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Electric Railway 




July to December, 1911 

McQraw Publishing Company 
239 West 39th Street 
New York 






July I pages I to 72 

July 8 " 73 to 102 

July 15 " 103 to 142 

July 22 ," 143 to 180 

July 29 181 to 214 

Aug. 5 " 215 to 264 

Aug. 12 " 265 to 302 

Aug. 19 •' 303 to 338 

Aug. 26 " 339 to 376 

Sept. 2 " 377 to 414 

Sept. 9 ■' 415 to 450 

Sept. 16 •' 451 to 482 

Sept. 23.. " 483 to 518 

Sept. 30 " 519 to 554 

Oct. 7 (Convention). " 555 to 638 

Oct. 7 " 639 to 684 

Oct. 10 (Daily) " 685 to 716 

Oct. 1 1 (Daily) " 71/ to 758 

Oct. 12 (Daily) " 759 to 796 

Oct. 13 ( Daily ) " 797 to 842 

Oct. 14 " 843 to 936 

Oct. 28 " 937 to 972 

Nov. 4 " 973 to 1016 

Nov. n " 1 01 7 to 1048 

Nov. 18 " 1049 to 1086 

Nov. 25 " 1087 to 1132 

Dec. 2 " 1133 to 1184 

Dec. 9 " 1 185 to 1224 

Dec. 16 " 1225 to 1264 

Dec. 23 " 1265 to 1302 

Dec. 30 " 1303 to 1334 


Acceleration of train speed, Measurement of 

[Mailloux], 1152 
Accident claim department : 
Campaigns against accidents: 

Boston Elevated Ry., 1259 

Chicago. *998 

Lexington. Ky.. 1043 

Louisville & Northern Railway Si 
Lighting Co.. 550 

New Orleans, Pamphlet of sugges- 
tions. 679 

New York, 9. 67 

Philadelphia, 273 
— — Committees of employees on safety, 1050 
Education of the public [Bovnton], 870; 

(McDougall], 1204: Discussion. 1209 
Humane side of accident work [Tohnson], 


Investigation of accidents. Prompt. 519 

Medical testimony in accident cases, Dis- 
cussion at Tacoma, Wash., 663 

Pay-as-you-enter car and the prevention of 

accidents [Casev], 1201; Discussion, 

— Popularizing accident data, Germany, Ex- 
hibit at Dresden Exhibition, 391; Com- 
ment, 378 

Prevention of accidents [Whitehead], 869; 

[Carpenter], 872 

Public Service Ry., 636 

Reducing number of accidents, Possible 

means for [Johnson], 654 

Report and classification blank, 310 

Selection and instruction of trainmen, 844 

[Peck]. 870; [Walsh], 871 

Settlement of claims out of court, 451 

Accidents : 

Burlington, N. J., Bridge collapse, 1289; 

Comment, 1305 

Collision between steel motor cars, Effect 

of. *1283 

Detroit United Ry., Head-on collision, 296 

Filing reports of, with Connecticut Public 

Utilities Commission, 1010 

— — Germany, Statistics, 1905-1909, *391 ; Com- 
ment, 378 

New York, May, 257 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., 442 

Precautions in signal system operation, 215 

Statistics, Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion, 1080 

Warren. Me., 332 , 

Accountants' Association : 

Accounting system for a small electric 

railway [Gault], 748; Discussion, 731; 
Comment, 718 

— ■ — Address of President Forse, 751 

— ■ — Associate membership amendment to con- 
stitution, 815, 816 

Committee on car miles and car hours, Re- 
port, 744; Discussion, 732 

Accountants' Association: (Continued) 
Committee on engineering accounting, Re- 
port, 778; Discussion, 766; Comment, 

Committee on express and freight account- 
ing, Report, 785; Discussion, 790; 
Comment, 798 

—Committee on interline accounting, Re- 
port, 745; Discussion, 732 

Committee on life of railway physical 

property, Report, 818 

Committee on standard classification of ac- 
counts, Report, 819 

Committees for current year, 1320 

Convention sessions, 731, 737, 766, 790, 


Get-together luncheon, 737 

Officers for 1912, 819 

— Overhead charges [Cooley], 877; Com- 
ment, 897 

Prepayment fare collection [Boylan], 737 

President P. S. Young, *890 

Statistics of cost of electric operation of 

steam railways [Bierck], 830 

Cost of electric operation of steam rail- 
ways [Bierck], 830 

Depreciation : 

Definitions of depreciation terms 

[Floy], 21 
Great Britain, Depreciation reserves 

in [Rodgers], 661 
Interborough Rapid Transit Co., 280 
Kokomo, Marion & Western Traction 

Co., Account of, 156 
Nebraska rules, 973, 990 
Relation to electrical properties [Floy], 
21; Comment, 1; Discussion, 49 
(See also Appraisal of railway prop- 

-Engineering, Report of joint committee 

of Accountants' and Engineering As- 
sociations, 778; Discussion, 766; Com- 
ment, 760 

Express and freight, Report of Account- 
ants' and Transportation & Traffic 
Association, 785; Discussion, 790; Com- 
ment, 798 

Fares on prepayment cars, Discussion by 

Accountants' Association, 737 

Freight accounts, Report of Central Elec- 
tric Accounting Conference, 533 

Illinois Traction System's methods, 184 

Interline, Report of Accountants' Associa- 
tion, 745; Discussion, 732 

-Legislation affecting accounting [Daviesl, 


Life of railway physical property [Ingle], 

1205; [Bagg], 1205; Discussion, 1210 
Accountants' Association report, 818 

-New Jersey Public Utility Commission 

hearings, 1206, 1250 

Public Service Ry. methods, *627 

Small electric railway [Gault], 748; Dis- 
cussion. 731; Comment, 718 

Standard classification, Report of Account- 
ants' Association, 819 

Storeroom and stock-keeping, Mobile Light 

& Railroad Co. [Glover], *423 

Suit of Kansas City Southern Ry. against 

classification of additions and better- 
ments, 1067 

(See also Central Electric Accounting Con- 
ference; Central Electric Railway Ac- 
countants' Association) 

Accounting department, Relations with traffic 
department [Neereamer], 1278 

Adrian (Mich.) Street Ry., Signs, 947 

Advertising : 

Boston Electric Ry. exhibit, *906 

[Buffel. 495 

Car construction. Advertising of, 265 

Comnlaint department, Rochester, N. Y., 


—Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 1090 

Newspaper, Report of American Electric 

Railway Transportation & Traffic As- 
sociation, 702; Discussion, 697 
— Publicity as a factor in electric railroad- 
ing [Rockwell], 1105 

-Traffic posters, London L T nderground Elec- 
tric R"., *387 

(See also Traffic promotion) 

Air-brakes. (See Brakes, Air) 

Air compressor for brake equipments (Allis- 
Chalmers), *1034 

Akron, Ohio, Northern Ohio Traction & Light 

Power and other improvements, 1098 

Protest against stock issue, 367 

Albany, N. Y., United Traction Co.: 
— Agreement with employees, 967 

Freight and express traffic, 283 

Seating order. 1219 

— ■ — Transfer, New form, 550 
Albany Southern R. R. (See Hudson, N. Y.> 
Albia (la.) Interurban Ry., Bond issue, 367 
Allentown, Pa., 1 ehigh Valley Transit Co.: 
Dividend, 678 

Allentown, Fa.: 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co.: (Continued) 

-Voting trust agreement expires, 928 

Alton, Jacksonville & Peoria Ry. (See Jersey- 
ville, 111.) 

Aluminum car panels and fittings, Zurich, 246 
American Cities Railway it Light Co. (See 

New. Orleans) 
American Electric Railway Accountants' Asso- 
ciation. (See Accountants' Associa- 
tion ) 

American Electric Railway Association: 
Address of President Brady, 722; Com- 
ment, 717 

Brill prize, Report, 802 

Circulars on work of associations, 1033 

Committee on buildings and structures, Re- 
port, 820; Discussion, 803; Comment, 

Committee on compensation tor carrying 

United States mail, 360; Report, 840 
— Committee on determining proper bases 
for rates and fares, Report, 840, 1154; 
Comment, 843, 1134 
Committee on education, Report, 752; Com- 
ment, 797; Plans, 1109 

Committee on federal relations, Report, 812 

Committee on insurance, Report, 838 

Committee on subjects, Meeting, 1096 

-Committee on taxation matters, Report, 827 

Company sections urged [Duffy] c85 

Convention : 

Athletic carnival, 763, *800 
Aviation exhibition, 357, 762, *811 
Badges, 690 

Bulletin on Atlantic City hotels, 152 
Chicago special train, 690 
Conventionalities, 687, 719, 761, 799 
Delegates, Advice to new, 520 
Exhibits, 218, 243, 286, 357, 705, 706, 
707, 711, 747, 754, 755, 791, 792, 

796, 841, 842; Comment 686 
Program and- notes, 432, 542, 664, 685; 

Comment, 451 
Publicity the keynote, 845 
Reception to association officers, 688 
Reports of committees, Method of com- 
piling, 686 
St. Louis special train, 689 
Sessions, 727, 763, 802 
Social events 688, 720, 721, 762, 769 

Convention location [Brady], 724 

Effect of electric railway operation on tax- 
able city property [Harries], 777; 
[Winsor], 879 

Electric railway dictionary supervising 

committee, Report, 834 

Headquarters activities [Brady], 723 

Hudson River tunnels [Davies], 789 

Interurban, The [Henry], 739 

Membership, Plans for increasing associate, 

161, 1018 

Midyear conference, Date of, 1213, 1322 

Officers for 1912, 802 

Physical valuations [Crosby], 874. 

— — President T. N. McCarter, *800 

Report of secretary and treasurer, 730 

Toledo street railway situation [Lang], 775 

Welfare of employees [Pierce], 773 

American Electric Railway Claim Agents' Asso- 
ciation. (See Claim Agents' Associa- 

American Electric Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation : 

Address of President Harvie, 691 

Association policy. Discussion by executive 

committee. 1110 
Central Electric Railway Association stand- 
ardization committee, Meeting with, 
117, 119 

Committee on block signals, Report, 742; 

Discussion, 735: Comment, 718 

Committee on education of engineering ap- 
prentices, 3; Report, 703; Discussion, 
696; Comment, 797 

Committee on engineering accounting, Re- 
port, 778; Discussion, 766; Comment, 

Committee on equipment. Meeting, 115; 

Comment, 104; Report, 851; Discus- 
sion, 866 

Committee on heavy electric traction, Re- 
port, *746; Discussion, 734; Comment, 

Committee on power distribution, Report, 

704; Discussion, 698; Comment, 759 

Committee on power generation. Report, 

*781; Discussion, 768; Comment, 760, 

Committee on rules of procedure of com- 
mittee on standards, Report, 849; Com- 
ment, 843 

Committee on standards, 464; Report, 

*850; Discussion. 867; Meeting. 1031 

Committee on way matters, 122; Report, 

828; Discussion, 805 

Convention program. Comment on, 686 

Convention sessions, 696, 734, 766, 768, 

803, 866 




American Electric Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation: (Continued) 

Crossings ut transmission lines, Proposed 

specifications, Comment, 1088 
Executive committee, Report, 696; Meet- 
ing, 1110 

Officers for 1912, 867 

President E. U. Ackerman, *890 

Question Box, 192; Answers for, 215; Se- 
lected questions and answers, 859 

Report of secretary-treasurer, 696 

Standards, Letter ballot on, 909, 997; Com- 
ment, 1080 

Subjects for standing committees of com- 
ing year, 1111 

American Electric Railway Manufacturers' As- 
sociation : 

Annual meeting, 770 

Committee on exhibits, 159 

Convention bulletin, 503 

Officers, New, 1249 

American Electric Railway Transportation & 
Traffic Association: 

Address of President Page, 692 

Committee on block signals, Report, 742; 

Discussion, 735; Comment, 718 

Committee on city rules, Report, 788; Dis- 
cussion, 764 

Committee on construction of schedules 

and timetables, Report, 835; Discus- 
sion, 808 

Committee on fares and transfers. Report, 

832; Discussion, 807; Comment, ?97 

Committee on freight and express account- 
ing, 158; Report, 785; Discussion, 790; 
Comment, 798 

Committee on freight and express traffic, 

Report, 787; Discussion, 765 

Committee on interurban rules, Report, 

753; Discussion, 736; Comment, 2, 760 

Committee on passenger traffic, Report, 

702; Discussion, 695; Comment, 685 

Convention sessions, 694, 736, 764. 790 


Executive committee, Meeting, 116," 

President J. N. Shaniiahan, *890 

Report of secretary-treasurer, 693 

Training of employees, Discussion, 694 

rwo-car train operation for city and subur- 
ban travel [Franklin], 839; Discussion, 

American institute of Electrical Engineers: 

Annual convention, 49; Comment, 4 

Depreciation of electrical properties 

LEloyJ, 21 

Going value of public utilities [FowleL 


Power transmission convention papers, 

Comment, 4, 182 

Responsibilities of electrical engineers in 

making appraisals LByllesby], 16; Dis- 
cussion, 49 

West Jersey & Seashore R. P., Electrical 

operation [Wood], IV; Discussion, 
50; Comment, 75 

-American Light & Traction Co. (.See New 
York City) 

American Railway Engineering Association, 
Convention notes, 1001 

American Railways Company. (See Phila- 

American Society of Civil Engineers, Electrical 
features of Pennsylvania tunnels 
[Gibbs], Discussion, 918 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers: 

-Annual meeting, 1213 

Discussion of welding, 1067 

American Society for Testing Materials, An- 
nual meeting, 84 

American Traction & Power Co. (Sec Indian- 

Anderson, Ind., Indiana L'nion Traction Co.: 

■ Fast trains, *200 

Poles. Reinforcing of, 46S 

Angola (lnd.) Light & Power Co.. Incorpora- 
tion, 1177 

Annual report, The ideal, 1049 

Appraisal of railway property: 

Buffalo, X. Y. [Arnold], 911. 991; Com- 
ment, 976 

Compensation for promoter, Plea for 

LCrosby], 4S, 874; Comment. 74 

Cost to reproduce physical property. 

Methods used bv P. j. Arnold to de- 
termine, 991; Comment, 976 

Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light Co , 


Going value [Fowle], 1115 

Life of physical property from the account- 
ing and engineering standpoints 
[Ingle], [Bagg], 1205: Discussion, 

Life of physical property, Report of Ac- 
countants' Association, 818 

Metropolitan Street Ry. [Connette], 240 

Milwaukee. Wis.. 160; Comment, 143 

Overhead charges [Coolev], 877; Comment 

897; Discussion, 816' 

Physical valuation legislation 812 

Physical valuations [Crosby], 874 

Report at convention of "National Asso- 
ciation of Railway Commissioners 
[Bassett], 1026 

-Responsibilities of electrical engineers in 

making valuations [Byllesby], 16; Dis- 
cussion, 49 

-Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry., 61 

Toledo, 59, 131. 168, 253 

Uses of an appraisal [Gillette], 948 

Apprentice courses: 

Apprentice courses: (Continued) 
Difficulty of creating, 3 

Education of engineering apprentices, Re- 
port of American Electric Railway En- 
gineering Association, 703: Discus- 
sion, 696; Comment, 797 

Arbitration in strikes, 267 

Arc lamps, Inclosed, for street car headlights 

[Baldwin], *531 
Arkansas Valley Interurban Ry. (.See Wichita, 

Kan. ) 

Arkansas Valley Railway, Light & Power Co. 

(See Pueblo, Col.) 
Armature shaft welding: 

Thermit process [Cuntz], c*504 

Without removal, San Francisco, *388; 

Comment, 377 
Atlanta, Ga. : 

Georgia Railway & Electric Co.: 

Bond issue, 256, 1042 
Payment of bonds, 1257 
— —Georgia Railway & Power Co.: 
Incorporation, 511, 1009 
Leases, 677 

Stock and bond issues, 1293 
Atlantic City convention. (See American Elec- 
tric Railway Association) 
Augusta-Aiken (Ga.) Railway & Electric Cor- 
poration, 1256; Dividend, 1326 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R. (See Chicago) 
Austin (Tex.) Street Rys., Payment of mort- 
gage bonds, 407 

Statistics of street railways, 868 

-Victorian Rys.. Gasoline motor cars, * 1 285 

Aviation exhibitions for electric railways, 924 
Aviation meet, Rockford, 111., 363 
Axles : 

Chicago Rys., Standard, *653 

Heat-treated, standard specifications of 

American Society for Testing .Mate- 
rials, 84 

Specifications, Discussion bv Engineering 

Association, *734 


Baggage bearing for door rollers, "281 
Baggage agents' troubles [Anthony], 355 
Baggage rules: 
Dayton, Ohio. 549 

New York State Street Railway Associa- 
tion. Recommendations, 1240 
Ballast. (See Track construction.) 
Baltimore : 

United Railways & Electric Co. ■ 

Bonds, 929 

Note issue. 64, 172, 367 

Baltimore & Ohio R. R.. Committee of em- 
ployees on safety. 1050 

Bangor (Me.) Railway & Electric Co • 

Dividend, 1326 

Purchase of property, 255 

Reorganization plans, 367 

Bartlesville (Okla.) Interurban Rv„ Bond 
issue, 888 

Batteries, Statistics of manufacture, 427 
Battery cars. (See Storage battery cars.) 
Bay State Street Ry. (See Boston, Mass.) 

Chuck for boring, *160 

Roller bearings on suburban cars, 

Frankford, Tacony & Holmesburg 
Street Ry., 669 

Ben Hur Route. (See Crawfordsville. Ind.) 

Berkshire Street Ry. (See Pittsfield. Mass.) 

Berlin, Germany: 

Cable order, the largest, c286 

Souvenir album of street railwav sys- 
tem, 1002 

Subway construction, Schonberg-Berlin 

Underground Rv., *229: Comment, 216 
Binghaniton (N. Y.) Ry., Dividend. 475 
Birmingham (Ala.) Railwav. Light & Power 
Co., Fare to suburbs, 1011. 1080; Divi- 
dend. 1326 

Blackpool, England, Semi-convertible car. *248 
Blanks and forms: 

Accident claim department. Public Serv- 
ice Ry., 637 

Accident report. Aurora. Elgin & Chi- 
cago R. P., 310 

Accounting department. Public Service 

Ry., 627 

Baggage record. 355 

Car defect records. Boston. 425 

— —Car-loading records, 563 

Car maintenance, Public Service Ry., 610 

Car mileage report. Aurora. Elgin & Chi- 
cago R. R., 226 

Car service record. 1270 

Chartered car service, Boston, 360 

Complaint department, Rochester. 1272 

Distribution department. Public Service 

Ry., 597 

Express order blank. 282 

Illinois Traction System's accounting 

methods. 184 
Inoperative register report card. Provi- 
dence, R. I., 1321 

Interline accounting, 745 

Line crew's report. Public Service Rv.. 


Passenger accounts. Report, Central Elec- 
tric Railwav Accountants' Associa- 
tion. 1277 

Printing department, Milwaukee Electric 

Railway & Light Co.. 1023 

Blanks and forms: (Continued) 

Purchasing and storeroom departments. 

Public Service Ry., 623 
Route card used by conductors, Brooklyn, 


Schedules, Public Service Rv., 560, 562, 


Sleeping and parlor .car diagrams, Illi- 
nois Traction System, 525 

Storeroom records, Mobile, Ala., 423 

Transportation department, Public Service 

Ry., 620 

Way department daily work report, Pub- 
lic Service Ry., 579 

Block signals. (See Signals.) 

Bloomsburg (Pa.), Millville & Northern Ry., 
Incorporation, 928 

Boilers, Use of large units [Jacobus], 1213 
Comment, 1187 

Boise (Idaho) & Interurban Ry., Reported 
change in control, 1256 

Boise (Idaho) Railroad Co., Reported change 
in control, 1218 

Bonds. (See Rail bonds.) 

Boone (la.) Electric Co.. Transfer of prop- 
erty, 63, 94 

Boston, Mass.: 

Bay State Street Ry. : 

Bond purchases, 1326 
Carhouse, *418 
Exhibit, *906 

Express service, 431, * 1023 
Fare reduction, 930 

Hearing on improvements, in Maiden. 

Officers, 206 

Electrification of terminals, New Haven 

Road protests, 59 

Elevated Ry. : 

Accident campaign, 1259 

Annual report. 1041 

Bond issue, 547, 888, 964 

Car defects, Reporting and checking 

[Dana], 425 
Cars, Pay-witliin, *54 
Chartered car service [Dana], 360 
Coasting recorder, 858 
Consolidation with West End Street 

Ry., 172. 206, 228, 255, 295, 329, 

367, 407, 441 
Employees, Training of, 694 
Exhibit, 906 

Express plans, Hearing on, 1163 
Extensions, 510 

Instructing trainmen in the econom- 
ical use of power, 1025 
Owd service, 1043 

Power generation and distribution sys- 
tem. *1313; Comment, 1304 
Stockholders, 63 

Substation at Brookline, Mass., *398 
Track scrapers, Pneumatic (Root), *56 

Massachusetts Electric Companies: 

Annual report, 1292 
Dividends, 1178 

Railway & Light Securities Co., Stock in- 
crease, 256, 367 

Subways and tunnels, 228, 251, 675, 1251 

Boston & Eastern R. R. : 

Certificate of necessity granted, 61 

— ■ — Hearings on locations in Lynn, 927 

Progress, 364 

Boston & Maine R. R. (See North Adams, 

Boston & Northern & Old Colony Street Rys.: 

Increase in capital stock, 172 

Merger bill passed, 228 

(See also Boston, Bay State Street Ry.) 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies: 

Annual report, 1076 

Dividend, 1293 

Bowling Green, Ohio, Lake Erie, Bowling 
Green & Napoleon Ry., Improvement, 

Brackets, Catenary line, Coating of, 1266 
Brake rigging: 

Foundation, New South Wales cars, 15 

(Pahler), *923 

Brake-shoe adjuster, Cam-type, Detroit United 
Ry., *959 

Brake shoe and holder. Removable (Malcolm), 

Brake shoes: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., Standards, 


Test of cars equipped with coasting time 

recorders, 1199 
Brakes, Air: 

Development and classification [Turner], 


Electric control [Turner], *38 

-Governor synchronizing system [Turner], 


New York City, Hearings, 131, 196, 503, 

[Connette], c919; 960, 1007, 1096 

Pittsburgh, 169, 204 

Public Service Ry., 604 

Standards of Central Electric Railway 

Association, *31 

Terre Haute, Ind., 296 

Test case in Ohio, 321 

Tests on Third Avenue R. R-, 543; 

[Stowe], clll8 
Brakes, Electro pneumtaic [Turner], 38 
Brakes, Hand: 

Konnette], 503, c919 

Staffless (Ackley), *55 

Tests on Third Avenue R. R., 543; 

[Stowe]. clll8 

July — December, 191 1.] 



Brantford, Ont., Grand Valley Ry., Receiver- 
ship, 1078 

Bridgeport, Conn., Connecticut Company, Car- 
house and shop, *146 

Bridges : 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. K., *222 

Burlington, N. J., Collapse, 1289; Com- 
ment, 1305 

— —Public Service Ry., *582 

Bridges, Catenary. (See Catenary construe 
tion.) • 

Brill prize awards, 802 

Bristol (Tenn.) Belt Line Ry., Change of 
name, 678 

Bristol (Tenn.) Traction Co., Stock increase, 
678, 1078 

British Columbia Electric Ry. (See Van- 
couver, B. C.) 
Brookline, Mass., Substation, *398 
I Irooklyn : 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R.: 

Fare case, 174, 181, 198, 1114 
Strike, 284, 328, 1057; Comment, 267, 

Rapid Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 509 

Bond issue, 255 

Car for subway service, *1322 

Comparison of operations with Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit, 643 

Coney Island fares, Hearing on, 198; 
Comment, 181 

Conev Island single-fare zone exten- 
sion, 409 

Cost of maintaining motor car equip 

ment, 159 
Creosoted ties, 345 

Handling equipment. Efficiency and 

economy, * 1 268 
Letter on courtesy to employees, 929 
Mileage per dav unit of equipment. 

Increased, 1268 
Passenger tabulating device, *1 269 
Proposal to build subway, 58, 75, 167, 


Substation, Thirty-eighth Street, *1228 : 

Comment, 1226 
Transfers, Hearing on, 208 

Brooklvn Bridge: 

Railway traffic, Statistics, 679 

Rush-hour conditions, 303 

Brunswick, Ga., City & Suburban Ry., An- 
nual report, 94 

Brunswick (Me.) & Yarmouth Street Ry., In- 
corporation, 1326 

Brushes, Motor (National Carbon Co.), 672 

Buenos Aires, Electric railways of. Statistics, 

Buffalo, N. Y.: 

Buffa'o, Batavia & Rochester Ry., Pro- 
posed, 1256 

Buffalo & Lackawanna Traction Co., Pur- 
chase of equipment. 134 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co. : 

Maintenance of way practice. [Alder- 

man], 42; Discussion, 53 
Receivership matters, 1078 

International Traction Co.: 

Annual meeting. 1009 
Cars, Near-side single-platform, 512, 

Hearing on reorgaivzation. 511. 910: 
Arnold report, 911, 991; Com- 
ment, 976 
Interest and bonds, 94, 1327 
Proposed new railway, 431 
Track improvements, 1029 
Buffalo, Lock-port & Rochester Ry. (See 
Rochester. N. Y.) 


Cables : 

Largest order, c286 

Laying a 60,000-volt, Prussian-Hessian 

State Rys., *1097 
Specifications for, discussed by Engineering 

Association. 699 
Caldwell (Idaho) Traction Co., Cars, *400 
California constitutional amendments, 917 
California Midland Rv. (See San Francisco) 
California public utility bill, 1253. 1324 
Camden, N. J.: 

Public Service Ry. (See Newark, N. J.) 

Riverside Traction Co. : 

Accident, 1289 

Assessment on stock, 330 

Lease, 1009 

Labor changes, 1037 
— West Jersey & Seashore R. R. : 

Bond issue, 64 

Comparison of operating features with 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., 


Electrical operation [Wood], 19; Dis- 
cussion, 50; Comment, 75 
Canon Citv, Col., Colorado Light & Power Co., 
Sale, 928 

Cape Town, Africa, Car meters in [Giles], 880 
Capitalization of railways: 
[Brady], 725 

Capital needed for development of rail- 
ways, Report of Railroad Securities 
Commission, 1246; Comment, 1225 

Companies of 1910, 311; Comment, 303 

Compensation for promoter. T'lea for 

[Crosby], 48, 874; Comment, 74 

Capitalization of railways: (Continued) . 
— Report of National Association of Railway 
Commissioners, 1026; Comment, 1018 
Car building, Experiments in, 937 
Car capacity: 

Minneapolis cases, 410 

St. Paul, Ordinance, 208 

Seattle. Ordinance, 208 

Car cleaning. (See Cleaning of cars) 

Car construction, Developments, 975 

Car detects, Reporting and checking, Boston 

[Dana], 425 
Car design : 

Arch roof cars, Chicago Rys., *648 

— —Center-entrance cars, 5 

Combination passenger and baggage cars, 

Peoria, 111., 77 
— Prepayment car, Public Service Ry., *605 
— Report of Engineerinc Association, 851, 
855; Discussion, 866 

Sleepine cars, Illinois Traction System, 


Subway, Brooklyn Rapid Transit, * 1 322 

Car destination signs. (See Destination signs) 
Car detentions. (See Detention of trains) 
Car distribution, Efficiency system in Brook- 
lyn, 1268 
Car failures: 
Classification of, 379 

Reduction of [Barnes], 34: Discussion, 53 

Car framing: 

Arch roof car, Chicago Rys., *649 

Arkansas Valley Interurban Rv., *247 

New South Wales, *14 

— — Public Service Ry., *605 
Car lighting. (See Lighting of cars) 
Car-loading records, Public Service Ry., 563, 

Car maintenance: 

Alternating versus direct-current equip- 
ment, Milwaukee, 1143 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicaeo R. R.. *306 

Public Service Ry., 608 

Car miles and car hours, Report of Account- 
ants* Association, 744; Discussion, 732 
Car painting. (See Painting of cars) 
Car platforms, Ramp for. Kansas City, *1004 
Car propulsion, Cost of. Coasting tests, Chicago 

Rys., *1192; Comment, 1186 
Car-roof nomenclature, 103: [Hanna], cl61 
Car side. Metal unit sections, New York, 

Westchester & Boston Ry., *670 
Car steps, Height of: 

Comment and review of situation, 341 

Hartford, Conn., Lower steps, 966, 1011 

Hearing before New York Public Service 

Commission. 196. 503 

Philadelphia, Lower steps, 966 

Car weights: 

Chicago Rys., 648 

Discussion by committee of Engineering 

Association. 116 

New South Wales, 16 

Reduction of, Comment, 975 

Ilniversal standard of comparison. Report 

of Engineering Association, 851 
Carhouses : 

Bridgeport, Conn.. *146 

— — Brockton, Mass., Bav State Street Rv., 

Economy in, 105 

Los Angeles, Cab, *771 

—Lunchrooms and barber shops in, 340 

Public Service Ry., *586 

Report of Engineering Association on 

buildings and structures, *820; Discus- 
sion 803; Comment. 844 

Richmond, Va., *998 

Shifting of cars. Overhead contact device, 

Berlin, *234 


Aluminum panels, roof members, etc., 

Zurich. 246 
Arch roof: 

Chicago Rys., *648 

Freeport, 111.. *363 

Oklahoma Citv, *924 

Savannah, Ga., *12S4 

Texarkana, Tex., *363 
Berlin subway, *233 

Caboose, Puget Sound Electric Ry., *837 

Closed : 

Arkansas Vallev Tnterurban Rv., *247 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R.,' *306 
Caldwell, Idaho, *400 
Illinois Traction System, 706 
Indiana Union Traction Co., *200 
Milwaukee, Single-phase equipment, 

*1138, 1139 
Vancouver, B. C, *164 

Combination : 

Baggage and refrigerator. Lexington 

& Interurban Ry., *56 
New South Wales, *13 
Passenger and baggage, Peoria, 111., 

Passenger and smoking, Walla Walla, 
Wash., "1001 

Crane, Public Service Ry., *580 

Dining, Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Ry., 227 

Double-deck, in England, 415 

, Express-freight, Michigan United Ry.. * 1 26 

Funeral, Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., 


Gas-electric. (See Gasoline-electric cars) 

■ Gasoline. (See Gasoline cars) 

Manager's office, Public Service Ry., "607 

Cars: (Continued) 

Xear-side, single-platform : 

Buffalo, 512, 954 

Philadelphia, 164, *91 5, 1213, 1232, 
1275 ; Comment, 899 

Oil tank, Milwaukee, *538 


Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Ry., 227 
Illinois Traction System, 522; Com- 
ment, 521 

Pay-as-you-enter : 

Advantages [Casey], 1201; Discus- 
sion, 1207 
Louisville, Ky„ 966 
Operation of, in Syracuse [Duffy], 
1202; Discussion, 1207 

Pay-within : 

Boston Elevated Rv., *54 

Milwaukee, 297, 477 

Single-end car, Dayton City Ry., *543 

Prepayment : 

Chicago Rys., *648 

Contracts for licenses and door de- 
vices, 1000 

Hutchinson, Kan., *505 

Kankakee, 111., *127 

Kansas City, Mo., *665 

Public Service Ry., *603 

San Francisco, Oakland & San Tose 
Consolidated Ry., *162 

Savannah, Ga., *1284 

Side-rod, Cincinnati, 173 
Semi-convertible : 

Blackpool, Eng., *248 

Great Falls, Mont., *323 

Semi-steel, Houston, Tex., *882 

Side-rod, light-weight, Cincinnati Trac- 
tion Co., *502 
Single-deck vs. double-deck, in Great 

Britain [Hooghwinkel], 199 
Single-end interurban, Fort Worth, Tex., 


-Single-end vs. double-end car operation 

[Hicks], 45 

Sleeping, on Illinois Traction System, *522 

Spiez-Frutigen Ry., *644 

Sprinkling, Milwaukee, *289 


Effects of collision, *1283 

Newark extension of Hudson Tun- 
nel, *274 

Philadelphia elevated service, *960 

Unit-sections. New York. Westchester 
& Boston Ry., »670 
Storage battery. (See Storage battery 


Subway, Brooklyn Rapid Transit, *1 322 

Trailer, of Ben Hur Route, *530 

Utility, Denver City Tramway Co., *539 

'Weed burning (Lamb), *124 

Work cars: 

Public Service Ry ; , *581 
Toledo Railways fir" Light Co., 1070 
Catenarv construction: 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry., *1308 

Connecticut Co., D. C. experiences with 

six different tvpes of construction, 
*1052: Comment, 1051 

Dessau-Bitterfield Ry., *982; Multiple 

catenary, * 1 1 4 5 

Hoosac tunnel, *7 

Southern Pacific Co., *900, *940 

(See also Overhead construction; Trans- 
mission lines) 

Catskill, N. Y. : 

Catskill Traction Co.. Bond issue, 94 

Upper Hudson Electric & Railroad Co., 206 

Cattle guard. Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry., 

Census reports: 

Cross ties purchased, 400 

Manufacture of electrical machinery, ap- 
paratus and supplies. 427, 1212 

Poles purchased in 1910, 537 

Central Electric Accounting Conference: 

Affiliation with Central Electric Railwav 

Committee on passenger accounting, 1069 

Freight accounts. Report of committee, 533 

Tune meeting, 28 

Legislation affecting electric railway ac- 
counting [Davies], 26 
September meeting, 533 

(See also Central Electric Railway Ac- 
countants' Association) 

Central Electric Railway Accountants' Asso- 
ciation : 

Address of President Elkins, 1276 

Annual meeting, 1276; Comment, 1266 

Committee on passenger accounts, Re- 
port, 1277 

Departmental co-operation [Peck], 1276 

Officers. 1279 

Relations between the traffic and ac- 
counting departments [Neereamer], 

(See also_ Central Electric Railway Ac- 
counting Conference) 

Central Electric Railway Association: 

Affiliation with Central Electric Accounting 

Conference, 534 

August meeting, 292; Comment, 265 

Cedar Point meeting, 358 

Committee on standardization; Report, *31 

Convention, 1099. 1119 

Electric locomotives for interurban 

freight haulage [Wynne], 1103 

Headlights for interurban service [Dor- 

ticos], *349; Discussion, 358 

Insurance [Staatsl, 356; Discussion, 358 

Tune meeting, 29 




Central Electric Railway Association: (Con- 

Lightning protection [Burdick], 1101 

Little things that count [Schade], 353: 

Comment, 339 
Overhead standardization [Schlessinger], 

347; Discussion, 359 
Protection of linemen, Committee to draft 

code of rules for, 1120; Comment, 


Publicity [Van Zandt], 25 

Publicity as a factor in electric railroad- 
ing [Rockwell], 1105 

Standardization committee meeting with 

Engineering Association, 117, 119 

Substation operation [Cochran], 1099 

Timber treatment plants. Co-operative, 

Proposed investigation, 183 

Traffic [Keys], 354; [Norviel], 1107 

Trailer operation versus multiple-unit 

trains [Renshaw], 350; Discussion, 

Troubles of a baggage agent [Anthony], 


Central Pennsylvania Traction Co. (See Har- 

risburg, Pa.) 
Chartered car service: 

Boston [Dana], 360 

[Keys], 354 

New York State Street Railway Associa- 
tion committee report, 1241 

Public Service Ry., 564 

Chattanooga (Term.) Railway & Light Co., 
Owl service, 1258 

Cheyenne (VVyo.) Electric Ry., Sale, 1256 

Chicago, 111.: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R. : 

Annual report, 1254 

Comparison of operating features with 
West Jersev & Seashore R. R-, 

Construction and operation, *220 
Maintenance of rolling stock and 

other operating features, *306 
Passenger station at Wheaton, 111., 


Power station and distribution sys- 
tem, *268 
Traffic promotion [Breckinridge], 494 

Calumet & South Chicago Ry., Sale of 

bonds. 1256 

Chicago City Ry.: 

Accident prevention cards, *998 
Acquiring of property of Chicago & 
Southern Traction Co., 63, 1078, 
Bond sale, 255 
Dividend, 1293 

Rail, Romapac compound. Trial of. 

*505. *1286 
Resignation of T. E. Mitten, 1232. 


Chicago City & Connecting Rvs.. Dividend. 


Chicago Elevated Rys. : 

Bond issue, 367 

Developments, 293 

Note issues, 134 

Officers and directors, 329, *444 
Chicago & Tnliet Electric Ry., Wage in- 
crease. 174 
Chicago & Oak Park Elevated R. R.: 

Complaint against dismissal, 364 

Deposit of stock, 329 

Tudgment against, 1256 

Receivership. 1078, 1177 

Track elevation, 472 
Chicago Rys.: 

Annual report. 134 

Bonds, 510, 1218, 1294 

Campaign against team interference. 
182. 207 

Cars. Arch roof, *648 

Coasting recorders. 858. 1120. *1 192: 
Comment, 1186 

Notes paid. 1327 

Rail, Romapac compound. Trial. 505 
Receivership of Union Traction Co., 

Tantalum lamps on cars. twelve 
months' investigation. 501 

Chicago & Southern Traction Co.. Sale. 


Comnetition with steam road, 1303 

Consolidation of surface and elevated rail- 
ways proposed. 94. 206. 963, 1036. 
1089. 1290 

— — Electrification, Right to compel, 58: In- 
vestigation. 1164, 1214 

Electrolvsis. Reports of Board of Super- 
vising Engineers, and Bureau of Pub- 
lic Efficiency, 242; Report [Palmer], 

Elevated loop. Reduction of noise by 

novel track construction. 469 

Elevated railway valuation committee, 1253 

Illinois Central terminal changes. 1251 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Rys.. 

Use of pocket tracks, *224 

Northwestern Elevated R. R.: 

Annual report. 1176 
Bond issues, 63, 476 

Paving, Creosot'd wood, 161 

Public Service Companv of Northern Illi- 
nois Merger. 1125 

_: Smoke abatement. Investigation of. 1164 

^outh S : de Flev.ited Rv.. Dividend. 172 

Standard Gas <t Electric Co.. Stock in 

crease. 1078 

Chicago, 111.: (Continued) 

Subway commission, 199, 252, 545, 885 

Subway progress 129, * 157. 961, 996 

Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Ry. (See 

Michigan City, Ind.) 
Chicago & Milwaukee Electric R. R. : 

Bonds of Wisconsin division, 255 

Earnings for six months. 407 

Fee allowance fixed by court, 928 

Foreclosure case, 1041 

Reorganization, 511. 1177 

Thompson suits, 1294 

V alidity of bond issue, 172 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry. (See La Salle, 


Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Ry. 

(See South Bend, Ind.) 
Children. Small, must be accompanied. 

Columbus, Ind., 173 
Chuck for boring bearings (Stevens!, *160 
Cincinnati, Ohio.: 

Cincinnati. Georgetown & Portsmouth 

R. R.: 

Officers, 511 

Sale of controlling interest. 172 
Cincinnati Traction Co.: 

Car, light-weight side-rod, 173. *502 

Sale of notes, 407 
Ohio Electric Ry. : 

Rond purchase, 1125 

Substation operation [Cochran], 1099 
Circuit breakers: 

Dispatcher's control of. Scottsburg. Ind., 


Horn-gap type (Railwav and Industrial). 


Outdoor oil (Westinghouse) , * 1 65 

Citizens' Railway Co. (See Waco, Tex.) 
Citizens' Railwav & Light Co. (See Fort 

Worth, Tex.) 
Citizens' Light &• Transit Co. (See Pine 

Bluff, Ark.) 
City & Suburban Rv. (See Brunswick, Ga.) 
Claim agent should studv convention exhibits. 

Claim Agents' Association: 

Address of President Drown, 733 

Convention gathering. 689 

Convention sessions, 733, 774 

Educating the puhlic in the prevention of 

accidents TBovnton], 870 

President H. K. Bennett. *890 

Prevention of accidents [Whitehead], 869: 

[Carpenter], 872 
— ■ — Selection and instruction nf trainmen 

[Beck], 870; TWalsh]. 871 
Claim department. (See Accident claim de- 
Cleaning of cars. 864 

Combined suction and pressure appa- 

tus for [Conley], *276 

Public Service Ry., 613 

Cleveland. Ohio: 
Cleveland Ry. : 

Open doors on pay-within cars. 1 59 

Ordinance changes", 60. 130. 197. 926. 
1068. [Smith], 1113, 1185 

Association, 534 
Cleveland. Southwestern & Columbus Ry.. 

Freight traffic. 96 
Cleveland & Youngstown Ry.. Proposed 

improvements. 1006 

Fare question. 293. 406. 8S5 

Take Shore Electric Ry., Freight traffic. 96 

Package agency, 1320 

Service. Need of i'-creased, 1289 

Terminal. Internrhan. 506 

Ticket frauds 962 

Cleveland. Painesville R Eastern Rv. (See 
Willoughby. Ohiol 


Rriquetting of lignite. 289 

Burning wet or dry. 863 

Purchase of bituminous coal under b.t.u. 

specifications [Crecelius], 784: Discus- 
sion, 769 

Testing. Berthier method. London Under- 
ground Electric Rys., 390 
Coal handling; 

FToosac Tunnel power station, *458 

Public Service Electric Co., Power sta- 
tions, * 59 1 

Worcester Consolidated Street Ry., *342 

Coal meter. *781 

Coal storage losses, Tests by United States 
Bureau of Mines, Comment, 1225 

Coasting time recorders: 

Boston E'evated Rv., 858 

Chicago Rv?.. 858, 1120, *1192 : Com- 
ment, 1186 

Third Avenue, New York. 1322 

Colorado Railwav, Light & Power Co. (See 
Trinidad. Col.) 

Columbia (S. C.) Railwav. Gas & Electric Co.. 
Bond sale, 255 

Columbus. Ind., Indianapolis. Columbus & 
Southern Traction Co.. Small children 
must he accompanied. 173 

Columbus, Ohio: 

Columbus, Delaware h Marion Ry.: 

Annual report. 964, 1217 

Receivership and sale, 172, 206. 295. 
329, 441, 1256 

Columbus Interurhan Terminal Co., 295 

Columbus Railway & Light Co.: 

Investigation, '547, 1077 

Stock increase, 94. 134. 255, 441 
Columbus. Urbana & Western Electric 

Rv.. Issue of stock and bonds. 1256 

Columbus, Ohio: (Continued) 

Scioto Vaney iracuo 4l i_u., Annual meet- 
ing, 5 1 1 

Complaint department, New York State Rys., 

Rochester lines, 1272; Comment, 1266 
Complaints, Handling of, 639 
Concord (Mass.), Maynard & Hudson Street 

Ry. (See Maynard, Mass.) 
Concord. X. C, Salisbury & Spencer Ry., 

Operating statistics of storage battery 

car, 44 

Condensers, Spray cooling for water, North 
Adams, Mass., *454 

Conduit : 

Fiber (J-M), Special uses of, 1282 

Tile and fiber, Comparative costs, * 1250 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R. (See Brook- 

Conference of Governors (See Governors' 

Connecticut Co. (See New Haven) 

Connecticut. Legislation, 92, 169 

Connecticut Public Utilities Commission: 

Accidents. Instruction in regard to re- 
ports of, 1010 

-Fare hearing, 1033 

Organization, 472 

Public utilities law, 273 

Statement of policy, 1253 

Connectors, Standard location for lighting. 
C. E. R. A., *33 

Construction trains: 

■ Hoosac tunnel electrification work, 9 

Southern Pacific Co., *946 

Contract form of agreement, Public Service 
Ry., 579 

Control for multiple-unit train, Public Service 
Ry., *660 

Controller diagrams, Simplified [Parham], *246 
Controllers, Overhauling of, 1087 
Cooperation between departments [Peck], 


Copenhagen, Strike in, 990 

Copper, Advance in price, 1271 

Corona effects. (See Transmission lines) 

Corporations and supervision, 974 

Corrugation. (See Rail corrugation) 

Cost of materials. Government bulletin, 241 

Couplers : 

Automatic car and air couplers, Subway 

cars. Interborough Rapid Transit Co.. 


Tanney radia 1 , Test at Indianapolis 

[Mason], c*200 

M. C. B.. Illinois Traction System, * 1 16 


Discussion at meeting of Engineer- 
ing Association Committee, 117; 
Comment, 104 
Report of Engineering Association. 
851; Discussion, 866 
Covington, Ky.: 
Franchise case, 328 

Overcrowding ordinance upheld by Cir- 
cuit Court, 331 

Crane cars. (See Cars, Crane) 

Crawfordsvillc. Ind.. Indianapolis. Crawfords- 
ville &■ Western Traction Co. Trailer 
cars, * 530 

Crossings, Grade in New York State, 1075 

Crossings, Third-rail highway, Aurora, Elgin 
& Chicago R. R., 272 

Crossings, Transmission line: 

Southern Pacific Co., *945 

Standards, Proposed, of Engineering As- 
sociation, Comment, 1088 

Crossings. Trollev wire, North Adams, Mass., 

Crossover. Portable (Cleveland), *1004 
Culverts, Concrete, Collapsible steel forms 
for, *245 

Current clocks. Experiments in Manchester 

[Cunliffe], 658: Comment, 642 
Curves. Elevation in paved streets, 862 


Dallas. Tex.. Electric Corporation, Dividend, 


Dam. Keokuk, la.. Progress, 1246 

Danville (Ya.) Railway & Electric Co., 964 

Davenport. Ta.. Tri-City Railway & Light Co., 

Annual report, 93 
Davton, Ohio: 

Baggage rules, 549 

Single-end pay-within cars, *543 

Definitions : 

Cable and strand, 705 

Desirability of uniform, 379 

Maintenance, 779 

Dennison. Ohio, Twi- City Traction Co.. 64 
Denver (Col.) Citv Tramway Co.: 

Car horse, *422 

Pares for vacuum cleaners. 361 

Power plant extension, *1188 

Protests tax asse-"nent, 886 

Sale of notes. 1256 

Utility car, *539 

Department co-operation [Peck], 1276 
Depreciation. (See Accounting) 
Derailing track. (^ee S-nded tracks) 
D»s Moines (la.) City Ry. : 

Arbitration agreement with employees 

adopte-l. 406 
T-nprovements, 427 

Strike 284, 320. 406 [Snyder], *1060: 

Comment. 267, 1050 

July — Dfx ember, 191 1.] 



Dessau-Bitterfeld Ry: 

Locomotives, electric, "1020 

Power and transmission methods, *978, 

*1097, *1 145 ; Comment, 974 
Destination signs: 

Need of indicators, 639 

Station signs, 639 

Detention of trains: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. K., 308 

West Jersey & Seashore R. R., 20 

Detroit, Mich.: 

Detroit United Ry.: 

Accident near Dearborn, head-on col- 
lision, 296 
Arbitration of differences with plat- 
form men, 96, 440 
Brake-shoe adjuster, cam-type, *959 
Current consumption of interurban 

cars. M094 
Fare agreement, Tentative, 950: Com- 
ment, 937 
Freight service, 984 
Library of engineering hooks, 938 
Lightning protection [Burdick], 1101 
Ordinance provisions, 1144, 1244; Let- 
ter to stockholders, 1319 
Rental suit, 167 

Testing laboratory [Rogers], *345 

Wage scale, 546 

Municipal ownership, 204, 1036 

Devils Lake (N. D.) & Chautauqua Transfer 

Co., 1041 

Dictionary, Electric Railway, Report of super- 
vising committee, 834 

Dining-car service on Aurora, Elgin & Chicago 
R. R., 227 

Direct-curernt railways. (See High-tension di- 
rect-current railways) 
Discipline. (See Employees) 
Dispatching trains: 

Dispatcher's control of line circuit break- 
ers, Scottsburg, Ind., *81 

— — Selective signal and telephone equipment 
(Western Electric), *85 

Telephone switchboard (Lafayette), * 1 64 

Telephone system paralleling high-tension 

transmission line, New York, West- 
chester & Boston R. R., 668 

Dixon, 111., Sterling, Dixon & Eastern Elec- 
tric Ry., Fare increase, 1237; Com- 
ment. 1226 

Door-operating device, Pneumatic (Consoli- 
dated Car-Heating Co.), *674 
Door rollers, Babbitt bearing for, *281 
Double-car units. (See Multiple-unit trains) 
Drawings of piping installations. Improving, 

Drill clamp, Portable, *958 
Duplicator, Commercral, 758 
Dust guards in iournal boxes, 1017 
Dutch West Indies. Gasoline car. *673 


East St. Louis (111.) & Suburban Ry.: 

Annual report, 329 

• Near side stops, 1011 

Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light Co. (See 

Fond du Lac), 726 
Easton, Pa.: 

Easton Consolidated Electric Co.. Annual 

report, 133 

Montgomery Traction Co., Sale., 1009 

Pennsylvania-Jersey Traction Co., Note is- 
sue, 135 

Fconomy and efficiency, 1017 

Edison, Thomas A., Letter on his storage bat- 
tery, 802 

Education, Report of American Electric Rail- 
way Association. 752; Comment, 797 

(See also Apprentice courses) 

Edwardsville, III., Fare question, 1328 

Efficiency engineering: 

Economies in materials and schedules, 73 

Economy and efficiency, 1017 

Report of Engineering and Accountants' 

Association joint committee, 778; 

Discussion, 778: Comment. 760 
Ejectment case of Berkshire Street Ry., 1282 
El Paso (Tex.) Electric Co., Bonds. 1009 
Electric Railway Journal : 

Change of mailing date. 84 

Convention number, 555: Comment. 640 

Index, Value of to readers, 1303 

Electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies. 

Census report on manufacture of, 427. 


Electrification. (See Heavy electric traction) 
Fleet rolysis : 

Chicatro. Investigation, 242: Report [Pal 

merj, 1153 

Concrete poles, Electrolysis in, *700 

Return circuit installation, Public Service 

Ry., *596 

Electrolytic hydrogen and oxygen generators 

(International), *249 
Elmira (N. Y.) Water, Light & Railroad Co.. 

Merger. 1078 
Emergency repair crews on Public Service 

Ry., 595 
Employees : 

Accident prevention. Instruction in, 844 

Accidents and the discipline of employees 

[Johnson], 654 

Agreement with. Albany, N. Y., 97 

Apprentices. (See Apprentice courses) 

Aurora. Elgin X Chicago Ry.. 228 

Employees : (Continued) 

Barber shops in car houses, 340 

Benefit funds, Penn. K. R., 81 

— Benefits and pensions. Public Service Ry., 

Clubhouses, Portland, Ore., 319. 331 

Club rooms, Los Angeles, 931 

Committees on safety, 1050 

Compensation of workingmen and employ- 
ers' liability, Discussion at conference 
of. Governors of States, 465: Com- 
ment, 452 

— Complaints against platform men, 639 

Conscience fund contribution, 689 

— Co-operative wage plan and arbitration 

scheme, Proposed, Philadelphia. 393: 

Comment, 378 

—Courtesy, 369 

— Courtesy, Letter to Brooklyn employees, 


Discipline, Public Service Ry., 620 

Education in accident prevention [Mc- 

Dougall], 1204; Discussion, 1209 

Education of shop apprentices, 3 

Essay awards, St. Louis, 476 

Facilities for, Report of Engineering As- 
sociation on buildings and structures, 
820, 825; Discussion, 803; Comment. 

Fire protection. Instructions for, 821 

Instruction, Public Service Ry., *616 

Instruction methods. Second Avenue R. 

R.. New York, *237: Comment, 216 
Instruction of trainmen in economical 

use of power, Boston Elevated Rv.. 


Kansas workmen's compensation act, 958 

Liability insurance legislation, 812 

Library of Public Service Corporation. 


Lunchrooms in carhouses, 340 

Manchester, Eng., Concessions, 504 

Medals for conductors, Chicago & Milwau- 
kee Electric R. R.. 258 

-Merit system of Illinois Traction Svstem. 


Milwaukee fare case. Interest in, 362 

Physician's examination, Public Service 

Ry.. 615 

— — Prevention of accidents [Whitehead!, 869: 
rBeckl. 870: [Walsh], 871; [Carpen- 
ter], 872 

Prizes, Roadbed condition: Ft. Wayne & 

Northern Indiana Traction Co.. 1290 

Protection of linemen against shocks, 1133 

Restaurant, Public Service Corporation. 

? 572 . 

Service insignia, Danbury. Conn., 88" 

Social activities. Public Service Rv., New- 
ark. N. L, »1S3, 622: Comment, 144 

Strikes. (See Strikes) 

Substation operators. Ouestions for, 1100 

Training of! Boston Elevated Ry., 694 

Uniforms, wages and promotions. Public- 
Service Ry., 618 

Wages : 

Chester, Pa., Increase. 332 
Chicago & Toliet Electric Ry.. In- 
crease, 174 
Detroit United Ry., 546 
Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light 

Co., Increase, 1233 
Effect of low fares on, 331 
Omaha. Neb., Increase. 1258, 1298 
Philadelphia, Co-operation plan. 393. 

1329: Comment, 378 
Pottsville, Pa., Increase. 65 
Public Service Rv.. Increase, 1296 
Wisconsin Electric Ry., Increase, 1233 

Welfare measures [Pierce], 773 

Employers' liability and workingmen's compen- 
sation. Discussion at conference of 
Governors of States, 465: Comment. 

End connections on_ cars. Report of American 
Electric Railway Engineering Associa- 
tion, 747; Comment, 717 

Energy consumption of one and two-car trains. 

Illinois Traction System. 527: Detroit. 

Engineers : 

Public functions of the ensineer, 217 

Responsibility of. in making appraisals 

[Byllesby], 16 
Engines. (See Gas encrines: Oil engines) 
Fngland. (See Great Britain) 
Equipment trust securities [Brockway], 82; 

Comment, 74 
Erie-Cambridpe-Union & Corrv Traction Co 

for sale, 928 
Europe, Electric railways in, Data, 392 
^vansville (Ind.) Rvs., Improvements, 475 
Excursion cars. (See Chartered cars) 
Express. (See Freight and express) 


Factory working hours and peak loads, 1227 
Fare boxes. Public Service Ry., 621 
Fare collection. Front door, in Kansas City, 

Fare collection and recistration. Rooke svstem. 
Providence. R. I., 1321 

Fares : 

Accounting for. on prepayment cars 

[Boylan], 7!<7 

Fares: (Continued) 

Accounting methods of Public Service 

Ry., *627 

Appraisals as hasis for fixing [Byllesby), 

Aurora. Elgin & Chicago R. K., 226 

Berlin, Germany, 229 

Birmingham, Ala., 1011, 1080 

Cleveland, Interurban cars, 406, 885 

[Colt], 33 

Coney Island, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 

174, 181, 198, 1114 

— —Determining proper basis for, Report of 
American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion, 840, 1154; Comment, 843, 1134 

Detroit United Ry., Tentative arrange- 
ment for settlement of franchise sit- 
uation, 950; Comment, 937 

Early fares in various cities, 1155 

— — Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light Co 
Increase, 193, 1223; Comment, 1226 

Effect of low fares on wages, 331 

European rates, 1156 

Factors which govern transportation rates, 


Hudson & Manhattan R. R., Increase. 

1094, 1113, 1134 

Long Island R. R., Hearings, 114 

Manchester to Hartford, Conn., 1033, 


Middlesex & Boston Ry., Hearing, 120 

Milwaukee case. (See Milwaukee, Wis.) 

New Jersey hearings, 174, 207, 209, 1117 

No-seat-no-fare, San Francisco, 65 

Omaha, Neb., bridge case, 751 

Portland, Ore., 1126 

Reduction : 

Bay State Street Ry., 930 

Cleveland, 293 

Lincoln, Neb., 930 

New York & Long Island Traction 

Co., 1011 
Old Colony Street Ry., 208 
Puget Sound Electric Ry., 549, 929 
Rockford & Interurban Ry., 96 
Syracuse & South Bay R. R., 173 
Report of American Electric Railway As- 
sociation, 840, 1154; Comment, 843, 

Report of Transportation and Traffic As- 
sociation, 832; Discussion, 807- Com- 
ment, 797 

Rules and regulations, New York State 

Street Railway Association committee 
report, 1240 

Schenectady Ry., 332 

School fares, New Jersey, 95 

Seattle-Tacoma fares reduced, 549 

Sterling, Dixon & Eastern Electric Ry., 

Increase, 1237; Comment, 1226 

Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern R. R., 

Increase, 1127 

-Taunton & Pawtucket Street Rv . Hear- 
ing, 152 

Vacuum cleaners, Denver, 361 

Wisconsin Electric Ry., Increase. 1233; 

Comment, 1226 

— (See also Through routes and joint rates) 

Fargo (N. D.) & Moorhead Street Rv.. Sale, 


Federal Light & Traction Co. (See New 
York City) 

Federal relations. (See Public service cor- 

Feeder equalizer boxes. Public Service Rv 


Hearing on, by Massachusetts Railroad 

Commission, 1168 
Tests by Massachusetts Railroad Com- 
mission, 549, 919 
Ferries, Public Service Ry., *556. 557. 586 
Field coil repair economy. Toledo. 286 
Field testing device, Olean. N. Y., 124 
Financial : 

Annual reports, Elements of, 1049 

Cost of construction. Electrification of 

West Jersey & Seashore R. R., 19 

Cost of maintenance: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Rv., 308 
Motor car equipments. Brooklyn, 159 

Cost of operating and maintenance. Elec- 
tric divisions of West Tersey & Sea- 
shore R. R„ 19, 20: Comment, 75 

Cost of railway property, Buffalo, 993 

Cost of station equipped with high-pressure 

turbines [Bronsdon], 489 

Earnings of Public Service Corporation, 

Estimate, 536 

Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light Co.. 

Remit of fare increase, 1235: Com- 
ment, 1226 

Equipment trust securities [Brockwav], 82: 

Comment. 74 
Great Britain: 

Cost of construction and maintenance, 

Municipal tramways. Policy respect- 
ing renewals [Rodgers], 661 

Revenue of Public Service Ry., 569 

Sleeping car trains, earnings and expenses. 


Sterling, Dixon & Eastern Electric Rv.. 

Result of fare increase. 1238: Com- 
ment, 1226 

Wisconsin Electric Ry., Result of fare in- 
crease, 1235: Comment. 1226 
Five hazard and high voltage, 379 
Fire insurance [Staatsl. 356: Discussion, 35S 
Reduced rates. Richmond. Va.. *998 




Fire insurance: (Continued) 

Report of American Electric Railway 1 

sociation Committee, 838 

Work of American Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation [Brady], 723 

Fire protection: 

Automatic sprinklers, Report of Engineer- 
ing Association, *826 

Bridgeport car house, 149 

Decreasing fire hazards in old car shops, 


Importance of little things, 640 

Instructions to employees, 821 

Report of Engineering Association on 

buildings and structures, 820; Discus- 
sion, 803; Comment, 844 

Sprinkler system in open yard, Interbor- 

ough Rapid Transit Co., New York, 

Flooring, Sanitary car, "Hy-ge-nia," St. Louis, 

Fond du Lac, Wis., Eastern Wisconsin Rail- 
way & Light Co., Fares increased, 193, 
1233; Comment, 1226 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R. R. (See 
"Gloversville, N. Y.) 

Forms, Collapsible steel, for concrete cul- 
verts, *245 

Fort Dodge (la.), Des Moines & Southern 
R. R.: 

Automatic block signals, 1056, 1250 

Committee of employees on safety, 1050 

Issue of receivers' certificates, 547 

Sale, 407 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction Co., 

Roadbed condition prizes, 1290 
Fort Worth, Tex.: 

Citizens' Railway & Light Co., Sale, 134, 


Northern Texas Traction Co., Single-end 

interurban cars, *925 
Fostoiia (Ohio) & Fremont Ry., 92 

Midi Ry., Single-phase locomotive. *647 

-Paris-Lyons-Mediterranean Ry., Electric 

locomotive with pennutators, *385; 

Comment, 381 
Franchises : 
rCrosby], 875 

Model street railway. Suggestions. National 

Municipal League, 1281 

(See also names of cities) 

Frankford, Tacony & Holmesburg Ry. (See 

Tacony, Pa.) 
Free transportation. New Tersev rules, 369 
Freeport (111.) Railway &• Light Co., Arch roof 

cars, *363 

Freeport, Me., Portland & Brunswick Street 

Ry., Sale, 256, 547 
Freight and express: 

Accounting for interline. 745 

\ccounting methods of Illinois Traction 

Svstem, 184 
Accounting, Report of Accountants' and 

Transportation & Traffic Associations, 

785: Discussion. 790; Comment. 798 

-\urora, Elgin & Chicago R. R.. 228, 307 

Bay State Street Ry., 431, "1033 

Boston Elevated Rv., Express plans, 1163 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry., 


Detroit United Ry., 984 

Illinois. Rate reduction, 477 

. Interurban railways [Henry], 741 

Lake Shore Electric Rv.. 96 

T ocomotives. Electric, for interurban hau> 

age r Wynne], 1103 

New York State interurban roads, *281 

Possibilities, on interurban lines [Nor- 

viell. 1109 . 

Report of committee of Transportation &• 

Traffic Association, 787: Discussion. 

Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern R. R.. 477 

Truck service. New Albany. Tnd.. 966, 


Warsaw. Ind., 967 

Worcester. Mass., 1258 

Fuel. (See Coal) 

Funeral cars. (See Cars. Funeral) 

Funicular electric railway, Lookout Mountain 
Park, Denver, Col., 923 . 

Fuse-testing clips of Milwaukee Electric Rail- 
way & Light Co.. 527 

Calco, car headlining. 128 . 

Galena-Signal Oil Co., Annual convention of 
representatives, 504 

Galveston-Houston (Tex.) Electric Co., Annual 
statement. 964 

Gas, Electric & Railway Association of Okla- 
homa, Organization, 914 

Gas engines: 

Comparison with steam turbine [DreyfusJ, 


Johannesburg, Africa, Failure, 1088 

Gasoline cars: 

Dutch West Indies, *673 

Line car, Milwaukee, *770 

Point Shirley, Mass., *959 

(Railwav Motor Car Cor.), type C, 668 

Victorian Rys., Australia, *1285 

Gasoline-electric cars: 
— — Germany, 1166 

Gasoline-electric cars: (Continued) 

Operating and transportation statistics, 

Third Avenue R. R., New York, 490; 

Comment, 484 
[Potter], 41 

St. Louis & San Francisco R. R., *163, 


( Westinghouse), in Europe, *1002 

Gates, Safety, on cars, Louisville, Ky., 549 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., 307 

Fitting pressure, 864 

Generators, Electric: 

D. C. turbo-generators larger than 500 kw 

capacity [Dyer], 783 
Largest turbo-generator built, New York 

Edison Co., 1034 

Statistics of manufacture, 427 

—Ventilating device (Baker), *125 

Ventilation of, 863 

. Voltage and frequency for three-phase 

turbo-alternators [Crecelius], 782; Dis- 
cussion, 768; Comment, 760 

Generators, Electrolytic hydrogen and oxygen 
(International). *249 

Georgia Light, Power &• Railways, Incorpora- 
tion, 1078, 1177, 1218 

Georgia Railwav & Electric Co. (See Atlanta, 

Georgia Railwav & Power Co. (See Atlanta, 


German Street and Interurban Railway Asso- 
ciation, Meetings, 646, 997 
Germany : 

Accident statistics, 1905-1909, *391; Com- 
ment, 378 

Independent motor cars in, 1166 

Railway statistics for 1909, 868 

-Sanded derailing track at Dresden- Alstadt 

[Kopcke], "397 

(See also Berlin, Germany) 

Glasgow : 

Common good and the tramways, 689 

Electric railway exhibit, 534 

Strike, 378 

Glens Falls, N. Y., Hudson Valley Ry., Freight 
and express traffic, 283 

Gloversville. N. Y.. Fonda, Johnstown & Glo- 
versville R. R., Annual report, 1124 

Going value of public utilities [Fowle], 1115 

Governor synchronizing system [Turner], 39 

Governors' conference: 

Discussion of employers' liability and 

workingmen's compensation, 465; Com- 
ment, 452 

Wisconsin commission law, Policies under- 
lying, and results accomplished [Mc- 
Govern], 497; Comment, 483 

Grade crossings. (See Crossings) 

Grand Rapids (Mich.), Grand Haven & Mus- 
kegon Rv., Sale, 1177 

Grass Valley, Cal., Nevada County Traction 
Co.. 407 

Great Britain: 

Car meter experiments [Cunliffe], 658; 

Comment, 642 

Cars, Double-deck, in England, 415 

"Common Good," and the Glasgow tram- 
ways. 689 

Croydon Tramways, Energy saving, due to 

car meters, 362 
Finances and policy of English municipal 

tramways [Rodgers], 661 
Financial data, 199 

Manchester, Concessions to employees, 


Prepayment cars in. 664 

■ Single-deck vs. double-deck cars [Hoogh- 

winkel], 199 

Strike in Glasgow, Scotland, 378 

Track practices, 738 

Trackless trolleys, *155 

Transfers in [Shepherd], 199 

Great Britain. Tramways & Light Railways' 
Association. Convention, 199; Com- 
ment, 181 

Great Falls (Mont.) Street Ry., Semi-convert- 
ible cars, *323 

Green Bay (Wis.) Traction Co.. Decision on 
old trackage agreement, 1094 



Hagerstown (Md.) Rv.. New interests, 1257 
Halifax (N. S.) Electric Tramway Co., Annual 

report, 206 

Harrisburg, Pa., Central Pennsylvania Trac- 
tion Co., Annual report, 255 
Hattiesburg (Miss.) Traction Co., Sale, 511 
Haverhill. Mass., New Hampshire Traction 

Issue of securities, 441 

— — Sale of Portsmouth & Exeter Street Ry., 

511, 1042, 1257 
Haverhill (Mass.) & Amesbury Street Ry. 

(See Merrimac, Mass.) 

Inclosed arc lamps [Baldwin], *531 

Interunban service [Schlessinger], *349; 

Discussion, 358 
Standard plug recepticle and holder, C. 

E. R. A., *33 

(T. S. Co.), *166 

Headlining : 

(Dietzgen), 249 

Galco, 128 

Heater, Car, Forced-ventilation hot-air 

(Cooper), *1070 
Heating of cars: 

Chicago Rys., Arch roof car, 651 

Comparative costs of three systems, 854; 

Discussion, 866. 

German report, 997 

New York City, Hearing, 1239 

Report of Engineering Association, 853; 

Discussion, 866 
Thermostatic control of electric heaters 

(Consolidated), *669 

[Thorn], 115; Discussipn, 116. 

Tilting heat deflector (Consolidated), *669 

Heavy electric traction: 

Cost of operation, need of publicity, 75 

Denmark. 49 

Dessau-Bitterfeld Ry., *978, *1097, *1145; 

Comment, 974 
Discussion at Chicago meeting of A. I. E. 

E., 49; at Turin meeting, 1147 

Hoosac tunnel, *6, *454; Comment, 1 

Hoosac tunnel locomotive, *881 

Midi Ry., Locomotive, *647 

N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R., Experience 

[Murray], Discussion, 50 
Norway, Report on possible electrification, 


Prussian State Railways, Reasons for 

choice of ,16 2-3 cycles, 1025 

Report of American Electric Railway Engi- 
neering Association, *746; Discussion, 
734; Comment, 717 

Rhoetian Ry., Switzerland, 31 

Single-phase locomotive for Loetschberg 

Ry„ *190 

Single-phase versus three-phase [Calzolari], 

1147; Comment, 1136 
Smoke abatement and electrification in 

Chicago, 1164 
Southern Pacific, Oakland lines, *900, 


Spiez-Frutigen Ry. motor cars, *644 

— — -Statistics of cost of electric operation of 

steam railways [Bierck], 830 
Switzerland, 266 

West Jersey & Seashore R. R. [Wood], 

19; Discussion, 50; Comment, 75 

High-tension direct-current railways: 
— Comparison of cost and performance, with 
alternating lines, Milwaukee System 
I Ran and Mullett], *1138; Comment. 

[Gyaros], 1152 

Hungarian 1650-volt line, 392 

High voltage and the lire hazard, 379 

Hoosac tunnel. (See North Adams, Mass., 

Boston & Maine R. R.) 
Horse, Car. in shops of Denver City Tramway 

Co., *422 

Houston (Tex.) Electric Co., Semi-steel cars, 


Hudson, N. Y., Albany Southern R. R. : 

Freight and express traffic, 283 

Promoting commutation traffic, # 54 

Street sprinkler for destroying weeds, 435 

Timetable for summer, 123 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R. (See New York 

Hudson River tunnels. (See New York City, 
Hudson & Manhattan R. R.) 

Hudson Valley Ry. (See Glens Falls, N. Y.) 

Hungary, 1650-volt. d. c. railway, 392 

Huntington, W. Va., Ohio Valley Electric Ry., 
Control stock, 367 

Hutchinson, Kan.. Prepayment car, *505 


Association, Convention, 


Identification of railway property. Central Elec- 
tric Railway Association standard 
sign, *33 

Illinois Electric Railways Association: 

-Advertising [Buffe], 495 

Chicago meeting, 493 

Traffic promotion [Breckinridge], 494 

Illinois Railroad & Warehouse Commission, 

Additional powers for, 136 
Illinois Traction System. (See Peoria, 111.) 
Illinois Valley Gas & Electric Co. (See 

Streator, 111.) 
Indiana Railroad Commission news, 65 
Indiana Union Traction Co. (See Anderson, 

Indianapolis, Ind.: 

- — —American Traction & Power Co., 928 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co., 

Simmen signals, 1034 
Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Trac- 
tion Co. (See Columbus, Ind.) 

Crawfordsville & Western 
Co. (See Crawfordsville, 



Louisville Traction Co. 
(See Louisville, Ky.) 
Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Trac- 
tion Co., Switching locomotive, *463 
Insignia for railway property, C. E. R. A. 

standard, *33 
Inspection of rolling stock, Reduction of car 

failures [Barnes], *34 
Instruction methods. (See Employees) 

Hoosac tunnel, 8, *10 

Suspension [Austin], Comment, 4 

Insurance. (See Fire insurance) 

July — December, 191 1.] 



Interborough Rapid Transit Co. (See New 
York City) 

International Electrical Congress at Turin, 542, 
1136, 1147 

Acceleration of train speed [Mailloux], 


High-tension direct-current traction 

[Gyaros], 1152 
Single-phase and three-phase traction on 

lines of heavy traffic [Calzolari], 1147; 

Comment, 1136 
Single-phase traction motors [Rummer], 


Working conductors for electric railroads 

[l'Hoest], 1151 

International Street & Interurban Railway As- 
sociation, Convention in Christiania, 
Norway, 1249 

International Municipal Congress, Convention, 

International Street & Interurban Railway As- 
sociation, Convention, 1291 

International Traction Co. (See Buffalo, 
N. Y.) 

International Transit Co. (See Sault Ste. 

Marie, Mich.) 
Interstate Commerce Commission : 

Annual report, 202, 1271 

Decision on commutation fares, 257 

Interurban railways: 

Current consumption, Dei.oit United Ky., 

*1094; Illinois Traction System, *522 

Development [Henry], 739 

Freight haulage by electric locomotives, 

[Wynne], 1103 

Jack, Ball-bearing (Duff), *435 
Jackson, Mich., Michigan United Ky.: 

Bond issue, 1257 

Cars, Express-freight, *126 

Japan, Electric railways in Tokio, 664 
Jerseyville, 111., Alton, Jacksonville & Peoria 

Ry., Receivership, 547 
Johannesburg (Africa) gas engine failure, 1088 
Joint rates. (See Through routes and joint 


Joint use of tracks, Award of Arbitrators in 
Richmond, Va., 158 

Joints, Tests of nickel-steel riveted, 922 

Joliet extension of Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria 
Ry. (See La Salle, 111.) _ 

Joliet (111.) & Southern Traction Co., De- 
posit of bonds, 330; Foreclosure, 1009, 

Journal boxes, Dust guards in, 1017 

Kankakee, 111., Cars with non-parallel axle 

truck, *127 
Kansas City, Mo.: 

Kansas City Railway & Light Co. Annual 

report, 1255 
Redemption of bonds, 1294 
Substation, *957 

Kansas City V iaduct & Terminal Co., Re- 
ceivership, 1253, 1294 

Metropolitan Street Ry. : 

Composite wood and steel cars, *665 
Earnings, 678 

Front door fare collection, 737 
Odd and even stops, 730 
Operation under receivers, 437 
Paving, 471 

Ramp for car platforms, *1004 
Receivership, 63, 926, 1009 

Kansas workmen's compensation act, 958 

Keokuk, la.: 

Dam across Mississippi River, Progress, 


-Keokuk (la.) Electric Co., 1294 

Key Route. (See Oakland, Cal.) 

Knoxville (Tenn.) Railway & Light Co., 

Change of stock, 1327 
Kokomo (Ind.), Marion & Western Traction 


Depreciation account, 156 

Sale of bonds, 330 

Labor organizations, Policy of the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Co. toward, 393; Com- 
ment, 378 

Laboratory, Detroit testing [Rogers], 345 
Lake Erie, Bowling Green & Napoleon Ry. 

(See Bowling Green, Ohio) 
Lake Shore Electric Ry. (See Cleveland, 

Ohio) ' _ 

Lake Superior Corporation. (See Sault Ste. 

Marie, Mich.) 
Lamps, Electric, Statistics of manufacture, 427 
(See also Arc lamps) 

Land values, Effect of railway operation on, 

Washington, D. C. [Harries], 777; 

Los Angeles [Winsor], 879 
La Salle, 111., Chicago, Ottawa & Peona Ry., 

Joliet extension, "1306 
Leather, Artificial, for car seats (Fabrikoid), 


Leetonia, Ohio, Youngstown & Ohio River 
R. R., Dividend, 678 

il Electric Railway Asso- 



Ejectment case, Berkshire Street Ry., 


Franchise sustained in Oklahoma City, 780 

Omaha bridge case, Decision, 751 

Wisconsin decision on old trackage 

agreement, 1094 
Legal notes: 

Charters, ordinances and franchises, 290, 

403, 1071, 1121 
Miscellaneous, 89, 1073 

Negligence, Liability for, 88, 290, 402, 436, 

1072, 1121 

Legislation affecting electric railway accounting 

[Davies], 26 
Legislation affecting electric railways, 92, 169 
— —California, 917 
Massachusetts, 228 

Report of committee on federal relations, 


Lehigh Valley Transit Co. (See Allentown, 

Lewiston, Me., Portland, Grey & Lewiston Ry.. 

Electric locomotive, *924 
Lexington, Ky., Kentucky Traction & Terminal 


Accident prevention campaign, 1043 

Combination baggage and refrigerator car, 


Libraries of engineering books for railway com- 
panies. Desirability of, 938 

Libraries, Technical, in New York City, 539 

Life of railway physical property: 

Accounting standpoint (Ingle], 1205; Dis- 
cussion, 1210 

Engineering standpoint [Bagg], 1205; Dis- 
cussion, 1210. 

(See also Accounting: Appraisal) 

Lighting of cars: 

Chicago Rys., Arch roof car, 651 

Comparison of different lamps, 865 

Tantalum lamps on Chicago Rys., year's 

test, 501 

Lightning arresters: 

Discussion, Centr 

ciation, 359 

Grounding, 861 

Inspecting, 861 

Location on cars. 

Lightning protection [Burdick], 1101 

Lignite. Briquetting of, 289 

Linemen. (See Employees) 

Little Rock (Ark.) Railway & Electric Co., 
Transportation of mail carriers aban- 
doned, 1279; Dividend, 1327 

Locomotives. Electric: 

Dessau-Bitterfeld Ry.. *1020 

Freight haulage on interurban 

[Wynne], 1103 

(G. E.) 35-ton, Woodward (Ala.) 

Works, *86 

Hoosac tunnel, 11, *8S1 

Loetschberp Ry., Single-phase. * 1 90 

Midi Ry.. France, Single-phase, *647 

Paris-Lyons-Mediterranean Ry., Use of 

permutators, *385: Comment, 381 

Portland, Grey & l ewiston Ry., *924 

Single-phase. Data on, 957 

Switching, Terre Haute, Indianapolis & 

Eastern Traction Co., *463 

Loetschberg Ry. (See Switzerland) 

London letters, 57, 250. 404, 884, 1005, 1173 

London Underground Electric Rys.: 

Advertising for traffic. *387 

Coal testing, Bertliier method, 390 

Redemption of bonds, 330 

London (Ont.) Street Ry. : 

Annual report, 62 

Stock issue, 1009 

Long Island R. R. : 

Collision, 443 

Grade crossing order, 1122 

Hearing on fares, 114 

Lookout Mountain Park, Denver Col., Funicu- 
lar electric railway, 923 
Los Angeles, Cal.: 

Franchise ordinance, 327, [Shoup], 437; 


Los Angeles Ry., Carhouse. *771 

McNamara case — responsibility of organ- 
ized labor, 1185 

Pacific Electric Ry. : 

Bond issue, 1125 

Club rooms for employees, 931 

Incorporation, 476 

Terminal station design, 938 

Uniforms, 174 

Transit conditions. Report hv B. T. Ar- 
nold, _*907, *1063; Comment, 1049 

Lost articles in street cars, and the burden 
upon the company, 483 

Louisville, Ky. : 

Crosstown railway ordinance, 1252 

Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Co.: 

Line circuit breakers, Dispatcher's 
control of, *81 

Receivership, 63, 1177 
Louisville Ry. : 

Bond sale, 256 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, 966 

Safety gates reduce accidents, 549 

Three-coupon transfer, *400 
— Louisville & Interurban R. R., 206 _ 
Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting 

Co. (See New Albany, Ind.) 
Lubrication, Raising the standard of, 519 
Lubrication experts. (See Galena-Signal Oil 




McCarter, Thomas N., *800 

McKeesport, Pa., Pittsburgh, McKeesport & 
Westmoreland Ry., Receivership, 1125 

McKinley System. (See Peoria, 111., Illinois 
Traction System) 

Macon (Ga.) Railway & Light Co.: 

Purchase, 1078 

■ Sale of securities, 1078, 1177 

Mail, Compensation for carrying: 

Report of American Electric Railway As- 
sociation, 840 
Washington conference, 360 

Mail carriers, Transportation of, abandoned at 
Little Rock, Ark., 1279 

Maintenance, Definition of, 779 

Maintenance of buildings and structures, Re- 
port of Engineering Association, "820; 
Discussion, 803; Comment, 844 

Maintenance costs of motor car equipments, 
Brooklyn, 159 

Maintenance ot rolling stock. (See Car main- 

Maintenance of way L Alderman], 42; Discus- 
sion, 53 

(See also Track construction; Way de- 

Manchester, Eng., Concessions to employees, 

Manila (P. I.) Electric Railroad & Light Co.: 

Baseball team, *837 

Dividend, 1294 

Manufacturer and the railway man, 452 
Maps : 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., 220 

Berlin rapid transit lines, 229 

Boston Elevated Ry., 1314 

Buenos Aires railways, 239 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry., 1306 

Cleveland, Package Agency, 1320 

Dessau-Bitterfeld Ry., 978 

Los Angeles, Cal., 908, 1064 

Public Service Ry., 559, 590, 591 

St. Louis to Cleveland, Trip of Illinois 

Traction office car, 395 

Southern Pacific Co., 900 

Spiez-Frutigen Ry., 644 

West Jersey & Seashore R. R., 19 

Wisconsin Electric Ry., and Eastern Wis- 
consin Railway & Light Co., 1233 

Hydroelectric development, 1249 

Legislation, 92 

Massachusetts Electric Companies. (See Bos- 

Massachusetts Northern Railways organized, 

Massachusetts Railroad Commission: 

Express plans of Boston Elevated Ry., 

Hearing on, 1163 
Fare hearing, Middlesex & Boston Street 

Ry., 120 

Fare hearing, Taunton & Pawtueket Street 

Ry., 152 

Fender and wheelguard tests, 549, 919 

Fenders, Hearing on, 1168 

List of street railways with bonds eligible 

for savings bank investments, 1326 

Maynard, Mass., Concord, Maynard & Hudson 
Street Ivy., Stock issue and consolida- 
tion, 134 

Merit systems. (See Employees) 

Merrimac, Mass., Haverhill & Amesbury Street 
Ry., Stock and bond issue, 511 

Meters, Car: 

Cape Town, 880 

Energy saving due to, Croydon Tramways, 


Experiments in England [CunliffeL 658: 

Comment, 642 
Meters, Coal, *781 
Meters, Steam flow, *781 

Metropolitan Street Ry. (See Kansas City; 

New York City) 
.Mexico City, Mex., Strike, 132 
Michigan City, Ind., Chicago, Lake Shore & 

South Bend Ry., Improvements, 123 
Michigan United Rys. (See Jackson, Mich.) 
Middlesex & Boston Ry. (See Newtonville, 

Midi Ry. (See France) 
-Milwaukee, Wis.: 

-Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co.: 

Bond issue, 1042, 1125 

Cars, Pay-within, 297, 477 

Fare case, Interest of employees in, 


Fuse-testing clips, 527 

Gasoline line car, *770 

Near-side stops, 431 

Oil tank car, *538 

Printing shop, 1023 

Reorganization plan, 1037 

Shelter stations, *540 

Sprinkling cars, *289 
Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Co., 

Comparative data tor alternating and 

direct-current lines [Rau and Mullett], 

*1138; Comment, 1135 
-Valuation of railway property by Railroad 

Commission, 160; Comment, 143 
Minneapolis, Minn.: 

Minneapolis Street Ry., Car capacity cases, 


Twin City Rapid Transit Co., Stops and 

transfers, 1219 




Mississippi Yallev Interurban Ry. (See 

Springfield, 111.} 
Mitten, T. E., Resignation from Chicago City 

Ry., 1232 

Mobile (Ala.) Light & R. R. Co., Storeroom 
accounting methods [Glover], *423 

Montgomery County Rapid Transit Co. (See 
Norristown, Pa.) 

Montgomery Traction Co. (See Easton, Pa.) 

Montreal (Que.) Street Rv. : 

Annual report, 1009. 1040 

Merger, 964, 1078 

Purchase, 547 

Transfer of property, 928 

Motormen. (See Employees) 

Motors, Electric: 

— ■ — Capacity of, for trailer operation, 939 

Chicago Rys., Arch roof car, 653 

Deri motor on Martigny single-phase rail- 
way, *235 

Effect of unequal v\heel diameter, 863 

Interpole, Discussion by German engi- 
neers, 997 ' 

Interpole, for light service (Westinghouse), 


Maintenance costs of Brooklyn Rapid 

Transit Co., 159 

Problem of old motors, 521 

Public Service Ry., 604 

Reduction of weight, 857 

— Shop motors, direct-connected, at Salt Lake 

City, 958; Comment, 898 

Single-phase traction [Kummer], 1151 

Spiez-Frutigen Ry., *646 

Statistics of manufacture, 427 

(Westinghouse) interpole direct-current, 

type SK, *245 
Multiple-unit control: 

—Public Service Ry.. "607, *660 
-Train operation for city and suburban 

travel [Franklin), 839; Discussion, 809 

Trains in city service, 975 

Trains, Multiple-unit vs. trailer operation 

[Renshaw], 350: Discussion, 359 

(See also Train operation) 

Municipal ownership: 
Detroit, 204 

Financial results in Great Britain [Rod- 

gers], 661 

San Francisco project, 293, 365, 1007 

Toledo Mayor on, 203 

Winnipeg, 205, 254 

Muskogee, Okla.. Storage-battery cars (Fed- 
eral), *324 


Napa, Cal.: 

San Francisco, Napa & Calistoga Ry., In- 
corporation, 1125 

San Francisco. Yallejo & Napa Valley 

Rv.. Suit for receiver. 408: Sale, 476. 

Nashville (Tenn.) Raihvay & Light Co.. An- 
nual report, 294 

National Association of Railway Commission- 
ers. Convention, 920; Reports. 1026; 
Comment, 1018 

National Civic Federation: 

Conference on uniform public utility legis- 
lation, 60 

Report on regulation of interstate and 

municipal utilities, 320 
National Electric Light Association: 
Joint use of poles, standard form of agree- 
ment, Comment, 144 

Membership plan r Duffy], c 85 

National Light & Power Co. (See St. Louis, 

National Municipal League. Plan for model 

franchise, 1281 
Near-side stops. (See Stopping of cars) 
Nebraska, Depreciation rules in, 973, 990 
Nevada Countv Traction Co. (See Grass Val- 
ley, Cal.) 

New Albany, Ind.. Louisville S: Northern 

Railway & Lighting Co.: 

Accident campaign, 550 

Track service. 966, 1011 

New England Investment S; Security Co. (See 

Springfield, Mass.) 
New England Power Co.. Developments in 

the Shelburne Falls district. 1249 
New England Street Railway Club: 

August outing, 431 

November meeting. 1191 

New Hampshire Traction Co. (See Haverhill. 


New Haven. Connecticut Co.: 

Car steps, Lower, 966. 1011 

Carhouse at Bridgeport. Conn., * 146 

Catenary experiences with six different 

types of construction. *1052: Com- 
ment. 1051 

Fare hearing. 1033. 1080 

C.ns leases. 1256 

New Tersev Public Utility Commission- 

T-Tenrinff on rommutation rates, 443 

Hearings on fares and transfers. 174, 207. 

209. 1117, 1323 
Hearing on f-stei" of accounts for all 

nti'ities. 1206. 1250 
Rate' for gas and electricity. Address on 

rMcCarter], 535 
New Orleans: . . 
American Cities Co.. Organization, 94, 255 

New Orleans: (Continued) 

American Cities Railway & Light Co. : 

Dividend, 63 

Sale, to American Cities Co., 94 

New Orleans Railway & Light Co., Merger 

with American Cities Railway & Light 
Co., 62 

New South Wales Government Railways and 

Annual report, 1177 

Car, Standard, *13 

Improvements in Sydney, "1146 

New York Central & Hudson River R. R. : 

Acquiring of stock of New York & Har- 
lem R. R., 1294 

New York waterfront tracks underground, 


New York City: 

Accident prevention campaign, 967 

Accidents in May, 257 

American Light & Traction Co., Earn 

ings, 134 

Brakes, Power, Hearings, 131, 196, 503 

[Connette], c 919: 960, 1007, 1096 

-Car steps. Height of. Hearing on, 196, 503 

Central Park, North and East River R. R.. 

Foreclosure and sale, 1293 

City Island R. R., Receivership, 1256 

Electric Properties Co., Annual report, 63 

Federal Light & Traction Co., Acquisitions, 


Forty-second Street, Manhattanville & St. 

Nicholas Avenue R. R.. Sale, 295, 1294 

Freight terminal plans, 1216 

Heating and ventilating cars, Hearing on, 


Hudson & Manhattan R. R.: 

Fare increase, 1094, 1113, 1134, 1265, 

Forced draft system in power station, 

Newark extension. Steel cars, *274; 

Notes. 1093 
Traffic promotion work, *1090 
Tunnel traffic statistics, 1090 
Tunnels [Davies], 789 

Interborough-Metropolitan Co.. Exchange 

of stock. 63 

Tnterborough Rapid Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 473: Comment. 451 
Bond issue, 511, 547. 1293 
Comparison of operations with Brook- 

lvn system, 643 
Couplers, Automatic car and air. for 

loii" trains. *1003 
Depreciation accounts. 280 
D'vhlend increase. 441 
Fiev-'ed : 

Eight car trains. Hearings on. 914, 

Hearing on improvements. 542 
Sprinkler svstem in open vard. 

Employees receive Christmas money. 

Interl orough Bulletin. 513 

Policy of bet'erments 472 

Propnsa 1 to build new subwavs. 5"8. 

1 45, 167. 218 
Subway : 

Passenger traffic, 1010 
Side doors on local trains. Hear- 
ing on, 320 
Ventilating fans in cars, 257 

Libraries. Technical. 539 

Manhattan Bridge Three-Cent Line. Bond 

issue, 256 

Metropolitan Street Ry. : 

Brief of Guaranty Trust Co. filed. 

Car equipment instruction book. 166 
Findings of special master, 441 
Payment of claims, 1257 
Receivership matters. 256. 1324 
Reorganization. Cost of reproduction 
and present value of physical 
property, 240. 1078. 1165 
Sale. 511 

Pennsvlvania R. P.. New York tunne 1 ex- 

' tension electrical features [Gibbs]. 
Discussion, 918 

Public Service Commission: 

Brakes, Hearings n. 131. 196. 503. 

960. 1007. 1096 
Brooklvn transfers. Hearings on, 208 
Budget exhibit, *947 
Car" steps. He ; ght of. Hearings on. 
131. 196 

Con^v Island fares, Hearings on. 174. 

198; Comment, 181 
Fight-car elevated trains. Hearings on. 

^42. 914, 999 
Heating and ventilating cars, Hearing 

on, 1239 

Toint rates ard through routes, 96. 

103, 121, 279. 310: Comment. 266 
Long Island R. R.. Hearing on fares 

of. 114 

Review of work of four vears. 1288 
Side doors for local subway trains. 

Hearing on. 320 
Transfers. Hearings on. 96, 103. 121. 

266. 279 310. 399. 468. 500. 957. 

999. 1096. 1168, 1242 

Rapid transit conditions 90, 129, 203, 365, 


Republic Railway & Light Co., 62. 94. 1/2. 

678 . . . ... „ 

Rowdvicvn and the "strong-arm brigades. 


New York City: (Continued) 

Second Avenue R. R. : 

Instruction methods, *237; Comment, 

Receivers' certificates, 678 

Steinway tunnel, 507, 546, 962, 1289 

Subways, New: 

Proposal of Brooklyn Rapid Transit 

Co., 58, 75, 167, 218 
Proposal of Interborough Rapid Tran- 
sit Co., 58, 145, 167, 218 
Rea, of Pennsylvania R. R., counsels 

caution, 292 
Supreme Court refuses to restrain 
work, 326 

Terms of the proposals to build, 218 
Work begun, 253, 1251 

Susquehanna Raihvay, Light & Power Co., 

Dividend, 1327 

Third Avenue R. R. : 

Brake tests, Hand and air brakes, 

543; [Stowe], clll8 
Coasting clock savings, 1322 
Gasoline electric car, Operating and 

transportation statistics, 490; 

Comment, 484 
Reorganization, 73, 548, 1112, 1165; 

1324; Comment, 1087 
Storage battery cars, * 128 
Third Avenue Bridge Co., 1257 

Transfers, Hearings on, 96, 103, 121, 266, 

279, 310, 399, 468, 500, 957, 999, 1096, 
1168, 1216 

Twenty-eighth & Twenty-ninth Streets 

Crosstown Ry., Reorganization, 135, 
548, 1178, 1257, 1292 

Union Rv., Transfer, Multiple coupon, 


New York Edison Co., 20,000 kw turbo-gen- 
erator, 1034 
New York & Long Island Traction Co., Fare 

reduction, 1011 
New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. : 

Annual report, 887 

Electrification at Boston, Protest, 59 

Statement by C. S. Mellen, 506 

New York & North Shore Traction Co. (See 

Roslyn, N. Y.) 
New York Railroad Club, Tool steel [Sulli- 
van], 1062 
New York State, Legislation, 92, 169 
New York State Public Service Commission: 
Hearing on proposal of Buffalo corpora- 
tion. 431 

Hearing on reorganization of International 

Traction Co., of Buffalo, 910; Arnold 

report, 911 

Order to stencil and number poles, 1144, 


Report on transit conditions in Syra- 
cuse, 428 

New York State Rys. (See Rochester, N. Y.) 
New York State Street Railway Association: 
Accident prevention [McDougall], 1204; 

Discussion, 1209 

Air brake developments [Turner], *35 

Annual convention, Entertainments and 

banquet, 48; Proceedings, 51 
Committee on joint use of poles, report, 

*46, 1208; Discussion, 52; Comment. 


Committee on passenger traffic, Report, 

1240; Discussion, 1211 
December meeting, 1207; Papers, 1201; 

Comment, 1186: Banquet, 1211 
Edison-Beach storage battery car [Beach], 


Gasoline-electric cars [Potter], 41 

Life of railway physical property [Ingle], 

1205: [Bagg], 1205; Discussion, 1207 
. Maintenance of way matters [Aldermanl. 


Pay-as you-enter cars: 

Advantages [Casey], 1201; Discussion, 

Operation, in Syracuse [Duffy]. 1202: 
Discussion. 1207 

President's address TPardeel, 40 

Reduction of car failures [Barnes], *34 

Report of committee on center-bearing rail 

law, 52 

Report of committee on interurban rules, 

51, 53 

Single-end vs. double end car operation 

rHVksl. 45 

Tariffs [Colt], 33 

New York. Westchester & Boston Ry. : 

Tlond issue, 256 

C.irs. steel. *670 

Progress. 204 

Telephone train-disnatching system. 668 

New Zealand street railways, 868 

Nrwavk, N. J.: _ ' _ 

T.ife of railway nhysical property [Qugle]. 

Pub'''- Service Corporation: 

Gas and electric ra f es [McCarter], 535 

Notes. Payment of. 441 

Office building, * 5 72 

Organization and development, 566 
Public Service Flectric Co., Power gen- 
eration and distribution, *589 
Public Service Rv.: 

Accident claim department. 636 

Accounting department, *627 

Capitalization. 570 

Carhouses. *587 

Cars. *603 

Family tree, showing lines that were 
merged. 568 

July — December, igi i .] 



Newark, N. J.: 

Public Service Ry. : (Continued) 

Fares and transters, Hearing on, 174, 

Ferries, *556, 557, 586 
General description, "555 
Map of system, 559 
Mileage m large cities, 557 
Multiple-unit train, Wiring of, *660 
Officers, 571 

Overhead construction, *594 
Parks, *560 

Passengers carried, 1904-1910, 556 
Publicity department, 571 
Purchasing and storeroom depart- 
ments, *623 
Revenues and expenses, 569 
Rolling stock maintenance, *608' 
Schedules, 561 
Signals, *602 

Social activities of employees, * 1 53 ; 

Comment, 144 
Terminals, *586 
Track construction, *583 
Traffic conditions, 557 
Transfers, Order of Commission, 174, 


Transportation department, 614 

Wage increase, 1296 

Wagon elevators, *556, 583 

Way department, *576 
-Rapid Transit Line. (See New York City, 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R.) 
Newburgh, N. Y., Orange County Traction 

Co., Bond issue, 135 
Newspaper service, Aurora. Elgin & Chicago 

R. R., 227 
Newton, Mass.. Fender tests, 919 
Newtonville, Mass., Middlesex & Roston 

Street Ry. : 

Bond issue, 511, 1327 

Fare hearing, 120 

Noise reduction on Chicago elevated loop by 
novel track construction, 469 

Norristown, Pa., Montgomery County Rapid 
Transit Co., Sale, 547, 1218 

North Adams, Mass., Boston & Maine R. R.. 
Hoosac tunnel electrification: 

General description. *6; Comment. 1 

Locomotives, 11. *881 

Power station and transmission line. *454 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. (See 

Akron, Ohio) 
Northern Texas Traction Co. (See Fort 

Worth, Tex.) 
Norway, Electrification studies, 659 
Norwich (Conn.) & Westerly Ry., Sale. 63, 


No-seat. (See Fares) 


Oakland, Cal.: 

Key Route basin improvements, 439 

Oakland Rys., Note issue, 888 

San Francisco, Oakland & San Jose Con- 
solidated Ry.: 
Power plant extension on San Fran- 
cisco Bay, *846 
Prepayment cars, * 1 62 

— ; — Southern Pacific Co., Overhead construc- 
tion, '900, *940; Comment, 898. 1019 

Ocean Shore R. R. (See San Francisco) 

Ohio Electric Ry. (See Cincinnati, Ohio) 

Ohio Public Service Commission. Turisiliclion 
of, 471 ' 

Ohio tax values, 253, 545 

Ohio Valley Electric Rv. (See Huntington, 

W. Va.) 
Ohmmeter (Queen), *325 
Oil engines: 

Comparison with steam turbine [Dreyfus]. 


Crude-oil engines. Diesel tvpe (Atlas'), 


Oil tank car. Milwaukee, *538 
Oklahoma City, Okla.: 

Oklahoma Ry. Terminal Arcade [Mar- 
tin],' *486 

— -Oklahoma (Okla.) City Traction Co., Sin 
gle-truck arch-roof cars, *924 

Oklahoma Gas, Electric and Railway Associa- 
tion, 914 

Old Colony Street Ry. (See Boston, Bav 
State Street Ry. : Boston & Northern") 

Olean, N. Y., Western New York & Pennsyl- 
vania Traction Co.. Field testing de 
vice, 124 

Omaha (Neb.) & Council Bluffs Ry. : 

Bond issue, 94 

Fare decision, 751 

Increase in wages. 1258, 1298 

Oneida (N. Y.) Rv., Freight and express traf- 
fic, 282 

Oneonta. N. Y., Otsego & Herkimer R. R.. 

Freight and express traffic, 282 
Orange Countv Traction Co. (See Newburgh. 

N. Y.) 

Order holder. Illuminated, Aurora, Elgin X 

Chicago R. R., 309. *310 
Orders. fSee Train orders) 
Organization diagrams: 

Claim department. Public Service Ry., 636 

r ine d"nartment. Public Service Rv., 594 

Mcch-inical department. Public Service 

Rv.. 608 

Transportation department, Public Service 

Ry.. 614 

Organization diagrams: (Continued) 

Way department, Public Service Ry., 576 

Organization of electric division, West Jersey 
& Seashore R. R., 21 

Oshkosh, Wis., Wisconsin Electric Ry., Fare 
increase, 1233; Comment, 1226 

Oskaloosa (la.) Traction & Light Co., 1009 

Otsego & Herkimer K. R. (See Oneonta, 
N. Y.) 

Overhead construction: 

Anchoring trolley wire, 860 

Brackets, Coating of, 126b 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry., "1308 

Connecticut Co.. D. C. catenary experi 

ences, "1052; Comment, 1051 

Crossing of 11,000-volt and 600-volt wires. 

North Adams, Mass., *11 

Dessau-Bitterfeld Ry., *978, *1 145 

Discussion at International Electrical Con- 
gress at Turin, 1151 

[Heyden], Discussion, 30 

Hoosac tunnel electrification, *6, *454 

Painting cross-arms, 859 

Public Service Ry., *594 

Pulling off curves, 859 

Southern Pacific Co., *900, *940; Com- 
ment, 898 

Standard specifications, 704; Comment, 759 

Standardization [ Sch'essinger] , 347; Dis- 
cussion, 359 

Voltage drop limits and measurements, 860 

(See also Catenary construction: Trolley) 

Owl service: 

Boston, 1043 

Chattanooga. Tenn., 1258 

Buluth-Superior Traction Co., 549 

Philadelphia, 137, 409 » 

Portland, Ore., 1081 

■ San Francisco, 1080 

Waterloo, la., 1258 


Pacific Electric Ry. (See Los Angeles, Cal.) 
Package Agency, Electric, at Cleveland, 1320 
Painting of buildings and structures, Report of 

Engineering Association, *825 
Painting of cars: 

Chicago Rvs., 652 

[Copp], 1191 

Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 1114 

Paris-Lyons-Mediterranean Ry.. Electric loco- 
motive with permutators, *385; Com- 
ment, 381 

Parks of Public Service Ry., *560 

Parlor car service: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., 227 

Illinois Traction System, *522; Comment, 


Passenger record made by tabulating device, 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., *1269 

Patchogue, L. I., Suffolk Traction Co., Storage-, 
battery cars, *24 5 

Paving : 

Alongside of track, 862 

Creosoted wood, in Chicago, 161 

Public Service Ry., *5S4 

Pay-roll forms. Public Service Ry., 633 

Peak loads on electric railways in industrial 

communities, 1227 
Pen Argyl, Pa., Slate Belt Electric Street Rv . 


Pennsylvania-Jersey Traction Co. (See East on, 

Pennsylvania R. R., New-ark extension. (See 
New York City, Hudson & Manhattan 
R. R.) 

Pennsylvania Street Railway Association, Con 

vention, *123S 
Peoria, 111., Illinois Traction System: 

Accounting methods, 1S4 

Advertising matter [BuffeJ, 495 

Annual report for 1910, Comment on, 485 

-Block signals. Operating results, 398. 1287 

Cars, *76, 706 

Couplers, M. C. B„ *116 

Inspection tour by railway men, 100(1 

Merit system, 430 

Parlor-car service, *522; Comment, 521 

Passenser station at St. Louis, *656 


Along right-of-way, 500 

Terminal electric, at St. Louis, 478 

Sleeping-car service, "522 

Trip of office car from St. Louis to Cleve 

land, 321, 358, *395 

Venice power station, * 1 06 

Perniutator locomotive. (See Locomotives, 


American Railways Co. : 

Annual report, 677 

Bond issue, 172, 367, 1177, 1326 

Rapid Transit Co.: 

Accident prevention campaign, 273 

Accident statistics, 442 

Annual meeting, 510 

Annual report, 170 

Car steps lower, 966 


Near-side, 164, *91 5, 1213. 1 23 _' 
1275; Comment, 899 

Steel, for elevated lines, *960 
Co-operative wage plan and arbitration 

scheme, Proposed, 393, 1329; 

Comment, 378 
Earnings for Tuly, November and five 

months. 407, 1326 

Philadelphia : 

Rapid Transit Co.: (Continued) 

Owl service on elevated lines, 137. 

Trucks : 

(Baldwin) single-motor, *666 
Halsey, '201, *857 
Wheel-guards, 409, 1043 
— Tien ton, Bristol & Philadelphia Street Ry,, 
Strike, 927 

Union Traction Co., Annual meeting, 510 

Philadelphia Co. (See Pittsburgh, Pa.) 
Pine Bluff, Ark., Citizens Light & Transit Co., 


Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., 307 

Cloth (G. E.), 672 

Standard taper for, 850; Discussion, 867 

Piping installations. Improving drawings of, 

Pittsburgh, Pa.: 

Philadelphia Co., Bond matters, 256, 1078 

Pittsburgh Rys., Electric welding, 1059 

Pittsburgh, McKeesport it Westmoreland 

ivy. (See McKeesport, Pa.) 

Power brake ordinance, 169, 204 

Subway report, 129U 

West Penn Traction Co., Purchase, 135 

Pittstield, Mass., Berkshire Street Ry. : 

Ejectment case, 1282 

Stock issue, 547, 964 

Platforms, (See Car platforms) 
Point Shirley Street Ry. (See WiuUirop, 

Pole-preserving machine ( li. & E.), *544 
Poles : 

Concrete and cedar, Comparative cost, 

704; Discussion, 699 

Joint use oi, Report of New York Stale 

Street Railway Association, *46, 1208; 
Discussion, 52; Comment, 144 

Joint use of, Standard form of agree- 
ment, 144 

— —Numbering and stenciling of, in New York 
State, 1144, 1249 

Purchases in 1910, Census report, 537 

Reinforcing of, by Indiana Union Trac- 
tion Co., 468 

-Tubular, Public Service Ry., *600 

Portland (Me.) it Brunswick Street Ry. (See 
Freeport, Me.) 

Portland (Me.) Grey & Lewiston Ry. (See 
Lewiston, Me.) 

Portland (Ore.) Railway, Light & Power Co.: 

Building, for warehouse and clubhouse, 

319, 331 

Fare decision, 1126 

Franchise application, 1007, 1252 

Owl service, 1081 

Power plant, 865 

Publicity campaign, 59 

Transfers used to secure co-operation ol 

passengers, 408 
Two-car train operation [Franklin], 839; 

Discussion, 809 
Porto Rico Rys., Dividend, 547 
Pottsville, Pa., Wage increase, 65 
Power, Rural sale of, Uirora, Elgin & Chica 

go R. R., 310 
Power consumption: 

Interurban cars, Detroit United Ry., "I094;. 

Illinois Traction System, *522 

City and interurban cars, Wisconsin Rail 

road Commission's investigation, 195 

Saving in, by use of coasting time record- 
ers, Tests on Chicago Rys., *1192; 
Comment, 1186 

Single-phase cars with trailers, Mil wan 

kee, 1144 

Power distribution: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., *270 

Report of American Electric Railway En 

gineering Association, 704; Discus 

sion, 698; Comment, 759 
Power station practice: 

Boilers, Efficiency of large sizes, 1213, 

Comment, 1187 

Burning coal wet, 863 

— —Cleaning air for ventilation, 863 

—Drawings of piping, Improving, 1137 

Fire protection methods, *640 

Forced draft system, Hudson & Man hat 

tan R. R., 1283 

Improving old plants, 380 

Load dispatching, Public Service Ry., 593 

Load' distribution, Boston Elevated Rv., 


Prime movers for central stations [Drey- 
fus], *657 

Report of American Electric Railway En- 
gineering Association, *7S1; Discus 
sion, 768; Comment, 760, 798 

Power stations: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., *268 

Lighting business, 309 

Berne, Switzerland, 18 

Boston Elevated Ry., *1315 

Denver City Tramway Co., Extensions. 


Dessau-Bitterfeld Ry., *978 

Hoosac Tunnel electrification, *454 

New South Wales Tramways, at Ultimo 


Output and cost, West Jersey & Seashore 

R. R. I Wood], 20 
Portland Railway, Light & Power Co 


Providence, R. I., Rhode Island Co. 

[Bronsdonl, *488, inset 




Power stations: (Continued) 

Public Service Electric Co., *5S9 

Salt Lake City, *985 

— San Francisco, Oakland & San Jose Con- 
solidated Ry., Extensions, *'84b 

Venice, 111., Illinois Traction System. 


Worcester Consolidated Street Ry., "342 

Power transmission, High tension, Comment 

on papers of A. I. E. E., 182 
Preservative treatment. (See Timber preser- 

Prime movers for central stations [Dreyfus], 


(See also Power stations) 

Printing shop, Milwaukee Electric Railway X 

Light Co., 1023 
Providence, R. I. : 

— ■ — Investigation of surface railway condi- 
tions, Arnold report, 315 

Rhode Island Co.: 

Fare collection and registration, 1321 
Power plant extension [Bronsdon], 
*488, inset 
Prussian-Hessian State Ry.: 

Laying 60,000-voIt cable, *1097 

Reasons for choice of 16% cycles, 1025 

— ■ — (See also Dessau-Bitterfeld Ry.) 
Public relations: 

American Electric Railway Association re- 
port, 812 

Functions of the engineer, 217 

Portland, Ore., 59 

Publicity for electric railways, 845 

Public service commissions, Regulation of capi- 
talization, 1027 

(See also names of states) 

Public Service Company of Northern Illinois. 
(See Chicago) 

Public Service Corporation of JSlew Jersey. 
(See Newark, _N. J.) 

Public service corporations: 

Federal control. Report of American Elec- 
tric Railway Association, 812 

Gas and electric rates [McCarter], 535 

Going value of public utilities IFowleJ, 


International Municipal Congress, Discus- 
sion of public utilities, 541 
— —Regulation by commission [Brady], 724; 


Report of National Civic Federation on 

regulation, 320 
■ State control [McGovern], 497; Comment, 

Publicity : 

— ■ — Advantages [Van Zandt], 25 

[Arkwright], 729 

[Brady], 726; Comments, 7.17, 845 

Factor in electric railroading [Rockwell], 


[McGraw], 727 

Publicity departments: 

Public Service Corporation, 571 

Work of [Breckinridge], 494; [Bufife], 


Puebla (Mex.) Tramway, Light & Power Co., 

Bond issue, 256 
Pueblo, Col.: 

Arkansas Yallev Railway, Light & Power 

Co., Incorporation, 1181, 1218 

Pueblo & Suburban Traction & Lighting 

Co., Control, 63 

Puget Sound Electric Ry. (See Tacoma, 

Purchasing department, Public Service Rv . 


Quarry of Public Service Ry., * 58 1 
Quebec Railway, Light & Power Co., 929, 1327 
Question box. (See American Electric Rail- 
way Engineering Association) 


Rail benders: 

Portable ( Watson- Stillman), *581 

Stationary (Long & Allstatter), *581 

Rail bonding, Inspection and tests, 862 
Rail bonds, Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R.. 

Rail corrugation, New theorv of cause of 
[Pellissier], *528, c'701; Comment, 

Rail grinder (Kerwin-Detroit) , *322, *581 
Rail grinding. Cost of, 862 
Rail joints. Public Service Ry., *584 
Railroad Securities Commission, Report of, 

1246; Comment. 1225. 1267 
Railroad with spiral shaft for subways. Pro- 
posed, 492 


Center-bearing rail law in New York State, 


Nickel-steel, in Rochester, 801 

Production of, in 1910, 394 

Report of Engineering Association, 828; 

Discussion. 805 
Romapac, in Chicago and elsewhere, *505, 


Railway & Light Securities Co. (See Boston) 
Railway Signal Association, Convention, 848, 

1001; Signaling committee, 1321 
Ramp for car platforms, Kansas City, Mo., 


Rates, Electric railway. (See Fares: Through 
routes and joint rates) 

Rates, Gas and electric [McCarter], 535 

Reactance for track circuit, Automatic (G. R. 
S. Co.), *1120 

Record forms. (See Blanks and forms.) 

Registers, Coin, for prepayment cars (Inter- 
national), *671 

Repair shop practice: 

Armature shaft welding, 377, *338, 

[Cuntz], c*504 

Car failure records, 379 

Car horse, Denver, *422 

— ■ — Chuck for boring bearings, *160 

Control equipment, Overhauling, 1087 

Field coil repair economy, 286 

— — Fire hazards in old shops, Decreasing, 416 

Gear fit pressures, 864 

Inspection methods [Barnes], *34 

— Minor conveniences in the shop, 453 

Motors, Direct-connected, at Salt Lake 

City, 958; Comment, 898 
■ Piecework svstem. Public Service Ry., 


Removing steel wheels, 865 

Removing trucks from cars, 863 

Snow-melter, South Bend., Ind., 422 

Stock distribution in carhouses, 105 

Tool steel, Treatment of [Sullivan], 1062 

Welding broken armature shafts without 

removal, San Francisco, *388; Com- 
ment. 377 

Welding. Electric. Pittsburgh Rys., 1059 

Repair shops: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R„ *307 

Boston & Maine R. R., Hoosac tunnel, 12 

Bridgeport, Conn.. * 1 46 

— — Ottawa, 111., *1312 

Public Service Ry., *608 

Rockford, 111., *382 

Republic Railway & Light Co. (See New York 

Restaurants. (See Employees) 

Return-circuit system. Public Service Rv., *596 

Rheostat. Water. 2000-kw. Salt Lake City 

power station, 989 
Rhode Island Co. (See Providence, R. I.) 
Rhoetian Ry.. Swit7erland, Electrification. 31 
Richmond. Va. : 

Richmond & Henrico Electric Ry. : 

Single-motor truck (Baldwin), *666 

Suits against, 330 
Virginia Railway & Power Co.: 

Annual report, 1076 

Award of arbitrators on joint use of 
track, 158 

Dividend. 678 

Merger with Norfolk & Portsmouth 

Traction Co.. 64 
Purchases. 408 

Reduced insurance rates, 998 
Sale of Seven Pines line, 1257 

Rio de Janeiro Tramway. Light & Power Co., 
Increase of capital. 1257 

Riverside Traction Co. (See Camden, N. J.) 

Rochester. N. Y. : 

— — Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry., Fare 
complaint dismissed, 512 

New York State Rys.: 

Agreement with employees, 1329 
Complaint department. New-. 1272; 

Comment. 1266 
Freight and exnress traffic. *281 
Nickel-steel rails. 801 
Single-end vs. double-end car opera- 
tion [Hicksl. 45 
Stock issue, 1327 

Rochester Railway & Light Co., Bond is- 
sue, 1078 

Rochester. Syracuse &• Eastern R. R. (See 

Syracuse, N. Y.) 
Rockford (111.) & Tnterurban Ry. : 

Aviation meet. 363 

Fare reduction. 96 

Repair <diops. *382 

Rome (Ga.) Railway & Light Co., Dividend, 


Roof. (See Car roof) 

Roof covering for repair c hons. Milwaukee. 825 
Roslyn, N. Y.. New York & North Shore Trac- 
tion Co., Issue of stocks and bonds. 

Rowdyism on electric cars or subwav trains, 

Rules for citv railways. Transportation & 
Traffic' Association. Report on, 788; 
Di=cus=ion, 764 

Rules for employees of way denartment.^ En- 
gineering Association report. Discus- 
sion. 806 

Rules for interurban railways: 

American Electric Railway Transportation 

& Traffic Association. Report. 753; 
Discussion, 736; Comment, 2, 760 

New York State Street Railway Associa- 

' tion, Report of committee, 51. 53 

Rural sale of power. (See Power. Rural sale 

Rush hour problem. Relation of employees 
working hours to. 1227 


St. Augustine, Fla., St. Tohns Light & Power 
Co., Sale, 511, 929. 1327 

St. Tohns Light & Power Co. (See St. Augus- 
tine. Fla.) 

St. Louis, Mo.: 

Electrification, Report of Civic Commit- 
tee. 92 

St. Louis, Mo.: (Continued) 
National Light & Power Co., Incorpora- 
tion, 965 

St. Louis & San Francisco R. R., Gas- 
electric cars, * 1 63, *287 

Terminal station, Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem, *656 

United Rys.: 

Bond issue, 295 

Electric" shovel for track trench ex- 
cavation, * 1 17 1 
Essay awards to employees, 476 
Flooring, Sanitary car, *321 
Transfer system, Report on, 1258 

Salisbury (N. C.) & Spencer Ry., 1042; Stor- 
age battery cars, 43 

Salt Lake City, Utah: 

Salt Lake & Ogden Ry., Bond issue, 678 

Utah Light & Ry. Co.: 

Motors, Direct-connected shop, 958; 

Comment, 858 

Power station, *985 

Sign for yard tracks, "956 

Wheel grinders, *873 

San Joaquin Valley Electric Ry. (See Stock- 
ton, Cal.) 

San Francisco, Cal. : 

California Midland R. R., Bond issue. 


-Municipal railway project, 293, 365, 1007 

No-seat-no-fare ordinance, 65 

Ocean Shore R. R. : 

Bond issue, 1257 

Incorporation, 1009 
San Francisco, Oakland & San Tose Ry. 

(See Oakland, Cal.) 
San Francisco, Vallejo & Napa Valley Ry. 

(See Napa, Cal.) 

United Properties Co., Improvements 438 

United R. R. : 

Owl service, 1080 

Welding broken armature shafts with- 
out removal, *388; Comment, 377 
Sand dryer, Public Service Ry., 580 
Sanded tracks in sidings for car retardation, 

Efficiency of. [Kopcke], *397 
Sao Paulo (Brazil) Tramway, Light & Power 

Co., 678 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.. Lake Superior Cor- 
poration, 888 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., International Transit 
Co., Bond sale, 441 

Savannah (Ga.) Electric Co.: 

Flat-arch roof prepayment cars, * 1 284 

Service order, 1259, 1296 


Economy in construction, 2 

Investigation of. 73 

Public Service Ry.. Newark, N. J., 561 

— — Report of Transportation & Traffic A-so- 
ciation, 835; Discussion, 808 

Setting back cars, 416 

Schenectady (N. Y.) Ry. : 

—Freight and expre c s traffic, 283 

Strike. 962 

School fares in New Tersey. 95 

School teachers. Reduced tickets for, is dis- 
crimination in New Jersey, 332 

Scientific management. (See Efficiency engi- 

Scioto YMlev Traction Co. (See Columbus, 

Scranton (Pa.) Ry., Bond sale, 1327 
Scrapers. (See Track scrapers) 
Seating capacity of cars, Computing, 851 
Seattle, Wash.: 

Municipal railroads. Bonds to be sold for, 


Seattle Electric Co., Ticket ordinance, 

1011. 1079 

Seattle. Renton & Southern Electric Ry. : 

Officers and directors, 330 

Phvsical value, 61; Sale to city, 132, 

508. 546 
Transfer decision, 408, 477 

Seattle (Wash.) Electric Club, Uses of an ap- 
praisal [Gillette], 948 

Securities. Equipment trust [Brockway], 82; 
Comment, 74 

Securities, Report on. (See Railroad Securities 

Sedalia (MoA Light S: Traction Co.: 

Bonds. 888 

Foreclosure. 135 

Set-back car problem. 416 

Shaft drive for subway trains, 492 

Shelter stations. (See Wai*in<* stations) 

Sherbrooke (Que.) Railway & Power Co.. Bond 
i=sue. 442 

Shovel, Electric, for trench excavation, St. 

Louis, *1171 
Side bearing, Anti-friction (Stucki). *362 

Aurora. Elgin St Chicago R. R.. 225 

Automatic stons. T^ocation of. *746: Com- 
ment, 717 

Block svstem: 

Ft. Dodee. Des Moines & Southern 

R. R.. 1056, 1250 
Illinois Traction Svstem, Operating 

results, 398, 1287 
Report of joint committee of Engi- 
neering and Transportation & 
Traffic Associations, 742; Dis- 
cussion, 735; Comment, 718 
Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern R. R., 

Tests in Indiana, 161 
Improvements in (Nachod), 1001 

July — December, 191 1.] 



.Signals: (Continued) 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co., 

Simmen signals, 1034 

Precautions in operation of system, 215 

Public Service Ry., *602 

Selectively operated semaphore ami tele- 
phone system (Western Electric), *85 

Track trips for signaling on interurban 

roads [ArkenburghJ, 541 

Signs, Advertising on right-of-way, Illinois 
Traction System, 500 

Signs, Car: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. II., *309 

Pliiladel[)hia near-side car, *916 

Sign, Terminal electric, St. Louis passenger 

station, 478 
Signs, Track: 

. Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry., *U09 

Illuminated, Salt Lake City, *956 

Single-phase apparatus, New parents on, 1120 
Single-phase railways: 

Dessau-Bitterfeld Ry., Power and trans- 
mission methods, 1 *978, *1097, *1145; 
Comment, 974 

lloosac tunnel, "6; Power station and 

transmission line, *454; Comment, 1; 
Locomotive, "881 

-Locomotive data, 957 

Loetschberg Ry., Switzerland, Locomotive, 


Midi Ry., Locomotives, *647 

Martigny, Switzerland, Deri motor, *235 

Single-phase versus direct-current inter 

urban lines of the Milwaukee system, 

Comparative data [Rau and Mullett], 

'1138; Comment, 1135 
■ -Single-phase versus three-phase for heavy 

electric traction [Calzolari], 1147; 

Comment, 1136 

Spiez-Frutigen Ry., *644 

Switzerland, 266 

Slate Belt Electric Street Ry. (See Pen 
Argyl, Pa.) 

Sleeping-car service, Illinois Traction System, 


Sleet shoes for third-rail, Aurora, Elgin & 

Chicago R. R., 308 
Smoke abatement in Chicago, Investigation, 


Snow melter, Home-made, South Bend. Ind.. 

Soap for car washing (Davies), 669 

South Bend. Ind., Chicago, South Bend & 

Northern Indiana Ry., Home-made 

snow melter, 422. 
Southern Pacific Co. (See Oakland, Cal.) r 
Spain, Barcelona, Statistics of railway, 425 
Special track work. (See Track construction) 
Spiez-Frutigen Ry. (See Switzerland"! 
Springfield, 111.: 

Springfield Consolidated Ry., Leases. 64 

Mississippi Vallev Interurban Ry.. Receiv- 
ership, 551, "1327 

Union Railwav, Gas & Electric Co., Bond 

sale, 408 

Springfield. Mass., New England Security & 
Investment Co., To sell holdings. 1255 
Springfield (Ohio) & Xenia Ry., Dividend. 678 
Springfield (Ohio) & Washington Ry. (See 

Washington C. H., Ohio) 
Sprinklers. (See Fire protection') 
Standard Gas & Electric Co. (See Chicago) 
Standardization : 

Central Electric Railway Association com- 
mittee, Report, *31 

Couplers considered by Engineering As- 
sociation committee. 117; Comment, 
104 ... 

Engineering Association committee. Action 

on standards. 909, 997, 1031 

Engineering Association, Report. *850; 

Discussion, 867 

Rules of procedure of committee or, stand- 
ards of the Engineering Association. 
849; Comment, 843 

Stations. Passenger. (See Terminal stations; 
Waiting stations) 


\ccidents on electric railways for year. 


Accidents, Germany. 391 

Accidents, Philadelphia, 442 

Alte'-'iatin" versus direct-current systems, 

Milwaukee. 1138 

Australian street railways, 868 

— — Barcelona, Spain, railways, 425 

Brooklyn Bridge passenger traffic. 67° 

Buenos Aires railways, 239 

Capitalization, cars and track in 1910. 

311: Comment. 303 
Cost of materials. Government bulletin, 


Detentions to train service, \\ est Jersey 

& Seashore R. R.. 20 
Earnings of different classes of properties. 

Doherty charts, 1320 
F.arnings per capita in Providence. R, I.. 


Farnings of Ohio roads. 1077 

Earnings of six Stone & Webster proper- 
ties, 1304 

Energy consumption of one and two-car 

trains, Illinois Traction System, 527 

Fares collected by surface railways in New 

York Citv. 121 

Gasoline-electric ear operating and trans- 
portation statistics. New York City. 

German street railways for 1909, 868 

Joint rate passengers in New York City, 


Statistics: (Continued) 

Locomotives. Single-phase, 957 

Manufacture of electrical machinery, 427 

Mileage, cars and capitalization for ten 

years, 314 

Mileage per day per unit of equipment, 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 1268 

New York City, Transfer data, 1243 

New Zealand street railways, 868 

Operating features of two third-rail roads, 

Comparison, 304 
Operation of cars with coasting time re- 
corders, Chicago Rys., 1194 
Paris, Metropolitan Ry., Passengers car- 
ried, 189 

Passengers carried, Hudson Tunnel, 1090 

Passenger traffic in New York subway, 


Passenger statistics of steam railroads, 


Power consumption of interurban cars, 

Detroit United Ry„ 1095 
Power consumption of single-phase cars 

with trailers, Milwaukee, 1144; Illinois 

Traction System, * 522 
Power generation and distribution, West 

Jersey & Seashore R. R-, 20 
Rail production, 394 

Revenue and transfer passengers. Public 

Service Ry., 556 

Single-deck vs. double-deck cars in Eu- 
rope [Hoogwinkel], 199 

Single-end vs. double-end car operation 

[Hicks], 45 

Single-phase locomotives, 957 

Steam railroads in 1910. 202 

Switzerland, 1144 

Tasmanian street railings, 868 

Ties purchased, Census report, 400 

Value of electric railway properties in 

Washington and Wisconsin, 365 

Value of engineering statistics on small 

systems, 974 

Vienna Tramways, 236 

Steam flow meter, *781 

Steel, Tool, Treatment of [Sullivan], 1062 

Steps. (See Car steps) 

Sterling, Dixon & Eastern Electric Ry. (See 
Dixon, 111.) 

Stock keeping. (See Storerooms) 

Stockton, Cal., San Joaquin Valley Electric 
Ry., Bond issue, 330 

Stops, Automatic train. Location of, Report of 
American Electric Railway Engineer- 
ing Association, *747: Comment. 717 

Stops of street cars: 

Near-side : 

East St. Louis, 111., 1011 
Milwaukee. 431 

Odd and even stops. Kansas City, 730 

Storage batterv cars: 

Edison-Beach [Beach]. 43: Discussion, 52 

(Federal). Muskogee, Okla.. *32< l 

Germany, 1166 

Performance of, Suffolk Traction Co.. 


Possible investigation of. 802 

Suffolk Traction Co., *245 

Third Avenue. New York, *128 


Accounting and stock keeping methods. 

Mobile Light & Railroad Co. [Glover], 


Public Service Ry., *623 

Streator, 111., Illinois Vallev Gas & Electric 
Co., Merger. 206 


Arbitration in, 267 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R.. 284. 328, 

1057: Comment. 267, 1050 
Copenhagen. 990 

Pes Mo-'nes (la.) Citv Rv.. 284, 320. 406. 

[Snyder]. *1060: Comment. 267, 1050 

Glasgow, Scotland, 378 

Mexico City, 132 

Responsibility of organized labor — the Mc- 

Namara case, 1185 

Scher.ectady Ry.. 962 

Spartanburg. S. C 676 

Texarkana, Tex., 1312 

Trenton, N. J., 168. 208 

-Trenton Bristol & Philadelphia Street Ry., 

676, 927 

\urora, Elgin & Chicago R. R.. *271 

Boston Elevated Ry.. *1317 

Brookline, "Mass.. Boston Elevated Ry., 

398 _,. 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Svstem. Thirty- 
eighth Street. * 1 228 : Comment. 1226 

Chicago. Ottawa & Peoria Ry.. "1309 

Economies in. 339 

Fire hazard in, 379 

Kansas City. Mo.. *957 

Milwaukee interurban lines. *1139, *1141, 

♦1143, 1144 

Operation [Cochran], 1099 

Operating and maintenance costs. \\ est 

Tersey & Seashore P. R. [Wood], 20 

Public Service Electric Co., *591 

Worcester Consolidated Street Ry.. *344 

Subwavs. (See names of cities) 

Suffolk Traction Co. (See Patchogue, L. I.) 

Summer problems, 104 

Surface contact railwav system. Simplex [Hip- 
pie], *1238 _ _ 

Susquehanna Railway, Light & Power Co. 
(See New York City) 

Switchboards: . . *i->m 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit substation, 123U 

Switchboards: (Continued) 

Train dispatcher's (Lafayette), * 164 

Zylonite, Mass., power station, *460 


Oil (General Electric), "1035 

Track, Los Angeles, "771 

Switzerland: „ 
Electrificalion of railways [HuberJ, Com- 
ment, 266 

Loetschberg Ry.. Single-phase locomotive, 


Martigny single-phase railway, Deri motor, 


Spiez-Frutigen Ry., Motor cars 644 

Statistics of electric railways, 1144 

Sydney, N. S. W. (See New South Wales) 

Syracuse, N. Y.: 

Rapid Transit Ry. : . _ 

Investigation by Public Service Com- 
mission, 1174 , 
Pay-as-you-enter cars, Operation ot 
[Duffy], 1202; Discussion, 120/ 
Report on transit conditions [BarnesJ, 

428 j ,„ e 

Sale of stock proposed, „ . 
Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern R. K- ■ 

Block signals, 122 

Freight and express service, 477 
Syracuse; Lake Shore & Northern R. R-- 

Fare increase, 1127 

Stock increase. 408 
Syracuse & South Bay R. R-, Fare re- 

duction, 173 

Tabulating device used in counts of Jg-gT 
gers, Brooklyn Rapid transit <~o., 

Tacoma, Wash., Discussion on medical testi- 
monv in accidents, 663 

Tacoma. Wash., Puget Sound Electric Ry. - 

Caboose car, *837 

Fares reduced, 549, 929 

Hoops for train orders, /H 

Taeonv Pa.. Frankford, Tacony & Holmesburg 
Street Ry., Roller bearings on subur- 
ban cars, 669 
Tampa, Fla. : . 

Tampa Electric Ry.: 

Dividend, 330, 1009 
Stock increase, 1257 

Tampa & Sulphur Springs Traction Co., 

Receivership. 256 . 

Tantalum lamps on cars. Results of year s ob- 
servation, Chicago Rys., 501 

Tariffs, Report of New. York State Street 
Railway Association. 1240 

(See also Fares; Through routes and joint 

Tasmania? Statistics of street railways 8 68 
Taunton (Mass.) & Pawtucket Street K>„ 

Hearing on fares, 152 
Tax values: 

Ohio, 253. 545 _ 

Wisconsin, 1215 

Taxation: . 

Governor Dix on, 13U 

Z=ReP°o'rt 2S o 3 f American Electric Railway As- 
sociation, 827 

i^WJJf in Chicago, Campaign 

against, 182, 207 
Telephone apparatus, Developments (Western 

Electric). 1284 . 
Telephone protector for outdoor service (West- 

V ern Electric), *288 . 
Telephone train dispatching. (See Dispatch- 
ing trains) 
Terminal stations and terminals: 

Chicago, Illinois Central changes, 1251 

Cleveland interurban. 506 xwarW 

—Hudson & Manhattan R. R-, Newark, 
N. I., *1093 . • . 

Oklahoma City, Okla.. Terminal Arcade 

[Martin], *486 

Problems. 938 

Public Service Ry., *S86 

Report of Engineering Association on 

buildings and structures, 820; Dis- 
cussion, 803 . 

St Louis, Illinois Traction System, 656 

(See also Waiting stations) 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction 

Co (See Indianapolis, Ind.) . 
Testing device for motor fields, Olean, N . Y.. 

Texarkana" (Tex.) Gas & Electric Co. : 

Single-truck arch-roof cars, 363 

Strike, 1312 

Texas public service corporations, Investiga- 
tion of operation, .439 

Thermostat for car heating (Consolidated), 
*669 . _ 

Third-rail clearances. Report of Engineering 
Association, *746; Discussion, 734 

Third-rail roads: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., 222, 2/2 

Comparison of operating features, 304 

Three-phase versus single-phase for heavy elec- 
tric railways [Calzolari], 1147; Com- 
ment. 1136 

Through cars. Possibilities in the operation 01, 



[Vol. XXXVI II. 

Through routes and joint rates in New York 
City, Hearings, 96, 103, 121, 266, 279, 
310, 399, 46S, 500, 957, 999, 1096, 
2 J6S 

Ticket frauds in Cleveland, 962 
Tickets : 

Louisville, Ky., 296 

— Public Service Ky., *635 

Six for 25 cents, Wilmington, Del., 1006 

Sleeping and parlor-car service, Illinois 

Traction System, *525, *527 

Workmen's hook tickets, Athol, .Mass., 409 


C ensus statistics, 400 

Creosoted, Brooklyn, 345 

Reinforced concrete (Weber), *198 

— ; — (See also Track construction) 
Timber preservation: 

Advantages of treated timber [Winslow], 

Discussion, 30 
Co-operative treatment plants, Possibilities 

of, 183 

Creosoted ties in Brooklyn, 345 

Painting cross-arms, 859 

Public Service Ry., *580 

Timetables : 

Albany Southern R. R., 123 

Report of Transportation \- Traffic Asso- 
ciation. 835; Discussioi-, 808 

Toledo : 

Municipal ownership. Mayor Whitlock on, 


— Toledo, Ann Arbor & Jackson R. R., In- 
corporation and plans, 1042, 1178 

Toledo & Indiana R. R., 'I ransfer of 

property, 95 
— Toledo Railways & Light Co.: 

Appraisal, 59, 131, 168, 253 
Fare ordinance, 507 
Fares, Investigation, 886 
Field coil repair economy, 286 
Franchise negotiations, 251, 2y2, 365, 

405, 471 [Lang], 775 
Franchise settlement proposal sub- 
mitted to city, 1247, 1288 
Rental proposal rejected, 438 
Work and line car, *1070 
Toronto, Ont. : 

Municipal lines in suburbs proposed, 91 

Toronto Street Ry, j 

Merger, 295 

Stock increase, 172, 3o7 

Subway plans, 1215. 1253 

Tower wagon. Gasoline, Milwaukee, '770 
Track, Derailing, (See Sanded tracks) 
Track construction: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., 222 

Ballast stone quarry, Public Service Ry., 


Berlin subway, 232 

Buffalo, International Ry.. 1029 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co. I Alder- 
man]. 42 

Chicago elevated loop. Noise reduction, 


Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry., *1308 

Crossover. Portable (Cleveland). *1004 

Curve elevation in paved streets, 862 

Electric shovel, St. Louis, *1171 

German report, 997 

-Great P.ritain, 738 

Protecting rails against corrosion. S62 

Public Service Ry., *583 

Report of Engineering Association, 828; 

Discussion, 805 

Sanded track, *397 

— ■ — Special work: 

Foundations, 863 

I os Angeles carhouse, *772 

Public Service Ry., *585 

• Sprinkling with oil, 863 

Statistics for 1910, 311; Comment, 303 

(See also Ties; Way department) 

Track renewals. A time "factor for. 415 
Track scrapers. Pneumatic (Root), *56 
Trackless trolleys in England, * 1 5 5 
Traffic department, Relations with accounting 

department [Neereamer], 127S 
Traffic promotion: 

Advertising posters, London Underground 

Klectric Ry„ *387 

Albany Southern R. R., *54 

— ■ —], 494 

Detroit United Ry. [Keys], 354 

Fall and winter, 377 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R., *1090 

[Xorviel], 1107 

Public Service Ry., 557 

Report of committee of American Klectric 

Railway Transportation &- Tralic As- 
sociation, 702; Discussion, 697; Com- 
ment. 685 

Tourist traffic, Stimulating. 973 

(See also Advertising) 

Trailer cars. (See Cars. Trailer; Train opera- 

Train dispatching. (See Dispatching trains) 
Train operation: 

Energy consumption. Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem, 527 

Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Western 

Traction Co., *530 
Trailer operation, Capacitv of motors for, 


Trailer operation versus multiple-unit 

trains [Rensbaw], 350: Discussion, 

Train orders. Hoops for delivering. Puget 
Sound Electric Ry.. * 1 1 4 


Albany, X. V., New form, 550 

— Discussion in England [Shepherd], 199 

— Louisville, Ky., Three-coupon transfer, 


— Multiple coupon. Union Ry.. New York, 


New Jersey order upheld, 1323 

— .\ew York City, Hearings, 96, 103, 121, 
266, 279, 310, 399, 468, 500, 957, 999, 
1096, 1168, 1216, 1242 

Portland. Ore., L T se to secure co-operation 

of passengers, 40K 

— Public Service Ry., 3t8, *628 

Report of Transportation & Traffic Asso- 
ciation, 832; Discussion, 807; Com- 
ment, 797 

— Seattle, Wash., Complications, 408, 477 

Washington, D. C, 44.t 


(General Electric) 750,000-volt testing, 


Spiez Frutiren motor cars, *646 

Statistics of manufacture, 427 

Transmission lines: 

—Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., 271 

Boston Elevated Rv., Alternating current, 

1318; Comment, 1304 
Cost of maintenance. West Jersey & Sea- 
shore R. R. | W ood], 20 

Crossing of, *945, 1088 

-Dessau-Bitterfeld Ky., *978 
Developments in the transmission of elec- 
tric power, 484 
Electric strength of air [Whitehead], Com- 
ment. 4 

High-tensicn line construction, 641 

High voltage and the fire hazard, 379 

High-voltage transmission. Papers at 

American Institute of Electrical En- 
gineers' convention, Comment, 4 

Moosac Tunnel electrification. *454 

Laying 60,000-volt cable, Prussian-Hes 

sian Street Ry., * 1097 
Problems, 182 

Public Service Electric Co., *591 

Southern Pacific Co., *900, *940 

-Span computation I Robinson], [Thomas], 

Comment, 4 

Suspension insulators [Austin], Comment, 


Worcester Consolidated Street Ry., 344 

Transportation rules am] regulations, Report 

of New York State Street Railway 

committee, 1240 
Tread. Safetv, Alundum -steel, called "Fera- 

lun." 883 
Trenton, X. L: 

-New Jersev & Pennsylvania Traction Co., 

Strike.' 168. 208 
Trenton. Bristol \- Philadelpia Street Ry. 

(See Philadelphia) 
Trenton X- Mercer County Traction Cor- 
poration : 

Fare hearing. 96. 1117, 1265 

Stock increase, 1042 

Trenton Street Ry.. P.ond sale. 54S 

Trestles. (See Bridges) 

Tri-City Railway & l ight Co. (See Daven- 
port, la.) 

Trinidad. Col., Colorado Railway. Light &• 

Power Co.. Sale. 295 
Trip of office car of Illinois Traction System 

from St. Louis to Cleveland. 321, 358, 


Trollev base: 

Milwaukee high-voltage cars. * 1 1 40 

Roller bearing (Trolley Suonlv), *166 

Trolley ear frog. Replaceable (Gilbert), 435 
Trollev ears: 

Aligning (Ohio Brass), *125 

(General Electric), *325 

Trolley harp (Ohio Brass), *125 

Trolley wire, Recommendation for standard 

grooved. 704 
Trollev wire lift device, Bridgeport carhouse, 



Chicago Rys.. Arch-roof car. 652 

Design of, Renort of Engineering Asso- 
ciation. *S56 

Gasol'ne car, Dutch West Indies. *673 

Gasoline car (R. M. C. C). *668 

(Halsey) radial. *201, *857 

Light weight. 116 

Light weight, Report of Engineering As- 
sociation, 857 
New South Wales, *15 

Newark extension cars, Hudson tunnels, 


Non-narallel axle (Warner). Kankakee, 

111., *127 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co. (Baldwin). 

single-motor. *666 

Public Service Ry., Standards, 604 

Richmond &• Henrico Electric Rv. (Bald- 
win), single-motor, *666 

Side-rod, Cincinnati, *502 

Spiez-Frutigen Rv.. *W5 

Storage-battery cars, New York, *128 

Turbines. Steam: 

Comparison with gas and oil engines 

[Dreyfus], 657 
Low-pressure. Aurora. Elgin & Chicago 

R. R., *268 
— — T ow-pressure [Fairbanks], 31 
Providence, R. I., Rhode Island Co. 

[Bronsdon]. 488 
-(Sulzer), *1 169 

Turbines, Steam: (Continued) 

(See also Power station practice) 

Twin City Traction Co. (See Dennison, Ohio) 
Twin City Rapid Transit Co. (See Minne- 


Uniforms, Pacific Electric Ry., 174 

L : nion Railway, Gas & Electric Co. (See 
Springfield, 111.) 

United Properties Company of California. 
(See San Francisco) 

United Rys. (See St. Louis) 

United Railways & Electric Co. (See Balti- 

United Rys. of San Francisco. (See San 

United Traction Co. (See Albany, N. Y..) 
Upper Hudson Electric & Railroad Co. (See 

Catskill, N. Y.) 
Utica (N. Y.) Mohawk Valley Ry.: 

Dividend, 1327 

Freight and express traffic, *282 


Vacuum cleaners, Fares for, Denver, 361 
Vallejo (Cal.) & Northern Ry., Bond issue, 

Valuations. (See Appraisal) 
Vancouver, B. C, British Columbia Electric 

[nterurban cars, *164 

Stock issue, 295 

Venice, 111.. Power station of Illinois Traction 

System, *106 
v entilation of cars: 

Chicago Rys., Arch-roof car, 651 

New York City, Hearing, 1239 

Report of Engineering Association, 853; 

Discussion, 866 
[Thorn], 115 

Ventilation of generators, Blower for (Baker), 

Viaducts. (See Bridges) 
Vienna Tramways, Annual report, 236 
Virginia Railway & Power Co. (See Rich- 
mond, Va.) 


Waco, Tex. : 

Citizens Rv., Change in management, 63 

Waco Street Ry., 172 

.Wages. (See Employees) 

Waiion elevators, Public Service Ry., *556, 


Wagons. (See Emergency repair crews; Tow- 
er wagon) 
Waiting stations: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., *223 

Chicago. Ottawa & Peoria Ry., *1307 

Combination depot and substation, Aurora, 

Elgin & Chicago R. R., *272 

Milwaukee. *540, * 1 1 40 

Oklahoma Railway [Martin], *486 

Public Service Ry., *558 

Simple design, 2 

Wheaton, 111., Aurora, Elgin & Chicago 

R. R., *1280 

(See also Terminal stations) 

Walla Walla (Wash.) Valley Ry.: 

Combination passenger car, *1001 

Officers. 295 

Washington C. H., Ohio, Springfield & Wash- 
ington Ry., Issue of stocks and bonds, 

Washington, D. C. : 

Capital Traction Co., Transfer question, 

443, 1011 

— -—Fare case before the Interstate Commerce, 

Commission, 1081 

Public utility bill, 1253, 1289 

Washington Railway & Electric Co.: 

Effect of operation on property values 
[Harries], 777 

Resignation of G. H. Harries, 690 
Washington & Rockville Ry., Bond and 

stock issues. 548 
Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Elec- 
tric Ry: 

New bonds, 207, 330 

Receivership, 1009 
Water power development in the L T nited States, 

Statistics of, 1249 
Watered stock, Merits of [Crosby], 48, 874; 

Comment, 74 
Waterloo (la.), Cedar Falls & Northern Ry. : 

Bond issue, 135 

Owl service, 1258 

Waterville (Me.) & Oakland Street Ry., 

Change of name, 1218 
Waukegan (111.), Rockport & Elgin Traction 

Co., Proposed sale. 64 
Way department: 
Public Service Ry., *576 

Should eliminate rule-of-thumb construc- 
tion, 304 

(See also Track construction) 

Weed destroying: 

Gasoline car (Lamb), *124 

lui.v — December, 191 1 .] 



Weed destroying: (Continued) 

Sprinkler on flat car, Albany Southern 

R, R., *43S 
Welding, Electric: 

-American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers, Discussion by, 1067 
Pittsburgh Rys., 1059 

Welding, Fuel oil and compressed air, of ar- 
mature shafts, without removal, San 
Francisco, *388; Comment, 377 

Welding, Thermit, Process on armature shafts 
[Cuntz], c*504 

Welfare work. (See Employees) 

West Tersey & Seashore K. R. (See Cam- 
den, N. T.) 

West Penn Traction Co. (See Pittsburgh, Pa.) 
Western New York & Pennsylvania Traction 

Co. (See Olean, N. Y.) 
Western Society of Engineers, Going value of 

public utilities TFowle], 1115 
Wheaton, 111., Passenger station of Aurora, 

Elgin & Chicago R. R., *1280 
Wheel grinder, Salt Lake City, *873 
Wheel guards: 
Philadelphia, 409, 1043 

Tests by Massachusetts Railroad Commis- 
sion, 549 


Public Service Ry., Standards, 604 

Removing steel wheels, 865 

Squealing of steel wheels, 867 

Standards proposed, Engineering Associa- 
tion, *850 

Va.) Traction ( 


Interurhan Ry., Cars, 

Wheeling (W. 

Wichita, Kan.: 
Arkansas Vallev 


— Wichita Railroad & Light Co., Bond issue. 

Willoughby, Ohio, Cleveland, l'ainesville & 

Eastern R. R. : 

Annual report, 133 

P.ond issue, 1294 

Wilmington, Del.: 

— Wilmington City Ry., Bond sale, 476 

— Wilmington & Philadelphia Traction Co., 

Ticket question. 1006 
Winnipeg, Man.: 

— Municipal ownership, 205, 254 
— Winnipeg Electric Ry. Sale, 367, 965, 
Winona (Minn.) Railway & Light Co., 

ceivership, 256, 367 
Wjnthrop, Mass., Point Shirley Street 

Gasoline car, *959 
Wire gage. Standard steel, 1034 
Wisconsin Electric Ry. (See Oshkosh, Wis.) 
Wisconsin Railroad Commission: 
Fares of Fastern Wisco-s'n Railway & 

Light Co. approved, 193 
Policies underlying commission law, and 

results accomplished IMcGovern), 

497; Comment. 483 

Trackaee agreement. Discussion of, 1094 

Wisconsin tax values, 1215 



Wood preservation. (See Timber preserva- 

Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street Ky.: 

Freight service, 1258 

Power station at Millbury, Mass., *34i 

Work cars: 

Public Service Ry., 581 

Toledo Railways & l ight Co.. Work and 

line car, *1070 
Working hours in factories. Effect of a peak 

load, 1227 

Workingmen's Compensation. (See Em- 

Yards, Fire protection, sprinkler system, ln- 
terborough Rapid Transit Co., New 
York, *277 

Yonkers (N. Y.) R. R.. Issue of receivers' 

certificates, 548 
Youngstown & Ohio River R. R. (See l ee 

tonia, Ohio) 

Zurich, Switzerland, Aluminum car panels and 
fittings, 246 


Alderman, C. A. Maintenance of way mat- 
ters, 42 

Anthony, O. E. Troubles of a baggage agent, 

Arkenburgh, W. H. Signaling with track trip 
control, 541 


Bagg, F. A. Life of railway physical prop 
ertv from the engineering standpoint, 

Baldwin, A. 1. Inclosed arc lamps for street 

car headlights, *531 
Barnes. J P. Reduction of car failures, 34 
I 'each, R H Edison-Beach storage battery 

car, 43 

Beck, E A Selection and instruction of 
trainmen in order that complete and 
intelligent accident reports may be 
obtained, 870 

Bierck, A B. Statistics of cost of electric 
operation of steam railways, 830 

Boylan, M. R. Prepayment fare accounting. 

Boynton, B. F. How can the public be edu 
cated in the prevention of accidents? 

Brady, A. W- Address, 722 
Breckinridge, Richard Traffic promotion, 494 
Brockway W. B. Equipment trust securi- 
ties, 82 

Bronsdon, M. H The power plant extension 

of the Rhode Island Company, *488 
I'uffe, F. G. Electric railway advertising, 495 
Burdick, E. J. Lightning protection, 1101 
I'.yllesby, H. M. Responsibilities of electrical 
engineers in making appraisals, 16 


Carpenter, E. C. Prevention of accidents, 872 
Casey, T. W Advantages of the pay-as-you 

enter car. 1201 
Cochran J. E. Substation operation, 1099 
Colt, R. M. Tariffs, 33 
Connette. E. G Hand brakes. c919 
Cooley. M. E Overhead charges. 877 
Copley. C. H Combined suction and pressure 

apparatus for car cleaning, "276 
Crecelius. L. 1' Purchase of bit"m'notis coal 

under b.t.u. specifications. 784 
Three-phase turbo-alternators. 782 
Crosby, O. T. Physical valuations, 874 


Dana, Edward Handling chartered car service 
in Boston, 360 
Reporting and checking car defects in 
Boston. 425 

Davies, H J. Recent legislation affecting elec 

trie railway accounting, 26 
Davies, T V. Hudson River tunnels, 789 
Porticos, C Headlights for interurhan serv- 
ice. *3-' , 9 

Duffv, C. N. Plan of membership in the N 
F. L. A.j c 85 


Duffy, J. E. Operation of pay-as-you-enter 

cars in Syracuse, 1202 
Dyer, R. A. D. C. turbo-generators largei 

than 500 kw capacity. 783 


Ploy, Henry. Depreciation as related to elec 

trical properties, 21 
Eorse, W. H., Jr. Address, 751 
Fowle, F. F. Going value of public utilities, 


franklin, C. J. Two-car train operation foi 
city and suburban travel, 839 


Gault, E. D. Accounting system for a small 

electric railway, 748 
Gillette, H. P. Uses of an appraisal, 948 
Glover, M. W. Electric railway storeroom ac- 
counting methods, *423 


llanna. J. A. The archroof, c 161 
Harries. G. II. Effect of electric railway op- 
eration on taxable citv property, 777 
Harvie, W. I. Address, 691 
Henry, C. L. The interurhan, 739 
Hicks, H. E. Single-end vs. double-end car 
operation, 45 


Ingle, W. O. Life of railway physical prop- 
erty from the accounting standpoinl, 


I'.hnson, F. W. Accident work of the future. 

Humane side of accident work, 1029 


Keys, J. F. Traffic, 354 


Lang, A. E. Toledo street railway situation. 


McDougall. R. E. Prevention of accidents, 

1204 , c , 

Martin, H. C. Electric terminal arcade of the 

Oklahoma Railway Company. *48fi 
Mason S C Test of couplers at Indianapolis. 


Mullen. Tl. V (See Ran, O. M.) 


Norviel. F. D. Traffic, 1107 


Page, H. C. Address, 692 
Pardee, J. H. Address, 40 

Parham, E. C. Simplified controller diagrams. 

Pellissier, G. E. A new theory of the cause 
of rail corrugation, *528, c 701 

Pierce, D. .T. Measures for welfare of em- 
ployees, 773 

Potter. W. P>. Gas-electric motor cars, 41 


Kau, O. M., and H. A. Mullen. Alternating 
and direct-current interurhan lines of 
the Milwaukee system, "1138 

Kenshaw, Clarence. Trailer operation versus 
multiple-unit trains, 350 

Rockwell, J. J. Publicity as a factor in elec- 
tric railroading, 1105 

Rogers, C. M. Detroit testing laboratory. *3 45 


Schade, T. C. Little things that count, 353 
Schlessinger, A. Overhead standardization. 

Snyder, C. L. Strike siege in Des Moines, 

Iowa, *1060 
Staats, H. N. Insurance, 356 
Stott. H. G. Developments in the generatior 

of steam. 1910-1 Q U, *781 
S|o'.>e, T. A. Brake tests in New York, c 1118 


Turner, W. V. Steps in the solution of the 
problem of adequately controlling 
electrically propelled vehicles, 35 


Van Zandt, A. D. B. Let the public know. 2S 


Walsh, E. P. Selection and instruction of 
trainmen in order that complete and 
intelligent accident reports may be 
obtained, 871 

Whitehead, F. J. Prevention of accidents, 869 

Winsor, Paul. Effect of electric railway op 
eration on taxable city property, 879 

Wood, B. F. Electrical operation of the 
West Jersey & Seashore Railroad, 19 

Wynne, F. E. Electric locomotives for inter 
urban freight haulage, 1103 





Adams, F. W., 333 

Adams, J. L., 97 

Adamson, George W., 931 

Aker, John W., 1012 

Alderman, C. A., 1081 

Ambler, James M., 1330 

Anderson, James, "259 

Andrews, L. 11., 333 

Antibus, Roy, U80 

Archer, H. H., 209 

Armstrong, Russell, 1220 

Arnold, W. L., 137 

Austin, John B., 209 

Ayres, Milan V ., 13S, 1044 

Bacon, J. Cortlandt, 371, 410, 680 

Baker, Newton D., 1330 

Ballard, W. P., 1128 

Barber, H. L., 1044 

Barley, VV. I., 175 

Barnes, D. C, 410, 908 

Baukat, John G., 97 
Baumann, Charles A., 333 
Beach, Ernest J., 1260 
Beames, C. F., 333 
Beardsley, H. M., 1180 
Beebe, C. D., 891 
Beidenbcnder, August, 1012 
Bell, D. C, 137 
Bell, Thomas IC, 1081 
Benton, John E., 66 
Bentson, George H., 514 
liernsmeyer, G. E., 1044 

Biegler, Prof. Phillip S., 1260 

Billings, Warren C, 967 
Bishop, E. A., 97 
Bixler, H. C, 1081 
Brinkerhoff, J. II., 410 
Brixey, William Richard, 67 

Broderick, Patrick, 410 

Brooks, C. B., 371 

Brown, Arthur K., 371 

Brown, C. E., 1330 

Brown, Lyman K., 1260 

liryce. W. F„ 97 

Buchanan, C. B., 97 

Buchanan, W. T., 175 

liudd, Britton I., *29S 

Bullock, George, 298 

Liurch, Edward P., 891 

Burke. W. H. f 6S0 

Burns, foseph M., 209, 333 

Burton, Frank, 126(1 

Burton, George W.. 1082 

Busby, Leonard A., 1330 

Butler, D. B.. 478 

Butler, L. E., 371 

Butterfield, J. II., 1044 

Buttrick, W. A.. 1330 

Butts, Edward, 137 

Campbell, A. M., 680 

Campbell, T. M., 47S 

Cargill, Walter N., 371 

Carley. R. F., 1260 

Carlisle, I.. W., 446, 967 

Carpenter, Charles H.. 371 

Carpenter, E. C, 550 

Chambers, F. C, 1128 

Chiles, R. T., 97 

Choate, Joseph K., *67 

Christie, "Tames, 446 

Clader, W. A., 1180 

Clark, Angus, 137 

Clark, E. W., 297 

Cleveland, John A., 66, *138 

Coates, Frank R, 1220, 1297 

Cochran, Toseph W., Tr., 1297 

Collette, B., 1081 

Colburn, C, 97 

Collins, J. C. *98 

Coolidge; C. A., 97 

Coryell, A. B.. 1044, 11 SO 

Coupland, A. A., 371, 446 

Cox. W. F., 371. 446 

Craig, John, 333 

Craven^ Alfred. 6S0 

Crooks. C. D.. 932 

Culbertson. S. A.. 371 

Gulp, Sherman, 1012 

Cunningham, E. R., 259 

Cutlip, W. M., 97. 446 

Daggett, H. G, 297 

Plallow, C. H., 206 

Daly, K. \V., 333 
Dame, F. L., 297 
Daniels. Thomas R. IT.. 371 
Davidson, Charles L. 514 
Davidson, W. G.. 371 
Davies, Wm. B. S.. 333 
Davis, A. J.. 446 
Davis, Ernest H.. 1297 
Deems, T. F.. 10S1 
Delano. 'F. A.. 297 
Derth, E. C. 298 
Dicker, II. S„ 209 
Dickie, G. A., 297 
Dillon. S. E., 1044 
Dineen, P., 1297 
Dorman. T- A.. 680 

Dougherty, Hugh, 333. 410 
Douglas. Egbert, 967 
Dowhouer, W. H., 333 
Downs, E. E., 138 
Doyle, J. J., *175 
Diaper, N. C, 333 
Droppers, Prof. Garret, 967 
Dryden, John F., 1181 
Duffy, C. Nesbit, 1180 
Dunlap, George W., 931, 1012 
Dunn, Sherman W., 259 
Easton, C. L., 333 
Lick, Richard, 175 
Elwell, C. C, 514, 550 
Ely, E. S., 97 
Emerson, E. J., 1180 
Empey, Tames R., 66 
Erwin, W. E., 967 
Espy, I. C. 446 
Evans, J. D., 680 
Evans, Walter H.. 1044 
Fairchild, H. A., 968 
Fairchild. J. R.. 297 
Farrel, Frank, 1297 
Fehr, Harrison R., *1297 
Fernald, B. W., 478 
Ferrier, J. J., 1181 
Finlavsori, F. W., 1082 
Fisher, F. E., 680 
Fisher, Tohn H., 1330 
Fitzpatrick, F. E., 1297 
Fledderjohann, W. H.. 1330 
Ford, Charles W., 97 
Foster, E. C, 1330 
Fox, James W., 1220 
Fox. W. A., 478 
Franklin, W. S.. 122n 
Frost, Frank W.. 175 
Fuller, H. W., *1 128 
Fulton, C. B.. 1260 
Funk, J. T., 371 
Gardner, Addison L, 1044 
Garland, Charles P.. 1128 
Garretson, John D.. 478 
Gebhart, Henry. 333 
Gerke, Tacob V\'.. 66. 97 
Godwin", R. S.. 1297 
Goodvear. R. B., 298 - 
Graham, Edgar M., 1044 
Graves, Jay P., 176 
Gray, Carl' Raymond. 97 
Grav, James K., 1012 
Greims, Howard E.. 1082 
Grenshaw, C. G., 297 
Griffith, Charles T.. 175 
Grimmett, R. B.. 175 
Haas. E. M., 1082 
Halsev, N. W., 98 
Ham. William F.. 1330 
Hamilton, Tames F.. 1044 
llambleton, J. S.. 371 
Hardin, Edward, 967 
Hardv, F. I.. 209 
Harlan, James S., 1297 
Harries, Gen. George H.. 550. 

Harrington, O. C 371 
Harrsen, Harro. 967 
Harton, William H.. Tr., 514 
ITasbrouck, Daniel R.. 932 
Haskins, Carvl Ft., 1128 
Hathaway, E. C. 97 
Havel!. Tohn E.. 97 
Hebard, "George W.. 1128 
Hedley, Frank, 259. 931 
Hegartv. D. A., *176. 259 
Hemming, R. N.. 891 
Hcndee, M. H., 1128 
Henderson, C. A.. 259. 446 
Henderson. Edwin. 1330 
Herrell. Samuel T.. 66 
Hertzog, Robert R.. 259. 446 
Hiegins, Samuel. 1180 
Hill. Arthur R.. 298 
Hill. M. T-. 175 
Hincklev," B. S., 371 
Hintsdorff. D. C.. 680 
Hogarth, T. B., 259 
Hopkin, George A.. 297 
Hottell, F. B., 1298 
Howard. R. M., 680 
Howe, R. C. 333 
Hubbell, Charles H.. 97 
Hughev, T. B., 259 
Husselman. D. Y.. 259 
Hutchins, R. G.. Tr.. 478. 514 
Tnrersoll, T. B., '514 
Teffords. L. W.. 137 
Jenks, G. W.. 333 
Tohann. Charles S.. 932 
Tohnson. Charles C, 97 
Johnson, Charles W.. 891 
Tohnson. Ensign, 514 
Johnson, H. A., 410 
Tohrrston. E. R.. 97 
Tones. Morgan, 1082 
Tones, T. Norman. Tr.. 97 
Kelso. Charles D.. 1081 

kilpairick, B. 1., 371 
Kimmett, A. D., 66, 97 
Kn.g, clarence I'., 175 
Kingman, A. t .. 1044 
Knox, George W., *260 
Kuemmerlin, George, 1081 
Kulp, Monroe 11., 968 
Lambert, lohn F., 931 
Lang, Aloion E., 1220 
Latshaw, \\ . H., 446 
l.enhart, Charles E., 1220 
Lewis, C. II., 1044 
Linden, John L, 1260 
Lord, Henry F., 1298 
Lund, Eugene N., 259 
Lytle, J. H., 259 
Macleod, Frederick J., 333 
Mailloux, C. O., 259 
Maize, F. P., 297 
Alarble, John II., 137 
Marsh, F. E., 1220 
Martin, W. 11., 891 
Mather, Robert, 968 
Mathes, L. D., 1044 
May, Francis, 1220 
Mayer, Toseph B., 298 
Maynes, J. D., 1128 
McAfee, lohn Blair, 66 
McCarter, Thomas Nesbitt, 800 
McCarthy, P. O., 1297 
Mi ( loskj . David M., 333 
McCrea, James A., 1082 
McDonald, Malory, 1128 
, McDowell, J. D., 514 
McGee. Wm. N., 98 
VIcGowan, Hugh T., 1298 
McGrath, J. C, 446 
Mclntyre, Robert, 1297 
McKeon, F. M., 1331 
McKinley, W. B., 298, 514 
McLain, Llewellyn H., 680 
McMeen, S. G., 1128 ■ 
McPherson, N. B., 680 
Miley, Thomas F.. 259 
Mills', E. M., 1260 
Miner. D. P., 297 
Mitchell, IT. A., 137 
Mitten, T. E., 1232 
Moffatt, George B.. 1220 
Moffett, James McG., 97 
Moonev, J. Frederick, 1220 
Moore. A. G„ 1260 
Moore, C. E., 1081 
Moore, Toseph H., 333 
Moran, W. M., 478 
Morrison, W. R.. 1044 
Mosely, Earl L-, 371 
Mountney, L. H., 209 
Mulhern. George G., 1180 
Mullin, Bernard F., 333 
Murdock. H. D.. 259. 478 
Murphy, W. H.. 209 
Newho'use, W. H., 371 
Newman, F. R.. 478 
Xiles, Edward C. 66 
*690, >r e, E. C. 297 

Northrop. H. G., 297 
Norton, E. C. 1260 
O'Brvan. Francis I... *1297 
O'Hara, Toseph. 1982 
O'Hearn, Owen. 514 
Ong, T. R., 1044 
Ostendorf, Toseph, 1298 
Page. HenrV C, 680 
Page. R. K.. 891 
Page, W. 371 
Palmer. C. F-, 891 
Rape, W. H., 891 
Parker, W. G.. 931 
Parks, Frank, 446 
Pasho. Herbert A.. 967 
Patten, A. M.. 298 
Patterson, H. C, 259 
Pattison. Hueh. 175, 259 
Paxton, C. M.. 333 
Pelgrim. F. J., 210 
Pepin, David E.. 680 
Peurring. T. P.. 259 
Phelps, George W.. 1297 
Phenicie. Carroll R.. 1180 
Phillipp. C. D.. 297 
Place. George M.. 514 
Plaice, Frank H.. 514 
Pollard, H., 97 
Potter. Tohn E., 371 
Price. Edward R.. 298 
Pumfrey. Thoma--. 931 
Ouisenderrv. H C. 371 
Raher, W. F. 97 
Ralston, J. E., 514 
Ramsaur, Fleming, 446 
Randolph, George E„ 1012 
Ransom, William L., 137 
Read. H. H.. 333 
Reed. Louis F.. 1128 
Reel. C. r-ordon, 298 
Reid, William, 371 
Richards. F. L., 371 
Ridewav. Robert. 1297 

Ridlon, Frank, 1220 
Kiedel, Edward, 209 
Riegle, J. W. S., 297 
Rodenhouse, H. E., 371 
Roehry, L. A., 1260 
Roosevelt, James Alfred, 550 
Ross, George H., Jr., 333 
Rowland, C. H., 446 
Ruddall, F. William, 371 
Rudisill, W. H., 297 
Russell, Clyde, 680 
Russell J. Beckett 446 
Russell, W. A., 137 
Ryder, S. J., 1260 
Sallee, John D., 1220 
Samuelson, Frank, 371 
Sanders, Owen, 371 
Sanford, W. J., 297 
Sargent, William S., 1180 
Sawver, P. B., 1181 
Schmidt, Emil G., 410 
Shannahan, John N„ 97, 137 
Shepard, Edward M., 298 
Sherman, Albert, 1044 
Shouts, Theodore P., 175, 967 
Sisk, Thomas F., 297 
Sims, J. M., 297 

Skiff, Frederick Tames Volney, 1260 

Slocum, B. W., 137 

Smith, Charles H., 1044 

Smith, Dow S., 175 

Smith, E., 478 

Smith. G. K., 371 

Smith, J. Brodie, 1331 

Smith, J. M., 298 

Smith, H. L., 97 

Snider, W. F., 297 

Snyder, William H., 371 

Stanley, Albert H., 1128 

Starring, Mason B., 138, 891 

Stavenow, August, 891 

Stearns, R. B., 260 

Stevens, F. T-, 66 

Stewart, J. B., Jr., 680 

Storrs, Lucius S., 66 

Stowe, Fred A., 137 

Straut, Tohn T, 1044 

Sucese, J. B., 209 

Sullivan, J. L., 931, 968 

Sutherland, John, 931 

Suyama, Masami, 333 

Swenson, Sidney O., 931 

Taggart, Tohn A., 1220 

Tanzar, Arnold, 1331 

Taurman, Ray, 137 

Tavlor, C. G .,1260 

Taylor, Leander F., 210 

Taylor, R. C, 97 

Tennis, Charles C, 891 

Thompson. C. F., 371 

Thompson, S. B., 550 

Thompson, W. E., 1260 

Thompson, W. J.. 297 

Thompson, Wm. E., 1082 

Thornton. Henry W., 1081 

Thornton, J ; S., 1012 
Threedv, Frederick L., 210 

Torner; T. V. H., 175. 371 

Townlev', Calvert, *67, 259, 680 

Trask, George K., 67 

Trowbridge, E. D., 967 

Vail, J. F., 98 

Vance", H. J., 680 

Vandewater, C. C, 297 

Van Leuven, John P., 1260 

von Schilling, F., 66 

von Schrenk. Arnold. 1044 

Walker. T. B., 967 

Walker, Tames. 478 

Ward, D.' C, 259, 298 

Warfield, H. R., 333 

Watson, G. G., 371 

Webster, Ernest C. 514 

Wegner, A. C, 298 

Weimer, Tames, 514 

Weisiger, Cary N., Jr.. 446 

Weller, Royal H., 446 

Welch, Tames D., 1081 

Welch, J. E., 514 

Weston, C. V., 371 

WharfF, E. M., 66. 298 

Wheeler, F.. 333 

Whitfield, George H., 66 

Whiting, T. H., 297 

Whitney, W. A.. 97 

Wilcox, T. A:, 680 

Wilder, George W., 1330 

Williams, T. W:, 1012 

Williams. Svdnev Alfred. 13/ 

Wilson, F. W.. 446 

Wiry, E. A.. 333 

Witt, C. M., 1331 

Wood, F. E., 1012 

Wood, T. T.. 1180 

Worthen. Prof. Thomas W., 66 
Wynn, R. D. 

Yoakum. Tesse, 1297 

Young. A". M., 1220 

Electric Railway Journal 


Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 



No. 1 


McGraw Publishing Company 

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Copyright, 1911, by McGraw Publishing Company. 
Entered as second-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal 8500 
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The Hoosac Tunnel Electrification 

The Language of Depreciation 

Action on the Interurban Code 

Passenger Shelter. Stations 

Car Schedule Economies 

The Question of Shop Apprentices 

Studies in High-Voltage Transmission 

Center-Entrance Cars 

Electrification of the Hoosac Tunnel 

Standard Car of the New South Wales Government Tramways 

The Responsibilities of Electrical Engineers in Making Appraisals 

Electrical Operation of the West Jersey & Seashore Railroad 

Depreciation as Related to Electrical Properties 

Let the Public Know 

Recent Legislation Affecting Electric Railway Accounting 

Meeting of the Central Electric Accounting Conference 

June Meeting of the Central Electric Railway Association 

Report of the Standardization Committee of the Central Electric Rail- 
way Association 


Reduction of Car Failures 

Steps in the Solution of the Problem of Adequately Controlling Pro- 
pelled Vehicles 

President's Address at Cooperstown 

Gas-Electric Motor Cars 

Maintenance of Way Matters 

The Edison-Beach Storage Battery Car 

Single End vs. Double End Opeiation 

Report of Committee on Joint Use of Poles 

Annual Meeting of New York State Association 

Annual Meeting of American Institute of Electrical Engineers 

Electrical Equipment of Boston Pay-Within Car 

A Staffless Hand Brake 

Pneumatic Track Scrapers in Boston 

London Letter 

News of Electric Railways 

Financial and Corporate 

Traffic and Transportation 

Personal Mention 

Construction News 

Manufactures and Supplies 

The Hoosac Tunnel Electrification 

The electrification of the Hoosac Tunnel of the Boston 
& Maine Railroad is a notable achievement. In less than a 
year from the time that the New Haven interests took over 
the control of the Boston & Maine the directors had author- 
ed the change of motive power, all the engineering work 
one and the construction work was completed 
ost difficult conditions without interrupting the 
of trains for a day. When the time came to 
the current from the new power house and begin 
operation with electric locomotives nothing went 
t wrong or had to be done over. Electric operation has 
proved an engineering success and undoubtedly it will prove 
an economic success. The Hoosac Tunnel has long been 
the neck of the bottle for freight traffic and the fly in the 
ointment for passenger traffic. The Fitchburg division of 
the Boston & Maine parallels its only competitor for 
through traffic, the Boston & Albany, and except for the 
tunnel has as favorable a location across the State of Massa- 
chusetts. Yet it never has been able to obtain its share of 
the passenger traffic or handle its share of the freight. 
Electric operation through the tunnel will avoid all discom- 
fort to passengers and will greatly reduce the congestion of 
freight. The project has not been expensive as railroad 
improvement work is judged, and the saving in time to 
freight trains alone in its effect on the whole road should 
more than pay the interest on the investment which has 
been made in the electric equipment. 

The Language of Depreciation 

A fairly large part of the paper by Mr. Floy in regard 
to depreciation, presented before the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers this week, is devoted to definitions of 
terms. In our abstract, published elsewhere in this issue, 
we give the essence of the definitions of the author, which 
he made unusually full in order to emphasize the need of 
uniformity in the use of these terms. The real reason why 
there has not been a more general agreement upon the 
language of depreciation is that the question of depreciation 
has generally been treated as one of academic interest 
rather than as one of practical importance. This fact 
militates against the consideration of precise terms to de- 
scribe conditions the existence of which is denied by many. 
If the costs of depreciation are recognized universally as 
fair charges against earnings, authoritative definitions of 
terms will follow as a matter of course, but where there is 
no agreement as to the practical aspects of the subject itself 
it becomes difficult to secure concerted action on words and 
phrases. There is no unanimity of action even as to the 
real meaning of maintenance, which is construed by some 
companies to comprise no more than current repairs. Mr. 
Floy's study of the subject is based upon court and commis- 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

sion decisions rather than upon company practice. His 
citations of rulings in important cases in which depreciation 
is regarded as an element in the cost of the service support 
his earnest plea for a thorough consideration of the whole 

Action on the Interurban Code 

Advance publication of the report of the committee on 
interurban rules of the American Electric Railway Trans- 
portation & Traffic Association gives to the member com- 
panies an opportunity which they ought not to neglect. 
The early action of the committee places in the hands of 
all operating officials of member companies a copy of the 
revised code, together with a compilation in convenient 
form of the rules in which changes are made, the changes 
proposed and the reasons therefor. Now the committee 
asks for criticisms of its work. It has made a unanimous 
report, representing the combined judgment of officials of 
companies located in various and widely separated sections 
of the country. Its code is one under which the different 
members of the committee presumably are satisfied to 
operate. Other companies will undoubtedly be willing to 
accept the recommendations of the committee without 
change. If they approve the code as it stands with the 
recommended changes they should so notify the committee. 
It is reasonable to ask that legitimate criticisms of any rule 
be sent to the committee without delay in order that further 
revision, if desirable, may be facilitated at the convention 
next October. We have no doubt that the committee, in 
furtherance of its aim to develop a workable code that 
shall be acceptable to all interurban roads, will welcome 
criticisms from non-member companies. Since the need 
of a uniform code is urgent, there is no reason why sug- 
gestions from sources outside of the association should 
not be made freely. The recommendation of the code by 
a committee of the Street Railway Association of the State 
of New York and the resultant approval of that associa- 
tion at its annual meeting this week constitute a support 
which the committee that is responsible for the revision 
must appreciate. 

Passenger Shelter Stations 

At a recent conference of interurban electric railway 
managers there was a rather ardent discussion on the 
subject of shelter stations. No one of the gentlemen pres- 
ent was inclined to dispute the value of such stations, but 
many feared the supposed high expense of such con- 
veniences for intending passengers. It is true, of course, 
that the average interurban railway cannot afford to put 
up at every crossing a windowed structure with heating 
and toilet facilities. Even if the first cost of such build- 
ings was low, they would involve a considerable charge for 
attendance. Furthermore it would be practically impos- 
sible to keep them free from the mutilations, defacements 
and nuisances to which isolated buildings are subject. But 
it is not necessary that a shelter station should be anything 
more than a rain and wind shield, since people do not ex- 
pect to spend more than a few minutes in such a station 
while waiting for a car. Simple shelters of this kind can 
be erected for very little money. In fact, if a company 
wished to do so, it could usually arrange with a local 

merchant to install them at no expense to the company 
because of their billboard or advertising sign value. One 
Pennsylvania railway worked out a plan of this kind and 
it proved so popular with both the merchants and the public 
that similar shelters were installed at every other stopping 
place on the line. No doubt other companies would prefer 
to install their own shelter stations, as the expense is not 
great when the station is built of wood and but slightly 
more when of concrete. Many architecturally attractive 
designs have been worked out, among them several whose 
plan would be represented by an "x" or cross, rather than 
one with three or four inclosing walls. The "x" type of 
shelter, when provided with a roof with broad eaves, fur- 
nishes as complete protection from the weather as the 
rectangle, and has the additional advantage that it is 
easier to keep clean and is less subject to nuisance. The 
ordinary suburban and interurban road does not require 
elaDorate shelters, but some such buildings are extremely 
convenient at times for waiting passengers. They also 
also undoubtedly shorten station stops. 


The maintenance of car schedules at the lowest cost con- 
sistent with good service is an omnipresent problem to 
the transportation departments of all but the smallest sys- 
tems. The search for economy in schedule construction 
has many resemblances to a game of golf. A man may be 
proud of the good work that he has done, but he can 
never justify the claim that he has reached perfection. 
He no sooner attains one low record than he begins to 
consider whether by a little closer calculation of the 
various factors with which he has had to deal he could 
not improve his performance so as to do better next time. 
There are so many controllable elements in the game as 
well as so many that are uncontrollable that the lowest pos- 
sible score for each individual seems always to lie just be- 
yond the point already gained. In the game of schedule 
making the street railway manager, his timetable special- 
ist and his division superintendent have a problem which 
is even more interesting and involved than that confronting 
the player on the links, because the changing volume and 
distribution of traffic constantly require new investigations 
of the problem of how closer to fit the service to the 

The most successful line of attack on inefficiency in 
handling traffic must be purely local. It usually represents 
long study of conditions on given divisions, including 
limitations of topography, power supply, location of stop- 
ping and passing points, track layouts of carhouses, signal- 
ing, the system of assigning work to trainmen, etc. Out of 
this host of factors, however, it is possible to emphasize 
certain sources of inefficiency or excessive expense which 
are common to operating companies generally without 
regard to local conditions. 

Irregularity of running and the necessity of filling gaps 
at route termini by extra or set-back cars are probably the 
two chief sources of financial loss involved in schedule 
making to any large company serving an extended area. 
Irregularity of headway leads to the overcrowding of some 
cars and the underfilling of others. The latter means waste 

July i, 1911.] 



of money and the former means loss of fares both because 
conductors cannot make prompt and accurate collections 
and because would-be patrons desert the service and walk 
when the gaps in headway are excessive. These gaps also 
result in complaints on the part of the public that the 
company does not operate a sufficient number of cars, a 
charge which is untrue in the majority of cases, because the 
total number of trips per day is seldom greatly influenced 
by temporary interruptions. But these interruptions do re- 
quire the introduction of extra cars and thus a larger 
service than is necessary if the regular cars are moved 

The difficulties we are considering may sometimes be 
overcome, at least in part, by closer attention to the oper- 
ation of cars along the entire route, but the fundamental 
trouble is more often in the schedules themselves. Assume, 
for instance, the frequent case of two lines which branch 
from a common point some distance from a downtown 
terminus and that the traffic demands a shorter headway on 
one line than on the other. In such case the schedule should 
be planned so as to approximate as closely as possible an 
even headway of all cars between the downtown terminus 
and the junction point. It may not be possible to attain 
close harmony of movement in all cases, but as a rule the 
greater density of service on the inward side of a junc- 
tion point tends to offset slight irregularities of movement 

In dealing with the headway of outbound cars a new 
problem arises, chiefly from the fact that the running times 
may be different beiween an outlying terminus of two 
routes whose in-town destinations are not the same. Under 
such conditions an even headway between cars leaving the 
suburban terminus becomes distorted at the point where 
the routes join on the return trip. One remedy for this 
condition, if it is serious enough to be rectified, is to 
shorten or lengthen the headway on one of the two routes 
so as to get the alternate movement desired at the suburban 
terminus. Another plan is to consolidate the service to the 
suburban terminus as far as practicable. With liberal 
transfer arrangements this latter change might be made a 
source of economy. 

Other factors bearing on the question of train service 
economy are the enforcement of discipline in connection 
with running time, the elimination of an excessive number 
of stopping points, increased punctuality in starting cars, 
the reduction in time required to change crews, efficient 
coaching of new men by inspectors, the selection and main- 
tenance of motive power suitable to the requirements of 
specific routes, and the more extended use of the telephone 
between street inspectors and carhouse starters. The latter 
remedy is especially worth considering in connection with 
cutting out set-back trips of perhaps a mile or two at the 
ends of lines, where time can in part be made up. There 
is no question that the use of set-back cars has been an 
important factor in retaining the patronage on many sys- 
tems in which sharply competitive conditions are found, 
but they are expensive as compared with regular car move- 
ments and practically duplicate the service. Hence any 
means to reduce their number deserves thorough investi- 
gation from the standpoint of economical management. 


The creation of a committee on engineering apprentices 
by the American Electric Railway Engineering Association 
represents the first step in a praiseworthy attempt to raise 
the standard of shop labor. It is too much to expect, 
however, that the first report of this committee should be 
much more than a preliminary survey of the conditions 
which would aid or hinder the development of workmen 
who are to be specifically trained for service in electric 
railwav shops and carhouses. There are many reasons 
why this must be so, because the subject is far more com- 
plex than any in which the factors of economics, sociology 
and human nature are not of controlling importance. Even 
the training of cadet engineers is simple by comparison. 

The first difficulty which would have to be overcome 
would be that of inducing parents or guardians to in- 
denture their boys for such an extended period as three 
or four years. Apprenticeship contracts are more common 
in European countries where traditions of the medieval 
trade guilds are still strong, but they have never had much 
chance for development in a young country with such rapid 
industrial changes as the United States. To overcome this 
prejudice it will probably be necessary to offer better 
wages than the prevailing rate for beginners in office or 
factory positions, to lay stress on the permanence of the 
work offered, and to assure the pupil that he will be trained 
to become a skilled, well-paid workman. The second diffi- 
culty relates to the employer's side of the contract. He can, 
of course, insist upon a clause which will permit him to 
discharge an apprentice who proves incompetent after say 
three months' or six months' trial, but he must also be able 
to keep the competent graduate from being tempted away 
by higher wages from other employers just as soon as he 
has become of real value to his instructors. Possibly this 
difficulty could be overcome by a plan by which a certain 
part of the apprentice's salary would be in the form of a 
bonus or of several bonuses, to be paid by him after the 
completion of his course or parts of it. The third difficulty 
is that involved in the ultimate aim of the courses, namely, 
will they lead to a foremanship or simply to the standing of 
master workman ? Doubtless it would be easier to get and 
retain applicants if the higher position was promised to 
them, but this would be a ruinous policy since no one could 
tell in advance whether the boy would develop into a man 
with the necessary executive ability. The fourth difficulty 
is the unfriendly attitude of American boys, especially in 
cities, toward any career which calls for much manual 
labor. For this the boys are far less to blame than their 
parents. It is not unusual for fond but foolish fathers 
who are earning good wages as mechanics to insist that 
their children study for professional callings for which 
they have no aptitude. The inevitable consequence is that 
many ill-trained youngsters drift into uncertain clerkships 
at salaries which are generally below the earnings of the 
mechanic, who becomes self-supporting at a much younger 

The foregoing comments are not intended to discour- 
age the efforts to create a shop apprentice system, but 
rather to point out some of the ramifications of this 



problem. The present big percentage of riff-raff shop 
labor can be eliminated only by training men for the spe- 
cial needs of the electric railway business. If this object 
is to be accomplished, the work must be taken in hand seri- 
ously, preferably by several companies at once, and under 
conditions which will attract the service of boys who are 
ambitious to learn a trade with ever-widening opportunities. 


The convention of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers just held furnished important material for the 
electric railway engineer. More and more he has to deal 
with long-distance transmissions of power at steadily in- 
creasing pressures, and he is vitally interested in the pre- 
cautions which must be taken to secure that continuous 
operation without which electric railroading is a cripple. 
It is not altogether easy to say what the actual condition 
of electrical power transmission at the present time really 
is with respect to continuous operation. Some plants within 
our knowledge have been kept in absolutely continuous oper- 
ation for a year at a time and for twenty-four hours per 
day, though at a cost which one hardly dares to estimate. 
Other plants have broken down so often as to cause bitter 
complaints among the users of transmitted energy. On 
some systems there have been three or four breakdowns a 
week. Of these, it is true, most were not of long duration, 
and many, perhaps, were only of a few minutes' interval, 
but others put the system out of business for one or several 
hours. Even a few minutes' interruption in railway busi- 
ness is serious; an hour or two is a disaster to the public 
service. Nothing but correct design and scrupulously care- 
ful construction can secure in a high-voltage transmission 
anything like complete continuity of service. 

Three of the papers in particular presented at the Chi- 
cago convention deal with subjects which are vital to the 
matter in hand. One of these is Professor Whitehead's 
beautiful study of the electric strength of air, which will 
repay careful reading. As most engineers know, the limit- 
ing factor in the increase of transmission voltage is not the 
dielectric strength of insulators so much as it is the failure 
of the air itself. The point at which this failure of the air 
occurs depends upon numerous factors but chiefly upon the 
maximum electric stress encountered and on the size and 
spacing of the wires. One of the things which Professor 
Whitehead's paper brings out with particular clearness is 
the fact that the critical voltage above which coronal dis- 
charge freely takes place may exist and be observed in ex- 
istence only at the very peak of the wave, so instantaneous 
is the phenomenon, yet it responds in the fullest manner 
to the momentary peaks of voltage which may appear in 
generally smooth wave forms or may be superimposed upon 
them by even minor surges. Where the ultimate top of 
the electromotive force wave is, there one finds the real 
danger point as respects this coronal effect. When the cor- 
onal discharge begins there is a breakdown in the dielectric 
strength of the air and trouble is imminent. Another point 
carefully investigated was the effect of using stranded 
cable on the critical voltage at which the coronal dis- 
charge begins. Theory would indicate that a stranded 
cable presenting small surfaces of very rapid curvature 

would break down and show coronal discharge more easily 
than a smooth round wire of equivalent capacity. Such 
proves to be the experimental fact, although the effect 
varies considerably in magnitude according to the char- 
acter of the cable and the absolute dimensions of its ele- 
ments. Roughly one may generalize the data by saying 
that cables of moderate size show coronal discharge at a 
voltage in which it would appear on a solid conductor of 
about three-quarters the cable diameter. A curious point 
brought out in the research was that the critical voltage 
at which the air begins to break down falls only com- 
paratively slightly with increasing frequency, the differ- 
ence between 25 and 60 cycles being only 2 per cent. 

Another paper of interest to the constructor is that of 
Mr. Robinson, on the computation of spans with relation 
to stress and sag, a thoroughly worked-out study with 
many important diagrams for the practical constructor's 
information. From a theoretical standpoint a very inter- 
esting portion of the work is the study of the actual curve 
of a suspended conductor. This is ordinarily treated as 
a parabola, although technically it is a catenary if the span 
is long and the conductor reasonably flexible. The ellipse 
and the circle have also been used as tentative curves for 
computation. Mr. Robinson shows that from a practical 
standpoint all of these curves, except the circle, represent 
the facts with substantial accuracy on a span of moder- 
ate length, say 80 ft. It would be interesting to know 
at what point of length the curves begin to diverge, 
although we are inclined to the opinion that for all prac- 
tical cases the parabola, which has the advantage of a 
simple equation, meets the requirements sufficiently well. 

In another paper Mr. Thomas goes over the sag calcula- 
tions by a different method, involving the application of 
the catenary, and his work also indicates pretty close simi- 
larity between the results obtained from this curve and 
from the parabola. 

Finally, a long and important paper by Mr. Austin on 
the suspension insulator comes to the front, too long even 
for adequate abstract, but it should be carefully studied by 
those planning high-tension lines. One of the most im- 
portant points brought out in it, however, is the great 
effect of the testing time upon the endurance of insulators 
at high pressures. There is a species of surging effect due 
to prolonged stress which may not appear at all under 
ordinary conditions of testing, but must be taken into ac- 
count if a high factor of reliability is expected upon the 
resulting line. Mr. Austin's conclusions are strongly in favor 
of the suspension type of insulator, which now seems to 
have passed completely out of the experimental stage and 
to have reached a point at which it is to be considered a 
practical necessity in dealing with extreme voltages. The 
critical condition of all high-voltage insulator practice is 
that encountered in stormy weather, when the surface gets 
thoroughly wet, and this in particular is best met by the 
suspension type of insulator. In one of Mr. Austin's tables 
tests are reported in which the insulators held up to more 
than one-quarter of a million volts wet before flashing over 
and had double this insulating capacity when dry. These 
figures seem preternaturally high, but 2.5 is certainly not 
too large a factor of safety to allow on a line important 
enough to be worked on 100,000 volts. 

July i, 1911.] 




The design of cars for city service is not alone a mat- 
ter of structural details and general dimensions. Great 
progress has been made along these lines in recent years, 
particularly as regards reduction of weight, but the operat- 
ing features of modern cars have been subject to far more 
radical changes, and the end is not yet in sight. Nearly 
every progressive street railway manager is studying the 
problem, and new ideas are being brought out almost daily. 
The most recent innovation, and one of the most radical, 
in operating features is the "near-side" car, which was 
illustrated and described in this paper last week. The 
center-entrance car is another departure from ordinary 
practice, which, while it is not new, seems to be gaining 
steadily in favor, as its many advantages are being recogr 
nized more generally. 

Perhaps the most extended use of the center-entrance 
is being made in Denver, where it has long been the 
standard. Many railway men who attended the Denver 
convention saw cars of this type in operation for the 
first time, and their comments were almost universally 
favorable. At that time Seattle was the only other large 
city in which center-entrance cars were in use, but during 
the past two years a number of center-entrance cars have 
been built and placed in operation by several different com- 
panies. Among them may be mentioned the Oklahoma Rail- 
way, Pittsburgh Railways, West Penn Railways, Port Ar- 
thur Traction Company and Shore Line Electric Railway, 
not to mention a few other instances in surface traction 
and the center-entrance subway and elevated cars in Boston, 
New York and Philadelphia. 

From an operating standpoint the center-entrance car 
has several marked advantages. The car is divided by the 
steps into two halves, and in loading and unloading the 
congestion at the entrance and exit is greatly reduced by 
reason of the fact that passengers have only half as far 
to move as in the ordinary end-entrance car. The pre- 
payment principle and, if desired, gates or doors over 
the steps can Lie applied to center-entrance cars quite as 
easily as to end-entrance cars. While the conductor stands 
all the time at the entrance and exit, he is inside the car, 
where he is protected from the weather and has a clear 
view in both directions, so that he can see the signal of 
any passenger who wishes to alight. By the use of doors 
to close the step opening a center-entrance car can be 
kept much warmer in cold weather than is possible with 
a car having end doors, which frequently are opened while 
the car is in motion. 

The seating capacity of a center-entrance car is pro- 
portionately larger than that of an end-entrance car of 
the same over-all length, by reason of the elimination of 
the end platforms. For cars which are operated always 
in one direction the entrance and exit passageways are 
required on one side only, and the entire length of the 
car body with the exception of a step opening on one 
side, not exceeding 6 ft. wide, can be utilized for seats. 
For double-end operation, of course, an entrance and exit 
must be provided on the opposite side of the car, but by 
using trap-doors to cover the step opening and folding 
seats such as are used in the New York subway cars 

this space can also be utilized for seats, as in cars operated 
in one direction only. 

The center-entrance car has another advantage in pre- 
venting accidents which is attained also in the "near- 
side" car, described last week. The passenger who alights 
must wait for the car to proceed half its length before 
crossing in the rear and running the risk of being struck 
by a car or vehicle passing on the opposite track. In 
the matter of speed of operation it has been found by 
experience in the New York subway that, no matter how 
wide the end doors are made, passengers will leave the 
car in a single line and will board the car in the same 
way. A center-entrance car with a railing dividing the 
steps in the center affords two separate passages for en- 
trance or for exit. In leaving the car the passengers move 
toward the center in two converging streams and in board- 
ing they move up the steps and toward opposite ends of the 
car in two separate lines. Except at transfer points, where 
the operation of collecting ticket fares is always done 
more quickly than cash fares can be handled, the usual 
conditions in street railway operation are that most of 
the passengers board the car at points where few passen- 
gers alight, and vice versa. The advantage of having 
widely separated exits and entrances, therefore, is more 
apparent than real. 

One possible disadvantage of the center-entrance car is 
the fact that if the stops are made at street intersections so 
that the step is opposite the crosswalk, either the front end 
or the rear end of the car projects beyond the curb line 
of the intersecting street, depending upon whether the 
stop is made at the near side or the far side. Where the 
streets are paved this objection is not a serious one, and 
as a rule the unpaved streets in most American cities are 
in the outskirts, where traffic on the intersecting street 
would not be obstructed. 

Structurally the center-entrance car is more difficult to 
build and maintain without sagging at the center than the 
end-entrance car. With most steel cars the lower half 
of the side is designed as a plate girder and is depended 
upon to carry a large part of the load between the bol- 
sters. Even in wooden car construction the side sill and 
the posts and braces below the belt rail form a structure 
which has considerable stiffness and will carry a good 
part of the load. If the entire side of the car from the 
sill to the plate is cut away at the center to form entrance 
and exit passages the strength of the side framing is 
largely destroyed. By lowering the top of the step open- 
ing somewhat below the level of the side plate it is pos- 
sible to reinforce the side framing around the step opening 
in such a way that its strength is only slightly diminished. 
Still another method of getting around the difficulty is to 
use deep center sills to carry the entire load and make the 
sides of the car just as light as possible. The entire floor 
load and the weight of the body framing may then be 
transmitted to the center sills through transoms and cross 
bearers in much the same way as is done in the Long 
Island Railroad steel cars, which were described in the 
Electric Railway Journal of June 17. On the other 
hand, if the side sill should be left intact, one or two steps 
like those supplied by the running boards of open cars 
could be used, or folding steps might be employed. 


[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

Electrification of the Hoosac Tunnel 

The Hoosac Tunnel of the Boston & Maine Railroad Is the Longest Railroad Tunnel in the United States. All Trains 
Are Now Being Hauled Through It by Electric Locomotives Receiving Single-Phase Alternating Current 
at 11,000 Volts from Overhead Trolley Wires. The Catenary Construction, Repair Shops 
and Operating Features Are Described in This Article. 

On May 27 the Boston & Maine Railroad began operat- 
ing all freight and passenger trains through the Hoosac 
tunnel with electric locomotives. In a little more than 
eight months from the time the electrification work was 
authorized by the directors both tracks in the tunnel and 
the yards and approaches on each side, a total of 21.31 
miles of single track, were equipped with overhead trolley 
wires, a power house of 6000-kw capacity was designed and 
constructed, a high-tension transmission line 2.42 miles long 
was erected and five electric locomotives were built. At 
nil time during the construction work was the operation 
of trains through the tunnel by steam locomotives inter- 
fered with, although the installation of the wires and sup- 

time required for freight trains results in frequent block- 
ades at the portals and long delays. When the Boston & 
Maine passed into the control of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad in the summer of 1910, one of 
the first official acts of President Mellen of the New Haven 
was to order the immediate electrification of the Hoosac 
tunnel and the approaches at each end, including the North 
Adams yard. 

The single-phase alternating-current system with over- 
head catenary construction and 25-cycle, 11,000-volt current 
was adopted in view of the marked success of this system 
on the main line of the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad between Woodlawn, N. Y., and Stamford, Conn. 

Hoosac Tunnel — Cross-Catenary Construction in North Adams Yard 

ports in the tunnel was carried on under the most trying 
and dangerous conditions. 

The Hoosac tunnel is the longest railroad tunnel in the 
United States. It pierces the range of high hills between 
the valleys of the Hoosac and Deerfield Rivers, and is 
25,031 ft. long from portal to portal. It was begun in 1851 
by the Troy & Greenfield Railroad and it took twenty-four 
years to complete the work. The first train went through 
the tunnel on Feb. 9, 1875. As it forms part of the main line 
of the Fitchburg Division of the Boston & Maine Railroad 
connecting Boston with Albany and Troy, N. Y., the traffic 
passing through it is very heavy, averaging 95 to 100 trains 
per day in both directions. With steam locomotives haul- 
ing trains the twelve minutes required to pass through the 
tunnel cause great discomfort to passengers, and the longer 

The electrification project was assigned to the engineer- 
ing department of the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad, of which E. H. McHenry is vice-president and 
W. S. Murray electrical engineer; all plans involving policy 
of electrical operation and details of construction being 
there developed. The firm of L. B. Stillwell was retained 
as engineers locally in charge of the work, H. S. Putnam 
being placed in immediate charge of making many of the 
detail working plans, placing contracts and supervising the 
construction. A contract covering the installation of the 
overhead trolley and transmission line and the erection of 
the power house building, repair shop and switch house 
buildings was made with F. T. Ley & Company, Inc., 
Springfield, Mass., as general contractor, and actual con- 
struction was begun on Nov. 1, 1910. 

July i, 1911.] 




The electrified zone, which is 7.92 miles long, begins at 
the west end of the North Adams yard, 2.09 miles from the 
west portal of the tunnel. Just east of the North Adams 
depot is a yard with five side tracks in addition to the two 
main tracks, all of which have a trolley wire above them. 
Between the east end of this yard and the west portal are 
three tracks. Through the tunnel are two tracks and 
just outside of the east portal is a yard about mile long 
consisting of from three to five tracks. Single catenary 
construction is used throughout. Where more than three 
tracks are covered the wires are supported by cross-catenary 
cables attached to steel A-frame towers. For the two and 
three-track sections outside of the tunnel trussed steel 
bridges are used to support the wires. In the tunnel the 
messenger cables are suspended on insulators supported on 
special hanger brackets carried by bolts in the rock roof. 

Current is generated at 11,000 volts, single-phase, at the 
Zylonite power station and is transmitted at that potential 
to a switch house at the west portal of the tunnel, a distance 
of 2.42 miles, over a double-circuit transmission line, con- 
sisting of five wires carried on steel towers. Two wires 
carry the trolley current, one is a ground wire, one carries 
current for power and lighting, and the remaining wire sup- 
plies energy for the operation if the remote-control high- 
tension switches in the switch houses. 

The overhead trolley system is sectionalized into twelve 
units consisting of two tracks in the east portal yards; east 
bound main track and west bound main track east of the 
east portal ; east bound and west bound tracks in the tunnel ; 
west bound main track from the west portal to the west end 
of the North Adams yard; a section of the east bound main 
track and a crossover opposite the west portal switch house; 
two sections of the long siding between the North Adams 

,No.Adams Depot 

A control wire and power wire connect the west portal 
switch house and the repair shop switch house, but no 
separate high-tension wires are run through the tunnel, and 
the control circuits, lights and motors in the east portal 
switch house are fed through a transformer connected 
directly to the trolley bus. 


The supporting bridges and cross-catenaries in the yards 
are spaced 150 ft. apart on tangents and curves of moderate 
radius. The messenger cable over each track is stranded 
steel hi. in diameter. Below it is a No. 0000 grooved 
copper conductor wire suspended by rigid hangers of vary- 
ing lengths at intervals of 10 ft. The contact wire, which 
is No. 0000 grooved Phono-electric, is carried 1% in- below 
the copper conductor wire by double clips attached in the 
center of the 10-ft. spans between hangers. On curves the 
conductor and contact wires are both suspended from the 
messenger by inclined hangers having double clamps which 
hold the two wires in a vertical plane. This construction 
was illustrated in the Electric Railway Journal of April 
16, 1910. These hangers offset the contact wire toward the 
inside of the curve a sufficient distance to compensate for 
the deflection of the pantograph shoe due to the super-ele- 
vation of the outer rail. Outside of the tunnel the normal 
height of the contact wire above the rails is 22 ft. 

In the tunnel the catenary span is reduced to 100 ft. and 
two No. 0000 Phono-electric contact wires are carried in 


jEast Portal 
1 Switch 

West Main 




East Main 


Transmission Line from 

Hoosac Tunnel — Diagram of Trolley Feeders and Sectionalization 

yard and the west portal switch house ; the shop yard ; four 
tracks in the North Adams yard, and the east bound main 
track from the west end of the North Adams yard to the 
west portal switch house. 

The trolley bus in the west portal switch house feeds the 
two tunnel sections, the east bound and west bound main 
tracks west of the portal, the easterly section of the long 
siding and the short section of the east bound main track 
and the crossover opposite the switch house. At the east 
portal of the tunnel both trolleys in the tunnel are con- 
nected to a- trolley bus in the east portal switch house, 
from which three sections beyond the tunnel are fed. In 
the repair shop switchhouse the east bound and west bound 
main track sections, which are fed from the west portal 
switch house, are connected to a trolley bus from which are 
fed in turn the North Adams yard, the shop yard and the 
westerly section of the long siding track. It will be seen 
therefore that the switch houses at the east and west ends 
of the system are not connected to the main transmission 
line but are fed through the trolley wires of one or both 
main tracks. As long as current is on either one of the 
main track trolley wires the remainder of the system can 
be operated. 

the same horizontal plane by twin hangers. In order to 
provide maximum conductivity a -H|-in. stranded copper 
cable is used for the messenger. Owing to the limited clear- 
ances under the roof of the tunnel the two Phono-electric 
contact wires over each track, which are mounted in the 
same horizontal plane 5 in. apart, are lowered to 15 ft. 6 in. 
above the rails and the messenger cables are suspended 14 
in. inside the center line of each track. This gives a mini- 
mum clearance of 12 in. between the messenger and the 
roof of the tunnel. The brackets which support the mes- 
senger insulators are in turn carried on secondary in- 
sulators resting on hangers dropped from the roof. The 
position of the hangers is adjustable vertically by varying 
the length of the hanger bolts, and the primary insulators 
can be adjusted horizontally on the lateral brackets to pro- 
vide for slight changes in alignment. 

The twin contact wire hangers used in the tunnel are of 
special design to allow some vertical movement of the 
trolley wires. They consist of a yoke carrying the two 
trolley wire clips and a suspension rod ^2 in. in diameter 
on the top of which is screwed the messenger cable clamp. 
The suspension rod passes through a tapered hole in the 
center of the yoke, and a spherical faced nut is screwed on 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

the bottom of the rod. The yoke is slotted and the nut 
on the end of the suspension rod is free to move in this slot 
through a vertical distance of about i l / 2 in. All parts of 
the tunnel hangers are made of bronze. 


In the tunnel the primary and secondary insulators are of 
brown porcelain of the triple petticoat pin type. Each in- 
sulator is capable of resisting 150,000 volts to ground, and 
as the primary and secondary insulators are in series the 
combined dielectric strength is 300,000 volts. The outside 
insulators are of the suspended type. They consist of an 
upper petticoat with the concave side turned up in the shape 
of the brim of a hat and a lower semi-spherical petticoat 
15 in. in diameter with the concave side down. A hollow 
malleable iron pin is cemented into the lower petticoat and 
the malleable iron cap by which the insulator is suspended 
is cemented on the outside of the upper petticoat. These 

For Deerfield River Bridge 

300 Ft. Span 

angle posts and double diagonal rod braces in each panel. 
The two-track bridges have a span of 34 ft. and the three- 
track bridges a span of 46 ft. They are supported at each 
end by A-frame towers constructed of two 8-in. channels 
braced with light angles. The plane of these towers is 
parallel to the center line of the tracks. The channels have 
bed plates riveted on the bottom for bolting them down 
on the concrete foundation piers. An angle cross arm for 
supporting the feeder, telephone and signal power wires 
is attached at each end to the top channel of the bridge 
truss. In the yards where more than three tracks are 
equipped with overhead wires the cross-catenary span wires 
are suspended from A-frame steel towers built of 8-in. 
channels. The legs of these towers, however, lie in a plane 
at right angles to the track. The cross-catenary cable, 
which is stranded steel, ^ in. in diameter, is attached either 
at the apex of the towers or just below the single steel cross 

Hoosac Tunnel — Types of Supporting Bridges and Cross-Catenary Construction 

insulators were all required to stand a dry test of 110,000 
volts, or ten times the normal working voltage. The strain 
insulators used for dead-ending the messenger cables and 
contact wires are of porcelain of the spool type and each 
one was tested to 110,000 volts- under 35,000 lb. mechanical 
strain before erection. They have an ultimate tensile 
strength of 50,000 lb. For cross-catenary steady strain wire 
attachments two disk insulators in tandem were used at 
each anchorage. Impregnated hickory wooden strain in- 
sulators are inserted in the steady strain cables between 
each pair of tracks where required to preserve the sectional- 
ization of the trolley wires. 


The supporting bridges for the two and three-track sec- 
tions outside of the tunnel are built-up trusses formed of 
7-in. and 8-in. channel top and bottom chords with light 

arm. From it are suspended the messenger cable insulators 
by 5/16 in. stranded steel wires of suitable length. The 
steady strain cable is stranded steel ^ in. in diameter and 
is attached to the tower on each side by a bridle and two 
disk strain insulators in tandem. Each tower is grounded 
with a jMs-in. cable running up to the apex, where it is 
securely clamped. The anchor bridges are box trusses sup- 
ported on heavy A-frame towers with latticed legs stiffened 
with double diagonal braces. 


The erection of the hanger brackets and stringing of 
wires in the tunnel was carried on under the most difficult 
working conditions. Only one track at a time was given 
up to the contractors and trains were operated constantly 
on the other track at intervals as frequent as safety per- 
mitted. At all times when work was being done in the tunnel 

July i, 191 1.] 



the air was very bad because of the smoke and gases from 
oil and coal-burning locomotives passing through on the 
single track in use. After the passage of a train, all work 
had to be suspended for ten to twenty minutes, sometimes 
longer, to allow the worst of the smoke to clear out. 
It was found necessary to construct air compartments on 
the train supplied with cleaned air from the compressor 
car to serve as refuges for the men during such periods. 
Owing to atmospheric and traffic conditions, the construc- 
tion force was able to utilize less than one-half the time in 
actual work. These factors more than doubled the time 
that would otherwise have been necessary, for the construc- 
tion work in the tunnel. The tunnel is ventilated from a 
central shaft 1100 ft. deep, at the top of which is a large 
suction fan which draws fresh air into the tunnel from 
both portals and exhausts the smoke and gases up through 
the shaft. With a strong wind from the east or west the 
far end of the tunnel is sometimes very poorly ventilated. 


The railroad furnished and equipped for the contractor 
two special tunnel work trains, each consisting of an oil- 
burning locomotive, two locomotive tenders, a box car con- 
taining an engine-driven generator, a box car containing 

The equipment on each train for drilling the roof holes 
for the hanger bolts consisted of seven H.C.-12 Ingersoll- 
Rand hammer drills and several pneumatic hammers which 
were used for drilling holes in the side walls for the attach- 
ment of signal cable brackets. In the compressor car, which 
was placed next to the locomotive, was mounted a steam- 
driven class A-i compressor with a capacity of 285 cu. ft. 
of free air per minute. It received steam from the loco- 
motive at 90 lb. pressure and delivered the air at 90 lb. 
pressure into a receiving tank of 77 cu. ft. capacity. A 
small steam pump was used for pumping cooling water 
from the tenders through the compressor jacket and back 
to the tenders. The compressor intake was carried down 
close to the rails, where the air was purest, and was covered 
with a fine-mesh wire screen to keep out as much dust and 
dirt as possible. 

The generator was a 28-kw direct-current machine, and 
was driven by a marine engine supplied with steam from 
the locomotive. In spite of the moisture and dirt in the 
tunnel at all times neither of the generators on the two 
trains failed in any way during the time they were in use. 
The trains were wired throughout and six sockets for 
attaching five-light reflector clusters were placed along the 

Hoosac Tunnel — Three-Track Bridge Supports on Tangent 

three blacksmiths' forges and anvils, an air compressor car, 
thirteen platform cars, a coach fitted up as a dining car 
and a freight caboose. The platform cars were ordinary 
flat cars on which were built working platforms 11 ft. above 
the rail with low sides to prevent the workmen from falling 
off. Posts 6 in. x 4 in. were set in each stake pocket and 
cross beams of the same size were framed across to support 
the 2-in. plank floor. The car floors and the working plat- 
forms were made continuous throughout the train by steel 
aprons at the ends. Trap doors were built in each working 
platform so that the men could reach the car floor by 
ladders. A i J / 2 -'m. air pipe for the compressed air supply 
was run along each side of the working platforms and globe 
valves were inserted at frequent intervals for attaching the 
drills. On the floor of every third platform car a wooden 
air lock 14 ft. x 5 ft. x 4 ft. was built, into which the men 
could retreat during and after the passage of a train. An 
air valve was provided inside these locks which when par- 
tially opened created sufficient pressure to keep out the 
surrounding smoke and gases and provided fresh air for 
the men in the lock. 

railings of the working platform on each car. Strings of 
incandescent lights were also run along the sides of the 
cars for general illumination of the tunnel walls. Each 
train was also equipped with a system of signal lights in 
the caboose, locomotive cab and compressor car by means 
of which the conductor could signal the engineman to move 
the train forward or back and signal the compressor at- 
tendant to start or stop the compressor. 

The coach, which was fitted up as a dining car, was used 
to supply the men with hot coffee and sandwiches and to 
heat any other food the men brought with them. In order 
to stand the effects of the smoke and gases it was found 
necessary to keep the men well supplied with food, and 
they were alowed to go back to the dining car at frequent 
intervals to get food or coffee. The dining car was fitted 
with an air valve the same as the locks on the platform 
cars so that the air was kept fresh at all times. A com- 
plete outfit of surgical and first-aid-to-the-injured supplies 
was kept in the dining car, as also were an oxygen tank and 
air helmet for rescuing any one overcome by gas out in 
the tunnel. These helmets were never needed, however. 



although a number of men were overcome during the con- 
struction work. 

About forty men were employed on each train. These in- 
cluded a foreman in charge, four sub-foremen, one steam 
engineer, one electrician, one carpenter, one cook, one 
blacksmith and helper, and thirty laborers, in addition to 
the locomotive engineer and fireman, brakeman and con- 

< 8^-lor-8"c „ ; « 

* 7-Vror-7'C - --»| u Shaped Bolt Steel 

Hoosac Tunnel — Suspension Insulator for Outside Catenary 

ductor. In spite of the trying conditions under which the 
men worked not a single man employed on the tunnel trains 
quit work while the construction was in progress. The con- 
struction forces of the contractor were directed by M. J. 
Daly, general foreman in charge of the work. 


The construction work in the tunnel included the drilling 
of iooo holes 2]A in. in diameter and 18 in. deep in the roof 
of the tunnel for the catenary hangers; 1500 holes i?4 hi. 
in diameter and 6 in. deep in the side walls for telephone 
and signal cable hangers; drilling and blasting down the 
rock roof of the tunnel in many places to obtain the neces- 
sary clearances and erecting the catenary and trolley wires. 
A preliminary survey of the tunnel was made to determine 
the height of the roof at the hanger locations so as to 
prepare in advance the hanger rods of proper length. This 
survey also showed that the roof would have to be blasted 
down in many places to obtain the necessary clearance. 

The first work train was run into the tunnel on Nov. 6, 

Hoosac Tunnel — Erecting Tunnel Catenary Brackets 

1910, and the second was equipped and put in use on Nov. 
29. Both trains were stored in the North Adams yard 
when not in the tunnel. The work of drilling the roof and 
side wall holes was carried on from both ends of the tun- 
nel, with the two trains progressing toward the central 
shaft. It was necessary to keep the two trains on opposite 
sides of the central ventilating shaft with the locomotives 

always coupled to the ends of the trains nearest the shaft 
so that the men on the platform cars would not be bothered 
by the gas of either locomotive. One track was given over 
to the work trains for periods of from nine to twelve hours, 
beginning at 5 -.30 a. m. 

The drilling of holes for the roof bolts was carried on 
simultaneously at five locations 100 ft. apart above each 
train. The train was spotted by manipulating the con- 
ductor's valve on the caboose and was moved only as 
required by the progress of the drilling. The time required 
to drill each hole varied from twenty minutes to four hours. 
Some of the rock was very hard and at one location 65 
drills were required to drill three holes each 18 in. deep. 
A large stock of drills was carried on each train and one 
or two blacksmiths and helpers worked continuously in 
the forge car sharpening the drills as they were removed 
from the drilling machines. All holes required for blasting 
down the roof were drilled from the work trains, but the 
blasting and cleaning up was done by the force of miners 
regularly employed in the tunnel by the railroad company. 

The drilling above the west-bound track was completed 
before the east-bound. As the roof holes were drilled the 
bolts were set as the work progressed. In the brick por- 
tion of the tunnel I'^-in. double extra-heavy wrought-pipe 
bolts were used and in the rock portion J%-'m. solid 
wrought-iron bolts. In both cases the bolts were split at 
the upper end and were hammered home on a wedge. Prior 
to setting the bolt the hole was filled with a plastic mixture 
of neat cement, the surplus cement being forced out as the 
bolt was driven home. To fill the holes with cement a brass 
tube was first filled and inserted into the hole. As it was 

Hoosac Tunnel — Tower for Cross-Catenary Span 

withdrawn a rammer or plunger was used to ram the 
plastic mixture into the bottom of the hole to make sure 
that no air pockets were left. The cement rather than the 
wedge was relied upon to hold the bolt securely. Though 
these bolts were afterward subjected oftentimes to severe 
strains in the erection of the brackets and catenary material, 
not a single bolt showed any signs of weakness. The bolts 

July i, 1911.] 


1 1 

are threaded at the lower end to receive a bronze coupling, 
which in turn receives a bronze nipple of the proper length 
for the support of the special bracket to bring the trolley 
wires 15 ft. 6 in. above the rail. Each bronze coupling is 
provided with a flange on its lower side for the support of 
a cement cone, which protects the support from corrosion 
at the point of contact with the roof of the tunnel. 

The U-shaped hangers which are parallel to the rails 
were then attached over each track and leveled up, after 
which the secondary insulators were applied and the cross 
hangers put up. The messenger cable and both trolley wires 
over each track were strung simultaneously. The mes- 
senger was pulled up to the proper sag and the trolley wires 
were adjusted as to tension with a dynamometer at every 
fifth hanger, where they were clamped preparatory to 


The steel towers and bridges outside of the tunnel were 
all erected with a derrick car furnished by the railroad. 
A train of platform cars was equipped at each end of the 
tunnel for stringing the wires. These cars had platforms 
17 ft. high above the rails for convenience in working on 
the trolley wires, which are suspended 22 ft. above the 


An interesting detail of the overhead construction is a 
crossing of the two 11,000-volt a.c. trolley wires with a 
single 600-volt d.c. trolley wire of the Berkshire Street Rail- 
way on State Street, North Adams, just west of the pas- 
senger station. The crossing is at an angle of 47 deg. 30 
min., and the high and low-tension wires are in the same 
horizontal plane. The 600-volt trolley is sectionalized with 
wooden section insulators 8 ft. long at a distance of 100 
ft. on each side of the crossing, and is carried over the 
crossing under an inverted 5-in. channel which is supported 
by four Y%-'m. stranded steel cable span wires. The 11,000- 
volt trolley wires are sectionalized with similar section 
insulators inserted on each side of the channel, so that the 
d.c. trolley wire normally carries no current of any kind. 
On the north side of the crossing a feeder is taken off the 
600-volt trolley wire and carried to a switch mounted on top 
of a wooden pole set just outside the curb line. The other 
side of this switch is connected to one of the steel span 
wires supporting the crossing channel. A wooden rod runs 
down the pole from the switch and by pushing up on this 
rod the switch may be closed and 600-volt direct current 
fed to the crossing channel and trolley wire so as to permit 

Cross Catenary 

10 4 (rom Top of Rail 

Hoosac Tunnel — Twin Hanger for Tunnel 
Trolley Wires 

Hoosac Tunnel — Crossing of n,ooo-Volt and 600-Volt Trolley Wires 

in North Adams 

rails in the open. The steel messenger cable and the trolley 
wires for the open sections were received from the manu- 
facturer in lengths of about 1 mile and were run out simul- 
taneously as in the tunnel. All of the steel catenary bridges, 
cross-catenary towers and transmission line towers were 
fabricated by the Archbold-Brady Company, Syracuse, N. Y. 


While the construction trains were at work on one track 
in the tunnel freight and passenger trains were operated in 
both directions over the other track with the use of a train 
staff, the 5-mile tunnel section constituting an absolute 
block. As soon as the work trains emerged from the tunnel 
after a day's shift normal operation was restored on both 
tracks. Right-of-way was given to passenger trains at all 
times and as a consequence freight trains often filled the 
yards at both ends. In order to pass the maximum number 
of cars through the tunnel while both tracks were open, 
from three to five freight trains frequently were coupled 
together with all the locomotives at the head end. During 
the time construction work was in progress the traffic was 
the heaviest ever handled on the Fitchburg division. In 
January 52,000 cars passed through the tunnel in both 

a street car to pass over the crossing with current on. As 
soon as the switch rod is released it drops by gravity and 
opens the switch again. The section insulators in the 600- 
volt trolley are grounded at the center of their length so 
that the 11,000-volt current cannot leak past them to the 
d.c. trolley in case of breakdown of any of the 11,000-volt 
section insulators. The only combination by which 11,000- 
volt current can be fed to the d.c. trolley is that the pole 
switch be closed while a locomotive is on the crossing with 
one pantograph on the trolley wire and the other on the 
crossing channel. 


Five electric locomotives have been built for hauling 
freight and passenger trains. Two of these locomotives 
have a high-gear ratio and are intended for hauling pas- 
senger trains through the tunnel. Otherwise they are of 
the same size, weight and design as the three locomotives 
which will haul freight trains. The locomotives are of the 
articulated truck type, each truck consisting of two pairs 
of driving wheels 63 in. in diameter and a pair of radial 
pony wheels. The general design is the same as locomotive 
No. 071, of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Rail- 
road, which was described in the Electric Railway Iour- 



nal for Sept. 25, 1909, and May 7, 1910. To each pair of 
driving wheels is geared a single-phase motor of 396 hp, 
normal hourly rating. The motors are spring-supported on 
the truck frames. The freight locomotives will each haul 
a trailing load of 1600 tons up the 0.5 per cent grade in 
the tunnel at a speed of 20 m.p.h. 

It is expected that the five locomotives will be able to 
handle all trains through the tunnel for some time to come. 
By coupling and uncoupling the electric locomotives at the 
tunnel portals and not running them through the yards at 
each end, considerable time can be saved in the event of 
very heavy traffic movement or temporary breakdown of 
one of the locomotives. The intention, however, is to haul 
all trains from end to end of the electric zone bv electric 
locomotives so as to give the crews of the steam locomo- 
tives ample time to get their fires in the proper condition to 
give off the minimum smoke and steam while drifting 
through the tunnel. The steam locomotives of all trains 
will be hauled through the tunnel. 


Twenty electric locomotive crews were selected from 
among the oldest locomotive engineers and firemen on the 

nected at the west end by a cross pit 6 ft. wide, used for 
wheel changing. In a one-story brick lean-to, 10 ft. 4 in. 
x 87 ft. 5 in., on the south side of the building are a wash- 
room, office for the electrical superintendent, tool room, 
store room and heater room. A switch house, 24 ft. x 24 ft, 
adjoins the locomotive house on the northwest corner. The 
tool equipment includes a shaper, drill press, 42-in. lathe, 
14-in. lathe, and two grinders. These tools are all belt 
driven from shafting mounted on the west wall above the 
windows, which in turn is driven by a 15-hp motor mounted 
on a wall shelf. A motor-driven air compressor supplies 
compressed air, which is piped into each pit for blowing out 
motors and other apparatus on the locomotives. 

In the cross pit in the south bay are three hydraulic 
jacks, one under each track. These jacks have been 
installed for wheel changing and other heavy repairs re- 
quiring the lifting of the locomotive trucks. The floor of 
the cross pit is 5 ft. 4 in. below the shop floor, and the jack 
cylinders, which are 16 in. in diameter inside and 9 ft. long, 
are sunk flush with the floor of the pit. The jack plungers 
are 6*4 in. in diameter and are roughened on top. With 
220 lb. water pressure supplied by a motor-driven pump, a 

Hoosac Tunnel — Anchor Bridge at East End of North Adams Yard 

division, who were given an opportunity to apply for the 
positions. These crews were sent to Stamford, Conn., for 
a period of three weeks or longer to study the operation of 
the New Haven electric locomotives. Their salaries and 
expenses were paid by the railroad during this instruction 
period. The men were instructed in the practical details of 
operation and emergency repairs under the direction of H. 
Gilliam, electrical superintendent at Stamford, and were 
given a thorough examination before returning to North 
Adams. Practice runs were made by all the men in the 
North Adams yard for several weeks prior to beginning 
regular operation. 


A brick building, 109 ft. 4 in. x 78 ft. 4 in., has been built 
at the east end of the North Adams yard for use as a loco- 
motive house and repair shop. Four tracks enter the build- 
ing at the east end; a fifth track for storing wheels is built 
between two of the entrance tracks in the south bay, which 
is spanned by a 15-ton electric traveling crane. The two 
tracks in the north bay have pits 50 ft. long and extend 
beyond the ends of the pits 29 ft. In the south bay the 
two entrance tracks have pits 36 ft. long, which are con- 

load of 22 tons can be lifted by each jack. Two 90-lb. 
rails are laid in the floor of the cross pit to a gage of 3 ft. 
4 in., so that wheels can be moved to one side on two small 


The operation and maintenance of the overhead and 
transmission lines and electric locomotives is in charge of 
L. C. Winship, electrical superintendent. The power house 
is in charge of C. H. Baker, chief engineer. In all matters 
relating to locomotive repairs the electrical superintendent 
reports to the division master mechanic and in the main- 
tenance of the overhead lines to the engineer of main- 
tenance of way. J. D. Tyter, assistant superintendent in 
charge of the western district of the Fitchburg division, has 
authority over the electric locomotive crews and all other 
matters pertaining to operation of trains through the tunnel. 


The new power house at Zylonite, 2.V2 miles south of 
North Adams, and the transmission line connecting the 
power house and the switch house at the west portal of the 
tunnel will be described in a second article which will be 
printed in an early issue. 

July i , 1 9 1 1 . 



Standard Car of the New South Wales Govern- 
ment Tramways 

This Type of Car Combines Large Seating Capacity with Exceptionally Light Weight. The Body Is Framed Sepa- 
rately from the Structural Steel Underframe and Is Bolted Down on the Underframe. 

The New South Wales Government Railways & Tram- 
ways has in service in Sydney 195 double-truck cars of an 
interesting design which has been adopted as standard by 
the tramways department. They are of the combination 
open and closed type and seat eighty passengers in sixteen 

cross seats arranged back to back. The inclosed section of 
the car body, which is 19 ft. long, contains eight cross seats 
and is entered from the running boards through four double 
sliding doors in each side. The open sections at each end 
are inclosed by canvas curtains which are stiffened with 
galvanized iron strips sliding in grooves in the posts. Glass- 
inclosed motormen's vestibules are provided at each end of 
the cars. These vestibules are narrower than the car body, 
and are tapered to allow proper clearance between two cars 
passing on a curve of 66-ft. radius with tracks on 12-ft. 

The car body is built separately from the steel under- 
frame, and is bolted down on the top flanges of the side sills. 
J lie two principal members of the underframe are the lat- 
ticed girder side sills. These are built up of two 3-in. x 
3-in. x }i-m. angles and ij^-in. x ^-in. lattices. Each piece 
of lattice is continuous for four or five panels in order to 
reduce the number of rivets in the top member, so as not to 
interfere with the bolts used for attaching the car body. 
The girders are stiffened at the bolsters with a %-in. flat 


: deflection of right hand sill 
- left 

Total added Load 34 6Z 
Underframe I AO 

Timber 56 
Total Tons Distnbated 36.60 

Kew South Wales Car — End View 

New South Wales Car — Deflection Test of Underframe 

New South Wales Car — Side View 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 


plate, 8 ft. long, riv- 
eted to the top mem- 
ber, and an angle 3 
in. x 3 in. x yi in. x 
10 ft. long, riveted to 
the bottom member. 

The body bolsters 
are built up of two 
i-in. x 6-in. plates. 
The top plate is bent 
down inside of the 
top angles of the 
side sills. Six angle 
iron transoms con- 
nect the two side 
sills and support the 
central longitudinal 
filling pieces on 
which the car body 
rests. On each side 
of the bolsters light 
T-irons are riveted 
across between the 
side sills to support 
the ends of two 
similar longitudinal 
members which rest 
on top of the bolster 
and carry the motor 
trap doors in the car 
floor. The end sills 
are 3-in. x 3-in. x 


angles, bent 

around the corners 
and riveted to the 
bottom angles of the 
side sills. 

The platxorm 1111- 
derframing consists 
of two 4-in., 7-lb. 
channels, bolted un- 
der the gusset plates 
of the transom near- 
est the end sill and 
resting on top of the 
end sill. These chan- 
nels support the 5-in. 
x 3-in. angle-iron 
bumper. The plat- 
form floor is sup- 
ported in the center 
by two wooden sills, 
4 in. x 2) 2 in., which 
rest on the body end 
sill but are not bolt- 
ed or otherwise fas- 
tened to the body 
flooring. This plat- 
f r m construction 
was employed in or- 
der to minimize the 
damage to the car 
body and under- 
framing in the event 
of collisions, and it 
has proved entirely 
successful, for in 
three severe col- 
lisions the platforms 
have been the only 
parts damaged in 
either car. 

The steel under- 

July i, 1911.] 



frame weighs only 3140 lb., but it is very rigid. Assum- 
ing a maximum load of 160 passengers, the uniformly dis- 
tributed load on each sill is 33 lb. per inch of length. The 
diagram on page 13 shows the deflection of a complete 
underframe under a test load of 82,000 lb., which is equiv- 
alent to 72.5 lb. per inch per sill. With this load the max- 

Rabetted Boards, 

Gutter Rail, 

Width over Foot steps 9'-0 
with Steps raised 6 '-4 

J t 

New South Wales Car — Half Cross Section 

imum deflection at the center of the car was i n -> and 
the two side sills showed approximately uniform bend- 
ing at all points. In riveting up the latticed girders they 

of the end stanchions for the motorman's vestibule. The 
seats in both the open and closed sections of the car are 
made of hardwood slats. The floor of the car is only 31 in. 
above the rails, except in the two compartments immedi- 
ately over the body bolsters, where it is raised to 34 in. 
The two seats in each of these compartments are raised 
2 in. higher than the other seats to offset the rise in the 
car floor. Pressed steel seat end frames weighing 9^4 lb. 
each are used on the open compartment seats. 

Of the 195 cars in service 144 are equipped with General 
Electric Type M multiple-unit control and the remaining 
fifty-one cars have K-6 platform controllers. Four inter- 
pole motors of 30 hp each are applied on 174 of the cars, 
and the other twenty-five cars have motors of the same size 
without interpoles. The interpole motors were furnished by 
Dick, Kerr & Company, Ltd., and the motors without inter- 
poles by the General Electric Company. One hundred and 
thirty additional cars of the same type are now being built. 
They will be equipped with 30-hp motors without interpoles 
and multiple-unit control. 

The cars are fitted with Allis-Chalmers air brakes and 
Sterling geared hand braes. The air and hand brakes are 

-^6 Lbs- Z760Lbs 

New South Wales Car — Diagram of Brake Leverage 

connected to the truck brake rigging independently ; that is, 
the air brake rods are connected to the two inside truck 
brake levers and the hand brake rods are connected to the 
outside truck brake levers. When the air brake is applied 
the truck brake levers to which the hand brakes are attached 
act as dead levers, and their upper ends bear against the 
truck transoms. The wheels cannot be locked by the cumu- 
lative pressure of both air and hand brakes, nor can the 
breaking of any one part cause the entire braking power to 
be lost. The ratio of the foundation brake gear is 11^2 
to 1, and while this is slightly higher than is generally con- 
sidered good practice the gear has been used satisfactorily 
for more than three years. The gear hand brake multiplies 
the pressure on the brake handle 14.9 times, so that with 
100-lb. pressure on the handle the total braking force at 
the shoes is 34,270 lb. With the air brake and 70-lb. 
cylinder pressure a total braking force of 31,740 lb. is ob- 


The trucks used under these cars are a modified design of 
the diamond arch bar type with swinging bolster. The 


I jf.0- wheelbdse 

a'-s' — 

6-6 r- 

New South Wales Car— Motor Truck 

are given a camber of i n - a t tne ends and 3/16 in. in the 

The car body is built almost entirely of wood, and is a 
separate structure from the steel underframe to which it is 
bolted. It has an arched roof, the interesting feature of 
which is the gutter, which is continuous around the eaves. 
The water which collects in this gutter is carried down to 
the roadbed through a i l / 2 -in. iron pipe, which forms one 

bolster is supported at each end by a double coil spring 
instead of the usual elliptic spring, and the load on the 
side frames is transmitted to the journal boxes through two 
small coil springs supported on a yoke which straddles the 
journal box. The axle journals are only y/ 2 in. x 3^4 in- 
The trucks, as well as the car bodies, were built by the 
Meadowbank Manufacturing Company, Sydney, New South 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 


The following table gives the detail weights of one car 
with interpole motors and multiple-unit control : 


Car body, including running boards 7,503 

Underfrarae, including drawbar 4,798 

Motors, gears and gear cases 9,824 

Control, conduit, trolley bases, etc 3,028 

Brakes 1,153 

Trucks 4,852 

Wheels and axles 5,104 

Miscellaneous, including headlights, etc 649 

Total 36,911 

This is equivalent to 461 lb. per seat, 812 lb. per foot of 
length and 108 lb. per square foot of floor area. The cars 
with K-6 control and motors without interpoles weigh only 
33,851 lb., which is equivalent to 423 lb. per seat 743 lb. 
per foot of length and 99 lb. per square foot of floor area. 

The New South Wales Government Railways & Tram- 
ways are managed by a commission of three members 
headed by T. R. Johnson. The chief officers of the tramway 
department are J. Kneeshaw, traffic superintendent, who has 
supervision over the conductors and motormen ; G. R. 
Coudrey, tramway engineer, who is in charge of buildings 
and track, and O. W. Brain, electrical engineer, who is in 
charge of power generation and distribution, and the con- 
struction and maintenance of the rolling stock. The new 
standard cars were designed in the office of Mr. Brain. 
— _ 



In the brief period of from thirty to thirty-four years, 
the profession of electrical engineering as applied to the 
generation of, the transmission of and the utilization of 
large quantities of electricity has come into existence. In 
the broadest sense of the term this development has re- 
quired the creation of a new art. 

The development of electrical engineering has been a 
continued series of advances, step by step and leap by 
leap. There has been more obsolescence and more retire- 
ment of electrical machinery and tools and devices far in 
advance of their natural life, due to the continuing im- 
provement, than has taken place in the history of any 
other art. 

In our profession one has to read the daily press and care- 
fully study the columns of the technical press at all to keep 
pace with the new developments, the new achievements and 
the new victories of the profession from which we all make 
our livelihoods. This tremendous growth from the dynamo 
of 50 hp to the generator of 30,000 hp; from the incan- 
descent lamp as a luxurious curiosity to the incandescent 
lamp which is as much a feature of our modern civiliza- 
tion as our running water ; from the transmission distances 
of a mile or two to transmission distances of 200 miles; 
from the electric motor existing as a laboratory toy to the 
electrical motor of universal use and of 10,000 to 15,000 
hp has taken place within the span of years conventionally 
covered by the term a "generation." 

It is probable the annals of civilization do not contain a 
parallel, but along with this proper pride, with the feeling 
of well-merited satisfaction, let us not forget that collater- 
ally and a part of it, something without which it could not 
have taken place, has been the work of the promoter and 
the banker. No new industry can be established or when 
established can continue and no art can grow to the di- 
mensions of ours without the continued presence of the 
individual who supplies the capital, the money, the financial 
resources to the inventor and the engineer. Large and 

•Abstract of a paper read at the annual convention of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Electrical Engineers, Chicago, 111., June 27, 1911. 

continuing supplies of capital are required for research, 
for producing inventions, for the carrying out of the in- 
ventions and the development through their period of in- 
cipiency, of temporary failures and disappointments. 

We should give to the promoter, to the capitalist, to the 
man who is able to influence capital and to place it at the 
disposal of the men of our profession, the credit that is 
properly due him. The achievement of the electrical en- 
gineer would not have been possible if it had not been 
for the presence of the man with money who believed in 
the commercial possibilities of our art as from time to 
time developed and who produced the capital with which 
to continue development of that art. 

Our profession has indeed been fortunate in having had 
associated with it from its inception men who were suffi- 
ciently intelligent, courageous and far-sighted to see the 
merit of the indentions and developments which from time 
to time were produced and who had withal the faith and 
the ability to continue to stand behind these inventions and 
developments with their capital during that period which we 
all know has taken place, when these inventions and these 
developments were under criticism, were temporary failures, 
and while only disappointing results were being reached. 
During this period of disappointment, of hazard, during 
this period of modifications from the original plans and 
disappointments and changes, the man or corporation with 
money was present to tide the infant invention or industry 
over the shoals and hazards which surrounded it, and ex- 
cept for the presence of men of the type of which I am 
speaking, with their courage, their faith and their capital, 
many of the inventions and developments of our profession 
would have been buried in the grave of permanently dis- 
appointed hopes and non-fulfilment. 

To-day our art is developed. The products of the brains 
of the electrical engineers are so well known, their com- 
mercial utility is so thoroughly established, particularly in 
the principal lines of our achievements, as to lead us to be 
forgetful, perhaps, of that period which the older of us 
recollect so clearly. This period, due partly to the crudity 
of our own devices and the undeveloped condition of our 
own inventions, due partly to the unstable condition of 
the collateral features upon which we depended, such as 
steam engines, boilers, water wheels and manufactured 
articles, was a period attended with heart-breaking 
anxieties not only to the inventor and engineer, but do not 
forget that it was also a period of heart-breaking anxieties 
and disappointment to the man who had invested his capital 
in those things. 


To-day there is a world of discussion regarding the 
value of a franchise, the terms of a franchise, the privileges 
it affords, the obligations it carries and the fraud which in 
the minds of the public is supposed always to be inseparably 
connected with anything bearing that name. There is much 
comment, nearly always unfavorable, regarding the condi- 
tions under which franchises for electric light and power 
transmission companies and trolley roads have been issued. 
If those who, probably with the best intentions possible, are 
criticising these matters had gone through the experience 
of the earlier days, they would change their opinions. 

In those days franchises were given freely. ' Anyone 
who applied for a franchise would receive it and, as a 
rule, without burdensome restrictions. The community 
which was favored by having capital build for its service 
an electric light plant to furnish what it believed to be a 
luxury and which otherwise it would not have had, or 
a community which was favored by a company which in 
return for a franchise would spend the money necessary to 
change the cruel and totally inadequate intramural animal 
transportation of that town or city to an electric transpor- 
tation system, was properly and deservedly welcome. 

Until recently the laws governing the ownership of the 

July i,. 1911.] 



power in the stream were believed to be pretty fairly 
understood along the lines handed down from our Anglo- 
Saxon ancestors. The company or individual who came 
into the community and produced the capital to develop 
these streams was royally welcome and he was viewed 
generally with some wonderment regarding his financial 
obliquity. If a brief and unprejudiced study is made of 
the history of these earlier electric light, trolley and 
water-power companies, it will be impossible to depart from 
the conviction that the persistence and courage of the pro- 
moter and the capitalist who carried them through their 
earlier periods of disaster and lack of credit is quite as 
notable an achievement as that of the inventors and en- 
gineers who introduced the physical and scientific part of 
these enterprises. 

This enterprise and this courage which heretofore have 
been wisely fostered by the commonwealth have given the 
United States of America the most universally extended, 
the best operated public utility plants in the world. In 
the vast majority of cases the service rendered by the cor- 
porations is furnished to the public — with superior service 
with its wide extensions — at less cost than in any other 
country. Various contributing causes have produced this 
result. Among these causes has been the natural inherent 
courage and enterprise of the American. In addition to 
this, however, have been the liberal franchise grants issued 
in the past and the freedom from onerous restrictions both 
for occupancy of streets and the purchase and development 
of water-powers. A broad and liberal construction which 
has justified the issuance of stock which would eventually 
pay to the projectors and developers of these enterprises 
when they became successful something in addition and 
beyond a mere fair interest return on their investment has 
also had a profound influence upon giving to our country 
the best utility corporations of the world. Without these 
features this development with its low charge to the public 
could not have taken place. 


Abuses have taken place in the past on the part of the 
corporations, on the part of the public served by the cor- 
porations and on the part of the legislative and law ad- 
ministering bodies. At the present time my opinion is that 
both the public and corporations are reaching a common 
meeting ground, requiring public service corporations to 
be protected and regulated monopolies ; these corporations 
to be governed as to their rates and to be protected from 
competition by so-called "public service commissions." 
With this doctrine as such, the public service engineer and 
operator has no quarrel. We do file a plea, however, that 
these public service commissions be composed of men of 
character, men of ability, men who have accomplished 
something in the world ; that these commissions be com- 
posed of men who while fair and upright are conversant 
with the business which, under the laws governing their 
action, they are controlling. 

The abuses which have undoubtedly taken place in the 
dealings between the municipal bodies and the public ser- 
vice corporations have been as distasteful to the corpora- 
tions as to the public, and the cry of the corporations is for 
a fair hearing, for an intelligent hearing, for fair recogni- 
tion of the benefits they have conferred and a demand to 
be relieved from the hardships and frauds which in many 
cases they have suffered at the hands of politicians, a 
partially educated public sentiment and the municipal gov- 
erning bodies. It is believed that properly constituted 
public service commissions, appointed for "good behavior," 
composed of high-class men, suitably paid and operating 
under broad and liberal laws, will accomplish this much- 
to-be-desired object. 

The public should recognize that the so-called public ser- 
vice corporations should be encouraged and fostered in- 
stead of being strangled and discouraged. The widest 

latitude should be afforded the operations of public service 
corporations under monopoly and protection, and fair laws 
administered by conservative and able public service com- 

The electrical engineer must recognize that in 1 dition 
to the multiplicity of duties he has been called ur o dis- 
charge, he is now confronted with a new cU of re- 
sponsibilities from which he cannot shrink. To .nese re- 
sponsibilities he must give the best that is in him of ex- 
perience, of fair-mindedness, of wisdom and of justice. 

Old methods and old standards are passing away ; new 
methods and new standards are demanded. It will be a 
shame if the present crisis fails of a solution more rational 
ana with less hardship and destruction than has attended 
previous solutions of economic and social crises. Out of 
the present controversies we must endeavor manfully and 
fairly to bring a condition of justice to all concerned, and 
in our share of duty in these matters we must make every 
effort to be intelligent and not to be found wanting in fair 
dealing and honesty between man and man, between cor- 
porations and the public and between governing bodies and 
corporations. Principal among these new responsibilities 
which are being rapidly thrust upon our profession is mak- 
ing appraisals to determine the value of the property of 
a public service corporation. 


These values, in accordance with the unmistakable pres- 
ent trend of the times, are to be made a basis upon which 
are fixed the maximum rates which these corporations are 
to be allowed to charge for service rendered. In the ma- 
jority of cases the property to be appraised represents a 
continuing growth or a construction period from its in- 
ception. Much of the construction work we are called 
upon to value is concealed from view, such as foundations 
of buildings, foundations for machinery, submerged por- 
tions of hydraulic construction, conduit systems and gas 
pipes. In every case the structures or plants have been 
built in "piecemeal" fashion. Almost every public service 
corporation has started from a small beginning and added 
to its plant continuously, and the finished structure to-day 
represents construction work which has been continued 
from the time the original property was created. In 
meeting the questions to which the spirit of the times is 
demanding answers, very properly a demand is made by 
all parties to the controversy that absolute and entire frank- 
ness and complete candor pervade the negotiations. Prop- 
erly a period has been put to the practice of dissimulation 
and trickery and misrepresentation on the part of the 
public, the governing body and the corporation. From a 
long experience I can state for my part that trickery and 
dissimulation and unfair dealing in the past have been 
fully as great on the part of the public and the governing 
bodies, if not greater, than on the part of the corporations. 
Following this proper demand for candor, I desire to call 
attention to the painful fact that it is extremely rare for a 
professional engineer or constructor in any branch of in- 
dustry, in any branch of construction, to estimate the cost 
of such construction with accuracy and that the practically 
uniform experience has been that all such estimates have 
proved woefully less than the cost of the completed project. 

Every one of us whose duties require him either as a 
principal or in an auxiliary capacity to be responsible for 
the furnishing of capital to build any given public service 
construction or to develop any given enterprise knows 
full well from a long and painful experience that unless he 
provides for indefinite excess charges or leaves some other 
avenue of escape, the enterprise or construction when 
finished will be burdened with a floating debt which seldom 
is of small relative proportion. This debt is the difference 
between the estimated cost of building the undertaking 
and the actual cost as developed after the event. I be- 
lieve there has not been a considerable piece of public 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

service construction in recent years where the finished cost 
complete has not overrun the estimated cost by a minimum 
in a few cases of 10 per cent to 15 per cent to a maximum 
in a majority of cases of a dangerously large percentage 
which , ot infrequently has gone to an excess cost of 100 
per 05 


How careful, therefore, how fair-minded and liberal 
should be the point of view of the professional engineer in 
appraising the value of another man's or another corpora- 
tion's property for the solemn and serious purpose of hav- 
ing based upon his appraisal the return which that man 
or that corporation is to be allowed to receive upon his 
investment! It is unfair that an engineer or appraiser 
who recognizes at the bar of bis own conscience that his 
own estimates have been uniformly overrun should make 
his appraisals without taking into consideration and man- 
fully applying to his estimate his own factor of individual 
inaccuracy, his own personal factor of nearly unfailing 

If the profits to be allowed public service companies 
were to be on a broad and liberal basis this feature would 
be of less importance. The spirit of the times, brought 
around partly by mistakes, by selfishness, by unfairness, on 
the part of all parties to the contract, the tendencies of 
the times, actuated to a degree by certain irresponsible 
magazine writers, magazines and papers, and by certain 
politicians, all tend to reduce the return of the public ser- 
vice corporation to a low point. At best it would indicate 
allowing the public service corporation, after paying its 
operating expenses and depreciation charges, a distributable 
sum equivalent to from 7 per cent to a possible 10 
per cent upon its reproduction value, the higher percent- 
age being rather hoped for than indicated. I think the 
situation is one of the most momentous which confronts 
our profession to-day. A large part, I presume 90 per 
cent, of the activities of our profession have resulted from 
the continuing growth and existence and development of 
public service corporations. 

Capital will leave any given field with great speed if 
it finds that it is receiving an unfair or unjust recompense 
or other fields offer greater inducements. Without capital 
modern enterprise is impossible. The most beneficial use 
of capital is to have it employed in developing new enter- 
prises, extending existing enterprises, which in turn de- 
velop and add to the wealth of the communities served. 
The profession in which the members of this association 
are engaged could not exist at all if capital withdrew its 
support from enterprises depending upon the genius and 
ability and conscientious effort of the electrical engineer. 

Avoid the influence of the idea that the professional en- 
gineer can get along without the services of capital. 
Capital on its part must treat the public, the laboring man 
and the professional man with fairness and liberality, with 
more fairness and liberality than it has in the past. On 
the other hand, the professional man, who from the nature 
of his calling and its dignity carries a large influence in 
the community in which he operates, must not forget the 
close correlation between brains, labor and capital, and 
neither through professional indifference or professional 
jealousy allow himself to give capital an unfair hearing 
or an unjust decision. 

We must avoid the fallacy that only the physical portion 
of a corporation's property is entitled to a value. Beyond 
the naked physical value there is required a very large 
and material sum to change that naked inert mass of 
physical construction into a live, progressive, earning 
entity. The omission of the cost of making a going con- 
cern in addition to its naked physical value has been the 
root and cause, in my judgment, of a large proportion of 
the disasters which have overtaken enterprises in the field 
in which we operate. 

These remarks and more to the same effect apply to 
the question of intangible values, and I hope the fullest 
consideration will be given to them. These intangible 
values generally embrace interest during construction, acci- 
dents and insurance during construction, engineering 
charges, supervision charges, and they should include pro- 
portionately the tremendously large sums expended by pub- 
lic service corporations in developing the business, in edu- 
cating the public, and producing a sale of their commodity, 
whose reflex effect in subsequent reduction of the operat- 
ing charges should be considered as proper cost in the value 
of the property. Further proper charges, of an absolutely 
legitimate nature, to the intangible value account include 
the legal expenses of organization and of putting the en- 
terprise on its feet, the discounts on securities sold or 
brokerage paid for finding of the capital, and, particularly 
in the case of the older companies, the large sums spent in 
absolute good faith in what was really a period of experi- 
menting to obtain the best apparatus, the best systems and 
methods adapted to the requirements of the company that 
happens to be in question. Due regard should always be 
given to the added cost of piecemeal construction which has 
been an unfailing incident of all of these corporations. 
In all fairness it should include the losses due to ob- 
solescence and the discarding of workable machinery long 
before its life had been exhausted, this discarding being 
for the purpose of keeping pace with the times and in 
the last analysis for the better serving of the public. 

There is a tendency, I hope a diminishing tendency, to 
be unfair to public service corporations and to be entirely 
oblivious of the hazards and risks they have incurred in 
the building of their business and to be forgetful of the 
profound importance and great benefit they have been to 
the communities they serve. 

A recent example, and a very pertinent one, of this ten- 
dency to be unfair has occurred in the appraisal of the 
value of one of the largest utilities in a large Western city. 
It was found that a material part of the distributing system 
of this company was now under paved streets, but that, 
due to the enterprise or necessity of the company in the 
past, a part of its underground system had been placed 
in the streets in question before they were paved; that is, 
the paving above this underground system on a material 
portion of the company's property had taken place after its 
distribution system was in the ground. The ruling of the 
body making this appraisal was that this company was not 
entitled as a part of its value to the cost to which it would 
have been put of placing this distribution system under the 
paved streets, and the difficulty of sustaining this ruling is 
plainly evident from the fact that wherever this company 
has put its distributing system underneath paved streets, 
or where it is doing it to-day, the cost of that paving has 
applied to this company and is allowed as a part of the value 
of the plant. It would be hard to conceive of a more direct 
effort to discourage enterprise than this particular ruling. 

We all believe we are approaching a far better under- 
standing between all parties concerned on these questions 
than has existed in the past. The effort of all of us must 
be by conscientious effort, by candor and sincerity to bring 
around this better condition. 

The Berne power station in the Berne Highlands has 
just been put into operation. The water power of the 
Kander River is utilized for the operation of turbo-gener- 
ators of from 9000 to 12,000 hp. It is intended to use the 
power in the form of high-pressure single-phase alternating 
current for the working of the Lotschberg Railway, and 
perhaps also for other lines. It is assumed that the federal 
railway authorities will soon approach the question of the 
conversion of the St. Gothard Railway to electric traction, 
as otherwise the stream of tourist traffic will presumably 
be diverted to the new Lotschberg-Simplon Railway. 

July i, 1911.] 





A general impression prevails that operating officers of 
railroads will not consent to the publication of their oper- 
ating costs. This to some extent may be true, but where 
such figures are correctly understood and properly used 
there should be no objection to their publication. When 
the question of presenting certain data pertaining to the 
operation of the electrified portion of the West Jersey & 
Seashore Railroad before the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers was discussed with the management of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, the reply was made that not 
only would the information be furnished, but that it would 
be a pleasure to have such information made public through 
the proceedings of the Institute. The data included in 
this paper were taken direct from the operating records 


'0Corson's Inlet 

Sea isle city 

DELAWARE I I / gSfomimsend-s Inlet 

CapeMa/ <f\ ^avaloa 

JC '4C ^Yffl*™* HARB0R 




West Jersey and Seashore 


w_ ^^Steam Lines 
«— Lines Electrified 

West Jersey & Seashore — Map of Steam and Electric 

and no effort was made to curtail or to modify them in 
any respect. No attempt has been made to analyze or 
compare the data with any that have heretofore been pre- 

No detailed description of the construction used in the 
electrification of the West Jersey & Seashore Railroad 
was thought necessary for the purpose of this paper. A 
complete description was published in the Street Railway 
Journal for Nov. 10, 1906, and Oct. 12, 1907. The ac- 
companying map shows the electric lines and the steam 
lines which are operated by the West Jersey & Seashore 

The portion of the line which is electrically operated 
extends from Camden, via Newfield, to Atlantic City, a 

'Abstract of a paper read at the twenty-eighth annual convention 
of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Chicago, 111., June 
26-30, 1911. 

distance of 64.6 miles; and from Newfield to Millville, a 
distance of 10 miles. With the exception of the Millville 
branch, which is a single-track railroad, the line is double- 
tracked, with a third-track extending for a distance of about 
6 miles north from Woodbury. 

This portion of the West Jersey & Seashore Railroad 
was originally operated by steam and was a single track 
line south of Newfield. In the latter part of the year 1905 
it was decided to electrify. The work was undertaken in 

Power Stations: 

Building, stacks, coal and ash handling machinery .... $354,000 
Equipment 640,900 

Total $994,900 

Transmission line 241,500 


Buildings $72,000 

Equipment 419,560 

Total 491,560 

Third-rail 557,636 

Overhead trolley 80,500 

Track bonding 102,659 

Cars 1,135,900 

Car repair and inspection sheds 46,674 

Right-of-way, additional 592.100 

Reconstructing tracks 763,800 

Constructing new tracks 2,071,000 

Terminal facilities and changes at stations 252,400 

Signals and interlocking plants 561,900 

Changing telegraph and adding telephone facilities 105.100 

Fencing right-of-way, cattle guards, etc 88,400 

Miscellaneous items 44,200 

Total $8,130,229 


Power station, cost per kw $110.00 

Transmission line, cost per mile 3,485.00 

Substations, building and equipment cost per kw 28.90 

Third-rail, cost per mile 4.235.00 

Overhead trolley, cost per mile 4,120.00 

Track bonding, cost per mile 684.50 

Cars, including electrical equipment each 12.214.00 

December, 1905, and had progressed to such a point that in 
the early part of July, 1906, the first train was moved elec- 
trically. Regular operation by electric service was estab- 

CENTS PER CAR MILE, 1909-1910 

Year 1909 



Tient Co? 

ic Power 
r Shoes. 

ng Costs 









,es. Tota 

ige Cars 

■3 6 

S ft 


a w 





of Equ 

E " 




01 — 




> ft 






1 1 5 1 


























































































August... . ... 














September. . . . 














October. ..... 














November.-. . . 














December .... 














Avg, per mo . . 



li 25 





(1 69 



Is 75 



Year 1910 





n 46 



















































May. ..,.„, , . 










































August. ." 














September. . ... 



























November. . . . 














December. . . . 














i Avg. per mo . . 














lished in September of the same year. The direct-current 
over-running third-rail system operating at 675 volts was 
chosen for this installation. 


In order that the accompanying statements of cost of 
operation and detentions to train service may be more 
readily understood, the following general data relating to 
the electrified sections are a:iven : 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

The track consists of ioo-lb. and 85-lb. rails. The total 
length of single track, including sidings, is 150 miles. The 
power station is located at Westville, N. J., on Big Timber 
Creek, 5.6 miles from Camden Terminal. Its rated ca- 
pacity is 8000 kw. It contains four 2000-kw, 6600-volt, 

TEM, 1910 








track bonding 














January . 

$142 96 




84 $35 


$492 96 



$26 67 


February . . 

409 74 







580 80 




3 75 

March. . . 

198 62 







495 . 55 



39 26 


April . 

403 44 










30 24 



256 14 











1 27 

123 21 










312 08 

2 08 


167 90 







818 29 




3 30 

August. . . . 

357 20 







1.631 72 

1 1 





508 51 










202 . 05 

1 35 

October.. . . 

604 93 







647 27 



98 66 


November . 











189 83 

1 .26 

December . 

100 34 







1,466 71 













10.864. 13 





tCredit for scrap 58.75 

three-phase, 25-cycle Curtis turbo-generators with separ- 
ately driven exciters, and three blowers, with a capacity 
of 20,000 cu. ft. of air per minute each. The boiler room 
contains sixteen Stirling water-tube boilers of 358 hp each, 



Boat connection '. , . . 

Baggage, express and mail . . . 

Heavy travel \ 

Collecting tickets 

Train connections 

Traffic ahead 

Held at signal 

Stops on order 

Fast schedule 

Picking up and cutting off cars. 


Signal lailure 



Miscellaneous. . , 

Train detentions, number, time 
and per cent for various causes 

Number of 


Total transportation. 

Motive power. 

Power house trouble 

High tension line trouble 


Overloads in substations 

Third rail shorts 

Third rail out of place 

Third rail anchor on fire 

Third rail protection out of 


Trolley wire trouble 

Train equipment. 

Total motive power. 

Weather Conditions. 

Snow, head winds, wet rail. 
Sleet on third rail 

Total weather condition . 
Grand total 





Per cen 

20 . 575 
18 677 
15 068 
:-; or,s 

91 .621 

47 ' 


(I WA 






I Per cent 






18 749 

12 354 


0. 128 

2 938 

3 196 

Car miles 
per minute 

vii 1,7/ 




8 451 

9 054 

490 . 47 
890 45 

523 . 68 


72,048 50 





87.377 90 

2.619. 11 

1,088. 17 


Total car mileage. 

Car miles per detention 

Car miles per minute of detention . 


equipped with superheaters. Fourteen of the boilers are 
equipped with Roney stokers and two are equipped with 
Taylor stokers. 

The alternating current, which is generated at 66oo 

volts, is stepped up in the power house by means of 
twelve 700-kw single-phase transformers to 33,000 volts. 
It is transmitted to the substations over transmission lines- 



or eight substations 






675 volts 







$1,573 82 

$373 10 


$0 001136 



1,601 78 


1,749 17 





174 27 

1.792 43 



1.728 98 


2,004 62 



1,760 46 

370 91 

2,131 37 



1 ,794 44 


2,226 99 










1,751 03 

194 13 

1,945 16 



September. . . . 







1.744 23 

145 99 

1,890 22 



November. . . . 



1,892 85 




1,745 68 


1,875 70 






$24,459 61 

$0 001082 


69.3 miles long, which consist of two duplicate circuits, Y 
connected and having the neutral phase grounded. The 
wires are No. 1 B. & S. gage, hard-drawn solid copper. 
The transmission line poles are chestnut, 45 ft. high and 
spaced 125 ft. apart. A ground wire for lightning protec- 
tion is strung on the top of the poles 4 ft. above the nearest 
wire. The signal line and the lighting circuit also are 
carried on the transmission line poles. 

There are eight substations between Camden and At- 
lantic City. These substations contain from two to three 
rotary converters and their total rated capacity is 17,000 



January. . . 
March. . 



June . ... 
July ... 
August ... 
October. . 

Av. for year . 

Alternating Current kw-hr 
Power Station Output 

Cost in Mills 
per Kw-hr. Output 

Lb. of Coal 
Kw-hr. Output 

Efficiency Power Sta. 
Bus to Substation Bus 

Alternating Current Kw-hr. 
Power Station Output 

Cost in Mills 
per Kw-hr. Output 

Lb. of Coal 
Kw-hr. Output 

Efficiency Power Sta. 
Bus to Substation Bus 








6 10 














73 6 











72 3 











71 8 






72. 1 

















































































76 2 


























1 ,756,500 



3 25 






3 46 


















































3. 14 












3. 16 







3 34 









September.. . . 


























November.. . . 













December. . . . 




3 41 








Av. for year. . 




3 30 








kw. They convert the alternating current into direct cur- 
rent at 675 volts. 

Of the 150 miles of single track, 141.73 miles are equipped 
with third rail, which is Pennsylvania Railroad standard 

July i, 1911.] 


section and composition, weighing 100 lb. per yard. The 
third rail is of the top contact type and for the most part 
is unprotected. It has a conductivity equal to 1,200,000 
circ. mil of copper. No feeders are used in connection 
with the third-rail. In the approach of the Camden ter- 
minal 9.55 miles of single track are equipped with over- 
head trolley. A No. 0000 grooved copper wire supported 
22 ft. above the rails with span wire construction is used. 

The car equipment consists of 79 motor coaches having 
a seating capacity of 58 passengers each; two combination 
passenger and baggage motor cars, having a seating ca- 
pacity of 36 passengers each ; six baggage and mail motor 
cars and six baggage motor cars. The coaches weigh 
94,500 lb., or 1630 lb. per passenger seat. The electrical 
equipment of each car consists of two 200-hp G.E. motors 



FrtTr. Pass. Road foreman Master 
Master Tr. Master Engines Mechanic 

Div. Div. 
Engineer Operator 


Foreman elec. cars Line foreman 

1 Clerk 7 Patrolmen 

10 Inspectors 17 Repairmen 

1 Foreman car barn 

1 Air br. inspector 

2 Contactor insp's 

2 Truck repairmen 

1 Armature inspect. 
1 Armature winder 
1 Blacksmith 
4 Machinists 

3 Wiremen 

L Babbitt worker 
7 Carpenters 
16 Car house helpers 
1 Janitor 
1 Watchman 

14 substation operators 

1 Relief operator 
1 Substation repair- 

Foreman power house 
1 Clerk 
1 Storekeeper 
1 Boiler room eng. 

3 Water tenders 
6 Firemen 

4 Coal passers 
1 Boiler room repmn. 
1 Tower man 
4 Helpers 

1 Conveyorman 
3 Watch engineers 
3'Switchboard opers. 
3 Turbine oilers 

2 Auxiliary opers. 

3 Auxiliary wipers 
2 Repairmen 
1 Machinist 
1 Bricklayer 

1 Blacksmith 

1 Blacksmith helper 

West Jersey & Seashore — Organization of Electric Division 

with type M multiple-unit automatic control. The gear 
ratio is 29 -.46. Fifteen steel coaches having a seating ca- 
pacity of 72 passengers have recently been authorized. 
These cars will weigh 103,500 lb., or 1445 lb. per pas- 
senger seat. 

Table I on page 19 shows the cost of construction in 
connection with the electrification and includes the cost 
of work made necessary by electrification. It will be noted 
that the electrification costs represent less than half of the 
total cost involved in the change of motive power. 


With the introduction of electric service the organization 
of the road was not changed, but was expanded to provide 
for the new duties. A chart of the motive power organiza- 
tion is reproduced, which shows the number of employees 
engaged in the various departments. 


The cost of operation and maintenance of the Westville 
power station for the year 1910 was $153,449.79. The 
total net output of the station was 28,312,500 kw-hours, 
making the total cost per kw-hour equal to 0.542 cent. The 
cost of operation alone was $136,324.66, or 0.481 cent per 
kw-hour. The largest items of operating expenses were 
labor, $29,170.42; and coal, $102,715.31. The coal used 
cost $2,235 P er ton °f 2000 lb. and one kw-hour was pro- 
duced from 3.246 lb. of coal. The maximum monthly out- 
put of the station was 3,088,300 kw hours in August and 
the minimum was 1,865,300 kw-hours in February. 

Table II shows the cost of operation of electric train 
service for the years 1909 and 1910 in cents per car mile. 
The table also shows the total car miles per month and the 
average number of cars per train. The heading "Other 
Expenses" in this table includes the cost of maintenance 
of way and structures, dispatching trains, telephone and 
telegraph, crossing gatemen and all traffic and general 

Table III shows the cost of maintenance of the trans- 
mission system, which includes the high tension lines, over- 
head trolley, third-rail and track bonding. 

Table V shows the operating and maintenance costs 
of the substations, together with their total output in kw 
hours. The total substation output for the year is only 
21,972,300 kw-hours, as compared with a power station 
output of 28,312,500 kw-hours. 


A detailed statement of the detentions to electric train 
service for the year 1909 is given in Table IV. This table 
includes detentions to trains from all causes. The column 
headed "Number of Detentions" shows the number of 
trains delayed, while the column headed "Minutes' De- 
tention" shows the total train minute detentions for each 

In 1909 the failures of car equipment were responsible 
for total delays of 1568 minutes. The number of car miles 
per detention in that year was 17,328 and the number of 
car miles per minute detention was 2619. In 19 10 the total 
number of delays due to failures of car equipment was 314 
and the total detentions were 1694 minutes. In the latter 
year the car miles per detention were 14,497 and the car 
miles per minute of detention 2687. 

(A complete tabulation of the causes and duration of de- 
lays due to failures of car equipment for the years 1909 
and 1910 was included in the paper, but is not reproduced. — 

The paper also included a complete tabulation of the re- 
newals of such parts as third-rail shoes, brake shoes, fuses 
and other details of equipment. From this table it appears 
that the average life of third-rail shoes was 24,020 miles 
and the average life of brake shoes was 5976 miles. 

Table VI shows by months for the four years from 1907 
to 1910 inclusive some data relating to the generation and 
distribution of power. An improvement will be noted in the 
reduction of cost of power as well as a reduction in the 
coal consumption per kw-hour. The most marked im- 
provement, however, is shown in the efficiency of transmis- 
sion and conversion, which is accounted for by the fact 
that the operation of the substations is followed up with 
care so as to minimize the idle operation of rotaries. 




The courts repeatedly use "fair value" as the only one 
which should be recognized, and it is this value that the 
engineer must bear ' in mind when estimating depreciation. 
Fair value includes something in addition to physical val- 
ues, in which the engineer is primarily interested. 

There is much evidently sincere but nevertheless mis- 
taken opposition to the application of any principle of de- 
preciation in determining the value of going properties; 
and yet a consideration of what depreciation — if any — ■ 
has taken place in the physical property of every cor- 
poration must be had, in order to obtain a safe — though 
it may be only approximate — indication as to proper or 
improper capitalization. 


Depreciation. — Webster defines "depreciation" as the 
"act or state of lessening the worth of," and in this sense 
it: will be used by the writer regardless of the source or 
method of worth reduction, or by what means it may or 
may not be removed. 

Physical Value. — This includes primarily "those things 
which are visible and tangible, capable of being invento- 
ried"; but, secondarily, certain non-physical charges "which 
are an inseparable part of the cost of construction but 
which do not appear in the inventory of the completed 
property." These secondary values are expenditures for 
such items as engineers' and architects' fees, administra- 

*Abstract of paper read at (he twenty-eighth annual convention of the 
American Institute of Electrical Kin 1 ineers, Chicago, HI., June 27. 1911. 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

tion expenses chargeable to construction and provision for 
various incidentals and contingencies, incomplete inven- 
tories, unforeseen requirements, etc. 

Development Expenses, Intangible or Overhead Values. 
— Development expenses generally cover most or all of the 
following expenditures : 

1. Legal and other expenses of preliminary promotion, 
incorporation and organization, procuring consents of 
property owners, condemnation proceedings, obtaining 
franchises, consents and certificates from public service 
commissions and other public bodies, title examinations 
and insurance. 

2. Technical expenses in connection with preliminary 
work, surveys, expert estimates, etc. 

3. Interest on capital and bond issues, wages of superin- 
tendence and administration not chargeable to construc- 
tion ordinarily necessary in connection with putting a 
property in going order ; and also sometimes the deficiency 
in operating expenses and taxes until the property is put 
on a paying basis. 

4. Taxes which must be paid until the property is com- 
pletely a "going concern." 

5. Discounts on securities, brokerage or other customary 
and necessary expenditures in connection with financing 
such an undertaking and marketing securities. 

6. Reasonable promotion profit, possibly also compen- 
sation for risk of capital, estimated at 5 per cent to 10 per 
cent of the cash investment. 

Development expenses are not ordinarily depreciated in 
the same way as the physical property, though some au- 
thorities have indicated that such procedure is proper. De- 
velopment expenses may well be amortized. The rate of 
amortization might well be based on the life of the se- 
curities, whereas the depreciation of the physical property 
would have to be based on its rate of deterioration through 
life, which the Wisconsin commission reports to average 
for electric lighting properties 17.46 years, telephone 
plants 11.24 years, and electric railways 18.02 years. 

Original Cost. — This refers to the actual amount of 
money paid fur the physical property including original 
construction plus all additions since that time. 

Cost to Reproduce New, or Cost of Reproduction. — These 
terms refer to an estimated value based on the cos* of 
reproducing the physical property new, on the basis °oi 
prices current at the time of estimate — prices that fluctuate 
considerably are averaged for five years preceding — and 
includes everything that can be inventoried. 

Scrap Value. — All physical property unless offset in 
whole or in part by cost of removal, has a certain scrap 
or junk value beyond which there is no depreciation. 

Wearing Value. — If from the cost — taken on whatever 
basis is determined to be the correct one — there is sub- 
tracted "scrap - ' or "salvage" value of given physical prop- 
erty, the remainder is a value known as "wearing value," 
which will deteriorate and entirely pass away. 

Service Value. — Physical property honestly and intel- 
ligently purchased with a view to its suitableness for the 
service intended, aside from some hidden defect or un- 
toward accident, maintains its original value practically 
throughout its life except for such deterioration as results 
from wear and tear or deferred maintenance. Going value 
may or may not accrue in addition to and over and above 
service value. Going value relates to establishment of 
earnings while service value exists regardless of earnings. 

Present Value. — The more frequent application of the 
term is to that value obtained by deducting from "original 
cost" or "cost to reproduce new" the accrued deprecia- 
tion, which may be either absolute depreciation or the sum 
of both absolute and theoretical depreciation. Apprecia- 
tion as well as depreciation must be considered in deter- 
mining "present value" as indicated by the Supreme Court. 
(Wilcox vs. Consolidated Gas Company, 212 U. S., page 

Going Value. — This refers to an estimated worth recog- 
nized by the highest courts and ingeniously figured and 
allowed for by at least one State commission in connec- 
tion with a wise expenditure made in increasing the bus- 
iness of an established plant. 

Good Will.- — A monopoly, as is generally admitted, has 
no good will which can be evaluated, and the courts have 
sustained this view. 

Franchises. — The present tendency, largely by reason 
of legislative enactments, is to prohibit the capitalization 
of franchises beyond the absolute expenditures made in 
good faith in obtaining said franchises. 


The subject of depreciation from an engineering stand- 
point practically divides itself as follows: 

Wear and Tear, or Maintenance. — This includes such 
depreciation as may ordinarily be removed or offset by 
proper expenditures at such time as the worn-out parts 
may be economically replaced. 

Age or Decrepitude. — Depreciation of this sort is due to 
the aging of apparatus that usually has a life extending 
over a period of years. 

Inadequacy or Supersession. — When street railway ser- 
vice has increased to such an extent that many and fre- 
quent small single-truck cars are required to do the work 
that can be done by larger double-truck cars at less cost 
and with less interference with street traffic, both economy 
and necessity compel -superseding the smaller equipment 
by the larger, and thus, through inadequacy, investment in 
the smaller equipment is depreciated before the property 
is worn out or becomes decrepit. Furthermore, the intro- 
duction of heavier cars may make inadequate the rails and 

Obsolescence. — Obsolescence means the depreciation of 
property through the development of something newer and 
either more economical or more of a fad. By reason of 
rapid advance and development in the art, obsolescence 
has heretofore probably caused the greatest expenditure 
for depreciation account, unless it is wear and tear; but 
as time goes on obsolescence may become a less im- 
portant factor, though it would probably be at the cost 
of improvements and development. 

Deferred Maintenance. — The several classes of depre- 
ciation hereinbefore referred to assume that the property 
will be kept in good operating condition and efficiency. 
Deferred maintenance is only another term for neglect and 
always reflects to the discredit of the management or the 
financial ability of a corporation. 

"absolute" and "theoretical" depreciation 

Where property is no longer of service it must be de- 
preciated down to the value at which it may be sold, even 
though that value is as low as scrap value. On the other 
hand, apparatus that is in use and rendering a service 
economically may. for the purpose for which it was in- 
tended, be as valuable as when originally installed, al- 
though its age may be approaching the limit of its life. 

The erroneous application of rates of depreciation in 
the attempt to determine present commercial values is 
fairly common, one of the most notable cases, because of 
the large amounts of money involved, being that of the 
Public Service Commission of New York, First District, 
in the matter of the Third Avenue Railroad reorganiza- 

The "straight-line" method of depreciation has been 
more largely used than any other, probably because the 
life of much apparatus is brief; and, furthermore, the 
application of this method is the most simple, direct and 
easily understood, and hence favored by the legal frater- 
nity and a large proportion of the members of public utility 
commissions, many of whom, not technical men, naturally 
incline toward the more easily appreciated elements of 
the questions which they are compelled to consider and 

July i, 1911.] 



As indicating the possible error in attempting to esti- 
mate "theoretical" depreciation, it is frequently found that 
the length of life assumed has been greatly surpassed by 
apparatus which is still giving reliable and satisfactory 
service. For apparatus still giving satisfactory service 
after the expiration of its assumed life it is only fair in 
estimating theoretical depreciation to allow a value greater 
than scrap value. The minimum value of all types of en- 
gines, boilers, pumps, heaters, condensers, line transform- 
ers and shafting is, at present being taken by the Wis- 
consin commission, for example, at 25 per cent ; generators, 
motors, rotaries, arc lamps, wood and iron poles, 20 per 
cent; station transformers, 40 per cent; storage batteries, 
35 per cent, and switchboard instruments and electric me- 
ters, which must be kept in a high state of repair, 80 per 
cent, as the minimum percentage of reduction in cost for 
apparatus still in use though theoretically "dead." 


For a small company or where relatively large propor- 
tions of the invested capital are locked up in few or single 
pieces of property, it is preferable to accumulate, in ad- 
vance out of operating income, reserve funds from which 
to provide for all classes of depreciation. But such method 
may be unnecessary and possibly an inexpedient account- 
ing complexity with large corporations, where the invest- 
ments in any single piece of physical property are small 
relative to the total investment. In brief, where the prop- 
erties are large enough depreciation becomes only normal 
wear and tear, but in any case operating expenses should 
be made to provide for ultimate loss in value, whether re- 
serve funds are accumulated or all depreciation is charged 
to the "wear and tear account." It is on this theory that, 
a large property having numerous physical elements, all 
deterioration becoming simply "wear and tear" and a part 
of operating expenses, the receiver of the Third Avenue 
Railway in New York City declines to obey the order of 
the Public Service Commission and provides no depre- 
ciation fund whatever, simply removing deterioration when 
it occurs and charging it as maintenance in operating ex- 

It has been the too frequent practice in the past to re- 
gard wear and tear as the only elements of depreciation 
chargeable to the operating expense and to charge capital 
account in whole or in part with expenditures for age, 
inadequacy and obsolescence. The error of this procedure 
is now almost universally recognized and the injustice of 
such improper handling of depreciation to both the investor 
and the public served is clear. 


There has been such marked development and improve- 
ment in all mechanical appliances, particularly along 
electrical lines, that inadequacy and obsolescence have 
usually come into effect before age, and, in consequence, 
knowledge of the depreciation of all electrical properties 
due to age has not yet been fully established. 

The determination of depreciation due to inadequacy and 
obsolescence is a particularly delicate matter, it depends 
so largely on local conditions and especially upon individual 
judgment and equipoise. Inadequacy and obsolescence 
usually develop so quickly that very frequently the property 
in question becomes inadequate or obsolete within a few 
weeks or months, and has depreciated to scrap value almost 
as soon as these classes of depreciation are recognized; a 
space of time entirely too brief in which to apply ordinary 
methods of offsetting depreciation. 

Information should be collected so as to make clear the 
causes of depreciation and the rate at which it has 
progressed. For example, wear and tear would probably 
have to become subdivided into maintenance and accident. 
Obsolescence might be divided so as to show whether the 
obsolescence was caused by city ordinance or the invention 
of new apparatus. In obtaining age depreciation, care must 
be exercised that the apparatus is abandoned through ex- 

haustion of life, not through inadequacy or obsolescence. 

In determining the total amount of deterioration due to 
inadequacy and obsolescence, only those elements of the 
property which have clearly and unequivocally so depreci- 
ated should be written off to this account. On the other 
hand, in determining the rate of depreciation for making 
provision covering inadequacy and obsolescence, the engi- 
neer should be sure to provide a rate high enough to take 
care of these classes of depreciation out of the operating 

As the United States Bureau of Internal Revenue pro- 
vides that reduction in value authorized for depreciation 
"shall include all expense items under the various heads 
acknowledged as liabilities," it will be seen that the proper 
understanding of the question of depreciation is a vital one 
for those connected with corporation management, because 
if no depreciation fund is set up nothing can be included in 
the cost of operation as necessary to provide for deprecia- 
tion, as would be essential in a case involving rate regu- 
lation, for example. Moreover, the State public service 
commissions are now generally requiring depreciation ac- 
counts and reserves on a basis to be decided by each 
corporation itself. 

The manner of determining the amount to be set aside 
for annual depreciation varies, there being three general 
methods recognized. 

a. An estimate based on a percentage of the cost of 
the property being depreciated. The special master in 
the Columbus (Ohio) case held that the amount of operat- 
ing expenses chargeable to depreciation should be "5 per 
cent of the total cost of the plant including real estate, 
real estate constituting but 7 per cent of the total valua- 
tion." The present laws of Massachusetts provide in re- 
spect to municipally owned gas or electric plants that 
there shall be included an amount for "depreciation equal 
to 3 per cent of the cost of the plant exclusive of land and 
water-power appurtenant thereto." 

b. A fixed percentage of the gross earnings. This 
method is sometimes taken to include wear and tear and 
sometimes not. The practice in this regard is illustrated by 
the following companies : 

Per Cent, of Gross Revenue 
, _ Expended or Appropriated for 

JName of Company. . , „ . .. 

1 - Maintenance. Depreciation. 

Milwaukee companies: 

Railway departments 11.3 9.9 

Gas, electric light and steam heat depart- 
ments 6.15 8.12 

United Railways Company of St. Louis 13.67 10.0 

Union Electric Light & Power Co., St. Louis.. 4.95 16.0 

Suburban Electric Light & Power Co 7.10 10.85 

Detroit Edison Company and subsidiaries 6.45 10.23 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway Co 10.0 

Chicago street railways 6.0 8.0 

c. On the basis of kw-hours output or car miles run. 
The New York Edison Company charges monthly for re- 
newals and replacements, etc., one cent per kw-hour on 
current sold to general consumers in addition to wear and 
tear. In Cleveland 5 cents per car mile is provided to 
cover both'maintenance and other deterioration. In Brook- 
lyn the subsidiaries of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit System 
allow amounts varying from 2.7 cents to 4.4 cents per car 
mile for equipment of surface roads and from 1.4 cents 
to 2 cents per car mile for equipment of either elevated 
or partly elevated railways; from 2.2 cents to 2.4 cents per 
car mile for way and structures for surface roads; from 
1.1 cents to r.8 cents for elevated or partly elevated rail- 
ways, to cover not only obsolescence, inadequacy, renewals 
and replacements, but also repairs and maintenance. 

Total Depreciation. — From the cost should be deducted 
the absolute depreciation in order to obtain the present 
real or service value of the property. If it is desired to 
go further than this and obtain a theoretically depreciated 
value, the absolute depreciation must be increased by a 
theoretical depreciation determined by the use of estimated 
amounts to cover assumed deterioration for age and non- 
existent, but expected, inadequacy or obsolescence. 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

Very many authorities agree that in making an estimate 
of the amount of depreciation effective in any property, 
"used or useful," there should at least be included in the 
amount to be deducted an estimate of the amount of wear 
and tear, deferred maintenance, if any, also scrap value of 
property that has been worn out or superseded as well as 
inadequate or obsolete property provided it is still inven- 

The only allowable exception to the inclusion of in- 
adequate or obsolete property as a part of depreciation is 
where inadequacy or obsolescence has so suddenly and 
largely affected a property that its earnings have not per- 
mitted the writing off at the time or since such developed 
depreciation; then in such cases it may be that capitaliza- 
tion or earning basis should not be reduced by taking ac- 
count of any such depreciation. 

Whether or not "theoretical depreciation'* should be in- 
cluded as part of the total depreciation in determining 
fair value of physical property is a mooted question. The 
public service commissions have rather leaned to the opin- 
ion that such depreciation should be considered in deter- 
mining fair value. On the other hand, many, if not all, of 
the court decisions are against such inclusion of theoretical 

Provided a property is kept in good order and at 100 
per cent working efficiency so as to render service to the 
public equivalent to that of a new plant, the question of 
rates or value of property in its service to the public has 
absolutely nothing to do with the amount of reserve funds 
the corporation may or may not have accumulated. While 
the engineer must be quick to recognize loss of value 
where it actually exists and to make deductions for property 
that has been worn out or superseded, he should not be 
misled into including purely hypothetical or academic 

The confused state of mind that prevails with regard to 
the application of depreciation in determining present 
value results largely from the misapplication of principles 
established by the courts in rate cases. These decisions ex- 
pressly provide that allowances to cover the deterioration 
of all sorts, including ultimate replacement, are to be pro- 
vided out of operating income. 


A quick and it seems to the writer a very fair method 
of obtaining the theoretical depreciation of certain classes 
of physical property has been used in some utility apprais- 
als and may be called the "50 per cent method." It has 
been used by Prof. M. E. Cooley in connection with his 
figuring of depreciation in the Michigan State appraisal; 
H. P. Gillette in the appraisal he conducted for the 
State of Washington; B. J. Arnold in appraisal work for 
the Public Service Commission of the First District of New 
York, and the writer in connection with the reorganiza- 
tion of the Third Avenue Railway in New York City. It 
has, I understand, also been approved by the Master Car 
Builders' Association in connection with the appraisal of 
rolling stock. It will be seen that this method of determin- 
ing depreciation will be fallacious if the installation does 
not consist of a large number of similar elements or has not 
been in use for a sufficient length of time to permit the 
repair account reaching its normal maximum, which it 
would not do unless practically all parts have been renewed 
once and renewals are constantly taking place ; hence it 
could not be applied to the buildings of a corporation which 
owned few buildings and probably not even to engines or 
generators because usually they would be too few in num- 
ber — except for the very largest organizations — to permit 
their being replaced without abnormally affecting the 
amount annually appropriated on account of depreciation. 
The net result of the application of the 50 per cent method 
is at once apparent: 50 per cent of the cost, less salvage, 
will be immediately written off as depreciation. 


The percentages added to structural costs to cover engi- 
neering, incidentals, contingencies, etc., in order to obtain 
physical values have usually been considered an inherent 
part of the cost of the physical property and treated as such 
in connection with the depreciation of the physical prop- 
erty. With certain parts of the property this is un- 
doubtedly a correct procedure and for the sake of sim- 
plicity and consistency may be recommended; but, as a 
matter of fact, the original engineering investment in 
certain parts of the physical equipment, for example, road- 
bed and track, still remains there and is as much a part of 
the property as the real estate, although the rails and ties, 
which have been cited, may have been many times relaid 
and paid for as a part of operating expenses. It would 
be no more unreasonable to leave such investment per- 
centages undepreciated than it is to depreciate the physical 
property entirely independent of development expenses or 
going value, which seldom, if ever, has been practised. It 
has been held by some that the discount on securities 
should be written off at the same rate as depreciation of 
the physical property ; but the more usual plan is to 
amortize such costs at a lower rate, determined by the life 
of the bonds. In some cases it may not be advisable to 
amortize investments of this character at all. 


1. The necessity for a more general agreement on and 
uniform use of the terms used in considering and discuss- 
ing depreciation. 

2. The rate of depreciation adopted for accruing depreci- 
ation must not be confused with the total sum of deprecia- 
tion in physical property, which is an estimate for a given 

3. The difference between absolute and theoretical de- 
preciation should be recognized and the amounts separately 


4. Theoretical depreciation must be assumed and pro- 
vided for as operating expenses if capital is to remain un- 
impaired and rates are to give maximum service at mini- 
mum expense. 

5. Service value, determined from consideration of the 
"absolute" not the "theoretical" depreciation of physical 
property, is to be used, in connection with certain proper 
non-physical values, as the basis on which rates are to be 
fixed, capitalization allowed and taxes assessed. 

6. While usually preferable, there exists no necessary 
reason for always writing off certain costs such as engineer- 
ing, incidentals, etc., at the rate at which the physical 
property of which they are an inherent part is depreciated. 

7. Development expenses bear no fixed relation to the 
cost of the physical property and their amortization has no 
necessary relation to the rate of depreciation of the 
physical property. 

8. The amount of depreciation of physical property can 
be accurately determined only by inspection on the part of 
competent and conscientious engineers. 

9. There exists an urgent demand for co-operation 
among engineers, manufacturers and service corporations 
for the intelligent collection and correlation of data on 
which properly to base estimates of depreciation. 

Mr. Dalrymple, general manager of the Glasgow Cor- 
poration Tramways, Glasgow, Scotland, has submitted an 
interesting report to the Town Council on the question of 
equipping the Glasgow cars with vestibules. Several years 
ago various devices were tried to protect the motormen, 
but these were all unsuccessful. The present vestibule in- 
closes the whole platform including the steps. After its 
experience of twelve months with the present vestibule the 
committee has decided to equip every car in service with 
the full vestibule. 

July i, 1911.] 





Let the public know ; tell them all about yourselves. It 
is a duty you owe not only to the people btft to yourselves 
as well. 

Of all the modern inventions of urban and suburban 
life developed within the past half century none has been 
so wonderful in its growth and ramifications as the elec- 
tric street railway. Yet because of the misrepresentation 
of those with ulterior motives, supplemented by the non- 
presentation of tbe real facts by those who know, abuse 
is heaped upon the electric railways.. 

To-day you introduce to a municipality this wonderfully 
comfortable means of annihilating time and space and you 
are hailed as a giver of new life, but a year from to-day 
the same people will not be greatly adverse to placing 
you on the cross of craping criticism. To-day you invest 
all the money at your command, adding to it all the credit 
you can obtain, in rails, cars and power, all the best prod- 
ucts of the art, and then give a service far beyond the 
wildest dream of the most optimistic citizen, but a year 
from now your track, your cars, your power and your 
service are condemned as being antiquated: Your critic 
continues to live in the same house, use the same furniture, 
eat from the same dishes, content in the belief that he is 
doing what is proper. He can readily see the financial 
folly of wiping out his investment, but he doesn't under- 
stand why you should not scrap a $5,000 car. The average 
citizen goes to his butcher and asking the worth of meat 
is told and believes ; he goes to his tailor and asking the 
worth of clothing is told and believes. But when this cit- 
izen comes to you asking what it costs to make his street 
car ride possible and is told, thereupon you are made chief 
in the Ananias club. 

The prevailing opinion of the public had its origin in 
your own lack of comprehension of what you started out 
to do. In the beginning all you planned was the substi- 
tution of motors for horses. You could give, you be- 
lieved, the same service — perhaps a little better service — • 
at a less cost. Your original cars and their duplicates 
would do ; to them you would fasten motors and string up 
some wires from which to secure the current of electricity. 
You would save the cost of feed and the loss of dollars 
by sickness, old age, or death of animal power. Coupled 
with these was the certainty of somewhat shortening the 
running time, so you figured it out that you could per- 
form the public service of transportation not only better 
but cheaper. You proceeded by contractual relations to 
perform this service at rates that have since proven to 
be far less than they should have been. Others, lured by 
the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow and with less 
knowledge than you, entered the field with even rasher 
promises than you believed you could fulfil. You found 
that the mystifying motors required larger cars and then 
the larger cars required larger motors. With larger cars 
and more powerful motors came greater speed, which re- 
quired rails and roadbeds of costly design. The devel- 
opment of the industry has been a constant succession of 
putting in new capital and still more capital, with the scrap 
heap growing apace long before even a fractional portion 
of the original investment has been returned. 

The people have been served lavishly. You have made 
it possible for them to live far from the smoke and noise 
of shop and factory ; you have given them a means of 
transportation within the city faster, more frequent and 
more certain than human mind ever thought possible. You 
have spread the cities out into the country. You have 
done all these things, but so intent have you been upon 

"Abstract of z paper read at tbe twenty-eighth annual convention 
tion, Windsor, Ont., June 6, 1911. 

your work that, even though through bitter experiences you 
have learned that deficits are not surpluses and deprecia- 
tion must some time be met, you have not set about to tell 
the user of your street car that every five-cent piece he 
pays is far from being all profit. You have not gone 
about it scientifically. To-day your car shops are scien- 
tifically organized; you employ engineers to do your track 
building; you make use of chemists; operating depart- 
ments are in the hands of men of wide knowledge of the 
public's needs; you are quick to locate defects in your in- 
ternal organization, but you have not yet brought to an 
equally high standard a public information department. 

To-day several of the states and provinces have begun 
a scientific study of the art of transportation through 
trained men in the employ of the railway commissions. 
There is deeper investigation of the problem than ever be- 
fore and eventually the knowledge gained will seep through 
to the minds of the people. This knowledge should not all 
be theoretical ; the difficulties besetting practical men must 
be made known in order that there be a clear compre- 
hension. Each railway should do an active work in 
properly educating the public with which it is in immedi- 
ate and constant touch. 

No public utility receives so much attention to-day in 
the press as is given to electric railways. Day after day 
and year after year the name of your railway appears in 
public print, often with words of truth, often with words 
of falsity. Occasionally you are being given credit for 
doing something for the public good and more often you 
are being accused of crimes you never committed. If a 
nagged conductor and a crabbed passenger have a quarrel, 
headquarters are given the blame; if a transfer is wrong- 
fully issued, it is done on the advice of the president of 
the company after months of consultation with the 
directors, and should some one coming around the rear 
end of one car be run over by the car going in the opposite 
direction it is, of course, all deliberately planned by the 
general manager. Your patron may oversleep and perforce 
have to snatch an unsatisfactory breakfast, but you must 
have the car ready for him when he reaches the corner. 
Similarly you are to blame because you do not buy cars 
enough and build tracks enough and have an abundance 
of car crews on hand to take back the armies from the 
shop, the factory and the ball game within the space of 
five minutes or less. That the butcher and the grocer 
cannot assuage one's wants promptly is no excuse for you. 

Why not intelligently try to direct the information that 
goes out broadcast among the people whom you transport? 
They are entitled to know what you are doing and why 
you are doing it. You should tell them that your prosper- 
ity means their good service and their prosperity means 
still better service. Let them see that there is a proper, 
decent relationship between you as the common carrier 
and them as the riders. Take them into your confidence. 

No matter what may be the motive of the man higher up 
in newspaper control, it should be remembered that the 
reader believes in what his paper tells him. His news- 
paper is the source of his information and his school of 
instruction. The very fact that a man reads a certain 
paper is the best evidence that he believes it it from first 
column to last, including, sometimes, the advertisements. 
Your average citizen believes his newspaper is published 
primarily to furnish him with local and world information, 
and so he necessarily believes he is being honestly dealt 
with, but on the real purposes of the man higher up he has 
never had occasion to ponder. Make the giving of news a 
definite department of organization with the same atten- 
tion to it as to other departments. Let the public know 
what you have done and what you are doing. Let the pub- 
lic know of your new appointments and of your accidents. 
Let the public know of your schedule changes, of where 
you add to the service and where you take off and why- 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

Municipal corporations, through clerks and departments, 
let the public know what is going on because the public is 
interested. You should do no less. Don't be afraid of 
printer's ink. Let the public know. 



Two general classes of laws have been enacted within 
the past few years affecting the accounting of electric rail- 
way and lighting companies: First, laws providing for the 
creation of railroad commissions, or public service commis- 
sions, having jurisdiction not only over steam railroad com- 
panies, but also over electric railway and other public 
service corporations, and for the making of annual reports 
to those commissions containing more or less minute de- 
tails of earnings and expenditures; and, secondly, laws pro- 
viding for the taxation of such corporations and the mak- 
ing of reports of securities outstanding and the value of 
properties owned, as a basis for the assessment of taxes. 

These laws have a tendency to induce accurate, clear, 
open, simple accounting that can be understood by in- 
vestors and that will lead to more accurate knowledge on 
the part of the public generally of the real cost of electric 
railways and the expense of maintaining and operating 

Under these new laws the accountant becomes as im- 
portant an officer of the State or the public service cor- 
poration as the lawyer or the engineer. He takes equal 
rank with them. His advice is as necessary as theirs. 

In addition to these laws, some of the States — Illinois, 
for illustration — have passed laws to authorize cities to 
acquire by purchase or condemnation the property of ex- 
isting street railway companies; and some cities, in States 
where municipal ownership of street railways is not au- 
thorized by law, notably Cleveland, have granted fran- 
chises, or are contemplating the grant of franchises, con- 
taining options to the municipalities to purchase the prop- 
erties of the companies. When cities are making plans to 
buy street railways at the cost of producing them, and 
when, at the same time, the taxing officers of cities, 
counties and States are reviewing the railways for the pur- 
pose of placing upon them as high a valuation as pos- 
sible for taxation, there is little inducement or tempta- 
tion for street railway companies to place upon them anv 
value but their actual value ; and they may, in returning 
their properties for taxation or in optioning them to the 
public, safely produce their books, which, of course, should 
show not only the cost of the physical property, but its 
present condition as indicated by maintenance reserves to 
provide for depreciation from wear, and sinking funds to 
provide for the amortization of that difference that always 
exists between the par of the outstanding securities of a 
corporation, even though the capitalization be equal only 
to the exact cost of constructing the road and the actual 
value of the plant in average working condition. 

If the work of the accountant does not show accurately 
the cost of production and the relation of outstanding 
securities to property accounts, it may be difficult to ex- 
plain why the officers of the company present arguments 
to taxing officers that are apparently inconsistent with argu- 
ments advanced in support of a high valuation of physical 
property, if the property is to be bought by the franchise- 
granting authority, or if dividends are to be limited to a 
fixed rate upon that value. Of course, there will be differ- 
ences in opinion as to what should be included in the price 
that a municipality ought to pay for a railway property, 

♦Abstract of paper read before Central Electric Accounting Conference, 
Springfield, 111., June 24, 1911. 

even when the basis for fixing the value is agreed upon, and 
as to what should be included in the taxable value of such a 
property. Overhead charges are unquestionably a proper 
part of the cost of producing a railway, and should be 
included in the purchase price. They should not be in- 
cluded in the value placed upon street railway properties 
for the purpose of taxation unless they are included also in 
the value placed upon the properties of all other corpora- 
tions, firms and individuals. They are more difficult of 
ascertainment in negotiations for placing a value upon an 
old property, the cost and current value of which are not 
definitely shown upon the books, than in the case of new 
properties, or additions to old properties, the cost of which, 
under the standard system of accounting, is properly shown 
in the company's accounts. 

Laws providing for the appointment of railway commis- 
sions and for the taxation of public service corporations 
should be as fair and just to the corporations as the cor- 
porations are expected to be to the State. This remark is 
suggested by the title of the Michigan law for the creation 
of a railroad commission, viz.: 

"An act to define and regulate common carriers, and the 
receiving, transportation and delivery of persons and 
property, prevent the imposition of unreasonable rates, pre- 
vent unjust discrimination, insure adequate service, create 
the Michigan Railroad Commission, define the powers and 
duties thereof, and to prescribe penalties for violations 

This title seems to accuse the railroad companies of 
being unreasonable in the making of their tariffs, partial, 
unfair and unjust to their patrons, and disposed to give 
the people inadequate service. Of course, these conditions 
should be prevented ; but a law that defines its purpose to 
be to insure reasonable rates, adequate service and justice, 
not only to the public, but to the corporations that serve 
the public, will accomplish every purpose of the act re- 
ferred to, and do it without reflection on those citizens of 
the State who are lawfully and honorably engaged in the 
transportation business. 


Under recent Ohio laws electric railway companies of 
that State are required to file three annual reports, two 
with the Tax Commission, one of which must contain a 
statement of the company's gross earnings, on which a 
tax of 1.2 per cent is collected by the State. The other 
must show the number of shares of capital stock, the par 
and market value thereof, the amount of capital stock sub- 
scribed, the amount of capital stock actually paid in on 
stock subscriptions; a detailed statement of the real estate 
owned by the company in Ohio, where situated, and the 
value thereof as assessed for taxation; a full and correct 
inventory of the personal property, including moneys, in- 
vestments and credits, owned by the company in Ohio, 
where situated, and the value thereof; the value and a 
general description of the real estate owned by the com- 
pany and situated outside of Ohio, and a description or 
inventory of the personal property owned by the company 
outside of the State, giving the location thereof and its 
value ; the total amount of bonded and other indebtedness ; 
the gross receipts ; the gross expenditures in detail ; the 
length of line within and without the State, its character 
and value ; the character, classes, number, values, locations, 
ownership or control and use of rolling stock; the actual 
value of depots, station houses, section houses, freight 
houses, machine and repair shops, and all other buildings, 
structures and appendages connected thereto, including ma- 
chinery and tools ; all telegraph and telephone lines, and 
their value ; and the gross earnings for the year, within and 
outside of the State. 

The elaborate blanks prepared by the Tax Commission 
for these reports have, because of their detail, and be- 
cause they call for information that has not in many 
cases been on the books of the railway companies, re- 

July i, 1911.] 



quired a great deal of work on the part of the accounting 
departments of the electric railway companies. They 
seem to call for more information than is necessary for 
the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the law, 
and the arrangement of the statistics is illogical. A re- 
vision of the form will probably be made within the cur- 
rent year. 

The third report is required by the new public service 
commission law. The form of report has not yet been pre- 

Section 12 of the new law provides that a system of ac- 
counts shall be established by the commission which, 
when practicable, shall conform to the system provided 
by the Tax Commission of Ohio. It is likely, therefore, 
that the report required by the Tax Commission will 
answer the 'purpose of the reports that the Public Service 
Commission will ask the railway companies to file. Section 
12 is as follows: 

"The commission may establish a system of accounts to 
be kept by public utilities, or classify utilities and prescribe 
a system of accounts for each class, and prescribe the man- 
ner in which such accounts shall be kept. Such system 
shall, when practicable, conform to the system prescribed 
by the Tax Commission of Ohio. It may, also, in its dis- 
cretion, prescribe the form of records to be kept by public 
utilities, and the commission may require that no other 
records be kept, except as may be required by the laws of 
the United States or as may hereafter be required by the 
laws of this State. The commissioner shall at all times 
have access to all accounts kept by public utilities, and may 
designate any of its officers or employees to inspect and 
examine any and all such accounts. The commission may, 
if it shall determine that any expenditures or receipts have 
been improperly charged or credited, order the necessary 
changes in such accounts." 

The report to the Tax Commission takes the place of the 
returns of personal property for taxation heretofore made 
by public service companies to county auditors. 


The laws of Michigan require reports from common 
carriers, including electric railway companies, similar to 
the reports required by the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion, on blanks prepared by the Railroad Commission. 


The laws of Pennsylvania provide for a tax at the rate 
of 5 mills upon each dollar of the actual value of the entire 
capital stock, common, special and preferred, of street rail- 
way companies and other corporations; and, for the pur- 
pose of determining the amount of this tax, corporations 
must file with the State a report for each year ended the 
first Monday of 'November, showing the amount of capital 
stock authorized, the amount of stock sold in the year, the 
amount and rate of dividends paid, the earnings, the 
expenditures, the amount of funded and floating debt, the 
amount set aside for sinking funds, the surplus, the cost of 
the road or line, the cost of equipment, of real estate and 
buildings, of securities of other companies, the amount 
of cash and current assets, etc. The president and the 
secretary or treasurer of each company are required to 
take an oath to estimate and appraise the capital stock of 
the company at its actual value in cash, and then to make 
such estimate and appraisal of the actual value in cash 
of the capital stock "as it existed beween the first and 
fifteenth days of November, not less, however, than the 
average price which said stock sold for during said year, 
and not less than the price or value indicated or measured 
by net earnings or by the amount of profit made and 
either declared in dividends or carried into surplus or 
sinking fund, and not less than the actual value indi- 
cated or measured by the intrinsic value of its tangible 
property and assets, the extent and value of its good will 
and franchises and privileges, and the material results of 
their exercise." 


I have not had an opportunity to study, or even see, the 
latest law of Illinois on this subject. The law of that 
State authorizing municipal ownership and operation of 
street railways requires a great deal of accounting work. 


I wrote to the railway commissioners of Indiana and 
Kentucky some weeks ago for a copy of the laws of 
those States relating to the taxation of electric railway 
companies and the making of reports by them, so as to 
be able to incorporate in this paper the provision of the 
laws of the six States represented in the conference, but 
have received no reply to my letters. 


It would seem desirable that the laws of all the States 
on the subject of public service accounting be uniform, 
that the system used as to street and electric railways be 
the standard system of the American Electric Railway Ac- 
countants' Association and the Intersate Commerce Com- 
mission, and that one or more of the members of every 
public service commission be a public service accountant, or 
a man of practical experience, familiar with the accounts 
that he is to check. 


The franchises that have been most widely discussed 
within the past few years are those granted to the Chicago 
railway companies in 1907, and the Cleveland Railway in 
1909. They illustrate or indicate the modern tendency toward 
government control of railways, containing provisions by 
which the councils of the two cities may require operation 
at lower rates of fare than the maximum rates prescribed 
by the franchises. In the grants of both cities unusual 
recognition is given to accounting. In the Chicago fran- 
chises the most important features, perhaps, are those 
providing for a board of supervising engineers ; in the 
Cleveland franchise the most important are those relating 
to accounting. 


The Cleveland ordinance contains many provisions on 
the subject of accounting. 

In a paper read before the American Electric Rail- 
way Accountants' Association last year, I called attention to 
some of the accounting features of this franchise. It con- 
tains one imperfection, from an accounting point of view, 
that was not mentioned in that paper. The grant provides 
that the property of the company shall be maintained in 
such good order and condition that it shall at all times be 
worth 70 per cent of the cost of reproducing it, and pro- 
vision is made for a maintenance fund of about 5 cents per 
car mile for this purpose, but if the value of the- property, 
plus the amount accumulated in the maintenance and re- 
newal fund, shall at any time aggregate more than 70 per 
cent of the reproduction value of the entire system, the 
maintenance allowance may be diminished. 

These provisions protect the stockholders as to the 
property that existed at the time the capitalization, or 
"capital value," to use the phrase of the franchise, was 
fixed, it having been fixed at the depreciated value of the 
physical property, plus the value of franchises and one or 
two other intangible items. But the same provisions apply 
to property acquired since Jan. r, 1908, the date of the 
valuation of the property in existence at the time of the pas- 
sage of the ordinance, and all that may be added from the 
present time to the end of the term of the grant, and no 
provision is made by the ordinance, or permitted by it, for 
a sinking fund to take care of the difference between the 
cost of the new property and the 70 per cent of its value, 
which is assumed to represent its average working con- 
dition. The grant contains an option to the city to purchase 
the property at its termination at a price to be agreed upon 
between the city and the company, or to be fixed bv a 
board of arbitrators, the price to be the cost of the repro- 
duction of the physical property, less a reasonable amount 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

for depreciation, and plus 10 per cent. Nothing is to be 
paid for the company's franchises. 

This means that in case of purchase by the city at the 
end of the grant the stockholders will receive but 70 per 
cent of their investment, if the new property has depreci- 
ated in value 30 per cent, [f, during the remainder of 
the life of the grant, the company should spend $20,000,000 
for extensions, betterments and permanent improvements, 
and if then the city should elect to purchase, having ob- 
tained power from the State to do so, it will obtain for 
$14,000,000 property which cost the stockholders $20,000,- 
000, and the stockholders will lose $6,000,000 of their invest- 
ment, less, of course, the 10 per cent bonus. This is on the 
assumption that all of the new property will have depreci- 
ated 30 per cent. The company has asked that the or- 
dinance be amended so as to permit it to accumulate a 
sinking fund to take care of this 30 per cent depreciation, 
and has pointed out that a tenth of a cent per passenger 
will be sufficient for the purpose. Another tenth of a cent 
per passenger would provide for the value placed by Judge 
Tayler in his capitalization of the company upon the fran- 
chises held by the company on Jan. 1, 1908, for which the 
company is to receive no compensation in case of purchase 
by the city at the termination of the franchise. The city 
so far has declined to consent to the suggested amend- 
ments. The city street railroad commissioner, however, 
has recommended the adoption of an amendment changing 
the price to be paid at the end of the grant to the par 
value of all outstanding bonds, floating debt and capital 
stock. This would protect the investment if there were any 
way of compelling the city to pay the price; but it is not 
likely that the city will be willing to pay the company the 
entire cost of physical property that is worth but 70 per 
cent of its cost, and to pay in addition nearly $4,000,000 
for franchises that expired twenty-four years earlier. 

The franchise contains provisions indicating that it was 
the intention of the city and the company that the capita- 
lization should be equal only to the value of the company's 
physical property, and that the investment should be fully 
protected. The preamble, for illustration, declares it to be 
the purpose of the ordinance "to secure to the owners of 
the property invested in street railroads security as to 
their property and a fair and fixed rate of return thereon" ; 
and Section 47 contains this provision: "The purpose of 
this ordinance is to establish and settle the relations be- 
tween the city of Cleveland and the Cleveland Railway 
Company bv a contract which will secure to the Cleve- 
land Railway Company, unimpaired, the capital value." 

But the ordinance makes inadequate provision for the 
carrying out of the purpose so declared., I have confidence 
enough in the people, however, to believe that before the 
expiration of the grant an amendment will be made that 
will protect the entire principal of the stockholders, or that, 
if the city should elect to purchase at the end of the fran- 
chise, the declaration, frequently made in the ordinance and 
in the discussion that preceded its passage, of intention to 
make the investment of capital safe and secure, will be 
treated as a moral, if not a legal, obligation on the part of 
the city to pay, or to require its nominee to pay, for the 
property its whole capital value. 

The Illinois act of 1903 "to authorize cities to acquire, 
construct, own, operate and lease street railways" contains 
somewhat better provision on this subject. In that act the 
City Council of any city that may decide to operate street 
railways is given power to fix rates and charges, "but such 
rates and charges shall be high enough to produce revenue 
sufficient," among other things, "to permit the accumula- 
tion of a surplus or sinking fund to meet outstanding 
bonds." And if the city shall purchase any street railway 
property, it may include in the price to be paid therefor 
"the value of any earning power of such property, or of the 
unexpired portion of any franchise granted by said city." 


The classification of accounts adopted by the American 
Electric Railway Accountants' Association in 1897 was 
the first attempt by the electric railway companies of the 
country to form a standard system of electric railway ac- 
counting. It was the product of many months of work 
of a committee appointed by the association for the pur- 
pose. The value of the work of the committee was recog- 
nized at once, not only by electric railway officers, but by 
the Interstate Commerce Commission and by State railroad 
and public service commissioners. By frequent confer- 
ences and correspondence with public officials, steam rail- 
way accountants and others, the committee on standard 
classification of accounts has kept fully abreast of the 
times, and has produced a system of accounting that, for 
simplicity and clearness, without disregard of details, is 
probably equal to, if not better than, any system of ac- 
counting in any other business, and that, if reports based 
upon it are properly made and carefully studied by the 
managers of electric railways, will result in economies that 
could not be brought about without such standard system- 
atic accounting. The reports may be made still more 
valuable when opportunity exists to compare them with 
like reports of other corporations in the same business. 

The Central Electric Accounting Conference has done 
good work along the same line. Such meetings as the con- 
ference holds quarterly and the American Electric Railway 
Accountants' Association annually educate not only the 
members who attend the meetings, but the other officials of 
the companies directly interested, and indirectly the gen- 
eral public. 

The rulings or decisions of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, the Public Service Commissions of New York 
and the steam and electric railway commissioners of other 
States on questions of accounting, published in bulletins or 
pamphlets, constitute a valuable and informing record of 
present day accounting that should be in the library of 
every electric railway company, and railway accountants 
should avail themselves of the opportunity of submitting 
to these bodies any important question about which they 
have doubt, or as to which they are in disagreement with 
municipal or State authorities. 


The seventeenth regular meeting of the Central Electric 
Accounting Conference was held at the St. Nicholas Hotel, 
Springfield. 111.. Saturday, June 24, 191 1. 

The morning session was called to order at 9 o'clock 
by President Elkins. After the routine business of the 
conference was disposed of, the members listened to the 
address of H. J. Davies, secretary and treasurer of the 
Cleveland Railway, an abstract of which is printed else- 
where in this issue under the title "Legislation Affecting 
Electric Railway Accountants." At the conclusion of this 
paper Mr. Davies answered many questions touching the 
subject of accounting features of the recent statutes gov- 
erning electric railroads. He asked permission of the con- 
ference to present at some future date more information 
on this line as a result of investigations into the subject. 

C. B. Baker, auditor Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern 
Railway, tendered his resignation as a member of the ex- 
ecutive committee, and the vacancy was filled by the ap- 
pointment of J. D. Maynes, auditor of receipts Illinois 
Traction System. 

The question of affiliation with the Central Electric Rail- 
way Association was informally discussed, and the matter 
of official action deferred, on account of the fact that a rep- 
resentative number of accountants were not present at the 
meeting. The next regular meeting will probably be held 
at the same time and place as the meeting of the Central 

July i, 1911.] 



Electric Railway Association. The report of the sub- 
committee on affiliation was referred to the full com- 
mittee, with instructions to report again at the next meet- 
ing. This committee is as follows: A. F. Elkins, chair- 
man; E. L. Kasemeier, Walter Shroyer, H. B. Cavanaugh, 
L. T. Hixson and J. D. Maynes. 

After adjournment of the morning session, the members 
of the conference were guests of the Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem officials at an informal luncheon. In the afternoon 
President McKinley's private car was placed at their ser- 
vice and the members and friends were given a special run 
into St. Louis over the new McKinley Bridge. 


The annual outing meeting of the Central Electric Rail- 
way Association was enjoyed by more than 100 railway 
and supply men. The meeting was held at the Edgewater 
Club, St. Joseph, Mich., where most of the railway men 
were entertained. St. Joseph is one of the most popular 
summer resorts on the Great Lakes and entertainment 
was provided in abundance by the local street railway and 
the Business Men's Association, the Graham & Morton 
Transportation Company and the Edgewater Club. About 
thirty ladies attended the convention. 


A noteworthy feature of this convention was the travel- 
ing of practically all of the railway men and their wives 
to and from St. Joseph in special cars of the Terre Haute, 
Indianapolis & Eastern, Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & 
Western and Louisville & Northern Railway & Light- 
ing companies. The first long-distance trolley party to 
arrive at the convention city consisted of fifty-three persons 
in the car of the Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Western, 
which left Indianapolis at 7 a. m. and reached St. Joseph, 
234 miles distant, at 3 p. m. This long run was made over 
the Indiana Union Traction line from Indianapolis to 
Peru, the Winona Interurban from Peru to Goshen and 
the Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana from Goshen 
to St. Joseph. 

The second car to arrive was the private car, No. 600, 
of the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction sys- 
tem in charge of E. B. Peck, vice-president and comp- 
troller, who is also president of the Central Electric Rail- 
way Association. This car left Indianapolis at 6 o'clock 
in the morning and was routed via Anderson, where Mr. 
Peck's party was joined by Arthur W. Brady, president, 
and H. A. Nicholl, general manager, of the Indiana Union 
Traction Company. At Peru the car was met by William 
D. Frazer and C. F. Franklin, who escorted the party over 
their 69-mile road, the Winona Interurban Railway. At 
some points on this line speeds exceeding a mile a minute 
were sustained for several miles. At noon, while en route, 
Mr. Peck entertained his fourteen guests with an elaborate 
dinner served from the very complete kitchen on this fine 
private car. The party reached St. Joseph at 3:15. 

On the return trip from St. Joseph to Indianapolis private 
car No. 600, of the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 
Traction Company, made the 234-mile run in 8 hours and 
27 minutes. The time over the different roads making up 
the interline route was as follows : St. Joseph to Goshen 
(Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana), 58 miles, 2 
hours and 45 minutes; Goshen to Peru (Winona Inter- 
urban Railway), 69 miles, 2 hours and 10 minutes; Peru 
to Indianapolis (Indiana Union Traction), 107 miles, 3 
hours and 22 minutes. 

The longest trolley trip made in reaching the conven- 
tion was that of the Louisville & Northern Railway & 
Lighting Company's party, which left Louisville at 7 o'clock 
in the morning and made the run of more than 350 miles 

in less than twelve hours' time. Twenty-two railway men 
and their guests made up the party. 


On Wednesday afternoon the convention visitors were 
guests of the Graham & Morton Transportation Company 
for a two-hour steamer ride on Lake Michigan. In the 
evening of the same day the Benton Harbor-St. Joseph 
Railway & Light Company entertained with a trolley ride 
from St. Joseph through Benton Harbor to the Springs 
of Eden and the summer park owned by a peculiar re- 
ligious sect, the headquarters of which are known as "The 
House of David." On Thursday, while the meeting was in 
session, the ladies of the party were tendered an inter- 
urban car ride on the Benton Harbor-St. Joe Railway 
to Paw Paw Lake, and on their return at 1 o'clock were 
given a luncheon at the Edgewater Club. About forty 
ladies were thus entertained. 


The single business session of the convention was held 
or. Thursday morning, with E. B. Peck, president, in the 
chair. At the opening of the session Colonel W. W. Bean, 
who has long been interested in electric railway affairs, 
welcomed the railway men to St. Joseph in a fitting speech 
in which he called attention to the recently completed 
through interurban routes from St. Joseph to all parts of 
Ohio and Indiana and to Northern Kentucky. A. W. 
Brady and Charles L. Henry replied in fitting speeches, 
expressing the association's appreciation of the hospitality 
of the local people. 


The minutes of the Columbus meeting were read by A. 
L. Neereamer, secretary, and approved. H. H. Buckman, 
chairman of the standardization committee, then presented 
tthe report of that committee, which will be found on page 
31 of this issue. When questioned Mr. Buckman said 
that the manufacturers of air brakes approved the recom- 
mendations made in the committee report. Some general 
discussion was had on the advisability of approving the 
suggestion of the committee regarding the use of electro- 
pneumatic conductors' train signals and as a result it was 
voted that this section be eliminated from the report at 
this time, and that the matter be considered further by the 
committee. With this exception the standardization com- 
mittee report was adopted. 

Thirteen new supply members were voted into the asso- 
ciation. Mr. Neereamer read a letter from H. C. Don- 
ecker, secretary of the American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion, expressing his regret at not being able to attend the 
meeting and urging close co-operation between the two 


The president then called upon Arthur W. Brady, presi- 
dent of the American Electric Railway Association, who 
spoke of the American Association affairs and cited the 
work of the block signal committee and the insurance com- 
mittee as among the most important features now being 
carried forward for the benefit of the member companies. 
Mr. Brady said that the joint signal committee of the 
Engineering and Transportation & Traffic Associations had 
just held a successful meeting at Pittsburgh and was pre- 
paring a report on block signaling as applied to electric 
railways which would contain very valuable material not 
heretofore presented in available form. Until ten months 
ago no real study had been made of the subject of block 
signaling for cross-country interurban railways. Druing 
this year, however, considerable progress had been made 
and practical results might be expected from the forthcom- 
ing report. 

Mr. Brady called attention to the organization of the 
Bureau of Insurance of the American Association. This 
bureau was expected to procure practical and financial re- 
sults. Insurance work had been especially well handled 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. I. 

under the guidance of H. J. Davies, of Cleveland, as chair- 
man of the insurance committee. Before the insurance 
committee began its work it seemed that traction property 
insurance had been unduly profitable to the insurance com- 
panies, notwithstanding numerous large fire losses. The 
successful work of the insurance committee under Mr. 
Davies' guidance had resulted in the formation of the 
bureau, which would be in charge of Henry N. Staats, of 

Mr. Brady next spoke of the policy of the American 
Association, which was not to duplicate any work done by 
sectional bodies, and was to work in harmony with each 
association. If any friction had existed in the past it had 
been eliminated. 

Mr. Peck announced that the executive committee of the 
Central Electric Railway Association had approved the 
appointment of Henry N. Staats to the same position with 
it and with the same duties that he now has in connection 
with the American Association. His services will now be 
available to member companies and plans under which 
work may be carried forward will soon be issued by 
Secretary Neereamer. 

Mr. Peck also called attention to the forthcoming visit 
to Indiana and Ohio of the equipment committee of the 
American Electric Railway Engineering Association, which 
would be for the purpose of inspecting rolling stock prac- 
tices in the Central Electric Railway Association territory. 
He also announced that through the courtesy of the Graham 
& Morton Transportation Company those attending the 
convention would be tendered free transportation and free 
berths on the night boat to Chicago. 


A paper on the advantages of the use of treated timber 
was next presented by C. P. Winslow, of the Forest Ser- 
vice Department, United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, Madison, Wis. This paper, which was printed in ab- 
stract in the Electric Railway Journal of June 24, page 
1 1 10, was illustrated with numerous lantern slides. At the 
beginning of the discussion Mr. Winslow, when questioned, 
replied that probably the most satisfactory timber treat- 
ment for the ties of the traction lines in the Central States 
would be the use of creosote. This would give the most 
economical results in the long run. Electric railway ties 
were not subject to severe rail wear and so it was profitable 
to give them such treatment as would obtain the longest 
life of the wood. Mr. Winslow spoke of the results of 
treating steam railroad ties with zinc chloride and with 
zinc chloride and creosote. The creosote was added to 
bring the life of the tie up to its mechanical life as de- 
termined by rail wear. He said, however, that as zinc 
chloride was soluble in water it was not well adapted for 
localities which had heavy rainfalls and wet roadbeds. 

He estimated that, with a treatment of l / 2 gal. of creosote 
per cubic foot, ties would be preserved beyond their me- 
chanical life. This small amount of preservative would 
probably best be applied by the empty-cell treatment; that 
is, filling the cells and then applying the highest degree of 
exhaustion. The resultant life would be from ten to twelve 
years. A more generous treatment should afford a life 
of sixteen to twenty years, if a good penetration was ob- 
tained through the sap wood. The exact amount of pre- 
servative necessary, however, would depend largely on 
the nature of the wood. 

R. M. Hemming, Columbus, asked how it was possible to 
know that ties had been treated properly, citing that the 
small roads could hardly afford to send an inspector to the 
plant. Mr. Winslow replied that the simplest way 
would be to saw up a tie and see if the sap wood had been 
penetrated. If the exact nature of the impregnating ma- 
terial was desired it would be necessary to grind up a 
portion of the treated wood and have the preservative con- 
tained therein analyzed. Mr. Winslow cautioned against 
the cutting of tie timber in the spring because of the 

danger of checking and early rot. When treating timber 
it was well to force in the preservative as far as possible, 
but full impregnation of the heart would be rather diffi- 
cult. The speaker said that subjecting wood to vacuum did 
not affect its strength, but treatment should not subject the 
wood to over 220 deg. temperature or 20 lb. pressure. 

C. L. Henry, Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Com- 
pany, called attention to the good results obtained through- 
out the country by tie preservation and to the act that 
only one or two traction companies in the country were 
prepared to treat their own timber. He felt that the 
Central Electric Railway Association had the ability to 
point out a practical plan and lay down a proper schedule 
for the handling of timber by its members. Thus the prac- 
tical results based on the experience of others would be ob- 
tainable for all. As the result of Mr. Henry's arguments 
the association voted to instruct the executive committee to 
appoint a committee to consider further the matter of 
timber preservation. 

Mr. Henry also spoke of the desirability of planting 
trees. He said that one inter^rban road in Indiana was 
using 80,000 ties this year for renewal purposes and that it 
would be very desirable to have a supply of timber growing 
along the right-of-way. 

Frank P. Smith, Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern, said 
that the timber preservation plant installed by his road had 
beer, profitable. The treatment given was greatly increas- 
ing the life of ties, poles, crossing planks and all other tim- 
bers. It was the policy to treat all timber except that 
which would be worn out mechanically before the pre- 
servative could have the opportunity of extending jts life. 
The history of timber preservation on his road had been 
that some years ago considerable loss was experienced by 
installing in the track ties which had ' ;gun to rot. The 
next ties to be installed were treated by the open-tank 
method and these were put in the track alongside of other 
untreated ties for observation. Since then many of these 
untreated ties had been replaced, but the treated ties were 
still in good condition. Mr. Smith cited his experience 
in buying ties. He had seen a great my trees cut which 
would yield only one tie. As a resu 1 of observing this ap- 
parent waste of timber his company had bought about 500 
acres of young timber and was prepared to hold them until 
the trees could profitably be cut for ties. 

Mr. Winslow, replying to Mr. Hemming's inquiry, said 
that fence posts could profitably be treated by the open-tank 
method. He recommended treating the butts only and to a 
height of about 6 in. above ground. This could be done by 
setting them in an open tank in which the creosote was 
heated to about 200 deg. The treatment should last for two 


A paper on overhead construction, by Edward Heyden, 
superintendent of overhead construction, Indianapolis 
Traction & Terminal Company, brought forth a spirited 
discussion on the relative merits of different materials. 
An abstract of this paper was printed in the Electric 
Railway Journal of June 24, page 11 10. Mr. Heyden 
pointed out in the discussion that span wires should 
last much longer on interurban roads than on city roads 
because of the freedom in the country from smoke and 
sulphur. He hardly felt that the span wire now sold in the 
open market was up to the standard of that sold a few 
years ago. Also, the galvanizing was not so well done. 
Mr. Heyden spoke of experimenting with copper-clad steel 
trolley wire which had been installed on one of the most 
severe curves in Indianapolis. This was a No. 00 round 
wire put up in April, 1909. It had outworn two sets of 
ears and was still in good condition. The life of ordinary 
trolley wire had been exceeded considerably. 

A representative of the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company spoke of a 2-mile catenary line built 
alongside of the Pennsylvania Railroad at the Westing- 

July i, 1911.] 



house works east of Pittsburgh. This line was subjected 
to the smoke from more than 150 trains a day, as well as 
smoke from the Westinghouse plant. It had been in use 
for six years and included 7/16-in. double galvanized wire 
which was now in good condition, although some J^-in. 
malleable extension arms that had been japanned when 
new were now eaten away. 

Considerable discussion developed on the proper length 
for trolley splicing ears, Mr. Heyden recommending a 
length of from 10 in. to 12 in. Regarding wood strain in- 
sulators, while Mr. Heyden had had no bad experiences 
with them from electrical breakdown, some had been 
broken by blows from the trolley wheels, and so now none 
were installed where they might be hit by the trolley poles. 

Mr. Buckman spoke of the changes that had taken place 
in the design of trolley bases. In earlier years it was cus- 
tomary to use trolley bases in which the tension decreased 
as the pole was raised. When speeds became higher that 
principle brought about trouble. Now he favored the use 
of ball-bearing bases in which the tension was increased 
as the pole raised. When questioned Mr. Heyden said he 
did not think, it would be economical to use all-steel trol- 
ley wire supplemented with copper feeders because of 
the heavy current drawn at 500 volts. 


An illustrated talk on the application of low and mixed 
pressure turbines to existing electric power plants was 
made by H. C. Fairbanks, of the turbine department of the 
General Electric Company at Schenectady. Mr. Fairbanks' 
remarks were illustrated by a large number of lantern 
slides showing the development in the design of steam 
turbines and indicating that the days of experimental 
work had largely passed. He first called attention to the 
installation of low-pressure turbines made in 1905 in the 
plant of the Philail lphia Rapid Transit Company. These 
machines were still operating satisfactorily, as were the 
7500-kw low-pressure turbines which had been installed in 
the Interborough plant in New York after a very ex- 
haustive preliminary investigation. Mr. Fairbanks said 
that with average load conditions and low-pressure tur- 
bines an increase. 25 per cent in the load could be 
carried with the s a ;e amount of steam as required for 
Corliss engines. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Fairbanks' interesting talk the 
customary votes of thanks were tendered those who had 
addressed the association, and also to the Edgewater Club, 
the citizens of St. Joseph and others who had been instru- 
mental in entertaining the convention delegates. 


President Peck in adjourning the meeting stated that the 
next meeting of the association would be at Cedar Point, 
on Lake Erie, near Sandusky, Ohio, on Aug. 23 and 24. 
One day would be devoted to business and the other to 

The Ratische Bahn (Rhoetian Railway) in the Engadine, 
running between St. Moritz, Pontresina, Samaden Bevers 
and Schuls, in Switzerland, has been electrified, with 10,000- 
volt, 15-cycle operation. The line is 74 km (45.9 miles) 
long, and at St. Moritz connects with the Bernina Electric 
Railway. The electric installation as far as Zernez, a 
distance of about 47 km (29.1 miles), was carried out by 
the Elektrische Bahnen Zurich — the joint bureau of the 
Siemens-Schuckertwerke and the Oerlikon Maschinen- 
fabrik, while between Zernez and Schuls — about 27 km 
(16.7 miles) — it was done by the Alioth Company, in con- 
junction with the Allgemeine Elektricitats Gesellschaft. 
The overhead line has catenary suspension throughout. 
The trains are hauled by electric locomotives. Brown, 
Boveri & Company have furnished one of 600 hp and six 
of 300 hp each, the Elektrische-Bahnen one of 600 hp and 
one of 300 hp, and the Alioth-Allgemeine Elektricitats 
Gesellschaft one of 600 hp and one of 300 hp. 


The standardization committee of the Central Electric 
Railway Association presented the following recommenda- 
tions as its report : 


Recommended that the standard air brake practice should 
be as follows : 

1. All braking power to be based on 50-lb. cylinder pres- 
sure. This in order to avoid confusion when stating per- 
centages of braking power that may be figured on different 
brake cylinder pressures, e. g., 100 per cent braking power 
on 60-lb. cylinder pressure may be taken to mean greater 
than 100 per cent on 50 lb. cylinder pressure; and if this is 
always referred to on a common base confusion will be 

2. All interurban cars to be braked at 100 per cent of 
light weight on motor axles and 90 per cent on non-motor 
and trailer axles. 

3. All city cars to be braked at 85 per cent on motor 
axles and 75 per cent on non-motor and trailer axles. 

Seventy-five per cent 
with 50-lb. cylinder pres- 
sure is practically the 
same as 90 per cent with 
60 lb. 

4. Brake pipe pressure 
to be 70 lb. per square 
inch with automatic 

5. Governor adjust- 
ment to be 85 lb. and 100 
lb. for automatic equip- 

Connector ment and 50 lb. and 65 
lb. for straight-air equip- 

6. The standing piston 
travel adjustment to be 
4 in. 

7. Total truck leverage 
to be 6 to 1 for long 
wheel-base trucks with 
inside hung motors and 9 
to 1 for short wheel-base 
trucks with outside hung 

8. A 12 to 1 maximum total leverage is permissible when 
brake shoes are hung not more than 2 in. below the center 
of the wheel. If brake shoes are hung lower than this it 
will be necessary to reduce the maximum total leverage 
accordingly, and if brake shoes are hung 5 in, or 6 in. below 
the center of the wheel a total leverage of 10 to 1 should 
be the limit. 

9. The standard M. C. B. recommendations for maximum 
stress in levers, rods and pins to be adopted as follows: 

(a) Maximum stress in levers — 23,000 lb. per square 


(b) Maximum stress in rods, except jaws — 15,000 lb. 

per square inch, no rod to be less than % in. in 

(c) Maximum stress in jaws to be 10,000 lb. per 

square inch. 

(d) Maximum shear on pins — 10,000 lb. per square 

inch single shear. 

(e) Diameter of pins to provide a bearing value not 

to exceed 13,000 lb. per square inch of projected 

10. Safety valve adjustment to be 10 lb. above maximum 
governor setting. 


1 — Location of Connector 

*Presented at the June meeting of the Central Electric Railway 
Association. St. Joseph, Mich., June 22, 1911. 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. r. 
































5 f6 











3 " 





























" 16 

































4 3 " 








38 1" 


















4 f 
4 S 












r- F - 















8"x 12" 





43 Z " 





IO"x 12" 




42 k" . 






I2"x 12" 










14" x 12" 









16" x 12" 



41 ^' 






















e"« 12" 












lOx 12" 

3 l" 












12'x v£ 













I4x 12" 












I6x 12" 


















7,5" PER. CENT B.P 

8"x 12" 

UP TO 30.000 

UP TO 33.000 

UP TO 35,000 

UP TO 40,000 

I0"x 12" 

30.000T0 47.000 

33,000 TO 52,000 

35.000 TO 55,000 

40,000 TO 62,000 

I2x 12" 

47,00070 67,000 

52,000 TO 74,000 

55,000 TO 79,000 


I4"x 12" 

67,000 TO 32,000 

74,000 TO 102.000 

79,000 TO 108000 

89.000 TO 123.000 


32,000 TO 120,000 

I02.000T0 133,000 

108,000 TO 141,000 

123.000 TO 160,000 


1 -i- 

Fig. 2 — Central Electric Standards — Air Brake Details 

Fig. 3 — Trailer Light Connector 

Fig. 5 — Standard Insignia 

Fig. 6 — Double Headlight Plug and Receptacle 

July i, 1911.] 




Recommended that center of brake shoe be set 2 in. below 
center of wheel as shown in Fig. 4. 


This subject was laid on the table on account of many 
other more important and pressing subjects. 


Recommended that trail car or train-lighting circuit con- 
nector, shown in Fig. 3, be placed 6 in. to the left of the 
center, as shown in Fig. 1, and concealed in the center of 
the platform hood apron. 


Recommended to use a double headlight connection, as 
shown in Fig. 6, and to be located as shown in Fig. 1. 


Recommended to use the standard headlight holder as 
adopted Sept. 22, 1910, and to be located as in Fig. 1. 


Recommended that a national insignia, shown in Fig. 5, 
be adopted and that all material, as far as it is possible to 
mark, should be stamped with this insignia or this insignia 
should be cast in same with the name of the electric rail- 
way using the material also cast or stamped in the margin 
provided for that purpose. 



I shall not attempt in this paper to outline fully the 
method of making tariffs, or the rules and regulations gov- 
erning them, as this detail is well covered by the formal 
instructions issued by the Public Service and Interstate 
Commerce Commissions. In addition to this, the traffic 
committee will present to the association, for the use of its 
members, a complete set of "dummy" tariffs covering pas- 
senger traffic, showing the proper forms to be used for 
every tariff it is possible to issue under the rules and regu- 
lations of the two commissions, together with the recom- 
mendations of this committee as to the treatment of 
various conditions, with a view to greater uniformity. 

What is a tariff? A tariff is a schedule or system of 
rates, charges, etc., which no man yet born has been able 
to compile perfectly. The science of tariff-making is one 
which requires a lifetime of study and experience. The 
tariff-maker must study his territory and be familiar with 
local conditions as they exist in different communities. He 
must bear in mind the kind and character of service ren- 
dered, the cost of providing such service, the possibilities 
for the future development of the business and whether or 
not the particular territory through which his line runs will 
prosper and grow under the schedule of rates contemplated, 
or whether the burden will be too heavy. 

Where competition exists rates should be made low 
enough to get the business ; where rates are made to a re- 
sort or park on the company's line, or where rates are 
made to a particular point temporarily for the purpose of 
inducing extra business on account of some special attrac- 
tion, such rates should be as low as the property will stand, 
always, of course, with a fair margin of profit; and where 
rates are made locally — not in competition — to a resort 
or for the purpose of inducing special business the tariff- 
maker should bear in mind that his company must rely upon 
the net profit on local or regular business of this character 
to meet interest on its bonded indebtedness. 

The question of the application of a rate made from a 
fare point located on a through or interurban line, as ap- 
plying from a point on a purely local line, in connection 
with the through line, is one that is now and then agi- 

*Abstract of a paper read at the annual convention of the Street Rail- 
way Association of the State of New York, Cooperstown, N. Y., Tune 27- 
28, 1911. 

tated by persons residing on the purely local line, and is, I 
think, worthy of discussion. 

The people residing on a purely local line, not understand- 
ing the proper application of the through rate, very often 
criticise a railroad company because they are obliged to pay 
a local fare to secure transportation to the through fare 
point from which the through fare is made. For example : 
A tariff is prepared for a railroad 100 miles in length, on 
the basis of 2 cents per mile. At a station half-way 
between the terminals of this line the fare is $1 in each 
direction from the through fare point, which in most in- 
stances, for the sake of convenience, is the ticket office or 
waiting room. Very often the cars operated on this 
through or interurban line, passing through this half-way 
point, take on passengers at certain regular stops within the 
city limits of the half-way point. These passengers, we 
hold, are entitled to the through rate of fare on the through 
line. We do not hold, however, that passengers who art- 
transported on a purely local or city line car to the through 
fare point are entitled to the benefit of the through rate 
of fare. Thus it will occur that those persons who may re- 
side on a purely local line, from which it is not possible to 
board a through or interurban car, will be obliged to pay 
the local fare to the through fare point before they are 
privileged to take advantage of the through fare. Should 
decisions be rendered to the contrary, the only remedy 
would be to base all through or interurban fares from the 
municipal limits of cities. 

A great many companies, in order to take care of a cer- 
tain condition which may exist in a particular locality, 
will extend the 5-cent fare zone beyond the line or fare 
limit prescribed by law. This is a bad precedent to estab- 
lish, as any line or zone created or made by a railroad 
company outside of the municipal limits prescribed by the 
statutes governing fare limits in municipalities is an arbi- 
trary line which will, as a rule, prove to be a bone of con- 
tention sooner or later. A precedent of this character once 
established is hard to combat, be the conditions what they 
may. We are all susceptible to example, and if one com- 
munity is granted a special privilege other communities are 
bound, in time, to ask for the same privilege. 

Conditions in certain localities are sometimes such that 
it may seem advisable and desirable for the railroad com- 
pany to extend the 5-cent fare limit of a city, so as to 
give the residents of a small town or village just outside 
of the 5-cent fare limit the benefit of the 5-cent fare. 
In my opinion, this should never be done. A situation of 
this kind may be treated by a commutation ticket, with a 
liberal limit, at a rate per ride slightly in excess of the 5- 
cent fare, thus obviating the necessity of extending the 
5-cent fare limit and at the same time providing an in- 
centive for the development of the business by reason of 
the saving in fare for the regular or daily riders, the occa- 
sional riders paying the 10-cent fare. In this way no bad 
precedent is established by an exception to the prescribed 
5-cent fare limit. 

Just here I would like to quote the following saying: 
"Wise men are instructed by reason; men of less under- 
standing by experience'; the most ignorant by necessity." 
Do not, therefore, by the establishment of unwise prece- 
dents, place yourself in a position where it will be neces- 
sary to "instruct," because of a reason, an experience or 
through necessity. 

Happily, the hostility toward railroads, which for some 
years made difficult the calm and wise discussion of rates 
and their application, is passing away. Nothing could be 
more conclusive on the point than the temper and tone of 
the hearings given before the Public Service and the Inter- 
state Commerce Commissions. 

In conclusion, I would say that the tariff-maker who 
can compile a tariff which meets with the universal ap- 
proval of the public, the commissions and the railroad 
company itself is indeed worthy of distinction. 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 



The reduction of car failures is, if not the sole end and 
aim of the mechanical department, at least one of its most 
important functions. Moreover, the data on car failures 
may be so compiled as to become a most excellent barometer 
of the general condition and efficiency of the mechanical 
department and to indicate clearly the directions in which 
the quality of work must be improved to better that general 
condition and efficiency. For the improvement of efficiency 
and reduction of the number of car failures in service we 
must have first, last and always good and sufficient inspec- 
tion. The problem reduces itself to two main questions : 

First: How shall we improve the quality of the indi- 
vidual inspector? and, 

Second: How frequently shall we inspect the equip- 
ment ? 

The second question is the more easily answered, but, 
as it is largely affected by local conditions, must be an- 
swered differently for different systems. Clearly, for any 
mechanical or electrical device properly built, properly ad- 
justed and properly inspected there is some minimum 
length of service either in terms of time or mileage below 
which we may expect assurance of satisfactory service. 
This minimum length of service will vary between different 
types of equipment, but may be determined with reasonable 
accuracy for any set of conditions. It is now fairly general 
practice to inspect all equipment on a mileage basis and we 
should invariably start with a mileage figure which we 
know to be well within the limits of safety. For example, 
at the outset we inspected and oiled motors on some types 
of double-truck cars of the Syracuse Rapid Transit Rail- 
way lines after 500 miles' service, but are now letting the 
same cars run 3000 miles between oilings with quite as 
good or even better results and with no additions or altera- 
tions of oil cups. To a very considerable extent the qual-. 
ity of inspection and the period of inspection are inter- 
dependent, as with better inspection the safe period between 
inspections may be increased and this increase will work 
toward better inspections, as fewer will need to be made 
during each working shift and. consequently, more time 
may be devoted to each one. 

Having chosen a period of inspection, arbitrarily, if you 
will, but necessarily within the limits of safety and good 
operation, the record of the individual inspector and his 
operating efficiency must be first determined and then im- 
proved. For the proper and accurate determination of this 
efficiency it is essential to know, completely and correctly, 
the cause of each individual car failure. This known, the 
records and inspectors' reports must be in such form that 
the individual inspector who should have prevented the 
failure may be selected. With this information at hand the 
matter becomes simply one of following up the offenders 
and applying the proper discipline. 

The form of report of the carhouse inspector must ful- 
fil certain essential conditions. It must be simple and 
easily made out, it must show the condition in which the 
equipment was found and the condition in which it was left. 
If the inspector is to be held responsible for failures of 
equipment inspected by him, his report should be signed in 
his own handwriting and show that he considered the 
equipment O.K. when he left it. We use for this report a 
card about 7 in. x 10 in., which has printed on one side a 
list of car numbers, covering all cars on the system, with a 
blank square opposite each number. On this the inspector 
checks the numbers of all cars ordered inspected at the car- 
house for his class of work. If he finds the equipment O. K. 

♦Abstract of a paper read at the annual meeting of the Street 
Railwav Association of the State of New York, Cooperstown, N. Y., June 
27-28, 1911. 

and makes no adjustments he marks the letter "O" in the 
square opposite the car number; if minor adiustmei ts are 
made he marks the letter "A"; if replacements or renewals 
are made he marks the letter "X" and notes on the back 
of the card of what the replacements or renewals con- 
sisted. In case the car requires replacements or repair 
work beyond the carhouse facilities the inspector ties a tag 
on the car, noting on the card what trouble he has found 
and signing his initials. A car so tagged must be sent t& 
the shop unless the carhouse foreman overrules the inspec- 
tor's judgment, in which case the foreman is held responsi- 
ble for possible failure of the car in service. Inspectors' 
reports are countersigned by the foremen and at the end 
of the shift are sent to the office of the mechanical depart- 
ment, where they are filed for reference. 

The changing of cars which fail in service is handled by 
means of a car-change slip which serves four distinct pur- 
poses, and is the basis of fixing the responsibility for the 
failure. Any car failing in service is ordered changed by 
the dispatcher, who fills out the blanks on a printed car- 
change slip, giving the car number, time and place due, 
line, and reason for change. The slip is then handed to the 
carhouse foreman, who notes on it the time of its receipt 

by him and the number of 
the car to be put out, the 
slip being returned to him 
signed by the shifter after 
the change is made. He 
then turns the change slip 
over to an inspector, who 
notes on it the trouble 
found with the equipment. 
The car-change slips are 
sent daily to the office of 
the mechanical department, 
where two summaries are 
compiled from the informa- 
tion thus obtained. 

The first of these sum- 
maries shows the pull-ins 
classified according to 
causes. Individual car 
numbers are shown and 
Syracuse Record of Cars cars running from different 
Changed carhouses are shown in dif- 

ferent colors. About the 
middle of the month the probable total failures for the 
month are forecast from the record of the first fifteen 
days. These figures are forecast for each carhouse and 
for the system as a whole. If the forecast indicates that 
the failures will exceed those of the previous month in 
number, the foremen concerned are called in for consulta- 
tion as to means of reducing the number of failures. As 
long as the records indicate that the efficiency of carhouse 
inspection is on the increase the foremen are allowed to 
continue as they are doing. Each day the foremen are 
furnished with a list of the car failures of the day before, 
which are recorded against their inspectors. The list 
shows the car number, the cause of failure, the name of 
the inspector who last inspected the equipment and the 
date of the inspection. These lists are posted in the car- 
houses after the foremen have taken the action required 
by the individual cases. If a car has run its mileage and 
been ordered inspected and the inspection has been missed 
or neglected by the carhouse force, the failure of its equip- 
ment is recorded against the foreman individually. 

From the data showing the inspector responsible for each 
failure another summary is made, showing the running 
record of each inspector. This summary shows, for each 
day, the number of failures recorded against the inspector 
and also the number of inspections made by him on that 
day. At the end of each month the figures are combined 

Cars changed 

& - / 191./. 

Pull oJ Car Na ' 7 2 S 

Tiroe due y »r- „ 

Reason lot Change: 

Signed _ 
Not.ce rW,.») 

Pul oul Car N„ ,7// 

July i, 191 1.] 

to obtain an efficiency figure for the individual, which 
shows what per cent of the total inspections made by him 
were actually O. K. A list of names and efficiencies is 
posted monthly in the carhouses, the man having the high- 
est efficiency appearing at the top of the list, and so on 

A similar record of efficiency is kept for foremen, the 
figures in this case being total car failures and total cars 
inspected. A curve is plotted to show the efficiencies by 
weeks. It is interesting to note in connection with these 
figures the effect previously mentioned of interdependence 
of quality and frequency of inspection. In January 1096 
cars were inspected with an efficiency of 59.5 per cent 
(that is, 652 of these cars ran without failure until full 
mileage was made and another inspection ordered). In 
May 983 cars were inspected (10.3 per cent less than in 
January) and the efficiency was 75.8 per cent, 745 cars 
making full mileage. 

This increase in efficiency and reduction in number of 
inspections has been accompanied by a 10 per cent decrease 
in cost of inspection and a relative larger decrease in the 
number of inspectors. 

Curves showing the car failures by months, the failures 
per 1000 car miles and car miles per failure are also kept 
up to date, but are not posted in the carhouses. 



Power brakes actuated by compressed air, as at present 
in general use throughout the country, may be broadly 
grouped as follows : 

1. Straight-air brakes. 

2. Straight-air brakes with automatic emergency fea- 

3. Automatic air brakes. 

4. Electro-pneumatic brakes. 

The relative merits of a straight-air type of brake as 
contrasted with the automatic principles of operation may 
be dismissed by the statement that outside of the item of 
expense any brake not embodying automatic principles is 
not worthy of serious consideration. 

The reason for this is so plain that the only aspect of the 
proposition remaining for discussion is from the standpoint 
of the financial department. The simplest form of power 
brake for electric cars comprising an. adequate auto- 
matic protection against a loss of the brake from causes 
unknown to the man running the car is the straight-air 
brake with automatic emergency features. This equipment 
was developed to meet the requirements of a strictly city 
or interurban service where the speeds are moderate and 
the stops frequent, and when the conditions require single 
car operation normally and trailer service or two-car trains 
intermittently. Conditions often arise in a single-car opera- 
tion, especially where two or more cars occasionally are 
run together as a train, when it becomes necessary to 
provide some protection in the brake apparatus itself 
whereby it shall operate in case of a burst hose or rup- 
tured pipe and apply the brakes and cause them to remain 
applied instead of permitting the entire loss of braking 
power on the vehicle. This protection is secured in the 
SME equipment without dispensing with any of the ad- 
vantageous features of straight-air operation by the use of 
the emergency valve in connection with a brake pipe or 
emergency line in which pressure is normally maintained. 

•Abstract of a paper read at the annual convention of the Street Rail- 
way Association of the State of New York, Cooperstown, N. Y., June 
27-28, 1911. 



The limits of the straight-air method of applying and 
releasing the brakes are exceeded when more than two 
cars come to be hauled in the same train. This is on ac- 
count of the inherent physical limitations which render it 
impossible to move a sufficient quantity of air through the 
conduit provided within a sufficiently short time to apply 
and more especially to release the brakes with a degree of 
uniformity, promptness and accuracy necessary for a 
proper control. 

For trains of more than two cars prompt and uniform 
service application and release action can be secured only 
by the use of a triple valve — that is to say, by the use of 
the automatic principle in service as well as emergency 
operations. A representative automatic brake equipment 
for electric train service is the type AMM. This equip- 
ment is designed to meet the requirements of interurban 
service where trains of from one to five cars are operated 
at slow speeds and with frequent stops in towns, but are 
subject to high speeds and more or less long-distance runs 
outside these centers. These conditions require a triple 
valve on each car of the '"plain" type; that is, one which 
will operate in response to variations in brake pipe pressure 
and shall have no quick-action feature. Provision is made 
for quick recharging of the auxiliary reservoirs when a 
release is made in order to insure prompt and certain re- 
sponse of the brakes to a reduction in brake pipe pressure 
whenever circumstances may require rapid successive 
brake applications; for quick action of the brakes from car 
to car in service, to produce rapid and definite application 
of all the brakes in the train ; for a graduated release as 
well as graduated application of the brakes, in order that 
the motorman may control the train smoothly and accu- 
rately and in the most efficient way, and for a materially 
higher emergency brake than the maximum possible in a 
full service application, so that a powerful reserve braking 
power may be available when the shortest possible stop 
becomes imperative. 


The next development was an equipment which combined 
all the advantageous features of the automatic and of the 
straight-air types of brakes without their objectionable fea- 

The combined automatic and straight-air form of trac- 
tion brake equipment has now been in service more than 
three years with increasingly satisfactory results. While 
primarily intended for service where cars are operated 
singly most of the time, with occasional two or three-car 
trains, this equipment is equally adaptable to train service 
where the number of cars does not exceed the limitations 
of a direct exhaust brake valve and plain triple valve — in 
other words, does not exceed five cars. It is especially 
adaptable to service such as is required of light electric 
locomotives or motor cars used for handling freight cars, 
switching, etc. 


The elevated and subway service of large cities intro- 
duces requirements of an entirely different and still more 
exacting character. These may be classified, according to 
their origin, as arising from a constantly increasing in- 
sistence upon (1) higher schedule speeds, (2) longer trains, 
(3) shorter and quicker stops, (4) smoother and more 
accurate stops, and (5) highest possible protection against 
delays to traffic. 

To meet these requirements there must be added to the 
operative features of the equipments previously mentioned 
(1) the ability to transmit quick-action rapidly through 
the train in emergency applications, (2) the attainment of 
as high a brake cylinder pressure in emergency as the equip- 
ment can be designed to give, and (3) obtaining the quick- 
action application of the brakes with maximum cylinder 




pressure at whatever time occasion for same may arise, 
without regard to previous manipulation and also when the 
brake-pipe pressure has been depleted for any reason be- 
yond a predetermined danger point. The quick-action 
automatic brake equipment, type AML, embodies all these 
features, and, therefore, stands as the highest development 
to date of the purely pneumatic brake for electric traction 
service. It corresponds to the type AMM equipment 
already referred to in its general arrangement, but with 
the additional features required for longer trains and the 
more exacting service which it is designed especially to 
meet, as outlined above. 


With the possibilities of a purely pneumatic brake sys- 
tem developed to the greatest extent, there still arise de- 
mands for increased safety, greater reliability, reduction in 
time to make service stops and instantaneous response and 
uniformity of application of brakes whereby the human 
factor in manipulation can be reduced to a minimum. 
The electro-pneumatic brake possesses superior advan- 
tages which make it as nearly an ideal system as has yet 
been evolved. All the improvements have been accom- 

To Trolley 

Operating End 

For the same power consumption the electro-pneumatic 
brakes make it possible to maintain higher average speeds, 
shorter schedules and an increased traffic capacity with the 
same number of cars or the same traffic capacity with 
fewer cars, or it enables the same average speeds, schedules 
and capacity of road to be maintained as with a purely 
pneumatic brake, but at the expenditure of less power. 


In an emergency a ten-car train with electro-pneumatic 
brakes can be stopped from a speed of 40 m.p.h. in 350 ft., 
or within two-thirds of its own length. A train with the 
old-style quick-action brake would pass this stopping point 
at a speed of 28.3 m.p.h. This is 71 per cent of its origi- 
nal speed and corresponds to 59 per cent of the energy 
originally stored up in the train which still remains to be 
overcome before the train can finally come to rest. It 
should be further noted that the train with the old-style 
quick-action electro-pneumatic brakes would reach the 
350-ft. mark four seconds before the train with electro- 
pneumatic brakes comes to a standstill at this point. At 
the time that the train with electro-pneumatic equipment 
comes to a stop the train with old-style quick-action brakes 

To Trolley 

Diagram of Electro-Pneumatic Brake Equipment as Applied to New York Subway Cars 

plished by the addition of electric control to the service 
and emergency functions of the quick-action automatic 


As illustrating the comparative power of the electro- 
pneumatic and the best automatic air brake it may be said 
that a ten-car train equipped with electro-pneumatic brakes 
can be brought to a full stop from an initial speed of 40 
m.p.h. in the same time required to reduce the speed of an 
eight-car train equipped with the old-style quick-action 
brake to 25 m.p.h. This is 62J _> per cent of its initial speed 
and about 39 per cent of the energy originally stored in 
the train at 40 m.p.h. still remains to be overcome before 
it can be brought to a standstill. 

The electro-pneumatic brake has even greater advan- 
tages in completing the stop. With the electrD-pneumatic 
brake a graduated release was made so as to prevent retar- 
dation becoming excessive toward the end of the stop. The 
same thing was tried on a train equipped with the high- 
speed brake, but could be only partially accomplished by 
making a release first and then a reapplication. The great 
difference in rate of obtaining braking power is important. 
With the ordinary manipulation characteristic of the two 
types of equipments there is a saving of twenty seconds' 
time in favor of the electro-pneumatic equipment. This 
shortening in time of stop means that power may be shut 
off sooner and the train allowed to drift for a considerably 
longer time before applying the brakes and making the 
stops at the same point. 

would have run 140 ft. farther and would still be moving at 
a speed of 20.2 m.p.h., representing 25^2 per cent of its 
original speed. The latter would not stop until it had run 
650 ft., or 300 ft. farther than the train with electro- 
pneumatic brakes. 

The electro-pneumatic brake system adds to the pneu- 
matically operated brake of the highest type certain advan- 
tageous features otherwise impossible of attainment, 
namely: (1) Simultaneous and uniform response of all the 
brakes in the train. This practically eliminates the effect 
of the length of train and makes it as easy to handle the 
train, no matter how long, as it is to handle a single car. 
(2) Double protection against delays to traffic due to 
brake failure, since the pneumatic brake is always in re- 
serve ready for use, if required. (3) Maximum efficiency 
and safety due to simultaneous operation of all the brakes 
in the train in both service and emergency applications and 
a perfect flexibility of manipulation. (4) Economy in air 
consumption, and (5) maintenance of brake cylinder pres- 
sure at will. 

Briefly stated, this equipment consists of a quick-action, 
quick-recharge, quick-service, graduated release, auto- 
matic air brake with 20 per cent higher pressure in 
emergency application, combined with electrically con- 
trolled means of simultaneously admitting air directly to or 
releasing it directly from the brake cylinders without any 
movement of the triple valves. An absolutely simultaneous 
movement of the triple valves of the train to emergency 
position is obtained by the use of electricity. 

July i , [911. 

Compressed air is supplied to the brake system through 
the brake valve at the operating end of the train from the 
main reservoir pipe, which extends throughout the length 
of the train. All of the reservoirs are directly connected 
to the main reservoir pipe. 


The motorman's brake valve, in so far as its pneumatic 
operations are concerned, is quite similar to the brake valve 
used at present with standard pneumatic equipments. The 
full release position is done away with and the motorman 
is thereby prevented from wilfully or carelessly overcharg- 
ing the brake pipe in order to insure prompt and sensitive 
action on the part of the brake apparatus where brake ap- 
plications are required in quick succession. The upper por- 
tion of the brake valve contains an electric switch portion 
controlling the operation of the electric portion of the 
brake system. 

The feed valve attached to the base of the brake valve 
is adjusted to maintain the brake pipe pressure of 70 lb. 
per square inch while the brakes are not being operated. 
The quick-action portion of the triple valve is replaced by 
a somewhat similar combination of ports designed to vent 


not exceed that required for the service application of the 
brakes. When the rate of brake pipe reduction exceeds that 
of the ordinary service application, the fall of brake pipe 
pressure and that in the upper chamber of the device is 
then more rapid than that at which the lower chamber can 

The difference of air pressure thus set up on the two 
sides of the duplex piston causes it to move over to a 
position which opens direct communication from the brake 
pipe to the atmosphere. This causes a local vent of 
air from the brake pipe, which propagates quick-action to 
the next car with great rapidity. Provision is made in the 
device to close the vent to the atmosphere after the quick- 
action has taken place, so as to permit the recharging of 
the brake pipe and release of the brakes following a quick- 
action application. The great advantage of this vent valve 
for propagating quick-action as compared with a similar 
action of the triple valve lies in the fact that the service 
and quick-action (emergency) operations of the brake sys- 
tem are entirely separate and independent. This practically 
eliminates the possibility of obtaining undesired quick- 
action, which it is difficult to prevent, with any degree of 


Type ME-21 Electro-Pneumatic 
Brake Valve 

air from the reserve supply carried for this purpose in the 
supplementary reservoir directly into the brake cylinder 
when the brake valve ports move to their emergency posi- 
tion. This produces a very quick rise in brake cylinder 
pressure to a maximum possible amount as determined by 
the pressure carried in the brake pipe. Provision is made 
for the quick recharge of both supplementary and auxil- 
iary reservoirs to permit of quickly replacing any air used 
in pneumatic applications. 

Since the quick-action feature of the brake is separated 
from the brake valve and since the supply of air for obtain- 
ing high emergency pressure is separate from that used 
during ordinary service manipulations of the brake it fol- 
lows that both the propagation of quick-action through the 
train and high emergency pressure can be obtained without 
regard to what electric or pneumatic manipulation has 
previously been made. 

The quick-action feature of this equipment is contained 
in a device separate from the triple valve and connected 
to the brake pipe. It consists essentially of a duplex pis- 
ton with valve attached and a small reservoir and chamber 
suitably proportioned so that when the ports are in their 
normal positions, with reservoir and chamber charged, the 
pressure in the reservoir will fall with that of the brake 
pipe so long as the rate of fall of brake-pipe pressure does 

Brake Pipe Vent Valve for Propa- 
gating Quick-Action 

certainty, where the service and the quick-action opera- 
tions of the apparatus are controlled from the same piston 
and slide valve. 

In whatever way a rapid fall of brake pipe pressure is 
produced, be it by movement of the brake valve, the opera- 
tion of trip cocks or the conductor's valve, the piston in the 
vent valve will instantly vent air from the brake pipe to the 
atmosphere through a very large opening, and this posi- 
tively insures the propagation of quick-action throughout 
the train, however long it may be and regardless of the 
previous manipulation of the brakes. 

The only feature of the old brake equipment which has 
been sacrificed in this arrangement, which admits of propa- 
gating quick-action throughout the train irrespective of the 
pressure in the brake cylinder, is the venting of brake pipe 
pressure into the brake cylinder. With the large sizes of 
brake cylinders employed, i. e., 12 in. and 14 in., the gain in 
cylinder pressure over that of service application by vent- 
ing the brake pipe into the cylinders is very small, but 2 lb. 
or 3 lb. at the most, and this is more than compensated for 
by venting the pressure of the supplementary reservoir into 
the brake cylinder in an emergency application whereby a 
brake cylinder pressure within 4 lb. or 5 lb. of the brake 
pipe pressure carried can be obtained in emergency appli- 

Triple Valve with Emergency 
Magnet Valve 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 1. 


For the operation of this portion of the electro-pneumatic 
brake system the source of current may be from the trolley 
or from a battery or other source of supply local to each 
car. The contacts in the electric operation of the brake, 
already referred to, are in reality nothing more than small 
controller points or switches, controlling the circuits to 
magnets governing the service application and release and 
emergency portion of the brakes. With the pneumatic 
portion of the brake in normal or running position the elec- 
tric control of the brakes is accomplished by the aid of 
two magnets with poppet valves attached, governing the 
flow of air into and out of the brake cylinder direct or 
through the release port of the triple valve, according to 
the conditions of installation. 

The release magnet is sometimes designed so that the 
release port is only open when the magnet is energized or 
vice versa — that is, requiring current in order to close the 
release magnet. Which method is to be preferred can only 
be determined by a study of the operating conditions which 
are to be met. In either case, while running over the road 
the exhaust magnet is holding the release valve open so that 
the brake cylinder is in direct communication with the 

Master Brake Switch and No-Voltage Magnet 

atmosphere. In making a service application of the brakes 
the exhaust valve is closed and the application magnet 
energized to open the application valve, thus closing the 
outlet from the brake cylinder to the atmosphere and open- 
ing the passage from the source of air supply to the brake 
cylinder. Various methods of accomplishing this feature 
have been used in different installations, but with the sys- 
tem in most general use the flow of air from the source of 
supply to the brake cylinder is controlled primarily by a 
relay valve of ample capacity, which is in turn caused to 
operate by the action of the application magnet valve. 
This does away with the necessity for the very powerful 
magnet which would be required to operate a valve of suffi- 
cient area to supply air to the large sizes of brake cylinders 
at a sufficiently rapid rate to give satisfactory ' service 

The relay valve referred to is acted upon by a spring so 
that when the brake cylinder pressure has been built up tc. 
within 20 lb. of that in the auxiliary reservoir the relay 
valve automatically closes. This valve, therefore, permits 
the additional functions of limiting the pressure obtainable 
in electric service application to approximately 20 lb. 

below the normal brake pipe pressure, thereby insuring the 
valuable feature of the increased braking power is emer- 
gency application over and above that obtainable in full 
service applications and this without the aid of any addi- 
tional device, such as a safety valve. 

The brake cylinder pressure can be raised to any amount 
up to the maximum contemplated in the design and held 
there as long as desired by moving the brake valve handle 
back to the electric lap position, which leaves the release 
magnet undisturbed, but de-energizes the application mag- 
net, allowing it to close and prevent further flow of air 
into the brake cylinder. A further application of the brake 
or a release can then be made by moving the brake valve 
handle either to electric application or to release position, 
which either causes more air to flow to the brake cylinder, 
as described above, or operates the release magnet valve 
so as to permit the air in the brake cylinder to escape to the 
atmosphere. When making a release, if the brake valve 
handle is returned from release to electric lap position, the 
release magnet will again be actuated so as to close the 
brake cylinder exhaust. In this way the brake cylinder can 
be graduated off in any desired number of steps or gradua- 

During the electric operation of the brake the release 
port of the brake valve is open and the communication 
between the feed valve and the brake valve is maintained. 
Consequently the air which is drawn from the auxiliary 
reservoir for use in the brake cylinders is continuously re- 
placed from the brake pipe, which is in turn kept fully 
recharged through the feed valve. Should the motorman 
thoughtlessly continue the movement of the brake valve 
handle toward electric application position the brakes will 
continue to apply up to their predetermined maximum pres- 
sure. This will be the case until the handle is moved so far 
that a pneumatic application is begun. That is to say, the 
motorman cannot go beyond the point at which an electric 
application will cease to be made until after he has come 
into a position in which a pneumatic application is com- 
menced. It will thus be seen that there is no possibility 
of a careless motorman failing to obtain an application of 
the brakes or losing an application already obtained elec- 
trically on account of moving the brake valve handle 
too far. 


Conditions on the New York Subway division of the 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company and on one or two 
other roads in the country have become so severe as to war- 
rant extension of electric control to the quick-action and 
emergency operation of the brakes. In so doing an abso- 
lutely simultaneous and instantaneous application of the 
brakes is obtained throughout the train. This is accom- 
plished by simply adding an emergency finger to the brake 
valve, an emergency wire running throughout the train 
and an emergency magnet with its valve controlling a port 
leading from the face of the triple-valve piston direct to 
the atmosphere. In order that an emergency application 
originating from a trip cock or conductor's valve, burst 
hose, etc., may be propagated electrically as well as when 
an emergency application is made by the motorman moving 
the brake valve handle, each brake pipe vent valve already 
referred to is provided with contacts whereby the opera- 
tion of any vent valve in the train will energize the 
emergency magnets in the same manner as when the brake 
valve handle is moved to emergency position. The only 
advantage of the electrical transmission of quick-action lies 
in the saving of time as compared with the pneumatic 
propagation of quick-action throughout the length of the 
train, but where time is an important factor, as in sub- 
way or elevated service, this apparently slight saving of 
two seconds may have an immediate and important bearing 
on the economic operation of the road and its total carry- 
ing capacity. 

There is little to be gained by coming to electric control 

July i, 1911.] 



of the brakes for emergency applications until the best has 
been done that possibly can be accomplished by the pneu- 
matic operation of the brakes. It is obvious that all that 
can possibly be gained by controlling the emergency appli- 
cation of the brakes electrically is in the time of trans- 
mission throughout the train. This does not hold, however, 
for the operation of brakes in service, since there is a 
marked gain in the ability to control trains, smoothly, 
safely and without shock, due to the simultaneous and uni- 
form application of the brakes on each vehicle. Each 
vehicle thus does its proper share of the work of stopping 
the train, thereby reducing shocks and tendency to slide 
wheels and requiring much less skill in manipulation, while 
at the same time it affords the added safety of a double 
brake control system. 

The characteristics of electric operation just mentioned 
make it possible to obtain initial brake cylinder pressure 
much more promptly and build this brake cylinder pressure 
up at a very much faster rate than can be permitted with 
a purely pneumatic control. This is because the applica- 
tion of the brakes pneumatically must necessarily be slow 
enough to avoid the shocks, uneven braking, sliding of 
wheels, etc., that are likely to follow where any consider- 
able difference in rate of retardation can occur in different 
parts of the same train. When the brakes cannot be applied 
simultaneously and uniformly ( as is inherently impossible 
with a purely pneumatic control ) it is necessary to slow 
down the time and rate of brake application so as to avoid 
the troubles mentioned above. When the application of 
the brakes can be made both simultaneously in starting to 
apply and uniform in rate of building up brake cylinder 
pressure, a very much quicker rate of brake application can 
be utilized and still run no danger of troubles arising from 
non-uniformity of retardation on different vehicles. This 
explains why the electric service brake can be made so 
much more effective than a brake controlled only pneu- 
matically and further explains why at this point it became 
imperative to add power to the emergency portion of the 
pneumatic brake. This follows logically from the fact 
that if the pneumatic emergency brake is less powerful than 
the maximum possible with the electro-pneumatic service 
brake the result would be a better service brake when 
operating the electric service control than could be obtained 
in pneumatic emergency, which must necessarily be the 
final resort in case of unforeseen failures or accidents. 

The degree to which this increase in emergency braking 
power over service braking power can be carried is now 
limited only by main reservoir pressure. We are now able 
to obtain practically full main reservoir pressure in the 
brake cylinders when an emergency application is made, 
even though only 70-lb. brake pipe pressure is carried. 

There is one other system which differs fundamentally 
from the one just described, and. therefore, warrants a 
brief reference. This fundamental difference lies rather in 
the means adopted for combining the electric control with 
the pneumatic portion of the brake system than in any dif- 
ference in principle or manipulation. With the system 
above referred to the supply of air for operating the 
brakes electrically is drawn from the auxiliary reservoir, 
the triple-valve piston and ports remaining in their normal 
or release position. The brake pipe and therefore the 
auxiliary reservoirs are then being constantlv recharged 
through the feed valve during electric service operation. 
In certain cases it has been found preferable to make the 
application magnet vent air from the brake pipe to the 
brake cylinder (the pneumatic portion of the brake valve 
then being in lap position), thus causing a brake pipe re- 
duction and a movement of the triple valve piston and slide 
valve to their service positions, just as would be the case 
with any pneumatic service brake pipe reduction. In 
emergency applications the air is vented from the brake 
pipe to the atmosphere, thus causing all the triple valve pis- 
tons to move simultaneously and instantaneously to their 

emergency positions. The release magnet controls the 
release of air from the brake cylinder in the ordinary way, 
as already explained. 


This system has been perfected during the last two years 
and is the most satisfactory and efficient apparatus for the 
purpose yet devised. Heretofore in the operation of elec- 
tric trains consisting of two or more cars more or less diffi- 
culty has been experienced in securing an equitable divi- 
sion of the work of supplying the compressed air required 
for braking and other purposes among the different motor- 
driven air compresssors included in the train. The result 
has been that some compressors are overworked, while 
others are not working up to their full capacity. Such an 
inequality of compressor operation naturally results in 
increased wear and tear on the overworked compressors as 
well as an actual decrease in the available air supply under 
certain conditions, due to the attendant loss in efficiency of 
compressor operation. 

Briefly stated, the characteristic features of the governor 
synchronizing system are as follows: 

The current supply to the motor of each motor-driven air 
compressor in a train is controlled by a switch operated by 
air pressure substantially as in the ordinary form of elec- 
tro-pneumatic governor previously used. The difference 
is that the cutting in and cutting out of this switch is con- 
trolled by the operation of a magnet valve instead of a 
pneumatic regulating portion connected to main reservoir 
pressure, as is the case with the ordinary compressor gov- 
ernor. In the governor synchronizing system this switch 
is called the compressor switch. In addition to the com- 
pressor switch a pneumatically controlled switch, called a 
master governor, is used on each motor car, similar in all 
respects to the previously used electro-pneumatic compres- 
sor governor, except that instead of controlling the current 
supplied to the motors of the motor-driven air compressors 
it acts simply as a pilot or master switch to control the 
magnets which operate the compressor switches. The mag- 
nets of the compressor switches are connected in parallel 
between the trolley (or positive battery terminal) and a 
wire, called the synchronizing wire, which runs the entire 
length of the train. The cutting in of any master gover- 
nor connects the synchronizing wire to ground (or negative 
battery terminal) and thereby operates all the compressor 
switch magnets. All the main reservoirs in the train are 
connected by means of a main reservoir pipe line running 
the entire length of the train and connecting the pneumatic 
controlling portion of each master governor. With all the 
compressors cut out the pressure in this line becomes equal- 
ized. As soon as this pressure is decreased to the point at 
which any one of the master controlling mechanisms oper- 
ates, the closing of this master governor switch supplies cur- 
rent to the magnets of each compressor switch in the train, 
causing them all to operate so as to cut in their switches and 
start all the compressors simultaneously. Whether one or 
more of the master governors cuts in at the same time is 
immaterial since the cutting in of a single master governor 
is sufficient to start all the compressors. They will then 
continue to operate and raise the pressure in the main 
reservoir on each vehicle and in the main reservoir line 
throughout the train, until such time as the controlling por- 
tion of the last master governor remaining cut in operates 
to open the circuit to the compressor switch magnets, 
which causes all the compressor switches to cut out and 
stop the operation of all the motor-driven compressors 
simultaneously. Tt will be seen that in this way all the 
compressors are forced to operate the same length of time, 
and since the main reservoir pressure is equalized on all 
vehicles, the stronger compressors help the weaker ones to 
the extent of insuring the necessary amount of compressed 
air being supplied at the expense of a minimum amount of 
energy, time, and wear and tear on the air-compressing 

4 o 


[Vol. XXXVIII, No. r. 


Starting and stopping of trains are complementary fac- 
tors in the problem of making time between stations; 
therefore it is evident that the best results can only be 
obtained where both factors are given due consideration. 
Generally, the starting factor is the only one fully consid- 
ered, or, at least, the most adequately provided for. In a 
sense, however, the question of stopping is the most im- 
portant, as the safety of the service and freedom from de- 
lays depend upon it to a great degree. The measure of the 
value of the brake is twofold: (i) the ability to stop in the 
shortest possible distance when necessary; and (2) to per- 
mit short, smooth and accurate stops being made in regular 
operation. Unfortunately, the brake is usually looked upon 
as a safety device only, and it is because of the prevalence 
of this idea that its installation and maintenance do not 
receive the consideration merited. Considering the invest- 
ment, there is no part of the railway equipment that will 
give greater material returns than the brake when properly 
installed, operated and maintained. If the brake could to 
some extent be separated from the idea or impression that 
it is a safety device only and proof advanced to show that it 
makes possible hauling of heavier cars and faster and more 
frequent service, as much or more than do the motors, the 
block signals, and the good roadbed, its importance would 
be more fully appreciated. A safety device the brake is, 
par excellence ; but it has other reasons for its existence. 


By John H. Pardee 

The Street Railway Association of the State of New 
York was organized in New York City on Dec. 20, 1883, by 
men representing street railways in New York, Brooklyn 
and Buffalo. Since that time regular conventions have 
been held each year, and to-day we are assembled in the 
twenty-ninth convention, and our member companies are 
operating railways in every city and large village in the 
State, with the exception of Greater New York. 

At first, obviously all the railway* were horse or cable 
street railways, but in 1890 the first general electrification 
and extensions began, and to-day, notwithstanding consoli- 
dations, we have in the association twenty companies, op- 
erating 580.89 miles of urban and 990.23 miles of suburban 
and interurban railways. This development beginning in 
the cities and extending into the country, and the connect- 
ing of the cities with the larger villages, continued rapidly 
and on an increasing scale until 1907, when two events of 
great importance took place : the financial panic and the 
passage of the Public Service Law. 

The panic, caused by wild speculation and unscrupulous 
financing, has passed, but the Public Service Law is still 
with us with added drastic provisions, and in view of the 
fact that the building of railway lines has practically ceased 
since the passage of the law, it is quite pertinent to quote 
from the president's address in reference to it at your 
twenty-fifth convention in 1907: 

"It was stated by several gentlemen who appeared in op- 
position to the bill at the public hearing that one effect 
would be to stop the building of interurban lines through 
sparsely settled territory. This statement was not con- 
troverted, and should it prove true, would cause a condition 
which could not be too quickly remedied, as even at present 
this State is far behind in the development of the rural 
communities by the interurban trolley systems." 

There are three ways by which railways can be built : 
by the State with public funds, by private individuals for 
charitable purposes and by private individuals for profit. 
The first two of these methods are neither profitable nor 

*Address presented at annual meeting of Street Railway Association 
of the State of New York. Cooperstown, June 27-28, 1911. 

practicable, and the third is not attractive under the pro 
visions of the Public Service Law. 

While this law has been most ably and justly interpreted 
and administered by the men chosen for that purpose, yet 
they are bound by its provisions and prevented from giving 
their sanction and approval to needed and legitimate enter- 

The law, with its provisions permitting the reduction 
of rates, and the clamor of the people to place public utili- 
ties on approximately an investment basis, in effect say to 
men with the necessary funds who may wish to embark 
in a railway enterprises : "Gentlemen, the public will be 
delighted to have you build an electric railway through the 
country which may badly need transportation facilities. 
Put up your money; if your judgment is wrong and you 
fail, lose it and charge it up to profit and loss, but if per- 
chance you should happen to win, we will permit you to 
obtain a return on your investment of 6 per cent or there- 
abouts." Theorists claim that this is right because we are 
operating public utilities. Why not apply the same reason- 
ing to enterprises of bread-making and clothing? Surely 
these are public utilities. 

The people of this State will in time see this matter in its 
true light and will so modify the statutes as to permit of a 
proper and adequate return to capital based on the risks in- 
curred in investments in public utilities. However, the 
law in other respects in actual practice has proved of great 
benefit to both the public and the railways. It has protected 
both against unjust discrimination, and its administrators 
have demonstrated that it was passed for the benefit of the 
railways as well as the public. 

Another most beneficial effect of the passage of the Pub- 
lic Service Law of this State and other States has been to 
bring forcibly to the minds of the railway men and also to 
the public that the profits of the railway enterprises have 
been much less than supposed, and that profits are dwin- 
dling on account of increased costs of material and labor 
and that remedies must be applied. One, which we are all 
trying to apply, is greater efficiency, and certainly this 
association has aided materially in that direction; another 
is an increase in rates, and surely those who deservedly 
need it should be permitted to apply it. 

There is little doubt that the Public Service Law has 
come to stay, not only in this State, but in this country, 
and there is little doubt that we all believe that a proper 
law is beneficial to all — one that regulates not only public 
utilities but regulates the public in relation to such public 

The pendulum of reform has been swung too far by 
the many specious arguments of bright and voluble, but 
too radical, reformers and by their mere imitators. How- 
ever, the judgment of the people, after full information, is 
usually sound, and we already see the pendulum swinging 
backward, as evidenced by recent laws in other States, to 
its proper position. 

For manv years the electric railway associations in the 
various States in conventions and through committees have 
given much thought and attention to the formulation of 
a code of operating rules which might be made standard 
and put in force by all. This association has performed its 
share of the work, and during the past year a committee 
has spent much time and effort on a code which will be pre- 
sented to this convention for adoption, and I trust that it 
will be carefully considered and put into effect by formal 

The character and thoroughness of the work done by this 
association through committees, at quarterly meetings and 
in conventions, have steadily improved from year to year, 
and this is evidenced by the quality of reports, papers and 
discussions. The education gained by individuals through 
the study and research necessary for the preparation of 
such committee reports and papers, and from discussions, 
has reflected itself in the more efficient operation of the 

July r, 191 1.] 



railways themselves, and has well repaid the individuals as 
well as the companies represented by them. 

At a quarterly meeting held during the year the schedule 
of annual dues was revised downward, yet will provide suf- 
ficient funds to meet the running expenses of the asso- 

During the past year your executive committee has held 
numerous meetings and the usual quarterly meetings have 
been more largely attended than ever before. Your asso- 
ciation is on a sound educational and financial basis and will 
take an increasingly important part in the future of the 
electric railway business of this State. 

Since 1903 I have been honored by election to various 
offices in the association, and I take this oportunity to ex- 
press my thanks and appreciation for the favors conferred, 
and especially to thank the various officers, members of the 
executive committee and individuals for their hearty co- 
operation and assistance. 



The electric car meets certain transportation conditions 
where steam operation would be both unsatisfactory and 
uneconomical, and there are other conditions which, in the 
present state of the art, are undoubtedly better met by the 
steam locomotive. There are intermediate conditions 
where self-propelled cars are less expensive to operate than 
steam trains and where the investment for such cars would 
be considerably less than for complete electrification. In 
this latter class are many branch lines of steam roads and 
projected developments of new roads which might not at 
first justify electrical equipment. Recognizing this situa- 
tion, efforts have been made to drive such a car with a 
self-contained boiler and engine, but without great suc- 
cess, as the performance is limited by restrictions imposed 
on the boiler capacity. 

The development of the gasoline engine and its applica- 
tion to this class of work have resulted in marked success. 
The gasoline engine as a prime mover is essentially differ- 
ent from a steam engine in that it has no variable effective 
pressure in the cylinders such as may be secured by the 
variable cut-off of a steam engine. To secure the tractive 
force required for starting and to meet the changing re- 
quirements of speed and grade, it is necessary that some 
form of variable gear reduction be introduced between the 
engine and the driving wheels. To utilize the power of the 
gas engine to the best advantage it is essential to have a 
wide range of gearing. To a limited extent this can be se- 
cured by mechanical drives, with different sets of gears, as 
commonly used in automobiles. But the mechanical drive 
cannot, within practical limits, be provided with the desir- 
able number of gear changes, and it also subjects the en- 
gines and driving mechanism to a severe strain by reason 
of the mechanical shock resulting from the use of a clutch. 

The electric drive may seem a refinement, but its advan- 
tage will be appreciated when it is recognized that the en- 
gine may be driven at its most advantageous speed, inde- 
pendent of the speed of the car, and that the tractive force, 
without changing the speed of the engine, may be varied 
from what is required to accelerate the car to that re- 
quired to drive it at 60 m.p.h. This change in tractive 
force and speed is accomplished smoothly, and without 
shock to the mechanism throughout the entire range. As 
an illustration, the electric drive makes it possible to de- 
velop a tractive force of 10,000 lb. at 1 m.p.h. and, without 
manipulating anything other than the electric controller, to 
propel the car at 60 m.p.h. 

•Abstract of a paper read at the annual meeting of the Street Rail- 
way Association of the State of New York, Cooperstown, June 27-28, 

The gas-electric equipment referred to consists of an 
eight-cylinder, 8-in. x 10-in. gasoline engine, driving an 
electric generator. The forward truck underneath the en- 
gine is equipped with two 6oo-volt standard railway motors. 
The weight on the driving wheels effective for traction is 
about two-thirds the total weight of the car. The move- 
ment of the car is controlled by varying the voltage of the 
generator, combined with series-parallel connection of the 
motors. The engine control is provided with a combina- 
tion air valve and gas throttle by which the engine is 
started on compressed air, and as soon as it begins run- 
ning on gasoline the air is shut off. With this arrange- 
ment, the engine need be run only when propelling the car. 
Three or four seconds only elapse between the time at 
which air for starting is admitted to the engine and the 
movement of the car, so no perceptible delay is occasioned 
by stopping the main engine at the station. 

The car is lighted by a small two-cylinder gasoline en- 
gine which drives a lighting machine. This small engine is 
also fitted with an air compressor cylinder to charge the 
air tanks for starting the main engine on its first run. The 
latter is provided with an air compressor, which maintains 
a pressure when the car is once in operation. 

A demonstration car of this type has been operating for 
the past two years, carrying passengers on railroads in dif- 
ferent parts of the country, and at the present time there 
are seven cars in regular service. A grade of gasoline 
satisfactory for the operation of these cars can be pur- 
chased for from 6 cents to 7 cents per gallon. The gaso- 
line tanks will hold 150 gal., sufficient for at least 200 miles 
on one filling. The gasoline consumption, per car mile, 
for cars weighing from 40 tons to 50 tons will vary from 
0.5 gal. to 0.7 gal., according to the service conditions. 
On this basis for fuel, an estimated cost of operation per 
car mile, based on experience, is as follows: 

Maintenance (car body and trucks) W 

Maintenance (engine and electrical equipment) Oi 

Engineer, conductor and cleaning 07 


*This item, in particular, will vary w'th the mileage and wages paid. 

The car bodies are similar in respect to the engine com- 
partment, the remainder of the interior and the entrances 
being modified to meet different requirements. 

It is preferable that the cars be operated as independent 
units rather than to haul trailers, but as they are fitted 
with automatic air brakes, as well as straight-air, and with 
M. C. B. couplers, they can be used for trailer work, 
though at reduced speed. 

The seats are nearly 4 ft. long, and, not having arms, 
it is possible for three people comfortably to occupy one 
seat. The aisle is narrower than in steam practice, though 
wider than in many trolley cars. The largest cars at pres- 
ent under construction are 70 ft. long and 10 ft. 5 in. wide 
over all. 

The width, inside measurement, is 9 ft. 6 in. This car, 
with a 6-ft. baggage compartment and allowing three pas- 
sengers per seat, will seat ninety-eight passengers, and it is 
practically a complete train within itself. Such a car would 
have a maximum speed of about 50 m.p.h. on level track, 
and a scheduled speed of 25 m.p.h. with stops 2^2 miles 

There are undoubtedly many lines now operated by 
steam which under existing conditions are unprofitable, 
on account of both high operating expense and small 
receipts, but on which the traffic could be very much in- 
creased by a more frequent service and a pleasanter mode 
of travel. 

The self-propelled gas-electric car seems to fulfill these 
requirements at less cost than by steam and so accomplishes 
the double purpose of a better and cheaper mode of trans- 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. I, 



The subject assigned me, "maintenance of way," is so 
broad that I am assuming it will be agreeable to the asso- 
ciation to make statements regarding any branch of it. 
The road with which I am connected consists of approxi- 
mately 200 miles of line, which is kept up by a roadmaster 
who has about twelve section crews on the electric and five 
on the steam divisions, while city section crews have about 
double the amount of track to look after that suburban 
ones have. Bridges are inspected by the roadmaster and 
the writer periodically. All matters pertaining to the over- 
head line — trolley feeder, transmission, etc. — are in charge 
of the electrical engineering department, which also has 
the work ordinarily falling upon a master mechanic or 
superintendent of motive power. 

The amount of new construction performed by the 
Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company during the past 
five years has been so great that maintenance of way is 
handled jointly by the construction and operating depart- 
ments. Many details of maintenance are attended to by 
division superintendents, who are under the general super- 
intendent, and he in turn reports to the vice-president of 
the road. 

The engineering department has charge of all new work, 
such as the location and construction of extensions and the 
revision and rebuilding of old or improving located tracks. 
Last year, for instance, about Aug. i we began to locate 
and stake out a 33^-mile cut-off line, shortening the dis- 
tance 1% miles between Buffalo and Erie, and the line was 
opened for traffic the fifteenth of this month. The work 
involved 60,000 cu. yd. of earth excavation, one steel 
viaduct 900 ft. long and 90 ft. above the water, all of which 
is located on a private right-of-way, wide enough for a 
double track and two 60.000-volt transmission lines. The 
viaduct was erected with a derrick mounted on an ordinary 
flat car. The tracks were ballasted with granulated slag, 
which is used almost exclusively for our new work. Bond- 
ing was done with a bonding car using a brazed bond, prac- 
tically welding it to the rail. 

This piece of track was built on substantially level grades 
with no curve of over 4 deg., and only three in all. so that 
we believe its cost of maintenance will be reduced to the 

In 1909 a double-track line consisting of 4J4 miles of 
roadbed was built into Buffalo, extending from Lafayette 
Square to the Lackawanna steel plant. This line was so 
constructed that its maintenance is a very simple and in- 
expensive matter, as steel ties were used with 9-in. heavy 
girder rails with 10 in. of concrete under them and 6 in. 
under the ties. Seven-inch Medina block stone was used for 
practically all the paving. The year previous to this work 
24 miles of new track was built between Buffalo and Dun- 
kirk, laying 80-lb. A.S.C.E. rails with Continuous joints, 
nearly all of which was on private right-of-way. Catenary 
construction was adopted for the trolley line and separate 
poles for the transmission system which conveys Niagara 

We have endeavored to build all lines, not only the new, 
but reconstruct the old. so that maintenance costs will be a 
minimum. I believe it is good policy to put enough money 
into the original line so that the grades and alignment will 
cause small power bills, few accidents and reduce the plat- 
form time. Level, straight lines not only do this but they 
save rolling stock and electrical equipment, requiring fewer 
section men and trouble patrolmen. Private right-of-way 
is another asset that is worth considering, as most accident 

'Abstract of a paper read at annual meeting of Street Railway Asso- 
ciation of the State of New York. Cooperstown, June 27-28. 1911. 

claims originate on highways or in the city streets. With a 
private right-of-way higher speed can be made, thereby 
getting more car mileage for the same expenditure in 
power and labor. The character of construction is not 
subject to the approval of municipal authorities and the 
up-keep is easier to maintain. 

Light grades and easy curves reduce the cost of opera- 
tion and increase the gross receipts by causing more peo- 
ple to patronize the lines. The tractive effort on private 
right-of-way is less than in a public highway or city street 
where dirt accumulates on the rails. 


During the past three years we have given the subject of 
track reconstruction in city streets our most serious con- 
sideration. We have built most of this track with a T-rail 
on a concrete base. About one-half of the Buffalo entrance 
was constructed with a low T-rail, open construction and 
stone ballast, and, while it is within the city limits, the city 
and the public are well pleased with it and the noiseless 
way in which the cars pass over this track, to say nothing 
of the fact that they can get into the city quicker and more 
comfortably during bad weather. In the latest type of 
street construction used by our company, a ioo-lb. T-rail 
is laid with a 6-in. concrete base, the brick pavement going 
under the rail on the gage side of the track, thereby doing 
away with any special brick or troublesome groove. On 
the outside of the rail a brick with a slight offset is laid 
to insure the pavement remaining below the rail far enough 
so that the wheel tread will not injure it. While we have 
used a large number of steel ties in our construction we are 
not very strongly in favor of them excepting on new lines 
where no cars are operating. In rebuilding old track, the 
use of steel ties not only increases the cost of construc- 
tion, but it is doubtful whether solid track is obtained, and 
we think it interferes with successful operation. 

Maintenance of way is being constantly improved by the 
use of portable crossovers, hose bridges, track-grinding ma- 
chines and a liberal supply of small tools for keeping cars 
in operation during repair and new work. I believe that a 
company can do all its track laying, ballasting and emer- 
gency work on roadbed cheaper, quicker and better than 
to let it by contract. Our train dispatchers give work 
trains all possible assistance, allowing them to work extra 
for several hours at a time, thus accomplishing much with- 
out interfering with the operating timetables. We en- 
deavor to have as few switches as possible in streets, 
thereby using inexpensive switch and frog material and 
giving safer and faster track for cars to pass over; for ex- 
ample, where we have a double track through the streets 
we make all connection of the double track with single 
track on the private right-of-way located outside of the 
city or village. 


Owing to the high pressure of our transmission system 
(60,000 volts) separate poles are set 160 ft. apart carrying 
three No. 2 copper wires on porcelain insulators, steel 
towers being used at all railroad crossings. 

The trolley lines are of the catenary type of construction 
on about one-half of the system, in which poles are set 125 
ft. apart, using three hangers between the trolley and mes- 
senger wire ; the balance of the line is constructed of or- 
dinary span construction in city streets and brackets on a 
single line of poles where the lines are on the sides of 
highways. Our electrical department is paying a great 
deal of attention to the subject of good bonding and proper 
ground return from the track to power houses and sub- 
stations. Bonding is carried on pretty largely at night on 
operating lines so as to interfere as little as possible with 
the regular car operation. 

In paved city streets two bonds at the joints on ioo-lb. 
T-rail construction are used. Cross bonds are placed about 
500 ft. apart. 

July i, 191 i.] 




While it is very desirable to eliminate grade crossings of 
foreign roads, there are cases where this is not practicable, 
as in city streets or where the country is level and water 
lies close to the surface in large quantities. In localities of 
this kind I think it best to use solid manganese work, for 
although this type of crossing is much more expensive 
than the ordinary bolted one, it will last several times as 
long. We have constructed a large number of subways 
or under crossings of steam roads, all of concrete, of either 
the arch or box type. Where overways were required 
steel viaduct and trestle construction has been resorted to as 
being the best proposition from a maintenance of way as 
well as a construction standpoint. The grades of approaches 
were lightened. 


The traction line, urban or interurban, that gives careful 
and constant attention to the small matters such as com- 
promise splice bars, renewing switch tongues when worn 
out or broken, is the one which is most likely to succeed. 

Too much care and pains cannot be exercised in shim- 
ming loose joints in city and open track, thus keeping the 
surface of abutting rails level, also promptly renewing off- 
set splice bars that join different sections of rail and special 
work. Neglect of these inexpensive joints may greatly 
damage costly special track work and rolling stock beyond 
repair in an incredibly short time. 


Hopeless confusion of a company's real estate and fran- 
chise rights is only averted by giving its records careful 
attention. All right-of-way deeds should be filed in a cab- 
inet in a vault or other safe place where they can be got 
at by the executive, legal, accounting or engineering de- 
partments at a moment's notice. 

Each department should be furnished with a blue print 
index sheet giving the file number, name and station of 
each piece of property the deeds refer to. These index 
sheets should accompany right-of-way books (maps) drawn 
to a scale of about 100 ft. to the inch, which should also be 
a part of the records in the principal offices of the 


The subject of protection of trains from going into the 
stream or becoming derailed at movable bridges is one that 
we have gone into at some length owing to the fact that 
in the city of Buffalo several bridges of this type are 

Solid manganese terminals of rails widening out two or 
three times the width of the running rail, thereby allowing 
cars to pass smoothly from fixed to movable parts, are quite 
desirable both for safety of travel and saving of wear and 
tear on cars. 

A derailing switch at approaches to drawbridges we 
believe to be productive of more harm than good in the 
majority of cases. We have a location where one was in- 
stalled and taken out after remaining in the track a few 
months. The great trouble with these derailing devices is 
the same as at railroad crossings, viz., to operate them in 
winter weather and to be sure they are not gong to get out 
of order. 


In conclusion let me say that maintenance of way is a 
very important part of successful traction management. 
It seems to me that too much attention cannot be given to 
the little and many details that will invariably come up 
day by day on the track and the line. If the roadbed is 
well maintained power bills are minimized, the life of roll- 
ing stock and equipment is prolonged and the public is kept 
in good humor, to say nothing of larger gross receipts and 
smaller operating expenses that will inevitably result from 
good track. 




Probably it is not clear to many electric railway men 
how a storage battery can perform the very difficult task 
of supplying the large amount of electrical energy neces- 
sary to propel a heavy car, to accelerate it at frequent in- 
tervals and cause it to climb grades. Experience with bat- 
teries composed of lead compounds immersed in acid-elec- 
trolyte has been such as to lead many to think that all 
secondary batteries are delicate and have a short life, and 
therefore are to be avoided for use on vehicles. The Edi- 
son secondary battery, which is the source of energy in 
the Edison-Beach storage battery car, is neither delicate 
nor short-lived. The principle of the Edison storage bat- 
tery is that metallic iron tends to combine with oxygen. 
When oxygen is combined with iron energy is developed 
either in the form of heat or electric energy. Conversely 
the oxygen may be removed from iron oxide, but to do 
this requires the expenditure of energy. The Edison bat- 
tery consists essentially of plates of iron oxide and plates 
of nickel oxide immersed in water, to which potash is 
added. If an electric current is caused to pass through the 
electrolyte from the iron plate to the nickel plate the oxy- 
gen present in the iron oxide passes to and remains with 
the nickel oxide. When all of the oxygen has been re- 
moved from the iron oxide and is taken up by the nickel 
oxide then the battery is fully charged. In this condi- 
tion the negative plate is composed of metallic iron, 
while the positive or nickel plate is composed of oxide 
of nickel and also a super-oxide of nickel. The finely di- 
vided metallic iron has an affinity for the oxygen in the 
positive plate and it will receive this oxygen if permitted 
to do so. It cannot receive the oxygen, however, without 
giving off energy in some form. If an electrical circuit 
be completed between the two plates an electro-chemical 
action takes place and the oxygen in the positive plate is 
transferred to the metallic iron in the negative plate. This 
process is accompanied by the generation of electricity. 


The Edison battery is analogous to but quite different 
from the older forms of lead batteries. Combinations of 
iron and nickel oxides and water are not self-destructive. 
Neither are they destroyed by the transfer of the oxygen 
back and forth. In a word, the distinctive feature of the 
Edison secondary battery is its stability. The battery is 
not liable to injury from use, and it suffers nothing from 
neglect. It may be charged at a rate as high as ten times 
the ordinary rate, or it may be discharged on short cir- 
cuit. The electrolyte may be boiled or frozen without 
damage to the cell. With ordinary treatment the battery 
can be relied upon to do its work, providing it is kept 
reasonably clean. From experience extending over sev- 
eral years, it is known that the battery will not fall off in 
capacity during the first six years of its life. It is guar- 
anteed for three years and it is believed that it will last for 
a much longer time, especially if distilled water is used. 

With the older types of storage batteries it has been 
necessary to allow almost as long for charging the battery 
as for discharging it under service conditions. The older 
types of batteries require about eleven hours for a com- 
plete charge and in car operation this would mean that the 
car would be out of service at least half of the time. 
Because of the fact that the Edison battery is not injured 
by high rates of charging, a car equipped with this type 
of battery need be out of service practically none of the 
time. In Washington, D. C, a car is operated over a line 
4 miles long. The running time is sixteen minutes and the 
layover time at the terminal is three minutes. The bat- 

* Abstract of a paper read at the annual meeting of the Street Railway 
Association of the State of New York. Cooperstown, N. Y., June 27-28, 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

tery is charged at five times its normal rate during the 
three-minute layover and the car then runs to the other 
terminal, where the operation of charging is repeated. The 
battery is not charged at any other time and the car runs 
204 miles each day. The three-minute layover at each 
terminal is required for changing the fender and giving 
the conductor an opportunity to reset the fare register. 
Advantage is merely taken of this time to charge the bat- 
tery. Another car, operated in Concord, N. C, makes 99 
miles a day and is charged twenty times for ten minutes at 
each terminal. The total charging time is three hours 
and twenty minutes during the day. 

Mr. Edison has said of this battery that it is the most 
useful of all of the devices that he has invented. As the 
field of its application becomes better known it will be the 
means of supplementing and, to a large extent, supplant- 
ing many of the present means of electrical transmission. 
It makes not only possible but almost certain the removal 
from the streets of all overhead trolley wires, and makes 
unnecessary and uneconomical the third rail and the conduit. 


In designing the cars on which these batteries are used 
the writer has aimed to reduce the dead weight and to 
eliminate, as far as possible, friction losses. The average 
Pullman car weighs 3000 lb. per seated passenger. The 
ordinary wooden day coach used by steam railroads weighs 
about 1500 lb. per seated passenger. A steel suburban 
coach weighs 1100 lb. per seated passenger. An ordinary 
single-truck trolley car weighs about 800 lb. per seated 
passenger and an ordinary double-truck car about 1000 
lb. per seated passenger. The average current consump- 
tion of a trolley car is approximately 125 watt-hours per 
ton mile. The Edison-Beach double-truck storage battery 
car weighs only 600 lb. per seated passenger, while the 
small single-truck car weighs 380 lb. per passenger. The 
latest type of long wheel-base, single-truck car weighs 360 
lb. per seated passenger. The weight of the battery re- 
quired on each of these cars is about 60 lb. per seat. 

This reduction in weight has been accomplished by mak- 
ing a number of departures from the usual practice in 
body and truck construction. All of the joints in the truck 
frame are welded instead of being riveted or bolted. No 
difficulty has been experienced from broken welds. In 
longitudinal seat cars an electrically welded latticed steel 
girder forms a rest for the seat and extends the length 
of the car bodv. It is bolted to the side and cross sills 
and side posts. In an 18-ft. car these girders weigh about 
300 lb. and they so stiffen the body that a reduction of 
nearly 3000 lb. can be made in the weight of the other 
parts. A very light roof is used because it is not neces- 
sary to support a trolley base. The body of an 18-ft. car 
with 5-ft. platforms and folding doors, but no bulkheads or 
interior doors, weighs about 3700 lb. A standard monitor- 
deck car body of the same length weighs about 6700 lb. 
and the light bodies with the steel girders are much 
stronger than the heavy bodies. 


After extensive experiments had been made it was found 
that there was a considerable saving in friction losses if 
the wheels were permitted to rotate on the axles instead 
of having the axles fixed in the wheels and rotate in the 
iournal bearings. Exactly how much saving in current 
consumption has been effected by this change is not 
known. A silent chain drive is used between the motors 
and the wheels. There is some gain in efficiency with 
this type of drive over the gear drive, but it is diffi- 
cult to say exactly the amount. When new the gear 
drive is probably very nearly as efficient as the chain, 
but as it wears it loses its efficiency, whereas the chain does 
not. The chain drive possesses a great advantage over the 
gear drive while the car is coasting. On a test run be- 
tween Athena and North Newark on the Erie Railroad, a 
distance of about 7 miles, a chain-driven car accelerated 

from o to 35 m.p.h. and maintained that speed on a prac- 
tically constant grade of from ^ to 1 per cent without 
the use of any current. An ordinary journal-bearing car 
will scarcely move on this grade without the application 
of power. The average current consumption of the Edi- 
son-Beach storage battery car is very low, in no case 
exceeding 60 watt-hours per ton mile. In a test made 
at Atlantic City at the time of the American Electric Rail- 
way Association convention in October, 1910, one of these 
cars made thirty-six trips, aggregating 14.4 miles, with 
an average of six stops per mile and an average speed of 
9 m.p.h. The average number of passengers carried was 
eighteen and the average consumption of current per ton 
mile was 54.2 watt-hours. 

A double-truck car which was tested on the Greenwood 
Lake Division of the Erie Railroad between Forest Hill 
and Sterling Forest ran a total distance of 70.2 miles. 
The weight of the car, including passengers, was 16.53 tons 
and the maximum speed was 25 m.p.h., the schedule speed 
being 18 m.p.h. This line has a number of heavy grades, 
but the current consumption per ton mile averaged only 
49.63 watt-hours. Another test made on the Erie Rail- 
road between West Orange and Forest Hill at the same 
rate of speed showed a current consumption of 46.1 watt- 
hours per ton mile. 

The Washington, Spa Springs & Gretta Railroad has 
had an Edison-Beach car in service for a number of 
months on a line which has grades as steep as 8 per cent. 
The battery car has averaged about 355 watt-hours per car 
mile and it has been found that one of these cars consumes 
only about one-fourth the current required for an ordinary 
trolley car. 

It is of interest to note the long-distance runs which may 
be made by these cars on a single charge of the battery. 
The double-truck car previously mentioned has been run 
on a single charge from West Orange, N. J., via Jersey 
City to Middletown, N. Y., over the Erie Railroad as the 
second section of an express train. The same car was 
run on a single charge from Jersey City to Atlantic City, 
N. J., over the Central Railroad of New Jersey and the 
Reading Railroad, a total distance of 135 miles. Sufficient 
current was left in the battery upon arrival at Atlantic 
City to run about 40 miles more. This car can attain a 
speed of 25 m.p.h. on a level with full load and a speed of 
16 m.p.h. on a 6 per cent grade. It is equipped with 
four motors rated at 15 amp and 200 volts and an Edison 
battery weighing 4800 lb. On the single-truck cars car- 
rying twenty-six passengers two motors rated at 30 amp 
and no volts are used and the battery weighs 1800 lb. 
The lower voltage used on the single-truck cars lessens 
motor and controller troubles. 

As showing what can be done with one of these cars on 
a small road, the results of operation on the Salisbury & 
Spencer Railway, Concord, N. C, are of interest.. The 
total cost of this road, which is i '4 miles long, was $20,000 
and the net earnings of a single car are at the rate of 
$7,670, which is equivalent to more than 33 per cent on 
the investment. The current for charging the battery 
of this car is purchased from the Southern Power Com- 
pany at a price of 1^4 cents per kilowatt hour, measured 
on the alternating-current busbar. The car is operated by 
one man, passengers entering and departing by the front 
door. The following is a record of thirty days' operation : 

Number cash fares 19,735 

Number ticket fares 243 

Total 19,976 

Total car miles 2687.5 

Total kw S268 

Kvv. per mile *noi'^r 

Total moneys received $986.65 

Operating expenses: 

Power at $1.75 per kw 92.19 

Conductors and motormen 232.94 

Miscellaneous 22.39 

Total expenses $347.52 

Net profit • $639.15 

July i, 1911.] 



Summing up, the advantages of the storage-battery car 
are: It eliminates the trolley wire and its supports; costs 
less for power; does away with electrolytic action of the 
return circuit; cars are silent running; there is no danger 
from lightning; the peak-load conditions on the power 
house are eliminated and each car is a separate, self-pro- 
pelled unit which is less liable to delays than on a system 
where each car derives its current from a central station 
through an intricate distribution system. Storage battery 
cars also afford an excellent opportunity for existing trol- 
ley lines to be put on as trippers during the rush hours and 
late at night when it may be desirable to shut down the 
power house. 



In the city of Rochester, from the time of the operation 
of the first electric car until April 1, 1910, there had never 
been operated any other than double-end cars. To facilitate 
this operation cross-overs were placed at each terminal and 
at various intermediate points, usually separated by about 
six minutes' running time, for the purpose of turning and 
spacing late cars. 

On April I, 1910, a new line was put into operation, 
formed by re-routing and combining two sections of an 
old line in such a manner as to obtain a line traversing 
the entire length of the main or principal business streets 
of the city. Upon portions of this line are operated ten 
other city lines, and in the center of the business section 
there is track common to seven other lines. The combined 
operation of these lines over this common track consists of 
156 cars per hour in each direction during the peak load, 
or so-called rush hours. Two loops and two wyes were 
substituted for four cross-overs; two loops and one wye 
were placed at the terminals and one wye at the canal lift 
bridge; five intermediate cross-overs were left in for the 
use of cars operating on the other lines, but, of course, 
they could not be used by the single-end pay-as-you-enter 
cars placed upon this new line. 

For the purpose of comparison I have taken a line of 
double-end cars whose operating conditions are very nearly 
identical with those of the new line. It is double-tracked 
from end to end, crosses the canal lift bridge and operates 
a considerable distance on the main street. In making 
these comparisons, which show the results of one year's 
operation, I will refer to the two lines as the "double-end" 
and "single-end" line. 

The following table shows a comparison of operation 
for one year: 

Double- Single- Line. 
Items Compared. End Line. End Line. % Inc. % Dec. 

1 No. of regular cars operated daily.. 23 25 8.6% 

2 Av'ge No. p's'g'rs carried daily.. 17,346 23,446 35.1% 

3 Av'ge No. p's'grs per car mile.... 8.1 9.3 14.8% 

4 Average speed, miles per hour.. 8.42 8.60 2.1% 

5 Total No. traffic interruptions.... 149 144 3.4% 

6 Total No. turn backs 493 186 62.2% 

7 No. accidents per 10,000 miles 

operated 8.0 6.9 13.7% 

The comparison of the first three items showing an in- 
crease in the number of cars operated and of passengers 
carried on the single-end line cannot be credited to the type 
of equipment used, but to the difference in density of popu- 
lation within the territory covered by each line. 


The 2.1 per cent increase in speed shown by the single- 
end line is due principally to the more expeditious method 
of turning cars at the terminals. Under ordinary condi- 

*Abstract of a paper read at the annual meeting of the Street Railway 
Association of the State of New York, Cooperstown, N. Y., Tune 27-28, 

tions the actual time taken to turn (exclusive of the lay- 
over which the crew may take) is thirty seconds at the 
loop or wye and sixty seconds at the cross-over terminal, 
showing a saving of sixty seconds per trip. It is, how- 
ever, at the heavy loading terminals, such as park resorts 
or factory districts, that the loop operation shows its great- 
est superiority, the cars there taking very little additional 
time to load, with no delay to the cars following. On the 
other hand, at the cross-section, with the necessary transfer 
of controller handle and switch iron, the turning of trolley 
and adjusting fenders and the crowding on of passengers, it 
is practically impossible to operate on a closer headway than 
two minutes unless two or more cars are turned at the same 
time. If this is done the cars have to be sent back in twos 
or threes and the schedule spacing is disarranged. 


While the traffic interruptions show a decrease of 3.4 per 
cent on the single-end line the turnbacks show a decrease 
of 62.2 per cent. 

These turnbacks are caused by cars running late, due 
principally to traffic interruptions or abnormally heavy 
travel. The usual method of turning cars is as follows : 
When double-end cars are operating on a six-minute head- 
way and a car becomes five minutes late or more the late 
car and its follower arrive at the cross-over at the same 
time, as the cross-over is located about four minutes' run- 
ning time from the line terminal. The passengers are then 
transferred to the second car and the first car is turned and 
proceeds on its return trip. 

This operation, however, is productive of two classes of 
complaints : 

First: The transfer of passengers to the car following 
is always annoying to them and is particularly so in bad 

Second : Passengers between this cross-over and the end 
of the line see the first car turned back after they have 
waited for it twelve minutes instead of six, and have some- 
times waited fourteen minutes on account of the time taken 
to transfer passengers and turn the first car. 

This does not happen on the single-end cars, as their last 
turning places are located at much greater distances from 
terminals and are not used except in the case of extraordi- 
nary interruptions, such as fires, etc. This might lead one 
to think that the single-end line is not operated as closely 
to schedule as the double-end line, but the line is actually 
running closer to the schedule and giving a continuity of 
service not obtained on the other line. This shows that 
when there is no opportunity to turn back cars a greater 
effort is made to maintain the schedule. 


While many of the different classes of accidents, such 
as collisions with cars, vehicles, persons, etc., are common 
to both single-end and double-end equipment, and the de- 
crease of 13.7 per cent in number of accidents per 10,000 
miles operated is to a great extent due to the prepayment 
car, still there are accidents in the double-end car caused 
by passengers coming in contact with the controller, brake 
handle and other equipment located on the rear platform. 
The number of these classes of accident on the double-end 
line was twenty-nine, or 4.5 per cent of the total, and the 
aggregate sum for the whole system paid out in damages 
for these classes of accident was 3.3 per cent of the total 
amount paid. There are also the accidents caused by pas- 
sengers riding on the left-hand rear step or fenders and 
falling in front of passing cars. A fatality of this kind 
recently happened in our city. These accidents do not 
occur in the single-end car. 


In the construction of single-end equipment there are 
many points which favor good operation. Two of the 
most important are as follows: 

First: The removal of the heater from the interior of 
the car to the front platform, thereby eliminating the possi- 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

ble annoyance of coal gas and increasing the seating capac- 
ity of the car. This is very acceptable to the public, and 
from the company's standpoint is one of the few remaining 
opportunities of increasing the earning capacity per car. 

Second : From a mechanical standpoint there is a reduc- 
tion in weight of about 2200 lb. per car, thus effecting a 
saving in rolling stock investment and maintenance cost. 


As previously stated, the construction of two loops and 
two wyes were found necessary for the single-end opera- 
tion, intermediate wyes being formed by intersecting lines, 
while for the double-end operation there were nine cross- 
overs. The comparative cost of installation (exclusive of 
right-of-way cost) shows a reduction of 12.5 per cent in 
cost of special work. In addition, there is undoubtedly a 
considerable saving in maintenance cost from using the loop 
operation. We have also found that the single-end cars 
make less noise when traveling around their loop track than 
do the double-end cars in passing over the frogs and 
switches at terminal and intermediate cross-overs. Hence 
the number of complaints on this point is less. 


The committee on the joint use of poles presents for 
consideration a proposed standard agreement, developed 
along the lines of the outline approved by the Street Rail- 
way Association of the State of New York at its last quar- 
terly meeting. The committee has endeavored to make 
this agreement broad enough to warrant its adoption as a 
standard by this association. 

In accordance with the instructions given the committee 
the matter was taken up with the Public Service Commis- 
sion and also with the chairman of the overhead lines con- 
struction committee of the National Electric Light Asso- 
ciation, as well as with the New York Telephone Company, 
which had previously asked for representation on this com- 
mittee. The work to be taken up was outlined to these 
bodies and their representation was asked at the meetings, 
for the stated reason that it was desired to develop an 
agreement which would be broad enough to be universally 
applicable and suitable for use under the various conditions 
which exist in the different companies throughout this 

Three meetings were held, at one or more of which there 
were present besides the committee experts from three 
departments of the Public Service Commission — the rail- 
way, the power and lighting, and the telephone and tele- 
graph departments; two representatives from the New 
York Telephone Company and a representative from the 
overhead line construction committee of the National Elec- 
tric Light Association. 

The committee thus was well equipped in an advisory 
capacity and this was of very material service to the com- 
mittee in preparing the agreement which is submitted. 

It is not assumed by the committee that the agreement 
as submitted will be acceptable to all interests — in fact, the 
discussions at committee meetings developed a great diver- 
sity of opinion from the various representatives in regard to 
a number of points. 

Attention is called to the following features of the agree- 
ment, which the committee believed should be borne in 
mind : 

1. It should protect thoroughly the railway interests and 
at the same time not work any hardship on the other inter- 
ests concerned. It must not permit hazardous or careless 

2. The agreement and specifications should be extremely 
simple and clear, unincumbered with unnecessary words. 

♦Abstract of report presented at the annual meeting of the Street 
Railwav Association of the Stale of New York, Cooperstown, N. Y., 
Tune 27-28, 1911, by a committee consisting of W. J. Harvie, chairman: 
C. L. Cadle, W. B. Fenoyer, R. P. Leavitt and C. S. Stanton. 

3. It should be broad enough to admit of use by several 
companies jointly, under whatever conditions they operate. 

4. It should cover any form of occupancy, whether by 
ownership or lease, whether covering one entire property 
or a single pole location. 

With reference to the drawings referred to in Appendix 
"C" the committee has modified only those plates showing 
construction in which by virtue of joint occupancy electric 
railways would be interested, it being the opinion of the 
committee that in any matters involving only the telephone 
and electric light companies the use of the National Electric 
Light Association's standard specifications was permissible 
as representing the accepted engineering of these interests. 

It was brought to the attention of the committee that the 
agreement submitted differs in many ways from work which 
has been done previously by the American Telephone & 
Telegraph Company and the National Electric Light Asso- 
ciation and that in following this outline the tendency might 
be away from rather than toward a standard agreement 
which might be suitable for other interests. The committee, 
however, felt that it was not in error in its premises and 
that it should continue as nearly as possible along the lines 
which were approved at the last quarterly meeting. 

If in the opinion of the association the proposed agree- 
ment is leading away from what might be termed "a uni- 
versal standard," no time should be lost in instituting an 
investigation jointly with other companies and associations 
interested in producing a standard form of agreement and 
specification and developing an instrument which would be 
a composite of this one and others now in use. If, on the 
other hand, the committee has been proceeding in the right 
direction for the railway interests, it would recommend 
that the agreement as submitted be revised in such minor 
points as may be necessary and be presented to the Public 
Service Commission for its approval in order that it may be 
put into practical use at the earliest possible moment. 

This agreement, made and entered into this day of 

. 19 by and between the..... 

Company, a corporation organized under and by virtue of the Laws of 

the State of..". ; the 

Company, a corporation organized under and by virtue of the Laws of 

the State of ; and the • 

Company, a corporation organized under and by virtue of the Laws of 

the State of etc., etc., etc 

for and in consideration of one dollar by each to the other paid, re- 
ceipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, and in further consideration of 
the covenants and agreements herein contained, 


The term JOINT USE refers to the use of poles by two or more 

The term POLE refers to. any form of abutment or support to 
which any attachments may be fixed. 

The term ATTACHMENTS refers to all_ wires, cables, apparatus, 
fixtures or appurtenances which may be used by any party hereto in the 
conduct of its business. 

(Give here, if desired, the reasons for entering into this agreement.) 

(Describe here the territory covered by this agreement.) 


Each party to this agreement must have such legal rights as will en- 
title it to enter into this agreement without prejudicing any of the 
other parties hereto, in their rights, in any way whatsoever. 

It is understood that no legal or franchise rights of any of the parties 
to this aereement shall be invalidated by its execution. 

Each ot the parties hereto has the right to -nstall and operate the 
attachments necessary to carry on its proper business. 

The right to the use of the poles covered by this agreement shall be 
according to the Schedule of Poles Jointly Used, in Appendix "B," 
which shall state, for each pole or group of poles, the proportion of 
ownership held by each party hereto. 

This schedule may be amended from time to _ time by written fliers 
nserted in Appendix "B" and signed by designated officers of all 
parties hereto without invalidating this agreement. 

The cost of a new joint pole for the mutual convenience of all the 
parties hereto rhall be proportioned in accordance with the ownership 
designated in Appendix "B." 


Where rearrangement of attachments or replacement of poles is 
necessary for the sole convenience of one or more parties, that party or 
parties shall pay the entire expense of replacement or rearrangement^ 

Each party shall install its own attachments and bill the petitioning 
party or parties in accordance with Par. 1 of this article. 

Space on poles shall be apportioned in accordance with the specifica- 
t ons and drawings in Apoendix "C." 

All work shall be performed in accordance with outline shown in 
specifications and drawings in Appendix "C." 

July i, 191 1 .] 




The systems of the parties hereto shall be operated in a proper and 
safe manner, and operating conditions shall not be materially changed 
without due notice to the other parties hereto. 

Each party hereto shall keep its own attachments in safe condition, 
without disturbing the attachments of the other party or parties to this 

The employees or agents of each party hereto shall have the right of 
access, in the performance of their duties, to any part of the poles, 
whether or not specifically set aside for the use of the other parties 

Any party hereto placing any attachments on any joint pole shall, in 
every case, make provision to maintain proper alignment of the pole 
at its own expense. 

Any change in pole location or attachments other than referred to in 
Article 5, Par. 1, shall be made by mutual agreement between the 
parties hereto, and such agreement must designate the party who shall 
do the work and the method of handling the cost. 

The cost in cases covered by the above paragraph shall be apportioned 
in accordance with the ownership shown in Appendix "B," and each 
party shall handle its own attachments unless otherwise arranged when 
the mutual agreement referred to in this paragraph is entered into. 

The maintenance and renewal of poles jointly owned and the methods 
to be followed shall be agreed upon by all parties hereto and outlined in 
Appendix "A." Neither party hereto shall at any. time change the 
location of, or remove any pole jointly owned without the written 
consent of the other parties hereto. 

Maintenance expense shall be apportioned in accordance with owner- 
ship shown in Appendix "B." 


Th s agreement shall continue in force from date of its execution to 

January 1, 19 unless terminated as provided in Par. 2 of this 

article, and may be renewed under the same conditions by mutual agree- 
ment of the parties hereto. 

In case all parties to this agreement desire to abandon any joint 
pole all attachments of each of the parties hereto shall be removed by 
it and the joint pole shall be removed in such careful manner ami 
within such time as the conditions may require. The party who shall 
do the work and the methods to be employed shall be as the parties 
hereto may mutually agree in writing. The cost of removal of joint 
pole shall be divided in accordance with the ownership as shown in 

irhc Bl'y on poles BS fat 'or* 

(A) Through a conduit el solid insulating material 

securely attached to the pole 
(8) On pms or brackets as ehowo ,o plate 7 
Telephone Cos aim 
Telephone cable shell be not less than i 
f above highest port ot'ao* -,pan wire or trot, 
** 1 . win- bracket or net less Ihun 4Q' shore othi 

attachments the 
tmn Conductor mres or cable . each con - 
ductcr being inaulBied mth stenderd rub' 
ber compound or its equivalent .of the Pol ' 
lorving tnlckneaa and each pair cl "ires be 
mg covered together by at least one 
thickness of weather proofed breided or 

8°l°S ga"u'ge'' 3 rh •chness of Insulation 
No. 8 or less J /<M 

" 7 -No 2 " <s- 

" / - " 0000 
UP W 500,000 C/-1 %4 m 

tion of Qny Iqmp shell 

v.thtr, s distance oF 20' —*j 
entre of the pole 

. _ n distance From any part I J 
qF lamp brocket h near tut port r .J 
trol'ey bracket 12" h 

Lamps shall be placed so tho* 
no portion shall come within a 
d-stance oF-ie'From trolley Hire I 

3, guys, standards or other metal port} of I 

. Fixture shall be rest' -ctad to the h IF F the 
.ole toner d the lump or to ttte Face oFthepole 
The lamp and 'ts electr. col connections shall be \ 
eFfectually insulated from its supporting fixture 
The msulat-ion used shall be able to vihstond 
•gh voltage breok do-in test of a 
potential at least double that of tha operating 

voltage oFthe Circut to which the lamp igconnei 


Plate 6 — Electric Light Wires Run Vertically on Poles 
and Installation of Arc Lamps 

Appendix "B,'' after any salvage value has been properly credited. 

If any of the parties hereto shall at any time desire to abandon its 
proportion of ownership or to permanently discontinue the use of any 
of the said poles, it shall notify the other party or parties hereto in 
writing to that effect and shall remove its attachments therefrom with- 
in s xty (60) days. The party giving such notice shall, after removal 
of its attachments, and at the end of said sixty (60) days from the 
date of such notice, cease to be liable for any obligation or other 
charges incurred thereafter in connection with such pole or poles. 

In case of abandonment by one or more of the parties hereto of the 
use of any pole, a flier, signifying such abandonment, properly executed 
by an official of the abandoning party, shall be made and posted under 
Schedule of Poles Jointly Used in Appendix "B." The interest of the 
abandoning party or parties shall be divided among the remaining party 
or parties to this agreement in proportion to their respective interests 
in the pole. 

No party to this agreement shall sell, assign, lease or in any way 
dispose of any portion of any of the poles or attachments without the 
written consent of all parties to this agreement, but this shall not be 
construed to limit the right of any party to make a general lease or 
assignment of all of its rights, property and franchises, or to enter into 
any combination authorized by law; and in case of such lease, assign- 
ment or combination, the rights acquired hereunder shall pass to les- 
see, assignee or combination. 


Invoices shall be rendered monthly for work done on jointly used 1 
poles in such proportion as the parties hereto are interested, as shown 
in Appendix "B," amounts for which shall be paid within sixty (60) 
days after receiving invoice. Any party doing work under this agree- 
ment shall present, if desired, report showing detailed cost of work. 

Invoices for attachments on a rental basis shall be rendered by the 
owner on or about the first of each year, payments for which are to be 
made by the tenant within sixty (60) days after receiving each invoice. 

The count of attachments which are to he covered under the invoices 
shall he made once each year, during the month of July, and each 
conpany interested shall delegate a representative for such purpose. 

These representatives must agree with each other, and the count shown 
by them shall be final and binding on all parties hereto. 


During construction, operation or maintenance each party to this 
agreement shall be responsible for the effect of its own attachments 
and the acts of its employees and agents. 


In case any of the parties to this agreement disagree as to any 
questions arising thereunder, such questions shall be settled by arbitra- 
tion in the following manner: Upon the written request of any one 
of the parties failing to agree, each of the parties to- the agreement shall, 
within ten (10) days, appoint one arbitrator. If this results in an odd 
number of arbitrators, the arbitrators thus appointed shall, within sixty 
(60) days from their appointment, decide the controversy and render 
a decision in writing thereon. If the original appointments result in 
an even number of arbitrators, these arbitrators shall, within ten (10) 
days, appoint an additional arbitrator and proceed with the questions in 
hand as above. Upon failure to agree upon the additional arbitrator 
within the specified time the parties to this agreement shall apply to 
the Public Service Commission for the appointment of an additional 
arbitrator, and the arbitrator appointed by the Public Service Commis- 
sion shall serve as if elected by the arbitrators. 

A majority report shall be final and binding upon all the parties repre- 
sented, and the expense of such arbitration shall be borne equally by 
the parties represented by the arbitrators. 


This agreement shall supersede any existing agreement between the 
parties hereto for the joint use of poles, in so far as the provisions of 
such existing agreement conflict with those of the agreement. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF each party has caused this agreement to be 
executed in its name and its corporate seal to be affixed thereto by its 
officer duly authorized thereunto, the dav and year first above written. 



(Seal i 


~8ack of pole 

-C/ectnc Light* Railway vertical 
runs should not be earned on 
the same pole with telephone 
vertical runs 

All cable bores shou'd pre r=- 
Ferably be placed on the side V 
Qpposire 'he trolley bracket p 
Cable bo*es shall not obstruct \ 
soace needed bv tZ/ectnc 
Light s Railway company j 
for vert-ca 1 runs 

Telephone Co s 
/Messen ger i Cable 

t Te'r-ohort^ r.jbles shall be not less 
than 12" above ^ighrst par f of any 
span wire or trolley wire bracket. 

Where double bracket] 
construction is used 
cable box shall be 
placed above Railway 
Company s highest 
a ttachmenfs. 

Cable botes 
should nener be 
placed onpofes 
on which arc 
lamps may be 

Poles on which there 
are vertical runs 
Shall be stepped 

Ver heal attachments 
snail be so placed as 
not to interfere *,th 
the use of the pole 

All telephone cables, • 
tions and conduits earned vertically 
upon a pott? shall be placed upon the 
semi -circumference of -the pole at the 
back of the pole, except that wires or 
cables may be earned around to 
cable or terminal boAes or special 
Fixtures for distributing* wire placed 
on the face of the pole . and 'hat the 
stub to a terminal bo* . located on 
tne face of a pole may also be 
at tach ed to the face of the pole 

Plate 9 — Location of Telephone Cable Boxes and Attach- 


(Local conditions may be enumerated here. Please refer to article 
and paragraph to which each refers.) 


(Show here the ownership of any or all poles or groups of poles 
which this agreement is intended to cover. — The rates agreed upon for 
rental privileges may be shown here.) 


These specifications shall apply to poles jointly used by the parties to 

this agreement and are a part of the agreement. 

For convenience the following definitions will be used: 

The term Class "A" Attachments, where used in these specifications, 

shall include: 

All attachments of a character or operating voltage other than those 
specified in classes "B," "C" and "D." 

The term Class "B" Attachments, where useC in these specifications, 
shall include all attachments of a character or operating voltage as fol- 

Constant potential metallic circuits 5000 volts or less 

Alternating-current series, metallic circuits 5000 volts or less 

Direct-current series, metallic circuits 7500 volts or less 

The term Class "C" Attachments, where used in these specifications, 
shall include: 

Telephone attachments. 

Telegraph attachments. 

District messenger service attachments. 

Burglar, fire, police alarm and similar attachments. 

The term Class "D" Attachments, where used in these specifications, 
shall include: 

All railway attachments operating at 1500 volts or less. 
Class "A" and Class "C" attachments shall not be placed upon the 
same pole. 

The relative positions of the attachments of the parties hereto, on each 
pole, shall be as follows: 

Class "A" Attachments shall occupy the top portion of the pole. 

4 8 


[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

Class "B" Attachments shall occupy the next lower portion of the 

Class "C" Attachments shall occupy the next lower portion of the 

Class "D" Attachments shall occupy the lowest portion of the pole, 
except where different arrangements are agreed upon in writing by the 
parties hereto. In specific cases class "A" attachments may be placed 
below class "B" attachments, in which case special construction shall 
be agreed upon. 

Where two parties operate class "A" attachments the class "A" at- 
tachments of each of the parties shall occupy the top portion of the 
pole, each one occupying opposite sides of the pole, with a climbing 
space of not less than sixty (60) inches between all attachments ex- 
cept those on the top cross-arm. 

Not more than two class "A" circuits shall be allowed on any joint 

(Following is a descriptive list of the drawings which are a part of 
this appendix.) 

Plate No. 1. — National Electric Light Association standard, showing 
relative position of class "B" and class "C" attachments, etc. (Not re- 

Plate No. 2. — National Electric Light Associat'on standard, showing 
climbing space. Class "C" attachments. (Not reproduced.) 

Plate No. 3. — National Electric Light Association standard. Side 
view, showing location of class "B" and class "C" attachments. (Not 

Plate No. 4. — National Electric Light Assocation standard, showing 
detail construction, class "B" and class "C" attachments. (Not repro- 

Plate No. 5. — National Electric Light Association standard, showing 
distribution methods and clearances, class "B" and class "C" attachments. 
(Not reproduced.) 

PI ate No. 6. — Modification of National Electric Lght Association stand- 
ard plate No. 6, showing class "B" and class "C" attachments, includ- 
ing arc lamp, with class "D" attachments added, giving clearances. 

Plate No. 7. — National Electric I ight Association, standard plate No. 
7, showing class "B" and class "C" attachments, including incandes- 
cent lamp fixture, with following notations added showing railway- 
clearance required: 

Clearance from lamp to top of rail, not less than 14 ft. 

Clearance from lamp to trolley wire, not less than 3 ft. 

(Not reproduced.) 

Plate No. 8. — National Electric Light' Association standard, showing 
class "B" and class "C" attachments. Showing vertical runs, etc. (Not 

Plate No. 9. — Modification of National Electric Light Association, 
standard plate No. 9, show ng location of class "B" and class "C" at- 
tachments, including cable boxes and vertical runs, with railway at- 
tachments added. 

Plate No. 10. — National Electric Light Association standard, showing 
methods of guying, with following note added covering minimum clear- 
ance of guy wire over trolley wire: 

"Where guy wires cross trolley wires they shall have a 
clearance of not less than 5 ft. from the trolley wire." 
(Not reproduced.) 

Plate No. 11. — National Electric Light Association standard, showing 
method of guying. (Not reproduced.) 

Plate No. 12. — National Electric Light Association standard, showing 
class "B," class "C" and class "D" attachments, with following altera- 
tions in notes to show railway requirements: 

Para. No. 1, which reads "All line wires shall be carried on pins on 
wooden cress-arms, etc.," to read as follows: 

"All line wires shall be carried on p : ns on cross-arms, etc." 

Para. No. 1, in upper right-hand corner, the latter part of which reads. 
"* * * unless approved by the chief engineer," changed to read 
as follows: 

"* * * unless approved by all parties to this agreement." 

Para. No. 2 from top of plate on right-hand side of plate, which 
reads, "The lowest telephone cross-arm shall not be less than 24 in. 
above the highest part, etc.," changed to read as follows: 

"The lowest telephone cross-arm shall not be less than 36 in. above 
the highest part, etc." 

Para. No. 4 from top of plate, on right-hand side of plate, which 
reads, "Trolley wires shall be effectually insulated from span, etc.," 
that port'on in regard to brackets changed to read as follows: 

"Where brackets are used the trolley shall be double insulated and 
the insulators shall be placed as close as practicable to the trolley wire." 

Para. No. 10 from ton of plate, on right-hand side of plate, which 
reads, "Negative feeder connections from a point, etc.," to be omitted. 

The last two paragraphs on the right-hand side of plate to be omitted. 

Change spacing of railway pole pins from 24 ; n. to 32 in. 


Many of the delegates to the Cooperstown convention 
reached Cooperstown early Monday morning in order to 
enjoy the entertainments which had been arranged by the 
committee and play golf at the links of the Country Club. 
In the evening there was a trip by boat on Otesaga Lake. 

During the session on Tuesday morning the ladies had a 
clock golf tournament on putting greens on the hotel lawn 
and in the afternoon they played bridge whist. About 4 -.30 
the annual ball game took place between the railway 
men and the supply men. The teams lined up as follows: 
Railway Men — Callaghan, Barnes, Cherry, Duffy, J. C. 
Collins, Hamilton, Badger, Moore and Holmes. Supply 
Men — Ransom, Slimp, Berry, Chapin, Whipple. Smith, 
Hegeman, Garland and Miller. 

The Supply Men soon showed their superiority at the 
game and would undoubtedly have won, despite the umpire, 
if a disappointed and chagrined supporter of the Railway 
Men's nine had not seized the bat and ball, during an inter- 
mission, and thrown them into the lake. This ended the 

On Tuesday evening 'the banquet was held and was fol- 
lowed by dancing in the ballroom. On Wednesday morn- 
ing the ladies enjoyed an automobile ride and afterward 
partook of lunch at the Golf Club. 


The annua] banquet was held on Tuesday night, June 27, 
and was a most enjoyable affair in accordance with the 
best traditions of the association. A novel feature was the 
presentation of verses and large cartoons of prominent 
members. Those who were honored in this way were Past- 
presidents J. N. Shannahan, Edgar S. Fassett and R. E. 
Danforth, President J. H. Pardee, Treasurer H. M. Beards- 
ley, of Elmira; E. J. Cook, of Rochester, and J. H. Sted- 
man, the well-known transfer ticket inventor and raconteur. 
Topical verses were also sung in honor of two of the 
speakers, the Rev. Ralph Birdsall and Oscar T. Crosby. 

After reading congratulatory messages on the work of 
the association from Arthur W. Brady, president Ameri- 
can Electric Railway Association, and F. W. Stevens, 
chairman Public Service Commission, Second District, 
President Pardee introduced Rev. Ralph Birdsall as the 
first speaker. 

Dr. Birdsall, who had addressed the association at the 
Cooperstown meeting in 1910, expressed his pleasure at hav- 
ing been adopted into the electric railway family. In a 
happily worded address he asked his hearers to remember 
that they owed something more to the world than the faith- 
ful discharge of their routine, professional duties. It was 
not the burden but rather the opportunity of every man to 
take an active part in uplifting his fellow-men. The re- 
sponsibility for such great public matters as sanitation, civic 
beauty and morality must not rest entirely on the physician, 
architect and clergyman respectively, but must be shared 
by all men who wanted to be good citizens. 

Randall J. LeBoeuf, counsel Albany & Southern Rail- 
road, the second speaker, first discussed the humorous 
side of electric railway accident litigation, such as contribu- 
tory negligence and preponderance of evidence. Following 
this, he referred to the work of public utilities commissions 
which he said had placed the public utilities corporation in 
a better position than ever before. The public utilities cor- 
poration now had the great advantage that a public service 
commission would not permit competition if the corporation 
was giving satisfactory service to the communities which it 
served. Never before were the securities of public service 
corporations on a firmer basis. Every new security issued 
in New York State since the public utilities law went into 
effect on July 1, 1907, had behind it practically the guar- 
antee of the people of the State that there had been an 
honest investigation to ascertain whether the issues were 
warranted and whether the corporation would be able to 
pay the fixed charges. 

The third speaker was Oscar T. Crosby, president Wil- 
mington & Philadelphia Traction Company and one of the 
pioneers in electric railway construction and operation. He 
said the great problems before electric railways now were 
far different from those which confronted them in the past. 
Then it was a question of meshing gears, keeping the trolley 
wheel on the wire, or preventing commutators from burn- 
ing up. now it was the question of what constituted a rea- 
sonable return on the investment. Modern conditions made 
it imperative to recognize that there was a partnership be- 
tween the public utilities corporation and the public itself. 
The problem was how to adjust this partnership relation 
wisely. At present there was still much confustion in the 
public's mind on this subject, because the people could not 
discriminate between a new enterprise whose financial 
standing was still in peril and an old, established enterprise. 
He thoroughly believed that the right of repudiating past 
agreements was one which no government could afford to 

July i, 1911.] 



lay aside. Every reform in government had been a repudia- 
tion of ancient privileges. However, the public must exer- 
cise this right with the greatest patience, otherwise we 
would be thrust from the Scylla of Bourbonism to the 
Charybdis of anarchy. The partnership between the public 
and the corporation should be expressed by some under- 
standing as to what reasonable limitation of dividends 
should be allowed. This limitation should not be such as to 
hinder the projects of progressive, ambitious men who were 
willing to risk their all in opening up territory of doubtful 
profit. Such men were entitled to a special reward in case 
of success. 

He wanted to say a word about watered stock, which 
seemed to him an excellent invention. Many people were 
completely confused by the practice of capitalizing earning 
capacity. Now if a promoter went to a bond buyer with 
bonds limited to 6 per cent, he could not sell them without 
offering some stock as a bonus while keeping the rest of the 
stock for himself. This arrangement expressed the relative 
seniority of the claims to the profits — first, capital, and sec- 
ond, brains. Thus the stock represented the possibility of 
getting a higher dividend than the interest charges, which 
in themselves would not attract a man who was asked to in- 
vest in a new undertaking of doubtful profit. Yet to-day 
the government asked, What investment do the stock issues 
represent? A narrow limitation of earnings would make it 
possible only for strong established companies to clo new 
work, and thus the doors of opportunity would be closed to 
ambitious men of limited means. The misunderstanding 
about the propriety of watered stock might disappear if all 
stock in an enterprise should be issued in the form of profit- 
sharing certificates instead of having a nominal par value. 
Thus in an undertaking requiring a cash investment of 
$1,000,000, against which in the past $1,000,000 in 6 per 
cent bonds and $1,000,000 in stock might have been issued, 
Mr. Crosby said that the bonds might be issued for the cash 
required and that each stock certificate would represent 
simply the right to participate in the profits after the in- 
terest was paid on the bonds. If the State should decide that 
these profits should be limited this could be done in any way 
which might seem desirable after the stock had received a 
return equal, say, to that paid on the bonds. Unless all 
new enterprises are to be abandoned some arrangement 
should be made for the reward of that much blackguarded 
individual the promoter, who assumes so many financial 
perils in launching his undertaking. Mr. Crosby defined an 
old enterprise as one which could raise money at, say, 5 
per cent for any extension desired. With such companies 
also some arrangement should be made to permit them a 
minimum dividend plus a share of any net earnings which 
exceeded the figure so fixed. 

In returning to the subject of watered stock, Mr. Crosby 
said that there should be no concealment as to its functions. 
It should be issued under a kind of pure food act which 
would attest the make-up and purpose of the article offered 
(for sale. In conclusion, the speaker said that the railways 
should never enter into any arrangement which would not 
allow them to pay the good wages essential to hire and keep 
good men for their service. 

The banquet was concluded with a witty speech by Walter 
B. Reed, secretary Schenectady Chamber of Commerce. 


In connection with the building of a new central railway 
station at Copenhagen, Denmark, a line is to be constructed 
to connect it with the old Oesterbro station. It is proposed 
that this shall be operated electrically and a commission has 
been appointed to study the project. It is proposed to 
include other suburban lines in the scheme, and the single- 
phase system is advocated. In the provinces also electrifi- 
cation is under consideration, and steps in this direction are 
being taken. Thus in Jutland the new line from Aarhuus to 
Randers is to be electrically operated. 


The twenty-eighth annual convention of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers was held in Chicago, 111., 
June 26-30. The headquarters were at the Hotel Sherman 
and all of the meetings were held there. On Tuesday even- 
ing papers were read by Henry Floy on "Depreciation as 
Related to Electrical Properties" and by H. M. Byllesby on 
"The Responsibilities of Electrical Engineers in Making 
Appraisals." Abstracts of these two papers are printed 
elsewhere in this issue. 


Bion J. Arnold agreed with the authors that engineers 
could perform no higher service than to assist in making 
clear in the minds of the public just what were fair, equita- 
ble decisions in controversies between public service cor- 
porations and the public. The strained relations of the 
past had been due to oversight of the duties of corpora- 
tions with respect to the public, which had brought about a 
general feeling of distrust. When the public, through 
city councils and National and State legislatures, found 
itself in a position to exact unjust demands, it in turn over- 
stepped the bounds. The public was now treating the cor- 
porations more fairly because the American people funda- 
mentally are inclined toward right and justice and because 
good work had been done by engineers in showing the true 
value of public utility properties and the true cost of ren- 
dering the service. 

Referring to franchise values Mr. Arnold said that in the 
early days some companies held franchises that were very 
valuable, and they asked the public to pay rates that would 
produce earnings on these franchises which had been cap- 
italized as well as on capital representing obsolete plant 
and equipment which had been replaced. He felt that 
public service corporations were justly entitled to more 
than a limited return on capital honestly invested in the 
early hazardous times. The fundamental principle of rate 
regulation was that the public should pay rates such as 
would pay for the service given plus the interest on the 
capital necessary to carry on the operations of the com- 
panies. If the early losses had been great the company 
should be allowed to recoup the actual money put into the 
property in the beginning and the cost of obsolete plant 
since replaced. This assumed that the company from 
now on was to have rate regulation. Conversely those 
properties which made large earnings in the early days 
were not entitled to retain in their capitalization the value 
of such losses as might have been sustained in the begin- 
ning but which should have been made up out of earnings 
when the increase in earnings justified such action. One 
Chicago property had paid dividends of 30 per cent at one 
time, so that now it suffered no hardship in having to 
accept rates which allowed a fair return on the present 
value only. The pioneer days had gone by and investment 
values were now fairly stable, so that those who had made 
large profits in the past should now be satisfied with an 
ordinary rate of return on their investment. 

In the matter of valuations Mr. Arnold thought the 
proper method was first to determine the cost of reproduc- 
tion new and then make additional allowances for develop- 
ment expenses, which might be from 20 to 25 per cent. 


At the railway session on Wednesday morning three 
papers were presented in abstract. These were: "Analysis 
of Electrification," by W. S. Murray, New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad; "Electrical Operation of the 
West Jersey & Seashore Railroad," by B. F. Wood, and 
"Induction Machines for Heavy Single-Phase Motors," by 
E. F. W. Alexanderson. Mr. Murray's paper was the same 
as he presented at the Toronto meeting of the Institute in 
April, 191 1, and was abstracted in the Electric Railway 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

Journal of April 15, page 667. Mr. Wood's paper is 
printed in abstract on another page in this issue. 

Mr. Murray said that the object of his paper was to 
represent fairly the present status of the single-phase sys- 
tem of trunk-line operation after an experience of five 
years. He was convinced that the single-phase system was 
the best to use for heavy electric traction. Engineers 
should begin to get together on questions of standardiza- 
tion of principles for trunk-line installations. No road was 
a true trunk line unless it had important terminals, from 
which it followed that it should give suburban passenger 
service in and out of those terminals. Handling freight 
was a most important consideration. The railroads on the 
Atlantic Coast had a ratio of yard track mileage to main 
track mileage of nearly 50 per cent, hence it was necessary 
to consider yard electrification as well as main-line opera- 
tion. The Harlem River yards of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad, with 100 miles of track and 
in some places fifty-three tracks wide, were being equipped 
for operation with the single-phase system at a cost of one- 
third that of any other system. The cost and weight of 
single-phase locomotives and multiple-unit motor cars were 
being reduced steadily. The latest single-phase locomo- 
tives weighed only 116 tons and were doing the same work 
as was performed by earlier locomotives weighing 150 tons. 
The designers had made the weight more nearly in correct 
proportion to the power and a reduction in cost per horse- 
power necessarily followed. 

Frank Sprague quoted from his presidential address to 
the Institute in 1892, in which he forecast electric opera- 
tion of railroads. He now understood that improved de- 
signs of split-phase transformers were making possible the 
use of polyphase induction motors on single-phase roads. 
He regretted that the railroads feared to give out the 
actual results of electric operation and complimented Mr. 
Woods on the data relating to the West Jersey & Seashore 
Railroad which he had made public. The time had not yet 
come, in his opinion, when engineers could agree that any 
one system of electric traction was the best for all 
roads and all conditions. Mr. Sprague next referred to the 
load factor of power stations for railway work and said 
that the time would come when very large central stations 
at favorable locations would supply power not only for 
railways but for lighting and commercial purposes through- 
out wide areas. Such stations could furnish power cheaply 
on account of the diversified load which they would carry. 
Finally he gave as his opinion that the battle should be 
between the steam and electrical engineers as to whether 
electrification was advisable rather than between electrical 
engineers as to what system should be used. 

E. B. Katte, chief engineer of electric traction, New 
York Central & Hudson River Railroad, said that he 
regretted that Mr. Wood had omitted all comparisons of 
steam and electric operation. The New York Central 
figures were not now available because steam and electric 
operations were still mixed. He did not think that any one 
system of electric traction had yet been developed which 
would meet all conditions in a satisfactory manner. The 
speaker then presented comparative figures of current con- 
sumption in watt-hours per ton mile for typical runs of 
New York Central direct-current trains and New Haven 
alternating-current trains, which in all cases, he said, 
showed less energy required for the direct-current system. 
The New York Central recently operated 212,000 train 
miles in two months without a single detention due to 
failure of any part of the electric equipment. The cost 
of electric locomotive inspection and maintenance during 
the past three years had been about 3*4 cents per locomo- 
tive mile. 

L. C. Fritch, chief engineer Chicago Great Western Rail- 
way, spoke from the standpoint of the steam railroad engi- 
neer. Steam locomotives had their limitations, but electric 
locomotives could perform any and all services more effi- 

ciently. He thought the railroads were making a mistake 
in delaying electrification. The Mallet compound steam 
locomotive was the dying gasp in the effort to retain steam 
power. In his opinion, the steam railroads had spent mill- 
ions of dollars in terminal and grade improvements that 
would have brought better results if the money had been 
spent for electrification. A number of the roads entering 
Chicago could electrify certain parts of their lines profit- 
ably, but before electrification was begun the general 
scheme of the Chicago terminals should be entirely 
changed. He thought Mr. Murray's investigation of the 
cost of switching service was of great value and he be- 
lieved that yard tracks could be equipped with overhead 
wires at a cost of less than $2,000 per mile. 

N. W. Storer, Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, called attention to the advantage of increasing 
the coasting of electric trains and thus reducing the speed 
before applying the brakes so as to reduce the power 
demand. He referred to the apparently high cost of trol- 
ley wire maintenance on the West Jersey & Seashore as 
compared with third-rail maintenance. The trolley wire 
maintenance was high because of the use of small trolley 
wheels on heavy trains. It could be reduced by using the 
roller type trolley such as is used on the Southern Pacific 
and Key Route cars. Mr. Storer advocated a standard 
system of electrification. If a third-rail system was used 
on cross-country roads a high voltage would be needed 
and the hazard would be increased. He then described the 
latest type of New Haven locomotive weighing 116 tons 
complete with heating boiler and direct-current control 
apparatus. The tractive effort was nearly 40,000 lb. and 
the guaranteed speed was 50 m.p.h. It had four pairs of 
driving wheels, each driving axle being geared to two 
motors. Paradoxical as it might seen, it had been found 
that the locomotive could be made lighter by driving each 
axle with two small motors instead of one large one. The 
pairs of motors were permanently connected in series, thus 
giving the advantage of high voltage. The two motors 
were connected to a single gear on the axle while a large 
motor required two gears on each axle. The number of 
moving parts, such as commutator segments, brushes, etc., 
was practically the same and the small motors with their 
control apparatus were much easier to handle and maintain. 

J. W. Lieb, New York Edison Company, urged standard- 
ization on one kind of transmission current interchangeable 
with that of the lighting and power companies because of 
the great economy of a diversified load. He said that stor- 
age batteries were indispensable for continuity of the 
Edison service, but the method of using them recently had 
been changed. Instead of discharging them every week, it 
was now found satisfactory to utilize them only as a 
reserve. He praised the Commonwealth Edison Company 
for taking the lead and showing that central stations could 
profitably assume railway loads. 

Charles F. Scott, Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company, pointed out that manufacturers had spent 
vast sums to demonstrate that both alternating-current and 
direct-current systems would fulfil railroad requirements. 
Now the final decision rested with the operating officials of 
the steam roads. He made a plea for standardization along 
lines that would permit future developments, such as the 
possible use of mercury arc rectifiers and induction motors 
on single-phase locomotives. 

B. F. Wood said that undoubtedly the West Jersey & 
Seashore Railroad would have purchased its power if it 
could have obtained the low rates given in Chicago. The 
power plant, which cost $750,000, had a load factor of only 
16 per cent, while the Commonwealth Edison Company had 
a factor of 45 per cent. 

Mr. Murray, in closing, said that the experience of the 
New Haven road showed that the economy of electric 
operation would cover the interest on the investment in 
electrical equipment. 


Annual Meeting of New York State Association 

A Report of the Discussions on the Committee Reports and Papers Which Were Presented and Are Printed in Abstract 

Elsewhere in This Issue. 

With a well-diversified program of papers on important 
business subjects, a successful banquet and other entertain- 
ments the members of the Street Railway Association of 
the State of New York held their twenty-ninth annual con- 
vention at the Hotel O-te-sa-ga, Cooperstown, N. Y., on 
June 27 and 28. 


President John H. Pardee called the first business session 
to order at 10:30 a. m. on Tuesday, June 27. The opening 
session was attended by about eighty members. 

The association was welcomed to Cooperstown by Judge 
Nathaniel P. Willis. 

Mr. Pardee then spoke of the recent death of Capt. J. W. 
Hinkley and said that he had appointed a committee to 
take appropriate action. The committee was composed of 
J. K. Choate, Otsego & Herkimer Railroad; E. S. Fassett, 
United Traction Company of Albany, and W. H. Collins, 
Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad. Its report, pre- 
sented by Mr. Choate, and unanimously adopted, recom- 
mended that the following tribute be placed upon the 
minutes : 

"The members of the Street Railway Association of the 
State of New York desire to place on record some expres- 
sion of their sense of loss in the recent death of Capt. 
James W. Hinkley, second vice-president of the associa- 
tion and president of the Poughkeepsie City & Wappinger's 
Falls Electric Railway. Although preceded by a long illness, 
the death of such a man as Captain Hinkley, in the prime 
of life, with the promise of many years of usefulness, finds 
his friends quite unprepared to realize that his earthly 
career is ended. A valuable factor in the life of his own 
community, he was also highly esteemed throughout the 
State by members of this association. His judgment was 
of so sound a quality that whatever he had to say always 
commanded interest and attention. While his service to 
this association was of a most effective character, it is never- 
theless chiefly in a personal sense that his death is felt by its 
members. He possessed in a rare degree the gift of friend- 
ship. He enjoyed among us a popularity which belonged 
not merely to personal charm, but to personal integrity and 
sterling worth. The association extends its condolences to 
Captain Hinkley's bereaved family with the assurance that 
the memory of one who set so high a standard in its mem- 
bership will ever be held in deep regard." 

Secretary C. Gordon Reel then read letters of regret 
from invited guests who were unable to attend the con- 

President Pardee read the annual address of the presi- 
dent, which is published elsewhere in this issue. 

H. M. Beardsley, the treasurer, was detained in Elmira 
and in his absence his annual report was read by Secretary 

The report of Secretary Reel showed an increase of 
members over the preceding year. 

President Pardee called attention to the fact that the 
association was fortunate in having present railway officials 
of other states, as well as representatives of the Public 
Service Commission and others interested in railway affairs. 
He extended a very cordial invitation to all to participate 
in the discussion on the important subjects before the 


Mr. Choate then presented the report of the committee on 
interurban rules, which consisted of resolutions based upon 
the report which the committee on interurban rules of the 
American Electric Railway Transportation & Traffic Asso- 

ciation has prepared for submission at the convention to 
be held in Atlantic City in October. The report of this 
committee was distributed in pamphlet form to the members 
present. The resolutions offered by Mr. Choate provided 
for the approval and adoption by the association of the 
code recommended by the American Association committee. 

In asking the adoption of the resolutions Mr. Choate said 
that the committee considered that the report represented 
the combined best ideas of the operating officials of high- 
speed interurban lines in all sections of the country. The 
committee believed that the revised American code con- 
stituted the best report that it could make. All the credit 
for the rules was due to the committee of the American 
Association, headed by J. W. Brown, Public Service Rail- 
way of Newark. The committee felt that its real success 
would lie in the adoption by the association of a code that 
had the general approval of experienced operating officials. 
It was not the purpose of the committee to prevent dis- 
cussion on the rules, which were prepared in the most 
thorough manner, but it believed that the code should be 
adopted without delay, with the proviso, of course, that 
amendments might be made from time to time. 

Mr. Choate suggested that Mr. Brown, chairman of the 
American Association committee, be asked to comment on 
the code. 

Mr. Brown stated that any action taken by the New 
York Association would be either a very great help or a 
very great drawback to the American Association com- 
mittee in its plan to secure the adoption of the code by the 
national association in October. The committee represented, 
widely separated sections of the country, and after the 
completion of its work had the satisfaction of knowing 
that some of those who did not favor the code adopted at 
Denver in 1909 had already expressed approval of the 
present revision. If the New York Association would 
place itself on record as approving the revised code it 
would do a great deal toward the accomplishment of a 
national success. The approval of the New York committee 
was greatly appreciated by the American Association com- 

J. N. Shannahan, Washington. Baltimore & Annapolis 
Electric Railroad, said he thought he had never seen a 
committee report as full and as nearly perfect as that of 
the American committee. The form of compilation of the 
report made it very easy to analyze and discuss the points 
of change. He believed in the elimination of all rules that 
it was possible to do without and of all unnecessary signals, 
but thought that it was unadvisable to eliminate Section k 
of Rule 99 in the old code, which read as follows : "Answer 
to signal of train displaying signals for a following sec- 
tion." The committee in its revision eliminated this section 
as superfluous. This signal appeared to be a very simple 
safeguard, and it should not be neglected. Mr. Shannahan 
was prepared to adopt the code, but would continue the 
use of this signal. 

Reference was then made by Mr. Shannahan to the last 
paragraph of old Rule 203 and to old Rule 203a. which were 
eliminated by the committee as opposed to good practice. 
These related to the operation of trains protected by flag. 
They were adopted because of a partial tie-up of one system 
as the result of damage to telephone wires by a sleet storm. 
If the same conditions should develop again the complete 
abandonment of service could not be enforced if the tracks 
were safe for operation. Mr. Shannahan had grave doubts 
as to the inclusion of this rule at the time of adoption of 
the Denver code, and still had grave doubts regarding it, 



but some rule should be outlined as a guidance to trainmen 
under such circumstances. He was prepared to vote for 
the change, but thought that some instructions should be 
placed on record to show the men the course which they 
should follow. 

In regard to old Rule 211, which was revised, and 212, 
which was eliminated, Mr. Shannahan said that probably 
they should be withdrawn, but it was necessary to make 
some provision so that the line car could pass over the 
road when telephone wires were out of service for any 

Mr. Choate, in referring to a conference which the com- 
mittee had with F. W. Stevens, chairman of the New York 
Public Service Commission, Second District, said that Mr. 
Stevens had asked for copies of the code in order that it 
might be inspected by representatives of the commission 
who are familiar with train operation. 

Mr. Brown, in speaking of the suggestions of Mr. Shan- 
nahan, said that Section k of old Rule 99 was eliminated 
because it was thought that it caused a complexity of sig- 
nals. In old Rule 203 and 203a the committee thought that 
the fundamental principle involved was that of safety and 
that any rule which allowed a train to proceed protected by 
flag should not be retained. Old Rule 212 provided that all 
extra trains lost their rights when the telephone became 
defective. It was not thought wise to allow this rule to 
remain because trainmen on extra trains would not always 
know when the telephone became defective. 

Mr. Shannahan said that the code provided for two 
whistles as the answer to the signal of a train displaying 
signals for a following section and this might be confused 
with the answer to the bell-cord signal. If this created a 
dangerous condition it should be eliminated. He recog- 
nized the risk of having trains proceed protected by flag, 
but said that some way must be provided for getting trains 
over the road. 

Mr. Pardee asked W. H. Collins to take the chair. Mr. 
Pardee then stated that it appeared to him that the code was 
more satisfactory than any that had been adopted hereto- 
fore. It was shorter and some rules that were undoubtedly 
essential and were always adapted to varying conditions on 
the roads had been eliminated. It would be a mistake to try 
to obtain in one code a preventive for every condition or 
possible happening on all roads. Many of these matters 
could be adjusted by the individual roads. 

J. P. Maloney, superintendent Albany & Southern Rail- 
road, believed that under Rule 231, as it now reads, the road 
might be tied up. 

On motion of E. S. Fassett the vote on Mr. Choate's reso- 
lution approving the rules was postponed until the afternoon 
to allow the members more time to consider the subject. 


W. H. Collins, general manager Fonda, Johnstown & 
Gloversville Railroad, presented the report of this com- 
mittee, as follows: 

"Your committee appointed at the annual meeting of the 
association held at Cooperstown on June 27 and 28, 1910, 
for the purpose of conferring with the Public Service Com- 
mission as to the proper interpretation of Section 192, for- 
merly Section 109, of the Railroad Law of this State, re- 
lating to the use of center-bearing rails, submitted a report 
at the quarterly meeting held in Syracuse on Dec. 6, 1910. 

"The report was accepted and the committee continued 
with instructions to confer further with the Public Service 
Commission and draft a bill to be presented to the Legisla- 
ture. A bill was drafted and submitted to the members of 
the Public Service Commission, but they declined to ap- 
prove it. Chairman Stevens stating that he did not think it 
would be wise for the commission either to approve or to 
disapprove same at that time. He said, however, that, if 
the bill should be introduced into the Legislature and the 
committee having the bill in charge should ask the opinion 

of the commission regarding its merits, of course such 
opinion would be freely given. He further stated that if 
the commission had any objection to the bill it would state 
it to the committee at that time. 

"The position taken by the commission in this matter we 
understood to amount practically to an approval of the bill 
as drafted, and it was, therefore, presented to the Legisla- 
ture, being introduced into the Assembly by Mr. Myers as 
Assembly Bill No. 1770, and into the Senate by Senator 
White as Senate Bill No. 1083. Neither of these bills has 
thus far been reported by the committees, and they have, 
therefore, received no progress this year." 

Upon motion the report was accepted and the committee 
was continued. 


W. J, Harvie, chief engineer Utica & Mohawk Valley 
Railroad, read the report of the committee. It is published 
elsewhere in this issue. Commenting on the report, Mr. 
Harvie said that it was made up of two parts. The first 
part contained the standard agreement, which was of in- 
terest to all companies. A blank Appendix "A" was added 
in which local conditions might be enumerated. A blank 
Appendix "B" was left to give a schedule of the ownership 
of the poles and of the rentals. Appendix "C" was the 
specifications. In Appendix "C" there were references to 
twelve plates. Of these ten corresponded with the standard 
of the National Electric Light Association, but the com- 
mittee recommended changes in two plates, namely, plates 
6 and 9. 

The secretary then read a communication from R. M. 
Ferris, chief engineer New York Telephone Company, com- 
menting on the report. Mr. Ferris stated that he realized 
that the committee had done a great deal of work on the 
report, but that it really represented the position of only 
one party among those interested. He believed, however, 
that there would be comparatively little difficulty in har- 
monizing the recommendations in this code, and in that of 
the National Electric Light Association, and in that desired 
by the writer's company, and in conclusion he suggested 
further conferences between representatives of the three 
interests concerned. 

Charles R. Barnes, electric railroad inspector, Public 
Service Commission, upon being called upon, said that he 
had been present at two meetings of the committee and, 
as he realized the amount of work that had been done on 
the report, hesitated about making any suggestions, but 
mentioned a few slight changes that he thought might be 
incorporated. In Art. 3, Par. 1, he thought a reference 
might be made to the classes of attachments mentioned in 
Appendix "C," part 2. Art. 6, Par. 3, could be expanded 
by the addition of the words "all legally authorized per- 
sons." Again, as the joint occupancy of poles was of in- 
terest to the Public Service Commission, it would be ad- 
visable to provide under Art. 8, Par. 5, that the commission 
be notified of any changes made under that paragraph. He 
also suggested the addition of the word "solely" after the 
words "shall be" and before the word "responsible" in 
Art. 10, Par. 1. 

E. F. Peck, general manager Schenectady Railway, re- 
ferred to the importance of the subject treated by the com- 
mittee and the desirability of a joint use of poles by the 
several corporations interested, and said that he believed 
it was very necessary for the interests to get together on 
this subject. 

C. Loomis Allen, general manager Syracuse Rapid Tran- 
sit Railway, asked if the committee had any recommenda- 
tions to make as to the disposition of its report. As Mr. 
Harvie said that he would like some action on it, Mr. Allen 
moved that the agreement be adopted as the standard of 
the association and be referred back to the committee for 
such further amendments as it might wish to make, and 
that the committee should make another report at the next 
quarterly meeting. 

July i, 191 i .] 




C. Loomis Allen, of Syracuse, stated on behalf of the 
commitee on standard franchises that the committee had 
taken up the subject with Commissioner Carlisle, who sub- 
sequently had retired from the Public Service Commission. 
He asked that the committee on this subject be continued. 
This was done. 


The next order of business was the presentation of a 
paper entitled "The Edison-Beach Storage Battery Car," 
by Ralph H. Beach, president Federal Storage Battery Car 
Company, New York. An abstract of Mr. Beach's paper 
will be found elsewhere in this issue. 

R. A. Dyer, Jr., assistant general manager Auburn & 
Syracuse Electric Railroad, asked what the efficiency of the 
battery was. Mr. Beach replied that the efficiency varied 
greatly according to conditions. At the normal rates of 
charging and discharging it was 61.2 per cent. In practical 
daily operation, however, 85 per cent efficiency in watt-hour 
output can be secured when the battery is discharged to 
only three-fifths of its total capacity. The battery is much 
more efficient in the earlier part of its discharge than in 
the latter part. Three-fifths of the discharging capacity 
should not be exceeded when the highest efficiency is de- 
sired. Continuing, in reply to James P. Barnes, electrical 
engineer Syracuse Rapid Transit Railway, Mr. Beach said 
that the initial difference of potential was 1.5 volts per cell. 
This would soon drop to 1.2 volts, but it would fall only 
very slowly thereafter until the battery was discharged to 
about 0.8 of its rated capacity. In conclusion, Mr. Beach 
said that numerous experiments in the Edison laboratory 
appeared to show that no further chemical improvement 
was possible in the battery, such as the oxidation feature. 
Nevertheless, an important electrical improvement had been 
effected by reducing from m - to Yi m - the diameter of 
the tubes of the positive plate. This change has greatly 
reduced the internal resistance of the battery so that the 
voltage drop on grades is much lower. 

After a vote of thanks had been tendered Mr. Beach for 
his paper the meeting adjourned for luncheon. 


The first order of business was the continuation of the 
discussion on interurban rules. C. Loomis Allen, vice- 
president and general manager Utica & Mohawk Valley 
Railway, submitted the following resolution : 

"Whereas, This association did, at the 1910 meeting at 
Cooperstown, adopt a standard code of rules for interurban 
operation; and, 

"Whereas, The association through the standing com- 
mittee of rules has reported certain amendments and 
changes at this meeting, which by proper resolution have 
been approved by this association, now, therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That these rules as amended be adopted and 
ratified by this association and that the committee be con- 
tinued, to report at the next meeting of the association such 
proposed changes or amendments as may be wise or neces- 

Mr. Choate then withdrew his resolution and seconded 
that of Mr. Allen, which was unanimously adopted. 

W. B. Potter, chief engineer railway and traction depart- 
ment General Electric Company, then presented a paper 
entitled "The Gas-Electric Car." An abstract of this 
paper is published elsewhere in this issue. 

Mr. Allen asked Mr. Potter about maintenance costs. 
The latter replied that in one series of tests a car had run 
35,000 miles for an apparatus maintenance cost of 2 cents 
per car mile. This charge covered the same items which 
in his paper were estimated at 3 cents per car mile. 

Robert M. Colt, general passenger agent Fonda, Johns- 
town & Gloversville Railroad, then read his paper on 
"Tariffs," which is abstracted elsewhere in this issue. 

W. V. Turner, chief engineer Westinghouse Air Brake 
Company, then presented a paper entitled "Steps in the 

Solution of the Problem of Adequately Controlling Electric- 
aly Propelled Vehicles." An abstract of Mr. Turner's 
paper, on which there was no discussion, appears elsewhere 
in this issue. 

The meeting was then adjourned after the appointment of 
a nominating committee consisting of Past-presidents Peck, 
Shannahan, Fassett and Allen. 


In opening the Wednesday morning session President 
Pardee announced that, owing to a delay in printing, the 
report of the committee on tariffs would have to be mailed 
to the members after the meeting. 

The first paper of the session was "Reduction of Car 
Failures," by J. P. Barnes, electrical engineer Syracuse 
Rapid Transit Company. An abstract of Mr. Barnes' paper 
is presented elsewhere in this issue. In concluding his 
paper, Mr. Barnes added that his car-failure forecast for 
June showed an improvement of 12 per cent over May. 

W. H. Collins, general manager Fonda, Johnstown & 
Gloversville Railroad, asked whether the 3000-mile lubrica- 
tion standard applied to all cars. Mr. Barnes replied that 
it applied only to the Westinghouse No. 101 and the Gen- 
eral Electric No. 216 equipments, which have oil wells and 
waste feed. A 300-mile lubrication period was used for 
the other equipments, which employed grease originally, but 
which were now oiled by means of felt and waste. In reply 
to a question by E. F. Peck, general manager Schenectady 
Railway, Mr. Barnes said he could not give the exact num- 
ber of pull-ins, but he thought that the daily average of 
failures was about 8 per cent. 

The next paper was on "Single-End versus Double-End 
Cars," by Herman Hicks, supervisor of schedules New 
York State Railways. An abstract of Mr. Hicks' paper 
appears elsewhere in this issue. 

R. A. Dyer, Jr., assistant general manager Auburn & 
Syracuse Electric Railroad, asked for the difference in the 
maintenance cost of single-end and double-end cars. Mr. 
Hicks said that the difference was $79.70 per car in favor 
of the single-end car. 

Mr. Peck asked if the cost of loops and special work was 
not a deterrent to changing over from single-end to double- 
end cars, especially in view of later extensions. Mr. Hicks 
admitted that there were heavy change-over costs, but he 
believed that they were justified because of the economies 
of single-end operation. 

In support of Mr. Hicks, E. J. Cook, general manager 
New York State Railways, said that the single-end line had 
proved so successful after one year's service that another 
line would be equipped with single-end cars on July 1. It 
will be operated with fifteen entirely new cars and twelve 
converted cars, making a total installation of fifty-two 
single-end cars in Rochester. He expected that the com- 
pany would continue this course. Referring to Mr. Peck's 
inquiry, he said that he had had considerable trouble some- 
times in getting the necessary terminals for loops. Under 
certain conditions it might not be possible to get proper 
accommodations. However, he did not figure the purchase 
of real estate as a charge against the change because the 
land could be sold at a profit whenever the extension of 
the line required the abandonment of the loop. 

In reply to Mr. Barnes, Mr. Hicks admitted that the 
difference in favor of single-end car maintenance costs 
might be due in part to the newness of the single-end equip- 

The last paper was "Maintenance of Way Matters," by 
C. A. Alderman, chief engineer Buffalo & Lake Erie Trac- 
tion Company. An abstract of this paper appears elsewhere 
in this issue. 

In reply to Mr. Barnes, Mr. Alderman said that owing 
to difficulties in high-speed operation on their three-point 
catenary suspension line, where 150-ft. spans are used, all 
future work would be of standard span or bracket con- 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

Mr, Dyer expressed his astonishment at this change and 
said that the 300-ft. spans with five points of suspension 
were giving excellent service on the Syracuse, Lake Shore 
& Northern and the Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern Rail- 
ways, where cars were operated up to 60 m.p.h. He had 
gradually lengthened his suspension points to 60 ft. Lesser 
distances than that had proved troublesome. Mr. Peck also 
expressed satisfaction with the behavior of catenary con- 
struction on the Ballston Spa high-speed line of his com- 

M. J. French, engineer maintenance of way Utica & 
Mohawk Valley Railway, said he was glad to see that 100-lb. 
T-rail was giving such good service in paved streets, 
thus justifying the assertions of the association in favor 
of the T-rail. 

In reply to a query by Mr. French, Mr. Alderman said 
that wooden ties had been used in preference to steel ties 
because the conditions of frequent car service favored that 
construction which would cause the least delay to car opera- 

Mr. French asked if anyone had experienced trouble with 
slag ballast. Some kinds of slag generated a weak sul- 
phuric acid which was injurious to the ties. He had had 
trouble of this kind on a small section of slag-ballasted 
track in Utica. Air. Alderman said he had used a finely 
granulated slag ballast in open track for the past three 
years without injurious results. 

Upon motion of W. H. Collins, a resolution of thanks 
was tendered to the entertainment committee, to Mr. Choate 
and to the management of the O-te-sa-ga Hotel. 

The final business was the election of officers, which re- 
sulted as follows : President, Joseph K. Choate. Coopers- 
town ; first vice-president, W. H. Collins, Gloversville ; sec- 
ond vice-president, E. J. Cook, Rochester; secretary, J. C. 
Collins. Rochester; treasurer, H. M. Beardsley. Elmira; 
executive committee, J. C. Calisch. John E. Duffy. J. Stan- 
ley Moore and Charles H. Smith. After President-elect 
Choate had expressed his thanks for the honor of election, 
the convention was adjourned. 


The traffic department of the Albany Southern Railroad 
during the past two years has paid special attention to 
the development of commutation traffic. It has solicited 
information regarding property for sale or rent, summer 
hotels, camps and boarding houses along its line, and has 

ferent sizes which it has rented for the summer or sold 
with a ground lease. One of the accompanying illustra- 
tions shows a row of three of these houses of large and 
small size. 

Another method of attracting residents to the towns 
reached by the Albany Southern has been tried this year 
for the first time. Large signboards have been erected 

Sign at Station Stop 

near the stations in each town, where the)' can be read by 
passengers sitting in the cars stopped at the stations. 
These signs give the name of the town, the running time 
and the round-trip commutation fare to Albany. One of 
the signs at Nassau is reproduced. 


The Boston Elevated Railway is just putting into service 
fifty semi-convertible pay-within cars for surface opera- 
tion. The new cars were made by the Laconia Car Com- 
pany and embody several notable improvements, includ- 
ing an all-steel underframe, steel bulkheads, steel roof 
trusses and manually operated folding steps and doors, 
as described in the Electric Railway Journal for April 
1, 191 1. 

The motor and control equipments were supplied by 
the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. 

Portable Houses at Kinderhook Lake 

furnished this information to anyone interested in country 
life. A list of the most desirable of these places has been 
published in the summer timetable pamphlet to attract, if 
possible, some of the many visitors to Electric Park, which 
is 18 miles south of Albany, N. Y., and is owned and 
operated by the railroad company. This year the railroad 
has purchased and erected at Electric Park, on the shore 
of Kinderhook Lake, a number of portable houses of dif- 

Equipped Motor Truck for Boston Pay-Within Car 

Each car will have a quadruple equipment of No. 306 
motors, particularly adapted for high-speed schedules. 
The No. 306 motor has a nominal one-hour rating of 50-hp 
at 500 volts and 60-hp at 600 volts. Lugs are provided on 
the corners of the upper half of the cast-steel motor frame 
for bolting the motor to the suspension crossbar. The axle 
caps are bolted to brackets extending from this upper 
frame. The suspension is designed so that, with the motor 

July i, 1911.J 



in place, removal of the retaining bolts allows the lower 
half-frame to swing downward. The bearing housings 
are so fitted that the lower half of the frame may be 
dropped free of the armature and bearings, or the arma- 
ture and bearings dropped with the lower frame for in- 
spection of the upper field. 

The main poles are four in number, and are centered 


Boston Pay- Within Car 

at 45 degrees from the horizontal plane through the axis 
of the motor. The main pole pieces are built up of soft 
steel punchings. The interpole coils are wound with cop- 
per strap and insulated, constructed and finished in sub- 
stantially the same manner as the field coils. Each is sup- 
ported and protected against injury by a bronze casting 
pressed into a groove around the tip of the interpole, and 
the coils are held firmly in position to prevent vibration. 

The accompanying illustration, made from a photograph 
taken in the railway company's shop, Boston, shows one 
of the trucks equipped with the No. 306 motors. The 
trucks for the new cars were supplied half by the Standard 
Motor Truck Company and half by The J. G. Brill Com- 

The motors are to be controlled by the Westinghouse 
unit switch control system, type HL, with no jumper pro- 
vision for train operation. In type HL control the vari- 
ous main circuit connections between trolley, starting re- 
sistors and motors are made by pneumatically operated 
switches assembled in a common frame or switch group 
underneath the car. The reversing connections ordinarily 
made by the reverse drum of the plaform controller are 
made by a reverse drum similar to that of the controller, but 
of more substantial construction, pneumatically operated 
and mounted in a separate case underneath the car. The 
admission or release of compressed air to the pistons for 
operation of the switches and reverser is regulated by 
means of electrically operated magnet valves, one of which 
is attached to each piston cylinder. The switch group and 
reversers are hung from 2 1 2-in. x 2 l / 2 -\r\. angle irons by 
means of insulated bolts. The control resistors and fuse 
box are hung by means of wooden hangers, and the junction 
box by means of sharp iron hangers. 

The circuits from the various magnet valves are con- 
trolled by a master controller on either car platform 
through a control train line which extends the entire 
length of the car and terminates at each end in a twelve- 
conductor train line receptacle. When the motorman's 
platform is in use as a rear end the doors are folded 
against the dash, thus making available the entire platform 
for loading or discharging passengers. 

To reduce the space occupied on the platform by the con- 
trolling devices a new hand brake has been designed by 
G. S. Ackley, ,the inventor of the Ackley adjustable brake. 
This brake combines the space-saving features of the ver- 
tical wheel with the advantages of the spur-geared eccen- 

trie winding drum. It has been named 

the Ackley No-Staff Brake because the 
customary brake staff is omitted. 

The first engraving shows a full front 
view of the new brake. The pedestal and 
gear housing is a one-piece casting with 
doors on both sides for assembly and 
inspection purposes. , In the second view 
these doors are shown removed and the 
pedestal broken open, disclosing the in- 
terior mechanism. 

As will be seen, the brake chain is 
attached to the eccentric or cam of the 
drum, and by means of a spur gear cast 
to this drum and the pinion actuated by 
the hand wheel, is wound along the smooth 
spiral course to the drum's smallest diam- 
eter. This drum revolves on a roller bear- 
ing, and with its axis in a horizontal posi- 
tion there is no difficulty in the release, 
as the tension and weight of the unwound 
portion of the chain serve toward this 
purpose. In the center illustration the 
chain is shown as fully unwound. 

A new arrangement is used in holding 
the brakes when applied. A pawl ratchet is mounted on the 
end of the drum and a pawl or dog mounted on the housing 
by a stud bolt directly under. The pawl is weighted on the 
spur end so that it is kept normally free of the ratchet. A 
vertical rod connects the pawl with the foot lever, the ex- 
posed part of which is normally raised, When the brakes are 
set and the motorman desires to hold the car he locks the 

Side and Front Views of Staffless Brake 

gears by pressing upon the foot lever, which throws the pawl 
into engagement with the ratchet. A slight turn of the hand 
wheel in the winding direction allows the weighted spur 
end of the pawl to drop free of the ratchet, permitting 
the brake to release but only when the motorman is pre- 
pared for it and has hold of the hand wheel. This fea- 
ture eliminates the dangers of the old staff floor ratchet 
pawl and, with which, if the pawl was inadvertently kicked 
loose, the brake handle would revolve with great rapidity. 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

The third cut shows the chain wound in, the ratchet 
pawl which holds the brake from releasing and the goose- 
neck lever connection between the brake chain and the 
brake levers. This goose-neck connection provides for va- 
riable leverages by a series of holes so that the draw rod 
may be attached at different distances from the fulcrum. 
Different combinations of gear ratios are provided for, but 
those of 14:34 and 12:36 (the gears are four pitch) have 
been found to give the most satisfactory results ; these com-' 
binations are interchangeable in the same housing. The 
Ackley no-staff brake will be handled for export by the 
Ackley Brake Company, New York City, and its many 
agents abroad. 

the specialties on this car are the following: Ohio Brass 
couplers and sanders, National Brake Company's hand 
brakes, General Electric Company's headlights and Elec- 
tric Service Supplies Company's gongs. The wheels, axles, 
bolsters, brake shoes and journal boxes were furnished by 
the J. G. Brill Company, and the body bolsters, bumpers and 
ventilators by the American Car Company. 



The Boston Elevated Railway has recently applied to 
100 cars the Root pneumatic track scraper shown in the 
accompanying halftone and drawing. The two most im- 
portant features of this air-operated scraper are that it 
eliminates an extra wheel and staff from the platform 
and that it cannot fall at either end of the car when it is 

J. B. Haggin, one of the wealthy owners of farms in 
the Bluegrass section of Kentucky, has very largely given 
up the breeding of thoroughbred race horses since the 
decadence of racing. At Elmendorf, his beautiful property 
near Lexington, dairy cattle have succeeded the horse as 







Baggage and Refrigerator Car Used on the Lexington & 
Interurban Railway 

the chief interest of the owner, and he has become so inter- 
ested in the possibilities of dairy products that he has pur- 
chased a combination baggage and refrigerator car in which 
to handle the products of his farm over the Lexington & 
Interurban Railway. 

The car was built by the American Car Company, St. 
Louis, Mo. The body is made up principally of wood and 
the underframe of semi-steel construction. The trucks are 
Brill No. 27 M.C.B.-2. The principal dimensions are as 
follows: Length of the body, 50 ft.; length over the vesti- 

Side Elevation of Pneumatic Track Scraper for Boston Pay- 
Within Cars 

not in service. The scraper can be adjusted for any de- 
sirable pressure. It operates instantly when the motorman 
turns on the three-way air valve which is located on the 
platform. When the air is released, the spring inside the 
air cylinder pulls the scraper out of the way. This type 
of scraper was especially designed for the new Boston 
cars in order to avoid the use of windlass rods. With the 
exception of the pipe from the air cylinder to the three- 

Interior of Refrigerator Car Used on the Lexington & In- 
terurban Railway 

bules, 48 ft. ; width over the sills and over the posts at the 
belt, 8 ft. 6 in. ; height from the sill to the trolley base, 9 ft. 
6 11/16 in.; height from the top of the rail to the sills, 
42J4 in. ; length of bolster centers, 32 ft. 6 in. The two 
trucks carry four Westinghouse No. 112 motors. Among 

Pneumatic Scraper Applied to the Pay-Within Cars of the 
Boston Elevated Railway 

way valve, the complete scraper equipment was furnished 
by the Root Spring Scraper Company, Kalamazoo, Mich. 
These pneumatic scrapers are furnished in several styles 
for application to either the car body or the truck, as con- 
ditions require. 

July i, 191 i.] 




(From Our Regular Correspondent.) 

As a result of the decision of the Prussian State Railways 
to electrify at least two of their lines as an experiment, 
questions on the electrification of railways in Great Britain 
have been asked the president of the Board of Trade re- 
cently in the House of Commons. The German Minister 
for Railways declared recently that electrification was an 
experiment at present on account of the military problems 
involved, which dominate all other matters in Germany. On 
this account, the substitution of electricity for steam as 
motive power must necessarily proceed slowly in Ger- 
many as the military authorities have to settle the ques- 
tion of danger to the whole railway system of the country 
in time of war. Mr. Buxton, the president of the Board 
of Trade, replied to the question in the House of Commons 
by saying that he was aware of the experiment being made 
by the Prussian State Railways, but that he did not think 
there was any reason to be disappointed with the progress 
of electric traction in England. The Railways Act of 1903 
provided ample facilities for the introduction of electricity 
on railways when desired. Mr. Buxton also stated that he 
would apply for a copy of the report on the electrification 
of railways made to the Prussian Diet by the State Railway 

In 1910 the British Electric Traction Company carried 
324,750,000 passengers against 302,750,000 in 1909. The re- 
ceipts were £1,690,327 in 1910 against £1,561,657 in 1909. 
The net profit for 1910 was £139,512 as compared with 
£130,564 in 1909. This, however, is not sufficient to pay div- 
idends on all the various classes of stock. The dividend 
on the preferred shares has been paid to September, 1908, 
but no dividend has been paid on the ordinary shares since 
1906. The report states that the board is evolving a plan 
to readjust the capital. The dividends which have accumu- 
lated on the preferred shares amount to £242,000. 

The report of the Glasgow Corporation tramways for the 
year ended May 31, 1911, and the official list of statistics 
show traffic receipts, £946,021, an increase of £52,430 over 
last year's returns. There was an increase of 15,236,736 in 
the number of passengers carried, the total being 237,967,- 
307, against 222,730,571. There was a decrease of 2,409,941 
in the total of penny fares, but this is attributed to a large 
extent to the fact that for the four months ended May 31 
two-stage fares were in operation in Glasgow. Since 
the beginning of the year on June 1, 1910, 6 route miles 
of extensions were opened for traffic. The average single- 
track mileage open during the year was 194% miles; the car 
mileage was 21,704,237 miles, an increase of 730,237 miles; 
the traffic receipts per car mile, io.4i6d., an increase of 
o.236d.; the traffic receipts per passenger, o.954d., a decrease 
of o.oogd. 

Sheriff Gardner Millar has delivered judgment in an ap- 
peal brought at the instance of the Glasgow Corporation 
Tramways committee against the city assessors to se- 
cure a reduction of assessments which are payable by the 
tramways. His Lordship has decided that the tramways 
committee is not entitled to have the undertaking assessed 
as a railway and has dismissed the appeal. His Lordship 
stated that there was no doubt that the appellants' under- 
taking, so far as it consisted of the lines upon the street, 
fell under the description of "lands or heritages," but the 
question was whether it was a railway within the meaning 
of the statute, so that its yearly rent or value should be 
deemed to be one-fourth of the amount entered upon the 
valuation roll of the city. So far as the physical appearance 
was concerned, the appellants' counsel maintained that the 
essential features of the two systems were identical. Like 
a railway the tramway ran upon a rail fixed to ties in the 
ground. Counsel for the respondents admitted there was 
no feature in the one system which would differentiate it 
from the other, but the tranmways were constructed and 
managed under different statutes from those which apply 
to a railway. A tramway as a rule consisted of lines in the 
public streets, whereas a railway was usually constructed on 
land acquired by its promoters. A railroaa was not intended 
to be traversed by ordinary traffic. 

The third reading of the bill to empower the City of 
London to build a new bridge across the Thames near St. 

Paul's Churchyard resulted in a vigorous debate in the 
House of Commons, and the bill has been referred back to 
the committee. No one doubts that a new bridge is neces- 
sary, but there is difference of opinion as to how the bridge 
should be constructed. As it was intended that the bridge 
should carry tramways it was expected that a scheme would 
be evolved by which the tramways would be brought across 
the river and continue in a subway underneath Cheapside, 
joining the northern system in Aldersgate. After the City 
of London had consented to the construction of the bridge 
an effort was made to change the site of the structure so as 
to open up a vista of St. Paul's Cathedral. The original idea 
was to bring the approach of the bridge to the end of the 
Cathedral, which would have carried traffic in a straight line 
from the bridge past the east end of St. Paul's to Aiders- 
gate. Many influential peopie and architects, however, 
thought that it would be inadvisable to spend such a large 
sum of money on a bridge in the vicinity of St. Paul's with- 
out endeavoring to open up a vista of the Cathedral from 
the bridge approaches and they therefore desired to direct 
the bridge toward the center of the Cathedral. The police 
claim that the proposed change would quadruple the diffi- 
culty of handling the traffic at that point. 

The tramway estimates of the London County Council 
for the current financial year show that the total expendi- 
ture on capital account up to March 31, 1911, amounted to 
£11,060,000, and that a further sum of £2,400,000 would be 
required to complete the work of electrification and the 
construction of authorized lines. This total of £14,000,000, 
however, does not include the cost of tramways for which 
powers are now being sought in Parliament. Reporting on 
the estimates, both the finance committee and the highway 
committee draw attention to the motor omnibus companies, 
which it is claimed occupy an exceptionally favorable posi- 
tion owing to the fact that they are liable, as is the Council, 
for rates for occupying the roads over which its omnibuses 
run. In addition, these companies are not required to con- 
tribute to the upkeep of the roads. The electric railways 
are placed at a great disadvantage by having to contribute 
towards the upkeep of the road. It is estimated that this re- 
lief for the local authorities amounts to £118,000 a year, 
exclusive of the cost of street cleaning. This amount is 
likely to increase in the future. The operation of all- 
night and workmen's cars were also criticised as they in- 
volve a loss to the Council estimated at £70,000 a year. 
The omnibus companies, on the contrary, do not give spe- 
cial workmen's fares, nor do they run their vehicles all 
night. The estimated surplus for the coming year is more 
than £900,000, but after the charges have been deducted 
the net surplus will be about £187,844, of which it is pro- 
posed to apply £138,270 to renewals fund, worked out on 
the agreed basis of %d. per car mile, and £49,574 to the 
general reserve fund. In 1905 the number of persons killed 
per 1000 licensed vehicles was 12 by motor 'buses and 12 by 
municipal tramcars; in 1906 it was 32 by motor 'buses and 
9 by tramcars; in 1907, 29 by motor 'buses and 12 by tram- 
cars; in 1908, 55 by motor 'buses and 13 by tramcars, and 
in 1909, 44 by motor 'buses and 12 by tramcars. The high- 
ways committee reports that the scheme for a tramway 
from Marble Arch to Cricklewood was withdrawn in com- 
mittee, and that there is no doubt as to the value this line 
would be to the public. It has therefore decided to submit 
at an early date a recommendation to the Council with a 
view to the reintroduction into Parliament in the session of 
1912 of a scheme for constructing tramways along this route. 

The tramways committee of the Birmingham City 
Council has obtained permission to borrow £99,806 for 
rolling stock and to reconstruct the tramways. Sixty new 
cars are to be purchased, and top covers are to be added to 
130 others which are at present uncovered. The cost of 
the new cars and covers will be £61,379. About £31,928 
will be spent on the reconstruction of the track between 
Colmore Row and Hockley Brook, £2,714 is required for 
the overhead equipment of the tramways in place of the 
present cable system, £2,585 for cables and switch pillars 
for the Hockley route, and £1,200 for additional machinery 
and plant. During the year just ended more car miles 
were run than in the previous year. The equipment of the 
cars with meters has enabled the company to reduce the 
consumption of current. A. C. S. 


News of Electric Railways 

Right to Compel Electrification at Chicago 

In response to the request of the local transportation 
committee of the Common Council of Chicago, Corporation 
Counsel Sexton, of Chicago, on June 19, 191 1, rendered an 
opinion to the effect that the city of Chicago through its 
police power is vested with authority to compel the electri- 
fication of the steam railroads which operate into the city. 
An opinion in regard to this matter was sought on account 
of the ordinance presented to the Council by Alderman 
Britten, which, if passed, would compel the railroads which 
operate into the city to adopt some power other than steam 
and to install the new power so as not to emit smoke. In 
his opinion Mr. Sexton said: 

"Any ordinance should, of course, provide that the time 
within which the railroads should comply with the duties 
imposed upon them should be commensurate with the mag- 
nitude of the task which tl e ordinance requires them to 
perform. The contention will no doubt be made that the 
railroads have certain rights under their respective charters, 
whether special or granted under the general law providing 
for the incorporation of railroads, which are protected by 
the constitution. 

"This argument will probably be advanced upon the the- 
ory that the railroads have built their lines over certain 
rights of way before certain numerous streets were opened 
up across such rights of way, and upon the further theory 
that at the time most of their charters were granted steam 
was the only adequate motive power then adaptable, and 
that on account of the imperfect development of smoke con- 
sumers in locomotives at that time the Legislature contem- 
plated that it was necessary in the operation of locomotives 
to emit dense clouds of smoke and other noxious gases, and 
that their right so to operate locomotives is, therefore, pro- 
tected by their charters. 

"This position is not tenable. All corporations must 
accept their charters subject to the police powers of the 
State. Any ordinance passed should direct what should be 
done or omitted and should leave the railroads free to adopt 
their own methods to accomplish the desired result." 

Replies of Companies Filed in New York Rapid Transit 

On June 27, 191 1, the Interborough Rapid Transit Corn- 
pan)- rejected the terms fixed by the Board of Estimate of 
New York for the construction, equipment and operation 
of rapid transit lines in New York in accordance with the 
recommendations of the special committee, of the Board of 
Estimate and the Public Service Commission which pro- 
posed a division of territory between the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Company. The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, how- 
ever, on the same day expressed a desire to accept the 
terms of the city, but in its reply cited certain modifications 
which it declared were conditions precedent to its accept- 
ance. In its letter the Interborough Rapid Transit Com- 
pany said substantially: 

"We regret for the reasons set forth in the accompanying 
memorandum that we are unable to accept the terms pro- 
posed, or, under the new conditions that have arisen, to con- 
tinue in force our subway offer of Dec. 5, 1910, and May 9, 

"We regret that we are forced to take a position which, 
together with the declared policy of the city authorities, 
necessarily leaves the city divided into two rapid transit 
districts, requiring a double fare to travel from one to the 
other; renders impossible of fulfilment the wise policy of 
the old Rapid Transit Commission, repeatedly declared, of 
developing the present subway lines so as to afford at the 
least possible cost through trunk lines upon the east and 
west sides of Manhattan, with normal feeders to the out- 
lying boroughs: deprives the greater city as a whole of the 
benefit of a unified rapid transit system with a single 5-cent 
fare: substitutes for a 5-cent access to Coney Island from all 

parts of the city a plan under which the greater portion of 
the citizens can reach the seaside only upon the payment of 
a double fare, and in many cases a triple fare: cuts out the 
heart of the business center of Manhattan, separates it from 
its own residential districts, attaches it as a terminal to the 
Brooklyn system alone, and necessarily unsettles and per- 
haps revolutionizes real estate values throughout the bor- 
oughs of Manhattan and the Bronx; applies the credit re- 
leased through the successful operation of the present sub- 
way system on the island of Manhattan and a great portion 
of the additional credit hereafter available to the develop- 
ment of the rapid transit system of one borough; entails 
upon the city, under the guarantee provision to the Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Company above referred to, a large con- 
tinuing deficit, of which Manhattan and the Bronx will bear 
the larger proportion; gives absolutely no rapid transit 
relief to the great residential district of the upper west side 
of New York; furnishes no transit facilities to the public 
using the new Pennsylvania station or to the lower west 
side; leaves congestion upon the east side for many years 
substantially where it stands to-day; only in the distant 
future, if the triborough route should be built, promises to 
extend a limited service to the Bronx, and postpones such 
relief as it does propose to confer upon a limited section 
of New York through a period of many years. 

"In justice, however, to the holders of our stock and of 
our bonds, no other course is open to the company than to 
decline. If the city desires the co-operation of the Inter- 
borough Company, and through it the co-operation of pri- 
vate capital, in the execution of its general rapid transit 
plans, it will be necessary for the city to propose terms 
which will justify this company, with respect to both its 
old and new investment, in embarking in the project. 

"We are likewise compelled to decline the terms tendered 
for third-tracking the elevated lines. We nevertheless 
stand prepared, within the reasonable limits of our re- 
sources, to relieve at an early date the unfortunate condi- 
tion of travel congestion in this city. Our offer of June io, 
1910, with respect to elevated improvements and the opera- 
tion of the Belmont tunnel, connecting Queens with Man- 
hattan, upon which an agreement had been almost reached 
with the Public Service Commission, we still leave open for 
your further consideration." 

The memorandum which accompanied the letter begins 
with a review of the subway negotiations and then dis- 
cusses the company's fears concerning the losses likely to 
be experienced in the first five years of operating the ex- 
tended system, assuming the terms as set forth in its offer 
amended down to May 9, and the traffic growth as esti- 
mated in the report of the special committee of the Board of 
Estimate and the Public Service Commission. The mem- 
orandum then remarks that if the actual rate of travel in- 
crease on the elevated and subway lines in the past year 
were used as determining the growth of the first ten years 
of operation the net result might be disastrous. In the 
memorandum the company declares: 

"The margin of safety in our offer of May 9 was so nar- 
row that the introduction of the Broadway competitive 
route reducing our estimated revenues by not less than 
$5,000,000 a year would have made it impossible for us to 
carry the offer into effect. If, therefore, our own offer went 
to the limits of conservatism it must be manifest how utterly 
impossible it is for us to accept the city's present offer, 
which makes certain a severe competition and imposes 
many additional hardships on the company." 

The reply of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company points 
out in detail the modification of the terms which the com- 
pany desires. That part of the reply, however, in which 
the company signifies its general willingness to accept 

"We beg to say that generally we are prepared to accept 
the recommendations of said report as applicable to the 
proposals made by this company and. upon the terms 
therein laid down, to pledge the entering into contracts for 
the carrying out of such recommendations, through the 

July i, 191 i.] 



instrumentality of a new company to be organized for that 
purpose and of the existing railroad companies the opera- 
tion of whose lines is to be merged with that of new rapid 
transit lines. 

"In making this response, however, we ask, as a condi- 
tion of our acceptance, that certain matters not explicitly or 
fully covered in the report be made clear according to our 
understanding of the intentions of the conferees, and that 
certain modifications of the proposed operating terms be 
made in the light of a better appreciation of their effect or a 
fuller understanding of the facts upon which they were based. 
While there are several features of the report as applicable 
to us which we regard as unnecessarily severe and one in 
particular which we believe to be unwise from the point of 
view of the city, nevertheless our disposition has been from 
the beginning, and is now, to co-operate with the city to the 
extent of our ability for the solution of the transit problem. 
So much does our plan offer in the way of transit relief and 
for the best development of New York that it would, in our 
judgment, be a public calamity if by insistence upon terms 
which are unreasonable either as against the city or as 
against the company, the negotiations which have pro- 
gressed during three months should now fail of accom- 

"The modifications which we have requested merely offer 
some protection against possible loss and assist in our 
financing of this great project. We do not ask that the 
city, because adopting the absolutely uneconomic proposi- 
tion of a 5-cent fare to Coney Island, should bear the burden 
of such a policy. We do not even ask that this unreason- 
able condition should be eliminated from the proposed 
terms, but we do suggest that the city, even more than the 
company, has a vital interest in this matter and that before 
enforcing such a rate of fare for purely pleasure traffic it 
should await for a reasonable period the result of operation 
under the present rate of fare." 

Initiative Measures in Portland, Ore. 

At the recent election in Portland, Ore., several initiative 
measures were voted upon which affect the Portland Rail- 
way, Light & Power Company. The three measures of 
greatest moment to the company were the bill to create a 
local public service commission, a no-seat-no-ride ordi- 
nance and a proposal to place a license tax of 3 per cent 
on the gross earnings of the electric companies in Portland. 
The measure to create a public service commission and the 
no-seat-no-ride ordinance were defeated, but the tax meas- 
ure was passed. 

The Portland Railway, Light & Power Company con- 
ducted a campaign of publicity which lasted two weeks to 
meet the issues which were raised by the proposed meas- 
ures. During the first week the campaign was entirely 
educational, being designed to bring the public to realize the 
immense amount of work done by the company in Portland 
and the significance of this work in respect to the pros- 
perity of the city and the comfort of its inhabitants. Prac- 
tically every organization in the city condemned the no- 
seat-no-ride ordinance, many of them condemned the tax 
measure, and the principal newspapers and a large number 
of prominent individuals condemned all three. The first 
week of the campaign of the company paved the way for 
arguments and the second week of the campaign, which was 
the week preceding the election, was given over to discus- 
sions of the questions and principles involved in the meas- 
ures which were to come before the voters. 

The Portland Ad Club was one of the prominent organi- 
zations of the city which opposed the no-seat-no-ride ordi- 
nance and the tax measure. F. W. Hild, general manager 
of the Portland Railway, Light & Power Company, ad- 
dressed this club. He said that the company paid out last 
year in various forms of taxation about $658,000, or ap- 
proximately 12*4 per cent of its gross earnings. This was 
made up as follows: $318,000 in direct taxes, $30,000 in 
bridge rentals and $300,000 in paving assessments, which 
are a survival from the horse-car days. In the five years 
which end this year, Mr. Hild said, the gross earnings of 
the company will approximate $24,900,000, while during the 
same period expenditures for all purposes will amount to 
about $44,000,000, the difference representing the amount 
expended for extensions and general improvements. 

Arbitrator Selected in Toledo 

The City Council of Toledo, Ohio, and Mayor Whitlock 
have decided to accept the proposal of the Toledo Rail- 
ways & Light Company to select an arbitrator to decide 
differences between the two expert appraisers of the prop- 
erty. Mayor Whitlock has asked the company to name its 
appraiser so that the work may proceed. 

In a letter to Mayor Whitlock, Albion E. Lang, president 
of the Toledo Railways & Light Company, stated that the 
question of an arbitrator to settle the differences between 
the experts chosen to fix a valuation on the railway prop- 
erty for franchise purposes would be decided at the regular 
meeting of the board of directors on June 29, 191 1. The 
letter was written by Mr. Lang while he was in New York 
consulting with the bondholders of the company. 

Attorney W. W. Miller, of Hornblower, Miller & Potter, 
is quoted as follows in regard to the affairs of the company: 

"The committee representing the bondh lders is satisfied 
with the negotiations now being carried on for an adjust- 
ment of the franchise question with the city of Toledo, and 
confidently expects that the matter will be adjusted within 
a comparatively short time. An attempt to throw the com- 
pany into the hands of a receiver at this time would be 
U nwise. 

"A meeting of the bondholders and creditors was held in 
Toledo recently to arrange to pay off the semi-annual inter- 
est on the company's bonds due July 1, 191 1, and discuss 
the question of improvements to the property for the com- 
ing six months. 

"Since the creditors and bondholders' protective commit- 
tee was organized more than two years ago it has expended 
more than $1,000,000 for improvements and has arranged to 
expend still further sums in raising the standard of effi- 
ciency of the property to meet the requirements of the 
traveling public. 

"No steps will be taken toward reorganizing the property 
until the franchise question has been settled. As soon as 
that matter is out of the way a plan will be presented, and it 
is expected that little trouble will be experienced in putting 
it through to the satisfaction of all parties concerned with- 
out throwing the company into the hands of a receiver, 
which would be expensive." 

A petition signed by 200 members of the Toilers' League 
was presented to the City Council recently asking that the 
company be required to operate at a rate of eight tickets for 
25 cents and that a charge of $500 a day be made for the 
use of streets upon which the franchises are said to have 

New Haven Protests Against Compulsory Electrification at 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad has sent 
to every member of the Legislature of Massachusetts a cir- 
cular protesting against compulsory electrification of its 
lines out of Boston, in which it says in part: 

"Except where use of tunnels is rendered less dangerous 
by use of electricity there has been no compulsory electrifi- 
cation of railroads. All the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad's electrification has been without compulsory 
legislation. The company has repeatedly stated its desire 
and willingness to electrify. This year it proposes to elec- 
trify from Readville, on the Boston & Providence Railroad, 
to Beverly, on the Boston & Maine Railroad. 

"Electrification of short distances, say 10 miles, has never 
been found at all economical, and compulsory electrification 
within a io-mile limit will be unusually uneconomical. 
Money required for electrification must be raised by the 
issue of new securities, and, unless the money for electrifi- 
cation is wisely and economically expended, there will be 
placed upon railroad transportation a very serious charge 
which can only be met by increased passenger and freight 
rates. The best business interests of New England require 
these rates to be kept as low as possible consistent with 

"It is proposed to discriminate against every other city 
and town in Massachusetts in favor of the district within 
10 miles of Boston. Estimated cost of electrification of this 
district will amount to approximately $40,000,000. If the 
railroads are called upon to make this expenditure in the 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

city of Boston and vicinity, if the proceeds of the securities 
which the railroad corporations can find the public willing to 
purchase must be expended in this electrification, then other 
railroad improvements must necessarily wait. Electrification 

in other parts of Massachusetts must wait because there is 
a limit to the amount of money which the public will invest 
in railroad securities." 

New Detroit Municipal Ownership Amendment 

Corporation Counsel Hally, of Detroit, Mich., has pre- 
pared a new dra.ft of a municipal ownership charter amend- 
ment which he believes corrects the legal defects of the 
former amendment. Mr. Hally said that Council cannot 
take action on the amendment until Aug. i, 191 1, as the 
law under which it is drawn does not take effect until that 
time. Two elections v/ill then be required, one to ascertain 
whether the people favor municipal ownership and the 
other to authorize bonds to purchase the street railway 

Alderman Thomas Glinnan, of Detroit, Mich., has intro- 
duced in the Council of Detroit a resolution to submit the 
question of the city taking over the Detroit United Railway 
to the voters of Detroit at an election to be held some time 
after Aug. 1, 191 1. The resolution directs the committee 
of the Council on charter and city legislation and Corpora- 
tion Counsel Hally to prepare the bill for submission to the 
voters, and requests the committee on charter and city 
legislation to select a day for a special election to be held 
as soon as possible after Aug. 1, 191 1, to determine the 
question. Mr. Glinnan's bill, which provides for an amend- 
ment to the charter so as to permit the city to own and 
operate the street railway system, was referred to the com- 
mittee on charter and city legislation. 

Amendments to Cleveland Grant 

At a meeting of the committee of the whole of the City 
Council of Cleveland on June 20, 191 1, the Kramer amend- 
ments to the Tayler franchise were approved and they will 
come before Council at the next regular meeting. On June 
19 and 20 G. M. Dahl, street railway commissioner, and 
Mr. Baker, the city solicitor, expressed their views 
openly, and Mr. Baker finally refused to vote upon the 
amendments. At the previous meetings Mr. Baker sup- 
ported the amendment to require the property to be main- 
tained at 100 per cent of its renewal value, but at the meet- 
ing on June 20 he said that he thought this was imprac- 
tical. Mr. Dahl also objected to the amendment. He con- 
tended that under it the people would be taxed unnecessarily 
to protect capital. 

On the question of extending the low fare to the suburbs 
as they are annexed Mr. Baker argued that each car rider 
should pay approximately what it cost to carry him. Mr. 
Dahl said that each rider should pay a flat fare and Mr. 
Baker finally agreed that this was the correct system. The 
Hanratty amendment to provide for the extension of low 
fare to all annexed territory after Dec. 18, 1909, failed, but 
the Kramer amendment, which gives Council the right to 
extend the fare to any suburb, was adopted. 

Mr. Baker asked whether the company would have the 
right to raise the fare to the suburbs during the last fifteen 
years of the life of the ordinance. Councilman Morgan and 
others pointed out that ordinances extending the fare 
would be subject to a referendum vote. Mr. Baker opposed 
the amendment to give the city power to dictate extensions 
and betterments up to the last five years of the life of the 
franchise, subject to arbitration on the propriety of making 
such betterments and the company's ability to finance them. 
He asserted that the acts of Council should not be subject 
to arbitration as to their propriety, but should be absolute. 
Mr. Dahl stated that it might not be possible for the com- 
pany to comply with arbitrary demands of the Council and 
thought that some means should be provided to meet such 
a crisis. The amendment was approved in its original form. 
The Burke amendment to permit conductors and motormen 
to ride free when not in uniform by exhibiting their badges 
was approved. 

The City Council did not act upon the proposed amend- 
ments to the Tayler franchise at its regular meeting on the 
evening of June 26, 191 1. 

National Civic Federation Conference on Uniform Public 
Utility Legislation 

The national committee on the regulation of railroads 
and public utilities, which was appointed some time ago by 
President Seth Low of the National Civic Federation, New 
York, held its first meeting in New York on June 23, 
191 1, to consider the question of drafting a bill for a model 
law for the regulation of railroads and other public utilities. 
Mr. Low, who presided, was authorized by the committee 
to appoint a sub-committee of seven to make an investiga- 
tion and report on a plan for the proposed bill, and he 
named the following sub-committee before the meeting 
adjourned: Emerson McMillin, American Light & Trac- 
tion Company, chairman; Franklin K. Lane of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, Martin S. Decker of the 
Public Service Commission of the Second District of New 
York, Milo R. Maltbie of the Public Service Commission 
of the First District of New York, Prof. John H. Gray of 
the University of Minnesota, P. H. Morrissey, former 
grand chief of the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, and 
Franklin Q. Brown. 

During the meeting President Low called attention to 
the fact that the Civic Federation a few years ago sent a 
commission abroad to investigate the status of public and 
private ownership and operation of public utilities in Eng- 
land as compared with similar enterprises in the United 
States. He said that the report of that committee was 
probably the best compendium of facts on the subject yet 
produced. Lack of uniformity in State legislation on the 
subject was liable to injure railroads and other corpora- 
tions. The sub-committee expects to meet soon. 

Among the speakers at the meeting on June 23, 1910, 
were: Prof. John H. Gray of the University of Minne- 
sota, who was a member of the federation commission 
which went abroad to study government and private opera- 
tion of public utilities; Blewitt Lee, general solicitor of the 
Illinois Central Railroad; P. H. Morrissey, former grand 
chief of the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, and Emer- 
son McMillin, president of the American Light & Trac- 
tion Company. Some others in attendance, or invited to be 
present at the meeting, were: Arthur W. Brady, president 
American Electric Railway Association; James Campbell, 
president North American Company; Theodore N. Vail, 
president American Telephone & Telegraph Company; 
George W. Perkins, railway director and banker; Samuel 
Insull, president Commonwealth Electric Company; Robert 
Winsor. banker and director in public utilities companies; 
August Belmont, chairman board of directors Interborough 
Railroad Company; Timothy S. Williams, president Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Company; Robert Mather, president 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company; W. W. 
Freeman, president National Electric Light Association; 
Charles L. Edgar, chairman committee on public policy 
National Electric Light Association; George F. Swain, pro- 
fessor political economy Harvard University; W. J. Clark, 
General Electric Company, and James H. McGraw, presi- 
dent McGraw Publishing Company. 

Extension of Time for Terminal Improvement in New 
York. — The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad 
has been granted an extension of time until Dec. 31, 1912, 
by the city authorities of New York in which to complete 
the improvements to the Grand Central station. 

Mono-Rail Line Ordered to Be Removed. — The Board of 
Estimate of New York has decided that the Pelham Park & 
City Island Railroad, New York, N. Y., must remove its 
mono-rail line from Pelham Bay Park and has refused to 
grant the company an extension of time in which to build 
the line through City Island. 

Suit Proposed to Compel Returns in Regard to Bond Sales. 
— The Public Service Commission of the Second District of 
New York has issued an order to require the Rockland Rail- 
road to show cause before it on July 10, 191 1, at Albany, 
why an action should not be commenced to recover penalties 
for the failure of the company to file reports covering the 
issuance of bonds previously authorized by the commission. 
On Jan. 26, 1910, the commission authorized the company to 
execute a mortgage for. $3,000,000 and issue thereunder a 

July i, 1911.] 



like amount of fifty-year gold bonds. The company, which 
proposes to build an electric railway in Rockland County, 
has failed to file reports covering tl<e sale of these bonds 
in the form required by the commission. 

Suburban Municipal Line at Toronto Desires Entrance 
Over City Lines. — Corporation Counsel Drayton, of To- 
ronto, Ont., has asked the Ontario Railway & Municipal 
Board for an order to require the Toronto Railway to ap- 
prove of the city's plans for the proposed municipal street 
car lines in the remote sections of the city. H. S. Osier 
objected that the application for running rights over the 
company's lines was premature because the city had not 
built any lines. Mr. Drayton replied that without an under- 
standing beforehand the city might be put to unnecessary 
expense for carhouses, etc., if the Toronto Railway should 
object to the equipment as unsuitable after the city had 
built the proposed lines. The board reserved judgment. 

Physical Value of Seattle, Renton & Southern Railway 
Fixed. — R. H. Thompson, city engineer of Seattle, Wash., 
has completed the work of valuing the physical property 
of the Seattle, Renton & Southern Railway. The appraisal 
was made in accordance with a resolution to authorize the 
city to issue $800,000 of bonds to take over the property, 
the purchase of which was approved by the voters of 
Seattle some time ago. Mr. Thompson has fixed the value 
of the property at upward of $500,000, and his report to 
the Board of Public Works has been referred to a com- 
mittee composed of Mr. Thompson, A. L. Valentine, su- 
perintendent of public utilities, and J. D. Ross, superin- 
tendent of lights. 

Arguments Concluded in Milwaukee Fare Case. — The 
arguments before the Railroad Commission of Wisconsin 
in connection with the petition of the city of Milwaukee 
for a 3-cent fare on the lines of the Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light Company were concluded at Milwaukee 
on June 16, 1911. At the concluding hearings Lester C. 
Manson, former assistant city attorney, appeared for the 
city and E. S. Mack, George P. Miller and W. J. Curtis 
appeared for the company. A summary of the contentions 
in the brief of the company, which bears the names of 
Miller, Mack & Fairchild, attorneys, and Sullivan & Crom- 
well, counsel for the company, was published in the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal of June 10, 191 1, page 1025. 

Columbus Dynamiting Cases. — The indictment against 
David A. Davis on the charge of aiding and abetting in the 
dynamiting of cars during the strike of the employees of 
the Columbus Railway & Light Company, Columbus, Ohio, 
a year ago, has been nolled, as sufficient evidence for con- 
viction could not be secured by the prosecuting attorney. 
Davis claimed that union street car men gave him money 
to be handed to Alfred N. Strader, now serving a fifteen- 
year term in the penitentiary on the charge of dynamiting 
cars. He asserted that he did not know that Strader was 
charged with dynamiting cars when he gave him the money 
and helped him to escape. Morris V. Cranmer, financial 
secretary of the local organization of street railway men at 
Columbus, is yet to be tried on the charge of aiding and 
abetting in the dynamiting. 

Boston & Eastern Railroad Granted Certificate of Neces- 
sity. — Governor Foss of Massachusetts has signed the bill 
granting to the Boston & Eastern Railroad a certificate of 
exigency for the right to build a high-speed interurban 
electric railway over a private right-of-way from Boston 
to Danvers and certain intermediate points. The original 
application for a certificate of necessity was made on Aug. 
23, 1906. On Sept. 18, 1907, the Railroad Commission de- 
clared the route faulty and suggested an independent en- 
trance to Boston. On Nov. 17, 1908, the commission 
witheld the certificate of necessity for lack of authority to 
build the tunnel. An April 6, 1909, the Legislature in- 
structed the railroad and transit commissioners to report 
jointly on the desirability of the tunnel. On June 15, 1910, 
the Governor signed the tunnel bill. Hearings were then 
ordered on question of exigency, and on Aug. 22, 1910, the 
commission deferred issuing a certificate until the Legisla- 
ture had acted on other reports relating to metropolitan 
affairs at Boston. On Aug. 23, 191 1, the company applied 
for a rehearing with the result that it has now obtained the 
necessary certificate. 

Financial and Corporate 

New York Stock and Money Markets 

June 27, 191 1. 

Aside from activity on Saturday and Monday following 
the decision of the government case against the Harriman 
lines in favor of the railroads, business on the New York 
Stock Exchange has been quiet throughout the week and 
trading has been light with few price changes. Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit advanced 1*4 points, the rise being attributed 
to developments in the subway question. Interest in the 
money market is increasing owing to financing of the 
Panama Canal bonds and the volume of July disbursements. 
Quotations to-day were: Call, 2j4,@2J / 2 per cent; ninety 
days, 2^.@3 per cent. 

Other Markets 

The Philadelphia market, while active, has not been great- 
ly concerned with traction interests. 

Elevated railway issues have been leaders in the Chicago 
market for the week, prices advancing on Saturday last, 
followed by slight declines in Monday's market. 

Narrow trading and minor price changes form the record 
of the Boston Exchange, with American Telephone and the 
coppers constituting the only shares of interest in to-day's 

United Railways issues were strong and active in Balti- 
more early last week and Augusta & Aiken Electric & Rail- 
way preferred gained a point last Monday. 

Quotations of traction and manufacturing securities as 
compared with last week follow: 

June 20. June 27. 

American Light & Traction Company (common) ... .a295 a295 

American Light & Traction Company (preferred) ... .al08 al08 

American Railways Company a44 a44 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (common) a43 4054 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (preferred) a88 a85% 

Boston Elevated Railway 129 V 2 a 128 '/a 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (common) al6 a\A l / 2 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (preferred) .... 75 a/5 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (common) . . 10 al2 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (preferred).. a51 a57 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 80!4 81% 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, 1st ref. conv. 4s.. 85 86 

Capital Traction Company, Washington 127 J4 127% 

Chicago City Railway al95 al95 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (common) .... 2 2 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (preferred) 6 6 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 1 a84 a85 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 2 a22 a24 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 3 a9^ a9}4 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg aS l / 2 aS'A 

Cincinnati Street Railway * 1 33 13054 

Cleveland Railway a96 a96 

Columbus Railway (common) 96 *96 

Columbus Railway (preferred) 101 * 1 1 

Consolidated Traction of New Jersey a76 a76 

Consolidated Traction of N. J., 5 per cent bonds .... al05 l / 2 al05 54 

Dayton Street Railway (common) a30 a30 

Dayton Street Railway (preferred) alOO alOO 

Detroit United Railway a74 a74 

General Electric Company 16354 16254 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (common) 151 al55 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (preferred) .... 93 a93 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (common) 18 18 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (preferred).... 51% 50 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (454s) 77% 7854 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (common).... al9 al9 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (preferred) . . a44 a44 

Manhattan Railway. 13754 al3754 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (common) a23 a22% 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) a92% a9154 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (common) a265i a26 

Metropolitan West " Side, Chicago (preferred) a72 a7454 

Metropolitan Street Railway, New York 15 15 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light (preferred) ....* 1 10 110 

North American Company 7454 74% 

Northern Ohio Eight & Traction Company *48 48 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (common) a27% a28 ! 4 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (preferred) a67 a69 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh (common) a5654 a56 

Philadelphia Company. Pittsburgh (preferred) a4454 a43% 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 1954 al95i 

Philadelphia Traction Company a87',4 aS6'/ 2 

Public Service Corporation, 5% col. notes (1913) 101 101 

Public Service Corporation, ctfs al07 al0754 

Seattle Electric Company (common) alll all2 

Seattle Electric Company (preferred) al03 al0254 

South Side Elevated Railroad (Chicago) 77 a80 

Third Avenue Railroad, New York 11 1054 

Toledo Railways & Light Company 8 8 

Twin City Rapid Transit, Minneapolis (common) ... .al0854 al08Vj 

Union Traction Company, Philadelphia a49 54 a49'4 

United Rys. & Electric Company, Baltimore 18)4 al954 

United Rys. Inv. Co. (common) 37% a39 

United Rys. Inv. Co. (preferred) 6854 69Vs 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (common) 35% a35% 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (preferred).... 89'4 a90 

West End Street Railway, Boston (common) a9054 a90 

West End Street Railway, Boston (preferred) 104 al035i 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co 76 75% 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. (1st pref.) all8'4 al20 

a Asked. *Lnst sale. 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 


London (Ont.) Street Railway 

A comparative statement of operations for the last two 
years follows: 

Year ended Dec. 31. 

Passengers ... 








Maintenance — 

Transportation : 






Deductions : 

Interest on overdraft 





Henry A. Everett, the president, says in part: 

"The expenditure for track purposes continues to increase, 

owing to the general reconstruction necessary throughout 

the system. 

"The rolling stock has been well maintained and is being 
constantly overhauled and repainted in order to keep it in 
first-class condition. 

"We have considered several propositions submitted by 
the Hydro-Eiectric Commission, relative to Niagara power, 
which we find are not attractive in comparison with modern 
steam generation. However, there is still a possibility that 
some arrangement can yet be made to our mutual satisfac- 

"The wages of motormen and conductors were voluntarily 
increased on April i, the new scale for regular men being 
18 cents per hour for the first and second years, 19 cents 
per hour for the third year, and 20 cents per hour for the 
fourth year. Other wages have also been increased as con- 
ditions required. 

"As we have had sufficient money for our requirements, 
your directors have not yet considered it necessary to dis- 
pose of the $25,000 bonds recently authorized. 

"The gross earnings and surplus for the past year have 
shown a substantial increase, and we believe the coming 
year will be quite as satisfactory. 

"Your directors are pleased to state that our relation with 
the public is very gratifying, and that no 1? ; gation of any 
kind appears against the company." 

A statistical statement given in the report shows the fol- 

Year ended Dec. 31. 1909. 1910. 

Expenses, per cent of earnings 69.8 71.0 

Net income, per cent of capital 8.08 8.21 

Passengers carried 6,673,709 6,930,602 

Car earnings per revenue pass — cents 3.62 3.67 

Transfers 1,015,164 1,063,531 

Total passengers 7,688,873 7,994,133 

Car earnings per passenger — cents 3.09 3.13 

Car mileage 1,422,223 1,418,030 

Gross earnings per car mile — cents 17.11 18.07 

Operating expenses per car mile — cents 11.94 12.84 

Net earnings per car mile — cents 5.17 5.23 

Number of miles of track 33.25 33.25 

Gross earnings per mile of track $7,319 $7,707 

Republic Railway & Light Company 

A new corporation, which will probably be known as the 
Republic Railway & Light Company, is being formed with 
an authorized capital stock of $17,500,000, to take over the 
controlling interest in a number of companies operating 
electric light, power, gas, street railway and other public 
utilities. Among the companies on whose stock it is 
reported that options are being obtained are Mahoning 
& Shenango Railway & Light Company. Youngstown- 
Sharon Railway & Light Company, the Sharon & New 
Castle Railways Company, Pennsylvania & Mahoning Val- 
ley Railway Company, New Castle Traction Company, the 
New Castle Electric Company, the Lawrence Gas Com- 
pany, the Mahoning Valley Railway, the Mahoning Valley 

South Eastern Railway Company, the New Castle & Lowell 
Railway, New Castle & Lowell Realty Company, Wheat- 
land Street Railway, the Youngstown Park & Falls Street 
Railway, New Castle Electric Street Railway, the Trumbull 
Electric Railroad, the Mineral Ridge & Niles Traction Com- 
pany, the Youngstown Consolidated Gas & Electric Com- 
pany, the Merchants Light, Heat & Power Company, the 
Youngstown & Sharon Street Railway, the Shenango Valley 
Electric Light Company, Sharpsville Electric Light Com- 
pany, Sharon Gas & Water Company, the Sharon & Wheat- 
land Street Railway, the Shenango Valley Street Railway, 
the Valley Street Railway, Sharon & New Castle Street 
Railway, the Sharon & New Castle Railway. 

It is stated that the directorate will include: Samuel Mc- 
Roberts, vice-president National City Bank, New York: 
Myrcn T. Herrick, president Society for Savings, Cleveland; 
Anson W. Burchard, assistant to president General Electric 
Company; R. E. Reed, president American Gas & Electric 
Company; Henry H. Wehrhane, Hallgarten & Company, 
bankers, and executive committee American Gas & Elec- 
tric Company; James Parmlee, president Cleveland Elec- 
tric Illuminating Company: Ray Morris, White, Weld & 
Company, bankers; Harrison Williams, president Spring- 
field Railway & Light Company: Thomas A. Reynolds, Na- 
tional City Bank: J. J. Bodell. of Bodell & Company, bank- 
ers, and director American Textile Company, and P. W. 
Herrick, a director of the Cleveland Electric Illuminating 

Of the total capital stock $10,000,000 will be 6 per cent 
cumulative preferred stock and $7,500,000 common stock. It 
is planned to issue $5,200,000 and $6,360,000 respectively. 

Progress of New Orleans Railway & Light and American 
Cities Railway & Light Company Merger 

A special meeting of the stockholders of the American 
Cities Railway & Light Company was called for June 28, 
191 1, at Jersey City, to act on the proposal of the directors 
to sell to the American Cities Company, recently incor- 
porated in New Jersey, all the property and assets of the 
American Cities Railway & Light Company, together with 
approximately $1,500,000 cash, and to accept in payment 
therefor $10,000,000 face value of eight-year collateral trust 
bonds, $9,976,750 face value of the common stock and $6,476,- 
750 of the preferred stock of the American Cities Company, 
which will have acquired more than 90 per cent of the 
capital stock of the New Orleans Railway & Light Com- 
pany. The meeting was also to authorize the sale of all 
the i\merican Cities Company stock for such sums as shall 
be sufficient to provide $1,500,000, to discharge all debts, 
to pay off the preferred stock at par and accrued dividend 
and to pay off the common stock at 75 and accrued dividend; 
and to consent to the firm of Isidore Newman & Son being 
interested in the purchase of any part of said stock and 

J. K. Newman, president of the American Cities Railway 
& Light Company, issued a statement in which he said: 

"The new holding company which is being organized to 
purchase the assets of the American Cities Railway & 
Light Company and the stocks of the New Orleans Railway 
& Light Company will be called the American Cities Com- 
pany. The similarity of the name between this company 
and the American Cities Railway & Light Company does 
not mean there is any connection between the two com- 
panies, and they are separate and distinct. 

"The notice for a special meeting of the stockholders of 
the American Cities Railway & Light Company refers to 
the payment for the assets of the American Cities Railway 
& Light Company in securities, but an immediate sale will 
be made of these securities, so that the stockholders of the 
American Cities Railway & Light Company will receive par 
and accrued dividend in cash for the preferred stock and 
75 and accrued dividend at the rate of 5 per cent in cash 
for the common stock, and no proposition will be accepted 
by the American Cities Railway & Light Company which 
does not provide for such cash payment. In other words, 
payment is made in securities for a legal expediency and 
the securities are immediately sold for cash, thus providing 
cash for the stockholders of the American Cities Railway 
& Light Company. 

July i, 1911.] 



"The meeting of the American Cities Railway & Light 
Company will be held on June 28, and if favorable action 
is then taken to sell its assets the payment in cash therefor 
will follow as soon as the necessary details for the transfer 
can be completed. This cash payment will probably be 
made about July 15." 

Principal Stockholders of New Haven Railroad 

The Boston News Bureau published recently a list of own- 
ers of 1000 shares or more of the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad, with the number of shares standing in 
their names as of April I, 191 1, and 1910. The list contained 
about 120 names, among which appeared the following 

holders : 

April 1. 1911. 1910. 

New lingland Navigation Company 156,303 172,946 

Pennsylvania Railroad 37,400 34,900 

Mutual Life Insurance Company 35,640 35,640 

Adams Express Company 34,730 34,730 

American Express Company 23,493 23,493 

L. C. Ledyard, New York 20,542 20,542 

New York Central Railroad 11,248 11,248 

Charles Pratt & Co., New Vork 10,563 10,563 

C. M. Pratt, New York 6,690 6,690 

W. W. Astor, New York 5,051 5,051 

J. J. Astor, New York 4.766 4,112 

M. F. Plant, New York 4,208 4,000 

Cheney Bros., South Manchester, Conn 3,191 2,091 

C. S. Mellen 3,580 3,580 

N. Thayer, trustee 3,135 2,496 

Lee, Higginson & Company 2,706 2,931 

Rhode Island Company 1,479 1,600 

The statement says that as the New England Navigation 
Company is a subsidiary corporation, the amount of stock 
standing in its name is practically the same as if that amount 
of stock was in the treasury of the New York. New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad. 

American Cities Railway & Light Company, New York, 

N. Y. — A semi-annual dividend of 2y 2 per cent has been de- on the $10,761,165 of common stock of the American 
Cities Railway & Light Company payable on July 1, 191 1, 
to holders of record on June 17, 191 1. This dividend com- 
pares with 2 per cent and % of 1 per cent extra in January, 
191 1 , per cent in July and 1 Vj per cent in January, 1910, 
and 1 per cent in July, 1909. The regular quarterly divi- 
dend of i]/ 2 per cent on the preferred stock was also de- 
clared, payable at the same time. The stockholders of the 
company have been notified of the proposed purchase by 
Bertron, Griscom & Jenks, New York, N. Y., of $10,000,000 
of bonds of the new holding company, and the intention 
to make an advance offering of these bonds to the stock- 
holders at 95 and accrued dividend, payment to be made 
at the office of Isidore Newman & Company after July 
1, 1911. 

Boone (la.) Electric Company. — John Reynolds, president 
of the Boone Electric Company, as trustee of the property 
of the company, is said to have arranged to transfer the 
property to Dows, Read & Smith, Cedar Rapids, la. An 
agreement entered into by Mr. Reynolds with Andrew 
Stevenson, J. H. McBride and others, in July, 1909, for the 
transfer of the property to them, was subsequently can- 

Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway. — In compliance with 
order of the House dated June 19, 191 1, the Boston Ele- 
vated Railway has transmitted through the tax commis- 
sioner a list of stockholders who own or control more than 
100 shares of the stock of the company. Included in this 
list are the following names: F. H. Prince & Company, 
6.934; Hayden, Stone & Company, 4,807; Kidder, Peabody 
& Company, 4,090; J. J. Bright, Cambridge, 3,600; A. Ames, 
960; W. E. Rice, 900; D. P. Kimball, trustee, 500; M. S. 
Ames, 500; J. S. Ames. 500; J. P. Morgan, 350; A. Thayer, 
trustee, 337; J. M. Prendergast, 300; W. A. Bancroft, 300. 

Chicago (111.) City Railway. — The Chicago City Railway 
has announced that an agreement has been reached by 
which it will take over the property of the Chicago & 
Southern Traction Company in Chicago at a valuation to be 
fixed by Bion J. Arnold and George Weston, who on June 
21, 191 1, were appointed a valuation committee to evaluate 
that part of the Chicago & Southern Traction Company's 
property which lies within the city limits of Chicago. 

Citizens' Railway Company, Waco, Tex. — H. S. Shear, 
Waco, who has exercised an option on the property of 

the Citizens' Railway Company, as noted in the Electric 
Railway Journal of June 17, 1911, page 1085, is connected 
with the Southern Traction Compa-ny, organized to build 
an electric railway between Dallas and Waco, through 
Waxahachie and Hillsboro, with a branch line to Corsicana. 
The option was secured by J. F. Strickland and associates; 
and on June I, 191 1, the Waco Gas Company, comprising 
the gas and electric light companies at Waco, and the Citi- 
zens' Railway Company passed under the management 
of the J. F. Strickla.nd Company, which manages and 
operates the Texas Traction Company, Bonham Electric 
& Gas Company, Cleburne Electric & Gas Company, Dub- 
lin Electric & Gas Company, Hillsboro Electric & Gas 
Company, Sherman Electric & Gas Company and Waxa- 
hachie Electric & Gas Company. The interurban cars will 
operate over the Citizens' Railway into Waco terminals, 
but new tracks will be laid under the franchise of the 
Citizens' Railway into the heart of the city. The Waco 
Street Railway has been incorporated with a capital stock 
of $1,000,000 to succeed the Citizens' Railway Company. 

Electric Properties Company, New York, N. Y. — The 

annual report of the Electric Properties Company for the 
year ended April 30, 191 1, shows income through interest 
and dividends on securities owned, and interest on notes 
and accounts receivable, of $251,840. Expenses, including 
salaries, legal expenses, taxes, etc., amounted to $62,100, 
leaving a balance of $189,739, compared with $184,991 i" 
the previous year. 1 he profit and loss surplus for the year 
was $138,636. No dividends were paid. 

Indianapolis oc Louisville Traction Company, Louisville, 

Ky. — John E. Greely, Jeffersonville, Ind., has been appointed 
receiver of the Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Company 
by Federal Judge Anderson, at Indianapolis, on the appli- 
cation of the Colonial Trust Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 
which is said to represent holders of $750,000 of the first 
mortgage bonds of the company and $300,000 of the second 
mortgage bonds. 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company, New York, N. Y. — 

August Belmont, Edward J. Berwind, Andrew Freedman, 
Theodore P. Shonts and Cornelius Vanderbilt, voting trus- 
tees of the Interborough-Metropolitan Company, have re- 
quested the holders of the preferred stock of the Inter- 
borough-Metropolitan Company to send in their stock to 
August Belmont & Company, New York, N. Y., for ex- 
change into the new voting trust certificates. A majority 
has already been exchanged. The old voting trust certifi- 
cates for the common stock have been stricken from the list 
of the Stock Exchange and the new common voting trust 
certificates are now the only delivery. As soon as a suffi- 
cient amount of the preferred stock has been exchanged it is. 
expected thai the Stock Exchange authorities will take the 
same course with respect to the preferred stock. 

Metropolitan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo. — The re- 
ceivers of the Metropolitan Street Railway have arranged 
with the holders of $300,000 of bonds of underlying com- 
panies which become due on July 1. 191 1, for an extension 
of the time of payment. 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad, Chicago, 111. — The spe- 
cial meeting of the stockholders of the Northwestern Ele- 
vated Railroad to pass upon the plan to issue a mortgage 
covering the property to secure an issue of $25,000,000 of 
bonds has been called for Aug. 21, 191 1. At the close of 
business on June 24. 191 1, deposits of stock of the elevated 
railways which it is planned to merge totaled 71 per cent 
of all the outstanding stock of the companies. 

Norwich & Westerly Railway. Norwich, Conn. — The 
property of the Norwich & Westerly Railway was sold 
under foreclosure at Norwich on June 23, 191 1, for $940,000 
to A. E. Locke. Boston, Mass., and H. M. Merrill, Port- 
land, Me., who are said to represent the bondholders. 

Pueblo & Suburban Traction & Lighting Company, 
Pueblo, Col. — H. M. Byllesby & Company, Chicago, 111., con- 
firm the report of the purchase by them of the property of 
the Pueblo & Suburban Traction & Lighting Company and 
allied interests in Colorado, referred to in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal of June 24, 191 1, page 1128. The property was 
taken over on June 14. The Pueblo & Suburban Traction 
& Lighting Company operates the street railway system of 

6 4 


[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

Pueblo and supplies electricity to Pueblo and the Cripple 
Creek Gold Mining district, including Cripple Creek, Victor 
and Goldfield. The towns of La Junta and Rockyford are 
served with electricity by subsidiary corporations. W. F. 
Raber, general manager of the Ottumwa Railway & Light 
Company, Ottumwa, la., has been placed in charge at Pueblo 
temporarily by Byllesby & Company. 

Springfield (111.) Consolidated Railway. — The Illinois 

Traction System has submitted to the Springfield Consoli- 
dated Railway terms upon which it will lease to that com- 
pany the unoccupied right of way which runs to the zinc 
plant, the Devereaux mine, the state biological laboratory, 
etc., and also to lease to the company the line between 
Sangamon Avenue, Springfield, and Ridgely Junction. 

Twin City Traction Company, Dennison, Ohio. — The 

Twin City Traction Company has been incorporated to suc- 
ceed the United Electric Company, which operates be- 
tween Dennison and Jhrichsville. 

United Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md. — 

The United Railways & Electric Company has applied to 
the Maryland Public Service Commission for permission to 
issue $3,125,000 of three-year 5 per cent secured convertible 
coupon notes to provide funds to pay $2,000,000 of Baltimore 
City Passenger Railway first-mortgage 5 per cent bonds, 
which mature on Nov. 2, 191 1, and $500,000 of the 4 1 S per 
cent certificates of indebtedness of the same company, which 
mature on the same day, and to redeem $535,000 series "B" 
and "C" car trust certificates outstanding after Oct. t, 191 i. 
The notes will be convertible into United Railways & Elec- 
tric Company stock at $25 a share at an)' time before 
maturity, provided the notes shall not have been redeemed. 
The notes will be secured by deposit as collateral of $2,500,- 
000 United Railways & Electric Company first-mortgage 
4 per cent bonds and by an amount of the company's stock 
sufficient to meet the conversion rights. The notes will be 
redeemable by the company at par upon sixty days' notice. 

Virginia Railway & Power Company, Richmond, Va. — 
The stockholders of the Virginia Railway & Power Com- 
pany and the Norfolk & Portsmouth Traction Company 
have approved the merger of these companies as the Vir- 
ginia Railway & Power Company, effective July r, 1910, 
in accordance with the terms which were given in the 
Electric Railway Journal of May 27, 191 1, page 930. 

Waukegan, Rockport & Elgin Traction Company, Wau- 
kegan. 111. — It is reported that the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railroad is negotiating for the purchase of the property of 
the Waukegan, Rockford & Elgin Traction Company. 

West Jersey & Seashore Railroad, Camden, N. J. — The 
State Board of Public Utility Commissioners of New Jer- 
sey has approved an issue of bonds to the amount of 
$1,089,000 by the West Jersey & Seashore Railroad to retire 
underlying issues which mature on July r, 191 1. 

Dividends Declared 

Auburn & Syracuse Electric Railroad, Syracuse, N. Y., 
.quarterly, iy 2 per cent, preferred. 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad, Chicago, 111., quar- 
terly, per cent, preferred; quarterly, Yx per cent com- 

Carolina Power & Light Company, Raleigh, N. C, quar- 
terly, iM Pe r cent, preferred. 

Chicago City & Connecting Railways, Chicago, 111., $2.25 
on preferred participation certificates; $1.00 on common 
participation certificates. 

Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Company, Hamil- 
ton, Ohio, 2 I /S per cent, prefeired; Y& per cent, common. 

Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Light & Traction Com- 
pany, Covington. Ky., quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred; 
quarterly, \% P er cent, common. 

Citizens' Electric Street Railway, Newburyport, Mass., 
2^2 per cent. 

Columbus, Newark & Zanesville Electric Railway, quar- 
terly, I 1 /* per cent, preferred. 

Consolidated Traction Company, Newark, N. J., 2 per 

Denver & Northwestern Railway, Denver, Colo., quar- 
terly, 2 per cent. 

El Paso (Tex.) Electric Company, 3 per cent, preferred. 

Little Rock Railway & Electric Company, Little Rock, 
Ark., 3 per cent, preferred; 4 per cent, common; 1 per cent, 
common (extra). 

London (Ont.) Street Railway, 3 per cent. 

Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting Company, 
New Albany, Ind., quarterly, Y& P er cent, preferred. 

Nashville Railway & Light Company, Nashville, Tenn., 
quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred; quarterly, 1 per cent, 

New England Investment & Security Company, Spring- 
field, Mass., 2 per cent, preferred. 

New Orleans Railway & Light Company, New Orleans, 
La., quarterly, 1*4 per cent, preferred. 

Ohio Traction Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1 per cent, 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway, Omaha, Neb., 
quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred; quarterly, I per cent 

Ottawa (Ont.) Electric Railway, quarterly, 2.y 2 per cent. 

Pacific Coast Power Company, 3 per cent, preferred; 
2y 2 per cent, common; 5 cents, common (extra). 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., quarterly, iy 2 per 
cent, common; Y 2 per cent, common (extra). 

Porto Rico Railways, Ltd., San Juan, P. R., quarterly, 
l3 A per cent, preferred. 

Public Service Corporation of New Jersey, Newark, N. 
J., quarterly, i l / 2 per cent. 

Puget Sound Electric Railway, 3 per cent, preferred. 

Ridge Avenue Passenger Railway, Philadelphia, Pa., 
quarterly, $3. 

Scioto Valley Traction Company, Columbus, Ohio, quar- 
terly, \y 2 per cent, first preferred and preferred. 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, 
Indianapolis, Ind., 1% per cent, preferred. 

Utica & Mohawk Valley Railway, Utica, N. Y., quarterly, 
P er cent, preferred; quarterly, y 2 per cent, common. 

Washington Water Power Company, Spokane, Wash., 
quarterly, 2 per cent. 

Western Ohio Railway, Lima, Ohio, quarterly, iy 2 per 
cent, second preferred. 



Gross Operating Net Fixed Net 

Period. Revenue. Expenses. Revenue. Charges. Income 

lm., May, '11 $26,660 $20,487 $6,173 $8,339 +$2,166 

I " " '10 25,357 17,543 7,815 12,549 +4,734 
5" " '11 103,366 91,937 11,428 40,495 +29,066 
5" " '10 111.339 84,726 26,614 62,701 +36,087 


lm., May, '11 $41,750 *$20,882 $20,868 $12,483 $8,385 

1 " " '10 42,875 *22,524 20,351 11,712 8,639 

11" " Ml 525,400 *244,963 280,437 134,046 146,391 

11 ■' " '10 510,230 *237,145 273,085 129,041 144,044 


lm., April, '11 $53,695 $30,797 $22,898 $8,221 $14,677 

1 " " '10 49,490 28,874 20,616 8,306 12,310 

1?" " '11 655,195 381,905 273,290 98,067 175,223 

12" " '10 624,844 359,328 265,516 100,599 164,917 

lm , April, '11 $121,147 $69,393 $51,753 $24,856 $26,897 

1 " " '10 104,550 66,059 38,491 23,540 14,951 

19" " '11 1,365,290 807,876 557,414 296,136 261,278 

12 " " '10 1,239,449 745,649 493,800 270,407 223,393 


lm., April, ; 11 $46,165 $26,826 $19,339 $10,161 $9,178 

1 " " '10 47,213 24,443 22,770 9,290 13,480 

12" " '11 583,544 321,877 261,667 116,910 144,757 

12" " '10 521,035 275,572 245,463 112,295 . 133,168 

lm., May, '11 $412,771 $223,308 $189,463 $125,217 $64,246 

1" " '10 384,866 214,358 170,508 113,219 57,289 

2" " '11 2,010,663 1,075,937 934,725 599,994 334,731 

2" " '10 1,879,343 1,030,679 848,664 554,411 294,254 


11m, May, '11 $1,906,275 $1,090,922 $815,353 $685,972 $129,381 

II " " '10 1,754,018 1,001,546 752,472 709,503 42,969 


lm., April, '11 $22,734 $13,238 $9,496 $5,850 $3,646 

1 " " '10 22,263 12,754 9,508 4,937 4,571 

12" " '11 279,149 164,169 114,980 64,987 49.993 

12" "' '10 254,445 145,892 108,553 54,657 53,896 

lm April, '11 $145,604 $104,440 $41,163 $48,227 $7,064 

1 " " '10 158,919 105,573 53,346 50,547 2,800 

12" " '11 1,885.663 1,250,515 635,148 608,292 26,856 

12" " '10 1,927,477 1,291,724 635,753 591,378 44,375 

lm., April, '11 $32,093 $17,669 $11,625 $10,920 $706 

1 " " '10 32,662 19,091 13,571 8,370 5,201 

1?" " '11 433,339 221,745 180,282 117,494 62,788 

12 10 413,567 236,546 177,021 76,139 76,139 

July i, 191 1.] 



Traffic and Transportation 

Accidents in New York City in April 

The Public Service Commission of the First District of 
New York has issued the following comparative summary 
of accidents during April, 1909, 1910 and 191 1, on the street 
railways which come within its jurisdiction: 

April. 1909. 1910. 1911. 

Car collisions 84 92 102 

Persons and vehicles struck by cars.... 986 954 1,320 

Boarding 552 685 658 

Alighting 547 614 592 

Contact electricitv 18 21 20 

Other accidents 1,767 1,699 1,925 

Totals 3,954 4,065 4,554 


Passengers 1,577 1,794 1,742 

Not passengers 475 458 505 

Employees 275 329 369 

Totals 2,327 2,581 2,616 

Serious (Included in above): 

Killed 18 25 14 

Fractured skulls 7 8 10 

Amputated limbs 2 4 4 

Broken limbs 15 36 27 

Other serious 99 113 109 

Totals 141 186 164 

To Call Street Names in Des Moines. — Conductors of the 
Des Moines (la.) City Railway have been instructed to 
announce the names of streets as the cars approach street 

New Round-Trip Chartered Car Rates. — On July 21, 191 1, 
the Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company, Buffalo, N. Y., 
will put into effect new round-trip chartered car rates be- 
tween various local stations in New York State. 

Electric Sign Railway Advertising in San Francisco. — 
The San Francisco, Vallejo & Napa Valley Electric Rail- 
way, Vallejo, Cal., is spending $5000 for advertising its 
Napa Valley route by means of electric signs placed at 
intervals along Market Street in San Francisco. 

Service in Atlanta. — P. S. Arkwright, president of the 
Georgia Railway & Electric Company, Atlanta, Ga., has 
addressed a long letter to Campbell Wallace, secretary of 
the Railroad Commisison of Georgia, Atlanta, Ga., in which 
he shows what the company has done to comply with the 
recent orders of the commission in regard to service in 

Chair Cars Between Indianapolis and Louisville. — The In- 
dianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction Company, Co- 
lumbus, Ind., which operates between Indianapolis and Sey- 
mour, Ind., and over whose line cars are run between 
Indianapolis and Louisville, has announced that it will 
establish a chair-car service, the chair cars to be attached 
to the limited cars between Indianapolis and Louisville. 

Increase in Wages in Pottsville. — The employees of the 
Eastern Pennsylvania Railway, Pottsville, Pa., have entered 
into a two years' agreement with the company by which 
they receive an increase of 3 cents an hour in wages. The 
first-year men will receive 22 cents an hour and the em- 
ployees who have served the company more than a year will 
receive 25 cents an hour. The new agreement becomes 
effective on July 1, 191 1. 

San Francisco's No-Seat-No-Fare Ordinance. — The public 
utilities committee of the Board of Supervisors of San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., met on June 15, 191 1, to consider the no-seat-no- 
fare ordinance introduced by Supervisor Walsh. The com- 
mittee adjourned until June 29, 191 1, at which time the ordi- 
nance will be considered again. The committee announced 
that in the meantime it hoped to be able to induce B. J. 
Arnold, Chicago, 111., to stop in San Francisco on his way 
to Los Angeles, and confer with the members of the com- 
mittee in regard to the proposed investigation. 

Key Route Trolley Trips. — Wm. R. Alberger, tra.ffic 
manager of the San Francisco, Oakland & San Jose Con- 
solidated Railway, San Francisco, Cal., the Key Route, has 
announced that on July 15, 1911, the company will establish 
regular trolley trips. Mr. Alberger is reported to have said: 
"On July 15, 1911, the company will start 'Key Route trolley 
trips.' These will be sightseeing trips, the first ever had on 

the Oakland side of the bay. We will advertise these trips 
throughout the East. Facilities at the Key Route pier are 
to be increased. Additions to the pier facilities will cost 
in the neighborhood of $500,000. The work will begin at the 
time the filling in of the pier is begun. 

Subway Accident Record in New York. — In a speech 
which James L. Quackenbush, counsel of the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company, New York, made before the Brook- 
lyn Lea.gue on June 15, 191 1, he said in referring to the 
operating record of the company on its subway division: 
"We have never killed a passenger on the Interborough. 
Yet we have carried on our cars more people than the en- 
tire population of the earth. There is an element of luck 
in it you will say, but it can't all of it be luck when we 
run ten-car trains so close together that one is going out of 
a station as the other is coming in. That can't be all 
luck. There must be some good management in it. A train 
every minute and forty-eight seconds; that is our schedule, 
and we have never killed a passenger." 

Through Limited Service Between Cleveland and Detroit. 
— Through limited passenger service was established be- 
tween Cleveland and Detroit on June 21, 191 1. Six trains 
are operated each way. A train leaves each terminal at 
7:30 in the morning and every two hours thereafter until 
5:30 in the evening. The running time is six hours and 
twenty minutes. Train crews are changed at Toledo. The 
service is being conducted by the Detroit United Railway 
and the Lake Shore Electric Railway. Cars run on the 
schedule of the Lake Shore Electric Railway and the 
Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Short Line is used between 
Detroit and Toledo. Three of the cars each way run by 
way of Sandusky and the other three by way of Norwalk. 
It is said that a package and express business will be estab- 
lished within a short time with cars operating on limited 

Suppressing Tipplers in Illinois. — All of the railroads 
which operate in Illinois are preparing placards promulgat- 
ing the law just passed by the Illinois Legislature making 
it unlawful to drink intoxicating liquors or to be intoxicated 
in or upon railroad passenger cars in use for transportation 
of passengers or in or about any railroad station or plat- 
form. According to the final section of the law the railroads 
failing to put printed copies of the law in all of their sta- 
tions are liable to a forfeiture of $50 for each omission. The 
law says that there shall be no drinking in smoking cars, 
parlor cars, day coaches, interurban cars and cabooses used 
for the transportation of passengers. It does not mention 
buffet cars. Railroad conductors are called upon to arrest 
all violators of the law. Furthermore, they will become 
liable to a fine of not less than $10 nor more than $25 if 
they fail to arrest violators. By the provisions of the law 
every conductor who is on duty is authorized and empow- 
ered to exercise the powers of a sheriff in any county of 
the State. 

Indiana Railroad Commission News. — The Indiana Rail- 
road Commission has heard the evidence in the case of the 
Kokomo, Marion & Western Traction Company against the 
Pennsylvania Railroad and other steam railroads to compel 
them to deliver coal to the electric railway at the same 
rate as is charged Kokomo manufacturers. The petitioners 
are now paying 10 cents more on the ton than is paid by 
the manufacturers. The Kokomo, Marion & Western Trac- 
tion Company contended that with the domestic rate it 
could compete with the manufacturers in supplying motive 
power. The company's petition was opposed on the 
ground that it is not a bona fide manufacturer, and that the 
power furnished manufacturing concerns is surplus power. 
The commission has taken the matter under advisement. 
The commission has granted the special committee which 
is investigating block signal systems a further extension of 
time for presenting its report. The report was due on June 
23, 191 1, but Chairman Wood of the commission said the 
matter was of great importance and that the committee 
should have every opportunity to present a complete re- 
port. The commission has addressed to all the steam and 
electric railways in Indiana Circular No. 76, concerning re- 
ports of accidents. This superseded Circulars Nos. 8, 9 
and 41. It has also addressed to the electric railways Cir- 
cular No. 77 in regard to highway crossing signs. This 
circular supersedes Circulars Nos. 21 and 60. 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

Personal Mention 

Mr. John E. Benton, a lawyer of Keene, N. H., has been 
appointed a member of the Public Service Commission of 
New Hampshire by Governor Robert P. Bass. 

Mr. James R. Empey has resigned as general foreman of 
shops and carhouses of the Lehigh Valley Transit Com- 
pany, Allentown, Pa., effective on July r, 191 1. 

Mr. Edward C. Niles, a lawyer of Concord, N. H., has 
been appointed a member of the Public Service Commis- 
sion of New Hampshire by Governor Robert P. Bass. 

Prof. Thomas W. Worthen, head of the department of 
mathematics at Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H., has 
been appointed a member of the Public Service Commis- 
sion of New Hampshire by Governor Robert P. Bass. 

Mr. Samuel J. Herrell, formerly assistant superintendent 
of transportation of the Knoxville Railway & Light Com- 
pany, Knoxville, Tenn., has been appointed claim agent of 
the company to succeed the late Eugene R. Roberts. 

Mr. A. D. Kimmett, assistant master mechanic of the 
Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley Railroad, Scranton, Pa., 
has been appointed master mechanic of the company, to 
succeed Mr. F, J. Stevens, whose appointment to the Ft. 
Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company, Ft. Wayne, 
Ind., is noted below. 

Mr. F. von Schilling, auditor of the Newport News & Old 
Point Railway & Electric Company, Newport News, Va., has 
been given the title of acting general manager of the com- 
pany and has succeeded to the duties performed previously 
by Mr. W. W. S. Butler, who resigned from the company 
some time ago. 

Mr. Jacob W. Gerke has resigned as master mechanic of 
the Tri-City Railway & Light Company, Davenport, la., to 
become master mechanic of the Wilmington & Philadelphia 
Traction Company and Southern Pennsylvania Traction 
Company, with headquarters at Wilmington, Del. He will 
assume his new duties on Aug. 1, 191 1. 

Mr. F. J. Stevens, master mechanic of the Lackawanna & 
Wyoming Railroad, Scranton, Pa., has resigned, effective 
July 1, 1911, to accept a like position with the Ft. Wayne 
& Northern Indiana Traction Company. Ft. Wayne. Ind. 
Mr. Stevens entered the service of the Lackawanna & 
Wyoming Valley Railroad during the construction period 
nine years ago. 

Mr. E. M. Wharff has resigned from the Beebe System, 
Syracuse, N. Y., to become connected with the operating 
engineering department of the Illinois Traction System, 
Peoria, 111. Mr. Wharff was graduated from Syracuse Uni- 
versity as a member of the class of 1903 of the College of 
Liberal Arts Subsequently he was graduated from the I. 
C. Smith College of Applied Science. For the last five 
years he has been connected with the so-called Beebe Sys- 
tem of electric railways in Central New York as apprentice, 
electrical engineer of the Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern 
Railroad and the Syracuse & South Bay Electric Railroad, 
in charge of power houses, substations, carhouses and 
overhead line and as superintendent of track work and 
overhead construction, including the catenary line. 

Mr. John Blair McAfee, who retired on July 1 as pres- 
ident of the Norfolk & Portsmouth Traction Company, Nor- 
folk, Va., the property of which has been merged with the 
Virginia Railway & Power Company, was tendered a fare- 
well banquet by the business men of Norfolk on June 17, 
rgil, by whom he was presented with a silver punch bowl. 
In acknowledging this token of esteem Mr. McAfee paid the 
following tribute to his associates in the company: "I am 
glad that I am afforded an opportunity to say a few words 
thus publicly of those with whom I have so closely asso- 
ciated in the work of the company for the last three and a 
half years. I mean by those with whom I have been asso- 
ciated the local directors, the officers and the employees of 
every class. In more than a quarter of a century of experi- 
ence in corporate work I have never met a company, its 
officers and employees, in which there was less personal 
strife. This unison of effort, this co-working sympathy, has 
done as much as any other one thing to make the company 
a successful operating and growing concern. I want now to 

extend to those whom I have mentioned, as a class, my 
sincere thanks and fullest appreciation of their ability, their 
efforts and their kindliness toward me." 

Mr. John A. Cleveland, who has been general manager of 
the electric railway, electric light and gas properties of the 
Commonwealth Power Railway & Light Company in Bay 
City, Mich., has been appointed general manager of the 
Saginaw-Bay City Railway, Saginaw Power Company, Sagi- 
naw City Gas Company, Bay City Power Company, Bay 
City Gas Company, Saginaw and Bay City, Mich., all of 
which are controlled by the Commonwealth Power, Rail 
way & Light Company, to succeed Mr. F. T. Hepburn, 
whose resignation was noted in the Electric Railway 
Journal of June 3, 191 1. Mr. Cleveland has been manager 
of the properties at Bay City for the last two years. He 
was graduated from Cornell University and entered busi- 
ness with the Rochester Railway & Light Company, Ro- 
chester, N. Y., as a member of that company's electric sales 
department. He was subsequently made one of the super- 
intendents of the Rochester Railway & Light Company. 
His connection with the properties in Saginaw and Bay City 
dates from 1906, when he was appointed superintendent of 
new business of the electric companies in both Saginaw and 
Bay City. 

Mr. George H. Whitfield has retired as general superin- 
tendent of the light and power department of the Virginia 
Railway & Power Company, Richmond, Va., to devote him- 
self more particularly to consulting engineering work, in 
which capacity he will be retained for all the Gould prop- 
erties in Virginia, which include the Virginia Railway & 
Power Company and the Norfolk & Portsmouth Traction 
Company, with plants at Richmond, Petersburg, Norfolk 
and Fredericksburg. Mr. Whitfield was graduated from 
Richmond College with the degree of A.B. in 1892 and from 
Cornell University with the degree of M.E. 1896. He first 
entered the street railway manufacturing field, but in 1899 be- 
came superintendent of shops of the United Railways & 
Electric Company, Baltimore, Md., where he remained 
until 1901. He was also general superintendent of the San 
Francisco & San Mateo Electric Railway for a year. Mr. 
Whitfield became connected with the Virginia Railway & 
Power Company in 1902. In addition to his work with that 
company Mr. Whitfield designed the electrical features of 
several plants, including that of the Emporia Hydro-Electric 
Company and the Richmond & Chesapeake Bay Railway. 
Mr. Whitfield is a member of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers and has represented the Virginia Rail- 
way & Power Company actively in the National Electric 
Light Association for some time. 

Mr. Lucius S. Storrs, president of the New England In- 
vestment & Security Company, has been appointed vice- 
president of the Connecticut Company and Berkshire Street 
Railway Company, with headquarters at New Haven, Conn. 
Mr. Storrs is widely known in electric transportation circles 
as the executive head of the street railway systems serving 
central Massachusetts under an operating organization, in 
eluding the Worcester and Springfield urban and interurban 
networks, and extending from the Connecticut Valley to 
Rhode Island via the Blackstone Valley. He was born in 
Buffalo. N. Y., in 1869, and was graduated with the degree 
of A. B. from the University of Nebraska in 1890, taking the 
scientific course. Later the degree of A. M. was given to 
Mr. Storrs by his alma mater. For about seven years after 
graduation he was on the staff of the Colorado Fuel & Iron 
Company with the title of geologist, joining the organiza- 
tion of the Northern Pacific Railroad in 1897 and working 
along similar lines under Presidents Mellen and Hill. In 
1906 Mr. Storrs entered the organization of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford Railroad at New Haven, Conn., 
going to Boston in 1907 as vice-president of the New Eng- 
land Investment & Security Company. He soon became 
president of the organization and since 1908 has maintained 
headquarters in Springfield, Mass., having charge of the 
administration of the electric railway properties above indi- 
cated, with particular interest in the development of the 
central Massachusetts territory of both passenger and ex- 
press service and the co-ordination of the several systems 
into an organization of improved earning power and effi- 
ciency. Mr. Storrs is a member of numerous scientific and 

July i, 1911.] 



professional organizations, including the Sigma Xi Society 
and the American Institute of Mining Engineers. 

Mr. Calvert Townley has resigned as vice-president of the 
Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn., and has re- 
entered the service of the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company, with 
which he had long been 
connected prior to his go- 
ing with the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad. His headquar- 
ters will be at the New 
York office of the West- 
inghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company, 
and his duties for the pres- 
ent will be to cover cer- 
tain special fields of work 
under the direction of the 
chairman and the presi- 
dent of the company. His 
position will be a confi- 
dential one of importance, , , , 
. . . . ■ j i. "i Calvert Townley 
but nothing more in detail 

concerning his duties can be made public at the present time. 
He will enter upon his new work July I. Mr. Townley has 
had an extended experience as an electric railway engineer 
and manager. He was graduated from Sheffield Scientific 
School, Yale University, in 1886, and later received the 
degree of M. E. from that university. Immediately after 
graduation he became associated with the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, and was located first at 
Pittsburgh. In 1895 he went to the company's Boston office, 
where he remained until 1901, when he moved to New York. 
While with the Westinghouse Company he made a specialty of 
electric railway problems. In the fall of 1904 he was 
invited by the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad 
to take charge of and consolidate the various electric rail- 
ways which it had recently purchased in Connecticut. He 
undertook this work and accomplished it with signal suc- 
cess, and after the formation of the consolidated company 
was elected its vice-president. As such he has had general 
charge of the management of these properties. Mr. Town- 
ley has always taken an active interest in association mat- 
ters, and has been a member of important committees of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers and of the Amer- 
ican Electric Railway Association. 

Mr. Joseph K. Choate, general manager of the Otsego & 
Herkimer Railroad, who was elected president of the Street 
Railway Association of the State of New York at the annual 
meeting on June 28, was 
born on Aug. 22, 1854, in 
Salem, Mass. He attended 
school at Taunton, Mass., 
and prepared for college, 
but did not enter college 
until later in life, when he 
took a degree in the Uni- 
versity of Colorado. Mr. 
Choate started his busi- 
ness career as a civil engi- 
neer, serving as an axe- 
man in Central Park, New 
York, in 1875. He was 
made chief engineer of the 
bureau of streets and ave- 
nues of New York City in 
1880. and after one year 

resigned and went with J- K. Choate 

the Pennsylvania Railroad 

as supervisor of track on the New York division. In the 
same year he left that company and went with the Erie 
Railroad as principal engineer of construction on the New 
York, Lake Erie & Western Coal & Railroad Company. In 
1882 Mr. Choate was made principal engineer of construc- 
tion on the Erie & Wyoming Valley Railroad. In 1884 he 
went to the Union Pacific Railroad as assistant to the gen- 
eral manager. He then served as general manager of the 
Nevada Central road and afterward as superintendent of 
the Park division of the Union Pacific road and general 

superintendent of all Colorado lines. While in Colorado in 
this position Mr. Choate had charge of all operation and 
also jurisdiction over all traffic matters. He resigned from 
this company in 1900 and after spending several years in 
New York City as consulting engineer and acting in an 
advisory capacity on matters of railway operation he went 
to the Otsego & Herkimer road, first in the capacity of con- 
sulting engineer, and four years ago was made general 
manager. Mr. Choate has been an active worker in the 
New York association, serving on a number of committees, 
including the executive committee. He has also been an 
active member of the American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion and is a member of the committee on compensation for 
carrying United States mail. Mr. Choate i'3 a member of 
the American Society of Civil Engineers. 


George K. Trask, railroad editor of the Indianapolis Star, 
and the originator of the railroad news column in the Amer- 
ican press, died at his home in Indianapolis on June 26, 1911. 
Mr. Trask was seventy-nine years old. He had been en- 
gaged in newspaper work continuously since 187 1 , first as 
railroad editor of the Indianapolis Journal, and after the 
purchase of that paper by the Star Publishing Company, as 
railroad editor of the Indianapolis Star. 

William Richard Brixey, whose death on June 9, 191 1, at 
Seymour, Conn., was noted briefly in the Electric Railway 
Journal of June 24, 191 1, was born at Southampton, Eng- 
land, on May 11, 185 1 . He was educated there and 
then entered the British Mercantile Marine service, com- 
manding his own ship and visiting all the leading ports of 
the world. He came to this country in 1878, became at 
once an American citizen and went into business with his 
brother-in-law, Mr. A. G. Day, a pioneer in the Americar 
rubber industry and the inventor of "Kerite." He became 
general manager of the Kerite Company on the death of Mr. 
Day, and sole proprietor upon the death of his sister, Mrs. 
Day. Noteworthy among the large contracts undertaken by 
him were the supplying and laying of the Alaskan cable, 
the furnishing of the Panama Zone cable and furnishing 
the wires and cables for the Pennsylvania tunnel and ter- 
minal connecting the two shores of the Hudson and East 
Rivers. In 1908 Mr. Brixey incorporated the business as a 
company and soon after retired, leaving it to the manage- 
ment of his eldest son, Mr. Richard D. Brixey, president of 
the Kerite Insulated Wire & Cable Company. Mr. Brixey 
left two other sons, Mr. Reginald W. Brixey, vice-president, 
and Mr. Austin D. Brixey, secretary of the company. 

D. L. Huntington, president and general manager of the 
Washington Water Power Company, Spokane, Wash., has 
outlined more in detail the important work which the 
company has in hand to which reference was made in the 
Electric Railway Journal of June 3, 191 1, page 989. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Huntington the principal project which the 
company has under way at present is the construction of 
a hydraulic power station on the Spokane River about 25 
miles west of Spokane, to contain ultimately four 
12.500-kw units. The first two units have been ordered 
for delivery early next year. The present stage of the 
work is that of rock excavation and unwatering the river 
for the construction of a dam 170 ft. above the present 
water level, creating a lake about 23 miles in length with an 
average width of about three-eighths of a mile. The land 
and water rights for this development have all been acquired, 
and there are now about 400 men engaged on the construc- 
tion work. 

The company is also constructing a railroad about 2\ 
miles in length to connect this power plant, for construc- 
tion purposes, with the Great Northern Railway at Spring- 
dale, Wash. It expects to complete the railroad by Aug. 1, 
191 1. The work of installing the last of the four 5000-kw 
generators at Little Falls power station is under way, and 
that new station, which has been in operation less than 
a year, will be entirely completed by midsummer. The 
company has put twenty-five new pay-as-you-enter cars in 
service. The lirst section of the new carhouse, with a ca- 
pacity of twenty-five cars, has been put in operation. The 
other expenditures of the company cover a multitude of 
items, the most important expenditure, perhaps, being for 
the extension of the underground duct and conduit system. 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously re- 


Elberton & Eastern Railway, Augusta, Ga. — Chartered in 
Georgia to build a 50-mile electric railway between Elberton, 
Tignall, Washington and Lincolnton. Capital stock, $500,- 
000. Incorporators: W. O. Jones, W. F. Anderson, J. H. 
Blackwell, J. M. Heard, R. L. Cauthen and J. Z. Rogers. 
[E. R. J., June 3, '".] 

*Kokomo, Frankfort & Western Railway, Kokomo, Ind. — 
Application for a charter has been made in Indiana by this 
company to build a 25-mile electric railway in Indiana. 
Capital stock, $750,000. Incorporators: George J. Marott, 
John H. Holliday, Indianapolis; T. C. Reynolds and J. B. 
Carter, Kokomo. 

*Twin City Traction Company, Dennison, Ohio. — Incor- 
porated in. Ohio to succeed the United Electric Company, 
which operates between Dennison and Uhrichsville. Head- 
quarters, Dennison. Capital stock, $100,000. Incorporators: 
Ralph E. Westfall. Smith N. G. Bennett, M. R. Thornton, 
H. Miller and W. M. Huffman. 

*Waco (Tex.) Street Railway. — Incorporated in Texas to 
succeed the Citizens' Railway Company, which was taken 
over under an option secured by J. F. Strickland and his 
associates, as noted in the Electric Railway Journal for 
June 17. 191 1. Captial stock, $1,000,000. Incorporators: 
J. F. Strickland, Osce Goodwin and M. B. Templeton, all of 

*Ridgeley & Miller Avenue Railway, Ridgeley, W. Va. — 

Application for a charter has been made in West Virginia 
by this company to build an electric railway from the Blue 
Bridge over the Potomac River, about 2 miles, to Miller's 
farm. It is expected to connect with the Cumberland Elec- 
tric Railway at the bridge. Incorporators: John L. Miller. 
Alfred Ridgeley, J. T. Vandergrift and R. A. Radcliffe, all 
of Ridgeley, W. Va., and Conrad Miller, Cumberland, Md. 

*Twin Mountain & Potomac Railway, Twin Mountain, 
W. Va. — Chartered in West Virginia to build a 22-mile rail- 
way from McNeil to Twin Mountain. Capital stock, $100.- 
000. Incorporators: R. T. Cunningham, H. R. Hinzelman, 
J. M. Brownfield, Kemble White and E. A. Russell, all of 

Little Rock, Ark. — The Little Rock Railway & Electric 
Company has asked the City Council for a franchise to ex- 
tend its Main Street line into the southern part of Little 

Lodi, Cal. — The Central California Traction Company. 
San Francisco, has received a franchise from the Board of 
Trustees to extend its tracks north on Sacramento Street 
in Lodi. 

San Diego, Cal. — The San Diego & El Cajon Valley Inter- 
urban Railway has received an extension of its franchise 
from the Common Council permitting it to build its tracks 
over certain streets in San Diego. 

Hartford, Conn. — The Connecticut Company has received 
permission from the Council to double-track, extend and 
rebuild some of its lines in Hartford. 

Elgin, 111. — The Elgin & Belvidere Electric Company, Chi- 
cago, will ask the Commissioners for a franchise to extend 
its line in Elgin from Wing Park to North State Street. 

Gary, Ind. — C. H. Geist, Philadelphia. Pa., and associates 
have received a franchise from the City Council in Gary. 
This is part of a plan to build an electric railway to connect 
Gary, Chesterton and Whiting. [E. R. J., Dec. 10, '10.] 

Washington, Ind. — The Vincennes. Washington & East- 
ern Traction Company has received a fifty-year franchise 
from the City Council in Washington. The road will con- 
nect Vincennes. Washington and Loogootee. [E. R. J., 
April 15, '".] 

Burlington, la. — The People's Gas & Electric Company 
has asked the City Council for a franchise to double-track 
its North Hill line from Fourth Street to Sunnyside. 

Boston, Mass. — Governor Foss has signed the bill granting 
the Boston & Eastern Railroad a certificate of exigency for 
the right to build a high-speed interurban railway over a 
private right-of-way from Boston to Danvers and inter- 
mediate points. 

Montague, Mass. — The Miller's River Street Railway, 
Orange, has asked the Council for a franchise in Montague. 
This 14-mile railway will connect Miller's Falls, Montague, 
Irving, Wendall and Orange. D. P. Abercrombie is inter- 
ested. [E. R. J., May 13, '11.] 

New Bedford, Mass. — The Union Street Railway has re- 
ceived permission from the Commissioners to extend its 
tracks in New Bedford. 

Springfield, Mass. — The Springfield Street Railway has 
received an extension of one year of its franchise from the 
Aldermen in which to extend its St. James Avenue line. 

Worcester, Mass. — The Worcester Consolidated Street 
Railway has asked the Board of Aldermen for franchises to 
double-track and extend several of its lines in Worcester. 

Durham, N. C. — The Durham Traction Company has 
asked the County Commissioners for a franchise to extend 
its tracks from the city limits to the West End Land Com- 
pany's property. 

Statesville, N. C— T. H. Vanderford and W. F. Snider, 
of the Salisbury & Spencer Electric Railway, Salisbury, have 
asked the Board of Aldermen for a franchise in Statesville. 

Summit, N. J. — The Morris County Traction Company, 
Morristown, has asked the Common Council for a thirty-year 
franchise to build a double track line from Maple Street, 
Summit, to the dividing line between Summit and Chatham. 

North Tonawanda, N. Y. — The Frontier Electric Railway 
has again asked the Common Council for a franchise in 
North Tonawanda. This line will extend from Buffalo to 
Niagara Falls. T. S. Ramsdell, president. [E. R. J., June 
17, '".] 

Portland, Ore. — The Portland Railway, Light & Power 
Company has asked the Council for a franchise on Belmont 
Street and Nebraska Street, in Portland. 

Middletown, Pa. — F. H. Alleman, representing the Middle- 
town & Elizabethtown Street Railway, has asked the Coun- 
cil for a franchise in Middletown. [E. .R. J., June 3, '11.] 

^Philadelphia, Pa. — Edward N. Patton has introduced in 
the Councils of Philadelphia an ordinance authorizing the 
laying of tracks with the necessary equipment for the 
operation of cars upon several hundred miles of thorough- 
fares in the northern, northeastern and northwestern sec- 
tions of the city. Mr. Patton stated that he does not feel at 
liberty at present to divulge the names of the persons at 
whose instance the ordinance was presented to the Council. 

Scranton, Pa. — The Scranton & Lake Ariel Railway has 
asked the City Council for a franchise in Scranton. This 
line will connect Lake Ariel and Scranton. J. J. Brown, 
president. [E. R. J., Oct. 1, 'io.] 

Providence, R. I. — The Rhode Island Company has re- 
ceived a franchise from the City Council to double-track 
Eddy Street, in Providence. 

Columbia, S. C. — The Coluinuia Electric Street Railway, 
Light & Power Company has received franchises from the 
City Council to double-track and extend a number of its 
lines in Columbia. 

Glendale, W. Va. — The Wheeling Traction Company has 
asked the County Court for a franchise to double-track its 
line through Glendale. 

La Crosse, Wis. — The La Crosse City Railway has asked 
the Council for a franchise for an extension in La Crosse. 


Owens River Valley Electric Railway, Bishop, Cal. — 

Grading has been begun by this company on its 4^2-mile 
electric railway between Bishop and Laws. Henry Shaw, 
president. [E. R. J., April 15, '11.] 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — Charles W. 
Cearbaley, Wilcox Building, Los Angeles, has been awarded 
the contract by this company to build a single-track pile 
trestle bridge 320 ft. long across the Verdugo Wash on 
the Glendale-Burbank extension. 

July i, 191 1 .] 



Oakland (Cal.) Traction Company. — Plans arc being 
made by this company to begin work on the many im- 
provements to its lines in Richmond, Alameda, San Lean- 
dro and Oakland. The San Pablo Avenue line is to be 
double-tracked to the county line. The proposition of 
double-tracking the lines of the East Shore & Suburban 
Railway, Richmond, is now being considered. In North 
Berkeley the Grove Street line will be double-tracked from 
University Avenue to the Circle. The Claremont Avenue 
line of the Key Route will be double-tracked from Tele- 
graph Avenue to the end of the line. Work will be begun 
at once. 

Geary Street, Park & Ocean Railway, San Francisco, Cal. 

— Work has been begun by the city on the reconstruction 
of this line as a municipal undertaking. 

Bridgeport & Danbury Electric Railway, Bridgeport, 
Conn. — Work has been begun by the Sperry Engineering 
Company at the Trumbull line for this company. It will 
connect Bridgeport, Trumbull, Monroe, Newton, Bethel, 
Stepney and Danbury. [E. R. J., April 8, 'n.] 

Shore Line Electric Railway, New Haven, Conn. — Work 
has been begun by this company laying its tracks on Middle- 
town Avenue in New Haven. It is expected to have the 
line from New Haven to Guilford in operation within the 
next two months. 

Groton & Stonington Street Railroad, New London, Conn. 

— Work has been begun by this company on its extension 
from Mystic station to Old Mystic. 

St. Simons Railway, St. Simons, Ga. — This company has 
decided to extend its line on St. Simons Island. [E. R. J., 
March 20, '11.] 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Railway, La Salle, 111. — Grad- 
ing for the extension to Joliet has been completed by this 
company and ties and go-lb. rails are being laid. 

Rock Island Southern Railroad, Monmouth, 111. — The 
Myers Construction Company, St. Louis, has been awarded 
the contract by this company to build a bridge on its ex- 
tension to Alexis. Grading has been completed and con- 
struction will be begun at once. 

Springfield & Central Illinois Traction Company, Spring- 
field, 111. — This company is considering plans to build a line 
from Edwardsville to Greenville, to connect with the main 
line. It will connect Pawnee, Morrisonville, Hillsboro, 
Greenville, Carlyle, Hoffman and Centralia. Isaac Smith, 
St. Louis, president. [E. R. J., Jan. 4, '11.] 

^Martinsville, Ind.— J. S. Bradley and M. S. Howel, Mar- 
tinsville, plan to build an electric railway between Martins- 
ville, Morovia, Hall and Eminence. It is said that it is 
proposed to have the line connect with the Terre Haute, 
Indianapolis & Eastern Railway at Mooresville and operate 
over that line into Indianapolis. 

Indianapolis, New Castle & Toledo Railway, New Castle, 
Ind. — Arrangements are being made by this company to 
imance the extension of its line from New Castle to Muncie. 
Work is expected to be begun in the fall. 

Vincennes, Washington & Eastern Traction Company, 
Vincennes, Ind. — The Canadian Construction Company has 
been awarded the contract by this company to build its elec- 
tric railway between Vincennes, Washington and Loogootee, 
Work has been begun. J. L. Ebner, Vincennes, is inter- 
ested. [E. R. J., April 15. '11.] 

Davenport-Muscatine Railway, Davenport, la. — This com- 
pany has increased its capital stock from $100,000 to $1,000,- 
000 to insure the construction of this line between Daven- 
port and Muscatine. J. F. Porter, Davenport, president. 
[E. R. J., June 24, '11.] 

Southwestern Interurban Railway, Arkansas City, Kan. — 
Material has been ordered and construction will soon be 
begun by this company on a 3-mile extension in Winfield. 

Manhattan City & Interurban Railway, Manhattan, Kan. 
— The Public Utilities Commission has authorized Ibis 
company to issue $200,000 in bonds to build an extension 
from Manhattan to Ft. Riley. 

:| Kenner, La. — Plans are being to begin the con- 
struction in the near future of an electric railway between 
Kenner and Metairie Ridge. 

Boston & Northern Street Railway, Boston, Mass. — 

This company will double-track its line from Maiden to 
Revere Beach in the near future. 

Benton Harbor, St. Joe Railway & Light Company, Ben- 
ton Harbor, Mich. — Grading and preliminary work is being 
rushed by this company on its line from Benton Ha.rbor to 
Dowagiac. The company expects to build two concrete 
bridges across the Dowagiac Creek. 

Minneapolis Northern Suburban Railway, Minneapolis, 
Minn. — The Atlas Engineering & Construction Company 
has been awarded the contract by this company to build its 
railway between Minneapolis and Little Falls. Work has 
been begun. [E. R. J., June 17, '11.] 

Vicksburg (Miss.) Traction Company. — All material is at 
hand and construction has been begun by this company on 
its 2-mile extension between Vicksburg and Walters. 

Kansas City & Southeastern Traction Company, Kansas 
City, Mo. — This company advises that it will begin con- 
struction in the fall on its 126-mile line between Leeds, 
Raytown, Little Blue, Lee's Summit, Warrensburg, Sedalia. 
and Jefferson City. The company will furnish power for 
lighting purposes. Its repair shops will be located at Little 
Blue Station. Capital stock, authorized, $5,000,000. Capi- 
tal stock, issued, $180,000. Bonds, authorized, $5,000,000. 
Officers: Charles A. Sims, 3724 East Twenty-seventh 
Street, Kansas City, president; Howard W. Gibson, vice- 
president; C. Guy Minturn, 2714 Mersington Street, secre- 
tary; Benjamin F. Shouse, treasurer, and Jerome C. Her- 
ring, Twenty-second and Jackson Streets, chief engineer. 
[E. R. J., March 6, '09.] 

St. Louis, St. Charles & Northern Traction Company, 
Middletown, Mo. — This company advises that it has not yet 
awarded any contracts for the construction of its line. 
Work will begin within the next eight months. It will con- 
nect St. Louis, St. Charles, Old Monroe, Middletown, Lad- 
donia and Mexico. The motive power will be electricity 
or gasoline. Capital stock authorized, $3,000,000. Officers: 
C. B. Duncan, Corso. president; R. E. Race, Mexico, vice- 
president and general manager; C. Pearson, Middletown, 
secretary, and R. M. Hendershott, Middletown. treasurer. 
[E. R. J., Nov. 19, '10.] 

Public Service Railway, Newark, N. J. — This company has 
decided to build a viaduct over the West Shore and the 
Susquehanna Railroads tracks at Little Ferry to avoid 
crossing these roads at grade. 

Binghamton (N. Y.) Railway.— Plans are being made by 
this company to extend its tracks in Binghamton. 

Buffalo & Williamsville Electric Railway, Buffalo, N. Y.— 
This company is building iy 2 miles of track with 85-lb. 
T-rails and brick pavement in Williamsville. 

Catskill (N. Y.) Traction Company.— The Public Service 
Commission of the Second District has received an applica- 
tion from this company for permission to extend its railroad 
from Leeds to Cairo, 6.7 miles. 

Suffern (N. Y.) Railway.— The Public Service Commis- 
sion of the Second District has authorized the Suffern Rail- 
road to construct a single-track electric railroad from 
Orange Avenue to Lafayette Avenue in Suffern, Rockland 
County. The company is also authorized to issue $24,000 
of its common-capital stock at par for cash to pay the cost 
of constructing such track. The Suffern Railway will con- 
nect with the North Jersey Rapid Transit Railway at State 
Line and complete an interurban road from Paterson \ T J 
to Suffern. [E. R. J., May 13, 'it.] 

Syracuse, Watertown & St. Lawrence Railroad, Syracuse, 

N. Y. — The Public Service Commission, Second District, 
lias authorized this company to construct a 6-mile electric- 
railroad from a point near Stop 9 on the Syracuse & South 
Bay Electric Railroad in Cicero to and into Brewerton 
|E. R. J., June 3, '11.] 

Carolina Light & Power Company, Raleigh, N. C. This, 

company will soon award contracts to build its 3-mile ex- 
tension from the city limits to the Raleigh Country Club. 

*Cleveland, Ohio.— O. P. Van Sweringen, M. J. Van 
Sweringen and associates plan to build an electric railway 
in the southeastern part of Cleveland. 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. i. 

Fostoria & Fremont Railway, Lima, Ohio. — This company 
placed in operation on June 15 its 20-mile railway between 
Fostoria and Fremont. 

Lane County Asset Company, Eugene, Ore. — This com- 
pany has begun work on its 12-mile electric railway to con- 
nect Eugene and Elmira. It will ultimately be extended 
to Coos Bay. [E. R. J., June 17, 'n.] 

Portland, Eugene & Eastern Railway, Eugene, Ore. — A 
permanent survey is being made and most of the right-of- 
way has been secured by this company for its line between 
Eugene and Corvallis. 

Lancaster & York Furnace Street Railway, Lancaster, 
Pa. — This company is building a 3-mile extension connect- 
ing with the Lancaster & Southern Street Railway at Mount 

Philadelphia Railways, Philadelphia, Pa. — This company 
recently chartered to take over the Southwestern Street 
Railway has planned extensive improvements to its lines. 
Among these are the establishment of a through service to 
Prospect Park and Media and the double-tracking of the line 
westward from the Schuylkill River. Isaac H. Silverman, 
605 Land Title Building, Philadelphia, president. [E. R. J., 
May 27, '11.] 

Aberdeen (S. D.) Street Railway. — Work has been begun 
by this company on an extension in Aberdeen to Wylie 

Bristol (Tenn.) Traction Company. — This company has 
placed in operation its extension in Bristol to Virginia Park. 

Tennessee Traction Company, Memphis, Tenn. — This 
company plans to reorganize and increase its capital stock. 
W. K. Burton, president. [E. R. J., June 17, '11.] 

*McKinney, Tex. — The Commercial Club, McKinney, is 
endeavoring to interest capital in the construction of a 36- 
mile electric railway between McKinney and Bonham. 

Richmond & Henrico Railway, Richmond, Va. — This 
company is considering plans to build several extensions to 
its line. 

Seattle, Wash.— A. O. Powell, Rufus R. Wilson, C. J. 
Farmer, T. T. Aldwell and associates have completed the 
organization for the financing and construction of a Si- 
mile electric railway between Port Angeles and Port Lud- 
low. Work will be begun at once. [E. R. J., June 10, 1911.] 

Seattle, Wash. — W. H. Coughlin, 302 America-n Bank 
Building, Seattle, advises that franchises, right-of-way and 
$90,000 in subsidy bonds have been obtained to build a 
7^2-mile electric railway between Seattle, Highland Park 
and Lake Burien. This will be turned over to anyone who 
will agree to build and operate the line. [E. R. J., May 
20, '11.] 

Grafton (W. Va.) Traction Company. — This company is 
building a 3-mile extension in West Grafton and has begun 
work on its proposed extension on Walnut Street to the 
Beaumont addition. 

Parkersburg & Ohio Valley Electric Railway, Parkers- 
burg, W. Va. — John Shrader has been awarded the contract 
by this company to complete the 5 miles of track between 
Friendly and Sistersville. 

*Eau Claire, Wis. — Harry Norris, Hudson, Wis., and Fred 
Carr, Minneapolis, Minn., propose to build an electric rail- 
way between Eau Claire, Wis., and St. Paul and Minneapo- 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company, Milwau- 
kee, Wis. — An extension from Racine to Eagle Lake is 
being considered by this company. 


Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — It is reported 
that this company has selected a site for its proposed car- 
house on Homeward Avenue, in Los Angeles, on the Moneta 
Avenue branch of the Redondo Beach line. 

Central California Traction Company, San Francisco, Cal. 

— This company's freight depot at Tenth Street and X 
Street, in Sacramento, was destroyed by fire on June 13. 
The loss is estimated to be about $3,000. 

Tidewater Power Company, Wilmington, N. C. — This 
company has let a contract for the erection of several con- 
crete combination stations and waiting rooms. These will 

be located at Greenville, Sheel Road Crossing, Winter Park 
Gardens, and other points on the line between Wilmington 
and the terminus, Lumina, at the beach. 

Southern Pennsylvania Traction Company, Chester, Pa. — 
Plans have been drawn for an annex to the present carhouse 
of this company in Chester. It will be enlarged at an early 

Galveston-Houston Electric Railway, Houston, Tex. — 

Construction has been begun by this company on its new 
terminal station in Houston. The structure will be 160 ft. x 
100 ft., and of brick construction. 

Longview & Junction Street Railway, Longview, Tex. — 
During the next three months this company will award con- 
tracts to build a new carhouse in Longview. 

Seattle-Everett Traction Company, Seattle, Wash. — The 
contract has been awarded by this company for the con- 
struction of a terminal station for its own use and the Ever- 
ett Railway, Light & Water Company and the Puget Sound 
International Railway & Power Company, in Seattle. This 
building will house the general offices, and the yard will be 
used by the Snohomish & Seattle Interurban Railway 

Pueblo & Suburban Traction & Lighting Company, 
Pueblo, Col.— H. M. Byllesby & Company, Chicago, 111., 
who have purchased the property of the Pueblo & Suburban 
Traction & Lighting Company, are arranging to increase 
the capacity of the steam station at Pueblo, build addi- 
tional transmission lines and enlarge its hydro-electric de- 
velopment. At present the company has a steam electric 
power station of 4135-kw at Pueblo and a hydro-electric 
plant of 1600-kw at Skaguay. 

Athens (Ga.) Electric Railway. — This company is enlarg- 
ing its Mitchell's Bridge power plant, which has a capacity 
of 1000 hp. It will be increased by 200 hp. The company 
also plans to increase the capacity of its Tallahassee Shoals 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Railway, Ottawa, 111. — This 90- 
mile division of the McKinley system in northern Illinois, 
which is completing a 22-mile extension from Morris to 
Joliet, has purchased from the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company three substation equipments of 
300 kw each. 

Illinois Traction System, Peoria, 111. — The St. Louis, 
Springfield & Peoria Railway, a subsidiary of the Illinois 
Traction System, has purchased from the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company two rotary-converter 
substation equipments, one of 300-kw and the other of 
500-kw capacity. These are made necessary by the increase 
of traffic occasioned by the entrance of the road into St. 

Arkansas Valley Interurban Railway, Wichita, Kan. — 

Construction has been begun by this company on a new 
brick power house at the junction of the Newton and Hal- 
stead lines, in Halstead. 

Kansas Ctiy Railway & Light Company, Kansas City, 
Mo. — A substation is being built at Fortieth Street and 
State Line for the use of this company and the Metropoli- 
tan Street Railway. The structure will be one-story, 40 ft. 
x 132 ft., and of reinforced concrete construction. The cost 
is estimated to be about $17,000. 

Syracuse (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Railway. — This company 
has ordered three 1000-kva transformers, one 1000-kw rotary 
converter, three 350-kva transformers and a switchboard 
from the General Electric Company. 

Lancaster & York Furnace Street Railway, Lancaster, Pa. 
— This company is installing two 300-kw rotary converters 
at its power house. 

Susquehanna Traction Company, Lock Haven, Pa. — Ex- 
tensive improvements are in progress at the power house of 
this company in Lock Haven. The company is installing 
a new 300-kw generator. 

Washington-Oregon Corporation, Vancouver, Wash. — 
Preliminary arrangements are being made by this com- 
pany to build a new power plant on the Kalamon River. 
The cost will be about $750,000. A. Welch, 502 Fenton 
Building, Portland, Ore., general manager. 

July i, 191 i.] 



Manufactures & Supplies 


Boston (Elevated) Railway has issued specifications for 
fifty surface cars. 

Montreal (Que.) Street Railway has issued specifications 
for twenty-five cars. 

Wausau (Wis.) Street Railway is in the market for five 
single-truck pay-within cars. 

Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn., has ordered one 
snow plow from the Wason Manufacturing Company. 

Rhode Island Company, Providence, R. I., has ordered 
ten closed cars from the Osgood-Bradley Car Company. 

Texas Traction Company, Dallas, Tex., has ordered six 
Brill 27-MCB-3 trucks from the American Car Company. 

Greenville, Spartanburg & Anderson Railway, Greenville, 
S. C, has ordered five express cars from the Southern Car 

Denton (Tex.) Traction Company has ordered two 18- 
ft. closed cars mounted on Brill 21-E trucks from the Dan- 
ville Car Company. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, Akron, Ohio, 

has ordered one switching locomotive from the G. C. 
Kuhlman Car Company. 

Springfield (Mo.) Traction Company has ordered six 21- 
ft. closed motor car bodies mounted on Brill 21-E trucks 
from the Danville Car Company. 

Denver & Inter-Mountain Railway, Denver, Col., has 
ordered four No. 306-B railway motors from the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company. 

Portland, Gray & Lewiston Railroad, Portland, Me., has 
ordered five 30-ft. flat cars mounted on Brill 57-F trucks 
from the Wason Manufacturing Company. 

Charleston (W. Va.) Interurban Railroad is in the market 
for a number of wheel guards. The company is overhaul- 
ing its cars and rebuilding some of the bodies. 

Philadelphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit Company, it is reported, 
will order thirty cars for elevated-subway service in addition 
to the 200 cars to be ordered for the surface lines. 

Fort Scott Gas & Electric Company, Fort Scott, Kan., 
has ordered one 25-ft. 4-in. closed motor car mounted on 
Brill 22-E trucks from the Danville Car Company. 

Yonkers (N. Y.) Railroad has ordered one 34-ft. 4-in. flat 
motor car body mounted on Brill 27-G-2 trucks, and two 
Brill 27-G-2 trucks without car wheels from The J. G. 
Brill Company. 

Emporia (Kan.) Street Railway has ordered five 21-ft. 
closed cars mounted on Brill 21-E trucks and four 20-ft. 
open cars mounted on Brill running gears from the Dan- 
ville Car Company. 

Muskegon Traction & Lighting Company, Muskegon, 
Mich., has ordered one 33-ft. 4-in. semi-convertible vesti- 
bule motor car body mounted on Brill 27-G-1 trucks from 
The J. G. Brill Company. 

Oklahoma City (Okla.) Traction Company has ordered 
one quadruple equipment of No. 92-A railway motors and 
type K-io-A control from the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company. 

Louisville (Ky.) Railway has ordered thirty partial car 
equipments of four motors and K-35 controllers from the 
General Electric Company for use on the cars being built by 
the Cincinnati Car Company. 

Piedmont Traction Company, Charlotte, N. C, has 

ordered three express cars from the Southern Car Com- 
pany. The company has also ordered six Brill 27-MCB 
special trucks from The J. G. Brill Company. 

Woodlawn & Southern Street Railway Company, Wood- 
lawn, Pa., has ordered four Brill 57-F trail trucks, four 
Brill 27-E-1 trucks with rolled-steel wheels and two Brill 
21-E trucks with rolled-steel wheels from the G. C. Kuhl- 
man Car Company. 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company, Buffalo, N. Y., 
has specified that the four vestibuled closed motor cars or- 
dered from the G. C. Kuhlman Car Company shall be 56 ft. 
5^5 in. long over all, 8 ft. 4 in. wide over all and equipped 

with Westinghouse air brakes. McConway & Torley coup- 
lers, Keller curtain fixtures, Brill journal boxes, four GE-205 
motors and Brill-27 MCB-3 trucks. 

Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway, noted in the Electric 
Railway Journal of May 6, 191 1, as having ordered forty 
all-steel closed subway cars from the Standard Steel Car 
Company, has specified the following details for this equip- 
ment : 

Seating capacity 72 Control West. 

Weight (car body) .38,000 lb. Couplers Tom. 

Bolster centers, length. .51 ft. Curtain fixtures .. Cur. S. Co. 

Length over all.. .69 ft. 2^ in. Headlights Neal 

Width over sills. . .9 ft. 2%. in. Journal boxes Sym. 

Over all 9 ft. 6 in. Motors 2 West. 300 

Height, rail to sills ... 223.4 in. Motors inside hung 

Body metal Sash fixtures Edwards 

Interior trim bronze Seats long 

Headlining steel Trucks Brill 

Roof semi-monitor Ventilators Perry 

Underframe metal Wheels solid forged steel 

Air brakes West. Special device, 

Bumpers. Hedley anti-climber Consol. door mech. 

Morris County Traction Company, Morristown, N. J., has 
included the following in its specifications for the ten semi- 
convertible cars which are being built by The J. G. Brill 
Company : 

Seating capacity 44 Curtain material., .pantasote 

Weight (car body) .. 18,500 lb. Gears and pinions solid 

Length of body 30 ft. 8 in. Gongs Dedenda 

Over vestibule 40 ft. 8 in. Handbrakes, 

Width over sills .. 8 ft. 2^4 in. 12-in. Brill ratchet 

Over all 8 ft. 7 in. Headlights . . . .Crouse-Hinds 

Body wood Motors 4 West. 101-B 

Interior trim white ash Motors outside hung 

Headlining birch veneer Sanders Dumpit 

Roof Brill plain arch Sash fixtures Edwards 

Underframe wood Seats Winner 

Air brakes West. Seating material rattan 

Axles 454-in. Std. Step treads oak 

Bumpers ....Brill angle iron Trolley base Union 

Car trimmings bronze Trucks....' Brill 27-G1 

Couplers Hovey Ventilators ..Brill mushroom 

Curtain fixtures N. L. W. Wheels 33-in. cast iron 


Indiana Tie Company, Evansville, Ind., ha^ increased its 
capital stock from $113,000 to $225,000. 

D. C. & Wm. Jackson, Boston, Mass., have moved their 
Chicago office from the Commercial National Bank Build- 
ing to the new Harris Trust Building, 11 1 West Monroe 

The J. G. Brill Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has elected 
Edward P. Rawle a member of the board of directors to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of his brother, Francis 
W. Rawle. 

Perry Ventilator Corporation, New Bedford, Mass., has 

received orders for ventilators for the twenty new cars now 
being built at the works of the Pressed Steel Car Company 
for the Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway. 

Berg Storage Battery Car Company, New York, N. Y., 
has been granted a charter with a capital stock of $110,000 to 
manufacture freight and passenger cars. The incorporators 
are: C. H. Lee', T. Sturgis, New York, N. Y., and R. G. 
Dale. Plainfield, N. J. 

Asbestos Protected Metal Company, Beaver Falls, Pa., 
has opened a new plant for manufacturing asbesto pro- 
tected metal and weather-proof - non-rusting skylights at 
Beaver Falls. The executive offices of the company have 
also been removed to Beaver Falls. 

Manganese Steel Rail Company, New York, N. Y., has 
been incorporated in Delaware with an authorized capital 
stock of $6,000,000 to manufacture and deal in ingots of 
iron and steel and manganese. The incorporators are 
Charles S. Fallows and George M. Judd, New York, N. Y., 
and Harry W. Davis, Wilmington, Del. 

McKeen Motor Car Company, Omaha, Neb., lias shipped 
a 70-ft. gasoline motor car to the Oregon Short Line, Ogden, 
Utah. This is the first of four cars ordered by this railroad, 
and will be operated for local passenger service between 



[Vol. XXXVIII. No. i. 

Ogden and Salt Lake City. The company has also shipped 
the fourth motor car to the Ann Arbor Railroad. 

Railway Roller Bearing Company, Syracuse, N. Y., has 

received an order from the Baldwin Locomotive Works 
for rolling journal boxes for an electric locomotive for the 
Portland, Gray & Lewiston Railroad, Lewiston, Me. These 
are said to be the largest roller bearing journal boxes in- 
stalled up to this time. The axle journals are 5 in. x 9 in. 
and the rollers are 2^ in. diameter. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., has received orders for power equipment from 
the following companies: Seattle-Tacoma Power Com- 
pany. Seattle, Wash., three 1000 kva, 50,000-volt oil in- 
sulated, water-cooled transformers; Empire District Elec- 
tric Company, three substation equipments, consisting of 
nine 250 kva. 33,000-volt transformers, three switchboards 
and three sets of lightning protective apparatus; People's 
Power Company, Willows, Cal., six 100 kva, 55.000-volt oil 
insulated, self-cooling transformers; Sacramento Power 
Company, San Francisco, Cal, six 100 kva, 55.000-volt oil 
insulated, self-cooling transformers. 

Transportation Utilities Company, New York, N. Y., has 
removed to its New York office at 30 Church' Street the 
exhibit which was shown at the recent Master Mechanics' 
and Master Car Builders' conventions at Atlantic City. 
The exhibit will be a permanent one and includes the 
products of the Acme Supply Company and the General 
Railway Supply Company, which the Transportation Utili- 
ties Company represents directly. Among the exhibits are 
working models of four different styles of trap doors for 
elevated and grade level platforms, operating models of 
sash balances, vestibule and car window curtains, including 
the Tuco rack curtain fixture, which was exhibited for the 
first time at Atlantic City. 

Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio, has received an 
order from the Piedmont Traction Company and the 
Greenville, Spartanburg & Anderson Railway for Tomlin- 
son radial M. C. B. couplers and sander equipments for 31 
new interurban cars. The company will also furnish the 
entire overhead material for 150 miles of track. Single 
catenary construction supported by bracket- will be used. 
The poles will be spaced 150 ft. apart on tangents and 1 
and 2 deg. on curves, and the trolley wire hangers will be 
spaced 30 ft. apart. The pole brackets will be 10 ft. long, 
and the trolley will be No. 0000 grooved copper. The con- 
tract also includes all porcelain insulators for 33,000-volt 
transmission line, telephone, signal and feeder wires. 

Walter L. Conwell, whose election as president and treas- 
urer of the Transportation Utilities Company. New York. 
N. Y.. was announced in the Electric Railway Journal of 
April 15, 191 1, resigned on July 1, 191 1, from the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufactu ring Company in order to devote 
his entire time to the affairs of the Transportation Utilities 
Company. Mr. Conwell was graduated from the University 
of Pennsylvania in 1898 in the course of electrical engineer- 
ing. He then engaged in electric railway construction and 
engineering work for three years. In the fall of 1901 he 
became connected with the sales department of the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company, and for the past 
five years has had entire charge of railway work for that 
company in its New York territory. 

Sherwin-Williams Company, Ltd., Montreal, Que., has 
been formed by Walter H. Cottingham, Cleveland, Ohio, 
and C. C. Ballantyne, Montreal, Que., to take over the 
Canadian business of the Sherwin-Williams Company of 
America, the Canada Paint Company. Ltd.. and Lewis 
Berger & Sons, Ltd., of London, Eng. The new company 
will have a capital of $8,000,000, half preferred and half com- 
mon. Of the $4,000,000 of cumulative preferred stock $3.- 
000,000 is now being issued. The entire amount of com- 
mon stock is being issued. The present management will 
be continued, and the Canadian company, under an agree- 
ment with the American company, will have the benefit of 
the large research and development work constantly being 
done by the latter. Walter H. Cottingham, founder of the 
Canadian business of the Sherwin-Williams Company, 
chairman of Lewis Berger & Sons, Ltd.. and president 
of the Sherwin-Williams Company of America, will be 
president of the new company. The present management 

of the Canada Paint Company and Lewis Berger & Sons, 
Ltd., will be continued. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa., which 
was incorporated in June, 1911, has acquired all of the 
capital stock of "Baldwin Loconiotive Works" and in- 
tends to acquire the ownership of the plant and property 
of the Standard Steel Works Company. The new company 
has authorized $20,000,000 of 7 per cent cumulative pre- 
ferred stock and $20,000,000 common stock. The holders 
of the $20,000,000 stock of Baldwin Locomotive Works re- 
ceive $14,100,000 cash, $5,900,000 of the preferred stock and 
$11,970,000 of the common stock of the new company. 
Drexel & Company, Philadelphia, and White, Weld & Com- 
pany, New York, N. Y., are offering the unsold balance of 
the $20,000,000 7 per cent preferred stock. As now consti- 
tuted, the board consists of twelve men, among whom are 
four heretofore identified with the concern. They are Wil- 
liam L. Austin, chairman of the board; Alba B. Johnson, 
president; Samuel M. Vauclain, vice-president, and William 
Burnham, president of the subsidiary Standard Steel 
Works. The new interests are represented by Edward T. 
Stotesbury, Roland Z. Taylor and Thomas De Witt Cuyler 
of Philadelphia; E. C. Converse, president of the Bankers' 
Trust Company, New York; Samuel M. Roberts, vice-presi- 
dent of the National City Bank, New York; Charles D. 
Norton, vice-president of the First National Bank, New 
York; Francis M. Weld, White, Weld & Company, New 
York, and Otis H. Cutler, president of the American Brake 
Shoe & Foundry Company. 


Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio, has issued Cata- 
log K, listing and describing Ohio valves and steam special- 
ties. Attention is called particularly to the Ohio gage 
cock, water gage and pressure regulating valve. 

Goulds Manufacturing Company, Seneca Falls, N. Y., is 
mailing a circular covering its new line of single stage cen- 
trifugal pumps. They are made in both the single and 
double-suction type, either of which is designed so that it 
may be readily adapted to any form of drive. 

Allis-Chalmers Company, Milwaukee, Wis., has issued 
Bulletin No. 1076, covering its line of power transformers. 
The bulletin describes the theory underlying the construc- 
tion of power transformers and illustrates the various de- 
tails of manufacture. Tables of efficiency and heating are 
also included. 

Gold Car Heating & Lighting Company, New York, 

N. Y., has issued a 166-page catalog which lists and illus- 
trates the various devices, fittings and special fixtures used 
in connection with the Gold systems of steam-vapor, hot- 
water and electric train heating. Attention is also called 
to the improved Gold system of acetylene rnr lighting. 

The J. G. Brill Company, Philadelphia ~ J- in the Brill 
Magazine for June, 191 1, prints a biograph ketch of A. 
L. C. Fell, chief officer of the London Co ty Council 
Tramway system. The sketch is ac npani. _>vith an ex- 
cellent portrait of Mr. Fell as a supplement This issue of 
the magazine also contains a reprint of ? , iphlet issued 
by the International Railway, Buffalo, ., describing 

the first "near-side" type of car. Amon ■ articles are 

the following: "Centrifugal Sprinklr ; ' Davenport, 
la.," "Thirty More P. A. Y. E. Cars'rot'-V anclLver, B. C," 
and "Pay-Within Cars for Central Pennsylvania Traction 
Company, Harrisburg. Pa." 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y v has issued 
Bulletin No. 4834, which comprises an article on the elec- 
trical equipment of the Detroit River tunnel, reprinted from 
the Electric Railway Journal of Jan. 14 and Jan. 21, 
191 1. Bulletin No. 4855 illustrates and describes various 
types of motor-driven pumps designed for different pur- 
poses. Bulletin No. 4836 issued by the company describes 
and illustrates the G. E. steam flow meter, and Bulletin 
4847 describes its form B belt-driven alternators. They 
are built in capacities ranging from 50 to 200-kw and are 
adapted for three-phase o- two-phase winding without 
change except the armatu r . and terminal blocks, the 

exciters and all accessorie mg the same for both. De- 
signs have been made for 240, 480, 600, 1150 and 2300 volts. 

Electric Railway Journal 


Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 



McGraw Publishing Company 

239 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York 

James H. McGraw, President. 
Hugh M. Wilson, ist Vice-President. A, E. Clifford, 2d Vice-President. 

Curtis E. Whittlesey, Secretary and Treasurer. 
Telephone Call: 4700 Bryant. Cable Address: Stryjourn, New York. 

Henry W. Blake, Editor. 
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Associate Editors: 
Rodney Hitt, Frederic Nicholas, Walter Jackson. 
News Editors: 
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For 52 weekly issues, and daily convention issues published from time 
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of date of issue. New advertisements will be accepted up to Tuesday 
noon of the week of issue. 

Copyright, 1911, by McGraw Publishing Company. 
Entered as second-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal 8500 
copies are printed. 

NE"~ r vqrk, SATURDAY, JULY 8, 191 1 


Materials and . dules 73 

The Reorganizat { Railways 73 

Questions of C: zation 74 

Equipment Trus 74 

The New York "' nation 75 

Latest Type o iter, „ '-L^senger Car for McKinley System 76 

Dispatcher's Control of Line Circuit Breakers 8! 

Equipment Trusts 82 

Change of Mailing Date 84 

Meeting of American Society for Testing Materials 84 

Plan of Membership in N. E. L. A 85 

Selectively Operated Semaphore and Telephone Equipment for Elec- 
tric Railways 85 

A 35-Ton Electric Locomotive 86 

Electric Railway Legal Decisions 88 

News of Electric Railways 90 

Financial and Corporate 93 

Traffic and Transportation 95 

Personal Mention \ _ 97 

Construction News , 98 

Manufactures and Supplies 101 

Materials and Schedules 

The popularity of the subject of efficiency has had a tonic 
effect which will do some good if it is not overdone. A 
wholesome result of the agitation has been a widespread 
interest in the methods of the efficiency engineers. Al- 
though the genesis of these methods was in shop work and 
in motion study in connection with manufacturing proc- 
esses, there is no question that the publicity which has been 
given to them has provoked a similar consideration of 
topics of more direct bearing on railways. Of such topics 
two that may be mentioned are greater economy in the use 
of materials and closer analysis of schedules so as to elimi- 
nate as much unprofitable car mileage as possible. An ap- 
peal to employees is an effective way of re-awakening their 
interest in the economical use of supplies and securing their 
co-operation, which is essential in any successful plan of 
improvement. In the revision of schedules it is always a 
serious problem to know how far to go. There is no per- 
manent advantage in the reduction of car mileage to a point 
that discourages the traffic. In city operation frequent, 
rapid service is desirable and headways cannot safely be 
lengthened beyond certain intervals in order that full loads 
may be secured. Economy could be enforced to the sure 
discomfort and inconvenience of the traveling public, and, 
therefore, to the eventual disadvantage of the company, but 
the achievement of economy at this price would not be wise 
railway efficiency. The best operation, however, requires 
continual investigation of the traffic and schedules and read- 
justment from time to time to meet the changes that de- 
velop. In the practice of some companies it has been found 
that a material of lower cost can be substituted at times for 
one of higher cost without any detriment, or a smaller car 
substituted for a large one and the traffic accommodated 
satisfactorily ; and these small things help to make an aggre- 
gate that, whether large or small, is gain and not loss. 

The Reorganization of Railways 

Through the appeal to the Court of Appeals from the 
decision of the Appellate Division of the State Supreme 
Court the order of the Public Service Commission in the 
Third Avenue Railroad reorganization case will be adjudi- 
cated finally in the court of last resort. In the considera- 
tion of this case by the Appellate Court the controlling 
importance was placed upon the single question of the 
authority of the commission in a reorganization proceed- 
ing. We stated on Oct. 1, 1910, in a review of the decisions 
of the commission, that the question was whether the ap- 
plicant was to be regarded as seeking a new capitalization 
for a new property or whether the old property was to be 
considered as the real applicant. In the latter event it was 
assumed that the reasonable costs of conversion from one 



form of motive power to another would be retained in the 
capitalization. The court, however, has gone much further 
than this and has swept aside all questions of the value of 
the property. It concludes that the authority of the com- 
mission is confined in fact to a review of the acts of the 
corporation under a statute which, it holds, applies to re- 
organization cases and has not been repealed by implication 
by the public service commissions law. It is the conclu- 
sion of the court, further, that the new corporation is 
"based upon the former corporation, depending for its ex- 
istence upon the provisions of the reorganization statute 
and embodying in itself as the very reason for its being 
the reorganization agreement of the affairs of its im- 
mediate predecessor." This would give the security holders 
of companies that undergo receivership full control of plans 
for reorganization in New York State. The effect of a final 
determination that such is the law would be interesting. A 
State policy of this nature would, it appears, tend to re- 
strict the commissions to jurisdiction over present and 
future rather than over past acts. 

Questions of Capitalization 

At the banquet of the Street Railway Association of the 
State of New York on June 27 Oscar T. Crosby pre- 
sented a strong defense of that often maligned indi- 
vidual, the promoter. No one will deny that in the trans- 
portation industry, as well as in other lines of business, 
little progress will be made if capital should be invested 
only in enterprises of established security, and this will be 
the case if the opportunities for making a '"promoter's 
profit" should be greatly reduced. We agree with Mr. 
Crosby that the rate of return to which the investor in 
any line of business is entitled, should the enterprise prove 
successful, ought to be commensurate with the risks which 
are assumed. For instance, a return of 25 per cent per 
annum upon the money, upon the value of the time invested 
by the promoter and upon the cost of the other factors 
necessary in the development of certain classes of electric 
railway undertakings is not too high. On the other hand, 
6 per cent might be large for an underlying security in a 
well-established public service corporation. And disasters 
have followed attempts to secure 25 per cent on the latter 
class of securities just as they will follow attempts on the 
part of the State to confine the profit on hazardous enter- 
prises to the legal rate of interest. If we admit that those 
who promote the latter class of enterprise are entitled, 
in case of its success, to compensation for their risk, this 
return may be paid to them in the form of high dividends 
upon a low capitalization or in the form of moderate divi- 
dends upon a capitalization in excess of the cash value of 
the elements which were required to organize and establish 
the business. From one point of view the way in which 
the annual profits of a public utility company are distributed 
is a matter of no concern to the public. Its chief interest 
lies in the fact of whether the people are paying an undue 
profit for the service rendered. Whether this profit is paid 
as a dividend upon one capitalization or at the rate of half 
of that dividend upon twice that capitalization is a matter 
of little moment. According to Mr. Crosby, much of 
the popular misunderstanding in regard to capitalization 
would disappear if the "par value" of the capital stock 

of a company should be forgotten, or if the stock should 
be issued without any specified par value. Each share 
would then represent the right of its proportionate partici- 
pation in the profits of the company, and while there would 
be rigorous supervision over the issue of such shares they 
would not necessarily indicate that any particular amount 
of money had been paid in by the original holder. 


The favorable experience of steam railways with equip- 
ment trust notes, to which Mr. Brockway calls attention in 
his suggestive article in this issue, has already encouraged 
some participation by electric railways in this form of 
security. An inspection of the last edition of American 
Street Railway Investments shows that the following 
companies had equipment trust securities outstanding: Ft. 
Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company, Indianapolis 
Traction & Terminal Company, Northwestern Elevated 
Railroad of Chicago, Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Rail- 
road, United Railways & Electric Company of Baltimore, 
Public Service Railway of Newark, N. J. ; Coney Island & 
Brooklyn Railroad, Pittsburgh Railways, Norfolk & Ports- 
mouth Traction Company, Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, 
Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway, International Trac- 
tion Company of Buffalo, and Virginia Railway & Power 

Necessarily there are fundamental differences between 
the conditions of issue of these certificates by the large 
steam railroad and by the more generally local electric rail- 
way. But so far as these differences affect marketability 
they lie in the total amount of the issue and not in the 
quality of the security, and hence they are not disparaging 
to the electric railway. A steam railroad with extensive 
mileage would issue a larger volume of securities than a 
local electric railway system, because its needs and revenues 
are greater. Therefore, it would be better able to interest 
large banking houses or syndicates of bankers having rep- 
resentation in a number of important cities. This would 
facilitate the rapid distribution of the securities, which is 
the essential feature to the underwriting banker. However, 
if an issue of equipment trust notes made by an electric 
railway is small in amount or the other securities of the 
company are not well known outside of the community in 
which it operates, the local bankers should be induced to 
furnish the market. Indeed, it is our understanding that 
some of the notes of this character which have been issued 
by electric railways have been taken at once by savings 
banks and trust companies in the community and held for 
permanent investment instead of being offered for re-sale 
to the general public. Another method of marketing the 
securities which has been followed releases the railway 
company from all negotiations except those conducted 
directly with the equipment manufacturing company, which 
receives payment in notes for the equipment furnished. 
The manufacturing company then makes either a direct 
sale to bankers or a commission arrangement under which 
the notes are sold for its account. 

It is the "ultimate consumer," the investor, who deter- 
mines in the end the market position of the various classes 
of securities, but his judgment as to the interest his capital 
should yield on long-time investments is affected by the 

July 8, 191 1.] 



money rates prevailing in financial centers. As a general rule, 
the equipment trust securities outstanding bear 4^ per cent 
to 5 per cent interest and were sold to the public to yield a 
little over or under 5 per cent. With the interest return at 
this satisfactory rate, the principal other question that con- 
cerns the investor is the factor of safety. In an equipment 
trust note he has an interest in a mortgage on specific 
property which is readily distinguishable. That is an ad- 
vantage which is not possessed by many underlying mort- 
gages on properties which, after merger, are lost to identity. 
One other feature, that of convertibility into money, is 
important to the investor. Ease in convertibility could be 
assured under ordinary circumstances if the notes were 
sold to banks in the community. 



The engineering aspects of the problem of electric opera- 
tion of steam railroads are no longer in doubt. Both the 
single-phase alternating-current system with overhead trol- 
ley and the direct-current third-rail system have been in- 
stalled and successfully operated for a sufficient period of 
time to demonstrate their superiority over steam locomo- 
tive operation in high-speed passenger service, suburban 
service, yard switching and hauling long, heavy freight 
trains in tunnels and up steep grades. Electricity will do 
all and more than steam as a motive power with equal 
reliability. This much has been proved. The relative cost 
of electric and steam operation is the crux of the situation 
with respect to electrification projects of the future. 

Electrical engineers can estimate the cost of installation 
and roughly the cost of operation, but their figures ad- 
mittedly are estimates. They do not know what it costs to 
operate electrified steam roads and the officials of such 
roads, if they know themselves, have not been willing to 
tell. Why this apparent desire for secrecy? It is safe to 
say that no steam railroad official would willingly abandon 
electric operation where it has once been begun. If it is 
not directly profitable it certainly is not unprofitable when 
the comfort of passengers, the higher speeds of trains and 
the simplified terminal operations are taken into account. 
Nothing is to be gained by concealing the true cost, even 
though it is apparently resulting in a deficit. The figures 
relating to the West Jersey & Seashore Railroad which 
were given by B. F. Wood in his paper read last week at 
the annual convention of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers are among the first to be made public, and 
they constitute a substantial addition to the general fund 
of rather widely scattered data. Unfortunately they tell 
less than half the story, for the West Jersey & Seashore is 
still operating freight trains with steam locomotives and 
no figures of steam passenger operation prior to electrifica- 
tion are given from which comparisons with electric pas- 
senger train operation can be made. What is wanted now 
is a complete statement of operating results from all of the 
electrified steam railroads. The public, which is demanding 
electrification of terminals in large cities, has a right to 
know what results may be expected if the demands are 
complied with. The engineering fraternity has a right to 
know, so that costly mistakes may be avoided in planning 
other electrification projects of the future. 

The New York subway situation is developing rapidly 
every day. After lying dormant for nearly seven years, 
or since the present subway was put in operation, each day 
now sees some change in its condition. The city and the 
railway companies interested in the proposed franchises 
have issued ultimatums which have been followed later by 
ultimatissimums. Each railway has advanced important rea- 
sons why it should receive different terms or more favor- 
able conditions than the other. Finally, estimates by the 
city of large profits from certain routes, when placed un- 
der the microscopes of the corporations for careful ex- 
amination, have been returned with the statement that they 
were really deficits in disguise. It is undoubtedly true that 
never before have transportation experts been required to 
calculate the future profits upon urban railway enter- 
prises of such magnitude as those represented by the fran- 
chises offered in the McAneny proposal to the Interborough 
and Brooklyn Rapid Transit Companies. Not only have 
the companies been obliged to predict the future traffic 
and profits from the new lines, but they have had to deter- 
mine the effect of each new system on the other and upon 
each company's existing system. A miscalculation of 1 per 
cent in the growth of future business, or an erroneous 
allowance of the same amount in regard to the operating 
ratio, would amount to millions of dollars during the period 
of the franchise. It would be a serious misfortune to the 
city of New York if after all these negotiations and efforts 
it shall not succeed in securing the best possible extension 
to its rapid transit facilities. At the same time no one can 
blame the companies for being unwilling to assume the 
financial burden of conducting an unprofitable service. 

We have great sympathy with the position of ex-Mayor 
Low, who stated that any transportation scheme other than 
one which would include both existing system, as in the pro- 
posal originally submitted to the companies, would be a 
makeshift. The purpose toward which efforts should be di- 
rected is that of providing rapid transit between each of the 
outlying boroughs and the lower half of Manhattan Island, 
with such extension of these routes only as will provide 
train loads in both directions. A through service from 
the northern confines of the Bronx to the southerly end of 
Brooklyn is not only unnecessary but uncalled for. 

The modified acceptance of the proposals of the city by 
the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company and the apparent 
willingness of the authorities of the city to adjust the points 
of difference between them and this company assure, we 
hope, that at least a considerable part of the general plan 
will be carried out. The final answer of the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company was not expected until July 5, or 
after this paper went to press. The company has taken a 
number of exceptions to the city's original offer and has 
advanced many good reasons why some change should be 
made in them. We sincerely trust, for the sake of a well- 
rounded-out system, that the concessions which it will ask 
in its proposal this week will be such that they will be 
granted. If not, we feel that the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Company is amply able to build along the routes which 
will be open to it a rapid transit system which will be of 
great benefit to the city. 

7 6 


[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2. 

Latest Type of Interurban Passenger Car for 

McKinley System 

These Cars Are of the Combination Passenger and Baggage Type and Are Designed for Train Operation. They Have 

Arch Roofs and the Framing Is Strongly Reinforced with Steel. 

Ten large interurban cars designed by J. M. Bosenbury, 
superintendent of motive power and equipment of the Illi- 
nois Traction System, have just been built by the Danville 
Car Company. Six of these cars have been put into service 
on the Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Railway and four on the 
Illinois Traction System. Numerous improvements in de- 
sign which have been found desirable as the result of experi- 
ence with older types of cars on the McKinley traction sys- 
tem have been incorporated in these new cars, which are 
intended for high-speed multiple-unit service. Each car 
has a motorman's cab at the left-hand corner and is sub- 
divided into a combination baggage and smoking compart- 
ment, a main compartment, a toilet room and a heater closet. 
The cars are arranged for single-end operation and the seats 
are placed so that passengers in the forward compartment 
have a clear view ahead. The rear platform is inclosed. 
The accompanying engravings show the principal features 
of design and the general appearance of these new cars, 
which have turtle-back roofs and are heavily reinforced 
with steel in the framing:. 

compound side sill is bolted to the inside of the posts of the 
side framing. The center and intermediate sills over the 
bolsters are reinforced with 4-in. x 4-in. x y 2 -in. angle irons 
8 ft. long. The longitudinal sills are held together by %-in. 
tie rods terminating between the center sills at hollow rect- 
angular malleable-iron spacing blocks. These blocks are 
made hollow to provide a continuous space between the cen- 
ter sills for installing the cables and air pipes. 

At the front end of the car the sills terminate in a combi- 
nation crown-block, buffer beam and end sill, which is made 
of straight-grained white oak 2^ in. thick. The outer 
member of this buffer beam is made of 8-in. x 10-in. white 
oak. The buffer beam and^ crown block are slip-tongue and 
grooved together and held in position by U-shaped pocket 
irons to which the sill webs are bolted. The outer side of 
the buffer beam is faced with a continuous iron plate % in. x 
8 in., which is returned along the side sills. On the outside 
of this facing Hedley anti-climber sections 2 in. x $y 2 in. x 
7 ft. 4 in. have been applied. The rear buffer beam of the 
car is similar to the front buffer beam, except that the face 

Illinois Traction Car — Exterior View 

The cars weigh 93,000 lb. completely equipped and have 
seats for fifty-six passengers. 


The principal dimensions are as follows: 

Length over buffer plates 55 ft. 6 in. 

Width over outside sheathing 9 ft. 6 in. 

Width inside between wainscoting 8 ft. 8 i/i6in. 

Height from bottom of sill to top of roof. . . 9 ft. 4 13/16 in. 

Height from top of rails to bottom of sill. . . 3 ft. 5 in. 

Height from top of rails to center of draw- 
bar 2 ft. 10^ in. 

Length of posts between sill and plate 6 ft. 8 in. 

Truck-center distance 32 ft. 3 in. 


The ten cars were designed to be substantial, easy riding, 
and to have great strength to resist damage in butting col- 
lisions. The principal members of the underframe are 
four 6-in. 1254-lb. I-beams extending from buffer to buffer 
and two steel plate side sills *4 i n - thick by 18 in. deep. The 
center and intermediate sills are filled out with yellow pine 
timbers and the deep plate side sills are reinforced at the 
top and bottom by 3-in. x 3-in. x %-in. angle irons. The 

plate is returned around and into the step openings. Both 
buffer beams are supported on the bottom flanges of the cen- 
ter sills, the web and top flange having been cut away. 

The bolsters are made up of steel plates. The tension or 
upper member is a i-in. x 12-in. plate with the ends upset to 
in. x 12 in. The lower member is a ij^-in. x 12-in. 
plate, the ends of which rest against the inside portion of 
the upset ends of the top member. The lines of contact 
between the top and bottom members were accurately ma- 
chined. The top and bottom members are held apart by 
iron spools and wing castings. The bolster plates support 
machine-finished castings which are fitted on the lower side 
with 1 -in. x 4-in. wearing plates to serve as side bearings. 
The center plates are held in place by four ij^-in. bolts 
extending through the bolster and above the tops of the 
center sills. The lower nuts on these bolts are fitted with 
National lock washers and underneath one nut on each 
center plate is a copper terminal to receive the ground wire. 
The center pins are 2 in. in diameter; they have forged 
upset heads and extend below the truck bolsters a sufficient 
distance to be fitted with ^-in. cotter pins. 

The needlebeams consist of 5-in. 14%-lb. I-beams trussed 

July 8, 191 1.] 



with two %-in. rods. The main longitudinal truss rods are 
double-refined iron V/ 2 in. in diameter and they are anchored 
to the side sills with forged truss-rod hinges made of •Vj-in. y 
4-in. iron bolted to the side sills. 


The bodies of these cars, as shown in the accompanying 
half-tone engravings, have arched roofs and are sheathed 
with steel. On the left-hand side of the body are eight double 
Pullman type windows, in addition to the rear passenger 
entrance door and the motorman's cab door. On the other 
side of the car are seven double windows, a baggage door 
and a single window. The front end has three windows 
with double sash and the rear vestibule has two windows 
with single sash and an end door in the center with drop 
sash for passing through to a trailer car when used for 
train operation. 

The outside of the car bodies up to the letter board is 
covered with No. 14 sheet steel. This protective covering is 
brought around the corner posts and around both ends of 
the car. The vertical members of the side framing con- 
sist of ash posts 2% in. x 4% hi. in section. Each post is 
mortised into the side sill at the oottom and the side plate 
■at the top and the double pier posts are gained inside for 
filler blocks. The side plate is a continuous piece of long- 
leaf yellow pine. Between each adjacent pair of window 
posts is a yellow pine brace i t j in. x 4^4 in. in section, held 
at the upper end against a j4-in. hook rod terminating under 
the side sill. The side and vestibule framing structures are 
tied together by a %-in. steel plate. The tie rods in the side 
frame are J / 2 in. in diameter and are incased in grooves cut 
in the single posts and in the blocking between the double 
posts and they are wedged to prevent vibration. The side 
framing of each side of the car is strengthened by an over- 
hang truss rod resting on deep cast-iron struts over each 
bolster and terminating in metal anchor blocks underneath 
the corner posts of the body. These truss rods are T>/% in. x 
1^2 in. in section where they pass through the side framing 
and 1^8 in- round where they pass down through the side 
sills. All the side framing of these cars was strengthened by 
three-cornered glue blocks at the junctions of the letter 
boards and posts and by blocking between the double pier 

The truss plank which forms part of the underframing 
consists of a steel plate % in. thick by 18 in. deep, to which 
the side posts are bolted. This truss plank is reinforced at 
the top and bottom with heavy angles. A wood capping 
which forms a continuous foot rest from end to end of the 
car is securely bolted to the upper angle. The truss plank 
is fitted with malleable-iron clips to hold the hot-water 

-55 L 6" 

tween these two layers are two thicknesses of "red rope" 
building paper. 


These cars are designed for single-end operation and have 
the standard step arrangement of other cars of the Illinois 
Traction System, which includes brass-bound sheet-steel 

Illinois Traction Car — End View 

hangers, covered with Empire safety treads and O. M. Ed- 
wards type-F trap-door fixtures. 


The roof of these new cars is designed along lines similar 
to the roof of the sleeping cars of this company. Its shape 
conforms to two segments of circles joined by a flat curve. 
The arch roof is supported by compound carlines consisting 
of white ash pieces 1^4 in. thick faced on the outside with 
two pieces of steel y 2 in. x 1V4 in. These carlines have 

Illinois Traction Car — Floor Plan 

heater pipes. Underneath the angle iron and near the top 
of the truss plank is a %-in. loricated conduit having a bell- 
mouth opening at each seat for the electric heater wires. 
This conduit is supported on wrought-iron clips fastened 
to the angle irons which stiffen the truss plank. 


The floor consists of long-leaf yellow pine 13/16 in. thick 
an< l 3/4 in. wide. The lower layer of the floor is placed 
crosswise and the upper layer lengthwise of the car. Be- 

feet bent at an angle at each end to rest on the side plate, 
and they are fastened to the plate with J^-in. bolts and also 
by tie rods. Wood rafters 1% in. thick are placed between 
adjacent carlines. The purlins are built up of y 2 -\n. x 
i%-in. iron and ash filler blocks. The iron members of the 
composite purlins are bent at an angle at each end and 
bolted to the main carlines of the roof. 

Particular care was taken in designing the hood framing 
to make it substantial so that it will withstand extraordinary 



shocks. The hood covering is an extension of the main 
roof without any offset. Its supports are framed of ijH$-in. 
rafters connecting with a 2-in. yellow pine bulkhead and 
secured by strap bolts. The wood rafters are faced 

on each side with iron carlines and thus the roof of the hood 
is a stiff structure rigidly tied to the side framing through 
the bulkhead. 

The roof of the cars consists of 9/16-in. matched yellow 
poplar boards laid with the tongues pointing toward the 
center of the roof. Over the hoods were laid two thicknesses 
of 9/32-in. boards steam-bent to form the contour. The 
entire roof of the cars is painted with two coats of white 
lead and boiled linseed oil, and then covered with one piece 
of No. 6 cotton duck applied with No. 10 copper tacks. 
Drip moldings were made of 13/16-in. yellow poplar and 

The roofs of the cars are fitted wtih automatic ventilators 
for the main ventilation and one ventilator each for the 
motorman's cab and toilet room, and an air insulated smoke 
jack for the hot-water heaters. At the points where these 
ventilators pass through the roof blocking has been inserted 
to strengthen the roof and ceiling structures. The ceiling 
openings for the ventilators are fitted with polished bronze 
shutters which can be operated by the conductor from the 
aisle. The ventilators in the motorman's cab, toilet room 
and the smoke-jack top on the heater pipe are 5-in. Globe 


The outside of the cars below the window sills is sheeted 
with yellow pine boards 13/16 in. thick gained over the 
posts and glued and screwed thereto. The upper sheeting 

l & '14 Sheet Steel 

Illinois Traction Car— Half Plan and Side Elevation of Framing 

the roofing canvas was fastened to these. After the canvas 
covering was placed it was treated and painted according to 
111 inois Traction System standard painting specifications. 
Small copper eaves troughs were placed over each door 
opening. These troughs are attached by nails to furring 
blocks placed on the underside of the roof. A running 
board continuous for the full length of the car and made 
of i^-in. x 6-in. yellow pine rests on ash cleats fitted 
to the contour of the arched roofs. At a point 11 ft. 4 in. 
from the rear end of the car blocking was attached for 
mounting a No. 13 United States trolley base. The rear 
hood of each car is covered with an ash slat rack to protect 
the roofs from the trolley wheel. This rack rests on four 
hickory ribs bent to the contour of the hood and securely 
bolted to the roof. 

is of yellow poplar. Over the sheeting has been placed No. 
14 sheet steel, double-rolled and straightened. The joints 
of the steel plates are covered with battens of i^-in. wagon 
box iron slightly concave on the inside to retain a strip of 
lead putty. 

The steel sheeting was applied with round-headed steel 
screws dipped in red lead. The battens are held by oval- 
headed screws. All the holes in the steel sheeting were 
drilled and special care was taken to prevent denting the 
steel. After the sheeting had been applied it was sand- 
blasted to remove the roll scale and rust before paint was 
applied. The inside of all the sheet-steel work was painted 
a coat of red lead and linseed oil before application. An 
iron batten % in- x *M in. in section extends the full length 
of the car under the edges of the arm rails. 

July 8, 1911.] 




The windows, of which there are eight on one side and 
seven on the other, are of the double Pullman type, and are 
provided with two complete sets of lower and Gothic sashes, 
in each opening. The upper outside Gothic sashes are 
screwed to the window heads and the letter board from the 
inside and the construction is such that the sashes can be 
removed from the outside by removing the retaining battens 
which are held in position with brass screws. The inner 
Gothic sashes are so arranged that they may be moved up 
to permit cleaning the inside of the windows. Both the 
lower window sashes can be raised 24 in. above the arm rail. 
The inside sashes have the glass beads removable from the 
inside and the outside sashes have the beads removable from 
the outside. All window sashes are fitted with O. M. Ed- 
wards anti-rattling devices and window catches. 

The front windows of the cars have two complete sashes 
at each opening. The outside front sashes are stationary 
and the inside sashes are hung on three brass hinges and 
have two catches. The windows on the rear platforms have 
single stationary sash with the exception of the opening 
in the door, which has a drop sash. All the sashes in the 
cars are made of 13/16-in. solid mahogany. The glass is 
3/16-in. polished American plate and all outside windows 
and doors are fitted with Bosley's metallic weather strips 
fastened with -Ms-in. brass escutcheon pins. 


Each car is equipped with two Illinois Traction System 
standard couplers of the Bosenbury type with spring draft 

$ Bottom floor to run crosswise 
S Layers of red rope paper between 

*>\ S3i' -1 

Illinois Traction Car — Sections of Underframing 

gear made by the National Malleable Castings Company. 
The draft pockets are made of cast steel and the radial 
carrying irons are made of J/g-in. x 31/2-in. iron secured to 
the buffer beam by J^-in. square-head bolts, passing through 
thirteen cast-iron spacing spools and two malleable-iron 
end stops. The drawbar and spring pocket are made of cast 
steel. The tail pin of the coupler is at the center of the 
circle described by the face plate of the buffer beam, which 
has a radius of 4 ft. 10 in. Each car has one Illinois Trac- 
tion System standard steel angle pilot held by angles and 
hydraulic tubing at an elevation of 10 in. above the rails. 


One of the engravings shows the floor plan of these cars. 
This plan, with slight modifications, conforms to the 
standard interior arrangement of the Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem's passenger equipments. At the forward end is a com- 
bination smoking and baggage compartment from which the 
motorman's cab has been set off. The smoking compart- 
ment has two folding longitudinal seats and six cross seats. 
The baggage door is on the right-hand side of the car and 
is 48 in. wide. The double-arched interior window covering 
the baggage-door recess is a single section, hinged at the 
corner post and having an extra heavy stile and three spring 
hinges, so that it may be swung into the car to permit 

cleaning the windows or repairing the baggage-door runway. 
The main compartment of the car has sixteen cross seats 
and two small box seats. All the seats are Hale & Kilburn 
199-EE reversible with double head rolls, brass corner 
grab handles and automatic foot rests. The hot-water heat- 
ing equipment is located in a closet at the right hand of the 
rear door and the toilet room at the left hand. 


The inside finish of the car is of Honduras mahogany 

Illinois Traction Car — Smoking and Baggage Compartment 

above the arm rail and below the crown molding, with the 
exception of the ceiling bands. The finish below the arm 
rail is No. 14 sheet steel applied over girths made of long- 
leaf yellow pine and glued and screwed into position. The 
steel inside of the car is treated in the same manner as 
described for the outside sheeting and after application was 
painted and grained mahogany to match the interior. The 
ceiling and head lining are formed of three-ply poplar 
veneer 34 in. thick. Between the ceiling and its supports 
pieces of cloth have been placed at points of contact to 
prevent squeaking. 

Illinois Traction Car — Passenger Compartment 

The motorman's cab at the forward left-hand corner of 
the car is covered on the smoking compartment side with 
sheet steel protected at the corners by angle iron. This 
cab contains a switch cabinet lined with ¥&-'m. transite board. 
The cabinet has no cover, but is protected by three J-^-in. 
round iron guards. Under the switch cabinet is a smaller 
receptacle for the air governor, feed and governor valves. 
To the left of the switch cabinet is a recess of similar depth 
provided with coat hooks. The motorman's cab has a double 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2. 

folding door in the side of the car and a double folding 
creep door leading into the smoking compartment. Above 
the latter door is a window. The cab is ventilated by a 5-in. 
Globe ventilator fitted with a bronze shutter which can be 
operated from the inside. The crown block from the motor- 
man's cab to the center of the car between the sills was 
routed out to receive cables and pipes leading from the 
space between the two center sills. 


All the side windows in the car as well as the window- 
above the creep door to the motorman's cab have Pantasote 
curtains equipped with O. M. Edwards spring rollers and 

Illinois Traction Car — Plan and Elevation of Rear End 

Forsyth fixtures with ring tips. The curtain rollers for the 
side windows are inclosed in mahogany curtain boxes held 
in place by bronze screws. 

As earlier stated, the car contains twenty reversible seats 
and six stationary seats. All of the stationary seats have 
cushions similar to those of the reversible seats and have 
their backs set at the same angle. The two long seats in 
the smoking room are made with spring bottoms and the 
edges of the cushions are covered with No. 14 sheet steel 
with rounded corners. All the seats in the smoking com- 
partment are upholstered in dark green split horsehide and 
the rest of the seats in the main passenger compartment 
are upholstered in green frieze plush. 

An emergency tool box located over the window in the 
motorman's cab contains one axe, one 8-lb. steel sledge, 
one Diston steel-blade hand saw and one small pinch bar. 
The tool box is lined with plush and all the tools are painted 
red and lettered "I. T. S." 

The car is equipped with one Illinois Traction System 
sheet-steel sand box and an air sander-trap with Ohio Brass 
Company's sander valve. The sand pipes and hose carry the 
sand in front of the wheels of the forward truck. 

The center aisle of the car in the main compartment is 
covered with a strip of plain brown linoleum 24 in. wide 
and 3/16 in. thick, at each edge of which is a beveled strip 
of hard maple. The car is lighted by forty incandescent 
lamps arranged in rows of four lamps across the ceiling at 
the double window posts. A shift light is provided for 
illuminating the motorman's cab. 


Each car is equipped with a No. i-C Peter Smith hot- 
water heater connected to three rows of i^-in. pipe on each 
side of the car under the continuous foot rest. These pipes 
extend from the heater compartment at the rear of the car 
as far forward as the baggage door on the right-hand side, 
and then under the floor and up into the motorman's cab 
and return to the rear on the left-hand side of the car. In 
addition to the hot-water heating equipment each car has 
twenty-seven Consolidated Car Heating Company's electric 
heaters distributed as follows : Sixteen under the reversible 
seats in the main compartment and four under the reversible 
seats in the smoking compartment ; two under one of the 
longitudinal seats and one under the other longitudinal seat 
in the smoking room; three heaters mounted against the 
front lining of the front vestibule. A cab type heater inde- 
pendent of the others is located in the motorman's compart- 
ment. The electric heaters are arranged for three degrees 
of heat and those in the main compartment are controlled 
independently of those in the smoking compartment. 


Grab handles and steps have been installed to conform to 
the requirements of the safety appliance law. Two wrought- 
iron handles have been placed on the front window posts 
of the cars and a continuous handle extends from the 
bumper beam up to the front vestibule window sill and 
across the front and down to the other end of the buffer 
beam. Wooden grab handles are placed outside of the mo- 
torman's cab door ; wrought-iron grab handles are placed at 
each side of the baggage door ; one wood grab handle has 
been placed over each inside rear vestibule door, and one on 
the outside of each of these doors; two wrought-iron grab 
handles have been placed on the rear center door posts, 
two on the rear dash and one at each diagonal corner of 
the car for mounting to the roof. Wrought-iron sill steps 
have been placed at the motorman's cab door and the bag- 
gage door, and wrought-iron ladders at diagonal corners on 
the outside of the car. 


All the trimmings in the car are made of polished bronze. 
These include match scratchers in the smoking room, door 
locks, catches and hinges, window catches and hinges, parcel 
racks, bell and register cord hangers, sign holders, grab- 
handle sockets and a corner grab handle in the toilet room. 
The car is equipped with four combination marker and clas- 
sification lamps of Adams & Westlake manufacture and 
with four combination flag and marker brackets. 

One of the short seats in the main passenger compartment 
has a well beneath it lined with zinc designed for storage 
of the marker lamps so as to prevent their damaging cloth- 
ing. Each car is equipped with one 6-amp automatic 
Wagenhals arc headlight and supporting brackets on the 
front dash of the car and on the rear train door. Some 
of the other miscellaneous equipment includes 3-gal. Alert 
chemical fire extinguisher, twelve destination signs sup- 
ported in a wood-lined galvanized iron box, six camp stools 
with mahogany frames and tops covered with Wilton car- 
pet supported by cotton duck ; malleable-iron threshold 
plates, Illinois Traction System standard window guards, 
Consolidated Car Heating Company's tow car coupler, 
Knutson No. 5 trolley retriever. Ohmer interurban type 

July 8, 191 1.] 



register, Dayton standard dry closet screen pocket in toilet 
room, bronze parcel racks built by the Rostrand Manufac- 
turing Company, Milford, Conn.; lazy-tong channel-iron 
gates for baggage-door opening, oil report-card box, equip- 
ment report-card box, train mail box and clip for holding 
train orders. 

The cars are equipped with hand brakes operated by a 
vertical acting ratchet lever brake handle installed in one 
corner of the motorman's cab. This hand-brake equipment 
supplements the Westinghouse schedule AMS combina- 
tion straight and automatic air-brake equipment, which has 
M-22 brake valves and D-2-E-G compressors. Conductor's 
emergency air valves are provided. 


The cars are mounted on Baldwin M.C.B. type trucks of 
30,000-lb. center-pin capacity. Each truck carries two 
303-A, 100-hp Westinghouse interpole motors. The control 
is Westinghouse unit-switch, type H-L, with combination 
mechanically and pneumatically operated reversers. The 
air pipes for the control are painted yellow and those for 
the brake system are painted black. The electric-light 
wiring is inclosed in conduit, but the cables are run in three- 
ply, i-in.. water hose. The main car cables are run in 
cotton hose and all of the main electrical wiring is pro- 

Line Circuit Breakers Open 

tected from chafing and runs through the hollow malleable- 
iron sill spacers between the center sills. This runway 
between the center sills is inclosed from below to protect 
the cables against wheel wash. 

The cars are fitted with Westinghouse Air Brake Com- 
pany's electro-pneumatic signal valves and cords designed 
for facilitating train operation. The signal apparatus is 
inoperative unless there is sufficient air on the car to apply 
the brakes and thus a safety feature is introduced. Cords 
and valves are so arranged that pulling the cord in any car 
will blow a signal on both platforms of each car except 
the motor car, on which the signal is only given at the rear 
of the car, thus making it possible to hold the conductor 
of the forward car responsible for the safe starting of the 
train. The same cord which operates the motorman's signal 
can be used by him for signaling the conductor of the head 

During the month of May, 191 1, the Employees' Relief 
Funds of the Pennsylvania Railroad and affiliated lines dis- 
tributed $186,886.96 in benefits to members. This was an 
average of $6,028.21 a day. The families of members who 
died received $58,220.18 and members who were in- 
capacitated for work received $128,666.78. Since the or- 
ganization of the fund in 1889 a total of $30,820,807.60 has 
been paid in death and disability benefits. 


The Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Company has 
recently installed in its power station at Scottsburg, Ind., 
a simple device by means of which the train dispatcher can 
open the circuit breaker instantly and throw all current 
off the line. The accompanying illustrations show the 
method of applying the device on the switchboard in the 
power house. The small electromagnet, shown at the right 
is connected to the trolley in series with two banks of 
incandescent lamps, one of which is mounted on the switch- 
board and the other in the dispatcher's office. A double- 
throw switch is inserted in the circuit in the dispatcher's 
office. With the switch in normal position the current 
passes from the trolley wire through both banks of incan- 
descent lamps and the electromagnet coil. The resistance 
of both banks of lamps in series is so high that the current 
flowing through the magnet coil is very weak and the arma- 
ture will not attract the tripping latch. 

To shut off the current from the line and stop the cars in 
an emergency the switch in the dispatcher's office is thrown 
to the second position. This cuts out one bank of incan- 
descent lamps from the circuit and lowers the resistance 
correspondingly. Sufficient current then flows through the 

i!;„ j>j Line Circuit Breakers Closed 

rfiagnet coil to attract a small horizontal tripping lever 
'Shown above the coil. This lever acts as a detent for the 
vertically pivoted lever which is connected to a rod extend- 
ing across the front of the switchboard. This rod is con- 
nected to small bell cranks under each circuit breaker. The 
shafts of these bell cranks pass through the switchboard 
and counterweights are attached on the back side. When 
the electromagnet is energized sufficiently to attract the 
latch lever the vertical lever is released and the counter- 
weights on the back of the switchboard cause the bell 
crank arms to move to the left. The bell crank arms 
strike the latches of the circuit breakers and open them 

As long as the dispacher's switch remains in the second 
position it is impossible to restore the circuit breakers 
because the instant the circuit breakers are closed the elec- 
tromagnet is energized and the detent latch is again 
attracted. When the dispatcher throws his switch to the 
second position the bank of incandescent lamps which 
remain in the circuit burn brightly for an instant and then 
go out. The dispatcher thus has a positive indication that 
the tripping device has operated and that the current is off 
the line. 

The details of the device were worked out by H. D. 
Murdock, superintendent of the Indianapolis & Louisville 
Traction Company. 


[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2. 

Equipment Trust Securities 


This Article Describes the Methods of Issuing Equipment Trusts and Discusses the Character of the Security Covered by 


A study of equipment trust securities, as applied to elec- 
tric railways, brings out little that does not apply also to 
the same class of securities put forth by steam railroads. 
Indeed, it is, comparatively, only recently that electric rail- 
ways have taken advantage of this most excellent form of 
borrowing for the purpose of providing equipment. 

Therefore for the history of the equipment trust plan 
we must turn to the steam railroads, where it is found that 
equipment trust securities were first issued in the early 
seventies. A careful investigation seems to show the sur- 
prising fact that there has never been a permanent default 
in principal* and but few instances of delay in the payment 
of interest upon the securities of this nature. I believe 
this is a record not equaled by any other form of corpora- 
tion security either here or abroad. 

During the three years of panic and receiverships, 1893- 
1896, a time when railroads as a olass were in a worse 
condition than they have been since, equipment securities 
made a most remarkable record. Over 100,000 miles of 
steam railroad were placed in charge of receivers. The 
companies which failed had outstanding many millions of 
dollars of equipment securities of various forms, and in 
every instance the holders of these securities received pay- 
ment in full for principal and interest. In many cases the 
first mortgage bonds were in default and, in the process of 
reorganization, were scaled down or changed for a junior 
lien, yet the equipment securities, with few exceptions, suf- 
fered no delay in the receipt of interest and in the end ob- 
tained par value for both principal and interest. 

It is particularly interesting to note, in corroboration of 
the above, the names of railroads reorganized without loss 
to the holders of equipment securities. The list is a long 
one, but only the best known are selected as examples, as 
follows : 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad. 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 
Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad. 
Northern Pacific Railroad. 
Philadelphia & Reading Railroad. 
Union Pacific Railway. 

In the reorganization of these properties practically all 
other securities issued by them were scaled either in amount 
or rate. 

The principal reason for this remarkable record is that 
a railroad cannot operate without equipment. That is axio- 
matic ; therefore it or the court in charge during the re- 
ceivership cannot afford to permit anything to happen 
which will deprive it of what may be called, for lack of a 
better word, its tools. In fact, that particular word has 
been used in court to explain the importance of recognizing 
equipment obligations. 

The courts have recognized the truth of this and have 
often permitted receivers to issue their certificates to pro- 
vide for the payment of interest and instalments of prin- 

Thus equipment securities have not only the first lien 
upon a most necessary part of a railroad property, but their 
obligations receive a prompt recognition from the courts. 
Due to the ample and growing margin of value over the 
debt outstanding, they are always in a very important and 
satisfactory position from the standpoint of the investor 
and they bring satisfactory returns to the company. 

That buying equipment by the equipment trust method 
has grown in popularity is expressively shown by the table 

prepared from the reports of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission. The ratio of equipment obligations to the total 
of capital stock, bonds and other interest-bearing debt (ex- 
cluding ordinary bills or notes payable) has nearly trebled 
since 1888, but the enormous increase of actual debt out- 
standing of this nature, the amount outstanding in 1908 
being seven times the amount outstanding in 1888, is the 
best evidence of how this class of security has pleased the 
investing public and assisted the railroads. 

Table I. — Amount or Equipment Obligations Outstanding. From 
Annual Reports of Interstate Commerce Commission, 1888-1909. 

1888 $49,294,329 1899 $42,058,348 

Not available 1900 60,308,320 


49,478,215 1901 68,116,723 

54,755,157 1902 89,208,425 

55,153,595 1903 142,980,116 

62,699,282 1904 173,334,694 

63,970.204 1905 186,302,906 

55,915,327 1906 224,719,099 

50,304,931 1907 329,773,289 

39,888,767 1908 344,592,782 

40,351,111 1909 307,869,061 

Equipment trusts equaled 0.637 P er cent °f total stock and 
funded debt of the railroads in 1888 and they have nearly 
trebled, increasing to 1.760 per cent, in 1909. 

It is interesting to note the effect business depressions 
have had upon these securities. Table I shows that at every 
pause in business more equipment trusts are issued than at 
just before that period ; also that the tendency is to reduce 
the amount outstanding after the depression has passed, or, 
in other words, to issue the trusts in smaller amounts while 
the maturities serve to reduce the total outstanding. 

This does not by any means argue that equipment trusts 
are panic makeshifts, but rather that the plan is recognized 
as the surest one that will permit the company to continue 
to purchase its equipment without material sacrifice of 
proceeds of obligations issued. In fact, there are times 
when they are almost the only obligations which can be 
issued economically. 

The investor finds these securities to be conservative and 
exceptionally safe. His only regret is the chance of early 
maturity of his holdings, but as there are always investors 
in the market who wish short term investments, that objec- 
tion is easily met. In this connection there are two plans 
by which the instalments are called. The usual method is 
to fix the maturity of bonds by number in the agreement; 
the other plan is to call by lot in the customary manner. 
In either case the market value is usually close to par. 

When issuing an equipment trust the usual plan is for 
the company to pay 10 per cent of the cost of the equip- 
ment in cash. The remaining 90 per cent fixes the amount 
of the bonds issued. The term of payment is spread over 
ten years in eaual annual or semi-annual instalments. At 
the termination of the full period, that is to say, at the 
payment of the last instalment, the title to the whole equip- 
ment is turned over to the company in fee and ordinarily 
falls under the operation of the "after acquired property" 
clause of a regular mortgage. 

An electric-car trust covers not only the car body and 
trucks but also the electric equipment and air-brake equip- 
ment of the car ; that is to say, the whole car equipment 
is treated and covered as a unit. With reference to the 
financial plan upon which equipment securities are issued 
and assuming, for example, the average life of equipment 
at twenty years and subject to a flat depreciation of 5 per 
cent a year, also that the instalments are payable semi-an- 
nually, the plan works out about as follows : 

July 8, 191 1.] 



Cost of equipment $1,000,000 

Paid in cash 100,000 

Represented by equipment bonds 900,000 

Semi-annual installment 45» 000 

Annual depreciation 50,000 

When issued. 

After 1st half 

" 2d 

" 3rd " 

" 4th " 

" 5th " 

" 6th " 

" 7th " 

" 8th " 

" 9th " 

" 10th " 

" nth " 

" 12th " 

" 13th " 

" 14th " 

" 15th " 

" 16th " 

" 17th " 

" 18th " 

" 19th " 

" 20th " 

Table II. — Showing Course of Equipment Securities. 

Security Company's 
raes Bonds ^Equity 

year . 

Value of 

, 950,000 

, 900,000 



. 800,000 
. 775,000 

. 725,000 

. 675,000 
. 650,000 
. 625,000 
. 600,000 
. 575,000 
. 550,000 
. 525,000 
. 500,000 

Bonds Ti 
Outstanding. Ot 


Per Cent. 


A short consideration of the accompanying diagram 
shows the course of the debt clearly. The diagram is based 
on semi-annual payments and shows diagrammatically the 
facts given in Table II. The line marked "security times 

Years Electric Ry. Journal 

Diagram Showing Relation Between Security and Debt 

debt outstanding" is the one which most clearly gives the 
value of this plan of borrowing in the eyes of the lender. 
Because of the steadily reducing amount of debt outstand- 
ing and also because of the condition in the deed of trust 
that the title of the whole equipment stays with the trustee 
until the last instalment is paid, the margin of safety to the 
lender has, at the sixth year, climbed to twice the amount 
of outstanding debt. From the sixth year the rise is rapid 
until at the ninth year the security is just over six times 
the debt. 

From the point of view of the railroad the curve giving 
the per cent of equity is of much interest. In six years 
the margin is 50 per cent and it increases rapidly thereafter. 

In electric as well as in steam railroad practice there are 
in general use three methods by which equipment securities 
are issued. In each of the three the railroad is obligated 
for any loss which may arise. 

The first method is to purchase the equipment through an 

association which leases the equipment to the railroad. The 
lease is deposited with a trustee which issues its car-trust 
certificates against the lease. 

Another form follows the first, except that the association 
sells its own stock instead of using the trustee's certificate. 
The certificates of stock in this instance are ordinarily guar- 
anteed by the railroad. 

These two methods are known as the "Philadelphia plan." 
The third method, now most used, is a direct first-mortgage 
equipment bond issued by the railroad itself. The trustee 
in this case holds the title under lease or else sells it condi- 
tionally to the railroad. 

The result of each of these plans is the same, viz. : Not 
until the last security is taken up is the equipment deeded 
by the trustee or the association to the railroad. 

Under certain of the above conditions the interest upon 
the notes is called a rental but under other plans it is called 

Speaking broadly, the form of agreement between the 
railroad and the trustee follows closely the form of an 
ordinary mortgage, although the length of the agreement or 
the trust deed, as the case may be, is very much shorter, 
due to the less complicated nature of the property mort- 
gage. Of course, the conditions provided in the agreements 
vary, probably no two agreements being exactly alike, but, 
in general, provision is made somewhat like the following, 
which is taken from a car trust agreement issued by an 
electric railway company: 

The company acknowledges receipt of the equipment, 
which is described by number and class. 

Title is to remain with trustee until last bond is paid. 

Bonds are to be retired in either semi-annual or annual 
instalments in accordance with the plan agreed upon. 

The wording of the bond is given in full. 

Bonds must be certified or countersigned by the trustee. 

Bonds may be registered as to principal. 

Temporary bonds may be issued. 

Maturing coupons are to be paid in gold in the usual 

Gold coin with which to retire maturing bonds, or the 
entire issue if called, is to be deposited by the company with 
the trustee. 

Company is to pay all taxes. 

Equipment is to be kept in full repair and cars destroyed 
are to be replaced with others "of like character and equal 

Cars are to be plainly marked showing the trustee to be 
the owner and lessor. 

Equipment is to be insured at the expense of the company 
and loss, if any, is to be paid to trustee. 

Mortgage is to be recorded. 

Company is to make periodical reports of condition of 
equipment, and trustee is to have the right of inspection and 
the further right to require repairs which it may consider 
necessary after inspection. 

The usual terms relating to default and seizure and sale 
of equipment and disposition of proceeds are provided. The 
company agrees to be liable for any deficiency as a result 
of such sale. 

The trustee may be removed, or resign, and its place be 
filled in the ordinary manner, and it is not to be held per- 
sonally responsible for acts performed in good faith. 

Trustee agrees to convey title to the company upon pay- 
ment of the last obligation and expenses of the trust. 

The resemblance of an equipment trust deed to the or- 
dinary mortgage of a railroad is thus seen to be quite 

The courts are now rather generally permitting executors 
to invest trust bonds in equipment securities, especially when 
another bond of the same company is acceptable for such 
investment. Hence, equipment obligations, when issued by 
a railway, must not be taken as an indication of financial 
weakness, but as showing that the company is taking ad- 

8 4 

vantage of a modern partial payment method to replace 
equipment out of earnings. It is thus a form of deprecia- 

The securities are not listed upon stock exchanges, but 
on account of their equity and the importance placed upon 
them by the courts they are always in demand and are liquid 
investments to a marked degree. 

Only during the last few years has the plan been adopted 
by the electric railways. The census of 1907 made no 
separate tabulation of car trusts, and as that is the only 
source of complete information available for electric rail- 
way statistics, no figures can be obtained. The plan is being 
taken up more widely and successfully from year to year 
and there seems no good reason why the equipment trust 
should not be as satisfactory to the electric roads as it has 

been to the steam railroads. 


Beginning with the issue of July 15 the Electric Rail- 
way Journal will be issued and put in the mails on Satur- 
day morning of each week instead of on Thursday after- 
noon. This will allow the publishers to keep the news and 
editorial columns open thirty-six hours later than formerly 
and to include in the issue of the current week news of 
conventions and otber events occurring as late in the week 
as Thursday. It is hoped that this change, with the in- 
crease in size of type introduced with the issue of July 1, 
will be appreciated by the readers of this paper. 


The American Society for Testing Materials held its 
fourteenth annual convention in Atlantic City June 27 to 
July 1, inclusive. Among other subjects considered were 
specifications for hard-drawn copper wire and specifications 
for rolled-steel wheels and heat-treated axles. 

The specifications for hard-drawn copper wire submitted 
this year were amended so as to provide a more practicable 
test for small sizes of wire. The requirements for all sizes 
are the same as those submitted last year except that the 
percentage of elongation is increased for the smaller sizes. 

The specifications for rolled-steel wheels which were 
submitted by committee A-i on standard specifications for 
steel were referred back to the committee for further con- 
sideration. The specifications for heat-treated axles, how- 
ever, were approved and will be submitted to letter ballot 
for adoption. As they differ in several important respects 
from the specifications submitted by the committee on 
heavy electric traction of the American Electric Railway 
Engineering Association they are reprinted below. 


1. Steel under this specification shall be made by the 
open-hearth or other approved process. 

2. A sufficient amount of discard must be made from each 
ingot to insure freedom from piping and undue segregation. 

3. The steel shall conform to the following limits in 
chemical composition : 

Carbon Not over 0.60 per cent 

Manganese 0.40 to 0.80 " " 

Phosphorus Not over 0.05 " " 

Sulphur " " 0.05 " " 

4. Drillings shall be taken from the crop end of one axle, 
shaft, or similar part from each melt represented, parallel 
to the axis on any radius one-half the distance from the 
center to circumference, to determine whether the chemical 
composition of the heat is within the limits of Par. 3. 

In addition to the complete analysis, the purchaser has 
a right to call for a phosphorus determination, to be made 
from turnings from each tensile test specimen, and the 
phosphorus must show within the limits of Par. 3. 

[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2. 

5. The steel shall conform to the following minimum 
physical properties: 

Ultimate strength, lb. per sq. in 85,000 

Elastic limit 50,000 

Elongation in 2 in., per cent 22 

Reduction of area 45 

The elastic limit shall be determined by extensometer. 
Above 40,000 lb. per square inch each increment of load 
shall be not more than 1000 lb. per square inch. 

6. The test specimen, 0.5-in. diameter and 2-in. gage 
length, shall be used to determine the physical properties 
as specified in Par. 5. Test specimens shall be taken from 
the crop end of one axle, shaft, or similar part, from each 
treating-plant heat; if more than one open-hearth heat is 
represented in a treating-plant heat, a test shall be taken 
from each open-hearth heat represented. A full-size pro- 
longation shall be left on each axle, shaft or similar part. 

7. A cold bend test shall be made from the crop end of 
one axle, shaft, or similar part, from each treating-plant 
heat; if more than one open-hearth heat is represented in 
a treating-plant heat, a test shall be taken from each open- 
hearth heat represented. The test shall be made with a 
l />-in. square specimen, 6 in. in length, around a flat man- 
drel with edges of J^-in. radius, and the specimen shall 
bend, without fracture, 180 deg. around the said mandrel. 

8. Specimens for tensile test and cold bend test shall be 
taken parallel to the axis of the axle or shaft and on any 
radius half way from the center to the circumference. 

9. In case the physical results obtained from any lot of 
axles, shafts, or similar parts, do not conform to those 
called for by Par. 5 and 7, the manufacturer shall have the 
privilege of re-treating such parts, from which new tests 
shall be taken by the purchaser, and these shall govern the 
acceptance or rejection of the lot. 

10. Each axle, shaft or similar part shall be allowed to 
cool after forging, shall then be reheated to the proper 
temperature, quenched in some medium, allowed to cool, 
and then reheated to the proper temperature for annealing. 

11. Warped axles or shafts or similar parts must be 
straightened hot — that is, at a temperature above 900 deg. 
Fahr., and before offering the parts for test. 

12. All axles, shafts and similar parts shall be free from 
cracks, flaws, seams or other injurious imperfections when 
finished. Those which show such defects while being fin- 
ished by the purchaser will be rejected and returned to the 
manufacturer, who must pay return freight. 

13. All axles, shafts and similar parts must be rough- 
turned with an allowance of % in. on surface for finishing, 
except on collar, which is to be left rough forged. Turning 
must be done on 60-deg. centers with clearance at point. 

14. The heat number shall be stamped on the rough 
forged collar. After rough turning the manufacturer's 
name, heat number, individual axle or shaft number and 
inspector's mark shall be stamped at place indicated by the 
purchaser, except at any point between the rough collars. 

15. The inspector representing the purchaser shall have 
free entry, at all times while his contract is being executed, 
to all portions of the manufacturer's shop which concerns 
the manufacture of material ordered. All reasonable facili- 
ties shall be afforded to the inspector by the manufacturer 
to satisfy him that the axles, shafts and similar parts are 
being furnished in accordance with the specifications. All 
tests and inspection shall be made at the place of manufac- 
ture prior to shipment and free of cost to the purchaser. 
The purchaser shall have the right to make tests to govern 
the acceptance or rejection in his own testroom, or else- 
where, as may be decided by the purchaser, such test, how- 
ever, to be made at the expense of the purchaser and to be 
made prior to the shipment of the material. Unless other- 
wise arranged, any protest based on such tests must be 
made within six days to be valid. Tests and inspection 
shall be so conducted as not to interfere unnecessarily with 
the operation of the mill. 


July 8, 191 1.] 






Milwaukee, Wis., June 26, 191 1. 

To the Editors : 

Referring to the recent convention of the National Elec- 
tric Light Association in New York, May 29 to June 2, and 
to the marvelous growth in the membership of that associa- 
tion, particularly in Class A company members and Class B 
associate members, composed of officers and employees of 
company members, unquestionably the most potent factor 
in increasing the membership has been the formation of 
"company sections." 

This company has recently formed a "company section" 
of the National Electric Light Association with a mem- 
bership of 101, 94 of whom became Class B members of 
the National Electric Light Association in order to be 
eligible -for membership in the "company section." This 
means that there were added to the Class B membership 
roll 94 members, who, presumably, would not have other- 
wise become Class B members of the National Electric 
Light Association, and would not be eligible for nor be 
able to participate in the advantages of membership in the 
"company section." 

The advantages of "company sections" to the companies, 
their employees and the National Electric Light Associa- 
tion are so well understood as to need no specific mention 
here. These advantages are mutually beneficial and of far- 
reaching importance. 

This company, being a member of the American Electric 
Railway. Association as well as of the National Electric 
Light Association, feels that the formation of "company 
sections" in the American Electric Railway Association, 
along the lines laid down and followed by the National 
Electric Light Association, would accomplish the same 
relative and comparative good results for the American 
Electric Railway Association and for the interests which it 
represents as have been accomplished by the National Elec- 
tric Light Association and for the interests which it repre- 

As the recognized and authoritative organ of the electric 
railway business, if this suggestion appeals favorably to 
you, or if you consider the matter of sufficient importance 
to bring it to the attention of your readers, you are at 
liberty to publish this letter, if you so desire. 

C. N. Duffy, Comptroller. 

Mr. Duffy's letter suggests that an outline of the present 
organization and different classes of members of the 
National Electric Light Association may be of interest to 
those who are not acquainted with the plan of organization 
of the National Electric Light Association. There are five 
different classes of members as follows: 

Class A members are company members, and are the only 
ones who vote. The privilege of holding office is con- 
fined to representatives of member companies. The dues 
of member companies depend upon the population of the 
city in which the lighting company is located and vary 
from $10 a year to $1,250 a year. 

Class B members are officers or employees of member 
companies and are elected and continued from year to year 
as members only with the consent of the member company 
with which they are connected. They have the privilege 
of attending the open meetings of the association. They 
may also attend the executive sessions if they have the 
consent of the member company with which they are con- 
nected. The "company sections" mentioned by Mr. Duffy 
are made up of Class B members by the organization into 
local sections of the employees of individual member com- 
panies. These company sections hold frequent sessions at 
which technical subjects are discussed. The advantages 

of a section of this kind over an ordinary electrical club 
within the ranks of the company are that each member 
receives all of the publications of the association and so 
is kept in touch with the technical progress of the industry. 
These reports and the Monthly Bulletin and Question Box 
form the basis in many instances of the discussions at the 
meetings of these company sections. The dues of Class 
B members are $5 a year for any section other than a 
company section and $2.50 additional for membership in 
each additional section. 

Class C members are instructors, teachers and practi- 
tioners of engineering and related sciences, who are inter- 
ested in the objects of the association. They may become 
members only upon the annual invitation of the executive 
committee, and they may attend the open meetings of the 
association. The dues are $5 per year. 

Class D members are the manufacturing companies, 
which in the American Electric Railway organization are 
members of the Manufacturers' Association. Publishers and 
firms of consulting engineers also come in this class. They 
have the same privileges as Class C members. The dues 
are $20 a year, plus $5 for each representative or guest 
enrolled under the company's name at the annual con- 

Class E members are individuals connected with the 
corporations which are Class D members. They are elected 
and continued from year to year only with written consent 
of the company with which they are connected. The 
annual dues for Class E members are the same as for 
Class B members. 

Number of Members National Electric Light Association as of 
June 24. 

1909. 1910. 1911. 

Class A 731 850 962 

Class B 2,079 3,757 6,942 

Class C 19 

Class D 194 219 231 

Class E 133 688 837 

Total 3,137 5,514 8,991 

Some figures on the growth of the different classes of 
members of the Electric Light Association during the 
last two years may also be of interest in this connection. 
They are given in the accompanying table. — Eds. 



The Western Electric Company, in conjunction with the 
Union Switch & Signal Company, has been working on a 
combination telephone and semaphore system which would 
provide a selectively operated semaphore signal for use 
in connection with the telephone train wire — that is, 
instead of having a selector on the telephone circuit ring 
a bell at a way station, the semaphore at this point 
will be thrown. This gives the dispatcher a chance to get 
into communication with any train crew. The economy of 
time and the increased safety of operation resulting from a 
combined semaphore, selector and telephone equipment are 
important advantages of this system. 

The semaphore selector and telephone equipment are 
mounted on the same iron post in a weatherproof box, 
making the apparatus self-contained. The box is locked so 
that access to it is obtainable only by means of keys which 
would be furnished to the proper parties. The semaphore 
signal is of standard make and can be furnished in either 
the upper or lower quadrant types, as desired. A three- 
spectacle casting is provided. The semaphore blade itself 
can be furnished of any type or shape desired. 

Everything is arranged for facilitating maintenance 
work. Terminals of ample size are used throughout in the 
apparatus, and practically all maintenance connections in- 
side the casting are made with terminal screws or hexagonal 
lock-nuts. The wiring throughout is of insulated weather- 
proof braided wire, conforming with good signal practice. 




All of the wood which is used in the interior of the set is 
oil-treated. The telephone and selector are inclosed in an 
inner compartment. All openings are arranged so that 
water cannot enter the set. In addition, the outer door of 
the set has a weatherproof gasket, rendering it practically 
impervious to moisture. 

The signal mechanism is of the electrically operated type, 
but is manually restored. The operating relay is normally 
de-energized, and ten dry cells are required for its opera- 
tion. As this relay will operate on four cells, an ample 
margin of battery is allowed. The signal mechanism proper 
is contained in the compartment at the top of the casting. 
The only part of this which appears on the surface of the 
inside door is the handle of the restoring lever. The 
selector and terminals are readily accessible for mainte- 
nance purposes. 

One important feature of the selectively operated sema- 
phore is the fact that it gives to the dispatcher an answer 
back which cannot be mistaken, telling him that one particu- 
lar semaphore has completed its movement and is at the 
"stop" position at the time the answer-back signal is re- 

The telephone set is especially designed for railway work 
and is of high efficiency. The transmitter and receiver are 
mounted on the outside of the inner door on the lower part 
of the apparatus casting. The transmitter mouthpiece is 
of metal and so fastened in the set that it cannot be re- 
moved without opening the inner door. All parts are ar- 
ranged so that they can be easily inspected and maintained. 

All metal is given a black finish, 
which eliminates any chance of rust- 

The signal mechanism is operated 
by the Western Electric's latest type 
of railway selectors. This selector is 
practically independent of weather 

bell ringing at the point called, a semaphore blade moves 
to "stop." The answer-back signal returns to the dispatcher 
clearly and distinctly and then he waits for the crew of the 
train so signaled to call in. Should he be disconnected from 
the circuit for any reason the crew can easily call him, but 
ordinarily operating practice does not require this. Only 
one pair of wires is needed to extend along the line. As 
many sets as may be desired can be connected to this cir- 
cuit, and it is used both for talking and signaling. All 
equipment is bridged directly across the circuit and any 
piece of apparatus can be taken off the line without affect- 
ing the rest of the equipment. 

The use of these instruments affords an exceedingly 
flexible system, for as many semaphores can be located upon 
one telephone circuit as necessary, in addition to the tele- 
phone apparatus. 

If desired, standard telephone apparatus can also be used 
at other points along this circuit where semaphores are not 
located. This semaphore equipment can also be placed upon 
existing train wires which are being operated by means of 
the telephone. In addition to being exceedingly flexible, 
the use of these semaphores insures an accurate, speedy, 
convenient and economical method of handling train move- 
ments. .*.#■• 


The Woodward (Ala.) Iron Works have ordered a 
35-ton slow-speed locomotive from the General Electric 
Company. It will be used for hauling coke. The locomo- 
tive makes about fifty round trips a day, the approximate 
length of each trip being 2000 ft., and it handles about 
20 tons of coke per trip. There is a 3 per cent grade 
about 300 ft. long. The locomotive has all-steel framing 
and cao and arch bar truck. It is equipped with type M 
single unit control. 

Signal Post 

Outer Door Open 

conditions and is asserted to be absolutely reliable. It is in 
operation at the present time on eighteen of the largest 
railroad systems in this country, where it is giving universal 

The circuit arrangements of the signaling equipment 
above described are very similar to the standard Western 
Electric train dispatching circuit. The dispatcher operates 
selector keys in the same manner ; instead, however, of a 

Inner Door Open 

The platform framing consists of six pieces of channel 
and two large plates, all riveted. Of these two 8-in. side 
channels 18^ lb. per foot and two 7-in. center channels 
lyY^. lb. per foot run the whole length of the platform. A 
box casting forming the drawhead is .riveted between the 
center channels and to an 8-in. cross channel that forms the 
end framing. The outer longitudinal channels are also 
riveted to the same cross channel through forged knees. 

July 8, 191 1.] 



All this channel framework is connected and squared by 
two heavy plates, each of which covers half the length of 
the platform and runs the entire width, forming the floor of 
the locomotive. The whole forms a simple and substantial 

The draft gear is a Climax No. 3 M.C.B. freight coupler 
with 5-in. x 5-in. shank fitted with yoke springs and follower 
plates. It is carried in an extension of the drawhead cast- 
ing, which is riveted to the center sills and end frame, so 
that hauling and buffing stresses are transmitted directly to 
the principal members of the locomotive frame. An oak 
buffer beam cushions buffing shocks. 

The center pin is a steel casting riveted to a bolster 
formed of upper and lower plates, each % i n - x ! 7H- i n - Of 
these the lower plate passes under all three sills and is 
riveted to them, while the upper plate passes under the 
center sills, and turning sharply upward butts against the 
outer sill near the floor plate. Thus there is formed a 
truss of great vertical rigidity which assists in transmitting 
the weight of the platform to the center pin. 

The ballast consists of 2-in. rolled bars lying between the 
sills and running the whole length of the platform. They 
are notched over the bolster plates and bolted to the sills, 
thus strengthening the platform framing instead of serving 
merely as dead weight. 

The members of the truck side frame are forged bars 4 in. 
wide. The journal boxes are steel castings carried between 
the top bar and tie bar by pedestal bolts and fitted with 
bronze bearings and wedges. Malleable-iron bolster guides 
are bolted in between top bar and arch bar with ij^-in. 
bolts and a spring plank consisting of a 12-in. steel channel 
is riveted to these bolster guides. The bolster itself is a 
steel casting of a box girder design approximately 8 in. x 
10 in. deep, with the lower center pin formed in the upper 
surface of the casting. Cast-iron side bearings are bolted 
to the outer ends of the bolster. The weight of the bolster 
and center pin load is carried on full elliptic springs built 
up of jM$-in. plates 6 in. wide and designed for a normal load 
of 12,365 lb. each. The brake rigging is inside hung. A 
12-in. x 12-in. brake cylinder is located midway between the 
trucks and attached to the center platform sills. The brake 
piston is attached to the truck levers through a system of 

Apparatus of Woodward Locomotive in Place with Cab 
End Removed 

floating levers arranged symmetrically on the two sides of 
the locomotive. 

The central cab contains the apparatus directly manipu- 
lated in the control of the locomotive, while the auxiliary 
end cabs contain the auxiliary apparatus. The width of 
all the cabs is slightly less than the platform width, leaving 
a running board about 10 in. wide. The cabs themselves 
are built of soft sheet steel plates. Doors and windows are 
framed in small angles and channels riveted to the inside of 
the cab sheet and serving the double purpose of framing the 

doors and windows and of stiffening the cab sheets. The 
view of an end cab removed shows the arrangement of the 
auxiliary apparatus. At the outer end of the platform are 
located the air reservoirs and sand boxes. Next to them 
the rheostats are located on one side and a bank of con- 
tactors upon the opposite side, the latter supported on a 
channel iron framework built up from the floor of the loco- 
motive. All wiring in the locomotive is drawn through con- 
duits which were built into the locomotive during construc- 

Slow-Speed Locomotive for the Woodward Iron Works 

tion. The conduits and piping in the main cab are bracketed 
against the walls. A false flooring of wood in the main cab 
covers all the conduits and pipes which are cleated to the 
iron floor beneath. In the center of the main cab there is 
a CP-28 air compressor. 

The locomotive operates at 220 volts. The motor equip- 
ment consists of four GE-57-H motors furnished with gear- 
ing giving a ratio of 4.25 to 1. The motors can develop a 
tractive effort of 10,000 lb. at the rated one-hour load with a 
speed of 6 m.p.h. 

A US-106 bow trolley on the cab roof will make contact 
with a trolley wire having a variation in height from 15 ft. 
to 22 ft. above the rail heads. The fuse box and lightning 
arrester are also mounted on the cab roof. 

The engineer's operating seats are placed at diagonally 
opposite corners of the main cab. A C-74-A controller is 
located near the engineer's left hand. Directly in front of 
the engineer are located the handles for sander and brake 
valves. One brake valve operates the automatic air system 
for braking the train, the other the straight air system ap- 
plied to the locomotive alone. The air compressor furnishes 
air also for dumping the cars and for closing the doors of 
the coke ovens. An illuminated duplex air gage is placed at 
the right-hand side of the engineer's window. The head- 
lights are of the G.E. luminous arc type. A switchboard in 
the interior of the main cab contains the switches for the 
auxiliary circuits, including one main auxiliary switch, two 
switches for headlights, one for cab lights, one for com- 
pressor and two switches for control circuits. All these 
auxiliary switches are of the MS-46 type. 

A 50-lb. bell is mounted on one end and an air-operated 
whistle on the other. These are operated through bell and 
whistle ropes leading to the engineer's positions. The loco- 
motive is fitted with a tool box and other miscellaneous 
equipment, such as flags, screw jacks, oil cans, etc. The 
general dimensions and main specifications of this locomo- 
tive follow : 

Length inside of knuckles 26 ft. in. 

Length over cab 22 ft. 6 in. 

Height over cab 10 ft. 9 in. 

Height with trolley down 12 ft. in. 

Width over all 8 ft. 6 in. 

Total wheel base 18 ft. in. 

Rigid wheel base 6 ft. in. 

Track gage 4 ft. 8 'A in. 

Weight electrical equipment 17,400 lb. 

Weight mechanical equipment 52,600 IK 

Weight, total 70,000 lb. 

Air compressors General Electric CP-28 

Compressor capacity 25 cu. ft. per minutt 

Control Type "M" single unit 

No. steps series parallel 6 

No. steps parallel 4 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2. 



Georgia. — Landings for Passengers. 

Generally the duty which the law imposes upon an ordi- 
nary railroad company to provide and maintain a safe place 
for landing its passengers is not applicable to a street car 
company operating its line along a public street of a city 
and not stopping at regular places selected by it, or provid- 
ing places for passengers to get on and off its cars, but 
stopping such cars at street crossings or various interme- 
diate places upon signal from a passenger. 

Under such circumstances it is the duty of the company 
and its agents or employees representing it to use due dil- 
igence to select a reasonably safe place for landing its pas- 
sengers, and to make such selection with reference to get- 
ting off the car while it is at rest. (Turner v. City Electric 
Ry. Co., 68 S. E. Rep., 735.) 

Massachusetts. — Controller Explosion — Res Ipsa Loquitur. 

That an explosion occurs in the controller box of a street 
car which up to the time of the explosion was running 
smoothly is not, under the doctrine of res ipsa loquitur, a 
showing of gross negligence on the part of the operatives 
of the car. (Martin v. Boston & N. St. R. Co., 91 N. E. 
Rep., 159.) 

Massachusetts. — Rights of Travelers on Street — Collision. 

That a passenger of an elevated railroad was injured by 
falling over parcels negligently left in the doorway of the 
car by another passenger does not render the carrier liable 
for the injury, in the absence of a showing that defendant 
had notice of the obstruction, or that it had existed for 
such a length of time that defendant should have known 
thereof. (Lyons v. Boston Elevated Ry. Co., 90 N. E. Rep., 

Massachusetts. — Injuries to Person on Track — Excessive 

A street railroad is liable for injuries resulting from a 
collision with a motorcycle at a crossing of a city street, 
where the car approached at the rate of 40 mlies an hour 
and, if it had approached at a reasonable speed, plaintiff 
could have seen it in time to have crossed in safety. (Rob- 
bins v. Dartmouth & W. St. Ry. Co., 89 N. E. Rep., 1039.) 
Massachusetts. — Injuries to Passengers — Contributory Neg- 

Where a passenger while boarding a street car was in- 
jured by placing his hand on the door as it was opening, the 
fact that in feeling for the handle plaintiff may have acci- 
dentally put his hand on the door before it was entirely 
open would not constitute contributory negligence if he was 
in the exercise of due care and the injury which he received 
was due either to the negligent manner in which the door 
was operated or to a defect in the construction of the car. 
(Carter v. Boston & N. St. Ry. Co., 91 N. E. Rep.. 143.) 
Massachusetts. — Injuries to Passengers — Negligence. 

In an action for injuries to a passenger falling into the 
space between the car and the platform while attempting to 
board a car at a subway station, it appeared that the clear- 
ance of 3 in. between the cars and the platform was the 
minimum clearance necessary. The distance between the 
center of the end door of the second car and a five-car train 
was normally 8 in. and might vary 2 in. more or less, owing 
to the swing of the car. The passenger attempted to board 
the second car through the end door, and fell into the space 
between the car and the platform, estimated at g z / 2 in. Held 
as a matter of law not to show the carrier's negligence in 
failing to use a movable platform or other appliance, so as 
to lessen the space between the platform and the car. 

That an elevated railway took steps to prevent a repeti- 
tion of an accident occasioned by a passenger falling into 
the space between the car and the platform while attempt- 
ing to board the car was not evidence of prior negligence. 
(Anshen v. Boston Elevated Ry. Co., 91 N. E. Rep., 157.) 
Michigan. — Master and Servant (Sec. 185*) — Negligence of 
Fellow Servants. 

Plaintiff, a street car conductor, was injured while on the 
running board by his foot coming in contact with a loaded 
wheelbarrow negligently left too near the track by one of 
the company's sectionmen for such a short time that it did 
not have actual or constructive notice of the obstruction. 

Held, that a master is not liable for injuries caused by a 
transitory act of a co-servant in using a safe appliance neg- 
ligently, so that the company was not liable for plaintiff's 
injuries, the car and roadbed being a safe place of work in 
absence of the servant's negligence. (Wickham v. Detroit 
United Ry., 125 N. W. Rep., 22.) 

Michigan. — Personal Injuries — Excessive Damages. 

A female passenger on a street car was injured in a colli- 
sion. She testified that she was struck on her forehead and 
become unconscious, and that she was injured on her nose, 
arm, chest, mouth and ankle, and that since the accident 
she had always been sick and dizzy, while before the acci- 
dent she had been in perfect health, doing her own work 
and earning wages besides. A physician who had treated 
her up to thirty days of the trial, occurring about twenty 
months after the accident, testified that she had recovered 
as far as could be seen. Held, that a verdict for $2,000 was 
not excessive. (Plozke v. Detroit United Ry., 127 N. W. 
Rep., 700.) 

Missouri. — Injuries — Negligence — Failure to Stop Car. 

That a four-year-old child after leaving the curb merely 
hesitated for a brief time in the street from childish inde- 
cision before advancing on to the track did not give the 
motorman the right to proceed under the idea that the child 
did not intend to go on to the track. (Simon et al. v. Metro- 
politan St. Ry. Co., 132 S. W. Rep., 250.) 
Missouri. — Damages. 

Plaintiff, who was injured by being thrown from defend- 
ant's street car, was forty-four years old, in good health, and 
earned $35 to $40 a month for eight months in the year as 
a school teacher. Her injuries were permanent, and it was 
probable that she would never be able to earn anything in 
the future, and she had suffered great pain from her in- 
juries. Held, that a verdict for $5,000 was not excessive. 
(Torreyson v. United Rys. Co. of St. Louis, 129 S. W. Rep., 

Missouri. — Injuries to Travelers — Negligence — Contributory 
Negligence — Prima Facie Case. 
Where plaintiff before driving on a street car track at 
night looked to see whether there was a car coming, and 
his companion thereafter kept a constant lookout for cars 
while plaintiff was driving on the track, where he was struck 
and injured by a car approaching without a headlight, in 
violation of an ordinance, such facts established a prima 
facie case of defendant's negligence and plaintiff's freedom 
from contributory negligence. (Maness v. Jopin & P. Ry. 
Co., 130 S. W. Rep., 87.) 

Missouri. — Injuries to Passengers — Care as to Enfeebled 


Where an old lady in an enfeebled condition boarded a 
street car, the conductor who had watched her was negli- 
gent in giving a signal to start the car before she had had 
a reasonable time in which to take a seat, rendering the 
railroad liable for injuries sustained to her by being thrown 
against the side of a seat by the starting of the car. (Brady 
v. Springfield Traction Co., 124 S. W. Rep., 1071.) 
Missouri. — Carriage of Passengers — Street Railways — Care 
Required — Contributory Negligence. 

It is the duty of a street railway company to exercise that 
high degree of care for the safety of passengers that a very 
careful person would use under like circumstances. 

In an action for injuries to a street car passenger struck 
by a cross-beam near the track on a curve, evidence that 
one track at that place was higher than the other, causing 
a car passing the beam, in rapid motion, to lurch, throwing 
the car near to the beam, was admissible on the question of 
the company's negligence. 

In an action by a street car passenger for injuries from 
being struck by a beam near a track, evidence tending to 
show that he was riding with a portion of his arm pro- 
truding through the car window is sufficient to take the case 
to the jury on the question of contributory negligence. 

Such an act of the passenger would not be negligence per 
se, preventing a recovery. (Gardner v. Metropolitan St. 
Ry. Co., 122 S. W. Rep., 1068-9.) 

Nebraska. — Care Required at Street Intersection. 

The employees in charge of the operation of a street car 
are held to great caution when crossing a street intersection 
at a point where a car upon the opposite track is, or has 

July 8, 191 1.] 



been very recently, discharging passengers. The motorman 
should keep a sharp lookout, give ample and timely warning 
of the approach of the car, and have it under such control 
that it can be readily stopped if necessary. (Stewart v. 
Omaha & C. B. St. Ry. Co., 129 N. W. Rep., 440.) 

New Jersey. — Injury to Pedestrian — Contributory Negli- 

Plaintiff left the sidewalk to cross a public street. When 
between the sidewalk and a street car track he looked and 
saw a car about 50 ft. away, approaching rapidly the point 
at which he intended to cross the tracks. Without paying 
any further attention to the car he walked in front of it 
and was struck by it. Held, that he was guilty of con- 
tributory negligence. (Kraut v. Public Service Ry. Co., 75 
At. Rep., 165.) 

New York. — Injuries to Passengers — Contributory Negli- 

Where the speed of a street car. running at 10 or 12 
m.p.h. as it struck a curve in the track, did not endanger 
the safety of passengers remaining in the seats provided 
for them, the act of a passenger in getting on the running 
board, when the car maintained that speed before and 
as it struck the curve, the existence of which he knew, was 
negligence as a matter of law, precluding a recovery for 
his injuries by being thrown from the car. (Maercker v. 
Brooklyn Heights R. Co., 122 N. Y. Sup., 87.) 

New York. — Injuries — Contributory Negligence — Failure to 
Stop and Look. 

Where a pedestrian's vision of street cars is obscured by 
darkness, obstructions, etc., he, as well as the motorman, 
must exercise increased vigilance in looking out for a 
street car in crossing the track and may even be required 
to make repeated efforts to determine whether a car is near 
before crossing the track. 

Plaintiff, in attempting to cross the double tracks of a 
street railway where they ran under the pillars of an elevated 
railway and while 20 ft. from the point at which he was 
struck, saw a car approaching some 125 ft. away, but did 
not try to determine its probable speed or again look at it, 
relying upon it giving him time to cross safely. Held, that 
plaintiff was negligent in crossing without attempting to 
obtain further information upon which to base his judg- 
ment that he could cross safely. (Wecker v. Brooklyn, 
Q. C. & S. R. Co., 120 N. Y. Sup., 1020.) 

New York. — Operation of Cars — Right-of-Way — Collisions 
— Negligence — Proximate Cause. 

The right of a street car, while operated in a block and 
not at street intersections, is paramount, and the motor- 
man may expect that a driver on the street in the block 
will not drive in front of an approaching car though he is 
headed in that direction, and the mere fact that his team 
is so headed does not call for the sounding of gongs and 
the giving of warnings until it is apparent that the driver is 
intent on going on the track or that he is obstructing the 
paramount rights of a car, since the motorman need only 
exercise reasonable care. 

A wagon of plaintiff was drawn up near the curb. The 
wagon of a third person was similarly drawn up and the 
driver thereof drove on the street car track in front of 
an approaching car and was struck by it so that his wagon 
was forced against the wagon of plaintiff, damaging it. 
There was nothing to apprise the motorman of any danger 
until the car was within 15 ft. of the point of collision and 
the car was not operated at a reckless speed. There was no 
evidence that the car could have stopped in time to have 
avoided the accident, though the danger of collision was 
apparent when the car was 50 ft. away. No gong was 
sounded. Held, that the proximate cause of the accident 
was the act of the third person, making him alone liable for 
the damages sustained by plaintiff. (Stern v. Brooklyn 
Heights R. Co. et al., 124 N. Y. Sup., 1043.) 

Pennsylvania. — Injury to Pedestrian — Automobiles. 

A passenger alighting from a street car is not free from 
contributory negligence where, without looking, he steps 
from the car and then, suddenly seeing an automobile ap- 
proaching, stops and is struck by it. (Kauffman v. Nelson, 
73 At. Rep., 1105.) 

Washington. — Injuries to Pedestrians — Contributory Negli- 

Plaintiff, a Scandinavian of a low degree of intelligence, 
attempted to cross a street in the middle of a block and, 
after waiting for a car to pass her, stepped in front of a car 
moving on the further track in the opposite direction and 
was struck and injured. She had lived in the vicinity of the 
accident for several months and was familiar with the tracks 
and the running of cars thereon. She had also seen the car 
by which she was injured approaching and had noticed 
that it was moving rapidly. Held that if plaintiff was a per- 
son of ordinary understanding and intelligence she would 
have been guilty of contributory negligence as a matter of 
law precluding her recovery. (Hovden v. Seattle Electric 
Co., 180 Fed. Rep., 487.) 

Wisconsin. — Construction of Cars — Plans — Statutes — Mas- 
ter and Servant — Competency — Negligence — Damages. 

The passage of Laws 1907, Ch. 390, providing for the use 
of fenders on street cars to go into effect at a future date 
makes manifest at once the legislative intent of the neces- 
sity for such a safety device. 

Where, in an action against a street railway company for 
the death of a person struck by a car, the competency of the 
motorman was in issue, evidence of his competency when 
he first began work was admissible as bearing on his com- 
petency at the time of the accident, in view of his limited 
experience before that time. 

Under St. 1898, Sec. 1862, providing that street railways 
must be constructed on the most approved plan, and under 
the franchise of a street railway company requiring it to use 
all reasonable care to prevent injury to persons and prop- 
erty, the testimony of an expert as to the proper equipment 
of street cars and that the most approved plan of construc- 
tion requires a fender to pick up objects in front of the 
car, is competent as against the company. (Fisher v. Wau- 
paca Electric Light & Ry. Co., 124 N. W. Rep., 1005-6.) 


Montana. — Master's Liability for Acts of Servant. 

Where an employee is made a special officer, the em- 
ployer is liable for his acts during the course of his duty, 
even though they are done in excess of his authority. 
(Rand v. Butte Electric Ry. Co. et al, 107 Pac. Rep., 87.) 
New York. — Costs — Assault on Passenger. 

Where plaintiff obtains a verdict of $25, and enters judg- 
ment thereon, for an assault in ejecting him from defend- 
ant's street car, costs held properly taxed by the clerk at 
$25, under Code Civ. Proa, Sec. 3228, Subd. 3. (Lynch v. 
Syracuse Rapid Transit Ry. Co., 124 N. Y. Sup., 169.) 

New York. — Master and Servant — Injuries— Contributory 

In an action by a motorman for personal injuries in a 
collision, plaintiff held guilty of contributory negligence 
for not fixing a curtain on the door so as to exclude the 
light from the vestibule, or for not opening the vestibule 
window to enable him to see ahead better, or for not run- 
ning the car slowly enough to enable him to avoid col- 
lision. (Forton v. Crosstown St. Ry. Co. of Buffalo, 121 
N. Y. Sup., 749.) 

Washington. — Master's Liability for Injuries to Servant — 
Assumption of Risk. 
_ A party working on a tower erected on a flat car in put- 
ting up trolley wire, who was familiar with the work and 
knew all the dangers incident thereto, that the trolley wire 
often slipped and was liable to do so any time, and that he 
would be injured by grasping a live wire, cannot recover for 
injury due to the trolley wire slipping and causing him to 
lose his balance so that he involuntarily grasped a live wire, 
since he assumed the risk of such injury. (Shore v. Spo- 
kane & I. E. R. Co., 106 Pac. Rep., 753.) 

Washington.— Master and Servant— Injury to Servant— Safe 
Place to Work — Delegation of Duty. 
Where the foreman of a crew of linemen when he saw the 
approach of a work train ordered his men to push a tower 
car across a bridge, it was his duty to protect them and not 
to permit them to go any further than they could with 
safety from the approaching train, and his negligence in not 
performing such duty was the negligence of the company. 
(Hillis et al. v. Spokane & I. E. R. Co., no Pac. Rep. 625.) 


News of Electric Railways 

Changes in the Personnel of the Spokane & Inland Empire 

Carl Raymond Gray has been elected president of the 
Spokane & Inland Empire Railway, Spokane, Wash., to 
succeed Jay P. Graves, and C. A. Coolidge has been elected 
first vice-president and general manager of the company 
to succeed A. L. White and C. M. Graves, respectively. 
Waldo G. Paine, who has been second vice-president and 
traffic manager of the company, continues in those capaci- 
ties. F. V. Brown, counsel for the Great Northern Railroad, 
and George T. Reid, counsel for the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road, Carl Raymond Gray and C. A. Coolidge have been 
elected directors of the company to succeed Jay P. Graves, 
A. L. White, W. G. Paine and Clyde M. Graves. W. G. 
Graves, Fred B. Grinnell and Aaron Kuhn remain as direc- 
tors of the Spokane & Inland Empire Railroad. Mr. Gray, 
the new president, issued the following statement on June 
24, 191 1, in regard to the changes in the personnel of the 

"Jay P. Graves, since disposing of a controlling interest 
about eighteen months ago, has, by request, retained direc- 
tion of the company's affairs, with the understanding that at 
some future date he would be relieved of the responsibility. 
His action in this respect has been greatly appreciated by 
the owners, and they are glad indeed to know that they will 
have his friendship and support. 

"These changes in management do not mean, and should 
not be construed to mean, any material change in the 
policies of the Spokane & Inland Empire System, and this is 
true with particular emphasis in so far as its relation to 
Spokane is concerned. This is peculiarly and distinctly a 
Spokane railroad, a home institution, and the constant aim 
of the new management will be to retain and deserve the 
friendship and good will of the Spokane business men and 
the Spokane public. 

"The only change beyond my own introduction into the 
question will be that C. A. Coolidge, who has been the 
efficient and successful manager of the Oregon Electric Rail- 
way, will in addition to his present duties assume charge of 
the operating department. 

"Both Mr. Coolidge and I will maintain our Spokane & 
Inland Empire offices here and will spend a very consider- 
able portion of our time in Spokane studying the property, 
its service and possibilities. 

"No department of the road will be moved away from 
Spokane. Its business' will continue to be handled and all 
of its departments will remain in its present general office 
building in Spokane." 

Conference Suggested on Transit Matters in Pittsburgh 

Mayor Magee of Pittsburgh, Pa., presented a long 
message to the Council of that city on June 27, 1911, in 
which he referred to various civic questions and suggested 
that the officers of the Pittsburgh Railways should be in- 
vited to confer with the city officials in regard to transit 
improvements, saying that "the future growth and develop- 
ment of the city are dependent more upon a wise solution 
of this subject than any other one factor." He referred to 
the reports on traffic conditions in Pittsburgh which were 
made by Emil Swensson and Bion J. Arnold and to the 
appeal by the city to the State Railroad Commission, and 
suggested that if the conferees failed to reach a mutually 
satisfactory conclusion "in regard to the rights and duties 
of the parties to the conference" the members of the Rail- 
road Commission should be invited to act as umpires. The 
Mayor also referred to the employment of D. T. Watson 
by him as advisory counsel, and said that if the effort to 
settle the matter by conferences failed Mr. Watson had 
evolved a theory of legal action to be followed by the city 
which would bring the subject before the courts for settle- 
ment. In referring to the claims of the city he said: 

"The city, on behalf of itself and the patrons of the road, 

"First — The implication exists in all the grants made to 
the underlying companies of the Pittsburgh Railways that 
they or their operating company are charged with the duty 
of rendering to the public adequate service, regardless of 
their financial condition. 

"Second — That the expressed conditions contained in the 
old charters and ordinances are still in effect and enforce- 

"Third — That the duties imposed in the general regulating 
ordinance of 1890 in regard to street repair and street 
cleaning are enforceable. 

"Fourth — That the capitalization of the railway system, 
based on the various leases and mergers, is fraudulent." 

In concluding his message the Mayor said: 

"This is by far the largest, the most complicated and the 
most difficult problem before your honorable body for solu- 
tion. It seems to me to be almost beyond the comprehen- 
sion of a single mind in all its phases and, without intending 
to anticipate the result of your deliberations, altogether 
beyond the capacity of the Pittsburgh Railways to contend 
with. Improvements necessitating the investment of many 
millions of dollars and capital investment that will require 
the additional payment of many hundreds of thousands of 
dollars of fixed charges to a corporation which last year 
failed to meet its present fixed charges by $1,300,000 seem 
to be almost a hopeless case." 

The Mayor's message was referred to the committee on 
public service and surveys. 

At the same meeting of the Council at which the Mayor 
presented his. message the Rapid Transit Subway Company 
applied for the right to construct a downtown loop sub- 
way, a subway in the East End District and a branch sub- 
way to Schenley Park. The names of those interested in 
the company were not given. This measure was referred 
to committee. There is now pending before the Council 
an application from the Pittsburgh Subway Company for 
the right to construct subway lines in the city. 

Transit Affairs in New York 

The Board of Estimate on June 29, 1911, received a re- 
port of the committee of the Board of Estimate and the 
Public Service Commission which is designed to bring 
about an immediate solution of the subway problem. 
This report recommends the acceptance of the modi- 
fications proposed by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany as a condition of its taking the lines partitioned 
to it in the compromise plan and presents an agreement by 
the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company that it will operate 
the entire extended subway system on the same terms if 
the city requires it. The Board of Estimate has the verbal 
assurance of Timothy S. Williams, president of the Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Company, which will be confirmed in 
writing, that his directors and his bankers will abide by his 
agreement. As to the Interborough Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, the supplemental report of the city's committee 
provides that the company be notified that the general 
modifications granted to the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany shall be made applicable to it in case it accepts the 
city's offer, and also grants more liberal terms to the 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company in two particulars: 

First — That if the Interborough Rapid Transit Company 
accept the elevated third-track franchises and the subway 
lines both, under an arrangement, in the case of the elevated 
lines, providing that the increased net profits over present 
earnings be divided equally with the city, any deficit below 
the amount of present net earnings on the elevated which 
might be realizzed after third-tracking shall be made cumu- 
lative, to be made up out of the future increased profits 
before the division with the city begins. 

Second — That in the leveling of the present leases to 49- 
year terms the city forego the right to claim an adjustment 
of the rental at the end of the original terms of each lease, 
namely, 50 years from the beginning of operation on the 
Manhattan and Bronx division of the subway and 35 years 
from the beginning of operation on the Brooklyn extension. 

July 8, 191 1.] 



No agreement was reached as to the time the compa.ny 
would have to make known its wishes under the amended 

The Public Service Commission has sent to the Board of 
Estimate a set of resolutions laying out a new rapid transit 
railroad under the East River from the Battery to Atla-ntic 
Avenue, Brooklyn, which will, under the subway plan 
adopted by the Board of Estimate recently, serve as the 
connecting link between the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany's Broadway line in Manhattan and the Fourth Avenue 
subway in Brooklyn. The proposed route will be 1.9 miles 
in length a.nd its cost, the larger part of which is repre- 
sented by the construction of the new tunnel under the 
river, will be $8,200,000. The subway will have two tracks 
under the East River and four tracks through Atlantic 

Toronto Municipal Railway 

The Ontario Municipal & Railway Board has approved of 
the city of Toronto's plans for proposed municipal car lines 
in the suburbs, which were referred to m the Electric Rail- 
way Journal of May 13, 191 1, page 849, in a report from the 
city engineer showing the estimated cost of the St. Clair 
and Greenwood Avenue lines. In making the order ap- 
proving the plans the board gave the following reasons: 

"From the estimates submitted it looks as if the new 
lines might pay, but it is not necessary for the board at 
this stage to determine this question. We do know that 
there are a large number of people in the territory recently 
annexed to the city that require street cars, and should 
have them. The city is receiving a large sum of money 
each year from the Toronto Railway as the city's share of 
the gross receipts. 

"It is only fair that the ratepayers who have street cars 
and who profit by the revenue, should spend some of that 
revenue in providing services for their less happily circum- 
stanced citizens. 

"We think we should facilitate the city in doing justice 
to the annexed districts by providing them with street car 

Some years ago the city made an attempt to compel the 
Toronto Railway to extend its lines into the annexed dis- 
tricts, and increase the present system within the older 
limits, but the case was defended by the company through 
the courts to the Imperial Privy Council at England, which 
court decided that the city had no power, under the agree- 
ment with the company, to compel it to build any exten- 

Governor Foss of Massachusetts Urges Utility Legislation 

C. H. Scovell, who was retained by Governor Eugene N. 
Foss, of Massachusetts, to report to him in regard to the 
regulation of public service corporations in Massachusetts, 
says in part in his report: 

"Regulation of public service commissions in Massachu- 
setts not only lacks uniformity, but in many instances there 
is equally conspicuous lack of efficiency. Theory of regu- 
lation has been to restrict operations of companies by strin- 
gent laws, especially in respect to capitalization, rather than 
provide a rational system of regulation through a commis- 
sion vested with large discretionary powers, such as in Wis- 
consin and New York. 

"It appears to be the expressed policy of the Massachu- 
setts Railroad Commission to act rather as 'an advisory tha.n 
an executive board — one constituting in a general way a link 
between the community and the corporations, depending 
for its influence chiefly on the right to look into everything, 
and to make recommendations appealing to the reason and 
interests of the corporations.' 

"In the near future Massachusetts must adopt a broader 
policy, particularly with respect to oversight of operations 
and policies of private management which are concerned 
with adequacy and efficiency of facilities and thus la.rgely 
determine growth and prosperity of the Commonwealth. 

"While there would be a substantial saving to the State 
from organization of one comprehensive commission rather 
than from development or expansion of present organiza- 
tions, the greatest gain would be in the resulting uniformity 

of State policy in regulation of public service corporations." 

In transmitting the report by Mr. Scovell to the Legisla- 
ture Governor Foss said in part: 

"Our present State regulation of public utilities does not 
safeguard the public; the policy is narrow and short-sighted 
in regard to such control, and a remedy may be found either 
in giving each commission broader power and making each 
live up to it, or by combining all these commissions in a 
single public service commission with powers to cover the 
whole field. 

"Such joint commission may consist either of experts or 
men of general training. In the latter case expert assist- 
ance can be retained as needed. This latter method is fol- 
lowed in New York. Our present commissions are a com- 
promise between these two methods and appear inade- 

"Proper supervision of public service corporations by the 
State, to insure satisfactory service, has now become a 
necessity we should demand. Future growth and welfare 
oi the commonwealth require it. 

'We have fourteen commissioners supervising public 
utilities named, drawing aggregate pay of $59,500, and all 
having large and costly organizations under them. In New 
York this work is done under a single commission of five 
for the metropolitan district and a similar commission for 
the rest of the State. They draw larger pay than our com- 
missions, but give their whole time and are undoubtedly the 
best men for their work. By combining commissions into a 
single board we could economize on clerical costs, as much 
of this work is of the same character in all present com- 

"The greatest gain would come from resulting increase 
in uniformity of control over public service corporations. 
With such a board, properly constituted and empowered, 
we would get better service from the corporation, far better 
value for public expense incurred and a better chance of 
properly developing the trade, commerce and transporta- 
tion of our State." 

Public Utility Legislation in New York 

The Public Service Commission of the First District 
of the State of New York, in answer to the request of the 
State Senate, has expressed its views on what legislation 
it considers necessary. It has declared that the Public 
Service Commissions law should be amended so as to pro- 
hibit the right of review by certiorari of the commissions' 
decrees regarding rates and services of public service cor- 
porations, and also that the stock corporation law should 
be altered so as to place under the approval of the com- 
mission the securities to be issued by reorganized com- 

The first recommendation springs from a consideration 
of the status of the transfer question. The commission re- 
views the history of transfers in New York from the time 
the Metropolitan Street Railway system went into the 
hands of receivers. Both the Appellate Division and the 
Court of Appeals have decided that the order for the estab- 
lishment of transfers between the Metropolitan Street 
Railway and the Central Park, North & Ea-st River Rail- 
road was reviewable by certiorari, and the Legislature has 
also made the question more difficult. Before 1910 the 
courts had held that the companies were entitled to a 
reasonable return only on the present va.lue of the prop- 
erty in use, but in that year the Legislature provided that 
there must be consideration as well of the earning of a 
reasonable return on capital actually expended. 

The commission already, it points out, has carefully ap- 
praised the value of the property of the street railways, 
and it considers that it will be much more difficult to make 
any order for the reduction of a rate. However, it hopes 
that the workings of the 8-cent and 10-cent transfers be- 
tween the Central Park, North & East River Ra-ilroad and 
the Metropolitan Street Railway will throw valuable light 
on the situation. 

Referring to the decision of the Appellate Division re- 
viewing the commission's refusal to approve the reorgan- 
ization plan of the Third Avenue Railroad bondholders' 
committee, the commission points out that the bondholders 
wished to issue securities until the total of the road's ob- 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2. 

ligations reached $70,000,000, while its own appraisal of the 
property to be represented by these securities was 
only $40,000,000. It rema-rks: "The court apparently holds 
that the commission must approve of the plan of reorgan- 
ization, if the necessary statutory steps have been taken, 
and is without power to limit the amount of securities to 
the value of the property." 

In suggesting that the Legislature should exempt its 
power to make a rate from review by certiorari, the com- 
mission points out that the federal courts do not exercise 
any such rights over the acts of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission. Moreover, it asks whether the securities 
of a new company arising from a reorganization should not 
be submitted to the same supervision as the securities of a-n 
entirely new concern, which has not yet gone into the 
hands of a receiver. 

The Toledo Valuation. — The appointment of Judge John 
M. Killits as a'bitrator in the traction valuation at Toledo 
was discussed by the directors of the Toledo Railway & 
Light Company at their regular monthly meeting on June 
29, 191 1, but their decision had not been announced on July 
1, 191 1. Albion E. Lang, president of the company, sia.terj 
that he was preparing the reply, but that he would have 
nothing to say until his letter was received by the City 

Fostoria-Fremont Railway. — Service has been begun on 
the new connecting link between Cleveland and Western 
Ohio known as the Fostoria & Fremont Railway. This 
line, of which F. D. Carpenter, Lima, Ohio, is president, 
is 21 miles long and connects the Western Ohio Railway 
at Fostoria with the Lake Shore Electric Railway at Fre- 
mont. At present, pending the completion of ballasting, 
only local cars are being operated, but on July 15, 191 1, a 
two-hour local schedule will be supplemented with a high- 
speed through schedule from Lima to Cleveland, the lim- 
ited cars making the run in five hours. The -new roa-d has 
been built according to the latest standard designs for d.c. 
operation. It is all on private right of way except through 
villages, and the track is laid with 70-lb. rails. The over- 
head work is supported by chestnut poles. The transmis- 
sion system consists of a No. 4 copper wire 
33, ooo-volt circuit; No. 000 grooved trolley and a 600.000- 
circ. mil copper trolley feeder. One substation containing 
two 300-kw Westinghouse rotaries has been built and is in 
operation. The track is being ballasted with crushed rock 
placed 1500 yards to the mile. 

Report of Civic Committee on Electrification at St. Louis. 
— The Civic League of St. Louis, Mo., is distributing copies 
of the report of the committee on terminal-railroad electri- 
fication of that body, of which Prof. A. S. Langsdorf has 
been a.cting chairman. The committee was appointed in 
1909 to consider the problem of the electrification of the 
St. Louis terminal system, la.rgely on account of the smoke 
nuisance. The committee was not vested with legal power 
and relied on such general information as it was possible 
to secure from officers of the Terminal Railroad Associa- 
tion of St. Louis. On this account it has limited the esti- 
mate of cost to the electrical installation alone. The esti- 
mated cost of electrical equipment follows: Power house. 
40,000 kw at $125, $5,000,000; locomotives, 150 at $45,000, 
$6,750,000; signals, 262 miles at $5,000, $1,310,000; transmis- 
sion and distribution, $1,400,000; direct current, 262 miles 
at $5,000, $1,310,000: alternating current, 20 miles at $4,500, 
$900,000: substations, $1,100,000; contingencies, 10 per cent, 
$1,556,000; a total of $17,116,000. Total average cost per 
mile (262 miles), $65,300. The committee having accom- 
plished its task, has been discontinued by the executive 


The minority utilities bill passed the House on June 27, 
191 1, with the amendments that were made to it in the 
Senate, where it originated, and is before the Governor for 
signature. The bill provides that within fifteen days after 
its passage the Governor shall nominate and the General 
Assembly appoint three commissioners to serve for two, 

four and six years respectively. Each of the commissioners 
is to receive $5,000 a year and necessary expenses. The 
railroad commission is abolished. Appeal from a decision 
of the new commission may be made to the Supreme Court. 


The electrification bill before the present session has 
been postponed to the next General Court. The pending 
bill contained a provision placing the responsibility of nam- 
ing dates and particulars of electrification upon the Rail- 
road Commission, and a majority of the board has de- 
clared itself in favor of compulsory electrification. A bill 
has been prepared by Representative Washburn, House 
chairman of the committee on railroads, providing for the 
enlargement of the powers of the Railroad Commission. 
Under the terms of the act the board will have mandatory 
powers regarding rates and service. The commission is 
given power, either upon its own motion or upon com- 
plaint, to fix rates, determine facilities and examine into 
financial conditions. The bill has the approval of Chair- 
ma.n Hall, of the board. 

Governor Foss has signed the bill giving a certificate of 
public concurrence and necessity to the Boston & Eastern 
Electric Railroad, which has for about five years been seek- 
ing the right to build a high-speed interurban railroad be- 
tween Boston, Lynn, Salem, Beverly and Danvers, at an 
estimated cost of $11,000,000. The act as passed gives the 
company a certificate in spite of a recent adverse decision 
of a majority of the Railroad Commission, and is an un- 
precedented piece of legislation. The company announces 
that it expects to cut in half the running time from North 
Shore points to the heart of Boston. A feature of its plans 
is the construction of a tunnel under Boston Harbor to a 
terminal at Post Office Square. Bonds to the amount of 
$50,000 are to be filed with the State, and the tunnel, which 
was authorized by the Legislature of 1910, is specified to be 
turned over free to the city of Boston at the end of forty 
years. Bills were introduced into the Senate on June 27 
which provide for the construction of subways in Boston 
from Park Street to Dorchester, under Boylston Street and 
in the West End, by the city; for the extension of the exist- 
ing subway leases for twenty-five years from July 1, 191 1, 
and for the consolidation of the West End Railway and 
Boston Elevated Railway. 


Governor Dix of New York has signed a bill giving the 
Public Service Commissions power to fix a.nd regulate 
commutation rates on railroads. The measure amends a 
section of the public service law by making it conform with 
those sections relating to the power of the commission for 
the Second District over telephone and telegraph corpora- 
tions. In approving the measure the Governor said: "In 
fixing the standard upon which the commission shall deter- 
mine the just and reasonable rates, fares and charges for 
certain classes of railroad transportation, this bill provides 
that the commission shall do so with due regard, among 
other things, to a reasonable average return upon the value 
of the property actually used in the public service." After a 
protra.cted debate, led in behalf of the opposition by Sen- 
ator Hinman, the Senate adopted the Pollock resolution 
calling upon the Public Service Commission of the First 
District of New York to explain why it has not put into 
effect legislation making compulsory the issuing of trans- 
fers between the various surface car lines in New York. 
The Assembly on June 27, 191 1, passed the bill of Senator 
O'Brien providing for a 5-cent fare between Railroad 
Avenue and Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn, on the Long 
Island Railroad. This is almost exactly similar to the 
O'Brien bill which Governor Dix vetoed a month ago, ex- 
cepting that it provides for a smaller' fine against the com- 
pany for infractions. The Governor has instructed Public 
Service Commissioner Cram to urge the Public Service 
Commission to action on the merits of the, and the 
Public Service Commission has called a hearing for July 
6, 191 1. On June 29, 1911, the Assembly passed the bill 
introduced by Assemblyman Goldberg to require the im- 
mediate restoration of free transfers between all surface 
street railways running north and south and those running 
east and west in the Boroughs of Manhattan and the 

July 8. 191 1.] 



Financial and Corporate 

New York Stock and Money Markets 


July 3, 191 1 ■ 

Business has been rather dull in Wall Street 111 the past 
week, and the market has been irregular and weak. Trading 
to-day was light, influenced by the holiday. A fractional 
decline took place at the opening. The bond market con- 
tinues active, characterized by return of interest in the 
long-term issues. inquiry for call and time money was 
light to-day, with only mild demand for large loans. Quo- 
tations July 3 were: Call, 2%@2y 2 per cent; ninety days, 
2i A P er cent. 

Other Markets 

All of the exchanges have been quiet by reason of the 

holidays. Dulness prevailed in Philadelphia, and trading 
to-day was the highest for some time. 

In Chicago there was a fair amount of trading at the close 
of the past week, with gains made in most of the elevated 

Nothing of great importance took place in the Boston 

market to-day and business dragged throughout the session. 
Price changes of the week were few and chiefly of a frac- 
tional nature. 

Most of the trading in Baltimore in the latter part of 
•the week was in the bond market. Uniteu Railways issues 
were in good demand. 

Quotations of traction and manufacturing securities as 
compared with last week follow: 

June 27. July 1. 

American Light & Traction Company (common) a295 295 

American Light & Traction Company (preferred) • • ■ .al08 108 

American Railways Company a44 a43J4 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (common) 4054 *40-]4 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (preferred) a8554 *8554 

Boston Elevated Railway al28J4 al29 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (common) al4J.-2 al5 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies (preferred) . . . a/5 a75 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (common) .... al2 12 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (preferred).. a57 a59 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 815^ 81 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, 1st ref. conv. 4s. . 86 865-g 

Capital Traction Company. Washington 1273 s *127fs 

Chicago City Railway al95 al90 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (common) .... 2 3 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (preferred).. 6 5 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 1 a85 85 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 2 a24 24 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg., ctf. 3 a.9 l / 2 9 l / 2 

Chicago Railways ptcptg aSy 2 Sy 2 

Cincinnati Street Railway 130J^ *130% 

Cleveland Railway ' a96 *96 

Columbus Railway (common) *96 *96 

Columbus Railway (preferred) *10) *101 

Consolidated Traction of New Jersey a76 76 

Consolidated Traction of N. J., 5 per cent bonds .. al05 l / 2 105!4 

Dayton Street Railway (common) a30 a30 

Dayton Street Railway (preferred) al0;i alOO 

Detroit United Railway a74 74 

General Electric Company 162 54 160 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (common) al55 al53 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (preferred).... a93 a93 T /2 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (common) 18 17y 2 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (preferred) 50 a50 

Interborough Metropolitan Company (4^s) 78y 2 78% 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (common).... al9 19 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (preferred) . . a44 44 

Manhattan Railway al37^ 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (common) a2254 a23 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) a91J4 *9iy 2 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (common) a26 z26y 2 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (preferred) a7454 a75 

Metropolitan Street Railway, New York 15 15 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light (preferred).... 110 110 

North American Company 741^ 73 34 

Northern Ohio Light & Traction Company 48 *48 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (common) a28yi a29 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (preferred) a69 a69 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh (common) a56 a56 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburgh (preferred) a437s a43J4 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company al9Ms al9^ 

Philadelphia Traction Company a86 l / 2 a86'/2 

Public Service Corporation. 5% col. notes (1913) 101 101 

Public Service Corporation, ctfs al07'/2 107^ 

Seattle Electric Company (common) all2 allO 

Seattle Electric Company (preferred) a\02 1 / 2 2.W2 l A 

South Side Elevated Railroad (Chicago) a80 a79 

Third Avenue Railroad, New York lOVi .10^ 

Toledo Railways & Light Company 8 8 

Twin City Rapid Transit, Minneapolis (common) ... .al08!^ * 108*4 

Union Traction Company, Philadelphia 3.4914 a49J4 

United Rys. & Electric Company, Baltimore al9 l / 2 *\9 l / 2 

United Rys. Inv. Co. (common) a39 39 

United Rys. Inv. Co. (preferred) 69^ 69 V% 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (common).... a355's 35Vg 

Washington Ry. & Electric Company (preferred) .... a90 90 

West End Street Railway, Boston (common) a90 a89 

West End Street Railway, Boston (preferred) al03J4 al03 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co 7554 a75^4 

a Asked, "Last sale. 

Tri-City Railway & Light Company 

The annual report of the Tri-City Railway & Light Com- 
pany, Davenport, la., for the year ended Dec. 31, 1910, shows 
the following resume: 

Gross earnings $2,513,486 

Operating expenses and taxes 1,481,967 

Net earnings $1,031,519 


Interest and discount on bonds and loans 481,408 


Sinking fund instalments 50.000 

Surplus for the year $500,111 

Dividends on preferred stock 169,572 

Net surplus for year $330,539 

J. F. Porter, the president, says in part in his report to the 
stockholders : 

"The statement compared with the previous year shows 
an increase in gross earnings of $473,999, or 23.24 per cent; 
an increase in operating expenses and taxes of $341,059, or 
29.89 per cent, and an increase in net earnings of $132,939, 
or 14.79 per cent. Interest charges paid and the proportion 
of discount on the company's 6 per cent three-year redeem- 
able gold notes during the year amounted to $481,407; sink- 
ing fund provisions called for $50,000, leaving a surplus for 
the year of $500,111. From this amount there have been 
declared and paid on the outstanding preferred stock four 
quarterly dividends each of i l / 2 per cent, aggregating $169,- 
572, leaving $330,539 over all disbursements, which has been 
transferred to surplus account, this being an increase of 
$123,919, or 59.97 per cent over the amount transferred in 

"There has been charged against the surplus account of 
your subsidiary companies $321,640, representing deferred 
charges to operation incidental to the issue of the 5 per cent 
first lien collateral trust sinking fund gold bonds. 

"During the year you authorized an issue of $20,000,000 
trust sinking fund gold bonds were issued in place of a like 
amount of the 6 per cent first mortgage gold bonds of the 
Davenport & Rock Island Railway — $33,000 par value of 
these bonds were canceled on July 1 in accordance with the 
sinking fund provisions, and the same amount of the Tri- 
City Railway Company 5 per cent bonds were issued and 
are owned by your company. 

"During the year you authorized an issue of $20,000,000, 
first and refunding, 5 per cent gold bonds, and your directors 
issued $500,000 of this amount up to Dec. 31, 1910. 

"Extensions of franchise rights for a period of twenty 
years on Illinois side and twenty-five years on Iowa side, 
covering existing tracks, and privileges for some new ex- 
tensions, were secured from the authorities in each of the 
three cities during the spring of 1910. 

"These ordinances required the company to perform a 
certain amount of double tracking, extensions and paving 
during the next few years, and all necessary work provided 
for in 1910 was completed. 

"The extension ordinances granted the Tri-City Railway 
and the People's Light Company also provide for the build- 
ing of an interurban road to Muscatine. The Davenport & 
Muscatine Railway was incorporated during the year for 
this purpose and satisfactory progress is being made on the 
survey and acquirement of rights-of-way. The length of 
this road is approximately 30 miles. The cost of this line 
is estimated at $750,000. 

"Fifteen new cars of the modern pay-as-you-enter type 
were purchased and put in service during the past six 
months, which considerably relieves the congestion of traffic 
during rush hours, and adequate service is now being sup- 
plied on all lines. 

"Generally the street railway properties in the three cities 
are in excellent physical condition, with the exception of 
the track on Fifth Avenue, between Fifteenth and Twenty- 
third Streets, Moline, which will be relaid during the present 

"The franchises of the electric companies on the Iowa 
and Illinois sides of the river now extend until 1935 and 
1943 respectively, and the conditions contingent upon such 
extension are not unduly burdensome. One of the most 
important requirements is the placing of the feeder wires in 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2. 

conduits below the surface of the streets in the fire district 
of Davenport, and this work is progressing rapidly. 

"All work called for to maintain the integrity of the fran- 
chises in 1910 was carried out, and when that required in 
191 1 has been completed only such improvements and exten- 
sions as will enable the companies to keep up their prop- 
erties and provide for new customers and business will be 

"The sum of $739,168 was expended for new construction 
on the properties of your company in 1910. 

"All your properties have been well maintained, the sum 
of $110,046 having been charged to maintenance during the 
year. This is an increase of $29,118 over the amount charged 
in 1909." 

Brunswick Terminal & Railway Securities Company 

The City & Suburban Railway, Brunswick, Ga., is carried 
on the balance sheet of this company as of Dec. 31, 1910, at 
$954,000. The statement of the securities company for the 
year 1910 shows the following: Rents, $2,990; interest and 
dividends, $17,048; total, $20,038. Expenses, $2,576; salaries, 
$2,979; taxes, $6,375; building repairs, $222; fire insurance, 
$168; total, $12,320. Surplus to profit and loss, $7,718. 

T. D. Rhodes, the president, says in part: 

"Your board submits herewith the results of its manage- 
ment of the company's affairs during the fiscal year, the 
first since it acquired the public utilities of the city and 
necessarily to some extent a period of transition. The un- 
settled conditions of the business world have had the 
same deleterious effect upon our enterprise that has been 
experienced by many others which, like it, were organized 
for the commercial and industrial development and upbuild- 
ing of the country, and the success and prosperity of which 
depend largely upon the confidence and encouragement in- 
spired by stability and freedom from vicious assaults upon 
capital. Brunswick, Ga., the seat of our investment, has in 
common with other business communities during the past 
year been affected by the unfavorable general conditions but 
to a less extent than many others, owing to its natural 
advantages and the absence of anything fictitious or 'boom'- 
like in its growth, which has been legitimate and healthful 
and shows every evidence of continuance in an even greater 
and more prosperous ratio. 

"Several large manufacturing plants have been induced 
during the year to locate in the city or its environs and when 
these plants are completed and in operation they will add 
very materially to the volume of business and population 
of the cit}'. 

"The State commission has authorized the capitalization of 
the City & Suburban Railway in the sum of $175,000 bonds 
and $100,000 capital stock, which will be issued at once to 
cover the amount expended by this company in the purchase 
of the property together with the sums advanced for its 
extensions and betterments, and will become a free asset in 
the treasury of this company. 

"Instead of the annual deficit heretofore shown the com- 
pany's acquirement of public utilities has enabled it to pay 
all the carrying charges on its property and to accumulate 
the nucleus of a surplus. 

"There has been expended during the year by the City & 
Suburban Railway Company in extending and improving its 
property $31,000. A number of additional turnouts and 
sidings have been installed at points where improved service 
required them, and six additional cars have been purchased. 
The company has leased from the parent company two plots 
for amusement parks, erected the necessary improvements 
thereon, and the results of their operation have been very 
satisfactory both in increased earnings from the cars, and in 
gate and privilege receipts from the parks. The earnings 
of the company have shown a gratifying increase and your 
board believes the property will yield a very gratifying 
return on the amount invested therein." 

American Cities Railway & Light Company, New York, 

N. Y. — The stockholders of the American Cities Railway & 
Light Company on Tune 28, 191 1, ratified the sale of the 
property and assets of the company to the American Cities 
Company in accordance with the plans mentioned in the 
Electric Railway Journal of May 27, 1911, page 930. 

Boone (la.) Electric Company. — It is officially announced 
that Dow, Read & Smith, Cedar Rapids, la., have exercised 
the option which they secured recently on the property of 
the Boone Electric Company, mention of which was made 
in the Electric Railway Journal of July 1, 191 1, page 63. 

Catskill (N. Y.) Traction Company. — The Catskiil Trac- 
tion Company has applied to the Public Service Commis- 
sion of the Second District of New York for permission to 
issue $160,000 of 5 per cent thirty-year first mortgage bonds 
to defray the cost of an extension from Leeds to Cairo. 

Columbus Railway & Light Company, Columbus, Ohio. — 
The meeting of the stockholders of the Columbus Railway, 
called for June 26, 1911, was adjourned to Aug. 28, 1911, in 
order to give all those interested time to determine the 
necessity of increasing the stock from $7,000,000 to $10,- 
000,000. Butler Sheldon, president of the company, recom- 
mended this step after he had read his report. D. Meade 
Massie and John A. Poland, Chillicothe, Ohio; C. L. Poston, 
Athens, Ohio, and Edward Orton, Jr., and A. W. Dunn,. 
Columbus, Ohio, were appointed a committee to investi- 
gate the relations between the company and the Columbus 
Railway & Light Company which operates the Columbus 
Railway under lease. 

International Traction Company, Buffalo, N. Y. — It was 
announced that the semi-annual interest on the fifty-year 4. 
per cent collateral trust gold bonds of the International 
Traction Company, which matured on July 1, 1910, would 
be paid at the office of J. P. Morgan & Company, New 
York, N. Y., on and after July 1, 1911, together with 5 per 
cent interest thereon from July I, 1910, to July I, 191 1. 
The committee which represents the holders of the fifty- 
year 4 per cent collateral trust gold bonds has announced' 
that more than 97^ per cent of these bonds has been de- 
posited under the modified plan dated Jan. 20, 191 1, and that 
the necessary arrangements have been made for an advance- 
to the holders of certificates of deposit of the interest 
due July 1, 1011, on the bonds. 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad, Chicago, 111. — The con- 
solidation of the elevated railways of Chicago as the Chi- 
cago Elevated Railways, under the terms proposed by the 
syndicate organized by Henry A. Blair, was declared oper- 
ative on July 1, 191 1. The terms of the merger were given 
in the Electric Railway Journal of June 10, 191 1, page 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Railway, Omaha, Neb. — Red- 
mond & Co., New York, N. Y., are offering for subscrip- 
tion at 97^4 and interest to yield S l A Per cent $200,000 of 
first consolidated mortgage 5 per cent gold bonds of the 
Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway, dated 1902 and 
due Jan. 1, 1928. The authorized issue is $10,000,000, of 
which amount $6,814,000 is outstanding. Of the remaining 
bonds $2,500,000 are reserved to retire all prior liens, which 
must be retired at maturity on May 1, 1914, and the bal- 
ance, $686,000, is reserved for extensions, etc. 

Republic Railway & Light Company, New York, N. Y. — 
The Republic Railway & Light Company, the proposed or- 
ganization of which was mentioned in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal of July 1, 191 1 62, was incorporated in 
New Jersey on June 28, 191 1, with power to own the se- 
curities of companies operating or controlling electric light,, 
power, gas, electric railway and other public utilities. The 
company has under option and is acquiring more than 97 
per cent of the outstanding capital stocks of a number of 
companies, most of which have been in the past controlled 
by the Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Company. 
The officers of the company follow: James Parmelee, 
president; De Forest Candee, vice-president; George A. 
Galliver, vice-president and treasurer; G. F. Ravenal, sec- 
retary; Samuel McRoberts and Thomas A. Reynolds, 
National City Bank, New York; Myron T. Herrick, Society 
for Savings, Cleveland; Anson W. Burchard, assistant to 
president General Electric Company; R. E. Breed, presi- 
dent American Gas & Electric Company; Henry H. Wehr- 
hane, Hallgarten & Company; Ray Morris, White, Weld & 
Company; James Parmelee and Pa.rmely Herrick, Cleve- 
land Electrical Illuminating Company; De Forest Candee 
and George A. Galliver, Federal Utilities, Inc.; Norman 
McD. Crawford, president Mahoning & Shenango Ra-ilway 
& Light Company; Harrison Williams, American Gas & 

July 8, 191 1.] 



Electric Company, Federal Light & Traction Company, 
Federal Utilities, Inc., president Springfield Railway & 
Light Company; J. J. Bodell, Bodell & Company, Provi- 
dence, director American Textile Company; John R. 
Turner, the Corporation Trust Company, Jersey City, direc- 
tors. The advisory committee will be Frank A. Vanderlip, 
C. A. Coffin and J. J. Storrow. 

Toledo & Indiana Railroad, Toledo, Ohio. — The formal 
transfer of the property of the Toledo & Indiana Traction 
Company to the Toledo & Indiana Railroad was made on 
the afternoon of June 27, 1911. The capital stock of the 
new company was increased from $10,000 to $1,040,000, 
which represents the purchase price of the property. 
Officers were chosen as follows: S. C. Schenck, president; 
S. D. Carr, vice-president; C. F. Chapman, secretary; D. B. 
Schenck, treasurer. The property was bid in at receiver's 
sale by S. C. Schenck almost a year ago. 

Dividends Declared 

Athens Railway & Electric Company, Athens, Ga., 2]/ 2 
per cent, preferred. 

Boston & Northern Street Railway, Boston, Mass., 2 per 
cent, common. 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies, Newtonville, Mass., 
quarterly, $1, preferred. 

Ft. Smith Light & Traction Company, Ft. Smith, Ark., 
quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

Holyoke (Mass.) Street Railway, 4 per cent. 

Memphis (Tenn.) Street Railway, quarterly, 1% per cent, 

Norfolk & Portsmouth Traction Company, Norfolk, Va., 
quarterly, Ij4 per cent, preferred. 

Old Colony Street Railway, Boston, 3 per cent, common. 

Ottumwa Railway & Light Company, Ottumwa, la., 
quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

Quebec Railway, Light, Heat & Power Company, Ltd., 
Quebec, Que., quarterly, 1 per cent, common. 

St. Charles Street Railway, New Orleans, La., 3 per cent. 

Springfield & Xenia Railway, Springfield, Ohio, quarterly, 
134 Per cent, preferred. 

Thirteenth & Fifteenth Streets Passenger Railway, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., $6. 

West Penn Traction Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., quar- 
terly, iy 2 per cent, preferred. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad, Leetonia, Ohio, 
quarterly, per cent, preferred. 



lm., Mav, '11 $77,738 *$43,884 $33,854 $19,905 $13,949 

1 " " ' '10 70,811 *42,472 28,339 18,265 10,074 

5" " '11 368,045 *211,728 156,317 97,741 58,576 

5" " '10 33,715 *204,220 131,495 90,402 41,093 


lm., May, '11 $193,181 *$105,656 $87,525 $45,610 $41,915 

1 " " '10 183,478 *107,859 75,619 45,230 30.3S9 

5" " '11 905,984 *519,076 386,908 227,332 159,576 

5" " '10 918,799 *517,653 401,146 225,932 175,214 


lm., May, '11 $98,137 *$56,438 $41,699 $15,018 $26,681 

1 " " '10 93,207 *50,412 42,795 14,894 27,901 

5" " '11 451,713 *262,192 189,521 75,344 114,177 

5" " '10 430,871 *240,261 190,610 75,909 114,701 


lm., Mav, '11 $46,110 *$26,557 $19,553 $13,346 $6,207 

1 10 44,669 *27,820 16,849 13,355 3,494 

11 11 481,123 *303,256 177,867 145,011 32,856 

11" " '10 478,221 *285,222 192,999 158,400 34,599 


lm., May, '11 $131,786 $39,749 $92,037 $71,393 $20,645 

1 " " '10 130,404 40,002 90,402 70,053 20,350 

2" " '11 611.270 187,771 423,499 346,800 76,699 

2" " '10 586,271 176,672 409,598 388,988 70,610 


lm., May, '11 $431,690 $216,730 $214,959 $60,346 $154,613 

1" " '10 370,234 199.616 170,617 48,977 121,640 

8" " '11 3,006,914 1,787,922 1,218,992 339,890 879.102 

8" " '10 2,707,236 1,607,443 1,099,792 306.148 793,645 


lm., May, '11 $527,931 *$243,949 $283,982 $122,162 $161,820 

1" " '10 466,436 *216,613 249,823 1 13,465 136,358 

5" " Ml 2,560,045 *1,241,964 1,318.081 613,668 704,413 

5 " " '10 2,166,734 *1,027,829 1,138,905 561.509 577,396 


lm., May, '11 $88,759 '$56,350 $32,409 $19,379 $13,030 

1" " '10' 79,587 *49.376 30,211 18,583 11,628 

5" " '11 435,301 *264,894 170,407 97,022 73 385 

5" " '10 408,614 *247,764 160,850 90,859 69,991 

Traffic and Transportation 

School Fares in New Jersey 

In the Electric Railway Journal of June 17, 191 1, page 
1088, brief mention was made of the ruling by the 
Supreme Court of New Jersey affirming the order of 
the board directing the Public Service Railway to main- 
tain 3-cent fares for school children and teachers. The 
question of the interpretation of the section of the New 
Jersey public utility law which prohibits discrimination in 
fares came before the court on a writ of certiorari secured 
by the Public Service Corporation to test the authority 
of the commission to suspend the order issued by the com- 
pany on May 1, 191 1, which required school children and 
school teachers to pay full fare on the lines of the Public 
Service Railway. In affirming the order of the board, Judge 
Minturn said: 

"The Legislature having conferred the power of regula- 
tion and administration upon the commission, this court 
will not interfere in the discharge of that duty, except, in 
the language of the thirty-eighth section of the act, where 
it clearly appears that there was no evidence before the 
board to support reasonably such order, or that the same 
was without the jurisdiction of the board. Neither of these 
conditions existing in this case, the order of the Board of 
Public Utilities Commission under review will be affirmed. 

"The concrete question involved is whether a system of 
3-cent fares, maintained by the railway company for many 
years, was abrogated by the enactment of the so-called 
public utility law (P. L., 1911, Ch. 195). The contention 
that it was abrogated is based by the company upon a con- 
struction given by the Interstate Commerce Commission 
to Section 3 of the Interstate Commerce Act, which is sub- 
stantially similar to Section 18 of the act sub judice. 

"I am of the opinion that the construction adopted in 
that case should not be followed here — first, because the 
act is not the same enactment in terms; and, secondly, 
because the Interstate Commerce Commissioners are an 
administrative and not a judicial body, and their decision 
as an administrative body on a detail of the act is not a 
judicial determination. (Interstate Commerce Commission 
vs. Bunson, 154 United States, 447.) 

"The Public Utility Act does not abrogate the system 
of 3-cent fares maintained by the company, because Sec- 
tion 18 applies only to such preferences as are undue or 
unreasonable. This was not the enactment of a new condi- 
tion nor did it create a new legal status. It was the im- 
memorial rule of the common law. 

"The contention of the company that the effect of the 
enactment was to repeal this beneficent condition does 
not accord with the spirit and intent of the act. The clear 
legislative purpose was to administer and to regulate in 
their operation these instrumentalities, quite properly 
denominated public service companies, which are chartered 
pro bono publico and are compensated by public individual 
contributions for the service performed." 

New Folder of Chicago & Southern Traction Company. — 

A new timetable, including map of the territory south of 
Chicago which is served by the Chicago & Southern Trac- 
tion Company between Seventy-ninth Street and Kankakee, 
has just been issued by Robert A. Barnett, traffic agent of 
the company. 

Detroit United Lines.— The Detroit (Mich.) United Rail- 
way has issued a folder, "Rides by Trolley," in which it 
describes the company's fast electric service between the 
principal cities of Michigan. There is a relief map, show- 
ing the connections made by the Detroit United Railway 
with the interurban lines to Toledo, Port Huron, Kala- 
mazoo, Lansing and St. Johns and Saginaw and Bay City. 

Trolley Trips In and Out of Baltimore. — The United 
Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md., has issued 
a descriptive folder with a map of its system showing 
places of interest in and about Baltimore, and telling how 
to reach them. The map of the system used in the folder 
is the very striking general relief view which was repro- 
duced in the Souvenir edition of the Electric Railway 
Journal for 1910. 


[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2. 

Lake Shore Electric Railway and Cleveland, Southwestern 
& Columbus Railway Will Handle Freight. — At the instance 
of the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce the Lake Shore 
Electric Railway and the Cleveland, Southwestern & Colum- 
bus Railway will arrange early in the fall to handle freight. 
The Lake Shore Electric Railway will carry freight in sealed 
cars to Fremont, where it will be delivered to the Western 
Ohio Railway, by which it will be distributed over western 
Ohio and eastern Indiana. Both will also haul freight over 
their entire systems. 

Service Order in Milwaukee. — The Railroad Commission 
•of Wisconsin has issued the following order in regard to 
service over the Walnut Street line of the Milwaukee Elec- 
tric Railway & Light Company: "That there be a regular 
schedule of headway on the line of eight minutes through- 
out the day, additional cars or trippers to be added at 
times so as to establish the following time space of cars 
during the maximum period of travel: From West Water 
Street and Grand Avenue to the end of the line at Lisbon 
Avenue from a. m. to 8 a. m., three-minute headway; from 
5 p. m. to 7 p. m., three-minute headway." 

Directors of Lake Shore Electric Railway Make Inspec- 
tion Trip and Hold Monthly Meeting Aboard Private Car. — 
On June 27, 191 1, the officers and directors of the Lake 
Shore Electric Railway inspected their own line and the 
Fremont & Fostoria line, which has been recently put into 
operation. After visiting Lima the party went to Toledo, 
where the night was spent. The following day they made a 
trip over the Toledo & Western Railroad. Members of the 
party were Henry A. Everett, E. W. Moore, Charles Currie, 
B. Mahler, J. B. Hanna, J. B. Hoge, W. H. Price, J. P. Witt 
and F. W. Coen. The private car, "The Northern," which 
belongs to Mr. Everett, was used. 

Ohio Electric Railway Summer Schedules. — The Ohio 
Electric Railway, Cincinnati, Ohio, has issued a folder 
showing summer schedules over its lines. Complete time- 
tables are given of all local and limited trains between 
Cincinnati. Columbus, Toledo, Dayton, Hamilton, Spring- 
field, Zanesville, Fort Wayne, Lima. Richmond, Newark, 
Bellefontaine, Urbana and Union City. There is a map of 
the Ohio Electric Railway and connecting electric railways 
and steam lines. The rules governing rates for children, 
baggage and excess baggage are explicitly set forth. The 
Ohio Electric Railway has also issued an illustrated folder 
entitled "Buckeye Lake and Indian Lake," in which both 
these resorts are described. 

Wisconsin Commission Orders Reduction in Fare. — The 
Railroad Commission of Wisconsin has ordered the Rc ck- 
ford & Interurban Railway, Rockford, 111., to discontinue 
its present rate of 10 cents for passenger fare from points 
within the city limits to Janesville, Wis., to points about 
the yards of the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad in South 
Janesville, and substitute a 5-cent fare. South Janesville 
is about 80 rods outside the city limits. The petitioner for 
the reduction alleged that the 10-cent fare worked a hard- 
ship on the 200 or more railroad men whose business takes 
them to South Janesville. An analysis of the company's 
earnings in Wisconsin revealed the fact that the loss in 
revenue occasioned by the 5-cent fare will result in a de- 
crease in total earnings of the company of about one-tenth 
of 1 per cent. 

Transfer Hearings in New York. — The Public Service 
Commission of the First District of New York has issued 
an order directing representatives of all the surface lines 
in Manhattan to appear on July 6, 191 1, and show cause 
why the transfer system that was in force before the Met- 
ropolitan Street Railway went into the hands of receivers 
should not be restored. The lines affected by the order 
of the commission follow: Metropolitan Street Railway, 
Third Avenue Railroad, Dry Dock, East Broadway & Bat- 
tery Ra.ilroad, the Forty-second Street, Manhattanville & 
St. Nicholas Avenue Railway, the Kingsbridge Railway, 
the Second Avenue Railroad, the Central Park, North & 
East River Railroad; the South Shore Traction Company 
and the Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth Street Crosstown 

Fare Hearing in Trenton. — A hearing has been held by 
the Board of Public Utility Commissioners of New Jersey 

on the complaint of Cochran, Drugan & Company, manu- 
facturers, whose works are located across the line dividing 
Hamilton Township from Trenton. The Trenton & Mercer 
County Traction Company charges a 10-cent fare to this 
point, which the complainant alleged is more than is charged 
for greater distances in other directions by the same com- 
pany, and placed it at a disadvantage in employing labor. 
The company contended that the terms of its franchises do 
not admit of its collecting more than one fare in Hamilton 
Township, and that if it extended the 5-cent fare zone 
beyond the boundary line it would be unable to collect an 
additional fare for a trip of several miles through the 

Interurban Service North of Chicago. — The Northwest- 
ern Elevated Railroad on July 3, 191 1, began running two 
through trains daily from the Union Elevated Loop in 
Chicago to Ravinia Park on the Chicago & Milwaukee Elec- 
tric Railway. The two trains which leave for the park 
each afternoon enter the loop, one at 6:31 and the other at 
6:41 p. m. Returning trains leave Ravinia 10 and 20 minutes 
after the closing of the park entertainment. These trains 
operate as "expresses" on the Northwestern Elevated Rail- 
road for 12 miles to Central Street, Evanston, and as non- 
stop "limiteds" on to Ravinia Park, which is about 30 miles 
north of the Chicago Loop district. Round-trip tickets are 
sold at any of the stations of the elevated railroad, and 
through trains may be boarded at any express station. 
Tickets for the round trip, including admission to the park, 
are sold at 70 cents at stations within the city limits of 
Chicago and at 60 cents at stations within the Evanston 
city limits. 

Right of Indiana Commission to Order Track Elevation. — 

The Indiana Supreme Court has upheld the right of the 
Railroad Commission of Indiana to order the elevation of 
railroad tracks when the safety of the public is involved. 
In 1909 the commission ordered the Wabash Railroad to 
elevate its tracks at a highway crossing near Topeka, Ind. 
The court said that it is well settled in Indiana that the right 
of a railroad to cross a public highway with its tracks carries 
with it the duty on the part of the company to restore the 
highway to its former condition of usefulness and safety 
and keep it so, and if this cannot be done by a grade cross- 
ing the company must do it by constructing tracks over or 
under the highway, or the highway over or under the 
tracks. The company contended that it was the duty of 
the township trustee to order the grade improved. The 
court held that the trustee may do it, but that the Railroad 
Commission also has the power to order the elevation. The 
railroad contended that the order made by the Railroad 
Commission was not a. reasonable and practical one, but 
the court held that the facts clearly show that it was. The 
decision has an important bearing on the question of elim- 
inating crossings at grade between steam and electric 

Detroit United Railway Agrees to Submit Differences with 
Platform Men to Arbitration. — Owing to the fact that the 
Detroit United Railway and its motormen and conductors 
could not agree upon certain sections of a service contract 
between them both sides have concluded to submit the mat- 
ter to a board of arbitrators. The contract contains twenty- 
five sections, and all but four of these are to be arbitrated. 
George F. Monaghan and Judge James Phelan have been 
selected as two members of the board and they are to 
choose a third. The present wage agreement reads as fol- 
lows: "For all motormen and conductors who have been 
in the service less than six months, 23 cents per hour; for 
all motormen and conductors who have been in the service 
over six months and under 18 months, 26 cents per hour; 
for all motormen and conductors who have been in the 
service 18 months or over, 28 cents per hour. No single 
trip shall be considered as less than one hour. It is agreed 
that for the purpose of rating men as to pay who may be 
employed after the signing of this agreement the date on 
which they shall receive the next highest scale of wages 
shall be six months from the first day of the month succeed- 
ing the day on which they were employed." The men at 
first made a demand for a flat rate of 30 cents an hour, but 
this was finally changed to a request for a uniform advance 
of 2 cents an hour. 

July 8, 191 1.] 



Personal Mention 

Mr. R. T. Chiles has been appointed superintendent of the 
lines of the Virginia Railway & Power Company, Richmond, 
Va., in Norfolk. 

Mr. C. Colburn has been appointed superintendent of the 
lines of the Virginia Railway & Power Company, Rich- 
mond, Va., in Berkeley. 

Mr. E. A. Bishop has been appointed superintendent of 
the lines of the Virginia Railway & Power Company, Rich- 
mond, Va., in Portsmouth. 

Mr. John E. Havell has been appointed superintendent 
of the Petersburg division of the Virginia Railway & Power 
Company, Richmond, Va. 

Mr. E. R. Johnston has had his jurisdiction with the Il- 
linois Traction System extended to include outside shops 
as well as the shop of the company at Decatur, 111. 

Mr. E. S. Ely has been appointed chief engineer of the 
Portsmouth, Norfolk and Ocean View divisions of the Vir- 
ginia Railway & Power Company, Richmond, Va. 

Mr. H. Pollard has been appointed superintendent of rail- 
way terminals and parks of the Richmond division of the 
Virginia Railway & Power Company, Richmond, Va. 

Mr. H. L. Smith has been appointed superintendent of 
railway lines and schedules of the Richmond division of the 
Virginia Railway & Power Company, Richmond, Va. 

Mr. John G. Baukat has been appointed superintendent 
of equipment of the Lehigh Valley Transit Company, Allen- 
town, Pa., to succeed Mr. C. E. Lenhart, resigned. 

Mr. James McC. Moffett has resigned as purchasing agent 
of the Metropolitan Street Railway, Kansas City, Mo., and 
Mr. E. E. Stigall has been appointed to succed him. 

Mr. T. Norman Jones, Jr., has been appointed chief en- 
gineer of the Richmond, Interurban and Petersburg divisions 
of the Virginia Railway & Power Company, Richmond, Va. 

Mr. W. F. Bryce has been appointed by the Virginia Rail- 
way & Power Company. Richmond, Va., as superintendent 
of railway lines of the Interurban division and the line to 
South Richmond. 

Mr. J. L. Adams has been appointed general superin- 
tendent of the railway and ferry lines of the Portsmouth, 
Norfolk and Ocean View divisions of the Virginia Railway 
& Power Company, Richmond, Va. 

Mr. W. A. Whitney, superintendent of the Western divi- 
sion of the Southern Pacific Railroad, San Francisco, Cab, 
has had placed under his jurisdiction the new electric lines 
of the Southern Pacific Company in Alameda, Oakland and 

Mr. Charles C. Johnson, who has been purchasing agent 
of the Virginia Railway & Power Company, Richmond, Va., 
has been appointed purchasing agent and assistant to~the 
general manager of the company and assistant general 

Mr. Charles H. Hubbell, formerly an official of electric 
railways in the Middle West, and more recently associated 
with Mr. Frederic W. Throssell, a certified public account- 
ant, of Cleveland, Ohio, has entered the employ of the Ohio 
Tax Commission at Columbus, Ohio. 

Mr. R. C. Taylor has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Railway, part of the Illinois 
Traction System, with headquarters at the new shops at 
Ottawa, 111. Mr. Taylor was formerly in charge of out- 
side shops of the Illinois Traction System. 

Mr. W. M. Cutlip has been elected secretary and treas- 
urer of the Muskogee (Okla.) Electric Traction Company, 
and took up his headquarters in Muskogee on July 1, 191 1. 
Mr. Cutlip will also retain his position as secretary of the 
Shawnee-Tecumseh Traction Company, Shawnee, Okla. 

Mr. E. C. Hathaway, general manager of the Norfolk & 
Portsmouth Traction Company, Norfolk, Va., has been ap- 
pointed assistant general manager of the Virginia Railway 
& Power Company, Richmond, Va., which on July 1, 19 r 1 . 
absorbed the Norfolk & Portsmouth Traction Company. 

Mr. C. B. Buchanan, who has been general superintendent 
of railways of the Virginia Railway & Power Company, 
Richmond, Va., has been appointed general manager of the 

company. On July 1. 191 1, the Virginia Railway & Power 
Company absorbed the Norfolk & Portsmouth Traction 

Mr. C. A. Coolidge, who has been general manager of the 
Oregon Electric Railway, Portland, Ore., has been elected 
first vice-president and general manager of the Spokane 
& Inland Empire Railway, Spokane, Wash. Mr. Coolidge 
succeeds Mr. A. L. White as first vice-president of the 
company and Mr. C. M. Graves as general manager. 

Mr. Charles W. Ford, formerly superintendent of the Okla- 
homa Railway, has been appointed general superintendent 
of the Grand Junction & Grand River Railway, Grand Junc- 
tion, Col., a new property which includes a railway and 
light, gas and ice services. The property was described in 
the Electric Railway Journal for October 15, 1910, page 832. 

Mr. Jacob W. Gerke, whose appointment as master 
mechanic of the Wilmington & Philadelphia Traction Com- 
pany ,,ajid the Southern Pennsylvania Traction Company, 
with headquarters at Wilmington, Del., was noted in the 
Electric Railway Journal of July 1, 191 1, was formerly 
superintendent of the Washington, Arlington & Falls 
Church Railway, Washington, D. C, in which capacity he 
served for eight months. He was for five years previously 
assistant superintendent and master mechanic of the com- 
pany. He resigned from the Washington, Arlington & 
Falls Church Railway to become connected with the Tri- 
City Railway & Light Company. 

Mr. J. N. Shannahan, who resigned recently as vice-presi- 
dent and general manager of the Washington, Baltimore & 
Annapolis Electric Railway to become railway manager of 
the operating department of J. G. White & Company, Inc., 
New York, N. Y., was presented with a silver service by the 
employees of the Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Elec- 
tric Railway. The service is contained in a massive mahog- 
any case, upon which is inscribed "Presented to J. N. 
Shannahan by his co-employees of the W., B. & A. R. R. 
Co. as a token of their regard and esteem. 1907-1911." A 
farewell banquet was given Mr. Shannahan at the Rennert 
Motel, Washington, by the heads of the various departments 
of the company. 

Mr. W. F. Raber, general manager of the Ottumwa Rail- 
way & Light Company, Ottumwa, la., has been placed in 
charge of the Pueblo & Suburban Traction & Lighting 
Company, Pueblo, Col., temporarily by H. M. Byllesby & 
Company, Chicago, 111., by whom the property at Pueblo 
has been taken over. Mr. Raber is a native of Ohio. He 
entered business with the Bell Telephone Company more 
than twenty years ago, but soon took up street railway and 
electric lighting work. He managed lighting plants for 
some time and finally became general manager of the Mans- 
field Railway, Light & Power Company, Mansfield, Ohio. 
He next became connected with H. M. Byllesby & Com- 
pany, Chicago, and served them for some time as manager 
of electric light, power and gas plants in Oklahoma. In 
1906 he was appointed by H. M. Byllesby & Company as 
manager of the Ottumwa Railway & Light Company. 

Mr. A. D. Kimmett, whose appointment as master mechanic 
of the Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley Railroad. Scranton, 
Pa., to succeed Mr. F. J. Stevens, resigned, was noted in 
the Electric Railway Journal of July 1, 191 1, entered 
railway work in the shops of the Central Railroad of New 
Jersey at Mauch Chunk, Pa. Subsequently he was ap- 
pointed a car inspector by this company and the following 
year was transferred to Ashley, Pa., where he filled various 
clerical positions in the office of the assistant superintendent 
of motive power. In 1903 he was made piecework inspector 
at the machine shops of the company, and in November, 
1904, he commenced an apprenticeship to become a ma- 
chinist. In December, 1908, Mr. Kimmett entered the em- 
ploy of the Illinois Traction System at Decatur. 111., as an 
air-brake inspector, and remained with that company until 
Jan. 1, 1910, when he accepted the position of assistant 
master mechanic of the Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley 

Mr. Carl Raymond Gray, who was elected president of the 
United Railways, the Oregon Electric Railway, the Oregon 
Trunk Railway, the Pacific & Eastern Railway, the Spokane, 
Portland & Seattle Railway and the Astoria and Columbia 
River Railroad, with office at Portland, Ore., early in 1911* 

9 8 


[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2. 

to succeed Mr. John F. Stevens, has been elected president 
ot the Spokane & Inland Empire Railroad, to succeed Mr 
Jay P Graves. Mr. Gray was born on Sept. 28, 1867, and 
was educated at the Arkansas Industrial University He 
entered railway service in 1882 as a telegraph operator with 
the M. Louis & San Francisco Railroad, and he served that 
company continuously until he was elected to the United 
Railways, the Orgon Electric Railway and other properties 
previously mentioned. While with the St. Louis & San 
Francisco Railroad Mr. Stevens filled the posit.on of tele- 
graph operator and general claim agent, clerk in the trans- 
portation department, commercial agent, division freight 
agent, superintendent, superintendent of transporta- 
tion, general manager, second vice-president, general man- 
ager and first vice-president. 

Mr. J. F. Vail has retired as treasurer, general manager 
and purchasing agent of the Pueblo & Suburban Traction 
& Lighting Company, Pueblo, Col., the property having 
been Purchased recently by H. M. Byllesby & Company, 
Chicago III. Mr. Vail entered street railway work with the 
Grand River Street Railway, Detroit, Mich., in 1879 In 
1880 he became connected with the Denver Horse Railroad 
then operating twelve cars. A year later he went to the 
Northwest, but returned to Denver in 1883 and re-entered 
the employ of the Denver Horse Railroad. In December, 
1888 he was made manager of the Pueblo Horse Railway 
which then operated eight cars. In 1890 the property at 
Pueblo was rebuilt and extended to Lake Winnequa under 
the supervision of Mr. Vail under a new franchise. In Feb- 
ruary, 1901, the Pueblo Horse Railway was sold, and Mr 
Vail resigned to assist in organizing the Citizens' Electric 
Light & Power Company, Pueblo. This company built and 
operated a power plant under the management of Mr Vail 
but when this plant and other properties at Pueblo were 
taken over by the Pueblo & Suburban Traction & Lightine 
Company m 1897 Mr. Vail was appointed general manager 
of the company. The employees of the company recently 
presented Mr. Vail with a diamond stud as a' token of 

Mr. J. C. Collins, secretary and auditor of the New York 
State Railways, Rochester, N. Y., who was elected secretary 
ot the Street Railway Association of the State of New 
York at the annual meeting 
which was held at Coopers- 
town, N. Y., on June 27, 
191 1, began his railroad 
career as assistant to the 
vice-president of the Nor- 
folk & Western Railroad in 
charge of accounts. He 
next became connected with 
E. W. Clark & Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa., who con- 
trol a number of electric 
railways. He was subse- 
quently made assistant sec- 
retary of the Camden & 
Suburban Railway, Camden, 
N. J., controlled by E. W. 
Clark & Company, but later 
he returned to the main 

office of Clark & Company in Philadelphia, where he re- 
mained until July 1, 1904. when he was transferred by the 
firm to Rochester. Later he was made secretary of all the 
electric railways centering in Rochester in which Clark 
& Company were interested. Mr. Collins continued with 
the Rochester Railway & Light Company when the property 
was taken over by the Andrews- Vanderbilt syndicate and 
was later made secretary and auditor of the Rochester 
Railway & Light Company. When the New York State 
Railways was organized to take over the electric railways 
at Rochester he was made secretary and auditor of that com- 


William N. McGee, superintendent of the Griffin Car 
Wheel Company, Chicago, 111., died on June 25. 

N. W. Halsey, of N. W. Halsey & Compa.ny, bankers, 
New York, N. Y. ( died in New London, Conn, on Tulv 
I, 1911. 

J. C. Collins 

Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously re- 


♦West Peak Railroad, Meriden, Conn. — Incorporated in 
Connecticut to build an electric railway from the connec- 
tion with the Connecticut Company's line at Southington 
to the summit of West Peak in Meriden. C. J. Da.naher, 
Meriden, is interested. 

♦Chicago, Waukegan & Fox Lake Traction Company, 
Chicago, 111. — Incorporated in Illinois to build an electric 
railway from Waukegan to Woodstock through the Coun- 
ties of Lake and McHenry. Headquarters: Chicago. Cap- 
ital stock, $2,500,000. Incorporators and first board of 
directors: Charles A. Spenny, Columbus, Ohio; W. P. Mac- 
Cracken, Irving D. Stevens, Peter B. Olsen and H. S. Hed- 
berg, all of Chicago. 

♦Hamilton (111.) Railway. — Application for a charter has 
been made in Illinois by this company to build an electric 
railway from the bridge over the Mississippi River between 
Hamilton and Keokuk to Hamilton and Warsaw. Capital 
stock, $11,000. Incorporators: George Higginson, Win- 
netka; J. D. Harney, Geneva; J. L. Valentine, W. Walls 
and A. W. Harro, Carthage. 

♦Camp Creek Railway, Bozeman, Mont. — Application for 
a charter has been made by this company in Montana to 
build a 20-mile line from Manhattan into the Camp Creek 
country. Preliminary surveys have been made and most 
of the right-of-way has been secured. Capital stock, 
$100,000. Incorporators: A. M. Harvey, Livingston; 
Charles L. Anceny, Salesville; F. L. Benepe, A. J. Walrash 
and H. S. Buell, all of Bozeman. 

♦Columbia Falls & Southern Railroad, Columbia Falls, 
Mont. — Incorporated in Montana to build an electric or 
steam railroad south from Columbia Falls. Capital stock, 
$100,000. Incorporators: A. L. Jordan, J. T. Robinson, 
John Laux, W. P. Snow and H. F. Jessup. 

♦Republic Railway & Light Company, Trenton, N. J. — 
Incorporated in Trenton on June 28 to take over certain 
properties in accordance with plans as recorded in the 
Electric Railway Journal for July 1, page 62. Ca-pital 
stock, $17,500,000. Incorporators: M. Gregg Latimer and 
William Henry Hoyt, Brooklyn, and John D. Marsh, New 

♦Rapid Transit & Terminal Railway, Cleveland, Ohio. — 

Incorporated in Ohio to build underground terminals in 
Cleveland and to give terminal facilities to all the inter- 
urban lines entering Cleveland. It is said that the com- 
pany will spend $50,000,000 for this work if the co-opera- 
tion of other roads can be secured. Capital stock, $100,000. 
Incorporators: W. R. Hopkins, B. F. Hopkins and A. G. 

♦National Power Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. — Chartered in 
West Virginia to build an electric railway from Point 
Marion to parallel the Cheat River. Incorporators: F. B. 
Parriott, W. B. Beecher, E. J. Cole, W. H. Young and S. 
B. Kelley, all of Pittsburgh. 

Amarillo (Texas) Traction Company. — Chartered in 
Texas to build an electric railway in Amarillo and extend 
it to San Jacinto Heights. Capital stock, $24,000. Incor- 
porators: Mark Logan, W. W. Lynch and N. A. Brown. 
[E. R. J., Oct. 29, '11. ] 

♦Gilmer & Parkersburg Railway, Glenville, W. Va.— 

Chartered in West Virginia to build a 12-mile electric rail- 
way between Gilmer station, on the C. & C. Railroad, and 
Glenville, W. Va. Grading will be done in the fall. Robert 
L. Ruddell, Glenville, general manager. 


♦Tuscaloosa, Ala.— F. G. Blair and H. B. Foster, Tusca- 
loosa, have asked the Council for an electric railway fran- 
chise in Tuscaloosa. 

Little Rock, Ark.— The Little Rock Railway & Electric 
Company has received a franchise from the City Council to 

July 8, 1911.] 



■extend its South Main Street line into the extreme southern 
limits of Little Rock. 

Burlingame, Cal. — The Town Trustees have passed a reso- 
lution granting to the highest bidder a franchise for an elec- 
tric railway from the Southern Pacific station at Easton 
through the Easton additions to Burlingame. [E. R. J., 
April 22, '11.] 

Fowler, Cal. — The Fresno, Hanford & Summit Lake In- 
terurban Railway, Fresno, have received a franchise from 
the City Council in Fowler. 

Modesto, Cal. — The Tidewater & Southern Railroad Com- 
pany, Stockton, has received a franchise from the Council in 

Oakland, Cal. — The Oakland & Bay Shore Railway has 
received a 35-year franchise from the City Council in Oak- 
land. [E. R. J., April 29, '11.] 

San Jose, Cal. — The Peninsula Railway has asked the 
Town Board to advertise for sale a franchise for an electric 
railway extending on the Milpitas Road from Twelfth 
Street to the Berryessa Road and thence on the Berryessa 
Road to Fourteenth Street in San Jose. 

Santa Clara, Cal. — The Peninsula Railway, San Jose, has 
asked the Board of Trustees for a franchise to extend its 
tracks over several streets in Santa Clara. 

Turlock, Cal. — The Turlock Traction Company, Modesto, 
has received a 50-year franchise in Turlock. This line will 
connect Turlock, Newman and Monesto. [E. R. J., April 

29, "jr.] 

Williamsburg, Col. — B. F. Foor, representing the 
Florence Interurban Electric Company, Florence, has re- 
ceived a franchise in Williamsburg. This is part of a plan 
to build an electric railway between Florence, Williams- 
burg, Rockvale and Coal Creek. [E. R. J., June 10, '11.] 

Kissimmee, Fla. — The Citrus Southern Electric Railway, 
Orlando, has received a franchise from the City Council in 
Kissimmee. The franchise also provides for a dock and 
wharf extending into Lake Tohopekalia. This line will 
extend from Sanford, where it will connect with the Clyde 
Line of steamers, via Orlando, with its terminus at Kissim- 
mee. T. K. Miller, Orlando, president. [E. R. J., June 
24, '11.] 

Becket, Mass. — The Berkshire Street Railway has asked 
the Board of Selectmen for a franchise to extend its tracks 
from the Lee line through West Becket and South Becket 
to the Otis line in Becket. 

Worcester, Mass. — The Worcester Consolidated Street 
Railway has received a franchise from the Aldermen to 
double track several of its lines in Worcester. 

East Lansing, Mich. — The Michigan United Railways has 
.asked the Council for a franchise to double track its line in 
East Lansing and straighten its Pine Lake division. 

East Syracuse, N. Y. — The Syracuse Rapid Transit Rail- 
way has asked the Village Trustees for a franchise to 
double track some of its lines in East Syracuse. 

*Oklahoma City, Okla.— W. F. Harn, John F. E. Winans 
dan Homer S. Hurst representing the Citizens' Traction 
Company, Oklahoma City, will ask the City Council for a 
franchise to build 15 miles of track in Oklahoma City. 

East Youngstown, Pa. — The Mahoning & Shenango Rail- 
way & Light Company, Youngstown, has asked the Council 
for a franchise to double track its line in East Youngstown. 

Providence, R. I. — The Old Colony Street Railway, Bos- 
ton, has received a franchise from the Board of Aldermen 
to extend its Columbia Street line in Providence. 

*Rock Hill, S. C. — J. M. Cherry and associates have asked 
the Chamber of Commerce to indorse their request for a 
60-year franchise to build an electric railway from Rock 
Hill to connect with the Seaboard & Catawba Valley Rail- 
road near Catawba Junction, giving through connection 
from Rock Hill to Great Falls. 

Milwaukee, Wis. — The Milwaukee Electric Railway & 
Light Company has asked the Common Council for two 
franchises in Milwaukee. One is for the continuation of the 
Twenty-seventh Street line north to the city limits and the 
other to extend its tracks on Teutonia Avenue. 

Milwaukee, Wis. — The Milwaukee Western Electric Rail- 

way has asked the Common Council for a new franchise 
to operate its cars over the tracks of the Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light Company on the Walnut Street line in 


Little Rock, Pine Bluff & Eastern Traction Company, 
Little Rock, Ark. — It is reported that this company has 
secured the right-of-way of the Little Rock & Pine Bluff 
Traction Company, amounting to 37 miles. This line will 
connect Little Rock and Pine Bluff, via Altheimer, Sturr- 
gart, Helena and Clarenden. C. C. Kavanaugh, president. 
[E. R. J., May 20, '11.] 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. — It is reported 
that this company contemplates the immediate construc- 
tion of an extension between San Bernardino and Rialto, 
and probably to Ontario. 

! San Bernardino, Cal. — William G. Kerckhoff, Los 
Angeles, president of the Ontario & San Antonio Heights 
Railroad, states that he will build an electric railway be- 
tween San Bernardino and Upland, connecting at Upland 
with the Pacific Electric Railway, thus affording through 
service to Los Angeles. Right-of-way and franchises will 
be secured at once. 

Peninsular Railway, San Jose, Cal. — Plans are being made 
by this company to build an extension south from San Jose 
to Palo Alto toward Paraja. 

Vallejo & Northern Railway, Vallejo, Cal. — The Sacra- 
mento & Woodland Railway, a subsidiary of this company, 
will build the first division in the chain of railways to be 
built by the Vallejo & Northern Railway. This line will 
extend along the Sacramento River on the east side for 
about 15 miles and then across the Yolo basin to Wood- 
land. The terminal will be in West Sacramento. T. T. C. 
Gregory, Suisun, president. [E. R. J., June 24, '11.] 

Baltimore & Washington Transit Company, Washington, 
D. C. — This company has applied to the Public Service 
Commission of Maryland for authority to issue $50,000 of 
5 per cent second mortgage bonds. The company contem- 
plates an extension to Sandy Spring, Md., 14 miles. 

*Forest Park, 111. — Henry J. Mohr, Forest Park, and asso- 
ciates plan to build an electric railway between Berwyn, 
Forest Park, Lyons and Cicero. 

*Princeton, 111. — C. N. Gerard, Bradford, plans to build 
an electric railway between Kewanee, Henry, Elmira and 
Bradford, a distance of about 40 miles. 

Indianapolis, Chicago & Meridian Railway, Indianapolis, 
Ind. — Preliminary surveys have been made and construction 
will begin with the next few months by this company on its 
double-track electric railway to connect Indianapolis, Sheri- 
dan, Flora, Monticello, Francisville, Koutz, Valparaiso, 
Hobart, Wheeler, Gary, Hammond and Warsaw. Negotia- 
tions are being made with the Illinois Central Railroad to 
use its tracks from Hammond to Chicago. M. J. Moreland 
is interested. [E. R. J., June 10, '11.] 

Vincennes, Washington & Eastern Traction Company, 
Vincennes, Ind. — This company increased its capital stock 
from $100,000 to $600,000. The construction of this line has 
been begun between Vincennes, Washington and Loogootee. 
[E. R. J., July 1, '11.] 

Davenport-Muscatine Railway, Davenport, la. — This com- 
pany advises that it has begun the construction of its 30- 
mile electric railway between Davenport and Muscatine. It 
will buy power from the Tri-City Railway & Light Com- 
pany, and it will furnish power for lighting purposes. It 
will also use the repair shops of the Tri-City Railway & 
Light Company. Capital stock, authorized, $1,000,000. 
Officers: J. F. Porter, Davenport, president; J. R. Lane, 
vice-president; H. E. Weeks, Davenport, secretary; J. M. 
Thayer, treasurer; George G. Kuhn, Rock Island, 111., pur- 
chasing agent, and J. G. White & Co., Davenport and New 
York, electrical engineers. [E. R. J., July 1, '11.] 

Southwestern Traction Company, New Orleans, La. — 
This company advises that it will begin work within sixty 
days on the first 17-mile section between New Iberia and 
Jeanerette. Headquarters, Hennen Annex, New Orleans. 
R. E. L. C. Reis, secretary. [E. R. J., June 10, '11.] 

*Tolland County Street Railway, Stafford Springs, Mass. 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2. 

— This company, which was granted a charter several years 
ago has just organized to build an electric railway between 
Stafford Springs and Staffordville. Directors: A. S. May, 
B. I. Spockland and N. S. Buckingham. 

Battle Creek, Coldwater & Southern Railway, Battle 
Creek, Mich. — The J. T. Adams Construction Company, 
Columbus, Ohio, has been awarded the contract by this 
company to build its 28-mile electric railway between Battle 
Creek and Coldwater. It is expected to begin work in the 
fall. A. C. Kingman, Battle Creek, president. [E. R. J., 
June 3, '11.] 

Saginaw & Flint Railway, Saginaw, Mich. — Surveys are 
being made by this company to build an extension from 
Saginaw to Bay City. 

Minneapolis Northern Suburban Railway, Minneapolis, 
Minn. — Work has been begun by this company on its 15- 
mile electric railway between Minneapolis and Little Falls. 
[E. R. J., June 1, '11.] 

Cape Girardeau-Jackson Interurban Railway, Cape Girar- 
deau, Mo. — Preliminary surveys are being made by this com- 
pany to build an extension from Cape Girardeau to Jackson, 
Illmo, Edna and Chaffee. 

Missouri & Kansas Interurban Railway, Kansas City, 

Mo. — This company has filed an application with the Kan- 
sas State Board of Railway Commissioners for permission 
to issue $300,000 of stock to double track its line from 
Thirty-ninth Street, Kansas City, to Overland Park, and 
reballast the entire line, and for the acquisition of additional 
power equipment. 

Omaha, Sioux City & Northern Railway, Omaha, Neb. — 

The Kansas Construction & Irrigation Company, Garden 
City, Kan., has been awarded the contract by this company 
tci build its 90-mile electric railway to connect Omaha, Blair, 
Tekaman, Decatur and Sioux City. B. M. McCue and E. A 
Te nnis, Garden City, are interested. [E. R. J., May 20, 11.] 
Suffolk Traction Company, Patchogue, N. Y. — This com- 
pany has completed and placed in operation its line from 
Main Street, Patchogue, to Blue Point. It expects to have 
its extension to Port Jefferson completed this summer. The 
company has also been granted an extension of time in 
which to build its line down Ocean Avenue to the Great 
South Bay. 

Western Ohio Railway, Lima, Ohio.— An extension from 
Fremont to Tiffin is being considered by this company. 

Oklahoma (Okla.) Railway. — This company is about to 
begin the construction of another extension over one of the 
three following routes, viz.: Yukon to El Reno, Moore to 
Norman or Edmund to Guthrie. Just which one of the ex- 
tensions will be built at the present time will depend upon 
the decision of the board of directors, which will be made 
within the next ten days. 

Johnstown (Pa.) Traction Company.— Surveys have been 
begun by this company to build an extension from Johns- 
town to Westmont. 

Ephrata & Lebanon Street Railway, Lebanon, Pa. — Con- 
struction will be begun at once by this company on its 23- 
mile electric railway between Ephrata and Lebanon. The 
company is now on the market for construction material. 
M. H. Shirk, Lincoln, secretary. Headquarters: Mentzer 
Building, Ephrata. [E. R. J., June 24, '11.] 

Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways.— The Carnegie Company has 
been awarded a contract by this company for 500 tons of 

West Penn Railways, Pittsburgh, Pa.— The Crossen Con- 
struction Company, Brownsville, ha-s been awarded the con- 
tract by this company for the grading and masonry work 
for a 2-mile extension from Masontown on the route to 
the Martin works. This is part of the contemplated ex- 
tension from Masontown to Morgantown, W. Ya. 

Chattanooga Railway & Light Company, Chattanooga, 
Tenn. — The double tracking of the Oak Street division in 
Chattanooga has been begun by this company. 

Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Railway, Gallatin, Tenn. — 
H. H. Mayb erry, Nashville, president of the Fidelity Securi- 
ties Corporation, which will build this line, states that con- 
tracts will be awarded to build the following bridges: One 

truss, 100 ft.; one through girder, 60 ft.; one deck girder, 60 
ft.; one deck girder, 65 ft., delivery to be made at Nash- 
ville within 60 days. The Fidelity Securities Corporation 
has increased its capital stock to $300,000 which it has an- 
nounced is fully subscribed. The number of directors has 
been increased from five to nine. [E. R. J., June 24, '11.] 

Amarillo Improvement Company, Amarillo, Tex. — A con- 
tract has been made by this company and the Amarillo 
Water, Light & Power Company whereby the San Jacinto 
Heights electric railway will be operated by electricity. 
The line will extend from Amarillo to San Jacinto Heights. 
The service will begin on Nov. 1. [E. R. J., March 27, '11.] 

Dallas, Tex. — E. T. Moore, manager of the Dallas Con- 
solidated Electric Street Railway, Dallas, advises that a 
company has not yet been organized to build the 30-mile 
electric railway between Dallas and Waxahachie, via Lan- 
caster, Red Oak and Sterrett. Stone & Webster, Boston, 
Mass., will build the line. E. Moore, Dallas, manager. 
[E. R. J., June 24, '11.] 

*Ebenezer, Tex. — The Alamo Land & Sugar Company 
will construct a 16-mile line to extend from Ebenezer to 
various points upon its tract of 32,000 acres of land. The 
construction will begin soon. It is proposed to operate 
gasoline motor cars at first, but later the line is to be elec- 

Gray's Harbor Railway & Light Company, Aberdeen, 
Wash. — Plans are being made by this company to build a 
three-mile extension of track in Aberdeen. 

Twin City Electric Company, South Bend, Wash. — Ray 

Fulcher and P. Pristoni, San Francisco, said to represent 
Sanderson & Porter, New York, N. Y., have taken charge 
of the preliminary work and construction of this railway 
between South Bend and Raymond. J. O. Crary, who ob- 
tained the franchise for this line, has assigned it to Sander- 
son & Porter. [E. R. J., March 18, '11.] 

Walla Walla (Wash.) Traction Company. — This company 
is rebuilding and repaving some of its tracks in Walla 

Fairmont, Clarksburg & Grafton Railway, Clarksburg, W. 

Va. — Final surveys have been made, the necessary stock 
sold and construction will soon be begun by this company 
on its 22-mile electric railway between Fairmont, Clarks- 
burg and Grafton. Charles F. Sutherland, Morgantown, 
president. [E. R. J., May 13, '11.] 

Fairmont & Pittsburgh Railway, Fairmont, W. Va. — The 
entire right-of-way has been secured by this company for its 
80-mile electric railway between Fairmont, W. Va., and 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

'Wheeling, W. Va. — Albert M. Schenk, Wheeling, and 
associates have plans under consideration to build an elec- 
tric railway between Wheeling, Parkersburg, Moundsville 
and Sistersville. Franchises will be asked for at once. 

Badger Railway & Light Company, Milwaukee, Wis. — 
The Railroad Commission of Wisconsin has authorized this 
company to issue 2550 shares of common stock of the par 
value of $100 each. Stock of par value $216,000 is to be 
issued and exchanged for the right-of-way and the grading 
on which the company proposes an electric railway between 
Whitewater and Lake Geneva, a distance of about 22 miles. 
Stock of the par value $39,000 is to be sold for not less than 
par to provide funds for the expenses of construction. 
Gustav Pickhardt, 711 Majestic Building, Milwaukee, chief 
engineer. [E. R. J., March 11, '11.] 


Vallejo & Northern Railway, Vallejo, Cal. — This company 
expects to build a terminal station and repair shops at West 
Sacramento. T. T. C. Gregory, Suisun, pre'sident. 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Company, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. — Plans are in progress by this company to re- 
model its two-story depot at Rushville. 

Des Moines (la.) City Railway. — In connection with its 
plan to spend about $500,000 in improvements this company 
is considering the construction of a new carhouse. No site 
has as yet been selected for the structure. 

Iowa City (la.) Electric Railway. — This company will 
construct a new waiting room in Iowa City at the north 

July 8, 191 1. 



end of its line where it intersects with the road leading to 
the city park at Park Bridge. 

Blue Grass Traction Company, Lexington, Ky. — A two- 
story passenger and freight station will be constructed by 
this company at Paris. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, Akron, Ohio. 
— This company has secured another block of land at the 
corner of Boulevard and Lakeside Avenues, Akron, Ohio, 
which will be added to that already purchased for its new 
carhouses. In addition to the carhouses the company has 
planned to erect a large repair and machine shop on a por- 
tion of the land. 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Company, Portland, 
Ore. — Work will be begun at once by this com- 
pany on the erection of a consolidated carhouse in Portland. 
The cost is estimated to be about $500,000. 

Tacoma Railway & Power Company, Tacoma, Wash. — 
This company is having plans prepared for the erection of 
a depot, construction on which will be begun shortly. 

Fairmont & Clarksburg Traction Company, Fairmont, 
W. Va. — The Owego Bridge Company, Owego, N. Y., has 
been awarded the contract by this company to build its new 
carhouse in Clarksburg. The structure will be located on 
the land adjoining the present interurban station. It will 
be 200 ft. long and of metal construction with a steel 
trussed roof and upon concrete foundations. It will be five 
tracks in width. The cost is estimated to be about $15,000. 
James O. Watson, Fairmont, general manager. 

Connecticut Company, Hartford, Conn. — This company 
has completed the necessary changes in the power house at 
Buckland and West Streets in Hartford. [E. R. J., May 
27, '"■] 

Indianapolis, Chicago & Meridian Railway, Indianapolis, 
Ind. — It is reported that this company intends to build its 
new power stations at Monticello and at Indianapolis. 
M. J. Mooreland is interested. [E. R. J., June 10, '11.] 

Boone (la.) Electric Company. — This company has 
awarded a contract to the Allis-Chalmers Company for 
two 1000-kw turbines, and another contract has been placed 
with the Edge Moor Iron Company for three 400-hp boilers. 
In addition to its street railway service the Boone Electric 
Company has a central station which has just secured a con- 
tract from the Chicago & Northwestern Railway to sup- 
ply power for the operation of extensive new car shops 
at Boone. 

Des Moines (la.) City Railway. — This company has an- 
nounced that at the power house on East Maple Street and 
the river an addition will be constructed on the river end 
of the present plant to contain a 2000-kw low-pressure tur- 
bine with necessary condensers, switchboard and trans- 
formers. A new coal and ash-conveying plant and an elec- 
trically operated 30-ton crane will be installed at the power 
station. Besides the 300-kw rotary converter to be located 
at Klondike Junction, north of Grand View Park, a 500-kw 
rotary will be located at Flint Junction. 

Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Company, 
Youngstown, Ohio. — Additions and improvements will be 
made by this company at once at its North Avenue power 
house in Youngstown. The capacity of the plant will be 
increased 50 per cent, making the total capacity 13,000 kw. 
The addition will be a one-story brick structure containing 
over 1500 sq. ft. of floor space. The new equipment has 
been contracted for and will include a 4000-kw turbine, a 
12,000-sq. ft. surface condenser, a 200-hp pump for supplying 
water for the condenser, and two 500-hp boilers, in addition 
to boiler feed pumps and various other necessary auxiliaries. 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Company, Portland, 
Ore. — This company has completed its 8,000-hp steam plant 
at the foot of Lincoln Street in Portland. This plant is to 
provide for emergencies when transmission wires break 
down. The structure is 160 ft. x 130 ft. and of reinforced 
concrete construction. The plant consists of 16 boilers, one 
reciprocating engine, two steam turbines and 2000-kw motor 
generators. In addition, there are vacuum and circulating 
pumps. The cost is estimated to be about $200,000. 
[E. R. J., March 19, '11.] 

Manufactures & Supplies 

Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus Railroad, Marion, Ohio, 

has purchased four 30-ton standard steam railroad gondola 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Company, Portland, 

Ore., has ordered through Pierson, Roeding & Company 
six Brill 21-E trucks without wheels. 

Morris County Traction Company, Morristown, N. J., has 
ordered ten quadruple equipments of No. 101-B-8 railway 
motors with type K-28-B control from the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company. 

Marshall (Tex.) Traction Company has ordered two 
double equipments of No. 307 interpole railway motors with 
type K-10 control from the Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company. 

Philadelphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit Company will shortly be 
in the market for thirty elevated cars. The plans for the 
rehabilitation of the property call for two hundred addi- 
tional surface cars, but the company states that no definite 
time has been set for the purchase of these cars. 

Houston (Tex.) Electric Company, noted in the Electric 
Railway Journal of May 6, 191 1, as having ordered five 
double-truck, single-end cars from the St. Louis Car Com- 
pany, has specified the following details for this equipment: 

Seating capacity 40 Curtain material ... Pantasote 

Length of body 26 ft. 6 in. Destination signs Hunter 

Over vestibule 38 ft. 6 in. Wheel guards H-B 

Width over sills.... 8 ft. 4 in. Hand brakes Ackley 

Over all 8 ft. 7 in. Headlights Crouse-Hinds 

Height, rail to sills, 3 ft. i l / 2 in. Motors 2 G. E.-219 

Sill to trolley base 8 ft. Seats Heywood 

Body semi-steel Trolley base Sterling-M. 

Interior trim mahogany Trucks ....Brill 39-E 

Roof arched Wheels chilled iron 

Underframe composite Drivers 33 in. 

Control GE K-36 Pony 21 in. 

Couplers radial 

Greenville, Spartanburg & Anderson Railway, Greenville, 
S. C, has included the following in its specifications for the 
seventeen four-compartment high-speed interurban cars 
which are being built by the Jewett Car Company: 

Seating capacity 60 Curtain fixtures .... C. S. Co. 

Weight (body only) .38,000 lb. Curtain material ... Pantasote 

Bolster centers, length, Fenders loco, type, pilot 

39 ft. 5 in. Gongs 12 in. 

Over vestibule 60 ft. Heaters Consol. 

Width over sills 9 ft. 2 in. Headlights ....Crouse-Hinds 

Over all 9 ft. 4 in. Journal boxes, 

Height, rail to sills, A. E. R. A., Std. 

3 ft. 8 in. Motors 4-1500-volt dc. 

Sill to trolley base. .9 ft. 9^8 in- Motors inside hung 

Body wood Sanders air 

Interior trim mahogany Sash fixtures Edwards 

Headlining Agasote Seats H. & K. Walkover 

Roof monitor Seating material, 

Underframe Composite leather and frieze plush 

Air brakes. . .West. A. M. M. Trolley retrievers ... Knutson 
Axles . . 6 in. Trucks, 

Car trimmings bronze M. C. B., 7-ft. wheel base 

Control for 1500 volt d.c. Wheels ...36-in. rolled steel 

Couplers Tomlinson 

The six cars ordered by the Piedmont Traction Company 
will also be built in accordance with the specifications of 
the Greenville, Spartanburg & Anderson Railway. 

Indian Refining Company, New York, N. Y., announces 
that its general and executive offices are now located per- 
manently in the Whitehall Building, 17 Battery Place, New 

Ackley Brake Company, New York, N. Y., reports the 
receipt of additional orders for Ackley brakes from Seville, 
Spain and the Sao Paulo Tramway, Light & Power Com- 
pany, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

Haskel & Barker Car Company, Michigan City, Ind., has 
awarded a contract to the American Bridge Company for 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2. 

about 2500 tons of structural material to be used in the con- 
struction of its new steel car shops. 

Duffy & Boyd Hardened Copper Company, Gardiner, 
Me., has been chartered in Maine to manufacture cop- 
per trolley wheels. The authorized capital stock is $100,- 
000. C. A. Messer is president and J. Boyd, Togus, is 

Rush, Otis & Company, Chicago, 111., has been formed by 
C. G. Rush and H. B. Otis to continue the old business of 
C. G. Rush & Company. The new firm will act as electrical 
contracting engineers, with offices at 69 West Washington 
Street, Chicago. 

Sangamo Electric Company, Chicago, 111., has removed 
its Chicago office to 617-631 West Jackson Boulevard, where 
it will occupy joint offices with the Delta-Star Electric Com- 
pany, whose president, H. W. Young, is also manager for 
the Sangamo Electric Company. 

Pittsburgh, Transformer Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., an- 
nounces that its Western sales agency is now conducted 
by the Delta-Star Electric Company, 617-631 West Jackson 
Boulevard, Chicago, 111. The Western agency was formerly 
held by the Republic Electric Company, controlled by stock- 
holders of the Delta-Star Electric Company. The officers 
of the Delta-Star Electric Company are: H. W. Young, 
president, and A. S. Pearl, secretary. 

Wonham, Sanger & Bates, New York, N. Y., are circu- 
lating a significant passage from the report of the Birming- 
ham (Eng.) Tramways for the year ending March 31, 191 1, 
to the effect that the adoption of C-H ampere-hour meters 
on the cars resulted in a current saving of about £5,000 
for the hr?t nine months' service. As previously noted in 
these columns, the successful work of this meter abroad 
led to its intioduction to American electric railways by 
Wonham, Sanger & Bates. 

Col. Henry G. Prout, vice-president and general manager 
of the Union Switch & Signal Company, Swissdale, Pa., 
and formerly, for sixteen years, 1887-1903, editor-in-chief 
of the Railroad Gazette, received last week from the Uni- 
versity of Michigan the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Laws. Colonel P'rout graduated from the University of 
Michigan in 1871, with the degree of C. E., and in 1902 
received from Yale University the honorary degree of Mas- 
ier ot Arts. 

The J. G. Brill Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has received 
the following orders for export: M. E. Curwin, London, 
Eng., fifty Brill 21-E trucks; Noyes Brothers, for Wanganui 
Corporation Tramways, New Zealand, eight Brill 21-E 
trucks without wheels and axles; Agar Cross & Company, 
for La Plata Electric Tramways Company, Argentina, ten 
Brill 21-ft. 4-in. semi-convertible car bodies mounted on 
Brill 21-E trucks; Sao Paulo Tramway, Light & Power 
Company, Brazil. 25 Brill 21-E trucks without wheels; 
Thomas Barlow & Son, for Durban Corporation Tramways, 
Durban, Natal, six Brill 21-E trucks without wheels and 

Davis-Bournonville Company, Chicago, 111., announces 
that it has been appointed by the Davis-Bournonville 
Acetylene Development Company and the National Pneu- 
matic Company to act as their exclusive selling agent for 
welding and cutting apparatus, and has a.dded largely to 
its working capital and executive force. The business of 
the Davis-Bournonville Company will be divided into the 
Eastern department, with offices in its present quarters, 90 
West Street, New York, N. Y., and the Western depart- 
ment, with offices at 515 Laflin Street, Chicago, the present 
qua.rters of the welding department of the National Pneu- 
matic Company. 

American Mason Safety Tread Company, Boston, Mass., 

has shipped to the American Car & Foundry Company, New 
York, at its Jeffersonville, Ind., shops red car karbolith 
surfacing material for 19,500 sq. ft. and car karbolith for 
21,000 sq. ft. for new passenger coaches for the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad. This company is shipping to the Pressed 
Steel Car Company car karbolith for flooring twenty-five 
postal cars for the New York Central & Hudson River 
Railroad; also 17,760 sq. ft. of red karbolith for passenger 
coaches, and 2280 sq. ft. of karbolith for table tops. The 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, has re- 

cently received several consignments of carborundum kar- 
bolith surfacing material. 

Jones & Laughlin Steel Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., on 

July 1 opened its own office in the Penobscot Building, 
Detroit, Mich. It has been represented in Detroit hereto- 
fore by F. A. Goodrich & Company. Frederick H. Holt, 
now in charge of the office of F. A. Goodrich & Company, 
will be district sales manager in Detroit. The Jones & 
Laughlin Company will also open offices in the Pierce 
Building, St. Louis, Mo., where the F. A. Goodrich Iron & 
Steel Company has been representing it. E. D. Batchelder, 
now in the sales department of the general offices of the 
Jones & Laughlin Steel Company, will be district sales 
manager in St. Louis. A. C. Pollock, in the sales depart- 
ment of the general offices, has been put in charge of the 
newly established Pittsburgh sales district. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., has received orders for power equipment from 
the following companies: Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Rail- 
way, Ottawa, for substation equipment consisting of nine 
110-kw, 33, ooo-volt oil-insulated, self-cooling transformers, 
three five-panel switchboards and the necessary lightning 
protective apparatus; Merchants' Light & Power Company, 
Ogden, Utah, for four soo.-kw oil-insulated, water-cooled 
transformers and five 75-light metallic flame arc lamp out- 
fits; Kentucky Electric Company, Louisville, Ky., for one 
1500-kw air-blast transformer with blower outfit. Foreign 
railway motor business recently secured includes an order 
from Walter Brothers & Company, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 
for fifteen double equipments of No. 101-G motors with 
type K-io-A control. 

Standard Underground Cable Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., 
calls attention to the 'longevity of one of its underground 
cables which was removed from a duct in Philadelphia 
Sept. 22, 1910, owing to a re-arrangement of circuits. This 
cable was installed during May, 1886, having been manufac- 
tured by the Standard Underground Cable Company. It 
had been in operation therefore continuously for over 
twenty-four years, and at the time of its removal showed 
absolutely no indication of deterioration in any way, not- 
withstanding the fact that while the cable was sold to 
operate under a working pressure of 600 volts, the circuit 
had for years been used for 2000-volt arc-light service. The 
insulation is of a saturated fiber, a type that, due to the in- 
creasing demand for higher voltage, has been largely super- 
seded. The cable is a No. 4 B & S. gage stranded conductor 
made up of sixteen No. 16 B. & S. gage wires. The original 
specifications called for a braid of cotton yarn over the lead 
and its saturation with No. 2 P. & B. paint, to protect the 
lead cover against chemical action. 


Ansonia Brass & Copper Company, New York, N. Y., is 
mailing a 36-page catalog which describes Tobin bronze. 
The publication also contains tables showing the results 
of various tests and commendatory letters from users of 
Tobin bronze. 

Standard Steel Works Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has 

issued a new catalog on steel tires, giving in detail the 
specifications which were adopted by the American Society 
for Testing Materials. Illustrations, diagrams and a fac- 
simile of dimension blank for sending orders are included. 

General Electric Company, Scheneotady, N. Y., has is- 
sued Bulletin 4818, which describes and illustrates its 
flange and flexible couplings. Bulletin 4832 describes a 
line of commutating-pole generators in which commutating 
trouble is eliminated. These range in capacity from 20 to 
150 kw a.nd are wound for 125, 250 and 575 volts. They may 
be equipped with sliding base or with belt tightener, as de- 
sired. Bulletin 4846 describes the company's alternating- 
current switchboard panels. Bulletin No. 4852 contains 
a description of the company's standard 50-ton electric 
locomotive and its equipment, a.nd a statement of features 
of construction which have made it particularly suitable 
for the requirements of the heaviest interurban roads. The 
bulletin also contains an information sheet for the use of 
those considering the adoption of such a locomotive. Bul- 
letin 4829 describes and illustrates electric locomotives for 
industrial railways. These locomotives are built for both 
standard and narrow gage. 

Electric Railway Journal 


Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 



McGraw Publishing Company 

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Copyright, 1911, by McGraw Publishing Company. 
Entered as second-class matter at the post office at New York, N. Y. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal 8500 
copies are printed. 



Car-Roof Nomenclature 103 

Transfers in New York 103 

Problems of Midsummer 104 

Interurban Coupler Standardization 104 

Economy in the Carhouse 105 

Venice Power Station of the Illinois Traction System 106 

Hearing in Regard to Fares on Long Island Railroad 114 

Hoops for Train Orders 114 

Meeting of the Committee on Equipment 115 

Fare Hearing in Massachusetts 120 

Hearing on Joint Rates and Through Routes in New York 121 

New York Meeting of Committee on Way Matters 122 

Block Signals on Beebe Syndicate Lines 122 

New Work of the South Shore Single-Phase 123 

New Timetable of the Albany-Southern Railroad 123 

Gasoline Weed Burner 124 

Trolley Hart and Aligning Ear 125 

Turbo-Generator Ventilating Device 125 

New Freight Cars of Michigan United Railways 126 

Non-Parallel Axle Truck Cars for Kankakee, 111 127 

Multiple Coupon Transfer Used in New York 127 

More Storage Battery Cars for the Third Avenue Railroad, New 

York City 128 

New Material for Car Headlining 12S 

News of Electric Railways 129 

Financial and Corporate 133 

Traffic and Transportation 136 

Personal Mention 137 

Construction News »»" 

Manufactures and Supplies 141 

Car-Roof Nomenclature 

[n every industry new names from time to time must be 
coined or adapted to distinguish new methods, devices or 
constructions. In the early days of electric railways the 
word "interurban" was fittingly applied to cross-country 
lines connecting different towns and cities, and many other 
terms might be mentioned which have found their way into 
the nomenclature of electric railway work. In car design 
some of the names which have been invented or adapted 
have been truly descriptive, while others have been collo- 
quial and almost meaningless. In some cases several differ- 
ent names have been applied to the same part or type of 
construction. One of the most striking examples of this 
diversified nomenclature is the variety of names which have 
been applied to the type of car roof in which no monitor 
deck is used and the roof is formed in a smooth sym- 
metrical curve from one side to the other. Some of the 
names which have been applied to this construction 
are "turtle-back roof," "segmental roof," "elliptical roof," 
"flat-arch roof" and "arch roof." All of these are intended 
to be synonymous and their indiscriminate use leads to un- 
necessary confusion. The name "arch roof" is more nearly 
descriptive and general in its application to different varia- 
tions of design than any of the others, and this term has 
been used throughout in the new Electric Railway Dic- 
tionary. One of the objects in preparing the Electric Rail- 
way Dictionary was to bring about standardization of terms 
such as these, and carbuilders, master mechanics and others 
cannot do better than to follow the Dictionary as a guide. 

Transfers in New York 

In spite of the fact that the rapid transit question is by 
no means settled in New York City, the Public Service 
Commission, First District, has decided to begin an im- 
mediate investigation into the desirability of requiring the 
surface railways to adopt air brakes on all of their cars 
and has also begun a series of hearings at which the railway 
companies are requested to present reasons why a prac- 
tically universal system of transfers should not be required 
on all the lines in Manhattan Borough. The first hearing 
on this subject was held July 6, and while the proposed 
order of the commission does not require the exchange of 
transfers at every junction point a sufficient number are 
mentioned so that most of the independent cross-town and 
longitudinal lines are concerned. It is somewhat difficult 
to know just what additional testimony on this subject is 
expected or desired. The topic was investigated by the com- 
mission very thoroughly about two years ago and the testi- 
mony elicited at those hearings was published in this paper. 
We know of no material developments since that time 
which would warrant the companies in looking upon the 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 3. 

issue of transfers between independent lines with any 
greater favor than they did at that time. But there has 
been agitation on the subject at Albany, and an official repe- 
tition of the facts which should be obvious may be needed 
for the education of the up-State legislators. If this is the 
case, the campaign of education should be thorough and 
those Assemblymen and Senators who stood sponsors for 
the bills and strongly advocated them should be required to 
be present in New York at all the hearings until the entire 
series is completed. This would be a punishment to fit the 

Problems of Midsummer 

The extraordinary period of hot weather which has 
extended over the greater part of the eastern half of this 
country during the past two weeks has brought its problems 
to electric railway managers. While men engaged in other 
work have been able to flee to the seashore or mountains 
for relief, railway operation has had to go on with the 
added burdens of providing a service for those who have 
to get their fresh air and their recreation on the electric 
cars and with a force of employees enervated by the torrid 
heat. The verdict as to the cause of the terrible disaster 
on the New Haven railroad has not yet been rendered, but 
it is not at all unlikely that the engineer who appears to 
have caused the accident by having disobeyed or forgotten 
an order was rendered less alert in mind by the tropical 
period through which the country has been passing. Cer- 
tainly it is not at all unusual for accidents on electric rail- 
ways to increase during warm weather. This is partly due 
to the fact that the employees are less quick to realize op- 
portunities for accidents and avoid them, and also because 
the public is in the same condition and is unable to take care 
of itself. At one time a continuance of the thermometer 
for a week or more among the nineties would have meant 
a large increase in number of motor burn-outs. This was 
when the factor of safety, or rather the character of con- 
struction and the overload capacity of railway motors, 
was lower than at present. Fortunately, improvements 
in insulation have reduced this trouble. A greater possi- 
ble source of danger lies in overloaded and poorly 
ventilated generating and transforming apparatus and in 
transmission cables forced to carry greater loads than 
those for which they were intended. The heated season, 
however, is the time of greatest traffic to a great many com- 
panies. The three months or so of summer form the 
principal reason for their existence. On such roads the 
training of employees forms a special and very serious 
problem because, as a rule, the greater part of the force 
of both motormen and conductors have to be broken in just 
for this period. It is a satisfaction to know, however, that 
the ideas of both the public and the management as regards 
the proper dress for railroad employees are more sensible 
than formerly. At one time it would have been considered 
undignified, if that is the proper term to use, for motor- 
men to discard their coats at any time. Now the men 
have that privilege even on Broadway, New York. Even 
the rule of increased traffic in hot weather has its excep- 
tions, and several roads have reported that traffic has fallen 
off somewhat during the past two weeks because it has been 
"too hot to ride." 


A standard coupler for interurban service is greatly 
needed by the interurban railways of the Central States 
and should be adopted by all roads operating large cars in 
trains of more than one unit. Briefly, the reasons which 
urge this course are safety, facility of interchange and 
economy. The need for greater facility of interchange 
is probably the most important factor now urging coupler 
standardization. All interurban roads, to a greater or less 
extent, handle steam cars over their lines and most of the 
roads at present use some form of shackle bar, even for 
pushing and pulling cars on straight track. Similarly, the 
network of interurban lines in Ohio and Indiana has seen 
such a rapid growth in its freight and passenger traffic 
during the last few years that interline service with trains 
of several cars has become necessary. Some electric roads 
regularly handle interline freight in connection with steam 
roads and so uniform coupling devices are required. A 
number of groups of roads now operate or are planning to 
operate trailers in interline service. The trail car, either 
passenger or freight, is drawn in turn over each separately 
owned portion of the route by being attached to a regular 
train. At junction points the trailer is uncoupled from 
the motor car of the delivering road and coupled to the 
motor car of the connecting line, which hauls it over an- 
other division of the route and in turn delivers it to destina- 
tion or to another road for transportation to destination. 
Thus, through trail cars on these long routes are handled 
by the motor cars of several companies, and service can be 
operated with safety and facility only when all cars are 
equipped with uniform couplers. The groups of roads oper- 
ating this through trailer service have, of course, equipped 
their cars with the same type of coupler, but the couplers 
used by one group of roads frequently will not satisfactorily 
intercouple with those used by another group, and so, when 
a variation in routing is required, some compromise coup- 
ling, such as a shackle bar, must be used. 

Economy in first cost and in maintenance charges should 
also follow coupler standardization. At the present time a 
manufacturer must be prepared to supply a variety of. types 
of couplers which, if reduced in number and manufactured 
in larger quantities, could be sold at a lower price. In like 
manner, the purchaser of couplers, when only a standard 
design is used, will need to carry in stock the minimum 
number of repair parts. 

About a year ago, urged by the foregoing reasons, the 
Central Electric Railway Association's standardization com- 
mittee held several meetings and recommended to the asso- 
ciation fourteen requirements for a standard coupler. Later 
these requirements were approved by the association. Now 
the equipment committee of the Engineering Association, 
as reported in this issue, has concluded several conferences 
with coupler manufacturers and also a joint meeting with 
the Central Electric standardization committee, so that it 
has information available with which to formulate at least 
tentative requirements for a standard coupler. The equip- 
ment committee is not going so far in the recommendation of 
details as did the Central Electric Railway Association, the 
reasons no doubt being the newness of the problem and the 
desire on the part of the equipment committee to lay down 

July 15, 1911.] 



only such requirements as may now serve to point the roads 
and coupler manufacturers toward a uniform type that will 
meet present requirements and yet allow sufficient freedom 
for development. 

The chief controlling requirements as finally considered 
by the committee at the Indianapolis meeting are worthy 
of special mention. The first was that couplers must couple 
by impact with all M.C.B. couplers used by steam roads. 
This means the use of the M.C.B. contour and vertical- 
plane type of coupler. The second, "couplers must have 
radial drawbars," is a necessary requirement on account of 
the long overhang of interurban cars and the sharp curves 
around which they must operate. These conditions call for 
comparatively long drawbars, which generally are pivoted 
so that a coupler may swing through an arc of 120 deg., or 
to the limits imposed by the car steps, which in some 
cases have to be cut away to provide for a maximum swing 
when 65-ft. cars are hauled around 33-ft. radius curves. 

Another requirement, that the coupler must provide for 
successful operation over irregularities in grades met in 
interurban practice, is fair because it qualifies the design 
for the service to be performed. The committee also, after 
considerable discussion regarding the repair problem in 
interchange service, inserted a clause to the effect that 
couplers should have shanks of such dimensions that in an 
emergency an M.C.B. coupler might readily be substituted. 
This method of repairing couplers probably would be used 
very infrequently in the interchange service as now given, 
but the continued growth of interchange between steam and 
electric roads warranted the committee in making such a 
provision for the future. The limit of angularity between 
the axes of two couplers was put at 8 deg., so that slack 
would not unduly accumulate in long trains and the require- 
ment was inserted that couplers must withstand the stresses 
occasioned by pushing cars around curves. Other require- 
ments were that all couplers must permit uncoupling with- 
out requiring employees to go between cars and must have 
knuckles limited in height to between 11 in. and 16 in. 

In part these recommendations of the committee for 
standard requirements which the Engineering Association 
should lay down for standard couplers are incomplete be- 
cause they do not say whether coupler heads should or 
should not be rigidly locked together against vertical move- 
ment. The committee requires, however, that all makes 
of interurban couplers must couple and operate properly 
with each other. At the present time there is considerable 
controversy as to whether coupler heads should be held 
together rigidly, as with the center lock, or should be per- 
mitted to have vertical movement to the full height of the 
knuckle. Couplers designed according to each of these 
principles have found favor in the field, and, while each will 
meet all the other requirements, the two types of couplers 
will not operate properly with each other, although they 
will intercouple. The combination of a coupler with a 
center lock and one with a bracket-arm attachment for 
preventing lateral movement would operate satisfactorily 
sc long as the coupler heads were under tension. But 
buckling will occur when cars are pushed around curves 
because the anti-buckling devices on the two couplers will 
not mate with each other and therefore will be inopera- 

Thus the committee has left leeway for the development 
and the acceptance by the roads of either the coupler with 
center locks or that without. Similarly the committee has not 
definitely stated whether standard couplers should provide 
for operation over irregularities in grade by the slipping of 
one knuckle inside of the other, as in M.C.B. practice, or by 
flexible carriers, as in the case of rigidly locked coupler 
heads. Both methods are satisfactorily followed in electric 
railway practice. The two foregoing indefinite points are 
very important, and until they are arbitrarily decided 
coupler standardization cannot proceed to the extent that is 


Although it is difficult to evaluate possible small im- 
provements in the conduct of work in the carhouse, there 
are few places on the system where the introduction of 
labor-saving methods pay better. It is surprising how 
many tasks performed here are repeated in the course of a 
year. In the large repair shop a considerable quantity of 
new work is usually being carried forward with routine 
maintenance, but in the carhouse, which is frequently con- 
fined to the handling of lighter repairs, the greater p"art of 
the work done resembles what has been often performed be- 
fore, and it is consequently susceptible to minor better- 
ments to a multiplied degree. 

Among the possible lines of attack on the problem of car- 
house economy of operation is the matter of stock dis- 
tribution. Experience tends to show that it is advisable to 
maintain, at least during the daytime, some degree of sub- 
storage outside the main stockroom. The practice of keep- 
ing a few brakeshoes at the pit where repairs are made and 
of carrying a few sizes of bolts in portable tool boxes saves 
time otherwise spent in trips to and from the stockroom, 
and this material can easily be checked as sent out. Al- 
though it is an old story, too much emphasis cannot be laid 
upon the importance of labeling all bins accurately in the 
stockroom and of providing enough bins to forestall any 
need of miscellaneous storage of supplies on the floor. An- 
other improvement worth considering is the equipment of 
transfer tables with brakes, so that the sudden kick of the 
car as it is leaving the table for the permanent track will 
not result in a derailment. The proper tagging and requi- 
sitioning of material sent to the shop or main storehouse 
from the carhouse as a sample to be duplicated is a potent 
source of economy, since the failure to handle this par- 
ticular task accurately and completely sometimes results in 
the receipt of spare parts which do not fit the equipment at 
the local house, with resulting delay in returning cars to 
service and increased costs of transporting supplies over the 
system. The wear of parts to the limit of reliability also 
deserves consideration. Controller fingers should be re- 
tained even when the tips need renewal, and the life of tips 
is almost always increased if they are reversed and thus 
have the opportunity to wear more evenly. With the multi- 
plicity of parts in modern car equipment it is easy to make 
the wrong attachments at times, as in mixing relay studs in 
multiple-unit-control maintenance. Upon such small points 
may rest the integrity of high-powered motors when carry- 
ing their service loads. 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 3. 

Venice Power Station of Illinois Traction System 

This Station Was Made Necessary by the Entrance of the Illinois Traction System into St. Louis. 

Been Completed and Possesses Many Interesting Features. 

It Has Recently 

Before the completion of the large new St. Louis termi- 
nal facilities of the Illinois Traction System energy for the 
100 miles of line south of Springfield was transmitted at 
33,000 volts from the generating station near Springfield. 
The large increase in interurban freight and passenger 
traffic in and out of St. Louis, the addition of thirty street 
cars for service between St. Louis and the tri-cities — 
Alton, Granite City and Venice — and the recent acquisition 
of commercial power customers for the local lighting sys- 
tems of this company made necessary the construction of 
a generating station at some point near St. Louis. Accord- 
ingly, as announced in earlier issues of this paper, plans 
were made about two years ago for 
the construction of the first half of a 
large, modern type station to be lo- 
cated in Venice near the east ap- 
proach to the McKinley Bridge over 
the Mississippi River. This station 
was put into service on Oct. I, 1910, 
and now handles the load of the 
local street car lines, the interurban 
passenger and freight lines and the 
lighting and commercial business of 
the Madison County Light & Power 
Company. Local current for rail- 
way operation is distributed at 650 
volts. The interurban substations 
for the 100 miles of line are supplied 
over a 33,000-volt transmission line 
and the city feeders of the local 
lighting companies are supplied with 
2300-volt, 60-cycle current from fre- 
quency converters in the large new 

Some of the constructional fea- 
tures of the new Venice station 
winch are of particular interest are 
the foundation work designed to 
meet a 40-ft. rise of water in the 
Mississippi River, the intake and 
discharge system designed to meet 

the same water conditions and built in quicksand, and 
the coal-handling facilities. The latter provide for the 
automatic handling by gravity of coal to the boilers and 
ashes from the boilers with the use onlv of stand- 
ard steam railway cars. In addition, the electrical sec- 
tion of the new station has been designed with high re- 
gard for continuity of service and, as in the case of the 
steam equipment, an especially generous amount of room 
has been apportioned to each piece of apparatus. The 
present steam and electrical generating units have sufficient 
capacity to handle the existing load, but provision has been 
made in the design so that the largest generating units 
now available may be installed when the expected increase 
in load makes this a necessity. The accompanying illus- 
trations from drawing and photographs show the control- 
ling dimensions and appearance of the large new station. 


The site of the new Venice power station is about 3.5 
miles from the business center of St. Louis. It is located 
close to the Illinois approach to the McKinley Bridge and 
about 800 ft. from the average shore line of the Mississippi 
River. The elevation of the double tracks on the bridge 
is 5 ft. higher than the elevation of the double tracks over 
the coal bunkers in the boiler house, and thus, by means of 

a steel trestle, coal trains are shunted directly over the 
bunkers from the main-line tracks. 

The soil conditions and the probability of a variation in 
water level of about 40 ft. required that particular attention 
be given to the foundations of the power-station structure 
and machinery. The Traction System owns sufficient prop- 
erty so that the size of the station can be doubled later. 


The ground dimensions of the completed portion of the 
new station are 138 ft. 6 in. x 192 ft. 3 in., and the structure 
from the level of the sub-basement floor to the top of the 
side walls is 92 ft. high. The two most important factors 

Illinois Traction Power Station — View from Southwest 

considered in the building of the foundations for the struc- 
ture and the machinery were the underlying bed of quick- 
sand on the shore of the river and the known water-level 
variation of 38 ft. 

The height of the condenser and piping floor is at the 
high-water level, and the machinery floor is still 12 ft. 6 in. 
higher. The sub-basement floor is 17 ft. below high-water 
level and 21 ft. above low-water level. The basement and 
sub-basement form a concrete box whenever the water level 
reaches 21 ft. above the floor. The hydrostatic pressure 
tending to lift the sub-basement floor will be very great, 
and to have provided for the stresses would have required 
considerable reinforcing material in the heavy concrete 
work. If this sub-basement had been utilized for ma- 
chinery the foundation work must also necessarily have 
been watertight. Therefore, it was decided to place below 
the high-water level none of the power-plant machinery 
except that which might be submerged. This would allow 
the sub-basement to be filled with water whenever the 
water level outside of the station became so high as to 
put the sub-basement floors and walls under stress. Thus 
no reinforcing was needed and it was not necessary to 
waterproof the large substructure. A section and plan of 
this intake appear on page 112. 

July 15, 1911.] 




The concrete foundations of the power plant and its 
machinery rest upon 500 concrete piles having an average 
length of 22 ft. 2]/2 in. These piles were built in the 
ground according to the Raymond process. A sheet-steel 

been necessary to cut off the piles at the floor level, while 
with the Raymond piles no concrete was placed above the 
desired elevation. The piling was grouped under the side 
walls and under the machinery foundations, according to 
the loads to be sustained. After the 500 piles had been 

Illinois Traction Power Station — Steel Work During 

metal core inclosed in a steel shell was driven in to suffi- 
cient penetration and then the core was withdrawn, leaving 
the steel casing in place. Concrete was then deposited in 
the casing up to the desired height. In general, the piles 
were 8 in. in diameter at the bottom and 18 in. in diameter 

Illinois Traction Power Station — Foundations During 

sunk their heads were covered with a sub-floor slab of 
concrete 3 ft. thick. This slab is approximately 200 ft. x 
140 ft. in area, and ties the tops of all the piles together 
and also distributes the stresses imposed by the super- 
structure and its foundation walls. Approximately 9000 cu. 

Illinois Traction Power Station — Ash Pit, Track and Coal Crusher 

at the top. Those piles which were tested stood loads of 
60 tons each. The engineers state that by the use of this 
method of pile-sinking considerable economy was effected 
over the use of ready-made concrete piles. With the latter 
type, after penetration had been reached, it would have 

yd. of concrete were used in the substructure and founda- 
tions installed in this power station. About $75,000 was 
spent for raising the elevation of the floors above water 
level. This expenditure would not have been necessary 
had it been possible to locate the plant on higher ground. 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 3. 


The superstructure of the building consists of three 
principal sections: a boiler house, 80 ft. wide, an engine 
room, 73 ft. wide, and a series of electrical galleries, 30 ft. 
wide. All three sections are 134 ft. long. The walls of 
the superstructure are of red brick, trimmed with white 
stone. The roofs are made of book tile covered with Cary 
roofing. The structural steel work weighed 750 tons and 
was installed by the McClintic-Marshall Company. The 
concrete substructure was placed by the Myers Construc- 
tion Company, and the concrete and brick superstructure 
by the Fruin & Colnon Construction Company. 

All partitions and floors are made of fireproof material. 
The floors are carried by the structural steel work, which 
in turn supports arched concrete slabs reinforced with 
Clinton wire cloth. The interior walls are laid with light- 
colored sand-lime brick and a white enamel-brick wainscot. 
Metal stairways are installed and have steps made of in- 
verted channel iron filled with concrete treads. The chief 
engineer's office on the switchboard gallery is finished in 

As will be noted from the plan, the boiler-house space 
provides for duplicating the boiler equipment and the stack. 
The stack into which the present boilers exhaust is of the 
self-supporting steel type and is 12 ft. in diameter and 
200 ft. high. It has a brick lining extending to the top. 
The lining is not tied to the steel work because of the possi- 
bility of damage by reason of unequal expansion. A 
tapered sheet-steel smoke flue connects the furnaces with 
the stack. As the ultimate plant will include two stacks, 
each serving twelve boilers symmetrically placed on either 
side in groups of six, the layout of the smoke flue has been 
designed to take care of the future boiler installation. 
Only one opening into each stack will be made. 


Fuel is received over the interurban line, and thus can be 
brought from either the nearby steam connections or from 
the mines owned and served by this company. The location 
of the new plant near the McKinley Bridge made feasible 
the very economical coal-handling arrangements which 
have been provided. Two standard-gage tracks connecting 

Illinois Traction Power Station — Engine Room from East End 

oak. Close to the office are the toilet facilities, which in- 
clude shower baths and Merritt steel clothes lockers with 
expanded metal doors. 

The engine room is served from end to end by a 30-ton 
Case crane with its runway placed 47 ft. 6 in. above the 
floor. This vertical clearance will permit the installation 
of large steam turbines or marine engines, according to 
the future requirements. 


The boiler plant, as so far required, includes six O'Brien 
water-tube boilers of 608 hp each. These are equipped 
with the Illinois Stoker Company's chain grates. Each 
boiler has a Foster internal superheater adding about 80 
deg. superheat. The stokers are operated by a line shaft 
driven either by an electric motor or by a stoker engine 
and the draft of the stack is controlled by a Spencer 
damper regulator. 

with the main-line tracks on the Illinois approach to the 
bridge are carried on a steel trestle which leads directly to 
the end of the boiler house and then over the full length 
of the coal bunkers. In this way an electric locomotive 
may handle a train of ten cars directly from the main line 
into the boiler house, where the coal may be dumped into a 
series of steel hopper-bottom bunkers having a storage 
capacity for 800 tons. Elevated track space is also pro- 
vided for storing about 300 tons additional fuel. 

The elevation of the bunkers in the boiler house is such 
that coal will flow by gravity directly to the chain-grate 
stokers. The ashes from the furnaces fall into concrete 
storage hoppers. Gates at the front of these hoppers per- 
mit the cinders to be dumped easily by gravity directly into 
a standard gondola car on a track extension into the sub- 
basement of the boiler house. Thus when the cinders have 
been placed in these cars they do not require to be rehan- 

July 15, 1911.] 



died before they are shipped along the road for use as fill- 

The method of handling fuel as just described presup- 
poses that the coal is small enough for use with the stokers. 
Whenever lump coal is received the cars are spotted on 
the approach trestle directly over a steel hopper, which holds 
two carloads. Beneath this hopper is a motor-driven crusher 
from which the coal in turn falls directly into another car 
located on a track at an elevation midway between the main 
tracks which lead from the bridge approach and the ash 
track below the boiler-house floor. After a carload of coal 
has been run through the crusher the yard locomotive takes 
it around a "Y" and up on to the bridge approach and then 
into the boiler house above the bunkers. 

The motor which drives the coal crusher also drives a 

steam piping extends above the engines or turbines to re- 
strict the use of the overhead crane. Moreover, the high- 
pressure piping and the heavy fittings are easily supported 
and are in such position that a man can work upon them 
without ladders or scaffolding. 

A free exhaust main, 36 in. in diameter, extends the full 
length of the engine-room basement and is connected with 
the atmosphere by a 36-in. spiral-riveted pipe, extending 
through the roof of the engine room. 

When the boiler equipment is duplicated on the opposite 
side of the firing aisle the high-pressure steam header will 
be continued in a loop around one end of both rows of 
boilers and cross-connected at two points, thus making it 
possible to subdivide the boiler plant into any desired num- 
ber of units of two boilers each. 

winding drum which, with its cable, is designed to pull a 
gondola car loaded with ashes out of the basement. The 
cars of ashes, in moving out of the boiler-plant basement, 
have to ascend a short length of 12 per cent grade. Never- 
theless, with the electric winch the entire run of ashes for 
one day's operation can be removed from the plant in ten 


The main steam header is located on the boiler side of 
the partition wall between the engine and boiler rooms. It 
is 20 in. in diameter and at an elevation of 8 ft. below the 
boiler-house floor. The header and its fittings are firmly 
supported on a row of concrete pedestals. Steam connec- 
tions from the boilers above are 10 in. in diameter, and 
the engine connections pass directly through the power- 
station division wall and up through the engine-room floor 
to the throttle valves. Because of this arrangement no 


The present generating equipment occupies but one-half 
of the floor space provided for engines and turbines. Thus 
space is available for doubling the generating equipment if 
units of the present size are installed, or for greatly increas- 
ing the capacity if desired, since the building, sub-founda- 
tions, etc., are arranged to accommodate much larger units 
than now are used. The present main units include one 
1000-kw General Electric 2300-volt, 25-cycle generator, 
driven by a Hooven-Owens-Rentschler cross-compound, 
horizontal engine with cylinders 26-in. and 52-in. x 48-in. 
stroke, and a 3000-kw Curtis turbine also delivering 2300- 
volt, 25-cycle current. These two generating units are run 
in parallel and the station, when desired, is paralleled over 
a 33,000-volt transmission line with the Riverton power 
station located near Springfield, 112 miles away. 

Alberger condensers are used for both the Corliss engine 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 3. 

July 15, 1911.] 





[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 3. 

and the Curtis turbine. The turbine condenser is of the 
base type subdivided into two sections. The engine con- 
denser is of the standard form having 2400 sq. ft. of cooling 
surface. The wet-vacuum pump for the latter condenser 
is connected so that it may be used to remove air from the 
intake and assist the smooth running of the large circulat- 
ing pumps. All the condensing machinery is located in the 

Illinois Traction Power Station — 33,000-Volt Busbar Room 

basement beneath the generating machinery, as are the 
pumps for the Turner oil-filtering system and the step- 
bearing pressure pumps. 

Two 4000-hp feed-water heaters have been installed, one 
of Cochrane and the other of Webster manufacture. These 
heaters are so connected by piping that either one may be 
run singly or the two may be run in multiple. They use 
only the exhaust from the steam auxiliaries. 

Two H. R. Worthington boiler-feed pumps, each large 
enough for the ultimate installation, have been installed. 
The main boiler-feed pipes leading from the pumps to the 
boilers are black iron lined with copper. This copper lin- 
ing has been provided so that any precipitate will not col- 
lect on its smooth surfaces as it would on iron pipe. 

It is interesting to note the efficiency of the feed-water 
heating system in purifying the Mississippi River water 
used for boiler feeding. This water, as taken from the river, 
contains on an average 16.32 grains of solid matter per gal- 
lon. After the water has been passed through the heaters 
but 5.24 grains of solid matter per gallon remain, and as 
the river water is soft it is good for boiler feeding. 


The circulating water for the condenser equipment is 
taken from the Mississippi River and a system of intake and 
discharge piping has been installed which is sufficient for 
28,000-hp engine capacity, the proposed ultimate capacity of 
this plant. The river side of the power plant is 800 ft. 
from the average river's edge. Briefly, the water is led by 

gravity to an intake well near the shore line. Circulating 

pump suction is taken from this well to the power house, 
where vertical steam pumps lift the water through the 
condensers. The sub-basement of the section of the power 
plant utilized by the electrical galleries incloses the intake 
and discharge pipes. 

The most important feature in connection with the intake 
conduit is the steel-and-concrete caisson or intake well. 
This well is connected with the river through a cast-iron 
bell-and-spigot gravity intake pipe 48 in. in diameter. The 
pipe is carried in saddles fastened to piling. Originally it 
was planned to obtain water by means of a gravity intake 
from the river to the power house, but the presence of 
quicksand made it desirable to arrange for locating the 
intake pipe near the surface of the ground. 

An illustration shows the arrangement of the gravity suc- 
tion connections to and from the intake well and also shows 
the design of the well. The intake well is a steel caisson 
lined with concrete and having a concrete floor 6 ft. thick. 
This caisson was built in sections above the surface of the 
ground and sunk by its own weight. It is 16 ft. in diameter. 
At the commencement of the work a steel cylinder 16 ft. 
in diameter and 6 ft. high was equipped with cutting edges 

o a * 6 a 

Scale in Ft 

Illinois Traction Power Station — Section and Plan of Intake 

and placed directly over the final location. Then a lining 
of concrete 1 ft. thick was placed within the shell and as the 
earthen core was removed the shell sank into the ground. 
Other steel shells were added until the caisson had 
been sunk to a depth of about 40 ft. Then the quicksand 
was reached and it was seen that unless some special pro- 
vision was made the caisson would sink below the desired 

July 15, 1911. 



level. Accordingly a temporary concrete bulkhead was 
placed near the top and air locks were provided. The in- 
terior of the caisson then was put under an air pressure of 
10 lb. while the work was completed. When the caisson hau 
been sunk to the desired level a floor or base of concrete 6 
ft. thick was placed. This extreme thickness of concrete 
was found necessary in order to give the caisson sufficient 
weight to overcome its buoyancy. 

After the caisson structure had been 

completed the 48-in. gravity intake pipe 

from the river was installed and pro- 
vided with a gate valve and operating 

staff extending nearly to the top of the 

well. The 48-in. intake connection from 

the pipe leading to the power house was 

placed in the well. This is provided 

with a foot valve and a circular screen 

which may be raised for cleaning. The 

intake well is located on the harbor line 

just below one of the large piers of the 

McKinley Bridge. This pier rests on 

solid rock and thus effectually protects 

the intake well from damage. The con- 
nection between the in cake well and the 

power plant is made with 48-in. bell-and- 

spigot pipe buried at a depth of 18 ft. 

below the ground surface. The pipe 

sections are 12 ft. long and weigh 8000 

lb. each. Each section of pipe rests on 

two saddles, each in turn supported by 

two piles. The three lengths of pipe 

nearest the caisson are secured to it 

by tension rods provided with turn- 
buckles. The piece of land through 
which this pipe extends is protected from the action of the 
water by a riprap deflection levee 80 ft. wide located under 
the approach to the McKinley Bridge. 

Within the power station sub-basement the circulating- 
water pipes connect with the intake openings of two duplex 
outside-packed steam pumps having water cylinders at the 
level of the intake pipe and steam cylinders located on the 
engine-room floor about 30 ft. above. The circulating pump 

Two General Electric 1800-kw railway rotary converters. 

Two 500-kw a.c. motor generators for changing fre- 
quency from 25 cycles to 60 cycles for lighting distribution. 

Two Westinghouse exciter sets of 100-kw capacity each, 
one driven by a motor and the other by a horizontal tur- 

The electrical galleries, as earlier stated, are located in a 

Illinois Traction Power Station — 2300-Volt Busbar Room 

fireproof subdivision of the power plant parallel with the en- 
gine room. The sub-basement of this section contains cir- 
culating water pipes ; the section at the engine-room base- 
ment level contains the step-up transformers and above this 
are a 2300-volt switch room and a 33,000-volt switch room. 
The switchboard gallery overlooks the engine room and is 
directly above the pump room. The switchboard, which is 
largely of Westinghouse manufacture, is 70 ft. long and 

Illinois Traction Power Station — Boiler Room 

for the turbine condenser has a capacity of 9000 gal. per 
minute and that for the Corliss engine condenser 1500 gal. 
per minute. Both pumps are of Blake manufacture. 


In addition to the two 2300-volt, 25-cycle main generating 
units the following machines have been installed on the 
engine-room floor : 

Illinois Traction Power Station — Switchboard Gallery 

contains forty-two panels. Fourteen of these panels are 
for 2300-volt, 60-cycle lighting distribution to Venice, 
Granite City and Madison, and carry Terrill regulators for 
the 60-cycle side of the frecuiency changers. There are also 
three exciter panels, three 33,000-volt transformer panels 
with Westinghouse remote-control oil circuit-breakers, 
seven extra panels for additional generators and lines, one 


TI 4 

engine and one turbine panel equipment with motor-oper- 
ated speed control, six rotary-converter panels, of which 
two are not used, and seven d.c. trolley feeder panels. 

The switchboard is illuminated by lamps which are placed 
about 6 ft. in front of the board and are provided with 
projecting reflectors. 

The switchboard transformers and high-tension and low- 
tension a.c. connections and outlets are symmetrically ar- 
ranged in accord with the arrangement of switchboard 
panels. The busbar and transformer sections of the elec- 
trical galleries, as already described, are subdivided into 
three separate rooms, one above the other, each room 
extending throughout the length of the building. The room 
at the intermediate elevation contains the 2300-volt buses, 
which are fed directly from the solenoid-operated oil 
switches connecting with the main generating units. From 
the 2300-volt buses current is taken downward through the 
floor to the transformers in the room below, where it is 
either stepped up to 33,000 volts for transmission to substa- 
tions or stepped down to be converted in the rotaries. The 
step-up transformers are oil-insulated, water-cooled West- 
inghouse units, three of 400-kw capacity and three of 1000- 
kw capacity. Provision has been made for duplicating this 
equipment. The rotary-converter transformers are also oil- 
insulated and water-cooled, but are of General Electric 
manufacture. There are six of these, each of 66o-k\v 

The 33,000-volt connections from the step-up transform- 
ers are carried up wall chimneys to the top room, in which 
the buses and line switches are located. A Westinghouse 
gravity break fuse on two of each of the three-phase lines 
connects with a potential transformer located in a fireproof 
compartment. Current transformers for the switchboard 
ammeter are placed on each leg. The outgoing transmis- 
sion lines are protected by banks of electrolytic arresters. 

The arrangement of buses in this station is similar to 
that in the other generating stations of the Illinois Trac- 
tion System at Danville, Riverton and Peoria, so that opera- 
tors may quickly learn to handle the equipment in the dif- 
ferent stations. 

The transformer room is served throughout its length by 
a 10-ton crane built by the Curtis & Company Manufactur- 
ing Company. Sufficient space is available in each of the 
bus rooms and in the transformer room to double the instal- 
lation of the electrical apparatus. The bus structures are 
made with walls of red brick and horizontal markings of 
marble. The oil switches, which are of the solenoid-oper- 
ated type, are installed in compartments directly under the 
bus structures. 

The engineering and construction work on this station 
was executed by the members of the engineering depart- 
ment of the Illinois Traction System, of which department 
H. C. Patterson, electrical and mechanical engineer, Deca- 
tur, 111., is the head. 


A hearing was held before J. Sergeant Cram, of the Pub- 
lic Service Commission of the First District of New 
York, on July 6, 191 1, in regard to the extension by the 
Long Island Railroad of its 5-cent fare zone on its Atlantic 
Avenue electric division from Warwick Street, Brooklyn, 
to Railroad Avenue, Brooklyn. 

Counsel for the Long Island Railroad explained that 
the company was prepared to reduce the fare in either 
direction between Flatbush Avenue and Railroad Avenue 
to 5 cents and that such reduction would be put into effect 
as soon as the traffic department of the company could 
arrange the change. He said that a delegation had been 
told by Ralph Peters, president of the company, about six 
months ago that the question of fare would be carefully 

[Vol XXXVIII, No. 3. 

considered. Despite this a bill had been passed by the 
Legislature designed to compel the reduction in fare and 
imposing severe penalties. This bill the Governor vetoed 
because it tended to usurp the power of the commission. 

The assurance that a reduction would be made satisfied 
Commissioner Cram and those who were in attendance, and 
it was announced that a formal order in regard to the re- 
duction would be issued by the commission. 


The Puget Sound Electric Railway, which operates ob- 
servation-car trains between Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., 
uses hoops, as shown in the accompanying illustration, for 
delivering train orders while trains are under way. This 
plan of operation is followed at any way station where it is 

Delivery of Orders with Hoops, Puget Sound Electric 

desirable to deliver orders to a train without causing it to 
stop. Usually the hoops are used for delivering orders 
conferring rights of trains or giving them a check on the 
train register, but they are never used for orders restricting 
the rights of trains. 

The hoops used are made of light wood, generally willow, 
and are fitted with a spring of brass wire to hold the order. 
The supply of hoops at a way station is equalized by the 
conductor throwing off a hoop at the same time that the 
operator delivers one. The train operation on this road is 
in charge of F. A. Boutelle, superintendent. 

The Bradford Corporation Tramways, Bradford, Eng- 
land, operated several illuminated floats over its lines dur- 
ing the recent coronation festivities. The arrangement of 
these cars was intended to symbolize a crown upon a 
pedestal, the crown proper being in gold bronze suitably 
lined. The crown band was perforated, and behind were 
fixed colored celluloids and lamps representing jewels. On 
one side of the car was a ribbon with a groundwork of royal 
blue and the words "Long Live the King — 191 1." A ribbon 
on the opposite side of the car carried the words "God Save 
the Queen — 191 1," and a gold shield with the monogram 
"M," in white. About 1050 lamps were used. 


July 15, 1911.] 



Meeting of the Committee on Equipment 

At This Meeting the Principal Subjects Discussed Were the Heating and Ventilation of Cars, Light-Weight Car Bodies, 

Electrical Equipment, Trucks and Couplers. 

A meeting of the committee on equipment of the American 
Electric Railway Engineering Association was held at In- 
dianapolis, Ind., on July 6 and 7. The following members 
of the committee were present : M. V. Ayres, Boston & 
Worcester Street Railway; H. A. Benedict, Public Service 
Railway; J. M. Bosenbury, Illinois Traction System; A. T. 
Clark, United Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, and 
W. Thorn, Board of Supervising Engineers, Chicago. 
During these sessions letters relating to the committee's 
work were received from F. R. Phillips, Pittsburgh Rail- 
ways, and F. G. Grimshaw, West Jersey & Sea Shore Rail- 
road, who were unable to be present. The sessions on the 
second day were attended by the following members of the 
Central Electric Railway Association Standardization Com- 
mittee: H. H. Buckman, chairman, Louisville & Northern 
Railway & Lighting Company; W. H. Evans, Indiana Union 
Traction Company; L. M. Clark, Terre Haute, Indianapolis 
& Eastern Traction Company ; C. E. Morgan, Indianapolis, 
Crawfordsville & Western Traction Company, and R. M. 
Hemming, Ohio & Southern Traction Company. 


Wray Thorn, division engineer of cars, Board of Super- 
vising Engineers, Chicago Traction, submitted a written 
discussion on the subject of heating and ventilating cars. 
This discussion was carefully considered by the committee 
and will be included in the committee report. Mr. Thorn 
first classified the various methods of furnishing heat to 
cars and said that in order to bring out the characteristics 
of the various methods of heating the types of heating 
equipment should be considered with regard to the follow- 
ing features: (1) Ability to heat car to uniform tempera- 
ture. (2) First cost completely installed on car. (3) Main- 
tenance, including repairs, renewals, replacements, etc. (4) 
Cost to operate. In the case of hot-water heaters this in- 
cludes fuel and labor only ; in the case of electric heaters, 
power, and in case of hot-air blast heaters, fuel, labor and 
power. (5) Weight of system complete as installed in the 
car ready to operate. (6) Effect on insurance rates on 
car barns and contents. (7) Reliability. (8) Regulation, 
i.e., ability to regulate the heat to outside temperature. 
(9) Space occupied. (10) Appearance. (11) Attention 
required from car crew. (12) Cleanliness, including dust, 
ashes and obnoxious gases. (13) Adaptability and relation 
to ventilation systems. 

He next called attention to the need for more carefully 
analyzing the heating requirements when purchasing heaters 
for different types of cars in different localities. Each type 
of heater was defined and considered according to the fore- 
going thirteen qualifications. In the order of their presen- 
tation the heating systems considered were as follows: (1) 
Ordinary coal stoves, which have been largely used on 
account of low first cost. (2) Hot-air heaters in which 
the air is heated either by coal or electricity and forced 
through suitable ducts by a motor-driven fan. (3) Hot- 
water heaters as generally used on interurban and on some 
city systems operating large cars. (4) Electric car heaters, 
as usually installed under car seats. 

To present clearly the comparative cost of heating a car 
by the three modern methods, that is, by forced hot air. 
water circulation and electric heaters, Mr. Thorn gave a 
detailed estimate based in general on results obtained in 
practice. This estimate showed the total cost for one year 
chargeable to car heating subdivided as follows : Cost of 
power; repair and maintenance; interest and depreciation; 
coal ; labor of attendance ; hauling weight ; insurance charge. 
The committee had several suggestions to make regarding 

the detailed figures, which will be incorporated in the report. 

Mr. Thorn said that in calculating the energy consump- 
tion of electric heaters the following method probably would 
give the most accurate results : "Obtain from the Weather 
Bureau the temperature readings for each winter for several 
years; plot a curve showing variations of temperature for 
each day of the heating season ; find what point of heat is 
carried for the different temperatures and then plot a power 
curve from which the average kw-hours per day can be 
obtained readily." 

In connection with the use of hot-water or hot-air heaters 
he called attention to the tendency on the part of car 
crews to use less coal than would have been used if the car 
were kept at a uniform temperature during the time it was 
in service, while with electric heaters the tendency was to 
turn on three points when two points would suffice. These 
conditions had given false ideas of the relative cost of 
operating the various heating systems. He said that when 
a practical, low-cost heater regulator was brought out suit- 
able for general use the cost of electric heating would be 
largely reduced. The cost of car heating would be some- 
what reduced and the comfort of passengers considerably 
increased if storm sash were more generally used. Experi- 
ments in the Middle West had shown' that on the same type 
of cars, with the same heating equipment and running on 
the same street, there was a difference of about 9 deg. Fahr. 
between the temperature of cars with and without storm 
sash. The advantage of storm sash for interurban cars was 
being recognized more widely. He said that the main- 
tenance cost of heating systems would be reduced greatly 
if more care were given to the installation of new equip- 
ment, particularly in the case of electric heaters. 


Mr. Thorn's contribution on ventilation called attention to 
the need for some standard of air purity which should 
be selected before making a choice of a ventilating system. 
Monitor deck or clere-story sash ventilation was ineffective 
because the ventilating action did not extend far enough 
down into the car body to change the air in the breathing 
zone. Studies of ventilation by the monitor deck-window 
method showed that it was almost impossible to secure a 
reasonable standard of air purity without the presence of 
strong drafts and the chilling of the air below the desired 
temperature. Mr. Thorn discussed the standards of ven- 
tilation and air purity required in Chicago, which, based on 
the maximum standing and seated load, are 350 cu. ft. of 
air per hour per passenger and not more than ten parts of 
carbon dioxide in 10,000 parts of air. These requirements 
are believed to be reasonable, and they can be met by 
several ventilating systems. Furthermore, he said tests 
showed that no more energy for heating was required when 
handling the above amount of air through floor intakes and 
then over the heating surface than when using deck-sash 
ventilation. He said that an essential feature of a ventilat- 
ing system was a set of air intakes placed in the floor or 
near it and so connected with the heating system that the 
cold air must pass over the heating surface before coming 
into the car body. Provision should be made for excluding 
or separating the dust. 

Mr. Thorn then defined the various types of ventilating 
systems, and concluded by saying : 

"From the results of tests it is safe to say that there are 
now on the market several ventilating systems for cars 
which will provide a reasonable standard of air purity and 
which are not very high in first cost or cost of main- 


[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 3. 


In discussing Mr. Thorn's remarks on heating, Mr. Bene- 
dict said that coal stoves could be made as safe as hot- 
water heaters if the stoves were carefully inclosed in heat- 
resisting casings. Mr. Bosenbury said that the insurance 
conditions varied greatly, and the roads which had unheated 
carhouses or stored their cars in open yards could reduce 
the fire risk by pulling the fire in the stoves. This, how- 
ever, could not be done with hot-water heaters on account 
of danger of freezing. 

It was stated that the Pittsburgh Railways Company had 
just purchased fifty cars with heating equipment which in- 
cluded thermostats operating in connection with the electric 
heaters. The thermostats will be set to cut off the current 
when the temperature of the air in the car exceeds the 
temperature required by city ordinance. These instruments 
were designed so that the heater circuit could be operated 
on one, two or three points and yet be governed by the 
thermostats. It was expected that the use of thermostats 
would reduce the total energy consumption in electric 
heaters by practically 50 per cent. 

A general discussion then followed on the maintenance 
costs of hot-air versus hot-water heating equipments, and it 
was decided that not enough experience had been had with 
the forced hot-air heater to rate definitely its maintenance. 
The variation in radiating qualities of hot-water pipe as 
influenced by kind and color of the paint used in covering 
the pipes was also discussed. In connection with Mr. 
Thorn's assumption that the peak load on the power plant 
came in the heating season, Mr. Benedict gave a word of 
caution regarding the calculations necessary for additional 
feeder copper to provide for distributing energy for electric 
heating. He had had the feeder capacity of one road 
figured on the basis of the amount of additional copper 
necessary if electric heaters were to be used instead of 
stoves. Theoretically this would require the purchase and 
erection of $200,000 worth of additional feeders, but on 
careful study it was found that on many sections of the 
road actual conditions would not require the additional 
copper, and so the real additional investment cost might 
safely be reduced to $50,000. 

In discussing the proper methods of installing electric 
heaters Mr. Bosenbury called attention to trouble which 
the Illinois Traction System had had with some tight-fitting 
conduit in which condensation had accumulated. Other 
members of the committee had experienced trouble from 
wash water getting into flexible conduit. Conduit was con- 
sidered preferable for use if good inspectors saw that it 
was well installed. The Illinois Traction System had suc- 
cessfully used metal hose for conduit. 

The committee next discussed the proper amount of fuel 
to be included in Mr. Thorn's estimate of coal consumption 
per day for hot-water heaters, and also the proper cost 
of current to be used in basing the energy charge for elec- 
tric heaters. As the result of the latter discussion it was 
the opinion that 1. 4 cents per kw-hour would be approxi- 
mately correct for energy delivered to the car. 

Regarding the cost of fuel Mr. Bosenbury said that an 
estimate had been made covering all the interurban cars 
of the Illinois Traction System for the season of 1909. 
Using the total number of cars equipped with hot-water 
heaters and the total amount of fuel burned, which was 
coke, the cost for fuel per day per car was 16.5 cents. 


Mr. Benedict's contribution on light-weight trucks was 
next presented. He showed data, photographs and blue- 
prints of a number of light-weight trucks, and the com- 
mittee discussed these with a view to incorporating them 
in its report. Considerable interest was shown in Mr. 
Benedict's description of the Halsey radial truck, which 
had been operated in owl-car service on one of the large 
Eastern city systems for nearly a year. Other trucks 
considpred were those manufactured by the Mohawk Weld- 

ing Company, Schenectady ; Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
Standard Motor Truck Company and The J. G. Brill Com- 
pany. Mr. Clark said that by giving careful attention to 
the reduction of weight he had co-operated with The J. G. 
Brill Company in the removal of 500 lb. of weight from one 
of its types of trucks. The committee invited Mr. Clark to 
prepare a discussion on the reduction of truck weights by 
redesigning small castings and parts. 


Mr. Ayres read a contribution for the committee report 
which had been prepared by Mr. Phillips, giving his ideas 
on light-weight car bodies. He spoke of the development 
in designing methods which had resulted from the increased 
attention which the roads recently had given to the subject 
of car weights. The use of straight-sides for cars assisted 
in reducing the weight and worked out very well in the 
designs. Mr. Phillips also discussed the use of steel under- 
names and bodies. 

Mr. Thorn spoke of the good service obtained with open- 
hearth cast-steel bolsters on 1000 cars in Chicago. These 
had been purchased under rigid specifications. Only two 
had bent and these had been straightened at low cost. 
Mr. Bosenbury favored the use of cast-steel bolsters for 
interurban service, but said that the diaphragm type was 
lighter. However, it was subject to weakening by rust. The 
committee then discussed the use of steel in the super- 
structure and the use of wooden posts with steel-girder side 
frames. It was the opinion of several members that the 
latter combination of parts would withstand severe service 
satisfactorily. The relative merits of the arched and 
monitor type roof were next discussed. The consensus of 
opinion was in favor of the arch roof. Several members 
spoke of the increased use of refined steel in car design. 

Mr. Phillips presented as part of his contribution a de- 
scription of a car in which the weight had been reduced 
by 25 per cent. He also suggested subdividing the parts of 
a car when comparative weights were being considered. 
These subdivisions for weight comparison would be (1) 
bodies, (2) trucks, (3) power brakes and (4) electrical 
equipment. The committee after a long discussion thought 
it desirable to add subhead No. 5, which would include the 
auxiliary equipment of a car body that might or might not 
be the same in different parts of the country. This subhead 
No. 5 would be used to compare the weights of all such 
fittings and parts as seats, parcel racks, toilet equipment, fire 
extinguishers and other miscellaneous fittings and equip- 
ment which if considered as a part of the car body might 
affect the true merit of the structural design. 

Mr. Bosenbury spoke of the necessity for taking into 
account the operative speed in designing car bodies. Be- 
cause of a shortage of equipment his company had operated 
some large city cars in interurban service and shortly there- 
after found them to be racked on account of the high speeds, 
while similar cars in city service at St. Louis were in ex 
cellent condition. The committee then discussed the choice 
of a unit for comparing the weights of car bodies. Mr. 
Phillips suggested pounds per cubic foot, but the general 
opinion of the committee was that pounds per square foot 
of floor area inside of the finish would be the best unit. 


On Thursday evening a long discussion took place on 
interurban car couplers. Mr. Bosenbury led this discussion 
by presenting an extended history of the M. C. B. coupler, 
which was illustrated and accompanied by reports of several 
tests and other data. He also described the development of 
the present M. C. B. type coupler on the Illinois Traction 
System. A drawing of this type of coupler is reproduced. 


At the beginning of the second day's session Mr. Ayres 
read a contribution for the committee report on methods of 
reducing the weight of electrical equipment. This was 
based on the following methods which were not inconsistent 
with each other: (1) Redesigning and excluding some 

July 15, 1911.J 

material; (2) higher armature speeds; (3) forced ventila- 
tion; (4) the use of some higher type of coil insulation; 
(5) field control. 

The committee discussed the possibilities of welding or 
brazing commutator leads. The use of pure block tin was 
not approved because the tin attacked the copper. Better 
results were obtained by using 85 per cent tin. Mr. Ayres 
spoke of the use of Bakelite as an important improvement 
which would possibly reduce the weight of coils. He also 
spoke of the increased favor which was being shown toward 
field control for motors. Mr. Bosenbury called attention to 
the possibility of saving weight in field coils by the use of 
thin sheets of oxidized aluminum for insulation. 



The members of the Central Electric Railway Standard- 
ization Committee, as earlier mentioned, were next intro- 

Proposed M. C. B. Type Coupler with Extended Arms 

Illinois Traction Standard M. C. B. Type Coupler 

duced, and the subject of a standard design of coupler 
which would operate with M. C. B. couplers was discussed 
at length. 

On invitation from Mr. Ayres Mr. Hemming read a 
report of the work of the Central Electric standardization 
committee, together with the recommendations of that com- 
mittee as adopted by the Central Electric Railway Associa- 
tion. At the request of Mr. Ayres Mr. Evans then read a 
letter which the Central Electric committee had written to 
Mr. Grimshaw, of the equipment committee, stating the rea- 
sons for adopting standard couplers with spring carriers. 
In brief these were as follows: The Central Electric Rail- 
way Association considered standard couplers necessary on 
account of the increased interchange of equipment and 
because of safety and flexibility. The M. C. B. contour was 
chosen because a majority of the roads had to do more or 
less switching of steam road cars, and also because it gave 
the most strength in the head and could be used with a 
shackle bar if open knuckles were inserted. The limits of 
height of the face of the knuckle were placed at 11 in. 
minimum and 15 in. maximum. A flexible drawbar carrier 


and a locking device were chosen. The reason for the 
height of knuckle being made from 11 to 15 in. was to 
accommodate variations in height of equipment due to un- 
even loading or uneven track. The flexible carrier was 
intended to relieve the shock on the vestibule framing which 
might be occasioned by rough track. In the choice of a 
flexible drawbar carrier the committee had not committed 
itself to the use of any patented device of one manufacture. 
Neither did it recommend any particular design of inter- 
locking device. The C. E. R. A. coupler was not intended 
for city service. The membership of the C. E. R. A. was 
vitally interested in the general adoption of a standard 
coupler. This was due to the increased growth of steam 
railroad interchange, both freight and passenger. Some of 
the roads now doing interchange business included the fol- 
lowing: Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend; Ft. Wayne & 
Northern Indiana; Ohio & Southern; Ohio Electric; West- 

Standard Coupler of Illinois Traction System 

era Ohio; Lake Shore Electric; Terre Haute, Indianapolis 
& Eastern ; Indiana Union Traction ; Indianapolis & Cin- 
cinnati Traction; Winona Interurban; Evansville & South- 
ern Indiana ; Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana. 

The flexible drawbar carrier was thought necessary to 
prevent binding if the vertical play was limited. As to the 
center locking device, not all makes of couplers were fitted 
with this, and the couplers of no two manufacturers would 
interchange now with each other. The committee of the 
Central Electric Railway Association thought a locking 
device should be used to keep the coupler heads from open- 
ing vertically as well as horizontally. 

Mr. Ayres said that he could not see that the Central' 
Electric Railway specifications contained any requirement 
limiting the degree of horizontal angularity which might 
take place between couplers. Another member said that 
some of the so-called "rigidly locked" couplers had a hori- 
zontal angularity in service of from 9 to 12 deg., according 
to the wear. 

L. M. Clark said there was no evidence that the manu- 
facturers were getting together regarding a uniform lock 




[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 3. 

for couplers, even though the Central Electric Railway 
Association had recommended it. 

Mr. Bosenbury said that if vertical uncoupling was pre- 
vented, as in some types of interurban couplers, then in 
event of derailment the platforms or coupler anchorages 
would be severely damaged. While it might be necessary, 
on account of rough track at railroad crossings or curves, 
greatly to increase the height of the knuckle on M. C. B. 
couplers, Mr. Bosenbury did not believe any limiting stop 
should be added to prevent the parting of the coupler in 
event of derailment. 

Mr. Bosenbury mentioned one steam road which used 
M.C.B. knuckles 21 in. high which were designed to accom- 
modate the difference in elevation occurring when handling 
cars on and off ferry boats. The Illinois Traction coupler 
had a 16-in. knuckle and had frequently been operated in 
steam freight as well as passenger service. Close observa- 
tion showed that the vertical movement was about 9 in. in 
regular service on the interurban lines. The worst condi- 
tion for vertical uncoupling was at a multiple railroad 
crossing on a curve where one of the steam railroad tracks 
was higher than the other. 

ing horizontal angularity of more than 7 deg. Manufacture 
of these couplers was not restricted by patents. The Na- 
tional Malleable Castings Company and the Simplex Coupler 
Company had at times furnished these couplers, which were 
designed with a view to universal service with all M.C.B. 
couplers, whether or not those couplers had ribs and rein- 
forcements on the sides. Experience had shown that they 
would operate satisfactorily with all couplers used in steam 
service. The use of a spring drawbar carrier was unneces- 
sary. Mr. Hemming said the C.E.R.A. standards called for 
a "flexible" rather than a "spring" drawbar carrier and re- 
quired no particular design. Air. Evans said it was un- 
fortunate that the Central Electric Railway Association 
committee had made sketches to illustrate its standards. 
It would have been better to have used only dimensions and 
thus no ambiguity would have occurred. Mr. Evans also 
called attention to the need on the part of the American 
Association for adopting a coupler conforming to steam 
railroad practice so that renewals could be made on foreign 
roads, whether steam or electric. 

Mr. Bosenbury said the Illinois Traction coupler had the 
standard M.C.B. shank and that the vertical faces of the 

Extreme Variation in Height of Couplers on Interurban Cars Due to Change of Grade 

Mr. Evans said that while he was not a member of the 
Central Electric standardization committee when it adopted 
its present M.C.B. type of coupler he had been a member 
when standard axles were adopted several years ago. This 
was two years in advance of the adoption of standard axles 
by the American Association and the latter association had 
found it necessary to make only a few slight changes in 
the C.E.R.A. standards. Mr. Evans felt that the Central 
Electric Railway Association would be much pleased if the 
American Association should adopt a standard coupler hav- 
ing similar lines to that which the C.E.R.A. had adopted, 
but eliminating any errors which might have crept in. It 
would be very desirable to hasten the adoption of some 
standard coupler. 

Mr. Bosenbury said that whatever specifications were 
drawn up for couplers should provide leeway for improve- 
ments in design and the addition of new features. His road 
had tried a number of patented couplers and had spent a 
considerable sum in standardizing all car platforms so that 
the M.C.B. coupler height could be used. As a result of 
the study of couplers the design now in use was adopted. 
This had an M.C.B. contour. The knuckles were 16 in. high 
and the casting had an extension on the guard-arm side 
and a shoulder on the other which engaged with similar 
projections and shoulders when intercoupling, thus prevent- 

M.C.B. contour in it had been slightly curved to permit 
breaks in grade of 7 per cent. A height of 9 in. of the 
coupler face was straight to provide the full M.C.B. wearing 

Mr. Evans said that such slight compromises were desira- 
ble because when radial couplers were used on sharp curves 
the cars were canted and unless one coupler had some free- 
dom of movement on the other they would tend to twist. 
Mr. Bosenbury said that his company had 300 cars equipped 
with standard couplers, which were operating satisfactorily. 
So far as rubbing of the faces was concerned he said that 
some steam roads had considerel lubricating the knuckles. 

Mr. Ayres understood from the preceding discussion that 
the Illinois Traction type of coupler as described by Mr. 
Bosenbury would meet all the C.E.R.A. specifications except 
that it did not have a center lock or a spring carrier. 

Mr. Evans spoke of the need for definite recommenda- 
tions to guide the design and hasten the adoption of a 
standard coupler. 

Summing up the discussion thus far, Mr. Ayres said that 
the committee was agreed that couplers must intercouple 
with the M.C.B. type couplers, must operate radially and 
must be designed to accommodate sharp curves and breaks 
in grade. 

Regarding the severity of breaks in grade and curves on 

July 15, 1911.] 



some interurban roads Mr. Evans did not feel that too much 
weight should be put on local conditions, but rather the 
coupler design should conform to modern track-work prac- 

Mr. Bosenbury again spoke of the desirability of_ having 
strictly vertical-plane couplers which would part auto- 
matically in event of the overturning of one car. He 
showed photographs of derailed cars which illustrated this 
point and he said that if rigidly locked coupler heads had 
been used the car platforms or coupler anchorages would 
have been severely damaged. Similarly, if the extension 
arms on the sides of the couplers had been restricted in 
vertical movement, the coupler heads or platforms must 
have been injured when the car was derailed. 

Mr. Bosenbury said that his first idea for adding the 
brackets to the sides of the couplers came from a test 
which he had made in his own shops. Two couplers — a 
Tower and a Simplex — had been mounted so that they could 
be tested to destruction by bumping with a steam locomo- 
tive. During the test it was seen that the guard arm on 
one of the couplers gouged the side of the other coupler. 
This showed the need for extensions on the sides to pre- 
vent horizontal movement. The next traction couplers made 
were built with side brackets and guard arm extensions, 
but the design was too weak for the service and a heavier 
pattern was made. Thus the size of the coupler had grown 
with the service until now it was thought that a design had 
been secured which was suitable for all electric and steam 
railway interchange service. The couplers on the 62-ton 
locomotives, which at times hauled forty cars in a train, 
were manufactured by the Simplex Coupler Company 
according to the Illinois Traction System's standard design. 


Immediately after lunch on the second day of the 
committee meeting the American and Central Electric com- 
mittees, together with representatives of several coupler 
manufacturers, were taken for a ride over the Indianapolis 
Traction & Terminal Company's line leading to the west 
end of the city on two cars of the Indiana Union Traction 
Company equipped with McConway & Torley couplers of 
M. C. B. design. The couplers were not provided with any 
horizontal or vertical locking devices. The test train was 
run to a railroad crossing at the edge of the city, where 
there was a severe break in the track grade and the action 
of the couplers was observed under severe operating con- 
ditions. On the return trip the train was run around a 
"Y" of 35-ft. center radius to show the extreme platform 
movement and the radial action of the couplers. 


After the test run the committee reassembled and con- 
tinued the discussion on couplers. Mr. Clark said the cost 
of installing M. C. B. couplers on the cars of the Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company was 
about $150 per car complete with air-pipe extensions and 
fittings conforming to C. E. R. A. specifications. Mr. 
Bosenbury said that on the Illinois Traction System the 
cost was $87 per car for couplers installed. 

Mr. Ayres then read a contribution from Mr. Grimshaw 
on standard couplers and air signal and control connec- 
tions. Mr. Grimshaw said that the requirements of inter- 
change justified the vertical plane M. C. B. type coupler 
and some special attachments to provide against lateral 
buckling. Mr. Grimshaw recommended that the associa- 
tion arrange to learn by test the requirements that must 
be met and make definite recommendations on the coupler 

Mr. Buckman spoke in favor of locking couplers to pro- 
vide against uncoupling on breaks in grade. Mr. Thorn 
thought that if couplers were provided with locking devices 
it would be very difficult to recouple on a bad break in grade 
if the couplers had once parted or if it was necessary to 
make up a train on a sharp curve. 

Mr. Bosenbury spoke of the need for having a design of 
coupler to take the buffing strains, and criticised the reduc- 
tion of section which might be necessary if center locking 
was adopted. He also favored the adoption of a slotted 
knuckle to permit the use of shackle bars until all roads 
should be equipped with standard couplers. 

L. M. Clark said that the committee ought to decide upon 
some controlling recommendations which would guide pur- 
chasers along the right lines until a completely designed 
coupler could be accepted as standard by all the roads. 

Mr. Bosenbury said such designs were desirable and that 
they should have in view the possibility of interchange of 
coupler shanks with steam roads. He presented a long 
argument in opposition to limiting the vertical movement 
of couplers, and said the straight M. C. B. coupler with the 
high knuckle, as used on the Illinois Traction System, suc- 
cessfully handled heavy 57-ft. sleeping cars when pushed 
around 33-ft. radius curves. He was now applying similar 
couplers to freight cars 65 ft. 8 in. long. These cars had 
55-ft. 8-in. truck centers and were designed for handling 
theatrical scenery. 

Mr. Evans suggested that later it might be found desir- 
able to have what might be called a standard electric rail- 
way contour with the understanding that this would con- 
form to the M. C. B. contour and make intercoupling pos- 
sible, but would have the vertical faces curved over a part 
of their height to provide against cramping on sharp verti- 
cal grades and curves. 


The committee next put the following question to rep- 
resentatives of the coupler manufacturers for a five- 
minute discussion by each : What are your arguments for 
or against the recommendation by the committee of a 
coupler which does not have horizontal or vertical limiting 
devices ? 

Mr. Tomlinson, of the Ohio Brass Company, spoke first. 
He said in part that it was desirable for a pair of couplers 
in service to be as nearly like a straight bar as possible be- 
cause then the combination would be best able to resist 
stresses. The M. C. B. coupler without provision for hori- 
zontal locking would open sidewise as soon as it was worn. 
The high knuckle, if provided to prevent vertical uncoup- 
ling, would bend and strain the carry iron and framing of 
a car. After considerable study it had seemed to him that 
the only way to meet the conditions of interchange service 
was to lock the coupler heads solidly and use a yielding 
carrier. He thought that the extensions or pockets on the 
side, as used with some couplers, would interfere with the 
reinforcing ribs on the outside of the Buckeye, Major and 
Simplex couplers. Extremely high knuckles would also 
interfere with the close coupling of car platforms. Because 
of these reasons he had put the lock on the inside of the 
type of coupler which bore his name. 

I. H. Milliken, of the McConway & Torley Company, then 
spoke. Mr. Milliken said that no brackets were used on the 
sides of the couplers made by his company because experi- 
ence had shown that they were not necessary. If continued 
use should indicate that the guard arms would prevent 
horizontal angularity, then this condition could be taken 
care of by making the present coupler stronger. The addi- 
tion of guard arms of sufficient strength would increase the 
weight of the couplers about 100 lb. per car. When guard 
arms were used they had to be closely in contact with the 
brackets on the opposing couplers. This interfered with 
coupling unless J-2-in. play was allowed, and then angu- 
larity occurred when cars were being pushed. Regarding 
the vertical movement of the coupler, Mr. Milliken said 
that if brackets were used on the sides of the coupler and 
vertical stops were carried on the brackets, then there 
would be interference on sharp curves and the stops would 
be broken off. With many cars as now operated the coup- 
ler movement in actual service was not so severe as calcu- 



lations seemed to show. The adoption of devices to prevent 
the free movement of coupler heads vertically would place 
undue strain on the platform sills and coupler anchorages. 
His company, he said, was making knuckles as high as 
15 in. and obtaining good results. Those couplers of his 
company which the committee had seen in operation had 
knuckles only 11 in. high. 

The next speaker was Herbert Van Dorn, of the W. T. 
Van Dorn Company. Mr. Van Dorn said that if the stops 
were not put on the coupler brackets and a long train of 
cars was handled, buckling would occur on account of the 
accumulation of slack. Steam roads overcame the tendency 
to buckle in long passenger trains by the use of spring 
buffers, which kept the coupler under tension. Because of 
this reason his company had put the extensions and pockets 
on the outside of the couplers to provide against lateral 
movement. These extensions and pockets lined up the 
couplers to positive fits when a coupling was being made 
and also prevented buckling out. With such couplers a 
coupling could be made with couplers several inches more 
out of line than when couplers without extensions were 
used; thus time was saved in switching. In the Van Dorn 
type of coupler the extensions and pockets were placed far 
enough back to clear the lugs on all heavy, reinforced 
steam railroad couplers. When the Van Dorn coupler was 
first designed a number of heavy steam railroad couplers 
were purchased and experimented with so that practical 
results were obtained and no interference with lugs had fol- 
lowed. He also stated that if the high knuckles were used 
it would be impossible to place the couplers so that the car 
buffers would come close together unless the drawbars were 
of the same radius as the buffer bands. The knuckle on the 
Van Dorn coupler was 11 in. high and the stops on the top 
of the pockets prevented uncoupling when the cars passed 
over severe breaks in grade. 

W. H. Bloss, Ohio Brass Company, said the center-lock- 
ing feature of the Tomlinson coupler was designed not only 
for convenience of operation, but also for safety. The 
interlocking lug entered into tin- opposite knuckle far 
enough to hold the coupler in line so that cars would not 
come uncoupled even if the tailpiece were broken. He 
felt that his company was offering the regular M. C. B. 
coupler with a safety device added. The interlocking fea- 
ture was used because it was thought desirable to have the 
coupler heads rigid. 

Mr. Milliken called attention to the fact that when 
M. C. B. couplers were worn 5£ in. between the knuckle 
and the guard arm they needed attention, but would not 
come unlocked. 


After the remarks by the coupler manufacturers' repre- 
sentatives the committee prepared tentative recommenda- 
tions for inclusion in its report. So far as determined these 
will require couplers to have the following characteristics: 

1. Must couple by impact with all M. C. B. couplers now 
used by steam roads. 

2. Must have radial drawbar. 

3. Must provide for successful operation over irregu- 
larities in grade met in interurban practice. 

4. It is desirable that the shank have such section as to 
be readily replaced by an M. C. B. coupler in emergency. 

5. Must be so constructed as to limit lateral movement in 
head to not more than 8 deg. between the longitudinal axes 
of the two couplers, and when two similar couplers are 
intercoupled must withstand coupling impact" and the 
stresses occasioned by pushing cars around curves. 

6. All makes of interurban couplers must couple and 
operate properly with each other. 

7. There should be an arrangement for uncoupling with- 
out necessity for employees getting between cars. 

8. The faces of the knuckle, vertically, shall be 11 in. 
minimum and 16 in. maximum and preferably shall be pro- 
vided with slots for shackle-bar connections. 


A hearing was held on July 11, 191 1, before the Massa- 
chusetts Railroad Commission on the petition of the Mid- 
dlesex & Boston Street Railway for permission to continue 
the practice of charging 6 cents on its Newton Street 
Railroad division when transfers are issued to its connect- 
ing lines. The Middlesex company comprises the Newton 
& Boston Street Railway, Newtort Street Railway and two 
or three smaller lines and controls the Lexington & Boston 
Street Railway. All these lines except the Newton Street 
Railway charge a 6-cent fare and issue transfers without 
extra charge. The Newton Street Railway, operating 
mainly in Newton and Waltham, charges 5 cents on its 
own line and 6 cents when a transfer to a connecting 
division is issued. 

The attorney for the company stated that the amount re- 
ceived from the extra cent for transfers netted a profit of 
$5,433.35, after deducting from the total amount received the 
amounts paid the connecting lines. This charge he claimed 
was justified by the increased cost of maintenance and better 
service rendered than originally prevailed. The company 
was first granted permission to make this added charge 
about two and one-half years ago, and while the net reve- 
nue from this source is comparatively small, the company 
claims that it is a proper charge. The Middlesex & Boston 
Street Railway declared a dividend for the year ended 
June 30, 191 1, of 5 per cent on its capital stock of $1,462,- 
000. A surplus of $2,000 was left, but no allowance was 
made for depreciation. The citizens of Waltham and New- 
ton appearing at the hearing claimed that the charge was 
unfair and unnecessary. 

George Cox, acting manager of the Middlesex & Boston 
Street Railway, argued that when the roads comprising the 
present system were built and passengers were carried 
for a 5-cent fare the business was done at a loss. The 
proprietors did not realize the fact until some time had 
passed and the equipment had to be taken care of or re- 
newed. At present, he said, the physical condition of the 
property was better than ever before, and it had been brought 
about by the added revenue provided by the 6-cent fare. 

Mayor Walker, of Waltham, asked whether the company 
would favor the idea of carrying laborers during stated 
hours of the day without exacting the added 1 cent for 
transfer. Mr. Cox replied that he did not consider it good 
policy for a transportation company to make cut rates for 
any special class of passengers. The business furnished by 
the laborers is necessary, he said, to make-a street railway 
pay at all, and if discrimination were to be made in their 
favor the company would suffer financially. 

The hearing was adjourned to some date between July 20 
and Aug. 1, when the company will present a detailed re- 
port of its condition. 

From Aug. 1, 1910, to June 30, 191 1, the Newton Street 
Railway division of the Middlesex & Boston Street Rail- 
way received the following revenue on account of charging 
1 cent for each transfer issued: 

Total transfers issued, 678,376, at lc $6,783.76 

Less amount paid — 

Lexington & Boston Street Railway, for 42,139 at 'Ac. add'l. 210.69 
Newton & Boston Street Railway, for 227,944, at ^c. add'l. 1,139.72 


Net gain to Newton Street Division . $5,433.35 

Gross passeneer receipts, Newton Street Division of the Mid- 
dlesex & Boston Street Railway Company, Aug. 1, 1910- 

June 30, 1911 $354,934.16 

Passengers carried 7,775,042 

Transfers issued 678,376 

Transfers received 670,998 


The Swiss government has just granted a concession for 
the construction of a 19-mile narrow-gage electric railway 
from Meiringen to Engelberg, over the Joch Pass. The 
new line is to be built by the same company that constructed 
the electric railway from Stansstad to Engelberg. 

July 15, 1911.] 




A hearing was held before Commissioners Willcox, Malt- 
bie, Eustis and Cram, of the Public Service Commission of 
the First District of New York, on July 6, 191 1, on motion 
of the commission as to rates of fare upon connecting or 
intersecting lines of street railways in the Borough of Man- 
hattan. The Third Avenue Railroad and the other com- 
panies of which Frederick W. Whitridge is receiver were 
represented by William D. Guthrie, of Guthrie, Bangs & 
Van Sinderen. The Metropolitan Street Railway was rep- 
resented by Charles F. Mathewson and J. P. Cotton, Jr., of 
Masten & Nichols. The Central Park, North & East River 
Railroad was represented by Chase Mellen. The Second 
Avenue Railroad was represented by Brainard Tolles. The 
Twenty-eighth Street & Twenty-ninth Street Crosstown 
Railroad was represented by Julius Mayer. The commis- 
sion was represented by Arthur Du Bois and Oliver C. 
Semple, of counsel. 

Mr. Du Bois said that he had the names of a number of 
gentlemen who desired to speak, but asked to be permitted 
to call E. G. Connette, the transportation engineer of the 
commission, and offer in evidence a map which Mr. Con- 
nette had prepared showing the points of intersection of 
the surface lines in Manhattan Borough, the points at which 
transfers were given prior to the general disintegration of 
the systems in 1908, and the transfers that have been 
abolished since then. On this map the various surface 
lines were indicated by different colors and the transfer 
points between lines of the same company were indicated 
by colored dots or dashes. Points where transfer stations 
formerly existed were marked by a red circle. Where one 
company now transfers to another two colors were shown. 

Mr. Connette was excused at this point to permit the 
introduction of testimony to show the necessity of restoring 
the transfers. One of the witnesses, Millard J. Bloomer, 
of the Harlem Board of Trade, asked if he was right in 
his understanding that Chairman Willcox, of the com- 
mission, had said that the board had power to order the 
restoration of the transfers. The section of the law cover- 
ing this point was read and the witness repeated his ques- 
tion. Commissioner Eustis then explained that that com- 
mission did have the necessary right if the facts warranted 
an order and that the hearing was being held to determine 
just that point. Mr. Bloomer asked why it was that one 
could ride on three cars in the Bronx on a transfer with 
coupons attached. Commissioner Eustis, who represents the 
Bronx on the commission, said that the lines in the Bronx 
do not claim that it is confiscatory to give transfers while 
the lines in Manhattan do make such a claim. 

Mr. Connette was recalled. In his department records 
had been kept and observations had been taken showing the 
extent to which 107 transfer points of the total of 151 
abandoned and indicated on the exhibit were used before the 
abolition of the transfers at these points. Briefly, 219,773 
persons transferred in a day at the 107 transfer points 
before the abolition of the transfers, whereas 73,378 per- 
sons left the cars after the abolition of the transfers. The 
number of passengers inconvenienced was estimated at 

Mr. Guthrie took exception to the methods adopted in 
reaching this conclusion in regard to the number of pas- 
sengers inconvenienced by the discontinuance of the trans- 
fers. Taking the first entry in the table, the transfer point 
at 145th Street and Amsterdam Avenue, which showed the 
number of persons transferring before the abolition of the 
transfers to be 3607 and the number of passengers leaving 
the cars after the abolition of the transfers to be 2235, he 
said that the witness had gratuitously assumed that the 
difference between these two figures, namely, 1372, repre- 
sented the number of people who had been inconvenienced 
and who would otherwise have asked for transfers. He 

said that ."if there ever was anything more absurd as a 
basis of proof it has not been called to my attention." 

A. F. Weber, chief statistician of the commission, testified 
that the total revenue car miles of the surface lines in 
Manhattan in 1908 was 60,719,724, as compared with 55,- 
257,283 in 1909; that the number of revenue passengers in 
1908 was 366,690,345 and in 1909 only 362,077,655, and that 
the number of transfers collected in 1908 was 196,672,167, 
as compared with 139,607,266 in 1909, or a decrease of more 
than 57,000,000. 

Mr. Weber also offered in evidence a statement which 
he had compiled from the annual reports of the com- 
panies in Manhattan from 1908 and 1909 showing the in- 
crease in the fare passengers and the annual percentage of 
increase. The largest number of discontinuances of trans- 
fers by the companies was in the latter part of the fiscal 
year ended 1909. For the year ended June, 30, 1909, the 
decrease in the number of fare passengers was more than 
4,500,000, or per cent. In the Borough of the Bronx, 
where no transfers had been discontinued, the increase in 



Number of Fares 

Annual Increase in 



Fare Passengers. 



























































































• • Central Park, 

Receivers Met. St. Ry. North & East River. 
Number at Number at 

4 J/2 Cents. 2 Cents. 2Y 2 Cents. 

December, 1910 19,379 2,280 19,443 

Tanuarv, 1911 95,825 10,613 96.399 

February, 1911 83,695 8,802 83,792 

March, 1911 91,022 9,206 91,522 

April, 1911..... 86,654 8,832 87,432 

Total • 376,593 39,733 378,588 

There are also reported a certain number of passengers at cents. 

the number of revenue passengers for the same period was 
upward of 6,000,000, or 14^ per cent. A statement was 
offered in evidence showing the results of operation of the 
joint rate in force on the Fifty-ninth Street crosstown 
line between the Metropolitan Street Railway and the 
Central Park, North & East River Railroad for December, 
1910, January, February, March and April, 191 1. The 
summary of this table showed that during these five months 
the Metropolitan Street Railway carried 376,593 passengers 
who paid to it 4^ cents per passenger under the joint rate, 
that the Metropolitan Street Railway carried 39,733 passen- 
gers who paid the additional 2-cent rate under the 10-cent 
joint rate, and that the Central Park, North & East River 
Railroad received 3^2 cents from 378,588 passengers who 
traveled on the joint rate across town. 

Mr. Connette was recalled and said: "In Nashville, 
Syracuse and Worcester, where I managed street railway 
properties, we gave universal transfers at all intersecting 
points in the same general direction, and it was my opinion 
that it was profitable to do this because it encouraged and 
educated people to ride. All the iines in Nashville were 
consolidated and equipped with electricity. That, of course, 
had a tendency to increase traffic, but the receipts were 
abnormally high compared with what they had been pre- 
viously when transfers were not issued. A central transfer 
station was established in Nashville and all cars radiated 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 3. 

from and passed through the station, and passengers were 
permitted to transfer there to any car they chose." 

Mr. Mathewson said that in a matter of such importance 
it did not seem right to compel the companies to continue 
at this time of the year. 

In reply Commissioner Eustis said: "We have had this 
question in mind for some time, but we hoped that the 
various reorganization schemes would be finished by now. 
We then expected to take up and adjust this transfer mat- 
ter. You have heard this morning how this commission was 
taken to task for not doing anything under the amended 
law. ■ We cannot sit here for three or four months and do 
nothing just because it is summer. I will adjourn this hear- 
ing until Monday, July 10, 191 1, when we will have the 
whole commission here and you can then apply for a fur- 
ther adjournment." 

At the hearing held on July 10, 191 1, Chairman Willcox 
made the following statement : 

"The commission has determined to adopt at its meeting 
on July 11, 1911, an order directing the street surface rail- 
ways in Manhattan Borough to establish, on or before 
Aug. 10, 191 1, through routes and joint fares over the con- 
necting and intersecting railway lines shown on Exhibit 1 
at this hearing, and that transfers be given at all the points 
of intersection shown on said exhibit. In the meantime, 
this hearing will be adjourned to Aug. 15." 


The committee on way matters of the American Electric 
Railway Engineering Association held a meeting at the 
New York office of the association July 6, 7 and 8. The 
following members of the committee were present : J. M. 
Lamed, engineer of way, Pittsburgh Railways Company, 
chairman ; C. B. Voynow, assistant engineer of way, Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit Company, vice-chairman ; M. J. 
French, engineer maintenance of way, Utica & Mohawk 
Valley Railway; R. C. Cram, assistant engineer, Connecticut 
Company; C. S. Kimball, engineer maintenance of way, 
Washington Railway & Electric Company; B. E. Tilton, 
engineer maintenance of way, New York State Railways, 
Rochester Lines; C. L. Crabbs, engineer of way and struc- 
tures, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company. 

The first subject taken up was the report of sub-com- 
mittee No. 2, of which M. J. French is chairman, on "or- 
ganization and rules for the proper government of the way 
department." The following definition of the way depart- 
ment was formulated and approved : "The way department 
is that division of the company organization having charge 
of right-of-way, tracks, bridges and all matters pertaining 
to their construction and maintenance and such other duties 
as may be assigned to it." It was decided to recommend 
the title "engineer of way" for the chief officer of the way 

After a discussion on the details of organization a chart 
was prepared showing the principal employees of the way 
department, their titles and respective channels of com- 
munication. The remainder of the afternoon session on 
Thursday was devoted to a discussion of the proper form 
and scope for the code of rules for the government of way 
department employees, there having been two tentative sets 
submitted by the sub-committee, one for interurban lines 
and the other for city lines. It was decided that these 
should, if practicable, be combined into one code, and a 
revision of the two codes was thereupon undertaken by the 
committee as a whole, each rule receiving separate con- 

A.t the session on Friday morning E. R. Mason, repre- 
senting the Electric Service Supplies Company ; F. J. Drake, 
representing the Lorain Steel Company, and G. S. Vickery, 
representing the Pennsylvania Steel Company, were present 
at the request of the committee to give the committee the 

benefit of their views regarding the practicability of the 
proposed standard 9-in. grooved rail section which had been 
designed by a sub-committee of which Mr. Voynow is 

Mr. Mason called the attention of the committee to the 
necessity for providing sufficient space under the joint 
plates for bonds of the proper size. His company recom- 
mended bonds having a conductivity of 10,000 circ. mils per 
pound of weight per yard of the rail section. Thus, a 
125-lb. rail should have bonds with a section of 1,250,000 
circ. mils. 

Both Mr. Drake and Mr. Vickery objected to a vertical 
side on the head of the rail next to the groove. They 
thought that much more satisfactory results could be se- 
cured in rolling if the side of the head was made at an 
angle of from 3 deg. to 6 deg. from the vertical. They 
preferred a rail section with a 6-in. base, but assured the 
committee that rails with a 6_^-in. base could be rolled pro- 
vided the distribution of the metal in the head of the rail 
was nearly symmetrical. They also made a number of 
other suggestions relating to minor details of the section 
which had been designed by Mr. Voynow's committee. On 
Friday evening the committee on way matters, after care- 
fully considering the criticisms offered by the manufac- 
turers, gave definite instructions to the chairman of the sub- 
committee with reference to modifying the proposed design 
of grooved girder rail in accordance with the suggestions 
which had been made by the manufacturers on the ground 
of difficulty in rolling. The chairman of the sub-committee 
was instructed to revise the proposed section at an early 
date so that it could be submitted with the remainder of the 
report of the committee on way matters. The 9-in. rail sec- 
tion only was considered in this connection. 

On Friday afternoon and on Saturday the committee con- 
tinued the consideration of the code of rules, which it will 
present as part of its report to the convention. 


The Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern Railroad has recently 
put in service a 16-mile section of automatic block signals 
controlled by alternating-current track circuits on its line 
between Rochester and Macedon. The signal equipment 
includes eleven style B, no-volt signals having separately 
suspended blades as manufactured by the Union Switch & 
Signal Company. The power for this signaling is obtained 
from the railroad company's substation at Macedon, where 
the voltage is stepped up from 360 volts to 2200 volts for 
transmission to the signals on No. 8 insulated copper line 
wires. At each signal location special transformers are 
installed having primaries wound for 2200 volts, and three 
secondaries, one wound to give no volts for the operation 
of the signals, motors, line relays, etc., and each of the 
other two wound to give a proper voltage for track circuits. 
The two track secondaries can be connected in series for 
the operation of extra-long track circuits. 

The track circuits are of the double-rail type, both rails 
being available for the return propulsion current. Inductive 
bonds of 500 amp capacity are installed at the end of each 
track circuit for the accommodation of this return propul- 
sion current. The majority of the track circuits are end 
fed, i. e., the current is fed into the track circuits at one 
end of the block, an impedance coil being installed between 
the transformer and track, the relay connections being made 
at the other end of the track circuit in the usual manner. 
The relays used for track circuits are of the galvanometer 
and vane types, the vane type relays being used on the short 
track circuits and the galvanometer relays on the long track 
circuits. The vane-type relays are used for all line circuits 
and are wound to operate on no volts. 

The Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern Railroad now has 
under installation an 8-mile section of automatic block 

July 15, 191 1.] 



signals embodying six style B signals with track circuits 
and control arranged substantially as on the Rochester, 
Syracuse & Eastern Railroad. 

Both of these installations were made by the Union 
Switch & Signal Company's forces under the direction of 
R. A. Dyer, mechanical engineer of the Inter-State Financ- 
ing & Construction Company. 


The Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Railway, known 
as the "South Shore Route," operating a high-speed, 6600- 
volt, single-phase road from South Bend, Ind., through 
Michigan City and Gary to 103d Street, Chicago, has under 
way a number of interesting improvements which have been 
brought about largely by a rapid growth in traffic. 

This company transmits power along its right-of-way at 
33,000 volts single phase for railway operation, and at 6600 
volts and 33,000 volts, three phase, for commercial use. A 
contract has just been closed for supplying from the rail- 
way generating station at Michigan City a daily twenty- 
hour load which will approximate 1,000,000 kw-hours per 
year. This energy will be delivered as 6600-volt, 60-cycle, 
three-phase current for local use and as 33,000-volt, 60- 
cycle, three-phase current for long-distance transmission. 

The boiler and generating equipment at the Michigan 
City plant of the railway is being increased by the installa- 
tion of a 3000-kw, three-phase, 60-cycle horizontal turbine, 
one 1000-kw motor-generator set and one 1000-kw step-up 
transformer with a ratio of 6600 to 33,000. The existing 
equipment included two 500-kw motor-generator sets in- 
stalled last year and these, in combination with the new 
1000-kw set, are used as frequency changers, converting 
single-phase, 25-cycle current into three-phase, 60-cycle, or 
the reverse, as the loading of the two different types of 
turbo-generators may require. The addition of a new step- 
up transformer gives the plant a capacity of 4000 kw in 
transformers. The new generating equipment will require 
the addition of 1000 hp in boiler capacity, which will shortly 
be purchased and installed. 


The electrical department of this road has just received 
material for the erection of a ground wire to be carried 
above the tops of the transmission lines for the full length 
of the road. This will be for lightning protection. It will 
consist of a ^-in. steel cable grounded to 8-ft. lengths of 
galvanized pipe, driven into the earth. The connections to 
ground will be at every fourth pole, the poles being 166 ft. 
apart on tangents. The steel cable will be carried at a 
height of 4 ft. above the transmission wires and will be 
supported by heavy angle irons, fastened to the pole tops by 
two 24-in. bolts. The wire will be fastened to the angle 
irons by Crosby clips. 


The South Shore route enters Chicago over 8.5 miles of 
double-tracked right-of-way owned jointly by the electric 
road and the Illinois Central Railroad. This portion of 
the line extends from the Illinois-Indiana state line to 
Pullman, the junction with the Illinois Central suburban 
service. Heretofore one track only has been used by the 
electric line, but a trolley wire is shortly to be strung over 
the second track, which originally was built for use by the 
Illinois Central Railroad. The installation of this trolley 
will give the South Shore route a high-speed double-track 
line from Pullman, 111., to Gary, Ind., a distance of 24.5 
miles, through the congested industrial district southeast of 

The new trolley construction is of particular interest 
because the catenary will support a steel contact wire. The 
design of the suspension of the messenger cable is similar 
to that followed in the original construction of the road. 
The messenger consists of a 5^-in. seven-strand steel cable 

supported by mast arms and in turn carrying a No. 0000 
grooved copper trolley wire. Underneath this trolley wire 
on the new double-track work will be supported a No. 000 
capacity hadd-drawn grooved steel contact wire. This steel 
wire will be hung 3 in. below the copper trolley wire and 
the hangers will be placed midway between the messenger 
hangers, thus providing the maximum elasticity. 

C. N. Wilcoxon, general manager of this property, states 
that unless one is familiar with the practical conditions 
surrounding distribution of trolley current at 6600 volts he 
will be amazed at the results obtained. For example, the 
gravel pit of this road is three-quarters of a mile away 
from the main line and the trolley wire leading to the gravel 
pit is a seven-strand steel guy wire erected to obtain lowest 
cost and to avoid theft of copper. This single steel-cable 
trolley wire is not supplemented by any feeders, yet con- 
ducts ample power to permit handling eight loaded 80,000- 
lb. Rodger ballast cars out of the gravel pit and onto the 
main line. Similarly one of the electric locomotives of this 
company has handled forty-five empty 100,000-lb. capacity 
steel-bottom Rodger ballast cars with ease up a 1 per cent 
grade and also a train of twenty-four such cars fully loaded 
with ballast. The locomotives are equipped with four 
Westinghouse 125-hp a.c. motors. 


At the junction of the South Shore route and the Illinois 
Central suburban service in Kensington, 111., near the south- 
ern limits of the city of Chicago, a new interlocking plant 
is to be installed to permit the electric cars to cross the 
four main-line tracks of the Illinois Central and thus reach 
and use the platform of the Illinois Central steam suburban 
service at Pullman. This work will require the construction 
of about a mile of new electric track which will extend 
along the west side of the Illinois Central right-of-way and 
will terminate at the nine-acre property owned by the elec- 
tric road between 103d and 111th Streets, Chicago, adjoin- 
ing the Illinois Central right-of-way. This terminal will 
provide both freight and passenger facilities and when 
trains enter it terminal passengers will not be required to 
pass over the foot bridge from one side of the Illinois 
Central's right-of-way to the other as at present. 


On Sunday, June 25, the Albany Southern Railroad, Al- 
bany, N. Y., put into effect its summer timetable No. 10. 
The new working timetable for the use of employees has 
been issued in a novel form. Heretofore the working time- 
tables of this road, in accordance with the practice of most 
interurban electric railways, were printed on the inside 
pages of a four-page folder, measuring 12 in. by 36 in. The 
new working timetable is designed to be much more con- 
venient. It is in book form and measures 4% in. x 6^4 in. 
The list of stations and the distances are printed on a left- 
hand page, which when unfolded extends out beyond the 
cover and the other pages of the book. In this way one list 
of stations can be used to refer to the columns of train 
times shown on any of the following eight pages. Each 
page of the working timetable contains ten columns, each 
5/16 in. wide. Four pages are used for showing the times 
of thirty-five first-class trains and one second-class south- 
bound train and the next four pages are used for an equal 
number of north-bound trains. Sufficient space is left at 
the top for the name of the railroad company, the direction 
of the train movement, the number of the timetable and 
the class of the trains shown. At the bottom of each page 
is printed a brief instruction to motormen or conductors 
relating particularly to the prevention of accidents. 

In addition to the working timetable the pamphlet con- 
tains sixteen pages of special instructions, extracts from 
the rule book of the company, instructions on the prevention 
of accidents, and a list of physicians and hospitals in the 



[Vol. XXXVIII, No. 3. 

different towns reached. This printed matter in the time- 
table is not intended in any sense to take the place of the 
standard rule book of the company. Considerable informa- 
tion, however, has been included which is usually contained 
iii special notices which are issued from time to time, and 
which would not appear in the standard rule book. The 
files of special notices on the bulletin boards in the car- 
houses have been removed and all of the instructions in 
force have been incorporated in the working timetable. 
The company believes that it is practically impossible to get 
all the motormen and conductors to study a large file of 
old special notices frequently enough to keep the instruc- 
tions contained therein fresh in their minds. 

It is not believed that the cost of future issues of this 
timetable will exceed the cost of the old form of time- 
table formerly used. 


The accompanying illustration shows the Lamb weed 
burner for destroying weeds on railway right-of-way. 
These burners are in service on a number of electric 
railways in Illinois and California and are said to have 
proved very efficient. The Lamb weed burner is con- 
structed entirely of metal and is mounted on a standard 

raise or lower the burners or move the steel frame to 
any desired position. This flexibility in the apparatus 
overcomes the serious objections found in other types 
of weed burners and eliminates the possibility of burning 
ties, wooden bridges, crossing planks and other wood mate- 
rial ordinarily used in track construction. 

The burners are normally set for burning the vegeta- 
tion between the rails and for a distance of 30 in. on 
either side, but their position may be changed so as to 
cover a greater area outside of the rails. 

Under ordinary conditions it is claimed this weed burner 
will effectively destroy all vegetation while the car on 
which it is mounted is run at a speed of from 6 to 12 m.p.h. 
The speed at which the car is propelled is regulated accord- 
ing to the age and quantity of the vegetation to be de- 


A novel field testing device is in use in the shops of the 
Western New York & Pennsylvania Traction Company at 
Ulean, N. Y. It consists of a slotted wooden case, in which 
are mounted a spiral spring and an iron plunger with an en- 
larged base. The amount of compression of the spiral 
springs is indicated by a pointer, in the same manner as on 

Gasoline Weed Burner 

flat car. The framework is made up of steel angle bars and 
is supported 011 a metal carriage which is mounted on small 
wheels. It is so constructed that the burners may be raised 
and lowered or shifted forward and backward on the 
car at will. These movements are controlled by air 
cylinders which are connected up with the train air-brake 
line. The manufacturers are Wheelock & Buchanan, 
Aurora, 111. 

As shown in the illustration, there "are seven self-generat- 
ing burners of the Bunsen tvpe, mounted side by side. 
These burners are 14 in. in diameter and 30 in. long, 
and they are so made that the heat does not injure the 
metal. On the inside at the upper end of these burners 
the supply pipes are coiled in such a way as to provide 
ample generating surface. These pipes are carried direct 
from the generators to a 1200-gal. gasoline tank which is 
located at the rear end of the car. The flow of gasoline 
is regulated by means of safety and automatic emergency 
valves. The flow of gas to each burner is separately 
controlled by the aid of cables which lead from the burners 
to a point back of the steel carriage where the operator 
is located. From this point the operator is able to regulate 
the intensity of the heat, control the flow of gasoline. 

an ordinary spring balance. In the upper end of the 
wooden case a common compass is inserted and covered 
with glass. To detect a wrongly connected or short- 
circuited field coil the following procedure is used: If a 
single coil is defective for any reason in any way the mag- 
netism due to the current flowing through that coil will be 
weaker than that produced by the other coils in series with 
it. As this effect extends to the leakage magnetism existing 
behind the poles of every excited machine the test may be 
applied around the outside of the motor from pole to pole 
while a current is sent through the motor. The pull on the 
iron plunger behind a pole surrounded by a defective coil 
will be much less than that behind the others. Having 
located a weak pole, the compass is used to detect whether 
the weakness is due to a wrong connection or to some 
short-circuit condition. 

During 1910 the tramway company of Cairo, Egypt, ex- 
tended its system along different lines branching in all 
quarters of the capital, their total length now amounting to 
139 miles. The company carried 53,492,219 passengers in 
1910, an increase of 4,000,000 over the previous year. The 
receipts amounted to $1,384,330 i