chiefly worked by a 
separate continuous current system. 

Charge for Electric Eneigy, 6d. per B.T.U., and 4d. per B.T.U. 
for day lighting or for motive power. 

Gas is 3s. 2d. per 1000 cubic feet 

Lamps connected, 22,000 8 c-p. and 108 Arcs for street lighting. 

Burton-upon-Trent Electric Ligrhtingr. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . . Mr. F. L. RAMSDEN. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Pro- 
visional Order, and have erected a central supply station at a cost of 
£2600 at Wetmore Road, on the high-pressure system. Alternating 
currents of 2000 volts are used, this pressure being reduced by 
transformers for the lamp circuits of 100 volts. 

The refuse from the gas-works is here utilised at the Electric 
supply stations for fuel 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per unit Gas is 3s. per 1000 
cubic feet 

Lamps connected, 4000 8 c-p. 



PROVINCIAL ELECTRIC SUPPLY COMPANIES II5 

Cambridgre Electric Supply Company, Ltd. 

Works and Offices, Thompson's Lane. 

Capital, £60,000, consisting of 6000 £10 Ordinary. 

4066 Shares issued, £8 paid. 

Chief Electrical Engines, Mr. JOHN H. BARKER, A.M.I.aE. 

The Company have established a central Electricity works for the 
supply of current for lighting and power, under Provisional Order, 
at a cost of £33,000. The system employed is high-pressure alter- 
nating (2000 volts), with transformer stations on consumers' premises. 

Price per unit for lighting and power, 6d. Price of gas per 1000 
cubic feet, 2s. lOd. 

Number of 8 c-p. lamps connected, 14,980 ; Arcs, 4. 



Cardiff Electric Ligrhtingr. 

Borough Electric Engineer . Mb. W. HARPUR, M.I.C.E. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Provi- 
sional Order, and have erected a central supply station at a cost of 
£34,000 on the high-pressure system. Alternating currents of 2000 
volts are used, with transformers in street boxes for reducing the 
pressure to 100 volts for the lamp circuits. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.XJ., and S^d. per B.T.XJ. 
after the first two hours. Gas is 2s. Cd. to 3s. per 1000 cubic feet 

Lamps connected, 8000 8 c-p. and 82 Arcs for street lighting. 

The Chagford and Devon Electric Ught 
Company, Ltd. 

Electrical Engineer .... Mb. E. M. REED. 

This is a small Company, where the high-pressure system is 
employed, and alternating currents of 1000 volts are reduced by 
transformers for the lamp circuits of 100 volts. 

Charge by contract at 8s. per 8 c-p. lamp per annum. Gas is 
6s. lOd. per 1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, equivalent to 592 8 c-p. 



Il6 KLEOTRIOITY UP TO DATE 

Cheltenham Electric Ligrhtingr. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . Mb. HAMILTON KILGOUE. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy on the high ten- 
sion alternating system, with transformer sub-stations. The gene- 
rating station is 1^ miles from the centre of the town, and is adjacent 
to the destructor works, part of the steam from the destructor boiler 
being employed for driving the machinery. 

The cost of the station has been £16,000. 

The price per B.T.XJ. is 6d., subject to discounts on a sliding scale, 
and 5 per cent cash discount 

Chelmsford Electric Lighting: Company, Ltd. 

Offices, Arc Works, Chelmsford. 

Capital, £10,000, consisting of 
2500 £1 Ordinary ; £2387 subscribed. 
7500 £1 Preference ; £5507 subscribed. 

Debentures, £5000, 6 per cent 

Directors . . . Messrs. CROMPTON and ALBRIGHT. 

This Company is working under a Provisional Order, and has 
sole powers in Chelmsford. Electricity is generated in the works 
of Messrs. Crompton & Co., Ltd. ' The supply is on the alternating 
current system, the pressure of 2000 volts being reduced by trans- 
formers to 110 volts for street circuits and 100 volts for private 
consumers. The transformers for the street lighting are attached 
to poles, those for private lighting are banked together in small 
sub-stations. The wiring is principally overhead, fixed to poles on 
the pavements ; but in the centre of the town and at many crossings 
the cables are placed underground in bitumen or other casings. 
The street lighting was commenced April 14, 1890. 

Charge for Electric Energy is 6jd. per B.T.U. Gas is 4s. 6d. per 
1000 cubic feet 

Lamps connected, 4000 Incandescent for private consumers, 250 
32 c-p. and 21 Arcs for street supply. 



PROVINCIAL ELECTRIC SUPPLY COMPANIES II7 

Coventry Electric Lighting^. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . . . Mr. G. S. RAM, A.I.E.E. 

The Corporation have established a central Electricity works, 
under Provisional Order, for the supply of current for lighting 
and power, at a cost of £20,000. The system employed for private 
lighting is high-pressure alternating (2000 volts), with transformer 
sub-stations feeding low-tension (100 volts) network. 

Price per unit, 6d., reduced to 4d. after two hours' use on 
" Brighton " system. Price of gas, 28. 7d. per 1000 cubic feet. 

The works have only very recently been started, and the number 
of lamps connected has not been ascertained. 



The Crystal Palace District Electric Supply 
Company, Ltd. 

Office, Spbingpibld Works, XJppbr Sydenham, S.E. 

Capital, ^100,000, consisting of 

100,000 £1 Ordinary ; £28,586 subscribed. 

^45,000 ^1 per cent. Debentures, with a cumulative interest of £6 

per cent, per annum payable out of profits as and when made. 

Also a £4900 Prior Lien Bond issue at 4^ per cent. 

The high-pressure system is employed, and continuous currents 
of 2000 volts are reduced at sub-stations by means of motor-gene- 
rators to a pressure of 100 volts for the lamp circuits. Seven 
batteries of accumulators are also employed. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 7d. per B.T.U., with sliding scale to 6d. 

Lamps connected, 10,000 8 c-p. 

Derby. 

Borotigh Electrical Engineer . Mr. J. E. STEWART, A.M.I.C.E. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Pro- 
visional Order, and have erected a central supply station on the 
high-pressure system. Alternating currents of 1000 volts are used. 



Il8 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

this pressure being reduced at transformer sub-stations for the lamp 
circuits of 100 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U., and 3d. per B.T.U. 
for motive power. Gas is 2s. 8d. per 1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, 15,000 8 c-p. and 77 Arcs for street lighting. 

Dover Electric Lighting. 

Eleetneal Engineer . . . Mr. A. J. LAWSON. 

This undertaking is at present worked by the London and Pro- 
vincial Brush Electric Lighting Company, Limited, and the high- 
pressure system is adopted. Alternating currents of 2000 volts are 
used, this pressure being reduced by transformers for the lamp 
circuits of 100 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 8d. per B.T.U. Gfas is 2s. 6d. per 
1000 cubic feet 

Lamps connected, 4000 8 c-p. and 31 Arcs for street lighting. 

Dundee Electric Lighting. 

The Dundee Commissioners, who are also the owners of the gas 
works, have erected an Electric supply station, and are supplying 
current on the three-wire low-tension system, under Provisional 
Order granted some three years ago. 

The Mains are bare copper, laid in concrete culverts. 

The capital expended is £34,000. The number of lamps con- 
nected is 11,160 8 c.-p. 

The price per B.T.U. is 6d. Gas is 3s. 4d. per 1000 cubic feet. 

The Eastbourne Electric Lighting Company. 

Office, Grove Road Chambers, Eastbourne. 

Capital, £60,000, consisting of 

6000 £10 Ordinary ; £10,250 subscribed. 

1000 £10 Preference ; £400 subscribed. 

£26,800 £6 per cent. First Mortgage Debentures. 

Quotations — £10 Preference, 8-9 ; £10 Ordinary. 

Dividends paid — 1892, 3 per cent. ; 1893, 5 per cent ; 1894, 

7i per cent. 

Electrical Engineer . Mr. W. H. WILKINSON, A.M.I.E.E. 



PROVINCIAL ELECTRIC SUPPLY COMPANIES II 9 

The system employed is tlie high-pressure system. Alternate 
currents of 2000 volts are used, this pressure being reduced by 
transformers for the lamp circuits of 100 volts. 

Charge fw Electric Energy, 9d. per B.T.U. Gas is 3s. 2d. per 
1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, 12,056 8 c-p. and thirty-five Arcs, chiefly for 
street lighting. 



The Exeter Electric Ligrht Company, Ltd. 

Secretary's Office, Rockfield, New North Road, Exeter. 

Capital, £20,000, consisting of 

1600 £10 Ordinary ; £11,160 subscribed. 

100 £10 Founders' ; all subscribed. 

760 "A" shares of £10 ; £300 subscribed. 

£12,000 6 per cent Debentures ; aU subscribed. 

The Company has at present sole powers in Exeter under Pro- 
visional Order. The system employed is the medium-pressure. 
Alternate current reduced by transformers in consumers' houses. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U. Gfas is 3s. per 1000 
cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, 7000 10 c-p. Incandescent and 26 Arcs. 



The Fareham Electric Light Company, Ltd. 

Offices, Qosport Road, Fareham. 

Capital, £6000, consisting of 

6000 £1 Ordinary ; £4168 subscribed. 

£3500 £5 per cent. Debentures ; £2600 subscribed. 

This Company has been lighting the streets of Fareham since 
1890 by means of twenty-one Arcs, for which a sum of £649 is paid 
yearly for a total of 3000 hours' burning, equivalent to about 3d. 
per B.T.XJ. The high-pressure system is used, alternating currents 
of 1000 volts being transformed to a pressure of 100 volts for the 
few Incandescent lamps, about ninety-eight, supplied. 



I20 ELKCTUICITY UP TO DATE 

The Galway Electric Company. 

Nbwtownsmyth, Galway. 
EUctncal Engineer . . . Mb. J. PEREY, M.LC.E. 

This Company liave supplied Electric Energy under a Provisional 
Order since 1890. Water-power is obtained from Lough Comb, 
and two " Hercules " turbines are employed for driving the 
dynamos. The low-pressure system with accumulators is epployed. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.XJ. for lighting, and 3d. 
per B.T.U. for motive power during the day-time. Gas is 6& 6d. 
per 1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, 2000 8 c.-p. for private lighting, and 6 Arcs 
for dock lighting. 

Glasgrow. 

Burgh Electrical Engineer . Mr. W. ARNOT. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Pro- 
visional Order, and a total outlay of £141,300 has been incurred. 
The low-pressure three- wire system with accumulators is employed 
(see page 88), and high-pressure (3000 volts) continuous currents 
for street Arc lighting. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.XJ. Gas is 28. 4d. per 
1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, 60,000 8 c-p. and 112 Arc lamps for street 
lighting. 

The Kelvinside Electric Light Company, Ltd., 
Glasgow. 

Offices, HuoHBNDBN RoAD, Kelvinsidb, Glasgow. 

Capital, £60,000 ; £20,000 subscribed. 

Electrical Engineer . . . Mr. A. D. BINGHAM. 

This Company is supplying Electrical Energy under a Provisional 
Order to a portion of this City on the low-pressure three- wire system 
with accumulators (see page 88). Capital outlay, £23,000. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.XJ. Gas is 2s. 6d. per 
1000 cubic feek 

Lamps connected, 6000 8 c-p. 



PROVINCJAI. ELECTRIC SUPPLY COMPANIES 121 

Great Yarmouth Lighting^. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . A. W. RANKIN, A.M.I.C.E. 

The Corporation have established a central Electricity works 
under Provisional Order, for the supply of current for lighting and 
power, at a cost of £16,500. The system employed for private 
lighting is high-pressure alternating (2000 volts), with transformer 
subnstations. 

Price per unit for lighting, ) 
„ „ power, > 

Price of gas per 1000 cubic feet, . . . 3s. 2d. 

Equivalent number of 8 c-p. lamps connected, 6300 
„ „ Arcs (public), . . 66 

„ „ „ (private), . . 26 (included in 

equivalent number of 8 c-p. lamps). 

Halifax Electric Lighting. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . Mr. T. P. WILMSHURST. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Pro- 
visional Order, and have erected a central supply station at a cost 
of £36,000 on the high-pressure system. Alternating currents of 
2000 volts are used, this pressure being reduced by transformers for 
the lamp circuits of 100 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U. Price of gas, 2s. 2d. 
per 1000 cubic feet 

Lamps connected, 8000 8 c-p. and 26 Arcs, 6 Arcs being for street 
lighting. 

Hanley Electric Lighting. 

Borough Electrical Engineers { Messrs. C. J. SUTHERLAND 
and Managers \ and C. A. COWELL. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Provisional 
Order, and have erected a central supply station on the high-pressure 
system. Alternating currents of 2000 volts are used, this pressure 
being reduced at transformer sub-stations for the Iwnp circuits of 
100 volts. 



122 ELECTKICITY JTP TO DATE 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6cL per B.T.XJ. Gas is 28. 3d. per 
1000 cubic feet 

Lamps connected, 12,600 8 c.-p. and 85 Arcs, 60 being for the 
street lighting. 



Hastings and St. Leonards-on-Sea Electric Light 
Ciompany, Ltd. 

Offices, 20 South Terrace, Earl Street, Hastinos. 

Capital, £50,000, consisting of 

2715 £10 Ordinary ; all subscribed. 

300 £25 5 per cent. Debentures ; all subscribed. 

Quotations 9-10 

Dividends paid— 1890, 5 per cent.; 1891, 7^ per cent..; 1892, 
5 per cent.; 1893, 5 per cent 

The central supply station is in Earl Street, and the high-pressure 
system is employed. Alternating currents of 2000 volts are reduced 
by transformers to a pressure of 100 volts for the lamp circuits. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 9d. per B.T.U. Gas is 3s. 3d. per 
1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, 8000 8 c-p. Incandescent and 87 Arcs. 



The Hove Electric Lighting Company, Ltd. 

Office, Mansion House Buildings, London, E.C. 

Share Capital, ^40,000, consisting of 

8000 £6 Ordinary ; £30,700 subscribed. 

There are also £12,500 of 5 per cent. Debentures, and £7500 of 4^ 
per cent. Debentures issued, both ranking pari pasm as a first 
charge on the property of the company. 

Dividend paid — 1894, 3 per cent 

Chairman .... Colonel A. J. FILGATE, RE. 

This Company has for some time been supplying Electric Energy 
from a temporary station, which has lately been discontinued, as 
the permanent station in Cromwell Road is now complete. 



PROVINCIAL ELECTRIC SUPPLY COMPANIES 1 23 

The low-pressure system with accumulators (see page 88) is 
employed. 

OWge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U., with a sliding scale 
to 4^. Price of gas, 2s. 9d. per 1000 cubic feet 

Lamps connected, 18,060 8 c.-p. 

Huddersfield Electric Ughting. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . . Mr. A. B. MOUNTAIN. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Provisional 
Order, and have erected a central supply station at a cost of £49,000 
on the high-pressure system. Alternating currents of 2000 volts are 
used, this pressure being reduced at transformer sub-stations for the 
lamp circuits of 100 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U., with sliding scale to 
4jd., and 2jd. per B.T.U. for motive power. Gfas is 2s. 9d. per 1000 
cubic feet Coal, 3s. 3d. per ton ; coke, 5s. 6d. per ton. 

Lamps connected, 19,500 8 c-p. and 4 Arcs. 

Hull Electric Lightingr. 

Borough EUctrieal Engineer . . Mr. A. S. BARNARD. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Provisional 
Order, and in 1893 erected a central supply station at a cost> with 
extensions, of £42,600 on the low-pressure three-wire system with 
accumulators. 

Charge for Electric Enei^, 5jd. per B.T.XJ. Gas, Is. 9d. and 3s. 
per 1000 cubic feet (two companies). 

Lamps connected, 17,956 8 c.-p. 

Kingston-upon-HuU. 

Beeident Borough Engineer . . Mb. A. H. GIBBINGS. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy from a station at 
Dagger Lane, Hull, the total expenditure being about £43,500, and 
where the low-pressure three-wire system with accumulators is 
employed. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 5jd. per B.T.U., and 5d. for motive 
power. Gas is Is. 9d. and 3s. per 1000 cubic feet (two companies 
supplying). 

Lamps connected, 18,000 8 c.-p. 



124 BLECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



The Keswick Electric Light Company. 

Office, Forge, Kbswiok. 

Capital, £5000, consisting of 

5000 £1 Ordinary ; £3420 subscribed. 

The high-pressure system is used, the 2000 volts alternating 
currents being reduced by transformers for the lamp circuits of 
100 volts. Water-power is employed to drive the dynamos by 
means of " Victor" turbines. 

Charge for Electric Energy is made by special contract with con- 
sumers upon a sliding scale of Is. per candle-power per annum. 
Gfas is 3s. 3d. per 1000 cubic feet. 

Length of Mains, about 3^ miles. 

Lamps connected, 1 500 c-p. Arc and 1039 Incandescent 



Kingston-upon-Thames Electric Lighting. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . . Mr. J. E. EDGCOME. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Pro- 
^ visional Order, and have erected a central supply station at a cost 
of £27,000 on the high-pressure system. Alternating currents of 
2000 volts are used, this pressure being reduced at transformer sub- 
station for the lamp circuits of 100 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U. Gas is 2s. lid. per 
1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, 4600 8 c.-p. and 50 Arcs, 36 being for the street 
lighting. 

Lame (Co. Antrim) Electric Lighting. 

An Electric supply station is in operation here, the high-pressure 
system being employed. Alternate currents of 2000 volts are used, 
this pressure being reduced by transformers for the lamp circuits of 
100 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 8d. per B.T.U., though much of the 
lighting is done on a contract of £1 per 16 c.-p. lamp per annum. 

Lamps connected, 675 and 11 Arcs. 



PROVINCIAL ELECTRIC SUPPLY COMPANIES 125 

Leamingrton Electric Ligrhtingr. 

Midland Electric Light and Power 

Company, Ltd. 

Offices, Leamington Square. 
Capital, £32,000. 

Mumging Engines . . Mr. F. W E. JONES, M.I.E.E. 

This Company is supplying Leamington with Electric Energy, 
the low-pressure direct system (see page 87) being employed. A 
battery of accumulators is now being put down. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 8d. per B.T.U., with sliding scale 
to4d. 

Lamps connected, 6300 8 c.-p. and 16 Arcs. 

Leeds Electric Lighting. 

The Yorkshire House-to-House Electricity 

Company, Ltd. 

Office, Whitehall Road, Leeds. 

Capital, ^100,000, consisting of 
19,900 £b Ordinary ; £94,240 subscribed. 

100 £6 Founders' ; all subscribed. 
Quotation, £6 Ordinary (£6 paid), 7^-7^. 

This Company holds a Provisional Order for the City of Leeds, 
and the supply commenced in May 1893. The system employed 
is the alternate current medium-pressure, reduced by transformers 
on consumers' premises. 

Chai^ for Electric Energy is 6d. per B.T.U., with a sliding 
scale. Gas is 2s. 2d. per 1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, equivalent to 32,000 8 c-p. 

Liverpool Electric Supply Company, Ltd. 

Office, 16 Highfield Street, Liverpool. 

Capital, £300,000, consisting of 

60,000 £6 Ordinary ; 50,000 shares subscribed. 

Quotations since January 1, 1895 — Highest. Fjoweut 

Ordinary £6 shares (£5 paid) . . . SJ 6j 



126 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

Dividende paid — 1883, 5 per cent ; 1884, 5 per cent ; 1885, 6 per 
cent ; 1886, 6 per cent ; 1887, 7 per cent ; 1888, 3 per cent ; 
1889, 3 per cent ; 1890, 3^ per cent ; 1891, 4J per cent ; 
1892, 5 per cent ; 1893, 6 per cent ; 1894, 5^ per cent 

Chairman ... Mr. ARTHUR H. HOLME. 

The stations are situated in Highfield Street, Harrington Street^ 
Oldham Place, and Lark Lane. The Company are empowered by 
Provisional Order, and the low-pressure three-wire system with 
accumulators is employed. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 7id. per B.T.U. Gas is Ss. 9d. per 
1000 cubic feet 

Lamps connected, equivalent to 34,500 16 c-p. 



Laneaster Electrie Lighting. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . Mr. C. M. JOHNSTON. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Pro- 
visional Order, and have erected a central station at a cost of 
;£20,100 on the low-pressure three-wire system. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U., and 4d. for Electric 
power. Gas is 3s. per 1000 cubic feet 

Lamps connected, 2600 8 c.-p. and 14 Arcs for street lighting. 



Leicester Electric Lighting. 

Borough Engineer . . Mr. A. COULSON, M.I.C.R 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Pro- 
visional Order, and have erected a central supply station at a cost 
of ^33,000 on the high-pressure system. Alternating currents of 
2000 volts are used, this pressure being reduced by transformei-s for 
the lamp circuits of 100 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U. Gas is 3s. per 1000 
cubic feet 

Lamps connected, 8000 8 c-p. 



PROVINCIAL ELECTRIC SUPPLY COMPANIES 12/ 

Manchester Eleetric Lighting. 

The Manchester Corporation (although owning the gas-works) is 
now undertaking the supply of Electric Energy. The supply station 
is situated on the banks of the canal, and the cost of the works 
already executed about ^180,000, and extensions are in progress 
which will cost an additional £70,000. 

The Corporation acted under the advice of Dr. John Hopkinson, 
F.E.S., and the five-wire system is employed. This method of 
supply is similar to the three-wire system, but still further extends 
the area that can be economically served by a low-tension system, 
and is in use at Vienna and elsewhere on the Continent, but hitherto 
has not been employed in this country. It has the advantage of 
allowing the current to be distributed at a pressure of 400 volts, and 
to be used by the consumer at 100 volts without any transforming 
devices. 

The charge for Electric Energy is one specially devised by Dr. 
Hopkinson, and sanctioned by the Board of Trade. A fixed charge 
of £12 per annum is made for every B.T.XJ. that the consumer 
would bum if all his lamps were alight for an hour, and in addition 
2d. for every B.T.U. actually used, as indicated by the meter. The 
object in view is to give specially favourable terms to those con- 
sumers who bum their lamps for many hours out of the twenty- 
four, since their supply actually costs less in proportion to generate 
than does that of those who only bum the light for an hour or so a 
(lay. An alternative change of 6d. per B.T.U. is made at the option 
of the consumer. 

The supply began in September 1893, and the capacity of the 
station is about 28,000 16 candle-power lamps, the ultimate capacity, 
when the extensions now in progress are completed, being 64,000. 

The Norwich Electricity Company, Ltd. 

Offices, DuKJj Street, Norwich. 

Capital, £30,000 ; £26,570 subscribed. 

Chief Engines Mr. F. M. LONG. 

The. low-pressure three-wire system is employed, and a battery 
sub-station is now being laid down for supplying Electricity to a 
district situate about one mile from the generating station, motor 
generators being employed for charging the accumulators. 



128 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

Charge for Electric Energy, 8d. per B.T.XJ. from an hour after 
sunset to 8 p.m., and 4d. at other times. Gas is 38. per 1000 cuhic 
feet. 

Lamps connected, ahout 12,000 8 c-p. 

Newcastle and Distriet Electric lighting 
Company, Ltd. 

Office, 38 Qbainqer Street West. 

Capital, ;£50,000, consisting of 

6000 ^10 Ordinary shares; £39,960 subscribed. 

£8900 4J per cent. Debentures ; all subscribed. 

Dividends paid— 1890, 2 per cent ; 1891, 6 per cent ; 1892, 6^ per 
cent ; 1893, 5^ per cent ; 1694, 6 per cent 

This Company supplies part of the Central and all the Western 
poiiions of Newcastle-upon-Tyne under a Provisional Order. The 
high-pressure system is employed, with transformers. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.XJ., with discounts vary- 
ing from 6 to 20 per cent. 

Lamps connected, 60 Arcs and 24,000 8 c.-p. Incandescent 

The Newcastle-upon-Tyne Electric Supply 
Company, Ltd. 

Office, Pandon Dene. 

Capital, ^£60,000, consisting of 

10,000 £6 Ordinary ; 46,000 subscribed. 

£20,000 jg5 per cent Debentures j all subscribed. 

Dividends paid — 1891 4 per cent. ; 1892, 4 per cent. ; 1893, 4 per 
cent ; 1894, 4 per cent ; interim, June 1895, 4 per cent 

This Company supplies current to the whole of the Northern 
and Eastern portions of Newcastle-upon-Tyne under a Provisional 
Order, The generating station is at Pandon Dene; the system 
employed is the high-pressure alternate current, with transformers. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 4jd. per B.T.U. Gas is Is. lOd. per 
1000 cubic feet 

Length of Mains (concentric cables), 12 miles. 

Lamps connected, 30,000 8 c-p. Incandescent and 14 Arcs. 



PKOVINCIAL ELECTRIC SUPPLY COMPANIES 1 29 

Preston. 
The National Eleetrie Supply Company, Ltd. 

Secretary's Office, 119a Fishbrgate, Preston. 

Capital, £100,000, consifitiiig of 

19,000 £5 Ordinary ; £63,100 subscribed. 

100 £5 Founders' ; all subscribed. 

£4J per cent Debentures, £20,000 ; all subscribed. 

This Company has sole powers for the County Borough of Preston 
under a Provisional Order. The station is in Bushell Street, and 
the low-pressure three-wire system is employed. 

Charge for Electric Energy, Vd. per B.T.U., less 15 per cent 
Gas is 3s. 7d. per 1000 feet, less 16 per cent 

Lamps connected, 14,000 8 c-p. Incandescent and 80 Arcs. 

Newport Eleetrie Lighting. 

JVorJcs Engineer . . .Mr. C. D. COPELAND. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Provi- 
sional Order, and have erected a central station at a cost of £34,000 
on the high-pressure system. Alternating currents of 2000 volts 
are used, this pressure being reduced by transformers for the lamp 
circuits of 100 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U. Price of gas is Ss. 
per 1000 cubic feet 

Lamps connected, 7000 8 c-p. and 80 Arcs, 40 being for street 
lighting. 

The Northampton Eleetrie Light and Power 
Company, Ltd. 

Office, Angel Lane. 

Capital, £55,000, consisting of 

10,000 £1 Ordinary ; all subscribed. 

5000 £1 6 per cent Preference ; £32,000 issued. 

£5000 £5 per cent Debentures ; all subscribed. 

Dividend paid — 1894, Preference, 6 per cent 

This Company is supplying Electric Energy under a Provisional 
Order of 1890, and lighting commenced March* 1891. The low- 
pressure system is employed. 

1 



130 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

Charge for Electric Energy, 8d. per B.T.U., less 5 per cent. Price 
of gas, 2a 5d. per 1000 cubic feet. 
Lamps connected, 5700 8 c-p. and 20 Arcs. 

Nottlngrham Eleetric Ughtlngr. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . . Mr. H. TALBOT. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Pro- 
visional Order, and have erected a central station on the low- 
pressure three-wire system. 

Chaige for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U. Gas is 2s. 6d. per 
1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, 15,000 8 c-p. 

Portsmouth Electric JAghtlng. 

Borough SuperintenderU . . . Mr. E. PRICE. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Pro- 
visional Order, and have erected a central station on the high- 
pressure system. Alternating currents of 200 volts are used, this 
pressure being reduced by transformers for the lamp circuits of 
100 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 5d. per B.T.LT., with sliding scale. 
Gas is 2s. 4d. per 1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, 18,000 8 c-p. 255 Arcs are used for street 
lighting till 11.30 p.m., when the lighting is continued by 2 32 c-p. 
lamps in place of eawh Arc lamp. 

The Beading Electric Supply Company. 

Office, 172 Friar Street, Reading. 

Supply Station, Vastern Road. 

Capital, £20,000 ; all subscribed. 

The Electric Lighting of Reading, which was commenced in 
March 1889, has since been transferred to the present company, 
and is now carried on under a Provisional Order. 

The high-pressure system is employed, and alternating currents 
of 2000 volts are reduced by transformers to 100 volts for the lamp 
circuits. 



PROVINCIAL ELECTRIC SUPPLY COMPANIES I3I 

Charge for Electric Energy, 8d. per B.T.U. Gas is 38. per 
1000 cubic feet. 
Lamps connected, 4400 8 c.-p. 

Richmond (Surrey) Eleetric Light and Power 
Company, Ltd. 

Capital, £30,000 ; £21,000 subscribed. 

The Company is supplying Richmond under a Provisional Order, 
the low-pressure three-wire system being employed. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 7d. per B.T.U. Gas is 3s. Id. per 
1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, 5300 8 c-p. and 13 Arcs. 

Scarborough Electric Supply Company, Ltd. 

Capital, £50,000, consisting of 
6000 £10 Ordinary ; £25,300 subscribed. 

Mcmaging Director and Engmeer . A. A. C. SWINTON, M.I.E.E. 

This Company is supplying Electrical Energy under a Pro- 
visional Order on the high-pressure system. Alternating currents 
of 2000 volts are used, the pressure being reduced by transformers, 
partly in sub-station and partly on consumers' premises, to 100 volts 
for the lamp circuits. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6|d. per B.T.U., with a sliding scale. 
Gas is 2s. 9d. per 1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, 12,277 8 c.-p. 

ShefBeld Electric Light and Power Company, Ltd. 

Office, CoMMEBOLUii STREET, SHEFFIELD. 

Capital, £98,000, consisting of 

14,000 £7 Ordinary ; £32,625 subscribed. 

Also £25,000 4 per cent. Debentures ; £23,600 issued. 

Chief Engineer . . . Mr. W. JOHNSON. 

This Company is supplying Electric Energy under a Provisional 
Order on the high-pressure system. Alternating currents of 2000 
volts are used, this pressure being reduced at transformer sub- 
stations for the lamp circuits of. 105 volts. 



132 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U. Price of gas, 2s. and. 
28. 3d. per 1000 cubic feet 
Lamps connected, 28,000 8 c-p. 

The Southampton Eleetric Ligrht and Power 
Company, Ltd. 

Central Station, Baok-of-the- Walls. 
Office, 23 High Street. 
Capital, £30,000, consisting of 
2000 £6 Ordinary ; £3640 subscribed. 
4000 £5 Preference ; £250 subscribed. 
Engineer . .^ . . Mr. J. H. LEE. 

Tbis Company has sole powers in Southampton under a Pro- 
visional Order, and is supplying power for the cranes on the quays 
and elsewhere as well as light. The two 3-ton Electric cranes of 
the Southampton Harbour Board are worked by this means. The 
three-wire system, with Crompton-Howell storage batteries, is em- 
ployed. 

Charge for Electric Energy is made on a sliding scale, with a 
maximum of 7d. per B.T.U. for lighting and 6d. per B.T.U. for 
power. Gas is 28. lOd. per 1000 cubic feet 
Lamps connected, 4000 8 c-p. 

SouthpoFt Eleetrie Ligrhting. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . . Mr. ARTHUR ELLIS. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Pro- 
visional Order, and have erected a central station at a cost of 
£55,000 on the high-pressure system. Alternating currents of 
2000 volts are used, this pressure being reduced by trauBformers at 
sub-stations for the lamp circuits of XOO volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 7d. per B.T.U., with a sliding scale. 
Price of gas, 3s. per 1000 cubic feet 

Lamps connected, 10,000 8 c-p. and 40 Arcs for street lighting. 

Sunderland Eleetrie Lightingr. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . . Mr. C. S. V. BROWN. 
The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Pro- 
visional Order, and in March 1895 opened a central station on the 



PROVINCIAL ELECTRIC SUPPLY COMPANIES 1 33 

low-pressure system for the central area. There is also a high- 
pressure supply for the outlying districts of 2500 volts alternating 
currents, which pressure is reduced by transformers in street man- 
holes for the lamp circuits of 100 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.XJ., with sliding scale, 
and 3^. for motive power. 

Qas is 2s. per 1000 cubic feet, with sliding scale to Is. 6d. 

Lamps connected, 7000 8 c.-p. 

Stafford Eleetrie Ligrhtingr« 

Borough Electrical Engineer . Mr. J^ FERGUSON BELL. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Pro- 
visional Older, and have erected a central station at a cost of £2000 
on the low-pressure three-wire system with accumulators. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 8d. per B.T.U., with a sliding scale 
to4d. 

Lamps connected, unstated, the supply having only been recently 
commenced. 

Tunbridge Wells Eleetrie Ligrhtingr. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . . Mr. H. L. P. BOOT. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Pro- 
visional Order, and have erected a central station at a cost of £27,000 
on the high-pressure system. Alternating currents of 2000 volts 
are used, this pressure being reduced at transformer sub-stations for 
the lamp circuits of 105 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, Gd. per B.T.U. Qas is 3s. per 1000 
cubic feet 

Lamps connected, 4000 8 c-p. 

Taunton Eleetrie Lighting. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . . Mb. H. W. COUZENS. 

The Taunton Town Council took over the Electric Lighting from 
the Taunton Electric Light Company in October 1893, and are 
carrying on the supply under a Provisional Order, The high- 



134 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

pressure system is used, and alternating currents of 1000 volts 
are reduced at transformer sub-stations for the lamp circuits of 
100 volts. 

Charge for Electric. Energy, 6d. per B.T.U. 

Qas is 38. 6d. per 1000 cubic feet. 

liamps connected, 4800 8 e.-p. and 76 Arcs, mostly for public 
lighting. 

Woklngr Eleetrie Supply Company, Ltd. 

Engineers .... Messbs. NEW & MAYNE. 

This Company are supplying Electric Energy under a license, 
and use the high-pi'essure system, alternating currents of 2000 volts 
being reduced in pressure by transformers to 100 volts for private 
lighting. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 8d. per B.T.U., and 6d. for street 
lighting. 

Lamps connected, 4600 8 c-p. 

Whitehaven Eleetrie Lightingr. 

Borough Engineer . . .Mr. J. S. BRODIE. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Provi- 
sional Order, and have erected a station on the low-pressure three- 
wire system. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U. The price of gas is 
3s. 6d. per 1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, 5300 8 c-p. and some Arcs. 

Wolverhampton Electric Lighting. 

Borough Electrical Engineer . Mb. F. HARMAN LEWIS. 

The Corporation are supplying Electric Energy under a Provi- 
sional Order, and have erected a central station at a cost of £36,300 
on the high-pressure system. Continuous currents of 2000 volts are 
used, this pressure being reduced by motor generators (see p. 93) for 
the lamp circuits of 100 volts. 

Charge for Electric Energy, 6d. per B.T.U. Gas is 2s. 6d. per 
1000 cubic feet. 

Lamps connected, 8000 8 c-p. and 109 Arcs, 53 of these being 
for the public lighting. 



TRANSMISSION OF POWEE BY ELECTRICITY 1 35 



CHAPTER XI. 
TRANSMISSION OP POWER BY ELECTRICITY, 

THE title of a subject often deters people from even 
attempting to inquire into it, for though the matter 
may be familiar enough to them, they do not recognise it 
under a scientific heading. 

For instance, the title of " Electric Transmission of 
Power " conveys but little idea to many ; but yet every- 
body knows that by, so to speak, putting Electrical Energy 
in at one end of a telegraph cable, mechanical movement 
can be obtained at the other end on a dial even thousands 
of miles away. So, again, when gas is produced and 
conveyed some miles through gas pipes to be utilised in a 
gas-engine, it is simply an instance of energy being trans- 
mitted. Scientifically explained, in the first of these two 
cases chemical energy in the battery is transformed into 
Electrical Energy and conveyed along the cable, at the 
other end of which mechanical power is produced, and 
expended in deflecting the indicator needle. In the 
second instance, the potential energy stored up in coal is 
conveyed in the form of gas through pipes to an engine, 
where, by means of the heating and explosive effects of 
the gas, mechanical power is obtained. 

Transformation of Energy. 

Such instances as the above serve well to illustrate what 
is meant not only by Transmission of Power, but also by 



136 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

Transformation of Energy, For we can change the form 
of energy, although we cannot create it When it exists 
in nature, in more or less inconvenient forms, we are thus 
enabled to transform it so as to make it serviceable in 
everyday life. 

For instance, it is the gravity of the earth — a form of 
energy — which causes a waterfall ; but this is of no ser- 
vice to us until we employ a water-wheel to transform 
the energy of the falling water into mechanical power. 
The steam-engine is another instance. In this case coal, 
although of no use to us when lying in the ground, con- 
tains potential energy ; and the boiler and steam-engine 
enable us to obtain from it mechanical power. Similarly, 
it is possible to transform most other forms of energy from 
one kind to another. 

Transmission of Power. 

But the Transmission of Power is quite a different pro- 
blem. It has been remarked, that ever since man began 
to use tools worked otherwise than by hand he had to 
employ some system of Transmission of Power. It is 
interesting, and in fact essential, before dealing with the 
actual subject of this chapter, to see what are the other 
most prominent methods of transmitting Power for doing 
work. 

The system most generally used is the purely mechanical 

agency of wire-ropes, shafting, and belting. 

For short distances this is often the most 
convenient, as the mechanical power of revolving shafts 
can thus be distributed by means of belts right and left to 
all classes of machinery. There is always a slight loss 
caused by friction and " slipping" of the belt; but with 
long distances this is very much increased, and, moreover. 



TRANSMISSION OF POWER BY ELECTRICITY I37 

power cannot be transmitted satisfactorily beyond a certain 
distance. 

Hydraulic Transmission of Power is another well-known 

method, and can be distributed by means of 

water forced through pipes at high pressure 

to work lifts, presses, &c. This is done in London by the 

Hydraulic Power Company, whose pipes are laid in most 

of our principal streets. 

If in a well-watered district a good pressure of water 
can be obtained from some mountain torient without 
mechanical means, then of course hydraulic transmission 
is more efficient and cheap than any other method. This 
is seldom the case, and, moreover, for mining purposes a 
great drawback with hydraulic power is that the waste 
water has to be lifted out of the mine, and that leakage 
of water through faulty joints or damage to piping makes 
the roadways slushy and unfit to travel on. 

Pneumatic power, obtained by compressed air forced 

,^ ^. throueh pipes, is also used to some extent. 

Pneumatic. n - - ^^ . n 1. i- , , 

and IS especially serviceable for lighter 

work. This method is employed between the General 
Post-Office and its district branches, and telegrams en- 
closed in circular boxes are thus forced through pneumatic 
tubes for telegraphic transmission elsewhere. 

In coal mines compressed joir is largely employed, and 
is especially serviceable in connection with pneumatic 
drilla It has, of course, the great advantage of being 
absolutely safe in gaseous atmospheres, because if an acci- 
dent happens by which a pipe is burst, the ventilation is 
assisted. The outlay, however, required for compressed 
air plants is relatively very considerable, while the efficiency 
is small, and the higher the pressure that is used, the 
lower the efficiency of the system becomes. Though, 
therefore, all these systems of transmitting power are 



138 



ELECTRICITY UP TO DATB 








Electrical. 



serviceable, none can be termed 
satisfactory for long distances. The 
use of pipes with their numerous 
joints — ^liable to leakage and loss — 
is at all times a nuisance. Again, 
pipes are cumbersome, difficult to 
lay, and the cost is often prohibi- 
tive. 

On the other hand, if power can 
be transmitted by 
means of a wire or 
cable which may be bent or laid 
in any position, the advantages of 
Electrical transmission are at once 
seen. 

It has already been shown how, 
by means of the dynamo, mechanical 
power is converted into Electricity, 
which may be transmitted along a 
wire for any required distance. If, 
therefore, some arrangement can 
be devised at the other end of the 
wire to convert the Electricity 
back again to the original mechani- 
cal power, then the problem of 
Electrical transmission of power is 
solved. 

This result is achieved by the 
Electric-motor. The 
discovery of the 
principle involved in 
this machine was made accidentally 
by a workman, who wrongly con- 
nected up the wires from a dynamo 



The Electric- 
motor. 



TRANSMISSION OF POWER BY ELECTRICITY 



139 



in motion to another not in use. To his surprise the 
latter immediately commenced to work. This discovery, 
that a current generated by one dynamo acting upon 
another causes it to revolve, is by some considered the 
most important in Electrical science since the time of 
Faraday. It means, graphically speaking, that not only 




CONTINUOUS CURRENT ELECTRIC-MOTOR. 



can mechanical power be put into a dynamo and Elec- 
tricity got out, but that Electricity can also be put in 
and mechanical power got out. In the first instance, the 
dynamo plays the part of a generator for generating 
current ; in a second, that of an Electric-motor for pro- 
ducing power. Although theoretically the same dynamo 



140 KLECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

can be worked for both purposes, its practical efficiency 
is not the same in each direction. The proportions of 
the parts, the widening of the magnets and armature, 
are therefore different in each case. 

The accompanying illustration shows an ordinary type 
of a very efficient machine, the Sprague 
O^^r"^ continuous current Electric - motor. By 
motors. comparing it with the illustration of the 

dynamo, it will be seen that the parts of 
both are similar. In the case of the motor, however, the 
action is reversed throughout, as in connecting up the 
supply mains, and sending Electricity by means of the 
brushes into the commutator, the armature rotates and 
the puUey on it works the shafting or machinery it is 
connected with. 

Such continuous current-motors can be readily worked 
from the same public supply of Electric Energy that is 
utilised for Electric lighting, and their several advantages 
as a convenient and economical motive-power are discussed 
in the next chapter. 

For the transmission of large currents over any serious 

distance, whether for power or other pur- 
Altemate Our- .. • . i • i 

rent-motors P^^^^* ^^ ^^ necessary to use high-pressure 

currents, by which it has been shown (page 
89) the size and cost of the copper conductor is propor- 
tionately decreased. Continuous-current dynamos do not 
satisfactorily generate currents above some 2000 volts, 
whereas it is often desirable to use pressure of 5000 volts, 
and in some recent transmission of power work 15,000 
and even 30,000 volts pressure have been safely and 
economically employed. 

When a high voltage is desirable, alternate currents 
give the best results, and the pressure is readily reduced 
by transformers to any voltage for local distribution. 



TRANSMISSION OF POWER BY ELECTRICITY I41 

Unfortunately many diflSculties arise in the construction 
of self -starting alternate current-motors, and although, in 
the course of time, improvements may be forthcoming, so 
far no alternate current-motor has been constructed for 
commercial everyday use. 

Multiphase alternate currents may be said to present 
all the advantages that attach to the use of 
Multiphase simple alternate currents, and the facility 
motors. ^^^ which such high-pressure currents 

can be generated, transmitted, and after- 
wards distributed, has caused much attention to be paid 
to them' during the past year. As described on page 21, 
the action of a multiphase current on a magnetic needle 
is to rotate it, and this rotary action of the current is 
made use of for motor purposes. It is found that multi- 
phase current-motors will start with a load on and have 
no "dead points," such as have been detrimental to the 
use of simple alternate current-motors. 

As in Electric transmission of power only ordinary 
copper cables are employed, the distance between the 
dynamo and the motor can be almost indefinitely extended, 
and this alone gives the Electric system a great advantage 
over all previously discussed methods. Iron pipes, shaft- 
ing, or belting are dispensed with, and power is transmitted 
by the simple means of a cable or wire. This is small, 
and may be easily handled — even when conveying large 
quantities of power ; it may be bent, or laid in any posi- 
tion, and the loss in transmission may be regarded as no 
greater for a mile than it is with other systems for a 
hundred yards. 

While the advantages of thus obtaining power by 
Electricity are at once evident, it is, of course, more 
economical to use belting or other mechanical means for 
short distances. For the same reason one would not think 



142 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

of fixing telephones for use from room to room, a purpose 
for which the speaking-tube is simpler and better ; while 
it would be absurd to attempt to use the latter for the 
long distances over which telephones give such admirable 
results. 

As to how far it pays to transmit water-power by Elec- 
tricity, must depend not only upon the cost of the water- 
power and the price of the fuel that would otherwise have 
to be used, but also upon the efficiency of the power, and 
number of hours per day during which it can be used. 
The pecuniary success of such a scheme is quite as much 
afiected by these items as the distance through which the 
power has to be transmitted. 

There are undoubtedly many cases where the utilisation 
of waste water-power will return a very handsome divi- 
dend on capital expended. The natural power of a water- 
fall is obtained practically free of cost, and although 
transmission of power always involves a certain amount 
of loss, there are many instances, in America and Switzer^ 
land, of such power being economically transmitted by 
Electricity a distance of twenty miles or more. In such 
countries where coal is dear and wood scarce, but where 
there is abundance of water-power, great opportunities 
are open for the transmission of power by Electricity. 
In this country there are, however, few waterfalls of 
importance that are not already utilised for mill or factory 
purposes; but in America there are millions of horse- 
power runiyng to waste. 

A general idea of the subject has thus been given, and 
it is now proposed to instance a few of its applications for 
practical purposes. 



ELECTRICITY AS A MOTIVE-POWBR 1 43 



CHAPTER XIl. 
ELECTRICITY AS A MOTIVE-POWER, 

THERE is every reason to believe that the distribution 
of Electricity for the supply of power will be more 
important in the near future than even for lighting 
purposes. 

With Electricity laid on to our houses like water, we 

« ^,. « ^ ™ay, under proper restrictions, use it for 
PubUc Supply. -^^ 1 t:i t.- vi-x 

any purpose we please. For workmg lifts, 

&c., Electric-motors fed by a public supply current will 

often prove even more convenient in many ways than the 

water-engines supplied with hydraulic power from street 

mains, as at present used all over London. Again, 

although power can be economically obtained from gas 

by means of a gas-engine, an Electric-motor takes a tenth 

of the space, requires practically no attention, and for 

intermittent work is certainly more suitable. 

In many American cities, where the Electric light was 

rapidly taken up some years ago, the companies have 

since done much towards making the supply of Electric 

Power a feature. The manager of a station, where 

Electric lighting is only just paying its way in the face 

of fierce competition with gas, finding the demand for 

Electric Power so prompt and growing, naturally does all 

he can to extend it. Thus, in some instances, a larger 

profit has been obtained from the sale of Electricity for 

power than for lighting purposes. 



144 



ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



It has often been remarked that the sale of the residual 
produc5ts— coke, tar, &c. — produced in the manufacture 
of gas forms an important item in the revenue of a gas- 
^ lighting company. In the same way, in supplying 
Electric light, the company's machinery can be worked 
profitably during the day for supplying power, for it is in 
the daytime that motors are chiefly used. Thus a revenue 



i- 
















■V- 

1 




N^i^^^'^^H 


1 






ELECTRIC MANGLE. 



ELECTRIC BUTTER CHURN. 



is obtained by a market being found for Electricity when 
least light is being used. 

These remarks are not concerned with what might be 
done, but with what is being done every day in many 
American cities, where the grocer grinds his coffee, the 
tailor works his sewing-machine, and the hair-dresser his 
brushes by Electric-motors from a public supply, and 



ELECTRICITY AS A MOTIVE-POWER 



H5 



where restaurants are ventilated and even newspapers 
printed by the same means. 

With an Electric-motor worked by Electricity produced 
a mile or more away, the machinist runs his lathe, or the 
carpenter his circular saw. Well can an Electric Supply 




ELBOTBIC-MOTOB AND FUHP. 



Company say, as was said by James Watt, '* I have what 
every subject of your majesty wants — Power." 

While the Electric Supply Companies are so busy here 
daily connecting up house after house for Electric light- 
ing, they are unable to direct sufficient attention to the 
subject of Electric Power. Theoretically, Electric-motors 

K 



146 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATB 

can be supplied from the same mains as those that supply 
light, but in practice it will often be found desirable to 
run separate mains. As soon, however, as orders for 
lamp connections begin to slacken, the financial advantages 
to be obtained will cause them to more energetically push 
the sale and use of the small motors for the supply of 
Power. 

As to the cost of working Electric-motors when con- 
nected up to public supply mains, American experience 
has proved that at any rate for all small purposes, Electri- 
city can compete with any other method of supplying 
power. In working a small engine there is always a 
certain amount of loss, the proportion being greater than 
in the case ojf a large one ; consequently, if a number of 
small engines are replaced by one large one a very appre- 
ciable saving is eflPected This is what occurs in distribut- 
ing power from a central station, where all the machinery, 
fuel, and labour are concentrated. Again, there are all 
the considerations of nuisance and cost of attention in the 
case of small engines, none of which occur when only 
Electric-motors are employed. 

If a large amount of power is required, and especially 
for a number of hours per day, it will usually be found 
cheaper to have separate machinery, in the same way as 
was shown in Chapter VIL ; it is sometimes more econo- 
mical to produce one's own Electric light. 

It is for small purposes, or where power is only required 
intermittently or for a short period daily, that the con- 
venience of Electric-motors will be most apparent. There 
seems good reason to believe that Supply Companies will 
charge lower rates in the daytime for Electric Energy 
supplied, than at night, when their supply stations are 
in full work for Electric lighting. With a charge of 
only 4d. per B.T.U. the use of Electric-motors will 



ELECTRICITY AS A MOTIVE-POWER 1 47 

prove not only convenient, but in many instances very 
economical. 

Besides working Electric-motors from a Supply Com- 
pany, a variety of opportunities occur for 
Z^^ their use in large factories and mines. The 

work that a steam or gas engine tsjx do, 
the Electric-motor can also do, and therefore it will be 
readily understood how important a part Electricity as a 
motive-power is likely to play in the future. 

It must always be borne in mind, of course, that you 
" must first catch your hare," and so Electricity must first 
be generated to work the Electric-motor. An instance 
has been known of a gas-fire being purchased for use in 
a village where there was no gas, and in the same way the 
Electric-motor alone is of no service. An Electric instal- 
lation is necessary ; and where steam or water power is 
already used, a dynamo can be readily added with many 
advantages. 

Hitherto where mills or factories consist of several 
buildings, either separate engines have had to be erected 
for each building, or the steam-power conveyed by long 
lines of shafting over extensive areas. The original cost 
of this is great in comparison with the simple stringing of 
Electric wires to motors, and the daily loss of power in- 
volved by long lines of shafting and belting is also no 
inconsiderable item. The Electric-motor is of the greatest 
service in a large factory or mine, as an economical pov^er- 
distributor, for by using several independent motors, 
diflPerent sections of the machinery can be started or 
stopped as power is required, without the necessity of 
working a long system of shafting for a few machines. 

Where water-power is used direct, and the mill has to 
be erected close to it at the water-level, expensive founda- 
tions are necessary. But with an Electric power installa- 



1^8 • KLKCTRICITY UP TO DATE 

tion, the factory can be erected in a cheaper manner at 
any reasonable distance away, on a natural site free from 
canal or backwater obstructions, and power brought to it 
by an Electric cable. 

It was shown in the last chapter that by Electric trans- 
mission of power natural sources of energy 
^^^^^ are enabled to be economically utilised, 
even when situated at a considerable dis- 
tance from the mines or other industries where such 
energy can be made serviceable. The advantages the 
system presents as compared with hydraulic or pneumatic 
systems for the distribution of power were also pointed 
out, and for whatever purpose power is required, the 
adaptability of the Electric-motor will be found un- 
equalled. 

In this country, mining engineers and colliery owners 
have not given Electricity much opportunity of showing 
what it can do for them, but in the few mines where 
Electric-motors have been tried they have proved eminently 
successful. 

The compressed air system is mostly in use at present, 
but, as was pointed out in the last chapter, this system has 
certain disadvantages. In an Electric power installation, 
the dynamo takes the place of the air-compressor, the con- 
ducting wire that of the air-pipe, and the Electric- motor 
that of the compressed air-engine. The original cost of 
an !C]lectric plant is much less, and is not only more 
eflScient but generally more serviceable, while the yearly 
maintenance is small in comparison to that of the air- 
compressor and the air-pipes. The cumbersome piping is 
often difficult to fix, and every angle causes loss through 
resistance, while Electric cables can be bent to any angle 
and easily fixed or removed. 

Electric travelling and derrick cranes are in very general 



ELECTRICITY AS A MOTIVE-POWER ' 1 49 

nse in the United States, and especially the three-motor 







I 



X 



cranes (one for each motion) seem likely to prove far 
superior to many steam cranes. The Electric crane may 



ISO 



ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



be said to afford one of the best instances of the extent to 
which Electricity can be utilised in the service of man. 
By its means a factory lad is enabled, on pressing a switch, 
to raise a piece of machinery weighing many tons, convey 
it across the works, and deposit it on a railway waggon. 
Surface trains, hoists, crushing machinery, are in the 
same way all capable of being worked from the same gen- 
erating station, while the Electric-motor, on account of its 




ELECTRIC- MOTOR AND FAN. 



lightness, is invaluable for temporary purposes or where 
movable power is needed. 

Again, perhaps the question which has most troubled 
mining engineers up to the present time is how to work 
the ventilator economically without separate machinery at 
the mouth of the ventilating shaft. In all pits fans must 
be used to draw off the gases and to circulate air; indeed, 
in some coal-pits, if the fans were to stop work for half- 
an-hour it would mean suffocation to those below. The 
colliery ventilating fan therefore becomes of vital impor- 



ELECTRICITY AS A MOTIVB-POWEift 15I 

tance. As a rule it is placed too far from the maiii 
engine to be worked directly by belts or wire-ropes, and 
separate machinery is thas often necessary. 

Now of the many applications to which the Electric- 
motor may be put, ventilating work is, if anything, the 
most suited to it, as the high speed required by the fan 
is so readily obtained by the motor. Again, the ease with 
which Electric wires convey power to the awkward and 
out of the way positions in which ventilators must usually 
be placed, and the fact that the apparatus can be fixed 
upside down, or indeed in any position, so long as it is 
fixed securely, gives to the Electric-motor advantages far 
greater than are possessed by any other system for ventila- 
tion work. 

Its uses are thus numberless, and above all it should be 
remembered that it brings within the scope of mining 
and industrial operations many wasted sources of natural 
energy. Although we are apt to be over sanguine when 
new discoveries are made, yet it may be predicted with 
certainty, that for every unit of Electricity used ten years 
hence for light, ten units will be used for Electric power. 



152 ELBCTRICHT UP TO DATE 



CHAPTER XIIL 
ELECTRIC TRACTION. 

ELECTRIC power applied to locomotion must in the 
near future occupy so important a place in the 
service which Electricity is to render man, that a separate 
chapter on the whole subject of Electric Traction is really 
desirable. 

It is now nearly a century since steam locomotion was 
first invented, and few doubt that in spite of the perfec- 
tion this has now been brought to, the next century will 
see a complete revolution — Electricity reigning where 
steam is now so mighty. 

Although but little has been achieved with Electricity 
for heavier locomotion — railways and ships — n^uch has 
been done in the lighter work of tramways and launches. 
In fact, it may now be safely said that the experimental 
stage has been passed, and the point reached where the 
perfecting of pioneer inventions becomes not only a 
commercial success, but also a benefit to the community. 

To begin with the tramway question. One of the 

^ chief obiections, of course, to horse traction 

TirazxiDT&vs «» ' 

is the disastrous wear and tear of the poor 

animals concerned, caused chiefly by the strain they 

undergo at each starting of the car, and the continual 

bodily shaking to which they are subjected in trotting 

over the hard road. 

As is well known, efforts have been made to overcome 



ELECTRIC TRACTION 1 53 

this by the use of cable-hauled and steam-driven trams. 
The cable system, however, is not only expensive, as 
regards the first cost, but is always subject to the objec- 
tion that a cable may snap when going up hill, or a brake 
refuse to act, thereby causing danger to life and property. 
On the other hand, with steam cars, the special regula- 
tions concerning their noise and smoke restrict their 
eflSciency, and result in great waste. 

Now, from the foregoing chapter, it will be readily 
understood how an Electric-motor can be connected to 
the wheels of a tramcar, causing them to revolve, in the 
same manner as with a lathe or any other machine. But 
the difficulty with Electric traction is, how to convey the 
Electricity produced at the supply station to the Electric- 
motor on the moying cars. 

A simple method, and one unequalled from the point 
of convenience, is to make use of accumu- 
Swtem ^ ^' lators carrying the stored energy. These 
need occupy no valuable space, being usually 
placed under the seats of the car, and connected by wires 
through a regulating switch to the motor. Such a plan 
requires no interference with the rails or permanent 
way, and has been successfully employed, for instance, 
on the Birmingham Central Tramways, where the work- 
ing of the tram is so arranged that each car after making 
a certain number of trips is run into the dep6t, and 
readily fitted with a re-charged set of accumulators in a 
few minutes. 

The loss of Electrical energy, however, involved in the 
frequent charging and discharging of the accumulators is 
considerable, while the depreciation of the accumulator 
plates, when used for traction purposes, makes their 
renewal an appreciable item in the yearly maintenance. 
For those reasons the accumulator system of traction has 



154 ELECTKICITY UP TO DATE 

undoubtedly not met with the success that its advocates 
at one time anticipated for it Whether it may in the 
future meet with a more ready adoption, must depend on 
whether the ejKciency of accumulators can be increased, 
and not only their cost but also their weight de- 
creased. 

A certain loss, however, is always involved in the use 
of current taken from accumulators, and suJBBcient current 
must be allowed not only for drawing the car, but also the 
additional weight of the accumulators, which is no small 
consideration. 

Other systems of traction have also been devised by 

which the Electricity can be conveyed from 
Syst^s?' ^ supply station to the motor of the car 

while the latter is in motion, by means of 
some form of Electric conductor running along the track. 
All such systems are called " Conductor Systems," while 
the former method is conveniently distinguished as the 
*' Accumulator System." 

The various conductor systems can be classified under 
the heads of Surface, Overhead, and Underground systems 
of Electric traction. 

Surface Electric conductors in the form of the ordinary 

iron rails have been used in several instances 
du^t!^ ^^^" *°^ Electric traction ; but it will be easily 

understood that this involves considerable 
loss of Electrical Energy, not only from its leakage to the 
earth, but also on account of the resistance of the iron 
rails, and for this reason such a system is only practicable 
for short distances. The railway along the Brighton 
beach, a quarter of a mile long, is run in this manner, the 
rails being fastened to wooden logs resting upon the 
shingle of the beach, and with no special insulation for 
the conductors. The little railway is highly popular in 



ELECTRIC TKACTION 1 55 

Brighton, but wbat with storins from the sea and pre- 
judice from the local authoritj^, it has had a great deal to 
contend with. 

The overhead conductor system has, perhaps, hitherto 
proved the most successful, and been the 
C^^ducto 8 ™^®* widely adopted of any system of 
Electric traction. Not only is the cost of 
erecting this system small, but the maintenance of a 
tramway working in this way is much cheaper than horse 
or any other mode of traction. In America it is very 
widely used, and with the best financial results. On the 
South Staflfordshire Tramway line, and at Leeds, this 
system has been successfully adopted, and it is to be 
hoped that but a short time will elapse before such 
systems of traction are in use on numerous suburban or 
other suitable lines throughout the country. 

The illustration shows an electric tramcar drawing an 
ordinary car. Connection is made with the overhead wire 
by means of a rolling contact, termed a trolley, fixed to 
the flexible rod shown on the top of the car. The current 
passes through the motor and completes its circuit, re- 
turning through the wheels of the car to earth. Neat 
wood or iron posts are employed to support the overhead 
wires. These posts are either placed in pairs, one on 
each side of the street, and connected by span wires, which 
carry the contact cable, or else they support the latter by 
means of brackets, as shown. The cars may be run from 
any speed to 15 or 20 miles an hour, and can be instantly 
stopped, without using a brake, by merely reversing the 
Electric motor. 

In the United States, where the overhead conductor 
system is very widely employed, many advantages to the 
travelling public are said to have accompanied the in- 
troduction of Electric traction, such as improved road- 



156 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

bed, with consequent smoothness of running, larger and 




roomy cars lighted by Electricity, and a speed hitherto 
unobtainable. 



ELECTRIC TRACTION 157 

In England overhead conductors would not be per- 
mitted along the streets of onr larger cities, but it is to 
be hoped that the sBSthetic objections to their nse in 
provincial towns will not seriously interfere with one of 
the cheapest and si^nplest forms of traction it is possible 
to devise. 

Conductors enclosed in a channel or conduit, with & cen- 
tral slot to allow the free passage of the con- 
Underground ^act arrangement, have had to encounter the 
or Conduit ' objection that in an ordinary street an open 
System. channel becomes full of water and clogged 

with dirt, by which the daily working of 
the line becomes at times a source of anxiety and trouble. 
This method of Electric traction, now generally known as 
the Conduit System, has, however, been successfully used 
in some instances in this country, as at Blackpool, where 
the line has been open some time. This tramway is two 
miles long, and each car has a separate motor and the 
necessary arrangements for making contact with the under- 
ground conductor. 

Numerous forms of conduits have been devised to over- 
come the Electrical and mechanical difBculties that have 
hitherto stood in the way of a[n extensive adoption of what 
would otherwise be the most convenient method of dealing 
with the traction question in our large cities. 

To work efficiently, however, the conductor conveying 
the Electrical Energy must be well insulated, so that 
there may be as little loss of current as possible. It can 
be readily understood how difficult it is to have a con- 
ductor at once making good Electric connections with a 
tramcar in motion, and at the same time thoroughly in- 
sulated to prevent loss of Electricity. 

It is again to the United States that we must look for 
the latest developments in this as in other forms of Electric 



158 



ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



traction. There intense activity has of late been displayed 
in the laying down of experimental conduit systems, with 
a view of developing a method of Electric traction that 
shall be free from the objections hitherto raised in large 
cities against the use there of the overhead system. 

Without detailing the various devices employed, a short 
description may be given of the **Plow" form of under- 
ground traction, and which has proved one of the most 
satisfactory of the recently designed conduit systems. 





^^^S^^^^^5?^35^!5^:P!^^^^'^^!E^!!5?!S^ 



ELEOTRIO "PLOW" ATTACHED 
TO BOTTOM OP TBAMCAR. 



SECTION OP UNDERGROUND CONDUIT 
"plow" STSTEM. 



A double contact shoe, called a " Plow " (see illustra- 
tion), is suspended from the tramcar, and passing through a 
slot, A, in the centre of the tramway track, presses against 
the flat surfaces of two conductors, B, running the entire 
length of the conduit. The conductors B are suspended 
by insulators, C, and are placed a few inches each 
side away from the centre of the slot A to escape the 
effects of any wet which would otherwise reach them. 
The bottom of the conduit is formed of concrete, and 
provided with drains for carrying off water to various 



ELECTRIC TRACTION 159 

manholes along the line, and which are connected to the 
sewers, enabling the conduit to be kept free from accumu- 
lations of water and mud. 

The "Plow " connected with the motors in the tramcar 
forms contact on one side with one of the underground 
suspended conductors, which may be termed the positive, 
and the Electricity rising up the " Plow " passes through 
the motors actuating the tramcar . wheels, and returns 
through the other or negative side of the " Plow " to the 
negative conductor in the conduit As the tramcar passes 
along the conduit, the two sides of the " Plow " pressing 
against the underground conductors form a good travelling 
contact, by which the motors in the tramcar can be con- 
tinuously fed with Electric Energy from the dynamos at 
the central station. 

It is eainestly to be hoped that before long we may 
see the " Plow " system at work in this country, and that 
some of our leading provincial corporations, who are doing 
so much to extend the use of Electricity for lighting 
purposes, will devote their attention in a similar manner 
to the question of underground Electric traction for their 
boroughs. 

Both underground and surface conductors can be advan- 
tageously employed on railways. The South 
B^wavs London Electric Eailway Company have now 

been running their trains daily for some 
years on this system, with satisfactory results. Electrical 
Energy in this case is conveyed by means of a bare con- 
ductor fixed on glass insulators between the two rails. 
As the car passes over it, a sliding contact-piece collects 
the current. Here the conductor is not a -source of in- 
convenience, as the whole length of the line forms a 
subterranean tunnel, where no trajBSc interferes with the 
system, and where the conductor is capable of being well 



l6o ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

insulated. There is no fear of collision, as two distinct 
tunnels are employed, one for each direction. The whole 
of the Electric power is generated at Stockwell, and trans- 
mitted thence by the conductor to supply current to each 
train on the line, the length of which is five miles from 
end to end. The trains, which are built on the American 
through-passage principle, run at a speed of twenty-five 
miles an hour. 

The Electric railway at Portrush, co. Antrim, is also 
run on the separate conductor system, though in this case 
the conductor is carried on short posts, at a height of two 
or three feet from the ground. It was one of the first 
Electric lines started in the United Kingdom. Power is 
obtained from a waterfall, and the working of the line 
has been so successful, that a second railway employing 
a similar system has since been laid down in Ireland, 
between Newry and Bessbrook. 

The most important example of Electric traction, how- 
ever, is undoubtedly the Liverpool Overhead Railway. 
Here again the Electrical Energy is conveyed from the 
supply station, which is situated half-way, by means of 
a bare conductor fixed on insulators between the rails 
which are used for the " return " circuit. The cars are 
on the American through -passage principle, and each 
one fitted with its own motor, no gear being employed, 
but the motor armature constructed on the axle. Ten 
revolutions of the motor per minute sends the car one 
mile per hour. There are double sets of rails all the 
way, and the trains can be made up of any number of 
cars, but it is proposed at first to work twenty trains, 
consiBting of two cars each, running a train each way 
every three minutes. The total length of the line is six 
and a half miles, with fourteen stations, and the contract 
has been made to run this distance, including stoppages, 



SLSCTRIG TRACTION l6l 

in thirty-one minutes. This is the real beginning of 
Electric railways. 

The Liverpool line is very much wanted, and should 
be a great success, as formerly there were no means of 
getting from one dock to another except by omnibuses 
which ran very infrequently, and over the same track 
as the railway lines, with a consequent rumbling and 
jolting. 

In the construction of Electric locomotives for railways, 
two, three, or more separate motors may be used, each 
driving a single axle and pair of wheels. High speed 
locomotives for heavy trains could be built in this way 
with four or six driving wheels if necessary, each axle 
and pair of wheels being driven by separate motors, instead 
of the driving wheels being coupled by rods as with the 
compound steam locomotives of the L. & N. W. Eailway. 

When it is considered how rapid are our telegraphic 
Lightning means of communication, and how the 
Ei^zess telephone trunk lines now enable instant 

Trains. converse to be made between London and 

the northern cities, it will be recognised how inadequate 
for the wants of the age are onr present means of locomo- 
tion. The commercial demands for a more rapid transit 
will compel the leading railways to deal with this question 
of Lightning Expresses running between 120 and 150 
miles per hour. 

In an interesting pamphlet recently published by Mr. 
Behr, A. Inst. 0. E., it is pointed out that the present 
express trains between large cities are far from being 
generally remunerative. The wear and tear of the per- 
manent way is very great, while the frequent shunting 
of goods traffic and the difficulties of arranging local 
trains, with all the danger of collisions that this implies, 
may be sai^ tp arise solely from the necessity of having 



1 62 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

clear runs at certain periods of the day for the express 
service. A lightning express system which could be 
arranged for alongside of the present traflBc would relieve 
the congestion of many trunk lines, and add to the safety 
of working them. 

It is totally impracticable to run a steam locomotive 
service at a greater speed than 70 miles per hour, and 
the present arrangement of rails is also unsuited to higher 
speeds, but short trains worked by Electric motors may 
be safely and smoothly run at frequent intervals on the 
single or rather triple rail plan proposed. This service 
will permit of trains travelling at a speed of up to 150 
miles with no greater risk than with the present methods. 
A service communicating with Brighton in 25 minutes, 
Manchester in If hours, Glasgow in 3 J hours, and (allow- 
ing 1^ hours for the sea passage) Paris in 3^ hours, is a 
necessary sequence of the invention of telephonic com- 
munication. The change from the express service of 
60 miles per hour, working on lines that serve also for 
local and goods traffic, to a lightning express on its own 
specially adapted rails running at 120 miles per hour, is 
not so great as the change from the stage-coach of 
the past in the early days of the railways. It only 
needs some broad-minded intellect associated with our 
leading railway systems to recognise that improvement is 
needed in the train communication between our great 
industrial cities, to stir the apathy with which the 
question is necessarily regarded by those more directly 
connected with the working of our great railway under- 
takings. 

Another application of Electric traction was the method 
employed for conveying visitors about the World's Pair 
during the exhibition at Chicago. 

The "travelling side walks," as they were called, con- 



ELEC5TRIC TKACTION 1 63 

sisted of a platform fitted with seats, which moved round 
an endless railway track elliptical in shape, some nine 
hundred feet long, at the rate of six miles an hour. 
Between this and the stationary platform was another 
platform moving at the rate of three miles an hour. 
On to this one could step without jar or inconvenience, 
it being an average walking speed, and, in the same way, 
no greater change was felt in stepping from the slow to 
the faster moving platform on which were the stationary 
seats. 

The slow moving " side walk " and the more quickly 
moving '^side walk'' cars do not stop at all, and yet it 
will be seen from the foregoing that passengers could 
readily get off or on at any time. The passenger, in 
fact, stops himself instead of the car. Large crowds 
can thus be readily moved over short distances, while 
by varying the regulators a speed of fifteen miles can 
be obtained. As the cost of construction is not great, 
some such arrangement will doubtless soon be in work 
here at one or other of our popular resorts. 

It has been suggested that some system of Electric 

haulage might be applied to canal traffic. Unfortunately 

canals are afi^ainst the interests of the Bail- 
Canals. /-< • 

way Companies, who have done much to 

impede such traffic by purchase and competition. 

Even with Electric power it would be impossible to 
economically work canal boats at a great speed, and canal 
embankments are also unsuited for such. With sufficient 
boats working on a canal, it would be possible to eco- 
nomically work an Electrical system of traction, the wires 
being suspended along overhead as with tramways, and 
with stations at intervals for producing current. Loose 
Electric motors with screw propeller attachments could 
readily be constructed to fit on independently, so that they 



1 64 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

might be taken from barges when being loaded or un- 
loaded, and utilised only on those required for traffic. 

On the Elbe, Eh&ne, and other quick-running rivers 
of Germany, Prance, &c., the haulage of canal boats by 
chains sunk the whole length of the route is very general. 
Steam-driven drums on board wind this up in sufficient 
turns to get the necessary grip, and the swifter the stream 
the greater is the superiority of such an arrangement 
over steam tugs. A magnetic pulley has been recently 
invented, by which the groove of the hauling drum is 
magnetised, and the sunken chain passing in the groove 
becomes more firmly and readily held in position by the 
magnetic attraction. The whole details of this system 
seem to have been carefully worked out, and it is to be 
hoped this arrangement will effectually overcome various 
difficulties, such as the variable strain on the chain 
previously experienced. 

The sketch on page 165 shows a system of overhead 
transport known as Telpherage. The same 
* steel rods which support the car serve also 
to supply current to its motor. Two or three of the cars 
shown may be coupled together to form a miniature train. 
In the future some system such as this may be used with 
advantage for transporting loads of two or three hundred- 
weight each, such as minerals from the mine or quarry, or 
perhaps for an Express Parcel Post between towns. 

Many people have, doubtless, seen an experimental 

Electric omnibus careerinff at times through 
Omnibuses. 1. x t mi • . 1 /. 

the streets of London. This is the first step 

towards the ultimate working of all our street conveyances 

by Electricity. Further ingenuity must be displayed in 

devising good starting and stopping gear, and also in 

constructing accumulators for the special conditions of 

vibration over our roads. It odJ> wants a little experience, 



ELECTRIC TRACTION l6S 

which could soon be gained when half-a-dozen of these con- 




veyances have been at work, to overcome any difficulties that 
may stand in the way of an efficient Electric omnibus. 



1 66 ELECTRICITY tJP TO 1)ATE 

Electric tricycles, however, are more for the future, 
although not far distant. What is required 
is an accumulator lightened by forty per 
cent, and yet giving the same output, and with Electrical 
engineers at work on this subject who have already done 
so much for accumulator traction, we may rest content 
that no unnecessary delay will elapse. 

Electric launches are the most successful form of Elec- 
tric traction, or rather propulsion, that has 
as yet been devised. This is mainly due 
to the fact that the driving machinery, of which the screw 
forms the most important part, is at work in water, which 
allows of sufficient movemeDt to prevent any strain. Elec- 
trical or mechanical, on the machinery. And it is this 
sudden pull that tends to deteriorate an accumulator. It 
has been often remarked that Electric launches on the 
Thames are not fast enough and that a good steam launch 
is much better, but apart from the question as to whether 
one should be permitted to go at such a rate along so 
crowded a river as the Thames, Electric launches are now 
made to accommodate themselves to any condition of 
quick-running streams. There are several now running 
on the Thames which make, against a three-mile stream, 
from five to five and a half miles per hour, and this with 
no excessive strain on the accumulators. 

During the past four or five years very successful ex- 
periments have been carried out with a 
view to making Electricity actuate torpedoes. 
Undoubtedly this peculiar source of power will shortly 
supersede all other methods of propulsion for this purpose. 
Many difficulties, however, still surround this subject, 
especially when a high speed is desired. This cannot be 
obtained at present if the source of Electric Energy is in 
the torpedo itself, and consequently high speeds are only 



ELECTRIC TRACTION 1 67 

possible by means of a cable to the ship or shore, and 
through which Electric Energy can be conveyed to the 
torpedo. 

No successful submarine boats have as yet been con- 
structed ; but a great deal of experimental 
BoateT"^^ work was done at Tilbury in connection 
with the Nautilvs, Electricity being used as 
its motive power. It is stated that less power is required 
to propel a boat under water than on the surface, where it 
is continually climbing up the waves. 

There is a great attraction around the subject, particu- 
larly for those who have read Jules Verne's " Twenty 
Thousand Leagues under the Sea." What was considered 
utterly impossible years ago is now brought within the 
bounds of actual possibility, and already the advantages 
of submarine propulsion in some cases are being seen. 
The Electrical questions involved, however, are the easiest 
in this case, as the mechanical diflSculties of constructing 
a suitable boat are very great, the limit of* flotation being 
so small. This subject is only instanced here as another 
of the many apparently impossible things that Electricity 
has brought within the range of fact. 



1 68 ELBCJTKICITY up to DATS 



CHAPTEE XIV. 
BOARD OF TRADE CHARGE FOR PUBLIC SUPPLY. 

Electric Lighting v. Gas. 

OP all the Government departments there is none in 
which the public are so directly interested as in 
the Board of Trade, for into its charge are committed the 
interests of the busiest and wealthiest community of the 
world. Not only are matters connected with shipping, 
manufacturing, &c., involving the broadest trade control 
undertaken by it, but also the innumerable details con- 
nected with the working of our railways, gas, water, and 
kindred undertakings. 

These multifarious duties have been added to once more, 
and in no light measure, by the development of Electricity 
as a means of light, power, and traction. Begulations 
have been drawn up by the Board of Trade " for securing 
the safety of the public and for ensuring a proper and 
sufficient supply of Electrical Energy " under the Electric 
Lighting Acts of 1882 and 1888. 

The regulations deal very thoroughly with the various 
points involved in the public supply of Electricity, although 
they are considered in some respects unnecessarily severe. 
Perhaps from the public point of view it is as well to err 
on the right side, and no doubt modifications will be made 
from time to time to bring them up to the standard of 
such a progressive science as Electricity. Major Oardew, 
under whose control these matters are more immediately 



BOARD OF TRADE CHARGE FOR PUBLIC SUPPLY 1 69 

placed, has had so much experience in the practical appli- 
cation of every branch of science, that both the public and 
the Supply Companies may be said to be in very good 
hands. 

High-pressure Electric supply may only be used under 
well-considered restrictions formed to ensure the safety 
of the public. No current exceeding a pressure of 200 
volts is permitted to be brought into a house, and the 
Supply Companies are prohibited under penalty from 
supplying current to defective house-wiring. 

A unit, known as the Board of Trade Unit (B.T.U.), 
has been decided upon, by which all charges in future for 
Electrical Energy are to be made, and as this unit is un- 
intelligible to large numbers of consumers, a few words 
regarding it may not be out of place. 

The unit of energy is arrived at by multiplying the 
amourU of current by its pressure. For 
instance, a current of 10 amperes (an 
ampere is the unit of current) with a pressure of 100 
volts (a volt is the unit of pressure), represents 1000 watts 
(the watt being the unit of energy). In the same way a 
current of 20 amperes with a pressure of 50 volts repre- 
sents the same amount of energy, since 20 X 50 = 1000. 

In the Board of Trade Unit a time period has to be 
included, and since one watt (the unit of 
T^^ft^^^ energy) used for one hour (called one watt 
Hours. hour) is considered too minute for trade 

calculation, 1000 watt hours has been taken 
as more convenient, and is called the Board of Trade Unit. 
For instance, in a house where Electricity is supplied at 
100 volts pressure, and a current of 10 ampferes is con- 
sumed in one hour, 1000 watt hours (the Board of Trade 
Unit of Electrical Energy) has been consumed. Or again, 
if half the amount has been supplied but for two houra 



170 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

100 X 5 X 2 = 1000 watt hoDrs, the B.T.U. in the same 
way. From this it will be seen that the amperes of 
onrrent used, multiplied by the honrs in nse, and then 
again by the pressure at which the current is supplied, 
give the total (in watt hours) of the Electrical Energy 
consumed. The maximum charge permitted in London 
per 1000 watt hours (the B.T.U.) is 8d. In the pro- 
vinces a higher charge is permitted, while abroad, where 
a similar unit is adopted, the equivalent of Is. per 
B.T.U. is charged in Paris, and Is. OJd. per B.T.U in 
Madrid. 

The amount of Electrical Energy constituting a B.T.U. 
is about equal to the Electricity consumed by seventeen 
16 candle-power lamps burning one hour (or one 16 
candle-power lamp burning seventeen hours). As the 
average chacge of the Supply Companies is V^d. per 
B.T.U., it follows that at this rate a 16 candle-power lamp 
will cost rather under Jd. per hour, and an 8 candle- 
power lamp about Jd. per hour. 

These costs are based upon the amount of Electricity 
consumed by the Ediswan lamp, which is stated in the 
Edison and Swan Company's List to absorb four watts of 
Electric Energy per candle, so that an 8 candle-power 
lamp absorbs about thirty-two watts, and a 16 candle- 
power lamp about sixty-four watts. 

Any cheapening of the cost of Electric lighting must 
for the present be looked for in the direction of a more 
economical lamp, that is, a lamp giving the same candle- 
power of light and consuming less Electricity. It is quite 
conceivable that in three years' time good lamps will be 
supplied with an increased economy of one-third. Thns, 
without any reduction in the charges at present made by 
the Public Supply Companies, the cost of Electric light 
would be reduced one-third or more, according to what- 



BOARD OF TRADE CHARGE FOR PUBLIC SUPPLY 17 1 

ever increased economy improvements may bring about 
in the manufacture of incandescent lamps. 

The meters by which a Public Supply Company make 
their charge for j Electrical Energy must 
be approved of, both in construction and 
principle, and certified by the Board of Trade in the 
same way as gas or water meters. Thus, although 
occasional meters may cheat (they are after all chips of 
the old block — ^the gas meter), every precaution is taken 
to obtain accurate measurements. The accuracy attained 
by most Electric meters is remarkable, and when they 
do cheat it is almost invariably found to be against the 
Supply Company. 

As to the advantage of paying for a supply of Elec- 
tricity by meter, there can be no doubt. In the early 
days of Electric lighting, when a fixed price per annum 
was charged for each lamp, there was no incentive what- 
ever for a consumer to economise his light, and the Supply 
Company had no means of ascertaining whether their 
supply was a source of profit or loss in any individual case. 
The best paying supply stations and the most satisfied 
consumers are those where the Electricity is charged for 
by meter, and not at a fixed charge per lamp per annum. 

It should be pointed out that with gas it is impossible 
to measure by a meter either its light-giving power, its 
purity, or the quantity of sulphur or air mixed with it. 
The utmost a consumer can do is to see he has good 
regulating burners, which shall prevent as far as possible 
the gas being forced through, and a blue flame instead of 
a yellow light given oflf. 

With Electricity it is quite different, for as Professor 
Forbes (who has given this subject considerable attention) 
has said, " When we have measured the quantity con- 
sumed, there is only one quality which can exist, and that 



1^2 fiLECTHtClTV ttP t6 DAtt? 

is its pressure." With Electric inspectors appointed to 
see that the pressure of the public supply is always 
maintained constant, the consumers' interests are amply 
looked after, and far more so than where gas is used. 

An even pressure of the current supplied by a Company 
is more important to the consumer than may appear at first 
sight. A five per cent, reduction of the pressure not only 
means a five per cent, reduction in the Electrical Energy 
charged for, but it means a thirty per cent, reduction in 
the power of the light given by the incandescent lamp, 
which is constructed to glow at a certain specified pressure 
of current 

Again, if too great a pressure be sent through the 
lamps, their life is considerably shortened, although con- 
sumers are often pleased with the additional power of 
light obtained. In the same way, by fixing in a lamp 
of wrong voltage, that is, one constructed to burn at a 
greater or less pressure, too little or too much light is 
obtained. It is, therefore, not only desirable for the 
Electric pressure of a public supply to remain constant, 
but also uniformity in the voltage of incandescent lamps 
is important for Electric lighting to be successful. For- 
tunately the Edison and Swan Company are fully alive to 
this, and the care taken in the manufacture of their lamps 
cannot be denied. 

In making comparisons between Electric Light and 
Gas, many considerations come in that are 
Blec nc ig ^^^ often taken into account. The posi- 
tion and arrangements of the Electric 
light always largely affect the bill which is rendered 
quarterly for the Electricity consumed. For instance, in 
office lighting, where a regulating argand burner con- 
suming 5 feet of gas per hour, giving 16 candles of light, 
was previously used, the writer found that a 16 candle- 



BOARD OF TRADE CHARGE FOR PUBLIC SUPPLY 1 73 

power incandescent lamp when suspended vertically under 
a shade had a blinding efiEect, and an 8 candle-power 
lamp had to be substituted. Well-directed light is every- 
thing, and this is certainly carried out with much more 
economy by the Electric Light than by Gas. 

In reference to the arrangements of lights in houses, 
it is not proposed to deal here in any way with what is 
termed Artistic Electric Lighting. The expression is far 
too wide in its application, and individual taste is such 
an important factor in all artistic matters, that what 
one person considers fit and suitable, another may think 
entirely out of place. 

The ideal light is undoubtedly daylight ; its combina- 
tion of sun and shadow brings out and accentuates the 
beautiful features of everything in nature in a degree that 
can never be attained by artificial means. Of all artificial 
illuminants Electricity undoubtedly approaches nearest to 
an ideal light ; but because it permits of treatment and 
effects that have never been hitherto possible, the strain- 
ing after something novel often produces results at once 
unpleasant and inartistic. 

The mistake is often made in Electric Lighting of 
flooding a room with light, thus destroying the shadows, 
and doing away with all repose and natural effect. Pro- 
fessor Herkomer has shown that the necessary " make 
up " of actors is largely due to footlights throwing light 
up on the face and destroying the shadows that daylight 
dovm from above has accustomed us to. In the same way, 
unless skill is employed in arranging Electric lamps in a 
house, the ease with which they can be fixed at any angle 
readily allows an entirely false light to be thrown on the 
features, which are thus rendered unbecoming {sic), 

A certain amount of shading is sometimes found neces- 
sary from the too searching power of sunlight, so also 



174 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

shading is necessary to prevent Electric light from* weary- 
ing the eyes. The globe enclosing an ordinary gas jet 
absorbs from 20 to 40 per cent, of the light ; but very 
often a great deal more than this is unnecessarily absorbed 
in the shading of Electric lights. For instance, after 
fixing a globe, absorbing perhaps 30 per cent of light, 
over an Electric lamp, the carbon filament can be slightly 
seen; and an obscured lamp, absorbing perhaps another 
20 per cent, more light, is fixed up in place of the pre- 
vious clear one. 

It is always a much easier thing to show what should 
not be done than what should be done — for which 
experience is ever the golden key. The present ob- 
ject is rather to point out how seldom a true com- 
parison can really be made between gas and Electric 
lighting. 

It was hoped that after Electric lighting had been in 
general use for a year or two some satisfactory estimates 
of its cost, as compared with gas, would be forthcoming. 
This is far from being the case, and it is not uncommon 
to hear the most extraordinarily divergent statements 
concerning the cost of Electricity supplied for lighting 
London houses. 

In some instances the cost has been stated as enormous, 
and inquiry has shown that the consumer finds Electric 
lighting so readily adaptable to all manner of out-of-the- 
way places, that he has allowed his decorator to work 
lamps into the ceiling or the cornices, and has three times 
the number of lamps he had previously gas jets, and yet 
the effective power of light obtained is the same. Or 
perhaps the house has been newly decorated, and where 
the small gas-burner in a large obscured globe previously 
gave sufficient light for one long corridor, a 16 candle- 
power lamp is now fixed in the globe, or two or three such 



BOARD OF TRADE CHARGE FOR PUBLIC SUPPLY 175 

lamps are suspended at different points to give a brighter 
effect. 

This is no exaggeration, as it is invariably found that 
people adopting Electric light are determined to have 
their rooms well lighted, and will not put up with the 
inferior illumination they have often had before with gas 
or oil lamps. 

There is, of course, no reason why a consumer should 
not have as many lights as he likes — ^nothing is more 
charming or comfortable than a house well lighted by 
Blectriciiy; but then he should not make comparisons 
with his previous gas bill, and say that although the 
Electric light is very nice and convenient, it is dreadfully 
expensive. On the other hand, apparently ridiculous 
statements are made by others of the small amount of 
Electricity consumed in their houses, yet in neither in- 
stance is it the meter cheating. 

The arrangements of the wiring of a house, and the 
proper fixing of switches to control suitable groups of 
lights, mean a very great deal in the economy of Electric 
lighting; but all the trouble is wasted unless these 
switches are turned off when the light is not required. 
It seems such an easy matter, and yet it is so seldom 
done. 

In the use of gas, a considerable quantity is wasted 
in the course of the year, as, for instance, by lighting all 
the bedroom jets at sundown, and leaving them glimmer- 
ing until required. With Electric lighting there need be 
no such waste. In a valuable and interesting paper read 
before the Society of Arts, December 1890, by Mr. Frank 
Bailey, the Engineer of the Metropolitan Electric Supply 
Company, he said : " It may be thought that an estimated 
use of a lamp for only about 200 or 300 hours per annum 
is very low, but it should be remembered that the Electric 



176 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

light need only be used when it is required, as the ease 
of switching it on or oflf makes us forget all our past 
troubles in hunting for gas -taps and matches. With 
ordinary care, the avM^ge cost of burning an 8 candle- 
power lamp for domestic use need not exceed 10s. per 
annum." 

Since this statement was made experience has shown 
that the average cost of Electric lighting is considerably 
below this figure. The following table has been carefully 
compiled from the statistics kindly furnished by certain 
of the leading London supply companies, and shows the 
average cost of Electricity for an 8 candle-power lamp 
per annum, when used for various purposes :-^ 

Average cost of Electricity far an 8 c-p. lamp per annum. 

Caubs 20b. to 268. 

Public-houses and restaurants . . 18s. to 248. 

Hotels 186. to 23s. 

Theatres Os. 

Offices, large Ts. 6d. to 10a. 

Do., small 4s. to 6s. 6d. 

Chambers and flats (do.) . . . 5s. 6d. to 8s. 

Churches . . . 3s. to 4s. 

Shops*— 

1-50 lamps 9s. 8d. 

51-80 lamps 98. 3d. 

81-100 lamps 88. 6d. 

Over 100 lamps .... 8s. 
Houses and flats — 

1-50 lamps . \ .8s. 

51-80 lamps 6s. to 78. 3d. 

81-100 lamps 5s. to 68. 

Over 100 lamps . . . . 38. to 5s. 

* The best Loudon shops in and around Bond Street seem to form an 
exception to these figures, as it is found that in this neighbourhood the 
larger shops (t.«., using over 1000 units per annum) show an average oust 
per 8 candle-power lamp of 6s. 6d. to 9»., and the small shops (i.e., using 
1^8 than 1000 units per annum) 48. 6df to Qs, Q4, 



BOARD OF TRADE CflARGfi FOR PUBUO StTPttit 1 77 

It will thus be seen from the return of shops and houses, 
that where large numbers of lamps are installed, their 
average consumption is considerably less than for a small 
number. This may be partly due to the fact that large 
numbers of private houses in London have lamps wired for 
that are only used on special occasions, while other large 
mansions are shut up for many months in the year and no 
light used at all. "^V^hile, therefore, these figures may be of 
service as indicating the cost of Electric lighting, it should 
be remembered that there is only one London, and few 
provincial towns and cities have large houses or buildings 
with hundreds of lamps wired for, many of which are but 
seldom used. 

With reference to an indirect comparison of the relative 
economy of gas used in diflFerent ways for illumination, 
the following figures may also be of value : — To produce 
1000 candles of light for one hour by burning gas in the 
usual way, at least 312 cubic feet of gas are required. 
This gas, if used in a gas-engine working a dynamo, 
would produce sufficient power for the supply of incan- 
descent Electric lamps giving in all, over 2500 candles of 
light, or of 12 arc lamps giving about 1000 candle-power 
each. 

However interesting comparison with gas may be for 
purposes of calculation, practical experience aflFords daily 
evidence of the fact that the price of gas has no more 
influence on the price of Electric light than the price of 
candles has on oil. People have continued the use of gas, 
while the price of oil has been constantly declining, and 
only because of the superiority and greater convenience 
of gas. For the same reason they will continue the use 
of the Electric light, even if the price of gas may be 
materially reduced in the future for the purpose of com- 
petition. 

M 



ty^ ICLECtRICltY UP fO tAfIt 

It has been shown that, while gas raised the temperature 
near the ceiling in a certain hall 40 degrees in three hours, 
the Electric light only raised it 1 J degrees in seven hours. 
Such facts as these must appeal at once to* all. Profes- 
sional singers and actors, in fact all who need to exercise 
their voices, quickly appreciate such differences in the 
temperature and composition of the atmosphere. But the 
influence on the temperament generally is still greater, as 
the atmosphere, no longer saturated with gaseous com- 
pounds, does not depress, and the cheery influence of 
the Electric light on the mind and on our sensitive nerve 
systems of the present day cannot be too highly estimated. 

The possible uses of gas produced at a low cost will 
cover a broad field. As an illuminating agent, however, 
in the same way that gas took the place of oil and candles, 
it is itself being gradually but surely displaced by the 
superiority of the Electric light. 

No one can longer doubt this when the Chairman of the 
Gas Light and Coke Company himself installs the Electric 
light in his house, and if people still exist who nurture 
the idea that much has to be done before it is generally 
used or can become commercially successful, they are 
simply deceiving themselves to no purpose. To such it is 
as well to repeat Professor Forbes' words, " The production 
of gas is only a somewhat extensive laboratory experiment 
enlarged to a commercial scale. The distillation of coal 
and the subsequent treatment by condensers, scrubbers, 
and lime-purifiers, previous to its admission through the 
regulator and station-meter to the gasholder, is really a 
complicated process compared to the production of elec- 
tricity." 

At the present time no less than 1,110,000 Electric 
lamps are being supplied in London by the Electric 
Supply Companies.- At least another 224,000 lamps are 



fiOARD OF TRADE CitARGE f6R ttJBUC SUPPLY t^Q 

being supplied from private installations, thus making 
already a total of some 1,334,000 lamps that the Gas 
Companies would otherwise be supplying. 

Yet in spite of these large and convincing figures it 
is frequently stated at the meetings of the principal Gas 
Companies that no diminution is found in the amount of 
gas consumed for lighting purposes. If this really be the 
case, there is the one obvious answer, that this is due to the 
shops, restaurants, &c., where Electric light is not used, 
having to bum more gas, to favourably compare with their 
more go-ahead neighbours. 



1 80 kLECtttlCITY UP TO DATH 



CHAPTER XV. 
ELBCTRO'THERAPBUTICS— ELECTROCUTION. 

THE study of the curative powers of Electricity, when 
properly controlled and applied, has of late made 
great and important progress, and it is now recognised 
that Electricity as an agent to cure or to palliate disease, 
can be employed in a definite quantity to a definite part 
with a definite object. 

It has been often urged that too little science and too 
much quackery has hitherto been displayed in this branch 
of science, and certainly Electro-Therapeutics — ^the treat- 
ment of disease by Electriciiiy — ^requires most careful 
study by trained scientific observers, before definite state- 
ments of curative effects can be accepted. But the stage 
of empiricism in electro-medical work has now been 
passed, and, with the attention being directed to the 
subject by eminent scientists of all countries it can be 
but a short time before, in electro-physics, as in other 
branches of the healing science, a sound and precise 
system of treatment will be evolved, based on the prin- 
ciples of electrical as well as of medical knowledge. 

In our own country, there are a few of high standing 
in the medical and electrical world who have systematic- 
ally investigated and studied the principles governing the 
action of Electricity when applied to medical science. So 
recent, however, is the development of this branch of the 
healing art, that their names are as yet comparatively 



ELBCTRO-THBRAPBUTICS — ELECTROCUTION 1 8 1 

unknown to the world at large, and the sufferer who has 
determined to try everything too often drifts into the hands 
of the purveyors of so-called Electrical cures. 

By the glib use of the word Electricity, the charlatan 
is enabled to surround his proceedings with the profound 
mystery necessary to deceive people whose common-sense 
would otherwise enable them to appreciate the absurdity 
of many of the claims set forth. 

Where Electricity is the agent, seeing is not always 
believing, and visitors to medical quackeries must be 
especially warned against believing any so-called con- 
vincing demonstrations they may be shown. The public, 
it is said, love to be humbugged, and with the reiterated 
statements constantly before their eyes of the curative 
effects of Electricity, it is hardly to be wondered at that 
the advertising quack is the one who ben^ts. 

Of all the quack appliances of the present day, the 
electropathic belt has certainly been the most ensnaring. 
Its charms, its wondrous effects, and its simplicity have 
been trumpeted throughout the land, while its curative 
powers as advertised were so omnifarious that, if it did 
not cure the one disease, it might cure some other latent 
trouble a perturbed reader can so readily conjure up. 

The sale of these appliances has been largely assisted 
by the difficulty generally experienced of obtaining any 
reliable information as to their Electric properties. Zinc 
and copper are undoubtedly present, therefore why not 
Electricity? and why not curative results? 

It has been shown in the best medical practice that, 
in supplying constant current Electricity from external 
sources, any current below five or ten milliamp^res * is 
useless for the majority of cases, although where the head 
forms part of the circuit a current of two milliampferes 

* One milliamp^re is one-thousandth of an ampere. 



l82 KLEGTRIGITT UP TO DATS 

(one five-hnndredth of an ampere) is sometimes employed. 
In an electropathic belt, even if properly connected up — 
which usually is not the case — ^the Electric Energy pro- 
duced by the discs of zinc and copper, when acted upon 
by the perspiration of the body, can be Imt a fraction of 
one mdlliamp^e, say y^th to zh^^t according to the 
moisture or dryness of the skin. 

The skin is the greatest factor in all such work. It 
is well known that the interior of the body (the blood- 
vessels, muscles, tissues, Ac.) has a very low resistance to 
the passage of Electric current, and that when tests are 
made on«the body the very high resistance shown is due 
to the skin alone, and this resistance of the body is lower 
when the skin is damp. 

In an experiment made by Mr. H. R Harrison, B.Sc, 
the current given oflE by a certain Electric belt was shown 
to be as small as one hundred-millionth of an ampere. 
When the belt was placed around the body of a man with 
a rather damp skin " at &st there was a current of one 
fifty-thousandth of an ampere, and at the end of five^ 
minutes no current could be detected, that is, the current 
(if any) was distinctly less than one hundred-millionth of 
an ampere." Even homoeopathic doses of Electricity may 
surely be given in too minute a quantity. 

More recently Mr. T. R Gatehouse, the well-known 
Electrician, performed certain apparently conclusive ex- 
periments showing that, under the most favourable condi- 
tions — ^by deliberately wetting the portion of the body the 
belt comes in contact with — ^the current generated by such 
an appliance does not overcome the skin resistance, and 
cannot possibly therefore materially influence the body. 
Mr. W. H. Preece, P.R.S., the Chief Electrician to the 
Post Office, to whom Mr. Gatehouse showed the belt, sent 
him a letter to the eSeot that bq far as he could see Iron) 



KLKOTRO-THBRAPBUTICS— ELECTROCUTION 1 83 

examination of the appliance, and from the result of the 
test, it would be quite impossible for the belt to generate 
a current of Electricity through the body. 

Such, therefore, is the value of electropathic belts from 
an electro-medical standpoint, and it may safely be asserted 
that if any of the widely advertised nostrums have really 
produced beneficial results, they have been due far more 
to " faith cure " than to any other cause. The klectrical 
Beview, notably among Electrical journals, has given much 
valuable and interesting information concerning electro- 
therapeutics in its columns, and deserves credit for the 
stand it has throughout taken against such delusive 
quackery. 

Before leaving this part of the subject, it may be pointed 
out that there are Electric brushes, Electric corsets. Elec- 
tric plasters, and many other such appliances for the 
credulous, and doubtless " faith-cures " have been made. 
When buying Electric brushes, the purchaser may be 
informed that the cause of the compass needle moving 
when brought near to the brush, is due to the brush being 
charged with Electricity — ^whereas the optical effect is 
obtained in the same old way as at school, by secreting a 
small magnet at the back of the brush. Magnetism has 
never been shown, so far, to have either beneficial or detri- 
mental effects upon the human system, but an attempt is 
thus made to confound it with the undoubted curative 
properties of current Electricity when properly applied. 

Although such inevitable drawbacks must be expected 
at the inception of a new branch of the healing science, it 
is satisfactory to know that great and valuable progress is 
constantly being made by earnest workers. In our own 
country, notably at St. Bartholomew's, London, and at 
other special hospitals devoted to cases of paralysis, &c., 
there are already distinct Electrical departments, and th^ 



184 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

most enlightened of our scientific men are daily learning 
to grapple more and more with the complex physical 
conditions invariably encountered in electro-therapeutics. 
In America much has been done. In France such masters 
of medicine as Apostoli, Charcot and others have given 
overwhelming evidence of the efficiency of Electric cur- 
rents, while in Germany Dr. Erb, the great German 
electro-therapeutist, in a valuable work, mentions a wide 
range of diseases in which from his own experience and 
cases it must undoubtedly be accepted that Electricity 
has powerful palliative and curative eflFects. 

As Electric currents have certain properties, follow 
certain laws, and their application is followed by certain 
efiFects, it will be readily understood that for such treat- 
ment to be rationally administered thorough knowledge is 
essential as to the dose and to the method of applying it, 
having regard to the ever-varying conditions of the human 
body. The need for accurate dosage is, in fact, almost as 
important with Electricity as with drugs, and without it 
there can be no proper understanding of the effects pro- 
duced ; no scientific methods of treatment with a definite 
object. In the same way as in medicine, drugs need to 
be measured or weighed and the doses accurately pre- 
scribed, so with Electricity, measurement is of the first 
importance in Electrical treatment. 

Again, the human body is so complicated and individu- 
alised a structure, differing from all other conductors in 
not being influenced by currents in quite the same way, 
that what form of current is most beneficial, and what 
method is the most suitable for administering it, are 
salient features in successful treatment. , Dr. Erb has 
rightly stated that the art of the electro-therapeutist con- 
sists in selecting or devising the best method for each 
individual case and carrying it out in the best way. 



ELECTEO-THERAPBUTICS — ELECTROCUTION 1 8 5 

Without in any way attempting to thoroughly deal with 
the subject, it may be interesting and instruddve to a 
large class of readers to know some of the procedures and 
possibilities of Electricity for the cure of disease. Mr. H. 
Newman Lawrence, in some valuable papers recently con- 
tributed to the JSleetrical Review, and Dr. Hedley, in a 
recent work, deal very thoroughly and systematically with 
the question as to the beneficial influences of different 
forms of Electric currents. 

Of the three forms of currents there are — First, Conti- 
nuous Currents, which usually are termed 
on iious j^ medicine Galvanic Currents, from the 
fact of their being generally obtained from 
galvanic batteries. Such currents are said to have great 
influence on the absorptive and nutritive processes. Their 
chemical or electrolytic action in breaking up and decom- 
posing morbid products, combined with their direct action 
on nervous centres and nerves, gives them, it is said, a 
possible range of action of bewildering extent and com- 
plexity. 

A very remarkable property again is what is termed 
their " cataphoric " action. This is best described as the 
ability of the Electric current to introduce drugs into the 
body. It is easily shown that "medical substances in 
solution applied to the skin at the positive pole traverse 
the skin into the body and can be detected " in various 
ways. It is impossible to appreciate how this method of 
medication may develop in the future, as there seems 
reason to believe that, in certain cases, as much of the 
drug is brought to bear on the affected part as if admini- 
stered through the mouth, and this without the destruc- 
tive effect that drugs undoubtedly have on the process of 
digestion. 

Interrupted Currents, sometimes termed Coil Currents 



1 86 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

(from the fact of their being obtained from induction 

coils), are divided into two classes, viz., 
^n|Uwrapted u jnterrupted Direct'' Currents (from the 

Primary of the induction coil), and " /ti- 
terrupted Indiiced" Currents (from the Secondary of the 
induction coil). The latter are often termed " Faradic" cur- 
rents, from Faraday, the inventor of the Induction Ooil. 

Interrupted Direct Currents are largely of the nature 
of continuous currents, but are of greater electromotive 
force than if proceeding direct from a galvanic battery. 
It is for this reason they are said to be " more pungent 
and penetrating." These, as well as the Interrupted 
Induced Currents, have been long recognised as of great 
value for medical purposes, and are generally resorted to 
when a stimulating or exciting action of nerve muscle is 
sought Another effect is said to be their "pain-killing" 
properties, as by overstimulating the aflFected part, it 
becomes benumbed, and Faradic currents especially are 
often usefully employed in neuralgias. Interrupted cur- 
rents influence the body according to their current strength 
and their rate of interruption or vibration, and there is 
still need for much further investigation as to the influ- 
ence different rates of vibration have upon the sensory 
nerves. 

Alternating Currents, generated from a dynamo, differ 

considerably from the interrupted induced 
G^^"^^ ^ currents obtained from induction coils, and 

they appear to possess important features 
in the treatment of nervous disorders, by reason of their 
smoothness and regularity. In dealing, however, for 
medical purposes, with any current, whether continuous or 
alternating, generated from dynamos, certain measures 
have to be taken to guard against an unexpected and un- 
desirable increase of Electric Ener^T^. The means by 



ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS — ELECTROCUTION 1 87 

which such difficulties may ]ye satisfactorily overcome, and 
the supply, whether continuous or alternating, obtained 
from the street main for medical and surgical purposes, 
has been fully dealt with in the Lancet. 

The methods of application, again, are a subject upon 
which much investigation has been spent. Individual 
susceptibility depending partly on peculiarities of consti- 
tution and temperament, is said to vary in an astonishing 
manner, and whether the action shall be ^'general" or 
"localised" is of importance. In " Hydro - Electric 
Methods," recently published by Dr. Hedley, he deals 
among other matters with the Electric bath, as offering 
an invaluable means of applying Electricity, whether con- 
tinuous, interrupted, or alternating. The painless and 
evenly distributed current of the bath should make it one 
of the best methods of electrisation ; but to take them as 
if they were salt-water baths on the chance of their doing 
good is like taking a drug haphazard, and with no regard 
to its definite action. 

Professor D'Odiardi has also recently been carrying out 
some most valuable work in this new field of Blectro- 
Therapeutics, and his methods are well worthy of the 
careful attention of any one interested in the scientific 
application of Electricity. Dr. D'Odiardi utilises Electri- 
city at different pressures, from 4 volts to some 30,000 
or more, whilst in some apparatus the Electricity is con- 
veyed through liquids containing chemicals, or through 
certain gases. 

By the variety of its application, the same Electricity 
can produce sleep or wakefulness, increase or di mi nish the 
breathing power, stimulate the digestion or the reverse. 

The direction of the current has also been shown by 
him to materially influence the effects obtained, as an 
{ascending current in the spine produces effects very widely 



igg ELBcnacnT up to datb 

different from a defioendiiig one. Again, while in some 
treatments the current is not allowed to scatter before it 
reaches a certain difltanoe into the subjacent organs, by 
another method it can be made to go through the organism 
like a light through a Fresnel lens. 

A careful consideration of the variety of the methods 
by which Electricity can be utilised in the treatment of 
diseases would seem to show that Electrical treatment 
like Hydro-Therapy must be carried out at special estab- 
lishments. It is no use for a doctor to apply Electricity 
for a few minutes and then to go on to the next house. 
If patients are to be benefited, their ''cure" must be 
undertaken in some establishment similar to the "cure" 
resorts of the Continent The establishment of such 
an Electrical hospital in London, under sound scientific 
management, would be of great advantage in developing 
Electrical methods of treatment ; and, from the cases that 
have been already dealt mth, there seems no doubt that 
diseases hitherto deemed incurable can be most success- 
fully grappled with. 

No really beneficial result, however, can be expected 
from Electricity in the treatment of disease, unless it is 
applied under the direction of a thoroughly qualified 
scientist with a special training in Electricsd methods. 
This point cannot be too strongly urged, and if once it 
be understood that with Electricity, as with drugs, an 
injudicious use or empirical treatment may be attended 
with serious ill-eflfects, the necessity for rational treat- 
ment and careful administration will be appreciated. 

The applications of Electricity to medical and surgical 
apparatus again oflfer a very wide field. As an aid to 
medical diagnosis, a stethoscope has been invented com- 
bined with a microphone by which the various sounds of 
the human body can be intensified to an enormous extent, 



ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS — ELECTROCUTION 1 89 

and sounds detected that would otherwise be too feeble to 
be apparent. Again, by means of a minute incandescent 
lamp apparatus the cavities of the face can be examined, 
or the pharynx, the stomach, the eye or the ear illumin- 
ated, and the diagnosis of suspected disease assisted and 
rendered more certain. 

Leading surgeons have been only too willing to avail 
themselves of various Electrical appliances by which many 
delicate and skilful operations cari now be performed with 
an ease and simplicity that five years ago were unknown. 
Dp. Felix Semon, among other leading surgeons, has a 
most complete apparatus for every description of electro- 
surgical work, and among his many ingenious arrange- 
ments may be noted one by which massage treatment can 
be applied to the throat through an electrically rotated 
disc controlled by the hand. 

Although Electricity has thus already accomplished 
much in the treatment of disease, the scope for further 
development is very great, and new features are being 
constantly brought to light. Only recently, for instance, 
when experimenting on massage, Mr. Tesla was able to 
demonstrate that the human body, well insulated in the 
air, can be heated by connecting it with rapidly alternating 
high-pressure currents. It would seem that this " bom- 
bardment " of the body with such currents oflfers another 
channel for the effective treatment of disease. The heat- 
ing seems to be merely superficial, that is, in the skin ; 
and it would act ** whether the person operated upon were 
in bed, walking round a room, whether dressed in thick 
clothes or reduced to nakedness." 

Turning now from the subject of "the current that 

„, ^ ^. cures," it may not be uninteresting to 
ElectrocutioxL • . • .^ -.i 7,^1 

note some points in connection with "the 

current that kills." 



IgO ELECTHlClTV tJt» TO t)ATfi 

So much alarmist nonsense has been talked of the 
death-dealing results of Electric currents, that the brave 
and fearless in other respects are as the most timid when 
handling or touching even such ordinary apparatus as 
lamp sockets, Electric switches, or other details of house- 
wiring. There is a vague fear that something will happen, 
and this same feeling is present whenever Electrical 
matters are in question. It is true some fatal results have 
happened, but Electricity does not kill people wholesale, 
as with dynamite, gunpowder, or coal-gas explosions, nor 
is the list of fatal accidents to be compared with deaths 
due to exploding or overturned oil lamps. 

It cannot be too clearly understood that the Electrical 
pressure (averaging 100 volts) used in our houses is such 
that the most delicate person cannot be affected by any 
shocks received. Electricity at such low pressures is quite 
harmless, and in view of the experiments at the Eoyal 
Institution, in February 1892, when Mr. Tesla received 
shocks from Electric currents at a pressure of some 
100,000 volts, it may be rightly asked. If Electricity at 
a low pressure is harmless, and at a high pressure equally 
so, what is it that produces the fatal accidents to human 
life that have occasionally been recorded ? The reply is, 
that something more than pressure is required to bring 
about fatal results, and that unless a certain quainiity of 
current is communicated, at a pressure sufficient to over- 
come the skin resistance of the body, no fatality ensuea 

The ability to bear Electric currents varies in different 
individuals, and taking the minimum resistance (given by 
Dr. Waller) of the body at 1000 ohms from hand to hand 
when metal contacts are grasped, then it would require 
a pressure of some 500 volts to pass half an ampere, which 
by many is considered unnecessarily near the fatal current. 
When Mr. Tesla received his shocks at a pressure of 



tStttCTRO-tfilC&APEUttdS — ELKCTtlOCUtlOlJ 1 9 1 

100,000 volts, the quantity of current communicated was 
small, and it is doubtful whether, in the majority of his 
experiments, it was as much as one-thousandth part of an 
ampere (one milliampfere). 

Again, to ensure fatal results, even with dangerous 
currents, good contact should be made, and the current 
should traverse vital parts of the body. Perhaps the 
absence of these conditions may account for the many 
instances of which every Electrical engineer knows, and 
which many have experienced, of shocks being received, 
which some few years ago were always understood to 
produce decidedly fatal results. 

By concentrating the Electric shock under proper con- 
ditions on one or other of the vital organs of the body, it 
is, however, no diflScult matter to instantaneously ensure 
a fatal result. Electrocution, scientifically carried out, is 
a most humane method of terminating the life that the 
law has condemned. Inasmuch as Electricity travels 
much quicker than the sensory nerves, the brain is 
naturally rendered insensitive, and the subject insensible 
by the rush of Electricity, long before the sensory nerves 
could communicate their impression of pain. 

Friends of the gibbet are naturally loud in denouncing 
Electric executions, and the dijBSculty of resisting senti- 
mentalism in this, as in other matters, is one of the great 
obstacles to any progress. After some two centuries of 
practice nothing more humane, however, seems to be 
attained than hanging a man, at the risk of pulling his 
head off, and if capital punishment must be enforced, it 
would surely seem that some method of instantaneous 
death by properly carried out Electrocution is worthy of 
adoption. 



192 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



CHAPTER XVI. 
ELECTRIC COOKING AND HEATING. 

THE part Electricity will play in all great industrial 
enterprises is now fully recognised ; but the changes 
it will inevitably bring about in the domestic household 
are still far from being sufficiently appreciated. This is 
largely due to the fact that Electrical Engineers have 
hitherto had their attention chiefly concentrated on pro- 
viding a public supply of Electricity for lighting purposes, 
and until this work had been satisfactorily accomplished 
it was useless attempting further domestic applications of 
Electric science. So soon, however, as the many and 
difficult problems involved in the economical production 
and house-to-house distribution of Electricity were solved 
the commercial success of such undertakings was promptly 
shown to be dependent on a large and constant consump- 
tion of the current. Electric lighting, as a rule, is only 
required on an average for some four hours a day, and 
the earning capacity of a large central supply station 
capable of supplying Electricity in large quantities 
throughout the twenty-four hours is thus considerably 
limited. It was the demand thus made for new uses of 
the Electric current that has caused, especially in America, 
such a development in the use of small Electric motors for 
a variety of business and household purposes, and that 
has brought about the recent developments in Electric 
heating. 



ELEOTEIO COOKING AND HEA.TING 193 

Every additional use to which Electricity can be put, 
increasing as it does the consumption of current, tends to 
improve the profitable nature of a Supply Company's 
undertaking, and in this way permits of Electricity being 
supplied at cheaper rates. The amount of Electricity 
consumed by a miniature motor for grinding cofifee, work- 
ing a boot-blacking machine, or even for a larger motor 
working the dinner lift occasionally, is very small indeed ; 
but the general adoption of small Electric motors. Electric 
heaters, and other such useful household apparatus will 
help materially to reduce the cost at which Electricity 
can be profitably supplied for lighting purposes. 

^t the present charge for current for Electric lighting 
(averaging some 7d. per unit) the cost of Electric Cooking 
and Heating would be prohibitive ; but the Supply Com- 
panies, anxious to obtain a sale for their current at times 
when otherwise their machinery would be standing idle, 
have already in some districts reduced the rates for cook- 
ing or heating services to as low as 3d. and 4d. per unit. 

It is not, however, the novelty of an invention that 
constitutes its value so much as the fitness of its applica- 
tion, and in this respect Electricity as a means of heating 
and cooking undoubtedly has numerous advantages in 
favour of change and progress. Our methods, if always 
to be the fittest, cannot always continue the same ; yet 
the operations of cooking are now in many respects what 
prevailed from times immemorial. Man yields to custom 
as he bows to fate ; but the course of changing years has 
bettered many things in the past, and it would now seem 
as if our methods of cooking are likely to be revolutionised 
and improved by the same agency which has already 
wrought such changes in other directions. 

Surely the need is great. " Heaven sends us good meat 
and the devil sends us cooks" does not represent the 



194 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

dyspeptic cry of any one generation, bnt rather the judg- 
ment of all ages, and yet how often-.-has the method as 
well as the master-hand been at f anlt. Scientific cookery 
hampered by unscientific ways is naturally ready and 
eager to avail itself of Electrical apparatus where cooking 
by accurate measurement is, if anything, easier than by 
the haphazard methods where gas or coal is employed. 

It has been so often asserted that gas, if superseded as 
a means of lighting, will still find opportunities in heating 
and cooking of triumphing over its rival,, that many have 
failed lo appreciate how usefully Electricity can also be 
employed in the same directions. 

Again, to many the very idea of Electric heating seems 
a paradox. Electricity has of late been chiefly associated 
in the public mind with lighting, and in this respect it 
has derived its principal advantage over gas from this 
very absence of heat. In the incandopcent lamp, however, 
the light is caused by the carbon becoming electrically 
heated to incandescence, and Electric Lighting is thus 
only another application of the well-known heating effects 
of Electricity. 

With Electric Light wiring, if the wires are too small, 
or if too much current is sent through them, they become 
heated and melt. In the same way coils of iron or 
platinum wire can be heated up by the Electric current 
and placed round any vessel, such as a saucepan. If, 
however, bare wires, through which Electricity is passing, 
are brought into contact with the metal of a saucepan, 
a "short circuit" or path for the current is made, and 
Electricity may be said to escape. With bare wires also 
the heat would be rapidly carried away by the cooler 
currents of air, and thus little of the actual heat would 
reach the saucepan. For these reasons the heating wires 
are embedded in some substance which shall conduct the 



ELECTRIC COOKING AND HEATING IpS 

heat direct to the surface to be heated, and also act as 
an insulator for the Electric current. The heating-wires 
by this means are brought into close contact with the 
saucepan, or any other vessel to be heated without any 
of the Electricity escaping, while the heat in the wire is 
conducted rapidly to the surface to be heated. 

The original method employed of thus separating the 
heating-wires from the metal surface to be heated was by 
means of mica or asbestos wrapped round the wires. 
Several forms of such apparatus were constructed, all of 
which were of little commercial value, as great diflSculty 
was experienced in conveying the heat generated to the 
surface to be heated without great loss. Asbestos also 
did not entirely exclude the air from the heating-wires, 
and these consequently soon became destroyed. 

In 1878, at the Crystal Palace Exhibition, Mr. Lane 
Pox made an improvement by embedding the vdres in an 
insulating enamel, which also acted as a good conductor 
for the heat. His egg-boilers, coffee-pots, and curling- 
irons attracted then much attention. The enamel, how- 
ever, cracked and would not stand such high temperatures, 
while the opportunities for the use of such apparatus at 
that time were not sufficient to induce inventors to give 
the subject more attention. 

The recent demand for new uses to promote the con- 
sumption and sale of Electricity caused attention to be 
again directed to the subject of Electric heating apparatus. 
In 1891 various experiments resulted in the discovery of 
an improved insulating enamel which did not injuriously 
affect the substance of the heating-wires embedded in it, 
and which, by expanding and contracting equally with 
them, was able to withstand the high temperatures with- 
out cracking. As enamel requires to be burnt on, this 
method, although serviceable for iron griddles, heaters^ 



196 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

and ovens, was not equally suitable for copper or silver 
utensils, which often are affected in the enamelling pro- 
cess. However, this last difficulty has now also been 
overcome, as by a recent method iiie wires are embedded 
in an insulating cement, having the same properties as 
the enamel, but which can be applied in the cold state to 
the surface of any cooking or other apparatus. Both the 
enamel and cement processes are now employed. 

The method by which the apparatus is fitted for Electric 
heating is most simple. A thin film of enamel or cement 
is spread over the saucepan or other vessel; iron, plati- 
num, or other high resistance wire is laid zigzag over 
it, with copper wire connections made to the two ends, 
and finally more of the enamel or cement is spread over 
so as to completely embed the vmres. When enamel is 
employed the apparatus is then put into a kiln, and the 
enamel burnt on similar to the ordinary iron cooking 
utensils. In both methods the film of enamel or cement 
insulating the heating-wires is so thin and so good a 
conductor of heat that the heat generated by the Elec- 
tricity is rapidly conveyed to the utensil to be heated. 
More heating power, i.e.. Electricity, can thus be sent 
through the wires without fear of over-heating them than 
would be possible if tfiey were exposed to the air, which 
does not conduct heat but simply radiates it. 

The heat generated is proportional to the quantity of 
current used, and the amount of obstruction or resistance 
it meets with in its passage through the conducting wires. 
For this reason metal wires of high resistance are usually 
employed for such heating purposes, although non-metallic 
substances having the same qualities, such as carbon, may 
be used. The only limit to the heating effects is the 
melting-point of the wire, and although at first troubles 
were experienced through wires fusing, experimental tests 



ELECTRIC COOKING AND HEATINC 



m 



have since shown to what intensity the wires can be heated, 
without danger of their melting and destroying the Elec- 
trical connection. 




GBIDDLE. 



The illustration shows a form of griddle which is very 
convenient for frying eggs, pancakes, and a variety of 
such purposes; the uniformity of the heat prevents all 





COFFEE-HEATER. 



KETTLE. 



possibility of the articles sticking to the pan or unduly 
burning. It is only necessary to turn the current on for 
some two minutes before commencing to cook, and im- 



198 



ELECTEICITY UP TO DATE 



mediately the cooking is finished the current can be 
switched off and waste prevented. In the Electric stew- 
pan two or three different circuits are arranged, so that in 




CUBLINa-mONS. 



the earKer process, when a considerable heat is required, 
all are switched on, while by turning off one or two 
switches any desirable degree of heat suited to the sim- 




POOT WARMEE. 



SHAVING POT. 



mering process is secured. Heating effects can be very 
rapidly obtained, and the Electric curling-irons shown in 
ornamental nickel case will heat up to some 350 degrees 



ELECTRIC COOKING AND HEATING 



199 



in two minutes. Coffee-pots, flat-irons, coffee-machines 
(see illustrations), and a variety of such household appa- 
ratus are now being manufactured ready to be connected 
np by flexible cords to the same Electric supply that fur- 
nishes the light. 

•Hitherto the saucepans, kettles, and other apparatus 
fitted for Electric heating have been of a similar shape 
to those previously used for 
other methods. Gas-heaters 
have already accustomed us 
to large flat-bottomed appa- 
ratus not previously em- 
ployed, and the present 
forms of heating and cook- 
ing apparatus are not al- 
ways the most suited for 
obtaining the best results 
by Electric heating. As 
there is no necessity to re- 
tain the present shapes, it 
is possible that the modi- 
fication of them may result 
in a return to some of the 
old-fashioned forms of days 
gone by. 

It will be remembered 
that in many of the old 

kettles a space was left in the centre (or in the case of 
an urn at the bottom) for a red-hot glowing piece of iron, 
and there seems no reason why an Electrically heated tube 
or spiral will not in the future be similarly employed to 
maintain the heat. Again, the possibilities of ornament- 
ing Electric heating apparatus are infinite. Silver will 
no longer be the only luxury of which the afternoon tea- 




ORNAMENTAL KADIATOB. 



200 



ELECTKICITY UP TO DATE 



service is capable. As the heat is all inside, and anything 
may be aflSxed to the outer coating of the enamel, coflEee- 
nms and tea-kettles may be covered with costly brocade or 
delicately hand-painted leather, and the heating process 
brought about by connecting up a silken flexible wire. 

An illustration is also shown of an Electric radiator or 
warming stove fitted with three switches to allow of 






^A££I^££A 



j^jr£££££££^A^£J^J^£^£J'££jjkA 
^£jrj^££J^J^£J^A)AA'£AAA'JA'J^££J'j 

\j^AJ^£^J^J>A'£££££d*£Z£AA'££££4 
MJrJ-^£^A'££££'J'J'^JtJt^^4S£d 

M^^J^£j^££^A^J^J^£££^£4 ' 
\jt£^£^jf£^S^MiA^^A£^££k 



mm 



RADIATOR. 



'l|l|.L|. 



varying degrees of heat being obtained. The advantages 
claimed for these are that they maintain a steady, even 
heat, there is no dirt, smoke or smell, while heat is soon 
given off after the Electricity is switched on. 

In all such devices the high resistance iron or platinum 
wires play the same part that the filament does in the 
incandescent lamp, but instead of the substance being 
heated up to a glowing light, the heat is conducted through 



ELECTRIC COOKING AND HEATING 



20 1 



the surrounding cement and used in heating up diflferent 
forms of apparatus. Some 150 patents for Electric heaters 
alone have been taken out in the United States, as. 
owing to the intense cold these convenient and port- 
able arrangements are extremely 
serviceable ; for instance, in 
tramcars, which thus utilise the 
Electricity for heating and light- 
ing as well as for traction. Now 
that attention is being devoted 
to the subject of Electric heat- 
ing in this country, a very rapid 
development may be expected 
during the coining year. The 
wanning of halls and large build- 
ings is already being experi- 
mentally tried, and bids fair to 
be successful where the Electric 
supply for heating can be ob- 
tained at special rates. Before 
long also many ornamental forms 
of heating apparatus may be 
expected, such as copper gongs, 
screens, and other novel heat- 
ing devices, by which Electrical 
warmth will be conveniently 
obtained in any part of the 
room where it is desired. 

As a means of heating. Electricity is in this way not 
only most convenient and serviceable, but also offers 
advantages on the score of safety that are not possible 
in the use of coal, oil, or gas. AH apparatus are fitted 
with safety-fuses, matches are dispensed with, and it 
cannot be too strongly emphasised that with Electric 




dOAR LIOHTEB. 



202 



ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 



heating methods well carried out there is absolutely no 
danger from fire. 

It is as well, perhaps, before leaving this part of the 
subject, to explain the methods on which Electric Cigar 
Lighters are constructed. A small piece of platinum 
suitably fixed at the- end of a handle, is electrically 
heated to a white glow on pressing the switch con- 
nected with it. The Electric currents, however, that 




ORNAMENTAL KETTLE AND HOT PLATE, 

are usually supplied to a house for lighting purposes 
are considerably stronger than is necessary for heating 
up' this short length of wire. Additional resistance is 
therefore usually arranged for in a small ornamented case 
to which the Cigar Lighter is attached, so that the surplus 
Electricity may be absorbed, and the platinum wire pre- 
vented from fusing, as would otherwise be the case. 
The most important as well as the most interesting 
apparatus are naturally the Electric Ovens. 
As these are at present constructed they 
are fitted with five different circuits round 
the top and sides, each circuit being controlled by a 



Electric 
Ovens. 



ELECTRIC COOKING AND HEATING 203 

separate switch. The inside plates of the oveus are all 
made radiating surfaces, and if less heat is required on 
one side or the other, that particular circuit can be 
switched off. Thus for heating, cooking, or baking, the 
whole of the heat is under control, and the temperature 
can be maintained uniform or varied at will. Although 
the present forms of gas-ovens have hitherto been used, 
tests and erperiments show that modifications of the 
present apparatus would result in much improved heating 
effects being obtained. 

It is very probable that much of the future cooking 
by Electricity may be done by means of circular coils 
of bare wire (made up in various forms and sizes some- 
what like a kitchen cullender), and so arranged as to 
encircle the joint without coming into actual contact 
with it. The sides of the ovens in which joints thus 
surrounded by wire cooking cullenders are suspended 
would be formed of good radiating surfaces, and the heat 
retained in the ovens under the best possible conditions. 
There are, doubtless, certain difficulties connected with 
the use of such bare wire-heating apparatus, but these 
are capable of being overcome if the corresponding 
advantages are great. Indeed, a special cooking circuit 
could be arranged for at a lower Electrical pressure than 
for the Electric Lighting, with a view of preventing any 
fusings, or slight shocks in handling the wires. 

Cooking from the interior will also, undoubtedly, occupy 
a prominent part in the Electric cooking systems of the 
future. In the new methods of salting hams perforated 
needles are used, and the brine forced through them under 
pressure. For the Electric cooking process a similar 
arrangement may be devised. Electric skewers designed 
so that upon forcing them into the joint and switching 
the current on, a heat of any temperature can be given 



204 ELEGTRICITT UP TO BATS 

out at their points, should produce entirely different 
savours in the meats cooked by this means. Indeed, it 
requires a Brillat Savarin to do justice to a subject offer- 
ing such immense gastronomic possibilities. The gour- 
met's jaded palate may truly be refreshed at the thought 
of a plover's egg cooked from the interior by a fine Electric 
skewer, while the epicurean, who has exhausted all known 
dishes, will have another world opened to him by these 
new cnliuary achievements. 

Even in its present form, however, the Electric oven 
offers many advantages for cooking purposes. It is in 
every way as convenient as the gas cooking-oven, and far 
more cleanly. There need be no objectionable smell from 
carbonised fat, so often encountered where gas cookers 
are employed, and which is chiefly owing to the dij£- 
culty of keeping the iron surfaces free from grease and 
fat. The interior of the Electric oven may be bright and 
radiating throughout, recalling the shining surface of the 
Dntch oven of the past. The juice of the meat, also, in 
the gas cooker is often either dried up, or carried off with 
the products of combustion up the chimney, whereas in 
the Electrical method the food is rendered far more nutri- 
tious and savoury. 

Some of the Electric ovens now made are ingeniously 
fitted with a mica window or door, and in this way, by 
means of an incandescent lamp inside, inspection of the 
cooking can be made at any time without loss of heat 
from frequent opening of the door. 

The amount of heat in Electric ovens is capable of being 
automatically regulated by means of thermo-regulators, 
which cut off the current when the heat attains more than 
a certain temperature, and connect it on again when the 
temperature falls below the point at which the» regulator 
is adjusted. A further development of this arrangement 



ELECTRIC COOKING AND HEATING 205 

may be expected, by which the current can in the same 
way be switched ofiE at the end of any given time, and 
cooking by Electricity carried out almost automatically. 
Thus the experimental work in the cooking schools of the 
future having shown that the best results in the cooking 
of certain viands are obtained when given amounts of 
current, producing certain known temperatures, are used 
for varying times, it becomes quite possible that Electric 
oven regulators may be adjusted so that the cooking pro- 
cess to a large extent completes itself. 

The idea of cooking by a measuring meter, of course, is 
strange, but when losses of heat can be accurately calcu- 
lated, when heat can also be applied for any stated time, 
and varied in any given way, the results can be exactly 
predicted. So far from making the process of cooking a 
complicated and scientific one, mathematical methods 
should simplify the directions of our cookery books, and 
the calculations taught in the board school will then 
become of service in the domestic kitchen. 

Utopian as such ideas as these may at present seem, 
they contain nothing impossible, and, indeed, are but the 
aims of scientific cookery carried to their legitimate end. 

Next, as to cost Although cooking can be accom- 
plished more conveniently, and as efiEectually, if not better, 
by Electricity than by gas or coal, the impression of its 
prohibitive cost is so widespread, that even those who are 
interested in the processes often refuse to seriously regard 
it as a possible rival of other methods of food preparation. 
There is nothing that has helped to foster such ideas more 
than the considerable amount of Electricity required in 
the earlier forms of Electric kettles to boil water, and the 
cost of which was calculated at the lighting rate for cur- 
rent of 7d. per unit As already pointed out, the Electric 
Supply Companies are now quoting prices for currents. 



206 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

when used for cooking and heating, as low as one-half of 
the rates they are charging for lighting, with a view to 
pushing the sale of their Electricity for such purposes. 
Every kind of cooking and heating can now be performed 
by Electricity, and the cost of the majority of operations 
compare favourably with that of coal, fire, gas, and other 
heating systems. 

As to the actual cost of working the Electric heating 
processes, it has been proved theoretically that a Board of 
Trade Unit (see page 169), 1000 watts of Electricity (say 
10 amperes at a pressure of 100 volts) will raise one pint 
of water from 60° Pahr. to 212° Pahr. (boiling point) in 
3*3 minutes, and Electric copper kettles are made by 
which a pint of water can be boiled with the same amount 
of current in 3*7 minutes, thus establishing an efficiency 
of nearly 90 per cent. In the kettles which are generally 
sold, a pint of water is boiled with 300 watts (3 amperes 
at 100 volts), but taking of course a proportionately 
longer time, viz., some 12 minutes, and this amount of 
current at the rates charged of 3d. or 44 'per hour for 
1000 watts (Board of Trade Unit) is equal to a cost 
approximately of Jd. 

Much of the heating and cooking usually required is of 
an intermittent character, and when Electricity is obtained 
from a central supply station the process can be rapidly 
started, while immediately it is completed or the heat is 
no longer required, the current can be switched off, and 
there is an end to the cost. Por short cooking operations a 
coal fire, on the other hand, is of but little use for the first 
half-hour, and when the work is done, much of the heat is 
lost in the expiring embers, where a waste still goes on. 

It is only with gas that many of the small Electric 
heating operations can be compared, and who, for in- 
stance, would not prefer Electric curling-tongs, if only 



ELECTRIC COOKING AND HEATING 207 

on the score of safety and cleanliness, to the gas method 
of heating ? A well-known writer has said that the cost 
takes away the taste ; but where does the cost come in, 
compared with the advantages of switching on from the 
bedside the coffee, milk, or water heater in the same way 
as one switches on the light ? The greater cost of Electric 
lighting over gas has been no obstacle to its adoption, 
and when once the public mind is convinced of the work- 
ableness of these small Electric heating devices, the slight 
additional cost, if any, will not long be considered, com- 
pared with the many advantages gained. 

The same considerations of cost apply to the larger 
operations of cooking by Electricity, if once it is recog- 
nised that meat can be more wholesomely cooked by the 
process. 

To properly understand the cost of cooking by Elec- 
tricity, it should be remembered that in an Electric oven 
there is no necessity for ventilation, and the oven may 
be entirely closed if need be. The amount of Electi*icity 
required to heat it up may be twice as. much as the cost 
of gas or coal in the first instance, yet the cost of main- 
taining this heat is only one half. When an Electric 
oven is heated to 400 degrees, the Electricity can thus be 
entirel)' switched off, as no heated air need escape up a 
chimney as with coal, or through a ventilation pipe as with 
gas. There are, of course, slight losses of heat through 
the walls of the oven, but by leaving on some 25 per cent, 
of the original current the full heat is kept up in the 
oven, and the cooking operation continued indefinitely at 
a very low cost for maintaining the heat. This is similar 
in some respects to the baker's oven, which, when heated 
early in the morning, has afterwards to work by means of 
the heat retained. 

When coal is burnt in a kitchen range some 30 per 



208 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE ^ 

cent, of the heat passes up the chimney or is lost through 
incomplete combustion, and some 64 per cent, is radiated 
in warming up the room, when the average difference of 
temperature between the stove and the room is taken at 
80 degrees. Thus the efficiency of the cooking range is 
under 5 per cent. Professor Tyndall, in a test, is stated to 
have obtained the figure of 6 per cent, although another 
writer considers this the maximum, and puts the all day 
efficiency of the average kitchen grate at nearly 3 per cent. 

No industry in the world has such a large proportion of 
competent manufacturers, and workmen who understand 
both the theory and practice of their work, as the Elec- 
trical industry. Surely, therefore, in this great fight for 
the most economical method of food preparation, it is 
possible to produce better results by Electric methods 
where the whole of the heat generated is utilised, and 
no loss occurs through radiation. 

Undoubtedly far more heat can be obtained by burning 
coal in a kitchen grate than by using it in a boiler to 
drive a dynamo, and thus work an Electric heater from 
supply mains, but the waste of the former process is so 
enormous, while in the Electric method the whole of the 
heat can be concentrated at those points only where it is 
needed. In Chapter XI. the many advantages of Elec- 
tric motors worked from central supply stations were 
pointed out, and the same considerations apply to Electric 
heating apparatus. The production of heat in the form 
of Electricity takes place at the central station on a large 
scale. This is then available for use at all times in a 
variety of small, handy, and efficient Electrical apparatus, 
by which different heating, cooking, or other processes 
can be better and more economically performed than by 
the heat obtained from small grates and furnaces in each 
house. 



KLEOTBIO COOKING AND HEATING 209 

The healthiest sign of the future of Electric heating 
and cooking may be said to be the constant correspondence 
in the technical journals as to tests and costs of the 
various processes. 

It is hardly to be expected at the inception of such 
an enterprise that the most economical results can be 
immediately attained, but it has already been satisfactorily 
demonstrated that many processes of heating and cooking 
can be carried out as cheaply as with gas. The same 
statements of prohibitive cost were made when Electric 
lighting was first introduced, and now with incandescent 
lamps at Is. 9d. and Electricity at 6d. per unit, Electric 
lighting can compete with gas with every prospect, as 
incandescent lamps become more efficient and the use 
of gas diminishes, of becoming within ten years cheaper 
than its rival. 

It is no more a time now to cut off the supply from the 
gas cookers, or to turn out the kitchen ranges, than it 
was in 1879 to dispense with oil lamps or gas illumina- 
tion, because Edison had invented his system of Electric 
lighting. But Electric cooking will not have to wait so 
long to become general as was the case with Electric 
lighting, since the current is already to hand, and the 
supply companies are willing to offer every inducement 
to use apparatus which shall be the means of increasing 
the daily consumption of Electricity. 

All were not rich or fortunate enough to be able to 
afford Electric lighting when it was first brought out, and 
in the same way it will be some years before the many 
can experience the superiority of Electric cooking, but 
in the long run it will be the poorer classes who equally 
with the rich will find Electricity the most serviceable 
and convenient means both for the proper preparation 
of food and for a convenient supply of heat. 





210 ELBCTIUCITY UP TO DATE 



CHAPTER XVn. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AS A CALLING—USEFUL 
TECHNICAL BOOKS AND GLOSSARY OF ELEC- 
TRICAL TERMS. 

IN conclusion, it may be as well to refer to the prospects 
Electrical Engineering offers as a calling, more espe- 
cially as, during the last two or three years, it has been 
regarded somewhat like the Church — as convenient for 
younger sons when nothing else offers. In these days of 
competition, when every profession and business is over- 
crowded, and the difficulty of starting in life very great, 
Electrical Engineering is naturally turned to as an un- 
worked lode. 

The impression often seems to be that any one has 
simply to determine to become an Electrical engineer, and 
forthwith that result is achieved. It is entirely forgotten 
or ignored that for Medicine or the Law a prolonged 
training is necessary, and even then some time elapses 
before a livelihood is earned. 

In the first place, to be successful as an Electrical 
engineer one ought to have not only a good general 
ability, but also a natural liking for mechanics and science, 
and must have above all — brains. How seldom, however, 
is any natural inclination taken into account. Youths who 
have been for a time possibly in a tea warehouse where the 
prospects seem remote, or have failed in the preliminary 
examination for Law, are often pitchforked into Electrical 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AS A CALLING 211 

Engineering, without any regard whatever as to whether 
they are suited for it. Again, if a boy has bought a 
battery or two and put up an Elec5tric bell, he is held to 
have indicated a ** decided taste " for Electrical Engineer- 
ing. These remarks are not made satirically, as the writer 
has unfortunately during the last three or four years had 
an unsought-for experience in the shape of shoals of 
applications for advice as to the best means to obtain an 
opening in the Electrical world for youths leaving school, 
or for others who have already tried other callings. 

The "decided taste" alone is not sufficient to become 
an Electrical engineer properly so called. There is no 
calling which requires a more thorough course of training. 
To start with, one should become a good mechanic first, 
and this means a year or two spent as an apprentice or 
learner in some general engineering works. A premium 
is generally required, but if the* firm chosen be a good one, 
the money is very well spent. In some of the large 
and widely-known engineering firms, so many pupils are 
usually taken that there can be no individual supervision, 
and the tendency is rather to play than to work. A small 
general engineering firm in the Midlands of good repu- 
tation, where there are two or three pupils only, ofiFers 
greater advantages to a learner. The latter should get to 
the work at six in the morning with the other men, and 
have his time booked. 

The knowledge and experience gained by such a training 
is never thrown away, and is serviceable whatever a man 
may take up in the future. It affords, too, a very good 
indication as to whether there is a desire to follow the 
line of life that has been chosen. 

Having first laid a good groundwork, the superstruc- 
ture consists, secondly, of technical work, and, thirdly, of 
practical Electric work. The second is really as necessary 



212 ELECTRICITY UP TO DATE 

as any other, but is often left out. Very often the time 
is grudged. At South Kensington the course is three 
years, and to a man who has already gained a good me- 
chanical knowledge much of the class work and lectures 
seem to be unnecessarily prolonged on account of other 
students, younger and often inattentive. A good plan is 
to take up private reading or join some Electric engineer- 
ing works, where besides the practical daily work, time 
can be spent in the laboratory, where the technical side of 
the subject can be studied. 

If a training such as this be conscientiously carried out, 
there can be no doubt that by applying the ordinary rules 
of perseverance and industry, necessary in everything, a 
man will soon find himself in an excellent position, and 
ready to grasp the many opportunities which Electricity 
in the future is certain to present 

Although such advice may be given, how seldom it is 
followed ! 

As a rule, the desire to stay in London or the necessity 
of living at home, causes the suggestion of joining an 
engineering works to obtain the first requirement of all — 
a good mechanical experience — to be considered impossible 
and thus dispensed with. Sometimes when technical 
classes have been more or less diligently attended and an 
opening of some kind is sought, it is necessary to point 
out that, although something has been learned, much still 
remains before there is any chance of really succeeding. 

It is pitiable to know the number of young men of all 
social conditions now seeking and begging for Electrical 
work. As a rule their training has been a two or three 
years' course at a technical college, where they have 
learned something which no doubt will be of advantage 
to them in the future, but who are not in any way qualified 
for the work they are seeking. It is necessary to point 



ELECTKICAL ENGINEERING AS A CALLING 21 3 

out to them that even for the Electric wiring of houses a 
firm who have had any experience whatever would in- 
finitely prefer men who originally were good mechanics, 
such as a skilled carpenter who, from a liking for the 
subject, has read Electrical books and acquired knowledge 
in one way or another. Such men make excellent foremen 
for wiring works, and much bad work has unwittingly 
been done by yo.ung men fresh from technical classes 
paying premiums of £100 a-year to Electrical firms, and 
who have been placed out as foremen on wiring works. 
For the other branch of Electric lighting work connected 
with engines, dynamos, and accumulators, a practical 
training is, of course, absolutely essential. 

The leading men in the Electrical world are those who 
have distinguished themselves in other ways, and it may 
be mentioned that Drs. John and Edward Hopkinson were 
respectively Senior and Tenth Wranglers of their years. 
A good man can of course always make his way, whatever 
his training may originally have been. He will invariably 
get on and succeed in spite of all diflSculties. 

Apart, however, from the fact that the training of a 
man is often insuflScient for the work he applies for, there 
is at present nothing like suflScient work for the enormous 
number who have drifted into Electrical engineering 
during the past four or five years through every conceiv- 
able channel. What is going to be the result cannot be 
foreseen, as, however rapid may be the progress of Elec- 
tricity for light, power, and traction, it cannot for a long 
time absorb the number who are now, more or less, aim- 
lessly taking it up as a livelihood. One thing is certain, 
that if a man wants to be in the running in the future, 
he must have a thorough training on the lines above- 
mentioned. But it is too much to hope that these words 
of warning may prevent others from drifting into the 



214 KLBCTRICITY UP TO DATE 

Electrical world, where their insufficient training and 
half-hearted interest most effectually debar them from 
achieving success^ 

Without pretending to give a list of the principal 
technical works on Electrical subjects, the following may 
be useful to those readers who desire to become acquainted 
with the more scientific aspects of the subjects dealt with 
in this book. < 

In any case, the Journal of the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers, published periodically (E. & F. N. Spon, 
London), price 2s. 6d. per number, will be found of the 
utmost value, as this contains the latest views of the 
leading Electricians on all important Electrical subjects. 
The weekly technical journals, viz.: — Tht Electrieai 
-Berwir, price 4d.; The £ledrician, -price Ai.; The Electrical 
Engineer^ price 8d. ; Lightning^ price 2d., and also Engin- 
eering, price 6d., and Industries^ price 6d., will always be 
found of interest.- Books: — "Modem Views of Elec- 
tricity," by Professor Oliver J. Lodge, London, Macmillan 
& Co., 6s. 6d. ; " Electricity and Magnetism," by Silvanus 
P. Thompson, London, Macmillan & Co., 4s. 6d.; ** Dynamo- 
Electric Machinery," by Sylvanus P. Thompson, London, 
E. & P. N. Spon, 12s. 6d. ; " Electric Transmission of 
Energy," by Gisbert Kapp, London, Whitaker & Co., 
Ts. 6d. ; "Short Lectures to Electric Artisans," by Dr. 
J. A. Fleming, London, R & P. N. Spon, 4a ; " Electric 
Light Installations and the Management of Accumu- 
lators," by Sir David Solomons, London, Whitaker & Co., 
6s. ; " Electricity, its Theory, Sources, and Applications," 
by J. T. Sprague, London, E. & P. N. Spon, 15s. 



GLOSSARY. 



A. 

Acoxunulators, or Secondary Cells, an apparatus for chemioallj 

storing electrical energy. 
Acidometer, an instrument for measuring the specific gravity of acid. 
Alternate Current Dynamo, a dynamo in which the current rapidly 

alternates or reverses its direction from positive to negative. 
Ammeter, or Ampere-Meter, an instrument for measuring the current 

passing through a conductor. 
Amptoe, the unit by which the flow of current is measured — so called 

from Ampere, the French philosopher (b. 1765, d. 1836). 
Ampdre-hour, the current of one amp^e flowing for one hoar. When 

multiplied by the pressure in volts it gives the consumption of 

electrical energy in watt-hours, 1000 of which form the B.T.U. 

See Watt-hour. 
Ampdre-Meter. See Ammeter. 
Arc, the Electric, the brilliant incandescence produced by the 

electric current flowing between two carbon points which are 

slightly separated. 
Arc Lamp, a device for regulating and feeding the carbons of an 

electric arc, so that as the carbons consume the distance between 

them or the length of the arc is continually preserved. 
Armature, that portion of a dynamo which revolves between the 

magnets and in which the electric currents are induced. 



Bare Conductors, Electric wires or conductors with no covering or 
insulation. 

Batteries, Primary, a means of generating electric currents by 
chemical action. 

Batteries, Secondary or Storage. See Accumulators. 

Bitumen Insulation, a prepared bitumen compound used for cover- 
ing or insulating electric conductors. 

Board of Trade Unit (B.T.U.), a measurement of electrical energy 
decided upon by the Board of Trade for the public supply com- 
panies to base thei^ charges upon. It is equal to 1000 watt-hours 
(see p. 169), or about the amount of electrical energy consumed 
by seventeen 16 candle-power lamps burning for one hour. See 
Watt-hour. 

Brush of Dynamo, an arrangement of copper wires or gauze, for 
collecting the current from the commutator of a dynamo. 

Buckling in Accumulators, a bending and displacement of the 
plates, caused usually by discharging the current too rapidly. 



2l6 GLOSSARY 



Gables, Slectrio, nsnallj applied to electric conductors consisting of 

stranded wires, to distinguish them from single wires. 
Calibration, the standardising or correcting of any instroment to the 

standard value, such as a volt-meter, ammeter, &c. 
Oandle, The Jabloofakoff. See Jablochko£E: 
Candle, The Standard, a spermaceti wax candle burning 120 grains 

per hour, taken as the standard of reference for measuring the 

luminosity, or candle-power, of any light. 
OarboniBed Filament See Incandescent Lamp. 
Carbons for arc lamps, rods, or pencils, generally made from powdered 

gas coke hardened into shape by baking, and used for the elec- 
tric arc. 
Casing, Wood, a covering or sheath of wood, generally containing 

two grooves, used for the protection of insulated wires. 
Cell, a box or other receptacle containing the elements and solutions 

necessary for the production or storage of electrical energy. A 

number of such cells are termed a battery. 
Change-over Switch, a switeh for changing electrical connections 

from one source of supply to another. 
Charg^ing, filling or storing an accumulator with electrical energy. 
Circuit, a system of metallic or other conducting bodies placed in 

continuous contact and capable of conveying an electric current. 
Commutator, bars of copi)er which form the ends of the armature 

coils, and from which the current is collected. 
Conductivity, tlA facility offered to the passage of electric currents 

through a substance. 
Conductor, a substance through which electricity will pass, but 

applied principally to those in which little resistance is offered 

to the passage of a current. 
Continuous Current, a current from dynamo or battery which does 

not vary in direction and flows continuously. See Alternate 

Current. 
Counter Shafting, intermediate shafting used to distribute power or 

to increase or decrease speed of machuiery. 
Current, Electric, the flow of electricity through any conductor. 
<< Cre^ing," a leakage of electricity over the surface of an insulating 

body, caused by a film of moisture and dirt or deposit from evapora- 
tion forming a conductor. 
Cut-out. See Safety Fuse. 

D. 

Dielectric, another term for insulator. 

Distribution Board, a board from which branch wires or cables are 

led to various positions. 
Double-pole Cut-out. See Safety Fusa 
Dynamo, a machine for producing electricity by transforming 

mechanical work into electrical energy. 



GLOSSARY 217 



*^ Earth," tenn employed to denote the leakage of electricity. 

Eaxth Betum, 1^ circuit in which the ground or earth forms part of 
the conducting path. An earth return is usually formed by con- . 
necting the ends of an insulated line either to gas or water pipes, 
or to metal plates buried in the ground. 

Ediflwan I<axnp, the incandescent lamp manufactured in this country 
by the Edison and Swan Company. See Incandescent Lamp. 

Electric Ara See Ara 

Electric-Motor, a machine similar to a dynamo, but used for con- 
verting electrical energy into mechanical power. 

Electric Pressure. See Electro-Motive Force (E.M.F.). 

Electrical Energy, the capacity of electricity for doing work,, 
whether for electric lighting or for power or traction purposes. 
It is directly proportionate to the amount of current and its 
pressure. Thus by multiplying the flow of current in amperes by 
the ^ssure in volts the amount of electrical energy is obtained. 
See watt and Watt-hour. 

Electricity, Chemical, produced by means of chemical action. 

Electricity, Frictional, produced by the frictional machine. 

Electricity, Inductional, produced by the dynamo. 

Electricity, Thermal, produced by the application of heat, as in the 
thermo-pile. 

Electrodes, the two terminals forming the positive and negative 
poles in a battery. 

Electrolier, a device for suspending a group of incandescent lamps ; 
the equivalent of chandelier, gasalier. 

Electrolysis, the process of chemically separating the component 
parts of any substance by means of electricity. 

Electrolyte, any substance capable of undergoing a chemical dissolu- 
tion by an electric current 

Electro-Magnet, a bar of soft iron temporarily magnetised by the 
influence of an electric current passing through an encircling wira 

Electro-Metallurgy, the science or process of electrically decompos- 
ing solutions or salts of metals. 

Electro-Motive Force (generally written E. M. F.) is whatever pro- 
duces the transfer of electricity, and therefore the force which 
supplies the pressure to an electric current. See Volt. 

Electro-Plating, the depositing of metals by means of electricity 
upon the surface of another metal or other substance. 



Field, Magnetic, term used to express the space between the poles 
of a magnet through which the magnetic Ihies of force exist. 

Filament of an Incandescent Lamp, the thread-like substance 
composed usually of vegetable matter (such as bamboo, cotton, 
paper, &c.), which by the application of intense heat has been 
carbonised. See Incandescent Lamp. 



2l8 GLOSSARY 

Flow and Betum. See Positive and Negative. 
** Forming^ " Plates, the operation of bringing the plates of accumu- 
lators into proper chemical condition. 
Fxiotional Electricity. See Sleotricity. 
Fuse. See Safety Fuse. 

a. 

Oalvanic Electricity, produced by chemical action ; so termed after 

Galvani (b. 1787» d 1798). 
Galvanometer, an instrument used in testing for showing the flow 

of an electric current. 



Horse-power, the unit by which the rate of doing work is measured. 

It is equal to the power expended in raising 33,000 lbs. one foot 

high in one minute. 
Hydrometer, an instrument for measuring the density of liquids. 

See Acidometer. 

t I- 

Incandescent Lamp, a glass bulb from which the air has been 
exhausted, containing a carbonised filament which becomes in- 
candescent on the passage of an electric current. 

Induced Current, electricity produced by the influence that one 
magnetic or electrified body has on another not in contact with it. 

Induction, the influence that one magnetic or electrified body has 
over another. 

Installation, the machinery, Ac, necessary for producing the electric 
current. 

Insulation, the non-conducting substance applied to the^surface of 
an electrical conductor to prevent leakage 

Insulator, any non-conducting material, as gutta-percha, india-rubber, 
china, glass, &;c. 

J. 

Jablochkoff, the inventor of the Jablochkoff Candle, an arrangement 
of carbons placed side by side, and separated by a saitable non- 
conducting substance, such as kaolin, and used to form an elec- 
tric arc. 



Lamp, Arc See Arc Lamp. 
Lamp, Incandescent. See Incandescent Lamp. 
Lamp, Sunbeam, an incandescent lamp of high candle-power. 
Lamp-Holder, a holder or socket in connection with the electric 
circuit, into which an incandescent lamp is fitted. 

K. 
ICagnet-Electro. See Electro-lCagrnet. 

M a in s, copper cables or other means used for the purpose of convey- 
ing electricity, chiefly applied to the larger conductors. 



GLOSSARY 219 

Measurement, Means o£ See Meter, Ammeter, Volt Meter. 

Megohm, a unit of resistance ; equal to one million ohms. See Ohm. 

Meter, Mectric, an iDstnunent for measuring the amount of elec- 
trical energy used. 

Motive Power, any force which applied to a machine produces 
motion. 

Motor, any machine which may be used for imparting mechanical 
power. 

Motor, Electric. See Electric-Motor. 

N. 

Negativa See Positive and Negative. 

Non-conductor, any substance which resists the passage of electri- 
city, chiefly applied to those in which this quality is strongly 
marked. 

O. 

Ohm, the unit by which the resistance offered to the passage of an 
electric current is measured ; the legal ohm is the resistance offered 
by a column of pure mercury, 106 centimetres in length and 1 
millimetre in square section ; from Dr. G. S. Ohm (b. 1781, d. 1854). 

P. 

Parallel Wiring, term used to express the system of electrical dis- 
tribution, in which each lamp has its individual flow and return 
wires, no current passing through two lamps in series. See Series. 

Permanent Magnet, a piece of steel or loadstone containing endur- 
ing magnetic force, and requiring no electric current to magnetise 
it as in the case of electro-magnets. 

Photometer, an instrument for measuring the intensity of light. 

Pilot Lamp, a test lamp frequently used in the engine-room to denote 
the E.M.F. of the current from the dynamo. 

Plugs, Safety Fuse, the movable portion of the safety fuse, con- 
taining the fusible wire. 

Plugs, Shoe, the movable portion of a shoe or wall attachment, to 
which are attached the flexible wires in connection with the port- 
able lamp. 

Poles, general term to express the positive and negative conductors 
in electricity, or the north and south extremities of a magnet. 

Positive and Negative, terms used to distinguish the polarity of 
wires in an electric circuit ; thus the flow is usually termed the 
positive pole, and the return the negative. 

Potential, pressure, difference of potential is the electrical pressure 
between any two points, and is measured in volts. See Electro- 
Motive Force, see Volt. 

Power, Transmission of, the operation of conveying or transmit- 
ting power from one point to another. 

Pressure, Electrical. See Electro-Motive Force. 



220 GLOSSARY 

Pressure Meter. See Volt Meter. 

Primary Batteries. See Batteries. 

Primary Cables and Wires, in an electrical system of distribution 
where high-pressare current is transformed to low pressure all 
cables and devices conveying the high -pressure current are termed 
primary. 



Resistance, the opposition afforded by any substance to the passage 

of electricity. See Ohm. 
Resistance Coil, a coil of wire offering a certain known resistance 

to the passage of a current. 
Resistance, Measurement ofl See Ohm. 
Return Wire. See Positive and Negative. 
Rheostat, an instrument consisting of one or more resistance coils for 

varying the resistance in an electrical circuit. 
Rocker, an attachment on the bearing of a dynamo to permit of the 

adjusting of the brushes. 



Safetv Fuse, or Cut- Out, a device for automatically stopping the flow 
of electricity in case of accidents or defects in the conductors ; a 
single-pole safety-fuse controls only one wire, a double-pole con- 
trols both the positive and negative. 

<< Scaling " in Accumulators, the formation of a deposit upon the 
plates which prevents the acid from acting upon them. 

Secondary Batteries. See Accumulators. 

Secondary Wires, the low-pressure coils in a transformer, which are 
acted upon by the primary or high-pressure wires. 

Series Wiring-, a term used to express the system of wiring in which 
the same current travels through two or more lamps before com- 
pleting its circuit. See Parallel. 

Shoe and Plug. See Wcdl Socket. 

Short-Circuit, term used to express any metallic or other connection 
formed accidentally between a positive and negative wire, by 
which the current may take a short cut, instead of completing its 
journey through the lamp, motor, &c. 

Sunbeam Lamps, incandescent lamps of high candle-power. 

Switch, an arrangement for breaking or completing an electric 
circuit. 

T. 

Telpherage, a system of overhead transportation by means of cars 
running on two steel rails, from which an electric current is 
obtained to work motors fixed on one or more of the cars. 

Tension, pressure. See Electro-Motive Force. 

Terminal, attachment screw, generally in the form of an, by which a 
current enters or leaves any electrical apparatus or conductor. 



GLOSSARY 221 

Three-Wire System, a system of distribution, in which the dynamos 
and conductors are connected up, so that one conductor answers 
as a flow and return to two dynamos, and by which a considerable 
saving in the cost of the conducting cables is effected. 

Transformer, an instrument for reducing or transforming a high 
pressure current to a low one by induction. 

Transmission of Power. See Power. 

Two or Three-way Switch, a switch having two or three contact 
pieces attached to conductors, which by means of a movable 
handle permit the current to be sent into either conductor. 

Thermo-pile, a combination of certain metals coupled together so as 
to produce Electricity by the application of heat. 

Turbine, a machine for utilising the force or fall of running water. 

U. 

Unit, Board of Trade. See Board of Trade Unit. 
Unit of Electrical Energy. See Watt. 
Unit of Current. See Ampere. 
Unit of Pressure. See Volt. 
Unit of Resistance. See Ohm. 



Volt, the unit by which the electro-motive force or pressure of current 
is measured. It is the E.M.F. that will cause a current of one 
ampere to flow against a resistance of one ohm ; from Volta, the 
ItaUan scientist ^b. 1745, d. 1826). 

Volt Meter, the instrument for measuring the pressure or B.M.F. of 
a current. 

Vulcanised India-rubber, india-rubber, treated with sulphur, &c., 
to preserve and make it hard. 

W. 

Wall Socket, or Shoe and Plug, an arrangement permitting the 
instant attachment or detachment of a portable electric lamp. 

Watt, The, the unit by which electrical work (or in other words, 
the electrical energy consumed) is measured. It is equal to the 
current of one ampere flowing at a pressure of one volt. See 
Watt-hour. 

Watt-hour, term used to indicate the consumption of electrical 
energy of one watt in one hour. By multiplying the current in 
amplres by the pressure in volts, and again by the hours in use, 
the amount of electrical energy consumed is obtained in watt 
hours. 1000 watt hours equal the Board of Trade Unit (B.T.U.). 

Wire, Flexible, a conductor composed of a large number of flne 
wires stranded together, so making it flexible. 

Wires, Electric, small conductors, other than the mains. 

Wood-casing. See Casing. 



EXTEAOTS 

(by pamUisum) 

FBOM THE 

PHCENIX FIRE OFFICE RULES 

FOB 

ELECTRIC LIGHT INSTALLATIONS. 

Conductors. 

Rule No. 1. Where practicable, all conductors in a building should 
be 80 placed as to be easily accessible, and capable of 
AooessHnlity. \^\j^ thoroughly inspected whenever required. 

It is desirable, therefore, that conductors be not run out of sight, 
such as between floors and ceilings, under roofs, behind skirting- 
boards, wainscoting, &c , if it can be avoided. 

Na 2. All conductors to have sufficient sectional area, so as to 
^^ allow at least 100 per cent more electricity being 

J*^^"^*^ safely sent through them than will ever possibly be 

required for the lights they are to supply. 

By safety is meant that there shall be no perceptible heating of 
the conductors to the touch : and when proportioning their sizes, 
the possibility of their sectional areas getting diminished by corro- 
sion or mechimical injury, as time goes on, should never be forgotten ; 
the importance of this cannot be overrated. 

Under normal conditions for internal work, the quantity of current 
sent down a conductor must not exceed the ratio of 1000 amperes 
per sectional square inch of copper, when the amount passing through 
the said conductor does not exceed 100 amperes : should the amount 
of current exceed 100 amperes, the ratio of course must be less. 

It is as well to arrange the work when it can conveniently be done so 
that not more than 100 amperes pass down any single conductor. 

The conductors should be of copper, the conductiyity of which should 
not be below 98 per cent, of that of pure copper. The use of copper, how- 
ever, IB not obligatory in all cases. 

When insulated copper is used the copper should be "tinned " or other- 
wise protected from the possibility of any injurious action upon it from the 
insulation. 



EXTRACTS FROM PHCENIX FIRE OFFICE RULES 223 

All conductors of a larger sectional area than No. 16 S. W. G. should be 
composed of strands. No conductor of less size than No. 18 S. W. G. 
should be used except in fittings, and in fittings no conductor should be 
less than No. 20 S. W. G. 

No. 3. No naked conductor, or conductors, allowed in a building. 

Unless in those cases in which special permission has been obtained to 
the contrary. 

No. 4. All conductors (except those for certain special risks) 
must be highly insulated with substantial coats 
nsu on, ^£ india-rubber of the highest quality, and which 
must he specially prepared to last, and which must be of approved 
thicknesses (or other specially approved equally good material or 
materials that will not too readily become plastic, that are imper- 
vious to moisture, and of lasting quality, and to use which special 
permission has been obtained). With regaiti to the coats of india- 
rubber, the outer one must be vulcanised (or treated in other specially 
approved manner), but the one next the metallic conductor must be 
pure, unless permission to the contrary be given, and the iusulation 
should be protected by strong and durable coverings such as braided 
hemp, and the like, which should also be impervious to moisture. 
The insulation should be as uninflammable as practicable, regard of 
course being had that neither it6 efiicacy nor its durability is in any 
way diminished thereby, and must contain no ingredient that would 
injuriously afl^ect the metallic conductor it insulates, unless efiicient 
safeguards have been taken to protect the metallic conductor from 
any possibility of such injury. 

. The insulation on a conductor must be in the form of a*homo- 
geneous tube. 

No material or materials wiU be allowed to be used under any 
circumstances for the purpose of insulation, exc^t those that are 
approved by the Techni<!al Officer of the Fire Office. The composi- 
tion, quality, thickness, and resistance of the insulation of all con- 
ductors must be to his entire satisfaction. 

Nothing is stated above as to the resistance required in the insulation 
of conductors before being placed up in a building. So many cases having 
occurred of insulation that has given extremely high results so far as tests 
are concerned before being placed up, breaking down after having been in 
use for a short time. What is really required is, an insulation that will last, . 
even though its resistance may not have been originally so very high. It 
may be mentioned, however, that the insulation resistance of conductors 
before being placed up should not be less than 250 Meg-ohms per mile in 



224 BXTKACTS FROM PHCENIX FIKE OFFICE RULES 

dry plAoes and 600 Meg-ohms per mile in damp plaoei. The test must be 
taken with an electro-motive foroe of not less than 400 volts alter the 
cables have been immersed in water at 60 degrees Fahr. for 24 hours, and 
with one minate's electrification. 

No. 5. In non-hazardous risks, the conductors having been 
^^ thoroughly well insulated, as described under Rule 

^l^mment. ^» should he enclosed in substantial wood casing; 
and the conductors kept apart by a continuous fillet 
or width of wood, and the fillet or width of wood should be 1^ inches 
in breadth in the case of mains, 1 inch in breadth in that of the prin- 
cipal branches, and ^ inch in breadth in that of the smallest branches. 
The casing should be composed of sound, hard, well-seasoned wood. 
Iron or other approved metal tubes may be used instead of wood 
casing, unless in the opinion of the Technical Officer of the Fire 
Office metal tubing would not be desirable. In those instances 
where special permission has been obtained to run conductors unen- 
cased, the mains then should be kept at least from 4 to 6 inches, and 
the small branches at least 2 inches apart ; and no conductor should 
be less than 2 inches from any other conductor, or conducting sub- 
stance, unless special precautions against contact have been taken. 
Where external injury is possible, the conductors must be enclosed 
in hard-wood casings, or slate or other approved casings, or laid in 
cement troughing (diy), or securely placed in iron or other approved 
metal tubes (except under those circumstances where the use of metal 
tubing would not be desirable), or otherwise efficiently protected. 

Where permission has been given for conductors not to be enclosed, 
and when the electro-motive force exceeds 220 volts with a con- 
tinuous current^ or 110 volts with an alternating current, the dis- 
tance the conductors should be kept apart from each other, and from 
all other conducting substance ought to be at least 6 inches, imless 
permission for a lesser distance be given. 

In hazardous risks, all conductors should be further protected. 
Having been thoroughly well insulated as before described, they 
might be laid in sound, hard, well-seasoned wood casing treated with 
an approved fireproof paiut or compound, and packed in with asbes- 
tos or silicate cotton or other approved material ; or they might be 
laid in cement troughing, or where applicable in separate earthen- 
ware tubes (or separate iron or other approved met£^ tubes may be 
used when alternating currents are not employed). 

For theatres and very hazardous risks, see Rule No. 36. 

In all risks, if the c^ectro-motive force exceeds 220 volts with a 
continuous current, or 110 volts with an alternating one, special 



EXTRACTS FROM PHOENIX FIRE OFFICE RULES 225 

precautions, varying according to the electro-motive force employed 
and the surrounding conditions, may be required. 

Where the current is of extremely high electro-motive force, then 
the conductors may have to be encased and kept apart as described 
in Rule No. 29, for the primary conductors carrying alternating 
currents to secondary generators, or be arranged in such special 
manner as may be decided, having regard to all the circumstances 
of the case and the risk. 

There must be no <* bunching" of positive conductors together or of 
negative oonductors together in a building, without permission. 

There must be no crossing of wires in casing. 

When alternating currents are used, conductors should not, without permis- 
sion, be laid in metal tubes. (This does not refer to the wiring of Electroliers.) 

It is preferable that all wood casing in non-hazardous risks be treated 
with an approved fire-proof paint or compound, in order to render it as 
non-inflammable as possible. 

The coven of the wood casing should be screwed on ; they should be 
screwed at the sides. The covers for large casings should be screwed at 
the centre as well as at the sides. 

It is sometimes desirable to putty the joints of wood casing. 

Conductors must never be laid in cement whilst it is wet, nor while it Is 
drying, when there is any liability of the insulation being injured thereby. 

Oare must be taken to ensure that any cement or putty that may be 
used, contains no oil or other ingredient that would be injurious to the 
insulation of the conductors, or would in any way cause the insulation 
resistance to be lowered. 

When lamps are in series, the minimum distance apart of any two con- 
ductors (or portions of the circuit), must be regulated by the difference of 
potential between such conductors (or portions of the circuit). 

The small conductors about lamp fittings cannot always comply with 
Rule No. 5. The work, however, in connection with them, must be of a 
thoroughly secure character. 

The best rule to follow when laying the conductors, is to so arrange 
them, that they will still be practically insulated, in the event of their 
insulating coverings getting worn away, or removed. 

No. 6. Twin wires are allowed only in those circumstances in 
which permission is given. They should be kept as 
free as possible from the vicinity of inflammable 
materials, be very carefully protected by cut-outs, their insulation 
should be as substantial as possible, and protected also as much as 
possible against abrasion; the wires should not be in positions 
where they could make an earth. Too much attention cannot be 
bestowed to this rule. 

p 



226 BXTRACTS FKOM PHCENIX PIRE OPFICK RULES 

All twin wires, and the positions in which they are placed, must 
be to the satisfaction of the Technical Officer of the Fire Office. 
Frequent examination of twin wires ahoold be made. 

No. 7. All conductors in buildings passing between floors and 
ceilings, under roofs, behind wainscoting, through 
partitions, or otherwise out of sight, must, unless 
special permission to the contrary has been obtained, be enclosed 
in wood or earthenware casing, or laid in cement troughing, or in 
separate earthenware tubes, or in approved metal tubes, in the 
manner described under Rule No. 5. 

No conductor carrying an alternating current of over 110 volts, 
nor any conductor carrying an alternating cuiTent that forms part 
of a Three Wire System, the electro-motive force of which, between 
the first and third conductors, exceeds 210 volts, to be laid out of 
sight, such as between floors and ceilings, behind wainscoting, &c. 

In ordinary risks, wood casing may be used when conductors pass be- 
tween floors and ceilings, &c., except under those circumstances when, in 
the opinion of the Technical Officer of the Fire Office, wood casing would 
not be desirable. 

No. 8. All conductors in a building that are exposed to moisture, 
Exposed to mast have thoroughly waterproof insulation, and 

Moisture or special care to protect the conductors from damp must 
Damp. be taken. All casings, under similar conditions, in 

or about a building must also be thoroughly waterproof, and of last- 
ing material and character. Too much care cannot be taken with 
regard to these matters. 

When conductors are being placed in buildings during course of con- 
struction, or before the buildings are " dry," the utmost care should be 
taken to guard against injury to the insulation, joints, fastenings, switches, 
casings, &c., from the action of any damp material or materials; from 
neglect of these precautions much trouble has arisen in installations. An 
electrical contractor should never be required to place work in a building 
if it be not sufficiently " dry." 

Wood casing under roofs should be specially protected against moisture. 

No. 9. External conductors attached to a building must, unless 

permission to the contrary be given, be insulated, 

^^h^ad""^ and the insulation must be of a waterproof and 

durable character calculated to resist deterioration 

from atmospheric influences. 

The insulation, method of fixing, general arrangement, &c., to be 
to the satisfaction of the Technical Officer of the Fire Office. 
Conductors passing over a building come under this Rule, 



EXTRACTS FROM PHCENIX FIRE OFFICE RULES 227 

No. 10. Conductors must never pass through party walls sepa- 
rating two risks, unless permission to do so has been 
?J|?^^^j^'*^^ given ; and when this has been obtained, provision 
must be made, so that the conductors cannot be a 
means whereby fire can be communicated from one risk to the other. 
If conductors are carried up lifts, special precau- 
asslngup 8. ^^^^ ^^y ^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ required. 

No. 11. All conductors passing through the exterior walk of 

buildings must be insulated and enclosed in separate 

Exter^ WiOlf earthenware or approved metal tubes, or laid in a 

cement not injurious to the insulation, in the manner 

described under Rule No. 5. 

The arrangement must be snob as not only to prevent moisture entering, 
but also fire penetrating from the outside by ninning along the conductors. 
Cronduotors should never enter a building through the roof without 
special permission. 

Joints. 

No. 12. When two conductors are joined together, the junction 
must be soldered. All joints must be most carefully made and 
insulated, and under no circumstances must the sectional area of 
the conductors be reduced. The insulation of joints must be as 
perfect as possible, of a lasting character, and waterproof ; special 
care must be taken to guard against moisture in damp places. 

Resin should be used when soldering. 

The surface of a joint should be smooth after soldering, and have no 
projecting points that might tend to pierce the insulation. 

Cut-Outs. 

No. 13. Wherever a branch is led off any conductor to supply 
current for one or more incandescent lamps, or for 
(bandies) ^^^^ other purpose, a short length of lead, tin, or 

other fusible metal or substance, must be inserted at 
the junction of the branch with the conductor, or as close thereto as 
possible ; and the lead, tin, or other fusible metal or substance, 
must be of such section, length, and nature, that if the current 
passing through it exceeds the normal current by 50 per cent., then 
it will fuse and disconnect the branch. In those circumstances 
where it is conveniently practicable to have cut-outs that will fuse 
at a less excess above the normal than 50 per cent., these must be 
placed in. All cut-outs should be proportioned to fuse at as small 
an excess above the normal as is compatible with the proper and 
efiicient working of the lights. 



228 EXTRACTS FROM PHCENIX FIRE OFFICE RULES 

When the normal current sent down a small wire does not reach 
half of the safe-carrying capacity (as described in Bale No. 2) of the 
said branch, then the cut-outs may be arranged to fuse at a higher 
percentage than that stated in the above paragraph. Provided such 
amount of current does not exceed 100 per cent, of the noi'mal 
current of the small wire ; and that the margin of safety is not 
lessened thereby. All principal branches, and branches having a 
considerable number of lights, must have cut-outs on both poles. 
Small branches, taken off conductors of much larger size, and the 
branches supplying current to fittings containing several lights 
should have cut-outs on both poles. 

When the current is derived from a central station, or from 
accumulators, no branch carrying four amperes or upwards should 
be without cut-outs on both poles. 

All "cut-outs,'' including the materials of which they are com- 
posed, and the positions in which they are placed, 
rS« ttoM^ must meet the approval of the Technical Officer of 
the Fire Office ; many cases having occurred of 
"cut-outs" failing to act when required, and even, sometimes, them- 
selves being the cause of a fire. They should never be placed under 
floors, inside roofs, or behind wainscoting or skirting-boards, or in 
wood cupboards, &c., unless special precautions are taken, and special 
permission obtained. They must be so arranged and mounted, that 
no danger could arise in the event of their heating or fusing. 

By "branch" is meant any conductor issuing from another of 
Cut-OutB greater sectional area. 

(Definition of If any conductor, by reuniting with any other 

Branch). conductor, or by any other arrangement, becomes 

technically part of the main or otherwise, it will still be considered 
as a brandi if its sectional area is less than the conductor it issues 
from, and must be protected as such. 

The mains themselves, both positive and negative, must be pro- 
tected by cut-outs, which should be placed as near 
.-?j^.* the dynamo (or source of electricity) as possible ; 

these, like the other cut-outs, must be proportioned 
to fuse at as small an excess above the normal as is practical and 
compatible with the efficient working of the installation. The excess 
above the normal must not exceed 50 per cent, without permission. 

If, however, a branch is already protected by " cut-outs " on the mains, or 
Cut-Outs on a superior branch, then it may not be necessary to 

(General). again protect it by other *' cut-outs," unless required to do 

■o by the Technical Officer of the Fire Office. 



EXTRACTS FROM PHdNIX FIRE OFFICE RULES 229 

The Technioal Officer of the Fire Office may give permission, under 
certain circamstances, for a larger proportion of current than 50 per cent, 
above the normal to be carried by a cut-out. 

When lights are grouped, as upon electroliers, &c., the small wires to 
each light cannot alwajrs have ** cut-outs." Oare should be taken, however, 
that the last controlling " cut-out " carries as small an amount of current 
as practicable, and that it will act before the smallest wire runs any risk 
of getting unduly heated. 

When an incandescent installation is arranged on the '* multiple circuit " 
system with distributing switch and cut-out boards, the ultimate distribut- 
ing circuits should carry as small an amount of current as possible — not 
more than from 4 to 5 amperes, and be protected by *'cut-out8 " on both poles. 

With regard to arc circuits, or when incandescent lamps are arranged in 

series, the question as to whether fusible ** cut-outs," or 

I A n^ if \ what other kind of "cut-outs "should or should not be used, 

^ '* will be decided as each particular case arises ; so much 

depending upon the arrangement of the lights and the system of lighting. 

Should it be desired to use magnetic "cut-outs," or any other kind of 
Cut-0ut8 *' cut-outs," in lieu of fusible ones, permission must first 

(Kagnetic). ^ obtained. 

Fastenings, 

No. 14. The fastenings of conductors should be composed of a 
non-conducting material. When conductors are not encased they 
should, where practicable, be fastened to porcelain or earthenware 
insulators. Wliere, however, metal staples are used, a piece of 
india-rubber, or other approved insulating material, should be 
inserted between the head of the staple and the insulation of the 
conductor. Staples, however, ought never to be used, saddles or 
wood cleats being preferable. 

In the case of external conductors, the fastenings ought always to be 
composed of a non-conducting material. 

Earth Return. 

No. 15. No earth return allowed. 

Unless in those cases where special permission to the contrary has been 
given. 

Switches. 

No. 16. The house mains must have switches on both poles, and 
the same arrangement should be carried out as well on all the 
principal branches when the current is supplied from a central 
station or from accumulators. The arrangement should be such 
that the current can be entirely cut off from the lights in any 
portion of the building the occupier may desire. 



230 RXTBACTS FROM PHCENIX FIRE OFHCE RULES 

It should never be forgotten that turning off a single switch, 
although it puts out the lights, does not turn off the electricity, which 
is still on, and which, under certain circumstances, may break out 
and fire the place. All the principal portions of a building, therefore, 
should be controlled by double switches. 

All switches to be of such construction and make that they will 
not be liable after short use to get out of order and heat or fire. 
Their construction should also be such, that it would be impossible 
for them to remain in any intermediate position between full on 
and off. 

All switches must be mounted and placed in such a secure manner 
that no danger can arise in the event of their heating. They must 
alBO be so mounted, that leakage of electricity from them is rendered 
impossible. Their rubbing surfaces should be lai^ 

Switches inside buildings, for instance, must always have an in- 
combustible base, the insulation of which should be perfect; no 
metal- work carrying cun*ent should be exposed at the under side of 
the base ; the cover should be incombustible, and they should be 
kept perfectly free from moisture ; the fastening screws should not 
come into contact with the wall, but be separately fixed into an 
insulating block. 

With r^ard to switches contained in the sockets of lamps Q^ key 
sockets''), these will be allowed in those places and under those 
circumstances only for which permission has been obtained from 
the Technical Officer of the Fire Office. 

Where practicable every room and every passage should be oontrolled by 
a separate switch. 

The last controlling switcii should carry as small an amount of current 
as is conveniently practicable. The current carried by it should not, 
except under special circumstances, exceed six amperes. 

No. 17. A switch on each conductor and a cut-out on each con- 
ductor should be placed outside a building at or near the entrance 
of the conductors, when the electricity is generated externally. 

When switches and cut-outs cannot satisfactorily be placed outside 
a building, they must be fixed inside at the entrance of the con- 
ductors into the building; and the conductors for this purpose 
must be brought into the building in as perfectly secure a manner 
as possible to a suitable place for fixing up these switches and cut- 
outs in thoroughly secure and accessible positions. 

When a building is in the occupancy of various tenants, each 
tenant must have a double switch and double cut-outs immediately 
at the points of entrance of the conductors into his tenancy (pre- 



BXTilACTS FROM PH(ENIX FIRE OFFICE RULES 23 1 

ferably on the outside). The conductors should be brought in in a 
perfectly secure manner for the safe placing up of the switches and 
cut-outs. 

A cellar may be considered as a building or part of a building 
from a fire point of view, unless there are circumstances that do not 
warrant this in the opinion of the Technical Officer of the Fire Office. 

When the source of supply is internal, then a switch and a cut- 
out should be placed on each conductor in the dynamo-room. 

Switch-Boards. 

No. 18. Switch-boards should be composed of a non-conducting 

fireproof material. They should be in a dry and 

^^^ ' secure place and most carefully fixed and mounted, 

and the arrangement of the conductors at the back should, where 

possible, be such, that if on fire, the fire could not spread to the rest 

of the installation. 

It is preferable for switch-boards to be " split," t.«., the positive 
portion separated from the negative part 

All switch-boards should have an Oak, Teak, or Mahogany frame 
with glass front. 

Connections. Resistances. Lamps. 
No. 19. All resistances, bare or other connections, lamps, &c., 
must be mounted and placed so securely that no danger could arise 
in the event of their heating. They must be so mounted that leak- 
age of electricity from them is impossible. All connections must be 
as perfect as possible. Resistances must be securely mounted upon 
an approved incombustible material, and kept well away from in- 
flammable materials. 

Incandescent Lamps. 
No. 20. All inflammable materials must be kept at a perfectly 
safe distance from incandescent lamps. Incandescent lamps may 
sometimes get exceedingly hot^ and be the means of causing a fire 
to break out 

Arc Lights. 

No. 21. No naked lights allowed. If Arc Lights are used, they 
must be furnished with globes which must be enclosed at the base, 
and so arranged at the top that no sparks or flame can escape. The 
globes must be covered round with wire netting. When Arc Lights 
are run in series, means must be taken for maintaining the constancy 
of the current, whatever number of lamps may be burning. 



232 EXTRACTS FROM PHCENIX PIRB OFFICE RULES 

Lamp-Holders, Ceiling-Roses, and Wall-Sockets. 

No. 22. All lamp-holders must be incombustible, and of an 
Lam HoidA approved type. It is preferable to solder the ends 
* of flexible wires, when composed of fine strands, 
before attaching them to the holders. 
All ceiling-roses must be of an approved kind, and should be 
composed of an approved incombustible material 
''^' **'*'' and be most carefully made and fixed. Their con- 
struction should be such that no strain can be thrown on the 
pendant wires at their terminals in the ceiling-roses. They should 
be fastened to back blocks. 
No wall-sockets with flexible conductors will be allowed in any 
I, «^v 4» place or in any risk that the Technical Ofiicer of the 
all-Soekets. j,-^ Ofl&ce may consider to be undesirable. All 
wall-sockets must be of an approved kind and composed of an 
approved incombustible material, and the greatest care must be 
exercised in fixing them. The flexible ccmductors should be most 
substantially insulated and the insulation well protected against 
injury. 

Electroliers. 
No. 23. Electroliers should be fastened to an insulating block, 
which should be separately fixed to the wall or ceiling. The wiring 
should be of a most secure and lasting character, and carefully ar- 
ranged so that it would not be liable to mechanical injury. Each 
electrolier should be protected by cut-outs. 

Gas Fittings and Electric Light. 

No. 24. Gas fittings and Electric Light work should be kept 
quite distinct from each other. 

Gas fittings should never be used for the Electric Light unless 
permission to do so has first been obtained. The Gas fittings would 
then have to be made thoroughly suitable for the purpose, and so 
arranged that it would be impossible for them to be the means of an 
" earth " being set up. 

The utilisation of Gas fittings for the Electric Light may be the 
cause of the entire installation breaking down. 

MUSGRAVE HEAPHY, O.B. 



INDEX 



PAOK 

Abstbaot nature of electricity 5 

Accumulators 62 

action of 68 

as a reserve for dynamo . 68 

cannot be used with alternat- 
ing currents 08 

efficiency of .... 67 

faulty cells in .... 83 

for cycles 60 

for public supply ... 88 

mistaken notion concerning . 57 

must not be too small . . 81 

_ not in use must be charged . 83 

pocket 60 

rules for charging ... 88 

system of electric traction . 168 

why insulated . . .70 

Add for accumulators ... 88 

specific gravity of ... 83 

Acidometer 83 

Action of different currents . . ^'21 

Advantages of accumulators . 68 

of electric light ... 46 

— — ol dectric power over com- 
pressed air 148 

of electrical transmission of 

power 188 

of gas engine .... 26 

— ol ivivate installation . 76 

ol steam-engine ... 25 

of water-power ... 23 

Advertising quacks . .181 

Alternate current dynamo 10 
Alternating currents unsuitable 

for accumulators .... 03 

Alternations 20 

Amber 4 

Amerlcti early use of electric light 

In 84 

— tnmsmission of power in . 148 

use of electric motors in . .144 

Ammeter 82 

Ancient knowledge of electricity . 1 

Arc, electric 20 

lamps 82 

Brockie-Fell ... 86 

carbons .... 80 

first use of ... 82 

Armature 14 



Arrangement of circuits . 
Atlantic cable .... 
Atmospheric electricity . 
Attention to installation 
Auziliaiy uses for steam-engine 



PAOK 

66 
67 
7 
82 
78 



Bailkt, F. 100 

Balfour. E. J. A. . .105 

Bare cables for conductors 62 
Bath electric lighting . . .110 

Batteries, primary .... 8 

secondary (see Accumulators). 

Beeton, H. S.. 102 

Belting 136 

Best conductors .... 61 

insulators 62 

method of worldng ^vate in- 
stallation 82 

position for fuses ... CO 

for wires .... 64 

Birmingham central tramways . 153 

Electric Supply Co. . . . Ill 

Blackpool electric tramway . . 157 

Blyth, Frofessor .... 23 

Board of Trade .... 168 

Unit 160 

Boards, distribution ... 66 
Bournemouth and District Electric 

Supply Co. 113 

Bradford electric lighting . . 113 

Brighton electric lighting . 114 

railway .... 164 

Brockie-Pell lamp .... 35 

Brush (inventor) .... 84 

of dynamo .... 18 

how set .... 18 

Buckling of accumulator plates 83 



Cablb tramways 
Cables, when used bare . 

whv stranded . 

Cambridge Electric Supply Co. 
Canals, proposed electric traffic on 
Candle, Jablochkoff . 

power of arc lamps . 

of incandescent lamps 

of sunbeam lamps . 



163 
62 
62 
115 
163 
38 
87 
60 
60 



833 



234 



INDEX 



PAOS 

Carbon fflament .... 42 

Carbons for arc Umps ... 31 
Cardew, Major . . .168 

Care oonceming f 0868 ... 69 

Casing, wood, for wires ... 64 

Caation against cheap lamps . 46 
Chaige for current, maximum in 

London 170 

in Paris and Madrid . 170 

Charging aociimnlators ... 83 
Charing Cross and Strand Blec- 

trici^ Snroly Co. ... 107 

Chelm^ord Electric LighUng Co. . 116 

C^ielsea Electricity Supply Co. . 103 

Chemical electricity ... 8 

Choice of engine-room ... 79 

Circuits, arrangement of . . 66 
City of London Electric Lighting 

Co. 100 

Coal compared with zinc as an 
energy producer . .11 

latent eneigv in .186 

Colour, proper, of plates in accumu- 

Utors 83 

Comparatlye cost of producing elec- 
tricity 170 

cost of gas used direct for 

light or through engine . 177 
Compressed air for mining machi- 
nery 137 

Conductivity of metals ... 61 
Conductor system of electric trac- 
tion 154 

Conductors, the best ... 61 
Conduit system . .167 

Connection, wall .... 71 

"Conservation of energy" 7 

Continuous current dynamo . 17 

Conversion of current, double 92 

Cooking bv electricity ... 192 

Copper, why used for wires . 61 

Cost of running trams by electricity 153 

Courtenay, J. Irving ... 103 

Crawford, Lord .... 98 

"Creeping** 79 

Crookes, Professor .... 41 
C^tal Palace District Electric 

Supply Co 117 

Curative powers of electricity . 180 
Corront, how measured . .171 

that cures 181 

that kills 189 

Cut-outs (see Safety-fuse). 



DAMP, the enemy of the electrical 

engineer 
Danger from leakage 
Davy, Sir Humphry . 
Daylight, artificial . 
Decorative lamps 
Definition of electricity 
Derivation of name " Electricity * 
Dilute acid for accumulators . 



173 



PAcn 

Disconnecting dynamo ... 88 

Discovery of chemical electricity . S 

of firictional machine . . 8 

of principle of storing electri- 
city 62 

of the electric motor . . 188 

of thermal machine . . . 11 

Disease treated by continuous, in- 
terrupted, and alternating cnr^ 

rents 186 

Distribution boards . ... 66 

D'Odiardi, Professor ... 187 

Double conversion of current . 92 

DuFay 4 

Dundee electric lighting . . 118 

Dynamo, thQ IS 

alternate current ... 18 

compared to a pump . . 16 

different actions of a magnetic 

needle 21 

Edison-Hopkiuson ... 17 

efficiency of the ... 22 

how driven .... 14 

only an agent ... 22 



"Eabth" 67 

Early knowledge of electricity . 1 

Eastbourne Electric Light Co. . 118 

Economy of electrical transmission 142 

no, in small accumulators . . 81 

Edison, T. A 41 

Edison-Hopkinson dynamo . 17 

system 43 

Ediswanlamp 44 

Effect of electrical leakage 67 
of public supply on private in- 
stallations 76 

Efficiency of accumulators . . 57 

of the dynamo .... 22 

Electric arc, the .... 80 

figures of .... 6 

launches 166 

light, advantage of . . .45 

Lighting Act of 1882 . 84 

Amendment Act of 1888 . 85 

motor, the . .138 

alternate current . . 140 

continuous current . . 140 

in mines and collieries . 148 

multiphase current . . 141 

Sprague . . . .139 

use of .... 138 

baths 187 

brushes and electric corsets . 183 

executions .... 189 

omnibus 164 

pressure .... 169 

railways 159 

surgical appliances . .189 

tramways 152 

transmission of power . . 185 

tricycles 166 

Electricu energy, how measured . 171 



INDEX 



235 



Electrical obtained from mechanical 

power . 

leakagre 

measurement based on scien- 

tiflc principles 
Electricity a form of energy 

as a calling 

cnrative powers of . 

for electrocution 

homcBopathic doses of 

of 100,000 volts pressure 

Electricity, atmospheric . 

chemical . 

early knowledge of . 

first applied for light 

frictional . 

inductional or magnetic 

magic of the ancients 

no new discovery 

power tnumnltted by 

thermal 

r. gas . 

Electrocution . 
Electro-magnet 
Electro-motive force 
Electropathio belts . 
Electro-therapentica 
Elwell-T^ker dynamo 
E.M.F. (see Electro-motive force). 
Energy, conservation of . 

electricity a form of . 

latent in ooal 

never disappean 

Engine, gaa 

oil .... 

room .... 

small, less economical 

large .... 

steam. 

Erb, Dr. .... 
Everyday use of electric motors in 

America . 
Exeter Electric Light Go. 
Expiration of patents 



Faotokibs, electric motors in 

False economy in using small accu- 
mulators .... 

Fareham Electric Light Co. . 

Faraday 14, 

Faulty cells in accumulators . 

Faure 

Ferranti 

Figures of the electric arc 

Filament 

Fire insurance not affected . 

Fires, statistics of . 

First application or electricity for 
light . . • . . 

public supply station 

• in England 

Five-wire system 

Flow and return wires 



than 



67 

87 

6 

210 

180 

189 

182 

190 

6 

8 

1 

29 

8 

18 

1 

4 

186 

11 

45 

189 

14 

86 

181 

180 

19 

7 
7 
186 
6 
26 
27 
78 

146 

26 

184 

144 
119 
46 



147 

81 
119 
186 
83 
62 
89 
6 
42 
74 
68 



84 
86 



66 



Forbes, Professor 
Foreign-made lamps 
Forming accumulator plates . 

Foucault 

Four sources of electricity 

Franklin 

Frequency .... 
Friction in shafting . 
Frictional electricity 

machine .... 

useless for electric light- 
ing 

Function of safety fuses . 

of switches 

of transformers 

Fuses, safety .... 



PAGE 

178 

46 

50 

32 

7 

7 

20 

186 

S 

8 

8 
68 
69 



GALVANI 8 

Galvanic electricity . ... 8 

Galway Electric Ck) 120 

Gas-engine 26 

Gas used for light direct or for 

power to drive a dynamo . . 177 

Gatehouse, Mr. T. E. . . 182 

Gatti, Messrs 107 

Gterardlamp 84 

Gilbert, Dr 4 

Gramme ... .28 

Gravity of the earth a form of 

energy 186 

Gravity, specific, of acid for accumu- 
lators 88 

Grosvenor Gallery . ,101 



Halifax electric lighting 

Harrison, B.Sc, Professor H. E. . 

Hastings and St Leonards-on-Sea 
Electric Light Ck). 

Hedley, Dr. 

Herkomer, Professor 

High-pressnre supply 

notdangerons . 

with accumulators 

with motor generator 

Hints on working private installa- 
tion 



121 
182 

122 
187 
178 
89 
96 
98 



76 



Holder, lamp- 76 

Hopkinson, Dr. J 87 

Horse tramways .162 

House-to-House Electric Supply Go. 102 

Hove Electric Lighting Go. . . 122 

Hull electric lighting ... 128 

Hydraulic Power Ca ... 187 

]^rdraulic, tnuumission of power . 147 

Hydrometer 83 



IDBAL light, the .... 178 
Importance of good wiring . 00 
of proper attention to installa- 
tion 88 

Incandescent lamp .... 44 



236 



INDEX 



Incandetoent lamp, candle-power 

of .50 

high candle-power . 60 

high candle-power more 

economicid than low ... 50 

invention ol . . . v 40 

Indiambber 62 

vulcanised .... 63 

Induction 18 

Induced current .... 14 
Installation, advantages of the 

private 76 

ooctof 73 

Insulation 62 

of accumulators ... 70 

Insulators, the best . . . . 62 

Insurance not affected ... 74 



Jabloohkovv candle 
Joule, Dr. . 



82 
7 



KAPP 22 

Kensington and Knlghtsbridge 

Electric Lifting Co. ... 106 

Keswick Electric Light Co. . . 124 

LAMP, arc 32 

BrocUe-Pell arc ... 85 

incandescent .... 40 

sunbeam 50 

holders 71 

switch .... 44 

Latent eneigy in coal . . . 136 

Launches, electric .... 160 

Lawrence, Mr. H. Newman . 185 

Lead plates in accumulators . 56 

colour of .... 88 

Leakage, electrical .... 67 

svuiace, from accumulators 79 

Leeds electric lighting . .125 

Lifto, hydraulic v. electrical . . 143 

Lighthouses 23 

Lightning 7 

List of best conductors ... 61 

insulators .... 62 

Liverpool electric railway . 160 

Electric Supply Co. . .125 

Lodge, Oliver, Professor ... 5 

London Electric Supply Corporation 101 

Loss by friction in shafting and belts 136 

Low-pressure supply ... 87 

with accumulators . 88 

electricity harmless . . .100 

Madrid, charge for electrical 

energy in . • . .170 

Magnet, electro .... 14 

of dynamo ... .15 

permanent .... 15 

MsgneUsm, dose relation of, to 

electricity 14 

effect on body .... 181 



PAGR 

14 
81 

81 
127 
189 

97 



Magneto-elecfcrlo machines -. 
Mun safety-ftises .... 

switch 

Manchester electric lighting ■ 
Massage by electricity . 
Marindin, MsJor .... 
Maximum charge for electric 

current in London . 170 

Measurement, electrical, based on 
scientiilc principles ... 87 

of electric cuirent ... 87 

Mechanical transmission of power . 136 
Medical quackeries . .181 

Medium-pressure supply . . 89 

Meters, electric . . .171 

Metropolitan Electric Supply Co. . 98 
MiUiamp^re, the . . .181 

Mines, use of compressed air in . 148 

electric motors for ... 148 

Mistaken notions concerning accu- 
mulators 57 

Modem views of electricity . . 6 
Modes of producing electricity 8 

different, of public supply of 

electricity 86 

Motive power 143 

Motor, electric (see Electric-motor). 
Motor-generator .... 93 
Multiphase current dynamos . 20 
motors . . .141 

National Electric Light Co., 

Preston 129 

Natural power . . . . .23 
Newcastle & District Electric Light 

Co 128 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Electric Sup- 
ply Co 128 

Newry and Bessbrook electric 

tramway 160 

Newton, Sir Isaac .... 7 
New York, fires in . .68 
Northampton Electric Lighting and 

Power Co 129 

Nottingham Electric Light Co. . 180 

Notting Hill Electric Supply Co. . 108 

Novel arrangement of carbons 34 
Number of electric lamps in use in 

London 178 

OiL-BNGINB 27 

Omnibuses, electric .... 166 
Option of supplv from company's 

mains advisable .... 76 

Overhead conductor system . . 156 

transportation . . .164 

conductors for ^electric trac- 
tion 166 

PABI8, charge for electrical energy 

in 170 

Parker 10 



mDBX 



237 



FAGX 

Permanent magnet .... 14 

Pilot lamp 83 

PixU 14 

Plants ... . . 62 

Plates, lead, in accumulators . . 66 

Platinum, why used .... 61 

Periodicity 20 

Plow system 158 

Pneumatic power in mines . . 187 

telegrams transmitted by 137 

transmission of . . 137 

Portrush electric railway . . 160 

Position, best, for fuses ... 69 

for wires .... 64 

of engine-room .... 68 

Power, hydraulic . . .137 

motive 143 

transmitted by electricity . 136 

water 23 

Preece, W. H 95, 182 

Pressure of current .... 169 

Preston electric lighting . . . 129 

Primary batteries .... 8 

mistaken belief In . .10 

the use of . . . 9 

useless for electric lighting 11 

Primary cables 90 

Private installation, when advisable 76 
Provincial electric supply com- 
panies 110 

Provisional orders for electric llght- 

iM. 97 

Public supply companies, London . 97 

Provincial . . 110 

Public supply to private installa- 
tions 76 

QuAOK methods in electric treat- 
ment .181 



RAILWAYS, electric .... 160 

Reading electric lighting . ISO 

Requirements of a good switch . 69 

Reserve, accumulators act as a . 63 

machinery as a, for central 

stations 88 

Resistance 86 

how overcome .... 86 

of the body .... 190 

Rocker of dynamo .... 18 

Rules for working private plant . 82 

Ryder, Granville .... 106 



Safbtt-fusbs 68 

best position for . . . 69 

St James' and Pall Mall Electric 

Light Co 105 

St. Pancras Vestry . . . .108 

Salomons, Sir David ... 100 
Sanitary advantages of electric 

light 46 



PABB 

Scales on accumulator plates . 88 

Screw lamp-holder .... 71 
Search lights . ' . .37 
Secondary batteries (see Accumu- 
lators). 

Secondary wires .... 90 

Seebeck 11 

Semon, Dr. Felix .... 189 

Serrin 82 

Shafting 136 

Ships, search lights on . . .87 

Shoe and plug 70 

Short-circuit 62 

Siemens 34 

Source of trouble . . * . 67 
Southampton Electric Light and 

Power Co 132 

South London electric railway . 160 
Sparking of brushes .... 82 
Special attendant not necessary . 82 
Specific gravity of acid for accumu- 
lators 88 

Speed must be maintained when 

charging accumulators . . 88 

Sprengel, Dr. 41 

Staite, W. E 82 

Stations connected by trunk mains 99 

Static electricity .... 6 

Statistics of fires .... 68 

Steam-engine 26 

tramcars 168 

Stethoscope microphone . . . 188 

Stranded cables .... 62 

Street-lighting 88 

Submarine boats .... 167 

Suez Canal, electric light in the 87 

Suffield, Lord 104 

Sulphuric acid 88 

Sunbeam lamps .... 60 

Surface conductors .... 154 

Surgical lamps 60 

Swan 42 

Switch-board 81 

lamp-holders .... 71 

two-way . . ■ . 82 

Switches should be labelled . . 69 

System, Edison's .... 87 



TAUNTON electric lighting . 188 

Telegrams sent by pneumatic power 187 

Telpherage 164 

Tesla, Mr 190 

Temperature of body raised by elec- 
tricity 189 

Thermal electricity .... 12 

Thermo-pile 11 

only used for small currents . 12 

Thompson, Professor Sylvanus 18 

Tliree-wire system ... 87 

Torpedoes 167 

Tramways, accumulator systems . 163 

Birmingham Central . .153 

cable 153 



238 



INDEX 



PAQK 

Tramways, conductor systems . 154 

electric 162 

Transformatioii of energy . 185 

Transformer system ... 90 

Transformers 90 

alternating current ... 90 

the "step-up" . ... 21 

Transmission of power by electri- 
city 186 

Treatment of disease by continuous, 
interrupted, and alternating cur- 
rents 185 

Tricycles, electric .166 

Trotter, A. P. . • . . . 86 

Tranlc mains, stations connected by 99 

Turbine, Victor .... 24 

Two-way switch .... 82 

Tyndall, Professor .... 208 



Uhit, Board of Trade 

of electrical energy . 

— of pressure 
Utilisation of natural power 



169 



46 
22 



Yaouum in incandescent lamps . 40 

Variety in primary batteries . . 9 

Ventilation, the electric-motor for 148 

Vestry, first, to adopt electric light 108 
Victor turbine . . . . .24 

Volt 169 

Volta 8 



Voltaic electricity . 
Voltage of incandescent lamps 
Volt-meter .... 
Vulcanised ihdiarubber . 



FAGK 

8 
46 



WALL-OONNECTION or shoe . . 70 

Waller, Dr. 190 

Water-falls 142 

power 23 

wheel 25 

Watt, the 169 

Watt hour, the .... 169 

Westminster Electric Supply Co. . 104 

Wilde 16 

Windmills 23 

Wire-ropes 186 

Wires, how insulated ... 62 

best position for ... 64 

Wood-casing for wires ... 64 
Working, the, of a private installa- 
tion 82^ 

of installation easily learnt . 82 



YORKSHIRB House-to-House Elec- 
tricity Co. s . . . . 



125 



ZiMC compared with coal as an 
energy producer .... 11 

consumption of, in primary 

battery 11 



Printed by Ballantvne, Hanson & Co. 
Edinburgh and London 



B. Verity & 5ons, 

Electrical Engineers, 



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The Most Complete and Compreheneioe Catalogue of 
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1. Oeoeratin; Machloery.— Engines, Boileis, Gas and Petroleum 

Engines, Dynamos (Continuous, Alternating, and Exciters). 

2. Storage. — ^Various Types of Accumulators and Accessories, Primary 

Batteries, and Portable Pocket Accumulators. 

3. Measuring, RefuUtUng, and other Instruments.— Ammeters, 

Voltmeters, Resistances, Recording Instruments. Switchboards, &c. 

4. Wiring and Electrical Sundries.— Cables, Wires, Casings, every 

Description of Switches, Cut-outs and Sockets, Incandescent Lamps, 
Glass and Silk Shades. 

5. Arc Lamps. — Various Types of Lamps and Gear, Search Lights and 

Projectors, Columns and Brackets. 

6. Electric Motive Power.— Generators, Motors, Tramways, 

Launches. 

7. Electric Mining Machinery.— For Haulage, Pumping^ Blasting, 

Drilling, and Ventilation. 

S. Electric Cooking and Heating.— Saucepans, Kettles, Flat-ircms, 
Cigar Lighters, && 

9. Telephones!— Different Types of Instruments, Electric Bells, Burglar 
and Fire Alarms, Pushes, Indicators, &a &c. 

la Electro-Medical Apparatus.— Appliances for Galvano-Cautery, 
every Description of Electrodes for Electrolysis and Electric Baths, 
Batteries, Induction Coils, Cabinets for Galvanisation and Faradisation, 
&c. &c 

II. Engineers' and General Sundries.— Pulleys, Lubricators, Speed 
Indicators, Belting, Insulators, Tools, Speaking Tubes, &c. ftc 

7>l^ *«/ book for refermccy 106 Pages^ 860 Illustratums^ 
and nearly 4,000 References. 



B. VERITY & SONS, 
ASTON. BIRMINGHAM. 



1 0. :\. 



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